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THE ILLUSTRATED 



BOOK OF THE DOG 










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O 
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a 







THE IL L US TRA TED 



BOOK OF THE DOG 



BY 



VERO SHAW, B.A. CANTAB., 

Assisted by the Leading Breeders of the Day. 



\VITII AN APPENDIX ON 

CANINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 

BY \V. GORDON STABLES, CM., M.I)., R.N. 



CASSELL, FETTER, GALPIN & Co. 

LONDON, PARIS 6* NEW YORK. 
[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.] 

\J 



337 



Co 

THE REVEREND GRENVILLE FRODSHAM HODSON, 

OF NORTH PETHERTON, BRIDGWATER, 

ST&ts 33orti is 2?cnttatcli, 

AS AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE BENEFIT DERIVED 

FROM HIS TEACHING, 
BY HIS AFFECTIONATE NEPHEW, 

THE AUTHOR. 

LA BELI.K SAUVAGK YARD, 
1881. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. PAGB 

i. HISTORICAL AND LITERARY i 

n. KENNELS AND KENNELING 6 

in. GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF DOGS '7 

iv. EXHIBITING, BUYING, AND SELLING 28 

v. TECHNICAL TERMS 37 

vi. THE MASTIFF 4 

vii. THE ST. BERNARD 53 

vin. THE NEWFOUNDLAND 67 

ix. THE SHEEP-DOG 73 

x. THE BULL-DOG 83 

XL THE DALMATIAN OR COACH-DOG 95 

xn. THE BULL-TERRIER 98 

XIIL BLACK-AND-TAN TERRIERS 107 

xiv. WHITE ENGLISH TERRIERS . 113 

xv. THE DANDIE DINMONT 116 

xvi. THE IRISH TERRIER 123 

xvn. THE SCOTCH TERRIER 133 

xviii. THE SKYE TERRIER 137 

xix. THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER . 143 

xx. THE AIREDALE TERRIER 150 

xxi. THE YORKSHIRE TERRIF.R 155 

xxn. THE TOY TERRIER 159 

xxiii. TOY SPANIELS 162 

xxiv. THE PUG. 173 

xxv. THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND 178 

xxvi. THE POMERANIAN 181 

xxvii. THE MALTESE DOG 186 

xxviii. THE POODLE 189 

xxix. THE BLOODHOUND 198 

xxx. THE IRISH WOLFHOUND 204 

xxxi. THE DEERHOUND 219 

xxxii. THE GREYHOUND 236 

XXXIIL COURSING 243 

xxxiv. THE WHIPPET 255 

xxxv. THE STAG-HOUND 259 

xxxvi. THE FOX-HOUND ; . . .261 

xxxvii. THE FOX-TERRIER 274 

xxxviii. THE HARRIER 301 

xxxix. THE BEAGLE 309 

XL. THE DACHSHUND 314 

XLI. THE BASSET-HOUXD 333 

XLII. THE OTTER-HOUND 340 

XLIII. BREAKING SPORTING DOGS 345 



vi C'av/A.v 7 '.!>. 

CHAP. ''*" 

XLIV. THE ENGLISH SETTER 35' 

XLV. THE RUSSIAN SETTER 374 

XLVI. THE GORDON SETTER 376 

XLVII. THE IRISH SETTER 383 

XLVIII. THE SPANISH POINTER . . . : 3 8 9 

XLIX. THE ENGLISH POINTER 39- 

L. THE RETRIEVER 4'4 

LI. THE SPANIEL 426 

LIL THE SUSSEX SPANIEL 432 

LIII. THE CLUMBER SPANIEL 439 

LIV. BLACK SPANIELS 443 

LV. THE NORFOLK SPANIEL ... 448 

LVI. COCKER SPANIELS 450 

LVII. THE WATER SPANIEL 452 

LVI ii. THE ENGLISH WATER SPANIEI 458 

LIX. THE IRISH WATER SPANIKL ... 462 

uc. FOREIGN DOGS 467 

LXI. THE ESQUIMAUX DOG 470 

LXII. THE SWEDISH BEAGLE 477 

LXIII. THE SCHWEISS-HUND 479 

LXIV. THE GERMAN MASTIFF 481 

LXV. THE LEONBERG 488 

LXVI. THE BERGHUND 495 

LXVII. FRENCH BREEDS 496 

LXVIII. ASIATIC DOGS 508 

LXIX. AUSTRALIAN DOGS 515 

LXX. BREEDING, PUPPING, AND REARING 520 



CANINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 

I. INTRODUCTION DIAGNOSIS SOME SIMPLE REMEDIES 532 

ii. RULES FOR PRESCRIBING CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS ADMINISTERING MEDICINES POISONS 

AND THEIR ANTIDOTES 539 

in. DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 545 

iv. DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 567 

v. DISEASES OF THE LIVER, SPLEEN, AND PANCREAS 577 

vi. DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 585 

vii. THE BLOOD AND BLOOD DISEASES 58.S 

vin. DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 607 

ix. INTERNAL PARASITES 614 

x. DISEASES OF THE SKIN 6iS 

XL DISEASES OF THE EVE AND ITS APPENDAGES 632 

xn. DISEASES OF THE EAR 637 

xni. DISEASES OF THE MOUTH AND NASAL ORGANS " 643 

xiv. DISEASES OF THE GENITAL ORGANS 648 

xv. ABSCESS, DISLOCATIONS, FRACTURES, WOUNDS, SPRAINS, BRUISES, ETC 650 

xvi. RABIES AND HYDROPHOBIA 654 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



COLOURED PLATES. 



THE BLOODHOUND " DON " 

THE MASTIFF "WOLSEY" 

THE ST. BERNARD BITCH "ABBESS" 



10 FAI.-K I'Al.K 

... Fronlisf'u:e 

4> 

57 



ROUGH-COATED ST. BERNARDS 6l 

THE NEWFOUNDLAND "LEO" 65 

SHEEP DOGS, SMOOTH AND ROUGH COATED 81 

BULL-DOGS 93 

BULL-TERRIER AND DALMATIAN 97 



ENGLISH TERRIERS, WHITE AND BLACK -AND-T AN 
BEDLINGTON AND DANDIE DINMONT TERRIERS 

THE IRISH TERRIER "SPORTER" 

SKYE TERRIERS, DROP AND PRICK EARED 
TOY SPANIELS 



3 
121 
129 

'37 
169 
PUG, ITALIAN GREYHOUND, AND YORKSHIRE TERRIER 177 



TO FACE PAGE 

THE POMERANIAN AND MALTESE 185 

THE DEERHOUND "SPEY" 225 

THE GREYHOUND "LAUDERDALE" 241 

THE FOXHOUND 265 

FOX-TERRIERS, WIRE-HAIRED AND SMOOTH 297 

DACHSHUNDS 329 

BASSET HOUNDS 337 

THE ENGLISH SETTER "RANGER III." 365 

THE GORDON SETTER 381 

THE IRISH SETTER "GROUSE II." 385 

THE POINTER "WAGG" 409 

WAVY AND CURLY-COATED RKTRIEVERS 425 

CLUMBER AND SUSSEX SPANIELS 441 

THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL " CAPTAIN " 465 



DRAWINGS ON WOOD. 



PACK 

Button's Genealogical Table (Fig. i) 4 

Kennel, with side entrance (Fig. 2) ... ... ... ... 7 

Stable Fitted as Dog Kennel (Fig. 3) 8 

Portable Bench (Fig. 4) 9 

Range of Kennels (Fig. 5) ... ... ... ... ... 10 

View of Kennels at Glen Tana (Fig. 6) ... ... ... 11 

Plan of Kennels at Glen Tana ... ... ... ... 12 

Kennel Fence (Figs. 7, 8) ... ... ... ... ... 13 

The Home for Lost Dogs ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Feeding-trough (Fig. 9) 2O 

Drinking-vessel (Fig. 10) ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Dog Clothing (Fig. II) ... ... ... ... ... 30 

Double Swivel Dog Chain (Fig. 12) ... ... ... 31 

Travelling-box for Dogs (Fig. 13) 32 

Diagram of Dog (Fig. 14) 37 

Uutton-ear (Fig. 15! 38 



Cat Foot (Fig. 16) 38 

Cow Hocks (Fig. 17) 38 

Elbows out (Fig. 18) 38 

Hare Foot (Fig. 19) 38 

Pig Jaw (Fig. 20) 39 

Rose Kar (Fig. 21) 39 

Splay Foot (Fig. 22) 39 

Undershot (Fig. 23) 39 

Canis Molossus (Figs. 24, 25) ... ... ... ... 41 

Mr. Wallace's "Turk" 43 

MaslilTin 1820 45 

Mrs. Rawlinson's Mastiff Bitch " Countess " ... ... 49 

St. Bernards of the Hospice ... ... ... ... ... 59 

The I. andseer Newfoundland " Dick " ... ... ... 71 

Scotch Bob-tailed Sheep Dog 81 

Mr. Meager's Hull- dog " Bismarck " 89 



Vlll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Original Bull and Terrier Cross 101 

The Small-sized Bull-terrier " Nelson " .. ... ... 105 

Old-fashioned English Terriers ... ... ... ... 109 

Irish Terriers "Kate "and "Badger" 124 

Irish Terrier " Sport " 125 

The Working Skye Terrier " Flora " 141 

The Airedale Terrier " Thunder " 152 

Ancient Engraving of Toy Spaniels... ... ... ... 163 

Early Type of Toy Spaniels ... ... ... ... ... 167 

Head of Pug 175 

Black Pomeranian ... ... ... ... ... ... 183 

German Poodles 193 

Head of Bloodhound " Luath XI." 201 

Irish Wolfhound "Scott" 217 

Scotch Deerhounds ... ... ... ... ... ... 233 

239 

289 



The Greyhound Family 

The Fox-terrier " Brokenhurst Sting " 



The Harrier " Countess " 304 

Dachshunds, from an old print 316 

Dachshunds, from an old print ... ... ... ... 317 

Dachshunds, from an old print ... ... ... ... 320 

Terrier Type of Dachshunds 321 

Group of Dachshunds 325 

Rough coated Dachshunds ... ... ... ... ... 329 

Basset tk Jambes Torses 336 

Basset a Jambes Droites 337 

The Basset-bound " Model " 338 

The Otter-hound " Lottery " 343 

Dogs and Paitridgcs (after Despoitc-) ... ... ... 357 

The Champion Setter " Ranger " ... ... .. ... 364 

The Setter bitch " Novel " 372 



FAGI 

377 
389 
399 
405 
The Pointer Bitch " Belle " 409 



Setters in 1805 

Spanish Pointer 

Early Foxhound and Pointer Cross (after Desportes) 
German Pointers 



Flat-coated Retriever 



417 



The Retriever " Sailor " 420 

The Black Spaniel "Kaffir" 444 

\Vater-Dog, from an old print 452 

The Water-Dog of 1 803 456 

The Water-Spaniel of 1803 457 

The Esquimaux Dog "Sir John Franklin" 473 

The Swedish Beagle " Jerker " 477 

The German Mastiff 484 

The Tiger German Mastiff Bitch " Flora " 485 

The Leonberg 489 

The Berghund " Moulon " 493 

White Vendeen Hound ... ... ... ... ... 497 

Vendeen Hound (Griffon) 498 

Head of Griffon de la Vendee ... ... ... ... 499 

Chien de Normanclie ... ... ... ... ... ... 502 

Chien de Gascogne 502 

Chien Poitou ... ... ... ... ... ... ... f\ 

Race d'Artois 505 

Half-bred Artois 505 

Siberian Wolfhounds... ... ... ... ... ... 509 

Thibet Mastiff 511 

Smooth Chinese Dog... ... ... ... ... ... 5'3 

Chinese Crested Dog... ... ... ... ... ... 514 

The Dingo " Lupus " ... ... ... ... ... 517 




THE ILLUSTRATED 



BOOK OF THE DOG 



CHAPTER I. 

HISTORICAL AND LITERARY. 

|S in former works relating to dogs but small attention has 
been devoted by the authors to the modes of classification adopted 
by the earlier writers on the subject, a brief notice of the 
principal cannot but be of interest. As to later works, in 
several encyclopaedias there has been an attempt made to 
classify the different varieties, but such classification has, so 
far as our observation carries us, invariably been founded on 
the structural development of the different breeds alone, and 
aot unfrequently on comparison with the characteristics of 
other animals, little or no attention having been paid to the 
various temperaments and capabilities of the several breeds. 
Visitors to the great shows of the present day, on the con- 
trary, must be struck by the extreme simplicity of the 
arrangement of the catalogues, which invariably divide the 
candidates into two divisions, namely, one for sporting, and one for non-sporting dogs. In 
our opinion this is an ample distinction, for all practical purposes ; since in the present day, in 
consequence of dogs being so much better understood than they formerly were, the uses and 
capabilities of each breed are well appreciated by those at all interested in them. Moreover, 
the large increase in the number of breeds (owing to the manufacture of so many new varieties 
of late years) has rendered an elaborate classification undesirable, as being likely to complicate 
instead of facilitating the task of distinguishing between the various breeds. 

The majority of the earlier writers on the dog, however, adopt different classifications in the 
lists of dogs published by them, and these, being of some considerable historical interest, we 
propose recapitulating ; whilst due attention shall be given to the scientific division of Cuvier, 
in which the structural development of the dog is compared with that of other mammals. 

Ik-fore turning our attention to the various works on the dog which have from time to time 
appeared in our own language, we may mention that in the earlier part of the Christian era only 
two races of dogs out of the sixteen or seventeen known to the ancients, are stated to have been 
recognised by them as hunting dogs. These were Greyhounds, and dogs hunting by scent. Arrian, 




2 THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

however, also called the younger Xenophon, who wrote in the year A.D. 130, affirms that dogs 
hunting by sight and not by scent were quite unknown in the time of Xenophon the elder. At the 
same time Arrian, in his work above alluded to, most accurately describes our modern Greyhound ; 
and the anonymous translator of this writer, who has been the means of rendering his works so 
popular, fairly shows the dog to be of Celtic origin. 

The earliest work on dogs in English is a MS. in the British Museum, entitled the 
" Mayster of Game," and is written by Edmund de Langley. This work was published in the 
fourteenth century, and deals principally with hunting subjects, though frequent allusion is made 
to dogs therein. 

The earliest printed work in the English language in which the various breeds of dogs then in 
existence are referred to, is the "Book of Field Sports," written by Dame Juliana Berners, Prioress 
of Sopwell Nunnery, in Hertfordshire. This lady, who was born about the end of the fourteenth 
century, thus expresses herself in the above work : "Thyse ben the names of houndes, fyrste there 
is a Grehoun, a Bastard, a Mengrell, a Mastif, a Lemor, a Spanyel, Raches, Kenettys, Teroures, 
Butchers Houndes, Dunghyll dogges, Tryndeltaylles, and Pryckeryd currys, and smalle ladyes 
poppees that bere awaye the flees." From this catalogue it would appear that the list of dogs which 
came under Miss Berners' notice was a very limited one. It is, however, an important one ; 
inasmuch as it shows that many of the breeds of dogs then in existence have retained at least 
their names until the present time, in spite of the vast increase in number of breeds. 

The next work from which we are able to quote is a. short treatise on English dogs, originally 
written in Latin, by Dr. John Caius, physician to Queen Elizabeth, and published in 1576- 
There was, however, also a translation of the work in old English, which we quote as more 
clearly showing the ideas of the time. According to Dr. Caius 

( A gentle kind, serving the game. 
All Lnghshe dogges be)., ii-j ir j 

< A homely kind, apt for sundry necessary u 

' A currish kind, meet for many toyes. 

The first of these three classes is divided by Dr. Caius into two sections viz., Venatici, which 
were used for the purpose of hunting beasts ; and Aucupatorii, which served in the pursuit of 
fowl. The Venatici arc treated by this author as follows : 



Dogges serving 

y pastime of 
hunting beastes 
are divided into 



Leverarius, or Harriers. 
Terrarius, or Terrars. 
Sanguinarius, or Bloodhounds. 
Agaseus, or Gazehounds. 
Leporarius, or Grehounds. 
Lorarius, or Lyeminer. 
Vertigus, or Tumbler. 
Canis furax, or Stealer. 



The next section of Dr. Caius's work is taken up by the dogs used for pursuing fowl, \\/.., 
Aucupatorii, which consisted of- 
Dogs used for < Index, or Setter. 

fowling. ( Aquaticus, or Spaniell. 

Section three is entirely devoted to the Spaniell Gentle, or Comforter. And Section four 
consists merely of 



DR. CAIUS AND LINN&US. 



Canis Pastoralis, or 

the Shepherd's Dogge. 

The Mastive, or 

Bandogge, 
called Canis Villaticus, 

or 
Carbenarius. 

In the sixth section are the 



which hath 
sundry names 
derived from 

sundry 

circumstances, 
as 



The Keeper's or Watchman's. 

The Butcher's Dogge. 

The Messinger's or Carrier's. 

The Mooner. 

The Water Drawer. 

The Tinker's Curr. 

The Fencer. 



Admonitor, or Wapp. 
Vernerpator, or Turncspet. 
Saltator, or Dauncer. 



The varieties of dogs contained in these six sections prove that there was at all 
events a considerable increase in the number of the breeds of dogs between Dr. Caius's time 
and that of Dame Berners. The former, however, is extremely vague and rambling in many 
of his statements concerning the dogs he describes in his work ; but the value to be attached to 
that will scarcely be diminished by this fault on his part, when it is remembered that Dr. Caius's 
work is the first book published in the English language which solely confines itself to the various 
breeds of dogs, and the manner of hunting them. 

Shakespeare seems to have been a student of Dame Juliana Berners' work, for in King Lear, 
Act III., scene 6, the following lines occur: 

" Be thy mouth or black or white, 
Tooth that poisons, if it bite. 
Mastiff, greyhound, mongrel grim, 
Hound or spaniel, brach or lym, 
Or bobtail tike, or trundle tail, 
Tom will make them weep and wail ; 
For, with throwing thus my head, 
Dogs leap the hatch, and all are fled." 



Linnanis, in his classification of animals, enumerates the following breeds of dogs : 



Canis Familiaris, or Faithful Dog. 
Canis Domesticus, or Shepherd's Dog. 
Canis Pomeranus, or Pomeranian. 

(The above being the Chien Loup, or Wolf-dog of Button.) 
Canis Sibiricus, or Siberian Dog. 
Canis Islandicus, or Iceland Dog. 
Canis Aquaticus Major, or great Water Dog (Grand 

Barbet). 

Canis Aquaticus Minor, or lesser Water Dog. 
Canis Brevipilis Pyramc. 
Canis Parvus Melitans, or little Maltese Dog. 
Canis Extrarius, or ") 
Canis Hyspanicus 5 ' 
Canis Pilosus, or Hairy Maltese Dog. 
Canis Leoninus, or Lion Dog. 

(This was a small dog, having long hair on the fore-part of the 

body like a lion, the hinder part only growing short hair.) 
Canis Variegatus, or Little Danish Dog. 
Canis Hybridus, or Bastard Pug Dog, also called Roquet. 
Canis Fricator, or Pug Dog. 
Canis Molossus, or Bulldog. 



Canis Anglicus, sometime Bellicosus, or Mastiff. 

(The above is the Canis Mastious of Ray). 
Canis Sagax, or German Hound. 
Canis Gallicus, Hound. 

(Also C. G. Venatorius, or sagacious Hunting Dog.) 
Canis Scoticus, Bloodhound. 
Canis Avicularis, Pointer. 
Canis Aquatilis, Barbet (see above). 
Canis Cursorius, Greyhound. 
Canis Hibernicus, Irish Hound. 
Canis Turcicus, Turkish Hound. 
Canis Graius, Scotch Hunting Dog. 
Graius Hirsatus, rough Scotch Hunting Dog. 
Canis Italtcus, Italian Greyhound. 
Canis Orientalis, Persian Greyhound. 
Canis Egyptius, Hairless Greyhound. 
Cants Laniaris, Lurcher. 
Canis Fuillus, Boarhound. 
Canis Vertigus, Turnspit. 
Canis Amcricanus, the Ala. 
Canis Antarcticus, New Holland Dog. 



4 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Gervase Markham and Nicholas Cox, in the works they publish, allude chiefly to sporting 
dogs and their functions, at the same time making the smallest allusion to such varieties as 
did not enter into their sports. The writings of these authors cannot therefore be considered 
as standard works on the dog, nor do they apparently profess to be so. 

Since the time of Linnaeus several of the above varieties have apparently ceased to exist, 
while others have become amalgamated with each other, but it is still evident that many 
breeds alluded to by the Swedish naturalist arc the originators of similar varieties in exist- 
ence at the present day. 

In Daniel's " Book of Rural Sports," published in the early part of the present century 
a subdivision of British dogs into the three following sections appears : A. The most 
generous kinds ; B. Farm Dogs ; C. Mongrels. Of these the former is again subdivided into 
three subdivisions viz., (i) Dogs of chase; (2) Fowlers; (3) Lap-dogs; in fact, the classifi- 
cation of Dr. Caius is exactly carried out by the writer. 

Daniel's work also reproduces a very curious genealogical table of the different races of 
dogs which Buffbn drew up, in which all are described as originating from the Sheep-dog. 
This theory scarcely demands contradiction ; but we append the table, which is of considerable 
interest as representing the ideas of that great naturalist. 




FIG. i. BUFFON'S GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF TIIF DIFFERENT RACES OF DOGS. 



CUVIER s CLASSIFICATION. 5 

The arrangement adopted by Cuvier is regulated, as we have said before, chiefly by the 
structural development of the various breeds. He divides the canine world into three groups 
namely, Matins, Spaniels, and Dogues. In considering the first group Matins he observes 
that the anatomical character of the division are head more or less elongated, with the parietal 
or side bones gradually drawing towards each other. In this category he includes the Dingo 
or New Holland Dog, the Molossus, the Danish Dog, the lesser Danish or Dalmatian Dog, 
Scotch and Irish Greyhounds, Italian Greyhound, and the Boarhound. 

Spaniels, or the second group, have the head only moderately elongated, and the parietal 
bones do not approach each other, but swell out so as to enlarge the cerebral cavity. 
In this division, in addition to the various breeds of Spaniels, there are included New- 
foundlands, Alpine Spaniels (this breed is described as partaking of the appearance both of a 
Newfoundland and Mastiff, and no doubt belonged to the St. Bernard species, from the stories 
related concerning their rescue of benighted travellers), the Hound, the Sheep-dog, and the 
Wolfhound. 

The third division Dogues comprised those breeds in which the muzzle is more or less 
shortened, the skull high, the frontal sinuses considerable, and the lower jaw extends beyond 
the upper. In this group Cuvier includes the Bulldog and the Mastiff ; but it certainly appears 
that the Mastiff is considerably out of place amongst a class of dogs whose leading charac- 
teristic is being underhung ; in addition to which the Molossus, or Mastiff, is included by 
him in the first group. 

Bewick's work is chiefly valuable on account of the engravings contained in it, as the letter- 
press so closely follows the dicta of former writers. The illustrations, however, render this book 
highly interesting. 

Having now enumerated most if not all of the earlier writers of importance upon the dog, 
and the divisions created by them, and having already expressed the opinion that for present 
practical purposes the division of sporting dogs from their non-sporting relations is sufficient, we 
may now proceed to the practical details of our subject, adhering in this work to the divisions 
adopted by the leading show committees in the arrangement of their catalogues. 




CHAPTER II. 
KENNELS AND KENNELING. 

" ANY place is good enough for a dog," is a venerable aphorism easy of quotation and capable 
of frequent application by those uninitiated in the management of dogs; but it is nevertheless 
wholly without foundation in fact, as those who have attempted to kennel valuable stock in 
unfitting quarters have discovered to their cost. There are many breeds which are totally 
unadaptcd for confinement in towns at all events in numbers exceeding one or two. Dogs 
are not, like poultry and pigeons, pets whose natural tendencies can be rendered subservient 
to the will and desire of their masters. No amount of artificial feeding and attention can, 
in the case of many varieties, adequately supply the want of unlimited exercise, which is 
especially essential in the case of growing puppies, whose eventual success on the show-bench 
or in the field will greatly depend upon the development of bone and muscle, and the 
symmetry of a clean and well-proportioned body. In all breeds, the more exercise obtained 
the better it is for the dog ; but in the case of certain varieties, especially ladies' toy-dogs, 
free exercise is not the absolute necessity which renders the successful breeding of the 
larger varieties an impossibility in crowded neighbourhoods. We do not for one moment 
doubt or deny that excellent specimens have been born and bred in the hearts of great cities, 
but these must be regarded as simply the rare exceptions which make manifest the rule. 
Nothing but the strictest attention to cleanliness can possibly be looked to as a means of 
successfully combating the diseases which are for ever lurking in the precincts of crowded 
kennels ; and it is well-nigh hopeless to expect dogs to be clean either in person or habits, 
where a sufficient amount of exercise is denied to them. As an instance, one of the largest 
and most experienced breeders of the larger breeds of dogs in the neighbourhood of London, 
not long since had his entire kennel of puppies and young dogs swept off within the space 
of a few days. On inquiring into the cause of this calamity, we were informed that the 
disease had the appearance of typhoid fever, which we were not surprised to hear, having a 
lively recollection of the state of the kennels on a previous visit to them. 

All dogs, but more especially puppies, suffer more or less from being chained up. Not 
only docs the collar almost invariably leave an unsightly ring in the hair on the neck, and 
thereby considerably affect the dog's beauty, but the frequent struggling at the chain drags 
the shoulders out of all shape, and affects the proper development of that part of the body 
Any one, therefore, who wishes to rear fine animals, but more particularly if he proposes 
to gain reputation as a successful breeder or exhibitor of canine stock, should, before embarking 
on such an enterprise, well consider the means at his disposal for comfortably and at the 
same time economically housing the dogs by whose instrumentality he trusts to arrive at 
the desired goal. We use the word economically in the last sentence advisedly ; for any person 
who starts by investing a large sum of money in elaborate kennels is doing what all prac- 
tical people will consider a very rash action. Many a young beginner in dog-breeding has 
retired in disgust from some disappointment or other circumstance, just at the moment when, 



SIMPLER FORMS OF KENNELS. j 

had he persevered, victory was within his grasp : what use, then, is the elaborate range of kennels 
which he has erected ? The stock can be sold, perhaps at a profit, or without much loss ; 
but the outlay upon the buildings can never be recouped ; and the disgust with which the 
owner contemplates his ill-success is heightened by the loss entailed. We propose, therefore, 
to suggest expedients, the majority of which we have seen in use, by which dogs can be 
warmly and comfortably housed at a comparatively nominal sum, though we must of course 
also describe a higher class of kennel architecture and fittings. 

Unfortunately some owners are compelled, from want of space, to keep their dogs chained 
up, instead of in yards where they can be loose. In such instances, as also in the case of 
watch-dogs, it is very desirable that the kennels provided should be of a slightly different 
construction from those generally met with. In the latter the fault lies in the opening being 
placed in the front, so that both wind and rain are able to reach a dog, even though he is 
crouched at the back of his kennel. A great improvement is gained by the opening being 
made in one side, as this gives the dog an opportunity of getting out of the way of such 




FIG. 2. KENNEL, WITH SIDE ENTRANCE. 

inconveniences, and the benefit he derives from the extra protection must be obvious to every 
one. Fig. 2 gives an exact representation of an improved kcnuel such as we suggest; and if 
dogs must be kept on the chain, we strongly recommend that this style of kennel be adopted. 
It is also the best pattern that can be adopted for all detached kennels, whether the inmate 
be confined or at liberty during the day ; and may be given as our model of a kennel for any 
dog sleeping or kept in a back-yard. The next best is an ordinary kennel, or even simple 
barrel, arranged with face towards the wall, as described further on. 

All out-door kennels in which dogs are destined to sleep should be raised from the 
ground, for double reasons, as the damp would rot the floor of the kennel and also give the dog 
cold. A couple of pieces of three-inch quartering placed underneath, or even some bricks, serve 
this purpose in every way. It is not good to chain a dog to his kennel, for if he is a powerful 
animal he may drag it from its position. A stout piece of quartering or a post should therefore 
be buried from a foot or so in the ground, and the chain fastened to the piece which is above 
the surface. A staple is not so good a fastening for the chain to be fixed to as a screw ring, 
the latter not being nearly so likely to become loosened by the constant jerks it will receive. 

The simplest and most economical arrangement for a regular kennel is a stable, if such 
accommodation is to be obtained ; and the addition of a dry and secure stable-yard attached to 
the same is a considerable further advantage. The means by which the various stalls can 



8 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 



be turned into almost unexceptionable kennels arc various and simple, but perhaps that shown 
in Fig. 3 is as useful and effective as any. It will be seen from the diagram that all required 
to convert an empty stall into an excellent kennel for a dog or dogs of any size are a few 
strips of wood and some extra strong wire netting. It is always well to line the lower half 
of the front (marked A in the figure) with wire, as well as the upper, as it prevents any pos- 
sibility of the dog gnawing his way out. The upper half (H) is better fronted with wire only, 
as it enables visitors to see the dogs more easily. The cross-beam (c) should be of con- 
siderable strength, as great pressure is often put against it by the dogs if they endeavour 
to escape. Of course, in the case of the larger breeds, or destructive specimens of the smaller 




FIG. 3. STABLE FITTED UP AS A DOG-KENNEL. 



varieties, it will be necessary to substitute iron rails for the wire and wood work ; but personal 
experience has taught us that the additional expense of iron rails is in the vast majority of 
cases quite unnecessary. We have kept scores of dogs, chiefly Bull-dogs and Bull-terriers, in 
the above sort of kennel, and have never known one to eat out of them. Due attention must, 
however, be paid to two things (I) get wire of extra strength and thickness, and (2) be sure 
your doors come well down to the ground. 

Whilst on the subject of doors, attention should be directed to a most important feature in 
their construction : always have two fastenings on each door. If there is only one, it is liable to 
come unfastened in the night, either through the instrumentality of the traditional cat, or the 
carelessness of the feeder ; and the result is a serious disturbance, and perhaps a free fight in the 
kennel. Nothing seems to exasperate dogs when in confinement more than to witness a kennel 
companion roaming about the premises alone, and we have suffered severely from dogs breaking 
loose of a night. The best description of fastening by far is a bolt for the lower half of the 
door (see E), and a hook catch on the upper. It is a good plan to fix the latter in such a 



PORTABLE BENCHES. g 

position that when it falls into the staple to close the door it is on a downward slant, as 
shown in the cut at D. This will prevent it from coming unfastened easily. The above system 
of fastening doors applies to all sorts of kennels with equal importance. 

Having arranged the front cf such kennel (as shown in Fig. 3) to his satisfaction, the 
beginner has little more to do ; for when a wooden bench has been erected in one corner, 
about eighteen inches from the ground, for the dog to sleep on, and the sides and back well 
lime-washed, the quondam stall is quite ready for the reception of its canine lodger. The 
lime-washing is most essential, if the dog's health and general comfort are to be considered ; 
when properly done, it not only renders the kennel clean and tidy in appearance, but has the 
effect of destroying the innumerable insects which are sure to infest the abode of every sort of 
dog, unless very stringent measures are taken for their extermination. 

We much prefer such portable benches as that shown in Fig. 4, the back and one side of 
the bench being carried up for a foot or more. This prevents the dogs from injuring their 
coats against the whitened wall when turning round in their beds. The bench, being quite 




FIG. 4. PORTABLE BENCH. 



detached from the wall, is also far less likely to harbour vermin ; and finally, whenever 
occasion requires, it can be taken into the open air and thoroughly scrubbed with some 
disinfectant, which effectually disposes of any that may have gained a lodgment. Such benches 
are also very handy for placing about wherever required. 

A gentle slope of the floor is highly desirable, as a drain-pipe can easily be run under the 
ground in front of the kennels, by which the water is enabled to run off, thereby increasing the 
salubrity of the establishment. In the case of thejarger varieties of dogs, this arrangement be- 
comes almost a matter of necessity, and the trifling outlay it involves most amply repays a 
breeder by the increased comfort it affords his pets, as well as by the effect it has upon the 
appearance of his kennel. 

A good simple form of in-door kennel having been now described, attention may be drawn 
to special out-door erections of a very similar character, which we have proved by experience 
to be admirably adapted for those varieties which are of a hardy constitution, or even for those 
of more delicate nature, when they are not required to be in first-class show condition. The 
reason of the remark apropos of show condition will be understood by those who read the 
chapter on showing dogs, so need not be gone into further here. Such a form of kennel 
may be erected against a garden or any other wall, and consists of a series of compartments 
which closely resemble the stalls of a stable, and possessing a front of wooden or iron railings, 
as described in Fig. 3. We can vouch for the many good qualities of this kind of kennel, 
having erected many for the accommodation of our own stock ; and the dogs always seemed 



10 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 



to do well in them, except when in delicate health, when naturally they were removed into 
warmer quarters. The size we built each stall in our kennels was ten feet deep by eight 
feet wide, and the dogs which inhabited them were Bulldogs and Bull-terriers, of from 
thirty-five to fifty pounds weight. We mention this, as it is desirable to explain to inex- 
perienced readers as nearly as possible what arrangements were made, so as to enable them 
to judge for themselves of what size to erect their kennels ; as, of course, this depends upon 
the variety of dog they propose keeping as well as upon the accommodation at hand. The 
stalls should be covered in by a lean-to roof for at least three-quarters of their depth from 
the wall, as wet ground is one of the worst things possible for a dog to stand on for long ; 
and a wooden bench at the back of each must be provided. There is no occasion for this 
bench to be raised as high from the ground as the one alluded to in the description of the 
in-door kennel, for in the present instance the dog is not expected to sleep on it, at all events 
in cold weather. Three pieces of board each a foot wide and a yard long firmly nailed 
crossways on a couple of pieces of three-inch quartering forms an admirable bench of this 
description. The roof should be of weather boarding, covered over with the best felt, well 































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FIG. 5. RANGE OF KENNELS. 



tarred and sprinkled with coarse sand or gravel. Corrugated iron roofing is most objection- 
able, for in the summer the extent to which it attracts the sun renders the life of the 
unfortunate creature underneath it simply intolerable ; and most other roofings cost a con- 
siderable sum of money, which, as we have said before, it would be bad policy for a beginner 
to expend. Whilst upon this subject, however, we may remark that a tile roof well "pointed" 
is by far superior to all others, and in appearance it is certainly second to none. Under this 
description of roofing an owner may rest assured that his pets are as cool in summer and 
warm in winter as they can possibly be without the aid of artificial heat, which of course 
cannot be applied to out-door kennels. Thatch is cool in summer and warm in winter also, 
but it affords such a welcome retreat for all sorts of vermin that its adoption cannot be 
recommended. 

The knotty subject of sleeping accommodation for dogs up to at least fifty pounds weight 
in such a range of kennels is easily settled, if the master of the establishment is not too 
ambitious in his views. A common petroleum barrel, which can be obtained in numbers 
of almost any oilman, with a hole cut in one end, forms a most admirable kennel for dogs 
inhabiting these stalls. It is highly desirable that the barrel should be purified from the 
effluvia of the petroleum to as great an extent as possible, and this is easily managed by 
placing a handful of lighted straw inside after the hole has been cut to admit the dog. 
This will ignite any petroleum which may be left in it, and when this is accomplished a 
thorough rinsing out, followed by a stand in the fresh air for a day, renders it fit for any 



KENNELS AT GLEN-TANA. 



ii 



dog's reception. If any extra effect be required, the barrels can be painted the colour which 
their owner most admires, and it may be added that they can easily be kept in their place 
by bricks or wedges of wood. The arrangement of the whole range of stalls will be readily 
seen from Fig. 5, where a a represent the low benches, placed at the back a few inches from 
the \\ all and partition ; and b b are the barrels for sleeping in, placed with the face towards 
the back wall, and about two feet from it. A barrel thus placed with the face towards the 
wall makes a very good substitute for the more costly kennel shown in Fig. 2, as the wall 
in front of the entrance will keep the rain or wind from driving in. 

This sort of kennel can also be so constructed that in winter or inclement weather wooden 




VIEW OF KENNELS AT GLEN-TANA. 



fronts, each containing a glazed window, can be fitted in front of the outside rails. These, if the 
yards are covered over all the way, make first-rate enclosed sheds for puppies or delicate dogs. 
A communication can easily be made with the next kennel, if empty, and the dogs can thus get 
a run in the open air, the wooden front not being of course attached to it. By this arrangement 
an owner can have all or part of his kennel open to the air as he pleases. 

Where space and means permit, it is of course possible to erect more complete and 
specially-adapted accommodation. By the permission of the owner, and the kind assistance of 
Mr. George Truefitt, of Bloomsbury Square, the architect under whose superintendence were 
erected not only the kennels but all the other buildings at the shooting-lodge, we are enabled 
to give a view and ground-plan of the kennels erected for Mr. W. Cunliffe Brooks, M.P., in 
the forest of Glen-Tana, Aberdeenshire. It is built for stag-hounds, setters, and pointers, and 
is one of the most complete and compact examples we have met with of a gentleman's kennel 
for a good team of sporting dogs. 



12 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 



The references underneath the plan will explain the principal details of the Glen-Tana 
kennels, which are very fortunate in regard to position. This is not a small matter when it 
is a question of selecting a site, and of keeping working dogs in the highest health and 
condition. To attain this result, " kennels require," to quote from a note received with the 
view from Mr. Cunliffe Brooks, " plenty of air, yet shelter ; plenty of sun, yet shade." These 



o 



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S C A 
20 



L E 
30 



FIG. 6. PLAN OF KENNELS AT GLEN-TANA. 



A A Kennels, with benches. 

B B Inner yards. 

C c Larger outer or exercising yards. 

D Boiler-house. 

K Attendant's room. 



a a Benches or beds. 

b b Water-troughs. 

cc Open benches. 

V V Verandahs. 

w w Stream of water. 



kennels are built on the crest of a small hill, and have some old trees in the outer yards, as 
well as surrounding them, the position of these being shown by the dotted circles. They are 
also supplied with clear running water ; not only are the streams at w w thus supplied, but 
the troughs a a in the inner yards are also filled with water constantly flowing, to which fact 
the owner very much attributes the good health and condition of his dogs. 

It will be seen that in these kennels are comprised four separate sets of apartments, each 



RAILINGS FOR KENNELS. 13 

containing an inner kennel (A), furnished with beds (b b), an inner open yard (B) with a water- 
trough (a), two of which have open benches (cc} under verandahs (vv), and larger or outer yards 
(CC) for exercise. The boiler or cooking-house (D), which is furnished with two coppers or boilers, 
is so situated as to communicate directly with all four kennels ; and here the dogs when brought 
home at night can be washed and attended to, and then put in their respective kennels without 
being taken into the open air. A sleeping-room for the attendant is also in the centre of all, 
at K. The yard-walls are built with masonry to a certain height, above that are iron railings, 
not spiked at the top, but with curled ends, as shown in the perspective view. This view 
necessarily shows the kennel buildings with the intervening portions of the yard-walls removed, 
the front of the picture representing the dotted line shown in the plan in front of the 
verandahs (v V). 

It has just been remarked that the railings of the Glen-Tana kennels are curved at the 
top, and this may suggest remark on a rather important matter. Many a good dog has been 
spiked in trying to leap pointed railings, which are very dangerous unless carried to a greater 




FIG. 7. 



FIG. 8. 



height than is usual or necessary. The railings should, therefore, be either carried up (if spiked) 
to a good height, or curved at the top in some way. In Figs. 7 and 8 is illustrated an 
admirable pattern of railing which is in use at the Paris Jardin d'Acclimatation, and in some other 
places on the Continent, and the only objection to which is its expense. The figures given will 
explain the construction, and show how the whole railing is curved in at the top towards the 
yards, while stronger railings at proper intervals support short lengths of a revolving cylinder. 
If a dog reaches the cylinder it yields to his weight at once, and he falls back into the yard. We 
have never seen this kind of railing used in England, but the idea seems to us worth importa- 
tion. If properly made, as the bulk of the railing might be made light, the expense need not be 
greater than that of the ordinary spike railing, if so much. 

Probably the most complete and extensive range of kenneling in existence is the Home for 
Lost Dogs at York Road, Battersea, London. Scarcely any of our readers, if indeed any, can 
require such a range of buildings as this ; but wherever accommodation has to be provided for 
any large number of dogs, and money is not more than usually plentiful, a careful study of 
the view and plan on page 15 will amply repay the trouble it entails. The large central 
building contains sixteen stalls or kennels under cover inside, and there is an outside yard shared 
between every two or three kennels. Good, wide, and not too high benches run along both the 



14 THE BOOK or THE DOG. 

sides of each, making ten or twelve feet of benching in eacli stall, and over every door com- 
municating with the outside yards is a ventilator, which can be open or closed at pleasure. In 
the centre of each yard is a post for the convenience of the dogs, which without some such 
provision (too often forgotten) will sometimes refuse to relieve the wants of nature ; and there 
are both inside and out large troughs filled with water. 

A capital feature in the general arrangement of this establishment is the facility with which 
a dog can be removed from one kennel to another: the middle passage can be used, instead of 
the keeper being obliged to lead him through the midst of the other dogs, which is always a 
dangerous and bad plan. In addition to the sixteen kennels alluded to above, there are other 
large sheds with yards attached, an isolated hospital, and range of kennels for small dogs and 
puppies, large numbers of the latter being born on the premises every year. The kennels for the 
small varieties are on the right hand of the diagrams, and the only difference in them is that 
they are smaller, and the yards are partially covered over to protect the occupants from the 
inclemency of the weather. The boiling-house is close to the entrance of the main kennels, and 
there is a loft over it for the storage of biscuits and other necessaries. 

We are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Thomas Scorborio, the manager of the Dog's Home, 
for some details as to the statistics and management of the Home, which cannot fail to be of 
interest. The large dogs are fed twice a day upon Spratt's Patent Dog Biscuits and boiled tripe ; 
the smaller varieties getting stewed beast's heads and boiled rice, and crushed Spratt's biscuits ; the 
puppies, in addition, being supplied with milk. The kennels and yards are washed out daily during 
the summer months with a solution of" Heal's Creosoted Carbolic Soap," which Mr. Scorborio has 
found by experience an excellent disinfectant and destroyer of vermin. The average number 
of dogs received per week is about six hundred, and the worthless ones are detained in the 
Home three days before they are destroyed by poison. The more valuable specimens are kept 
until claimed by their owners, or disposed of by sale, which can be effected any time after they 
have been three days in the Home. Each dog, on his arrival at the Home, has a collar with 
a brass number on put round his neck, and his fate is recorded in a book kept for the purpose, 
so that he can be traced if necessary. The average quantity of biscuits used per week is ten 
hundredweight, and of flesh about eight hundredweight ; the cost of food of all sorts amounting 
to nearly 15 a week, and the other expenses to at least as much more. It will be thus 
seen that the Dog's Home incurs heavy expenses, and it cannot recoup much from the sale of 
dogs, the minimum price asked being five shillings. The cost of the freehold was ,1,500, and 
the erection of the kennels and paving the yards came to nearly 2,500. 

The subject of flooring kennels is one which is perpetually cropping up in canine discussions ; 
and as a rule the supporters of the various principles are very stubborn in their convictions, and 
slow of conversion to any other. Asphalte, brick, cement, and even slate, have each and all their 
supporters ; and we will endeavour to point out the objections which appear to our mind to exist 
in the case of three of the above. In the first place, asphalte is liable to get soft and spongy in 
hot weather, and becomes very slippery when down for a long time. This may not be much 
of an objection to the dog, but might cause a nasty fall to any person entering the yard 
incautiously. For these reasons we deem asphalte objectionable, though we learn that Lord 
Wolverton has had Claridge's patent asphalte laid down on the floor of his celebrated blood- 
hound kennels at Iwerne Minster. Brick is sure to work up in time, and the urine must 
sooner or later work into the cracks between the bricks, and tend to render the floor foul when 
it should be sweet and clean. Slates are apt to crack and chip. There only remains for us 
cement, which we are strongly of opinion is the best flooring by far. Exception has been taken 



THE HOME FOR LOST Docs. 





VIEW AND PLAN OF THE BATTERSEA HOME FOR LOST DOGS. 



1 6 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to it on the ground that it is cold to a dog if he lies or stands much on it. Our experience, 
however, teaches us that if a low, portable, wooden bench such as we have described is furnished, 
no dog will, when lying down out of his barrel, select any sort of floor in preference to his 
wooden couch, except in warm weather, when cement will do him no harm. This form of flooring, 
too, is so easily washed and scrubbed down that its merits cannot fail to be appreciated by those 
who give it a fair trial ; and it is economical to a degree, for though the cement in itself is an 
expensive item, a little of it goes such a long way that all apprehension of extravagance rapidly 
wears oflf. 

A sprinkling of sawdust over the floors of every sort of kennel is a great advantage, as it not 
only tends to improve the appearance of the establishment, but renders the task of cleaning 
the kennels more easy and efficient. Many breeders object to the use of sawdust in their 
establishments, on the ground that, when the dogs drag their food about, a quantity of sawdust 
adheres to it and gets swallowed by the dogs. We never found any ill effects arise from this 
ourselves, and question whether there is any probability of such occurring unless a large quantity 
of sawdust were laid down, which is quite unnecessary, a light sprinkling being quite sufficient. 

All kennels should be thoroughly washed out at least once a week, and in the warm 
months some sort of disinfectant is required to clear away offensive odours. Several excellent 
disinfectants are objectionable for leaving a most unpleasant smell behind them ; and on the 
whole nothing surpasses Condy's fluid for kennel use. A dilution of this preparation effectually 
purifies every nook and cranny, and its presence is not perceptible to the olfactory organs like 
carbolic acid, which is, however, a valuable disinfectant. A new patent preparation called Sanitas 
has been tried at some leading shows, and its success at them is pronounced ; we have, however, 
had no personal experience of its merits in kennels. 

It is sometimes considered desirable to warm kennels where delicate dog.o are confined during 
the winter nights. If gas can be laid on nothing surpasses a small gas stove ; but where this can- 
not be procured great advantage can be derived from the use of a mineral-oil stove, which emits 
no smell, and is not dangerous if kept out of the reach of the dogs. Should they overturn it, 
however, there is a risk of disaster from the inflammable nature of the mineral oil ; and the 
greatest care should therefore be bestowed upon thoroughly ensuring security in this respect. 




S 



CHAPTER III. 

GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF DOGS. 

HAVING got his dog comfortably housed, the next duty of the owner is to see to the 
internal arrangement and comfort of his kennels. Suitable benches have been provided, but 
as yet no allusion has been made to the bedding which should be supplied on them. Hay 
has been recommended, but there is a particular and great objection to it, on account of its so 
easily working into the coat of a long-haired dog. From an economical point of view also it 
is far less preferable than straw, which as a bedding for all sorts of dogs is unsurpassed. We 
have found wheaten straw superior to oaten when it can be obtained, as it lasts longer, and is 
more comfortable for the dogs to lie on. 

Many breeders of the larger and hardier varieties seldom, if ever, give their dogs anything 
to lie upon but bare boards, either from motives of economy, or in the belief that bedding is 
injurious to their coats. The latter objection is certainly a fallacy, as considerably more harm 
is likely to befall a dog's appearance if he is deprived of a warm' and comfortable bed, than if 
he is snugly benched and a good night's rest ensured. The wooden bench shown in Fig. 4 
should always be provided with the ledge round the front side, so as to prevent the straw 
falling off, which it is very apt to do when the dog makes himself comfortable in bed or 
leaps from it on to the ground. 

Many persons are partial to pine shavings for bedding, and we have used them satisfactorily 
ourselves when straw has been unprocurable. The chief virtue of shavings appears to lie in the 
amount of turpentine which is contained in them ; and it has been stated that no fleas or other 
vermin can exist in a kennel where shavings are constantly in use as bedding material. This 
opinion is at least exaggerated, for we have found that fleas are to some extent proof 
against these shavings, though no doubt the odour of the turpentine is very distasteful to 
them. Of course, in the case of large kennels in neighbourhoods where straw is very dear 
and shavings cheap, it would be impossible to ignore the advantages of the latter ; but they 
seem to break up and get dusty so soon, besides being hard and uncomfortable to the dogs, 
that we cannot recommend them to be supplied to show dogs, at all events on the eve of 
an exhibition. Some breeders, again, use sawdust on their dogs' sleeping benches ; but this 
practice is a thoroughly bad one. Such bedding gets into the ears and eyes of the dogs lying 
on it, and causes them great annoyance, if not absolute suffering. In addition to this, the 
trouble of getting sawdust out of their coats is very considerable. It is, no doubt, very good 
for the floor of the kennel, but has no recommendation whatsoever as an article of bedding. 

Some dogs require a renewal of their bedding much oftener than others, but on no account 
should it be left in longer than a week ; and before the clean straw is placed on the bench, the 
latter should be thoroughly well cleansed, and, if necessary, scrubbed out with a hard brush. 

During the hot summer months bedding is quite an unnecessary luxury for most breeds, 
even when their kennels are out of doors. In fact, very few dogs will consent to lie on straw 
if the weather is very warm, and will rid themselves of it if supplied them by scratching it 
3 



1 8 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

outside their kennel. Under any circumstances dog owners should be most careful to see 
that the bedding is clean and dry, for nothing injures the gloss on a dog's coat more than a 
bed of frowsy, damp straw. It is also found that the animal is very likely to be attacked 
with rheumatism if his bench is in an unhealthy state. 

FEEDING. 

There is no doubt that a great deal of a dog's goodness goes in at the mouth. By this 
we mean that a well-nourished young dog is certain to turn out a better animal than one 
whose wants in this respect have been neglected. The great secrets in feeding are firstly, 
wholesome food ; and secondly, variety in diet. We do not, certainly, advocate the feeding of 
dogs wholly upon meat ; such a diet is most injudicious, as it heats them, and in the case of 
sporting dogs injures their nose. Twice or three times a week, however, we do recommend 
meat to be given, in addition to the meal or biscuits which form the staple portion of the 
daily meal. Unsound, maggoty meat, such as we have seen supplied in more than one kennel, 
is sure to affect health sooner or later, and dogs will thrive better on a small quantity of 
sound food than upon an unlimited supply of bad quality. By a proper arrangement with his 
butcher, an owner can generally be supplied with the right sort of animal food upon really 
reasonable terms. 

A great subject of discussion amongst breeders is how many times a day dogs should be 
fed. In the case of old dogs, we consider once a day quite enough, if they are given as 
much as they can eat then. In such a case the evening is the best time for feeding, for 
many reasons; especially as it allows the dogs to be put by comfortably for the night, and 
they will generally go to sleep quietly after feeding. Puppies, however, require food more 
frequently, and one or two extra meals should be supplied them. 

The meat biscuits which are so largely used in most kennels form excellent diet, and can be 
given dry or soaked. If crushed up and steeped in boiling gravy, very few dogs will refuse them 
even at first, and after a time all get to like them. The chief objection to meat biscuits is, 
that so much depends upon the quality of meat contained in them ; for if it is bad it is worse 
than useless as food for dogs. There are, however, good houses which supply biscuits whose quality 
is in all points above suspicion, and from experience gained in our own kennels we can say with 
certainty that such biscuits are both wholesome and nutritious. Another good food as a basis 
of diet is coarse oatmeal, which should be thoroughly well boiled, or it wijl disarrange the dog's 
stomach. Stale bread and ship biscuit, if not weevily, are used for changes in diet with good 
results, but naturally the meat portion of the food is that upon which most depends. Sheeps" 
heads, horse-flesh, bullocks' tripes, paunches, and liver, are all excellent additions to the meal 
and biscuit. We recommend that the meal be boiled in the liquor in which the heads and 
horse-flesh have been previously cooked, and the flesh chopped up and added to it in more 
or less quantity, as the dog's condition requires. The biscuits which already contain meat can 
be soaked, and the tripe and paunches mixed with them. 

Rice is a great deal given in some kennels, but its fat-producing properties are so far 
in excess of its bone and muscle-producing constituents, that except as an occasional change, 
we do not recommend it for general use. Pearl-barley is superior to rice in every way, and 
we have got flesh on many a sickly dog with this food combined with scraps. Boiled potatoes, 
if crushed and mixed with gravy, are also a gopd change. 

J-iver is a food which dogs are very fond of, and it is a first-rate addition when the 
bowels are at all confined. It costs considerably more than the other meats we have mentioned, 



FEEDING OF DOGS. 19 

and tliis, in addition to its powers as an aperient, prevents its constant use in a kennel. Paunches 
we do not attach much importance to as either strengthening or fattening food ; but though 
the nourishment contained in them is small in comparison, they are liked by the dogs, and are 
serviceable as a cooling diet if given now and then. In all cases they should be thoroughly 
well washed and scalded before being given, as in many cases they contain parasites, which 
must be destroyed lest they injure the dog's internal organs. 

From remarks which have gone before it will be seen that variety in diet is not a very 
difficult matter, even in a large kennel, as we have biscuits in two forms, dry and soaked, and 
meal boiled in soup as the staple, without reckoning the supply of horse-flesh which would 
remain after some had been added to the other food-. Horses suitable for slaughtering can 
usually be bought for from one pound to thirty shillings, and there is always something to 
come back from the hide and bones after the dogs have done with the latter. If boiled as soon 
as killed, the flesh will keep sweet for a long time ; but in large kennels it is wonderful how 
soon it can be disposed of. 

It will be seen that more or less cooking is necessary. For one or two dogs a large 
saucepan will suffice, which may be fitted over an atmospheric gas-burner, if the supply is 
convenient. When more than this is required, very good iron boilers can be bought of most 
ironmongers for a few shillings, and fixed in the corner of the shed or any outhouse, by which 
the offensive smell of the cooking is kept away from the dwelling-house. Only in large 
kennels will more than this be required : for them it will generally be found cheapest in the 
end to have a regular boiler-house, or at least a couple of boilers regularly fixed, as in wash- 
houses, which should for convenience be fitted with supply and draw-off taps. The boiler, of 
any sort, should be placed so as to give most ready access to all parts of the establishment. 

Bones from which most of the meat is scraped should be frequently supplied, but care 
must be taken to keep the dogs apart whilst they are gnawing them, or a fight will be the 
consequence. Not only do bones amuse the dog for hours, but they benefit the teeth con- 
siderably, and help to strengthen the jaws, Large bones are preferable, as small ones may 
be bolted whole and stick in the throat. 

Having enumerated so many varieties of food which are all more or less wholesome, a 
supposititious dietary table may not be out of place. We will assume that arrangements have 
been made by which a certain supply of sheep's-heads and tripes can be obtained ; and that 
biscuits or meal are on the premises. On Sunday, then, the bill of fare may be dry, crushed 
biscuits, followed by some of the bones of the sheep's-heads. (If they are given at the same 
time the biscuits will not be touched, and the dogs not have enough food.) On Monday and 
Friday the liquor in which the heads were boiled may be given, mixed with meal, green 
vegetables, and a little tripe. Tuesday and Thursday biscuit can be given dry ; whilst 
Wednesday's dinner may be the meat of the heads, with a little dry biscuit ; and on Saturday 
rice, stale bread, or pearl-barley, can be boiled up with paunch or liver. Such a scale as this 
is of course only suitable for dogs that have a good amount of exercise, and where this is 
not the case, the amount of animal food should be reduced with discretion ; the scheme 
being only given as affording an idea of the method in which the many ingredients at 
command may be turned to account in affording a varied diet. It is always useful to have 
some sort of plan to go by, though some dogs will often require a particular regimen. 

Dogs that are " bad doers " require special treatment, and should be offered more tempting 
diet in small quantities two or three times a day. If a large dish full of food is placed before a 
dog who feeds badly, it is very apt to sicken him, and make him refuse to eat at all ; whereas a 



2O THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

little given him from his master's hand will most likely be swallowed eagerly. Cows' udder, 
well boiled, if given to delicate dogs, is almost always eagerly devoured, and certainly helps 
to put flesh on their bones. With regard to the feeding of light-fleshed dogs, the late Mr. 
Samuel Handley of Manchester once gave us a hint which has often proved valuable. His 
advice was to get some bullocks' " throttles " or gullets, and having chopped them up small, 
to boil with pearl-barley, and add a few currants. This is a very fattening food, and much 
liked. 

When soft food is given it is very desirable that some boiled vegetable should be mixed 
with it, as this purifies the blood and keeps the bowels in good condition. Cabbage, brocoli, 
turnip-tops, and, when they can be got, young nettles are the best and easiest cooked, and one 
or other should be supplied at least twice a week. When, however, these cannot be procured, it 
is necessary to resort to other means, and try what mild physic will do instead. Get equal 
weights each of milk of sulphur and magnesia (this will give rather more magnesia than 
sulphur), and either mix it up with the soft food, or rub up with a little milk, and give it to 
the dogs. We prefer the latter plan, as many dogs do not like it in their dinner, and eat less 
in consequence. The dose is a tea-spoonful for a fifty-pound dog, and if mixed with milk it 




FIG. 9. FEEDING TRul GH. 

should be of the consistency of cream. It is a good plan to give a dose of the above all 
round once a week in summer, and twice a month in winter ; and even if the vegetables 
are not given this is often enough, unless individual dogs may be disarranged in their 
bowels and require a mild aperient. This is also the best remedy we know for eruptions on 
the skin when they are caused by bad blood, and should then be given every day for a 
week, and after that alternate days until the dogs get better. 

Some authorities recommend that dogs should be fed from off the ground, but we consider 
this a thoroughly bad plan. The best feeding vessels for single dogs are round tin baking- 
tins, which can be bought at any ironmonger's. By using these each dog can be given his 
portion, and the tin afterwards removed and washed out ready for the next day. These 
vessels are, however, inappropriate for the use of a number of puppies, or, in fact, any dogs 
when a number are fed together, and the best trough then is such a one as is illustrated 
in Fig. 9. It is too heavy to overturn, and the dogs cannot so easily steal each other's share, 
owing to the divisions. 

A constant supply of fresh water is most important. The value of attention to this 
point can hardly be over-estimated, for though a dog will drink almost anything, he is 
sure to be upset by bad water sooner or later. Every owner should satisfy himself that 
his water-troughs are thoroughly emptied and rinsed out each morning, for they are apt 
to get slimy round the edges and bottom if let stand too long, the consequence being that 
the water is polluted before it gets to the dogs. The best sort of drinking vessel is a simple 
earthenware open spittoon, as shown in Fig. 10 ; these can be easily washed out, and from 
their shape are very dijjicult to overturn. In the case of large breeds, for which these vessels 



FOOD A\ T D EXERCISE. 



21 



would hold an insufficient supply, we strongly recommend an enamelled iron trough similar 
in shape to the feeding-trough shown in Fig. 9. 

Having thus described the feeding of dogs where considerable numbers are kept, and 
which consequently require regular business arrangements to be made, a few lines may be 
devoted to the requirements of those who only keep one or two dogs in-doors. Inexperienced 
persons often inquire how to feed their pets, and the first question generally is, whether 
scraps from the table injure the health. From what has gone before, it may be gleaned 
that scraps given with judgment are a very beneficial diet. The main thing, never to be lost 
sight of, is that the supply of meat given a dog must greatly depend upon the life he leads ; 
and in the case of dogs kept in-doors, the amount of exercise they get is usually in one 
extreme or the other. The household pet is either the constant companion of the members 
of his master's family in their walks, and thereby, between one and the other, gets a good 
deal of exercise ; or he is a petted little toy which is considered too delicate to leave the 
fireside, and so gets scarcely any running about at all. In the former of these cases, a 
moderate amount of meat is decidedly beneficial ; in the latter, the less he gets the better, 
From one-quarter to one-third of meat is sufficient for most in-door dogs, and the rest of his 




FIG. IO. DRINKING VESSEL. 



food should consist of bread-crumbs, vegetables, crushed-up potatoes, pie-crust, &c., &c, with 
a little gravy added. Bones now and then should be given to gnaw, but too much meat 
must not be left on them, and if an additional meal is required nothing can surpass dry 
biscuits. A dog will always eat when he is hungry, and tender-hearted mistresses should 
console themselves, if they see their dog leaving a portion of his food, by the conviction that 
a little wholesome diet is better for their pet than a bounteous fare of unsuitable materials. 
Dogs cannot speak when their food disagrees with them, and the life of many a little pam- 
pered toy is rendered a burden to him by the injudicious feeding of an over-indulgent master 
or mistress. Instead of getting a run in the open air, he is doomed to a life of unnatural 
inertness, and his stomach is periodically crammed with the richest and most unwholesome food 
which could possibly be selected for him. How can it be wondered at, then, that toy-dogs 
extend to such unnatural dimensions, that their teeth decay, that their bodies break out into 
sores, and their ears canker : causing them to become objects of disgust to all who have the 
misfortune to be associated with them ? Whereas, had the same dogs been fed judiciously on 
plainer scraps from the table, and their drink been pure water, the abominations of cream, 
milk, " tit-bits," &c., being eschewed, they would have been lively and handsome companions 
for any lady in her walks, and a gratification to those to whom they belong. 

EXERCISE. 

We have implied that a good and daily amount of exercise is most essential to the general 
health of all dogs. Some varieties can exist for a certain time without proper attention in this 
respect, but in the majority of breeds a liberal allowance of out-door exercise must be provided 



22 THE BOOK of THE DOG. 

if they are to be kept in real health and spirits. Dogs and bitches kept for breeding purposes 
cannot have too much open air under judicious management, and the health and future excellence 
of young stock is greatly affected by the liberty they obtain. The means by which the necessary 
amount of exercise is given the dogs must necessarily depend on the situation of the kennels and 
the space and time at their owners' disposal. If the establishment is in the country the task 
of exercising the dogs is a very easy one, the adjacent meadows offering every facility. But 
in towns the case is different, and means have to be devised by which comparative liberty can 
be obtained without risk to the dogs and annoyance to the neighbours. Under all circum- 
stances a covered-in run is a very desirable addition to a range of kennels, for then the dogs 
can be exercised in all weathers, and an admirable run for young puppies formed. Unfor- 
tunately few breeders can afford the space that such an erection would occupy ; but we allude 
to it, lest the merits of an empty barn might be overlooked when exercising comes to be 
considered. In the case of dogs whose temperaments are peaceful, no difficulty will be found 
in taking them out for an hour or two's run in the morning, when few people and conveyances 
are about ; and this, with a daily turn of greater or less extent in the kennel yard, will suffice 
for most animals. The sporting varieties will, of course, require more exercise and special 
treatment, which will be gone into in the chapter on breaking. 

It is not good to let dogs be exposed too long to a hot summer's sun ; for lying about in 
it is sure to disarrange their health, and render them dull and languid. Where they are let 
run in yards a plentiful supply of water should always be within reach, and this should be 
kept in a shady corner out of the sun's rays, which heat it and render it unfit for the dogs to 
drink. Sometimes an awning may be of great benefit. 

In many establishments one or two good dogs are kept in-doors, which are forbidden to 
roam about in the garden on account of the injury they would cause there. It may be required 
to exercise them thoroughly, and if so the owner has to resort to artificial means, using a 
ball, or a cat-skin tied at the end of a fishing-rod or long cane, and dangled before them. In 
the first case, if the dog will fetch and carry, a great amount of exercise can be gone through 
at the cost of a comparatively trifling exertion on the part of the owner, who has only to keep 
on throwing away the ball for the dog to run after. Half an hour or so a day of such violent 
exercise will keep most dogs in good health, but it is particularly desirable that all their 
leisure time should not be passed in-doors before a fire, as nothing tends to demoralise a dog 
more than -want of fresh air. No house is quite destitute of a yard of some sort, where a 
kennel can be fixed up for the dog's reception during some part of the day. Fuller description 
of the method of exercising by means of a skin and long cane will be given in the article 
on Bull-terriers, as it is a form of excitement more peculiarly adaptable to vermin dogs, 
partly from their disposition to worry a ball if given one to play with, and partly because 
less spirited dogs soon get tired of jumping at a thing they cannot reach. 

GROOMING. 

A great deal in a dog's appearance depends upon whether his owner has him well groomed 
or not. This most useful operation has probably never been resorted to by scores of exhibitors, 
who on showing their dogs are surprised to find that they compare unfavourably with others 
in the condition of their coats. Grooming, to be effective, must be constant and thorough. 
A casual overhauling with a dirty brush once in two or three months does not at all represent 
our views on the subject ; but it is very hard to convince some kennelmen of the benefit 
proper grooming can bestow on the dogs' coats. Latterly attention has been directed to this 



GROOMING AND WASHING. 23 

matter, and the result has been the appearance of several appliances which are more or less 
effective as aids to the canine toilet. Conspicuous amongst inventions which are really service- 
able is the hair-glove, and no breeder of smooth-coated dogs should be without some of these 
in his kennel. In the case of the long-haired varieties a coarse comb and dandy-brush are 
about all that are necessary. Very hard brushes, as a rule, are best avoided ; they may do no 
harm to a thoroughly healthy coat, but the skin even of a healthy dog is peculiarly susceptible of 
irritation, and any undue stimulus may start him scratching till he is almost raw. A hard brush 
may therefore inflame some pustule on the skin, and before the injury is discovered a dog may 
have disfigured himself for months to come. A hard short-bristled brush, if constantly used, is 
also liable to remove more hair than is necessary, and thereby injures the dog's appearance. 

Many dogs are very fidgety when they are being groomed, and throw themselves about 
in a manner which renders the operation a tedious one. There is no remedy for this but 
patience, and after a dog once becomes accustomed to his morning's grooming, he soon gets to 
like it, and seems to look forward to the luxury. It is always desirable to chain him up when 
grooming is carried on, in case he breaks away and gets into mischief. The modus operandi is 
very simple, but we have always found it best to let the dog lie down, and do as much of 
his legs as possible first. The reason of this is that during the grooming of his legs a dog 
very often lies down and fidgets about, and in this way gets his coat all covered with sawdust 
or whatever may be laid on the floor of the kennel. This is not so annoying when his back 
and sides have yet to be groomed, and he can return to his bench neat and tidy. The 
legs should be thoroughly rubbed with the brush or hair-glove, care being taken to pass 
the hand in the direction the coat runs, or instead of benefiting the coat it will be injured 
by being made rougher than it was before. Attention should then be directed to the head 
and ears ; the back must next be done, and the proceedings terminate by brushing out the 
tail. Under ordinary circumstances the hair-glove is sufficient for smooth-coated dogs, but its 
bristles are neither long nor stout enough to penetrate the jackets of the long-haired varieties' 
When the latter have to be dealt with a dandy-brush will usually suffice, the comb only 
being resorted to when the coat is knotted and tangled up. In using the comb the operator 
should be as gentle as he can, for if he drags tufts of hair out he hurts the dog and injures 
his appearance. A thorough combing-out is an excellent practice before a dog is washed, as 
it helps to remove all superfluous hairs, but when the coat is wet it is always more or less 
tangled, and should not be combed. As we have said before, systematic grooming is at the 
bottom of many a dog's blooming condition, and no morning should go by without strict 
attention being paid to his toilet. Careful grooming also assists greatly in the destruction of 
fleas and other vermin, and renders the coat sweet and clean. 

We may remark that these hints on grooming refer solely to general management, and 
no allusion is made here to any special attention show dogs may require in the course of their 
preparation for exhibition, as such will be fully gone into in the chapter on exhibiting. A 
good rub over with a large dry chamois leather after the brushing out is completed is an ex- 
cellent termination to the grooming, but in ordinary cases is not so essential as the brush or 
hair-glove. 

WASHING. 

No very great skill is required, under ordinary circumstances, to wash a dog, providing the 
necessary appliances are at hand. If the weather is warm, and the dog of a hardy constitution, 
the chances of his catching cold are very small, but in cold weather the chief difficulty is to 
get him dry before replacing him in his kennel. It should be borne in mind that almost all 



24 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

dogs strongly object to being washed, and are prepared to make an effort to escape at a 
moment's notice. If they succeed in doing so the result is usually disastrous; for, in 
addition to wetting everything in the house, a dog invariably, if he can, goes outside to roll, 
and if he does so, has to be washed over again. Jf his collar is worn during his ablutions, 
it is very likely to stain his neck, as it probably requires a wash itself, and the best plan is 
to have a clean leather strap handy to put on your dogs whilst they are being washed, and 
which is reserved for this purpose only. Some people maintain that they can hold a dog by 
the scruff of the neck when they are washing him, but their grasp when he is covered with 
soap must be very precarious. 

In some cases, where a number of dogs have to be washed, and the object is more to 
cleanse their skins than to get them up for show purposes, no tub is used, but they are 
merely stood over the drain grating in the kennel, and some water poured over them ; the 
soap is then applied, their coats rinsed out with cold water, and they are dried and sent back 
to their kennels. This is an unnecessarily untidy and unsatisfactory course, as, if a tub is used, 
there need be hardly any water spilt, and the washing can be far more thoroughly carried 
out. The best sort of tub is one about three feet wide across the top, and some fifteen to 
eighteen inches high at the sides. One end of a large barrel sawn through makes an admirable 
tub, and care should be taken to have a hole in the bottom, in which a cork is fitted, as 
by this means the dirty water can be let run off without making an unnecessary mess in the 
kennel. We always had our own washing-bath placed on trestles over the drain near the water- 
tap in the kennel. One end of an india-rubber tube was placed on the nose of the tap, and 
the other hung over the side of the tub ; by this plan only the hot water had to be brought 
in pails, and any amount of cold was at the kennelman's disposal when he required it. As 
soon as the water was done with the cork was removed and the dirty water poured into the 
drain, not a tea-cupful being spilt about the kennel, and the tub was ready for the second 
dog by the time the first was dried. 

The ordinary appliances necessary for washing a dog are, in addition to the tub, a large 
sponge, an empty jam-pot or other small vessel, a lump of soap (white curd for choice), and 
something to dry him with. We shall allude to washing for show purposes later on. Stand 
the dog up in the tub, which should be three parts full of moderately hot water, to which a 
little soda may be added, and wet his coat thoroughly through ; this can be done by baling 
the water over him by means of the jam-pot above alluded to. When he is saturated with 
the water, commence by soaping his face and head, and get this completed and washed out 
before you go on to his body, legs, and tail, in the order named. Take care that the soap 
is well rubbed in, but be careful to let as little as possible reach his eyes. The head once 
done with, the rest is tolerably easy work in the case of most dogs ; but it is always well 
to be prepaied for efforts to escape being made. When he is well lathered all over his body 
and legs, and the soap thoroughly rubbed into his skin, the jam-pot must be again resorted to 
to remove the soap by baling the water over him. Finally, before lifting him out of the 
tub, it is well to give the dog a douche of cold water, as it not only cleanses his jacket of 
the soap, but diminishes the chances of his taking cold. Our arrangement of the india-rubber 
tube referred to above was here particularly serviceable, as the cold stream could be so 
readily applied to any part of the body. 

When removed from his tub a dog is always anxious to shake himself, and rub himself 
on the ground ; to the first proceeding there is not much objection, but the disadvantages of 
the latter are obvious. Before lifting him out of the tub, he should be partially dried by 



PREVENTION AND REMOVAL OF VERMIN. 25 

means of the sponge, and the towels will complete this part of the operation. When there is 
no fear of his taking cold, the dog can be returned to his kennel, where it is desirable that 
some clean straw should be provided for him. 

Dogs kept in the house should be washed once every week or ten days ; those out of 
doors about every three weeks or a month in summer, and less frequently in the cold weather. 
Washing is not so necessary where grooming is strictly attended to, but an occasional bath 
benefits a dog considerably. Many persons use brown or soft soap, but in breeds which show 
white this is objectionable, as it causes the coat to appear yellow after being used. 

VERMIN. 

If not properly attended to in the way of grooming and washing, all dogs are sure to be 
pestered with vermin. The remedies for clearing them of such torments are very numerous, 
but we have found the most ordinary means the most effective. Fleas can generally be got 
rid of by rubbing the dog thoroughly over with oil, from the tip of his nose to the end of 
his tail, and then washing him in water to which a little Condy's fluid or solution of 
permanganate of potash has been added. The oil should be left on three or four hours, and 
if thoroughly applied completely settles the fleas. Carbolic acid in the water and carbolic 
soap are also efficacious, but a too constant application of such remedies is apt to injure the 
dog's coat. Quassia chips are an excellent remedy in mild cases. Get two or three ounces 
from a chemist, and steep in boiling water ; let them remain in it for some hours, and then 
drain off the liquor into the water in which the dog is to be washed. 

Lice are very troublesome, and often will not yield to the above remedies. White 
precipitate powder will invariably destroy them, but must be used very cautiously, or it will 
poison the dogs. It should be applied dry to the coat, as if wet there is danger of the dog 
being poisoned by absorbing it into his skin. The patient should be securely muzzled, as a 
small dose in the mouth is sure to act fatally. The powder must be well brushed out with a dry 
brush in one or two hours, and care must be taken that the dog does not get wet. 

Ticks are frequently found on the bodies of dogs which have been neglected, and are 
most troublesome to cure. They burrow into the skin, and hold on most pertinaciously. White 
precipitate powder has generally to be resorted to in order to get rid of them, and should be 
applied as stated above. 

If the benches and bedding are not periodically cleaned and removed, vermin of some 
sort or other are sure to make their appearance in the kennels with disastrous results. The 
only remedy is a thorough purification ; the walls and partitions must be at once white or 
lime washed, and the floor, benches, and iron-work well scrubbed, a good proportion of carbolic 
acid or Condy's fluid being added to the water used for the purpose. If discovered in time, 
and stringent measures are taken for their extermination, vermin soon disappear, but when 
allowed time to settle down they soon spread all over the building and occupy every crack 
in it. No time therefore should be lost in meeting their first appearance. On the other hand, 
vermin are sometimes confounded with effects arising from heated blood ; and whenever a dog 
seems uneasy, an owner should make thorough examination, and satisfy himself that it is really 
vermin which cause the irritation. 

Vermin will very seldom appear in dogs which are well groomed, but they must occasionally 
be communicated by means of dogs met in the streets, and especially at shows. An inspection 
of all dogs on their return from exhibitions will therefore be oftentimes profitable, as by dis- 
covering the presence of insects in good time a check on their advance can be made. 
4 



26 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 



CLEANLINESS IN THE HOUSE. 

Whether a dog is an acquisition or not as a household companion very much depends 
upon his habits of cleanliness ; for nothing can be more offensive than an indoor pet upon 
whose behaviour no reliance can be placed. In the case of an old dog accustomed to live 
outside, and who has not been taught in his youth, we fear the inculcation of cleanly habits 
will be a difficult matter. The whip is the only remedy which can be applied, and its 
application should be neither light nor meagre. With puppies the matter is usually far simpler, 
and they soon acquire good manners if once convinced that punishment is the certain result 
of dirty habits. Before the whip is resorted to, the offender should always be taken to the 
place where the faux pas occurred, and the enormity of his conduct pointed out to him in 
stern but not passionate tones. A sound whipping should next be immediately followed by 
his expulsion from the room, and on his return from out of doors no further notice need be 
taken of his offence against good manners. After a few repetitions of this treatment the dog 
will understand what he is punished for, and will gradually learn to avail himself of the 
opportunities provided by his periodical runs outside. Some resort to the system of spreading 
pepper on the place where he misbehaved, and rubbing the dog's nose in it, and this is 
often effective in obstinate cases, but is an unnecessary severity in teaching young dogs. The 
opportunities for runs outside already alluded to, it need hardly be said, must be regularly given; 
and it must never be forgotten that a dog cannot, like most animals, void his urine by one 
act, but is obliged to expel it in small portions and by many separate efforts : much suffering 
may be caused by forgetting this. Indoor pets should always be allowed a run the last thing 
at night, and several outings during the day ; else they cannot be expected to be clean, and 
it is cruelty to punish a dog for what he cannot help. Experience has taught us one thing, 
which is, that one thorough whipping does more good and less harm to a dog than a series 
of minor corrections. He remembers it far longer, and in his heart knows he deserved it 
for something or other, even if he has not learnt what the actual offence is ; but if he is 
always being scolded and slightly punished, his master soon appears in the light of a perse- 
cutor, and the dog becomes either permanently cowed, or perhaps turns savage, and thereby 
unfitted for an indoor companion. 



DOG BITES AND RABIES. 

So many accidents occur in kennels from dog bites that attention may be directed to 
one or two simple precautions to be attended to if one has the misfortune to be bitten. The 
application of lunar caustic is universally recommended ; but if this or any other remedy is 
used it should be applied to the wound at once and thoroughly. It is no use touching the 
outside of a bite with a little caustic ; the stick must be well worked into the wound, and 
will cause considerable pain and subsequent inflammation. Often, however, this remedy is 
not at hand though a stick of caustic is a useful appendage to any kennel and other means 
have to be adopted. A very common practice is to plunge the injured part in hot salt and 
water, and keep it there for some minutes ; and this is supposed to draw the poison (if any) 
out of the wound. Mr. Thomas Scorborio, manager of the Dogs' Home at Battersea, informs 
us of a remedy which he invariably causes to be applied to any of his attendants who are 
bitten badly. It consists of a large poultice of carbonate of soda, made into a paste with 
water and applied to the wound on a piece of linen. It should be kept on the wound about 



DOG BITES AND RABIES. 27 

two hours, wetting the cloth with cold water every few minutes to keep the poultice moist. 
The thousands of stray dogs by far the most dangerous class which have passed through 
Mr. Scorborio's hands render any application which receives his support valuable ; and we 
may add that we have his authority for stating that an undoubtedly rabid dog bit an 
acquaintance of his, who at once applied a carbonate-of-soda poultice, and lived for years 
afterwards without suffering any ill effects. A celebrated veterinary surgeon at Bath also 
states that he has tried this remedy (with, so far, no failure) in many cases of bites from rabid 
dogs. It is unnecessary for us to go into the subject of hydrophobia here, or allude to the 
various recoveries which have been said to follow the treatment of alleged cases by the 
administration of curare, the Birling or other cures ; but, from what has been published, the 
benefit of prolonged and often-repeated Turkish or vapour baths should not be overlooked 
by any who have had the misfortune to be bitten. 

One word is, however, necessary in defence of the dog. Many are annually mistaken 
for mad, and literally hunted to death by ignorant people, to whom the cry of "mad dog" 
is equivalent to positive proof that the animal is infected with rabies. Without under- 
rating the fearful dangers that may arise from a real case of this disease, we would at 
the same time caution owners not to hurriedly destroy every animal that behaves in a 
suspicious manner, if only for the reason that it is very desirable to know how many 
cases of genuine rabies really do occur. An owner, whenever an animal gives cause 
for suspicion, should secure it in a quiet place from which escape is impossible, and where 
it will not be disturbed. It is very possible the quiet may soothe the excited nervous 
system, and cure the eccentric behaviour which first caused suspicion. Meantime, of course, 
the dog should not be handled unless absolutely necessary, and ought to be carefully 
watched, that the development of every symptom may be noted ; it need hardly be said 
that competent opinion should be sought at an early stage. We need only observe here 
that rabid dogs often drink water greedily, contrary to the popular belief. The principal 
early symptoms of genuine rabies are a shrinking from light and a desire to hide ii? 
corners ; a propensity to gnaw and worry objects within reach, and to swallow bits oi 
stick, buttons, hair, filth, &c. ; a disinclination to come when called ; and often a scared 
and wild appearance without apparent cause. The last sign is, however, valueless as regards 
a dog which has been hunted in the inhuman manner too common. 




CHAPTER IV. 

EXHIBITING, BUYING, AND SELLING. 

ANY owner who has confidence enough in the merits of his dogs to desire to show them must bear 
in mind that excellence in symmetry and formation will probably be thrown away if condition is 
bad. For exhibition purposes condition is everything. A first-class specimen, however grand he 
may be in many points, if his eye is dull and listless and his coat ragged, cannot fail to suffer from 
comparison with a dog who, though perhaps inferior in some points, is lively and vivacious, 
thereby showing himself off to the best advantage when he is in the ring before the judges. The 
latter should even if they do not always judge a dog as he is before them, not reckoning what 
his performances have been or what merit he may develop with age. In getting up a dog for 
exhibition, therefore, an owner should try and make him look his best, never losing sight of the 
purposes for which the breed exists, and trying to bring his pet into the ring not only looking 
well, but fit to do his duty. A sporting dog looks ludicrous when he appears fat and flabby, and 
displays to every one how utterly incapable he would be of doing half a day's work. A bulldog or 
bull-terrier loaded with flesh instead of muscle is a sorry sight ; and a black and tan or a toy terrier 
with a ragged staring coat cannot hope to be " in it " when competing for the prize of beauty with 
others of the same breed whose jackets shine like satin. 

Experience can only be bought by practice, but here is a notable fact for the benefit of 
beginners : viz., that the most consistently successful exhibitors of late years have been those whose 
dogs have been shown in the best condition. We were once profoundly impressed by a hint 
given us by a deceased friend whose opinion in certain breeds was law. " Thoo'l have to learn, 
lad, hoo ta' show tha' dags," was all he said ; we marked, learned, and profited by his suggestion, 
and never knowingly sent a dog off to a show who .had not something in the way of condition 
to recommend him. To attain this desired end is difficult, merely from the fast that different 
dogs require different treatment ; by following certain rules, however, great progress can be made, 
and if due attention is paid to feeding, exercising, and grooming, the most delicate dogs can be 
vastly improved in both health and appearance. 

To begin with, it is always bad for an owner to place too much reliance on his kennel-man. An 
experienced person is no doubt an acquisition in any establishment, but the master will surely rue 
the day when he lets absolute control over his dogs slip from his grasp. A servant is very apt to 
consider himself of greater importance than he really is, unless his master keeps him up to his 
work, and supervises the daily routine of work as far as he can. Many masters profess to be above 
the task of looking after their own interests, and leave their kennels entirely under the control of 
their men. Such individuals cannot care much for the honour of winning a prize, as whatever 
kudos there is gained must rest with their deputy, and it is notorious that they generally suffer in 
the long-run by their blind confidence. We always had a slate hanging up in the kennel, and wrote 
any orders there were to be given on it ; the consequence was that there was no excuse for them 
not being attended to, and the dogs flourished accordingly. 

In getting a dog up for show, his comfort should be particularly looked after in every way. 



CLOTHING FOR DOGS. 29 

See that his bed is comfortable and clean for him after his return from the unusual amount of 
exercise which should at this time be given him. The operation of grooming too should be more 
thoroughly carried out than under ordinary circumstances, and if his jacket is well rubbed 
down day by day with a chamois leather the gloss on it will be increased. In consequence 
of the greater exercise he takes a little more meat can be given him, but there is always a chance 
of his blood getting heated, and his skin breaking out in consequence into sores, or the hair coming 
off. Internal as well as external remedies must be at once resorted to if there are any indications 
of this misfortune befalling him. Let the dog, in such a case, be given a daily dose of the sulphur 
and magnesia mixture which has been alluded to in Chap. III., and give him sloppy food for a 
time. As regards a lotion for external application, the following, for which we are indebted to 
Mr. Hugh Dalziel, is highly efficacious : 

Carbolic acid ... ... ... J oz. 

Glycerine ... ... ... J oz. 

Laudanum ... ... ... I oz. 

Carbonate of soda ... ... ... I dram. 

Water ... ... ... ... i^ pints. 

This lotion should be dabbed very lightly indeed on the sores with a sponge, or wrung out of 
a piece of lint on to them frequently during the day, and it is marvellous how rapidly it dries 
up the raw places, and frees the dog from all irritation. If meat proves too heating, bread-and- 
butter is an excellent addition to a dog's daily allowance of food, and we have tried it with marked 
success in the case of several bad-constitutioned dogs. Let the butter be sound and good, and 
the bread not too new, however, or this diet may not succeed as well as the owner could 
wish. Cow's udder, if well boiled, is much relished by all dogs, and in getting up a light-fleshed 
dog upon whom a little bulk is wanted is simply invaluable, as its fat-producing properties are 
very high. 

Cod-liver oil is most efficacious in its effects on dogs. A tablespoonful once or twice a day 
after food generally succeeds in putting flesh rapidly on a fifty-pound dog. This dose must be 
increased or diminished according to the size of the animal, and the effect it has on his condition. 
Suitable cod-liver oil can generally be obtained from saddlers or leather dressers, who use it in 
their trade. This is very much cheaper than what is obtained from chemists, and the only 
difference is that it is supplied unrefined. 

In the case of many smooth-haired breeds, where the smoothness and brilliancy of their 
coats go a long way to ensure success in exhibition, it is desirable to keep them clothed for some 
time previous to the date of the show. Dog clothing is of various sorts, shapes, and materials ; but 
the best for ordinary indoor purposes are plain white calico for summer wear, and ordinary fawn- 
coloured but not too thick horse clothing, to be used in winter or cold weather. These should 
be taken off when out of doors if the weather is fine, but if it rains many exhibitors employ thin 
macintosh sheets when exercising their pets. As regards the best make, we very much incline 
to the pattern which buckles in front, and to which a breast-cloth can be added. When the 
clothing is so constructed as to pull over the head like a stocking it is sure to ruffle up the 
dog's coat, and furthermore the same clothing cannot be made to fit various dogs so easily as 
the pattern which buckles in front. Fig. 1 1 exactly represents a pattern of exhibition clothing, 
which in workmanship and design we consider perfection, and which we arrived at after much 
study and many trials. For a long time we stood alone in various of its details, especially as 
regards fil let-strings and embroidered crest ; but of late many others have copied our example. 



3O THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

From the design it will be observed that the strap A can be buckled in front of the chest, 
before the breast-cloth is attached to the clothing by buckles at B B. In very warm weather the 
breast-cloth may be dispensed with ; but on journeys, or in cold draughty shows, one must bear 
in mind that it is desirable to protect the lungs of a dog as much as possible ; the breast-cloth 
should therefore be worn in such instances. A slit, C, in the part of the clothing at the top of 
the neck, should always be provided for the ring of the collar to come through, as in leading a 




FIG. II. DOG CLOTHING. 



dog, or when he is tied up, the clothing should not be able to work out of its place if the dog 
struggles. 

In sending a dog to a show, be sure his chain has two swivels on it, or else there is every 
chance of his being strangled before he gets home. If there is only one swivel it is apt to get 
choked with straw, and thereby cease to act; it then twists up and chokes the unhappy dog 
attached to the chain. There is an excellent chain manufactured expressly for show purposes, a 
sketch of which is given on the next page (Fig. 12), and which is made of various strengths, so as 
to suit any breed of dogs. It will be seen that there are not only two swivels, but a spring hook 
at each end and thpee rings in the chain, so that it can be shortened to any suitable length. 

Washing his been so thoroughly gone into already that there is not much room for 



TRIMMING ARTIFICES, 31 

further observations here, beyond drawing the attention of our seaders to the great necessity of 
always now getting the dog perfectly dry before letting him go back to his kennel. The best time 
to wash a dog for a show is the evening before he leaves home, and he can be then secured for the 
night without much chance of his soiling his jacket ; but be sure to have abundance of fresh and 
clean straw for him to roll himself on, or he will be sure to stain himself, and all the labour of 
washing has to be gone through again, possibly under difficulties as regards time and place. Hand 
rubbing is most efficacious as a means of both drying and flattening down the coat ; and after the 
process of drying is partially accomplished with a sponge and towel, we strongly recommend, in 
the case of smooth-haired dogs, that the operation be completed by rubbing the hands over the 
coat in the direction the hair runs. This may seem, and is, a tedious operation ; but the dog's 
appearance is wonderfully improved by it. A little blue is often added to the water in which white 
dogs are washed, but it must be very little ; and for our own part we rarely went beyond the use 
of the ordinary blue-mottled white soap, as, if good of its sort, this contains quite enough blue for 
all practical purposes. Loaf sugar is supposed by some to add brilliancy to the coat if put in the 
tub ; but though we tried it, there were no adequate results to be perceived. In the case of 
the hard or wire-haired breeds, where a stiff, harsh coat is wanted, the addition of a little alum 




FIG. 12. DOUBLE-SWIVEL DOG-CHAIN. 

in the water has a beneficial effect, and this should not be lost sight of by exhibitors of these 
varieties. 

The delicate subject of trimming must be approached with caution, as any unwary expression 
regarding the various processes may be taken far more seriously than is desired. That many in 
fact most breeds of dogs can be vastly improved by various minor operations is admitted 
universally, and it is well known to most -exhibitors that artifices are continually being resorted to 
which might, if detected, lead to the disqualification of the dog if he were awarded a prize. Long- 
haired dogs are plucked i.e. bad or superfluous hair removed. Terriers are stained, shaved, and 
singed. Tails are shaved and resined. Curly coats which should be flat are ironed out ; flat 
coats which should be curly have the tongs applied. White noses sometimes have lunar caustic 
(nitrate of silver) applied to them ; and it may be well to remark that this can be easily detected 
by applying cyanide of potassium : care must, however, be taken with this drug, as it is a most 
deadly poison, and a very little allowed to get inside the mouth would kill the dog. Unsightly 
patches are dyed, and drooping ears gummed. All these and other artifices have been resorted to, 
and are often passed over by judges, who either do not possess the perception to detect the 
fault, or lack the moral courage to face the uproar a disqualification would bring about. How far 
the more trifling of such practices are recognised or permitted it is hard to say ; but, trimming, or 
"faking," as it is popularly termed, is always a risky as well as an undesirable operation, and 
should be suppressed. In certain breeds mutilation is universal : such as docking the tail of a fox- 
terrier or spaniel, rounding the ears of a hound, or cropping those of a bull or English terrier. There 
are, however, operations performed on dogs, the only motive for which is the remedy of some fault 
which it possesses. For instance, a badly-carried ear is often " improved " by the application of 



3 5 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

a knife when the puppy is young ; or a tail which is carried up over the back is operated on 
by having some of the refractory joints so severed that it cannot be raised. Filing the teeth 
when they are irregular or malformed is also practised, and there can be no doubt that this is 
illegal, for prompt disqualification is the certain result of detection. Many artifices to which the 
various breeds may be especially liable will be mentioned in connection with those breeds, and 
it is therefore unnecessary to go into them at length in the present instance. 

Another improvement is more legitimate. A few drops of oil rubbed into the palms of the 
hand and applied to the coat has an improving effect upon it. Care must be taken to prevent the 
oil showing too palpably, and only a few drops must be used, or the coat will be greasy and sticky. 




FIG. 13. TRAVELLING BOX FOR DOGS. 



It is always best to send dogs on a journey securely confined in a box or basket, though in the 
case of large dark-coloured breeds the necessity for doing so is not so decided as when delicate or 
white dogs have to be considered. Their chain can be let hang loose, so that when the lid is 
opened there will be less chance of their escaping. Of the two arrangements, a square-sided 
basket is preferable when the dogs are not of a destructive disposition, as it allows more air to 
reach its occupant. The use of a box must be resorted to, however, when powerful and 
violent dogs are to be sent off, or they will eat their way out in an incredibly short time. The 
box or basket should be large enough for the dog to stand up and turn himself round comfortably in, 
and should always be provided with a lock and key and two strong handles. When the owner does 
not accompany his dog on a journey to a show it is a good plan to tie the key securely to one of 
the handles, so that the dog can be at once liberated. A couple of straps and buckles, in addition 
to the lock, are desirable, as they secure the box if the lock gives way, and save too heavy a 
strain falling on it. 

An illustration of a good dog's travelling box is given in Fig. 13, where the iron gratings 



TRANSIT OF DOGS. 



33 



used for ventilation are clearly shown. These should be in each side, the front, and lid, the 
back and floor only being boarded. The latter should have holes bored in it for obvious 
reasons. Care should be taken to ensure the ventilation gratings being Sufficiently large for their 
object, and they should each have a bent iron fender outside, so as to prevent any other packages 
being placed close alongside them in the van, by which the circulation of air would be impeded. 
A couple of strips of two or three inch batten should be nailed on the bottom to keep the box 
off the ground, as if left on a damp floor it would soon decay otherwise. It is not desirable to 
send more than one dog in each box, unless they are known to be peaceably inclined, for they are 
liable to fight and seriously hurt each other, though many boxes are so made that they can be 
divided into two or more compartments by sliding partitions. Some clean straw should of course 
be placed at the bottom of the basket or box ; and if a long journey is contemplated, a little 
soaked biscuit or bread may be thrown in, but no water, as it would only get spilled and be of no 
use. If there is a long stoppage on the road and any one is accompanying the dogs, the boxes can 
be opened and a drink given them ; but this is a merciful action which is too often neglected in 
the master's anxiety to see after his own comforts. 

The direction should always be clearly affixed to the box, and it is highly desirable that not 
only the time of the train's departure, but also the date, be inscribed on the label thus : 



LIVE DOG. Forward at once. 

To JOHN JONES, Esq., 
Blanle House, 

Slanktown, 
Per G.W.R. Near OXFORD. 

3rd JUNE, 1879. By 9.30 Train, a.m. 



The insertion of the date seems to convey even to the minds of railway officials that a little 
energy is necessary, and diminishes the chances of the dog being left behind. Never use one of 
the dirty draughty dens called dog boxes by railway authorities. They are a disgrace to 
railway organisation, and if a dog travels in one he is most likely to catch an illness in the shape 
of a cold, influenza, or mange. 

If an owner accompanies his dog to a show he should provide himself with a few trifling articles 
to assist in the final toilet : a chamois leather, scissors, hair-brush, and hair-glove are all useful, and 
a spare chain and staple or two are often handy. Some chalk for white dogs, powdered resin for 
tails, and a little oil for the coats very frequently form part of this portion of the luggage, but 
considerable risk is involved in their application by inexperienced hands ; disqualification succeeds 
detection, and it is not a part of our business to assist exhibitors in their efforts to deceive the 
judges, who suffer enough from the art of the " faker" as it is. 

Great discontent prevails amongst exhibitors with reference to the exorbitant charge made by 



34 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

railway companies for the insurance of live stock. Five per cent, is the modest request they make, 
and this is of course too high to be frequently paid. A reduction on this prohibitory charge could 
not fail to be remunerative to the companies ; and surely, where threepence is charged for effecting 
an insurance on a human life for a thousand pounds, fifty sovereigns is too high for that of a dog. 



JUDGING. 

Not many shows can afford the expense of engaging a sufficient number of judges to enable 
each class to be judged by a gentleman who is qualified to do so, and there are very few judges 
who are able to deal fairly by all breeds. The unfortunate result of this is that many varieties 
are unsatisfactorily placed time after time, or else certain dogs are constantly found in the same 
positions, from the fact of the same judges being always selected for the duty. It is unduly hard 
upon any good young dog to make his first appearance before a judge who has frequently awarded 
high honours to other dogs in the same class, and who must feel considerable diffidence in over- 
looking them when a stranger appears. Judges are only mortal after all, and their ideas cannot 
fail to become so moulded to the form of a dog they have once admired, that the order in which 
many dogs will be placed at our leading shows is often correctly anticipated before the event comes 
off; so much so, that many exhibitors reserve young dogs until they can first bring them out under 
a gentleman whose judgment is unbiased in favour of a certain animal, to whose good points he 
has already paid substantial recognition. This could be remedied by occasionally varying the 
monotony which seems at present to inspire the committees in the distribution of their judges' 
duties. A change seems now to be made in the judges every three or four years, which period 
represents the average length of time a dog can be shown. If, therefore, a new judge once places 
first a good specimen which appears simultaneously with him, that dog stands an excellent chance 
of remaining at the top of the tree during his show career, to the detriment of another's chance of 
success. The latter should, in justice, have an opportunity given him for success under 'different 
opinions, and if he fails to win, then the honour gained by his conqueror is doubly increased. 

Point judging is strongly advocated by a large section of breeders, who aver that if a certain 
number of points be awarded to each property, and the dogs judged by this standard, fewer errors 
and complaints would arise. Whilst admitting that a standard is most essential for each breed, and 
that the relative value of each numerical point in the standard is made clearer by being awarded a 
numerical value, we cannot express any sympathy with those in favour of point judging. The 
impracticability of consistently awarding the identical number of marks to each dog is so obvious 
that it is impossible to adopt the system, and the time wasted over the calculations is enormous. 
The Bull-dog Club, which at its origin ostentatiously included point judging in its programme, 
has been obliged to abandon the idea as unsatisfactory ; and it may fairly be taken that the 
system is unpalatable to the majority of exhibitors throughout the kingdom. An especial 
objection is, that when dogs are judged by points, one notoriously defective in one portion of its 
anatomy can be awarded a prize, whereas under any other system he could not succeed. 

At some shows the judges have been given catalogues instead of the judging books so 
commonly used ; and this seems to be a rational action when adopted by committees who permit 
exhibitors to lead their dogs into the ring. The absurdity of playing at secresy, as carried on 
by committees who use the blank books and yet permit the presence of exhibitors in the ring, is 
so conspicuous to all but themselves, that criticising such proceedings is like crushing a butterfly 
on a wheel ; but there are signs that some day authorities will have firmness enough to stand by 
their judges, and openly defend their integrity, without admitting a possibility of their acting 



BUYING AND SELLING DOGS. 35 

unfairly, which half-and-half precautions most certainly imply. Nothing can be more suggestive 
of collusion between judges and exhibitors than the exclusion of the Press from shows where 
the judging is held in private. Almost unbounded confidence is placed in judges by exhibitors, 
but when the latter are absent they cannot help wishing to know how things go on ; and there 
is always something repugnant to Englishmen when things are done in a corner. 



BUYING AND SELLING. 

There are few breeders who do not at one time or another desire to dispose of some of their 
surplus stock, and these very often object to offer their property openly for sale, as they object to 
be included in the category of dog dealers, as they term it. This is hardly a fair view of the case 
(though a sapient Bow Street magistrate, in his wisdom, has laid it down that any one selling a dog or 
owning a stud dog is a dealer in point of law), for a man may dispose of a great many puppies or 
full-grown dogs before he can come into competition with professional dealers. An advertisement 
in the sporting journals which refers to any breed of dogs of a known strain will always receive 
replies, and if the price asked is not too high business can generally be done. Naturally, with 
unknown persons there is more difficulty in effecting a sale, but there is always a market for good 
animals. It is undesirable to keep puppies too long if profit is to be considered. Not only does 
their care involve considerable time and expense after they are first weaned, but they look better 
then than they do subsequently, and so frequently command a relatively better price. At about 
seven months old most young dogs are very ugly, and are almost unsaleable : they have all the 
gawkiness of hobble-de-hoy-hood, and certainly are uninteresting. Many breeders, therefore, have 
two weedings out in their kennels : one when the puppies are first weaned, and the second after 
they have begun to " make up," as it is termed ; this takes place when the dogs are about a year 
old. At the latter age it is generally pretty easy to tell what a dog is going to turn out, so 
intending purchasers can judge better than they are able to do earlier in the puppies' career. 

In advertising a dog for sale it is best to give notice that he can be seen by appointment, or 
will be sent on approval at buyer's risk and cost, on the purchase money being deposited in the 
hands of some respectable third party. A sight of the dog is desired by many purchasers, and 
obviates the risk of future disagreements relative to the animal's merits. A limited time should be 
named for the dog to be returned, as many quarrels have been the result of one sent on approval 
being kept a long time. Cases have been known where a stud dog has been sent on approval and 
subsequently returned as unsatisfactory, after having been surreptitiously used for breeding 
purposes by the pretended purchaser. It therefore behoves sellers to be on their guard, and 
no valuable dogs should be sent alone to unknown or unreliable people. In all cases it is desirable 
for advertisers to be as concise in their remarks on the dog's merits as possible. Little good can 
come from flattering allusions to a dog's value from the man who wants to dispose of him ; and 
persons have been known to exaggerate a dog's good qualities to such an extent that subse- 
quent disagreements have arisen between the purchaser and seller. 

Buyers should on all occasions endeavour to learn something about the person from whom 
they purchase their dogs, for. it is the height of rashness to accept the assurances of every one who 
has a dog to dispose of. The worse a dog is the more he is cracked up to unknowing purchasers 
by certain dealers. A guarantee from a breeder whose name stands high, on the other hand, is 
always valuable, for it is not probable that he would mar his good name for the sake of gaining a few 
pounds. Dogs can often be bought for very low prices at shows, and a person who contemplates 
an investment in dog-flesh can do worse than claim a dog off the bench. Misrepresentation 



36 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

is here less likely to be resorted to, and elementary tricks of the trade, which might be successfully 
practised on beginners, are pretty sure to be avoided where so many experts have an opportunity 
for examining the dog. It is well to make certain that a dog is in health, and at a show a veterinary 
surgeon can have very good opportunities for examining him quietly on the buyer's behalf. One 
thing to be guarded against by purchasers is, to see they do not get old played-out dogs or barren 
bitches palmed off on them. A dog's age and state of health can usually be seen, but in the case of 
a bitch purchased for breeding purposes the difficulty is very much greater. A person who contem- 
plates buying a dog need not convey any suspicions of the seller's honesty to the latter in an 
offensive manner, but he is failing to do himself justice if, when he does not know the seller, he 
does not satisfy himself that the dog has not been manipulated so as to improve his appearance. 

A system of dealing for it is no better by what may be termed " gushing letter writing " 
is sometimes resorted to when new exhibitors appear on the scene. The novice receives a 
letter couched in the most friendly terms from an individual he may perhaps have never heard 
of, who informs him that as he appears to be going in for showing dogs, the writer is prepared 
to offer him the well-known prize-winner so-and-so. Frequently the party addressed, feeling 
flattered by the attention, falls a victim, and becomes the possessor of some second-rate specimen 
whose late owner has a better at home. Exhibitors should therefore beware of dogs thus forced 
on them, and should remember that there is no necessity for so acting in the case of really good 
dogs, for which there is always a market. 

The exportation of dogs from this country is now carried on to a large extent, America 
and Germany being our best customers. The rapidly increasing interest in all field sports in these 
countries has caused them to invest heavily in sporting dogs of our best and most famous strains ; 
but as yet they have paid but slender attention to our non-sporting classes. A good opening for 
the disposal of first-class dogs may therefore be looked for from these quarters ; and as we have 
had some experience in sending off dogs on long sea journeys, perhaps a few hints may not be out 
of place here. In the first place, it may be noted that as some lines of steamers refuse to 
carry dogs on any terms, all arrangements should be made by the owner with the company's 
agents some time before the proposed date of the dog's departure, so as to avoid all risk of 
disappointment at the last minute. The best form of package for a dog who is about to go on 
a voyage is a strong box, well clamped with iron at the corners, and standing on two pieces of 
quartering. The door should be at the front, so as to enable the box to be cleaned out easily, and 
should be of iron gratings to let in light and ait. A canvas blind can be tacked above the door 
when the dog gets on board, and this can be let down in cold or wet weather. A few holes should 
be bored with a centre -bit in the floor, and also high up at the back, for ventilation and sanitary 
purposes. Great care must be taken to have secure fastenings on the box, and the dog should 
always have a chain and collar on when he is at sea. An arrangement can be made with the ship's 
butcher to look after him, and the promise of a douceur from his new owner on the dog's safe 
arrival will generally ensure his being well attended to on the voyage. It is desirable that whoever 
is entrusted with the dog be requested to give him a run on deck when practicable, and dose him 
if his bowels get confined. Some ordinary black draught can be supplied for this purpose, and 
will meet every ordinary want. 







37 



CHAPTER V. 

TECHNICAL TERMS. 

So much ambiguity seems to exist amongst the uninitiated as regards the technical terms which 
are applied to the various portions of a dog's anatomy, that before proceeding to describe the 
points which it is desirable to look for in the respective breeds, it may be as well if the 
leading terms are clearly laid before our readers. With a view to facilitate the task of 
description the subjoined figure has been prepared, and will materially aid us in our 
endeavours to explain matters : 




FIG. 14. DIAGRAM OF DOG. 



1. Nose. 

2. Flews or Chaps. 

3. Nasal Bone. 

4. Stop. 
5- Skull 
6. Occiput. 

7- Dewlap (where such exists). 

8. Brisket. 



REFERENCES. 

9. Top of shoulder - blades, or 

"shoulder." 
10. Top of Hip-joint. 
n. Shoulder-blade, or scapula. 

12. Rump-bone. 

13. Arm. 

14. Elbow. 

15. Fore-arm. 



16. Knee. 

17. Stifle-joint. 

1 8. Hocks. 

19. Tail, stern, brush, or flag (th< 

term used depends upon the 
breed). 

20. Chest. 

21. Pasterns. 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 




FIG. 15. BUTTON-EAR. 




Apple-headed, This term implies that the skull is round instead 
of flat on the top. 

Blase. A white mark up the face. 

Brisket (No. 8). The part of the body in front of the 
chest. 

Brush. One of the terms used 
for the tail ; generally ap- 
plied to Sheep-dogs. 

Butterfly-nose. A spotted nose. 

Bulton-ear. An ear which 
falls over in front, con- 
cealing the inside, as in 
Fox-terriers. (See Fig. 15.) 

Cat-foot. A short, round foot, with the knuckles high and well 
developed. (See Fig. 16.) 

Chest (No. 20). The chest of a dog is not what 
many people speak of as breast, or chest, 
but extends underneath him, from the brisket 
to the belly. 

Cobby. Well ribbed up; short and compact in 
proportion. 

FIG. 16. CAT- 

Couplings. The length or space between the FOOT. 
tops of the shoulder-blades and tops of the 
hip-joints, or huckle-bones. The term denotes the pro- 
portionate length of a dog, which is accordingly spoken of 
as long or short " in the couplings." 

Cow-hocked. The hocks turning inwards. (See Fig. 
I7-) 

Dewlap (No. 7). 
Pendulous skin 
under the 
throat. 

Dew-claw. An 
extra claw, 
found occa- 
sionally on the 
legs of all 
breeds, but es- 
pecially the St. 
Bernard. 

Dish- faced. This 
term describes 
a dog whose 
nasal bone is FIG - '7--cow- H ocKs. 

higher at the 

nose than at the stop a feature not unfrequently seen in 
Pointers. 

Dudley-nose. A flesh-coloured nose. 

Elbow (No. 14). The joint at top of the fore-arm. 





Elbows Out. This term almost describes itself, but will be 
understood instantly from Fig. 18. 
Bull-dogs and Dachshunds are desired 
with elbows so shaped, but it may 
occur as a fault through weakness. 

Feather. The fringe of hair on the back 
of some breeds' legs notably Setters, 
Spaniels, and Sheep-dogs. 

Flag.h. term for the tail applied to 
Setters. 

EV , XT * ,, FIG. 18. ELBOWS OUT. 

Flews (No. 2). The chaps, or overhang- 
ing lips of the upper jaw. The term 
is chiefly applied to hounds or other deep-mouthed dogs. 

Fore-arm (No. 15). This makes the 

principal length of the fore- leg, and extends from elbow 
to pastern. 

Frill. The projecting fringe of hair on the chest of some dogs, 
and especially of the Collie. 

Hare-foot. A long, narrow foot, carried forward. (See 
Fig. 19.) 

Haw. The red inside eye-lid, usually 
hidden, but specially prominent in 
Bloodhounds. 

Height. The height of a dog is measured 
at the shoulder, bending the head 
gently down. The proper method is F[G . 19. HARE-FOOT. 
to stand the dog on level ground close 
by a wall, and to lay a flat rule across 
his shoulders horizontally so as to touch the wall ; then 
measure to the point touched by the rule. Some people 
"tape" from the centre between the shoulders to the 
ground ; but this plan obviously adds to the real height of 
the dog, and is practically a fraud. 

Hocks (No. 18). The hotk-joints. 

Huckle-bones (No. 10). Tops of the hip-joints. The space 
between these and the tops of the shoulders is called the 
couplings. 

Knee (No. 16). The joint attaching the fore pasterns and fore 



Leather. The skin of the ear. 

Occiput (No. 6). The prominent bone at the back or top 
of the skull ; particularly prominent in Bloodhounds. 

Overshot. The upper teeth projecting beyond the lower. This 
fault in excess makes a clog pig-jawed, which see. 




TECHNICAL TERMS. 



39 




Pastern (No. 21). The 
lowest section of the 
leg, below the knee 
or hock respectively. 

Pig-jawed. The upper 
jaw protruding over 
the lower, so that the 
upper incisor teeth 
are in advance of the FIG. 20. PIG JAW. 

lower, an exaggera- 
tion of an overshot-jaw. (See Fig. 20.) 

Pily. A peculiar quality of coat found in some dogs, which 
show on examination a short woolly jacket next the skin, 
out of which springs the longer coat which is visible. This 
short woolly coat is "pily." When an ordinary coat is 
described as pily, it means that it is soft and woolly, 
instead of hard, which in such cases is of course a fault. 

Rose-ear. An ear of which the tip turns 
backward and downward, so as to 
disclose the inside burr of the ear. 
(See Fig. 21.) 

Septum. The division between the nos- FIG. 21. ROSE-EAR. 
trils. 





Shoulders (No. 9). The top of the shoulder-blades, the point 
at which the height of a dog is measured 

Skull (No. 5)- This is formed by the frontal, parietal, and 
occipital bones. 

Splay-foot. The foot spread out flat and 
awkwardly. (See Fig. 22.) 

Stern. The tail. 

Stifle-joint (No. 17). The hip-joint. 

Stop (No. 4). The indentation between 
the skull and the nasal bone, near the 
eyes. This feature is strongly de- FIG. 22. SPLAY-FOOT. 
veloped in Bull-dogs, Pugs, and Short- 
faced Spaniels, and con- 
siderably so in many 
oiher dogs. 

Tulip-ear. An upright or 
prick ear. 

Undershot. The lower inci- 
sor teeth projecting be- 
yond the upper, as in 
Bulldogs. (See Fig. 23.) FIG. 23. UNDERSHOT. 





CHAPTER VI. 

THE MASTIFF. 

THE Mastiff occupies an undoubtedly high position in the canine world ; and there are not wanting 
many of its partisans who solemnly avow that there exist unmistakable proofs of its being par 
excellence the national dog of the country. With this somewhat ambitious boast we confess 
ourselves unable to agree, for reasons which can be gone into hereafter ; but there can be no 
possible difference of opinion as regards the extreme antiquity of the breed, mention having been 
frequently made of it by many of the earliest classic writers. Considerable confusion appears to 
have existed formerly between this dog and the Bulldog, for the descriptions we find in various 
writers of the Molossus a name which was conferred upon this breed in consequence of its 
supposed origin in Molossis in Greece coincide very often with those we discover elsewhere of 
the Bulldog. According to Edmund de Langley, in his MS., " The Mayster of Game," 
published in the fourteenth century, two distinct breeds of dogs, the Molossus and the Alaunt, 
were in existence. The former appears to have been reserved for the guardianship of persons and 
property, whilst the latter, described by him as a short-headed dog, pugnacious, and gifted with 
an inclination to hang on to anything attacked by it, was used for baiting the bull. Linnaeus, 
in the classification which he has drawn up, on the other hand describes the Bulldog as coming 
under the classification of Canis Molossus, whilst the Mastiff is in the next section under the 
title of Canis Anglicus, also called Canis Bellicosus, and by Ray, Canis Mastivus. Dr. Caius, 
physician to Queen Elizabeth (and, by the way, one of the founders of Caius College, Cambridge^ 
in his book published about A.D. 1570, describes but one dog which can in any degree be made 
to resemble either the Mastiff or the Bulldog. This he alludes to under the name of Mastive or 
Bandogge, and a portion of his description is as follows : " An huge dogge, stubborne, eager, 
burthenous of body, and therefore of but little swiftness, terrible and fearful to behold, and more 
fearse and fell than any Arcadian cur." This description, indefinite as it is, would seem to 
apply almost as well to the Bulldog as to the Mastiff: first on account of direct allusion being 
made to " Archadien curres," which must be taken as referring to the Molossus or Mastiff of 
Edmund de Langley, whose work is made use of most freely by Caius ; and, secondly, from the 
description he gives of the animal's character, and the remarks he makes a little further on 
concerning the creatures one of them had been known to overcome in single combat for the 
especial edification of the " Frenche King." But still, from the fact of no separate allusion having 
been made by Caius to another variety of the dog which in any way resembled the one in 
question, we are driven back upon the supposition that about this period the distinction between 
the Molossus and the Alaunt, or the Canis Molossus and the Canis Anglicus, had nearly died out, 
probably from carelessness in the breeding of the two varieties, and that the breeds were so nearly 
amalgamated as to be with difficulty separated, a task which Dr. Caius does not appear to have 
attempted. 

With the view of giving our readers an idea of what a real Molossus was like in appearance, 
we copy, in Figs. 24 and 25, two representations from an illustrated work in the British Museum, 




.- 









ORIGIN OF THE MASTIFF. 41 

entitled " Icones Animalium," by J. F. Riedel. It cannot be said on behalf of these illustrations 
that they in some points much resembled a modern Mastiff, nor were they possibly intended to 
be more than a rough outline of what the Molossus was in days gone by. There are, however, 
many characteristics of the Mastiff in this Molossus, and dogs of this variety were undoubtedly 
the progenitors of our modern Mastiff. 

Assuming therefore that there is some foundation for this theory, is it not most probable that 
persons finding themselves in possession of a huge dog gifted with the savage disposition described 
by Dr. Caius should be desirous of improving him into an animal a little more deserving of their 
attention and esteem ? If this were the case, by -selecting suitable specimens to breed 
from they had it in their power to produce a large-framed loud-voiced dog, specially adapted 
for the guardianship of dwellings, or a smaller animal suitable in every degree for baiting 
bulls, a use to which the larger variety could hardly be put on account of his great size. 





FIG. 24. CANIS MOLOSSUS. FIG. 25. CANIS MOLOSSUS 

(Both figures copied from " /cones Animalium.") 



There are not wanting others who, with a show of justice, contend that the now-almost 
extinct Irish Wolfhound a dog combining something of the appearance of the Mastiff with that 
of the rough Greyhound was the original dog sought after by the Romans, and whose prowess 
was sung of by their poets. Leaving this point, however, as one incapable of solution, we shall 
here assume that the Bulldog and Mastiff had much of common paternity, if they did not diverge 
from one common ancestor ; the Mastiff being the larger and coarser variety, and the Bulldog the 
sturdier, lesser, and more active ; but both admirably suited for the work to which they were put. 

According to many eminent breeders of Mastiffs with whom we have had conversation, the 
Lyme Hall breed is considered the purest and most valuable strain of blood in the kingdom ; but 
owing to the jealousy with which it has always been guarded by the Legh family, to which it 
belongs, the general public have been unable to judge of its merits by either personal observation 
or experience. We ourselves are of the opinion that the value of the strain must be consider- 
ably less than it is usually estimated at, since the breed must have greatly deteriorated by 
in-breeding. Nothing, however, could be more remote from our object than any wish to cast a 
slur on the Lyme Hall breed. Judiciously crossed with dogs of other strains, this blood has 
very frequently been the means of resuscitating a failing line, and has largely contributed towards 
the existence of the splendid animal now accepted as the beau ideal of the English Mastiff. 



42 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The sire of Mr. Lukey's Governor was of Lyme Hall origin ; and such dogs as Mr. Hanbury's 
Rajah and Prince, Bill George's Tiger, Mr. Wallace's Turk, and Mrs. Rawlinson's Countess, 
have the same blood flowing in their veins. It must, however, be added that innumerable 
disputes have from time to time occurred between various breeders concerning certain specimens 
of the Mastiff who are credited by their owners with Lyme Hall blood ; and it is patent to the 
most casual observer that many of the dogs which appear at shows as laying claim to the above 
pedigree must either be entered wrongly by their masters, or else be very imperfect specimens 
of the famous Legh strain. 

The famous Turk, just alluded to, was undoubtedly the champion of his day ; and the 
highest-priced dog ever exhibited deserves more than a passing notice in this work. Five hundred 
pounds was the enormous sum paid for him in the earlier part of his career ; and as his pedigree 
includes the names of many of the most famous Mastiffs produced, we give it at length as a 
valuable reference for intending Mastiff breeders. We also give an illustration, the drawing for 
which was made in 1874, when the dog was seven years old. 



PEDIGREE OF Miss AGLIONBY'S TURK, BORN 1867. 

TURK, 

I 



Field's King. 
I 



Lukey's Rufus. 



Lukey's 
Governor. 



Hom'i 
Jenny. 



Gamier** 
Lion. 



Lukey's 
Countess. 



Gamier's Garnier's Lukey's Lukey's 
Eve. Bruce 1 1. Duchess. 



Lukey's Lukey's 

Bruce I. Nell. 




Nichol's Quaker. 



Miss Aglionby's Hilda. 



Nichol's Venus. 
J 



Cautley's Quaker. Nell. 
(See below.) 



Raymond's Raymond's Sir C. Domville's Duchess. 

Prince. Duchess, Oscar. 



Lord Darnley's Cautley's Garrett's George's 
Nell. Quaker. Nell. Leo. 

I I 

r~ n r 



Ansdell's Juno. 
Leo. 



Thompson's Thompson's 

Saladin. Duchess. 

I I 



Lord Darnley's 
Nell. - 



r 



Akroyd's Thompson's Sir G. Armitage's 
Dan. Venus. Tiger. 



~ 



Thompson's Countess. 

I 
Lukey's Bruce ] I. Lukey's Rell. 



Lukey's 

Bruce II. 

1 



Lukey's Dr. Ellis' 
Bell. Lion. 



Thompson's 

Juno. 

1 



Lukey's Lukey's Lukey's Thompson's Thompson's Lion. Thornton's 

Bruce I. Nell. Nero. Bruce. Bess. I Juno. 

i i r i i i i i i i i i r : > 

? 5 IT ? IT e* ? =T sr !? =r I '' on ' Thompson's CymLia. 

3. 5* " ?r ^* *~ R* ' 



M 



O < 

* \ 



CO CO JO 52 

a & 2 2. 
R ' s 



An excellent engraving of a Mastiff, and which we also reproduce, appeared in the 
Sportsman's Repository, edited by John Scott, and published in London 1820. This dog 
would unquestionably fail to take a prize at one of our modern shows ; but still the portrait 
is valuable, if only for the conclusions it enables us to draw concerning the advance made 
upon the Molossus by later Mastiff breeders in the earlier part of this century. From the 



rV6|( , ,, , 




CELEBRATED MASTIFF BREEDERS. 



45 



engraving it would clearly appear that the dogs of those earlier days had at least better legs 
and feet than our modern specimens : that is to say, if the artist who depicted the dog in 
question is to be trusted. 

Foremost amongst the names of celebrated Mastiff breeders appears that of Mr. T. H. V. 
Lukey ; who, nearly half a century ago, first turned his attention to the breeding of this dog, and 
whose strain on all sides has been most eagerly sought after by breeders and exhibitors alike. 
Closely following the name of Mr. Lukcy are those of Capt. Gamier, Lord Darnley, Rev. J. 




MASTIFF IN I82O, AS DEPICTED IN THE "SPORTSMAN'S REPOSITORY." 

Rowe, Miss Aglionby, Mrs. Rawlinson, Mr. E. Field, Bill George of Kensal New Town, Miss 
Hales, The Rev. J. VV. Mellor. Messrs. A. S. de Fivas, John Hartley, Octavius Green, T. W. 
Allen, J. Parkinson, J. Morris, C. T. Harris, and E. Nichols of Brook Green. One or 
two of these have had to overcome great difficulties in want of space, since care and 
experience alone cannot in the long run contend successfully against want of fresh air and 
exercise, and this breed of all others requires the utmost attention in its early days, so as 
to enable it to grapple successfully against the tendency to become cow-hocked. The 
blemish in question, in fact, appears to be considerably on the increase amongst Mastiffs 
of the present day, if those which appear at shows fairly represent the breed". Mr. Edgar 
Hanbury, of Highworth, Wilts, has bred some splendid dogs Prince, by Lukey's 
Governor, Rajah, and his son Wolsey (the subject of our coloured plate) being conspicuous 



46 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

amongst the number. Mr. H. D. Kingdon, of Wilhayne, Colyton, Devon, lays claim to the 
possession of the pure Lyme Hall blood : but the inferiority of such of his strain as have corne 
beneath our notice is so conspicuous when compared with the specimens of the gentlemen 
alluded to above, who undoubtedly do possess it, that we are impressed with the belief that if 
Mr. Kingdon's dogs are really more than " reputed " Lyme Hall Mastiffs, they signally fail to 
represent the type in a manner worthy of so valuable a strain. 

About the year 1872 several gentlemen interested in the breeding and exhibiting of this 
class of dog banded together with the object of founding the present Mastiff Club. The 
principal aim of this Society was the improvement of the breed up to a standard of excellence 
agreed upon by the members, and show committees were to be invited to co-operate with the 
Club in their endeavours to benefit the Mastiff according to their ability. Unfortunately, 
considerable dissatisfaction was caused by some most arbitrary rules, one of which was to the 
effect that the members pledged themselves to exhibit at no dog show where others than 
members of the Mastiff Club officiated as judges of this variety. The result of this suicidal 
policy was an utter lack of support from breeders, and the exhibition held under their auspices 
in connection with the Northampton show of 1876 was only productive of fo.ur entries ; an 
almost similar fiasco occurring at Bristol in the autumn of 1877. Great exception has also been 
taken to the appearance of several dogs which have been exhibited by certain of the members ; 
and though we are not able to state positively what is the exact standard aimed at by the Club, 
we are, from the specimens shown by them, in a position to form an opinion concerning their 
type, which is not at all in harmony with that held by the members of the Mastiff Club. 

Before leaving the subject of famous Mastiff exhibitors, it might be as well to add the names 
of some of those best known dogs from whom our future champions are destined to spring, and 
who themselves have been the heroes of many a hard-fought fight. Amongst them may be 
named Governor, Tiger, King, Lion, Turk, Nell, Quaker, Beauty, Rajah, Kay's Empress, Queen, 
Monarch, Punch, Granby, Bowness, Argus, Lottie, Nero, Countess, The Shah, Colonel, Wolsey, 
Cardinal, Mr. Banbury's Princess, Mab, and many others. 



POINTS OF THE MASTIFF. 

The following detailed description and valuation of the several principal points or characteristics 
of this breed will be found in accordance with the opinions of the majority, if not all, of the 
most prominent breeders, exhibitors, and owners of Mastiffs. 

General Appearance, Size, and Symmetry, In this we have to consider the special duties of the 
Mastiff in the present day. He is no longer a savage kept to bait " the bull, the bear, and the 
lion/' as history (somewhat doubtful in its accuracy as to the last-named animal) informs us he 
was ; nor the mere drudge of the butcher, to keep his wild and doomed cattle in the shambles, and 
fight for him when required ; nor even the mere chained slave the ban-dog of the country 
house whose bay, however welcome to those who approached near home, must have had an 
awful sameness in it to the poor brute who, night after night, month by month, and year after 
year, listened to the echoes of his own dismal howl as he bayed the moon, or hoarsely barked 
warning and defiance to all who approached with predatory aim. , 

Now, although there are still enough and to spare of the ban-dog sort, who are by their 
owners called Mastiffs, and may no doubt lay claim to possession of a fair portion of Mastiff 
blood, they are impure, and suffer so from the cruelty of close confinement that they lose even the 
characteristics of the breed, which a kinder and more judicious treatment would develop, both in 



POINTS OF THE MASTIFF. 47 

physical proportion and dignity of manner, and which are essential features of a Mastiff of the 
present day. 

The Mastiff always has been the special guard of man's person and property ; and the 
qualities demanded to fill that position of trust are: size, to impress with fear; the symmetry of 
well-proportioned parts evidencing a combination of strength and activity ; a disposition watchful 
and keen, but confident in its own strength ; dignified and calm, save the warning bark, which fills 
every echo within its reach with its full tones, so unlike the yelping of the noisy cur. 

As he is now also more used as a companion and personal guard than at any time in his 
history, his general appearance becomes more important ; for nothing looks worse than a poor 
shambling, weak-loined, cow-hocked dog. Therefore he must have size to give him a commanding 
appearance ; a well-knit, compact frame, which gives symmetry ; and the perfect condition shown 
in the firm flesh, clean and bright coat ; while the superior feeding, grooming, and general care 
bestowed upon him now adds greatly to his beauty ; and all combined make him the useful guard 
and ornament he is. 

The Head is, in the Mastiff, even more than in most other dogs, a most prominent feature ; 
and a dog with a bad head is at once condemned. The head is decidedly large, even in pro- 
portion to the immense carcase, although it does not now present the great contrast to the 
body to be seen in old prints, modern breeders having improved the dog in body from a gaunt 
and wolf-like to a square-built, massive animal. The head should be broad across the skull ; 
the brow should be flat and not abrupt ; the eyebrows rather prominent ; the muzzle should 
be a medium length, cut off square, broad rather than deep ; the lips should be full, but not so 
hanging as in the Bloodhound ; and the teeth, which should be white and strong, ought to meet 
as level as possible. Many good specimens are slightly undershot, which is however a 
decided blemish. Whilst on this point we may refer to some remarks once made by the Rev. 
G. F. Hodson, after he had judged this breed at the Alexandra Palace. On that occasion, Mr. 
Hodson, who had most properly turned out of the ring all the cow-hocked and undershot speci- 
mens, remarked that he was convinced good Mastiffs were to be had without these defects, and 
he was determined not to be a party to the awarding of prizes to dogs so malformed. Subsequent 
events have proved the soundness of his decision. 

The Eye should be a medium size ; it is generally a light brown or hazel. A deeply sunken 
eye is objectionable, as it gives a sullen look ; and if the haw is shown, it creates a suspicion 
of Bloodhound cross. 

The Ears should be small, smooth, thin, and pendent ; and if black, as the mask should also 
be, it adds to the dog's beauty. 

The Neck should be strong, muscular, and of fair length, and having no dewlap on the 
throat. 

The Chest, Back, and Loin. The chest should be deep and moderately wide, but not so much 
so in proportion as his congener the Bulldog, or it is apt to throw the elbows out. The back 
should be very strong, broad, and with strong muscles running along each side of the spine those 
should be especially so connecting the back ribs with the hind-quarters. The loin is thereby 
broadened and strengthened ; and this most desirable point is also gained by having the ribs well 
set back. Some strains show a tendency to a tucked-up flank, which is one of the worst faults a 
Mastiff can possess. Both chest and loins should measure well, the latter not quite a third less 
than the former, and about equal to the dog's height at shoulder. 

Legs and Feet. Strong and straight legs are an absolute necessity, and it is a point in which 
many excellent dogs fail. The fore-legs are not so often crooked as the hind-legs ; but many good 



48 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

puppies give way at the ankle, and have to be destroyed. Therefore, the greatest care has to be 
taken in rearing this breed ; and no Mastiff should ever be chained if it is desired to exhibit 
him. Cow-hocks are also common, and a great eyesore, and this state is almost always accom- 
panied with more or less wasting of the muscles of the hams, which gives a thin, almost wedge- 
like appearance to the hind-quarters. Some judges, we believe several members of the Mastiff 
Club included, consider dew-claws no disqualification ; they are, however, most unsightly appen- 
dages which should not be encouraged. 

The Colour. The recognised colours are brindle and fawn, and the latter at present holds 
the highest place in popular favour. When the fawn is bright, and the mask a decided black, 
with an entire freedom from white, the effect is very pleasing. Some of the fawns run into red, 
which is not so desirable, and such as are of that colour are generally coarse in coat. The 
brindles are of various shades. 

The Coat should be fine, short, and even, except along the shoulder, back, and tail, where it 
is stronger and longer. 

The Tail should be of great length, strong at the root, and gradually lessening, but not 
tapered as a Pointer's is. 

We are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. W. K. Taunton, the well-known and successful 
Mastiff breeder, for the following paper on mastiff breeding : 

"The following is what I consider a Mastiff ought to be, and what I should endeavour to 
breed for: The head should be large and massive, skull perfectly flat and very wide across, 
the forehead well wrinkled, with a depression up the centre, a good stop, the eyes small, of a 
light brown or hazel colour, and set very wide apart ; the muzzle short and very broad, with a 
square, blunt finish ; lips loose, and a certain amount of flews, but not to the same extent as in 
the Bloodhound ; the teeth level ; ears small, set on high, and carried close to the head ; neck 
muscular, free from throatiness ; chest deep, good shoulders, body rather long with large girth, 
well-rounded ribs, wide strong loins, broad thighs showing plenty of muscle, fore legs perfectly 
straight with immense bone ; feet round and close ; tail tapering, not too long, and carried low. The 
dog should be compact and well knit together, and be the picture of muscular power and 
symmetry, with an open, honest countenance. 

" I consider 30 to 31 inches a fair average height for a dog, but should prefer one 32 or 33, 
provided the extra height is accompanied by a proportionate increase in bone and size throughout. 
The increase in the size of a dog standing 32 inches over one 30 inches should be far greater in 
proportion than the increase in size of one 30 inches over one 28 inches. Size in a Mastiff is a 
great desideratum, but not mere height alone. Bitches generally stand two to three inches lower. 
I like a fine coat. 

" It cannot be denied that the colour most admired at the present day is fawn with black 
muzzle and ears, the black commencing just below the eye. At the same time, I cannot 
help thinking the brindle would become somewhat more popular if better specimens of this 
colour were more frequently exhibited. I do not recollect to have seen an illustration of a 
brindle in any book or paper with the exception of Mr. Lukey's Wallace, and I do not 
hesitate to say that a very large number of the public do not recognise a Mastiff when 
of this colour. This is a fact I think to be regretted, because most of the oldest breeders 
and best authorities are agreed that the brindle was the original and is the true colour of the 
Mastiff, and, in the opinion of some judges, many of the finest specimens of the breed have been 
of this colour ; in addition to which, it must be admitted that most, or at least many, of our 



BREEDING MASTIFFS. 



49 



best and purest fawns are descended from brindled ancestors. I would, therefore, impress upon 
breeders the advisability of not neglecting this colour too much, and allowing it to die out, feeling 
sure that, sooner or later, it will be well to have recourse to it to cross with fawn, in order to 
preserve the black muzzle so much admired, and without which, I fancy, the fawn will lose 
much of its attraction. 

" It may be taken as a fact, that the female, in breeding, whether it be in the case of horses, 
cattle, or do-s, is quite as important an element as the male, and if it be wished to improve, or even 
to keep up without deterioration any breed, it will be necessary to pay quite as much if not even 




MRS. RAWMXSON'S COVXTESS. 



more attention to the quality of the dam as to that of the sire. This seems to me to be a fact too 
much overlooked by the committees of the various shows which are ostensibly held with a view to 
improve the various breeds of dogs. Yet it is but seldom that separate classes are provided for 
bitches ; and exhibitors knowing full well that these have a poor chance of winning when in 
competition with dogs, it is but seldom really good specimens are to be seen. Many seem to be 
under the impression that in order to become successful Mastiff breeders all they have to do is to 
obtain a bitch of some sort good, bad, or indifferent, but if the sire be a prize winner, so much 
the better. They then look through the prize list to discover the dog that has won the greatest 
number of prizes ; and in due course, without ever considering whether they are likely to suit one 
another or not, send their bitch to this dog, and then anxiously await the arrival of the future 
champions. Such a plan, I need scarcely say, can but lead to disappointment ninety-nine times 
out of a hundred. Although there may be a litter of puppies, they will, in all probability, not 



50 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

repay the cost and trouble of rearing them. Good bitches are at all times scarce, and are not to 
be had for a mere trifle, although, of course, occasionally bargains are to be met with in these as in 
everything else ; but it should be remembered that low-priced articles are frequently the dearest 
in the end. 

" In selecting a bitch, particular attention should be paid to her breeding ; the pedigree should 
be scanned carefully, to make sure she is well bred not only on the sire's but also on the dam's 
side, and that their ancestors, again, are descended from blood of undoubted purity. Having 
satisfied yourself on this point, see that the bitch is well made throughout, and likely to prove a 
good brood bitch ; long in the body and great width across the loins. If there be any blemish, 
ascertain, if possible, if it be the result of accident or bad rearing, or hereditary. The new 
purchase having arrived home, study her carefully ; not with a view to discover her good points, 
which will probably be apparent enough, but in order to find in what respect she is deficient. It 
is, in my opinion, far better to breed from a well-made bitch with a pedigree on which you can 
rely, but which for some reason may be an animal not capable of winning prizes, than from a 
bitch, perfect in appearance and winner of several first prizes, but of whose pedigree you know 
nothing, or as to the correctness of which you are in doubt ; for it is like groping about in the 
dark to find out what blood will best suit her. 

" The next step is to endeavour to find out the dog most likely to suit your bitch. Never 
mind whether he be a champion or not. Unless the bitch be very much in-bred, I would advocate 
selecting a dog that has a good deal of the same blood in him ; and I like, if possible, to see some 
of his stock, taking care at the same time to ascertain what sort of bitches they are from, as this 
would be some assistance in forming a judgment as to whether he would be likely to suit your 
bitch. Endeavour to select a dog good in those points where the bitch is deficient ; and if there be 
any special fault I wish to breed out, I should select a sire coming from a strain where this fault 
does not appear, or, if anything, from a strain slightly faulty in the opposite direction. What I 
mean is this : supposing I had a bitch deficient in head but with good body, &c., the simple fact of 
putting her to a perfect-headed dog would not necessarily have the desired effect of obtaining good- 
headed puppies, and especially so if the dog come from a strain not noted for its good heads ; but 
if I could secure the services of a moderate-headed dog, provided I were satisfied he came from a 
family known to be good in this particular point, I should be more sanguine of success, although 
it would very probably be requisite to put a daughter of this pair to a good-headed dog of the 
same blood as the sire before I attained what I wanted. 

" The aim of the breeder should be to breed animals as nearly perfect in all points as possible, 
and I should consider it a great error to breed with a view to perfection in one or perhaps two 
points to the neglect of all others. A Mastiff with the grandest head in the world is useless unless 
he has a body and legs in accordance. Neither should a breeder be bigoted as regards one 
particular strain, for some of the best results have been attained by crossing various strains ; but 
this requires care and judgment, and must not be attempted in a haphazard sort of way. 

" The most common faults which I notice in many Mastiffs are want of breadth in muzzle, 
want of bone, deficiency in size (I mean body, &c., not height), over-large ears, together with 
bad legs and cow-hocks ; these latter, however, being most frequently caused by want of 
exercise and bad rearing, and I believe that many, in their over-anxiety to have puppies of 
heavy weight, are too apt to overload the body to the detriment of the legs. So long as they 
have plenty of nourishing food and are in good health, it is an error to get Mastiff puppies 
too fat when young ; this can be done later on. 

" Size, bone, good shape, and correct skull, may be best obtained by the aid of such a dog 



BREEDING MASTIFFS. 51 

as Mr. Green's champion Monarch, one of the largest, and at the same time, best made dogs 
that at the moment occurs to me. Against these advantages may be placed the probability 
of not obtaining from him the breadth of muzzle, so much looked for by judges of the 
present day ; and this defect I would endeavour to remedy by putting bitches from him to 
such a dog as Rajah or one of his descendants, such as Wolsey, or The Shah. A happy 
result of such a course was to be seen in Mr. Fletcher's Lady Love, first prize at the 
Alexandra Palace Show of 1879; she being by the Shah, out of Norma by Monarch, and not 
only good in head and muzzle, but also in bone, body, loins, &c. To take another example 
from a different type, size and bone may undoubtedly be obtained from Big Ben, inherited, I 
believe, on his dam's side, from the Duke of Devonshire's strain. Many of Big Ben's 
immediate descendants, however, do not please me in other points, being, in my opinion, bad 
in skull, coarse in coat, and in many cases weak behind. To these objections I consider my 
dog Cardinal merely an exception ; but at the same time I think excellent results may be 
looked for in combining Big Ben's blood with that of King's descendants, either through Turk 
or Rajah. This latter dog (Rajah) has, undoubtedly, done much to improve the head in many 
Mastiffs. Many of his descendants, however, are considerably undershot ; and although I am 
not prepared to carry my objections to this as far as some, still I would endeavour to 
avoid it, as I see no advantage in it. 

"If two bitches were offered to me for breeding, one with a good head but deficient in 
length of body and width of loins, and the other good in body but with inferior head, I 
would select the latter, believing that I should be more likely to obtain the improvement in 
the head through a suitable sire, than to add the other points. Of course I am speaking of 
two animals of equal pedigree. It will be gathered from what I have said, that having a 
bitch with good head, and deficient in other points, I should go to a well-made dog like 
Monarch ; whilst on the other hand, good-made bitches I would put to such dogs as Rajah 
if young (Rajah is now nine years old) ; or Wolsey, or The Shah (where, however, we are 
likely to get that dog's fault in skull as well as want of mask). I have never seen any of 
the Lyme Hall, or so-called dogs, but if they resemble the dogs which are selected at shows 
as being the correct type by certain authorities, I do not fancy I should admire them. 

" One thing, I think, some make a mistake in, is in not persevering in a certain cross, but 
having mated a dog and bitch together say for instance Rajah and a Monarch bitch and not 
at once getting what they want, they throw it up in disgust ; whereas, if they would only 
try the bitches from such a cross again with the sire's blood, the result may be found just 
what is wanted. 

"As regards in-breeding, it is difficult for me to give an opinion, for, in the first place, I 
have not yet had an opportunity of trying it myself, and if I turn to the stud-book to see 
how it has answered with others, I am met with this difficulty viz., that I know instances in 
which the numbers of certain well-known sires such as Turk for example have slipped in 
somehow after the name, although it is not known what Turk is the ancestor, or anything 
respecting his breeding. To what extent this has been done I know not, and it may be that 
where in-breeding has apparently been carried to some extent, the ancestors are not related- 
However, I am of opinion that in-breeding, if judiciously carried out, proves beneficial, 
and I am about trying it. I base this opinion on one or two instances where it has 
undoubtedly been carried out advantageously, and on some promising litters of puppies from 
my dog, where the parents are half brothers and sisters, having a very considerable 
quantity of the same blood both on their sire's and dam's sides." 



52 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

As regards the subjects for illustration, Wolsey is a dark brindle dog, bred by Mr. Edgar 
Hanbury of Eastrop Grange, Highworth, Wilts. He was born in 1873, an< 3 is by Hanbury's Rajah 
out of Queen by Druid, out of Phyllis by Wolf, out of Phoebe by Lukey's Governor. Rajah by 
Griffin out of Phyllis. Griffin by Hanbury's Prince out of Rovve's Nell by Rufus, out of Field's 
Nell by Governor. Amongst the numerous prizes which Wolsey has won are first and special cups, 
Birmingham, 1875 ; first, Crystal Palace, Bristol, and Brighton, as well as champion prize and 
cup at Birmingham, 1876 ; Alexandra Palace champion prize, and Agricultural Hall, Islington, 
champion prize, 1877 ; Crystal Palace champion prize, 1878. Latterly, this grand dog, the flattest- 
headed mastiff of his day, has suffered from an affection of the muscles in his loins, and has, we 
believe, retired from the show-bench with his well deserved honours thick upon him. Exception 
has been taken to a so-called "sour" expression of countenance, but this proceeds chiefly from his 
colour, and a rather deeply-sunken eye. As regards his temper, we have handled him frequently 
and always found him most amiable. It will be seen that Mr. Hanbury resorted to in-breeding 
in his production. His father and mother were out of the same bitch, Phyllis, whilst on his 
father's side he is still more closely allied to the blood of Mr. Lukey's Governor. Wolsey's 
measurements are Weight, I361bs. ; length, from tip of nose to stop, 4 inches; stop to 
occiput, 9 inches; length of back, from shoulders to setting on of tail, 31 inches; girth of 
muzzle, 20} inches ; girth of skull, 29^ inches ; girth of neck, 27 inches ; girth of body, from 
shoulders round brisket, 41 J inches; girth of body, from shoulders behind forearms, 43 inches; 
girth round loins, 32 inches; girth of hind legs round stifle-joint, 21 inches; girth of forearm, 
3 inches ; below elbow, 10 inches; girth round pastern, "j\ inches ; height at shoulder, 30^ inches; 
height, elbow to ground, 16^ inches; height, top of loins to ground, 30! inches ; height, hock to 
ground, 9^ inches; length of tail, 21 inches. 

Mrs. Rawlinson's Countess, an engraving of which is given on page 49, is a fawn coloured 
bitch, and an excellent specimen of the Mastiff. She was bred by Mr. Morris of Oswcstry, and 
was whelped in 1872. Her pedigree shows that she is by Sultan out of Flora, a pure-bred bitch of 
the highly-prized Lyme Hall strain ; Sultan by Turk out of Duchess, by Quaker out of Venus. 
Her chief performances are first, Crystal Palace and Manchester, 1873 ; first, Dublin, and divided 
champion prize, Darlington, 1876; and first prize, Hanover, 1879. Her measurements are as 
follows: Tip of nose to stop, 3^ inches; stop to occipital bone, 6 inches; length of back, 
?.<)\ inches; girth of muzzle, 17 inches; girth of skull, 25 J inches; girth of neck, 23 inches; 
girth round chest behind fore-legs, 42 inches ; girth round stifle, 19 inches ; girth of arm, 
II inches; girth round pas'ern, 6J inches; height at shoulders, 31 \ inches; height at elbows, 
i8J inches; height at loins, 31 \ inches; height at hock, 9^ inches; length of tail, 2oi inches. 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR MASTIFFS. 

Value. 

Head, muzzle, eyes, and cars ... ... ... ... '3 

Neck, chest, back, loin, and stern ... ... ... ... 15 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Coat and colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 50 



53 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE ST. BERNARD. 

AMONGST the great diversity, both physical and mental in size, character, and adaptability to 
our various requirements, taste, or mere whims and fancies which the canine family offer to 
the philo-kuon, the dog of St. Bernard stands out in bold relief by his picturesque arrangement of 
colours, but still more by his immense size and grand proportions. His tout ensemble offers a 
strongly-marked contrast weighing, as he often does, 150 to 160 pounds to his diminutive 
brother the black-and-tan toy Terrier, who with his more sober tints sometimes fails to turn the 
scale at two pounds, and whose fragile form appeals for protection, instead of acting, as his giant 
relative does, the rdle of protector. A greater weight than even 160 pounds may have been 
obtained in isolated instances, but this was probably when the dog was in a very fat condition. 
When we consider the above two distinct and now pure breeds, distant in many respects 
from each other as can well be imagined, it almost staggers the belief in the common origin 
of the domesticated dog ; but like many other facts that present difficulties at first sight, this 
also disappears or is greatly lessened by reflection. 

We have, most of us, to consider in dealing with difficulties of this kind, that our personal 
experiences of the changes which take place in animal forms, by careful selection and other 
influences, is, by the necessity of our existence, limited. Yet how rapid the descent from the 
ail-but perfect form of the pure-bred dog to the graceless and unshapely mongrel, where the 
animal is left to stalk uncared for at a time when the greatest watchfulness is required, 
must be patent to all. On the other hand, although improvement is always comparatively slow, 
none of us who have taken any interest in, or closely watched the progress of the breed under 
consideration, can have failed to mark the steady improvement which has taken place. Their 
faults have been eliminated, and desired qualities developed, under the patient care and intel- 
ligent skill of the breeder ; so that could Mr. Macdona's Tell or Mr. J. Murchison's equally 
fortunate import Thor revisit the scenes of their victories, they would meet with numbers of 
their progeny even superior to themselves. We have simply to remember these facts, as 
occurring in a very short space of time, to prove how wonderfully plastic the dog is in the 
hands of man, and how amenable to surrounding and often accidental influences. And to 
remember also that from time immemorial he has been subject to man, will reconcile us to 
the fact that the tiny Toy and the gigantic St. Bernard are indeed of the same race and 
family. 

It is not, however, to his physical excellence, his stately form, superbly grand and 
beautiful exterior, alone, that the St. Bernard owes his present position as first favourite 
with such numbers. The work in which he has been engaged for centuries has 
surrounded him with almost a religious halo in the popular mind. Here, where he has 
been naturalised, his gentle manners and the benevolent and magnanimous character which 
his countenance expresses and his conduct endorses, fully sustain the prestige with which he 
was introduced to us. Stories of the intelligence displayed by the St. Bernard in his search 



54 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

for benighted travellers are as well authenticated as they are widely known, and would simply 
become irksome by repetition, and we therefore forbear from inflicting them upon our 
readers. 

In more than one leading book on the dog, the Rev. J. C. Macdona of Cheadle is credited 
if not directly, at least by inference with the honour of having first introduced the St. Bernard 
dog into this country some twelve or fifteen years ago. As far as our memory carries us, how- 
ever, the popular lecturer, the late Mr. Albert Smith, had some considerable time previous to 
that date done much to familiarise his friends and audiences with this noble breed. In making 
this statement, we do not wish it to be for one moment understood that we are desirous of 
depriving Mr. Macdona of the well-deserved glory due to him for his successful visits to the 
Hospice of St. Bernard, nor are we at all certain even that the dogs brought to this country 
by Mr. Smith were actually the first that ever reached our shores. Owing to the misfortune 
that befel the monks by the loss of their original strain to which attention will be drawn 
hereafter it is quite possible that dogs as purely bred as those now in the Hospice, and 
displaying all the St. Bernard characteristics, can be found in the neighbouring valleys close 
at hand. In support of this theory we may mention the name, presently quoted, of M. H. 
Schumacher, of Berne, Switzerland, from whose kennels were obtained those two grand specimens 
Thor and Miss Hales' Jura, and also the smooth-coated Monarque, who was, whilst in the 
flesh, the king of his class, winning at all the important shows throughout the country. 
At the international dog show in Paris, 1878, we had the pleasure of seeing from M. 
Schumacher's kennels one of the finest specimens of the smooth-coated variety ever exhibited. 
Although the gentleman named is the best known in England of any foreign breeder, there 
are many others of less fame, and by more than one noble family the breed has been 
kept up from which the Hospice itself has at times recouped the losses attendant on the 
charitable but most dangerous work in which these dogs are used. We are uncertain whether 
Mr. Albert Smith obtained his dogs from the Hospice, or from one of the outside sources to 
which we have referred. Little indeed in the way of particulars have we been able to 
glean of his dogs, for it must not be lost sight of that in Mr. Albert Smith's day dog 
shows were quite in their infancy, and many good specimens of every breed were destined 
never to emerge from the semi-obscurily of a purely local reputation. The precise date of the 
importation of this highly-popular variety of dog is, however, a matter of secondary importance, 
for their firm establishment in this country is now an indisputable fact, as their presence in 
large numbers at our leading shows proves. The Rev. J. Gumming Macdona's Tell the first he 
ever exhibited created such a furore amongst the visitors to the exhibition where he appeared, 
that other gentlemen were not slow in following his owner's example. Amongst these was Mr. 
J. H. Murchison, whose name appears most strangely to have been entirely overlooked by 
writers on the breed, but who deserves lasting credit in connection with these dogs, if 
only for the benefit he conferred upon them by the importation of Thor and Jura into this 
country. The result of an alliance between these was Mr. Armitage's grand dog Oscar ; and 
Thor has further distinguished himself by begetting the champions Hector, Shah, and Dagmar, 
from Mr. Gresham's Abbess, as well as Simplon and many other most excellent specimens of 
the breed from various other females. As in the case with Sheep-dogs, both rough and smooth 
specimens frequently appear in the same litter ; and we cannot help noticing as one of the most 
remarkable instances of good fortune or good judgment in breeding, the three dogs just referred 
to of Mr. F. Gresham. Abbess, smooth-coated, threw him in one litter by Thor, rough-coated, or 
the smooth-coated champion Shah, the rough-coated champion Hector, and one of the best 



ORIGIN OF THE ST. BERNARD. 55 

rough bitches ever seen Dagmar now unfortunately dead. Since Mr. Macdona's disposal of 
the majority of his dogs, Mr. F. Gresham has been left in undisputed possession of the field, and 
his wonderful collection of St. Bernards, at Shefford, near Bedford, cannot be rivalled in any part 
of the world. In addition to Monk and Abbess, both great prize winners and the latter we 
believe the best St. Bernard for some time before the public Mr. Gresham has a grand young 
dog in Cyprus, sired by Monk, and several others only second to his cracks. At the present 
time there appears a chance of the public often seeing Mr. Macdona once more amongst the list 
of prize winners with his grandly-framed dog Bayard. Mr. J. Russell, M.D., has also sonic 
uncommonly fine specimens ; whilst Mr. W. A. Joyce, of Tulse Hill, certainly should make his mark- 
as a breeder in rough bitches with his magnificent trio Queen Bertha, Queen Bess, and Queen 
Mab. Among other notabilities of the present we must not omit Mr. A. C. Armitage's grand dog 
Oscar, Dr. Russell's Mentor and Cadwallader, Mr. S. W. Smith's Barry, Dr. D. E. Seton's Moltke, 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales's Hope, H.S.H. Prince Albert Solms' Courage, Mr. Youile's Simplon, 
and Mr. De Mourier's Chang ; and among the finest bitches we may enumerate Messrs. Gresham 
and Tatham's Abbess, Augusta, and Gruyere, Mr. Tinker's Mab, the late Miss Aglionby's Jura, 
and Dr. Russell's Murcn. 

The origin of this dog is a matter of great uncertainty, and the monks of St. Bernard 
are themselves unable to throw any light upon the matter. Beyond pointing out to their visitors 
the portrait of Bernard de Meuthon, in which he is accompanied by a dog possessing many 
Bloodhound characteristics, they seem to be incapable of giving any information on the subject. 
The value of any reliable data, even if such existed, would however be sensibly diminished 
from the fact that in the early part of this century the breed nearly died out, and the 
monks were compelled to re-cross the few remaining dogs they had left in their possession with 
others which they obtained from outside the Hospice. According to one eminent authority, a 
cross with the Newfoundland was first tried by the monks in their dilemma, but was subsequently 
abandoned when it failed to succeed. Other good authorities, as will presently be seen, and 
apparently with reason, attribute more to this cross ; and to it we are most probably indebted for 
the existence of Mr. Macdona's Meuthon, a black-and-tanned dog, something after the stamp of 
a Thibet Mastiff, and a considerable winner in his day. This was doubtless more on account 
of his ample proportions than of his colour, which would keep him in the background in the 
present time. Another writer gives it as his opinion that the blood of the Pyrenean Wolf- 
hound was introduced at this later time into the breed, and still remains there. The ten- 
dency to a lanky, wolf-like form, with lightish frame and tucked-up flanks, combined 
with a light tapering muzzle, which crops out in undoubtedly well-bred litters, lends some 
strength to this theory ; but mere conjectures, based on hearsay evidence, can have but little 
effect on the future of the St. Bernard, who has for ten years occupied the proud position 
of the most eagerly-sought-after large dog of the day, and whose popularity, instead of 
diminishing, is decidedly on the increase, if steadily-increasing entries at shows are to be cited 
as authorities. 

The most authoritative and probable account of the origin of the modern St. Bernard 
is that derived from M. Schumacher; and we are gratified, considering the great interest 
of the question, that the Rev. J. Cumming Macdona, of Cheadle Rectory, Cheshire, whose great 
services to this breed in days of yore have been duly chronicled above, has been kind enougn 
to forward us the narrative of this gentleman, who is the greatest authority abroad on this 
class of dog. His views and statements are contained in a long letter, dated Holligen, 291!) 
of August, 1867, and we are glad to be in a position to make the following extracts from it : 



56 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

"According to the tradition of the holy fathers of the great Saint Bernard, their race 
descends from the crossing of a bitch (a Bulldog species) of Denmark and a Mastiff (Shepherd's 
dog) of the Pyrenees. The descendants of this crossing, who have inherited from the Danish 
dog its extraordinary size and bodily strength of the one part, and from the Pyrenean Mastifl 
the intelligence, the exquisite sense of smell, and at the same time the faithfulness and sagacity, 
of the other part, have acquired in the space of five centuries so glorious a notoriety through- 
out Europe that they well merit the name of a distinct race for themselves. 

" In winter the service of the male dogs (the females are employed or Engaged only at 
the last extremity) is regulated as follows : Two dogs, one old and one young, travel over 
every morning the route on the Italian side of the mountain towards Aosta. Two more make 
the voyage on the Swiss side towards Martigny, to a distance of about nine miles from the 
Hospice. They all go just to the last cabins of refuge that have been constructed for the 
benefit of travellers. Even when the snow has fallen during the night the dogs find their 
way surely and correctly, and do not deviate from the beaten way a yard. The marks of 
their feet leave a track which is easy for travellers to follow as far as the Hospice. Two 
dogs are made to go over the same road together, so if one perishes it is replaced by another 
a young one, who is instructed and trained by the survey dog, of which he is the pupil. 
When the dogs arrive at the cabins of refuge they enter them to see if there a/e any travellers 
seeking shelter there, in which case they entice them to follow. If they find any travellers 
who have succumbed to the cold, the dogs try to revive them by imparting warmth in licking 
their hands and face, which not seldom produces the desired effect. If these means are inefficient, 
they return in all speed to the Hospice, where they know how to make themselves understood. 
. . . The monks immediately set out, well provided with means of recovery. 

"In 1812 a terrible snow-storm took place, and the aid of the monks and dogs was so con- 
stantly required, that even the female dogs, the most feeble animals, were called into requisition, 
and perished. There were a sufficient number of males left, but not a single female. How was 
the breed to be kept up? The monks resolved to obtain some females of the Newfoundland breed, 
celebrated for their strength, and accustomed to a cold climate. This idea turned out useless when 
put in practice, because the young dogs had long hair. In winter this long hair so collected the 
snow that the poor beasts succumbed under its weight, and perished. The monks then tried crossing 
one of their own dogs with the offspring of the cross breed, with their short stubby hair. At 
last this plan succeeded. From that bastard female dog they have reconstituted the race of 
dogs that are now at the Hospice. 'These dogs, notwithstanding their cross with the New- 
foundland, have the same valour and courage as the ancient race, because, by an intelligent 
and systematic choice, they rear for service and reproduction only the pups who approach the 
nearest, by their exterior form and appearance, to the original and fatherly race. Those that 
proved themselves unable to sustain the work, or who, from their long hair, were disabled, 
were either given as souvenirs to friends of the Hospice, or else sold. Of such are those that have 
been sold to M. de Pourtales, at Mettlin, near Berne, and to M. Rougemont, at Loewenberg, near 
Morat. These dogs come directly from the Hospice, where they are not fit for work on account of 
their long hair, but are distinguished by their colossal size and excellent qualities. They always 
retain in the Hospice the finest dogs, and train them for service ; those who do not possess all the 
marks of genuine breed are given away or sold, because among the number they still find some 
pups with long hair, who thus reveal their motherly ancestry. 

" It is now some ten years since it could be read in many of the papers that a Mr. 
Essig, of Leonberg, had presented to the Hospice a couple of dogs of the celebrated Leonberg 



THE MODERN ST. BERNARD. 57 

breed, which is extraordinarily large and handsome. His intention was laudable and worthy of 
acknowledgment. But these dogs shared the same fate as those of Newfoundland some fifty years 
previous. Their long hair was their ruin ; they perished ; and at present there does not exist 
in the Hospice a single trace of these beautiful dogs of Leonberg. 

" As already said, the Count of Rougemont, at Loewenberg, near Morat, possessed a couple 
of superb dogs, which were presented to him from the Hospice, because they were not good enough 
for the work on account of their long hair. These dogs were very large and very handsome ; 
the colour of their coats was a red-brown, and they had white spots on their feet, their 
necks, their breasts, and their noses (? muzzle). They were on the paternal side of the ancient 
Bernardine race, and on the maternal side of the Newfoundland race. Several litters of pups were 
reared from this couple, which were given away and sold, and thus became spread about. In 1854 
the female dog gave birth, among others, to a little pup of wretched appearance, spotted white and 
brown, which was not at all valued by the owner. This wretched-looking little pup was sold as a 
miserable abortion to Mr. Klopfenstein, of Neunegg, who trained it with care and attention. It 
prospered marvellously, and, growing up, attained a striking likeness to Barry, the most beautiful 
specimen of the ancient unmixed race, which is now preserved in the museum at Berne. Its 
resemblance was so remarkable in regard to external appearance and colour of its hair, that when 
I saw the dog for the first time I resolved to obtain it at whatever sacrifice. 

"I bought, then, this dog in 1855, it being a year old, and called it Barry, on account 
of its striking resemblance to its illustrious ancestor. I entrusted it to Baron Judd, at 
Glockenthal, near Thun, and both of us reared some young dogs during many years, but without 
success. Never could we get young dogs resembling the original race, until 1863, when a pup 
was born from the bitch Weyerman, of Interlaken, of which Barry was the father. This pup, 
named Sultan, which was the image of Barry, came into my possession. 

" I bred from Sultan without success until I received a bitch from Saint Galles whose 
father had been one of the St. Bernard dogs. This bitch, named Diana, with Sultan, produced 
such beautiful pups, that at last I saw my end achieved. At the second birth were two, male 
and female, so surpassingly fine that I resolved in silence to present them as a gift to the 
Hospice, in the belief that these dogs, habituated now to the fourth generation to a temperate 
climate, well selected from generation to generation, would invigorate and regenerate the ancient 
race with the descendants of its proper blood. The gift was accepted. I took them when they 
were seven years old, in January, 1866, to Martigny, where some of the old brothers pass the 
winter. The oldest of the monks received me with this exclamation : ' Mais, man Dieu, cest 
comme le vieux Barry ! ' (Why, it is exactly like the old Barry !). I asked him which Barry he 
alluded to. ' Why,' said he, ' to the one that is stuffed at Berne ; ' and then he continued to 
relate that in the year 1815 he had himself taken Barry, then living, on foot to Berne, where 
he was killed and stuffed. The old man wept with joy, and said, without ceasing : ' fa donnera 
Barry, le vrai vieux Barry ; queje suis heureux! ' (This is Barry, the genuine old Barry, how happy 
I am!). There are at the present time (1867) at the Hospice some young pups of Barry that 
promise well, and which will be, according to all appearances, still finer and larger than Barry 
himself." 

Thus far M. Schumacher, a gentleman whom St. Bernard breeders regard, apparently 
with justice, as the re-founder of their favourite race. His views being so universally 
respected, his information on the subject is especially valuable. We therefore attach con- 
siderable importance to his remarks on colour. The puppy Barry, it will be seen, was 
8 



58 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

descended from parents marked with white, and he in his turn showed great resemblance to the 
old Barry of 1815. It is also clear, if this account is to be received as a correct statement 
of facts, that the extremely long hair of the English " rough-coated " dogs is foreign to 
the breed as kept up at the Hospice, being due entirely to the Newfoundland cross, and 
rigorously excluded by the monks, who cultivate a short, or rather we should call it a 
medium-cozted dog. This fact is so far corroborated by the excellent engraving, by the 
celebrated German artist Specht, of the Hospice St. Bernards, where we have a medium, 
or rather short coat, while the immense development of bone is clearly seen, and white 
is included in the colour. In all respects, in fact, the noble animal portrayed by Specht 
is precisely that described by Schumacher. It is plain, in brief, if we follow Schumacher, that 
the long coat of modern English specimens, while due to the same blood, has been developed 
apart from all accepted rules of Hospice breeding, and by cultivating that very Newfoundland 
element in the strain which the monks persistently endeavour to eliminate or keep down. 
This much, we say, is clear, but at the same time it does not follow that the magnificent 
" rough coated " St. Bernard, as we have become familiarised with him at English shows, 
is an undesirable type to keep up. Those who have seen it in perfection will probably 
think the contrary ; and having endeavoured to establish the facts, as far as they can be 
ascertained, we can see no reason to run counter to the public judgment, though it seems 
desirable to make clear that the extremely long-haired dogs are not the type cultivated at 
the Hospice, and will probably, after a few more generations of selection, be no longer 
procurable from that source. 

Mr. Fred. Gresham has kindly supplied the following as his opinion concerning some 
controverted points : 

" The question as to whether the white markings should be considered as a sine qua non 
with the St. Bernard or not having been largely canvassed lately by the admirers of the breed, 
I am happy to give my views on the subject, and my reasons for arriving at them. That the 
monks place considerably more value on those dogs that have the white muzzle and line 
through pole and collar, there is not a shadow of a doubt, the fact having been handed down 
to us by our greatest authorities on the dog. In addition to which, gentlemen who have 
visited the Hospice for the express purpose of acquiring information on the St. Bernard, have 
been given to understand that the monks do not consider one perfect without them. 

" In a conversation lately held with Mr. Neville Wyatt, a gentleman greatly interested in 
the breed, and who had then only just returned from Mount St. Bernard, where he had been 
for the purpose of consulting with the monks about the marking and also dew-claws, Mr. Wyatt 
said that he was given distinctly to understand that the dogs possessing the white markings 
were greatly preferred, but that if the markings could not be obtained, a dog would not be 
discarded from their kennels. He also said that he particularly noticed that almost every one, 
if not all the dogs he saw there, had a considerable amount of white, thus proving that the 
correct markings were being aimed at, and carrying out my opinion that too much white is 
preferable to too little. 

"As regards dew-claws on the hind legs, the Rev. C. Bowling, of Houghton Rectory, 
Bedfordshire, when visiting the Hospice, was informed by one of the monks that they were 
considered of the utmost importance. Mr. Wyatt also said they were greatly esteemed if they 
could be got, and double if possible. The most successful breeders in England have obtained 
dew-claws fully developed, the exception being to find one puppy in a litter without them ; 




ST. BERNARDS OF THE HOSPICE. 



o 

VI 




ST. BERNARDS AT THE HOSPICE. 61 

therefore, why wish to dispense with them ? The monks acknowledge that they do not object 
to the hind feet of the St. Bernard being slightly turned out, as it gives greater resistance to 
the snow. My experience is that the more fully developed the dew-claws, the more the feet 
are out-turned, the dew-claws forming a part of the foot, and giving six toes to cover the 
ground instead of four. 

" In breeding, it is always advisable to choose a sire particularly good in those points in 
which the dam is deficient. A young sire should be put to an aged dam, and vice vers&. It 
is not desirable to breed from relations, except in cases where the animals are very strong and 
healthy ; but at the same time an experienced breeder may in-breed to advantage, but it requires 
caution. The rough and the smooth St. Bernard may be crossed together, and the progeny, 
as a rule, are either decidedly rough or decidedly smooth. In my opinion the introduction of 
the rough blood tends to improve the stamina and size of the smooth. The most important 
thing is to select high-class sires and well-bred dams. 

" In temper I have always found the St. Bernard most kind and affectionate, and am of 
opinion that it is not natural to the breed to be savage. Not one in my own kennel has 
ever shown the slightest ill-temper to strangers. As a matter of fact, I consider them superior 
to Newfoundlands in docility and obedience, and their affection for children is a remarkable 
trait in their disposition." 

On referring again to Specht's admirable drawing of the Hospice St. Bernards, it will be 
seen how exactly the dog in the foreground answers to Mr. Gresham's description as regards the 
carriage of the hind feet, which are distinctly turned out ; and it appears to us indisputable that 
the remark is founded in reason. A St. Bernard should certainly not be " cow-hocked " in the 
ordinary application of the phrase, but there is in many fine specimens this inclination to turn 
their hind feet out, which naturally draws their hocks apparently together. This is however not 
considered a blemish by many leading judges, especially as the presence of the dew-claws tends 
to the development, and this peculiar formation obviously adds to the power of the dog in walking 
over snow. In regard to other points, it is needless to say that with but few exceptions such 
gaunt-looking specimens as we have before referred to do not appear at great gatherings of the 
clans. Occasionally those who have bought pups on the strength of pedigree only, and with 
but little knowledge of their qualities, exhibit them, which is ample proof that many such are 
whelped ; but it is the interest of breeders to eliminate this stamp of dog, and many are 
consequently put down. 

As regards our illustrations, Bayard, the property of the Rev. J. Gumming Macdona, is a 
handsome medium length rough-coated orange-and-white dog. He was born in 1877, and bred 
by Mr. King in 1877, being by Bosco out of Juno by Wonder out of Juno by Thor, Bosco 
by Bruno out of Silverhorn by Thor. His chief performances are, first prize Crystal Palace and 
first prize Chesterfield, 1878. Bayard's weight is 150 Ibs., and his measurements are Tip of 
nose to stop, 4j inches ; stop to occipital bone, 8| inches ; shoulder-blades to setting on of tail, 
31 \ inches ; girth of muzzle in front of eyes, i6\ inches; girth of skull, 25 inches; girth of neck, 
25 inches ; girth of brisket in front of fore-arms, 45 inches ; girth round chest behind fore-arms, 
40 inches ; girth round loins, 34 inches ; girth of hind-leg at stifle, i6J inches ; girth of arm three 
inches below elbow, 12 inches; girth of fore-arm, 8 inches; girth round pasterns, 8 inches; 
height at shoulders, 32^ inches ; height at elbows, i6| inches ; height at loins, 32^ inches ; height 
at back, 9^ inches ; length of tail, 28 inches. 

Barry, the property of G. W. Fetter, Esq., has never been exhibited, and is of a more rough- 




62 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

coated type. He is by Mentor (2444) out of Dagmar (5350), the latter being by Thor out of the 
subject of the next paragraph. It is interesting to trace his pedigree, the earlier links supplying 
strong collateral evidence of the correctness of M. Schumacher's account, quoted above. Mentor 
is by Hope out of Hedwig by Alp out of Hospice, Hope again being by Tell out of Hospice. 
Hospice was bred by the monks of St. Bernard ; and her pedigree is given as by " Barry (des- 
cended from OLD BARRY) out of Juno ;" Barry being by Soiildan out of Diane. These are quite 
evidently M. Schumacher's Sultan and Diana. Alp again is out of Hedwig ; and Hedwig was 
bred by Mr. Schindler out of Diane. Still, again, Thor is by Leo by " Souldan " (Sultan), thus 
again tracing to Old Barry through the dogs described by M. Schumacher. 

Abbess, the property of F. Gresham, Esq., is (or perhaps more correctly speaking, has been) 
the best St. Bernard bitch of her day. She is a smooth-coated brindle-and-white, and was born 
in 1870, being bred by her owner. Her pedigree is by Leo out of Bernie, by the Rev. J. 
Gumming Macdona's Bernard out of Bernardine, imported by Mr. Hooper. Abbess's chief 
performances are first Birmingham, 1872; first Birmingham, 1873; first Hull, 1874; first 
Dublin, first Maidstone, first Birmingham, 1876 ; first and cup, Bath ; first Chesterfield, 
and champion prize Alexandra Palace, 1877. The weight of Abbess is 150 Ibs., and her 
measurements are : Stop to nose, 4^ inches ; stop to occipital bone, 6| inches ; length of back, 
32 inches ; girth of muzzle in front of eyes, i6f inches ; girth of skull, 27 inches ; girth of neck, 
29 inches ; girth of brisket in front of fore-arms, 42 inches ; girth of chest behind fore-arms, 
41 inches ; girth of loins, 34 inches ; girth of hind-leg round stifle, 19 inches ; girth of arm three 
inches below elbow, 10 inches ; girth of fore-arm, 7\ inches ; girth of pastern, 6| inches ; height 
of shoulders, 30^ inches ; height at elbow, 16 inches ; height at loins, 30 inches ; height at hock, 
7 inches ; length of tail, 25 inches. 

The following are the points of the St. Bernard : 

Head. The head is large, square, and massive ; the face not too long but square at 
the muzzle, with flew approaching that of the Bloodhound, but not so heavy. The stop 
distinct, showing off the the great height of brow and occipital protuberance, which is 
specially marked. Ears of medium size, carried close to the cheeks. Eyes, dark, bold, 
and intelligent, sometimes showing the haw, in that respect also partially resembling the 
Bloodhound. 

Neck and Shoulders. The neck is lengthy, slightly arched on the top, with well-developed 
dewlap, sloping shoulders, and wide chest. 

Legs, Feet, and Dew-claws. Legs straight, with large feet, and double dew-claws if possible, 
but at least single. The more fully developed the dew-claws the more inclined the dog is to turn 
his hind feet out, the dew-claws in such cases making one or two extra toes. The monks do not 
object so much to this, as it gives greater resistance to the snow, but the feet are turned out without 
being cow-hocked. 

General Appearance. Its appearance is showy and gay, giving the observer an impression 
that the dog is possessed of intelligence, strength, and activity, in a marked degree. 

Colour. Orange-tawny or red is most fashionable with the public. Many breeders prefer 
a brindle either dark-red or grey, particularly if tiger-marked, which gives a very showy appear- 
ance when relieved by the white markings. The latter are delineated as follows the muzzle 
white, with white line running up poll to neck, which should be encircled by a white collar, 
white chest, feet, and tip of tail. These markings are very much valued by the monks, as 
representing the scapula, chasuble, and other vestments peculiar to the order. 

Temperament. In temperament, if carefully and properly reared, they are mild and affectionate, 



POINTS OF THE ST. BERNARD. 63 

more so than almost any other class of dog ; easily taught, and obedient to the slightest 
command of their masters. 

Coat. In the rough-haired, the coat is shaggy but flat in texture in order to resist the 
snow ; and in the smooth, close and hound-like. 



SCAT.E OF POINTS FOR ST. BERNARDS. 



Head 

Neck and shoulders 

Legs and feet 

Dew-claws 

General appearance and colour 

Coat 

Temper ... 



Total 



Value. 
10 

5 
10 

5 
10 

5 
5 

50 




CHAPTER VIII. 
THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 

THE dog of which we have now to treat is one of the oldest favourites with the British public. 
He was chosen as a companion and guard from among the classes of dogs we may describe as 
representing the major canines, when the MastifFs popularity was for years in abeyance, 
and the noble Bloodhound's grand qualities as a detective police above the reach of bribery 
were for a time eclipsed by the novel glare of Peel's blue-liveried peace preserver. His 
hunting qualities were ignored by all but a few favoured sportsmen who, knowing his worth, 
used him, and thereby preserved him ; and long before the St. Bernard, with all his excellences, 
was known in England except to the learned and the travelled, the Newfoundland, with his grand 
appearance, noble mien, and majestic bearing, had taken possession of popular fancy. As 
a proof that he still holds it, we are quite certain that there are more Newfoundlands, or dogs so 
called, kept as guards and big pet dogs in this country by the general public, outside of those 
who are au fait in canine matters, than of any other breed of corresponding size. 

If we are right in this, it may be asked why then are Newfoundland classes so sparsely 
filled in comparison with the classes set apart for those other breeds to which we have alluded ? 
To this we can only reply that in dogs, as in other things, dame Fashion exercises the same 
extensive sway. We have no doubt, as the proverb assures us, that "every dog has his day." 
The Newfoundland's day, as the great feature of our leading shows, is yet to come, and we 
must recognise the fact that the at-present dethroned monarch has a powerful rival in the 
picturesquely-marked St. Bernard, who has for the present displaced him. It has also to be 
remembered that, Newfoundland owners being comparatively unskilled in caniological points, 
it has generally happened that there have been pne or more super-excellent dogs going the 
rounds of the shows, against whom mediocre ones stand no chance of getting a prize, and they 
have consequently been frightened away. 

As a companion dog the Newfoundland answers every purpose. As a rule he is docile, and 
always sagacious and faithful to his master, but a terror to tramps and evil-doers, and therefore 
one of the best watch-dogs that can be kept about a country house. His colossal size strikes 
awe to the hearts of the vagabond and prowler, and his fine discriminating intelligence soon dis- 
tinguishes the friendly visitor, and bids him welcome. As a retriever he is unexcelled, although 
too heavy for field work ; but he has done great service in producing for us our modern un- 
equalled and justly-admired breed of flat and wavy-coated field Retrievers. 

It is, however, in the water that this semi-aquatic dog is to be seen in all his glory. 
No sea is too rough for him to venture in. It is a fine sight to witness one of these 
intrepid swimmers buffeting the waves, carrying life and safety to the perishing, a work 
to which the Newfoundland seems to take instinctively, and in the performance of which 
he at once shows his high courage and benevolence of disposition, appearing to take pride 
in the display. We consider the qualities of the Newfoundland as a means of saving life 




. 



HUM 



TRAINING NEWFOUNDLANDS. 65 

have not been sufficiently utilised around our coasts ; nothing is easier than to train him by means 
of an effigy to bring drowning people out of the water, and one or two would prove of 
great value at our bathing stations and in connection with our lifeboats. Water trials for 
these dogs have been tried at Maidstone and Portsmouth, but from various causes they 
proved unsuccessful. Such trials, however, if judiciously carried out, would, we are sure, 
prove both interesting and useful. The idea of instituting such contests originated with Mr. 
Hugh Dalziel, and it is to be regretted it has not met with the support it deserves. There 
is no dog that earlier displays intelligence, and his education may be commenced almost 
as soon as he leaves his dam. A Newfoundland's instinct for fetching and carrying is soon 
exhibited in his manner of playing with bones, pieces of wood, a ball, or anything he can 
pick up. He is continually running about with one or other of these things in his mouth, 
indulging in all sorts of antics, throwing his plaything up and catching it, hiding it when 
tired, to be brought out again when the spirit of play returns to him. 

To take advantage of these natural propensities, and develop them, is the easy task 
of the judicious teacher. In doing so it is well to keep to one article a piece of wood, 
round which some cloth is tied to make it soft to the mouth, and prevent it hurting the 
teeth, at the same time that it assists in bringing him up tender-mouthed, a most important 
point to be gained, and one which the use of a hard material in early lessons makes almost 
impossible of subsequent attainment. The lessons are easily imparted with a little patience 
and perseverance. This is the modus operandi : Take the object in your hand, and having 
called the pup to you, show it him, gently shaking it before him, when he will at once 
want to take it in his mouth. Instead of letting him take it from your hand, throw it, 
when his attention is on it, a few yards away ; he will be sure to scamper after it, when 
your next part is to coax him back to you, as his natural inclination will be to stop 
and play with it. If he does not come to you, go to him, and, taking hold of the ball 
with one hand, with the other very gently lead him back to where you threw it from, 
and then, with as little force as possible, take it away, place it on the ground, do 
not allow him to touch it, but pat him and praise him ; in a few minutes repeat the 
operation, and continue until he gets tired of it, at the first signs of which stop the 
lesson. If this is repeated twice a day the puppy will soon be perfect, and will like the 
lessons all the better if at the end of each you reward him with some tit-bit. You must 
then gradually extend the lesson out of doors, throwing the ball into grass, or elsewhere, 
that he may have to seek for it ; and go on until he will " seek " at the commanding use of 
that word, with a wave of the hand to guide him in the direction in which you have 
previously hidden the ball. These should be strictly private lessons, as the presence of any 
other man or dog will distract the pupil's attention, and spoil all. Lessons in the water 
are taught on the same plan ; and diving by using a bone, or other white substance that 
will sink, beginning by at first dropping it into very shallow clear water. We have seen a 
dog trained in the manner we have briefly described (he was a fine pup, son of imported 
parents), so that at six months old he would go back two miles and fetch an article 
which he had not seen hidden ; and he was so tender-mouthed that we have seen him 
carry a winged crow a mile without hurting him no easy task when the temper of the 
crow and the strength of his bill are considered. 

Of the dogs imported of late years we cannot speak very highly, none of them being 
equal to our home-bred specimens ; and we look for improvement by careful breeding with 
these, rather than from the introduction of blood from abroad. An exception may he 
9 



66 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

found in Moldau, a dog imported by Mr. Richard Lord from Hanover. In frame this dog is a 
grand specimen, but he is blemished by showing white on his feet and chest. We may, however, 
with marked advantage exchange blood with our American friends, if, as we are informed, 
fine specimens exist in the United States, where dog shows are now popular, and this breed 
is being carefully cultivated. 

Mr. William Coats, of North Shields, one of the most successful breeders of this variety, 
and certainly an ardent admirer of the Newfoundland, has kindly supplied us with the following 
notes on breeding this class of dog : 

" In breeding I must have a powerfully well-built bitch, with plenty of bone and a good 
coat. Her ears must sit close to her head, which was the characteristic of Leo's mother. 
His father I did not like so well : he was a great lanky dog, but had a very grand head. 
Whilst on the subject of colour, I can truly say that I have never seen a pure-bred New- 
foundland with a y^-black coat. I have made the acquaintance of some pretty dogs which 
have been jet-black ; but the veriest mongrel has generally the blackest coat. Under any 
circumstances the coat must be flat and straight. As to size if you ask any practical breeder 
of Newfoundlands what he thinks of your puppy, he will almost invariably say in his criticism, 
'he doubts whether he is going to be big enough.' Some writers endeavour to write down 
all large Newfoundlands, simply because they are ignorant of what the breed should be, or are 
interested in the success of mongrels who are not big. 

"With respect to breeding, I do not hold with some authorities in their respect for in-breeding. 
When I have not a dog of my own sufficiently far removed in blood, I always seek the most 
powerfully-built dog of the breed I can find elsewhere. The strains I like best are those of 
Robinson's Carlo, and Windle's Don ; and these have provided most of the blood on the dog's 
side which I now possess. I always try to produce them as big as I can in stature and bone, 
with a head and tail resembling those painted by Landseer. 

"As regards my experience of the habits and temperament of the breed, I can safely say 
that I have never had a bad or cross-tempered one ; all have been of the most docile character. 
All Newfoundlands love water, and take to it naturally. Living, as I do, near the sea, my 
dogs have every opportunity of obeying their natural instinct. When they were missing we 
generally found them at the sea or river side, or _else they came home dripping wet, their 
jackets telling where they had been." 

To Mr. T. Loader Browne, of Chard, we are indebted for the following valuable notes, which 
his position as an authority renders highly interesting : 

" No doubt there is a great difficulty in breeding dogs up to anything like a perfect 
standard ; and I think this is particularly the case with Newfoundlands, where size is a leading 
feature. It is comparatively easy to breed tolerably perfect small dogs ; but he is fortunate who 
obtains one first-class large one out of thirty. My idea of a Newfoundland is that he cannot be 
too large in size, if he be symmetrical ; but I would not sacrifice any recognised point to size, 
much less favour a long-backed, weak-loined animal that cannot turn quickly in the water. My 
reason for advocating large size is that, viewing him as a water dog, capable of saving life, his 
extra size and proportionate strength give him greater facility in buoying up and landing a 
drowning person. Any one, in such a case, would rather see a very large dog, say 33 inches 
at the shoulder, coming to his rescue, than a smaller one of 27 inches. Also, he makes a nobler 



MR. LOADER BROWNE ON BREEDING. 67 

companion, and a more powerful and efficient guard, whilst as a show dog he is certainly 
grander and more imposing on the bench. I know some judges do not insist on extraordinary 
size, and support their opinion by stating that he is not found so in his native country ; but this 
appears of little weight, as it merely arises from careless breeding ; and granting he is more useful 
for being large, there is no reason why he should not be increased in size, just as other prize stock 
has been improved within the last half-century. As to colour, the rusty-dun shade is very 
objectionable, and detracts much from the beauty of the dog ; and without going so far as some in 
saying it arises from a cross with the St. Bernard, I cannot agree with those who maintain it is a 
sign of pure breeding. No doubt there are many dogs of this colour in Newfoundland, but there 
are also others of a glossy black. I have reason to believe there is no great care shown in 
breeding them, but that they vary a great deal in size, colour, and coat ; so that every imported 
dog must not be considered to represent the true breed, which could only be the case if the 
islanders made a speciality of their dogs, as the Jersey men do of their cows, not allowing any 
other breed to be imported into the island not of course that this would be worth the trouble of 
doing. I think the coat should be of a glossy jet-black colour, and composed of rather coarse, 
not silky hair, long, straight, shaggy, and dense, but without much under-coat. It is astonishing 
how quickly this description of coat will dry, as compared with one that is curly ; on account of 
the oily, glossy nature of the hair, very little water can remain in the coat, and that on the 
surface drips off and nearly disappears with the usual shake. 

" The following are some of the defects frequently met with in breeding, but which certainly 
may be lessened and nearly eradicated by careful mating of the parents, of course never selecting 
both where the same defect exists, or it will undoubtedly appear in an exaggerated form in 
their progeny. Where there is a weak point in one of the parents, choose the other where this 
point is exceptionally strong : 

" Weakness of loin and shortness of the back ribs, both highly objectionable, and generally 
acknowledged to be a failing of this breed. 

" The muzzle being too short, giving the dog a pug-faced appearance ; in other cases too long 
and snipy. It should be a happy medium, with the mouth large and capacious, and teeth level, 
giving him facility to lay hold of and retain anything floating. 

" Neck too short. It should be a fair length, with immense development of muscle ; this is 
required to enable him to keep the object he is bringing to shore well out of the water. 

" The ears too large. They should be rather small and lie close to the head, acting as 
valves to keep the water out of the orifices; 

" The eye showing the haw, or under eyelid, leading in some cases to a suspicion of a 
St. Bernard cross. The eye should be deeply set, and not too large. I prefer colour to be 
dark hazel, but many good dogs have them rather a lighter shade. 

" The tail with a twist or curl occurring in the last joints of the vertebrae, also carried 
generally too high ; it should be gently curved and carried low. 

" White colour in patches. A very small spot may be passed over on the chest, and some 
celebrated dogs have had more than a splash on the foot ; but it should not be, and the 
less there is the better. 

" Crooked legs and out at elbows I have found, even when breeding from parents 
perfect in these points ; caused, I believe, by mating a very young bitch with an old dog. 
If possible, never breed from a bitch under two years, or, better, two and a half years old, 
the dog to be not more than five, or six at most. If the bitch be five, let the dog be two 
or three years old. 



68 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

" The head has generally from twenty to twenty-five points out of the hundred assigned to it, 
and rightly so, as it is one of the chief characteristics of the breed. It should be essentially 
an open countenance, full of true dignity and benevolence. 

"The Newfoundland has an immense development of brain, and a first-class education is 
not thrown away on him ; he is an apt scholar, but, like some clever boys, at times rather 
stubborn ; still, firmness and kindness will always carry the point. It is surprising to notice 
the change in his expression after becoming the frequent companion of his master ; always 
intelligent, he now looks half humanised, and, other things being equal, this is a great advantage 
to him on the show-bench, and is pretty sure to turn the scale in his favour. 

" It is much to be regretted that the attempts made in 1876, at Maidstone and Ports- 
mouth, to carry out 'water trials' or 'life-saving contests' have not been repeated, as with 
good management they would have become most interesting and useful, and no doubt have 
been the means of many dogs being more carefully trained for this service, and winning the 
medals of the Royal Humane Society. I trust the day will soon come when a thoroughly 
well-trained Newfoundland will be attached to all the chief ' preventive stations ' round the 
coast. He not only would be ready to rescue life from drowning, but his great intelligence 
and observation could be enlisted in many ways to further the objects for which the service 
is instituted. His scent and sight are wonderfully keen, and his curiosity unbounded ; and, 
after due training, I would back him to drop to brandy and tobacco as truly as any Setter 
would to grouse or partridge." 

It will here be seen that though Mr. Browne and Mr. Coats are at one on the question 
of size, they differ concerning colour. For our own part we are of opinion that a rusty tinge 
is far from objectionable ; in fact, we rather like it. 

In describing the points of these dogs we will take first, as we place first, that feature 
which generally first strikes the eye and impresses the mind. 

The Head. This should be large, broad, and rather flat on the skull, with the 
occipital bone well pronounced. The forehead is bold, but there is no decided stop ; the 
jaws of medium length, and cut off abruptly. Without being tight-skinned, there should be 
no decided wrinkles or loose-folding skin such as we have in the Bulldog, Bloodhound, 
and the Thibet Mastiff, and no deep flews. The nostrils are large and wide, and the whole 
face is clean that is, covered with short hair only. 

The Eye is rather small and deep-set, varying in colour, but generally a shade of 
brown ; it should never be bloodshot that is, showing the haw or conjunctiva, as seen in the 
Bloodhound and some St. Bernards. 

The Ear should be small. Nathaniel Hawthorne, the American writer, describes it as 
"a small and mouse-like ear." It should lie close, and be covered with a short velvety coat, 
with longer hair at the edges. 

The Neck is generally rather short, and the great abundance of thick hair standing out 
from it adds to that an appearance of its being more so than it really is. It is an object 
with breeders to improve the dog by increasing the length ; it should be thick and muscular, 
swelling gradually towards the attachment to the shoulders. 

The Chest and Body. The chest should be both deep and wide, and the ribs round, with 
the back broad and muscular, with strong loins. This formation is of great importance to a 
dog whose work is for the most part in the water, enabling him to float with ease. 

The Legs should be large of bone, well clothed with muscle, and the fore ones quite 



POINTS OF THE NEWFOUNDLAND. 69 

straight, the elbows well let down ; the hind ones short from the hock, the height being got 
by the length from there to hip, which is more than in most other breeds. Both legs are 
feathered to the foot, although the hair is not long. 

The Feet are of great importance, as they are his paddles, and consequently must 
be broad and flat. The vulgar opinion that this dog is web-footed, it may be as well to 
observe here, has no other foundation in fact than that the toes of all dogs are connected 
by a skinny membrane, but it does not extend to the point of the toes, as in web-footed 
birds. The broad, flat, and rather thin foot is of the greatest use in swimming, worked 
as they are by powerful legs, but for travel on hard roads they are decidedly against 
him, and he is apt to get footsore, although he is, from his immense bulk, but a slow 
traveller. 

Coat and Colour. The coat is long, shaggy, and very thick and flat, naturally coarse 
looking, harsh, and dry, an appearance partly due to his frequent sea-baths ; but those that 
are carefully tended and constantly groomed are glossy and softer. The coat is very wet- 
resisting, which enables him to remain long in water without harm. 

The colour, as we have already observed, is often of a rusty hue, which, although not 
so fashionable as the jet-black, is the natural colour of the pure race, and therefore should 
be no whit against the dog in competition, but on the contrary, in his favour. 

The Tail should be of good length and very powerful, as he uses it as a rudder ; 
it should be carried with a sweep downwards, ending in an upward curl similar to that of 
the Sheepdog, but much more thickly covered with hair, which is quite bushy. 

Symmetry and General Appearance. The general appearance of a good specimen impresses 
the observer with the dog's size, strength, and activity ; a weak loin, cow-hocks, or elbows out 
of the straight line with the body, give an awkward appearance, a shuffling gait, and destroy 
all symmetry. 

Leo, whom we have chosen for our illustration, is without exception the most superb speci- 
men of the breed we have seen. It is objected to him that his coat is of a brownish tinge, which 
it unquestionably is, and no doubt a jet glossy black is more pleasing to the eye, but this 
rustiness of coat is a characteristic frequently seen in dogs native to the island. In this opinion 
we are supported by the valuable and weighty evidence of no less an authority than Mr. William 
Lort, the experienced and justly-esteemed judge, who lived some years in Newfoundland, and 
assures us that a rusty coat is quite a common feature of these dogs, especially those of the purest 
race. Leo was bred by Mr. William Coats in 1872, and is by Windle's Don out of Meg of Maldon, 
by Bruno out of Robinson's Meg by Carlo, by Nero out of Bella, by Nero out of Gipsy. The 
following are his chief performances: First, Darlington; first, Nottingham; first, Hull 1875. 
Darlington, champion prize; Birmingham, first prize 1876. Edinburgh, first prize; Wolverhamp- 
ton, first prize ; Bath, first prize and cup ; Agricultural Hall, first prize ; Manchester, first prize ; 
Birmingham, first prize; Alexandra Palace, first prize 1877. First, Alexandra Palace; first, 
Birmingham ; first, Bristol ; first, Crystal Palace ; first, Oxford ; first, Wolverhampton 1878. 
He weighs 149 Ibs., and his measurements are From nose to stop, 5 inches ; from stop to 
occipital bone, 7 J inches ; length of back, 34 inches ; girth of muzzle in front of eyes, 14^ 
inches ; girth of skull, 26| inches ; girth of neck, 30 inches ; girth of brisket in front of fore- 
legs, 45 inches ; girth of chest behind fore-legs, 42 inches ; girth round loins, 38 inches ; girth 
rdund hind-leg at stifle, 22 inches ; girth of arm three inches below elbow, 1 1 inches ; girth 
of fore-arm, 9 inches; girth of pasterns, 8 inches; height at shoulders, 32 inches; height at elbow, 



jo THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

\-j\ inches; height at loins, 32^ inches; height at hocks, 8J inches; length of tail, 24 inches. 
Mr. Coats sold Leo to Mr. Mapplebeck, of Birmingham, who, after winning many prizes 
with him, eventually disposed of him to Mr. S. W. Wildman, of Bingley, Yorkshire, who owns 
him at the present time. 

Among Leo's more prominent rivals we may mention Mrs. Cunliffe Lee's Jet, Dr. 
Gordon Stables' Theodore Nero, whose praises have been said or sung too often to need 
repetition, and Mr. George Raper's Brewer. Mr. Lord's Cabot is also a good specimen, although 
rather small. Mr. Howard Mapplebeck had several fine bitches, so that from his late 
collection and those of a few other breeders we may look for an increase in the number of 
exhibits of dogs really up to show form. Amongst other excellent specimens are Mr. T. 
Loader Browne's Nora Creina, and Monarch ; the latter a winner both on the bench and at 
water-trials. 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR NEWFOUNDLANDS. 

Value. 

Head ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Neck, chest, back, and loin ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Coat and colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Tail ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Symmetry and general appearance ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 50 



THE LANDSEER NEWFOUNDLAND. 

Another class of dog which its admirers stoutly pronounce to be a pure-bred Newfoundland 
is the large black-and-white dog so often seen in this country. Opinions differ very considerably, 
however, regarding the merits of this dog's claim to be Newfoundland, and the best-informed 
authorities with whom we have an opportunity of discussing the subject are unanimous in 
pronouncing the species to have been originally a splendid mongrel, possessing in its structure 
many prominent Newfoundland points, but deficient in some important characteristics of the 
pure breed. 

The painting by the late Sir Edwin Landseer of "A Distinguished Member of the Humane 
Society," though magnificent as a work of art, has undoubtedly done much to if we may use 
the term corrupt the public mind upon the subject of the Newfoundland. A vast number of 
people, without troubling themselves to inquire into the matter, have associated the black-and- 
white dog with the correct type of the Newfoundland, utterly regardless of the fact that Sir 
Edwin may have selected this colour as brighter and more suitable for the object he had in 
view. 

How this large black-and-white dog, or Landseer Newfoundland as it is now termed, ever 
came into existence is hard to explain, but it is impossible to doubt for an instant that it 
partakes largely of the character of the pure-bred Newfoundland. It is certainly true that in the 
island of Newfoundland itself many black-and-white dogs are to be found, but they apparently 
have no stronger claims to be considered pure Newfoundlands than any large-sized mongrel in 
this country has to be styled a Mastiff. Admirers of the black-and-white dog endeavour to 
believe that the colour of a Newfoundland is immaterial, and hence that their favourites are of the 



TI/E LANDSEER NEWFOUNDLAND. 71 

same variety as the black, but in doing so they neglect to notice several other points of distinction 
between the two breeds. In the first place the head of the Newfoundland generally is larger 
and more solid than that of his parti-coloured relation, whilst the latter is slacker in his loins, and 
the tendency to curl in his coat is more frequent. Of course, in some instances magnificent speci- 
mens of the black-and-white dog such as Mr. Evans's Dick have been shown, and these can 




THE LANDSEER NEWFOUNDLAND "DICK." 



compare in almost every respect most favourably with the black variety. In many cases 
however they would, possibly on account of the prejudice which exists against their colour, stand 
but little chance of success in open competition, so the committees of some leading shows have 
instituted a class for Newfoundlands other than black, which we venture to predict will soon be 
largely patronised. 

As a companion this dog is highly appreciated, and his markings certainly render him 
handsomer than the black dog ; whilst for utility, devotion to his master, and gentleness of 
disposition, he is not inferior to the variety from whence he undoubtedly sprung. 

By far the best specimen of the Landseer Newfoundland we are acquainted with is Mr. 



72 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

Evans's Dick above mentioned, who has won prizes at every show where there has been a class 
for dogs of this breed. He is by Vass's Neptune by Evans's Nell, and was bred by his owner 
in 1871. In 1876 he won first at the Crystal Palace under the name of Castro, and first and 
cup at Maidstone under the name of Dick. In 1877 he won first at the Alexandra Palace and 
Agricultural Hall, and in 1878 again first at the Alexandra Palace. His weight is 139 pounds, 
and his measurements are as follows : Length of nose to stop, 5 inches ; length, stop to occiput, 
7 inches ; length of back, 30^ inches ; round muzzle in front of eyes, 14^ inches ; round skull, 
24^ inches; round neck, 24 inches; round brisket in front of forearms, 41 inches; round chest 
behind forearms, 41 inches; girth of loins, 31^ inches; girth of hind leg at stifle, 2oJ inches; 
girth of arm 3 inches below elbow, io| inches; girth of forearm, 8| inches; girth of pastern, 
5j inches; height at shoulders, 30^ inches; height at elbows, 15^ inches; height at loins, 28| 
inches ; height at hock, "]\ inches ; length of tail, 22 inches. 

The standard and scale of points for judging this variety are the same as in the 
Newfoundland, due attention, of course, being made for the beauty and regularity of the 
markings. 




CHAPTER IX. 

THE SHEEP-DOG. 

THE Sheep-dog holds a very high place among our domestic dogs, to which his great 
usefulness and high intelligence fully entitle him. He has also had the honour of being 
considered by no less an authority than the great naturalist Buffon the origin of all our other 
varieties of dogs. Although this opinion of Buffon's is not now accepted by many, it is not 
without considerable show of reason, for none of our domestic varieties approach so near in form 
to the wild dog of India and Australia, and to the more closely-allied species of the Canidse. 
This is, of course, much more marked in the rough working dogs, although these are not so hand- 
some in the eyes of show-dog men. The latter, as a rule, know little practically of the work 
required from Collies in moorland districts, and prefer a glossy thin-coated dog that a Scotch 
mist would drench to the skin in half an hour, to the rough tyke that wears a coarse coat of 
wet-resisting hair, with its under-jacket as close and thick as the wool on the sheep he tends- 
These are the dogs that are light and sinewy in build, with long neck and head, ears certain 
to be more or less pricked, the belly a bit tucked up, and the hind-quarters sloping back 
to the well-let-down and sickle-shaped hocks, indicative of speed, and with a general outline, 
as his lithe frame and shaggy coat are seen looming through the mist, not at all unlike 
that of the wolf. 

Speculation on the origin of this dog, as of most other breeds, is, however, profitless. 
We can only say that second to dogs used in the chase as we must suppose man to have 
hunted wild animals for food before he advanced so far on the road to civilisation as to 
keep flocks and herds the Sheep-dog must have been one of the earliest to come under 
man's dominion and form part of his home stock. Consequently we find in the history 
of Job the following direct allusion to the Sheep-dog : " But now they who are younger 
than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to set with the dogs of 
my flock? This is however no proof that our Sheep-dogs are allied to or at all resemble the 
dogs that Job and his contemporary flock-masters owned. In countries where the wolf is 
common and the lion not unknown, their penchant for mutton had to be guarded against, 
and for such use it is probable that a more powerful and fiercer dog was employed than 
our modern Collie. Indeed this is the case at the present day ; and in Thibet the large 
rough black-and-tan Mastiffs of the country are used to guard the flocks and herds. 
At the Paris exhibition of dogs, 1878, a prize was awarded to a dog used in the 
Pyrenees district as unlike our breed of Sheep-dogs as it is possible to conceive. It was 
coarse, ungainly, slow, with a long matted coat, which on a Scotch mountain in the winter> 
with its snows and alternating frosts and thaws, would get so clogged with balls of snow 
that the dog would not be able to move with the alacrity necessary to get round a flock 
of black-faced sheep. Moreover, it would so soon tire him that he would be practically useless 
for hard work. 

Well-authenticated stories relating to the sagacity of the Sheep-dog or Collie, as the 
10 



74 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

breed is styled in the North would occupy a larger space than is at our disposal to bestow ; 
but all who are best acquainted with him unite in attributing to a well-trained Sheep-dog almost 
human intelligence. The narratives which have appeared in so many publications, and which tell 
of his wonderful devotion to his master cannot, too, be disbelieved by those who have had so many 
opportunities as we ourselves have encountered, of seeing the obedience with which he regards not 
only the voice, but even the slightest gesture of his owner when they are at work together upon 
the hills. Doubtless the fact of his Collie having been the almost inseparable companion of his 
daily existence since it was old enough to accompany him about, has tended to increase the natural 
intelligence of the shepherd's dog to a very great extent ; but still there must have been a very 
superior instinct born in the dog to enable him to, as it were, anticipate his master's wishes and act 
accordingly. 

There has been an attempt made by one or two writers in The Live Stock Joiirnal which 
devotes no inconsiderable portion of its pages to canine matters to designate this dog the 
Highland Collie, but there was an utter absence of any reasoning in justification of claiming 
for the Highlands of Scotland the honour of being the peculiar home of the Collie. We 
are rather disposed to think that the pastoral dales of the Lowlands of Scotland and the 
North of England have had more to do with breeding the dog to his present high state 
of perfection as a shepherd than the North Highlands, where the more peaceful occupation 
of stock-farming did not so early take the place of petty warfare and the chase, which 
formed the chief employment. We may here observe that the system of breeding these 
dogs by shepherds has been altogether independent of consideration of pedigree, which, no 
doubt, has given rise to the very considerable diversity of colour and coat which we find 
among true-bred Collies. Rough and smooth are mated, the result being pups of each kind 
and intermediate, the first consideration with the shepherd being to produce a useful and 
intelligent dog, that will take naturally to his work and be easily rendered amenable to 
discipline. With this view the sire selected is always one known to be clever, con- 
siderations of outward appearance being made greatly subservient to that. We would not 
however be understood to say that the Scotch shepherd is heedless of the good appearance 
of his dog ; he has generally an eye for a " bonny dowg," and if he can add that Glen 
or Rover is "as guid as he's bonny," depend upon it he is proud of his dog, and there 
is a friendship between them which money will not part. 

There exists a difference of opinion as to the relative merits of the rough and smooth 
for hill work. Very heavily-coated dogs, such as is demanded for exhibition purposes, would 
soon lose a portion of their jacket in rough work; and for winter a long-haired dog has the 
disadvantage that in travelling through snow it attaches to his coat in constantly-increasing 
lumps, which heavily handicap him. This the smooth-coated dog escapes, and although the rough 
dog would appear the better protected against the cold, the smooth does not suffer much 
in that respect, nature supplying him with an increased jacket as the winter approaches. 

Collies, like other dogs, differ individually in temperament, but it is not too much to 
say that most of them are shy, reserved, and sometimes dangerous, to strangers. Indeed, 
we have personally known not a few that not only would permit no liberties to be taken 
with them, but were of a treacherous disposition, sneaking round and snapping without 
warning ; especially suspicious are they of strangers approaching their homes, and no more 
alert watch-dog exists than the Collie. They are, however, always amenable to the voice of 
their master, and under his command, and to those in whom they once place confidence they 
are for ever faithful. There is no breed of dog with iu;h a wise look as the Collie; the 



CROSS-BRED COLLIES. 75 

heavy responsibilities that rest on him give him a sedate and sonsie or taking look, and 
his whole appearance is so engaging that it is no wonder he is such a general favourite with 
the public, and especially with ladies. 

No better description in such few words has ever been written of the Collie than that 
given by the poet Burns, which we quote, premising, for the benefit of those readers who do 
not understand the Scottish dialect, that " gash " means wise ; " " sheugh " is a ditch ; " sonsie " 
means engaging ; " baws'nt," marked with a streak of white like a badger ; " touzie," shaggy ; 
and "gaucie," large and flowing. 

" He was a gash and faithfu' tyke 
As ever lap a sheugh or dike, 
His honest, sonsie, baws'nt face, 
Aye gat him friends in ilka place. 
His breast was white, his touzie back 
Weel clad wi' coat o" glossy black ; 
His gaucie tail, wi' upward curl, 
Hung ower his hurdies wi' a swirl." 

Unfortunately, owing either to carelessness on the side of the breeders, or a desire on their 
part to render the dogs they breed for sale, not for work, the services of the black-and-tan Gordon 
Setter have been called into requisition in many cases. The result, as might have been 
anticipated, has been to gain a possible increase of beauty in colouring and coat, at the cost of a 
decided loss in that intelligence which so clearly is the characteristic of a Sheep-dog pure and 
simple. Traces of this decided bar sinister can be plainly seen in many of the show-dogs now on 
the bench ,' and those who really know what a Collie is, are horrified when they see a southern 
county judge, who cannot be expected to know more of the breed than what he has picked up at 
dog shows, giving first prize to a dog with a Settery head, second to one with legs feathered down 
to his feet, and third to a specimen without the slightest under-coat to enable him to resist the rain, 
when there are present in the class unnoticed dogs possessed of genuine Collie properties. Such 
eccentricities of genius so often occur that it is a matter of small surprise that the breed, fashionable 
as it is, should be so thoroughly misunderstood. The injury to the real Sheep-dog, too, is very 
great ; for persons who are ignorant of what a Collie should be, and think they are purchasing one 
when they pay a long figure for a second-rate Gordon Setter, get disgusted when they discover 
their purchase's lack of intelligence, and give up the breed to try their fortunes with another 
Only a short time back we were requested by a friend to call and see a "magnificent Collie" he 
had recently " picked up" in a town not a hundred miles from Bristol; we did so, and although he 
was unfortunately not at home, his wife was in, and would be glad to see us. She was accompanied 
into the room by a black-and-tan rough-coated dog, of which we took no particular notice at first, 
but after a few minutes' conversation, expressed a wish to see the new purchase, when to our horror 
we were informed that the Settery mongrel before us was the animal upon whose merits we were 
expected to pass a favourable opinion. At last the reason for the purchase came out : the dog 
had been placed first at a show by a well-known judge who should have known better and 
our friend, in consequence, in his ignorance, was persuaded into giving 20 for a wretch 
not worth as many shillings as a Collie. Indignation followed the expression of our opinion, 
and fortune was tempted a second time at a show, on this occasion under a late lamented 
judge who knew his work. "Tak yon brute out," was the only notice taken of the "magnifi- 
cent " creature, who, on his return home, was promptly given away, the fortunate recipient being 
the local postman, in whose hands he is likely to remain until a keeper's bullet the dog is 



j6 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

an inveterate poacher puts an end to his existence. We should not have inflicted this narrative 
upon our readers but that it tends to prove to those ignorant of dog-show judging, that because 
a dog wins a first prize he is at all of necessity a good one. 

We are fortunate enough to be enabled to lay before our readers the opinions of two 
gentlemen who are in our judgment, and in that of many others also, without a doubt two of 
the best Collie judges now living we allude to Mr. S. E. Shirley, M.P., and Mr. W. W. 
Thomson of Morden, Surrey. Both these gentlemen are well known everywhere as breeders, 
and the successes of their kennels on the bench are accomplished facts. Before, however, giving 
their opinions, we wish to warn intending purchasers against investing in a dog which is marked 
by deep or mahogany-coloured tan. This is an almost certain indication of Setter taint, the tan of 
a true Collie being of a very pale shade. According to the opinion of Mr. Shirley 

" The Head of a Collie should be long and narrow ; ears set high on the head, not dropping 
like a Fox-terrier's, but semi-erect, and in the case of a good specimen as small as possible. 

"Mouth should be level. Unlevelness need not absolutely disqualify, though it must tend 
greatly against a dog, as an overshot mouth not only conveys a false idea of the length of a 
dog's head, but prevents him holding a sheep properly if required to do so." (This malformation 
is, according to Mr. Shirley's experience, far from uncommon in Collies.) 

" Coat thick, but not woolly. 

" Colour should be for choice black and pale tan, black, tan, and white, or red with black 
points, though there are some good black specimens to be seen about." (Some six years ago, 
when in Ross-shire, Mr. Shirley came across a strain of excellent black Sheep-dogs.) 

" General Symmetry should be fairly light, a wide chest or heavy short neck being a bad 
defect, for one wants activity in a Collie. 

" The Tail is a matter of importance, for though it has been stated in works upon the dog 
that this may be carried on the back when the dog is excited, still it is a fault, and a serious one, 
when such is the case." 

Mr. Thomson says 

" Collies are divided into roughs and smooths, the former generally carrying off the palm 
for beauty. As far as build, shape, and colour are concerned the two are exactly alike, and 
one description will answer for both. They only differ in coat, the rough breed having a very 
thick rough jacket, in fact, a double coat, the under one being sealskin-like in both colour and 
texture, while the other is coarse and hard. The smooth dog has a short coat, almost as close as a 
Pointer's, but denser and harder; his legs are free of hair ; except that on the hocks it is often 
longer and denser than on the body. The rough species carry a considerable amount of feather on 
the hocks, but from the hocks to the heels the legs should be quite clean. Down the back of the 
front legs there should also be plenty of feather, which in the working Collie is very dense, whilst 
in the drawing-room pet constant brushing renders it soft and long, as in the Setter. For working 
purposes one is equal to the other ; in the North of England rough Collies seem preferred, whilst 
with the Southern drovers the smooth variety appears to be the most popular, many drovers being 
of the opinion that the smooth stand more work than the rough-coated are capable of, the long 
jackets of the latter getting heavy with mud and wet, causing them to tire. 

"As a thing of beauty the rough Collie is favourite, especially with ladies, his long coat being 
more admired than the sober, business-like jacket of his confrere. 



POINTS OF THE COLLIE. 77 

" The Scotch Collie should be strongly built, but lithe and active, giving one the idea of 
great pace. 

" Shoulders well set back, not loaded. 

" Chest deep, with room for his lungs to play freely. 

"Back broad and muscular. 

" Fore legs strong and straight, but not heavy, and well under his body. 

" Hocks good " sickle-shaped," and free of feather down to the heel. 

" Head long and sharp, but not snipy in the muzzle, or domed in the skull. 

" Ears small, and semi-erect. 

" Colour black-and-tan, black-white-and-tan, black and white, sable, grey, &c. 

" There is one strain of smooth Collie which calls for particular attention, and that is the 
variety called sometimes the Welsh Collie, and at others the Highland ' heeler.' In colour this 
dog is a peculiar sort of greyish hue, to which the terms ' harlequin,' ' plum-pudding,' ' tortoise 
shell,' are all applied. He is usually found with one eye (sometimes both) ' wall-eyed,' or ' China- 
eyed,' which is a great additional attraction on the show bench, whilst there exists amongst many 
shepherds a belief that this sort of eye never loses its sight, which superstition, if it were true, would 
naturally greatly increase the value of a China-eyed dog in their eyes. A rough-coated dog of this 
colour is very rare, by far the best shown of late years being Mr. Brackenbury's Scott." 

On reading the above opinions it will be observed that, curiously enough, both Mr. Shirley and 
Mr. Thomson have omitted to make any allusion to the feet of a Collie, which we consider one of 
the most essential points in the dog : they should be small and rather round. 

It is also desirable further to describe the coat. The coat of a Sheep-dog (whether the 
animal is of the rough or smooth variety) is a matter of considerable importance, for a dog with 
a thin, sparse jacket would be unable to do his work on the moors. Mr. Thomson in his remarks 
speaks of the double coat as the correct style, and this we fully endorse. The under coat should, 
as that gentleman alleges, resemble sealskin, the damp-resisting properties of which ensures the 
dog being saved from the inclemency of the weather to a great extent. The longer or outer 
coat should be harsh and wear-resisting to the touch, not fine and thin, as in a Setter. Dogs 
possessing the latter cross invariably suffer from the cold and rain. The smooth-coated dog 
only differs in that his outer coat is shorter, stiffer, and denser than in his long-haired companions, 
and thus the absence of length is compensated for by additional thickness. 

Mr. Shirley has also given us a scale of points as he apportions them, which will be very 
useful as showing the precise value he attaches to one point in comparison with another. 

Value. 

Head 15 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Chest ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Shoulders... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Loin ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Tail ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total 100 



78 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

' As regards the breeding of Sheep-dogs, a well-known authority on the subject, who prefers 
to let his identity remain concealed, gives us the following hints, which, although briefly expressed, 
will be found of importance : 

"Avoid mating flat or prick-eared Collies, as the progeny is almost sure to come one or 
the other. An exception may be made to this rule when you know the ancestors to have 
been really good specimens of the breed ; there is a very great chance of the puppies 
throwing back to them, and not inheriting their parents' faults. I am always reluctant to mate 
rough Collies with smooth ones. Though you may do so, and get good puppies of each variety, 
you can never be certain of your expectations being realised when breeding from their progeny. 
Avoid heavy-headed, flat-eared Collies. Though both are objectionable, I would rather breed 
from a good-headed prick-eared one than a good-headed flat-eared one. Under-coat I always 
have been, and always will be, a great stickler for; in fact, I never breed from a dog with 
no under-coat, or an open top-coat. 

"Colour is, in my judgment, a minor consideration, provided the leading points such as 
shape, coat, head, and ears are right. Collies throw back in this respect in the most 
extraordinary way, and in one litter you often get three or four different colours." 

With regard to the animals selected for illustration, the rough-coated specimen is Mr. Shirley's 
Hornpipe, bred by him in 1876 by Trefoil from Kit by Malcolm , Trefoil by Twig out of Bess 
by Rattler. Her chief performances are : first Manchester, first Darlington, first Bristol, first 
Alexandra Palace, 1877 ; first Crystal Palace, 1878 ; Champion prize Alexandra Palace, 1879. We 
have not been able to obtain her measurements. 

Yarrow, Mr. Thomson's smooth-coated bitch, is also an unusually good one, but is without a 
pedigree, having been imported into this country by Mr. Hugh Dalziel. Mr. Thomson pronounces 
her to be the best worker on sheep in his kennel, but an inveterate poacher. A peculiar trait in 
her character is referred to thus by her owner ; we give his own words : " This same bitch when 
having whelps, will, as they get old enough to eat, sneak off like a wolf or fox, and on her return 
she will disgorge rabbits, eggs, &c., for the delectation of her young." Her chief performances are : 
first Chesterfield, 1877; first and cup Hanover, 1879. The measurements of Yarrow are as follows: 
Tip of nose to stop, 3! inches ; stop to occiput, 4| inches ; length of back, 19 inches ; girth of 
muzzle, 10 inches ; girth of skull, 15 inches ; girth of neck, 14! inches ; girth of brisket, 26 inches ; 
girth round shoulders, 25 inches; girth of loins, 21 inches; girth of hind leg at stifle-joint, n 
inches ; girth of fore-arm, 6 inches ; girth round pastern, 4 inches ; height at top shoulders, 20 
inches ; height at elbows, io ; height at loins, 20 inches ; height at hock, 6 inches ; length of 
tail, 14$. 

Amongst the best dogs of the day are Mr. Ashwin's Cocksie, although his ears are 
not quite perfect; Mr. Thomson's Hero, Marcus, and Bess; Mr. Bissell's Cockie, the sire 
of Cocksie ; Mrs. Skinner's Vero, the best dog out, only rather silky in coat, and usually 
shown like an alderman ; and last, but not least, Mr. Shirley's Trefoil, Hornpipe, and 
Hulakin. 

In smooth-coated dogs there is only Mr. Thomson's Guelt, also imported by Mr. Hugh 
Dalziel (descended from Crichton's dog, who was hung with his master for sheep-stealing) that we 
can call to recollection as being above the ordinary run, whilst the same gentleman's Yarrow, 
together with Mr. Swinburne's Lassie, and Mr. James Fawdry's, late Mr. Mapplebeck's, Fan, 
compose a trio of bitches which combined cannot be beat 



THE BOB-TAILED SHEEP-DOG. 79 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING SHEEP-DOGS. 

Head ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ic 

Chest and shoulders ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Loin and tail ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

General appearance ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 50 

THE BOB-TAILED SHEEP-DOG. 

This variety has little in common with the Collie dog as described above, and is a rare 
companion for people in the higher classes of society, as his homely and rugged exterior place 
his claims to aristocratic patronage beneath those of the ordinary Collie. In appearance he 
is of a far stouter and coarser build than his cousins, the Scotch and Welsh Sheep-dogs, and 
his coat is usually long, shaggy, and inclined to curl. This last feature is a defect, but in this 
variety only a minor one. His face is shaggy, if not devoid of long hair, as in the Collie, and 
his colour is usually grizzle. The skull is round and muzzle truncated, with the couplings 
short and square. The chief feature in the breed, however, is the almost absence of tail, which 
is of the shortest possible dimensions. A theory has been started that this is the result of 
constant generations of Sheep-dogs with docked tails having been bred together ; but this appears 
incredible to us. Should this reasoning be correct, we may shortly expect to produce English 
Terriers with ready cropped ears, or Fox-terriers and Spaniels with naturally docked tails. 
Another theory is that this breed has been crossed with the Bull-dog, and hence the natural 
singularity in its caudal appendage. We cannot however 'receive this suggestion with more favour 
than the former, as so large a cross of Bull would inevitably render the dog too " hard " in mouth, 
and give the breed a tendency to worry stock, which would be very undesirable in a drover's dog. 
However, whatever may be the reason for this development, the variety exists, and, as a working 
dog, has no superior. 

Mr. R. J. Lloyd Price, of Rhiwlas, has owned some of the best specimens we have seen, his 
old Bob being a very large prize-winner at our shows. He says of them that " They come 
principally from the Lake Country, and are not adapted for penning or driving, but are best 
for escorting sheep along the roads, where they often show their cleverness by running over 
the backs of a closely-packed flock of sheep, and getting in front to turn them, when they 
cannot pass by the side. They are even better adapted for rough wear and tear than the long- 
haired sort, their coat being of a sort of door-mat texture. The bob-tail I believe to have arisen 
from the fact that a tax used to be imposed on all dogs with a tail, and a long course of breeding 
from dogs with the tails cut off has produced these results." It will be seen from the latter 
remarks that Mr. Price has faith in the theory given above, though we cannot admit our own 
is very great. His allusion, too, to the bob-tailed dog running over the backs of sheep has, 
to a certain extent, surprised us. We know the practice is a common one amongst Sheep- 
dogs, but should have considered the breed in question of too heavy a build to resort to such 
means of heading his sheep. 

The original type of the bob-tailed Sheep-dog is uncertain. The best we have met with 



8o THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

have generally been in Devon, where at Exeter and other shows in the county we have seen 
them in fair numbers, and in quality what we consider perfection. The animals are said to be 
very intelligent, and everlasting workers ; but although picturesque, they appear slow, and 
have not that bright knowing look that distinguishes the Collie. The colours are black and 
white, or grizzle, with more or less of distinct white patches. It is, however, singular that 
a very similar variety appears to be known in Scotland, where it also is sometimes termed the 
" Rough-coated " Collie, from the shagginess of its jacket. In a letter which appeared in the 
Live Stock Journal of Nov. I5th, 1878, Mr. Gordon James Phillips, of Glenlivet, described this 
variety as follows : 

" The origin of the rough-coated Collie is more difficult to trace back to its native wilds than 
any other dog that we know. It forms a small minority among shepherds' dogs, and it is 
seldom, if ever, seen pure-bred in the north of Scotland. Nature, however, has given it marks 
which cannot be effaced, which help to unravel the mystery which envelops its nativity. These 
are its shaggy coat, the thickness of its skin, and the formation of its limbs. The thick skin 
and the shaggy coat point unmistakably to its being the native of a cold climate ; while the 
short powerful limbs point as powerfully to its being the native of a mountainous country. 
Glancing for a moment at other animals that are natives of Scotland, and marking the resem- 
blance between them and the rough-coated Collie, we are inclined to think that it also is Scotch. 
Take, for example, Highland cattle and Highland horses. They have the rough coat, the short 
thick limbs, and the thick skin, and in their own characters the same amount of endurance. 
The only plausible argument against the Collie being Scotch is its scarcity in Scotland. This 
may be accounted for, however, when we take into consideration the fact that the black-and-tan 
Collie is better adapted than the rough-coated Collie for the ordinary work about small farms, 
such as driving in and out cattle, sitting beside a few sheep, and so on. It is also more easily 
trained for work of this sort. This would naturally make the black-and-tan Collie a greater 
favourite with farmers than its rough-coated neighbour. Within the last few years, however, 
sheep have become more valuable, and the rough-coated Collie has again become fashionable, 
shepherds preferring it for its endurance of cold and fatigue, and its ability as a driver. Shep- 
herds also affirm that for sheep it is, on the whole, the best dog. 

"The animal itself is about the size of an ordinary Collie, but a good deal deeper chested. 
As already mentioned, it is thicker in the skin ; it is also flatter in the forehead. Altogether, 
the head would be somewhat repulsive looking, if it were not relieved by the beautiful dark- 
brown eyes. Its greatest peculiarity in form is in the tail, which is simply a stump, generally 
from six to nine inches in length. That the animal is of Scotch origin, owing to its resemblance 
to other Scotch animals, is apparent, if we compare it with the Scotch Terrier, which it resembles 
very much in colour a dark grey. At all events, the black-and-tan Collie, now common 
throughout Scotland, would be much more at home in the southern part of the island than in 
the north. It cannot endure the same amount of cold. In winter it has a great inclination to 
get near the fire, and is generally shivering, whereas the rough-coated Collie seldom draws to 
the fire, but seems to be at home among the drift and snow. It is finely adapted for hill climbing, 
owing to the strength of its limbs and the depth of its chest. Shepherds have an idea, which, 
on the whole, is not a bad one, that it was intended by nature to be specially a sheep-dog, owing 
to its short tail, which does not let it turn so swiftly as it would otherwise do, if gifted with 
the long tail of its brother Collie. To understand this it is necessary to know that when 
shepherds send a dog to hunt sheep they desire it to take a wide circle round, not to dash in 



a 

o 

a 



o 

aj 




C/} 



O 

a 



Score// BOB-TAILED DOGS. 81 



amongst them. The black-and-tan Collie must be trained to do this, but the rough-coated 
one must make a wide sweep, owing to the stump. Perhaps better proofs exist of its being 
specially a sheep-dog, when we consider its aptitude for driving. Shepherds state that they 
can safely trust 200 or 300 sheep to the sagacity of this valuable dog, which does not hurry or 
push, but drives them as coolly and as cautiously as if its master were present. Another proof 
is that it will not follow game. The black-and-tan Collie, if it sees a hare, will dart away after 




A SCOTCH BUB-TAILED SHEEP DOG. 



it at its utmost speed. Most dogs will do so ; but it is different with the rough-coated Collie. 
If a hare start up amongst its feet, it will simply look after it with a scared-like look, and then 
move on its way again." 

It will be obvious that Mr. Phillips in the above remarks uses the word "rough-coated" 
in a sense different to that in which it is usually applied to the Collie. We reproduce 
the engraving of a " rough-coated," bob-tailed " Collie," as described by him, and without 
pledging ourselves to any particular details of his statement, can testify to having seen 
dogs precisely resembling that here portrayed. The strong resemblance in many points 
of the English bob-tailed dog is too striking to be accidental, and it is hardly likely that 
there were two original types; but whether the northern or southern type was that original 
11 



82 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

cannot now be decided. Perhaps, seeing the north country undoubtedly produced or perfected 
the other and better-known type of Sheep-dog, while Mr. Lloyd Price also traces the animal to 
the Lake district, the probability may be rather in favour of a general northern origin, whatever 
the precise locality may be. 

The disposition of several rough bob-tailed Sheep-dogs we have met with has differed 
considerably from that of the Collie, being mild and affectionate. 

It is impossible to give any standard for judging this variety. General appearance, tail, 
strength, and shagginess without too much length of coat, should be taken into consideration. 

The Sheep-dog is capable of nearly anything in the way of herding or attending to stock ; 
and the stories told of his intelligence almost surpass belief. Nothing has done more to illustrate 
the Collie's value than the institution of the Sheep-dog trials, which were first inaugurated at 
Bala by Mr. R. J. Lloyd Price. This gentleman further gave Londoners a treat by bringing 
a flock of 100 wild Welsh sheep up to the Alexandra Palace in 1876. Here three sheep were 
picked out of the flock (which was folded in a remote corner of the park), and were carried to 
the field of operations on the side of the hill. They were then liberated, and the dog whose 
turn it was to work them was required to pen them in a small fold situated in the middle of 
the green bounded by the racecourse. The only assistance the dog received was from his master, 
who was, however, forbidden to touch the sheep under penalty of disqualification. Those 
acquainted with sheep will fully appreciate the difficulties of the task thus set the shepherd and 
his dog, for wild Welsh sheep are very unlike their civilised brothers met with nearer towns. 
But to quote from the account published at the time in the Live Stock Journal : " Some 
of the dogs were so well trained that many spectators expressed the utmost astonishment at 
the intelligence they displayed. Some of them lie down before the sheep, so as to let them 
recover their equanimity ; then they get up quietly, move a step forward, and lie down again ; 
this they repeat over and over again, producing a corresponding step of the sheep towards the 
entrance of the pen, and finally they fairly drive them in, almost unconsciously to themselves." 

This long and careful training is not conducted by any set rules. The best-trained Collies 
have lived with their masters from puppyhood, and learnt to associate with sheep from their 
earliest years. The inherited habits of generations also predispose the sagacious animals to the 
performance of the duties required of them ; and old experienced dogs, with whom they are at 
first always worked, further assist in the process. 



;->\'> / 




CHAPTER X. 

THE BULL-DOG. 

Ai.LUSlON having been made to the great antiquity of the Bull-dog in the chapter on the Mastiff, il 
will be unnecessary for us to recapitulate in the present instance what we said before concerning the 
claims of rival breeds to be regarded as the most ancient variety of British dog. Few, however, can 
be found who refuse to award the Bull-dog the honour of being considered our national dog, for no 
variety of the canine species is so universally identified, both at home and abroad, with Great 
Britain, as the subject of the present article. Bull-dog pluck and endurance are qualifications eagerly 
cherished by Englishmen of all classes ; and it would be manifestly unjust to deprive this dog of 
the title which has been so universally awarded him. 

No breed of dog has provoked more discussion than the subject of this chapter, 
and in no canine controversy has party feeling run so high, and so many uncomplimentary 
epistles been exchanged. The result, however, of the angry battle of words has been so far 
a gain to the breed as to cause a perceptible increase in the number and quality of the 
exhibits at the principal shows, and, in the year 1875, it was the means of inducing several 
breeders to unite, and form the New Bull-dog Club, which has drawn up the scale of 
points now received by the vast majority of breeders throughout the country, whether 
members of the Club or not. Now that there seems to be some sort of unanimity 
between the various schools, the variety bids fair to prosper ; and though from its excitable 
temperament the Bull-dog is not likely, in spite of its many high claims upon public favour, 
to be a general pet, it is gratifying to all lovers of this our national dog when they find it 
slowly, though surely, emerging from the hands of the residuum of the canine world, and taking 
its proper place in the kennels of a superior class of breeders and exhibitors. The gain to the 
dog will, we believe, be immense, for in the unhappy position into which it had fallen the 
Bull-dog had but slender opportunities of proving to the world that its intelligence was at 
least equal to that of the average run of dog. Chained up for weeks and months in damp 
cellars or dark confined hutches in miserable alleys, what chance had the poor brute of 
developing even that ordinary degree of sagacity which is expected to be found in an animal 
endued with sight and instinct ? What possibility could there be that a creature so treated 
could beget offspring inheriting any of the better mental qualities which are naturally present 
in the Bull-dog, and which are developed in many dogs now before the public, whose lot has been 
cast in happier places than the habitation of a low scoundrel whose blow preceded his command, 
and who only noticed his wretched companion when desirous of participating with him in some 
revolting piece of cruelty, in which the dog, through his indomitable courage, was destined to 
take a conspicuous part? How the Bull-dog ever came to be so nearly monopolised by this 
class of individual is capable of explanation by the theory that when bull-baiting ceased to be a 
fashionable recreation in this country, yet before it was absolutely prohibited by law, the sport 
was carried on by the lower classes, and the dog naturally came into their possession, there to 
remain until the efforts that were periodically made to extricate it should at last succeed. 



84 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The antiquity of this breed is indisputable, mention being made oi it by Edmond de 
Langley, in his work, the " Mayster of Game," the MS. of which we have consulted in the 
British Museum. It is there alluded to by him under the title of Alaunt, and is subdivided by 
him into three classes ; but perhaps it may be as well to give the description as contained 
in the " Mayster of Game : " 

"Alaunt is a maner and natre of houndes, and the good Alauntz ben the which men 
clepyn Alauntz gentil. Other there byn that men clcpyn Alauntz ventreres. Other byn 
Alauntz of the bochcrie. The! that ben gentile shuld be made and shape as a greyhounde, 
evyn of alle thingcs, sauf of the heved, the whiche shuld be greet and sliort" After some 
further remarks, this same dog is said to gladly " renne and bite the hors." " Also thei renne 
at oxen and at sheep, at swyne, and to alle othere beestis, or to men, or to othcre houndes, 
for men hav seyn Alauntz sle her maystir ; " and, furthermore, they are described as being 
" more sturdy than eny other maner of houndes." 

The second class of this dog is thus noticed : " That other nature of Alauntz is clepid 
ventreres, almost thei bene shapon as a greyhounde of ful shap, thei hav grete hcdes, and 
greet lippes, and greet eeris. And with such men helpeth hem at the baityng of a boole, 
and atte huntynge of a wilde boor. Thei holde fast of here nature . . . ." 

The third division : "The Alauntz of the bocherie is soch as ye may alle day see in good 
tounes that byn called greet bochers houndis. Thei byn good for the baytyng of the bulle and 
huntyng of the wilde boore, whedir it be w' greihoundis at the tryste w' rennyng houndis at abbay 
tvith inne the coverte." 

Whatever distinction there may have been between the above three varieties of Alaunt in the 
days of Edmund de Langley, and though the anonymous writer on the works of Arrian describes 
these as above, and only attributes to the first two varieties an admixture of pure Celtic blood, it 
appears to us that the Alaunt is without a doubt the parent strain from which the present Bull-dog 
is descended ; and although the Mastiff is alluded to by Edmund de Langley in his work, in 
addition to the three varieties of Alauntz, we can still discover no cause for altering our previously 
expressed opinion (see chapter on Mastiffs) that the Bull-dog and Mastiff originally sprang from 
the same origin viz., the Mastive or Barvdogge, which is alluded to in Dr. Caius' book, and has 
been before quoted in this work on the article on Mastiffs. Before leaving the subject of the 
" Mayster of Game " we desire to impress upon our readers three items contained in the extracts 
we have quoted : first, the dog was s/tort-faced ', secondly, he was used to bait the bull ; and 
thirdly, when he attacked it or other animals he hung on. The first and third of these 
characteristics are present to a remarkable extent in the Bull-dog of the present day. 

In the work of Dr. Caius, written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, mention is made of the 
Mastive or Bandogge, as being a dog " stubborne, eagre, burthenous of body (and therefore but of 
little swiftness), terrible and feareful to behold," and which " alone, and wythout anye help at al, 
he pulled down first an huge beare, then a parde, and last of al a lyon, each after other before the 
Frenche King in one day." This description of Caius's, relating as it does to the Mastive, which 
has already been alluded to in the "Mayster of Game" as a peaceable dog, only tends to 
strengthen our previous conviction that the two breeds, Alaunt and Mastiff, had by some means 
or other become amalgamated, only to be again separated by the later breeders to suit the 
requirements of the times in the manner we have before suggested. 



THE OLD ENGLISH DULL-DOG 85 

In the later works on the dog, mention of the Bull-dog is frequently occurring, and all writers 
are unanimous in their praises of the clog's courage and boldness in attack. The matter of size 
has provoked more discussion than any other feature in connection with this dog one party 
holding out for a great, lumbering, long-faced dog, nearly as big as the bull itself, and 
destitute of any pretences to symmetry in its appearance ; the other side advocate the claims 
of a large-skulled dog, of medium size forty to fifty pounds with the short head described by 
Edmund de Langley in the " Mayster of Game." As regards the respective merits of the two dogs 
there can, in an unprejudiced mind, be no hesitation in accepting the latter as the correct type. In 
the first place, supposing bull-baiting were again in vogue, what could be the use of using a large 
dog for the work when a small one can do it as well if not better ? secondly, even assuming for 
the moment that a hundred years ago or more the Bull-dog was the coarse-looking creature some 
of its admirers say it was, is this breed to be the only one in which no refinement is ever to appear? 
We do not hold with improving a breed off the face of the earth, and have no sympathy with 
those who attempt to do so ; but if we could by any surgical operation bring ourselves to look 
upon some specimens we see at shows as representing the correct type, we should gladly avail 
ourselves of any opportunity for refining and improving the breed. 

Again, in baiting the bull the dogs usually approached him crawling along the ground on 
their bellies, and the result would be that a large dog would stand a much greater chance of falling 
a victim to his antagonist's horns. In this opinion we are supported by written authority as well 
as by all the gentlemen who have had personal experience of bull-baiting with whom we have 
conversed on the subject. Amongst these is Mr. Leare, of Sunbury-on-Thames, who, though born 
in the first year of the present century, still puts to shame many of his juniors when handling the 
rod or gun, and who, in his youth, was present at bull-baitings innumerable. According to this 
gentleman, a bull was rarely slaughtered in Devonshire for this is Mr. Leare's native county in 
former times without being first subjected to the ordeal of baiting by dogs in every respect 
resembling the Bull-dog as hereafter described : The weight was between forty pounds and fifty 
pounds, a larger one being suspected no doubt correctly of having a Mastiff cross ; and a short 
retrousse nose was eagerly sought after as enabling the dog to breathe when hanging on to the 
nose of the bull. 

During the last century it was the almost invariable custom to bait a bull before slaughtering 
him; and it was not solely on account of the "sport" entailed that this proceeding was in 
vogue, for there was a prevailing opinion that the flesh of a bull which had been baited was 
improved in- quality by the exertions which he had to put forth in defending himself from 
his canine assailant. Whether this theory was correct or not we decline to decide ; but very 
much the same idea is in existence in the present day as regards hares, many people being 
of the opinion that the flesh of a coursed hare is far superior to that of one which has been 
shot. 

Some difference of opinion has risen, too, as regards the length of face in this breed, 
a statement having appeared in print to the effect that the nose should not be too short, 
and rather implying that a medium length from the skull to the tip of the nose was desirable. 
Such heresy against the accepted opinions of all recognised authorities could only emanate 
from the pens of those either completely ignorant of the subject upon which they were writing, or 
else in possession of a strain which differed materially from the Britibh Bull-dog, under whatever 
designation they might appear. 

Attempts have also been made to improve the breed of Bull-dogs existent in the country 
by the addition of a so-called Spanish cross. What was the precise advantage to be derived 



86 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

from the introduction of the blood of a Spanish Bull-dog we are at a loss to conjecture, as 
the animal selected for resuscitating our national dog was the notorious Toro, a red- 
brindled dog, with cropped ears, weighing some 90 Ibs., and displaying many indications 
of a Mastiff cross. From what we have heard from various sources it appears that Toro, in 
spite of the assertion in the Kennel Club Stud Book to the effect that both his parents were 
pure-bred Spanish Bull-dogs, is supposed by many of his admirers to be descended from some 
English Bull-dogs which were exported from this country to Spain several years ago. Now, 
assuming for the sake of argument that both these theories can be correct, we still fail 
to discover from the appearance of Toro how he could possibly be of service in improving 
the Bull-dog as it now exists in this country, the main object of successful exhibitors being 
to eliminate all traces of the Mastiff in their dogs, as such would tend to place great obstacles 
in their success under a competent judge. That Toro may possibly be a perfect specimen 
of the Spanish Bull-dog we will not attempt to deny, for we consider the breed apocryphal, 
but we unhesitatingly assert that the introduction of his blood into our English kennels must 
inevitably be attended by the most pernicious consequences, and it is to be hoped that breeders 
will adhere to the blood that our ancestors possessed, without being led astray by the wiles of the 
charmers, charm they never so wisely. 

In the year 1874 Mr. Theodore Bassett, the well-known Fox-terrier judge, astonished the 
Bull-dog world by importing an "African" Bull-dog, and exhibiting him at our shows. This dog, 
Leon by name, had, like Toro, been deprived of his ears, and though superior to the latter in every 
Bull-dog characteristic, was very soon after his first appearance relegated, by the good sense of his 
master, to the foreign dog class, where his fine proportions have been fully recognised, as his many 
successes testify. 

Having thus warned our readers against attempting to improve the Bull-dog by a foreign 
cross, it behoves us to likewise put them on their guard against the great, coarse, lumbering- 
looking dogs sometimes met with at shows. These animals, though possibly in themselves showing 
little trace of Mastiff blood to the uninitiated, cannot deceive a practical breeder, and the result of 
an alliance between one of them and a young inexperienced admirer's brood bitch will almost 
invariably be years of disappointment on the show bench, coupled with vain endeavours at home 
to rid the strain of the noxious taint brought in by the injudicious selection of the founder of the 
stud. 

The Bull-dog has undoubtedly suffered considerably from his association with the lower classes 
of the community; and amongst other undesirable practices which have crept in in connection with 
the breed is the abominable mutilation resorted to by some breeders in order to shorten the length 
of the upper jaw, and turn the nose well up. In their endeavours to attain the above object the 
operators in the first instance sever the middle and two side lip-strings which connect the upper 
lip of the dog with the gum ; when this is satisfactorily accomplished, a sort of small wooden 
block, hollowed so as to fit the face, is applied to the outside of the upper jaw in front, and 
being smartly hit with a mallet, has the effect of compressing the bone and cartilage of the nose 
as desired. Naturally the operation has to be performed when the unfortunate puppies are of an 
early age, and the bones and muscles of their faces are soft and susceptible of compression. 
An instrument technically termed the "Jacks" is then applied, and has the effect of causing 
the mutilated parts to remain in their new and abnormal position. No words can express 
our repugnance at the horrible cruelty thus inflicted upon the unhappy puppies by the 
wretches who wantonly inflict such torture upon them, and no judge should award either 
prizes or commendations to a Bull-dog until he has perfectly satisfied himself that the dog has 



J\!K. LAMPIIIERS DESCRIPTION. 87 

been spared the mutilation of "faking," as the operation is designated by the initiated. Un- 
fortunately the detection of offenders is sometimes a matter of difficulty, and those credited 
with originating the practice have passed to the silent land beyond the reach of human laws ; 
but considerable aid might be lent to honest exhibitors in their endeavours to stamp out this 
abominable scandal, if show committees were to appoint a really qualified veterinary inspector who 
understood the anatomy of a dog, and whose decision was to be final. As a case in point : when 
the Bull-dogs Bumble and Alexander were disqualified by the veterinary inspector at the Crystal 
Palace Show of 1876, the Committee of the Kennel Club actually permitted a further inspection to 
be made by another surgeon, who held no position in connection with the show, the result 
being that both dogs were by him pronounced " honest," and had their prizes restored them. 
Whether Bumble and Alexander were mutilated or not need not be the subject of discussion here- 
but we maintain that direct encouragement was unwittingly given to dishonest breeders by the 
Committee not supporting their own veterinary surgeon in the opinion he pronounced. 

Amongst the best known owners, breeders, and exhibitors of the correct type of Bull-dog since 
the Birmingham Show of 1860 may be mentioned the names of Mr. J. Hinks, of Birmingham ; the 
Lamphiers, father and son; Messrs. H. Brown, Stockdale; J. Percival, W. Macdonald, Jesse Oswell, 
H. Layton, P. Rust, Billy Shaw, J. Henshall, W. Page, R. Fulton, W. H. Tyser, R. LI. Price, 
S. E. Shirley, M.P., G. A. Dawes of West Bromwich (in many, but not all instances), J. W. Berrie, 
T. H. Joyce, W. G. Mayhew, Egerton Cutler, Vero Shaw, G. Raper, W. St. John Smyth, H. F. 
Prockter, T. Meager, J. Turnham, C. F.. Bartlett, E. T. Hughes, R. Nichols, W. W. Roger, 
Capt. Ho!ds\vorth, T. Verrinder, Sir William Verncr, Bart., T. Alexander, R. Turton, the 
Duke of Hamilton (in some cases), and many others. All the above have either shown or 
bred first-class specimens of the breed, amongst which may be mentioned King Dick, Dan, 
Michael (who was eaten during the siege of Paris), Romany, Punch, Beeswing, Bowler, Young 
Duke, Meg, Gipsy Queen, Maggie Lauder, Dido, Master Gully, Acrobat, Page's Bill, King, Nell, 
Smasher, Prince, Alexander, Baby, Billy, Gambler, Noble, Nettle, Sancho Panza, Slenderman, 
Sir Anthony, Brutus, Rose, Donald, Alexander, and the famous Sheffield Crib. 

Mr. George Raper, of Stockton-on-Tees, has kindly supplied us with the following notes 
on this breed : 

" The properties of the Bull-dog have been divided into some eighty or ninety points. To 
the late Jacob Lamphier, in conclave with friends who, like himself, made the Bull-dog an especial 
study, we are indebted for a most carefully compiled list of properties and points, which are 
as follows : 

" I. The Ears. (i) Size: should be small. (2) Thinness. (3) Situation: they should be on 
the top of the head. (4) Carnage : they should be either " rose," " button," or " tulip " ears. 
The " rose " ear folds at the back ; the tip laps over outwards, exposing part of the inside. The 
"button" ear only differs from the "rose" in the falling of the tip, which laps over in front, 
hiding the interior completely. The " tulip " ear is nearly erect ; it is the least desirable form. 

"2. The Skull (exclusive of property No. 4). (i) Size: should be large. (2) Height: this 
should be great. (3) Prominence of the cheeks: they should extend well beyond the eyes. 
(4) Shortness (ie., breadth in comparison to length). (5) Shape of forehead : it should be well 
wrinkled, and not prominent, as in the " King Charles " Spaniel. 

"3. The Eyes. (i) Colour; should be as nearly black as possible. (2) Shape of the opening 
of the lids : should be quite round. (3) Size ; should be moderate. (4) Position : they should 
be quite in front of the head, as far from the ear and as near to the nose as possible very far 



88 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

apart, but not so far as to interfere with point 3 of the second property, and neither prominent 
nor deeply set in the head. (5) Direction of the corners: they should be at right angles to a 
line drawn down the centre of the face. 

"4. The Stop (this is an indentation between the eyes). (i) Depth. (2) Breadth. (3) Length : 
it should extend some considerable distance up the head. 

"5. The Face.-(i) Shortness, measured from the front of the cheek bone to the end of the 
nose: this point cannot be carried to too great an excess. (2) Wrinkles: these should be deep, 
and close together. (3) Shape : the muzzle should turn upwards. 

"6. 77/i? Chop.(\} Breadth. (2) Depth. (3) The covering of the teeth: these should be 
perfect. 

"7. The Nose. (i) Size: should be large. (2) Should be black. (3) Width of nostrils. 

"8. The Termination of tlie Jaws. -(i) Breadth : should be as great as possible. (2) Relative 
position : the lower jaw should project considerably in advance of the upper, so that the nose 
is very much set back, but not to such an extent as to interfere with point 2 of the sixth 
property. (3) Shape of the lower jaw : this should turn upwards. 

"9. The Neck. (i) Length: this should be moderate. (2) Thickness : should be considerable. 
(3) Shape : it should be well arched at the back. (4) Wrinkles and dewlap. 

" 10. The Chest. (i) Width: this should be very great. (2) Shape: it should be deep and 
round. 

" 1 1. The Body (exclusive of Property No. 10). (i) Shortness of back. (2) Width acoss back : 
this should be very great at the shoulders, and the spine should rise at the loins, falling again 
very much towards the stern, and forming an elegant arch. The ribs should be well rounded. 

"12. The Stern.- (i) Fineness. (2) Length: this should be moderate. (3) Shape: a slight 
crook is no objection, but a screwed or knotted stern is a deformity. (4) Carriage : this should 
be downwards ; the dog should not be able to raise it above the level of his back. (5) Situation 
this should be low down at the insertion. 

" 13. The Fore-legs. (i) Stoutness: they should be very thick in the calves. (2) Shape: 
rather bowed. (3) Length : they should be short, more so than the hind legs, but not so short 
as to make the back appear long. (4) Width apart. 

"14. The Hind-legs (including stifles). (i) Length: should be moderate, but greater than 
that of the fore-legs, so as to elevate the loins. (2) Position: the hocks should approach each 
other, which involves the turning out of the stifles. (3) Roundness of the stifle. 

"15. The Fore-feet (including pasterns). (i) Shape: they should be moderately round, but 
well split up between the toes. (2) Prominence of the knuckles. (3) Position : they should be 
straight that is, neither turned outwards nor inwards. (4) Straightness of the pastern. (5) Size : 
they should be rather small. 

" 16. The Hind-feet. (i) Shape : they are not expected to be so round as the fore-feet, but they 
should not be long like a terrier's ; they should be well split up between the toes. (2) Prominence 
of the knuckles. (3) Position: they should be turned outwards. (4) Straightness of the pasterns. 
(5) Size : they should be rather small. 

" 17. The Coaf.-(i) Fineness. (2) Shortness. (3) Closeness. 

" 18. The Colour. (i) Uniformity: the colour should be "whole" (that is, unmixed with 
white), unless the dog be all white, which is, in that case, considered a " whole" colour. (2) Tint : 
this should be either red, red-smut (that is, red with black muzzle), fawn or fawn-smut, fallow or 
fallow-smut, brindled, white, or pied with any of those colours. (3) Brilliancy and purity. 

" 19. General Appearance, Proportion, Carriage, and Size. (i) Proportion : no property should 



MR. RAPER o.v BULL-DOGS. 



89 



be so much in excess as to destroy the general symmetry of the dog. (2) The general 
appearance of the dog (that is, the impression that he makes as a whole on the eye of the 
judge). (3) Carriage : the dog should roll in his gait. He generally runs rather sideways. His 
hind-legs should not be lifted high as he runs, so that his hind-feet seem to skim the ground 
(4) Size : from about 20 Ibs. to 60 Ibs. 

"Authorities differ regarding the origin of the Bull-dog, but we may safely aver that the 
demand produced the supply, and as the favourite sport of James I. of England had its rise, 
reached its zenith, and declined, so the animals best suited for the purpose of bull-baiting were 




MR. MEAGER'S BULI.-DOG BISMARCK. 



fostered in these islands, which now claim them as indigenous ; but, the time arriving when the 
village cry of " No bull, no parson ! " became fainter and fainter, as our civilisation increased, so 
the Bull-dog of our ancestors has degenerated or improved (as the taste of our readers may 
suggest) into an animal to be pampered and petted and carefully bred for points, to be admired 
by his owner, or to compete for honours on the show-bench of our many exhibitions. As the 
field trials for our sporting dogs have done much to encourage the improvement of their mental 
qualities, which were beginning to be neglected in the pursuit of symmetry of form for show 
purposes, so without the field day for the Bull-dog the qualities for which he was famous 
are fast disappearing, under the blighting influence of this enlightened age. His service 
to the butchers in catching and throwing down cattle which he formerly did with surprisingly 
apparent ease, by seizing an ox by the nose, and either holding him perfectly still or throwing 
him on to his side at his master's command is now out of date, with his more distant 
12 



9O THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

performances of baiting the bull, the lion in the Tower of London, and, in 1825, the lion at 
Warwick. 

"The purpose for which the dog was formerly bred having disappeared, the admirers of the 
breed, being at a loss for a common object, have cultivated a variety of specimens, according to 
the taste or perhaps, more correctly speaking, according to the accident by which they attached 
themselves to this noble dog, whose character combines all the qualities his more distinguished 
owner can boast, and many which his less fortunate hater or admirer might well aspire to imitate. 

" It is not my province here to narrate the many acts of intelligence and faithfulness performed 
by this oft-maligned section of the friend of man, although they would compare most favourably 
with those of any of the more esteemed. 

" It is generally acknowledged that of all breeds none are more liable to deterioration than 
the Bull-dog. In a litter you seldom find more than one specimen up to the mark when arrived 
at maturity. This breed of dogs varies very much in appearance, and even now, but more 
especially a few years ago, the types in different parts of the country were very marked. 

" The Birmingham district has long been noted for its Bull-dogs. The marked defects of its 
specimens are that they want greater depth from the nose to the bottom jaw, many being so 
thin as to approach what is termed in the fancy " monkey-faced." Many are also wanting in 
length and width of under-jaw, and with few exceptions they are greatly in want of larger noses. 

" Nottingham is another district where this breed has been fostered, and here again you find 
a marked difference of type. Generally they have good limbs and body, good skull and large 
eyes, but many are spoiled by a " tulip " ear, and are, moreover, inclined to be " frog-faced " 
a great defect. The types of the London dogs vary considerably. 

" In breeding it will therefore be seen that much depends upon the selection of a suitable 
sire for the bitch intended to be bred from. Most of our best specimens are undoubtedly in- 
bred. No doubt Percival's Toss holds prior claims, he being the grandsire of the celebrated 
dog King Dick, whose pedigree shows close in-breeding ; nevertheless it is an undisputed 
fact that he can claim near relationship to the greater majority of the prize-takers of the 
present day. 

"Were I breeding for size I should select a large roomy bitch and put her to a high quality 
dog, for I have almost invariably found the dog stamp the quality of the puppies. Experience 
has taught me that you cannot obtain the points you breed for from the first cross, but must 
breed in once, at least, to secure the improvement you seek. I am certainly an advocate for 
judicious in-breeding, believing it to be the much wiser plan to breed from reliable and good 
blood than to admit questionable blood into your strain." 

Having endeavoured to enumerate the leading exhibitors, past and present, and some of their 
best-known dogs, we will pass on to the formation of the Bull-dog. 

The skull of the Bull-dog is essentially one of the chief characteristics of the breed. It 
should be of as great a circumference as possible (19 inches in a dog and 17! inches in a bitch is a 
fair estimate for a dog of 50 Ibs. and a bitch of 45 Ibs. weight), square in shape, broad in front, not 
wedge-shaped, and carrying a quantity of loose skin, which should lie in a number of heavy 
wrinkles over the head and face. 

The jaw s are peculiar in formation, as the lower jaw projects a considerable distance beyond 
the upper, and has, in addition, an upward turn in front 

The tusks, or canine teeth, should be wide apart, and it is desirable that the front teeth 
should be regular, though this feature is absent in many of our best dogs. 



POINTS OF THE BULL-DOG. 91 

The upper jaw is, as above stated, considerably shorter than the lower, and both should 
display unmistakable signs of strength. 

The lips, termed "chop" by the initiated, should be very loose and heavy, and of considerable 
circumference. 

The nose, which must lay well back, in fact be as retrousse as it is possible to imagine, 
must be broad, large, moist, and perfectly black a parti or flesh coloured nose (technically-called 
"Dudley") being in the opinion of many good judges an absolute disqualification in competition. 

The eyes should be large, but not too full or goggle, soft, round, and dark in colour, set as 
far apart as possible, and at right angles to an imaginary line drawn the centre of the skull an 
oblique or " Chinaman's " eye is a decided blemish. 

The stop, or indentation between the eyes, should be both wide and deep, extending up the 
skull in a deep furrow for a considerable distance (when this formation is present the skull is 
said to be " broken up "), and if this feature is absent it gives the dog's head an appearance 
of roundness which is highly undesirable, and he is termed " apple-headed " in consequence. 

The ears should be small, and " rose " shaped i.e., laying back so that the inside burr 
is visible. They are set on wide apart at the corners of the skull ; if set on too much at the 
top the skull is narrow, and if too low down the sides the head is rounded, and therefore it 
is most desirable that the ears should be set on well at the corners of the skull. The thinner 
they are, too, the better. According to the Bull-dog Club a tulip (prick) and button ear are 
admissible, but no judge could, if in his senses, pass a dog with a tulip ear ; and, for our own 
part, a button ear would go greatly against a dog. 

The cheek bumps at the base of the jaws should be clearly defined in a three-year-old 
dog ; but as this feature is only to be satisfactorily obtained by age and maturity, though it 
should always be present to a certain extent, too much importance should not be attached 
to this point in a very young dog. 

The neck must be muscular, slightly curved, and provided with a heavy double dewlap. 

The shoulders sloping and strong, firmly set on, and very muscular. 

The chest must be as wide and deep as possible, so as to give (in conjunction with the 
rounded fore-ribs) plenty of space for the heart and lungs to act in. 

The fore legs, which are much shorter than the hind, should be very powerful and 
straight, though the large amount of muscle on the outside is liable to convey the impression 
that the dog is bow-legged, which he should not be.- They should be turned out at the 
shoulders, so that the body can swing between them when in motion. 

The fore feet should be straight at the pasterns, large, moderately round, with the 
toes well split up, arched, and rather splayed out. 

The body should be very deep at the chest and must be of considerable girth, with 
round ribs, and has the appearance of being on an incline, which arises from the fore-legs 
being shorter than the hinder, and also from the peculiar formation of the back, which, in 
addition to being extremely short, rises from the shoulders to the loins and then slopes down 
to the stern, thus producing the "roach" or "wheel" back which is essentially present in a 
good Bull-dog. 

The loins are powerful, well arched, and tucked up : a " cobby " body is undesirable in 
this breed. 

The stern or tail, which must be set on low, must be short and very fine. A break 
or knot near the base is approved of, as it renders getting his tail up impossible, and a ring, 
or a crooked tail, is sought after by many breeders. 



92 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The hind legs, as before stated, should be higher than the front ones, and they should 
turn well out at the stifles and feet, which causes the hocks to turn inwards, which is imperative, 
for a Bull-dog should be "cow-hocked" and not go wide behind. The feet are in shape longer 
than the front ones, and more compact. 

Almost any colour is admissible in a Bull-dog except black, or black-and-tan. Blue is 
undesirable; and perhaps the following classification of colours represents their respective values 
in the eyes of breeders : Brindle-and-white, brindle, white, fallow or fawn smut (fallow or fawn 
with black muzzle), fallow or fawn pied, red, and, lastly, the blue-ticked dog ; but where so 
much latitude is allowed, the colour of a Bull-dog must be left out in judging specimens, 
except in cases of equal merit, when a judge must naturally be guided by any special weakness 
he may entertain towards one particular colour. 

The coat is short and close, and if brushed the wrong way extremely harsh, though on 
being smoothed down it is soft and silky to the touch. 

The walk or action of the Bull-dog is almost indescribable in its ungainliness. We our- 
selves, though glorying in our admiration of the breed, cannot but admit that its paces are the 
incarnation of all that is clumsy. His short and immensely powerful body swings between 
the Bull-dog's out-turned shoulders, his high hind legs appear to be pushing his chest out 
between his fore legs, whilst the peculiar formation of his stifles and hocks scarcely permit 
him to raise his hind feet off the ground, and the result is an action which partakes of the 
elements of a rush, a shuffle, and an amble, without fairly representing either. 

In temper the Bulldog will bear comparison with any breed of dog. To his master 
especially, and those he knows, he is amiable, loving, and obedient, but he will not usually 
make friends with strangers all at once, and invariably, if ill-treated, proceeds to resent the 
injuries inflicted on him in hot haste. If properly brought up, and not teased or irritated, 
a pure Bull-dog is both a noble-looking and enjoyable companion, but when once roused 
to action by cruelty his indomitable pluck and reckless disregard of physical suffering renders 
him a most formidable antagonist to man or beast. 

The general appearance of a Bull-dog is that of a comparatively small dog very heavy 
for his size, of immense power, and great squareness of head, whether looked at from in front or 
profile, with the body gradually tapering off towards the stern ; in fact, a first glance at a 
Bull-dog stamps him as the possessor of a combination of strength and activity unmet with in any 
other dog. 

Weight, about fifty pounds for a dog and forty-five pounds for a bitch. Of course there are 
many first-rate specimens of considerably less weight than the above, and a few heavier ; but most 
of the best dogs scale between forty-two and forty-eight pounds when in show form, and not too 
fat. 

In regard to the dogs chosen for illustration in this work, Smasher is by Master Gully 
out of Nettle by Sir Anthony by Sheffield Crib ; Master Gully by Briton out of Kitt, 
Briton by Saxon out of Duchess. He has won first Bristol, 1876; first Edinburgh, first 
Blaydon-on-Tyne, first Darlington, first Alexandra Palace, 1877. In 1878 he was not 
shown. In 1879 he has won first and medal Dublin, first Wolverhampton, first Hanover. 
His measurements have not been received by us complete, but a few of them are as 
follows : Girth of muzzle, 14 J inches ; girth of skull, 21 \ inches ; girth of neck, 20 inches ; weight, 
43 Ibs. 

Doon Brae, the second subject of illustration, is without doubt the best dog under 40 Ibs. 
now alive, and we question if, at his weight, his equal has ever been seen. He was bred by 




CD 
O 

a 



CD 



THE BULL-DOG CLUB'S SCALE. 



93 



his owner, Captain Holdsworth, in 1876; and is by Sir Anthony out of Polly, by Vero Shaw's 
Sixpence out of Whiskey by Fulton's Falstaff out of Nosegay ; Sir Anthony by Sheffield 
Crib out of Meg, by Old King Dick out of Old Nell, by Old Dan. Crib's pedigree is disputed, 
and therefore we do not give it. He has won first Bristol, first Crystal Palace, and first 
Alexandra Palace, 1878 ; and first Alexandra Palace, 1879. The measurements of Doon Brae 
are: Tip of nose to stop, I inch; stop to occiput, 5 inches; length of back, 15^ inches; girth 
of muzzle, 12 inches; girth of skull, 19! inches ; girth of neck, 17^ inches; girth of brisket, 32^ 
inches; girth of chest, 28 inches; girth of loins, 2o| inches; girth of hind-leg at stifle-joint, \\\ 
inches ; girth of fore-arm, "j\ inches ; girth of knee, 5 inches ; girth of pastern, 4j inches ; height 
at shoulders, I7| inches ; height at elbows, 8 inches; height at top of loins, 18 inches ; heigh*, 
hock to ground, 5 inches ; length of stern, "]\ inches. 

Mr. T. Meager's Bismarck, of whom we give a woodcut, is a very typical specimen 
of the breed. He won first in the small-weight class at the Bull-dog Club's show in 1876, 
at the Alexandra Palace, and, like Doon Brae, is under 40 Ibs. 

Subjoined is the scale of points as drawn up by the New Bull-dog Club in 1875. They 
are based on the well-known Philo-kuon scale, and received the support of the leading breeders 
and exhibitors at the time when they were first published : 



Points. 



Details for consideration of Judge. 



g O 

fcl o 



,enera Symmetrical formation ; shape, make, style, action, and finish j 10 

appearance ) 

Skull .. Size, height, breadth, and squareness of skull ; shape, flatness, and wrinkles of forehead ... 15 

Stop ... Depth, breadth, and extent 5 

Eyes ... Position, shape, size, and colour 5 

Ears ... Position, size, shape, carriage, thinness 5 

i Shortness, breadth, and wrinkles of face ; breadth, bluntness, squareness, and upward j 
Face ... \ turn of muzzle; position, breadth, size, and backward inclination of top of nose; V 5 

( size, width, blackness of, and cleft between, nostrils 

Chop ... Size and complete covering of front teeth ... 5 

Mouth / Width and squareness of jaws, projection and upward turn of lower jaw ; size and I 

I condition of teeth, and if the six lower front teeth are in an even row ... 

Chest & neck Length, thickness, arching, and dewlap of neck ; width, depth, and roundness of chest ...| 3 
Shoulders ... Size, breadth, and muscle ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body ... Capacity, depth, and thickness of brisket ; roundness of ribs 5 

Back roach Shortness, width at shoulders ; and height, strength and arch at loins 5 

Tail Fineness, shortness, shape, position, and carriage 5 

F 1 s and (Stoutness, shortness, and straightness of legs, development of calves and outward turn-\ 
,. of elbows ; straightness and strength of ankles, roundness, size, and position of feet, > $ 

( compactness of toes, height and prominence of knuckles J\ 

Hindlegsand ( Stoutness, length, and size of legs, development of muscles, strength, shape, and position^ 

feet ... ( of hocks and stifles, formation of feet and toes as in fore legs and feet j 

Size ... ... Approaching 5olb. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Q (Fineness, shortness, evenness, and closeness of coat ; uniformity, purity, and brilliancy \ 

( of colour ) 

| 

Total for perfection in all points | 100 

JUDGE'S NET TOTALS j 



94 



THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 



Whilst thoroughly agreeing with the above scale as one by which Bull-dogs can be most 
satisfactorily judged, we propose adding another embodying our own ideas, being of the opinion 
that a standard of 50 points is more easy of application to this and every breed. 



SCALE FOR JUDGING BULL-DOGS. 



Skull, size, and shape 

Head and face 

Neck, chest, and shoulders... 

Body 

Legs, feet, and tail 

General appearance 



Total 



Value. 
10 
10 
10 

5 
10 

5 
So 




95 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE DALMATIAN OR COACH-DOG. 

IN spite of the meagreness, in point of numbers, of the entries in the Dalmatian classes at most 
shows, few breeds attract more attention, simply we believe on account of the peculiarity of the 
markings, which are indispensable to success on the bench. It is so seldom that a really well- 
marked dog is seen following a carriage, that those unacquainted with the few really good ones 
which appear at shows invariably express great surprise and admiration at the regularity and 
brilliancy of their colouring. Of the antecedents of the Dalmatian it is extremely hard to speak 
with certainty, but it appears that the breed has altered but little since it was first illustrated in 
Bewick's book on natural history, for in it appears an engraving of a dog who would be able to 
hold his own in high-class competition in the present day, and whose markings are sufficiently 
well developed to satisfy the most exacting of judges. Indeed, the almost geometrical exactness 
with which the spots are represented by Bewick impresses us with the idea that imagination 
greatly assisted nature in producing what he thought ought to be ; his ideal, however 
exaggerated, is at the same time a standard worth breeding up to in that most important 
feature in this dog, the brilliancy and regularity of his markings. In former times it was the 
invariable custom to remove the ears by cropping, as is the case in the present day with Bull 
and English Terriers ; and in many cases the whole flap of the ear was cut off entirely, 
exposing the cavity, as was the custom of the time to deal with Pugs, making the dog, to our 
modern notion, hideous, and laying him open to attacks of inflammation and canker in one of 
his most delicate organs, which frequently ended in deafness ; but this barbarous and utterly 
useless practice at last died out, and the dog now appears as nature formed him. One 
decided argument to be used against the use of the cropping-knife in the case of Dalmatians is 
that the colour and shape of the ear are matters of some considerable importance. A heavily- 
marked or badly-formed ear would, of course, tell against a dog in competition, and when these 
are manipulated by cropping it is impossible to decide how they would have naturally appeared. 

A change has come over the opinions of breeders of late as regards which other breed of dog 
the Dalmatian most resembles ; a little time back it was the Bull-terrier, and now it is the modern 
Pointer which claims the honour. We cannot ourselves see any similarity between the former and 
the Dalmatian, as the heads are so totally distinct in shape and character, but our readers can have 
the opportunity of comparing these two breeds without difficulty, as they appear in the same 
illustration in this work. 

A very general, but erroneous, impression is prevalent that the Dalmatian is a dog which is 
devoid of intelligence, and incapable of being employed in any other manner than following a 
carriage, or accompanying its master's horses at exercise. In its native land it certainly has been 
used in the field, and though we have never ourselves seen one thus employed, we can give no 
reason for doubting that, if carefully broken, the Dalmatian would be found a useful companion in 
a day amongst the heather, as from his similarity in shape and build to a large-sized Pointer, he 
should be well qualified to undergo the fatigue of a hard day's shooting. 



96 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Some few years back, when the Holborn Amphitheatre was open, there was a wonderfully 
clever troupe of performing dogs amongst the attractions there. Amongst these was a rather good 
Dalmatian, who was entrusted with the rdle of clown, and it was really surprising to see the intelli- 
gence he displayed in burlesquing the tricks of the other members of the troupe. For instance, the 
Poodles and other dogs would run up to a gate and leap it, then the Dalmatian, apparently 
influenced by the example of his human prototype, would run round the ring two or three times, 
barking loudly as if to attract attention, walk slowly up to the gate, and then scramble under it, 
amidst roars of laughter from the audience, who evidently sympathised with him in his per- 
formance. We can also render personal testimony to the general intelligence and docility of 
the Dalmatian. Although his love for the stable and the companionship of the horse is his 
constant and ruling passion, and one but rarely developed to the same extent in any other breed, 
he is capable of showing and exercising in a strong degree personal attachment to his master ; and 
many of them are most excellent guards. As such they are peculiarly adapted to run with the 
business vans and parcels-delivery carts of our tradesmen, to which they would at once prove an 
ornament and a protection infinitely superior in both respects to the enormities in dog-flesh they 
allow their men to carry about with them. The idea and it is a correct one is gradually gaining 
ground that a well-bred and handsome dog is generally superior to mongrels in the execution of 
the duties they are chosen for, anil one of our objects in writing this book is to strengthen and 
spread this healthy notion, the practical outcome of which brings credit to the country. We are at 
a loss to discover any valid reason for the existence of mongrels in a country where the supply 
of pure-bred dogs of every breed is practically unlimited. 

The chief physical characteristic of the breed is the marking. The body of the dog is white, 
and its head, ears, body, tail, and legs should be covered with round spots about the size of a half- 
penny, either black or liver in colour. In many specimens the muzzle and legs are marked with 
spots of both colours, and this is considered no disfigurement, in fact some judges rather prefer it as 
giving a gayer appearance to the dog. A very common fault is a black half-face, or a black ear, 
and these are decided blemishes, as is the lack of spots on the tail ; and here it is that many good 
specimens fail in competition. Another point which should not be lost sight of in judging or 
buying a Dalmatian is the feet and legs. One requires these dogs for hard work, and it is impos- 
sible that a dog possessing weak legs and badly-formed feet can endure the fatigue of following a 
carriage for several hours a day. 

Captain, the property of Mr. J. Fawdry, is the dog we have selected for illustration, as he is 
indisputably the best specimen now before the public. He made his de'b&t at the third Kennel 
Club Show held at the Crystal Palace in 1873 as Traviser, winning first prize, and on leaving his 
then owner and breeder's (Mr. Chas. Lewis Boyce) kennels, he was re-christened by his new 
owner, Mr. Oldham of Manchester, Uhlan, his name again being changed to Captain; but his 
merits were and are too genuine to be affected by a capricious and foolish change of title, 
and under each he has continued to hold his position as the best Dalmatian of his time, 
having won almost every prize of importance for which he has since competed. Captain is of 
illustrious parentage, being of the strain of those old and successful breeders, Mr. R. Hale of 
Brierley Hill, and Mr. H. Hale of Burton-on-Trent, the former of whom won with Noble, one 
of Captain's progenitors, at Birmingham Show in 1862. He is by Boyce's Carlo out of his Vic, 
by Mr. Hale's Noble, and his measurements are as follows : Nose to stop, 3^ inches ; stop to 
occiput, 5 inches ; length of back, 21 inches ; girth of forearm, 7 inches ; girth of knee, 5 inches ; 
girth of pastern, 4^ inches; height at shoulders, 22 inches; height at elbow, 12 inches; height at 
loins, 20 inches; height at hock, 5^ inches; length of tail, I2j inches. 



POINTS OF THE DALMATIAN. 97 

Before this dog's appearance, Mr. R. L. Price of Rhiwlas swept the bench with his 
champion Crib, who is also of Hale's blood, but age and infirmity prevented the old hero 
ever competing with a fair chance of success with Mr. Fawdry's grand specimen. But he 
also must, we fear, give way to younger aspirants, being at the time we write in his tenth 
year ; and among the juniors that have as yet come under our notice is Mr. R. LI. Price's 
Tom Crib, son of champion Crib. There are, however, a great number of these dogs kept in 
various parts of the kingdom which are not sent to dog shows, and among them we frequently 
observe specimens of great worth. Some years ago many excellent Dalmatians were to be 
met with in that part of the Black Country, as it is called, embracing West Bromwich, Swan 
Village, Dudley, Brierley Hill, &c. In the town of Banbury, too, we remember to have met 
with them in fair numbers and good quality, and at Kendal there is generally a good show 
of them ; but nowhere in England are they to be seen in such numbers as in a radius of a 
few miles from the Crystal Palace, where they are not only numerous, but in many cases much 
above the average in good points. In a few instances we have noticed fair specimens of the 
tri-coloured variety, so rarely found good. 

The Head of the Dalmatian should be wide and flat, blunt at the muzzle, and tight- 
lipped ; nose black. 

Ears rather small, V-shaped, and very fine. If these are well spotted, great beauty is . 
added to the dog's appearance. 

Eyes dark, and inclined to be small. 

Neck arched and light, tapering on to powerful and sloping shoulders. 

Chest deep, and rather broad. 

Body round in ribs, and well ribbed up behind. 

Fore legs straight and very muscular ; plenty of bone is essential in this breed, so as to 
enable a dog to stand the wear and tear he has to encounter on the hard roads he is 
compelled to traverse. 

Feet round, with the toes arched and well split up ; pads round, firm, and elastic. 

Hind legs muscular, with clean hocks placed near the ground, as in the Bull-dog. 

Tail tapering from the root, and carried as a Pointer's : this must be well spotted. 

Colour and Markings. Well spotted all over with either black or liver-coloured spots, or 
both. These should not intermingle, and should be of the size of a sixpence to a halfpenny. 

Coat is short, close, and fine. 

General Appearance is that of a strong muscular dog, capable of enduring considerable 
fatigue, and possessing a fair amount of speed. 

The scale of points by which these dogs should be judged is as follows : 

Value. 
General appearance ... ... - ... ... ... 10 

Colour, markings, and coat ... ... 25 

Neck, chest, and body ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Head, including ears and eyes ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Legs, feet, and tail ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 50 



13 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE BULL-TERRIER. 

No breed of dog is at present making such a rapid advance in public favour as the modern 
and improved Bull-terrier, and its well-deserved popularity seems far more likely to be 
permanent than that of other breeds which have in turn been taken up only to be dismissed 
by their owners when their lack of intelligence, cowardice, or general inutility, has proved them 
to be unworthy of the patronage bestowed upon them. The breed as it now exists is compara- 
tively of recent manufacture, and is indisputably the result of judicious selection from and with the 
well-known Bull and Terrier of the Midland counties. This dog, in its turn, was brought into 
existence by crossing the Bull-dog with the white English Terrier, and was produced in the 
first instance by the supporters and lovers of dog-fighting, who wished to obtain a longer and 
more punishing head than that possessed by a pure Bull-dog. This latter cross, in the first 
instance, produced a sullen-looking, thick-skulled dog, showing slight indications of symmetry in 
his composition, but still admirably adapted for the purpose for which he was called into 
existence. How the present show Bull-terrier arose from such a dog is more or less the subject of 
conjecture, for no trustworthy particulars of its origin are obtainable from the part of the country 
where it first appeared ; but there is little cause to differ from the general impression, that 
many of the larger-sized show specimens have Greyhound blood in their veins, whilst the 
smaller breed is more closely allied with the English Terrier than is desirable. 

We ourselves have been applied to by a gentleman whose name is well known in the 
coursing world, for permission to cross some of his Greyhound bitches with the Bull-terriers 
Tarquin and Sallust. The object of this was his desire to instil stamina and pluck into his 
breed, which he fancied was degenerating in these qualifications, and need not be gone into 
here, though it will, with his permission, be noticed in the chapter on Greyhounds. The result 
of the first Bull-terrier cross, in each instance, was a large-framed, though light-boned and 
rather narrow-chested dog, with, for a Bull-terrier, very snipy jaws, and possessing the 
peculiar action of the Greyhound in a marked degree. The difficulty of breeding out the last 
point alluded to struck us the moment we saw the animals move ; and the original introducers 
of this blood into the Bull-terrier if there are such persons in existence deserve consider- 
able credit for their perseverance in their endeavours. However, not having the slightest desire to 
experimentalise in the matter, we are unable to give further information as regards the cross, so far 
as it affects the Bull-terrier, beyond the fact that the dog puppies were at once destroyed by their 
owner, the females alone being retained by him for the purpose of working out his experiment. 

One of the earliest records we can find of the Bull-terrier is in one of the. editions of 
Elaine's " Rural Sports," in which allusion is made to the breed in the following words : 
"A large breed of English Terriers has of late sprung up, most of which are rough-coated, but a 
few others are smooth. These, by being crossed with the Bull-dog, have gained undaunted 
courage in attacking the higher order of vermin as the badger, &c." 

In the "Naturalists' Library," too, by Sir William Jardine, published in 1843, the breed 



ORIGIN OF BULL-TEKKIEKS. 99 

is thus alluded to : " In England the cross of Terriers is perceptible in sheep and cattle dogs, 
but most of all in the breed called Bull-terriers, because it is formed of these two varieties, 
and constitutes the most determined and savage race known." 

From all recognised accounts the ancestors of the modern Bull-terrier must have been a 
rough-and-ready race, and the illustration overleaf is useful in conveying an idea to our readers 
of what the creatures were like. In the dog situated in the lower portion of the plate may 
be found the type of a really half-bred dog, showing perhaps rather more bull, especially about 
the flews, than was permitted in even those days of careless breeding, but still displaying some 
Terrier characteristics. The two dogs on the top of the steps very much resemble the Bull 
and Terrier still used for fighting purposes in the Midland Counties, but in form and colour 
they are as unlike a modern show Bull-terrier as it is possible to imagine. 

To the late Mr. James Hinks, of Worcester Street, Birmingham, is due the credit 
of bringing the breed before the notice of the public in its later and more desirable 
form, and with his well-known Old Madman and Puss he farmed our leading shows for a long 
period. After a time, Mr. J. F. Godfree, of Birmingham, appeared in the field. His 
celebrated Young Victor fairly monopolised the prizes at the great exhibitions for many a day ; 
and on his death his mantle fell upon his son Tarquin, for some considerable__time our own 
property, whose portrait will appear in due course amongst the coloured plates.XAlntostall the 
leading breeders of the day have dipped deeply into Hinks' Old Victor strain, whilst 
Mr. Godfree is equally well patronised ; and it is an undoubted fact that the breeding of BuU> 
terriers is now a much easier task than it was some time back, as the offspring of dogs 
belonging to the above strains are more similar in type and uniform in general appearance than 
is the case with those whose ancestors are of less fashionable blood. 

The Bull-terrier varies in size from five pounds weight up to fifty, and thus admirers of 
the breed have the opportunity of selecting a dog whose size is adapted for the work or kennel 
accommodation at hand, which is no small recommendation in the case of those whose out- 
door space is limited. Though his extreme docility and intelligence render this breed of 
dog eminently qualified for an in-door pet. few varieties require more genuine hard work and 
out-door exercise to get them into show condition, as the muscles which should be so plainly 
visible on the fore and hind quarters of a dog in perfect trim become relaxed and flabby if 
his proper amount of exercise is curtailed. Many exhibitors residing in towns, and who are 
unable to spare sufficient time to run their dogs in the country, have adopted the expedient 
of making them chase a ball about th* ir gardens for an hour or two a day, or else by 
hanging a piece of cat-skin on a wall, or at the end of a stick, and keeping it out of the 
dog's reach they cause their Terrier to exercise himself in his unceasing endeavours to obtain 
possession of the treasure by jumping up at it. These methods of exercising a dog in a 
small space may perhaps be novel to readers who are unacquainted with the devices to which 
many successful breeders and exhibitors are compelled to resort, in their endeavours to 
compete with others whose opportunities for bringing their dogs fit and well to the post are 
more extensive. 

A very silly prejudice exists against the Bull-terrier on account of his alleged in- 
variable ferocity of temper and irresistible inclination to fight with all other dogs that come 
within his reach ; thus many would-be supporters of the breed have held aloof from it in 
consequence of the reports they have heard concerning him. That there is a slight founda- 
tion for these detractions we cannot deny, but after a pretty considerable experience of Bull- 
terriers we unhesitatingly affirm that the prejudice against his temper is grossly exaggerated ; 



ioo THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

no breed of dog, if properly brought up and kindly treated, is more susceptible of affection 
towards his master, and docility and intelligence are properties which are highly developed in 
a Bull-terrier. Naturally a dog which may be said to be a born gladiator possesses a greater 
amount of courage and tenacity in his attack than animals of a gentler temperament, and a 
firm temper is often required to keep them in thorough discipline ; but as a gentleman's 
companion in town or country, the Bull-terrier is unapproached by any other breed of dog. 
He is handsome to look at, affectionate, clean in the house, and very tricky ; an excellent 
water dog, and, though it may be discredited by some people, we are convinced that his nose 
is equal to that of many dogs used in the field, though his impetuous disposition would 
render it a difficult matter to keep him under the severe control so essential in a field dog. 
As a retriever he is naturally hard-mouthed, but no breed can more easily be taught to 
fetch and carry on land and water, and this is, doubtless a source of amusement to many 
owners. It is, however, for his indomitable courage (unsurpassed even by the Bull-dog) that the 
Bull-terrier is so highly prized by many for, though usually mute like the Bull-dog, his system of 
attack is different from that of the latter, inasmuch as, instead of hanging on to his antagonist, the 
Bull-terrier tears him all over ; and his pluck is so great that he is able to endure an enormous 
amount of punishment, whilst in his turn he is mangling his foe with his powerful jaws. 
During more recent years, and since the retirement from the show arena of Mr. S. E. 
Shirley, M.P., Mr. R. J. Lloyd-Price, Mr. Godfree, and the late Mr. Hinks, the majority of 
the Bull-terrier prizes have come down south through the kennels of Mr. Loveys of London, 
Mr. Pfeil of Sutton, Mr. Alfred George of Kensal New Town (whose capital little dog Spring 
is well worthy of the honours he has won), Mr. Tredennick of St. Austell, Cornwall (whose 
grand little Bertie will long be remembered as being both good and game), and ourselves ; 
whilst the Midland prestige has been fairly maintained by Messrs. Roocroft of Bolton, Miller 
of Walsall, and R. J. Hartley of Altrincham. The latter gentleman, who is a most enthusiastic 
lover and supporter of the breed, owns two magnificent specimens in Magnet and Violet. 
Authorities differ on the merits of these two famous bitches, but we most unhesitatingly 
give our allegiance to the former, whose sole fault is being a little light in bone. The con- 
dition, too, in which Mr. Hartley's dogs are exhibited is a model for the imitation of all Bull- 
terrier breeders. 

Before passing on to a detailed description of the points of a Bull-terrier, a few lines 
should be devoted to the subject of colour. It must appear an arbitrary rule to decide that 
a dog of this breed should, if of any use as a show dog, be pure white ; but a moment's 
reflection must show that there is a motive for this decision. The difficulty of eradicating 
the undesirable traces of Bull in his face, body, and limbs, is tremendous; and it is solely by 
practically adopting the theory of the survival of the fittest that a satisfactory result can be 
obtained. Why only white dogs were selected in the first instance we could never discover ; 
but of this we are convinced by experience, namely, that the introduction of a heavily-marked 
dog into a strain of Bull-terriers has a decided tendency to cause a throw back to Bull 
characteristics, and this can only be attributed to the fact that the colours other than white 
have been less carefully bred than the more fashionable colour. We are quite prepared to 
admit that there are many excellent dogs of a colour other than white, but we maintain that 
these, though in themselves good specimens, are undesirable for breeding purposes, and should 
be avoided, though many of them are the offspring of highly-bred pure white dogs, themselves 
successful competitors at our best shows. It is a painful fact that in most litters there even 
now appear one or more "marked" puppies; but the danger in permitting these to be used to 




ORIGINAL BULL AND TERRIER CROSS. 



EXHIBITING BULL-TERRIERS. 103 

any extent for breeding purposes would be that very soon countless good-looking marked dogs 
would be shown all over the country. These being used for stud purposes would, from their 
markings most likely beget a still larger proportion of marked stock, and contaminate the 
breed we have now brought to something like the desired perfection. In short, before a 
breed of brindled or coloured Bull-terriers can be fairly established, several years will have 
to be devoted by their admirers to them, in order that they may stand on an equal 
footing with their white brethren as regards uniformity of shape and reliability in breeding. 
Young Victor, late the property of Mr. Godfree, proves the truth of this theory ; though 
disfigured by a patch on his eye, no dog could have been more successful on the bench, and few 
had better opportunities of distinguishing themselves at the stud. That he could beget good stock 
is indisputable; but the result of his triumphs was the introduction of a class for Bull-terriers " other 
than white " at a Crystal Palace show, and the subsequent appearance at other exhibitions of a 
number of thick, heavy-headed wretches, whose introduction into a good strain of the breed 
would jeopardise its prospects for many a day. 

No breed of dog owes more to condition on the show-bench than does the Bull- 
terrier. A dog of this variety exhibited in bad order has little chance of beating an 
inferior specimen, even under a first-class judge ; and where the awards are in the hands 
of inexperienced judges, his chances of success would be absolutely nil. The fact of the 
intensely brilliant white so often seen in the coats of dogs at the different shows being 
frequently the result of art, in the application of powdered chalk, is indisputable. How- 
ever, detection and subsequent disqualification often follow in the wake of such practices, 
and should do so, especially as unless the dog is suffering from some irritation of the 
skin a resort to powder is quite unnecessary. In cases where the skin is inflamed by 
heat of the blood, the application of powdered chalk may be excusable ; but adopters of this 
method of concealment should be particularly careful to brush it thoroughly out of the coat 
before the dog is led into the judging-ring, or they may find their specimen disqualified. 
Personally, we cannot too strongly advocate the showing of dogs honestly and fairly. Prizes 
won by means of foul play must, in the long run, cause more feelings of remorse in the 
mind of the exhibitor than they do those of triumph in the moment of victory ; and we 
have proved by personal experience that a dog in good condition, and properly washed, can 
win unfaked if he is good enough. Our own system of washing show Bull-terriers is very simple, 
though it takes time. The dog is placed standing up in a large shallow tub half filled with 
warm water, and is in the first instance thoroughly wetted by the water being poured over him 
with a bowl or saucer. Next comes the application of the soap the sort we invariably use is the 
common blue and white (not yellow) mottled and the part first operated on is the head. 
When this is thoroughly soaped and rinsed, the body and legs are treated in like manner, and 
finally the first stage of his ablutions is completed with the aid of several clean towels. The 
second part of the operation consists in rubbing him perfectly dry with bare hands, by 
smoothing the hair down over and over again, in the right direction, until there is no more 
moisture left on it. The dog is then put on a clean straw bed, and if looked after to see 
that he does not get out of his kennel will in the course of a couple of hours be as white 
as snow, and his jacket will shine like silver. The greatest care must be taken in putting on 
the collar after the washing is completed, as collars often get soiled inside, and if so, will 
inevitably blacken the dog's neck. 

Preparatory to the above, however, it is always most desirable to remove the superfluous 
hairs from a dog's ears and muzzle before he is shown, as this operation tends to smarten him 



IO4 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

up considerably. The inside only of the ears are operated on, and the hairs are removed by 
either careful clipping or shaving. This operation however requires the assistance of both 
art and experience, and therefore no tyro should attempt it without the assistance of some 
one who is an authority on the subject. The grotesque appearance of Old Puss in the 
champion class at the Agricultural Hall show of 1877 should be a warning to youthful 
owners against turning their 'prentice hands to such delicate operations. In her case the 
poor wretch had the hair shaved off the back of her ears ; and her comical appearance caused 
roars of laughter amongst the breeders present. The removal of the long "smellers" from the 
muzzle, however, is an easy matter if the dog is not inclined to bite. If he is, it is generally 
a good plan to get a friend to perform the operation, care being taken, however, only to 
remove the smellers and long eyebrows, nothing more. Having given the above hints upon getting 
up Bull-terriers for show purposes, we have nothing further to add before passing on to a 
description of this breed, beyond again impressing on our readers the great importance of 
muscular development in this breed. They must recollect they are showing the gladiator of 
the canine race, and a fighting dog should, in our opinion, 'be exhibited thoroughly trained ; that is, 
muscular and light in flesh. Hard work and good wholesome food will alone put on muscle 
and take off fat ; and the more a Bull-terrier gets of either the happier he is. 

It frequently happens in showing Bull-terriers that medicine has to be given to 
reduce the weight in the small sizes a pound or two, in order to qualify them for a certain 
class. The best physic to use under such circumstances is either ordinary black-draught, or 
buckthorn and castor-oil. As a rule we always postponed physicking until the week before 
the show, hoping that exercise would reduce the dog, and medicine could be avoided. Again, 
if a dog is weakened by aperients too long before a show there is a great chance of his losing 
muscle, which would be greatly against him on the bench. If you have a dog very near the 
required weight, feed him lightly the night before the show, and give him one drink of water. 
The last thing let him have a good dose of buckthorn and oil, and don't feed him or give him 
a drink until he is judged, when he will probably have lost half a pound weight, if previously 
in good condition. 

It would now be as well to go through the points of this variety, and we will begin as usual with 

The Head, which should be flat, wide between the ears, and wedge-shaped ; that is, 
tapering from the sides of the head to the nose ; no stop or indentation between the eyes 
is permissible, and the cheek-bones should not be visible. 

Tlie Teeth should be powerful and perfectly regular an undershot or overhung mouth 
being very objectionable and the lips thin and tight ; that is, only just sufficient to cover 
the teeth, and not pendulous, as in the case of the Bull-dog. 

The Nose, large, quite black, and damp, with the nostrils well developed. 

The Eyes must be small, and very black. As regards shape, the oblong is preferable to 
the round eye. 

The Ears are almost invariably cropped, and should stand perfectly upright. This cutting 
of the ears is now almost reduced to a science, and no inexperienced persons should attempt 
it, as if improperly manipulated, what is intended as both an ornament and a convenience 
to the dog becomes an unsightly disfigurement. 

The Neck should be moderately long and arched, free from all traces of dewlap, and 
strongly set upon the shoulders. 

The Shoulders, slanting and very muscular, set firmly on the chest, which should be wide. 

Tlie Fore legs should be moderately high and perfectly straight, and the dog must stand 



POINTS OF BULL-TERRIERS. 105 

well on them, for they do not, as in the case of the Bull-dog, turn outwards at the 
shoulders. 

Feet, moderately long and compact, with the toes well arched. 

Body, deep at chest, and well ribbed up. 

Hind legs, long and very muscular, with hocks straight, and near the ground. 

Coat, short, and rather harsh to the touch. 

Colour, white. 

Tail or Stern fine, set on low, and not carried up, but as straight out from the back as 
possible. 

In general appearance the Bull-terrier is a symmetrical-looking dog, apparently gifted 
with great strength and activity, and of a lively and determined disposition. 

In spite of the popularity of the breed, it is a lamentable fact that its progress towards 




NELSON, SMALL-SIZEL BULL-TERRIER, LATE THE PROPERTY OF MR. S. E. SHIRLEY, M.P. 

perfection is at present very slow. It has not had fair-play at the hands of show committees, 
and with its kinsmen the Black-and-tan and White English Terriers usually has to put up 
with a judge who is engaged for other classes and takes these as an addition to his other 
labours. Thus we see, show after show, dogs gaining prizes in these classes which do not 
show one atom of Terrier character in their composition, being great, lumbering, heavy-lipped, 
phlegmatical, cow-faced wretches, with no vivacity or "go" in them. These are just the dogs 
to be avoided by a Terrier breeder, and their success is highly prejudicial to the breeds. 
Naturally the breed suffers, and unless some one with private influence gets justice done to it, 
the Bull-terrier will drift back to the mongrel state it emerged from when it was first fortunate 
enough to receive the patronage of powerful friends. As a proof of the unsatisfactory state 
the breed is in at present, we have been unable to find a small dog possessing sufficient 
merit to entitle it to a place in our list of illustrations, and we are therefore thrown back upon 
a portrait of Nelson, late the property of Mr. S. E. Shirley, M.P. This dog was a really 
first-rate specimen of the small-sized Bull-terrier, and showed merit enough to deserve a 
place in any work on the dog ; and it is the more to be regretted that, in spite of the 
increase of breeders, the quality of the breed, especially the small ones, has not improved in 
proportion, as it unquestionably should have done. 
14 



io6 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

A real Bull-terrier of 16 pounds weight will do all a Fox-terrier of 20 pounds weight 
can do, and then, if necessary, kill the Fox-terrier ninety times out of a hundred. Yet the 
Fox-terrier exhibitors have it nearly all their own way in electing judges, and getting special 
prizes awarded them, merely because, being a more numerous variety, they have more powerful 
friends at Court, and are not required to show the courage and resolution, lacking which, a Bull- 
terrier would be absolutely worthless. 

Tarquin, the subject of our illustration, was bred by Mr. Charles Louis Boyce of 
Birmingham, in 1873, and was purchased from him by us in 1876. He is a pure white dog, 
weighing about 45 pounds, and is by Young Victor out of Puss, by Gambler out of Young 
Puss ; Young Victor, by Old Victor out of Steel's Puss ; Gambler, by Turk out of Kit, dam of 
Old Madman ; Turk, by Rebel out of Fly. Tarquin has taken the following prizes : First 
Wolverhampton, first Northampton, first Birmingham, 1874 ; champion Nottingham, first 
Birmingham, first Alexandra Palace, 1875 ; first Cork, first Wolverhampton, first and special 
cup Maidstone, first Darlington, first Stockton-on-Tees, and champion Crystal Palace, 1876; 
first Edinburgh, first and cup Swindon, first Blaydon-on-Tyne, first Darlington, first Alexandra 
Palace, and champion Agricultural Hall, 1877; first Wolverhampton, 1878. His measurements 
are Nose to stop, 3f inches ; stop to occiput, 5^ inches ; length from occiput to root of tail, 
3of inches; girth of skull, 18 inches; girth of muzzle, \2\ inches; girth of chest, 26^ inches; 
girth of loins, 22 inches ; girth of forearm, 6| inches ; girth of pastern, 4 inches ; hock to 
ground, 5 inches ; height at shoulders, l8| inches. 

Nelson was born in the year 1866, and was bred by the well-known Joe Willock. He 
weighed under i61bs., and was by Stokes's Bill out of Willock's Julia. He won first Birmingham, 
1868; champion prize Crystal Palace, 1871, 1872, 1873; first prize Manchester, 1870; first and 
cup Dublin, 1872; first Glasgow, 1873. 

Before leaving this engaging breed of dog we wish once more to urge upon intending 
breeders the value of kindness towards their pets. Do not be frightened at him, don't knock 
him about, or ill-use him, and no dog will treat his master with greater love and respect than 
will the game, handsome, intelligent, and lovable Bull-terrier. 

SCALE FOR JUDGING BULL-TERRIERS. 

ValM. 

Head ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Body and chest ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Feet and legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Stern ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 



CHAPTER XIII. 

BLACK-AND-TAN TERRIERS. 

HAVING disposed of the Bull-terrier, which is, as we have said, admittedly the result of a cross 
between the Bull-dog and the English Terrier, we now come to the Terrier family pure and 
simple. Whatever the Terrier may have been in days gone by, and whatever opinion may have 
been entertained of his merits by our fathers, there can be no doubt that the number of his 
friends in the present day are legion. The varieties of modern Terriers are so numerous, and 
the size of the dogs so various, that a Terrier of some breed or other is seldom absent from a 
country house. Large or small, smooth-coated or rough, useful or ornamental, as the case may 
be, it would indeed be singular if the varieties of Terrier were not highly popular in this dog- 
loving country. 

The Black-and-tan Terrier must be ranked as one of our oldest varieties, for we find 
mention of a dog resembling him in many particulars in the works of several earlier writers. 
It is only reasonable to suppose, however, from the specimens whose portraits we occasionally 
come across, that in days gone by less attention was paid to colour and markings than to their 
utility as companion and vermin dogs. The formation of head, too, was very different to 
what we find it in the present day, the skull being then much heavier-looking and shorter 
than modern breeders affect ; but it must be remembered that, shows not having been established, 
and many popular breeds of the present day not being in existence, all that was necessary to 
breed for was a light dog, suitable for killing vermin and following his owner in his rambles. 
One thing is certain, however, and that is, that in older Black -and-tans there was more of the 
tan present in the coat, and it was far lighter in colour than it is now. The fancy markings, 
too, such as pencilled toes, thumb-marks, and kissing-spots, to which reference will be made 
later on, were conspicuous by their absence. 

As regards the original uses to which the Terrier was placed, the name is in itself a 
sufficient index. Even now-a-days there are very few that will not go to earth after a 
fashion : it seems to come natural to them. Dr. Caius, in his book on dogs before alluded to, 
includes the "Terrar" in his list of sporting dogs, for the obvious reason, apparently, that it 
came under the category of dogs which " rouse the beast." The following are the worthy 
Doctor's exact remarks on the breed " of the dog called a Terrar, in Latine, Terrarins." 

" Another sort there is that hunteth the fox and the badger only, whom we call Terrars, 
they (after the manner and custom of ferrets in searching for coneys) creep into the ground, 
and by that means make afraid, nip and bite the fox and the badger in such sort that either 
they tear them in pieces with their teeth being in the earth, or else hail and pull them perforce 
out of their lurking angles, dark dungeons, and close caves, or, at least, through conceived fear, 
drive them out of their hollow harbours, insomuch that they are compelled to prepare speedy 
flight, and being desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge are otherwise taken and 
entrapped with snares and nets laid on holes to the same purpose. But these be the least 
in that kind called Sagax." 



io8 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

It would thus seem that a Terrier's work three hundred years ago was very much the 
same as it is now, this class of dog acting as a bolter when animals went to ground on being 
chased. It is very remarkable, however, that the attribute of pluck and endurance varies consider- 
ably in the different varieties of Terrier pure and simple, the rough-coated ones being generally 
decidedly gamer and hardier than their smooth-haired relations. Formerly there was but 
little regard paid to colour and markings, and the general outline of the dog was less graceful 
than it is in the present day. A fair idea of what the ancient Black-and-tan Terrier was 
like may be gathered from the accompanying spirited woodcut, where the dogs appear not 
only of a very indifferent colour but also far heavier and coarser as well ' as thicker in the 
head than would now be tolerated. 

Though one of the most beautiful breeds, the Black-and-tan Terrier is, nevertheless, one 
of the most neglected at the present time. A reason for the lack of patronage bestowed upon 
him by the general public is hard to discover, for his many good qualities are "so palpably in 
excess of any shortcomings which may be alleged against him, that it is a matter of surprise 
to numbers of his admirers that he should be neglected as he is by lovers of the dog. The 
fact of his being so exceedingly difficult a dog to breed up to show form may have deterred 
would-be exhibitors from attempting to gain celebrity as breeders under his auspices. 

As a vermin dog the modern variety can only reach mediocrity, for though gifted with 
sufficient pluck and endurance to enable him to hold his own with most breeds at ratting, he 
ceases to be of any material service when badgers or foxes are introduced. We do not desire 
to claim any virtues for a breed which we believe do not fairly belong to it, and, therefore, 
greatly though we admire the Black-and-tan Terrier, and appreciate his good qualities, we 
candidly confess, from experience, that as a rule he is inferior in sustained courage to most 
breeds of Terrier. As a companion or house-dog he is unrivalled, for though invariably on the 
alert indoors, and always ready to give tongue on the approach of a stranger by day or night, 
his temper is such that he can be trusted to roam at large without the slightest fear of his 
attempting to injure man or beast. 

Owners of Black-and-tan Terriers experience great difficulty in keeping their coats in good 
order and their skin free from scurf and dandriff. In highly-bred show specimens of the breed 
this liability to skin disease seems to be more fully marked, and condition is very often the 
cause of a good specimen going down in competition with dogs of inferior quality. We 
believe heat of blood, the result of want of exercise accompanied with over-feeding, is responsible 
for many such cases, and cannot do better than suggest periodical doses of the sulphur and 
magnesia powder which is referred to on page 20. If an outward dressing is desirable, we 
have invariably tried the following very simple remedy with complete success : 

Two parts hogs' lard. 
One part pine tar. 
One part sulphur. 

This mixture must be well stirred together, and then thoroughly rubbed into the dog's skin. 
It has the effect of bringing off a great deal of hair, so that the dog is unable to appear at a show 
for perhaps five or six weeks. Two or at the most three applications at an interval of four 
or five days, accompanied by the administration of the sulphur and magnesia internally, has 
never in our experience failed to produce a cure. 

Amongst the few really successful breeders and judges of this variety the name of the 
late Mr. Samuel Handley of Pendleton, Manchester, will always stand conspicuously first. To 
this gentleman's judgment and perseverance we are undoubtedly indebted for most of the beautiful 



POINTS OF THE BLACK-AND-TAN TERRIER. in 

specimens of the breed to be seen at every great show. His celebrated Saff was almost invincible 
in her day, and her blood runs in the veins of many present champions. It is probably due 
to the great prestige attached to Mr. Handley's kennel that the absurd sobriquet of "Manchester 
Terrier " has been applied to the breed, a compliment which he himself informed us, not long 
before his death in 1878, he thought a very doubtful one, as he considered the name of Black- 
and-tan quite honourable enough, while, as a matter of fact, Birmingham produced quite as many 
good specimens as were bred in Cottonopolis. 

Mr. J. H. Murchison and the Rev. J. W. Mellor have shown some excellent specimens, as 
have Mr. Tom B. Swinburne of Darlington, the late Mr. J. Martin of Salford, and Mr. J. 
H. Mather of Oldham ; but up to the summer of 1877, when he dispersed his kennel, Mr. 
Henry Lacy of Hebden Bridge, Yorkshire, was recognised as the head of the exhibitors in this 
variety. His Belcher, General, Ruby, Rara, and the toy Pepita, were each and all magnificent 
specimens, and were usually shown in that pink of condition which is so essential to success 
in the Black-and-tan. Mr. Howard Mapplebeck, of Knowle, near Birmingham, had also a 
good bitch in Queen III., picked up by him at a low figure at Edinburgh show, 1877. Mr. 
George Wilson, of Huddersfield, will always be remembered as a breeder, and so will the 
names of Ribchester, Stellfox, Tatham, Roocroft, and Clarke. 

One objection to showing in the Black-arid-tan classes is the manipulation to which 
some unprincipled exhibitors subject their dogs in the shape of dyeing and staining various 
portions of the body when the colouring is deficient. The places most usually operated 
on are immediately behind the ears, and on the back and the thighs, where the hair should 
be perfectly black, but where there frequently appear a number of tan hairs, which would 
militate against the dog's success. In the case of the back of the thighs, when a dog is 
" breeched," i.e., shows tan, the undesirable coloured and superfluous hair is sometimes re- 
moved by plucking, but this should be always easy to detect if proper vigilance is exercised 
by the would-be purchaser of the dog. 

The points of the Black-and-tan Terrier are as follow : 

Head. Long, flat, and narrow, level and wedge-shaped, with the cheek bones invisible, with 
tapering, tightly-lipped jaws, and level teeth. 

Nose. Black. 

Eyes. Very small, sparkling, and intensely black, the oblong shape preferable. 

Ears. Are invariably cropped for show purposes, and should, of course, stand perfectly 
upright. Purchasers should, however, when examining a dog, satisfy themselves that the upright 
carriage of the ears of the specimen before them has not been obtained by the application of 
gum, so as to enable a dog, which usually carries one ear faultily, to carry it correctly whilst 
being scrutinised by a possible buyer. 

Neck. Slight, and free from throatiness, gradually increasing in size as it nears the shoulders, 
which should be sloping, and display powers of speed. 

Chest. Narrow, but deep. 

Body. Short and rather ribbed up, with powerful loin. 

Legs. Must be quite straight, set on well under the dog, and of fair length. 

Feet. Long, with arched and black toes. Whilst upon this point, we may draw attention to 
the fact that one authority in his work describes them as round. This is a most decided error, 
and must have been an oversight, as there can be no two opinions on the subject. 

Tail. Long, thin, and carried straight out. 

Colour. Jet-black and deep red-tan, distributed over the body as follows : On the head the 



1 1 2 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

muzzle is tanned to the nose, which, with the nasal bone, is jet-black. There is also a bright spot 
on each cheek and above each eye, the under jaw and throat are tanned, and the hair inside the ear 
is of the same colour. The fore-legs tanned up to the knee, with black lines (pencil-marks) up 
each toe, and a black mark (thumb-mark) above the foot. Inside the hind-legs, and under the tail 
also tanned, and so is the vent, but only sufficiently to be easily covered by the tail. In all cases 
the black should not run into the tan, or vice versa, but the division between the two colours should 
be well defined, and a "warm" or deep tan is essential, a "clayey" (light tanned) coloured dog 
being useless for exhibition purposes. The smallest spot of white is an absolute disqualification, 
so particular notice must be taken to see that no dishonest staining has taken place. The chest 
is by far the most likely place for it to appear. 

Weight. From 7 to 20 Ibs. 

General Appearance is of no little importance in this variety, as the dog should present the 
appearance of speed and activity in preference to strength and endurance, which are qualities he 
does not affect to any extent. 

Mr. Tom B. Swinburne, of Darlington, has kindly given us his views as follows : " My ideas 
of points of Black-and-tans are, first, that too much has been allowed for long heads. That is, though 
I would like a good long head I would not let that sway other bad points, such as breeching, and 
badly carried and thick tails, but would insist on having real Terrier points, such as good shape, legs 
and feet, tail and body, which should stand on the legs, and not bowed at shoulders, whilst they 
should be of good colour, a point much overlooked, especially in the smaller sizes. As to breeding, 
of course I should go for good blood in the first place, and would not breed from very large speci- 
mens, and would try to avoid breeding from dogs badly breeched, the most difficult thing to attain, 
especially in getting good coloured ones, as a good rich-tanned dog, as a rule, carries a certain 
amount of breeching. Too much care cannot be taken in rearing, and puppies are better sent into 
the country to run, as no breed of dogs require so much attention to their coats, being so subject 
to mange, and I hold that a dog well reared, and whose blood is kept healthy in his puppydom, 
very seldom develops skin diseases afterwards." 

The dog selected for illustration is Salford, late our own property, who was bred by Mr. Clark 
in 1876. He is by Barlow's Duke out of Clark's Whiskey by Tiny, by Rochester's Colonel out 
of Stellfox's Madam ; Duke out of Duchess by Tatham's Neptune out of Roocroft's Duchess 
by Prince Charlie by Colonel. He has won first Alexandra Palace, 1877 ; first Wolverhampton, 
1878; first and cup Belfast, 1879. H' s measurements are Nose to stop, 2\ inches; stop to 
occiput, 4j inches; length of back, 14 inches; girth of muzzle, 7 inches ; girth of skull, \2\ 
inches; girth of brisket, 2oJ inches; girth of shoulders, 19 inches; girth at loins, 13 inches; 
girth of forearm, 4| inches; girth of pastern, 3 inches; height at shoulders, 16 inches; height at 
elbows, 8 inches ; hock to ground, 4^ inches ; weight, 19 Ibs. 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR BLACK-AND-TANS. 

Value. 

Head (including jaws, nose, eyes, and ears) ... ... ... ... 10 

Legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . 5 

Feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body 5 

Colour and markings ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

General appearance (including Terrier quality) ... ... ... 10 

Total ... ... ... 50 



CHAPTER XIV. 
WHITE ENGLISH TERRIERS. 

THE difference in appearance between the white English Terrier and the Black-and-tan is 
very slight, but the obstacles in the way of a breeder's success in the two breeds are very different. 
In the former variety colour and markings have to be studied to a great degree, whilst in the 
white English Terrier the correct shape and action of a Terrier are very hard to obtain. It is naturally 
easier to breed a pure white dog from white parents than it is to breed correctly-marked and 
well-tanned puppies from almost perfect black-and-tans. The latter, however, breed much nearer 
the correct Terrier shape than do white English Terriers, and this is on account of the Italian 
Greyhound taint which runs in so many strains. One authority expresses an opinion that all 
white English Terriers show 'traces of an admixture of Italian Greyhound blood, but we cannot 
allow this to be the case, having both owned and seen specimens which do not show any 
symptoms of the cross. So little encouragement is, however, shown to breeders in their efforts 
to improve the variety, that the classes which appear at our shows are naturally meagre ; but 
we are of opinion that if better known this Terrier would quickly rival the Black-and-tan in 
the estimation of the public. The intense brilliancy of their jackets contrasts so beautifully 
with surrounding objects, and their temperaments are so vivacious and affectionate, that they 
deserve to be more fully known and appreciated ; and this, we trust, will some day be the 
case. 

Mr. White, of Clapham, first brought the breed into the qualified prominence it now enjoys, 
as he was a large winner in these classes at the earlier shows. His dogs, however, would not 
pass muster in the present day, as many leading Terrier points were conspicuous by their 
absence, the Italian Greyhound apparently having been largely drawn upon in their production. 
Midland-county breeders next turned their attention to the variety, and the late Mr. James 
Hinks, of Worcester Street, Birmingham, showed and disposed of many first-class specimens. 
The late Mr. James Martin, also of Salford, Manchester, was very successful with his Joe, 
Gem, and Pink, but we always objected to them, the former especially, on account of the 
Italian blood he showed. Mr. S. E. Shirley, M.P., the Rev. J. W. Mellor, and Mr. J. H. 
Murchison, also showed some good ones years ago, as did Mr. Skidmore, of Nantwich, and Mr. 
George Stables, of Manchester, the latter's Viper being a very first-rate specimen, though 
possessed of a most savage temper. The latter dog not only did himself credit on the show 
bench, but gained additional honour by begetting the famous bitch Sylph, who was in her 
time the undoubted champion of this breed, and gained her breeder, Mr. Roocroft, many first 
prizes. 

It is to the enterprise and judgment of the latter that we are indebted for the improvement 
of the white English Terrier, and the name of James Roocroft, of Bolton, occupies a similar 
position in this breed to that of the late Mr. Samuel Handley in Black-and-tans. Mr. Roocroff 
writes as follows concerning his earlier recollections of the breed in his neighbourhood : 
15 



1 14 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

" The first good one I remember appeared, I believe, at the first Belle Vue show, Man- 
chester. She was a deaf bitch, but her origin I know nothing about. This was about 
sixteen years since. The following year brought out the champion Tim, then shown by old 
Bill Pearson, and which some time afterwards came into my possession, and from which dog I 
produced the strain that I have been so very successful with since I first brought them out. 
I consider Tim was not only the first champion specimen, but the best Terrier we ever had, 
and was really the foundation of good Terriers. As regards the points of Terriers I think that 
by the conversations we have had together I have told you all I know. I may say that among 
others Tim was sire to Swindell's Gem, out of a bitch he picked up in Manchester, and which 
showed in a marked manner a cross of the Snap-dog breed, and you remember all his 
strain showed the same, more or less. He (Tim) was, as I have remarked, the best Terrier I 
ever saw, and champion for years ; in fact, up to the time of his death, which occurred about 
three years ago (1876)." 

The breed being of so modern an origin, we can find little to add to its history that could 
interest our readers. We will therefore proceed to offer a few hints on the breeding of this 
variety, which have been picked up in conversation with various admirers of the breed. It being 
so universally acknowledged that many strains show traces of Italian Greyhound or Snap 
(rabbit-coursing dog) blood, every endeavour should be taken to eradicate the evil. Not only 
does the dog suffer as a Terrier in its appearance, but the peculiar action in the fore-feet, which 
Italian Greyhounds show so conspicuously, is very much against it. These specimens we should 
mate with as light (i.e., lightly built) a Bull-terrier as we could procure, and having destroyed 
the dog puppies, reserve the bitches for subsequent re-crossing with the best white English 
stud dog we could procure. In attempting this process, it should be borne in mind that there is 
very small probability of a breeder obtaining his desire in the first cross, and more probably 
the third or fourth will get him what he wants. Considerable care must therefore be taken 
in the next cross ; and though much must depend upon circumstances, we would suggest 
resorting to the services of a sire of the same strain as the father of the latter puppies. Any 
dogs saved from this litter may, of course, be used to bitches of remote blood, when there will 
usually be plenty of offspring left to found and perpetuate a strain of well-bred white English 
Terriers. 

In appearance this dog should closely resemble the Black-and-tan, so a full description 
of its structural development is unnecessary. Its colour is an intensely brilliant white, and 
its eyes very black and sparkling the oblique shape being preferred. Spots of red, tan, or 
brindle, frequently appear on puppies, sometimes weeks after they are born. These chiefly 
show behind the ears or on the neck, and are, of course, a disfigurement to a dog which should 
be pure white. These are occasionally cut out when the puppies are young, and a wide collar 
is often used, when this breed is shown, to conceal these blemishes. Many good specimens, too, 
are deaf, and though some judges profess not to object to this infirmity, we consider it very 
much against a dog's chance of success, as a deaf dog is a sorry companion either at home or 
abroad. It is believed that nearly all purely white animals are deaf, and if so the present 
variety is only redeemed from the infirmity by the nose, or a few scattered, and so invisible, 
hairs. 

The dog we have selected for illustration is Mr. Alfred Benjamin's Silvio. He was first 
shown by his breeder, Mr. James Roocroft, at Bath in 1877. We were judge upon that occasion, 
and gave him first in one of the best classes we ever saw. Subsequently we purchased him 



POINTS OF WHITE ENGLISH TERRIERS. 1 1 5 

from Mr. Roocroft, and afterwards re-sold him to Mr. Benjamin. He is certainly, if well shown, 
the best specimen we ever saw, but absence of condition has often caused him a defeat. He 
was born in 1876, and is by Joe out of Sylph by Viper, and has won first Bath, Agricultural 
Hall, Darlington, and Alexandra Palace, 1877 ; first VVolverhampton, 1878. His measurements 
ar e_Nose to stop, 3 inches ; stop to occiput, 4^ inches ; length of back, 1 5 inches ; girth of 
muzzle, 7 inches; girth of skull, 12 inches; girth of brisket, 19 inches; girth round shoulders, 
19! inches ; girth of loin, 16 inches ; girth of forearm, 3! inches ; girth of pastern, 3 inches ; 
height at shoulders, 18 inches; height at loin, i8i ; weight, 19 Ibs. 



SCALE FOR JUDGING WHITE ENGLISH TERRIERS. 



Head, including jaws, nose, ears, and eyes 

Legs 

Feet 

Body 

Colour 

General appearance 

Action 



Total ... 



Value. 
10 

s 

5 

5 

10 
10 

5 

50 




CHAPTER XV. 

THE DANDIE DINMONT. 

THE celebrity which this excellent Terrier well maintains he owes to Sir Walter Scott ; the 
unenviable notoriety he has had undeservedly to submit to he owes to some of his injudicious 
friends. 

Had the fact been frankly accepted that whatever he may now be he had no existence 
before the present century and, like most, if not all, of our recognised breeds of the present 
day, sprang from mongrelism, or the produce of two different breeds, as we now use that 
word we should have heard less nonsense about the absolute purity of some specimens that 
have been so much written up. The fact is that not a single dog living can, without a break 
in his pedigree, be traced back to the dogs owned by Davidson, although we have no doubt 
and, indeed, there is a strong chain of evidence in favour of the supposition that several 
strains in particular, and we may say the majority of those shown now-a-days, inherit a large 
percentage of the blood of the original Charlieshope Terriers. Sir Walter Scott, in his inimit- 
able delineations of Scottish character, sketched to the life the burly Liddesdale yeoman, 
under the nom de guerre of Dandie Dinmont ; and the rough, uncouth, but warm-hearted and 
generous farmer and sportsman, with his game little Terrier, are now, and will be whilst the 
English language is read, familiar to all who appreciate the genius of Scott. When " Guy 
Mannering * was published, and read with such avidity by our fathers, Dandie Dinmont 
and his pepper-and-mustard Terriers became public favourites, a strong desire to possess one 
of the breed of dogs that had so suddenly been made famous was very general, and in 
consequence specimens were widely distributed. No doubt those sent out by Mr. Davidson 
himself (the original of Scott's Dandie Dinmont) were genuine ; but as time wore on the 
demand increased, receiving an immense impetus from the establishment of dog shows some 
eighteen years ago, these having thus raised the popularity of dogs in general ; and this demand 
has had to be supplied principally from the pastoral dales whence the breed first sprung, and 
where it had been kept up with more or less of purity, although with no pretensions, so far 
as we can find, of recorded pedigrees. 

Indeed, it appears a reasonable supposition that, so long as a dog was known to have 
some of the blood of the original Tarr and Pepper, the sole progenitors of the breed, and 
accorded in form, character, and aptitude for their special work with the dogs of Davidson, 
which must have been personally known to many of them, our friends of sporting proclivities 
across the Border would not inquire too curiously into pedigree. Probably they were warned off 
in some cases by a dread, not without cause, that they might suffer, like the Barber of Seville, 
for their " impertinent curiosity," by finding that their dogs had a somewhat different paternity 
from what they would have desired. 

We do not thus express ourselves in disparagement of a dog for whose genuine good 
qualities we entertain an enthusiastic admiration. But from a desire to look the facts of the 
case in the face, and, admitting most heartily not only that there is "something in blood," 



ORIGIN OF DANDIE DINMONTS. \ \ 7 

but that there is "a great deal in blood," we would, rather than strain a pedigree beyond its 
bearing power, take the opposite line, and like 

" The grand old gardener and his wife, 
Smile at the claims of long descent." 

Quite a fallacious idea appears to us to be entertained by the quibblers for "absolute purity." 
An unstained lineage is unquestionably an important consideration for a breeder, without which 
he can with no degree of certainty calculate on the character of expected produce ; but neither 
the judge in the ring, nor the sportsman in the field with the dog, has any concern with 
that. The former has to consider whether the dog shows the characteristics of the breed as 
settled by recognised authorities, however he may have become possessed of them ; and if 
the latter finds his dog in outward form a Dandie, and one duly "entered wi' rattans, stoats, 
and weasels, tods, and brocks," and who never flinches, but will "face ony thing wi' a hairy 
skin on't," he will be quite satisfied, although the dog may have a bar sinister on his 
escutcheon. Or, again, to quote Scott, he may be a veritable " Mishdegoat," as Herr Douster- 
swivel would pronounce it. 

As regards the dogs "Dandie Dinmont" originally possessed, the Rev. J. Cuming Macdona 
in 1869 was the fortunate discoverer of a document in James Davidson's own handwriting, which 
ran thus 

"1800. Tuggin, from A. Armstrong, reddish and wiry; Tarr, reddish and wire-haired, a 
bitch ; Pepper, shaggy and light, from Dr. Brown, of Borjenwood. The race of Dandies are 
bred from the two last. J. D." 

This document must be interesting to all lovers of this game little dog, as supporting Mr. 
Macdona's views that Tarr and . Pepper were the progenitors of all the Dandies now in 
existence. 

From considerable acquaintance with Dandie Dinmont Terriers, we have no hesitation in 
pronouncing them " dead game." They are, essentially, vermin dogs, and no more useful small 
dog can be kept about a country house if there are rats to be killed, a fox or an otter to be bolted 
a stoat, weasel, or marten to be destroyed, a badger or brock to be drawn from his "hollow 
harbour," or a rabbit to be hunted from his fastness in the thickest of whin bramble or bracken 
brake. He is all there, ever ready, eager, and equal to the fray, untiring, and up to the roughest 
work, but apt to show a little strong-headedness ana to run riot when game is near and scent is 
strong, unless exceptionally well broken. At home he proves a good house-dog, and his quaint- 
ness and high intelligence render him a most lovable companion ; affectionate to a degree, he is 
not given to quarrel ; but once roused, he shows himself possessed of the very 'essence and spirit 
of Polonius's advice, and " bears himself so that his adversary must beware," for he can both take 
and give punishment, and in common parlance will "fight till all's blue." It is a curious 
feature in his method of fighting that a Dandie generally fights on his back, and tears and 
scratches at his opponent's throat literally with tooth and nail. 

Those of his admirers who call the Dandie good-looking must have singular ideas of beauty ; 
but, as the old proverb avoweth, "handsome is that handsome does," and in good deeds he 
excels ; and his very pronounced character, the weird " auld farran " look of quaintness and 
intelligence, amply make up for beauty, whilst his rough-and-ready-for-anything look at once 
commends him to the sportsman. 



1 1 8 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

To Mr. E. Bradshaw Smith the lovers of Dandies are indebted, he having, in the year 1841, 
founded a kennel of dogs by buying all he could of reputedly pure-bred dogs, which he has 
since kept select. 

As to the constituent elements of the dog, the view we agree with is, that the Dandie is 
a cross between a rough hound, such as the Otterhound or Welsh Beagle and the old wire- 
haired Scotch Terrier. To the former he owes his large hound-like head, long hanging ears- 
which no other Terrier, except his relation the Bedlington, has and also the hound carriage of 
stern and immense leg bone, whilst the mixture of hard and soft hair may be said" to be equally 
derived from the two original breeds. 

Few breeds have been the subject of so prolonged and acrimonious a correspondence, and, 
possibly, with the exception of the Bull-dog controversy, no dispute has been productive of so 
much ill-feeling. The result in each instance was identical, and the Dandie Dinmont controversy 
ended as did that concerning his elder brother, in the formation of a Club which was to settle 
the correct standard for judging the breed, and guard its interests generally. The two societies, 
however, started under widely different auspices ; for whereas the Bull-dog Club was coldly looked 
upon at its outset, and received positive discouragement in quarters from which valuable assistance 
might reasonably have been expected, the Dandie Club was well supported from its first appearance. 
It blossomed into existence in 1876, under the presidency of Lord Melgund, and the vice-presidency 
of Mr. E. Bradshaw Smith, strengthened by the allegiance of the best known breeders and 
exhibitors, and aided by the experience of Messrs. Hugh Dalziel, Wardlaw Reid, and William 
Strachan, in the capacities of joint hon. secretaries. 

A communication was addressed by the Club to the leading breeders of the Dandie Dinmont, 
requesting them each to draw up a scale of points which they considered suitable for judging the 
breed ; and from these the standard of the Club was eventually selected. As a copy of these 
opinions is now laying before us, we propose giving some extracts from it for the benefit of 
such of our readers as have not had an opportunity for seeing the original. In the first 
place we will give the opinions of Mr. James Locke, of Selkirk, in extenso, having obtained 
that gentleman's permission to do so. These will be doubly valuable, as representing the 
ideas not only of the most successful exhibitor of recent date, but also those of a most 
frequent and highly respected judge of the breed, whose decisions are invariably well received 
by exhibitors. 

MR. JAMES LOCKE'S DESCRIPTION OF A DANDIE DINMONT. 

Head. Skull round. Jaw long, tapering slightly towards the nose (which is not cut short 
like a Pointer's), with very strong teeth, level in front ; on no account pig-jawed or undershot. 
Eyes large, full, and very expressive ; colour brown. Ears pendulous, almond-shaped, set on low, 
and hanging close to the head, slightly feathered and not too large. 

Body. Very long. Chest full and well let down between the fore legs ; ribs round ; no 
slackness at loin, and back slightly arched. Neck very muscular. 

Fore legs. Short and muscular, well out at shoulder, consequently slightly bowed, with feet 
straight to the front. 

Hind legs. Very muscular and well spread. 

Feet. Not hare-footed ; claws dark. 

Stern. Not set on too low, curving slightly upwards and never carried over the back, 
except in great excitement. 

Coat- This is of great importance. The hair on body must be hard and wiry, and plenty of 



Pof.vrs OF THE DANDIE. 119 

it, with no tendency to curl ; on the head soft and silky, slightly curly, and very light in colour, 
being almost white. Jaw not too heavily coated. Fore legs feathered with hair softer, shorter, 
and lighter in colour than that on the body. Hind legs no feather. Feet comparatively clean, 
but this depends much on exercise. Hair on stern of same texture as that on body not bushy, 
but feathered, and thinning away towards the tip. 

Colour. Blue, mustard, or any combination of both. White is an objection, and is only 
allowed on the breast, and then to a very slight extent. 

Height. From nine to eleven inches, according to weight. 

Weight. From sixteen to twenty-two pound:; ; from eighteen to twenty being the most 
desirable for work. 

SCALE OF POINTS. 

Value. 
Head ... ... ... ... ... ... ,.. ... 10 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Eyes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

30 
Body ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 

Carriage of stern ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

- 55 
General ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 



The above excellent description of the points of a Dandie Dinmont was followed pretty 
closely by the secretaries of the Club in the scale they submitted to the Society as the 
correct one for judging the breed by. The salient features of this were ultimately adopted 
by the Club as its standard ; and we propose giving it hereafter as the scale for universal 
adoption, as it differs but very slightly from the Club standard, and is in our opinion con- 
siderably more explicit and easy of comprehension. 

The point in Mr. Locke's description which is most combated by other breeders is the 
expression "not cut short like a Pointer's" as applied to the muzzle. But as all the best 
opinions we have been able to collect (including that of Mr. Locke, as given above) agree 
that the jaws should slightly taper towards the nose, there does not appear to be much 
importance attached to the simile, which must be regarded as an unhappy one from either 
point of view. 

Before giving the scale of points drawn up by Messrs. Dalziel, Reid, and Strachan, 
attention should be drawn to the most celebrated breeders and exhibitors of this excellent 
little dog. The list includes the names of Messrs. Taprell Hollands ; Rev. S. T. Mosse ; Paul 
Scott, of Jedburgh-; James Paterson, of Rutherford by Kelso ; Rev. J. C. Macdona ; Nicol Milne, 
of Faldonside by Selkirk ; Bradshaw Smith, Blackwood House, Ecclefechan ; James Richardson, 
of Dumfries; P. S. Lang, Selkirk; George Parker, Denholm, Roxburghshire; William Pool, 
Dumfries ; W. Wardlaw Reid ; J. C. and W. Carrick, Carlisle ; J. H. Murchison and James Locke, 
Selkirk, immortalised by their connection with Peachem, Shamrock, Warlock II., Harry Bertram, 
Meg, Kilt, Melrose, Doctor, Sporran, Tib Mumps. 

The standard drawn up by Messrs. Hugh Dalziel, W. Wardlaw Reid, and W. Strachan, 
to which we have alluded above, as the best description of a Dandie published, is as 
follows : 



I2O THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

" In forming an opinion of a dog's merits, the general appearance (by which is meant the 
impression which a dog makes as a whole on the eye of the judge) should be first considered. 
Secondly should be noticed the dog's size, shape, and make i.e., its proportions in the relation 
they bear to each other; no point should be so much in excess of the others as to destroy 
the general symmetry, and cause the dog to appear deformed, or interfere with its usefulness 
in the occupations for which it is specially adapted. Thirdly, the dog's style, carriage, gait, 
temperament, and each of its other points, should be considered separately. 

"POINT i. General Appearance. The general appearance of the Dandie Dinmont Terrier 
is that of a rough-coated, thick-set dog, very low on its legs, and having a body very flexible 
and long in proportion to its height, but broad, deep-chested, and compact. The head very 
large, with broad and well-domed skull, covered with light-coloured hair of a softer and more 
silky texture than that on the body. This hairy scalp very often gives the head an appearance 
of being disproportionate to the body, while such is not actually the case. Jaws long and 
slightly tapering to the nose, which must be large and always black ; covered with shorter 
and slightly harder hair than on the body. Neck thick and muscular ; shoulders low, and 
back slightly curved down behind them, with a corresponding arch of the loins, which are 
broad and strong. Ears pendulous, and bearing low. Legs short and very muscular. The 
Dandie carries in his countenance the appearance of great determination, strength, and activity, 
with a constant and vigilant eagerness to be busy. In brief, he is an embodiment of docility, 
courage, strength, intelligence, and alertness. 

"POINT 2. The Head should be very large, and rather heavy-looking in proportion to the 
dog's size. Skull broad between the ears, with a very gradual and slight taper towards the 
eyes. It should be long from back to front, with high forehead, and cranium conical and 
well domed, measuring about the same from the point of the eye to back of skull as it does 
between the base of ears, and round the largest part about a third more than the dog's height 
at the shoulder. The head should always be covered with soft silky hair, not curled, but 
slightly wavy, and not confined to a mere top-knot ; it is also of a much lighter colour than 
that on the body. The cheeks, starting from the ears, proportionately broad with the skull, 
should, without any unsightly bulge, taper very gradually towards the muzzle, the muscles 
showing extraordinary development, more especially those that move the lower jaw. The head 
of the bitch, as in nearly every other breed of dogs, is comparatively smaller and lighter in 
proportion to that of the dog. 

"POINT 3. The Muzzle should be long, deep, and very powerful; very slightly tapering to 
the nose, which should be large, well-formed, well-spread over the muzzle, and always black. 
The muzzle should measure from the corner of the eye to the tip of the nose about three 
inches in length, or in proportion to length of skull as three is to five, and round, close in 
front of the eyes, about two and a half to three times its length. The muzzle should be 
thinly covered with short and hardish hair of rather darker colour than on- the body ; the top 
of muzzle should be nearly bare for about an inch from the black part of the nose, coming 
to a point towards the eye. A foxy or snipy muzzle is very objectionable. The jaws should 
be long and powerful, with very strong teeth perfectly level in front, the canines should fit 
well into each other, so as to give the greatest available holding and punishing power. A pig- 
jawed or under-shot mouth is very objectionable, though, as it occurs in the purest strains, it 
cannot be altogether considered a disqualification. The mouth should be very large, and the 
roof of it very dark, almost always black. 

" POINT 4. The Eyes should be wide apart, large, round, moderately full, very clear, bright, 



POINTS OF THE DANDIE. 121 

and expressive of great intelligence, looking set, low, and well in front of forehead. Colour, a 
rich brown or hazel, yellowness being a great fault. Frequently they have a dark ring round 
the eye, the hair of which is rather short and of a downy nature. This dark shade, together 
with that (already referred to) down the centre of the nose, contrasts beautifully with the 
bright silvery top-knot, and imparts to them that gipsy, game, and genuine appearance which 
is an essential characteristic in the Dandie. 

"POINT 5. The Ears should be large and pendulous, from three and a half inches to four 
inches long, set far apart, well back, and rather low on the skull, hanging close to the cheeks 
like a Hound's or Beagle's, but a little more pointed or almond-shaped, i.e., broad at the base, 
and tapering to a small rounded point. The taper should be all, or nearly all, on the back edge, 
the front edge hanging nearly straight down from its junction with the head to the tip. They 
ought to show a little shoulder at the base, which causes the tips of the ears to point a little forwards 
towards the jaw. They should be moderately thick and leathery, and covered with a short, 
soft, darker and brighter sort of hair than on the body, having a smooth velvety appearance 
showing no lint or silky hair, excepting in some cases a thin feather of lighter hair starting 
about an inch or so from the tip, and of the same colour and texture as the top-knot ; this 
gives the top of the ear the appearance of a distinct point. 

" POINT 6. The Neck should be rather short, and very muscular, well-developed and strong, 
showing great power by being well set into the shoulder. The length of neck should average 
about one-third of its girth. 

" POINT 7. The Body should be very long and flexible, measuring from top of shoulders 
to root of tail about an inch or two over one and a half times the height of dog at shoulder. 
Chest well developed and broad, with brisket round and deep, being well let down between 
the fore legs. The back should be rather low at the shoulders, and slightly curved down 
behind them, with a corresponding arch, the rise commencing about two inches behind the 
shoulder-blade ; over the loins, which should be higher than the shoulders, broad and strong, with 
a slight gradual droop from the top of loins to root of tail. Ribs well sprung and rounded, 
back and front, forming a good barrel. Both sides of spine should be well supplied with 
muscle ; in fact, every part of the dog seems to be abundantly supplied with muscle, giving it 
great compactness. 

"POINT 8. The Tail (or stern) should be in length a little less than the height of the 
dog at the shoulder. It should be set on at the bottom of a gentle slope about two inches 
from top of loins, being rather thick at the root, getting very slightly thicker for about four 
inches, then tapering off to a fine point. It should be covered on the upper side with wiry 
hair, of darker colour and stronger nature than that on the body, while the under side is 
lighter and less wiry, with a little, nice, light feather, commencing about two inches from 
root, and from one inch to two inches long, getting shorter as it nears the tip, which is 
pointed. It should be carried gaily, or hound-like, slightly curved upward, but not directly 
curled over the back. N.B. When not excited, nearly in a horizontal line, but otherwise 
hound-like. 

" POINT 9. The Legs. The fore legs should be very short in proportion to the dog's size, 
very stout, and set wide apart, thick, and straight, with immense muscular development in 
the forearm ; this, with the ankles being very slightly turned inwards, makes the dog appear 
somewhat bandy-legged, but the leg-bones themselves should be stout and straight, and not 
curved. The feet should be well framed and broad, but not flat, standing firm, and well 
under the chest, with very little or no feather on the legs. Hind legs thick and strong, 
16 



122 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

longer than the fore legs, well-spread, with a good bend in the hocks, the muscles of the 
thighs being very thick and well-developed ; the feet are much smaller, with no feather or 
dew-claws. The toes rather short, not hare-footed. The claws black, and very strong. White 
claws, however, should not be a disqualification. 

"POINT 10. Size. Height from eight inches to twelve inches at top of shoulder, but never 
above twelve inches, even for a dog. Weight: Dogs, from 16 Ib. to 24 Ib. ; bitches, from 14 Ib. 
to 20 Ib. The most desirable weight, 20 Ib. for dogs and 16 Ib. for bitches ; but 24 Ib. dogs 
are very useful to give bone, muscle, and stamina to the product of the smaller ones. 

"POINT II. The Coat. This is a very important feature. The hair (about two inches long) 
along the top of the neck and upper part of body should be a mixture of about two-thirds 
rather hard (but not wiry), with one-third soft, linty (not silky) hair, which gives a sort of 
crisp feeling to the hand, and constitutes what old John Stoddart used to term 'a pily coat.' 
It becomes lighter in colour and finer in texture as it nears the lower part of the body and 
legs. The head is covered with hair of a longer, lighter, and much more silky texture, giving 
it a silvery appearance, but not so long as to hang completely over the eyes like a Skye or 
Poodle. The lighter in colour and softer the better. 

" POINT 12. The Colour. Either mustard or pepper, and their mixtures. Mustard is a reddish 
or sandy brown of various shades. Pepper is a bluish grey, either dark in shade, ranging 
from a dark bluish black to a slaty grey, or even a much paler or silvery grey; sometimes 
a combination of both, in which case the back is grey, while the legs, inside of ears, chest, and 
under side of tail, are mustard, verging on a pale red or fawn colour. No other colours admitted ; 
and any white, even on chest, is objectionable. 

" VALUE OF THE POINTS ACCORDING TO THE DALZIEL, REID, AND STRACHAN SCALE. 

i. General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

2. Head ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

3. Muzzle, jaws, and teeth ... ... ... ... ... 10 

4. Eyes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

5. Ears ... ... ... ... ... 5 

6. Neck and chest ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

7. Body .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

3. Tail ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

y. -Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

10. Size and weight ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

n. Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

12. Colouf ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total 100 " 

Doctor, the subject of our coloured plate, is the property of Mr. James Locke, of Selkirk, 
N.B. He has taken the first prize at Wolverhampton ; first, Crystal Palace ; first, Nottingham ; 
first, Alexandra Palace, 1875; fi rst > Darlington; first and cup, Birmingham, 1876; first, Man- 
chester, 1877; first, Crystal Palace; first, Glasgow, 1878. His measurements are Tip of nose 
to stop, 3j inches; stop to occiput, 5 inches; length of back, 17 inches; girth of muzzle, 8 
inches ; girth of skull, 14 inches ; girth of brisket, 2i| inches ; girth round shoulders, 20 inches; 
girth of loins, i6J inches; girth of forearm, sj inches; girth of pastern, 3^ inches; height at 
shoulders, lof inches; height at elbow, 6\ inches; height at loins, 12 inches; length of tail, 
1O inches; weight, 21 Ibs. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE IRISH TERRIER. 

THE Irish Terrier is a marvellous instance of the improvement which the steady and combined 
perseverance of breeders can bring about in a variety of dog in the space of a few years. A 
decade ago the breed was practically unknown, and now the Irish Terrier class is one of the 
interesting features of our greatest shows. Like other breeds, it had to be known to be appre- 
ciated at its proper value ; and like other breeds, when it once gained a fair footing amongst 
"doggy" men, supporters sprung up on all sides. With the Irish Terrier it is essentially the 
fact that " handsome is as handsome does," for though valuing the breed for the position it has 
gained as a vermin dog, we are fain to admit that in personal attractions it is not equal to many 
other varieties. A good, game, hard dog, his workmanlike jacket and somewhat plain outline 
are in themselves likely to escape the observation of any but an ardent dog-lover ; but there is 
a spirit within the dog which, when discovered, must make him friends wherever he goes. The 
improvement to which allusion has been already made is mainly due to the energy and perse- 
verance of a very few gentlemen ; and as most of the future prize dogs of this breed may 
reasonably be expected to spring from the best-known winners which have been recently 
exhibited, we propose, before going into the characteristics and description of the breed, to 
give a brief summary of the best dogs up to the present time, and the several positions they 
have occupied in the leading prize-lists. 

At Belfast in June, 1875, an Irish Terrier Club was for the first time spoken of, but 
nothing came of it. Before this time a discussion upon the points of the breed had been 
going on in the Live Stock Journal, and in July, 1875, an illustration was given of two of 
Dr. Mark's dogs. The illustration, however, does not represent the modern type of Irish Terriers 
at all ; they look like Scotch Terriers with a few drops of Irish blood in them. They have 
long hair all over the head and neck, and it actually parts down the centre ; what could be 
more Scotch ? The picture is worth preserving as showing what the head of an Irish Terrier 
should not be. A correspondent, writing at the time, described this picture in the following 
words : " The very look of them is enough to convince any fair-thinking man that Scotch 
blood is in their composition. We will take, for instance, the dog at the left-hand side, 
which I find is the splendid game bitch Kate. Look at the head and face of this dog ; 
if Scotch blood is not stamped on it then I know nothing. Look at the long hair on 
the forehead, with the vein or equal division in the centre. Look again at the long hair 
on the muzzle and under the jaw, and if, as I say, this does not denote the Scotch cross, 
and a good deal of it, then I know nothing about the points which constitute an Irish 
Terrier. The surest sign of Scotch blood in a rough Terrier is the length of hair on 
forehead. Another thing which goes to prove the Scotch cross is the vein or furrow running 
up the centre of the forehead. This is not to be met with in Irish Terriers." 

At Belfast, in July, 1875, appeared the best lot of Irish Terriers brought together up to 
that date. Mr. D. O'Connell was represented with Slasher, a capital stamp of a hard, wiry. 



124 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 



coated, working Terrier, said to be a pure old white Irish Terrier, a splendid field and 
water dog. Newtownards, September, 1875, saw Mr. Morton's Fly to the fore, with 
Sport (under his new name, Celt) second. In the Live Stock Journal, August 2oth, 1875, 
had already appeared an engraving, which is reproduced in this work, of Sport, then the 
property of Mr. George Jamison. This portrait was hailed with delight on all sides as 
representing the genuine true-bred Irish Terrier; and so it does. It may be remarked that 
this dog was shown often, only again and again to be beaten by curs that had no right to be 




DR. MARK'S KATE AND BADGER. 



in the same show with him ; in fact, wherever Sport was shown in a dog class, until 1878, when 
Sporter appeared in the field, there was no dog he should have been put second to; and 
Mr. Jamison must be congratulated on his pluck in sticking so well to his colours in spite of 
constant disappointments. At Lisburn, in 1876, Sport was second to the late Banshee (who 
died a champion after a singularly lucky and successful show career, and also the property of 
Mr. George Jamison at that time). Banshee was then only a youngster of thirteen months, 
and not only gained the first prize but cup as well. 

At Dublin, in March, 1876, took place the show over which such a commotion was after- 
wards raised. The variety was more than charming, it was ridiculous ; reports say 
there was no attempt at type in particular, no style; long legs, short legs, hard coats, 
soft coats, thick short skulls, and long lean ones ; all were there. " Long, low, and useful 
dogs " were held up for admiration. Long and useful, if you like, but never low for an Irish 



THE EARLIER IRISH TERRIERS. 125 

Terrier. No pride nor genuine interest was yet taken in the dog (we, of course, except 
one or two veteran breeders who still pluckily continued), nobody yet bothered themselves 
about age, breeder, or pedigree. Boxer, the first prize dog, was entered " breeder, owner, 
pedigree unknown." That is too deliciously Irish, his own breeder not knowing his pedigree. 
Another exhibitor entered his as " Shaughraun, breeder one of the famous Limerick night 




MR. JAMISON'S SPORT. 

watch. Pedigree too long to give, but inquisitive people can inquire at the watch-house 
here, and most likely they will be told." We quote this to prove the nature of many 
earlier pedigrees. 

To come to later days, when many of the best dogs of the present time, such as Sporter, 
Moya Doolan, Dr. Carey's Sport, and Colleen Dhas, were well before the public, we find at 
Belfast, in June, 1878, Mr. Despard's Tanner (afterwards ist Birmingham) took ist, 2nd going 
to old Sport, and 3rd to W. Graham's Sporter. In bitches Kate was ist, and Moya 
Doolan 2nd. In September, 1878, at Newtownards, the opinions of experts are encouraging. 
" It is a pleasure to look along the benches at recent shows. The eye has not the 
same chance it had in former years of being offended, the maiority of the weeds having 



126 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

disappeared." Mr. Graham won, with Sporter, the champion cup for the best dog or bitch exhi- 
bited. In open dogs Parnell and Tanner II. were 1st and 2nd, both since dead. In the 
bitches Moya Doolan beat Colleen Dhas. At Birmingham, in December, 1878, Tanner was ist 
and Fly 2nd. Fly had no right to her place ; and it was characteristic of the judging that Spuds 
was quite passed over. In December, 1878, at the Alexandra Palace, Fly (the 2nd prize winner 
at Birmingham) was 1st, and Spuds 2nd, Paddy II. commended, and Moya Doolan not noticed. 
The pent-up feelings of the Irish Terrier breeders now burst forth, and first took shape in a 
petition, which was to be presented to the Kennel Club, praying them in future to appoint them 
special judges, or, failing that, to let the same gentlemen that had wire-haired Fox-terriers 
also judge Irish Terriers. This latter was a good proposition, which we herewith recommend 
to the attention of dog-show committees ; they will then get judged by a terrier man, 
and that will be a move towards satisfactory decisions. However, seeing the support which 
the petition promised to receive, the question was raised, Why not establish a Club at 
once ? In a week or two the club numbered fifty, nearly half of which were Englishmen. 
Even so soon Irish Terrier Club was one of the greatest successes in dog clubs on 
record, and since that time the number and interest in it have gone on increasing. At 
the Irish Kennel Club Show, Dublin, in April, 1879, Spuds and Moya Doolan were 
ist and 2nd in champion class ; Tanner II. and Paddy II. were ist and 2nd in open 
dogs ; and Sting, still a puppy, made her first appearance, and won in open bitches, 
beating Rags and Kathleen. Gaelic was very highly commended, this being his first 
appearance. At the Alexandra Palace, in July, 1879, Gaelic was put over Sporter and 
Erin, and a new bitch over Moya Doolan. 

Thus far we have endeavoured to trace the history of the Irish Terrier proper during 
the last few years, and now we venture to lay before our readers the experience of, and 
opinions on, the breed' of Mr. George R. Krehl, the enthusiastic English Vice-president of 
the Irish Terrier Club. This gentleman, who at great personal trouble has in the kindest 
possible way collected for us the extracts and opinions of the most trustworthy authorities, 
and interwoven them with his own, writes as follows : 

"The Irish Terrier is a true and distinct breed indigenous to Ireland, and no man can 
trace its origin, which is lost in antiquity. Mr. Ridgway, of Waterford, whose name is 
familiar in Irish Terrier circles from having drawn up the first code of points, states 
that they have been known in Ireland ' as long as that country has been an island, 
and I ground my faith in their age and purity on the fact that there exist old manu- 
scripts in Irish mentioning the existence of the breed at a very remote period.' In old 
pictures representing scenes of Irish life, an Irish Terrier or two are often to be descried. Bally- 
mena and County Wicklow may almost claim to be the birthplaces of the breed. Most of the 
best specimens hail from Ballymena and the neighbourhood, where Mr. Thomas Erwin, of Irish 
Setter fame, boasts an extensive experience of this breed, and has always kept a few of 
the right old working sort for sporting purposes ; and ' in County Wicklow,' Mr. Merry says, 
' it is well known that the pure breed of Irish Terriers have been carefully kept distinct and 
highly prized for more than a century.' Mr. E. F. Despard, whose name is well known in 
Irish Terrier circles as a very successful breeder and exhibitor, claims an acquaintance of over 
40 years with the breed. Mr. George Jamison, too, has known and kept them many years, 
and up till a little while ago had won more prizes than all the rest of the Breeders put 
together. I mention these proofs of the age of the breed to show those who have lately 
come to admire them that it is not a made up, composite, or mushroom breed. They are 



CHARACTER OF THE IRISH TERRIER. 127 

part of Ireland's national economy, and are worthily embodied in the Sportsman's toast 
' Irish women, Irish horses, and Irish dogs ' (which means, Irish terriers, setters, and 
spaniels). 

" One's first acquaintance with this ' Pre-historic Terrier ' is apt to be disappointing 
(except to a really ' doggy ' terrier man), that is, because there is no meretricious flash 
about them; but there is that about them which you learn to like, they grow upon you. 
They supply the want so often expressed for 'a smart-looking dog with something in him.' 
There is that about their rough-and-ready appearance which can only be described as 
genuine terrier, or more emphatically ' tarrier-character! They are facile princeps the sports- 
man's terrier, and having never yet been made fashion's darlings still retain in all its purity 
their instinctive love of hard work. Their characters do not suit them for ladies' pets, but 
render them the best dogs out for the man that loves his gun and quiet sport. 

"Amongst those wise old fellows that one comes across in the country, who like a dog 
with something in him and a ' terrier ' of course, the Irishman is prime favourite. And they 
know what they are about, those old fellows, and are sportsmen, too, in their own sort of way, 
when the sun has gone down. This reminds, me of a discreditable fact in the history of 
Irish Terriers, that were not always only ' the poor man's sentinel,' but oftentimes some- 
thing more, when by the aid of their marvellous noses and long legs they, when the shades 
of night had fallen, provided the pot with that which gave forth the savoury smell and 
imparted a flavour to the 'spuds.' This, however, if it injured their moral principles, 
certainly sustained their love and capability for rabbiting. In olden times, too, the larger 
sizes were bred and used for fighting, and there is still a dash of the old fighting blood 
in their descendants. They dearly love a mill, and though it would be calumny to 
say they are quarrelsome, yet it must be admitted that the male portion of the 
breed are perhaps a little too ready to resent any attempt at interfering with their 
coats ; but are they not Irish, and when did an Irishman shirk a shindy ? My dog 
Sporter is very true to character in this respect. Small dogs, or even those of his 
own size, he never deigns to notice ; but if some large specimen of the genus canis 
approaches him, putting on 'side' and airs, Sporter immediately stiffens up visibly, his tail 
assumes a defiant angle above the horizontal, his ears are cocked forward alertly, and there is 
an ominous twitching of his upper lips which says as plain as looks can speak, ' Lave 
rne alone, ye spalpeen.' Should his warning not be accepted, a scrimmage ensues, which 
I speedily terminate by whipping him up under my arm by his tail and marching him off. 
En passant, I recommend this as a very effectual and safe manner of putting a stop to 
a canine mtUe. ' Hitting off' Irish Terriers when fighting I have found useless ; they think 
the pain comes from their opponent, and this only serves to rouse them to fresh efforts. 

Now although they have always been Ireland's national terrier, yet it must be admitted, and 
it is only too patent, that for many years the breed had been much neglected ; allowed to 
'grow wild," in fact, and left too much in the hands of one class. I cast no reflection on 
' the foinest pisintry in Europe ' when I say that, knowing nothing of dog-shows, they bred 
to no standard and kept their dogs for work ; and if they thought a cross with neighbour 
Micky's dog would improve their own in that quality they did not stop to inquire about 
pedigree. In this manner the breed depreciated, and Scotch and other blood crept in to 
the injury of the pure breed ; but, fortunately, when the tide in their favour set in the 
genuine breeder found plenty of pure, unadulterated material to commence upon. 

" I cannot with accuracy give the date when Irish Terriers first made their advent upon 



128 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

the show-bench. I believe it was some time about 1870. At Dublin, in 1873, Mr. J. 
O'Connor's bitch Daisy won one of the first prizes given for the breed. Speaking of the 
breed at Newtownards Show, in 1874, where a class Avas given for 'Irish Rough Terriers,' 
the reporter says: 'We were much struck with the Irish Rough Terriers, a "varmint" 
looking lot of beggars, which well deserve a corner at any of our shows. They quite repaid 
our visit, by the way, and " widened " our experience of the genus terrier. A Dubliner 
present said " he'd loike to see ere a dog that 'ud bate thim." The pick was acknowledged 
to be Mr. Morton's " Fly," the first prize bitch. She is a compactly-built, hard-haired, 
yellow terrier, about 18 Ibs., with a face speaking kindliness, wisdom, and pluck.' The 
' Fly ' here spoken of had a very successful show career, and was the first one of the 
breed that earned the title ' Champion.' She was also a remarkably game bitch, and I 
will allude to her later when I discuss the qualities of the breed. At Dublin, in October, 
1874, it is said there were a few good ones in the class. At Lisburn, in May, 1875, the 
dog Stinger, about which there has been so much discussion, won. It is beyond a doubt 
that Stinger was not of the present recognised type, he was long-backed and short-legged ; 
a dark blue grizzle-coloured back, tan legs, and white turned-out feet ; in fact, full of Scotch 
blood. His head and the texture of his coat were his only redeeming points. There were a 
better sort in the class than Stinger, and if, as I believe, Old Sport was there, he un- 
hesitatingly should have won. 

" The Irish Terrier is a very intelligent dog and most lively and amusing companion. 
He is equally suitable for town and country. He is a mine of fun for a country ramble, 
putting up everything he comes across ; and there is no better terrier than a well-broken 
Irish for a quiet ramble round the fields with your gun. Mr. Despard aptly describes him 
as ' the poor man's sentinel, the farmer's friend, and generally the gentleman's favourite," 
they are such merry, rough-and-ready looking fellows, and the dash of the ' devil ' they 
all carry in their bearing makes them very attractive to terrier lovers. 

" Mr. Erwin says, ' There are some strains of them that will hunt stubble, or, indeed, 
any kind of field or marsh, quartering their ground like a Setter or Pointer, and, more- 
over, standing on their game in their own style. When a lad I had a dog of this breed, 
over which I have shot as many as nine couple of snipe, and have been home in good 
time for school at ten o'clock A.M. There was little time for missing on the part of 
either of us, and the dog did not make a single mistake. The colour I like best is a 
yellowish-red.' 

" Irish Terriers are not quarrelsome, but can and will take their own part if set upon, the size 
of the aggressor no object. Ballymena having sent more Terriers to the show-bench than 
any other locality that I know of, and this breed of dog having been a favourite here since I 
remember dogs, I have had a good opportunity of studying them, and think more highly of 
them the longer I know them. Their great merit lies in the following qualities : 

"Pluck. Irish Terriers are remarkably good-tempered, and can be implicitly relied 
upon with children ; they have this peculiarity, that they often appear shy and timid, 
but their true nature soon flashes out on occasion. Some of the pluckiest I have owned 
have had this peculiarity of appearing often timid, such as the late Tanner, Sporter, Banshee, 
Belle, &c. It is almost superfluous to speak of Irish Terriers' pluck ; they are the Bull- 
terriers of the sister isle, fear is unknown to them ; they are not only plucky as a breed, 
but individually. It is their fear-nothing natures that make them so suitable for use against 
the larger vermin. There are too many instances of their pluck on record to enumerate 







cr 



00 

ce 



COURAGE AND HARDIHOOD. 129 

them. Mr. W. Graham, writing in the Live Stock Journal, says : ' In disposition the Irish 
Terrier is very tractable, steady at work, and easily kept under command, compared with 
other breeds possessing the same amount of courage ; I am sorry to say they are kept by 
some parties for fighting purposes. I once went to purchase pups, when the owner insisted 
upon me seeing the dam, a champion bitch (the Fly already spoken of), draw the badger 
before taking away my purchase ; and I know a prize dog lately killed a badger before his 
hold could be removed. Again, I know a bitch puppy under nine months that killed the 
first cat she ever saw, and in a very short time.' Mr. Galloway writes : ' My Irish Terrier 
bitch (Eily O'Connor, by Sporter) jumped into the river Logan to retrieve in the month of 
January last, at which time the river was half frozen over, when my Retriever refused point- 
blank to go, although he saw the duck drop, and the said Retriever boasts of England's 
best blood by sire and dam.' 

" Rabbiting. Looking at them as workmen, rabbiting must first be mentioned. This is 
their special function, and there are few things I can imagine so enjoyable as a day's ferreting 
with a couple of Irish Terriers. Rely upon it, their quick noses never make a mistake ; they 
never pass a burrow where a bunny lies, nor do they stop a second at an empty one ; and 
once the ferret in, bolt the rabbit ever so rapidly, he'll not escape the attention of the wild 
Irishman waiting outside for him. It is marvellous the pace these dogs go ; their action repre- 
sents the level sweep of a thorough-bred, and their powerful hind legs propel them forward 
at an enormous rate. It is only when one sees them at full speed that one can understand 
the necessity for insisting upon their peculiar build. Hunting in the furze, they fear 
nothing, but boldly push in through brambles, pricks, &c,, that would make a thin-skinned 
dog yell out with pain. At this work they are superior to the conventional Spaniel, 
who works too slowly and carefully, and his long, thick coat holds him often enough ; but 
the short, hard jacket of the red Paddies is no impediment, and they work about with a 
dash and fervour enjoyable to witness. Again, see them working hedgerows ; how assidu- 
ously and well ! You would never want to use another breed. 

" Stamina. They will bear any amount of hard work and rough usage ; constitution 
appears to never trouble them, they can give most breeds points for stamina. Mr. Graham 
says : ' As I work all my Terriers with ferrets, and require a good game dog, also a con- 
stitutionally strong one to work in winter for a whole day, and probably sit for hours in 
frost and cold should the ferrets lodge, I find no breed suits me nearly so well as Irish 
Terriers. They are more hardy, require less care, and are more free from disease than any 
other Terrier with which I am acquainted.' 

"Badger. At badger the Irish Terrier is not to be touched. No punishment frights them 
off", they will hold on till death. 

"Foxes. With regard to foxes, a well-known breeder writes: 'I have experience of five 
packs of Fox-hounds, and not one Terrier of any breed is kept in either kennel. When the 
varmint is earthed, some persons detach themselves from the crowd, and run to the nearest 
house where lives an Irish Terrier. They need not be trained nor specially bred ; they will 
do the work if Irish Terriers proper, without tuition. In the winter of 1874, in the county 
Louth, I was at the killing of five foxes. From the meet, at 9 A.M., until 3 P.M. there were 
three of them earthed, and these were unearthed by two different Irish Terriers, one 10 Ibs. 
and the other 27 Ibs. weight. The pack was owned by Viscount Massareene and Ferrard." 
I prefer to give these quotations, as they contain facts and not general remarks. 

" Otters. Here the Irish Terrier is in his element, and all his qualities are brought into 
17 



130 THE BOOK of- THE DOG. 

play love of the water, nose, pluck, and stamina. I quote an authority on this subject, 
Mr. Robert Dunscombe of Mount Desert, who says : ' I have had the pleasure of hunting 
two different packs of Otter-hounds, the former belonging to Mr. Johnson of Hermitage, 
and the latter to the Earl of Bandon of Castle Bernard, with both of which packs pure-bred 
Irish Terriers were used. I owned one, called Dandy, who would go to ground, challenge 
and bolt the largest otter out of any sewer, no matter how long or how wet. He, poor 
fellow, was poisoned by accident. This dog ran with Mr. Johnson's hounds, which were 
sold some years since. My present Terrier "Jessie," a pure Irish-bred one, of a light 
yellow colour, was given to me by a poor countryman, and her equal I never saw any- 
where. She has bolted otters innumerable, and has always shown extraordinary gameness. I 
may mention as a proof of her pluck that during a capital hunt with Lord Bandon's hounds 
some weeks since, while the otter was being pressed from place to place by the hounds, 
Jessie, winding him under a bush, dived under water and laid hold of him ; after a severe 
struggle she came to the surface half drowned, being badly bitten across the loins. The 
otter when killed weighed 20 Ibs.' 

" Water. I had Sporter and Moya Doolan hunting the creeks in the marsh-land in 
Essex for water-rats ; and it was a pretty sight to see them, one each side, working the 
banks, uttering no sound, only showing their excitement by their agitated sterns. As the 
rats dropped into the water, the dogs dived in after them. The Irish Terrier is as fond 
of the water and takes it as readily as a Newfoundland, and one enthusiastic owner claims 
a forty-five minutes' swim for a dog of this breed belonging to him. 

"Rats. Irish Terriers deserve no praise for their ratting qualities; it is pure instinct with 
them, they cannot help it, they rat as naturally as a bird flies. My Banshee II. killed her 
first rat with her milk teeth when she was only 12 weeks old. The following extract of a 
letter from Mr. Ridgway speaks for their ratting capabilities and intelligence: 'An incident 
which I think speaks volumes for the sagacity and wisdom of the old Irish Terrier breed, 
was written to me lately by a gentleman residing in the County Antrim (north of Ireland, 
where, I may add, I believe some very fine specimens exist, from all I hear), and it was 
regarding the performance of a bitch of this breed, named Jess, in his possession. On one 
occasion we were boring a bank for the purpose of bolting rats, and at one place a rat 
bolted. Jess, as usual, had him almost before he cleared his hole. Then came another and 
another, so fast that the work was getting too hot for Jess, when a happy thought seemed 
to strike her ; and while in the act of killing a very big one, she leaned down her shoulder 
against the hole, and let them out one by one, until she had killed eighteen rats. That 
Irish Terriers kill neatly I cannot say ; they kill not wisely, but too well. Your little 
Black-and-tan shakes the life out of the rat ; but the Irish Terrier's jaw is so powerful, 
he doesn't need to shake, but crunches them into purgatory. They always impress me 
with the idea that the game is not big enough for them, and they put too much energy 
in it.' 

" I consulted with Mr. Geo. Jamison, and the following scale of points on the whole 
fairly represents the opinions of us both : 

"Head. Long; skull flat, and rather narrow between ears, getting slightly narrower towards 
the eye ; free from wrinkle. Stop hardly visible, except in the profile. The jaw must be strong 
and muscular, but not too full in the cheek, and of a good punishing length, but not so fine 
as a white English Terrier's. There should be a slight falling away below the eye, so as not 
to have a Greyhound appearance. 



Po/.vrs OF THE IRISH TERRIER. 131 

" Teeth. Should be strong and level. 

" Lips. Not so tight as a bull-terrier's, but well-fitting, showing through hair their black lining. 

" Nose. Must be black. 

" Eyes. A dark hazel colour, small, not prominent, and full of life, fire, and intelligence. 

" Ears. Small and V-shaped, of moderate thickness, set well up on the head, and dropping 
forward closely to the cheek. The ear must be free of fringe, and the hair thereon shorter and 
generally darker in colour than the body. Until some decided action be taken against it, we are 
afraid cropping will prevail, for it undoubtedly imparts a smart appearance to a dog, thus giving it 
an unfair and unnatural advantage over an uncropped dog. In the days when Irish Terriers were 
used as fighting dogs, it was reasonable and advisable to crop them ; but now that they are used 
only as working Terriers, we should not deprive them of the protection nature has given them, 
and which they must so sorely stand in need of when under earth or in the water. A cropped 
dog should not be qualified to score any points for ears. Good ears must be bred for. Hair on 
face, of same description as on body, but short (about a quarter of an inch long), in appearance 
almost smooth, and straight. A slight beard is the only longish hair (and it is only long in 
comparison with the rest) that is permissible, and that is characteristic. 

"Neck. Should be of a fair length, and gradually widening towards the shoulders, well 
carried, and free of throatiness. 

" Shoulders and Chest. Shoulders must be fine, long, and sloping well into the back ; the 
chest deep and muscular, but neither full nor wide. 

"Back and Loin. Body moderately long; back should be strong and straight, with no 
appearance of slackness behind the shoulders ; the loin broad and powerful, and slightly arched, 
ribs well sprung, and well ribbed back. 

" The Hind Quarters. Well under the dog ; should be strong and muscular, the thighs 
powerful, hocks near the ground, stifles not much bent. 

" Stern. Invariably docked ; should be free of fringe or feather, set on pretty high, carried 
gaily, but not over the back, or curled. 

"Feet and Legs. Feet should be strong, tolerably round, and moderately small; toes 
arched, and neither turned out nor in ; black toe-nails are preferable and desirable. Legs 
moderately long, well set from the shoulders, perfectly straight, with plenty of bone and muscle ; 
the elbows working freely clear of the sides, pasterns short and straight, hardly noticeable. Both 
fore and hind legs should be moved straight forward when travelling ; the stifles not turned 
outwards, the legs free of feather, and covered, like the head, with a hard texture of coat as 
body, but not so long. 

" Coat. Hard and wiry, free of softness or silkiness, not so long as to hide the outlines of 
the body, particularly in the hind quarters, straight and flat, no shagginess, and free of lock 
or curl. 

" Colour. Must be ' whole-coloured,' the most preferable being bright red, next yellow, 
wheaten, and grey. White objectionable. It often appears on chest and feet ; it is more 
objectionable on the latter than on chest, as a speck of white on chest is frequently to be seen 
in all self-coloured breeds. 

"Size and Symmetry. Weight in show condition, from 16 to 24 Ibs. say 16 to 22 for bitches 
and 1 8 to 24 for dogs. The most desirable weight is 22 Ibs. or under, which is a nice stylish 
and useful size. The dog must present a gay, lively, and active appearance ; lots of substance, 
at same time free of clumsiness, as speed and endurance, as well as power, are very essential. 
There must be a 'racing build' about the Irish Terrier. 



132 THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

" Disqualifying Points. Nose white, cherry, or spotted to any considerable extent ; mouth 
much undershot or cankered ; colour brindle or very much white ; coat much curly or very soft. 

MR. GEORGE KREHL'S POINTS FOR JUDGING IRISH TERRIERS. 

Head ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Neck $ 

Shoulders and chest ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Back, loin, and stern (including general make of body) ... ... ... 15 

Hind quarters ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Feet and legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Size ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 100 " 

The subject of our coloured plate is the well-known and very successful dog Sporter, the 
property of Mr. George R. Krehl. This dog was formerly the property of Messrs. Despard and 
Graham. Amongst his chief performances are: ist, Dublin; ist and cup, Newtownards ; ist, 
Londonderry, 1878. He measures, from nose to stop, 2j inches; from stop to occiput, 4^ inches; 
length of back, 14^ inches; girth of muzzle, 10 inches; girth of skull, 13 inches; girth of neck, 
12 inches; girth round brisket, 22 inches; girth round shoulders, 25 inches; girth of loins, 15^ 
inches; girth of thigh, 10 inches; girth of forearm, 5| inches; girth of pastern, 3| inches; height 
at shoulders, 16 inches; height at elbows, 9 inches; height at loins, 16 inches; height, hock to 
ground, 4f inches. His age is about 4 years, and his weight 22 Ibs. 

The following scale agrees in all points with Mr. Krehl's enumeration reduced, however, to 
simpler form, in accordance with the plan adopted throughout this work : 

POINTS OF IRISH TERRIERS. 

Head and ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... jo 

Coat and colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Back and loin ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Hind quarters and stern ... ... ... ... ... .,. 5 

Shoulders, neck, and chest ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Total ... ... ... 50 




CHAPTER XVII. 

THE SCOTCH TERRIER. 

THIS interesting breed of dog is supposed by very many of its admirers to have been the 
progenitor of the Irish Terrier, and is considered by them to have been introduced into the 
sister isle by emigrants from Scotland, who were accompanied to so their new residence by their 
faithful canine companions, who were destined to found the race of Irish Terriers. That there 
is ground for this impression we willingly admit, and as the head in certain characteristics 
approaches the Irish Terrier, we pass from one to the other, so that our readers may have a fair 
opportunity of comparing the two varieties. As the Scotch Terrier is so little known in the 
southern portion of these islands, and a class for this variety is a very uncommon institution at 
any shows, we consider ourselves fortunate in being able to lay the views of Mr. James B. 
Morrison before our readers. This gentleman has on several occasions judged the Scotch 
Terrier, and his knowledge of and connection with the breed has extended over several years. 
Mr. Morrison writes : 

" Every dog has his day, and, thanks to the continued efforts of a few admirers of the 
Hard-haired Scotch Terrier, there is every likelihood of ' Scottie ' being better known and 
more appreciated, both by authorities on canine affairs and the public generally, than he 
has been since the advent of dog-shows. 

" The designation hard-haired Scotch Terrier implies the existence of softer haired varieties, 
and these we find in the Skye and Dandie Dinmont. Fanciers of these two terriers can, 
no doubt, recognise their favourites in fusty books of ' ye olden time ; ' and without denying 
them the satisfaction of an inconceivable antiquity, it requires no great stretch of imagination 
to suppose, that at a time considerably posterior to the Cambrian period, the three varieties 
mentioned might have appeared under our present heading, having had a common origin, 
just as the short hard-haired, and longer and softer coated, together with the bob-tailed variety 
of Sheep-dog, are believed to have sprung from the same stock. 

" It is more than likely that the subject of this chapter was the original Terrier of 
Scotland, from the fact that the hard, short coat could not have been produced from the 
Skye or any other longer haired variety, without the presence of a smooth-coated dog ; 
and we know that, with the exception of the Blue Paul a dog about forty-five pounds 
weight, bred at Kirkintilloch, which has come and almost gone within the last century and 
a half there was no smooth-coated species indigenous to the Highlands, or Islands of 
Scotland, or even known to Lowlanders as a Scotch dog. It may be advanced that the 
hard, short coat is the result of judicious selection, but against this theory stands the fact, 
that in the Scotch Terrier era these dogs were used exclusively for work, and the great 
object in breeding was to produce an intelligent, plucky terrier, of a useful size, with a 
long powerful jaw, broad deep chest, and strong loins ; colour, length of coat, carriage, &c., 
being secondary considerations a course followed in certain quarters to this day. Such a 



134 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

specimen as ' The Shipwrecked Poodle," which has become quite historical in the canine 
world, and who was blamed for the introduction of the silky-coated Skye, might, on the 
other hand, if crossed with the Scotch Terrier, produce a dog not unlike the modern 
Skye. 

" In ferreting out the origin of the Scotch Terrier, we are reminded of the greater 
antiquity claimed for an inventive Scion of the Macleods for his clan over the Macgregors. 
Macgregor approached the ante-diluvian period as nearly as the Macleods' credulity, and 
his own connection with the Auld Kirk would permit ; however, his opponent settled the matter 
to his own satisfaction at least, with the query, ' Did you'll ever know a Macleod that had 
not a poat of her own?' Whether or not the Macleod saved from the wreck of nature a 
brace of Scotch Terriers in ' her poat,' is ' not proven,' but they were known, and better 
known than they are to-day, at a time when we were indebted to ballad-singers for 
rescuing our own history from oblivion. The best Scotch Terrier authorities of our day are 
the more veteran of our Highland crofters and keepers, men who, unfortunately, were 
compelled to keep these terriers for the extermination of vermin, or, at least, to enable them 
to hold their own. We learn from this source that they were found in considerable numbers 
all over the islands and the mainland in the North-west of Scotland in the beginning of 
the present century. 

" This is a terrier peculiarly adapted for the work cut out for him, in unearthing such 
vermin as the fox, otter, badger, wild cat, &c., than which the gamekeeper and farmer have 
not more indefatigable poachers to contend against. 

" Dealing with such ticklish customers in their strongholds among the rocks, boulders, 
and cairns, or burrows, is no light task, but in the Scotch Terrier we have the assistance 
of an able and ever-willing ally, who, having a remarkable nose, gives tongue at once on 
the scent, following it up to the lair with spirit, where he works silently in on belly or 
side, if need be, till close upon the enemy, when outsiders can hear that the real work has 
begun. 

" When he has heavy mettle to deal with, unless assisted by a pack, who rarely allow 
the foe to die from home, he compels the varmint to bolt for a reckoning outside ; if the 
struggle is severe or protracted, the terrier who has borne the brunt may be seen coming 
panting to the open air for breathing space, bringing with him evidence of the severity of 
the combat ; however, the sounds of war are too much for him, and indifferent to the 
kindly attentions of his master, he returns to the charge the embodiment of determination 
and excitement. 

" Many a gallant little dog has found his grave in the maze of these cairns, the result 
of the encounter in many cases turning out to be a Cadmean victory, where a terrier either 
loses himself in the labyrinth of passages and crannies, or jumps over the ledge of a rock 
which he cannot ascend again, when he is entirely out of his master's reach. In some 
instances food can be thrown in to him from day to day until the boulders are removed 
or blasted, but this is not always practicable ; if in a burrow, a few hours may suffice to 
dig him out if within call at all, although numbers are buried alive, paying for their temerity 
with their life. 

" Working dogs are best studied in the field, being out of their element at the end of 
a yard and a half of chain on a show-bench ; and a day spent on the Highlands with a 
keeper and his gang of terriers is fraught with interest and instruction to an admirer of the 
hardy tyke. 



POINTS OF SCOTCH TERRIERS. 135 

"When off duty unlike the shambling drawing-room terrier out for an airing he is 
sprightly, vigorous and gay, full of life and activity, the slightest attention paid him 
occasioning the most demonstrative delight ; no day is too long for him ; he is naturally 
mild-tempered and under ordinary circumstances not quarrelsome, although able to hold 
his own in an 'emergency;' he is a wonderful follower, even in puppyhood, a very 
valuable qualification when introduced to city life. 

" The comparative scarcity of vermin in the Highlands shows how effectually the Scotch 
Terrier has done his work, and the recent neglect of this hardy little mountaineer may 
be attributed to the very fact that he has in a great measure outlived his occupation. 

" While advocating the judging of working dogs by their performances in the field principally, 
it is necessary to erect a general standard of excellence for awards in the ring, and this can 
best be arrived at by a careful study of the points necessary to enable each breed to fill in 
the most efficient manner the sphere it has to occupy. I give the following description of 
the general appearance and points of the Hard-haired Scotch Terrier from dogs acknowledged 
to be good specimens by veteran breeders, whose testimony being the outcome of personal 
experience is entitled to be considered of the highest value ; these points have also been 
adopted by the present generation of Scotch Terrier fanciers as correct : 



POINTS OF THE SCOTCH TERRIER. 

" The General Appearance is that of a thick-set, compact, short-coated terrier, standing about 
9| inches high, with body long in comparison, and averaging i61bs. or i/lbs. weight for dogs, 
and albs, less for bitches; with ears and tail uncut. Although in reality no higher at shoulder 
than the Skye or Dandie Dinmont, it has a leggier appearance, from the fact that the coat 
is much shorter than in these two varieties. The head is carried pretty high, showing an 
intelligent, cheery face. 

"The Temperament. An incessant restlessness and perpetual motion, accompanied by an 
eager look, asking plainly for the word of command ; a muscular form, fitting him for the 
most arduous work ; and sagacity, intelligence, and courage to make the most of the 
situation, qualify the Scotch Terrier for the role of ' friend of the family,' or ' companion 
in arms ' amicus humani generis in a sense unsurpassed by any other dog, large or small. 

" The Head is longish and bold rather than round, and is full between the eyes ; it 
is free from long, soft, or woolly hair, or top-knot, and is smaller in the bitch than 
in the dog. 

" The Muzzle is a most important point, and should be long and very powerful, tapering 
slightly to the nose, which should be well formed, well spread over the muzzle, and 
invariably black ; there must be no approach to snipishness ; the teeth should be perfectly 
level in front, neither being under or over shot, canines fitting well together. A mouth off 
the level should not altogether disqualify, as this fault is often met with in the very best 
blood ; however, it must always be considered very objectionable. The roof of the mouth 
is almost invariably black. 

" The Eyes are very small, well sunk in the head, dark hazel, bright and expressive, 
with heavy eyebrows. 

" The Ears are very small and free from long hair, feather, or fringe ; in fact, as a 
rule, rather bare of hair ; they are either carried erect, or semi-erect, the latter preferred for 
a workman never drop-eared and never cut. 



136 



THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 



"The Neck is short, thick, and very muscular, well set between the shoulders, and showing 
great power. 

" The Chest and Body. The body gives an impression of great strength, being a com- 
bination of little else than bone and muscle. The chest is broad and deep ; the ribs flat 
a wonderful provision of nature, indispensable to a dog often compelled to force its way 
into burrows and dens on its side ; the back broad ; the loins broad and very strong ; 
this is a feature calling for special attention, as a dog in any degree weak in the hind 
quarters lacks one of the main points in this breed, and should on no account be used as a 
stud dog. The body is covered with a dense, hard, wet-resisting coat about two inches long. 

" The Legs. Fore legs are short and straight, with immense bone for a dog of this 
size ; elbows in same plane as shoulder-joints and not outside, the forearm being particularly 
muscular ; the hind legs are also strong, the thighs being well developed and thick, the 
hocks well bent and never straight. The feet are small and firmly padded to resist the 
stony, broken ground, with strong nails generally black. Although free from feathering, 
the legs and feet are well covered with hair to the very toes. 

" The Tail should not exceed 7 or 8 inches ; it is covered with the same quality and 
length of hair as the body, is carried with a slight bend, and should not be docked. 

" The Colour is various shades of grey, or grizzle and brindle, the most desirable colour 
being red brindle with black muzzle and ear-tips." 

From the above it appears that the Scotch Terrier, like his Irish relative, may be reckoned 
"dead game;" his temperament, however, is more vivacious than the somewhat stolid Irishman. 
Mr. Morrison has so thoroughly described the variety that we consider further remarks on the 
points unnecessary, and therefore adopt the above as a true description of the breed, merely 
giving a table by which the variety can be judged. 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING SCOTCH TERRIERS. 



Skull, shape, &c. 

Muzzle and teeth 

Eyes and ears 

Neck ... 

Body ... 

Feet and legs 

Coat 

General appearance, temper 



5 
10 

5 
5 
5 

5 
10 

S 
S 





cc 
a: 



q 

: 

. 



t- 
nc 
ul 

Q_ 
O 
CE 
Q. 



01 ' uJ 
Uj 



I 



. 
u 

g 



'27 



CHAPTER XVIil. 

THE SKYE TERRIER. 

THE Skye Terrier has certainly not improved its position in the canine world from the writings 
of its supporters : on the contrary, like its relative the Dandie Dinmont, it has suffered greatly 
from the intervention of fond though misguided friends. Many who have taken part from time 
to time in the various controversies which have arisen concerning the breed have certainly 
proved themselves masters of the subject upon which they wrote ; but the majority unfortunately 
appear to have devoted more energy to personal recrimination than to the Skye Terrier on whose 
behalf they rushed into print. However, all parties seem to agree upon two important points 
viz., the antiquity and the utility of the breed ; and the real point at issue appears to be the 
distinction admirers of this game little dog have drawn between the type usually most successful 
at our shows, and the type met with in various parts of Scotland. 

Before committing ourselves to any opinion on this important subject of dispute, it is 
desirable that our readers should be clearly informed what the duties of a Skye Terrier really 
are. It has been argued that he is par excellence the vermin dog of his country ; but this is 
naturally enough distasteful to, and contradicted by, the lovers of the Dandie Dinmont. Enough 
has, however, been proved by his supporters to convince all who are interested in but do not 
know the Skye that he is certainly a game, hardy little dog, sagacious in hunting, and death 
on all vermin. His suitability for going to earth, too, is beyond all question, and his constitution 
and formation must specially adapt him for the climate of his native country. A dog possessing 
so many recommendations must naturally be popular in the localities where he is mostly found ; 
and therefore it is a matter of small surprise that he is so largely patronised by keepers and 
sportsmen in a small way who reside in the northern portion of our island. 

All being therefore agreed upon his duties, it is only natural that there should exist many 
differences of opinion on matters of detail one party contending for one type of dog, and others 
for an animal different in many important points. The greatest diversity of opinion, however, 
appears to exist between those called upon to officiate as judges on the one hand, and the 
owners of types which as a rule are unsuccessful competitors at our shows, on the other. The 
former as a rule award their substantial support to long low dogs, with plenty of good long 
harsh coat, who are admittedly handsome specimens of the breed to which they claim to belong. 
Owners of what they are pleased to style the "genuine Skye Terrier," on the contrary, 
often object in no measured terms to the prizes being awarded such dogs, and with some 
show of reason point exultingly to the class of dogs commonly met with in Scotland, whose 
jackets, though certainly harsh and weather-resisting, do not approach in length and beauty 
those of their more favoured rivals. Here we confess we are unable to follow the latter's reasoning, 
and we cannot bring ourselves to believe that the promoters of such a theory have given due 
consideration to the facts of the case as it stands before them. They appear to us to have 
quite lost sight of the natural improvement which care and attention, combined with superior 
diet and warm housing, is likely to bring about in the coats of the show dogs they are wont 
18 



138 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to decry. We willingly grant that the working Skye Terrier is usually provided with an 
extremely weather-resisting coat, and that in some instances dogs of this breed have been 
awarded prizes who have certainly had jackets of a very soft and silky texture jackets, in fact, 
which would incapacitate them from working for a whole day amongst whins or brackens in a 
Scotch mist, and which are entirely opposed to the requirements of the best judges of the breed. 
Nevertheless, it must be borne in mind that the majority of our principal prize-winners are dogs 
which have been carefully prepared for the show-bench, and are bred from parents who them- 
selves had existed in more luxurious homes than the rough cottage of a Scottisli keeper ; added 
to which it should be remembered that exhibitors must have, from the earliest existence of 
shows, selected dogs to breed from which were supposed to be likely to develop beauty and 
improve the appearance of the race. Short rough coats are naturally harsher than long ones, 
but their wet-resisting capacity is more or less a matter of question when a comparison between 
the two has to be drawn. It is, nevertheless, as unfair to judge the show Skye Terrier by the 
standard by which the working dog is judged, as it would be to draw comparisons between 
a prize Colley and a shepherd's trusty tyke. Circumstances alter cases, even when dogs have 
to be considered ; and freedom from exposure, combined with careful grooming, must tend towards 
a growth of coat which it is impossible for a less-cared-for dog to develop. 

Another feature of difference which we have observed is the great length of body which 
the majority of show dogs attain ; and here another diversity of opinion exists between the 
extreme supporters of the two types. We have ourselves been warned by a Scotch keeper 
against favouring Skyes which, as he expressed it, " run to back ; " since he argued that a long 
dog finds more difficulty in his underground manoeuvres than a short one does. This reasoning 
we ineffectually ventured to convince him was opposed to that law of Nature, which has ordained 
that so many animals which inhabit earths should be low and long. For our own part, however, 
we unhesitatingly adhere to the claims of a long-bodied Skye, and believe our opinion is shared 
by nine-tenths of the breeders of this variety of dog. 

The Skye Terrier as a companion has few rivals. Though generally speaking of a peaceful 
disposition, he will not shirk an encounter, and if thoroughly aroused, defends himself most 
gamely against a larger dog. He is not impetuous, as so many dogs which possess Bull blood 
are known to be, but is always on the alert and ready for business. This renders him an especially 
useful dog for guarding dwellings of a night, as his vigilance is extreme, and he can be depended 
on to warn the inmates of the approach of strangers. It is however in rabbiting or in the 
pursuit of vermin that the merits of a Skye are most thoroughly displayed. Game to excess, 
he seldom lets his keenness get the better of discretion, and the intelligence he evinces in watching 
an earth where ferrets are working is unrivalled. No day seems too long for Skyes, and the 
way they work amongst brakes and thorns is incredible to those who have not seen them so 
employed. 

The origin of the breed is lost in obscurity, but it doubtless has been the subject of certain 
crosses at remote periods. The Rev. J. Gumming Macdona, of Cheadle Rectory, Cheshire, 
tells us of a celebrated strain of Skyes belonging to Lady Macdonald, which was known to be 
descended from white dogs which were wrecked on the coast from a Spanish ship. These 
white dogs were probably of Maltese extraction, and this may possibly account for the undesirable 
silkiness of texture of coat, to which we have already alluded, in some dogs now before the public. 
The wreck, however, took place nearly three hundred years ago, and therefore it is not unlikely 
that the traces of so undesirable a cross have been obliterated. It is nevertheless a fact that 
for many generations certain strains have been most jealously guarded by their owners, and 



POINTS OF THE SKYE TERRIER. 139 

that several of our winners have descended from them, though in not a few instances foreign 
blood has been introduced into the latter's veins. 

Certain writers on the subject of Skye Terriers credit the breed with a love of solitude, and 
a desire to hide themselves from the approach of strangers, by crouching under hedges and in 
ditches or drains. We question whether this is not more from a fondness for sport than 
solitude, for the Skye is a born sportsman, and is quite sharp enough to know without much 
teaching that there is more chance of encountering vermin single-handed by keeping quiet in a 
corner than by ostentatiously laying siege to the beast in his own quarters. Others who have 
laid their views before the public draw attention to many ramifications of the breed under various 
denominations. Amongst the latter, the terms Mogstads, Drynocks, and Camusennaries, are 
applied, with a result which we venture to think would bewilder the majority of Skye breeders. 
The most rational view to take, when considering any such subdivisions, is to regard them all 
as different strains of the same variety, each of which strain has been the subject of such pride 
to its possessor, that he has, by following certain rules of breeding, so moulded the original 
dog that certain slight differences are manifest in the appearance when they are compared with 
other equally pure strains. The very support which is given to such different families of 
Skyes and it may here be remarked that many of their supporters belong to the number 
of those who are the bitterest enemies of the " show Skye " is a powerful argument in favour 
of the latter being a true Skye, which has been improved by the judicious selection of mates 
into the handsome animal it is. Skyes, at least working Skyes, are not the things of beauty 
some of their admirers would make us believe. They are essentially useful members of society, 
and as such can afford to look down upon less favoured breeds. 

There arc admittedly two distinct varieties of Skye, namely, the Prick-eared Skye, and the 
Drop-eared Skye. There are, in our opinion, other essential differences between the breeds. In 
some instances they have been paired together, and have produced good offspring; but, as a 
rule, the cross is not a very judicious one. Amongst the different characteristics of the two 
varieties are the length of back, which is, as a rule, longer in the drop-eared variety. The 
coats are, or ought to be, the same, though it has often struck us forcibly that the drop-eared 
ones are more inclined to be soft and silky in texture than their relatives. 

Before entering into a description of the breed, it is right that some allusion should be 
made to the Skye Terrier Clubs. Both societies were formed for the avowed protection of 
the true type of Skye, and at the outset their lists of members contained the names of many 
well-known writers on the breed. However, neither one nor the other has come to the front 
in the manner that the Dandie Dinmont Club has done, and we are not aware if either exists 
at the present day, as no reports of their movements have appeared for many months. 

As regards the points of the breed, our idea of the beau idM of a Skye Terrier is as follows : 

Head. Long, with a broad flat skull, stout punishing muzzle, with powerful jaws and 
strong, perfectly level teeth. It is a decided fault in a Skye to be either pig-jawed or 
undershot. The skull is rather narrow between the ears, which are set on high, and it gradually 
widens towards the eyes. 

The Ears, which, as we have before stated, should be rather on the top of the head in 
the case of a drop-eared dog, should fall close to the side of the skull, and not stand away 
from it ; whilst in the prick-eared variety they must stand perfectly upright, as a falling 
or badly-carried ear is a great blemish. In the latter variety there is frequently a fringe of 
hair running up the sides, and terminating in a small tuft at the top, which gives them 
rather a too-heavy appearance. 



140 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The Eyes, which are certainly a great point in a Skye, as their intelligent appearance is 
remarkable, should be brown, and larger in size than in most terriers. This does not imply 
that they should be prominent, as if they were the dog would be more liable to accident 
when working underground. 

Neck. Long, powerful, and well coated with hair, especially on the upper surface. Shoulders 
sloping and powerful. 

Fore legs. Very short and muscular, well set on under the dog's body. 

Chest. Very deep, but not wide. 

Body. As long as possible, and well ribbed up, wide at ribs, and flat in the back. 

Hind legs.- Straight and short, and muscular. 

Stern. Carried low. 

Colour. Grey, grizzle, blue, silver-grey, and yellow or mustard colour. 

Coat. As hard, flat, and weather-resisting as it can possibly be got. Naturally both 
varieties should, like other rough-coated dogs, have an under-jacket, short and weather-proof, 
with which to effectually keep the snow and mist from penetrating their skins. 

The General Appearance is essentially that of a workman. The Skye is a long, low, well- 
knit little customer, with a good hard jacket, an intelligent but determined expression of 
countenance, and showing symptoms of a strong constitution, which would enable him to go 
almost anywhere, do almost anything, and rough it with his master in any climate. 

With regard to what we have alluded to as the working type of Skye to which category 
Mr. A. M. Shaw's Flora undoubtedly belongs we have received the following notes from her 
owner : 

" I object very much to a woolly or a curly coat such as Skyes are represented to have 
by certain writers on the dog. An animal with such a coat could not be a pure Skye. 
The outside coat should be straight or slightly wavy, and the hairs anything but woolly : 
in fact, coarse but glossy ; the underneath coat soft and thick, and not coarse as in the 
outer." (This corresponds with Mr. W. W. Thomson's description of the under-jacket of the 
Sheep-dog in a former chapter.) " Personally I am opposed to the long-coated type, as I 
consider the long jacket to be a result of some impure cross to which the breed has been 
subjected. As regards the carriage of the tail, which is a point that I have frequently 
heard debated, I can confidently assert that the best Skyes I have come across were in the 
habit of carrying their tails high, except when being bullied for wrong-doing, or when their 
consciences have smitten them. Personally I can see little distinction between the two varieties, 
with the exception of the ears ; and this being so, can imagine no reason why Drop-ears 
and Prick-ears should not be judged in the same class. As regards the tufts of hair which 
so many judges consider to be indispensable adjuncts to the tips of a prick-eared dog's ears, 
I can only say that I have met many excellent specimens of undoubtedly correct pedigree 
whose ears have in no way differed from the drop-eared variety except in the carriage. 
My ideas have been gathered from what I have picked up in the North, and also from noted 
Skye breeders, including General Macdonald of Braelangvvell (himself a Skyeman), who bred 
my Flora and other undoubtedly good specimens of the breed." 

From a desire to give our readers every opportunity of judging for themselves between 
the merits of the two varieties the show type and the working type we have decided to 
give illustrations of each in this work. The dogs selected for the coloured plates are Mr. 



DIFFERENT TYPES OF SKYE TERRIERS. 



141 



Mark Gretton's Champion Sam and Mr. James Locke's Perkie ; whilst the dog for the 
wood-cut is Mr. Alexander M. Shaw's Flora, which is as good-looking a specimen of the 
working type as we have met with for some time. 

Sam is drop-eared, and was pupped 3Oth of August, 1873, and weighs 20 pounds; 
he is by Bowman's Tartar, out of Mr. Mark Gretton's Skye, and was whelped in 1873. 
Amongst his chief performances are First Darlington, first Nottingham, and third Manchester, 
1875; first Birmingham, 1876; first Carlisle, second Agricultural Hall, second Darlington, 
first Burton-on-Trent, second Alexandra Palace, second Manchester, first Birmingham, 1877 ! 
first Birmingham, first Bristol, first Burton-on-Trent, first Chesterfield, second Darlington, and 
extra Wolverhampton, 1879. He measures as follows: From nose to stop, 3 inches; from 




MR. A. M. SHAW S FLORA. 



stop to occipital bone, 5^ inches; length of back, 16 inches; girth of muzzle, 8 inches; girth 
of skull, 13! inches; girth of neck, 13 inches; girth round brisket, 21 inches; girth of chest behind 
forearms, 18 inches; girth of loins, 14 inches; girth of thigh, 7 inches; girth of forearm, 
5| inches; girth of pastern, 4 inches; height at shoulders, 10 inches; height at elbows, 
5| inches; height at loins, io| inches; height at hock, 3! inches; length of tail, without 
hair, 10 inches; with hair, 15 inches. 

Perkie, the bitch selected for illustration of the prick-eared Skye, is the property of 
Mr. James Locke, of Selkirk, N.B. Her pedigree is not known, and as she was only born 
in 1877 she has not yet been much seen on the show-bench. She has, however, proved 
her claim to be considered a good specimen by taking first prize at Glasgow in 1878. Perkie's 
measurements are Length from nose to stop, 3 inches ; from stop to occiput, sj inches ; 
length of back, 16 inches; girth of muzzle, 7| inches; girth of skull, 12\ inches; girth of 



142 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

neck, ii inches; girth round chest, 17 inches; girth of thigh, 9 inches; girth of forearm, 
$ inches; height at shoulders, 9 inches; height at elbows, 5^ inches; height at hock, 3^ 
inches ; length of tail, 8 inches. 

Flora, the specimen whom we have chosen to represent the working type of Skye, is 
the property of Mr. Alexander M. Shaw, of Chipping Barnet, Herts. She was bred by 
General Macdonald, of Braelangwell, by Fortrose, Rossshire, N.B., and is an excellent 
representative of his famous strain. As Mr. Shaw does not show, Flora has never appeared 
on the bench ; but even had she done so, it is not probable that her success would have been 
conspicuous, as she is confessedly of a different type to that which finds favour with the 
majority of the judges. Flora's measurements are From nose to stop, 2j inches ; from 
stop to occiput, 3^ inches; length of back, 17 inches; girth of muzzle, 8J inches; girth of 
skull, 12 inches; girth of neck, II inches; girth round brisket, 17 inches; girth round chest, 
16 inches; girth round loins, 15 inches; girth of thigh, 8i inches; girth of forearm, 4 inches; 
girth of pastern, 2f inches; height at shoulders, loj inches; height at elbows, 5i inches; 
height at loins, io-| inches; height at hocks, 3! inches; length of tail, 8| inches. 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING SKYES. 

Value. 
Skull, formation and strength of jaw ... ... ... 5 

Eyes and ears ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 5 

Teeth ... ... ... ... ... 5 . 

Length of back ... ... ... ... ... ... . . 10 

Legs and feel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Coat ..." ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

S 



THE ABERDEENSHIRE TERRIER. 

This breed of dog is considered by many competent judges to be merely a sub-variety 
of the prick-eared Skye. It is to our mind, however, clear that the Aberdeenshirc Terrier 
and the Scotch Terrier are identical animals, possessed of but very slight structural differences. 
It may appear inconsistent in us to express a difference of opinion with those who recognise 
various families of Skye Terriers under the various names alluded to in the last chapter, and 
yet notice the Aberdeenshire Terrier separately here ; but between the two cases there is this 
distinction that many persons affirm that an Aberdeenshire Terrier is a breed distinct from 
both the Scotch Terrier proper and the prick-eared Skye. For our own parts, we fail to see 
any such distinction as could justify their being classed in different varieties or judged by 
different scales of points; we therefore shall apply to this breed the standard by which the 
Scotch Terrier was to be judged, as we are of opinion that an undesirable confusion would 
thereby be avoided. 



143 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 

A DOG which has made vast advances towards improvement of type of late years is the 
Bedlington Terrier. Like the Irish Terrier, some few years back it was practically unknown, 
and, like the Irish Terrier, its existence on the bench is in a great measure due to the 
correspondence and support it received in newspaper columns. A few ardent dog-lovers, 
amongst whom the late Mr. Samuel Handley was eminently conspicuous, being struck by this 
dog's gameness and love of sport, determined to bring the merits of the Bedlington Terrier 
before the public, and having interested many persons by their letters on the breed, were 
at last successful in getting them classes at most of the principal shows. 

Unfortunately the support of the public at large has not hitherto extended much beyond 
affording prizes for Bedlingtons, and Geordie, the miner, is still almost alone in the possession 
of the breed. It is quite true that several north-country amateurs have patronised this dog, 
but it has only been in a lukewarm sort of way ; and the majority of the southern exhibitors 
who took it up have quickly abandoned the Bedlington in favour of other breeds. This is 
almost unexplainable, for its merits as a companion and a vermin dog rank very high. Some 
are certainly rather short in their tempers, but so it is in every breed, and we have met with 
scores of Bedlingtons who will compare in temper with any variety. The more natural deduc- 
tion to be drawn from the want of support which has been accorded this breed is that it 
is not an easy thing to get hold of a good strain of Bedlingtons without great expenditure 
of time and money. Miners are not able to show their dogs often, and even if they did so, 
are devoted enough to them to decline to let them go on any terms. An admirer of the 
breed, therefore, who purposes going in for it to any extent, will have to search the Newcastle 
and Blaydon districts thoroughly before he is likely to get together a stud of dogs which 
will do him credit. A Norfolk gentleman who had invested largely in the breed some time 
back, and who was pretty successful in his show operations, told us that though he had got 
together a nice strain of dogs, yet the difficulties he found put in the way of his obtaining 
crosses had determined him to give it up. He most sensibly remarked that it was useless 
to commence the foundation of a new strain without a dash of one or two of the best old blood 
in it, and as lie could not be positive that this would be obtainable at the time he wanted it 
he did not care to risk a probable failure at the end of one or two years' breeding 
operations. 

Though the breed may not be so popular as others with " doggy " men throughout the 
country, it is nevertheless certain that in its own district its merits meet with due recognition. 
In Newcastle and its environs almost every man has a "poop," and that "poop" is certain 
almost to be a Bedlington. In the company of his trusty tyke, the miner when off duty is 
supremely happy. They hunt or poach together, fight together, sleep together, and not unfre- 
quently drink together ; it is no uncommon sight to enter the tap-room of a. north-country 
public-house and see as many dogs as men in the room, and all apparently equally interested 
jn the evening's proceedings. The greatest insult which can be put upon such a master is a 



144 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

reflection upon his dog's appearance or gameness ; and as for illtreating them, a stranger had 
better injure " Geordie " than hurt his dog. " If thau poonch ma dog, 'arl poonch thee " is 
proof of the miner's love for his Bedlington, and is no uncommon threat in the neighbourhoods 
where this breed is mostly found. 

The quality of the Bedlingtons now shown is undoubtedly superior to that of some years 
back, when at the most six or eight fairish specimens could be got from home to contend at 
our shows. The earliest supporter of the breed was the late Mr. Thomas J. Pickett, of New- 
castle-on-Tyne, whose Tyneside and Tynedale were almost invincible in their day at the 
principal canine exhibitions. Mr. Pickett gained such a name for the excellence of his dogs 
that he was christened by his acquaintances the Duke of Bedlington. He died, however, in 
1877, and since then the head of Bedlington affairs has been the Bedlington Terrier Club. 
It is, we believe, in a great manner due to the energy of the Bedlington Terrier Club that 
the popularity of the breed has been kept up of late years. For this society did not stick 
at expense, and boldly sent their dogs to the leading shows, thus keeping them well before 
the public for the time being. 

As regards the origin of the breed, and its various crosses, considerable discussion has 
arisen from time to time in the columns of the Live Stock Journal. For instance, Mr. Thos. 
J. Pickett, writing to that paper in November, 1875, gives some evidence concerning his con- 
nection with the breed in the following words : 

" Whilst a schoolboy, I recollect one day wandering through the woods of the Brandling 
estate of Gosforth, in the county of Northumberland, gathering primroses, where I met a 
woodman named David Edgar, who was accompanied by a northern counties Fox Terrier, 
and who gave me a whelp got by his celebrated dog Pepper. This whelp was the first of the 
breed I ever possessed. Being an ardent admirer of this description of dog, I followed 
up the breed, and have seen as many of them as most people, and also seen them tested. 
. . . . I have in my possession the original copy of Tyneside's pedigree, dated 1839, 
signed by the late Mr. Joseph Aynsley, who was one of the first breeders of this class of 
dog, and who also acted as judge at the first Bedlington show ; and quote the following as 
a description of what a northern counties Fox Terrier should be, viz. : 

" ' Colour. Liver, sandy, blue black, or tan. 

" ' Shape. The jaw rather long and small, but muscular ; the head high and narrow, with a 
silky tuft on the top ; the hair rather wiry on the back ; the eyes small and rather sunk ; the 
ears long and hanging close to the cheek, and slightly feathered at the tip ; the neck long 
and muscular, rising well from the shoulder ; the chest deep, but narrow ; the body well 
proportioned, and the ribs flat ; the legs must be long in proportion to the body, the thinner 
the hips are the better ; the tail small and tapering, and slightly feathered. Altogether they 
are a lathy-made dog.'" 

In the same number of the Live Stock Journal the following letter from an authority 
on the breed appears, and must be read with interest as expressing his views : 

" The Bedlington Terrier should be broad in the nostril, with a flesh-coloured nose, hazel 
eyes, long narrow head ; smooth in the face, much resembling the ferret ; the head surmounted 
with a silky tuft, large ear, rather narrow at the tips, slightly feathered round the edge, and 
lying close to the face ; long in the back ; rather coarse in the tail ; cleanish and not too 



ORIGIN OF THE BEDLINGTON TERKIEK. 145 

high in the leg; wiry in the coat; and weighing from 18 Ibs. to 20 Ibs. They were rather 
sleepy-looking dogs, but when shown were game and keen as any ferret. 

" I and all old fanciers prefer the Livers, which are the proper species, and were all the 
vogue in former times ; and in a conversation I had at one of the late exhibitions, with one 
of the old breeders of this variety of Terrier, relative to the blues, which are more commonly 
seen, and are all the fancy now, he said, when breeding them many years ago, he generally 
got one blue to six or seven livers in each litter ; and when asked what was done with the 
blues, he acknowledged that they all got a watery grave, as they were not the right colour, 
and were not in the fashion as they now are ; which was perfectly the case, as we would not 
rear any of them. 

"About thirty or forty years ago I remember well people crossing these Terriers with the 
Bull-terrier, in order that they might stand more wear and tear for fighting purposes, which 
were then so extensively sought. A few years after that they again crossed them with our 
Poodle dogs, so as to get linty-haired Terriers, which are now so often seen, and even winning 
prizes (for Bedlingtons) at all our leading exhibitions ; and when you look at them you will 
see they resemble very much the apple head of the Poodle, and upon placing your hand over 
the skull, you will find their bumps as large as any Bull-terrier. I have frequently seen those 
dogs when tried ; they might kill from four to half a dozen rats well enough, but when it 
came to taking hold of the eighth or ninth, they seemed so excited they tossed up in the air 
and appeared to be almost red hot. When asked to face the badger, they will go very fierce 
at first, but as soon as they com;: in contact with ' Broc,' they are generally seen to come 
faster backwards than they went in, which was not the case with our rc.il Bcdlingtons, as the 
more you gave them of any vermin, the keener and cooler they appeared to turn ; and when 
taken to the badger, they would never refuse, at least going five or six times, and always staying 
a considerable length of time, which is very seldom the case with dogs that are now called 
Bcdlington Terriers. 

" P-S. You will see I am speaking of the livers when mentioning the flesh nose, as all 
your readers will be aware that a blue has a black nose." 

In August, 1877, Mr. A. N. Dodds, of North Shields, who had been for some time- 
taking a considerable part in a correspondence which had been going on, published the 
following table of points and description of the breed, which was certainly the most elaborate 
published up to that time. Mr. Dodds writes as follows : 

" From the following it will be seen that I have divided the points into three head, 
body, colour, and tail. I contend that a good body is just as essential as a good head, 
and just as difficult to breed. I contend also that, under present circumstances, hard blue or 
liver hair is just as difficult to breed good as either. I am also well aware that as soon as 
they can be bred true to colour and hardness (then and not till then) the scale of points 
can be modified. It will also be seen that I have thrown in ' the tail/ thus giving preference 
to head and body properties. Some of the ' head ' properties are seldom, if ever, seen in 
such perfection as I give them, but I am laying down general rules, which I hope may be 
easily understood. 

" Skull. Narrow, parallel, and well rounded ; entirely free from flatness, and not receding, 
but extra high at occiput, and covered with a nice silky tuft. 

"Jaw. Long, tapering, and sharp; as little dent as possible between the eyes, no 'dLh,' 
19 



1 16 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

so as to form a line, if possible, from the nose-end along the joint of the skull to the occiput. 
The lips close-fitting, and no flew. 

"Nose. Large, broad and well-angled, the more acute the better. Blues have black 
noses, livers, Unties, sandies, have flesh-coloured. 

" Teeth. Pincher or over a little. 

" Ears. Large, well forward, flat to the check, and pointed, thinly covered and \vcli tipped 
with fine silk. 

" Legs. Tall, not wide apart, straight, stout, square set, very high behind, good sized 
feet. 

" Tail. Short, thick at root, tapering and scimitar-shaped, feathered on lower side. 

" Neck and Slioulders. Neck long, deep at the base ; shoulders flat. 

"Body. Short coupled, flat ribs and deep, not wide in chest, well-arched back, and well 
'clicked-up' loins, light quarters. 

"Hair. Hard and wiry, standing up, but not curled, each individual hair having its own 
twist, as if it had been slightly singed, and about an inch long. 

"Colour. Deep blue, deep brown, usually called 'liver,' linty, resembling loose flax, 
silkies of both blue and liver shade, and the commoner colours of bluc-and-tan and liver- 
and-tan. 

"VALUE OF PROPERTIES. 
Head- 
Skull 7 

Jaw 7 

Nose ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Teeth ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

33 
Body- 
Neck and shoulders ... ... .. ... ... ... 5 

Chest ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 8 

Short couples ... ... . .. ... ... ... 8 

Arched loins ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Legs ... 5 

- 31 

Tail 5 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Hair ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 

33 
100." 

Finally, we have ourselves been favoured by Mr. G. S. Waterson, of Bedlington, with the 
following description, which he considers a proper one of the breed, and which opinion is 
shared by the leading Bedlington Terrier men in his part. 

" The Bedlington Terrier should be rather long and small in the jaw, but withal muscular ; 
the head high and narrow, and crowned with a tuft of silky hair of lighter colour than the 
body ; the eyes must be small, round, and rather sunk, and dull until excited, then they are 
piercing; the ears are filbert-shaped, long, and hang close to the cheek, free of long hair, 
but slightly feathered at the tips ; the neck is long and slender, but muscular ; the body 
well proportioned, slender, and deep-chested ; the toes must be well arched ; legs straight, 



COLOURS OF BEDLINGTONS, 147 

and rather long in proportion to the height, but not to any marked extent ; the tail varies 
from eight to twelve inches in length, is small and tapering, and free from feather. The 
best, and indeed only true colours are liver or sandy in either case the nose must be of a 
dark-brown flesh-colour ; or, secondly, a black-blue, with the nose black.'' 

On reading the above opinions of such well-known authorities, it will be observed that 
for the most part the liver colour is preferred by them to the blue which is now so fashionable. 
Whether the former shade has become rarer from a change of tastes on the part of Bedlington 
breeders, or whether it is merely a coincidence that so few good liver-coloured specimens happen 
to be shown just at present, we are unable to say ; but the fact remains, that of late high-class blue 
Bcdlingtons outnumber the good liver ones in the proportion of about fifty to one. The only 
really first-rater of the latter colour which we can call to our mind as figuring prominently at 
recent exhibitions is Mr. William Norris's Elswick Lass, which is an admirable Bedlington, and 
considered by several competent judges to be the best out. It is remarkable, however, that 
ten years ago the blue colour was not only unfashionable but positively unpopular, one of the 
earliest writers on the breed describing the shade of the coat as " veiy much like dressed flax." 
There were, and had been, nevertheless, many good specimens of the darker colour which 
kept pushing themselves forward as well-shaped Bedlingtons, and it is noticeable that the 
mother of the celebrated Piper, the property of Mr. Ainsley, was a blue-black bitch, but 
possessing a light-coloured top-knot. Both Piper and his mother Phoebe were considerably 
lighter in weight and smaller in stature than the dogs of the present day, the former only 
scaling about 15 pounds, and the latter weighing one pound less. These dogs existed about 
sixty years ago (viz., in 1820), when Phoebe was left by her then owner, Mr. J. Howe, with 
Mr. E. Coates at Bedlington vicarage. Piper himself is referred to by one of his admirers as 
being of the good " old-fashioned liver colour." With regard to the gameness of Piper, we may 
refer to some of his doings which appeared in a sporting paper in 1870, and which are 
extracted by one of its correspondents from a document signed Joseph Ainsley : 

" With regard to the doings of Piper, it would take a volume to contain them ; but I may 
mention that he was set on a badger at eight months old, and from that time until he was 
fourteen years old was constantly at work, more or less, with badgers, foxes, foulmarts, otters, 
and other vermin. He drew a badger after he was fourteen years old, when he was toothless 
and nearly blind, after several other Terriers failed." 

Piper's pedigree having been so much discussed, we are of opinion that a reproduction of 
it here may be of interest. The table given beneath is the work of Mr. Wm. Clark, who has 
been at considerable trouble in tracing the pedigree of his dog Scamp, who, as will be seen, 
is a descendant of the famous Piper. 

"PEDIGREE OF BEDLINGTON TERRIERS FROM 1792 TO 1873. 

" William Clark's Scamp, father of the celebrated prize Terriers Tearem and Tyne ; Scamp 
by Joice's Piper, and out of Clark's Daisy ; Piper by Robert Hoy's Rock ; Daisy by John 
Curley's Scamp, Piper and Daisy both out of Clark's Meg; Meg by Clark's Billy, and out of 
Clark's Wasp ; Billy by Will Cowney's Billy, and out of Wasp, also ; Cowney's Billy, by James 
Maughan's Bussal, and out of a bitch of William Weatherburn's ; Wasp by Baglee's Viper, and 
out his bitch, Daisy ; Daisy by the Moor House Dog, Viper ; Viper was out of Thompson's 
Nimble, and got by Thompson's Old Tip ; Nimble was got by Tip, and out of Baglee's Nimble ; 



[48 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Nimble was got by Joseph Aynsley's Young Piper and out of James Anderson's Meg ; Meg 
was out of Jean, sister to Young Piper, and got by Robert Bell's Tugg, of Wingate ; Tugg was 
got by Robert Dixon's Dusty, of Longhorsley, and out of John Thompson's Music of the same 
place ; Young Piper, by James Anderson's Old Piper and out of Mr. Coats's Phoebe ; Old Piper 
by Robert Cowan's Peachem, of Nock Law, and out of C. Dixon's Phoebe ; Peachem by 
Cowan's Burdett, and out of David Mortal's Bitch ; Dixon's Phoebe, by Sherwood's Matchem, 
and out of John Dodd's Phrebe, both of Longhorsley ; Matchem by Edward Donkin's Pinchen 
and out of Mr. Wardle's Bitch of Framlington ; Dodd's Phoebe, by Doncan's Old Peachem and 
out of Andrew Evan's Vixen, of Thropton ; Vixen by the Miller's Dog, of Felton, and out of 
Carr's Bitch, of Felton Hall ; Coats's Phoebe, by the Rennington Dog, and out of Andrew 
Riddle's Wasp, of Framlington ; Wasp, out of Wm. Wardle's Bitch, and got by Wm. Turnbull's 
Pincher, of Holy Stone ; Pincher, by Donkin's Old Peachem, and out of Turnbull's Venom ; 
Venom, out of Turnbull's Fan, by Miles's Matchem, of Netherwitton ; Matchem, by Squire 
Trevelyan's Old Flint. It will be 90 years since Flint was pupped. 

" N.B. Andrew Riddle's Wasp and the Rennington Dog were brother and sister. 

(Signed) WM. CLARK." 

Another writer alludes to the gameness of the breed, and its eagerness in the pursuit 
of vermin, in the following anecdote : 

" A fox was run to ground near Edlingham, and a mason there had two of these Terriers, 
father and son. The younger dog (about twelve months old) was put into the hole to try him, 
but could not kill the fox. Although advised not to do so, the man put in the old dog also, 
which, not being able to reach the fox, actually seized and killed the young dog, and then 
reached and killed the fox." 

Such instances certainly prove the gameness of this handsome and very interesting breed 
of dog, and are worth repeating, as they may be the means of inducing sportsmen who appre- 
ciate the merits of a good working Terrier to give the breed a trial. The Bedlington has very 
erroneously been given the character of a savage, headstrong dog, and one which is likely to 
get his owner into trouble if allowed to follow him in his walks. All those, however, who know 
the breed well, and with whom we have spoken on the subject, are unanimous in denying the 
accuracy of this statement, which they affirm is quite destitute of foundation in fact. 

As regards the origin of the breed, there are of course numerous theories, all more or 
less practicable, but none which is universally accepted as correct. For our own part we are 
of the opinion that both the Dandie Dinmont and the Otter-hound have been pressed into 
the service at one time or another. We consider ourselves strengthened in our support of the 
belief in a Dandie Dinmont cross by the knowledge that formerly the breed was shorter on 
the leg than it is now, as latterly the pitmen found the short-legged dog too slow for coursing 
rabbits. One anonymous writer has given his opinion that in the earlier part of the century 
the length of a Bedlington from tip of nose to tip of tail averaged about thirty-six inches, whilst 
his height was about ten inches. Without, perhaps, going the length of this, it is an accepted 
fact that the breed has been of recent years bred higher in the leg than it was formerly. 

Amongst the most prominent men and dogs in the Bedlington world, the name of the 
late Mr, T. J. Pickett of Newcastle-upon-Tyne will always be conspicuously first. No man 
in his lifetime was more enthusiastic and unfailing in his support of the breed, and the 



POINTS OF THE BEDLINGTON. 149 

doings of his Tyneside, Tynedale, and Tearem, will never be forgotten. Col. Covven, 
too, of Blaydon-on-Tyne, has justly gained for himself great credit as a judge. Other 
well-known exhibitors are Messrs. Carrick of Carlisle, T. Stoddart of Blaydon-on-Tyne, the 
Rev. H. Turner of Norwich, Mr. Christopher Cornforth, Mr. W. Norris, Mr. W. J. Donkin, 
and the Bedlington Terrier Club, all of whom are, or have been, in possession of excellent 
specimens of the correct type of Bedlington Terrier. 

The Skull of a Bedlington should be narrow, and conical in shape, with a tuft of silky 
hair on the summit, and no stop. 

The Muzzle is straight, rather long and tapering, not blunt, and with tight lips, with a 
large nose, varying in colour, as the livers have light and the blues dark noses. 

The Jazvs are punishing, and are on no account to be underhung, but rather inclined to be 
" pig-jawed," or overhung. 

Ears. Rather large and fine, fringed with silky hair, and hanging perfectly flat to the head. 

Neck. Long. 

Chest. Narrow, with rather straight shoulders. 

Body. Short and arched in back, well ribbed up, and flat-sided. 

Legs. Long and very straight, well placed under the body, and on good-sized feet. 

Tail. Rather short, and feathered slightly. 

Coat. Hard and weather-resisting on body, with a soft tuft on head, as in the Dandie. 
Here it may be observed that unprincipled exhibitors often pluck their dogs' heads round 
this tuft of hair, to prevent its dimensions exceeding the orthodox size. Indications of this 
manipulation should be sought for by judges or intending purchasers, as a too large top-knot 
is a blemish in a Bedlington. 

Colour. Blue, liver, linty or sandy, in the different shades of each. 

General Appearance. A sharp, keen, active dog, fast when extended, and capable of being 
roused very easily. 

The dog we have selected for the coloured plate is Dr. Lamond Hemming's Geordie 
a dog of excellent appearance, his head especially being first-rate, though his experience of 
dog shows is limited to Bristol of 1879, where he succeeded in obtaining second prize. His 
measurements are Nose to stop, 3^ inches; stop to occiput, 5 inches; length of back, 17 
inches; girth of skull, 14 inches; girth of neck, 12 inches; girth round chest, 20 inches; girth 
of loins, 17! inches; girth of thigh, 9 inches; girth of forearm, S| inches; girth of pastern, 3^ 
inches; height at shoulders, 15 inches; height at elbows, 8 inches; height at loins, 16 inches; 
height at hocks, 5 inches; length of tail, 12 inches; weight, 24 Ibs. ; age, 18 months. 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING BEDLINGTONS. 

Skull, shape, &c. ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Muzzle and jaws ... ... ... ... 13 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Neck and chest ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body, arch loins, flat ribs ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total 50 



150 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE AIREDALE TERRIER. 

VERY many of our readers who are acquainted with the old Yorkshire Waterside Terrier will 
possibly fail to recognise him under his new denomination the Airedale Terrier. The change 
has been brought about since the institution of classes for the breeds at north country shows, as so 
much confusion was found to be caused amongst the exhibitors if the breed was not distinguished 
by some definite title. The existence of a dog resembling the Airedale Terrier has ever been a 
subject for astonishment to individuals in the southern part of the country, and a by no means 
insignificant mare's nest was discovered when the breed was brought for the first time beneath 
the notice of some of the least cautious of them, who strutted, and crowed a welcome to what 
they imagined to be a "new" breed of dog, discovered by themselves. An excuse may, 
however, be made for these much-ridiculed persons, as really in its own neighbourhood the 
breed has only of late years come to be considered worthy of practical and intelligent 
support. It existed certainly, and had existed for years and years, but the ownership 
of the majority of specimens rested in the hands of those who had little time, money, 
or inclination, to devote themselves to the science of breeding. Still, the breed grew 
and prospered, mainly owing to the exertions of a few unprejudiced practical persons, whose 
mode of progress will be alluded to hereafter. Before, however, going into the points and 
descriptions which have been so kindly afforded us by Mr. Reginald Knight of Chappel Allerton 
near Leeds, we may say that it has been our desire to lay the opinions, not only of Mr. Knight, 
but also of other successful breeders and exhibitors, before our readers. With this object, we 
requested Mr. Knight to oblige us by communicating with certain gentlemen, which he most 
kindly consented to do, and in addition provided us with the following notes, including his own 
experiences of the pluck and utility of the breed, which we gladly reproduce in cxtcnso. 

" This breed was originally bred from a cross between one of the old rough-coated 
Scotch Terriers and Bull-terrier. What I mean by the old Scotch Terrier is a dog weighing 
from 12 Ibs. to 22 Ibs., with a bluish-grey back and tanned legs, with a very hard and coarse 
coat. This cross, of course, did not produce a large dog, neither had the animal a very keen 
nose, so it was then crossed with Otter-hound, thus producing a large, ungainly animal, with 
big ' falling ' ears, and very soft coat. This was then crossed and re-crossed, first with the 
original cross, and then with Bull-terrier, to prodace a good terrier ear and good feet. This 
again was crossed with Otter-hound, the offspring not showing so much hound, neither having 
such a soft coat, but possessing a good nose for hunting, and a fondness for water as well as 
great gameness, both from the Bull blood as well as from the hound. Then this was crossed 
with Bull again, and then the offspring crossed and re-crossed with the terrier till it was brought 
up to the present standard. I ought to say that if you go to a show now you will find that 
fully two-thirds of the dogs in the Airedale Terrier class are dogs of ungainly appearance, with 
big hound ears and narrow long heads, also flat-sided and very badly built behind, as well as 
with a great weakness about the pasterns, causing the joint to give, and thus pressing the foot 



AIREDALE TERRIERS. 151 

out sideways. Also take half a dozen men who say they have a good Airedale over 50 Ibs. 
weight, and make them show their dogs, and you will find that five of them are fully three- 
quarters Otter-hound. 

" This breed was originally started from twenty to forty years ago by working men about 
Leeds, Shipley, Otley, Bingley, although many gentlemen had them, and in all the 
towns and villages in the valley of the Aire, hence the name 'Airedale.' They were used by 
them for water-side hunting after rats, water-hens, ducks, and in fact, anything that might turn 
up. They are also used for poaching hares and rabbits, the gates in the field being quietly 
netted, and the dog then sent in to ' seek up.' He would hunt the entire field over without 
ever a whimper, if properly trained to it. If broken to the gun they are one of the best 
sporting dogs out, as they will hunt, retrieve, and set and carry either 'fur or feather' without 
hardly a mark, and yet, if told, will chase and kill and almost catch anything. I need not 
tell you how game they arc, as many of them have been known to stand up for an hour 
and forty minutes to Bull-terriers. Thunder when only twelve months old was killing his first 
rat, and a bystander was not satisfied with the style, and said he had a dog that would eat 
Thunder and the rats too. He brought it out (Thunder then weighed about 45 Ibs., and 
had never fought or seen anything before) ; it was a white Bull-terrier, with marks about 
the head, chest, and fore-legs ; it weighed 36 Ibs., and had never been beaten. He 
slipped it at Thunder, who would not meet it, but stood for it ; it simply worried him for 
the first round, also the second and third, all being done in half an hour, at the fourth 
Thunder got his hold low down on the throat, and you heard the breast-bone go with a 
'crack.' Thunder was choked off, and the Bull-terrier died in two hours, of internal 
bleeding. Yet Airedales will never start fighting, and pass any dog in the street. As 
they are a dog that is constantly exposed to water and the weather, and always ready for 
any work hence their first name ' Working Terriers ' particular attention must be paid to the 
coat. The hair ought to be Jiard in texture, and broken or rough. It is a great deal 
harder to the feel than it really looks, being a good admixture of hard, bristly, and soft hair. 
You will not find many of the large dogs with really hard coats, because such a lot have 
been spoilt with the cross of Otter-hound as to the coat, but they are improving them every 
year. I might say a little more about their gameness and obedience. Thunder, after 
having first seen a live rat thrown over the rails of the new Leeds bridge at the bottom 
of Briggate, over the Airc, on being told to 'fetch it,' jumped over into the river after it, a 
distance of from 40 to 50 feet : and will go into the heaviest sea after a wounded gull. He 
will, if in a room with a fire in, if told to ' put it out,' rush at the fire, and scatter all over 
the room with his mouth and feet the whole of the burning coal and red-hot cinders, and 
has only once burnt himself with it, and that was with a very deep and narrow grate. They 
make first-rate 'night dogs,' and all mine will tell me at night by a low growl whether a 
man is anywhere near. I had an Airedale about six years ago that we used to keep in a two- 
stall stable with two horses, and we had occasion to send a new lad about eighteen years old for 
some rugs at night, and he thought, he said, he would look how the horses were, so he opened 
the door and walked in, but he did not get out again so quickly. Directly he turned to go 
out the dog was at him, but fortunately he had the rugs, and put them up, the dog caught 
hold of one and pulled it away from him, and was preparing for another spring when it seemed to 
change its mind, and went and lay down by the door and watched him. Every time he moved 
it growled, so he stood there for about half an hour, and then we thought he was a long time 
bringing the rugs, and went to see what he was about, when we found all the doors open, and 



J 5 2 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

him standing in one corner, with a white face, and one rug in his hand, the dog lying on the 
other rug near the door watching him. We called the dog away, and let the man out, and 
they are, or at least they were, very good friends. I must just say in conclusion that Airedale 
Terriers can kill anything, and will do anything. They can be broken to the gun, and 
broken to ferrets; they can go out ratting, and will not touch a rat in the net, they will 
drive sheep and cattle like a Sheep-dog, fetch and carry like a Retriever, hunt like a Spaniel, 
and are as fond of water as a duck, and as game as obedient. 

"If I were a 'fighting man' (in the dog line), I would not mind matching one in my 




AIREDALE TERRIER, THUNDER. 

kennels to fight any Terrier his own weight in England or, in fact, any dog his own weight. 
For cat-worrying, badger-drawing, or, in fact, anything at which gameness and staying powers 
are required, this is the breed which excels. 

"I give you a point table made up entirely from my own ideas, which I hope may be 
useful to you and appreciated by your readers : 



Head 

Ears 

Eyes 

Body 

Legs and feet 

Coat (including colour) 

Hind quarters 
General appearance . . . 



Total 



10 
8 
8 

26 

20 
IO 
20 

50 

'5 

9 

24 

100" 



POINTS OF A r RED ALE TERRIERS. 153 

We produce the above remarks of Mr. Reginald Knight, as from them, coming as they 
do from a practical man, our readers who are unacquainted with the breed will be able to 
see that the Airedale Terrier must certainly be placed amongst the front rank of those vermin 
Terriers which are, as a body, notorious for gameness and endurance. It was about the year 
1875 that the Airedale Terrier began to appear at local shows in the neighbourhood of 
Leeds, and since then the numbers of the exhibits have steadily increased, until at last they 
usually form one of the strongest classes. As a matter of opinion, we differ slightly from 
Mr. Knight in one or two of the numerical values which he attaches to the different points ; 
but we willingly give our allegiance to the following description, which Mr. Knight was con- 
siderate enough to lay before most of the leading admirers and judges of the breed on our behalf: 

" Head. Flat, and of good width between the ears. 

" Muzzle. Long, and of good strength ; the nose being black, the nostrils large, and the 
lips free from ' flews.' 

" Mouth. Level ; teeth large and sound. 

" Eyes. Small, bright, and dark in colour. 

" Ears. Thin, and somewhat larger, in proportion to the size of the dog, than a Fox- 
terrier's ; carried forward, like the latter's, but set on more towards the side of the head, and 
devoid of all long, silky hair. 

"Neck. Strong rather than neat, and free from dewlap and throatiness. 

" Shoulders. Well sloped. 

" Chest. Moderately deep, but not too wide. 

''Hind quarters. Square, and showing a good development of muscle. Thighs well bent. 

"Back. Of moderate length, with short and muscular loins. 

"Ribs. Well sprung and rounded, affording ample scope for the action of the lungs. 

"Legs. Straight, and well furnished with bone. 

"Feet. Round, and with no tendency to 'spread.' 

" Tail. Stout, and docked from 4 to 7 inches. 

"Coat. Broken or rough, and close and hard in texture. 

" Colour. A bluish-grey of various shades, from the occiput to root of tail ; showing a 
' saddle back ' of same, also a slight indication on each cheek ; rest of body a good tan, richer 
on feet, muzzle, and ears than elsewhere. 

"Weight. From 40 to 55 Ibs. for dogs, and from 35 to 50 Ibs. for bitches." 

The following gentlemen have signed their names to the following statement : 
" I agree to the above standard, and will base my decisions on it. 

"W. LORT, Fron Goch Hall, Dec. 9, 1879. 
"J. PERCIVAL, Birmingham, Dec. 3, 1879. 
"JOHN INMAN, Dec. 3, 1879. 
"S. W. WlLDMAN, Bingley, Dec. 9, 1879. 
JOHN FISHER, Dec. 3, 1879. 
EDWARD SANDELL, Dec., 1879. 
"J. SPEED, Dec. 3, 1879. 
JOHN CROSLAND, Junr., Wakefield, Dec., 1879. 
-CHARLES W. BRINSLEY, Dec. 10, 1879. 
-T. KIRBY, Dec. 9, 1879. 

" REGINALD KNIGHT, Chappel Allerton, Dec., 1879." 
20 



154 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

The standard having received the support and approval of the above and other judges 
and breeders, it is to be hoped that others will endeavour to reconcile their views to it, and 
that the Airedale Terrier will not suffer, as so many other Terriers have done, from a 
plethora of types, each judge at the same time advocating his own particular prejudices to 
the injury of the breed. 

The dog we have selected for illustration is Mr. Knight's Thunder, a first-rate specimen 
of the breed according to the above standard, and one whose good qualities have been 
already referred to by his owner in a former part of this chapter. Thunder is aged 
4 years, and weighs 52 pounds, and his measurements are : Tip of nose to stop, 4^ inches ; 
stop to occiput, 5f inches; length of back, 20 inches; girth of muzzle, 12 inches; girth of 
skull, 18 inches; girth of neck, 16 inches; girth round basket, 27 inches; girth round shoulders, 
25 \ inches; girth of loin, 22^ inches; girth of thigh, i6J inches; girth of forearm, 6| inches; 
girth round pastern, 41 inches; height at shoulders, 20} inches; height at elbows, 12 inches; 
height at loins, 2oJ inches ; height at hock, 6 inches. 

TABLE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING AIREDALE TERRIERS. 

Head, including eyes ... ... ... ... 10 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ^ 

Muzzle and jaws ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body I0 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... .,. ... ... I0 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 50 




155 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 

A NATION has been before now congratulated upon the non-possession of a history, and we 
are not at all sure in our own minds that the Yorkshire Terrier is not fortunate in finding 
itself in the same lucky category. So many breeds have been the subjects of acrimonious and 
narrow-minded disputes and petty quarrels, that a variety which has, comparatively speaking, 
been let alone, is certainly not to be commiserated with when it finds itself permitted to stand 
or fall on its own merits. Whatever the varieties of dog may have been which were called 
upon by breeders to combine and form the present beautiful Yorkshire Terrier, it is proved by 
results that the judgment of their earliest supporters was sound, and the trouble spent is amply 
repaid by the successful termination of their labours. There is no reference to be found in 
any of the earlier writers to a dog which resembles the modern Yorkshire Terrier, and we 
have, moreover, no recollection of ever having come across an admirer of the variety who 
claimed that the breed was anything but a manufactured article. It is surprising, therefore, 
when one comes to contemplate the immense amount of trouble that lovers of this remarkably 
beautiful dog. must have been at to produce such good results. It is freely admitted by 
almost all writers on dogs that judicious selection of parents can produce almost anything in 
the shape of dog-flesh ; but the difficulty always has been to get these productions to breed 
true, and obviate the inclination to throw back to some remote ancestor, which is so prevalent 
in all cross-bred creatures. The Yorkshire Terrier breeders seem to have overcome this 
obstacle by some means or the other, for though first-rate specimens are in this, as in other 
breeds, very difficult to obtain, there is an identity of type about the offspring of certain of 
the best strains which tends to prove that the breed is practically established amongst us, and 
may be looked upon as one of our national varieties of dogs. 

The origin of the breed is most obscure; for its originators Yorkshire-like were discreet 
enough to hold their own counsel, and keep their secrets to themselves. Whether this 
reticence on their part has had the effect of stifling the inquiries of curious persons, or 
whether the merits of the breed have hitherto been sufficiently unappreciated by the public, we 
cannot pretend to say ; but we are aware of no correspondence or particular interest having 
been taken on the subject of the Yorkshire Terrier's origin. In certain works on the dog 
however, deductions have been drawn which, no doubt, are more or less worthy of respect. 
The Black-and-tan Terrier, the Skye, and the Maltese, are all credited with the paternity of 
the Yorkshire Terrier. That the breed in question resembles the Skye in certain details is 
evident, but in many important points the two varieties vary widely. For instance, the back 
of the Yorkshire Terrier must be short and the back of a Skye Terrier long ; so, as regards 
shape at least, the Yorkshireman cannot be accused of a great resemblance to his Northern 
neighbour. In our eyes the breed much more closely resembles the Maltese dog, save in 
colour ; but there is no doubt but that some of our more typical breeds of Terrier have been 
also drawn upon for his production. Many persons who are ignorant on "doggy" subjects 



1 56 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

persistently confuse the Yorkshire with what they term the "Scotch Terrier" thereby meaning 
the Skye, we presume. There is, however, no visible ground or reason ever given for their 
opinions, which are certainly based on error, and ignorance of the subject. Before leaving the 
subject of the Yorkshire Terrier's origin, it may be remarked that the puppies are born black 
in colour, as are Dandie Dinmonts, and do not obtain their proper shade of coat until they 
are some months old. Searchers after the truth may here discover some connection, which 
we ourselves confess we do not, between the Yorkshire and Dandie Dinmont Terriers, in 
consequence of this peculiarity in the young of both varieties. 

Whatever the merits of an ordinary Yorkshire Terrier may be as a companion, it is not 
within the bounds of probability that many of the first-class show specimens are capable of 
much exertion out of doors, or attachment to their masters. The quality and extent of their 
coats must preclude them from venturing beyond the door-step in anything but the finest 
and dryest weather, whilst the additional disadvantage of being blinded by the hair which 
grows on their heads would render it impossible for them to pick their way about with any 
safety. The long hair on the forehead is, however, usually neatly plaited, save on state 
occasions, and much labour thereby saved the owner, though if left plaited too long without 
being undone it is liable to get broken and matted. 

The most careful attention which can be devoted to any dog is demanded by this 
Terrier, as the fineness of his coat makes it peculiarly inclined to tangle up and get out 
of order. It being too long to derive any material benefit from the application of the 
hair glove which is mentioned in the chapters on kennel management, a long, though not 
too hard, bristled brush has to be resorted to instead. The best design of brush is the 
pattern called " balloon"-shaped brushes, whose bristles are not of equal length, those in 
the centre being longer than the outside ones. The advantage of this shape is that there 
are no sharp corners to irritate the dog's delicate skin ; and it is easier to draw a round- 
surfaced brush through the coat, without causing injury to the hair and skin, than it is a 
flat one. Whilst referring to the delicate skin of this breed of dog, the unpleasant consequences 
arising from heated blood cannot be unnoticed. If a Yorkshire Terrier once commences 
scratching himself, and is not speedily and effectually prevented from continuing to do so, 
there will be very little chance of having him in show trim for a long time, for he will 
tear himself to pieces. To remedy this it is customary to tie up the feet in small bags 
of wash-leather, so that injury to the skin is not likely to be brought about if the animal 
scratches. It is, however, desirable to limit the cause of the evil as much as possible by 
providing suitable diet, which should be of a farinaceous and not heating quality. Milk 
biscuits, and bread steeped with vegetables in gravy, form an excellent food for toy dogs, and 
one upon which they will thrive wonderfully if at the same time properly looked after. 
Regular ablutions are also indispensable to their welfare and well-being, though we have been 
told by some exhibitors that they consider soap and water injure the texture and colour of 
the coat, and therefore they prefer to rely more upon careful and frequently-repeated 
grooming. 

Considerable difference of opinion exists amongst its supporters as to the correct weight 
of a Yorkshire Terrier, as many specimens are to be found from 4 to 5 pounds up to 14 or 
15, or even more. No distinct classes are usually made for this breed at the leading shows, 
which has doubtless in some way been responsible for this variety of opinion. As it is, the 
large dogs of the breed usually take their place in the class for "Rough-haired Toys other 
than Spaniels, Maltese, or Pomeranians," and the small ones find themselves relegated to 



7 # YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 157 

the division for Rough-haired Toys under 7 Ibs. weight. It is almost a pity that a regular 
class cannot be given them at every show of any importance, as their beauty would influence 
many to give the breed a trial ; but, bearing in mind the smallness of the classes, committees 
are hardly to be blamed if they study their own convenience first. It is, however, we think, 
rather injurious to the Yorkshire Terrier to be so often shown in the same class as nondescript 
mongrels, which, though unsuccessful, come by association to be confused by the uninitiated 
with the genuine Yorkshiremen. 

Before going into anything like a description of the Yorkshire Terrier, we may remark 
that at the present time it is usual to dock their tails and cut their ears. The desirability 
of such proceedings is more than questioned by certain authorities, but the writer is personally 
most decidedly in favour of the removal of the tail. It is certainly a thing to be proud of 
if a man succeeds in producing a dog with a perfectly-shaped and carried tail ; but in the 
face of the enormities in caudal appendages which are frequently seen .in pet dogs, it is 
certainly for the benefit of a breed if by custom a reduction of the offending member is 
permitted and encouraged. In the matter of ears the question stands on a different footing, 
as not being a fighting dog (though frequently of a snappish disposition towards human beings), 
there is no decided reason why the Yorkshire Terrier should lose his ears. The length too of 
the hair on his head usually conceals the ears, and it therefore seems that as regards any 
benefit to his appearance the dog's ears might as well be left on as removed. Again, a 
good ear being naturally harder to obtain than a bad one, a dog of this breed with an 
uncut, well-shaped ear is to be expected to beat one whose ears have been manipulated. 

In showing and dealing in Yorkshire Terriers there are unfortunately many unfair advan- 
tages by which a cunning and unprincipled person can steal a march on youth or inexperience. 
The beautiful colour of the body is the most usual mark for the skill of the " faker," and a judge 
who knows his work, and is not afraid of doing his duty, has frequently to disqualify some of 
the competitors who appear before him. A common application is black-lead to the darker 
portion of the coat on the back, but this is easy of detection, and a white handkerchief will 
usually work out that mystery, to the discomfort of the owner if he is in attendance. 

Mrs. M. A. Foster of Bradford, is, at the time of writing, facile princeps at the head of 
affairs in the Yorkshire Terrier line. It is marvellous to contemplate the success of this 
enthusiastic lady, and the condition in which she shows her pets is beyond all praise. Though 
her dogs are always good she never showed a bad one many of her successes are largely 
contributed to by the care she bestows upon them and their toilets. Mrs. Bligh Monk of 
Coley Park near Reading, Lady Giftard of Red Hill, and Miss Alderson of Leeds, are also 
exhibitors who have left their mark deeply on the list of successful competitors. Mr. Abraham 
Boulton, also, of Accrington, Messrs. W. Wilkinson, W. Eastwood, Alderson of Halifax, and 
Torr of Birmingham, have all done good service to all sizes of Yorkshire Terriers, by pro- 
ducing first-rate specimens of the breed. The dog we have selected to illustrate the Yorkshire 
Terrier is Mrs. M. A. Foster's very beautiful little Toy Smart, winner at the Alexandra Palace 
show of July, 1879. Unfortunately, as he has been sold, we are unable to get his measurements 
for insertion therewith. 

With regard to the standard of a Yorkshire Terrier, it may truthfully be stated before 
going further, that the most essential points to be gained are coat and colour, as most of the 
other features shrink into insignificance before these two great desiderata. However 

The Skull should be, as in all Terriers, long and gradually tapering towards the muzzle. 



158 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Eyes and Nose. Small, dark, and sparkling, when visible, though they are usually hidden 
by the superabundance of hair on the head. Nose black. 

Jaws must not be broad or heavy, but rather deficient in power, though fine in outline. 

Ears. Either cut or uncut, if the latter, fine, and semi-erect. 

Body. Short and compact, with rather wide chest, in comparison with his size (the two 
former points are important as differing from the Skye Terrier), and covered with silky hair 

Legs. Straight, placed under the body, and well feathered with silky hair. 

Feet. Long and feathered. 

Tail. Cut, and carried straight. 

Coat. Long, glossy, silky, and quite flat, not curly. 

Colour. On the head a beautiful golden tan, which gets much darker on the ears ; back 
a dark blue, inclined to silver, the latter colour extending over the other portions of the body, 
except the legs, which should be the same colour as the head a golden tan. 

General Appearance. A pretty, fragile little dog, but one quite incapable of much out- 
door exercise, and of delicate constitution. 

STANDARD FOP. JUDGING YORKSHIRE TERRIERS. 

Value. 
Head 3 

Ears and eyes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Body ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Coat .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 




'59 



CHAPTER XXII. 
THE TOY TERRIER. 

THE origin of the Toy Terrier is not hard to discover when the existence of such a variety as 
the English Black-and-tan Terrier is an acknowledged fact. In-breeding is certain, if carried 
too far, to stunt the growth of any animal, and this is, without any doubt, the means by 
which the modern Toy Terrier was first originated. In the rage for Lilliputian dimensions, 
however, many of those engaged in the production of the pigmy Terrier lost sight of the fact 
that in breeding from dogs of the same blood it was very desirable that healthy specimers 
should be selected to found the new race. There was quite sufficient probability of the 
offspring being delicate and sickly as it was, but the increased risk of producing delicate 
constitutions was unheeded by the earlier breeders, and no doubt accounts for many of the 
miserably wretched little dogs that are so often shown. A Toy Terrier is naturally a fragile 
little creature, and peculiarly susceptible of cold and chills. It should therefore be kept con- 
stantly clothed in winter, and an ornamental kennel or basket should be provided for it close 
to the fire. The shivering which is so perceptible in many Toys is due, we believe, to the 
Italian Greyhound cross which has been at one time or another introduced into their strain, 
and is not in itself a positive sign that the animal is suffering seriously from cold. This taint, 
however, as in the case of Bull-terriers or White English Terriers, is generally most noticeable 
in the action of the fore-legs the peculiar "dancing," as it is termed in canine phraseology, 
being usually traceable for many generations. 

Another unsightly disfigurement to which the vast majority of the breed is liable is the 
possession of a prominent forehead, or " apple head," which gives the dog the appearance of 
suffering from water on the brain. We believe we are correct in saying that many of the 
dogs so formed are sprung from parents and ancestors of about their own size, whilst the 
greater number of the flat, terrier-headed show specimens have been the result of the union 
of dogs superior in stature to themselves. This is the experience of more than one successful 
breeder ; but, in the absence of any one person who has laid himself out to produce show 
specimens, a large number of trustworthy statistics are naturally not easy to be procured. 

London deserves considerable credit for the production of these interesting little dogs, 
though what becomes of the vast majority of those which are annually disposed of by the 
Whitechapcl and Clerkenwell breeders it is very difficult to tell. It may, however, be surmised 
that as the creatures are of so delicate a constitution, the absence of consideration and 
attention on the part of their owners is responsible for many an untimely end. In draughty 
rooms an excellent accommodation for a Toy Terrier is the glass-fronted show-box which 
we see at dog-shows, which has a wooden slide to slip down in front of the glass and protect 
it if taken out of doors. In the case of such boxes being used, it is imperative that 
due attention should be paid to their satisfactory ventilation. This can be secured by the 
presence of air-holes bored high up in the wooden back. The latter may or may not, as 
depends on their size, be protected by perforated zinc fastened over them. Special care 



160 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

must be taken, if zinc is used, to see that it is fixed in a workmanlike manner, as a sharp edge 
would be very likely to injure the dog. 

The correct points and markings of the Toy are identical with those of the larger-sized 
Black-and-tan Terrier ; only, as before mentioned, there is usually a great dearth of flat- 
headed Toys, the inclination to get apple-headed being a great hindrance to the breeder's success. 
Another disfigurement, and one to which the apple-headed ones are apparently more liable 
than the others, is a large, full, weeping eye, which is in every way opposed to the small, 
black, and bead-like eye so essential to a good Terrier. Again, in the Toys there is an 
increased difficulty in getting the correct shade of tan combined with the orthodox pencilling 
and thumb-marks. We know of more than one specimen otherwise capable of holding its 
own in any company but yet wanting in these points, and therefore unable to be shown with 
any certainty of success. We consider these markings to be a sine qua non in a Terrier for 
showing, though there are many dogs most valuable for breeding purposes which have either 
no black at all on their feet and pasterns, or, on the other hand, show no signs of tan. In 
breeding from such specimens we recommend that the black-legged or heavily-marked ones 
should be preferred to those which are wanting in any pencilling, as the latter are usually 
pale and "clayey " in tan, and therefore unlikely to produce rich-coloured offspring. The darker 
ones are, on the other hand, very likely to beget puppies (if suitably mated) well marked, and 
with a rich, "warm-coloured" tan. 

From the smallness of their size and their natural delicacy, Toy Terriers are difficult to 
rear, and the mother often succumbs when bringing puppies into the world. However, many 
long-headed breeders are prepared with artificial mothers in the shape of the domestic cat, 
who can usually be prevailed upon in any number to undertake the mother's duties to one 
or more puppies, and thus save any strain upon the latter's already reduced strength. 

Amongst the best specimens of recent years have been Mr. Howard Mapplebeck's Belle, 
and Mr. Robert Fulton's (late) Lady Lucy. The latter was, in our opinion, when alive, the 
best-headed Toy we ever remember to have come across, and her untimely decease was a 
severe loss to the breed. Unfortunately Lady Lucy, like many others of her breed, succumbed 
to the effects of a chill, to which all these dogs are peculiarly liable, from the delicacy of their 
size, and the small amount of hair they usually possess. The latter infirmity is no doubt 
another of the ill effects of (we presume, in this case, the necessary abuse of) in-breeding, 
and very great difficulty is usually found by owners of toy dogs to keep them in good trim. 
A leading breeder, however, has informed us on several occasions that he has found excellent 
results follow the application of castor-oil to the skin, which he uses on all occasions, certainly 
with excellent results as regards his own stud, which is usually in a most satisfactory state 
of health. Amongst other good and successful Toys of late years may be mentioned Mr. 
Henry Lacy's Pepita, Mr. Abraham Boulton's Little Wonder, and a very fair one of Mrs. 
M. A. Foster's by name, we believe, Linley. In the north of England we have sometimes 
come across Toy Terriers marked with white, who would otherwise have been good enough 
to win prizes anywhere. The white usually appeared on the chest, which is the most common 
place for it to appear in dogs, and was not considered a blemish for breeding purposes by 
the owners. In our opinion, though the disfigurement may be present in any litter, it is in- 
judicious to breed from dogs with white marks ; and this idea is, we believe, endorsed by the 
majority of the London breeders of Toy Terriers. 

The Toy Terrier we have chosen for our coloured illustration is Mr. Tom B. Swinburne's 
(of Darlington) Serpolette, by Rochester's Trip out of Rose, and one of the best specimens 



SCALE FOR JUDGING TOY TERRIERS. 161 

seen for years. She was born in 1878, and weighs five pounds. Amongst her best perform- 
ances are first at Dundee, and first Birmingham, 1879, and she has won many other prizes about 
the country, but, from her youth, has been unable to take a part in many of the principal 
shows. Serpolette measures : From nose to stop, 2 inches ; from stop to occiput, 3 inches ; 
length of back, 9^ inches ; girth of muzzle, 5 inches ; girth of skull, 8f inches ; girth of neck, 
7J inches; girth round shoulders, 12^ inches; girth round loins, 9! inches; girth round thigh, 
6i inches ; girth round arm, 2 inches ; height at shoulders, 9^ inches ; height at elbows, 6 inches ; 
height at loins, 9 inches ; height at hocks, 3 inches ; length of tail, 5 inches. 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING TOY TERRIERS. 

Value. 

Skull, flatness and shape ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Eyes and ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 5 

Colour and marking... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Smallness ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... 50 




21 



i6a 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

TOY SPANIELS. 

THE King Charles and Blenheim Spaniels are so closely allied as regards structural development, 
that the task of separating them, were it not for their colours, would be extremely difficult. The 
origin of the two breeds is undoubtedly obscure, but the credit of bringing these most beautiful 
little pets into popular notice unquestionably lies with His Majesty King Charles II., from 
which monarch the former variety derives its name. 

It must not, however, be imagined that the existence of the breed is due to the exertions 
of its royal patron, for direct allusion is made to it by Dr. Caius in his work alluded to before, 
in which he clearly connects this variety with the Maltese dog, as the latter then existed ; he 
describes them in the third section of his book as follows : 

" .... Of the delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges called the Spaniel gentle, or 
the comforter, in Latine Metitaeus or Fotor." 

" These dogges are little, pretty, proper, and fine, and sought for to satisfy the delicatenesse 
of daintie dames, and wanton women's wills. Instrumentes of folly for them to play and dally 
withall, to tryfle away the treasure of time . . . ." " These puppies, the smaller they be, 
the more pleasure they provoke, as more meete play-fellowes for mincing mistresses to beare 
in their bosoms . . . ." 

From the above extracts it would appear that the Toy Spaniel did not stand high in the 
estimation of Dr. John Caius ; though a few lines later on there is an attempt to prove that 
this dog was of some service in the world, since he gravely announces, "We find that these little 
dogs are good to assuage the sicknesse of the stomacke, being oftentimes thereunto applyed as 
a plaster preservative, or borne in the bosom of the diseased and weake person, which effect 
is performed by theyr moderate heate. Moreover, the disease and sicknesse chaungeth his 
place, and entreth (though it be not precisely marcked) into the dogge, which experience can 
testify, for these kinde of dogges sometimes fall sicke, and sometimes die, without any harme 
outwardly inforced, which is an argument that the disease of the gentleman or gentle- 
woman or ouner whatsoever, entreth into the dogge by the operation of heate intermingled 
and infected." 

How any person in his senses could publish the above, and seriously intimate that he believes 
in his theory, we are at a loss to imagine. It suits us, however, to reproduce it, as showing that 
in the days of Queen Elizabeth ladies were in the habit of keeping Toy Spaniels about them ; 
and from these no doubt the King Charles Spaniel was subsequently derived. 

In the time of King Charles II., the Toy Spaniel may be said to have reached the 
zenith of its popularity ; it was the pampered favourite of the king, and the position it held at 
court is alluded to in Pepys' Diary, where he states that the Spaniels had free access to all parts 
of Whitehall, even upon State occasions. 



EARLY HISTORY OF TOY SPANIELS. 163 

In the " Naturalist's Library," by Sir William Jardine, published in 1843, the only allusion 
made to Toy Spaniels is as follows : 

"KING CHARLES SPANIEL. 

A beautiful breed, in general black-and-white, and presumed to be the parent of 

THE COCKER, 

who is usually black, and shorter in the back than the Spaniel. This appears to be the Gredin 
of Buffon. The Blenheim, Marlborough, or Pyrame of Buffon, is very similar to the above, but 
the black colour is relieved by fire-coloured spots above the eyes, and the same on the breast 
and feet ; the muzzle is fuller, and the back rather short. The Maltese dog (Cants Melitteus) 
the Bichon or Chien Bouffe of Buffon, is the most ancient of the small Spaniel races, being 
figured on Roman monuments and noticed by Strabo ; the muzzle is rounder, the hair very long, 
silky, and usually white, the stature very small, and only fit for ladies' lap-dogs." 

From the above description it would almost appear that the modern Blenheim Spaniel was 
practically unknown in the year 1843; but it is incredible that such could be the case; and 
we must therefore presume that the opinion of Sir William Jardine is not altogether reliable as 




TOY SPANIELS. From " Icones Animalium. n 

regards the subject of colour, which in the present day is a matter of very considerable importance 
in judging Toy Spaniels. We are strengthened in this opinion by the following extract from the 
Sportsman's Repository, written by John Scott, and published in 1820, which states that, "Twenty 
years ago (i.e., 1800) His Grace the Duke of Marlborough was reputed to possess the smallest 
and best breed of Cockers in Britain ; they were invariably red-and-white, with very long ears, 
short noses, and black eyes." 

Before passing on to the points of the two breeds, regret must be expressed at the gross 
neglect which these beautiful and highly-interesting little pets have experienced at the hands of 
the public. In intelligence and natural vivacity they are so far in advance of other ladies' toys, 
that it seems incredible that they should for so long a time occupy an inferior position to the 
uninteresting and often quarrelsome Pug. A ladies' pet need not be condemned to a life-long 
existence in his mistress's boudoir ; and the extreme stupidity of the generality of Pugs when out 
of doors is rendered eminently conspicuous by the very different behaviour of a King Charles or 
Blenheim Spaniel. Doubtless the fact of a Spaniel possessing a long coat, which requires constant 
brushing to keep in good order, is an obstacle in the way of its popularity ; but the beauty of the 
dog amply repays any trouble bestowed upon it, and a little care and attention devoted to the 
toilet of a " Charlie " or Blenheim is certain to be repaid a hundred-fold by the improvement it 
invariably effects in the dog's appearance. As a matter of fact we have ourselves owned several 
Toy Spaniels, which, but for the delicacy of their coats, were capable of entering any brushwood. 
That they frequently attempted to do so in the course of country rambles their torn skins fully 
attested ; but the early repetition of the conduct bore testimony to the animal's love of sport and 
plucky temperament. Unfortunately, however, the long coat gets clogged with mud and matted 



164 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

by damp when out of doors in bad weather, and the task of washing her pet and making him 
comfortable is beneath the consideration of many lady owners, who only keep the creatures because 
they, when in health, gratify their eyes by their beauty ; their comfort being quite a secondary 
consideration with those whose duty it is to keep them comfortable. Such persons should most 
certainly eschew keeping Spaniels in favour of a pet of a more phlegmatic temperament, and one 
that takes its pleasure and its exercise in a more respectable though a sadder manner. There 
is so much life and "go" in King Charles or Blenheims, if they are in perfect health, and 
accustomed to regular exercise, that they splash themselves with mud to a far greater degree 
than a quieter dog. On the other hand, as a rule, no toy dog is in possession of so much 
intelligence, and so capable of being brought under command, and we know of more than one 
first-rate specimen which is in the habit of following its owner about London as quietly and 
safely as it would in a country lane. 

A Toy Spaniel is in reality a toy only from force of circumstances, and we believe could be 
readily broken, and worked with the gun, though there would not be much chance of its standing 
a day's work, on account of its smallness of stature. Our opinions here are shared by the author 
of the Sportsman's Repository above alluded to, who remarks, " The very delicate and small, or 
' carpet Spaniels,' have exquisite nose, and will hunt truly and pleasantly, but are neither fit for a 
long day nor a thorny covert." With so much, therefore, to recommend them, it is to be hoped 
that these most beautiful of all dogs may yet regain the position they once occupied, especially as 
his affectionate disposition renders a " Charlie " or a Blenheim doubly dear to his owner. An 
instance of the importance attached to his dogs (which were presumably Toy Spaniels) by King 
James II. lies in the fact that once, on his escape in a boat from a sinking ship, he insisted 
on putting back to the wreck to save his dogs, though no room could be found on board for 
several sailors, who were left behind and eventually drowned. 

An essential distinction between the ancient and modern type of Toy Spaniel lies in the 
formation of the muzzle, as well as in colour. In days gone by it is undoubtedly a fact that 
the short retrousse noses now so fashionable were things unknown ; in fact, the first reference 
to them that we have come across is in the Sportsman s Repository, which we have already 
quoted. That some outside cross has been at one time or another resorted to in order to produce 
this we may be quite assured, but how it came about is another matter, and presents a difficulty 
in solution. For our own opinion we fancy a cross of Pug has played some important part in 
the change of shape in the skull of the Toy Spaniel. One thing is certain, that by reducing the 
length of nose, much of the animal's sense of smell must have been impaired, and it is therefore 
reasonable to suggest that if breeders of Toy Spaniels deliberately set to work to try and breed 
short-nosed dogs, they did so subsequently to the variety being withdrawn from an active participa- 
tion in field sports. 

The subject of colour is a different one entirely, and we can only suppose when discussing the 
merits of the King Charles that the partial disappearance of the black-tan-and-white dog, is the 
result of neglect, and not of any fixed determination on the part of admirers of the breed to 
exterminate a colour which is to many tastes the most beautiful Spaniel colour we have. That 
white is a perfectly legitimate colour in a King Charles Spaniel, a reference to old paintings will 
prove, and we are glad to find the authorities at some of our shows instituting a class for King 
Charles other than black-and-tan. Here (unfortunately we think) red dogs are allowed to compete 
at the present time, but we are of opinion that the proper place for the latter under any 
circumstances is the Blenheim class; and a class for Blenheims other than red-and-white would, 
we believe, soon be well filled with entries. There is not the slightest desire on our part to 



COLOURS OF TOY SPANIELS. 165 

under-rate the beauty or value of a red Spaniel, but we are profoundly of the opinion that red 
is essentially a Blenheim colour, and one which has no right to be seen in a King Charles, whose 
colour should be either black-and-tan, or black-tan-and-white. As we have before remarked, 
the introduction of white most certainly used to be considered legitimate in the case of 
Toy Spaniels ; and no unprejudiced person who sees such beautiful specimens as Miss Violet 
Cameron's Conrad, and Mrs. Russell Earp's Tweedledee, can regret that efforts are being 
made to restore one of the most lovely varieties of colour which ever belonged to 
dogs. A decided use to which the red dogs have been put is to improve the colour 
of the tan markings in the black-and-tan dogs. This would either inevitably get paler 
(or to use a technical term, more " clayey ") in colour than the " warm " or rich-shaded 
tan breeders like to see in them ; or, in the second instance, the tan markings would 
disappear altogether, and the dogs would become totally black, which would naturally 
be an eyesore to their admirers. As a matter of fact, we know positively that many of 
our reputedly best and certainly most successful strains have been crossed with each other to 
such an extent, that more than one mother has been known to produce red-and-white and black- 
and-tans at one birth. In the face of such facts, under the present circumstances we do not think 
sufficient care can be taken by supporters of the breed to keep their strains pure ; as sure and 
certain evil will be wrought in the present fashionable colours if care is not taken to breed for 
colour and markings. This, if no market can be found for black-tan-and-white Spaniels, must 
necessarily prove of the greatest injury to all the other colours, as the propagation of a variety 
without pecuniary support from the outside public is an enterprise which few breeders care to 
embark upon. 

Whilst on the subject of breeding for colour, the following practical remarks of Mr. 
Joseph Nave, of Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, who is well known as a breeder 
and authority on Toy Spaniels, will be read with interest : 

" The colour of King Charles most liked now is black-and-tan, but there are a great many 
all tan (red), which in my experience arises from breeding from White-and-red Blenheim bitches 
with black-and-tan King Charles. I have a black-and-tan King Charles dog from parents of 
the same colour; thinking to obtain black-white-and-tan puppies, I put him to a red-and- 
white Blenheim bitch, and the result was a litter of four, all tan. I kept one of the red 
bitches, and put a black-and-tan King Charles dog to her, and the result was five black-and- 
tan puppies, with very bright tan. Therefore, I have come to the conclusion, if you want to 
breed puppies black with very bright tan, it is best to breed from a red bitch ; but I have 
experienced that, if you keep breeding and in-breeding always from black-and-tan parents, the 
tan will gradually get out of them, and you may get several puppies all black, without any 
tan ; and all-black King Charles are not liked at all. The original King Charles were black- 
and-white, with long noses, and very long ears. Through the introduction of the black-and- 
tan Japanese Spaniel of which I know at present a very fine specimen, brought over by Sir 
John Hay black-and-tan King Charles were produced ; but through the Japanese they have 
lost a great deal in the length of ears, and gained the high skull, short nose, and underhung, 
which is the nature of the Japanese. The present tendency of King Charles is for long noses 
again, and larger ears; and we should be very glad to see a fresh importation of Japanese 
Spaniels, so as to revive the short nose again. It is my firm opinion that the origin of the 
present Pug dog is nothing but the common English fawn-coloured smooth-coated Terrier bitch 
crossed with a little jet-black Chinese Terrier, of which I also have seen some they have the 



1 66 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

short nose and high head, and very curly tails. King Charles should not be too small, and 
need not weigh less than 10 Ib. ; if they are much smaller they lose many of the properties 
and the beautiful coats of the breed." 

We are gratified to find that so great an authority as Mr. Joseph Nave coincides with our 
views on the Pug cross. Our conclusions were arrived at, singularly enough, without any 
previous conversation, and by his support of our theory we feel considerably fortified in it ; 
and, as an experiment, intend to try a Japanese Pug cross with a Toy Spaniel on the earliest 
opportunity. Mr. Nave has, however, hit the nail on the head when he alludes to this cross 
being likely to decrease the length of ear in the King Charles or Blenheim, and we candidly 
admit that on this point we see breakers ahead which will be difficult to weather in safety. 
Nevertheless there is now such a tendency to long snipy muzzles, that something should be 
done to prevent these breeds degenerating into nondescripts which do not fairly represent 
either the ancient or modern type of Toy Spaniel. 

The two illustrations appended of the older types most strongly support this view of the 
case. The reader's attention cannot fail to be directed to the, at present, uncommon combination 
of long muzzles and long ears in the smaller illustration, which is taken from hones Animaliwn, 
by J. F. Riedel. The Spaniels here portrayed are in our opinion intended to be black - 
tan-and-white King Charles, though the absence of descriptive letterpress, and the inferior 
engraving of that period render this conviction more or less a matter of conjecture. The large 
full-page engraving is drawn from two German dogs of the present day, but is a perfect 
representation of the longer muzzle and magnificent ears which were at an earlier date 
fashionable in England, and are very likely to be preferred by most who do not live in the 
artificial atmosphere of shows. 

We are also favoured with the following notes on the Blenheim from Mr. James W. Berrie, 
of Lower Tooting, Surrey, which we have much pleasure in reproducing : 

"Next to the old English Bulldog, of which Englishmen may so justly be proud, the 
Blenheim stands pre-eminently first. This exquisitely beautiful little dog should have a long 
silky coat of the pure ' ruby and pearl ' colour, and it should possess all the distinguishing 
characteristics of the King Charles Spaniel, which was so called because of the esteem in 
which it was held by the ' Merry Monarch/ 

" The modern Blenheim, from a phrenological point of view, possesses properties and 
organs more nearly resembling the human head than any other kind of dog. He has 
Individuality, Eventuality, Comparison, and Causality, very largely developed. That the 
Blenheim possesses Individuality is obvious to all who have studied the breed and character 
of the dog : he knows at a glance the canine lover, and is friendly in a moment ; while the 
dog hater may try his best to win his favour in vain. 

" It is generally admitted that the dog has memory, but this quality is most singularly 
developed in the Blenheim ; he having been known to remember some of the most trivial 
circumstances in his history, which have long escaped the mind of his master. Many 
instances could be given to corroborate this statement, but one will suffice. Little 
Blossom " (one of Mrs. Berrie's pets) " was visiting a friend in the country with my wife, and 
on one occasion she killed a shrew, which my wife took from her and placed in a hole in the 
wall of a barn, quite out of her reach. Blossom did her best to get it by ' sitting up ' 
and barking for it, but at last gave " it up in despair. Years after, when she went to the 



iSSSsSS 




EARLY TYPE OF TOY SPANIELS. 



o 

o 



03 

q 




POINTS OF A BLENHEIM. 160 

same place, she ran to the old barn, and, putting her fore-feet against the wall, she did her 
utmost to get up to have a peep at the place where the dead shrew had been laid six 
years before. 

" Generosity is another property natural to the Blenheim. I have known instances 
where one has kept another supplied with food, when he was tied up and unable to obtain 
it for himself. This happened more than once with two puppies of my own breeding. 
'Bloom/ being a mischievous fellow, was very often imprisoned under a crate; when hungry, 
he had only to make a whining kind of cry, and ' Petal ' (the brother) would forthwith start 
off and bring him bread or anything in the way of comestibles that he could find. 

" The Blenheim is an exceedingly difficult breed to rear, hence the scarcity of good 
specimens. They are liable to brain diseases, supposed to be caused by the unusually large 
size of the head in comparison with the body. We find intense excitement very injurious to 
them when young, sometimes causing fits, which, however, rarely prove fatal unless the subject 
is exceedingly delicate. 

"The best food for rearing puppies (we think) is a little finely-minced meat, with plenty 
of soaked bread twice a day, alternated with a little Swiss milk and bread. 

POINTS OF A BLENHEIM. 

" The Under-jaw should be wide between the tusks, and well turned up ; undershot, but 
not to show teeth. 

The Nose should be black, wide and deep, and as short as possible, almost in a line with 
the eyes ; the nostrils being large and open. 

"The 'stop' is wide, and as deep as in a fine Bull-dog, but the nose should not recede 
as in that animal. 

" Eyes as large as possible, perfectly black, wide apart, and at right angles with the line 
of the face. Weeping at the corners is owing to a defect in the lachrymal duct. 

" Head should be very large and round, with a dome-like appearance at the top. The 
forehead should project well over the eyes, so as almost to touch the nose. 

" Ears as long as possible, not curly ; about eight inches in length from where they join 
the head. They must be low down on the side of the head, almost on a line with the ears. 

" Shape. Thick-set and cobby ; chest deep and wide ; strong legs ; short back ; arched 
neck. Tail carried gaily, but not over the back ; it should be almost on a line with the 
back. Well cut up from chest to loin ; the latter should be strong and as sturdy as 
possible. 

" Colour should on no account be whole, but rich ruby red and pure pearly white. 
The white should form the ground, and the red should be in detached spots scattered over 
the body. The fore-legs and nose should be slightly 'ticked.' The ears and cheeks should 
be red, and a blaze of white up the forehead, in the centre of which should be a spot of red 
as large as a sixpence, called ' the spot.' The best marked dogs are those with well-defined 
red markings on the sides and back, and a ' splash ' at the root of the tail. Some few good 
specimens are cinnamon and white, but this is not a desirable colour. 

" Coal should be fine, silky, long, and as free from curl and mixture as possible. 

"The Ckest, Feet, and Tail should be well feathered, and also the back of the legs. 

" Weight from six to twelve pounds, but the best specimens are from eight to ten 
pounds. 

"The Feet should be small and well-knit together, with the toes strong and well made; 
22 



170 THF. BOOK OF THE Doc. 

from between the toes should grow tufts of hair like feathers, giving the animal the appearance 
of walking on mats." 

Amongst the most conspicuous breeders and owners who are in possession of the correct 
type of King Charles and Blenheims, the names of Mrs. Forder of Bow, Mrs. J. W. Berrie of 
Lower Tooting, and Mr. Joseph Nave of Henrietta Street, are most prominent. Mrs. Berrie 
certainly confines her attention to Blenheims only, but her collection, as a collection, is without 
a rival. The Earl and Bawbee are her two best dogs as we write ; but owing to the experience 
and sound practical judgment of her husband (Mr. James W. Berrie) being so often of late called 
into requisition in the capacity of judge at the principal shows, only very few opportunities are 
offered her for exhibiting her pets. Mrs. Forder, on the other hand, is practically at the top 
of the tree with black-and-tan King Charles, her Young Jumbo being deservedly the present 
champion. The Bow kennel, however, has also some grand Blenheims, and of late years 
Mrs. Forder has been wonderfully successful with Lizzie, albeit that to some minds her 
markings were too pale in colour. At present one of the best youngsters out also hails 
from Mrs. Forder's stud : this is Bo-Peep, who will, we think, prove the bright particular 
star in the Blenheim world for some time to come. Mr. Nave is a breeder of both varieties, 
but his splendidly-shaped dog Covent Garden Charlie is too large in stature to please every 
judge, and this has prevented his winning at many shows. Mrs. M. A. Forster of Bradford does a 
great deal of winning in the North of England by the assistance of the Blenheim Duke of Bow, who 
is a purchase from Mrs. Forder's kennel ; and Mrs. Bligh Monk, of Coley Park near Reading, has 
also had some good specimens. A few years back Miss Dawson, of Coldharbour Lane, London, 
was almost invincible with Old Jumbo, but age and infirmity at length drove the grand little 
dog off the bench ; and on his deposition Young Jumbo sprang at once into first place. Mr. 
S. A. Julius, of Hastings, too, has several excellent Blenheims, many of his belonging to the 
old or long-faced, and now unfashionable, type. The above are our principal and most suc- 
cessful exhibitors, but there are many choice collections, and excellent, but solitary, specimens 
of Toy Spaniels which never appear in public, though it is to be hoped that in the interest 
of the breeds their owners will support the classes more substantially than they do at present. 
There are some beautiful specimens, too, of that most lovely of all colours, the black-tan- 
and-white King Charles, to be met with, but the key of the position in this variety is held 
by Miss Violet Cameron with her Conrad one of the best-shaped dogs out and Mrs. Russell 
Earp with Tweedledee. 

Before proceeding to give the points of a Toy Spaniel, we may remark that it is an 
invariable rule to dock their tails that is, to cut them about four inches short. Our ideas 
on the breed are as follows : 

The Skull of a Toy Spaniel should be round, with a short, upturned muzzle, and a 
decided " stop," or indentation, between the eyes. 

The Muzzle must be short and rather square-shaped, with a black nose well turned back 
towards the skull. 

The Lyes must, as in the Bulldog, be wide apart, and very full and prominent dark in 
colour and lustrous. 

The Ears, a most important feature in a Toy Spaniel, must be set on rather low and hang 
perfectly flat to the sides of the head. In addition to their own considerable length, they are 
provided with long silken hair, which in some specimens almost trails on the ground. 



JlfEASUREAIENTS OF TOY SPANIEJ.S. I 7 I 

The Nose must be black. 

The Body is cloddy and compact. 

The Legs inclined to be short, and with the backs well coated with long silky hair, 
or "feather" as it is termed. 

Feet, large and well covered with hair. 

The Coat in both breeds must be long and silky ; without curl, which is a fault. 

Size, about 10 pounds, or a little more in a King Charles ; but the Blenheims weigh 
rather less. It is not, therefore, desirable to have the King Charles much under 10 pounds 
weight. 

Colour. In the King Charles : black-and-tan or black-tan-and-white. Blenheims : red-and- 
white. In this breed a red spot on the forehead is esteemed a decided characteristic, and should 
always be looked for in good specimens, as its absence is a blemish. 

General appearance is that of an intelligent nimble little dog, which combines activity 
with a daintiness peculiar to good breeding and aristocratic connections. 

The dogs we have chosen to illustrate the breed in all four colours are for the black- 
and-tan King Charles, Mr. Joseph Nave's Covent Garden Charlie, whose sire is Young Jumbo 
and dam Daisy Age, 2 years and 9 months ; weight, 16 Ibs. ; he measures from nose to 
stop, three-quarters of an inch ; from stop to occiput, 4 inches ; length ot bacK, 14 inches ; 
girth of muzzle, 7| inches; girth of skull, 13 inches; girth of neck, 12 inches; girth round 
brisket, 18 inches; girth round shoulders, 18 inches; girth of loins, 15 inches; girth round 
forearm, 5 inches; girth round pastern, 3^ inches; height at .shoulder, 15 inches; height at 
elbows, 7i inches; height at loins, 14 inches; length of ears from tip to tip, 22 inches; feather 
on fore-legs, 6 inches. 

In the black-tan-and-white King Charles, Miss Violet Cameron's Conrad, age about 
three years. His breeder and pedigree are unknown, as Conrad was purchased, when quite 
a puppy, from a dealer in London who had no certain pedigree with him. He is an own 
brother to Mrs. Russell Earp's well-known Tweedledee, and in fact the whole litter was one 
of unusual merit. Conrad measures : From nose to stop, three-quarters of an inch ; stop 
to occipital bone, 4 inches; length of back, \2\ inches; girth of muzzle, Sj inches; girth of skull, 
II inches; girth of neck, 9} inches; girth round brisket, 17 inches; girth round shoulders, 
15 inches; girth round loins, 13^ inches; girth of forearm, 4 inches; girth round pastern, 
2f inches; height at shoulder, 10 inches; height at elbow, 5^ inches; height at loins, 
IO| inches. 

For the red Spaniel, Mr. Joseph Nave's Sepperl by Hillus out of the owner's Fanny (both 
Llack-and-tans). He is six years old, and weighs 15 Ib. ; measuring from nose to stop, i inch; 
from stop to occiput, 5 inches ; length of back, 16 inches ; girth of muzzle, 7 inches ; girth of 
skull, 13 inches; girth of neck, 12 inches; girth of brisket, 18 inches; girth round chest, 18 
inches; girth of loins, 15 inches; girth of forearm, 5 inches; girth of pastern, 4 inches; 
height at shoulder, 15 inches; height at elbow, 7| inches ; height at loins, 14 inches. 

And for the red-and-white Blenheim, Mrs. J. W. Berrie's Bawbee, who is four years old, 
and weighs 10 Ib. 2 oz. Bawbee measures from nose to stop, f inch ; from stop to occiput, 
4 inches; length of back, 10 inches; girth of muzzle, 6 inches; girth of skull, \\\ inches ; 
girth of neck, 12 inches; girth round brisket, 19 inches; girth round shoulders, 19 inches; 
girth of loins, \2\ inches; girth of forearm, 4| inches; girth of pastern, 3 inches; height at 
shoulder, 12 inches; height at elbow, 5! inches; height at loins, io inches. 



172 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING TOY SPANIELS. 

Value. 

SKull 5 

Stop and squareness of jaw ... ... ... ... ... -, 

Shortness of face ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Ears ...... ... 5 

Body and legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Coat, including colour ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

. Size ... ... - ... ... ... ... 5 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... .. ... 50 


Before leaving these beautiful and engaging breeds, we must once more impress upon our 

readers the importance of frequently brushing their coats with a not too hard "balloon" brush, 
such as recommended in Chapter XXI. If the blood becomes heated too, which will soon 
be discovered by the dog scratching, a course of sulphur and magnesia, as recommended on 
page 20, should be at once prescribed, but the doses must not be too strong, or the con- 
stitution of the Spaniel may be injured by them. 




/ J 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE TUG. 

THERE is considerable uncertainty in regard to the origin of this peculiar breed of dog, but there 
is a decided preponderance of opinion in favour of his being an offshoot, in some form or 
other, from the Bull-dog. There are several formations identical to the two breeds, which very 
much influence us in favour of this opinion, even if there were not in the present day the 
gravest suspicion for imagining that modern breeders in some instances have availed them- 
selves of a Bull cross in hopes of improving their strain in certain qualities. Rightly or 
wrongly, the Dutch have had the credit from time immemorial of first introducing the breed 
into public favour. For our own part we can see no positive grounds for the absolute accuracy 
of this popular belief, which though referred to by more than one of the writers on the dog 
in the earlier part of the century, was evidently not even then unanimously accepted as an 
incontrovertible fact. The author of the " Sportsman's Repository," to which reference has 
been already made, remarked some sixty years ago that 

" The Pug Dog is generally styled the Dutch Pug, and it is taken for granted that the 
breed is indigenous to Holland, since, according to universal but dateless tradition, it was 
originally imported hither from that country. Pugs indeed are numerous throughout the 
Low Countries, and, we believe, most of the northern part of the Continent. There is yet an 
obscure but confident tradition, that Pugism had its origin in Muscovy ; which, being granted, 
we may not have been wide of the mark in tracing in it the form of the Arctic dog. Another, 
and which we deem an inconsequent conjecture on this most important affair of origination, is the 
Pug being, according to certain sage conjecturists, a sample or first-class mongrel, the production 
of a commixture between the English Bulldog and the little Dane, a conjecture we feel 
inclined to define by the figure hysteron-proteron, or setting the cart before the horse. We 
hold the Pug to be of the elder house ; and if at this perilous anti-parodial crisis we may 
venture at a secular parody, the motto of the illustrious race of Pugs ought to be, not we 
from Bulls, but Bulls from us." 

V 

As our readers may conjecture, we do not by any means agree with the latter observation 
of the writer, as we have, in a former portion of this work, already expressed very decided 
opinions on the antiquity of the Bull-dig. Again, from another point of view, we cannot see 
how the small-sized Pug can be taken to be the ancestor of the large-framed, big-boned, 
and determined dispositioned Bull-dog, which is an animal far more likely to originate a race 
than the somewhat stupid and uninteresting Pug. The origin of this latter word is difficult 
of discovery, but in many quarters it is believed to be derived from the word pugnus, a fist, 
whether because of the dog's shape or former size we are unable to conjecture. 

For some time on the Continent, in France especially, Pugs went by the name of Carlins, 
owing to the black mask on their faces, which is a characteristic of the breed. The analogy 



1 74 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

between Carlins and masks lay in the fact that formerly there was a famous and very 
popular harlequin in France whose name was Carlin, and hence the appellation as applied 
to Pugs. 

The Pugs of the present are popularly supposed to belong to either the Willoughby or 
the Morrison strain, which at one time were almost identical in shape, but of different colours. 
So many breeders have, however, either from motives of economy or curiosity, been in the 
habit of crossing the above two varieties with each other, that a pure-bred specimen of either 
strain is not an easy thing to come across. Hundreds are advertised, and sold, as genuine 
Willoughby or Morrison Pugs, which have no claim whatever to so grand a distinction. 
The chief difference between the two breeds is that the Morrison Pug is a richer colour, 
and not so heavily marked with black as the Willoughby strain. The latter blood fre- 
quently shows too much tracing, and is apt to be smutty in colour, which in a Pug should 
be as pure a fawn as can be procured, but relieved by black in the proper places. This 
was certainly the opinion of authorities early in the century, for we find the following 
description of a Pug in a work published many years ago : 

" A yellow colour of various shades, small and moderate size, round and fixed shape, full 
breast, short neck and legs, arched tail, round prominent eyeballs, bluff head, black muzzle, 
lightly pendulous ears, prominent inferior jaw, or underhung ; and a grave, often savage, 
countenance." 

The above may even now pass as a very good description of a Pug, and helps to 
assist the belief in the Bull cross, which we have before remarked probably exists in the 
Pug, but which it is undesirable to perpetuate. Upon one point we personally disagree 
with an expression used by the author of this description, and that is the term " short " as 
applied to the legs. This breed of dog most certainly should not be leggy, but a very 
short legged or " ferret-fronted " Pug is an abomination, and should be avoided. A serious 
fault in so many Pugs now before the public is snipiness of face, and another coarseness in ear. 
As a rule the orthodox markings are present in full force, and the carriage of tail is also, in most 
specimens exhibited, good. How to eradicate the evil of snipy faces is a serious difficulty 
without resorting again to a dash of Bull. But we hold that a cross with the long-coated 
Japanese Pug would be beneficial as regards shape, though as the majority of these animals 
do not represent our Pug in colour, there would be some labour in getting their offspring to 
breed correctly-marked Pugs, and there would always be a chance of their throwing back. 
Nevertheless far more difficult crosses have been successfully carried out, and we strongly 
recommend a cross with a black Japanese Pug to enterprising breeders of this variety of 
dog. 

.With reference to the Pug as it at present exists amongst us, it is pleasing to discover 
that, in spite of its rarity some fifty years ago, the Pug classes are now in the majority 
of instances usually well represented in point of numbers at all important shows. Yet there 
is a want of uniformity of type which proves that there is yet much to be done in the way 
of improvement of this breed. A very undesirable advance is being made in the size of 
several of the best-shaped dogs, and this is greatly to be regretted, as a ladies' pet dog of 
about thirty pounds weight is an anomaly which almost refutes itself. It is in many of 
the inferior large-sized specimens that the Bull cross is so plainly evident, and this has been 
most probably resorted to in the hopes that increased size of skull and a blunter muzzle 



CHARACTER rsrfcs or THE PUG. 



175 



would be procured. As a matter of fact, though these advantages may be gained, the results 
of the cross arc frequently disfigured by being out at shoulders and by badly-carried tails, 
which are the two principal defects which a Bull cross is likely to bring about. Nor are 
such experiments likely to benefit the Bull-dog, for Pug blood is in its turn plainly visible 
in some of the breed, especially the fawn and fallow-smut ones, which one comes across. 
Another trace the Bull-dog often leaves behind it in the Pug is in the carriage of the 
ears, which often fall back, as is the case in the "rose" Bull-dog ear, and do not drop down 
the sides of the head as should be in the case of a Pug. The carriage of the ears is, how- 
ever, a modern introduction into the scale of points of the breed, as up to a few years 




HKAI) OF PUG. (From an old Etignving.) 

back Pugs used to be shown with their ears closely cropped, as in the case of the 
Dalmatian. 

The method of cropping which was formerly adopted can be gathered from the subjoined 
woodcut of a famous Pug which existed many years ago. The dog may not perhaps come 
up to that degree of perfection which has been reached by such modern specimens 2s 
Mr. Lewis's Tooley, Mrs Monck's Sambo and Darkie, Mrs. Kingsbury's Tip, or Mr. Nunn's 
Baron, but there are many good points in the formation of his skull which we should be 
glad to see oftener in the present day. The extreme width of his muzzle in proportion to 
the size of the skull is a point which must recommend itself to all breeders ; and the eyes, 
though possibly not so soft as those of modern prize-winners, cannot fail to be admired on 
account of their size and shape. 

As a rule the Pug is, though decidedly aristocratic in his behaviour, not a remarkably 



176 THE BOOK OF TIIR DOG. 

intelligent dog, and his place seems far more to be in his mistress's boudoir than following 
her about the streets or out of doors. He is usually phlegmatic in his temperament, and 
appears incapable of taking care of himself if surprised or frightened. Some specimens, and 
especially tho.e who possess the Bull cross, are nevertheless snappish ; and the majority of them 
are reluctant to make friends with strangers. Their owners they do know, but the devotion 
of a Pug is usually not nearly so pronounced as is that of most dogs. This breed, too, 
seems abnormally inclined to lay on flesh, and the spectacle of a Pug in a painful state of 
obesity is no uncommon sight. Many specimens of the breed, moreover, give utterance to 
the most unpleasant sounds in the throat, which is due to the shortness of the muzzle and 
a consequent difficulty in respiration. On this account they are objected to by many ladies, 
who naturally dislike being disturbed by the snorting, wheezing, and grunting of a dog on 
their lap. Many persons innocent on the subject of doggy matters consider it is a desirable 
feature in a Pug if its tongue hangs out of its mouth, and cannot be drawn in. This formation 
is certainly an abnormal one, resulting from paralysis of the tongue (to which many of the 
smaller breeds are very liable) and so far from being an acquisition, should be many points against 
the affected animal. 

In the face of the tendency towards stoutness which is alluded to above, it is very 
desirable to diet and exercise a Pug properly. Fattening food, or that which is calculated 
to heat the blood, should be carefully eschewed ; and a daily walk, when the weather is 
favourable, is almost indispensable if the animal is to be kept in health and condition. 
Vegetables should be chopped up and mixed with bread and gravy for his principal meal, 
and plain, not sweet, biscuits are excellent for a Pug between times. 

With reference to the unpleasant grunting to which notice was drawn above it may be 
remarked that the breed is not as a rule a hardy one, and naturally any affection of the 
throat or bronchial tubes is certain to increase the severity of such sounds. Especial care 
must, therefore, be taken to keep Pugs out of a draught when in the house, and warm 
clothing is invariably adopted by careful owners when their pets go out of doors in cold or 
damp weather. 

The points of a Pug are as follow : 

Head. Large and massive, not too round or apple-headed, with a short, blunt muzzle. 

Eyes. Large, brown, and prominent. 

Ears. Small, fine in texture, and falling close to the head "button ears" in short. 

Neck. Short and full, with no dewlap. 

Legs. Of a fair length, straight, and set on well under the body ; with round feet, well 
split-up toes. 

Body. Short and cobby, wide in chest, and well ribbed up. 

Tail. Well turned up over the back, and tightly curled, with an inclination to lie on 
one or other side of the spine. 

Colour and Markings. This is a most important feature in a Pug. The principal colour 
should be a bright fawn, or its various shades from the " apricot" fawn down to a pale yellow 
tinge. The black markings, however, must be clearly defined, and the success of many u 
Pug depends upon the position and brilliancy of his black. The muzzle or mask must be 
jet-black, and the ears, wrinkles, and moles on cheeks should be as dark as possible ; 
there should also be a " thumb-mark," or dark spot, on the forehead, and a black trace down 
the back to the root of the tail. Tlie toe-nails, too, should be quite black. 




o 

ID 
Q. 



UJ 

tr 
o 



01 
UJ 

cc 
cc 

UJ 

I- - 
o 



31 - 



or 
o 



POINTS OF PUGS. 177 

Coat. Fine and short. 

General Appearance. A compact and aristocratic little dog, with a large square head' 
and weighing about 14 16 pounds. 

The most prominent breeders of the present day are Mrs. "Mayhew of Twickenham, Mrs 
Bligh Monk of Coley Park, Reading, Mr. Strugnell of London, Mr. J. Nunn of London, Mr 
Lewis of Bristol, Capt. Digby Boycott of London, Mr. H. G. Foster of Stockton-on-Tees, Mr. 
Wakely of London, Mr. C. Maule of Stockton-on-Tees, and Mr. Locke of London. 

The dog we have selected for illustration is certainly one of the best we have ever seen, 
though his owner does not care to exhibit him. He is named Tip, and is the property of 
Mrs. Kingsbury of Cecil Street, Strand, London. Tip is aged 2j years, and weighs about 19 
pounds. His measurements are as follows : From nose to stop, I inch ; from stop to occiput, 
4\ inches ; length of back, I2f inches ; girth of muzzle, 7 inches ; girth of skull, 13 inches ; 
girth of neck, 14 inches; girth round brisket, 20 inches; girth round shoulders, 20 inches; 
girth of loins, 16 inches; girth of thigh, 8 inches; girth of forearm, 4f inches; girth of 
pastern, 3 inches; height at shoulders, I2| inches; height at elbows, 6| inches; height at loins, 
13 inches; height at hock, 3^ inches. 

STANDARD FOR JUDGING PUGS. 

Valui. 

Skull 5 

Muzzle ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Eyes 5 

Body ... ... 5 

Legs 5 

Tail ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Colour and mask ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ;; 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 50 




23 



7 8 



CHAPTER XXV. 

THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. 

WHERE the original Italian Greyhounds were produced is more or less a matter of con- 
jecture ; but doubtless a more congenial climate than our own was mainly instrumental in 
the creation of this beautiful though fragile little dog. Italy and the South of France are 
generally accepted as their birthplace, but it is possible that the honour thus accredited to 
these parts of the Continent is unmerited by them. 

However, whatever was the part of the world which they originally came from, Italian 
Greyhounds, as a breed, are now firmly established amongst us, unsuitable as the damp and 
fogs of the English climate are to their constitutions. Moreover, the variety seems to have 
existed in this country for many years, for, according to the " Sportsman's Repository," the 
Italian Greyhound was probably first imported into England in the time of King Charles I. 
who had a great admiration for this breed of dog. On the same authority we 
learn that though from their fragile frames Italian Greyhounds are unsuitable for coursing 
purposes, yet " Lord Orford, so renowned for his partiality to Greyhounds, and who for years 
together kept fifty couple of them, never parting with a single whelp untried, made experi- 
ment of the Italian cross, and it was said with some degree of success." This tends to prove 
that not only was the breed in existence, but that its merits were fully recognised years ago. 
What advantage, however, Lord Orford could expect to derive from crossing the Italian 
with our English Greyhound we confess ourselves to be at a loss to conjecture, as the con- 
stitution, bone, muscle, and stamina of the larger breed would, we imagine, most certainly be 
impaired by the introduction of Italian blood into it. 

As may readily be conjectured by any who have seen specimens of the breed, the 
Italian Greyhound is one of the most delicate breeds of dog, and the possession of one 
entails a great expenditure of care and attention upon its owner. The extreme delicacy of 
its skin has always been the subject of special comment by those who have written on it; and 
some of the earlier contributors to our canine literature solemnly assert that if an Italian 
Greyhound is held by the tail in front of a strong light the skin of the sides is so fine and 
transparent that the intestines can be plainly seen beneath it. Such statements are naturally 
exaggerated, but are worth repetition as showing that the skins of these fascinating little 
dogs were always recognised as particularly fine and delicate. In the face of their con- 
stitutional weakness, Italian Greyhounds should be most carefully kept beyond the reach of 
damp and draughts, as a chill is certain destruction if not taken in time and promptly 
treated. Warm clothing, too, should always be worn out of doors unless on very fine days, 
and the food should be cooling and not calculated to heat the blood if the coat is to be 
kept on the dog. 

There is also a great inclination on the part of Italian Greyhounds, as in other Toy 
dogs, to contract mange, blotch, and other skin diseases ; which, however, will be treated of in 
another portion of this work. In the meantime it may be suggested to owners of Toy dogs 



Po/wrs OF THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. \ 79 

thus affected that an injudicious application of the nearest mange lotion is likely to be pre- 
judicial to the latter's recovery ; as many of the preparations so extensively advertised and 
widely used are far too powerful in their effects upon delicate skins and constitutions. We 
have ourselves known Toy dogs killed by injudicious treatment, in which such remedies as 
tar and carbolic acid were largely used. Both these remedies are decidedly beneficial in 
some instances ; but for mild cases of skin disease in small dogs (smooth-haired breeds 
especially) we strongly advocate the use of glycerine as a preliminary application. Several 
cases have come before us of cures when the above remedy has been applied in conjunc- 
tion with strict dieting, and the sulphur and magnesia remedy we have so often before 
recommended in the course of this work. 

Probably on account of the difficulty in rearing the young ones when first born, 
Italian Greyhounds are by no means numerous in this country ; and the classes for them 
at dog shows rarely fill very heavily. By far the best collection, taken as a whole, which 
we remember to have ever come across was at the dog show held in the Gymnasium, 
Edinburgh, in 1877. On this occasion the number and quality of the dogs present was far 
above the average, and the whole class were the subjects of unqualified praise from the judges, 
Messrs. William Lort and Hugh Dalziel. On making inquiries of gentlemen present who> 
knew the locality better than we did, it was stated that the weakness of the Modern Athens- 
in the doggy way was certainly Italian Greyhounds, and from the many excellent specimens 
which we came across afterwards in the town, we fully believe the statement to- be a true one. 

Amongst those most identified with this breed the name of Mr. W, Macdonald of 
Winchmore Hill, Middlesex, will always be conspicuous from the unparalleled successes of his 
almost perfect Italian Greyhound Molly, who was, we believe, never beaten, and certainly won 
at all the principal shows. Besides Molly Mr. Macdonald owned many good specimens, 
including Duke and Silvey. The names, also, of the Rev. J. W. Mellor, Mrs. Giltrap of 
Dublin, Miss Pirn of Lisnargarvey, Ireland, and Mr. S. W. Wildman, are closely associated 
with good specimens of the breed, which we fancy has been latterly rather increasing, its- circle 
of supporters. 

The points of an Italian Greyhound are essentially the same as those of its larger and 1 
more popular relative, the English Greyhound, which will be fully treated of in a later 
chapter ; in the meantime the following may be taken as representing what is required- in'- 
good specimens of the breed now under consideration. 

Head. As flat as possible, with tapering jaws. The former requisite, however, is almost 
an unknown feature to see in an Italian Greyhound. 

Eyes. Moderately full. 

Ears. Generally carried back as in the rose-ear, fine and thin. 

Neck. Rather long, slight, and arched. 

Chest. Deep and narrow, and shoulders slanting. 

Body. Rather raised, and tucked up at loins. 

Legs. Straight and slight. 

Feet. Round and cat-like ; well arched. 

Tail. Very fine and thin. 

Size. About 5 7 Ibs. 

General appearance. A fragile, delicate little dog, slender in outline, and one which seems 
susceptible of considerable speed if extended, were it capable of such exertion. 



i So THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

The specimen chosen for our coloured plate is Mr. S. VV. Wildman's (late Mrs. Giltrap's) 
Romeo, a most beautiful little dog, weighing 5! pounds. Romeo measures from nose to stop, 
2 \ inches ; stop to occiput, 3 inches ; length of back, 1 1 inches ; girth of muzzle, 4 inches ; 
girth of skull, 8 inches; girth of neck, 7 inches; girth of brisket, I2| inches; girth of chest, 13^ 
inches; girth of loins, loj inches; girth of forearm, 2| inches ; height at shoulders, 11 inches; 
height at elbows, 6\ inches; height at loins, u inches; length of tail, 7 inches. 

STANDARD OF POINTS FOR IUDGINO ITALIAN GREYHOUNDS. 

Value. 

Head ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Neck ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Shoulders ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Size ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 5-5 




iSi 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE POMERANIAN. 

THE Pomeranian is admittedly one of the least interesting dogs in existence, and consequently his 
supporters are few and far between. He has not that delicate beauty of outline which belongs to 
the Toy class generally, and his unsuitability for field sports renders him perfectly useless as a 
sporting dog. The Pomeranian is certainly a foreign importation, but to what country the 
credit of his production is due is a matter of conjecture. Good specimens of the breed have 
appeared from time to time amongst us, which have been picked up in Germany, Belgium, 
France, and other parts of the Continent, but the dog appears to be claimed by no one nation in 
particular, though he certainly resembles the Esquimaux in outline. This breed is fairly popular 
in America under the title of Spitz dog, and we have seen a very good specimen imported into 
this country by a lady who had visited the United States. 

As before observed, the virtues of the Pomeranian, whatever they may be, have failed to 
gain him many friends, and this is hardly to be wondered at when his good and bad qualities 
come to be weighed in the balance. Against a pretty coat, sharp and rather intelligent face, 
must be reckoned the snappish temper and lack of affection with which the Pomeranian is 
so generally credited. In fact, this breed looks far more intelligent than it really is, for it 
seems incapable of developing even an ordinary amount of instinct. As a guard to a house, 
however, if kept indoors, the Pomeranian is of some service, for his ears are keen, and an 
inclination to bark seems deeply rooted in the variety. On the other hand, though uncertain 
and treacherous in disposition, his courage is very much below the average, and a Pomeranian 
would sooner run than stand his ground any day. From this it may be surmised that as 
a vermin dog, which from his size and shape of head he might reasonably be expected to 
be, in some shape or other, a dog of this breed is worse than useless. Isolated specimens 
may on occasion do a little in the way of destroying rats, but we have seen many tried at 
all sorts of vermin, big and little, with the same result an apparently irresistible inclination to 
get out of the pit as soon as possible, and leave their enemies to something which liked to 
kill them better. This experience is corroborated by almost every one who has seen the breed 
tried, and we do not believe any of their best friends take credit for a Pomeranian's gameness 
or resolution in attack. 

With reference to the earlier history of the breed mention is made to it in a work entitled 
" Cynographia Britannica," by Sydenham Edwards, which was published in London in 1800, 
where we find that "the Pomeranian or Fox-dog" is thus described : " He is of little value as 
a house-dog, being noisy, artful, and quarrelsome, cowardly, petulant, and deceitful, snappish, and 
dangerous to children, and in other respects without useful properties. He is very common 

in Holland, and there named Kees There is a peculiarity in his coat : his 

hair, particularly the ruff around his neck, is not formed of hairs that describe the line of 
beauty, or serpentine line, but is simply a semicircle, which by inclining the same way in 



1 82 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

large masses give him a very beautiful appearance. Although his attachment is very weak, yet 
he is difficult to be stolen." 

The same writer alludes to the colour in the following words : " Of a pale fallow 
colour, lightest on the lower parts ; some are white, some black, but few spotted." 

In the "Sportsman's Cabinet," published 1804, this breed is termed the Pomeranian or 
Wolf-dog, and the colour is referred to as being "mostly of a pale yellow or cream colour, 
and lightest in the lower parts ; some are white, some few black, and others, but very 
rarely, spotted." The similarity of this description to the one given above renders it more 
than probable that the two were by the same hand, more especially as both works were pub- 
lished at so brief an interval. According to the latter authority the following was the 
pleasing method of breaking Pomeranians to harness adopted in Kamtchatka : " As soon as 
the puppies are able to see they are thrown into a dark pit, where they are shut up until 
they are thought able to undergo a trial. They are then harnessed with other seasoned 
dogs to a sledge, with which they scamper away with all their might, being frightened by 
the light and by so many strange objects. After their short trial they are again confined 
to their gloomy dungeon, and this practice is repeated until they are inured to the business 
of drawing, and are obedient to their driver. From this moment begins their hard and 
miserable course, only alleviated by the short recreation the summer affords them. As in this 
season they are of no service, nobody cares about them, but they enjoy a perfect liberty, which 
they principally employ in assuaging their hunger. Their sole nutriment consists of fish, 
which they watch for all this time by the banks of the river, and which they catch with the 
greatest cunning and dexterity. When they have plenty of this food, like the bears, they 
devour only the heads and leave the rest behind." In the opinion of the latter writer the 
character of the dog is superior to that given him by Sydenham Edwards, assuming that the 
two authors are not identical. In the " Sportsman's Cabinet " Pomeranians are said to 
possess an "instinctive sagacity of giving infallible notice when storms are approaching by 
scratching holes in the snow, and endeavouring to shelter themselves beneath it. By these and 
many other good qualities the Kamtchadale dogs by far outbalance the casual mischiefs they 
do in their occasional petulance and perverseness." Further on the writer remarks : " He 
bites most severely, and always with greater vehemence in proportion as he is less resisted ; 
for he most sagaciously uses precautions with such animals as attempt to stand upon the 
defensive ; and is admitted to be instinctively a coward, as he never fights but when under 
the necessity of satisfying his hunger or making good his retreat." 

In the "Naturalist's Library," edited by Sir William Jardine, Col. Charles Hamilton Smith, 
who is responsible for most of the canine information, remarks that " these dogs are white, 
white-and-brown, or buff." Thus showing that the white colour was becoming more popular 
amongst us. This latter is by far the favourite and most common colour in the present day ; 
though some authorities (with whom, however, we disagree) rather favour the fawn or lemon- 
coloured dogs. It may, however, be taken as a rule that, whatever the colour is, the 
dog should be " whole " coloured, not pied, as patches are universally objected to in 
Pomeranians. 

As regards shape the " Cynographia Britannica " says : " Head broad towards neck and 
narrowing to the muzzle; ears short, pointed, and erect; about 18 inches high; is dis- 
tinguished by his long, thick, and rather erect coat, forming a ruff around the neck, but short 
on the head and ears ; the tail large and bushy, curled in a ring on the rump ; instances 
are few of short-coated ones." This description very closely resembles that of the modern 




BLACK POMERANIAN. 



^Mr^H 



,3= 




IfeMBIIBi 




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POJNTS OP THE POMEKA.VIAX. 1 85 

Pomeranian, which certainly appears to have benefited less from the fostering influence of the 
attention of its admirers than any other breed. 

Amongst the supporters of this breed may be mentioned the names of Mr. R. Oldham of 
Manchester, Mrs. Senden of Streatham, Mr. Enoch Hutton, Mr. Fawdry, and Mrs. Mayhew. 

The dog we have selected is Mr. J. Fawdry's Charley, who has been successful at most 
of the principal shows throughout the country. He was born 1877, and scales 18 Ibs. Charley's 
measurements are : Nose to stop, \\ inches; stop to top of skull, 3^ inches; girth of forearm, 
5 inches ; girth of pastern, 3^ inches ; height at shoulders, 16 inches ; height at elbows, 10 
inches; height at loins, 15^ inches; height at hock, 3^ inches. 

The subjoined engraving, by a German artist, gives a most correct impression of a 
Pomeranian engaged in the congenial task of protecting his master's wagon. The black dog 
is to our mind an admirable specimen of the breed, and one which displays the chief 
characteristics of the Pomeranian to a marked extent. 

The points of a Pomeranian are not numerous, and the dog may be described as 
follows : 

Skull. Wide and flat and foxy-looking, tapering towards the muzzle, which is very fine. 

Jaws. Rather wide at base, but snipy towards nose. 

Ears. Fine and pricked. 

Eyes. Dark, not too full, and almond-shaped. 

Chest. Rather wide. 

Body. Short and cobby-looking. 

Legs. Stout, and placed well under the body. 

Feet. Round and small. 

Coat. Rather coarse, and very dense all over the body, especially on the lower side of 
the neck. It is long all over the body, but short on the head, with some feather on the 
forelegs. 

Tail. Bushy, and curled over the back. 

Colour. White or black. As before stated, some permit lemon or other shades, but 
the two former are certainly by far the most preferable. Parti-coloured dogs are much 
objected to. 

General appearance. An active, sharp-witted dog, capable of enduring fatigue, and giving 
every indication of hardiness and activity. 

STANDARD OF POINTS FOR JUDGING POMERANIANS. 

Value. 

Head, shape of skull ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Muzzle ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body and legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ' ... ... 10 

Colour . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

General appearance... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Total ... ... ... 50 



24 



1 86 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

THE MALTESE DOG. 

THE Maltese dog terrier as it is sometimes erroneously described, for the creature has nothing 
of the terrier in its composition is undoubtedly one of the most admired by ladies of all the 
varieties of Toy dog. The beautiful whiteness of a Maltese dog's coat is in itself a great 
attraction when the animal is carefully attended to by those who have it in charge, and the 
quality of the hair is so soft and silky that this variety is peculiarly adapted for the society 
of the gentler sex. 

What the origin of the breed is cannot be positively ascertained, though it is only reasonable 
to believe it is similar in many respects to the Cams Melitceits of old writers, who, rightly or 
wrongly, ascribed to Malta the honour of possessing a national dog at the time of their writing. 
One is naturally puzzled to ascertain what this dog really was, and many consider that it was 
merely a long-haired, small-sized animal, whose services have of later years been largely drawn 
upon in the production of kindred strains, notably in the case of Toy Spaniels. Be this as 
it may, the antiquity of a dog in many essential respects resembling the modern Maltese is 
beyond a doubt, and a reference to the chapter on Skye Terriers will show our readers that 
certain strains of the northern dog are even now credited with a Maltese cross. In the face of 
such evidence it is only reasonable to suppose that the latter variety was recognised as an 
acquisition by the people of this country many years ago, though doubtless the original shape 
of the dog and its general appearance have been the subject of considerable modifications. 

According to the " Naturalist's Library," the " Maltese Dog (Cains Mditcens), the Bichon or 
Chien Bouffe of Buftbn, is the most ancient of the small Spaniel races, being figured on Roman 
monuments and mentioned by Strabo." 

Dr. John Caius, more than three hundred years ago, thus alludes to the Maltese dogs in 
remarks which also refer to the Toy Spaniel or Fotor : 

" There is, besides those which wee have already delivered, another sort of gentle dogges in 
this our Englishe style, but exempted from the order of the residue. The dogges of this kinde 
doth Callimachus call Melitaers, of the Iseland Melita, in the Sea of Sicily (which at this day 
is named Malta, an Iseland in deede famous and renouned .... )." 

By far the best modern strain of Maltese dogs traces back to the kennels of Mr. R. 
Mandeville of London, who from the years 1860 to 1870 practically swept the board at the 
shows held at Birmingham, Islington, Crystal Palace, and Cremorne Gardens. To this gentle- 
man's Fido and Lilly we are indebted for many of the beautiful little dogs now in existence ; 
and the services which he rendered their pets should never, in common justice, be lost sight of 
by those who own Maltese dogs in the present day. 

As an out-door companion a dog of this breed is inferior to many other varieties of Toy, 
both on account of its long, silky jacket, and rather delicate constitution ; the Maltese being 



MALTESE DOG. 187 

peculiarly susceptible of cold and chills. If affected by such causes, the eyes are frequently 
attacked, and the water running from them causes unsightly brown lines on the muzzle, which 
naturally detract greatly from the beauty of the dog. Being so densely coated with silky hair, 
which is both longer and finer than in any other variety of dog, the jacket of a Maltese is a 
particular source of trial to his attendant, and a very slight attack of skin disease (or rather an 
attack which in the majority of breeds would be hardly worth consideration) is very liable to 
remove his coat to an alarming extent. Constant attention with a soft brush, the balloon 
shape referred to on page 156, and coolness of blood, are the best preventives, for in such 
cases prevention is more than ever better than cure. Dieting in all small long-haired dogs 
must be most scrupulously attended to, and the daily supply of meat rigorously cut down 
to the smallest possible dimensions. Scraps of bread and vegetables well mixed up with 
gravy are the best items of diet, and now and then a little meat may be added, but for 
the welfare of the animal such excesses should be few and far between. As in the case 
of the Yorkshire Terrier, many owners encase the hind feet in wash-leather bags, which are 
supposed to have the effect of preventing the dog from scratching himself so much as to injure 
his coat, or raise the skin beneath it. The bags may doubtless be useful in this respect, but 
are on the other hand very liable, if worn too long, to injure the feet by keeping them too 
hot and close, and should therefore be used with caution. The Maltese too, like the Yorkshire 
Terrier, often appears with the hair down his skull neatly plaited, both in order to prevent it 
becoming matted and to enable the dog to see his way about with greater ease ; and we 
know of more than one exhibitor who is in the habit of fastening back the ears when the 
animal is feeding, in order to prevent their dragging in the food and becoming soiled. Whether 
the latter precaution is a necessary one or not is naturally a matter of opinion, but cleanliness 
in jacket and purity of colour are very essential points in the success of a Maltese on the bench. 

As a companion for in-doors the Maltese dog ranks highly in the estimation of its admirers ; 
and certainly few prettier sights in dog-flesh can be imagined than a select collection of these 
taking little dogs, at home and uncontrolled in their mistress's boudoir. Unfortunately, the 
temper of a Maltese is often snappish, and the breed, in consequence, is not so popular as it 
would otherwise be with many who avowedly admire its beauty. Out of doors it is sharp and 
quick-witted, but yet its intelligence is far inferior to that of the King Charles or Blenheim 
Spaniel, which as intellectual Toys are facile princeps in the canine world. 

Of late years the studs of Lady Giffard of Red Hill, and Mrs. Bligh Monk of Coley Park 
near Reading, have succeeded in winning the chief prizes at our leading shows. But at the 
time of writing the latter lady has almost ceased to exhibit in this class, thus leaving Lady 
Giffard practically at the head of affairs with her extraordinary good collection. This includes 
Hugh, who has taken premier honours at the Alexandra Palace and other principal shows. 
Mr. R. Mandeville of Southwark has been referred to before as virtually the founder of the 
modern Maltese, and in addition to the above the name of Mr. J. Jacobs of Oxford is 
conspicuous in connection with the breed. 

With reference to the exhibition of Maltese, so very much depends on the washing they 
receive before going off to a show, that a few remarks, based on some hints received from a 
well-known exhibitor, may not be out of place, as they must apply equally well to all breeds of 
Toy dogs. In the first place it is well to be assured that the dog is not suffering from the effects 
of a cold when washing is determined upon ; and, secondly, the greatest precautions must be 
taken to guard against his being chilled from not being properly dried. It is always, therefore) 
desirable to wash the dog before a fire, due care having been previously taken to see that his 



1 88 THE BOOK OF THE DOG, 

coat has been well brushed, and combed out with a coarse-toothed comb, which renders it less 
likely to become tangled and matted by the water. After the Maltese, or other Toy, has been 
well washed in a small tub of warm water, in which a very minute quantity of soda may be 
placed when the animal is undergoing his ablutions preparatory to state occasions, with a 
squeeze of the blue bag added as well under such circumstances, he should be taken out of 
the water and plunged in another tub of clean tepid water, to rinse all the soap-suds out of his 
jacket. When removed from this second bath, his attendant should most thoroughly dry him 
before the fire, care being taken to see that the interior of the ears, the feet, tail, and under 
the elbows, are as well dried as the body, or a heavy cold will be the most natural consequence 
of neglect in this respect. After the performances with the towels are completed, it is well to 
stand the dog in a clean open wicker basket before the fire, so that he can get thoroughly dry, 
without an opportunity being afforded him (which he would otherwise be sure to avail himself of) 
to rub himself on the carpet and soil his jacket. When well dried he can be combed and brushed. 
Having thus alluded to the Maltese, we will proceed to give a description of the points 
which are now desired in a good specimen. 

The Skull is rather wide, and appearing round from the position of the ears, and is covered 
with silky hair. 

Muzzle, tapering towards the nose. 

Nose and Eyes, black, the latter not so large and prominent as in the case of the Pug. 

Ears, set on high, and well covered with long white, silky hair. 

Body, deep in chest, well ribbed up with a level back. 

Legs, short, and placed well under the body. 

Tail, well feathered, and carried over the back in a curl. 

Colour, a pure white: lemon markings being a disqualification. Many good specimens are 
touched on the ears with this colour, and suffer occasionally thereby. 

Coat, long, soft, and silky, with no curl, which is a bad fault if present 

Size, from 5 to 7 pounds, or even more. 

General Appearance. A compact little dog, excitable when released from restraint, but 
palpably unfit for anything but an in-door existence. 

The dog chosen to illustrate the Maltese dog is Hugh, property of Lady Giffard. He 
was bred by owner in 1875, and measures from nose to stop, i inch ; from stop to top of 
skull, 2.\ inches; length of back, 8 inches; girth of muzzle, 4 inches; girth of skull, 9 inches; 
girth of neck, 7 inches; girth of brisket, lU inches; girth round shoulders, II inches; girth of 
loins, 9 inches; girth of forearm, 2\ inches; girth of pastern, if inches; height at shoulders, 
7 inches ; height at elbows, 4 inches ; height at loins, -j\ inches ; length of tail, 5 inches ; hair on 
tail, 7 inches; length of coat, II inches; length of ear with hair, 7^ inches; weight, 4 Ib. 10 ozs. 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING MALTESE. 

Value. 

Skull, muzzle, and nose ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Eyes 3 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Body and legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Tail ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Coat 10 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

General appearance, size ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

5 



i8g 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

THE POODLE. 

THE Poodle is one of the least understood and appreciated breeds of dog in this country. 
Of late years there has been a slight movement in his favour ; but even in the present day his 
many powerful claims upon doggy people appear to have been greatly overlooked, though 
those who have devoted themselves to his study are loud in their praises of his sagacity and 
general utility, which a Poodle's antecedents certainly seem to fully entitle him to. 

At present there are several distinct varieties of Poodle on the Continent, various parts 
of which are recognised as the home of the various types ; but there seems to be but one 
opinion amongst naturalists as regards his origin, which, with a rather unusual unanimity of 
opinion, is alleged by writers on the breed to have been the Can is Aquaticus, or Water-spaniel 
of our forefathers. 

In the "Sportsman's Cabinet," vol. i., which was published in London in 1803, the 
" Veteran Sportsman," by whom it is compiled, takes a so far different view of the case 
as to cause him to draw a distinction between the " Water-dog " and " Water-spaniel." In 
referring to the former the following are his own words : " The particular breed of dog 
passing under this denomination differs materially from the former sort, distinguished by the 
appellation of Water-spaniel, which distinction will be more fully explained in the course of the 
work when we come to that head. The Water-dog, of which an exact representation is given 
from the life " [this represents an unshaved and rather short-headed Poodle in every particular], 
"is of so little general use that the breed is but little promoted, unless upon the sea-coast, 
and in such other situations as are most likely to render their qualifications and propen- 
sities of some utility These dogs are exceedingly singular in their 

appearance, and most probably derive their origin from the Greenland dog, blended with 

some particular race of our own Although these dogs are to be seen 

of almost all colours and equally well-bred, yet the jet-black with white feet stand highest 
in estimation ; the most uniform in shape and make exceed in size the standard of mediocrity, 
and are strong in proportion to their formation. The head is rather round ; the nose short ; 
the ears broad, long, and pendulous ; his eyes full, lively, and solicitously attracting ; his neck 
thick and short ; his shoulders broad ; his legs straight ; his hind-quarters round and firm ; 
his pasterns strong, and dew-clawed ; his fore-feet long, but round ; " [sic] " with his hair 
adhering to the body in natural, elastic, short curls, neither loose, long, or shagg ; the 
former being considered indicative of constitutional strength, the latter of constitutional weak- 
ness or hereditary debility." "The Water-dog even in puppyhood displays 

an eager desire to be employed in offices of domestic amusement." The writer then pro- 
ceeds to give full directions for teaching Poodles to retrieve, which it is needless to refer 
to here, as due allusion is made to such proceedings in the Newfoundland chapter, and 
in the present article in the course of Mr. T. H. Joyce's notes on the breed. Enough will 
have been gathered, however, from the above quotation to show that in the early part of the 



1 90 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

present century, and probably for some time before, there was a breed in these islands very 
similar to the modern and certainly improved Continental Poodle. 

In the " Naturalist's Library " the following remarks occur, which prove the writer to 
be of a somewhat similar opinion to our own. Under the heading of " The Water-dog, 
Cants Aquaticus" we find that : " The Water-dog or Poodle of the Germans is in its 
most perfect state not a British race, but rose into favour first in Germany, and during the 
revolutionary wars was carried by the troops into France, and only in the latter campaigns 
became familiar to the British in Spain and the Netherlands. The coarser crisped-haired 
Water-dog was indeed long known to the middle classes of England, and to fishermen on 
the north-east coast, and professional water-fowl shooters ; he was occasionally brought to 

the environs of London No dog is more intelligent or attached to his 

master ; none like the Poodle can trace out and find lost property with more certainty and 
perseverance." 

Poodles are on the Continent usually divided into at least four varieties, each of which 
is apparently descended from one common ancestor the Cants Aquaticus but which have 
become almost distinct from being crossed with other breeds and subsequently in-bred amongst 
themselves. 

Mr. T. H. Joyce, an ardent admirer of the breed, kindly supplies us with the following 
information : 

" In England the Poodle proper is the least understood, and consequently the least 
appreciated, of almost any known breed of dog. Indeed, as a rule he is looked upon with 
a feeling approaching contempt, as a canine mountebank, amusing enough in his way, like a 
'plum-pudding* trick horse in a circus, but of no practical use in real life. And yet in a 
great measure those very characteristics which render him first and foremost among canine 
performers are due to the simple fact that he is far superior in intelligence to his fellows, and 
capable of acquiring a greater variety of accomplishments, from walking about on his hind-legs 
with a parasol and petticoats, to retrieving on land or in water ; while it should not be for- 
gotten that so great an authority as Sir Edwin Landseer painted him as the type of wisdom 
in ' Laying down the Law.' In fact, in Germany, and indeed throughout a great portion of 
Northern Europe, he is looked upon as every whit as useful a companion as he is ornamental, 
and the appearance of a Poodle harnessed to a cart, or carrying his master's basket, is a very 
common one in the streets of Germany, Holland, and Belgium. He is also used for 
shooting purposes, as he is a capital water-dog, is easy to train either to retrieve or 
point. Opinions certainly differ with respect to his pointing abilities, though all acknowledge 
that his scent is exceedingly delicate. He is a steady and willing worker, moreover, and 
when well trained is extremely tractable ; and it is this quality of extreme docility which 
makes him a most valuable dog in the house, as he is full of fun, ever ready for a romp with 
a child, to fetch his master's slippers, or to carry a note to some other member of the family, 
and patiently await and bring back the answer. He is also a capital watch-dog, and is never 
backward perhaps indeed a little too anxious to defend the interests or the person of his 
owner, for the thorough-bred Poodle, when not demoralised by too much coddling and over- 
feeding, is decidedly pugnacious, and is rarely averse to do battle with his own kind. A 
black Poodle in the possession of the writer has had many a tough fight with a Bull-terrier 



CHARACTER AND ANTIQUITY OF THE POODLE. 191 

who is also a member of the family, and always comes off victor, while he never hesitates 
to attack a Newfoundland or St. Bernard twice his size should he feel himself in any way 
insulted. Another of the writer's Poodles, this time of the white French breed, was sometimes 
wont to take a dislike to a passer-by in the street, and suddenly rising on his hind legs would 
dance round him, uttering a most menacing bark and showing a startling display of teeth, to 
the intense alarm and astonishment of his victim, whom, however, he was careful never to 
bite, apparently looking upon the whole matter as a practical joke. Again, a third, of the 
large black German breed, was a little too officious in defending the house from visitors, and 
would keep people waiting outsids the garden gate until a servant came to guarantee the 
good faith of the applicant for admission. This gentleman had one frailty : he was addicted 
to pocket-picking, having been taught this doubtful accomplishment in his early youth ; and 
finally had to be sent away owing to his devotion to what the ' Artful Dodger ' would have 
called ' fogle-hunting.' 

" Marvellous anecdotes, far too numerous to detail here, are told of the Poodle's faith- 
fulness, affection, and versatile talent, ranging from the celebrated Munito, who in 1818 
astonished all Paris by his clever card and arithmetical tricks, or the once well-known Paris 
Poodle of the Pont Neuf, who used to dirty the boots of passers-by in order that his master 
a shoeblack might have the benefit of cleaning them, to a white Poodle who, snubbed by 
his lady-love, committed suicide at Queenstown a few years since. Like a child, however, he 
requires careful handling, for while he is very easily trained, he is exceptionally sensitive, and 
is far more efficiently taught when treated rather as a sensible being than as a mere quadru- 
pedal automaton, and will learn twice as quickly if his master can make him understand the 
reason for performing his task. 

"The history of the Poodle and the details of his lineage are somewhat obscure. That he 
is of German origin there is no doubt, the name being identical in both languages Pudel and 
he there is ordinarily classed as the Canis familiar is Aquaticus, being very closely allied to 
the more crisp and curly-haired water-fowl dog well known to our sportsmen of the marshes. 
He assuredly dates his existence from some centuries since, for in various illuminated 
manuscripts of the sixteenth century, and notably in one depicting an episode in the life of 
Margaret of York, the third wife of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, and in another repre- 
senting a family group of Maximilian of Austria and his wife and child (' The Abridged 
Chronicles of Burgundy') there is certainly the portrait of a shaven dog, which, allowing for 
the artistic shortcomings of that period, closely resembles the Poodle of the present day. 
Again, in Martin de Vos' picture of ' Tobit and his Dog,' which also dates from the l6th 
century, the faithful animal is an unmistakable shaven Poodle, while in two of the series 
'of paintings of the story of 'Patient Griselda,' by Pinturicchio (1454 1513), in the National 
Gallery, a small shaven Poodle is conspicuous amongst the various spectators of Griselda's 
vicissitudes of fortune. Thus, as far as ancestry goes, he is doubtless entitled to the numerous 
quarterings so valued by the Teutonic nobility. Why, however, the Poodle should have been 
half-shaved from time immemorial is not clear, unless it be to imitate the Lion Dog (Cants 
Leoninus), of which a degenerate scion still exists, I believe, in Malta. At the present day the 
Poodle is found throughout Europe from Amsterdam to Naples, where, completely shaven, he 
may be seen taking his siesta under the shadow of some friendly wall or doorway. Poodles, 
however, considerably differ in the various countries. Thus, in Eastern Germany and on the 
confines of Russia he is as a rule black, and the Russian Poodle proper should be lithe and 
agile ; while coming more into Central Germany the black Poodle seems to thicken in the 



192 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

legs and to shorten slightly in the muzzle, assuming more staid, sturdy, and aldermanic 
proportions. The white Poodle also presents marked variations, ranging from the great 
muscular fellow who draws a milk-cart in Antwerp and Brussels to his more slender French 
brother familiarly called Mouton, who is so constantly met with on the Paris boulevards. The 
size of the two breeds differs considerably, the larger one averaging some 30 or 40 Ibs., while 
the smaller, generally known under the name of Barbet, only weighs about half that figure. 
Of the various breeds mentioned the Russian is the most valuable. As a rule he is highly 
intelligent, and is altogether a handsomer and more gracefully-formed dog, while his coat, being 
black, is free from that soiled appearance which is so great a drawback to the white breed. 
The hair of the various breeds is also somewhat different that of the Russian being more 
wiry and less woolly than the French, who, from the texture of his coat, frequently merits 
his pastoral nickname. There is also a " sheep " Poodle in Germany, but his coat is long 
and pendent, in bunches something resembling those of the Musk Sheep, and presenting 
altogether a heavy and uncouth appearance. The Poodle appears to have been introduced into 
England during the Continental wars at the beginning of the century, although performing 
dogs were known previous to this era ; but he was a favourite in France long before that 
date, and in a fashion plate of the time of Louis XVI. he is represented, shaven and shorn, 
begging hard for a biscuit from a child of the period. 

" A word, to conclude, about training Poodles. In the first place, teach your dog when 
you give him his meal of biscuit, letting him have it piece by piece as every trick is per- 
formed ; secondly, never attempt to teach him two new tricks at a time, and when instilling into 
him a new trick, let him always go through his old ones first ; thirdly, never be beaten by him, 
If as is frequently the case with young dogs he declines to perform a trick, do not pass it 
over or let him go through something that he may like better, but when you see that he 
definitively refuses, tell him that he cannot eat without working, and put away his food for an 
hour or two. If he once sees he can tire you out you will have no further authority over 
him, while if you are firm he will not hold out long ; and, once beaten, will not make a second 
attempt. It is, however, a bad plan to make a dog go through a trick, which he may apparently 
dislike, too many times during one lesson. A whip is of little use when training, as the dog 
will learn to associate his tasks with a thrashing, and go through them in that unwilling, cowed, 
tail-between-legs fashion which too often betrays the unthinking hastiness of a master, and is 
the chief reason why the Poodle has so often been dubbed a spiritless coward. The Poodle, 
properly treated, is a true and intelligent friend, and deserves more attention than is bestowed 
upon him by English fanciers. 

" In selecting Poodles the chief points to be observed are : 

" I. The Head. This should be broad, well developed, and carried high. 

" 2. The Muzzle in the French and Russian breeds should appear comparatively long when 
shaven, but in the German somewhat shorter and thicker, while the nose of the first-named 
should be a clear pink, and in the black breed the colour of jet. The roof of the mouth 
should also be black. 

" 3. The Eyes are a great criterion ; they should be dark hazel, and clear, and look you 
straight in the face when spoken to ; this in itself being no small test of the animal's intel- 
ligence and previous training. 

" 4. The Ears should be long, and thickly covered with long silky hair. 

" 5. The Neck should be well proportioned to the size of the animal, while the shoulders should 
be firm, but not too thickly set, the fore-legs being muscular, not too long, and perfectly straight. 




25 



GERMAN POODLES. 



VARIETIES OF POODLES. 195 

" 6. The Chest and Body The chest should be broad and fairly deep, while the loin 
should be muscular without being thick and ungainly, and well arched beneath. 

"7. The Tail, which is usually considerably docked in puppyhood, should be carried 
jauntily at about an angle of 45 degrees with his back. A drooping tail is a great dis- 
figurement. 

" 8. The Colour should be either pure white or pure black, though it is difficult to obtain 
the latter without a blemish of white on the chest. 

" 9. The Feet should be slightly webbed, and when clipped the fingers should appear 
distinct and well-shapen. 

" 10. The Coat of a Poodle differs considerably, ranging from the wiry horse-hair of the 
Russian to the curly wool of the French ; or, again, to the long ringlets of the corded breed ; 
so that it is difficult to lay down any general rule, save that the hair should be exceedingly 
thick and of a fine springy texture, which, while completely free from grease, should wear a 
well-groomed glossy aspect. 

" If possible, it would be well to see him have a run, as there is a wavy snake-like motion 
imparted to the back of every well-bred Poodle, which decreases as age creeps on, when he 
becomes more staid and sober. Care should be taken in purchasing puppies not to part 
them too early from their mother, or to expose them to cold, as infantile Poodles are ex- 
ceedingly delicate, and are rapidly carried off by an attack of bronchitis or pneumonia." 

In the present day we find mention by numerous authorities of at least three or four 
different varieties of Poodle. Some writers, indeed, extend the number of distinct sorts to even 
more, but we confess that the difference between some of the varieties appears to us to be so 
subtle as to become hardly discernible. For our own part we feel strongly inclined, from 
conversations we have held with gentlemen interested in and acquainted with the breeding of 
Poodles, to divide that breed into but two distinct classes, viz., the curly-coated and the corded- 
coated Poodle. The former is most certainly the commoner variety, and may in its turn be 
sub-divided into two branches, viz., the large and the small sized, as the structural development 
of each sub-variety is essentially the same. Those Continental authorities, on the other hand, 
who add a third or medium-sized to the curly-coated variety, by doing so, in our opinion, 
open the door to difficulties in breeding which we think could easily be done away with. 
When the chief distinction between dogs of a similar type resolves itself merely into a matter 
of weight, it can hardly be successfully contended that the animals belong to different breeds, 
and if only for simplicity sake this slight distinction might be advantageously abolished in the 
interests of the breed. Such expressions as "Der grosse Pudel," " Der mittlere Pudel," and " Der 
kleine Pudel," look well on paper, but when these formidable adjectives are simply translated 
into large, middle-sized, and small, their value comes to be considerably discounted ; and we 
do not believe that even those writers, who for their reputation's sake have to notice them, 
really believe in the desirability of such distinctions being perpetuated. 

The large-sized Poodle is essentially a Continental sportsman's dog, and is by many of 
them considered in that capacity almost a paragon of perfection. He is quickly broken to gun, 
and can be taught anything in the way of tricks. His devotion to his master is beyond any 
question, and, as a descendant of the Cams Aquaticus, it may be surmised that he takes to 
water kindly. Under such circumstances it can hardly be surprising that the Poodle is a 
general favourite, and set great store by in countries where the good qualities of our English 
sporting dogs are either unknown, or the dogs themselves cannot be procured. 



196 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The small breed, on the other hand, though equally intelligent, are naturally enough 
inferior as sporting companions, and may therefore be considered more in the light of toy 
dogs, even on the Continent, than their larger relatives. 

The corded Poodle is, however, a totally different dog in appearance to the curly-coated 
ones alluded to above. Though the structural development is the same, the vast difference 
in coat proves the distinction between the two varieties. Instead of the thick curly coat 
which is possessed by the large and small curly-coated dogs, the jacket of the corded Poodle 
appears at first sight to consist entirely of lengths of twisted cords or rope, which give the 
dog a most peculiar appearance. There is a complete line down the skull, neck, and back : 
the cords of hair hanging down and sometimes trailing on the ground from this line. The tail is 
also fully furnished with " cords," and the only parts exempt are the muzzle and feet. It is not 
often, however, that this variety is met with in this country, and the best collection we remember 
to have ever come across at English shows was at the Nottingham Canine Society's exhibition 
in 1875, when three or four excellent specimens faced the judges. 

Herr R. Von Schmiedeberg, the great German authority on canine and sporting subjects, 
kindly writes to us as follows : 

" We distinguish two breeds of Poodles, one the woolly breed, or as we say, the Schaaf 
Ptidel sheep Poodle. The other is the Scfoner Pudel pedigree Poodle. The former has long 
woolly hair, which naturally forms little bunches, but which -by combing becomes silky, and 
forms single hairs. The latter has its hair grown in long spirals, which sometimes touch 
the ground, even from the ears and tail. Some writers distinguish Poodles from each other 
on account of their size, but that is not correct. Poodles have all other peculiarities alike. 
Colour is either white or black, and sometimes brown, which is considered a bad one. 
White ones with black or brown patches appear also, but they are discarded. The long curly 
hair grows on the whole body, even on the muzzle and the legs. Frequently it is shaven, 
so that there is a sort of moustache growing round the nose ; the feet are also shaven from 
below the knee. 

"The first record we have of the breed is by Conrad Gessner in 1555, but it seems the 
ancients knew the breed, as little poodles are represented upon some monuments about the 
time of the Emperor Augustus, about A.D. 30." 

The engraving which accompanies this chapter represents both the above-described 
varieties, one of which is trimmed in the manner described. 

The following may be taken to represent the points of the Poodle : 

Skull high and well domed. 

Mtizzle short and rather blunt. 

Eyes rather small and dark, but very intelligent. 

Ears large, and lying flat to the head. 

Body moderately long, with a deep chest. 

Legs thick, and rather short. 

Coat either very tightly curled, or corded as above described. In any case the jacket 
must be thick and dense. 

Colour white or black. The latter is far rarer than white, and especially so in the case 
of the corded varieties. An excellent black-and-white pied specimen, called Domino, was 



THE TRUFFLE-DOG. 197 

exhibited at the Brighton dog show in 1879, but his peculiar markings apparently did not 
find favour with the judges, for he failed to secure a prize. 

Tail, generally docked. 

General Appearance. An active and highly-intelligent dog, capable of great speed and 
exertion on land or in water. 

N.B. It is customary to shave curly-coated Poodles, at all events in the summer months, 
in a rather peculiar and quaint manner. The muzzle is shaven with the exception of a good- 
sized tuft of hair on either side of the nose, which corresponds with the moustache of a human 
being. The rest of the head, the neck, chest, fore-quarters, and fore-legs, are often left intact, 
the shaving commencing again two or three inches behind the fore-legs. This is not akvays 
the case, as it gives a heavy appearance to the dog, and many only clip to just above the 
elbow, with a bracelet of hair left on the pastern. This results in all the body being bare 
with the exception of a patch on the outside of each thigh, a little above and behind the 
stifle joint. The hind-legs arc usually shaven down to an inch or two above the hocks, and 
a tuft is left on the end of the tail. All the feet are shaven. Of course corded Poodles are 
not subjected to this ordeal, their personal attractions being considered sufficiently powerful not 
to necessitate the assistance of art. 

The following are the measurements of Mr. T. H. Joyce's Russian Poodle Posen. This dog 
is a male, weighing 31 Ibs., and aged 3^ years. He measures from nose to stop, 3J inches; 
stop to top of head, 4 inches; length of back, 17 inches; girth of muzzle, 9| inches; girth 
of skull, 14 inches; girth of neck, 12^ inches; girth of brisket, 17 inches; girth of shoulders, 
21 inches; girth of loins, 14 inches; girth of fore-arm, 5 inches; girth of pastern, 3^ inches 
height at shoulders, 20} inches; height at elbows, lojj- inches; height at loins, 2o inches; 
height at hock, 5^ inches. 

STANDARD OF POINTS FOR JUDGING POODLES. 

Valut. 

Skull 5 

Ears and eyes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Neck and body ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Legs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

5 
THE TRUFFLE-DOG. 

The Truffle-dog is nothing more or less than a bad small-sized Poodle, and is never, or very 
rarely, met with under the designation Truffle-dog. Its cultivation is due to the existence of 
truffles, which it is employed to discover when they are lying in the ground by the help of its 
acute nose. Any credit, therefore, attained by the Truffle-dog is certainly due to his better- 
bred relative the Poodle, as the main distinction between the two lies in the former being 
the leggier dog of the two, and therefore further remarks on the points of the Truffle-dog 
would be superfluous. 



1 98 



C H AFTER XXIX. 

THE BLOODHOUND. 

THOUGH the Bloodhound has lost much of his former utility, the breed is nevertheless one 
that is generally admired in the present day. The noble proportions of the dog, his magnificent 
head, and the knowledge of what he has been known to do, are each and all powerful agencies 
in his favour, and the usually brilliant colour of a Bloodhound is also an additional attraction. 
The uses to which this breed of dog was originally put in this country were the tracking of 
wounded beasts and the pursuit of malefactors. For either purpose their marvellously keen 
powers of scent admirably qualified them, and is alluded to by Dr. John Caius in the following 
words : 

" The greater sort which serve to hunt, having lippes of a large size, and eares of no small 
length, do not onely chase the beast whiles it lieth, but being dead also by any maner of casualtie, 
make recourse to the place where it lyeth, having on this point an assured and infallible guyde, 
namely, the sent and. savour of the bloud sprinckled heere and there upon the ground. For 
whether the beast, beying wounded, doth notwithstanding enjoye life, and escapeth the handes 
of the huntesman, or whether the said beast, beying slayne, is conveyed clenly out of the parcke 
(so that there be some signification of bloud there), these dogges with no lesse facilitie and 
easinesse, their aviditie and greedinesse can disclose and betray the same by smelling, applying 
to their pursute agilitie and nimbleness without tediousnesse, for which consideration of a 
singular specialitie they deserved to be called Sanguinarii, or Bloudhounds. And albeit, perad- 
venture, it may chaunce (as whether it chaunceth sealdome or sometime I am ignorant) that a 
piece of flesh be subtily stolen and cuningly conveyed away with such provisos and precautions 
that all apparaunce of bloud is eyther prevented, excluded, or concealed, yet these kinde of 
dogges, by a certaine directione of an inward assured notyce and privy marcke, pursue the deede 
doers through rough long lanes, cruked reaches, and weary wayes, without wandring away 
out of the limites of the land whereon these desperate purloyners prepared their speedy passage. 
Yea, the natures of these dogges is such, and so effectuall is their foresight, that they can betray 
separate, and pycke them out from among an infinite multitude, creepe they never so farre into 
the thickest thronge ; they will finde him out notwithstandyng he lye hidden in wylde woods, in 
close and overgrown groves, and lurcke in hollow holes apte to harbour such ungracious guestes. 
Moreover, although they should passe over the water, thinking thereby to avoyde the pursute 
of the houndes, yet will not these dogges give over their attempt, but presuming to swym 
through the streame perservere in their pursute, and when they be arrived and gotten the further 
bancke, they hunt up and downe, to and fro runne they, from place to place shift they, untill 
they have attained to that plot of grounde where they passed over." 

According to the " Naturalist's Library," the Bloodhound was usually about twenty-eight 
inches high. The author of " Cynographia Britannica " gives the height as twenty-seven inches, 
and describes the dog as being 



THE BLOODHOUND. 199 

" Of a strong, compact, and muscular form ; the face rather narrow, stem, and intelligent ; 
nostrils wide and large ; lips pendulous ; ears large, broad at the base, and narrowing to the tip ; 
tail strong, but not bushy ; voice extremely loud and sonorous. But what most distinguishes 
this kind is their uniform colour, a reddish-tan, gradually darkening on the upper part, with a 
mixture of black on the back, becoming lighter on the lower parts and extremities. One of the 
dogs I saw had a little white on the face, but this was not usual with that breed. Mr. Pennant 
mentions their having a black spot over each eye ; this was not the case with either I made 
the drawing from." 

Further on the same writer remarks of the Bloodhound : 

" There is no doubt he was originally the only dog used to trace game by the scent in this 
country. The manner of the ancient hunt was not all that is now practised ; the game was 
found and surrounded in its haunts, when roused it was shot by the arrow or wounded by the 
spear; if in this state it escaped, the Bloodhound traced and the Mastiff or hunter killed it." 

It will thus be seen that from the earliest records the greatest value has been attached to 
the keen scent possessed by a Bloodhound ; but in the present day the dog is practically 
useless, such a thing as a pack of Bloodhounds being almost unknown. As a matter of fact, 
we believe that Lord VVolverton, at Iwerne Minster, has the only representative pack now in 
existence, and he certainly has some very creditable specimens of the breed, as his entries at 
the Alexandra Palace Show in July, 1879, fully testified. A marked difference, however, 
existed between Lord Wolverton's hounds and those of some other owners also present at 
the same show. His lordship's hounds were all placed on sound legs, which, on the other 
hand, carried plainer heads than their more luxurious neighbours the latter being bred more 
for ornament than use, and the condition of many legs leaving much to be desired, though 
their Iliads were in many instances nearly perfection. This can, of course, be easily accounted 
for by the stress laid upon "taking" heads, and the disuse for the breed in the present day; 
but there can be no excuse for a judge tacitly encouraging infirm hounds by awarding the 
animals prizes. As the Rev. Grenville F. Hodson, who is a well-known judge of the breed, 
once remarked at a public dinner, " it is no use a hound having a good head or body if he 
has not the legs or feet to carry them." 

On account of his marvellous scent the Bloodhound has from time immemorial been 
associated with the capture of escaped criminals. Dr. Caius, as shown above, and in 
fact the majority of earlier wiiters, have all alluded to this dog's success as a thief-taker, and 
his praises have been said or sung by every canine writer down to the present day. The 
natural consequence of so much adulation has been that the Bloodhound is credited with 
almost supernatural powers by many persons, and the simple exercise of its natural powers 
of scent by an ordinary dog under peculiar circumstances has been before now turned to the 
glory of the Bloodhound by ignorant folks. A case in point is the instance of a peculiarly 
revolting crime in the neighbourhood of Blackburn. A so-called Bloodhound was said to have 
been instrumental in tracking out the criminal, and bringing him to justice. As a matter of 
fact, the man was strongly suspected by the police authorities, and the dog (not a Bloodhound, 
by the way, but a mongrel) was brought into his house, where some portions of the body were 
concealed, and which the animal naturally enough detected. At the time this simple and 



2OO THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

very natural action on the part of the dog led to most extravagant stories being circulated 
about the extraordinary intelligence of this particular " Bloodhound," as ignorant people styled 
the beast. We do not, however, desire in the smallest degree to under-estimate the value of 
the Bloodhound, or cast reflections on his power of scent, which we believe to be of the 
highest. Unfortunately, his uses in the present day are not numerous in this country, and 
beyond in a few cases being serviceable as a guard about a house, the Bloodhound may be 
recognised as included in the ornamental but not useful category of dogs. The disposition of 
the Bloodhound is not by any means one upon which implicit reliance can be placed, and his 
size and immense power render him when roused a most formidable and dangerous antagonist. 

From the writings of many old writers there appears to be small doubt that in early 
days there were more than one strain of dogs used for tracking purposes, and it is probably 
from an amalgamation of these that the modern Bloodhound originally sprang. Gervase 
Markham describes a Talbot, which no doubt is a relation of the Bloodhound, as a round, 
thick-headed dog, with a short nose characteristics which certainly do not appear in modern 
Bloodhounds. A connection may be established between the present breed and other early 
varieties, if the subject of colour is studied, for a black race of hounds known as St. Huberts 
were formerly highly thought of, and it is very probable that from these the modern hound 
has derived the black saddle, which is so prized by breeders of this variety. 

In the present day, though there are many more persons in possession of Bloodhounds than 
formerly, the breed cannot by any means be said to be widely popular. In days gone by there 
was considerable difficulty in obtaining pure-bred specimens, but even now that good whelps 
can readily be obtained at a comparatively trifling cost, the number of breeders seems to remain 
a very limited one. This neglect or apathy on the part of the public to support the Bloodhound 
no doubt arises in a great measure from the exaggerated stories which have been related 
concerning his ferocity. That the animal when roused is a formidable foe there can be no 
room for doubting ; and his ferocity when on the track of an absconding ill-doer often cost the 
latter his existence when run down ; in fact, as will be seen from the quotation given above, 
the hound in hunting was usually not permitted to break up the wounded animal, who was 
handed over to the tenderer mercies of a Mastiff or the huntsman. Be the uncertainty of a 
Bloodhound's temper as it may, we know of more than one specimen of the breed which is 
thoroughly under control, and of whom, in the presence of its owner, we should have no misgivings 
under any but the most exceptional circumstances. Kindness and firmness are, we believe, with 
this breed, as others, the royal road to successful management ; and anybody who- has visited 
shows cannot have failed to notice the perfect control which his mistress exercises over the 
champion Don and others of her kennel. Whether the confidence which Mrs. Humphries at 
present places in Don will ever be misplaced is more than can be foretold, but as far as can be 
seen, no animal could possibly be gentler in disposition, and obedient to his owner, than this 
famous hound. 

The subject of colour is one upon which several conflicting opinions are brought to bear. 
All, however, seem to agree that white, if dispersed in large quantities over the body, is a 
decided blemish, if not absolute disqualification, on the show-bench. Some modern authorities 
even go the length of saying that any white at all a snip on the forehead, a splash on the 
chest, or a spot on the foot should prevent a dog from winning at an exhibition. Before, 
however, giving an opinion on such a subject, it would be well to look back and see what 
amount of white was allowed the ancient Bloodhound. According to Turberville, in his " Book 
of Hunting," the hounds showing white were preferred to several other colours which he gives. 



COLOL'K OF THE BLOODHOUND. 



2OI 



This must certainly tend to prove that white was permissible if not actually a desirable 
addition to a dog's colour in the earlier days of canine literature. It is therefore hard to 
discover any sufficient reason for supporting modern authorities who advocate the disqualifica- 
tion of hounds which show traces of white. If marked too heavily great injury is certainly 
done the hound's appearance, and white legs, or a large patch on the chest, would very 
probably jeopardise his chance of winning a prize under most judges ; but for our own part 




CAPTAIN j. \v. CLAYTON'S LUATH xi. 

we are of opinion that slight indications of white should not stand between a Bloodhound and 
success on the show-bench. 

Another point in colour upon which great stress is laid is the acquisition of the black 
saddle upon the back, the non-possession of which has caused more than one good dog the 
loss of prizes. A case in point is that of the magnificent Luath XL, the portrait of whose 
head appears in the subjoined woodcut. Luath XL, most unfortunately for himself and his 
master, is of a pale tan colour, and his legs are not of the best and straightest, or he must 
have proved invincible at every show. In spite, however, of his unfashionable colour, his 
services as a sire have been resorted to with the happiest results by many of the principal 
breeders of the day, and he is marvellously successful in transmitting his grandly-developed 
head characteristics to his offspring. 
26 



2O2 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

As stated above, the number of modern Bloodhound breeders and exhibitors is a very 
limited one, but amongst it the names of the following are the most conspicuous : Lord 
Wolverton, who hunts a pack of Bloodhounds, but only occasionally exhibits ; Mrs. Tinker, of 
Harborne, whose Dido is recognised as the champion bitch of the day; Mrs. Humphries, of 
Brixton, the owner of champion Don, who, though not perfect in head, is certainly the grandest 
exhibition hound as regards his body, legs, and feet. It may here be remarked that Don was 
selected by Lord Wolverton as a suitable cross for improving the working hounds in his 
lordship's kennel. Major Cowen, too, of Blaydon-on-Tyne, has exhibited many good ones, 
such as Druid, Dipton, and Draco. Captain Clayton's Luath XI. will always keep his owner's 
name in the memory of Bloodhound men ; and the doings of the kennels of Messrs. Brough, 
Bird, Auld, and Mark Beaufoy, will speak for themselves of the quality of the occupants. In 
1879 Mr. L. G. Morell of Pangbourne was remarkably successful, and his splendid Rollo 
won him many prizes most deservedly, thereby adding to the repute of his already famous 
strain. From the appearance of some young hounds shown since then, old Rollo's sons and 
daughters bid fair to keep their sire's name before the public long after he takes his departure 
from the bench. Previous to the successes of Mr. Morell, Dr. Reynolds Ray of Dulwich was 
the principal exhibitor of first-rate stock, his Baron, Roswell, and Baroness, doing him good 
service. Before Dr. Ray, Mr. Holford's Regent and Matchless were considered the best out, 
and were undoubtedly fine specimens of the breed. Dr. Forbes Winslow, too, shows Belle, a 
grand-headed, well-peaked bitch, who does her owner credit in the ring. 

Having thus briefly alluded to the most famous Bloodhound breeders and their hounds, we 
may pass on to a description of the breed as it is now recognised, and begin as usual by 

The Head, which is undoubtedly the most remarkable feature in this variety. The skull 
should be narrow and domed, very long, with the occipital bone terminating in a high peak 
at the back. It is also covered with thin, loose skin. 

The Jaws long and narrow, the flews of the upper being very long and pendulous, thin in 
texture, and extending below the lower one. 

The Nose large and black, with the nostrils well developed. 

The Eyes rather small and deeply sunk, of a light brown colour, and showing the haw. or 
inside red lining. 

The Ears must be set on low, and should be as long and fine in texture as possible. 
As regards length, they should meet in front of the nose, and the more they lap over the 
better. 

The Neck is rather long, and is furnished with a heavy dewlap. 

Shoulders rather slanting. 

Body moderately wide at chest, with powerful loins. 

Fore-legs set on straight, and very powerful. 

Feet round and compact. Many specimens exhibited fail here either from bad rearing or 
other causes; the pasterns get crooked and the feet splayed, which certainly should disqualify 
a hound in competition. 

Stern rather coarse, long, and carried gaily. 

Colour. The best and most popular is a deep tan, with a black saddle on the back. The 
tan in many specimens varies in deepness, and in some the black of the back is flecked with 
tan, which, though not a disqualification, is undesirable. The presence of white we have already 
alluded to above. 

Coat, short and close. 



POINTS OF THE BLOODHOUND. 



203 



General Appearance. A wonderfully intelligent and powerful dog, not ferocious-looking, and 
one that seems incapable of great speed, though apparently full of stamina. 

The dog we have selected for illustration as the subject of the coloured plate is Mrs. 
Humphries' Champion Don, to which reference has been already made. Don was bred in 1875, 
and is by Dr. Ray's Roswell out of Flora by Rufus out of Hilda, his breeder being Mr. W. 
Marshall. Don has won, amongst other prizes, 1st Manchester, 1st Bristol, 1st Alexandra 
Palace, 1877; ist Bristol, 1878; 1st Hanover, and gold medal Dundee, 1879. He measures 
from tip of nose to stop, 5 inches ; from stop to occiput, 8 inches ; length of back, 29 inches ; girth 
of muzzle, 14 inches ; girth of skull, 21 \ inches ; girth of neck, 24 inches ; girth round brisket, 38 
inches; girth round chest, 35 inches; girth of loins, 29! inches; girth of thigh, 18 inches; girth 
of forearm, Sf inches ; girth of pastern, 5| inches ; height at shoulders, 28 inches ; height at 
elbows, 15 inches; height at loins, 29 inches; length of stern, 18 inches; age, 5 years; 
weight, 99 Ibs. 

Luath XL belongs to Capt. J. W. Clayton, of 14, Portman Square, and was bred by the 
Rev. G. Straton in 1874, by Luath X. out of Bran VIII. As before stated, his head is excep- 
tionally good ; but his colour being too pale, Luath XL has not been as successful on the bench 
as his grand outlines would suggest. 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING BLOODHOUNDS. 

Head 

Ears and eyes 

Flews and dewlap ... 

Body and chest 

Legs and feet 

Colour 

Coat 

General appearance 



Value. 
10 

5 

5 

5 
10 

5 
5 
S 

5? 




2O4 



CHAPTER XXX. 

THE IRISH WOLFHOUND 

BY GEORGE A. GRAHAM, DUKSLEY. 

IT is with a certain amount of diffidence that this essay is entered upon, as there is a widely- 
spread impression that the breed to be treated of is extinct. That we are in possession of 
the breed in its original integrity is not pretended ; at the same time it is confidently believed 
that there are strains now existing tracing back, more or less clearly, to the original breed ; 
and it also appears to be tolerably certain that our modern Deerhound is descended from that 
noble animal, and gives us a very fair idea of what he was, though undoubtedly considerably 
his inferior in size and power. Had it not been for these facts, the courage to write this 
chapter might have been wanting ; but they appear to be so clear to the writer, that he can 
proceed, with the feeling that most of his readers will perceive that he is amply justified in 
undertaking a history and description of this very magnificent example of the canine race 
that, indeed, may be said to have been its king. 

There have been several very interesting and clever essays written on this subject. Two 
of the ablest and most valuable were written by Mr. A. McNeill of Colonsay, in 1838, and 
Mr. H. D. Richardson, in 1841. These treat exclusively of the Irish Wolfhound, though in 
Mr. McNeill's case it is more to show the identity of the breed with the modern Deerhound 
that he writes. Richardson, on the other hand, proceeds to show us that, though undeniably 
of the same stamp, the Irish dog was far superior in size and power, and that from him is 
descended, in these later days, the modern Deerhound. Both these authors have shown 
considerable ability and ingenuity in their arguments, and no one can deny that they are 
worthy of every consideration. Richardson would appear to be in error on some points, but 
in the main his ideas would certainly appear to be reasonable and correct. That Richardson 
was highly qualified to offer a sound and most valuable opinion on the subject is proved 
by the very admirable manner in which he has treated of and described almost every known 
breed of dog, whether British or foreign. That we have in the Deerhound the modern 
representative of the old Irish Wolfdog is patent. Of less stature, less robust, and of 
slimmer form, the main characteristics of the breed remain ; and in very exceptional 
instances specimens occur which throw back to and resemble in a marked manner the 
old stock from which they have sprung. It is not probable that our remote ancestors 
arrived at any very high standard as to quality or looks. Strength, stature, and fleetness 
were the points most carefully cultivated at any rate, as regards those breeds used in the 
capture of large and fierce game. It is somewhat remarkable that whilst we have accounts 
of all the noticeable breeds from a remote period, including the Irish Wolfdog, we do not 
find any allusion to the Deerhound, save in writings of a comparatively recent date, which 
would in a measure justify us in supposing that the Deerhound is the modern representative 
of that superb animal. 

It is a matter of history that this dog was well known to and highly prized by the 



HISTORICAL NOTICES or* THE IRISH WOLPDOG. 205 

Romans, who, we are led to understand, frequently used him in their combats in the arena, 
for which his great size, strength, and activity, eminently fitted him. It has always been 
a moot point whether the Irish Wolfdog was, strictly speaking, a Greyhound, or was of a more 
robust form, approaching the Mastiff. Let us, then, proceed to investigate the question. 

Richardson tells us that " Pliny relates a combat in which the dogs of Epirus bore a part. 
He describes them as much taller than Mastiffs, and of Greyhound form, detailing an account 
of their contests with a lion and an elephant." This, he thinks, suffices to establish the 
identity of the Irish Wolfdog with the far-famed dogs of Epirus ! 

Strabo describes a large and powerful Greyhound as having been in use among the 
Celtic and Pictish nations, and as being held in such high estimation by them as to have 
been imported into Gaul for the purposes of the chase. 

Silius describes a large and powerful Greyhound as having been imported into Ireland 
by the Belgae, thus identifying the Irish Wolfdog with the celebrated Belgic dog of antiquity, 
which we read of in so many places as having been brought to Rome for the combats of 
the amphitheatre. 

Sir James Warr, in his " Antiquities of Ireland," thus writes regarding the Irish Wolfdog 
about 1630 (?) : "I must here take notice of those hounds which, from their hunting of 
wolves, are commonly called Wolfdogs being creatures of great size and strength, and of a 
fine shape," &c. 

Warr also gives as a frontispiece to his book an allegorical representation of a passage from 
the Venerable Bede, in which two dogs are introduced bearing a very strong resemblance to 
the Irish Wolfdog or Scottish Deerdog, in those days doubtless the same animal. The 
Venerable Bede was born 672, died 735. 

We are informed by two very eminent authorities the Venerable Bede and the Scottish 
historian Major that Scotland was peopled from Ireland. We know that by the early writers 
Scotland was styled Scotia Minor, and Ireland Scotia Major, and it is scarcely necessary to 
make any remark as to the native languages of the primitive inhabitants of the two countries. 
The colonisation therefore of Scotland from Ireland under the conduct of Reuda being admitted, 
can we suppose that the colonists would omit taking with them specimens of such a noble and 
gallant dog, and one that must prove so serviceable to their emigrant masters, and that, too, 
at a period when men depended upon the chase for their subsistence ? True, this is but an 
inference, but is it not to be received as a fact when we find that powerful and noble dog, 
the Highland Deerhound, a tall rough Greyhound, to have been known in Scotland since its 
colonisation ? Formerly it was called the Wolfdog, but with change of occupation came 
change of name. In Ireland wolves were certainly in existence longer than in Scotland, but 
when these animals ceased to exist in the former country, the Wolfdogs became gradually 
lost. Not so in Scotland, where abundant employment remained for them even after the days 
of wolf-hunting were over. The red deer still remained, and useful as had these superb dogs 
proved as Wolfdogs, they became perhaps even more valuable as Deerhounds. 

Richardson then goes on to show us, from Ossian's poems, that such dogs appertained to 
the chieftains regarding whose prowess, &c., he sings ; but the writer does not apprehend that any 
real value can be placed on Ossian's accounts prior to the date at which they professed to be 
issued in a collective form by Macpherson, viz., about 1770, as in the judgment of many 
persons competent to form a just opinion, those poems almost entirely owe their origin to 
the prolific brains of the supposititious translator. Ossian is supposed to have flourished in 
the third century. 



206 THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

In the ninth century the Welsh laws contained clauses entailing heavy penalties on 
any one found maiming or injuring the Irish Greyhound, or, as it was styled in the Code 
alluded to, "Canis graius Hibernicus," and a value was set upon them equal to more than 
double that set on the ordinary Greyhound. 

" Camden," about 1568, says: "The Irish Wolfhound is similar in shape to a Greyhound, 
bigger than a Mastiff, and tractable as a Spaniel." 

" Holinshed's," or rather Stainhurst's, description of Ireland, about 1560, contains this 
short account of the noble Wolfdog : " Ireland is stored of cows, excellent horses, of hawkes, 
fish, and fowle. They are not without wolves, and Greyhounds to hunt them bigger of 
bone and limb than a colt." 

Gough, in his edition of " Camden," published 1789, has this passage on the Wolfhound : 
" Bishop affirmed that wolves still infested the wild and solitary mountains. Under the 
article of Greyhounds, Mr. Camden (writing probably about 1530-60) seems to place the 
Wolfhounds, which are remarkably large, and peculiar to this country." 

In November, 1562, the Irish chieftain Shane O'Neill (possibly an ancestor of the Lords 
O'Neill, to be alluded to as owning Irish Wolfhounds later on) forwarded to Queen 
Elizabeth, through Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester, a present of two horses, two hawks, and 
two Irish Wolfdogs ; and in 1585, Sir John Perrott, who was Deputy of Ireland from January, 
1584, to July, 1588, sent to Sir Francis Walsingham, then Secretary of State in London, "a 
brace of good Wolfdogs, one black, one white." Later still, in 1608, we find that Irish Wolf- 
hounds were sent from Ireland by Captain Desmond of Duncannon, to Gilbert Earl of 
Shrewsbury. When Sir Thomas Rowe was ambassador at the court of the Great Mogul, 
in the year 1615, that emperor desired him to send for some Irish Greyhounds as the most 
welcome present he could make him. The foregoing are from an article on the Irish Wolf- 
hound, by Mr. Harting, that appeared in Bailey's Magazine for September, 1879. 

Ware is one of the few old writers (1654) who has said anything on the Irish Wolfdog, 
and his words are scanty. "Although we have no wolves in England, yet it is certain we 
have had heretofore routs of them as they have at present in Ireland. In that country is 
bred a race of Greyhounds, which is fleet and strong, and bears a natural enmity to the 
wolf." 

Evelyn, about 1660-70, says : " The Irish Wolfhound was a tall Greyhound, a stately creature 
indeed, and did beat a cruel Mastiff. The Bull-dogs did exceedingly well, but the Irish 
Wolfdog exceeded ! " He was then describing the savage sports of the bear-garden. 

Ray, about 1697, describing the Irish Greyhound, says: "The greatest dog I have yet seen, 
surpassing in size even the Molossus (Mastiff?) as regards shape of body and general character, 
similar in all respects to the common Greyhound ; their use is to catch wolves." 

The writer would remark in passing that there is but little doubt that the ordinary Grey- 
hound of that date was a rough-coated dog. 

Buffon, about 1750-60, speaks of these dogs as follows: "They are far larger than our 
largest Matins, and they are very rare in France. I have never seen but one, which seemed to 
me when sitting quite upright to be nearly five feet high, and to resemble in form the dog we call 
the Great Dane, but it differed from it greatly in the largeness of its size. It was quite white, 
and of a gentle and peaceable disposition/' 

From Goldsmith, about 1770, the following is extracted: "The last variety, and the most 
wonderful of all that I shall mention, is the Great Irish Wolfdog, that may be considered as 
the first of the canine species. He is extremely beautiful and majestic in appearance, 



VARIOUS NOTICES OF WOI.FDOG. 207 

being the greatest of the dog kind to be seen in the world. The largest of those I 
have seen and I have seen about a dozen was about four feet high, or as tall as a calf of a 
year old. He was made extremely like a Greyhound, but more robust, and inclining to the 
figure of the French Matin or the Great Dane,'' &c. 

Brooke, in his "Natural History" of 1772, states: "The Irish Wolfdog is, as 'Ray' 
affirms, the highest dog he had ever seen, he being much larger than a Mastiff dog, but more 
like a Greyhound in shape." 

Smith, in his "History of Waterford " (1774), uses very similar words: "The Irish 
Greyhound, though formerly abounding in this country, is likewise become nearly extinct. 
This dog is much taller than the Mastiff, but made more like a Greyhound." 

Pennant (1776-81) informs us that the Irish Gre-hound -a variety once very frequent in 
Ireland, and used in the chase of the wolf, now very scarce is a dog of great size and 
strength. 

From Bewick (1792) we gather that "the Irish Greyhound is the largest of the dog 
kind, and its appearance the most beautiful. It is only to be found in Ireland, where it was 
formerly of great use in clearing that country from wolves. It is now extremely rare, and 
kept rather for show than use, being equally unserviceable for hunting the stag, the fox, 
or the hare. These dogs are about three feet high, generally of a white or cinnamon colour, 
and made somewhat like a Greyhound, but more robust. Their aspect is mild ; their disposition 
peaceable ; their strength is so great that in combat the Mastiff or Bull-dog is far from 
being equal to them. They mostly seize their antagonists by the back and shake them 
to death, which their great strength generally enables them to do." M. Buffon supposes 
the Great Danish dog to be only a variety of the Irish Greyhound. About this time (1794) 
certain dogs in the possession of the then Lord Altamont were put forward as being Irish 
Wolfdogs ; but there appears to be no doubt whatever that these dogs were degenerate 
specimens of the Great Dane. Mr. Lambert, describing them to the Linnaean Society, 
stated that "they were the only ones in the kingdom; their hair was short and smooth, the 
colour brown-and-white and black-and-white." An engraving of one of these dogs is given 
in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica" published in 1810, and it represents an under-bred Great Dane, 
of dull and mild appearance. Richardson at one time was in error regarding these, dogs, 
for he accepted them as being true specimens of the Irish Wolfhound ; but he was afterwards, 
from careful inquiry and research, quite disabused of any such idea, and concluded that the 
Irish Wolfhound was a rough Greyhound of gigantic stature and immense power. 

To suppose that these dogs were Irish Wolfhounds was absurd to a degree, as that 
breed was known to be very scarce, whereas the Great Dane was (and is) to be met with 
in great numbers on the Continent. 

The present Marquis of Sligo informed the writer about twelve years ago that he had 
often made inquiries from persons who had seen his father's dogs, and as far as their 
descriptions would enable one to judge, they rather resembled some of the German Boarhounds, 
being rather like powerful, shaggy Greyhounds, but a good deal larger. It is probable that 
the shagginess was a mistake, as Mr. Lambert distinctly states them to have been smooth. 

E. Jesse tells us that the late Lord Derby purchased the portrait in Mr. Lambert's 
possession of one of Lord Altamont's dogs. Now, it is a well-ascertained fact that, in the 
face of this model (!), Lord Derby bred, as Irish Wolfdogs, a very powerful and robust dog 
of Deerhound character (! !), showing that he set small value on the picture as representing 
the true breed of Irish Wolfdo"-. 



2o8 ThE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

In the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" of 1797 we are shown a drawing of the Irish Gre-hound, 
which represents a very thick-set, tall Greyhound, with a rough coat and massive head ; colour 
apparently brindle or black-and-white. 

The " Sportsman's Cabinet " a very valuable old book on dogs, of which there were 
but a limited number of copies published in 1803, and which is illustrated by very good 
engravings after drawings from life by Reinagle, a Royal Academician says : " The dogs of 
Greece, Denmark, Tartary, and Ireland, are the largest and strongest of their species. The Irish 
Greyhound is of very ancient race, and still to be found in some far remote parts of that kingdom 
though they are said to be reduced even in their original climate. They are much larger than the 
Mastiff; exceedingly ferocious when engaged." A remarkably spirited drawing is given of this 
dog, which, though faulty in some minor points, gives us an admirable idea of what this grand 
dog was. 

Notwithstanding the undoubted resemblance of this sketch to a gigantic roujh Greyhound 
of great power, the letterpress is continued to the effect that the dog is identical with the Great 
Dane a totally different dog in appearance which is manifestly absurd ; and on the letterpress 
we can accordingly put no great stress, though the portrait undoubtedly has a real value. 
E. Jesse coincides in this opinion, as when speaking of the "Sportsman's Cabinet" he says: 
" It is a work more remarkable for the truth and fineness of its engravings than for the 
matter contained in it." It is a noticeable and remarkable fact that whilst this book 
professes to treat of every known variety of British dog, it does not make any mention whatever 
of the Scottish Deerhound. 

A few extracts from this book are given that bear on the subject under consideration, 
though not taken from the chapter descriptive of the Irish Wolfhound or Greyhound. 

"The Greyhound, large Danish dog, and Irish Greyhound, have, according to Buffon, 
exclusive of their likeness of figures and length of muzzle, a similitude of disposition." 

" The peculiar irritability of the olifactory sensation seems by natural observation to 
depend more upon the largeness than the length of the nose, for the Greyhound, Danish dog, 
and Irish Greyhound, have evidently less power of scent than the Hound, Terrier, &c." 

" The Bulldog and Irish Greyhound have their ears partly erect." 

" The Great Danish dog, taken from thence to Ireland, the Ukraine, Tartary, Epirus, 
and Albania, has been changed into the Irish Greyhound, which is the largest of all dogs." 

" The Greyhound and Irish Greyhound, Buffon goes on to say, have produced the mongrel 
Greyhound, also called the Greyhound with the wolf's hair" in all probability the present 
Scotch Deerhound (?). 

Dr. Scouler, reading a paper before the Dublin Geological Society in 1837, says: "The 
Irish Wolfdog was a very distinct race from the Scotch Hound or Wolfdog, which resembled 
the Irish breed in size and courage, but differed from it by having a sharper muzzle and 
pendent ears." 

McNeill, in his article on the Irish Wolfhound, written 1838, says: " Whatever may have 
been the origin of the name, there is little doubt as to the antiquity of a species of dog in 
this country (Ireland) bearing a great resemblance in many points to the Greyhound of the 
present day, and passing under that name, though evidently a larger, nobler, and more courageous 
animal." 

He goes on to argue that " from the rough and uncultivated state of the country, and the 



LAST SPECIMENS OF THE WOLFDOG. 209 

nature of the game that was then the object of the chase viz., deer of all sorts, wolves, and 
foxes that the dogs would be of a larger, fiercer, and more shaggy description than the 
Greyhounds of the present day." 

From the " Museum of Animated Nature," published in 1842-45, the following account 
of the Irish Wolfdog is taken: "In Scotland and Ireland there existed in very ancient 
times a noble breed of Greyhounds used for the chase of the wolf and deer, which appears to 
us to be the pure source of our present breed. It is quite as possible that the Matin is a 
modification of the ancient Greyhound of Europe represented by the Irish Greyhound or 
Wolfdog as that it is the source of that fine breed, as Buffon supposes. Few, we believe, 
of the old Irish Greyhound exist." 

From the very interesting book entitled " Anecdotes of Dogs," by E. Jesse, published 
1846, the following is gleaned: 

" The dog flourished at the time of early kings of Ireland, and, with harp and shamrock, 
is regarded as one of the national emblems of the country." 

" The Irish Wolfdogs were formerly placed as the supporters of the arms of the ancient 
monarchs of Ireland. They were collared ' or,' with the motto, ' Gentle when stroked, 
fierce when provoked.'" 

The well-known Mrs. S. C. Hall, wrote to Jesse the following interesting account of an 
Irish Wolfdog: "When I was a child (probably 1812-15), I had a very close friendship 
with a genuine old Wolfdog, Bruno by name. He was the property of an old friend of 
my grandmother's, who claimed descent from the Irish kings. His name was O'Toole. His 
visits were my jubilees. There was the kind, dignified, old gentleman, and there was his 
tall gaunt dog, grey with age, and yet with me full of play. The O'Toole had three of 
these dogs. Bruno was rough but not long-coated." 

Richardson tells us that the late Sir W. Betham, Ulster King-at-Arms, an authority of 
very high importance on any subject connected with Irish antiquities, in communicating with 
Mr. Haffield, who read a paper on the Irish Wolfhound before the Dublin Natural History 
Society, about 1841, states as follows: "From the mention of the Wolfdogs in the old Irish 
stories and poems, and also from what I have heard from a very old person, long since dead, 
of his having seen them at the Neale, in the County of Mayo, the seat of Sir John Browne, 
ancestor to Lord Kilmaine, I have no doubt they were a gigantic Greyhound. My departed 
friend described them as being very gentle, and that Sir J. Browne allowed them to come into 
his dining-room, where they put their heads over the shoulders of those who sat at table ; they 
were not smooth-skinned like our Greyhounds, but rough and curly-haired." 

"The Irish poets call the Wolfdog ' cu,' and the common Greyhound 'gayer,' a marked 
distinction, the word 'cu' signifying a champion." 

Some dogs were owned by the late Hamilton Rowan, of Merrion Square, Dublin, which 
were erroneously asserted to be Irish Wolfhounds. Regarding these dogs the following com- 
munication was kindly made to the writer by Mr. Betham, a son of Sir W. Betham before 
alluded to : " My father was very intimate with the late Hamilton Rowan, who was the only 
man possessed of the breed (Irish Wolfhound), and who was so chary of it that he would 
never give away a dog pup without first castrating him. I have repeatedly seen the dogs with 
him when I was a boy, and heard him tell my father how he became possessed of them. He 
was in Paris about the time of the first French Revolution, and was given a dog and a bitch, 
27 



210 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

and was told there that they were Danish. He then went to Denmark, thinking he would see 
more of the breed. When he got there he was told they were not Danish, but Irish, and 
were brought over by some one from Ireland I forget whom. The dogs were of a very 
peculiar colour a kind of brindle blue-and-white, sometimes all brindled, and sometimes a 
great deal of white with large irregular brindle patches, and were much given to weak eyes. 
They stood about 2 feet 4 or 6 inches at the shoulder, were smooth-haired, and were a most 
powerful dog. Hamilton Rowan was very proud of being the only possessor of the breed, and 
seldom went out without one or more accompanying him. 

In a second letter he goes on to say : " I can speak from personal knowledge, and 
from having often seen the dogs, that the true breed of Irish Wolfdogs are smooth-haired, 
not shaggy like the Scotch Deerhound. They were coarse-haired, like the Bloodhound. I am 
not acquainted with the German Boarhound (i.e., Great Dane) ; very possibly they might 
have been somewhat similar to the Irish breed. Hamilton Rowan's dogs were very power- 
ful, and at the same time active dogs, with rather a sharp nose and shrill bark. My father 
used to say that when he dined at Hamilton Rowan's the dogs used to be in the parlour, 
and were so tall they could put their heads over the guests' shoulders when sitting at the 
table, though the dogs were standing on the floor." 

Beyond the shadow of a doubt these dogs were simply Great Danes, as Mr. Rowan 
had evidently been told in Paris ; the description leaves no doubt on that head. Richardson 
tells us the fact was that Mr. Rowan owned some of the breed known as Great Danes, and he 
never by any chance called them by a wrong name. He also owned a true Wolfdog, and 
knew him to be such, calling him " the last of his race." This dog was a large rough Grey- 
hound of iron-grey colour. Mr. Rowan subsequently presented this dog to Lord Nugent. In 
corroboration of this fact the writer was informed by the late Sir John Power, who recollected 
Mr. Rowan and his dogs, and who would have reached man's estate at the time, and been well 
able to judge of them, being a thorough lover of the canine race, that Richardson's description 
of the true Wolfdog belonging to Mr. Rowan was right. Mr. Betham remembers the dogs only 
as a boy, and the distinction between the Danish dogs and the true old rough dog would 
hardly have struck him ; hence his misconception on the matter. Mr. Betham's account is only 
inserted and confuted to remove any impression that certain of Hamilton Rowan's dogs were 
aught but Great Danes, which has been erroneously otherwise concluded. Mr. Betham confesses, 
it will be seen, that he is not acquainted with the Great Dane or Boarhound, which are common 
and plentiful in all Continental countries; he cannot, consequently, be considered a fair judge 
on the subject. 

Youatt has this regarding the Irish Wolfdog : " This animal is nearly extinct, or only to 
be met with at the mansions of one or two persons, by whom he is kept more for show than 
use, the wild animals which he seemed powerful enough to conquer having long disappeared 
from the kingdom. The beauty of his appearance and antiquity of his race are his only claims, 
as he disdains the chase of stag, fox, or hare, though he is ever ready to protect the person 
and property of his master. His size is various, some having attained the height of four feet. 
He is shaped like the Greyhound, but stouter." 

Literature and the powers of depicting an animal in its correct form were in such a crude 
and immature stage amongst the nobility and gentry of the land at the periods when we 
have our first accounts of the Irish Wolfdog, that it is not in the least to be wondered at 
that the imperfect descriptions given of the breed by such persons as were equal to the task 
were allowed to go uncontradicted by the only people in whose hands the breed was likely to 



S/ZE OF THE IRISH WOLFDOG. 2 \ \ 

be. From the accounts we have, however, we can clearly and distinctly gather that the dog has 
always been of Greyhound shape, of gigantic stature, and great power, in fact, such a dog as a 
cross between the Great Dane and present Deerhound would produce, as to form and bulk, 
but of superior size. 

Richardson, to further his views regarding the probable size of the ancient Irish Wolf- 
dog, tells us that certain canine skulls were found by Surgeon Wylde at Dunshauglin which were 
concluded to be those of the Irish Wolfdog ; of these the largest was II inches in the bone, and 
from that fact he proceeds to argue that the living dog must have stood about 40 inches. To 
begin, he takes for his guide a Deerhound dog standing 29 inches, whose head measures 10 
inches. To the 1 i-inch Irish Wolfhound skull he adds 3 inches for muzzle, hair, skin, 
and other tissues, thereby making the head of the living dog 14 inches ; thus getting the 
height of 40 inches from it, as compared to the 29 inches from the lo-inch head. Here, how- 
ever, he would appear to be in error, as ij or 2 inches at the most would be enough to allow 
for tissues, &c., making the head I2j to 13 inches only, and so reducing the height to 36 
inches ; moreover, the measurement of 10 inches for the head of a 29-inch Deerhound is 
manifestly insufficient, as the writer can testify from ample experience. A Deerhound of that 
height should have a head of at least 1 1 inches ; so, calculating on the same principles, the skulls 
would have been from dogs standing about 34 inches. This skull is stated to have been 
superior in size to the others, so if the argument was of any real worth, we can only gather 
from it that the dogs would have ranged from 31 to 34 inches in height, which is probable 
enough. 

It is an incontestable fact that the domestic dog, when used for the pursuit of ferocious 
animals, should be larger and apparently more powerful than his quarry if he is expected to 
take and overcome him single-handed, as the fierce nature, roving habits, and food of the wild 
animal render him more than a match for his domesticated enemy, if of only equal size and 
stature. We know that the Russian Wolfhounds (certainly very soft-hearted dogs), though 
equal in stature to the wolf, will not attack him single-handed and wisely too, for they 
would certainly be worsted in the combat. The Irish Wolfdog, being used for both the capture 
and despatch of the wolf, would necessarily have been of Greyhound conformation, besides 
being of enormous power. When caught, a heavy dog, such as a Mastiff, would be equal to 
the destruction of a wolf, but to obtain a dog with Greyhound speed and the strength of the 
Mastiff, it stands to reason that his stature should considerably exceed that of the Mastiff 
one of our tallest as well as most powerful breeds. The usual height of the Mastiff is thirty 
inches ; and, arguing as above, we may reasonably conclude that to obtain the requisite 
combination of speed and power, a height of at least thirty-three inches would have been 
reached, though we are told by several writers that he exceeded that height considerably. 

In the New York Country, about May, 1878, it is written: "It is absurd to give as 
a reason for the indifference and apathy through which such a breed has been allowed to 
die out or its perpetuity to be endangered, that in the extermination of his particular foe 
the wolf his occupation was gone. A noble animal of this character should never have 
been permitted to waste away while curs of the lowest degree are petted and pampered 
and carefully provided for. In this country particularly the Irish Wolfdog could be made 
of special service. Here he would find in the chase and extermination of the wolf a wide 
field for his prowess and courage. On the western bounds of civilisation he would be invaluable 
for the purposes of hunting, his keen sight and scent rendering him superior to many breeds 
now in vise, and as a companion and friend of man his fidelity and devotion have never been 



2 1 2 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

called in question. All the testimony which comes down to us agrees as to his sagacity, 
courage, strength, speed, and size, although in this last point we perceive there is a difference 
of opinion. Even allowing that he attained a height of from thirty-two to thirty-five inches, 
he is taller than any breed now living, although the early accounts published of him state he 
was from three to four feet high." 

For many months a spirited controversy and correspondence on the Irish Wolfhound was 
carried on in the Live Stock Journal by the writer and others, without, it is confidently 
thought, in any way disturbing the conclusions on the breed which the writer has, from careful 
and prolonged consideration of the subject, arrived at, and which will be set forth presently. 

The question as to whether it is desirable to continue and thoroughly resuscitate this superb 
breed now that his occupation is gone is hardly worth entertaining. 

Have not a dozen breeds such as St. Bernards, Collies, &c. been taken up, cherished, 
and improved to a marvellous degree ? Why not, then, take such measures to recover the 
Irish Wolfdog in its original form ? It can be done ; the means are at hand if the will be 
only forthcoming. From the materials forthcoming in such specimens of the breed as are 
extant and the largest Deerhounds, with judicious crosses for size and power, there is little 
doubt that the breed can be restored to us in much of its original magnificence, and the 
noble canine giant always held to be typical of Erin would be worthily and faithfully 
represented. 

As the Deerhound of the present day is to the ordinary Greyhound, so is the giant Irish 
Wolfhound to the Deerhound. An Irish paper, waxing enthusiastic on the subject, says, not long 
ago. regarding the Irish Wolfdog : " This animal has become celebrated as the heraldic 
protector of our country. Fair Erin sits pensively beside her harp, the round tower stands near, 
and guarding all three, reclines the Wolfhound. Scotland's lions have been famed in story ; 
England 'stole' one of them, say some, and joining him in company with the unicorn, committed 
to his trust the honour of Albion ; but the unicorn is a beast which even Dr. Houghton has never 
seen, while we must go back to the antediluvian era to find lions in Great Britain. But the Wolf- 
dog is no mythic beast in Ireland ; he was and we trust will again be, included amongst the 
undoubted, exclusive, and most distinguished specimens of the Irish fauna." 

In the British Museum there is a Grecian vase, some 450 B.C., on which Actaeon is depicted 
surrounded by his dogs. Some of them would appear identical with what the Irish Wolfhound 
was, save, perhaps, in the matter of coat. 

On some ancient frescoes at Easton Neston Hall, near Towcester, are depicted various 
hunting scenes. In one of these two vast dogs of Deerhound type are represented as seizing 
a boar, and these frescoes having been painted at a time when the Irish Wolfhound existed, may 
be looked upon as throwing considerable light on the real type of that breed. They are shown 
to be vast Deerhounds, with rough wiry coats, of a dark blue-grey colour ; ears small and 
falling over. 

It will be well now to state the conclusions at which the writer has arrived as to the 
general appearance and character of the Irish Wolfhound, after a prolonged, searching, and 
careful study of the subject. 

Form. That of a very tall, heavy, Scotch Deerhound, much more massive, and very majestic- 
looking ; active and fast, perhaps somewhat less so than the present breed of Deerhound ; neck 
thick in comparison to his form, and very muscular ; body and frame lengthy. 

Head. Long, but not narrow, coming to a comparative point towards the nose ; nose rather 
large, and head gradually getting broader from the same, ercnfy up to the back of the skull not 



POINTS OF THE IKISH WOLFDOG. 213 

sharp up to the eyes, and then suddenly broad and lumpy, as is often the case with dogs bred 
between Greyhound and Mastiff. 

Coat. There can be little doubt that from the very nature of the work the dog was called 
upon to do this would be of a rough and probably somewhat shaggy nature, and to this end 
points the evidence gained from Arrian second century who leaves no doubt in our mind that 
the great Greyhound of his day was rough in coat ; also from the ancient Irish harp, now 
preserved in Trinity College, Dublin, which is ornamented with a figure of the Irish Wolfhound, 
rough-coated. Sir J. Browne's dogs were rough and shaggy ; Mr. O'Toole's dog was rough ; also 
Hamilton Rowan's. The former Earls of Caledon owned Irish Wolfdogs, which were rough ; 
added to which, in former days all Greyhounds were, we have every reason to believe, rough ; 
certainly the larger varieties, as is now without exception the case. So it is with justice concluded 
that the coat was rough, hard and long all over body, head, legs, and tail ; hair on head long, 
and rather softer than that on body, standing out boldly over eyes ; beard under jaws being also 
very marked and wiry. 

Colour. Black, grey, brindle, red, and fawn, though white dogs were esteemed in former 
times, as is several times shown us indeed, they were often preferred but for beauty the dark 
colours should be cultivated. 

Ears. Small in proportion to size of head, and erect as in the smooth Greyhound. If dark 
in colour it is to be preferred. 

The Tail should be carried with an upward curve only, and not be curled, as is the 
case with many Greyhounds. 

Size. We may safely deduce that the height of these dogs varied from 32 to 34 
inches, and even 35 inches in the dogs, probably from 29 to 31 inches in the bitches. The 
other dimensions would naturally be about as follows for well-shaped and true-formed dogs. 
Girth of chest Dogs, 38 to 44 inches ; bitches, 32 to 34 inches. Weight in Ibs. Dogs, 115 to 
140; bitches, 90 to 115. Girth of fore-arm Dogs, 10 to 12 inches; bitches, 8J to 10 inches. 
Length of head Dogs, I2i to 14 inches ; bitches, II to 12 inches. Most modern authors and all 
practical lovers of the canine race whom the writer has consulted are agreed that the foregoing 
is the correct type of dog beyond question ; and although some differ slightly as to the 
comparative bulk and power of the dog, the difference is small when dispassionately looked at. 

To any one who has well considered the subject such conclusions are inevitable, and this 
impression has been manifestly handed down to us for generations. 

Although several writers have incorrectly confounded the Great Dane with the Irish 
Wolfhound, yet it is probable that the two breeds were not infrequently crossed ; indeed, 
it is possible that in foreign countries the Irish Wolfhound may have degenerated into the 
Great Dane and other varieties, as it has into the Deerhound with us. That such was the 
case Buffon does more than suggest. Major Gamier, who gave the subject considerable 
attention at one time, rather holds to this opinion, and says " that whilst the Highland 
Deerhound is the most correct type, the German Boarhound has best retained the size, though 
at the expense of character." 

These facts may possibly have influenced erroneously the opinions of some of the 
naturalists of the latter end of the last century, and will also account for the fact of Lord 
Altamont's dogs having been put forward as Irish Wolfhounds, which they certainly were not. 

The last wolf was supposed to have been killed in Ireland about 1710. 

Richardson says :" Though I have separated the Irish Wolfdog from the Highland 
Deerhound and the Scottish Greyhound, I have only done so partly in conformity with 



214 7'HE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

general opinion, that I have yet to correct, and partly because these dogs, though originally 
identical, are now unquestionably distinct in many particulars." 

The former Earls of Caledon at one time 'owned a breed of Irish Wolfhounds, regarding 
which the present peer has obligingly collected the following particulars : " The dog was 
in appearance between a Mastiff and Deerhound ; slighter and more active than the one, 
more massive and stronger than the other ; as tall or taller than the tallest Deerhound ; 
rough but not long-coated ; fawn, grizzly, and dun in colour : some old men on the property 
have mentioned a mixture of white." 

A breed was also owned by the Lords O'Neil, also by Lord Castletown ; but no in- 
formation regarding them has been obtained, although a friend of the writer was presented, 
many years ago, with a bitch of the former breed which answered very much to the descrip- 
tion given above of Lord Caledon's dogs. 

In a very interesting letter from America, written to a gentleman residing in England- 
published in the Live Stock Journal some time ago, the writer says : " I have felt an 
interest in the subject for over fifty years. My father often spoke of Lord Sligo's (Altamont's) 
breed of dogs, and doubted their being the genuine Irish VVolfdog. He had every opportunity of 
observing them himself, being much at Westport House during his youth." After making other 
observations, he goes on to say : " The bone of the fore-leg is, I should say, the point that 
best distinguishes dogs of this class from all of the Greyhound class, whom in actual build 
they so much resemble. The massiveness of that bone is out of proportion altogether, and it 
certainly was not made for speed so much as for power and endurance. I think all the Scotch 
dogs that I have seen are deficient in this respect, and I attribute it to crossing with lighter- 
built breeds in order to obtain swiftness for deer-hunting. The epithet 'hairy-footed' in old 
Irish poems leaves no doubt as to the comparatively rough coat of the Irish Wolfdog." 

That it is beyond reason that any dog should have stood 36 inches is not the case, as 
Lord Mount Edgcumbe has a picture of a dog taken life-size which measures 36 inches to 
the shoulder. The skeleton of this dog (apparently a Great Dane), which is also preserved, 
would corroborate this measurement. A picture was also painted for the Marquis of Hastings 
in 1803 by Clifford de Tomsan, which represents a dog standing 36 inches at shoulder also 
apparently a Great Dane, of a buff-and-white colour. The picture measures "J\ feet by $i feet, 
so it will be seen the dog must of necessity have been gigantic. We have also had some 
enormous dogs "in the life" of late years. The great American dog exhibited to Her Majesty 
some eighteen years ago was said to stand 36 inches. Sir Roger Palmer's Sam was 34. Both 
were Boarhounds. Several of our Mastiffs have stood 33 and even 34 inches. The great dog 
brought from America by Mr. Butler, of New York, about four or five years ago, stood about 
the same height. He was a descendant of the dog shown to the Queen also owned by 
Mr. Butler. On the Continent it is not uncommon to find dogs standing 33 and 34 inches, 
and a Boarhound has been brought to the writer's notice, belonging to a gentleman residing 
at Cologne, that was reported to stand 37 inches by a gentleman well accustomed to large 
dogs. The tallest dog the writer has actually measured stood 34^ inches on the shoulder- 
blade a giant indeed. With all these examples before us, and some of them within our 
reach, there is no reason why the Irish Wolthound should not be restored to its original 
height of from 33 to 35 inches. 

It is worthy of remark that whilst some people scout the very idea that the Deerhound 
fs the descendant of the Irish Wolfhound, McNeill is proud to claim such descent for his 
favourite breed. 



REVIVAL OF THE IKISII WOLFDOG. 215 

Maior Gamier at one time turned his attention to Irish Wolfhounds, and produced one 
or two dogs of great size, but he was unable to carry his projects to an end, being sud- 
denly ordered to the Cape. He was thoroughly convinced that the recovery of this breed 
in its pristine grandeur and magnificence was only a question of time if the would-be 
breeders were steadfast in their endeavours. He had laid down for himself certain rules in 
breeding, which are given : 

" I. Quality is very much more dependent on the dam than on the sire. 

" 2. Bone or size, on the contrary, is far more dependent on the sire. 

" 3. Colour is almost wholly dependent on the sire. 

" 4. The coat is almost wholly independent of the sire. 

" 5. Muscular development and general form is chiefly dependent on the dam. 

"6. All these are modified by the fact that the purer bred will (other things being the 
same) influence the progeny more than the other. 

" 7. Every decided cross increases the size by one or two inches. This is merely an opinion 
formed from my own experience and observation ; but I have never seen it carried out far 
enough to make me certain in my own mind about it. 

" I, 2, 3, 4, and 5 I have not merely met with as the opinions of other people, but I 
have proved them incontestably myself. With regard to No. I ' Quality ' I mean ' blood,' 
nervous development, vigour, energy, and character." 

He concludes by saying : " Anyhow, with Ulmer Boarhounds and Russian Wolfhounds 
(of course, in conjunction with the Deerhound and such of the Irish breed as are in existence) 
I believe it is quite possible to re-establish the old breed of Irish Greyhounds in all their 
former beauty and power. I should, however, be content with perfection of form and coat at 
34 inches." 

The writer is not prepared to coincide entirely with the above rules, but in the main he 
considers them correct, and such as can safely be adopted by breeders. The Foxhound, the 
Pointer, the Shorthorn, and many breeds of sheep and pigs, have been brought to their 
present excellence by judicious crossing ; why should not the same principle be applied to 
the perfecting of the Irish Wolfhound ? 

About the year 1863 the writer took the Irish Wolfhound question up, and instituted 
very searching inquiries after any specimens of the breed. For some time he did not meet 
with much success ; but about twelve years ago three distinct strains were brought to his 
notice viz., those of the late Sir J. Power of Kilfane, the late Mr. Baker of Ballytobin, and 
Mr. Mahoney of Dromore alas ! now all believed to be lost, save some of the descendants 
of the first two strains, which are in the writer's and one or two other hands. Isolated specimens 
were also heard of. The Kilfane strain owed their origin to dogs bred by Richardson, about 
1840, who not content with writing, actively set to work to discover the breed ; from him Sir John 
Power had more than one specimen. Richardson obtained bitches from Mr. Carter of Bray 
(whose strain he mentions in his essay), and crossing these with a grand dog of great height, 
produced some remarkably fine dogs. It is also believed that this strain was descended from 
Hamilton Rowan's dog Bran, before mentioned. Of this strain also were the Ballytobin 
dogs. Mr. Baker was an enthusiast regarding all old Irish institutions, and having built 
himself a castle, he did all he could to increase the size of the deer in his park, also to 
restore to their original form the Irish Wolfdogs. To this end he procured the best 



2 1 6 THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

specimens, wherever to be had, regardless of cost, and at his death, some twelve years ago, 
he left a kennel of really fine dogs. The pick of these bequeathed to a friend a bitch, 
eventually came into the possession of the writer, and from her and from dogs of the 
writer's own breeding his present strain has sprung. The strain of Mr. Mahoney was 
originally procured from Sir John Power, and Mr. Mahoney thus speaks of them : 

"The pedigree I had, but I do not think I could now find it. I remember that the 
grandsire or the great-grandsire was one of the last old Irish dogs which I have an idea 
belonged to the famous Hamilton Rowan ; but of this I am not certain. As wolves 
disappeared in Ireland the dogs gradually fell away also. They were expensive to keep, and 
fiom the fifteenth century the diet of the people gradually changed from .being almost 
exclusively animal to being purely vegetable. Thus there was no food to preserve the size 
and power of the dogs. The race of red deer also became extinct, except in the mountains 
of Kerry, where a few wandered ; but under the care of Lord Kenmare and Mr. Herbert, 
and their successors, have developed into noble breeds without a cross. Thus there was no 
inducement to extenuate the old powerful dog into the swifter but sparer Deerhound, and 
the few specimens that remained preserved the original characteristics ; while in Scotland the 
cause that preserved the race from extinction tended to change its qualities and older heroic 
proportions into the modern Deerhound. 

" My idea was that by selection, avoiding in-breeding, and proper feeding, the old 
characteristics might in some generations be somewhat recovered. The colours were dark 
brindle, bluish-grey, and fawn. The bitch was usually lower, and therefore looked stouter 
than the dog ; indeed, she was so in proportion. They were stouter than Deerhounds." 

Lord Derby, grandfather of the present lord, bred Irish Wolfhounds of evidently much 
the same character as the strains just alluded to. One of them is thus described by a gen- 
tleman : " She was a dark brindle brown, the coat of long wiry hair, the build heavier 
and head more massive than that of the Deerhound, the hair on the head thicker and 
lying flatter, and the ears rather larger, though lying close to the head." Some of her 
descendants were nearly black. 

The writer has not only studied the subject carefully, but has bred extensively, with more 
or less success, though death and disease have hitherto robbed him of the finest specimens. 
Dogs have been bred approaching his ideal closely in looks, though wanting the required height 
and power ; also dogs of very great height, &c., which were somewhat wanting in character. 
Yet the very certain knowledge has been gained from these efforts that it is perfectly possible 
to breed the correct type of dog in the course of a few years bar losses from death and disease. 
It has been the steadfast endeavour of the writer to get crosses from such dogs of acknowledged 
Irish Wolfhound blood as were to be found, in preference to simply crossing opposite breeds to 
effect the desired object. 

The Irish Kennel Club was courageous enough to establish a class for the breed of 
Irish Wolfhounds at their show, April, 1879, and it is strenuously to be hoped that this 
step in the right direction will be followed on the part of other shows. 

Scot, the subject of the illustration, was from a Kilfane sire out of a fine red bitch. He 
is a powerful dog of strong red colour, deficient in coat, notably on head, and loses much 
in appearance thereby. Taken on the whole, however, he gives a very fair idea of the 
breed as to form and bulk ; but instead of standing only 29^ inches, as he does, he should 



THE IRISH WOLFDOG. 



217 



be at least 33 inches, and be enlarged in proportion. The blood can be traced back for 
forty years. His dimensions are : Height, 29^ inches; girth of chest, 33^ inches; length of 
head, 12 inches; girth of head, i8J inches; fore-arm, 8i inches ; weight, no Ibs., which will 
serve to show what the general conformation of the dog is, though the head is represented as 
somewhat too deep behind the eyes in the engraving. 

A very sensible letter was published in the Live Stock Journal, in 1879, by a German 
gentleman, from which the following extracts will prove of interest : " That the Irish 




MR. GRAHAM'S IRISH WOLFHOUND " SCOT." 

Wolfhound is a pure ' Windhound ' [Greyhound] I believe as little as that it is a pure 
Dane. As opposed to the wolf the largest ' Windhound ' is not strong enough, and the Dane, 
on account of its short fine hair, is too vulnerable. I think the Irish Wolfhound is the 
Scotch Deerhound with some blood from our modern large German Dogge [Boarhound ?] to 
give him the necessary strength." 

The writer has had painted, under his close superintendence and guidance, a portrait 
of an Irish Wolfhound of 35 inches, life-size, of a grey colour, and it presents to the vision a 
most striking and remarkable animal of a very majestic and beautiful appearance, far, far 
beyond any dog the writer has ever seen in grandeur of looks. 

In concluding this article, the writer would express his astonishment that so noble and 
attractive a breed of dog should have found so few supporters. Of all dogs the monarch 
and the most majestic, shall he be allowed to drop from our supine grasp ? 
28 



2i8 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

The above article being from the pen of so able an authority, must command attention 
from all classes of the community who are interested in dogs. As Mr. Graham remarks, it 
is astonishing -that so noble and attractive a breed is so poorly supported by admirers of 
the canine race. A few enthusiastic breeders would rescue it from the position into which it 
has fallen ; and from the success which is attending the efforts of those gentlemen who are 
now interesting themselves on its behalf, we are confident that a breed of Irish Wolfhounds 
could soon be produced, which, if not actually of the old original strain, would at least fairly 
represent the breed in modern times. 

As Mr. Graham has not appended a scale of points to his remarks upon the breed, we 
venture to add one upon our own responsibility, merely remarking that it is our own concep- 
tion, and is inserted here without an appeal to Mr. Graham, who is, at the time of writing, 
too far away to be communicated with. 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING IRISH WOLFHOUNDS. 

Value, 
Skull shape and length ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Jaws ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Shoulders ... ... .. ... ... ... ... 5 

Body ... ... ... ... . . ... 5 

Legs .. ... ... 5 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Size ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

S 




2 IO 



CHAPTER XXXI. 
THE DEERHOUND. 

I1Y G. A. GRAHAM, DURSI.EV. 

THE transition from the Irish Wolfhound to the Deerhound is easy and natural, as in the 
latter we unmistakably have the descendant of the former. The subject is, moreover, the 
more easily treated of, as we have many excellent specimens of the Deerhound before us. Indeed, 
the examples of the breed now scattered in considerable profusion throughout the land are far 
finer dogs than those of which much boast was made forty years ago. 

The earliest records we have of the Deerhound as a distinct breed are, it is believed, given 
to us by Pennant, who, in his tour in 1769, says : " I saw also at Castle Gordon a true Highland 
Greyhound, which has become very scarce. It was of a large size, strong, deep-chested, and 
covered with very long and rough hair. This kind was in great vogue in former days, and 
used in vast numbers at the magnificent stag-chases by the powerful chieftains." 

Then Macpherson, in his professed translation of Ossian's poems (1773), gives testimony 
worthless, no doubt, as regards the Irish Wolfhound, but having a decided value when the 
Deerhound is considered, as it was almost a certainty that he wrote his descriptions from the 
living animal. The following extracts will be found of interest : " Fingal agreed to hunt 
in the Forest of Sledale, in company with the Sutherland chief his contemporary, for the purpose 
of trying the comparative merits of their dogs. Fingal brought his celebrated dog Bran to 
Sutherland, in order to compete with an equally famous dog belonging to the Sutherland 
chief, and the only one in the country supposed to be a match for him. The approaching 
contest between these fine animals created great interest. White-breasted Bran was superior 
to the whole of Fingal's other dogs, even to the ' surly strength of Luath ; ' but the Sutherland 
dog known by the full-sounding name of Phorp was incomparably the best and most powerful 
dog that ever eyed a deer in his master's forests." 

Phorp was black in colour, and his points are thus described : 

" ' Two yellow feet such as Bran had, 
Two black eyes, 
And a white breast, 
A back narrow and fair, 
As required for hunting, 
And two erect ears of a dark red-brown.' 

" Towards the close of the day, after some severe runs which, however, still left the 
comparative merits of the two dogs a subject of hot dispute Bran and Phorp were brought 
front to front to prove their courage ; and they were no sooner untied than they sprang at 
each other and fought desperately. Phorp seemed about to overcome Bran, when his master, 
the Sutherland chief, unwilling that either of them should be killed, called out 'Let each 



220 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of us take away hia- dog.' Fingal objected to this, whereupon the Sutherland chief said 
with a taunt that it was now evident that the Fingalians did not possess a dog that could 
match with Phorp. 

" Angered and mortified, Fingal immediately extended his ' venomous paw,' as it is 
called (for the tradition represents him as possessing supernatural power), and with one hand 
he seized Phorp by the neck, and with the other which was a charmed and destructive 
one he tore out the brave animal's heart. This adventure occurred at a place near the 
March, between the parishes of Clyne and Wildonan, still called ' Lcck na Con ' (the stone 
of the dogs), there having been placed a large stone on the spot where they fought. The 
ground over which Fingal and the Sutherland chief hunted that day is called ' Dirri-leck-Con.' 
Bran suffered so severely in the fight that he died in Glen Loth before leaving the forest, 
and was buried there ; a huge cairn was heaped over him, which still remains, and is known 
by the name of ' Cairn Bran.' " 

Our next authority is Bewick (1792). Having described the Irish Wolfhound, he then 
goes on to say: "Next to this in size and strength is the Scottish Highland Greyhound or 
Wolfdog, which was formerly used by the chieftains of that country in their grand hunting- 
parties. One of them, which we saw some years ago, was a large, powerful, fierce-looking dog ; 
its ears were pendulous, and its eyes half hid in the hair ; its body was strong and muscular, 
and covered with harsh, wiry, reddish hair, mixed with white." 

The "Encyclopaedia Britannica" (1/97) says: "The variety called the Highland Gre-hound, 
and now become very scarce, is of great size, strong, deep-chested, and covered with long 
rough hair. This kind was much esteemed in former days, and used in great numbers by the 
powerful chieftains in their magnificent hunting matches. It had as sagacious nostrils as the 
Bloodhound, and was as fierce." 

There is no allusion to the Deerhound in the "Sportsman's Cabinet," published in 1803; 
and, curiously enough, but little information regarding him from the beginning of this 
century up to about 1838, when McNeill wrote regarding him and the Irish Wolfhound in 
Scrope's book. That the breed was kept up in some families will be presently shown 
in one case it was claimed that it had been in the owner's family for at least one hundred 
years. However, be that as it may, we have few, if any, reliable accounts of this dog until 
McNeill wrote. That gentleman, writing in 1838, says: "It is not a little remarkable 
that the species of dog which has been longest in use in this country for the purposes of 
the chase should be that which is least known to the present generation of naturalists 
and sportsmen." 

Mr. McNeill takes exception to the crosses which had been resorted to by " Glengarry " 
and others for the purpose of giving increased vigour and size to a breed then rapidly 
degenerating ; but there seems every reason to suppose that had it not been for these 
judicious crosses the breed would have been almost extinct : at any rate, it would still 
further have deteriorated. It is very evident, from the following description of Captain McNeill's 
Buskar, that the Deerhound of forty years ago was a very inferior animal in size and 
power to the Deerhound of the present day, though possibly he equalled him in courage 
and speed. Buskar was a sandy-coloured dog, with dark ears, which were nearly erect 
when excited. He stood 28 inches in height, girthed 32 inches round the chest, and 



HISTORICAL NOTICES OF DEERHOUNDS. 221 

weighed 85 Ibs. The hair was hard, not very rough, wiry only on head and legs. He was 
pupped in 1832, and was looked upon as a remarkably staunch and useful dog. McNeill con- 
sidered that the purest dogs of his time were sandy or fawn in colour, and hard coated, but 
he also tells us that "there are dogs in the Lochabar district which are dark in colour 
and have a softer coat." 

From " Chambers's Information for the People," published in 1842, the following extract is 
taken : " The Scottish Highland Greyhound will either hunt in packs or singly. He is an animal 
of great size and strength, and at the same time very swift of foot. In size he equals, if 
not excels, the Irish Greyhound. His head is long and the nose sharp; his ears short and 
somewhat pendulous at the tips ; his eyes are brilliant and very penetrating, and half-concealed 
by the long crisp hair which covers his face and whole body. He is remarkable for the 
depth of his chest, and tapers gradually towards the loins, which are of great strength and 
very muscular; his back is slightly arched; his hind quarters are powerfully formed, and his 
limbs strong and straight. The possession of these combined qualities particularly fit him for 
long endurance in the chase. His usual colour is reddish sand-colour mixed with white ; his 
tail is long and shaggy, which he carries high like the Staghound, although not quite so 
erect. He is a noble dog, and was used by the Scottish Highland chieftains in their great 
hunting parties, and is supposed to have descended in regular succession from the dogs of 
Ossian." 

St. John, in his "Wild Sports of the Highlands," published in 1846, says: "The breed 
of Deerhounds, which had nearly become extinct, or at any rate was very rare a few years 
ago, has now become comparatively plentiful in all the Highland districts, owing to the in- 
creased extent of the preserved forests and the trouble taken by the different proprietors 
and renters of mountain shootings, who have collected and bred this noble race of dogs, 
regardless of expense and difficulties. The prices given for a well-bred and tried dog of this 
kind are so large that it repays the cost and trouble of rearing him. Fifty guineas is not an 
unusual price for a first-rate dog, while from twenty to thirty are frequently given for a 
tolerable one." 

" Started this morning at daybreak with Donald and Malcolm Mohr, as he is called 
{Anglic^ Malcolm the Great, or Big Malcolm), who had brought his two Deerhounds Bran 
and Oscar, to show me how they could kill a stag. The dogs were perfect : Bran an 
immense but beautifully-made dog of a light colour, with black eyes and muzzle, his ears of a 
dark brown, soft and silky as a lady's hand, the rest of his coat being wiry and harsh, though 
not exactly rough and shaggy, like his comrade Oscar, who was long-haired and of a darker 
brindle colour, with sharp long muzzle, but the same soft ears as Bran, which, by-the-bye, is a 
distinctive mark of high breeding in these days." 

The "Museum of Animated Nature," published in 1848 50, has the following: "In 
Scotland and Ireland there existed in very ancient times a noble breed of Greyhound, 
used for the chase of the wolf and the deer, which appears to us to be the pure 
source of our present breed ; it is quite as probable that the Matin is a modification of 
the ancient Greyhound of Europe, represented by the Irish Greyhound or Wolfdog, as 
that it is the source of that fine breed. Few, we believe, of the old Irish Greyhound 
exist. In Scotland the old Deerhound may still be met with, and though it exceeds the 



222 Tim BOOK OF TI/E DOG. 

common Greyhound in size and strength, it is said to be below its ancient standard. 
With the extirpation of the wolf, the necessity of keeping up the breed to the highest 
perfection ceased. The hair is wiry, the chest remarkable for volume, and the limbs long 
and muscular." 

Youatt furnishes us with this description of the Decrhound : "The Highland Grey- 
hound, or Deerhound, is the larger, stronger, and fiercer dog, and may readily be 
distinguished from the Lowland Scotch Greyhound by its pendulous and generally darker 
ears, and by the length of hair which almost covers his face. Many accounts have been 
given of the perfection of its scent, and it is said to have followed a wounded deer during 
two successive days. He is usually two inches taller than the Scotch Greyhound. The 
head is carried particularly high, and gives to the animal a noble appearance. The 
limbs are exceedingly muscular ; his back beautifully arched. The tail is long and curved, 
but assumes the form of almost a straight line when he is much excited. The only fault 
these dogs have is their occasional ill-temper or ferocity ; but this does not extend to the 
owner and his family." 

Richardson, writing about 1848, gives the following regarding the Deerhound: "The 
Highland Deerhound presents the general aspect of a Highland Greyhound, especially in all 
the points on which speed and power depend ; but he is built more coarsely and altogether 
on a larger and more robust scale. The shoulder is also more elevated, the neck thicker, 
head and muzzle coarser, and the bone more massive. The Deerhound stands from twenty-eight 
to thirty inches in height at the shoulders ; his coat is rough and the hair strong ; colour usually 
iron-grey, sandy, yellow, or white ; all colours should have the muzzle and tips of the ears black ; 
a tuft or pencil of dark hair on the tip of the ear is a proof of high blood. This is a very 
powerful dog, equally staunch and faithful ; and when the Scottish mountains swarmed with 
stags and roes, it was held in high estimation, as being capable of following the deer over 
surfaces too rough and fatiguing for the ordinary hounds of the low country. The general 
aspect of the Highland hound is commanding and fierce. His head is long, and muzzle 
rather sharp ; his ears pendulous, but not long ; his eyes large, keen, and penetrating, half 
concealed among the long, stiff, and bristly hair with which his face is covered ; his body is 
very strong and muscular, deep-chested, tapering towards the loins, and his back slightly 
arched. His hind quarters are furnished with large prominent muscles, and his legs are long, 
strong-boned, and straight a combination of qualities which gives him that speed and long 
endurance for which he is so eminently distinguished. This is the dog formerly used by the 
Highland chieftains of Scotland in their grand hunting parties, and is in all probability the 
same noble dog used in the time of Ossian." 

The last author treating of the Deerhound that will be alluded to is " Idstone," who 
brought out his useful book on "The Dog," in the year 1872; but as a considerable portion 
of the information in the article on the Deerhound therein contained was furnished by the present 
writer, he will embody it in this treatise as he proceeds. At the same time a few extracts 
which he cannot lay claim to will not be out of place. 

" Until within the last few years the breed was very scarce, for they were kept by the few 



STRAINS OF DEERHOUNDS. 223 

men who owned the Scotch forests or wide wild tracts of deer-park in the less populated parts 
of England. 

" The fault of the present day with Deerhounds is certainly the short body, the thick, 
and, as the ignorant consider, the necessarily strong jaw, and the open, loose, flat foot. In 
proportion to the weight, the foot 'goes,' or deteriorates, and the strain upon a Deerhound's 
foot at speed amongst stones and boulders, ' in view,' and roused to desperation, is greater 
than that imposed upon any other domesticated animal. No dog but the ' rough-footed 
Scot ' could stand it. 

" The Deerhound is one of the oldest breeds we have. I should be inclined to 
think that it is an imported breed. He is probably identical with the ' Strong Irish Grey- 
hound ' mentioned as employed in the Earl of Mar's chase of the red deer, in 1618, by Taylor, 
in his ' Pennilesse Pilgrimage.' 

The oldest strain known is, without doubt, that of the late Mr. Menzies, of Chesthill, on 
Loch Tay. It is claimed, with every just right, no doubt, that this strain has been in the hands 
of Mr. Menzies' ancestors for something like eighty to ninety years. Whether it still exists in 
its integrity the writer is unable to say decidedly ; but he is under the impression that as 
a distinct strain it has disappeared, though there are several dogs in existence that inherit the 
blood, and that not very distantly. It was asserted that during the time the breed had been 
in the Menzies family it had only thrice been recruited from outside! Mr. Potter, M.P. for 
Rochdale, then residing at Pitnacree, Perthshire, had, in 1860, a dog, called Oscar, from Mr. 
Menzies, and subsequently a bitch, called Lufra, from him. From these many puppies 
were bred, and given away by him with a liberal hand. A bitch was given to the late 
Dr. Cox, of Manchester, and from her and Dr. Cox's Ross (by Duke of Devonshire's 
Roswell, out of Sir R. Peel's Brenda) was bred Buz, the property of Mr. R. Hood Wright, 
of Birkby Hall, Cark, Carnforth. From this bitch Mr. Wright bred, by a dog (Oscar) 
of the Duke of Sutherland's breed, his celebrated prize-taker Bevis. It may be here 
mentioned that Oscar was sold to Prince Albert Solms, of Braunfels, and went to Germany 
some years ago. The brother to Mr. Cox's Lufra was presented to Menotti Garibaldi, 
for hunting the mouflon in Sardinia. Oscar, Mr Potter's original Chesthill dog, was given 
to the late Lord Breadalbane ; and descendants of Oscar and Lufra were presented by 
Mr. Potter to Mr. Cunliffe Brooks, M.P., who, it is believed, has the breed now indeed, the 
finest dog at Balmoral lately was one of Mr. C. Brooks's breeding. Mr. Hickman, of 
Westfield, Selly Hill, near Birmingham, exhibited two brindle dogs at the last Birming- 
ham Show, got by his celebrated Morni out of Garry, by Chesthill Ossian Lufra. Garry 
is the property of Mr. Spencer Lucy, of Charlcote. Next to the Chesthill strain,, the 
earliest that the writer knows of is that of Mr. Morrison, of Scalascraig, Glenelg. Mr. John 
Cameron, of Moy, a farmer residing near Fortwilliam, formerly in service with " Glengarry " 
as keeper, can remember this breed as far back as 1830. From Bran, a celebrated dog 
belonging to Mr. Morrison (by him given to McNiel of Colonsay, and afterwards presented 
by McNiel to Prince Albert), was descended Torrom, the grandsire of Gillespie's celebrated 
Torrom. The strain of McNiel of Colonsay was known about 1832, and from his strain many 
of our modern dogs claim descent. The late Mr. Bateson, of Cambusmere in Sutherlandshire, 
deceased early in 1879, became possessed of a brace of this breed about 1845, named Torrish 
and Morven. These dogs were sketched by Landseer, the original being now in the hands of 
Mr. Bateson's family ; and he considered them at the time the finest Deerhounds he had ever 



224 THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

seen. They were two magnificent dogs, both very rough and of great height and power : Morven 
reddish in colour, Torrish, darker greyish-brown ; Torrish the thickest and biggest in bone, Morven 
the highest. It is believed this dog left no progeny, though there is an old dog, belonging 
to the Marquis of Bristol, at Ickworth Park, who is descended in a straight line from his 
brother Torrish. This dog, Giaour, was bred by Mr. John Bateson, brother to the late Mr. 
Bateson of Cambusmere, and to him the writer is indebted for all the information regarding 
these dogs. The breed was entirely in his and his brother's hands from 1845 to the present 
time, so there can be no doubt regarding its authentic character. The McNiel strain was 
also owned by Mr. Meredith of Torrish, Sutherlandshire. From a bitch bred by Mr. McNiel, and 
owned by Mr. Meredith, the Duke of Sutherland's Loyal was bred. Loyal was the dam of 
the dog Oscar, purchased by Prince Solms, Mr. Cameron's (of Lochiel) Pirate being the 
sire. As far as can be ascertained, the McNiel dogs in their earliest form were a smaller 
dog than the present animal, and hardly so rough in the coat, not much exceeding in size 
the dog, now nearly extinct, that was known as the Scotch Greyhound. 

Sir John McNiel was kind enough to furnish the writer, in 1868, with the following 
information about his breed in later times : 

"The largest and finest dog I ever bred or ever saw was my Oscar. His speed was 
such that in a straight run he was never beaten by any dog, rough or smooth ; and in his best 
running condition he weighed ninety-four pounds." 

From this it will be seen that the McNiel strain had gained both in size and weight 
since the time Buskar was looked upon as such a wonder. 

Another celebrated strain was owned by a Scottish nobleman up to within the last 
twenty-six years, since which period he has given them up ; but some of the blood has 
passed into other hands, and has been infused in and incorporated with our present strains. 
The following information furnished by him will be read with much interest : 

"I have never had in my possession a dog above 31 inches. Black Bran, so called to 
distinguish him from my famous Bran, stood 31 inches in height, and at eighteen months old 
measured 33! inches round the chest. He was a first-rate dog. I have seen a dog 34 inches 
in height, but he was an ill-shaped and utterly useless animal. Sir St. George Gore's Gruim 
was, I believe, about 32 or 33 inches in height, well-shaped, and a very excellent dog. Gruim 
was about the year 1843-44, Black Bran about 1850-51, at their best. Bran (the famous) 
was 29 inches high, and measured 31 J inches round the chest. In shape he was long and 
low, and so evenly made that he looked much smaller than he really was. He was dark brown 
at the top of his head something of the colour of a yell-hind ; ears coal black ; muzzle black, 
with a little patch in front of the under-jaw something like the lips of a roe ; back, sides, quarters, 
and outside of legs yellowish-fawn deepening in winter time, when his coat was longer, into a sort 
of yellowish rusty-grey ; tail just tipped with white ; head quite smooth to behind the ears ; 
ears quite smooth and velvety ; coat over body and sides not very long, very harsh and wiry ; 
legs and feet quite smooth ; coat, in winter, about three inches long. Bran was at his best 
about 1844-45. He was entered to his first stag at nine months old (too early), and killed his 
last stag at nine years old. His greatest feat was the killing of two unwounded stags single- 
handed in about three-quarters of an hour. The first bore 10 points ; the second 1 1. The 
pure breed was at one time confined to a very few different kennels. I think my own, and those 



BREEDERS OF DEERHOUNDS. 225 

of Mr. McNiel, of Colonsay, the late Mr. Stewart Menzies, of Chesthill, and one or two others, 
were the only gentlemen's kennels in which it was preserved. There were also three or four 
large farmers in various parts of the country who knew the value of the true breed, and took 
great pains to preserve the pure strain ; but since the great increase of deer forests, in most 
of which the use of Deerhounds is strictly prohibited, the breeding of these dogs has been very 
much discontinued, and it is now exceedingly difficult to find one worth anything. Colonel 
Inge and Lord H. Bentinck have both got my blood. I do not like the Glengarry blood. It 
was spoilt many years ago by old Glengarry crossing his dogs with the Bloodhound." 

The Marquis of Breadalbane, many years ago, owned a famous strain of Deerhounds. 
They were kept at the Black Mount Forest Lodge. As many as fifty or sixty were kept. 
A dog called King of the Forest was of extraordinary size. He was an ancestor of a 
well-known modern prize-taker, also of great size, called Torrom, bred and first exhibited by 
Mr. Cameron of Lochiel. 

The late Sir St. George Gore owned some very fine Deerhounds ; one of his is stated to 
have stood 32 inches. A young dog shown by him at Birmingham, about thirteen years ago. 
stood nearly 31 inches, and weighed 105 Ibs. ; a remarkably fine, well-shaped dog, of a cream 
colour, but nearly smooth-coated. A bitch, Corrie, brindled, was also large, but poor in coat. 

The strain of the late Lord H. Bentinck was very similar to Sir St. G. Gore's indeed, 
they bred together for years, and the consequence was that Lord Henry's strain was sadly 
devoid of coat A bitch he owned, called Ferret, of McNiel of Colonsay's breed, was smooth, 
and from her, in all probability, the want of coat was introduced ; indeed, in many of the older 
strains the coat would appear to have been decidedly indifferent, to say the least of it. Lord 
Henry's Fingal, considered by him to be one of his very best, was a large red dog, almost smooth. 
From a bitch of this breed, called Carrac, at one time owned by the writer, many of our best 
modern dogs are descended. At Lord Henry's death his dogs were sold at Edinburgh in 1871, 
realising by no means large prices. 

Some extremely fine Deerhounds were owned many years ago by the late Duke of Leeds. 

Mr. Campbell of Monzie, Perthshire, had a very pure breed of Deerhounds about fifteen 
or twenty years ago. " Lochiel," speaking of them, says : " I doubt if any Deerhounds except 
Mr. Campbell's of Monzie are quite pure. There were very few of them left at his death. 
His was the best and purest blood in the North." From his dog Grumach Mr. Cameron's 
Pirate and Torrom were bred. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Inge of Thorpe for many years bred Deerhounds of remarkably good 
descent; but he ceased to do so about 1862, when he sent sixteen to be sold at Aldridge's. 
They fetched prices ranging from 15 to 60 guineas. His celebrated old dog Valiant was bought 
in at a large figure. They were all well-made dogs and well covered with rough hair, but 
were not remarkable for size. Colonel Inge kad the honour of winning the first prize with 
Valiant at the first dog show ever held at Birmingham in 1861. He was a very rough brindle 
dog of lengthy make. Valiant's pedigree was given as by Lord Saltoun's famous Bran out of 
Seaforth's Vengeance, and he was presented to Colonel Inge when a puppy. 

The late Mr. John Cole, for many years head keeper to Her Majesty the Queen at 
Windsor Park, owned several splendid Deerhounds, bred from Prince Albert's Hector of 
Monzie's breed, and a bitch of a strain he had brought from Chillingham. At his death the 
writer purchased three, amongst them the well-known and superb dog Keildar and his sister 
Hag, a bitch of great size and very good shape, but wanting in coat. 
29 



226 THE BOOK OP THE Doc. 

Now to touch on breeders of the present day. 

The Duke of Sutherland owns good-looking and useful dogs, but they are small, and 
a doubt is expressed in some quarters as to their true breeding. Regarding some of those 
formerly in his possession there, however, can be no doubt. 

Mr. Spencer Lucy of Charlcote has some of the strain of Menzies of Chesthill, as 
before-mentioned, and has been crossing with one or two well-known prize-takers it is 
believed with satisfactory results. 

Mr. Gillespie of Tulloch, Kingussie, should be mentioned here, being the breeder and 
owner of the far-famed Torrom. Though Mr. Gillespie was hardly to be considered a breeder 
of Deerhounds, yet this dog was such a notoriously good one that, in justice to the subject, 
notice of his breeder cannot be omitted. 

Mr. Donald Cameron of Lochiel is well known to Deerhound lovers as the breeder of 
Pirate and the giant Torrom. These dogs were from a bitch, Loy, by Mr. Gillespie's 
Torrom, by Campbell of Monzie's Grumach. 

Mr. H. Chaworth Musters is known widely as the owner of the above-mentioned Torrom, 
which was purchased from " Lochiel " by a Mr. Bowles when exhibited at the Birmingham 
show in 1869, he then being three years old. He was afterwards purchased by Mr. Musters, and 
has been extensively bred from, with varied success. 

Mr. R. Hood Wright has also bred some very fair Deerhounds. He is mentioned before 
as having the strain of Menzies of Chesthill in his kennels. 

The late Sydney Dobell owned a very capital breed of Deerhound, descended from a bitch 
presented to him by Flora Macdonald of Skye. These dogs have had much to do with some 
of the best dogs now extant. They were said to be of pure Glengarry breed. 

The last, and perhaps the most successful, breeder to whom allusion will be made is Mr. 
Thomas Morse. The dogs bred by this gentleman have proved themselves most successful 
candidates for public favour, and have gone to the top of the tree so far as prize-taking is 
concerned, and no doubt, where opportunity has offered, have proved themselves as good and 
true as they unquestionably are good-looking. Amongst them, Mr. Hemming's Linda, Mr. 
Chinnery's Duke, and Mr. Hay's Rufus, may be mentioned. Mr. Morse decidedly owes much, if 
not all, of his success to his judicious use of that magnificent dog Keildar, and the produce 
have in many instances thrown to him in a marked manner, even so far as two generations off. 

Before concluding this notice of breeders, the Hon. Mrs. Deane Morgan, living in Co. Wexford, 
Irela-nd, should be mentioned, who now has dogs descended from pure strains brought from 
Scotland many years ago. It is believed these are fine animals, of which their owner is re- 
markably proud. One was given by her to Mr. George Dennis, Her Majesty's Consul in Sicily, 
and is reported by him to be an extraordinarily fine and noble animal. Mr. Dennis has lately 
taken a very well-descended young bitch out to Sicily to mate with him. 

Mr. George Cupples has also bred many good dogs, amongst them Spey, now the property 
of Mr. Morse selected to illustrate this article. There are several other breeders of years gone 
by whom the writer had perhaps better mention by name, and though he personally knows but 
little of their strains, they were reckoned to be remarkably good ones namely, Lord Seaforth, 
McDonald of Keppoch, McKenzie of Kintail, and General Ross of Glenmoidart. 

It is now proposed to allude to a few of the largest " noted " dogs before proceeding to 
describe generally the "cracks" of the breed that have arisen during the last thirty-five 
years. 



NOTES Off CELEBRATED DEERHOUNDS. 227 

Sir St. George Gore's Gruim has already been noticed. He was said to stand 32 to 33 
inches (?), and was a very well-shaped and excellent dog. He was at his prime about 1843-44. 

Black Bran, a 31-inch dog, in reality a black brindle, was a remarkably good dog about 
1850-51. 

The Marquis of Breadalbane's King of the Forest was a dog of extraordinary size, being, 
it is supposed, 33 inches high. He was held to be a good dog. 

An unusually fine dog, called Alder, was shown many times about 1863-67 -the property 
of Mr. Beasley, bred, it was asserted, by Sir John McNiel of Colonsay that stood about 
31^ inches, and probably weighed nolbs. This was a very well-shaped dog, not too bulky, 
of a dark brindle colour ; coat very hard. Unfortunately, this dog never got any descendants 
worthy of himself. He was a grand animal. 

In later years we have Torrom, first shown at Birmingham by his breeder, Mr. Donald 
Cameron of Lochiel, in 1869, he then being three years old. He afterwards passed into the 
possession of Mr. H. Chaworth Musters, and won numerous prizes, being known as Champion 
Old Torrom. This dog, as far as could be ascertained, threw back to some ancestor of 
gigantic size probably Lord Breadalbane's King of the Forest. He was an extraordinarily 
heavy dog for a Deerhound, and usually considered lumbersome, and found too much, so for 
work by his owner, who got rid of him for this reason. His head was very massive, and his 
coat very full and soft ; legs by no means straight a weakness which many of his descendants 
have inherited. He was a medium brownish colour, faintly brindle, very long in make ; ears 
very coarse, and tail of extreme length. He stood 3.1 inches, girthed 35, and weighed, fat, 
about 1 10 Ibs. 

His two sons Monzie, out of Brenda, bred by and the property of Mr. Musters, and 
Young Torrom, out of Braie, bred by Mr. Hancock are both dogs of great size, standing 
31 inches and weighing about 105 Ibs.; the former considerably the better dog of the two. 
The latter dog was exported to America some three years ago-. 

Of a different strain going direct back to McNiel's dogs we have Hector, the property 
of Mr. Dadley, head-keeper to the Marquis of Bristol a splendid dog, of darkish brindle colour, 
good rough coat, and well-shaped, by Giaour, out of Hylda ; height, 31 inches; girth, 35; 
weight, 105 Ibs. A good dog with deer, and thoroughly well-bred probably the best-bred 
dog now extant. 

His two sons Oscar, the property of Mr. Phillips, Croxton House, Boxford, a very fine 
symmetrical dog, of great length, rather pale-fawn brindle, out of Lufra, a bitch of small 
size and somewhat uncertain pedigree, standing 31 inches and weighing about 105 Ibs. ; and 
Sir Bors, the property of Lieutenant-Colonel Leyland, a dog of similar colour, out of Lufra 
also (a prior litter), a very grand dog in every way. He stands 31 inches, girths 35, and 
weighs 105 Ibs. 

To go on to a general notice of the cracks. First to be noticed is Mr. Gillespie's 
celebrated dog Torrom, which is here described in Mr. Gillespie's own words : " He did 
not stand very high, but was remarkably well formed for strength and speed ; his weight 
I do not know ; colour steel-grey (what we call blue) ; coat long and silky, with an under- 
growth of close downy hair of a darker shade ; ears small, and darker in colour than body, 
with silver-grey dots and tipped with silver-grey silky hair ; he also had a great deal of the same 
silver-grey silky hair on his face ; tail long and straight, with half turned to one side when erect ; 
legs very strong, but clean and beautifully formed ; feet small, round, and cat-like ; chest very deep 
and round ; neck long, arched, and strong ; head small, but with wonderful power of jaw (I haVe 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

seen him break the shoulder of very many red deer stags with a single twist) ; back very strong 
and arched ; loins of wonderful strength. Torrom was by Faust, a dog (I believe tile last) 
that belonged to Mrs. McDonnell, wife of the late Glengarry, and was one of the finest- 
looking dogs I have seen ; his dam was Garry, a bitch given to me by Gordon Gumming 
when he last started for Africa. On Cumming's return I gave him back the bitch, which 
I believe he afterwards sold to Sir St. George Gore. Torrom when little more than a year 
old proved himself the best dog at deer I ever saw or expect to see. 

All dogs of any note at the present time can trace their descent back to this ex- 
ceedingly grand specimen of the race. Mr. Campbell of Monzie's Greumah was a par- 
ticularly nice dog, got by a fine dog belonging to General Ross of Glenmoidart, of the 
Keppoch strain, out of a Monzie bitch. He was the sire of Pirate and Torrom, bred by 
Mr. Cameron of Lochiel. Mr. Cameron writes thus regarding this fine dog : " He was a 
magnificent dog, not so massive as his son (Champion Torrom), but more like a Deer- 
hound. He was a strong-framed dog, with plenty of hair, of a blue-brindle colour. He 
was very like the dog you refer to as belonging to Mr. Gillespie." 

Keildar, bred by the late Mr. Cole, head-keeper of Windsor Park, was one of the 
most elegant and aristocratic-looking Deerhounds ever seen. He was a dog of great length, 
and yet possessed great speed and power. He was in constant use in Windsor Park for 
stalking deer, and was very adept at his work. He showed high breeding and symmetry 
to a remarkable extent. His height was a full 30 inches, girth 33^, and weight 95 Ibs. ; 
colour bluish-fawn, slightly brindled, the muzzle and ears, being blue; coat rather soft 
in character and tolerably full. He was by a handsome dog (Oscar), belonging to 
Mr. Bridge, of the breed of McKenzie of Applecross. His descendants have made their 
mark by their size, high breeding, and good looks. Amongst them are the well-known 
Linda, which resembles her sire in an extraordinary degree, his son Rufus, and amongst 
his grandsons Hector and Duke, Mr. Phillips' Oscar and Lieut-Colonel Leyland's Sir Bors 
being his great-grandsons. Mr. Field's Bran, own brother, same litter as Keildar, was only 
slightly his inferior, and in mpst ways a very similar dog. Amongst his descendants Morni 
is perhaps the most remarkable. Mr. Cyril Dobell brother to Sydney owned a capital dog 
of good size in Bevis, the sire of Linda's dam and other good dogs. He was a sandy dog of 
good coat, stood 30 inches, and weighed probably near 100 Ibs., being rather short in 
make. Major Robertson's Oscar, a nice brindle dog of good coat, long made, bred by General 
Ross of Glenmoidart, stood about 29 inches, and was a well-made, handsome dog. From him 
were bred some good dogs out of Sydney Dobell's Maida, and he was the sire of Morni out 
of a bitch by Field's Bran, out of Carrac. 

Mr. Hickman's Morni was a nice dog, of a greyish-brindle colour, coat somewhat soft. 
He stood 30 inches, girthed 34, and weighed about 98 Ibs. Showed quality and 
breeding. 

Pirate, the property of Cameron of Lochiel, and own brother to the celebrated Champion 
Old Torrom (Mr. Musters'), was a smaller, more compact, and far better-made dog than his 
gigantic brother. Very dark in colour blue-brindle he had a harder and more dense coat 
than Torrom, and was in every respect his superior. He stood about 29 inches, and was 
considered " perfect " at work by his owner. He got some very nice stock, but none, it is 
believed, proved large, though capital dogs for work. 

Duke, at one time the property of Mr. Chinnery, winner of several first prizes, was a 
dark, grizzled, hard-coated dog perhaps somewhat deficient in hair on head and legs and a 



P Of ATS OF THE DEERHOUND. 229 

handsome, well-built dog, though somewhat light of bone. He stood 30 inches, and was a 
fairly lengthy dog. 

Spey, the bitch selected for illustration, was bred by Mr. Cupples, and has been owned 
for many years by Mr. Morse, who has bred many very superior dogs from her. She is 
about 27 inches in height and of a lengthy frame. Coat very hard and good. Colour is 
shown in illustration. Duke was her son, and resembled her strongly in coat and colour. She 
is a well-descended bitch, of thoroughly good appearance. 

Mr. Musters' Young Torrom, winner of an extraordinary number of prizes, is a much 
superior dog to his sire, Old Champion Torrom, but is considerably his inferior in size. He 
is a dark slate colour, with a lighter head, of not very taking expression, extremely long 
and strong in make ; coat soft and dense. A striking feature in this strain is their very 
long sweeping tail. His height is about 2g\ inches. 

Mr. Wright's Bevis, a darkish red-brown brindle dog of about 29 inches, is a thoroughly 
well-bred dog ; perhaps, excepting Hector, the best bred Deerhound out. His coat is very 
long and shaggy, and extends itself to his ears, very much to the detriment of his appear- 
ance. He is a compact, well-shaped dog. 

Dr. Haddon has shown a handsome bitch, called Lufra, with a remarkably handsome 
head and good coat which former feature she has transmitted to her son, by Young Torrom 
(Mr. Musters'), Roy by name. The bitch has no ascertained pedigree. 

There are many other good and fine dogs scattered through the country which could 
be mentioned ; but as this is not a stud book, it is considered unnecessary to do so. 

The Deerhound will now be closely described. As regards size many arguments are put 
forward. In former days when the red deer was coursed (as hares are) without having 
previously been wounded, the larger and more powerful the dog was, provided that the Grey- 
hound's speed and activity were preserved, the more was he valued ; but in these degenerate 
days, when deer are usually brought to book without the aid of dogs or often even in their presence, 
an animal that can find and bay a wounded stag is considered to be all that is required. In 
some few cases the Deerhound proper is used, but this is being fast allowed to fall into disuse 
in the majority of cases. To run into and hold a full-grown stag, a large and strong dog is 
certainly required, and it was found that a dog averaging 29 to 30 inches was the correct animal. 
His girth should be great and chest deep without being too flat-sided ; for a 3O-inch dog, 34 
inches should be the average. The fore-arm, below elbow, should measure 8J inches, and the 
dog weigh from 95 to 105 Ibs. Should the dog stand as much as 31 inches, as is sometimes 
the case, these dimensions would be slightly exceeded. He should be of lengthy make. 
The average for bitches, which are very much less than the dogs, would be as follows : 
Height, 26 inches; girth, 29 inches ; weight, 65 to 70 Ibs. In figure and conformation this dog 
should closely approximate to the smooth Greyhound, allowance being made for his superior 
stature and bulk. The head should be long and lean, rather wider behind the ears, yet not 
suddenly widening ; neck long, strong, and arched ; body long ; back slightly curved upwards, 
descending towards tail ; legs very strong and straight ; feet round, well and firmly set ; quarters 
well-developed, and equal to propelling the animal with extreme velocity ; ears small, semi- 
erect, dark in colour, and smooth, though several strains really good ones show a hairy 
ear; tail long and free from curl, having a curve towards the tip only. The general 
appearance should be striking, elegant, and aristocratic to a marked extent, and nobility 
of carriage is a very strong feature in the breed. The coat should be coarse and hard, 



230 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

full and dense on head, body, legs, and tail, without being " exaggerated ; " that on the 
head should be softer in character than that on the body ; the hair over eyes and under 
jaws being of greater length, and rather more wiry than that on the rest of the head. 
The well-covered head gives much "character," and adds vastly to the general beauty 
of this magnificent dog. The length of the hair should be from three to four inches. Some 
breeders hold that no Deerhound is worthy of notice unless he has a good rough head, with 
plenty of beard and coat generally ; also, that the purity of a smooth skulled dog is to be 
doubted. Here, however, they are at fault, as several of the best known dogs have had nearly 
smooth heads. 

In colour the Deerhound varies much from nearly black, through dark brindle, blue, 
light brindle, grey, fawn, and sandy, and cream of all shades, to pure white. Black-and-tan 
dogs of the breed have also been known. As a matter of taste, the darker colours, as iron- 
grey and brindle, are to be preferred ; but many first-class specimens have been and are of a 
lighter colour. On a dark heath a light-coloured dog shows plainer. 

These dogs are usually remarkably fine and graceful jumpers, and possessed of great 
activity. In the matter of speed they often equal the smooth Greyhound, but owing to their 
great size are unequal to making such quick turns as their smaller congener. The scenting 
powers are developed in a remarkable way, and many wonderful tales are told of the tracking 
powers of these dogs. When unsighted, they often recover for their masters "cold" stags by 
their unerring powers in this line. 

They are bad swimmers, but occasionally will take the water, and never shrink from it 
when in pursuit of their quarry. 

The Deerhound is justly considered a difficult dog to rear, and to a certain degree delicate, 
though some authors put him forward as being the " hardiest of the hardy." They also are 
not a long-lived dog. 

It was supposed that the gradual dying out of the practice of coursing the red deer 
would soon put an end to the breeding of the Deerhound ; but such, happily, is not the case. 
This dog, in reality, has wonderfully increased the last twenty years, and is now, compara- 
tively speaking, common. His beauty, gentleness, power, and courage, have so recommended 
him as a pet and companion, and his appearance is so ornamental and graceful, that he is 
highly esteemed by all the gentle in the land ; and the fear that the breed would become 
extinct has long since vanished. 

The late Sir St. George Gore, a breeder of experience, was of opinion that the Deer- 
hounds of the present day are far finer than they were thirty and forty years ago ; also that 
a dog could not then be found to run at 85 Ibs., whereas now the standard is from 90 to 
100 Ibs. 

Since Lord Henry Bentinck's demise in 1871 no large kennels of Deerhounds remain. 
Formerly there were from twenty to sixty kept in several kennels ; at the same time, many 
magnificent specimens are scattered broadcast through the land, as many as six or seven, or 
even more, being in the same hands, and it is probable that instead of having decreased 
; n numbers it has increased considerably ; where one person owned a Deerhound or two 
formerly twenty do so now. Lord Breadalbane, the Duke of Athol, Lord H. Bentinck, 
" Glengarry," and others, kept large kennels of these superb dogs, but they have all passed 
away now. 

This article will hardly be considered complete unless some allusion be made to the 
much-vexed question of cross-breeding. 



CROSSES USED ON DEERHOUNDS. 23! 

"Idstone" says : " Many crosses have been adopted, as I have already observed, and one of 
the Deerhound and Mastiff has been used by the proprietor of a deer-pack in my immediate 
neighbourhood, where there is a fine herd of red and fallow deer. Though I prefer the Deerhound, 
it must be granted that whilst the breed was not procurable such a measure as manufacturing 
a dog for the work was meritorious. The best I have noticed of this description were produced by 
the skill and patience of Mr. Norwood, of the South- Western Railway, at Waterloo. I have 
never seen these hounds in action, but I have been assured that nothing can be finer than 
their work. They had the race-horse points, the long neck, the clean head, the bright intel- 
lectual eye, the long sloping shoulder, the muscular arms, the straight legs, the close well-knit 
feet, the wide muscular arched back and loins, the deep back ribs, the large girth, the esprit, the 
life, the activity which when controlled and schooled is essential to every domesticated animal." 

It is a well-known fact that the late "Glengarry," finding the breed of Deerhound de- 
teriorating, resorted to several crosses amongst them the Cuban Bloodhound and Pyrenean 
Wolfdog ; from the latter especially he gained much. He was at the time condemned loudly 
for thus contaminating the breed ; but, in the writer's opinion, he acted with great good judgment, 
for he resuscitated his strain very completely, and from his so-crossed dogs have all our modern 
Deerhounds descended, all symptoms of any such cross having long been obliterated. Mr. 
Gillespie, the owner and breeder of the notorious Torrom, says : " With regard to your remark 
about the Glengarry dogs not being pure, I too have often heard it ; but my experience is that 
there were few, if any, better strains." His Torrom was the son of a true Glengarry dog. Of 
this breed also was the world-wide-famed Maida, Sir Walter Scott's devoted and constant 
companion ; but he was the offspring of the first cross between Pyrenean Wolfdog and Highland 
Deerhound, the former being sire, the latter dam. He was a magnificent animal, of great size, 
power, and endurance, partaking mostly of the appearance of the dam, gaining somewhat in 
power, bulk, and height from the sire. He was of an iron-grey colour (according to Irving), and 
of gigantic size. He died at eleven years of age. From this very Maida many of our best 
modern dogs claim descent ! 

A gentleman who has had much experience in breeding Deerhounds for the last thirty 
years and upwards, and who has bred many grand dogs, says : " My brother informs me 
that McNiel went all over the world to get dogs to breed from to Albania amongst other 
places and that his breed represents a breed he himself founded, and that prior to that there 
was no real existing breed of Deerhounds in Scotland (! !). I think that their extreme delicacy 
and the difficulty of rearing them, also the way in which they feel the cold in bad weather 
in October, indicate their foreign origin." 

It is thought that there must have been some misapprehension on this matter, as, putting 
aside the existence of Morison of Scalascraig's breed in 1830 (McNiel's dating a few years 
later), as well as that of Menzies of Chesthill, asserted to date from 1780 or thereabouts, 
Lord Colonsay, then Sir J. McNiel, communicated with the writer about 1865 in the following 
terms : " There seems to be no doubt that the Deerhound of the Celtic Highlands is of 
precisely the same race as the Irish hound sometimes called Wolfhound ; and all attempts 
to get size or speed by crossing have, it is believed, failed, or only succeeded in giving 
size by destroying the characteristics of the race. I imported Wolfhounds from Russia of 
fair speed and large size, but silky-haired, with a view to cross them with the Deerhound, 
but the result was by no means satisfactory. The late Lord Breadalbane crossed with the 
Bloodhound, and produced some good Retrievers for his deer-stalking ; but they were no 



232 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

longer Deerhounds. The Macedonian Dog a very powerful, smooth dog was also imported 
by a member of my family without any better results ; and it is my conviction that the 
race of Deerhounds can be improved only by careful selection and crossing different strains 
of pure blood." 

The above remarks were shown to a friend of the writer who had given a full trial 
to crossing for size, &c. He says : " I do not agree with Sir J. McNiel in all he says 
I think with you that he did not continue his experiments far enough. Then, again, speed 
was the element he aimed at chiefly, and it is not to be expected he would retain that 
%vhen crossing with a slower dog." 

The writer has not the smallest doubt looking at the grand dogs we now possess 
that the various crosses tried have in most instances profited very much the breed, which 
had evidently fallen into a degenerate state forty to fifty years ago. He knows by ex- 
perience that all trace of a cross disappears as a rule in the second or third generation, and 
the dog has in every way the appearance and characteristics of a Deerhound proper. The 
cross from Russian Wolfhound, judiciously used, has certainly imparted to the Deerhound a 
degree of quality and certain blood-like look that the breed was fast losing, to say nothing 
of the gain in the matter of symmetry that almost invariably accrues. 

It is a most noticeable and curious fact that the purer the breed is the more marked is the 
disparity between the sexes in the Deerhound. Thus, if \.\\o pure bred dogs be used, the difference 
between the sexes will vary from four to six inches in height ; whereas, if the female parent 
be cross-bred and of large size, the difference between the males and females of the litter 
will only be two inches, and, oddly enough, even if the bitch so bred shall vastly exceed 
the truer bred one in size, the dog puppies from her by an equally fine dog will generally 
in no way exceed in size those from the smaller but truer bred bitch. 

That size can more surely be obtained through the sire than through the dam is a fact 
worth remembering. 

It is much to be regretted that the pedigrees of the prominent specimens of this breed 
have not been retained, but there is little doubt but that most of our existing cracks can 
claim them as their progenitors. In future there will be no trouble on this head, as the very 
admirable stud-books established about 1870 will obviate this. 

Before concluding this article, the writer would strongly impress on all readers the 
extreme desirability of retaining, by judicious care and cultivation, this, of all dogs (save 
his undoubted progenitor the Irish Wolfhound), the most beautiful and picturesque, as well 
as the most majestic and ornamental an animal to be loved and valued, and treated as a 
friend, as he richly deserves to be in all but rare cases. 

The accompanying engraving, which so faithfully represents some Deerhounds on the 
watch, is the work of the great German artist, Specht. Though the dogs do not quite come 
up to modern ideas of show form in every minute particular, the artistic arrangement of the 
group is to the life, and thoroughly conveys in all essential respects the character of the dog, 
and what a Deerhound should be. 

The dog selected for the coloured plate is Mr. Morse's Spey, who may be taken as one of 
the best specimens of the breed in existence, though not shown. She was nearly twelve years 
old in January, 1880, when she scaled 73 Ibs., and measured as follows: From tip of nose to 
stop, 4j inches; length from stop to occipital bone, 5f inches ; girth of skull behind the eyes, 
15 inches; girth of neck, 15 inches; girth round shoulders, 30 inches; girth of loins, 2O\ inches; 



POLVTS OF DEERHOUNDS. 



235 



girth of thigh, i6i inches ; girth of forearm, 7 inches ; height at shoulders, 26 inches ; height 
at elbows, 14! inches; height at loins, 26 inches; height at hock, fl inches; length of tail, 
22 inches. The above must be considered exceptionally good measurements when the advanced 
age of the dog comes to be considered. 

An extremely good bitch, too, which came before the public in 1879, is Heather, the 
property of the Rev. Grenville F. Hodson, of North Petherton, Bridgwater, which gentleman 
is one of our oldest Deerhound breeders, and a recognised judge of the variety. Mr. Graham 
has, we believe, not seen Heather, and has therefore omitted her from the list he gives above. 

As in the case of the Irish Wolfhound, Mr. Graham in his article did not append a 
scale of points. We therefore give the following on our own responsibility. 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING DEERHOUNDS. 



Skull 

Neck 

Body 

Legs and feet 

Coat 

General appearance 



Total 



Value. 
10 

5 

10 
10 
IO 

2 

50 




CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE GREYHOUND. 

OF all the breeds of dog which were held in high estimation by out forefathers, the Greyhound 
is undoubtedly the most popular in the present day. Its utility as a provider of the means of 
sport may certainly not be as extensive as it was formerly ; but the Greyhound still exists in 
its old capacity of the courser's indispensable companion ; and has not, like the Bloodhound, found 
its vocation gone. It must not, however, be imagined that even in former days the Greyhound 
was to be found in very large numbers throughout the country, for stringent laws were passed 
which prohibited those beneath a certain station in life possessing this breed of dog. Such an 
edict was published in the reign of King Canute, and severe penalties were inflicted upon those 
who set them at defiance. 

This is by no means the first mention of the Greyhound, early as the date is, for the 
existence of dogs which hunted by sight and not by scent is mentioned by Arrian, who is also 
known by the name of the younger Xenophon. What the precise class of dog was to which 
he refers cannot now be discussed ; but the fact remains undisputed that dogs existed in the 
second century which hunted by sight, and this is one of the characteristics of the modern 
Greyhound. From the frequent reference, moreover, to this class of dog in the writings of all 
sporting authors from the most remote periods, it is evident that Greyhounds were always the 
popular dog with sportsmen ; and it is further noticeable that they were employed in the capture 
of animals other than hares in those days. The wolf and the wild boar were both hunted with 
Greyhounds, who must presumably have been both larger and more powerful dogs than those 
of the present day, or they would have been unable to have coped with such powerful foes. 
As a proof of the value set upon Greyhounds, it is remarkable that prior to the signing of Magna 
Charta by King John we learn that the destruction of a Greyhound was looked upon as an 
act "equally criminal with the murder of a fellow man." We are further informed that Grey- 
hounds were " frequently taken in payment as money by the kings for the renewal of grants, 
and in the satisfaction of fines and forfeitures." One fine paid to King John in 1203 consisted 
of 500 marks, ten horses, and ten leashes of Greyhounds ; another, seven years later, was one 
swift running horse and six Greyhounds. 

One of the most ancient, and at the same time most hackneyed descriptions of a Greyhound 
is that given by Juliana Berners in "The Book of St. Albans," to which work reference has been 
made in the first chapter of this book. The doggrel, however, may be of interest to many who 
have not seen it in extenso, and we therefore giv i it at length for their edification : 

"THE PROPERTIES OF A GOOD GREHOUNDE. 

"A grehounde shold be heeded lyke a snake, 
And neckyd like a drake ; 
Footed lyke a catte, 
Tayllyd lyke a ratte ; 



HISTORICAL NOTICES OF THE GREYHOUND. 237 

Syded lyke a teme, 

And chynyd lyke a beme. 

The fyrst yere he must lerne to fede ; 

The second yere to felde him lede ; 

The thyrde yere he is felowe lyke ; 

The fourth yere there is none syke ; 

The fyfth yere he is good enough ; 

The syxte yere he shall hold the plough ; 

The seventh yere he woll avaylle 

Crete bytches for to assaylle ; 

The eygthe yere licke ladyll ; 

The nynthe yere cartsadyll, 

And when he is comyn to that yere 

Have him to the tannere ; 

For the best hounde that ever bytche had 

At nynthe yere he is full badde." 

From this it appears that the fair authoress had no faith in breeding from very old sires, an 
opinion which is generally shared in the present day by practical men. 

All writers on the breed seem to be unanimous in denouncing thick, heavy-headed dogs. 
Arrian describes Greyhounds as bad who " are heavy-headed . . . with a blunt instead of a 
pointed termination" (to the muzzle). In the "Mayster of Game," by Edmund de Langley, 
which has been before alluded to, it is said that " The Greihound should have a long hede and 
some dele grete ... a good large mouth, and good sessours, the one again the other, so that 
the nether jaws passe not them above." This certainly is an important remark in connection 
with the breed, and one which should not be lost sight of, as it would seem to imply that an under- 
hung dog or, in plain words, one possessing too much Bull blood was objected to in the days 
of the writer. It is only natural, however, to conjecture that the Bull, or rather Bandog cross 
had not had a fair trial at that period, for, as we have before endeavoured to show, there can be 
little doubt that the Greyhounds were, several centuries ago, of necessity a stouter dog than 
the modern hound, and therefore the introduction of a Bull cross was scarcely necessary. 

Dr. John Caius thus alludes to the " Grehounde " in his book : 

" There is another kind of dogge which for his incredible swiftness is called Leporarius or 
Grehounde, because the principall service of them dependeth and consisteth in starting and 
hunting the hare, which dogges likewyse are indued with no less strength than lightness in 
maintenance of the game, in serving the chase, in taking the bucke, the harte, the dowe, the 
foxe, and other beastes ordained for the game of hunting. . . . For it is a spare and bare 
kinde of dogge (of fleshe but not of bone) ; some are of a greater sorte, and some of a lesser, 
some are smooth skynned, and some are curled ; the bigger are therefore appoynted to hunt the 
bigger beasts, and the smaller serve to hunt the smaller accordingly." 

Dr. Caius also alludes to another variety of dog, the description of which contains several 
points which are identical with the peculiarities of the Greyhound. The following is the manner in 
which it is alluded to by Dr. John Caius : 

" This kinde of dogge, which pursueth by the eye, prevayleth little, or never a whit, by any 
benefite of the nose that is by smelling, but excelleth in perspicuitie and sharpnesse of sight 
altogether, by the vertue whereof, being singular and notable, it hunteth the foxe and the hare. 
. . . . Our countrymen call this dogge Agaseum, a Gazehounde, because the beames of his 



238 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

sight are so steadfastly settled and onmoveably fastened. These dogges are much and usually 
occupyed in the northern parts of England more than in the southern, and in fealdy landes rather 
than in bushy and woody places. Horsemen use them more than footmen, to the intent that 
they might provoke their horses to a swift galloppe (wherwith they are more delighted than 
with the pray itselfe), and that they myght accustome theyr horse to leape over hedges and ditches 
without stoppe or stumble, without harme or hazzard, without doubt or daunger, and so escape 
with safegard of lyfe. . . . But if it fortune so at any time that this dogge take a wrong 
way, the master making some usuall signe and familiar token, he returneth forthwith, and taketh 
the right and ready trace, beginning his chace a fresh, and with a clear voyce, and a swift foot, 
followeth the game with as much courage and nimblenesse as he did at the first." 

From these quotations it would certainly appear that in the time of Dr. Caius the dogs 
used for hare-hunting and for stag or deer hunting were different animals, the more powerful 
breed being styled Grehoundes and the smaller Gazehounds. It is also highly probable that, 
as the occupation of the former disappeared, the two varieties became amalgamated once again, 
and formed the corner-stone of the existence of the modern Greyhound. 

The accompanying engraving is of interest as representing the different varieties of Grey- 
hounds collected in one group. The similarity of outline in the Deerhound, the Greyhound, the 
Persian, and the Italian Greyhounds, is so plainly shown that their relationship must strike 
the most casual observer. The resemblance of the foreign dogs to our English ones must, in 
addition, attach increased interest to the remarks of Arrian, who is before alluded to as 
having described dogs who hunted by sight and not by scent ; and it is only reasonable to 
presume, from the similarity of the varieties in the present day, that the type of dog then 
in existence was similar to that contained in the cut. 

Apropos of the Greyhound being used for coursing animals other than hares, we are 
informed, upon the authority of the "Sportsman's Cabinet," that in 1591 Queen Elizabeth, when 
not personally disposed to hunt, used to witness the coursing of deer by Greyhounds from her 
residence. On one occasion "she witnessed from a turret at Cowdrey Park sixteen bucks, all 
having fair law, pulled down by Greyhounds upon the lawn one day after dinner." The same 
authority informs us that " the Isle of Dogs, now converted to the great purpose of a commercial 
reservoir for the West India shipping, derived its name from being the receptacle for the Grey- 
hounds and Spaniels of Edward III." 

Naturally enough, there have from time to time been many crosses introduced into the 
Greyhound before it could be brought to the pitch of perfection which it has reached in the present 
day. Amongst the most enterprising breeders of these or earlier times may be mentioned the 
name of Lord Orford, who is thus alluded to in the " Sportsman's Cabinet " : 

"There were times when he was known to have fifty brace of Greyhounds; and as it was a 
fixed rule never to part with a single whelp till he had a fair and substantial trial of his speed, 
he had evident chances (beyond almost any other individual) of having, amongst so great a 
number, a collection of very superior dogs ; but so intent was he upon this peculiar object of 
attainment, that he went further in every possible direction to obtain perfection, and introduced 
every experimental cross, from the English Lurcher to the Italian Greyhound. He had strongly 
indulged an idea of a successful cross with the Bulldog, which he could never be divested of; 
and after having persevered (in opposition to every opinion) most patiently for seven removes, 
he found himself in the possession of the best Greyhounds ever yet known, giving the small 




< 

[X. 

a 
d 



240 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

ear, the rat tail, and the skin almost without hair, together with that innate courage which the 
high-bred Greyhound should possess, retaining which instinctively, he would rather die than 
relinquish the chase. 

" One defect this cross is admitted to have which the poacher would rather know to be a 
truth than the fair sportsman would come willingly forward to demonstrate. To the former 
it is a fact pretty well known that no dog has the sense of smelling in a more exquisite 
degree than the Bulldog ; and, as they run mute, they, under certain crosses, best answer the 
midnight purposes of the poacher in driving hares to the wire or net. Greyhounds bred from 
this cross have therefore some tendency to run by the nose, which, if not immediately checked 
by the master, they will continue for miles, and become very destructive to the game in the 
neighbourhood where they are kept, if not under confinement or restraint." 

The best of Lord Orford's strain were purchased by Col. Thornton on the death of their 
breeder, and thus found their way from Norfolk to Yorkshire. Here they did not seem to be able 
to sustain the reputation they had gained in their own country, for except upon " the low, 
flat countries below the wolds " their success was inferior to the expectations formed concerning 
them. However, we are told that " it was unanimously agreed by all the sportsmen present, that 
they ran with a great deal of energetic exertion, and always at the hare ; that though beaten 
they did not go in, or exhibit any symptoms of lurching or waiting to kill." These qualifica- 
tions pluck and endurance were no doubt the result of the Bull cross alluded to above, 
which Lord Orford had introduced into his strain some generations before. With reference to 
the compliment paid above to the Bulldog's sense of smell, we confess ourselves to be at 
variance with the writer, for, though the last to deny the Bulldog the possession of any scent 
at all, or to class him with many less intelligent breeds of dog, we do not, after considerable 
experience of the variety, consider his powers of scent are by any means of the highest order. 
The chief objections that we personally should expect to find in the Bulldog cross are, first, 
a deficiency of speed in the animals for several generations ; and, secondly, the existence of 
Bull blood even in this diluted form would, we imagine, be very likely to make the puppies 
both hot-tempered and headstrong, which are most naturally undesirable characteristics in a 
Greyhound. Our own personal experience of the Bulldog cross is very limited, for it is 
confined to that of a gentleman interested in coursing, who, about the beginning of 1877, 
availed himself of the services of our Bull-terriers, Tarquin and Sallust, for some of his 
Greyhound bitches. He has not, unfortunately, granted us permission to divulge his name, 
as he desires the experiment to remain a secret until the progeny appears in public, if any 
ever do appear. He writes us, however, that so far he is " more than satisfied with the 
result," and that he considers the acquisition of what he terms " a new heart " will materially 
benefit his strain in days to come. The whelps we saw were only the result of first crosses, 
and for the most part resembled the Greyhound far more than the Bull-terrier side of their 
family, though a peculiarity in one of them a daughter of Sallust, who himself was perfectly 
level-mouthed was that she was undershot to an extent which we have rarely seen equalled 
in any class of dog. 

Though the work of a modern Greyhound is not of so arduous a description as that of its 
ancestors, its staying powers are often sorely tried. Two essential qualifications are therefore 
necessary in a good Greyhound we allude to stoutness and speed. Even if a dog be much faster 
than his antagonist, he will probably be beaten in his course if he lacks courage and stamina ; 
and it is far better, therefore, to trust the stout than the speedy dog, though it is highly 



FEET OF THE GREYHOUND. 241 

desirable, rare though the acquisition of both virtues is, that speed and stamina should be 
combined. A very fast dog from the slips is not usually a great stayer ; and though he may 
lead his rival and score a few points in the earlier portion of the course, it is more than likely 
that he will die away all to nothing if the hare is a good one, and his opponent knows his 
work. Stoutness and stamina, although not identical, resemble each other in this respect, that 
they both depend upon the amount of courage possessed by the Greyhound ; and therefore one 
of the chief characteristics of a good Greyhound is a sufficiently deep and wide chest. In an 
animal where speed is so essential, too great a width of chest would be detrimental to his 
success in the field ; but a narrow-chested, shoulder-tied Greyhound would have equally poor 
chances of winning courses in any company. As in the racehorse, so in the Greyhound, as 
much space is required for the due exercise of the heart and lungs as will not detract from 
the animal's speed. The neck, too, is an essential point to a good Greyhound, which is often 
injured by the introduction of Bull blood. The comparative length which is required to help 
the dog to pick up his hare stands a very good chance of being obliterated by this cross of 
blood ; for though the neck of a Bulldog may be moderately long in comparison with that 
animal's size, its length is far less than that of a Greyhound, and its girth is quite out of all 
proportion to it. 

Before alluding to the principal modern breeders and exhibitors of this class of dog, it is 
necessary to allude to the difference of opinion which exists on the subject of the shape of a 
Greyhound's feet. Dame Juliana Berners was most decided in her views, as she emphatically 
laid it down that the Greyhound was to be " footed lyke a catte." This formation, however, has 
several enemies amongst later breeders, many of whom prefer the long or hare-shaped foot. In 
fact, more than one authority on Greyhounds has expressed himself unable to decide upon this 
subject ; and a coursing man of some position remarked to us, " I think I like the cat 
foot best, but I have owned good dogs with hare feet." For our own part we are certainly 
in favour of the cat foot, though we should be loth to discard a dog in competition, if he were 
good in other points, merely because he did not possess this shaped foot provided always that 
the hare feet were not splayed out, and were in good condition. 

As the following chapter will be devoted to coursing, it will be only necessary, before 
passing on to a description of the modern Greyhound, to mention the names of some of the 
principal exhibitors on the bench, who may or may not be in the habit of using their dogs in 
the field as well. It is a somewhat remarkable fact that Greyhound classes rarely fill well in 
the south of England, though at several of the northern shows Darlington, for instance they 
are one of the chief features of the exhibition. This may be accounted for by the fact that 
coursing men do not care to show their dogs as a rule, and that the best performers, on their 
withdrawal from training, are valuable for stud purposes, and so never get into the possession 
of exhibitors who ire not coursing men. There are, however, some grandly-shaped Grey- 
hounds shown in various oarts of the country, and the only regret is that their number is 
so limited. 

By far the most successful show-dog from the years 1873 to 1880 has been Lauderdale, 
who is the property of Mr. Tom Sharpies. As this dog is the subject of our coloured plate, 
due attention will be paid to him and his performances later on. Mr. Tom Swinburne's 
Marigold, too, is a bitch who has done her owner good service on the bench, and Mr. Fawdry's 
Ada is another which is near the top of the tree. Sister Mary, Dreaded Falcon, Mr. Waddington's 
Doctor, Mr. Bearpark's Game Cock, Mr. Sharpies' Queen Bertha, and Mr. J. H. Salter's Amethyst 
and Fair Rosa, have each and all of them made a reputation. 
31 



242 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Most of the principal exhibitors and Greyhounds having thus been alluded to, a description of 
the points of the Greyhound must be given, as in the cases of other breeds. We will proceed 
by describing 

The Head. Should be wide between the ears and flat at the top, with powerful jaws. The 
latter should not, however, be thick or coarse, but should, as regards appearance, seem light in 
substance, their strength depending on the muscles at the sides of the head. 

Eyes. Dark and bright. 

Ears. Small and fine. 

Neck. Long and muscular, but not coarse, thick, or clumsy. 

Shoulders. Sloping, and very muscular ; loosely set on, so as to allow free play of the 
fore-legs. 

Cliest. Deep, and rather wide. 

Back. Square and "beam-like," and rather long. 

Loins. Very powerful, with considerable muscular development. 

Fore-legs. Set well under the dog, and possessing plenty of bone. 

Feet. Round, well split up, and with strong soles. 

Hind-legs. Well bent at the hocks, and very muscular. 

Stern. Fine, long, and curved. 

Colour. Almost any colour is admissible in a Greyhound, but the most usual are black, 
red, white, brindle, fallow, fawn, blue, and the various mixtures of each. 

The subject of our coloured plate is Mr. Tom Sharpies' Lauderdale, whose measurements 
are as follows: Nose, to the joining on of neck, n| inches; girth of skull, 15 inches; girth 
of snout 8 inches; length of neck, from joint to shoulders, ii inches; girth round neck, 
15! inches; length of back, 2$J inches; girth of foreleg, 6| inches; girth of thigh, icj inches; 
girth of chest, 30 J inches; girth of loins, 21 inches; length of tail, 21 J inches; weight 
67 Ibs. Lauderdale was whelped 1869, and was bred by Mr. W. Lowry, by Ewesdale, out of 
Spendthrift ; Ewesdale, by Larriston, out of Meg ; Spendthrift, by Canaradzo, out of 
Speculation. Canaradzo, who won the Waterloo Cup in 1860, was by Beacon, out of 
Scotland Yet. Lauderdale died March 29, 1880, his death being a severe loss to Greyhound 
breeders throughout the country. 

The following is the 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING GREYHOUNDS. 

Value, 

Head skull ... ... 5 

Jaws and eyes and ears ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Neck 5 

Chest depth and width ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 



CHAPTER XXXIII, 

COURSING. 

GREYHOUNDS are a variety of dog which require particular care and attention to be bestowed 
upon them, if their owners desire them to appear to advantage either on the bench or in the 
field. The dogs themselves are so highly bred that their constitutions do not withstand disease 
or cold as those of other breeds, and the artificial life a Greyhound leads when he is undergoing 
a preparation for a coursing meeting naturally enough increases his innate weakness in this 
respect. It would be impossible in the present work to attempt to enter deeply into the subject 
of training for and running Greyhounds in stakes ; but, nevertheless, a few observations on 
general management may not be out of place. 

To begin with, it is essential that the kennels for Greyhounds should be larger and more airy 
than those of other dogs, as the breed is not one which at any time stands close confinement 
well. As in all kennels, draughts should be rigorously excluded. On his return from exercise 
a highly-bred Greyhound is particularly liable to take a chill, his skin being so fine that any 
draught is sure to affect him injuriously if exposed to it for long. Though several Greyhounds 
may be kennelled together without ill results accruing, they are by no means a peaceable class 
of dog, and fights have frequently occurred in the kennel which have led to bad results. It 
is well therefore to keep as few as possible together, and under any circumstances to avoid their 
being overcrowded, either on the benches, or in the yard which should always be attached to a 
Greyhound kennel. The floors of both the inner and outer kennels should be cemented, and 
kept thoroughly clean, as much of the dog's health during training will depend upon the comfort 
and attention he receives at home, and nothing is more likely to affect him injuriously than 
an existence in an atmosphere which is at all contaminated by the odour of excrements, which 
should be removed at once by the kennelman. 

In the " Courser's Companion," by Thomas Thacker, which was published at Derby in 1834, 
much valuable advice is given on the subject of training and feeding Greyhounds. The training 
of dogs for public stakes has, since the date of Mr. Thacker's work, become a science, and 
few Greyhounds run at any of the principal meetings who have not been under the care of a 
professional trainer. The owner, however, who is in the habit of keeping a Greyhound or two 
about his premises, and occasionally enjoying a day's coursing when he opposes a neighbour's 
dogs, may learn much from remarks made by Mr. Thacker, whose work is still regarded 
as one of the best ever written upon the subject of coursing. In his preliminary observations 
on the training of Greyhounds, the author commences by drawing a comparison between the race- 
horse and the Greyhound. He argues that in the case of the former his energies when racing 
are restrained during the earlier portion of the race by the man on his back, who desires to 
husband the animal's resources for a supreme effort at the finish of the race. T'-.e Greyhound 
on the contrary, when running is beyond the control of his master or any one else, ind therefore 
in the vast majority of cases neglects to husband his strength in the slightest degree. "Therefore/' 



244 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

says Mr. Thacker, " feeding becomes a matter of first-rate importance, only surpassed by the 
physical superiority of the dog himself. If you feed a dog with a sufficient quantity of nutritious 
food to make him superabundantly fat and fleshy, you are obliged to give a corresponding 
quantity of severe exercise to reduce him to a standard of health and fine muscular development, 
while you unload his chest of superfluous fatty matter in order to increase its capacity, and 
consequently improve his wind. In producing this fine state, and during the process required, 
the dog necessarily becomes dull and stiff in his joints, and he is {pro tempore) deprived of 
that essential quality fire which I have spoken of before. 

" A Greyhound in tip-top condition should be all fire, animation, and sprightliness ; his 
gaiety, expressed in the sparkle of his eyes and the bounding elasticity of his limbs, should be 
so refreshing to the beholder as to produce the idea that the excellences of the animal could 
be carried no further. A combination of the greatest strength from large muscular development 
should be united with the best state of the wind to produce what is called fine condition, and 
to attain this very desirable end the animation of the animal should not be depressed by undue 

exercise, which frequently deprives him of the acme of his speed as well as fire 

Dogs as well as horses may be over-trained ; too much exertion long persisted in appears to 
destroy the vigour of the animal by exhausting his powers. 

" In order to provide for this combination of circumstances, and to prepare the dog for 
coursing in the finest possible state of condition, there is a variety of considerations to be taken 
into account ; for each sportsman has his favourite system of feeding them, and the food given 
is of different sorts, affording different degrees of nutriment and of different degrees of digesti- 
bility, flesh and bone, gelatinous and farinaceous substances, and liquids with more or less 
nutritious matter contained in them. Some feed but once in a day, while others, to avoid over- 
distending the stomach and oppressing the organs of digestion, commit an error in the opposite 
extreme by giving only half a meal at a time, and that twice a day." 

This latter system is decidedly disapproved of by the author, as being injurious to a healthy 
dog, mainly on the ground that in the dog digestion is carried on with great rapidity. Upon 
the subject of diet the author of the " Courser's Companion " is most decided in his advocacy 
of meat being supplied ; in his own words, he says : " There are different sorts of condition- 
good, bad, and indifferent and I am aware that many Greyhounds run, what is called 
well, under a regimen of gelatine and farina, their natural courage being such as induces 
them to do so -ithout flesh. But this is no proof that the same dogs would not have run 
better -with it. . . . You may gain fire by keeping a dog under restraint, but unless you give 
him sufficiently severe exercise for his wind and strength, that fire will be only like a flash 
in the pan ; you will in fact lose fire in a two-fold manner. Flesh, being more nutritious and 
stimulating, imparts more fire to his temperament than weaker or less natural food, and by giving 
flesh in proper proportion you do not lose the fire imparted by restraint; for with flesh he does 
not require such severity of exercise to compress the fibres to a state of active and powerful 
capability as will deprive him of his fire. Flesh, however, possessing much nutriment and 
stimulus, if given too plentifully would require very strong exercise to prevent the blood being 
too rich, and must, therefore, be equally avoided as giving him too little or none ; a moderate 
quantity in his daily meals instead of jelly food." 

Arrian, who styled himself the younger Xenophon, wrote the following description of 
coursing as carried on by the ancients, which clearly proves the antiquity of this class of 



ARRIAN'S DESCRIPTION OF COURSING. 245 

sport, and is published in Blane's "Cynegetica" in 1788: "The most opulent and luxurious 
among the Gauls course in this manner. They send out good hare-finders early in the 
morning to those places where it is likely to find hares sitting, who send back word if they 
have found any, and what number. Then they go out themselves, and put them up, and 
lay in the dogs, themselves following on horseback. Whoever has good Greyhounds should 
never lay them in too near the hare, nor run more than two at a time. For, though the 
animal is very swift, and will oftentimes beat the dogs, yet when she is first -started she 
is so terrified by the holloaing, and by the dogs being very close, that her heart is overcome 
by fear, and in the confusion very often the best sporting hares are killed without showing any 
diversion. She should therefore be suffered to run some distance from her form and re-collect 
her spirits, and then if she is a good sporting hare, she will lift up her ears, and stretch out with 
long rates from her feet, the dogs directing their course after her with great activity of limbs, 
as if they were leaping, and affording a spectacle worthy the trouble that must necessarily 
be employed in properly breeding and training these dogs. 

" Those are the best hares that are found in open and exposed places ; for, being bold 
they do not hide themselves, but seem as it were to challenge the dogs : these, when they 
are followed, do not immediately try to avoid the danger by running to woods and brakes, 
though they should happen to be near, but take over the open country ; and when they 
are contending in swiftness with the Greyhounds, if the dogs which pursue them are not 
fleet, they moderate their own speed according as they are pressed. But if the dogs are 
very fleet, they then run as fast as they can ; and when running in an open country, if they 
find themselves so pressed by a good dog that they perceive his shadow, they try to throw 
him beyond them by frequent turns, making for the woods or the nearest shelter they know 
of; and this is a sure sign that the hare is overmatched by the dog 

" It is proper sometimes to speak to the dogs, for they rejoice to hear the voice of 
their master, and it is a kind of encouragement to them to know that he is present. In the 
first course there is no objection to speaking to them as often as we choose ; but in the 
second or third course, when they will probably be weakened, I do not think it right to 
call them too often by name, lest, by too eager a desire to please their master, they should 
exert themselves beyond their strength, and hurt their inside, which has been the destruction 
of many a good dog. 

" If the dog has caught the hare, or otherwise behaved well, you should dismount and 
encourage him, for they love to be praised. If the dogs through fatigue let the hare escape, 
they will nevertheless approach with pleasure and caress their master. 

"Those who have not good hare-finders go commonly out, a number in company on 
horseback ; and coming to a likely place, when they happen to find a hare let the Greyhounds 
loose after her. But those who are more diligent after the sport go out on foot, and if any 
one accompanies them on horseback, it is his business to follow the dogs when they run. 
They beat about, being drawn up in a regular rank, and having proceeded in a direct line 
to a certain point, wheeling round, they turn about together towards the place from whence 
they set out by the same way they came, leaving, as far as possible, no likely place unexplored. 
If many dogs are taken out they should not be stationed promiscuously ; for when the hare is 
started no one can refrain from slipping his own dog, each being desirous of seeing his 
own dog run. The hare, being confused and terrified by the noise and number of the 
dogs, will be taken without showing any sport, and the diversion, which is the chief object, 
will be spoiled. A person therefore should be appointed to take the command of the sport, 



246 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and the Greyhounds being in slips two together, he should give these orders ' If the hare 
takes this way you loose yours, and no one else ; if that way you yours,' and these orders 
should be punctually obeyed. The Gauls sometimes when coursing mix their finders with 
the Greyhounds, and whilst these try, the others are led by the hand at a little distance, 
taking care to lead the good dogs where the hare is most likely to come, that they may 
be let go when she runs off. ... But by this method the course is irregular, and the 
hare, however stout she may be, is so much alarmed by the cry of the dogs, that if she is 
not a considerable way before, she is so confused that she will easily be caught. Therefore, 
whoever lets slip a good dog should not do it while she is astonished, but let her make 
her first ring before he looses him, unless he means to spoil the diversion. It is not right 
to loose the greyhounds at a young hare, which should be spared, and the finders if possible 
should be called off, which is very difficult, as they are not under good command, being 
eager through hunger; and so desirous are they of eating up what they catch, that it is 
hard to get them off even by beating them with sticks." 

Coursing meetings in the present time are generally under the management of some 
of the numerous Clubs which are now in existence, and entries are usually confined to 
dogs entered or nominated by members of these associations. The Waterloo meeting, 
held at Altcar, near Liverpool, is the head of the list, as the Waterloo Cup, Purse, 
and Stakes, attract more attention than any coursing events throughout the country. To 
enter a dog for the Waterloo Cup, an owner who does not happen to be a member 
of the Club is compelled to apply for a nomination from one of those who do belong to it, 
and as the stake is but a sixty-four dog one, it frequently occurs that a good dog is 
unable to compete. Many members, however, who have no Greyhound in their opinion 
worth entering, return their nominations to the secretary, who in his turn places them at 
the disposal of the owners of promising dogs who do not happen to belong to members. 
In this way many outsiders are enabled to run their dogs, who would otherwise be unable 
to do so. 

It occasionally happens in coursing Clubs that more members apply for nominations 
in a stake than the committee have at their disposal. In such instances it is customary 
to ballot for them, upon the understanding that those members who have been un- 
fortunate enough to be balloted out shall have a priority of claim in the next stake 
to be run for. On the other hand, in some cases it comes about that an insufficient 
number of nominations have been applied for, and therefore the committee of the Club 
would be unable to carry out their programme if some steps were not taken to meet the 
difficulty. It is therefore usual in such a case to ballot in nominators, and thus it is decided 
by lot who are to have the nominations not applied for. By this means members of 
the Club who have no dog they care to enter, are compelled to find a dog outside their own 
kennel to run for them, or failing this must pay the entrance money, so that no pecuniary loss 
can fall upon the committee in carrying out the meeting on account of stakes. It is not, 
of course, customary to grant more than one nomination to an individual member in a 
stake if by doing so others who belong to the Club are prevented from entering a dog ; but 
this rule is not usually enforced in produce stakes. 

Another difficulty which occasionally arises is the postponement of meetings from bad 
weather, or other causes. In such instances the stewards are empowered to postpone the 
meeting from day to day, or even fix some other date for it, as they may think fit. When this 



MODERN COURSING. 247 

occurs the draw is usually void, though the nominator is responsible for the nomination which 
he has had allotted to him. 

The National Coursing Club, which is composed of the representatives of the leading 
clubs throughout the kingdom, forms a Coursing Court of Appeal, and is regarded as the 
head of affairs in the Greyhound world. But before going briefly over the principal rules 
laid down by it, we will describe shortly the functionaries indispensable to a coursing meeting, 
taking the existence of a Club committee as a fact. 

Of all connected with this sport, the office of Judge is the most important and unthankful, 
for on his shoulders rests the responsibility of delivering the verdict which may mean so 
much to thousands. A quick eye and a good memory are essential qualifications in a judge 
of coursing, and it is scarcely necessary, we think, to add that his integrity must be unimpeachable, 
and his strength of mind assured in addition, or he will most certainly be unfitted for 
the post he fills. His duties are to ride with the dogs, and calculate the points they 
score. He frequently also has to give the slipper orders when to slip, and he has to deliver his 
decision immediately the course is over to the flag steward, whose duty it is to see the red 
or white flag hoisted by the man told off" for this special duty. The colour under which 
a dog runs is regulated by his position on the card, which is in two columns, the victory 
of the dogs on the left column being represented by the hoisting of the red flag, and those 
on the right by the white one. In the event of an undecided course taking place, the judge 
takes off his hat, as an intimation that he is not satisfied, and the dogs have to go into the 
slips again. 

The post of Slipper is, if not as responsible, a more arduous one than that of 
judge, for it is his duty to slip the Greyhounds when told to do so by the judge or slip- 
steward. A considerable amount of skill and quickness of eye is required in the slipper, 
for an uneven or a jerky slip must ruin many a course. His duties, too, necessitate a great 
amount of physical exertion, as the slipper has to be on his legs all the day ; and in addition, 
before he slips the dogs, has usually to run some little distance with them before the word is 
given to slip. 

Beaters are almost indispensable at a coursing meeting, as without their assistance hares 
would not be found in many instances when wanted, or if found, she would probably face in the 
opposite direction to that which a good course required. It is most desirable, therefore, that 
the beaters know their work, and by keeping in their proper positions prevent the hare either 
facing to cover or to the dogs, which would most likely occur if she were frightened by 
injudicious beating. 

The Field Stewards, under whose direction the operations in the field are conducted, have 
the unpleasant task cf keeping the ground clear, and seeing that the beaters do their duty. 

The following are the values of the six points in coursing : 

1. SPEED. i, 2, or 3 points. 

2. GO-BYE. 2, or if gained on the outer circle, 3 points. 

3. TURN. I point. 

4. WRENCH. \ point. 

5. KILL. 2 points at most; but points may be subtracted if the kill is not meritorious 
in fact, a kill may count for nothing. 

6. THE TRIP. i point, 



248 THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

Of these the Go-bye is where one dog starts a length behind the other, but passes him in 
a straight run, and gets a length in front. 

A Turn is when the hare is turned at not less than a right angle from her course. 

A Wrench is when the hare is turned at less than a right angle from her course. 

A Trip is when the dog gets hold of the hare, but fails to kill her. 

In calculating the number of points which are to be given for speed, the judge must take 
into consideration the start which one Greyhound may have lost from being badly slipped or 
from not sighting the hare. Also when the hare bends round in favour of the slower dog, 
it is customary to allow one dog a point for speed, and the other one point for first turn. 
It is also determined that speed alone shall not determine a course, except under very excep- 
tional circumstances. 

In event of a dog losing ground at the start from being badly slipped or not sighting 
the hare, the judge is to decide what allowance is to be made to him, on the principle that the 
foremost dog is not to begin to score until the second has had an opportunity of joining in 
the course. Again, too, when the hare favours one dog the latter's next point shall not be 
scored, or, at most, only half his point, at the discretion of the judge. And no Greyhound is 
to receive any allowance for any accident unless he is ridden over by his adversary's owner or 
the latter's servant. 

A Greyhound loses the course at once if he refuses to follow the hare when slipped. 
But when he wilfully stands still in a course, and desists from the pursuit of the hare, no 
subsequent points he may make are allowed him. If in such an instance the points awarded 
him up to this point exactly equal his opponent's, the offending dog loses the course ; but when 
one or both dogs are unable to continue the course, and stop with the hare in view, the course is 
decided 'by the number of points already awarded by the judge. Also, where a dog refuses to 
fence where the other fences, his future points shall not be counted in his favour unless he 
sticks in a meuse, when in such an event the course shall end from the time he stuck. If, 
however, the points are equal up to then, he loses his course. 

Amongst the most stringent rules of the National Coursing Club are those which refer 
to the description of the entries ; and the reason of such a policy must be obvious to all who 
give the subject a moment's consideration. It is especially provided that the name and 
colour of the dog and of his parents shall be clearly given, and in the case of produce 
stakes any distinguishing marks must also be given. A subscriber must also, if requested by 
the secretary, state in writing, before or during the meeting, the names and addresses of those 
who reared his puppies; and any puppy is liable to disqualification whose description does not 
tally with that given by the subscriber. No Greyhound is said to be a puppy which was 
whelped before the 1st of January of the year preceding the commencement of the 
season of running. A Sapling is a Greyhound whelped on or after the 1st of January of the 
same year in which the season of running has commenced. If the name of a Greyhound 
which has run in public has been changed, the subscriber must notify the change to the 
secretary, who shall place both the new and the old names on the card of the meeting. The 
penalty for neglect of this- rule by the subscriber is disqualification of his dog. 

In cases where a subscriber names a dog which is not his own property for a stake, and fails 
to add the word " Names" or letters " N. S." to his entry, the dog is disqualified. Any subscriber 
naming another's dog is compelled, if requested, to furnish the secretary with the bond fide owner's 
name. The draw is arranged by putting either the dogs' names or numbers which correspond 
with numbers which have been allotted them, into a hat, and drawing them out by hazard. 



COURSING. 249 

The order thus decided upon is maintained throughout the course, unless some untoward 
event should render it impossible ; and the winning dogs in each succeeding course are run 
against each other until but one remains, which wins the stake, the last dog beaten by him being 
termed the " runner-up." Dogs must be taken to the slips in their proper turn, and if one 
is more than ten minutes behind time his antagonist is entitled to claim the course and run a 
bye. In event of both dogs being late, they are both liable to disqualification. Owners or 
servants are permitted to follow their dogs after handing them over to the charge of the slipper, 
but they must be careful not to interfere with that official in his duties, or to encourage their 
dogs by calling to them whilst they are running a course. In event of two dogs being of 
the same colour, they are each compelled to wear a distinguishing collar, this collar to correspond 
with the colour red or white under which they figure on the card. If one dog gets out of the 
slips, the slipper is not allowed to let the other go ; and in case of the slips breaking, the 
slipper is rendered liable to a sovereign fine. This penalty is also incurred by any one who 
lets a Greyhound loose, and thereby enables it to join in a course which is being run. In 
event of this loose dog being the property of the same owner whose dog is running in the 
course, the latter will be disqualified, unless the owner can prove that he was unable to take 
the loose dog up after its last course. Apropos of this subject, it may be here remarked that 
many a grand Greyhound is very shy of being taken up when once slipped. Misterton, winner 
of the Waterloo Cup in 1879, is a case in point, and he certainly ruined his chances of 
success in the following year by after he had won his course having a second, and severe, 
single-handed one on his own account, before he could be caught, or " taken up." 

A "no course" is distinguished from an undecided by the fact that the former arises 
from the course being either too short to try the dogs together, or by some accident occurring 
which brings about the same result. An undecided is where the judge considers the dogs' 
performances equal in which case he takes off his hat, which he does not do in event of a no 
course taking place. A no course or an undecided may be run again immediately, or, if 
claimed on behalf of both dogs, before the next brace are put in the slips, or in any case 
for no course, if ordered by the judge. Otherwise it must be run after the next two courses, 
unless deferred until the next day. If it happens to be the last course of the day, a 
quarter of an hour shall be allowed the dogs after being taken up. 

As regards dividing stakes, the latter are divided if the two last dogs left in belong 
to the same owner or his partner, or if one owner prevails upon the other to withdraw his 
dog for some consideration. On the other hand, if one dog meets with some accident, and 
has to be withdrawn, the other may be awarded the stake by the stewards. If two Greyhounds 
have each won a stake, and have to compete for a final prize, should one have run more courses 
than the other, the dog which has run the smaller number must run a bye or byes, to make 
his number up to the total of his antagonist, so that he may not possess any unfair advantage 
when they meet. In event of it being proved that either the judge or slipper is interested 
in the success of a Greyhound running at the meeting, the nominator of the dog forfeits his 
winnings, unless it can be proved by him that he was unaware of and no party to the offence. 
And, further, any nominator who gives or lends or offers to give or lend money or anything 
of value to the judge or slipper, is liable to be disqualified from running or entering Greyhounds 
in another's nomination where the National Coursing Club's rules are in force. 

There is no difficulty in taking Greyhounds about the country if proper notice is given 
to the railway companies, as arrangements can always be made by which proper ac- 
commodation can be. provided for the dogs and their attendant. It is always best for the 
32 



250 



THE BOOK OF THE 



latter to travel with his charges, not only to quiet them if excited, but also to protect 
them from injury by accident, or by the design of evil - doers. It is often unhappily true 
that attempts, and successful attempts too, have been made to hocus dogs, so as to prevent 
them winning their ties, and therefore due vigilance must be exercised by those who have 
them in charge, and the use of a muzzle is strongly recommended. In journeying, the dogs 
should be well and warmly clothed, and care must be taken to keep them out of draughts 
and wet, for when in a high state of training the Greyhound is more than ever susceptible 
of chills. Many a dog has "gone wrong" on arriving at the scene of action by the 
change in the water from what he has been accustomed to at home, and therefore it is 
not unusual to boil the water given him, so as to render any change of quality less liable 
to occur. Precautions should also be taken by which every chance is given the dog of 
being made comfortable as soon as he arrives at his new quarters, as if he is rendered 
restless by the unfamiliar surroundings, he will naturally be fagged when called upon for 
action in the morning. To obviate such chances, it is usual with the owners of valuable 
dogs entered for important stakes to send their Greyhounds and attendants into the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the meeting some days before the event comes off, so that the 
dog may be thoroughly accustomed to his new quarters before he has to do his best. 
We firmly believe that another advantage is also gained by such a course, and that is 
benefit to the dog's health, and consequently an increase of vigour, from the change of 
air, which in lower animals, as in man, has often been known to work wonders on a jaded 
system. This being our opinion, we strongly advocate an early move, when this is possible, 
to the neighbourhood of the meeting. 

Dogs that are to run should not be fed in the morning of the same day, or if they 
are, only a few ounces of some nutritious but easily-digested food should be allowed. During 
the interval between the courses it is often necessary to give a dog a restorative in order 
to recruit his strength, and in the majority of cases a little weak brandy-and-water will 
do all that is wanted, though different professional trainers each have their own especial 
nostrum for such emergencies. As, however, we are addressing those who are but amateurs 
in the coursing world, we again repeat that a small dose of brandy-and-water well diluted, 
is in our opinion a more judicious pick-me-up under such circumstances than a more 
elaborate or mysterious one. 

The advantage to be gained from keeping the dogs warm after they have run a tie cannot 
be too strongly impressed upon all beginners, especially as in the excitement of the event all 
remembrance of the clothing may fade away. It is also as well to take the dogs under cover 
if such is possible ; but under all circumstances a Greyhound should be well rubbed down 
before being again given into the hands of the slipper, as by this means the chances of stiff- 
ness are sensibly diminished. In addition to the warm clothing, and the waterproof clothing 
to be used in case of rain, it is desirable to take a spare chain and collar or two to the 
meeting ; accidents often occur, and in the face of the stringent rules referred to above 
concerning dogs which have broken loose, it is always well to be on the safe side. When 
the dog is in the slips his attendant should be handy to take him up at the conclusion 
of the course, and have his clothing ready to put on at once. On the conclusion of the 
day the dog must be thoroughly rubbed down, fed, and made comfortable for the night, 
so as to be ready for the exertions of the next day. It is also customary on their return 
home at the termination of a meeting, for the Greyhounds to be mildly physicked and 
given a little rest, unless they should be wanted immediately for other engagements. Such a 



TRAINJNG GKEYHOUNDS. 251 

course tends to cool them after the excitement of running in public and amongst strange 
dogs, whilst the rest must be beneficial to them after the exertions they have undergone. 

As regards the preparation which Greyhounds require for the description of coursing we have 
alluded to above, it may be briefly said to consist of two most important items viz., proper food 
and sufficient, though judicious, exercise. As the amount of the former must usually depend in 
a great degree upon the latter, it will suit our purpose better to allude to exercise first, and 
defer any observations on feeding until that subject is completed. The quantity of exercise 
naturally enough varies when different constitutions and circumstances have to be considered 
for some breeds of Greyhounds will get into condition with a far less amount of physical 
exertion than is required by others. The description of country which has to be gone over, 
also, must influence the trainer considerably, but under any circumstances all superfluous fat 
must be removed from the dog, and his wind must be improved by exercise. Many Greyhounds, 
if permitted to run loose, will of their own free will give themselves enough exercise to keep 
in good health and fair condition ; these, as long as this fondness for running about remains, 
will not require more than a few gallops to get tolerably fit for the class of coursing in which 
they are likely to take part. On the other hand, many Greyhounds are lazy, and disinclined 
to exert themselves, and are therefore compelled to take exercise under the immediate super- 
vision of their trainer, whoever he may be. Most practical persons are strongly in favour of 
giving their dogs a large amount of exercise on the high road, as it has the undoubted effect 
of hardening the feet. The best hour for this sort of exercise is, for two reasons, the early 
morning first, because the roads are less likely to be crowded by carts or passengers ; and, 
secondly, the heat of the day is avoided. 

It is always most desirable to muzzle Greyhounds when at exercise, as there is then no 
chance of their injuring themselves by fighting, or by picking up poison or injurious food. 
Another advantage to be gained by following this rule is, that it goes a long way to prevent 
their killing sheep, which is a fault to which some Greyhounds are particularly prone. The 
use of clothing, when training is being carried on, is a matter for the consideration of the 
head of affairs ; although heavy sheets are invariably used when gross and high-conditioned 
dogs have to be got into condition, it does not consequently follow that lighter-fleshed ones 
require the same treatment. When, however, Greyhounds are likely to be compelled to stand 
about after taking exercise, or preparatory to a course, it is most desirable that a cloth 
should be used to protect them from the chances of a chill, the effects of which may be very 
serious. 

Some trainers like the Greyhounds they wish to get fit to run after a dog-cart for several 
miles a day, and this, in the case of certain dogs, may be a judicious system. It has, 
however, its disadvantages, foremost amongst them being that it is difficult for the trainer to 
keep his dogs in order if he has a horse to control as well. Another objection is that there is 
always the risk of the dogs being injured by the horse or wheels of the trap, and in fact, 
unless under exceptional circumstances, exercise directed by a man on foot is considered the 
most preferable. This latter system, if carried out under the control of a conscientious trainer 
who does not shirk a daily walk of several miles along the road at a steady pace, is sure to 
benefit the majority of Greyhounds, if accompanied by a periodical gallop on a field or 
common for the benefit of the animal's wind. A too frequent sight of a hare is apt to injure a 
dog as a courser, for many Greyhounds get cunning, and refuse to do their best if too often 
treated to a hare. It is, however, absolutely necessary that young dogs should know their work 
in time, and, as a rule, they are not slow in picking up what is required of them. This is the 



252 THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

reverse sometimes, for many a Greyhound who has afterwards turned out to be a veritable 
flyer has, in his infancy, shown little of that thirst for blood which afterwards marked his career. 
Owners should not therefore be disheartened if their puppies do not at once take to their work 
with kindness, but should remember that time must be given them to improve their ways. 

Many experienced persons advocate the running of a puppy at first in the company of an 
old dog, in the hopes that the latter will act as schoolmaster, and instruct his pupil in the 
path in which he should walk. For our own part, though we are well aware that many 
authorities differ from our opinion, we totally disapprove of this arrangement, as the chances 
of the puppy receiving much benefit from the example of the old dog are more than counter- 
balanced by the certainty that, unless a most exceptionally game dog, his heart will be broken 
by the superior power of his preceptor. If a puppy has the making of a good dog in him, 
his merit will surely display itself sooner or later without the assistance of an older dog ; but, 
on the other hand, there should be every chance given to the dog's natural qualities appearing 
in a natural manner, without risking the chances of disheartening him by pitting him at too 
early an age against a better dog. 

On his return from exercise the Greyhound should have his feet and legs carefully over- 
looked, in order to discover if any injury has been done them by thorns, stones, or strains. If 
necessary they may be washed, but as a rule, a careful rubbing down with a dry brush or 
glove will be all that is required to make him comfortable. On his return to the kennel, 
precautions must be taken to prevent him from taking cold when heated, and most particularly 
should he avoid all draughts and damp. Many a good dog has suddenly taken cold and been 
prevented from running, merely on account of the carelessness of a kennelman who has 
provided him with a damp bed, or injudiciously let him stand about unclothed or unprotected 
in a cold wind or rain. 

Having thus briefly alluded to the exercising of the Greyhound, the important subject of 
food must come to be considered. Here there are, as on other points, a variety of opinions, 
some advocating an almost entirely farinaceous, others an equal liberal meat diet. It appears 
nevertheless that an amalgamation of both is more likely to benefit the dog, as so much 
depends upon what is the amount of his daily exercise and the purposes for which he is 
intended. Oatmeal thoroughly boiled is undoubtedly a good food as the staple commodity, 
and the addition of meat, and liquor in which meat has been boiled, can always be easily 
effected and proportioned out. Sheep's heads and large bones of all sorts form excellent 
occasional additions to the ordinary diet, and the frequent substitution of Indian meal for 
oatmeal is desirable. The latter meal has often an ill effect on the bowels of some dogs, 
and therefore must be discontinued if it is found to purge them too freely, and thus reduce 
their strength. As in other breeds, a periodical dose of cooling medicine must be given, and 
due attention must be paid to this subject three or four days previous to a course. 

The hour of feeding and the number of meals a day, are also subjects which are eagerly 
discussed, and many practical breeders and trainers argue strongly in favour of a morning as 
well as an evening meal for the dogs when being trained. Though a few mouthfuls after 
exercise, like the traditional chip in the porridge, may do no harm if it does not do any 
good, we are decidedly of opinion that those authorities are right who argue in favour of 
one substantial meal a day. A bone may be given the dogs when in the kennel in the earlier 
part of the day, to amuse them and prevent ennui during the long hours which ensue between 
exercise and dinner, but we do not advocate a meal at that time. 

As in the case of other dogs, Greyhounds do better when fed in the late afternoon, as 



CELEBRATED GREYHOUNDS. 



253 



their food can then be thoroughly digested before the morning's exercise, and if, as is frequently 
the case, they have given them the advantage of a gentle run in the evening, the process of 
digestion is materially benefited. A full stomach is equally antagonistic to comfort in dog 
and man when violent exercise has to be undergone, but a gentle walk some two or three 
hours after meal time is beneficial alike to both. With reference to the use of bones, where 
there are more than one Greyhound in each kennel when they are given out, the presence of 
an attendant is most desirable, to prevent the fighting which most naturally will ensue. 
Horseflesh, beef, and mutton, are each and all beneficial to the Greyhound when in training, 
the last-named more especially so in the case of delicately-constitutioned dogs who, when in hard 
work, refuse their food and require tempting. Pork and veal should be eschewed, as also 
those portions of the others which contain small bones, which are apt to injure the dogs who 
eat them. 

Of modern Greyhounds Lord Lurgan's Master M'Grath has more especially immortalised 
himself by winning the Waterloo Cup three times, an unparalleled feat since the extension 
of the cup to a sixty-four dog stake. Opinions differ as to whether he would not have 
carried off the prize in four successive years, but his going amiss in the third rendered his 
defeat an easy matter, though he avenged himself twelve months later. Master M'Grath 
having been a dog so much above the average his pedigree may be of interest to our readers, 
so we produce it here in extenso for their benefit. 











King Cob 


Ion 
Kate 






St Clair 


Figaro 


Frederica 


Damon 
Daffodil 








Black Fly 


Marquis 


Rocket 
Stella 






o 






Kirtles 


Kouli Khan 
Knavery 




Q 






Sam 


Hilcoolie 
Old Whisky 


ffi 




Erin 


Lightfoot 


Empress 


Bennett's Rocket 
Easterby's Empress 


H 

2 






Jenny Lind 


Scythian 


Fox 
Warwick 


o 

a 








Syren 


Sadek 

Sanctity 


n 

w 








Sam 


Traveller 
Tippitywitchet 


H 

t/3 

< 






Motley 


Toll wife 


King Cob 
Matilda Gillespie 


7. 




David 


Wanton 


Senate 


Sadek 
Sanctity 




I 
en 






Coquette 


Kouli Khan 
Knavery 




>-, 

a 







Liddesdale 


Bowhill 
Lady Seymour 






Lady Watford 


Larriston 


Hannah 


Buff 
Catlowdie 








Consideration 


Kentish Fire 


King Cob 
Knab 










Linnet 


Easterby's Emperor 
, Old Linnet 



254 



THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 



The pedigree of Canaradzo, another famous dog, closely related to the subject of our 
coloured plate, may not be out of place. It is as follows : 











Colonel 








Monsoon 


Smart 






Bluelight 


Stave 


Bugle 
Strawberry 





Beacon 


Frolic 


Waterloo 


Dusty Miller 
Exotic 


N 










Q 

2 






Clarinda 


Cessnock 
Young Hornet 










Driver 


z 






Drift 


Coquette 


3 


Scotland Yet 


Wigan 


Cutty Sark 


Kirkland 
Cutty Sark 










Driver 






Veto 


Dux 


Duppy 








Tillside Lass 


Draffin 
Old Tillside Lass 



Having thus touched briefly upon the most prominent rules of coursing, we can conclude 
by assuring any of our readers who are desirous of pursuing this branch of sport, that the 
best way of finding out whether their hearts are likely to be in the pursuit or not, is to 
attend one or more of the principal coursing meetings. Personal observation and practical 
acquaintance with coursing do more to determine a man's mind either for or against the 
sport than volumes written on the subject ; and furthermore many a useful hint is given 
by those in charge of Greyhounds on the field which a sharp observer is very apt to profit by 
in days to come. 




255 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

THE WHIPPET. 

THE Whippet, or Snap Dog, as it is termed in several of the northern districts of the country, 
may scarcely be said to lay special claim to be considered a sporting dog, except in those 
parts of the country where it is most appreciated. The Whippet is essentially a local dog, 
and the breed is little valued beyond the limits of the northern counties. In these, however, 
this dog is held in high respect, and its merits as a provider of the means of sport are highly 
esteemed. 

Unfortunately for the dog, the uses to which he is often placed have, naturally enough! 
done much to injure his reputation in the sight of many who would otherwise have regarded 
him with a favourable eye. So many scandals have arisen from time to time in connection with 
the quasi-sport of rabbit-coursing, that many who would otherwise have felt disposed to do 
their best to elevate the breed in popular estimation have reluctantly been compelled to dis- 
continue their efforts on its behalf, on account of the unpleasant treatment they received from 
other admirers of the dog. 

The special claims which the Whippet possesses to be classed in the present instance as 
a sporting dog are its strong structural resemblance to the modern Greyhound, and its association 
with rabbit-coursing and dog-racing. The latter, illegitimate sports though they may appear to the 
mind of a sportsman unacquainted with the localities where they are so eagerly pursued, cannot 
be disregarded when an unprejudiced view has to be taken of what constitutes sport in the 
minds of many of our fellow-countrymen. In answer to any doubts that might arise on the 
subject, the only reply that can be made with safety would be a visit to those districts where 
the inhabitants patronise rabbit-coursing, which visit, we believe, would convince the most sceptical 
opponent of the institution that at all events, when honestly carried out, the recreation may 
legitimately be described as sport. 

The Whippet is undoubtedly a cross-bred dog which has been brought into existence to 
meet the exigencies of the sport with which it is associated. As will be seen from the remarks 
of Mr. Raper, later on, it is supposed that in days gone by the English Terrier pure and simple 
was good enough for what was wanted ; but as time advanced a faster dog was required for 
carrying out what was required of him. Undoubtedly the Greyhound was selected for the 
purpose of improving the strain of rabbit-coursers then in existence ; and with good results, as 
improved records most plainly testify. The sport of rabbit-coursing has of later years given way 
to dog-racing, where no rabbits are required, the struggle for supremacy lying in the fleetness 
of the competitors ; and an element of cruelty has thus been undoubtedly avoided. However, we 
will proceed to give some notes upon the subject kindly afforded us by Mr. George Raper, of 
Stockton-on-Tees, which, as the writer is practically acquainted with the subject, will no doubt 
be of interest. 

Mr. Raper says : " Rabbit-coursing, once so popular a sport, has gradually waned. Some 



256 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

ten to twenty years ago it was all the rage amongst that class with which the Whippet dog 
is so closely associated. The dogs then used were of an entirely different stamp to the dogs 
of the present day in fact, they were Terriers proper. The predominating colours were red 
and wheaten ; many, too, were blue, with tan marking. These Terriers were very hard and 
game, and the best of dogs for cover work. They were, with very few exceptions, rough, having 
a hard and strong coat. They were of a medium length of leg decidedly not leggy. 

" With the gradual decay of rabbit-coursing, and the introduction of straight-out running 
(now the popular amusement), has disappeared the type of Terrier formerly used for the former 
sport. Now speed is the main object sought for ; the main consideration is to get the greatest 
amount of speed in the least possible size ; hence, to obtain speed, those interested in the breed 
have resorted to Italian and English Greyhound crosses. You know these dogs are now judged 
on the same scale as Greyhounds in fact, many of them are so finely bred that they must 
strike the observant eye as being little else than a diminutive Greyhound ; and not only in 
outline are they alike, but most of the smooth specimens are of the same colour as the Grey- 
hound we have whites, blacks, reds, fawns, brindles, and compounds from each. 

"These dogs are very swift, and are entirely trained for speed, and to run straight. Many 
will stand on a mark until told to go, when they will make the best of their way to their owner, 
generally placed within a few yards of the winning post. 

" No class of dog receives more care or attention ; they are very carefully fed and attended 
to, and in many cases receive better food than their master or family. I knew an iron- 
worker, who only worked a day or two a week ; he himself lived entirely on bread, but his 
dog, who was undergoing a preparation for a race, was fed upon mutton. Nearly every 
ironworker has his Whippet, and, if he hardly has a coat to his back, his dog must have 
a good sheet, and, moreover, be muzzled. You can fell Geordie if you like, but don't touch 
his dog. 

" From the above notes you will observe that the dogs formerly used for rabbit-coursing 
were an entirely different stamp to the dog now used. 

" I must not forget to mention that there are now many rough-haired Whippets, but they 
are built entirely upon the same lines as the smooth ones. 

" The rules of rabbit-coursing differ very materially from Greyhound coursing ; in the latter 
every wrench, turn, &c., counts so many points, whereas in rabbit-coursing these are reckoned 
of no account ; the dog that kills the rabbit is declared the winner. 

"Each dog runs on merit, but size is always taken into account. In Newcastle, Durham, 
and district, the general rule is to allow four yards per inch, according to the height of the 
dogs competing. 

" Until lately the dogs had to pass under a standard, but it was found to be an unsatis- 
factory way of getting the correct height of a dog. Many a dog in reality 20 inches high 
would easily pass the standard at i8i inches. This he was trained to do, the usual plan 
being to place a needle in the top of the standard ; when the dog passed under he pricked 
himself, this in time he learns to avoid by lowering himself. Now, the general rule is to 
have the dogs laid upon their sides, and measured from the shoulder-blade to the end of 
the foot 

" By far the most popular sport at the present day is dog-racing, or as it is termed, 
straight-out running. 

"The usual distance of the race is 200 yards, the rule being to allow eight yards per 
inch, according to the size of the dogs. 



THE WHIPPET OR SNAP DOG. 257 

" In Leeds, Sheffield, Manchester, and districts, the rules vary, the dogs there run according 
to weight. The distance of the race is generally the same as further north viz., 200 yards. 
The rule is to allow 2^ yards per pound ; therefore, the great object in these districts is to 
obtain as tall and light a dog as possible, whereas, in Newcastle and neighbourhood the object 
is to procure as speedy a dog as small as possible. 

" Conditions of course vary in matches. These are arranged by mutual agreement." 

From what has gone before, it will be seen that Whippets differ little from diminutive 
Greyhounds in their general outline, though the difference in speed, of course, is very con- 
siderable. 

In training a Whippet for racing there is so far a difference between this and preparing 
a Greyhound, that the Greyhound trainer has to keep in view the importance of stamina 
as well as' speed, whilst great pace is what is most required in a Whippet. The length of the 
courses over which dog-races are held, rarely exceed 200 or 250 yards, and as the track is 
level there are no natural obstacles to be overcome. Thus the work that a Whippet is 
called upon to do is of a far lighter character than that of his larger relative. Superfluous 
flesh must, however, be removed at any cost, or the dog could never go the pace which he 
would have to do to have a chance of success in racing. It is not, however, by any means 
desirable that he should be over-trained, or there will be a decrease in pace through 
weakness, and to obviate all chance of this a Whippet should be steadily worked to get off 
his flesh, and only occasionally indulged with a full-speed gallop which if too often repeated 
would defeat the object for which it was given the dog. 

The food which is given to this class of dog when in training is the best which the 
master can procure; and many a supporter of dog-racing goes without himself in order that 
his dog may have the dainties which he cannot afford to give them both. The quantity, 
however, is necessarily limited, the general maxim of the trainer in such cases being, " the 
best that can be got, but not too much of it." 

It is most necessary that the dogs in the course of their preparation should be fre- 
quently schooled in the parts which they will have to play upon the day of the race, and 
taught to toe the line at starting in the correct and orthodox fashion. 

As before stated, dog-races are conducted on the handicap principle ; it must, there- 
fore, be apparent how many temptations there are to induce a novice to be. unsteady at the 
mark. When in their proper places each dog is held securely by his owner or attendant, 
and their attention is directed to a person near the judge's box, who waves some object in 
his hand and encourages them to run after him to secure it. All being ready, the starter 
fires a pistol, and those holding the dogs release their hold and let them start on their 
journey to the judge's box. To distinguish one dog from another it is customary to make 
each competitor wear a coloured collar, so that the judge can at once deliver his decision 
without assistance from the lookers on. It may be here remarked that each dog is allowed 
but one person to encourage him by waving an object in his hand as above described, and 
each of these must be ten or fifteen yards beyond the winning-line when the dogs reach it, 
so as to prevent any chance of an opponent's dog being interfered with. It is particularly 
enacted that the object which the runners as the attendants at the winning-post are styled 
wave to attract the dogs' attention shall not consist of anything alive; and usually that any 
one attempting to weigh or measure one dog in place of another shall be prohibited from all 
future competition for a greater or less period. The dog which was to be benefited, also, is 
83 



253 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 



liable to disqualification as well ; and the soundness of this latter rule is beyond all question i 
as by its enforcement a direct check is placed upon all fraudulent transactions, since detection 
would depreciate the value of the dog. 

It is usual to give the dogs a few mouthfuls of some strengthening food between the 
heats, and having this in view a slight increase in weight is allowed after the first heat is con- 
cluded, if the handicap is conducted on the weight and not the height principle. Finally, to pre- 
vent fraudulent ages being given to dogs, many committees, or perhaps it would be better to 
say promoters, of dog-racing meetings decline to receive the age of any dog unless the latter 
was registered before attaining the age of eight months, about which period he gets his second 
set of teeth. 

Enough has now been written about this branch of sport to give our readers an idea of 
what it is, but nobody who has not been present at a meeting can by any means imagine 
what excitement the different ties create amongst the spectators, the majority of which invest 
heavily on the success of their selections. A visit to such a meeting will amply repay the 
curious should they be in the neighbourhood of a place where the sport is fostered ; but 
if they do attend it may be suggested that they keep their eyes open and their pockets 
shut, as a novice has but a slender chance of making money at dog-racing before experience 
has been gained. 

The points by which a Whippet can be judged may be described as identical with those 
of a Greyhound. 




259 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

THE STAGHOUND. 

WHATEVER differences may have originally existed between the Staghound and the Fox- 
hound which will be described in the succeeding chapter have been swept away by the 
progress of time. At the moment of writing there is no dissimilarity of shape or form, the 
only difference being one of size and weight. Though doubtless nearly related in days gone 
by, the two varieties are now bred entirely separate, as the proportions of a large-sized Stag- 
hound would render him unsuitable for foxhunting. 

Though it is more than probable that foxhunting men of the day may laugh at the idea 
of the Staghound being the ancestor of the modern Foxhound, it is nevertheless a fact that in 
the earlier part of the century this was a common opinion. For instance, the author of the 
" Field Book," which was published by Effingham Wilson, Royal Exchange, London, in 1833, 
writes as follows of the Staghound : 

" It seems extremely probable that this large, strong, and bony hound was the primeval 
stock from which all the collateral branches of this race have descended, and that all deviations 
from the original stem have been the result of crosses and improvements during many cen- 
turies by those skilled in rearing and breeding dogs of the chase, and varied in strength and 
size according to the particular sport for which they are intended. At the present day 
\i.e., 1833] there cannot be a doubt but that the practical breeder, by judicious crosses, can 
either enlarge or diminish the stature and strength of his pack in the course of three or four 
generations." The writer next proceeds to say that " the Staghounds exclusively devoted 
to that sport in the royal establishment of this country, it is well known, have been an im- 
proved cross between the old English Southern hound and the fleeter Foxhound grafted upon 
the Bloodhound." 

Owing to the scarcity of deer in this country the sport of stag-hunting has almost 
ceased to exist, though there are several packs of Staghounds still left. The most prominent 
of these are Her Majesty's, Baron Rothschild's, and the Surrey, all of which, from the close 
proximity of their meets to the metropolis, are well supported. It is most customary to 
hunt a carted deer, as, with rare exceptions, none of the modern packs hunt countries where 
wild deer are to be found, and therefore ingenuity has to be resorted to to produce the 
means of sport. In such cases the deer is vanned on to the ground, and after it has been 
allowed a certain amount of law the hounds are laid on, and the sport, such as it is, is com- 
menced. The deer, which, by the way, is generally denuded of its horns, as a rule runs little 
risk of losing its life, for when brought to bay it is protected by the huntsman and whips 
from the hounds, and is reserved for another run on some subsequent occasion. 

A decided advantage which hunting a carted deer possesses over most other branche. c 
of sport is the certainty of finding some sort of sport unless the weather renders it 
impossible. The date and place of the meet being previously arranged, and the deer being 
always in confinement, there can be no chance of a blank day, as both the deer and hounds 



260 THE Boon OF THE DOG. 

can be brought any distance to the meet. There seems, however, something scarcely sports- 
manlike in chasing a domesticated creature across a country, and this branch of sport has 
been in consequence sarcastically characterised as " calf-hunting " by its detractors. A rather 
peculiar feature in connection with hunting a carted deer is the different manner in which 
different deer run. Those who have been hunted several times are more or less certain to 
provide good sport, and on being liberated from the van make the most of the few minutes' 
law which is allowed them, and take a bold line across country. Others, on the other hand, 
act quite differently, and are practically useless for this purpose. It is, therefore, customary 
to name the deer, and if it is thought probable that an old favourite will be uncarted the 
meet is certain to be better attended than if an untried one is to be liberated, as the latter 
often decline to take country at all. With reference to the behaviour of Staghounds in days 
gone by, the writer of the "Field Book" above alluded to writes as follows: 

" In taking the deer according to annual custom, either for the royal hunt or for the 
fattening paddocks, a stag or a buck which has been previously fixed upon is ridden out of 
the herd by two or three of the keepers in succession, each of whom is closely followed by 
a hound, the young dogs only being kept in slips. As soon as the deer has been separated 
from his companions the dogs have the requisite signal given to them, and they immediately 

follow in pursuit The dogs are so well trained, and are so soon made aware 

which buck is intended to be caught, that they seldom make a mistake even if the deer 
regains the herd after being driven from it, but press him through it till they have again 
separated him from it. It is well known that when a hard-pressed deer tries to rejoin his 
companions they endeavour to avoid and get away from him as much as possible, or try to 
drive him away with their horns." 

It is not to be supposed at the time of writing that Staghounds are thus employed, or need 
all the above writer states be accepted as fact. Nevertheless, what he says is so far useful 
as showing the purposes to which the hounds were put in his day, and the opinion enter- 
tained by a certain class of sportsmen concerning them. 

Hunting the wild deer is mostly confined to the south-west portion of this country, and 
differs mainly from the former sport in the fact that the deer in this case is an undomesticated 
animal, and not a poor paddock-fed pet, whose life is periodically tormented by being 
pursued across country by a troop of cockney sportsmen. The whereabouts of the deer is 
usually pointed out by those who know the locality and are acquainted with the animal's 
habits, and when found the hounds are laid on. In hunting the wild deer the animal, if 
brought to bay, in the majority of instances loses his life, no quarter being shown him, as 
in the case of the carted deer, for the former animal is considered legitimate game, and is 
promptly converted into venison. 

There being so much similarity between the Staghound and the Deerhound our readers will 
be in a position to judge of the former's points and standard after perusing the article on 
the Foxhound in the succeeding chapter. The scale of points, moreover, which are given in 
the Foxhound chapter are equally applicable to the Staghound. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

THE FOXHOUND. 

THE precise source from which the modern Foxhound has been obtained has been a subject 
of debate from almost time immemorial amongst sportsmen ; but the existence of several types 
in bygone centuries renders it certain that the present hound is the result of the judicious 
crossing of early breeders. Gervase Markham, in " Countrey Contentments," published in 1631, 
plainly gives it as his opinion that in his day all the dogs used by sportsmen to assist them 
in the pursuit of the "stagge, the buck, the roe, the hare, the fox, the badger, the otter, 
the boar, the goat, and such like " were each and all of them " the same kinde of creatures, 
namely hounds." This opinion is certainly shared by sportsmen in the present day, as the 
expression "dog," applied to a Foxhound, would be considered rank heresy by hunting 
men, and would assuredly subject the user of it to ridicule and laughter. Gervase Markham 
proceeds to expatiate upon the various varieties of hound which existed in his day in the 
following language : 

"Now of these hounds there are divers kinds, as the Slow Hound, which is a large great 
dog, tall and heavy, and are bred for the most part in the best countries of this kingdome, 
as also in Cheshire and Lancashire and most woodland and mountanous countreys. Then 
the middle sized dog, which is more fit for the chase, being of a more nimble composure, and 
are bred in Worcestershire, Bedfordshire, and many other well-mixed soiles, where the 
champaigne and covert are of equal largenesse. Then the light, nimble, swift, slender dog, 
which is bred in the north parts of this kingdome, as Yorkshire, Cumberland, Northumberland, 
and many other plain champaigne countreys 

"These Hounds are of divers colours, and according to their colours so we elect them for 
the chase, as thus for example : The white hound, or the white with black spots, or the white 
with some few liver spots, are the most principal best to compose your kennel of, and will 
indeed hunt any chase exceeding well, especially the hare, stagge, bucke, roe, or otter, for 
they will well endure both wood and waters ; yet if you demand which is the best and most 
beautifull of all colours for the general kennell, then I answer the white with the blacke eares, 
and blacke spot at the setting on of the taile, and are ever found both of good scent and good 

condition The griffeld, which are ever most commonly shaghaired, or any other 

colour, whether it be mixt or unmixt, so it be shaghaired, are the best verminers, and therefore 
are chosen to hunt the fox, badger, or other hot scent ; they are also exceeding good and 
cunning finders, and therefore of huntsmen not thought amisse to have one or two couple in 
every kennell." 

These remarks, whilst showing what were considered the best class of hound at the time, 
also go to prove what were the uses to which each variety was put. The reference to the 
northern hound as being the lightest and fastest breed of that day will probably be eagerly 
received by those authorities who maintain that the modern Foxhound is mainly the result 



262 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of a cross between the northern hound and the ancient Greyhound. Mr. John Scott writes 
nearly 2OO years after Gervase Markham in support of this theory, and in vindication of the 
judgment of those who introduced the Greyhound cross. " We do not," says Mr. Scott, 
"hear any complain among modern sportsmen, as among the ancients, of the excess of 
Greyhound form or qualities in the present Foxhound, or of a want of nose, steadiness, or 
stoutness. On the contrary, the best packs of this improved breed have found and killed 
more foxes in their seasons than any other and slower breeds could boast, running as long and 
desperate chases." A little further on, however, the writer is compelled to admit the unsuitability 
of too-lightly-bred hounds to heavy countries, over which more powerfully-built ones naturally 
show to greater advantage. It is only reasonable that a lightly-bred hound should be faster 
in what Gervase Markham terms a " champaigne country " than a heavy built one ; but when 
further comparison between the merits of the two varieties has to be drawn, a vast difference 
of opinion soon arises. Gervase Markham, who certainly understood the subject upon which 
he wrote most thoroughly, thus delivers his opinions : 

"The shape of your hound must be according to the climate where he is bred, and according 
to the natural composition of his body; as thus, if you would choose a large, heavy, slow, true 
Talbot-like hound, you must choose him which hath a round, big, thick head, with a short 
nose uprising, and large open nostrels, which shows he is of a good and quick scent. His eares 
exceeding large, thin, and down hanging much lower than his chaps, and the flews of his 
upper lips almost ten inches lower than his nether chaps, which shows a merry, deep mouth 
and a loud ringer. His back strong and straight, yet rather rising than inwardly yeelding, 
which shows much toughness and endurance. His fillets would be thick and great, which approve 
a quick gathering up of his legs without paine ; his huckle bones round and hidden, which 
shows he will not tyer ; his thighs round, and his hams straight, which shows swiftnesse. His 
taile long, and big at the setting on and small downward, which shows a strong chine and a good 
winde. The haire under his belly hard and stiffe, which shows willingness and ability to endure 
labour in all weathers and in all places. His legs large and leane, which shows nimbleness 
in leaping or climing. His foot round, high-knuckled, and well clawed, with a dry, hard soale. 
The general composure of his body so just and even that no level may distinguish whether 

his hinder or fore part be the higher If you will chuse a swift, light hound, then 

must his head be more slender and his nose more long, his eares and flews more shallow, his 
backe broad, his belly gaunt, his taille small, his joynts long, his foot round, and his general 
composure much more slender and Grayhound-like, and thus in the generallity for the most 
part all your Yorkshire hounds, whose vertues I can praise no further than for scent and 
swiftness " 

He then proceeds to give some hints upon the crossing of the various strains of hounds, 
which, as they occupied the position of ancestors to our modern Foxhounds, may be briefly 
summarised. If a dog was required for what the writer termed " cunning hunting," a cross 
of the slowest and largest northern hounds with the fastest and lightest west-country ones was 
advocated. Hounds thus produced were supposed to be endowed with exactly the amount of 
pace which was required for those early days, which was a matter of paramount importance 
then, as a slow hound would probably lose the chase, whilst a too fast one would be liable to 
leave the huntsman behind. For "sweetnesse of cry" Markham advocates the division of the 
pack into large dogs with deep, solemn mouths, to act as bass voices, then a double number 



PACKS OF FOXHOUNDS. 



263 



of roaring and loud-ringing mouths, which must "beare the counter tenor," and also some 
"hollow, plaine, sweete" voices, to make up the middle part of the cry. A few lines further 
on he alludes to the fact that for the most part the Shropshire and Worcestershire hounds were 
the loudest, and the Cheshire and Lancashire the deepest, in cry. 

The support given to foxhunting has vastly increased since the days of Gervase 
Markham, and instead of the limited number of packs which existed in his time there are 
considerably over one hundred packs in England alone. The following is a complete list of the 
packs in the United Kingdom in 1880, with other details, condensed, by permission, from Tiie 
Rural Almanac: 



ENGLAND. 



Hunt. 



Master. 



11 



Albrighton 

Atherstone 

Badsworth 

Beaufort's, Duke of 

Bedale 

Belvoir 

Berkeley 

Berkeley, Old 

Berkshire, Old 

Berks, South 

Bicester and Warden Hill. 

Bilsdale 

Blackmore Vale 

Blankney 

Blencathra 

Border 

Braes of Dervvent 

Bramham Moor 

Brocklesby 

Burstow 

Burton 

Cambridgeshire 

Cattistock 

Cheshire, The 

Cheshire, South 

Chiddingfold 

Cleveland 

Combe's, Mr. 

Cornwall, North 

Coryton's, Mr. W 

Cotswold 

Cotswold, North 

Cottesmore 

Coventry's, Earl of 

Craven 

Crawley and Horsham 

Cumberland .. 



Cunard's, Sir Bache . 
Dartmoor . . 



50 Mr. T. F. Boughey 4 

54 Mr. W. E. Oakeley 4 

59 Mr. C. B. E. Wright ... 4 

75 Duke of Beaufort 5 

42 Major H; F. Dent 3 

62 Duke of Rutland 5 

61 Lord Fitzhardinge 4 

50 Mr. A. H. Longman ... 3 

47 Earl of Craven 3 

60 Mr. John Hargreaves ... 4 

60 Viscount Valentia 2 

10 Mr. Nicholas Spink 2 

55 Sir R. G. Glyn, Bart. ... 4 
50 Mr. H. Chaplin, M. P.... 4 

12^ Mr. John Crosier 3 

10 Messrs. Robson and Dodd 2 

22 Lieut. -Col. J. A. Cowen 2 

50 Mr. George Lane Fox ... 4 

48 Earl of Yarborough 4 

25 Mr. Henry Kelsey 2 

58 Mr.F.J.S Foljambe, M.P. 3 

45 Mr. Charles S. Lindsell... 2 

30 Mr. John Codrington ... 4 

51 Capt. E. Park Yates ... 2 

29 Mr. H. Reginald Corbet . 2 

30 Mr. C. B. Godman 2 

28 Mr. J. Proud Yearby ... 2 

30 Mr. Richd. H. Combe ... 2 

17 Mr. Charles F. Pollard ... 2 

30 Mr. Wm. Coryton 2 

50 Mr. A. Holme Sumner... 3 

35 Mr. Algernon Rushout... 3 

65 Lord Carington 4 

55i Earl of Coventry 6 

48 Mr. E. R. Wemyss 4 

50 Lt.-Col. A.M. Calvert... 3 

50 Sir W. Lawson, Bt. , M. P. 

and Mr. H.C.Howard 3 

42 Sir Bache Cunard 3 

33 Admiral G. Parker 3 



ENGLAND (continued'). 



Hunt. 



>.$ 
$ t. 



Devon, South 20 

Dorset, South 30 

Dulverton 22 

Durham, North 40 

Eden's, Sir Wm 32 

Eskdale 16 

Essex 50 

Essex, East 30 

Essex Union 50 

Essex and Suffolk 28^ 

Ferrers's, Earl 25 

Fitzwilliam's, Earl 60 

Fitzwilliam, The 60 

Flint and Denbigh 34 

Garth's, Mr 60 

Glamorganshire 26-. 

Grafton's, Duke of 53 

Grove 50 

Haldon 23 

H. H. (Hampshire) 53 

Hambledon 5 

Haydon 17 

Herefordshire, North 28 

Herefordshire, South 30 

Hertfordshire 5 

Heythrop 60 

Holderness 5 2 

Hursley 30 

Hurworth 30 

Irthing Vale 17 

Isle of Wight 40 

Johnstone's, Sir H 28 

Kent, East 50 

Kent, West 60 

Lamerton 25 

Leconfield's, Lord 55 

Ledbury 43 



Master. e^J 

a 

Mr. Augustus F. Ross ... 2 

Mr. C. J. Radclyffe 2 

Mr. J. Froude Bellew ... 2 

Mr. Anthony L. Maynard 3 

Sir Wm. Eden, Bart. .. 3 

A Committee 2 

A Committee 2 

Lt.Col. Jelfe Sharpe 2 

Mr. W. H. While 3 

Mr. B. C. Chaston 2 

Earl Ferrers 2 

Earl Fitzwilliam 3 

Marquis of Huntly 4 

Mr. H. R. Hughes and 

Major C. Rowley Conwy 2 

Mr. T. C. Garth 4 

Mr. John Samuel Gibbon 2 

Duke of Grafton 3 

Viscount Galway, M.P. 3 
Sir John Duntze, Bart., 

and Sir L. Palk, Bart. 2 

Mr. H. W. Deacon 4 

Mr. Walter Long 4 

Mr. A. J. B. Orde 2 

Col. Heywood 2 

Mr. J. Ranken 2 

A Committee 4 

Mr. Albert Brassey 4 

Mr. Arthur Wilson 4 

A Committee 2 

Mr. James Cookson 2 

Mr. Thomas Ramshay ... 2 

Mr. B. T. Cotton 3 

Sir Harcourt Johnstone, 

Bart., M.P 2 

Mr. F. J. Mackenzie 3 

Hon. Ralph Nevill 4 

Mr. George Lobb 2 

Lord Leconfield 5 

Mr. A. Knowles 3 



264 



THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 



ENGLAND (continued). 



Hunt. 



v| 



Master. 



Llangibby and Chepstow... 32$ Mr. John Lawrence and 

Mr. Charles E. Lewis 2 
Ludlow ........................ 28 Mr. C. W. Wicksted ...... 2 

Luttrell's, Mr. G. F ....... 24 J Mr. G. F. Luttrell ...... 2 

Meynell, The .................. 5 Lord Waterpark ......... 4 

Middleton's, Lord ............ 46J Lord Middleton ............ 4 

Monmouthshire ............... 47 Mr. F. C. Hanbury- 

Williams and Mr. J. A. 
Rolls ..................... 

Mr. J. Blencowe Cookson 
Mr. G. A. E. Meyrick... 
Mr. Anthony Hamond... 
Sir John Marjoribanks, 
Bart ...................... 4 

Mr. Launcelot Rolleston 

and Mr. P. H. Cooper 4 
Oakley ........................ 56 A Committee ............... 4 

Oxfordshire, South ......... 30 

Pembrokeshire ............... 20 

Pembrokeshire, South ...... 27 

Penllergare .................. 20 

Percy's, Earl .................. 48 

Portmau's, Lord ............ 49 



Morpeth ........................ 28 

N. F. H. (New Forest) ...... 50 

Norfolk, West ............... 46 

Northumberland and Ber- 

wickshire ............... 49 

Notts, South .................. 45 



Earl of Macclesfield ...... 2 

Mr. Chas. Hugh Allen... 2 
Major Henry Leach ...... 2 

Mr. J. T. D. Llewelyn 2 
Earl Percy .................. 3 

Hon. W. H. B. Portman, 

M.P 

6oJ Earl of Portsmouth 
32 Mr. W. R. H. Powell.. 
Mr. Robert Gosling 
Mr. H. H. Langham .. 



Portsmouth's, Earl of ...... 

Powell's, Mr. W. R. H. ... 

Puckeridge ..................... 50 

Pytchley ........................ 54 

Pytchley, North ............ 28 Earl Spencer ............... 2 

Quom ........................... 55 Mr. John Coupland ...... 5 

Radnor's, Earl of ............ 42* Earl of Radnor ............ 3 

Radnorshire and West 

Hereford ..................... 24 

Rayer's, Mr. .................. 32 

Rufford ........................ 50 

Shrewsbury .................. 30 

Shropshire, North ............ 29 

Sinnington ..................... 2O 

Southdown ..................... 50 

Southwold ..................... 54 

Staffordshire, North ......... 60 



Lieut.-Col. R. H. Price 2 

Mr. W. C. Rayer ......... 2 

Mr. Charles A. Egereon 4 

Mr. R. L. Burton ......... 2 

Sir VincentR. Corbet, Bt. 2 

Mr. T. Parrington ...... 2 

Mr. R. J. Streatfield ... 4 

Mr. F. Crowder ......... 4 

Marquis of Stafford ...... 3 



Staffordshire, South ......... 28 Major J. M. Browne ... 2 

Stars of the West ............ 21 Mr. Nicholas Snow ...... 2 

Stevenstone .................. 33^ LieuL-Col. the Hon. W. 

Trefusis .................. 2 

Suffolk ........................ 30 Mr. John Josselyn ......... 3 

Surrey, Old .................. 43^ Mr. Edmund Byron ...... 3 

SurreyUnion .................. 43 Mr. J. B. Hankey ......... 3 

Sussex, East .................. 30 

Taunton Vale .................. 25 

Tedworth ..................... 50 

Thkham ........................ 47 



Mr. Edward Frewen ... 2 

Mr. Lionel Patton ......... 2 

Sir R. Graham, Bart. ... 4 

Mr. W. E. Rigden ...... 3 



ENGLAND (continued). 

fejj 
Hunt. & ^ Master. 



" 



Tivyside .... ................. 26 Mr. J. R. Howell ......... 2 



Tredegar's, Lord ............ 27 

Tyiu-dale ........................ 45 

Ullswater ..................... 18 

United Pack ................. 26^ 

Vale of Gwili .................. 25 

ValeofTowy .................. 17 

Vale of White Horse ...... 66 

Vine, The ..................... 42 

Warwickshire ............... 60 

Warwickshire, North ... . 

Western ........................ 22 

Whaddon Chase ............ 40 

Wheatland ..................... 25 

Williams's, Mr. George ... 

Wilts, South and West ...... 50 

Worcestershire .............. 50 

Wynn's, Sir W. W .......... 60 

York and Ainsty ............ 

Zetland's, Earl of ............ 56 



Lord Tredegar ............ 2 

Mr. G. Fenwick ......... 3 

Mr. J. W. Marshall ...... 3 

Mr. J. Harris ............ 2 

Mr. LI. Lloyd Lloyd ... 2 

Capt. M. P. Lloyd ...... 2 

Mr. O. A. R. Hoare ...... 4 

Mr. WAV. B. Beach, M. P. 3 

Ld. Willoughbyde Broke 4 

Mr. Richard Lant ......... 3 

Mr. T. B. Bolitho ......... 2 

Mr. W. Selby Lowndes 2 

A Committee ............... 2 

Mr. George Williams ... 3 

Lieut.-Col. W. Everett... 4 

Mr. Frederick Ames ...... 4 

Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart. 3 

Captain Slingsby ......... 4 

Earl of Zetland ............ 4 



SCOTLAND. 



Berwicksh ; re, North and 

East Lothian ............... 40 

Buccleuch's, Duke of ...... 54 

Dumfries-shire .............. 30 

Eglinton's, Earl of ......... 50 

Fife .............................. 40 

Fife, West ..................... 22 

Forfarshire ..................... 32 

Lanark and Renfrewshire 



Hon. R. B. Hamilton, 

M.P ...................... 4 

Duke of Buccleuch ...... 4 

Mr. John Johnstone ...... 2 

Earl of Eglinton and 

Winton .................. 4 

Col. AnstrutherThomson 3 

Capt. G. C. Chepe ...... 2 

Mr. P. A. W. Carnegie 2 

Col. Carrick Buchanan... 2 



Linlithgow and Stirlingshire 40 Major J. Wauchope ...... 3 

IRELAND. 

Carlow and Island ............ 45 Mr. Robert Watson ...... 3 

Clonmult ........................ 20 Mr. Edmund Fitzgerald.. 2 

Curraghmore .................. 52^ Marquis of Waterford ... 4 

Duhallow ..................... 50 Mr. S. Bruce ............... 4 

Galway County ............... 47^ Mr. Burton R. P. Persse 3 

Humble's, Sir J. Nugent ... 25 Sir J. Nugent Humble... 2 

Kildare ........................ 57 

Kilkenny ........................ 55 

Limerick County ............ 40 

Louth .......................... 35 

Meath ........................... 70 

Musketry ..................... 3lJ Capt. F. W. Wordley ... 

Ormond and King'sCounty 35! Earl of Huntingdon ...... 



Mr. W. Forbes ............ 4 

Colonel ChapHn ......... 3 

A Committee ............... 3 

Mr. W. de Sails Filgate 2 
Mr. T. O. Trotter 



5 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
United Hunt .................. 50 A Committee ............... 3 



Queen's County ............... 40 

South Union .................. 21 



Mr. R. Hamilton Slubber 
Mr. T. Walton Knolles.. 



Tipperary ..................... 30 Capt. Macnaghten 



Westmeath ..................... 43 

Wexford ........................ 45 



Mr. Montague Chapman 3 
Mr. D. V. Beatty ......... 3 



FOXHOUND KENNELS. 265 

With regard to the kennelling accommodation which must be supplied for Foxhounds, and 
the management of the hounds themselves, no better authority can be quoted than the letters of 
Mr. Beckford, who. as far back as the year 1810, gave to the world opinions on the above subjects 
which have been regarded with respect ever since ; so much so, in fact, that they have formed the 
groundwork of a great many remarks on hounds which have never been credited to their real 
source. In the first place Mr. Beckford writes to a friend as follows on the subject of the 
kennel : 

" I would advise you to make it large enough at first, as an addition to it afterwards must 
spoil the appearance of it. I have been obliged to add to mine, which was built from a plan 
of my own, and intended, at first, for a pack of Beagles. As my feeding-yard is too small, I have 
endeavoured to remedy that defect as occasion required. 

" I think two kennels absolutely necessary to the well-being of the hounds. When there 
is but one, it is seldom sweet ; and when cleaned out, the hounds, particularly in winter, suffer 
both whilst it is cleaning and as long as it remains wet afterwards. To be more clearly 
understood by you, I shall call one of these the hunting-kennel, by which I mean that kennel 
into which the hounds are drafted which are to hunt the next day. Used always to the 
same kennel, they will be drafted with little trouble ; they will answer to their names more 
readily, and you may count your hounds into the kennel with as much ease as a shepherd 
counts his sheep out of the fold. 

" When the feeder first conies to the kennel in a morning, he should let out the hounds 
into the outer court ; at the same time opening the door of the hunting-kennel, lest want of 
rest, or bad weather, should incline them to go into it. The lodging-room should then be cleaned 
out, the doors and windows of it opened, the litter shaken up, and the whole kennel made 
sweet and clean before the hounds return to it again. The great court and the other kennels 
are not less to be attended to, nor should you pass over in silence any omission that is hurtful 
to your hounds. 

" The floor of each lodging-room should be bricked, and sloped on both sides to run to the 
centre, with a gutter left to carry off the water, that when they are washed, they may be soon 
dry. If water should stand through any fault in the floor, it should be carefully mopped up ; 
for, as warmth is in the greatest degree necessary to hounds after work, so damps are equally 
prejudicial. You will think me, perhaps, too particular in these directions ; yet there can be no 
harm in your knowing what your servants ought to do ; as it is not impossible, but it may be 
sometimes necessary for you to see that it is done. In your military profession you are per- 
fectly acquainted with the duty of a common soldier, and though you have no further business 
with the minutiae of it, there is no doubt but you will still find the knowledge of them useful to 
you. Believe me, they may be useful here ; and you will pardon me, I hope, if I wish to see 
you a martinet in the kennel as well as in the field. Orders given without skill are seldom well 
obeyed, and where the master is either ignorant or inattentive, the servant will be idle. 

" I also wish that, contrary to the usual practice in building kennels, you would have three 
doors two in the front, and one in the back the last to have a lattice-window in it, with a 
wooden shutter, which is constantly to be kept closed when the hounds are in, except in the 
summer, when it should be left open all the day. This door answers two very necessary pur- 
poses : it gives an opportunity of carrying out the straw when the lodging-room is cleaned, and 
as it is opposite to the window, will be a means to let in a thorough air, which will greatly con- 
tribute to the keeping of it sweet and wholesome. The other doors will be of use in drying 
34 



266 THE BOOK OP THE DOG. 

the room, when the hounds are out. and as one is to be kept shut, and the other hooked 
back (allowing just room for a dog to pass), they are not liable to any objection. The great 
window in the centre should have a folding shutter, half, or the whole of which, may be shut at 
nights, according to the weather ; and your kennels, by that means, may be kept warm or cool, 
just as you please to have them. The two great lodging-rooms are exactly alike, and as each 
has a court belonging to it, are distinct kennels, and are at the opposite ends of the building ; in 
the centre of which is the boiling-house and feeding-yard, and on each side a lesser kennel, either 
for hounds that are drafted off, hounds that are sick or lame, or for any other purposes, as 
occasion may require. At the back of which, as they are but half the depth of the two great 
kennels, are places for coals, &c., for the use of the kennel. There is also a small building in the 
rear for hot bitches. The floors of the inner courts, like to those of the lodging-rooms, are 
bricked, and sloped to run to the centre, and a channel of water, brought in by a leaden pipe, 
runs through the middle of them. In the centre of each court is a well, large enough to dip 
a bucket to clean the kennels ; this must be faced with stone, or it will be often out of repair. 
In the feeding-yard you must have a wooden cover. 

" The benches, which must be open to let the urine through, should have hinges and hooks 
in the wall, that they may fold up, for the greater convenience of washing out the kennel ; and 
they should be made as low as possible, that a tired hound may have no difficulty in jumping. 
Let me add, that the boiler should be of cast-iron. 

"The rest of the kennel consists of a large court in front, which is also bricked, has a 
grass-court adjoining, and a little brook running through the middle of it. The earth is taken 
out of it, is thrown up into a mound, where the hounds in summer delight to sit. This court 
is planted round with trees, and has besides a lime-tree, and some horse-chestnut-trees near 
the middle of it, for the sake of shade. A high pale encloses the whole, part of which, to the 
height of about four feet, is close, the other open ; the interstices are about two inches wide. 
The grass-court is pitched near the pale, to prevent the hounds from scratching out. If you 
cannot guess the intention of the posts I have in the court, they are to save the trees, to which the 
urinary salts are prejudicial. If they are at first backward in coming to them, bind some straw 
round the bottom, and rub it with galbanum. The brook in the grass-court may serve as a 
stew; your fish will be very safe. 

" At the back of the kennel is a house, thatched and furzed up on both sides, big enough 
to contain at least a load of straw. Here should be a pit ready to receive the dung, and a 
gallows for the flesh. The gallows should have a thatched roof, and a circular board at the 
posts of it, to prevent vermin from climbing up. 

" A stove, I believe, is made use of in some kennels ; but where the feeder is a good one, 
a mop, properly used, will render it unnecessary. I have a little hay-rick in the grass-yard, 
which I think is of use to keep the hounds clean and fine in their coats ; you will find them 
frequently rubbing themselves against it ; the shade of it also is useful to them in summer. 
If ticks at any time should be troublesome in your kennel let the walls of it be well washed. 
If this does not destroy them, the walls should then be whitewashed. 

" In the summer, when you do not hunt, one kennel will be sufficient ; the other then may 
be for the young hounds, who should also have the grass court adjoining to it. It is best at that 
time of the year to keep them separate, and it prevents many accidents which otherwise 
might happen ; nor should they be put together till the hunting season begins. If your 
hounds are very quarrelsome the feeder may sleep in a cot in the kennel adjoining ; and if they 
are well chastised at the first quarrel, his voice will be sufficient to settle all their differences after- 



MANAGEMENT OF KENNELS. 267 

wards. Close to the door of the kennel let there be always a quantity of little switches, 
which three narrow boards nailed to one of the posts will easily contain. 

" My kennel is close to the road-side, but it was unavoidable. This is the reason why 
my front pale is closed, and only the side ones open. It is a great fault; avoid it if you 
can, and your hounds will be the quieter. 

" Upon looking over my letter I find I begin recommending, with Mr. Somervile, a high 
situation for the kennel, and afterwards talk of a brook running through the middle of it. 
I am afraid you will not be able to unite these two advantages, in which case there is no 
doubt that water should be preferred. The mound I have mentioned will answer all the 
purposes of an eminence. Besides, there should be movable stages on wheels for the hounds 
to lie upon. At any rate, however, let your soil be a dry one. 

" You will think, perhaps, my lodging-rooms higher than is necessary. I know they are 
considerably higher than is usual, the intention of which is to give more air to the hounds ; and 
I have not the least doubt but they are better for it. I will no longer persecute you with 
this unentertaining subject, but send you the plan of my own kennel, and take my leave 
of you." 

It is customary for arrangements to be made by the master with neighbouring farmers 
and the occupiers of premises in the vicinity of the kennel, to "walk" young hounds from the 
time the latter leave their mothers, until they are old enough to be taken up and entered. On 
the subject of kennel management, feeding, and the subsequent entering of young hounds, 
Mr. Beckford has the following practical and judicious remarks : 

" If you find they take a dislike to any particular hound, the safest way will be to remove 
him, or it is very probable they will kill him at last. When a feeder hears the hounds quarrel in 
the kennel, he halloos to them, to stop them. He then goes in amongst them, and flogs every 
hound he can come near. How much more reasonable as well as more efficacious would it 
be were he to see which were the combatants before he speaks to them ! Punishment would 
then fall, as it ought, on the guilty only. In all packs there are some hounds more quarrel- 
some than the rest, and it is to them we owe all the mischief that is done. If you find 
chastisement cannot quiet them, it may be prudent to break their holders; for since they are 
not necessary to them for the meat they have to eat, they are not likely to serve them in 
any good purpose. 

"Young hounds should be fed twice a day, as they seldom take kindly at first to the 
kennel-meat, and the distemper is very apt to seize them at this time. It is better not to 
round them till they are thoroughly settled ; nor should it be put off till the hot weather, 
for then they would bleed too much. If any of the dogs are thin over the back, or any more 
quarrelsome than the rest, it will be of use to cut them. I also spay such bitches as I think 
I shall not want to breed from ; they are more useful, are stouter, and are always in better 
order. Besides, it is absolutely necessary if you hunt late in the spring, or your pack will be 
very short for want of it. It may be right to tell you that the latter operation does not 
always succeed ; it will be necessary, therefore, to employ a skilful person, and one on whom 
you can depend ; for if it is ill done, though they cannot have puppies, they will go to heat 
notwithstanding, of which I have known many instances ; and that, I apprehend, would not 
answer at any rate. 

" It without doubt is best, when you air your hounds, to take them out separately the 



268 THE BOOK OF THE Doc,. 

old ones one day, another day the young but as I find your hounds are to have their whey 
at a distant dairy, on those days both old and young may be taken out together, observing 
only to take the young hounds in couples, when the old ones are along with them. Young 
hounds are always ready for any kind of mischief, and idleness might make even old ones too 
ready to join them in it. Besides, should they break off from the huntsman, the whipper-in is 
generally too ill-mounted at this season of the year easily to head them, to bring them back. 
Run no such risk. My hounds were near being spoiled by the mere accident of a horse's 
falling. The whipper-in was thrown from his horse. The horse ran away, and the whole pack 
followed him. A flock of sheep, which were at a little distance, took fright, began to run, and 
the hounds pursued them. The most vicious set on the rest, and several sheep were soon 
pulled down and killed. I mention this to show you what caution is necessary whilst the 
hounds are idle ; for though the fall of the horse was not to be attributed to any fault of the 
man, yet had the old hounds been taken out by themselves, or had all the young ones been in 
couples, it is probable so common an accident would not have produced so extraordinary an 
event. 

" It is now time to stoop them to a scent. You had better enter them at their own game 
it will save you much trouble afterwards. Many dogs, I believe, like that scent best which 
they were first blooded to ; but be that as it may, it is certainly most reasonable to use them 
to that which it is intended they should hunt. It may not be amiss, when they first begin to 
hunt, to put light collars on them. Young hounds may easily get out of their knowledge, 
and shy ones, after they have been much beaten, may not choose to return home. Collars, in 
that case, may prevent their being lost. 

" You say you should like to see your young hounds run a trail scent. I have no doubt 
that you would be glad to see them run over an op.en down, where you could so easily observe 
their action and their speed. I do not think the doing of it once or twice could hurt your 
hounds, and yet, as a sportsman, I dare not recommend it to you. All that I shall say of it 
is that it is less bad than entering them at a hare. A cat is as good a trail as any ; but on no 
account should any trail be used after your hounds are stooped to a scent. 

" I know an old sportsman, a clergyman, who enters his young hounds first at a cat, which 
he drags along the ground for a mile or two, at the end of which he turns out a badger, first 
taking care to break his teeth. He takes out about two couple of old hounds along with the 
young ones to hold them on. He never enters his young hounds but at vermin : for he says, 
' Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it.' 

" Such young hounds as are most riotous at first, generally speaking, I think, are best in 
the end. A gentleman in my neighbourhood was so thoroughly convinced of this, that he 
complained bitterly of a young Pointer to the person who gave it him, because he had done 
no mischief. However, meeting the same person 'some time after, he told him the dog he 
believed would prove a good one at last. 'How so,' replied his friend, 'it was but the other 
day that you said he was good for nothing.' 'True; but he has killed me nineteen turkeys 
since that' 

" Hounds, at their first entering, cannot be encouraged too much. When they become 
handy, love a scent, and begin to know what is right, it will be soon enough to chastise 
them for doing wrong, in which case one severe beating will save a deal of trouble. You 
should recommend to your whipper-in, when he flogs a hound, to make use of his voice 
as well as his whip, and let him remember that the smack of a whip is often as much 
use as the lash to one that has felt it. If any are very unsteady, it will not be amiss 



THE HUNTSMAN AND WHIPPER-IN. 269 

to send them out by themselves when the men go out to exercise their horses. If you 
have hares in plenty, let some be found sitting and turned out before them, and you will 
soon find the most riotous will not run after them. If they are to be made steady from 
deer, they should see them often, and they will not regard them ; and if, after a probation 
of this kind, you turn out a cub before them, with some old hounds to lead them on, you 
may assure yourself they will not be unsteady long. 

" I will now endeavour to describe what a good huntsman should be. He should be 
young, strong and active, bold and enterprising ; fond of the diversion, and indefatigable in 
the pursuit of it ; he should be sensible and good-tempered ; he ought also to be sober ; 
he should be exact, civil, and cleanly ; he should be a good horseman and a good groom ; 
his voice should be strong and clear, and he should have an eye so quick as to perceive 
which of his hounds carries the scent when all are running, and should have also an 
excellent ear, as always to distinguish the foremost hounds when he does not see them ; 
he should be quiet, patient, and without conceit. Such are the excellences which constitute 
a good huntsman. He should not, however, be too fond of displaying them, till necessity 
calls them forth. He should let his hounds alone whilst they can hunt, and he should have 
genius to assist them when they cannot. 

" With regard to the whipper-in, as you keep two of them and no pack of Foxhounds 
is complete without the first may be considered as a second huntsman, and should have 
nearly the same good qualities. It is necessary, besides, that he should be attentive and 
obedient to the huntsman, and as his horse will probably have most to do, the lighter he 
is the better ; but if he is a good horseman, it will sufficiently overbalance such an objection. 
He must not be conceited. I had one formerly who, instead of stopping hounds as he 
ought, would try to kill a fox by himself. This fault is unpardonable ; he should always 
maintain to the huntsman's halloo, and stop such hounds as divide from it. When stopped, 
he should get forward with them after the huntsman. 

" You will perhaps find it more difficult to keep your whipper-in back than to get 
your huntsman forward at least, I always -have found it so. It is, however, necessary ; nor 
will a good whipper-in leave a cover whilst a single hound remains in it. For this reason 
there should be two, one of which should be always forward with the huntsman. You 
cannot conceive the many ills that may happen to hounds that are left behind. I do not 
know that I can enumerate one-half of them ; but this you may be certain of, that the 
keeping them together is the surest means to keep them steady. When left to themselves, 
they seldom refuse, I believe, any blood they can get ; they acquire many bad habits ; 
they become conceited (a terrible fault in any animal) ; and they learn to tye upon the 
scent (an unpardonable fault in a Foxhound). Besides this, they frequently get a trick of 
hunting by themselves, and they seldom are worth much afterwards. The lying out in the 
cold perhaps the whole night can do no good to their constitutions ; nor will the being 
worried by Sheep-dogs or Mastiffs be of service to their bodies. All this, however, and 
much more, they are liable to. I believe I mentioned in my fourth letter that the straw- 
house door should be left open when any hounds are missing. 

" A few riotous and determined hounds do a deal of mischief in a pack. Never, when you 
can avoid it, put them among the rest ; let them be taken out by themselves and well chastised, 
and if you find them incorrigible, hang them. The common saying, ' Evil communications 
corrupt good manners,' holds good with regard to hounds ; they are easily corrupted. The 
separating of the riotous ones from those which are steady answers many good purposes. It 



270 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

not only prevents the latter from getting the blood they should not, but it also prevents them 
from being overawed by the smacking of whips, which is too apt to obstruct drawing and 
going deep in cover. A couple of hounds which I received from a neighbour last year were 
hurtful to my pack. They had run with a pack of harriers ; and, as I soon found, were never 
afterwards to be broken from hare. It was the beginning of the season ; covers were thick, 
hares in plenty, and we seldom killed less than five or six in the morning. The pack at last 
got so much blood that they would hunt them as if they were designed to hunt nothing else. 
I parted with the two hounds ; and the others, by proper management, are become as steady 
as they were before. You will remind me, perhaps, that they were draft-hounds. It is true, 
they were so ; but they were three or four years' hunters an age when they might be 
supposed to have known better. I advise you, unless a known good pack of hounds are to 
be disposed of, not to accept old hounds. I mention this to encourage the breeding of hounds, 
and as the likeliest means of getting a handsome, good, and steady pack. Though I give you 
this advice, it is true I have accepted draft-hounds myself, and some have been very good : 
but they were the gift of a friend, mentioned by me in a former letter ; and, unless you meet 
with such another, old hounds will not prove worthy your acceptance they never can be very 
good, and may bring vices along with them, to spoil your pack. If old hounds are unsteady, 
it may not be in your power to make them otherwise ; and I can assure you from experience 
that an unsteady old hound will give you more trouble than all your young ones. The latter 
will at least stop ; but an obstinate old hound will frequently run mute, if he finds he can run 
no other way. Besides, old hounds, that are unacquainted with your people, will not readily 
hunt for them as they ought ; and such as were steady in their own pack may become 
unsteady in yours. 

"You desire to know what kind of hound I would recommend. As you mention not 
for any particular chase or country, I understand you generally ; and shall answer that I most 
approve of hounds of the middle size. I believe all animals of that description are strongest, 
and best able to endure fatigue. In the height as well as the colour of the hounds, most 
sportsmen have their prejudices ; but in their shape at least, I think they must all ag-ree. 
I know sportsmen who boldly affirm that a small hound will oftentimes beat a large t ic 
that he will climb hills better, and go through cover quicker ; whilst others are not less 
ready to assert that a large hound will make his way in any country, will get better 
through the dirt than a small one, and that no fence, however high, can stop him. You 
have now three opinions, and I advise you to adopt that which suits your country best. 
There is, however, a certain size best adapted for business, which I take to be that between 
the two extremes ; and I will venture to say that such hounds will not suffer themselves 
to be disgraced in any country. Somerville, I find, is of the same opinion : 

" ' But here a mean 

Observe, nor the large hounds prefer, of size 
Gigantick ; he in the thick-woven covert 
Painfully tugs, or in the thorny brake 
Torn and embarrassed bleeds. But if too small, 
The pigmy brood in every furrow swims ; 
Moiled in the clogging clay, panting they lag 
Behind inglorious ; or else shivering creep, 
Benumbed and faint, beneath the shelt'ring thorn. 
For hounds of middle size, active and strong, 
Will better answer all thy various ends, 
And crown thy pleasing labours with success.' 



DESCRIPTION OF A FOXHOUND. 271 

" I perfectly agree with you, that, to look well, they should be all nearly of a size ; 
and I even think they should all look of the same family : 

"'Fades non omnibus una, 
Nee diversa tamen, qualem decet esse sororum.' 

If handsome withal, they are then perfect. With their being sizable, what Somerville says 
is so much in your own way that I shall send it to you : 

"'As some brave captain, curious and exact, 
By his fixed standard forms in equal ranks 
His gay battalion, as one man they move 
Step after step, their size the same, their arms 
Far gleaming, dart the same united blaze : 
Reviewing generals his merit own ; 
How regular ! how just ! and all his cares 
Are well repaid, if mighty George approve. 
So model thou thy pack, if honour touch 
Thy gen'rous soul, and the world's just applause.' 

"There are necessary points in the shape of a hound which ought always to be attended 
to by a sportsman ; for if he is not of a perfect symmetry, he will neither run fast nor 
bear much work. He has much to undergo, and should have strength proportioned to it. 
Let his legs be straight as arrows ; his feet round, and not too large ; his chest deep, and 
back broad ; his head small ; his neck thin ; his tail thick and brushy, if he carries it 
well, so much the better. This last point, however trifling it may appear to you, gave 
rise to a very odd question. A gentleman (not much acquainted with hounds), as we were 
hunting together the other day, said, ' I observe, sir, that some of your dogs' tails stand 
up and some hang down ; pray, sir, which do you reckon the best hounds ? ' Such young 
hounds as are out at the elbows, and such as are weak from the knee to the foot, should 
never be taken into the pack. 

" I find that I have mentioned a small head as one of the necessary points about a 
hound. You will please to understand it as relative to beauty only; for as to goodness, I 
believe large-headed hounds are no way inferior. Somerville, in his description of a perfect 
hound, makes no mention of the head, leaving the size of it to Phidias to determine; he 
therefore must have thought it of very little consequence. I send you his words. 

" ' See there with count'nance blythe, 
And with a courtly grin, the fawning hound 
Salutes thee cow'ring, his wide op'ning nose 
Upwards he curls, and his large sloe-black eyes 
Melt in soft blandishments and humble joy ; 
His glossy skin, or yellow-pied or blue, 
In lights or shades by Nature's pencil drawn, 
Reflects the various tints ; his ears and legs 
Flecked here and there, in gay enamelled pride, 
Rival the speckled pard; his rush-grown tail 
O'er his broad back bends in an ample arch ; 
On shoulders clean, upright and firm he stands ; 
His round cat foot, straight hams, and wide-spread thighs, 
And his low-dropping chest, confess his speed, 



272 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

His strength, his wind, or on the sleepy hill, 
Or far extended plain ; in every part 
So well proportioned, that the nicer skill 
Of Phidias himself can't blame thy choice. 
Of such compose thy pack.' 

"The colour I think the least material of all; and I think with our friend Foote, that 
a good dog, like a good candidate, cannot be of a bad colour. 

" A good feeder is an essential part of your establishment. Let him be young and 
active, and have the reputation, at least, of not disliking work ; he should be good-tempered, 
for the sake of the animals entrusted to his care, and who, however they may be treated 
by him, cannot complain. He should be one who will strictly obey any orders you may give, 
as well with regard to the management as to the breeding of the hounds, and should not 
be solely under the direction of your huntsman. It is true I have seen it otherwise : I have 
known a pack of hounds belong, as it were, entirely to the huntsman, a stable of horses 
belong to the groom, whilst the master had little more power in the direction of cither than 
a perfect stranger. This you will not suffer. 

"I shall now take notice of that part of the management of hounds in the kennel 
which concerns the huntsman as well as the feeder. Your huntsman must always attend 
the feeding of the hounds, which should be drafted according to the condition they are in. 
In all packs some hounds will feed better than others ; some there are that will do with 
less meat, and it requires a nice eye and great attention to keep them all in good flesh 
it is what distinguishes a good kennel-huntsman, and has its merit. It is seldom, I think, 
that huntsmen give this particular all the attention it deserves ; they feed their hounds in 
too great a hurry, and not often, I believe, take the trouble of casting their eye over them 
before they begin ; and yet to distinguish, with any nicety, the order a pack of hounds are 
in, and the different degrees of it, is surely no easy task, and to be done well requires no 
small degree of circumspection. You had better not expect your huntsman to be very 
exact ; where precision is required he will most probably fail. 

"When I am present myself, I make several drafts. When my huntsman feeds them 
he calls them all over by their names, letting in each hound as he is called ; it has its 
use it uses them to their names, and teaches them to be obedient. Were it not for this, 
I should disapprove of it entirely, since it certainly requires more coolness and deliberation 
to distinguish with precision which are best entitled to precedence, than this method of 
feeding will admit of, and, unless flesh is in great plenty, those that are called in last 
may not have a taste of it. To prevent this inconvenience, such as are low in flesh had 
better, I think, be all drafted off into a separate kennel ; by this means, the hounds that 
require flesh will have an equal share of it. If any are much poorer than the rest, they 
should be fed again such hounds cannot be fed too often. If any in the pack are too 
fat, they should be drafted off, and not suffered to fill themselves ; the others should eat 
what they will of the meat. The days my hounds have greens or sulphur, they generally 
are let in all together, and such as require flesh have it given to them afterwards. Having 
a good kennel-huntsman, it is not often I take this trouble ; yet I seldom go into my 
kennel but I give myself the pleasure of seeing such hounds fed as appear to me to be 
in want of it. I have been told that in one kennel in particular the hounds are under 
such excellent management that they constantly are fed with the door of the feeding-yard 
open, and the rough nature of the Foxhound is changed into so much politeness that he 



POINTS OF FOXHOUNDS. 273 

waits at the door till he is invited in, and, what perhaps is not less extraordinary, he 
comes out again, whether he has satisfied his hunger or not, the moment he is desired 
the effect of severe discipline. But since this is not absolutely necessary, and hounds may 
be good without it and since I well know your other amusements will not permit you to 
attend to all this manoeuvring I would by no means wish you to give such power to your 
huntsman. The business would be injudiciously done, and most probably would not answer 
your expectations. The hound would be tormented malapropos an animal so little deserving 
it from our hands that I should be sorry to disturb his hours of repose by unnecessary 
severity. You will perceive it is a nice affair, and I assure you I know no huntsman who 
is equal to it. The gentleman who has carried this matter to its utmost perfection has 
attended to it regularly himself, has constantly acted on fixed principles, from which he has 
never deviated ; and I believe has succeeded to the very utmost of his wishes. All hounds 
(and more especially young ones) should be called over often in the kennel, and most 
huntsmen practise this lesson as they feed their hounds. They flog them while they feed 
them, and if they have not always a bellyful one way, they seldom fail to have it the other. 
It is not, however, my intention to oppose so general a practice, in which there may be 
some utility ; I shall only observe that it should be used with discretion, lest the whip 
should fall heavily in the kennel on such as never deserved it in the field. 

" My hounds are generally fed about eleven o'clock ; and if I am present myself I take 
the same opportunity to make my draft for the next day's hunting. I seldom, when I can 
help it, leave this to my huntsman ; though it is necessary he should be present when the 
draft is made, that he may know what hounds he has out 

" It is a bad custom to use hounds to the boiling-house, as it is apt to make them nice, 
and may prevent them from ever eating the kennel-meat. What they have should always be 
given them in the feeding- yard, and for the same reason, though it should be flesh, it is better 
it should have some meal mixed with it. 

" If your hounds are low in flesh and have far to go to cover, they may all have a little 
thin lap again in the evening ; but this should never be done if you hunt early. Hounds, I 
think, should be sharp-set before hunting ; they run the better for it." 

So much having been quoted from the work of the greatest and most practical writer 
upon the management of Foxhounds which the world has hitherto produced, any additional 
remarks of our own would be superfluous. We therefore now conclude this article on 
Foxhounds by giving a simple scale of points, after which we pass on to a class of dogs 
which renders material assistance to hunting men when their fox has gone to earth. 

SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING FOXHOUNDS. 

Value. 

Head and throat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Chest ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Body and loins ... ... ... ... ... ... ... IO 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Stern ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

General appearance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

50 



274 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

THE FOX-TERRIER. 

IT is an indisputable fact that since the year 1875 the number of Fox-terriers exhibited at our 
shows has steadily increased. The breed having much to recommend it in the way of 
appearance, and not being of the impetuous disposition which is so characteristic of the modern 
Bull-terrier, there is no wonder that it should have become fashionable, amongst the fair sex 
especially. 

Unfortunately, at its first appearance, almost anything in the shape of a Terrier which was 
hound-marked, and which had its tail removed, was received by the uninitiated as a Fox-terrier. 
Dog shows have, however, taught people differently, and the worst class of dog which used to 
be palmed off as a Fox-terrier has almost disappeared. It is nevertheless by no means to be 
taken for granted that the breed has shaken down into one regular even type. There are at 
least two principal schools of breeders, holding entirely antagonistic views concerning the class 
of dog which they want to see produced, and these two schools are in their turn subdivided 
into a number of smaller factions, who differ in certain details from the party to which they 
claim to belong. 

Before proceeding to trace out the history of the modern Fox-terrier, and remark upon the 
differences of opinion which exist between his main supporters, we propose giving the remarks 
of several gentlemen who, being recognised authorities, have kindly given us the result of their 
researches. Foremost is Mr. J. A. Doyle, of Crickhowell, whose kindness in supplying us with 
so much valuable information requires our most cordial acknowledgment. 

The antiquity and the precise origin of the modern Fox-terrier are involved in considerable 
obscurity, and I cannot pretend to do more than to point out a few scattered facts bearing 
on the subject. But before I approach that question it would be well to brush away certain 
fallacies on this matter which have, I believe, exercised a very deleterious effect on the breed of 
Fox-terriers. We are often told that the Fox-terrier is not a pure breed at all, but a manu- 
facture a compound of divers elements. Now, there is just enough of truth in this theory to 
make it dangerous. It is true enough that a large proportion of the dogs whom we see on 
the show benches, many of them more or less true Fox-terriers in outward appearance, are 
produced by ingenious, or more often by lucky crosses. It is probably true that the very 
best of them are not wholly free from alien crosses of Beagle and Bull-terrier. But I feel 
sure that a careful analysis and investigation of pedigrees will prove that the best Fox- 
terriers are those which for many generations have been bred from dogs of one definite type, 
and in whose pedigrees there is as little alloy as possible. To work out this in full would 
oblige me to anticipate what will come in more fittingly when I proceed to sketch the various 
families into which Fox-terriers are divided. 

Whether the Fox-terrier was in his origin a cross-bred or made-up dog is another question, 
and a far harder one to answer. But even if he be so, that fact does not take him out of the 



ORIGIN OF THE FOX-TERRIER. 275 

category of pure breeds. What is the modern Pointer but a development of the old Spanish 
Pointer by judicious infusions of Foxhound blood ? What is the Setter but a gradual develop- 
ment of the Field Spaniel by crosses calculated to give size and ranging power ? Where are 
we to find a certainly pure breed of dog, excepting perhaps the Bull-dog and Mastiff? Yet 
who would deny the claim of the Laverack Setter or the Sefton Pointer to be now a pure, 
distinct, and unmanufactured breed ? I make just the same claim for the modern Belvoir 
Terriers, and for others that can trace back to strains with a definite and well-established type. 
The purity of blood may not be of so high a degree, but it is the same in kind. 

One argument often used by those who contend that the Fox-terrier is a manufactured 
dog is the extreme diversity of type, which baffles the efforts of breeders. To my mind this 
simply proves that there are an immense number of dogs about outwardly resembling Fox-terriers, 
but without any hereditary claim to the name, and incapable of transmitting even that amount 
of resemblance which they themselves possess. That breeders should fail, as long as they 
work with such materials, is but natural. I see no reason to think that if breeders will 
cultivate hereditary purity of type, and carefully exclude all impure blood, however tempting 
its immediate results may be, they will find more diversity in Fox-terriers than in any other 
kind of stock. Another cause of diversity, no doubt, is the system, or rather the no-system, on 
which Fox-terriers have been bred. So many are bred, and they are in so many hands, and 
multiply so rapidly, that impure blood has great opportunities of circulating. Moreover, no 
breed of animal has ever attained a high degree of uniformity and fixity of type, except through 
the operations of a few breeders, who have worked steadily and patiently from generation to gene- 
ration with a definite goal in view. No one has yet done for Fox-terriers what two generations of 
Booths did for Shorthorns ; what Edward Laverack did for Setters. They have for the most 
part been bred by men who had no real knowledge of the material with which they were 
working, and no aim beyond an immediate result. Even those who have bred carefully, have 
kept the control of their materials in their own hands for many generations together. Can 
we wonder that the result has not been wholly satisfactory ? 

The precise antiquity of the Fox-terrier is, as I have said, a question somewhat hard to solve. 
There is not, as far as I know, any definite evidence of the existence of the present breed earlier 
than the memory of men yet living. At the same time there is ample evidence for the existence 
of Terriers used for the same purposes as the modem Fox-terrier, and it is far from improbable 
that some of them closely resembled the present breed. For the early existence of Terriers 
we have the often-quoted evidence of Dr. Keys, or as he preferred to call himself, after the 
fashion of the day, Caius. In his great work on dogs, already alluded to, he describes Tcrraril, 
small dogs used for chasing the lesser kinds of vermin and pursuing them underground. But 
of the shape and appearance of these dogs, and whether they were rough or smooth, he tells 
us nothing. Later writers who deal with field sports throw but little light on the subject. 
They occasionally refer to Terriers and their work, but none give us any idea of the external 
characteristics of the breed. One writer, indeed, tells us that a cross between a Mastiff and 
a Beagle makes an excellent Terrier ! Another writer, somewhat later, describes the Terrier 
as a kind of mongrel Greyhound. It is, however, clear that the Terrier was well recognised 
as a sporting dog. Thus Gilpin, in his description of the New Forest, gives an account, 
evidently taken from some contemporary writer, of an eccentric Hampshire squire, in the 
seventeenth century, whose hall was inhabited by his hounds, Spaniels, and Terriers ; and by 
the manner in which the last are spoken of, it is clear that they were part of a country gentle- 
man's sporting establishment. There is even more definite evidence that in the last century 



276 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Terriers were bred with some care. In a memoir of the well-known Yorkshire squire, Colonel 
Thornton, who flourished in the latter half of the century, and whose taster, embraced every 
department of sport, we read of a Terrier belonging to him called Pitch, " from whom are 
descended most of the white Terriers in this kingdom." It is furthermore recorded that the 
Colonel paid special attention to his breed of Terriers. In the sporting works of the early 
part of the century we begin to find more definite and detailed accounts of the Terrier. The 
author of "The Sportsman's Cabinet" gives a minute account of the peculiarities and working 
capacities of the Terrier. There were, he tells us, two breeds ; the one wire-haired, larger, 
more powerful, and harder bitten ; the other smooth-haired and smaller, with more style. 
The former, he tells us, were white, with spots, the latter black-and-tan ; the latter colour 
apparently predominating. An accompanying print represents two Terriers at work, one light 
coloured, the other dark, both prick-eared. The same writer tells us that it was customary 
to take out two Terriers with a pack of hounds, a larger and a smaller one the latter as an 
ultimate resort, if the earth were too narrow to admit the bigger dog. That even at this time 
Terriers were bred with some care and that certain strains were highly valued, is shown by 
the recorded fact that a litter of seven pups was sold for twenty-one guineas a good price 
even in these days and that a full-grown dog on one occasion fetched twenty guineas. The 
real truth I imagine to be, that there was no one definite and well-established type of Terrier 
throughout the kingdom, but that here and there some squire or huntsman, who chanced to 
be an enthusiast on the point, cherished a particular strain, and to a certain extent developed 
a type for himself. Many a manor-house and farmstead in Devonshire and Yorkshire we may 
be sure had its three brace of Terriers, as well deserving of immortality as the heroes of 
Charlieshope, though not as fortunate in their historian. Pictures, unhappily, do not throw 
much light on the matter. In old engravings we sometimes meet with a pair of rough-looking 
mongrels as the companions of a huntsman or earth-stopper, but, unhappily, excepting the one 
to which I referred above, none give a sufficiently detailed idea to be of any value for the 
history of the breed. One exception indeed there is, and that a somewhat curious one : a 
picture at Vienna by Hamilton, a Dutch painter who lived early in the last century, contains 
a composition of fruit and flowers, with a white wire-haired Terrier in the foreground. The 
dog has all the characteristics of the modern show Terrier, with the one exception of a pink 
nose. He has apparently a good hard coat, and perfect drop ears. The shape of his head, 
the expression of his face, and his whole attitude and outline, are thoroughly characteristic and 
Terrier-like. The similarity is the more remarkable since there is, as we shall see, pretty good 
evidence that the modern wire-haired Terrier is the result of a distinct and well-ascertained 
cross in recent times. Hamilton ranks among Dutch painters ; his name, however, suggests 
an English connection, and I certainly have never met with a Terrier, either in the paintings 
of Snyders or any of his countrymen. 

As to the modern Fox-terrier, his history has been very clearly set forth in two articles 
published some while ago in the late Country newspaper, by a well-known writer, under the 
sobriquet of " Peeping Tom." He tells us, on the authority of Mr. Gibson, one of the best- 
known breeders of Terriers, that nearly forty years ago there were dogs in the Midlands 
possessing all the characteristics of the modern show Terrier. I may add that I have myself 
heard Mr. Gibson make the same statement. I may further illustrate this by mentioning that 
two old hunting men made, quite independently, the same criticism on a well-known modern 
show Terrier i.e., that she was exactly the same stamp as they remembered in their boyhood. 
The bitch in question was Vexcr, by Venture, out of Fussy, all names well known in show 



EARL? SHOW TERRIERS. 277 

annals. Now, it may be impossible to trace the origin of the modern show Terrier to these dogs 
in each particular instance. But when we know that a well-recognised breed existed some 
forty years ago, and that dogs are now found possessing precisely the same characteristics, it 
is hardly too much to assume that the breed has gone on in direct succession. It is worth notice 
that many of these old Terriers were black-and-tan. The sire of Old Trap, for example, was a 
black-and-tan dog ; yet, I have been assured on good authority, a true Fox-terrier. I have 
certainly found, myself, that breeding closely to the Old Trap blood is apt to produce heavy 
markings. Mr. Gibson also once told me that he had got a litter of black-and-tan pups by 
Trap out of a white bitch. Indeed, I have little doubt that any enthusiast who took the trouble 
might, if he cared, re-establish the old black-and-tan breed by careful selection. But, of course, 
as every one knows, the white dog is the most easily seen, and therefore far the best for cover 
shooting and general purposes, and so, by the process of "survival of the fittest," he has 
extinguished the old black-and-tan type. The writer in the journal to whom I before 
referred mentions a picture of one of these black-and-tan dogs, in which he is represented as a 
thorough Terrier, according to modern notions, in every respect save colour. The tradition of his 
exploits with a badger has also survived. I may mention that I have actually seen a black- 
and-tan Terrier in the flesh to whom the same description would apply. He, I was assured, 
came from a distinct black-and-tan strain now almost extinct. 

I may mention one fact, as illustrating strongly to my mind the connection between the 
modern show Terrier and the kennel Terrier of twenty or thirty years ago. Every one who is 
familiar with modern show Terriers knows Mr. Burbidge's Fan. A more thorough Terrier, in 
expression and general appearance, it would be impossible to find. Her pedigree goes back for 
several generations through well-recognised lines, chiefly to the kennel Terriers of the Grove 
hounds. Yet, except Old Jock, who, as is well known, was bred at the Ruffbrd kennels, there is 
not a single show dog in her pedigree. This, I think, makes pretty strongly for my view that 
the modern show Fox-terrier (when good) owes his origin, not, as some would have us believe, to 
ingeniously-welded crosses of Bull-terrier, Beagle, &c., but to the old kennel Terrier of thirty 
years back. No doubt fair imitations of Terriers may be produced by the " manufacturing " 
process, but no man can hope to breed from them with success unless he expects the laws of 
Nature to be suspended for his special benefit. 

I will now pass from the region of speculation to that of actual fact, and deal with the show 
Terrier as we have known him during the last ten or twelve years in fact, since shows became 
an institution. Before going into details, however, it may be as well to say a few words as to the 
general character of show Terriers and the changes which they have undergone. At the outset of 
dog shows the prize winners were simply the best-looking kennel Terriers. The Grove contri- 
buted Old Jock and Grove Nettle, the Oakley Old Trap, and the Quorn Psyche. Very soon, 
however, the demand outran the supply. Fox-terriers became the fashion, and suffered accord- 
ingly. People were found ready to give ^30 or 40, and even more, for actual or possible 
prize-winners, and pups with any pretence to merit were bought up greedily. The result was 
that the market was speedily filled with dogs who had no claim whatever to the title of Fox- 
terriers. This soon made itself felt on the show benches. Dogs either far too fine, or light 
of bone, or far too heavy for work, won prizes, and multiplied their kind. A well-marked head 
was regarded as a far more important point than such trifles as feet and coat. All definite- 
ness of type was lost. One year toys reigned supreme, next season giants had their day. The 
true Terrier seemed in danger of extinction, and was probably only preserved by one or two 
persons who went on breeding the right type patiently with very little immediate reward. 



278 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

It would be, perhaps, rather perilous to go into details as to the modern show dogs, but 
few will deny that the last few years have seen a considerable improvement. Not only are 
most of our prize-winners genuine working Terriers, in appearance and character, but they also 
most of them derive their good qualities from certain definite and well-established strains. 
We may therefore reasonably hope that breeders are at length on the right tack, and that we 
may look for a marked improvement during the next few years. 

I propose now to take a survey of the leading families of show Terriers. But before I do 
so I must say a word about two or three special groups of Terriers somewhat antecedent to 
show days. First of all, there is one type which has contributed something, though not a great 
deal, to our stock of prize-winners. This is the old Cheshire or Shropshire Terrier. By far 
the most important strain of this sort was that belonging to Domville Poole, a well-known 
Shropshire squire. His kennel was in its prime some five-and-thirty years ago. Where he 
obtained his original blood from I have never been able to learn. They were bred with great 
care, and had at one time reached such uniformity of type that, as I was told by a friend of 
Mr. Poole's, a stranger often failed to distinguish one dog from another. This ought to be at 
once a warning and an encouragement to modern breeders. At one time Mr. Poole had about 
twenty couples of them, and was painted with his pack around him. At a later period, within 
my own memory, they had been reduced to about half a dozen, partly from their pugnacity 
and frequent deadly battles, partly, as Mr. Poole himself believed, from too persistent adher- 
ence to his own blood. Their pluck was most severely tested, and if a young one fell short in 
that respect, he was soon sentenced to the horse-pond. This pluck was undoubtedly originally 
obtained from a Bull-dog source, and I suspect occasionally replenished in the same fashion, 
and as a natural consequence, pink noses and prick and tulip ears found their way in. At the 
same time Mr. Poole always endeavoured to keep out those features ; in fact, he tried to get 
his dogs with as much as possible of the exterior of pure Fox-terriers and the internal temper 
and character of the Bull-terrier. I do not know whether any of his Terriers ever ran with 
hounds. If they did I should think they must often have been too savage for their work, 
and inclined to close with and murder their fox, instead of snapping at and bolting it. And 
I would here remark that the Bull-terrier cross affects the whole temper and character as 
much as his external appearance. It does not, as far as my experience goes, affect a dog's 
nose, as might be expected ; indeed, some of the keenest hunters I have known have been 
dogs with a strong Bull cross. But it tends to make him mute instead of noisy, and more quarrel- 
some than belongs to tlte trite Fox-terrier's character. Nor is the pluck of a Bull-terrier and a 
Fox-terrier -wholly identical. The former is stoically indifferent to pain : the latter feels 
punishment, yet returns to the charge again from sheer keenness and love of sport 

The Cheshire Terriers (or Shropshire, for the sorts were identical), were perhaps best 
known to the world through the kennel of Mr. Stevenson of Chester, whose blood was mainly 
obtained from Mr. Poole. In the early days he won a few prizes, but for the most part 
contented himself with breeding game useful dogs, for which he always found a ready market. 
Champion Tartar, whom I shall speak of again, was of his blood, and the late Mr. Arrow- 
smith, who won a good many prizes at Yorkshire shows, built up his kennel from a bitch of 
Mr. Stevenson's breed. Another well-known Shropshire kennel was Lord Hill's. His dogs 
were, I think, rather smaller and neater than Mr. Poole's, but of the same stamp. In former 
days I owned a Shropshire Terrier bred by Mr. Stevenson from Mr. Poole's blood, and he 
might serve as a good type of the sort. He weighed just 15 Ib. when in good condition, 
and though he showed a little Bull in the head, was not otherwise deficient in Terrier character. 



OLD FOX-TERRIER SIRES. 279 

For his temper and mode of work he was a thorough Terrier, except that he was rather more 
teachable than is usual. His Bull-terrier descent showed itself chiefly in the extreme fineness of his 
ears. I have often seen him come out of a gorse covert with his ears raining blood, yet always 
ready for another go-in. One noticeable feature about these dogs was the almost entire 
absence of black-and-tan markings. I myself have seen a good many, and never saw one so 
marked. One I have seen with that sort of dark brindle which we sometimes find in the Belvoir 
blood, but as a rule if they were marked at all it was with a light lemon-tan. I do not 
know whether Lille, who for many years reigned supreme at Birmingham, had any Shropshire 
blood in her, but her appearance certainly suggested it. I well remember a Shropshire friend 
of mine pointing her out to me at Birmingham as the stamp that he had been brought up 
to admire. 

The best known, however, of these dogs, and the only one that left his mark definitely among 
show Terriers, was old Tartar. He was bred by Mr. Stevenson, from Mr. Poole's blood (indeed, 
he was on his sire's side half brother to my old dog, whom I described). After winning some 
prizes he passed into the hands of Mr. Wootton for 40, a price which in those days created 
universal astonishment. Subsequently he was bought by the Hon. T. W. Fitzwilliam, who 
at that time also owned Jock. Tartar had a brilliant show career, and succeeded one year at 
Birmingham in beating his hitherto invincible kennel companion, Jock. Tartar was a short, thick-set 
dog, rather broad in chest, with extraordinary legs and feet, and wonderful muscle everywhere. 
At the same time he unquestionably showed Bull, not only in his head, but also in his loins and 
thighs, where the muscle stood out in bosses, a feature never found in the true Terrier. At 
the stud he was chiefly notable as the sire of Tyke and Trumps, both begotten from daughters 
of Jock. The former was the offspring of that good bitch, Nectar, and was in point of gameness 
a worthy son of Tartar. As a show dog he was fairly successful, and his name is to be found 
in more than one good pedigree. Tartar's chief claim to fame as a sire, however, rests on Tyke. 
As with his father, disputes ran high over him, and even in the very zenith of his show career 
he was roundly denounced by some as a Bull-terrier. Unlike his sire, he was a dog of remarkable 
style and quality, though it could not be denied that his fine coat, the build of his hind- 
quarters, and a patch on one cheek, which admirers called hound-tan, and enemies brindle, 
bewrayed his origin. He in his turn begot that sterling good bitch, Natty, and a very neat dog, 
Little Jim, in whom his sire's good and bad characteristics seemed to be intensified. Another 
fair son of Tyke was Mr. Procter's Tester. Indeed, it is probable that Tyke had a brilliant 
career before him as a sire, when he met with an untimely end in a fight, not long after he had 
become the property of Mr. Gibson of Brokenhurst at the long price of 120. 

To sum up, I should say that looking at the many good qualities of the Shropshire blood, 
especially of the Tartar family, there is no objection to a slight infusion of it. But it needs to 
be handled gingerly, and a second cross of it would be almost sure to bring out objectionable 
peculiarities. 

I now come to an important branch of my subject, the consideration, namely, of what I may 
for convenience call the Midland Terriers, from whom, as I believe, our best show blood is derived, 
The three packs with which this sort has been specially connected are the Belvoir, the Grove, 
and Lord Middleton's. An admirable account of these was given in the Country by the writer 
to whom I have before referred. Two of these packs, the Grove and Lord Middleton's, had for 
their huntsmen members of the Morgan family, a race as prolific in huntsmen as the Napiers 
have been in soldiers. Consequently there have been, I believe, frequent exchanges of Terrier 
blood between the two kennels. The kennel, however, which has specially made a point of its 



2 So THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Terriers is the Belvoir. Their pedigrees can be traced back in a direct line for more than thirty years, 
and though of course it would be impossible to get a detailed account of all the links, it is clear that 
there were dogs among them who would have held their own well in modern shows. As to their 
working capacities it is needless to dwell on them. The very fact of a particular strain being 
kept and cherished by more than one huntsman is evidence enough of its merits on that point. 
At the same time, I have my doubts whether they have been kept absolutely free from all 
introduction of Bull-terrier blood. At least I know that some twelve years ago prick-ears and 
pink noses were not wholly unknown among them ; and I have been told that such traits do even now 
make their appearance occasionally. Besides these three packs, there are others that have had 
good Terriers. The Brocklesby had, I believe, some ; and their Tartar deserves special mention 
as the grandsire of that good dog Jester II. Beers too, the Duke of Grafton's huntsman, specially 
prided himself on his Terriers, and had some good ones, partly, I believe, of the Belvoir blood. 
As an evidence of the value of the blood, especially for working purposes, I have been assured on 
good authority that he could always get 10 for a young dog, entered to work, before the present 
rage for Fox-terriers. Another who paid special attention to his Terriers was Whitmore, the Hon. 
Mark Rolle's huntsman. He, like Beers, got some of his blood from the Grove ; and his Grip, so 
bred, was the sire of Foiler, and, through him, the ancestor of many of our best Terriers. 

Just as thoroughbred horses are often grouped into three families, headed by the Derby 
Arabian, the Byerley Turk, and the Godolphin Arabian the Shem, Ham, and Japhet of the 
Turf, as they have been called so we may conveniently classify Fox-terriers under the families of 
Jock, Trap, and Belvoir Joe. That, at least, will practically include nearly all of any note. Other 
strains there are, notably that of Old Foiler, which have been of value, but they are almost 
extinct in the male line, and the division I propose will certainly include nineteen-twentieths of 
the really good dogs. First, if not in merit at least in the widespread nature of his influence, 
comes Old Jock. My own recollections of the old dog date from his declining days ; but I can 
well believe what I have often heard alleged, that he has never had a superior, and scarcely an 
equal. My own impression, based on the recollection of what he was when I saw him in his 
wane at Birmingham show in 1867 is that Buffett, Bloom, Olive, and perhaps Hornet and Fussy, 
are the only Terriers since that could have held their own with him. At the stud he can hardly 
be said to have got anything of the same class as himself; still, he had a goodly list of winners 
among his progeny, and his blood has come out with wonderful success through his daughters. 
In fact, Jock bitches have been to Terrier breeders what Touchstone mares have been to the 
breeders of racehorses. The best, perhaps, of Jock's, as a show dog, was his namesake, Jock II., 
the Birmingham winner in 1872. He was a son of that grand bitch, Grove Nettle ; at least, he 
was said to be so. I have heard, however, doubts thrown on this, and certainly Jock II.'s utter 
failure as a stud dog throws some suspicion on his pedigree. Another good son of Jock was 
Vassal, who won at Birmingham in 1866. His chief claim to celebrity as a stud dog rested 
on Gadfly. Gadfly was himself far from a show dog ; but he begot a good many winners, 
including that most unworthy recipient of high honours, Rivet. Gadfly, I should add, was an 
undoubted son of Grove Nettle, so it can be no matter for surprise that his name often occurs 
in a good pedigree. Vassal's dam was, I believe, of unknown pedigree ; but I have been told 
by one who knew her that she was a rather weedy bitch, deficient in coat, with a good deal 
of English Terrier character. This may account for certain objectionable peculiarities that 
have from time to time shown themselves in the descendants of Gadfly prick-ears and fine 
coats among them. One special merit of the Gadfly blood is its great gameness. Indeed, though 
Jock himself bore a doubtful character in this respect, his descendants have been as a rule 



THE JOCK FARIILY. 281 

conspicuous for pluck. The son on whom old Jock's mantle really fell, at least as a sire, 
was Jester. His dam, Cottingham Nettle, was herself said to be a daughter of Old Jock. This, 
if true, strikingly illustrates the capacity of the blood to bear in-breeding, a capacity of which 
I shall have more to say hereafter. Jester himself was never shown, owing to an accident, 
and I should hardly imagine that he had the style and quality needful for a show dog. His 
fame as a stud dog was established by his two daughters, Satire and XL. Satire was, as I 
have said, out of a bitch of Mr. Stevenson's blood, and, besides winning many prizes, she 
was the dam of good ones. XL was seldom shown ; but most good judges are agreed in 
placing her among the best ever seen. She was begotten from a bitch by old Tyrant, dam 
by Jock, and as Tyrant himself was a grandson of Jock, this is a pretty good comment on 
the lengths to which in-breeding may safely be carried. XL herself, whether from ill-luck 
or injudicious mating, never bred anything of any conspicuous merit. Of Jester's sons, by 
far the most noted was Jester II., from a bitch combining the Brocklesby and Lord Middleton's 
blood. His Terrier-like character, marred by a coarse head and ill-carried ears, is too fresh 
in the memory of the public to need description. As a stud dog, his best success has been 
with that sterling good bitch Akely Nettle. Her dam was a granddaughter of Old Jester, 
another illustration of the aptitude of the blood for in-breeding. 

There is yet another son of Jock's that deserves mention, Mr. Shirley's Jack, a Birmingham 
winner in 1867. He passed into Mr. Gibson's hands, but was unluckily lost before he had 
time to prove his full merits as a sire. His memory, however, was preserved at Brokenhurst, 
by his daughter Judy, the dam of Moss, from whom are descended a host of good dogs, 
including Buffett and Bloomer, and thus, through two lines, Bloom. 

Passing to Jock's daughters, unquestionably the most distinguished of them was Nectar. 
She was a genuine daughter and the only one by Jock of Grove Nettle. She was, however, 
a good deal lighter than her dam, and would hardly have had substance enough to satisfy 
most judges now-a-days. Still she would always have stood high. She was, in her turn, the 
dam of several good though of no first-class dogs. A more distinguished daughter of old 
Jock, at least as a matron, was Cottingham Nettle, the dam, by different dogs, of Jester, Willie, 
and Brokenhurst Nettle ; the latter, in her turn, the dam of Flinger, Flasher, Brokenhurst Sting, 
and Boxer. Besides these we shall, in the course of our genealogical survey, come across other 
successful daughters of Old Jock. I have already noticed the special fitness of this blood for 
in-breeding, and I will mention a few more instances. Tyrant was out of a Jock bitch. His son, 
Sam, was also out of a Jock bitch. Sam's three best children, setting aside Venture Myrtle, 
Willie, and Tickler were all out of Jock bitches. Again, Nectar, when put to Tyke, produced 
young Tyke, a dog of remarkable quality ; while to Tyrant she produced Nina and Lill, both prize 
winners. Lill, in turn, was put to Gadfly, a grandson of Jock, and also related to her through 
Grove Nettle, and produced Derby Nectar, a bitch of considerable merit. I may add that I 
myself owned a full sister to Derby Nectar, who, when put to Young Tyke, produced Gamester. 
a dog that has done remarkably well over in America, both as a show dog and a sire. It is 
noticeable, too, that both Gamester and his own brother, who was drowned on the voyage, 
were dogs of remarkable bone and strong coat, indeed rather coarse in general character, and 
with plenty of pluck ; albeit their dam was a light, delicate bitch. I shall return to the whole 
subject of in-breeding further on. 

As to the external peculiarities of the Jock blood, they are almost always full of Terrier 
character, and have plenty of substance, with good coats, legs, and feet. They are not always 
very good in shoulder, their ears are apt to be carried rather high, and their heads have not 
38 



282 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

the beautiful cleanness characteristic of the Foiler and Belvoir blood, and are apt to get coarse 
with age. 

I now come to a line of blood even more valuable, in my opinion, than the Jock strain, 
that, namely, of Old Trap. Trap himself was but seldom shown, and was consequently not 
very well known to the public. His sire was a black-and-tan dog, undoubtedly ; I believe one 
of the old black-and-tan stock to which I before referred. Trap has been described to me 
by an M.F.H., in whose possession he at one time lived and worked. He was a compact, well- 
made dog, just the right size, with a lean head, and with plenty of bone. His one marked 
defect was a fine coat, which a good deal interfered with his work. There is certainly a 
tendency to this defect in one of the families descended from him that of Tyrant notably 
in the Chance branch of it. At the same time, I am not sure whether this may not have 
come in on the dam's side. Trap's most noted son, undoubtedly, was Tyrant, out of an own 
sister to Vassal. His lot was unluckily cast in the days when a well-marked head and a generally 
" graceful " appearance went for more than sterling working points, and though he was fairly 
successful on the show-bench, his merits were certainly not fully recognised. In build he 
was a regular "big little "un," low on the leg, with great substance, and length in the right 
place. As a stud dog he was pre-eminently successful, but for some reason his sons and 
daughters were hardly equally so in reproducing the family good qualities. There seems to 
have been a certain tendency in the blood to grow big and coarse, and deficient in compact- 
ness and Terrier character. The best, probably, of Tyrant's sons was Bitters, a dog of 
something the same stamp as his sire, immensely powerful yet very compact. Unluckily his 
dam brought in an undoubted infusion of Bull-terrier, and, as a consequence, Bitters, although 
he has had great opportunities both with Mr. Gibson and Mr. Burbidge, has failed to keep 
up the character of the family. The best, perhaps, of his stock was Boxer, a big coarse dog, 
but the sire of several good ones. Pre-eminent amongst these was Bloomer, a neat little 
bitch herself, who has earned immortality as the dam of Bloom. Another well-known son 
of Tyrant was Old Chance. His dam appears to have been by a Grove dog out of a Belvoir 
bitch. There can be little doubt, however, that Old Chance inherited some Bull or English 
Terrier blood, as shown in the length of his head and the fineness of his coat. These and 
kindred faults were transmitted to many of his descendants, more especially of the male 
sex, though at the same time he figures among the ancestors of more than one good dog. 
A far more successful son of Old Tyrant at the stud was Sam, who, as we have seen, got 
a second infusion of Jock blood through his dam. Sam's history was a somewhat curious 
one. He was a low, coarse dog, with plenty of substance and working character, but with 
nothing in his looks which promised a great career. Accordingly, when he was stolen, early in 
life, his owner took but little pains to recover him. In the meantime, however, Tickler and that 
grand bitch Myrtle had come out as show winners, and had proved the value of the blood. 
Accordingly, there was a hue and cry after their sire, and he was with some difficulty 
unearthed. In his after career he begot a number of good Terriers, though none quite equal 
to Myrtle. His best son was Venture, whose dam was got by Hopcroft's Trap, a com- 
paratively unknown dog, but an own brother to Tyrant. As might be expected from his 
double cross of Trap, Venture was a thick-set, stiff dog, not as long in head as most of the 
Tyrants, and rather wide in chest. His career was cut short by an apoplectic fit, before he 
had begotten a son worthy to fill his own place, so his fame rests chiefly on his daughters. 
Of these the best were Vanity from Cottingham Nettle, and Patch and Vexer from Fussy, 
who was herself full of Trap blood. Vanity and Vexer have both inherited their sire's 



THE TRAP FAMILY. 283 

wide chest, a defect much less noticeable in Patch. Another good son of Sam was Willie 
out of (Nottingham Nettle, to whom I have already referred. As a stud dog he has rather 
disappointed expectation, his stock running too large. 

Harking back to Old Trap, we come to one of his sons, who, I am disposed to think, has 
done even more permanent good than Tyrant namely, Pickle. Pickle himself was never, 1 
believe, either shown or advertised at the stud, and consequently had but little opportunity 
of getting show Terriers, as his services were practically confined to the bitches of that very 
successful breeder, Mr. Turner of Leicester. Pickle has been described to me as a thick-set 
dog with extraordinary bone. I have not been able to ascertain his dam's exact pedigree, but 
there is, I believe, little doubt that she was a pure-bred Belvoir Terrier. His best hit was in 
getting Artful out of Vcne, a daughter of old Trap. Artful, as might have been expected from 
this breeding, was a thick-set dog of great substance. He was again crossed with Tricksy, a 
direct descendant of Trap through Chance and Tyrant, and begot Rambler, who has immortalised 
himself as the sire of Mr. Burbidge's Nettle. The former bitch was, in the opinion of some 
good judges, the best that ever stood on a show bench. That her expression and outline were 
those of a thorough Terrier could not be doubted, but her open feet and wide chest were 
serious drawbacks. The stud reputation of Rambler seems likely to be sustained by his grandson, 
Pickle II., got by an own brother to Nettle, from that grand bitch Olive. Pickle's deformed 
feet would alone have served to debar him from a show career, but such stock as Volo, Daisy, 
and Deacon Nettle, have already given him a high place at the stud. 

There are yet one or two other sons of Trap who require notice. One of these was 
Ragman, from a bitch of no note, and, I believe, no pedigree. Ragman himself was a big coarse 
dog. By far his most creditable performance was getting Fussy from a daughter of Hopcroft's 
Trap a decided case of in-breeding. Fussy herself, barring her somewhat thick shoulders, was 
almost faultless, and her Terrier expression was perfect. I well remember seeing her when 
between seven and eight years old, at Birmingham, showing all the life and fire of a young 
one, and with scarcely a trace of age in her contour. Ragman was also credited with the 
parentage of Spot, the sire of Vandal, a good workman-like dog, though somewhat coarse. I 
imagine, however, that Vandal's antecedents were not such as to make his pedigree a matter 
of great certainty. 

There is yet another branch of the Trap blood which it would be high treason to omit, 
though I confess that I approach its merits and failings with fear and trembling, I refer to 
Bounce and his son Buffer. Over the merits and defects of the latter controversy has waxed 
as fierce as the Stud Book warfare over the Blacklock blood. Bounce himself I never saw, 
and except Buffer and a dog of some merit named Bismarck, I am not aware that he has left 
any noteworthy stock. 

Buffer's dam, too, was not known to fame, but I confess, though I am not one of Buffer's 
thoroughgoing detractors, I have always suspected an infusion of Beagle blood somewhere. In 
general character the Buffers have little in common with the rest of the Traps, and seem to 
have struck out a new and well-defined type for themselves. Strong coats, long heads, good 
shoulders, and excellent legs and feet, are the main characteristics of the blood, while these 
merits are too often counterbalanced by heavy dead-looking ears and a sour expression. First, 
of course, among his sons comes Buffett, of whom I have already expressed my high opinion. 
Indeed, but for a tendency, and that not very pronounced, to the family type of ear, it is 
hard to find a fault with him. One drawback to his success has been a delicate constitution. 
Whence this is inherited it is hard to say. Indeed, altogether, Buffett is rather a violation 



284 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of the laws of breeding. No dog ever showed more style and quality. Yet that is not the 
pre-eminent characteristic of the Buffer blood, while as for Buffett's dam, Frolic, a more plebeian- 
looking matron could not be found in a day's march. Be that as it may, Buffett has certainly 
transmitted his own style to his son Vulcan, from a bitch of old kennel blood. At the same 
time the family failings of head and ears have reappeared. Buffett's other distinguished son, 
Buff, is a far more characteristic representative of the blood, with immense bone and a decidedly 
plain head and ears. Any defects in the dog himself, however, were more than made up for 
by his progeny, when at the Alexandra Palace Show of 1878 he burst on the world as the sire 
of the three best bitch puppies that ever found their way into one class. The merits of the 
trio, Deacon Ruby, Bloom, and Blossom, are too well known to need comment. Another good 
son of Buffer is Nimrod, who, like Buff, shows all the characteristics of the family. In 
spite of his deserved successes on the show bench, even his admirers must admit that he has 
so far been a most disappointing dog at the stud. As yet Buffer's daughters have failed to 
rival their brothers, either on the show bench or the stud, with the one conspicuous exception 
of Dainty, the dam of Dorcas. My own general verdict on the Buffer blood is that, like that 
of Tartar, it has decided merits, but that it must be handled with very great care, and 
sparingly used. Its worst feature, in my opinion, is the extraordinary tenacity of its defects. 
The faults of other strains the fine coats of the Tykes, the wide chests of the Traps, the 
open feet of so many of the Belvoir Terriers, and the weak hocks and crouching quarters of 
the Foilers may all be eliminated by careful crossing, but the heavy ears and sour expression 
of the Buffers seem to reappear unexpectedly after we had hoped that they were completely 
eradicated. Still, the admirers of Buffer may console themselves with the reflection that as 
long as they can point to dogs like Buffett, Dorcas, Bloom, Buff, Vulcan, Nimrod, and 
Gripper, the blood is not likely to lose its popularity. 

There is yet one more alleged subdivision of the Trap family to be considered, though its 
claims to the title are very doubtful. Hornet entered on public life as a son of Trap and 
Grove Nettle, though I have found very few breeders who accepted the pedigree as authentic. 
What Hornet's real origin was is, I imagine, a question never very likely to be solved. The 
merits of the dog himself were undoubted. Indeed, for a combination of substance and strength 
compressed into a small compass it would be difficult to name his superior. As might be 
supposed, however, the rumours about his ancestry rather militated against his popularity 
with breeders, and his untimely death, the result, I believe, of dumb madness, prevented him from 
showing such merit as he may have possessed as a sire. Still, he got one or two fair dogs ; 
and it must be borne in mind that he was the sire of Moss and Brokenhurst Nettle, who 
perhaps did more than any other two bitches to establish the fame of the Brokenhurst 
kennel. Nor must it ever be forgotten that Bloom has three crosses of Hornet blood. 

Setting aside the Buffers, who, as I have said, seem to have struck out a line for themselves, 
the characteristics of the Trap blood are a compact rather square build, with good Terrier- 
like heads, seldom long, except in the Chance family, small ears, strong loins and quarters, with 
sterns well or indeed in some cases rather too gaily carried, and especially good legs and feet. 
Their worst fault is a marked tendency to be broad in the chest, a fault especially found, I 
am inclined to think, in the bitches at least Nettle, Myrtle, .Vanity, and Vexer, who are otherwise 
among the best of them, were none of them good in that point. The Tyrant branch of the family 
are, I think, not always good in coat, while the descendants of Pickle, on the other hand, 
have generally coats of the very best type, close and hard, appearing fine to the eye, but 
deep and dense when handled. 



THE BELVOIR FAMILY. 285 

I had almost forgotten to say anything of the daughters of old Trap, though the omission 
would not have been a serious one. Mr. Turner's Vene, the dam of Artful, was probably the 
best of them. Another good one was Riot, who occurs in more than one good pedigree Nimrod's, 
I think, among the number. But for some reason Trap did not contribute nearly as large 
a supply of successful matrons as his rival, Jock. It is hardly needful to say that some years 
ago an immense number of Terriers laid claim to Jock and Trap as ancestors, whose claims 
to the title were of an exceedingly shadowy character. 

I now come to the third and last of what I have treated as the three great families, that 
descended from Belvoir Joe. Four or five years ago the merits of this blood were known 
to comparatively few persons, and no one would have imagined that it was likely to assume 
equal importance with either Trap or Jock. There can be no better evidence of its merits 
than the extraordinary rapidity with which it has made headway, and asserted itself against 
formidable rivals. I have already touched upon the history of the Belvoir Terriers ; and 
the best and fullest account of them is to be found in the articles by " Peeping Tom," to 
which I before referred. The representative of the Belvoir strain through whom the blood 
is specially connected with the present race of show dogs is Belvoir Joe, though at the same 
time there are are one or two less-known members of the family who occasionally appear 
in modern pedigrees. Belvoir Joe himself was got by Trimmer, a dog from the Grove, and 
his dam was also out of a bitch of Grove blood. Belvoir Joe himself was I believe never 
shown, and I have met but few people who knew him. I believe, however, that he was a coarse 
and rather large dog. From Belvoir Venom, whose title indicates her origin, he begot three 
sons, Jock, Grip, and Viper, all of whom left some fair stock, especially Belvoir Jock. Belvoir 
Joe's real success however, was achieved by his union with two bitches of Mr. Branston's, 
Vic and Nettle. I have never been able to learn any particulars about Vic, beyond the 
fact that she was all white, and extraordinarily game, and that she was believed to be of 
the Belvoir blood. Nettle was her daughter, by a small dog, supposed to be a son of Old 
Trap. From Vic Belvoir Joe begat Belgrave Joe, and from Nettle Mr. Turner's Old Nettle, 
and it is to these two that the Belvoir blood owes all its present celebrity. The latter is 
the dam of Mr. Burbidge's Nettle, of whom I before spoke, and of her brother, Tyrant, and 
thus is the ancestress of Pickle II. In addition to this, Nettle, when put to Brokenhurst Joe, 
a son of Belgrave Joe, and consequently closely related to herself, bred that good bitch, Needle, 
the Alexandra Palace winner in 1877. Belgrave Joe himself is so little known to the public, 
except by name, that it may not be amiss to say a few words about him. He is a dog of 
some 1 8 or 19 pounds weight, rather high on the leg, with a grand Terrier coat, and a head only 
equalled, in my opinion, by his daughter Olive. Unlike many of the Belvoir dogs, he has 
excellent feet, and there is none of that weakness behind which is often found in the 
family. My acquaintance with him only dates from his old age ; but even now, in I believe 
his tenth or eleventh year, he could hold his own, I imagine, with most show dogs of the day. 
As most of his stock are still in their prime, it is needless to dwell upon them. The best 
evidence of his merits was perhaps to be found at the Kennel Club Show in the summer of 
1879, where four out of the six winners in open classes were begotten by his two sons, 
Brokenhurst Joe and Beppo; while in one of the other classes his son Tom was disqualified 
for being over-weight, after being placed first by the judges. The capacity of the blood for 
bearing in-breeding is sufficiently shown by Tom, whose maternal granddam was the offspring 
of Belvoir Jock and Mr. Turner's Nettle, and also by the success which Pickle II. has had 
in connection with bitches of the Belvoir Joe blood, in the cases of Deacon Nettle, Daisy, 



'286 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and Discord. Besides their Terrier-like character, general symmetry, and good coats, the 
family is noticeable for the great beauty of its heads and necks. Their main defect, and 
a serious one, is their weak, open feet. Too many of them, too, are narrow and light 
in the thighs, with a tendency to be cow-hocked. In both these points the Trap blood 
is a good corrective, and it is, indeed, to this cross that the Belvoir strain owes its best 
successes. 

It might be thought that I had overlooked two important strains, those of Foiler and 
Turk, the former an undoubted, the latter an alleged, son of Grip. Considering the great 
value of the Foiler blood, such an omission would be little short of a crime. Foiler, however, 
so far owes his successes to his daughter, and consequently it is scarcely necessary in a classi- 
fication of strains to give him a place among the great families. Foiler himself was bred by 
Whitmore, of whom I before spoke. His sire, Grip, was got by Grove Willie, a Terrier of 
pure Grove blood, and the son of a Grove Nettle, but whether of tlie celebrated Grove Nettle 
is, I believe, doubtful. Grip's dam was a bitch of old Devonshire blood, descended from dogs 
belonging to the Rev. John Russell. Grip himself has been described to me as a square-built 
workman-like dog, full of Terrier character. His son Foiler was also out of a bitch of Mr. 
Russell's blood. Of this blood I have been unable to ascertain any details, but I strongly 
suspect that it possessed very marked characteristics of its own, and that it is to this that 
the Foiler blood owes certain peculiarities which distinguish it from any other strain. Old 
Foiler himself, like Tyrant, fell upon evil times, when a real working Terrier met with very 
little appreciation, and there is little doubt that in these days he would have won much higher 
honours than ever fell to his share. At the stud, too, his career was cut short, like that of 
Mr. Gibson's other noted sires, Tyke and Venture, by his untimely death. Still he had made 
good use of his opportunities, and besides begetting Dorcas, he had by his repeated unions 
with Moss laid the foundation of a whole host of winners. His only two sons of any repute 
were Flinger and Flasher, two fair but not pre-eminently good dogs. Neither of them, as far 
as I know, has left any noteworthy stock behind, probably from lack of opportunity. There 
are, I believe, one or two sons or grandsons of Foiler, from Belvoir bitches, still in existence, 
so it is not impossible that the strain may again be resuscitated in the male line. To judge 
from present appearances, however, it is through Folly and Frolic, the dams of Bloomer and 
Buffett, that Foiler will be best known to posterity. The main characteristics of the blood 
are very strong coats, narrow chests, and good shoulders, with a peculiar type of head, long 
and fox-like, but not in the least snipy. Another peculiarity of the blood is its tendency to 
throw out dew-claws on the hind feet Indeed, I have seen a puppy closely in-bred to old 
Foiler who was furnished with a double set of these appendages ! The defect of the blood is 
its tendency to drooping quarters and low-set sterns, and consequently to an awkward crouch- 
ing carriage. In this point the Trap blood is, as in the case of the Belvoir Terriers, a valuable 
corrective. There is another peculiarity about the Foiler blood which makes it, when 
judiciously handled, specially valuable to breeders, and that is the extraordinary persistence 
with which the leading features of the family assert themselves, and the power which it has 
of swamping and annihilating inferior lines. Bloom and her sister Blossom are, to my mind, 
striking examples of this. I well remember looking at them at the Alexandra Palace Show, 
where they first appeared, with a friend, who remarked on the entire absence of likeness either 
to the Buffer or Bitters families, which were the two principal elements in their pedigree. The 
difficulty was at once solved when we remembered that they were descended on both sides 
from Foiler, whose best points were strikingly reproduced. Thus, if a breeder only gets a 



OLD RATTLER. 287 

concentration of old Foilcr blood, he is at least pretty sure that he will get a fixed and 
definite type. 

The claims of Turk to be a son of old Grip are, I believe, much more doubtful. Turk 
himself will be doubtless remembered by many as a square-built, workmanlike dog, a trifle 
coarse and large. This character was faithfully reproduced in his stock, almost all of whom 
were somewhat coarse about the head. From this charge I must except Saracen, a dog 
whose failings are certainly not on the side of coarseness. The Turk blood at one time 
seemed likely to take a high place, but though it has had good opportunities it has failed to 
produce any one dog of great merit, and I question whether it is ever likely to figure 
prominently in prize lists. 

And, now, some one will probably ask, Do you intend to pass over the greatest of all 
show Terriers the dog whose prizes alone made up an income that many a rising barrister 
might envy the invincible Rattler ? Certainly, to make no mention of Rattler would be to 
ignore a most conspicuous figure in the world of Fox-terriers. Still, my survey has hitherto 
included not so much celebrated dogs, as those strains of blood which have produced, and 
may in future be expected to produce, high-class Terriers ; and, much as I admire Rattler 
himself, I can hardly find a place for him in that classification. However, his many victories 
and his real merits deserve mention, and I can at the same time deal with his great-grand- 
father, who, like himself, at one time held a high place in show records, Champion Trimmer. 
Trimmer himself was a dog who at least made no false claim to high pedigree, as it was 
pretty well known that his sire and dam were accidentally picked up, and were animals of no 
great merit. Trimmer himself was a neat wiry little dog, equally undeserving, in my opinion, 
of the prizes he won and of the undiscriminating abuse heaped upon him. His brother, 
Crack, was a dog of much the same stamp. Trimmer himself never, as far as I know, begot 
anything of much merit ; but two of his descendants took a very high position indeed among 
show dogs. One of these was Mr. Bassett's Tip, by Burnham's Trimmer, a compact square- 
built dog, at one time of very great merit, but with a broad chest and a somewhat thick 
head, two faults which increased terribly with advancing years. And I may here remark that, 
as far as my experience goes, nothing more conspicuously distinguishes a really well-bred 
Terrier from a specious-looking mongrel than the durability of the former's good qualities, and 
especially of the outline of the head. A dog with Bull-terrier in him may have a good head 
at eighteen months or two years old, but two years later the objectionable characteristics will 
show themselves. A true Terrier, like Belgrave Joe, Dorcas, or Fussy, is almost as good at 
eight years old as in his (or her) best days. Trimmer's other noted descendant was Rattler 
by Fox, a son of Trimmer II., whose dam was that good bitch Vene, to whom I referred 
when speaking of her sire, Trap. I have never heard any particulars of Fox, or of any of 
Rattler's ancestors on the dam's side, so I think we may safely set Rattler down as the one 
distinguished member of an otherwise unknown house. Whether he really stood out among his 
contemporaries as far as was often thought may be questioned. Certainly, he did not impress 
one with that high-bred look and that Terrier-like dash and fire of expression which we see 
elsewhere. Still, when he was criticised in detail it was hard to find any faults beyond a 
slight tendency to a wheel back, and a somewhat soft and listless expression the latter 
doubtless increased by a life spent for the most part either in railway trains or on show- 
benches. At the same time I cannot but look upon Rattler's unprecedented success as 
somewhat of a misfortune for the interests of Fox-terriers. Possessing, as I have said, no 
hereditary type, he utterly failed to transmit any to his progeny. Numbers of people set to 



288 THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 

work with the idea that they had only to breed from this universal conqueror to get good 
Terriers, and the failure which almost invariably ensued was set down as illustrative of the 
so-called " lottery of breeding." 

I do not pretend in these remarks to have gone exhaustively through the whole range of 
show winners. I have, doubtless, omitted some good dogs within the families which I have 
mentioned, and some few, such as Lancer, lie outside of them. What I have sought to do 
is to show the lines on which Fox-tenier breeding has hitherto gone, and especially to give 
young breeders some definite idea of the materials with which they are working, and of the 
results which they may expect. To a beginner the pedigrees of his dogs are too often but 
an unmeaning list of names. I have endeavoured to clothe the dry bones of the Kennel 
Club Stud-book with a certain amount of life and individuality. 

I now pass on to what is sometimes regarded and unhappily treated as a distinct breed, 
though it should really be looked on as a sub-division of Fox-terriers the wire-haired Terrier. 
I have already mentioned the grounds I have for thinking that the wire-haired Terrier 
was known in the last century. I may add that I have reason to think that there was, 
till lately, a definite breed of white rough-haired Terriers, not unlike the Dandie or Bed- 
lington in build and character, but rather harder in coat. It is easy to sec that such a 
breed might, by crossing, or even by accidental variation, produce Terriers closely resembling 
the regular wire-haired breed. There was also in Shropshire a well-known breed of wire- 
haired Terriers, black-and-tan, on very short legs, weighing about ten or twelve pounds, with 
long punishing heads and extraordinary working powers. So too, one used to meet with 
sandy-coloured Terriers of no very well-authenticated strain, but closely resembling the 
present breed of Irish Terrier. It is clear that, from either of these varieties crossed with 
the smooth Fox-terrier, a wire-haired strain might be easily developed. As a matter of fact, 
I believe that the present race of show wire-haired Terriers do, to a great extent, owe 
their origin to a well-recorded cross of the kind. On this point I shall avail myself of 
some notes kindly communicated to me by the gentleman to whom I have before referred 
as writing under the signature of " Peeping Tom." He tells me that a certain Mr. Thornton, a 
Yorkshire squire living near Pickering, had a breed of wire-haired Terriers, tan in colour, with 
a black stripe down the back. He describes them as about 16 Ibs. weight, with grand 
Terrier heads and drop-ears, in fact, in every respect, except colour, the model of the 'show 
wire-haired Terrier. One of these dogs, crossed with a smooth-haired Fox-terrier, produced 
a strain of white wire-haired Terriers. Of these the most famous was Kendal's Old Tip, 
a kennel terrier belonging to the Grimington hounds. He was a white dog with one 
marked ear, 16 Ibs. weight, and is still known as an extraordinary workman. From him 
came one of the very best wire-haired Terriers ever seen, Carrick's Venture, and there has 
been scarcely a prize-winner since that has not inherited a strain of his blood. Another noted 
Yorkshire strain of wire-haired Terriers, so my informant tells me, belonged to the Cleveland 
hounds, and as he does not say that they were produced by a similar process of crossing, 
it is not unlikely that they may have been an old-established breed, though perhaps originally 
the result of a cross. Among the wire-haired Terriers of the present day, two stand out 
conspicuous, Thorn and Gorse. The former was bred from parents of unknown pedigree, 
but of Terrier-like appearance and remarkable working powers. Corse's ancestry I have 
been unable to trace with any clearness. The besetting fault of modern wire-haired Terriers 
undoubtedly lies in their coat. The coat should be short, hard, and dense, and feeling, as the 
name implies, like a wire brush. Instead of that, it is too often long, soft, and open. Such a 



VARIOUS POINTS IN FOX-TERRIEKS. 



289 



coat does not offer half the protection against wet given by a fairly good smooth coat. The 
latter throws off the rain, the former absorbs it, and becomes, after a hard day, like so much 
sloppy seaweed. 

There seems to be also a great tendency on the part of modern wire-haired Terriers to 
be overgrown and leggy, and to lose all uniformity of type. In fact, they give me the 
idea of a breed produced by recent crossing, which, without care, would break up again 
into its original elements. Were I a breeder of these dogs I should be strongly inclined to 
try to refresh their merits by dipping into the original fountain-head, and to re-combine the 




MR. THEODORE BASSETT'S FOX-TERRIER "BROKENHURST STING." 



smooth Terrier, selecting a good hard-coated strain, such as that of Foiler, with either the 
original Yorkshire stock described above, or, if that could not be recovered, with a good 
Irish Terrier. By an Irish Terrier I mean a genuine Terrier of working dimensions, not one 
of the 24 Ib. monstrosities that too often disgrace the name. 

So far I have been concerned with the method according to which Terriers have been 
and ought to be produced. I now come to what many will consider probably a more 
practical question what a Terrier should be. Obviously he must have good legs and feet, 
the former straight, clean, muscular, and not too fleshy ; the latter close, round, and well 
braced up. The straightness of the legs should be tested rather by looking at the inside than 
outside, as a very muscular swelling fore-arm, which is an undoubted merit, may give an 
appearance of crookedness outside, when there is no real malformation. The chest should be 
37 



2oo THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

deeo and narrow ; if wide, the dog's power of going to earth is lessened without any propor- 
tionate increase of power. Moreover, in nine cases out of ten a wide chest means bad action. 
On the other hand, if the chest be narrow, it must be deep to give space for the heart and 
lungs, as well as slope for the shoulders. The shoulders should be thin, long, and well laid 
back, the two last-named points being even more important than the first. The middle 
should be neither flat-sided on the one hand, nor tub-shaped on the other, but the ribs 
should spring well from the spine, and descend with an oval sweep. The back-ribs should 
be deep, and the dog should be well ribbed up. At the same time, I would rather have 
a dog a trifle deficient here, provided he had plenty of liberty and hind-leg action than have 
him too short in the quarters. The stern should be set on fairly high, and gaily carried, 
though of course not like a Pug's. In this point, indeed, a Foxhound is a good model, 
and if fashion allowed us to show Terriers with their tails unmutilated, the likeness in this 
respect would be complete. The thighs should be long and muscular, and the hocks well let 
down. This, indeed, is a more important point than is often supposed. Strong, well-formed 
hocks are no doubt important, but I would rather have somewhat weaker hocks well let down, 
than good ones with a long interval between them and the ground. Lastly, the dog should 
stand square and true on his feet. 

Of the coat I have already spoken. It should be dense, abundant, and hard, fine to the 
eye, and thick to the hand. A strong feather on the thighs, and a thick stern are desirable, 
as sure accompaniments of a good coat, and symptoms of a hardy constitution. On no account 
should the belly and the under-side of the thighs be bare. 

It is clear, however that a dog may have all these points, and yet not be up to the 
standard of merit required in a show Terrier. Here comes in what I have called secondary 
qualities. In the first place, besides being truly shaped, the dog must have that indescribable 
look of style and high breeding usually known as quality. The neck should be of moderate 
length and thickness, slightly arched, and sloping gracefully into the shoulders. I now come 
to that important point the head. In calling this a secondary point I do not in the least 
mean to detract from its value. A good head is essential to beauty, and is also a requisite 
symptom of pure breeding. But provided that the jaw be strong enough that is all we require 
for mere working purposes, and therefore the head fairly falls under the class of what I have 
called secondary points. A few years ago an idea prevailed now I think happily on the 
wane, though not yet wholly exploded that length was the great thing to be aimed at 
in a Terrier's head. Now, where length can be got without any sacrifice of Terrier character 
or expression, as in Dorcas, and still more in Olive or Belgrave Joe, no doubt we have the 
perfection of a head. But the real point is the shape and expression of the head, and length 
is too often obtained at the expense of these. A long straight head, going down like a 
wedge, is an infallible symptom of affinity to the Bull-terrier or his first cousin the English 
Terrier. It is noteworthy that in certain strains, notably that of Old Chance, a short thick 
head is found alternating with an abnormally long one, the Bull-terrier cross manifesting itself 
sometimes in one form, sometimes the other. Those who care to push this inquiry further 
will find some interesting speculations on the subject of length of head in domestic animals 
in the writings of Mr. Darwin. The right type of head is more easily illustrated than 
described ; and a walk round the benches at a big show with a competent critic will do more 
to instruct a beginner on this point than pages of writing. The jaw, of course, should be 
strong, and the teeth level. A slightly undershot mouth is no practical hindrance to a 
dog's work ; but it is an infallible sign of a Bulldog cross, and as such very properly puts its 



BREEDING FOX-TERRIERS. 291 

owner out of competition. The head should be cleanly chiselled out below the eye, and 
the eye itself should be small and keen-looking, and on no account projecting. The eyes 
should be rather wide apart, and the forehead proportionately broad, and not conical like 
a Setter's. The ears should be small, triangular, and not too thin. They should not be 
set too high on the head, though that is better than their hanging helplessly from the neck. 
While on the subject of ears, I may mention to young readers that they never need fret 
themselves as to a puppy's mode of carrying its ears. I have known more than one 
case where the ears were never quite properly carried till the dog was in his second year. 
With bitches the first litter of pups often proves a turning-point. Lastly, I come to that 
all-important feature Terrier character. The true Fox-terrier has a look of dash and 
vivacity which marks him off from almost all other breeds. A friend of mine, no inexperienced 
judge, goes so far as to say that at a show you can always tell the well-bred dogs by watching 
which wag their tails on the bench. Undoubtedly a cheerful temper and a gay lively carriage 
are essential features of the breed. Many a well-made dog has a stiff, wooden look, and from 
such I should be very loth to breed. 

As to kennel management and the like, I do not know that there is anything in the 
Fox-terrier that requires special notice. It may not be amiss, however, to give a few 
words of advice to young breeders, and perhaps I cannot begin better than by describing the 
method in which such too often set to work. Our would-be exhibitor sees a bitch whose 
appearance pleases him. Her pedigree contains the names of a few well-known dogs. 
Without considering whether there is a likelihood of her reproducing her own qualities, 
whether those qualities are really obtained by descent, and sufficiently stereotyped in the family 
to ensure reproduction, he purchases her, and sets to work to breed from her. A dog 
is selected, possibly simply because he writes Champion before his name, possibly (if the 
breeder be exceptionally far-seeing) because he appears likely to correct the faults of the bitch, 
regardless of the fact that each of them inherits, though each does not display, precisely the 
same faults. He singles out and keeps the best puppy ; the rest are scattered to the winds. 
The pup is perverse enough to obey the laws of Nature, and to grow up with the defects which 
his sire and dam owe to a common ancestor. The bitch is condemned as worthless for breeding, 
and the aspirant either gives up the attempt, or, if unusually persevering, tries another experiment 
on precisely the same principles. What, I may be asked, should he have done? Now, no 
paper instructions, nothing but care, patience, and experience, often dearly bought, will enable 
a man to breed any sort of stock successfully. Still, there are a few plain rules, by observing 
which a breeder will at least diminish his chances of failure at the outset. In the first 
place, what an animal reproduces is not primarily its own individual peculiarities, but the 
peculiarities of its family. If it is in-bred that is, if the sire and dam possess the same hereditary 
type then it is almost sure to reproduce that type. If it is cross-bred that is, if it combines 
more than one hereditary type, it will probably, though not certainly, reproduce the oldest 
and most fixed. If it be an amalgam of a number of strains, it may reproduce anything. 
These remarks, of course, only take into account the influence of one parent. That influence 
may reign paramount, or it may be modified or wholly destroyed by the influence of the 
other parent. If both the parents be of the same hereditary type, and that a well-defined 
one, then and then only he may be pretty sure of the result. If they differ, we may get either 
one type or the other, or possibly, a new variety, differing from either of the parent types. 
In pure breeding then i.e, breeding from animals of the same type, and who derive that type 
from a common stock lies our only hope of certainty. Here and there of course it is necessary 



2Q2 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to cross to get rid of certain positive defects, but the process is a perilous one, and should 
be undertaken with caution. These are but trite maxims, yet few people obey them in 
practice. 

Having then established the principle that there must be a sufficient degree of similarity 
and of common descent to ensure uniformity, we have to face the question of selecting and 
mating the individual specimens. And here I believe that an error is often made by breeders 
who have risen a degree above the practices which I described at the outset. A favourite 
notion is that we should correct the defects of one parent by the excessive merits of the 
other. Now, in details this may be true enough. If we have large ears on one side we 
must try to diminish the liability by getting small ears on the other ; so with legs and feet 
and coat, and with peculiarities of temper. But it is a fatal error to couple two animals of 
widely different type, as a big leggy dog with a neat compact bitch, or a light shelly bitch 
with a coarse thick-set dog. Modify your type gradually by careful selection. No valuable 
breed of animals was ever yet produced, as far as I know, at one bound by the combination 
of widely differing sorts. 

As to the question of in-breeding, my own view on the subject is, never be afraid of 
in-breeding, and never in-breed except when it is necessary. Use the most suitable dog. If 
two dogs be equally suitable, choose that one who is least nearly related. Without a 
certain amount of in-breeding it is impossible, as I have said before, to ensure certainty of 
type. With reference to the precise degree of in-breeding that may be permitted, it is impos- 
sible to lay down a general rule. The whole question was well discussed in some articles 
which appeared several years ago in the Live Stock Journal. The writer there clearly 
pointed out the reason why in-breeding has in domestic animals been sometimes attended with 
disastrous results. Almost every animal has certain morbid tendencies, and once any morbid 
tendency has established itself in a family, every consanguineous union of course tends to 
double it. In some animals the very process which fits them for the use of man is, in itself, 
the creation of a morbid tendency. The fattening properties of the Leicester sheep and the 
Shorthorn ox are obtained by a certain exaggeration of one part of the system the consequent 
disturbance of the healthy harmony of the whole. In wild animals, the process of "struggle 
for existence" constantly tends to preserve that harmony and to redress any violation of it. 
Hence, among wild animals in-breeding is carried to great lengths with impunity. In all kinds 
of dogs used for field sports, artificial selection has, on the whole, adopted and perpetuated the 
same characteristics that Nature preserves in wild animals. Hence the extent to which in- 
breeding may be safely carried, as in the Laverack Setters. At the same time there are in all 
strains certain inherent defects, and the inevitable tendency of in-breeding is to enhance these 
defects ; hence, if we in-breed closely, we must select those specimens who are most free from 
the family failings. In dogs, I am strongly of opinion that shyness is a result to be feared 
from too close breeding. It is hardly needful to say that this shyness, which is a fatal fault 
in a show dog, and a serious drawback to his working and companionable qualities, is wholly 
different from timidity. One of the very best working Terriers I have ever known is so shy 
as to be absolutely wretched in a crowded street or at a show. She is the offspring of very 
near relations, and in her case in-breeding has not produced any bad effects in the way of 
weediness or constitutional weakness. 

There is one more point to be noticed in the management of the brood bitch that is, the 
age at which it is desirable to breed from her. While I believe that a bitch does not reach her 
prime till she is over two years old, I never should object to put a bitch of ten or eleven 



RE A KING FOX-TERRIER PUPS. 293 

months old to the dog if the season of the year were suitable. I have known good pups so 
bred, and in many cases the process is beneficial to the bitch's temper and appearance, and 
also, I think, to the next litter. To let a bitch remain a maiden beyond her second heat is, 
in my opinion, dangerous, as likely to make her a shy breeder hereafter. I need hardly say 
that March, April, and May are the best months for puppies to come in ; September and October 
the worst. Indeed, it is only under exceptional circumstances that I should ever breed an autumn 
litter. 

It may perhaps be well to supplement these generalities by some more detailed advice. 
If any one wishes to establish a kennel of Fox-terriers in the easiest and least expensive 
way, I should recommend him to set about it as follows : Let him get two bitches of good 
blood, and free from positive defects. The better-looking they are doubtless the better his chance, 
but let him be sure they are healthy and game. It is difficult to assign exactly the different 
share which each parent has in influencing the offspring, and I am inclined to think that most 
of the theories which have been put forward on this point rest on no solid basis. But this 
much may be taken for granted, that temper and constitution are largely determined by the 
mother, and that if we would have healthy offspring we must have a healthy dam. Let the 
breeder, then, give these bitches a fair chance, mating them carefully, and discarding none 
of their pups till he is sure they are worthless. Even then, if he can, he will do well to keep 
his eye on them. Every pup we breed is the result of an experiment from which something 
may be learnt, and in this respect one's failures may be the stepping-stones to future success. 
Suppose, for example, that there is one good bitch in a litter, while the rest have all bad 
shoulders. If the breeder keeps sight of these he will know that he must be on his guard 
against that fault in breeding from their sister. If, as is too often the case, he troubles 
himself about nothing beyond the individual animal, he will be astonished at the appearance in 
the next generation of a fault from which both parents are free. By such a system as I 
have indicated a breeder will get a thorough familiarity with the hereditary peculiarities of all 
his stock he will, in a word, know the material with which he his working. 

Having thus started our inexperienced breeder on his career, it may be well to say a 
few words about the management of his young stock. There are some people who tell us 
that they can infallibly pick out the best puppy of a litter. If a breeder can learn the 
art, "happy man be his dole." For my part I am content to keep all that do not show 
any very pronounced defect, in the belief, based on experience, that the least promising of the 
litter may often be the one prize in it. The only defects in my opinion that justify one 
in actually condemning a puppy are a fine coat and very large ears. Crooked legs may 
come straight, an undershot jaw may grow level (at least up to four or five months old), 
and a big overgrown puppy will sometimes stop growing with extraordinary suddenness, 
while a small weedy one, especially a bitch, will occasionally thicken and furnish wonder- 
fully when well on in her second year. One bit of advice I would give every breeder, to 
keep a careful record of his pups, and to write down at the time of weaning or earlier his 
opinion of their merits. This will be the best means of testing his own powers of judging 
their promise. 

As to rearing pups, my own belief is, that when reared in numbers they should be 
walked out at farmhouses and cottages. A number of pups kept together must either suffer 
from want of exercise or else constantly lead one another into muchief. Moreover, if dis- 
temper gets among them it runs through the whole lot, and probably disorders the older dogs. 
Pups kept out at walk get more liberty, their intelligence is more developed, and they are 



294 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

more likely to be cured of any tendency to molest sheep and poultry. No doubt when 
kenneled up their objection to restraint gives some trouble, but this is a slight set off against 
the advantages on the other side. 

Entering young Terriers to the work is happily not a matter of much difficulty. If a 
pup is well bred he very soon learns his work in the company of an older dog. At the same 
time I have known dogs who showed no interest whatever in their work at first, who would 
simply play with a rat and run foolishly backwards and forwards outside a cover, but 
who nevertheless, when once the destructive impulse had asserted itself, proved thorough 
workmen. 

With reference to feeding Fox-terriers I would only remark that I have never myself 
found the plan answer of putting their food before them and requiring them to eat it at once, 
and then removing what is left. Whether from their excitable temper or from any other 
cause, I know not, but few Terriers will eat their rations straight off. My own plan is to 
feed about four or five in the afternoon, and to remove their food either before night or the 
first thing in the morning. In preparing for show the special point to notice is to be 
careful that the dog gets no chill in washing ; if he does his coat will stare and look dry. Some 
dogs, indeed, if well brushed with a glove, and hand-rubbed, and abundantly supplied with 
clean straw, need no washing. If they must be washed do not use common soap, but either 
some of the specially prepared dog soaps or, better still, yolk of egg. 

The only artificial processes needed with Terriers are the removal of dew-claws and the 
docking of the tail. The removal of dew-claws is a real advantage, as they are apt to catch 
in rough cover or among stones, and to tear. It is as well to remove them at about three 
weeks old, though it can be done without much pain a good deal later. The amputation 
of the tail is, in my opinion, a senseless fashion. At the same time it causes little pain, even 
in an adult dog. This, too, should be done early at a fortnight old or so. The tail may 
be either severed with the fore-finger and thumb or with a sharp pair of scissors. The only thing 
to be borne in mind is that it is better to take too little than too much. If it is necessary 
to shorten the tail of a full-grown dog the hair should be turned back : this can be best 
done by an india-rubber ring. If the hair does not grow over nicely, it can be drawn to a 
point, and either tied or glued. If this is done all trace of the operation will be lost in a 
few weeks. 

Lastly, and it is well to end with so solemn an injunction, remember the fate of Tyke, 
and never kennel two dogs males I mean together. 

Mr. Doyle having expressed his views so fully on the subject of Fox-terriers, and his 
judgment being deferred to by most modern breeders, it is not necessary, we think, to go much 
further into the subject ; however, there is another gentleman, Mr. F. Redmond, of London, 
who is well known as a successful breeder and exhibitor, who has kindly given us his opinions, 
which we should like to lay before our readers. Mr. Redmond writes : 

" The points of greatest importance in the Fox-terrier are head and ears, legs and 
feet, neck and shoulders, back, loin and hind-quarters, smartness, activity, size, and terrier 
character. 

" Head. The skull should be flat and moderately narrow ; broader between the ears and 
gradually tapering to the eyes, free from wrinkle. But little slope or indentation between the 
eyes should be visible, except in profile. The jaw should be clean cut, rather long, powerful 



MR. R.ZDMOND ON FOX TERRIERS, 2Q5 

and muscular, with little if any fulness or bulging out at the cheeks. There is a very slight 
falling away below the eyes, but this must be very gradual, and not to such an extent as to 
give a snipy or wedgy appearance. 

" The lips should be fairly tight, without any superfluous skin. 

" The nose must be quite black. 

"The eyes should be small, not set too wide apart, neither too much sunk in skull or 
protruding, dark rimmed, full of fire, life, and intelligence. 

"The teeth should be strong and level, the incisors of the upper jaw just closing over 
the under ones. 

"The ears, a point to which great value has always been attached, should be V-shaped, 
moderately small, of good serviceable thickness, to stand work in hedge-row and covert, and 
must be carried forward, flat and close to the cheek. 

"The neck should be of fair length, clean and muscular, gracefully set into the shoulders, 
from which it should gradually taper to the head. 

" The shoulders should be fine at the points, long, and sloping well back, and the chest 
deep, if anything rather narrow than broad. Shoulders and chest have latterly rightly received 
greater attention at the hands of judges, much to the improvement of the breed ; heavy- 
shouldered or broad-chested dogs are useless as Fox-terriers. 

" Back and loin. -"Back should be straight and strong, the ribs well sprung, the loin strong, 
wide and square, the back ribs deep ; the loin may be in the smallest degree arched, but there 
must not be the slightest approach to wheel-back. 

" The hind-quarters must be very strong, and wide when viewed from behind, the thighs 
showing plenty of muscle, being long as well as large, stifles slightly bent, the hocks straight, 
and the bone from hock to heel short and strong. 

" The stern should be set on rather high, and carried gaily, but should not be raised 
beyond a right angle with the back ; it should, if anything, be a trifle coarse. 

"Legs and feet. A point of extreme value, and one to which the greatest attention must 
be given. The elbows must be well let down, and in a straight line with the body, the fore- 
legs, viewed in any direction, must be as straight as gun-barrels, with upright and powerful 
pasterns ; they must be strong in bone, and clothed regularly with muscle from elbow to foot, 
giving a most solid and unbroken appearance ; the feet should be round and cat-like, very 
compact, toes short and only moderately arched, the sole as hard as adamant ; the foot should 
neither turn in or out, but if any deviation it should turn in ; there should be no dew-claws 
behind. 

"The coat should be smooth, harsh in texture, very close and abundant a jacket to 
protect the wearer from all weathers. 

"Colour. White should predominate. Brindle, fallow, liver, or red markings are objec- 
tionable. 

" Size. The Fox-terrier must neither be leggy or too near the ground, neither must he 
be cloddy, but should have plenty of liberty and galloping power, with good bone and sub- 
stance, fair speed and endurance being essentially requisite for his legitimate calling. Seventeen 
pounds in hard working condition is a fair average weight, but this may vary a pound or so 
either way make and shape, good shoulders and chest, being a far more certain criterion in 
this respect than actual weight. 

" The following points of the Fox-terrier have met with general endorsement, and are, I 
think, incapable of improvement : 



2g6 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Head and ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... u 

Neck ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Shoulders and chest ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Back and loin ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Hind-quarters ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Stern ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 

Coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Symmetry and character ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

100 

" Disqualifying points. White, cherry, or spotted to a considerable extent with either of 
these colours. Mouth much undershot or much overshot. Ears rose, prick or tulip." 

Having thus given the views of two thoroughly practical breeders on the subject of Fox- 
terriers, we should ourselves like to say a few words on two subjects which are often debated 
by supporters of the breed. The first relates to the coat, and the second to the size of the 
dog. In the course of the many controversies which have arisen from time to time concerning 
Fox-terriers, it has been pretty obvious that the supporters of the hard weather-resisting kind 
of coat have out-argued those who adhere to a silky jacket. The former have, in our opinion, 
quite successfully contended that a fine soft coat is perfectly useless in the case of a dog who, 
like the Fox-terrier, is supposed to be essentially a vermin destroyer, as a hard day in wet 
brushwood, or exposure to any sort of cold, would be more likely to knock up a soft-coated 
dog than it could one who was clothed in a harder jacket. 

In the matter of size, however, we fear that opinions never will become reconciled. Almost 
all who have taken prominent parts in the discussion appear to have agreed that a dog who 
is too large to go to earth is practically useless as a Fox-terrier, but, unfortunately, the very 
gentlemen who argue thus have found themselves unable to agree upon the precise size which 
renders a dog unqualified for his work. At present, at shows, where classes are divided by 
size, the usual division is for dogs of iSlbs. and upwards, dogs of under iSlbs., bitches of 
17 Ibs. and upwards, and bitches under 17 Ibs. This arrangement might surely be expected to 
meet the views of both parties, but hitherto it has failed to do so, apparently on the grounds 
that the more given, the more is expected. Certain authorities argue that a dog of 20 Ibs. or 
upwards in weight, who is narrow in chest, can go to earth more easily than a wide-chested 
dog of 1 8 Ibs. or less. The truth of this few will question, but still, in our opinion, it fails to 
affect the point at issue very materially. Unquestionably a Fox-terrier should be able to go 
to earth, and it is only common sense to see that a breed of small dogs are more likely to, 
as a race, go to earth with ease and comfort, than a family of giants. There may be several 
individual exceptions to this rule, but as a rule it must hold good, and therefore we do not 
see why a premium should be given to the producers of a type of dog which is likely to be 
useless in the field for the purposes for which it is required. 

Though our own opinion is that the most desirable weight for a Fox-terrier dog should 
be a maximum 17 Ibs., and for a bitch i61bs., there are, as we have said before, many 
authorities who differ from us in this respect ; but we fancy most practical men will be found 
to take our side in this matter. 

Mr. J. H. Murchison, writing to the Live Stock 'Journal on the 1st of August, 1879, 
says : 




m 
DC 



m 



O 
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X 



C/3 
QC 



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I 
en 

UJ 
Q_ 
O 

o: 
a. 

UJ 



o 

CD 



CO 



Q. > 

UJ 

- B 



vf - 1 

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CO 

LJ 



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SIZE OF FOX-TERRIERS. 297 

"When in former times I exhibited with considerable success Trimmer, Bellona, Bitters, 
Lancer, Vandal, Pincers, and others, varying from 15 Ibs. to 17 Ibs. each, disappointed exhibitors 
raised an outcry against them because they said they were ' too small,' ' mere toys,' &c. 
Larger and coarser dogs then came to the front, and a new generation of judges regarded 
them with favour, till the encouragement they met with has ended in the official 
acknowledgment of the large dogs by special classes being provided for them. It may be 
true that several of the dogs I have alluded to above would have been better with a little 
stronger bone, but they were about the proper size for Fox-terriers. When, however, we look 
at weight we should take size into consideration. A dog may not be so large as another, and 
yet weigh more from having more bone and muscle. Another important point as regards the 
practical use of the Fox-terrier is height : he should not exceed thirteen to fourteen inches at 
shoulder."' 

Mr. W. J. Tredennick, of St. Austell, Cornwall, also writes : 

"On the point of size a Terrier that scales 18 Ibs. in ordinary condition will certainly 
disappoint its owner if he uses it for fox or badger, and even at 16 Ibs. it must be built 
on good lines, having a narrow chest to be able to perform its duties without being laid 
up a distance from its quarry. It is not impossible as I believe some imagine to get the 
l6-lb. Terrier without its being a Toy." 

Mr. Edward Ker supports these two gentlemen in the following words : 

" A fox is an animal which, with his large pricked ears, lengthy limbs, dense fur, and 
handsome brush, covers a deal of ground, and has the clearance of being about the size of 
a small-sized Scotch Collie. But if you carefully pick him to pieces you will see that deduct- 
ing the head, legs, and brush, leaves a mere shadow of a body. He is both very narrow and 
very shallow in his chest ; his neck at the base of the skull is about the thickest part of 
him ; his shoulders are exceedingly oblique, and, standing in front of him, you will notice 
his chest is so narrow that his fore-legs nearly touch each other. If you will then feel 
him all over you will find that there is not a particle of stiffness about him ; he seems to 
sink to the touch, and be a mere bag of bones in a skin. Wherever these vermin the 
fox, otter, badger, polecat, or stoat can get their head and fore-paws, their bodies will follow. 
The biggest dog fox ever was seen can go up a six-inch pipe, and what is more, I witnessed 
a badger weighing 35 Ibs. (one of the largest I ever saw) pass through a six-inch pipe." 

On the other side Mr. Robert Vicary occupies a prominent position. He commences 
most practically by giving a list of Terriers who have distinguished themselves running to 
hounds, whose weights vary from 17 Ibs. to 20 J Ibs. Of course such dogs are capable of 
travelling fast enough to keep up with the pack, and have not to be carried in panniers as 
is the practice in certain hunts where very small Terriers are used. The Rev. John Russell, 
whose practical experience on hunting is unlimited, is also a supporter of Mr. Vicary, for he 
says: "The weights of Fox-terriers should not be under 17 Ibs. nor over 20 Ibs." Jack 
Morgan writes from the Grove kennel, " Fox-terriers should not be less than 18 Ibs. Grove 
Nettle was 18 Ibs., Grove Trimmer 19 Ibs." This was in working condition. In spite, 
however, of such authorities differing from us, we must adhere to our formerly-expressed 
opinion, and maintain that the best weight is 17 Ibs. for a dog, and 16 Ibs. for a bitch 
Fox-terrier. 

Nevertheless, with a view to lay before our readers a record of the measurements of some of 
38 



298 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 



the best Fox-Terriers of recent times, we reproduce from the columns of the Live Slock Journal 
a table which was expressly compiled for the benefit of its readers, with the explanatory diagram 
by which it was accompanied : 






f 

B 


m 


Q 


1 




S 


6 
I, 


General. 


4 

B 

1 


Sarcogen. 


Speculation. 


Nimrod. 


Varmint. 


d. 

P 


0. 

1 




X 

1 


Rattler 


> 


AtoB ... 


3* 


3 


3 


3 


a* 


a* 


2f 


2j 


3 


3 i 


3* 


3i 


2i 


2 a 


a* 


2j 


ai 


B to C ... 


3* 


44 


34 


4i 






4 


4* 


5 




p 


4 


4* 


44 


4 


44 


4* 


C to E ... 


6 


64 


54 








54 




6 




6 


64 


61 


6 




s i 


5* 


EtoG ... 


"f 


12* 


13 


12 


'3 


13 


'3 


I Z 


'4f 




12 


14* 


'44 








13* 


Round B T 


8 


7* 


7i 


8 


7 


7 


8* 


7i 




8 


74 


7 


7 


7* 


7 


7 


7J 


C T 


12 


3 


12* 


I3i 


13* 


13 


12 


"4 


13 


I3i 




12 


"J 


'2* 




124 




S U 


4 


'3 


12* 


12 


12* 


'3 


'3 


ii 


13 


I2i 


!oj 


12* 


12 


12 


12! 


'3 


12^ 


EM 


19 


20 


21* 


2O 


21 


2'J 


20 


19* 


21* 


20* 


'8:f 


21 


20j 


'9i 


20 


21 


20J 


E R 


ai* 




23 


20j 


21* 


20 


20* 


21* 


2O 


2O 


20 


23 


23 


20 


20 


2lf 


20J 


F L 


14* 


17 




'7i 


i6J 


16 


16 


i8f 


'9* 




14* 


>8| 


'7 






16* 


i6J to iSJ 


L H 


Io i 


10 


ir* 




94 


91 




10* 






10 




ii 






Hi 






































should be 


Q 


4? 


44 


5 


5 


44 


44 


4f 


44 


5* 


5 


44 


51 


5 


Si 


5 


4? 


5 


i> * 




3 




3* 


3 


3* 




3 


34 


3i 


3 


3* 


3* 




34 


3* 


3i 


E to Ground 




H 


i44 


34 






i 3 " 


14* 










i3i 


'34 




15 


14* 


J to 


4 


44 


5 


4 


4* 


4i 


4 


3* 


44 


44 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4* 


4* 




Ihs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 






Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Ibs. 


Weight 


8 


'7 


22 


'94 






20 


18 


22J 


21 


'7 


'94 


'9 


17 


'74 


19* 


17 tO 20 



The subject of pluck is one which seems to be but imperfectly understood by the vast 
majority of those who have not studied this breed with care. One often hears a youthful 
owner expatiating upon the pluck and courage of his Fox-terrier, and compare his capacity in 
this direction with that of a Bull-terrier. Nothing could be more absurd than this, for the 
latter is, but a Fox-terrier is not, essentially a " hard " dog. A Fox-terrier is required to go 
to earth after his quarry, and, if he can, to bolt him. If not, by barking he is enabled to 
direct the operations of the diggers-out. A Bull-terrier, on the contrary, would creep up to 
his quarry, and, if necessary, take his death without a murmur ; much to the disgust of those 
whose object was sport, and not the murder of a plucky dog, or a game chase in an earth 
without a soul to see fair-play to either. 

"Terrier quality," or "Terrier character," is the last point upon which we propose to 
touch, and it is a most essential one when Fox-terriers have got to be considered. It 



LIST OF PRINCIPAL BREEDERS. 299 

is an almost indescribable characteristic which a Fox-terrier possesses, and which is certainly 
obliterated by the taint of Bull, so often seen in modern Fox-terriers. Mr. Theodore 
Bassott, who is certainly one of the most popular judges of the day, writes as follows upon this 
subject : 

" Of course a dog with no Terrier characteristic cannot be a Terrier ; and, therefore, as a 
Fox-terrier could not win. But, query, should a dog with a superabundance of what is termed 
' character,' even though at the same time he is possessed of positive deformities, beat an 
animal far better made in almost every point that may not have quite the same amount of 
' Terrier expression,' but which for all that is a real Terrier,? If White English Terrier expres- 
sion is a drawback, what then about Bulldog properties. Surely White English Terrier is 
' Terrier expression,' and surely Bulldog is the reverse ; and yet it is a well-known fact that 
some judges go mad at the one and quietly ignore the other. My own opinion is that either 
may exist in a very good though by no means perfect dog ; and that certainly of the two the 
White English Terrier type is far preferable, belonging as it does to the genus Terrier." 

Having thus gone through the points of the modern Fox-terrier, we will briefly allude to 
the most notable breeders and exhibitors of the day. The number of exhibitors and supporters 
of the breed is legion, but prominent amongst them the names of the following gentlemen 
appear conspicuous : Messrs. F. Burbidge, of Hunton Bridge, Watford ; J. H. Murchison, of 
Sydenham ; Mr. Theodore Bassett, Mr. Russell Earp, Mr. F. Redmond, of London ; Mr. W. 
Allison, of Thirsk ; Mr. H. Gibson, of Lymington ; J. A. Doyle, of North Wales ; R. White, 
of Sheffield ; W. J. Hyde, of Battle ; H. Champion, of Retford ; J. C. Tinne, of Lymington ; 
A. H. Clarke, of Nottingham ; J. Terry, W. Hulse, and Wooton, of the same town ; the 
Hon. T. Fitzwilliam ; Mr. R. B. Lee, of Kendal, and others, have all owned some good 
smooth-haired ones ; whilst some excellent wire-haired Fox-terriers have been exhibited by 
Messrs. S. E. Shirley, W. Tredennick, Harding Cox, W. M. Graham, J. H. Petler, Hayward 
Field, and L. Hogg. 

The dogs which we have selected for illustration in the coloured plate are : first, Mr. J. W. 
Hyde's Buffet, who was bred by Mr. H. Gibson of Lymington, in 1872, by Buffer, out of 
Frolic, by Foiler ; Buffer by Marquis of Huntly's Bounce, out of Trinket. He won second 
prize Crystal Palace and champion Nottingham, 1873 ; champion Wolverhampton and second 
Hull, 1874; champion prize Wolverhampton and champion prize Brighton, 1875; champion 
prize Bath, first prize Birmingham, champion prize and Fox-terrier Club challenge cup Alex- 
andra Palace, 1876; Birmingham champion prize, Crystal Palace champion prize, Alexandra 
Palace champion prize, and Fox-terrier Club challenge cup, 1877; and champion Crystal 
Palace, 1880. 

The next, Mr. F. Burbidge's Bloom, bred by owner from Bluff, out of Bloomer, winner of 
first prize and Fox-terrier Club challenge cup, and first and medal Dublin, 1879. 

The Wire-haired Terrier is Mr. S. E. Shirley's Bristles, a wonderful good bitch, bred by 
Mr. J. Thorebeck, of Darlington, in 1877, by Crib, out of Wasp, by Spark. She has taken 
first Boro'bridge, champion Newtonards, first Whitby, and second Alexandra Palace, in 1878; 
and first Brighton, second Alexandra Palace, and first Birmingham, 1879. 

Brokenhurst Sting, the property of Mr. Theodore Bassett, which is represented in the 
engraving, was, like Buffet, bred by Mr. H. Gibson; he was whelped in 1877, and is by Broken- 
hurst Joe, out of Brokenhurst Nettle. He won first and extra prize in the Puppy class at 
Crystal Palace in 1878. 



300 



THE BOOK OF THE DOG- 



We have been unable to procure the measurements of the dogs illustrated on the coloured 
plate, but Mr. Theodore Bassett has kindly forwarded us the following measurements of Broken- 
hurst Sting. Length from tip of nose to stop, 2f inches ; length from stop to occiput, 4! inches ; 
length of back, 13 inches; girth of fore-arm, 4^ inches; girth of pastern, 3^ inches ; height at 
shoulders, 15 inches; height at elbows, 7^ inches ; height at loins, 15 inches; height at hock, 
4 \ inches. Weight, i6| Ibs. 

According to our rule we append scale of points to be used in judging this breed. 



SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING FOX-TERRIERS. 



Head and ears 

Shoulders... 

Body 

Legs and feet ... 

Coat 

Size 

General appearance 



Total ... 



Value. 
10 

5 
10 

IO 

5 

5 

J 

5 




301 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

THE HARRIER. 

THERE can be very little doubt that the modern Harrier owes his origin to the same 
sources which produced the Foxhound ; and the points of difference in the structural 
developments of the two breeds are so very slight that the standard which applies to 
Foxhounds consequently will be equally useful when Harriers have to be judged. The 
size is the chief material difference between the two breeds, and the pace which they can 
travel of course is not the same, as the animals hunted differ from each other in so many 
respects. 

That hare-hunting is an ancient pursuit is amply proved from the number of early 
writers who have borne testimony to the fact ; and amongst those who have given us 
descriptions of the art, the name of Xcnophon is eminently conspicuous. As more than 
one of the writers who have drawn largely upon his work for early information have observed, 
the knowledge Xenophon possessed of the habits of the hare was certainly considerable, and 
accurate to an almost unparalleled extent. We therefore propose in the first instance quoting 
some extracts from his writings, a full translation of which appear in William Blane's 
" Cynegetica," which was published in London so far back as 1788. In the form in which we 
reproduce them, Xenophon's remarks will be made to appear in a series of continuous para- 
graphs. This is simply for convenience sake, and it must not be supposed that his entire 
work is given, for condensation has had to be largely resorted to in order to confine his ideas 
within a reasonable limit. Xenophon remarks that 

"The trail of a hare is long during the winter, on account of the length of the nights, 
and in the summer short, for the contrary reason. In the winter there is no scent early in 
the morning, when there is either a hoar frost or ice ; for the hoar frost, by its proper force 
collecting the warm particles, contains them in itself, and the ice condenses them. When this 
happens, the dogs with delicate noses " (literally, " the dogs whose noses are tender ") " cannot 
touch before the sun dispels them. Then the dogs can smell, and the trail yields a scent as it 
evaporates. 

" The scent of a hare going to her form lasts longer than that of her course when 
pursued. When she goes to her form she goes slowly, often stopping; but her course when 
pursued is performed running : therefore the ground is saturated with one, and not filled with 
the other. The scent is always stronger in woody places than in open ones, for there, some- 
times running and sometimes sitting, she is touched by many things. The trail of the hare 
is the path she takes going to her seat" (or "form"), "which in cold weather will generally 
be in sheltered places, and, in hot, in shady places. When she sits, the lower parts of her 
joints are covered by her belly; her forelegs are most commonly close together and extended, 
resting her chin on the extremity of her feet ; her ears are extended over her shoulders, and 
her hair is well adapted for a covering, being thick and soft. When she wakes she winks 
her eyelids, but when she sleeps she keeps them continuously open without motion, having 



3O2 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

her eyes fixed. She moves her nostrils frequently when sleeping, but less often when awake. 
Their eyesight is by no means sharp, for their eyes project, and their eyelids are short, and 
not sufficient to protect the ball, on which account their eyesight is weak and indistinct. 
When she is pursued, the fear of the dogs and hunters takes away her presence of mind, on 
which account she often runs unknowingly against many things, and sometimes falls into the 
nets. If she ran straight forward, these things would seldom happen to her; but running 
a ring, and loving the places where she was bred and has fed, she is taken. 

" The accoutrements of the dogs consist in a collar, a leading leather thong, and a surcingle 
to guard the body. They should never be taken out to hunt unless they eat their food heartily, 
for if they do not, it is a sure sign they are not healthy. They should never be suffered to 
hunt foxes, as that does them the greatest damage. The places of hunting should frequently 
be changed, that the dogs may be thoroughly acquainted with the nature of hunting : and it 
is necessary to go out early in the morning, that the trail may not be gone. Those who go 
out late deprive the dogs of the chance of finding a hare, and themselves of the sport : 
neither will scent, by reason of its nature, continue in all weather. 

"If the dog picks the trail out straight forward from the works the hare has been 
making, he should slip another, and as these persist in the trail he should loose the rest, 
one after another, without great intervals, and should follow himself, but not too closely, 
encouraging the dogs by their names, but not too vehemently, lest they should be too eager 
before the proper time. When the hounds are near the hare, they discover it to the hunts- 
man by shaking violently not only their tails but their whole bodies, by rushing on in a 
warlike manner, by trying to surpass each other in speed, by running eagerly together, by 
now crowding close and then dispersing, and then again running on, till at length they come 
to the seat of the hare, and run in upon her. She immediately jumps up and flies, the dogs 
pursuing her in full cry, those who follow crying out, ' Haloo, dogs!' and the huntsman, 
wrapping his coat round his hand, and carrying his pole, should follow the dogs, taking care 
to keep behind the hare, and not to head her, which is unsportsmanlike. The hare, running 
off, and soon being out of sight, generally comes back again to the place where she was found 
the huntsman calling to the person at the nets, ' To him, boy ! to him, boy ! ' and he 
signifies whether she is taken or not. 

" When the scent is very strong, the hounds rush upon it leaping, crowding together, and 
stooping down : but while they thus persist in the scent close together, the huntsman must 
restrain himself, and not follow the dogs too near, lest through emulation they should overrun 
the scent. 

"The best time for breeding dogs is in the winter, when the labours of the chase are 
over the quiet of that season, and the approach of spring, being most likely to contribute to 
form a generous race, for that time of the year agrees best with the growth of dogs. The 
puppies, when they. are whelped, should be left with their mother, and not put to another 
bitch. The care of others is not so good for their growth ; the milk, and even the breath, 
of the mother, is better for them, and her caresses more endearing. When the puppies can 
run about, they should have milk for the first year, and nothing else, for the filling them with 
too heavy food will distort their legs, fill their bodies with diseases, and hurt their inside. 
The bitch puppies should first be taken out to hunt at eight months old, and the dogs at 
ten ; but do not let them loose during the trail, but, keeping them tied in long leather slips, 
suffer them to follow the dogs that are trailing, letting them also go over the scent." 

From these remarks of Xenophon it is clearly shown that hare -hunting was carried on in 



XENOPHON ON HARE-HUNTING. 303 

his days in something of the same fashion as in more recent times. It certainly would be 
contrary to a modern sportsman's ideas to use a net in which it is hoped to drive the hare, 
and the appearance of the huntsman in the field with his coat over his arm, and carrying a 
long pole, would also provoke considerable astonishment in these more enlightened days. 
Again, Xenophon's remarks upon breeding, in which he advocates breeding in the winter 
season, on account of hunting operations being over, clearly tend to prove that at the time 
he wrote it was customary to hunt earlier in the year than modern masters do. How- 
ever, there is so much good sense in all he says that the quotation from his work must 
surely be read with interest, if not with actual benefit, by those who take an interest in and 
support the science of hare-hunting. 

For more modern experiences of the art we are again driven to the writings of that 
great authority whom we have already quoted Mr. Peter Beckford, whose letters have been 
freely made use of by the editor of the " Sportsman's Cabinet," . from which we quote the 
following : 

" As the trail of a hare lays both partially and imperfectly in proportion to the length of 
time elapsed since she went to her seat, so is the difficulty of finding increased in proportion 
to the late or early hour at which the hounds are thrown off; hence it is that the attendance 
upon different packs, under the denomination of hare-finders, so very little known or required 
at that time, are now become so truly and unavoidably instrumental to the sport of the day. 
Although the services of these people are always welcome to the anxious and expectant 
sportsman, yet it is admitted by every judicious and competent observer, they are exceedingly 
prejudicial to the good order and regular discipline of hounds; for having occasionally such 
assistance, they become habitually indolent and progressively wild ; the game being so fre- 
quently and easily found for them, they become individually and conjunctively indifferent to 
the trouble of finding it for themselves. Those who are accustomed to have their hares 
found sitting, know the hare-finders as well as they know the huntsman, and will not only 
upon sight set off to meet him, but have their heads eternally thrown up in the air in expec- 
tation of a view hollaa ! 

" Packs of harriers well managed, and regularly disciplined, should be quietly brought 
up to the place of meeting, and when thrown off a general silence should prevail, that 
every hound may be permitted to do his work. Those well bred and properly broke seldom 
stand in need of assistance. Officious intrusions frequently do more harm than good ; 
nothing requires greater judgment, or nicer observation in speaking to a hound, than to 
know the critical moment when a word is wanting. Young sportsmen, like young hounds, 
arc too much accustomed to babbling when newly entered, and often by frivolous questions, 
or obtrusive conversation, attract the attention of the hounds, and ensure the silent curse of 
or public reproach of the huntsman, as well as the contemptuous indifference of every ex- 
perienced sportsman present upon such occasions. 

' Those who keep harriers vary considerably in their modes of hunting them ; but the 
humane and liberal-minded never deviate from the consistency and strict impartiality of the 
chase. If a hare is found sitting, and the hounds too near at hand, they should be imme- 
diately (and as it were accidentally) drawn off to prevent her being chopped in her form ; 
the hare should then be silently walked up by the individual who found her, or knows where 
she is seated, that she may be permitted to go off without alarm at her own pace. The 
hounds should then be drawn quietly over the spot from whence she started, where being 



34 



THE BOOK OF THE Doc. 



permitted to come calmly and unexpectedly upon the scent, they then go away with it in 
a style of uniformity, constituting what may be candidly considered the consistency of 
the chase. 

" Much noise and clamour are directly contrary to the systematic principles of hare-hunting, 
which is to be calm, perfectly quiet, and to let the hounds alone ; few hounds are so good, 
none better, than many town packs who have no professed huntsman engaged to hunt 
them. If they have no one to assist them, it must, at the same time, be remembered they 
have no one to interrupt them, which in this kind of hunting is still more material ; though 




MR. CHURCHILL LANGDON's HARRIER, "COUNTESS." 



there is one fault such hounds must of necessity be guilty of, that is, running back to 
heel. Hounds are naturally fond on scent, and if they are foiled and disappointed in 
carrying it forward, they of course turn and endeavour to hunt it back : hounds left to 
themselves soon repeat this to a fault, and, it is to be observed, almost the only one 
they have. 

" Although it is upon the broad scale of universality certainly best to let the hounds 
alone, thereby giving as much scope as possible to their natural instinct, yet in this par- 
ticular instance it is necessary to check it mildly ; for as it is an almost invariable rule in 
every kind of hunting to make the head good, they should be encouraged to try forward 
first ; which may always be done without taking them off their noses, or the least prejudice 
to their hunting. If trying forward should not succeed, they may be permitted to try 
back, which they will at all times be ready enough to do ; for they are always perfectly 



BECKFORD c.v HAKE-HUNTING. 305 

sensible how far they brought the scent, know where they left it, and are eagerly anxious 
to recover it. Much at this moment depends upon the temper, patience, and skill of the 
huntsman, who should be attached to the sport and indefatigable in the pursuit of it ; he 
should be sensible, good-tempered, sober, exact, and cleanly, a good groom, and an excellent 
horseman ; his voice should be strong and clear, with an eye so quick as to perceive which 
of his hounds carry the scent when all are running, and where they throw up ; as well 
as an ear so excellent, as always to distinguish the leading hounds when he does not see 
them. Such are the qualities that constitute perfection in a huntsman ; he should not, how- 
ever, be too fond of displaying them, till called forth by necessity ; it being a peculiar 
and distinguishing trait in his province to let the hounds alone whilst they can hunt, and 
strenuously to assist them when they cannot. 

" It has been before observed, that when a hare is found, she cannot be permitted to 
steal away too silently before the hounds ; her own extreme timidity frequently occasions 
her heading, and the pack are so repeatedly liable to overrun the scent. The huntsman, 
by not pressing too close upon the hounds himself, will keep the company at a proper dis- 
tance also, and when they are thus left to a proper and free use of their own faculties, 
they are but little likely to over-run it much." Mr. Beckford, whose judgment and celebrity 
is so universally known and so frequently mentioned, has something so applicable and truly 
just in almost every page upon this subject, that it is impossible to resist the temptation 
of quoting a few occasional passages where the intentional purport is so emphatically 
expressed. 

" High-bred, spirited Harriers should never be too much pressed upon by horsemen in 
the chase, or too much encouraged at a check ; for their natural eagerness in the former, 
and their disappointment in the latter, will, at such a time, frequently carry them wide of 
the scent beyond a possibility of recovery, and this should, of course, be guarded against as 
much as circumstances will permit. On high-roads and footpaths a too hasty reliance 
must not be made ; but when a hit is made on either side, the hounds cannot be encouraged 
too much. A hare generally describes a circle as she runs, larger or lesser in extent 
according to her own strength and the nature of the country she is hunted in. In enclo- 
sures intersected with small coverts, those circles are so small that it is an almost constant 
puzzle to the hounds. 

" A hare will, it is well known, after running a path some considerable distance, make 
a double, and then stop till the hounds have passed her ; she will then steal away secretly, 
and return the same way she came. This is the most arduous trial for hounds ; it is so hot 
a foil that, in the best packs, there are not many hounds that can hunt it ; those who can 
should be attended to, and an endeavour made to hit her off where she breaks her foil, 
which she will soon do when she thinks herself secure, except it is in covert, when the 
scent lies bad, and then she sometimes absolutely seems to hunt the hounds. In a favour- 
able day for hunting, hounds seldom give up the scent at head ; if they do, there is generally 
a palpable reason for it ; and this, those who hunt the hounds should be careful to observe, 
as by it alone they will be the better qualified to make their cast. If the huntsman be of a 
superior description, he will attend as he goes not only to his hounds (minutely observing 
which have the lead and what scent they carry), but also to the various circumstances 
attendant upon sudden changes of the weather and difference of soil. He will also be mindful 
of the distance she keeps before the hounds, recollect her former doubles, and the point she 
principally makes to. 
39 



306 THE BOOK OF rim DOG. 

" It should be the peculiar care of every huntsman to prevent, as much as possible, 
his hounds from chopping hares in their forms ; huntsmen are, in general, too fond of get- 
ting blood at any rate, and when hounds are used to it, it is surprising to see how anxious 
they are to find opportunities. In many instances a hare must be very wild or very nimble 
to escape them. Mr. Beckford remembers, in a furzy country, his hounds to have chopped 
three hares in one morning ; for it is the nature of those animals either to leap up and steal 
away before the hounds come near them, or else to lie close, till they put their very noses 
upon them. Hedges also are dangerous in this respect, particularly if the huntsman beats the 
hedge himself, which is too much the practice ; the hounds in such case are always upon the 
watch, and a hare must be exceeding lucky to escape them all. The best way to prevent it 
is to have the hedge well beaten at some distance before the hounds. 

" Old dogs should never be warded to old or enfeebled bitches ; such extreme should 
be avoided ; when there is age on one side there should be youth on the other ; and this 
experience seems with justice to have been decided in favour of the masculine gender. 
Both sire and dam should be healthy, or there can be no great probability of a healthy 
offspring. If a hound who in other respects be excellent, and a well-founded favourite, 
should be a little inclined to skirting, with too much dash in his disposition, such dog 
should be crossed with a close-tongued, thorough-line hunting bitch, from both which an 
admirable hit may probably ensue. The great and most substantial reason for not breeding 
from either a skirting-hound or a babbler is that they are too often seen to acquire one or 
the other, by imitation or practice, and it may be better not to render it natural by pro- 
pagating habitual defects with the blood. 

"Where it can be so managed, puppies are best produced in the spring months ; 
late whelps thrive in an equal degree ; at least, they all require the best walks and the 
greater attention. Bitches should not be permitted to hunt in the advanced stages of 
gestation : it frequently debilitates the puppies, and sometimes proves fatal to the bitch herself ; 
nor is it altogether prudent to leave them in the kennel when the time of parturition is 
approaching. A bitch having many puppies (of whose future excellence great expectation 
is formed) may have them occasionally preserved by transferring a part to any other bitch 
happening to be in a similar state at the same time. This particular race seems to prove, 
upon the general scale, more prolific than most of the species, having sometimes an 
extraordinary number ; they have been known to bring forth fifteen, and even sixteen, 
all alive. 

" When breeding from a favourite sort, it is matter of convenience if another bitch can be 
warded at or about the same time ; by which the whole of both litters (if required) can be 
saved. At this period the bitches should be amply furnished with flesh, and by no means 
stinted in milk. The whelps should not be taken away till they are very well able to take 
care of themselves : they will soon learn to lap by example, and the mother will be the 
sooner relieved. When the puppies are taken away, the bitches should have each three doses 
of physic, that no humours may be produced by the absorption of the milk. The distemper 
makes such a dreadful havoc amongst young hounds that too much attention cannot be 
bestowed upon its counteraction. Numbers of young hounds perish at their walks under the 
effects of disease, and this probably happens from the little care taken of them upon such 
occasions. 

" You ask how many hounds a pack of Harriers should consist of, and what kind of 
hound is best suited to that diversion. You should never exceed twenty couple in the field 



BECK FORD AA T D SOMERVILLE. 307 

it might be difficult to get a greater number to run well together, and a pack of Harriers 
cannot be complete if they do not. Your other question is not easily answered. The hounds 
I think most likely to show you sport are between the large, slow-hunting Harrier and the 
little Fox Beagle : the former are too dull, too heavy, and too slow, the latter too lively, too 
light, and too fleet. The first species, it is true, have most excellent noses, and I make no 
doubt will kill their game at last, if the day be long enough : but you know the days are 
short in winter, and it is bad hunting in the dark. The others, on the contrary, are all 
alive, but every cold blast affects them ; and if your country be deep and wet, it is not 
impossible that some of them may be drowned. 

" My hounds were a cross of both these kinds, in which it was my endeavour to get as 
much bone and strength in as small a compass as possible. It was a difficult undertaking. I 
bred many years, and an infinity of hounds, before I could get what I wanted. I at last had 
the pleasure to see them very handsome, small yet bony. They ran remarkably well together, 
ran fast enough, had all the alacrity that you could desire, and would hunt the coldest scent. 
When they were thus perfect, I did as many others do I parted with them." 

There can be no doubt that all the writings of Mr. Beckford are those of not only a 
practical man, but of an enthusiast. He is accepted by sportsmen as the authority on fox 
and hare hunting even in the present day, which is a period of ninety-eight years since the 
first edition of his work appeared in 1782. This speaks volumes for the conservative pro- 
clivities of masters of hounds and hunting men in general, though doubtless much credit if 
any credit there be for the absence of any great change is due to the natural instincts of the 
animals hunted having undergone but slight alteration. Beckford had, by the way, a 
contemporaneous brother-writer on sporting, and particularly hunting, subjects, of equal merit 
in another way. This was William Somerville the poet, whose position as bard of the sporting 
world much resembles that occupied by Dibdin in nautical circles, as the only recognised poet 
of his admirers. 

In spite of the popularity of fox-hunting the number of packs of Harriers thtoughout 
the country is steadily on the increase. This is not to be at all wondered at when the 
love of sport for which Englishmen are so noted, and the comparative cheapness of hare- 
hunting, come to be considered. We use the expression "comparative" advisedly, as even a 
pack of Harriers is an expensive luxury to indulge in, though naturally a far lighter tax upon 
the Master's resources than a pack of Foxhounds would be. 

Amongst the principal packs in the country are the Anglesey, the Master of which is 
Capt. Rayner ; the Earl of Pembroke's ; The Trafford, Master Sir Humphrey de Trafford ; 
Sir Harvey Bateson's, Pendle Forest, a rattling pack of half-bred Fox-hounds, whose Master is 
Colonel Starkic ; The Taunton Vale ; Easton Park, Master Duke of Hamilton ; and the 
Cotswold, of which Sir Francis C. Ford, Bart., is Master and huntsman. The number of 
couples in these packs is on the average about eighteen, and they hunt two or three days a 
week. The usual height of a Harrier is from 17 to 20 inches; if much higher than that a 
strong cross of Foxhound is probably present in the strain. 

It is, however, notorious that many packs of Harriers are nothing more or less than half- 
bred or dwarf Foxhounds, and therefore a dash of this blood can hardly be looked upon with 
extreme disfavour, though it should not be encouraged, as it is likely to cause the breed to 
become too big and fast for the purposes for which they are required. 

It is as a dwarf Southern Hound that the Harrier should be most properly regarded, 



308 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and therefore he shows a somewhat coarser head and more throat than the modern 
Foxhound. A Harrier has also a far better nose than a Foxhound, but this naturally enough 
does not necessitate a structural difference. One peculiarity, however, which distinguishes a 
Harrier from a Foxhound is the recognition of blue-mottle as a correct colour for the breed. 
The other hound colours are also met with in Harriers, but blue-mottle is considered a dis- 
qualification in the case of any hound but a Harrier, as it is thought to be a certain test of 
Harrier blood, and therefore inadmissible in a Foxhound. 

The worst feature in modern Harriers, which is derived from the Foxhound cross, is that 
gained from the insane craze for pace, which in the minds of so many Masters is essential in 
a Harrier. Harriers which are too much gifted with pace, often lose all, or, at all cventsi 
almost all, their great powers of scent, and instead of hunting their hare, fairly run her 
to a standstill. This is greatly deplored by lovers of the old style of hare-hunting, who were 
accustomed to pride themselves on the cleverness, not the speed, of their pack. And it should 
therefore be borne in mind by Masters of Harriers that, though a certain amount of Foxhound 
blood may be permissible in their pack, still their hounds are really descendants of the old 
Southern Hound, which was by no means a fast animal. 

The subject of illustration in our woodcut is Countess, a badger-pied bitch, and the 
property of Mr. Churchill Langdon. Countess measures from tip of nose to stop, 3^ inches; 
from stop to occiput, 4| inches; length of back, 19 inches; girth of thigh, II inches; girth of 
fore-arm, 5| inches; girth of pastern, 4 inches; height at shoulders, 19! inches; height at 
elbows,. 1 1 1 inches; height at loins, 19 inches; height at hock, 5f inches; length of stern, 
13 inches; weight, 37 Ibs. ; age, 2 years, 2 months. 

As mentioned before, the structural resemblance between the Foxhound and Harrier is so 
marked that the standard for each is identical in every point 




309 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

THE BEAGLE. 

IN " Cynographia Britannica" the following allusion is made to the Beagle: 

" Of the hound tribe the Beagle is the least, and is only used for the purpose of hare- 
hunting. Their method of finding is very similar to the Harrier, but they are far inferior in 
point of swiftness ; yet to those sportsmen who hunt in a dry and enclosed country, where 
the coverts are not too large and strong, and who delight in unravelling the intricate mazes 
of the doubling hare, more than in the death, they afford no inconsiderable degree of 
amusement. 

" When the atmosphere is a little hazy, and the scent low, they catch it better than the 
taller dogs, spending their tongues freely in treble or tenor, and though more soft yet not 
less melodious than the Harrier. But as most sportsmen prefer the faster and stronger dogs, 
these are by no means in such repute as formerly, a complete cry or pack of them being very 
rarely seen. They are now (A.D. 1800) chiefly kept as finders to the Greyhounds in coursing, 
which purpose they answer extremely well, hence they are frequently called Finders. 

" The varieties are generally distinguished by the parts where they are bred, as the 
Southern Beagle, bearing a strong resemblance to the slow, deep-mouthed Southern Hound, 
but much smaller ; the Northern Beagle which is lighter formed, with shorter ears, and swifter. 
A cross between these two is esteemed preferable to either. 

" The Southern Beagles are smooth-haired, with long ears, and generally so loosely 
formed that they cannot for a continuance be hunted in a heavy country without being crippled. 
Besides which they have frequently some very great faults in a hound, as crooked legs, tailing 
or lagging behind when they begin to tire, or are too small. 

" The Northern, which are commonly wire-haired, straight-limbed, and better formed in 
their shoulders and haunches, endure bad weather and long exercise with less inconvenience 
than the Southern. They hunt hedge-rows, thread the brakes, and runset " (/. e., follows the 
hare through the mews or opening in the hedges which she passes backwards and forwards 
through) " with the hare with great spirit, but it is evident to the most common observer that 
neither of them are calculated to bear much fatigue. 

" Beagles, like other hounds, are of various colours, and preferred as the fancy of the owner 
dictates. In height about twelve inches, and are hunted and treated in the same manner as 
the Harrier. 

" The term Beagle has been indiscriminately used by many for the Harrier and the Beagle 
but it is now wholly confined to the latter. They are seldom crossed with others unless to 
diminish their size, and are apt to challenge any scent when hot, even that of birds." 

Three years later, in 1803, some very interesting remarks on the breed appeared in the 
" Sportsman's Cabinet," which are valuable as showing that the Beagle is essentially the same 
dog now as it was then. The writer in the " Sportsman's Cabinet " appears to have the 
modern prejudice against Beagles, for he commences his remarks as follows : 



310 THE BOOK of THE DOG. 

" Previous to the present improved state of hunting and polish of field sports, packs of 
Beagles were frequently seen in the possession of gentlemen whose age or infirmities pre- 
vented their enjoyment of sport of a different description. But in proportion to the gradational 
improvements made in the different kinds of hounds (according to the different chases which 
they were intened to pursue) the former attachment to Beagles has been observed to decline. 

" They are the smallest of the hound race used in this country, are exquisite in their scent 
of the hare, and indefatigably vigilant in their pursuit of her. This slow kind of hunting was 
admirably adapted to age and the feminine gender. It could be enjoyed by ladies of the 
greatest timidity, as well as gentlemen labouring under infirmity, to both of whom it was a 
consolation that if they were occasionally a little way behind, there was barely a possibility of 
their being thrown out. A pack of this description was perfectly accommodating to the neigh- 
bouring rustics the major part of those not being possessed of horses found it a matter of 
no great difficulty to be up well with them on foot. The spirit of emulation seemed formerly 
to be who should produce the greatest degree of merit in the smallest compass, and packs 
were to be seen in different parts of the most diminutive description. 

" Amongst professed amateurs every effort was made to attain perfection, and these 
indefatigable endeavours were generally attended with success. Beagles were almost uniformly 
so well matched that they did not exceed ten or eleven inches in height, and so carefully 
selected in respect to speed that whenever they were running they might be covered with 
a sheet and this alone is the predominant trait of celebrity in packs of Hounds or Beagles, 
whether great or small. These, though slow, are incredibly destructive ; for if the scent lays 
well, the hare has very little chance of escape, and this to the object of pursuit must 
prove a lingering as well as a certain death ; for although in the early part of the chase 
they can never get near enough to the hare to press her, yet they are in general fatal, 
if even three or four hours in killing. 

"The numerous and diversified crosses in the different breeds of both Beagles and 
Hounds, according to the views, wishes, and inclinations of those who keep them, have so 
complicated and variegated that particular part of the species that a volume might be 
produced in describing the various sorts and sizes as thought best adapted to the soil and 
surface for which they are bred and intended to hunt, from the old, heavy, decp-tongued, 
dew-lapped, Southern Hound of Lancashire (where the huntsman with his long pole follows 
on foot) to the fleetest-bred Northern Harriers of the present day, who kill their game in a 
burst of half an hour or forty minutes, with a degree of rapidity but little inferior to coursing. 

" Beagles, in the sporting acceptation of the term, are not to be considered synonymous 
with Harriers, to whom, although they possess precisely the same properties, they are very 
much inferior in size. That some adequate idea may be formed of the original Beagle, 
the following ludicrous transaction is introduced from the most indisputable authority. 

"The late Colonel Hardy had once a collection of this diminutive tribe, amounting to ten 
or twelve couples, which were always carried to and from the field of glory in a large pair of 
panniers slung across a horse. Small as they were, and insignificant as they would now seem, 
they could invariably keep a hare at all her shifts to escape them, and finally worry, or 
rather tease her to death. The catastrophe attending this curious pack was of a very 
singular description, for a small barn having been for some time appropriated to the purpose 
of a kennel, was one night broke open, and every hound, as well as the panniers, stolen ; 
nor could the most diligent search ever discover the least trace of the robbers or their sporting 
appendage." 



HUNTING BEAGLES. 311 



Originally there were several varieties of Beagles, and even now-a-days the difference 
between many of the packs is very obvious. This difference, at the present time, is certainly 
chiefly one of size, for the Beagles used for the purpose of being followed on foot would 
naturally be too fast if above a certain height. Formerly the two distinct breeds of Beagle 
were the Rough and the Smooth. The rough-coated Beagle was more frequently met with in 
Wales than in other parts of the country, though it has now almost disappeared from amongst 
us, being only rarely met with, and then in out-of-the-way places for the most part. 

One of the keenest admirers of the smooth-haired Beagle was King George IV., who, 
when Prince of Wales, used to hunt with this class of dog; and his Royal Highness's dwarf pack 
was an institution on Brighton Downs. These dwarf Beagles are, however, almost useless 
except for following on foot, and run considerable risk of losing their lives by being drowned 
in the ditches in wet weather. Nevertheless, their superior powers of scent are conspicuous 
over the larger hounds, more especially when the atmosphere is close, as they run nearer the 
ground than the latter. 

According to Blaine, the earlier varieties varied from the " deep-flewed diminutive type of 
the old Southern hound to the fleet and elegant Foxhound Beagle ; to which we may add the 
pigmy breed called ' Lapdog Beagles.' " 

It is not given to every one to be the happy possessor of broad acres where, in spinney 
furze or briery brake, or from the tussocks of the uplands, pussy can be dislodged from her 
seat to give play to the Liliputian hound, and afford hunters the pleasure of a display of 
the amazing powers of scent possessed by the Beagle. 

There are, however, in England few localities where there is not common land, or, lacking 
that advantage, farmers too strongly imbued with the genuine English love of sport to interpret 
too closely the law of trespass when a cry of Beagles, with its followers, are in the case. 
Even in such districts there may be no ground game preserved, and the master of the 
musical pack may be in consequence compelled to hunt them on a drag. Here, the choice 
of articles that will challenge the olfactories of our little hound, and lead them to pursue a 
Will-o'-the-wisp they can never overtake, is so plethoric as to puzzle. A portion of dead 
rabbit or hare the skin of a newly killed one is perhaps best a red herring, or oil of 
aniseed, may be used. The two former must be dragged along the grass by a string. In 
using aniseed the powder may be resorted to, and the runner should let it out with regularity from 
a tin similar to that used in the drill sowing of seeds, or, what is better, the man who is sent 
on to make the drag should rub the soles of his boots with the essential oil of aniseed, and 
for economy this should be diluted with plain olive oil. It is of course necessary that the 
application of this should be frequently renewed, and at intervals, when the smell is strong on 
the boots, the man should tread around so that the hounds may occasionally dwell on the 
scent, and, whilst giving tongue in melodious tones, also give time for the sportsman following 
their windings to make up lost ground. 

The following mixture is, perhaps, the best to make a drag for Beagles of an artificial 
character it is extremely lasting, and the hounds take it up with great readiness. It consists 
of half an ounce of oil of aniseed, a quarter of an ounce of essential oil of valerian, and an 
ounce and a quarter of castor oil, mixed. 

With reference to the relation of Beagle to modern Fox-terrier, Markham, in 
dealing with the diversities of the hounds of his time, after referring to and describing 
the large slow hounds of the west countries, the middle-sized and more swift, or nimble, 
as he puts it, hounds of the counties of Worcester, Bedford, &c., where the woods and 



312 THE BOOK of THE DOG. 

plains were of about equal extent ; the still more light, nimble, swift, and slender hounds of 
Yorkshire and the north, comes at last to the " little Beagle " of curious scent. And here we 
desire our readers to dwell carefully on what follows, for we consider it throws a great deal of 
light on the origin of our modern Fox-terrier, and strongly supports the opinion we have long 
held that our Fox-terriers have a large infusion of Beagle blood in them. 

Markham, who was a practical sportsman, says : " The white hound, or the white with 
black spots, are the most principal and best to compose your kennel of, and will indeed hunt 
any chase exceeding well . . . yet if you demand which is the best and most beautiful of 
all colours for the general kennel, then I answer, the white with the black ears and the black spot 
at the setting on of the tail." The italics are ours, but we point to the description and ask, 
Does it not paint with considerable accuracy the Fox-terrier of to-day? Certainly, as far as 
colour and markings go, it leaves nothing to be desired ; and, on the general argument, we may 
point to the fact as being strongly in favour of our view that a still older writer, Dr. Caius, 
in his treatise on " English Dogges," classes the Bloodhound, the Harrier, and the Terrier 
together, and omits all mention of the Beagle by that name. 

Now the Beagle was known and had been described under that name as a dog native to 
Britain by Roman historians ten centuries and more before the time of Caius, which makes his 
silence on Beagles, whilst he classifies the Terrier with the Hound, still more remarkable ; and 
is surely at least strongly suggestive that the Terrier he wrote of was the small hound formerly, 
then, and now, called a Beagle. 

Again, Markham says : " The grizzled, which are ever most commonly shag-haired, or any 
other colour, whether it be mixed or unmixed so it be shag-haired, are the best varminers, and 
therefore are chosen to hunt the Fox, Badger, or other hot scent they also are exceeding good 
and cunning finders ; and, therefore, of huntsmen not thought amiss to have one or a couple 
in every kennel." 

Surely, so far as that description goes, it applies to the wire-haired Fox-terrier of to-day 
it describes his special work, for now, as then, he is the dog par excellence for the fox, badger, 
otter, and all other animals we include under the term vermin. 

The grizzled or grey-coloured patches for we do not understand Markham to mean that 
the whole body was of that colour are still characteristic of Fox-terriers, especially the rough- 
coated ones, and the very common description, used as a mark of merit, " hound-tan mark- 
ings," surely suggests a hound origin for this Terrier; and it must be acknowledged that the 
various shades of tan, the badger-pie, hare-pie, &c., met with in hounds also appear in Fox- 
terriers, and to what hound can we ascribe the origin of these peculiarities if not to the 
Beagle, that dog being also of the size most likely to suit for crossing with the Terrier to 
produce dogs fit for fox, otter, or badger bolting or drawing. 

It is not in colour alone that the Beagle asserts itself in the Fox-terrier the very shape 
and make of many purely-bred ones (so-called) proclaim their descent and in formation of 
head, and length of ears, pups of the best strains constantly show a throw-back to the Beagle. 
In the present day the wire-haired Beagle is limited in numbers, but still to be met with in Devon, 
Wales, and some few other localities packs or cry of the smooth variety are plentiful some 
used regularly for hare hunting, others, as already said, to hunt a drag. They vary greatly in 
size, from ten inches up to sixteen inches in height, according to the country they are to hunt, 
and the fancy of the master. 

One or a couple of small Beagles prove excellent assistants to the gun in covert and 
hedge-row shooting, when a dog is not required to hunt mute indeed, with some of them, the 



DIFFICULTY IN REARING BEAGLES. 



313 



game they are on may be distinguished by the peculiar tone of their voice as they announce a 
find. The troublesome characteristic of Beagles, as dogs to shoot over, is their inveterate 
propensity to chase. 

One of the most remarkable little packs of Beagles which ever came beneath our 
notice was shown by Mr. G. H. Nutt, of Maidstone, at the Alexandra Palace show of 1877. 
During the progress of the exhibition Mr. Nutt treated his friends to a glimpse of his pigmy 
pack at work, for he ran them a short drag in the grounds, much to the delight of many lady 
visitors to the palace. Mr. Nutt has since informed us that he has been compelled to give 
up his pets, as the difficulties he had to encounter in his breeding operations, from the small 
size of the bitches, fairly tired him out. As he somewhat pathetically remarked, " they had 
hardly the strength to produce their young, and when they succeeded in doing so, were usually 
too weak to bring them up." Of course this difficulty need not appear in larger-sized packs 
(Mr. Nutt's being remarkably small, and, as he expressed it, " only fit for ladies to run after"). 

In the present day the average height of the working pack is about 14^ inches, which, 
though small in comparison to the size of a Foxhound or Harrier, is sufficiently large for the 
purposes for which they are required. 

As regards a standard of points for judging this breed, we cannot do better than refer 
our readers to that given in the Foxhound chapter ; as the Beagle, with the exception of its 
size, can be satisfactorily judged by the scale used in the case of Foxhounds. 




314 



CHAPTER XL. 

THE DACHSHUND. 

WITH the exception of the modern Fox-terrier, it is doubtful if the institution of shows has 
done so much for any breed of dog as it has for the subject of this chapter. The quaint 
shape and peculiar appearance of the Dachshund rendered him from the first a conspicuous 
object on the bench, and no doubt greatly influenced many breeders to take up the breed. 
His admirers for the most part speak very highly of the Dachshund ; but few breeds suffer 
oftener from the attacks of detractors, who affirm that the terms Dachshund and canine inutility 
are almost synonymous terms. For our own part, though we do not consider the Dachshund by 
any means to be the paragon of perfection which he is stated to be in some quarters, we 
willingly credit him with being a good useful working dog in his own country. Conversations 
which we have held on several occasions with German sportsmen have convinced us that this 
breed is largely used in the pursuit of wounded game, and his rather slow rate of progress 
makes a Dachshund more especially valuable, as it enables the sportsmen on foot to keep 
up with him with greater facility. 

The name Dachshund conveys to many people the idea that this breed was produced for 
the purpose of destroying badgers only, and for no other object. As a matter of fact we 
believe that though many Dachshunds are " hard " enough to attack anything breathing, they 
arc not as a rule so well adapted for such sanguinary employment as for the more peaceable 
and less painful task of tracking wounded animals, or beating coverts like an English Terrier. 
As a matter of fact, we know of an English gentleman, who prides himself upon the " hard- 
ness " of his dogs, who went in largely for Dachshunds. Six months' experience of the 
breed convinced him that they were unsuited for the work they were expected to go 
through in his kennels, and he finally abandoned them in favour of Bull and Wire-haired 
Terriers. 

As will be seen from what appears below, there are at least two very distinct types of 
Dachshund ; and the Rev. G. F. Lovell, of Oxford, who is admittedly an English authority on 
the breed, actually adds a third class to the number. The Toy class which he describes is, 
we really think, an objectionable ramification of the other two branches, for on the Continent 
we have seen toys of either type, and have always considered them weeds. The two chief 
distinctions are the hound and terrier type, both of which arc fully alluded to below ; but it is 
worthy of remark here that in this country, singular to relate, the former type is supported by 
the South Country school of breeders for the most part, whilst the Terrier stamp of dog finds 
admirers in the North. 

Mr. John Fisher, of Carrshead Farm, is at the head of the northern Dachshund world, well 
seconded by Mr. Enoch Hutton, of Pudsey, near Leeds, who has kindly given us a detailed 
description of the points of the breed as they appear good in his eyes. In the South the 
Rev. G. F. Lovell reigns supreme, having for his lieutenant Mr. Everett Millais, of London, 
though the latter gentleman has devoted more of his affection to Bassets than Dachshunds, as 



VARIOUS TYPES OF DACHSHUNDS. 315 

will be seen in the succeeding chapter. We, therefore, consider ourselves especially fortunate 
in being able to give the opinions of three of these gentlemen ; for though not unanimous in 
their estimates of the points, the views of each party are thoroughly sustained therein. We 
also propose introducing several engravings, mostly derived from foreign sources, descriptive of 
the breed, as, from its rapid progress in public estimation, we are of opinion that the Dachs- 
hund will soon be one of the most popular dogs in this country. 

In the first place we will begin by quoting from the notes kindly supplied us by the 
Rev. G. F. Lovell, of St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford, who writes as follows : 

" Though the origin of the dog generally is lost in obscurity, yet the Dachshund can claim 
a very long pedigree; for a dog resembling it is found on the monument of Thothmes III., 
who reigned over Egypt more than 2,000 years B.C., and at whose court the inscriptions state 
he was a favourite ; and a breed of similar appearance has been discovered by Dr. Haughton 
on early Assyrian sculptures. No doubt further research would bring to light other notices 
of the same kind, but these show that the abnormal shape of the fore-legs is not due to 
disease, as has been supposed by some who have not studied these dogs. 

" This peculiarity is more commonly found than is generally imagined. Besides the Basset, 
both rough and smooth, and the Dachshund of France, it is apparent in an Indian breed, in 
the Swedish Beagle,' in the Spaniel of Hungary and Transylvania, and almost certainly in the 
old English Bloodhound, though judges, setting Shakespeare at nought, are trying to get rid of 
it as a deformity. 

" It has been asserted by a popular writer ' Snapshot ' that the Dachshund was not 
known in Germany until after the French Revolution, having been introduced by the French 
faiigrfc ; but however this may be, most of our dogs of this breed have come from there, 
and it is the head-quarters of the race. Yet the Germans have in this, as in other cases, 
taken little pains to preserve the purity of the race, and mongrels abound among them. 

" They may be divided into three varieties : the Hound, the Terrier, and the Toy, though. 
of course, these are crossed with one another. The first of these is more generally recognised 
in the south of England, the second in the north. The third breed, which seems chiefly 
to come from Hanover and the adjacent countries, is distinguished by its snipy jaw, broad flat 
head, and small size. It has never found acceptance with judges, who prefer a dog that looks 
good for work. 

" Dismissing this last, then, we find two distinct types, easily distinguished. The 
Terrier which I shall pass over in few words, as I believe the hound-character to be the nearer 
to the original breed is a hardy dog, with broad flat skull, short ears, often twisted, higher on 
the leg and shorter in body than the hound ; his stern is also not so long as the other variety. 
The Dachshund proper, as it would seem from old engravings, was a hound in miniature ; so 
he appears in Du Fouilloux for his Basset d jambes torses is clearly not the modern 
Basset, which has been developed from the ancient badger-digging dog of the sixteenth 
century (just as in Germany itself a large Dachshund is used as a tuftcr). No one would 
think of putting a modern Basset to dig out a badger or fox, so that either the badger or 
the Basset must have altered, and evidently the latter. 

" I shall refrain in the following notes from criticising the opinions of others who have 
written, often very well, on their pet breed, but will merely give the conclusions which I have 
come to after having read everything I could find, having kept and bred these dogs for some 
years, and having taken notes of some hundreds of specimens. 



THE BOOK oj- THE DOG. 



" The head of the hound is long and narrow ; the skull conical, with the protuberance strongly 
marked, though I have never seen it actually peaked as in the Bloodhound ; no stop ; the 
jaw long and very strong ; the teeth long, the canines curved ; the eyes of medium size and 
somewhat deeply set ; ears long, fine, set on somewhat low, and farther back than in any other 
breed ; the nose in a red dog should be flesh-coloured, but this is to be considered only 
when the competition is very close ; the skin over the head not too tight, the forehead being 
wrinkled when the dog is excited ; while the flews should be moderate in quantity, but not 
coarse. 




DACHSHUNDS, FROM "LA VENERIE." 



"The neck is neither so long as to give an appearance of weakness, nor so short as to 
be clumsy ; there should be a certain amount of throatiness. 

" The chest is broad and deep ; the ribs well sprung, the back ribs being very short ; the 
shoulders should be extremely muscular and very supple, the chest being let down between 
them ; the loin is light and well arched ; the muscles of the hind-quarters should have immense 
development. 

"The fore-legs are very thick and muscular, bending in so that the knees nearly touch, 
and then again turning out, so that a line dropped from the outside of the shoulder will fall just 
outside the feet ; the hind-legs are not so thick, and many good dogs are cow-hocked. They 
are much longer than the fore-legs. Almost all good Dachshunds either have dew-claws, or 
it will be found that they have been removed. 



MR. Loi'ELL Off DACHSriUXDS. 



317 



" The fore-feet are exceedingly thick and large, the sole being hard and horny ; the stern 
is long, tapering gradually to the tip, it is rough underneath, and is carried straight with a 
downward curve near the end, but when the dog is excited gaily over the back ; the coat must 
be short, fine, and as thick and close as possible ; the skin very thick and extremely loose. 
The two original colours were the same as in the Bloodhound red and black-and-tan but from 
a long continuance of careless breeding they are found of all colours ; but colour in the present 
state of the breed should count for very little if other points be all there. In height the 
Dachshund ought not to exceed 10 inches at the shoulder, and a dog of that height, and 40 or 




DACHSHUNDS, FROM "LA VENEK1E." 



42 inches long, should weigh 20 Ibs., the bitches being lighter than the dogs. At the same 
time many of our very best specimens are a little more than this both in size and weight. 
The prevailing faults in this breed are too great thickness of skull, combined with ears short 
and badly placed ; the jaw is very weak in fact, not one dog in ten has a good level mouth, 
while many have a lower jaw like an Italian Greyhound, and cannot crunch an ordinary chop- 
bone. Others get out at elbows from want of exercise or from weakness, while some have 
knees bent over, a great defect ; the stern is often carried too high, or even over the back. 
There is one more hint which may be of service to exhibitors Dachshunds are too often 
shown altogether out of condition : they require plenty of exercise and not too much to eat ; 
their social qualities and their great intelligence make them pets in the house, but the points 
of the breed must be brought out by hard muscle, and it is impossible for a judge to give 



3 1 8 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

points for a loin loaded with fat, or hind-quarters flabby from want of work. In character 
these dogs are very stubborn and headstrong, not standing the whip ; from this cause, probably, 
arises the doubts which have been suggested as to their gameness, as, if corrected, they 
frequently lose temper and refuse to work, but when in sympathy with their master and 
once excited they will hesitate at nothing. 

" I add the numerical value of the points of the Dachshund : 

Skull and eyes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1$ 

Ears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Nose and muzzle ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Body throat, neck, shoulder, chest, loins, hind-quarters ... ... ... 25 

Stern ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Colour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Skin and coat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

100 

" As to the use of points there is something to be said. First, they enable any one who 
has a dog to form some idea as to its worth ; and secondly, when a judge has settled most of 
the dogs in the ring, either as not worthy of notice, or though not, on account of some great 
defect, fit for the prize, yet good enough for a commended or highly commended, he finds often 
he has three or four, or it may be half a dozen, dogs left in ; it is then most satisfactory to 
compare the points of each specimen numerically, not necessarily in writing, to arrive at 
a right decision." 

Mr. Enoch Hutton takes a widely different view of the case, as will be seen from the 
following description, kindly forwarded by him : 

" Very much has been written in the public papers notably The Live Stock Journal about 
the Dachshund, but not much to the purpose. It seemed to me that many persons who 
possessed a specimen (however moderate) of this interesting breed, although they had never 
bred a single one of the race, must needs ' rush into print,' without being able to help 
themselves, and give to the world their notion as to what an orthodox Dachshund should be ; 
and their particular dog was held up as the correct model, which they advised all breeders to 
copy and aim at reproducing. Nor did it stop here : several persons who never even owned 
a specimen tried their hand at laying down the law of perfection in points, for the use and 
direction of breeders and judges. 

" There were some few articles of relevant and reliable matter, emanating from the pens of 
one or two foreign writers of some experience a few grains of wheat in bushels of chaff- 
but most of the articles were more calculated to mislead than to enlighten the reader. 

"One of the pioneers of Dachshund lore in England was Mr. John Fisher, who has had 
much experience as a breeder and as a judge. Mr. Fisher's unrivalled old dog Feldmann 
was also the pioneer of his race on the show-bench in this country, in the days when even 
the judges had to be educated and enlightened as to the breed and utility of such an animal. 
I have myself heard a judge of some repute in the canine show-ring give it as his opinion 
that old Feldmann was 'not/ting bttt a bad-bred bandy-legged Beagle!' 

" Now as to what a real Dachshund should or should not be like. He should be a 
hound in all hound-like points, the peculiarities of the breed only excepted i. e., he must 



MR. HUTTON ON DACHSHUNDS. 319 

have a hound's head set on a very long body on very short legs, and the fore legs 
must be very crooked or bandy without being much out at elbows or knuckling over at the 
knees, the extreme length from the nose-end to point of stem should be about four times the 
height at shoulder, and the animal should be massive, or, as some of us would say, clumsy 
and cloddy in appearance ; in short, a big dog in small compass. The head should re- 
semble somewhat that of a Foxhound, but must not be of so decided a type as seen in the 
Bloodhound. 

" My plan is to reproduce the breed in its purity, and endeavour to get the best and 
purest blood possible to that end, but I will be no party to ' painting the lily.' It is 
difficult even in Germany to find really excellent specimens of the Dachshund which can be 
purchased, for the really pure breeds are mostly still in the hands of the nobility, and they 
do not care to. part with even a puppy, except, perhaps, as a present occasionally to a 
relative or friend in their own sphere of life, or, may-be, a common specimen now and then to 
an inferior in position. 

"The breed kept so select is preserved in its purity mostly, but in this, as in other 
breeds, unless the animals are properly cared for and kept up, there is no certainty of repro- 
ducing the breed pure. But the chances are that without such care the produce will be 
mongrels, with many of the characteristics of the breed doubtless, but still not the real thing ; 
and I aver that many, very many, of the Dachshunds which are imported into this country 
are not pure-bred. But yet with some people an imported animal must be correct and pure. 
Even where the pedigrees can be traced back for many generations without a single stain or 
cross on either side, it is impossible to breed all correct and good. 

" For some time there has been a lot of noise respecting the style of head a Dachshund 
ought to have, some breeders making it appear that a "good head" makes a good dog, and 
with some judges who do not thoroughly understand the breed, a so-called " good head " has 
been an apology for the highest awards to otherwise badly-made dogs. 

" According to the new modern fancy a ' good head ' seems to mean a high-peaked skull 
and down face, with long ears, no matter how snipe-nosed and weak-jawed the animal may 
be, while the rest of his body may also be faulty i.e., it may be small and weak in bone, 
flat-ribbed, and short of muscle ; and such a one is often allowed to rule the roast at our 
canine exhibitions. 

" Now I wish to combat this erroneous idea, and as far as possible to write it down, if it may 
be ; and to do so, though late in the field, I will give my notions, with the rules and points 
by which I have been guided in my experience. 

"A good head is an indispensable point with me, but there must be other grand qualities 
that must not be overlooked in a Dachshund ; but to describe the breed properly it will be 
necessary to take point by point seriatim, and I will take the head first, allotting to it 25 points 
out of a possible 100 for perfection. 

" I. Skull (5 points) must be long and flat i.e., it should form a nearly straight line from the 
occipital bone to the nose point, and have very little stop ; and I prefer a moderate width 
of skull behind the ears, as I find a broad-headed dog has more courage than a narrow 
conical skulled one : the occipital bone should be well developed. 

" 2. Muzzle (5 points) must be long and very strong, for the size of the dog ; the length from 
the lower corner of the eye to the nose-end in a 20 Ib. dog should be 3 inches to 3^ inches. 
The muzzle should be squarely cut, and broad at nose ; the under-jaw strong ; flews should 
be fairly developed, so as to cover the lower jaw, and rather more. The nose in black-and-tan 



320 THE BOOK OF THE DOG. 

dogs must be black ; in red dogs it is often brown or flesh-coloured, but I must own a 
weakness for a red dog with a black nose and eyelashes, which is attained only by crossing 
reds with black-and-tans. 

3. Month (5 points). The front teeth must be perfectly even, and fit as close as a vice, 
so that a hair could not be drawn through when closed. The fangs one in upper and two 
in lower jaw on each side must be strong, sharp, and recurved, and all must be free from canker 
and disease (this I make a primary consideration whenever I purchase a dog of any breed, as being 
in my opinion the greatest safeguard against danger from the bite of a dog). I never saw 
a fine-bred dog of this kind underhung ; I have seen pig-jawed ones sometimes, but never 
kept one ; and either fault would effectually disqualify an otherwise good animal. 

4. Eyes (5 points). These always partake of the principal colour of the coat ; they 
must be large and lustrous, and deeply set, and in expression should be soft and intelligent ; and I 
like them to show the haw slightly. 

5. Ears (5 points) must be thin, soft as velvet, and long enough to reach the end of the 
nose, or within a half an inch of it. In red dogs the ears are generally a shade darker in colour than 




FROM "ICONES ANIMALIUM." 

the rest of the body. They should be set on low, and should hang rather squarely with the front 
edges close to the cheeks, and not rise at the roots except slightly when the animal is excited, or at 
'attention.' 

"6. Neck (5 points) must be long, thick, and strong, with plenty of loose skin, but entirely 
free from goitre or enlargement of the glands of the throat. 

" 7. Chest (5 points) must be very deep and wide, the brisket strong, and its point well 
up to the gullet. When the dog is standing, the chest should be within three inches of the 
ground. 

" 8. Shoulders (5 points) must be strong and heavy, and loosely fixed to the body. 

" 9. Fore-legs (5 points) must be very short and remarkably strong in bone, and must bend 
inwards from elbow to ankle, so that the latter nearly touch each other, but they must not 
knuckle over in front. 

" 10. Fore-feet (5 points) must be very large, splayed outwards, and be furnished with large 
and strong black or dark-brown claws. In some specimens the claws are often worn short 
from walking ; but if very strong this is no detriment. 

" 11. Ribs (5 points) must be well sprung or rounded up from shoulder to loin ; a flatness 
or hollow behind the shoulders is a defect, as it shows the animal has not sufficient room for 
his lungs to act properly. 

"12. Loin (5 points) must be long and muscular and slightly arched, so that it is per- 
ceptibly higher than either shoulders or quarters. 




TF.KRIF.R TYPE OF DACHSHUNDS. 



41 



COLOUR OF DACHSHUNDS. 323 

" 1 3. Hind-quarters, hind legs and feet (5 points). Thighs must be short and muscular, 
the legs fine and upright below the hock ; /. e., must not be sickle-hocked ; hind feet smaller 
than fore ones ; and the hind-quarters must not be higher than the shoulder. 

"14. Stern (5 points) should be 9 to 12 inches in length, according to size of dog ; must 
be thick at base, and also thicker again a couple of inches from the base, and gradually taper 
to a point ; carried with a curve upward, but not slewed. The under-side of stern should be 
flat, and the hair should be parted and feather each side thereof sightly. A dog with a broad 
flat stern as described is a great rarity, and is held in very high estimation in Germany, where 
it is termed an ' Otter-tail.' 

"15. Bone (5 points) must be large, and angular at points, according to the size of the 
animal. 

" 1 6. Muscle (5 points) must be large, hard, and particularly well developed and defined 
throughout. 

" 17. Skin (10 points) must be thick, yet soft to the touch, and remarkably elastic. No 
other breed of dog possesses the same elasticity of skin ; the animal can nearly turn round 
in it when seized, or at will he can contract it by muscular action so tightly to the body 
that it is difficult to get even a pinch of it. 

" 1 8. Coat (5 points) must be short, hard, and bright, but it varies much in hardness 
according to whether the animal is kept in a kennel or in a warm drawing-room. 

" 19. Colour (5 points). The colours may be (i) self-colours, i. e., any shade of fallow, red, 
or fawn the former preferred. (2) Bi-colours, i. e., black-and-tan, liver-and-tan, or brown-and- 
tawny, as commonly seen in the Bloodhound. (3) Parti-colours : tortoiseshell, or blue-and- 
tan grizzle with black spots (this colour is often accompanied by an odd, broken, or wall-eye). 
Hound-pied are very rare ; but though they are not difficult to obtain, they are certainly not 
desirable. The best colours are fallow-red, black-and-tan, and brown or liver-and-tan, which 
is often the result of crossing the red and black-and-tans. I prefer brightish colour in black- 
and-tan for show purposes, and of these I like those with red ' stockings,' in preference to 
those with heavily-pencilled toes, which I consider partake more of the character of the Man- 
chester Terrier than of the hound proper. Black-and-white I have seen, and have had one 
very good black one ; but I am not very deeply impressed with the beauty of either. 

" Having given my scale of points in detail, it will be seen that I have allotted them 
collectively thus : 

... ... ... ... *. 25 

Neck and chest ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Fore legs and feet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Ribs and loin ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Hind-qua