Skip to main content

Full text of "Illustrated album of biography of the famous valley of the Red River of the North and the park regins ... of Minnesota and North Dakota"

See other formats

V . 

^^. .v^ . 

KJ" :m^'^ V.^^" ; 

6^ vT 

y-.%.„<\.v-^-, %/'..; 





' % 




c ° ■ • . \ ' 

•I o 

- . . " o,V O 

o. "•' 



■^* .-'J,: 

•■••/'... v;-^\#' -v^'-*."' \.'-.i^-> V •■ 



O .0 . » • ■ ' ■^^ 

^ *'...' ^^ 



4 O 


1 ' ' * ' ■?■ \' 

*^'-' %.^^ .^^i^'« %</ =*^'- %.^^ .^^^^^>" \/ •• ^:' %.^^ .V 

:v "-..^" 


4 O 







Containing Biographical Sketches of Hundreds of Prominent Old Settlers and Repre- 
sentative Citizens, with a Review of their Life Work; their Identity with the 
Growth and Development of these Famous Regions; Reminiscences 
of Personal History and Pioneer Life; and other Interesting and 
Valuable Matter which should be Preserved in History. 

Presidents of the United States. 

Embracing Biographical Sketches and a Full Page Portrait of Each. 

History of Minnesota, 

Embracing an Account of Early Explorations, Organization, a Review of the Political 
History, and a Concise History of the Indian Outbreak of 1862. 


•••• • ••■••,* •• • 

.*. .•• ;. ; .«. ;•. ••• , 


A.LDEN, Ogle & Company. 

IS 89. 

Biography is the only true history T — Emerson. 

» »< 

• » « CorVKIGHT, 1889, 

; Bv 

Chicago, III. 



Presidents of the United States. 


George Washington 9 

.John Adams 14 

Thomas Jefferson 20 

James Madison 26 

James Jlouroe 33 

Jolin Quincj' Adams 38 

Andrew Jackson 47 

Martin Van Buren 52 

VVni. Henry Harrison 56 

Jolm Tyler 60 

James K. Polk 64 

Zacharv Tavlor 68 


Millanl Fillmore 72 

Franklin Pierce 70 

James Buchanan 80 

Abraham Lincoln si 

Andrew Johnson 93 

U. S. Grant 96 

Rutherford B. Hayes 102 

James A. Garflcld 109 

Chester A. Arthur 113 

Grover Cleveland in 

Benjamin Harrison 120 

History of Minnesota. 


Location, Topography, &c 123 

Location 123 

Resources 123 

Topography 123 

Railroads 124 

Population Statistics 124 


History from 1660 to 1888 125 

Early Explorations 125 

During the Seventeenth Century 126 

During tlie Eighteenth Century 128 

During tlie Nineteenth Century 129 

Organization as a Territory 131 

Organization as a State 131 

Chronological Events 132 


The Indian Mas.sacke 133 

Indian Tribes I.33 

Bloodshed 135 

B.attles 138 

Surrender of Indians 138 

E.Keeulion of Thirty-eight Indians 139 


Tki!1iitoriai, and State Officers 140 


Representation in Congress and Creation of 

Counties 143 

Senators 143 

Representatives 143 

Creation of Counties 144 


Red River Valley and Park Regions. 



Topography : 149 

General Remarks 149 

Area 150 

Soil and Surface Features 150 

Climate 150 


Resources and Fertility 1")0 

Early Seltlenicnt mO 

Indian Outbreak 151 

Advent of Railroads 152 

Progress and Development 15;^ 



Aanenson, Reinert 25C 

Aaker, Hon. L. K 796 

Aberle, Christian 501 

Abbott, Albert 586 

A.'ker, Nels E 788 

Adams, Orison T 275 

Adams, Elmer 420 

Adams, Andrew 751 

Ainsworth, Walter C 708 

Alstead, John II 187 

Alderman, John 337 

AlNm, Cyrus S 340 

Allen, Hon. J. H 717 

Almen, Rev. L. (1 576 

Aldrin. Peler 590 

Alley, William H 738 

Anderson. Alexander... 254 

Anderson, Andrew G 286 

Anderson, Williiim J 671 

Anderson, John S 710 

Anderson, John II 736 

Andrews, Charles R 793 

ArnesOD, George 504 

Armstrong, Edward A 546 

Ashburner, James 041 

Austin, Theodore D 549 

Auslund, Swan 296 


Hates, William D 729 

Baumbaeh, Hon. Fred 160 

Basselt, Norman A 185 

Bassetl, John 617 

Barrows, William H 246 

Barker, Henry W 268 

Baxter, Hon. L. L 297 

Ba.\ter, C. L 70S 

Bain, Robert 302 

Barnes, O. J 353 

Barns, Comfort 648 

Barnard, James 11 370 

Bailey, Walter D 469 

Barrett, Norbert 488 

B.irrett, J 785 

Baer, William 538 

Backer, Charles 555 

Barry, George W 778 

Bayrell, L. S 791 

Belyea, Arthur C . 259 

Bell, Dawson 389 

Bell, Frank D 454 

Beach, Timothy 459 

Beaudetle, Joseph 474 

Bergquist, John G 489 

Bennett, Thomas J 534 

Bennewitz, Hon. J. C 540 


Bennewil/, Thco. L 569 

Berg, John A 559 

Bergerson, William 590 

Becker, William 599 

Becker, John. 722 

Belcourt, Dr. O. E 610 

Beck, Ole J 647 

Bird, George N 743 

Billings, Daniel W 761 

Bjorge, 566 

Blakemore, Robert B 602 

Blanchard, James B 396 

Blanding, Joseph W 416 

Bly, Dr. T. H 540 

Bowman, H. A. 741 

Boerner, Albert 363 

Borchers, Louis 525 

Boyd, Dr. H. J 451 

Boylan, James H 593 

Bond, Charles H 657 

Bottineau, Pierre 771 

Bodine, P. P 793 

Bronson, Dexter E 323 

Bronson, W. N 244 

Brewster, Loren L 270 

Brewster, Joseph E 497 

Brown, Charles A 281 



Brown, Henry T 284 

Brown, Charles H 363 

Brown, Benjamin F 370 

Brown, Hon. C. L 799 

Breuer, Charles M 284 

Brennin, .John 313 

Briggs, R. H 323 

Brandenburg, Alonzo 435 

Brockmeyer, Rev. A 454 

Britis, E. M GIO 

Broker, A. J (iTH 

Brate, Peter 683 

Brans, Henry A 703 

Breneman, John 725 

Briinelle, George 783 

Broberg, Peter 518 

Bray, Moyse 554 

Burnham. Frank J 204 

Burnhara, Fred W 458 

Burkhardl. Rudolpli C 434 

Biirkee, Burre E ,593 

Butler, Stephen G 6 

Budge. William 728 

Bullard, Clarence E 749 

Canfield, Thomas H 800 

Cantield, JIannin F 553 

Canestorp, Ole 221 

Cahaley, Cottrell J 240 

Cavallin. Rev. J. 379 

Campbell, William W 411 

Campbell, J. V 763 

Catlin, B. D 439 

Caswell, Nathan C 507 

Cavileer, Cliarles 516 

Carlisle, Aaron II 616 

Calkins. W. W 788 

Chidester, William E 173 

Christenson, John 176 

Christiansen, Judge CO 289 

Childs, E. D 461 

Chabot', Alberic 476 

Clague, Pliilip H 285 

Clark, Reuben 581 

Clark, Joseph P 786 

Clark, George H 712 

Claydon, Frederic 668 

Clapp, Hon. Moses E 784 

Cleveland, Dr. W. P 734 

Clement, C. C 329 

Cook, George F 276 

Cooke, Harvey E 371 

Cowie, James F. 310 

Corliss, Hon. E. E 315 

Coulter George 354 


Coulter, Robert 385 

Coulter, John 420 

Coulter, Christopher L 736 

Collins, Stanhope L 417 

Colby, Joseph A 42.1 

Coe, William L 426 

Compton, Hon. James 513 

Conklin, Charles H 547 

Costain, John 585 

Colyor, Charles IT 596 

Cooper, George 042 

Colehour, James A 673 

Connelly, Edward 730 

Comstock. Hon. S. G 157 

Crowe, William H 205 

Crowell, Alvin M 636 

Dahlluim, Olaf .. 167 

Davis, E. C 313 

Davenport, Dr. L. C 288 

Daley, Charles A 293 

Daly, M. J .543 

Dampier, Dr. E. C 356 

Davidson, Samuel S 369 

Davidson, Rev. I. F 725 

Davison, L. Ed 571 

Dawson, Rev. William 635 

Dale, Hans J 660 

Danielson, John A 723 

Darrow, Dr. E. M 753 

Darrow. Dr. D. C 793 

De Camp, Horace 333 

Deniars, Dr. Gustave .531 

Deming, George L 558 

Deacon, William G 785 

Dickey, Rev. Thomas E 364 

Dianard, Samuel M 667 

Dow, Judge F 326 

Douglas, Wallace B 344 

Dodge, Mrs. Martha 506 

Dower, Jolm 683 

Dobell, George E 745 

DulTy, Francis J 179 

Dunlap, Marcus J 371 

Dunlap, Thomas W 739 

Dunlap, Dr. A. H 433 

Duncan, Dr. W. T 3.50 

Dunn, Mickel M 365 

Dwyer, John S 260 

Dwyer, Dennis 273 

Dybdal, A. E 334 

Earsley, A C 264 

Eames, Hiram T 383 

Eastland, Swan E 387 


Earl, Jasper W 443 

Eaton, Oriel C 447 

Eddy, Ernest C 720 

Eddy, John L 066 

Edwards, Henry F 438 

Eiken, Andrew 341 

Elg, Charles 466 

Elliot, Ezra F 483 

Erickson, Knud D 176 

Erickson, Olof S 533 

Erickson, A. B 737 

Ericksen, Louis 685 

Erwin, Andrew 338 

j Everdell, Lyman B 387 

Evcnson, Even S 614 

Everts, Edmund .\ 665 

Farmer, John P 4H4 

Falley, Dr. Charles F 331 

Falley. Fred 787 

Fay, Edwin 397 

Faber, George N 301 

Fairfield, Edwin M 734 

Falk, Dr. E. N 696 

Fisher, Clarence J 266 

Fisher, Jacob 534 

Pisk, J. F 467 

Field, Frank C 658 

Fish, Dr. E. W 799 

Flaten, Ole E 414 

Foss, Judge J>. O 311 

Fontaine, Louis 250 

Fournet, Feli.\ 490 

Foreman, James 771 

Fry. George L 300 

Frey, Jacob J 398 

Fredenburg, David V 335 

Prankberg, Erick 319 

Freeman, C. W 356 

Francis. Gowen D 438 

Frazee, Theodore 722 

Fritz, George 779 

Gardner, Sherman 599 

Garred. George P 793 

Geisert, T. B 211 

Gewalt, Louis 318 

George, August F 237 

Gillesby , Thomas B 390 

Gifford, Coral W 346 

Gill. Henry P 373 

Gilbertson, Gilbert 394 

Gilbertson, Ilellack 653 

Gilpin, Joseph 462 

Gilseth, Andrew J 498 



Gilger. William tiGa 

Gieriet, John 797 

GlennoD, Michael J 365 

Glaspel, Dr. G. W 538 

Glaisyer, Herbert 559 

Glarum, Ole B 6-23 

Gould, William G 481 

Golhia, Peter 453 

Gregg, Captain J. W 307 

Griggs, Captain Alexander. . . . 701 

Grussendorf, Edward 355 

Grass, John II 494 

Green, Maurice 532 

Green, George II 640 

G rant, .Tarvis A 776 

Gunn, .loscpli 250 

Gunderson, Andrew 432 

Gummer, Kd -vard 56!) 

Gummer, .lolin 710 

Hand. Dr. Win. K 184 

Hamilton, Frank 201 

Hamilton, (Irorge D 694 

Hamlin, Henry 15 6.S9 

Hanson, XelsII 233 

Hanson, John 2,50 

Hanson, Hans I' 278 

Hanson, John II 447 

Hanson, llansO 551 

Hanson, Jacoli M 614 

Hanson, Albert L 732 

Hansen. Erich C. F 333 

Hansen, John P 359 

Hassen, James W 019 

Hauge, Lars J 246 

Hardy, Newell N 327 

Handy, Richard 090 

Hampson , Fred L 330 

Harrison, Harris K 388 

Harris, Knule O 415 

Harris, James K 504 

Hannah, John A 436 

Hanna, Dennis 781 

Ilaugen, Andrew 455 

Hansman, Jo.seph 400 

Hays, Milton B 444 

Ilamery, Oscar L 493 

Halvor.son, Martin 530 

Ilazlett. Isaac 534 

Haines, Prof. Angus 503 

Haines, James C 666 

Haines, George 051 

Hartson. Frank D 574 

Hart, Francis A 598 

Hartung, Frederick W 095 


Harrin, J. P 752 

Heald, Timothy 374 

Renault, George G 422 

Hemstead, Dr. Werner 582 

Herrick, Henry B 217 

Herbrandson, Peter 777 

Heskin, Swen N 760 

Hennebohle, F 756 

Henry, Louis 608 

Hinman, Justus K 787 

Hixson, Hon. D. W 180 

Hixson, Avery W 494 

Hilleboe, Prof. Hans S 637 

Hill, Charles B 342 

Hill, Dr. Sylvester J 659 

Hintze. Louis 377 

HIgley, F. M 773 

Holes, Andrew 109 

Holasek, Winslow 325 

Iloppe, Frank 362 

Hoerting, William 380 

Holbeck, Chris 422 

Hodgson, Joseph B 436 

Hollinger, Charles. 545 

Howe, J. J 554 

Holther, Olaf A 607 

Horneck, Samuel N 638 

Hosier, B. A 6,52 

Holcn, Peter 1 092 

Horr, Walters 694 

Hodge, (Jiarles H 700 

Holmes, Hon. E. G 724 

Holmes, Oliver M 791 

IIov, Torger P 780 

Hokenson, Gustaf A 778 

Hunting, Henry M 177 

Hubert, Anton 261 

Hyser, Edward K 340 

Irish, John S 348 

Irish, Jeff H 557 

Iverson, Iver 174 

Iverslie, Carl M 707 

Jacobson, S 446 

Jacobus, Delos 503 

Jenkins, Gen. Horatio 293 

Jensen, Jorgen . 314 

Jensen, Jens P 470 

.Jenks, W. R. L 483 

Jerrue, Frank 621 

Jellum, EUef N 633 

Jerome, Frank 400 

Johnson, Martin 217 

Johnson, Lage 227 


Johnson, Ole 238 

Johnson, Henry 3"i7 

Johnson, Chrittian 360 

Johnson, Theodore 373 

Johnson, Iver 483 

Johnson, Hon. J, A : . . . 523 

Johnson, ICrick H 565 

Johnson, Bengt 768 

Jorgenson, Even 257 

Jorgenson, Martin 001 

Jorgens, Sven 406 

Just, Dr. A. A 387 

Jung, John 687 

Judkins^ Mark D 228 

T^abernaglc, John 767 

Kenaston, F. E 168 

Ketcham, George 303 

Kent, Frank 308 

Keenau, John 609 

Kelly, John B 046 

Kelly, Patrick 755 

Keye, F. D 758 

Keye, Henry C69 

Kemper, Henry 679 

Kenny, Rev. E 745 

Kirk, AlvaH 386 

Kiewel, Jacob 402 

Kislenmacher, William 456 

King, Rev. Samuel H 488 

Kivel. John 520 

Kissack, William 674 

Kjeldson, Nels 294 

Kloos, Charles B 427 

Knappen, Charles C 187 

Knutson, Christian J 536 

Knight, John 620 

Kotschevar, John S 192 

Koyle, Dr. F. T 311 

Koistad, John () 591 

Konzen, Peter n 645 

Kreidler, Daniel W 413 

Krueger, Frederick 604 

Kyed, John 391 

Larson, Simon 166 

Larson, Emel 175 

Larson, Hans A 587 

Larson, Andrew. . . 551 

Larson, Louis 675 

Lar-son, Nels JI 549 

Larson, Eli B 473 

Lamb, Patrick II 219 

Laastuen, Knud O 234 

Lamphere, George N 243 



Lauder, Judge W. S 375 

Lake, Fred H 390 

Lawlor, Rev. E.J 442 

La Blanc, Joseph 485 

Lascbapelle, Sirs. P. J 500 

La Due, John S 617 

LaloDo, T 638 

La Gro, James S 698 

Langcii, OleT 754 

La Moure, Hon. Judson 788 

Lee, John P 190 

Lee, JohnK 339 

Lee, Hon. W. E 581 

Le Masurier, E. P 717 

Letourneau, Oliver 681 

Letson, James H 360 

Lewis, Charles L 408 

Lemieux, Dr. Israel 786 

Lightbourn, D. C 194 

Lier, Peter.. 301 

Lindquist, Gustaf. A 403 

Lilyquist, Charles 613 

Long, William P 164 

Locken,J. H 505 

Loseth, Ole F 537 

Loltwood, Peter N 556 

Logan, Dr. John R 573 

Love, Edwin H 627 

Locke, Dr. J. Frank 661 

Lonne, Rev. Jens 1 748 

Lundberg, Ole L 209 

Lund, Andrew T . . 726 

Lund, Andrew 193 

Lucken, Ole H 334 

Lundin, John P 766 

Mallon, Michael M 620 

Mathews, John C 651 

Mathews, William H 260 

Markus, William F 693 

Martin, John B 718 

Martin, John M 208 

Mattson, Hon. Edwin 747 

Matterson, Lucius L 544 

Marth, John 180 

Marcil, Rev. Joseph H 583 

Madson, Christian 196 

Mackenroth, Frank 213 

Mays, George L 259 

Mallory, Charles P 468 

Maynard, Judge A. K 539 

McMillan. Albert S 563 

McCulloch, Prof. J. T 594 

McCauley , David 611 

McDonald, Donald 631 


McGrew, Hon. J. G 339 

McGrath, Dennis F 273 

McGrath, .John 315 

JlcCollor. Peter F 332 

McDonnell, Hon. M. J .561 

McLean, Dr. T. N 448 

McLane, J. W 752 

McNeil, Robert J 437 

McKay, John A 343 

McVeety, Thos. L 402 

McVeety , James 458 

Mclntyre, A. P 774 

McNeice, Washington 678 

Merchant, Elzear G 613 

Jlelgaard, Hans L 709 

Merrell, Jabcz 761 

Mendenhall, Rev. H. G 765 

Metcalf, Dr. J. E 424 

Mickleson, Hans 585 

Mills, Hon. Ira B 189 

Miller, S. N 249 

Miller, Hon. J. II 351 

Mix, C. H 479 

Migge, Gottfried 520 

Miksche, Anton 407 

Mott, Alfred W 570 

Mott, Nelson A 706 

Mott, James 473 

Morgan, Hon. Charles W 635 

Morell, Dr. W. N 650 

Morrill, E. K 514 

Moles, William S 191 

Moses, William 206 

Mosuess, Ole 465 

Montague, Judge R. J 329 

Morrisse, Geo. F 379 

Morrow, William J 527 

Morrisey, James E 512 

Morrisey, Thomas S 421 

Mussey, Harvey E 664 

Munson, Nels S 703 

Mumford, R. B 166 

Mundigel, John A 237 

MuUin, Thomas D 331 

Myran, Nels H 294 

Myran, O. H 711 

Myers, Thomas C 714 

Nash, William 224 

Nelson, John A 252 

Nelson, Nels E 358 

Nelson, Hans P 499 

Nelson, Hon. Knute 763 

Nelson, Hon. Nelson E 789 

Neer, Joseph II. . 640 


Nisbct, Robert 377 

Nisbet, James 339 

Niles, Palmer W 757 

Nimesyern, J. N 769 

North, E. D 502 

Norin, Dr. F. L 282 

Nolan , James 589 

Noleni, R. H 776 

Nutting, Frank B 686 

Nye, Eli S 342 

O'Brien, Dennis 687 

O'Brien, Miss Julia 735 

O'Brien, James E 491 

Odell, Peter A 579 

O'Dell, Abel II 647 

Ohlsson, John 395 

Olsen, Herman W 506 

Olson, JohnL 220 

Olson, N. K 300 

Olson, Jacob 423 

Olson, Gilbert.. 433 

Olson, Sam 471 

Olson, Ole W 497 

Olson, Iver C 630 

Olson, Lars J 686 

Olson, Nels J 688 

Olson, Gunder 707 

Onan, Col. Warren 393 

Opheim, Andrew 594 

Orcutt, Freeman 317 

Ostrom, John E 603 

Otteruess, E. O 680 

Paulsrud, Nels 405 

Pattee, Dr. W. H 773 

Paine, :Miltou J 203 

Partridge, George 204 

Patterson, Dr. Robert 263 

Patterson, Daniel 566 

Palmer, George II 274 

Palmer, William H 733 

Parkhurst, Stephen H 312 

Packard, Sidney F 415 

Park, James D 438 

Page, Hon. Henry G 486 

Pary.Olof 579 

Peterson, Andrew 770 

Peterson, Jr. , J 225 

Peterson, Frank II 283 

Peterson, John G. (of Barrett). . 473 

Peterson, Daniel 548 

Peterson, John G 549 

Peterson, Frank W^ 575 

Peterson, William C 633 



Peterson, John 714 

Peters, John 457 

Pederson, Anders H 173 

Pcrley, Georpe E 305 

Pettier, Oliver 573 

Pctlit, Bert H C07 

Peake, Kev. E. S 7G3 

Phelps, Harvey II 222 

Pliillipiii, M. I' 349 

Phiniuy, B. II 401 

Phillips. O. II 4G3 

Place, John 1 573 

Piatt, Lewis I) 710 

Ponsomhy, Charles C 442 

Prescott, Nathan JI 213 

I'ropper, Moses 1' 3!)!) 

Prcvost, Joseph 650 

Piihler, Frcderieli 247 

Pullman, Charles 384 

Parcel], lion. W. E 431 

Putnam, Dr. C. S 477 

Pyatt, Hon. John C 381 

QiuUley, Olc J 441 

CJuam, Hon. Nels 658 

Uailson, Hon. Andrew 684 

Uismusson, Halvor 277 

Itasniussen, Peter 600 

Riunstad, Peter 440 

Uamstad, L. L 452 

Kapp, Charles G 539 

Keynolds, J. W... 419 

Keynolds, Dr. W. S 634 

Keynolds, J. E 775 

Jieichert, Ignatz 755 

Uinehart, John E 215 

Kidley, Charles 242 

Rich, Morgan T 336 

]{islo\v, John 767 

Hiehard.son, Dr. J. S 731 

I{()binson, Alexander 332 

Robertson, 8.0 576 

Robertson, Donald 677 

Roberts, Judge Augustus 552 

Roberts, (Captain W. C 606 

Roosnian, Judge W. W 626 

Rodman, JIartin 643 

Roise, Paul H 644 

Royem, Esten 1 668 

Ross, H. J 749 

Jtobb, Thomas 753 

Rose, Amos 763 

Rosenthal, Frederick 790 

liuggles, John M 291 

Running, Alexander 347 


Ryerson, Richard D 584 

Ryan, John M 689 

Sampson, Hon. Bernhard 181 

Sanford, Jasper N 205 

Sanford, Henry F 280 

Sauby, Tobias 273 

Sawyer, Charles K 318 

Sackett, John ( ) 379 

Sand. Casper 382 

Sawbririge, Mrs. Emma 451 

Saugstad, Rev. C 495 

Sarff, Manasses 629 

Sather, Andrew () 669 

Satre, Frank T 719 

Schow, Edwin C 186 

Schjaastad, John 210 

Schmidt, Philip C 262 

Schmitz, Adam 738 

Sehels, Father Sebastian 397 

Schafer, John W 517 

Schroeder, Nils F 546 

Scott, James 593 

Scott, S. Arthur 682 

Seidlinger, Prosper 236 

Selby, JohnF 605 

Shedd, C. C 183 

Shaler, Charles H 195 

Shea, James 202 

Shapleigh, Thomas C 3U6 

Slieppard, Michael B 307 

Shephard, Henry 716 

Sheets, Arthur W 728 

Shoudy, Chester 764 

Simonson, Simon D 405 

Simmons. Frank B 744 

Simpson, Thomas 764 

Sivigny, Barthelmy 796 

Sjordal, Theodore <) 567 

Slocum, W. E 352 

Smith, Roderick . . . 475 

Smith, Charles A 532 

Smith, Lucas W 588 

Smith, William 691 

Snell, Harry H 297 

Snow, Asa H 299 

Solem, A 429 

Spendley, Charles S 197 

Spcrry, B. W 522 

Sperry, Albert H 618 

Spaulding, Calvin L 526 

Spicer, John M 596 

Steenerson, Hon. H 159 

Stave, Christian P 192 

Strate, HensP 258 


Studlien, Anton L 282 

Staal, John H 345 

Stevens, Mott T 358 

Stephens, A. D 845 

Stoneburg. John A 369 

Strong, Johnll.. 560 

Stone.Dr. J. J 570 

Stone, Philo 637 

Stinehour, L. E 660 

Storey, Thomas H 676 

Stollz, OttoF 730 

Stuart, Dr.F. H 732 

Struett, Loviis 747 

Sullivan, James E 295 

Sunderhauf. Albert 343 

Sutherland, William II 352 

Sutton, Isaac C 699 

Sutton, Lyman H 375 

Sutton, Edward J 792 

Sundet, John O ■■>28 

S vanson, August 253 

Swaine, Dr. Geo. D 366 

Swanson, Albert 644 

SwensoD, Olof J 163 

Sweet, Ephraim A 322 

Swenson, Rev. S. G 587 

Tate, Reuben F 562 

Taylor, Benjamin C 582 

Taralscth, Knud J 561 

Thompson, Hugh 165 

Thompson, Peter E 195 

Thompson, Thomas A 491 

Thompson, Sylvester N 639 

Thompson, John H 673 

Thompson, Edward T 715 

Thomp.son, Frank J 769 

Thronsen, Carl 252 

Thorson, Sam 478 

Thorson. T. J 537 

Thysell, Carl G 530 

Tharahlson, Ole 541 

Thornquist, Swan P 603 

Thorpe, G. L 780 

Torstein, Frank 207 

Torgerson, Samuel 267 

Torstenson, Ole 478 

Todd, Ovid B 780 

Treat, George L 269 

Truax, Dr. AValter E 304 

Tripp, Frederick 795 

Tuttle Romeo J ... 635 

Tweeton, John G 334 

UfEord, Nathan B 339 



Underwood, A. .1 770 

Urie, Horace G 218 

Utterberg, John 378 

Valentine, Ezra G 188 

Van Doreu, James K 241 

Van Dyke, James D 670 

Van Dyke, Hon. J. II 779 

Vivian, Dr. G 409 

Von Baumbach, Hon . F 1(>0 

Vought, M. L 672 

AValsh, Thomas 707 

Walsh, Edmund M 161 

Ward. Noah P 230 

Walters, August 449 

Walker, AVilliam E 464 

Walker, Andrew 797 

Walker, Henry T 799 

Wallace, William A 577 

Wallace, James P 6;il 

Washburn, George 612 

Wattam, Dr. George S 649 

Wait, Hon. John 602 

— Wells, RufusP 330 

" Wells, Alpheus 199 


Wells, H. H 844 

Werner, Wigo 222 

Webster, Calno U 255 

Webster, Harvey M 242 

Weslberg. John M 254 

Went/el, August 367 

West, John 430 

Wegener, Rudolph 493 

Weling, John B 535 

Wear, Dr. I, N 580 

Weigel, Frank 784 

Weeks, John 790 

Weston, George E 794 

Wheelock, Harry JI 435 

Wheeler, Dr. H. M 543 

White, Richard E 445 

White, Rev. George S 623 

White, Joseph W 696 

Whitford, James 525 

Whitney, George A 741 

Whipple, C. H 759 

Williams, Olliver 199 

Williams, .Tohn 653 

Williams, Benjamin 653 

Williams, James E 703 

Winger, Charles 316 


Widenhoefer, William 231 

Widcnhoefer, Christian 267 

Willis, Charles F 335 

Wilde, George C 487 

Winchester, Geo. C 639 

Wilcox, Alvin H 654 

Wiggins, John H 691 

Wittse, Richard W 721 

Woodard, H. F 418 

Woodworth, D. A 558 

Woodman, Eli 595 

Wood, W. W 746 

Wood, Hon. John E 754 

Wool.son. Dr. L. B 713 

Wold, Erik 450 

Wright, Hon. Chas. D 353 

Wright George B 368 

Wyvell, John 345 

Yeaton, Lewis F 681 

Yerxa, Thomas E 739 

Younggren, Oscar 751 

Ziebarth, Edward A 171 



Adams, .John 15 

Adams, John Quincy 39 

Arthur, Chester A 112 

Buchanan, James 81 

Cleveland, Grover .... 116 

Fillmore, Millard 73 

Garfield, James A 108 

Grant, U. S 97 


Harri.son, Wm. H 57 

Harrison, BeDJamiu 121 

Hayes, Rutherford B 103 

Jackson, Andrew 46 

JelTerson, Thomas 21 

Johnson, Andrew 93 

Lincoln, Abraham 85 

Madison, James 27 


Monroe, James 33 

Pierce, Franklin 77 

Polk , James K 65 

Taylor, Zachary 69 

Tyler, John 61 

Van Buren, Martin 53 

Washington, George 8 




■_.\._ tfNi _^!. c*5_.i._t^. .b'/tj^^ 


TON, the " Father of 
his Country" and its 
first President, 1789- 
'97, was born Febru- 
ary 22, 1732, in Wash- 
ington Parish, West- 
moreland C o u n t y, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Wash- 
ington, first married Jane But- 
ler, who bore him four chil- 
dren, and March 6, 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 

the others being Bett^-, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
youngest died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early years of Washington, beyond 
the fact that the house in which he was 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inherited from his paternal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford Count}^ on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where 
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron 
Works in the immediate vicinity, and died 
there in 1743. 

From earliest childhood George devel- 
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous 
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily 
strength. His education was somewhat de- 

fective, being confined to the elementary 
branches taught him by his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with 
his half brothe)-, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who had married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some 
time president of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American 
battalion at the siege of Carlhagcna, and 
were friends and correspondents of Admiral 
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probably through the influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his 
mother the project was abandoned. The 
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career for the young 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then 
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Greenway Court, in the Shenandoah Valley. 


Three years were passed bv young Wash- 
ington in a rough frontier life, gaining ex- 
perience which afterward proved very es- 
sential to him. 

In 1751, when the Virginia militia were 
put under training wiih a view to active 
service against France, Washington, though 
only nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep- 
tember of that )'ear the failing health of 
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces- 
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
George accompanied him in a voj'age to 
Barbadoes. They returned earh' in 1752, 
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav- 
ing his large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was named one of the 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to that estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
the militia was reorganized, and the prov- 
ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddie Adju- 
tant-General of the Northern District in 
1753, and in November of that vear a most 
important as well as hazardous mission was 
assigned him. This was to pnoceed to the 
Canadian posts recently established on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory 
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one officer, 
since it involved a journey through an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes, 
either hostile to the English, or of doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission with alacrity ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le Boeuf on French Creek, delivered 
his dispatches and received reply, which, of 
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the 
posts. This reply was of such a character 

as to induce the Assembl)' of Virginia to 
authorize the executive to raise a regiment 
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territor}' clajmed. As Washing- 
ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given to 
Colonel Joshua Frv, and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio, 
news was received that a parly previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back bv a considerable French force, 
which had completed the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. This was the beginning of the 
great " French and Indian war," which con- 
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissi(jncd him as Commander-in-Chief 
of all the forces raised in the colony. 

^V cessation of all Indian hostility on the 
frontier having followed the expulsion ol 
the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he re- 
signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembl}-, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (_Dandridge) Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by his annual attendance in 
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
which his fame was to become world wide. 

It is unnecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question of local 


self-government, which, after ten years, cul- 
minated bv act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
that a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties — if possible 
by peaceful means. To this Congress 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress the following spring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the next 
Congress, Mav 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This otfice was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministry had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
troops in and around this proscribed city. 
During the fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots 
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As early as 1776 the leading men had 
come to the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In May of that year Washington 
wrote from the head of the army in New 
York : " A reconciliation with Great Brit- 
ain is impossible When I took 

command of the army, I abhorred the idea 

of independence ; but 1 am now fully satis- 
fied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not the object of this sketch to trace 
the militar)' acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United States were confided during the 
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treaty of 1783, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of Washington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerably discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetency, and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took leave of his offi- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses of the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congress 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
htjme to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose of 
traveling privately, and without attracting 
any public attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom the}' regarded as the chief de- 
fender of their liberties, and everywhere 


he was hailed with those public manifesta- 
tions of joy, regard and love which spring 
spontaneously from the hearts of an affec- 
tionate and grateful people. His reception 
in New York was marked by a grandeur 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed 
in that metropolis. The inauguration took 
place A])ril 30, in tiie presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Robert R. 
Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When 
this sacred pledge was given, he retired 
with the other officials into the Senate 
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
equal to the requirements ol his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 
the discussions brought up in the course of 
this lesfislation the nature and character of 
the new system came under general review. 
On no one of them did any decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department ; it still 
remained " the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no change 
in the original flag of the country, and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle, 
with other emblems, imder the great and 
expressive motto, " E Phiribus Unuiii." 

The first division of parties arose upon 
the manner of construing the powers dele- 
gated, and they were first styled " strict 
constructionists" and " latitudinarian con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
fining the action of the Government strictly 

within its specific and limited sphere, while 
the others were for enlarging its powers by 
inference and implication. Hamilton and 
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet- 
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect 
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties, 
which have existed, under different names, 
from tiiat day to this. W^ashington was re- 
garded as holding a neutral position between 
them, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 
passed by the party headed b}- Hamilton, 
which was based upon a principle construct- 
ively leading to centralization or consoli- 
dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto power under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap- 
portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the new Con- 
gress, Washington announced the gratify- 
ing fact of " the accession of North Caro- 
lina" to the Constitution of 1787, and June 
1 of the same year he announced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
Rhode Island," with his congratulations on 
the happy event which " united under the 
general Government" all the States which 
were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
tion, Washington was desirous to retire ; 
but he yielded to the general wish of the 
country, and was again chosen President 
by the unanimous vote of every electoral 
college. At the third election, 1796, he was 
again most urgently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, before 
the election, he gave to his countrymen his 
memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotism was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
After March 4, 1797, he again retired ta 
Mount Vernon for peace, quiet and repose. 



His administration for the two terms had 
been successful beyond the expectation and 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of the country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the 
public credit was fully restored, life was 
given to every department of industry, the 
workings of the new S3'stem in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not only harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from §19,000,000 to over $56,000,- 
000 per annum, while the imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Three new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progress of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exxeedingly encouraging, not only to the 
friends of libertv within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

CM the call again made on this illustrious 

chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Lieutenant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
1798, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. He patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by this 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 

His remains were deposited in a family 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 

*«p??^~ -" 



grosn ^IDBMS 



OHN ADAMS, the second 
President of the United 
States, 1797 to 1 801, was 
born in the present town 
of Ouincv, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachu- 
setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a wortliy and 
industrious man. He was 
a deacon in the church, and 
was very desirous of giving 
his son a collegiate educa- 
tion, hoping that he would 
become a minister of the 
gospel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, he had been only 
a play-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field; the very first day con- 
verted the boy into a lover of books. 

Accordingly, at the age of sixteen he 
entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1755, at the age of twenty, highly esteemed 
for integrity, energy and abilit)'. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
Started out into the stormy world at a time 
of great political e.vcitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for the mastery over 
the New World. The fire of patriotism 

seized young Adams, and for a tiai^ he 
studied over the question whether he 
should take to the law, to politics orihe 
army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 
future greatness of this country which have 
since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught school and studied law, 
wasting no odd moments, and at the earl)- 
age of twenty-two years he opened a law 
office in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and untiring devotion to 
his profession caused him to rise rapidly 
in public esteem. 

In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 
man at Wevmouth and a lady of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual endowments, who 
afterward contributed much to her hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 
America reached its climax. The Boston 
merchants employed an attorney by the 
name of James Otis to argue the legality of 
oppressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard the argument, and 
afterward wrote to a friend concerning the 
ability displayed, as follows : " Otis was a 
flame of fire. With a promptitude of 
classical allusion, a depth of research, a 
rapid summarv of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 

wz Jdw/ij 



prophetic glance into futurity, he hurried 
away all before him. American independence 
was then and there horn. Every man of an 
immensely crowded audience appeared to 
me to go away, as I did, ready to take up 

Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention. It was pub- 
lished in American journals, republished 
in England, and was pronounced by the 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the 
very best productions ever seen from North 

The memorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintree, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, by more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jeremy Grid- 
ley, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts ; and while 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldly 
claimed that the Stamp Act was a violation 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 

Directly Mr. Adams was employed to 
defend Ansell Nickerson, who had killed an 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the King's service, and his 
client was acquitted, the court thus estab- 

lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of impressment could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
Quincy defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 
they had been only obejnng Governmental 
orders ; and when reproached for thus ap- 
parently deserting the cause of popular 
liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
thousandfold rather live under the domina- 
tion of the worst of England's kings than 
under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
serving a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
ing his health affected b}- too great labor, 
i-etired to his native home at Braintree. 

The year 1774 soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston " Tea Part}'," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia ; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her S3'S- 
tem, and that very determination deter- 
mines me on mine. You know that I have 
been constant in my opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my countr}-, is my unalterable 
determination." Tiie rumor beginning to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openly. 
He advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Adams, 
residing near Boston, kept her husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events transpiring 
in her vicinity. The battle of Bunker Hill 



came on. Congress had to do something 
immediately. The first thing was to 
choose a commander-in-chief for tiie — we 
can't say " army " — the fighting men of the 
colonies. The New England delegation 
was almost unanimous in favor of appoint- 
ing General Ward, then at the head of the 
Massachusetts forces, but Mr. Adams urged 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. He was appointed without ojjpo- 
sition. Mr. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the royal 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the way, a few weeks later, viz., 
June -, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British Government would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, "that these United States arc, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then appointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. Adams 
to draw up the bold document, but the 
latter persuaded Mr. Jefferson to perform 
that responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the fifty-five members present, 
and the next day Mr. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud he was of it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, and 
the leading advocate of American inde- 
pendence. Above all other Americans, 
he was considered by every one the prin- 
cipal shining mark for British vengeance. 
Thus circumstanced, he was appointed to 
the most dangerous task of crossing the 
ocean in winter, exposed to capture bv the 
British, who knew of his mission, which 
was to visit Paris and solicit the co-opera- 
tion of the French. Besides, to take him- 

self away from the country of which he 
was the most prominent defender, at that 
critical time, was an act of the greatest self- 
sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing the 
sea, he had two ver}' narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was otherwise a 
stormy and eventful one. During thc- 
summer of 1779 he returned home, but was 
immediatel)- dispatched back to France, to 
be in readiness there to negotiate terms of 
peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
soon as the latter power was ready for such 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
far more successful as a diplomatist. 

The treaty of peace between the United 
States and England was finally signed at 
Paris, January 21, 1783; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as Mr. Adams had 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fully re- 
covered he was in London, whence he was 
dispatched again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermined his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 1785 Mr. Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet face to 
face the very king who had regarded him 
as an arch traitor ! Accordingly he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! After a 
residence there for about three years, he 
obtained permission to return to America. 
While in London he wrote and published 
an able work, in three volumes, entitled: 
'' A Defense of the American Constitution." 

The Articles of Confederation proving 
inefficient, as Adams had prophesied, a 
carefully draughted Constitution was 
adopted in 1789, when George Washington 
was elected President of the new nation, 
and Adams Vice-President. Congress met 
for a time in New York, but was removed 
to Philadelphia for ten years, until suitable 



buildings should be erected at the new 
capital in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
Adams then moved his family to Phila- 
delphia. Toward the close of his term of 
ofifice the French Revolution culminated, 
when Adams and Washington rather 
sympathized with England, and Jefferson 
with France. The Presidential election of 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first 
place by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

]Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
entious, patriotic and able. The period 
was a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
could not have reconciled the hostile par- 
ties. Partisanism with reference to Eng- 
land and France was bitter, and for four 
years Mr. Adams struggled through almost 
a constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
was not truly a popular man, and his cha- 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he did not even remain at Phila- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successor. The friendly 
intimacy between these two men was 
interrupted for about thirteen 3'ears of their 
life. Adams finall}- made the first advances 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
ship, which were gratefully accepted by 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private lile, where he could rest 
his mind and enjoy the comforts of home. 
By a thousand bitter experiences he found 
the path of public duty a thorny one. For 
twenty-six years his service of the public 
was as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In one im- 
portant sense he was as much the " Father 
of his Country " as was Washington in 
another sense. During these long years of 
anxiety and toil, in which he was laying, 
broad and deep, the foundations of the 

greatest nation the sun ever shone upon, he 
received from his impoverished country a 
meager support. The only privilege he 
carried with him into his retirement was 
that of franking his letters. 

Although taking no active part in public 
affairs, both himself and his son, John 
Quincy, nobly supported the policy of Mr. 
Jefferson in resisting the encroachments of 
England, who persisted in searching 
American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them any sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a very able 
paper, exposing the atrocity- of the British 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all hisfamil3'. 
Though his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the highest in 
the gift of the people. A few months more 
passed away and the 4th of Julv, 1826, 
arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives — 
that of Adams and Jefferson — -were making 
unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
Mr. Adams la)' upon his couch, listening to 
the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
music and the roar of cannon, with silent 
emotion. Only four days before, lie had 
given for a public toast, " Independence 
forever." About two o'clock in the after- 
noon he said, "And Jefferson still survives." 
But he was mistaken by an hour or so; 
and in a few minutes he had breathed his 




O M A S J E F F E R- 
son, the third Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, 1 801-9, ^^^s 
born April 2, 1743, 
the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randoipii) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle Countv, 
\ irginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 

■ y 4;c-y,s'-z. '"S ^ widow and eight 

^^\\^ children. She wasa beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Church of England, 
and are said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was naturally of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies being mathemat- 
ics and the classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mar\- College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
expensive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gay society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during his second year he discarded 

societ}-, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the study of law, and 
pursued it diligently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon whicii he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in the criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that body. He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
by an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jefferson met with a great 
loss; his house at Shadwell was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, as from 
his 5,000 acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about $5,000 a year. 

In 1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accomplished 




young widow, who owned 40,000 acres of 
land and 130 slave?; yet he labored assidu- 
ously for the abolition of slavery. For his 
new home he selected a majestic rise of 
land upon his large estate at Shadwell, 
called IMonticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest 3'et elegant architecture. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulging his taste 
in magnificent, high-blooded horses. 

At this pei^iod the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and op- 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monstrance, which were finally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. By the vear 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonies to defend 
themselves. His pamphlet entitled: "A 
Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
with George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always n^.ade a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, however, tiie hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 
dence," and this responsible task was de- 
volved upon Jefferson. Franklin, and 
Adams suggested a few verbal corrections 
before it was submitted to Congress, which 
was June 28, 1776, only six da3^s before it 
was adoplted. During the three days of 
the fiery ordeal of criticism through which 
it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson opened 
not his lips. John Adams was the main 
champion of the Declaration on the floor 

of Congress. The signing of this document 
was one of the most solemn and momentous 
occasions ever attended to by man. Prayer 
and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
and each signer realized that if American 
independence was not finally sustained by 
arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson resigned for a time his seat 
in Congress in order to aid in organizins: 
the government of Virginia, of which State 
he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of Georgia and 
were invading South Carolin:^, and at one 
time a British officer, Tarleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
Jefferson escaped with his family, his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
carried off the slaves," said Jefferson, with 
characteristic magnanimity, " to give them 
freedom, they would have done right." 

The year 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Virsfinia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against him 
throughout the State, severely criticising 
his course as Governor. Being very sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
quick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from public life 
for the rest of his days. For weeks Mr. 
Jefferson sat lovingly, but with a crushed 
heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 
which time unfeeling letters were sent to 
him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 
fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 
so much property and at the same time 
done so much for 'his country! After her 
death he actually fainted away, and re- 
mained so long insensible that it was feared 
he never would recover! Several weeks 



passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 1782 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimous! v and 
witiiout a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draught a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territorv. His slavery-prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anj'body or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and ^Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 1784, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorily accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs. Adams at one time wrote 
to her sister that he was "the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simi)licity 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, lie found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policv, Mr. Adams 
sympathizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring France. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the office of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
constitutional government as well as re- 

garding the issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal party, 
while Mr. Jefferson was the leader of tiie 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finally adopted by the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach iiim with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to the Presi- 
dency he desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January i, 
1794, when General Washington parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at Monticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied that no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage in anj-thing public! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this coinitry came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and Mr. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The result of the election 
was the pi'omotion of the latter to the Vice- 
Presidency, while the former was chosen 
President. In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
really did not desire to have either office, 
he was " so weary " of party strife. He 
loved the retirement of home more than 
any other place on the earth. 


But for four long years his Vice-Presi- 
dency passed jo^-lessly awa}-, while the 
partisan strife between Federalist and Re- 
publican was ever growing hotter. The 
former party split and tlie result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidenc}' ! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. These men 
being at the head of a growing party, their 
election was hailed everywhere with joy- 
On the other hand, many of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing — that Jefferson was a " scoffing atheist," 
a "Jacobin," the "incarnation of all evil," 
" breathing threatening and slaughter! " 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
expressed in fine language, and his personal 
behavior afterward exhibited the extreme 
of American, democratic simplicit}-. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
upon him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a popular 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
days, pompous meetings with Congress, 
etc. Jefferson was always polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in his countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disposition. 

The political principles of tiie Jeffersoni- 
an party now swc|)t the country, and Mr. 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even by Washington. 
Under his administration, in 1803, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000. 
the " Louisiana Territory " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean. 

The 3'ear 1804 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family. His highly accomplished 
and most beloved daughter Marin sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 

stricken parent as it was possible for him to 
survive with an}' degree of sanity. 

The same year he was re-elected to tlie 
Presidenc}', with George Clinton as Vice- 
President. During his second term our 
relations with England became more com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jefferson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
evident that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory 
solution was reached, Mr. Jefferson's 
Presidential term closed. Amid all these 
public excitements he thought constantly 
of the welfare of his family, and longfed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello, his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washington at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
tality toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his 
propert)-, etc., finally involved him in debt. 
For years his home resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirty-seven house servants were required I 
It was presided over by his daughter, Mrs, 

Mr. Jefferson did much for the establish- 
ment of the University at Charlottesville, 
making it unsectarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
him from doing what he would. He even 
went so far as to petition the Legislature 
for permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions bv lottery, in order to raise the 
neccssar}' funds for home expenses. It was 
granted ; but before the plan was carried 
out, Mr. Jefferson died, July 4, 1826, at 

12:50 1'. M. 



:^; lourth President of the 
^$^ United States, iSog-'i/, 
.■■ was born at Port Con- 

,^ . ;v^._ way, Prince George 
S.-Jl: Count}-, \'irginia, March 
i6, 1 75 1. His father, 
Colonel James Madison, was 
a wealthy planter, residing 
upon a very fine estate 
called " Montpelier," only 
twenty-fiye miles from the 
home of Thomas Jefferson 
at Monlicello. The closest 
j)ersonal and political at- 
taciiment existed between 
these illustrious men from their early youth 
until death. 

James was the eldest of a family of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of whom attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at home, 
under a private tutor. Being naturally in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated him- 
self with unusual vigor to study. At a very 
early age he made considerable proficiency 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanish 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of which the illus- 
trious Dr. Weatherspoon was then Presi- 
dent. He graduated in 1771, with a char- 

acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, where he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in theology, philoso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Church of England was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the prerogatives and immunities which it 
enjoyed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nominations labored under serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was lightly 
or wrongly characterized by them as per- 
secution. Madison took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of his own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convention in the spring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by procuring the passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rights as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for " toleration" a more emphatic 
assertion of religious liberty. 


/ a.^<Uy''^ -c^ acy^^^ ^^^ 



In 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virginia Convention to frame the Constitu- 
tion of the State. Like Jefferson, he took 
but Httle part in the pubhc debates. His 
main strength lay in his conversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 
State, and in March, 1780, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper money by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
vears, one of its most active and influential 

In 1784 Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusion to 
the stud}' and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
acquired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his himmousand discriminating mind and 
of iiis extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, but pursuing it closely in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
wavs the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to the 
eminent station which he held in the great 
Nadonal Convention of 17S7 ; and in that of 
Virginia, which followed, he sustained the 

new Constitution in all its parts, bearing off 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and the fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henrj-. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumny has ever attempted to 
sullv- Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdom of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and \vill for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 1786, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up bv Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed, every State except Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then and there form.ed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal document than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist. 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, 1789-97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate opposition to Hamilton's 
financial policy. He declined the mission 
to France and the Secrctai-yship of State, 
and, gradually identifying himself with the 
Republican party, became from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
for the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jefferson wrote: "There is 
not another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, my mi-nd would be so completely at 



rest for the fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Conoress had expired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of rem;irkable powers of fascination 
— Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
alter the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madisnn won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 1798," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed, John Adams 
lost his re-election, and in 1801 Thomas Jef- 
ferson was chosen President. The great re- 
action in public sentiment which seated 
Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- 
ly owing to the writings of Madison, who 
was consequently well entitled to the post 
of Secretary of State. With great ability 
he discharged the duties of this responsible 

office during the eight years of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen j'ears. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec- 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
aggravated bv tiie act of non-intercourse of 
May, 1 8 10, and finallv resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. 

On the i8th of June, 181 2, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 
Congress declaring war against Great Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved ; and in the autumn 
Madison was re-elected to the Presidency 
by 128 electoral votes to 89 in favor of 
George Clinton. 

March 4, 1S17, Madison yielded the Presi- 



dency to his Secretary of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
his ancestral estate at Montpelier, where he 
passed the evening of his days surrounded 
by attached friends and enjoying the 
merited respect of the whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm io participate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he always appeared self-possessed, and 
watched with unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every measure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice ; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble though his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

" The next day, as there was a great call 
for it, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent my son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering my note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while his eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 
the report. The lad stood near him so that 

his eye fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted another ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was young, ignorant of the world, 
and unconscious of the solecism of which he 
was about to be guilty, when, in all simplic- 
ity, he suggested a word. Probably no 
other person then living would have taken 
such a liberty. But the sage, instead of 
regarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediately in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the young critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelier, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 
While not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well- 
balanced mind. His attainments were solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
ally sound, his powers of anal\-sis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literary style correct and polished, his 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trustful, his integrit)' unques- 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. By these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not only of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than any American statesman in the present 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen years, and died July 12, 1849, in the 
eighty -second year of her age. She was one 
of the most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringly remembered in Washington as 
" Dolly Madison," and it is fitting that her 
memory sh(Duld descend to posterity in 
company with thatof the companion of 
her life. 





.-■i' ■•v'>'^' 


:£-^! Cl ^ 3iJuVni^T5 Mryc-r Koj^^ i | 

f, r^ ; ; aag^agiiasitagi^ag^^'aa^sT^i^ WFi^3s:if gBi^l "A^ 


1 /gj^^^ iiVt,'.*'ii^*'i'i<'iii»'i^^»'iiJi»':^ •y!' 

'AMES MONROE, the fifth 
President of the United 
States, i8i7-'25, wasborn 
in Westmoreland County 
Virginia, April 28, 1758. 
He was a son of Spence 
Monroe, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
ily. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he enjoyed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion which the country 
could then afford. He was 
early sent to a fine classical 
school, and at the age of si.x- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling against the trained armies of England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himself, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandywine, Ger- 
mantown and Monmouth. At Germantown 

he stood by the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's abilitv, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 

Finding no opportunity to enter the army 
as a commissioned officer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the office of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governor of Virginia. He developed 
a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfectly honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 1782 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council. The next 
year he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefficiency of the old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
by these views, he introduced a resolution 



that Congress should be empowered to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost dut}- 
of five per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. The report and the discussion which 
rose upon it led to the convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at Philadelphia, which, 
in 1787, drafted the Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this time there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges to decide the 
controversy. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, he married Miss Kortright, 
a young lad)' distinguished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For nearly 
fifty years this happy union remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affection by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiability of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Freder- 
icksburg. He was yery soon elected to a 
seat in the State Legislature, and the next 
year he was chosen a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide upon the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which had been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Deepl}' as he felt 
the imperfections of the old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough 
to the individual States. 

In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his constituents, and with 
honor to himself for four years. 

Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough poiver with the States, he, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with the Republican party. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
Jefferson and Madison. The great Repub- 
lican part}^ became the dominant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against the principles of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutralit}- be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle for our lib- 
erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyrann\- a thousandfold 
worse than that which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was anxious that we should help 
our old allies in their extremity. He vio- 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
very James Monroe, who was denouncing 
the policy of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to the republic of 
France. He was directed by Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathy, communicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved by the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by both houses of 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed by the Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affection. He was publicly introduced to 
that body, and received the embrace of the 
President, Merlin dc Douay, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing with 
congratulations, and with expressions of 
desire that harmony might ever exist be- 



tween the two nations. The flags of the 
two republics were intertwined in the hall 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented 
the American colors, and received those of 
France in return. The course which he 
pursued in Paris was so annoying to Eng- 
land and to the friends of England in 
tills country that, near the close of Wash- 
ii.gton's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 

After his return Colonel Monroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he very ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, ability and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism : and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
veneration for the character of George 

Shortly after his return to this country 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
V'irginia, and held that office for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1805, and was Minister to 
England in 1803. In 1806 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and children and an ample competence 
from his paternal estate, enjo3'ed a few years 
of domestic repose. 

In 1809 Mr. Jefferson's second term of 
ofifice expired, and many of the Republican 
party were anxious to nominate James 
Monroe as his successor. The majority 
were in favor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virginia. 
He soon resigned that office to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, offered him 
by President Madison. The correspond- 
ence which he then carried on with the 
British Government demonstrated that 

there was no hope of anv peaceful adjust- 
ment of our difficulties with the cabinet of 
St. James. War was consequently declared 
in June. 1812. Immediately after the sack 
ot Washington the Secretary of War re- 
signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
request of Mr. Madison, assumed the ad- 
ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretary 
of State. It has been confidently stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of England, were sent with a powerful fleet 
to New Orleans to acquire possession of 
the mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most deplorable condition. 
The treasury was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And yet it was necessaiy to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled successfuih- to lepel the in- 

Mr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His energy 
in the double capacity of Secretarv, both 
of -State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the country. He proposed to 
increase the army to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure wiiicii he deemed absolutely necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
which, at the same time, he knew would 
render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
the possibility of his being a successful can- 
didate f(jr the Presidency. 



The happy result of the conference at 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the army unnecessary; but it is not 
too much to say'that James Monroe placed 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat off the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 182 1 he 
was re-elected, with scarcely any opposition. 
Out of 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assumed such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous "Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way: In 1823 it was rumored that the 
Holy Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old friend Thomas Jefferson for advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 

October 24, Mr. Jefferson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the American system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with the 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1823, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs of nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
that any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
pean powers " to extend their system to 
any portion of this hemisphere would be 
regarded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretar)- of 
State, John Quincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Hill, Lou- 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his country had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his son-in-law in New York, 
where he died on the 4th of July, 1831. 
The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants more imposing 
than had ever been witnessed there before. 
Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
ing him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
presidential chair. 







the sixth President of the 
United States, i825-'9, 
was born in the rural 
home of his honored 
father, Jolm Adams, in 
Q u i n c y , Massacluisetts, 
July II, 1767. His mother, 
a woman of exalted worth, 
watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant 
absence of his father. He 
commenced his education 
at the village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- 

When eleven years of age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiary. The intelligence of John 
Ouincy attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Adams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ere he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quincv again accom- 
panied him. On this vovage he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few ijiterrupticjns, imtil his death. He 
journeyed with his father frt^m Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to studv; then accompanied 

his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Leyden. In 1781, when onlv 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretarv. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and tiien returned alone to Holland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until May, 
1785, when he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on this occasion, 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," \vas pub- 
lished — an event verv rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law three years with the Hon. 
Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The first }-ear he had 

3, ^ , cAIaa>v^ 



no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed away, still no clients, 
and still he was dependent upon his parents 
for support. Anxiously he awaited the 
third year. The reward now came. Cli- 
ents began to enter his office, and before 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 
some articles, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United States. The view 
was not a popidar one. Many felt that as 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
help France. But President Washington 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his 
proclamation of neutrality. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so high a reputation, that in June, 
1794, he was appointed by Washington 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote to his father, John 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure an}' 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 
no doubt in mv mind tliat he will prove the 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." 

On his way to Portugal, upon his arrival 
in London, he met with dispatches direct- 
ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- 
ing him to remain in London mitil he sliould 
receive instructions. While waiting he 
was married to Miss Louisa Catherine John- 
son, to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of 
Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul 
in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accomplishments 
which fitted her to moye in the elevated 
sphere for which she was destined. 

\i\ July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- 
poses of his mission, Mr. Adams returned. 
In 1802 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for six 
years from March 4, 1804. His reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediatel}' among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Goyernment in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance of the 
British court upon these points, and no 
one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
ance. This course, so truly patriotic, and 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 
jected him to censure. 

In 1805 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
of rhetoric in Harvard College. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequentl}' pub- 
lished. In 1809 he was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioners 
that negotiated the treat}' of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 18 14, 
and he was appointed Minister to the court 
of St. James in 181 5. In 1817 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. Monroe's cabinet 
in which position he remained eight years. 
Few will now contradict the assertion that 
the duties of that office were never more 
ably discharged. Probably the most im- 
portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
Spain for $5,000,000. 

The campaign of 1824 was an exciting 
one. Four candidates were in the field. 
Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
Andrew Jackson received ninety-nine; John 
Quincy Adams, eighty-four; William H. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Henry Clay, 
thirty-seven. As there was no choice by 
the people, the question went to the House 



of Representatives. Mr. Clay gave the 
vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and he 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. jVdams. There is nothing more dis- 
graceful in the past history of our countrv 
than the abuse which was poured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this high- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more pure in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of the countrv, than that of 
John Ouincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscru- 
pulously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisanship, but only to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

He refused to dismiss any man from of- 
fice for his poHtical views. If he was a faith- 
ful officer that was enough. Bitter must 
have been his disappointment to find that the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in his public manners, was 
cold and repulsive; though with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriously de- 
tracted from his popularity. No one can 
read an impartial record of his administra- 
tion without admitting that a more noble 
example of uncompromising dignity can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicly 
that Mr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " thougii it be as ])ure as the an- 
gels which stand at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of the active i)ar- 
ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course they pursued. Some years after, 
Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of Representatives, said: 

" Well do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal with which we reproached the admin- 
istration of that gentleman, and the ardor 
and vehemence with which we labored to 

bring in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I hope God will forgive mc, for I shall 
never forgh r myself. 

March 4, 1829, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidency and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 
question now began to assume pretentious 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Ouincy, and pursued his studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permittc.'d 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1830, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yesterday to act as 
Corporal to-day, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his countr}-. Deep as are 
our obligations to John Quincy Adams for 
his services as embassador, as Secretary of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Representa- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen years, until his death, he 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever ready to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 
title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 
taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he should hold himself bound to no 
part}'. He was usually the first in his 
place in the morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escape his scrutiny. The battle 
which he fought, almost singly, against the 
pro-slavery party in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting petitions for 
the abolition of slavery, he was threatened 
with indictment by the Grand Jury, with 
expulsion from the House, with assassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate him, 
and his final triumph was complete. 



On one occasion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, signed by several women, against 
the annexation of Texas for the purpose of 
cutting it up into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of the country, by turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are women," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general welfare? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred history, — in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eye or ear ? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
try ? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it ' discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
with thy shield, or upon thy shield ? ' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river unc^er 
a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
the Gracchi ? Does he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato ? 

" To come to later periods, what says the 
history, of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ? 
To say nothing of Boadicea, the British 
heroine in the time of the Cassars, what 
name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 
beth ? Or, if he will go to the continent, 
will he not find the names of Maria Theresa 
of Hungary, of the two Catherines of 

Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did she bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics? " 

In this glowing strain Mr-. Adams si- 
lenced and overwhelmed his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that the)- probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mi-. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of January. The whole 
body of the pro-slaver}' party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and of 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishment, the House, in its great mercy, 
would substitute its severest censure. With 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in 
the audience, Mr. Marshall hurled the care- 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the wliole pro-slav- 
ery party against him. 

As soon as the resolutions were read, 
every eye being fixed upon him, that bold 
old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
ened by sevent3'-five years, casting a wither- 
ing glance in the direction of his assailants, 



in a clear, shrill tone, tremulous with sup- 
pressed emotion, said: 

" In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
charge of high treason, I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragraph of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it ! Read it! and 
see what that says of the rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and to dissolve their 

The attitude, the manner, tlie tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, witii flash- 
ing eye and flushed ciicek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion — all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimitv. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as the}' were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
laying its foundations on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 

foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again ! " It was again read. 
Tlien in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
his defense in terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 184G, when seventy -eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on tiie Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 2 1 St of February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by paralysis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
t.) a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
calmly around and said, " This is the end of 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " / am content." These were his last 
words, and he soon breathed his last, in the 
apartment beneath the dome of the capitol 
— the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of h3-mnologv, he " died at 
his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 





'undrew JACKSON, 
the seventh President 
' of the United States, 
i829-'37, was born at 
,,... the Waxhaw Settle. 

---"-,v gu ment, Union Coun- 
'>i^ ty, North Carolina, 
March i6, 1767. His parents 
were Scotch-Irish, natives of 
Carrickfergus, who came to 
America in 1765, and settled 
-^(.nn-'^z on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
^ili^ utary of the Catawba. His 
father, who was a poor farm 
laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
son have been preserved. His education 
was of the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tali, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, very fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous to the \ounger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible and over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane — a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 

he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 1780, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Gumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the bovs 
were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two da3'S Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vigor. 

As he was getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the British held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, when fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he could call his own. He 



soon entered a saddler's shop, and labored 
diligently for six months. But gradually, 
as health returned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless boy. He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He could 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as he was a very bold boy, 
it is possible he might have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to study 
law. With a very slender purse, and on 
the back of a ver}' fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law office of Mr. McCay. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisbiirv, which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-plaving, mis- 
chievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbury. 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twent}', 
a tall 3^oung man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkabh' grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanity and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimity. His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and when not. 

In 1786 he was admitted to the bar^ and 
two years later removed to Nashville, 
in what was then the western district of 
North Carolina, with the appointment of so- 
licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 
fice of little honor, small cmoliuuent and 
great peril. Few men could be found to 
accept it. 

And now Andrew Jackson commenced 
vigorously to practice law. It was an im- 
portant part of his business to collect debts. 
It required nerve. During the first seven 
years of his residence in those wilds he 

traversed the almost pathless forest between 
Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twenty-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constantly on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service — a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldly, alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. 

In 1790 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington, United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mi's. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature of Virginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that Mr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remedy the irregularity as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony was again performed. 

It proved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probablv there never was a more 
affectionate union. However rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
always gentle and tender at home; and 
through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 
treated Mrs. Jackson with the most chival- 
ric attention. 

Under the circumstances it was not un- 
natural that the facts in the case of this 
marriage were so misrepresented b}' oppo- 
nents in the political campaigns a quarter 
or a centurv later as to become the basis 
of serious charges against Jackson's moral- 
ity which, however, have been satisfactorily 
attested by abimdant evidence. 

Jackson was untiring in his duties as 



United States Attorney, which demanded 
frequent journeys through the wilderness 
and exposed him to Indian hostiHties. He 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 

"A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment those of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
seat. General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in reply. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator by the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 1798 Mr. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
$600. This office he held-six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though sometimes 
ungrammatical, were generally right. He 

did not enjoy his seat upon the bench, and 
renounced the dignity in 1804. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
mihtia, and lost the title of judge in that of 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostly un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slavery, born in the midst of it. the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became involved in several quarrels 
and "affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a time this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
ity. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. If he subsequently felt any 
remorse he never revealed it to an3-one. 

In 1805 Aaron Burr had visited Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war with Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celebrated 



combinations whicii led to his trial for trea- 
son. He was warmly received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a public ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Earlv in 1807, when Burr had been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President Jefferson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energy and activ- 
ity did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probablv because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in January, 181 3, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner, Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Indians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In May, 1814, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national reputation, was appointed 
a Major-General of the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Pensacola, November 6, and immediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declared in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 28, and after re-en- 
forcements had been received on both sides 
*iie famous victory of January 8, 18 15, 
-rowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero of 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In 181 7-' 1 8 Jackson conducted the war 

against the Seminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Pensacola and e.\e- 
cutcd by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, wlio had escajied a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 

In 1823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even merryment, speedily became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Quincy 
Adams bv the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largest popu- 
lar vote among the four candidates. 

In 1828 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1S29, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite party — a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturall}- be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized b\' quar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at- 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Secretary of 
War; b}- the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and by his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nullify the acts of Congress, establishing a 
protective tariff. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1832 



Jackson received 219 out of 288 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1833 President Jackson removed the Gov- 
ernment deposits from tlie United States 
bank, thercb}- incnrring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was, however, ex- 
punged four vears later. Duringthis second 
term of office the Cherokees, Choctawsand 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
Union; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pecuniary 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant element of national life before the 
close of his second term. For manv rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effecting the election of 

his friend Van Buren as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidency March 4, 1837, 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 


Diiring his closing years he was a pro- 
fessed Christian and a member ot the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
centurv has been the subject of such oppo- 
site judgments. He was loved and hated 
with equal vehemence during his life, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still vary as to the 
merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
torv — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accepted and 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state of 
societ)' which has nearly passed away. 






i^r^^^r^^XV A "A. AJ^^-TTry^ 







REN, the 
,50. President of the 
United States, 1837- 
'41, was born at Kin- 
^■^ derhook, New York, 
December 5, 17S2. 
His ancestors' were of Dutch 
origin, and were among the 
earHest emigrants from Hol- 
Lind to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
tavern-keeper, as well as a 
farmer, and a very decided 
'^ .Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics before he had reached 
the age of twenty. In 1803 he commenced 
the practice of law in his native village. 
In i8og he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his county, where he spent seven 
years, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic example of John Quincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard to his political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fully established, that " to the 
victor belong the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ciple, to which Mr. Van Buren gave his ad- 

herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : " I prefer an office 
that has no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am I certain of 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probability, he expected something 

In 1812 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 181 5 he was appointed 
Atiorne3'-General,and in 1 8 16 to the Senate 
a second time. In 1818 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in New York, 
and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the party called 
the Albanv Regency, which is said to have 
swayed the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1821 he was chosen a meml:)er of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, should 
have freehold property to the amount of 
$250. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1827, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following year, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
March, 1829, he was appointed Secretary of 




State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 183 1, and during the recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whither he proceeded in Se|)tember, 
but the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratify the appointment. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. Ma}- 26, 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scarcely had he taken his seat in the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Many attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearly every bank in the country was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded all our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of dismay. 
President Van Buren urged the adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but finally became a law near 
the close of his r.dministration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech b}- Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House of Representatives, the 
Southern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhett, of South 
Carolina, proposed to declare it expedient 
that the Union should be dissolved ; but 
the matter was tided over by the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relating to slavery should be in any way 
considered or acted upon. 

In the Presidential election of 1840 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig party. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixty were for Mr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majority, however, was not 
large, the elections in many of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidenc\\ From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor ; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Free-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drew 
away sufificient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1853. He died at 
Kinderhook, Julv 24, 1862, at the age of 
eighty 3'ears. 

Martin Van Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his right to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors of Washington in the 
faithful occupancy of the Presidential 





ninth President of 
the United States, 
I 8 4 I , was born 
February 9, 1773, 
m Charles County, 
at Beriveley, the resi- 
his father, Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then President 
-}{ the United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, either 
lured by the love of adventure, or moved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington. He was soon promoted to the 

rank of Lieutenant, and joined the army 
which Washington had placed under the 
command of General Wavne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commanding offi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincmnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumce. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
ex-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Territory. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such tiiat 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded in 
obtaining so much of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory was then entitled 
to one delegate in Congress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In 1800 he was appointed Governor 

^ J^/9c 




of Indiana Territory and soon after of 
Upper Louisiana. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 1S12 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
in the army, with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 1813 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 
nown by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813. In 
1 8 14 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Government. 

In 1816 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
ately upon taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was presented to him 
with the thanks of Congress. 

In 1819 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same year he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiary to Colom- 
bia, but was recalled b)' General Jackson 
immediately after the inauguration of the 

Upon his return to the United States, 
General Harrison retired to his farm at 

North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, si.\- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk of the County 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
the surrounding population, he promptly 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 

In 1836 General Hairison was brought 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; the opposite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 
triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 
President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefly for the 
then extraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes- Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords " log cabin " and " hard 
cider " were effectually u.sed by the Whigs, 
and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inauguration. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with his antecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized by a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4, just one short month after 
his inauguration. His death was universally 
regarded as one of the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since the death of 
Washington, were there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not 
one single spot can be found to sully his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce with love and reverence the 
name of William Henry Harrison. 







j'HH--'^/:^?^^=^ ^=^-^=VF^^ f^^=^^=^^^ ^^='^^=^£^i=^^^ 


/^^p.f^l^'^OMN TYLER, the ten 

H- •it.lf/ ■■ Prf>cirlpr>f nf fhf» TTnit/ 


President of the United 
States, was born in 
Charles City County, 
V^irginia, March 29, 1790. 
His father. Judge John 
Tvler, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his 
day, filling the offices of 
vSpeaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Governor 
of the State. 
At the early age of twelve 
young John entered William and Mary 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five years he 
was elected to tiie Legislature, receiving 
nearly the luianimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age he was 
elected a member of Congress. He advo- 
cated a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over 

State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1825 Mr. Tyler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as comjietitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
L^nited States Senator, and upon taking his 
seat joined the ranks of the opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects of inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nullifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic party. Such was Mr. 
Tyler's record in Congress. 

This hostilit)' to Jackson caused Mr. 
Tyler's retirement from the Senate, after 
his election to a second term. He soon 
after removed to Williamsburg for the 
better education of his children, and again 
took his seat in the Legislature. 




In 1839 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrisburg to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, niuch to the disappointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Cla3-. 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1841. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet. Should he retain tliem, and 
thus surround himself witli councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster, Secretarj^ 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and they 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing off ail political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majoritv in the House ; the 
Whigs in the Senate. Mr. Webster soon 
found it necessary to resign, being forced 
out by the pressure of his Whig friends. 

April 12, 1844, President Tyler concluded, 
through Mr. Calhoun, a treaty for the an- 

nexation of Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing days of his administration by the 
passage of the joint resolution of March i 


He was nominated for the Presidency b)" 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. T3-ler's administration was particu- 
larly unfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of human nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 
manner ; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficulty that he could not 
pursue an)' course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 

In 18 1 3 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons and three 
daughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
" peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1862, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memory the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the misery of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that history records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
arrayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. 



^^- --■-'* 


' 'ri; the eleventh President of 
f#» the United States, 1845- 
'49, was born in Meck- 
Icnburj^ County, North 
CaroHna, November 2, 
1795. He was the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daug'hters, and was 
a grand-nephew of Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 

In 1806 his father, Samuel 
Polk, emigrated with his fam- 
ily two or three hundred miles west to the 
valley of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
ve\'or as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealtii until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common schools James rapidly be- 
came proficient in ail thecouimon brandies 
of an English education. In 1813 he was 
sent to Murfreesboro Academy, and in the 
autumn of 181 5 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in 1818. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law (jffice of Felix \ 
Grundy. As soon as he had his finished i 

legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maur}' County, and opened an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of his father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1823 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a "strict constructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 
eral Government to carry on a system of 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it important that it should have 
that power, and wished the Constitution 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub-, 
sequently, however, he became alarmed lest 
the General Government become so strong 
as to undertake to interfere with slavery. 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen the State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss 
Mary Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of the United States, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was truly a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Congress, and was continu- 

' f-X'M- 


ously re-elected until 1839. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accept the 
gfu be material chair of his native State. 
He was a warm friend of General Jackson, 
who had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Oiiincy Adams. This 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidential chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the H(juse of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of the Jackson party 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration passed away, and General Jackson 
took tne Presidential chair. INIr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, and was chairman of its most 
important committee — that of Wa3's and 
Means. Eloquently he sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administration passed away, and the 
powers he had wielded passed into the 
hands of Martin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which those 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he with- 
drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oath of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 
in 1 84 1, but was defeated. In the mean- 
time a wonderful revolution had swept 
over the country. W. H. Harrison, the Whig 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden- 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whig ticket 
had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Polk's suc- 
cess was hopeless. Still he canvassed the 

State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
traveling in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3.000 majority. 

And now the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our countr}' agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed chamjjion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected by a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John Y. Mason. 
The Oregon boundary' question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff of 1846 was carried, the 
financial system of the Government was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching C(jnsequences upon the later fort- 
unes of tiie republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
equal to four times the empire of France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20,000 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presidency March 4, 
1849, when he was succeeded by General 
Zachary Ta3dor. He retired to Nashville, 
and died there June 19, 1849, '" the fift)^- 
fourth year of his age. His funeral was at- 
tended the following day, in Nashville, with 
every demonstration of respect. He left 
no children. Without being possessed of 
extraordinary talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
proachable in private life. 



; P^tigit^l'l^'^t^'Sat: 

'gff)^fe'>^^'^%^'^^<F.^.''. •■'■-. ''■••..'■ v 'i •■ 'ivv"^^. ; 

^ 21 AXJ;LLAar2 O^^XCDS^ i 

LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States, 
1849-50, was born 
in Orange County, 
Virginia, Septem- 
1784. His father, 
Richard Taylor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionary war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 1785; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an influential cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention that 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky; served 
in both branches of the Legislature ; was 
Collector of the port of Louisville luider 
President Washington ; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clay; died January 19,1829. 

Zachary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until 1808, in which year (May 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his elder brother, 
Hancock. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment at New Orleans, he 

was attacked with yellow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 18 10, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of 1812 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Terra Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brevetted Major, 
and in 1814 promoted to the fidl rank. 

During the remainder of the war Taylor 
was actively employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 1815 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
May, 1816, however, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantry ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Infantry 
in 1819, and in 1832 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of which he had been 
Lieutenant-Colonel since 1 82 1 . On different 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military board for organiz- 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the 
organization of the Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian agent over large tracts of Western 

"^^^i^^r^j^^^^^^t^^X^^ . 


country. He served through the Black 
Hawk war in 1832, and in 1837 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In 1846 he was transferred to the com- 
mand of the Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same year at his 
own request. Subsequent!}' he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
had been built under his direction in 1832. 

May 28, i84:5, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information by the President 
"that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend and protect her 
from " foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Christi, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was brevetted Major-General May 
28, and a month later, June 29, 1846, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now determined upon by 
the Govenrment, and at the nivT^ment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the armv of General 
Scott at Vera Cruz. Though subsequently 
reinforced by raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victory. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy for a long 
time, Santa Anna directed his entire army 

against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Buena Vista was fought February 22 and 
23, 1847. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and " Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande Valley until November, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphia, June 7, 1848, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate of 
the Whig party for President, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popular vote of 
i>36o,752, against 1,219,962 for Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1849. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
in number, the struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the summer of 1849 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Taylor advocated the immediate admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold conven- 
tions and decide for themselves whether 
slavery should exist within their borders. 
This policy ultimately prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henr}' Clay; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patricjt statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenly ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1850. One of his daughters 
married Colonel W. W. S. Bliss, his Adju- 
tant-General and Chief of Staff in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretary during 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
married to Jefferson Davis. 


n t ■■ 1 11 n 1 11 1 1 11 1 " " ' I n 1 1 T n 1 1 1 1 n t ' [ " ' I ' M M M I ' 1 n i i M ' m / w I .n I ' It ! ' n I ' IT ' f 1 '^ ) , i " 


^ MORE, the thir- 
' 1^3; teenth President 
of the United 
States, i850-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 
County, New York, Janu- 
ary 7, i8oo. He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. He early 
learned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent all his leisure time 
in study. At nineteen years 
of age he was induced b>' 
Judge Walter Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened with debt, young Fillm.ore taught 
school during the winter months, and in 
various other ways helped himself along. 
At the age of twenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common Pleas, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village of Aurora, situated on the 

eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Erie County, 
wiiither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics his vote and his sym- 
pathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesv, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1832 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Weary with these exhausting labors, and 
pressed bv the claims of his private affairs, 
Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate foi' re- 
election. Notwithstanding this ccmmuni- 




cation his friends met in convention and 
renominated him b}' acclamation. Though 
gratified by this proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1847 ^Ji"- Fillmore was elected to the 
important office of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the very responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and Vice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1849, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1850, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States 
was bound to do its utmost to capture him 
and return him to his master. Most Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Texas, 
and annex it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the influence of his 
exalted station against the atrocious enter- 

Mr. Fillmore had serious difficulties to 

contend with, since the opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did every- 
thing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that section 
felt the inadequency of all measures of tran- 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon pass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term. 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destin}' of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
by the "Know-Nothing" party. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that his sympathy was with the South- 
ern Confederacy. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 



P^7T7J7J#?^??? ???P?? ^r7^ 



? HH??^P^ aH H.r'Hr^.dH a 


■lyHH hPh Hr^^^^^cig^ %5^ ^^^!'^ f ^i;^ -^j^^ 




the fourteenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, was born in 
Hillsborough, New 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1804. His 
f a t h e r, Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, a man of 
riijid integrity; was for sev- 
eral vears in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
ments of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1820 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1824, 
and commenced the study of law in the 
office of Judge Woodbury, a very distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1827 was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 

in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House by a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 he was elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration.. 

In 1834 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably, fitted to adorn 
every station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office. President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
into the army. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport. Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1847. He served during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery, skill and excellent judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiastically received by 



the advocates of the war, and coldly by its 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his 
profession, frequently taking an active part 
in political questions, and giving his sup- 
port to the pro-slavery wing of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

June 12, 1852, the Democratic conventit^n 
met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four da3-s they 
continued in session, and in thirty-five bal- 
lotmgs no one had received the requisite 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote had been 
thrown tluis far for General Pierce. Then 
the Virginia delegation brought forward 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth 
ballot, he received 282 votes, and all other 
candidates eleven. General Winfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected with great unanimity. Onl}' 
four States — Vermont, Massachusetts, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee — cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4, 1853, he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, Vice-President. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Cam[)bell and Caleb Cushing. 

At the demand (;f slavery the Missouri 
Compromise was repealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Union were tlirown open to 
slavery. The Territor)' of Kansas, west of 
Missouri, was settled by emigrants mainly 
from the North. According to law, they 
were about to meet and decide whether 
slavery or freedom should be the law of 
that realm. Slaver\' in Missouri and 
other Southern States rallied her armed 
legions, marched them into Kansas, took 
possession of the polls, drove away the 
citizens, deposited their own votes by 
handfuls, went through the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declared that, by an 
overwhelming majority, slavery was estab- 

lished in These facts nobody 
denied, and yet President Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
obtained by such votes. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majority of whom were free- 
State men, met in convention and adopted 
the following resolve : 

"Resolved, That the body of men who, 
for the past two months, have been passing 
laws f(jr the people of our Territory, 
moved, counseled and dictated to by the 
demagogues of other States, are to us a 
foreign body, representing only the lawless 
invaders who elected them, and not the 
people of this Territory' ; that we repudiate 
their action as the monstrous consummation 
of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 
unparalleled in the histor}^ of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 
a petition to the General Government, im- 
ploring its protection. In repl}- the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, declaring that 
Legislature thus created must be recog- 
nized as the legitimate Legislature of Kan- 
sas, and that its laws were binding upon 
the people, and that, if necessary, the whole 
force of the Governmental arm would be 
put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidency, and, March 4, 1857, President 
Pierce retired to his home in Concord, 
New Hampshire. \\'hcn the Rebellion 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained steadfast 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
and gave his symjjathies to the }>ro-slaver3'' 
party, with which he had ever been allied. 
He declined to do anything, either by 
voice or pen, to strengthen the hands of 
the National Government. He resided in 
Concord until his death, which occurixd in 
October, 1869. He was one t)f the most 
genial and social of men, generous to 
a fault, and contributed liberally of his 
moderate means for the alleviation of suf- 
fering and want. He was an honored 
communicant of the Episcopal church. 



T*^^^ f*l'^^'^?*l'^*l'^^^??^'^ " 




\ ai^\ i\ ( ii;:?5 IS f rafu\i^r :AVtY>^| 

fifteenth President of the 
United States. 1857-61, 
was born in Franklin 
C o u n t V, Penns3lvania, 
April 23, 1791. The 
])Iace where his father's 
c a b i n stood was called 
-Stony Batter, and it was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
1783, with ver}- little prop- 
erty, save his own strong arms. 

James remained in his secluded home for 
eight years enjoying very few social or 
intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industrious, frugal, prosperous and intelli- 
gent. In 1799 his father removed to Mer- 
cersburg, where James was placed in 
school and commenced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in 1801 he entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 
able to master the most abstruse subjects 
with facilit}'. In 1809 he graduated with 
the highest honors in his class. 

He was then eighteen years of age, tall, 

graceful and in vigorous health, fond of 
athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immediately commenced the 
study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but twenty-six 
years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment. At 
the age of thirty it was generally admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 

In 181 2, just after Mr. Buchanan had 
entered upon the practice of the law, our 
second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloquently urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlisnng as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked Washington and 
were threatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but when the Con- 
stitution was adopted by both parties, 
Jefferson truly said, " We are all Federal- 
ists; we are all Republicans." 

The opposition of the Federalists to the 
war with England, and the alien and sedi- 





tion laws of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost 
immediately upon entering Congress began 
to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1824, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Quincy Adams were candidates, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in 1833 
lie was elected to a seat in tiie United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought mto direct col- 
lision with Henry Clay. In the discussion 
of the question respecting the admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position by saying: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work 
upon " Democracy in America," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength which was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assuming powers which threatened 
the perpetuity of the Union. Mr. Buchanan 
received the book in the Senate and de- 
clared the fears of De Tocqueville to be 
groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the 
Presidential chair and see State after State, 
in accordance with his own views of State 

rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our Republic into ruins; while 
the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
despair, declaring that the National Consti- 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, i860, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage of a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined by the Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 
ham Lincoln was nominated by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
Mr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
long enough to see his successor installed 
and then retired to his home in Wheatland. 
He died June i, 1868, aged seventy-seven 



COLN, the sixteenth 
President o[ the 
United States, iS6i-'5, 
^^rt , was born February 
^/TT^I*,^ 12, 1809, in Larue 
^•'■' (then Hardin) Countv, 
Kentucky, in a cabin on Nolan 
Creei<, three miles west of 
Iludgensviile. His parents 
w ere Thomas and Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
cestry and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
g^iyen in his own language : " My 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families — second families, per- 
haps 1 should say. My mother, who died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in ^Licon County, 
Illinois. My paterna' grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, to Kentucky in 1781 or 
1782, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in tiic forest. His ancestors, who were 
Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. An effort to iden- 

tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, Solomon, Abraham and the like. 
My father, at the death of his father, was 
but six years of age, and he grew up, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals stiK in the 
woods. There I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever required of a 
teacher beyond ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, happened to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. I have not been to school 
since. The little advance 1 now have upon 
this store of education 1 liave picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
necessity. I was raised to farm-work, which 

-<^t^ £^ 

g^//^^ ^ c<^-t:^C^ 



I continued till I was twenty-two. At 
twenty-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then I got 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

" Then came the Black Hawk war, and I 
was elected a Captain of volunteers — ^a suc- 
cess which gave me more pleasure than any 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (1832) and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress ; was not a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1849 to 1854, 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gentryville, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 1818, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She ' 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abraham was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to study. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked frequently for the neighbors as a 
farm laborer ; was for some time clerk in a 
store at Gentryville ; and became famous 
throughout that region for his athletic 

powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humerous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1828 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
" bow-hand " on a flatboat ; removed to 
Illinois in 1830 ; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 185 1 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat "stuck" on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason — the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans was 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage he became a 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war, and 
became known as an effective " stump- 
speaker." The subject of his first political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1832) a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authority. 

Elected to the Legislature in 1834 as a 



" Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
which he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springfield, where 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
iargely through his influence; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts; married in 1843 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1844 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States House of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Me.xican war. For several vears there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulogy on Henry 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well 
the motives and the record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popu- 
larly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in October, 1854, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his policv in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln had often measured his strength with 

Douglas in the Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springfield Courts, engaged him 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who heard it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots; but Trumbull 
was ultimatel}- chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1856, where the new partv first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slavery in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidency, and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L, 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 1858 Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention 
as its candidate for the United States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself" on the 
slavery question, which was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter ; but being widely cir- 
culated as a campaign document, it fixed 
the attention of the country upon the 



former, as the clearest and most convinc- 
ing exponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1859 lie began to be named in 
Illinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
for the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing year, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, i860, followed by similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirtv years before, were brought into the 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two candidates, 
Douglas and Breckenridge, and the rem- 
nant of the " American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
publican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
rality, comprehending nearly all the North- 
ern States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate result, followed 
a few months later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. 

The life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the histor)' of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
conflict which filled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be given. Narrowly 
escaping assassination by avoiding Balti- 

more on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United States March 
4, 1861. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of universal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not ex- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. T!ie 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects 
there will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the people an3where. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countr)'- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail 3-ou. You 
can have no conflict without being your- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the Union Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas ; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the first 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 15; proclaimed a blockade of the 
Southern posts April 19; called an extra 



session of Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400,000 men and 
$400,000,000 for the war; placed McClellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War, Jan- 
uary 14, 1862, and September 22, 1862, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January i, 1863. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career — the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future 
time — and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1863, President Lincoln called 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those 
whose term of enlistment had expired ; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
ig, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
March 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McClellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1865; visited the armv before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lee'c army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the evening of Good Fri- 
day, April 14, he was shot in his box at 
Ford's Theatre, Washington, byJohnWilkes 
Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneously a murderous attack 
was made upon William H. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State. 

At noon on the 15th of April Andrew 

Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active 
measures were taken which resulted in the 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnity and 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration "that I would sooner be 
assassinated than to give up the principles 
of the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
almost worshiped the memory of their de- 
liverer; and the general sentiment of the 
Sfreat Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln 
have been familiarly known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaunt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
pointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best type of a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 










Mi^DT^Eiii vjdt;)T)'jDT). 



— ^ — -^ _.^ —^ _^ _ ~^^oj^,>^, -. ■ — — — — — ^==^ 


the seventeenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, i865-'9, was 
born at Raleigh, 
North Carolina, De- 
c em b e r 29, 1808. 
His father died when 
he was four years old, and in 
his eleventh year he was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor. He nev- 
er attended school, and did 
not learn to read until late in 
his apprenticeship, when he 
suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtaining knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reading. 

After working two j-ears as a journey- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, South 
Carolina, he removed, in 1826, to Green- 
ville, Tennessee, where he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- 
structions he made rapid progress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local politics as to be 
elected as " workingmen's candidate " al- 
derman, in 1828, and mayor in 1830, being 
twice re-elected to each office. 

During this period he cultivated his tal- 
ents as a public speaker by taking part in a 

debating societ\-, consisting largel}' of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
again in 1839, he was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
In 1 841 he was elected State Senator, and 
in 1843, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1S53, when he was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the annexation 
of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1846. 

In 1855 Mr. Johnson was re-elected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1857 entered the United 
States Senate, where he was conspicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
Homestead bill, and as an opponent of the 
Pacific Railroad. He was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention in i860 for the Presidential 
nomination, and lent his influence to the 
Breckenridge wing of that party. 

When the election of Lincoln had 
brought about the first attempt at secession 
in December, i860, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude for the Union, and 
in May, 1861, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril of suffering from 



popular violence for his loyalty to the " old 
flag." He was the leader of the Loyalists' 
convention of East Tennessee, and during i 
the following winter was very active in or- 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own familv being 
among those compelled to leave. 
, By his course in thiscrisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in March, 1862, he was appointed 
by President Lincoln military Governor of 
Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularity b}' the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1864, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidencv should be given to a vSouth- 
ern man of conspicuous loyaltv, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidency, April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two daxs later he said: 
"The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be ])unished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not onl}' to protect, 
but to punish. In our peaceful history 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
people must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punished." He 
then added the ominous sentence: " In le- 
gard to my future course, I make no prom- 
ises, no pledges." President Johnson re- 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited 
considerable severity toward traitors in his 
earlier acts and speeches, but he soon inaug- 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confeder- 
ates, and successively establishing provis- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. 

These States accordingly claimed represen- 
tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious l^nion 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majority to reject the policy of l^resi. 
dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 
sults of the war in regard to slavery; and, sec- 
ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 
seemed to be jilotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized bv the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion," In July the 
cabinet was recotistructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbur}^ and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new party on the basis of the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 
Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia, 
New York and Albany, in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 
his own polic)', and violently denouncing 
the action of Congress. 

August 12, 1867, President Johnson re- 
moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
him by General Grant. Secretary Stanton 
retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ure-of-ofifice act which had been passed the 
preceding March. The President then is- 
sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 



tion at an end, and that " peace, order, tran- 
quility and civil authorit}' existed in and 
throughout the United States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnesty 
was published September 7, relieving nearly 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, 1866, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to propose Constitutional amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing b}' counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 

one of the two-thirds vote required for 

The remainder of President Jcjhnson's 
term of office was passed without any such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the Democratic part}', though 
receiving sixt3--five votes on the first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in 1870 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finally elected to the 
Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 

President Johnson's administration was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved in bitter feud with 
the Republican majority in Congress was 
certainly a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out any pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 







-;>t^' .^:.^kC^»^ 

lA IX IM U XJ 11 1 1_: 

^ j^' i ' 'S i ' I ' i ' ' 1 ' i ' ' 8 ' i"a"i' » 'i"l ' ' i"i - ! ■ »" *■■ *' a ' *'^i"v%L°^^'* "»"' ' ' ^"^"* ' » '8 "»"i"5 ' ^''^ '' t ' 8 ' i I ' i I il ' ' 1 , ? tf?:," 


GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, iSSg-'jj, 
was born April 27, 1 822, 
at Point Pleasant, 
,^ Clermont Count\-, 
His father was of Scotch 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered the Military Academ}' at 
West Point, and four years later 
graduated twenty-first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant. He was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantr}- and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in ever}- battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

In 1848 Mr. Grant married Julia, daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a prominent mercliant of 
St. Louis, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army. For several years he fol- 
lowed farming near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfully ; and in i860 he entered the leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, 
Grant was thirty-nine years of age, but en- 
tirely unknown to public men and without 

any personal acquaintance witli great affairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the 19th 
Grant was drilling a company of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the army, but re- 
ceived no reply. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, employed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
Twenty-first Infantry. He took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of military life rather surprised 
his superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, the ap- 
pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
reconiinended by the Congressmen from 
Illinois, not one of whom had been his 
personal acquaintance. For a few weeks 
he was occupied in watching the move- 
ments of partisan forces in Missouri. 

September i he was placed in command 
of tlie District of Southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th, with- 
out orders, he seized Paducah, at the mouth 
of the Tennessee River, and commanding 
the navie-ation both of that stream and 0/ 

If ™t^ 




the Ohio. This stroke secured Kentucky 
to the Union ; for the State Legislature, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artiller)'^ and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1862, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
atelv made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender" (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty-five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic re- 
sults were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-General of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 

In March, 1862, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was directed not 

to attack. His forces, now numbering 38,- 
000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 
arrival of General Buell with 40,000 more; 
but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
Buell could arrive ; 5,0000! his troops were 
beyond supporting distance, so that he was 
largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The next day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides ; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army. Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, where, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
down into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front ; but, owing to Colonel Murphy's 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1863, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in the 
Mississippi Valley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but July 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with 31,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississippi 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Government. Grant was made a 



Major-Gcneral in the regular army, and in 
October following he was placed in com- 
mand of the Division of the Mississippi. 
The same month he went to Chattanooga 
and saved the Army of the Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
part of the country. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the AUeghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in Februar}-, 1864, 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fought his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1864, the 
siege of Richmond was begun. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting daily 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta ; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and was superseded by 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten the Na- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force which he placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
inasuccessionof battles, through the valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmcind 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to , 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confederacy in that way ; but he ; 

' never wavered. He resolved to "' fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only by holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which could have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each executed his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him; 
and all this while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lee, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valley, Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
Lee from his entrenchments and captured 

At the beginning of the final campaign 
Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
the lin'es at Richmond, besides the local 
militia and the gunboat crews, amounting 
to 5,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
Grant had 1 10,000 men in the works before 
Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on tl:e 
3d, and Lee fled in the direction of Lynch- 
burg. Grant pursued with remorseless 

C/I,rSSES S. Off ANT. 

energ}-, only stopping to strike fresh blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-gen- 
eraled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the glh of April, 1865, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides numerous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompany the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress ; but he directly man- 
ifested; his characteristic loyalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 

dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, everybody thought of General 
Grant as the ne.xt President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1868 "by a large majorit)-," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority — the most overwhelming ever 
given by the peojile of this country. His first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difficulties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was 'made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $1 5,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. " Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had. General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of " politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. By this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 23, 1885. Thus passed away from 
earth's turmoils the man, the General, who- 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country" as was Washington the father of 
the infant nation. 


iii'li I'lirri'tn nrrTi Ftttti I'ltl'lf t't'lt't'fl'f i ti'itttT i ; ; ■ tVfiTi i' i'l'l V( ifHtHn 

^l?^?i'"^E^M^5SS0lSD 1^. if?^^i^s.^ 


ARD HAYES, the nine- 
teenth President of 
tiie United States, 
i877-'8i, was born in 
ItL Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
'^ ^'-^ tober 4, 1822. His 
ancestry can be traced as far 
hack as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with Baliol, William Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobility, 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The Hayes 
family had, for a coat of-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, "Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
the family, George Hayes left Scotland in 
1680, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son George was born 
in Windsor and remained there during his 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Sarah Lee, and lived in Simsbury, Con- 

necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufacturer of scythes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather of 
President Hayes, was born in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In September, 181 3, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The father of President Haj-es was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He was prosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
the town. After the close of the war of 1812 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His family then consisted of his wife and 
two children, and an orphan girl whom he 
had adopted. 

It was in 1817 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of settling upon his 






farm, Mr. Hayes concluded to enter into 
business in the village. He purchased an 
interest in a distillery, a business then as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His capital 
and recognized ability assured him the 
highest social position in the community. 
He died July 22, 1822, less than three 
months before the birth of the son that was 
destined to fill the office of President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Haj'es at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not expected to live 
beyond a month or two at most. As the 
months went by he grew weaker and weaker 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time " if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering way, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and I shouldn't won- 
der if he would really come to something 
yet." " You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, " you wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make him President of the 
United States yet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy death; and when, 
in 1825, his elder brother was drowned, he 
became, if possible, still dearer to his mother. 
He was seven years old before he was 
placed in school. His education, however, 
was not neglected. His sports were almost 
wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circum- 
stances tended, no doubt, to foster that 
gentleness of disposition and that delicate 
consideration for the feelings of others 
which are marked traits of his character. 
At school he was ardently devoted to his 
studies, obedient to the teacher, and care- 
ful to avoid the quarrels in which many of 
his schoolmates were involved. He was 

always waiting at the school-house door 
when it opened in the morning, and never 
late in returning to his seat at recess. His 
sister Fannie was his constant companion, 
and their affection for each other excited 
the admiration of their friends. 

In 1838 young Hayes entered Kenyon 
College and graduated in 1842. He then 
began the study of law in the office of 
Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. His health 
was now well established, his figure robust, 
his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 
time he determined to enter the law school 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where for 
two years he pursued his studies with great 

In 1845 he was admitted to the bar at 
Marietta, Ohio, and shortly afterward went 
into practice as an attorney-at-law with 
Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he 
remained three years, acquiring but limited 
practice, and apparently unambitious oi 
distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
manifested great interest in his nephew and 
rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealthy banker, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
may have made Mr. Hayes more indifferent 
to the attainment of wealth than he would 
otherwise have been, but he was led into no 
extravagance or vices on this account. 

In 1849 hs removed to Cincinnati where 
his ambition found new stimulus. Two 
events occurring at this period had a pow- 
erful influence upon his subsequent life. 
One of them was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James 
Webb, of Cincinnati; the other was his 
introduction to the Cincinnati Literar}- 
Club, a body embracing such men as Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase, General John 
Pope and Governor Edward F. Noyes. 
The marriage was a fortunate one as every- 
body knows. Not one of all the wives of 



our Presidents -.vas more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Hayes, and no one has done more than she 
to reflect honor upon American woman- 

In 1856 JMr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judije of the Court of Common 
Pleas, but declined to accept the nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
■office of City Solicitor. 

In 1861, when the Rehellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
•of his countrv. His military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1861, he 
was appointed Major of the Twenty-third 
Ohio Infantry. In July tiie regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in ,\ugust, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
4ind suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1862, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
'brevetted Major-General for distinguished 

services in 1864. He was wounded four 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite \Ttth the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1864 
he was elected to Congress from the Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1867 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
mau, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in i86g. In 1874 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 

In 1876 he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His- letter of acceptance excited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a hard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. His 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
man}' as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 1881 was the close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement from public notice, in strik- 
ing contrast with most others of the world's 







•?tA-»:<V'S5?^-"^xj^-\-V'<-"< ' ; 

^ii 4, (JARF^i^l,^^! 





ii»'dij>^^^fe^^5^^^^'**' '•''<' '''••'"'^•';'<'<'''j'-'''''*»''"^r77^ 



twentieth President of 
the United States, 1881, 
was born November 19, 
1 83 1, in the wild woods 
of Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio. His parents were 
Abram and EHza (Ballou) 
Garfield, who were of New 
England ancestry. The 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
lapid improvements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children — Mehetable, Thomas, 
Mary and James A. In May, 1833, the 
father died, and the cai^e of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon young 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjoyed. He now lives in 
Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject of our sketch grew up, he, 
too, was industrious, both in mental and 
phvsical labor. He worked upon the farm, ; 
or at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
any other odd job that would aid in support 
of the family^ and in the meantime made the 1 

most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of employment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the cit}'. After making many ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finally engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1850 by the 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pav his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at tmies 
taught school. He soon completed the cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1856, 
taking one of the highest honors of his class. 


Afterward he returned to Hiram as Presi- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous 
piety, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
could be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1859. 
November 11, 1858, Mr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still living. 

It was in 1859 that Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three years later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this year, taking his scat in January, i860. 

On the breaking out of tiie war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old flag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Forty-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, August 14, that year. He 
was immediately thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantry and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
Marshall, from his native State, Kentucky. 
This task was speedilj' accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success. President Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, January 11, 1862; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the army. 
He was with General Buell's army at Shi- 
loh, also in its operations around Corinth 
and its march through Alabama. Next, he 
was detailed as a member of the general 

court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
John Porter, and then ordered to report to 
General Rosecians, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of Staff. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. 

In the fall of 1862, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented for sixty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesev and 
Joshua R. Giddings. Again, he was the 
youngest member of that body, and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in 1880. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than any other member. 

June 8, 1880, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidency, in 
preference to the old war-horses, Blaine 
and Grant ; and although man)' of the Re- 
publican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation. General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majority. He was duly in- 
augurated, but on Jul)' 2 following, before 
he had fairly got started in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After very painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, 1881, la- 
mented by all the American people. Never 
before in the history of this country had 
anything occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was duly tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

The lamented Garfield was succeeded by 
the Vice-President, General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out the policy 
inaugurated by his predecessor. 




ARTHUR, the twen- 
ty-first Chief Execu- 
tive of this growing 
republic, i88i-'s, was 
born in FrankHn 
County, Vermont, 
October 5, 1830, the eldest of a 
family of two sons and five 
daughters. His father. Rev. 
Dr. William Arthur, a Baptist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1875, in Newton- 
ville, near Albany, New York, 
after serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, conservative institution. Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
two years in his native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with $500 in his purse, went to the 
city of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, when 
he formed a partnership with his intimate 

friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West ; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Western 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married the daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States Navv, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost his 
life. Mrs. Artnvir died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorney in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free by the Superior Court of New York 
City. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated by the " Straight Demo- 
crats" in 1872 for the United States Presi- 
dency, was retained by Jonathan G. Lem- 



mon, of Virginia, to recover the negroes, 
but he lost the suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by WiUiam M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1856, a respectable colored 
wonian was ejected from a street car in 
New Vorii City. Mr. Arthur sued the car 
company in her behalf and recovered $500 
damages. Immediately afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as his practice as a lawyer, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom ; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of New York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1861, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which offices he rendered 
great service to the Government. Alter 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able lawyers. 

November 21, 1872, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and he held the 
office until July 20, 1878. 

The next event of prominence in General 
Arthur's career was his nomination to the 
Vice-Presidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880, when James A. Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were noisy and exciting. The 
friends of Grant, constituting nearl}' half 

the convention, were exceedingly persist- 
ent, and were sorely disappomted over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a very strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected by a respectable plurality of the 
popular vote. The 4th of ;»Iarch following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1881, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant and Conkling wing of the 
Republican party ; but President Arthur 
had both the ability and the good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so high that his successor, President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could only satisfy the people with as good 
an administration. 

But the day of civil service reform had 
come in so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against "third-termism" had en- 
croached so far even upon "second-term" 
service, that the Republican party saw fit 
in 1884 to nominate another man for Presi- 
dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
ington. On his retirement from the Presi- 
dency, March, 1885, he engaged in the 
practice of law at New York City, where he 
died November 18, 1886. 





LAND, the twenty- 
second President of the 
United States, 1885 — , 
was born in Caldwell, 
Essex County, New 
Jersey, March 18, 
The house in which he 
was born, a small two-story 
wooden building, is still stand- 
S^Mm'i^ ing. It was the parsonage of 
" ^ ^ "^ the Presbyterian church, of 
which his father, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather, was born in 
IVLassachusetts, but subsequently moved to 
Philadelphia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
force that fought the British at Bunker 
Hill. He served with gallantr}' through- 
out the Revolution and was honorably 
dischargfed at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
William Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 

Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired by industry some property and sent 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marrv; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, where he 
preached for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to Caldwell, New Jersey, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the family 
moved to Fayette ville, Onondaga County, 
New York. Here Grover Cleveland lived 
until lie was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a country boy. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the village and 



was for a short time at the academy. His 
lather, however, believed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in the 
village store at $50 for the first year, and the 
promise of $100 for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 
Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, where his father acted as agent to 
the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
preaching in the churches of the vicinity. 
Hither Grover came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academy. After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
preached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had spent all his 
salary of $1,000 per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon th? education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fifth. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
ton College, but the death of his father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own 
livelihood. For the first year (i853-'4) he 
acted as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind in New York 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for many years the patron. In the winter 
of 1854 he returned to Holland Patent 
where the generous people of that place, 
Fayetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for his mother, and in the following 
spring, borrowing $25, he set out for the 
West to earn his living. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, ' Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 

stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a few 
miles distant. He communicated his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finally induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, knownas " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1855, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
& Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pay, was paid $4 a 
week — an amount barely sufficient to meet 
the necessary e.xpenses of his board in the 
family of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this time 
with Grover Cleveland was a stern battle 
with the world. He took his breakfast by 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the' whole day was 
spent in work and study. Usually he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his cmplovers came 
to recognize the ability, trustworthiness 
and capacity for hard work in their young 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1859) he stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three years more his salary had 
been raised to $1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
County by the district attorney, the Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 1858 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
he was chosen Governor he always made 
it his dut}', rain or shine, to stand at the 
polls and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first year of his term 
as assistant district attorney, the Democrats 
desired especially to carr)' the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The old Second Ward in which 
he lived was Republican- ordinarily by 250 
majority, but at the urgent request of the 



party Crrover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
and came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's office were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpocl, 
e.x-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel & Cleveland. Here the bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In 1869 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and e.\-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since i860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
Countv, i870-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lyman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 

The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1879, ^"d the firm became Cleveland & 
Bissell. In iBBi Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of 1881 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 
over 3,500 — the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor^and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over i,ooo 
majority for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him by 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention met 
at Syracuse, September 22, 1882, and nomi- 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majority. In the fall ot 
1 884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majority, 
in New York State, and he was accordingly 
inaugurated the 4th of March following. 



. .|>_i=Sj(a^l'':Sv2==«-«^ 





tlie twenty-third Presi- 
dent of the United States, 
LS89, was born at North 
Bend, Hamilton County, 
Ohio, in tlie house of his 
grandfather, AVilliam Hen- 
ry Harrison (wlio was the 
ninth President of this 
country), August 20th, 
1833. He is a descendant 
of one of the historical 
families of this country, as 
also of England. The 
head of the family was a 
Major-General Harrison 
who was devoted to the cause of Oliver 
Cromwell. It became the duty of this Har- 
I'ison to participate in the trial of Charles 1. 
and afterward to sign the death warrant of 
the Iving, which subsequently cost him his 
life. His enemies succeeding to power, he 
was condemned and executed October 13tli, 
1660. His descendants came to America, 
and the first mention made in history of the 
Harrison family as representative in ])ublic 
affairs, is that of Benjamin Harrison, great- 
grandfather cf our present President, who 
was a member of the Continental Congress, 
1774-5-6, and one of the original signers of 

the Declaration of Independence, and three 
times Governor of Virginia. His son, Will- 
iam Henry Harrison, made a brilliant mili- 
tary record, was Governor of the Northwest 
Territory, and tlie ninth President of the 
United States. 

The subject of this sketch at an early age 
became a student at Farmers College, where 
he remained two years, at the end of which 
time he entered Miami University, at Ox- 
ford, Ohio. Upon graduation from said seat 
of learning he entered, as a student, the of- 
fice of Stover & Gwyne, a notable law firm at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he applied himself 
closely to the study of his chosen profession, 
and here laid the foundation fur the honora- 
ble and famous career before him. He spent 
two years with the linn in Cincinnati, at the 
expiration of which time he received the 
only inheritance of his life, which was a lot 
left him by an aunt, which he sold for !i^SOO. 
This sum he deemed sufficient to justify him 
in marrying the lady of his choice, and to 
whom he was then engaged, a daughter of 
Dr. Scott, then Principal, of a female school 
at Oxford, Ohio. 

After marriage he located at Indianapolis, 
Indiana, where he began the practice of law. 
Meeting -with slight encouragement he made 
but little the first year, but applied himself 

. cJv^ 




closely to his business, and by perseverance, 
lionorable dealing and an npright life, suc- 
ceeded in building upan extensive practice and 
took a leading position in the legal profession. 

In 1860 he was nominated for the position 
of Supreme t'onrt lleporter for the State of 
Indiana, and then began his experience as a 
stump speaker. He canvassed the State 
thoroughly and was elected. 

In 1882 his patriotism caused him to 
abandon a civil office and to offer his country 
his services in a military capacity. He or- 
ganized the Seventieth Indiana Infantry and 
was chosen its Colonel. Although his regi- 
ment was composed of raw material, and he 
practically void of militar^^ schooling, he at 
once mastered military tactics and drilled his 
men, so that when he with his i-egiment was 
assigned to Gen. Sherman's command it was 
known as one of the best drilled organ- 
izations of the army. He was especially 
distinguished for bravery at the battles of 
Eesacca and Peach Tree Creek. For his 
bravery and efficiency at the last named bat- 
tle he was made a Brigadier-General, Gen- 
eral Hooker speaking of him in the most 
complimentary terms. 

While General Harrison was actively en- 
gaged in the Held the Supreme Court declared 
the office of Supreme Court Reporter vacant, 
and another person was elected to fill the 
position. From the time of leaving Indiana 
with his regiment for the front, until the fall 
of 18G4, General Harrison had taken no leave 
of absence. But having been nominated 
that year for the same office that he vacated 
in order to serve his country where he could 
do the greatest good, he got a thirty-day leave 
of absence, and during that time canvassed 
the State and was elected for another term as 
Supreme Court Reporter. He then started 
to rejoin his command, then with General 
Sherman in the South, but was stricken down 

with fever and after a very trying siege, made 
his way to the front, and participated in the 
closing scenes and incidents of the war. 

In 1868 General Harrison declined a re- 
election as Reporter, and applied himself to 
the practice of his profession. He was a 
candidate for Governor of Indiana on the 
Republican ticket in 1876. Although de- 
feated, the brilliant campaign brought him 
to public notice and gave him a National 
reputation as an able and formidable debater 
and he was much sought in the Eastern 
States as a public speaker. He took an act- 
ive part in the Presidential campaign of 
1880, and was elected to the United States 
Senate, where he served six years, and was 
known as one of the strongest debaters, as 
well as one of the ablest men and best law- 
yers. When his term expired in the Senate 
he resumed his law practice at Indianapolis, 
becoming the head of one of the strongest 
law firms in the State of Indiana. 

Sometime prior to the opening of the 
Presidential campaign of 1888, the two great 
political parties (Republican and Democratic) 
drew the line of political battle on the ques- 
tion of tariff, which became the leading issue 
and the rallying watchword during the mem- 
orable campaign. The Republicans appealed 
to the people for their voice as to a tariff to 
protect home industries, while the Democrats 
wanted a tariff for revenue only. The Re- 
publican convention assembled in Chicago in 
June and selected Mr. Harrison as their 
standard bearer on a jjlatform of ];rinciples, 
among other important clauses being that of 
protection, which he cordially indorsed in 
accepting the nomination. November 0, 
1888, after a heated canvass, General Harri- 
son was elected, defeating Grover Cleveland, 
who was again the nominee of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was inaugurated and as- 
sumed the duties of his office March 4, 1889. 









HE first ex])loration by whites of 
the territory wJiich now com- 
prises the State of Minnesota 
dates back early into the seven- 
teenth century. It is claimed 
by good authorit}' that Jean 
Nicolet (pronounced Nicolay), 
one of Champlain's interpreters, 
was the first to spread knowl- 
edge of the country west of Lake Michigan. 
As early as 1635 he set foot upon the 
western shores of Lake Michigan, and ti'aded 
near Green Baj^, also roaming over various 
portions of "Wisconsin at about that time. 
In December of the same year he i-eturned 
to Canada. It is very doubtful whether 
Nicolct ever set foot on Minnesota soil, 
although it is certain that his visit to tlie 
country west of Lake Michigan was the 
means of spreading knowledge of this 
country, and of the aboiigines of Minnesota. 
It was said of him that he penetrated far 
distant countries, and in a letter bearing 
date of 1040, it is stated that "if he had 
proceeded three days more on a river which 
flows from that lake (Green Bay), he would 
have found the sea." The death of this 
explorer occurred at Three liivers in lO-tO. 

After Nicolet's visit to Wisconsin, for a 
quarter of a century history brings no trace 
of any explorations concerning this region. 
At the end of this time, in 1000, the first 
white men of whom there is any reliable 
record, set foot on Minnesota soil. They 
were Medard Chouart, called Groselliers, 
and Pierre d'Esprit, who was known as Sieur 
Eadisson. Both were Frenchmen wlio had 
come to Canada when young men to engage 

in the fur trade. About the middle of that 
century several important changes had been 
made in the location of Indian tribes. The 
Hurons and their allies, the Ottawas, after 
successive battles, had drifted to the west of 
Lake Michigan. In former times they had 
been located in the St. Lawrence region. 
Finally reaching the Mississippi they found 
the Iowa River. Later, returning to the 
Mississippi, they settled upon an island in 
the river near where the city of Hastings 
is now^ located ; but becoming involved in 
battles with the Sioux, we finally find the 
Hurons located about the headwaters of 
the Chippeway, and the Ottawas on the 
shores of Lake Superior, near where Bay- 
field is now situated. It was to trade with 
the Indians that the two Frenchmen men- 
tioned, Groselliers and Radisson, made their 
trip to this wild region. They passed the 
winter of 1059-00 among the Sioux villages 
in th.e Mille Lacs country, and the following 
spring and summer was sfjcnt in the region 
of Lake Superior. In August, 1060, they 
returned to Montreal, and their report of the 
countr\^ they had visited created much ex- 
citement. "Within a few weeks an exploring 
and trading party was formed, and accom- 
panied by six Frenchmen and two priests, 
one of whom was the Jesuit, Rene Menard, 
they again started westward, and on the 
15tii of October, 1600, they reached the 
Ottawa settlement on the shores of Lake 
Superior. The objects of this party were 
various, some bent on exploration, others 
on trading, while Father IMenard went as 
a missionary. Groselliers (pronounced Gro- 
say-ya) and Radisson, accompanied by others, 



pushed on through the country to the 
northwest of Lake Superior and at length 
reached Hudson's Bay. They returned 
to Montreal in May, 1662. The names 
of all the members of this party have 
not been preserved. Groselliers and Ilad- 
isson proceeded to Paris, thence to Lon- 
don, where they were well received bj' 
the nobility and scientific men. A vessel 
was fitted out and placed at their disposal, 
in the hope of finding a northwest passage 
to Asia. In June, 1668, they left England 
and made an extended voyage, reaching a 
tributary of Hudson's Bay and returning to 
England, where, in 1670, the famous trading 
corporation, the " Hudson's Bay Company," 
was chartered. 

Now to return to the venerable Father 
Menard, who had been left among the Ottawa 
Indians on the shores of Lake Superior in 
October, 1600. For nearly a year he lived 
there in a cabin built of fir liranches. In 
the summer of 1661 he decided to visit the 
Hurons, who had fled eastward from the 
Sioux of ^rinnesota and were located among 
the woods of northern Wisconsin, as stated. 
He was accompanied by one Frenchman, 
whose name has been lost in the mist of 
years. They became separated, and Father 
Menard was lost, as Perrot says, "in the 
labyrinth of trees." This was the last ever 
positively known of him, although his brevi- 
ary and cassock were said afterward to 
have been found among the Sioux Indians. 
Whether this good and venerable man 
starved or was murdered or captured by the 
Indians will forever be shrouded in mystery. 

These were tiie earliest explorations of the 
Northwest of which any record has Ijcen left, 
but after that period this region was visited 
by various parties at long intervals, and 
many interesting documents have been j)re- 
served giving accounts of their journeys and 

About the year 1665 several French ti'ad- 

ere and the Jesuit, Allouez, visited the coun- 
try ofl' the western shore of Lake Su])erior. 
Early in 1679 we find Daniel 0. Du Luth 
west of Lake Michigan, and it is believcil he 
planted the French aiims on ^Minnesota soil. 
Ilis records state that " on July 2d. he caused 
his Majesty's arms to be planted in the great 
village of the Nadousioux, called Kathio, 
and at Songaskicous and Ilouctbatons, one 
hundred and twenty leagues distant from 
the former." Kev. E. D. Neill in his 
tliorough work relating to early explorers of 
Minnesota, locates this as being "one hun- 
dred and twenty leagues beyond Mille 
Lacs." Du liUth states that at one point on 
Minnesota soil he found upon a tree tliis 
legend: " Arms of the King cut on this tree 
in the year 1679." He established several 
posts, carried on trading with the Indians, 
and was probably the most prominent of 
the early exploi-ers. Later he was stationed 
near Lake Erie and died in 1710. His 
reports furnish much interesting information 
regarding the early explorations in the 

La Salle was given a commission by the 
King of France in 1678 to "explore the 
West," and do limited trading. He visited 
various parts of the Northwest. His jeal- 
ousy of Du Luth appears to form a consider- 
able portion of his oificial reports, but it is 
stated on good authority that he wrote the 
first description of the upper Mississipjii 
Valley, August 22, 16S2, some montiis before 
the publication of Father Henne])in"s first 
work, "Description de la Louisiane." He 
must, however, have obtained his information 
from one of Hennepin's men. 

Father Louis Hennepin's explorations and 
adventures through the Northwest form an 
interesting chapter in the earlier history of 
this region. He was a native of Ath, an in- 
land town of the Netherlands, and had early 
assumed the robes of ]iriesthood. In 1676 
he came to Canada, and two years later was 



oi-dci'cd to join the La Salle exploring expe- 
dition. A ship was rigged, and on August 
7th, 1679, its sails caught the breezes of 
Lake Erie — the first European vessel 
launched on the great lakes. La Salle con- 
ducted his expedition to Green Bay, thence 
along the coast of Lake IMichigan, and about, 
tlie middle of January, 16S0, landed it on an 
eminence near Lake Peoria, on the Illinois 
River, where he commenced the erection of 
Fort Crevecoeur. On the last of February of 
the same year. Father Hennepin, in company 
with Michael Accault (Ako) and Angelle, 
left the fort to ascend the Mississippi River. 
On the 11th of April, 16S0, after having 
reached a point north of the Chippewa River, 
they were met and taken charge of by a 
)«irty of over a hundred Sioux Indians. They 
then proceeded with the Indians to their 
villages, nearly sixty leagues north of St. An- 
tliony falls. The^^ remained with the Indians 
^ome time, being well treated, and on the 
25th of July, 1680, they were met Ijy Du 
Luth, who was accompanied by his interpre- 
ter, Fafifart, and several French soldiers. 
They then proceeded to Mille Lacs, arriving, 
according to Father's Hennepin writings, on 
the 11th of August, 1680. In the latter part 
of September they started to return to the 
French settlement, passing by St. Anthony 
falls. Father Hennepin published two works 
relating to his discoveries, the first, " De- 
scription de la Louisiane," in 1836; the sec- 
ond, " The New Discovery," in 1697. These 
works called forth much criticism, as there 
can be no doubt Hennepin greatly magnified 
his own importance, and exaggerated his 
services ami discoveries. For instance, he 
claims to have descended the Mississippi 
River to the Gulf of JMexico, before proceed- 
ing northward, then returned and proceeded 
on to the St. Anthony falls. This in the face 
of his own stated facts — leaving Fort Creve- 
coeur the last of Februarj% he claims to have 
made this wonderful trip, and arrived two 

miles south of where the city of St. Paul is 
now located, late in vVpril, giving the 11th 
of April as the date of their capture by the 
Indians. However this may be. Father 
Hennepin's work was not in vain, and his 
memory is entitled to the credit for that 
which he did. His publications hastened and 
facilitated exploration, and his failing — if 
such it was — should be treated with charity. 
La Salle speaks of him highly, but charitably 
says, " it was his failing to magnify those 
adventures which concerned him." 

During lOSl, Nicholas Perrot and Le 
Sueur visited Lake Pepin, and the following 
winter the French traded with the Indians 
on Minnesota soil. Perrot had been ap- 
pointed by the governor of Canada as the 
commandant for the West, and was accom- 
panied by twenty men. Upon his arrival he 
caused a stockade to be built on the east 
bank of Lake Pepin, which bore his name 
for many j'ears. He discovered a number of 
lead mines, and his name figures conspicu- 
ously in the history of the early French ex- 
plorations and frontier woi'k. Perrot re- 
mained for some time after building the fort, 
then, in 1686, returned to Green Bay. He 
passed much time in collecting allies for the 
expedition against the Iroquois in New York, 
and in the spring of 16ST, was with DuLuth 
and Tont}^ with the French and Indian allies 
in the expedition against the Senecas of the 
Genesee Valley in New York. The follow- 
ing year he was sent with a company of 
Frenchmen to reoccupy the post on Lake 
Pepin, in Minnesota, and it was in 1689 that 
Perrot, in the presence of Father Joseph 
James Marest, a Jesuit, Boisgniblot, a trader 
on the Wisconsin and Mississippi, and Le 
Seur, made a formal I'ecord of taking posses- 
sion of the Sioux country in the name of the 
King of France. 

Le Sueur, who accompanied Perrot in his 
first trip to Lake Pepin in 1684, was inti- 
mately connected with that explorer's move- 



ments. In 1092 Le Sueur was sent by Gov. 
Frontenac, of Canada, to the extremity 
of Lake Superior to maintain peace between 
the Indian tribes. Entering the Sioux 
country, in 1694, he estabhshcd a post upon a 
prairie island, nine miles below where Hast- 
ings is now located. He Avas accompanied 
by Penicaut and others. Here they estab- 
lislied a fort and storehouse and passed the 
winter, as game was ver}'^ abundant. On 
July 15, 1G95, V^c Sueur went back to Mon- 
treal accompanied Ijy a party of Ojibways, 
and the first Dakolah brave that ever visited 
Canada. Le Sueur then visited France, and 
in 1697 received a license to open certain 
mines tliat were supposed to exist in Minne- 
sota. The ship in which he was returning 
was ca])tured by the English, and he was 
taken to England; when released he returned 
to France and secured a new commission, but 
it was afterward suspended. Fortunately, 
D Ilberville, a kinsman of Le Sueur, was ap- 
pointed governor of the new territory of 
Louisiana, and in December, 1699, Le Sueur 
arrived from France with thirty workmen 
to proceed to the mines. During the next 
year he ascended the Minnesota River with 
his expedition, and in October, 1700, built a 
fort on the Blue Earth River, which he 
named L'lluillier. This was occupied by 
Le Sueur's men until 1702, when it was 
abandoned because of the hostility of the 
Indians. Charlevoix, who visited the val- 
ley of the icwer Mississippi in 1722, says that 
" Le Sueur spent at least one winter in his 
fort on the banks of the Blue Earth, and 
that in the following April he went up to the 
mine, almut a mile ahove, and in twenty-two 
days they obtained more than 30,000 ])ounds 
of the substance — lead." Le Sueur estimated 
the Sioux Indians at that time as being 
four thousand families. 

In 1703 a little volume was published in 
France and England by Baron La Ilon- 
tan, giving an account of his " travels," in 

Avhich he claimed to have penetrated and 
pursued explorations through the territory 
which now *orms Minnesota, farther than 
any of hi^ predecessors. He states that he 
found a river tributary to the ^Mississippi, 
and describes a journey of 500 miles up this 
stream, which he named Long River. His 
woniierful stoiy was believed at the time 
and the river was placed upon the early 
maps; but in later j'ears it was discredited 
ami is now by the closest students and ablest 
historians treated as fabulous. 

In September, 1727, Fort Beauharnois was 
erected and a French post established on the 
shores of Lake Pepin, under the directions of 
Sieur de la Perriere. An extensive trade 
was carried on with the Indians here, and it 
was occupied for a number of years. In 1 728 
Veranderie, who had been placed in com- 
mand of a post on Lake Xepigon, began lay- 
ing plans for finding a corjmunication with 
the Pacific Ocean. An expeditiuu was fitted 
out which left Montreal in 1731, under the 
management of his sons and a nei)hew, De la 
Jemeraye, he not joining the party until 
1733. A fourth son joined the expedition 
in 1735. In the autumn of 1731, the party 
reached Rainy Lake, at the foot of which 
a post, called Fort St. Pierre, was erected. 
The next year they I'eached Lake of the 
Woods, and established Fort St. Charles on 
its southwest bank. A few miles from Lake 
AVinnepeg they established a post on the 
Assinaboine, and a fort was established on 
the Maurepas ("Winnepeg) River. In June, 
173t), while twenty-one of the expedition 
were encamped on an isle in the Lake of the 
"Woods, tliev were surprised bv a Ijand of 
Sioux Indians hostile to the French allies, 
and all were killed. The island on this ac- 
count is called Massacre Island. The re- 
maining portion of the expedition pro- 
gressed as best they could. October 3, 
173S, they built an advanced post called 
Fort la Reine on the Assinaboine River. 


Tliey came in sight of the Eocky Mountains 
on the 1st of January, 1743, and, on the 
12tli, ascended them. In 1741, after plant- 
ing a leaden plate of the arms of France in 
the upper Missouri country, tliey returned, 
reaciiing Minnesota soil late in June, and 
after establishing several posts in the ex- 
treme northern frontier country they finally 
returned to Montreal. E.xpeilitions were 
afterward fitted out, one of which again 
reached the TJocky Mountains, hut tiie clasli 
of arms between France and England put 
an end to the explorations so far as the 
French were concei'ued. 

In 1763, by thetreaty of Versailles, France 
ceded Minnesota east of the Mississippi to 
England and west of it to Spain. In 17t!»i 
Ca[)t. Jonatiiau Carver, the first British sub- 
ject, although a native of Connecticut, visited 
the Falls of St. Anthony. He spent some 
three years among the different tribes of 
Indians in the upper Mississippi country ; 
found the Indinn nations at war and suc- 
ceeded in making peace between them. As 
a reward for his good ollices, it is claimed 
that two chiefs of the Sioux, acting for their 
nation, at a council held with Carver at a 
great cave, now within the corporate limits 
of St. Paul, deeded to Carver a vast tract of 
land on the Mississippi Eiver, extending from 
the Falls of St. Anthony to the foot of Lake 
Pepin, on the Mississippi, thence east one 
hundred miles; thence north one hundred 
and twenty miles; thence west to the place 
of beginning. This pretended grant, how- 
ever, was examined by our government and 
totally ignored. 

At the begmning of the present century 
there were no white men in Minnesota, except 
the few engaged in the fur trade, and the posts 
were chiefly held by the Northwest Com- 
])any, which corporation in 1794 erected a 
stockade at Sandy Lake. In 1802 we find 
William Morrison trading at Leech Lake, and 
two years later at Itasca. In the meantime. 

in 1796, the laws of the ordinance of 1787 
had been extended over the Northwest, and 
on May 7, 1800, that part of Minnesota east 
of the Mississippi had become a part of In- 
diana by the division of Ohio. On the 20th 
of December, 1803, that part of Minnesota 
west of the Mississippi, for forty years in the 
possession of Spain as a part of Louisiana, 
was ceded to the United States by Napoleon 
Bonaparte, who had just obtained it fidm 
Spain. In 1804 Fp])er Louisiana Tei'ritory 
was constituted. During the following year 
the United States for the fii'st time sent an 
officer to Minnesota, in the [)erson of Lieut. 
Z. M. Pike, who established government re- 
lations and obtained the Fort Snelling reser- 
vation from the Dakotahs. He I'emained 
here for some tiine, but the. war of 1812 
coming on postponed the militarv occupa- 
tion of the upper Mississippi by the United 
States for several years. Pike aftei'ward 
fell in battle at York, in Upper Canadii. 

In 1817 the Earl of Selkirk, a nobleman, 
visited the Scotch colony on the Ped Piver, 
established in 1812, and created quite an ex- 
citement on the part of some of the United 
States authorities. The same year Mayor 
Stephen II. Long, of the United States En- 
gineer Corps, visited Minnesota and made a 
report recommending the Ijluff' at the jimc- 
tion of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers 
as a site for a fort. 

In 1819 Minnesota east of the ]\rississi]ipi 
Piver became a part of Crawford County, 
Mich. During the same year Fort Snell- 
ing was established and the site of Mendota 
was occupied by the United States troops, 
under Col. Leavenworth. Major Taliaferro 
was a])pointed Indian agent. 

During the year 1820 much of interest 
transpired on Minnesota soil. Early in the 
spring Jean Baptiste Faribault brought 
Leavenworth's horses from PrairieduChien. 
On the .5th of May Col. Leavenworth estab- 
lished summer quarters at Camp Coldwater, 



(Hennepin County). In July Gov. Cass, of 
Micliigan, visitetl iho camps. In August Col. 
Joshia Snelling succeeded Leavenworth in 
conunand, and on tlie 2(>tli of Septeniljcr the 
conier-stone of Fort Snelling (then Fort St. 
Anthony) was laid. On the 15th of April 
t lie superintendent of farming for Earl Sel- 
kirk left Prairie du Chien, having purchased 
seed wheat; he ascended the Minnesota 
Kiver to Dig Stone Lake, where the boats 
weie placed on rollers, dragged a short dis- 
tance to, and reached Penibina 
.lune 3. This j'ear the first marriage in 
Minnesota occurred, Lieut. Green to a 
(iiuigiiler of Capt. Gooding. The first birth 
oS. a white child in the State occurred this 
year, a daugliter to Col. Snelling; died the 
following year. 

In 1S21 Fort St. Anthony (Snelling) was 
sufficiently completed to be occupied by 
ti'oops. During this year a sawmill Avas 
constructed at St. Anthony Falls for the use 
of tiie garrison under the supervision of 
Lieut. JMcCabe. 

Nothing of particular interest transpired 
during 1822. In 1823, however, the first 
steamboat, the A^irginia, arrived at the mouth 
of tiie Minnesota Kiver on the 10th of May, 
and created consternation among the Indians. 
I'eltrami, the Italian, during the same year 
explored the northernmost sources of the 
Mississippi, and Maj. Long, of the United 
States army, visited the northern boun<lary 
by way of the Minnesota iind \\<iK\ I'ivers. 
Mdlstones for grinding flour were sent to 
St. Anthony to be placed in the sawmill. 

In 1S2-1 Gen. Winlield Scott visited Fnrt 
St. Anthony, and at his suggestion the name 
was changed to Foil Snelling. 

Aftei- this time events crowd i-a[iidly one 
after the other to fill in the time. I'lom 
1825 on, the arrival of steamboats l)ccanie 
more frequent. During this year a heavy 
flood visited the Red River, and a portion of 
the colony were driven to Minnesota and 
settled near Fort Snelling. 

In 1832 Schoolcraft explored the sources 
of the Mississippi River, and during the fol- 
lowing year Rev. W. T. Boutwell established 
the first mission among the Ojil)wa3's on 
Leech Lake. About the same time E. F. Ely 
opened a mission school at Atkins, a trading 
post on Sandy Lake. 

That portion of Minnesota lying west of 
the Mississip})i River was attached to ]\liclii- 
gan in 1834. During this year Gen. II. II. 
Sibley settled at Mendota as agent for tiie 
fur conijiany, and Samuel W. and (iideon 
II. Pond, missionaries among the Sioux, ar- 
rived. They were followed the next year 
by T. S. "Williamson, J. I). Stevens and Alex- 
ander G. Iluggins. and in June, 1835. a 
Presbyterian Church was oi-gani/.ed at Foit 
Snelling. Late the same year Maj. J. L. 
Bean, in accordance with the treaty of 1825, 
surveyed the Sioux and Clii))peway bound- 
ary line as far as Otter Tail Lake. 

In 1836 the Territory of Wisconsin was 
organized, embracing all of Minnesota east 
of the Mississippi River; that territory west 
of the river being attacl'.etl to Iowa. A 
number of steamboats arrived during this 
year, a ])assenger on one of them being the 
ilistinguislied French astronomer, Jean N. 

In 1837 Gov. Dodge, of "Wisconsin, made 
a treaty at Fort Snelling with the Ojib- 
ways, by which the latter ceded all tiieir 
pine lands on the St. Croix and its tributaries ; 
a treaty was also effected at "Washington 
with a deputation of Dakotahs for their pine 
lands east of the Mississippi. These tivaties 
hnl the way to the first actual settlements in 
the State. The treaty was ratified by Con- 
gress in 1S38. At about this time Franklin 
Steele made a claim at St. Amlidny Kails; 
Pierre Parrant took a claim ami built a cabin 
(111 the jiresent site of St. I'aiil ; Jeremiah 
Russell and h.^ . Stratton made the first 
claim at Marine in the St. Croix Valley. 
During the year 1838 a steamboat arrived at 
Fort Snellins-- with J. N. Nicollet and J. C. 



Fremont on a scientific expedition. Develop- 
ment begins in the St. Croix Valley. The 
next year the chapel of "St. Paul" was 
built and consecrated, giving the name to 
the capital of the State. 

Henry M. Rice arrived at Fort Snelling 
in 1840, others came and in November, 1841, 
St. Croix County was established with 
"Dakotah" designated as the countj'-seat. 

On the 10th of October, 1843, a settlement 
was commenced on the present site of the 
city of Stillwater, and the erection of a saw- 
mill was immediately commenced. The 
names of the town proprietors were : John 
McKusick, from Maine ; Calvin Leach, from 
Vermont ; Elam Greele}', from Maine and 
Elias McKeane, from Pennsylvania. 

Dr. E. D. Neill in his " Explorers and Pio- 
neers of Minnesota," says that in 1846 " the 
site of St. Paul was chiefly occupied by a 
few shanties, owned by 'certain lewd fellows 
of the baser sort,' Avho sold rum to the sol- 
diers and Indians." On the 6th of August, 
1846, the Wisconsin enabling act was passed. 

In 1847 St. Croix Count}^ was detached 
from Crawford County, "Wis., and reorgan- 
ized for civil and judicial purposes with Still- 
water as the count3'-seat. The town of St. 
Paul was surveyed and platted, and recorded 
in St. Croix County. During this 3'ear the 
Wisconsin constitutional convention was held. 

On the 29th of May, 1848, Wisconsin was 
admitted to the Union, leaving Minnesota 
(with its present boundaries) without a gov- 
ernment, and on the 26th of the following- 
August a convention was held at Stillwater 
to take measures for a separate territorial or- 
ganization. On the 30th of October, 1848, 
Henry II. Sibley was elected delegate to 
Congress, and he was admitted to a seat 
January 15, 1849. March 3d, 1849, a bill 
was passed organizing Minnesota Territory, 
and on tlie 19th of the same month territo- 
rial officers were appointed. June 1st Gov. 
Ramsey issued a proclamation declaring 

the territory organized, and on September 3d 
the first territorial Legislature assembled. In 
1851 the capital of the State was permanent- 
ly located, as was also the penitentiary. In 
June, 1854, the first line of railway was com- 
]/leted to St. Paul. 

On the 23d of February', 1857, an act 
passed the United States Senate, to author- 
ize the people of Minnesota to form a consti- 
tution, preparatory to their admission to the 
Union. In June a constitutional convention 
was held, and tiic State constitution was 
framed. This was adopted on the 13t]i of 
October, 1857, and a full list of State officers 
was elected. On the 11th of May, 1858, the 
President approved of the bill admitting the 
State, and Minnesota was full^^ recognized as 
one of the United States of America. The 
first State officers were sworn in on the 24th 
of May. 

From this time on we can only briefly re- 
view the -most important events that have 
transpired. A great tide of immigration had 
set in early in the "fifties," wiiicli rajiidly 
filled up portions of the State, until in 1857 
a census gave the State a total population of 
150,037. During that year, however, real 
estate speculation reached a climax, and the 
terrible financial panic occurred which great- 
ly retarded the settlement. 

In 1858 the State loan of fl250.000 was 
negotiated ; five million loan l)ili was 
passed, being voted on April 15; great strin- 
gency in money market. 

During 1859 the hard times continued 
to intensify. "Wright County War" oc- 
curred ; " Glencoe " and " Owatonna " money 
was issued ; work on the land grant roads 
ceased; collapse of the five million scheme; 
first export of grain that fall ; hard political 
struggle, in which the Republicans tri- 

Another warm political canvass occurred 
in 1860 ; the census taken this year gave the 
State a total population of 172,123. 



In 1801 war cast its gloom over the coun- 
try ; on Ajiril 13tli the President's ])roclania- 
tion for troops was received ; the first regi- 
ment recruited at once, and June 22d it em- 
barked at Fort Snelling for the seat of war. 

In 1SG2 occurred the memorable Sioux 
outbreak; August 17th, massacre at Acton ; 
August ISth, outbreak at Lower, Sioux 
Agency; 19th, New Ulm attacked ; 20tli, 
Fort Ridgely attacked ; 25tli, second attack 
on New Ulm ; 30th, Fort Abercrombie be- 
sieged ; September 1st, the bloody affair at 
I'ircli Coolie; 19th, first railroad in Minne- 
sota in o])eration, between St. Paul and 
Minneajiolis ; 22d, battle of "Wood Lake ; 
2(4th, ca])tives surrendered bj' the Indians at 
Camp Release; military commission tried 
321 Indians for murder, 303 condemned to 
(lie; December 26th, thirty-eight hung at 

In 1S()3 Gen. Sibley conducted an expedi- 
tion to the Missouri Eiver ; July 3d, Little 
Crow was killed; July 24tii, battle of I]ig 
IMound ; 2(;th, battle of Dead Buffalo Lake ; 
July 2Sth, battle of Stony Lake. 

In ISfii the civil war was still in progress, 
and large levies for troops were made in 
Minnesota; expedition to Missouri River, un- 
der Sully ; inflation of money market : occa- 
sional Iiulian raids. 

In ISda the war closed and peace returns; 
^linnesotar re'dments return and ai-e dis- 
banded ; in all, 25,052 troops were furnished 
by the State ; census showed 250,000 in habi- 

After the close of the war, and from 18(J() 
until 1872, "good times" prevailed; immigra- 

tion was very heavy, and real estate and 
all values were inflated. The western por- 
tion of the State received many settlers. 
Railway construction was very active. 

In 1873 the famous grasshopper raid began 
throughout the western part of the State, 
and continued about five seasons. January 
7-8-9 of this year, a terrible storm swept 
over the State, in which seventy ])ersons per- 
ished. In So])tember of the same year, the 
financial "panic of 1873"'' began. 

In 187-1 and 1875 nothing of especial im- 
portance occurred. 

On the 7th of Septembei', 1^7l^ an attack 
was made on the Pank of Northfield by a 
gang of ai'med outlaws from ]\Iissouri ; three 
of the latter were killed, ant! three were cajjt- 

In 1877 biennial sessions ameiulment was 

In 1878 (May 2), three lldiiring mills at 
Minneapolis exploded, and eighteen lives 

On November 15th. ISSO, a [)ortion t)f the 
hospital for the insane, at St. Peter, was de- 
stroyed by fire; eighteen inmates were 
burned to death, seven died subsequently of 
injuries and fright, aiul six were missing. 
Total loss was §;150,0(I0. 

In 1881 the State capitol at St. Paul was 
destroyed by fire. 

In 1884 the State prison, located at Still- 
water, was partly Ijuriuul. 

In 188(1 (April 14), a cyclone swe[)t over 
St. Cloud ami Sauk Rajuds. (lenu)lisliing 
scores of buildings, and killing about seventy 



HE outbrpak of the Indians in 
1802 furnishes one of the most 
interesting chapters in Minneso- 
ta's liistory. At the time of this 
sad tragedy there were scat- 
tered tiiroughout the State vari- 
ous liands of Sioux Indians, a 
powerful and warlilce nation. 
They included the Medawakontons (or Village 
of the Spirit Lake) ; Wapatons, (or Village 
of the Leaves) ; Sissetons (or Village of the 
Marsh), and Wapakutas (or Leaf Shooters). 
These four tribes, numbering about six thou- 
sand and two hundred persons, comprised 
the entire annuity Sioux of Minnesota. 
All these Indians had from time to time, 
from the 19th of July, 1815, to the date of 
the massacre in 1862, receiv'ed presents from 
the government, by virtue of various treaties 
of amity and friendship. From the time of 
the treaty of St. Louis in 1816, these tribes 
had remained friendl}' to tlie whites, and 
had by treaty stipulations pai'ted with all 
the lands to which tiie\' chiimed title in 
Iowa ; all on the east side of the Mississippi 
River, and all on the Minnesota River in 
Minnesota, except certain reservations. One 
of these reservations lay upon botli sides of 
the Minnesota ten miles on eiiher side of 
that stream, from Hawk River on the north 
to Yellow Medicine River on the south side, 
thence westerly to the head of Big Stone Lake 
and Lake Traverse, a distance of about one 
hundred miles. Another of these reserva- 
tions commenced at Little Rock River on 
the east and a line running due south from 
its mouth, and extending up the river 
westerly to the eastern line of the reserva- 

tion first named, at the Hawk and Yellow 
Medicine rivers. The last also had a width 
of ten miles on each side of the Minnesota 

Early in 1858 a scheme was devised Ijy 
the authorities at Washington for the civili- 
zation of these annuity Indians. A civiliza- 
tion fund was provided, to be taken from their 
annuities and expended in improving the 
lands of such as should abandon their tril)al 
relations and adopt the habits and modes of 
life of the whites. To all sucli, lands were 
assigned in severalty, eighty acres to the 
head of each family, on which should be 
erected the necessary farm buildings, and 
farming implements and cattle furnished 
him. At tlie time of the outln'eak about one 
hundred and seventy-five Indians had taken 
advantage of the provisions of this treaty 
and become " farmer Indians." A great 
majority of the Indians, however, disliked 
the idea of taking any portion of their gen- 
eral fund to carry out the civilization scheme. 
Those Avho retained the blanket, called 
"blanket Indians," denounced the measure 
as a fraud, as it was slowly but surely 
destroying what was, to them, their God- 
given right to the chase. The result, in brief, 
of this civilization scheme was this : After 
tlie chase was over the "blanket Indians" 
would pitch their tents about the homes of 
the "farmer Indians" and proceed to eat 
them out of house and home, and when the 
ruin was complete, the " farmer " with his 
wife and children, driven by necessity, \vould 
again seek temporary subsistence in the 
chase. During their absence the " blanket 
Indians" would commit whatever destruc- 



tion of fences or tenements tlieir desires or 
necessities would suggest. In this way the an- 
nua! ))rocess continued, so tluit when tlie 
" fai'iner Indian " returned to his desohite 
lionu; in the spring to prepare again for a 
cro]), he looked forward to no different re- 
sults foi' tlio coming winter. It will thus be 
seen that the civilization scheme was an ut- 
ter failure.' 

The treaty referred to, of 1858, hpd opened 
for settlement a vast frontier country of the 
most attractive character in the valley of 
the Minnesota liiver, andonthe streams put- 
tin<r into tiie Minnesota on either side, such 
as Beaver Creek, Sacred Heart, Plawk and 
Chijipewa rivers, and some other small 
streams, there were flourishing settlements 
of white families. "Within this ceded tract, 
ten miles wide, were the scattered settle- 
ments of Birch Coolie, Patterson Rapids, 
and others as far up as the upper agency at 
Yellow Medicine, in Renville County. The 
county of Brown adjoined the reservation, 
and was at that tin;o settled mostly by Ger- 
mans. Here was also the flourishing town 
of New Ulm, and further on was a thriving 
settlement on the Big Cottonwood anil 
Watonwan. Other counties. Blue Earth, 
Nicollet, Sibley, IVIeelcer, McLeod, Kandij^ohi, 
Mononfi-aliaaiul ]\Iurrav, tog-ether with others 
somewhat removed from the direct attack of 
the Indians, as Wright, Stearns and Jackson, 
and even reaching on the north to Fort 
Abercrombie, thus extending from Iowa to 
the valley of the Red River of the North, 
were severally involved in the consequences 
of the warfare of 1802. This extended area 
had a population estimated at over fifty 

Early in the fifties complaints began to be 
made by the Indians, and dissatisfaction be- 
gan to be manifest. By the treaty of Trav- 
erse des Sioux, dated July 23, 1851, between 
the United States and the Sissetons and 
Wapatons, $275,00() was to be paid their 

chiefs, and a further sum of .$3(i,U0(» was to 
be expended for their benefit in Indian im- 
provements. By the treaty of Mendota, 
dated August 5, 1851, the Medawakantons 
and Wapakutas were to receive the sum of 
$200,000, to be paid to their chief, and a fur- 
ther sum of $30,000. These sevei'ai sums 
aniountiii"!' in tlie as:"' rebate to !?550.00(), 
these Indians, to whom they wcm'c payable, 
claim they were never paid, iwcept pcrliai)s 
a small poi'tion expended in improvements. 
This led to great dissatisfaction, of which 
the government was fully apprised. Several 
parties wei'c atdifTerent times sentoul by tlia 
Indian department of the government to in- 
vestigate into the causes, but the rascality 
of the aijents and officers who had defrauded 
the Indians had been carefullv covered up, 
and as usual in such cases the guilty ])arties 
were excul]iated. This was one of the lead- 
ing and most important causes which led to 
the massacre of 18(52. 

Another cause of irritation among these 
annuity Sioux arose out of the Spirit Lake 
massacre of 1857 — known as the Inkpadutah 
massacre. Inkpadutah was an outlaw of 
the Wapakuta baiul of Sioux Indians, and 
his acts were entirely disclaimed by the " an- 
nuity Sioux."' He had committtnl murder in 
his own tril)e some twenty yeai'S previous, 
and since had led a wanderingandmarauiling 
life about the headwaters of the Des ^bjines 
River and westward to Dakota. Finally' his 
outrages reached a climax, when early in 1857 
with a few of his followers, he proceeded to 
murder every family in the little settlement 
about Spirit Lake, Iowa, except four women 
whom tiiey bore away captives. From there 
they went to the Springfield settlement (on 
the present site of Jackson, Minn.), where they 
murdered seventeen people, making a total of 
forty seven persons killed. They then re- 
treated westward. Shortly after the mas- 
i^acre at Springfield (now Jackson) a com- 
pany of regular soldiers under Capt. Bee 



was stationed at that place, and had the 
officer been a zealous or capable one might 
easily have overtaken and punished them. 
As stated the " annuity Sioux " disclaimed the 
acts of this outlaw ; but I'oi' a time the gov- 
ernment refused to pay the annuities until 
they should deliver up the murderers. In a 
shoi't time, however, the government let the 
matter drop, and continued to pay the an- 
nuities as before. Some thought that this 
was a great error and that the Indians mis- 
took it for a sign of weakness. 

However that may be, as time went on 
the Indians became more and more insolent, 
and Little Crow, together witii a few leaders 
among the annufty Sioux, from the time the 
government ceased its efforts to punish Tnk- 
padutah, began to agitate and plan the great 
conspiracy to drive the whites from the State 
of Minnesota. Little Crow was one of the 
" farmer Indians," whose headquarters was 
a shoi't distance above the Lower Agency, 
who is credited with being the leader in the 
outbreak against the whites. 

The antecedent exciting causes of this 
massacre are numerous. The displaced 
agents and traders find the cause in the er- 
roneous action of the government, resulting 
in their removal from office. The statesman 
and the philosopher may unite in tracing the 
cause to improper theories as to the mode of 
acquiring the right to Indian lands. The 
former may locate the evil in our system of 
treaties, and the latter in our theories of gov- 
ernment. The philanthropist may find the 
cause in the absence of justice which we ex- 
hibit in all our intercourse with the Indian 
races. The poet and the lovers of romance 
in human character find the true cause, as 
they believe, in the total absence of all ap- 
preciation of the noble, generous, confiding 
traits peculiar to the native Indian. The 
Christian teacher finds apologies for acts of 
Indian atrocities in the tieficient systems of 
mental and moral culture. Each of these 

different classes are satisfied that the great 
massacre of Au^'ust, lS(i2, had its oris^in in 
some wa}'^ intimatel_y connected with his 
favorite theory. 

Maj. Thomas Galbraith, Sioux agent, 
says, in writing of the causes which led to 
the massacre : " The radical, moving cause 
of the outbreak is, I am satisfied, the in- 
grained and fixed hostility of the savage bar- 
barian to reform and civilization. As in all 
barbarous communities in the history of the 
world the same people have, for the most 
part, resisted the encroachments of civiliza- 
tion upon their ancient customs, so it is in 
the case before us. Nor does it matter ma- 
terially in what shape civilization makes its 
attack. Hostile, opposing forces meet in 
conflict, and a war of social elements is the 
result — civilization is aggressive, and bar- 
barism stubbornly resistant. Sometimes, 
indeed, civilization has achieved a bloodless 
victor}^, but generally it has been otherwise. 
Christianity, itself, the true basis of civiliza- 
tion, has, in most instances, waded to success 
through seas of blood. . . . Having 
stated thus much, I state, as a settled fact 
in my mind, that the encroachments of 
Christianity, and its handmaid, civilization, 
upon the habits and cu.stoms of the Sioux 
Indians, is the cause of the late terrible Sioux 
outbreak. There Avere, it is true, many im- 
mediate inciting causes, which will be allud- 
ed to and stated hereafter, but they are sub- 
sidiary to, and developments of, or incident 
to, the great cause set forth. . . . But 
that the recent Sioux outbi'eak would have 
happened at any rate, as a result, a fair con- 
sequence of the cause here stated, I have no 

" Now as to the existing or immediate 
causes of the outbreak : By my predecessor a 
new and i\adical system was inaugurated ; 
practically, and in its inauguration, he was 
aided by the Christian missionaries and bv 
the government. The treaties of 1858 were 



ostensibly made to carry this new system 
into effect. Tlie theory, in substance, was 
to break up tlie community system which 
obtained among the Sioux, weaken and de- 
stroy their tribal relations, and iudividnalize 
them, by giving them each a sejiarate home. 
On the 1st day of June, A. D. 
1801, when I entered upon the duties of my 
office, I found tliat tlic system had just been 
inaugurated. Some hundi-ed families of the 
annuity Sioux had liecome novitiates, and 
their relatives and friends seemed to be 
favorably disposed to the new order of 
things. Ijut I also found that, against these 
were ai'rayed over five thousand 'annuity 
Sioux,' l)esides at least three thousand Yank- 
tonais, all iiillamed l)y the most bitter, re- 
lentless and devilish hostility. 

"I saw, to some extent, the difficulty of 
the situation, hut I determined to cor.tinue, 
if ill \\\\ powcf, the civilization system. To 
favor it. to aid and build it up by every fair 
meiins, I advised, encouraged, and assisted 
tiun'arnier nnvitiates; in short I sustained 
the policy inaugui'ated by my pi'edecessor, 
and sustained and I'ecommended b^y tlie gov- 
ernment. I soon discovered that the system 
could not be successful without a sufficient 
force to protect the ' farmer ' from the hos- 
tility of the ' blanket' Indians. 

" During my term, and uj) to the time of 
the outbreak, about 175 had their hair cut 
;md liiid adopted the habits and customs of 
the white men. 

" For a time, indeed, my hopes were strong 
that civilization would soon be in the as- 
cendant. But the increase in the civilization 
party and their evident prosperity, only 
tended to exasperate the Indians of the 'an- 
cient customs,' and to widen the breach. Hut 
while these are to he enumerated, it may be 
permitted me to hope that the radical caus(! 
will not he forgotten or overlooked; and I 
am bold to ex])ress this d<>sire, because, ever 
since the outbreak, the public journals of the 

country, religious and secular, have teemed 
with editorials by and communications from 
'reliable individuals,' politicians, ])liilantin-o- 
[)ists, philosophers and hii'cd ' penny-a-liners,' 
mostly mistaken and sometimes willfully 
and grossly false, giving the cause of the 
Indian raid." 

Maj. Galbraith enumei'ates a vaiiety of 
other exciting causes of the massacre, which 
our limit will not allow us to insert in this 

volume. Amonsj other causes. 


the United States was itself at war, and that 
Washington was taken bv the negroes. . . 
But none of these Avere, in his opini(jn. the 
cause of the outbreak. 

The Major then adds: 

"Grievances such as have been related, 
and numberless othei's akin to them, were 
spoken of, I'ecited, and chanted at their 
councils, dances and feasts, to such an extent 
that, in their excitenicnt. in .lime, 1SG2, a 
secret organization known as the 'Soldiers' 
Lodge' was founded by the young m(>n and 
soldiers of the lower Sioux, with the object, 
as far as I was abh^ to learn through spies 
and informers, of preventing the 'traders' 
from going to the pay-tables, as had been 
their custom. Since the outbreak I have 
become satisfied that the real object of this 
'Lodge' was to adopt measures to 'clean 
out ' all the white people at the end of the 

Whatever may have been the cause of the 
fearful and bloody tragedy, it is certain that 
the manner of the execution of the infernal 
deed was a deep-laid conspiracy, long cher- 
ished by Little Crow, taking form under the 
guise of the " Soldiers' Lodge," and matuiril 
in secret Indian councils." In all these secret 
movements Little Crow was tlie moving 

Now the o]iportune moment seemed to 
have come. Only thirty soldiers were sta- 
tioned at Fort Ridgely. Some thirty were 
all that Fort Kipley could muster, and at 



Fort Abercrombie, one company under Capt. 
Van Der Ilork was all the whites could 
depend upon to repel any attack in that 
quai'tor. The whole effective force for the 
defense of the entire frontier, fi'oni Pembina 
to the Towa line, did not exceed 200 men. 
Tlie annuity money was daily expected, and 
no troojjs except about one hundred men at 
Yellow Medicine, had been detailed, as usual, 
to attend the anticipated ])a3'mcnt. Here 
was a glittering prize to be paraded before 
the minds of the excited savages. The 
wliites \vere weak ; they were engaged in a 
terrible war among themselves; their atten- 
tion was now directed toward the great 
struggle in the South. At such a time, offer- 
ing so many chances for rapine and plunder, 
it would be easy to unite at least all the 
annuity Indians in one common movement. 
Little Crow knew full well that the Indians 
could easily be made to believe that now 
was a favorable time to make a grand attack 
upon the border settlements. 

A memorable council convened at Little 
Crow's village, near tiie lower agency, on 
Sunday night, August 3, previous to the 
attack on Fort Ridgely, and precisely two 
weeks before the massacres at Acton. Little 
Crow was at this council, and he was not 
wanting in ability to meet the greatness of 
the occasion. The proceedings of this council, 
of course, Avere secret. The council matured 
the details of the conspiracy It appears 
that the next day, August 4, a pai'ty of 
ninety-six Indians in war paint and fully 
armed, rode up to Foi-t Ridgely and re- 
quested permission to hold a dance and feast 
in the fort. The}' were allowed to hold the 
dance outside the fort, but Sero-eant Jones, 
with singular foresight, mounted a howitzer 
charged with shell and canister-shot and 
guarded the entrance, having it pointed 
toward the Indians. After finishing the 
dance the red-skins left without making the 
attack, which liad undoubted!}' been medi 

tated. Only thirty soldiers occupied the 
post at Foi't Ilidgely, and this was deemed 
amply sufficient for tunes of peace. 

On the same day a gi-eat many Indians 
were encamped aliout the Upper Agency. 
They were afi'aid they would not get their 
annuity money, which had not arrived as 
yet. They had been complaining bitterly 
of starvation, and on this day made an 
attack on the wareiiouse, carrying off a 
great deal of flour and other provisions. 
The matter, however, was finally adjusted, 
and the agent issued rations, promising to 
distribute their money as soon as it should 
arrive. None of the Indians, liowever, were 
punished for theii" attack on the supply 

We now come to the massacre itself, the 
first blow of which fell upon the town of 
Acton, in Meeker County, about thirty-five 
miles northeast of the Lower Sioux Agency. 
On Sunday, August 17, 1802, six Sioux In 
dians bi'utally murdered a man named Jones, 
with his wife and a daughter, and a man 
named "Webster and Howard Baker. 

On the next day, Monday, the massacre 
at the Lower Agency occurred, where many 
were killed and fearfully mutilated. A few 
escaped and made their way to the eastern 
settlements. The Indians declared it to be 
their intention to kill or drive off all the 
whites to the east of the Mississippi Eiver, 
and to spare none. All that day the work 
of plunder Avent on at the lower agency, 
and when the stoi'es and dwellings had been 
emptied, they were fired. So complete was 
the surprise and so sudden and unexpected 
tiie terrible blow that not a single one of the 
host of savages was slain. In thirty min- 
utes from the time the first gun was fired 
not a white person was left alive. All 
were either weltering in their gore or liad 
fied in fear and terror from that place of 
death. It seems that liundreds of the In- 
dians had gathered here and then dispersed 



through the scattered settlements for their 
murderous work. 

On tlie same morning — of August 18 — 
tlie massacre began on the nortli side of the 
Minnesota Eiver, from Ijii-eii Coolie to 
Beaver Creek and bevond, and the reo-ion 
was strewn with the mutilated bodies of the 
dead and d3nng men, women and children. 
So Ww tci'ril)le warfare continued, inurder- 
ing and burning ; none were allowed to es- 
cape who could possibly be discovered. The 
outbreak extended over a vast scope of coun- 
try, and the Indians numbered well up into 
the tliousands. Tlie entire lengtii of the 
Minnesota and its tributaries, and out into 
Dakota, together with all the western part 
of this State was the scene everywhere of a 
carnival of blood. The counties affected 
have ali-eady been named. 

On the 18th of August the Indians at- 
tacked New Ulm, and after several battles 
and skirmishes were defeated. A few days 
later the whites evacuated the town and 
moved toward Mankato. 

On the ISth of August the battle at Lower 
Agency Ferry was fought. 

On the 20th, seeing they were foiled in 
their attack on New Ulm, they made a 
furious assault on Fort Ridgely. A number 
of whites were killed and wounded, but the 
Indians were defeated. The attack was re- 
newed on the 22d and another severe battle 
occurred, which was ended by night coming 

Numerous engagements were also fought 
in the northern part of the State. 

Throughout all the Minnesota River coun- 
try many women and children were taken 
prisoners. In the meantime comjmnies had 
been raised and were ever3'where following- 
up the Indiansand guarding the various posts 
at whicli the settlers had gathered. These 
various companies had also picked up a great 
many wounded found on tiie prairies, and also 
buried the dead. On the 1st of Septeiiber, 

Compan3' A, Sixth Regiment Minnesota Vol- 
unteers, under Capt. H. P. Grant, fouglit 
tiie l)attle of Birch Coolie, a most terribh; 
and bloody engagement. The noble little 
band of soldiers were relieved on Septembci- 
3, by an advance movement of Col. Sibley's 
forces at Fort Ridgelv. The signal defeat 
of Little Crow at this battle, in effect, ended 
the efforts of the Indians in subduing the 
whites on the border. After this battle all 
of the Indian forces under Little Crow be- 
^an a retreat up the valley of the Minnesota 
toward Yellow Medicine; and on Se])teni- 
ber l('). Col. Sibley, with his whole Cdiunin. 
moved in pursuit of the fleeing foe, and on 
the 2:>d they came up with the Indians and 
defeated them in the battle of Wood Lake. 
This put an end to the hopes of Little Crow. 
On thesame day as the battle of Wood Lake, 
the Wapeton band of Indians surrentlered 
later and turned over to Col. Sibley all the 
captives — 107 whites and 102 half-bi'eeds. 
This place has since been known as " Camp 

After the disaster at Wood Lake, Little 
Crow retreated in the direction of Big Stone 
Lake, with those who remained with him. 
The chief was never captured, but is said to 
have been killed at Scattered Lake in 1803. 
Col. Sibley continued to pursue the deserting 
Indians, and demanded the surrender of all 
bands. By the Sth of October, 1802, ])rison- 
ers had come in and surrendered to the num- 
ber of 2,000. Scouting parties were sent 
over various parts of the West, and, until all 
danger of further depredations was ] ast, 
soldiers were stationed at all of the frontitr 
posts and settlements. 

A military commission was soon after 
inaugurated to try the })arties charged Avith 
murder of white persons. On the 5th of 
November, 1802, 321 Indians and their allies 
were found guilty, and 303 were recom- 
mended for capital punishment, and tlie 
others for imprisonment. They were im- 



mediate]}' removed under a guard of 1,500 
men to South Bend, on the Minnesota River, 
to await further orders from the govern- 
ment. The final decision of the President 
was rendered on tlie 17th of December, 1802, 
ordering that forty of these be imng on Fri- 
day, Decemljer 2C. One of these died a 
short time before tlie day set, and one other, 
a half breed, had his sentence commuted to 
imprisonment for life just before the fatal 

da^'. As to the other thirty-eiglit tlie sen- 
tence was executed at Manlvatoon the day set. 
On the 16th of February, 1863, the' trea- 
ties before that time existing between the 
United States and tliese "annuity Indians" 
were abrogated and annullcHl, and all lands 
and rights of occupancy, and all annuities 
and claims then existing in favor of said 
Indians, were declared forfeited. Thus ended 
the saddest chapter of Minnesota's history. 




rS HE first governor of the Terri- 
tory of Minnesota was Alexander 
Ilamsey, who served from June 
1, 1S4!», to T\ray 15, 185:1. Willis 
A. Gorman succeeded liim, and 
held the office until April 23) 
1857. Samuel Medary was the 
next territorial governor, and 
held the office until the State 
officers were sworn in. May 24-, 1858. 

The first secretary of the Territory was 
Charles K. Smith, who served from June 1, 
1849, until October 23, 1851, when Alexander 
Wilkin qualified and held the office until 
May 15, 1853. Joseph Travis liosser was 
the next, and served until April 23, 1857. 
Charles L. Chase, the last territorial sec- 
retary, (jualified on the date last named and 
served until succeeded by the newly chosen 
secretary of state. May 24, 1858. 

The oilice tif territorial treasurer was first 
filled by Calvin A. Tuttle, wlio served from 
November 3, 1849, to July 2, 1853. George 
W. Pre-scott came next and retained the 
position until February 24, 1854. Succeed- 
ing him Charles E. Leonard served until 
May 7, 1857, when George W. Armstrong 
was appointed and served until tlie State 
officei's qualified, May 24, 1858. 

J. E. ]\[clvusick was the first territorial 
-auditoi', qualifying November 3, 1849, and 
serving until November 30, 1852. A. Van 
Vorhees succeeded him and held the office 
until the 15th of May, 1853, when Socrates 
Nelson qualified. January 17, 1854, Julius 
Georgii took charge of the office and served 
until succeeded by the State auditor, May 
24, 1858. 

During the existence of the Territory of 
Minnesota, Lorenzo A. Babcock and then 
Lafayette Emmett were the only ones to 
hold the office of attorney general. Tiie 
first named served from June 1, 1849, until 
May 15, 1853, and the latter from 1853 until 
May 24, 1858. 

In territorial times there were no district 
judges, but the justices of the supreme court 
attended to all judicial matters now within 
the jurisdiction of the district bench. The 
first chief justice of the territorial supreme 
court was Aaron Goodrich, who served from 
June 1, 1849, to November 13, 1851, when 
Jerome Fuller was a]ipointed and presided 
until December 16, 1852. Henry Z. Ha\'ner 
was next appointed, but never presided at a 
term of court. William II. Welch was aj)- 
pointed April 7, 1853, and served until ilay 
24, 1858. 

David Cooper and Bradlej^ B. Meeker 
were the first associate justices, and served 
from June 1, 1849, until April 7, 1853. 
Their successors were Andrew G. Chatlield 
and Moses G. Sherburne, who retained the 
positions until April, 1857, and were fol- 
lowed by R. R. Nelson and Charles E. 
Flandrau, who served until the State officers 

The clerks of the territorial supreme court 
were : James K. Humphrey, Andrew J. Whit- 
ney and George AV. Prescott, in the order 
named. The reporters were : William IIol- 
linshead, Isaac Atwater, John B. Brisbin, M. 
E. Ames and Harvey Officer. 

Henry II. Sibley was the first delegate 
from the Territory to Congress, serving from 
January 15, 1849, to March 4, 1853. Henry 




M. Tiice was the second, serving- from De- 
cember 5, 1853, to March 4, 1S5T, when he 
was succeeded by W. W. Kingsbury, who 
qualified December 7, 1857, and whose term 
expired May 11, 1S58. 


The governors of the State of Minnesota, 
in tlieir order have been as follows: Henry 
II. Sibley, from May 2-i, 1858, to January 2, 
ISGO ; Alexander Eamsey, to Jidy 10, 1SC3 ; 
Henry A. Swift, to January 11, 186-1; 
Stephen Miller, during 1864-5; William E. 
Marsliall, during 1866-7-8-9 ; Horace Aus- 
tin, during 1870-1-2-3 ; Cushman K. Davis, 
during 1874-5 ; John S. Pillsbury, during 
1876-7-8-9-80-81 ; Lucius F. Hubbard, dur- 
ing 1882-3-4-5-6, and A. E. McGill, the 
present governor, who assumed the duties of 
the office January 5, 1887. 

The lieutenant governors since the organ- 
ization of the State have been as follows : 
William Ilolcomb, from May 24, 185S, to 
January 2, 1860 ; Ignatius Donnelly, to 
March 3, 1863 ; Henry A. Swift, to July 10, 
1863 ; Charles D. Sherwood, during 1S64-5 ; 
Thomas H. Armstrong, during 1866-7-8-9 ; 
William H. Yale, during 1870-1-2-3; Al- 
phonzo Barto, during 1874-5 ; James B. 
Wakefield, during 1876-7-8-9 ; C. A. Gill- 
man, during 1880-1-2-3-4-5-6, and A. E. 
Eice, who qualified January 4, 1887. 

The office of secretary of State has been 
filled successively by the following gen- 
tlemen : Francis Baasen, from May 24, 1858, 
to January 2, 1860 ; James II. Baker, to 
November 17, 1862; David Blakely, to Janu- 
aiy 8, 1866; Henry C. Eogers, during the 
years 1866-7-8-9 ; Hans Mattson, during 
1870-1 ; S. P. Jennison, during 1872-3-4-5 ; 
John S. Irgens, during 1876-7-8-9; Fred. 
Von Baumbach, during 1880-1-2-3-4-5-6, 
and Hans Mattson, during 1887-8. 

The State ti'easurers have been as follows : 
George W. Armstrong, from May 24, 1858, 

to January 2, 1860; Charles Scheffer, during 
1S60-1-2-3-4-5-6-7 ; Emil Munch, during 
1868-9-70-1 ; William Seeger, from January 
5, 1872. to February 7, 1873 ; Ed win W. Dyke, 
to January 7, 1876 ; AVilliani Pfaender, dur- 
ing 1876-7-8-9 ; Charles Kittelson, during 
1S80-1-2-3-4-5-6, and Joseph Bobleter, the 
present treasurer, who was elected for 

The auditors of State have been as fol- 
lows : W. F. Dunbar, from May 24, 1858, 
to January 1, 1861 ; Charles Mcllrath to 
January 13, 1873 ; O. P. Whitcomb, to Jan- 
uary 10, 1882, and AV. W. Brauen, who is 
the present incumbent of the office. 

The office of attorne}^ general has been 
filled as follows : Charles II. Berry, served 
from May 24, 1858, to January 2, 1860 ; Gor- 
don E. Cole, served during 18^60-1-2-3-4-5 ; 
William Colville, during 1866-7; F. E. E. 
Cornell, during 1808-9-70-1-2-3 ; George P. 
Wilson, during 1874-5-6-7-8-9 ; Charles M. 
Start, from January 10, 1880, to March 11, 
1881 ; W. J. Hahn, to January 5, 1887, and 
Moses E. Clapp, the present attorney general. 

The present board of railroad commission- 
ers is made up of Horace Austin, John L. 
Gibbs and George L. Becker. Those who 
have composed the board in the past were: 
A. J. Edgerton, W. E. Marshall, J. J. Ean- 
dall, J. H. Baker and S. S. Murdock. 

Edward D. Neill was the first superintend- 
ent of public instruction for Minnesota. He 
was appointed in March, 1860, and on the 
1st of July, 1861, was succeeded by B. F. 
Crary. From 1862 to 1867 the secretary of 
State was ex-qfficio superintendent, but on 
April 1, 1867, M. II. Dunnell was appointed 
superintendent, and served until August, 
1870, when he was succeeded by II. B. Wil- 
son. April 3, 1875, David Burt was ap- 
pointed superintendent, and retained the 
office until succeeded by the present incum- 
bent, D. L. Kiehl, who was appointed Sep- 
tember 1, 1881. 



The office of insurance commissioner has 
been held in turn by Tennock I'usey. A. II. 
McGill and Charles Shandi'ew ; the last 
named gentleman having been appointed 
.laiuuu'v t>, 1887, is the present commissioner. 

The commissioners of statistics have been 
as follows: J. A. Wheelock, Pennock Pusev, 
C. F. Solberg, J. B. Phillips, T. M. Metealf, 
J. P. Jacobson, F. Sneedorff, Oscar Malmros, 
A. F. Nordin, A'ictor Iljortsberg and Her- 
man Stockenstrom. 

The following is a list of the gentlemen 
who iiave lilled the office of adjutant-gen- 
eral : Alex. C. Jones, W. II. Acker, John B. 
Sanborn, Oscar Malmros, John Peller, H. P. 
Van Cleve, M. D. Flower, II. A. Castle, H. 
P. Van Cleve, A. C. Ilawley, C. M. McCar- 
thy and F. "W. Seeley. 


The first chief justice of the supreme court 
of the State was Lafayette Emmett, who 
was sworn in ]\[ay 2-t, 18.58, and served until 
January 10, 1805. Thomas Wilson suc- 
ceeded him and served until July 14, ISfiO, 
when he was succeeded bv James Gilfillan. 

Christopher G. Kipley was the next, holding 
the position from January 7, 1870, until 
April 7, lST-4, when he was followed by S. 
J. E. McMillan, who served until March 10, 
1875. At that time James Giltillan Ijecarae 
chief justice, and is the present incumbent. 

The following statements will show the 
associate justices, together with the date of 
qualification of each : Charles E. Flandiau 
antl Isaac Atwater served from May 24, 
1858, to July 6, 1864; S. J. E. McMillan 
from July 6, 1804, to April 7, 1874 ; Thomas 
Wilson from July 0, 1804. to January 10, 
18ti5 ; George B. Young from April 10, 
1874, to January 11, 1875 ; F. K. E. Cornell 
from January 11, 1875, to May 2.3, 1881, and 
Greenleaf Clark from March 14, 1881, to 
January 12, 1882. The present associate 
justices are John M. Berry, who first quali- 
fied January 10, 1865 ; D. A. Dickinson, 
since June 27, 1881 ; William Mitchell, since 
March 14, 1881, and C. E. Van(K'rbui'gh, 
since January 12, 1882. 

As to district courts, the State is now 
divided into thirteen districts. 




Senators. ThefirstUnitecl States 
Senatoi's from Minnesota were 
James Shields and Henry M. Rice, 
wiio took the oath of office May 
11, 1858. The former was suc- 
ceeded on March 4th, 1800, by 
Morton S. "Wilkinson, who served 
the full term. Daniel S. Norton 
was sworn in to succeed AVilkin- 
son, March 4, 18r)7, and died 
while in office, July 14, 1870. O. 
P. Stearns was appointed, and served out the 
few weeks left of the term. William Win- 
dom came next, and retained the office until 
March 12, 1881, when he was succeeded by 
A. J. Edgerton, who resigned, however, in 
October of the same j^ear, and William Win- 
dom was again chosen, serving until suc- 
ceeded by one of the present Senators, D. M. 
Sabin, March 4, 1883. 

Henry M. Rice, who was mentioned as a 
colleague of James Shields, served as United 
States Senator from May 11, 1858, to j\Iarch 
4, 1863, when Alexander Ramsey succeeded 
him, and retained the position until March 4, 
1875. S. J. R. McMillan became United 
States Senator on the day last named, and 
occupied the position for two full terms — 
twelve years — being succeeded March 4, 
1887, by Cushman K. Davis, one of the 
present Senators. 


The territorial delegates have already been 

spoken of. When the State of IMinnesota 
Avas organized, it was entitled to two repi'esent- 
atives in the House of Representatives of 
the United States. This state of affairs con- 
tinued until 1871, when a reapportionment 
was made, and the State was allowed three 
members of the House. At that time the 
State was divided into three congressional 
districts — ^No. 1, embracing the southern, 
No. 2 the central, and No. 3 the northern 
portion of the State. In 1881 another ap- 
portionment was made, by which the State 
secured five Representatives. This is the 
present status of the representation. The 
State is divided into five congressional dis- 
tricts, as follows : The first district includes 
Houston, Fillmore, Mower, Freeborn, Steele, 
Dodge, Olmsted, Winona and Wabasha 
counties ; the second district includes Fari- 
bault, Blue Earth, Waseca, Watonwan, Mar- 
tin, Cottonwood, Jackson, Murra\', Nobles, 
Rock, Pipestone, Lincoln, Lyon, Redwood, 
Brown, Nicollet, Yellow Medicine, Lac qui 
Parle, Sibley and Le Sueur counties ; the 
third district embraces Goodhue, Rice, Swift, 
Dakota, Scott, Carver, McLeod, Meeker, 
Kandij'ohi, Renville and Chippewa counties; 
the fourth district includes Washington, 
Ramsej^ Hennepin, Wright, Pine, Kanabec, 
Anoka, Chisago, Isanti and Sherburne coun- 
ties, and the fifth district includes Mille Lacs, 
Benton, Morrison, Stearns, Pope, Douglas, 
Stevens, Big Stone, Traverse, Grant, Todd, 




Crow Win^, Aitkin, Carlton, Wadena, Otter 
Tail, Wilkin, Cass, Becker, Clay, Polk, Bel- 
trami, Marshall, Hubbard, Kittson, Itasca, 
St. Louis, Lake and Cook counties. ^ 

The follow ing is a list of the various gen- 
tlemen who have represented Minnesota in 
the lower house of Congress, with the years 
during which tliey served. With one or two 
exceptions, the term of office began and 
closed March 4th. 

W. W. riieips, 1858-9 ; J. M. Cavenaugh, 
1858; William Windom, 1860-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8; 
Cyrus Aldrich, lS(iO-l-2; Ignatius Donnelly, 
lSC.4-5tj-T-8; M. S. Wilkinson, 1869-70; E. 
]\I. Wilson, 1869-70 ; John T. Averill, 1871-2- 
3-1; M. H. Dunnell, from 1S71 to 1883; II. 
B. Straight, 187-lr-5-6-7-S ; William S. King, 
1876; J. II. Stewart, 1878; Henry Poehler, 
I87'.i-S(); n. B. Straight, 1881-2-3-1-5-6; W. 
D. Washburn, 1879-80-1-2-3-1; Milo White, 
1883-4-5-6; J. B. Wakefield, 1883-4-5-6; 
Knute Nelson, I SS.3-4-.5-6-7-S ; J. B. GilfiUan, 
18S5-6; TlioiiKis Wilson, 1887-8; John Liud, 
1887-8 ; Jolin L. McDonald, 1887-8 ; Edmund 
Rice, 1887-8. 


In this connection we present a list of the 
counties of Minnesota, together with the 
date on which they were created by the tei'ri- 
torial or State Legislatures, viz.: 
Aitkiu, May 23, 1857, Marshall, February 25, 1879, 

Anoka, May 23, 1857, 
Bicker, March 18, 1858, 
Beltrami, F'bru'ry 28, 1866, 
Benton, October 27, 184'J, 
Big Stone. F'br'ry 20, 1862, 
Blue Earth, March 5, 1853, 
Brown, February 20, 1855, 
Carlton, May 23. 1857, 
Carver, February 20, 1855, 
Cass, September 1, 1851, 
Chippewa, F'br'ry 20, 1S(>2, 
Chisago, Septemberl, 1851, 
Clay, ."March 2, 1862, 
Cook, March !), 1874, 
Cottonwood, May 23, 18.57, 
Crow Wing, May 23, 18.57, 
Dakota, October 27, 1849, 
Dodge, February 20, 1855, 
Douglas, March 8. 1858, 
Faribault, F'br'ry 20, 1855, 
Fillmore, JIarch 5, 1853, 
Freeborn. F'br'ry, 20, 1855, 
Goodhue, JIarch 5, 1853, 
Crant, March 6, 1868, 
HennepiD, JIarch 6, 1852, 
Houston, Feb'ry 23, 1854, 
Hubbard, Fob'y 26, 1883, 
Isanti, February 13, 1857, 
Itasca. October 29, 1849, 
Jackson, May 23, 1857, 
Kanabec, March 13, 1858, 
Kandiyohi, March 20, 18.58, 
Kittson, February 25, 1879, 
Lac qui Parle, Kov. 3, 1871, 
Lake, March 1, 1856, 
Le Sueur, March 5, 1853, 
Lincoln, March 6,1873, 
Lyon, November 2, 1869, 
.UcLeod, March 1, 1856, 

Martin, May 23, 1857, 
Meeker, February 23, 1856, 
Millc Lacs, Jlay 23, 1857, 
Morrison, Febr'ry 25, 1858, 
Mower, February 20, 1855, 
Murray, Jlay 23, 1857, 
Nicollet, March 5, 18.53, 
Nobles, May 23, 1857, 
Norman, Nov'mb'r29, 1881. 
Olmsted, February 20, 1855. 
Otter Tail. March 18, 1858, 
Pine, March 31, 18.56, 
Pipestone, Jlay 23, 1857, 
Polk, .Tuly 20, 1858, 
Pope, February 20, 1863, 
Ramsey, October 27, 1849,- 
Redwood, February 6, 18G2, 
Renville, February 20, 18,55, 
Rice, March 5, 1853, 
Rock, JIarch 23, 1857, 
St. Louis, JIarch 1, 1856, 
Scott, JIarch 5. 1858, 
Sherburne, Feb'y 25, 1856 
Sibley, JIarch 5, 1853, 
Stearns, February 20, 1855, 
Steele, February 20, 1855, 
Stevens, February 20, 1860, 
Swift, JIarch 4, 1870, 
Todd, February 20, 1862, 
Travcrs, February 20, 1862, 
Wabasha, October 27, 1849, 
Wadena, July 11, 18.58, 
Waseca, February 27, 1857, 
Washington, Oct. 27, 1849, 
Watonwan, Nov. 6, 1860, 
Wilkin, JIarch 6, 1868, 
Winona, Febrviary 23, 1849, 
Wright, February 20, 1855, 
Yellow Jledicine, Novem- 
bers, 1871. 



^flRK Regions 
^ ofMinnesota 














^I^^M%-^^ T IS witli/vondcr und 
K>l*. jk-fH amazement tliat one 
contem])lates the re- 
sults of "Time's" 
wond er-wo rlc i n g 
liand. The rapid set- 
tlement, civilization 
and development of the North- 
west, within the memory of our 
children even, is the marvel of 
the age. This is especially true 
of that teri'itory which comes 
properly within the scope of 
this work, the renowned " Val- 
ley of the Red River of the 
North," and the no less far- 
famed " Park Regions of Min- 
nesota." It is, in one sense, scarcely neces- 
sar}'^ to descrd)e the teri-itory which this 
appellation covers, as it is, to the present 
generation, almost as significant and com- 
pletely descriptive as it would be to name 
a State; but as this work is compiled 
more especially for coming generations, our 
children and children's children, it would 
doubtless be wise to outline, in general, the 
area to which this appellation refers in our 

day.^ It is an established fact that as years 
roll by, and as decades bury former decades, 
the i-eputation of localities and the names 
which they bear ever shift and vary, accord- 
ing to the temperament or occupation of the 
people, the success of their undertakings, 
or as the discovery of new Eldorados bedims 
or lessens the brilliancy of former greatness. 
The writer distinctly remembers the time 
when the Genesee valley of the noble 
'■ Empire State " was the garden spot of the 
world, so far as wheat raising was concerned, 
and was supposed to be the only native 
home of the cereal ; but, through succeeding 
decades this has been entirely changed. The 
center of the wheat belt rapidly moved west- 
ward, stopping for a time in Ohio, then in 
Illinois, and finally to-day rests in the 
famous Valle}- of the Red River of the North 
and^the Park Regions of Minnesota. And 
who shall say where it will next land ? 

The Red River Valley embraces much of 
the finest country on the continent. It ex- 
tends from near the center of the Park 
Regions of Minnesota, west a short distance, 
and then north to the British possessions. 
The Park Regions of Minnesota can best be 




described as beginning at tlie Red Iliver and 
extending east and south to the valleys of 
the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers. The 
surface of the Red River Valley is made up 
almost wholly of rolling prairie land, diversi- 
fied with many groves, which have been set 
out by the thrifty agriculturists who have 
settled here. As you proceed northward the 
surface is more level and less inclined to be 
undulating. As a rule the drainage is excel- 
lent, but in some of the counties on the Min- 
nesota side artificial drainage is necessary to 
attain the highest returns from agricultural 
efforts. Of late years this matter has been 
agitated considerably, and many of the most 
prominent citizens in the valley have taken 
active steps to secure ageneral drainage sys- 
tem throughout the counties of Marshall, 
Polk, Norman, Clay and Wilkin in Minnesota. 
An important convention was held at Crooks- 
ton during the past 3'ear to take steps in 
regard to this matter, and this movement 
will jirove, as time rolls on, one of the most 
im|)ortant "mile posts in the history "of the 
country affected. This matter receives full 
attention in connection with the sketches of 
the prime movers in the woi'k, so it is un- 
necessary to refer to it further here. 
- The soil of the Red River Valley is a rich 
black loam, well adapted to the raising of all 
the cereals. Wheat is the banner crop, 
and the yields of this cereal have excited the 
wonder and admiration of the world. Other 
pi'oducts, however, do remarkably well, and, 
in later years, diversified farming has been 
ra])idly taking the place of exclusive wheat 
raising. Stock-raising, too, both native and 
blooded, is attracting much attention from 
the intelligent class of farmers who have 
found homes here. This is a profitable 
branch of industrj^ all through the West, as 
the pasturage of rich, nutritious native 
grasses is unlimited. 




deal of what has ah-eady been 
applies to the Park Regions of 

Minnesota. There is, however, one material 
difference. The Park Regions are made np 
of interspersed prairie and timber land, and 
are dotted and studded with thousands of 
beautiful lakes, sheets of pure, limpid 
water, bordered by sandy beaches, and 
hemmed in bv magnificent jjroves of native 
timber. These lakes, almost without excep- 
tion, abound with fish, while their shores and 
the adjacent prairie and groves are the re- 
sorts of game of every description. This 
portion of Minnesota is the " home of the 
sportsman and hunter," and each year 
thousands of pleasure seekers from all 
parts of the United States visit the fa- 
mous summer resorts of this region, to fish 
in the clear depths of the beautiful lakes, to 
hunt, or for rest and recreation. The cli- 
mate of the Red River Valley and Park Re- 
gions is excellent. The clear, dry atmos- 
phere and pure, fresh air from off the count- 
less miles of prairie have justly given the 
Northwest the reputation of being among 
the most health\' portions of the globe. 

The very first settlements in the Red River 
Valley were made many years ago. Indeed, 
at a very early day the white man had tra- 
versed this region, hunting and trapping. 
Trading posts for commerce with the Indians 
were maintained, and the famous Hudson 
Bay Fur Company early in the history of 
the Northwest had planted their outposts 
throughout various jiortions of Minnesota 
and North Dakota. These were the fore- 
runners of civilization, but it is impossible 
at this late date to give with any degree of 
accurac}' the names of those who thus 
planted the seeds of settlement in the great 
Northwest. Names and dales have alike 
been lost in the mist of years, the parties 
themselves not knowing how important a 
part they were playing in the history of the 
race. These first pioneers were a hardy set, 
following a wild life of adventure and dan- 
ger far from the haunts of civilization. Trap- 



ping, hunting and trading with the abori- 
gines, they lived nomadic lives; and while 
they accomplished nothing in the way of 
material improvement, they early dissemin- 
ated among the eastern settlements in Can- 
ada itnd the United States descriptions of 
the wondrous beauty, fertility and product- 
iveness of this region. Early in tin; present 
century a colon}' called the Selkirk settle- 
ment was established on the Red River, 
north of the British line, and for a time 
there was some travel and freighting which 
traversed the Park Regions and ^'^alley 
into the United States and to the 
settlements at Fort Snelling and Prairie 
du Chien. And one historian of high reputa- 
tion declares that they ran boats between 
these points via the Minnesota river and 
Red River of the North, getting the boats" 
from one river to the other by means of 

hisThe abundance of game which infested 
this region also drew hunters and trappers 
to its beautiful lakes, prairie and woodlands; 
and as one historian truly writes, "The In- 
dians had for ages made this region a hunt- 
ing and trapping ground; and coukl they 
speak each tree could no doubt tell some 
wild tale of Indian adventure." Wild gan;ie 
of almost every description, buffalo, bear, elk, 
deer, etc., abounded in those early times, and 
many of these animals have only recently be- 
come a thing of the ]mst. Hunting and 
trapping was vei\y profitable. Thus it was 
that for many years before the first actual 
settlement, the Park Regions of Minnesota 
and the Red River Valley, both in Dakota 
and Minnesota, were frequently trod l)y the 
foot of the white man. During the year 
1856 there was a great tide of immigration 
from the East toward the setting sun, and a 
great many whites passed through the Park 
Regions and Red River Valley. A number 
of pioneers had already found homes in the 
Park Regions, and all portions of Minnesota 

were materially benefited, although but few 
found their way into the northwestern part 
of that State. The tide of immigration and 
travel continued until the panic of 1857, 
when the influx of settlei's almost completely 
ceased. Times were very hard all through 
the countr3%but especially was this condition 
of affairs felt in the Northwest. 

Following close upon the financial panic, 
came the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, 
and in August, 1862, was inaugurated the 
terrible Sioux Indi.m outbreak, which 
almost depopulated the whole of the country 
lying northwest of the capital of Minnesota, 
" and crimsoned the fair soil with the blood 
of so many men, women and children. 
Fiendish atrocity, lilood-curdling cruelty 
and red-handed murder ran riot, and the 
growth of the Northwest received a set-back 
from which it took many years to fully 
recover. After the beginning of this ter- 
rible and fiendish warfare, the frontier line 
receded eastward, and the Red River Valley 
and Park Regions were again left in the 
midst of the hostile Indian country, and 
for many months few, if any, white men 
trod this soil. After the settlements in the 
eastern part of Minnesota had partially 
recovered from the first rude shock of the 
outbreak, which fell like a thunderbolt from 
a clear sky, steps were at once taken to 
defend the exposed settlements, to conquer 
the redskins and drive them back. At that 
time the Civil War was in progress, and a 
majority of the able-bodied settlers were in 
the South, fighting for the flag and the 
Union. It therefore required some time to 
muster ti'oops and place them in advanta- 
geous positions to cope with the wily red foe, 
and, in the meantime, the Indians carried 
on their brutal warfare, murdering men, 
women and children, and burning as the}' 

After considerable delay, the Indians were 
driven back ; soldiers were placed all 



tlirongli this northwestern country, and the 
|)rairies of a good share of the Park Re- 
gions and Red River Valley were constantly 
pati-olled by the companies of brave sol- 
diers who were detailed for this service. In 
time the redskins were subdued, although 
for a number of years the settlers on the 
extreme frontier lived in a constant state of 
fear and anxiety, not knowing at what time 
the massacre might break out afresh. 
Through these causes soldiers were kept on 
the frontier for some time, and many of the 
present well-to-do and ])rominent citizens 
who are mentioned in this Album selected 
claims while here in the service. When 
peace was again established on the border, 
travel between the settknuents and the 
frontier was again resumed, and the "fron- 
tier line" moved westward very rapidly. 

Immediately after the close of the war, 
all of the Northwest began a very rapid 
development, and all ])ortions of the Tark 
Regions and Red River Yallev received set- 
tlers. Riiilroads began reaching out and in- 
terlocking through the great Northwest, and 
this seems to have been the starting point of 
such an era of rapid development as has 
been the marvel of the times. It has con- 
tinued to the present day. The Northern 
Pacific and the St. Paul & Pacific — now 
the Manitoba system — both reached the 
Red River early in the seventies. After that, 
thousands upon thousands of settlers crowded 
into this favored region, selected farms and 
began improvements. Cities and villages 
have sprung u[) as if by magic, and already, 
before two decades have passed, all kinds of 
material improvement will compare favor- 
ably with any part of the United States. 
Sui)sta,ntial farms were opened all over the 
Noi'thwest ; churches and school-houses soon 
dotted the prairie in all directions, and the 
waving fields of golden grain bespoke the 
wonderful prosperity which prevailed. The 
financial panic of 1S73 caused a slight de- 

pression here, but, as the settlement was 
comparatively recent, and the pioneers an 
excellent class of men, the drawback was 
not a serious one, and the tide of immigra- 
tion continued unabated. The yields of 
crops were enormous, and the prospects in 
every branch of industry or trade were flat- 

Nothing has since occurred to seriouslv in- 
terrupt the growth, development and pros- 
perity. Like all new countries, there have 
been years of slight depression, and an oc- 
casional failure of crops, but they are the ex- 
ception to what has been the rule in the his- 
tory of the Northwest. And the native 
energy and enterprise of the inhabitants 
soon overcame such obstacles, and as success 
has always followesi a reverse, the onward 
march of growth, civilization and develop- 
ment has been resumeil with more satisfac- 
torv results tium before. 

Contemplate the changes that have been 
made iiere, and one can not but wonder at 
the marvelous i-esults that have been accom- 
plished within so short a period of time. 
Turn back, as it were, the leaves of Time's 
great book to a period only a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago, and what a contrast. Then ail was 
as nature had formed it. The broad and roll- 
ing prairies were as green then as now; in 
summer a perfect paradise of verdure, with 
its variegated hues of flowers and vegetation; 
in winter a dreary snow mantled desert. 
Selected as a caui])ing and hunting gi'ound 
by the Sioux, with that wonderful apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful which nature has made 
an instinct in the savage, scarcely a sign of 
habitation or civilization existed. It was the 
home of the red man, and the freedom of 
bird and beast reigned supreme. To-day 
what a contrast ! Cities and villages, the 
peer of those which have been centuries 
building, have sprung up as if by magic ; civ- 
ilization and progress are apparent on every 
hand ; comfortable and elegant dwellings are 



everywhere visible ; schools and churches 
adorn tlie former bairen prairie ; and the re- 
sult is a prosperous land, filled with an en- 
terpi'ising, intelligent and happy peo])le, and 
the iron horse, swifter than the nimble deer, 
treads the pathway so recenth' the trail of 
the red man. 

The early settlers in this region, as in all 
other localities in pioneer daj's, experienced 
many hardships and disadvantages, but. as a 
rule, they are to-day in comfortable circum- 
stances, and have been well repaid for their 
industry, tenacity and enterprise. The ex- 
cellent class of improvements attest their 
general prosperity. Some of the most 
magnificent farms on the continent are 
found in this region — some devoted to ex- 
clusive grain raising, others to mixed farm- 
ing and stock-raising. No portion of the 
country is better adapted to stock-raising 
and general farming, and the intelligent 
class of farmers who have located here de- 
vote much of their attention to these lines, 
although wheat raising as ^-et is the leading- 
occupation of the husbandmen. 

It has been the endeavor in this volume to 
gather and place in enduring form a history 
of the lives of those Avho have aided in the 
growth and development of the Park Regions 
of Minnesota and the Yallev of the iled 

River of the North; to preserve the lives of 
the old settlers and their recollection of 
pioneer days, together with biographies of 
the pi-ominent 'and representative citizens 
who are to-day or have in the past been 
identified \\ith business interests or the 
growth and develojuuent of the various 
localities. Years roll by so rapidly tiuit 
time is already fast thinning the ranks of 
those who were the forerunners of civiliza- 
tion in the Northwest, and it will be but few 
years until our children and our children's 
children will succeed the present generation, 
and take the places of those who are now 
the leading factors. It is for the purpose of 
gathering the history of the life work of the 
present citizens before it is too late, and 
placing it in an enduring form, that this 
Album has been compiled, as an heirloom 
to posterity ; so that when, in years to come, 
some futui'e historian takes up the pen to 
write of the Northwest and its past, he will 
not have to depend upon the uncertainty of 
tradition, but will have in authentic and 
enduring form a review of the lives of those 
who took part and aided in the early prog- 
ress and development of the Yallev or the 
Red Rivee of the Noeth and the Paek 
Regions of Minnesota. 

^~W^2\ ^^. 


^-^^^ri:^^^^-"^^ # "^^. 




BIO G- 1? p rn IC pii «=^^ 

It is doubtful wiietlier, in llie 
'amous Rod Iliver Valley, there is 
a more worthy or distmguishecl subject for 
the pen of tlie biographer than the gentle- 
man whose name heads our ])resent article. 
The present representative in congress from 
the Fifth District, and a man who has for 
years I)een prominent in State affairs, besides 
having, since pioneer days, been closely iden- 
titied with the growth and development 
i)f the Tied River Yalley, his name is 
indissolubly associated with the history of 
that ])ortion of Minnesota of which this vol- 
ume ti'eats. A man who is adverse to detail- 
ing his ]iei'sonal history or the part which 
ho has taken in public affairs, it is but just 
to say that the writer has depended almost 
wholly upon what is pul)lic knowledge and 
record for the facts incor]iorated in the pres- 
ent sketch. 

Mr. Comstock was born in Penobscot 
county, Maine, on the 9th of May, lS-i2, and 
is a son of Hon. James M. and Louisa M. (Gill- 
man) Comstock, who were natives, respect- 
ively of Penobscot and Waldo counties, in 
the same State, and resided in the town of 

Passadunikeag. The father, James M. Com- 
stock, was a prominent man in the locality 
in which he lived ; represented his district in 
the legislature, was chairman of the board 
of selectmen, and otherwise took a leading- 
part in the affairs of his home county. He 
was a man of even temperament, and a 
large man physically. Among his neighbors 
he wielded a large influence, and his advice 
and counsel were widely i'es])ected. He was 
a republican in political matters, from the 
formation of that pai'ty until his death, 
which occurred June 3, 1S85. His widow 
still lives in her native State. James M. 
Comstock and wife became the parents of 
four children, as follows: Solomon G., 
William G., Edgar F. and Ada L., now Mrs. 
J. W. Smart. 

The grandparents of Solomon G. Com- 
stock on his father's side were Solomon 
Comstock, a native of Smithfield, llhode 
Island, and his wife Rebecca (Robinson) 
Comstock, who was born at St. George, 
Maine. To carry the genealogy back one 
de'-i'ce farther, the father of Solomon Com- 
stock was Israel Comstock. who was raised 
in Rhode Island, and who was a federalist 




aiul an officer during the Revolutionary 

On tlie maternal side the lineage of ISolo- 
mon Ct. Comstock runs back to the old and 
famous Gillman family of New Hampshire. 
His mother's j)arents were Jficholas and 
Ruth (Coombs) Gillman, who were natives 
of Gillmanton, New Hampshire, and Isles- 
borough, Maine, respectively. 

Solomon G. Comstock, who is our present 
subject, was raised upon the home farm, and 
taught to do his full share of the manual 
labor connected with carrying on the farm, 
and also aided his father in the lumber busi- 
ness. He remained at home until he was 
twenty-one years of age, attending the com- 
mon schools in the meantime. He then 
attended the Wesleyan Seminary and the 
Hampden and Corinth Academies. In 1S68 
he came West, and took a course in the law 
department of the Michigan University at 
Ann Arbor. Previous to this, before leaving 
his native State, he had studied law in the 
office of Judge Humphrey, at Bangor, Maine. 
In 1869 he was admitted to the bar at 
Omaha, Nebraska, and practiced there for a 
short time. He then went to Minneapolis, 
where, for a few months, he studied law in 
the office of D. A. Secombe. About this 
time the settlement of the Red River Yalley 
was beginning to set in, and he joined the 
throng. He arrived in Moorhead in the 
fall of 1871, and that place has since been 
his home. He was jioor, but full of vigor, 
hope and talents. He opened a law office, 
and was shortly appointed by the board 
of countv commissioners county attorney, 
which office he held, and performed its 
exacting duties with great ability, honesty 
and success for six years. He dropped out 
of active practice of law in 1881, his real 
estate business and legislative duties taking 
up his entire time. In 1880 he formed a 
partnership with A. A. White, Esq., to deal 
in real estate and town sites, and the firm has 

met with unqualified success. He also car- 
ries on fanning operations (juite extensively. 

Mr. Comstock's legislative service com- 
menced in 1ST5, he having been returned by 
the people to the lower house of the Minne- 
sota legislature, and he has been elected to 
the liouse or senate at every election since 
except in 1878, when he declined to run. 
He served in the house until 1883, when he 
was promoted to the senate, in which body 
he served three sessions, viz.: 1883, 1885 and 
1887, and had the session of 1889 before 
him when elected to conjiress. He earlv 
took a leading position in the house, and 
was invariablv connected with prominent 
committees, and, as a matter of course, i)i'om- 
inently identified with the most vital legis- 
lative questions and enactments of the day. 
At the session of 1887 he was chairman of 
the judiciary committee of the senate — the 
leading committee. He was also chairman 
of the temperance committee, and was a 
member of the railroad, normal school and 
public school committees. He assisted 
largel}' in forming the railroad bill that wixs 
passed in 1885. In 1882 he was made by 
his friends a candidate for attorney -general, 
and only lacked three votes of nomination. 
In 1884 he was made a candidate for lieuten- 
ant-governoi', but made no active canvass for 
the place; he has frequently been men- 
tioned for governor. In the fall of 1888 he 
was elected member of congress from the 
Fifth District of Minnesota, and at present 
fills that position. His majority in the dis- 
trict was 7,519. 

Mr. Comstock has always taken an active 
and leading part in all public affairs of the 
locality in which he lives, and every move or 
enterprise calculated to benefit his town or 
region has always received his active sup- 
port and cooperation. A warm friend of 
education, it was he who introduced the bill 
locating the normal school at Moorhead and 
securing lai'ge appropriations for carrying 



on the work, and lie donated six acres of 
valuable city property for the site. In fact, 
everything in the way of developing the re- 
sources of Clay and adjoining counties — 
such projects as building churches, schools, 
or securing factories and railroads — every 
worthy project, has always been aided by 
his enterprise and liberality. 

Mr. Comstock was mai-ried in May, 1874, 
to Miss Sarah Ball, of Minneapolis, and 
they are the parents of three children — Ada 
L., Jessie M. and George M. Mrs. Corn- 
stock is a daughter of Joseph and Sarah 
(Haylet) Ball, of Wright county, Minnesota. 

JL''^ the most prominent members of the 
bar of Polk county, Minnesota, <i resident of 
Crookston, has been largely identified with 
the public life of this portion of the State, 
and has been christened by the St. Paul pa- 
pers " the tall Sycamore of the Northwest.'' 
He is a man of State-wide reputation. 

Mr. Steenerson first saw the light in Dane 
county, Wisconsin, June 30, 1852, and is the 
son of Steener and Betse}' (Roholt) Knute- 
son. His fathei', who was a native of Nor- 
way, removed with his family, in 1853, to 
Houston county, Minnesota, where they 
were among the very earliest settlers. Tak- 
ing up a claim there, he made his home 
there until 1875, when he came to Polk 
county, then on the frontier of civilization, 
and took up a claim on section 30, of the 
town of Vineland, brought it into cultiva- 
tion and made it into a fine farm. There he 
made his home until the day of his death, in 
October, ISSl. His widow still resides on 
the homestead. 

The subject of our sketch was reared upon 
his father's farm, and received his early edu- 
cation in the rough log-cabin school-houses 
of the period, in Houston county, and spent 

]iart of the time in assisting his parents in 
the arduous duties devolving upon all who 
" till the soil and turn the unwilling glebe." 
After two years spent in the graded 
schools of Rushford, Mr.Steenerson, at the age 
of seventeen, essayed school teaching in the 
southern part of the State, and followed the 
life of a pedagogue for several years, still as- 
sisting his father on the farm in the interim. 
Being dissatisfied with the limited capabili- 
ties of that profession, and possessing a 
large share of natural energy of character, 
he desired a larger field for action. In 
1875, in company with a gentleman, O. Pe- 
terson, he made a trip to the south shore of 
Lake Superior, where, as partners, they took 
a contract to grade a certain portion of the 
railroads then lieing built in that part of the 
country. On the completion of their labors, 
they found that they had made a good fair 
profit, Init had some difficult}' in obtaining 
their money, that being the time of the 
financial crisis that virtually stojtped all pub- 
lic as well as private improvement. This 
finally being settled, the same year Mr. 
Steenerson entered the office of Greenman & 
Abbey, attorneys and agents of the Conti- 
nental Insurance Company, of Austin, Min- 
nesota, soliciting for them in the sum- 
mer and spending the winter months in 
their ofiice, engaged in the study of law, 
he having a natural bent toward that 
learned profession. He remained with 
that company until the fall of 1877, when, 
going to Chicago, he entered the Union Law 
College, and devoted his entire and unwearied 
attention to the study of the principles and 
practice of that profession with excellent re- 
sults. He remained in that institution until 
June 6, 1878, when he was admitted to the 
bar at a term of the Supreme Court of Illi- 
nois, after which he returned to Minnesota, 
and that fall opened a law ofiice at Lanes- 
boro, Fillmore county. In the autumn of 
1879, in search of a newer locality, he came 



to the Red River Valley, and, after spending 
a week in Crookston, decided to settle there, 
beinfr satisfied with the outlook for the fut- 
ure prosperity of that place. Accordingly, 
early in the spring of 1880, he came to this 
section of the country, leaving Lanesboro on 
the 0th of April. Siiortly after his ai-rival 
Mr. Steenerson opened and established him- 
self in the })ractice, and, by unwearied assi- 
duity and diligence in the interests of his 
numerous clients, has brought himself into 
prominence as a talented anil competent 
member of tlie bar. 

But it is in his public career inthis section 
that Mr. Steenerson is most widely known. 
At the fall election of ISSO lie was chosen 
county attorney on an independent ticket, 
and served one term. In the fall of 18S2, 
being nominated by the republican conven- 
tion for the office of State senator, he was 
elected with a liandsome majority, and 
graced the halls of tiie twenty-third and 
twenty -fourth sessions. During his term of 
office, he was among the most active and in- 
fluential members, and ably rejiresented his 
constituents. His ability and cleai'-headed 
judgment made iiim a favorite among his 
fellow senators. -iuid his usefulness was be- 
yond compare, lie has always been closeh' 
identified with the re])u1)lican party, and 
was chosen one of the delegates from this 
district to the national republican conven- 
tion at Chicago, in 1884, wiiich nominated 
James G. Blaine for the presidency, and at 
the convention of 1888, which placed in nom- 
ination for the highest office in the gift of the 
people the ])i'esent president, Benjamin Ilai*- 
rison. In both of these asseuUjlages Mr. 
Steenerson bore a ])roniinent and admirable 
])art. At the State convention, at St. Paul, 
in September, 1888, he was also present as a 
delegate, and made the speech placing in 
nomination for governor the name of Hon. 
W. R. Merriam, whicli was applauded to 
tlie echo, says the Pioneer Press. 

In the fall of 1887 Mr. Steenerson was 
chosen city attorney by the qualified voters 
of Crookston, who appreciate his probity 
and talents, and in August, 1888, was 
elected a member of the city council. He is, 
aiso, an active and zealous member of the 
city board of education, all of which posi- 
tions he fills, or has filled, to the utmost sat- 
isfaction of all concerned. 

Tlie subject of this personal menujir was 
united in marriage November 18, 1878, with 
Miss Mary Fjaagesund, a native of Norway, 
and daughter of Cliristopher and Mary 
Fjaagesund. By this union their heartli 
has been brightened by the birth of four 
children, only two of whom are living — 
Clara and Benjamin. 

Mr. Steenerson is socially connected with 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and 
religiously with the Evangelical Lutheran 


>^f ON. FRED VON BAUMBACH, ex-sec- 
JL'^^IlL retary of state of ]\Iinnesota, is the 
present auditor of Douglas county, Minne- 
sota. He is a native of Ilessen-Cassel, Ger- 
many, and was born August 30, 1838. 
His parents were I-ewis and Minnie 
(Schenck)jY()n Baumbach. and were natives 
of the same ])lace. The father was a very 
prominent man in Germany, l)eing a mem- 
ber of the German parliament in 1848, and 
in the revolution of 1848 was so prominent 
that he was forced to abandon his home for 
the time being. He was one of the wealth}', 
pi'ominent men of Germany. In 1849 he 
came to America, settling in Ohio, where he 
remained five years. Here he turned his 
attention to farming. In 1854 he came to 
Milwaukee, wliere ho held the office of Ger- 
man consul until 188:2. He died in Milwau- 
kee in 1884; tlie mother died in 1870. This 
family numbers six children : Earnest, now 



a capitalist of Milwaulcee, Wisconsin ; Moritz, 
a meniber of the Merchants' Exchange Bank 
of the same city ; William, also a capitalist ; 
Charles, a wholesale druggist of Milwaukee ; 
Fred, and Klotilde, now Mrs. Von Kalten- 
born, of Milwaukee. 

The subject of this sketch spent his 
younger days in school, while his parents 
resided in Ohio. When the family removed 
to Milwaukee he was employed for a time 
as a clerk in a retail house. He then was 
appointed deputy city treasurer, which office 
he held for three years. At the end of this 
period he took a trip to Texas. This Avas in 
1860, and he returned in 1861. On the 
breaking out of the Rebellion he served in 
the Fifth Wisconsin Regiment, Com]mn\' C, 
as a private. He rose to the rank of second 
lieutenant in 1862, and later in the same 
year received acomnnssion as first lieutenant, 
which office he held until 1863, when he was 
commissioned captain of Company K, of 
the Thirty-Fifth Wisconsin Regiment. He 
I'eceived a major's commission in September, 
1865, and in March, 1866, was mustered out 
under that title. Mr. Von Baumbach saw 
much severe service during the Rebellion. 
He was in the following engagements : 
Battle of Yorktown, AVilliamsburg, seven 
day's battle at Richmond, second battle of 
Bull Run, Antietam, the battle of Fi'edericks- 
burg, the siege of Mobile, and in many 
smaller battles and skirmishes. After be- 
ing mustered out of service, he returned to 
Wisconsin and settled in Fond du Lac, 
where he engaged in the drug business. In 
1867 he was burned out, and at this time he 
moved to Douglas county, Minnesota. Hefirst 
settled near Brandon, where he took a home- 
stead of 160 acres. Soon after, he purchased 
160 acres more adjoining his homestead, 
all of which land he improved, living thereon 
until March, 1873, when he was elected 
, county auditor. In 1879 he qualified as 
secretary of state of the State of Minnesota, 

which office he held for seven years. Then, 
on account of the sickness of the county 
auditor of Douglas county, after he returned 
to Douglas county, he took charge of that 
office. In the fall of 1888 he was elected 
county auditor, which ])osition he now holds. 
Mr. Von Baumljacli has held numerous 
important positions in the government of the 
respective towns in which he has lived 
and also in the State. He was town clerk 
at Brandon, and is now a member of the 
board of education of the city of Alexandria, 
Minnesota. In 1875 Mr. Von Baumbach 
purchased a farm adjoining the city of Alex- 
andria, which he has been conducting since 
that date. He is also interested in the drug 
business at Alexandria, under the firm name 
of Von Baumbach A: Morisse. He is a stock- 
holder in the First National Bank, and also 
owns stock in the furniture manufacturine: 
company of Alexandria. 

Mr. Von Baumbach entered the state of 
matrimony in 1863, in which year he was 
married to Miss Sarah Decker, of Oconomo- 
woc, Wisconsin, daughter of Talman Decker. 
Mr. and Mrs. Von Baumbach have two 
adopted children — Minnie and Jacob. 

Mr. Von Baumbach is a stanch repub- 
lican in politics, and while he has resided in 
Minnesota has been thoroughly identified 
with the principles of the republican party, 
and has at all times been one of the leaders 
in its councils. He is a member of the 
Masonic and I. O. 0. F. fraternities, as well 
as the Grand Army of the Republic and the 
Loyal Legion of Ilonoi'. He is one of the 
solid business men of Alexandria, and is 
prominent in all matters that pertain to the 
financial welfare of this city. 

^^DMLIND M. WALSH. Prominent 
Xi^^ among the first pioneers of Crookston, 
Minnesota, and representative citizens of 
Polk county is the present clerk of court, Mr. 

1 62 


Walsh. In June, 1872, he came to this 
phice, and being favorably impressed by its 
lofution and evident ])roiiiise, embarked in 
business, opening a tinsmith's shop. At 
that ])eriod Crookston was as yet in embryo, 
the business of the place being represented 
by the I'ailroad contractors' store, two saloons 
and a boarding-house, all of which, like those 
of early days in California, were kept in tents. 
Mr. Walsh priicui'ing some lumber at (ii'and 
Forks, hauled it to Crookston with the aid of 
an ox-team. With this material he put up a 
fair edifice, one of the first permanent struct- 
ures in the j)lace, some two or three others 
being erected about the same time. 

Mr. Walsh remained in the tinner's busi- 
ness until the spring of 1873, when, forming 
a copartnership with William Iloss, and 
purchasing the general merchandise stock 
and building of Bruns »fe Finkie, put the two 
store buildings together, and opened up in 
the general merchandise, hardware and tin 
business. Although the track was laid to 
the town during the summer, trains were not 
run much before the frosts of early winter 
came, and when the ice king had bound up 
the river in his frigid chain, and boats could 
no longer ply upon it, business being but 
light, all traffic over the line was susjiended 
for the winter. The merchants of Crookston 
were then com]ieiled to get their freight 
from Glvndon the best way tliey could. 
Early in the winter they fitted up a, Hat car 
witli mast and sail, witii wiiicii tliey ran over 
the road and with which they could curry their 
o-oods from tiie teiiuination of tiie road to 
Crookston. When tiie snow came, sledges 
drawn l>y oxen oi' dogs replaced tiieir car- 
vacht. The merchants of the i)lace laijored 
under these disadvantages every winter un- 
til 1875, when the railioad was operated 
more regularly. 

The subject of our sketch was engaged in 
Inisiness with Mr. lioss until 1880, and then 
purchased the interest of the latter, who re- 

tired, lie carried on the store until 1884r, 
when lie sold out, since which time he has de- 
voted his entire attention to his official duties 
and the management of his ])ersonal estate. 
Mr. Walsh, who is one of the most popular 
men in the community, has l)een trusted for 

j many years by the people in one of the pub- 
lic offices. He was the first ])ostmaster in 

I the village of Crookston, having been ap- 
pointed to that i)osition in 1872, and held it 
for twelve consecutive years. When the 
county then embracing all the territory now 
known as Polk and Xornian counties was 

! organized in the fall of 1872. Mr. Walsh be- 

I came auditor, and filled that responsible ])Ost 

i foi- thi-ee years. In 188G he was elected by 
the people of the county to the office of 
clerk of the district court, and is the re- 
spected incumbent of that office. When 
Crookston was incorporated, in 187S, Mr. 
AValsh was chosen one of the lii'st council, 
and in 1SS5 was elected mayor. 

The subject of this memoir was born in 
Essex count}', New York, March 2, 1851, 
and is the son of Thomas and Eleanor Walsh. 
In 1857, when he was but six years of age, 
his parents removed to Minnesota and located 
at Flenderson, Sibley county. His father 

; remained in that town, quietly pursuing his 
ci'aft, until the breaking out of the Civil War, 
when "the tramp of marching millions 
echoed through the land, '"when, imhuetl with 
a strong s|)irit of patriotism, lie enlisted and 
served some four years. After tlie close of 
hostilities he returned to Henderson and en- 
tei'etl into the mei'cantile trade, and was ap 
pointed postmaster. In thespringof ISTohe 
removed to (Trand Forks, where he j>ut up and 
oi)erated a saw mill andastoi'e, which he sold 
out to tiie Hudson I!ay Company in 1875 
He served as register of deeds of Ci-and 

j Forks county for five years, and still lives 
there, enjoying, in his declinitig years, the 
fruits of a life spent in industry and honor- 
able labor. 



Edmund M. Walsh grew to manliood in 
Siblev county, enjoying tiie usual facilities 
for education, and remained with his ])arents 
until the date of the latter's removal to 
Grand Forks. lietookchargeofand wounduj) 
liis father's business in Henderson, and then 
started out in life for himself. His only capital 
at the time was about ^30, twenty of which 
he paid for railroad fare to where the track 
was then laid in Grant county, from which 
point he walked to Grand Forks. After a 
week's sojourn there, he went to Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, where he was employed at his 
trade, which was that of a tinsmith, until the 
following spring, •when he came to Crookston, 
as above related. 

Since his advent here Mr. Walsh has been 
noted as one of the most successful business 
men of the place, owing entirely to his dili- 
gence, energy and tact. Starting in life 
there with comparatively nothing, he has, 
by his own exertions, succeeded in accumula- 
ting a comfortable competence. He is the 
owner, at present, of some 1,00( t acres of good, 
arable farm land, 400 of which is under cul- 
tivation, besides real estate in the city to the 
value of !?1U,UOO. He is one of the promi- 
nent members of the Masonic fraternity, be- 
ing in good standing in Crookston lodge, No. 
141, A. F. it A. M.; Pierson Chapter, No. 
40, R. A. M.; and Crookston Commandery, 
No. 20, K. T., in all of which he has office. 

Mr. Walsh was married in November, 
1874, to ]\[iss Emma Barrett, of Crookston, 
and they are the parents of five children, 
namely — William M., George H., Ella M., 
Edward and Clifford. 



LOF J. SWENSON, of Plerman, Grant 
count}', Minnesota, is a dealer in gen- 
eral merchandise, and one of the success- 
ful and prominent Inisiness men of the Park 

Regions, and as such well deserves notice 
in this Album. Born in Sweden, he comes 
of that sturdy nationality which has fur- 
nished Minnesota and Dakota with so many 
of its most successful and valuable citizens, a 
nation proverbial for their industry, frugality 
and integrity. He first saw the light on the 
12th of January, 1851, in Vermland, a province 
or county of his native kingdom. Plis parents, 
Nils and Johanna (Olson) Swenson, came 
with their family to the United States in 
1868, and settled in Douglas county, Minne- 
sota, where the mother died. The father 
died in the Black Hills. Nils Swenson and 
wife were the parents of eight children, one 
of whom died when ten years of age. Their 
names were — Olof J., Maria, Johanna, 
Ililnia, Swen, So])hia, Anna and Nils. Olof 
J. Swenson was reared amid the picturesque 
hills and vallevs of his fatherland, imbibing- 
those principles of integrity which charac- 
terize the race from which he springs. Re- 
ceiving a common education up to the time 
he was seventeen, he then, until he was 
twenty-one, assisted his father in carrying 
on the home farm, and came to the United 
States with the family in 1868. After farm- 
ing for several years in Douglas county, Min- 
nesota, he then went to tiie Black Hills. 
Dakota Territory, where he was employed 
at prospecting and various kinds of labor 
for thirteen months. At the expiration of 
that time he returned to Douglas countv, 
Minnesota, and in 1S71> went to Herman, in 
Grant county, where he has since remained. 
For several years he clerked in the store of 
J. K. Van Doren, and then established a 
bilhard'halland fruit and confectionery store, 
which he conducted for about two 3'ears. 
He next embarked in the general mercantile 
trade, in companv with Gustof Rudberg and 
P. F. Nordbv, but two vears later he bou2:ht 
out theinterestof his associates and has since 
conducted the business alone. He carries a 
large and well assorted stock of goods, and 

1 64 


his genial and honorable manner of doing 
business iiave earned him a steady and ever 
increasing trade. He has always taken an 
active interest in. all matters of a public 
nature, has held various local offices, and 
every enterprise of a public nature calculated 
to benefit either his town or county always 
receives his active support and coopera- 

Mr. Swenson was married in June, 1882, 
to Miss Kose Brown, a native of New York, 
and their union lias been blessed by the 
birth of two children— Cleveland A¥. and 
Eugene W. 

In political matters our subject affiliates 
witii the republican party. 



^3# ILLIAM P. LONG, a i^'oniinont 
IfePaiif and successful merchant of the 
Park Eegions, is a resident of the village of 
Osakis, Douglas county, Minnesota, where 
he is engaged in the general merchandising 
business, in partnership with II. Flore, the 
linn name being Long & Flore. Mr. Long 
is a native of Illinois, born in Pike county, 
on the 23d day of February, 1842, and is 
the son of William and Mary (Gose) Long, 
natives of the State of Virginia. The\' were 
married in that State and moved to Pike 
county, Illinois, in about 1S3S. The father 
of the present subject was a farmer through 
life, and died in the State of Illinois in 1847. 
The Hujther of our subject was again mar- 
ried, in lS5(t, to Mr. Toner, and they are 
residing on the old homestead in Pike 
county. The mother of jMr. Long was 
blessed with one child, William P., by her 
first husband, and the fruits of her second 
marriatie were the following named chil- 
dren — Joseph, Louisa, Jessie and Ellen. 

Ml". Long, of whom this memoir treats, 
remained in his native State until he was 

twenty-one years old. During that time he 
attended the excellent common schools of 
Pike county, and in the summers assisted 
his father operate the home farm. In 1SG3, 
he removed to Minnesota and settled in 
Stearns county, where he remained two 
years, during which time he was on the 
road considerable, back to his old home, to 
Chicago, Illinois, etc. From Stearns county 
he removed to Devil's Lake, Dakota Terri- 
tory, where he secured a clerkship in the 
general merchandising store of C. A. Ruffee. 
He remained with him for one 3'ear, and 
then paid a visit to his old home, and, after 
remaining there some time, went to Osakis, 
Douglas county, Minnesota. He secured a 
l)osition in D. Stevenson's store. Mr. Long 
remained in that ca))acity for three years, 
and at the expiration of that time was 
offered a position as clerk in the store of 
j J. B. Johnson. He accepted, and remained 
with Mr. Johnson foi' ten years. In 1882 
Mr. Long then entei'ed into the general 
merchandising business in partnership with 
Mr. Lyons, the firm name being L^'ons, 
Long & Co. At the expiration of two years 
the firm sold out, and our subject formed a 
partnership, in the same business, with H. 
Flore. They have since followed the busi- 
ness in the village and are doing a large and 
increasing trade. They carry a full line of 
goods, and are one of the heaviest firms in 
the county. 

Mr. Long was united in nuirriage, Octo- 
ber 30, 1871, to Miss Sarah E. Tannehill, 
and this union has been blessed with the 
following-named cliildron — May, Effie and 
Clyde. Mr. Long is one of the prominent 
business citizens in the village and county, 
and has held various offices, such as presi- 
dent of the village, etc. He is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, and a re|)ublican in 
politics. He is one of Osakis' representa- 
tive men, and an active participant in all 
local matters. 



iptUGH THOMPSON, tlie well-known 
rti banker, and the oldest settler in the 
village of Fialier, Polk county, llinnesota, is 
a native of Canada. He was liorn in Ilem- 
mingford, East Canada, on the 4th day of 
July, 1S50, and is the son of John and Mary 
((rraham) Tlionipsoii, natives of Canada. 
The family consisted of the following named 
children — Thomas, James, Adam, Eliza, 
Mary and Diana. 

Mr. Thompson, the suhject of this bio- 
graphical sketch, lived on the home farm, 
attending the common schools of his native 
country until he had attained the age of 
sixteen years. In 1866 he removed to St. 
Croix county, Wisconsin, where he secured 
a position in the general merchandise store 
of Thompson Bros., as clerk, and remained 
in that position for four years. At the ex- 
piration of that time he went to Menomonee, 
Wisconsin, where he clerked for the firm of 
Knapp, Stout ct Com])any, for four years, 
and then removed to Crookston, Minnesota, 
where he went into the employ of A. O. 
Eailey, and took charge of a store for him. 
In 1875 he moved to Fisher, Polk county, 
Minnesota, being the first settler in that 
place. He at once opened a general mer- 
chandise store, and for ten years was en- 
gaged in that business. He then sold his 
store and engaged in the milling and bank- 
ing business, in which he has since been 
occupied. He owns a large steam mill, and 
is doing an extensive milling business in that 
locality. He heats his mill with steam, and 
it is, without doubt, one of the best mills in 
that region. When Mr. Thompson first set- 
tled in Fisher, he experienced very hard 
times. The trains ran on that route only in 
the sununer. and during the winters the 
jirovisions, clothing, etc., had to be brought 
overland from Moorhead, a distance of 
seventy-five miles. There was a trading 
post on the Red Lake Indian reservation 
and Mr. Thompson made a great many 

trips with a dog team over the snow-covered 
jirairies, in his intercourse with the Indians. 
Sometimes during the long, tedious winters 
food became very scarce, and our subject 
relates that he many a time had only a mess 
of fish for breakfast, fully realizing the old 
saying of " Catfish or no breakfast." While 
in Crookston Mr. TlifJinpson participated in 
the first educational movement in that place. 
There wei'e no schools of any kind at that 
time, and in 1874 the citizens decided to 
form a school. Mr. Jocobus and ]\Ir. Porger 
were appointed as a committee to raise the 
necessary funds for a teacher. After con- 
siderable effort he succeeded in raising $75, 
and at once sent to St. Paul, Minnesota, to 
secure a teacher. Accordingly a Miss Luella 
Thompson soon accepted the ]iosition, and at 
once assumed her duties. 

Mr. Thompson was united in marriage on 
the 15th day of December, 1875, to Miss 
Luella Thompson, a native of St. Paul, 
Minnesota, and the daughter of Samuel and 
Phoebe Thompson. The fruit of this union 
has been one child, Luella May. Mrs. 
Thompson passed away on the 10th of 
July, 1888, sincerely mourned by all. She 
was an accomplished lady and a natural 
artist. Many of her paintings have been on 
exhibition in Minneapolis and St. Paul and 
received high ])raise from good critics. 

Mr. Thompson owns the town site, and is 
one of the substantial businessmen of the vil- 
lage. He has held the following offices — 
President of the village council, county com- 
missioner, and surveyor-general of the logs 
and lumber in the Seventh district. He, 
wnth his family, belong to the Presbyterian 
church. He is a member of the Independ- 
ent Order of Odd Fellows, Fisher Lodge, 
No. 87. He was the first jiostmaster in 
Fisher village. He has one of the finest 
residences in the ]ilace. A man of the ut- 
most honor and integrity, his word is as 
good as a bond. Enterprising and i)ublic- 

1 66 


spirited, every enterprise calculated to betie- 
lit either liis town or counl\' receives his 
active support and encouragement. 



\ IMON LARSON, of Ashbv, Grant coun- 
ty, Minnesota, is a dealer in general 
merchandise and is one of the successful and 
well-known business men of the Park Reg- 
ions, and as such well deserves notice in this 
Alium. Born in Norway, he comes of that 
sturdy nationality whicii has fui'nished 
Dakota and Minnesota witii so many of 
their most successful and valual)le citizens — 
a nation proverbial for their industry, frugal- 
ity and integrity. Mr. Larson was born 
amid tiu^ ])icturesque hills of his native land 
on the 8tii day of April, ISIJ-i, and was the 
youngest child of Lars and "S\av\ (.Tacobson) 
Hanson, natives of the same kingdom. Up 
to the age of fourteen years, Simon attended 
the common schools of his fathorlatul, early 
imbibing those principles whicli so distinguish 
the nationality from which he springs. The 
family consisted of six children, whose names 
were Hans, Jacob, Carrie and Simon, the 
subject of this article, and Mary and Simon, 
who died. 

From the age of fourteen until he was 
twenty-one, Simon worked at various em- 
ployments, including farming, mining, rail- 
roading, steamboat Avork, etc. In the 
year lS('i3 I\[r. Larson decided to seek a live- 
lihood in a free countiy, and accordingly 
embarked on a sailing vessel lor the United 
States. After a voyage of twelve days he 
landed in Quebec, Canada, going from there 
to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he remained 
for a few days, viewing the busy life and 
activity of a western city. From St. Paul he 
went to Rice county, Minnesota, where he 
workeil at the stone mason's trade for five 
years. Still desirous of viewing the different 
localities, he went to Northfield, working at 

the stone mason's tiade for five years, then 
removing to Grant county, of the same 
State. In 1873 he homesteaded a farm on 
section 3, Pelican Lake township, and has 
since successfully operated this tract of land. 
In 1882 he opened a dry goods and grocery 
store in Ashby. and has since run the same 
in connection with his farm. His farm com- 
prises 900 acres of well cultivated land, and 
he carries a full line of dry goods and gro- 
ceries in the store. 

Mr. Larson was united in marriage in 1866 
to Miss Carrie Peterson, and this union has 
been blessed with eight children, two of 
whom are deceased, as follows — Peter, Maiy, 
Lena, Julia, Sophia and Clara living. Lewis 
died when but six weeks old, and one named 
j\Iary died when eight months old. !Mr. 
Larson with his family belong to the Lu- 
theran church. He has held the office of 
village treasurer for one year. In ])olitical 
matters he affiliates with the republican 
jiartv and takes an active interest in that 
]>arty's campaigns. 


'^V agent for the Northern Pacific rail 
road lines, and a resident of Glyndon village. 
Clay county, Minnesota, is a native of Con- 
necticut. He was born in New London, Con- 
necticut, in 1S42, and is a son of James and 
Clarissa (Kenyon ) M umfoi-d, natives of Rliotie 
Island, where the father was an extensive 
farmer and stock-raiser. They had a family 
of seven chiklreii, thi-ee of whom are now liv- 
ings — Elizabeth, now l\frs. William Smith, 
of Connecticut; James A., now engaged in 
the real estate business in Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota, and Robert Bernon, the subject of 
this article. The father died in 1870, and 
the mother passed away in 1870, both dying 
in Connecticut. James Mumford, Sr., was. 
the son of Nathaniel ]\[uniford, a native of 



Eliode Island and an extensive land owner 
and fannei'. lie was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War and was of English descent. 
Clarissa (Kenyon I Miunford was the daugh- 
ter of Gi'eeu Ken3'on, a native of Rhode 
Island, and of Irish descent. 

The subject of this article was reared to 
farm life, and received a common school edu- 
cation, remaining at home until he was sixteen 
years of age. lie then secured the position 
of clerk in a- general store in N^orwich, Con- 
necticut, and remained at that occupation 
until 1862. lie then enlisted in Company B, 
Twent\'-sixth Connecticut Infantry, as first 
sergeant. lie enlisted for nine months, but 
served twelve. He participated in a number 
of hard engagements ; was at Port Hudson, 
and was under tire for forty -two days. After 
the war he returned to his home and bought 
200 acres of land about three miles from 
Norwich City, Connecticut, where he re- 
mained three years. In 187<i he settled in 
Duluth, IMinnesota, where he was engaged 
in the grocery business for two years. Mr. 
Mumford then moved to Rochester, Min- 
nesota, at which place he was occupied in 
buying and selling all grades of cattle. After 
three years' sojourn in that jilace, he moved 
to Clay county, j\[innesota, driving 200 cows. 
In partnership with a Mr. Tenny, he started 
a cheese factory in Glyndon. At this time, 
in 1875, they distributed the stock around 
among the farmers, and Mr. Tenny managed 
the factt)ry wiiiie Mr. Mumford watched the 
stock. In 1S7S Mr. Mumford commenced 
his present l)usiness, and did a great deal 
toward the settlement of Richland county, 
Dakota Territory. He now handles land, 
principally in Dakota and has a 160-acre 
farm on section 12, Glyndon township, which 
he took as a soldier's claim in 1877. He is 
engaged extensively in general farming and 
raising of graded cattle, having some stock 
which he brou"'ht here with him that took 
the first premium at the county fair. Be- 

sides the farm, Mr. Mumford owns land in 
Brainerd and Minneapolis. 

Mr. Mumford was married in Connecticut 
to Miss Helen Phillips, a native of that State 
and a daughter of George and Mary (Meech) 
Phillips, who were natives of Connecticut. 
Mary (^Meech) Phillips was the daughter of 
Deacon Charles Meech, a native of Scotland, 
who came to this country with his brother, 
Stephen, on account of religious persecutions 
in the Old World. He was a deacon in the 
Presbyterian church for fifty years, and was 
an extensive farmer in Preston Cit\'. The 
ancestry of the wife of the present subject 
were of English descent, her grandmother on 
the Phillips side bejng Nancy Rose. As far 
as can be traced, they were devoted to agri- 
cultural pursuits. Mr. Mumford and wife 
are the parents of the following children — 
Arthur, Hamilton, Hale, James and Maurice. 
Mary died in September, 1887, aged eight 
months. Mr. Mumford was chairman of the 
board of supervisors in 1875, and is one of 
the leading men in Clay county. He is a 
I'epublican in his political affiliations, and is a 
member of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

/^\LAF DAHLHEIM, theleadinghardware 
^^^ dealer of Evansville, Douglas county, 
Minnesota, is a native of Sweden. He was 
born in Nerike, February 2, 1811, and is the 
son of William Olaf and IgeborgC. Larson, 
natives of that kingdom. The father was a 
farmer, and lived and died in Sweden, as did 
also the mother. They were the parents of 
the following children — Lars, Igeborg, Olaf, 
Per, Johan, Andrew, Carl and August. 

Olaf Dahlheim. the subject of this biograph- 
icalslvctch, spent his school days in Nora and 
Stockholm, Sweden, until reaching the age 
of twenty -one. Leaving the military school 
at Stockholm in 1802, he came to the LTnited 
States in October, landing at New York 
City, ami going, eventually, to Red Wing, 



Minnesota. From there he went to Cairo, 

Illinois, where lie enlisted in tiie United 
8tiites nn\_v. He served on the United 
States giini)oat "Ibex" until August G, 
1865, when he was discharged at Mound 
Citv, Illinois. He again returned to Red 
Wing, Minnesota, and leniained at that 
place for a year or two, and then went to 
Doughxs county, Minnesota. He took al60- 
acre liomestead in Evansville township, on 
which he lived for five years, and, in 1873, 
he went to Minneapolis, Minnesota, remain- 
ing there eight years, engaged in business 
for Arthur A. Pond in the house furni.siiing 
goods business. Our subject then returned 
to Evansville and engaged in the iiar(hvare_ 
business, at which he lias since been enyag-ed. 
He carries a lull liiu> of heavv ami shelf 
hardware,and eai'rieson a successful business. 
Mr. Ualilheim was united in mai'riage in 
1869 to Miss Charlotte Gustava, a native of 
Sweden, and by whom four children have 
been born — Gustof, died March 18, 1884; 
Robert, died Octobei: 27, 1872 ; Alma, died 
August .5, 1875, and Agnes, who died July 
17, 1878. Mr. Dahlheim is an active and 
representative man of his township, and has 
held the following offices : school director, 
village councilman, and president of that 
body for two terms; constable, assessor, etc. 
He was a director of the Evansville Farm- 
ers' A.ssociation and treasurer of the cream- 
ery of that i)lace. Mr. Dahlheim is a demo- 
crat in his political belief, and has been a 
mend)er of various social organizations, such 
as Swedish Hrothei's' Association and Druids, 
and belonged to the G. A. R. in St. Paid and 
Reynold's Post, No. 51. at Ale.\andi'ia. Minn. 


E. KENASTON.a baidcer of iirecken- 
W^ ridge, is one of the leading and most 
prominent citizens in the Red Puver Valley, 
ile is a native of the Province of Quebec, 

where he was born on the 14th of Novem- 
ber, 1853, and is the only son of Joseph P. 
and Jane W. (Eno) Xenaston. 

Joseph Kenaston, the father of our sub- 
ject, with his wife, settled in ( )liio, where 
the wife died in 1854, and two yeai's later, 
in 1856, he came to the then Territory of 
Minnesota, and settled in Etna township, 
Fillmore county, where he was accidentallj' 
killed the same fall while chop]iing wood. 
Josepii Kenaston's parents wei'e Nathaniel 
and Sarah (Snow) Kenaston, the former 
ijeing a native of New Hampshire. At an 
early day they settled in Canada, where 
they remained until their death. 

The maternal grandparents of F. E. 
Kenaston were Almond P. and Charlotte 
(Bowen) Eno, natives of Coniu^cticut and 
New Ham]«hii'e, respectively, and of pure 
New England ancestry. 

The subject of our present article, F. E. 
Kenaston, was taken to Ohio by iiis parents 
when a year old, and two years later was 
brought to Minnesota l)V his father. He 
received an excellent education, finishing his 
course at the Cedar Valley Seminary, at 
Osage, Iowa, in the spring of 1870. After 
this he was employed as a book-kee])er, at 
Osage, for three years, and at the expira- 
tion of that time, went to Northwood, Iowa, 
where he engaged in business on his own 
account, as a dealer in agricultural imple- 
ments, remaining there from 1874 until 
1881. Dui'ing this time he also dealt ex- 
tensively in real estate. In 1881 lie removed 
to ]\finneapolis, and became general agent 
I'oi' I). JI. Osborne & Co., manufacturers of 
farm machinery. In 1885 he went to Breck- 
enridge, and in Septemijer of that year, 
in company with E. G. Valentine, estab- 
ished a private bank, which he has since 
conducted. He is largely interested in 
other banking institutions in that part of the 
State, and is ])resident of the bank at Barnes- 
viUe. He is extensivelv interested in farm- 



ing lands in his own and adjdinini,^ conntips, 
as well as in Iowa, and also in villaue pi-op- 
ertv. Mr. Kenaston is a man of tiic liighest 
integritv. and stands liigli in the coninninity 
in Avhich he lives. A cai-et'nl and t'.iordugh 
business man, iiis public s])ii'it and enter- 
])riso have closely identifieil him witii the 
later development and progress of the locality 
in which he resides. 

Mr. Kenaston was married, in 1S74, to 
IVIiss Julia E. Smith, a native of Vermont, 
and they are the parents of one son — Burt. 

In political matters Mr. Kenaston is a 
republican. Socially, he is a member of both 
the Masonic and Odd Fellows fraternities. 

^M^ NDREW HOLES, who is an extensive 
M^^^. real estate dealer, doing business at 
Moorhead, Alexandria and Grand Forks 
is the person forming the subject of this 

He is a native of Tom))kins county, New 
York, and was born near Ithaca, February 
10, 1836. His parents were James and 
Mary (Hibbert) Holes, natives of England, 
where they were engaged at farming. They 
came to America in 1834, and settled in 
Bradford county, Pennsylvania, where they 
purchased land and went to farming. After- 
ward they removed to Tioga county, New 
York, after having first looked over the State 
of Indiana and not finding what they 
wanted. James' father's name was Samuel, 
who was also an English farmer. His wife'.s 
name before marriage was Amy Clay. The 
father was a soldier, having served under 
Wellington, and was at the famous battle of 
Waterloo, where he was wounded in his foot. 
The son James (the father of our subject) 
had a family of six children, four of whom 
are now living. One, a daughter, Sarah, 
died in England at the age of two years. 
Samuel died, aged fifty-one years, at St. 

Cloud. Minnesota. The four now living are 
Georoe. Andrew, William and James. 

Our subject, Andi-ew, was reared on his 
father's farm in PiMinsylvania and New 
York, and gained an education at tlie com- 
mon school and an academy, leaving school 
when he was seventeen years old and going to 
La Porte, Indiana,, in 18.53, where he taught 
school twelve miles fronj the city, during a 
four months' winter term. He s])ent the 
next summer at home, but returned to Indi- 
ana in the fall. Tlie summer following, 
1855, he spent at home, and was in the East 
all the time until 1857, when he again came 
West, stopping at St. Cloud. Minnesota, 
where he engaged in making marl lime, the 
first summer, and in the winter he went to 
Kandiyohi county, Minnesota, taking up a 
claim of 160 acres of land, which he im- 
]iroved by building a hewn block-house, 
l)reaking land, etc. He proved up on this 
land, and lived thereon some time. Among 
other experiences in business avlventures he 
had, was the going in witii another gentle- 
man who bought potatoes and tried to ship 
them down Crow River on a fiat boat. The 
whole cargo was made up of ])otatoes, hides 
and tallow. They started from Nest Lake, 
and had gone two-thirds the length of the 
river, when the boat swamped in ;i rap- 
ids, causing a loss of the whole lot of prod- 
uce and its occupants to swim ashore. He 
went to New York in 1859. and s])ent his 
time on a farm, and in the winter of 
1859-00 he took a contract to build one 
mile of stump fence. In the autumn of 
186(1 he went to Michigan, in company with 
his brother, William, and another young 
man named Samuel Shirley. They engaged 
in trapping })ine niiirtin for their fur, and, 
beine; successful, continued the same for 
seven months. They sold in Detroit and re- 
turned to New York. The same company 
spent the following winter at the same busi- 
ness and in the same i)lace as trappers. 



After this trapping experience, our subject 
came to Jfinnesota a second time, tool; tlio 
stage from St. Paul to Georgetown, fifteen 
miles north of ]Moorhead. He took passage 
on the first steamer," International," for Fort 
Garry, and, on their way down the river, 
were threatened by the Indians, from whom 
they hourly expected an attack. The In- 
dians claimed they frightened the fish from 
the stream, so a guard of seven men had to 
be kept to protect the boat. This wild and 
romantic exploit was during the month of 
May, 1862. Upon reaching Fort Garry, our 
subject, in company with 170 men, fitted out 
an expedition to start for Carriboo, British 
Columbia, for the purpose of exploring for 
gold. In their journey they had what was 
known as Ked River carts, drawn by oxen 
and horses. They were six months in mak- 
ing their trip to the Pacific slope. In com- 
pany with two others, Mr. Holes bought a 
claim, which proved to be a paying invest- 
ment. They employed sixty to seventy 
men, paying them %1 per day, each receiv- 
ino' his crold on Sunilav morninij;, weig-hed 
out and properly labeled for each miner. 
Our subject returned in December, 1865, via 
Portland, San Francisco and Panama, to 
j^ew York Cit}*. He took the gold dust he 
had cleared to the Philadelphia mint, where 
he had it made into coin. His partner, 
Daniel McAlpine, returned with him, and 
they both exchanged their gold coins in 
New York City for government bonds, get- 
ting twenty-sev^en cents premium. The 
" seven-thirt}'" bonds our sul)ject kept 
several years, drawing his semi-annual gold 
interest, but finally sold for a premium. In 
1S66 he returned to Minnesota a third time, 
stopping at St. Cloud, with two younger 
brothers and his mother. He there engaged 
in the real estate lousiness, spending two 
winters at Bryant ct Stratton's Business 
College at St. Paul, gniduiiting in 1868. 
lie remained at St. Cloud until 1871, then 

moved to Moorhead, where he has since 
lived. At that date the ))lace consisted of 
only an old stage station, then abandoned by 
the stage com])anyand occupied by a settler 
named Job Smith, who came in the spring 
of 1871, and sold to our subject, in t,he sum- 
mer of that year, his place of 173 acres, 
where now stands the city of Moorhead. 
He had taken land in this beautiful and rich 
valley in 1869-70. The place bought from 
Job Smith he sold to the Lake Superior and 
Puget Sound Land Company, which com- 
pany platted the city. Our subject, how- 
ever, retained twent3--four acres, on which 
he erected a fine house and planted an excel- 
lent orchard. He also eno;aged for two 
\'ears in selling fiour by the car load, and 
also built the first ice house in Moorhead. 
He now deals in both farm and city real 
estate, at which he has been very successful. 
He has aided various enterprises in the city, 
ffivinij' .sl,,")00 toward the Moorhead Mills 
and putting s(),700 into the foundry of that 
city. He also aided the Red River Manu- 
facturing Ccjmpany to the extent of si, 000, 
to the Broadway hotel, now Ilojie Academ}^ 
SI, 000, and afterward §100, besides giv- 
ing various smaller amounts to other enter- 

He was united in mari'iiige in 1870 to his 
present wife. 

In politics Mr. Holes is a republican, and 
has been a very active citizen in helping to 
develo]i the Xorthwest, especially Moor- 
head and Clay county. He was the first 
county commissioner to be appointed by the 
governor of the State, and has held the 
office of county commissioner, chairman of 
the board of supervisors and school trustee 
at various times since. He is one of the 
solid and always reliable men of the country 
in which he lives and so ably represents, and 
no num has done more to aid in the growth 
and development of the county in whit-h he 
lives than has he. 



/^DWARD A. ZIEBARTH, a farmer of 
\^^ Logan township, Grant count}', Min- 
nesota, and a resident of section 14:, is a 
native of the Kingdom of Pmissia. He was 
born in Posen, on the 3d of July, 1840, 
and is the son of William and Rosena 
(Spangler) Ziebarth, natives of that king- 
dom. Tiie parents of the present subject 
were Ijorn in Prussia. In 1855 the}"^ emi- 
grated to the United States, and, after land- 
ing on America's shores, settled in Chicago, 
Illinois. They remained in tluit city during 
the winter, and in the spring of 1856, after 
the father's deatli, the remainder of the fam- 
ily went to Wi'ight county, Minnesota. They 
took a claim of 160 acres, and there lived 
until 1872. The mother died in Wright 
county in April, 1877. The parents were 
faithful members of the Lutheran Evan- 
gelical church. The\^ were blessed with 
nine children, seven of whom are living, 
namely — Matilda, Rosena, Paulena, William, 
Edward, Bertha and Minerva. 

. Mr. Ziebarth spent his younger days in 
his native land, attending the excellent com- 
mon schools of that country, and at the age 
of fourteen years came, with his parents, to 
the American continent. William took 
charge of the home farm m Wright county, 
and still operates it. Edward remained 
with his brother until 1861. He then, on 
the 30th of September, 1861, enlisted in 
the Fourth ]\[innesota Infantry, and served 
until the 15th of March, 1865, when 
he was honorably discharged at St. Paul, 
Minnesota. He served under Captain Ed- 
son, now a resident of Glencoe and now 
judge of that district. Mr. Ziebarth par- 
ticipated in the battle of luka, Septem- 
ber I'J, 1862, in which he was wounded in 
the leg, and was confined in the hospitals 
for three months. He then returned to his 
regiment, and took part in the engagements 
at Holly Spi-ings, Raymond. Jackson, Cham- 
pion Hill and siege of Yicksburg. He 

was taken ))risoner on the 13th of Dec- 
ember, lS(i4, and was held for three 
months and ten days, at Florence, South 
Carolina. He then returned to St. Paul, 
Minnesota, where he received his honorable 
discharge. After his discharge he returned 
to AYright county, Minnesota, where he 
remained, engaged in farming, until 1866. 
In 1866 he went to Minneapolis, Minne- 
sota, near which place he rented a farm 
and engaged in farming for a jieriod of 
three years. He then moved to Grant 
county, and took a soldier's homestead, on 
which he lived, engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, for eighteen months. At the expira- 
tion of this time Mr. Ziebarth returned to 
Wright county, and, after a three-years' 
sojourn in that region, returned to Grant 
county. Upon his settling here the second 
time, he occupied the same homestead, on 
section 14, Logan township, where he has 
since lived, devoting his attention, exclu- 
sively, to general farming and stock-i'aising. 
He has 160 acres, well imjjroved and under 
a high state of cultivation. 

Mr. Ziebarth was married on the 22d of 
September, 1866, to Miss Mary Kniible, and 
the fruits of this union have been eleven 
children, named Emma, Ida, August, 
Lydia, Herman, Clara, Mary, Anna, .Her- 
bert, Anna M. and Pearly. Anna and 
Pearly are deceaseil. Mrs. Ziebarth is a 
native of Pennsylvania, born in Sullivan 
county on the 18th of July, 1844. The sub- 
ject of this article has taken a prominent 
part in all moves calculated to lienefit the 
locality in which he lives, and is a highly 
esteemed and exemplary citizen of Grant 
county. He has hcki the office of sheriff of 
the county, member of the board of county 
commissioners, supervisor of the township 
and justice of the peace. He is an active 
member of the Lutheran church, and in 
political nuitters affiliates with the repub- 
lican party. No man has been more prom- 


inently identified with the official hist<)ry of 
Grant count v. 


estate agent in Alexamli'ia, Doug- 
las county. Minnesota, lie lias a host of 
private lands on his lists for sale, is agent for 
lands of the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Mani- 
toba Railroad Company, and is also agent 
for Florida lands. His agency is one of the 
most Hourisiiing and liigidy recommended 
in the city ;ind county. L;ind owners will 
do well to list their lands with his agency. 

^[r. Chidester is a native of Massachusetts, 
and was born August 1, lS4fi. lie is the 
son of Dr. Williiun M. and Sylvia (Bancroft) 
Chidester, who were natives, resi)ectivcly, of 
Connecticut and Massachusetts. Dr. William 
Chidester's father was Hezekiah Chidester, 
a native of Williamstown. Massuchusetts. 
The hitter's father was William Chidester, 
a native of Wales He came to America 
about 1750, settling at Williamstown, Massa- 

Dr. William M. Chidester came to what is 
now the State of Ohio in 1802. His family 
settled first at Canfield, Mahoning county, 
from whence he removed to Lorain county, 
where he lived until his death in 1856. He 
married Sylvia Bancroft, by whom he had 
four children, three of whom are now liv- 
ing — Buel, William E., and Anne. 

The early history of this family and the 
tracings of its genealogical recoi'd are very 
interesting. The hardships to all families in 
the latter part of the last century and early 
years of this jiresent one were severe and 
cruel, but to this family came hardships the 
most cruel. William, the great-grandfather 
of the sul)ject of our sketch, was killed in an 
attem])t to rescue some friends who had 
been captured by the Indians. His son 
served al)out five vears in the Itevolutionarv 

War, and was in the sanguinary battles of 
Brandywine aiul Monuu)uth. He was one 
of the pioneei- settlers of Ohio, and died 
February "2(1, 1818. 

William E. Chidester, whose name appeal's 
at the head of this sketch, passed his early 
life in Ohio attending school at Oberlin. 
On the o|)ening of the Civil War. possessed 
of the spirit of patriotism that had burned 
in the breasts of his fathers, lie was ready to 
serve his c(juntry at the front. In 1862, at 
fifteen years of age, he enlisted as private in 
Company D, Eighty-seventh Regiment 
Ohio A'olunteers, in the three months" serv- 
ice. He saw service soon after his enlist- 
ment at Harper's Ferry, September 14tli, 
where he was captured by the rebels and 
held jirisoner for two days, when he was 
])aroled. In January. 186.3. he re-enlisted in 
Company K, Tenth Regiment Ohio Cavalry, 
rising in a year from the private ranks to 
that of corjioral. While scouting between 
the battles of Averysboro and Bentonville, 
North Carolina, on the IStli of March, 1865, 
he was again taken pi-isoner. From that 
time till the 2nd of April he was kept in con- 
finement in that vilest of all vile places,Libby 
])rison, and was among the last of the 
inmates of that ])rison who were liberated. 
His was not a silk-stocking sei-vice by any 
means. His sufferings in prison were in- 
tense, as his shattered constitution and 
impaired health attest. He also saw severe 
service in fighting the enemy, being in the 
battles of Tunnel Hill, Resaca, Kingston, 
siege of Atlanta, battle of Jouesboro, Love- 
joy, Macon, siege of Savannah, and many 
smaller l)attles and skirmishes. At the 
cessation of hostilities he was honorably 
discharged, and returned to Ohio a much 
altered man. He was sun struck in Au- 
gust, 1863, and this, with his sufferings 
in prison and rough life in camp and on 
the field of battle, had broken down his 
health so that he was but a wreck' of what 



he was and promised to be on entering 
tiie service. Indeed, the effects of his 
war experience have never left him, and 
never since his discharge has he been a 
thorougiily well man. He returned to 
Oberlin, Oliio, after his discharge, and com- 
menced a course of study in the college at 
that place. But his poor hoidth forced him 
to give up study, and he went to Wyoming 
Territory, wiiere he was employed as agent 
for the Union Pacific Railroad Company from 
186S till 1871. From thence he came to 
Alexandria, Douglas county, Minnesota, re- 
maining but a short time and going there- 
from to St. Anthony, where for a \'ear and a 
half he was agent for the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company. Poor health forced him 
out of this employment, and tliinking to find 
some I'elief, he came back to Alexandria, where 
lie has remained ever since. He has held a 
number of positions of trust in the county, 
and in every case has proven his efficiency 
and trustworthiness. He has served as 
de])ut\' count}' treasurer, deputy register of 
deeds and deputy judge of ])robate, and for 
one term held the office of clei'k of tiie dis- 
trict court. For several terms he has been 
town clerk. 

Mr. Chidester was married in 1870 to 
Miss Mary E. Tenney. of Baldwinsville, 
New York. She died in December, 1871. 
Mr. Chidester was married tlie second time 
in 1873, to Miss Elizabeth A. Stoneman, of 
St. Anthony, Minnesota. Five children have 
blessed this union — Orvill T., Ruth S., Bes- 
sie B., Ellen A. and William E. 

In 1882 Mr. Chidester opened up his 
present business, which he has conducted ever 
since. He purchased 200 acres on Lake 
Geneva, about a mile and one-half fi'om 
Alexandria, where he has a beautiful iiome, 
called the Sylvan Home. He has since sold 
140 acres of said land. On tiiis original 
tract is the well known " Hotel Alexandria," 
one of the best known summer resorts in the 

Northwest. Mr. Chidester platted thirty 
acres of his land and has been sellinga num- 
ber of lots. Politically he affiliates with the 
republican party, is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity and the G. A. R. He and 
his wife are members of the Congregational 
church, in which society he holds the posi- 
tion of deacon. Mr. Chidester is one of 
Alexandria's most progressive and represen- 
tative citizens, and enjoys the esteem and 
confidence of his fellow townsmen. 



^ ME NDERS B. PEDERSEN. No man in 
Jp*~-JL the famous Park Regions is more 
deservino" of credible mention than the jjen- 
tleman whose name heads tiiis article. He 
is the postmaster, and also the leading mer- 
chant at Rothsay, a thriving village located 
in the northeastern part of Wilkin ccnmty, 
Minnesota. Born in Norway, he comes of 
the same sturdy nationality which has fur- 
nislied Minnesota with so many of its most 
enterprising and tiirifty citizens, and a race 
proverbial for tiieir integrity, frugality and 

Mr. Pedersen was born at Sigdal, near 
Christiania, the capital of Norwav, on the 
2Sth of October, 1838. His parents were 
Peder and Berthe Erickson, who were farm- 
ers in their native land. 

Anders B. Pedersen auule his home with 
his parents until he was twenty-five years of 
ae:e. During this time he received the same 
training and education that is common to 
the youth of that land, and in addition to 
this he learned tlie tailor's trade, and when 
about eighteen years of age he enlisted in 
the military service, as artillerist, in tlie city 
of Christiania. After coming home from 
there, at the age of twenty-five, he jnirchased 
a farm, which he carried on in connection 
witli his trade. Thus matters continued 
until 1870. when he came to the United 



States, making his way directly to St. Paul, 
Minnesota, where he secured work at his 
trade. In November, 1S7!\ he removetl to 
Rothsay, and lias since made that ids liome. 
He was among the very first settlers there, 
and, in fact, was the first man to haul lumber 
to the site of the viilaiie, luiiitjinii- it from 
Manston, ten miles distant, the railroad not 
being compiel(Hl to Rotlisay as yet. He at 
once got in iiis goods antl erected iiis build- 
ing and got it enclo.sed. but not finished, 
wlien winter set in. That iiappened to be 
the coldest winter on recoi'd since tiie State 
was settled, and he had difficult work soiue 
of the time to kee]) from freezing. At one 
time he had to stay in liis store for three 
days and nights withont anything but crack- 
ers to eat, as the storm was so severe 
he could not get to his l)oarding house, 
only a few I'ods distant. Undaunted, how- 
ever by sucii difficulties, he has continued 
in business at this point ever since, and iuis 
built uj) an extensive trade. He is in excel- 
lent circumstances financially, and it is all 
the result of his own industry and persever- 
ance, as he is a self-made man in the fullest 
sense of that term. He owns a fine farm of 
ItJO acres, five miles from Rothsay, and 
eiglity acres adjoining the village, upon 
which he has a good residence and otiier 
vahiiible improvements. 

Mr. Tedersen l-as always taken an active 
interest in all matters of a public nature. 
At the present writing he is president of the 
villiage council and has been a member of 
that body ever since the village was incor- 
porated. He has also been village treasurer 
as well as treasurer of the ci'eamery com- 
])any, and he is recognized as one of the most 
snl)stantial and capable business men in the 
I'ark Regions. An affable and genial gen- 
tleman, he has made many warm friends 
and his honorable methods of doing business 
have made his word as good as a bond. Mr. 
Pedeisen is also the inventor of a patented 

razor sharpener which has a great deal of 
merit and promises to be jirofitable. By it 
a child can sharpen a razor better than nine- 
tenths of the barbers. A com})any called 
the Scandia Razor Sharpener Company has 
lat(>ly been iiu-orporated at Fergus Falls to 
handle the invention. 

Our subject was married in September, 
1872, to Miss .Torgiiu^ Watnoss. and liy this 
marriage thej' became the jiarents of the 
following named children — Reder Georg, 
Rei'the Seline, Oscar Edward. Petra Olivia 
and Ida Alice. The following are deceased — 
PederG., Petra and Oscar — while the remain- 
ing two are still at home with their parents. 
Mrs. Pedersen is a daughter of Ole G. and 
and Sigri Watnoss. 


tVER iVERSON, the principal grain dealer 
3^ at Norcross and manager of the elevator 
at that place, is one of the most capable and 
efficient j'oung businessmen in Grant county, 
lie was born in the city of Christian in, the cap- 
ital of Norway, on the 28th of February, 
ISCd. and is a son of Jorgens Iverson. The 
father was a railway engineer, and was one 
of the first men to run a locomotive in Nor- 
wav, liavino- followed that business since 

1855. Jorgens Iverson and wife were the 
parents of five children — ^ Iver, Samuel, Jen- 
nie, Andrew and Charles. 

Iver Iverson, whose name heads this arti- 
cle, received his education m Norway, the 
land of his birth. He attended school from 
the time he was six until he was fifteen 
ears of age, and then took up a seafaring 
life. After following a sailor's fortunes for 
a year he then was employed for a year in the 
railway shops. At the expiration of that 
time lie '' fired " for his father for two years 
on the railroad. When he had reached the 
age of eighteen — in 1878 — he sailed for 
tiie Uniteil States, and after a vovage of 



twenty -one days, landed in Castle Garden, 
New York. He made his way directly to 
Morris. Minnesota, wiiere he began working 
in an elevator. After two years of this woi-Jc 
he started on an extended trip ^vhich lasted 
six months, and upon his return to Morris 
he resumed his former position. Six months 
later lie was given charge of the elevator 
at Norcross, where he has i-emained ever 

Mr. Iverson was marrietl in November, 
1884, to Miss Bertha Sherstad, who is also 
a native of Norway. 

In political matters Mi-. Iverson is a re- 
liulilicaii. He lias always taken an active 
and prominent part in all matters of a public 
nature, and is regarded as one of tlie leading 
citizens of the locality in which he lives. 
At various times he has iield local offices, 
.such as school clerk and treasurer, justice of 
the peace, etc., and every enterprise calcu- 
lated to benefit his town or county has 
always received liis support and coopera- 


^^MEL LARSEN, one of the most promi- 
Vt^ nent merchants at Brandon, and one 
of the most successful and enterprising busi- 
ness men in Douglas county, Minnesota, 
was born at Edsberg, Smaalenderne, Norway, 
on tiie 16th of November, 18-1:9, and is a son 
of Lars Evenson, wlio also lives in Brandon. 
Our subject was one of a family of eigiit 
ciiildren, as follows — Julian, Sophia, Carl, 
Johanna, Emel, IMartin, Anton and Tea. 
Sophia is still in Norway, while Carl and 
Julian are both farmers in Moe township, 
Douglas county, ^Minnesota. Martin is a 
farmer in Norman county, Minnesota. 

Emel Larsen, whose name heads our pres- 
ent article, received his etiucation near the 
capital of his native land, attending school 

until he was about fourteen years of age, and 
from that time until he was twent\'-one 
he was employed principally in wholesale 
houses. In 1871 he sailed for the United 
States, and after a voyage of about thirteen 
days he landed at Castle Garden, New Yoi-k. 
From there ho went to Chicago, and a shoi't 
time later to Michigan, and then to Wiscon- 
sin, where he worked in saw mills, and also 
in the pineries. In 1872 he came to Douglas 
county, Minnesota, and engaged in farming in 
Moe township. There he took considerable 
interest in public affairs and held various 
local offices. In 1879 he removed to Bran- 
don, where he has since lived. He built and 
ran the first hotel started in the vilhige, and 
afterwaid in company with others engaged 
in the genei'al merchandise business under 
the firm name of Larsen, Peterson & Co. 
He has since continued in this line, and the 
firm now carry the heaviest stock of goods 
in the place, and they are rated as one of the 
most substantial business houses in the 
county. Mr. Larsen has always taken a 
prominent part in all enterprises calculated 
to aid in the growth and development of the 
village or surrounding country. In 1887 he 
aided in organizing a company which erected 
the Brandon flouring mills, and is now one 
of the directors of the corporation. He has 
also taken an active interest in public mat- 
ters, and for a num.ber of years has been 
president of the village council, and liolds 
that office at the present writing. He 
is a republican in political matters, and 
an honored member of the Masonic frater- 

Our subject was married, in 1882, to Miss 
Menda Larson, and they are the parents of 
four living children — Lars G., Ovida A., Emil 
A. and Ella S. One child. Ella M., died 
when six months of age. The family are 
exemplary members of the Lutheran church. 
Mrs. Larsen was born in Norway, and came 
to the United States in 1873. 



JOHN CHRISTENSON, wlio is engaged 
in the general merchandise and drug 
business in Elbow Lake, Grant county, Min- 
nesota, is a native of Sweden, lie was born 
in the southern part of that country, October 
30, 1842, and is a son of Christian and Anna 
(Ciiristenson) Nelson, natives also of the 
kingdom of Sweden. The father and mother 
of the subject of this article were the ])arents 
of five children, as follows — Anna, Geoi'ge, 
Christian, Peter and John. 

John, the subject of our present sketch, 
remained on the home farm in his native 
land and attended school until he was sixteen 
years of age. He then entered as an appren- 
tice to the watch-maker's trade, at which he 
was engaged until he was twent^'-one^'ears of 
age. After learning the trade, he worked at it 
until 1867, when he settled in Germany, 
where he followed his trade for four years. 
Mr. Christenson then started for the United 
States, landing in New York City after a 
passage on tlie ocean of nineteen da^'S. 
From New York he went to Chicago, Illinois, 
where he was engaged in the jewelry business 
for two years. He then went to Cresco, 
Iowa, and after one year's work at his trade 
went to Leroy, Minnesota, I'emaining in that 
place for three yeai's, occupied in the jewelry 
and drug business. On leaving Leroy, Mr. 
Christenson removed to Herman, Grant 
county, Minnesota, settling there in 1878. 
He engageil in the jewelry and drug business, 
and four years later added general merchan- 
dise. In the spring of 1887 he sold his busi- 
ness interests in Herman and moved to 
Elbow Lake, in the same county. On settling 
in Elbow Lake, he opened his present store 
of general merchandise and drugs, and Mr. 
Christenson is now one of the most prom- 
inent and influential business men of Grant 

Mr. Christenson was united in maiTiage 
December 27, 1878, to Miss Belle Yaa, and 
this union has been blessed by two children. 

Albert and Julius. Mrs. Christenson was 
born if. the kingdom of Norway, and was 
brought to the United States when she was 
but one j^ear old, by her parents, who settled 
in Fillmore county, where she was reared 
and educated. Mr. Christenson, with his 
family, belongs to the Lutheran chuich, of 
which organization they are acceptable mem- 
bers. The subject of this article is an adher- 
ent to the principles of the republican 
party, and takes an active interest in any 
enterjirise whereby his town or county may 
be benefited, lie held the oflice of village 
trustee while in Herman, and since his resi- 
dence in Elbow Lake has held the position on 
the school Ijoard and now holds the oflice of 

"]^ NUD D. ERICKSON, the efficient and 
_l^(^ accommodating jiostmaster at the 
village of Aastad, Otter Tail county, Minne- 
sota, is a thrifty representative of the Nor- 
wegian race, that nationality so distinguished 
for their energy, frugality and economy. 
Mr. Erickson is a native of Norway, born on 
the 15th of June, 18ri.3. and is the son of 
Erick and Ingrid (Hanson) Knutson, natives 
also of Norway. The parents of the present 
subject emigrated to the United States in 
lSGl,and settled in Decorah, Iowa, where 
they remained five years, then removing to 
Winnebago count\', Iowa, and after a six 
years' sojourn in that place, engaged in farm- 
ing, the}^ removed to Otter Tail county, 
jMinnesota. The father homesteaded a tract 
of land on section 34, Aastad township, 
where he hassince lived, engaged in farming. 
In addition to his farm labors, he is engaged 
in the mercantile business in the A'illage of 
Aastad, and is one of the most prominent 
and influential men of the village. The 
father and mother of our subject were the- 
parents of the following children — Knud 



and Isabella, who died at the age of twenty- 
one years, in 1SS3. 

Mr. Erickson, tlie subject of this article, 
emigrated with iiis parents to the United 
States in 1861, and after a voyage of six 
weeks on a sailing vessel, landed at Quebec, 
Canada. After landing they removed to 
Iowa, settling at Decorah. At the expira- 
tion of five years, they again removed, this 
time settling in Winnebago county, Iowa. 
It was in tiiis county wliere our subject re- 
ceived the greater par't of his schooling, 
securing a practical business education. Six 
yeai's latei' tliey came to Otter Tail count}', 
Minnesota. Here Knud Erickson studied 
under George W. McComber. of Tumeli, 
Otter Tail county, and thus received a 
thorough education. 

Mr. Erickson was married in September, 
1883, to Miss Torena T. Bergseid, a native of 
Norway, who came to the United States 
when in her fourteenth year. Mr. and Mrs. 
Erickson are the parents of one child, 
Edward T. Mr. Erickson with liis family 
belongs to the Lutheran church. He has 
held the following offices in his township — 
postmaster, since April 13, ISSO, chairman 
of the board of supervisors, and justice of 
the peace since 1882. He is a stanch repub- 
lican in ids political belief, and one of the 
active participants in all movements of a 
local nature, in wiiich the town or county 
mav derive benefit. 

Ji^ENRY M. HUNTING, one of the old- 
Jlj^^ est residents of the village of Ada, 
and the present justice of the peace of that 
l)lace, is one of the " brave boys in blue" 
that flew to the defense of their native land 
in the hour of its direst need in the Civil 
War of 18G1-6.J, and a history of his life is 
.possessed of many points of interest. 

Mr. Hunting was i^orn June 21, 1837, at 

Henderson, Jefferson county, New York, 
and is the son of Jabez and Caroline (Kemp) 
Hunting. His earlier boyhood was spent in 
the sciiools of that portion of the " Empire 
State," but in 1851 he was brought bj'his 
parents to Wisconsin. The familj' settled in 
Columbia county, on a farm purchased by 
the father, where our suljject grew to man- 
hood, and there finished his elementary edu- 

While the pulse of the nation beat witli 
feverish intensity in the spring of IStU, on 
the receipt of the news of the attack upon 
Fort Sumter, and the subsetpient call to 
ai'uis, with the fires of patriotism glowing 
in, his breast, our subject left the parental 
roof and enrolled iiimself among the brave 
defenders of our country's honor and flag. 
Enlisting in Company A, Second Wisconsin 
Infantry, he was mustered into the United 
States service at Madison, June 11, 1861, 
and with the command was at once for- 
warded to Washington, then threatened by 
the rebels. On the 21st of July, of that 
year, he participated in the first battle of 
Bull Run, that so much misunderstood con- 
test, where our arms suffered their first re- 
pulse. In September, following, the regi- 
ment was taken from the brigade of CTcneral 
Slierman, wiiei'e it had been since joining 
the Army of tlie Potomac, and placed under 
General King, of Milwaukee, who wanted 
Western men. The Second, Sixth and Sev- 
enth Wisconsin and Nineteenth Indiana 
formed his command, afterward so widely 
and jvistly celebrated as the " Iron Brigade." 
They lay in camp, on the Maryland side of 
the river, until November, and then were 
transferred to the south shore, on the 
" sacred soil of Vii-ginia," and were in camp, 
near Arlington Heights, all winter. In the 
spi'ing of 1862 the brigade moved with the 
column under General Irwin iVIcDowell, to 
Cedar Mountain, but did not reach that 
l)oint in time to participate in the battle 



that had been fought there. On their re- 
turn inai'ch, at Gainesvalle, they int't a large 
body of i-ebcls. and, in the encounter tiiat 
ensued, the brit;a(ie suffered a loss of some 
iive hundred men, and the Secoiui Wiscon- 
sin their colonel. ( )n the 2'.tth and 30th of 
August, 1862, ^Ir. Hunting with his regi- 
ment took part in the second battle of Bull 
Run, and on the repulse at that point 
marched for South Mountain, Maryland, 
where he participated in the engagement of 
September 14th, where the brigade won for 
itself immortal renown and the sohrlquet 
that is so widely known. On the 17th of 
the same month, in the hot and devastating 
fire on Antietam's blood}' field, he followed 
the colors of his i-egiment, a day to be re- 
membered, and where twenty-si.\ heroes of 
his com]«inv were killed or wounded. ]\[i'. 
Hunting served as hospital steward at the 
field hospital until that w;is broken up. in 
the spring of lSr>3, after which he icjoined ! 
the regiment, then at Fredericksburg, and 
with it participat(Ml in the carnage at Chan- 
cellorsville. May."., ISOS; the decisive and 
sanguinar}' battle at Gettysburg, July 1.2' 
and 3 ; Mine Run, November 29, of the 
same year; the murderous and extended i 
battle of the Wilderness, May 5 and 6, 1S64 ; i 
Spottsylvania, May 8, and all the othei' bat- I 
ties and skirmishes of the campaign niulcr 
Grant that took place that year. 

In November, 18(!;3, Mr. Hunting returned 
to Wisconsin, where he was engaged in re- i 
cruiting until May 1, 1804, returning just in 
time to pai'ticipate in the spring canipaign. 
He was promoted to the I'ank of third ser- 
geant, after Gettysbui';:-, and served in that 
capacity untd his discharge. JJesides the 
battles enunicnited iibove. ^\v. Hunting took 
a part in tlu^ engagements at Orange court 
house, July, 1862; Beaver Dam, or Gaines I 
Mill, August 5 to 8, 1862; Eappa ban nock 
Staticm, August 2,1862; Sulphur Springs, \ 
August 26, 1862 ; Fit/ Hugh's Crossing, ! 

April 29, 1863; Kelley's Ford, July 9, 
1863 ; and Ilaccoon h'ord, June .'") and 6, 

On the 18th of June, 1864, their term of 
service having expired, the company of 
which !Mr. Hunting was a member arrived 
in ]\[adison for discharge, having onlv two 
sergeants, two corjiorals and eighteen pri- 
vates left of the 102 who had left the State 
in its ranks. In February, 1865, our subject 
enlisted in Company C, Ninth Regiment of 
the P'irst Veteran Reserve Corps, under Gen- 
eral W. S. Hancock, and was made first 
sergeant of the company. He remained at 
Washington for a time, whence he was 
sent to Indianapolis to perform guard duty, 
and from thei'c to Davenpoi't, Iowa, toguaiil 
the Sioux Indian prisoners there, and I'e- 
inained in the latter place until February 14, 
1S66, when he was tinally discharged. 

Mr. Hunting returned to his home in Wis- 
consin, where he stayed until April 1, isTt!, 
when he removed to Sauk Center, Minnesota, 
where he rented a farm and entered upon its 
tillage. In the fall of the same year he came 
to the Red River N'alley, and took up a claim 
one mile and a half northeast of where Ada 
now stands, the village then consisting of 
one small, portable house, used as a station, 
one board shanty, and a small building used 
for a warehouse. He returned to Sauk 
Center, where his family were, and s]ient the 
winter. In the sjiring he returned to his 
claim, anti broke some twenty acres of itand 
erected a sod stal)le, l)ut returned to Sauk 
Center for his family, whom he brought here 
in September of that yeai'. He put up a 
house ami cairied on the farm until 1881. 
While there he took an active part in all 
town matters, ami served as chairman of the 
town boaril and as school director, as well 
as in other ollices. In the spring of 1882 he 
I'enioveil into the village of Ada, havinjj 
jireviouslr purchased six lots on Atlantic 
avenue, and in a house erected there, lived 



for two years and then removed to liis pres- 
ent I'esidence. 

In 1884 Mr. Hunting put in a stoeiv of 
farm machinery, and followed the sale of 
that line of goods for two years. In the 
spring of 18S3 he was elected to the positions 
of botli town and village justice, and has 
been reelected his own successor ever since. 
The same year he was chosen president of the 
village board, and held that office for a year. 

The subject of this memoir was married 
November 28, 1864, to Miss Alice Taylor, 
of Fall Tliver, Columbia county, Wisconsin, 
who died in January, 1865. On tiie 14th of 
December,. 1867, he was united in marriage 
with Mrs. Nancy Hunting, nee Silsbee, the 
widow of his brother, who had died from 
exposure shortly after his discharge fi-om 
the United States service, where he ha<l 
gallantly served. 

Mr. Hunting is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, having been nuide a Mason in 
Norman Lodge, No. 144, A. F. & A. M., 
in 1SS;1 He is also a charter member of the 
Knights of Pythias lodge of Atla. He was 
one of the originators of George B. McClellan 
Post, now William Ketchuin Post, No. 62, 
Grand Army of tlie Republic, and has been 
most actively identified with its interests 
and growth. In February, 1887, he organ- 
ized Company I, Third Regiment, Minnesota 
National Guard, and held the office of cap- 
tain until January, 1888, when he resigned. 
Politically he has always been a stanch 
su))|)orter of democratic jirinciples, and has 
labored for the success of that jiarty. 

Ml'. Hunting's family consists of three 
children, one daughter anil two ste])-chil(lren, 
iiaincd .lames G., Francis S. and Alice M. 


M^ RANCIS J. DUFFY, the editor and pro- 
X'" prietorof the East Grand Forks Cou- 
rier, is a native of Wisconsin, born in Water- 
town, on the lltli of February, 1855, and is 

the son of Patrick and Frances CWilliamson) 
I)ulf\', natives of Ireland. 

Mr. Duffy, of \vhom this sketch treats, 
remained at home, attending school, until he 
was twenty years of age. In the summers, 
and while he was out of school, he clerked 
in his father's general merchandise store until 
he was seventeen years of age. He then 
entered a printing office, and for three years 
worked at that trade. At the age of twenty 
years he removetl to the city of New York, 
and secured a position on the New York 
World. He remained in that office, setting 
type, until the spring of 1881. He then 
took a trip to the Old World, and remained 
in Lonilon, England, for about one month, 
and then went to Ireland, where he remaine*^! 
until the following September. In Septem- 
ber, 1881, he returned to the United States, 
and in October, 1882, settled at East Grand 
Forks, Polk county, Minnesota. In the fol- 
lowing August he ]iurchased his present 
paper, and has since been the sole editor and 
pro})rietor of the East Grand Forks Courier. 
He is one of the ablest editors in the Red 
River Valley, and the paper has a large and 
increasing circulation. It is a bi-ight, newsy 
paper, seven columns, and indepentlent in 

Mr. Duffy was united in marriage on the 
nth of July, 1888, to Miss Mary McCabe, 
daughter of Thomas and Catharine (Duggin) 
McCabe, natives of Ireland. Mr. Duffy is a 
popular man in his residence city and 
vicinity, and is well and favorably known 
throughout the Red River Valley. He has 
a fine and commodious residence in the 

Mr. Duffy now holds the office of cit\' 
recorder, and has hekl the offices of town 
clerk and secretary of the chamber of 
commerce. In ])olitical matters he is a 
stanch democrat. Mr. Duffy is also the 
manager of the East Grand Forks Loan 

I So 


>^tON. DANIEL W. HIXSON, State sena- 
-L"^^ tor anil a citizen of Grant county, 
Mianesota, is a resident of section 23, Dela- 
ware township. He was born in Burlington, 
Iowa, December 23, 1843, and is a son of 
John and Mary (Burnett) Hixson. who were 
natives of Ohio. Daniel W. remained on 
the home farm, attending school, until he 
was seventeen years of age, at which time 
he enlisted in Com])any C, Thirtieth Iowa 
Infantry (Fifteenth Army Corps), on Au- 
gust 4, 1802. He participated in many bat- 
tles, including Yicksbiirg, Champion Hills, 
etc., receiving his discharge for a wound 
received May 22d, at A'icksburg. After his 
discharge he returned to his old home, 
and remained there until March 7, 1805, 
M'hen he was married to Miss Helen Orr, 
daughter of J. W. and Jane (Baines) Orr. 
After his marriage he lived on the fai'm in 
Des Moines county, Iowa, where they re- 
mained until 1883. In 1883 they removed 
to Grant county, Minnesota, and D. W. 
Hixson purchased 480 acres of land in sec- 
tion 23, Delaware township, where they have 
since lived. Mr. Hixson has a residence in 
Herman village, where he with his family 
spend the rigorous winters. Mr. Hixson has 
made a specialty more of stock-raising than 
grain farming, both in Iowa and since com- 
ing to Minnesota. 

Mr. Ilixson has been prominently identi- 
fied with the official histor\' of Grant count}'. 
In the fall of 1886 he was elected to repre- 
sent his district in the State senate, and still 
holds that office. The record he has made 
reflects credit upon himself as well as the 
district, and has given him a State reputation 
as one of the leading members of the " upper 
house," while in Iowa. Mr. Ilixson was 
prominently identified with the Grangeorder, 
being secretary for twenty-seven lodges of 
that order. It was he who introduced the 
freedom of traffic bill in the State senate. 
He was nominated for tliat position by the 

Farmers' Alliance and endorsed by the re- 
publican party. 

By their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Hixson 
have become the parents of the following 
children — Edwin S., Elma C. and Capitola. 


;iOHN MARTH. Of the many " brave bovs 

in blue" who found iiomes in the famous 
Red River Valley and I'ark Regions, perhaps 
none deserve better mention than the gen- 
tleman whose name heads this biogi-a|)hical 
sketch, a popular and prosperous merchant 
of the village of Barnesville, Claj' county, 
Minnesota. He is a native of Germany, 
born in 183T, and is a son of George and 
Sophia (Hohman) Marth, natives also of the 
kingdom of Germany. 

Mr. Marth, of whom this article treats, 
spent his school days in his native land, 
where he remained until in his nineteenth year. 
In 18.57 he immigrated to the United States, 
and settled in the State of Virginia, where 
he remained for three months. At the expira- 
tion of the time, in October. 1S57, he moved 
to Crow river, Wright county. ]\Iinnesota, 
where the village of Delano now is located. 
He was one of the first settlors iti that sec- 
tion of country, and remaineil there until the 
fall of 1801. In the fall of that year he en- 
listed in the First Miimesota Battery, and 
served three years and nine months. He 
enlisted on the 4th of October, 1861, at 
Fort Snelling, Minnesota. The month of 
Kovember, 1801, was spent at La Crosse, and 
from that place the battery went to St. 
Louis, Missouri ; then on to I'ittsburo- 


Landing, taking ]iart in tliat engagement. 
Our subject was in many important engage- 
ments and sieges, including the following : 
Siege of Corinth, battle of Corinth ; then fol- 
lowed the rebel general. Price, through Ten- 
nessee, and from Memphis moved on to 
Vicksburg, iluring the winter of 1862-63. 



In the spring of 1SG3 the battery moved to 
the rear of Vicksburg, ])articipating in the 
siege and surrender of that place. After the 
surrender, the battery remained there as 
guard, and on Christmas of 1863 Mr. 
Marth's time expii-ed. He re-enlisted, how- 
ever, and obtained a forty-day furlongh, in 
which he returned to Minnesota, and re- 
mained until the furlough expired. He then 
I'eturned to active service. He went to 
Cairo, Illinois, whei-e he met his old battery, 
and they moved up the Tennessee river, 
going to lluntsville, Alabama. They joined 
Sherman's army at Big Shanty, before Kene- 
saw Mountain, and took part in that battle. 
Mr. Marth was with Sherman in his famous 
"march to the sea," and took part in all 
those heavy battles and weary marches. He 
then went to Washington, District of Co- 
lumliia. by way of Petersburg, Richmond and 
Alexandria. He participated in the grand 
review, and then went with his battery to 
Fort Snelling, Minnesota, where he was hon- 
orably discluxrge on the 1st day of June, 
1865. He was in ten separate and distinct 
battles, and received no disabling wound nor 
was made prisoner. 

After his discharge he went to AVabasha, 
Minnesota, where he remainetl until the spring 
of 1866. He then engaged in farming near 
Delano, Wright county, Minnesota, where 
he remained eight vears, engaged in agridult- 
ural jmrsuits. In 187i he removed into the 
village of Delano and erected a building, 
where he engaged in the general mercantile 
business for three years. In October, 1877, 
Mr. Marth removed to Barnesville, Clay 
county, Minnesota, and took a claim about a 
mile from the village. After he secureti his 
claim he returned to Delano, where he re- 
mained until 1878. In the spring of that 
year he returned to Barnesville and built a 
store, in which he ])laced a full line of gen- 
eral merchandise. He has since been en- 
gaged in the liusiness; has a stock worth 

iB30,000, and is one of the most successful 
business men of that region. In 1885, when 
the town was organized, he removed liis 
store to the new town, and lias since cai'ried 
on business there. In addition to his busi- 
ness interests, he owns a fine farm of 960 
acres, 800 acres beingundercuitivation, and it 
is under liis own supervision. He is a promi- 
nent man of his village, and has held the 
offices of scliool director and chairman of the 
town board. He is a member of the E. M. 
Ken Held Post, No. 145, Grand Army of the 
Tiepublic. lie is a member of the German 
Luthei'an churcii. A man of the strictest 
integrity, he stands high in the community 
in which lielives, both as a business man and 
an exemplary citizen. 

Mr. jNIarth was married June 21-, 1867, to 
Miss WiJliamina Ivlement, and they are the 
pai-ents of six children namely — Matilda, 
Sophia, Amanda, John, Rosa and Alvina. 
Mrs. Marth's father was a soldier in the Fourth 
Missouri Cavalry. He was taken prisoner 
and died in Libby prison. 

In political affairs Mr. Marth is a repub- 


the enterprising and influential 
citizens of Crookston. is one of the earliest 
settlers in the Red River Valley, taking his 
claim here on the 12th of June, 1872, since 
which time he has been largely identified 
with the growth and develojnnent of this 
portion of the State of Minnesota. 

Mr. Sam{)son was born in the kingdom of 
Sweden, October 26, 1840, and is the son of 
Bernhard and Olena Sampson. In Ids native 
land he received his education, and amid 
familiar surroundings grew to manliood. 
Perceiving the improbability, if not iinjios- 
sibilitv, of a man raising himself, in the land 



ol his birth, above the condition in which he ] 
was born, in 1867 he crossetl the ocean to 
the free shores of the Great Republic in 
search of a competency and a home. For 
two years after liis arrival in the United 
States he was emj)Ioyed on I'ailroads in Ohio 
and Michigan, but in 1869 he came west to 
Minnesota. Finding employment on the 
construction of the Northern Pacific railroad, 
he woi'kod west from Eraincrd to tlie Chey- 
enne river, Dakota, and in 1870 took up a 
claim on the banks of tiiat stream, witii tlie 
intention of making a farm, tlie grand ambi- 
tion of his life, lie put up a log cabin, and 
sowed some eighty acres of land he bad 
brolcen with wheat, and made his home upon 
it, sometimes working there and sometimes 
on the railroad for eighteen months, but, the 
grassho])pers devouring every part of his 
crop, in the spring of 1872 he left that i)art 
of the country and returned to Minnesota. 
Here, in company with some other parties, 
he took several contracts for grading on the 
Manitoba railroad, then in process of con- 
struction, north of Glyndoii. The first time 
ho came to Red Lake river was in May, 1872, 
when he brought up, with his team, several 
surveyors to the point where the i-oad was 
supposed to cross the stream, about two 
miles east of the present site of Crookston. 
His next trip was on the same errand, shortly 
after, and lie found that nearly all the land 
in that vicinity was taken possession of by 
settlers, and, it being heavy and wet, he came 
down the river a couple of miles and took up 
ii claim where he now lives. This was the 
12th of June, 1872. A few days later the 
survey of the road was changed to its pres- 
ent location, and made his place the most 
eligible of the neighborhood. He erected a 
log cabin on his claim, which was one of the 
first, if not the first, in this part of the val- 
ley, and, after the gi-ading contracts were 
finished, located on his claim. Here, for 
years, he devoteil his energies to its im- 

provement and cultivation. His original 
])iece of ground contained some 149 acres, 
to wliicii he added forty acres i)ought of 
the State, being school land, and seventy- 
three of the railroad, making in all 262 
acres, all of wiiich is excellent arable land. 
In 1882 Mr. Sampson ])latted some eighty- 
four acres of his place under the name of 
Sampson's addition to (h-ookston, and the 
same year South CrooUston was laid out on 
his original claim. In addition to this 
property he has a fine farm of 16".' acres of 
land (me mile southwest of the city, and 160 
acres of excellent hay land in the town of 
Russia, giving him superior advantages in 
stock-raising, in which he takes the greatest 
pride. He devotes considerable attention 
to the rearing of horses, and has sold off of 
his farm, in the spring of 1888, a matched 
span of colts for $600 to a St. Paul 

But it is in his public life that Mr. Samp- 
son is most widely known. His first public 
office of any moment was that of clei'k of the 
district court of Polk county, to which he 
was elected in 1878. At the explication of 
his term of service, in 1880, he was elected 
a member of the State legislature, and rep- 
resented this district in the twenty-second 
session of the house of I'epresentatives. 
The district then embraced the twelve 
counties of Clay, I'ecker, Wadena. Todd, 
Otter Tail, AVilkin, Beltrami, Norman, Mar- 
shall, Kittson, Hubbard and Polk, in all of 
which Mr. Sampson received handsome 
majorities, except in Todd. 

On the organization of tlu^ (Jrookston 
Improvement Company, the subject of this 
sketch was chosen its first president, in recog- 
nition of his services in behalf of the com- 
munity. The following year, in conijiany 
with F. J. Wilcken and Julius Bjornstad, of 
St. Paul, he put up the Crookston roller Hour- 
ing mill, at an expense of $.50,000, his share 
of which exceeded S13,000. The mill, which 



was one of the best in tlie valley, had a daily 
capacity of '^50 barrels of Hour, and used both 
steam and water ])ower. It was operated 
until June 4, ISST when it was destroyed by 
lire. Mr. Sampson, however, had disjjosed 
of his interest ))revious to its tlestruction. 
In the fall of 188(1 the gentleman of whom 
we write was elected by a handsome majority 
to represent this district in the State senate, 
the position which he so admirably fills at 
jiresent. He has ever been one Y)f the most 
active and public-spirited men in the com- 
munity; and takes great interest in the 
growth and improvement of both Crookston 
and the country in general. He was a mem- 
ber of the l)oard of education of the city 
when the present tine school buililing was 
erected, and takes great interest in all educa- 
tional matters. 

Mr. Sam])son was nnited in marriage 
June 17, 1871, with Miss Petra Bjornstad, 
who has become the mother of eight chil- 
dren — Lena, who was born September 1-i, 
1872, is, as far as now known, the first white 
child born in this part of the lied River 
Valley ; Selma, Ivickard, Olga, Gustave 
(deceased), Ilulda, Bernhard and Hagabart. 

Mr. Sampson, who saw a great deal of 
frontier life here in early days, says it was 
no uncommon thing while teaming through 
here, |)iMor to the erection of bridges, to 
unhitch his oxen from the wagon, drive them 
to the edge of the water, jump on one of 
them and swim them across the stream, 
holding in one hand the end of a I'ope, with 
which he was always provided, which was 
attached to his wagon, and after getting the 
animals on the other side, he would fasten 
the line to the yoke of the cattle and haul 
the wagon over, lie hauled the first load 
of flour into Moorhead, bringing it from 
Alexandria to that village in the fall of 
1870, for the firm of Eruns & Finkle. 
With him at the time was one Ole Strand- 

>^HRlSTOPHER C. SHEDD, a retired 
^y agriculturist of Douglas county, 
Minnesota, is a resident of the village of 
Osakis, where he is an employe in a general 
merchandise store, with his son. lie is a 
native of New Hampshire, born in Sullivan 
county, on the 20th of February, 1827, and 
is the son of Nathaniel and Cyntlia (An- 
drews) Shedd, natives of Massachusetts. 
They were married in New Hampshire in 
1826, and settled in that State, remaining 
there until their death. They were farmers 
in Sullivan county, where the father died in 
February, 1878. The mother died in 1848, 
when our subject was twenty-one years old. 
They were devoted members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and respected citizens in 
the locality in which they lived. After the 
mother's death the father married a Miss 
Sallv Winter, who is now living in New 
Hampshire. The father and mother of oiir 
subject were the parents of the following 
named children — Christopher C, Betsie A., 
Cyntha J., AVilliam W. and John G. All 
the children are deceased except Christopher 
C. and Betsie A. 

Mr. Shedd, the subject of the present 
article, received his education in his native 
State, and finished his schooling in Kimball 
Union Academy, in Meriden, New Hamp- 
shire. He received a good, practical busi- 
ness education, and, after leaving the acad- 
emy, worked during the summers on his 
father's farm. In the winters he taught 
school, and for a number of years he fol- 
lowed that profession. He then farmed foi' 
several years, and in ISO-t engaged in the 
milling business. After eighteen months 
he was burned out, and then engaged in the 
tanning industry. After the short period of 
six months he was again burned out, but 
rebuilt and continued in the tanner's busi- 
ness for six years. Mr. Shedd then sold out 
and emigrated into the great West, crossing 
the Mississippi river on the morning of his 



forty-sixth birthday. In 1873 he settled in 
Sibley county, Minnesota, where lie remained 
for one year, and then went to Rice onuiity. 
Minnesota, whei'e he engaged in the milling 
business. At the ex[)iration of four years 
]\Ir. Shedd moved to Osakis, Douglas county, 
Minnesota, and purchased a fine farm on sec- 
tions 2.5 and 26. lie has one of the most de- 
sirable pieces of property in the county, and 
was one of the substantial members of the 
farming- community in that locality. For 
five years he remained upon tlu; farm, but 
then finding old age approaching, i-endeiing 
him unable to perfoi-m hard lalioi', he moved 
into the village, and was em])l()yed by his 
son, as above stated. The son had in 1883 
openeil a store, and continues to ojierate the 

^[r. Shedd, the subject of this sketch, was 
united in marriage on the 2(Uh of March, 
1851, to Miss Melita Met calf, a luUive of 
New Hampshire, and the daughter of Hora- 
tio and Phebe i^Haven) Metcalf, natives of 
New Hampshire. Mr. and Mrs. Shedd's 
union has been blessed with one child — 
Herbert A., who married Miss Emma Wood- 
worth, Januar}^ 10, 1878. They have a 
family of three children — Harry, Frank 
and Mabel. 



BR. WILLIAM R. HAND, who is engaged 
in the practice of medicine in the village 
of Herman, Grant county, IMinnesota, is a na- 
tive of Pennsylvania, l)orn inAYayne county, 
on the 14th of September, 1854. He is the son 
of Nathan G., and Leah C. (Crone) Hand, both 
natives of Pennsylvania. The father died in 
1863 in the hospital at Philadelphia from a 
disease contracted in the army. He enlisted 
in the Pennsylvania Ileserve Infantrv, One 
Hundred and Forty-third Regiment, and after 
a few months of service, was taken sick with 
chronic diarrhoea, which caused his death. 

He was a lumberman through life and spent 
the active part of his life in Wayne county, 
Pennsylvania. The father and mother of 
our subject were the parents of the follow- 
ing named children — Anna M., Lydia C, 
William It. and Susie, deceased. The latter 
passed away at the age of four years, of scar- 
let fever. The two girls are now living in 
Pennsylvania; one is a school teacher and 
the other is a milliner. The mother of our 
subject is now living in Ilawley, Pennsylva- 

Mr. Hand, the subject of this biographical 
sketch, spent his boyhooil days in attending 
school in Ilawley, Pennsylvania, also at- 
tended the Soldier's Or])han Home School at 
Montrose, Pennsylvania, from which he 
graduated in 187(1. !!(> then entered a ma- 
chine shoji and iron factoiy, and engageil in 
general iron work for five years. At the 
expiration of that time he entered the office 
of a Dr. G. B. Curtiss, of Ilawley, Wayne 
county. Pennsylvania, antl remained with 
him six months, at which time his health 
gave out, and he was forced to abandon work 
for a period of five months. He then en- 
gaged in the study of medicine with Dr. 
Stephen Maxon, of Cuba, Allegany coun- 
ty, New York. At that time this doctor 
was one of the most prominent and noted 
men, and his decision and judgment as in- 
fluential as any in the East. Dr. Hand re- 
mained with this noted man for two years, 
and at the expiration of that time entered 
the Ohio ^Medical College at Cincinnati, and 
graduated from the full college course with 
high honors in 1877. No sooner had he fin- 
ished college than he at once entered into his 
life's work, opening an olHce at Scrubgrass, 
Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, and after 
remaining there one year, removed to Brad- 
ford, Mclvean county, Pennsylvania, where 
he was engaged in his profession for a period 
of three \'ears. The doctor then removed to 
Scranton, where he remained for two years, 



and from this place again removed, settling 
at Herman, Grant county, Minnesota. In 
January, 1883, he opened an office in Herman, 
and at once began liis professional life in this 
Western town. He has since been entraged 
in his medical work, ami now commands a 
large and increasing practice. He is rec 
ognized as one of the leading medical prac- 
titioners in that I'egion of the State, and is 
a man of cai'eful judgment and honest 

Dr. Hand was united in marriage on the 
30th of March, 1885, to Miss Jennie Hugunin, 
a native of Minnesota, and now the mother 
of one clnld, Lillia May. Mrs. Hand is a 
graduate of the excellent high school at 
Owatonna, Steele county, Minnesota, and 
prior to her marriage was a school teacher by 
profession. Dr. Hand is one of the promi- 
nent citizens of Grant county, and takes an 
active interest in all local and ]uiblic affairs. 
He is a republican in his political belief and 
has held the offices of recorder, deputy 
coroner, health officer, etc. He is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity and one of the 
leading and influential men of Herman vil- 

MORMAN A. BASSETT, a prominent 
and })rosperous farmer of section 
35, Moland township. Clay county, Minne- 
sota, is a native of Pennsylvania. He 
was born in Bradford county, ilairh 10, 
1820, and is a son of John and Clar- 
issa (Kellogg) Bassett. natives of Khode 
Islantl and Vermont, respective! \'. The 
father was a farmer, tanner and boot and 
shoe manufacturer. He settled in Penn- 
sylvania in an early day and was married 
there. His death occurred June 27, 18-12, 
and his wife died in 1881 at the advanced 
age of ninety -si.x years. There were nine 
ciiildren in the family — John W., Charles 
E., Orville P., Saraii A. (now Mrs. Aldrich), 

Chauncy, Susan (the wife of IMr. Todd), 
Norman A. (our suljject), antl Julia ('. (mar- 
I'ied to Mr. Cogshell). Two of the family are 

Norman, the subject of this memoir, spent 
his early cliildhood on a farm. When he 
was eight years of age the family removed 
to East Smithfield, Pennsylvania, where he 
attended the common school until he was 
sixteen years of age. He then entered his 
brother's wagon shop, and after remaining 
as an apprentice to that trade for some 
eighteen months, he entei'ed in the milling 
business with his father. He was engaged 
in this until 1813, when he moved into 
nortiiei-n Hlinois, and from there went to 
Lee county, Iowa, remaining with his 
l)rother, Samuel, during the winter. He 
then returiu'd to Illinois, settling in Carthage, 
Hancocic county, where he remained six 
months. He next settled in Boone county? 
Illinois, where he followed his trade until 
1851. While in Carthage, Illinois, Mr. 
Bassett was a witness to the death of Joseph 
Smith, the Mormon, and at that time he (Mr. 
Bassett) was a member of the Carthage 
Guards, and doubtless he is the only person 
now living who witnessed the killing of that 
notorious personage. In 1851 Mr. Bassett 
removed to Independence, Iowa, and pur- 
chased ninety acres of land near that place. 
He then eno-aged in general farming, and 
also worked at his trade, until he moved to 
Chatluun, Iowa, where he remained ;ibout 
five years. He next removed to Clay county, 
]\Iinnesota, and settled on the land which 
composes his present residence, and where 
he has lived ever since. He was one of the 
earliest settlers in his townshi|i, and has done 
a great deal to promote all public and educa- 
tional interests. 

Mr. Bassett was united in marriage, in 
ISiO, to Miss Keziah Hale, who was born in 
East Sinithtiekl, Pennsylvania, and is a 
daughter of Mason and Almira (King) Hale. 

1 86 


They came west in 1S42, and settled near 
Belvidere, Boone county, Illinois, Avhere the 
father was engaged in farniin"; for a number 
of years. They next removed to Waterloo, 
Iowa, where the mother died in 1870, and 
the father in 1883. Mr. and Mrs. Bassett 
are the parents of the following children — 
Ilorence 11. (now Mr.s. Spragg;, Clara O., N. 
Arthur, John M., Franklin II., Charles A., 
C. Howard, Bertha M. (tlie wife of Mr. 
William Osborn), and Julia M. Franklin is 
teaching in Japan, imd Florence, Clara and 
Bertiia were all school teacliers. 

Mr. Bassett formei-ly sup|)orted the repub- 
lican party, and was one of the delegates to 
the first I'cpubJican convention held in the 
State of Iowa. At present he is an advocate 
of the principles of the prohibition part};, and 
it was Mr. Bassett who cast the first and 
oidy vote for St. John for president in Mo- 
land township. Clay county. He has held 
various offices in the different localities in 
which he has resided, and was the firet town 
clerk in three tliiferent townships, in three 
different States. He holds the office of 
justice of the peace in his resident township, 
and has lielped organize tlirec townships, one 
ill Illinois, one in Iowa, and one in Minnesota. 
J\Ir. and Mrs. Bassett are members of the 
Methodist church, of which organization he 
is recording secretary. 



/^ DWIN C. SCHOW, the efficient post- 
Vi^ master at Ashby, Grant county, Min- 
nesota, is also engaged in the jewelr}' busi- 
ness in that j>lace. He is a native of Nor- 
way, born in \'aral, on the ith day of Sep- 
tember, 1837, and is a son of E. C. and 
Guline (Johnson) Scliow, natives of that 
.same kingdom. The father of our subject 
immigrated to the United States in 1855 and 
settled in Waupnn, Wisconsin, where he 
died in LSSf). He was a farmer throiigli life. 

The mother came to this country in 1857 
and died in 1861. They were the parents 
of thirteen children, four of whom are now 
living. Andrew and Christian were killed 
in the late Civil War. The names of the 
remainder are — Gilbert, ]\[rs. Olson, ilrs. 
Baulson and our subject. 

Mr. Schow, the sul)ject of this biograj)h- 
ical review, spent his school days in Christ- 
iania, iiaving gone there when he was four- 
teen yeais of age. While there he learned 
the w.itcliinakeFs trade. He then followed 
his trade for six years and in 1857 came to 
the United States, and after a vovage of ten 
weeks landed in Quebec, Canada. He then 
went to AVaupim, Wisconsin, where he re- 
mained until the time of his enlistment. In 
August, 1861, he enlisted in the Fifteenth 
Wisconsin Infantry and served until the time 
of his honorable discharge in October, 18()2. 
He entered as a private and was discharged 
as orderly sergeant. Mr. Schow served in the 
following battles — Island Number 10 and 
Union City, Tennessee. He was in many 
minor engagements and skirmishes, and was 
confined to the field hospital at Camp Ran- 
dall, Wisconsin, for some time with measles. 
After his discharge, he returned to Waupun, 
AVisconsin, where he remained a sliort time, 
and then went to Bochester, Alinnesota. In 
the year 1882 he closed out his business 
and removed to Grant county, Minnesota, 
settling at Ashby, wliere he has since re- 
mained. As soon as he settled there he 
opened a grocery and jewelry store, and lias 
since carrieil on those lines of trade. 

Mr. Schow was married in 1863, to Miss 
Mattie Olson, and this union has been blessed 
with the following named children — Charles 
E., Manton, Emma, AUred, Amanda and 
Nora. Charles is married and lives in Fer- 
gus Falls, Minnesota, engaged in the cloth- 
ing business. Our subject is a democrat in 
his political affiliations, and takes an active 
interest in all public matters. He, with his 



family-, are devoted members of the Lutlieran 
chiu'cli. lie has held various offices in the 
township and village, including the follow- 
ing — councilman, ]iresident of the village 
council, village treasurer and postmaster of 
the village since Julv, 1888. 


John H. ALSTEAD, a iirominent busi- 
^ ness man of Evansville, Douglas county, 
Minnesota, engaged in the real estate antl 
insurance business in tiiat place, is a native 
of Norway. He was born inKoraasin 1849, 
and is the son of Tver and Ingeborg (Ode- 
gaard) Alstead, natives of that kingdom. 
The father came to the United States in 
1S5G, and is now living in Douglas county, 

John IT. Alstead remained in his native 
land until about nineteen years of age, when 
he came to the United States. Up to the 
age of fourteen years he attended school, 
and then secured a position as clerk, which 
he held until he left his native land. In 
1869 he embarked in a steamer bound for 
the United States, and after a voyage of 
eleven days landed in Quebec, Canada. 
From there he went to Detroit, Michigan, 
then to Prairie du Chien. Wisconsin, and 
from there to lied Wing, Minnesota, by the 
Mississippi river. During the ne.xt fall he 
hired out to a farmer, and in the winter 
attended school, also clerking a few months 
for a Mr. Men son. Mr. Alstead then went 
to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he hired out 
as clerk to a manufacturing company'. 
Eeinaining in their employ until 1877, he 
went to Douglas county, Minnesota, and 
located at Evansville, and for six months 
was on a farm with his fathei'. He then 
established himself- in the j)unip business in 
Evansville, afterward adding fiour, farm 
ini|)lements, buggies, cutters, etc. In 1879 
he opened the lirst real estate and insurance 

office in that place, in which business he 
has since been engaged. 

Mr. Alstead was united in marriage, in 
1873, toMiss Anna C.Johnson, a native of 
Sweden. By this union two children have 
been born — Henry E. and Victor H. Mr. 
Alstead, with his family, belongs to the 
Lutheran church. lie is a member of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, and is 
an adherent to the principles of the demo- 
ci'atic party. He is a man highly honored 
and esteemed bv all who know him, and has 
held the offices of justice of the peace for six 
years and township clerk for four years. 
He is also notary public. 

/^HARLES C. KNAPPEN is the enter- 
vSV prising editor and proprietor of The 
Bulletin, of Fisher. He is the son of James 
G. and Elizabeth (Hulburt) Knappen, natives 
of New York. He was born in Columbia 
county, Wisconsin, February 15, ISfil, where 
he remained with his parents until he was 
seven years old, at which time they moved 
to Iowa, where they remained one year and a 
half, and then removed to Minnesota and 
settled in Albert Lea. Here Charles remained 
with his ]iarents about six years, when he com- 
menced learning the trade of printer with 
Woodard & Foss, editors of the Wells Ad- 
vocate. After remaining one year with them 
he went to Albert Lea for a short time, and 
then to Clear Lake, where he was engaged in 
the office of the Clear Lake. il//r;"o/". While 
in Albert Lea he, with Frank Pierce, issued 
his first paper, called The Will '0 the Wisp. 
After remaining in the Clear Lake Mirror 
office one year under instruction, he went to 
Lake Mills and ran a paper there for a period 
of six months, then returned to Albert Lea 
and ran the North Star a shoit time, after 
which he was engaged for six months in 
Minneapolis, with Johnson, Smith tV- Ilarri- 

1 88 


son, book publishers. He then went to Em- 
erson, Manitoba, and worked in the office of 
the DaUij International for some time, and 
in 18S1 went to the Rocky mountains as a 
correspondent for different papers. He was 
thus engaged for one year, and then, after 
visiting different j)laces for six months, he 
went to Fergus Fulls, working in the office 
of the Daily Telegraph six months ; from 
there he went to Chippewa Falls. Wisconsin, 
and was tliere and at Eau Claire engaged in 
newspaper work for one year and a lialf ; 
from there he went to Superior and i-an the 
Inter-Occan one and a half years, at wliicli 
time he came to Fisher, where he is now en- 
gaged in the same Imsiness. He has nuide 
the Bulletin a grand success, its circulation 
being now about 70U, which speaks well 
for the business (pialities of its enterprising 
and popular editor and proprietor. 

Mr. Knappen was married at Chippewa 
Falls, Wisconsin, September 2d, 1880, to 
Miss Etta G. Butler, the daughter of Aaron 
and Adrien (Edwards) Butler, natives of 

The subject of this sketch affiliates with 
the republican party. 



I^ZRA G. VALENTINE, a leading and 
'"^"^ prominent attorney at law in Breck- 
eni'idge, Wilkin county, Minnesota, is a 
native of tiie State of New York. He was 
born on a farm near Attica, Wvomino- 
county, New York, on the 9th da\' of 
August, 1847, and is the son of Solomon and 
Maria (Goodell) A'alentine, natives of Wash- 
ington aiul Erie counties. New York, respect- 
ivel}'. The grandparents of our subject on 
his mother's side were John and Kuth Good- 
ell, natives of Erie county. New York, and 
were engaged in the pursuit of farming. 
They were excellent people, and devoted 
members of the Baptist church. The other 

grandparents of Mr. Valentine were Solo- 
mon and Mary Valentine, natives of Wash- 
ington county. New York. The father of 
the subject of this article was a practical 
mechanic by trade, and carried on tliis indus- 
ti'v in Ripon, Wisconsin, to whicli place he 
had removed in 18.57. He was engaged at 
I flie wagon makers and blacksmith's trades in 
that place, and remained there until his 
death, which occuritHl in September. 1870. 
The moti)er of Mr. Valentine is still living at 
i Ripon, Wisconsin. They had a family of 
i the following named children — Cliancy B., 
I attorney at law in Pai'ker, Dakota Territory ; 
j Professor William H. II.. of Chicago, Illi- 
nois, in Bryant A: Stratton's college; Annie, 
now Mrs. L. B. Everdell, her husband a law- 
yer of Brecken ridge, Minnesota; Josephine 
S., the wife of Mr. J. M. Beach, the State 
agent of W^isconsin for tlie Wheeler tt Wil- 
son Sewing Machine Company ; E/ra G., the 
subject of this memoir, and Ella M., who 
married Mr. King, a conductor on the I'ail- 
road, and a resident of Oshkosh, AVisconsin. 
The entire family consisted of fourteen chil- 
dren, five of whom died in infancy, and one 
at the age of five years. A seventh one died 
at the age of twelve yeai's. The rest grew 
to num and wonumliood, ar.d the above 
named are those now living. 

Mr. Valentine, of whom this sketch treats, 
was ])laced in tiie school-room at the early 
age of four 3'ears. He first attendetl the 
schools at Varysburg, near Attica, New 
York, and at the age of ten years removed 
witii his parents to Ripon, Wisconsin, where 
he attended the graded schools, and later 
entered Ripon College. He then attended 
Beloit College, in Wisconsin, and, after taking 
a tiioroiigh classical course, was graduated 
in 1869. After his graduation he was em- 
])loyed in the State School of Wisconsin for 
the Deaf and Dumb, as teacher, for four 
years, and a portion of this time was in 
charo-e of the institution. Later he was 



engaged as instructor in tiie Indiana School 
for tiae Deaf and Dumb, located at Indian- 
apolis, and was connected with that school 
for three years. During the seven years he 
was employed in the two institutions he 
studied law, and the last year of teaching 
read under General Harrison, President of 
the United States. Leaving Indiiinaj)olis, 
lie removed to Chicago, Illinois, and entered 
the law office of Bonfield, Swezey & Smith, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1877. Dur- 
ing the same j'^ear he opened an office on his 
own account in Chicago, and remained tliere 
until December, 18S2, when he removed to 
Breckenridge, Minnesota, and entered into 
partnership with L. B. Everdell. This firm 
continued until May 1, 1884, when the 
partnership was dissolved, and Mr. Val- 
entine opened an office on his own ac- 

On the 1st of September, 1885, he, with 
F. E. Kenaston and J. A. Nelson, started a 
■bank in Breckenridge, under the name of 
Wilkin County Bank. In June, 1888, he and 
others established the Barnesville State Bank, 
•of which institution he is now one of the direct- 
ors. Mr. Kenaston has charge of the Wil- 
kin County Bank, and J. A. Nelson is cashier 
of the Barnesville bank. Both of these gen- 
tlemen are noticed at length elsewhere in 
this Album. Mr. Valentine is the attorney 
for both of these banks, and has a large and 
increasing practice. He is an able and suc- 
cessful lawyer and a careful business man. 
He owns a good deal of landed pi-operty in 
Wilkin county, Minnesota, and also in Da- 
kota, and is vice-president of the Wah])eton 
Telephone Company, of which he isalsocor- 
jioration attorney. He also attends to a 
great deal of legal business for a number of 
corjiorations. He is the chairman of the 
permanent committee of fifteen, who were 
chosen at a convention held at Crookston, 
Minnesota, to devise a system of drainage for 
.the Red River Valley counties in Minnesota, 

including the counties of Marshall, Polk, 
Norman, Clay and Wilkin 

Our .subject was married on the 4th of 
June, 1879, at Chicago, Illinois, to Miss Ber- 
tha M. Alden, and their union has been 
blessed by the advent of three children — 
James Alden and Blanche M., both now 
living, and JMaude Jose])liine Valentine, who 
died in infancy. Mrs. Valentine was born 
at Wilmington, Illinois, and is a daughter of 
James F. Alden, formerly a merchant of 
Boston, Massachusetts, and afterward mana- 
ger of the credit dei)artment for A. T. Stew- 
art, the dry goods king of Chicago and 
New York City. 

In conclusion, it is but just to say that Mr. 
Valentine is one of the most prominent and 
substantial citizens of Breckenridge. He is 
the president of the village council, has also 
held the office of school clerk for a number 
of years and filled various other local posi- 
tions. Every enterprise calculated to benefit 
his town or county has always received his 
heiirty support and cooperation, and no 
man has been more pr(jminently identified 
with the growth and (levelopment of Breck- 
enridge than has he. 

-— <^- 


>HtON. IRA B. MILLS, judge of the 
J!?t!L Fourteenth judicial district, embrac- 
ing Becker, Clay, Norman, Polk, Marshall, 
Kittson and Beltrami counties, is a native 
of Orange county, New York, born January 
14, 1851. His parents were William and Julia 
(Houston) Mills, who were natives of Scotch- 
town, Orange county, New York. William's 
father was Samuel, who married Esther 
Still, and they were both born in Orange 
county. Julia Houston's father was John 
G., and her mother Susan fBronson) Hous- 
ton, of the same county in New York above 
named. The father was a thrifty farmer, 
and he served in the War of 1812. These 

I go 


families wei'e all possessed of good fortunes, 
and stood among tiie best of New York 

William Jlills had a lainily of tiiree cliil- 
dren, two of whom arc now living — Judge 
Ira 13. and his sister, Susan E. Tiie father 
and his wife went to retersburgii, Virginia, 
and settled, living retired until his death. 

Our subject, Ira B., was reared on his 
parents' farm, until he was fourteen years of 
aire. He was a graduate of Walikill Acad- 
emy, Orange county, New York, in 1867. 
After leaving the school-room he clerked in 
a large grocery and feed store for a jieriod 
of one year, after which he studied law with 
A. V. is'. Powelson. Later on he attended 
the Albany law school, and was admitted to 
the bar in May, 1872. He practiced in Port 
Jarvis, Orange county. New York, until 
1881, when lie saw broader and more promis- 
ing fields in tiie gnjwing AVest, and came to 
Minneapolis. ^Minnesota, where he lived six 
months, ami in ISSi' removed to Moorhead. 
Here he practiced law with much success 
until ISSC, when the ])eople of his district 
elected him to the office of district judge, 
wiiich place he still holds to the greatest 
satisfaction of all. Previous to his election 
he was a law i>artner of the firm of liurn- 
ham, Mills cfe Tillotson. In the East he had 
served as city attorney for two years, and 
otiierwise taken a prominent part in ])ublic 

He was married September 17, 1874, to 
Miss Isadore I>ackus, of Ashford, Connecti- 
cut, the daughter of S. S. Backus. Mr. and 
Mrs. Mills have one son — Ernest B. 

Politicall}', our worthy subject is a repub- 
lican, yet it may lie said tliat lie lias made 
law his tlieme, more than jiolities, hence his 
success in his ciiosen ]m)fession. He belongs 
to tlie order of Odd Fellows and also tiie 
Knights (if Pytliias. In the legal jirofession 
no man in all the great Northwest stands 
higher than Judge Mills. 

JOHN PETERSON LEE, one of tlie prom- 
inent and respected members of the 
farming community of Grant county, Min- 
nesota, is the subject of this biogi-ai)liical 
sketch, a resident of section 7, Sanford . 
townshi]). wiiere he is engaged in a general 
farming and stock-raising business. He is a 
native of Norway, born in the year 1836, 
and is a son of Peter Ilermanson and Sarah 
(Leej Ilermanson, natives also of Norway'. 
The parents emigrated to the United States 
at an early day and settled in Dane county, 
Wisconsin. They were farmers and tlie 
parents of the following named cliildren — 
Herman, Nels, Isabelleand John. 

John Petei'son Lee, the subject of this 
sketcli. spent hisscliool days in Dane county,' 
Wisconsin, where he had settled in infaTicy. 
He left scliool at the age of eighteen years. 
After leaving school he worked at general 
fai-ming in Wisconsin mid ^linm-sota until 
he enlisted. Special mention should here be 
matle of tlie war record of the jiresent sul)- 
ject. He enlisted at Goodhue county. ^lin- 
nesota, in IStW, in tlie Tenth Minnesota In- 
fantry, Company D, under Captain Phelps, 
and was with General Sibley's expedition, 
which started out from Fort Snelling. going 
up the Minnesota river, then to Devil's Lake 
along tlie Missouri river and i)ack to St. 
Paul. He then went to New York City, and 
in 1863 enlisted in the navy and served one 
year. After his ilischarge he returned to 
Wisconsin, and remained there about one 
3'ear. He next went to Goodhue county, 
Minnesota, where he spent another yeai'. 
Then he came to Stillwater, where lie was 
employed for two years in rafting on the 
Mississippi river. He then went to Minneap- 
olis, Minnesota, where hi' remained one year, 
working in a lumber yartl. He then I'e- 
iiioved to Alexandria, Douglas county, 
Minnesota, where he was married and re- 
mained one year. Then he settled on his 
present farm in Sanford townsliip. Grant. 



count3', Minnesota. He was the first set- 
tler of his township, and did the first break- 
ing- of the prairie soil. 

For si.x niontlis he was teaming between 
St. Cloud and Ft. Abercrorabie, and then 
settled at farming, at which he has been en- 
gaged ever since. He is one of the jiromi- 
nent farmers of the town and connty, highly 
esteemed by all who bear his acquaintance. 

Mr. Lee was united in marriage in Octo- 
ber, 1S6S, to Miss Bergitha M. Holnig, a na- 
tive of Norwa\' and now the mother of one 
child — Sophia. 

Mr. Lee, with his family, belongs to the 
Lutheran chui'ch, and is one of the most 
favorably known families in the township. 
Mr. Peterson Lee is a republican in his polit- 
ical affiliations, and takes an active j)art in 
all |)ul)lic and local affairs. 



WILLIAM S. MOLES is a leading real 
estate dealer in Alexandria, Doug- 
las county, Minnesota. His careful, honor- 
able and energetic business qualities have 
earned for him an excellent reputation in the 
place where he resides. 

He was born in Cumberland, in the north 
of Englard, in the year LS34r, and his ]iai'ents 
were John and Elizabeth (Stephenson) Moles, 
his father being a native of Dumfries, Scot- 
hmd, and his mother being born in Cumber- 
land, Englantl. His father was an expert 
machinist, and was foreman of a large manu- 
factor}' in England for a number of \'ears. 
Li the year 1837 the family left old England 
to seek homes in the United States. After 
a very tempestuous voyage of thirteen weeks 
on the Atlantic, they reached Mobile, Ala- 
l)ama, where they resided for one year. 
They then removed to the State of Hlinois, 
locating in Peoria count}', some twenty-five 
miles west of Peoria city, where the father 
built the first grist mill that was erected in 

that part of the country. After carrying on 
the milling business and farming for some 
four years the father sold out and removed 
to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, whence he 
returned to Peoria, Illinois, in 1845. He 
died at the latter place in 1847. The mother 
died in Marshall county, Illinois, in 1872. 
They had a family of six children, three of 
whom died in infancy ; those living are 
William S.; Elizabeth, now Mrs. Herder, of 
Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and Samuel T. 
Moles, of Duluth, Minnesota. 

The subject of our sketch was raised on a 
farm, receiving but a, limited school educa- 
tion, lie has, however, su|)plemented that 
by careful and systematic study in later 
years, and is well read on all general sui)jects. 
At the age of sixteen years he liecame a 
clerk in what is kin)wn as a general store, 
where he remained till he was twenty-two 
years old. after whicli he opened a mercan- 
tile business for himself in Marshall county, 
Illinois, continuing the business until 1860. 
He sold out and engaged in the real estate 
ami insurance business, wherein he was very 
successful until 1870, at which time he sold 
out the business and good-will thereof. 

In 1872 he removetl to Alexandria, Doug- 
las county, Minnesota, where he took the 
position of book-keeper and general business 
manager forthe Hon. William E. Hicks, now 
deceased, who was the owner of a laro-e 
amount of real estate, including the Alexan- 
dria town site, Alexandria steam mills and 
other valuable business jn-opertv. 

In 1856 Mr. Moles was married to Miss 
Margaret J. Kunnells, who was born in Dear- 
born county, Indiana. They have three 
children living — John K., Samuel D. and 
William H., the first two named being at 
present engaged in the mercantile business 
in Alexandria, under the firm name of Moles 
Bros. In 1871 the mother died. In 1873 
Mr. Moles was again married, to Miss Martha 
Snetting, of Alexandria, the issue of this 



marriage being two chiUli-en, living — Martha 
E. and Edward S., tlie latter being now at 
the age of ten years. 

Mr. Moles has always taken an active 
l)art and keen interest in the upbuilding of 
the town and count}' in which he lives, and 
to his untiring energy and well directed 
efforts, in connection with otlier intelligent 
men of the same class, Alexandria and 
Douglas count}" is taking the front rank as 
one of the most desirable and justly favored 
spots for I'esidence in all i[innesota's Park 
Region. Mr. J\[oles controls a large amount 
of choice property in Alexandria and vicin- 
ity. He and Mrs. Hicks (^widow of the late 
Hon. AV. E. Hicks) ai-e owners of a large 
amount of very choice timber farming lands, 
choice lakeside i)roj>erty and town lots in 
Alexandria and vicinity, which they offer at 
such prices anil on such terms to purchasers 
and home seekers as can not fail to attract 
universal attention of all who ilesire to 
chano'e their residence or make handsome 
returns on safe investments. 


JTOHN S. KOTSCHEVAR, of the firm of 
^ M. Kotsclievar ct Son. general mer- 
chants in Brandon, is one of the leading busi- 
ness men of tiie ])lace, being also engaged 
in the agricultui'al implement business and 
in buying wheat for O. N. Ostrom. of Min- 
neapolis. Mr. Kotsclievar was born in Aus- 
tria, on the lUth of January, lSfi2, and is a 
son of Matliias Kotschevar. John S. came 
to the United States with his mother and 
one brother in 1869. After lauding at Cas- 
tle Garden. New York, they came to Stearns 
county. Minnesota, aiid lived for one year at 
St. Martin. They then settled at Elizabeth- 
town, in Otter Tail count}', where they re- 
mained for two years. iEillerville, in Doug- 
las county, was their next place of residence. 
John S. Kotschevar received his education 

principally in Douglas county, but finished 
his schooling with a course at St. John's Col- 
lege, in Stearns county, leaving that institu- 
tion in 1886. On the 2d of Kovember, 
1887, he, wit!) his father, established their 
general store at Brandon, and John S. has 
since made that place his home. M. Kotsch- 
evar also has a general store at Millerville, 
and also deals extensively in stock. The 
firm carries on a heavy business, and are 
rated among the most substantial business 
iirms in Douglas county. 

John S. Kotschevar was married on the 
ISth of October, 1887, to Miss Anna Movern. 
She wasl)()rn at Cold Springs, Stearns county, 
Minnesota, but was reareil and educated at 
Milleiwille, Douglas county. 

Our subject is independent of party lines 
in his political action. He has always taken 
an active and prominent part in public and 
political affairs, and in 1886 was the candi- 
date for sheriff of Douglas county on the 
people's ticket, but was defeated by a small 
majority, as the county is overwhelmingly 
republican. He is the present village re- 
coi'der of Brandon, and is one of the leading 
citizens of the place. The family are exem- 
plary members of the Catliolic church. 


^'"■^^HRISTIAN P. STAVE, a prominent and 
respected citizen of Otter Tail county. 
Minnesota, is engaged in the general mer- 
chandising business in the village of Aastad. 
He is a native of Norway, born on the .".rd 
day of March, 18-18, and is the son of Paul 
and Gurena C. (Vigvskoen) Stave, natives 
also of the kingdom of Norway. The 
mother died when the subject of this sketch 
was three years of age, and the father passed 
away in 1883. He was a farmer through 
life, and died at his home in Norway. They 
are the parents of the following named 
children — Torkel, Andreas, Pauleua, Serena, 



Cliristian and John. John, Paulena and our 
subject are the only cliildren who are in 

Christian P. Stave, of whom tliis article 
treats, received iiis earlier education in tlie 
land of ills birth, but also attended school 
considerable after coming to the United 
States. At the age of fifteen years he left 
sciiool and remained at home, helping on the 
home farm. At the age of twenty -two years 
he emigrated to the United States, and in 
the 3'ear 1870 landed at Quebec, Canada. 
From the port of landing he removed to 
within about twentj' miles of LaCrosse, Wis- 
consin, where he remained for one month. At 
the expiration of that time he moved to 
Goodhue county, Minnesota, and after a six 
years' sojourn in that locality went to Ot- 
ter Tail county, Minnesota. While in Good- 
hue county he was engaged extensively in 
a general farming and stock business. After 
coming to Otter Tail county, he settled on 
section 12, Aastad townshij), where he fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits until 1882. His 
Ijeautiful farm comjirised 120 acres of well 
im])roved land, and was one of the most de- 
sirable tracts in the township. In 1882 Mr. 
Stave opened a general store in Parkdale, 
Otter Tail count}', and continued in the busi- 
ness for two years. In ISSi he removed 
from Parkdale and settled at Aastad, where 
he opened a general merchandise store, and 
has since been enoaged in that business. He 
carries a full line of goods and is one of the 
most prominent and successful citizens in 
the cuunty. 

Mr. Stave was mari'ied in 1884 to Miss 
Carrie Knutson, a native of Norway, who 
emigrated to the United States in 1867. 
Mr. and Mrs. Stave are the parents of the 
following children — Gurena, Clara P., Ida 
C, Carete M., Ingebor, deceased, and Pasvig, 
who died at the age of four months. While 
our subject was in Parkdale he was post- 
master. He has always taken a i)i'orainent 

part in jjublic affairs and has held a great 
niany local offices, such as justice of the 
peace, chairman of the board of supervisoi's, 
school clerk, etc. He is one of the repre- 
sentative men of his town and county, highly 
esteemed and respected by all. He is a man 
of the utmost honor and integrity', and his 
word is recognized as being as good as a 



lNDREW l.UND, a prominent and suc- 
cessful merchant of the village of 
Norcross, Grant county, Minnesota, is a na- 
tive of Norway. He was born in Bergen 
Stiff, on the 1st of January, 185-4, and is the 
son of Andrew and Anna (Olson) Taralact, 
natives also of the kingdom of Norway. 
The father and mother of our subject are 
still residing in their native land, and are en- 
ffaffed in the vocation of farmino'. Thev ai'e 
the parents of the following named chil- 
dren — Gunilda, Anna, Ole, Peter, Breta, 
Andrew, Martin, Lena and Pagnilde. 

Andrew Lund attended the excellent com- 
mon schools of his native land from eight 
years of age until he was sixteen, at which 
period in life he began an apprenticeship to 
the carpenter's trade. After learning his 
trade he followed the same in the Old World 
until 1874. In 1874 he emigrated to the 
United States, and, after landing, went to 
Minneapolis, Minnesota. He followed his 
trade in that city for seven years, and, at the 
expiration of that time, removed to Nor- 
cross, Grant county, Minnesota. In ISSl he 
opened up his present business of general 
merchandising, and has continued to operate 
the same with increasing success. In addi- 
tion to his store, he holds a quarter interest 
in a general store in the village of Wheaton, 
Traverse county, Minnesota, and owns a fine 
farm in Logan township. Grant county, Min- 
nesota. In 1884 Mr. Lund was elected to 



the office of postmaster, and he has since 
held the position witli credit to iiiniself and 
tlie parties who selected iiini. 

Mr. I.nnd was united in marriage on the 
16tii day (.1' Ain-il, 1882, to Miss Malena 
Everson. wlio was born in Norway on the 
2 2d of February, ISCO. Tiieir marriage lias 
1)een blessed witli tiie following children — 
Anna, Alfred, Iver and Ellen. The family 
are exemplary members of the Norwegian 
Lutheran church. Mr. Lund is a representa- 
tive man of his town and county, always 
taking an active interest in all public and 
educational matters. He has held the offices 
of school treasurer of district No. 31, town 
treasurer, etc. He is a i-epublican in his 
political affiliations, and is a man of the best 
business qualifications. He is highly esteemed 
bv all wiio know him as a man of the 
strictest honor and integrity, and his word 
is recognized as being as good as a bonil. 



^^t^ C. LIGHTBOURN, theeditor and pro- 
prietor of the Norman Couufy Jnde.c, 
the leading journal of the county, and an 
important factor in the growth aiul develoji- 
ment of the village of Ada, Minnesota, was 
born in 8t. Paul, Minnesota, January 30, 
1858, and is the son of Edward S. and Susan 
H. (Murray) Lightbourn. His father is a 
native of the Bermuda Islands, and of 
English ancestry, while his mother is a 
descendant of the Norman family, who 
settled in Carolina at an early day. The 
maternal grandfather of our subject, U. C. 
Murray, settled at St. Paul in its infancy, 
being one of its pioneer citizens. 

The father and mother of the subject <;if 
this memoir were married in New Orleans, 
and settled in St. Paul in 1857, where he was 
born. Receiving his education in the schools 
of that city, Mr. Lightbourn, at the age of 
eleven vears, having a natural bent toward 

the newspaper business, commenced work in 
the office of the St. Paul Pioneer, working 
mornings and evenings, going to school in 
the interval. He was advanced from one 
post in the office to another, and at the age 
of seventeen began in earnest his apprentice 
ship to the "art jn'eservativeof all arts," and 
finished his trade in that office. Four suc- 
ceeding years he spent as journeyman printei' 
in the employ of the daily papers of St. Paul, 
but in 1881 removeil to Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
and there remainetl for ai)out eighteen 
months, following his trade. From there he 
went to Grand Forks, where he was 
the genei'al manager of the daily J'hu'n- 
dealer for about si.\ months. Having a 
natural desire to have a paper of his 
own, he looked around for a suitable 
locality, and in the spring of 1883, in 
company with C. AV. Foote, came to Ada 
and pui'cluised the Alert, a paper established 
by Fi'ed Puhler, in 1880, and ciianging its 
name to that of the Norman Counti/ ImJew, 
entered upon its management. Three years 
later, in 1880, Mr. Lightbourn puicliased the 
interest of his co-partner, and since that time 
has had sole control of the business. He has 
made the journal over which he presides the 
most active and prominent supporter of repub- 
lican principles in this section of country, 
and is himself an energetic worker in the 
interests of that Jiarty, both with pen and 
tongue. He wields a trenchant jien, which, 
while shar]) ami keen, is \'et temj)ered witiia 
courtesy that never fails to win the admira- 
tion of even his opponents. His writings 
are sharp and clear, and show him to be a 
man of keen conceptions, and a stanch an«l 
strong friend or foe. The jjaper thus ably 
edited is highly popular and is the largest 
and best circulated in the northwestei'n part 
of the State, and has a record of which ]\fr. 
Lightbourn can well feel proud. 

In his }K)litical views, as has been said. Mr. 
Lightbourn affiliates with the republican 



])arty, and lias lieen an active and ])rnininont 
member of many of thecounty and State con- 
ventions of that organization, and his voice 
and vote have always been in supjiort of the 
purest measures and tlie best men. Tlie 
interests of tiie principles crystallized in the 
platforms of his party are his creed, and of lie is a most ardent advocate, both 
fi'om the editorial tripod and the rostrum. 
In iiis ]irivate life he is a most social and 
"genial companion, and enjoys in tiie highest 
(lejjiee the esteem and reg-ard of tiie wliole 

Mr. Lightbourn was united in marriasie 
September 27, 1SS7, with Miss Emily Gins- 
])erg, of Ada, but formerly of Mantorville, 
Dodge county, this State. 


/pCHARLES H. SHALER was born in 
\^=S^ Kalamazoo county, Michigan, Sep- 
temlier 15, 1840, a son of Thomas and 
Adelia (Burdeck) Shaler, natives of Con- 
necticut and New York, respectively. The 
father was born March 20, 181-1, the mother 
March 20, 1822; went with their parents to 
IMiciiigan, where they were married. The 
father engaged in farming until the spring 
of 1850, when he went overland to Cali- 
fornia, and engaged in farming just below 
Sacramento City, on the banks of the 
Sacramento. He sent for his family, wliom 
lie iiad left behind in Michigan in IS.")!*. Tlie 
iiKJtlier died in Sacramento City, tiie father 
still lives there. Their children W(!re iMary 
T., deceased, Almeda, and Charles 11. , sub- 
ject of this sketch. The father took an 
active interest in jniblic affairs, was formerly 
a whig, and voted for "William Henry 
Harrison in 18'10; has been a stanch repub- 
lican since its organization, and voted for 
iJenjamin Harrison in 1888. Our subject 
went with tlie family to California, besides 
iiclpingon the farm; sjient one suiiiiiicr, 1860, 

in the mines of Nevada, then Utah Terri- 
tory. He enlisted in Company M, First 
California Cavalry, March 14, 1863, at 
Sacramento City; went with his company 
to Arizona Territory and New Mexico, where 
.they were engaged in scouting dut^-; par- 
ticipated in an engagement against the 
Kiawas and Camoncha Indians on the 
Canadian river, Indian Territory, November 
24, 1864, Kit Carson commanding. He 
received an honorable discharge Mai'ch 15, 
1866, at Fort Selden, New Mexico; went to 
Green Lake county, Wisconsin, and in the 
spring of 1868 settled in Blue Earth county, 
Minnesota. He came to Todd county in the 
fall of 1888. His home is in section 24, 
Stone Prairie township. He is a republican 
in ]^olitics, a membei- of Mankato Lodge, 
No. 15, 1. O. O. F., and of Alexander Wilken 
Post, G. A. P., at Mankato, Minnesota. 

Our subject was married December 8, 
1868, to Julia J. French, born in Columbia 
county, Wisconsin, July 30, 1848. Their 
children are Myila F., born September 10, 
1869; Bertha F.', born August 2, 1871; Charles 
L., born August 12, 1874, died September 
21, 1878; Koy H., born February 17, 1877; 
Willie IL, born July 5, 1879, died 
Mai-ch, 1880; Gaylord T., born June 23, 
1885, and Bernice A., born June 3. 1888. 

PETER E. THOMPSON. The subject of 
this biographical memoir is one of 
the prominent and esteemed menibers of the 
business fraternity of Clay county, Minne- 
sota, being engaged in carrying on a general 
merchandising business in the village of 
Barnesville. He is a native of Wisconsin, 
born in Dane county, on the 16th day of 
November, 1852, and is tiie son of Ingrebret 
and Mary (Ilaugen) Thompson, natives of 

Mr. Thompson, the subject of this article. 



spent liis early cliildliood in liis native State, 
ilis lather (lied in Dane county, "Wisconsin. 
In 1864 he removed witli tlie family to (Tood- 
hue county, ifinnesola, and remained there 
five years, attending school. At the expira- 
tion of that time he commenced in life for 
himself and removed to Northfieid, Minne- 
sota, where he secured a clerkship in a store. 
He remained in that place engaged in clerk- 
ing for two years and a half. He then 
moved, with his mother and brothers, to 
Otter Tail county, Minnesota. They made 
the journe\' overland, and after a long, 
tedious trip, they arrived at their destina- 
tion — Pelican Kapids. They were among 
the very first who settled in that locality, 
and they took a tract of land about two 
miles from the village. Times were hard 
and circimistances seemed coupled togetiier 
to oppress them. Their nearest market was 
at Alexandria, seventy-live miles distant, and 
the trip had to lie made overland. The sulj- 
ject of this sketch remained there two years, 
and then removed into the village of Pelican 
Rapids, where he secured a clerkship in the 
store of Mr. Plyberg, and i-emained with him 
about two years. He rented the farm and 
in 1875 went into the employ of G. S. 
Barnes (after whom Barnesville is named), 
and remained with him until the fall of 1S80, 
at Barnesville, Clay county, Minnesota. In 
the fall of 1877, when the branch known as 
the '"cut-off" was built between Barnesville 
and Moorhead, Mr. Thompson located at 
Barnesville, as nianager for G. S. Barnes, and 
later built a store and engaged in the general 
merchandising ijusiness for himself, which 
ho has since followed. At the time Mr. 
Thomjjson pui-chased the stock of goods from 
Ml'. Keene, the new town was organized and 
Mr. Thompson removed his store building 
and stock to the latter place. In 1884, he 
again removed to the last incorporated 
Barnesville, where he has since i-esided. In 
1878 he filed on two Government lots, com- 

prising seventy-two acres, and the new town 
site includes his land, which is now platted 
into city lots. 

ilr. Thompson was mari-ied in 1879 to 
Miss II. C Olson, of Evansville, Grant county, 
and they are the parents of three children — 
George E., Alma M. and Julian S. Mr. 
Thompson is an active and prominent busi- 
ness man of liis county, and one who bears 
the respect of all. He has held the office of 
justice of the peace and postmaster foi' eight 
years, and is a I'cpresentative man of the 
Red River Valley. He was elected county 
commissioner in 1886, and re-elected in 1888 
He is a prominent member of the I. O. O. F., 
and an adherent to the principles of the' 
repuiilican party. 

/^HRISTIAN MADSON. The subject of 
^^y this biographical memoir is aresidentof 
East (irrand Forks, Polk county, j\[innesota, 
where he is engaged in the genei-al mei-chaii- 


dising business. He is a nativeof Denmark, 
born in Orenholt on the 11th day of October, 
1841), and is the son of Mads and Anna Elsie 
Maria Jensen, also natives of Denmark. 

Mr. ]\radson. of whom this sketch treats, 
remained in the excellent common schools of 
his native land until he was fifteen years of 
age. He then engaged in the weaver's trade, 
and followed that industry in Denmark un- 
til h(^ was fifteen years old. He then operated 
a store on his own account and continued in 
the merchant's business for tlii'ee or four 
years. At the age of twenty, in 1870, he 
emigrated to the United States and at once 
went to, and settled at St. Paul, IVlinnesota. 
He secured work with a gardener who lived 
near St. Paul, and remained with him until 
the following July. He then secured work 
in the harvest field, and worked that season 
at harvesting and stacking, and in the fall 
found Work' on a gravel train and continued 



in tliat work until tlie following' spring. He 
then went to L)\v;i, where lie worked at rail- 
I'oading until harvest. Again he went into 
the lield and worked for various farmers un- 
til winter set in. During that winter he 
drove a carriage for Judge Underwood,' of 
St. Paul, Minnesota. In the spring he re- 
turned to railroading and in the fall worked 
in the harvest field and the next winter re- 
sumed his place with the judge. In the 
spring of 1874 he went to Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota, and worked in the woolen mills for 
one year. At the expiration of that time, 
he secured a position with Tom King similar 
to theone he held with tlie judge. In Sep- 
tember, ISTt), he went into the grocery busi- 
ness, in pai'tnersliip with P. II. Johnson. 
The firm name stood Madson & Johnson, and 
for the first year they rented rooms, but in 
ISTT erected a substantial buililing. They 
also erected another building, now used as a 
drug store. In August, 18S1, Mr. Madson 
sold his stock of groceries to ^Ir. Hink and 
until the following spring led a retired life. 
Ill the spring of 1S82 he settled at East Grand 
Forks, Minnesota, where he built the first busi- 
ness building in the city, and engaged in the 
grocery trade. He has since remainetl there, 
engaged in the same business. He carries a 
complete and first-class line of goods and is 
doing a successful business. On the 1st day 
of May, 1888, Mr. Madson took as a jiartner 
in the lousiness. P. A. Ilotvedt, and they have 
since continued the business in ])artnersliip. 
Mr. Madson was married April IT, 18T8, 
to ^[iss Lottie Johnson, daughtei- of Swan 
Johnson, a resident of Minneapolis. Mr. 
and Mrs. Madson are the parents of the 
following named children — Albert C, Mails 
E., Henry C, Anna E. and Lotta M. Mr. 
l[adson is one of the prominent citizens 
of East Grand Forks and has held the otHces 
of townshi]i treasurer for four years, and city 
treasurer ever since its organization. While 
in Minneapolis he was one of the organizers 

of the Danie Societ}', a Danish benefit organ- 
ization. They have one of the finest halls 
in the city of Minneajiolis and the order is 
very popular among the Danish people. 


•HARLES S. SPENDLEY, city justice of 
Crookston, and a leading citizen of that 
place, is one of the pioneers of Minnesota, 
having come to the North Star State in 
1856. He is a native of Binghamton, 
Broome county, JSTew York, and the son of 
AVilliam and Susan (Anderson) Spendley. 
While still a small boy he was bereft by 
death of his father, and his wid(jwed mother 
gave him the advantages of an excellent edu- 
cation at what was then known as John J. 
Millan's academy, a private educational in- 
stitution of that pai-t of the Empire State. 
After attending at that establishment some 
three years, the subject of this sketch, at the 
age of sixteen years, engaged in the hotel 
business with two elder brothers, and 
remained with them some nine years. This 
was followed by a few years of farming in 
that locality, but in 1856, having about made 
up his mind to seek a new home in the West, 
one day came across a paper published at 
St. Paul, Minnesota, wherein were set forth 
in glowing colors all the advantages accruing 
to settlers in the neighboi'hood of that incip- 
ient city, and determined to proceed thither. 
On the -Ith of Se])tember he left his home 
and started on his long journey. On arriv- 
ing at Buffalo, New York, he found a captain 
of one of the lake craft, who agreed to land 
him and several others in Chicago, Illinois, 
in four days, for eight dollars each. Board- 
ing the vessel, after a rough and stormy pas- 
sage, in nine days' time he was enabled to step 
ashore at his point of destination. From 
that city he procectled by rail to Dunlieth, 
now East Dul)uque, which was as far as the 
iron horse tlicn went, and crossing the mighty 

1 98 


Mississippi to Duljiiqiie. tlierotookpassapoon 
theohi steaiucr, '• (ialeiia,"" iiftci'ward liiiineil 
at Red Wing. While oti tiie voyago up the 
pictm-es(pie river he becainoacniuainted with 
a gentleman from Red Wing, who spoke to 
him about the superior advantages that tiie 
country back of tluit village offered to new- 
comers. Deciding to see for himself, he left 
the boat at Red Wing and went to thenortii 
branch of the Zumbro river and took up a 
claim about a mile from the present site of 
the village of Zumbrota. Engaging in agri- 
cultural pursuits, he made his home there 
until 1864. When tlie Civil War broke out 
in 1861, Mr. Spendley offered his services in 
the defense of his native land, but was rejected 
at tiie time. In 1864, he, however, enlisted 
in Compau}^ E, P^irst Minnesota Heavy Ar- 
tillery, in which regiment he served until 
October, 1865, when he received his dis- 
charge and returned to his home. The fol- 
lowing year he went back to the Empire 
State, where he remained some four years, at 
the end of which he returned to this State. 
May 1, 1872, tiie subject of tiiis memoii- 
started bv train for Mooriiead, from St. 
Paul. At that time the road was new and 
in l)Ut indifferent condition, so much 
.so that trains could not be run at niglit. 
The first day's journey ended at Minnesota 
Junction, it snowing almost all day. The 
next day they found much snow on the 
track between that place and Ri-ainerd, 
which they reached at nightfall. On the 
morning of tiie 3rd the train left the latter 
place, and on the way passengers often were 
comjielled to get out of the coaclies and 
hold them up, so that they iiiiglit not 
tip over. Airiving within si.\ miles of 
Mooriiead, while waiting until the track was 
made ready for the train, ^NIi'. Spendley 
observed that there was no snow, and that 
the ])rairies were clothed in emerald 
green and dotted over with early tlowers. 
Beiii": informed bv a brother-in-law of 

Governor Austin that tiie Manitoba railroad 
would be built that year, and that a town 
would be laid out at the ci'ossing of the 
river, he started the ne.xt day by way of 
Grand Forks, to find where the survey 
striulc Ued Lake river, and mi reaching 
that point found several settlers who had 
staked out claims — an examjile which he fol- 
lowed. Thecountry had been surveyed into 
towns, hut the section lines had not been 
run, so that he soon found that his claim 
was one of the odd numbered sections 
belonyino; to the railroad companv. and two 
years later removed to within two and a 
half miles of the jiresent site of Crookston, 
where he took another claim and owns the 
farm which he made out of it. 

On the organization of the county, which 
then embraced, besides its present territory, 
all of Norman and the south tier of town- 
ships of Marsliall county, Wv. Spendley 
was chosen judge of the probate court and 
one of the judges of the first election. 
Only 117 votes were cast at that time in the 
county, and every one was for our subject 
for the office mentioned. This office 
he retained some two years. During the 
hard times of 1874 he went to Becker 
county, and was em])loyed on the large 
farm of the Minnesota Land Company for 
two months, and went from there to Grand 
Forks. In the latter place and on the river 
he was em])loyed until fall. While there 
he was induced by his friends to run as an 
independent candidate for register of deeds, 
and, although absent from the county dur- 
ing the entire canvass, was elected witli a 
large majority. .lanuary 1, 1S7.">, he took 
charge of the office and filled it most satis- 
factoi'ilv for ten consecutive vears. Durin"; 
the same time he was deputy clerk of court 
one year, and town clerk the same length of 
time. His health ])eiiig somewhat impaired 
by close application to business, from Janu- 
ary, 1885. to the spring of 1887, he was not 



ongagecl in any active eiii]iloynient, except 
su])ervising the work of his farm. At the 
date hist mentioned, lie was elected to tiie 
office of city justice, a position \\liich he 
graces at tlje present time (ISSSj. By his 
energy, tact, industry and economy, Mr. 
S])endley has succeeded in accumulating a 
fair share of this world's yooils, huvin"', be- 
sides his beautiful farm, a handsome resi- 
dence in Crookston, and several hundred 
acres of other land. He is a j^rominent 
member of Cobham Post, No. 90, G. A. E. ; 
of Crookston Lodge, jS^o. 191, A. F. & A.M. ; 
and of Pierson Chapter, No. 4, K. A. M. 

Mr. Spendley was united in marriage, 
February 17, 1883, with Miss Elsie H. JNew- 
ton. Thev have one daughter, Marv Rnth. 


^vjLLlVER WILLIAMS, a prominent and 
successful farmer antl stock-raiser, 
who resides on section 22, Pomme de Terre 
township, is one of the most higiily respected 
old settlers in Grant county, Minnesota. 
His ])arents, who were Jacob and Lydia 
(Grinnell) Williams, were natives of Penn- 
sylvania, where they were among the early 
settlers. The father died there in about 
1850, while the mother died aijout ten 
years later. They were the parents of nine 
children — Olliver. Sarah, Laura, Olive, 
Harriet, Lydia, Agnes, Joseph and Victoria. 
Olliver Williams, who is the subject of this 
article, was born in Mercer county, Pennsyl- 
vania, on the 12th of Februai-y, 1830. Owing 
to the adverse circumstances of his parents, 
he was favored with but little in the way of 
educational advantages, so that all the educa- 
tion he secured was through his own exertions, 
and at odd times. When he was about fif- 
teen years okl he began working out, and 
(luring the first winter he worked in the 
pineries. The next was i)ut in at work on a 
farm in Ohio. He then shifted about a jrood 

deal, and engaged in coal mining, which he 
followed in Pennsj'lvania and Illinois for 
about thirty years. He was one of the earli- 
est settlers in Pock Island. Illinois, havino- 
located there in 1818. He continued to fol- 
low the business of a coal miner until 18C9, 
when he came to Grant county, Minnesota, 
where he has since lived. He took a home- 
stead on sections 22 and 23, Pomme de Teri'e 
township, which he impi'oved, and now 
has a well cultivated and valuable farm. 
The country was very new at that time and 
they were among the earliest settlers in the 
northern part of Grant county. 

j\[r. AVilliains has been twice married. 
His first wife was Miss Isabelle Towner, who 
was a native of Kentucky. This mai'riage 
was blessed with seven children, onl}^ two of 
whom are now living — Olliver and Celena. 
\\\ 1869 Mr. Williams was again married, 
his present wife being formerly Miss Mary 

Mrs. Williams was born in Pennsylvania. 
When she was only three days old her mother 
died, and owing to the hard times and cir- 
cumstances of her people she was early 
thrown upon her own resources and industry. 
She went to Pittsburgh when eighteen years 
of age and lived there for ten years, then 
went to Ohio. A year later she went to 
Ileniw county, Illinois, where she met and 
married Mr. Williams. 

Mr. Williams is a gentleman of sterling 
worth and integrity, and both he and his 
wife are held in the highest esteem by all 
who know them. 



ALPHEUS WELLS, of the firm of 
Wells Brothers, engaged in the gen- 
eral merchandise business, in Herman, Grant 
county, Minnesota, is a native of Canada. 
He was born in Upper (Canada, at L'Orig- 
nal, on the 12th of August, 1839, and is the 


son of Abel and Hannah fCassl "Wells, na- 
tives of New Voile and Canada, respect- 
ively. The father of our subject died in 
1870. at Jordan. Minnesota, wiiere he had 
resided tliree years. lie was engaged in 
farming, and in his eai'liei' life was devoted 
to tlie mercantile business. The inotiier of 
the present subject is living in ]\lorris, Ste- 
vens couutv, Minnesota, at the advanced age 
of eighty years. They are the parents of the 
following named children — Josejiii P., Polly, 
Ann, Rufns, A. W., Azelia, A. ar.d II. II. 
Joseph was killed at the battle of Yicks- 
biirg, and was in the Fourteenth Wisconsin 
Infantry, Company C. Azelia died at Mor- 
ris, May 10, 1873, and was the wife of Mr. 
Wolff, who was engaged in the general mer- 
chandise business. She was a sympathizer 
with the Methodist church, and an excellent 
lady, highly estemeed by all who knew her. 

Mr. Wells, the subject of this article, spent 
his younger days in Canada and attended the 
public schools of tliat land until he had 
readied the age of sixteen years. Until he 
had reached the age of twenty years, he was 
engaged in farming in Canada, and at the 
age of twenty j'earshe removed to Minnesota, 
settling at Jordan, where he remained eight 
years, engaged in the milling business with 
his brother Itufus. At the ex])ii"ation of 
the time mentioned he removed to Grant 
county, ]\Iinnesota, by way of Morris, Min- 
nesota, where he stopped one month. He 
settled in Herman in 1878, and bought out 
Mr. Stone, who was engaged in the mercan- 
tile business. He was assistant cashier in 
the bank in Herman for two years. He is 
now one of the stockholders of the bank, and 
holds an interest in the Stevens County Bank 
at Morris; also in a store at AVheaton, Min- 

He was married in April, ISSO, to Miss 
Lotta Davidson, the daughter of John David- 
son, and they are the parents of three chil- 
dren — Edith, Arthur aiul Stella. He is are- 

publican in politics and takes an active inter- 
est in all local affairs. lie has been the presi- 
dent of the village council, and is one of the 
most prominent and highly esteemed citizens 
of (Trant county. He has been chairman of 
the village board, and held various local 
offices. He is a memljer of the ]\Iasonic fra- 
ternitv, and is a man of the strictest honor 

and integrity. 


EORGE L. FRY is a resident of the 
^>2^ vdlage of Osakis. Douglas county, 
Minnesota, where he is engaged in the gen- 
eral merchandise trade, handling all kinds of 
boots, shoes, dry goods, groceries, etc. He is 
a native of Indiana, born in Bartholomew 
county, on the 14th of Xovendjer, 1851, and 
is the son of Peter and Alartha (Snow) Fry, 
natives of North Carolina. The father and 
mother of our subject were united in mar- 
riage in Indiana, and. after marriage, settled 
down in that State, which they made their 
home for the most part of the remainder of 
their lives. The father died in Arkansas. 
He was a miller by trade, but, during the 
latter part of his life, he followed the mer- 
chant's business and farming. They u^ere the 
parents of the following named children — 
Pleates, Emma, Tina, Lenora, George, Her- 
man and Charles. 

George L. Fry, the subject of this bio- 
graphical sketch, received his education in 
the village of Hope, Indiana, and at the age 
of seventeen years left the school-room and 
removed to Minnesota. He settled at the 
village of Osakis, Douglas county, where he 
engaged in the carpenter's trade, at which 
he worked until 1883. In 1877 he went to 
the Black Hills, Dakota Territory, whei-e he 
remained some time, directing the erection 
of some government buildings in that region. 
He is one of the eai'liest settlers in Douglas 
countv, having located there in 1868. At 


that time tliere were only six or seven set- 
tlers in the county, among whom were 
Messrs. Johnson, Adley and Stone. In 1883 
Mr. Fry engaged in his ])resent business, 
general merchandising, which he has since 
followed. He carries one of the heaviest 
stocks in the village, and is doing a success- 
ful and increasing business. 
. Mr. Fry was united in marriage on the 
25tli of January, 1875, to Miss Innie McAlip, 
a native of Bartholomew county, Indiana. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fry have been blessed with 
the following named children ^ Claud, Le- 
verne, Myrthe, Ray, Cole and Violet. Mr. 
Fry is a republican in politics, and is a highly 
respected citizen of Osakis village. He has 
held the office of school clerk since ISSG, and 
is actively interested in all local matters. 
Liberal and enterprising, every enterprise 
calculated to aid in the growth and develop- 
ment of his locality receives his hearty aid 
and encouragement. He was interested 
lai'gely in the firm which negotiated the 
establishment of a creamer}' at Osakis. The 
creamery has a capacity of from three 
to four thousand pounds of butter })er daj', 
and is one of the most beneficial and impor- 
tant industries in Douiilas countv. 


— ^.§.- 

m^ RANK HAMILTON. Prominent among 
vJ^ the business men of Folk county, 
Minnesota, is the subject of this article, a 
successful hardware dealer' in the village of 
Fisher. He is a native of Canada, born in 
Ontario, on the 14th of April, 1858, and is 
the son of Frank and Christena (Mclnnis) 
Hamilton, also a native of that dominion. 
The father and mother of our subject wei'e 
the parents of the following named children 
— Donald, William, George, Robert, Kate, 
Jennie, Flora, Christena and Frank. 

P^rank Hamilton, the subject of this article, 
remained at home, attending the excellent 

common schools of his native county until he 
had attained the age of fourteen years. At 
that period in life, he entered an apprentice- 
ship to the wagon maker's trade at Cromarty, 
Canada. He followed his trade for two 
years in that place, and then removed to 
Listowell, Canada, where he worked at his 
trade for one year and then returned to 
Cromarty, where he engaged at wagon mak- 
ino-. After one year's work, Mr. Hamilton 
went to Stratford, where he remained twelve 
months and then moved to Minnesota. He 
settled in Fisher, Polk county, where he 
worked at the carpenter's trade for four 
years. At the expiration of that time, he 
opened a furniture store, and after two years 
put in a full line of heavy and shelf hard- 
ware. He still oj)erates the two stores, and 
is doing a heavy business. His store is on the 
cornerof Third street and Thomiison avenue, 
and is well stocked with all kinds of hardware 
and furniture. He carries a stock that would 
do justice to a much larger place, and has a 
large and increasing business. He is a genial 
and affable gentleman, and stands high in 
the community in which he lives. 

Mr. Hamilton was united in marriage in 
Stratford, Canada, on the 14th day of July, 
1886, to Miss Cressie Rankin, the daughter 
of James and Margery (McNaughton) Ran- 
kin, natives of Ireland and Scotland, re- 
spectively. Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton have 
been blessed with one child — Errol Clifford. 
In political matters Mr. Hamilton is an adher- 
ent to the pi'inciples of the republican party. 

►ETER LIER. Among the prominent 
and influential juerchants of the Park 
Res'ions is the jrentleman whose name heads 
this article, a hardware and furniture dealer 
of the village of Ashby, Grant county, Minne- 
sota. He is a native of Norway, born on the 
20th day of November, 1853, and is the son of 


ErickandMaren (Knutson) Peterson, natives, 
also of Norway. The jiarents of our suliject, 
who were farmers, came to the United States 
in 1877, and settled in Dakota, where they 
have since lived; The}^ are engaged in 
farming on a tract of land about twelve 
miles from Fargo. ^Dakota Territory. Tiiey 
<ire the parents of the following named chil- 
dren — Lena, Maren. Karen, Matea, Peter, 
Emil, Ingebor. Olaf. Olinc Knute. Talinc 
and Carrie. 

Mr. Lier, the subject of this biographical 
article, spent his school days in the land of 
his birth, attending the common sclioo! in 
Frederick Hald, Norway, until lie had 
reached the age of twenty years. He then 
assumed the proprietorship of a general mer- 
chandise store, which position he held for a 
period of five years. In is79 he emigrated 
to the United States and went to Dakota, 
where he visited his parents. After spend- 
ing some time at the home of his parents, lie 
went to Minneapolis, Minnesota, where he 
remained for about five months attending 
school. Mr. Lier then removed to Brandon, 
Minnesota, where he clerked in a store for 
three year's and a half, lie then started in 
the condiined business of hardware, harness 
and a lunch counter in lirandon, and after 
remaining at this occupation for two years, 
moved to Ashby, Grant county, Minnesota. 
In the month of February, 1SS.5, he opened 
U|i his present liardware business in jiartner- 
sliip with a Mr. Olson, and on January 1, 
1889, they dissolved ])artnersliip. He now 
has one of the most fully equipped hardware 
establishments in the village of Ashby. In 
addition to his hardware business, he carries 
a full line of furniture, paints, oils, sporting- 
goods, etc. 

Mr. Lier was married in January, 1882, to 
Miss Alma Holmgren, and this union has 
been blessed with the following nauied chil- 
dren — Emil, Hjalmar and Edorf Menton. 
Mrs. Lier is a native of Sweden and emi- 

grated to the United States with her parents 
when in her fourth year. Mr. Lier is one 
of the prominent business men of the village 
and takes an active interest in all public and 
local atfairs. He, with his family, are mem- 
bere of the Lutheran churcii. He is an ad- 
herent to the principles of the republican 
party, and is a man of the strictest honor 
and integritv, hijjhlv esteemed b\- all who 
bear his acquaintance. 

AMES SHEA, a prosperous merchanl of 
Glyndon, Minnesota, is a native of Ire- 
land, born in the year 1S44. and is a son of 
John and Ellen (Monahan) Shea, also natives 
of the "Emerald Isle.'' The father, who 
was a farmer by trade, came to the United 
States in 18.52 and located in Massachusetts, 
where the mother died in 1860. In 1876 
he came to Minnesota, where he remained 
until his death in 1878. The family con- 
sisted of eight children, four of whom are 
now living — Eliza, now Mrs. Daly; Michael, 
John and James, our subject. James was 
reared in the village of Chicopee, Massachu- 
setts, where he attended the district schools 
until he was tliii'teen years of age. He then 
commenced in life for himself by working 
on the railroad. After thirteen years' em- 
ployment in that occupatu)n, in 1870, he came 
to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he remained 
some three years in the employment of the 
railroad company. In 1873 Mi". Shea re- 
moved to Clay county, Minnesota, and settled 
in Glj'ndon, where he remained until the fol- 
lowingspring. In the spring of 187-4 he moved 
to Moland townshij). Clay count}', and pur- 
chased land : also took a pre-emption claim, 
as well as a tree claim. He at once began 
to make extensive inqirovements, but owing 
to the fact of his being the foreman of the 
Glyndon section of the Manitoba railroad his 
lime was taken up to a great extent by the 



latter ocrupation. In ISSl he moved into 
the vilUi<;e of Ghnidon and pui-chased tlie 
hotel he now o})eratcs. In addition to his 
hotel business, Mr. Sliea has since opened a 
general inercliandise store, in 1886, and 'in 
1882 he engaged in the liquor business, these 
tiiree malcing him the most extensive and 
A'ersatiie l)usiness man in his village. Mr. 
Shea is also tlie owner of a 500-hundred acre 
farm located near his residence village. 

Mr. Shea was joined in marriage to Miss 
Margaret liowler in 1861, and by this union 
the folhnving children have been iiorn — 
John E., William J., Ellen, James H.. Albert 
and Mary A. The subject of tliis memoir is 
an adherent to the ]M'inciples of the republi- 
can party, and ever takes an active interest 
in that party's campaigns. lie is a man 
highly esteemed, both in business and social 
life, and is f)ne of the solitl and representa- 
tive men of Gl^'ndott village. 


I^ILTON J PAINE. Among the effi- 
i&^iAr^ cient and respected office-holders 
of the different counties in the famous Eed 
River and Park Regions, is the gentleman 
whose name heads this article, the present 
incumbent of the county treasurer's office in 
Wilkin county, Minnesota. He is a resident 
of Breckenridge, where he carries on his 
official duties. Mr. Paine is a native [of 
Maine, born in Bangor m 1833, and is a son 
of Joshua and Catharine (Jaques) Paine, 
natives also of the State of Maine. The 
father was a ship and house carpenter, and 
in 1852 removed to Stillwater, Minnesota, 
and bought a farm, but lived a retired life. 
From Stillwater he moved to Maiden Rock, 
Pierce county, Wisconsin, and from there 
to Ellsworth, of the same county. ^He died 
in that place in thej year 1873, and [was 
eighty-four years of age. ^ The mother of 
our subject passed away]in 1869, at Maiden 

Rock. The father of Mr. Paine, the subject 
of this biographical revieAv, was a captain 
in the War of 1812, and served witii distinc- 
tion for over two 3'ears. He, with his wife, 
were exemplaiy members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. He was a member of the 
old Whig party, and afterward joined in 
the republican ranks. They were the par- 
ents of seven chiklren, two of whom are 
now living, Daniel L. and Milton J. 

Milton J. Paine, of whom this article 
treats, received his education in the State of 
Maine, where he remainetl, attending school, 
until he was nineteen years old. During 
this time he learned the carpenter's trade 
from his father, and in 1852 he removed to 
Minnesota, settling at Stillwater, where he 
worked at his trade for about live years. In 
1857 Mr. Paine removed to Maiden Rock, 
AVisconsin, and remained there for a period 
of four years. In 1861 he enlisted in the 
Twentieth Wisconsin Infantry, Company A, 
for a term of three \'ears. He was in many 
battles and skirmishes, and was wounded in 
the battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas. This 
disabled him, and on account of it he was 
honorably discharged. After his discharge 
he returned to Maiden Rock, AVisconsin, and 
worked at the building of steamboats until 
1870. He then was elected county treas- 
urer of Pierce county, Wisconsin, and 
retained the position for eight years. In 
1880 Mr. Paine went to AVilkin county, Min- 
nesota, and settled at Cam])bell, where he 
opened a general merchandise store, and 
continueil to successfully operate the same 
for eight years. At the expiration of that 
time he was elected to the office of county 
treasurer, and has since filled the office with 
credit to himself and satisfaction to those b\' 
whom he was chosen. In the month of 
Auorust, 1887, Mr. Paine removed to Breck- 
enrido-e, where he erected a neat aiid 
commodious residence on Seventh and Men- 
denhall streets. 



Mr. Paine was united in marriage in 1859 
to Miss Lucy Marsh, the daughter of Charles 
Marsli, of Wisconsin. Tiiey iiave been 
blessed with two children, Walter and Ella. 
Mrs. Paine died in 1871, at Ellsworth,. Wis- 
consin, and Mr. Paine was married the 
second time to Miss Clara Crain, of Mantor- 
ville, Minnesota, in 1875. While Mi-. Paine 
resided in Campbell, he held the office of 
postmaster for six years, and was town clerk 
for si.\ years. Tie is a re]inblican in his j)oliti- 
cal affiliations, and evinces an active interest 
in all local and educational nuitters. lie is a 
member of the ^fiisonic fraternity, and is one 
of the most highly respected citizens of the 
count V. 

^^. — 

p^,^ EORGE PARTRIDGE, a resident of 
^^pr section 3, Evansville township, Doug- 
las county, Minnesota, is extensively en- 
gaged in the brick business in Evansville. 
He is a native of Canada, born in Ontario, 
May 8, 1885, and is a son of John and 
Hannah (Gunn) Partridge, natives of Eng- 
land and Nova Scotia, respectively. Thev 
were married in Canada, and came to the 
United States in 1869, settling in IMinnesota. 
The father, who was a farmer through life, 
died in 1884. aged ninety-four years. The 
mother died in 1878. They were members 
of the Episco|)al church, and the parents of 
twelve children, ten of whom are liviii"-, as 
follows — Betsie, Jane, Thomas, Pemala, 
George, Francis, I'liillip, Eliza, .lames and 

Mr. I'artridge, the sLd)ject of this article, 
spent his school days in Fingal, Ontario, and 
from the age of fifteen to twenty was with 
his father, farming. In 1S5(! he came to 
Minnesota, settling at Hastings, where he 
remained until the outbreak of the Civil War. 
During his stay in Hastin<rs he was entrao'ed 
in the brick business, and August 7, 18(52, he 

enlisted in the Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry, 
and was mustered out in October, 1865. He 
was in no battles, but was skii'mishing 
throucyh Kentucky. After his discharfje he 
])aid a yisit to the Eastern States, anil again 
returned to Hastings, Minnesota, where he 
remained one year in the brick business, and 
in 1867 moved to Douglas county, Minne- 
sota. He located in Evansville township, 
and homesteaded 160 acres of land on sec- 
tion 8. He has since continued his farming- 
industries, but in 1876 engaged also in brick 
numufacturing, which he lias since con- 
tinued. He was one of the lirst settlers of 
tlu! township, and assisted in the oi'gani/.a- 
tion of the same in 186S. 

Mr. Partridge was nuirried to ^liss Xancy 
McLellan, in October, 1866. and they were 
blessed with two children, as follows — .H)hn 
H. and George M. Mrs. Partridge ilied in 
1875 at River Falls, Wisconsin. Mr. Part- 
ridge was again united in marriage in 1S77, 
to Miss Harriette Burch, by whom one child 
was born, Mary E. Mrs. Harriette (Burch) 
Partridge was a, native of AVisconsin. and 
died in December, 1880. The subject of this 
memoir was joined in mai-riage, the third 
time, to Miss Lucy Williams, in 1883, and 
they have hatl two children. Eliza M. and flat- 
tie J., who tlied December 5, 1887. Mr. I'art- 
ridge is a republican in his political belief, 
atul is an active member of the Grand Army 
of the Re|)ublic. The family are members 
of the Presbyterian tliiiirh. 


RANK J. BURNHAM, president of the 
First National Bank of Moorhead. 
Minnesota, and attorne\^ at law, came to Clay 
county in April, 1872, settling at Glyndon, 
where he renuiined three years, practicing at 
his profession. In 1875 he came to Moor- 
head. In 1882 he was elected president of 
the bank, being one of the organizers of that 



institution in 1881. Mr. Burnham is anative 
of- Norwicli, Windsor county, Vermont, horn 
Deconil)er 31, 1842, and a son of James 
Burnham. The fatiier was a native of Hun- 
over, New Hampshire, and a farmer. After 
his marriage to Miss Amelia Whitman, of 
Pomfret, Vermont, he moved to tliat State. 
Siie was the daughter of William Whitman. 
Our subject's grand fatiier's name was James 
Ijurnham, a native of Essex, Massachusetts, 
but spent most of his life in New Hampshire, 
bemg also a farmer; and tradition says they 
are from English stoclc. coming to America 
in the early settlement of Massachusetts. 
The Whitmans are of English descent. Wdl- 
iam was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, 
and for a time a prisonei' on board a shi]) in 
New York harbor. 

F. J. Burnham, our subject, is a graduate 
of Dartmouth ('ollege, in the class of 18<'i9. 
He graduated at the law school in Chicago 
in 1871, after which he opened an office. He 
was burned out in the great fire of that year, 
after which he was in the employ of the aid 
society until the next spring. Mr. Burnham 
is a man of large experience, and has always 
taken an active interest in matters that per- 
tain to the city and count}'. He was county 
attorney from 1876 to ISSO, also the first 
county school snpei'intendent of Clay county, 
being elected in 1873, serving three years ; 
was also a member of the city council, a 
member of the city school board, and has 
held various other offices. 

^Ir. Burnham enlisted in the Ninth New 
riam])shire Infantry, August 8, 18t!2, and 
was in the army three years, and held vari- 
ous positions, up to that of first lieutenant. 
He was slightly wounded three times. He 
was in the following battles — South Mount- 
ain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, siege of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, Mississippi, and the 
l)rincipal engagements of the Virginia cam- 
paign of 1864 and 186.5, under General Grant, 
■commencino- with the Wilderness and ending 

at Appomattox. He is the president of the 
Moorhead ct Southeastern railroad, and has 
heli>ed to organize the INfoorhead & Noi'th- 
ern, Moorhead cV: Barnsville and Afoorhead 
& Southeastern railroads. 

Mr. Burnham was married January 17, 
1873, to Miss Harriett F. Laughton. This 
union has been blessed with three children — 
Bessie A., James H. and Frank H. 

In politics Mr. Burnham is a republican, 
ever taking an active part in everything con- 
cerning local and State politics. He belongs 
to the Masonic fraternity, and is also a mem- 
ber of the Grand Army of the Republic. 
Notwithstanding our subject is deeplv 
wrapped up in the business affairs of life, yet 
he is a firm believer and professor of the 
Christian religion, ami is a member of the 
First Presb3'terian chui-ch of Moorhead. 



f^SPER N. SANFORD, a prosperous and 
highly esteemed member of the farm- 
ing communitv in the famous Red River and 
Park Regions of Minnesota, is a resident of 
section 2-4, Elbow Lake township. Grant 
county. He is a native of Pennsylvania, 
born in Crawford county, on the 14th day of 
Jul\', 1854, and is the son of Ebenezer and 
Lorena (Beardsley) Sanford, natives of New 
York State. The father and mother of our 
subject were married in Pennsylvania on the 
3rd of April, 1844, and the father of our sub- 
ject died at an early day in Illinois. He 
was engaged in the stoneware and queens- 
ware business, and in the latter part of his 
life followed farming. They were the par- 
ents of the following nametl children — . 
Francisco, Newman, Sylvia, Senath, Susan- 
nah, Jasper N. and James. James, Newma n 
and Susannah are deceased. 

Jasper Sanford received his education in 
Pennsylvania and at the age of sixteen re- 
moved with his parents to Michigan, where 



he remained until 1871. At tiie time men- 
tioned. Jasper removed witii his motlicr :iiul 
one sister to Minnesota, settling in Grant 
county. The motiier homesteaded a tract 
of land in Elbow Lake townshij), on section 
1\, wliere tlie_y have since remained. The 
sul)ject of this memoir, at tiie time of set- 
tiino; in Grant county, took charge of the 
new home farm, and lias since continued to 
operate the same. 

Mr. Sanford was married Xov('mi)er l.">, 
1888, to Miss Melva Delamater, and this 
union has been blessed with the following- 
named children — Paul and Newman. Mrs. 
Sanford is a native of Lorain county, ()iii(j, 
born in March, 1858. She is the daughtei- 
of Thonuis anil Amy (Peasley) Uelamater, 
natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio, respect- 
ively. The father was a Presbyterian min- 
istei-. The father and motiier of Mrs. San- 
ford wei-e the parents of the following named 
children — JVIelva, Floi'ena, Herman, Martha 
and Eruce. 

Mr. Sanford is a prohibitionist in political 
matters, and with his family belongs to the 
Presbyterian church. He has held the offi- 
ces of supervisor, school treasurer and school 
clerk. He is a representative man of his 
township, and takes an active interest in all 
local matters. 

-^— «^;^^- < »• • - 

ILLIAM MOSES is a member of 
tlie firm of Moses & Wylie, deal- 
ers in diy goods, groceries and boots and 
shoes at Alexandria, Douglas county. Min- 
nesota. This firm is one of the most sub- 
stantial, Hnancially, anil handles the lai'gest 
trade of any iinii in Douglas county. 15oth 
meml)ei"s of the linn are well and favoi-ably 
known, far and near, as men of unimpeach- 
able character and lousiness integrity. 

Mr. Moses is a native of eastern Canada, 
and was born in 18i2. His parents were 

William and Euphenia (Barr) Moses, who 
were natives of Canada and Scotland. His 
grandparents were James and Dorothy 
(Kowell) Moses, who were natives of New 
York State. James Moses was by occupa- 
tion a farmer, and followed that business in 
New York and in Canaila, wlience he went 
from the States. In 1830 he moved to Ohio. 
He died at Elmira, in that State, leaving a 
large family that grew to man and woman- 
hood. He served in the home guards dur- 
ing the War of 1812. 

The father of the subject of our sketch, 
William Moses, was a iilacksmith by trade, 
and followed tliat business throughout his 
life, beccMiiing an expert in ailits liranclies, 
especiallv in edgeil tools. In connection 
with this business he also ran a farm. In the 
father's family there are now live grown-up 
children — Ellen, now ifrs. Mooney, James; 
Amanda, now Mrs. Roble ; William, of whom 
we write, and Sarah, now Mrs. Jones. The 
mother of this family was Euphenia (IJarr) 
Moses, whose father was James Earr, a native 
of Paisley, Scotland. He was a farmer by 
occupaticm. In 1821 he came to Canada and 
settled in Granby, where he lived until his 
death. He was the father of a large family 
of wliich si.x members grew to man and 

William Moses spent his younger days on 
the farm and in the blacksmith shop, attend- 
ing school in the district in which lie lived at 
times when he could be spared from work at 
home. At the age of nineteen he engaged 
in teaching and for several years followed 
that profession in Canada. At twenty-one 
he took cliarge of the home fai'ui (his father 
having died a short time beforej, and con- 
tinued its management until 1868. He then 
came West, leaving his mother in Canada, 
where she still lives on the old iiome farm. 
Mr. Moses came to Minnesota, settling in 
Owatonna, where he with two other gentle- 
men built a windmill and mill. This busi- 



ness was continued for eighteen months. At 
this time ]\Ir. Moses went to Chippewa 
Falls, Pope county, Minnesota, where he 
built a water powei- mill on the east brancli 
of the t'hippewa river. He continued in 
control of this property for a number of 
3'ears. It is now owned i)y Moses tt 
Petei'son, the latter having;' charge of the 

Mr. Moses moved to Alexandria, Douglas 
county, in ISS;]. although for five years pre- 
viously he had been connected with his pres- 
ent business under the same partnership. 
This firm also owns a store at Drayton, Da- 
kota,where they are doing a remai'kably large 

Mr. Moses was first nuu'ried in 1805, to 
iliss Martha Ralston, who died in the spring 
of 1872. Ilis second marriage was to Miss 
Mary Morrison, by whom he has liad three 
ciiildren — William, Charles and Clara. 

Mr. Moses is identified in many business 
interests at Alexandria and in other places. 
He is a stockholder and director in the Doug- 
las County Bank and is also vice-president of 
that institution. He is also a stockholder in 
the First National Bank of Drayton, Dakota. 
In politics Mr. ]Moses is a prohibitionist. In 
business and social circles he stands above 
reproach, and is esteemed and respected by 
all his fellow-townsmen. ]\Ir. Moses is one 
of the most lil)eral men in the commonwealth. 
He never turns a good cause away empty- 
handed, but is always ready to encourage, 
by words and money, that which to him 
seems to aim toward doing good. He is a 
loyal nu'inber of the Methodist Episcopal 
church of Alexandria, of which foi" years he 
has been the main suppoi'ter and a leading 
member. He lias given hundreds of dollars 
to encoui'age the work of his church. In the 
recent building of a new church edifice he 
has been a ruling spirit, giving $700 toward 
its construction. He has been honored with 
nearly, if not quite, all of the offices in the 

church to which he belongs. He is at pres- 
ent a steward and suj^erintendent of the 
Sunday school. In every way he has proven 
a warm-hearted friend and a liberal supporter 
of churches and schools. He is one of tiie 
solid financial men of Alexandria, is clear- 
headed and cautious, and is a trustworthy 
adviser in a business way. He has held 
numerous civil offices, and while at Chippewa 
Falls was jjostmaster. 


J^RANK TORSTEIN, one of the best 
j^ known and one of the most prominent 
citizens of Grant county, Minnesota, is 
engaged in farming and stock-raising on 
section 4, Gorton township. 

Mr. Torstein was born in the centi'al part 
of Sweden, on the Sth of Februarv, 1828, 
anil is a son of Nils and Maria (Troberg) 
Torstein. His father was a merchant and 
hotel keeper in his native land and a man of 
prominence. The parents had a family of 
five childi-en — (iustof, Frederick, Oscar. 
Frank, ami one that died in infancy. The 
parents both died in Swetlen. 

Fi'ank Torstein, who is the pi'inci|)al sub- 
ject of this article, spent his school days in 
the land of his birth, attending school until 
he was fifteen years of age. After this he 
clerked in an iron factory until he was 
twenty -one years old, and then engaged in 
farming and buying wheat. This he con- 
tinued until 1858, when he came to the 
United States. After landing at Boston he 
came dii'ect to Miiuu'sota and took a farm in 
Carver county. He carried on his agricidt- 
ural laboi's there until after the Civil War 
broke out, when, in July, 1861, he enlisted 
in the Second Minnesota Infantry and was 
mustered into the service. After the expira- 
tion of his original term of service he veter- 
ani/.tul — re-enlisting in the same comjiany in 
December, 1863, at Chattanooga, Tennessee. 



He saw severe duty, and spent some time in 
the hospital at Corinth, ^Mississipjti. He was 
finally honorably clischari;e(l at J.ouisville, 
Kentucky, in July, 1865. After being mus- 
tered out he went South, but soon afterward 
went back to New York State, where he 
remained for about ten years, lie then 
returned to Minnesota and for a short time 
was eni^aged in farming in Douglas county. 
In IST'.i he came to (4 rant county and took a 
homestead (jn section 4. (iorton township. 
where he now lives 

Mr. Torstein has always taken an active 
and pi'ominent part in all matters of a public 
nature. He was register of deeds of Grant 
county for five years, closing with ISStJ, and 
m&de one of the best officials the county has 
ever liad. In addition to this he has held 
a great many local offices, such as school 
clerk, township clerk, assessor, justice of the 
peace, etc. He is a mnn of the highest char- 
acter, and is esteemed by all as a valuetl 
neio-hbor and an exemplarv citizen. 

In 1852 our suliject was married to Miss 
Matilda Erebin, who died in 1874, leaving 
one child named Francisco, who is now living 
in Sweden. In October, 1885, Mr. Torstein 
w IS married to his present wife, who was 
lornierly Miss Gina Retling. This mar- 
rias^e has been blessed with two children, 
nauietlJoseph E. and Frank A. 


'OHN M. MARTIN, a leading attorney 
of the village of Ada, is a native of 
Ocean Springs. Jacksctn county, ^lississippi, 
and is the son of Warrick anti liachel ( Ilai'- 
bough) Martin. The date of his birth was 
August 25, 1S51. 

The father of the subject of this sketch was 
a native of Chester, Delaware county, Penn- 
sylvania, and of English Quaker ancestry; 
his mother was a native of Columbiana 
county, Ohio, and the descendant of Carl 

Springer, one of the original Swedish settlers 
in Delaware, who located tiiere in ir.58. 

Mr. Martin lived in the South with his 
parents until the brealdng out of the late 
Civil War, at wiiich time the family re- 
moved to Beloit, Wisconsin. His father, 
who was engaged in the banking business in 
the South, had previous to this located a 
tract of land in Wisconsin, to which he came 
on leaving the sunny South. After living at 
Eeloit a few years the family removed to Wau- 
kegan, Illinois, where the\' resided three 
years. His father established national banks 
at Beloit and Kenosha, Wisconsin, and was 
intimately connected in business with Frank 
Davis, the brother of Senator (.'. K. Davis. 
In 1867 he went to Washington, and there 
practiced law. and was the author of several 
authoritative works on linancial matters, 
among others the widely known " Monev of 
Nations " and " Coins and Coinage f)f the 
United States," the former of which was 
written while on a visit to London, England, 
in 1879. This man of mark died in Wash- 
ington, in December, 1883. His admirei's 
induced the celebrated sculptor, Clark Mills, 
to make a bronze bust of him, full life size, 
which was forwarded to his son. John M. 
Martin, who has it in his possession. 

The subject of this memoir received the 
elements of an excellent rudimentary educa- 
tion, previous to 1865, in various schools, but 
in the latter year entered Douglas Universitj^ 
at Chicago, 111., where he remained some 
two years. In 1S67, his father having failed 
in business, after leaving his alma mater he 
went to Crown Point, Indiana, where he en- 
gaged in farm labor, at S2i> per month ior a 
season, and after that in rowing boats on the 
lakes at $3 per day. While engaged in this 
latter business he was, for two weeks, in the 
employ of Joseph Jefferson, the actor, who 
has won such celebrity as the delineator of 
Hip Van Winkle. 

He next, in December, 1867, went to 



Omaha, Nebraska, and was emploved in tlie 
ottice of J. II. Congdon, tlie general master 
mechanic of the Union Pacific railroad, with 
whom lie remained about a year, and in ISfiO 
he commenced to learn the machinist's trade 
in the shops of that road, and while there, in 
October, 1871, went to Chicago, at the time 
of the great fire, with John Galligan, the 
present chief of the Omaha fii'e department, 
and while there did excellent service as a fire- 
man. In 1872 he left that city and went to 
California, and founti employment at his 
trade at Sacramento antl other points. 
While there he formed the acquaintance of 
William C. lialston, the multi-millionaire and 
l)anker of San Francisco, who furnished him 
with money, and was sent to the silver mines 
iu'lonjiinji' to that gentleman and Senator 
Sharon, in the mountains to put in some 
machinery necessary to the reduction of the 
ore. Mr. Martin spent some four years on 
the Pacific slope, mostly engaged in the ma- 
chinist's trade, or connected with the mining 
interests. In 1876 he met with an accident 
which laid him up in a hospital for a consid- 
erable time, and in the summer of 1877 he 
turned his face once more eastward, going 
to Washington, District of Columbia, where 
he matriculated in the law department of 
('oluml)ian University and devoted his whole 
attention to the study of law, and to so much 
purpose as to be graduated with honors in 
the class of " '80," and was admitted to 
the l)ai' before the Supreme Court of the 
Disti'ict of Columbia, in the sin-iug of ISSl. 
lie immediately started for the West, and 
locating in the rising village of Ada, opened 
a law office, where he has remained in prac- 
tice ever since. 

The first year of his residence here, Mr. 
Martin took an active part in the division of- 
the county and the organization of the 
county of Xorman, and served as the first 
judge of the jirobate court from the fall of 
1881 until January, 1883. His efforts for the 

advancement of the communit}'^ have been un- 
ceasing and have borne a welcome fruition. 
He was the representative of Ada at the Red 
River Valley Drainage Convention, held at 
Crookston in December, 1886. An energetic 
and active member of the democratic party, 
he has been chosen chairman of most of the 
local committees of that organization, and 
has invariably taken a livel}' interest in 
all political campaigns. He has, by his ex- 
cellent judgment, well based law studies and 
fine forensic eloquence, built up for himself 
one of the finest criminal practices in the 
Valley, and has acquired considerable real 
estate as the reward of his efforts. Besides 
his property in the city, he is the owner of a 
fine farm of 240 acres of land, of excel- 
lent quality. II is law librarj', which is valued 
at $],5n0, is one of the finest in this part of 
the State, and ^vhen he can look upon his 
present pleasant competence and think that 
when he came to Ada he had a cash capital 
of $1.50, it must prove highly gratifying to 
him. His success, according to his fellow- 
citizens, has onh'^ been commensurate with 
his merits and abilities. 

Mr. Martin was united in marriage in 1880 
with Miss Fannie Greer, a native of Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, and daughter of 
Cornelius Greer, of AVashington, District of 
Columbia, and by this union there has been 
one son, Dennis. Our subject is a member 
of the A. O. U. W., the K. P. and K. of H. 
fraternities, and is active in all good work. 

/^^LE L. LUNDBERG, a prominent hard- 
>^/ ware mei'chant of Elbow Lake, Grant 
county, Minnesota, is a native of Sweden. 
He was born in the northern part of that 
" Land of the Midnight Sun " April 6, 1855, 
and is the son of Ole and Carrie (Xelson) 
Jonson. The father was a farmer, and died 
in his native land in May, 1868. The father 


and mother were the parents of three chil- 
dren, as follows — John, Kels and Ole. 

Ole Lnndberg remained in the land of his 
birth until he was thirteen years old. He 
attended the common schools in his native 
land until lie, with iiis mother and two 
brothers, emigrated to the United States. 
After a voyage of eleven days the lamily 
landed in Quebec, Canada, and went dii'cct 
to yiierbunie county, Minnesota. Tiie 
mother horaesteaded eighty acres of land in 
that county, where she lived for four or live 
years. Our subject, after remaining in that 
county for some time, located in Isanti 
county, Minnesota, wiiere he was engaged in 
agricultural jnirsuits for two j-ears. In 1879 
he moved to Grant county, Minnesota, home- 
steading eighty acres of land in Delaware 
township, where he lived for five years, 
engaged in general farming and stock-raising. 
Leaving the occupation of farming, Mr. 
Lundberg removed to Ashby, in Grant 
county, and engaged in the lumber business 
in that place. In 1887, or four years after 
his settlement in Asliby, he opened his pres- 
ent business in Elbow Lake, Grant county, 
lie is extensively engaged in the iiardware, 
furniture and lumber Inisiness, and is one of 
the enterprising business men of the village 
of Elbow Lake. 

Mr. Lundberg was married, December 3, 
1875, to Miss Betsie llelsine, and this union 
has been blessed with the following children 
— Alma, Lilley, Alben, Iva, Nancy, Laura 
and Arthur. Mrs. Lundberg was born in 
Sweden, and emigrated to the United States 
in 1869, settling in Isanti county, Minnesota. 
She was married in St. Paul, Minnesota. 

The subject of this memoir is an active 
republican in politics, and has held various 
local offices. He aided in the organization 
of Delaware township, and was the first town 
clerk. Wliile there he was chairman of the 
board of supervisors, and while in Ashby 
l)resident of the village council. 

fDHN O. SCHJAASTAD, one of the lead- 
iuiT business men at Ijrandon, Doufrlas 
county, Minnesota, was born at Throndhjem, 
Xorwaj', on the 9th of ilav, 1843, and is a 
son of OttoandOlava(Schevlaas) Schjaastad. 
The father was a farmer, and died in his 
native land about ISSo. The mother still 
lives in Norway. The parents had a family 
of four children — Ever, Guriiia, John ( )., and 

John O. Schjaastad, the subject of this 
articl(% spent his boyhood days and received 
his education in the land of his birth, attend- 
ing school until he was fifteen years of age. 
From that time he helped his father in the 
labors attendant u]ion carrying on the home 
farm' until he had attained tlieageof twentj' 
years. At that time, in 1803, he decided to 
come to the New World in search of the 
competency which seemed .so hard to acquire 
in Norway, and accoi-dingh'^ set sail, and, 
after a voyage of some seven weeks, landed 
at Quebec, Canada. lie then came to Good- 
hue county, Minnesota, where he worked at 
various occupations. Three years later, he 
removetl to Jackson county, Minnesota, took 
a homestead of eighty acres in Christiana 
townshii), and there enoaoed in fainiini"'. 
While living there he took a ])romiii('nt part 
in ])ui)lic affairsand held various local offices, 
such as township assessor, supei'visor, school 
clerk, etc. After living in .lackson county 
for fourteen or fifteen years, in 1882 he 
came to Douglas count}', Minnesota, and in 
company with another party bought 100 
acres of land in Brandon townshij). He 
lived there for six months, when he sold out 
and moved into the village of Brandon, 
where he has since lived. He carries on a 
lucrative business, running a meat market, 
and also dealing mail Icintls of furniture and 
tlour and feed. 

Mr. Schjaastad was married in Jackson 
county, Minnesota, in 1879, to Miss Betsie 
jMonson. and they are the parents of four 


children — Ole, Seinaii, Lena and Bena. 
Tlie family are exeniphuy membei's of tlie 
Lutheran church. Li political affairs our 
suljject is a repul)lican. 

■•v' *\ 

ful druggist and grocery dealer in 
the city of East Grand Forks, Polk county, 
Minnesota, is a native of the State of Mar^^- 
land. lie was born in the city of Baltimore, 
Maryland, on the 6th -of January, 1S64, and 
is a son of Theophilusand Theresa (Zilmore) 
Geisert, natives of Am(>rica. The father 
was a druggist through life, and resided in 
Baltimore, to where he had moved at an 
early day. The father and mother of our 
subject were the parents of the following 
named children — Cynthia, .losephene, Vir- 
ginia, Estella and Theophilus, our subject. 

Mr. Geisert, the subject of this memoir, 
remained at the city of his birth until he 
was twenty years of age. During that time 
he attended the excellent schools of Balti- 
more, and clerked in his father's drug store. 
At the age of twenty years, in 1884. he 
removed to Chicago, Illinois, where he 
secured a position as clerk in a drug store of 
that city, and remained thereabout one year. 
At the expiration of that time he went to 
Coal Creek, Fremont county, Colorado, and 
clerked in a drug store for one year. In 
1S8.5 he returned to the city of Chicago, 
Illinois, and entered the College of Pharmacj'^ 
in that city. He I'emained in school for one 
year, and in 188*! graduated with high 
honors. Soon after graduating, Mr. Geisert 
settled at East Grand Forks, Polk county, 
Minnesota, where he established a drug store, 
lie has since remained in East Grand Foi'ks, 
and in July, 1888, he added his present stock 
of groceries. Mr. Geisert has a full line of 
drugs, and is ])repared to do anything in the 
prescription line. He also carries a com- 

plete stock of groceries, and is doing a success- 
ful business both in drugs and groceries. He 
is one of the active businessmen of the city, 
and is actively intereste<l in all movements 
where the interests of the town are concerned. 
"When he first settled in East Grand Forks 
he was appointed postmaster, and held the 
position until October, 1888, when he re- 
signed. In political matters he affiliates 
with the democratic party. 


fJDGE LOUIS O. FOSS. Among the 
prominent members of the farming 
community of the famous V\.qi\ River and 
Park Regions is the gentlemen whose name 
heads this biographical memoir, a resident of 
section 14, Stoney Brook township. Grant 
county, Minnesota, and judge of ])robate of 
that count}'. He is a native of Wisconsin, 
born in Jefferson county, December 13, 1854, 
and is the son of Ole and Joran (Torgerson) 
Foss, natives of Norway. The father and 
mother of oursubject immigrated to the United 
States in 1851, and, after landing, removed to 
Milwaukee^ Wisconsin, where the}' remained 
a short time. They then settled in Jefferson 
count}', Wisconsin, where they remained 
three years. At the expiration of the three 
years they went to Portage county, Wiscon- 
sin, and are still residing there, eno-ao'ed in 
farming. Theyaretheparents of the following 
children — Mary, Jane, Anna and Louis O. 
The. subject of this sketch received his 
education in Portage county. Wisconsin, 
wliere he had removed in early childhood. 
He attended school until he reached the asre 
of fourteen years, and from that age until he 
was twenty-one he remained at home, assist- 
ing on the home farm. During this time he 
worked in the pineries in the winters, and con- 
tinued in the same occupation until he had 
reached the age of twenty-four years. In 
1878 he settled in Grant county, Minnesota, 


and homesteaded a tract of land in section 8, 
Poiiiinc (\o Terre touiiship, wiun-e lie re- 
mainetl seven years, ent^aged in farming. In 
1885 lie located in Stoney JJrook township, 
on section 14, where he lias since remained, 
engaged extensively in general fanning and 
stock-raising. His farm now comjiiises 213 
acres, and is all well improved and nnder a 
high state of cultivation. 

Mr. Foss was united in marriage on the 
14th of December, 1882, to Miss Nikoiine 
Bratlien,and this union hasl)een blessed with 
the following named ciiildren — Oluf and 
Gustav. ilrs. Foss is a native of Norway, 
and immigrated to the United States at the 
age of one year. Mr. Foss is one of the rep- 
resentative men of Grant county, and lias 
been ))rominently identified witii tlie official 
history. He has held a great nian\' local 
offices, such as justice of tiie peace, townsliip 
clerk, etc., and since 1886 has been judge of 
probateof Grant county. He. witii liis family, 
belongs to the Lutheran ciiurch. In [lolitics 
he afHliatcs with the repuljlican |i;irty. and 
takes an active interest in all puhhc affairs. 


■RANK MACKENROTH. the village jus- 
W^ tice of the town of Jjarnesviile, Cla}' 
county, Minnesota, is one of the prominent 
and influential citizens of the lied River 
Valley and Park llegions. He is a native of 
Saxony, Germany, born on the 17th day of 
June, 1833, and is the son of Ciiaries and 
Agnes Mackenrotli, natives also of the 
kingdom of Germany. Tlie father was a 
school teacher for over forty years at one 
place, and was a iiighly esteemed citizen of 
the locality in which he livetl. 

The sul)jeet of tills l)i()grapliical slu'tch 
spent his sciiool days in his native land, and, 
after finishing his education, engaged as a 
school teacher in his I'esidence locality. In 
1865 he emigrated to the United States, and, 

after landing at New York City, removed to 
Carver county, Minnesota, where his sister 
lived. After remaining a short time in that 
county, lie went to St. Paul, Minnesota, 
where he taught school for a time and then 
I'etiirned to Carver county, lie secured a 
position as a school teacher in Carvei' county 
after returning from St. Paul, and lor the 
next two winters was engaged in that occu- 
pation. At the expiration of that time he 
went to Hastings, Dakota county, Minnesota, 
where he opened a |)rivate school, teaching 
botii English and (German. He operated 
that school for two years, and during that- 
time organized a choir in the Catholic church, 
lie was then hired by the bishop of St. 
Paul, Minnesota, to ])lay the organ in a Cath- 
olic cathedial, and was employed as such for 
two years. During that time he taught 
piano lessons, and, after leaving St. Paul, 
settled at Delano. Wright county, wiiere he 
remained a few years, holding the office of 
justice of the peace and notary public while 

He then moved to Clay county, ilinnesota, 
and settled at Parnesviile, where he has 
since resided. In 1S77 he took a tract of 
land, comprising 160 acres, eighty acres of 
which are now in the limits of Barnesville. 
In the spring of 1878 he put up a small 
house on the old town site. In that early 
day there were scarcely any settlers in that 
region, and those who hail the pel-severance 
and energy to " stick " to tlie old farm and 
homesteail now see success crowning their 
exertions. When the town was organized, 
Vly. Mackenrotli was ajipointed justice of the 
peace and town clerk. He lived upon his 
farm until 1884, when the new town was or- 
ganized. He then removed to the village,. 
and has since i-esided there. When the new 
village was started, he was elected justice of 
the peace, and has since held the office. 

Mr. IMackenroth was united in niariiageon 
the 14th of December, 1868, to Miss Ter- 



race Smitliberger, and this union has been 
l)lesse(i witli the following named children — 
Frank H., Artiiur. Alice, Euiil, Charles, Sel- 
ina, William, Matilda. ( )r\ville, George and 
Ida. The suljject of this sketch is one of 
the representative men of T^ai-nesville, and 
has held various offices, such as town clerk. 
justice of the peace, school director and 
school clerk. He isa member of the Masonic 
fraternity, Pierce Lodge, No. 1()9, A. F. 
ct A. M. He is a repuijlican in politics, and 
takes an active interest in all local affairs. 

ATHAN M. PRESCOTT, one of the 
enterprising and thrifty agriculturists 
of Grant county, Minnesota, is a resident of 
section 20, Delaware township. He was 
ijorn in Franklin. Merrimack county, New 
llanipshii'e, March -i, 1825. and is a son of 
Jonathan W. and Phebe (Mori-ison) Prescott, 
also natives of New Hampshire. Nathan 
was apprenticed, at the age of si.xteen yeai-s, 
to a molder, witii whom he remained for 
three years. At the age of nineteen he com- 
menced the struggle of life for himself, and 
for the next few years worked at the trade. 
He then went to Lowell, Massachusetts, 
where he followed his trade for a period of 
nine years. At the expiration of that time 
he moved to Minnesota, locating at St. An- 
thony Falls, in 1856. He continued to re- 
side there, engaged in a i/laning mill, until 
18(>;t. when he removed to Dakota county, 
JliiHicsota, settling in Waterford, a small 
village; near Xorthtield. For the next eleven 
years his attention was taken up with fai'm- 
ing and the dairy business. In ISSO he sold 
out his business interests, and soon after- 
ward took u[)liis i-esidence in Grant county, 
Minnesota. lie filed on a homestead of IfiO 
acres on section 20, Delaware township. He 
has since added 160 acres as a tree claim. 

It was Mr. Prescott who first introduced 
full-blooded Jersey cattle into the State. 

Mr. Prescott was married January 12, 
1847, to Miss Rozilla M. Haley, the daughter 
of Daniel N. and Nancy (Morrison) Hale}'. 
By this union ]\Ir. and Mrs. Prescott have 
been blessed with the following children — 
Nancy, now Mrs. C. W. Lynde, n^siding in 
Dakota ; Faustina, the wife of P. II. Clague, 
a druffirist of Herman villat;e; Herbert, 
married to Miss Lizzie Shellenl)arger, and 
residing on section 20, Delawai-e township; 
John ; David, married to Miss Betzworth, of 
Iowa, now living in Spokane Falls, Wash- 
ington Territorv ; Fred, married to Miss 
Lottie Quilliam, aTid a resident of S]>okane 
F'alls, Washington Territory ; Frank (de- 
ceased), and Nathan C. The family are 
devoted members of the Methodist church. 
Mr. Prescott is a prohibitionist, both in 
precept and jiractice, and has held various 
offices of his township, including township 
treasurer, assessor, and member of school 
board while in St. Anthony Falls. He is a 
member of Prescott Lodge, No. 162, A. F. 
& A. M., at Herman. 


^^l.LERY C.DAVIS. AVhile the current 
^^^ of some men's lives runs peacefully 
along in shady nooks and quiet reaches of 
the river of life, others are full of the riffles 
and rapids and seem born t(j action in wider 
spheres. Of this latter class is that of Mr. 
Davis, the subject of our present memoir, 
who has always filled a prominent pai't in 
the history of the country. 

Ellery C. Davis, now a leading man of the 
city of Crookston, Minnesota, ex-mayor of 
that place and foruiei'ly an extensive railroad 
contractor, was born in Washington, Sullivan 
county, New Hampshire, January 24, 
1832, and is the son of 'David L. and Olive 


j:ei> kivkr valley and 

(Shackley) Davis. "When but a few months 
of ago liis parents moved from the " ( )l(l 
Granite State'' to IIy<le I'aik. ^lassacliii- 
setts, wliei'e oui- snliject received tiie ele- 
ments of a o-ood education and grew to man's 
estate. After hiving- the founthition of 
knouleilge in the district sciioois of that 
h)cahty lie stuched civil engineering, and 
when nineteen years old was a|)))ointed as- 
sistant engineer f)f what is now Icnown as 
the Baltimore & Ohio railroad system, and 
for six 3'ears followed that profession m the 
States of Ohio, Indiana and Ilhnois. He was 
employed on the first railroad that crossed 
the State of Illinois, the Terre Haute, Alton 
& St. Louis, but in 1850, after his marriage, 
purchased a farm near Terre Haute, Indiana, 
and engaged in the indejiendent and quiet 
life of a farmer. 

In August, 1802, during the course of the 
Kebellion, when the land was covered with 
the ]iall of death, "and the tori-ent grew 
dark with the blood of the slain," he received 
authority from Governor Morton, the noted 
war governor of Indiana, to raise a com- 
pany or battery of light artillery; but when 
tiie men were enlisted and ready to be mus- 
tei'ed into the service it was changed to an 
infantry organization, and became Companv 
G, of the Eighty-fifth Indiana Infantry, of 
Avhich Mr. Davis was commissioned as cap- 
tain. AVith his command he served under 
General Gordon Granger, in Kentucky, until 
after Chickamauga's bloody day, when the 
command to which hebelonj'ed was assigned 
to tiie Twentieth Corps, under Major-General 
Joseph Hooker. He pai'ticipatetl in the 
"Battle Among the Clouds,'" at the storming 
of Lookout Mountain and in all the subse- 
quent engagements until after the battle of 
Peach Tree Creek, when, on account of 
physical disability, he was compelled to resign 
his commission and return home. A month 
later he was ai)poinled by the governor of 
the State, in recognition of his valuable serv- 

ices, as military agent of Indiana, and re- 
turned to the front, where "'deeds of eternal 
fame wei-e done." There he remained until 
the winter of 18f)-l-()5, when his disai)ility 
growing gi'eater, he once more returned to 
Indiana and sought rest and the i-estoration 
of his health on his farm. In the following 
spring he sold his place and engaged in the 
sale of agricultural implements, but followed 
that line of trade for only one year, at the 
ex])iration of which he removed with his 
familv to Chicago, Illinois. For a time he 
was there engao-ed in contracts for street 
paving, and then followed contracting on the 
Illinois and Michigan canal. When the latter 
was finished in 1871, Mr. Davis took a large 
contract on the consti'uction of the Northern 
Pacific railroad, grading the same from 
Detroit to Moorhead. He then took a simi- 
lar contract on the St. Paul it Pacific railroad, 
now the St. Paul. Minneapolis vt i\lanitiil)a, 
from Crookston noitli. which he finished in a 
satisfactory manner. He shipped a lai'ge 
amount of goods to Breckenridge l)y rail, and 
theie building tw(j large flat boats on the 
river, shijipeil them to Grand Forks. At the 
same time he loaded some twenty-five teams 
with goods, intending to cross the ])rairie 
with them. He found the ground so soft 
that he could make no headway, and was 
com})elled to lighten the loads, and leave 
goods by the wayside to return for them 
when the weather would permit. The teams 
crossed the Bed River at Georgetown and 
came up on the Dakota side of the I'ivei', or 
thev would never have <rot through. He 
himself came round by Grand Foi'ks, with a 
team and li<ilit buo-g-y and drivino- to where 
the survey crossed the river, then one and a 
half miles from where ("rookston now stands, 
])laced two logs togethei-, on which hejxit the 
body of his l)Uggy, with the wheels inside, 
and crossed the river. Hitching uj) on the 
other side, he drove to Glyndon. On i-eturn- 
in"- to Crookston he sent his teams to Grand 



Foi'ks. The boats which were built in Breck- 
enridge were pulled to pieces in Grand Forks. 
From this place these teams hauled the lum- 
ber to Crookston, wliere it was used in the 
construction of the Krst frame building in the 
village, an edifice which stood until 1886 ere 
it was torn down. 

Mr. Davis uKule Crookston his head(iuar- 
ters. having his store in a tent until the erec- 
tion of his building for the time he was en- 
gaged in the contract. Besides the railroad 
supplies he was engaged in the general mer- 
chandise trade at that ]ioint for some time. 
When he first came here, on the 11th of 
June, he took a claim, upon which his pres- 
ent residence now stands, and all of which 
is now within the city limits, sixty acres of 
it being cut into blocks and lots. 

Mrs. Davis came to Crookston in August, 
1872, and remained here until the arrival of 
the train, a week or two later, when she 
left, being the first lady to leave the town 
on the train. In October following she I'e- 
turned, and she and her husband took up 
their residence in four of the offices built 
for the construction of the railroad, which 
being placed together formed a. house about 
sixty-five feet long and ten feet wide. In this 
domicile they made their home for six years. 

"When the county of Polk was oi'ganized 
in 1872, jNIr. Davis, in recognition of his 
ability as a business man, was chosen the 
first chairman of the board of county com- 
missioners, and in 1878 was re-elected to the 
same office. In the latter year the city of 
Crookston was incorporated, and our subject 
was elected the first mayor and held that 
office for three consecutive years. In 1881 
he look a contract to grade w. [loi'tion of the 
Winnipeg A: Duluth railroad, and remained 
on that work until the following spring, 
when, for want of financial means, the work 
was stoj)|)e(l. In the sjjring of 188(5 ^Ir. 
Davis was employed in making the prelimi- 
naiv siirvev for the Erainerd, Crookston ife 

Grand Forks railroad, and the same year 
was again elected to fill the office of mayor 
of Crookston. 

Mr. Davis' father, David L. Davis, started 
in 1832 as superintendent of construction 
and re]iairs on the Boston it Providence rail- 
road, and has been with that road ever since 
in that capacit\', being one of the oldest 
I'ailroad men in the United States. On the 
fiftieth anniversary of the opening of the 
road the officers tendered handsome recog- 
nition to Mr. Davis of his services. 

The subject of this sketch is living in the 
first brick house erected in the whole lied 
liiver Valley, the brick of which werematle 
on the homestead of the owner in 1879. In 
addition to his real estate in the town, Mr. 
Davis owns a fine farm of some three hun- 
dred acres within five miles of Crookston. 

Mr. Davis was united in marriage, Novem- 
ber 15, 1854, with Miss Rachel M. Appleton, 
a native of Xorthfield, Summit county, Ohio, 
and daughter of Thomas and Hannah 
(Myers) Appleton. By this union they have 
had two children — Francis E. and Jesse L. 


Jl the 

OHN E. RINEHART, who is engaged in 
le furniture business in the village of 
Osakis, Douglas county, Minnesota, is a 
native of Pennsylvania. He was born at 
Gettysburg, Adams county, Penns^dvania, 
on tiic 13th of August, 1828, and is the son 
of John and Catharine (Plank) Rinehart, 
natives also of Pennsylvania. They were 
nuirrietl in that State, and both remained 
there until their death. The mother died 
when our subject was but one year old, and 
the father ])assed away in 1805. They were 
the parents of two children — Rebecca and 
John. The former is now deceased. She 
was the wife of a Mr. Stallsmith, of Gettys- 
burg, Pennsylvania. They were the parents 


of four children — Mary, William, Rebecca 
and John. The father of our subject was 
married, tiie second time, to ^fiss Polly Stall- 
smith, and tiiis union was blessed with the 
following chiklren — Soforo, Levi and Alfred. 
John E. Kinehart, of whom this sketph 
treats, spent his school days in his native 
State, and attended the common schools at 
and near Gettysburg until he had reached the 
age of twenty years. lie received a pi'ac- 
tical education, calculated to benefit one for 
life's work. After leaving the school-room, 
he remained at home, assisting his father on 
the home farm until he was twenty-four 
years of age. At that period he commenced 
in life on his own account, and until 1852 
was engaged in carpentering aTid joining. 
He then removed to Ohio, where lie re- 
mained some time and then removed to 
Indiana, where he remained until 1855. On 
the 5th of May, 1855, he removed to St. 
Paul, Minnesota, where he stayed some time, 
anil then went to Fai'mington, Dakota 
county, Minnesota, and took a homestead of 
KM) acres of land, and resided tliei-e eleven 
years, engaged in farming. He was one of the 
earliest settlers in that county, and, in addi- 
tion to his farming interests, followed car- 
pentering to some extent. In 1866 he went 
to Osakis, Douglas county, Minnesota, and 
on the 1st of September bought land in 
Osakis township, and for live years followed 
farming exclusively. He still retains his 
farm, and has now 1,000 acres. He owned 
at one time 1,500 acres, and was one of the 
most extensive and prominent farmers in 
the county. After leaving the farm, lie 
removed to the village of Osaicis, where he 
o|)ened a furniture store, and has since carried 
on the business. He cai'i-ies a full stock of 
goods, and is one of the most successful 
business men in the village. In addition to 
his furniture business, he is engaged in 
tilt; poultry, hay and wood business, and is 
doing a large trade in the village and vicin- 

ity. He owns twelve lots in block 8, 
Stevens' addition to Osakis, on wiiich his 
store and dwelling are located. 

Wv. Jiinehart was married on tiie 1st of 
January, 1801, to Miss Philenia Gibbs, and 
this union has been blessed witii the follow- 
ing named ciiildren — Ambrose, Emma and 
Etina. The two daughtei-s are at home, and 
the son is in Nebraska. Mr. Kinehart is a 
republican in ])olitics, and is an active par- 
ticipant in all matters of a local nature. 


HARLES O. WINGER. In examining 
the biograpiiies of many of the ])rom- 
inent business men of the villages of Minne- 
sota, it will be noticed that the Norwegian 
race furnishes many of the liest, most frugal, 
energetic and thrifty citizens in these i>laces. 
Tlie subject of this biographical sketch is a 
native of Norway, born near Christiania on 
the 21rth day of June, 185-1:, and is a son of 
Ole and Annie (Olementson) Winger, also 
natives of Norway. 

]\Ir. Winger the subject of this article, 
spent his younger days in attending school 
at the city of Christiania, and in 1872 emi- 
grated to the United States. Aftei- landing 
at Castle Garden, New York, he went to 
Graiiii Uapids, Wisconsin, where he remained 
two vears attending the high school at that 
place. One year he had charge of a hotel 
at Grand liajiids, and after leaving there, 
engaged on the river and in tiie ])iiierii's. 
After traveling through Iowa, Illinois and 
Wisconsin, he settled in (^rant county, 
Minnesota, where he homesteaded 16(1 acres 
in Delaware townslii|), on section 4, where 
he liv«5d, engaged in a general farming 
and stock-raising business until 1881, when 
he removed to Herman village, where he 
secured a clerkshi}) with Wells- Brothers, 
and after working six months for that firm, 
went to Jloi'ris, Minnesota. He there was 



ciiiploved as a c](!fk for four months, and at 
the expii'ation of that time lie returned to 
Herman, where he took charge of a general 
mercliandising store for John Cl.ristenson, 
foi- ulioiu tlie subject of tliis article worked 
until the spring of 1887. Mr. Winger then 
engaged in i)nsiness for himself, opening a 
general merchantlise store, and has been en- 
gaged in the same since that time. He cai'- 
ries a full line of goods, and is one of tlie most 
prominent merchants of Herman village. 

Mr. "Winger was unitetl in marriage in 
Fergus Falls on the loth day of September, 
1883, to Miss Amelia Anrland. a, native of 

]\Ir. "Winger is now secretary of the board 
of education. He is. a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity and is secretary of that 
l>ody. He is a man of the strictest honoi' 
and integrity, highly esteemed by all who 
know him. 

In political matters Mr. Winger is a pro- 
hibitionist, and his wife is the county jiresi- 
dent of the W. C. T. U., and both are prom- 
inent workers in the temperance cause. 

frS£i\ARTlN JOHNSON, who is engaged 
E^At'^ in the tlry goods business in Glyn- 
don village, is a native of Norway, born in 
1844, and is a son of John and Jennie (Lar- 
son) Johnsim, also natives of that kingdom. 
There were three children in the famih' — 
Martin (our subject), Louis and Joiianna. 
Martin received iiis education from the com- 
mon schools, and remained at home until he 
was ten years of age, when he commenced 
life for himself by learning the boot and shoe 
trade. After working some five years, he 
set up a shop for himself, and was thus 
engaged until he emigrated to the United 
States. In 18t>u he} came to tliis country and 
settled in Lansing, Iowa, where he worked 
at his ti'ade for ten years. He next moved 

to Red Wing, IMinnesota, where he worked 
at the boot and shoe trade for twelve months, 
when he removed to Clay county, Minnesota. 
He located fii'stat (ilyndon, where he erected 
a building and engaged in his old occupation, 
employing a number of workmen, and carry- 
ing a full line of stock. In about three j'ears 
and a half he engaged in the mercantile 
business, still retaining the former establish- 
ment. In 1879 he took a tree claim in 
Morken township, but soon sold out and ]5ur- 
chased the building in which the ])resent 
business of the firm of Johnson & Hanson 
is carried on. During the same year Mr. 
Johnson built his present residence on Pleas- 
ant street. Mr. Johnson is an active and 
representative business man of his village, 
and at pi-esent holds the office of town and 
village treasurer. 

Mr. Johnson was united in marriage, in 
1872, to Miss Mar}' Hanson, the daughter of 
Hans and Catharine Hanson. By this union 
Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have been blessed 
with the following children — Joseph, Oscar, 
Herman and Edith. The family are exem- 
plary members of the Methodist church. 
Mr. Johnson is a prohibitionist, both in ])re- 
cept and ])ractice. 



»!M^ENRY B. HERRICK, the postmaster 
1/jL of the village of Fisher, Polk ccmnty, 
Minnesota, isa nativeof the " Empire State." 
He was born in the town of Jerusalem, 
Tates county, New York, September 23, 
1827, and is the son of Jacob and Uoxa 
(Bradley) Herrick, also natives of the State 
of New York. The mother died when our 
subject was thirteen years old, and the father 
removed to Lake Grove, Wisconsin, and took 
government land, upon which he has since 
lived. The father and mother of our sub- 
ject were the parents of the following named 
children — Gilbert, Polly, Julia A., Adalme, 



Jason A.. ITenrv B.. Phehe M., Uarriette 
and Miles N.. four of whoni are deceased. 
The father of tin- present subject was mar- 
ried, the second time, in 1848, to Miss Sarah 

II. P). Ilerrick. the subject of this biograph- 
ical memoir, i-eniaincd at his fatiier's liome in 
"Wisconsin until he had attained tiie aye of 
twenty-eight years. At tliat period in life 
he went to Viro(|na, Vernon county, Wis- 
consin, where lie remained two .md one-lialf 
years. The first year and a half he was 
enjracred in the hotel business, and tbe last 
year he was employed as a stage agent. He 
then went to Winona, Minnesota, where he 
remained eight years, engaged in the stage 
business. At the expiration of that time 
Mr. Ilerrick engag(!d in the mercantile busi- 
ness, and soon afterward went to Eyota, 
]\rinnesota, and was engaged in the wheat 
business for seven or eight years. In Octo- 
ber. 1879. he removed to Polk County, Min- 
nesota, and settled in the village of Fisher, 
where he took charge of an elevator, which 
he still runs. He is also postmaster, having 
been appointed in 188.5. He owns a fine 
residence in the village, and is a respected and 
prominent citizen. 

Mr. Ilerrick was united in marriage on the 
29th day of Januaiy, 1852, to Miss Eveline 
Armstrong, the daughter of Samuel and 
Carrie (Van Allen) Armstrong. Mr. and 
Mrs. Ilerrick have been blessed with the fol- 
lowing named children — Fred, deceased; 
Eva, deceased ; Harry, who married Miss 
Lillie Lake, and is now the efficient station 
agent at Owatonna, Steele county, Minne- 
sota ; Hellen ^laiid. the wife of Mr. Bain, a 
])rosperous farmer of Polk county, Minne- 
sota; and Edith, who is now living with her 
pai'ents and is deputy postmaster. Mr. Her- 
rick, the suliject of this article, is an adher- 
ent to the principles of the democratic party, 
and always evinces an active interest in that 
party's campaigns. 

MORACE G. URIE. the efficient editor 
of the Evansville . A'nterprhe, in 
Evansville, Dcniglas county, Minnesota, is a 
native of Wisconsin. He was born at 
[ Stoughton, Wisconsin, xv'ovember 29, 1859, 
I and is a son of Joseph and Anna (Iverson) 
Urie, natives of Tennessee and Norway, re- 
spectively. There were three children in the 
family — Joseph, Horace and Cora. 

Horace Urie spent his school days in 

Stoujihton. and at the age of seventeen 

finished his education in Milton College. 

After leaving school he was employed as a 

clerk in Edgerton, Wisconsin, which position 

he held for two years. He then ojiened a 

])iinting office in Oregon, Wisconsin, and. 

after successfully operating the same for one 

year, he s(jld out and moved to Douglas 

county, Minnesota. In the fall of 1SS2 he 

opened liis present olfice, which he has since 

I continued to run. In addition to his editorial 

I occupation he handles organs and scnving 

\ machines. 

Mr. Urie was joined in marriage on the 
IGth day of November, 1885, to Miss Betty 
!' M. Matliisen, and this union has been blessed 
with two children, twins, Horace and Joseph. 
Mrs. (Matliisen) Urie was born, reared and 
educated in Madison, Wisconsin. Mr. Urie 
is one of the substantial men of his county, 
highly esteemed and honored by all who 
know him. In political matters he is an 
adherent to the principles of the repulilican 
])arty, and always takes an active interest in 
that party's campaigns. 



IfeOUlS GEWALT, a prominent hardware 

^ merchant of Breekenridge, "Wilkin 
county, Minnesota, is a native of (■lerman3\ 
He was born in the State of Sachsen-Coburg- 
Gotha, Germany, on the 20th of March, 1857, 
and is the son of Henry and Wilhelmine 
(Herzog) Gewalt, natives also of that duke- 



doiii. 'I'lie father of the pi-esent subject 
was an extensive and snccessfiil farmer in 
Ills native hind, and (h?alt in cattle to a con- 
siderable extent. He died in 1S7?>. and was 
one of the leading- men in tiie locality in 
which he lived. He with his family belonged 
to the Lutheran church, and he was trustee 
of that organization for a great many years 
through life. They were the parents of the 
following named children —■ Herman, Ed- 
mund, Caroline, Rudolph, Louis, Natalie and 

Louis Gewalt, the person of whom this 
sketch treats, received his etkication in his 
native land, and attended the excellent com- 
mon schools of that country until he had 
reached the age of fourteen years. On the 
1st of May, 1S71, he entered an apprentice- 
ship to the tinner's trade, anil completed his 
trath' on the first da}' of Ma}', 1874. He 
remained at the same place for one year as 
a journeyman, and then traveled through 
the different States of Germany, France and 
Switzerland, in order that he might reach 
greater proficienc\' in that line. In 1882 
Mr. Gewalt emigrated to the United States, 
and on the 21st of August, 1882, landed at 
Hoboken. He at once went to Breckenridge, 
Minnesota, and worked for a time with 
a tinsmith, O. P. Todd, and in April, 
188-1, purchased his stock of hardware 
and has since carried on the business alone. 
In 1887 he built his present Imilding on Fifth 
street, and he carries a large and conijilete 
stock of heavy and shelf hardwan;, also 
handling stoves, tinware, cutler}', etc. In 
addition to his hardware store, he owns a 
fine, well cultivatetl farm of 152 acres in 
Sargent county, Dakota Territory. He is 
one of the prominent and representative 
citizens of Breckenridge, and has held the 
offices of township treasurer for three years, 
and village treasurer for two years. He is 
a democrat in political affiliations, and takes 
an active interest in all local nuitters. extend- 

ing hearty encouragement to every enter- 
prise calculated to and in the growth and 
development of the town or county. 



PATRICK H. LAMB, mayor of Moor- 
head, and one of the firm of Lamb Ri'os., 
is a native of tiie County Tyrone, Ireland ; 
born March 17, 1847, ho was the son of Owen 
and Elizabeth Lamb, also natives of Ireland, 
By trade the father was a butcher, which he 
followed in his native land. He came to 
America with liis family in 1819, settling in 
New Hampshire, where he remained three 
years, engageil in farming; from there he 
went to Connecticut, engaging in the same 
occui)ation ; thence he went to Missouri, 
where he again went to farming, raising^ 
ii-rain and stock, remaining until 1880. He 
then moved five miles north of Moorhead, 
Clay county, Minnesota, where he jjurchased 
a farm and where he died two mouths after 
his settlement. He had a family of eight 
children, seven now living — John. Patrick, 
Michael, William, Owen, Peter Jind Mary. 

Our subject was educated in the common 
schools of Connecticut, and when a young 
man he first worked in a cotton factory at 
Baltic, that State. He then again engaged 
in farming and brick-making for seven years, 
in ilissouri, and in 1872 lie came to Moor- 
head, Minnesota, where he first engaged in 
railroading and helped consti'uct the North- 
ern Pacific to Bismark, in Dakota, after 
which he engaged in freighting from Moor- 
head to AVinnipeg and Afanitoba, in which 
he continued two years, having a number of 
teams there with him : then, with his brother, 
they started a feed and sah- stable in 'Moor- 
head, which they still continue; also carried 
on the manufacturing of brick since 1874, in 
which they employ a number of hands, and 
still are engaged in farming and stock-rais- 
ins. He has 400 heatl of native and blooded 


stock.includinoa finelotof Polled Aiifrns cat- 
tle, ile farms in all l..")!)!) acres in ^rimiesota. 
He is also engaged in tlii^ fuel Ixisincss, wood 
and coal, having liis business house i>n the 
corner of Fifth and Main streets, Moorhcad. 
The La ml I iJlock he rents for stores and 

Mr. Lamb was mai'ried in 18S2 to Miss 
Catharine Ilerrick, the daughter of Michael 
Ilerrick, of Moorhead. 

In politics Mr. Lamb is a democrat, and 
has held many offices of trust, and has al- 
ways taken an active part in Imilding up 
the city and surrounding county. He has 
held the office of trustee, also alderman 
of the Second Ward, and been mayoi- of 
the city since 1886. He has built the Lamb 
Block and otiier business houses, and in many 
other wavs has done his full shaiv in aiding: 
in the growth and development of the local- 
ity in which he lives. Liberal and enter- 
prising, W) man stands liigher in the esteem 
of those who know iiim, and his uniform 
integrity in business matters lias made his 
■wdrd as good as a bond. 


John L. OLSON, a highly respected and 
esteemed husbandman of Grant county, 
Minnesota, resides on section 8, Sanford 
townsiiii), where he is enoased in farmino: — 
tilling the soil, raising grain and cattle, and 
performing all tasks i-e(]uisite to successful 
agriculture. He is a native of Norway, 
born on the 14th day of October, 1849, and 
is a son of Ole ami Mary Anderson, natives, 
also, of the "Land of the Midnight Sun." 
They were farmers in the Old World, and 
were the parents of the following named chil- 
dren — Martlia, Maria and John. 

John Olson, the person of wiiom this article 
treats, spent the first fifteen years of his life 
in Ills native land attending the common 
schools in that counti'v. In 1804 he emi- 

grated to tiie ['nited States, and after a voy- 
age of four weeks, landed at Quebec, Canada. 
He went from this ])lace to Dane county, 
AVisconsin, where lie remained a few years, 
working at various occujiations. He next 
removed to Michigan, where he remained 
five years, chop])ing cord-wood. At the 
expiration of that time, in 1S(!9, he removed 
to Minnesota, and after looking the country 
over, retui'ued to Wisconsin. After spending 
the winter there, he returned in the follow 
ing spring, settled in Grant county, Minne- 
sota, and took a 160-acre homestead on section 
8, Sanford township, where he has since 
lived, devotino- his time to fai'min<r and 
stock-raising. Ih^ now owns 180 acres of 
well impi'oved land, with a good number of 
trees and substantial building improvements. 
Mr. Olson, II. F. Sanford, John Peterson 
and Ole Fletcher wei-e the first settlei's in 
the townshi]), and effecteil the organiza- 
tion of the township, ilr. ( )lson has held 
the various school offices, anil is one of the 
repi-esentative men of the township, taking 
an active interest in all local affairs. He is 
a single man, a republican in ])olitical 
matters and evinces a great deal of interest 
in that party's cam])aigns. He is a member 
of the Lutheran church, and is trustee of 
that organization. 

OAH P. WARD is engaged in the 
grocery and jirovision trade in Alex- 
andria, Douglas county, Minnesota. He is 
a native of McIIenry county, Illinois, where 
he was born on the 8th day of November,. 
1855. He is the son of (Tcorge and Betsy 
(Bennett) Ward, both of whom were natives 
of New York State. 

Mr. AVard's father was a farmer by occu- 
pation, and on coming to Illinois in an early 
day settled on a homestead, which he thor- 
outililv improved. He was a man of I'are 


general business capacities. "Whatever he 
engaged at or invested in seemed to turn to 
liis advantage. In tlie early settlement of 
Alexaiulria he came here and invested in 
lands and also in the Bank of Alexandria. 
His family consisted of six children — Mary 
(now Mrs. Spi-inger). Gershnn B.. Noah P., 
Sally (now Mrs. York), Ina (now Mrs. 
Crocken), and Mary B. 

Xoah P. spent his early days on a farm, 
but had advantages for schooling, so that he 
received a thorough education. He came to 
Alexandria, Minnesota, in the spring of 
1875, remaining one year attending to his 
fathers financial interests. At the end of 
this time he returned to Illinois and entered 
the University at Evanston, where he 
attended school for two and one-half 

In 1878 Mr. Ward again came to Alexan- 
dria, where for one year he had charge of 
the Merchants' elevator, buving and sellins: 
wheat. The next spring he tui-ned his 
attention to buving and selliii"- horses. lie 
went to Iowa, where he bought most of his 
stock, shipping to Alexandria, where he 
found rcadv sale, horses being; in jjood 
demand among the farmers of that vicinity. 
In the spring of 1880 he engaged in the 
grocer\' trade, in which he is still doing a 
thriving: business, and cari-ving one of the 
newest and best stocks in the city of Alex- 
andria. Together with his ]iartner, Mr. 
Walker, he ])urchased the original court 
house, which they used for business purposes. 
This ])ai'tnership with Mr. AValker was con- 
tinuetl until 1SS(!, when Jlr. Ward became 
sole owner and ])ro|)ri('tor of the stock of 
goods and the busiiu'ss Ijuilding on Main 
street, Alexandria. He employs two clerks, 
runs a delivery wagon, and does a large and 
increasing' business. 

Iti 1881 Mr. Ward was married to Miss 
Sally Busey, daughter of C. W. Busey, of 
Alexandi-ia, Minnesota. Four children have 

blessed this union — May, Bessie, Frances B. 
and an infant, Ethel. 

Mr. Ward has been a meml)er of the city 
council for four years, and held the ]iosition 
of chief of the fire department of the city 
for one year. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and in politics affiliates 
with the republican party. In all his busi- 
ness ventures Mr. Wai-d has been very suc- 
cessful. He owns a farm in Dong-las 
county, which he has I'ented out. In 1883 
he built a commodious and tasty residence 
on Seventh avenue, where he now lives. He 
is a stockholder in the First National Bank 
of Alexandria, and is one of the most sub- 
stantial and jirominent business men of the 
citv and county. 

— «"S^J^"»' 

/^^LE O. CANESTORP. rrominent 
\^^ among the citizens of the famous 
Park Pegions is the gentleman whose name 
heads this article, a farmer and also county 
treasurer of Grant county, Minnesota. He 
was born in Sweden, just on the boundary 
line between Sweden and Norway, Ma}' 21, 
1847. His father's farm was known as 
Djekneliden. The parents, Ole and Martha 
(Johnson) Olson Hjekneliden, were blessed 
with four children, two of whom are now 
living, Ole O. and John. 

Ole O. Canestorp spent his school davs m 
his native land, and in lst;2 came with his 
mother to the United States, landing in 
Quebec, Canada, after a voyage of seven 
weeks. Removing IVom Quebec, they settled 
in Vernon county, Wisconsin, where thev 
were engaged in farming for three vears. 
At the expiration of that time they moved 
to Ti'emjiealeau county, in the same State, 
and after six vears' sojourn there, working: 
at farming and various occupations, they 
decided to settle in Minnesota. Accordingly, 
in 1871, they settled in Grant count\% 


Minnesota, taking a homestead of 160 acres 
in Elbow Lake townsiiip, where cm- sul)- 
ject has since been actively engaged in 
general fai'ining and stock-raising. He now 
has an extensive and well cultivated farm of 
350 acres, with tiic best of l)uilding improve- 

Mr. Canestorp was married to Miss Jennie 
ilangen, July 8,1874. Mrs. Canestor]) was 
born in iS'orway and emigrated to the United 
States in the year 18(!8. Tliey are accc]it- 
able members of the Lutheran cliurcli. Tiie 
subject of tills hiographical sketch was 
•elected to the office of justice of the peace 
of his townshl]) In 1 874. which ]iositi()n lie 
still holds. He has held the office of town- 
ship clerk for six years, judge of probate of 
Grant county for four years, and was elected 
to the office of county treasurer in 1881, 
which position he still continues to fill with 
credit to himself and satisfaction to all. He 
is one of the first settlers of his township. 
In ])olitical matters he affiliates with the 
republican party. A man of the strictest 
integrity, his word is recognized as being as 
good as a bond, and he is held in- high esteem, 
botii as a neighljor, an official and an exem- 
j)lary citizen. 

WIGO WERNER, the subject of our 
))resent article, is postmaster at 
Brandon village, Douglas county, Minnesota, 
and is one of the most efficient and capable 
business men in the Park Regions. He was 
born in Osterdalen, Norway, on the 4th of 
May, 1850, and is a son of Werner Mathison, 
a farmer. The fatter came to the United 
States and settled on the Eed River, in 
Dakota, where he remained until the time of 
his death, in July, 1885. The motiier is still 
living on tlie old homestead. The parents 
bad a family of seven chikli'en, as follows — 

Johanna. Carrie, Olof, Martha, Wigo, Martin 
and llansten. 

Wigo Wei-ner spent his younger days in 
his native land. When he was twenty- 
one, or in 1877, he came to the United States, 
landing in Castle Garden, Xew York, and 
proceeding at once to Fargo, Dakota Terri- 
tory, arriving in the latter place twenty 
days after leaving Xorway. He remained 
thei'e with his peo])le for one year, and then 
went to Decorah. Iowa, to attend school. 
He received a good education, finishing with 
a course at the Decorah business college, 
from wliich institution he gi-adiiatcd. He 
then went to Brandon, Douglas county, 
Minnesota, and engaiietl in clei'kin"- in aaen- 
eral merchandise store for Lawrence John- 
son. This he followed for three years and a 
half, and then established a grocery store, 
which he has since conducted, carrying a 
full line of groceries and notions. In public 
matters he is one of the leading citizens of 
the town, and has been village treasurer for 
two years, assessor for three terms, and co- 
operates with evei'v enterprise calculated to 
benefit either the villaji'e or sui-i-oundiu}'- 

Mr. Werner was married on the 2nd of 
February, 1886, to Miss Anna K. Foslien, 
and they are the parents of two children, 
named Alice M. and Cora Y. 

^ERVEY H. PHELPS, the present coun- 
ty attorney of Noi'man county, IVIin- 
nesota, and one of the recognized leaders of 
the bar of Ada, has been a resident of this 
locality since June, 1883. 

Mr. Phelps was born in Dodge county, 
Wisconsin, October 10, 1854, and is the stm 
of lioswell II. and I\Iary Ann (Bark) Phelps. 
His parents were both natives of Onondaga 
county. New York, and had, on their mar- 
riage, come west and settled in that part of 



the Badger State, among the earliest set- 
tlers. Wiiile our subject was yet a child the 
family removed to Rock county, in the same 
State, and there settled on a farm. There 
the subject of this memoir was reared, as- 
sisting iiis father in the labors attendant on 
cari'ving on the farm, and laying the fonn- 
<lation of an excellent echication in tiie rougii 
log cabin school houses of his day, rugged 
cradles of knowledge, that are looked back 
to witli fond recollections of the halcyon 
days of youtii ijy so many of the eminent 
men. At tiie age of sixteen years lie started 
out to battle for himself, since which time he 
lias liepended entirely upon iiis own resour- 
ces. His first lousiness vc^nture was raising 
tobacco on a farm and ])urcliasing the crops 
of others, and on curing and marketing it, 
found lie had a fair profit in tlie transaction, 
wliicii gave iiim a start in life. In 1S73 
he, in pursuit of llie education tiiat he was 
bound to have, entered Albion Academy, in 
Dane county, Wisconsin, from wliich he was 
graduated in 1878, teaching school at the 
same time to pay for his tuition and board, 
and for two years occupied the chair of 
mathematics in that institution, carrying on 
his own studies at the same time. After 
graduation he taught a school near Stough- 
ton, in tiie same State, during the winter of 
1878-9, but in the following spring entered 
the office of Cassidy A: Carpenter, at Janes- 
ville, the county seat of flock county, Wis- 
consin. Tiiis was one of the most celebrated 
law tii'iiis in the West, Mr. Cassidy now be- 
ing one of the judges of the Supreme Court 
of the State. He diligently applied himself 
to the study of law and soon mastered the 
])rinciples upon which it is founded, anil con- 
tinued with the above-mentioned firm until 
May, 1881, when at a term of the circuit 
court, held in Hock county, lie was admitted 
to the bar, and in June of the same year 
was admitted to practice before the Supreme 
Court of that State. 

Immediately after the latter event Mr. 
Phelps came to the Red River Valley and 
I opened a law office in the village of Glyn- 
don, Minnesota, and commenced practice. 
In March, 1883, iiis office and his library, 
valued at !e;1,200, were destroyed by fire, 
only a part of it being insured, and he re- 
moved to Moorhead, but after a short stay 
there came to Ada, and here has built up a 
large and lucrative practice, and has been 
uncommonly successful, both in his forensic 
efforts and in a pecuniary sense, and is now 
ranked among the wealthy and solid men of 
the community. 

In the fall of ISSl Mr. Phelps was lumii- 
nateil on the republican ticket for the office 
of county attorney of Norman county, and 
elected with a handsome majority; was re- 
elected his own successor in 1 88<i and in 1888. 
In village matters he has always been highly 
interested, and has served several terms 
as recorder. On the 1st of January. 1887, 
he formed a copartnership with W. AV. 
Calkins, under the firm name of Phelps & 
Calkins, who do a large legal and collection 
business. They are the agents of the R. G. 
Dun mercantile agency for this locality, 
in addition to their other Inisiness. 

Mr. Phelps is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, having been made a Mason in 
Norman Lodge, No. 154, of Ada, and is one 
of the officers of the lodge. lie was mar- 
ried, February 18, 1884, to Miss Jennie Ives, 
a native of Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, and 
the daugliter of Gideon and Mary Ann 
Ives, and by this union is the parent of two 
children — Souana and Bernice. 

Mr. Phelps ranks very high in his profes- 
sion, and is justly considered the peer of any 
attorney in the Valley. His library of some 
three iiundred volumes is valued at $1,500, 
and besides his office and its furniture he 
owns a beautiful residence in the city, and 
has a considei-able amount of money loaned 
on real estate security. 



M SLE E. DYBDAL, member of the 
J^^^ board of county commissioners of 
Grant county, and a successCui farmer and 
stock-raiser, resides on section 38, Stonev 
Brook township. I'orn in Noi'way, he 
comes of a race whicii lias I'urnislied so many 
of the most sul)stantial and enterprising citi- 
zens of the Park Regions, and a nationality 
wiiich has Iwcome i)rovei'l)ial for frugality, 
thrift and industry. The father of our sub- 
ject, Allen Dy bdal, came to the United 
States wit!) Iiis family in ] 867, and settled 
in Winneslieik county, Iowa, where he died 
in 1875. Allen Dybdal and wife were the 
parents of eight living children, — Sarah, 
Asle E., Tora, Ellen, Knute, Tosten, Bennie 
and Helena. 

Asle E. Dybdal, whose name heads this 
article, was born on the 27th of Decendier, 
1853, and came to the United Stat(!s with his 
father in 1S(;7. He received his education in 
Winnesheik county, Iowa, attending school 
until he was al)out sixteen years of age. In 
1878 he came to (irant county, ilmnesota, 
arriving there in June, and for two years 
worked out for various ])ai'ties. At the ex- 
piration of that time he purchased a fai'm on 
section 33, Stoney Brook township, where he 
still lives. lie has comfortable improve- 
ments, and owns 120 acres of land, a good 
share of which is under a high state of culti- 

Mr. D\'bdal was married on the 7th of 
December, 1876, to .Miss Martha Eilingson, 
who was born in Norway in 1858. Their 
union iuis been blessed with six children, as 
follows — Ellen, Bertha, Emma, Theodore, 
Mary and Albert. The family are exem- 
plary meml)ers of the Luthei-an church. 

In political matters our subject is a repub- 
lican, and he has always taken a great inter- 
est in all local and public affairs. In May, 
1887, lie was appointed a meml)er of the 
board of county commissioners, and ^vas 
elected to that office in 1888, so that he is 

at present a member of the board. He has 
held various township offices, was supervisor 
for one year, and is tlie present assessor of 
the township in wliicii he lives. He is held 
in high esteem i)y all who kiU)W him as an 
exem]ilary citizen. 

WILLIAM NASH, one of the |>romi- 
nent and inthiential citizens of the 
Red Iliver Valley, is a resident of section 1, 
East Grand Forks township, Polk county, 
Minnesota, where he is engaged in a general 
farming and stock-raising busines.s. He is a 
native of Pennsylvania, born in New Castle, 
on the 1st day of June. 1833, and is the son of 
Ephraim and Louisa (Warnei'j Nash, natives 
of New York State. 

William Nash spent his younger days in 
the common schools of his native State and 
Michigan, where he attended school for 
three years. After completing his common- 
school education, he decich'd to pui-sue the 
study of medicine, and was planningto attend 
the medical (le|)artment at Ann Ari)or, 
Michigan. His eyes caused him so much 
troul)le that he was obliged to give up his 
intendetl course in medicine. He then re- 
moved to Kentucky, where he remained a 
few years, engaged in the mei'cantile busi- 
ness, and in 1862 removed to St. Paul. Min- 
nesota. He remained in the capital of Min- 
nesota for one year, heing there foi' his 
health. In 1863 he went to Pembina, Da- 
kota Territory, and from there to what was 
Fort Gary, now Winnipeg, Manitoba, and 
remained some time, recuperating. The fol- 
lowing summer he spent in Milwaukee, AVis- 
consin, anil Chicago, Illinois, and in the 
sjiringof 186-4 went to Fort Abercrombie, 
where he was einjdoyed as sutler and (tov- 
ernment contractor. He remained there 
five or six years, and during that time had 
the contract to furnish wood and hav for 



tlie fort. lie also hekl the contract to snj)- 
])ly tlie brick to build Fort Pembina and 
also the contract to carry tiie mail between 
Fort Abercrombie and "Winnipeg. There 
was a trackless stretch of country to pass 
through and the Indians in that region were 
a source of constant danger, and it was next 
to impossible to secure a driver. l\Ir. Nash 
uu\ile the trip with dog teams, and many 
were the dangers which he encountered dur- 
ing those early daj^s. At one time when 
there were but two making the trip they 
were attacked by Indians, and barely escapetl 
with their lives. After that Mr. Nash could 
secure no one to make the journey with him, 
exce])t a young stranger, and they made the 
trip in safety. Indians were not the only 
cause of danger. Many times the drivers 
would be so badly frozen that Mr. Nash 
would have to make the trip himself. He 
remained in this ca]iacity until 1809, when 
he removed to what is now East Grand 
Forks, Polk county, Minnesota, and located 
on section 1, East Grand Forks township, 
where he has since remained. Through his 
iuHuence with Senator Ramsey, the post- 
office of Nashville was establi'shed and also 
the appointment of the postmaster. He also 
was the means of the postal route being es- 
tablished between Crookston and East Grand 
Forks. When the village of East Grand 
Foi'ks had attained a moderate size, through 
]\Ir. Nash's influence the name was changed 
to East Gi'and Forks, and principally through 
him it receiveil its city charter. He is oneof 
till? substantial and well-to-do farmers of the 
county, and without doubt one of the most 
influential agriculturists in Polk county, 
lie is extensively engaged in general farm- 
ing operations and has a well cultivated 
farm of 700 acres, lying upon the banks of 
the lied Lake I'iver. One hundred acres of 
his beautiful farm is timber land, and he has 
a line and commodious residence just in the 
suburbs of the citv. 

Mr. Nash was united in marriage in St. 
Peter, Minnesota, on the 19th day of Janu- 
ary, 1869, to Miss Ida V. Slaugter, the 
daughter of Robert and Mary (Clark) 
Slaugter, natives of Virginia and Ohio, re- 
spectively. The grandfather of Mrs. Nash 
studied law with Henry Clay, and was an 
influential citizen in the locality in which he 
lived. Mr. and Mrs. Nash are the parents 
of the following named children — Lois, 
Mary I., Nellie K., William C, Jr., Dudley 
L., Robert F. and Harold S. Mr. Nash has 
held all of the school offices in his district, 
including school director, treasurer, etc. 
He is a member of the A. F. and A. M., of 
the Grand Forks lodge and chapter. In 
])olitical matters he affiliates with the dem- 
ocratic party, and is a man of more than 
ordinary education and ability. He is 
actively interested in all movements calcu- 
lated to benefit either town or county, and 
is highly esteemed and respected by all who 
know him. 

JT PETERSON, JR., joint proprietor of 
^ Peterson's book and fruit store, Barnes- 
ville, Clay county, Minnesota, is one of the 
earliest settlers in that section, having made 
Moorhead his home in 1872. He was born 
in the province of Wermeland, Sweden, on 
the 7th day of April, 1855, and when 
but a child emigrated with his parents 
to the United States, living in different lo- 
calities, mostly in Minnes(jta, and in 1869 
removed to Meeker county, Minnesota, 
where his father, who had considerable means, 
bought improved land. Two years later 
young Peterson was allowed to go with 
some friends to Minneapolis. Once there he 
did not mean to return home quite so soon 
as had been expected, but sought and found 
such emjiloyment as he could get, and was 
always bus\-, asserting that he "did not have 

•2 26 


time to go hack liome to be laughed atby 
liis ste])iii<)tlier." At this time, while work- 
ing in a shingle mill (Crocker Bros, iz Lam- 
ereaux), lie came within an incli of having his 
young life cut short hy an accident. One 
cold evening in the fall he fell through a 
sluice hole in the great platfonn by the mills 
into tiie pitch dark ice and water twenty 
feet l)elow. The strong curi-ent and lie- 
nunibing cold, together with the complete 
darkness, seenu3(l about to finish the work 
the tall had failed to accomplish, when, at 
the critical moment, there appeared a glim- 
mer of light from some one's lantern at the 
lower mill door, which enabled him to see 
and grasp tlie last post at the end of the 
shingle track, crawl up on the track and 
make for the mill. There tiiey were dumb- 
founded by this sudden apparition, while 
" Joiinny," however, never stopped moving 
his legs till he reached his boarding place 
(Cataract House), when the icy stiffness of 
his sleeves prevented his knocking or open- 
ing the door. lie could still kick (and can 
yet) and was let in, <|uickly put to bed and 
given a warm drink by good "Mother 
Lamereaux," and the next morning was at 
his post again, nothing the worse for the cold 
bath. This was not his first lesson in swim- 
ming. While living with his parents at 
Stillwater, Minnesota, he jumped from a 
raft which had Ijeen detached about 100 feet 
from low water. When his head popped up 
above the surface, another urchin who had 
come up yelled out, " Keep up your head, 
Johnny!" He did and padtUed to shore, 
having often since had occasion to remem- 
ber and act upon the simple but safe advice 
of his young friend. 

One year later he struck out for the West, 
antl experienced considerable hardship, 
working in the pineries, etc., and finally 
i)rought up at Detroit, Minnesota, where he 
worked and attended school. In the fall of 
1ST;> he removed to Moorhead, Minnesota, 

where he found employment as carpenter, 
clerk, maciiine agent, etc., for a couple of 
3'ears. and in the winter time attended 
school. Then times wei-e flush, and Mr. 
Peterson relates that lie often nuide as 
high as §5 ])er i\\\\ lathing, other wages 
being coi'respondingly high. In the next 
early spring he worke<l on a snow train 
botind for Bismarck, fi-om which place he in- 
tended to go to the lilack Hills, the newly 
discovered western Eldorado, but was per- 
suaded by his frontier friends to desist, they 
declaring that " it is too rough thei'e for the 
kid." He went back to iloorhead, and again 
attended school. 

In the fall of 1S76 Mr. Peterson was asked 
to teach school during the winter. lie ac- 
cepted the offer, and went in company with 
Ole ('. Lniul to Tansem township. Though 
young, he was apparently fitted for his new 
work, as he certainly was well qualified, 
holding it first-grade certificate, and suc- 
ceeded so well that he kept right on teach- 
ing in Clay, Otter Tail and Wilkin counties; 
among other ])laees at Norwegian Grove, 
Elizabeth, ]\IcCauleyville, and in 1882 re- 
moved to Barnesville, Clay county, where lie 
was ])rincipal of the village school that year. 
He then entered the employ of John Marth, 
general merchant, as book-keeper, and in the 
succeeding year opened up a small book and 
confectionery store of his own. He was 
fortunate in this undertaking, and in Eeb- 
ruary, 1885, was the fii'st to remove his busi- 
ness to the new town site, aliout half a mile 
farther south, whei-e the St. P., M. iV: M. II. 
R. Co. had erected new shoiis and a large 
depot building the previous fall, itnd removed 
the division headquarters from Fergus Falls. 
Here he did so well that in the summer of 
that year he built a large two story store, 
but had not occupied the same more than 
three months when he was burned out, with 
a Loss of over $3,000, but partly covered by 
insurance. This was a serious set-back. 



and, altlioiigli able to resume business on a 
small scale, brouglit on, together with con- 
tinued sickness in iiis family, financial em- 
barrassment two yeai's later. His friends 
came to the rescue, however, and he has 
ali'oad\^ in part, and will, untloubtedly, soon 
fully recover all iiis lost ground, as he is 
(loiiig a good and ]iaying business at present, 
carrying a stock oi ai)out s2,i>(i(». 

Mr. Peterson has always taken an active 
and important part in ])olitical and local 
affairs, having been meinlier of the repub- 
lican town committee, of which he is now 
chaii'Hian, all the time since moving to 
Ijarnesville; has held the office of justice of 
the peace almost continuously since he was 
old enough to vote, and has also been mem- 
ber of the village council of Earnesville and 
village recorder. He is correspondent for the 
St. Paul Pioneer Press and other ])apers, 
and is, all in all, an old timer, though yet 
young and full of further and more striking 

Mr. Peterson was married, in 1882, to 
Miss Pertha M. Ishong, who was born in 
Minnesota, her parents being of Norwegian 
nationality. Out of four, children born to 
them — Johan Ferdinand, -lames Garnet, 
Miranda Emelia and Julian Maurice, one, 
their little gii'l, Emelia, died at the age of two 
years, which sad fact is the only thing to 
cloud the brightness of t heir otherwise happy 

|[>^AGE JOHNSON, a prominent merchant 
iS^ and the efficient postmaster at Pomme 
de Terre village. Grant county, Minnesota, 
is a native of Norway, and springs from a 
race distinguished for their thrift, industry 
and integrit\\ He was bi>rn on the 1st day 
of Januar\% 1831, and is the son of John P. 
Johnson, a native of the same kingdom. The; 
father of our subject was a tarmei' in the 

Old World, and is now deceased. The father 
and mother of our subject were the parents 
of the following named children — Ei-ick, 
Peter, Andrew, Lage, John and Ole. 

Lage Johnson, the subject of this bio- 
graphical review, jiassed the first twenty-one 
years of his life in the land of his birth, 
instilling into his mind the principles of 
right, honest}' and economy. After he left 
the school-room he entered an apprenticeship 
to the shoemaker's trade, and he followed 
that occupation until 1852. In 1852 he emi- 
grated to the United States, and, after a voy- 
age of seven weeks, landed at Quebec, Can- 
ada. After landing, he went to Iowa coun- 
ty, Wisconsin, where he remained about four 
years, engaged in farming. At the expira- 
tion of that time he removed to Fillmore 
countj% Minnesota, and pre-empted a tract of 
land on which he lived for lyneteen years. 
In 1875 he moved to Grant county, Minne- 
sota, and located in Pomme de Terre town- 
ship on section 21. Soon after locating in 
Grant county, he built a store in Pomme de 
Terre village, and has since Ijeen engaged in 
the general merchandising business in con- 
nection with his farming interests. He car- 
ries a full line of goods, and is doing a large 
and increasing business. He owns a large, 
well cultivated tract of land, com]irising 240 
acres, and with neat and comfortable build- 
ing improvements. He was appointed ]iost- 
master in 1877, and has held the same ever 
since with the exception of three years. 

Mr. Johnson was married on the 16th day 
of August, 1851, to Miss Pettronele Estensen, 
a native of Norway, and now the mother of 
the following named children — Anna M., 
(jea, Emilia, .Iose])heni, Olena, Henry (>., 
Peter L., Tilla ()., William N., Julia I), and 
Evelena S. Mr. Johnson has held the offices 
of postmaster, school treasurer, etc. He, with 
his family, behMigs to the Lutheran church. 
In political matters he affiliates with the re- 
publican party, and lakes an active interest in 



all public and eclucational matters. He is a 
representalive man of liis township and resi- 
dence village, and is a citizen of the strictest 
honor and integrity, liiglily esteemed by all 
who icnow him. 



_ ARK D. JUDKINS. Of the many 
^^^Xi^ "brave boys in bUu!" wlio found 
homes in tlie famous ParicEegionsof Minne- 
sota, none better deserve mention than the 
irentleman whose name heads tliis article, 
who is engaged in the foundrv and macliine 
business in the village of Osakis, Douglas 
county, Minnesota. He is a native of Maine, 
born in Fayette, March 13, 1837, and is the 
son of David and Emeline (Swift) Judkins, 
also natives of ]\Iaine. The fiither of our 
subject passed away from the scenes of 
earth on the 24th of September, 1S87, and 
the mother is still living at the advanced age 
of seventy-four years. They were the 
parents of six children, three boys and tliree 
girls, named as follows — Mark I).. Mariali, 
Melisse, IJaley I)., Jessie and Tolly. 

Mark D. Judkins, the subject of this 
biographical sketch, received a ))ractical 
business education in his native State, and 
when nineteen years old he left the school- 
room and removed to Pennsylvania, with his 
parents. He remained in Pennsylvania from 
1857 until 1861, during which time he was 
ene-aji'ed in the lumbering- business. On tiie 
20th of October, 1861, he enlisted in Com- 
pany II, Fifty-Eighth Pennsylvania Infantry, 
and served thirteen months. He then re- 
enlisted ill I'.attery D, Fourth United States 
Artillery, and served until February 18, 
18<!1-. Mr. Judkins again re-enlisted the 
18tli of February, 1SG4, for tiiree years more 
in the same battery, and was discharged 
Fe'lu'iiary IS, 1867, at Fort Washington, 
Maryland, and during the last tliree years 
was ])romoted to sergeant major. Mr. Jud- 

kins was in a great many skirmishes and 
battles and was undei' lii'e for 6!>0 days dur- 
ing the war. The following is a list of tlie 
engagements he jiarticipated in — Franklin, 
\'irginia, Deserteil House. January 30,1868; 
siege of Sulb)lk, s])ring of 1863, lasting 
twenty-two days; with Butlei' in the Army 
of the James, dui-ing the s))i'ing of 1S63; 
AValtliall Juncti(.)n, s])ring of 1864; Fort 
Darling, May 11, 1861; Druries Pluff, May 
12, 1864; in the siege of Petersburg from 
June 16 to August 29,1864; then made Hank 
movement on Tlichmond, A'irginia, on the 
29th of August, 1S64, and cai)tured seven 
lines of breastworks; battle of Oak Hill, 
September 7, 1864, and siege of liichmond, 
from August 29, ls64. to A])ril 3. 1865. Mr. 
Judkins then made a trip to Texas, and 
from there went to AVashington. District of 
Cohuui)ia, where he remained dui'ing the 
spring of 1866, and received an honorable 
discharge Febniaiy 18, 1867. 

After he was mustered out, he I'eturned to 
Pennsylvania, where he remained five oi' six 
months and then went to Adams county, 
AVisconsin. There he engaged in the hop 
business, and after some little time moved 
to Minnesota. He settled in Pojie county. 
^Minnesota, in Decemliei', lS(i9, and engaj:ed 
in farming and remained until 1S7.".. Mr. 
Judkins then went to Osakis and engaged 
in the patent right business, and has since 
devoted a great deal of ids tinu> to it. He 
is now engaged extensivelv in the foimdiv 
and inachinerjf business, and is doing a heavy 
trade. Special mention shouhl be nuule of 
Mr. Judkins' inventive powers, being a 
natural born mechanic. He was the lirst 
inventor of tlie three-wheeh'd riding plow, 
having |)atented the same in 1873. As tliis 
impkuuent of husbandry is in general use, 
its merits and character need not be dis- 
cussed, it being sufficicMit to add that it is 
made by all the large manul'actoi-ies in the 
I'nited States. He is also the inveiitoi- of 



tlie selfsackint;' and o-rain scparatoi', on 
which lie made SS,(iflti in tlii'eo niouUis. He 
is also the patentee of sevei-al different riding- 
])lo\vs, and it will be seen at a o-lance that he 
is a i)enefactor to the coniinunity at lai'ge. 

Mr. .ludkins was married on the 18th of 
Octolx'r, 1870, to jNIiss Tlarriettc JlcCollum 
and this union has been blessed with two 
children. U. S. Grant and Mary, both of 
wiiom are now at home. Mrs. Judkins is a 
native of Indiana and received lier education 
in Minnesota. JMr. Judkins is a republican 
in politics and one of the active businessmen 
of the village. lie is a member of the 
National Lodge, No. 12, Ancient, Free and 
Accepted Masons, Washington, District of 
Columbia, and John Kennedy Post, No. 141, 
de[)artmcnt of IMinnesota, Grand Arnw of 
the Republic. 

j\Ir. Judkins is also the patentee of the best 
double-acting force pum]) in the country, and 
patentee of the adjustable fireback for cook- 
ing stoves. He manufactures artesian well 
rigs and tools, well auger rigs and tools, 
sells all kinds of pumps, pipes and fittings, 
windmills, feed mills ; all kinds of castings 
and horse powers, heating stoves, etc., and, 
in fact, he can sell you almost anything you 


ing attorney of Ci'ookston, and one of 
its most po[)ulai' ami influential citizens, was 
born in Boston, ]\fassacliusetts. ]\Iarcli 3, 18411, 
and is the son of Robert and Ellen ^[ontague, 
who were natives of the Emerald Isle. In 
18.")(ithe family came to ]VIinnesota aiul set- 
tled in Olmsted county, where the father 
took up a claim and foundeil a farm, where 
still live the parents, a sister and a brother 
of oar subject. Their home is on the south- 
east quarter of section 2, in the town of 
Salem, Olmsted countv. 

In his early years. Judge Montague endured 
all the hardships aiul jirivations common to 
all of Minnesota's early settlers, and, there 
ijeing a gi'eat lack of educational facilities in 
that locality at that date, ami those that 
there were being of but inferior graile, under 
his mother's direction young Montague 
obtained the most of his |(rimary education 
at home. He was reared upon the home- 
stead, and early inui'ed to hai'd woi'k. Years 
spent in the rough toil upon the farm has 
won for him the reputation in that almost 
native county as a hard-working farmer. Pie 
remained beneath the parental roof until 
1875, teaching school during the winter 
months the last ten years, and heli)ing carry 
on the farm in summers. After his mai'riage, 
in 1875, he, like so many other farmers' boys, 
had higher aims, and burned to take a more 
prominent ])art in the world than was com- 
])atible with his agricultural labors, and he 
turned to the study of law. Having to 
depend upon his own exertions for the main- 
tenance of himself antl wife, he had no time 
to enter the office of some legal himiiiai'V, 
but, still cari-ymg on his hard and laborious 
work, found time, at odd moments, to master 
the principles and practice of the profession 
he had chosen. This earnest scholar, who 
thus toiled on unaided, with untiring effort, 
with unfaltering fidelity to his task, suc- 
ceeded at last in passing the ordeal of an 
examination most triumphantly, and was 
admitted to practice at the bai-, at Rochester, 
Minnesota, December 11, 1880. The reward 
for his labors and self-denial was yet to 
come. In the newer settlements of the 
great West he felt there was a bettei' Held 
for his efforts, so in May, 1881, he came to 
the city of ("rookston, and there opened his 
present office, ami engaged in the ])ractice of 
law. The peo])le soon appreciated the 
merits of the new attorney, whose ability 
and success were of a high character, and he 
soon possessed a fair numl)(M' of clients. In 


KKD A'/ r /■:/,' VALLEY A.VD 

1882 he was chosen judge of tlie probate 
court of Polk county, and filled that office 
successfully and satisfactorily for four years. 

Since taking uj) his home in Crookston he 
has devoted a liberal share of his time and 
talent to the welfare of the place, which has 
borne recognition by his fellow-townsmen, 
they electing him to the mayoralty in Api-il, 
1885, which position he held for one year. 

As a lawyer Mr. Montague I'anks very 
high, while his unimpeachable integrity, 
kind and affable manners, and excellent com- 
mon siiiisc, have I'endei'ed him both popular 
and respected. As an orator he is able and 
fervid, iind is rapidly taking a prominent 
place anicjug the popular leaders of the day 
in this section. 

Mr. Montague was united in marriage in 
1874, with ]\riss Elizabeth Finnigan, a, native 
of New York. Tliev have six children. • 


4^ UFUS P. WELLS, one of the most 
JSlV I'l'oininent and best known citizens 
and business men of Grant county. Min- 
nesota, is engaged in a general banking 
business in the village of Herman. He is 
a native of Canaila, born at L'Orignal on 
the 27th day of A|)ril, ISS-i, and is a son of 
Abel and Hannah (Cass) Wells, natives, also, 
of Canada. 

liufus, the subject of this biographical 
sketch, spent his younger days in attending 
school at L'Orignal, Canada. At the age of 
twenty-one years he left the school-room and 
engaged for sometime in the lumbering busi- 
ness at that place. He, at the expiration of 
a few vears, removed to Omro, Winneliago 
county, AVisconsin, where he remained two 
years, engaged in lumbering and farming. 
He then removed to Belle Plaine, Scott 
county, Minnesota, where he was eiigaged 
in milling and carpentering for a period of 
two vears. On the 2nd dav of October. 

1861, he enlisted in the Fourth Minnesota 
Infantry, Company A. He was under Cap- 
tain Baxter until he was ])romoted to the 
rank of major, and then thecimipany passed 
under the hands of (.aptaiii Young. During 
the service the captaincy changed twice 
more, first to Captain liussel and next to 
Ca])tain Douglass. Our subject entered as 
a private and was discharged as captain. 
He was honorably discharged July lit, 1S05, 
at Louisville. Kentucky. He ]iartici|)ated in 
the battles of luka, Corinth, Raymond, Jack- 
son. Champion Hill, Yicksburg and many 
skirmishes, lie was promoted to the ranks 
of cor|>()ral. first sergeant, first lieutenant and 
finally to the rank of acajjtain of Company 
C. Aftei" his discharge he returned to Jor- 
dan, where he remained until he removed to 
(irant county in IS.'^o. In the fall of that 
vear he settled at Hei'man and eno-ao-ed in 
the banking business under the incoi'])orated 
name of Grant County Bank, organized as a 
State bank. He has since enoaged in this 
occupation, and is one of the most successful 
and prominent business men of Grant county. 

Mr. \Yells was united in marriage on the 
4th of March, ISf.'.i, to Miss Mary Cass- 
well, and they are the parents of the follow- 
ing children — Mai'ion, George W., A. "Waters, 
Josepii B., Azelia E., Betsie L., and James 
P., all of whom ai-e single and at home, 
except the two oldest, who arc attending the 
high school at Minneapolis, ^Minnesota. AIis. 
Wells is a native of ]S^ew York State, born 
January 15. 1847, ;>ud the daughter of G. 
W. Casswell, afainierof the Empire State. 
She is one of two children — Charles Jl. and 
]\rary E. 

The subject of this article is one of the rep- 
resentative men of his residence village, and 
has held the offices of member of the village 
school board and ])resident of the same for a 
number of years. He is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity and also of the Ancient Order 
of United AVorkmen. He is a republican in 

PAA'h- A-K(;/0.y.S OF MliVNESOTA. 


l]is))olitical;ilfiliati()ns, and takes a ]irominent 
pai't ill all local affairs. Mr. Wells is a 
stockholder of the Stevens County Bank, 
located at >[orris, and is also engaged in tlie 
merchandising business at that place. In 
addition to his hanking interests in Herman, 
he cai'ries on a general merchandising busi- 
ness and deals to some extent in real estate. 
He is one of the most enterprising and 
capable businessmen in the village. A man 
of the utmost honor and integrity, he is 
highl}' esteemed by all who know him. 


efficient and accommodating hotel 
proprietor of the Fisher Hotel, Polk county, 
Minnesota, is a native of Germany. He was 
born in Wurtemberg, on the l-tth ilay of 
September, 1S54-, and is the son of Jacob 
and Katharine Widenhoefer, also natives of 
Germany. The father and mother of our 
subject were the ])arents of the following 
named children — Carl, Ciiristian, Jacob, Bar- 
bara, Mary, Minnie and William. 

William Widenhoefer, the subject of this bi- 
ographical memoir, remained at homeattend- 
ingthe common schools of his native land un- 
til he had reached the age of fourteen years. 
He then commenced in life for himself by 
entering an apprenticeship to the potter's 
trade. After leai'ning his trade he followed 
the same for over five years for one lirm. 
In Noveml)ei', 1873. he emigi'ated to the 
United States, and, after a voyage of seven- 
teen days, landed in New York. He at 
once went to lieavei' Bay, Minnesota, wliere 
he secured employment in a saw mill and in 
a lumber cam]). After working at this oc- 
cupation for about two yeai's, he went to 
Michigan. There he secured employment in 
the copper mines of Superior, and, for about 
i'oui'teen months, tended bar for his uncle. 

He then worked foi' seven months in the 
Quincy copper mines, and then secured em- 
plo\'ment of Adolph Ithul, in the saloon busi- 
ness, for whom he worketl two years and 
nine months. On the 5th day of May, ISSO, 
Mr. Widenhoefer removed to Minnesota, and 
located in Polk county. During tliat sum- 
mer he worked on a farm, and, in the fall,, 
moved to the village of P'isher, Polk countv, 
Minnesota, where he purchased the hotel he 
now oijcrates. He has since been engaced 
in the hotel business, and is highly esteemed 
by the traveling public. 

Mr. Widenhoefer was united in marriage, 
on September 3, 1883, to Miss Amelia 
Jantz, the daughter of John and Augusta 
Jantz. The subject of this sketch is a dem- 
ocrat in politics, and one of the jn-ominent 
business men of the village. He is a mem- 
ber of the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, Lodge No. 87, of Fisher. 

||l^R. CHARLES F. FALLEY, physician, 
attorney and counselor at law, and 
also judge of probate of Wilkin county, Min- 
nesota, is a resident of Breckeni'idge, where 
he is extensively engaged at his profession. 
He is a native of Ohio, born at Granville, 
Licking county, on the -ith of April, 1815, 
and is the son of Samuel and Ruth (Root) 
Falley, natives of New Hampshire and Mas- 
sachusetts, respectively. The father was, in 
early life, engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness, and in 1814 engaged in farming at 
Granville, Ohio, and previous to this was a 
merchant in Franklin, Ohio, from 1802 to 
1811. At that date he returned to New 
Hampshire, where he remained until 1814. 
AVhen he returned to Ohio it was with the 
(iranville colony, and he remained there the 
rest of his life. He held the position of cap- 
tain in the State militia, and in early days 



was a Jeffersonian. Later he became a 
whig, then an abolitionist, and at last a repub- 
lican. He died at the m<;'<' of ninetv-tiiree 
years, and the motlier died when she was 
seventy-two years old. They were the par- 
ents of the following- named children — Ma- 
tilda, Clarissa. Richard, Dr. Charles F., Lewis 
A., Francis C, Edmund R., Ruth M., Eunice 
(now Mrs. Segar), Linus A. and Charlotte C. 
Richard liveil to be ahout sixty eight years 
old, and his son is Charles F., the present 
jiroprietor and editor (with George Fritz) of 
the Dalioia Glohe, published at Wahpcton, 
Dakota Territory. 

The subject of this biographical sketch 
was raised on the home farm, at Cranville, 
Ohio, anil attended the i)al)lic schools in that 
locality. He attended the college at Gam- 
bier, Ohio, for two years, and then returned 
to Gran vi lie and studied medicine with Dr. 
William AV. Banci'ol't for four years. Dur- 
ing this time he attended four courses of 
lectures, one at Worthington, Ohio, and the 
other three at AVilloughby Ilniversitj^ in 
Ohio, from which he graduated in 1838. 
"While attending Kenyon College, at Gam- 
bier, he read law, and was admitted to the 
bar in LS3(!. The following spring, after his 
graduation from the medical college, he 
engaged in the practice of medicine in York, 
Clark county, Illinois, where he remained 
three years. At the expiration of that time 
he removed to Ewington, Effingham count}', 
Illinois, and practiced medicine until 1860. 
In ISGo he went to Olney, Richland count}', 
Illinois, and for the next two yeai's was 
engaged in clinical work at that place. He 
then entered the army as hospital steward, 
and served as assistant to the l)rigade sur- 
geon for two years, and after his tlischarge 
went to Bloomington, Grant co\inty, "Wis- 
consin. There he engaged in pnjfessional 
woi'k U>¥ two years, and at the expiration of 
that time moved to Mt. IIo]H', in the same 
count}', and remained there for two years, 

occupied with clinical work. At the end of 
the two years Dr. Falley again moved, this 
time settling in Lancaster, the county seat of 
Grant county, "Wisconsin. After twelve 
years devoted to. the sick and suffering in 
that locality, the doctor removed to Afinne- 
sota, and in IST'.t located in IJreckenridge, 
"Wilkin county, where he has since been en- 
ffa^ed in medical work. In ISS-f he was 
elected to the oiKce of judge of probate of 
"W^ilkin county, and has since creditably dis- 
chai'ii'ed the official duties devolving:- on that 

Judge Falley was united in niai'riage, in 
1843, to Miss Annie C. Brackett, a native of 
Lancaster, New IIarn|)sliii(', and now the 
— mother of the following lunned children 
Charles B., an attorney-at-law, who ilied in 
ISSO; he was a graduate of the law department 
at Ann Arbor, Michigan ; he s(>rved in the 
Civil AVar, having enlisted when he was six- 
teen years old, and was in the service three 
years; he was hospital steward for two 
years, and was discharged in 1865 ; he was 
cotmty auditoi' of "Wilkin comity at the time 
of his death, aiul had held the office for six 
years. Lou A., now Mrs. F. J. Howard, 
her husband being a member of the firm of 
Hon-ard, AA^alters ife Co., of Breckenridge ; 
she is a graduate of the normal school at 
Platt\'ille, AVisconsin. Dr. Richard L. is a jun- 
ior of Beloit College, AVisconsin, a graduate 
of the St. Paul Medical College, and a success- 
ful practitionei' of Twin \'alley, Jlinncsota. 
The remaining children died in infancy. 
Dr. Falley, with his family, belongs to the 
Episcopal church. He is a republican in 
politics, and takes an active interest in all 
local matters. He belong:s to the social orjran- 
izations. Odd Fellows and Masonic frater- 
nities. He is also a mend:;er of Sumner 
Post, Grand Army of the Re|)ul(lic, at 
AVahpeton, Dakota Territory. In addition 
to his medical i)i"ictice the doctor deals 
extensively in I'eal estate, furnishes abstracts, 



investigates titles, makes collections, paj's 
taxes for non-resident parties, and devotes 
special attention to all matters connected 
witii ])ublic lands, lie is one of tlie repre- 
sentative business men of AVilicin county 
and vicinit}', and commands a lai'ge and 
increasing practice, both in law and medi- 
cine, wiiicli extends thi-ougliout Western 
Minnesota and Eastei'n Dakota. 

ELS H. HANSON, a member of the 
firm of Johnson Ar Hanson, dry 
got)ds merciiants in Glyndon village, Clay 
county, Minnesota, is a native of Norway. 
He was born September 7, 1854, and is a son 
of Hans and Catharena (Johnson) Hanson, 
who wei'e natives of that kingdom. The 
father, who was a tailor and farmer by 
trade, came to tlie Unitetl States in 1865, 
and settled in Allamakee covinty, Iowa. He 
remained there engaged in tailoring and 
farming until 1870, when he came to Clay 
county, Minnesota, and settled in Glyndon, 
where he died in February, 1880. Mrs. 
Catharena Hanson, who is still living in 
Glyndon, is the mother of nine children, 
four of whom are living — Maiy (now Mrs. 
Johns(m), Anna (the wife of E. A. Erick- 
son), Hertlia (married to Joseph Hansman), 
and Nels H., the subject of this article. The 
parents were members of the IMethodist 
church, and the father was one of the prom- 
inent business men in the locality in which 
lie lived. Nels' early life was spent on the 
home farm, where he received a common- 
school education. At the age of twenty- 
one he left the old home, and started out in 
life for himself, by working for farnu^rs. 
After working a year for a farmer in Iowa 
lie went to Lansing, Iowa, where he learned 
the trade of a cooper. As soon as that was 
<accomi)lisheil he moved to Red "Wing, Min- 
nesota, where he followed his trade for some 

eighteen months. Moving from Red Wing, 
he settled in Chippewa county, Minnesota, 
where he took a l(>0-acre homestead, and at 
once began to make improvements, building 
a substantial house and barn and cultivating 
over a hundred acres of land. Mr. Hanson 
remained on his t:irni for six years, at 
the expiration of which time he sold out and 
moved to Chiy county, Minnesota, settling 
in Glyndon. April 4, 1885. He at once 
entered into partnership with Johnson «& 
Erickson, ami after continuing in business 
until January, 1887, the firm name was 
changed from Johnson, Erickson & Co. to 
Johnson & Hanson, by the purchase of Mr. 
Erickson's interest by Messrs. Johnson and 
Hanson. Mr. Hanson is one of the substan- 
tial and esteemed business men of Glyndon 
village. He is a member of the village 
board, and, while in Chippewa county, held 
the office of constal)le. In political matters 
he is a republican. 

Mr. Hanson was married, in 1877, to Miss 
IMary Bertleson, the daughter of Bertie 
Anderson, a native of Norway. He came 
to the United States and settled in Lansing, 
Iowa, where he was engaged in the cooper's 
trade until the time of his death. Mrs. 
Hanson is one of a family of seven children. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hanson are the parents of 
the following children — Louise, Amanda, 
Nellie (deceased), Minnie and Ada. 



JpEoRACE DE CAMP, who held the 
M^ office of register of deeds for Clay 
county, Minnesota, from 1876 to 1889, is a 
highly respected citizen of Moorhead, and 
justlv merits a place in this connection. 

He was born at Sing Sing, New York, 
May 10, 1827, and is a son of Ralph and 
]\[a'ry (Lee) De Camp, natives of New Jersey. 
The father was a master mason and a fine 
mechanic. It was he who built the prison 



at Aiihiirn, Now York, in ISlfi. and tlie one 
at lSiii<;' Sin"' in 182*!, also erected the line 
county buildin<;s at Anhuin, and other 
splendid struetni-es in the Eastern States, 
inchiding city halls, chnreh edifices, etc. 
lie followed this caliino- for forty-live years 
of his life, employing at one time over 50(t 
men. He lived a retired life at Aureliiis, 
New York, until ninety-three years of age. 
His wife died at the age of seventv-seven. 
They had a family of nine children, only 
two of whom are now living — William, of 
Cresco, Iowa, and our subject, Horace. 

Horace was educated at Auburn, New 
York, and received an academic course, leav- 
ing school when seventeen years oki. He 
then clerked for two years. He engaged to do 
office work for a railroad, with whom he was 
employed for eight years, after whicli time 
he went to Texas. This was in 18-Ht, and 
he clerked on a steamboat l)etween Galves- 
ton and Houston for a year and a half. 
From the boat clei'kship lie went to selling 
goods at Galveston, continuing for three 
years, but on account of ill health he came 
North and settled in "Wyoming county. New 
York, on a farm ; but, possessed by an 
ambition which saw better openings West, 
be came to Wisconsin, settling five miles 
from Milwaukee, where he again entered 
farm life, continuing for five years. In 1S71 
he came to Clay county, Minnesota, and in 
the spring of 1872 moved his family to 
Moorheatl, where he has since remained. It 
was he who built the first frame house 
erected in that city. In it lieke]>t hotel, the 
same being styled " Tlie AVestern Hotel." 
Around this pioneer building much of earl}'- 
day history centers. Here the first Protest- 
ant chui'ch services were held, and that, 
too, before the building was fairly enclosed. 
The Ilev. O. II. Elmer, a Presbyterian min- 
ister, who was holding meetings in tents, 
was the one who conducted this meetins'. 

Politicall}', Mr. De Camp is a I'epublican, 

and has been honored, as well as burdened, 
with various local offices, includini;- rejiistcr 
of deeds and justice of the peace, etc. He 
was elected in 187fi to the former office, and 
still fills the ])lace, acceptably to all con- 
cerned, at this writing (188S). 

He was maii'ied to ^fiss E. C. Pierson, of 
Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1886. He was, Ikjw- 
evei', nuirried before, and by that union has 
a son named Ralph E., now an artist in 
Montana Territory. 

Our subject has been a great traveler in 
his day. He passed all through ifexico, as 
early as 1855 and 1856, and has seen much 
of every State in the Union. He is a well 
posted and highly intelligent man, who 
well represents the culture found in the 
famous lied River Valley. 

"^^NUD O. LAASTUEN, one of the 
J^i^uX^ prominent and respected membei's of 
the farming community of the Red River and 
Park Regions, is a resident of section 9, San- 
ford township, Grant county, Minnesota, 
where he is extensivelv engaged in agricult- 
ural 2)ursuits. 

He is a native of Norway, l)orn on the 
17th of July, 1843, and is a son of Ole Laas- 
tuen, a native also of that kingdom. The 
father of the present subject emigrated to the 
United States in 1861, and settled in Fill- 
more county, ^Minnesota, where he is still liv- 
ing at the advanced age of ninety years. The 
mother of Knud died in 1882. They were 
the parents of the following named children 
— Halvor, Ole, Carrie and Knud. 

Knud Laastuen spent eigiiteen years of his 
life in the laiul of his birth. Uj) to the age 
of fifteen he attended the common schools, 
and frf)ni that ])eriod in life until he was 
eighteen he reniaineil at home and took care 
of his parents. At the age of eighteen he 
came to the T'nited States with his parents, 



aiul, iiftei- a voyage of twelve weeks, landed 
at Quebec. Canada. PVom tliis port of land- 
ing the party removed to Fillmore county, 
Minnesota, wiiere tlie parents have since re- 
sided. Mr. Laastn(Mi remained in Filimoi-e 
county until 1872, when he went to Gi'ant 
county, Minnesota, and liought a ti'act of 
land, comprising loo acres, on sections 8 and 
9, Sanl'oi'd towiisiiip. Heat once began im- 
provements, and lie now lias one of the best 
and most highly cultivated farms in the 
county. He owns 500 acres lying on sections 
8, y and 16, and is engaged extensively in 
general farming and stock-raising. 

He was one of the first settlers in the 
county, and took an active part in the organ- 
ization of his township. When he settled 
liere the town of Elbow Lake was an Indian 
camp, containing about four thousand 
Indians. They gradually retreated as the 
advancing line of civilization jiressed onward 
and westward. 

Mr. L.aastuen was united in marriage .Jan- 
uary 28, 1804-, to Miss IVIary Knudson, anil 
thev have been blessed with the f(>llowin<r 
children — Betsie A., Ole, Gusty T., Eniil, 
Carlis, Knud M., Oscar A., Anton, Ida M., 
Elmer C, and the following, who are de- 
ceased — Emma C, Martin, Amin and Mar- 
tin C. 

Mrs. Laastuen is a nativi? of Norway, 
and came to the United States when but 
twenty montiis old. She went with her 
])arents to Wisconsin, where they remained 
ten years. At the expiration of that time 
tiiey removed to Fillmore county, Minnesota, 
and there remained until 1ST2. She received 
her education in Wisconsin and ^linnesota, 
and was married in Fillmore county. Mr. 
Laastuen was the lii'st jjerson to engiige in 
the hotel inisiness in Elbow Lake, and lor 
many years I'an the l^llxiw Lake House, car- 
rying on farming at the same time. He 
owns the greater part of the village site. 
His land lies on the dividiny ridge between 

the Mississi]i])i and the Red Kiver of the 
North, and is one of the most picturesque 
places in the northern ])art of the State. He 
has lield the offices of constable, trustee, 
etc. He is a stanch democrat, and is ])res- 
itlent of the democratic club of the Fifth 
congressional district. He is a man of the 
sti'ictest honor arid integrity, highly esteemed 
by all who i)ear his acquaintance. 

The land belonging to Mr. Laastuen is 
historic. The court house for Grant county 
was located on the place in 1872, and in 1886 
the Minneapolis, Sault Ste. Marie & Pacific 
I'aih'oad located their depot on his land. 


p\AVID V. FREDENBURG is the pro- 
i ^ J jirietoroT the Crown Roller Mill, and 
is also a manufacturer of bob-sleds, in Alex- 
andria, Douglas county, Minnesota. He is a 
native of New Jersey, born December 1-t, 
1840. He is the son of Absolom and Han- 
nah (Kelsey) Fi-edenbnrg, both natives of 
New Jersey. 

Mr. Fredenljurg's father was a farmer by 
occu]>ation, and, in ls.5r), thinking to better 
his condition in the West, came to the State 
of Iowa, and two years later to Minnesota. 
He located on some school land near North- 
field, this State, where he remained until his 
death. He was the father of ten children, 
seven of whom are now living — William, 
Aaron, Ann, Sarah, Joseph, David V. (the 
subject of our sketch) and Mary (now the 
wife of B. F. Nelson). 

Mr. Fredenburg spent his boyhood days 
on the farm, remaining until his fifteenth 
3^ear. He ilid not take kindly to education, 
and often received a whipping for playing 
truant. After leaving home, he went into a 
saw mill at Floyd Centre, Floyd county, 
Iowa, where he remained one year. He 
then went to Kansas, where he worked for 
three years, thence coming to JSIinnesota. 



On coming to this State, he turned his atten- 
tion to farming, settling on eighty acres of 
school land near Xorthlicld. On this land 
he built a farm house 14x20 feet, and made 
other valuable ini|)rovements. In IStlT Mr. 
Fredenburg thought he could do better, 
financially, in some other locality, so he sold 
his farm near XortliKeld, and came to Alex- 
andria. Douglas county, this State. Here 
he started the first livci-y stable, aiul built one 
of the first dwelling houses in tlie place. 
This latter property he trailed for a farm 
in Lake ]\Iary township, which lie kept for 
ten years. During tiiis time Mr. Fredenburg 
was on the road a great deal, traveling at 
least 10,000 miles to and from Alexandria. 
Mr. Fredenburg was not intended for a farmer, 
however, and did not make a success in that 
business, so, finally, he sold his farm and 
came back to Alexandria, where he engaged 
in the manufacture of bob-sleds. He built 
a shop for this work near the site of his pres- 
ent mill, and, though he employed six men 
constantly, could not sup])ly the demand. 
In 188-i he |)urchased a feed mill in Batavia, 
Illinois, and sliipped it to Alexandria, think- 
ing that there milling would be a ]irofitable 
business. This he ran in connection with 
his factory until iss.S, when lie built the 
Crown Holler ilill, wiiich has a capacity of 
sixt}'- barrels of wheat flour and forty barrels 
of buckwheat flour ])er day. In this mill he 
keei)s three men employed at the heavy 
work, attending to the general management 
personally. He is doing an extensive and 
flourisliing business. 

In 1873 Mr. Fredenburg was married to 
Miss Mary M. Ti'uax, of Lake Mary, daughter 
of Absolom Truax. This union has been 
blessed with four children — Van, Ida, "Walter 
and George. 

In politics J[r. Fredenbui'g is an independ- 
ent. In all public matters he is api'ominent 
factor. He is actively interested in and lib- 
erally disposed toward all things thai per- 

tain to the financial and business welfare of 
the city. Mr. Fredenburg is known to be a 
leading and representative citizen of Alex- 



harness, saddlery and leather goods, is 
one of the leading business men at Brandon, 
Douglas county, Minnesota. He was liorn 
in Loraine, now a province of Germany, but 
in former years a portion of France, on the 
2d da}' of May, 1860, and is a son of George 
and Kate (Sherman) Seidlinger. The father 
was a farmer, and renuiined in his native 
land until 1869, when he came to tiie United 
States and settled in Wisconsin, where he 
still lives. 

Prosper Seidlinger, whose name heads our 
article, was the ninth in a family of ten chil- 
dren. He was only nine years of age when 
he came with his father to the United States. 
He received his education in Dodge county, 
Wisconsin, attending school until he was 
eighteen vears of age. From that time until 
he \vas twenty, he aided his fatiier on the 
farm. lie then learned the iiai-ness-maker's 
trade at Columbus, Wisconsin, and has fol- 
lowed that business ever since. In 1886 he 
came to Douglas county, ilinnesota, and 
opened a harness sho]) at Brandon village, 
which he still conducts. He is a successful 
business num, an excellent workman, and his 
straightforward dealing has won him a lucra- 
five trade. He is a democrat in politics. He 
has taken an active interest in all matters of 
a ])ublic nature, and is now a member of the 
village council of Brandon. 

Mr. Seidlinger was married on the 17th of 
February. 1884, to Miss Fannie Good.sell, and 
tiiey are the parents of twochildren — Emily 
and George. The family attend the Catho- 
lic church. 



[OHN A. MUNDIGEL, one of the pro- 
|)i'ietorsot'the East Grand Forks Brewing 
Company, is a- resident of East Grand Forks, 
Folk county, Minnesota, wliere he is engaged 
in the itnsiness indicated. He is a native of 
Germany, born in Ilessen-Darmstadt, on 
the 2lst of Novemi>er, 1S54, and is the son 
of Joim A. and Anna M. (Lammer) Mundigel, 
natives also of the kingdom of Germany. 

J[r. ]\[undigel was thrown ii]ion his own 
resources when he was at the earlv age of 
nine years, and from that period in life until 
he was fourteen years old he attended the 
excellent common schools in his native land. 
At the age of fonrteen years he emigrated 
to the United States and after landing- 
settled in Menomonee, Wisconsin, where he 
remained nine years, clerking in a store. At 
the expiration of the nine years Mr. Mundigel 
removed to Grand Forks, Dakota, where he 
eniiaged in a hrewiny factorv as clerk. He 
remained with that establishment until tlie 
spring of ISSJ, when he went to East Grand 
Forks, Polk county, Minnesota, where he 
entered the brewing business with Messrs. 
Zengel and IToffman. The firm name 
stanils, JMundigel, Zengel A: (^^ompaiiy, and 
the brewery has a capacit}' of 10,000 barrels 
])er year. They are doing an extensive busi- 
ness and have $10,000 worth of stock on hand, 
and are one of the heaviest firms in the 
I'ted River Valley. 

Mr. Mundigel was united in marriage in 
Grand Forks, Dakota, to Miss Mary "Wingen 
(the daughtei' of Peter and Catharina Win- 
gen), on the 30th of December, 1881. Mrs. 
Wingen died in 1882. 

Mr. Mundigel was married the second 
time on the 21st of .January, 1885. to Miss 
Anna Ri|)pel, the daughter of Paul and 
Anna IJi|)pel. This marriage has been 
lilessed witli the folhjwing cliildren — George 
W. (deceased), AVilliam A. and Mamie L. 

Mr. Mundigel is one (jf the active citizens 
of the city, and is a stanch denidcrat in |iol- 

itics. Liberal and enterprising, every move- 
ment calculated to benefit his city or county 
receives his active support and encourage- 
ment, and he has been prominently identified 
with the growth and develojiment of the 
western portion of Polk county in late years. 


/M.UGUST P. GEORGE. In all coun- 
tries, and especially in this rejiublic, 
with its free institutions, tiie man who has 
bestowed upon him the gift of jniblic office 
is, indeed, a representative citizen of the 
community who have thus elevated him. 
Mr. George, the deservedly popular auditor 
of Norman county, Minnesota, is one of these, 
and is counted one of Ada's most thorough- 
going, energetic business men. lie was born 
in Hanover, Germany, January 31, 1857, and 
is the son of August anil Christiane (Ilolzap- 
fel) George. Receiving, in his native land, 
the elements of an excellent education, he 
remained beneath the ])arental roof until he 
had attained his sixteenth year, when, with 
a laudable ambition of carving out a better 
fortune for liimself than was possible among 
the vine clad hills of his fatherland, he left 
his home and friends and started for the 
New AVorld. 

Landing in New Yoi'k City in the winter of 
1873-71, thefriendless boy found employment 
in the metropolis, in a grocerv store, and by 
close attention to business and the prudential 
economy so characteristic of his race, ac- 
ci;mulated some little capital. lie remained 
in that city until 1879, when, his heart yearti- 
ing for his relatives and friends in the land 
of his birth, he recrossed the wide Atlantic 
on a visit to the scenes of his youth. In 
February. 1880, he came back to the United 
States, and. on the vessel in which he made 
the voyage, received from a gentleman from 
Minneapolis, who was also a passenger, a very 
favorable idea of the gi'cat and growing 



Northwest, and formed a determination of 
visitinj;- that [lortion of the counlrv at some 
future (lav. On his I'cturn to New Vork he 
hoimlit a small business stand, hut the idea 
of going West having gained possession of 
him, in a few months, having found a pur- 
chaser, he sold out and came directly to 
Ada, then an cuiln yo village. Tiiis was in 
July, 18S0. lie was favorably impressed, anil 
determined to cast in his lot with the peo])le 
of tiiatphice, and purchased a lot on which he 
erected the second two-story building in the 
village. In the following autumn he j)ut in 
a stock of furniture and gents' furnishing 
ffoods. and lemained in that Hue of trade 
until the fall of 1885, when he closed out to 
assume the duties of auditor of the ccmnty. 

Mr. (reoi'ge has more or less been associ- 
ated with the public life of Norman count}'^ 
ever since his arrival here. In the fall of 
1881 he took an active part in the organiza- 
tion of the county, and was the lirsl treas- 
urer thereof, being appointed to that office 
in the spring of 1882. This office he held 
until Januai'v, 18S,S, but without neglecting 
his mercantile ])ursuits; but when, in the fall 
of 1885, he was a])pointed to the office of 
county auditor, he sold out his business to 
devote his entire attention to the ])osition 
■committed to his charge. In the fall of 
188fi he Avas elected to lill the same office, 
and in 1888 reelected his own successor. He 
has also served as treasurer of both town 
and village, and is looked upon as a model 
officer. Orderly and methodical, he has at- 
tended to the l)usiness of the county in a 
most efficacious manner, infusing his own 
energy and activity into the administration 
of its affairs as far as called upon to do by 
his olli(-e, and has won for himself hosts of 
friends and warm suppoi'ters thi'oUi^hout the 

In his tinancial affairs Mr. George has been 
emiueutly successful, owning a magnificent 
farm of 800 acres of most e-xcellent arable 

land, which he is rapidly improving and 
bringing uiuler a high state 'of tilth. His 
satisfaction with the Red Kiver Valley and 
its pre-eminent ailvanta<;es for the po(jr man 
is e.xpi'essed by him in the jilainost manner. 
Mr. Geoige was united in marriage Au- 
gust 19. 1881. with Miss Hilda :\Ioeckel, of 
Ci'ookston, .Minnesota, and daughter of 
Ernest and liertha (Meyer) Moeckel, of 
Crookston. They have one child, Irma, aged 
si.x veai's. 


OLE JOHNSON, a thrifty representa- 
tive of the sturdy Norwegian race, 
distinguished above all other nationalities for 
their economy, energy and industiw, is a 
resident of section 3, Pomme de Terre town- 
ship, Grant county. Minnesota, lie is a. 
native of Noi'way, boi'n on the loth day ol' 
April. 18-18, and is the son of .loliannes and 
Hattie (Olson) Johnson, natives also of 
tiie kingdom of Xoi-\vay. The ])arents of 
our subject, with their family, emigi'ated 
to the United States, July -1, 18^53, and after 
a voyage of seven weeks and four days 
landed at New York City, New Yoi'k. From 
their port of landing they removed to AVis- 
consin, settling in Winnebago county, where 
the parents are still living. 

The subject of this biographical memoir 
received his education in his native land, and 
at the age of fifteen years emigrated to the 
United States with his parents, as above 
state<l. After landing on Aniei-ican soil, he 
went with his parents to Winnebagocounty, 
Wisconsin, and from there he removed to 
Shawiino county, Wisconsin, wiiere he I'e- 
mained until 1867, engaged in tlie pineries 
and on a log drive. In 1807 he moved from 
this place back to his old home in Winne- 
bago county, where he bought a fai'ui an<l 
engaged in farming there until May I. 1S(;',(. 
At that time he sokl out and went to Free- 



born county, Minnesota, and after remaining 
there about five months, seeking hind, went 
to Grant county, Minnesota, settling in 
Tomme de Terre township. He liome- 
steachnl 100 acrts of land on section 3, and 
has since lived there, engaged in general 
fai'ining and stock-raising. lie now owns 
a IxNuitiful farm of well-cultivated land, 
comprising 240 acres, and his place compares 
favorably with any in the county. 

Mr. Johnson was united in mari-iage on 
the 2Tth day of August, 1867, to Miss Anna 
Sauby, a native of Norway. She emi- 
grated to the United States in 1850 with her 
parents. She was educated in Wisconsin, 
and they were married in Oshkosh, Wis- 
consin. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson are the par- 
ents of nine children, named as follows — 
Ilattie, Betsie O., Julia M., John ()., Charlie, 
Maggie, Oscar, Tobias and Mabel. Ilattie 
married a Mr. Johnson, a farmer of Pomme 
de Terre township. All the rest of the 
children are at home, anil J'etsie and Julia 
are school teachers. 

Mr. Johnson is one of the I'epresentative 
men of his townshi]), and has held the fol- 
lowing oHices — justice of the peace, treas- 
urer, county commissioner and school clerk. 
He, with his family, belongs to the Lutheran 
church, of which (organization he is secretary. 
In his politics he affiliates with the repub- 
lican party, and takes an active intei-est in 
all local alfairs. He is a man of the strictest 
honor and integrity, and is highh' esteemed 
hv all who know him. 



rOHN K. LEE. Among the efficient 
county officers of Grant county, Minne- 
sota, is the gentleman whose name heads 
this memoir, the present incumbent of the 
office of register of deeds. He is a native 
of Norway, horn in Waldres, May 17, 185J-, 

and is the son of Knute and Berith (Lom- 
men) Lee, who were natives of that kingdom. 

In the year 1857 the family emigi'ated to 
the United States, settling in S])ring Grove, 
Houston county, Minnesota, where they 
lived for twelve years. The father died 
there in 18ii!t. The mother remained in that 
county for one year after her husband's 
death and then settled in Gi'ant county, Min- 
nesota, where she is still living. 

John K. Lee. the subject of this article, 
s])ent his school days principally in Minne- 
sota, finishing at Northfield in 1880. He 
was in attendance at St. Olaf's Collesre for 
foui' months, and then settled on his farm in 
Lein township, Grant county, Minnesota, 
where he had homesteaded kind in 1883. In 
January, 1887, he settled in the village of 
Elbow Lake, Grant county, Minnesota, where 
he has since continued to reside. 

Mr. Lee was united in mari-iage to Miss 
Jorgene Thune, March 5, 1888. Mrs. Lee 
is a native of Norway, and emigrated to the 
United States in 1881. Mr. Lee has held 
various offices in his townshij), including 
constable, assessor, township clerk, school 
clerk, etc. In 1887 he was elected to the 
office of register of deeds of Grant county. 
In political matters Mr. Lee is a republican. 
He has always taken an active interest in all 
])ublic and official matters, and every enter- 
prise calculated to benefit his town or coun- 
ty receives his su^oport and encouragement. 


^^. — 

J^TyON. JAMES G. McGREW, editor 
JL''^ and proprietor of that widely known 
journal, the Crookston Wi'elhj Chronicle, 
is a native of the State of Indiana, havino- 
been boi'u neai' Iiulianapolis, December 23, 
1833, and is the son of Samuel T. and Mary 
(Stebbins) ilcGrew. At the age of five 
yeai's he was taken to Logans]iort, in the 
same State, by his parents, where he re- 



ceived liis education and grew to man's 
estate. Appreciating tlie ailvice ol' that 
prince of journalists, Horace Greek'}-, in the 
spring of 1S55 Mr. McGrew came to Minne- 
sota, and settled in Fillmore county. 

But he, like many others throughout this 
broad Nortliland, was awakened by the rude 
tocsin of war, when "within tlie furnace 

'■ Not painlessly did God recast 
And mould anew the nation." 

Eecreant traitors dared menace the flag 
and government, endeared to ])ati'iots by a 
thousand ties, and at the call of our presi- 
dent thousands were springing to the rescue. 
Among those " whose faith and trust rang 
true metal," was the subject of this sketch, 
who, with the fires of patriotism bni'iiing 
brisihtly in Ids bosom, enrolled himself 
amono' the brave defenders of our common 
country, in Company B, Fifth Minnesota 
Infantry. His com]iany w;is stationed at 
Fort Ilidgely, Minnesota, during the summer 
of 1862, and participated in the battle at 
Kedwood, and in the defense of Fort 
Ridgely against the Sioux Indians, in which 
en^'ao'ements twentv-five of its members 
were killed, and are now buried near where 
the fort stood. The State has erected a 
monument to their menutry. In the fall of 
1S62 he joined the regiment at Oxford, 
Missouri, and ])articipated in many of the 
engagements, marches and har(lshii)s that 
nuike up its glorious record. At the siege 
of Corinth, in the second battle at that 
place, the siege of Vicksburg, the battles of 
Jackson, ]\Iechanicsburg, Fort De Kussey, 
Clarksviile, Bayou Kol)erts, Tupelo, Nash- 
ville. Spanish Fort, and many others, he 
was with that heroic command wiien they 
carried their flags to a cons])icuous place in 
the " red tide of battle." Having veteran- 
ized, Mr. McGrew I'emained in the service 
until the close of hostilities, having risen 
from the rank of private to that of cajitain 

and was mustered out aild discharged at 
Demopolis. Alal)anui. Septembei" fi, IStu). 
lieturning to Minnesota, he locatetl in Fill- 
more county, where he entered upon the 
study of law. In 1868 a discriminatuig con- 
stituencv elected him to the State le<ris- 
lature, and he served the jieople of that 
district in the tenth session of the of 

In the year 1871 the sul)ject of this sketch 
removed to Becker county, Minnesota, and, 
while a resident there, was admitted to the 
bar at a session of the couit held at Brain- 
erd. Crow Wing county, in 1872. For two 
terms he occupied the office of county at- 
torney of Becker county, to the satisfaction 
of the people. In 1879 he removed to 
Crookston, and. in company with John 
Croml), instituted the liank of Crookston, 
the first one in I'olk county. In the man- 
agement of that establishnu^'nt and in the 
practice of his ])rofession Mr. McGrew con- 
tinued until July, 188-1, when he purchased 
the matei'ial and outfit of the Crookston 
Weekly C/ironi.cle, and has been its editor 
and proprietor ever since. As a man and a 
citizen lie receives a merited commendation 
as one of the foremost men of the com- 
munitv, and enjoys the respect and esteem 
of all."^ 

Mr. McGrew was married, in 1868, to 
Mary A. Ide, at Rochester, Minnesota, and 
has a fauiih' of four children. 


P^'cOTTRELL J. CAHALEY, attorney at 
Nto^ law, and a prominent real estate and 
insurance agent in the village of Barnesville, 
Chu' county, Mmnesota, is a native of New 
York State. He was born in New York 
City, January 22, 1856, and is the son of 
George W. and Ella M. (Lane) Cahaley, na- 
tives of New Jersey and Canada, respectively. 
Mr. Cahaley spent the greater part of his 



life in the city of Brooklyn, and his younger 
days wei'e spent there in obtaining an excel- 
lent education, attending the unrivaled 
schools of that city and Cornell Univei'sity. 
In 1S7<> he entered the Columbia Law Col- 
lege, and in ISTl was graduated from that 
institution with high honors. After the day 
of his graduation, heengag'^din jirofessional 
life in Brooklyn and for seven years devoted 
the energies of body and mind upor. his life's 
work. In 1SS4 he decided to seek new fields 
for his labors and wider scope for his taleni, 
and accordingly made a visit to the compara- 
tively new Xortlnvest. Sto]iping at the 
beautiful and i)us_y village of Barnesville, 
Mr. Caiialey was particularly ])leased with 
the business pi-ospects ami pleasant surround- 
ings of this western town, and decidetl to 
make it his future home. In that same year 
and shortly after his visit, he opened an office 
for the practice of his profession and has 
since been actively engaged in a general law 
business, paying also special attention to 
real estate matters and insuiance. He is a 
prominent man of the village and county. 
In political matters he is a democrat, and he 
was chairman of the county committee, a 
delegate to both the county and state con- 
ventions in 1888, and always takes an active 
interest in the party's campaigns. He is a 
thorough business man and his name is 
pi'oniinently associated with all movements 
calculated to benefit either the village or 
county. He is highly esteemed ami honored 
by all who know him. lie possesses one of 
the most complete ami valuable law libraries 
in the county, comprising 400 volumes. 

James K. van DOREN. Prominent 
among the successful business men of 
tiie famous Park Regions is the gentleman 
whose name heads this article, a merchant of 
Herman, (4rant county, Minnesota. 

Mr. Van Doren was born in Steuben 
county, New York, September 8, 18-44, and 
is a son of Isaac O. and Sarah Maria (Bush) 
Van Doren. The parents were both na- 
tives of New York State. They settled in 
Wisconsin in 1854, where the mother died 
in 1873, and there the father is still livinij. 
The parents had a family of nine children, 
five bovs and four girls, all of whom grew 
to man and womanhood — Adelaide, J. K., 
J. H., Alfreda, Ella, Wheeler O., Frank L., 
Charles L. and May. 

The sub'ect of our present sketch, J. K. 
Van Doren, as above indicated, spent his 
eai-]y boyhood days in his native State, and 
when al)out ten years of age. removed with 
his j)arents to Wisconsin, where he grew to 
manliood. He received a thorough practical 
education, and then took a commercial 
course at Milwaukee, finishing bis education 
and graduating when twenty-two years of 
age. He then went into the hotel business 
at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, for two years, with 
his father, and at the expii-ation of that 
time secured a position as book-keeper for a 
lumber firm at Butte des Morts, Wisconsin, 
remaining with them for four years. Clos- 
ing his engagement with them, in 1872 he 
embarked in the mercantile business at Win- 
neconne, Wisconsin, in ])artnersliip with 
George Lefaver, but, five months later, 
bought out the interest of his associate, and 
continued the business alone until 1879, 
when he came to Grant county, Minnesota, 
and engaged in the mercantile business at 
Herman, opening a complete stock of dry 
goods and general merchandise. He has 
since carried on the business at that point, 
and his upright business methods and strict 
integrity have won him an extensive trade, 
and placed him among the most prominent 
and reliable business men of the county in 
which he lives. He has extensive pro]ierty 
interests in his region, owning several farms 
in Grant and adjoining counties. Liberal 



and enterprising, he lias been prominently 
identified with tiie growth and tlevelopment 
of the locality in which he lives. 

]\[r. Tan Doren is an ex-Union soldier. He 
enlisted in September. 1861, in the First 
Wisconsin Cavaliy, and sei'ved until Febru- 
ai'v, ISfi."), when he was honoralily discharged 
at Madison, Wisc-oiisin. He saw ver\' active 
and severe service, and lew veterans have a 
mf)re creditable " war record." Pie partici- 
))ated in a number of important engage- 
ments, besides many skirmishes, and spent 
over eight months in the famous Anderson- 
viUe and other rebel prison pens of the 

Our subject was married in 1877 to Miss 
Eessie I. Simmons, and they are the parents 
of five living children — Edward M., Earl J., 
Le Roy, Ward Keynolds, and Jennie M. 
Two are dead, Miles W., who died in 1879, 
aged one year, and J. K., who died in 188-1, 
at the age of seven months. Mrs. "\'an 
Doren is a native of Bangor, Maine, and a 
(iauohter of James Simmons, a lumberman 
of tiie Pine Tree State. 

Mr. Van Doren is an honored member of 
the Ui'and Army of the Republic. He has 
always taken an active interest in public af- 
fairs, and has held various local ]iositions in 
the conuiumitv in which he resides. 


HARLES RIDLEY, the editor and pro- 
prietor of the Osakis Ohserver, in 
Douglas county, Minnesota, is a native of 
Minnesota, lie was born in Wright county, 
on the 29th of April, 18C8, and is the son of 
Alvali and IMary Elizabeth (Dayj Ridley, 
natives of Maine iind New York, respect- 
ively. After their marriage, the ])arents of 
our subject settled in Wi-iglit county, Minne- 
sota, wliert' tlicy have since lived. They 
arc llie parents of the following named 

children — Charlie, Elfie, Willie. Georgia, 

Bertie, Vernon, Nellie, Ehie and Gracie. 

Charles Ridley, the subject of this article, 
received his education in his native State, 
and, when fifteen years of age, entered the 
excellent schools in Clearwater, Wright 
county, Minnesota. He com))leted his edu- 
cation from that school in 1888. During 

! his school attendance in Clearwatei- he 
leariu'd the ju'inter's trade in the vacations 
and odd hours of his school-days. Onthe;Jlst 
of October, 1888, Mr. Ridley removed to the 
village of Osakis, Douglas county, Minne- 
sota, and leased the C)sakis Ohserver, from 
H. Cossairt. Mr. Ridley has since operated 
the paper, and has materially improved it, 
l)oth in appearance and contents. It is a 

' bi'ight, newsy ]ieriodical, a six-column paper, 
and is non-partisan. It has a large circula- 
tion, and is a representative newspajioi' of 
thecDunty. Mr. Ridley is a pi'(iliil)itionist in 
his ])olitical affiliations, and takes an active in- 
tei'est in all local affairs. Although a late set- 
tler in the county, he is rapidly growing into 
])r<)miiu'nce, both as an editor and an exem- 
jilarv citizen. He is highly esteemed by 
those who know him, and is one of the ris- 
ing voung men of the count v. 

— ■^- 

M. WEBSTER, the projH-i- 
etor of tiie livery, feetl and sale 
stable in the village of Fisher, Polk county, 
Minnesota, is a native of Illinois. He was 
born in Rock Island, Illinois, on the 21st day 
of May, 18()3, and is the son of Calno and 
Mary (Carothers) Webster, natives of Mas- 
sachusetts and Pennsylvania, respective!}'. 
As a sketch of the parents of the present sub- 
ject will be found in another tlepaitnu'iit of 
this Album, their history need not be spoken 
of in this connection. 



Harvey M. AVebster, tlie subject of this 
biography, remained in his native State until 
18t>5, when he removed to Wisconsin, and 
settled on Jfaxvelle Prairie. He remained 
at that phice until 1875, wiien he went to 
Hudson Prairie, Wisconsin, where he re- 
mained two years, and then journeyed west- 
ward. He landed at St. Paul, Minnesota, 
■A\\<X in the following spring, on the 4th day of 
April, ISTS, removed to Polk county, Minne- 
sota, where he has since remained. He re- 
sided on the farm with his parents until he 
wasaljout twenty-one years of age, and then 
commenced in life for himself and removed 
to the village of Fisher, where he estab- 
lished his present livery, feed and sale stable. 
When he first settled in Polk county, he 
operated a steam thresher for three years, 
and bought ;i farm of 160 acres of railroad 
land, which he still owns. His farm lies 
about two miles from the village, and is un- 
der good cultivation, and has the best of 
building im]irovements. He is one of the 
substantial and prominent business men of 
the village, and is highh' esteemed b}' all 
who know him. 

Mr. AVebster was united in marriage on 
the 18th day of May, 1887, to Miss Jennette 
Ih'ownlee. the daugiiter of James and J^llen 
(Richardson) P>rownlee. Mr. Webster is a 
republican in his political affiliations, and 
evinces an active interest in all matters cal- 
culated to Ijenefit either town or county. 

^^EORGE N. LAMPHERE, editor and 
^^y pro])rietor of the Moorhead News, is 
one of the most ])rominent newspaper men 
in the lied River A'alley. He was born at 
Mystic, New London count\', Connecticut, 
on August 23, 1815; father's name, David; 
moth(>r's, Mary Ann, oldest daughter of Dr. 
John B. Houche : father descended from 
the Scotch, mother from the French. The 

subject of this sketch received his education 
fi'om the common schools. He resideil on a 
farm until his sixteenth year, when he en- 
tered the office of the Hartford (Connec- 
ticut) Post, which was published by ids uncle, 
James M. Scofield, but before completing 
his trade, he enlisted for the war, joining 
the Sixteenth Regiment, Connecticut Volun- 
teers, he being at the date of his enlistment 
one montii short of seventeen years of age. 
He shared the fortunes of that regiment in its 
every march, siege and battle, losing Ti(,t 
a day's service or a dutj^ until April 20, 
18()-±, when he was wounded at Plymouth, 
North Cai'olina, and taken prisoner. His left 
arm was amputated while in the hands of the 
enemy. May 22, 1864. He remained a pris- 
oner of war six months, having been con- 
fined in Raleigh (North Carolina), in hospi- 
tal, Libbv]irison, Salisbury (North Carolina), 
and Columbia (South Carolina). He sur- 
vived the loss of his arm and all the priva- 
tions of prison life, and was exchanged, 
somewhat broken in health, in November, 
1864. In the following February he was hon- 
orably dischai'ged fi-om the military service 
at Paltimore, Maryland. After his discharge 
he went to Washington, and was at once 
appointed a shipping clerk in the office of 
Captain E. S. Allen, assistant quartermaster 
at the wharves, foot of Sixth and Seventh 
streets, with a compensation of $75 per 
month. He was afterward transferred and 
promoted a clerk of Class 1, with compen- 
sation at the rate of $1,200 per annum, in the 
office of the quartermaster-general of the 
army, where he remained for several years 
and then resigned. He was a clerk also in the 
United States census office 1871-72. In June, 
1872, he participated in the first competitive 
examination held under the celebrated civil 
service rules, and was one of four of a class 
of forty who received a])pointments as clerks 
of Class 1. in the treasury department, 
July 1, of that year, he being assigned to 



duty In the appointment division of the 
office oT tlie secretary of tiie treasury 
In less than one year tiiereafter he was pro- 
moted from Class 1 to Class 3, at si, 600 
a 3^ear, on a competitive examination, and to 
Class 4, at §1,800 a year, in January. 1875. 
In August, 1875, lie was promoted to the 
position of assistant chief of the appoint- 
ment division, with a compensation of 82,400 
a year. lie served faithfully in this capacity 
until April, 1879, when he was elevated to 
the position of chief, wherein he served until 
January, 1882, when he resigned; a change 
of adnunistration, by the death of the great 
and good Garfield, the retirement of lion. 
AVilliam Windomas secretary of the treas- 
ury, and the accession of Hon. Charles S. 
Folger ill ills placi', making it agreeable for 
Mr. Laiiiplu'i'i; to vacate his position. 

Ml'. Lamphere has read law, and has foi' 
many years been a contributor of articles for 
the press. lie is the author of a book entitleil 
"The United States Government," which 
was liighly commended by distinguished au- 
thority as the most complete and valuable 
book of its kinil wliich had ever been issued 
at the time it was published, in 1880. Three 
editions were sold, and it is now out of press. 

In IMarcli, 1882, Mr. Lamphere removed 
with his fainily from "Washington to Moor- 
head, Minnesota, where he has since resided. 
His first liusiness after reaching the West 
was real estate and lire insurance, in which 
he gained moderate success. 

In A]iril, 1SS3, at the solicitation of lead- 
ing liusiness men, he purchased the daily and 
weekly XetcK, of Moorhead, the daily edition 
having been just previously suspended, and 
took charge thereof as publisher and editor, 
reviving the daily and publishing both daily 
and weekly editions. He has continued in 
tliat employment ever since. 

In April, 1868, George N. Lamphere was 
united in marriage to ]\fiss Sarah C. Jones, 
of riiiladel|)hia. They have had born to 

them eleven children, nine of whom survive, 
namely — Charles S., aged nineteen; George 
X., Jr., aged sixteen ; Nellie R., aged fifteen ; 
Gertrude C, aged thirteen ; Ralph Leo, aged 
ten; Joseph Sherman, aged nine; Eugenie 
^L, agetl seven; Addie, aged five; and 
Allie, aged three. Charles, the oldest, is now 
foreman of the job department of the office 
of the Daily Chronicle, Spokane Falls, "Wash- 
ington Territory. All the others are at 

WILLIE N. BRONSON, a member 
of the firm of Bronson ife Dalil, 
dry goods merchants in Evaiisville, Douglas 
county. Minnesota, is a native of Iowa. He 
was born in "Wyoming, Jones county, Iowa, 
August 26, 185!», and is the son of Saiiiuel 
M.and Anna (Nicholson) Bronson, who were 
natives of Connecticut and Pennsylvania, 
respectively. The father, wlio was a Con- 
gregational minister, receivetl his education 
in New York State at Fayette University, 
where he was employed as a minister aiul 
teacher. He came to Douglas county, Min- 
nesota, in 1878, locating at .Mcxandiia, 
where he was employed as a local preacher 
for two years. He then removed to Evans- 
ville, Minnesota, where he remained for some 
time, and then settled in Dassel, Minnesota. 
In the spring of 1887 he returned to Evans- 
ville, where he died Januaiy 27, 1888. Mrs. 
Anna (Nicholson) Bronson is still living, and 
is the mother of six children, as follows — 
"Willie (our subject), Nellie, Stella, Gertrude, 
Clement II. and Oscar. 

Mr. Bronson, the sul)ject of this article, 
spent his school-days in Floyd, Iowa, and at 
the a<;'e of eiiihteen vears 'iradiiated from 
the high school at that place. After teach- 
ing school for one year he moved to Alexan- 
dria, Minnesota, and for the next seven or 
eight years was emploN'ed as a school-teacher 



in various localities. In May, 1886, he en- 
gatj^eil in bis present business in the village 
of Evansviile in partnership with Mi". Dahl. 
The firm is one of the strongest and best 
known in the village, and cari'v a full stock 
of drj' goods and general merchandise. Mr. 
Bronson has held the office of village recorder 
since 1887, and is one of the enterprising 
and esteemed citizens of Evansviile. In 
political matters he affiliates with the repub- 
lican party. Enterprising and public spirited, 
he takes an active part in every move calcu- 
lated to aid in the growth and development 
of the locality in which he liv^es, and his 
business capaiiilities, as well as his character 
and integrity, are unquestioned. 



^fOHN WYVELL. Among the promi- 
nent and successful lousiness men of the 
famous Eed River and Park Regions is the 
gentleman of wliom this memoir treats, a 
furnitui'e dealer in Breckenridge, Wilkin 
county, Minnesota. He is a native of Eng- 
gland, born on the 14th of October, 1838, and 
is the son of John and Rebecca (Mathews) 
Wyvell, natives also of tl)at kingdom. The 
father, in his j^ounger days, was a soldier in 
the Royal ]\Iarines, of England, and in later 
days followed the business of contracting, 
lie died in 1859, and the mother of our 
subject passed away in 1868. They were 
the parents of the following named children 
— Mary, Elizabeth, Rebecca, Ann, John and 
Thomas. The family consisted of foui'teen 
children, the above named being those who 
are now living. 

Mr. Wyvell, the subjfect of this article, at- 
tended school in his native land up to the 
age of ten years.- At that period in life he 
entered a lead, copper and silver mine, and 
was employed there until 1859, when he 
emigrated to the United States, and settled 
at Portage Lake, Houghton county, Michi- 

igan. He engaged at mining, and remained 
eighteen months. At the expiration of that 
time he removed to Eagle Harbor and Eagle 
River, where he located and devoted his time 
to mining, clerking and contracting. In 
1870 he removed to Duluth, Minnesota, and 
engaged at the stone mason's trade, employ- 
ing fourteen men anil furnishing stone on 
contracts. He had charge of the R. G. 
Coburn warehouse in Sujierior City, and 
remained in that place two years and a 
half. He then went to Wadena, Minne- 
sota, and followed carpentering. He helped 
build the first residence which was erected 
in that place, and did a great deal of 
work for the Northern Pacific Railroad 
Company, building the station house at 
that place. A few mouths after settling 
there he homesteaded 120 acres, two miles 
west of Wadena, in Otter Tail county, and 
also purchased forty acres of the railroad 
company. He built a house, barn, granary 
and other out-buildings, and made general 
improvements on the place. He continued 
to reside there for nine years, engaged exten- 
sively' and successfully in general farming 
and stock-raising. In 1880 Mr. Wyvell re- 
moved to the village of Battle Lake, built a 
store and house, and engaged in the mercan- 
tile business, following it for six years. On 
the 5th day of February, 1884, his house and 
stoi'B were totally destro\'ed by fire, causing 
a loss of §2,000. Not to- be discouraged by 
misfortune, he rebuilt and engaged in the 
same business for two years. In March, 
1886, he sold out, and removed bis goods to 
Breckenridge, AVilkin county, IMinnesota; 
purchased two lots on Fifth avenue, and 
erected a substantial store, 44x50 feet in size, 
two stories in height, and in which he has 
since continued to do business. He carries 
a full stock of furniture, and a complete line 
of sewing machines, pianos, organs, etc. 

Mr. Wyvell was married in 1859 to Miss 
Jane Peardon, a native of England, and the 



(laiiglitcr of William and Jane Peardon. l^Cr. 
and Mrs. Wy veil are the parents of the fol- 
lowing named children — John, who married 
Miss Bertha Torgerson ; James, married to 
Miss Belle Cammeron ; Mary J., Henry G., Al- 
bert E., liiciiard C. and Gilbert F. The sub- 
ject of thissketcn, with his family, belongs to 
the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he 
is recording secretary. He is the Sunday- 
school superintendent, and one of the first 
members of the church. He is a representa- 
tive man of his town and county, highly 
esteemed by all who know him. He has 
held the office of clerk of tlie school district, 
and is a man of the strictest honor and 
integrity. Mr. Wyvell was formerly a 
republican in jiolitics. but has left that jiarty 
and enlisted in the ranks of the prohibition 
party, being a sincere temperance advocate 
l)otli in practice and precept. 

ILLIAM H. BARROWS, a prominent 
and highly esteemed farmer of 
Grant county Minnesota, is a resident of 
section 36, Logan township, where he is ex- 
tensively engaged in general farming and 
stock-raising. He is a native of Maine, born 
on the 12th of March, 1857, and is the son of 
William and A'ancy (P\irnell) Barrows, na- 
tives also of the Pine Tree State. The 
father and mother of our subject were mar- 
ried in Maine, and shortly after their mar- 
riage moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
where thev have continued to resiile. The 
father is a member of the lumbering firm of 
Merriam & Barrows Brothers, of Minne- 
apolis. The father and mother are symjja- 
thizers of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and are the parents of the following children 
—William H., Melvin P., Jessie, Lydia F. 
and Eddie. 

William H. Barrows, the subject of this 
biography, spent his school-days in Minne- 

apolis, and at the age of eighteen he left 
school and was employed by his father in 
surveying timber lands. After three years 
in this employment he was engaged as fore- 
man of the shipment and receiving ofiice of 
the same firm with which his father was con- 
nected, and served in that capacity for three 
years. He then removed to Grant county, 
and in the spring of 1881 settled on section 31, 
Maxwell township, where he lived four j'ears. 
At the expiration of the time mentioned, he 
located on his present place in Logan town- 
ship, section 36, where he has since been en- 
gaged in general farming and stock-i-aising. 
He owns an extensive fai'm of -foO acres, and 
the imi)rovements make it f)ne of the most 
desirable tracts of land in the township or 
county. He has two large barns, 44xl0n feet 
in size, granary, two-story house, anil a 132- 
foot tubular well of the purest and best of 

Mr. Barrows was united in niai-riage <.n 
the 3d of iVcember, 1877, to ]\Iiss Christena 
Dolberg, a native of Sweden, and this union 
has been blessed with three children — !Melvin 
P., A'"era F. and Ever. The subject of this 
article is a republican in his ])olitical affilia- 
tions, and takes a deep interest in all that 
party's campaigns. He is one of the repre- 
sentative men of his township, and while in 
Maxwell township held the otlice of chair- 
man of the board of supervisoi's. He is a 
man of the strictest honor and integrity, and 
is highly esteemed by ail wlio know him. 

l|uARS J. HAUGE, the efficient clerk of 
llM^v court of (rirant county, ^finnesota, is a 
native of Norway, born in Bergen, July 20, 
1859. The parents, Jens and Ingeborg 
(Raae) Hauge, are natives of Xorway, where 
they are now living, engaged in agriculture. 
They were the parents of twelve children, as 
follows — Anders, Lars, Anders, Olnv, Carrie, 



Anna. Jens, Tver, David, Hans, Ilagnhild 
anil Tlionias. 

Mr. Lars Hauge spent his early life in tlie 
scliool-rooms of his native land, and after 
completing his education at the age of twenty 
years, he engaged in the profession of school 
teaching, which he followed for two yeai's. 
In 18S1 he emigrated to tiie United States, 
and after landing at New York City went 
to Herman, Grant county, Minnesota. Dur- 
ing tile summer of 1S81 he worked out on a 
farm, and the following winter attended 
scliool. During the next few years Mr. 
Hauge alternately worked at farm labor and 
attended school in the summers and winters. 
He then taught school for a 3'ear or two, 
after which he secured work on a farm and 
soon after returned to the vocation of a 
teacher. This occupation he followed until 
he was elected to his present office, clerk of j 
court, in ISSO, taking charge of the office in 
the winter of 1887. 

In political matters the subject of this 
article is an adherent to the principles of the 
prohibition party. In the discharge of his 
official duties Mr. Hauge has not only cred- 
itably acquitted himself, but has given sat- 
isfaction to all, and he is recognized as one 
of the most honorable citizens of the local- 
ity in which he lives. A man of the strict- 
est integrity, he is highl}" esteemed by all 
who bear Ins iic(piaintance. 


^ REDBRICK PUHLER, the present pop- 
L^ ular postmaster of Ada-, Minnesota, is 
among the oldest, as well as one of its most 
enterprising citizens, having been closely 
..lentitied with it and its interests since 
December, 1879. 

Born in the beautiful land of Hesse-Darm- 
stadt. Germany. March 8, 1855, and the son 
of Gabriel and Elizabeth (Knobe) Puhler, 
our subject was not reared amid the vine- 

clad hills of his native country, beside the 
placiil waters of the classic river Rhine, but 
was brought to the United States when he 
was scarcely two years old. The family 
settled in Waukesha county, Wisconsin, 
where the parents still reside. When our 
subject was some ten years of age, with the 
natural independence which is so character- 
istic of him still, he left home and went to 
work on his own account in northeastern 
Iowa. While engaged in farm labor and 
going to school, for he was determined to 
procure an education, he experienced religion, 
and was converted to the religion of Christ 
at a camp-meeting, and was shortly after- 
ward taken up by the Methodists of Cedar 
Falls, and sent to Northwestern Biblical 
Institute at Evanston, Illinois, to be educated 
for the ministry. After some two months' 
experience in that college, he came to the 
conclusion that he had missed his calling, 
and that he was not htted by nature or in- 
clination for the pulpit, and lieing now a 
young man, left tiiere and went to Chicago. 
He entered the employ of the Chicago Trib- 
une as marine reporter, and remained with 
that o-reat journal for nearlv two vears. 
His talents and readiness gaining him friends, 
he was presented by the manager of that 
paper with a scholarship in Clavorack Col- 
lege, near Albany, New York, on the Hudson 
river. Entering that institution, he there 
devoted some four years to untiring study, 
and, on graduation, took the special course of 
journalism at Cornell College, which called 
for thi'ee years more of toil in the pursuit of 
knowledge. Knowing that there is no royal 
road to that which Solomon declares to be 
" more precious than rubies," he strove man- 
fully to attain his ends, supporting himself 
during all that time by his pen. Original 
sketches, stories or tales, translations from 
the German, and other work of a like char- 
acter, supplied liim, sparingly, with means, 
and at last he found his reward, being grad- 


KEP Jx'/r /■:/,• lAi.i.EV Axn 

uated from the last mentioned institution 
in the spring of 1875. 

From there the youn^ man went to New 
York City, and iiis talents were soon 
employed on the ^un, tlie great democratic 
sheet of the country, witli whicli iiei'(>maincd 
about a year, Going to tiie 'World in the 
spring of 1876, in the fall of that year he 
was sent by that great metropolitan journal 
to Louisiana with the congressional commit- 
tee who were investigating the election 
returns. He acted in tiie caj)acity of re- 
porter for tiie ])a])er until the spring of 1877, 
when, taking thol'lack Kills fever, he took a 
trip to that wonderland, and in Deadwood 
started a daily paper in company with 
Charles Collins, to whicii they gave the 
luime of the Champion. He presided over 
tliat sheet until September following, wIhmi 
he sold out the business and made a trip 
with a government surveying party through 
Idaho, as far as Walla Walla, Washington 
Territory. From the latter phice he went 
to San Francisco, and IVcim there back to 
Bismarck, making the most of the trip on 

Going to Minneapolis,Mr. Puhlcr found em- 
ployment with the Pioneer Press, in tlie fall 
of 1877, and remained in that city, on that 
journal and the Tribune until December, 
1879, when he paid a visit to Ada. Liking 
the outlook of the place, he returned here, 
permanently to settle, in February. iSSiJ, and 
established a weekly paper, to which he gave 
the name of The Norman Counttj Alert, the 
first issue being dated April 5. The ques- 
tion of the division of Polk county, and the 
organization of the southern half as a new 
county was commenced that season by Mr. 
Puhler, although both of the representatives 
from the disti'ict in the Icgislatui'e were op- 
posed to the movement. In the winter of 
1880-81 Mr. Puhler ami J. Y. Campbell 
were sent to St. Paul as a committee to press 
the matter through the legislature, and, after 

eight weeks' hard work in the lobby, suc- 
ceeded in having an act j)assed submitting 
the question to tlie qualilied electors of the 
county. Throwing himself into the contest 
with his usual vigor, and supported Ijy the 
leading citizens of the lower half of the 
county, after a hard and bitter fight he at- 
tained the end he aimed for, and the divis- 
ion carried. A convention was held in the 
fall of 1881 to nominate for appointment by 
the governor the men to form the board of 
commissioners to organize the county, but 
the choice of that convention not meeting 
the views of those who had been instrumental 
in the division of the county, Mr. Puhler was 
sent to St. Paul to interview the governor on 
the part of these infiiiential citizens, and suc- 
ceeded in having others ai)])ointed to those 
offices. At the election of^the fall of ISSl 
oui' suliject was chosen clerk of the court, and 
filled that office for one year. During nearh' 
all that time, until the spring of 1SS3, he con- 
tinued his paper, which he finally sold to 
Lightbourn & Foote. In the fall of 1880 he 
drew up the articles of incorporation for the 
village of Ada, which were j)assed by the 
legislature at the same time as the act of 
division of the count v, and on the organiza- 
tion of the same was appointed its first 
recorder, an oifice Avhich he occujiied for 
three years. In the fall of 1882, at the time 
of the contest between Kindred and Nelson 
in their political campaign. .Mr. Puhler 
espoused the cause of the formei-, and l>y his 
activity and success gained from his oppon- 
ents the title of the " Notorious I'uhler." 

In the spi'ingof 1883 our subject went to 
Ih'ainei'd and purchased the J)!spi(ich. but 
eight months later sold that journal and 
established a democratic paper in Duluth. 
which he ran for about a vear. At the ex- 
piration of that time he returned to Ada, and 
there instituted the Journal, a democratic 
newspaper, and occupied the editorial chair 
until June, 1887. This was the first paper 



of tlie deinocratio persuasion in tliis pai't of 
tlie State, that political ])arty being niiicli in 
the minority, hut soon had a good circulation 
and advertising list. In June, 1SS7, Mr. 
Puhler disposed of the good-will of the 
Journal to the Index, and removed the ma- 
terial to Fertile, where he now publishes a 
paper of the same political complexion. 

Mr. Puhler was appointed postmaster at 
Ada in Xovemlier, ISSG, and now fills that 
important jiosition, and is highly popular and 
efficient in the discharge of his tluties. 

Mr. Puhler was married April 15, 1878, at 
Minneapolis, to Miss Emma J. Brown, and 
thev have one daughter, Grace, aged seven 



^S OPHUS N. MILLER is one of the repre- 
'^^' sentative citizens of Alexandria, Doug- 
las county, Minnesota, and has an extensive 
business in real estate, loans and insurance. 

Mr. Miller is a native of Norway, born in 
1843, and a son of Prosper P. and Sophia 
(Bent) Miller. His parents were natives of 
Germany, but while yet in early life they re- 
moved to Norway, where the father worked 
at the coo]ier's trade. In 1855 he came to 
America, but remained only a shoi't time, re- 
turning to Norway, where he remained until 
his death, which occurred in 1860; the moth- 
er died in 1854. They had a familv of five 
children, four of whom are now living — 
Fredericli, Dinah, Torval and Sophus N., 
whose name appears at the head of this 

The educational advantages in the part of 
Norway where the subject of our sketch 
spent his early years were of such excellent 
character that he received a fine schooling. 
At fourteen years of age a restless disposi- 
tion seized him, and he took ship and went on 
the ocean as a sailor, continuino- at this dui'- 

ing the larger part of one year. He then 
returned to terra finna^ixwA engaged as clerk 
in a hardware store, in which line he con- 
tinued for four years. In 1 8(53 lie migrated 
to America, settling in Cami)ridge,Wisconsin, 
where he followed railroading for some five 
months, after which he engaged in steam- 
boating on the Mississippi river for a short 
time. Next he went to Janesville, Wisconsin, 
Avhere for about four years he was clerk 
in a drug store; thence he went to North- 
lield, Minnesota. In 1808 he settled in 
Alexandria, Douglas county, this State, and 
engaged in the mercantile business, which 
he conducted until in 1870, when he sold out 
and opened his present prosperous agency. 
On coming to this county he took a home- 
stead in Urness township. He has ])urchased 
other lands until he has a fine farm of 300 
acres under good cultivation and with ex- 
cellent improvements. 

Ml'. Miller was married in 186() to Julia 
E. Thompson, a native of Norway. This 
union has been blessed with three children — 
Minnie E., Carrie S. and Charles E. In 1877 
death invaded the sacred ]irecincts of the 
family and carried awaj' the beloved wife 
and mother. She died at her home in Alex- 
andria. She was a member of the Lutheran 

Mr. Millers business and social relations 
in Alexandria are of the highest character. 
He has always been interested in the growth 
and prosperity of the city and county, and 
has held many positions of trust. In 1875 
he was a]ipointed ]iostniaster of the city, 
which position he held for nine years. He 
has been clerk of the school ijoard for nine 
years. In politics he is a sujiporter of the 
republican party ; is a member of the Ma- 
sonic and Odd Fellows fraternities, and is 
also a member of the Lutheran church. lie 
built the first good dwelling in the city, and 
now lives in a fine residence just outside the 
citv limits, on the banks of Lake Winona. 



Mr. Miller is the local representative of 
companies of gigantic capital, and by his 
careful and judicious uianageuicnt has 
built up for them and for himself a 
business of large proportions. He is agent 
for the following companies: The Amer- 
ican Freehold Land and Mortgage Company, 
of London, England, capital, Sii.OOO.OOO ; 
the Scottish American Mortgage Company, 
of Edinburgh, Scotland ; and the Land, 
Mortgage and Investment Agency Com- 
pany, of America, headquarters at London, 
England, capital, !?5.000.00rt. For these 
companies he is the sole agent for what is 
poiMilarly known its the Park Regions of 
^linnesota. For the })ast fifteen years he 
has been agent for the('orl)in Banking Com- 
pany of Xew York City, and during this 
time has done for them a business of si. .500,- 
000. So careful and conservative lias he 
been in the management of this company's 
business that they do not own one foot of 
land taken tiirough his agency. 


JTOHN HANSON, wheat buyer and also a 
jbJ Miember of the firm of Larsen, Peterson 
& Co., the heaviest dealers in general mer- 
chandise at Brandon, Douglas county, Min- 
nesota, is a good representative of the best 
class of business men in the Park Kegions. 
He was born in Norway, and therefore 
comes of the same nationality which forms 
such a heavy })roportion of Minnesota's citi- 
zens, and a race proverljial for their thrift, 
enterjirise and economy. John Hanson was 
born in "Wardal, ChristianiaStift, Norway, on 
the IStli of November, 1835. and is a son of 
Hans and Maria Peterson. The father was 
a farmer. He lived and died in his native 
land. The parents had a family of four 
children — Peter, John, Anna and Petro. 

John Hanson spent his boyhood days and 
received his education in the place of his 
birth, attending school until he was sixteen 

years of age. Then for two years he helped 
his father on the farm, and at the expiration 
of that time was emjiloyed by a clergyman 
to care for his horses, etc., and retained this 
position for three years. He then decided to 
come to the New World, and accordingly, on 
April 20, 18.t7, he sailed from Christiania for 
the United States, arriving on the 2i)th of 
the following May. He made his way to La 
Crosse, and for six or seven years worked 
upon a farm during the summer months and 
in the pineries during the winters. At the 
expiration of that time he rented a farm, 
which he carried on for a few years. In 
1866 he came to Douglas county, Minnesota, 
and bought a homestead right on land in 
Moe township, and there resumed his farm- 
ing operations. He secured 280 acres, where 
he devoted liis time to general farminir for 

o fry 

about seventeen }'ears. In ISSl. while still 
on the farm, he bought an interest in the 
general merchandise business, which is still 
carried on under the tirm name of Larsen, 
Peterson ic Co., and he still owns a one- 
third interest in the business. In 1887 he 
commenced buying Avheat for the Minneap- 
olis ik Northern Elevator Company at Bran- 
don, and still continues in that line. He has 
also taken a ])roininont ]iart in various jmblic 
enterj)rises. He holds an interest in the mill 
company, and lor one year was treasurer of 
the corporation. He was also treasurer of 
Brandon village for one year. 

Mr. Hanson was married in 1862 to Miss 
Matilda Peterson. The family are active 
and exemplary members of the Lutheran 

jl^jiOUiS FONTAINE, the senior member 
¥^^ of the firm of Fontaine «k Angine, 
general dealers in dry goods, groceries, boots, 
shoes, hats, caps, ready-made clothing, car- 
pets, etc., in the city of Crookston, Minne- 
sota, is one of the oldest, as well as one of the 



most prominent and influential mercliants in 
the city, having established liimself there in 
the summer of 1878. His excellent business 
abilities, his energy of character and the 
sterling integrity of his personal character 
have won him his high place in the regard of 
the people of the communitv, and he is 
looked upon b\^ ail as one of the truly repre- 
sentative men of the place. 

Mr. Fontaine was born at St. Hyacinthe, 
in the province of Quebec, Canada, January 
11, 1840, and is the son of Louis and Juistine 
(Martei) Fontaine. At the age of fourteen 
he left home and came to the United States to 
commence tiie l)attle of life on his own ac- 
count, and settled near St. Paul, Minnesota, 
lie labored on a farm in that vinicity until 
1858, wlien lie removed to McLeod county, 
then just being settled, where he took up a 
claim and commenced agricultural pursuits 
for himself. He remained there until No- 
vember, 1801, when, the hand of ruthless 
traitors daring to assail the flag and govern- 
ment of his adopted country, and the tocsin 
of war pealing over the land, he enlisted in 
Company E, Fourth Minnesota Infantry. 
He was mustered in at Ft. Snelling, 
and with the regiment forwarded to the 
front, " where deetls of eternal fame were 
done," and gallantly ])erformed his jiart in 
all the " stricken lields '" where the '' Fourth" 
carried the victorious banner. At lukn, 
September 19, 1862; Corinth, October .3 and 
4, 186.^; Jackson, June. 18C3; Fort Pember- 
ton, March, 1863; Champion Hill, May 1.5, 
1863 ; in the charge on Duval's Bluff, the 
siege of Vicksburg, in 1863; Mission Kidge, 
November 2.5, 1863; Altoona, October 5, 
1864, and throughout the grand march to 
the sea, under that matchless leader, AV. T. 
Sherman, he followed his colors undauntedly. 
On the expiration of his term of service he 
re-enlisted, oi', as it was termed, veteranized, 
and continued in the ranks until the close of 
hostilities, and participated in the grand re- 

view at "Washington, which terminated the 
services of the gallant armies of the Union. 

Discharged in Jul}', 1865, Mr. Fontaine 
returned to ]\rinnesota, arriving in St. 
Paul one morning at nine o'clock, and be- 
fore noon he had purchased the stock, fix- 
tures and good-will of a restaurant and 
saloon, and before nightfall had commenced 
business. He remained in that line of trade 
for three years with excellent financial re- 
sults, but at the end of that time sold out 
and entered into the general merchandise 
trade in that city, in whicli he continued 
some ten years. In the meantime he went 
to Mapleton, Cass county, Dakota, and there 
took up his soldier's homestead, which one 
year later he sold. In 1874, while on one of 
his trips to that place, he came to Crookston, 
by way of Grand Forks, and, from there 
over the country. 

Having been favorably impressed with the 
location and evident future prosperity of the 
village, Mr. Fontaine, in the summer of 1878 
in company with William Angine, came to 
this point and purchased the stock and busi- 
ness of W. D. Bailey, a dealer in general 
merchandise. Leaving his ])ai'tner in charge, 
Mr. Fontaine hurried back to St. Paul to 
close u]) his business there, and returned to 
Crookston in the following September, since 
which time he has been closely connected 
with the interests of the city. 

The store which they at first occupied 
was a rough log one, but it was on a par 
with the two others, there being only three 
in the place. Not a street was cut out of 
the timber that then covered the site of the 
town, nor any improvements, to speak of, 
made. For two years business was carried 
on in their primitive store, at the enil of 
which tiiey erected the brick building now 
occupied as their grocery department. Since 
then they have added two more rooms to 
their establishment, thus having three fronts. 
Each of their departments is filled with a 


/■/;/) KIl-KR VALLEY A XV 

varied and full stock of goods in their par- 
ticular lino, the wliole stock invoicing in the 
neighboriiood of §i75,000, and the firm, such 
is their business, are compelled to have the 
assistance of ten clerks to attend to their 
numerous customers. In 1882 the firm put 
in a large stock of farm machinery, hut the 
extent of their otlier business being too 
great to give it tlie attention necessary, that 
branch was aljandoned. Tiiey have, how- 
ever, a lialf interest in a general merchan- 
dise store at Argyle, Marshall county, which 
is doing an extensive trade. 

Mr. Fontaine is a consistent Christian gen- 
tleman, a member of the church and presi- 
dent of St. John's Baptist society, and no 
one is more highly spoken of either in busi- 
ness or social circles. He was united in mar- 
riage, September 12, 1865, with Miss Rosie 
Troml)ley, a native of Kankakee, Illinois, 
and daughter of Mitciieile Troinbley. By 
this union their home has been gladdened by 
the birth of six children, of which the fol- 
lowing are the names — George, Armen, Yic- 
toi'. Alijert, Blanche and Aimer. 

fDHN A. NELSON, tlie cashier of the 
Barnesviile State Bank, is a native of 
Sweden, and springs from a race proverbial 
foi' tiieir thi'ift, industry and economy. lie 
was boin in 1850, and remained in. his native 
land, attending the schools of that country 
until in ills sixteenth year, wlien, in 187:2, he 
emigrated to tlie United States, and after 
landing settled near Litchfield, Minnesota, 
wliere he worked in a general store and at- 
tended school. After four years, or in 1876, 
he commenced to learn telegraphy, and 
shortly thereafter went into the employ of 
the D. M. Oslforne Machine Com])any, and 
remained with them for eleven years, work- 
ing his way up from telegraph operator to 
assistant general numagcr. Durinu- live 

years of that period Mr. Nelson had his 
headtpiarters in Chicago, Illinois, and the 
remaining six in Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
During his employment with this comjiany, 
Mr. Nelson had Ijecn investing his money in 
the Northwest, in mortgages, loans, etc.. and 
in the summer of 1885 he. in company with 
Messrs. F. E. Kenaston and E. (i. A'alentinc, 
established the Wilkin County Bank, in 
Breckenridge, Wilkin county. IMinnesota, and 
in May, 1888, removed to Barnesviile and 
opened up the Barnesviile State Bank, with 
a capital of $25,000. The officers of the 
bank are F. E. Kenaston, of Breckenridge, 
Minnesota, president; Howard De Mott, of 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, vice-president, and 
Mr. Nelson, the subject of this article, 
cashier. Mr. Nelson holds a good share of 
the stock in the Wilkin County Bank, as well 
as in the bank at Barnesviile, besides mort- 
gages and real estate at different places in 
Dakota. The Barnesviile State Bank is in- 
coi'])orated under the State laws, and trans- 
acts a general banking business. They buy 
and sell school and municipal bonds, domes- 
tic and foreign exchange and commercial 
paper. They pay special attention in nego- 
tiating first mortgage farm loans, and act as 
agents for non-residents in buying, selling or 
renting lands. The directors of the bank 
are Messrs. Kenaston, Nelson, De Mott, Modi- 
sette and A'alentine. ]\Ii'. Nelson is a re])ub- 
lican in political matters, a member of 
the Knights of Pythias, and an active par- 
ticipant in iill movements of a local nature. 

i^ARL THRONSEN, a prominent and 
^^y thrifty agriculturist of the famous 
Red River and Park Regions, resides on his 
beautiful farm home on section 13. Erdahl 
township, Grant county, Minnesota, lie is 
a native bf Norway, boiMi on the 17th of 
June, 18-12, aiul is the son (jf Tliron and In- 



ger (Halverson) Thronsen, n.atives of Nor- 
way. Tlie\' were farmers in tlie Old World, 
and both died in their native land. They 
were tiie i>arents of tlie following named 
children — Peter, Ilalvor, Thron and Carl. 

Carl Thronsen. of whom this biography 
treats, received his education in his native 
land and attended scliool until he had reached 
the age of fourteen years. At that period 
in life he entered an apjirenticeshi]) to the 
shoemaker's trade, and, after learning his 
trade, followed that occupation until he 
emigrated to the United States. In 1S6S he 
started tor the United States, and after a voy- 
age of seven weeks, landed at Quebec, Canada. 

From this point he went to Hudson, St. 
Croix county, Wisconsin, where lie remained 
one year, engaged in fanning. He then re- 
moved to Douglas county, Minnesota, where 
he spent the winter, and in the following 
year went to Grant county, Minnesota. As 
soon as he entered the county, he home- 
steaded 1<''0 acres of land in Erdahl town- 
ship, on section 13, where he has since re- 
mained, engaged in a general farming ami 
stock business. He now owns over ;3()t> acres 
of well im])i'oved land, and has one of the 
most desirable farms in that section of the 

Mr. Thronsen was married ifay S, 1S67, 
to Miss Anna Thorsen, and this union lias 
been blesseil with the followinij named chil- 
dren — Thron, Inguil, Chrislian, Otto, Emil, 
Alma, Thora, Hans, Cari'ie and Anna (twins) 
and Hjalmar. i^Irs. Thronsen is a native 
of Norway, born on the 23d of August, 
18il. Mr. Thronsen and family belong to 
the Lutheran church, of which he has been 
trustee. He has held the following offices 
in the townshij) : assessor, supervisor, school 
treasurer, also school clerk. He is a repre- 
sentative man of the county, and is highly 
esteemed by all who l^ear his acquaintance. 
He is a republican in ])olitics, and takes an 
active part in all pul)lic movements. 

^M UGUST SVANSON, a prominent car- 
^i'SlL riage manufacturer and blacksmith of 
tlie village of Herman, Grant county, Minne- 
sota, is a native of Sweden, l)orn June 1, 
1848. He is a son of Israel and Anna (Ilak- 
ason) Svanson,also natives of that kingdom. 
The father of our subject, who was a farmer, 
died in 1886, and the mother is still living. 
They are the parents of the following named 
children — John. August. Peter, Otto, Tilda, 
Helena and Edith. The parents were de- 
voted members of the Luthei'an church. 
John died in Wisconsin. Pie emigrated to 
the United States in 1863, and lirst settled 
in lied Wing, Minnesota, and from there 
went to Wisconsin. 

Mr. Svanson, the subject of this article, 
spent his school-days in the land of his birth, 
leaving the school-room at the age of twelve 
years. At the age of fifteen he entered an 
apprenticeship to the carpenter's trade, and 
completed his trade at the age of twenty. 
He then commenced the wagon-maker's trade, 
and followed the same for one year. At the 
expiration of that time, in 1871, he emi- 
grated to the United States, and in July, 
after a voyage of twelve days, landed at New 
York (^ity. He then went to IJed Wing, 
Minnesota, where he engaged in wagon- 
making for seven years. Mr. Svanson then 
went to Pierce county, Wisconsin, where he 
remained a vear or two engaged in farmino: 
and stock-raising. He then sold his faim 
and moved to Grant county, Minnesota, and 
engaged in cai-]ientering. Soon afterward 
he homesteaded 16(i acres in the township of 
Monson, where lie lived five years, engaged 
in farming. He then rented his farm and 
removed to Herman village, where he en- 
gaged in the carriage-making trade and 
blacksniithing, which he has since followed. 
He is one of the best carriage makers in the 
county, and his handiwork compares favor- 
ably with any in the State. His is the only 
establishment in the village, and he is doing 



a big business. He is a republican in his 
political aHiliations. and tako.s an active in- 
terest in all local matters. He is a represen- 
tative man of liis i-esidence village, and one 
of the most enterprising business men. He 
is a man of jionor and integrity, and is 
highly esteemed ijy all who know him. He 
is a sympathizer with the doctrines of the 
Lutheran oliiii'cii. 


John M. WESTBERG, of the firm of 
f^ Lisher ct Westi)erg, proprietors of the 
meat market in East Grand Forks, Polk 
countv, Minnesota, is a native of Sweden. 
He was born in Malen on the 16th dav of 
September, 1863, and is the son of Martin 
and Ellen (Paulson) Westberg, natives also 
of the kingdom of Sweden. 

Mr. Westberg, the subject of this sketch, 
remained at the home fai'inand attended the 
common schools of his native land until he 
lia<l attained the age of twelve years. He 
was then obliged to commence in life for 
himself, and in 1883 or ISSi he immiurated 
to the United States. After a vovaee of 
tiiree weeks lie landed in Portland, Maine, 
and at once proceeded to Sauk Center, Min- 
nesota, where he remained about two years, 
enffaged in thel)utcher's trade. He then re- 
moved to Ada, Mmnesota, where he remained 
six months, but did no work. Mr. West- 
berg went from Ada to Fulda, Murray 
county, Minnesota, where he worked on a 
farm for a short time, and then went to 
Orand Forks, Dakota Territor^^, where he 
worked at the butcher's trade until the 7th 
of ,liine, 1888. He then settled in East 
Grand Forks, Polk county, Minnesota, and 
opened a butcher shop in pai'tnershij) with a 
Mr. Swenson. On the 8th of September, 
1888, Mr. Westberg jnirchased the interest 
of his partner, and jVfr. Lisher went into 
partnership witii Mr. Westbtjrg, and has 

since continued under the firm name of 
Lisher ct Westberg. They are the ]iopular 
meat market firm in the city, ami give the 
best of satisfaction in all tiieir dealings. 

Mr. Westberg was united in mari-iage in 
Hillsljerg, Dakota Territory, in August, 
1888, to Miss Maiy Peterson, a native of 
Norway, and the (Uiughtcr of Paul and 
Bertha Peterson, natives of Xorway. 

ilr, and Mrs. Westberg are attendants of 
the Methodist church. He is one of the 
active business men of the city, and highly 
esteemed by all who know iiim. In ])olitical 
matters he affiliates with llit: republican 


t-''^'\i_ engaged in the general mercantile 
business in the viIlao:e of Osakis, Douglas 
county, Minnesota, is a native of Norway. 
He was born in Thorndhjem, on the 2i'd of 
April, 1856, and is the son of Michael and 
Sarah (Lai'son) Anderson, nativesof N'm-way. 
The father of our subject immigrated to the 
United States in 1867, and settled in Todd 
county, ilinnesota, where he i-emained until 
his death. He died in 1872, and was devoted 
to the farming industry through life. The 
mother of our subject is still living in Todd 
county, Minnesota, at an advanced age. 
They were the parents of the following 
named children — Mary, Lewis and Alexan- 

Alexander Anderson, the subject of this 
article, spent his younger days in his native 
land and immigrated to the United States in 
1867, with his parents. His education was 
obtained princijially in Todd county, and 
at the age of fifteen years he left the scIhjoI- 
room and engao'ed in farmiiii;-. I'ntil he 
was twenty-one he followed larmiiig. and at 
that jHM'iod in life he removed to (Osakis, 
Douglas county, Minnesota, wlieie he en- 



faged in the mercantile business, in partner- 
ship with John Mahlen. After one year 
Mr. Anderson purchased the interest of Mr. 
Mahlen, and then entered into partnership 
with Lewis Johnson, with whom he remained 
two years. At the expiration of that time 
they dissolved partnership, and our subject 
entered into business with J. B. Johnson, 
and thev have since continued in business 
togetner. They handle a full line of goods, 
and give the best of satisfaction in all their 
dealings. In addition to his business inter- 
ests Mr. Anderson owns a fine farm of 160 
acres in Todd county. Minnesota, and is one 
of the most solid and substantial citizens of 

Mr. Anderson was united in marriage on 
the 17th of July, 1S77, to Miss Olena Mahlen, 
a native of Norway, and the daugliter of 
Martinus Mahlen. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson 
have been blessed with the following named 
children — Elmer, Sophia, Mary, Alfred, 
Oliiver, Carl andMinnie. Mr. Anderson, with 
his family, belongs to the Lutheran church, 
of wliich organization he is trustee. lie is a 
republican in his political affiliations, and is 
an active participant in all movements of a 
local nature calculated to benefit eitlier the 
villajre or the countv. Mr. Anderson is one 
of the village couneilmen, and is one of the 
representative citizens 01 the county. 


i^ALNO U. WEBSTER, the efficient 
'^y justice of the peace and town clerk of 
the village of Fisher, Polk county, Minne- 
sota, and also engaged in farming near the 
village, is a native of the State of Massachu- 
setts, lie was born in Bernardston, on 
the 25th day of May, 1834, and is the son of 
Artemus and Lorana (Patterson) Webster, 
natives of the State of Massachusetts. In 
1840 the parents of the present sul)ject re- 

moved to the State of Pennsylvania, where 
the father died in 1843. In 1843 the mother 
of Calno went to Eock Island county, Illi- 
nois, where she lived until 1856, when she 
removed to Wisconsin, wliere she lived until 
her death. The father and mother of our 
subject were the parents of tiie following 
named children — Sylvester, Monroe, Ezekel, 
Sylvia and Calno. 

Calno Webster, the subject of this bio- 
graphical review, remained in his native 
State until he was six years old, when here- 
moved with his parents to Pennsylvania. 
He lived in that State until he was nine 
years old, then, the father dying, the re- 
mainder of the family removed to Illinois. 
Mr. Webster here learned the carpenter's 
trade, and in 1858 removed to Buffalo 
county, Wisconsin, where he remained seven- 
teen years. He was among tiie earliest set- 
tlers in that region, and times wei-e hard and 
money scarce. Their market was sixteen 
miles distant and there were but few white 
men. In 1878 he borrowed $50, and after 
paying the freight on the goods had but 
$1.50 left. With this and his family he 
started for Minnesota, and located in Polk 
county. In those early days he worked at 
his trade, and all tiie family were forced to 
«-o out ami work for themselves. On locat- 
ing in Fisher, Mr. Webster took a homestead 
of eighty acres, and also a tract of railroad 
land. He now holds tiie offices of justice of 
the peace and town clerk, and he devotes 
the greater part of his time to his official 

Mr. Webster was marrieil on tiie 4tii day 
of June, lS5y, to Miss Maiy Carothers, and 
this union has been blessed witli the follow- 
ing named children — Elmira, R. T., Elsie, 
Harvey, Eiizebeth, Calno, Olive, Charles and 
Andrew. Charles is deceased. While in 
Wisconsin, Mr. Webster held the office of 
justice of tlie jieace, town and village offices, 
etc. lie is one of the prominent men of 



the villaj^eof Fisher, and is highly esteemed 
bv all wlio know liiiii. Iti [lolitical iiiattoi's" 
lie iittiliates witJi the re])iii)lican ]iarty. He. 
with his family, lielongs to tlie ^[ethodist 


- • •♦ > ■ •S^f^-'»— 

11^ EINERT AANENSON, a successful and 
Jj-OV' enlei'prisiug- farmer of the town of 
Evansville, Douglas county, Minnesota, is a 
resident of section 3. He is a native of 
Korway, born October 7, 1827, and is a son 
of Aanenson Jestsen, a native of that king- 
dom. The father and motiier, who are still 
living, are the parents of twelve children. 

The suliject of this article received his 
education in his native land, and came to 
this country in ISoo, landing in (Quebec. Can- 
ada, alter a voyage of seven weeks. From 
Quebec he wcjit to Manitowoc, "Wisconsin, 
remaining there on a farm tor two years, 
lie then sold the farm which he had pur- 
chased when he first settled there, and mctvcd 
to Ivansas. Mr. Aanenson was there en- 
ijaged in the real estate business for two 
years. He tluMi went to California, via 
Pike's Peak. For the next eight years he 
was engaged in mining in that State, and at 
the exjiiration of that time paid a visit to 
his native land, Norway, remaining there 
for five years. On ins return to the United 
States he stayed in Chicago for one month, 
and, after traveling through Iowa and Min- 
nesota, settled in Douglas county, Minne- 
sota, on his present place of residence. At 
the time of his settlement, in 18<1'.». he paid 
$1,200 for a homestead right, and has since 
improvetl and cultivated the ])lace. 

Mr. Aanenson was united in marriage in 
18f)9, to Miss Amanda Tolexson, who died 
in 18(1'.'. Mr. Aanenson was marri(>d to his 
second wife, Miss Synneve,in 1871. and they 
have been blessed with four cliildren — 
Amanda, Otto, Theodore and Fridthjuf. 

Our subject and his family are members of 
the Lutheran church, of which organization 
he is a ti'ustee. ifr. Aanenson has held the 
following offices in his town : Supervisor, 
three years; school director, three years; 
roadniaster', etc. lie is '.ne of the solid and 
substantial farmers of Douglas county, a 
representative man of his township, and 
takes an active interest in all ]iulilicand etlu- 
cational matters. W^i is an adherent to the 
principles of the democratic party. 

JOSEPH GUNN. Prominent among the 
^ editors and publishers in the famous 
lied Iliver and Park Ilegions is the gentle- 
man whose name heads this article, the pro- 
prietor of the Wilkbi County GazeiU. pub- 
lished at Preckenridge, AVilkin county. Min- 
nesota. Mr. (Tiiiin is also engaged in the 
drug business and fanning, and has I'esided 
at that place since 18s,". He is a native of 
Canada, hoin on the 14th day of August, 
1857, at Ernestown. in the county of Len- 
nox and Addington, Province of Ontario, and 
is the son of Samuel E. and Lucinda (Rea) 
(■iunn, natives, also, of Canada. The father 
of the present subject was engaged in agri- 
cultural ])ursuits in his native country, and 
passed away in 1881. The mother is now 
living in Chicago, Illinois, to where she re- 
moved in 1882. They were the parents of 
the following named children — Samuel A., 
Rhoda, now Mrs. Frank Fitch ; Anna, the 
wife of W. II. Collins; Elizabeth, who is 
married to ^fi'. J. E. Donahue; Joseph, and 
Emma, who was united in marriage to C.N. 
Smith. The parents were devoted members 
of the Episcopal church, and highly esteemed 
in the locality in which they lived. 

Joseph (iunn, of whom this articl(> treats, 
spent his younger days in his nati\(' land, at- 
tending the common schocjls and assisting on 
the home farm dunny the summers. He re- 



ceived a practical high school education, and, 
at tiie age of sixteen years, left the school- 
room, and engaged in the telegraphy busi- 
ness, and continued in tiiat vocation until 
1884-. During tliis time lie was employed in 
the Dominion and in tiie States, and, at the 
time mentioned, opened uji his present busi- 
ness, in partnersiiip with George F. Cook, 
now connected witli the Ereckenridge Echo. 
They continued in business for two years, 
and, at the expiration of that time, our sub- 
ject purchased Mr. Cook's interest, and has 
since operated the paper. In 1887 he opened 
liis ilrug store, with Dr. W. E. Truax, whose 
sketcli will be found in another part of this 
Album. On the 1st day of September, 1888, 
Ml', (xunn bought out the interest of Dr. 
Truax, and has since conducted the business 
alone. He carries a full line of goods, and 
is doing a successful business. He controls 
considerai)le real estate in the way of farm 
lanils and town lots, is one of the most prom- 
inent linsiness men in the place, and conducts 
one of the ablest and best edited jmpers in 
that section of tlie State. 

Mr. Gunn was married on the 4th day of 
August, 1888, to Miss Mamie Aunian, the 
daughter of W. H, Auman, of Eeading, 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Gunn is one of the rep- 
resentative citizens of AVilkin county, and 
takes an active interest in all matters per- 
taining to the growth and advancement of 
the county or State. In jiolitical matters he 
is a stanch republican, and took an active part 
in the general election of 1888. The Red 
liiver Vallev would be ji'reatlv benetited if it 
had a larger number of citizens like Mr. Gunn. 


t^\ VEN JORGENSON. Among the prom- 
\1^ inent and influential members of the 
tinning community of the Red River and 
Park Regions of Minnesota, is the gentleman 
whose name heads this article, a resident of 
section 0, Sanford township. Grant county. 

He is a native of Norway and springs from 
a race proverbial for their industry, thrift, 
and frugality. He was born on the 17th of 
November, 1841, and is a son of Jorgen 
and Aaste (Joi-genson) Olson, natives of 
Norway. The parents sjient their entire 
lives in the land of their birth and were en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits. They were 
the parents of eight children, six bo3's and 
two girls, all of whom grew to manhood and 

Mr. Jorgenson, the subject of this bio- 
graphical sketch, spent his sciiooldays in the 
land of his birth and attended the ' excellent 
common schools of his native land until he 
had reached the age of fifteen years. He 
then helped his father operate the home 
farm until he had reached the age of twenty- 
one years. In the month of May, 1865, he 
emigrated to the United States, and after a 
voyage of six weeks, landed at (,^)uebee, Can- 
ada, and soon after landing went to Winona 
county. Minnesota. From there he went to 
Fillmore county, Minnesota, and after re- 
maining there one year, removed to Dunn 
county, Wisconsin. He remained in that 
locality for two years, engaged in the pin- 
eries and in a saw mill. Mr. Joi'genson then 
returned to Minnesota, remaining in Good- 
hue county for several years, engaged in 
farming. He then went to Grant county, 
Minnesota, and settled in Pomme de Terre 
township, homesteading 160 acres of land, 
and resided thei'e three \'ears, engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, also handling considera- 
l)le stock. He then removed to Sanford town- 
ship, of the same county, and settled on sec- 
tion t>, where he bought 160 acres of land and 
there engaged extensively in general farm- 
ing and stock-raising operations. He was one 
of the first settlers in the county and is held 
in high esteem. In the fall of 1888 Mr. Jor- 
genson removed to the village of Elbow Lake, 
where he carries on a general livery business 
and is also village marshal. 


]<J:D Kn-EK rALL/iV A.VD 

Mr. Jorgenson was married in June, 1870, 
to Jliss Signe Jorgenson, a native of Nor- 
wav. Tiiey ai'e tlie ])ai'ents of tlie loiiowing 
named cliildreii — Jorgen, Tlieodoi'c, ilartin, 
Edward, Samuel, Sigval, Jorgena and I.iiiie. 
Mr. Jorgenson witli his family belongs to 
the Lutheran chui'cii, of which he has held 
the office of trustee. He is one of the i'e])re- 
sentative men of his township and has held 
the office of sujjervisor for six or eight 
years and vaj'ious offices in school district No. 
1. Mr. Jorgenson participated in the organ- 
i/aiioii of the county and the town of San- 
ford. He is a republican in his political 
affiliations and takes an active interest in all 
local affairs. He is a man of the strictest 
hoiioi- and integrity, highly respected by all 
who knnw liiia. 



J^EeNS p. STRATE, the present county 
JL-^*2L treasurer of Clay count\', Minnesota, 
and a well-known citizen of Moorhead, is a 
native of Korway, born August 4, 18.50. 
His parents were Peter and Bertha (Jenson) 
Stratc, also natives of Norway. The father 
is engaged in the lumberiny business in his 
native country. 

H^fr. Stnite is a strong advocate of i)rohibi- 
tidii. He l)elongs to the Odd-Fellows order, 
and may truly be styled a leading and ex- 
ein|)hirv citizen. 


PMTeLS E. nelson, is the register of 
J^ deeds for the county of Douglas, 
Minnesota. He is the son of Elof ami Ciirrie 
(Johnson) Nelson, who were both natives of 
Sweden. The father was one of the large 
farmers of his native country, but in the 
spring of 187n he turned his attention west- 

ward, came to the United States and settled 
in Clayton countv. Lava, wlieic he reniaincMJ 
one year. At the end of that time he came 
to ^Minnesota ami settled in Douglas county, 
settling upon land in the town of Le Grand, 
where he took a homestead of seventy-ei<;ht 
acres. Here he built a log house twelve by 
fourteen feet, and settled down to tiie Imsi- 
ness of farming. He has since added 1<I0 
acres to his farm, improved it thoroughly, 
and has now good buildings upon the place. 
He has held the offices of supervisor of the 
townshi]) and school clerk. He has aided 
materially in jiublic improvements in his 
township and has helped to build several 
churches and school-houses. He, witli his 
family, belongs to the Lutheran church. In 
the father's family there are seven children 
living — Lars. Nels E., Emil, Peter J., John, 
William and Edward. The father is a re- 
publican in politics and is one of the leading- 
men of his township. 

Nels E. Nelson, of whom we write, re- 
ceived his early education in Douglas county, 
and remained beneath the parental roof 
until 1880. In this year he pui'chased a 
fai-m in Le Grand townshij) of Kio acres, 
partly improved, where he engaged in farm- 
ing untd 1880. In this year he was elected 
to his present office, that of register of deeds. 
While in Le Grand township he held the 
position of town clerk for Hve years; was 
also secretary of the Farmer's Mutual Insur- 
ance Company for three years. He was 
married in 1880 to Miss Chrestina Johnson 
of the township of Ida, Douglas county, 
Minnesota. Mrs. Nelson is the daughter of 
Andrew Johnson of that townsjiip. Three 
children blessed this union — Amelia. Will- 
iam A., and John E. Mr. Nelson is a re- 
j)ublican in ])olitics. He and his wife and 
children ai'e members of the Lutheran church. 
In 1888 he was re-elected to his present 
office. He is one of the leading men of his 
nationality in the county. 



M RTHUR C. BELYEA, the editor of the 
_^^^ Grinit County Herald, and a well 
known and prominent member of the news- 
paper fraternity of the famous Park Eegion, 
is a resident of Elbow I^ake, the county seat 
of Grant county, Minnesota. He is a native 
of New Brunswick, Canada, born October 
2(), 1858, and is the son of Archelaus P. and 
Kebecca (Camp) Belyea, natives also of New 
Brunswick, Canada. The father was a 
farmer, and died in Afay, 1888. There were 
thirteen children 111 the family' of the par- 

The subject of this biographical sketch 
spent his school-days in his native land, leav- 
ing the school-room when eighteen years of 
age, and engaged in the occupation of teach- 
ing for the next three years. He then at- 
tended the grammar school for about six 
months, and in April, 1880, emigrated to 
the United States. He selected Minnesota 
as his adopted home, and settled at Herman, 
Grant count}', where he secured a clerkship 
in the law office of Joseph W. Keynolds, 
which place he held for the next two years. 
Previous to this, however, he taught school 
for one year. After leaving the law office 
of Mr. lieynolds, Mr. Belyea engaged in the 
newspaper business in the village of Herman, 
and has since devoted his entire time and 
attention to journalism. In the spring of 
1887 he moved to Elbow Lake, Grant county, 
Minnesota, and in May of that year o]iened 
his present office, where he has since edited 
the Grant County Herald, one of the l)right- 
est and most popular newspapers in the 

Mr. Belyea was united in marriage March 
15, 188.5, to Miss Susie Brackin, a native of 
Pierce county, Wisconsin. Mr. Belyea is 
indepentlent in his political views, reserving 
the right to vote for the most worthy candi- 
date, I'egardless of party. He is one of the 
most prominent and highly esteemed citizens 
of the localitv in which he lives, and is a 

man of the utmost integrity and honor. He 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and 
is an active participant in all pul)lic enter- 
prises whereby the town or county may 
derive benefit. 

^^EORGE L. MAYS, who has charge of 
V^pl"" the Lion Boiler Mills at Brandon, is 
one of the most intelligent and capable busi- 
ness men, and also one of the most efficient 
millers in l^ouglas county, Minnesota. Mr. 
Mays was born at Lynchburg, Virginia, 
on the 12th of Se[)tember, 18(10. and is 
a son of D. T. and Mary (Hunter) Mays. 
His parents had a family of eight children, 
of whom the following is the record — Mary, 
George L., William, Anna, Belle, Samuel, 
Bertie and Maud, who died in childhood. 

George L. Mays, whose "name heads this 
article, in his youth received excellent 
schoolins', attaining an academic education, 
and attending until he was twenty' years of 
age. He was always persistent and ener- 
getic and never failed in any project he 
undertook. He adopted the millmg business 
for his life's calling and began learning that 
trade, following it for three years in Vir- 
ginia. He then came to Evansville, Douglas 
county, Minnesota, and there followed mill- 
ing for two years. At the expiration of 
that time he went to Alexandria, where he 
remained a year and then removed to Bran- 
don, where he has since lived. He took 
charge of the mill for the Farmers' Milling 
Association, and has iniilt up an extensive 
business, as it draws trade from a wide scope 
of country. The mill is one of the best 
equipped in the county, and contains the 
latest and best impi-oved machinery. It has 
six double sets of improved rollers, with all 
of the necessary purifiers, centrifugals, clean- 
ing- machines, ffi-aders, etc. 

Mr. Mays was married to Miss Ina Pike, a 
dauijhter of George Pike. She was born in 



Washington county, New York, but when \ 
only seven years of age she was brought 
by her parents to Farniington, Minnesota, 
where siie was raised. She received an ex- 
cellent education, principally at Shakopee, 
and is a lady of much refinement. 

In ])olitical matters Mr. INfays would be 
classed as an independent rather than a party 
man, imd it may well be said that he is one 
of the representative citizens of tlie locality 
in which he lives. 

etor of the 13ank of Ada, ]Minne- 
sola, is one of the successful business men 
of that village. lie came to the place on 
the mth of July, 1881, and putting up the 
building now occupied by him, commenced 
business under the firm name and style of 
AVare A: Mathews, his partner being H. L. 
Ware, of Waverly, Iowa. Mr. Mathews, 
who was the managing partner, carried on 
the business successfulh', increasing their 
capital materially, until April, 1884-, when 
he i)urchased \\w interest of his associate, 
since wiiicli time he has managed foi' him- 
self. The l)ank now enjoys ample capital, 
and is doing a general banking business, in- 
cluding exchange, real estate transactions 
and insui-ance, and is raidied among the 
soundest monetary institutions of that sec- 
tion of the Ked River Valley. An able 
business uuin in every respect, Mr. Mathews 
has succeeded in his investments in this 
vicmity, and has built \\\i for himself the 
nucleus of a handsome f(jrtune. Besides his 
banking establishment he is largely inter- 
ested in agriculture, owning and operating a 
large farm of 800 acres of land, some 480 
of which are under cultivation, and which 
yields a rich return. 

Mr. Mathews is a native of Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada, and was l)orn May 9, 1853, 

In the following-year, his parents, John and 
Anna Mathews, came to the United States, 
and made their home at various places in 
the State of Iowa. The subject of this 
sketch received his primary education in the 
public schools of that State, and in 1873 
entered the school at AVavcrly, Iowa, and 
there remained for the best part of two 
years. At the end of that time he entered 
a b.'inlcing establishment at AVaverly, where 
he remained as clerk, etc., until coming to 

Mr. ]\Iathews has been identified to a cim- 
siderable extent with the organization of the 
county, having been the first court commis- 
sioner. In the spring of 1882 he was elected 
to the office of treasurer of the village of 
Ada, and in the spring of 1888 was chosen 
president of the village council, a ])osition 
'that he is filling at the present time. 


OHN S, DWVER, who is engaged in the 

^ livery business in East Graiul Forks, 
Polk county, Minnesota, is a native of Ohio. 
He was born in Green county, Ohio, on the 
10th <lay of October, 1853, and is the son of 
Tinu)thy ami Ih-idget (Kavanaugh) Dwyei-, 
natives of Ireland. 

.Mr. Dwyer. the subject of this article, 
S[)ent his early life w\ his father's farm and 
attended the public schools. At the age of 
twenty-one years, his father ilied, and he was 
ap]iointed executor of the estate and was en- 
gaged four years in clearing u[) the accounts. 
At the expiration of the four years, Mr. 
Dwyer engaged in farming and ti'ading 
until 1881. On the 2d of September, 1881, 
he removed to Minnesota and settled in 
Moorhead, Clay count}', where he remained 
four months, engaged in various occu{)ations. 
He then returned to Ohio, and in 1882 again 
returned to Minnesota, accompanied by his 
brother Dennis, of whom a sketch appears in 



another department of this Album. They 
both settled in Grand Forks, Dakota Terri- 
tory, and I'eniained for a few weeks, and then 
took government land in Walsh county, Da- 
kota Territory. They remained on their 
farms until December, 1882, and then settled 
in East Gi'and Forks, Polk county, Minne- 
sota, where they found employment in a 
livery stable, remaining at such work for a 
year or two. During that time they also 
enoacred to some extent in farming, and then 
went into the liver}' business. In addition 
to their livery interests, they are now hand- 
ling all kinds of farming implements and 
heavy machiner\' and are doing an extensive 
and successful business. 

John S. Dwyer, of whom this article 
treats, was married in Grand Forks, Dakota 
Territory, on the 1st day of July, 1885, to 
Miss Mary Hogan, and this union has been 
blessed with the following children — Tim- 
othy Joseph, born August 18, 1880, and 
Mary Villa, born on the 26th day of Septem- 
ber, 1887. Mr. Dwyer is one of the success- 
ful business men of East Grand Forks, and is 
highly esteemed by all who know him. In 
political matters he affiliates with the demo- 
cratic party. 

East Grand Forks was incorporated as a 
city in Februarv, 1887. On the 1st of April 
following, the first municipal election was 
held and the subject of this sketch was 
elected mayor after a hot contest. Declining 
to run for office the following spring, left him 
at liberty to acce]it the office of city justice, 
to which he was appointed in June, 1888. 
Mr. Dwyer is a strict temperance man and 
a capable business man. 



^JVNTON HUBERT. In examining the 
-Z^Sjl biographies of the prominent mem- 
bers of the farming community of the Park 
Regions of Minnesota, it will be noticed 
that the Norwegian race furnishes some of the 

best, most thrifty, frugal and enterprising 
citizens. The subject of this sketch is a 
native of Norway, born near the city of 
Christiania on the 21st da}^ of November, 
1842, and is a son of Ole and Mary (Hanson) 
Hubert, natives of the kingdom of Nor- 

Anton Hubert spent his younger days in 
the land of his birth, attending tlie excel- 
lent common schools of that country. He 
left the school-room at the age of fourteen 
years, and from that ])eriod until he had 
reached the age of twent3'-one years, helped 
his father on the home farm. At the age of 
twenty-two he emigrated to the United 
States, and after a voyage of fourteen days, 
landed at Quebec, Canada. From the place 
of landing he went to Chicago, Illinois, 
where he remained for eighteen months, 
engaged in the lumber business during the 
summer and in a factory in the winter. He 
then went to tlouston county, Minnesota, 
where he i^emained about six months. In 
186G Mr. Hubert moved to Grant countj', 
Minnesota, and settled in Elk Lake town- 
shi]), where he took a homestead on section 
22. He remained on that place for a good 
many years, and then removed to section 28 
in the' same township, where he has since 
lived, engaged in general farming and stock- 
raising. He has a beautiful farm, compris- 
ing 350 acres, all well improved and under 
a high state of cultivation. 

Mr. Hubert was united in marriage on the 
16th day of July, 1872, to Miss Barbra Mary 
Olson, and they have been blessed with the 
following named children — Olaf, Eichard 
and Carl W. They are all members of the 
Lutheran church, of which organization Mr. 
Hubert has been trustee for a number of 
years. He is one of the prominent and 
respected citizens of Grant county. He has 
always taken an active interest in official 
matters, and has held various local positions, 
such as supervisor, school clerk, etc. 



a-tV is engageil in tlie practice of liis pro- 
fession in the village of Earnesville, Clay 
county, Minnesota, is one of the most prom- 
inent and efficient physicians in the Red 
River A^alley. lie is a native of Ontario, 
born in Grafton, on the 21st day of August, 
1850, and is tlie son of Thomas and ilary 
(Hardy) Patterson, natives of Ontario. 

Dr. Patterson, of whom this sketch treats, 
spent his boyhood days in his native land, 
attending the excellent common schools of 
his native village. Wlien about fifteen years 
of age, he commenced in life for himself, and 
about that time went to the State of Xew 
York. He remained in that State for eight 
years, finding such emjiloyment as he could 
during the summers, and each winter return- 
ing to his native village and attending 
sciiool. When at the age of twenty-three 
years, he entered the normal school in the 
city of Toronto, and received a teacher's 
certificate; for the next four years fol- 
lowed that jirofession. At the expiration of 
tiuit time he entered the Trinity Medical 
College, and graduated with high honors in 
1880. He received the following degrees: 
M. B., from Trinity University, Toronto; M. 
B., from Toronto University ; fellow, by ex- 
amination of Trinity Medical College, and 
member of tlie (JoUege of Physicians and 
Surgeons of Ontario. One 3'ear after his 
graduation he received the degree of M. D. 
C. M. from the University of Trinity Col- 
lege, Toronto. After graduating, Dr. Pat- 
terson removed to Udei'ton, Ontario, where 
he engaged in his professional lal)oi's. and re- 
mained there until the fall of 1S81. He 
then removed to ^foorhead, Chw county, 
Minnesota, and practiced medicine until in 
June, 1887. He then moved to the village 
of Baraesville, Clay county, Minnesota, 
where he has since resided, devoting his time 
and energy to his chosen work. In connec- 
tion with his professional work he operates 

a drug store, and also owns a fine farm of 
400 acres, having 2U0 acres under cultiva- 

Dr. Patterson was united in marriage, in 
1882, to Miss Anna Lennen, and this union 
has been blessed with three children, two of 
whom are now living, named as follows: 
Charles Henry and Olga. 

The doctor is one of the representative 
men of the county, and while in ]\Ioorhead 
was elected county piiysiuian, whicii ])()sition 
he filled for two years. He is an active 
member of the Mas(jnic order, and oi'gan- 
ized a lodge at Ilderton of the A. F. it A. 
M. When he went to Moorhead, he reor- 
ganized the Masonic lodge at that place, and 
for three years held the j)osition of Worship- 
ful Master. He, with his family, belongs to 
the Congregational churcii, of which organ- 
ization he is ti'ustee. Pie is one of the lead- 
ing practitioners in the county, and has an 
extensive and increasing practice in both vil- 
lage and country. 

-— '«— ^g^' < »• - - 

PHILIP C. SCHMIDT, one of the promi- 
nent members of the bar of Polk 
county, and one of its brightest ornaments, 
followed a most diversified course of life 
before he found his true vocation in the 
profession of law. lie first saw the ligiit at 
Cincinnati, Ohio. ]\iay 17, 18.5-1, ami is the 
son of Philip C. and Caroline ( llagner) 
Schmidt, natives of (iermany. In the Sep- 
teml)er following his birth, his j)arents re- 
moved to Washington county, Wisconsin, 
traveling from Chicago, Illinois, in a wagon 
drawn by "slow ]ilodding, careful oxen." 
The elder Mr. Schmidt purchased a claim, 
the ground of which was heavily covered 
with timber, the '• forest primeval," and at 
once installed his little family 'neath the shel- 
ter of the roof of the lonely log cabin which 
had been erecteil l)y the party of whom he 



bought the place, and who liad made the 
original claim. His wife and little ones 
sheltered from the elements, he commenced 
to clear up the place, literally to "hew him- 
self a new home in the great wilderness," 
there being but three acres reclaimed from 
their leaf n"^ covering at the time. Being a 
wagon-maker by trade, he put up a small 
shop for repairing all kinds of vehicles, close 
to tiie road that passed the farm. Toiling 
on year after year, he brought the farm un- 
der suljjection to the uses of man, finally, 
and gi'ew himself prosperous and a promi- 
nent and influential member of the com- 
munity where he lives, he still making his 
home upon the farm. His integrity of char- 
acter, as well as his sincerity of speech and 
action, being tlul}' a})preciated by his friends 
and neighbors, the honors of public of- 
fice were thrust upon him. He served for 
years as one of the county supernsors, and 
as a justice of the peace for the past thirty 
years. The latter position he still holds. 

Philip C. Schmidt, the subject of this per- 
sonal memoir, was reared upon the paternal 
farm, helping his father in the arduous labor 
of clearing it up. At lirst, in early boyhood, 
he was set to })icking up the small pieces of 
rocks and stones upon the surface of the 
ground, and, as he grew in strength, helped 
dig out the blackened stumps that covered 
the laiul. His early education was obtained 
in the rough log cabin school houses of that 
period and locality, and b\' ambitious study 
at eventide at home. In 1868, with a lauda- 
ble desire to increase his store of knowledge, 
he entered the Northwestern University, 
at Watertown, Wisconsin, l)ut only re- 
mained there one term. At the expira- 
tion t)f that he went to Milwaukee, and, 
entering the large dry goods establish- 
ment of I. A. Leir A: Co., as cash boy, 
began to push his own fortune in the world. 
He was at that time only lifteen years of 
age, but a bold, manlv fellow. In a short 

time he was jiromoted to the ]iosition of 
salesman, and remained with that firm about 
eighteen months. In the fall of 1870 he 
changed to the store of Lin field i^ Co., also 
dealers in dry goods and notions, but eight 
months later, abandoning the mercantile 
trade, entered the employ of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad Company as time- 
keeper. Not relishing that position, in the 
fall of 1871 he removed to West Bend, Wash- 
ington county, Wisconsin, where he engaged 
as clerk in the genei'al retail store of Potter & 
Miller, and remained with that firm but three 
months. During the following winter he 
returned to Milwaukee, and spent one term 
in the Spencerian Business College, at the 
end of which he went to Cincinnati and re- 
sumed his duties in a dry goods establish- 
ment — that of Hopkins & Co. In the fall of 
1872, appreciating the advantages of a trade, 
he commenced learning that of ornamental 
painting and decorating in the Hall Safe 
and Lock Company's works. He remained in 
that employment for the next six or seven 
years, becoming quite proficient with the 
brush, in all of the principal cities of the 
United States, from the Atlantic coast to 
Denver, Colorado, and from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Great Lakes. 

Becoming convinced that he had abilities 
that fitted him for a forensic career, on the 
2d of January, 1879, he entered the office 
of Frisby & Weil, one of the leading law 
firms of Wisconsin, where he gave his unrtag- 
ffimr, unwearied attention to the studv of 
law. He remained with that firm, having 
studied previously in private for some two 
years, until the winter of 1882-88, when, the 
firm dissolving, he followed Judge Frisby to 
Milwaukee, and with him finished his studies 
in the winter of 1883-84. Having been ad- 
mitted to the bar, he lookeii around for a 
suitable locality in which to settle and dis- 
play his abilities as a lawyer, he deter- 
mined to emigrate to the Eed River Valley. 


RED MIVKR }'y1 /././■: V AXD 

On his arrival in Polk county, Minnesota, Mr. 
Sclnnidt located in Red Lake Falls, wliicli 
M'as then a young and pi-oniising village, 
and there oi)ening an office, commenced his 
successful career in this part of the world, 
lie took an active part in all village and 
town matters, and was elected a member of 
the county board of commissioners from 
that district. In October, 1885, our sul)ject 
removed his office to Crookston, tlie county 
seat, since which time lie has been recog- 
niz('d as one of the leading attorneys of the 
place. He is the jiossessor of one of the 
best law libraries in the city, it containing 
some 400 volumes, and is valued at 81,200. 

Politically ^Ir. Schmidt has always been 
identified with the rei)ublican party, and dur- 
ing the presidential campaign of 1888 was the 
president of the club of that political oi'gani- 
zation. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, having been made a Mason in West 
Bend Lodge, No. 138, when but twenty-two 
yearsof age, and still holdsmembership there. 

]\Ir. Schmidt was united in mai'riage De- 
cember 23, 1885, with Miss Emma Morrill, a 
native of Grand Rapids, Wisconsin, and 
daughter of David P. Morrill. By this 
union they have one daughter, Marion M. 

— ..^- 


^M ^ C. EARSLEY. Among the promi- 
Jj^^ nent and influential business men of 
the famous Park Regions of Minnesota is the 
gentleman wliose name heads this article, a 
dealer in heavy and shelf hardwai'e in Her- 
man, Grant county, Minnesota. He is a 
native of New York State, born in Tioga 
county, June 8, 18-11, and is the son of Will- 
iam and Mary (Lynch) Earsley, natives, also, 
of the "Empire State." After their mar- 
riage the parents of our subject lived in their 
native State for two years, and then moved 
to Indiana, where they lived for seven years. 
At the e.xpii'ation of that time they moved 

to New York State, where they remained 
the rest of their lives. They were the 
parents of the following named children — • 
Ruth, Charles, Cyrus and A. C. 

Mr. Eaisley. the subject of this sketch, 
spent his younger days in the State of New 
York, where he completed his education at 
the age of twenty-one years. In the year 
1871 he came to Minnesota and located at 
Waverly, and from there i-emoved to Litch- 
field, Jlinnesota, where he remained for a 
• few months. At the expiration oftliat time 
he went to Hennan, Grant county. Min- 
nesota, and for the ne.xt two years was em- 
ployed as station agent in that i)lace. He 
then engaged in the general nierdianilising 
business in connection witii the luiid)er l)usi- 
ness, which he carried on I'oi- al)out tiii'ee 
years. Mv. Earsley then sold out iiis gen- 
eral merchandising business, and opened a 
hardware store in connection with his lumber 
yard, and has since carried on the same. He 
carries a full line of hardware and all classes 
of lumber. Before closing the sketcli of Mr. 
Earsley, special mention should be made of 
his war record. On the 1st day of August, 
18(i2, he enlisted in the One Hundred and 
Ninth New York Infantry, and served 
throughout the war. He enlisted at Cai'o- 
liue, New York, and was discharged at Wash- 
ington, D. C, in July, 1805. He was under 
Captain McAllister and participated in the 
following battles : Wilderness. Spottsylva- 
nia Court House, etc. He was througli 
Indiana, Illinois, Nelji-aska and Wy<(ming 
Territory. After his discharge lie returned 
to New York State, and from there came to 

Mr. Earsley was united in marriage on 
the 4th day of December, 1870, in Sai'dinia, 
New York, to Miss Ella Simons, arui this 
union has been blessed with the following 
nanied ciiildren — Jessie E., Maude E., Lesley, 
A. C, Ethel and Barrett. All of the chil- 
dren ai'e at home except Jessie and Maude, 



who are attending the Pillsbury Academy, 
at Owatonna, Steele county, Minnesota. 
The suliject f)!' this sketch lias held various 
oiiices ol' his residence village, including 
those of president of the village council, also 
a member of that l)ody, president of the 
school boanl, etc. He is chief of the fire 
department and post commander of the An- 
drew J. Hubbard Post, Number 115, Grand 
Army of the Republic. He is one of the 
active business men of the village, taking a 
prominent part in all matters whereby his 
town or county may derive benefit. He is 
one of the rejiresentative men of that region, 
and is an adherent to the principles of the 
republican ]>arty. His family are devoted 
memlters of the Ea])tist church. Mr. Ears- 
ley is a member of tiie Masonic fraternity. 

^LLIAM H. CROWE, a prominent 
and respected citizen of the village 
of Osakis, Douglas county, Minnesota, is en- 
gaged in the machinery business at that 
place. He is a native of Ohio, born in 
Columbus on the 15th of April, 1836, and is 
the son of William and Elizabeth (Loche) 
Crowe, natives of Virginia, both born near 
Richmond. The father of our subject was 
a miller b}' trade, and lived for many years 
in Ohio. He then removed to the State of 
Indiana. In 1857 he went to Dakota 
county, ]\Iinnesota, where he lived tlie re- 
mainder of his life. He died in 1858 at the 
age of fifty-eight years. The mother of our 
subject passed away in 1874 at the age of 
seventy-one years. They were devoted 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
of wliich the father was class leader for over 
twenty-live 3'ears. The_y were the parents 
of the following named children — Elnore, 
Lewis, Henreitte, liebecca, Edwin, William, 
Olliver, John and Elmer. 

Mr. Crowe, the subject of this article, re- 
ceived his education principally in Indiana, 

and finished in Dakota county, Minnesota. 
He acquired his knowledge more ])y his own 
efforts than anything else, and his school 
attendance'summeil up but little. June 3, 
1855, he landeil at Minnetonka, Minnesota. 
In 1857 he took a trip overland with an ox 
team to the Red River, for the purpose of lay- 
ingout a town site. He started from Hastings 
and went as far as the mouth of the Wild 
Rice river. In 1859 he returned to Indiana, 
where he remained one 3'ear. In the fall of 
18fiO he returned to Minnesota and worked 
in the pineries until June, 1861. On the 
20th of December, 1863, he enlisted in the 
Second Minnesota Cavalry, and served until 
December 4, 1865, wlien he jvas honorably 
discharged at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. 
After his discliarge Mr. Crowe went to 
Osakis, Douglas county, Minnesota, settled, 
and has since made it his home. He was 
one of the first settlers in the village, and in 
1867 he took a homestead in Gorden, now 
Leslie township, and continued to reside 
upon his fai'm for six years. After leaving 
the farm he removed to the village of Osakis 
and engaged in the wagon-making trade, 
which he has since followed. 

Mr. Crowe was married June 29, 1873, to 
Miss Oliva M. Haskines, a native of New 
York, and the daugliter of H. B. Haskines. 
She removed to Minnesota when three years 
old, and has since resided in that State. 
Mr. and Mrs. Ci'owe are the parents of the 
following nameil children — Alta L., Mabel 
E. and Byron L. Mr. Crowe held the offices 
of town clerk, surveyor, recoi-der of the 
village (twelve years), and director of the 
school district. He is a republican in poli- 
tics, and is at present one of the county 
commissioners of Douglas county. He is a 
member of the Masonic order, and is Master 
of the lodge at Osakis. He is one of tlie 
prominent citizens of the count\', and a 
man highly esteemed by all who know 



/^LARENCE J. FISHER, the subject 
'^y of tliis biograpliical sketch, is the 
efficient and accommodating station agent at 
Brcclcenridge, AVilkin county. Minnesota, 
and is also tlie agent tor the American Ex- 
press Company at that place. He is a na- 
tive of A'ermont, born in Kuthmd. TJutland 
county, on the 3d day of June, 184'J, and is 
tlie son of James W. and Susan A. (Sliippee) 
Fisiier, natives of Vermont. Tiie father is 
now in the l)nikiing inspector's office in St. 
Paul, Minnesota, and in his early days was 
a merchant in Rutland, Vermont. In 1856 
he removed to Illinois, and settled in 
Lawrence. McIIenry county. He there en- 
gaged in general merchandising, and in 1866 
or 1867 rt'inoved to Minnesota, setth'ng at 
St. Paul, lie was engaged in purchasing- 
fur for the fur house of Adolph Bostowich, 
ofCiiicago, New York and London. He 
later bought fur in tiie Xorthwestern Teri'i- 
tory, and was located at Fort Qu' Api)elle, 
doing an extensive trade with the Indians. 
Tlie father and mother of our subject were 
the parents of the following named children 
— Edward AY., telegraph operator at Wahpe- 
ton, Dakota Territory; Jessie, and Clarence, 
the subject of this article. 

Clarence Fisher spent his boyhood in his 
native State, and early in life removed with 
his parents to Illinois, where he attended the 
academy at Lawrence. lie then attended 
E.astman's College for a time, and then en- 
tered the Byrant & Stratton Business Col- 
lege. In 1867 he graduated with high hon- 
ors from this institution. Prior to this he 
had tak(Mi a trip from Lawrence, Illinois, 
overland to Denver, Colorado. At Fre- 
mont. Nebraska, he met a. great many jieo- 
ple returning, and deciiled to do so liimseU'. 
He was on the road fi-om the '22il of May, 
166.^, until the .">th of June of the same year, 
and went as far as Black Llawk, Colorado, and 
there remained with his father, who was en- 
gaged in different branches of business. After 

remaining there a short time, he returned 
to the States and settled in Illinois, attend- 
ing the business college. After his gradua- 
tion he took a course in telegrajihy at the 
same college in Chicago, Illinois. He hn- 
ished his course at Oak Park, twelve miles 
from Chicago, on the Chicago A; North west- 
eiMi liailroad, remaining there three months. 

j He was sent to Nevada, Iowa, at the expira- 
tion of the time mentioned, where he was- 
employed as night opei'ator. He remained 
but a short time in that place, and was then 

[ employed as extra operator on the Wiscon- 
sin division of the Northwestern road, and 
worked at the following places : Juneau, 
Wisconsin; Minnesota Jimction, AYisconsin; 
A]i]Jeton, Wisconsin; Ci-ystal Lake, Illinois; 
Palestine, Illinois: and Bari'ington. Illinois. 

In 1S6U he movetl to St. Paul, Alinnesota, 
and took a rest of a month to regain his 
health, and was then enii)loved bv the 
Pacific it Atlantic Telegraph Company, and 
took charge of the Merchant's Hotel tele- 
graph office in St. Paul, anil held the position 
one month. At the expiration of that time 
he removed to Smith Lake, on the old St. 
Paul ct Pacific Railroail, and remained si.x 
months as agent ami operator. At the expi- 
ration of the time mentioned he removed to 
Delano, Minnesota, where he was assistant 
agent and operator for a short time. Mr. 

i Fisher next went to Dassel, where he re- 
mained six weeks. In 1S70 he settled at 
Benson, ^Minnesota, where he remained un- 
til August, and then went to Alorris, remain- 
ing several years as agent. On the first day 
of October. 1882, he went to ISreck-enridge, 
Wilkin county. ^linnesota, and has since re- 
sided there, employed as station agent. He 
is also the agent for the American Express 

Air. Fisher was united in marriage on the 
11th day of January, 1888, to ]\ Flora 
Ilorton, a native of Gilbertsville, New York, 
and the daughter of C. II. Ilorton, a prom- 



inent merchant of tliat place. Mrs. Fisher 
is a woman of more than ordinary ability 
and education, and is possessed of a tine 
mnsical talent. Slie was engaged as a teacher 
of music foi' ii number of years, and is a lady 
liiglilv esteemeil by all who know her. Mr. 
Fisher owns property in the village of Mor- 
ris, and has sixteen men under his eonti'ol in 
Breckeni'idge, Minnesota. While in Morris 
he held the office of town clerk for three 
years, also county surveyor for two years, 
and ])resident of the village council two 
years. While in Breckenridge he has held 
the office of a member of the village coun- 
cil. He is are]iublican and a member of the 
United Workmen, also chief of the Good 
•Templars lodge located at tliat ])lace. He is 
a representative man of the village, and, 
although not an old settler, holds the i-espect 
and esteem of all his acquaintances, and is 
recognized as one of the most capable and 
thorough business men in the western part of 
the State. 


'^y ful business man of Polk county, 
Minnesota, is engaged in the jewelry busi- 
ness in the village of Fisher. He is a native 
of Germany, l)orn in Wurtemberg, on the 
26th day of December, ISGO, and is the son 
of Jacob and Catharine (Burr) Widenhoefer, 
also natives of that kingdom. In 1873 the 
parents emigrated to the United States and 
located in Beaver Bay, Minnesota, where 
they remained five years. In 1S78 they re- 
moved to Polk county, Minnesota, where 
they took a homestead in the fall of 1879. 
They have since resided in Polk county, and 
are among the successful farmers in the 
township in which they live. They are the 
parents of the following named children — 
liarbara, Carl, William, Mary, (Christian, 
Willielmine and Jacoi). 

Christian Widenhoefer, the subject of this 
biographical review, remained in his native 
land, attending the excellent common 
schools of that country until he had attained 
the age of thirteen years. At that period 
in life he emigrated to the United States 
with his parents, and after landing removed 
to the State of Minnesota. The parents 
settled in Beaver Bay, Minnesota, and our 
subject removed to the State of Michigan, 
where he entered an apprenticeship to the 
jeweler's trade. After learning his trade, Mr. 
Widenhoefer removed to Minnesota, and 
located in Polk county. He settled on his 
father's farm, and for one year assisted his 
father. In 1881 the subject of this article 
removed to the village of Fisher, Polk county, 
Minnesota, where he located and established 
his present jewelry store. He carries a full 
line of goods, watches, clocks, jewelry, etc., 
and has the most complete stock of goods 
in the village. He is doing a good business, 
both in repairing and sale, and is prepared 
to do all lines of woi'k in the trade promptly 
and satisfactorily. 

Mr. Widenhoefer was united in marriage 
on the lf>th day of April, 1SS5, in the village 
of Fisher, to Miss Minnie Kadi, the daughter 
of Frederick and Anna Radi, natives of 
northern Germany. In political matters 
the subject of this article is a stanch re- 
])ublican, and takes an active interest in all 
local matters. He is one of the esteemed 
business men of the village, and is ]iromi- 
nentlv identified with all movements calcu- 
lated to benefit either town or county. 

^IaMUEL TORGERSON, the superin- 
'^O tendent of public schools for Clay 
county, Minnesota, deserves special mention 
as one of the county officials. He is a native 
of AVisconsin, born June IS, 1856, in St. 
Lawrence township, Waupaca county, of 



that State. II is parents were Samuel and 
Martha (Ilennanson) Torgerson, both na- 
tives of Norway. They came to America 
in 1850 and settled in Waupaca county, 
where they prei'mptcd ]2ti acres of land. 
During the war for tlie laiion the father 
enlisted in Company I of the Forty-fourth 
Wisconsin A'olunteers. He served about a 
year, was taken sick and tlnaily lionorably 
disciiargod. lie came iionie and died 
within tiiree weeks, leaving a wife and four 
children — Samuel, llei'inan, Emma and 
Gunder. The mother still remains upon the 
old homestead in Wisconsin. 

Our subject, Samuel. si)ent his younger 
days in school in Wisconsin. At the age of 
sixteen years he engaged as a clerk in a 
country store, where he remained for a year 
and a half and then spent a winter in the 
high schools of Waupaca. Upon leav- 
ing there he taught in the schools at 
Xew Hope, Portage county, AYisconsin, for 
a year. He next entered the normal .school 
at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, taking a year's 
course. From the normal he spent another 
year at teaching, and then, as if endowed 
with a new ambition and tliirst for knowl- 
edge, he entered the Stale I' ni versify of 
Wisconsin, where he renuiined for two years; 
he then put in another year at teaching, in 
order to meet expenses, and at the same time 
develo[) his mind in a symmetrical manner. 
He then went into the normal school, and 
after a short time graduated from the ele- 
mentary course. His next work was that of 
principal of the North Side high .schools at 
New London, Wisconsin, which position he 
filled until the autumn of 1SS2, when he 
came to Ada, Norman county, Minnesota. 
He spent some time in looking over the ter- 
ritory before selecting a location, but finally 
drop])ed into Mooi-head. where he accepted 
a place in the law ofhce of (). ilosness. He 
read law here for a few months and then 
taught school a vear at Kraaties. Clav couiitv. 

The same year, 1 8S4-, he was elected to liis 
present honorable position. which he has filled 
with unusual satisfaction to his constituents. 

Our subject was married, in 1887, to Miss 
Jannie E. Anderson, daughter of James An- 
derson, of Fullerton, Ontario, Canada. 

Politically he affiliates with the demo- 
cratic party, and believes in tariH' re- 
form. Socially no one stands higher than 
our subject. Heisa worthy memlier of the 
Kniglits of Pythias, and l)oth himself and 
wife are exemplary members of the Presby- 
terian church. 

As one reviews th(> early life and careful 
training, both in and out of school, that 
their worthy official had, one can readily 
understand how it has come about that he 
is so well suited for the office he has so long 
and fitlv lield. 


>^LeNRY WILLIAM BARKER, tlie propri- 
-IrdL etor of the Barker House, in Elbow 
Lake, and also enffajred in the driii;' busi- 
ness in that village in Grant county, ^linne- 
sota, is a native of Wisconsin. He was born 
at Leon, Monroe county, Wisconsin, March 
IS, 1860, and is the son of Pobertand Emily 
(Kamseyj Parkei-, natives of England. The 
parents came to the United States in about 
1853, and settled in Janesville, Wisconsin, 
where they remained for a short time, going 
from there to Leon, Wisconsin, where they 
resided for about thirteen years. The father 
\vas a cabinet-maker b}' trade, and followed 
his trade while in Janesville, but in Leon he 
followed farming for about thirteen years, 
and then went to Sparta and engaged in 
farming at Big Creek, Monroe county. He 
then moved to West Salem, La Crosse county, 
Wisconsin, where he followed farming for 
eight years. He next removed to Pai'kers 
Prairie, Otter Tail county, Minnesota, in 
isSl, where he also farmed. Tw(j vears 



later, in 1SS3. he was accidentally sliot by a 
companion wiiile out Imnting. This sad 
event took place on the fitii of September, 
1883. Tiie mother is still living at the age 
of si.xty-Hve years. Tliey are members in 
good standing of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and were the parents of nine children, 
eight of whom are now living — John R., 
Peter li., Eobert, Louisa R., Emily R., 
Florence (deceased), Henry W., Frederick 
A., and Francis C. 

Mr. Barker, the subject of this biographi- 
cal sketch, spent his school da^'s principally 
in AVest Salem. La Crosse county, Wiscon- 
sin, and after attending scliool until he was 
twenty years of age, receiving a practical 
business education, went to Parker's Prairie, 
Otter Tail county, Minnesota. He there 
en^aired in school teaching for a short time. 
He then engaged as a civil engineer, and 
assisted in surveying the Fergus Falls & 
Black Hills Railroad, from Wadena west- 
ward to Wahpeton, Dakota Territory. 
After this Mr. Barker followed railroad con- 
tractinu- on the Fargo & Southwestern 
for one season. Fie then returned home on 
a visit, intending to return to Dakota. But 
owing: to the sickness and death of Mr. Henrv 
Aslen, a prominent merchant and a land- 
mark of Parker's Prairie, Minnesota, he was 
induced to take charge of his (Mr. Aslen's") 
general mei'chandise. He also succeeded 
ilr. Aslen as postmaster of Parker's Prairie. 
He remained in charge until the estate of Mr. 
Aslen was pi'obated and the administratrix 
was appointed. Mr. Barker then entered the 
profession of medicine, under Dr. A. E. 
Henderson, a graduate of the Chicago 
College of Homoeopathy. After remaining 
with l^r. Henderson for two or- three years 
Mr. Barker started in the drug business for 
himself at Osakis, Douglas county, Minne- 
sota, but in a few months was burned out. 
In February. 1887, he removed to Elbow 
Lake, (irant countv, Minnesota, and estab- 

lished his present di'ug lousiness. On the 
1-tth of May, ISSS, Air. P>arker opened the 
hotel which bears his name, and which he 
has since successfullv operated. 

Mr. Barker was married in November, 
18S4-, to Frances M. AIcMahan. She. by a 
former marriage, was the mother of one 
child. Pearl. Mrs. Barker is a native of 
Wisconsin, and is the daughter of a promi- 
nent merchant in Parker's Prairie. Minnesota. 
Mr. Barker is one of the representative men 
of his town and county, highly esteemed by 
all who know him, and a man of the utmost 
integrity and honor. He takes an active 
interest in all public and educational matters, 
anil is an adherent to the pi'inciples of the 
I'ejniblican party. 

#EORGE L. TREAT, attorney and 
counselor-at-law, resides in Alexan- 
dria, Minnesota. He is a native of Rock 
county, Wisconsin, born at Janesville on 
November 1-1, 1S59. He is the son of 
Hiram F. and Pamelia (Sims) Treat, who 
were natives of New York. His father was 
for many years engaged in the clothing busi- 
ness in Boonville, New York, coming to 
Wisconsin in 1857 or 18.58. He remained 
in that city until 18G1, when he came to the 
old town of St. Anthony, Minnesota. He 
died October 2. 1876. The mother is now 
a resi<lent of Afton, Wisconsin. There were 
two children in the father's family — George 
L. and Stella II., who is now Mrs. George 
C. Antisdel, of Afton, Wisconsin. 

Attorney Treat received an academic edu- 
cation in the Janesville Classical Academy 
and the Beliot (Wisconsin) College. After 
finishing his course at school he accepted a 
position in a drug store in Alexandria, Min- 
nesota, to which place he came in 1880. For 
one year he was in a drug store at Fargo, 
Dakota, but returned to Alexandria and 



commenced the study of law with George 
II. lle\'nolds, Escj. Later he entered the 
office of Hon. Knute Nelson and George II. 
Reynolds. Later he went to Ann Arbor, 
Michif^an, where he took one year's course 
in the law school of the TTniversity of Mich- 
igan, lie returned to Alexandria in 1883 
and became a partner in the firm of Nelson, 
Reynolds ct Treat He d mtinued a member 
of that firm until June, 188*!, when IMi". 
Reyiu)l(ls witlidi'cw and moved to St. Cloud. 
The firm then became Nelson, Treat »fe Gun- 
dei'son, which i)artnei'ship was continued 
until January 1, 18S8. On this date Mr. 
Treat withdrew from the firm and has since 
been engaged in practice alone. He was 
admitted to practice in the disti'ict court of 
Douglas county in 1883. lie enjoys a large 
and lucrative practice, his business not being 
conliued to Ins own county, but business 
comes to him from C)tter Tail, Pope and 
Grant counties. He conducts a general line 
of business, also makes farm loans, and buys 
and sells real estate in the city and country. 
He was married January 1, 1884, to Miss 
Carrie E. Nellis, of Silver Lake. Iowa, 
daughter of Alexander Nellis. One child 
has blessed this union — Alice E. Mr. Treat 
is a stanch I'epuhlican in politics, and he 
and his wife are |)r'ominent members of the 
Congregational ciuu-ch. For some time he 
has hekl the office of d(>acon and su])erin- 
tendent of the Congregational Sabbath- 
school. Ml'. Treat is one of the rising law- 
yers of the Northwest, and stands at the 
head of his profession in Douglas county. 


jlaOREN L. BREWSTER, one of the 
J^Msi most prominent and influential mem- 
bers of the farminji' communitv of the fa- 
mous Park Regions of Minnesota, is a resident 
of section 8, Elbow Lake township, Grant 
countv. lie is a native of Maine, born in 

Franklin county, on the 25th day of Septem- 
ber, 184-1-. and is the son of Stephen and 
Mai-y flilanchard) Prewster, natives of 
Maine. They came "West in 1857, and set- 
tled in Wisconsin, where they remained 
three years, engaged in farming. They then, 
in ISfiO, removed to Winona county, ]\Iinne- 
sota, where they have since i-emained. They 
are the pai-ents of the following named chil- 
dren — Lonm, Nancy. Maria, James, Morris. 
Malissa, Stephen, Mary, Myrtha, Eugene 
and Delia. 

Loren L. Prewster, the subject of this 
biograi)liical sketch, received his eai'lier edu- 
cation in Maine and Wisconsin, and [inished 
in Minnesota. He remained in his native 
State until thirteen years okl. at which period 
in life he removed to Fond du Lac county, 
Wisconsin, with his jiarents, anil remained 
in that county until he was sixteen years of 
age, and then came with the family to 
Winona county, Minnesota, where he com- 
pleted his schooling. After completing his 
schooling he engaged in farming, and re- 
mained in that vocation for thirteen 3'ears. 
In 1878 Mr. Prewster moved from Winona 
county to Grant county, ^[innesota. Ikjuic- 
steaded a tract of land and at once began 
improvenu^nts, building a house, barn and 
other oiit-i)uililings, breaking the soil and 
generally improving the place. In about 
nine montlis he moved his I'aiuily to the new 
home, and has since resided there. He now 
owns a well-improved farm of 540 acres, and 
it is one of the most valuable farms in the 
county. He is an extensive farmer and 
stock-raiser, handling all grades of cattle, 
devoting a great deal of his attention to 
Short-horn cattle anil Norman and Prussian 

Mr. Prewster was married on the 4th of 
July, 1865, to Miss Mary Cram, and this 
union has been blessed with the following 
named children — Byron, La Porset, Ellion, 
Horace, ilabel, Herbert ami Effie E. The 



wife of our subject is a native of New 
JIaini)siiire and was educated in Afinnesota, 
to where slie moved with hei" parents in 1S56. 
Her fatiier was ;i fanner, and died in 1872. 
Iler mother resides in Wasliington Territory. 
Mr. Brewster is a republican in his ]M)litical 
affiliations, and takes an active interest in 
all local and ])ul)lic affairs. lie has held tlie 
office of school treasurer, and. while in 
Winona county, supervisor, constable, school 
director, etc. He, with his family, belongs to 
the Methodist church, and he holds the office 
of steward of that organization. He is a 
man of the strictest honor and integrity, 
hi<ihlv esteemed bv all who know him. 

T^ARCUS J. DUNLAP, of Ada, is 
_M'^Jr\^ one of the earliest settlei's in that 
village, having made a settlement there June 
20, 1ST6. He came to take charge of the 
depot, a station having just 'been located at 
that jioiiit, and the railroad company moved 
one of those small houses, such as ai'e used 
to shelter the hand cars, from the neighbor- 
liootl of AVild Rice river, and set it up at 
Ada as the depot. The little caliin was 
liai'dly 1<L\12 feet in area, and did ducy for 
telegrai)h office, ticket office, freight Avare- 
house, and everything pertaining to the busi- 
ness. At that time there was not a house 
within two and a half miles of the station, 
and Mr. Dunlap and the other parties who 
came with him had to travel that distance 
for their meals and lodging until they had 
built a house, where they kept "bachelor's 
hall." \\\ the following fall, when the rail- 
I'oail ceased running on account of the freez- 
ing of tiie river, which prevented the steam- 
boats reaching Fisher's Landing to meet the 
train, iVFr. Dunlap I'eturned to his family, who 
were living in Iowa, where he spent the 
winter. In the spring he returned to Ada, 
and again assumed charge of the railroad 

business. The little shanty in which they 
were lodged the previous summer lasted 
them through the year 187Y, but in that fall 
the company erected larger and more com- 
modious quarters. Mr. Dunlap continued 
in charge of the depot at Ada for some five 
years, and then resigned. For about twelve 
montlis he was not actively engaged in any 
business, but in 1882 was offered and ac- 
cepted the position of book-keeper in the 
bank of Ada, where he i-emained for two 
years, at the expiration of which he entered 
m the same capacity the mercantile house 
of Thorpe Brothers & Company, where he 
has since been employed. When he first 
came to the county, in ISTG, he took up a 
claim a mile west of the village, which land 
he improved and developed gradually, until 
it is one of the best in the town. He still 
owns and carries it on. 

Mr. Duidap is a New Englander by birth 
and education, having first seen the light 
July 11, 1838, in Chittenden county, Ver- 
mont, and was reared and educated among 
the Green Mountains of his native State. 
He is the son of Thadeus E. Dunlap. In the 
common schools of his New Englanvl home 
ami in its excellent academies he received 
the elements of a most excellent education, 
which he has much supplemented by the 
study of current topics in later years. He 
remained at home until 1859, when he started 
for the West, and located at Lake Forest, 
Lake county, Illinois, where for two years 
and a half he was employed as a clerk in a 
store. But it was at that time he possessed 
a desire to enter the railroad service, so, in 
the fall of 18(j2, he went to Evanston, Illi- 
nois, and took charge, as telegraph operator 
and station agent, of the l)usin(;ss of the 
Chicago ife Milwaukee Railroad at that point. 
He remained in that connection for two 
years, and then returned to his boyhood's 
home and there spent the winter. The next 
five or six years he spent in vai'ious parts of 



the West, but was not permanently located 
;uiv\vliere. In 1871, however, he settled in 
Phiinlield. Bremer county, Iowa, where he 
was engaged in clerical woi'k until coming 
to Ada in 1876. 

Mr. Dunlap has been an active and ])rom- 
inent citizen of the town, county and village. 
lie has served several terms as treasurer, 
l)()tli of the township and of Ada, and holds 
that office in the former at the present 
time, lie was united in marriage in June, 
18ti'J, with l\Iiss Ellen Pike, of Kenosha, 
Wisconsin, who was taken from him by the 
dark angel, death, May 9, 1884, leaving no 



BENNlS DWYER, the efficient city 
marshal of East Grand Forks, Polk 
county, Minnesota, is a native of Ohio. He 
was born in Green county, Ohio, January 
10, 18.58, and is the son of Timothy and 
Bridget (Kavanaugh) Dwyer, natives of Ire- 
land. They emigrated to this coiiiitiy in 
1850. and settled in Ohio. They had a 
family of the following claldren — John S., 
whose biography will be found in another 
part of this AufUM, and Dennis, the sul)ject 
of this sketch. 

Mr. Dwyer, of whom this article treats, 
remained at home with his parents, attend- 
ino- school and working on the home farm 
until he had I'eached the age of nineteen 
years. At that period in life he commenced 
for himself, and for the next four yeai*s was 
engaged in buying grain. He was on the 
road, and part of the time was working on 
commission and the remainder for himself. 
In the spi'ing of 1882 he went to Minnesota 
with his brother, John, and has been con- 
nected in business with him ever since. The 
brothers settled in Grand Forks, Dakota 
Territory, and took a tract of government 
land in Walsh countv and resided there, en- 

gaged in general farming and stock-raising. 
After leaving their farms, the}' removed to 
East Grand Foi'ks and engaged in their pres- 
ent business. Soon after settling in East 
Grand Forks they engaged in the machinery 
business, and have since followed the same in 
connection with their livery. Mr. Dwyer, tiie 
subject of this memoir, held the office of 
deputy sheriff of Polk county, and did 
efficient work. He captured some of the 
worst criminals in the Northwest and was in 
man\' thrilling adventures. He effected the 
capture of the notorious murderer, Ilutchins, 
anil ai'i'csled him when he (Iliitcliinsi hold 
the bloody knife with which he had mur- 
dered his victim in his hand. He c-^jtured 
four professional safe-blowers, and also ar- 
rested many other criminals of the woi'st 
class. Mr. Dwyer assisted in the execution 
of Miller, the murderer of the Snell family. 
He is one of the best known officers in the 
Red River Valley, and greatly dreaded by all 
criminals. lie is a member of the Secret 
Sei'vice Agenc\', and a man of strict business 
integrity. He now hokis the office of city 
marshal, and has held the same since 1887. 


IIITOBIAS O. SAUBY, an industrious and 
lirifty farmer of Grant county, Min- 
nesota, is a resident of section 10, Pomine de 
Terre township, where he is engaged in gen- 
eral farming and stock-raising. He is a lui- 
tive of AVisconsin, born in AVinchester, AVin- 
nebago county, on the 7th of April, 1857, 
and is the son of Ole O. and Berget (Tor- 
grimson) Sauby, natives of Norway. They 
were farmers by occupation. The mother 
died in 1884. The father of our subject is 
still living and is engaged in the vocation of 
farming. They were the parents of the fol- 
lowing named children — Tona, Ole, Gunnel, 
Anna, Kittcl, John. Tobias, Maggie, James, 



Easton, and one who died in infancy. Kittel, 
Maggie and James are deceased. 

The subject of this article received his ed- 
ucation in Wisconsin, leaving school .at the 
age of eighteen years. Until he Iwul readied 
the age of twent}^ years, he remained at 
home, assisting on the home farm. He then 
started in life for himself, and after working 
at various occupations in the home neighbor- 
hood in "Wisconsin, heremoved to Minnesota. 
In 1878 he settled in Grant county, and 
bought 164 acres in Pomme de Terre town- 
ship on section 10, where lie has since 
remained, engaged successfully in general 
farming and stock-raising. 

Mr. Sauby was united in marriage on the 
17th of December, 1879, to Miss Turena 
Nelson, and the union has been blessed with 
the following named children^ — ^Norman, 
Charlie and Nellie. Mrs. Sauby passed away 
from the scenes of earth in Febi'uary, 1885. 
Mr. Sauby was married the second time to 
Miss Ida Olson, October l-t, 1887. Mrs. 
Sauby is a native of Winchester, Wisconsin, 
and is the motiier of one child, Wilfred. 
^Ir. Sauby, with his family, belongs to the 
Lutheran cliurch. He has held various 
offices in the town and county, including 
those of assessor, chairman of the board 
of supervisors, constable, deputy treasurer, 
etc. He is one of the representative men of 
his township and takes an active interest in 
all public and local matters. He is a stanch 
adhei-ent to the principles of the republican 



©ENNIS F. McGRATH, a leading 
hardware merchant, and one of the 
oldest settlers in that section of the lied 
River and Park Regions, is engaged in the 
mercantile business in the village of Barnes- 
ville, Cla}' count}', Minnesota. He is a na- 
tive of Wisconsin, born in Appleton, in 1858, 

and is the son of Dennis and Ellen (Cash- 
man) McGrath, natives of Ireland. 

Mr. McGrath, the subject of this article, 
spent his school days in Wisconsin and Min- 
nesota. At the age of eight 3'ears he I'e- 
moved with his parents to Steele county, 
Minnesota, where he lived until 1879. In 
the spring of tiuit year he moved to Clay 
county, Minnesota, and took a claim on sec- 
tion 18 of Barnesville townsiii]), and located 
upon it. That season he cultivated 100 
acres of land, and remained upon the farm, 
engaged in agricultural ]iursuits, until 1881. 
At that time he entered the lumber business, 
in partnership with P. E. Thompson, whose 
biography will be found in another part of 
this Album. They continued in trade until 
September, 1886, and during that time did an 
extensive lumber business. In the year 1885 
they put on the market 116 carloads of lum- 
ber, eight carloads of lime, ten of brick and 
two of windows, doors, paints, etc., ant! tlid 
$40,000 worth of business. Tliey took con- 
tracts and worked on the installment plan. 
In September, 1886, after leaving the lumber 
business, Mr. McGrath pui-chased the hard- 
ware stock of Mr. Frankivoz, and has since 
been engaged in that occupation. He now 
carries a full line of heavy and shelf hard- 
ware, and the stock is valued at S10,OuO. In 
connection with his mercantile business Mr. 
McGrath does an extensive insurance busi- 
ness, representing five different companies, 
and is also engaged in the produce exchange 
industry, buying and shipping oats, barley, 
potatoes, etc. 

Mr. McGrath was married in January, 
1885, to Miss Anna McGinn, a resident of 
Owatonna, Steele county, iMinnesota. Mr. 
McGrath is one of the leading men of 
Barnesville, and has held the offices of pres- 
ident of the village board for two years, 
town supervisor, justice of the peace, etc. 
He owns several residences in the village, 
and is extensively interested in village real 



estate. He is a member of the democratic 
party and one of tlie representative men of 
Clav county, lie is a member of tlie Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd-Fellows and an active 
worker in the interests of the locality in 
which he lives. 

— -^I 


^EORGE H. PALMER. Among the 

'^ii leading and prominent attorneys of 
Polk county, Minnesota, and iuHuential citi- 
zens of the city of Crookston, is the gentle- 
man whose name heads this sketch. He is a 
native of FayetteviUe, Onondaga county, 
New York, the son of Jerome B. and Eliza- 
beth (Hubbard) Palmer, and first saw the 
light Christmas day, December 25, 185i. He 
is a direct descendant, in the eighth genera- 
tion, of the jnire Puritan stock that planted 

"On the wild New England shore" 
the banner of religious and civil liberty, 
the germ of this great republic, his great 
ancestor, Walter Palmer, having come from 
Nottinghamshire, the home of his forefathers 
for centuries, to the New World, in 1629, 
landing at what is now Oharlestown, ilassa- 
chusetts. That gentleman, one of a party 
of one hundred families under the guidance 
of a llev. Mr. Hooker, soon after jiushed 
westward, under the umbrageous shades of 
"Forest primeval, where the murmuring pines and 

Bearded with moss, and iu garments green, indistinct 

in the twilight. 
Stand like Druids of old, " 

and formed a little settlement at Stonington, 
Connecticut, fleeing alike from the i-eligious 
intolerance at home and the unsocial aus- 
terity of the colony at Plymouth. 

The subject of our memoir, like so many 
of the roving children of New England, is 
the member of a family association which 
was organized in 1881, under the name of 
the Palmer Association, and which contains 

over 3,000 members, all lineal descendants of 
Walter Palmer. The branch of which our 
subject is a mendjer were settlers in the 
Empire State many years ago, and there, in 
the county of his nativity, he was reared 
upon his father's farm. Laboring during 
the genial summer months in assisting to 
carry on the homestead, he attended school 
and academy each winter, laying the foun- 
dation of an excellent etlucation, which he 
has since much enriched by study and re- 
flection. At the age of fourteen he entered 
the Aladison Universitv, at Cazenovia, New 
York. He there remained one year. 

In March, 1870, when but little more than 
fifteen years old, an age when most people 
are but bovs, Mr. Palmer, with the ruii'ged 
independence born of his New England par- 
entage, and which is so characteristic of the 
man, (juitted the paternal roof and came to 
the Great West, and since that time has de- 
pended entirely upon his own resources, 
carving out his own pleasant fortune un- 
aided and b}" his own energies. Settling at 
Fiiribault, Eice county, Minnesota, he en- 
gaged in clerical em})loyment until the year 
1875, when he entered the office of Hon. J. 
H. Case, of that city, one of the leading 
forensic lights of that portion of the State, 
and there, besides attending to the office 
business of that gentleman, gave his mind to 
the study of Plackstone, Coke, Littleton, 
and a host of other luminaries of the legal 
profession, and whose writings are the text- 
books of the well-grounded lawyer. Seven 
j'Cars he remained with his employer, but 
after his admission to the bar in May, 
1882, started for the Northwest and the 
Eed Kiver Valley. Arriving in Polk 
county, Minnesota, in July, he located at 
St. Ililaire. The railroad was not finished 
to that point as yet nor the village laid out, 
so, assisting in the latter labor, he then went 
to Crookston, from which point he hauled the 
lumber with which he erected one of the first 



buildings in tiie innv village. He there 
openeil a law ami real estate oflRce and com- 
menced business for himself, and ra])itlly 
srew into favor in that new settlement. Hav- 
in": strict inteffritv of character and the <rift of 
a natural suavity of mannei-, lie built uj) (|uite 
a business, but a year later he carried his 
abilities to Crookston, where he has found a 
widei' field for his talents. Establishing a 
law, collection and real estate office in the 
seat of justice of Polk county, he soon 
brought himself into prominence in his pro- 
fession, and lias now one of the best practices 
in the city. Devotmg a fair share of his 
attention to cases before the Interior Depart- 
ment of the United kStates, where he is 
admitted to practice, a large share of the 
land cases of this locality' find their way into 
his hands, anil many of his efforts for the 
good of his clients bear a proper fruition. 
In the spi'ingof 1885 Mr. Palmer was elected 
city justice of Crookston, and held that office 
for two years. He has always been a stanch 
and uncompromising supporter of the prin- 
ciples of the republican party, and a zealous 
advocate of the claims of that organization 
to office. During the jiresidential campaign 
of 1SS8 he acted as secretary to the Polk 
county republican clubs, and mainh' through 
his efforts organized some seventeen other 
political clubs throughout the count}'. 
Frank and outspoken, an able debater and 
orator, his well-known honesty of purpose 
has made him a leader in this locality, while 
his liabits of reading and reflection make 
him no easy opponent in forensic encounters. 
Mr. Palmer was united in marriage. May 
25, 1881, with Ella L. Patterson, the 
daughter of Oren P. Williams, one of the 
earliest settlei's of Faribault. P>ut their 
happy home was soon broken up, the death 
angel summoning away the beloved wife 
June 1, 1885, leaving one child, Luther J., 
but eighteen months old at the time, to a 
bereaved father's care. 

RISON T. ADAMS, assistant in the 
hardware store of Wells Brothers, in 
Herman, Grant count}', Minnesota, is a na- 
tive of Iowa, born in Manchester, on the 
6th day of February, 1865, and is a son 
of Ira and Grace (Esterbrook) Adams, 
natives of Vermont and New York, respect- 
ively. The father and mother of our sub- 
ject were married in Dubuque, Iowa, and 
after their marriage located at Manchester, 
Iowa, where he (the father) engaged in the 
hardware business. He was educated af 
Rochester, New York. They are the par- 
ents of the following named children — Clara, 
Alfred, Orison. Elmer, Mary, Sarah, Grace 
and Bessie. Clara is the wife of a Mr. Fer- 
guson, located at Watei-loo, Iowa. 

The subject of this biographical review 
passed his younger days in his native State, 
attending the excellent common schools of 
the region in which he lived. He com]ileted 
his education at Cornell College at Mount 
A'ernon, Iowa, in the winter of 1882 and 
1883. After com])leting his education, he 
secured a clerkship in a grocery store in 
Manchester. In two or three months he 
went to Minneapolis, Minnesota, and for the 
next eighteen months clerked in the hard- 
ware store of Miller Brothers. He then 
secured employment in a cornice shop, and 
after working a short time returned to Man- 
chester and Avas employed on the Manches- 
ter Democrat as book-keeper and local writer. 
In a few months he went to Elma, Iowa, 
and found employment in a tin shop. He 
remained in the tinner's trade for about 
three months and then removed to St. Paul, 
Minnesota. He there engaged as news agent 
on the Milwaukee railroad and soon after- 
ward entered a cornice shop, where he 
worked for several months. At the expira- 
tion of this time he went on the road for 
C. H. Shaffer, as news agent, and after some 
few months at this occupation went to 
Grant county, Minnesota. He located at 



Herman, where he engaged in the hardware 
and t'urniture business. He then engaged 
as clerk in tlio hardware store of Wells 
Brothers, wliifh ])osition he has since tilled. 
Mr. Adams was united in marriage on the 
17th of September. 1S88, to Miss Addie 
Dexter. The parents of ^Irs. Adams had 
the following namtni children — Addie, Ger- 
tie, Carrie, Ernest, Fred. Grace, May and 
Harry. Mrs. Adams is a native of Maine 
and was educated iu Nova Scotia. Slie 
went to Minneapolis with her parents in 
188-i-. Her father is foreman of a saw mill 
in Minneapolis. Mr. Adams is one of the 
risine: men of his residence village and is 
highly esteemed by all who bear his ac- 
quaintance. He is an active member of 
Herman Lodge, No. 3, Independent Order of 
(lOod Tem])lars. 

. COOK, the efficient 
postmaster at Breckenridge, AVilkin 
county, Minnesota, anil editor and proprie- 
tor of the Breckenridge Echo, is also an 
attorney-at law. He was born in the beauti- 
ful city of Boston, Massachusetts, on the 3d 
day of Novembei', 185fi, and is a son of 
Major W. W. and Frances A. (Walker) Cook, 
also natives of that city. The father was in 
excellent circumstances, and lived a retired 
life iu his native State. He was promi- 
nently connected with the democratic party 
of Massachusetts, and in 1868 was a candi- 
date for State senator, and, although he ran 
ahead of his ticket, was defeated. He was 
an able and popular man, and received a 
commission of major in the Fifth New 
Hampshire Regiment. He enlisted at the 
commencement of the war, and was wounded 
at the battle of Fair Oaks, on account of 
which he was dischai'ged foi' disability. His 
father's gi'andfatlier was Isaac Cook, a 
manufacturer of the celebrated Isaac Cook 

ale, at Roxbury, Massachusetts. They were 
of English descent. The parents of our 
subject's mother were Samuel A. and Cecelia 
(Thayerj Walker, natives of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. Samuel Walker was a real estate 
merchant at that place, and a strong temper- 
ance man, both in ]irinci|il(^ and pi'actice. 
They were of English descent. 

George F. Cook, the subjecit of this bio- 
graphical review, spent his younger days 
attenditi"- the academv at Derrv, New 
IIam])shii'e, and in 1869 attended the public 
school in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1873 
he commenced attending the Allen lioarding 
School in West Newton, Massachusetts, and 
in 187;") started in at Harvard College, from 
which he graduated in 187i). For the next 
two years he attended the Boston Law 
School, and in 1881 paid a visit to the Old 
World, where he remained two years, visit- 
ing all places of note or interest on the Con- 
tinent and in England. During his sojourn 
in the Old World he attended the Universi- 
ties at Leipsic and llei(leli)erg, Gern)any. 
Mr. Cook retui-ned to the Fnited States m 
1SS3, and at once removed to l\finuca])olis, 
iMimu'sota, where he remained a siiort time, 
and then went to Breckenridge, Wilkin 
county, Minnesota, where he has since re- 
sided. During the winter of 188-1 he tauglit 
school, and in the month of August of that 
year started the WUliin County (lazeite. In 
1885 he was appointed postmaster, and at 
once sold his ])aper and devoted himself to 
his duties as such. In the following year 
1886, he I'e-purchased his old paper, anti, 
after two years, again sold out and estab- 
lished his present paper, the Echo. During 
the fall of 1888 he was candidate for the 
office of county auditor, and went down 
with all the other candidates on the demo- 
cratic ticket. 

Mr. Cook was united in marriage in Dres- 
den, Germany, in 1883, to Miss Bertha Kum- 
mei", a Russian ladv, and the daughter of 



General Julius Kuuimer, the general super- 
intendent of the musical director}' at St. 
Petersburg. He also held the rank of gen- 
eral in the Russian arm\^ Mrs. Cook is a 
graduate of the high schools in her native 
land, and a lady of wide learning and intel- 
ligence. Mr. Cook is a man of extensive 
travel, and is one of the representative and 
prominent citizens of tlie Red River Valley. 
He is a tiemocrat in politics, and has held the 
offices of school director, justice of the peace, 
etc. A man of intelligence and distinction, 
he deserves the credit and esteem whicli he 
receives. He is recognized as one of the 
most able and trenchant editorial writers in 
the western part of the State. 

— •«— 

OBERT NISBET. Prominent among 
IL'qV the most successful and thrifty farm- 
ers in tlie western part of Polk county, 
Minnesota, is Robert Nisbet, whose name 
heads tliis article, a resident of section 80, 
Nisbet township. He is one of the old set- 
tlers, and as he has always taken an active 
])art in all matters of a public nature, his 
name is jtrominently identitied with the his- 
tory of the growth and development of this 

Mr. Xisbet was bora in Lanark county, 
Canada, on the 19th of August, 1853, and is 
a son of William and Christina (Lindsay) 
Nisbet. The jiarents, who were natives of 
Scotland, settled in Canada at an early day 
and were pioneers there, enduring many 
hardships and privations during pioneer 
times. Robert Nisbet spent his boyhood and 
received his education in Canada. He re- 
mained on the farm with his parents until 
the spring of 1870, when he learned the 
blacksmith's trade and followetl that voca- 
tion for six months. At the exj)ii"ition of 
that time, not liking the business, he (piit it 
and went to Winona countv, Minnesota. 

For three N'ears he worked for fai'mers in the 
summer, and in the winters worketl at lum- 
bering in the woods of Wisconsin. Then, in 
the spring of 187-1, he came to Polk county, 
Minnesota, and bought " half-breed script," 
with which he purchased his land, therebj' 
savins: SI 00. He has since made this his 
home and now owns 300 acres of excellent 
land, a good share of which is under a high 
state of cultivation; 130 acres of the land is 
located on section 30, Nisbet township, and 
the balance on section 25, Iluntsville. He 
has one of the finest residences in tlie west- 
ern part of Polk county, and, as a whole, his 
building improvements are a credit to the 
locality in which they are situated. Mr. 
Nisbet carries on farming extensively, and 
also, during the proper season, runs a steam 
thresher. At other seasons of the year he 
uses his engine to grind feed for himself and 

Mr. Nisbet was married lirst on the 8th of 
May, 1878, in Canada, to Margaret Furger- 
son, a daughter of Duncan and Violet (Mc- 
Dougalj Furgerson. The marriage was 
blessed with one child, named Robert D., 
and the mother died when the child was 
about two weeks old. Mr. Nisbet sent the 
child to its grandparents in Canada, where it 
still remains. 

Mr. Nisbet's second marriage occurred 
March 12, 1888, when he was wedded to Miss 
Christina Geddes, a daughter of Daniel and 
Agnes (Furgerson) Gedtles. 


J^X form the subject of the following 
sketch, is the present clerk of court for Clay 
county, Minnesota, and is one of the most 
|)rominent citizens of Moorhead. 

He was born September 20, 1841, in Nor- 
way ; his parents were Pasmus and Annie 
(Ilalverson) Rasmusson, iti>th natives of Nor- 



way. They left the home of their nativity 
in 1866 and sailed for America, landing at 
Quebec, Canada, and from that section came 
to Winona, Minnesota, where they engaged 
in farnjing until 1874. This family liad six 
children — Halvor, Signe (Mrs. Kice), Annie 
(Mrs. Dr. K. IIoegh\ and Kriste (Mrs. (). 0. 

The parents were devoted and exemplary 
members of the common church of all who 
come to this country from Norway, the 

Halvor, our suliject, was reared to farm 
labor and received a good common school 
training in his native country. He came to 
America in 1861, witii the view of making 
this land his future home. lie settled in 
Kilbourric City, Wisconsin, where he engaged 
in teacliing for a year and then entered the 
general store of J. E. Dixon »k Son, where 
he remained two years, which Ijrought him 
to 1863. lie then went to Winona, Minne- 
sota, and there engaged in buying grain for 
Charles Millei'. He remaineil there ami in 
the adjoining counties for ten years, buying 
grain botii for iiimself and others. In 1876 
he commenced operating a hotel at Winona. 
He followed that for two years, and, in 1878, 
came to Moorhead and ran a] hotel, called 
" Winona," for two 3'ears more. He was then 
elected city clerk, holding that office for two 
j^ears, at which time he resigned to fill the 
office of clerk of court, to which he had 
been elected in the fall of 1884. lie was re- 
elected for tiu; foui- years" term in the fall of 
1888, so that he still holds that position. As 
other evidence that he has been looked upon 
by pnl)lic o])inion as ;i man in every jiartic- 
ular qualified for business duties, it may be 
noted that he has been a member of the 
board of education for the past five years, as 
he was a member of the school board when 
in Houston, Minnesota, also president of the 
council of thiit j)lace for a term of two years. 
He has identified himself with everv enter- 

prise calculated to benefit either the city or 
surrounding country, and may justly be 
termed one of the leading citizens of the 
locality in which he lives. 

Mr. Rasmusson was married in his native 
land, March 24, 1861, to Miss Live Johnson, 
daughter of John Hanson. \\y this union 
the husband and wife have been blessed by 
the advent of six intelligent children, three 
sons and three daughters — John K., Annie 
M., Julia P., liutlolpii T., Frederick C. P. 
and Nora H. 

The ]iarents and all theii- children belong 
to the i^utheran church, to which they not 
only subscribe, but also practice the faith as 
set fortii Ijy that I'eligious denomination. 

Politically Mr. Rasmusson is a democrat, 
and belongs to the oi'der of ( )ild-Fellows 
and Druids. 



irJL farr 

S P. HANSON, a prominent 
farmer and stock-raiser, who lives on 
section 24, Elbow i^ake township, is one of 
the leading citizens of Grant county. Minne- 
sota. He is an old settler, and as he has al- 
ways taken an active and prominent part in 
all matters of a public nature, and held a 
number of the most important county offices, 
his name is indissolubly connected with the 
official histoi'v of his county. 

Mr. ilans(jn was born in Di'animen. Nor- 
way, on the 16th of September, 1844. and is 
a son of Torger Hanson. His fathei' was a 
farmer, wiio came to the United States in 
1851, and settled in Adams county, Wiscon- 
sin, where he still lives. Toi'ger Hanson ;ind 
wife were the jjarents of four ciiililren, who 
are still living — Anna D., Helena, Henrietta 
and Hans P. 
I When Hans P. Hanson was seven years 
of age he came to the United States with 
his father. As a consequence he received 
his education in Adams county, Wisconsin, 



where his father settled. He attended 
school until he was fifteen or sixteen years 
of age and then beji'an the realities of life on 
his own account. During the mnter seasons 
he worked in tlie woods, and in the summer 
months was employed on the river. In the 
meantime the Civil War had broken out, and, 
on the 11th day of March, 1S65, our subject 
enlisted in Company D, Fifty-second AVis- 
consin Volunteer Infantrj^. It should be 
stated that he enlisted under the name of 
Peter Hanson, as he was known by tliat 
name at that time. His service was princi- 
pally in scouting and skirmishing with 
the bushwhackers, and he was finally 
honorably discharged on the 28th of July, 
1865, at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. After 
his discharge he at once returned to Wis- 
consin, and was again eraploj'ed in the 
pineries and on the river. In 1871 he came 
to Grant county, Minnesota, and took a 
homestead on section 24, Elbow Lake town- 
ship, where he now lives. He was one of 
the earliest settlers in the township, and he 
at once became recognized as one of the 
leading citizens in that portion of the county. 
He has held a great many local offices, such 
as school treasurer, school clerk, etc.. be- 
sides many of the more important positions. 
He has been a inemljer of the board 
of county commissioners ever since the 
county was organized, except six years, and 
for a number of years was chairman of 
that body. He also for four years held the 
office of sheriff of Grant county, and in 
every official position in which he has been 
placed he has always discharged the duties 
with credit to himself and satisfaction to all 
concerned. He was also the first postmaster 
in Elbow Lake township, and held the office 
for four or five years, and when the United 
States census was taken in ISSO, he was the 
enumerator for the north half of the county. 
It will tinis be seen that he has figured very 
prominently in the official history of the 

locality in which he lives. A man of the 
strictest integrity, he is held in the highest 
esteem, both as a neighbor and an exemplary 

Mr. Hanson was married on the Sth of 
October, 1871, to Miss Tinney Johnson, a 
native of Norwaj', who came to the United 
States in 186G. Their marriage has been 
blessed with the following children — Emma 
B., Josephena, Thomas R., Henrietta, Henry, 
Frank and Stena. Besides these, one child 
died in infancy. The family are exemplary 
members of the Lutheran church. 

In political matters Mr. Hanson is a re- 
publican. He is an honored member of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, holding a 
membership in the Herman Post. 

^^EORGE F. MORISSE is a member of 
^^T the firm of Baumbach & Morisse, 
druffffists, of Alexandria, Minnesota. He is 
a native of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he 
was born on the 25th of November, 1851, 
and is the son of Frederick and Gesina(Alft) 
Morisse, who were natives of Oldenburg, 

His father came to America in 1849, 
settling in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In that 
city for a number of years he was engaged 
in the grocery business, from which he has 
now retired. In the father's family there 
were six children — George F., Herman D., 
Mary, now Mrs. Jensen ; Charles, Edward 
and Emil. 

George F., the subject of our sketch, re- 
ceived his education in the city of Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin. He was also a clerk in 
his father's store. After a time, iiowever, he 
chano-ed his business and turned his atten- 
tion to clerking in a drug store. In 1878 he 
came to Douglas county, Minnesota, where 
he clerked for Lewis \S: Ball in the drug 
business. He was with this firm for a num- 


Ri-.n Rni:R VAi.i.i-.y Axn 

ber of years. In 1881 he engaged in the 
drug business with C. Hanson, under the 
firm name of Hanson it Morisse. Tliis 
business partnership was continued for 
eighteen montlis, at which time Mr. Eaum- 
bach bought out Mr. Hanson's part of the 
business, since which time the firm has been 
Baumbacii it lyforisse. Mr. Morisse is one 
of the ohlest druggists in Alexandria. He 
has interested himself thoroughly in the 
advancement of the business interests of his 
adopted city and has proven himself worth}' 
of tlie respect of his fellow-townsmen. In 
politics Mr. Morisse is a rei)ublican; he is 
also a member of the I. O. (). F.and Knights 
of Honor, and is one of the leading citizens 
in the place. In 1S77 he was married to 
Miss Etta Schoyan, of Columbus, Wisconsin, 
daugiiter of (leorge Schoyan. They have 
had four sons — Carl, Raymond, Frederick 
and George. 



NRY F. SANFORD. Prominent 
imong the rejiresentative men of the 
famous Park Regions of Minnesota is tiie 
gentleman whose name heatls this biogra])h- 
ical memoir, a farmer ant! also the county 
auditor of Grant county, Minnesota. He 
resides on section 17, San ford t(nviiship. 
Mr. Sanford is a native of Pennsylvania, 
born in Pleasantville, June "J, 184."), and is a 
son of Ebenezer C. and I.urana (Beai'dsley) 
Sanford, natives of Nenv York State. They 
were married in Pennsylvania. They settled 
at Pleasantville soon after their marriage 
and resided there until 1S.")1. They then 
sold their home and moved to Crawford 
county, Pennsylvania, where they settled on 
a farm, remaining seven years. In 1858 
they removed to Mercer county. Illinois, liv- 
ing there until the father's death in 1862. 
The father was a farmer through life with 
the exception of the time of their i-esidence 

in Pleasantville, Pennsylvania, where his 
attention was taken up with tiie stoneware 
trade. The mother is still living with her 
son Jasper in Grant county, Minnesota, and 
is at the advanced age of seventy years. 
There were the following children in the 
family — Sylvia, now Mrs. Delamater, of 
Pennsylvania: Asenath, the wife of Mr. 
Eaton, of Herman, Grant county, Minne- 
sota ; Jasper N., a farmer of Grant county, 
Minnesota; and Henry F. The family are 
members of the Methodist church. 

Mr. Sanford, the subject of this article, 
spent his youngei' days in the school-rooms 
of his native State and at the age of thirteen 
years moved with his parents to Illinois, 
where he left school at the age of si.xteen. 
After leaving the school-room he came 
to St. Paul, Minnesota, in September, 
1863, and eidisted in "Hatches' Battalion," 
serving until June, 1866, when he was 
honorably discharged at Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota. After his dischai'ge he came to 
Grant county, Minnesota, and worked by the 
month until 1868, when he returned to Illi- 
nois and worked in the Rock Island Arsenal 
for two months. Keturning to Minnesota, 
Mr. Sand ford homesteaded a tract of land 
on section 17, Sanford township. Grant 
county, Minnesota, where he has since c(m- 
tinued to operate, carrying on general farm- 
in"- anil stiick-raisinfj. He was the first 
settler in SanfortI townshi]), and took an 
active part in the organization of the town- 
ship. Tli(> township derived its name from 
Mr. Sanfoid. and he has always i)een an 
enthusiastic participant in all movements 
wherebv tiie "-enci-al welfai'c niav be en- 

Mr. Sanford was united in niairiage No- 
vember 11, 1877, to Miss Cordelia ('. Cald- 
well, and this union has been blessed with 
one child — Sylvia. Mrs. Sanford is a native 
of Ohio, and was reared and educated in 
Wisconsin. "Mr. Sanford is a republican in 



his political affiliations. lie is a member of 
the Graml Ai-my of tlie Republic, Andrew 
J. Hubbard Post, No. 115, at Herman. He 
is one of the representative citizens of bis 
townshiji and county and has held various 
local otlices, including assessor, town clerk, 
justice of the peace for ten years, first presi- 
dent of tlie village council of Elbow Lake. 
He was elected to the ottice of count}' aud- 
itor in 1873, serving until March, 1878, and 
was again elected to tlie office in the fall of 
1886, and re-elected in November, 1888. He 
has discharged the duties devolving upon 
that res])onsil)le jtosilion with satisfaction to 
all parties concerned, and is justly regarded 
as one of the most efficient and capable offi- 
cials in the western part of the State. 

I^HARLES A. BROWN, the present in- 
x^>^ cuTiibent of the office of deputy siieriff 
of Polk county, Minnesota, is a resident 
of the city of East Grand Forks. He is a 
native of the State of New York, born in 
Clinton county, May 13, 1844, and is the son 
of William and Jane (Gray) Brown, natives 
of Scotland and France, respectively. The 
father of our subject was a Scottish peer, 
but wiio latei- emigrated to the United 
States. The parents had a famil^y of nine 

Charles A. Brown, of whom this sketch 
treats, I'emained in his native county until 
1853, when he removed with his parents to 
St. Croix county, Wisconsin, where his father 
took a farm. Our sul)jeot attended school 
and worked on the farm until the 19th of 
April, lSt)4. At tliat time he enlisted in 
the Thirty-seventh Regiment, Wisconsin 
Infantry ((Company F), First Brigade, First 
Division, Ninth Corps. lie was honorably 
(liscliargetl in Washington, D. C, on tlie 
27th of July, 18(15. He was in a number of 
battles and skirmishes, including Harrison's 

Creek, Virginia, June 17 and 18, 1864; 
Petersburg and explosion of mine, July 30, 
1864; Yellow House Station, Virginia, Au- 
gust 19 and 21, 1864; Weldon railroad, Au- 
gust 25, 1864; Pegram Farm, September 30 
and October 2, 1864; Hatches' Run, October 
27, 1864; Fort Stedman, Virginia, March 
25, 1865; and capture of Petersburg 
(Fort Mahone), Virginia, April 2, 1865. 
After he was mustered out, he re- 
turned iiome and soon moved to St. Paul, 
whei'e he attended the Commercial C'ollege 
and again returned home. In the fall of 
1866 he went to New York and spent 
that wiiiter traveling in different parts of 
the State. The next summer he returned 
home, and in the summer of 1868 went to 
Irving, Marshall county, Kansas, where he 
was engaged in the grocery business for one 
year. In 1869 he again returned home and 
for the next ten years was traveling in dif- 
ferent parts of the world. In 1879 or 1880 
he removed to Minnesota and settled in East 
Grand Forks, Polk county, where he filed on 
a soldier's claim of 160 acres on section 12, 
Sullivan township. He remained upon his 
farm for seven years, imjn-oving it both 
in cultivation and buildings. During that 
time he lived in the city in the winters and 
in the summers remained upon his farm. He 
was also engaged in the contracting and 
building business, and was one of the sub- 
stantial farmers of the township. In 1886 
he was appointed deputy sheriff, and at once 
removed to the city, where he gave his un- 
divided attention to his official duties. 

Mr Brown was mariied on the 19th day 
of October, 1877, to Miss Minnie Aldrich, 
the daughter of Pascal and Martha (Hans- 
berger) Aldrich, natives of Ohio and Ken- 
tucky, respectively. i\Ir. Brown is one of 
the esteemed and pi'oniineiit citizens of East 
Grand Forks, and is a man of extensive 
travel. In political matters he is a repub- 



M NTON L. STUDLIEN, an enterprising 
Af-"^ and respected fanner of Land town- 
sliip, (ifant county. Minnesota, is one of tlie 
oldest settlers of his townslii]). He is a na- 
tive of Norway, born in Christian Stift, June 
8, 1850, and is tiie son of Lavs (). and Anna 
(Olson) Studlien, natives also of the king- 
dom of Norway. They came to Quebec, 
Canada, in 1S(>7, and moved from there to 
Dane county, Wisconsin, where they engaged 
in farming for four years. In 1871 they 
moved to Grant county, Minnesota. The 
father died in 18S-t. The mother is living 
in Lar.d townshi]) with iierdaughter. There 
was a family of nine children, all of whom 
are still living — Ole M., John O., Martin, 
Anton L.. IMartha, Mary, Olora C, Ole and 

Anton L. Studlien, tiie suljject of this 
biogi'apiiical sketch, spent his early boyhood 
days in the excellent common schools of his 
native land, early imbibing tliose principles 
of thrift, industiy and frugality which so 
distinguish the nationality from which he 
springs. Leaving school at the age of seven- 
teen he came to the United States with his 
parents, and when he was twentj'-one came 
with his ])arentsto Grant county, Minnesota. 
At that time, in 1871, he took a homestead 
on section 12, Land township, but sold the 
claim before proving up. About two years 
later he bought 160 acres on section 22 of 
the same townsiiip, to which he has since 
added 120 acres, so that his ])resent farm 
consists of 280 acres. He has since lived 
there, making good building im[)rovements 
and developing a valuable farm. 

Mr. Studlien was maiTied January 24, 
1883, to Miss Caroline Peterson, and tiiis 
union has been blessed with three children — 
Adolph, Leonai'd and Victoria, who died at 
the age of eight months, ilrs. Studlien is a 
native of Sweden, educated in Iowa and 
Minnesota. Her father is still living, but the 
mother is dead. The subject of this article 

is one of the representative men of the 
county and has held various offices in his 
town, including those of school treasurer for 
twelve years, town clerk for two j'ears, super- 
visor for a number of years, township treas- 
urer for ten years, etc. In political matters 
he affiliates with the republican party. He, 
with his family, belongs to the Norwegian 
Lutheran church, of which organization he 
is a deacon. Being one of the oldest settlers, 
he has been prominently identified with the 
growth and development of the locality, and 
his name is indissolubly associated with the 
official history of his townshipand county. 

J^ L. NORIN, M. D., one of the leading 
jtP^ physicians of the village of Ada, and 
the official doctor of Norman county, was 
born in the kingdom of Sweden, August 16, 
1858, and is the son of J. Norin and ^Nfi-s. A. 
Norin. He was reared in the land of his 
bii'th and there received the elements of a 
good education. At the age of seventeen he 
crossed the ocean to the New World and 
located at Council Bluffs, Iowa, where, for 
the first six months, he attended school to 
learn the English language. At the expira- 
tion of that time he took charge of the gas 
works of the State Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 
located in that city, where he remained some 
two or three years. Tiie succeeding two 
years were spent in attendance upon the 
high school of the same city, in j)ui-swit of 
etlucation, and at the end of that tiuic went 
to New York City and entered Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical College, and comjjleted a 
course of study. During his vacation, not to 
be idle, and foi' the futherance of his knowl- 
edge of the healiu"' art. entered as an assist- 
ant the Brooklyn Small-pox Hospital, where 
he remained some three months. Finishing 
his second course in the fii'st mention(!d col- 
lege, he went to Tainora, Nebraska, where 



he was with his brother in the mercantile 
trade for a year and a half, at the end of 
which he opened a drug store for himself. 
After eighteen months Dr. Norin sold out 
there and removed to 8t. Paul, where he 
entered the medical college from which he 
was graduated in the spring of 18S6. He 
opened an office for the practice of his profes- 
sion in St. Paul, and remained there until the 
following September, when became to Ada, 
since which time he has been a i-esident of 
that village, and in the enjoyment of a most 
excellent and increasing practice. His suc- 
cess in baffling disease and death has made 
him a marked man in the profession, and he 
is rapidly taking a front rank among his 
medical confreres. His popularity in social 
circles is (iuly second to the interest he 
excites in the sick-room, and he is recognized 
as one of the leading citizens of the village. 
In 1887 he was appointed county ph3'sician 
and holds that official appointment at present 
(1888). Tlie doctor makes a sj)ecialty of 
treating chronic nasal catarrh, and he is prob- 
ably the most successful physician in this 
line in the Northwest. He gained profi- 
ciency in this specialty as a student of the 
noted Prof. Frank H. Bosworth, of New 
York City, N. Y., the professor of nose and 
throat diseases in Bellevue Hospital Medical 

Dr. Norin was married December 31, 
1888, to Miss Helen C. Schriver, of La 
Crosse, Wisconsin. She was an instrumental 
music teacher of that place, and a sister of 
Mrs. Peter llamstad. of Ada. 


l^RANK H. PETERSON, a prominent 
JP^ attorney-at-law in the famous Ked 
River and Park Pegions, is engaged in the 
practice of his jirofession in the thriving vil- 
lage of Barnesville, in Clay county, Minne- 
sota. He is a native of the State of Marv- 

land, born in Baltimore on the 16th day of 
Aufj'ust, 1859, and is the son of John and 
Alice Peterson, natives of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, respectively. 

Mr. Peterson, who is the subject of this 
article, remained in his native city and at- 
tended the common schools until he was 
thirteen years of age. He then entered the 
Western Maryland College at Westminster, 
]\[aryland, where he attended for five years 
and from which he was graduated with high 
honors in 1878. At the expiration of his 
collegiate course he entered Johns Hopkins 
University in Baltimore and took a special 
course in history and political economy, and 
after this entered the law department of the 
University of Maryland and graduated after 
two years, taking the degree of LL. B. The 
same year he took the academic degree of 
M. A. In May, 1881, he was admitted to 
the bar of his native State and for some time 
thereafter made teaching his profession, in the 
suburbs of Baltimore. In the month of July, 

1884, Mr. Peterson left his native State and 
traveled all through the West and North west, 
and finally located at Fergus Falls, Minnesota, 
where he was associated with Colonel Bax- 
ter, now Judge Baxter, of that place, and of 
whom a sketch will be found in another de- 
]xirtment of this Album, and remained with 
him until the latter went on the bench in 

1885. A short time after that Mr. Peterson 
formed a partnership with H. W. Childs, and 
in the spring of 1885 they opened a law and 
real estate office in Barnesville, Clay county, 
Minnesota. In January, 1887, Mr. Childs 
was appointed assistant attorney-general and 
removed to St. Paul, Minnesota. Mr. Peter- 
son has since carried on the business alone, 
and is one of the most successful and well- 
known attorneys in the Red River Valley. 

Mr. Peterson was united in marriage, 
in 1887, to Miss Mamie E. Baseman, a 
native of Baltimore, Maryland, and the 
daughter of John and A. E. Baseman. Mr. 



Peterson is engaged in a general law busi- 
ness, lie is well and favorably known in 
tlie Park Region and is a prominent nieniher 
of the legal fraternity in tiiat region. 

He is an adherent to tiie principles of the 
republican party and is an active participant 
in all niovenionts of a local nature. 




^ENRY T. BROWN, wlio is engaged 
in the manufacture and sale of cigars 
in the city of Crookston, TVIinnesota, is one of 
the largest wholesale and retail ilealers in 
those articles ami tobacco in this portion of 
the Valley. Jle is a native of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, born October SO, 1854, and is 
the son of Ciiarles and Augusta (Hanna) 
Brown. He received ids primary education 
in the excellent schools of his native city, 
than whicii there are none better, and at the 
age of twelve years came to Minnesota and 
settletl with his parents at Tied Wing, Good- 
hue county. While there he learned the 
trade of cigar-making and followed it as 
journeyman in different places until 188 1, 
when he embarked in that line of business 
for himself in the city of Stillwater, this 
State. He remained there but a short time, 
and in 1SS2 removed to AUiert Lea, where 
for nearly a year lie was employed as fore- 
man in the cigar factory of Thomas Warrick. 
Having by that time formed some liusiness 
acquaintances, in cojnpany with M. Lewis, 
under the firm name and style of Lewis it 
Brown, he o])ened a manufactory of cig.ars of 
their (iwn in that seat of justice of Freeborn 
county. This not i)roving u financial success, 
Mr. Brown left that city and sought emplov- 
ment at his trade wherever it offered. In 
this manner passed the time until August, 
1884, when became to the Red Kiver Val- 
ley, settled inCrookston, and established his 
present business. At that time he had but a 
capital of $82, but he had ambition. ener"v. 

and business tact, and possessed a thorough 
knowledge of his trade. He therefore rented 
a building, and, purchasing a small stock of 
leaf tobacco, set to work alone to build uj) a 
trade and make a living. 

The strict integrity that has niarke«l his 
business life in this community, the excel- 
lence of his goods and his accommodating 
and affable manner of conducting his busi- 
ness have rapidly In'ought him tin; reward of 
such virtues. His ti'ade has .so increased 
that now he gives em))loyment to si.x or 
seven hands besides his own, and in addition 
cari'ies a large stock of foi'eii;n and domestic 
goods of other manufacturers, chewing and 
smoking tobacco and smokers' sui)])lies. His 
customers are scattered over a wide expanse 
of territory, and the extent of iiis transac- 
tions increase with each year. He has done 
well since coming to this place and is already 
the owner of his neat residence. 

Being endowed with many social qualities, 
Mr. Brown is an honored niem!)er of both 
the Independent Order of OddFellows and 
the Sons of Hermann, and a prominent in- 
strumentalist in the Crookston cornet band. 
He was united in marriage. January 2<), 1888, 
with Miss Augusta X'oelkcM', of Ci'ookston, a 
native of Canada, and daughter of John 



■HARLES M. BREUER is the propri- 
etoi- of the Fergus (^ity Iron Woi'ks, 
Fergus Falls, Otter Tail county, Minnesota. 
He is the proprietor of the only first-class 
foundry and machine siiop in the city, and 
articles of his manufacture are steam en- 
gines, shapers, saw arbors, pulleys, hangers, 
shaftings, iron columns, balance wheels, 
sleigh shoes, sash weights, sinks, bridge- 
washers, circular saw mills, and, in fact, all 
kinds of articles that are made in first-class 
foundries and machine shops. He also manu- 



factures all kinds of boiler work, and makes 
a specialty of engines and mill repairing. 
His business house is located at Nos. 119, 
121 and 123 Wiiitford street, Fei'gus Falls, 
Minnesota. Mr. Breuer is a native of Prus- 
sia, and was born in the year 1842. He is 
tiie son of Henry and Theresia (Von Ems) 
Breuer. The parents were born in the city 
of Cologne, Prussia, and the father was a 
practical maciiinist. which business he car- 
I'ied on in his nativeland. The parents came 
to America in 1851 and settled at Chicago, 
Illinois, where the father workedathis trade 
until his ileath, which occurred in 1862. 
The mother is still living in the city of Chi- 
caiTo. In the father's familv there were 
fourteen children, four of whom died in 
Prussia and one in Anderson ville prison, 
where he was starved to death. Nine of the 
children are stdl living — Ann;i, Elizabeth, 
Charles M., Jacob, Adam, Theressia, Charles 
A., Elizabeth and Bertha. 

The subject of our sketch spent his 
younger days attending school in his native 
land, and after coming to America attended 
the educational institutions of Chicago for 
some time. Later he commenced work in 
the McCormick machine shops at Ciiicago, 
Illinois, and renuiined in these shoi)s until 
seventeen years of age. He completed his 
apprenticeshij) at this business in New York 
City, in 186-1. After this he worked as a 
journeyman machinist in different cities in 
the East and West until 1880, in which year 
lie came to Fergus Falls. Prior to his com- 
ing to Fergus Falls he had charge of a 
seeder factory in Horicon, Wisconsin, for 
two years. He completed his present large 
shops in Fergus Falls in 1881, having first 
built a smaller one on Lincoln avenue in 
isso. His first slio]) proving inadequate for 
iiis purpose and business, he sold it out and 
l)uilt the large one which he now occupies. 
He has done a very large business, employing 
duiMng a great part of the time twelve men. 

At present he has two men employed in his 
shop. He is indeed a master machinist, un- 
derstands his trade thoroughly, and can 
manufacture all kinds of machinery. 

Mr. Breuer was married in 1879 to Miss 
Augusta Kostman, a native of Prussia. 
They have had three adopted children — 
Annie, now Mrs. Ludwig ; Hattie, wiio died 
at ten years of age, and Emma. 

Mr. Breuer is a stanch republican, and is a 
.member of the Masonic fraternity, and is re- 
spected and confided in by his fellow towns- 
men. He has held several positions of 
trust in the city, and Avas for two terms 
alderman of the Second Ward. He lives in a 
line residence on Lakeside drive, a beautiful 
home, fitted up with all modern improve- 
ments. Mr. Breuer i.s one of the substan- 
tial and re))resentative men of p'ergus Falls. 


E)HIL1P H. CLAGUE, druggist, and one 
Aj^ of the ))rominent business men of Her- 
man, Gi'ant county, Minnesota, was born on 
the Isle ol ]\ran. July 9, 18-19. His parents 
were William ami Mar\^ (Campbell) Clague, 
who were also natives of the Isle of Man. 
William Clague and his first wife became 
the parents of the following children — John 
J., Mary A., Margaret E., Eliza, Philip, 
George W., Charlotte and Alfi'ed, who are 
now living, and William and Edward, who 
died ill infancy. Mary Camjibell Clague, 
the first wife, died in 1856 at the age of 
forty years. Soon after her death the father 
came with the children to the United 
States. In 1859 he returned to his native 
isle and married Miss Isabella Corrin, who 
still survives him. By this second marriage 
one child was born — Katharine S., who is 
now Mrs. Berlin, of Herman. William 
Clague was a blacksmith by trade originally, 
but during the latter part of his life was a 
local preacher, and for forty years a member 



of the Methodist Episcopal church. Upon 
coming to the United States he first settled 
at Ilastrngs, "Minnesota, hnt later removed 
to Castle Ttock. Minnesota, where he re- 
mained until the time of his death, which 
occurred December 23, 1884. he heing in iiis 
seventy-ninth j'ear. 

Philip II. C'lague, the subject of this l)io- 
graphical sketch, spent his earlier school- 
days at Castle Rock, Minnesota, and, in 
1870, at the age of nineteen years, linishcd 
his course at Carlton College, Northfield, 
Minnesota. After leaving college Mr. 
Clague engaged in the railroad business at 
Benson, Minnesota, where he was employed 
as clerk- in the office at that place. At the 
expiration of two years he was employed as 
agent at Kirkoven, Minnesota, which posi- 
tion he filleil for two vears. Mr. Clatrue 
then removed to II(!i-nian, Grant count}', 
Minnesota, where he was employed as agent 
for seven yeai's. At the expiration of that 
time he engaged in the hai'dware business, 
and at the end of three years sold out to 
Mr. Earsley, and then secured the post- 
mastership for four years. In the year 
1887 Mr. Clague engaged in the di'iig busi- 
ness, which he has since followed. In addi- 
tion to his drug trade he is a member of the 
machinery firm of Clague ife Prescott. lie 
carries a comjilete line of goods in his drug 
store, and the agricultural im])lement firm 
handles all manner of farm mac-hinery and 
implements of husbandry. 

Mr. Clague was united in mai'riage on tlie 
12th day of October, 187(!, in Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, to Miss Faustina E. Prescott, and 
this union has been blessed with two chil- 
dren — Winifred and Florence, both of 
wiiom ai'e now at home. Mrs. Clague is a 
native of Lowell, Massachusetts, and was 
educated in Minnesota. IShe is a dau<rhter 
of N, M. Prescott, a farmer of Grant county, 
Minnesota. She is one of eight children, 
and a member of the Methodist Episcopal 

church. Mr. Clague is one of the prominent 
business men of the county, and has lield the 

following offices : Member of the village 
council for one year, town clerk for many 
years, postmaster for four years, etc. lie 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and 
is an adherent to the princi])les of the re])ub- 
lican party. 

J^^ the thrifty and successful members 
of the farming community of the famous 
lied River and Park Regions, is the gentle- 
man whose name heads tliis article, a resi- 
dent of section 18, Fisher township, Polk 
county, ilinnesota. He is a native of Nor- 
way, born in Christian Stift on the ISth day 
of July, 1850, and is the son of Guilder A. 
and Tilda G. (Moy) ^Viulerson, also natives 
of that kingdom. Tlie mother of the sub- 
ject of this article died in Wisconsin. 

Mr. Anderson, the subject of this sketch, 
emigrated to the United States in 1867, with 
his parents, and settled at Primrose, Wiscon- 
sin. After his mother's death, Mr. Ander- 
son remained in Wisconsin with his father, 
brothers and sisters, for five j'ears. They 
then came to Stearns county, Minnesota, 
where they remained for a jieriod of ten 
years. In 1S7(' they again removed, this 
time settling in Polk county, Minnesota. 
After locating tliere, the father took a tract 
of railroad land, and Andrew (li. home- 
steaded 160 acres of excellent land on .sec- 
tion IS, FishcM' township, where he has since 
remained. He now owns a tine farm, all 
well under cultivation and with good build- 
ing improvements. He is engaged in a gen- 
eral farming and stock-raising business, and 
is one of the prominent and enterprising 
farmers of that locality. He springs from 
a race distinguished for their industry and 
economy and has made his way in the world 
onlv bv liis own elforts. 



Mr. Anderson was united in marriage in 
Stearns county, ^Finnesota, June 10, 1877, to 
Miss Mary Olson, a native of Norway, and 
the daughter of (Sunder Olsen and Gura 
(Tores Daughter) Londe, also natives of the 
kingdom of Norway. Mr. Anderson now 
owns 2S0 acres of tlie most desirable iatid 
in the townsliip. It lies on the banks of the 
Eed Lake river and is partially timber land. 
He is one of the active men of the town, 
takino- an active interest in all local matters 
and lias held the office of supervisor of his 
township for a number of years. 

j^YMAN B. EVERDELL, one of the 
^ leading attorneys of the Red lliver 
Yalley anil Park Regions, is engaged in the 
practice of his profession at the village of 
Breckenridge, Wilkin county, Minnesota, 
lie is a native of New York State, born in 
Oneida county, on the 2r)tli of June, 1842, 
and is the son of the Rev. Robert and Eliza- 
beth (Beecher) Everdell, natives of England 
and Vermont, respeetiveh'. The father's 
active days were spent in New York State, 
and in 1850 lie settled in Wisconsin, at 
Fond du Lac, where he is now living. He 
was a Con";reKational minister through act- 
ive life and a strong temperance man. He 
was a free-soiler and later a republican, and a 
man highly esteemed by all who knew him. 
The father and mother of our subject are 
both living in Fond du Lac, the former being 
eighty-nine years old and the latter seventy. 
They were the parents of the following liv- 
ing children — Lyman B., Luc}^, now Mrs. 
Root ; Emma D. and Eva C, the wife of a 
Mr. Bryant. The grandfather of our sub- 
ject was John Everdell, a native of England, 
and a prosperous agriculturist in that land, 
lie raised a family of fourteen children, 
some of whom are now living at a very old 
age. He himself lived to be nearlv one 

hundred years old, and all through life en- 
joyed the most robust healtii. The parents 
of the mother of tlie subject of this sketch 
were Lyman and Sarah (Stone) Beecher, 
natives of Connecticut. Lyman Beecher 
was educated for a jihysician, but followed 
farming in Yermont. lie accidentally met 
his death by falling fi-om a loatl of hay upon 
a pitchfork, which pierced his body. They 
both died in Vermont, and were among the 
early settlers of that State. 

Lyman B. Everdell, of wiiom this sketch 
treats, worked on a farm in Wisconsin and 
attended school until he had reached the age 
of seventeen years. In 1859 he commenced 
the profession of school teaching and con- 
tinued to follow the same for two years. In 
August, 1861, he enlisted in the First "Wis- 
consin Infantry, Company K, in General 
Ncgley's brigade, and was discharged April 
1, 1863, on account of a- wounil received at 
Perryville, Kentucky, on the 8th of Octo- 
ber, 1862. After his discharge he resumed 
his studies and commenced a course at Ripon 
College, Wisconsin, where he remained a 
sliort time, and in January, 1864, re-enlisted 
in the Thii-tieth Wisconsin, and was pro- 
moted, first to the position of first lieuten- 
ant, and afterward to captain of Company I, 
Thirty-fifth Regiment. In May, 1866. the 
regiment was sent to Brownsville, Texas, to 
watch the movements of Maximilian. Mr. 
Everdell ])articipated in the following named 
battles — Perryville, Kentucky ; Nashville, 
Tennessee ; Atchafalaya River, and took part 
in the capture of Spanish Fort, Alabama, 
and the capture of Mobile. When Mr. Ever- 
dell returned from the front the second time 
he again entered the college at Ripon, from 
which he graduated in 1868. He was ena- 
bled to do this by keeping up with his class 
while he was in the service. After his grad- 
uation he secured the position of princi|)alof 
the high school at Ripon, Wisconsin, also at 
Lodi and Boscobel, in the same State. In 



1870 lie established llii' !Ji|i()ii Free Prega, 
and, after six iiiontlis, sold out and removed 
to Berlin, Wisconsin, where he connected 
himself with the Journal at that place. 
After four years in Berlin he was engaged as 
a teacher in tiie commercial college at Fond 
du Lac, Wiscf)nsin, which position he filled 
with credit and satisfaction until ISTC.. In 
1870 he was admitted to the bar. and during 
the same year commenced his pi'ofessional 
life as an attorney -a t-law in Fond du Lac. 
Wisconsin. In 1870 J[r. Everdeli removed 
to Brc^ckenridge, Minnesota, where Ik; opened 
a hiw oitice and has since resided. In 1880 
he was elected to the office of county attor- 
ney, which he held until the loth of Octo- 
ber, 1882, when lie resigned. 1I(^ was ap- 
])ointed judge of probate b^y tiie governor, 
and held that position until January, 1SS3. 
He is extensivelv enmio:ed in the law busi- 
ness and also devotes special attention to the 
pui'chase and sale of land and village prop- 

Mr. Everdeli was married in ISCt! to Miss 
Annie Valentine, the daughter of Solomon 
and Sarah Valentine, and they are the par- 
ents of one child — Frank \. Mr. Everdeli 
is a democrat in his ]H)litiral affiliations, and 
is on(> of the leading citir.ens and attorneys 
in the northwestern pari of the State. He 
is a member (,f the Grand Army of the lie- 
pulilic, Sumner Post, .\o. -fO. He stands 
high in the couimunity in whicii he lives, 
both as an exemplary citizen 

and an aiile 

surgeon, of Moorhead, Minnesota, is a 
man wIkj staiuls high in his chosen ])rofes- 
sion and carries with him the respect of the 
entire community in which lie lives. 

He is a native of Conneautville, Pennsyl- 
vania, born October lit, 1858. His parents 
are George and Hannah (Rhodes) Davenport, 

natives of New York and Pennsylvania, re- 
spectively. The father is a farmer and lives 
on thesame farm he went on with his parents 
fifty years ago. His father was Cornelius 
and his mother Caroline (Snyder) Davenport, 
natives of Painted T'ost, New York. He 
was also a farmer and folhjwed it durinir his 
life. Hannah Rhodes' ])arents were Lewis 
and Eli/.ebeth (Fettei'mani Rhodes, natives 
of Mercer county, Pennsylvania, wiiere thev 
were engaged at rariuing. They had a large 
family. The father was a democrat, strong 
in his ])olitical life, and held many local 
offices. His father's name was Thom;is, a 
native of Westmoreland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, who followed farm life throughout 
his days. It should here be stated that the 
Davenport family were Methodists and the 
Rhodes family, generally speaking, Pi-esby- 
terians. George Davenport had a family of 
three sons, two of whom are now living. 
They were i-eare<l on their parents" farm 
and both obtained a high school education. 
When eighteen years of age, our subject 
traveled two years for a firm at Rochester, 
New York, after which jieriod he studied den- 
tistry with Dr. (ieorge McDonnell, of Con- 
neautville, Pennsylvania, and also with Dr. 
Marshall 11. Webb, of Lancaster, in that 
State. Hegraduated from the dental depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania in 
Philadelphia, in ISSO. He then came to 
Moorhead, Clay county, Minnesota, where he 
engaged in active practice. Our subject has 
been pi'csident of the Northwestern Dental 
Associa.tion, also is a member of the State 
Board of Dental Examiners. Dr. Davenjioi-t 
has an extensive pi'actice at various points 
in the Northwest. His office in Moorhead 
is situated on Front street, the tirst door 
west from the City Hall. 

Dr. Davenport was married in 1882 to 
Miss Ada L. AVebster, of Macpioketa, Iowa. 
She is the daughter of Bii'dsall and Frances 
(Smith) Webster. 



(')ni- sul)ject is a splendid dentist and also 
a fine business man; lie owns land in north- 
ern Dakota anil has a residence in Moor- 
head. He stan(is in the forefront among 
the dentists in the Northwest. 

Politically he is a republican, and he is an 
acceptal)le member of the Knights of Pythias 
lodge at Mooi'head. 

«--J^^"4^ , 

the present judge of the probate 
court of Polk county, Jlinnesota, and senior 
member of the firm of Christianson Pros., 
real estate dealers, loan and insurance 
agents, was born in the kingdom of Norway, 
April -fth, 1850, and is the son of Ole and 
Anna (N'idden) Christianson. When he was 
but eight years of age he was brougijt to the 
United States by his ]iarents, who settled in 
Allamakee county. Iowa, on a farm jnir- 
chased by his father. On the paternal aci-es 
he was reared, enjoying the excellent facili- 
ties for education presented by the schools of 
that district, and assisting in carrying on the 
farm. On attaining his majority in 1S71, he 
felt an inclination to investigate this portion 
of the country, and with that end in -view 
came to the Eed River Valley, in company 
with four or five others. On reacning 
Georgetown, Clay county, Minnesota, they 
there left their teams and after crossing the 
river, started on foot, northward, with the 
intention of onlv goinj;- a day oi- two's 
journey, but continued on until they reached 
Ft. Garr}', now Winni])eg, IVIanitoba. On 
their way back they took the Minnesota side 
of the river, and having but three oi' four 
days' supply of provisions, relying upon re- 
placing them on their route, and finding a 
deserted country, but four settlers within a 
distance of 200 miles, suffered for want of 
something to eat. The last three days their 
only food was one prairie chicken which they 

managed to kill, which was divided among 
the party. After a hard trij), which lasted 
three weeks, they reached Georgetown i)i a 
sorry condition and disgusted with the coun- 
trv and their experience there. At that time 
there was not a building \\\ Moorliead or 
Fargo, the few i)eo])le in that vicinity living 
in tents some four or live miles north of those 
l)oints, waiting to see where the coming rail- 
roa<l would cross the i-ivei', before taking 
their claims. 

The subject of this memoir returned to 
Allamakee county, Iowa, where he was em- 
ployed for about four years in general farm 
labor, or whatever he found to his advantage 
to do, but in the fall of 187."), wishing to 
supplement bis elementary education by a 
more extended course, he entered the Wau- 
kon Seminary, at the seat of justice of that 
county, and thoroughly availing himself of 
itsadvantages, remained thei'e for two years 
The two succeeding years he spent in teach- 
ing school in Iowa, but in ]8T!> removed to 
Lake Park, Pecker county, ]\Iinnesota, where 
he was employeil in the village school. He 
continued "to teach the young iilea how to 
shoot "in that locality until August, 1880, 
at which date he came to Polk county, and 
took a homestead in the town of Garfield, 
then just set off and organized as a civil 
township. In the fall of that year he also 
engaged in the wheat ti'ade at Peltrami, 
but made his home upon his farm, where he 
remained until 1882, serving as county com- 
missioner from that district, cliairman of the 
town l)oard, and assessor. 

Entering the ein})loy <jf the Pillsbiuy A: 
Hubliard Elevator Company, in August, 1882, 
Mr. Chi-istianson went to Alexandii;i, Doug- 
las county, where he had charge of the 
elevator belonging to that comi)any. In 
March, 1883, the corporation transferred him 
to Fargo, where he remained in superinten- 
dence of their business until August, 1885, 
when, dissolving his connection with the 



companj% he came to Crookston. In com- 
pany with H. L. Malgaard, he embarked in 
the loan, real estate and insurance business, 
and remained in partnership with that 
gentlemen until March, 1886, when Ole O. 
Christianson, the brother of our subject, 
purchased the interest of Mr. Malgaard, and 
the present llrm was formed. 

At the fall election of 1886, Mr. Christian- 
son was elected to the office of judge of the 
probate court, and perrormiiig the duties of 
that position to tlie eminent satisfaction of 
the people of thccommunity, was nominated 
by acclamation at tlie cc^nvention in 1888, 
and re-elected his own successor Ijy a hand- 
some majority. He has always been thor- 
oughly identified with the republican ])arty, 
and has been a stanch supporter of its 
principles. Socially he is an active and 
prominent member of Crookston lodge. No. 
78, A. O. U. W. 


^iljI^HOMAS B. GILLESBY, one of the 
yly ])rominent members of tlie farming- 
community of the Park Regions of Minne- 
sota, is a resident of seel ion 30, Logan town- 
ship. Grant county, ilinnesota. lie is a na- 
tive of Canada, born in Wentworth county 
on tlie 8th of Februaiw, 1847, and is the son 
of Bernard and Agnes (Hutchinson) Giilesby, 
natives of England. Tlie parents of our sub- 
ject came to this country at an early day and 
settled in Canada. They were the parents 
of the following ciiiidren — Thomas E., 
George, John, Margret, Robert, Mary 
Agnes, William Bernard, Albert Andrew, 
and Sarah A. King. Robert was drowned 
at the age of twenty-six years. 

The subject of this biographical sketch 
spent his school-days in his native land, and 
at the age of nineteen years left the school- 
room and for the next four years helped his 

father on the home farm. He then went to ' 
Michigan, where he remained ten months 
and then settled in Wisconsin, wliere he en- j 
gaged in farming for one month, ^[r. ' 
Giilesby then removed to Minneapolis, , 
Minnesota, where lie remained for three 1 
or four years. He then entered the em- ' 
ploy of the Northern Tacific Survey Com- 
pany, and during the suinuicr of 1872 
crossed the plains and the succeeding 
summer surveyed on the boundary line, 
returning to Minneapolis. After remaining 
in Minnea]iolis for a short time he returned 
to his native laud, remaining there for some ' 
little time visiting the scenes of his child- 
hood. Soon he returned to the Fnited 
States and again settled in Minneapolis, 
where he lived until 187!). In 1879 he went 
to Grant county, Minnesota, where he settled 
on his ]iresent place on section 30, Logan 
township. He at once commenced imjirove- 
ments, breaking the soil and putting up sub- 
stantial building improvements. He has 
since devoted his attention exclusively to 
general farming and stock-raising. 

Our subject is one of the representative men 
of his township, and takes an active intei'est 
in all public and educational matters lie 
lias held the offices of supervisor of his 
township and also I'oudmaster. He is a 
member of the Masonic order, and .stands 
hitrh in the communitv in which he lives, 
both as a neighbor and an exemplary 

Mr. Giilesby was married June 2."), 1874, 
to Miss Catharine McLaien, and tlieii' union 
has been blessed with six children, as follows 
— Emma, born March 17, 1875, died Septem- 
ber 19, 1878; Agnes E. and Maggie E. 
(twins), born April 28, 1877, died in August, 
1877; Robbie A., still living; Kate B., born 
February 9, 1886, died June 16, 1888; and 
AVilliam R., living. Mr. and Mrs. Giilesby 
are regular attendants of the Methodist 



John M. RUGGLES, register of deeds in 
^ ami for Ilichlaiid county, Nortli I)ai;ota, 
is one of tiie leading citizens of Walipeton. 
His biith took place in Orleans county. New 
Voi'lc, on the 15th day of March, 1847. 

Mr. Ruggles' parents were Darwin D. and 
Annie (Vallance) Ruggles, natives of New 
York State and England, respectively. In 
his younger days at Holley, Orleans county, 
New York, the father was engaged in the 
business of wagon-making and later in life 
became a pattern-maker. He made the first 
patterns of the Curtis iron beam plow at 
Albion, New York. He was of an inventive 
turn of mind and was one of the inventors of 
the gang and iron ])lows. In 1807 he 
removed to Michigan, where he is now en- 
gaged in the firm of Smith Brothers & 
liUi^iiies, (ietilers in earriaoces, wagons, sleighs 
and cutters. Darwin Ruggles' parents were 
Martin ami xVnnie (Janes) Ruggles, natives 
of Connecticut, the father being a millwright 
by trade. Martin's father was Timothy 
Ruggles, also a millwright, the latter being 
a son of Rev. Edward Ruggles. The family 
is of Englisli tlescent. 

The mother of the subject of our sketch 
was the daughter of John and Lucy (Lan- 
grage) Vallance, natives of England. They 
came to America in 1832 and settled at Hol- 
ley, Orleans county, New York, where Mr. 
\'allance followed the milling business. 

Darwin D. Ruggles had a family of two 
children — John il.. whose name appears at 
at the head of this sketch, and Edward J., a 
I'armei' in Richland county, North Dakota. 
The mother died at Hillsdale, Michigan, 
Janiuiry Ki, 1867. 

Tlu! subject of our sketch attended school 
in Orleans county. New York, and also 
in Noble and Elkhart counties, Indiana. 
His spare time out of school was occupied in 
work in his father's factory. "When but 
seventeen years of age, May 10, 1864, he en- 
listcil in Company B, One Hundred and 

Thirty-eighth Regiment, Indiana Volunteers. 
He enlisted for one hundred days, but re- 
mained for seven months, doing service on 
guard duty between Chattanooga and 
Nashville. After his service in the Union 
Army was completed he returned to his 
parents' home in Indiana, where he re- 
mained until he was twent}' years old. 
He then engaged as foreman for R. 
M. & W. S. Lockhart, of Waterloo 
city, in the lumber business, with his head- 
quarters at Ligonier, Noble county, Indiana. 
He continued with this company for three 
years, during which time he traveled exten- 
sively over the State, looking for and buying 
lumber and having under his constant super- 
vision a large force of men. July -f, 1873, 
Mr. Ruiigles came to Richland countv, North 
Dakota, being among the very first settlers 
in that region. He at once located on a 
quarter section of land two miles west of 
where the city of Wahpeton now stands. 
For live years he remained on the farm and 
gave his time and attention assiduously to 
its cultivation and improvement, in the 
meantime adding eighty acres more thereto. 

Ml'. Ruggles was wedded on June 14, 
1868, to Miss Rosa A. Arnold, a daughter of 
John P. and Martha B. Arnold, natives of 
Ohio. One daughter, Leora, blessed this 
union. Mrs. Ruifgles died in 1880. Mr. 
Ruggles' second marriage was to Miss Mary 
K. Mulvey, of Minneapolis, Minnesota, by 
whom he has had one child, Darwin Wahpe- 
ton, the first male baby born in the town of 

Mr. Ruggles is a leading citizen of his 
town and county and the confidence placed 
in him by liis friends and fellow-citizens has 
been signally manifested in various wa3's. 
He has been honored by being placed in 
many positions of trust, and in every case ' 
has proven a capable and trustworthy officer. 
In 1876 he was elected register of deeds for 
Richland county, which position he now 



holds. In 1881 he was elected clerk of the 
courts iitul for two 3'ears attended to the 
dnties of that otfico. For four years 1k> held 
acceptably the position of county superin- 
tendent of schools. He is a loyal republican 
and is a member of the ]\Iasonic fraternity 
and the G. A. K. lie iieli>cd in the organi- 
zation of the county and has at all times 
since been a warm supporter of everythin<>- 
that tended towai-d its prosperity and finan- 
cial develoimient. He lives in one of the 
best I'esidences in the city. 

^''^^HARLES A. DALEY is a dealer m 
boots and shoes and gents' furnishing 
goods in Fergus Falls, Otter Tail county, 
Minnesota. He is also president of the Ot- 
ter Tail flouring mills at Fergus Falls, and is 
oiu! of the dii'ectors of the Fergus Falls 
National 15anl<. His l)usiness house is located 
at No. 227 Lincoln avenue east. 

Ml'. Daley is a native; of Cortland county. 
New York, and was born on the 2d day of 
June, 1849 He is the son of Charles L. and 
Jane(Spence) Daley, the former a native of 
Connecticut and the latter of Vermont. The 
father was a miller by trade. He came to 
Sauk county, Wisconsin, in 1855, and there 
followed the mercantile business until 1870. 
He has e.vtensive landed property, and is now 
in the business of maUing loans, and since 
187i' be lias also been in the agricultural im- 
j)lemenl business. In the father's family 
there were two sons — Chai'les A., thesubject 
of our sketch, and Thomas R., now an ex- 
tensive stock-farmer in Wisconsin. Thefani- 
ilv have all been successful in business, anil 
have acquired considerable fortune. 

The subject of our sketch s])ent hisyounger 
days under the parental roof, and al lifteiMi 
years of age engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness. He first started in this line in 
Sauk county, Wisconsin, where he remained 

in active business for ten years. In the 
years 1867, '68 and '69, he was in Milwaukee, 
and from 1873 to 1880 was in business in 
Madison. In 1881 he came to Fergus Falls, 
^liiincsota.and having considerable means, he 
at once engaiied in business, building a large 
brick block twenty-five by ninety feet, where 
he opened his jiresent establishment and 
where he has since continued. He has one of 
the most extensive trades in Fergus Falls. 
Soon after coming to this city hi' built a fine 
dwelling on the corner of Uroadway and 
Lincoln avenues, in which he put all motlern 
improvements. This to-day is indeed a 
beautiful home. He has extensive landed 
interests in this county besides the cajjital 
he has invested in other business. He 
was one of the organizers of the Otter Tail 
County Mills, which were established in 
1886. This mill lias the largest capacity of 
any in the city. 

]\Ir. Daley was married in 1877 to Miss 
Jennie i\l. Phelps, the daughter of D. II. 
Phelps, of Sauk county, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Daley is acknowledged to lie (me of 
most jn'ogressive citizens of Fergus Falls. 
In all matters tending to the financial im- 
provement of the city in the way of estab- 
lishing new lines of business or iin])roving 
city property he has certainly no peer. He 
has been one of the most liljeral siqiporters in 
the way of helping to l)uild up |)ul>lic insti- 
tutions that is to be found in Otter Tail 
county. He has always contriiiuted largely 
toward the support of schools and churches. 
He became associated with the Bank of 
Fergus Falls in 1884. In politics Mr. Daley 
is a republican, and is now alderman of the 
Third Ward of Fergus Falls. He is a promi- 
nent incmberof the Masonic fraternity, and 
is a ineml)er of the Congregational society. 
In his mercantile business Mr. Daley has 
made an excellent success, carries an exten- 
sive stock of gootls, employing two clerks, 
and does a large and increasing business. 



^^PT county attorney of Douglas county, 
Minnesota, is one of the leading- lawyers of 
Alexandria. He is a native of the city of 
Boston, Massachusetts, and was born ]\rarch 
3, is:',7. He is the son of Horatio and Mary 
Sv (Sims) Jenkins, both of whom were na 
tives of Massachusetts. IVfr Jenkins, senior, 
was engaged in tiie ship-chandlery l)usiness 
until ISfiS, when he turned his face west- 
ward, coming to ^Minnesota. He settled in 
Wasioja, Dodge county, where he purchased 
land and engaged in farming for two years, 
after which time he came to Douglas county 
and settled in Alexandria, where he engaged 
in tlie hardware business with George C. 
Sims. He continued in this business until 
his death, which occurred in June, 1878. 
Mrs. Jenkins, the mother of the subject of 
this sketch, is still living in Alexandria. 
There were three children in this family, 
two of whom are now living — Charles E., of 
Dayton, Washington Territory, engagetl in 
fanning, and Horatio, our suliject. 

Atloi'ney Jenkins received his education 
in Massachusetts. He attended Yale College 
for two vears and then went to the Harvard 
Law School, where he remained one year, 
wliile at the same time he read law in an 
office in Boston. He enlisted in the Union 
service in April, 1861, as a private in Com- 
pany I, Fifth Regiment, Massachusetts In- 
fantry. This was on the call for three 
months' service, it being the first call 
lor volunteers that the president issued. 
Mr. Jenkins was in the lirst battle of Bull Hun. 
This was at the close of his enlistment. 
After this he helped to raise Com])any (t, 
Fourth Massachusetts Infantry, and took the 
office of first lieutenant, and remained in the 
service until December, 1865. His sei'vices 
during the war were exceedingly meritorious 
and his conduct was such as to receive the 
comniondation of his superior officers. In 
1862 he was appointed captain, in ISO-l was 

commissioned a major, and received a lieu- 
tenant-colonel's commission the same year. 
Under the request of the governor of Massa- 
chusetts he was honorably discharged from 
the infantry service that he might accept the 
commission of lieutenant colonel of the 
I''ourth Massachusetts Cavalry, by order of 
the secretary of war. He had conferred on 
him bv Andrew Johnson, the president, by 
and with the advise and consent of the sen- 
ate, the rank of colonel, on the 6th of April, 
1865, foi- special gallantry at High Bridge, 
Virginia. On the 28rd of April. I86.1, he re- 
ceived his commission from John A. Andrew, 
governor of Massachusetts, which made him 
colonel of the Fourth Massachusetts Cavalry. 
He received the title of brigadier general on 
the l?.th of March, 1865, for his gallant con- 
duct ami efficient services, on the recom- 
mendation of General Grant. It will be 
seen that General Jenkins received many 
honors for his efficient service while in the 
Union ai'uiy, but it was not all honor that 
he received; he saw much hard service. On 
the 6th of April, 1865. at High Bridge, he 
received a severe woiiiul and was taken pris- 
oner, but the next morning a rescuing ]iarty 
from General Sheridan's commaiul rescued 
him and put his captors to flight. In May, 
1864, he was captured by the enemy and 
confined in prison for four months. He 
spent some time in Libljy ])rison, also in Ma- 
con, Charleston and Columbia. After four 
months, however, he contrived to escape and 
found his way back to the Union lines. After 
the war Mr. Jenkins stopped a short time in 
Massachusetts. In 1880 he came to Alexan- 
dria, and on arriving here, opened a law office 
and engaged in the practice of law. He was 
elected county attorney in 1884, which i)osi- 
tion he has hekl ever since. 

General Jenkins was married in 1862 to 
]\riss Sarah L. Jameson, who was the daughter 
of Hugh Jameson, of Nashua. Xew Hamp- 
shire. Three children have bles-sed this 



union — GertnitJe, Joannio, and Ilofatio. 

General Jenkins is one of the leaxling at- 
tornevs west of St. Paul and Minneapolis, 
lie enjoys a large jn'actice, is respected 
and esteenietl by his I'cllnw-townsnicii, and is 
known to be one of the most entci-prising 
citizens of Alexandria. He is, in })()litics. a 
repul)lican. and on many occasions has l>y no 
uncertain sound given the peo])le of Alex- 
andria and vicinity to know what his prin- 
ciples were. He is a mciniicr of the Masonic 
and Od<l Fellows fraternities, and also of the 
G. A. R.,and is post commander of the Rey- 
nolds post of Alexandria. Mr. Jenkins is a 
careful, painstaking lawyer and is fine of the 
best orators in the Northwest. 


ELS H. MYRAN, tlie postmaster at 
Elbow Lake, Grant county, Minne- 
sota and also deputy sheriff of that county, 
is a native of Iowa. He was born in Winiu;- 
sheik county on the 3(>th of Mai'ch, IS.oT), and 
is a son of Helga and Tilda (Tiiompson) 
Myi'an. natives of Norway. The jiai'cnts 
came to tiie United States in about 1847 
and settled in Muskego, Wisconsin, where 
they lived for ten years. Removing from 
Wisconsin, the family settled in Iowa, six 
miles from Decoi'ah, where the parents have 
since lived. The father was a farmer. He 
died in December, 1887. The mother is 
still living in Iowa. They were the jiavents 
of nine children — Nels, John, Helga, Tor- 
ger, Caroline, Anna, Isabelle, Tilda and 

Nels, the subject of this ai'ticle, spent his 
school-days in Iowa, attending the district 
schools in Madison township, Winnesheik 
county, until he was seventeen years of age, 
when be entered the Decoiah Institute, re- 
mainino- there a siiort time. He then learned 

the carpenter's trade, which he followed un- 
til 1880 in Winneshiek and various other 
counties in Iowa. He next rem<>v(,'(i to 
Ridgeway, Winneshiek county, Iowa, where 
he secui'ed the position of clerk for (4ali)y cV' 
Aakei- of that place. Aftei- working for 
this firm for foui' oi- live years he removed to 
Minnesota, settling in Elbow Lake, (irant 
county, in 1884-. Soon after taking up his 
residence in this place, he established a gen- 
eral merchandise store, putting u|j a building 
in which he now has the postoffice. 

Mr. My ran \vas married in 1887 to Miss 
Carrie Ronning, and this union has been 
blessed with one child. ()iir subject has 
held various local offices in his town, as 
township clerk, constable for two years, 
and was appointed deputy sheriff of Grant 
county in 1885, which position he has lilled 
with credit to himself and universal satis- 
faction." He and his family are con- 
stant attendants of the Lutheran church. In 
political affairs he takes an active interest in 
all the movements of the democratic ])artv 
and is one of th(> representative men of the 
count V. 


PI'eLS KJELDSON, who is engaged in 
_S^^Jl the real estate, loan and insurance 
business in the village of Ada. Minnesota, 
and who is one of the most public-spirited 
and ])roniinent citizens of that place, came 
to that section of j\linnesota in June, 1879, 
and at that time purchaseil a farm some 
twenty miles northeast of Ada. That .sum- 
mer he spent in its tillage and improvement, 
but in the fall returned to Granite Falls, 
Yellow Medicine count », Alinnesota, where 
he i-emained the following winter. In the 
spring of 1880 he returned to this county 
with the intention of nudving a permanent 
settlement, and cominenced in earnest the 
cultivation of his farm. 



On tlieoi-ganization of Norma n count\% in 
the fall of ISSl. Mr Kjeklson was appointed 
register of deeds, and at the fall election in 
tiie year 1S82 was chosen his own successoi'. 
His strict attention to the duties of his office, 
and his faithfulness in X\w discharge of them, 
hrouglit its own reward, foi' the people of 
tiie county, appreciating liis efforts, in the 
autumn of 1SS4 again re-elected him to the 
same office, and thus he served the people in 
that I'esponsihle office for full five years. At 
the exph'ation of that term he established 
his ])resent l)usiness, he having during the 
last two or three years in office had some 
experience in I'eal estate transactions, giving 
some attention to that branch of business in 
the intervals of his duties. 

Mr. Kjeldson is the owner of some 1,200 
acres of land in various portions of the 
countv, a part of wlncii is improved and 
under cultivation. To one farm of 280 
acres, some eleven miles northwest of Ada, 
of which 150 acres are under tillage, he 
gives his personal attention, carrying on 
farming there in connection with his busi- 
ness. Besides this large amount of land ho 
is the owner of his place of business and a 
neat and tasty residence in the village, and 
is ranked among the prosperous and go-ahead 
busmess men of Atla. He was appointed 
notai'v ]iublic by the governor of Minnesota, 
in Januaiy, 1SS7, and is one of tlie justices 
of the ])('ace of the village and a member of 
the school board. 

The subject of this sketch is a native of 
the city of Chicago, Illinois, born June 15, 
lSi5. While he was still but a lad his par- 
ents removed to Columbia county, "Wiscon- 
sin, and settlwl on a farm. There he was 
reared and given all the facilities to avail 
himself of the educational advantages offered 
by the common schools of that district, and 
finished with a course in the Lutheran Col- 
lege at Decorah, Winneshiek county, Iowa. 
After spending two yeai's in the latter widely 

celebrated and most highly extolled institu- 
tion of learning, he removed to Watonwan 
county, Minnesota, in 187(i, and was there 
employed for the next foui- or five years in 
various kinds of work, among the chief of 
which were farming and school-teaching. 

In 1875 Mr. Kjeldson removed to Yellow 
Medicine county and there followed farming 
and teaching, varied with some clerical labor 
in the stores of Granite Falls, but in 1879 
came to Norman county, as already men- 
tioned above. Since coming to this part of 
the State he has been highly successful in 
his life's work and has grown into the confi- 
dence and i-espect of the whole community. 
He is a zealous and consistent member of 
the Evangelical Lutheran comnninion, and is 
quite active in all I'eligious work. In his 
business I'elations he is known as a shrewd, 
honest and straightforward gentleman, and 
has built up by his own etfoits a large and 
lucrative business. 

JTaMES E. SULLIVAN, a prosiierous and 
^ enterjM'ising farmer of East Grand Forks 
township, Polk county, Minnesota, is a resi- 
dent of section 1, where he is engaged in gen- 
eral farming operations. He is a native of 
Canada, born in Renfrew county, Ontario, 
May 9, 1840, and is the son of Andrew and 
Ellen (Enrioht) Sullivan, natives of Ireland. 
Mr. Sullivan, the subject, of this biograph- 
ical sketch, remained in his native land, at- 
tending school until he was fourteen years of 
affe. Durins: his schooldavshe wouhl work 
on the home farm in the summers and in odd 
hours, and after leaving the school-room he 
at once went to work on his father's farm and 
continued to assist his father in farming 
until October, 1875. He then determined 
to find a suitable place «to locate and jour- 
ne3'ed to Polk county, Minnesota. He 



traveled from place to place aiul from Polk 
county went to Manitoba. Xot liking- tlie 
surronndiiigs up there, ho returned to East 
Grand Forks and made a verl)al contract 
for a farm. lie tlien returned to Ontario 
and sold the farm he iiad inherited frf)m 
his father, and ai^aiii returned to East 
Grand Forks. In iht^ spring of 1876 lie 
moved his family and took a deed of tiie 
farm where he now lives, lie iias a line. 
large farm comprising I.2(i0 acres, all well 
under cultivation. He has imiircjved the 
surroundings, erected a fine l)ricl< dwelling- 
house, also a large barn and otlier buildings. 
He is engaged in a general fai'niing and stock- 
raising business, and is one of tlu^ largest 
farmers in the county. 

Mr. Sullivan was united in maniage on 
the 22(1 day of February. ISSl, to Miss 
Bridget IIogan,tlie daughtei'of Patrick and 
Sarah (Moran) Hogan, natives of Ii'eland. 
Mr. and Mrs. Sullivan have been blessed 
with the following children — Leslie, Jose- 
phine, Clara and Laura. Mr. Sullivan, with 
his family, belongs to the Catholic church. 
In political mattei's he is a democrat. 

He is an excellent business man ; a man of 
the strictest honor and integrity, and is 
highly esteemed both as a neighbor and an 
exemplary citizen. He is justly rated as 
oneof the most solid and substantial citizens 
in Polk countv. 


WAN AUSLUND. In examining the 
s^/ biographies of the ])r'ominent mem- 
bers of the faiining community in the notetl 
Red River \'alley and Park Ilegioiis of Min- 
nesota, it will be noticed, that the Scandi- 
navian race furnishes many of the most 
thrifty, frugal and creditable citizens of that 
retrion of the countrv. The suljjeet of this 
memoir is a successful aiul highlv esteemed 

I agriculturist of Land township.Grant county, 
^linnesota. He is a native of Sweden, born 
in the northern part of that kingdom on the 
17th of October, 1:?49, and is the .son of 
Samuel and Anna (Norstrom) Olson, natives 
of tiie same kingdom. They were farmers 
and lived and tlied 111 their native land. 
They were the parents of the following chil- 
dren^ — Olaf, Lars, Samuel, Johan, Andrew, 
.Vmelia. Elizebeth, Margret and Swan, the 
subject of this article. 

Swan Auslund spent his boyhood days in 
his native land, attending the excellent 
common schools of that land until he had 
attained the age of twenty years. In 1870 
he decided to seek his fortune in a new er 
land, and accordingly set sail for the "land 
of thefree." After landing on American soil 
he settled in West Dayton, Iowa, where he 
remained one year, and then removed to 
(4rant county, Minnesota. In the fall of 
1871 he settled on a homestead of Ifio acres 

I of land on section 22, Land township, 
where he hassincecoiitinued to reside, carry- 
ing on a successful fariningand stock-raising 
Inisiness. He has one of the most desir- 
able tracts of land in the county, and is 
rated as one of the most substantial and 

' intelligent farmers in the conntv. 

Mr. Auslund was united in marriage to 
Miss Matilda Peterson, A])ril S, 1876, and 
this union luis i)een blessed with six chil- 
dren, four of whom are living — Sven J., 
William L., Anna C. and Amelia, ()., and 
John F. and Oscar S., deceased. 

Mr. Auslund is a stanch adherent to the 
principles of the republican ]KH'ty, and ever 
takes an active interest in all that i)arty's 
campaigns. He has held various local offi- 
ces in his township, including school clerk, 
justice of the peace, town clerk, and was 
elected county commissioner in the fall of 
1888. He and his family are miMiibers of 
the Lutheran cliun-h. of which organization 
he is secretarv. 



/i^ DWARD FAY, the efficient and pop- 
Vl^ ukir [xjstmaster at T\[ooi'liead, Minne- 
sota, among otiier enterprising men of Moor- 
liead and surrounding conntiy, is entitled to 
a place in this connection, as he is closely 
identified witii the people and has taken a 
prominent part in all public matters. 

He is a native of Irelantl, born in 1S3S. 
II is parents were Tiiomas and Bridget 
(Devlin) Fay, Tiie ])arents were engaged in 
farming in Ireland, where the father died in 
1842. Seven years later, 1849, the widowed 
mother and our subject came to America, 
first settling in Kenosha county, Wisconsin, 
where they remained until 1852. They 
removed from Wisconsin to Pleasant Valley, 
Winona county, Minnesota, where they 
lived until 185r) and then moved to Waseca 
count}', of the same State. The mother died 
there in 1884. 

Our subject remained with his muthei', until 
1863, on the farm, which he ojierated until 
he went into tlie employ of the old Minne- 
sota Stage Company, acting as their agent 
at Winona, St. Paul, New Uim, St. Peter 
and other points. He remained in this 
capacity until 1874, then came to Moorhead 
and was in the employ of the American Ex- 
press Company until 1886. At this date he 
received the appointment from President 
Grover Cleveland as postmaster at Moorhead, 
wiiich place he still holds. After his removal 
to this cit\^ he pnrciiased city property and 
built a handsome residence on Thii-d street. 

Mr. Fay was united in marriage to Miss- 
Annie Fitzgibbon, a native of Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Siic is tile daughter of Patrick Fitz 
gibbon. This union has been blessed by six 
children— Thomas F., AVilliam P. (twins), 
Edward, ilaiy, Annie and James. 

In politics Mr. Fay is a democrat, always 
having taken a leading and active part in all 
matters of public interest. Both' he and his 
estimable wife are members of the Roman 
Catholic chui'cli. 


Prominent among 

IKL the editoi's and publishei's of the Red 
River Valley and Park Regions is the gentle- 
man whose name heads tins biogra])hical 
sketch, the editor of the Barnesville Iter'aw, 
published at Barnesville, Clay county, Minne- 
sota. He is a native of Canada, born in 
Ontario in 1860. He remained in his native 
land, attending the excellent common schools 
until he was eighteen years of age. He tiien 
commenced in life for himself, and for the 
next eight years was in different localities 
and engaged in various occupations. In 1886 
he removed to Breckenridge, Wilkin county, 
Minnesota, and with Mr. Gunn purchased the 
Mercury, a weekly pa[)er published at Wah- 
peton, Dakota Territory-. They moved the 
office to the villao'e of Breckenridge and Mr. 
Snell remained there operating the ]iaper 
until September, 1888. He then bought the 
Revieio and has since opei-ated this paper at 
Barnesville. The paper was established in 
1883, and, at the time Mr. Snell purchased it, 
was a democratic oi-gan. He changed the 
political creed of the paper, making it more 
of an independent or republican publication. 
He has materially improved the ]ia])ei-, both 
in appearance and editorially, and it lias an 
extensive circulation. It has a circulation of 
ovei'five hundred copies, and the publisher 
is rapidly adding to his patronage. The 
office does a good job and advertising busi- 
ness, and the paper is recognized as one of 
the best journals in C'lay count}'. 


aON. LUTHER L. BAXTER is judge 
of the district comprising the coun- 
ties of Otter Tail, Douglas, Todd. Pope, 
Stearns, Morrison. Benton, Slierburne and 
Mille Lacs. He is a native of Cornwall, 
Vermont, born in 1832, and is the son of 
Channcey and Plulena (Peet) Baxter, both of 
whom were natives of the State of Vermont. 


RED K] I KK I ALU: ) ' . / XD 

The subject of our sketcli was reared on 
tlie home farm, receiving a common school 
education until lie was fifteen years of age. 
At tliat age he attended tlie Castieton Semi- 
nary at Castieton, \'ermont, for one year, 
after which for a ])eriod of two years he was 
a student at Norwich LTniversity in that 
State. At the close of this two years' course 
he commenced reading law at MiddJebury, 
Vermont, and most of Iiis studies wei'e prose- 
cuted under theiiislruction of Juilge Horatio 
Seymom-. He continued his studies for tliree 
years, and in 1S54 was admitted to tlie bar 
in the supreme court at Ottawa. Ilhnois. 
After his graduation lie went to Geneva, 
Wisconsin, tliis lieing in May, 1854, where 
lie engaged in the practice of law. i'emaining 
until 18.57. In tiiis year he came into tiie 
8tate of ilinnesota, settUng at Cliaska, Carver 
county, where lie cnigaged in the practice of 
his profession until the breaking out of tlie 
war. He enlisted in Company A, Fourth 
Ilegiment, Minnesota Volunteers, receiving a 
commission as captain. In April, 1862, he 
was promoted to the rank of major. In the 
fall of ISOii he resigned his commissi(jn and 
returned to Minnesota, settling in Shakojiee. 
Here he continued in the practice of law 
until 186-1-, when he accepted the position of 
majorin thcMinnesota Heavy Artillery. Later 
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and continued in the service until the 
close of tlie war. He saw service in the sieae 
of Corinth, in 1802, and was in the ixittle of 
Corinth in the same fall with the Fourth 
Minnesota. In his last service he participated 
in the liattle of Nashville At the close of 
the war he returned to Shakopee, where 
he again commenced the practice of law, 
in which he continued until 1868. At this 
time lie removed to Cliaska, continuine: 
in the practice of his professic^n until 1882, 
when lie removed to Fergus Falls, Otter Tail 
county, Minnesota. In 1858-9 hewasjutige 
of [irobate in Carver county, Minnesota. and 

was appointed by Governor Sibley as prose- 
cuting attorney of the Fourth Judicial dis- 
trict. In 1863 and part of 186-1 he was 
prosecuting attorney of Scott count\', ilin- 
nesota. In 1878-9 he was county attorney of 
Carver county. In 186-4 he was elected sen- 
ator from Scntt county and held that office 
until iscit. From 1869 to 1883, with the 
exception of the three j'ears, 1876, '77 and 
'78. he was a member of the house or senate 
from Carver county, holding continuous 
office in the upper oi- lower branch of the 
legislature during that entire time. In .March, 
ISS."). he was a])|)()iiite(l to his present judi- 
cial otlice, and in the fall of Isst; waselected 

On the luth ilay of Seiiteinber, I8r>6, Judge 
Baxter was married to Miss Emma Ward, of 
Geneva, Wisconsin, liv whom he has one liv- 
ing child, Chauncey L., an attorney, located 
at Perham, Minnesota. Mrs. Baxter died on 
the 4th of June, 1872. His second marriage 
was to Miss Barbara Duchs, of Cliaska, Min- 
nesota, by whom he has one living child. 
Bertha. His third marriage was to Miss 
Emma Child, of Glencoe, Minnesota. 

Judge Baxter is a democrat in politics, is 
a member of the Masonic fraternity and of 
the (t. a. li. He has considerable money 
invested in Fergus Falls, owning a line resi- 
dence in which he lives, besides other houses 
which he has rented. The judge is a man of 
marked legal ability, gen ial.warni-liearled and 
social as a man, before whom all attorneys in 
tlie district like to ]iractice, feeling that at 
all times their cases ami themselves will 
receive just and proper consideration at his 
hands. In all his adjudications of cases that 
are brought before him he has been fair and 
impartial, and is without doubt one of the 
ablest of the judiciary of the State of Min- 
nesota. Although a democrat politically, he 
is not an offensive partisan, as will be seen 
by the fact that, although a democrat, he 
was elected to his office bv the franchises of 



many republicans. Asa man he is lionored 
and esteemed in liis home, and as a judge is 
respected throughout tiie district. 


,M^SA H. SNOW, retired, is a resident of 
'I^^ Wahpeton, liiciihind county. North 
Dakota, lie is a native of Pomfret, Wind- 
sor county, Vermont, wiiei-e he was horn 
July 2G. 182.3. 

Mr. Snow's parents were JIartin and Lydia 
(Hayes) Snow, the I'oi'mer a native of Pom- 
fret, and tlie latter of AVindsor county, Ver- 
mont. Martin's parents wei-e Samuel and 
Betsey (Perkins) Snow, natives of Bridge- 
water, Massachusetts, and farmei's by occu- 
pation. Samuel's parents were Jonathan 
and Sarah Snow, the former being the son of 
William antl Rebecca Snow. William Snow 
was born in England, in about 162-i, and 
came to America in 1637, settling at West 
Bridgewater, Massachusetts. He was one of 
the pioneers of the United States, and no 
doubt the en tire Snow family in Aniericacame 
from this stock. Lydia Hayes, the mother 
of the sul)ject of our sketch, was the daugh- 
ter of Philemon Hayes, a native of Sharon, 
Vermont, and of Englisli descent. He was a 
farmer by occupation, as were most of the 
ancestors of the Snow family. Martin and 
Lydia Snow had a family of four children, 
two of whom ai'e now living — Eliza, now 
Mrs. Hewett, and Asa II., whose name ap- 
pears at the head of this sketch. 

The subject of our sketch remained at 
home during his early life and was given 
e.xcelient educational advantages. At four- 
teen he went to tlie military academy at Nor- 
wich, \'ermont, from Avliich institution he 
graduated in 1842. He then went to Mary- 
land and taught school for tiiree years, 
removing at the end of that time to Boston, 
where he engaged in clerking off and on for 
ten years. Tiiree years <;f tliis time, how- 

ever, was spent more or less in gold mining 
in California. Fi-om Boston he went to Man- 
chester, where he engaged principally in 
clerking for two years. He then returned to 
A^ermont, where he remained some three 
years. In June, 1862, he enlistedasa private 
in Company D, Ninth Kegiment, Vermont 
Volunteer Infantry, and remained in the ser- 
vice for three years. He was engaged in a num- 
ber of severe battles and was taken prisoner at 
Harper's Ferry, but was soon released. 
ilay 24, 1863, he was commissioned second 
lieutenant of his company, and for some 
time was provost marshal on detached duty 
in North Carolina. After the close of the 
war he returned to Vei'mont, locating soon 
after in Claremont, New Hampshire, wliere 
he engaged in the lumber business for ten 
years. From thence he went to Ilion, New 
York, where he remained in the employ of 
the Remingtons for eighteen months. He 
then removed to Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
where he engaged in clerking for four years. 
In 1880 he came to Wahpeton, North Da- 
kota, where he has i-esided ever since. For 
two years he clerked in the register of deeds' 
office, and then for five years worked in the 
treasurei''s office, since wliicli he has lived a 
retireii life. He built his jiresent residence 
on the corner of Pembina avenue and Fifth 
street. He was town clerk one year and has 
held other minor positions. Mr. Snow is a 
man of wide travel and extensive reading 
and is held in high esteem by his fellow- 

In 188-J Mr. Snow was united in marriage 
to Mrs. Ciuxrlotte Cummings. daughter of 
Eben II. and Mercy (Brewer) Russell, na- 
tives of Wintlsor. Vermont. Her father 
was engaged extensivelv in farming. Her 
parents had a family of twelve children, 
four (if whom are now living — Mrs. Snow, 
Ellen, now Airs. Taylor; Melissa, now Mrs. 
Downer, and Belle, now Mrs. BiUmgs. Mr. 
Snow has one son, Clai'ence A., who niai'- 



ried Jennie Dickerson. Mrs. Snow liad two 
chiklren l)y her lornioi' husband — Fi'ank E., 
nnirried to Miss Flora Taylor, and IIi'rl)ert 
A. Mrs. Sni)\v is one of the leading ladies 
of the city and is a consistent member of the 
(^ontrieiiational churcli. She is also a mov- 
ing spirit in the Lailies' Aid Society. 

Mr. Snow has been thrifty aiul economi- 
cal throuD'hont his career and has laid bv a 
good competency, and has now retired from 
active business to enjoy the blessings of a 
well-spent and useful life. 

K. OLSON, one of the prominent and 
leading citizens of (hookston, Min- 
nesota, is cnyaiied iti the sale of wa^clies, 
clocks, jewelry, silvei'ware, etc., in that citj'. 
lie is one of the pioneers of this portion of 
the Red Eiver Valley, having located on a 
farm in this county in May, 1S73. 

Mr. Olson is a native of Xoi'way, born in 
1S36. lieceiving his education in his youth 
in the excellent schools of his native land, 
he made his home in that land until he 
had attained the age of twenty -two years. 
Although the country of his birth has nunx' 
liberty than an\' other in Europe, still the 
chances for the amelioration of his condition 
were far from satisfactory to him, and he 
determined, in 1S5S, that in the New World 
he would seek that fortune that seemed so 
difficult to overtake in his native land. Em- 
barkino' he crossed the wide ocean, with 
nniny other adventurous emigrants, and 
upon landing u|)on the shores of the (ireat 
Ilepuhlic, started at once for Minnesota. 
Locating in Fillmore county, he there found 
einployiiient upon various farms, and resided 
there until 1804, when, in response! to a call 
for more men to hel|) sui>i)ress the unlioly 
rebellion wajjed against "the best govern- 
ment the sun ever shone on," in June he 
enlisted in Company B, Fourth Minnesota 

Infantry, and after being duly mustered 

into the service of the United States, was 
forwai-ded, as a reci-uit, to the regiment in 
the field, which was then at Allatoona Pass, 
Georgia. With the gallant l)ody of men of 
whicii he was a member, lie participateil in 
the un])aralleled march through (ieorgia 
and the Carolinas, to the sea, under that 
matchlcps leader, W. T. Sherman, and played 
a valiant part in the various engagements 
of that glorious campaign. After taking 
part in the grand review at the National 
Capital, in 1865, at the close of the hostili- 
ties between the two sections of the coun- 
try, ill'. Olson was sent with the leginient 
to Louisville, Kentucky, and after waiting 
there for seven weeks, was transfei-red to 
Fort Snelling, Minnesota, at which ])lace he 
was honorably dischargeil from the service, 
July 10, 1S<;5. 

On returning to the duties of peace, he 
located in Houston county, i\finnesota, where 
he purchased a farm and settled down to 
agricultural ])ursuits. Thei'e he remained 
until ISYl, when he sold his property and 
removed to Hush ford. Fillmore county. In 
the latter village he made his home until 
1S73, when, hearing of the fertile soil and 
excellent advantages of the far-famed lied 
River Valley, he came hither in search of a 
new home. 

On his arrival in this vicinity, the subject 
of this sketch settled in the neighborhood of 
Crookston, where he remained some eigh- 
teen months, after which he removed to 
Fisher, and there ke])t the boarding place 
for the men in the employ of E. Sampson, 
the railroad contractor for grading at that 
])oint. Several years was he thus employed, 
but in IST'.t he settled on a claim \vliich he 
had taken in 1874, about four and a half 
miles west of the village of Carman, Minne- 
sota, where he again resumed the cultivation 
of the soil. In 18S2 he ai>andoned his agri- 
cultural labors and removed to the city of 



Crookston and established his pi-esent jew- 
elry establishment, and lias continued in that 
business ever since. 

Ml'. Olson is a respected and honored 
niend)er of C'obhani Post, No. 90, G. A. U., 
and one of the ofHcers of that organization. 


/^■EORGE M. FABER, retired nieivhant, 
x^T IS a resident of Fergus Falls, Otter 
Tail county, Minnesota. He is a native of 
Lebanon county, Pennsylvania, and was 
born December 14, 182T. 

Mr. Faber is the son of George and Eliza- 
beth (Reinoehl) Faber. His parents were 
natives of Lebanon county, Pennsylvania, 
the father being- a boot and shoe-maker by 
trade, liut during the latter jiart of his life 
turned liis attention to farming, in which 
occupation he continued until at si.\ty-tive 
vears of age, when he move<l into Lebanon 
Oity. In that place he lived a retired life 
until his death in ISTL The mother died in 
ISSO. The father was a democrat in polities ; 
a man of large ideiis and extensive reading, 
lie and his wife were members of the Luth- 
eran church, in which societx^ the father was 
deacon and elder for many years. They had 
a family of five children, two of whom are 
now living — Lucetta, and the subject of our 

George M. Faber, whose name appears at 
the head of this sketch, spent his younger 
(lays on the farm attending school until 
s(!venteen years of age. He then commenced 
clei'king in different business houses, con- 
tinuinir in this line for ten years. When he 
was about twenty-seven years of age he 
eno-ag-ed in the mercantile business for him- 
self at Lebanon City, Pennsylvania. He 
built up a large and extensive business and 
continued in the same during ISfi", when 
lie sold out and started westward, coming 

to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he en- 
aaged as clerk until 1869. At this time 
he went to Osakis in Douglas county, 
Minnesota, leaving his family in St. Paul. 
He took land in Todd county and improved 
it to a considerable extent, and at the same 
time was engaged in clerking in Osakis, 
where he remained until the fall of 1870. 
In November of that year he came to Fer- 
gus Falls, and soon after sent for his family, 
who joined him at that place. At this 
time there were only two log houses in 
Fergus F'alls. In 1872 he put up a building 
nearl}" opposite to where the Parker hotel 
now stands, the building being twenty two 
by twenty-eight feet and two stories high; 
the First National Bank did business in this 
building on the first floor, Mr. Faber living 
overhead. This was the flrst bank at Fer- 
gus Falls. The building was burned in 1876 
and was the scene of the first fire in the city 
of Fergus Falls. This was (piite a loss to 
the town because of the fact that this was 
the best building in the city at that time. 
Mr. Faber went to AVinnipeg in 1875 and re- 
mained until 1878, and during his residence 
there was engaged as clei'k in a. lai-ge mer- 

Peturning to Fergus Falls, 

cant lie liouse 
he eniiaaetl as clerk for six vears and was 
also a clerk at Wahpeton, Dakota, and other 
places, but made his homo at Fergus Falls. 
He built his present fine residence in 1S82, 
on the south side of the river. He owns 
considerable city property, some of which 
is quite valuable, namely, two lots on 
the corner of Lincoln avenue and Court 
street and several lots 011 Vernon ave- 
nue. Mr. Faber is a democrat in politics, 
and, although not offensive in iiis partisan- 
ship, stands firmly upon the principles of 
the democratic party. He is well read on 
the current events of the day, is a man of 
broad ideas and takes a leading place among 
the wealthy men of the citv 

of Fergus 



Mr. Faber was married in 1853 to Miss 
Louisa E. Siegrist, tlie daughter of Jacob 
and Louisa (Roland^i Sictrrist, natives of Leb- 
anon county, Pennsylvania. Ilerlatlier was 
engaged in tiic manufacture of boots and 
shoes, and tiiey botii lived in tlieii" native 
Stateuntil their tleatli, whicli occuri'ed, — the 
father's in 1848 and the mother's in 1874. 
They hatl live children — ilis. Faber, Mrs. 
Sallie Ueckwith. George W., who died at six 
years of age. Mary M. and Mrs. Emma 
Ranch. Mr. Siegrist was a democrat in [loli- 
tics, and he and his family were members 
of the Lutheran church. Mr. and Mi'S. Fa- 
ber have had five children, three of whom 
are now living — Alice A., now the wife of 
Mr. Brandenburg, the sheriff of Otter Tail 
county ; Laura L., now Mrs. Barcalow ; and 
George W. Alice A. was the first American 
young lady in the city of Fergus Falls, and 
Lake Alice, now in the city limits, was 
named after her by the mill men. 

Man}' interesting stoiies ai'e told l)y Mrs. 
Faber of the early days in this country. 
Some of them are interesting because of the 
curiosity tiiey insjiire, and others i) of 
the terriiile character of the sutferin"' and 
exposure described. She tells of the death 
of a chikl about two miles from town, that 
there were no boards out of which to make 
a cotiin and a I'ude box was maile (if it can 
be called a box) out of rails, and when 
this rude coffin was placetl in the grave 
the spectators could see the body of the 
child through the spaces between the rails. 
A\'ilh others, the Faber family passed 
through much sutfei'ing in those early days, 
and were ileprivetl of many (jf the real neces- 
saries of life. It is related that during the 
first spring the families of Fergus Falls were 
)>rac'tically out of food, having only a few 
])<>()r onions ami a snuill qiumtity of milk 
from one cow. About this time the buffaki 
tish began I'unning in the sti'eanis up towards 
the lakes, and the membei's of the familv 

succeeded in catching some of these fish. 

Having this meat from the Inififalo fish they 
were able to make what was facetiously 
called buffalo soup, which was a conglomera- 
tion of onions, milk and iiuffalo fish nu-at. 
Although this would seem to some to be a 
very unsavory mess, yet at the same time it 
was heartily enjoyed and joyously a])pre- 
ciated by th(> families of that place, ilrs. 
Faber states that the reality is not a])|>re- 
ciated by peo])le who know nothing of 
pioneer life. None but those who have pei-- 
sonally been through these scenes and ex- 
periences can know what they are. She has 
seen the bodies of two jiersons who were 
frozen to ileath. and has witnessed many 
other harrowing scenes. She with her hiis 
band had left a beautiful home in the East, 
a home with all the comforts that heart 
could wish, surrounded with warm, lovinir 
frieiuls, and then to come to this new coun- 
try and experience all the privations that 
necessarily sui'round the ]iioneer life, seemed 
for a time nu)re than she ciiuld l)ear. But 
after all these iiardshijis had jiassed and had 
become part of the iiyoone, she can say, as 
she looks i)ack upon it, that, aftei' all, there 
has been moi-e or less ]ileasui'e, and the sting 
of these hard trials and hard times is re- 
moved when she sees that now she is sur- 
rounded with kind friends, has a beautiful 
home, and is in a prosperous city which has 
been built upon the ruin of these pioneer 
da vs. 


^^ — 

J@)OBERT BAIN, one of the represent- 
Jl:^:^ ative and sui)stantial farmers of the 
Red River valley, is a resident of section '.•, 
Fisher townshiji, Polk county, Minnesota, 
liorn in the suburbs of (ilasgow, Scotland, 
he comes of that sturdy, determined Scotch 
race which has made the best citizens in the 
population of the Northwest, a race pro- 



vei'hiiil for their industry, integrity, economy 
and geniid, hospitable temperament, for it is 
an old and true saying that "no man goes 
hunarv from a Scotchman's door." The 
(late of Robert Bain's birth was IVIay 20, 
1818. His parents were John and Isabella 
(McDonald) Bain, who were also natives of 
Scotland. The father was a carpenter. 
Jjoth parents are long since deceased. 

Robert Bain, whose name heads this arti- 
cle, spent his childhood in Scotland, and in 
1S27 came to America with his parents, who 
settled about seventy miles from Ottawa, 
Canada, where they were among tlie first 
settlers. The country was very new and the 
))ioneers had to endure many hardships and 
jierils. It was a heavily timbered country 
and a great deal of hard labor was necessary 
liefore a farm was cleared larjje enough in 
extent to support the family. Robert Bain 
was engaged chiefly at farming in Canada, 
although he also followed coopering to some 
extent. He was married in Canada in 1842 
and i-emained until 1849 in the neighborhood 
where his parents had located. He then 
removed to Perth county, ami located on 
the banks of the river Thames. Tliere he 
lived until ISfiS. when he came to Minne- 
sota and settled in Fremont, Winona coufity. 
For ten years he lived on a rented fai'm and 
then iionght a farm in an Irish settlement 
near Winona. He finally, in 1S78, sold out 
and came to Polk county, Minnesota, where 
he jiurchased all of section 12, in Lowell 
township. There he lived foi' two years, 
although the first land he worked belonged 
to Judge Stearns. At the expiration of 
that time he purchased 240 acres where he 
now lives, on section 9, Fisher townshiji, and 
now owns 510 acres in all, a good share of 
which is under a high state of cultivation. 
He has comfortable and tasty building im- 
provements, and the farm is one of the most 
valuable in the vicinity^ as it includes both 
prairie and timber land. 

The marriage of Mr. Bain occurred 
August 3, 1842, in Lanark county, Canada, 
when he wedded Barbara Furgerson, a na- 
tive of Scotland, and a daughter of Duncan 
and Barbara (Currie) Furgerson. Mr. and 
Mrs. Bain are the parents of the followino- 
children — John, Barbara, Duncan, Robert, 
Isabella G., James and Donald. John is 
engaged in farming in W^inona county, Min- 
nesota. Barbara lives in Mai lory. Duncan 
is a farmer near Mallory. Robert lives in 
Fisher, where he is engaged in the lumber 
business in company with C. P. Mallorv. 
Isabella lives in Winona countv, Minne- 
sota. James is a farmer and lives in Fisher. 
Donald is the only son who is still at home. 

^^EORGE KETCHAM. In glancing 
\^^r over the biographies of the many in- 
cumbents of the county otiices in the differ- 
ent counties comprised in the famous Park 
Regions of Minnesota, it will be seen that 
American-born citizens furnish a large part 
of the persons who fill their responsible j)osi- 
tions with satisfaction to all parties con- 
cerned. The subject of this article is the 
present incumbent of the office of countv at- 
torney of Grant county, Minnesota, to which 
position he was elected in 1884, and re-elected 
in 1886 and 1888. He is a native of Mich- 
igan, born in Cass county on the 9lh day of 
January, 1850, and is the son of Samuel and 
Abigail (Pullman) Ketchum, natives of New 
York State. The fatlier of our subject was 
a Baptist preacher, and is now living at the 
advanced age of eighty -one years. The 
mother of the present subject died in Feb- 
ruary, 1888, at the age of seventy -five years. 
They were the parents of the following 
named children — Franklin, Lewis, George, 
antl Elizabeth. The two first named are 
deceased, having died in infancy. 


RED A'/rj-:k- \-ALLEy AND 

Mr. Ketcliam attended school in bis native 
State and graduated from the Hillsdale Col- 
lege in 1873. He then decided to enter the 
profession of law, and accordingly studied 
two years under Judge Coolidge and was 
admitted to the bar. He then commenced 
the ])ractice of his profession at Cassopolis. 
Cass county, Michigan, and devoted iiis en- 
tire time to it for seven years. In 1882 he 
reniov(>d to C4i'ant county, Minnesota, and on 
settling there at once engaged in tiie law 

Mr. Ketcham was married un the lOtluhiy 
of ()(!toher, 1877, to MissMinnic Wetliey. and 
this union has l)een blessed with one child, 
Ko\l:i, born Sojitember 11, 1SS4. Mrs. 
Ketcham is a native of New York State, and 
received her education in Michigan, at the 
high schiK)l at Cassopolis, where she was 
married. She is a daughter of A. Wethey, 
a farmer of Grant county, Minnesota. The 
subject of this sketch is a republican in his. 
politic;il belief and takes an active interest in 
all public and local affairs. "While in Micli- 
ijran he was elected to the office of Circuit 
Court Commissioner, which position he held 
for six years. He is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity and one of the most popular 
and highly esteemed citizens of the county. 
He is a man of the strictest honor and in- 
tecritv and stands liiLi'li in the coinmiinitv in 
wliicli he lives. 



the successful and leading medical 
practitioners at Breckeniidge. Wilken county, 
Minnesota, is the gentleman whose name 
heads this article. Dr. Truax is a native of 
Wisconsin, born in Eacine county, June 10, 
18-18, and is a son of AYalter D. and Sarah 
F. (Gibbons) Truax, natives of Vermont and 
England, respectively. The grandfather of 
our subject (John Truax) was a native of 
Vermont and of German descent. He was 

a manufacturer and moved to Canada in 
1820. where lie engaged in the manufacture 
of scytlies and axes until the latter part of 
his life, when he returned to ids native State, 
remaining there until his death in 1840. He 
was a soldier in the War of 1812, and was a 
sturdy re]n'esentative f)f the ])ioneers of his 
day. The jjarents of \\'alter E. Trujix's 
mother (Sarah Truax) were John and IMarv 
(Harding) Gibbons, natives of England. 
Tiiey came to this country in lS3n, and set- 
tled in State City, New '^'ork. wlicrc John 
Gibbons carried on tlie occupation of boot 
and shoe manufactui'ing. They moved to 
Wisconsin in 1845 and settled at Watei-ford, 
Racine county, where they i-einained until 
1870. They then removed to Floyd county, 
Iowa, where the father remained until his 
death in 1SS2. He was a republican in po- 
litical matters. He, with his wife, who died 
in 1881, belonged to the Methodist church. 
The father of our subject moved to Floyd 
county, Iowa, in 18(13, wjiere he lived until 
his death in 1886, at the age of sixty-eight 
yeai's. The mother of Dr. Truax is now liv- 
ing in Floyd county, Iowa, and she is the 
mother of ten children, seven of whom are 
living — Amanda, now Mrs. Knapp ; John 
H., Dr. Walter E.. Laura E., the wife of Mr. 
Hunt ; Nellie, Clara (married to a Mr. Eob- 
erts) and Charles. The parentsaiid children 
are iiRMubers of the Baptist chui'ch. 

Dr. Walter Truax, the subject of this liio- 
graphical sketcli, I'diiaiiictl at home attend- 
ing school until he was lifteen years of age. 
In 1803 he enlisted in the Foily-eighth Iowa 
Battalion (Infantry) and served one liundi'ed 
days. After his lionorable discharge he re- 
enlisted in Company B, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, 
and was in the service sixteen mouths. He 
was at Mem])his, and later participated in 
several engagements with the Indians on the 
plains of Dakota and Nebraska. After his 
return from the war he commenced the 
study of telegraphy at Marshalltown, Iowa, 



and remained one year working in the train 
dispatciier's office. Until ISTO he was on- 
gaged as an operator for the Chicago, Rock 
Island ct Pacific Tlailroad, also the Burlington, 
Cedar Ra])ids & Nortliern Railroad. During 
this time lie woi'ked in the commerical offices 
for these companies in Omaha, Cliicago and 
St. Louis. He then received an appointment 
on the Nortliern Pacific and remained with 
tliom for thirteen years. He was the second 
station agent appointed at Moorhead, Minne- 
sota, and iield tiiat position for five years. 
Prior to this he studied medicine, attending 
tlie Minnesota University, and was admitted 
in 1S83. He commenced^ tiie practice of 
medicine in Todd county, where he remained 
one year and then settled in Battle Lake, 
Otter Tail county, JNIinnesota, where he 
remained engasred in clinical work for two 
years. In 1SS5 he moved to Breckenridge, 
Wilkin county, Minnesota, where he has 
since heen actively engaged in his profession. 
Dr. Truax was married in 1869 to Miss 
Alice A. Judd. This union has been blessed 
witli five children, as follows — Percy E., 
Sadie A., William E., Lotta E. and Walter 
D. Mrs. Truax is a native of Illinois and tlie 
daughterofWilham and Elizabeth Judd. Dr. 
Truax has traveled extensively and is a man 
of thorough and versatile knowledge. He 
has written two works on drauglits, one while 
a resident of Chicago and the other while in 
Breckenridge. lie is a democrat in liis polit- 
ical beUeC and is a member in good standing 
oC the Grand Army of the Republic, Masonic 
fraternity and the Ancient Order of United 

^^EORGE E. PERLEY, a successful 
>S£>^ attorney at Moorhead, of the firm of 
Wellcome & Perley, forms the subject of this 
biographical sketch. 

iMr. Perley is a native of Lempster, New 
Ilanipshiro, born August 19, 1853. His par- 

ents were Ashury F. and Sai'ali J. (Dodge) 
Perley, natives of tlie same State and county. 
The father is engaged at farming, which has 
been his life-long occupation. The mother 
died in 1883. Our subject's grandfather 
Perley was named Edmund, and his wife was 
formerly Sarah Bailey. They were natives 
of Salem, Massachusetts, and were the par- 
ents of a large family of children — ten in 
number. Our subject's ancestors are of Welch 
descent, coming to America and settling 
at Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 1634:. Sarah 
Dodge's parents were John and Rebecca 
(Gould) Dodge, natives of Lempster, New 
Hampshire, and Westminster, Vermont, re- 
spectively. The father was engaged in 
farming and milling. His father was John, a 
descendant of the Saxons. ( )ur subject's 
grandfather Edmund, was a strong Methodist 
churchman, as was his son Asbury, alwa3's 
taking an active part in church matters. 

Our subject is a graduate of Kimball's 
Union Academy of Meriden, New Hamp- 
shire, also of Dartmouth College, leaving the 
latter famous place of learning in 1878, after 
which he taught in the high schools of his 
State for over two years. He then studied 
law at Claremont, New Hampshire, in the 
office of Hon. Ira Colby, graduating at the 
New Hampshire bar in 1883, being admitted 
the same year at Boston, Massachusetts, 
where he practiced his chosen profession 
until he came to Moorhead, in 1884. Here 
he has practiced law and attended to loans 
and real estate business,' forming a partner- 
ship with J. B. Wellcome, and they are now 
among the leading law firms of Moorhead. 
They are the local attorneys for the St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Manitoba llailway. Our sub- 
ject also carries on a farm of over four hun- 
dred acres, in Clay county. 

Mr. Perlej' Avas married in 1884 to Miss 
M. E. Jones, of Windsor, Vermont ; she is 
the daughter of Asa and Clara Jones, of the 
same place in Vermont. Tiiey have one child 



— Grace. Mr. Perley is a radical republi- 
can in politics. He belongs to the First 
Presbyterian church of Moorhead, and stands 
very high, liotli among those of his profes- 
sion and with tlie cilizens of Clay county. 

li/HOMAS C. SHAPLEIGH, whoisone 
(jf tlic justices of the city of Crooks- 
ton, Minnesota, has occupied quite a promi- 
nent position in the history of the territory 
and State of Minnesota, where he settled as 
early as 1855. He was born in York county, 
Maine, July 7, 1824. He received the rudi- 
ments of an excellent education in the 
schools of his native county, and while yet a 
young man commenced an apprenticeship to 
the trade or craft of ship carpenter in the 
nav}' yard at Kittery, not far from the place 
of his nativity. Three years he served and 
then followed the trade as journeyman until 
the spring of 1855. Then he determined to 
seek anew home in the West, and with tliat 
intent, in April of that year, came to Minne- 
sota, among the earliest pioneers of this 
region, and for a time located at St. An- 
thony. In June following he went to Monti- 
cello, Wi'ight county, where he assisted in 
building the lirst steam saw-mill west of St. 
Anthony. After the mill was completed he 
took charge and operated it until the fol- 
lowing February, when he returned to St. 
Anthony. There he took charge of a saw- 
mill, and from that time until 18Gi he had 
charge of saw-mills in Anoka, Mendota, and 
Wacouta. Then he returned to Monticello 
and engaged in farming. But the quiet life 
of a farmer was not to his taste, and in 1867 
he accepted the appointment of assistant 
United States revenue assessor, under Gen- 
eral McLaren, which position he held two 

In 1872 he went to the point where the 
Northern Pacific Railroatl was to cross the 

Missouri river, near where Bismarck, Dakota 
Territorv, now stands, and there had charire 
of the businessof Burleigh & Keith, who had 
acontract for the const met ion of (ifty miles of 
the road. He remaineil in that cn])acity until 
the work was completed. In the month of 
j\larch, 1874, he received tiie ai)poinliiieiit of 
register of the United States land ollicc at 
Detroit, Minnesota, and took possession of 
the olHce in that capacity. In 1879 the 
office was removed to Crookston, whither he 
came. He remained in that responsible and 
onerous office until December, 1881. Dur- 
ing the following year Mr. Shapleigh actetl 
as land agent for the St. Paul, Minneapolis 
«fc ]\Ianitoba railroad, but in the fall of that 
year received the nomination and election to 
the office of the clerk of the court of Polk 
county, and served in that capacity for the 
succeeding four years, enjoying the confi- 
dence of the jieople of Crookston ; on the ex- 
piration of his term of service he was offered 
and accepted the position of city justice, a 
jiost which he is worthily and satisfactorily 
filling the current year (1888). 

The subject of this sketch is one of the 
prominent and le!ading citizens of thecounty, 
identified with its growth and development l)y 
a thousantl ties. Besides his handsome resi- 
tlence in the city, he is the ownei' of consid- 
erable real estate in the county in the shape 
of ffood farmino; land. An active, energetic 
business iium, of sterling integrity and hon- 
esty of purpose, he holds a high place in the 
opinions of the people of thecommunitx', and 
is deservedly one of the most ])opulai' men 
in Ci'ookston. He is an active mendjer of the 
Masonic fraternity, having been made a Ma- 
son in St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 5G, at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, in 1852, but is now 
connected with Crookston Lodge, No. 141, 
and has held the office of D. G. M. for the 
northwestern part of the State. He is also 
a prominent member of Pierson Chapter, No. 
40, R. A. M., of wdiich he is past most eminent 



high priest, and is the present eminent com- 
niiuuler of Gonstiintine Commanderv, No. 
20, K. T., of Crookston. 

Mr. Shapleigh has been married, but his 
wife is deceased. He has a family of four 

Jr^lia^ subject of this Ijiographical sketch 
is a prominent and. esteemed member of the 
farming community' of the Park Regions, 
and is a resident of section 20, Logan town- 
shij). Grant county, Minnesota. lie is a na- 
tive of Ohio, born in Montgomery county, 
on the 18th day of June, 18.51, and is the 
son of Joseph and Mary (Lyon) Sheppard, 
natives of Maryland and Ohio, res])ectively. 
The father and mother of our subject were 
married in Ohio, and after remaining there 
for eight or ten years, removed co Iowa. 
Tiicy settled at Cascade, where they lived 
for six years, then removing to Delaware 
county, Iowa, where they have since contin- 
ued to reside. The father is engaged in 
agricultural jnirsuits and is one of the rep- 
resentative men of Delaware county, Iowa. 
They are the parents of nine children, whose 
names are — Johnson, Michael, Mary, Will- 
iam, Maggie, Richard, David, George and 
Joseph. Even and one ciiild (who died in 
infancy) are deceased. 

Michael B. Sheppard, the subject of this 
biographical sketch, spent his younger days 
in attending school in Delaware county, 
Iowa. Leaving school at the age of seven- 
teen he remained at home, helping his father 
on tiie farm for one yeai-. He then engaged 
in lif(! for himself by di'ivingtlie stage from 
.Manchester to ]\farion, and to Elkadei', Clay- 
ton county, Iowa, for a period of two years, 
ilr. vSlie])pard removed from Clayton county, 
Iowa, in the spring of 1878, to his old home, 
where he remained for a short time, and in 

the same year went to Grant county, Minne- 
sota. Upon his arrival there he homesteaded 
a tract of land in Logan township, on sec- 
tion 20. Prior to his settling on his present 
place he took a pre-emption right from a 
Mr. Belding, who went to drrant count}^ at 
the same time as our subject. Since that 
time Mr. Sheppard has lived on his present 
place on section 20, where he has been en- 
gaged in general farming and stock-raising. 
Mr. Sheppard was united in marriage to 
Miss Mar^^ Harrison on the 22d of April, 
1881, and this union has been blessed with 
two children, named — Roy E. and Edna G. 
jMrs. Sheppard is a native of Iowa and the 
daughter of John Harrison, a farmer of 
Iowa. The mother is still living. The 
father died when Mrs. Shejjpard was a small 
child. She is one of five children— Geortre, 
William, John, Martha and Mar}'. Mr. 
Sheppard is one of the prominent and repre- 
sentative citizens of his township, ever tak- 
ing an active interest in all public matters. 
He has held the offices of assessor and su- 
pervisor and is a member of the Tariff Re- 
form Club in Herman. He is a man of the 
utmost honor and integrity, highly esteemed 
by all who know him, and his word is con- 
sidered as good as his bond. Mr. Sheppard 
is independent in ])olitical matters. 


deputy county 

W. GREGG is the 
auditor of Richland 
county, North Dakota, and lives at Wahpe- 
ton, the county seat of that county. He is 
a native of Rock Island, Illinois, where he 
was born, September 1, 1841. 

Mr. Gregg's parents were Dr. P. and Sarah 
L. (Wheelock) Gregg, the former born in 
Ireland and the latter a native of New 
Hampshire. The father was a graduate of 
Trinity College, Dublin, and came to Amer- 
ica in 1831, settling first in Philadelphia, 



Penns\'lvania, where lie attended a course 
of lectures at J efl'erson College. In 1840 lie 
removed to Rock Island, Illinois, where he 
was niarriod and was for years the leading 
pliysician and surgeon. He lias a family 
of seven living children — Jolin W., Mary, 
now Mrs. A. C. Dart; Joseph K.. Sarali, 
Carrie, Spencer and Fannie. 

Tiie suliject of our sketch was given cx- 
ceiieut ('(lucational advantages in his youth 
and was surrounded witli the iiilluences of a 
refined home. He took a thorough course 
at tlic higli school in Kock Island, and at 
its couniielion clerked in a stoi'e for one 
year, lie then read law for one 3'ear in the 
office of Messi'S. Wilkinson & Pleasants, 
leading attorneys of IJock Island. On the 
breaking out of the late war, he gave up his 
legal studies, and enlisted as a private in 
Company D, Twelfth Regiment, Illinois In- 
fantry, and served with that company for 
live montiis. He was then transferred, for 
promotion, to (!ompanv K, Fifty -eighth 
Regiment, Illinois Infantry, of which he was second lieutenant. He held this com- 
mission for one year, tluring which time, on 
the (itli of Ajiril, at the battle of Siiiloli, he 
was taken prisoner by the confederates and 
kept in pi'ison until October 12, when he was 
i-eleased. During most of this time he was 
kept in the confederate prison at Madison, 
Geors-ia. In the winter of 1802 ho was 
commissioned lirst lieutenant, which rank he 
held until the latter part of 1863, when he 
was made captain of his company. He was 
on the stair of GeneralJolm McArthur from 
April, 18(1."), until the close of the war. 
Cajitain Gregg saw service in the following 
enffiiijemi^nts — Fort Donaldson. Shiloh, Abides- 
burgh, .lackson, the campaign of Atlanta, 
Nashville, and many minor battles and 
skirmishes. After the close of the war (^a])- 
tain (iregg went to Chicago, Illinois, where 
lor one \'ear he engaged in the commission 
business. He then acted as clerk of the 

board of public works of that citj' for a 
period of six years, after which for six years 
he worked in the postoffice department. He 
then traveled extensively over the AVestern 
States, prospecting, and in December, 1881, 
located at Fargo, Dakota Territory. Here 
he found em])loymcnt as advertising clerk 
on the Fai'go Ari/us\ and worked in that line 
for one year. Then for two years he was 
itgent for the Fargo ifc Southern Railway 
Company, at Wahpeton, Dakotii, where he 
has since resided. Resigning that position, 
he engaged as book-keejier for the Wali]ieton 
Elevator Company for one year. For two 
years thereafter he was book-keejier for the 
L'lr/i/(i)id Coi/tifi/ (lazetie, during which time 
he held the ollice of justice of theiieace. He 
was then apjiointed deput}' auditor of Rich- 
land count}^ November 15, 1888. 

In December, 18G5, Captain Gregg was 
mai'ried to Miss Margaret McArthur, of 
Chicago, Illinois, a sister of (leneral .lolm 
McArthur, and adaughterof.Iohn McArthur, 
of (Miiciigo, Illinois. Her father was a naiive 
of Scotland. 

(^a])tain (Tr(\gg is a stanch republican in 
politics, is a iiKMiiberof the 1. O. O. l'\, (i. A. 
R., and the Knights of Rythias. He is one 
of Wahpeton's leading citizens and is 
esteemed by all who know him. 


.-^. — 

RANK KENT is engMged in the 0111- 
W^ nibus and dray business in Alexan- 
dria, Minnesota. J\Ir. Kent is a native of 
Penobscot county, Maine, and was born on the 
23d of March, 1831. His father, William 
Kent, was a native of New Hampshire. His 
mother's name was Nancy (Stewart) Kent, 
and she also was a native of New Hampshire. 
The father was a cooper by trade, and fol- 
lowed that business in IMaine during his resi- 
dence there, until, in l.s;]4, he came west to 
Illinois to prosjiect, and while there was 



taken sick and died. TTis" mother, "Nancy 
(Stewai't) Xent, died in New Ilainpsliire 
in .lanuary, 1864, leaving only one child, the 
suiijiict ol'this sketch. The Kent family are 
of iliiglisii ancestry, and on the Stewai't sule 
of Scotch ancestry. 

Frank Kent, the subject of our sketch, 
afler liis father's deatii was bound out to a 
farmer and raised 011 a, farm until he was 
fourteen years old. He tiicn went into a 
saw-mill to work, and remained eight years, 
and during tlie last tliree years had charge 
of the null wliere twenty men were employed. 
In 18r)5 Mr. Kent came to Minnesota, and 
lirst went into the pineries at St. Croix. 
Here his capability for management was 
recognized by his employers, and he was 
niven fiiarge of a large driviu'*- crow and 
later of a I'afting crew. lie remained at 
work in the pineries on the St. Croix river 
until .luly, 185*!. \\q then came to St. An- 
tiiony, now East Minu('a])()lis. Again he 
went into tin; milling business and was"-iven 
charge of one of the saws in a large steam 
saw-mill. He continued steadily at this for 
Mve months. At the end of this time, he, 
together with (ieorge Forbes, fitted out a 
ijatteau (a boat), and sup[)lying it with pro- 
visions and tools for work started for Perke- 
ganny Camp up the Mississippi river. This 
was on the 7tli day of November, 1856. 
They started on their cruise and succeeded 
in rcaciiingan island in the Mississip])i river 
some six miles up tlie river, at which j)lace 
they were frozen in for three days, then 
wai'm weather came on and tiiey went on to 
clear water, llei'c they abandoned the enter- 
pris(! and then struck across the country, 
fourteen miles, to Cold Spring City, where 
(ieorge Forbes took a contract to build a saw- 
mill, and Mr. Kent took a contract to get out 
tlie tind)er for the same. The following 
sjjriiig Ml-. Kent started the mill and worked 
in that business during the entire summer, 
tills being the summer of 1857. That fall 

he rented the mill, and ran it under his own 
|)roprietorsliip until 1859, emjiloying until 
this time, two men. In 1859 he quit the mill 
business and gave his attiMition more directly 
to farming, for, prior to this (lat(% he had 
taken a claim for 160 acres of land near 
Mimic. His ])artner, at the same time, had 
taken 160 acres of land near Mr. Kent's 
claim. Later they selected a town site of 
320 acres on the Sauk river. On this town 
site they built a house and made other im- 
provements, but finding this to be a bad in- 
vestment they gave it up, and in the spring 
of 1860 sold their claim for a small compen- 
sation. ]\Ir. Kent then went to Colorado, 
and engaged in the mining business for two 
seasons, but was not very successful in finding 
gold. lie succeeded in reaching lionK; two 
years later with but very little tf) show 
for his two s(;asonss])ent in the gold regions. 
He then came to St. Cloud, Minnesota, tliisbc- 
ingin November, 1861. While in Colorado, for 
a ])art of the time he had engaged in the 
transporting business, and had four nudes 
and one pony, which he brought to St. Cloud 
with him. In the winter of 1861-62 he 
engaged in the freighting business, driving 
from St. Cloud to St. Paul for ,1. C. and 
II. C. Eurbank & Co. In the fall of 1862 he 
(|uit this business, purchased goods, and 
with his team drove to Georgetown, selling 
the goods on his way. Eeaching George- 
town, he received news of the Indian out- 
break, anil tlien drove to Ft. Abercrombie, 
where he enlisteil with the settlers to fight 
the Indians. The Indians made a dash upon 
the fort and made their way to the stables, 
where Mr. Kent and E. M. Wright shot two 
of the Indians and captured a double-barrel 
gun, which Mr. Kent still has in his posses- 
sion. Mr. AVright is now a resident of Fergus 
Falls, Minnesota. 

An incident occurred here at the fort which 
shows how nearly Mr. Kent came to losing 
his life. Before entering the fort the Indians 



might readily have killed liim, but they were 
slow in making their attack, and, by watch- 
ing his opportunity, he gained entrance into 
the fort before their attack upon him was 
made. While here he was sent with another 
man as a messenger from the fort, having 
to go to Georgetown to bring the families of 
tlie liolders of the foi-t to that place. A 
body of troops escorted them for a short dis- 
tance through the timber, and then the_v 
started alone with their horses. They had 
gone but a short distance when they heard 
firing, and looking back saw tiie soldiers 
and Indians fighting, so they thought there 
would Ije no chance to get the fami- 
lies fi'om Geoi'getown to the fort, and 
he struck out for Crow Wing, going thence 
to St. Cloud. The fort was re-inforced 
within a day or two afterward and all the 
citizens and their families came to St. Cloud- 
Mr. Kent spent three weeks in the fort prior 
to his leaving for St. Cloud. After remain- 
ing a short time in government employ in 
St. Cloud, he went up the Sauk river to pur- 
chase grain for Capt. T. D. Smith, of St. 
Paul. During this winter he was engaged 
in hauling Government supplies from St. 
Cloud to Ft. Abercrombie. In the spring 
he commenced freighting for himself and 
othei's, making several trips to AViiinipeg. 
lie followed this Inisiness from 1802 to 1866. 
In 1866 he Ixmglit a farm of 320 acres at St. 
]\rartin, and enoajieii in the farming liusiness 
for two years. At this time he sold the 
farm and went to IVfelrose, ^linnesota, and 
pre empted KiO acres, and lived hei'e upon 
this farm fur a period of seven years. Dur- 
ing this time he did considerable freighting, 
making some money. In 1875 he sold the 
farm and moved into the village of Melrose. 
He then engaged in the freighting business 
between this point and Alexandria, Minne- 
sota, keeping a number of teams continually 
for three years. In 187S he moved to Alex- 
andria, which place has since been his home. 

The subject of this sketch was married in 
1862 to Miss Elvira M. Fadden, of St. Cloud, 
Minnesota, daughter of Joseph Fadden, of 
that place. Six children have been born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Kent, their names being 
Charles F., Le Kona, George II., Eugene 
F., Lewis S. and Harry B. 

Mr. Kent is one of the prominent business 
men of Alexandria, an industrious, intelli- 
gent, enterprising citizen. On coming to 
Alexandria he made several valualile invest- 
ments and purchased a valuable piece of proj)- 
ert\' opposite what is known as the Letson 
House block. Since coming to Alexandria 
he has been engaged in the omnibus ami 
dray business, keeps thi'ee men eni])loyed 
continually, and has practically a monoiwly 
on the 'bus business in the village of Alex- 
andria. In politics Mr. Kent is a rei)ub- 
lican. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and also of the Congregational 
society of Alexandi-ia. In all matters per- 
taining to the best interests of the city, Mr. 
Kent has shown himself to be one of the 
most enterjirising and most liberal of her 

JpiMES F. COWIE, attorncy-at-law, of 
fs^ Fergus Falls, Minnesota, is a native of 
the State of Maryland, where he was boi-n 
in 1854. His parents were of Scotcli de- 
scent, and at an early age Mr. Cowie 
removed with them to western Wisconsin. 
The Cowies were in that j)ortion of Wisconsin 
which was but scantily settled, and conse- 
quently Mr. Cowie's early life was s))ent as a 
farmer's son, in daj's when schools, like I'ail- 
I'oads, were not very numerous in that por- 
tion of the country'. He received a common 
school education, and, at the age of seven- 
teen, began teaching in the public schools 
during the winter, working on his father's 
farm" durinir the summei'. In this wav he 



saved enough money to take a college course, 
wliic'h he did, oraduatino: from a colles'e in 
I, a Crosse in 1876. 

Mr. Cowie first came AYest in 1881, enter- 
ing tlie einjiloy of tlio L. C. Porter Milling 
Company, at Goodwin, Dakota Territory, 
and afterward of Nicollet, Minnesota. In 
August, 1SS2, Ml'. Cowie cauie to Fei-gus 
Falls. lie began the study of law while in 
college and was admitted to the bar in this 
city in 18S;], and was for two years a mem- 
ber of the firm of Clapp, "Woodard & 
Cowie, but on the election of Mr. Cla])p to 
the olHce of attorney-general, Mr. Cowie 
opened an office for himself, and has since 
been a successful and ])ainstaking attorney. 
Tie was elected alderman in what is fa- 
miliarly known as the " Fighting Third " 
Ward of the citj'^, and has made an excellent 
officer. He has at all times been a fearless 
defender of what he deemed tiie right, and 
has served the city in an able and efficient 
manner. Plis nomination for the legislature 
in the fall of 1888 was given him without 
solicitation on his part and reluctantly ac- 
ce[)ted by him, but having accej>ted the nomi- 
nation, he at once set out to make an asftres- 
sive and honorable campaign in the face of a 
large republican majority. He was unsuc- 
cessful, however, being defeated at the polls. 
Mr. Cowie's parents were Hon. George 
and Margaret (Faulds) Cowie, natives of 
(ilasgow, Scotland. The parents came to 
America in 18-15, settling in Nova Scotia. 
Tiie father was by occupation a miner, and 
engaged in work in the coal, iron and gold 
mines indiff'erentpartsof America. In 1811> 
he crossed the plains to California, remain- 
ing in the gold fields until 1853, at which 
time he I'eturned to the East, settlino' in 
Washington county, Maryland, where he 
followed his old business of mining until 
1850. At this time he removed to Buffalo 
county, Wisconsin, where he turned his at- 
tention to fanning, and where he still lives. 

At present he is engaged extensively in 
farming and also in stock-raising. He is 
one of the wealthy and successful farmers of 
that county. He was chosen to represent 
the people of his county in the State legis- 
lature of the State of Wisconsin in 1872. 
He has been chairman of the town board and 
chairman of the board of county supervisors. 
In local politics he is a man of much in- 
fluence, and is respected by all who know 
him. He had a family of eleven childi'cn, 
seven of whom are now living — James F., 
George M., Allen J., Albert E., Eobert, 
Frank and Mag-gie. Those that died were 
Annie, Nettie, who was Mrs. M. J. Shan- 
nessy, and David. ]\trs. Shannessy left 
two children, twins — Maude and Mabel. 

Mr. Cowie was married in .1877 to Miss 
Jennie Bert, who had been a school-mate 
during his school-days and a former pupil. 
Mrs. Cowie was the daughter of Roijert and 
Jennie Bert, natives of Scotland. Iler ])ar- 
ents came to America in about 1845, settling 
in Pennsylvania. They now' live in Buffalo 
county, Wisconsin, at Glencoe, to which 
[)lace they moved in 1857. He is now 
engaged extensively in farming and stock- 
raising, ami is one of the prominent and 
wealthy men of that county. Mr. and Mrs. 
Cowie liave a family of three children — 
Lewis, Elsie and Robert. 

Mr. Cowie has attained to considerable 
prominence in local politics, and has for some 
time, in fact since 1886, been a member of 
the city council. In politics he affiliates 
with the democratic part}', and is a leading 
member of theMasor.ic fraternity. He lives 
in a fine residence on Vine street. 

|(^REDERICK T. KOYLE, M. D., one 
of the prominent physicians of the 
village of Ada, and the county coroner of 
Norman county, Minnesota, is one of the 
oldest residents of Ada, having located there 



in the summer of 1882. He at once opened 
an office for tlie practice of his profession, 
and liiis continued in the discliarge of his 
duties therein ever since. In the fall of the 
same year he, beginning to be appreciated 
at his true worth, was appointed deputy 
coroner, and in the fall of 1883 was duly 
chosen by the qualified electors of the county 
to fill the office of coroner, and has been 
continued in that position to the present, 
lie has also served on the village board of 
health for several years. 

Dr. Koyle first saw the light January 12, 
1859, in Ijrockvilie, Ontario, Canada, and is 
the son of Turner and Lydia E. (l^nrvis) 
Koyle. Receiving his primary education in 
the common schools of his native town and 
pursuing his more advanced studies in the 
Collegiate Institute at Col)urg, Ontario, he 
spent his time in the school-room until he 
was about seventeen years of age. In 187Y 
he matriculated at the medical department 
of Queen's College, Kingston, Ontario, Can- 
ada, from which institution of learning he 
was graduated with honors in the spring of 
1882. From there he went to Montreal, 
where he spent a few months in the hospital 
for the purpose of enlarging his studies, and 
from that city started for Grand Forks, 
Dakota. On his way thither he came up to 
see the new village of Ada, of wjiicii he had 
heard most favorable reports, and l)eing im- 
pressed with its jiromise determined to cast, 
in his lot witii tiio peo]ile of that village, 
and lias remained evei' since. 

When the doctor ari-ived in \(\\\ lie iiad 
only $10, but by close attention to the duties 
of his profession, with his excellent judgment 
and eminent achievements in all branches of 
medical science, he has succeeded in placing 
himself in a most favorable condition finan- 
cia!l\\ He occupies a high rank in the frater- 
nity of physicians of the county, and has one 
of the largest and best practices in the village. 
His genial, whole-souled manner makes him 

a favorite in the sick room, and he is, socially 
speaking, one of the most ])oi)ular men in 
the community. 

Dr. Ko3'le was united in marriage July 
29, 1884, with Mrs. E. E. Hardy tiee Jenkins, 
a native of Glens Fulls. New York, and the 
daughter of Chauncy and Sadie (^ Davis) 

Our subject is a prominent and active 
member of the Masonic fraternity, having 
been made a Mason in Norman Lodge, No. 
i54, A. F. & A. M., in 1883, and now occu- 
pies the high position of worshipful master 
of the hidge, anil takes great interest in all 
the workings of the order. 


"^i^^^ inent attorney -at-law in the famous 
Ked River Valley of Minnesota, is a resident 
of the city of East Grand Forks, Polk county, 
Minnesota, where he is enaaged in an exten- 
sive law and collection business. He is a 
native of Vermont, born in Stockbridge on 
the 17th of September, 1825, and is a son of 
Stephen and Kesiah (Nanson) Parkhurst, 
natives of Vermont. The grandfather of the 
present subject was one of the earliest set- 
tlers in the village of Royalton, Vermont, 
and was residing there when the Indians 
destroyed the town l)y fire. He had always 
been on friendly terms with the '" red men " 
of that locality, and on this account they 
spared his house from the l)i-and. The 
father anil mother of oui- subject were the 
parents of the following named children — 
Harriet, Benjamin, Phebe, Daniel, George, 
Eunice, Juliana and Stephen II. 

Stephen II. Parkhurst, of whom this sketch 
treats, remained in Stockbridge until four 
years old, at which time he removed with his 
parents to Brandon, Rutland county, Ver- 
mont, where he remained for sixteen years. 
Durinn- that time he attended the common 



schools until March, IS-H, when he secured 
a position as clerk in tiie postoffice and re- 
mained ill that capacity until the postmas- 
ter was I'einoved by the President. In 1842 
or 1843 he was einplo\'ed in the cjuarter- 
master's department, under General Clark. 
His duty was to overhaul and examine the 
arms in the arsenals. As these duties occu- 
pied his attention only in the summer, he 
taught school in tiie winter, and in October, 
184<!, he went to Burlington, A'ermont, with 
(ieneral Clark, to engage in the newspaper 
iiusiness, Clark having purchased the Burling- 
ton Free Press, and acted as editor, while Mr. 
Parkhurst was given cliarge of the financial 
department. Our subject remained at that 
jtlace from 1840 until lS5!t, and in 1859 he 
removed to Brandon, Vermont. After return- 
ing, lie jjurchased a grist-mill and continued 
to operate it for one and a half years. He 
traveled through different parts of the west- 
ern States and again returned to Brandon, 
where he purchased the largest store build- 
ing and put in a full stock of mercantile 
goods. He continued in this business until 
August, 1876, when he was evicted by fire, 
ids goods destroyed and his building burned 
to the ground. For the next two years 
he Avas engaged in settling up his accounts, 
and in April, ISSl, he removed to Minne- 
sota. Pie settleil at East Grand Forks, Polk 
county, Minnesota, where he continued tlie 
study of law, having studied at that pro- 
fession during his leisure hours for a number 
of years. On tiie 21st of April, 1882, he 
was admittetl to the bar in Grand Forks, 
Dakota Territory, and December IS, 1883, 
was admitted in Polk county, Minnesota. 
He has since remained in East Grand Forks, 
engaged in his law business, with the excep- 
tion of the summer of 1885, when he paid a 
visit to his old home in the East. He is one 
of tiie strong upholders of the republican 
party and was delegate to the first district 
repuijlican convention ever held in the 

LTnited States. The convention was held at 
Rutland, Vermont, June 7, 1854, I). A. 
Nickolson being chairman. Mr. Parkhurst 
was a member of the old whig part\' and 
was chairman of the meeting held in Essex 
Junction, Chittendon county, Vermont, where 
the republican part}' was organized. 

Mr. Pai'khurst is actively engaged in an 
extensive law and insurance business, pay- 
ing special attention to loans, collections 
and all matters pertaining to real estate 

Mr. Parkhurst was married in Bridgeport, 
Vermont, in January, 1847, to Miss ISfancy 
E. Ganson, the daughter of John and Sybel 
(Sessions) Ganson, natives of Vermont. Mr. 
and Mrs. Parkhurst have lieen l)lessed with 
the following named children — Julia C, now 
Mrs. Buttles, of Brandon, Vermont ; Henry 
S., now a resident of Glens Falls, New 
York; George II., living in Saratoga, New 
York ; and Jennie L., the wife of Mr. Wil- 
der, of White Hall, New York. The sub- 
ject of this article is one of the prominent 
men of East Grand Forks and vicinity, and 
is one of the ablest lawyers in the Red 
River Valley. He has held the offices of 
justice of the peace, town agent, agent for 
the school endowment fund, and is also a 
notary public. He has done a great deal 
for the benefit of the city in which he lives 
and is very highly esteemed by all who'know 
him. He owns several commodious resi- 
dences in the city and is an active citizen, 
working for the best interests of his localitv. 


One of the prominent 

of tlie farming comraunit\- in 


the famous Park Regions in Minnesota, is the 
gentleman whose name heads this article ; a 
resident of section 22, Roseville township, 
Grant county, Minnesota. He is a native of 
Canada, born in Lower Canada on the 6th of 


/iV-.V) k-lVEK r,lI.L/<V .lA'D 

February, 1845, and is the son of John and 
Jane (Kenne^ly) Brennin, natives of Ireland. 
Tliey came to Quebec in 1832, and from 
there to Maine, where they remained for a 
sliort time and again returned to Canada. 
After living in Canada for a number of years 
tiie parents returned to ]\[aine, where they 
still reside. Tliev are engaged in farming, 
but in former days the father was a stone- 
mason. Tlicy liave a family of si.x children, 
whose names are — Nancy, Catherina, Mary, 
James, John and Thomas. Nancy died at 
the age of seventeen years, and James died 
at the age of twenty-six years. 

John Brennin, the subject of this biograph- 
ical article, spent his boyhood-days in the 
town of Solon, Somerset county, Maine, and 
at the age of seventeen left the school-i'oom 
and commenced in life for himself. Until 
1875 he worked at the lumbering trade and 
also helped his father on the home farm. In 
the year mentioned he moved to Minnesota, 
and after remaining in Minneapolis for two 
years, engaged in farming and in the ])incr- 
ies, he went to Grant county, Minnesota, set- 
tling on a tract of land in Iloseville townshi)i, 
where he has remained over since. He home- 
steaded Itio acres in the township named, on 
section 22. and has since devoted his atten- 
tion to general farming; and stoclc-riiisin"-. 
He was one of the tirst settlers in the town- 
ship, there being only two or three houses in 
the town when he first settled thei'e. 

Mr. Brennin was united in marriage May 
7,'1S68, to Miss Mahala Jewett. and they 
have been blessed with five children, whose 
names are — Viola, James, Grace, Blanch and 
Jolin. Mrs. Brennin is a native of Maine, 
born at Solon. She is a well-educated lady, 
and followed the profession of a school- 
teacher prior to her union with Mr. I'rennin. 
Mr. Brennin is one of the substantial men of 
his township, and has always taken an active 
interest in all jtublic and educational mat- 
ters. He is a democrat in his political affili- 

ations, and has held the offices of assessor 
and supervisor. lie was the first voter to 
cast a democratic ballot in the town. He is 
a member of the Farmers' Alliance, and is 
held in high esteem both as a neighbor and 
a valued citizen. 



JORGEN JENSEN, who is noxf sheriff 
of clay countv, ^Minnesota, anda in;m of 
much travel and experience, is justly enti- 
tled a place in a work devoted to Inogniph- 
ical sketches of the prominent hkmi of Ked 
lliver Valley. 

He is a native of Schleswig-Holstein, Ger- 
many, boi-n March 8, 185-1. His parents are 
Anton and Annie M. (Christeson) Jensen, 
natives of Denmark. The parents were en- 
gaged in keeping a hotel. The father of 
our subject came to America in 1853, and 
after a sojourn of eight years returned to his 
former home across the sea. In 1870 lie 
again came to this country and engaged in 
farming in Clay county, Minnesota. The 
family had two sons — Jens P. and Jorgen. 

Jorgen, our subject, was reared in the 
city and thei-e received a good education. 
At the age of sixteen he came to Amei'ica 
with his ])arents and lived at home until he 
was about twenty-live years of .age. He 
then took a pre-emption of 250 aces of land 
in Moland township. Clay county, where he 
followed fai'ming until 1880, when he was 
elected to the office of sheriff of Clay county. 
In the townshij) in which he settled he was 
a leading man and held the office of chaii'- 
man of the board of supervisors and justice 
of the peace for a number of years. 

He was married in 1882 to Miss Maren 
Hanson, daughter of Hans Christenson. By 
the above union two children have been born 
— George A. and William. 

In jiolitics our subject is a republican, and 
is one of Clay county's representative men. 



ever taldng an active part in county and 
State politics. 

Both he and his wife are acceptable mem- 
bers of the Lutheran ciuircli, and are highly 
esteemed by all who know them. 

Tt may here be stated that Anton, the 
father of oui- subject, was a soldier in the 
(ierman-Danish war of IS-tS. He was ser- 
geant in that service and was wounded in 
the leg.* h\ 1ST6 oui* subject joined the 
Custer expedition as teamster. This was 
witli the famous General Custer, among the 
hostile Indian tribes, when Custerwas killed. 
This trip consumed over three montlis. 

fOHN McGRATH. Prominent among 
the business men of the famous Park 
Regions, is the gentleman whose name 
heads this article, the proprietor of the meat 
mai'ket in the village of Barnesville, Clay 
county, Minnesota. He is a native of the 
State of Wisconsin, born in Greenville, in 
1858, and is the son of Dennis and Ellen 
(Cashman) McGrath, natives of Ireland. 

John McGi'ath attended the common 
schools in AVisconsin until nine years of age, 
at which period in life he came to the State 
of ]\Iinnesota, and settled with his parents 
in the village of Clinton Falls, Steele county, 
Minnesota. He remained there with his 
parents, attending school and working on 
the farm, until 1878, when he commenced 
in life for himself. In the spring of 1879 
he stalled from Owatonna with three horses 
for Barnesville, Clay county, Minnesota. 
Ilis Ill-other was with him, and as soon aSthey 
reached their destination they commenced 
to improve their land which they home- 
steailed on arriving there. They were the 
first settlers and built the first claim shanty 
in that region. "When our suljject left the 
farm he went to the village of Barnesville 
and o[)ened u]i a butcher's shop in partner- 

ship with his brother Thomas. They have 
since been engaged in the same business, and 
are the most successful business men in their 
line in the village. In 1883 Mr. McGrath 
purchased the St. James Hotel in that place 
and for eighteen months continued that 
business. During that time he erected the 
building now known as the Central House, 
situated near the depot. At the expiration 
of the eighteen months of hotel experience 
the subject of this liiography returned to 
the occupation of butchering, his brother 
having carried on the trade while he was in 
the hotel. In 188.5 the brothers opened a 
machine shop, liandling all kinds of farm 
machinery and implements of husbandry. 
They have since been engaged in that line 
in addition to their meat market. 

Mr. ]\[cGrath was united in marriage on 
the 1st of September. 188.5, to Miss Allie 
Brislane, a native of Minnesota. Mr. Mc- 
Grath is one of the prominent and esteemed 
business men of the village, and takes an 
active interest in all public matters. He is 
a republican in his political affiliations and 
is a man of the strictest honor and integrity, 
highly esteemed by all who know him. He 
has held the office of president of the 
village board, and was one of the active 
workers when the new town was organized. 
He is a member of the Independent Order of 
Odd-Fellows and an exemplary citizen. 



ON. E. E. CORLISS, attorney and 
counselor-at-law, is a resident of 
Fergus Falls, Otter Tail county. Minnesota. 
He is a native of Washington county, Ver- 
mont, and was born September 1, 1841. 
He is the son of Timothy E. and Elvira 
(Ilutchins) Corliss, both of whom were 
natives of New Hampshire. 

The father was a farmer and a lumber- 
man. He came to Winona countv, Minne- 


Kl.n KIIEK \AI l.l-.y A.\D 

sota, in 1856 and settled in Saratoga town- 
ship, wliere lie pre-emjjteil 1<10 acres of 
land. lie improved tliis farm and remained 
tiiere until after tiie close of the war. 
He is now a resident of Pelican Rapids, 
and, having laid up for himself a neat 
competency, lias retired from active busi- 
ness. The father had a family of eiglit 
cliildron, six of whom are now living- 
Stilton H.. John W., Eben E., Jennie, now 
Mrs. Beardsley ; Reliecca, now Mrs. Kenney ; 
and Charles M. The mother died in Sara- 
toga townshi}), Winona county, on the 6tli 
of December, ISGd. 
, Jfr. Corliss, the subject of this sketch, re- 
mained at home in his native State, receiving 
his education in the common schools. His 
early training was received while with his 
parents at home upon the fai'iii. On the 
breakino- out of the war he enlisted in Com- 
pany K, First Regiment, Minnesota \^ol- 
unteers, and served for three months in the 
ranks. After this period he re-enlisted in 
Company A, Second Regiment, Minnesota 
Volunteers, serving for three years. Mr. 
Corliss passed through much trying service. 
He was wounded at the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, being struck by a bullet in the back 
of the head, and Avas for two montlis in 
Hospital Number Five at Kashviile. On 
the 26th of May, 1864, he was discharged 
fi-om service, and in April, 1S65, he enlisted 
in Company A, Ninth United States Vet- 
eran Volunteers, and served as sergeant 
until the close of the war. ]\[r. Corliss was 
in a great many severe engagements, among 
them may be named the following — Jlill 
Springs, Kentucky ; I'ittsiiurgh Landing, 
the siege of Cornith, Terryville, Cliicka- 
inauga, and others of less fame. He was for 
some time with Sherman liefore Atlanta, 
and saw much weary marching for forty 
days going toward that city, being under 
fire the greater part of that time. After 
returning from the war he settled in Saratoga 

township, Winona county, Minnesota, where 
he remained on the farm for one year. 
Thence he went to ChatKeld. Fillmore 
county, Minnesota, where he studied law with 
Judge Ripley. In 1870 he was admitted to 
the b;ir. He came to Otter Tail county aiul 
settled at Battle Lake, where he built tiie 
first frame house in the county. The dimen- 
sions were sixteen liy twent}' feet with 
twelve-foot posts. He settled on 320 aci-es 
of land, one-half of which was preemption 
and the other half homestead. He contin- 
ued on the farm, improving the same until 
187-t, at which time he removed to Fei'gus 
Falls, openetl a law office and engaged ac- 
tively in the practice of his pi'ofession. He 
is still I'unning his farms, having purchased 
other lands, making in all 500 acres. He 
has been (piite successful in his farming busi- 
ness, and does not confine his attention 
whollv to raising grain. At present he has 
many Jiead of line-graded stock. His prop- 
erty interests in the city consist of several 
houses and much business property, besides 
his fine residence, witli all moilern improve- 
ments, situated on Lincoln avenue. He also 
has a summer residence at Chitherall Lake. 
Mr. Corliss has lield many offices of trust 
within the gift of his constituents. He was 
elected county attorney in 1S70, and held 
that office during the greater jtait of the 
time until 1881, serving ten years in all. For 
one year he served as a member of the lower 
body of the State legislature in 1S72. He 
has also held the positions of deputy register 
and deputy treasurer in Otter Tail countv, 
and was county superintendent of schools for 
some time in steatl of his brother, William 
M. Corliss, deceased. 

In 1 S6-t Mr. Corliss was married to Miss 
Elizalieth Tucker, daughter of John Tucker, 
of Saratoga, Wiiujna county, Minnesota. 
Six children blessed this union — Charles W., 
an attorney -at-law, who was married in 18S7 
to Miss Alice Stanton, of Fergus Falls; 



Jolin IT., a teacher by profession; Florence, 
Jennie, Mary and Roj' J. 

In politics Mr. Corliss is a defender of the 
faitii as proponnded by tlie republican party. 
lie has attained to considerable prominence 
in the councils of that jmrty and is one of 
the local leaders thereof. lie is also a prom- 
inent member of the Masonic, Odd-Fellows 
and G. A. li. fraternities. In all his busi- 
ness I'elations he has stood at the head of 
the citizens of Fergus Falls. He was one of 
the oi'ganizers of the Citizens' Bank, and is 
one of its directors. He is one of the lead- 
ing lawyers and most jn'ominent citizens of 
Fergus Falls. 

J^'REEMAN ORCUTT, retired capitalist, 
Xp" is a resident of "VVahpeton, Richland 
county, North Dakota. He is a native of 
Milwaukee, "Wisconsin, where he was born 
in the year 18i(5. His parents were Moses 
and IMary (McKay) Orcutt. 

The parents were natives of Vermont and 
Canada, respectively. \\\ early life the 
fatlier learned the trade of millwright, but 
later became a physician and surgeon. He 
came to Wisconsin in 1844, settling in Mil- 
wanlcee, where he remained for two years. 
He then removed to Steuben county. New 
York, residing there until IsiiO, when he 
came west, settling in Benton county, Min- 
nesota, where he lived a retired life until his 
death, which occurred in 1879. The mother 
died in New York State in 1855. They had 
a family of ten children, seven of whom are 
now living — Francis, William, Nelson, 
Henry, Freeman, George, and Walter S. 

The subject of our sketch I'emained at 
home under parental authority until his 
mother's death in 1855. He was then 
bound out to a farmer who was to keep him 
until he was twenty-one. This did not suit 
Mr. Orcutt, the place soon Ixjcame distaste- 

ful to him and the people disagreeable, so he 
ran away and came to AVisconsin, stopping 
at Beaver Dam, where he worked at all 
Icinds of labor and remained two years. He 
then came further west, stopping at Concord. 
Dodge county, Minnesota, where he woi'ked 
at anything he found to do. This was in 
1857, and our subject was but eleven years 
old and with no relative within a thousand 
miles. He was plucky, however, and ener- 
getic and always found something to do. In 
Aj)ril, 18(31, at fifteen years of age, he 
enlisted for a service of three 3'ears in Com- 
]iany I, First Regiment, Minnesota Infantry. 
He remained with this company eighteen 
months, and was then transferred to the 
Sixth Regular Infantry and was made dnll- 
master toward the close of his service at 
Fort Hamilton, on Long Island, New York. 
The first engagement was in the battle of 
Bull Run, where he was severely wounded 
by a shot received in his left leg. He 
was wounded at the battle of Gettysbui'g 
by a shot in the left elbow, the shot shatter- 
ing the bone and severing one of the main 
arteries. This disqualified him from fui-ther 
service as a soldier on the battle-field, as he 
could not have the proper use of his arm. 
He suffered intense agony by this wound, 
and lay on the battle-field nine days before 
Ijeing removed. He saw much fighting, and 
was in every battle of the Army of the 
Potomac up to the battle of Gettysburg, 
except the first battle of Fredericksburg, 
at which time lie was too sick to be in the 
field. After his service he went to Iloi'nolls- 
ville. New Y'ork, where he engaged in sell- 
ing lightning rods for about three months in 
the J'ear, and for nine months attended the 
Alford Academy and the Rodgersville Uni- 
versity, in Livingston county, New Y'ork. 
He pursued this })lan for three years and ac- 
quired an excellent education. In February, 
1808, he removed to Benton county, Minne- 
sota, settling just across the river from St. 



Cloud. There he took a Government claim 
and purchased other lands, making a fine 
farm of 480 acres. For nine years he re- 
mained here, part of the time being engaged 
in contracting and building and buying and 
selling proi)ert3\ In 1878 lie removed to 
Walijjeton, North Dakota, where he took a 
Government claim five miles west of the city. 
lie has added to his farm and has now 480 
acres of land all in one l)ody. He has im- 
proved his land and erected good buildings, 
lie Ijuilt his present residence in "Wahpeton 
in ISSO, where lie has since lived. 

Mr. Orcutt was married in 1880 to Miss 
Helen Rich, daughter of Morgan and Eliza- 
beth (Friedorick) Tlich. One child has 
l)l(>ssed this union — Jessie L. Mrs. Orcutt 
is a lady of refinement and finely educated, 
and is one of the moving spirits in the 
society of Wahpeton. 

Mr. Orcutt is a democrat in ]H)litics, is an 
Odd-Fellow and a member of the G. A. R. 
lie has been county commissioner and city 
treasurer for several years, and is now tiie 
city assessor. Mr. Orcutt is a man possessed 
of broad ideas, progressive in his thought, 
and e.Kerts an extensive influence among his 
fellow-citizens, l)y whom he is universally 



^^HARLES E. SAWYER, the efficient 
^^y cashiei- of the First National Bank of 
Crookston, Minnesota, is one of the rising 
\'oung business men of that city and real 
estate owners of the county. 

The subject of this sketch was born at 
AVaukesha, Waukesiia county, Wisconsin, 
Sejjtember 26, 1857, and is the son of Silas 
S, Sawyer, of that city. He renniined at 
home with his parents until he had attained 
the age of sixteen 3'ears, drawing his educa- 
tion from the excellent schools of the city of 
his birtli. In 1874 he entered the emplo}" of 

the Waukesha National Bank and remained 

witli that institution for a period of seven 
years. In Octoljcr, 1881, lie went to Chicago, 
Illinois, where, for a few months, lie was 
employed in the First National Bank. At tiie 
expiration of that time he removed to 
Ilacine, Wisconsin, and was employed by the 
widely-known J. I. Case Threshing Maciiine 
Com^iany in the responsible position of 
cashier from January, 1882, until January, 
1885. At the latter date he came to Crook- 
ston to assume the duties of cashier of the 
First National Bank of that place, a ]X)sition 
which he still holds. 

The First National Bank of Crookston 
was established in October, 1881, by the 
individual members of the J. 1. Case Thresh- 
ing Machine Comjiany, and incor])orated 
with a ca])ital stock of $50,000. In January, 
1884, the capital slock was increased to 
$100,000, and the i)ank is to-day the most 
important monetary institution in the city. 
]\Iembers of the J. I. Case Company are still 
large stockholders in the bank, as is Mr. 
Sawyer. The latter, as one of the board of 
directors and as cashier, has materially 
helped in bringing the business to its high 
state of efticiencv and financial standing in 
the community, and has prospered in his own 
investments to a satisfactory degree. He has 
real estate interests in the city of Crookston 
and a consideral)le amount of improved and 
unimproved fai'm lands thi'oughout tlie 
county. One farm of lOo acres, in the en- 
virons of the city, he cari'ies on under in's 
own supervision. 

A man of sterling integrity, affable man- 
ners, and ])ublic-spirite(l and lii)eral, he is an 
honor to tlie community in wliich he I'esides, 
and is held in the highest appreciation by 
the citizens of Crookston and the sui'round- 
ing countr}'. He is a member of Crookston 
Lodge, No. 141, A. F. and A. M., and of 
Pierson Chapter, No. 40, E. A. M. Mr. Saw- 
yer is a member of the First Baptist church 



of the city and one of the trustees of that 
congregation. Mucli of liis spare time is 
jriven to religious worlc and the advancement 
of the cause of Christ, and he endeavors in 
all things to square his life by the teachings 
of the Christian religion. 

On the 24th of January, 1888, Mr. Sawyer 
was united in matrimonial bonds with 
Miss Elsie Jennings, a native of Wisconsin 
and the daughter of I. U. Jennings, of 



^^RICK FRANKBERG, tiie city police 
^P- justice of Fergus Falls, Otter Tail 
county, ]\rinnesota, is a native of Sweden, 
born on the yth day of August, 1850. 

His parents were Andrew and Britta O. 
D. (Johnson) Berg, both of whom were 
natives of Sweden. The father was born in 
1805. The father's father was Magnus 
Berg, and the mother's father was Oloff 
Johnson. They were all well-to-do-farmers, 
and were prominent in the affairs of their 
native country. Magnus Berg was in the 
war of 1808-9, and served about three 3'ears. 
He had a large family, of whom four sons 
anil one daughter lived to manhood and 
womanhood. Oloff Johnson had only two 
daughters, one of whom died at twenty-two, 
and the other, tlie mother of the subject of 
our sketch, lived until 1877, when she died 
in her native land. She was born in 1815. 

Andrew Berg, the father of the subject of 
our sketch, was a carpenter and builder by 
trade, and also a pattern-maker. He fol- 
lowed these lines until 1871, when he re- 
tired from active business life. Previous to 
this, however, he had engaged extensively 
in farming, and ran a large farm in connec- 
tion with his other business, but in 1856 
gave his farm into other hands. From 1871 
untd his death in 1880 he lived a retired 
life, lie aiul his wife wei'o loyal and ])rom- 

inent members of the Lntheran church, in 
which he held a leading office for many 
years. He was a, liberal-hearted man, and 
was always ready to hel]) the poor. He was 
respected and loved b}' all in life and la- 
mented in death. His wife was a lady of 
generous qualities, nmch given to alms- 
giving, and belonged to various organiza- 
tions for the promotion of social purity and 
for the good of her people. They had a 
familfy of six children — Oloff, now dead ; 
Magnus, Anna, now Mrs. Johnson ; Ei'ick, 
Andreas, and Jonas, now dead. Three of 
these children came to America. Oloff set- 
tled in Chicago, where he was engaged in 
building and contracting. He came to 
America in 18(17 with his sister, Mrs. John- 
son. He lived in Chicago until his death, 
which occurred in 1875. The rest of the 
children remained in Sweden with the ex- 
ce])tion of tlie subject of our sketch. 

Mr. Frankberg, whose name appears at 
the head of this sketch, reached Chicago, 
Hlinois, on the 12th of August, 1871, having 
left Guttenburg, in his native land, Jidy 
21st, of the same year. His childhood-days 
were spent in school in liis native land. 
Until thirteen years of age he attended the 
public schools, and at that age he had passed 
all the grades taught in those institutions. 
At this time he was sent to his uncle Mair- 
nus, where for one year he attended a select 
school. After this he was sent to the city 
of lludicksvall, where he continued his 
studies in the high school for one year, at 
which time he was confirmed in the Luthei'an 
church of that city. He was then engaged 
as clerk by the proprietor of the jirincipal 
hotel of .that place, in which employment 
he remained for one ^ear. His father now 
insisted that he learn the trade of carjien- 
ter and builder, and the son engaged 
in this line for two and one-half years. 
Then for one year longer he served with 
H. Shavon, in the city of Hernosand, Nor- 


JiEn a'/j'/:k Axn 

land, finisliing his apprenticeship to that 
trade. At this time lie returned home, and, 
wiicn twenty j'ears of age. in obedience to 
the Swedish law extant at that time, he 
attended a military school, being promoted 
for the third time to the office of vice-corpo- 
ral. After remaining for one month he 
visited his father's family for some three 
weeks, and then migrated to America, com- 
ing to Cliicago in 1871. In Chicago he 
turned his attention to working at his trade, 
and, togetlier witli liis oldest brother, took 
and fulfilled a great many contracts for 
building. On the 9tii of October of that 
year came tiie terrible Chicago fire. At 
this time tlie Ijrotliers were just completing 
a new buikling. Tliis, together with a great 
many valuables that he had brought from 
Sweden, was burned and utterly destroyed. 
His loss directly from the fire was over 
$1,200, and in a siioit time he lost $292 
more that had been deposited in a bank ; the 
bank failed, and he was out of money. 
After the fire he worked at his trade; and 
was very successful.. He overworked, how- 
ever, and was taken sick with a fever, being 
laid up for nine weeks, and was, during the 
most of this time, paying $5 a week for 
board and $1 \>av day for doctors sei'vices. 
This sickness ate up all of his hard earnings. 
On his recovei'y he again turned Jiis atten- 
tion to worla'ng at his trade, and was again 
successful in gathering together considei'able 
money. During the winter in 1872 he went 
to a private school for tlie i)urpose of learning 
the English language and the business cus- 
toms of our country. Again he turned his 
attention to the carpenter's trade, continuing 
in this business until 1875, when he went to 
Pierce county, Wisconsin, where he was en- 
gaged in contracting and building until 1880. 
During this time he served as constable for 
two 3'ears and studied law some. J)Ut he 
longed to come further west, and on the 2d 
day of October landed at Fergus Falls, 

Minnesota, where he went to work for Erwin 
Gage at the carj)enter's trade. Here he had 
charge of the building of the school-house 
that was destroyed bv fire in 1887. He fol- 
lowed the inisiness of building and contract- 
ing until 1884, when he engaged in other 
lines, and turned his attention to real estate 
business pi'incipally. He followed this until 
1885, when he was appointed city justice 
to fill out the unexpired term of Soren 
Listoe. In the spring of 1887 he was elected 
to that office without opposition and has 
held that position since. He has held nu- 
merous other positions of trust, being atone 
time appointed superintendent of tlie con- 
struction of the high-school building. Dur- 
ing the 3'ear 1872, when in the citv of Chi- 
cago, he made his declaration of citizenship 
and took out his first ])apers in the spring of 
1877, then being in Pierce county, Wiscon- 
sin. His application was made before Judge 
Eundy from whom he received his luitural- 
ization papers. 

On the 24th day of November, 1887, Mr. 
Frankberg was married to Miss Louise 
Johnson, of Pepin county, Wisconsin. She 
was a native of Sweden and came to 
America when twelve years of age. She 
was born October 23, 1850. Two sons 
have blessed this union — Albei't P., bom 
February 4, 1881 ; and George W., born 
December 20, 1 882. 

Mr. Frankberg owns a comfoi-tablc home 
on Summit avenue, which he built in 1882. 
In politics he is a standi republican, and 
with his wife and famil}' attentls the Luth- 
eran church. He is a leading member of 
the Odd-Fellows fraternity, being deputy 
grand master of this district. He became a 
member of the Odd-Fellows lodge Decem- 
ber 25, 1870. In politics Mr. Frankberg 
takes a ])rominent jilace. In 1880 he was 
appointed secretary of the republican county 
committee, and in 1888, during the entire 
campaign, was chaii'inan of the republican 



committee of Otter Tail count}'. He 
proven iiimself an earnest, enthusiastic 
worker in political matters, and at all times 
a wise counselor. Ilis parents' name was 
llerg, but on attending the millitar\' school 
in Sweden lie was given the name of Frank, 
so that ilis name became Frankl)erg. 

li'HOMAS D. MULLIN, one of the 
prominent business men of the famous 
Park Regions of ^Minnesota, is at the present 
writin"- engaged in the collection business in 
tlie thriving village of Herman, Grcint 
fonntv, ^Minnesota. He is a native of New 
Brunswick. Ijorn on the ISth of Februaiw, 
18.5;^., and is the son of Joseph and Rachel 
(Davis) MuUin, natives of Ireland and Wales, 
respectively. The grandfather of our subject 
on his mother's side was John Davis, a far- 
mer and a native of Wales. The grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch on his father's side 
was John Arthur Mullin, a native of Ireland, 
and at one time a merchant in that country. 
The father of our subject died in April, 1867, 
and was by occupation a school-teacher. He 
was also engaged at manufacturing boots 
imd sho(>s in the citj^ of Fredricton, New 
Bmnswiek, for a good man}' years. He 
with his family belonged to the Free Baptist 
cimi'ch. Tliey had a family of the following- 
named children — John A., Amelia, JosepJi 
II., Eldon, Sarah A., George L., Thomas D., 
Melijurn S., Barnett M. and William II. 
George was drowned at the age of eleven 
years, in the St. John river. New Brunswick. 
John died in a Florida hospital three months 
before the close of the Civil War. He en- 
listed in a Maine Cavalry Kegiment. Joseph 
(bed in June, 1886, in the land of his birth. 
New Brunswick, being forty years old. He 
was head salesman in a large dry goods firm 
at the city of Fredricton, New Brunswick. 

Mr. Mullin, the suliject of this ijiograph- 
ical sketch, spent hissciiool-daysin his native 
land, and at the age of seventeen years quit 
his sciiool-life and commenced an ajipren- 
ticeship in a carriage-shop, continuing at 
his trade until 1882. Prior to this, in 1879, 
he had I'emoved to Herman, Grant county, 
Minnesota, and engaged at his trade 
until the tune mentioned. After quitting 
his trade he engaged in the hotel business, 
and during that summer successfully operated 
the Commercial House in Herman. He then 
eng-aged in the same class of business, in 
^vhich he is now engaged. He traveled 
as a collector for the AValter A. Wood Ilarv 
ester Works, and in Jime, 1888, resigned his 
position with that company and commenced 
his present collection business on his own ac- 
count. He is extensively engaged in this line 
of work and is considered to be one of the 
best men in his line. He cari'ies all lines of 
collections, and, as he is a man of the utmost 
honor and integrity, he commands a large 
aiul growing business, and is one of Grant 
county's most prominent business men-. 

Mr. Mullin was jnarried November 23, 
ISSl, to Miss Abbie S. Cater, who was born 
at Lawrence, Massachusetts, in 1856. She is 
the daughter of Andrew J. (^ater, a farmer 
and lumberman, who with his family came to 
Minnesota, in lS6tt, and settled at Princeton, 
Minnesota. She is one of six children, and 
was educated in Minnea])olis, Minnesota. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mullin are the parents of one 
child, Genevive, born August 15, 1882. Mr. 
Mullin was engaged three years M'ith C. M. 
Stevens in the collection business, and after 
leaving that gentleman engaged with the 
Harvester Works. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity — a member of Pres- 
cott Lodge, No. 162, A. F. & A. M. Eldon^ 
the brother of our subject, is principal of the 
Provincial Normal School, in Fredricton, New 
Brunswick, and is considei-ed to be the most 
highly educated man in tiie jjrovince. In 



1886 he was appointed as commissioner of 
education at the Indian Colonial Exhibition, 
atLimdon, England. Earnett.anotlier brother 
of Mr. J\[iillin, is a principal ol' a school in 
St. Mary's, New Brunswick ; and Melbourn 
was a partner of our subject's in the carriage 
business in the village of ITavlock, Tsew 
15runswiclc, but since the fall of 1879 he 
has been in the employ of the Government 
Kailway Works in the city of Moncton, New 

SWEET, a farmer of 
, ^Minnesota, is a son of 
Henry and Jane (Dandley) Sweet, natives of 
New York and Connecticut, respectively, 
lie was born in the province of Ontario, 
May 22, 1S4S. He nuide ids home with his 
parents until h(' was twenty -five years of age. 
He followed the business of farming in On- 
tario till the spring of 1881, when he re- 
moved to the United States, coming directly 
to Fisher, Minnesota, where, the first year, 
he bought IGO acres of land, and the next 
year purchased eighty acres more, making 
him a tine farm of 240 acres, besides a piece 
of timber land on the banks of the Red 
river. He is an exemplary citizen and a suc- 
cessful farmer. He resides, at this writing, 
in Fislier village. Ephraim A. Sweet was 
mari'ied May 2t», 1ST3. to Miss Agnes E. As- 
selstine, daugiiter of Benjamin and Chai'- 
lotte (Huffman) Asselstine, natives of Ontario. 
The fruits of this mari'iage were the follow- 
ing cliildrcn — Mabel O., Arthur G., Cyrus 
J., George 11., Edna May, and Harry B., all 
of whom are living, except George 11., who 
died the fall after they came to this country. 
Ephraim's parents, who both died in Ontario, 
have six children, who still survive them at 
this date — Mulford J., James, George W., 
Esther M., Orison D. and the subject of this 
sketch. The parents of Mrs. Sweet also died 

in Ontario, and she has eight brothere and • 

sisters now living — Wesley, Cyrus, Nicholas, j 
Coleman, Charlotte, Mai'v, Olivia, and Effie. 

ISIr. Sweet and his family are members of tiie _■ 

]\ret]iodist Episcopal church. He has served I 

as township clerk, supervisor, anti sciiool ^ 
clerk, also as steward of his ciiui-ch. 

©EXTER E. BRONSON, the affable and 
accommodating ))roprietor of the sale 
and livery stable in Breckenridge, Min- 
nesota, is a native of New York. He was 
born in Chautauqua county, New York, in 
183S, and is a son of George A. and IMary 
(Barnes) Bronson, natives of the "Empire 
State." The father was a blacksmith by 
trade, and remained in his native State 
until 1859, when he went to California, 
where he died September 20, 186(i, and the 
mother died March 4, 1861. They had four 
children who are now living — Dexter E., 
Phoebe E.. now Mrs. Cyrus Underwood; 
Alice A., now Mrs. Ferrin, and Georgia, 
the wife of Mr. Hale. Tlie subject of this 
sketch remained at home attending school 
until he was twenty years of age, at which 
time he commenced in life for himself. He 
opened a hotel in Bradford, Iowa, where he 
had settled in 1S53 with his parents, lie 
enlisted, October 2, 1862, in Comjiany B, 
Sixth Iowa Cavalry, and was in the service 
three years. He was promoted to llrst 
lieutenant and afterward to ca]itain. He 
served in the Indian war in Dakota, and, 
after his lionorable discharge, moved to 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, where he remained 
for several years engaged in the contracting 
business. In 1879 he moved to Pope countv, 
Minnesota, and settled on a farm near Han- 
cock, where he remained engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits for three years. In 1881 
he removetl to Wilkin county, Miniu'sota, 
and settled in Breckenridge, still operating 



his farm in Pope county for one j'ear. On 
settling in Breckenriclge, he engaged in tlie 
hotel business, which he followed for three 
years. lie then started in his present busi- 
ness, at which he has since been engaged. 

Mr. Bronson was united in marriage in 
ISGU to Miss Yira Foster, and this union has 
been blessed with two children — George A. 
and Fi-ank D. Mrs. Bronson is a native of 
Maine, and is a daughter of Dr. E. 11. Foster. 

i\Ir. Bronson is one of the most prominent 
men of his village. He held the othce of 
city marshal for one year, and takes an 
active interest in all public matters. He is 
an adherent to the principles of the repub- 
lican part}'. 

R. BRIGGS. The bar of the Eed 
L-H^- liiver Yallev includes many of the 
most able lawyers in the State, and the gen- 
tleman whose name heads this article may 
justly ha rated as one of the most prominent 
among them. 

E. E. Briggs was born at Lake Mills, Jeffer- 
son county, Wisconsin, April 20, 1851, and is 
the son of Silas II. and Sarah A. (Eeed) 
Briggs. The father was born in Steuben 
county, New York, and the mother was 
a native of Waupaca, Wisconsin. Silas H. 
came to Wisconsin when a young man, en- 
gaging at both farming and mercantile busi- 
ness, lie left that section in 1865 and went 
to Filhnoi'e county, Minnesota, and farmed 
for two years ; from there he moved to Wi- 
nona, where he ran a boarding-house. His 
wife died at that place in 180S. He remained 
a few months, and moved to Martin county, 
Minnesota, again engaii'ing in farming, fol- 
lowing the same until 1885, when he died. 
His people were of English origin, and he 
was a man of mucli ])rominence in AViscon- 
sin. Sarah II. Eeed's father was a native of 
New York, but came to Wisconsin in an 

early da}'. He spent his last days at St. 
Charles, Minnesota, where he died in 1885. 
He was also of English origin. 

Our subject, E. E. Briggs, lived with 
his parents until fourteen j'ears of age, at 
Wyocena, Wisconsin, where he attended the 
common schools with the now celebrated Dr. 
N. E. Wood, of Brooklyn, New York. Our 
subject then went to Fillmore count}', Min- 
nesota, to assist his father in farm work, also 
accompanied them to Winona, where he did 
all kinds of manual labor, jiaying for his 
own schooling at the Winona High School, 
from which he graduated, in 18T1, with high 
honors in the first class which graduated 
from that school. He made his home for 
one year with Mrs. Mary C. Nind, who is 
corresponding secretary of the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Prior to his graduation 
he taught school six months in Wisconsin, 
one term at Mt. Yernon, Minnesota, and 
one terra at Pickwick. 

After he had graduated, he was tendered 
the professorship of the Eed Wing Institute, 
then under the presidenc}^ of W. P. Hood, 
He refused this, howevei', and entered the 
law Urm of Simpon i*»: AVilson, at AA'^inona, 
under the tutorship of Judge Abner Lewis, 
a former member of Congress from New 
York. After being a student for three years, 
he was admitted to the bar in 1873, and at 
once began practice at Winona, where he 
remained until 1878, when he came to Moor- 
head. His (office is now in the Grand Pa- 
cific hotel. He is said to possess the most 
complete private lil)rary in the Nortliwest, 
much larger than found in an}' of the public 
libraries. He values this choice library and 
his law library at $10,000 dollars. His pi'ac- 
tice is a large one antl is still increasino-. 

No man of Moorhead has accomplished 
more or put forth more effort to buikl up the 
city and county than has our subject. He 
was interested in the various raili-oads 



diverging from the place. lie aided the 
Mooriiead foundry and machine shop, also 
was ]iroininont in the !Moorlicad Publishing 
Company (Moorhead Evening NnoH),i\\\iS. has 
also been a successful ojierator in farm in- 
dustry. His residence, which is one of 
Mooi'iioad's best, is situated on Eighth and 
Gai'i'Dwa}' streets, n))on a beautiful plat of 
nine lots. 

Mr. Briggs was mai'i'ied July 4, 1875, to 
Miss Lizzie IJascomb, of Wisconsin. She 
was a student at the Northwestern Univer- 
sity at Evnnston, Tliinois, and a pupil of the 
celebrated Miss Frances Willard. She also 
followed teaching in Minnesota some, prior to 
her marriage. Sheis nowtliemotherof three 
children — Florence E., Earl E., and Edith. 

Mrs. Briggs is a faithful Christian worker 
and is vice-president of the W. C. T. U. of 
Minnesota, and president of her district for 
the same society. Both parents and children 
belong to the Methodist Episcopal churcii. 
The father has been superintendent of a Sun- 
day -S(;hool for ten years, and has for a long 
])eriod taught a class of young ladies. In 
188i lie re])resented the Methodist EjMscojial 

delpliia, as a lay 
lie holds the oflice of menibei'of the oiticial 
board of the Moorheatl church. He is a 
strong advocate of temperance principles and 
temperance laws, and is a thorough repub- 
lican in politics. Such is the life stor}' in 
brief of one of the most higldy esteemed 
gentlemen and one of the leadfng attornej's 
of Moorhead. 

at the general conference at Thila- 
delegate from Minnesota. 



©LE H. LUCKEN, the ])oi)ular and 
well-known treasurer of Polk county, 
Minnesota, is one of the "brave boys in 
l)lue "' to wlumi this nation is so much in- 
debted I'oi' their sei'vices during the late Civil 
War, and is the jiresent commander of Cob- 
ham Post, No. 90, G. A. R., of Crookston, 

of which city he is an influential and es- 
teemed citizen. 

It being within the scoi)eof tliis volume to 
give a short sketch of the lives of the jirom- 
inent and i-epresentative peo])le of this local- 
ity, it devolves upon us to place in i)roper 
order the narrative of the characteristics and 
events which constitute ^Mr. Lucken's biog- 
ra|)]iy. Ii<^ was i)orn in Norway, that cradle 
of so many dominant i-aces, on the 22d of 
September, ls;57, and is the son of Hans and 
Maria Luclcen. Beared amid his native 
hills, he there drank in that spirit of liberty 
and ind(>pendence that is so chai-actei-istic of 
the iiiMU. and there received the elements of 
an ('(hication, the birthright of every native 
of that favored kingilom. In 1S.")7, ijeing 
then some twenty years of age, he bade 
adieu to his Noi-thland liome, and, crossing 
the, landed in Eastern Canada, where 
he made his home until September, 1801, 
when ho immigrated into the United States. 
Scarce had he reachcHl his post of destination, 
Madison, Wisconsin, when, on the 20th of 
September, he enlisted in Company H, Fif- 
teenth Wisconsin Infantry, and remained a 
member of that gallant band of heroic men 
until the spring of 186;"). He bore a con- 
spicuous })art in the capture of Island No. 
10, in the battles of Perry ville and Stone 
Biver, and bore the Hag of his I'egiment, so 
oft the oi'iflamme of victory, thi'oughout the 
awful carnage of Chickamauga's bloody day 
and the perilous assault and cai)ture of the con- 
federate lines on Mission Bidge. At Chicka- 
mauga a minie-ball from an enemy's musket 
grazed his head, knocking him helpless and 
insensible with a wound upon his scalp. His 
comrades seeing him fall, left him on the 
Held for dead, but within an hour he was in 
his old place in the lines of the regiment, 
with his head tied up in a handkerchief and 
the beloved ensign of his adopted country 
waving; above him. The command luiving 

been assiiined to the column 

(ien. AV. T. 



Sherman, our suhjoct participated in all of 
the excitint^ scenes that heralded the fall of 
Atlanta, and in the battle of • Joncsboro. 
When Sherman piisiied out his columns to 
the sea, the Fifteenth Wisconsin was assigned 
for duty to the railroad between Nashville 
and Chattanooga, where our subject re- 
mained until Fel)ruary 18, 1865, when he was 
mustered out of the service. lieturniiig to 
Madison, Wisconsin, he was commissioned as 
first lieutenant of CduipanyE, Fifty-third Wis- 
consin Infantry, and did gallant service in 
Missouri until October 10, 18C5, when he 
was again mustered out and finally dis- 
ci larged. 

Immediately on leaving the service Mr. 
Lucken removed to the State of Iowa, and, 
putting up a woolen mill at Decorah, the 
seat of justice of Winneshiek county, con- 
tinued its o]ieration tiiere for about nine 
years. In 1874, dis[)osing of his property 
there, he removed to Lyle, Mower county, 
Minnesota, at which ]ioint he was engaged 
in the general merclumdise trade until the 
centennial year, ISTG, when, once more sell- 
ing out, he opened a general store at Bloom- 
ing Prairie, Steele county, this State, l)ut in 
1878 disposed of it and came to Polk county. 
Here he took up a claim in the town of Rus- 
sia, but shoi'tly after was appointed receiver 
of the estate of T. II. Ergens, and remained 
tiiere until April, 1879, at which date he 
came to Crookston, where he has resided 
ever since. During that summer, a vacancy 
having occurred in the oiJice of the county 
treasurer, Mr. Lucken was apjiointed to that 
position. At the election in the succeeding 
fall he was chosen I>y the qualilied voters of 
the count}' to fill tiie same post, and has been 
continued therein by a discriminating and 
adiiiiriiii;- constitiieiicv, he lieino- elected his 
own successor ever since, lie has always 
been identified closel\' with the republican 
pai'ty,and stands liigii in the local councils of 
that organization. 

Tlie subject of this memoir is a leading 
and active memi)er of the Masonic frater- 
nity; was made a Mason in Great Light 
Lodge, No. 81, of Decorah, Iowa, in 1866, 
but is now a member of Crookston Lodge, 
No. 141, A. F. & A. M.; of Pierson Chapter, 
No. 40, K. A. M., and of Constantine Com- 
mandery, No. 20, K. T. 

Mr. Lucken was uniteil in marriage on the 
27th of May, 1867, at Decorah, Iowa, with 
Miss Elizabeth Wilson, a native of Norway, 
and the daughter of Andrew and Elizabeth 
Wilson. By this union there has been born 
two children — Horace and Leonartl. 



the thrifty and frugal citizens of 
Grant county, Minnesota, is the gentleman 
whose name heads this biographical sketch. 
His beautiful farm, comprising 160 acres of 
well cultivated land lies in Logan township 
on section 22, where he carries on, success- 
full\% a general farming and stock-raising 
i)usiness. Mr. Holasek is a native of Minne- 
sota, born in Eden Prairie, Hennepin county, 
and is the son of Joseph and Mary (Charstic) 
Holasek, natives of Bohemia, a subdivision 
of the Austrian Empire. The father and 
mother of our subject emigrated to the Unit- 
ed States, and settled in Ilennejiin county, 
where they still remain. The father is a 
farmer, and is one of the representative citi- 
zens of the localitjr in which he resides. 
They are the parents of thirteen living chil- 
dren, named in the following order — Anna, 
]\fary,AVinslow, Joseph, John, Julia, Stephen, 
Jennie, Frank, Fred, Eosa, Christena and 

Winslow Holasek spent his school days in 
Hennepin county, attending for some time 
in Minneapolis, but principally in the district 
schools. At the age of nineteen years he 
left the school-room, and until he had reached 



the age of twentv-ono. Avorkod for S. W. 
Fiirnliaiii, in Minneapolis. After remaining 
with this gentleman for about eighteen 
months, ^fr. Ilohisek moved to Grant county, 
j\Iinnesota, setthng, in ISSO, on his present 
tract of land in Logan township on section 
22. On this jjlacc he has since remained, and 
is one of the prominent and influential farm- 
ers of that regicm. 

~Wv. llolasek was united in the holy bonds 
of matrimony on the ISth day of February, 
1882, to Miss Mary Souba, a native of Wis- 
consin. This union has lieen blessed witli 
two chiklren — Joseph W. and Rosa M. Mr. 
llolasek is a Catholic in religious belief. He 
is a man of the sti'ictest honor and integrity, 
highly esteemed by all his acquaintances. 
He holds the office of treasurer of Logan 
township and is also poundmaster. He 
affiliates with the democratic party and 
takes an active interest in that oi-ganiza- 
tion's campaigns. 

— — *-J€i^-'«— - 

rUDGE FOLSOM DOW is one of the 
landmarks of Richland county, North 
Dakota, having been the second settler in 
the village of Wahpeton. He has therefore 
been identifieil closely with all the interests 
of that place since its foundation. He is of 
EngHsh descent, and traces his ancestry 
back to Benjamin Dow, his great grand- 
father, who came to America from England, 
in about 1740, settling at Seabrook, New 
PLampshire. Benjamin Dow's son Winthrop 
was the grandfather of the subject of our 

Judge Dow was born in New Hampshire, 
August 5, 1838, his ]iarents being Samuel 
and Mary (Pease) Dow, natives of the same 
State. The mother was a daughtei' of Win- 
throp Pease, who was the son of Enoch 
Pease, a native of England, and who, on 
coming to this country, settled in Deerfield, 

New Hampshire, where he followed the busi- 
ness of farming. 

Samuel Dow was a farmer by occupation, 
and also dealt largely in cattle, buying and 
driving to Massachusetts, where he sold 
many head. He died in the place of his 
nativity January 19, ISOT. The mother died 
February 17, 1870. They had a family of 
three children, two of wlioni are now liv- 
ing — Louisa M., now Mrs. JUake. and Fol- 
som, whose name appears at the head of 
this sketch. 

Judge Dow spent his younger days on the 
home farm attending the district school. 
At fourteen he commenced a course in the 
Phillips Academy, where he attended every 
winter until he was seventeen years old. 
At that age he began the study of law with 
James McMurphy, Esq., in E]))iing. Rock- 
ingham county, New Ham])shire. He con- 
tinueil prosecuting his legal studios in the 
winter, and working on the farm during the 
summer, until lS6-t. In that year he was 
admitted to practice by the supreme court 
of New Hampshire. He then opened a law 
office in his native town, and engaged in 
active practice there until 1870. Durmg 
this time he had made his home on his 
mother's farm, Init after his mother's death, 
which occurred February 17th, in that year, 
he settled up the estate and started for the 
West, traveling in search of a location. For 
two months he traveled over the Northwest, 
" viewingtlie landscape o'er," and then settled 
for a short time in Yankton, Noilli Dakota. 
While on his prospecting tour he canu^ to 
North Dakota on a, Governnu'iit surveying 
corps. lie followed the lino Iruni LJrecken- 
ridge across the Boid Sioux river into T^akota, 
and when he passed over what is now the site 
of the county seat of Ricldand county, so 
struck was he with the beauty and lay of the 
country, that he concluded to mark it for his 
own. So, taking a stake, with his name carved 
upon it, he drove it into the ground as a land- 



mark. His prophecy has been verified in the 
fact that now tliat land lies within the lim- 
its of tiie city of Wahpeton. The same 
year he returned and built a house on this 
land, becoming the second settler in the 
place, where he has since resided. He com- 
menced operations on the farm by having 
forty acres broken and put under cultiva- 
tion. However, he had no idea of relin- 
quisiiing his hold on his ])rofession, so he 
openetl an otRce in his house and gave his at- 
tention to what business there was in the 
legal line. He was the first regularly ad- 
mitted lawyer in the county, and has con- 
tinued in active practice since coming to this 
county. The settlers organized a school 
board in 1ST3, andhe became one of its mem- 
bers, which position he held until 18S7, 
when he refused to serve longer. He was 
the first justice in the count}', being elected 
in 1S73, and married the first couple who 
were m.arried in the county. This couple, 
after their mari-iage, camped on the river 
bank, turning their oxen loose to graze on 
the prairie, and themselves sleeping in their 
covered wagon. In the morning they bought 
a few goods and then started for their home 
on the Cheyenne river, far to the northwest. 
Judge Dow has officiated at more marriages 
than any three men in the county, and seems 
to be in active demand by those desirous of 
laimching on the matrimonial sea. He has 
held tlie office of justice during most of the 
time since 1S73, when he was first elected. 
He has held other positions of trust and 
responsiliility, among them that of county 
superintendent of schools, county treasurer, 
and ilistrict attorney. He enjoys a large and 
lucrative practice, and is held in high esteem 
l)y his fellow-citizens. He buys and sells 
real estate ami makes collections. He has 
invested largely in lands throughout the 
county, and owns some village property. 

In January, 1882, Judge Dow was mar- 
ried to Miss Josephine M. Losinger, of Eoch- 

ester, Minnesota, daughter of Frederick and 
Harriett (Eaton) Losinger, natives of Penn- 
sylvania and Connecticut, resj^ectively. This 
marriage has been blessed with two children 
— Mary and Clarence S. 

Judge Dow is a supporter of the ]n'inci- 
ples of the I'epublican party, and is an ac- 
knowledged leader in its local affairs. He 
is a member of the I. O. O. F. and attends 
the Congregational church, of which he is a 
trustee, and of which he was one of the lo- 
cal founders. The judge is a man of strong, 
decided opinions, is careful and conservative 
in all things, and by his integrity and fear- 
less defense of the right has endeared him- 
self to the hearts of all who know him. 


IP,.^ EWELL N. HARDY is the junior 
W^ member of the firm of Kortsch &c 
Hardy, of Alexandria, Minnesota. He was 
born in Rock count}', Wisconsin, on March 
20, 1S43, and is the son of Samuel B. and 
Mary (Carlton) Hardy, natives of IVIassaehu- 

His father was engaged during most of his 
life in the boot and shoe business, and, coming 
to "Wisconsin in about 1841, settled in Rock 
county, where he took Government land and 
engaged thereafter in farming. He remained 
in this county until 1853, when he sold out and 
came to Minnesota, settling on Spring creek, 
near Red Wing. At this place he also took 
Government land.and improved the same until 
ISG-l. At this time he moved into the city 
of Red Wing, where he engaged in the man- 
ufacture of boots and shoes. Later he went 
to Diamond IMuff, Wisconsin, where he 
eno-asred in the g-i-ocerv business. He re- 
niained in this ]ilace until his death, which 
occurred in 1SS4, in the month of May. The 
mother died in November, 1887. They were 
both members of the Methodist Episco])al 
church, the father having been prominent in 
the churches of which he had been a member, 



having held the position of ciass-leatler and 
otiiei" offices for many years. They liad a 
family of thirteen children, six of whom are 
now living — Charles C, Ebenezer, Xewell 
N., Albert H., Matilda A. and Julia A. 

Mr. Hardy, the subject of this sketch, spent 
his younger days on the farm, and received 
his education in the common schools of the 
State of Minnesota. In 1862 he enlisted 
in Company H, Eighth Ilegiment Minnesota 
A'ohmteers, and was in tiie service for three 
years and nine days. He was in four lieavy 
Indian l)alt](;s in Minnesota and on the 
l)lains of Dakota, saw service in seven battles 
of the South beside many skirmishes, witness- 
ing the severest service in the battles of 
Murfreesboro and ISTashville, where he saw 
the annihilation of Hood's army. From 
Nashville he went around l)y the coast where 
his regiment joinetl the corps of General 
Sherman. They remained one month with 
General Sherman's command, during a por- 
tion of his '• march to the sea." At Charles- 
ton, North Carolina, the regiment was dis- 
banded, and ilischarged at Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota. On receiving his discbarge from 
tile service he went to Pine Island, Minne- 
sota, where he eno-affed in farmin<!'. reinain- 
ing in this business for three years, at the 
end of which time, in ISCS, he came to 
Douglas county, Minnesota, where he took a 
homestead of ]()0 acres in the town of Lake 
Mary. Hcrehc built a log house with what 
is called a " shake " roof, and which was wit h- 
out a floor the first winter. Here he saw the 
severest times of his life. On coming to 
Douglas county he had but .s5 in his pocket 
with which to improve his farm and buy 
])rovisions. Five dollars went but a little 
way in accomplishing this — flour being $10 
a barrel, and no ])otatoes nor vegetables of any 
kind to be had at any price. However, Jfr. 
Hardy was a man not to be frightened by 
such things. He kejjt on improving the 
farm as best he could until it was in fine 

condition, with fine buildings. He lived here 
upon this farm until 1878, at which time he 
came into the city of Alexandria and en- 
gaged in mei'cantile business with Nord & 
Kortsch. He continued with this firm for 
about five j'ears, and then Mr. Nord retired 
from the business, turning over his portion 
of the firm assets to Mr. Hardy, who formed 
a partnership with Mr. Kortsch. This busi- 
ness partnership they have continued ever 
since. In ISS-t they purchased the store 
building, which they now occujw on the 
corner of Sixth avenue and Main streets, at 
which i)oiut they are doing a very large 
business. IMr. Hardy has made many in- 
vestnuMits in land in Douglas county. I'.e- 
sides his town property lie owns a farm in 
the town of Orange and one in the town of 
Hudson, the latter being now run and 
managed by himself. He has quite a fancy 
for blooded stock, especially horses, and has 
now a number of first-class animals. He 
owned the well-known race horse Selkirk, 
who, when thirty-one years of age, ti-otted a 
mile in 2:4o, and at that extreme old age 
looked like a young horse. 

Mr. Hardy was married, in 18T5, to Miss 
Celestia E. Putnam, of Pelican Ilapids, "SWn- 
nesota, the daughter of Lewis Putnam. 
Seven children have blessed this union — 
Charles C, Rachel S.. Mary C, Flora I'... 
Lewis P., Samuel P. and Joseph F. 

j\Ir. Hardy is a republican in politics: is 
an honored member of the G. A. \l. and 
Knights of Honor. He has held the ollices 
of pathmaster, town clerk, supervisor, etc. 
He resides in his beautiful home on the 
shores of Lake Winona west of Main street. 
Mr. Hardy has been one of the most suc- 
cessful business men who have settled in 
Alexandria. In his farms and other invest- 
ments he has made consitlerable money, and 
now occupies much of his time in making 
farm loans, and looking after his other busi- 
ness interests. 


^ C. CLEMENT iseii,<>-:iged in the general 

'^P line of hrokeraye business in Fergus 
Falls, Minnesota. lie handles real estate and 
insurance, anil is general Ijusiness agent for 
what is known as the South Side Real Estate 
Headquarters. He collects rents, notes and 
accounts, and pays taxes for non-residents. 
His office is located in the Clement and 
Wriglit block, corner of Bismarck and Cas- 
cade streets. 

Mr. Clement is a native of Hopkinton, 
Merrimac county, ]^e\v Hampshire. He was 
born on the 8th day of December, 1824, 
and is the son of Caleb and Lydia (Gyle) 
Clement, natives of New Hampshire. The 
father was by occupation a farmer, and died 
in 1S2G. Caleb's father, Peltiaii, was a 
farmer by occupation and a native of Xew 
Hampshire. Lydia (Gyle) Clement's father 
was David GNde, also a native of New Hamp- 
shire, and a farmer. Caleb Clement had a 
family of three children — Sarah A., now 
Mrs. Chase ; Mehitable, now Mrs. McGoom ; 
and C. (!., the subject of our sketch. 

C.C.Clement remained beneath the par- 
ental I'oof until he was well along in years. 
When nine years of age his parents' moved 
to Lowell, Massachusetts, where he received 
a good public school education. At sixteen 
years of age he was a]iprenticed to learn the 
carpenter's trade, and served in this line 
until he was nineteen years old, at which 
time he coninienced work as a journeyman 
carjienter. doing some contracting in 
Lowell and \ iciruty. After completing 
his apprentic('slii[) he attended the academy 
at Fembi'ook, New Hampshire, for one 
year, and in 1850 went to California by way 
of the Isthmus of Panama. He remaine<l in 
California for two years, during the first few 
months of which time he worked in the 
mines. Then he jobbed at the carpenter's 
trade, but his health failed and he was not 
able to perform the necessary amount of 
work which would enable him to catrv on 

his largo business. Finally he was so terii- 
bly shaken up with fever and ague that he 
was forced to leave the country. In 1852 he 
returned to Lowell, Massachusetts, coming- 
back by way of the Nicaraguan route. After 
coming to Lowell he continued for some time 
to work at his trade, but in 1S5.3 he turned 
his attention to the grocery business, and 
opened a store Avhich he I'an for one year. 
He then went to Lake Village, New Ilami)- 
shire, where he engaged with the Boston, 
Concord & Montreal llailroad Compan}'^, as 
23attern-maker in their shops. He continued 
in this business for eight 3'ears, and thence 
going to Concord, he engaged in the same 
kind of work for the Concord, M. &, L. Eail- 
road, continuing in their employ for over 
one year. During the first year of the war 
he went to Portsmouth (New Hampshire) 
Navy Yard, where he worked at machine ])at- 
tern-raaking for one year; tlience he came 
westward to Ohio, settling in Sandusky, 
where he had charge of the car de- 
partment in the Sandusky, Dayton & 
Cincinnati Railroad Company's shops for 
three years, having in charge during the 
greater portion of this time, a crew of fifty 
men. In 18C5 he came to Minnesota and 
settled at Faribault, where, for a time, 
he performed no labor, but carefully looked 
after the recuperation of his health. Later 
he went to woi-k on the Minnesota Central 
llailroad, for which coini)any he had charge 
of all their bridges and turntables. In 1867 
he went to Minneapolis where, for one year, 
he worked in the shops of this raili'oad com- 
pany. At the end of this time he turned his 
attention to other lines, and was given charge 
of the erection of and ])utting the machinery 
into the first Washburn tlouringmill in Min- 
neapolis. After com[)leting this work he 
went to Winona, where he was placed in 
charge of the mechanical department of the 
shops of the Winona & St. Peter llailroad 
Company, in whose employ he remained for 



two years. In 1869 he removed to Hastings 
and found employment in being placed in 
cliarge of the mechanical department of the 
Hastings & Dakota Railroad Company. For 
eleven years he continued working for this 
line of road. In April, 1S80, he came to 
Fergus Falls. Minnesota, as agent for the late 
George B. Wright, who was one of the pro- 
prietors of the town site of Fergus Falls, and 
had extensive business interests in this region. 
Mr. Clement had charge of all tiiis business 
when he settled in Fergus Falls. Mr. "Wriffht 
died in 1S82, and Mr. Clement was engaged 
in settling up his business until 1SS3. When 
the mattei*s in relation to tiie estate of ilr. 
Wi'igiit were closed up, the subject of our 
sketch tui'ued his attention to his present 
business, in which he has continued ever 

Mr. Clement was mari'ied in 1S40 to Miss 
Sarah S. Lathum, a native of Maine and 
daughter of Plon. Cyrus Lathum of Lowell, 
Massachusetts. They had a family of eight 
children, three of whom are now living — 
Emma C, now Mrs. J. G. Shouts; Caleb C, 
superintendent, secretary and treasurer of 
the AVinona Plow Works; and Elizabeth, 
now Mrs. A. C. Cooper, of Fergus Falls. 
Mrs. Clement died in 1857. She was ;i mem- 
ber of the Free-Will Ba])tist churcli, and an 
exemplary Christian lady. Mr. Clement's 
second wife was Mrs. Elsie J. Wright, widow 
of C. II. Wright, and a native of ?se\v Ilanip- 
siiire. Mrs. Elsie Clement by her first lius- 
band had one child — Charles J. Wrigiit, of 
Fergus Falls, who has been clerk of the 
court for Otter Tail countv for about eiarht 

Mr. Clement was formei'iy a whig, i)ut on 
the organization of the republican party be- 
came an earnest supporter of that organiza- 
tion, but during the last few years has affil- 
iated with the j)rohii)ilion l^arty. He has 
been a member of the school board in Hast- 
ings and Fergus Falls, and in various other 

ways has enjoyed the confidence of his fellow 
townsmen. He was formerly a member of 

the Free-Will Ba])tist church, but of late 
3" ears has been connected with the Presby- 
terian society, being a man of considerable 
prominence in church work. Since coming 
to Fergus Falls he has held the position 
of elder in his church society, and was 
a commissioner from the Ked Iliver pres- 
b\'tery to the general asseiid)ly of the 
centennial meeting at Philadelphia in ifay, 
1888. !Mr. Clement has extensive busi- 
ness interests in Fergus Falls and vicin- 
ity, and handles the business of many 
foreign residents. His Inisiness relations 
extend from Maine to Fei'gus Falls. On 
his books are to be found man}' farms 
and much desirable city property for sale. 
He is an active and vigilant collector, and in 
all his business transactions has proven him- 
self to be a wise and judicious manager, and 
to have gained the confidence of all his busi- 
ness |iatrons. 


MTRED L. HAMPSON. the junior mem- 
■'' ber of the firm of Andrews *fc liamp- 
son, dealers in iuirdware and lumber and 
loan agents, and of the firm of Aiuliews & 
Co., dealers in general merchandise, in the 
village of Ada, Minnesota, is one of its most 
prominent and influential merchants. 

Mr. llampson is a native of Akron, Sum- 
mit county, Ohio, and the son of Henry O. 
and Eliza (Osborn) llampson. He first saw 
the light March 17, 1858, and spent the first 
sixteen years of his life in that portion of 
the Buckeye State. When he was about 
ten years of age his father died from the ef- 
fects of hardships and exposure incurred dur- 
ing the service in the Second Ohio Cavalry 
Regiment dui'ing our late Civil War, leaving 
his widow with two small children — Fred 
L., the subject of this sketch, and Clara, now 



the wife of Judge A. Velanil, of Minneapolis, 

Mr. Hanipson remained with his mother in 
Alcron, assisting to the extent of his abilit\' 
ill providing for the family maintenance un- 
til 1875, when they all came west to Min- 
neitpolis. Leaving his mother and sister at 
i'aribault, Minnesota, lie went to tiie "Flour 
City" to get a house read\' for them, and 
after tiiey had come on and got settled he 
entered tiie employ of O. A. Praj', as office 
boy at tiie magniRcentsalaiy of $3 per week, 
and witli tlie understanding that he was to 
have a chance to learn the trade of mill- 
wright in the sliop. Tin's latter, after some 
eight months' delay, seemed to be no nearer 
to him. and for some time after he was em- 
ployed at wliatever he could find the most 
advantage to liim in a financial wav. In 
the winter of 1876-77 he entered the print- 
ing establishment of Johnson & Smith, of 
that city, where he learned tiie trade of 
litliographer, and remained until the sum- 
mer of 1878. Leaving his work for a s