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Illustrated Flora 



o <r/^ / ' 7 



/1a 
Illustrated Flora 



OF THE 



PACIFIC STATES 

WASHINGTON, OREGON, AND CALIFORNIA 



BY 

leroy abrams 



IN FOUR VOLUMES 

Vol. Ill 

GERANIACEAE TO SCROPHULARIACEAE 

GERANIUMS TO FIGWORTS 



STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
STANFORD, CALIFORNIA 



n 



STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
STANFORD, CALIFORNIA 

London : Geoffrey Cumberlege 
Oxford University Press 



THE BAKER AND TAYLOR COMPANY 
HILLSIDE, NEW JERSEY 

HENRY M. SNYDER & COMPANY 
440 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 16 

W. S. HALL & COMPANY 
457 MADISON AVENUE, NEW YORK 22 



COPYRIGHT 1951 BY THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
OF THE LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY 

PRINTED AND BOUND IN THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA BY STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PREFACE 

The author is very grateful to the following contributors : Roxana Stinchfield 
Ferris for the family Euphorbiaceae, except for the genus Euphorbia whicii was con- 
tributed by Louis Cutter Wheeler, and for the text of Hackelia in the Boraginaceae ; 
Ira Loren Wiggins for the families Malvaceae, Cactaceae, except for the genus 
Opuntia which he contributed jointly with Carl Brandt Wolf, and the Solanaceae; 
George Neville Jones for the family Hypericaceae ; Philip Alexander Munz for the 
family Onagraceae; Mildred Esther Mathias and Lincoln Constance for the family 
Umbelliferae ; Rimo Bacigalupi for the family Garryaceae ; Herbert Louis Mason for 
the family Polemoniaceae, except for the genus P olemonium which was contributed 
by John Eraser Davidson and for the genus Gilia which was contributed jointly by 
Herbert Louis Mason and Alva Day Grant ; Lincoln Constance for the family Hydro- 
phyllaceae ; and Erancis Whittier Pennell for the family Scrophulariaceae, except for 
the genera Orthocarpus and Penstemon which were written by David Daniels Keck. 
The text of the remaining famihes was written by the author. Ira Loren Wiggins 
has given much assistance in solving the nomenclatorial and taxonomic problems. 
Roxana S. Eerris has selected the material for the original illustrations and, together 
with Sylvia Vincent and Barbara Law, has done the necessary editorial work of 
checking references and reading manuscript and proof. 

As in Volume I the illustrations are original except those which were used from 
Britton and Brown's Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 
The use of these illustrations is gratefully acknowledged to the New York Botanical 
Garden. The original drawings are, for the most part, the work of Jeanne Russell 
Janish. The drawings for the Onagraceae and Polemoniaceae were, in part, made at 
Pomona College and the University of California, respectively. A number of drawings 
scattered throughout the various plant families have been made by William S. Atkin- 
son, Alice Baldwin Addicott, Louise Nash, and Lawrence Beane. 

L.R.A. 

Stanford University 




CONTENTS OF VOLUME III 



Preface 

Appendix 

Index of Genera and Families 



V 

861 
863 



71. Geraniaceae 1 

72. Oxalidaceae 8 
IZ. Linaceae 9 

74. Zygophyllaceae 14 

75. Rutaceae 17 

76. Simaroubaceae 19 
n . Burseraceae 20 

78. Polygalaceae 21 

79. euphorbiaceae 23 

80. Callitrichaceae 42 

81. Buxaceae 45 

82. Empetraceae 45 

83. Limnanthaceae 46 

84. Anacardiaceae 50 



Choripctalac (continued) 1-287 

85. Celastraceae 53 

86. Staphyleaceae 55 

87. aceraceae 56 

88. Aesculaceae 58 

89. Balsaminaceae 59 

90. Rhamnaceae 59 

91. Vitaceae 81 

92. Malvaceae 82 

93. Sterculiaceae 112 

94. Hypericaceae 115 

95. Elatinaceae 118 

96. Frankeniaceae 119 

97. Tamaricaceae 120 

98. CiSTACEAE 122 



99. ViOLACEAE 123 

100. loasaceae 133 

101. Datiscaceae 142 

102. Cactaceae 143 

103. Thymelaeaceae 163 

104. Elaeagnaceae 163 

105. Lythraceae 164 

106. Onagraceae 167 

107. Haloragidaceae 212 

108. Araliaceae 213 

109. Umbelliferae 215 

110. Cornaceae 283 

111. Garryaceae 284 



112. Pyrolaceae 287 

113. Monotropaceae 292 

114. Ericaceae 297 

115. Vacciniaceae 326 

116. Primulaceae 331 

117. Plumbaginaceae 344 

118. Styracaceae 345 

119. Oleaceae 346 

120. loganiaceae 350 



Sympetalae 287-859 

121. Gentianaceae 350 

122. Menyanthaceae 365 

123. Apocynaceae 367 

124. Asclepiadaceae 372 

125. Dichondraceae 380 

126. Convolvulaceae 380 

127. cuscutaceae 390 

128. polemoniaceae 396 

129. fouquieriaceae 474 



130. Lennoaceae 475 

131. Hydrophyllaceae 476 

132. boraginaceae 532 

133. Verbenaceae 609 

134. Menthaceae 614 

135. Solanaceae 662 

136. Scrophulariaceae 686 



ENGLISH NAMES 

Choripetalous Plants (continued) 1-287 



71. Geranium Family 1 

72. Wood-sorrel Fam- 

ily 8 

72. Flax Family 9 

74. Caltrop Family 14 

75. Rue Family 17 

76. Quassia Family 19 

77. ToRCHwooD Family 20 

78. Milkwort Family 21 

79. Spurge Family 23 

80. Water-starwort 

Family 42 

81. Box Family 45 

82. Crowberry Family 45 

83. Meadow-foam 

Family 46 



84. Sumac Family 50 

85. Staff-tree Fam- 

ily 53 

86. Bladder-nut 

Family 55 

87. Maple Family 56 

88. Buckeye Family 58 

89. Jewel-weed Fam- 

ily 59 

90. Buckthorn Fam- 

ily 59 

91. Grape Family 81 

92. Mallow Family 82 

93. Sterculia Fam- 

ily 112 



94. St. John's-wort 

Family 115 

95. Waterwort Fam- 

ily 118 

96. Frankenia Fam- 

ily 119 

97. Tamarisk Fam- 

ily 120 

98. RocKROSE Family 122 

99. Violet Family 123 

100. LoASA Family 133 

101. Datisca Family 142 

102. Cactus Family 143 

103. Mezereum Family 163 

104. Oleaster Family 163 



Vll 



Vlll 



CONTENTS 



105. Loosestrife Fam- 

ily 164 

106. Evening-primrose 

Family 167 



107. Water-milfoil 

Family 212 

108. Ginseng Family 213 

109. Carrot Family 215 



110. Dogwood Family 283 

111. Silk-tassel Fam- 

ily 284 



112. WiNTERGREEN FAM- 

ILY 287 

113. Indian-pipe Fam- 

ily 292 

114. Heath Family 297 

115. Huckleberry 

Family 326 

116. Primrose Family 331 

117. Plumbago Family 344 

118. Storax Family 345 

119. Olive Family 346 



Sympetalous Plants 287-859 

120. LoGANiA Family 350 

121. Gentian Family 350 

122. BucKBEAN Family 365 

123. Dogbane Family 367 

124. Milkweed Family 372 

125. DicHONDRA Fam- 

ily 380 

126. Morning-glory 

Family 380 

127. Dodder Family 390 

128. Phlox Family 396 



129. Fouquieria Fam- 

ily 474 

130. Lennoa Family 475 

131. Waterleaf Fam- 

ily 476 

132. Borage Family 532 

133. Vervain Family 609 

134. Mint Family 614 

135. Potato Family 662 

136. Figwort Family 686 



ILLUSTRATED FLORA 

VOL. Ill 



^c.aTn. 




Family 71. GERANlACEAE. 

Geranium Family. 

Herbs with alternate or opposite, palmately lobed or pinnate leaves, usually with 
stipules. Flowers regular or slightly irregular. Sepals 5, rarely fewer, usually per- 
sistent. Petals of the same number as sepals, hypogynous. Stamens as many or 2-3 
times as many ; anthers 2-celled, versatile. Carpels 5, united about a central axis, 
each 1-2-ovuled, indehiscent, at length elastically splitting away from below, and 
beaked by the long style. 

About 12 genera and 470 species, natives of the temperate regions, most abundant in South Africa. 

Anther-bearing stamens 10; style-beaks glabrous on the inner surface. 1. Geranium. 

Anther-bearing stamens 5, alternating with S sterile filaments; style-beaks pubescent on the inner surface. 

2. Er odium. 

1. GERANIUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 676. 1753. 

Herbs with stipulate, palmately lobed, cleft or divided leaves and axillary 1-2-flowered 
peduncles. Flowers regular, 5-merous. Sepals imbricated. Petals hypogynous, imbri- 
cated. Stamens 10, generally 5 longer and 5 shorter. Style persistent, glabrous on the 
inner surface, becoming recurved. Carpel opening along the inner face. [Name Greek, a 
crane, from the long beak of the fruit.] 

About 190 species, widely distributed in temperate regions. Type species, Geranium sylvaticum L. 

Plants annual or biennial. 

Peduncle 1-flowered. 1. G. sibiricum. 

Peduncle 2-flowered. 

Sepals without subulate tips; seeds smooth. 

Stamens 10; carpel-bodies wrinkled, glabrous. 2. G. molle. 

Stamens 5; carpel-bodies not wrinkled, pubescent. 3. G. piisillum. 

Sepals with subulate tips; seeds reticulate or pitted. 

Style-beak and its branches less than 3 mm. long; fruiting pedicels about equaling the calyx. 

Seeds deeply reticulate; carpel-bodies short-hirsute with spreading hairs. 

4. G. dissectum. 

Seeds finely reticulate; carpel-bodies long-villous with ascending hairs. 

5. G. carolinianuni. 

Style-beak and its branches more than 4 mm. long; fruiting pedicels much longer than the calyx. 
Peduncles appressed-pubescent or with retrorse glandless hairs. 6. G. cohimbinum. 

Peduncles glandular-pubescent with spreading hairs. 7. G. Bicknellii longipes. 

Plants perennial from taproots or rootstocks. 

Petals less than 1 cm. long; stems rather densely and retrorsely pubescent, not glandular. 

8. G. retrorsum. 
Petals over 1 cm. long. 

Petals glabrous except for the cilia at base; free tips of styles 1-2. S mm. long; fruiting pedicels erect 

and straight. 9. G. oreganiim. 

Petals pilose on the lower one-fourth to one-half of the inner surface; fruiting pedicels spreading or 
reflexed and ultimately bent upward. 
Petals pilose on the lower one-fourth of inner surface; stems stout. 

Lower part of stem and petioles of basal leaves glandular-villous with an indument of short 

glandular pubescence. 10. G. viscosissimum. 

Lower part of stems and petioles of basal leaves strigose or retrorsely pubescent with short 
whitish nonglandular hairs. 11. C nervosum. 

Petals pilose on the lower one-half of the inner surface; stems slender. 

Free tips of styles 3-4.5 mm. long. 12. G. Richardsonii. 

Free tips of styles 6-9 mm. long. 13. G. calif ortiicum. 

1. Geranium sibiricum L. Siberian Geranium. Fig. 2963. 

Geranium sibiricum L. Sp. PI. 683. 1753. 

Annual, the stems 3-10 dm. long, decumbent or ascending, freely branched, whole plant villous- 
pubescent. Leaves nearly orbicular, 5-7 cm. broad, deeply 3-5-parted; divisions broadly lanceo- 

1 



2 GERANIACEAE 

late, cleft or toothed; peduncles slender, S-8 cm. long, 1-flowered, 2-bracted near the middle; 
sepals oval, (i-l mm. long, minute, awn-tipped ; petals white with purple veins, slightly exceeding 
the sepals; fruiting style-beak 10-13 mm. long, carpel-bodies 3-3.5 mm. long, puberulent and 
sparingly hairy ; seeds minutely reticulate. 

Sparingly naturalized in the Pacific States, also New York and Illinois. Type locality: Siberia. May-June. 



2. Geranium molle L, Dove's-foot Geranium. Fig. 2964. 

Geranium molle L. Sp. PI. 682. 1753. 

Annual, the stems widely branching from the base, slender, decumbent or ascending, 1-5 dm. 
long, whole plant soft-villous. Leaves reniform-orbicular, 15-35 mm. broad, generally cleft only 
to a little below the middle; the divisions 7-11, obovate or cuneate, 3-5-toothed at the apex; 
peduncles 2-flowered ; sepals 4-5 mm. long, not awned ; carpel-bodies distinctly wrinkled trans- 
versely, glabrous ; fruiting style-beak 10 mm. long, sparingly pubescent ; seeds smooth or striate. 

Lawns and pastures, naturalized from Europe, Humid Transition Zone; Vancouver Island to southern 
California. Feb.-June. 



3. Geranium pusillum L. Small-flowered Geranium. Fig. 2965. 

Geranium pusillum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 957. 1763. 

Annual, the stems slender, weak, widely branching from the base, 1-5 dm. long, whole plant 
pubescent or short-villous. Leaves reniform-orbicular, 10-35 mm. broad, deeply divided into 7-9 
divisions, these oblong, entire or 3-toothed; peduncles short, 5-15 mm. long, 2-flowered; pedicels 
10-25 mm. long ; sepals 3-4 mm. long, awnless ; petals pale purple, little exceeding the sepals, 
notched ; carpel-bodies pubescent or strigose, not wrinkled ; fruiting style-beak 8-9 mm. long ; 
seeds smooth. 

Waste places, naturalized from Europe, mainly Humid Transition Zone; British Columbia, Washington, 
Oregon and coastal northern California; also eastern United States and Canada. May-Sept. 



4. Geranium dissectum L. Cut-leaved Geranium, Fig. 2966. 

Geranium dissectum L. Amoen. Acad. 4: 282. 1760. 
Geranium laxum Hanks, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 9. 1907. 

Annual, resembling the preceding species, the stems usually more slender, decumbent or as- 
cending, retrorsely pubescent. Leaves deeply cleft, the inain divisions parted into linear segments ; 
pedicels glandular-hirsute ; sepals 7-8 mm. long including the awn-tips, which are about 2-3 mm. 
long; petals purple, about equaling the sepals; fruiting style-beak about 12 mm. long, glandular- 
villous ; carpel-bodies 2-2.5 mm. long, hirsute; seeds deeply reticulate. 

Moist meadows and waste places, Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; frequent in the Pacific States, and 
possibly native, but scarcely distinct from the European type. Type locality: southern Europe. April-Oct. 



5. Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina Geranium. Fig. 2967. 

Geranium carolinianum L. Sp. PI. 682. 1753. 

Annual or biennial, the stems usually branched below, erect or ascending, more or less glan- 
dular-pubescent. Leaves reniform-orbicular, 3-6 cm. broad, deeply divided, the main divisions 
cleft or parted into oblong or oblong-linear lobes ; peduncles and pedicels short, the flowers 
usually in compact clusters at the ends of the branches; sepals oval, 6-10 mm. long, 3-4.5 mm. 
wide, the awn-tips about 2 mm. long ; petals pale rose or white, about equaling the sepals ; fruit- 
ing style-beak 12-18 mm. long, pubescent with spreading often somewhat glandular hairs ; carpel- 
bodies 3-3.5 mm. long, pilose with erect hairs; seeds finely reticulate, 1-1.5 mm. thick. 

Moist meadows or banks, Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; throughout the Pacific States and extending 
across the continent. Type locality: Carolina. April-Oct. 

Geranium sphaerospermum Fernald, Rhodora 37: 298, pi. 372, figs. 1-5. 1935. Very similar to G. carolini- 
anum; rnature sepals 5-8 mm. wide, 5-nerved; seeds subspherical, 2-2.5 mm. thick. Washington south to northern 
California and east to Ontario and New York. Type locality: Great Cloche Island, Ontario. 



6. Geranium columbinum L. Long-stalked Geranium. Fig. 2968. 

Geranium columbinum L. Sp. PI. 682. 1753. 

Annual, the stems slender, decumbent or prostrate, sparsely pubescent with appressed hairs. 
Leaves orbicular-reniform in outline, 5-9-parted, the main divisions rather narrow, variously 
cleft into linear segments ; peduncles and pedicels slender, usually longer than the leaves, re- 
trorsely pubescent; sepals awn-tipped, 10-12 mm. long; petals rose-purple, slightly exceeding the 
sepals; style-beak 15 mm. long, strigose; carpel-bodies 3-3.5 mm. long, smooth and glabrous; 
seeds prominently reticulate. 

Sparingly naturalized in Washington and Oregon, also in the eastern United States. Type locality: Europe. 
May-Aug. 



GERANIUM FAMILY 




2966 



2963. Geranium sibiricum 

2964. Geranium moUe 



2967 



2965. Geranium pusillum 

2966. Geranium dissectum 



2968 



2967. Geranium carolinianum 

2968. Geranium columbinum 



7. Geranium Bicknellii var. longipes (S. Wats.) Fernald. Bicknell's Geranium. 

Fig. 2969. 

Geranium carolinianum var. longipes S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 50. 1871. 
Geranium nemorale Suksd. Deutsch. Bot. Monatss. 16: 222. 1898. 
Geranium longipes Goodding, Bot. Gaz. 37: 56. 1904. 
Geranium Bicknellii var. longipes Fernald, Rhodora 37: 297. 1935. 

Annual, the stems simple below and erect, or branched and more or less spreading, pubescent 
with spreading hairs, often glandular above, the lower node retrorsely pubescent. Leaves 2-7 cm. 
broad, somewhat angulate and 5-sided or the lowest orbicular in outline, the main divisions in- 
cised or cleft into lanceolate or oblong segments ; petioles, peduncles and pedicels glandular- 
pubescent ; sepals awn-tipped, 7-8 mm. long ; petals rose-purple, about equaling the sepals ; fruit- 
ing style-beak 16-22 mm. long, glandular-hirsute. 

Sandy soils in clearings and burnt-over lands, mainly Arid Transition Zone; British Columbia to Wash- 
ington, Oregon and northern California, east to Nova Scotia and New York. Type locality: southeastern New 
York. May-Aug. 

Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f. Sp. Geran. 27. 1759. Perennial with a short scaly caudex, the stems 
simple below, sometimes tufted, retrorsely hirsute. Leaves orbicular in outline, 4-9 cm. broad, the 5-7 mam 
divisions 3-5-lobed; peduncles and pedicels glandular-puberulent; sepals awnless, S-6 ram. long, ciliate; petals 
purple, about twice as long as the sepals, obcordate; fruiting style-beak 12-15 mm. long, glandular-pubescent; 
seeds granular. Native of Europe, locally naturalized in California. 

8. Geranium retrorsum L'Her. New Zealand Geranium. Fig. 2970. 

Geranium pilosum Forst. f. ex DC. Prod. 1: 642. 1824. Not Cav. 1788. 

Geranium retrorsum L'Her. ex DC. Prod. 1 : 644. 1824. 

Geranium pilosum var. retrorsum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 589. 192S. 

Perennial with a large taproot and branched caudex, the stems branched, 1-6 dm. long, more 



4 GERANIACEAE 

or less retrorse-hirsute. Leaves 15-40 mm. broad, finely hirsute, 3-5-parted, the main divisions 
cleft or incised into linear or lanceolate lobes ; pedicels retrorsely and usually appressed-pubes- 
cent ; sepals awn-tipped, 5-6 mm. long, finely hirsute ; petals purple, 6-9 mm. long, deeply notched 
at the apex; fruiting style-beak 9-11 mm. long, minutely pubescent; seeds minutely reticulate. 

Sparingly introduced from Australasia; San Francisco, Marin and Humboldt Counties, California. Type 
locality: New Zealand. June-Sept. 

Geranium glabratum (Hook.) Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 10. 1907. Perennial with a taproot and a more or 
less branched caudex, the stems spreading or decumbent, 1-7 dm. long, sparingly pubescent with retrorse hairs 
or nearly glabrous. Leaves 2-4 cm. broad, sparingly pubescent, 3-S-parted, the main divisions cuneate, usually 
with 3 broad teeth at the apex; pedicels retrorse-pubescent; sepals awn-tipped, about 5 mm. long, becoming 
nearly glabrous, except on the nerves; petals purple, 5-6 mm. long, nearly rounded at the apex; fruiting style- 
beak 11-12 mm. long, minutely pubescent; seeds reticulate. Native of Australasia, sparingly naturalized m 
California. 

9. Geranium oreganum Howell. Oregon Geranium. Fig. 2971. 

Geranium incisum Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:206. 1838, as a synonym; Trelease, Mem. Bost. 

Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 74. 1888. Not Andrews 1797. 
Geranium albiflorum var. incisum Torr. & Gray, loc. cit. 
Geranium, Hookerianum var. incisum Walp. Rep. 1: 450. 1842. 
Geranium oreganum Howell, Fl. N. W. Amer. 106. 1897. 

Perennial, with simple caudex, the stout scape-like stems 3-7 dm. high, sparingly hirsute or 
glabrate, not glandular. Leaves 6-15 cm. wide, strigose on both sides, somewhat 5-angled in 
outline, 5-parted, the divisions cleft and coarsely toothed ; pedicels glandular-hirsute ; sepals awn- 
tipped, 11-12 mm. long, short-hirsute; petals 15-23 mm. long, purple, glabrous except the ciliate 
base; filaments ciliate at base; free style-tips 2 mm. long; fruiting style-beak 3-5 cm. long, 
densely glandular-pubescent ; seeds 3-3 . 5 mm. long, closely reticulate. 

Edges of woods and open moist ground. Humid Transition Zone; southwestern Washington south through 
Oregon on the west side of the Cascade Mountains to northwestern California. Type locality: Willamette 
Valley, Oregon. May-Sept. 

10. Geranium viscosissimum Fisch. & Mey. Sticky or Viscid Geranium. 

Fig. 2972. 

Geranium viscosissitnum Fisch. & Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 11: Suppl. 18. 1846. 
Geranium canttm Rydh. N. Amer. Fl. 25: 14. 1907. 

Perennial with stout, usually simple caudex, the stems stout, scape-like, 3-8 dm. high, first 
internode much elongated, densely villous with spreading or sometimes retrorse usually viscid 
hairs, interspersed with more or less abundant short glandular hairs. Leaves 6-12 cm. wide, 
densely hoary, suborbicular in outline, 3-5-parted, the divisions sharply incised ; pedicels densely 
glandular-hirsute; sepals awn-tipped, 13-15 mm. long, glandular-pubescent; petals purple, 13-18 
mm. long; free style-tips 4-5.5 mm. long; fruit glandular toward the apex; seeds closely re- 
ticulate. 

Prairies and open woods. Arid Transition Zone; British Columbia and northeastern Washington to northern 
California and northwestern Nevada, east to Saskatchewan and western South Dakota. Type locality: western 
North AJnerica. May-Aug. 

11. Geranium nervosum Rydb. Teton Geranium. Fig. 2973. 

Geranium nervosum Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 28: 34. 1901. 

Geranium strigosum Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 29: 243. 1902. Not Burm. f. 1768. 

Geranium strigosius St. John, Fl. S. E. Wash. 243. 1937. 

Perennial, with usually simple caudex and scape-like stems, pubescent below with short re- 
trorse nonglandular hairs. Leaves 5-10 cm. broad, 3-5-parted, the divisions incised ; petioles of 
the basal leaves elongated, retrorsely pubescent; pedicels glandular-hirsute, the glands often 
yellowish; sepals awn-tipped, 9-11 mm. long, minutely pubescent and ciliate; petals 15 mm. 
long, pink with prominent darker veins ; fruiting stylar column 25-30 mm. long, glandular-hir- 
sute; seeds reticulate. 

Woods and open meadows. Arid Transition and Canadian Zones; eastern Washington to northeastern Cali- 
fornia and Nevada, Wyoming, and Colorado. Type locality : Fish Creek, Teton Forest Range, Wyoming. May- 
Aug. 

12. Geranium Richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv. Richardson's Geranium. Fig. 2974. 

Geranium albiflorum Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 116. 1831. Not Ledeb. 1831. 
Geranium Richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 4: 37. 1837. 
Geranium Hookerianum Walp. Rep. 1: 450. 1842. 

Geranium pentagynum Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. Tour North. Mexico 90. 1848. 
Geranium loloense St. John, Fl. S. E. Wash. 242. 1937. 

Perennial, the stems erect or ascending, 2 . 5-7 dm. high, usually simple, glabrous or sparingly 
glandular-pubescent. Leaves thin, 3-15 cm. broad, 3-7-parted, the main divisions incised, toothed 
or lobed, sparsely strigose on the upper surface and on the veins beneath; pedicels slender, 1-2 
cm. long, glandular-pubescent, the glands usually purple ; sepals awn-tipped, 8-12 mm. long, the 
outer ones more or less glandular-pubescent at least below; petals white, with pink or purple 
veins, rarely flushed with pink, 10-18 mm. long, pilose inside for about half their length; fila- 
ments reddish purple, short-pilose about three-fourths their length; mature stylar column 2-2.5 
cm. long, pubescent and with interspersed glandular-villous hairs; free style-branches yellow- 



GERANIUM FAMILY 5 

ish, 3-5 mm. long; carpel-bodies sparingly pubescent, and glandular-hispid on the keel- seeds 

.5-0.5 mm. long, coarsely reticulate. 

Moist soils, Transition and Canadian Zones; eastern British Columbia to Saskatchewan and South Dakota 
south to northern Mexico. In the Pacific States it ranges from the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon south 
through the Sierra Nevada to the mountains of southern California. Type locality: vallevs of thp RorW Mnnr. 
tains, collected by Drummond between latitudes 52° N. and 54° N. May-July. ^ 

Geranium concinnum G. N. & F. F. Jones, Rhodora 45: 38. 1943. Somewhat intermediate between G 
Rtchardsonit and G. cahfornicum. The length of the free style-tips is intermediate between the two species- hairs 
of the pedicels are tipped with yellowish glands instead of purple; pubescence of the stem and petioles differs 
from both species in being finely retrorse-pubescent to nearly glabrous; petals 10-15 mm. long pale pink or 
lavender. Known localities are: Olancha Mountain and Kern River (type locality), Tulare County Frazier 
Mountain, Ventura County; and Bear Valley, San Bernardino County, California; all stations at altitudes of 
7,000—9,000 feet. 

13. Geranium californicum G. N. & F. F. Jones. California Geranium. Fig. 2975. 

Geranium leucanthtim Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 18. 1907. Not Griseb. 1874. 
Geranium californicum G. N. & F. F. Jones, Rhodora 45: 38. 1943. 

Perennial, with a heavy caudex and ascending rather slender stems, 2-4 dm. high. Leaves 
thin, 3-parted, the divisions incised or toothed, more or less appressed-pilose ; petioles with 
spreading or retrorse pilose hairs; pedicels and sepals densely glandular-pubescent, the glands 
usually yellowish; petals 16-21 mm. long, veiny, white or pale pink; style-column 20-25 mm. 
long; style-branches 6-7 mm. long; carpel-bodies hairy. 

Moist woods or meadows, Arid Transition Zone; Sierra Nevada, from Yosemite National Park southward 
and in the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains, California. Type locality: Pine Ridge, Fresno County' 
California. June-Aug. 

Pelargonium L'Her. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. 2: 424. 1789. The well-known pelargoniums or "geraniums" of 
gardens belong to this African genus, which is distinguished from true geraniums chiefly by the irregular 
flowers. Several species often grow spontaneously along roadsides or in waste places where garden refuse has 
been dumped, especially in southern California. 

2. ERODIUM L.Her. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. 2:414. 1789. 

Herbs with mostly jointed nodes, opposite or alternate stipulate leaves, and axillary 
umbellate nearly regular flowers. Sepals 5, imbricated. Petals 5, hypogynous, imbricated, 
the 2 upper slightly smaller. Glands 5. Anther-bearing stamens 5, with slightly dilated 
filaments alternating with as many sterile filaments. Styles becoming spirally coiled after 
splitting away from the central column, pubescent on the inner face. Carpel-bodies nar- 
rowed at the base, closed. Seeds smooth. [Name Greek, meaning heron, in reference to 
the beaked fruit.] 

About 60 species, widely distributed in temperate and subtropical regions. Type species, Erodium crassi- 
folium Soland. 

Leaves not pinnately parted. 

Leaves palmately parted, lobed or toothed, cordate at base, about as broad as long. 

Pedicels closely appressed-pubescent; leaves deeply cleft or divided. 1. E. texanum. 

Pedicels glandular-pubescent with spreading hairs; leaves shallowly lobed or toothed. 

2. E. macrophyllum. 
Leaves pinnatifid, much longer than broad, not cordate at base. 3. E. Botrys. 

Leaves pinnately parted. 

Sepal-tips without bristle-like appendages; anther-bearing filaments 2-toothed. 4. E. moschatum. 

Sepal-tips with 1 or 2 bristle-like appendages; anther-bearing filaments toothless. 5. E. cicutarium. 

1. Erodium texanum A. Gray. Texas Filaree. Fig. 2976. 

Erodium texanum A. Gray, Gen. III. 2: 130. 1849. 

Stems several from the base, 4-25 cm. long, the whole plant appressed-pubescent and canes- 
cent, not glandular. Leaves deltoid-ovate or ovate, 1 . 5-5 cm. long, cordate, subpalmately 3-5- 
lobed, crenate-dentate ; sepals minutely awn-tipped, 10-13 mm. long; petals purple, the early 
ones exceeding the sepals, the latter much reduced; fruiting style-beak 4-6 cm. long. 

Sandy soils. Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones; Mojave and Colorado Deserts, southern California to Lower 
California and Texas. Type locality: Texas. April-May. 

2. Erodium macrophyllum Hook. & Arn. Large-leaved Filaree. Fig. 2977. 

Erodium macrophyllum Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 327. 1837. 

Mostly nearly or quite acaulescent, puberulent with few interspersed glandular hairs at least 
on the pedicels. Leaves triangular-ovate or reniform, crenate-serrate, sometimes crenately-lobed ; 
peduncles exceeding the leaves, sepals glandular-hirsute, minutely awn-tipped, the outer 11-16 
mm. long; petals equaling the sepals, dull white; carpel-bodies truncate, 2.5-4 mm. broad at apex, 
densely velvety-pubescent. 

Occasional in dry grassy places in the valleys or low foothills, Upper Sonoran Zone; Oregon to Lower 
California. Type locality: California. March-May. 

Erodium macrophyllum var. californicum (Greene) Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif. 247. 1901. (Erodium 
californicum Greene, Fl. Fran. 99. 1891.) Like the typical species in general habit; peduncles and pedicels less 
puberulent, but abundantly beset with long gland-tipped hairs; petals purple. Central and southern Calitornia. 
Type locality; "Berkeley Hills and eastward in the Mt. Diablo Range." 



GERANIACEAE 




2974 




2975 

2969. Geranium BicknelHi 

2970. Geranium retrorsum 

2971. Geranium oreganum 



2972. Geranium viscosissimum 

2973. Geranium nervosum 

2974. Geranium Richardsonii 



2977 



2975. Geranium califomicum 

2976. Erodium texanum 

2977. Erodium macrophyllum 



GERANIUM FAMILY 




glandular-pilose; sepals glandular-pubescent, mucronate; petals rose-purple, 4-5 mm. long; fruiting styles about 
2.5 cm. long. Locally established in central California. Native of the Mediterranean region. 

Erodium cygnorum Nees in Lehm. PI. Preiss. 1: 162. 1844. Stems 1-5 dm. high, somewhat hispidulous 
Leaves villous, ovate in outline, 3-5-parted, the division incisely toothed; peduncles 3-S-flowered- pedicels not 
glandular; calyx pubescent; petals 6-7 mm. long, blue; fruiting styles 4-6 cm. long. Locally established in 
southern California. Native of Australia. 

3. Erodium Botrys Bertol. Long-beaked Filaree. Fig. 2978. 

Erodium Botrys Bertol. Amocn. Ital. 35. 1819. 

Acaulescent or with a branching stem 3-5 dm. long, bristly-hirsute. Leaves pinnatifid or bi- 

pinnatifid, or the basal crenate ; peduncles and pedicels glandular-hirsute; sepals 7-8 mm. long 

in flower, twice as long in fruit, minutely awn-tipped, glandular-pubescent, upper sepal margined 

with purple; petals 10-12 mm. long, cuneate, blunt at apex, purple with 3-5 dark purple veins; 

style-beak stout, 9-12 cm. long; pits on carpei-body at base of beak 2, each subtended by two 

folds forming smaller pits between. 

Pastures and waste places, naturalized from the Mediterranean region; coastal valleys and foothills of 
California and sparingly in western Oregon. March-May. 

Erodium obtusiplicatum (Maire, Weiller & Wilczek) J. T. Howell, Leaflets West. Bot. 5: 68. 1947. 
(.Erodium Botrys f. montantim Brumh. Rep. Nov. Spec. 2: 118. 1906; E. Botrys var. obtusiplicatum Maire 
Weiller & Wilczek, Bull. See. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 26: 120. 1935.) Similar to Erodium Botrys in habit; 
fruiting beak mostly shorter, 5.5-8.5 cm. long; pits in carpel-bodies 2, each with a single fold kielow; petals 
ST":iller, about equaling to one-fourth longer than the sepals. This is becoming common and widespread in 
California, but until recently (Wagnon and Biswell, Madrono 7: 118-125. fic/s. 1-3. 1943) its distinctive char- 
acters have not been recognized. Type locality: Morocco. 

4. Erodium moschatum (Burm. f.) L'Her. Musk or White-stemmed Filaree. 

Fig. 2979. 

Geranium moschatum Burm. f. Sp. Geran. 29. 1759. 
Erodium moschatum L'Her. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. 2: 414. 1789. 

Acaulescent and prostrate or with ascending branches, mostly rather stout and glandular- 
pubescent. Leaves rather ample, pinnate; stipules large, obtuse; leaflets unequally and doubly 
serrate ; peduncle several-flowered ; sepals not terminated by long bristles, 6-7 mm. long ; anther- 
bearing filaments 2-toothed. 

Fields, pastures, and waste places, naturalized from southern Europe; British Columbia to southern Cali- 
fornia. Feb.-June. 



5. Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. Red-stemmed Filaree. Fig. 2980. 

Geranium cicutarium L. Sp. PI. 680. 1753. 

Geranium aethiopicum Lam. Encycl. 2: 266. 1786. 

Erodium cicutarium L'Her. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. 2: 414. 1789. 

Erodium aethiopicum Brumh. & Thel. Mem. Soc. Sci. Cherbourg IV. 38: 352. 1911-12. 

Acaulescent, or the stems 1-5 dm. long, decumbent or ascending, often canescent with hirsute 
pubescence, less glandular than the preceding. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets laciniately pinnatifid with 
narrow acute lobes ; pedicels slender; petals rose-colored or purple; sepals with 1-2 terminal 
bristle-like hairs ; anther-bearing filaments not toothed. 



June 



Fields and waste places, naturalized from southern Europe; British Columbia to southern California. Feb.- 




2978 
2978. Erodium Botrys 



2979. Erodium moschatum 



2980 
2980. Erodium cicutarium 



8 OXALIDACEAE 

Family 72. OXALIDACEAE. 

Wood-sorrel Family. 

Annual or perennial, leafy-stemmed or acaulescent herbs, often with rootstocks 
or scaly bulbs, with sour sap (oxalic acid), and mostly palmately 3-foliolate leaves. 
Stipules commonly present as scarious margins to the bases of the petioles ; leaflets 
mostly obcordate. Flowers perfect, in umbel-like or forking cymes or rarely solitary, 
on mostly rather long peduncles. Sepals 5, often unequal. Petals 5, white, purple, or 
yellow. Stamens 10-15. Ovary 5-lobed, 5-celled; styles united or distinct; ovules 
2 to many in each cell. Fruit a loculicidal, globose or columnar capsule. Embryo 
straight ; endosperm fleshy. 

A family of 7 genera and about 330 species, chiefly in tropical regions. 

1. OXALIS L. Sp. PI. 433. 1753. 

Perennial caulescent or acaulescent herbs, from taproots, rootstocks or bulbs. Leaves 
alternate, usually with elongated petioles, trifoliolate; leaflets mostly obcordate, notched at 
the apex. Flowers on axillary or scape-like peduncles, sepals and petals 5; stamens 10. 
Seeds few to many in each cell, variously wrinkled, grooved, pitted or striate. [Name 
Greek, meaning sour, from the acid juice.] 

A genus of about 300 species, mainly in warm temperate and tropical regions. Type species, Oxalis Aceto- 
sella L. 

Flowers white or purple. 

Cyme 1-flowered, subtended by 1 or 2 clasping bracts. 1. O. oregana. 

Cyme several-flowered, umbel-like, subtended by a whorl of narrow bracts. 2. O. trilliifolia. 

Flowers yellow. 

Plants acaulescent; rootstocks bearing bulblets; petals 20 mm. long. 3. 0. cernua. 

Plants caulescent; rootstocks not producing bulblets; petals less than 20 mm. long. 
Stems arising from slender rootstocks; longer filaments pubescent. 

Petals 4-8 mm. long. 4. O. corniculata. 

Petals 12-18 mm. long. 5. O. Suksdorfii. 

Stems arising from a tufted woody fusiform root; longer filaments glabrous. 

Pedicels with spreading pubescence, shorter than the capsules. 6. O. pilosa. 

Pedicels with appressed pubescence, longer than the capsules. 7. 0. calif ornica. 

1. Oxalis oregana Nutt. Oregon Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2981. 

Oxalis oregana Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 211. 1838. 

Oxalis Acetosella var. oregana Trelease, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 90. 1888. 

Oxys oregana Greene, Man. Bay Reg. 71. 1894. 

Oxalis macra Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25 : 26. 1907. 

Oxalis Smalliana R. Knuth, Notizblatt 7: 308. 1919. 

Oxalis oregana var. Tracyi Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 588. 1925. 

Acaulescent perennial from slender creeping rootstocks, more or less rusty-villous. Leaflets 
broadly obcordate, 2-3 cm. long, on petioles 5-15 cm. long; peduncles scape-like, bearing a single 
flower ; pedicel subtended by 2 bracts ; petals white or rose-colored, purple-veined, oblong-ovate, 
15-20 mm. long ; capsule round-ovoid, 7 mm. long. 

Shady woods, Humid Transition and Canadian Zones; western Washington to Monterey County, California. 
Type locality: "Shady woods of the Oregon [Columbia River] in moist places." Feb.-Sept. Redwood Sorrel. 

2. Oxalis trilliifolia Hook. Trillium-leaved Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2982. 

Oxalis trilliifolia Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 118. 1830. 
Hesperoxalis trilliifolia Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 27. 1907. 

Plants acaulescent, arising from stout rootstocks. Leaves with elongated glabrous or nearly 
glabrous petioles often 2 dm. long ; leaflets broadly obcordate, 25-40 mm. wide, glabrous above, 
sparsely pubescent beneath ; scapes about as long as the petioles ; cyme umbel-like, 2-8-flowered ; 
petals white or pink, 8-14 mm. long, deeply notched; capsule glabrous, erect, 25-30 mm. long, 
slender-fusiform. 

Swamps and margins of streams, Canadian Zone; western Washington and Oregon. Type locality: near the 
Grand Rapids of the Columbia. June-Aug. Columbia Oxalis. 

3. Oxalis cernua Thunb. Cape OxaHs. Fig. 2983. 

Oxalis cernua Thunb. Diss. Oxalis 14. 1781. 
Bolboxalis cernua Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 28. 1907. 

Acaulescent perennial, somewhat fleshy, bright green, the rootstocks bearing bulblets at the 
nodes. Leaves basal, with elongated petioles; leaflets broadly obcordate, 20-35 mm. broad, 
glabrous or sometimes pubescent beneath ; peduncles 1-4 dm. high, 4-20-flowered ; sepals lanceo- 



FLAX FAMILY 9 

late or linear-lanceolate, 4-6 mm. long; petals deep yellow, 20-30 mm. long; filaments glabrous- 
capsule 5-8 mm. long, pubescent. ' 

Escaped from gardens and naturalized in many places in the Pacific States, especially near the coast in Cali 
fornia. Type locality: Cape of Good Hope. March-June. 

4. Oxalis corniculata L. Creeping Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2984. 

Oralis corniculata L. Sp. PI. 435. 1753. 

Xanthoxalis corniculata Small, Fl. S.E.U.S. 667. 1903. 

Stems several, decumbent and creeping, arising from a slender taproot and flowering as an 
annual, but rooting at the nodes and becoming a perennial, the erect branches seldom over 1 dm. 
high. Leaflets small, green or purplish; flowers 2-5 on very short, strigillose at length, deflexed 
pedicels ; petals yellow, 4-6 mm. long, often with a reddish spot near the base ; longer filaments 
sparsely pubescent; capsule columnar, longer than the pedicels. 

An introduced weed of wide distribution, found chiefly in lawns and greenhouses. Type locality: Italy 
March-Nov. Yellow Sorrel. 

Oxalis corniculata var. atropurpiirea Planch. Fl. Serres 12: pi. 1205. 1857. Herbage deep reddish purple 
otherwise like the typical species. An escape from gardens, and often a weed along walks and in lawns especially 
in central and southern California. ' 

5. Oxalis Suksdorfii Trelease. Suksdorf's Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2985. 

Oxalis piimila Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 212. 1838. Not Urv. 1829. 
Oxalis Suksdorfii Trelease, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 89. 1888. 
Xanthoxalis Suksdorfii Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 53. 1907. 

Stems decumbent, arising from slender, sparsely branched rootstocks, 1-3 dm. long, more or 
less villous, often sparingly so. Leaflets deeply cordate, 15-25 mm. broad, bright green, with 
few scattered hairs on both surfaces ; peduncles about equaling the petioles, 1-3-flowered ; pedi- 
cels strigillose, refracted in fruit; petals yellow, 12-18 mm. long; longer filaments pubescent; 
capsules oblong, stout, densely short-pubescent. 

Open forests, especially in disturbed areas, Humid Transition Zone; Vancouver, Washington, to Del Norte 
County, California. Type locality: "forests of the Rocky Mountains and Oregon." May-Aug. 

6. Oxalis pilosa Nutt. Hairy Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2986. 

Oxalis pilosa Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 212. 1838. 
Xanthoxalis pilosa Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 54. 1907. 

Stems arising from a woody fusiform root, erect or decumbent, 1-4 dm. long, densely pilose 
with hairs often retrorsely spreading. Leaflets 7-15 mm. broad, gray-green, densely or sparingly 
pubescent on both surfaces, ciliate ; pedicels usually shorter than the capsules, refracted in fruit, 
hirsute; petals yellow, 8-12 mm. long; longer filaments glabrous, capsules cylindric, 12-28 mm. 
long. 

Open grassy hillsides especially in sandy soil. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; California coastal region 
from Mendocino County to Los Angeles County. Type locality: Santa Barbara. April-Nov. 

7. Oxalis californica (Abrams) R. Knuth. California Wood-sorrel. Fig. 2987. 

Xanthoxalis californica Abrams, Bull. Torrey Club 34: 264. 1907. 
Oxalis californica R. Knuth, Notizblatt 7: 300. 1919. 

Stems tufted on long-fusiform woody roots, erect or decumbent, 1^ dm. long, pubescent with 
lax or appressed hairs or nearly glabrous. Leaflets 7-15 mm. broad, gray-green, pubescent on 
both surfaces and ciliate ; peduncles longer than the petioles, 1-3-flowered ; pedicels very slender, 
strigillose, usually much longer than the capsule ; petals yellow or tinged with purple, 9-13 mm. 
long; capsule cylindric, 10-15 mm. long. 

Gravelly or sandy soil, Upper Sonoran Zone; Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California, south 
to Lower California, also Santa Catalina Island. Type locality: Onofre Mountains, San Diego County, California. 
March-June. 

Tropaeolum majus L. Sp. PI. 345. 1753. Nasturtium. Glabrous, somewhat succulent climbing annual. 
Leaves peltate, nearly orbicular, undulate on the margins; flowers axillary, showy, ydlow and orange, irregular; 
sepals 5, united at base, the posterior produced into a straight short spur; two upper petals entire or undulate, 
three lower fringed on the claw. The common nasturtium, which belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae, has become 
fairly well established as an escape in southern California. It is a native of Peru. 



Family 7Z. LINACEAE. 
Flax Family. 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate, or rarely opposite or whorled leaves. Stipules 
none, or when present small or gland-like. Flowers hypogynous, perfect and regular, 
racemose or cymose. Sepals 5, rarely 4 or 6, imbricated and persistent. Petals of 
the same number as the sepals and alternate with them, usually early deciduous. 
Stamens as many as sepals, their filaments united at base, and sometimes bearing 
staminodia in the sinuses ; anthers 2-celled, versatile. Pistil with 2-3, or usually 5 



10 



LINACEAE 




2981 



2982 



2983 




2987 



2981. Oxalis oregana 

2982. Oxalis trilliifolia 

2983. Oxalis cernua 



2989 



2984. Oxalis comiculata 

2985. Oxalis Suksdorfii 

2986. Oxalis pilosa 



2987. Oxalis californica 

2988. Linum usitatissimum 

2989. Linum angustifolium 



FLAX FAMILY H 

carpels, with as many free or partly united styles ; ovary 1-5-celled, or falsely 4-10- 
celled. Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell. Fruit a capsule, splitting longitudinally into twice 
as many parts as carpels. Seeds 1-2 in each cell, oily; endosperm little or none; 
embryo straight. 

About 14 genera and 160 species of wide geographical distribution. 



1. LINUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 277. 1753. 

Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at base. Stipules wanting, or small and 
gland-like. Leaves alternate, sessile, entire or rarely toothed. Sepals 5, persistent or de- 
ciduous. Petals 5, blue, red, yellow, or white. Stamens 5, their filaments united at base. 
Styles 2-5, elongated, distinct or partly united; stigmas elongated and introrse, or capitate 
and terminal. Capsule 2-5-celled; carpels with incomplete false septa. Seeds turgid, or 
flattened and lenticular or lunate. [The classical name of flax.] 

About 90 species, natives of temperate and subtropical regions. Type species, Linum usitattsstmmn L. 

Stigmas elongated, stigmatic along the inner surface; styles 5; petals unappendaged, blue; seeds flattened and 
lenticular. 

Annual; sepals, at least the inner, ciliate on the margins. 

Petals over 10 mm., often IS mm. long; fruiting capsule 6-7 mm. high, its valves glabrous on the inner 

edge of the septum. 1. L. usitatissimum. 

Petals under 10 mm., usually 7-8 mm. long; fruiting capsule 4-5 mm. high, its valves long-ciliate on the 
inner edge of the septum. 2. L. angustifoUum. 

Perennial; sepals not ciliate on the margins. 3. L. Lewisii. 

Stigmas capitate and terminal; styles 2-5. 

Petals unappendaged and entire at base, yellow or white; styles 2 or 4—5; seeds flattened and somewhat lunate. 
Styles 4-5; herbage puberulent throughout; perennial. 4. L. puberuhim. 

Styles 2; herbage glabrous throughout; annual. 5. L. digynum. 

Petals with 1-3 ventral appendages and small lateral lobes at the base, rose-colored, white or yellow; styles 3; 
seeds turgid. 

Leaves and bracts glandular-ciliate. 

Flowers pink; leaves broadly ovate, flat. 6. L. drymarioides. 

Flowers yellow; leaves lanceolate, involute. 7. L. adenophylliim. 

Leaves and bracts entire. 
Petals yellow. 

Staminodia 2; flowers scattered in pedicels well exceeding the calyx; petals 3-4 mm. long. 

8. L. Clevelandii. 
Staminodia none; upper flowers in clusters of 2-3; pedicels shorter than calyx; petals 5-7 mm. 
long. 9. L. Breweri. 

Petals white, pink or rose-purple. 

Flowers on long filiform pedicels, not congested. 

Petals 2-3 . 5 mm. long, their lateral lobes rudimentary or obsolete. 

10. L. tnicranthum. 

Petals 5-7 mm. long, their lateral lobes prominent and a little thickened. 

11. L. spergulinum. 

Flowers short-pedicelled or sessile and congested at the ends of the branches. 

Plants glabrous and glaucous. 12. L. californicum. 

Plants pubescent. 13. L. congcstum. 



1. Linum usitatissimum L. Flax or Linseed. Fig. 2988. 

Linum usitatissimum L. Sp. PI. 277. 1753. 

Annual, erect often tufted, branching above, 3-5 dm. high, glabrous and glaucous. Leaves 
alternate, 3-nerved, lanceolate, 1-4 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, 3-nerved ; inflorescence a terminal 
cymose panicle ; pedicels slender ; sepals ovate, acuminate, the inner ones ciliate and 3-ribbed ; 
petals blue, 10-12 mm. long, cuneate-obovate, crenulate; styles distinct or nearly so; capsule 
ovoid-conic, 6-8 mm. long ; indehiscent. 

Roadsides, naturalized from Europe; widely spread in the Pacific States, especially in western Washington 
and Oregon. May-June. 

2. Linum angustifolium Huds. Narrow-leaved Flax. Fig, 2989. 

Linum angustifolium Huds. Fl. Angl. ed. 2. 134. 1778. 

Annual, the stems branching from the base, rather slender, 2.5-5 dm. high, upper flowering 
branches very slender. Leaves narrowly linear, 8-15 mm. long, sharply acute at apex; pedicels 
almost filiform, 1-2 cm. long; sepals 5 mm. long, ovate to broadly ovate, cuspidate at apex; petals 
blue, 7-8 mm. long; capsule subglobose, about equaling the sepals, inner margin of the valve- 
septa long-ciliate. 

Adventive from the Mediterranean Region; western Oregon, especially along roadsides in Douglas County, 
and in coastal California from Humboldt County to San Mateo County. Type locality: Europe. June-Sept. 



12 LINACEAE 

3. Linum Lewisii Pursh. Western Blue Flax. Fig. 2990. 

Linum Lewisii Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 210. 1814. 
Linum deciirrens Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 3: 44. 1863. 
Linum Lyallanum Alef. Bot. Zeit. 25: 251. 1867. 
Linum Lewisii var. alpicola Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 398. 1936. 

Perennial, glabrous throughout, the stems 2-6 dm. high, often branched at the base. Leaves 
erect or ascending, 1-2 cm. long, linear, acute, sessile, erect or ascending; bracts similar to the 
leaves; fruiting pedicels 1-3 cm. long; sepals ovate, 5 mm. long, not ciliate; petals blue or rarely 
white, 15-20 mm. long; styles distinct; capsule globose, 6-10 mm. long; septa ciliate. 

Mountain meadows and grassy slopes, mainly Arid Transition Zone; Alaska to southern California and 
northern Mexico, east to Manitoba, Montana, Wisconsin, and Texas. Type locality: valleys of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. May-July. 

4. Linum puberulum (Engelm.) Heller. Desert Yellow Flax. Fig. 2991. 

Linum rigidum var. puberulum Engelm. in A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 3^: 25. 18S2. 
Linum puberulum Heller, Plant World 1: 22. 1897. 
Cathartolinum puberulum Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 80. 1907. 

Pale green perennial, 5-25 cm. high, finely puberulent throughout. Leaves more numerous 
belovir, sparse above, sessile, subulate, 0.5-1.5 cm. long; petals yellow, 12-15 mm. long; capsule 
ovoid, 3.5-4.5 mm. high, surpassed by the sepals. 

Desert ranges, Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Mojave Desert, California, east to Colorado and Texas. Type 
locality: Santa Fe to the Cimarron River, New Mexico. May-July. 

5. Linum digynum A. Gray. Northwestern Yellow Flax. Fig. 2992. 

Linum digynum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 334. 1868. 
Cathartolinum digynum Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 78. 1907. 

Glabrous and glaucescent annual, the stems simple below, corymbosely branched above, 1-4 
dm. high. Leaves mainly opposite and rather distant, the lower somewhat spatulate, the upper 
linear-oblong to elliptic, 8-25 mm. long, entire; bracts reduced, lanceolate-acuminate, serrate; 
sepals persistent, 2.5 mm. long, glandular-toothed; petals yellow, 3.5-4 mm. long; staminodia 
wanting ; styles 2, united nearly to the middle ; capsule ovoid, shorter than the sepals. 

Moist meadows and bogs, mainly Arid Transition Zone; Spokane County, Washington, southward mainly 
east of the Cascade Mountains to the central Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality: Mariposa Trail, Sierra 
Nevada, California. June-July. 

6. Linum drymarioides Curran. Drymaria Dwarf Flax. Fig. 2993. 

Linum drymarioides Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: 152. 1885. 
Hesperolinon drymarioides Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 84. 1907. 

Stems dichotomously branched from near the base, 1-3 dm. high, sparingly short-yillous. 
Leaves few, mostly broadly ovate, 3-10 mm. long, abruptly mucronate, sessile, flat, minutely 
glandular-toothed ; bracts usually narrower and smaller than the leaves ; fruiting pedicels slender, 
about equaling or exceeding the calyx ; sepals 2.5-3 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate, finely_ glan- 
dular-toothed ; petals pink, scarcely equaling to slightly exceeding the sepals ; capsule ovoid, 2.5 
mm. long. 

Dry rocky slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; Inner Coast Ranges, Colusa and Lake Counties, California. Type 
locality: near Epperson's, Lake County. June-Aug. 

7. Linum adenophyllum A. Gray. Glandular Dwarf Flax. Fig. 2994. 

Linum adenophyllum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 624. 1873. 
Hesperolinon adenophyllum Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 85. 1907. 

Stems dichotomously branched above, 1-3 dm. high, minutely pubescent, especially above the 
nodes. Leaves linear-lanceolate, clasping, involutely folded, conspicuously and densely glandular- 
toothed; fruiting pedicels slender, longer than the calyx; sepals oblong-lanceolate to linear- 
lanceolate, 2.5-3 mm. long, sparingly and inconspicuously glandular-toothed; petals yellow, 4-6 
mm. long; filaments filiform; capsule ovoid, shorter than the sepals. 

Open hillsides, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; California Coast Ranges in Mendocino and Lake 
Counties. Type locality: near Clear Lake, Lake County. June-July. 

8. Linum Clevelandii Greene. Cleveland's Dwarf Flax. Fig. 2995. 

Linum Clevelandii Greene, Bull. Torrey Club 9: 121. 1882. 
Hesperolinon Clevelandii Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 85. 1907. 
Linum Clevelandii var. petrophilum Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 400. 1936. 

Stems 1-3.5 dm. high, simple below, dichotomously branched above, puberulent or glabrous. 
Leaves linear, narrowed at the sessile base, 1-2 cm. long, acutish, entire, somewhat involute, 
pubescent above; bracts similar but smaller; pedicels 6-20 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, 2-2.5 
mm. long, acute, the outer entire, the inner obscurely and sparsely glandular on the margins, 
glabrous ; petals yellow, 3.5-4 mm. long ; staminodia present, 2-lobed ; capsules ovoid, slightly 
exceeding the calyx. 

Dry ridges, usually associated with chaparral, Upper Sonoran Zone; North Coast Ranges, south to the 
Mount Hamilton Range, California. Type locality: Allen's Springs, Lake County. May-July. 



FLAX FAMILY 



13 



9. Linum Breweri A. Gray. Brewer's Dwarf Flax. Fig. 2996. 

Linum Breweri A. Gray, Proc. Calif. Acad. 3: 102. 1864. 
Hesperolinon Breweri Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 85. 1907. 

Stems dichotomously branching above, 15-30 cm. high, the branches sparsely pubescent above 

the forks. Leaves alternate, linear, 10-15 mm. long, strongly involute, entire; bracts similar but 

smaller ; stipular glands prominent ; lower flowers solitary on slender pedicels about equaling the 

calyx in length, the upper usually 2 or 3 in a cluster on shorter pedicels ; sepals 3-3.5 mm. long, 

lanceolate, glabrous and glaucous, the inner glandular-ciliate on the margin, the outer sparingly 

so or entire ; petals yellow, 5-7 mm. long ; capsule ovoid, about equaling the calyx. 

Dry hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; Inner Coast Ranges, Solano County to San Benito County California 
Type locality: "Diablo Range, near Marsh's Ranch." May-June. ' 



10, Linum micranthum A. Gray. Small-flowered Dwarf Flax, Fig. 2997. 

Linum micranthum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 333. 1868. 
Hesperlinon micranthum Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 85. 1907. 

Stems slender, 2-A dm. high, dichotomously branching above, the branches ascending or 
spreading, pubescent at least just above the forks. Leaves 15-25 mm. long, linear, entire, more 
or less involute; pedicels filiform, 5-15 mm. long, often curved; sepals ovate-lanceolate, 2 mm. 
long, the outer entire or very sparsely glandular-ciliate, the inner glandular-ciliate ; petals white 
tinged with pink, 2-3.5 mm. long ; appendages obscure or wanting ; capsule ovoid, scarcely 2 mm. 
long. 

Dry rocky slopes and ridges, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Blue and Cascade Mountains 
Oregon, south to southern California. Type locality: Mount Bullion, Mariposa County. California May-July' 
Little White Flax. 







2990. Linum Lewisii 

2991. Linum puberulum 



2994 



2992. Linum digynum 

2993. Linum drymarioides 



2994. Linum adenophyllum 

2995. Linum Clevelandii 



14 ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 

11. Linum spergulinum A. Gray. Slender Dwarf Flax. Fig. 2998. 

Linum spergulinum A. Gray, Proc. Atner. Acad. 7: 333. 1868. 
Hesperolinon spergulinum Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 86. 1907. 

Stems slender, 1.5^ dm. high, dichotomously branching above, the ultimate branches filiform, 
pubescent above the forks. Leaves linear, 1-2 cm. long, entire, somewhat involute ; bracts similar 
but smaller; pedicels filiform, often 10-15 mm. long, straight or the tips curved upward; sepals 
narrowly ovate-lanceolate, at least the inner glandular-ciliate ; petals white tinged with rose- 
pink, 5-7 mm. long, distinctly 2-lobed at base, the lobes somewhat thickened and rounded; 
capsules about 2.5 mm. long, exceeding the sepals. 

Dry rocky ridges and grassy slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; California Coast Ranges, from Mendocino County 
to Napa and Santa Clara Counties. Type locality: Cloverdale, Sonoma County. June-July. 

12. Linum californicum Benth. California Dwarf Flax. Fig. 2999. 

Linum californicum Benth. PI. Hartw. 299. 1848. 
Hesperolinon californicum Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 86. 1907. 

Stems 1-4 dm. high, glabrous and glaucous, dichotomously branched, the branches mostly 
ascending. Leaves narrowly linear, 1-3 cm. long, involute, entire ; pedicels short and the flowers 
usually in few-flowered cymules terminating the branches ; pedicels mostly less than 5 mm. long ; 
sepals lanceolate-acuminate, becoming 4-5 mm. long ; irregularly glandular-ciliate ; petals tinged 
with pink, 4-6 mm. long; capsule broadly ovoid, 3 mm. long. 

Open gravelly soils. Upper Sonoran Zone; foothills of the Sierra Nevada and the Inner Coast Ranges sur- 
rounding the Sacramento Valley, California. Type locality: probably in the foothills of Butte County. April- 
June. 

13. Linum congestum A. Gray. Marin Dwarf Flax. Fig. 3000. 

Linum congestum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 6: 521. 1865. 

Hesperolinon congestum Small, N. Amer. Fl. 25: 86. 1907. 

Linum californicum var. congestum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 587. 1925. 

Stems 1-3 dm. high, glaucous and more or less pubescent, especially immediately above the 

forks ; branches dichotomous, ascending, in the typical form rather short and forming a congested 

inflorescence ; pedicels short ; sepals lanceolate, 3 mm. long, pubescent on the back and at least 

the inner glandular-ciliate on the margins ; petals white, tinged with pink, 5-6 mm. long ; capsule 

ovoid. 

Rocky and gravelly soils, Upper Sonoran Zone; San Francisco Bay region, California. Type locality: 
Marin County. April-June. 

Linum congestum var. confertum A. Gray ex Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 5: 19. 1887. Differs from 
the typical species in having more elongated and open branching, with the flowers in few-flowered glomerules 
at the ends of the branches. About the same range as the species, but apparently more common. Type locality: 
Mare Island, Solano County, California. 

Family 74. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. 
Caltrop Family. 

Herbs, shrubs or some tropical species trees, often strong-scented, the branches 
usually articulate at the nodes. Leaves generally opposite, pinnate or digitately 
2-3-foliolate, the leaflets entire. Stipules persistent. Flowers perfect, regular or 
nearly so, borne on axillary peduncles. Sepals usually 5, distinct or united at the 
base. Petals as many as the sepals or sometimes absent. Stamens as many as the 
petals or 2 or 3 times as many, the alternate ones sometimes longer ; filaments often 
with a scale near the middle. Ovary 4-12-celled; ovules 1 to many in each cell; 
style terminal, with usually a simple stigma. Fruit an angled capsule or splitting 
into several smooth or spinescent nutlets, or in some species drupaceous. Seeds with 
or without endosperm; embryo straight or curved. 

A family of about 20 genera and 150 species widely distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions. 

Flowers purple; stipules spiny; leaflets palmately 1-7-foliolate. 1. Fagonia. 

Flowers yellow; stipules not spiny; leaves pinnate. 

Shrub; fruit densely villous. 2. Larrea. 

Herbs; fruit spiny or tubercled. 

Fruit spiny, splitting into five 3-S-seeded nutlets. 3. Tribulus. 

Fruit not spiny, often tubercled, splitting into ten to twelve 1-seeded nutlets. 4. Kallstroemia. 

1. FAGONIA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 386. 1753. 

Diffusely branched plants with a woody base, the stems angled and channeled, glabrous 
or glutinous. Leaves opposite, 1-7-folioIate, palmately divided, the leaflets entire, more or 
less spinose-tipped. Stipules subulate, spinulose-tipped. Flowers solitary, purple. Sepals 
5, imbricate, caducous. Petals 5, clawed, caducous. Stamens 10, inserted on an incon- 



CALTROP FAMILY 



15 






3002 




3004 



2996. Linum Breweri 

2997. Linum micranthum 

2998. Linum spergulinum 



2999. Linum califomicum 

3000. Linum congestum 

3001. Fagonia californica 



3002. Larrea glutinosa 

3003. Tribulus terrestris 

3004. Kallstroemia californica 



16 ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 

spicuous disk. Ovary 5-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell ; style subulate ; stigma simple. 
Fruit ovoid, deeply S-angled, separating into five 1-seeded carpels which dehisce along 
the inner edge. Seeds erect, broadly oblong and flattened; endosperm bony. [Name in 
honor of G. C. Fagon, a French botanist of the seventeenth century.] 

A genus of about 18 species, natives of southern Asia, southern Europe, Africa, Chile, Mexico, and Cali- 
fornia. Type species, Fagonia cretica L. 

1. Fagonia californica Benth. California Fagonia. Fig. 3001. 

Fagonia californica Benth. Bet. Sulph. 10. 1844. 

Fagonia laevis Standley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 24: 249. 1911. 

Fagonia cretica var. californica Engler, Veg. der Erde 9^: 731. 1915. 

Fagonia chilensis var. laevis I. M. Johnston, Proc. Calif. Acad. IV. 12; 1051. 1924. 

Stems diffusely and divaricately branched, 2-6 dm. high, glabrous and minutely spinulose on 
the angles. Leaves 3-foIiolate, short-petioled ; leaflets lanceolate, the lateral ones oblique, 1-8 
mm. long, glabrous or nearly so ; sepals lanceolate, spinulose-tipped, 4-5 mm. long ; petals spatu- 
late, 5-8 mm. long. 

Rocky or gravelly ridges. Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, and near the Mexican Boundary south 
of San Diego, California, south to Sonora and central Lower California. Type locality: Magdalena Bay, Lower 
California. Jan.-June. 

Fagonia californica var. glutinosa Vail, Bull. Torrey Club 22: 225. 1895. (Fagonia chilensis var. gluti' 
nosa I. M. Johnston, Proc. Calif. Acad. IV. 12: 1051. 1924.) Stems mostly prostrate, stouter, beset, especially 
above, by conspicuous subsessile yellowish glands; leaflets larger, the middle one often rhomboidal, 1-2 cm. 
long. Sandy or rocky situations, Lower Sonoran Zone; northern borders of the Colorado Desert, Riverside 
County, California, south to Sonora and Lower California. Type locality: Sonora. 

2. lARREA Cav. Anal. Hist. Nat. 2: 119. pi. 18. 1800. 

Evergreen strong-scented resinous shrubs. Leaves of a single pair of leaflets, these 
sessile by the broad base on the rachis and simulating a 2-lobed leaf. Peduncles interstipu- 
lar, 1-flowered. Sepals 5, caducous. Petals 5, clawed, yellow. Stamens 10, inserted on the 
base of tlie small 10-lobed disk; filaments with a laciniate scale at the base. Ovary 5-celled, 
about 6 ovules in each cell; styles united; stigmas 5. Fruit obovoid or globose, densely 
white-hirsute, at length separating into five 1-seeded indehiscent nutlets. [Name in honor 
of J. A. de Larrea, Spanish patron of science.] 

A genus of 2 or 3 species, natives of the southwestern United States, Mexico, and South America. Type 
species, Larrea nitida Cav. 

1. Larrea glutinosa Engelm. Creosote Bush. Fig. 3002. 

Zygophyllum calif ornicum Torn & Frem. in Frem. Second Rep. 257, 1845. (Hyponym.) 

Larrea glutinosa Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. Tour North. Mexico 93. 1848. 

Covillea glutinosa Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 25: 108. 1910. 

Larrea tridentata var. glutinosa Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 604. 1925. 

Schroeterella glutinosa Briq. Veroff. Geobot. Inst. Riibel 3: 664. 1925. 

Neoschroetera glutinosa Briq. Candollea 2:514. 1926. 

A much-branched shrub, 1-2 m. high, very leafy, the branches marked by black bands at the 
joints, young branchlets silky-pubescent. Leaflets obliquely lanceolate, curved, 5-10 mm. long, 
thick, coriaceous, dark yellowish green and resinous, silky-pubescent, becoming glabrate; petals 
spatulate, oblong, twisted, 6-8 mm. long; fruit subglobose, 4-5 mm. broad, densely hirsute. 

A characteristic and common shrub of the Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave Desert, California to southern 
Utah and south through the desert regions to western Texas and northern Mexico. Type locality: 011a and Fra 
Cristobal, New Mexico. March-June. 

This species is referred by some botanists to the closely related Chilean species, Larrea divaricata Cav. 

3. TRIBULUS [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 386. 1753. 

Diffusely branching prostrate herb, with pubescent stems. Leaves opposite, pinnate, 
the alternating pairs of leaflets usually reduced or abortive. Stipules membranaceous. 
Flowers solitary on axillary peduncles. Sepals 5, early deciduous. Petals 5, yellow or 
rarely white. Stamens 10, hypogynous, the filaments filiform, naked. Ovary 5-celIed, 
surrounded at the base by a 10-lobed disk; styles united, stout; stigmas 5. Fruit depressed, 
5-angled, spinose, separating at maturity into five 3-5-seeded, bony nutlets. Seeds oblong- 
ovate; endosperm none. [Name Latin, from the Greek triholos, a pronged instrument 
thrown on the ground to impede cavalry. Applied by the ancients to the genus Trapa^ 

A genus of about 12 species, natives of the warm temperate and tropical regions. Type species, Tribulus 
terrestris L. 

1. Tribulus terrestris L. Land Caltrop or Puncture Weed. Fig. 3003. 

Tribulus terrestris L. Sp. PI. 387. 1753. 

Annual, the stems much branched from the base, prostrate or ascending, 2-5 dm. long, 
pubescent. Leaflets 5-8 pairs, oblong, inequilateral, 6-15 mm. long; petals oblong, 2-4 mm. long, 



RUE FAMILY 17 

yellow ; segments of the fruit with 2 long stout spines, 2 shorter ones and a row of very short 
ones forming a dorsal crest. 

A fugitive from Europe, and becoming a troublesome weed in many parts of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin Valleys and in southern California. March-June. 



Zygophyllum Fabago L. Sp. PI. 385. 1753. Syrian Beaii-caper. Much-branched erect herb with deep 




4. KALLSTROEMIA Scop. Introd. 212. 1777. 

Annual herbs with diffusely branching, spreading or prostrate stems. Leaves opposite, 
abruptly pinnate, one of each pair alternately smaller or wanting; leaflets oblique. Stipules 
subulate. Flowers solitary on axillary peduncles. Sepals 5 or 6 ; marcescent. Petals 4-6, 
yellow or white, caducous. Stamens 10 or 12, hypogynous; the filaments opposite the 
petals adnata to them, the others shorter and subtended externally by a small gland. Ovary 
8-12-celled, without transverse septa ; styles united ; stigma capitate. Fruit 8-12-angled, 
more or less tuberculate or roughened, separating at maturity into 8-12 bony, 1-seeded 
or rarely 2-seeded nutlets. Seeds obovate, with a membranaceous testa. [Meaning of 
name not clear but thought by some to be derived from the Greek xaXJio?, beautiful, and 
Stroemia, a genus of the Capparidaccae.} 

A genus of about 15 species, southwestern United States to tropical South America, West Indies, and 
Australia. Type species, Tribulus niaximiis L. 

1. Kallstroemia californica (S. Wats.) Vail. California Kallstroemia. 

Fig. 3004. 

Tribulus ralifornicus S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 125. 1876. 
Kallstroemia californica Vail, Bull. Torrey Club 22: 230. 1895. 

Stems diffusely branching, decumbent, \-^ dm. long, pubescent or somewhat hirsute with 
whitish hairs when young, becoming glabrate. Leaves 2-5 cm. long ; leaflets 5-7 pairs, 5-10 mm. 
long, elliptic, hoary-pubescent ; peduncles shorter than the leaves ; sepals 3^ mm. long, lanceolate ; 
petals yellow, about equaling the sepals, obovate; fruit strigose; carpels 8-10, with pointed 
tubercles on the back, the inner faces nearly smooth ; beak shorter than the carpels, obtuse, 
glabrous. 

Light sandy or gravelly soils; Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave and Colorado Deserts, southern California to 
Arizona, eastern Lower California, Sonora, and Sinaloa. Type locality: Lower California, on the east side of the 
peninsula. June-Sept. 

Kallstroemia grandiflora Torr. ex A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 3^: 28. 1852. Stems diffusely branched, 
decumbent or suberect, 2-5 dm. long, angled, hirsute with twisted hairs, interspersed with longer cili-a. Leaves 
2-7 cm. long; leaflets 5-9 pairs, obliquely oblong, 8-15 mm. long, ciliate, pubescent or glabrate beneath- sepals 
linear-lanceolate, 8-15 mm. long; petals 12-25 mm. long, obovate, deep yellow; fruiting carpels 10, pubescent, 
tuberculate on the back, the inner faces reticulate. Sandy or gravelly desert washes; Lower Sonoran Zone; 
southwestern Arizona to Texas and Colima. Type locality: borders of the Gila River, Arizona. To be 
expected on the California deserts. 



Family 75. RUTACEAE. 
Rue Family. 

Aromatic trees or shrubs, or sometimes herbaceous or scandent, with punctate 
glands. Leaves alternate or opposite, pinnately or palmately compound or simple ; 
petioles often winged. Flowers perfect, polygamous or dioecious, in an axillary or 
terminal inflorescence. Calyx of 3-5 sepals or lobes, or rarely wanting. Petals 3-5 
or rarely more, usually imbricate. Stamens as many or twice as many as petals, 
the filaments distinct or united below, inserted on a hypogynous disk. Pistil of 1-5 
distinct or united carpels ; styles distinct or connate ; stigma simple or lobed. Ovules 
2 or rarely more in each cell. Fruit various, often a berry. Seeds 1 to many in each 
cell, with or without endosperm. 

A family of about 110 genera and 900 species, mainly tropical and most abundant in South America and 
Australia. 

Fruit a samara or 2-lobed capsule: leaves alternate. 

Leaves compound; fruit a samara, winged all around. L Ptelea. 

Leaves simple; fruit a 2-lobed capsule. 2. Thamnosma. 

Fruit a berry; leaves opposite, simple. 3. Cncortdtum. 

1. PTELEA L. Sp. PI. 118. 1753. 

Shrubs or small trees, unarmed, the bark bitter. Leaves deciduous, 3-5-foliolate. the 
leaflets entire or serrulate, punctate and ill-smelling. Inflorescence of corymbose or panic- 



18 



RUTACEAE 



ulate cymes. Flowers polygamous, greenish white. Calyx-lobes 4 or 5, imbricate. Petals 
4 or 5, longer than the calyx-lobes. Stamens as many as petals and alternate with them, 
the filaments hairy on the inner side, present in the pistillate flower but not fertile. Ovary 
compressed, 2-celled or rarely 3-celled; ovules 2 in each cell. Fruit a samara, with a 
reticulate wing completely encircling the body. [Greek name of the elm, which has simi- 
lar fruit.] 

A genus of 3 species, native of the United States and Mexico. The foliage is variable, which has led some 
authorities to recognize a much larger number of species. Type species, Ptelea trifoliata L. 

1. Ptelea crenulata Greene. Western Hop-tree. Fig 3005. 

Ptelea crenulata Greene, Pittonia 1:216. 1888. 

Ptelea Baldzvinii var. crenulata Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif. 249. 1901. 

Small tree, 3-5 m. high, the young twigs pubescent. Leaves somewhat pubescent, glabrate in 
age ; leaflets 3, rarely 5, elliptical to ovate or especially the terminal one often obovate, 2-6 cm. 
long, more or less crenate; petals 4-6 mm. long; filaments hairy only near the base; samara 
1-2 cm. long, fully as broad, the wing emarginate at both ends ; style persistent. 

Canyons and bottomlands. Upper Sonoran Zone; Inner Coast Ranges and Sierra foothills from Shasta 
County to Tulare and Santa Clara Counties, California. Type locality: no definite locality given in the original 
description. April-June. 

2. THAMNOSMA Torn & Frem. in Frem. Second Rep. 313. 1845. 

Small, strong-scented, glandular, desert shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, entire, some- 
times reduced to scales. Flowers in racemes or racemose cymes, perfect. Sepals and petals 
4. Stamens 8, inserted on the cup-like disk. Ovary 2-celled, deeply 2-lobed, stipitate ; style 
filiform; stigma capitate; ovules 5 or 6 in each cell. Fruit a leathery capsule, _2-lobed, de- 
hiscent at the apex. Seeds reniform, [Name Greek, meaning bush and odor, in reference 
to the strong odor of these plants.] 

A genus of 2 species inhabiting the arid southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Type species, 
Thamnosma tnontana Torr. & Frem. 

1. Thamnosma montana Torr. & Frem. Turpentine Broom. Fig. 3006. 

Thamnosma montana Torr. & Frem. in Frem. Second Rep. 313. 184S. 

Strong-scented shrub, 3-5 dm. high, the stems freely branching, broom-like, yellowish green 
and thickly beset with pustulate glands. Leaves 2-10 mm. long, oblanceolate, or linear, few and 
early deciduous; flowers in loose terminal racemes, 8-12 mm. high; petals dark purple, erect; 
fruit distinctly stipitate, deeply parted into 2 nearly globose lobes; seeds dark brown, smooth 
or slightly wrinkled. 

Sandy or rocky ridges. Lower Sonoran Zone: Mojave and Colorado Deserts, California to southern Utah, 
Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora, and Lower California. Type locality: Virgin River, southeastern Nevada. 
March-May. 




3005. Ptelea crenulata 



3006. Thamnosma montana 



3007 
3007. Cneoridium dumosum 



QUASSIA FAMILY 19 

3. CNEORIDIUM Hook. f. in Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 1 : 312. 1862. 

Evergreen, heavy-scented shrubs, with glabrous branchlets. Leaves opposite or fas- 
cicled on short branchlets, pellucid-punctate. Flowers perfect, solitary or somewhat 
corymbose on axillary or terminal peduncles. Sepals 4, persistent. Petals 4, spreading 
Stamens 8, those opposite the petals shorter, inserted around the base of the flat, toothed 
disk. Ovary 1 -celled, sessile; ovules 2, collateral; style nearly basal, curved; stigma capi- 
tate. Berry globose or ovoid, 1-2-seeded, the exocarp punctate. Seeds nearly globose 
dark brown; embryo curved. [Name Greek, meaning resembling Cneorum, an Old 
World genus. 1 

A monotypic genus of southern California and Lower California. 

1. Cneoridium dumosum (Nutt.) Hook. f. Bush Rue. Fig. 3007. 

Pitavia dumosa Nutt. in Terr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 215. 1838. 
Cneoridium dumosum Hook. f. ex Baillon, Hist. PI. 4: 498. 1873. 

A much-branched shrub, 5-15 dm. high, glabrous throughout. Leaves narrowly oblong or 
spatulate-linear, 15-25 mm. long, sessile, thick, entire or obscurely crenulate, punctate along' the 
margin; sepals 1 mm. long; petals white, 5-6 mm. long, oval or obovate; fruit reddish brown 
5-6 mm. in diameter. ' 

On dry chaparral-covered mesas and hills, Lower Sonoran Zone; Laguna Beach, Orange County, to western 
San Diego County, California, and northern Lower California. Type locality: San Diego, California Tan - 
March. 

Ruta chalapensis L. Mant. 69. 1767. African Rue. Strong-smelling glaucous perennial herb, the stems 
erect, 4-8 dm. high. Leaves bi- or tripinnate; leaflets oblong-oblanceolate, 5-15 mm. long; flowers corymbose- 
calyx 4;parted; petals 4, yellow, 6-8 mm. long, involute, fringed; capsule 4-lobed. An occasional escape from 
cultivation in southern California. Native of the Mediterranean region. 



Family 76. SIMAROUBACEAE. 

Quassia Family. 

Trees or shrubs, usually with bitter bark containing oil sacs. Leaves alternate 
or opposite, simple or compound. Stipules minute or none. Flowers perfect or uni- 
sexual, axillary, paniculate or racemose. Calyx of 3-7 distinct or partly united 
sepals. Petals as many as sepals, or rarely wanting. Stamens as many as sepals or 
twice as many, or rarely numerous. Pistil of 2-5 distinct or united carpels ; styles 
distinct or united, or none; ovules 1 to many in each cell. Fruit a berry, drupe, 
capsule or samara. Seeds usually solitary ; endosperm present or sometimes wanting. 

A family of 30 genera and 125 species, native of warm temperate and tropical regions. Closely related to 
the Rutaceae from which it is best distinguished by the absence of punctate glands in the leaves. 

Unarmed tree; leaves pinnate; fruit a samara. 1. Ailanthus. 

Very thorny shrub; leaves scale-like; fruit drupe-like. 2. Holacantha, 

1. AILANTHUS Desf. Mem. Acad. Paris 1786; 265. pi. 8. 1789. 

Polygamo-dioecious trees, with large odd-pinnate leaves. Flowers small, greenish 
white, in terminal panicles. Calyx 5-cleft, the lobes imbricated. Petals 5, spreading, val- 
vate. Disk 10-lobed. Staminate flowers with 10 stamens inserted at the base of the 
disk. Pistillate with 2 or 3 stamens and a deeply 2-5-cleft ovary, the divisions flat, 1- 
celled. Ovules 1 in each cell. Fruit a samara, linear or oblong, 1-seeded at the middle. 
[Name from the Chinese, meaning tree of heaven.] 

A genus of 3 species, native of China and the East Indies. Type species. Toxicodendron altissima Mill. 

1. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle. Tree of Heaven. Fig. 3008. 

Toxicodendron altissima Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8. no. 10. 1768. 
Albonia peregrina Buchoz, Herb. Color. Amer. pi. 57. 1783. 
Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. Mem. Acad. Paris 1786:265. 1789. 
Ailanthus altissima Swingle, Journ. Wash. Acad. 6: 495. 1916. 
Ailanthus peregrina Barkley, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 24: 264. 1937. 

Tree with smooth gray bark. Leaves deciduous, 3-10 dm. long; leaflets 11-41, lanceolate to 
obovate, 5-15 cm. long, entire or with a few coarse teeth toward the base; panicles 1-3 dm. long, 
petals 3-4 mm. long, ovate, greenish yellow, villous near the base on the inner surface ; samaras 
3-5 cm. long, somewhat spirally twisted. 

Escaped from cultivation, and well established in many localities in the Pacific States. The staminate 
flowers are ill-smelling. Native of China. June. 



20 BURSERACEAE 

2. HOLACANTHA a. Gray. Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 5: 310. 1854. 

Almost leafless shrubs, with stiff thorn-like branchlets. Leaves few, scale-like, de- 
ciduous. Flowers dioecious, solitary or clustered on the branchlets. Sepals and petals 
7 or 8. Stamens 12-16 in the staminate flowers, present but sterile in the pistillate. 
Disk annular, crenulate. Pistil composed of 6-10 slightly cohering carpels tipped by the 
diverging styles. Fruit of several dry stellately diverging drupes. Seed ovoid. [Name 
Greek, meaning complete and thorn.] 

A monotypic genus of the arid southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico. 

1. Holacantha Emoryi A. Gray. Crucifixion Thorn. Fig. 3009. 

Holacantha Emoryi A. Gray. Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 5: 310. 1854. 

A much-branched thorny shrub, 2-3 m. high, canescent when young, the thorn-like branchlets 
stout, terete, 5-15 cm. long. Leaves few, on mature plants reduced to small ovate or subulate 
scales, on seedlings 10-12 mm. long, linear or lanceolate, entire, repand or with a pair of basal 
lobes ; flowers usually in dense clusters ; petals, oblong to obovate, 4-5 mm. long, pubescent on 
the back ; filaments pubescent below the middle ; drupes obliquely ovoid, somewhat compressed, 
6-8 mm. long. 

Sandy or gravelly soils, Lower Sonoran Zone; rare in California, known stations are: 8 miles west of 
Ludlow, also at Amboy, Lavic, Dagget, and Goffs, all in southeastern Mojave Desert, and Hayfields, northern 
Colorado Desert, ranging eastward to Arizona and Sonora. Type locality: on the desert between the Gila River 
and Tucson, Arizona. April-July. 



Family 77. BURSERACEAE. 

ToRCHwooD Family, 

Aromatic trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple or usually pinnate, deciduous, 
the rachis often winged. Flowers solitary or often paniculate, perfect or polygamo- 
dioecious. Calyx 3-5-cleft. Petals as many as the calyx-lobes, distinct or rarely 
united into a short tube. Stamens twice as many as petals ; filaments naked. Disk 
annular. Ovary 4-5-celled ; styles distinct, short ; ovules usually 2 in each cell. Fruit 
drupe-like, containing 1-5 stones. Seeds with membranaceous testa ; endosperm 
none. 

A family of 19 genera and about 300 species, mainly tropical, in both hemispheres. 

1. BURSERA Jacq. ex L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 471. 1762. 

Trees or shrubs, with simple or once or twice compound leaves. Flowers solitary 
in the axils or paniculate, small, polygamous. Calyx-lobes 4 or 5, spreading, persistent. 
Petals distinct, well exceeding the calyx-lobes, inserted on the edge of the disk. Sta- 
mens 8-10. Ovary 3-celled. Fruit drupe-like, by abortion sometimes 1-celled, the epicarp 
splitting into 3 valves ; stones covered with an aromatic pulp. [Name in honor of J. Bur- 
ser, a botanist of the sixteenth century.] 

An American genus of about 40 species, ranging from California and Mexico to the West Indies and 
tropical South America. The generic name, although a homonym and antedated by Elaphrium Jacq., has been 
conserved by the International Rules of Nomenclature. Type species, Bursera gummifera L. 

1. Bursera microphylla A. Gray. Small-leaved Elephant Tree or Torote. 

Fig. 3010. 

Bursera microphylla A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 155. 1861. 
Terebinthus microphylla Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 10: 120. 1906. 
Elaphrium microphyllum Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 25:250. 1911. 

Small tree, the branches glabrous, becoming cherry-red in age. Leaves simply pinnate, the 
rachis narrowly winged; leaflets 7-33, linear-oblong, 4-8 mm. long, obtuse; flowers appearing 
before the leaves in 1-3-flowered clusters ; calyx-lobes 1 mm. long, ovate ; petals 4 mm. long ; 
drupes glabrous, 3-angled, yellow, 6 mm. long. 

Desert regions. Lower Sonoran Zone; locally occurring on the western borders of the Colorado Desert 
between Fish and Carrizo Creeks, California, and ranging from southern Arizona to Sonora and northeastern 
Lower California. Type locality: Sierra Tule, Sonora. June-July. 

Melia Azedarach L. Sp. PI. 384. 1753. China-berry or Umbrella Tree. Tree with large twice-pinnate 
leaves; leaflets ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, irregularly serrate or lobed; flowers purplish in large open 
panicles, petals oblanceolate or linear-oblong; fruit a nearly globular drupe about 1 cm. in diameter. The com- 
monly cultivated form is the variety umbracutiformis with the numerous branches radiating from the trunk 
and giving the effect of a huge umbrella. Sometimes growing as an escape in California. Native of Asia, and 
a member of the family Meliaceae. 



MILKWORT FAMILY 21 

Family 78. POLYGALACEAE. 

Milkwort Family. 

Herbs, shrubs or rarely trees, often with glands in the leaf-tissue. Leaves alter- 
nate, opposite or whorled, simple, entire, without stipules. Flowers perfect, irreg- 
ular, racemose, spicate or solitary, each subtended by a bract and 2 bractlets. Sepals 
5, the two lateral (wings) usually much larger and petaloid. Petals 3 or rarely 5, 
hypogynous, the anterior one (keel) boat-shaped often with a terminal beak or crest, 
the two upper usually ligulate or oval, often united to the staminal sheath at base. 
Stamens usually 8, and generally with the filaments united into a sheath; anthers 
opening by a subterminal pore. Ovary 2-celled ; style simple ; stigma 2-lobed ; ovules 
solitary in each cell, pendulous. Fruit a capsule, drupe or samara. Seeds usually 
pubescent, arillate ; endosperm present ; embryo straight, axial. 

A family of 10 genera and approximately 1,000 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical 
ons. 



regions. 



1. POLYGALA L. Sp. PI. 701. 1753. 



Herbs, shrubs or trees, with alternate, opposite or whorled leaves. Flowers in termi- 
nal or axillary racemes, sometimes also cleistogamous and subterranean. Capsule com- 
pressed contrary to the partition, often margined or winged, loculicidally dehiscent or 
indehiscent. Seeds usually pubescent and arillate. [Name Greek, meaning much milk.] 

About 450 species of wide geographic distribution; about 180 species occur in North America. Type species, 
Polygala vulgaris L. 

Flowers 8-12 mm. long; keel beaked. 
Plants not spinescent. 

Capsule thin- walled, distinctly reticulate; aril with short rounded umbo; wings glabrous; basal racemes 

bearing cleistogamous flowers. 1. P. californica. 
Capsule firm- walled, obscurely or not at all reticulate; aril with a conspicuous conical or cylindrical 
umbo; no basal racemes. 

Flowers greenish yellow; wings conspicuously puberulent. 2. P. cornuta. 

Flowers purplish; wings merely ciliate. 3. P. Fishiae. 

Plants spinescent. 4. P. subspinosa. 

Flowers 4-5. S mm. long; keel beakless. 5. P. acanthoclada. 

1. Polygala californica Nutt. California Milkwort or Polygala. Fig. 3011. 

Polygala californica Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, FI. N. Amer. 1: 671. 1840. 
Polygala cucullata Benth. PI. Hartw. 299. 1849. 

Stems numerous from a slender woody root, slender, erect or spreading, 2-4 dm. long, some- 
what puberulent with incurved hairs. Leaves elliptic to oval, 1-4 cm. long, obtuse, sparsely 
puberulent. Cleistogamous flowers usually present, near the bases of the stems. Normal flowers 
in few-flowered terminal racemes, rose and violet-purple; wings 10-12 mm. long, sparsely ciliolate 
on the upper margins near the base, otherwise glabrous ; beak of keel strongly papillose, 3 mm. 
long; capsule 6-7.5 mm. long, thin-walled and reticulate. 

Usually in woods, Humid Transition Zone; Josephine County, Oregon, to Monterey County, California. 
Type locality: probably Monterey, California. May-July. 

2. Polygala cornuta Kell. Sierra Milkwort or Polygala. Fig. 3012. 

Polygala cornuta Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 1 : 62. 1855. 

Stems several to many from a stout woody root, shrubby, usually spreading and with ascend- 
ing branches, 3-8 dm. high. Leaves narrowly elliptic-lanceolate to oval, 2-A cm. long, obtuse or 
rounded at apex, sparsely puberulent ; racemes rather dense, 2^ cm. long ; pedicels 2-5 mm. long ; 
flowers yellowish white or greenish white ; wings oval-obovate, 1 cm. long, densely puberulent ; 
beak of keel 1.5-2 mm. long; capsule 8 mm. broad, firm-walled, scarcely reticulate. 

Open coniferous forests. Arid Transition Zone; eastern Humboldt and Siskiyou Counties, south through 
the Sierra Nevada to Fresno County, California. Type locality: Placerville, California. June-bept. 

3. Polygala Fishiae Parry. Fish's Milkwort or Polygala. Fig. 3013. 

Polygala Fishiae Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. 4: 39. 1884. 

Polygala cornuta var. Fishiae Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 594. 1925. 

Slender shrub 1-1.5 m. high, the branchlets puberulent. Leaves linear to narrowly oblong 
or oblong-lanceolate, 15-45 mm. long, rounded at the apex, sparsely puberulent on the midvein 
above and on the margins, or often glabrous, pale green ; racemes 2-10 cm. long, flowers tew 
to many; sepals elliptic, 1.5-2 mm. long; wings rose-purple, 6-9 mm. long, obovate, hnelv cilio- 
late, otherwise glabrous ; keel yellow, 7-8 mm. long ; beak slender, 0.7 mm. long ; capsule sub- 
orbicular, 8 mm. broad, firm-walled, scarcely reticulate. 

Shaded canyon slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; Ventura County, California, south to Lower California. Type 
locality: near Sauzal, Todos Santos Bay, Lower California. June-Aug. 



22 



POLYGALACEAE 




3008. Ailanthus altissima 

3009. Holacantha Emoryi 

3010. Bursera microphylla 



3011. Polygala californica 

3012. Polygala cornuta 

3013. Polygala Fishiae 



3014. Polygala subspinosa 

3015. Polygala acanthoclada 

3016. Tetracoccus dioicus 



SPURGE FAMILY 23 

4. Polygala subspinosa S. Wats. Spiny Milkwort or Polygala. Fig. 3014. 

Polygala subspinosa S. Wats. Amer. Nat. 7:299. 1873. 
Polygala lasseniana Heller, Leaflets West. Bot. 2:230. 1940. 

Low, much-branched shrub, 5-15 cm. high, the stems several to many from a stout woody 
caudex, pallid green, finely pubescent with spreading hairs or glabrate, the branches spiny-tipped. 
Leaves 1-2 cm. long, narrowly obovate to elliptic, narrow at the base, glabrous or sparsely 
puberulent, coriaceous ; racemes 1-4-fiowered, the axis indurate and spiny-tipped ; bracts narrowly 
lanceolate, membranous and colored ; pedicels 3-9 mm. long ; sepals 4-6 mm. long ; corolla rose- 
purple and yellow, glabrous ; wing-petals obliquely ovate, 10 mm. long ; keel with blunt porrect 
entire beak; capsule 6-7 mm. long, 4-5 wide, reticulate, sparsely hispidulous on the margin. 

Dry desert hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; Lassen County, California, western Nevada to western Colorado, 
northern Arizona and northern New Mexico. Type locality : Silver City, Nevada. May-June. 

Polygala subspinosa var. heterorhyncha Barneby, Leaflets W^est. Bot. 3: 194. 1943. Habit much the 
same as the typical species; beak of the keel emarginate on the lower side at about the middle with a deep 
rounded notch. Chloride Clifif, Death Valley, California, and in the Spotted Range, Nye County, Nevada, the 
type locality. 

5. Polygala acanthoclada A. Gray. Desert Milkwort or Polygala. Fig. 3015. 

Polygala acanthoclada A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 73. 1876. 

Low shrub, 1 m. high or less, intricately divergent-branched, branches densely pilose, canes- 
cent, the branchlets indurate and ending in a sharp spiny tip. Leaves spatulate to linear-spatulate, 
6-15 mm. long, puberulent with incurved spreading hairs; racemes 2-3-flowered; flowers yellow- 
ish; wings obovate or oval, rounded at base, 4-5 mm. long, glabrous; keel not beaked; capsule 
oval, 4.5-5 mm. broad ; aril apical, 1 mm. long. 

Desert ranges, Upper Sonoran Zone; Providence Mountains, California, and western Nevada to southern 
Colorado and northwestern Arizona. Type locality: San Juan Valley, Colorado. June-July. 

Family 79. EUPHORBIACEAE.* 
Spurge Family. 

Monoecious or dioecious trees, shrubs or herbs with milky or acrid juice. Leaves 
simple, alternate or opposite, entire, toothed or lobed. Stipules present or absent. 
Flowers usually apetalous, often without a calyx. Stamens few to many, anthers 
2-celled, filaments free or united. Ovary 3-4-celled, more rarely 1- to many-celled. 
Ovules 1-2 in each cell; styles equaling the number of cells, simple or variously 
divided. Fruit various, in ours usually a 3-lobed capsule separating into 2-valved 
carpels from a persistent axis. Seeds fleshy or oily. 

About 250 genera and 4,500 species of wide geographical distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical 
regions. 

Flowers not subtended by an involucre simulating a calyx; perianth present in the staminate flowers, present 
or absent in the pistillate flowers. 
Ovules 2 in each cell; shrubs. 1. Tetracoccus. 

Ovules 1 in each cell; herbs or shrubs. 

Leaves entire, crenate or dentate, not palmately lobed; capsules glabrous or pubescent. 

Stamens united in a column; petals present (in ours) in both staminate and pistillate flowers. 

3. D it axis. 
Stamens free; petals absent in both staminate and pistillate flowers. 

Herbage of stellate or scale-like hairs. 

Ovary 1-celled; plants annual; pistillate flowers without calyx. 2. Eremocarpus. 

Ovary 3-celled; plants perennial herbs or shrubs; pistillate flowers with calyx. 

Seeds carunculate; leaves entire; herbs (sometimes woody at base). 

4. Croton. 

Seeds ecarunculate; leaves crenate; shrubs. 5. Beniardia. 
Herbage glabrous or of simple hairs. 
Herbage of simple hairs. 

Stigma-lobes finely dissected; plant without stinging hairs. 6. Acalypha. 

Stigma-lobes simple; plants with stinging hairs. 7. Tragia. 

Herbage glabrous. 8. Stillingia. 

Leaves palmately lobed; capsule usually spiny. 9. Ricinus. 

Pistillate and staminate flowers surrounded by one involucre simulating a calyx; perianth none or present as a 

single scale. 10. Euphorbia. 

1. TETRACOCCUS Engelm. ex Parry, W. Amer. Sci. 1: 13. 1885. 

Dioecious shrubs with opposite or alternate, sometimes fascicled, leaves. Staminate 
flowers in clusters, apetalous; sepals 4-10; stamens 4-9, surrounding- the lobed disk. 
Pistillate inflorescence solitary; flowers apetalous, with disk; calyx 6-10-parted. Ovary 
3-4-celled, the cells 2-ovuled; styles 3-4, entire, linear or dilated at apex. Capsule lobed. 



*Text, except the genus Euphorbia, contributed by Roxana Stinchfield Ferris. 



24 EUPHORBIACEAE 

separating- in age from the central column. Seeds shining, strophiolate, 1-2 in each cell. 
[Name Greek, meaning four and fruit.] 

A genus of S species, natives of Mexico and southwestern United States. Type species, Tctracoccus 
dioicus Parry. 

Capsule 4-celled; branches not rigidly divaricate. 

Leaves linear, entire. !• ^- ^*^''^'**; 

Leaves ovate, margins toothed. 2. T. ilicifohus. 

Capsule usually 3-celled; branches rigidly divaricate. 3. T. Hallii. 

1. Tetracoccus dioicus Parry. Parry's Tetracoccus. Fig. 3016. 

Tetracoccus dioicus Parry, W. Amer. Sci. 1: 13. 1885. 

Tetracoccus Engelmannii S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 373. 1885. 

Erect branching shrub, 0.5-3 m. high, with slender grayish branches and reddish branchlets. 
Leaves linear, 1 . 5-3 cm. long, cuneate or rounded at the base, subsessile or with a short petiole ; 
staminate inflorescence reddish, of axillary clusters shorter than the leaves, the flowers 2-8, on 
slender pedicels 0.5-8 mm. long; staminate calyx 1 mm. long; stamens 3^.5 mm. long, the 
filaments hairy ; pistillate flowers solitary, pedicellate, the calyx 2.5-5 mm. long ; capsule 4-lobed, 
8-10 mm. long ; seeds smooth. 

In chaparral. Upper Sonoran Zone; western San Diego County. California, south to northern Lower Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: Table Mountain, Lower California. March-April. 

2. Tetracoccus ilicifolius Cov. & Gilman. Holly-leaved Tetracoccus or Shrubby 

Spurge. Fig. 3017. 

Tetracoccus ilicifolius Cov. & Gilman, Journ. Wash. Acad. 26: 531. 1936. 

Branched shrub, 0.3-1.3 m. high with gray glabrous branches. Leaves subsessile, coriaceous, 
ovate, the margins more or less toothed, pilose with brownish hairs when young, becoming 
glabrate; staminate inflorescence pedunculate, hairy, the flowers many, clustered in the axils 
of bracts ; stamens 7-9 ; pistillate flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves ; pedicels 8-10 mm. 
long, persistent ; capsule glabrous, 4-celled, 7-8 mm. long ; seeds smooth. 

In canyons. Lower Sonoran Zone; Grapevine and Panamint Mountains, Inyo County, California. Type 
locality: Grapevine Mountains. April- June. 

3. Tetracoccus Hallii Brandg. Hall's Shrubby Spurge or 
Purple-bush. Fig. 3018. 

Tetracoccus Hallii Brandg. Zoe S: 229. 1906. 

Securinegea Hallii I. M. Johnston, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 7: 442. 1922. 
Securinegea fasciculata van Hallii Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 595. 1925. 
Halliophytum Hallii I. M. Johnston, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 68: 88. 1923. 

Divaricately branching, grayish-stemmed shrubs with spinescent twigs, 0.5-2 ni. high. Leaves 
glabrate, many, fasciculate, oblanceolate, 4-10 mm. long ; staminate flowers several in leaf-axils, 
with slender pedicels 4-6 mm. long; sepals 6, less than 0.5 mm. long; pistillate flowers solitary, 
sessile or with stout pedicels 2-3 mm. long; stamens 4-6, filaments free, 1.5-2 mm. long; capsule 
pubescent when young, globose-oblong, 6-8 mm. long. 

On dry slopes. Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, California, and adjacent Arizona. Type locality: 
Chuckwalla Bench, Riverside County, California. April-May. 

2. EREMOCArPUS Benth. Bot. Sulph. 53. 1844. 

Stellate-pubescent glandular and heavy-scented annual herbs, with alternate, entire, 
3-nerved, petiolate, exstipulate leaves, and monoecious apetalous flowers in axillary cymes. 
Calyx 5-6-parted, slightly imbricate in the staminate flowers, wanting in the pistillate. 
Stamens 6-7, central on the hairy receptacle ; filaments exserted. Ovary with 4-5 small 
glands at the base, 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style simple, filiform, stigmatic at the apex. Cap- 
sule obovoid-oblong, 2-valved. Seed smooth and shining; endosperm fleshy. [Name 
Greek, meaning solitary fruit.] 

Monotypic genus of western America. Type species, Croton setigerus Hook. 

1. Eremocarpus setigerus (Hook.) Benth. Turkey Mullein. Fig. 3019. 

Croton setigerus Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 141. 1838. 
Eremocarpus setigerus Benth. Bot. Sulph. 53. 1844. 
Piscaria setigera Piper, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 11: 352. 1906. 

Annual, strong-scented herbs, 0.5-2 dm. high, dichotomously branching from the base, forming 
mats, herbage densely stellate-pubescent throughout with simple spreading hispid hairs on stems 
and leaf-margins. Leaves ovate to rhombic-ovate, 1.5-5 cm. long, on slender petioles about the 
same length, crowded at the ends of the branches ; pistillate flowers 1-3, sessile, in axils of upper 
branches, without calyx; staminate flowers 1.2-2 mm. long on slender pedicels 3 mm. long; 



SPURGE FAMILY 25 

sepals 5-6, obtuse, surpassed by filaments ; capsule 4 mm. long ; seed 4 mm. long, shining, 

mottled. 

Dry hills and plains, often found in cultivated areas, Upper Sonoran Zone; Klickitat County, Washington, 
to northern Lower California. Type locality: Columbia River near the mouth of the Willamette. June-Sept. 

3. DITAXIS Vahl ex Juss. Euphorb. 27, 110. 1824. 

Monoecious or rarely dioecious annual or perennial herbs, often woody below. Leaves 
alternate, entire or toothed, pubescence when present in ours mostly of coarse appressed 
malpighiaceous hairs. Inflorescence axillary, racemose, bracteate, pistillate flower usu- 
ally 1, basal, staminate above. Sepals of staminate flowers 5 ; petals 5, equaling or sur- 
passing the stamens; glands of disk opposite sepals. Sepals of the pistillate flowers 5, 
somewhat elongated in age; petals 5, equaling or shorter than the sepals; glands oppo- 
site the sepals, short, often petaloid. Stamens 5 or 10, united in a column, arranged in 
2 ranks, the third rank if present sterile. Styles 3, once or twice cleft. Capsule 3-lobed, 
1 seed in each cavity. [Name Greek, meaning double-ranked, referring to stamens.] 

About 43 species, natives of temperate and tropical regions of North and South America. Type species, 
Ditaxis fasciculata Vahl. 

Bracts and pistillate calyces conspicuously fimbriate-glandular; pubescence of the upper stems of short, soft, 

spreading hairs, with few or no appressed setose hairs. 1. U. adenophora. 

Bracts and pistillate calyces not conspicuously fimbriate-glandular; upper stems mainly with appressed setose 
hairs, or glabrous. 
Stigma-lobes broadly dilated; low shrubs. 2. D. lanceolata. 

Stigma-lobes linear or subclavate; annuals or short-lived perennials. 

Pubescence of setose hairs mixed with appressed or crinkled pilose hairs; seeds globose-ovoid, nearly 

smooth, lightly marked with shallow reticulations. 3. D. scrrata. 

Pubescence when present of setose hairs only; seeds ovoid, faveolate, the depressions marked with 
minute radiating ridges. 
Herbage hairy, usually densely so; pistillate petals more or less pilose. 4. D. neomexicana. 

Herbage glabrous or with few hairs on the leaves; pistillate petals glabrous. 

5. D. californica- 

1. Ditaxis adenophora (A. Gray) Pax & K. Hoffmn. Glandular Ditaxis. 

Fig. 3020. 

Argytkamnia adenophora A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 294. 1870. 
Ditaxis adenophora Pax & K. Hoffmn. Pflanzenreich 4"'^': 65. 1912. 
Argythamnia Clariana Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2:419. 1936. 

Perennial branching herbs, more or less purplish, 3-4 dm. high with woody caudex, upper 
part of the stems finely pubescent with simple hairs. Leaves oblanceolate, 1.5-4.5 cm. long, veins 
prominent on the lower surface of the leaf, pubescence of short simple hairs, appressed setose 
hairs very sparse, margins rather finely serrate, usually with tack-shaped glands on the teeth ; 
inflorescence congested, mostly with simple hairs ; bracts 1-3 mm. long, narrowly triangular, 
margin with tack-shaped glands ; staminate flowers 3-4 mm. long, with few or no stalked glands ; 
petals longer than the sepals ; pistillate sepals 4-6 mm. long, lanceolate, not white-margined, 
densely beset with marginal tack-shaped glands ; pistillate petals clawed, ovate-lanceolate, sorne- 
times laciniate, as long as or longer than the sepals ; ovary with coarse setose hairs, becoming 
glabrate ; style branches dilated at the tips ; seeds irregularly and shallowly pitted, the surface 
roughened. 

Desert slopes, Lower Sonoran Zone; rare, Coachella Valley, Colorado Desert, California, to southwestern 
Arizona and Sonora. Type locality: Sonora. April-Aug. 

The plants of California and adjacent Arizona are less robust and more hairy than those of the typical 
form in Sonora. Also the tack-shaped glands of the leaves are shorter and less abundant. 

2. Ditaxis lanceolata (Benth.) Pax & K. Hoffmn. Narrow-leaved Ditaxis. 

Fig. 3021. 

Serophyton lanccolatum Benth. Bot. Sulph. 52. 1844. 
Argythamnia sericophylla A. Gray, Bot. Calif. 2: 70. 1880. 
Ditaxis sericophylla Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. 5. 1900. 
Ditaxis lanceolata Pax & K. Hoffmn. Pflanzenreich 4""'>" : 71. 1912 

Low pubescent shrubs, often dioecious rather than monoecious, 2.5-4 dm. high, stems arising 
from woody base, erect, simple or, if branching, the branches sharply ascending. Leaves short - 
petiolate, linear-lanceolate, in vigorous plants broadly lanceolate, entire;, 1-2.5 cm. long, densely 
pubescent with long setose appressed hairs; inflorescence sessile; staminate flowers 3-4; sepals 
about 2.5 mm. long, surpassed by the short-clawed ovate-lanceolate petals ; gland thickened, 
minute, lanceolate; sepals of pistillate flowers lanceolate, 3^ mm. long, not white-margined or 
very narrowly so; pistillate petals clawed, ovate-lanceolate, nearly equaling the sepals, adnate 
with the thin, minute, mostly broadly triangular glands to disk at base of ovary ; ovary 3-celled, 
densely hairy ; styles short, adnate about half their length, the free portion deeply bifid ; stigmas 
broadly dilated; seeds grayish or brownish, faveolate, the depressions marked with minute 
radiating ridges. 

Rocky slopes, Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, California, east to western Arizona and south to 
Lower California and Sonora. Type locality: Magdalena Bay, Lower California. March-Oct. 



26 EUPHORBIACEAE 

3. Ditaxis serrata (Torr.) Heller. Yuma Ditaxis. Fig. 3022. 

Aphora serrata Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 197. 1858. 

Ditaxis serrata Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. 5. 1900. 

Ditaxis odontophylla Rose & Standley, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 16: 12. 1912. 

Annuals or short-lived perennials, pubescent, 1-2 dm. high, branching from the base, the 
stems decumbent or prostrate. Leaves 1-3 cm. long, obovate to oblong, obtuse, typically serrate 
at the apex, densely covered with slender appressed or crinkled hairs mixed with long appressed 
setose hairs ; racemes congested in the leaf-axils ; staminate flowers 3 mm. long, staminate petals 
longer than the sepals or equaling them ; pistillate sepals 3.5-5 mm. long, pubescent, attenuate, 
the white margins inconspicuous ; pistillate petals hairy on the back with pilose and long setose 
hairs, clawed, the blade deltoid, one-half to more than one-half as long as the calyx ; pistillate 
gland thin, 0.5 mm. long or less; seeds brownish or grayish, globose-ovoid, nearly smooth, 
marked with low corrugate reticulations. 

Desert slopes, Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, California, south to Lower California and east to 
southwestern Arizona and Sonora. Type locality: "Fort Yuma, California." April-Sept. 

4. Ditaxis neomexicana (Muell. Arg.) Heller. Con-imon Ditaxis. Fig. 3023. 

Argythamnia neomexicana Muell. Arg. Linnaea 34: 147. 1865. 
Ditaxis neomexicana Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PL 5. 1898. 

Annuals or short-lived many-stemmed perennials, 1-3.5 dm. high, the branches when present 
spreading, herbage sometimes purplish. Leaves 1-2.5 cm. long, narrowly or broadly oblanceolate, 
mostly acute, more or less strigose with setose hairs, the margins entire or serrulate, _ veins 
prominent on the lower surface at base of leaf; inflorescence few-flowered, congested in the 
leaf -axils; staminate flowers 1.5-2 mm. long, the petals longer than the sepals; pistillate sepals 
3.5-5 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate, conspicuously white-margined, occasionally vyith few 
glandular teeth present on the margins, the external gland-like fold of the white margin at the 
base of the sepal more or less conspicuous; pistillate petals 1.5-2.5 mm. long, one-half to more 
than one-half the length of the sepals, more or less hairy on the back, setose hairs occasionally 
present ; seeds ovoid, brownish, faveolate, depressions marked with minute radiating ridges. 

Desert slopes, Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave Desert, California, south to Lower California, east to western 
Texas and south to Sonora. Type locality: New Mexico. March-Dec. 

The plants from western Arizona and from California differ somewhat from typical material but are ex- 
tremely variable as to density of pubescence and relative lengths of pistillate sepals and petals. 

5. Ditaxis californica (Brandg.) Pax & K. Hoffmn. California Ditaxis. 

Fig. 3024. 

Argythamnia californica Brandg. Zoe 5:230. 1906. 

Ditaxis californica Pax & K. Hoffmn. Pflanzenreich 4i".vi ; 70. 1912. 

Annuals 1.5-3 dm. high with divergent branches, the young growth purplish, glabrous or 
nearly so. Leaves 2.5-4.5 cm. long, oblanceolate, serrulate, typically glabrous; inflorescence 
congested ; staminate flowers 2.5 mm. long, the petals equaling or exceeding the sepals ; pistillate 
sepals linear-attenuate, 3.5-4.5 mm. long, white margins with a few marginal glands, the external 
gland-like fold of the white margin at the base of the sepal conspicuous ; pistillate petals clawed, 
broadly deltoid; ovary glabrous or nearly so; seeds brown, faveolate, the depressions more or 
less marked with minute radiating ridges. 

Desert slopes. Lower Sonoran Zone; rare, in the Coachella and Eagle Mountains, northern Colorado Desert, 
California. Type locality: near Coachella, California. April-May. 

4. CROTON L. Sp. PI. 1004. 1753. 

Stellate-pubescent, more or less glandular and strong-scented monoecious or dioecious 
herbs or shrubs, with mostly alternate, entire, toothed or lobed leaves, and monoecious 
or dioecious flowers in terminal or axillary clusters. Staminate flowers uppermost; calyx 
usually 5-parted; petals usually present, small or rudimentary, alternating with the 
glands; stamens 5 or more, inflexed. Pistillate flowers clustered below the staminate; 
calyx 5-10-parted; petals usually wanting; ovary 3-celled; ovules 1 in each cell; styles 
once, twice or many times 2-cleft. Capsule splitting into usually 2-valved carpels ; seeds 
smooth or minutely pitted. [Greek name of the Castor-oil plant.] 

About 600 species of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Type species, Croton Tiglium L. 

1. Croton californicus Muell. Arg. California Croton. Fig. 3025. 

Croton californicus Muell. Arg. in A. DC. Prod. 12^: 691. 1866. 
Croton californicus var. major S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 69. 1880. 

Erect or spreading sufifrutescent dioecious perennials, 2-10 dm. high, with a stellate scurfy 
pubescence throughout. Leaf-blades entire, 1.5-5 cm. long, oblong, petioles slender, 1-3 cm. long, 
pubescence more sparse above; pistillate infloresence few-flowered, short-racemose; pistillate 
flowers 2 mm. long or more, pedicels 2^ mm. long ; staminate inflorescence many-flowered, the 
raceme elongating in age, staminate flowers about 2 mm. long on slender pedicels 3-4 mm. long, 



SPURGE FAMILY 



27 




3023 

3017. Tetracoccus ilicifolius 

3018. Tetracoccus Hallii 

3019. Eremocarpus setigerus 



3024 



3020. Ditaxis adenophora 

3021. Ditaxis lanceolata 

3022. Ditaxis serrata 



3023. Ditaxis neomexicana 

3024. Ditaxis californica 

3025. Croton califomicus 



28 EUPHORBIACEAE 

the flowers deciduous; stamens 12-15; styles 3, palmately 2-5-cleft or twice bicleft; capsule 5-6 
mm. long. 

Sandy hills and valleys of coastal California, Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones; Contra Costa County, 
California, to Lower California. Type locality: San Francisco, California. A variable species breaking up into 
ill-defined forms. April-Aug. 

Croton californicus var. tenuis (S. Wats.) Ferg. Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 12: 64. pi. 27. fig. 1. 1901. Plant 
with more slender stems, and narrower, oblong to lanceolate pale leaves. Santa Barbara to Lower California 
and east to Arizona. Type locality: southern California. 

Croton californicus var. mohavensis Ferg. op. cit. 65. 1901. Plant with smaller leaves ^0.5-2 mm. long. 
Kern County east through the Mojave and Colorado Deserts to Arizona. Type locality: "Soda Lake, Ft. 
Mohave." 

Croton Wigginsii L. C. Wheeler, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 124: 37. 1939. {Croton arenicola Rose & Standi. 
Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 16: 12. 1912. Not J. K. Small.) Low shrub, capsule 10-11 mm. long, seeds 7-8 mm. 
long. A related species found in southeastern Imperial County, California, and adjacent Sonora. Type 
locality: Adair Bay, Sonora. 

5. BERNARDIA Houst. ex P. Br. Nat. Hist. Jamaica 361. 1756. 

Monoecious or dioecious shrubs with alternate stipulate leaves. Staniinate inflo- 
rescence in axillary racemes, the flowers usually bracteate ; stamens distinct on a receptacle, 
anther-cells distinct. Pistillate flowers few, clustered on the ends of branches or axillary. 
Sepals 4-6. Ovary 3-celled, ovules solitary in each cell, disk or glands present ; stigmas 
short, entire or laciniate. Capsule dehiscent. Seeds ecarunculate. [Name in honor of 
P. F. Bernard, French botanist.] 

About 40 species of American tropical and subtropical regions. Type species: Bernardia carpinifolia Griseb. 

1. Bernardia incana C. V. Morton. Western Bernardia. Fig. 3026. 

Bernardia incana C. V. Morton, Journ. Wash. Acad. 29: 376. 1939. 

Dioecious much-branched shrub, 1-3 m. high, with glabrous branches and tomentulose branch- 
lets. Leaves thick, crenate or crenate-dentate, 1-2.5 cm. long, short petiolate, densely short stel- 
late-pubescent beneath, less dense above ; stipules thick, lanceolate ; staminate inflorescence slen- 
der, axillary, bracteate, 1-1.5 cm. long, the flowers in fascicles along the rachis ; staminate 
flowers 1 mm. long or less, the sepals 3, stellate-pubescent, pedicels slender, sometimes glabrous ; 
stamens 5-8; pistillate flowers sessile, 1-2 mm. long, bracteate, terminal, solitary^ or clustered, 
stellate-pubescent throughout ; sepals 5 ; ovary 3-celled, 3-lobed ; stigmas short, thick, lacmiate ; 
capsule 7-9 mm. long, occasionally with but 1 or 2 cells developing; seeds about 5 mm. long, 
carinate. 

Rocky desert canyons. Lower Sonoran Zone; San Bernardino County, California, south to Lower California 
and east to Arizona. Type locality: Sierra Tucson, Arizona. May-June. 

Mercurialis Snnua L. Sp. PI. 1035. 1753. Glabrous annual with opposite serrate leaves and monoecious 
flowers, the staminate in interrupted spikes, the pistillate axillary below the staminate; capsule 2-celled, 1-seeded. 
Growing spontaneously in western part of San Mateo County, California. 

6. ACALYPHA L. Sp. PI. 1003. 1753. 

Monoecious, rarely dioecious herbs or shrubs with alternate stipulate leaves. Flowers 
in spikes or spike-like racemes. Staminate flowers bracteate, in glomerules on slender 
spikes. Sepals 4, valvate. Stamens 8 or more, anther-cells distinct. Pistillate flowers in 
spikes or at base of staminate spikes, bracteate. Sepals 3-5. Ovary 3-celled, with 1 ovule 
in each cell. Styles free or somewhat united at the base, usually laciniately divided. Cap- 
sule 3-celled, dehiscent. Seeds subglobose. [Name Greek, meaning nettle.] 

About 400 species in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Type species, Acalypha virginica L. 

1. Acalypha calif ornica Benth. California Acalypha. Fig. 3027. 

Acalypha californica Benth. Bot. Sulph. 51. 184. 

Low monoecious, apetalous shrub, 1.5-4 dm. high with slender branches. Leaves petiolate. 
ovate or deltoid with crenate margins, greenish, sparsely or densely pubescent with simple hairs, 
glandular; staminate inflorescence spicate, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, the flowers in clusters along axis 
subtended by toothed bracts; staminate flowers 0.5 mm. or less in diameter; staminate sepals 4 ; 
stamens 3 on a raised receptacle, anther-cells slender, distinct; pistillate flowers in short spike 
or solitary at base of staminate inflorescence ; flowers surpassed by cup-shaped crenate bracts with 
tack-shaped marginal glands ; sepals flliform ; ovary pubescent, 1 mm. long ; styles 3, usually red- 
dish, filiform, much-branched, 3 mm. long ; capsule pubescent, 2-3 mm. long. 

Dry canyons and washes, Lower Sonoran Zone; San Diego County, California, south to Lower California 
and east to Sonora. Type locality: Magdalena Bay, Lower California. Feb.-Oct. 

7. TRAgIA L. Sp. PI. 980. 1753. 

Perennial monoecious, rarelv dioecious herbs or vines with alternate stipulate leaves, 
usually with stinging hairs. Inflorescence racemose, bracteolate, staminate flowers above, 
pistillate below. Flowers in ours with jointed pedicels, apetalous. Staminate flowers with 



SPURGE FAMILY 29 

3-6-parted calyx; stamens 1 to many. Pistillate flowers 3-6-parted or rarely 8-parted; 
calyx-segments in ours entire. Ovary 3-celled, 1 ovule in each cell; styles 3. Capsule 
3-lobed, splittincj into 3 bivalved carpels. [From Tragus, Latin name of Hieronymus 
Bock, German herbalist.] 

About 125 species, natives of the tropical regions of the eastern hemisphere and tropical and temperate 

regions of the western hemisphere. Type species, Tragia volubilis L. 

L Tragia stylaris Muell. Arg. Desert Tragia. Fig. 3028. 

Tragia stylaris Muell. Arg. Linnaea 34: 180. 1865. 

Slender, erect, much-branched herb arising from a woody caudex. Leaves with short petioles 
lanceolate to triangular-lanceolate, serrate, sparsely hispid with stinging hairs ; inflorescence 5-lS 
mm. long, pistillate flower at base of raceme or absent ; staminate flowers 2)-7 ; staminate bracts 
about 1 mm. long, equaling or shorter than first joint of pedicel; pistillate sepals 1 mm. long; 
ovary densely hairy, stigmas divided to base, about 3 mm. long, somewhat roughened ; staminate 
sepals 2.5 mm. long, broadly lanceolate, recurved in anthesis ; stamens 4-5, filaments clavate, 
shorter than the sepals ; capsules 3-lobed, pubescent, 5-6 mm. broad ; seeds globose, brown, often 
mottled. 

Dry desert slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; southwestern Nevada south through eastern California and east to 
Texas. Type locality: New Mexico. May-July. 

8. STILLINGIA L. Mant. 19. 1767. 

Glabrous herbs or shrubs with alternate or rarely opposite, entire or toothed leaves, 
often with 2 glands at the base. Flowers apetalous, monoecious, in terminal or axillary 
bracteolate spikes, the bractlets 2-glandular. Staminate flowers several together or solitary 
in the axils of the bractlets; calyx entire or lobate; stamens 2-3, exserted. Pistillate 
flowers solitary in the axils of bracts ; calyx 3-parted or none. Ovary 1 in each cell, styles 
3-parted usually to the base. Capsule 2-3-lobed, separating into 2-3 bivalved carpels, in 
ours breaking away from the persistent 3-lobed gynophore. Seeds ovoid or subglobose, 
carunculate or ecarunculate. [Name in honor of Benjamin Stillingfleet, English botanist.] 

Species about 15, natives of North and South America, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific. Type 
species, Stillingia sylvatica L. 

Leaves ovate, spinulose-serrate throughout; inflorescence much shorter than the leaves. 

1. 6". spinulosa. 
Leaves linear, entire or with occasional spinulose teeth; inflorescence as long as or much surpassing the leaves. 

Spikes of the inflorescence dense, staminate portion in anthesis 5-6.5 mm. broad; leaves crowded. 

2. 5'. paiicidentata. 
Spikes of the inflorescence open, lax, staminate portion in anthesis 3-4 mm. broad; leaves not crowded. 

3. .?. linearifolia. 

1. Stillingia spinulosa Torr. Annual Stillingia. Fig. 3029. 

Stillingia spinulosa Torr. in Emory, Notes Mil. Rec. 152. 1848. 
Sapiitm amiuum Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 201. 1858 
Stillingia annua Muell. Arg. in A. DC. Prod. 15^: 1160. 1866. 

Tufted, glabrous, leafy winter annual, branching from the base, 5-35 cm. high. Leaves ovate, 
attenuate at the base, decurrent on the petiole, margin spinulose-toothed, prominently 3-veined 
beneath, 1.5-5 cm. long; inflorescence of many short bracteate spikes 0.5-2 cm. long, mostly 
shorter than the leaves, each bract subtending but 1 flower ; staminate calyx shallowly and irreg- 
ularly lobed, 1.3 mm. long, the subtending bract acuminate, dentate, scarcely as long as the 
narrow stalked glands ; stamens 2, 2 mm. long, anthers divergent ; pistillate flowers 1-2 at the 
base of the spike ; pistillate perianth none, bracts and glands like those of the staminate flowers ; 
capsule 4-5 mm. high, central column very fragile, usually breaking off with the dehiscence of 
the capsule; seeds 3 mm. long, mostly ecarunculate. 

Open sandy deserts and dry washes, Lower Sonoran Zone; Death Valley region of California and adjacent 
Nevada south to Imperial County, California, and east to southwestern Arizona. Type locality: banks of the 
Gila, Arizona. March-June. 

2. Stillingia paucidentata S. Wats. Mojave Stillingia. Fig. 3030. 

Stillingia paucidentata S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14:298. 1879. 

Glabrous plant from a perennial root with stems simple or much-branched above, 2-3.5 dm. 
tall. Leaves many, crowded on the upper part of the stem, linear, attenuate at the apex, with 
occasioral spinulose teeth on the margin, 3-8 cm. long ; inflorescence of many bracteate spikes, 
these at flowering as long as or longer than the subtending leaves ; staminate flowers many, 
crowded; calyx irregularly 2-lobed, 1.5 mm. long, the subtending bract acuminate, shorter than 
the calyx ; the 2 glands large, nearly sessile, rarely a third gland present; stamens 2, 3-3.2 mm. 
long ; pistillate flowers 3-9, crowded at the base of the spike ; pistillate perianth none, bracts and 
glands as in staminate flowers ; capsule 3 . 5-4 mm. high, the column of the gynophore usually 
persistent after dehiscence. 

Open desert slopes. Lower Sonoran Zone; southern Inyo County south to Riverside and Los Angeles Coun- 
ties, California, and east to the Colorado River, Arizona. Type locality: "Colorado Valley near the mouth of 
the Williams River," Arizona. March-June. 



30 EUPHORBIACEAE 

3. Stillingia Hnearifolia S. Wats. Linear-leaved Stillingia. Fig. 3031. 

Stillingia Hnearifolia S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 297. 1879. 
Stillingia agymnogyna Pax & K. Hoffmn. Pflanzenreich 4"'-^: 196. 1912. 

Glabrous freely branching plants, several-stemmed from a woody base. Leaves subsessile, 
linear, entire, 1 . 5^ cm. long ; inflorescence of several bracteate spikes, 4-7 cm. long ; staminate 
flowers many, often reddish ; calyx 2-lobed, the tube slender, about . 5 mm. long, much shorter 
than the 2 divergent stamens, the subtending bracts triangular, mostly shorter than the broad 
stalked glands; pistillate flowers 4-7, scattered, 5-9 mm. long, not crowded on the rachis, the 
perianth none, bracts and glands as those in the staminate flowers; capsule 2.5 mm. high, 3.5 
mm. broad, the column of the gynophore more or less persistent ; seeds 3 mm. long. 

Desert and interior foothills, Lower Sonoran Zone; San Bernardino County, California, south to central 
Lower California and western Sonora. Type locality: San Diego County, California. March-May. 

9. RiCINUS L. Sp. PI. 1007. 1753. 

A tall monoecious herb, often becoming a small tree. Leaves alternate, large, peltate, 
palmately lobed and toothed. Flowers numerous, small, apetalous, greenish, in terminal 
racemes, the pistillate above the staminate. Staminate flowers with a 3-5-parted calyx 
and numerous crowded stamens; filaments branched. Pistillate flowers with a caducous 
calyx. Ovary 3-celled, 3-ovuled; styles red, 3, united at the base, 2-cleft. Capsule sub- 
globose or oval, separating into three 2-valved carpels. Seeds ovoid or oblong, mottled. 
[Latin name of the plant.] 

A monotypic genus native to Africa and Asia. Type species, Ricinus communis L. 

1. Ricinus communis L. Castor Bean. Fig. 3032. 

Ricinus communis L. Sp. PI. 1007. 1753. 

Tall annual herb or in frostless regions becoming a shrub or small tree, 1-4 m. high, glabrous 
throughout, reddish-tinged. Leaves 1.5-3.5 dm. broad; inflorescence racemose; capsule 10-15 
mm. high, smooth or spiny; seeds about 10 mm. long, conspicuously carunculate, mottled. 

Introduced plant established in southern California and occasional in protected areas in central California. 
Type locality: Eurasia. May-Sept. 

10. EUPHORBIA* L. Gen. PL ed. 5. 208. 1754. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees with milky juice. Leaves simple, alternate, opposite, whorled, 
or absent. Stipules often present. Flowers monoecious (or dioecious in some extralimital 
species), several to numerous, staminate and 1 central pistillate surrounded by an involucre 
forming a cyathium. Involucre gamophyllous, usually with 5 lobes alternating with 5 
naked or variously margined glands, one or more of the glands often wanting. Staminate 
flowers naked, monandrous, consisting of a solitary stamen jointed to the staminate pedi- 
cel which is usually subtended by a bracteole. Pistillate flower ecalyculate or with a 
minute calvx, apetalous, borne centrally in the cyathium on a pedicel, soon exserted from 
the involucre and usually reflexed. Ovary 3-celled. Styles 3, bifid or entire. Capsule 
3-celled, usually dehiscent. Seeds carunculate or ecarunculate. [Name in honor of Eu- 
phorbus, physician to Juba 11, King of Mauretania.] 

About 1,600 species, most abundant in the warmer temperate zone. Type species, Euphorbia antiqiiorum L. 

Leaves alternate at least below the inflorescence (except decussate in E. Lathyris), equilateral; stipules wanting, 
or if present, gland-like; seeds carunculate, or if ecarunculate, plant a shrub. 
Shrub; glands 5, with petaloid appendages; seeds ecarcunculate. IL Agaloma. 

Herbs; glands 3-5, without petaloid appendages; seeds carunculate. 

Styles entire; glands cupped and concealed by inflexed lacerate margin; stipules gland-like; stems not 

umbellately branched. I- Poinsettia. 

Styles bifid; glands convex, not concealed; stipules absent; stems umbellately branched above. 

III. ESULA. 

Leaves all opposite, not decussate, usually inequilateral; stipules present, not gland-like; seeds ecarunculate: 
Ijerbs. IV. Chamaesyce. 

L Poinsettia. 

Our only species. 1- ■£• criantha. 

IL Agaloma. 

Our only species. 2. E. misera. 

IIL EsULA. 
Stem-leaves decussate; capsule 7-15 mm. long, spongy when fresh. 3. E. Lathyris. 

Stem-leaves alternate; capsule not more than 5 mm. long, never spongy. 

Stem-leaves serrate or serrulate; glands entire and rounded; seeds obviously reticulate. 

Umbel-rays mostly S, trichotomous below; capsules smooth; seeds ovoid, esculpate-reticulate. 

4. E. Helioscopia. 

Umbel-rays mostly 3, dichotomous throughout; capsules verrucose; seeds lenticular-ovoid, superficially 
reticulate. S. E. spathulata. 



Text contributed by Louis Cutter Wheeler. 



SPURGE FAMILY 31 

Stem-leaves entire (or crenulate) ; glands horned (except lacerate or crenate in E. incisa) ; seeds not macro- 
scopically reticulate though often mottled or rugulose. 
Umbel-rays 3-5; stem-leaves not linear, 1-2 cm. long; without sterile leafy branches. 

Carpels bicarinate on back; seeds with longitudinal grooves and rows of pits; staminate pedicels 

1-1.5 mm. long; annual. 6. E. Peplus. 

Carpels not carinate; seeds without regular pits or grooves; staminate pedicels 2 mm. or more 
long; perennial except E. crenulata. 

Uppermost floral leaves connate; horns longer than gland; annual or biennial. 

Floral leaves all distinct; horns shorter than gland; perennial. 

Stem-leaves ovate-elliptical to broadly oblanceolate, epidermis not papillate; stems mostly 
slender (about 1.5 mm. thick), mostly numerous and sinuous; glands irregularly 
toothed all along the margin, without horns exceeding the teeth. 

8. E. incisa. 
Stem-leaves mostly oblong to suborbicular, epidermis usually papillate; stems stouter few 

mostly straight; glands with short horns, the margin between crenulate. ' ' 

9. E. Palmeri. 
Umbel-rays 7-20; stem-leaves narrowly linear, or, if broader, 3-6 cm. long; often with sterile leafy 

branches. 

Umbel-rays 7-12; stem-leaves 3-6 cm. long; seeds 2.5 mm. long. 10. E. Esula. 

Umbel-rays 15-20; stem-leaves 1-2 cm. long; seeds 2 mm. long. 11. £. Cyparissias. 

IV. Chamaesyce. 

Ovary, capsule, and usually the herbage, glabrous; leaves often serrulate. 

Stipules united into a white glabrous membranous scale. 16. E. albomarginata. 

Stipules distinct or at least not forming a membranous scale. 

Styles entire, about as long as the capsule; appendages and involucral lobes deeply cut. 

23. E. H cover i. 
Styles bifid, shorter than the capsule; appendages (when present) and involucral lobes not notably cut. 

Glands circular or radially elongated, without appendages, herbage glabrous; leaves entire. 
Capsule 2-3 mm. long; leaves often over 7 mm. long. 

Seeds virtually flat on the face; capsule about 3 mm. long, longer than broad. 

12. E. platysperma. 
Seeds ovoid; capsule 2-2.3 mm. long, broader than long. 13. E. ocellata. 

Capsule 1.2-1.7 mm. long; leaves 2-7 mm. long. 

Perennial; staminate flowers 40-50. 17. E. Parishii. 

Annual; staminate flowers 2-5. 19. E. micromera. 

Glands transversely elongated, appendages present; leaves sometimes serrulate. 

Seeds with regular definite transverse ridges, these usually passing through the angles. 

Seeds radially oblong-ovate to oblong; capsule widest at the middle; at least the stems 

often pubescent. 20. E. Abramsiana. 

Seeds radially ovate; capsule widest below the middle; herbage glabrous. 

21. E. glyptosperma. 
Seeds smooth to faintly or even strongly wrinkled but never with regular transverse ridges. 

Capsule less than 2 mm. long. 

Leaves usually serrulate; hairs, if present, weak and curly; annual. 

22. E. scrpyllifolia. 
Leaves always entire; perennial though blooming the first year; hairs, if present, 

short and straight. 18. E. poly car pa. 

Capsule at least 2 mm. long. 

Leaves entire; herbage glabrous. 

Leaves linear, equilateral; annual. 14. E. Parryi. 

Leaves broad, markedly inequilateral; perennial. 15. E. Fendlcri. 

Leaves serrate; herbage with some hairs, especially on the young stems. 

24. E. maculata. 
Ovary, capsule, and herbage hairy; leaves entire except E. serpyllifolia var. hirtula and E. supina. 

Involucres urceolate (strongly contracted above). 

Appendages entire or crenate; hairs mostly clavate; perennial. 25. E. arisonica. 

Appendages deeply parted into a few attenuate segments; hairs tapering; annual. 

26. E. sctiloha. 
Involucres campanulate to obconical. 

Herbage with short, straight, spreading hairs. 

Capsule 2-2.3 mm. long, broader than long; staminate flowers 40-60. 13a. E. ocellata^ 

Rattanii. 
Capsule 1.1-1.4 mm. long, no broader than long; staminate flowers 2-32. 

Plant perennial but blooming the first year; appendages usually evident, glands transversely 
oblong; staminate flowers 15-32. 18a. £. polycarpa 

hirtella. 
Plant annual; appendages absent or rudimentary; glands usually circu'nr; <;t-minate flowers 
2-5. 19. E. micromera. 

Herbage with curly, matted, or appressed hairs. 

Seeds scarcely angled, slenderly ovoid, encircled by 4-S rounded ridges. 27. E. pediculifera. 

Seeds quadrangular, variously smooth to slightly but irregularly wrinkled. 
Leaves entire; plants perennial. 

Appendages glabrous. 28. E. melanadcnia. 

Appendages with short spreading hairs beneath and on the margins. 

29. E. vallis-mortae. 
Leaves serrulate; plants annual. 

Capsule sparsely villous; seeds irregularly wrinkled; staminate flowers 10-15. 

22a. E. serpyllifolia 
hirtula. 
Capsule strigose; seeds with low rounded transverse ridges; staminate flowers 2-5. 

30. E. supina. 



32 EUPHORBIACEAE 

1. Euphorbia eriantha Benth. Beetle Spurge. Fig. 3033. 

Euphorbia eriantha Benth. Bot. Sulph. 51. 1844. 

Euphorbia exclusa S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 18: 150. 1883. 

Poinsettia eriantha Rose & Standley, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 16: 13. 1912. 

Erect annual or biennial 20-50 cm. tall ; stem glabrous, simple and stout below, with slender 
ascending branches above. Leaves glabrate, entire, linear, petiolate, 2-7 cm. long, the lower alter- 
nate, the long uppermost forming a whorl subtending and much surpassing the mflorescence ; 
cyathia in terminal glomerules of 1 to several; involucres turbinate, 1.5-2 mm. in diameter, 
strigose; glands 3-5, sessile, sublateral, circular or radially oval, cupped, 1.4 mm. wide, margin 
bearing 5-7 pubescent digits inflexed to cover tlie gland; reduced glands totally absent; stami- 
nate flowers 23-36 ; capsule 5 mm. long, strigose, oblong, slightly roundly 3-lobed ; seeds mottled 
gray-white, 4 mm. long, oblong, truncate, subquadrate, dorsiventrally compressed, carunculate. 

Rocky canyons, Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, California, east to Texas and Coahuila, south to 
Lower California and Sonora. Type locality: Magdalena Bay, Lower Californxa. Jan.-May. 

2. Euphorbia misera Benth. Cliff Spurge. Fig. 3034. 

Euphorbia misera Benth. Bot. Sulph. 51. 1844. 

Trichosterigma miserum Kl. & Gke. Abh. Akad. Berlin 1859: 42. 1860. 

Shrub 0.5-1.5 m. tall ; branches mostly thick, often tortuous, glabrate at maturity ; branch- 
lets short, thick, multinodate, scurfy, sparsely tomentulose. Leaves sparsely short-pubescent, 
petioles 2-5 mm. long, blades 5-15 mm. long, oval-oblong to obcordate-cuneate, entire ;_ cyathia 
solitary, borne on the branchlets, long-peduncled ; involucres open-campanulate, 3 mm. in diam- 
eter, pubescent; glands maroon, transversely oval to oblong, 1.5-2 mm. long; appendages usually 
conspicuous, white, glabrous, crenulate to bluntly toothed; staminate flowers 30-40; capsule 
glabrate, roundly 3-lobed, depressed-globose, 4-5 mm. long; seeds white, ecarunculate, ovoid, 3 
mm. long, covered with shallow irregular concavities. 

Occasional on seaward bluffs and desert mesas, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; coast of Orange and San 
Diego Counties, and northwestern Colorado Desert, California, south to Lower California. Type locality: ban 
Diego, California. April-Sept. 

3. Euphorbia Lathyris L. Caper Spurge. Fig. 3035. 

Euphorbia Lathyris L. Sp. PI. 457. 1753. 
Tithymalus Lathyris Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2. 1: 333. 1772. 
Euphorbia decussata Salisb. Prod. Stirp. 389. 1796. 
Galarhoeus Lathyris Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 143. 1812. 

Glabrous, glaucous, erect annual or biennial, . 5-1 m. tall ; stems stout, simple ; rays 4, 3 to 
several times dichotomous. Leaves entire, sessile ; stem-leaves decussate, oblong-linear below to 
lanceolate with cordate base above, 5-15 cm. long; umbel-leaves similar to upper stem-leaves; 
floral leaves ovate-lanceolate, subcordate, to 9 cm. long; involucres glabrous, broadly campanu- 
late, 2.5 mm. in diameter; glands crescentic, 2 mm. long, horns short, the broad tips deflexed; 
fifth gland absent; sinus V-shaped, slightly depressed; staminate flowers 15-40; capsule (fresh) 
spongy, glabrous, depressed-globose, roundly 3-lobed, to 1 . 5 cm. long ; capsule (dry) wrinkled, 
7-10 mm. long, bluntly 3-angled ; seeds mottled, sordid brown, 5 mm. long, ovoid, slightly laterally 
compressed, apex depressed-truncate, base obtuse, testa with minute low rounded vermiculate 
ridges. 

Waste places, mostly about shrubs, introduced from Europe, Upper Sonoran Zone; western Oregon, 
Siskiyou and Humboldt Counties, California, and near the coast from San Francisco Bay to Orange County, 
California. Type locality: Europe. May-Nov. 

4. Euphorbia Helioscopia L. Wartweed or Wart Spurge. Fig. 3036. 

Euphorbia, Helioscopia L. Sp. PI. 459. 1753. 

Tithymalus Helioscopia Hill ex Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2. 1 : 337. 1772. 

Galarhoeus Helioscopia Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 152. 1812. 

Erect annual, 12-30 cm. tall ; stems 1-3, sparsely pilose, glabrate, often stout and fistulous ; 
rays mostly 5, repeatedly trichotomous, then dichotomous, sparsely pilose, glabrate. Leaves 
glabrous, serrate; stem-leaves spatulate-obovate, 1-3 cm. long, lower petiolate; umbel-leaves 
similar, larger, sessile ; floral leaves obovate-spatulate to rotund ; involucres glabrous, 2 mrn. in 
diameter, turbinate; glands transversely oval to oblong, entire, 0.6-0.7 mm. long; fifth gland 
short, subulate; sinus U-shaped, little depressed; staminate flowers 8-12; capsule glabrous, 
smooth, subglobose, basally flattened, roundly 3-lobed, 3 mm. long; seeds dark brown, 2.5 mm. 
long, ovoid, reticulate. 

Introduced from Europe as a weed in fields and orchards, Upper Sonoran Zone; Whatcom County. W'ash- 
ington; Portland, Oregon; Humboldt and Los Angeles Counties, California; east to Quebec. Type locality: 
Europe. June-Sept. 

5. Euphorbia spathulata Lam. Reticulate-seeded Spurge. Fig. 3037. 

Euphorbia spathulata Lam. Encycl. 2: 428. 1788. 

Euphorbia dictyosperma Fisch & Mey. Ind. Sam. Hort. Petrop. 2: 37. 1836. 
Euphorbia arkansana Engelm. & Gray, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 261. 1845. 
Tithymalus dictyospermus Heller, Muhlenbergia 1 : 56. 1904. 

Glabrous erect annual, 13-35 cm. tall; stems 1- to several-branched below the umbel; rays 
3, repeatedly dichotomous. Leaves serrulate; stem-leaves obovate-spatulate, 1-3 cm. long, the 



SPURGE FAMILY 



33 




3026. Bemardia incana 

3027. Acalypha califomica 

3028. Tragia stylaris 



3029. Stillingia spinulosa 

3030. Stillingia paucidentata 

3031. Stillingia linearifolia 



3032. Ricinus communis 

3033. Euphorbia eriantha 

3034. Euphorbia misera 



34 EUPHORBIACEAE 

lower petioled; umbel-leaves oblong-spatulate, sessile, 1-2.5 cm. long; floral leaves ovate-elliptic, 
sessile ; involucres glabrous, 1 mm. in diameter, broadly campanulate ; glands transversely oblong, 
entire, 0.5-0.7 mm. long; fifth gland absent; sinus very broad, undepressed, ciliate; staminate 
flowers 5-8; capsule verrucose especially toward the apex, glabrous, 2.5 mm. long, depressed- 
globose, roundly 3-lobed; seeds brown, 2 mm. long, lenticular-ovoid, superficially reticulate. 

Hill country. Upper Sonoran Zone; southern Washington, western Oregon and cismontane California, east 
to Iowa and Alabama; probably introduced in Argentina and Uruguay. Type locality: Montevideo, Uruguay. 
March-July. 

6. Euphorbia Peplus L. Petty Spurge. Fig. 3038. 

Euphorbia Peplus L. Sp. PI. 456. 1753. 
Tithymalus rotundifolius Lam. Fl. Franc. 3: 100. 1783. 
Tithymalus Peplus Gaertner, Fruct. 2: 115. 1791. 
Esula Peplus Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 158. 1812. 

Glabrous annual, 10-45 cm. tall ; stems 1 to several, erect or ascending, simple or branched 
below the umbel; rays 3, repeatedly dichotomous. Leaves entire, thin; stem-leaves 1-3.5 cm. 
long, rotund to obovate, petioled, umbel-leaves similar ; floral leaves ovate, base cordate, sessile, 
distinct, to 2 cm. long; involucre glabrous, 1 mm. in diameter, campanulate; glands crescentic, 
body broad, 0.3 to 0.5 mm. long, with 2 slender spreading horns, otherwise entire; fifth gland 
short, deltoid, hairy; sinus U-shaped, depressed; staminate flowers 10-15; capsule glabrous, 2 
mm. long, depressed-globose, sharply 3-angled, carpels bicarinate on back; seeds white, 1.3 mm. 
long, subhexagonal, oblong, ventral facets with 2 dark longitudinal grooves, lateral and dorsal 
facets each with a longitudinal row of 2-4 dark pits. 

Mostly in well-watered sites about shrubbery, introduced from Europe, Upper Sonoran Zone; western 
Washington, western Oregon, and rare in the San Joaquin Valley, common near the coast in California. Type 
locality: Europe. Feb.-Aug. 

7. Euphorbia crenulata Engelm. Chinese Caps. Fig. 3039. 

Euphorbia leptoccra Engelm. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 135. 1856. (Nomen nudum.) 

Euphorbia crenulata Engelm. Bot. Mex. Bound. 192. 1859. 

Euphorbia crenulata var. franciscana Norton, No. Amer. Euphorbia sect. Tithymalus 38. 1899. Preprint 

from Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. U: 122. 1900. 
Euphorbia Nortoniana A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 47 : 437. 1909. 

Glabrous annual or biennial, 12-50 cm. tall ; stems 1 to several, erect or declined at base, 
often branched below the umbel ; rays mostly 5, sometimes 3 or 4, 2-3 times dichotomous. Leaves 
entire or occasionally irregularly crenulate ; stem-leaves obovate to spatulate, petiolate to sub- 
sessile, 1-3.5 cm. long; umbel-leaves rhombic-obovate to obovate, sessile, 1-3.5 cm. long; floral 
leaves deltoid-ovate to oval-reniform, sessile, more or less connate, to 2.5 cm. long; involucres 
turbinate-campanulate, 2 mm. in diameter, glabrous ; glands crescentic, body thick, 1-2 mm. long, 
horns usually long, slender ; fifth gland narrowly deltoid, moderately long ; sinus U-shaped, 
slightly depressed; staminate flowers 11-18; capsule glabrous, 3.5 mm. long, oblong-cyjindrical, 
roundly 3-lobed; seeds mottled, cinereous, 2.2-2.5 mm. long, oblong-ovoid, with low irregular 
vermiculate ridges. 

In shady sites in the foothills, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Oregon, south through cismontane 
California to Orange County, east to Colorado. Type locality: near Monterey, California. March-July. 

8. Euphorbia incisa Engehn. Mojave Spurge. Fig. 3040. 

Euphorbia incisa Engelm. in Ives, Rep. 4: 27. 1860. 
Euphorbia schizoloba Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 173. 1861. 
Tithymalus schisolobus Norton, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 25: 343. 1925. 

Glabrous, glaucous perennial ; stems very numerous from the root crown ; slender, erect or 
ascending, 20-40 cm. long, often branched below the umbel ; rays mostly 5, sometimes 3-4, 2-3 
times dichotomous. Leaves entire, thick; stem-leaves ovate-elliptic to broadly oblanceolate, 1-2 
cm. long, short petiolate, mucronate; umbel-leaves long-oval to elliptic-ovate, sessile, 1-1.5 cm. 
long; floral leaves deltoid-oval to cordate, sessile, sometimes puberulent at base, to 1 cm. long; 
involucres campanulate, glabrous, 2.5 mm. in diameter; glands broadly transversely oblong to 
oblong-crescentic, 2-3 mm. long, short-horned or hornless, margin lacerate to crenate ; staminate 
flowers 16-23, sparsely pubescent to glabrous ; capsule glabrous, 4 mm. long, oblong-ovoid, 
roundly 3-lobed ; seeds white to sordid, 3 mm. long, oblong-ovoid, with very low vermiculate 
ridges. 

Arid slopes, and rarely in low washes, Lower and mostly Upper Sonoran Zones; desert ranges in Inyo and 
San Bernardino Counties, rare in the Colorado Desert, California, east to Nevada and Arizona. Type locality: 
Railroad Pass, Cerbat Mountains, Mohave County, Arizona. March-June. 

9. Euphorbia Palmeri Engelm. Wood Spurge. Fig. 3041. 

Euphorbia Palmeri Engelm. Bot. Calif. 2: 75. 1880. 
Tithymalus Palmeri Abrams, Fl. Los Ang. 216. 1917. 

Glabrous, glaucous perennial, 15-30 cm. tall; stems ascending to erect, numerous from the 
woody root crown, mostly simple below the umbel ; rays mostly 5, sometimes 3 or 4, 1-3 times 
dichotomous. Leaves thick, entire; stem-leaves narrowly obovate to oblong-spatulate, 1-2 cm. 
long, sessile or shortly petiolate, grading downward into crowded early-deciduous scales on 
subterranean portion of stem; umbel-leaves broadly rhombic to rhombic-cordate, sessile, 1—1.8 
mm. long ; floral leaves oval-cordate to oval-spatulate, to 1 cm. long ; involucres campanulate, 
glabrous, 2 mm. in diameter; glands 1.2-2 mm. long, broadly crescentic, very short horned, 



SPURGE FAMILY 



35 



margin crenulate; fifth gland short, densely long-hairy; staminate flowers 15-16; capsule smooth, 
4.5-5 mm. long, broadly-oblong, truncate, cylindrical, roundly 3-lobed; seeds white or mottled 
with brown, 3 mm. long, cylindrical, oblong-ovoid, with low irregular vermiculate ridges. 

Common on dry openly wooded mountain slopes. Transition and Canadian Zones; Mount Pinos, Ventura 
County, to Laguna Mountains, San Diego County, California, east to Arizona and Utah. Type locality: Talley's 
Ranch, Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, California. May-Aug. 

10, Euphorbia Esula L. Leafy Spurge. Fig. 3042. 

Euphorbia Esula L. Sp. PL 461. 1753. 

Tithymalus Esula Scop, Fl. Cam. ed. 2. 1: 338. 1772. 

Euphorbia virgata Waldst. & Kit. PI. Rar. Hung. 2: 176. *. 162. 1805. Not Desf. 1804. 

Tithymalus virgatus Kl. & Gke. ex Garcke Fl. Deutschl. ed. 4. 292. 1858. 

Perennial from a rootstock, glabrous; stems erect, few to several, 4-7 dm. tall, often with 

sterile densely leafy branches and numerous fertile branches below the umbel ; rays 7-12, 2-7 cm. 

long, 2-3 times dichotomous. Stem-leaves 3-6 cm. long, oblong-linear to linear ; umbel-leaves 

ovate-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, 1-2 cm. long; floral leaves yellowish green, reniform-cordate 

to deltoid-cordate, entire, sessile; involucres glabrous, campanulate to obconical, 1.5-2 mm. in 

diameter; glands 1.5-2 mm. long, crescentic, the horns often denticulate; fifth gland scarcely 

equaling the other glands, tomentose ; sinus narrowly U-shaped, not depressed ; staminate flowers 

11-21; capsule rugulose, glabrous, depressed-globose, 3 mm. long, roundly 3-lobed; seeds brown 

or whitish, 2.5 mm. long, oblong-cylindrical, smooth. 

A field- weed introduced from Europe; Kititas, Klickitat, and Whitman Counties, Washington, and Modoc 
and Siskiyou Counties, California. Type locality: Europe. April-Oct. 




3035. Euphorbia Lathyris 

3036. Euphorbia Helioscopia 



3037. Euphorbia spathulata 

3038. Euphorbia Peplus 



3039. Euphorbia crenulata 

3040. Euphorbia incisa 



36 EUPHORBIACEAE 

11. Euphorbia Cyparissias L. Cypress Spurge. Fig. 3043. 

Euphorbia Cyparissias L. Sp. PI. 461. 1753. 

Tithymalus Cyparissias Scop. Fl. Cam. ed. 2. 1:339. 1772. 

Esula Cyparissias Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 155. 1812. 

Calarhoeus Cyparissias Small ex Rydb. Fl. Prairies & Plains 520. 1932. 

Glabrous erect perennial 10-30 cm. tall; stems several, with densely leafy sterile branches 
below the umbel ; rays 15-20, slender, 1-5 cm. long, 1-3 times dichotomous. Subterranean leaves 
scale-like, grading upward into the linear, entire, aerial stem-leaves 1-2 cm. long ; umbel-leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, broadly sessile, about 1 cm. long; floral leaves yellowish green, reniform- 
cordate, entire, sessile; involucres glabrous, 2 mm. in diameter, turbinate-campanulate ; glands 
semi-crescentic, 1.2-1.5 mm. long with short divergent horns, otherwise entire; fifth gland 
short, tomentose; sinus U-shaped, little depressed; staminate flowers 5-18; capsule rugulose, 
glabrous, 3 mm. long, depressed-globose, roundly 3-lobed ; seeds brown or whitish, 2 mm. long, 
broadly oblong-cylindrical, smooth. 

A garden escape, introduced from Europe; roadsides and waste places, Pullman, Washington. Type locality: 
Europe. May-Sept. 

12. Euphorbia platysperma Engelm. Flat-seeded Spurge. Fig. 3044. 

Euphorbia platysperma Engelm. Bot. Calif. 2:482. 1880. 
Euphorbia cremica Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 600. 1925. 

Annual with glabrous herbage; stems prostrate, 10-20 cm. long, slightly glutinous. Leaves 
6-12 mm. long, oblong, often mucronulate, slightly inequilateral, entire ; stipules mostly distinct, 
2-3-divided; cyathia solitary, involucres glabrous, turbinate, 1.5-1.75 mm. in diameter, glands 
1 mm. wide, mostly radially elongate, sometimes emarginate, facing obliquely outward, exappen- 
diculate; fifth gland subulate, short, glabrous; sinus U-shaped, slightly depressed; staminate 
flowers mostly 50; capsule rotund-ovoid, slightly 3-lobed, glabrous, 4 mm. long; seeds white, 
3 mm. long, oblong, back rounded, face with 2 smooth, flat, nearly approximate facets separated 
by the elevated raphe, apex with an inflexed mucro. 

Rare, sandy desert, Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, California, east to southwestern Arizona (?) or 
Sonora. Type locality: "Near the mouth of the Colorado River, Arizona." May. 

13. Euphorbia ocellata Dur. & Hilg. Valley Spurge. Fig. 3045. 

Euphorbia ocellata Dur. & Hilg. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 3: 46. 1854. 
Chamaesyce sulfurea Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 2: 405. 1916. 
Chatnaesyce ocellata Millsp. op. cit. 410. 

Annual with glabrous herbage; stems prostrate, to 20 cm. long. Leaves 5-12 mm. long, 
ovate-deltoid-falcate, inequilateral, margin revolute, entire ; stipules mostly distinct, linear, entire 
or parted; cyathia solitary; involucres glabrous, turbinate to campanulale, 1.5-2 rnm. in diam- 
eter; glands circular or slightly radially oval, 0.5-0.75 mm. in diameter, exappendiculate ; fifth 
gland linear, long; staminate flowers 40-60; capsule deeply roundly 3-lobed, 2-2.3 mm. long, 
glabrous, depressed-globose, smooth ; seeds white to brownish, ovoid, 1 . 3-1 . 5 mm. long, smooth 
to rugose. 

Common on dry flats, Lower Sonoran Zone; Sacramento, San Joaquin and Salinas Valleys and near San 
Bernardino, California. Type locality: Poso Creek, Kern County, California. May-Sept. 

Euphorbia ocellata var. arenicola (Parish) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 600. 1925. (JB. arenicola Parish, 
Erythea 7:93. 1899.) Glabrous; leaves 8-17 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate, not at all or very slightly falcate, 
acuminate; glands exappendiculate, seeds always very smooth. Occasional on the sandy desert, Lower Sonoran 
Zone; eastern Mojave Desert, California, east to Utah and Arizona. Type locality: Camp Cady, Mojave Desert, 
San Bernardino County, California. 

Euphorbia ocellata var. Rattanii (S. Wats.) L. C. Wheeler, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 33: 107. 1934. 
(£. Rattanii S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 372. 1885.) Habit as in the typical species but the plant pubes- 
cent; glands often with narrow white appendages. Rare in dry flood beds of creeks. Lower Sonoran Zone; 
lower Stony Creek drainage, Tehama and Glenn Counties, California. Type locality: Stony Creek, Glenn 
County, California. 

14. Euphorbia Parryi Engelm. Drift Spurge. Fig. 3046. 

Euphorbia Parryi Engelm. Amer. Nat. 9:350. 1875. 

Euphorbia flagelliformis Engelm. in Brandg. Bull. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr. 2: 243. 1876. 

Chamaesyce Parryi Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 40: 53. 1913. 

Annual, glabrous; stems spreading or erect, 5-32 cm. long. Leaves 5-22 mm. long, linear, 
entire, equilateral, shortly petiolate; stipules distinct, linear, entire or parted; cyathia long- 
peduncled; involucres campanulate, 1.5-1.75 mm. in diameter; glands 0.3-0.5 mm. long, trans- 
versely oval, cupped ; fifth gland linear, equaling the other glands ; sinus very broadly U-shaped, 
not depressed; appendages narrow, white, glabrous, entire, margining all except the inner side 
of the gland, ascending ; staminate flowers 40-55 ; capsule deeply 3-lobed, pblate-spheroid, 2 mm. 
long; seeds mottled brown and white, 1.8 mm. long, narrowly ovate, ovoid-triangular. 

Sandy desert, Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California, east to 
Colorado, south to Chihuahua. Type locality: St. George, Utah. May-Aug. 



SPURGE FAMILY 



37 




3044 



3045 



3046 




3041. Euphorbia Palmeri 

3042. Euphorbia Esula 

3043. Euphorbia Cyparissias 



3044. Euphorbia platysperma 

3045. Euphorbia ocellata 

3046. Euphorbia Parryi 



3047. Euphorbia Fendleri 

3048. Euphorbia albomarginata 

3049. Euphorbia Parishii 



38 EUPHORBIACEAE 

15. Euphorbia Fendleri Torr. & Gray. Fendler's Spurge. Fig. 3047. 

Euphorbia rupicola Scheele, Linnaea 22: 153. 1849. Not Boiss. 1838. 
Euphorbia Fendleri Torr. & Gray, Pacif. R. Rep. ed. 2. 2: 175. 1857. 
Euphorbia Fendleri var. dissimilis Payson, Bot. Gaz. 60: 379. 1915. 
Chamaesyce Gooddingii Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 2:406. 1916. 

Perennial, herbage glabrous; stems several to numerous, decumbent to erect, to 15 cm. 
long. Leaves 3-9 mm. long, ovate-cordate to ovate-elliptic, entire ; stipules distinct, linear ; cya- 
thia solitary; involucres 1.25-1.75 mm. in diameter, campanulate to turbinate, glabrous; glands 
transversely oblong, reddish, 0.75-1.25 mm. long; fifth gland short, linear; sinus very broadly 
U-shaped, little depressed; appendages white, glabrous, as wide as the gland or narrower, ob- 
tusely crenate; staminate flowers 25-35; capsule 3-angled, globose, glabrous, 2.25-2.5 mm. long; 
seeds white, 2-2.25 mm. long, ovate, acute, quadrangular, angles prominent, facets smooth or 
slightly wrinkled. 

Arid desert hills. Upper Sonoran Zone; Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California, east to Nebraska 
and Oklahoma and south to Texas. Type locality: Santa Fe, New Mexico. April-Sept. 



16. Euphorbia albomarginata Torr. & Gray. Rattlesnake Weed. Fig. 3048. 

Euphorbia albomarginata Torr. & Gray, Pacif. R. Rep. ed. 2. 2: 174. 1857. 
Chamaesyce albomarginata Small, Fl. S.E.U.S. 710, 1333. 1903. 
Anisophyllum albomarginatum Kl. & Gke. Abh. Akad. Berlin. 1859: S3. 1860. 

Perennial, herbage glabrous ; stems prostrate, 10-30 cm. long. Leaves 3-6 mm. long, orbicular 
to oblong, entire; stipules united into a glabrous, white, membranous scale; cyathia solitary; 
involucres 1.5-2 mm. in diameter, open-campanulate to turbinate, glabrous; glands 0.5-1 mm. 
long, transversely oblong, mostly maroon; fifth gland linear; sinus U-shaped, little depressed; 
appendages mostly conspicuous, white, glabrous, entire to crenulate ; staminate flowers 15-30; 
capsule sharply 3-angled, glabrous, ovoid, 1.7-2.3 mm. long; seeds white, 1.2-1.7 mm. long, 
narrowly oblong, quadrangular, angles rounded, facets smooth. 

Common on dry hill slopes and plains. Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; rare in southern San Joaquin 
Valley, but more abundant from Inyo County south to Mojave and Colorado Deserts, cismontane southern Cali- 
fornia east of Ventura County to Utah and Texas and south to Sonora. Type locality: Rio Pecos, Texas. 
March-Oct. 



17. Euphorbia Parishii Greene. Parish's Spurge. Fig. 3049. 

Euphorbia Parishii Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 2: 56. 1886. 

Chamaesyce Parishii Millsp. in Parish, Cat. PI. Salton Sink 6. 1913. Preprint from Carnegie Inst. Wash. 

Pub. No. 193: 110. 1914. 
Euphorbia patellifera J. T. Howell, Leaflets West. Bot. 1: 53. 1933. 

Perennial, herbage glabrous; stems mostly prostrate, 15-30 cm. long. Leaves 2-5 mm. long, 
mostly ovate, inequilateral, entire; stipules ciliate, mostly entire, dorsal distinct, broadly linear, 
ventral often united, linear; cyathia solitary; involucres glabrous, 1-1.2 rnm. in diameter, turbi- 
nate ; glands 0.5 mm. in diameter, circular, exappendiculate ; fifth gland linear ; sinus U-shaped, 
not depressed; staminate flowers 40-50; capsule sharply 3-angled, glabrous, depressed-globose, 
1.7 mm. long; seeds white, 1.5 mm. long, long-ovate, sharply quadrangular, facets faintly 
wrinkled. 

Dry desert washes and flats. Lower Sonoran Zone; deserts from Inyo County, south to San Diego County, 
California, and east to Nevada. Type locality: Warm Springs, Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, Cali- 
fornia. March-June. 



18. Euphorbia polycarpa Benth. Golondrina. Fig. 3050. 

Euphorbia polycarpa Benth. Bot. Sulph. 50. 1844. 

Chamacsvce polycarpa Millsp. in Parish, Cat. PI. Salton Sink 6. 1913. Preprint from Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. No. 193: 110. 1914. 

Perennial, herbage glabrous to pubescent; stems prostrate to erect. Leaves 3-6 mm. long, 
ovate to oblong, entire; stipules ciliate, dorsal distinct, linear, ventral united, narrowly deltoid; 
cyathia solitary; involucres 1-1.5 mm. in diameter, campanulate, glabrous to pubescent; glands 
maroon, transversely oblong, 0.5-0.7 mm. long ; fifth gland absent ; sinus U-shaped, not depressed ; 
appendages to 3 times as wide as glands, white, glabrous, entire to crenate; staminate flowers 
15-32; capsule sharply 3-angled, glabrous to pubescent, globose, 1.1-1.3 mm. long; seeds white 
to brownish, 1-1.2 mm. long, ovate, acutish, sharply quadrangular, facets smooth or slightly 
wrinkled. 

Common on dry slopes and plains, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; deserts from Inyo County south to 
Imperial County and along the coast from Ventura County to San Diego, California, south to Lower California 
and Sonora. Type locality: Magdalena Bay, Lower California. Feb.-Dec. 

Euphorbia polycarpa var. hirtella Boiss. in A. DC. Prod. 15^: 44. 1862. (.Chamaesyce tonsita Millsp. 
Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 2: 412. 1916.) Herbage with short spreading hair and the appendages no wider than 
the glands. Common on desert hills and flats, Lower Sonoran Zone; southeastern Mojave Desert and Colorado 
Desert. California, east to Nevada, south to Lower California and Sonora. Type locality: "California," 
probably Colorado Desert, California. 



SPURGE FAMILY 39 

19. Euphorbia micromera Boiss. Desert Spurge. Fig. 3051. 

Euphorbia micromera Boiss. ex Engelm. in A. DC. Prod. IS'': 44. 1862. 
Euphorbia pseudoserpyllifolia MiWsp. Pittonia 2: 87. 1890. 

Chatnaesyce micromera Wooton & Standley, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 16: 144. 1913. 
Euphorbia podagrica I. M. Johnston, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 7: 440. 1922. 

Annual, herbage glabrous to pubescent ; stems prostrate, 12-25 cm. long. Leaves 2)-7 mm. 
long, ovate to oblong, inequilateral, entire ; stipules triangular, ciliate, dorsal distinct, ventral 
often united toward stem-tip ; cj'athia solitary ; involucres 1 mm. in diameter, very short- 
campanulate; glands circular or slightly transversely oval, 0.1-0.15 mm. in diameter, exappen- 
diculate or rarely with rudimentary appendages ; fifth gland absent ; sinus broadly V-shaped, 
little depressed, hairy ; staminate flowers 2-5 ; capsule sharply 3-angled, globose, glabrous to 
glabrate, 1.2-1.4 mm. long; seeds brownish white, 1.1-1.3 mm. long, narrowly ovate, sharply 
quadrangular, facets smooth or faintly wrinkled. 

Occasional on sandy desert flats, Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County south to Imperial County, California, 
east to Utah and Coahuila. Type locality: Rio San Pedro, Cochise County, Arizona. May-Nov. 

20. Euphorbia Abramsiana L. C. Wheeler. Abrams' Spurge. Fig, 3052. 

Chamaesvce saltonensis Millsp. in Parish, Cat. PI. Salton Sink 6. 1913. Preprint from Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. No. 193: 110. 1914. (Nomen nudum.) 

Euphorbia Abramsiana L. C. Wheeler, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 33: 109. 1934. 

Euphorbia pediculifera var. Abramsiana Ewan ex Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 427. 1936. 

Annual, stems prostrate, slender, 8-25 cm. long, finely pubescent. Leaves shortly puberulent 

to glabrous, 2-12 mm. long, oblong to elliptic-oblong, entire or some serrulate ; stipules distinct ; 

cyathia solitary; involucres turbinate, 0.6-0.7 mm. in diameter; glands transversely elongate, 

0.05-0.1 mm. long; fifth gland filiform; sinus V-shaped, not depressed; appendages mostly wider 

than the glands; staminate flowers 3-5; capsule glabrous, sharply 3-angled, globose, 1.3-1.7 

mm. long; seeds white, 1-1.4 mm. long, oblong-ovate, sharply quadrangular, facets with 4-6 

irregular transverse ridges slightly including the angles. 

On the arid desert. Lower Sonoran Zone; Imperial County, California, south to Lower California, east to 
Arizona and northern Sinaloa. Type locality: Heber, Imperial County, California. June-Oct. 

21. Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm. Ridge-seeded Spurge. Fig. 3053. 

Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm. Bot. Mex. Bound. 187. 1859. 
Euphorbia Greenei Millsp. Pittonia 2: 28. 1890. 
Chamaesyce glyptosperma Small, Fl. S.E.U.S. 712, 1333. 1903. 
Chamaesyce Greenei Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 544, 1063. 1917. 

Annual, herbage glabrous ; stems prostrate, 6-30 cm. long. Leaves oblong to linear-oblong, 
often falcate, inequilateral, usually serrulate, 3-15 mm. long; stipules distinct, linear, entire or 
few-branched ; cyathia solitary ; involucres slenderly campanulate, glabrous, 0.6-0.9 mm. in 
diameter; glands transversely oblong, 0.15-0.4 mm. long; fifth gland of 1-3 long, linear segments; 
sinus narrowly U-shaped; appendages narrow, slightly wider than the glands, white, glabrous, 
subentire to crenate ; staminate flowers mostly 4; capsule 1.4-1.7 mm. long, sharply 3-angled, 
glabrous, broadly ovoid; seeds white to brownish, 1.1-1.3 mm. long, ovate-truncate, sharply 
quadrangular, angles sharp, included by the several transverse ridges of the facets. 

Occasional in the valleys, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; Washington to northern California, British 
Columbia east to New Brunswick, south to Texas. Type locality: Fort Kearney, Kearney County, Nebraska. 
June-Sept. 

22. Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. Thyme-leaved Spurge. Fig. 3054. 

Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. Syn. PL 2: 14. 1806. 

Euphorbia occidentalis E. R. Drew, Bull. Torrey Club 16: 152. 1889. 

Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. var. rugulosa Engelm. ex Millsp. Pittonia 2: 85. 1891. 

Chamaesyce serpyllifolia Small, Fl. S.E.U.S. 712, 1333. 1903. 

Euphorbia novomexicana L. C. Wheeler, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 35: 129. 1936. 

Annual, herbage glabrous ; stems usually prostrate, 5-35 cm. long. Leaves ovate, oblong, 

obovate, narrowly oblong, linear-oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, inequilateral, 3-14 mm. long, 

usually serrulate toward the apex ; stipules distinct, linear, entire or few-parted ; cyathia solitary, 

involucres narrowly campanulate, glabrous, 0.8-1 mm. in diameter ; glands transversely oblong, 

0.2-0.5 mm. long ; fifth gland long, linear, entire, hairy below ; sinus U-shaped, slightly depressed ; 

appendages narrow, white, glabrous, entire to bluntly toothed; staminate flowers 5-18; capsule 

1.5-1.9 mm. long, sharply 3-angled, glabrous, broadly ovoid; seeds clay-white to brownish, 1-1.4 

mm. long, oblong-ovate to narrowly ovate, ovoid-quadrangular to sharply quadrangular, angles 

rounded, facets often convex, smooth to rugulose. 

Flats and open canyon bottoms. Lower and Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Washington, Oregon, and 
California, British Columbia east to Michigan, south to Texas. Type locality: "Hab.[itat] in Amer.[ica] 
calidiore." May-Nov. 

Euphorbia serpyllifolia var. hirtula (Engelm.) L. C. Wheeler, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 53: 11. 1940. 
(£. hirtula Engelm. Bot. Calif. 2: 74. 1880.) More or less villous; leaves always broad. 3-10 mm. long. Mostly 
in the pine belt. Transition Zone; central Sierra Nevada, Santa Lucia, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and 

Cuyamaca Mountains, California, soutli to northern Lower California. Type locality: Talley's Ranch, Cuyaniaca 
Mountains, San Diego County, California. June-Sept. 



40 EUPHORBIACEAE 

23. Euphorbia Hooveri L. C. Wheeler. Hoover's Spurge. Fig. 3055. 

Euphorbia Hooveri L. C. Wheeler, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. S3 : 9. 1940. 

Annual, glabrous ; stems prostrate or decumbent, 6-20 cm. long. _ Leaves orbicular-cordate to 
reniform, epidermis papillate, margin with sharp white teeth; stipules united, white, deeply 
lacerate; cyathia solitary; involucres campanulate, glabrous, 1.7-2 mm. in diameter; glands 
transversely oval, 0.5 mm. long; fifth gland of mostly 2 filiform segments nearly equaling the 
lobes ; sinus narrowly V-shaped ; appendages parted into 3-5 white glabrous ligules about 1 mm. 
long; staminate flowers 30-35; capsules 1.6-1.9 mm. long, roundly 3-lobed, glabrous, spheroidal 
with flattened base ; seeds white, 1.4-1.6 mm. long, ovoid-quadrangular, rotund-ovate, facets with 
low faint wrinkles. 

Desiccate beds of subsaline rain-pools. Lower Sonoran Zone; Tehama and Tulare Counties, California. 
Type locality: Yettem, Tulare County, California. June-July. 

24. Euphorbia maculata L. Large Spurge. Fig. 3056. 

Euphorbia maculata L. Sp. PI. 455. 1753. 
Euphorbia nutans Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 17. 1816. 
Euphorbia Preslii Guss. Prodr. Sic. 539. 1827. 
Chamaesyce maculata Small, Fl. S.E.U.S. 713, 1333. 1903. 
Chamaesyce nutans Small, op. cit. 712, 1333. 

Annual with stems usually erect, branching, sparsely tomentulose to glabrous, 20-45 cm. long. 

Leaves 7-30 mm. long, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, very sparsely villous, serrate ; stipules more 

or less united, free portion subulate, with a few hairs ; cyathia congested at the branch-tips ; 

involucres 0.75-1 mm. in diameter, slenderly obconic, glabrous ; glands long-stipitate, circular 

to transversely broadly elliptical, 0.1-0.2 mm. in diameter ; fifth gland linear ; sinus U-shaped, 

little depressed ; appendages rudimentary to 0.5 mm. long, oval, white to reddish, glabrous, entire ; 

staminate flowers 5-11 ; capsule glabrous, sharply 3-angled, depressed-globose, 2 mm. long; seeds 

dark gray, 1.1-1.3 mm. long, broadly oblong-ovate, angles rounded, facets wrinkled. 

In the foothills and in waste places in the valleys, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; sparingly introduced 
in the Pacific States (Skamania County, Washington, Sierra Nevada foothills and Orange County, California); 
native of eastern United States and Mexico. Type locality: "America septentrionalis." April-Sept. 

25. Euphorbia arizonica Engelm. Arizona Spurge. Fig. 3057. 

Euphorbia arizonica Engelm. Bot. Mex. Bound. 186. 1859. 
Euphorbia versicolor Greene, Bot. Gaz. 6: 184. 1881. 
Euphorbia portulana S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 75. 1889. 
Euphorbia purisimana Millsp. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2: 225. 1889. 

Perennials, stems erect or prostrate, 15-30 cm. long, slender, with fine spreading hairs. 
Leaves 2-10 mm. long, deltoid-ovate to ovate-oblong, entire, mostly finely pubescent; stipules 
minute ; cyathia solitary ; involucres slenderly urceolate, 0.8 mm. in diameter, sparsely pubescent ; 
glands transversely oblong, 0.3-0.4 mm. long, red ; appendages glabrous, entire to crenate, con- 
spicuous, white but rubescent in age; fifth gland absent; sinus V-shaped, depressed halfway to 
base of involucre; staminate flowers 5-10, rarely 12; capsule pubescent, obtusely 3-angled, 1.5 
mm. long, globose-ovoid; seeds quadrangular, 1.1-1.2 mm. long, narrowly ovate, facets with low 
ridges slightly including the angles, coat whitish. 

Sandy desert flats, Lower Sonoran Zone; v/estern borders of Coachella Valley and Colorado Desert, Cali- 
fornia, east to Texas, south to Sonora and Durango. Type locality: Arizona.* March-Oct. 

26. Euphorbia setiloba Engelm. Yuma Spurge. Fig. 3058. 

Euphorbia setiloba Engelm. Pacif. R. Rep. 5: 364. 1858. 

Chamaesyce setiloba Millsp. in Parish, Cat. PI. Salton Sink 6. 1913. Preprint from Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. No. 193: 110. 1914. 

Euphorbia floccosiuscula M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. IS: 145. 1929. 

Annual, stems prostrate, villous, 6-15 cm. long, ultimate branchlets often with leaves and 

cyathia congested into dense small heads. Leaves 3-7 mm. long, oblong to oblong-ovate, entire, 

villous ; stipules rudimentary ; cyathia solitary ; involucres 1 mm. in diameter, pubescent, slenderly 

urceolate; glands red, transversely oblong or the distal sometimes circular, 0.1-0.2 mm. long; 

fifth gland totally absent; sinus depressed halfway to base of involucre; appendages white, 

glabrous, about 1 mm. long and wide, parted into 3-5 narrow attenuate segments ; staminate 

flowers 3-7 ; capsule sharply 3-angled, villous, globose, 1.2 mm. long ; seeds brownish white, 0.9-1 

mm. long, ovate-acutish, quadrangular, angles sharp, facets with low irregular wrinkles. 

Sandy desert washes and flats, Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County south to San Diego and Imperial Coun- 
ties, California, east to Nevada and western Texas, south to Lower California and Sinaloa. Type locality: 
Fort Yuma, Imperial County, California. Jan.-May. 

27. Euphorbia pediculifera Engelm. Louse Spurge. Fig. 3059. 

Euphorbia pediculifera Engelm. Bot. Mex. Bound. 186. 1859. 
Euphorbia conjuncta Millsp. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2:227. 1889. 
Euphorbia invotuta Millsp. loc. cit. 
Euphorbia vermiformis M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 16: 23. 1930. 

Perennial, stems usually prostrate, 15-30 cm. long, appressed-pubescent. Leaves ovate to 
lanceolate, entire, densely appressed-pubescent to glabrate, 4-22 mm. long ; stipules short, ventral 



SPURGE FAMILY 



41 




3051 



3052 



*5, . 'h 




3053 




3050. Euphorbia polycarpa 

3051. Euphorbia micromera 

3052. Euphorbia Abramsiana 



3057 



3053. Euphorbia glyptosperma 

3054. Euphorbia serpyllifoHa 

3055. Euphorbia Hooveri 



3058 



3056. Euphorbia maculata 

3057. Euphorbia arizonica 

3058. Euphorbia setiloba 



42 CALLITRICHACEAE 

united, dorsal distinct ; cyathia solitary ; involucres campanulate, appressed-pubescent to glabrate, 
1.5-2 mm. in diameter; glands dark red-purple, transversely oblong, 0.7-1.2 mm. long; fifth 
gland usually absent ; sinus U-shaped, little depressed, hairy ; appendages absent to conspicuous, 
white, glabrous, entire to lobed ; staminate flowers 22-25 ; capsule strigose, 2 mm. long, sharply 
3-angled, deltoid-ovoid; seeds white, 1-1.3 mm. long, slenderly ovoid, circumferentially 4-5 round- 
ridged. 

Dry desert washes and flats. Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, California, east to Arizona, south to 
Lower California and Sinaloa. Type locality: Sonoita Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona. Oct.-April. 

28. Euphorbia melanadenia Torr. Squaw Spurge. Fig. 3060. 

Euphorbia melanadenia Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 135. 1857. 

Euphorbia cinerascens var. appendiailata Engelm. Bot. Mex. Bound. 186. 1859. 
Euphorbia polycarpa var. vestita S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: li. 1880. 
Chamaesyce aureola Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 2:406. 1916. 

Perennial, stems ascending or erect, to 20 cm. long, closely tomentose, glabrate. Leaves 3-9 
mm. long, ovate to narrowly oblong, inequilateral, entire, closely and often hoary tomentose ; 
stipules linear, hairy, ventral united, dorsal distinct ; cyathia solitary ; involucres open-campanu- 
late, 1.2-1.5 mm. in diameter, appressed short-tomentose ; glaands dark reddisli purple, 0.4-0.6 
mm. long, transversely oblong ; fifth gland absent ; sinus U-shaped, not depressed, densely hairy ; 
appendages rarely absent, usually conspicuous, white, glabrous, crenate to subentire ; staminate 
flowers 15-20; capsule sharply 3-angled, very short-tomentose, ovoid, 1.5-1.7 mm. long; seeds 
white to brownish, 1.2-1.5 mm. long, ovate, sharply quadrangular, facets smooth or slightly 
wrinkled. 

Dry hillsides. Upper Sonoran Zone; Los Angeles and San Diego Counties, California, east to Arizona and 
south to Lower California and Sonora. Type locality: "San Gabriel," California. Actually probably the foot 
of the San Gabriel Mountains a few miles north. Feb.-Nov. 

29. Euphorbia vallis-mortae (Millsp.) J. T. Howell. Indian Spurge. Fig. 3061. 

Chamaesyce vallis-mortae Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 2:403. 1916. 
Euphorbia vallis-mortae J. T. Howell, Madrono 2: 19. 1931. 

Perennial, hoary tomentose throughout; usually forming a dense rounded plant up to 15 
cm. high. Leaves 4-8 mm. long, suborbicular to oblong-ovate, entire ; stipules densely hairy, 
filiform, ventral united, dorsal distinct ; cyathia solitary ; involucres campanulate, 2 mm. in 
diameter, tomentose ; glands reddish, transversely oblong, to 1 mm. long ; fifth gland absent ; 
sinus U-shaped, with long erect hairs ; appendages conspicuous, white, entire to crenulate, 
pubescent beneath and on the margins and sparsely so above; staminate flowers 17-22; capsule 
sharply 3-angled, tomentose, globose, 2 mm. long; seeds white, 1.4-1.7 mm. long, sharply 
quadrangular, facets smooth. 

Sandy desert. Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo and Kern Counties, California. Type locality: near Indian Wells, 
Mojave Desert, Kern County, California. May-Oct. 

30. Euphorbia supina Raf. Spotted Spurge. Fig. 3062. 

Euphorbia supina Raf. Amer. Month. Mag. 2: 119. 1817. 

Euphorbia maculata L. sensu American authors. 

Euphorbia depressa Torr. Cat. PI. N.Y. 45. 1819. 

Chamaesyce supina Moldenke, Annot. & Class. List Moldenke Nos. 135. 1939. 

Annual, stems usually prostrate, villous, 10^5 cm. long. Leaves 4-17 mm. long, oblong- 
ovate to oblong-linear, larger inequilateral, sparsely villous, often glabrate above, serrulate ; 
stipules distinct, 2-3-parted, villous ; cyathia solitary but mostly borne on short congested lateral 
branches; involucres 0.8 mm. in diameter, villous, obconical ; glands 0.15-0.25 mm. long, trans- 
versely elongate ; fifth gland filiform ; sinus U-shaped, depressed, long-hairy ; appendages narrow, 
white, glabrous, irregularly crenulate ; staminate flowers 2-5 ; capsule sharply 3-angled, strigose, 
often partially glabrate, globose, 1.4 mm. long; seeds whitish brown, 1-1.2 mm. long, ovate, 
sharply quadrangular, facets with irregular transverse ridges often slightly including the angles. 

A mainly urban weed introduced from the eastern United States; western Oregon, cismontane California. 
Type locality: "Very common on the downs and seashores of Long-Island, north and south, also in New-Jersey, 
Sandy-Hook, &c." June-Sept. 



Family 80. CALLITRICHACEAE. 
Water-starwort Family. 

Aquatic or rarely terrestrial herbs, with very slender stems. Leaves opposite, 
entire, spatulate or linear, without stipules. Flowers small, axillary, perfect or mo- 
noecious, with or without 2 sac-like bracts. Perianth wanting. Stamen 1, with a 
filiform elongated filament, and cordate 2-celled anthers opening by longitudinal 
slits. Pistil solitary, sessile or peduncled ; styles 2 ; ovary 4-celled, with a single 
ovule in each cavity. Fruit compressed and lobed, the lobes more or less winged or 



WATER-STARWORT FAMILY 43 

keeled, dehiscing into 4 flattened 1-seeded carpels. Seed pendant, anatropous; endo- 
sperm present, fleshy ; embryo straight or slightly curved. 

The family consists of a single genus, of doubtful affinities. Some botanists place it in the Haloragidaceae. 



1. CALLITRICHE L. Sp. PI. 969. 1753. 

Characters of the family. [Name Greek, meaning beautiful hair, in reference to the 
slender gi'aceful stems.] 

About 20 species of wide geographic range. Type species, Callitriche palustris L. 

Fruit sessile or subsessile. 

Fruit 2-bracted; emersed leaves obovate; styles erect. 

Styles shorter than the fruit. 1. C. palustris. 

Styles about twice as long as the fruit. 2. C. Bolanderi, 

Fruit bractless; leaves all submerged and linear. 3. C. autumnalis. 
Fruit distinctly peduncled; plants mainly terrestrial and leaves mainly spatulate or obovate. 

Bracts absent; peduncles seldom over 8 mm. long. 4. C. marginata. 

Bracts present; peduncles filiform, often becoming 2-3 cm. long. 5. C. longipedunculata. 

1. Callitriche palustris L. Vernal Water-starwort. Fig. 3063. 

Callitriche palustris L. Sp. PI. 969. 1753. 

Callitriche verna L. Fl. Suec. ed. 2. 4. 17S5. 

Callitriche palustris var. verna Fenley ex Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 435. 1936. 

Slender perennial growing in water or in mud, the stems very slender, 5-25 cm. long. Sub- 
merged leaves linear, retuse at the apex, 1-2 cm. long, with a single unbranched nerve; floating 
leaves obovate, or narrowed at base to a short winged petiole, dotted with minute stellate scales, 
the nerve pinnately branched ; fruit 2-bracted, sessile, oblong-obovoid, longer than broad, about 
1.5 mm., sharply keeled on the back and usually narrowly winged at the apex; styles erect, 
shorter than the fruit. 

Quiet cool water, mainly Transition and Boreal Zones; Alaska to southern California and across the con- 
tinent; also in Eurasia. Type locality: Europe. July-Sept. 

2. Callitriche Bolanderi Hegelm, Bolander's Water-starwort. Fig. 3064, 

Callitriche Bolanderi Hegelm. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 10: 114. 1868. 

Callitriche stcnocarpa Hegelm. loc. cit. 

Callitriche palustris var. Bolanderi Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 435. 1936. 

Similar to the preceding species. Floating leaves rhombic-obovate, abruptly narrowed to the 
petiole ; fruit about 1 mm. long, and as broad or usually a little broader, obcordate or with a 
rather narrow sinus at apex, obtusely angled on the back ; styles very slender, erect, about twice 
as long as the fruit. 

Quiet water of streams or ponds, Transition and Boreal Zones; British Columbia to California. This species 
is very closely related to and possibly conspecific with Callitriche heterophylla Pursh of the Eastern States. Type 
locality: Placer County, California. April-Sept. 

3. Callitriche autumnalis L. Autumnal or Northern Water-starwort. Fig. 3065. 

Callitriche autumnalis L. Sp. PI. 696. 1753. 

Callitriche bifida Morong, Mem. Torrey Club 5: 215. 1894. 

Submersed perennial herb, the slender stems 1-2 dm. long. Leaves all linear, 5-15 mm. long, 
notched at the apex, with a single unbranched nerve ; floral bracts none ; fruit sessile or sub- 
sessile, 2-2.5 mm. wide, orbicular, flattened, the lobes broadly winged, with a deep narrow sinus 
at apex and a narrow groove between them ; stigmas as long as or longer than the fruit, reflexed, 
early deciduous. 

Still water of lakes and streams, mainly Boreal Zones; Alaska to California and across the continent; also 
in Eurasia. Type locality: Europe. May-Sept. 

4. Callitriche marginata Torr. California Water-starwort. Fig. 3066. 

Callitriche marginata Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 135. 1857. 

Plants growing in mud, forming mats on the margins of pools, the stems slender, 5-10 cm. 
long, rarely growing in water. Leaves on terrestrial plants all broadly spatulate, and abruptly 
narrowed to the petiole, 3-nerved, on the aquatic plants the submersed linear and the floating 
spatulate ; peduncles spreading, 3-8 mm. long ; fruit 1 mm. long, and a little broader, emarginate 
at both the apex and base, the lobes with a thin margin or narrow wing on the back; styles 
slender, as long as the fruit or longer, reflexed, early deciduous. 

Borders of pools in mud, or submerged in shallow water, mainly Upper Sonoran Zone; California Coast 
Ranges and Sierra Nevada foothills from Humboldt and Merced Counties to San Diego County, California. 
Type locality: Mark West Creek, Sonoma County, California. March-June. 



44 



CALLITRICHACEAE 




3059. Euphorbia pediculifera 

3060. Euphorbia melanadenia 

3061. Euphorbia vallis-mortae 



3062. Euphorbia supina 

3063. Callitriche palustris 

3064. Callitriche Bolanderi 

3065. Callitriche autumnalis 



3066. Callitriche marginata 

3067. Callitriche longipedunculata 

3068. Simmondsia chinensis 



CROWBERRY FAMILY 45 

5. Callitriche longipedunculata Morong, Long-stalked Water-starwort. 

Fig. 3067. 

Callitriche longipedunculata Morong, Bull. Torrey Club 18:236. 1891. 

Callitriche marginata var. longipedunculata Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 603. 1925. 

Stems very slender and thread-like, forming mats. Leaves all spatulate or oblanceolate, 3-8 
mm. long, rounded at the apex, the blade 3-nerved, the lateral nerves uniting near the apex ; 
bracts present ; peduncles very slender, becoming 10-30 mm. long in fruit, frequently 2 or 3 from 
the same axil ; fruit thick, nearly orbicular, 1 mm. or less in length, a little broader than long, 
minutely emarginate at apex, the lobes divergent with a deep intervening groove, with or without 
a narrow wing. 

Growing in the bottom of desiccated winter pools, mainly Upper Sonoran Zone; Sierra Nevada foothills, 
south to San Diego County, California. Type locality: on mesas, San Diego, California. March-May. 

Family 81. BUXACEAE. 

Box Family. 

Monoecious or dioecious trees, shrubs or perennial herbs, with watery sap. 
Leaves mostly evergreen, alternate or opposite, simple. Flowers solitary or clus- 
tered, regular, bracted. Calyx present or none. Petals none. Staminate flowers 
with 4—7 stamens, sometimes with a rudimentary pistil. Pistillate flowers with mostly 
3-celled (2-4-celled) ovary, with 1 or 2 anatropous ovules in each cell; styles as 
many as the ovary cells, simple. Fruit a capsule or drupe; endosperm fleshy or 
scanty ; embryo straight. 

A family of 7 genera and about 30 species, only the following, Pachysandra and Buxus, in North America. 

1. SIMMONDSIA Nutt. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3 : 401. pL 16. 1844. 

Monoecious shrubs, with opposite, entire, evergreen leaves. Flowers on short axillary 
peduncles, the pistillate solitary, the staminate in capitate clusters. Sepals 4-6, usually 5. 
Stamens 10-12. Ovary 2-3-celled; styles of the same number as the ovary cells; ovules 1 
or 2 in each cell. Fruit a capsule, with a firm wall, partly enclosed by the persistent sepals. 
[Name in honor of F. W. Simmonds, English botanist and naturalist.] 

A monotypic genus of the arid southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico. 

1. Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider. Jojoba or Goat-nut. Fig. 3068. 

Buxus chinensis Link, Enum. Hort. Ber. 2: 386. 1822. 

Simmondsia calif ornica Nutt. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3: 401. pi. 16. 1844. 

Simmondsia chinensis Schneider, Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 141. 1907. 

Shrub, 1-2.5 m. high, the branches rigid, the branchlets and peduncles pubescent. Leaves 
oblong-elliptic to ovate, 2-4 cm. long, leathery, dull green and somewhat canescently puberulent ; 
sepals of the staminate flowers 3-4 mm. long, those of the pistillate 10-12 mm. long; capsule 
nut-like, oblong-ovoid, 15-20 mm. long. 

Dry bushy hills and mesas, Lower Sonoran Zone; southwestern San Diego County, California, south to 
central Lower California and east to southern Arizona and adjacent Sonora. Type locality: erroneously attributed 
to China in the original description. Feb.-May. 

Family 82. EMPETRACEAE. 
Crowberry Family. 

Low evergreen, heath-like shrubs, with small slender narrow leaves, jointed to 
short pulvini, the margins revolute. Flowers dioecious or rarely polygamous, axil- 
lary or terminal. Sepals 3. Petals 2 or 3, or none. Staminate flowers with 2-4 
stamens, with filiform filaments and 2-celled anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits. 
Ovary of the pistillate flowers 2- to several-celled ; style cleft into as many lobes as 
there are ovary cells ; ovules 1 in each cell, amphitropous. Fruit a berry, containing 
2 to several 1 -seeded nutlets. Endosperm copious ; embryo straight. 

A family of 3 genera and 4 or 5 species, natives of the colder parts of the northern hemisphere and South 
America. 

1. EMPETRUM Dumort. Fl. Belg. 106. 1827. 

Prostrate or spreading, freely branching half-shrubs, the stems largely herbaceous, 
densely leafy. Flowers inconspicuous, solitary in the upper axils. Sepals and petals 
usually 3. Staminate flowers with 3 stamens; anthers introrse. Ovary of the pistillate 



46 LIMNANTHACEAE 

flowers globose, 6-9-celled. Berry black or red, with 6-9 nutlets. [Name Greek, mean- 
ing on rocks, in reference to the habitat of these plants.] 

A monotypic genus of wide distribution. 

1. Empetrum nigrum L. Black Crowberry or Heathberry. Fig. 3069. 

Etnpetrum nigrum L. Sp. PI. 1022. 1753. 

The spreading branches diffuse, 2-25 cm. long, glabrous, or the young shoots pubescent. 

Leaves crowded, linear-oblong, obtuse, 4-7 mm. long, dark green, the strongly revolute margins 

roughish ; flowers minute, purplish ; berry 4-6 mm. in diameter, black or red in the arctic form. 

Moist rocky places. Boreal Zones; Alaska to Greenland and southward to the coast of northwestern Cali- 
fornia, Michigan, New England, and northern New York; also in Europe, Asia, and Chile. In the Pacific StJ ' 
it is found sparingly along the coast and on Mt. Rainier, Washington. Type locality: Europe. June- July. 



States 



Family 83. LIMNANTHACEAE. 

Meadow-foam Family. 

Annual herbs, with pungent juice and alternate pinnately dissected exstipulate 
leaves. Flowers solitary in the axils, bractless, regular and perfect. Sepals 3-5, per- 
sistent, valvate. Petals 3-5, marcescent. Stamens 6-10, more or less perigynous on 
the shallow thickened saucer-shaped hypanthium, those opposite the sepals with a 
gland at the base. Pistil 3-5-carpellate, the ovaries distinct, the styles united, arising 
from the inner bases of the ovaries. Fruit of 3-5 more or less tuberculate nutlets. 
Seeds anatropous, erect ; endosperm none ; embryo straight. 

A North American family of 2 genera and about 12 species. 

Flowers 4-S-merous; petals truncate or emarginate. 1. Litnnanthes. 

Flowers 3-merous; petals obtuse or acute. 2. Floerkea. 

1. LIMNAnTHES R. Br. Phil. Mag. III. 2: 70. 1833. 

Low, usually glabrous annuals, branching from the base, growing in wet places. Leaves 
simply or usually doubly pinnatifid. Flowers solitary in the axils, usually showy, borne on 
straight rather stout pedicels. Sepals 5 (rarely 4), ascending, valvate in the bud. Petals 
as many as sepals, white or yellow, sometimes tinged with rose, especially in age, convo- 
lute in aestivation. Stamens 10 (rarely 8). Ovaries 5 (rarely 4), and the style as many 
cleft. [Name from the two Greek words meaning marsh and flower, in reference to the 
habitat.] 

A genus of 11 species restricted to the Pacific States and Vancouver Island. Type species, Limnanthes 
Douglasii R. Br. 

Petals well exceeding the lanceolate or subulate-lanceolate sepals. 
Nutlets without whitish scales. 

Nutlets with a few tubercles or wrinkles at summit or sometimes smooth throughout; petals white or 
yellow below and white above the middle. 
Base of petals with a row of cilia on the margins. 

Veins of petals purple or brownish purple; leaflets S or more, lobed or divided into narrow 
acute or acutish segments or teeth. 
Basal leaves mostly 7-10 cm. long; Coast Ranges. 1. L. Douglasii. 

Basal leaves mostly 2.5-5 cm. long; Sierra Nevada. 2. L. striata. 

Veins of the petals pellucid; leaflets 3-5, broadly oval or ovate, obtuse and entire. 

3. L. Bakeri. 
Base of petals without a band of cilia on the margins. 

Nutlets wrinkled at summit; petals cream-colored, often flushed with pink above, truncate at 
apex. 4. L. versicolor. 

Nutlets with a few tubercles at summit; petals white, obtuse at apex. 5. L. montana. 
Nutlets covered all over with low broad tubercles, not at all scarious. 6. L. Howelliana. 

Nutlets bearing thin scarious scale-like tubercles. 

Nutlets with a few whitish scale-like tubercles at apex, otherwise smooth or slightly wrinkled. 
Sepals long-villous especially on the inner surface. 7. L. alba. 

Sepals glabrous on both surfaces ; petals aging rose-colored at apex. 8. L. gracilis. 

Nutlets densely covered all over with scarious scale-like tubercles; petals aging rose-colored; sepals 
glabrous. 9. L. rosea. 

Petals shorter than or scarcely equaling the sepals, obtuse at apex. 

Sepals glabrous. 10. L. pumila. 

Sepals floccose-villous, especially so within. 11. L. floccosa. 

\. Limnanthes Douglasii R. Br. Common Meadow-foam. Fig. 3070. 

Limnanthes Douglasii R.Br. Phil. Mag. III. 2: 70. 1833. 
Limnanthes sulphurea Loud. Encycl. PI. 1543. 1855. 
Floerkea Douglasii Baillon, Adansonia 10: 362. 1873. 

Stems much branched near the base, decumbent to erect, 10-30 cm. long, glabrous. Leaves 



MEADOW-FOAM FAMILY 47 

glabrous, 1-2-pinnatifid, the divisions of the lower oblong, those of the upper lanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate ; sepals lanceolate, 6-10 mm. long, glabrous ; petals yellow toward the base, white 
above, 10-15 mm. long, emarginate or sometimes truncate; nutlets smooth or slightly wrinkled 
and often crowned with a few conical tubercles. 

Wet places, Upper Sonoran Zone; Humboldt County to San Luis Obispo County, California. Type locality: 
probably in central California. Collected by Douglas. April-May. 

2. Limnanthes Striata Jepson. Foothill Meadow-foam. Fig. 3071. 

Limnanthes striata Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2:411. 1936. 

Stems several-branched from the base, 10-30 cm. high, glabrous. Leaves glabrous, the lower 
4-10 cm. long including the petiole, odd-pinnately divided, the divisions 5-9, incisely toothed or 
lobed, rarely entire ; sepals linear-lanceolate, 6-7 mm. long, glabrous ; petals white above, green- 
ish yellow toward the base, striate nearly to the summit with usually 7 brownish purple veins, 
obovate-spatulate, 8-12 mm. long, the claws with 2 vertical rows of hairs on the inner surface ; 
nutlets brown, sparsely beset at summit with short triangular scale-like protuberances, otherwise 
nearly smooth. 

Open moist ground. Upper Sonoran Zone; foothills of the Sierra Nevada, Eldorado County to Tuolumne 
County, California. Type locality: Willow Springs Station, Amador County, California. March-May. 

3. Limnanthes Bakeri J. T. Howell. Baker's Meadow-foam. Fig. 3072. 

Limnanthes Bakeri J. T. Howell, Leaflets West. Bot. 3: 206. 1943. 

Plant glabrous and flaccid, stems erect, 8-20 cm. high, simple or rarely with 1 or 2 shorter 

branches from near the base. Basal leaves few, 3-5 cm. long, often withering at flowering time, 

those subtending the peduncles similar ; leaflets 3-5, ovate to oblong-elliptic, entire, 6-10 mm. long ; 

peduncles, at least the lower elongated, 6-8 cm. long; sepals broadly lanceolate, 6-8 mm. long; 

petals cuneate, 6-9 mm. long, pale yellow with white tips and pellucid veins; stamens 2.5-5.3 

mm. long ; nutlets 2-3 mm. long, the summit covered with small acutish tubercles. 

Wet meadowlands. Humid Transition Zone; Mendocino County, California. Type locality: about 3 miles 
north of Willits, Mendocino County. March-May. 

4. Limnanthes versicolor (Greene) Rydb. Shasta Meadow-foam. Fig. 3073. 

Floerkia versicolor Greene, Erythea 3:62. 1895. 
Limnanthes versicolor Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 25: 99. 1910. 

Plants glabrous throughout, stems 1 to several from the base, firmly erect, 1-3 dm. high. 

Basal leaves erect, 3-5 cm. long, those subtending the pedicels similar but smaller ; leaflets 2-7, 

linear to narrowly oblong, acute at both ends, 5-12 mm. long, entire or those of the smaller 

uppermost leaves fewer and toothed ; flowers almost corymbose, the lower pedicels spreading and 

3-5 cm. long ; sepals broadly to rather narrowly lanceolate, 6-8 mm. long, slightly acuminate at 

apex, glabrous; petals 12-15 mm. long, cream-yellow with lilac-colored tips; nutlets wrinkled 

on the summit, without tubercles or scales. 

Moist places along streams. Upper Sonoran Zone; Shasta County, California. Type locality: Cedar Run, 
Shasta County. April-May. 

Limnanthes versicolor var. Parishii Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2:412. 1936. Pedicels ascending rather than 
spreading; sepals all broadly lanceolate, less acuminate; wrinkles on the summit of the nutlets finely granulate. 
Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, California. Type locality: Stonewall Mine, San Diego County. 

5. Limnanthes montana Jepson. Mountain Meadow-foam. Fig. 3074. 

Limnanthes montana Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 412. 1936. 

Stems 1 to several from the base, 10-25 cm. high, slender, glabrous. Lower leaves 3-5 cm. 
long, glabrous, the divisions mostly 7, at least the lower ones 3-toothed or -lobed ; sepals glabrous 
or very sparsely villous, 5 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; petals white, spatulate-obovate, 
obtuse at the apex, 7 mm. long, 2-2 . 5 mm. wide ; nutlets long-obovoid, with several acute protu- 
berances on the summit. 

Springs and bogs. Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; southern Sierra Nevada, on the Tule River 
watershed, 2,000-5,500 feet altitude, Tulare County, California. Type locality: Oriole Lake, Sequoia National 
Park. March-May. 

6. Limnanthes Howelliana Abrams. Umpqua Meadow-foam. Fig. 3075. 

Limnanthes Howelliana Abrams, Madrono 6:27. 1941. 

Stems 1 to several from the base, 15-25 cm. high, rather succulent, glabrous. Leaves glabrous, 
the lower 5-8 cm. long, lower divisions 2-3-lobed, the upper entire, linear-oblong or linear ; sepals 
lanceolate, acute, 7-8 mm. long, glabrous; petals white with yellow base, obovate, 12-16 mm. long, 
6-7 mm. wide at the subtruncate broadly emarginate apex, 9-nerved below, sparsely long-villous 
below the middle ; nutlets thickly beset all over with broad mammilliform tubercles. 

Open, wet ground, Upper Sonoran and Humid Transition Zones; Douglas and northern Josephine Counties, 
Oregon. Type locality: roadside and fields near Wilbur, Douglas County, Oregon. March-May. 



48 



LIMNANTHACEAE 




3071 






3069. Empetrum nigrum 

3070. Limnanthes Douglasii 

3071. Limnanthes striata 



3072. Limnanthes Bakeri 

3073. Limnanthes versicolor 

3074. Limnanthes montana 



3075. Limnanthes Howelliana 

3076. Limnanthes alba 

3077. Limnanthes gracilis 



MEADOW-FOAM FAMILY 49 

7. Limnanthes alba Hartvv. White Meadow-foam. Fig. 3076. 

Limnanthes alba Hartw. ex Benth. PI. Hartw. 301. 1848. 

Floerkea alba Greene, Fl. Fran. 100. 1891. 

Limnanthes alba var. detonsa Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 411. 1936. 

Stems much branched at the base, erect or ascending, 10-30 cm. long. Leaves 1-2-pinnatifid, 
3-10 cm. long, sparsely long-villous or glabrous, the segments oblong or lanceolate; pedicels 2-10 
cm. long ; sepals ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 6-8 mm. long, usually villous with long white hairs ; 
petals 10-15 mm. long, broadly obovate-cuneate, truncate or broadly emarginate, white; nutlets 
4 mm. long, reddish brown, with low ridged tubercles. 

Wet places, Upper Sonoran Zone; Sierra Nevada foothills and Sacramento Valley and adjacent foothills 
in the Coast Ranges, from Shasta County to Tuolumne County, California. Type locality: Sacramento Valley. 
April-May. 

8. Limnanthes gracilis Howell. Slender Meadow-foam. Fig. 3077. 

Limnanthes gracilis Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 108. 1897. 

Plant glabrous throughout, the stems slender, simple or branched from the base, 8-40 cm. long. 

Leaves pinnate, 3-5 cm. long, the divisions ovate to linear-lanceolate, entire or the lower 3-parted ; 

sepals lanceolate, acuminate, 6 mm. long; petals white with yellowish base, oblanceolate, 12-14 

mm. long, truncate or broadly emarginate at apex; nutlets smooth or crowned with a few low 

tubercles. 

Wet ground, especially on serpentine outcrops. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Rogue River region 
near Grants Pass and Waldo, Oregon. Type locality: "wet rocks. Rogue River Valley and southward." March- 
May. 

9. Limnanthes rosea Hartw. Rose-flowered Meadow-foam. Fig. 3078. 

Limnanthes rosea Hartw. ex Benth. PI. Hartw. 302. 1848. 

Floerkea rosea Greene, Fl. Fran. 100. 1891. 

Limnanthes rosea var. Candida Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 411. 1936. 

Stems much branched at the base, decumbent or ascending, 10-30 cm. long, glabrous. Leaves 
5-10 cm. long, glabrous, once or twice pinnately dissected into narrow linear divisions; sepals 
lanceolate, 7-8 mm. long ; petals 12-18 mm. long, white, veined with rose, and often tinged with 
rose in age, broadly emarginate, villous toward the base; nutlets with high prominent tubercles 
laterally ridged. 

Wet places. Upper Sonoran Zone; Sacramento Valley and the upper San Joaquin Valley, California. Type 
locality: upper Sacramento Valley. April-May. 

10. Limnanthes pumila Howell. Dwarf Meadow-foam. Fig. 3079. 

Limnanthes pumila Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 108. 1897. 

Limnanthes Bellingeriana M. E. Peck, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 50:93. 1937. 

Plant glabrous throughout, the stems simple to sparingly branched near the base, 5-10 cm. 

high. Lower leaves 3-4 cm. long, pinnately divided into 5-9 linear-lanceolate divisions, these 

entire or the lower sometimes 3-lobed; sepals lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 6-8 mm. long; petals 

white, about equaling the sepals, oblong, obtuse, not emarginate at apex ; nutlets ovoid, rugose 

below, crowned with short conic processes at apex. 

Moist ground. Transition Zone; Pinehurst and Table Rock, Jackson County, Oregon. Type locality: top of 
Table Rock. March-May. 

11. Limnanthes floccosa Howell. Woolly Meadow-foam. Fig. 3080. 

Limnanthes floccosa Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 108. 1897. 

Stems sparingly branched, 3-7 cm. long, decumbent, sparsely pilose. Leaves 2-5 cm. long, pin- 

natifid, sparsely pilose ; sepals ovate, acuminate, 7-8 mm. long, densely long-villous, especially on 

the inner surface ; petals not exceeding the sepals, white, truncate ; nutlets obovoid, the upper 

half beset with acute white processes. 

Wet places, Upper Sonoran Zone; southern Oregon, in Jackson and Josephine Counties. Type locality: 
on grravelly plains, Jackson County, Oregon. April-May. 

Limnanthes Macounii Trelease, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 8.S. 1887. Plants glabrous; flowers 4- 
merous; petals 3-4 mm. long, white or cream-colored, erose-retuse; nutlets with prominent conical tubercles. 
This unique species is known only from the type locality on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. It is possible 
that it may be found in adjacent Washington. 

2. FLOERKEA Willd. Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. 3: 448. 1801. 

Low slender glabrous annuals, the stems simple or branched at the base. Leaves pin- 
nately dissected. Flowers solitary on axillary, arcuate, recurved pedicels. Sepals 3, 
slightly imbricated in the bud, spreading in fruit. Petals 3. much shorter than the sepals, 
open in aestivation. Stamens 6. Carpels 2 or 3 ; style 2-3-cleft at the apex. [Name in 
honor of H. G. Floerke, 1790-1835, a German botanist.] 

A monotypic North American genus. 



50 ANACARDIACEAE 

1. Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. False Mermaid. Fig. 3081. 

Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. 3: 449. 1801. 
Floerkea occidenlalis Rydb. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 1:268. 1900. 

Stems slender, weak, 1-4 dm. long. Leaves pinnate, slender-petioled, 2-7 cm. long; leaflets 
usually 5, distant, lanceolate to linear-oblong; sepals lanceolate, 3-5 mm. long; petals half the 
length of the sepals, oblong, white ; fruiting carpels nearly globular, 3 mm. in diameter, tubercu- 
late above. 

Wet places, Transition Zone; Kittitas County, Washington, to the central Sierra Nevada, California, east 
to Quebec, Missouri, and New Jersey. Type locality: Pennsylvania. April-June. 



Family 84. ANACARDIACEAE. 

Sumac Family. 

Trees or shrubs, with a resinous or milky and usually acrid juice. Leaves alter- 
nate or rarely opposite, simple or compound, persistent or deciduous. Flowers com- 
monly regular, perfect or polygamo-dioecious. Calyx 3-7-lobed. Petals of the same 
number as the calyx-lobes, imbricated in the bud, rarely wanting. Stamens as many 
or twice as many as the petals, rarely fewer or more, inserted at the base of the 
annular disk. Ovary in the pistillate flowers 1 -celled or sometimes 4-5-celled; styles 
1-3 ; ovules 1 in each cell. Fruit usually a small drupe. Seeds with a bony or crus- 
taceous testa ; endosperm scanty or none. 

A family of about 50 genera and 400 species, most abundant in the warm temperate and tropical regions. 

1. RHUS L. Sp. PI. 265. 1753. 

Shrubs or small trees, with alternate, simple or compound leaves. Flowers polygamous, 
in axillary or terminal panicles. Calyx-lobes 4-6, usually 5, persistent. Petals imbricated 
in the bud, spreading in anthesis. Disk annular. Stamens 5. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled; 
styles 3, terminal. Drupe small, subglobose or compressed, pubescent or glabrous, the 
exocarp persistent or deciduous. Seed solitary, inverted on a stalk that rises from the 
base of the ovary. [Ancient classical name.] 

About 120 species, inhabiting the temperate and tropical regions, most abundant in South Africa. Type 
species, Rhus Coriaria L. 

Leaves compound, deciduous. 

Leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets 11-31. 1. R. glabra. 

Leaves 3-foliolate. 

Ovary and fruit glabrous; exocarp exfoliating; stone ribbed; plants poisonous. 

Panicles lax and open; leaflets rounded or obtuse at apex. 2. R. diversiloba. 

Panicles dense; leaflets acuminate at apex. 3. R- radicans. 

Ovary and fruit pubescent; exocarp persistent; stone smooth; plants not poisonous. 4. R. trilobata. 
Leaves simple, persistent. 

Ovary and fruit pubescent and viscid; stone smooth, compressed. 

Leaves oval, very obtuse at both ends; exocarp of fruit acid to taste. 5. R. integrifolia. 

Leaves ovate, acute at apex; exocarp of fruit sweetish to taste. 6. R. ovata. 

Ovary and fruit glabrous; stone rugose along one edge, not compressed. 7. R. laurina. 

1 . Rhus glabra L. Smooth or Scarlet Sumac. Fig. 3082. 

Rhus glabra L. Sp. PI. 265. 1753. 

Shrub or small tree, 1-6 m. high, glabrous and somewhat glaucous. Leaflets 11-31, lanceolate 
or oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-10 cm. long, acuminate, sharply serrulate; inflorescence a large dense 
terminal panicle; flowers greenish, about 3 mm. broad; drupe compressed, about 4 mm. in 
diameter, covered with short reddish hairs. 

A variable and widely distributed species, ranging from Nova Scotia to Florida and westward to British 
Columbia and the Pacific States. In the Pacific States two forms are found which may deserve subspecific rank: 
Rhus glabra var. occidenlalis Torr. (Bot. Wilkes Exp. 257. 1862-74.) occurs in the Upper Sonoran Zone of 
eastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Another form of the Arizona type, Rhus calophylla Greene (Rep. 
Nov. Spec. 5: 45. 1908.) occurs in Chino Canyon near Palm Springs, southern California. Type locality: east- 
ern North America. May-July. 

2. Rhus diversiloba Torr. & Gray. Pacific Poison Oak. Fig. 3083. 

Rhus diversiloba Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 218. 1838. 
Toxicodendron divcrsilobum Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1: 119. 1905. 

An erect shrub. 1-3 m. high or in forests becoming a vine and ascending trees by means of 
aerial roots to a maximum height of 40 m. or more. Leaves 3-foliolate, deciduous; leaflets ovate, 
obovate or elliptical, obtuse or rounded at the apex, variously lobed or toothed, or rarely entire, 
the lateral ones usually sessile; panicles axillary, loosely flowered and drooping or spreading; 



SUMAC FAMILY 51 

pedicels slender ; drupes 4-6 mm. in diameter, glabrous, with a thin deciduous epicarp and a waxy- 
persistent mesocarp ; stone striate. 

Borders of streams, thickets and wooded slopes, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; western Washington 
to northern Lower California, Sonora and Michoacan. A variable species as to shape and size of leaflets 
and to the amount of pubescence, and a number of species have been proposed. Type locality: "Oregon " April- 
May. 

3. Rhus radicans L. Poison Ivy. Fig. 3084. 

Rhus radicans L. Sp. PI. 266. 1753. 

Rhits Tortcodendriim L. loc. cit. in part. 1753. 

Toxicodendron hesperiunt Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1: 118. 1905. 

Shrub 0.5-1 m. high, sometimes climbing but not vine-like. Leaves 3-foliolate, deciduous, 1-3 
dm. long, petioles as long as or longer than the leaflets ; leaflets all petiolulate, sometimes pilose, 
ovate, acuminate, 5-15 cm. long, entire or sometimes remotely repand-dentate ; axillary racemes 
compact, the pedicels short ; drupes 5—7 mm. in diameter. 

Dry rocky canyons and talus slopes, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; eastern Washington and 
Oregon east to the Atlantic seaboard and south to Mexico and the Bahama Islands. A variable species from 
which a number of species and varieties have been segregated. Type locality: Virginia. June-Aug. 

4. Rhus trilobata Nutt. Squaw Bush or Skunk Bush. Fig. 3085. 

Rhus trilobata Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 219. 1838. 

Rhus aromatica var. trilobata A. Gray, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 33: 408. 1861. 

Schmaltsia trilobata Small, Fl. S.E.U.S. 728. 1903. 

Low branching erect shrub, rather strongly aromatic, the young branchlets pubescent. Leaves 
3-foliolate, deciduous, more or less pubescent on both surfaces ; terminal leaflet 2.5-5 cm. long, 
3-lobed and coarsely toothed, the lateral leaflets smaller, round-ovate, scarcely lobed, crenate; 
flowers yellowish, appearing before the leaves in short spike-like clusters ; drupe viscid-hirsute', 
reddish. 

Dry hillsides and plains, Upper Sonoran Zone; Oregon to northern Lower California, east to the Great 
Plains. A variable species especially as to pubescence and size of leaf, and a number of species and varieties 
have been proposed. It is closely related to Rhus aromatica Ait. of the eastern United States. Type locality: 
in the Rocky Mountains. Feb.-April. 

5. Rhus integrifolia (Nutt.) Benth. & Hook. Lemonade Bush or Coast Sumac. 

Fig. 3086. 

Styphonia integrifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:220. 1838. 
Styphonia serrata Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, loc. cit. 

Rhus integrifolia Benth. & Hook. f. ex Rothrock in Wheeler Rep. 84. 1878. 
Neostyphonia integrifolia Shafer in Britton, N. Amer. Trees 612. 1908. 

Evergreen shrub, 1-3 m. high, aromatic, with short stout and rather stiff branchlets. Leaves 
oval, rigid-coriaceous, very obtuse at both ends, entire or sometimes serrate, 2.5-4 cm. long, dark 
green above, paler beneath ; inflorescence and young parts canescently puberulent ; flowers white 
or rose-colored, glomerate, subtended by orbicular bracts within which are 2 thinner bractlets; 
sepals scarious-margined, ciliate; drupes very viscid and acid, about 10 mm. in diameter, com- 
pressed. 

Bluffs along the coast, and in its southern range, extending inland into the chaparral belt of the mountains. 
Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Barbara County, California, to northern Lower California. Type locality: on the 
margins of cliffs near the sea around San Diego and Santa Barbara, California. March-May. 

6. Rhus ovata S. Wats. Sugar Bush or Chaparral Sumac, Fig. 3087. 

Rhus ovata S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 358. 1885. 
Neostyphonia ovata Abrams, Bull, N.Y. Bot. Gard. 6:403. 1910. 

Evergreen shrub, 1.5-3 m. high, with rather stout glabrous branchlets. Leaves rigid-coria- 
ceous, smooth and shining, ovate or subcordate, acute at apex, entire or sharply serrate ; inflores- 
cence glabrous or glabrate ; bracts suborbicular with 2 smaller bractlets within ; sepals obscurely 
or not at all ciliate ; drupes glandular and viscid, the pulp sweetish to the taste, 8 mm. in diameter, 
compressed. 

Chaparral belt, LTpper Sonoran Zone; Santa Barbara County, California, to northern Lower California and 
Arizona. Type locality: not definitely stated in the original publication. March-May. 

7. Rhus laurina Nutt. Laurel Sumac. Fig. 3088. 

Rhus laurina Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 219. 1838. 

Lithraea laurina Wnlp. Rep. 1:551. 1842. 

Malosma laurina Nutt. ex Abrams, Fl. Los Ang. ed. 2. 220. 1917. 

Shrub or small tree, 2-4 m. high, aromatic, glabrous. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 7-10 cm. 

long, acute or obtuse at the apex, rounded at base, mucronate, rather thin-coriaceous ; petioles 

slender, 1-3 cm. long ; flowers small, white, in ample, many-flowered, terminal panicles ; drupe 

whitish, 2-3 mm. in diameter, glabrous ; mesocarp waxy ; stone minute, smooth. 

Dry washes and mountain slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Barbara County, California, to central Lower 
California. Type locality: "On bushy plains, near Santa Barbara." May-Aug. 

Schinus molle L. Sp. PI. 388. 1753. Pepper Tree or Peruvian Pepper. Aromatic dioecious evergreen 
tree, with pendulous branchlets and light brown bark. Leaves pendulous, pinnate; leaflets linear-oblong; flowers 
small, paniculate; fruit a bright red peppery berry. Native of South America; long planted as an ornamental in 
California, and occasionally growing spontaneously in the southern part of the state. 



52 



ANACARDIACEAE 




3079 



3078 




3081 



3082 






3084 



3086 



3078. Limnanthes rosea 

3079. Limnanthes pumila 

3080. Limnanthes floccosa 



3081. Floerkea proserpinacoides 

3082. Rhus glabra 

3083. Rhus diversiloba 



3084. Rhus radicans 

3085. Rhus trilobata 

3086. Rhus integrifolia 



STAFF-TREE FAMILY 



53 




3087 




3087. Rhus ovata 



3088. Rhus laurina 



Family 85. CELASTRACEAE. 
Staff-tree Family. 

Trees, shrubs or woody climbers. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, deciduous 
or persistent. Stipules small and caducous, or none. Flowers small, regular, usually 
perfect, borne on commonly jointed pedicels, Calyx-lobes 4 or 5, imbricated, per- 
sistent. Petals 4 or 5, spreading. Disk broad, flat or lobed. Stamens usually as many 
as petals, inserted on the disk. Ovary sessile, its base free from the disk or often 
adherent, 3-5-celled; style 1, short; stigma entire or 3-5-lobed; ovules 2 in each 
cell, anatropous. Fruit in ours a 3-5-celled, loculicidal capsule. Seeds usually aril- 
late; embryo large. 

A family of about 40 genera and 350 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. 

Stamens 4-5; pistil 2-S-carpellate. 

Flowers solitary or clustered in the axils; fruit a 2-S-celled, dehiscent capsule; seeds with an aril. 

Leaves (in ours) deciduous; flowers 5-merous; seeds with a red aril. 1. Euonymus. 

Leaves evergreen; flowers 4-merous; seeds with a white basal aril. 2. Pachistima. 

Flowers in terminal narrow thyrsoid cymes, 5-merous; fruit indehiscent, 1-celled and 1-seeded by abortion; 

seed not arillate. 3. Mortonia. 

Stamens 8-10; pistil unicarpellate; fruit a 2-seeded follicle; seed with a small white aril. 4. Glossopetalon. 



1. EUONYMUS [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 197. 1753. 

Shrubs with opposite, petioled leaves, deciduous or in some exotic species evergreen. 
Flowers in axillary, few-flowered cymes, greenish or purple. Calyx-lobes 4 or 5, spreading 
or recurved. Petals 4 or 5. Stamens 4 or 5, inserted on the broad disk. Ovary 3-5-celled, 
short; stigma 3-5-lobed. Capsule 3-5-celled and 3-5-lobed or rounded. Seeds 1 or 2 in 
each cell, enveloped by the red aril. [Name Greek, meaning a good name.] 

About 60 species, natives of the north temperate regions; mainly in Europe and Asia. Besides the following, 
3 other species inhabit the eastern United States. Type species, Euonymus europaeus L. 

1. Euonymus occidentalis Nutt. Western Burning Bush. Fig. 3089. 

Euonymus occidentalis Nutt. ex Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 74. 1856. 

Shrub, 2—6 m. high, with slender often scandent branches and smooth, greenish, 4-angled 
branchlets. Leaves 4-10 cm. long, ovate, acuminate at the apex, serrulate, thin and glabrous, 
deciduous ; petioles 5-15 mm. long ; peduncles slender, 25-60 mm. long, 1-5-flowered ; petals 5, 
rounded, 3-4 mm. long, brownish purple, penciled ; capsule deeply 3-lobed, depressed, smooth. 

Deep moist woods, Transition Zone; Washington, along the Columbia River near Vancouver, to Plumas 
and Monterey Counties, California. Type locality: Oregon. April-May. 

Euonymus occidentalis var. Parishii (Trelease) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 610. 1925. This variety 

differs only slightly from the typical form. The branchlets are whitish and the cymes are 3-6-flowered. Pine 

forests, Arid Transition Zone; San Jacinto, Cuyamaca, and Palomar Mountains, southern California. Type lo- 
cality: San Jacinto Mountains. 



54 CELASTRACEAE 

2. PACHISTIMA Raf. Amer. Month. Mag. 2: 176. 1818. 

Low glabrous shrub, with corky, 4-angled stems and minute caducous stipules. Leaves 
opposite, coriaceous, serrulate, evergreen. Flowers solitary or clustered in the axils, per- 
fect, 4-merous. Ovary adherent to the disk, 2-celled; ovules 2 in each cell; style very 
short; stigma shallowly 2-lobed. Capsule oblong, compressed, 2-celled, loculicidally de- 
hiscent. Seeds with a white, many-lobed aril at the base. [Name Greek, meaning broad 
stigma.] 

A North American genus of 2 species. Besides the following, P. Canbyi A. Gray grows in the mountains 
of Virginia and West Virginia. Type species, Pachistima Myrsinites (Pursh) Raf. 

In 1838 Rafinesque changed the original spelling Pachistima to Paxistima, and in 1840 Endlicher changed 
it to Pachystima. All of these are orthographic variants of the original Greek words, Traxf^, thick, and ariyiia, 
stigma. 

1. Pachistima Myrsinites (Pursh) Raf. Mountain Lover or Oregon Boxwood. 

Fig. 3090. 

Ilexl Myrsinites Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 119. 1814. 

Myginda myrtifolia Nutt. Gen. PI. 1:109. 1818. 

Paxistima Myrsinites Raf. Sylva Tellur. 42. 1838. 

Oreophila myrtifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 259. 1838. 

Paxistima myrtifolia L. C. Wheeler, Amer. Midi. Nat. 29: 793. 1943. 

Low, much-branched, very leafy shrub, 3-10 dm. high, or sometimes spreading and almost 
prostrate. Leaves ovate, oblong or oblanceolate, 15-30 mm. long, serrulate, coriaceous, dark 
glossy green above, somewhat paler beneath, cuneate at base, acute or obtuse at apex, subsessile ; 
peduncles 2-3 mm. long, 1-3-flowered ; petals reddish brown, ovate, 1 mm. long ; capsule 4-5 mm. 
long. 

Coniferous forests, Transition and Canadian Zones; western British Columbia to Marin County, California, 
east to Montana and New Mexico. Type locality: Lolo Trail near Hungry (Lolo) Creek, northern Idaho. 
May-July. 

3. MORTONIA A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 3= : 34. pi 4. 1852. 

Low intricately branched xerophytic shrubs. Leaves alternate, crowded, evergreen, 
subsessile, coriaceous, 1-nerved, revolute on the margin, stipules minute, gland-like, cadu- 
cous. Flowers small, white, in narrow terminal thyrsoid cymes. Calyx-tube obconic, 10- 
ribbed; lobes 5. Petals 5. Stamen-filaments short. Ovary 5-celled; style columnar; 
stigmas 5 ; ovules 2 in each cell, basal, erect. Fruit dry crustaceous, indehiscent, 1-celled 
and 1-seeded by abortion. Seed oblong, not arillate; embryo erect. [Name in honor of 
Dr. S. G. Morton, American naturalist of the nineteenth century.] 

A genus of 4 or 5 species, natives of the arid southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Type 
species, Mortonia sempcrvirens A. Gray. 

1. Mortonia utahensis (Coville) A. Nels. Utah Mortonia. Fig. 3091. 

Mortonia scabrella var. utahensis Coville ex A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 400. 1897. 
Mortonia utahensis A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 47:427. 1909. 

Low intricately branched shrub, 8-10 dm. high, the branches pale yellow-green and hispidu- 
lous. Leaves broadly oval to suborbicular, 8-12 mm. long, scabrous, thick with a fleshy-thick- 
ened margin ; thyrse 3-6 cm. long ; bracts lanceolate, 3-5 mm. long ; calyx-lobes 2 mm. long, his- 
pidulous, scarious on the margins ; petals white, obovate, 3 mm. long ; fruit oblong, 4 mm. long, 
glabrous. 

Dry desert slopes, Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave Desert in Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California, 
to southern Nevada, northwestern Arizona and Utah. Type locality: southern Utah. March-May. 

4. GLOSSOPETALON A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 5«: 29. pi 12, B. 1853. 

Low rigid and often spinescent shrubs, the slender branches greenish, angled with de- 
current lines from the nodes. Leaves deciduous, alternate, small, simple, entire, indis- 
tinctly veined, usually with 2-4 lateral veins parallel with the margin; stipules minute, 
adnate to the enlarged and persistent base of the petiole, or wanting. Flowers small, soli- 
tary in the axils or rarely terminal, short-pedicelled. Sepals 4-6, commonly 5,_ hyaline- 
margined, ovate, persistent. Petals white, as many as sepals and alternate with them, 
narrowly oblanceolate or ligulate, inserted under the edge of the fleshy, crenately lobed 
disk. Stamens 4-10, often unequal, the longer opposite the petals and about equaling them. 
Pistils of 1-3 distinct ovoid carpels; stigma entire, sessile; ovules 1-2. Fruit an asym- 
metrical, narrowly ovoid follicle, dehiscing along the ventral suture. Seeds 1 or 2, with a 
small white aril. [Name Greek, meaning tongue and petal, in reference to the ligulate 
petals.] 

A genus of 7 or 8 closely related species inhabiting the arid regions of western North America. Type 
species, Glossopetalon spinescens A. Gray. 

Branches, at least some of them, spinescent; stipules minute, subulate, often adnate to the enlarged persistent 

bases of the petioles; flowers axillary. 1. C- nevadense. 

Branches never spinescent; stipules none; flowers terminating short branchlets. 2. G. pungens. 



BLADDER-NUT FAMILY 55 

1. Glossopetalon nevadense A. Gray. Nevada Grease-bush. Fig. 3092. 

Glossopetalon nevadense A. Gray, Proc. Araer. Acad. U: 73. 1876. 

Forsellesia nevadensis Greene, Erythea 1 : 206. 1893. 

Glossopetalon spinescens var. aridum M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 8: 28. 1898. 

Forsellesia arida Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. ed. 2. 7. 1900. 

Freely or intricately branched shrub, 2-18 dm. high, the branchlets divaricate, green, rather 
faintly ribbed longitudinally and corrugately roughened transversely, glabrous or puberulent, in 
age becoming spinescent and yellowish gray. Leaves scattered or somewhat fasciculate, rather 
narrowly oblanceolate, 5-12 mm. long, tapering at base to a short petiole, rounded to acute or 
almost acuminate at apex and minutely mucronulate, pale or grayish green; stipules scarious, 
subulate, less than 1 mm. long, adnate to the thickened base of the petiole ; flowers axillary, 4-5- 
merous ; pedicels 3-5 mm. long, with several reduced leaves or scarious bracts ; sepals ovate, 
1-3 mm. long, entire and hyaline-margined ; petals oblanceolate, 4-7 mm. long ; stamens 6-10, 
those opposite the sepals about one-third longer than the others ; carpels 1-2 ; fruit ovoid, 5 mm. 
long. 

Desert mountain ranges, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; southern Idaho and Utah to Inyo and 
San Bernardino Counties, California, and to Arizona. Type locality: "northern part of Washoe County, Ne- 
vada." April-June. 

Glossopetalon stipulifera St. John, Fl. S.E. Wash. 250. 1937. (Forsellesia stipulifera Ensign, Amer. 
Alidl. Nat. 27: 507. 1942.) Closely related to G. nevadense and doubtfully specifically distinct, only occasion- 
ally or often not at all spinescent; stipules a little larger, slightly over 1 mm. long, broadly subulate or narrowly 
lanceolate. Arid slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; canyon of Snake River from southeastern Washington and 
western Idaho to Malheur County, Oregon; similar plants also along Trinity River, Trinity County, and in the 
White Mountains, Inyo County, California. Type locality: Snake and Clearwater Rivers near Lewiston, Idaho. 

2. Glossopetalon pungens Brandg. Low Grease-bush. Fig. 3093. 

Glossopetalon pungens Brandg. Bot. Gaz. 27:445. 1898. 
Forsellesia pungens Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. ed. 2. 8. 1900. 
Forsellesia pungens var. glabra Ensign, Amer. Midi. Nat. 27: 503. 1942. 

Low diffusely branched shrub, 0.5-2 dm. high and Z-6 dm. in diameter, older branchlets not 
becoming spinescent, the young ones very slender, pubescent or glabrous. Leaves crowded, 6-10 
mm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, narrowly elliptic, acute at both ends, tipped with a slender spine 1 mm. 
long, thick especially along the margin and veins, glabrous or scabrous ; stipules none ; flowers 
terminal on short branchlets; pedicels 3-4 mm. long, with 3-4 small scarious bracts at base; 
sepals 5, ovate, acuminate, 2 or 3 of them spinose-tipped, denticulate and hyaline-margined ; petals 
5, oblanceolate, 6-8 mm. long ; stamens 10 ; carpels 1-3, sparingly puberulent. 

Rocky slopes, Sonoran Zones; Sheep Mountains at elevations of 4,000-5,000 feet, Clark County, Nevada, 
and Clark Mountains, eastern San Bernardino County, California. The Sheep Mountains plants are the typical 
species with puberulent twigs and leaves. The Clark Mountains plants are glabrous and represent the variety 
described by Miss Ensign. Type locality: Sheep Mountains, Nevada. May-June. 

Canotia Holacantha Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 68. 1856. Canotia. Shrub or small tree, the branches broom- 
like, green, glabrous and spine-tipped. Leaves wanting, reduced to small triangular scales; flowers 5-merous; 
petals greenish white, about 4 mm. long; ovary 5-celled; style simple; seed solitary in each cell, winged. A 
curious desert shrub belonging to the family Koebertiniaceae growing on the mountains of western Arizona. 
Reported collected in the Providence Mountains, California, by Cooper in 1860-62 but not rediscovered there 
since. 



Family 86. STAPHYLEACEAE. 

Bladder-nut Family. 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite, odd-pinnate or 3-foliolate leaves. Stipules small, 
early deciduous. Flowers regular, perfect, usually 5-merous, in terminal or axillary 
clusters. Stamens inserted outside at the base o£ the large disk. Pistil free from the 
disk ; ovary commonly 3-celled. Fruit a 3-lobed bladdery capsule dehiscent at the 
apex, or in some genera an indehiscent capsule. 

A family of 5 genera and about 22 species, natives of the north temperate regions. 

1. STAPHYLEA L. Sp. PI. 270. 1753. 

Shrubs or rarely small trees. Leaves 3-foliolate or pinnate, deciduous. Flowers white, 
on jointed pedicels in drooping axillary panicles. Petals about as long as the calyx-lobes, 
erect. Pistil of 3 carpels, united only by their axes; styles 3; ovules many in each cell. 
Fruit a bladdery, deeply 3-lobed capsule, dehiscent at the apex. Seeds globose. [Name 
Greek, meaning a cluster.] 

A genus of about 6 species, natives of the north temperate regions. Type species, Staphylea pinnata L. 
Besides the following, S. trifolia L. occurs in Canada and the northeastern United States. 

1. Staphylea Bolanderi A. Gray. Bolander's or California Bladder-nut. Fig. 3094. 

Staphylea Bolanderi A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 10: 69. 1874. 

An arborescent shrub or small tree, 2-6 m. high, glabrous throughout. Leaves 3-foliolate; 



56 ACERACEAE 

leaflets 3-6 cm. long, broadly ovate, acutish, serrulate; petals 6-8 mm. long, a little longer than 
the striate calyx-lobes ; capsule 3-5 cm. long, the carpels separating at the summit and some- 
what spreading, dehiscent down the inner side of the free portion. 

Occasional in foothill canyons, Upper Sonoran Zone; western slopes of the Sierra Nevada from Siskiyou 
County to Tulare County, California. Type locality: "Banks of St. Cloud [McCloud] River," Shasta County, 
California. April-May. 



Family 87. ACERACEAE. 

Maple Family. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery, often saccharine sap, and opposite, simple and 
palmately lobed, or pinnate leaves. Flowers polygamous or dioecious, regular, in 
terminal or axillary corymbs or racemes. Calyx generally 5-parted, the lobes imbri- 
cated. Petals of the same number as the calyx-lobes or none. Disk thick, annular, 
lobed, sometimes obsolete. Stamens 4-12, often 8; filaments filiform. Ovary supe- 
rior, 2-celled, 2-lobed ; styles 2, inserted between the lobes. Fruit of 2 long-winged 
samaras, joined at the base, but usually separating before falling. Seeds 1 or some- 
times 2 in a samara, compressed, ascending ; endosperm none ; cotyledons thin, 
folded. 

A family of 2 genera and about 125 species, natives of the northern hemisphere. The second genus, 
Dipteronia, of central Asia, differs from Acer in having the samara winged all around. 

1. Acer l. Sp. pi. 1055. 1753. 

Characters of the family. [The Latin name for the genus.] 

A genus of about 120 species, natives of the north temperate regions. Type species, Acer Pseudo-Platanus L. 

Leaves simple, palmately lobed; flowers polygamous; petals present. 

Flowers in many-flowered racemes; body of the samara hispid. 1. A. macrophyllum. 

Flowers in few-flowered corymbs; samaras glabrous. 

Leaves 3-5-lobed; samaras slightly spreading, the angle about 45 degrees. 

2. A. glabrum Douglasii. 

Leaves 7-9-lobed; samaras widely spreading, the angle nearly 180 degrees. 

3. A. circinatum. 

Leaves pinnate, with 3-5 leaflets; flowers dioecious; petals none; body of samara finely pubescent. 

4. A. Negundo californicum. 

1. Acer macrophyllum Pursh. Big-leaved or Oregon Maple. Fig. 3095. 

Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1 : 267. 1814. 

Tall round-topped trees attaining a maximum height of about 30 m., the bark on old trunks 
thick and furrowed. Leaves large, 10-25 cm. broad, deeply 3-5-parted, the lobes irregular, 
coarsely toothed, soft pubescent when young, becoming glabrate above and puberulent beneath in 
age ; flowers polygamous, perfect and staminate flowers mixed in the same raceme ; sepals and 
petals rather broad, about equal in length; filaments pubescent at the base; body of the samara 
with stiff tawny hairs, wings 2-4 cm. long, diverging at an acute angle. 

Stream banks, mainly Transition Zone; southern Alaska southward, west of the Cascade Mountains and 
Sierra Nevada to southern California. Type locality: Cascades of the Columbia River. April-May. 

Greene (Leaflets Bot. Obs. 2:248-254. 1912.) has proposed several segregates, relying largely on the 
lobing of the leaf for differentiating the species. 

2. Acer glabrum subsp. Douglasii (Hook.) Wesml. Dwarf or Mountain Maple. 

Fig. 3096. 

Acer Douglasii Hook. Lend. Journ. Bot. 6: 17. pi. 6. 1846. 

Acer glabrum subsp. Douglasii Wesml. Bull. Bot. Soc. Belg. 29: 46. 1890. 

Acer glabrum var. Douglasii Dippel, Handb. Laubh. 2: 438. 1892. 

Small tree, 3-10 m. high, with smooth gray bark. Leaves simple, orbicular in outline, 5-lobed, 
the lobes acute, coarsely and sharply serrate, the terminal tooth acuminate, truncate or sub- 
cordate at base, 5-10 cm. long, glabrous, dark green above, paler beneath; petioles slender; 
flowers in small, few-flowered corymbs, polygamous ; sepals and petals similar, spatulate-oblong, 
about 4 mm. long ; samaras diverging at an angle less than 45 degrees, glabrous, the wings about 
2 cm. long. 

Stream banks and edges of meadows, Canadian Zone; Alaska to the Cascade Mountains, northern Oregon, 
east to western Montana. Type locality: "Blue Mountains of Oregon." April-May. 

Typical Acer glabrum Torr. inhabits the Rocky Mountains region, and is somewhat intermediate between 
the subspecies Douglasii and Torreyi. 

Acer glabrum var. Torreyi (Greene) Smiley, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 9: 261. 1921. {Acer Torreyi Greene, 
Pittonia 5: 2. 1902.) Low tree or usually shrubby. Leaves 2.5-4 cm. long, usually broader than long, mostly 
3-lobed, or obscurely 5-lobed, the lobes acutish, serrate with acutish teeth, base of the blade subcordate. _ Mountain 
meadows and streams, Canadian Zone; Sierra Nevada, California. Intermediate forms between this and the 



MAPLE FAMILY 



57 




3089. Euonymus occidentalis 

3090. Pachistima Myrsinites 

3091. Mortonia utahensis 



3092. Glossopetalon nevadense 

3093. Glossopetalon pungens 

3094. Staphylea Bolanderi 



3095. Acer macrophyllum 

3096. Acer glabrum 



58 AESCULACEAE 

typical species are found in southern Oregon and in the Siskiyou Mountains, California. Type locality: "Cali- 
fornian Sierra at middle altitudes." 

Acer glabrum var. diffusum (Greene) Smiley, loc. cit. (.Acer diffusum Greene, Pittonia 5: 2. 1902; Acer 
bernardinum Abrams, Torreya 7: 219. 1907.) Low diffusely branched shrub, with nearly white bark. Leaves 
often trifoliolate, 1-2.5 cm. long, teeth often obtuse or subcrenate; samara-wing 10-12 mm. long. Alpine stream 
banks and rocky slopes, Boreal Zones; western Nevada, southern Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino and San 
Jacinto Mountains, California. Type locality: west Humboldt Mountains, Nevada. 

3. Acer circinatum Pursh, Vine Maple. Fig. 3097. 

Acer circinatum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1:267. 1814. 
Acer modocense Greene, Pittonia 5: 4. 1902. 

An erect shrub or small tree attaining a height of 10-15 m. but more often reclining or vine- 
like. Leaves short-petioled, 7-12 cm. broad, round-cordate in outline, with a broad and usually 
shallow sinus, 7-9-lobed, the lobes acuminate and sharply serrate, villous when young, glabrate 
in age except for a tuft of hairs near the base beneath ; corymbs terminal on slender 2-leaved 
branchlets, 5-20-flowered ; calyx-lobes 4-6 mm. long, villous, reddish purple ; petals much 
shorter than the calyx-lobes, greenish white ; stamens 8, the filaments villous below ; samaras 
2-3 cm. long, widely diverging to form an angle of 180 degrees, scarlet when ripe. 

Stream banks and moist woods. Humid Transition Zone; west of the Cascade Mountains from British 
Columbia to Mendocino and Butte Counties, California. Type locality: Cascades of the Columbia River. April- 
May. 

4. Acer Negundo subsp. californicum (Torr. & Gray) Wesml. California 

Box Elder. Fig. 3098. 

Negundo californicum Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 250. 1838. 

Acer californicum D. Dietr. Syn. PI. 2: 1283. 1840. 

Acer Negundo subsp. californicum Wesml. Bull. Bot. Soc. Belg. 29: 43. 1890. 

Acer Negundo var. californicum Sargent, Garden & Forest 4: 148. 1891. 

Round-topped tree, 6-20 m. high, the branchlets and foliage pubescent, densely so when 
young. Leaves 3-foliolate, the terminal leaflet larger than the lateral, 3-5-lobed, or coarsely 
serrate, rather long-petiolulate, the lateral ones oblong, coarsely serrate or somewhat lobed on 
the lower edge, short-petiolulate ; staminate flowers borne on elongated, filiform, villous pedicels; 
calyx minute; stamens 4 or 5; pistillate flowers borne in slender drooping racemes; samaras 
red when young, becoming straw-colored when mature, about 3 cm. long, finely pubescent. 

Stream banks and moist bottom lands, mainly Upper Sonoran Zone; foothills and valleys from Shasta 
County to San Bernardino County, California. Type locality: California. Collected by Douglas. March-April. 



Family 88. AESCULACEAE. 

Buckeye Family. 

Trees or shrubs with deciduous, palmately compound leaves. Flowers polyga- 
mous, showy, borne on jointed pedicels in a terminal thyrse or panicle, the perfect 
flowers few near the top of the inflorescence, the staminate numerous. Calyx tubular 
or campanulate, 5-parted, the lobes unequal. Petals 4 or 5, unequal, clawed. Disk 
entire, often 1 -sided. Stamens 5-8. Ovary 3-celled; ovules 2 in each cell; style 
slender. Fruit a leathery, globose or slightly 3-lobed capsule, smooth or spiny; 3- 
celled or by abortion 1-celled and 1-seeded. Seeds large, shining; endosperm none; 
cotyledons large and thick. 

A family of 3 genera and about 18 species, natives of the northern hemisphere. 

1. AESCULUS L. Sp. PI. 344. 1753. 
Characters of the family. [The ancient Latin name.] 

A genus of about 15 species, natives of North and Central America and Asia. Type species, Aesculus 
Hippocastanum L. 

1. Aesculus calif ornica (Spach) Nutt. CaUfornia Buckeye. Fig. 3099. 

Calothyrsus calif ornica Spach, Hist. Veg. 3:35. 1834. 

Aesculus californica Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 251. 1838. 

Tree 4-7 m. high, with a broad round top. Leaflets 5-7, oblong-lanceolate, serrulate, 6-15 cm. 
long, petiolulate, glabrous; thyrse erect, 10-20 cm. long, finely pubescent; calyx 2-lobed, the 
lobes shallowly toothed; petals white or pale rose, about 15 mm. long; stamens 5-7; anthers 
orange; fruit smooth, pear-shaped, 1- or rarely 2-seeded, often solitary on the drooping naked 
rachis of the thyrse ; seed 2-3 cm. in diameter, glossy brown, with a large whitish hilum. 

Hillsides and canyons, especially on north slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; Coast Ranges and the Sierra 
Nevada foothills, from Siskiyou County to the Sierra Liebre, Los Angeles County, California. Type locality: 
California. Collected by Dr. Botta. May. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 59 

Family 89. BALSAMINACEAE. 
Jewel- WEED Family. 

Succulent herbaceous plants, with alternate simple leaves and showy irregular 
flowers, or the later flowers small, cleistogamous and apetalous. Sepals 3, the two 
lateral ones small and green, the posterior one large, petaloid, saccate and spurred. 
Petals 5, or usually 3, with two of them 2-cleft into unequal lobes. Stamens 5, short ; 
filaments with scale-like appendages on the inner side and more or less united ; 
anthers connivent or coherent. Ovary oblong, 5-celled ; style very short or obsolete ; 
stigma 5-lobed ; ovules several in each cell. Fruit a slender capsule, elastically de- 
hiscing into 5 coiled valves, expelling the oblong seeds ; endosperm none ; embryo 
straight, with flat cotyledons. 

A family of 2 genera and about 220 species, mostly natives of tropical Asia. The monotypic genus Hydrocera 
differs from Impatiens in having a 4-S -celled indehiscent berry. 

1. IMPATIENS [Rivin.] L. Sp. PL 937. 1753. 

Our species annuals with 3 petals, each of the posterior ones being united with the 
adjoining lateral one to form an unequally 2-cleft petal. Capsule narrow, 5-celled. [Name 
Latin, in allusion to the elastically dehiscent capsule.] 

About 220 species, mostly natives of tropical Asia. Seven or eight species occur in North and Central 
America. Type species, Impatiens Noli-tangere L. 

Posterior sepal spurred, the spur more or less strongly incurved. 

Flowers orange-yellow; sack about 12 mm. long. 1. /. aurella. 

Flowers pale yellow; sack about 20 mm. long. 2. I. occidentalis. 

Posterior sepal not spurred. 3. /. ecalcarata. 

L Impatiens aurella Rydb. Pale-yellow Touch-me-not. Fig. 3100. 

Impatiens aurella "RyAh. Bull. Torrey Club 28 : 34. 1900. 

Stems 5-6 dm. high, slender, light green, branching above. Leaves 2-8 cm. long, ovate to 
oval, coarsely serrate-dentate, thin, bright green above, paler beneath ; petioles 5-40 mm. long ; 
pedicels very slender; lateral sepals ovate, 4-5 mm. long; posterior sepal conical, 10-15 rnm. long, 
orange, unspotted ; spur strongly incurved, about 8 mm. long ; petals 3, the anterior one triangular- 
obovate, emarginate, 5 mm. long, 8 mm. wide; capsule oblong-linear, 15-20 mm. long. 

Moist ground, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; eastern Washington and British Columbia to Idaho 
and Montana. Type locality: Priest River, Idaho. Aug.-Sept. 

Closely related to Impatiens biflora Walt, of the eastern United States, which has larger spotted flowers. 

2. Impatiens occidentalis Rydb. Western Jewel-weed. Fig. 3101. 

Impatiens occidentalis Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 25: 94. 1910. 

Stems light green, about 1 m. high, branching above. Leaves oval, 2-10 cm. long, thin light 
green, serrate-dentate; inflorescence 3— 5-flowered ; pedicels very slender; lateral sepals obovate, 
abruptly acuminate, 6 mm. long ; posterior sepal conical, about 2 cm. long, pale yellow, unspotted 
or minutely dotted, its spur strongly incurved ; anterior petal pale yellow, broadly obovate, about 
7 mm. long and 10 mm. wide; capsule linear-clavate, 15-20 mm. long. 

Wet places, Humid Transition and Canadian Zones; Alaska to western Washington. Type locality: along 
streams in damp woods, North Fork of Nooksack River, Washington. July-Sept. 

This species has been referred to the Eurasian species Impatiens Noli-tangere L. and was formerly con- 
sidered as introduced on the Pacific Coast. 

3. Impatiens ecalcarata Blankinship. Spurless Jewel-weed. Fig. 3102. 

Impatiens ecalcarata Blankinship, Mont. Agr. Coll. Sci. Stud. 1:85. 1905. 

Stems slender, light green, about 1 m. high. Leaves ovate to ovate-elliptic, 2-10 cm. long, 
obliquely dentate ; inflorescence 2-6-flowered ; lateral sepals obliquely oval, 6 mm. long ; posterior 
sepal helmet-shaped, unspurred, 8-10 mm. long, and a little wider, pale yellow, unspotted ; petals 
pale yellow. 

Wet shady places, Canadian and Transition Zones; southeastern British Columbia to Montana and Oregon. 
In the Pacific States it has been collected in the Columbia Valley {Lyall) and at Ilwaco, Washington, and 
Clatskanie, Oregon. Type locality: damp shady margin of a stream, Missoula County, Montana. Aug.-Sept. 

Family 90. RHAMNACEAE. 
Buckthorn Family. 

Small trees, shrubs, or a few climbers, often thorny, with simple generally alter- 
nate leaves. Stipules present, small and deciduous or sometimes corky and per- 
sistent. Flowers small, regular, perfect or polygamous, usually in axillary or ter- 



60 



RHAMNACEAE 




3097. Acer circinatum 

3098. Acer Negundo 



3099. Aesculus californica 

3100. Impatiens aurella 



3101. Impatiens occidentalis 

3102. Impatiens ecalcarata 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 61 

minal cymes or panicles. Calyx 4-5-toothed. Petals 4—5, inserted on the calyx, 
sometimes wanting. Stamens 4—5, opposite the petals ; anthers short, versatile. Disk 
fleshy. Ovary sessile, free from or immersed in the disk, 2-5-celled. Ovules solitary 
in each cell, anatropous, ascending. Fruit a drupe, berry or capsule, often 3-celled. 
Seeds with fleshy or rarely no endosperm ; embryo large ; cotyledons flat. 

A family of about 50 genera and 600 species, inhabiting the temperate and tropical regions. 

Fruit drupe-like; flowers 4-S-merous; petals sometimes absent. 

Nutlets 1 to each drupe; petals when present clawed. 1. Condalia. 

Nutlets 2-3 to each berry-like drupe; petals when present sessile or very short-clawed. 2. Rhamnus. 
Fruit a 3-celIed capsule; petals distinctly clawed. 

Calyx-tube adherent to the lower part of the capsule; calyx-lobes deciduous. 

Pedicels and calyx glabrous; calyx-lobes petaloid. 3. Ceanothus. 

Pedicels and calyx tomentose; calyx-lobes not petaloid. 4. Colubrina. 

Calyx-tube investing the lower part of the capsule but not adherent, the lobes persistent. 5. Adolphia. 

1. CONDAlIA Cav. Anal. Ci. Nat. Madrid 1: 39. pi. 4. 1799. 

Small trees or shrubs with divaricate branches and often spiny twigs. Leaves alter- 
nate, entire, with minute stipules. Flowers in sessile or short-peduncled axillary cymes. 
Calyx deeply lobed. Petals when present clawed and hooded. Styles 2-3-notched or shal- 
lowly lobed. Ovary free from the calyx and disk, incompletely 2-celIed. Fruit a drupe 
with a single nutlet. [Name in honor of Antonio Condal, a Spanish physician.] 

A genus of about 10 species, inhabiting the warm temperate and tropical regions of America. Type species, 
Condalia microphylla Cav. 

Petals none ; calyx-lobes persistent. 1 • C. globosa pubescens. 
Petals present; calyx-lobes deciduous. 

Drupe beakless, 6-10 mm. long; plants canescent. 2. C. lycioides canescens. 

Drupe beaked, IS mm. long; plants glabrous. 3. C. Parryi. 

1. Condalia globosa var. pubescens L M. Johnston. Spiny Abrojo or Crucillo. 

Fig. 3103. 

Condalia globosa var. pubescens I. M. Johnston, Proc. Calif. Acad. IV. 12: 1087. 1924. 

Intricately branching shrub with short divaricate spiny twigs, minutely puberulent and brown- 
ish-pruinose. Leaves narrowly spatulate to oblanceolate, 7-13 mm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, becoming 
reduced to minute scales toward the spinescent tips, minutely puberulent or glabrate, thick, with 
a few low broad veins; sepals deciduous; drupe obliquely ovoid, 4-5 mm. long, black and juicy; 
pedicels about as long as or longer than the fruit. 

Desert slopes. Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, at Mesquite Station and Picacho, southern California, 
east to western Arizona and south to northern Lower California. Type locality: San Esteban Island, Gulf of 
California, Lower California. March-May. 

2. Condalia lycioides var. canescens (A. Gray) Trelease. Gray Abrojo or 

Crucillo. Fig. 3104. 

Zisyphus lycioides var. canescens A. Gray, Wheeler Rep. 6: 82. 1878. 

Condalia lycioides var. canescens Trelease in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. V-: 403. 1897. 

Condalia divaricata A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 47:427. 1909. 

Much-branched shrub, with pale gray-green bark, the ultimate branches divaricate, rigid and 
spinescent, more or less canescent. Leaves oblong or oblong-elliptic, 5-15 mm. long, entire or 
denticulate, more or less canescent, rather thin, finely net-veined; flowers in short-peduncled 
umbels ; drupe ellipsoid, 6-10 mm. long. 

Usually in bottom lands. Lower Sonoran Zone; Colorado Desert, California, east to southern Nevada and 
western Arizona, and south to Sonora and Lower California. Type locality: valley of the Gila River, Arizona. 
April-July. Lotebush. 

3. Condalia Parryi (Terr.) Weberb. California Abrojo or Crucillo. Fig. 3105. 

Zisyphtts Parryi Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 46. 1859. 

Condalia Parryi Weberb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf. 3^: 404. 1896. 

Arborescent glabrous shrub with the ultimate branches divaricate and spinescent. Leaves 
fascicled on short spurs, elliptic-obovate, 8-20 mm. long, entire, glabrous and bright green on 
both surfaces ; petiole slender, 2-5 mm. long ; flowers in small cymose clusters on short spurs ; 
pedicels very slender, 8-10 mm. long; drupe broadly ellipsoid, 1-2 cm. long, usually distinctly 
beaked, the pericarp dry and thin. 

Desert slopes. Lower Sonoran Zone; western edge of the Colorado Desert, San Bernardino County, Cali- 
fornia, south to northern Lower California. Type locality: San Felipe Canyon, California. Feb.-April. 

2. RHAMNUS [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 193. 1753. 
Shrubs or small trees with alternate pinnately veined deciduous or evergreen leaves. 



62 RHAMNACEAE 

Flowers small, perfect, dioecious or polygamous, in small axillary cymes, racemes or 
panicles. Calyx 4-5-toothed, the tube urceolate. Petals when present very short-clawed, 
often emarginate and somewhat hooded. Ovary 2-4-celled, free from the disk. Style 2-4- 
lobed. Fruit a berry-like drupe, with 2-4 separate nutlets. [The ancient Greek name.] 

A genus of about 90 species, natives of the temperate and tropical regions. Type species, Rhamnus 
cathartica L. 

Petals present; bud-scales none. 

Leaves deciduous, rather thin and not coriaceous. 

Fruit 3-seeded; leaves 6-15 cm. long. 1- R. Purshiana. 

Fruit 2-seeded; leaves 3-7 cm. long. 2. R. rubra. 

Leaves evergreen, rather thick and coriaceous. 3. R. calif ornica. 
Petals none; bud-scales present. 

Leaves deciduous; berries black. 4. R. alnifolia. 

Leaves evergreen; berries red. 5. R. crocea. 

1. Rhamnus Purshiana DC. Cascara Sagrada. Fig. 3106. 

Rhamnus Purshiana DC. Prod. 2:25. 1825. 

Frangula Purshiana Cooper, Pacif. R. Rep. 12: 29, 57. 1860. 

Rhamnus anonaefolia Greene, Pittonia 3: 16. 1896. 

Small tree or arborescent shrub, 3-10 m. high with smooth grayish bark, the young twigs 
pubescent. Leaves deciduous, elliptic-oblong, 8-20 cm. long, obtuse or rounded at apex, obtuse 
to subcordate at base, serrulate, glabrous or nearly so ; petioles finely tomentose ; flowers perfect, 
5-merous, in small pedunculate umbels, 3-4 mm. wide ; petals somewhat truncate at base above 
the short claw; berries black, with 3 nutlets, or rarely with only 2. 

Moist soils in lowlands and canyons. Humid Transition Zone; British Columbia southward on the Pacific 
Slope to Mendocino and Placer Counties, California, east to northern Idaho and western Montana. Type 
locality: Clearwater River near Kamiah, Idaho. June-July. 

2. Rhamnus rubra Greene. Sierra Coffeeberrv. Fig. 3107. 

Rhamnus rubra Greene, Pittonia 1 : 68. 1887. 

Rhamnus calif ornica var. rubra Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. 5: 367. 1889. 

Spreading or rounded shrub, 1-2 m. high, the bark gray or often reddish, young twigs pu- 
bescent or glabrate. Leaves deciduous, rather thin, narrowly elliptic, oblong or obovate, 2-8 cm. 
commonly about 4 cm. long, finely serrulate to denticulate, glabrous or somewhat pubescent on 
both surfaces ; flowers perfect, 5-merous, in small peduncled umbels ; petals with a broad notch 
at apex, abruptly obtuse or truncate at base, the claw short but evident ; berry black ; nutlets 2 
or sometimes 3. 

Mountain slopes. Arid Transition and Canadian Zones; Mount Shasta region south to the southern Sierra 
Nevada, California, and adjacent Nevada. Type locality: eastern base of the Sierra Nevada, near Truckee, Cali- 
fornia. June-July. 

Rhamnus rubra subsp. nevadensts (A. Nels.) C. B. Wolf, Mon. Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Card. Bot. Ser. 
1:86. 1938. (Rhamnus nevadensis A. Nels. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 18:174. 1905.) This subspecies re- 
sembles the typical species in the acute leaves, but the mature berries are pyriform and usually over 10 mm. m 
diameter, whereas in the typical species the berries are obovoid or spherical and usually less than 10 mm. in 
diameter. Along the eastern border of California and adjacent Ormsby and Douglas Counties, Nevada, iype 
locality: near Reno, Nevada. 

Rhamnus rubra subsp. obtusissima (Greene) C. B. Wolf, op. cit. 88. (Rhamnus obtusissima Greene, 
Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1:64. 1904.) Distinguished from the typical species by the very obtuse leaves. Sierra 
Nevada from Siskiyou County to Tuolumne County, California, and adjacent Nevada. Type locality: bisson, 
California. 

Rhamnus rubra subsp. modocensis C. B. Wolf, op. cit. 89. fig. 35. Leaves small, fascicled on short stubby 
spurs, characters that distinguish it from the typical species and the other subspecies. Northeastern California 
in Siskiyou and Modoc Counties. Type locality: Dry Lake, Modoc County. 

Rhamnus rubra subsp. yosemitana C. B. Wolf, op. cit. 90. figs. 36, 37. Both surfaces of the leaves with 
a fine soft puberulence. In the typical species and the other subspecies the leaves are glabrous or minutely 
puberulent on the midrib. Western slopes of the central Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality: Yosemite 
Valley, Yosemite National Park. 

3. Rhamnus californica Esch. California Coffeeberry. Fig. 3108. 

Rhamnus californica Esch. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 10: 285. 1823. 

Rhamnus oleifolia Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 123. pi. 44. 1833. 

Rhamnus laurifolia Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 260. 1848. 

Frangula californica A. Gray, Gen. 111. 2: 178. 1849. 

Rhamnus Purshiana var. californica Rehder in Bailey, Cyclop. Hort. 1510. 1902. 

Arborescent shrub with a rounded crown, or low and spreading, the young twigs reddish 
brown and sparsely puberulent. Leaves oblong to elliptic, 3-8 cm. long, acute or obtuse, the 
margins finely denticulate or entire, plane or slightly revolute, dark green above, bright shmmg 
green beneath and glabrous or slightly pubescent on the veins; flowers perfect, 5-merous, or 
sometimes 4-merous, in pedunculate umbels ; petals when spread out about 2 mm. broad, broadly 
notched at apex, usually acute at base ; berry spherical, 10-12 mm. in diameter, black when fully 
mature; nutlets 2 or sometimes 3, resembling coffee. 

Hillsides and ravines, Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones- California Coast Ranges from western Siskiyou 
County to San Bernardino County, California. Type locality: San Francisco, California. May-June. 

Rhamnus californica subsp. occidentalis (Howell) C. B. Wolf, Mon. Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Card. Bot. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 



63 




3103. Condalia globosa 



3104 
3104. Condalia lycioides 



3105 



3105. Condalia Parryi 



Ser. 1:66. 1938. {Rhamnus occidentalis Howell, Pittonia 2:15. 1899.) Low shrub, bark of the young 
twigs green. Leaves firm, coriaceous, glabrous, rather bright green above, yellow-green beneath; fruit 3-seeded. 
Canyon slopes, Transition and Canadian Zones; Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon and northwestern 
California. Type locality: Waldo, Josephine County, Oregon. 

Rhamnus californica subsp. crassifolia (Jepson) C. B. Wolf, op. cit. 68. {Rhamnus californica var. 
crassifolia Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 615. 1925.) Leaves broadly elliptical, entire, densely white-tomentulose 
on both surfaces. Inner North Coast Ranges, California. Type locality: western Colusa County. 

Rhamnus californica subsp. tomentella (Benth.) C. B. Wolf, op. cit. 70. {Rhamnus tomentella Benth. 
PI. Hartw. 303. 1848.) Arborescent shrub, leaves oblong or narrowly elliptic, entire, glabrous or pubescent 
above, densely white-tomentulose beneath, the margins slightly revolute. Foothills of the Sierra Nevada and the 
Coast Ranges, California, south to northern Lower California. Type locality: "Montibus Sacramento." Collected 
by Hartweg. 

Rhamnus californica subsp. cuspidata (Greene) C. B. Wolf, op. cit. 72. {Rhamnus cuspidata Greene, 
Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1:64. 1904.) Resembling the subspecies tomentella, but the leaves sharply denticulate. 
Foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada and Inyo County south to the desert slopes of the San Bernardino 
Mountains, California. Type locality: Tehachapi, Kern County. 

4. Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her. Alder-leaved Coffeeberry. Fig. 3109. 

Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her. Sert. Angl. 5. 1788. 

Apetlorhamnus alnifolia Nieuwl. Amer. Midi. Nat. 4: 89. 1915. 

Shrub, 1-3 m. high, with gray bark, the twigs puberulent or glabrate, bud-scales present. 
Leaves deciduous, oval to elliptic, 4-10 cm. long, usually abruptly acuminate, sometimes obtuse 
or even rounded at apex, crenate-serrate, rather thin, puberulent or glabrous on both surfaces; 
flowers appearing with the leaves, 1-3 in the axils ; unisexual, 5-merous or sometimes 4-merous ; 
petals none ; berry black, 6-8 mm. in diameter, with 3 nutlets. 

Usually in swamps and bogs, mainly Canadian Zone; Saskatchewan to Quebec south to California, Indiana, 
and Pennsylvania. In the Pacific States occurring east of the Cascade Mountains and Sierra Nevada, from 
northeastern Washington to central California. Type locality: "America septentrional!." May-June. 



5. Rhamnus crocea Nutt. Red-berried Buckthorn or Redberry. Fig. 3110. 

Rhamnus crocea Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 261. 1838. 

Low much-branched shrub, seldom over 1-2 m. high, the branchlets rigid and often spines- 
cent. Leaves evergreen, rigidly coriaceous, 10-15 mm. long, elliptic to broadly ovate or obovate, 
usually glandular-serrulate, glabrous or slightly puberulent on the petiole and midrib; flowers 
unisexual, 4-merous or sometimes 5-merous; petals none; berry red, sweet, obovoid, 5-8 mm. 
long ; nutlets 2. 

Chaparral-covered hills and ravines, Upper Sonoran Zone; Coast Ranges from central California to northern 
Lower California. Type locality: Monterey, California. April-May. 

Rhamnus crocea subsp. ilicifolia (Kell.) C. B. Wolf, Mon. Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Card. Bot. Ser. 1: 39. 
1938. {Rhamnus ilicifolia Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 37. 1863.) Shrub or small tree, the twigs glabrous or 
nearly so, not spinescent. Leaves as in the typical species, but larger, 15-40 mm. long, broadly ovate-elliptic 
to orbicular, green or brownish beneath. Siskiyou County south through the Coast Ranges and the foothills 
of the Sierra Nevada to San Diego County, California. In northern and central California the leaves are com- 
monly brownish beneath, but in the southern Sierra Nevada and south of Santa Barbara they are usually green. 
Type locality: vicinity of Clear Lake, Lake County. 

Rhamnus crocea subsp. pilosa (Trelease) C. B. Wolf, op. cit. 38. {Rhamnus crocea var. pilosa Trelease 



64 RHAMNACEAE 

ex Curran Proc Calif. Acad. II. 1:251. 1888.) This is distinguished from the green-leaved form of the 
subspecies ilicifolia by the pilose or densely grayish-puberulent twigs and petioles. It occurs on the western 
slopes of the mountains in San Diego County, extends eastward to the desert slopes of southern California and 
Arizona and south to northern Lower California. Type locality: Santa Maria Valley, San Diego County, 
California. 

Rhamnus crocea subsp. pirifolia (Greene) C. B. Wolf, op. cit. 45. (Rhamnus pirifolia Greene, Pittonia 
3: 15. 1896.) Closely related to the subspecies ilicifolia from which it differs chiefly in being: more arboreal 
and having larger leaves, which are less sharply toothed. It has been confused with Rhamnus insnliis Kell. of 
Cedros Island, Lower California. Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands, California, 
and Guadalupe Island, Lower California. Type locality: Santa Cruz Island. 

3. CEANOTHUS L. Sp. PI. 195. 1753. 

Unarmed or spinescent shrubs or rarely small trees with alternate or opposite de- 
ciduous or evergreen leaves. Flowers white, blue, or purple, in terminal or axillary- 
panicles or cymes. Calyx 5-lobed, the lobes petaloid and deciduous. Petals hooded, long- 
clawed. Ovary immersed in the disk and adnate to it at the base, 3-lobed. Disk adnate to 
the calyx. Style 3-cleft. Capsule somewhat 3-lobed, often crested or horned, separating 
at maturity into 3 nutlets. [Name used by Theophrastus for some plant.] 

An American genus of about 60 species, most abundant in California. Type species, Ceanothus ameri- 
canui L. 

Stipules thin and early deciduous; leaves alternate, their stomata on the lower surface never in sunken pits; 
capsules smooth or sometimes ridged or crested on the middle of the lobes. (Section Euceanothus) 
Ultimate branches flexible at least not rigidly divaricate and spinose. 

Leaves glandular-denticulate, serrulate or serrate (except Parryi) and evergreen (except sanguineus). 
Leaves distinctly 3-nerved from the base, sometimes appearing 1-nerved in Parryi. 
Branchlets terete. 

Leaves deciduous; flowers white. 1- C. sanguineus. 

Leaves evergreen. 

Leaves varnished above and strongly scented; flowers white. 

» 2. C. veluttnus. 

Leaves not varnished above; flowers blue. 

Under surface of leaves white-tomentose. 

Leaves 5 cm. long or more; flowers in an ample panicle. 

3. C. arbor eus. 

Leaves less than S cm. long; flowers in a small raceme. 

4. C. tomentosus. 

Under surface of leaves green and glabrous or sparsely pubescent. 

Leaves bright green and glabrous on both surfaces; raceme elongated. 

5. C. cyaneus. 

Leaves more or less pubescent on both surfaces; raceme short. 

6. C. oliganthus. 
Branchlets angled and striated. 

Leaves plane, distinctly 3-nerved. 

Leaves green and glabrous between the veins beneath, the margins not revolute. 

7. C. thyrsiflorus. 

Leaves tomentulose between the veins beneath, margins narrowly revolute. 

8. C. griseus. 

Leaves often appearing l-nerved, the lateral veins obscured by the strongly revolute 
margins. 9. C. Parryi. 

Leaves 1-nerved from the base. 

Leaves more or less revolute on the margins. 

Upper surface of leaves papillate. 10. C. papillosus. 

Upper surface of leaves not papillate, or only on the fold of the revolute margin. 

Leaves orbicular to broadly elliptic, upper surface deeply grooved over the midrib 
and lateral veins, the margins sometimes slightly glandular. 

11. C. impressus. 

Leaves elliptic to narrowly oblong, appearing truncate due to the infolding at apex, 
sometimes glandular-papillate along the apparent margin, the true infolded 
margin glandular-denticulate. 12. C. dentatus. 

Leaves plane, their margins not revolute, lateral veins sometimes rather prominent. 
Prostrate shrub; flowers few (3-8) in short racemes. 13. C. diver sif alius. 

Erect shrubs with ascending or spreading branches. 

Branches elongated, spreading; capsule prominently crested. 

14. C. Lentmontt. 

Branches erect or ascending; crests of the capsule inconspicuous. 

Capsule deeply lobed; calyx-lobes narrowly triangular, less than 2 mm. long. 

15. C. foliosus. 

Capsule shallowly lobed; calyx-lobes broadly triangular, 2 mm. long. 

16. C. austromontanus. 

Leaves entire or rarely few-toothed at the apex, plane, branchlets terete. 

Capsules 3.5-4.5 mm. broad, obscurely crested and otherwise smooth; leaves deciduous. 

Peduncles naked; leaves narrowly oblong, narrowed at base, glabrous, 1-nerved; flowers blue. 

17. C. parvifolius. 

Peduncles more or less leafy; leaves rounded to subcordate at base, 1-3-nerved; flowers white 
or when blue the leaves pubescent. 18. C. integerrimus. 

Capsules 5-7 mm. broad, roughened with a wrinkled exocarp and crested with a roughened ridge; 
leaves 1-nerved, evergreen. 19. C. Palmeri. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 65 

Ultimate branches rigidly divaricate and spinose; leaves evergreen, plane. 

Leaves 1-nerved and finely pinnate-veined; oblong-elliptic, bright green, entire; flowers blue. 

20. C. spinosus. 
Leaves 3-nerved or in small-leaved forms, the lateral nerves obscure. 

Flowers blue; leaves abundantly glandular-serrate, glabrous above; branchlets pubescent. 

21. C. sorediatus. 

Flowers white; leaves mostly entire or on vigorous shoots, sparingly toothed, the teeth with or 
without glands. 

Bark gray-green; rather compact erect shrubs; leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, mostly less than 

IS cm. long, glabrous. 22. C. leucodermis. 

Bark nearly white; widely spreading shrubs; leaves ovate to ovate-orbicular. 

Capsules smooth except for low crests; panicles usually simple; leaves mostly entire pale 

green on both surfaces and nearly or quite glabrous. 23. C. cordulatus. ' 

Capsules roughened with a thick exocarp; panicles usually compound. 

24. C. incanus. 

Stipule-bases persistent, thick and corky; capsules usually with dorsal or apical horns; flowers umbellate- leaves 
firm-coriaceous and persistent. (Section Cerastes) ' 

Leaves alternate; flowers white. 

Horns of the capsule dorsal and prominent; capsule 7-13 mm. in diameter; leaves narrowly obovate 

entire, cuneate. 25. C. mcgacarpus. 

Horns of the capsule minute or none; capsule about 4-7 mm. in diameter. 

Leaves entire, oblanceolate to broadly elliptic, usually alternate but sometimes some of them 

opposite. 26. C. insnlaris. 

Leaves usually denticulate, round-obovate to deltoid-obovate, all alternate. 

27. C. verrucosus. 
Leaves opposite; flowers white or blue. 

Flowers normally white. 

Leaves with their margins more or less revolute, densely tomentose beneath. 

28. C. crassifoHus. 
Leaves not revolute. 

Horns of the capsule dorsal (near the middle) and spreading, usually minute; leaves usually 
toothed, not cuneate. 

Leaves grayish green above, densely tomentulose beneath, minutely denticulate or entire. 

29. C. vestitus. 

Leaves rather bright yellowish green, nearly or quite glabrous above, spinose-toothed all 
around. 30. C. perplexans. 

Horns of the capsule near the apex, erect and slender. 
Erect shrub 1-2 m. high. 

Leaves entire, cuneate at base. 31. C. cuneatus. 

Leaves mostly toothed, obtuse or rounded at base. 32. C. Ferrisiae. 

Prostrate shrub forming mats; leaves entire or with a few small teeth at the rounded or 
truncate apex. iZ. C. fresnensis. 

Flowers normally blue, sometimes lavender or rarely nearly white. 

Fruiting capsules 4-5 mm. broad, their horns short or slender and the intermediate surface smooth 
or nearly so, not crested. 

Leaves not spinulose-toothed, either entire or denticulate, plane not sinuate and holly-like. 
Leaves entire or denticulate at the apex. 

Plants prostrate. (See also C. fresnensis.) 

Leaves oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, less than 6 mm. broad, with 1-3 small 
teeth at the apex. 34. C. pumilus. 

Leaves nearly orbicular, entire or with several minute teeth; flowers lavender to 
nearly white. 35. C. ramulosus. 

Plants not prostrate. 

Branches mostly elongated and arched; leaves not crowded, entire or often few- 
toothed above. 35. C. ramulosus. 

Branches usually straight and rigid; leaves crowded on short lateral branchlets, 
mostly toothed and retuse at apex; flowers dark blue. 

36. C. rigidus. 
Leaves denticulate nearly all around, rarely some leaves nearly entire; stipules prominent. 
Plants prostrate or with lax divergent and arching stems and branches; leaves 15-30 
mm. long. 37. C. gloriosus. 

Plants with stout rigid and erect stems; branches short and stiff; leaves 5-15 mm. 
long. 38. C. Masonii. 

Leaves with sharp spinulose teeth at least at apex, often sinuate and holly-like. 
Plants with erect or divergent and arched stems. 

Bark usually gray; leaves mostly less than 12 mm. long and 6 mm. broad, with 4-8 

coarse spinulose teeth. 39. C. sonomensis. 

Bark brown; leaves over 12 mm. long and 6 mm. wide. 

Leaves concave or trough-like above, the margins undulate; stems stout and rigid. 

40. C. pupureus. 
Leaves usually plane, the margins rarely undulate; stems rather weak and 
arching. 41. C. divergens. 

Plants prostrate or decumbent. 41. C. divergens, subsp. 

Fruiting capsules 7-9 mm. broad; horns prominent and wrinkled, and the surface between the horns 
conspicuously wrinkled and crested or ridged. 
Prostrate or decumbent shrub forming mats; leaves spinulose-dentate above, cuneate and entire 
below. 42. C. prostratus. 

Erect or spreading shrubs, forming rounded clumps about 1 m. high or less; leaves toothed 
all around. 

Leaves mostly plane, not deflexed, rather finely denticulate with 6-8 rather coarse teeth 
on each side. 43. C. pinetorum. 

Leaves undulate and strongly spinose-toothed all around with 4-5 coarse spinose teeth on 
each side. 44. C. Jepsonii. 



66 



RHAMNACEAE 




3106 




3108 





3;.07 



3106. Rhamnus Purshiana 

3107. Rhamnus rubra 



3119 

3108. Rhamnus califomica 

3109. Rhamnus alnifolia 



3110 

3110. Rhamnus crocea 



1. Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh. Northern Buck-brush or Oregon Tea-tree. 

Fig. 3111. 

Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh, FI. Amer. Sept. 1: 167. 1814. 

Ceanothus oreganus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:265. 1838. 

Shrub, 1-3 m. high, the branchlets usually reddish brown, glabrous. Leaves deciduous, ellip- 
tic to ovate-elliptic, obtuse at apex, rounded or subcordate at base, glandular-serrulate, 2.5-7 cm. 
long, light green and rather thin, glabrous above, the petioles, veins and young twigs short- 
villous; panicles lateral on the twigs of the previous season, 5-10 cm. long; flowers white; 
capsule 3-lobed, smooth. 

In open forests, mainly Canadian Zone; western British Columbia to western Montana, southward through 
the Pacific States to northern California. Type locality: probably Lolo Creek, Idaho. Originally collected by 
Lewis and Clark. May-July. 

2. Ceanothus velutinus Dougl. Sticky Laurel or Tobacco-brush, Fig. 3112, 

Ceanothus velutinus Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1; 125. 1830. 

Shrub, 1-2 m. high, much branched, stout, the branchlets olive-brown to reddish brown, 
puberulent. Leaves evergreen, 2.5-8 cm. long, oval, obtuse or rounded at apex, subcordate at 
base, finely and closely glandular-denticulate, firm-coriaceous, dark green, smooth and varnished 
above, pale, puberulent beneath and prominently 3-nerved ; panicles borne in the axils of the 
leaves of the previous season, puberulent ; flowers white ; capsule 3-lobed at summit, nearly smooth. 

Open woods and mountain slopes, mainly Canadian Zone; British Columbia to Montana, South Dakota, 
Colorado, Utah and in the Pacific States to the North Coast Ranges and the southern Sierra Nevada, California. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 67 

Type locality: "Subalpine hills near the source of the Columbia and at the Kettle Falls." April-July. Mountain 
Balm. 

Ceanothus velutinus var. laevigatus (Hook.) Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 686. 1838 Di'^tinguished 
from the typical species by the glabrous twigs and leaves. Vancouver Island southward west of the Cascade 
Mountains to the North Coast Ranges, California. Type locality: Nootka, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

Ceanothus velutinus var. Lorenzenii Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 619. 1925. Leaves smaller, not varnished 
above; panicles shorter. Probably a hybrid between C. velutinus and C. cordulatus. Occasional from Mount 
Shasta to the southern Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality: Junction Meadow, Tulare County. 

3. Ceanothus arboreus Greene. Catalina Ceanothus. Fig. 3113. 

Ceanothus arboreus Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 2: 144. 1886. 

Ceanothus velutinus var. arboreus Sargent, Garden & Forest 2: 364. 1889. 

Ceanothus arboreus var. glabra Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 619. 1925. 

Arborescent shrub or small tree. 3-6 m. high, twigs remaining canescent with a fine dense 
tomentum for one or two years then becoming glabrous and reddish brown. Leaves 3-8 cm. long, 
broadly ovate to elliptic, obtuse or acute, obtuse to subcordate at base, glandular-serrulate, dull 
green above and velvety with a fine soft puberulence, canescent beneath with a dense short to- 
mentum, prominently 3-ribbed ; panicles ample, often 8-12 cm. long; flowers pale blue; capsule 
6-7 mm. broad, 3-lobed, wrinkled and prominently crested on the back of each lobe. 

Mountain slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and Santa Catalina Islands, California. 
Type locality: northern slopes at higher elevations, Santa Cruz Island. March-April. 

4. Ceanothus tomentosus Parry. Woolly-leaved Ceanothus. Fig. 3114. 

Ceanothus tomentosus Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. 5: 190. 1889. 

Ceanothus otiganthus var. tomentosus K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4: 198. 1894. 

Shrub, 1-3 m. high with grayish brown bark, the branchlets slender, rusty-tomentose when 
young. Leaves 8-25 mm. long, ovate to elliptic, glandular-serrulate, dull green and minutely 
velvety above, densely white-tomentose beneath ; peduncles often bearing one or two leaves at 
base; panicle simple, 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers pale violet-blue or sometimes nearly white; cap- 
sule about 4 mm. broad, 3-lobed, the lobes smooth or slightly crested. 

Dry rocky ridges. Upper Sonoran Zone; foothills of the Sierra Nevada, from Nevada County to Mariposa 
County, California. Type locality: brown sandstone ledges, lone, Amador County. April-May. 

Ceanothus tomentosus var. olivaceus Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 621. 1925. Under surface of the leaves 
gray-green with a fine velvety pubescence; capsule more glutinous and becoming very dark in age. Chaparral 
slopes of southern California in San Bernardino and San Diego Counties south to northern Lower California. 
Type locality: Clevinger Canyon, Ramona, San Diego County. 

5. Ceanothus cyaneus Eastw, San Diego Ceanothus. Fig. 3115. 

Ceanothus cyaneus Eastw. Proc. Calif. Acad. IV. 16: 361. 1927. 

Arborescent shrub up to 4 m. high, with gray-brown bark, the branchlets sparsely puberulent 

or glabrous, usually bearing scattered brownish sessile glands. Leaves elliptic-ovate to ovate, 

finely glandular-serrulate, 1.5-4 cm. long, light green and glabrous above, scarcely paler beneath, 

thinly puberulent ; peduncles elongated, the lower often bearing a few leaves ; panicles simple 

or the terminal ones compound, 5-15 cm. long; flowers bright blue; capsule shallowly 3-lobed, 

smooth, crests small, usually evanescent. 

Canyon slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; foothills of eastern San Diego County, California. Type locality: 
Lakeside, San Diego County, California. April-May. 

6. Ceanothus oliganthus Nutt. Hairy Ceanothus. Fig. 3116. 

Ceanothus oliganthus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:266. 1838. 
Ceanothus hirsutus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, loc. cit. 
Ceanothus divaricatus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, loc. cit. 

Arborescent shrub, 1.5-3 m. high, the branches not rigid-spinescent, hirsute, the older be- 
coming smooth and brownish. Leaves 1 .5-4.5 cm. long, ovate, obtuse to acutish, rounded to sub- 
cordate at base, glandular-denticulate, dull green above and sparingly pubescent, pale beneath and 
more or less densely hirsute-pubescent, the veins slender ; petioles 1 cm. long or less ; panicles 
simple, 1 . 5-3 cm. long ; peduncles short, leafless ; flowers deep violet ; capsule about 4 mm. 
broad, shallowly lobed, the lobes resinous and wrinkled, rather strongly crested. 

Chaparral slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; cismontane region of southern California from southern San Luis 
Obispo County to San Diego County. Type locality: Santa Barbara. March-April. 

Ceanothus oliganthus var. Orcuttii (Parry) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 621. 1925. {Ceanothus Orcuttii 
Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. 5 : 194. 1889.) Flowers pale violet; capsule villous, more viscid and wrinkled. 
Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, California. Type locality: high mountains east of San Diego. 

7. Ceanothus thyrsiflorus Esch. Blue-brush or Blue-blossom. Fig. 3117. 

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus Esch. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI. 10: 285. 1826. 

Arborescent shrub or small tree, 1-4 m. high with slender flexible ascending branches, the 
younger twigs angled, green, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, somewhat viscid. Leaves 2-6 cm. 
long, oblong-elliptic, acutish or obtuse at apex, narrowed at base, rather remotely and sometimes 
obscurely glandular-serrulate ; dark green and glabrous above, pale green below and sparsely 
hairy on the prominent veins ; panicle simple or often compound, 4-8 cm. long ; peduncles often 



68 RHAMNACEAE 

elongated, usually with a few leaves below ; flowers pale to deep blue, rarely nearly white ; capsule 
about 3 mm. broad, slightly lobed, nearly smooth, somewhat viscid. 

Open woods and canyon slopes, mainly Humid Transition Zone; Coast Ranges from Douglas County, Ore- 
gon, to Santa Barbara County, California. Type locality: California. April-June. 

8. Ceanothus griseus (Trelease) McMinn. Carmel Ceanothus. Fig. 3118. 

Ceanothus thyrsiflorws var. griseus Trelease in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. l^: 415. 1897. 
Ceanothus griseus McMinn, Ceanothus 210. 1942. 

Erect shrub, 1-3 m. high with stout angled green branchlets. Leaves broadly ovate, obtuse 
at apex, 1.5-4 cm. long, dark green and glabrous above, gray-tomentulose or silky beneath, veins 
prominent on the lower surface, margins slightly revolute; flowers violet-blue, in dense panicles 
2-5 cm. long ; capsule globose, about 4 mm. broad, glandular-viscid when young, becoming black 
and shiny in age. 

Vicinity of the coast. Humid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; southern Mendocino County to northern 
Santa Barbara County, California. Type locality: vicinity of Monterey, California. March-May. 

Ceanothus griseus var. horizontalis McMinn, Ceanothus 210. 1942. This is a low-spreading or prostrate 
form growing "on the wind-swept bluffs above the ocean at Yankee Point, Monterey County, California," the 
type locality. It is probable that environment rather than heredity accounts for the low growth of these plants. 

9. Ceanothus Parry i Trelease. Parry's Ceanothus or Lady-bush. Fig. 3119. 

Ceanothus Parryi Trelease. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 1: 109. 1888. 

Ceanothus integerrimus var. Parryi K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4: 183. 1894. 

Low or arborescent shrub, 1-4 dm. high, the bark becoming grayish or reddish brown, branch- 
lets slender, often elongated and weak, angled, pubescent. Leaves 1 . 5-3 cm. long, narrowly ob- 
long to oblong-elliptic, glandular-serrulate to subentire, the margin revolute, upper surface dark 
green, glabrous or sparingly pubescent, the veins more or less impressed, lower surface pale gray- 
green and arachnoid-tomentose ; veins simply pinnate or lateral pair at base prominent ; panicles 
simple or nearly so, rather narrow, 5-15 cm. long, usually on elongated leafy peduncles; flowers 
violet-blue ; capsules only slightly lobed, smooth, 3-4 mm. broad. 

Mountain slopes and canyons, mainly Transition Zone; California Coast Ranges from Humboldt County to 
Napa and Marin Counties. Type locality: originally described from specimens cultivated at Calistoga, California. 
April-June. 

10. Ceanothus papillosus Torr. & Gray. Warty-leaved Ceanothus. Fig. 3120. 

Ceanothus papillosus Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 268. 1838. 

Ceanothus dentatus var. papillosus K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4: 203. 1894. 

Rather a loosely branching shrub, 1-2 m. high, the young branches terete, densely hirsutu- 
lous. Leaves 2-5 cm. long, narrowly oblong to linear, the margins revolute, often strongly so, 
dark green and more or less papillose on the upper surface, gray-green beneath and hirsutulous 
or tomentose ; panicles mostly simple, narrow and densely flowered, 2-5 cm. long ; peduncles short 
or sometimes elongated ; flowers deep violet-blue ; capsules 3-lobed with narrow crests. 

Open or partially shaded slopes, Upper Sonoran and Humid Transition Zones; California Coast Ranges, 
especially toward the coast, from San Mateo County to San Luis Obispo County. Type locality: California. 
Collected by Douglas. A form with the upper surface almost smooth, found on Kings Mountain in San Mateo 
County, is C. papillosus var. regius Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 618. 1925. April-May. 

Ceanothus papillosus var. Roweanus McMinn, Madrono 5: 13. _ 1939. Usually an erect-spreading shrub, 
0.5-2 m. high, with short lateral branches densely clothed with foliage. Leaves narrowly oblong to linear, 
1 . 5-5 cm. long, the margins strongly revolute, retuse at apex, upper surface densely glandular-papillose. Chap- 
arral and borders of woods, mainly Upper Sonoran Zone; San Benito and Monterey Counties to Santa Barbara 
County, and in scattering communities in Ventura, Orange, and western Riverside Counties, California. Type 
locality: Mount Tranquillon, Santa Barbara County. 

11. Ceanothus impressus Trelease. Santa Barbara Ceanothus. Fig. 3121. 

Ceanothus impressus Trelease, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 1: 112. 1888. 

Ceanothus dentatus var. impressus Trelease in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. U: 415. 1897. 

Low branched shrub, 5-15 dm. high. Leaves elliptic to nearly orbicular, 6—12 mm. long, 
1 -veined from the base, upper surface deeply grooved over the midrib and the lateral veins, margins 
strongly revolute and sometimes slightly glandular, appearing crenate, loosely villous, especially 
on the veins beneath ; petioles 2-3 mm. long ; panicles mostly simple, narrow and densely flowered, 
1.5-2.5 cm. long; flowers blue; capsule subglobose, about 4 mm. broad, with prominent lateral 
crests. 

Low hills and sandy mesas. Upper Sonoran Zone; northwestern Santa Barbara County, California. Type 
locality: "Santa Barbara County." March-April. 

Ceanothus impressus var. nipom^nsis McMinn, Ceanothus 219. figs. 12, 13. 1942. Leaves a little larger, 
lighter green and less deeply grooved over the veins, and the margins less revolute. Sandy soils in the vicinity 
of Nipomo Mesa, the type locality, San Luis Obispo County, California. 

12. Ceanothus dentatus Torr. & Gray. Dwarf Ceanothus. Fig. 3122. 

Ceanothus dentatus Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 268. 1838. 

Ceanothus dentatus var. floribundus Trelease in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 415. 1897. 

Ceanothus dentatus var. Lobbianus Trelease, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 1: 112. 1888. 

Low much-branched shrub, 1 m. or less high, the branchlets short, hirsutulous. Leaves small. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 



69 




3111. Ceanothus sanguineus 

3112. Ceanothus velutinus 

3113. Ceanothus arboreus 



3114. Ceanothus tomentosus 

3115. Ceanothus cyaneus 

3116. Ceanothus oliganthus 



3117. Ceanothus thyrsiflorus 

3118. Ceanothus griseus 

3119. Ceanothus Parryi 



70 RHAMNACEAE 

5-15 mm. long, oblong-elliptic, truncate or dentate at apex, the notch usually accentuated by the 
irregularly revolute margin, upper surface dark green and hirsutulous, pale or the midvein some- 
what impressed, lower surface tomentose and sometimes also somewhat hirsutulous ; panicles 
simple, densely flowered, cylindric or subglobose, mostly less than 2 cm. long ; peduncle 1-3 cm. 
long; flowers deep violet-blue; capsule shallowly lobed, 3.5 mm. broad, with narrow crests. 

Usually in sandj' or gravelly soil, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; California near the coast from 
Santa Cruz County to northern San Luis Obispo County. Type locality: probably near Monterey. Collected 
by Douglas. March-April. 

13. Ceanothus diversifolius Kell. Pine-mat. Fig. 3123. 

Ceanothns diversifolius Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 1:58. 1855. 
Ceanothus decumbcns S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 10: 335. 1875. 

Prostrate shrubs with reddish or green, pubescent and sparingly verrucose branchlets. Leaves 
5-15 mm. long, oblong-elliptic to broadly elliptical, obtuse or rounded at base, broadly obtuse to 
subacute at apex, the margins plane or obscurely and irregularly revolute, beset with slender- 
stalked glands, dull green and sparsely strigose above, whitened and hirsutulous-tomentose be- 
neath ; peduncles 3-4 cm. long, leafless, slender, hirsutulous ; flowers in a short few-flowered 
raceme, pale blue ; capsule slightly lobed, 3 mm. broad, smooth with low narrow crests. 

Open coniferous forests, Arid Transition Zone; Inner North Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada, Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: Placerville, California. April-May. 

Ceanothus serrulatus McMinn, Madrono 2: 89. 1933. Prostrate, forming mats, the branches often rooting. 
Leaves alternate or a few opposite near the ends of young branchlets, elliptic to elliptic-oblanceolate, 1-2 cm. 
long, serrulate, prominently veined beneath and with sunken pits between the reticulations, glabrous above, 
tomentulose beneath; flowers in short racemes, white or pale blue; fruit unknown. A local plant found in the 
Lake Tahoe region associated with C. prostratus, C. cordulatiis, and C. vclutinus. As it combines characters 
of Euceanothus and Cerastes sections of the genus it is possibly a sterile hybrid between C. vclutinus and C. 
prostratus. Type locality: between Emerald I3ay and Cascade Lake, Eldorado County, California. 

14. Ceanothus Lemmonii Parry. Lemmon's Ceanothus. Fig. 3124. 

Ceanothus Lemmonii Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. S: 192. 1889. 

Low spreading shrub, 3-6 dm. high, with gray bark; branches slender and elongated but 
rather rigid, the branchlets short, villous-tomentose and glandular. Leaves 8-25 mm. long, 
oblong-obovate to elliptic-ovate, the very minute or obscure teeth tipped with stalked glands, 
upper surface dull green, minutely and sparsely strigose, the lower surface pale green, rather 
densely villous-tomentose, the veins more prominent than in related species; peduncles 2-2.5 cm. 
long, terminating the short leafy lateral branchlets; racemes 1.5-3 cm. long; flowers violet-blue; 
capsule 3.5 mm. broad, rather deeply lobed, the dorsal crests rather prominent. 

Open coniferous forests. Arid Transition Zone; Trinity and Lake Counties and northern Sierra Nevada 
from Shasta County to Eldorado County, California. Type locality: Johnson's Ranch near Quincy, Placer 
County, California. April. 

15. Ceanothus foliosus Parry. Wavy-leaved Ceanothus. Fig. 3125. 

Ceanothus foliosus Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. 5: 172. 1889. 

Ceanothus diversifolius var. foliosus K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4:201. 1894. 

Low erect shrub, 1 m. or less high, the branches pubescent and glandular, flexuous. Leaves 
oblong-elliptic to broadly elliptic, 5-15 mm. long, the margins glandular-denticulate and somewhat 
undulate, upper surface dark green and sparsely strigose-pubescent, the lower surface pale green 
and sparsely villous-pubescent, especially on the veins ; flowers in short simple panicles or racemes 
terminating the lateral leafy branchlets, deep violet-blue ; capsules 3 mm. broad, 3-lobed, with low 
narrow crests. 

Mountain slopes, mainly Transition Zone; California Coast Ranges, Humboldt and Lake Counties to Santa 
Cruz County. Type locality: near St. Helena, California. April. 

Ceanothus foliosus var. vineatus McMinn, Ceanothus 221. 1942. Low shrub with some of the branches 

procumbent and others erect-arching. Leaves broadly elliptic to obovate. 1-2 crn. long,^ dark green and siiaringly 
pubescent above, paler beneath with scattered hairs on the veins. Locally distributed in Mendocino and Sonoma 
Counties. Type locality: near the Vine Hill Schoolhouse, Sonoma County. 

Ceanothus foliosus var. medius McMinn, op. cit. 222. 1942. Erect shrub with somewhat arching branches, 
0.5-2 m. high. Leaves narrowly to broadly elliptic, dull green, finely pilose and glandular above, gray and 
densely pubescent beneath, glandular-denticulate. Edges of chaparral or burned-over forest areas, in the Coast 
Ranges of Santa Clara, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties, California. Type locality: Cuesta Pass, San 
Luis Obispo County. 

16. Ceanothus austromontanus Abrams. Cuyamaca Ceanothus. Fig. 3126. 

Ceanothus austromontanus Abrams, Bull. N.Y. Bot. Card. 6:412. 1910. 

Low erect shrub, 1 m. high or less, the branches reddish or grayish brown and glandular. 
Leaves oblong to narrowly ovate, 8-12 mm. long, glandular-denticulate, dark green and sparsely 
strigose above, pale green beneath and pubescent on the veins ; peduncles 3-5 cm. long ; racemes 
a third to half as long ; flowers violet-blue ; calyx-lobes broadly triangular, nearly 2 mm. long ; 
capsule 3 mm. broad, very shallowly lobed, dorsal crest inconspicuous. 

Open coniferous forests, Arid Transition Zone; Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, California. Type 
locality: between Julian and Cuyamaca Lake, California. April-May. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 71 

17. Ceanothus parvifolius (S. Wats.) Trelease. Small-leaved Ceanothus. 

Fig. 3127. 

Ceanothus intcgcrrimns var. parvif^orus S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 10: 334. 1875. 
Ceanothus parvifolius Trelease, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 1: 110. 1888. 

Shrub 6-12 dm. high, flat-topped with widely spreading branches and slender flexible terete 

branchlets, glabrous throughout. Leaves oblong, 1-2 cm. long, obtuse at apex, narrowed at base, 

plane and entire or obscurely 2-3-toothed at apex, bright green, deciduous ; inflorescence a simple 

narrow panicle, 2-4 cm. long, on slender naked peduncles ; flowers blue ; capsule 4—5 mm. broad, 

obscurely crested. 

Open pine forests, Arid Transition Zone; Sierra Nevada from Butte County to Tulare County, California. 
Type locality: in the region of Yosemite Valley. May-July. Sweet Birch. 

18. Ceanothus integerrimus Hook. & Arn. Deer-brush. Fig. 3128. 

Ceanothus integerrimus Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 329. 1839-40. 
Ceanothus Andersonii Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. 5: 172. 1889. 

Shrub 1-4 m. high, widely branched, bark pale green, ultimate branchlets slender, flexible, 
terete, glabrous or somewhat strigose-pubescent. Leaves 15^0 mm. long, oblong to narrowly 
elliptic or narrowly ovate, entire, or on vigorous shoots obscurely toothed, bright green, glabrous 
or nearly so above, usually sparsely strigose on the veins beneath, pinnately veined, or somewhat 
3-nerved at base ; inflorescence a simple or few-branched panicle, 5-10 cm. long, on leafy pe- 
duncles ; flowers white; capsules shallowly 3-lobed, slightly crested, otherwise smooth, 3.5-4.5 
mm. broad. 

Mountain slopes and ridges, Arid Transition Zone. This is a polymorphic species with several fairly well- 
defined varieties. The typical species inhabits the California Coast Ranges from Mendocino County to Ventura 
County. The extreme narrow-leaved 1-nerved form {Ceanothus Andersonii') has been found recently in the 
Sierra foothills near Rescue, Eldorado County. Type locality: California. Collected by Douglas. April-June. 

Ceanothus integerrimus var. puberulus (Greene) Abrams, Bull. N.Y. Bot. Card. 6: 409. 1910. {Ceano- 
thus puberulus Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1: 66. 1904.) Leaves ovate-oval, obtuse, puberulent on the upper 
surface, silky-pubescent beneath; flowers white. Mountains of southern California from Kern County to River- 
side County. Type locality: San Bernardino Mountains. 

Ceanothus integerrimus var. califomicus (Kell.) Benson, Contr. Dudley Herb. 2: 120. 1930. {Ceanothus 
californicus Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 1: 55. 1855; Ceanothus nevadensis Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 152; fig. 
45. 1862.) Leaves ovate to broadly ovate, acutish at apex, rounded or subcordate at base, glabrous or nearly so 
above, sparsely pubescent on the veins beneath, prominently 3-nerved; flowers white. Cascades of Washington 
to the North Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality; Placerville, Placer County, California. 

Ceanothus inteeerrimus var. macrothyrsus (Torr.) Benson, op. cit. 121. 1930. {Ceanothus thyrsiflorus 
var. macrothyrsus Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. 263. 1874.) Leaves ovate to oval, obtuse or rounded at apex, more 
or less densely pubescent on both surfaces; inflorescence a broad compound panicle, 10-20 cm. long, much 
longer than the short peduncle; flowers blue, rarely white. Humid and Arid Transition Zones; Wasco County 
and the Umpqua River, Oregon, to Siskiyou and Butte Counties, California. Type locality: "Banks of Umpqua, 
Oregon." 

19. Ceanothus Palmeri Trelease. Palmer's Ceanothus. Fig. 3129. 

Ceanothus Palmeri Trelease, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 1: 109. 1888. 

Ceanothus spinosus var. Palmeri K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4: 185. 1894. 

Arborescent shrub 2-4 m. high with smooth olive-green bark, branchlets ascending, terete, 
rather slender and flexible, pale green, glabrous. Leaves evergreen, 15-35 mm. long, linear-ob- 
long to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acutish, entire, rather light green above and shiny, pale 
beneath, glabrous on both surfaces or sparingly strigose on the midrib beneath, 1-nerved; pan- 
icles narrow, 5— S cm. long ; flowers white ; capsules 5—7 mm. broad with a thick wrinkled exo- 
carp, crested with a roughened ridge. 

Open pine forests. Arid Transition Zone; Palomar and Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, California, 
to northern Lower California. Type locality: Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, California. May-June. 

20. Ceanothus spinosus Nutt. Green-barked Ceanothus. Fig. 3130. 

Ceanothus spinosus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 267. 1838. 

Arborescent shrub, 2-7 m. high, the bark smooth olive-green, the main branchlets mostly 
ascending on the branch and flexible, glabrous, the ultimate ones usually divergent, short, rigid, 
and spinescent. Leaves mostly oblong-elliptic, entire or, especially on young plants, toothed 
toward the apex, glabrous or sparingly strigose on the midrib and petiole, bright glossy green 
above, a little paler beneath, 1-nerved and finely pinnately veined; panicles compound, 3-6 cm. 
long ; flowers bright or pale blue ; capsules 4-5 inm. broad, scarcely lobed, smooth, crestless, 
slightly resinous. 

Mountain slopes and canyons. Upper Sonoran Zone; Coast Ranges of southern California, from San Luis 
Obispo County south to Lower California. Type locality: mountains at Santa Barbara. March-April. 

21. Ceanothus sorediatus Hook. & Arn. Jim-brush. Fig. 3131. 

Ceanothus sorediatus Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 328. 1839-40. 
Ceanothus intricatus Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. 5: 168. 1889. 

Arborescent shrub, 2-4 m. high with smooth gray-green bark, rigid, divaricate somewhat 
spinose, sparsely appressed-pubescent branchlets. Leaves 1-4 cm. long, elliptic-ovate to ovate, 
obtuse to subcordate at base, finely glandular-serrulate, plane and firm, dark green, sparsely 



72 



RHAMNACEAE 



iJMM^h\ 






3120 



3121 



3122 






3123 



3124 



3125 





3126 



3127 



3128 



3120. Ceanothus papillosus 

3121. Ceanothus impressus 

3122. Ceanothus dentatus 



3123. Ceanothus diversifolius 

3124. Ceanothus Lemmonii 

3125. Ceanothus foliosus 



3126. Ceanothus austromontanus 

3127. Ceanothus parvifolius 

3128. Ceanothus integerrimus 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 73 

strigose above, pale green or slightly canescent beneath, appressed villous-pubescent on the veins, 
sparsely strigose between ; peduncles 1-3 cm. long ; racemes simple or compound, 2-5 cm. long ;' 
flowers light blue ; capsule 4 mm. broad, shallowly lobed, crested, otherwise smooth and resinous! 
Mountain slopes, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; California Coast Ranges from Humboldt County 
south to Los Angeles County. Type locality: California. Collected by Douglas. March-April. 

22. Ceanothus leucodermis Greene. Chaparral Whitethorn. Fig. 3132. 

Ceanothus leucodermis Greene, Kew Bull. 1895: 15. 1895. 

Ceanothus divaricatus war. egiandiilosus Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 75. 18-57. 

Rigidly branched shrub, 2-3 m. high, the bark smooth pale green, branchlets divaricately 
spreading, short and spinescent, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves elliptic to ovate, 10-20 mm. long, 
serrulate or usually entire, plane and firm-coriaceous, dull and rather light green above, gray- 
green beneath, nearly or quite glabrous ; panicles simple or with a few branches, 3-8 cm. long ; 
flowers white or very pale blue ; capsules 4 mm. broad, scarcely lobed and the crests obscure, the 
surface covered with a saponaceous resin. 

Chaparral belt of the foothills and lower mountain slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; Inner Coast Ranges of 
Alameda County and southern Sierra Nevada, Tulare County, to cismontane southern California and northern 
Lower California. Type locality: Santa Barbara. March-April. 

23. Ceanothus cordulatus Kell. Mountain Whitethorn. Fig. 3133. 

Ceanothus cordulatus Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 124. pi. 39. 1861. 

Low spreading shrub, intricately branched, 1-2 m. high with smooth whitish bark, the ulti- 
mate branches rigid, divaricate and spinescent, very glaucous, the young sparsely short-pubescent 
but soon smooth. Leaves alternate, elliptic-ovate to orbicular-ovate, 1-2 cm. long, entire or rarely 
with a few teeth, plane, light green above and glabrous or sparsely strigose, pale beneath and 
sparsely strigose, distinctly 3-nerved ; flowers in simple panicles or sometimes in racemes, white ; 
capsules deeply lobed and prominently crested with a dorsal ridge, otherwise nearly smooth. 

Dry mountain slopes and open pine forests. Arid Transition and Canadian Zones; Cascade Mountains, and 
Douglas and Curry Counties, Oregon, south to Lower California and east to western Nevada. Type locality: 
near Washoe, Nevada. June-Aug. 

24. Ceanothus incanus Torr. & Gray. Coast Whitethorn. Fig. 3134. 

Ceanothus incanus Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 266. 1838. 

Widely branched shrub, 1-3 m. high, with smooth whitish bark, the branchlets smooth and 
glaucous, the ultimate ones short, divaricate, spinose or stout and blunt. Leaves alternate, ellip- 
tic-ovate to orbicular-ovate, 1 . 5-5 cm. long, entire or rarely serrulate, plane and firm, glabrous 
and green above, beneath strongly 3-nerved, strigose at least on the nerves, and canescent with 
a fine close indument between ; panicles usually compound, 2-5 cm. long, the rachis and short 
peduncles tomentose; flowers white; capsule 4.5 mm. broad, the e.xocarp thick and rugosely 
roughened. 

Canyons and mountain slopes, mainly Humid Transition Zone; California Coast Ranges from Humboldt 
County to Monterey County. Type locality: California. Collected by Douglas. April-May. 

25. Ceanothus megacarpus Nutt. Big-podded Ceanothus. Fig. 3135. 

Ceanothus macrocarpus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 267. 1838. Not Cav. 1794. 

Ceanothus megacarpus Nutt. N. Amer. Sylva 2: 46. 1846. 

Ceanothus cuneatus var. macrocarpus K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4:205. 1894. 

Erect rather compact shrub, 2—3 m. high, the young twigs appressed-pubescent, becoming 
glabrous and reddish or gray-brown. Leaves alternate, 1-2 cm. long, spatulate to obovate, obtuse 
to rounded or emarginate at apex, cuneate at base, rather thick and firm, dull green and glabrous 
above, minutely canescent beneath, the margins slightly revolute, entire or rarely sparsely denticu- 
late ; flowers white ; capsule 8-12 mm. broad, scarcely lobed, laterally horned, the apical crests low. 

Mountain canyons, Upper Sonoran Zone; Coast Ranges of southern California from Santa Barbara County 
to northern San Diego County. Type locality: hills near Santa Barbara. March-April. 

26. Ceanothus insularis Eastvv^. Island Ceanothus. Fig. 3136. 

Ceanothus insularis Eastw. Proc. Calif. Acad. IV. 16: 362. 1927. 

Erect shrub with stifif rather compact branches, young twigs tomentulose. Leaves alternate 
or opposite, elliptic to cuneate-obovate, truncate or often retuse at apex, entire, 12-20 mm. long, 
green and glabrous above, minutely canescent beneath; flowers in small umbel-like clusters, 
white or with bluish centers ; capsule globose, 8-10 mm. in diameter, without horns or crests or 
with minute subapical or lateral horns. 

Canyon slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina Islands, southern Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: Santa Cruz Island. Jan.-March. 

27. Ceanothus verrucosus Nutt. Warty-stemmed Ceanothus or Barranca-brush. 

Fig. 3137. 

Ceandhus verrucosus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:267. 1838. 

Erect compactly branched shrub, the young twigs tomentulose, becoming dark grayish brown. 



74 



RHAMNACEAE 






WW 












3129 



3130 



3131 







"2 ^Wt^"^ 




3132 



3133 



3134 






#1^ 



:-,s: 




3135 

3129. Ceanothus Palmeri 

3130. Ceanothus spinosus 

3131. Ceanothus sorediatus 








3136 



3132. Ceanothus leucodermis 

3133. Ceanothus cordulatus 

3134. Ceanothus incanus 




3137 

3135. Ceanothus megacarpus 

3136. Ceanothus insularis 

3137. Ceanothus verrucosus 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 75 

Leaves alternate, usually rather crowded, 5-15 mm. long, suborbicular to cuneate-obovate, retuse 
to subcordate at apex, obtuse or rounded at base, thick and firm, plane, entire or shallowly 
toothed, dark green and glabrous above, minutely canescent beneath ; flowers corymbose on short 
axillary peduncles, white ; capsules 5 mm. broad, very shallowly lobed, laterally horned and ob- 
scurely crested at apex. 

Dry hillsides and mesas, mainly Lower Sonoran Zone; western San Diego County, California, and adjacent 
Lower California. Type locality: San Diego. March-April. 

28. Ceanothus crassifolius Torr. Hoary-leaved Ceanothus. Fig. 3138. 

Ccanothits crassifolius Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 75. 1857. 

Ceanothus verrucosus var. crassifolius K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. IL 4:208. 1894. 

Rigidly branched shrub, 2—3 m. high, with stout canescent or rusty tomentose branches. 
Leaves opposite, 1.5-3 cm. long, elliptic-obovate, obtuse or rounded at apex, cuneate or rounded 
at base, thick and leathery, more or less revolute, pungently dentate or rarely entire, becoming 
glabrous and dark green or yellowish green above, densely white-tomentose beneath; stipules 
large ; flowers white in short umbellate corymbs ; capsule 8 mm. broad, with stout erect horns 
near the apex. 

Dry mountain slopes and hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; common component of the chaparral from Santa 
■Ra'-bara County, California, to northern Lower California. Type locality: "Mountains south of Los Angeles." 
Feb.-April. 

Ceanothus crassifolius var. planus Abrams, Bull. N.Y. Bot. Card. 6: 415. 1910. This variety closely 
resembles the typical species in structural characters, but the leaves are not revolute and the venation is dis- 
tinctly evident through the rather sparse tomentvmi. This is the more common form of the species in the moun- 
tains of Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. Type locality: Red Reef Canyon, Topatopa Mountains, 
Ventura County. 

29. Ceanothus vestitus Greene. Mojave Ceanothus. Fig. 3139. 

Ceanothus vestitus Greene, Pittonia 2: 101. 1890. 

Ceanothus Greggii var. vestitus McMinn, Ceanothus 236. 1942. 

Erect, rigid'y branched shrub, 1—2 m. high, the young branchlets tomentulose. Leaves oppo- 
site, elliptic-ovate, 6-15 mm. long, entire or commonly obscurely denticulate, grayish green above 
and sparsely tomentulose or glabrous, paler beneath and usually tomentulose at least when young ; 
flowers umbellate, white, on very short axillary peduncles ; capsules 5 mm. broad, the horns 
dorsal, spreading, scarcely 1 mm. long. 

Drv mountain ridges, especirlly on the desert slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; Inner Coast Ranges, San Luis 
Obispo County, and the Tehachapi Mountains, California, to the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California; 
the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, Mono, and Inyo Counties, to the Panamint Mountains, Cajifornia, east 
to Nevada and northwestern Arizona. Type locality: borders of pine forests near Tehachapi, Kern County, 
California. April-May. 

30. Ceanothus perplexans Trelease. Cup-leaved Ceanothus. Fig. 3140. 

Ceanothus perplexans Trelease in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. P: 417. 1897. 
Ceanothus Greygii var. perplexans Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 623. 1925. 

Erect stiffly branched shrub, 1-2 m. high, the young branches conspicuously roughened by 
the persistent stipules, young twigs tomentose. Leaves opposite, oblong-obovate to nearly orbicu- 
lar, 1-2 cm. long, entire or often conspicuously denticulate all around, soon glabrous above and 
glossy yellow-green, canescent beneath and more or less densely tomentose ; flowers white, um- 
bellate ; capsules 5 mm. long with smooth exocarp, the horns entirely absent or, when present, 
dorsal and very minute. 

Dry mountain ridfres, Upper Sonoran Zone; San Jacinto Mountains, California, south to northern Lower 
California. Type locality: southwestern California. March-May. 

31. Ceanothus cuneatus (Hook.) Nutt. Common Buck-brush. Fig. 3141. 

Rhamnus cuneatus Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1 : 124. 1829. 

Ceanothus cuneatus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:267. 1838. 

Ceanothus oblanceolatus Davidson, Bull S. Calif. Acad. 20:53. 1921. 

Rigid erect shrub, 1-2.5 m. high, with stiff divergent grayish branches, usually tomentulose 
when young. Leaves opposite, oblong-obovate, cuneate at base, 8-15 mm. long, entire, dull bluish 
green above and glabrous, finely whitish-tomentose beneath in the areolae; flowers umbellate, 
white; capsules 5 mm. broad, the horns erect, conspicuous, but rather slender, exocarp smooth 
between the horns and usually with small apical crests. 

Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Willamette Valley, Oregon, south to northern Lower California; 
a widely distributed and variable species, perhaps comprising several subspecies. Type locality: originally col- 
lected by Douglas "near the sources of the Multnomak [Willamette] River, in sandy soils, growing under the 
shade of Pinus Lambertiana." Feb.-April. 

32. Ceanothus Ferrisiae McMinn. Coyote or Ferris' Ceanothus. Fig. 3142. 

Ceanothus Ferrisiae McMinn, Madroiio 2:89. 1933. 

Erect shrub, 1-2 m. high, with stiff divergent or arched branches and numerous lateral stri- 
gose branchlets. Leaves opposite, orbicular, obtuse or rounded at base, 15-25 mm. long, 1 -veined 
from the base, regularly or irregularly short-toothed or sometimes nearly or quite entire, dark 
green and glabrous above, microscopically canescent beneath ; flowers white, in small umbels ; 



76 RHAMNACEAE 

capsule globose, 7-9 mm. broad, with 3 dorsal or subdorsal horns, without intermediate crests 
but often roughened. 

Slopes of hills, Upper Sonoran Zone; along the Coyote River, Mount Hamilton Range, Santa Clara County, 
California. Type locality: Madrone Springs road, above Coyote Creek. Jan.-March. 

33. Ceanothus fresnensis Dudley. Fresno Ceanothus. Fig. 3143. 

Ceanothus fresnensis Dudley ex Abrams, Bot. Gaz. 53: 68. 1912. 
Ceanothus rigidus var. fresnensis Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 623. 1925. 

Prostrate shrub, forming mats, 2-6 m. across, with few erect branches 2-3 dm. high, young 
twigs tomentulose. Leaves opposite, 6-12 mm. long, oblanceolate to obovate, entire or the truncate 
or rounded apex minutely few-toothed, firm-coriaceous and involute, tomentulose on both surfaces 
when young, glabrate above in age ; umbels few-flowered, terminating short peduncles ; flowers 
white or pale lavender; capsules about 5 mm. broad and 6 mm. high, the exocarp nearly smooth, 
the horns subterminal and erect or spreading, slender, 1 mm. high. 

Dry ridges in open coniferous forests. Arid Transition Zone; western slopes of central and southern Sierra 
Nevada, California. Type locality: Stevenson Mountains, Pine Ridge, Fresno County, California. May-June. 

Ceanothus arcuatus McMinn, Ceanothus 247. 1942. Low rigidly branched shrub, 3-6 dm. high and 6-12 
dm broad with stiff grayish arching branches and brownish-tomentulose branchlets. Leaves opposite, oblanceo- 
late to obovate or elliptic to oval, 6-12 mm. long, grayish green and minutely stngose above, paler beneath, 
1-nerved from the base; flowers white or pale blue, in small umbel-like clusters; capsule globose, 3-6 mm. broad, 
with slender suberect subapical horns, without intermediate crests. 

Open coniferous forests, Arid Transition Zone; western slopes of the Sierra Nevada from Plumas County 
to Madera County, California. This species is intermediate between C. cuneatus and C. fresnensxs and is 
probably of hybrid origin. Type locality: Robb's Peak, Eldorado County, California. 

34. Ceanothus pumilus Greene. Siskiyou Ceanothus. Fig. 3144. 

Ceanothus pumilus Greene, Erythea 1 : 149. 1893. 

Ceanothus prostratus var. profugus Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 479. 1936. 

Low spreading or prostrate shrub with stout rigid branches. Leaves opposite, 5-10 mm. long, 
oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, entire or rather inconspicuously 2-3-toothed at the apex, green 
and glabrous above ; pale beneath and sparsely strigose on the veins ; flowers blue, in few-flowered 
umbels ; capsules 4-5 mm. broad, exocarp not wrinkled, the horns very short. 

Open coniferous forests and dry ridges, upper Transition and Canadian Zones; Siskiyou Mountains of 
southern Oregon and northern California. Type locality: mountains near Waldo, Oregon. April-June. 

35. Ceanothus ramulosus (Greene) McMinn. Coast Ceanothus. Fig. 3145. 

Ceanothus cuneatus var. ramulosus Greene, Fl. Fran. 86. 1891. 
Ceanothus ramulosus McMinn, Madroiio 5: 14. 1939. 

Shrub 6-15 dm. high with spreading or arching branches, usually with smooth grayish bark. 
Leaves opposite, not crowded on the branches, variable but commonly obovate to broadly 
elliptic or broadly oblanceolate, 6-20 mm. long, entire or usually with a few teeth near the obtuse 
to truncate apex, glabrous above, canescent beneath ; flowers pale blue-lavender or nearly white, 
in small-peduncled umbels; fruiting capsule 4-5 mm. broad, usually rather slenderly 3-horned 
at the apex and sometimes somewhat wrinkled and ridged or crested between the horns. 

Dry rocky or sandy soils, mainly Upper Sonoran Zone; outer Coast Ranges from southern Mendocino 
County to San Luis Obispo County, California. Type locality: "In the Coast Ranges only, and from Santa 
Cruz Mts. Greene, to Mann and Napa Counties, Mrs. Curran, Dr. Parry." Feb.-Apnl. 

Ceanothus ramulosus var. fascicularis McMinn, Ceanothus 250. 1942. Erect shrub with rough brownish 
bark Leaves rather crowded, appearing fascicled, narrowly oblanceolate, or on younger branches shorter and 
broader usually entire; fruiting capsules with minute lateral or subapical horns or these sometimes otjsolete. 
Coastal mesas of San Luis Obispo County to northwestern Santa Barbara County, California. Type locality: 
La Purissima Mission, Santa Barbara County. 

36. Ceanothus rigidus Nutt. Monterey Ceanothus. Fig. 3146. 

Ceanothus rigidus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 268. 1838. 

Ceanothus verrucosus var. rigidus K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4: 207. 1894. 

Low, much-branched shrub, seldom over 1 m. high, the main branches often arcuate-spreading, 
young twigs rather stout and rigid, dark brown and minutely tomentose, with short internodes 
and very leafy. Leaves opposite, cuneate-obovate, 6-15 mm. long, toothed above the middle oronly 
at the rounded or notched truncate apex, or some of them entire, glabrous, dark green and shming 
above, minutely tomentose in the sunken interstices beneath, and with a few short hairs on the 
veins, thick and rather rigid ; flowers blue in few-flowered axillary umbels ; peduncles very short ; 
fruiting pedicels stout about 1 cm. long ; capsules 5 mm. broad, scarcely lobed, the dorsal horns 
very short. 

Low hills near the coast, usually in sandy soil. Upper Sonoran and Humid Transition Zones; Monterey 
Peninsula, Monterey County, California. Type locality: "Bushy woods near Monterey, California. March- 
April. 

37. Ceanothus gloriosus J. T. Howell. Point Reyes Ceanothus. Fig. 3147. 

Ceanothus rigidus var. grandifolius Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 75. 1857. 
Ceanothus prostratus var. grandifolius Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 624. 1925. 
Ceanothus gloriosus J. T. Howell. Leaflets West. Bot. 2: 43. 1937. 

Prostrate shrub, the branches stout, conspicuously tomentose when young, becoming almost 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 



17 




3138 




3139 




3140 




3141 





)J ^ 3142 



3143 





3144 



3145 



3146 



3138. Ceanothus crassifolius 

3139. Ceanothus vestitus 

3140. Ceanothus perplexans 



3141. Ceanothus cuneatus 

3142. Ceanothus Ferrisiae 

3143. Ceanothus fresnensis 



3144. Ceanothus pumilus 

3145. Ceanothus ramulosus 

3146. Ceanothus rigidus 



78 RHAMNACEAE 

glabrous and usually reddish brown the second year. Leaves opposite, elliptic to broadly obovate, 
2-5 cm. long, narrowly revolute, prominently and sharply toothed all around, glossy green above 
and glabrous or with a few hairs on the midrib, glabrous below or sparsely pubescent on the 
veins, umbels many-flowered, on short stout peduncles; flowers violet-blue; capsules 3.5-4 mm. 
broad and scarcely as high, the horns small, scarcely 1 mm. high. 

Usually in sandy soils, Humid Transition Zone; near the coast, Mendocino County to Marin County, Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: Anchor Bay, Mendocino County, California. April. 

Ceanothus gloriosus var. exaltatus J. T. Howell, Leaflets West. Bot. 2: 44. 1937. Erect shrub, 1-2 m. 
high, rigidly much-branched, the ultimate branches divaricate; otherwise like the typical species. Ridges and 
canyons, Humid Transition Zone; Outer Coast Ranges, Mendocino, Sonoma, and Marin Counties, California. 
Type locality: Vine Hill district near Sebastopol, Sonoma County. 

38. Ceanothus Masonii McMinn. Bolinas Ceanothus. Fig. 3148. 

Ceanothus Masonii McMinn, Madroiio 6: 171. 1942. 

Erect or erect-spreading shrub, 0.6-2 m. high, with stout rather stiff divaricate branches, the 
young branchlets brown or purplish, tomentulose, becoming glabrous in age. Leaves opposite, 
broadly elliptic to nearly orbicular, 6-18 mm. long, obtuse to rounded or truncate at apex, rounded 
or occasionally cuneate at base, denticulate all around with a number of small triangular minutely 
mucronulate teeth, dark green and shining above, microscopically canescent between the netted 
veinlets beneath ; stipules prominent, persistent ; flowers dark blue or violet, in small umbel-like 
clusters terminating short pedunculate lateral branchlets; fruiting capsule globose, about 3.5 mm. 
broad, with 3 short apical or subapical horns and without intermediate crests. 

Dry ridges, Humid Transition Zone; known only from Bolinas Ridge, Marin County, California. Type 
locality: "Along trail on east end of Bolinas Ridge." March-April. 

39. Ceanothus sonomensis J. T. Howell. Sonoma Ceanothus. Fig. 3149. 

Ceanothus sonomensis J. T. Howell, Leaflets West Bot. 2: 162. 1939. 

Erect shrub with nearly straight rather stiff gray or brown stems, 5-15 dm. high, bearing 
opposite short almost spur-like lateral branchlets. Leaves opposite, cuneate-obovate to nearly 
orbicular, 5-15 mm. long, 3-toothed at the apex and often with 1-2 pairs of lateral teeth, thick, 
firm and somewhat holly-like, the margins revolute, glossy above, microscopically tomentulose 
beneath, subsessile; flowers blue to lavender, in small nearly sessile umbels; fruiting capsules 
globose, 3-4 mm. broad, with 3 short subdorsal horns and low ridge-like intermediate crests. 

Mountain slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; Hood Mountain Range, Sonoma County, California, the type 
locality. 

40. Ceanothus purpureus Jepson. Napa Ceanothus, Fig. 3150. 

Ceanothus purpureus Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif. 258. 1901. 

Ceanothus Jepsonii var. purpureus Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 624. 1925. 

Erect shrub, 1-2 m. high, the branches rigid, divergent, reddish brown and nearly or quite 
glabrous, clothed with very prominent corky stipules. Leaves opposite, suborbicular to broadly 
elliptic, strongly undulate, and conspicuously spinose-toothed all around, glossy green and gla- 
brous above, slightly paler beneath and only inconspicuously tomentulose in the areolae ; flowers 
umbellate, dark violet-blue ; capsules about 5 mm. broad, horns slender, erect, exocarp smooth 
between except for 3 small apical crests. 

Mountain ridges. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Napa Range, Napa County, California. Type 
locality: Wooden Valley Grade, Napa Range, California. Feb.-April. 

41. Ceanothus divergens Parry. Calistoga Ceanothus. Fig. 3151. 

Ceanothus divergens Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. 5: 173. 1889. 

Ceanothus prostratus var. divergens K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4:210. 1894. 

Shrub, 5-15 dm. high, the main branches rather weak and divergent or arching, but never 
decumbent or prostrate. Leaves obovate to oblong, with 5-8 coarse spinescent teeth, undulate, 
dark green, glabrous and shining above, grayish-tomentulose beneath; flowers blue, in small 
corymbs racemosely disposed on the branchlets ; fruiting capsule nearly globose, about 6 mm. in 
diameter, with 3 prominent dorsal horns, without prominent intervening crests. 

In rather open chaparral, Upper Sonoran Zone; originally collected by Parry in the vicinity of Calistoga, 
Napa Valley, Sonoma County, California. Plants at the original station may have been destroyed by cultivation, 
but plants matching well the type collections are growing at several stations within four to five miles of Calis- 
toga. Feb. -March. 

Ceanothus divergens subsp. confusus (J. T. Howell) Abraras. {Ceanothus confusus J. T. Howell, Leaflets 
West Bot. 2: 160. 1939.) Stems decumbent, the main branches with their ends turned upward and 2-4 dm. 
high. Leaves 6-20 mm. long, ovate to elliptic, more or less cuneate at base, denticulate to spinulose with 3-11 
teeth. This subspecies is more widespread than the typical species, occurring at middle elevations in the moun- 
tains of Lake, Sonoma, and Napa Counties. Type locality: Rincon Ridge, Sonoma County, California. 

Ceanothus divergens subsp. occidentalis (McMinn) Abrams. (Ceanothus prostratus var. occidentalis 
McMinn, Ceanothus 262. 1942.) Plants prostrate forming mats and thereby simulating C. prostratus Benth. 
of the Sierra Nevada, but the leaves and especially the fruits are essentially the same as those of C. divergens. 
Leaves usually undulate and slightly troughed above, with 3-6 or rarely more spinulose teeth; capsules 4-S mm. 
broad, their horns slender and spreading. Near the summits of the higher peaks in the North Coast Ranges of 
Mendocino, Lake, Sonoma, and Napa Counties, California. Type locality: Cobb Mountain, Lake County, Cali- 
fornia. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY 79 

42. Ceanothus prostratus Benth. Mahala-mats. Fig. 3152. 

Ceanothus prostratus Benth. PI. Hartw. 302. 1848. 

Ceanothus prostratus var. laxus Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 624. 1925. 

Prostrate or low spreading shrub, the branches rooting and often forming large mats, the 
young branchlets reddish brown, sparsely appressed-pubescent. Leaves cuneate-oblanceolate or 
-obovate, 8-25 mm. long, several-toothed, or often with only 3 teeth at the apex, thick and coria- 
ceous, glossy green ; flowers blue, in small umbels on short stout axillary peduncles ; capsules 
7-9 mm. broad, with thick and wrinkled exocarp, the horns very stout, usually erect and much 
wrinkled. 

Open pine forests, Transition and Canadian Zones; Klickitat County, Washington, southward, east of the 
Cascade-Sierra Divide, to western Nevada and the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada; west of the Divide it 
extends from Jackson County, Oregon, to Trinity County and the southern Sierra Nevada, California. Type 
locality: originally collected by Hartweg in the northern Sierra Nevada. April-June. 

43. Ceanothus pinetorum Coville. Coville's Ceanothus. Fig. 3153. 

Ceanothus pinetorum Coville, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 4: SO. 1893. 

Ceanothus prostratus var. pinetorum K. Brandg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 4: 211. 1894. 

Erect or more or less spreading shrub, 1-1 .5 m. high, the young branches reddish brown and 
nearly or quite glabrous. Leaves opposite, broadly obovate to suborbicular, denticulate all around, 
bright green and glabrous above, a little paler beneath and very sparsely or not at all strigose ; 
flowers deep violet-purple, in densely flowered umbels ; capsule 7 mm. broad, the horns erect and 
nearly apical, very stout and wrinkled, the intermediate exocarp also wrinkled and ridged. 

Open coniferous forests, upper Arid Transition Zone; southern Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality: 
near Lyon Meadow, Sierra Nevada, Tulare County, California. May-June. 

44. Ceanothus Jepsonii Greene. Jepson's Ceanothus. Fig. 3154. 

Ceanothus Jepsonii Greene, Man. Bay Reg. 78. 1894. 

Erect, rigidly branched shrub, 1.5-2 m. high, the branchlets stoutly divaricate, reddish brown 
and strigose when young. Leaves broadly oval to suborbicular, 1-2 cm. long, strongly spinose, 
dentate all around, rigidly coriaceous and usually strongly undulate, glabrous and bright glossy 
green above, inconspicuously strigose below ; flowers blue, in open umbels ; capsules 6-7 mm. 
broad, horns near the apex, erect, very stout and wrinkled, the exocarp between the horns thick, 
wrinkled and ridged. 

Rocky ridges. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; southern Mendocino and Lake Counties, south to 
Marin County, California. Type locality: "Open hills in Marin County, near San Geronimo, and northward." 
April-May. 

4. COLUBRINA Rich. Ann. Sci. Nat. 10: 368. pi. 15. fig. 3. 1827. 

Shrubs or trees, usually with rigid divaricate and sometimes spinescent branches. 
Leaves alterucite, entire or toothed, persistent or deciduous ; stipules small and deciduous. 
Flowers inconspicuous, in small sessile or pedunculate axillary umbels, tomentose. Calyx- 
lobes tardily deciduous, the tube lined with the disk and adherent to the base of the 
capsule. Petals minute, hooded and partly enclosing the anthers, sessile or short-clawed. 
Style short, 3-lobed nearly to the base. Capsule 3-celled and more or less 3-lobed, enclos- 
ing a single seed in each cell. [Name from Latin coluber, a serpent, the application un- 
certain.] 

About 18 species, natives of the southern United States, Mexico, and South America; one species in the 
Old World. Type species: Rhamniis colubrinus Jacq. 

1. Colubrina calif ornica L M.Johnston. California Colubrina. Fig. 3155. 

Colubrina calif ornica I. M. Johnston, Proc. Calif. Acad. IV. 12: 1085. 1924. 
Colubrina texensis var. californica L. Benson, Amer. Journ. Bot. 30: 630. 1943. 

Intricately branched shrub, 1.5-2.5 m. high, the branches usually divaricate and more or less 
spinescent and finely grayish-tomentose. Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, 8-20 mm. long, 
rounded or obtuse at the apex, obtuse or somewhat cuneate at the base, entire, dull grayish green 
on both surfaces and more or less tomentose, pinnately veined ; flowers in small axillary clusters ; 
calyx and pedicels tomentose ; capsule globose, 6 mm. broad. 

Dry gravelly washes and bajadas, Lower Sonoran Zone; Eagle Mountains, Riverside County, California; 
also Arizona and Las Animas Bay, Lower California, the type locality. May-June. 

5. ADOLPHIA Meisn. Gen. PI. 70. 1837. 

Shrubs with stiff divaricate spine-tipped opposite branches, articulate with the stems. 
Leaves opposite, small and mostly caducous, stipitate. Flowers inconspicuous, solitary or 
in few-flowered axillary clusters. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, the lobes persistent. Petals 
5, hooded. Ovary 3-celled, free from the calyx-tube ; style 3-cleft, articulate near the base. 
Capsule invested at base by the persistent calyx-tube, but free from it, 3-celled and 3-lobed. 



80 



RHAMNACEAE 





3147 



3148 



3149 




3150 





3151 



3152 




3153 

3147. Ceanothus gloriosus 

3148. Ceanothus Masonii 

3149. Ceanothus sonomensis 




3154 



3150. Ceanothus purpureus 

3151. Ceanothus divergens 

3152. Ceanothus prostratus 



3155 

3153. Ceanothus pinetorum 

3154. Ceanothus Jepsonii 

3155. Colubrina califomica 



GRAPE FAMILY 



81 



Seeds 1 in each cell, with smooth bony testa. [Name in honor of Adolphe Brongniart, a 
French botanist and monographer of the Rliamnaceae.] 

A genus of 2 species, natives of Mexico and the arid southwestern United States. Type species, Adolphia 
infesta (H.B.K.) Meisn. 

1. Adolphia californica S. Wats. California Adolphia. Fig. 3156. 

Adolphia californica S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 126. 1876. 

Shrub about 1 m. high, intricately branched, the branches becoming stiff and divaricate, short- 
pubescent with spreading hairs, green and striate, the uhimate spinescent. Leaves oblong- 
oblanceolate to obovate, 5-15 mm. long, obtuse or acutish, tapering at base to a short petiole, 
entire, puberulent ; flowers solitary or few in the axils, short-pedicellate ; calyx pubescent, 
greenish white ; petals white, about 2 mm. long, slightly surpassing the calyx-lobes ; capsule 
4-6 mm. broad. 

Dry hillsides or washes. Lower Sonoran Zone; San Diego County, California, to northern Lower California. 
Type locality: Soledad, San Diego County, California. March-April. 

Family 91. VITACEAE. 

Grape Family. 

Climbing or erect shrubs, with nodose joints, alternate petioled leaves, and small 
flowers in panicles, racemes or cymes. Calyx entire or 4-5-toothed. Petals 4—5, 
separate or coherent, valvate. Stamens 4—5, opposite the petals ; filaments subulate, 
inserted at the base of the disk or between its lobes ; anthers 2-celled. Disk some- 
times obsolete or wanting. Ovary 1, generally immersed in the disk, 2-6-celled ; 
ovules 1-2 in each cell, ascending, anatropous. Fruit a 1-6-celled, commonly 2-celled 
berry. Seed with bony testa and cartilaginous endosperm ; embryo short. 

About 10 genera and 500 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. 



1. VITIS [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 202. 1753. 

Climbing or trailing woody vines, mostly with tendrils. Leaves simple, usually pal- 
mately lobed or dentate. Stipules generally small, caducous. Flowers dioecious, polygamo- 
dioecious, or rarely perfect. Calyx minute, the limb entire. Petals hypogynous or perigy- 
nous, coherent in a cap and deciduous without expanding. Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-4- 
celled ; style very short, conic ; ovules 2 in each cell. Berry globose or ovoid, pulpy. [The 
ancient Latin name.] 

A genus of about 50 species inhabiting temperate and subtropical regions of the northern hemisphere. Type 
species, Vitis vinifera L. 

Fruit purple, densely covered with a glaucous bloom; young leaves and shoots clothed with a white arachnoid 
pubescence. 1. V- californica. 

Fruit black, scarcely or not at all glaucous; leaves usually permanently tomentose beneath. 2. V. Girdiana. 



3156 
3156. Adolphia californica 



3157 



3157. Vitis californica 







3158. Vitis Girdiana 



82 MALVACEAE 

1. Vitis californica Benth. California Wild Grape. Fig. 3157. 

Vitis californica Benth. Bot. Sulph. 10. 1844. 

Stout vine often climbing trees to 10 m. or more, bark shreddy, diaphragms thick. Leaves 
round-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, with a deep and usually narrow sinus, 7-15 cm. broad, 
on young vigorous shoots 3-lobed, on others shallowly or not at all lobed, pubescent and often 
thinly arachnoid on the lower surface, teeth variable, usually broad and very short-apiculate ; 
panicle 5-15 cm. long; flowers small, greenish yellow, fragrant; berries purple, very glaucous, 
with rather scanty pulp ; seeds pyriform, 4 mm. long. 

Stream banks, Upper Sonoran Zone; Josephine and Jackson Counties, Oregon, south through the foothills 
of the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada and the Great Valley, to south central California. Type locality: 
Sacramento River, California. May-June. 

2. Vitis Girdiana Munson. Desert Grape. Fig. 3158. 

Vitis Girdiana Munson, Proc. Soc. Prom. Agr. Sci. 59. 1887. 

Strong climbing vine, 2-12 m. high, the nascent parts densely white-tomentose. Leaves 
round-cordate, with a deep, narrow or sometimes broad sinus, obscurely or not at all lobed, or 
sometimes rather deeply 3-lobed, the teeth abruptly apiculate, rather firm in texture, green and 
glabrous above, more or less densely floccose-tomentose beneath ; panicle decompound, 10-15 cm. 
long, floccose ; berries 6-8 mm. in diameter, black, little or not at all glaucous ; seed pyriform, 
4-5 mm. long. 

Stream banks, Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones; Santa Barbara and Inyo Counties, California, southward 
to northern Lower California on both the desert and coastal slopes. Type locality: San Diego County. May- 
June. 

Family 92. MALVACEAE.* 

Mallow Family. 

Herbs or shrubs with mucilaginous juice, stellate pubescence, and alternate, 
palmately veined, commonly lobed or divided leaves. Stipules small, deciduous. 
Flowers regular, perfect or polygamo-dioecious. Calyx 5-lobed, valvate in bud, often 
involucellate-bracteate at the base. Petals 5, hypogynous, convolute in the bud, 
fused at the base with the stamineal tube. Stamens numerous, hypogynous, forming 
a monodelphous tube about the pistil. Pistil of several to many carpels, commonly 
with as many cells as styles or stigmas ; ovules 1 to several in each carpel. Ovary 
superior. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or the carpels falling separately. Seeds reni- 
form. Embryo curved ; cotyledons plicate or conduplicate ; endosperm scanty. 

A family of about 45 genera distributed throughout the temperate and tropical parts of the world. 
Carpels distinct, separating from the axis and from each other at maturity; seeds not woolly. 
Carpels 2-9-ovulate, 1- to several-seeded. 
Involucel wanting. 

Carpels wingless, smooth on the sides; ovules 2-9. 1. Abutilon. 

Carpels dorsally winged, reticulate on the sides below; ovules 3. 2. Horsfordia. 

Involucel of 3 bractlets. 

Carpels 2-celled by a horizontal partition, upper chamber filled by the seed. 3. Modiola. 

Carpels 1-celled, the uppermost portion empty. 

Fruit 6-10 mm. high, densely hirsute with simple hairs; carpels smooth laterally; leaves 

aceriform, thin. 4. Ihamna. 

Fruit less than 6 mm. high, stellate-pubescent; carpels reticulate laterally toward the base; 
leaves not aceriform, thick. 5. Sphaeralcea. 

Carpels 1-ovulate. 

Ovule ascending. 

Style-branches capitate or trimcate. 

Carpels smooth on the sides and angles; shrubs. 6. Malvastrum. 

Carpels reticulate or radiately grooved on the sides or angles; annual herbs. 

7. Eremalche. 
Style-branches filiform, stigmatic on the inner surface. 

Involucel wanting; stamens in biseriate phalanges. 8. Sidalcea. 

Involucel present; stamens in 1 series. 

Bracts of the involucel narrow, inserted on the calyx, laterally distinct; pedicels inar- 
ticulate. 9. Malva. 
Bracts of involucel broad, laterally coalesced at the base to form a shallow cup; pedicels 
articulate at or above the middle. 10. Lavatera. 
Ovule pendulous or horizontal. 

Carpels beakless; petals yellowish, stellate-puberulent on portions exposed in bud. 

11. Sida. 

Carpels beaked; petals bluish, glabrous. 12. Anoda. 

Carpels forming a loculicidal capsule; seeds somewhat woolly. 13. Hibiscus. 

1. ABUTILON Mill. Card. Diet. abr. ed. 4. 1754. 
Ours annual or perennial herbs, with alternate, cordate, soft-pubescent, entire or ser- 
rate leaves and axillary flowers. Involucel none. Ovary 5- to many-celled. Style-branches 

* Text contributed by Ira Loren Wiggins. 



MALLOW FAMILY 83 

equaling number of carpels. Carpels 1-celled, leathery or parchment-like, beaked, 2-valved 
at apex and down the back, persistent, with 1-9 reniform seeds. The upper seeds ascend- 
ing, the lower pendulous or horizontal. [Name used by Avicenna, an Arabian physician, 
for some plant.] 

A genus of about 110 species of tropical and warm-temperate regions. Ten or 12 species are native or 
introduced in the United States, chiefly in the southern and southwestern states. Type species, Abiitilon Theo- 
phrasti Medic. 

Leaves orbicular, 10-20 cm. wide, velvety; flowers yellow, 12-20 mm. wide; introduced annual. 

1. A. Theophrasti. 
Leaves ovate-triangular, 1-4 cm. wide, stellate-canescent; flowers brick-red or pink, 6-10 mm. wide; desert 
mountain perennial. 2. A. parvulum. 

1. Abutilon Theophrasti Medic. Velvet Leaf. Fig. 3159. 

Sida Abutilon L. Sp. PI. 685. 1753. 
Abutilon Theophrasti Medic. Malv. 28. 1787. 
Abutilon Avicennae Gaertn. Fruct. 2: 251. pi. 135. 1791. 
Abutilon Abutilon Rydb. Bot. Surv. Neb. 3:27. 1894. 

A Stout branching velvety-pubescent annual 1-2 m. high. Leaves ovate-orbicular, cordate, 
entire or slightly serrate, apex acuminate; petioles 10-20 cm. long; stipules caducoUs; flowers 
axillary, solitary or 2 to several on stout, axillary peduncles 1-5 cm. long, bright yellow ; calj-x- 
lobes densely velvety-tomentose, ovate, acute to short-acuminate, 6-10 mm. long ; petals obovate, 
6-9 mm. long, truncate to shallowly emarginate; fruit discoid-orbicular, 2-3 cm. broad, 1 cm! 
high; carpels 12-15, hirsute, 2-valved; beaks spreading, 3-5 mm. long, acuminate, the tips sharply 
hooked inward ; seeds reniform, gray-brown, sparsely and minutely stellate-puberulent. 

Rather a common escape in North America as far west as Texas and Oklahoma. Less frequent in Wash- 
ington, and reported from Santa Rosa, Riverside, and San Diego in California. Type locality: India. Aug.-Oct. 

2. Abutilon parvulum A. Gray. Dwarf Abutilon. Fig. 3160. 

Abutilon parvulum A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 3°: 21. 1852. 

Cespitose herbaceous perennial from a woody rootstock, stellate-canescent throughout ; stems 
slender, wiry, 1-3 dm. long. Leaves 1-4 cm. broad, slightly longer, obscurely 3-lobed, ovate- 
cordate to triangular-cordate, irregularly but distinctly serrate, the lower surface paler than the 
upper ; stipules 1-2 mm. long, caducous ; flowers axillary, solitary, brick-red to pink, 6-10 mm. 
wide ; pedicels slender, 10-25 mm. long ; calyx 4-5 mm. high, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, reflexed 
in fruit ; petals 3-5 mm. long ; fruit 6-8 mm. high, densely stellate-puberulent ; carpels 5-8, with 
short acute, erect beaks 1-2 mm. long; seeds dark brown, minutely puberulent. 

Rocky slopes. Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; from the Providence Mountains, California, through 
Arizona and New Mexico to southern Colorado, western Texas, and northern Sonora. Type locality: calcareous 
hills of the San Felipe and San Pedro Rivers, Texas. March-April. 

2. HORSFORDIA A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 296. 1887. 

Erect shrubs with dense stellate yellow- or gray-green pubescence. Leaves thick, 
orbicular-cordate to lanceolate, entire to finely denticulate or crenulate. Peduncles axil- 
lary, 1 -flowered or paniculately few-flowered. Involucel none. Corolla yellow, orange or 
pink. Fruit of 8-12 coalescent carpels that disjoin at maturity, these 3-ovuled, 1-3-seeded, 
2-valved above with 2 erect, slightly spreading wings, the upper portion empty, thin and 
smooth, the lower firm and strongly reticulate. Seeds reniform. [Name in honor of F. H. 
Horsford, a New England plant collector.] 

A genus of 3 species of the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico. Type species, Sida alata 
S. Wats. 

Flowers pink, 15-22 mm. broad; leaves chiefly ovate, slightly viscid; tomentum sordid gray-green. 

1. H. alata. 
Flowers yellow or orange, 10-12 mm. broad; leaves chiefly lanceolate, not viscid; tomentum yellowish. 

2. H. Nezvberryi. 

1. Horsfordia alata (S. Wats.) A. Gray. Pink Velvet-mallow. Fig. 3161. 

Sida alata S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 356. 1885. 
Horsfordia alata A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 297. 1887. 
Horsfordia Palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24:40. 1889. 

Shrub 1-3.5 m. high, densely rough-pubescent throughout. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 

subcordate, 1.5-7 cm. long, 1-2.5 cm. broad, sordid-tomentose ; petioles 0.5-2 cm. long; stipules 

triangular-lanceolate, 1-1.5 mm. long, caducous; flowers axillary, solitary or in 2-5-flowered 

panicles ; peduncles slender, about 1 cm. long ; pedicels slightly stouter, 2-6 mm. long ; calyx 5-7 

mm. long at anthesis, the lobes ovate-acuminate, densely stellate-pubescent; petals obovate, 10-12 

mm. long, _ rose-pink; carpels 10-12, empty portion dehiscent early, forming oblong, obtuse, 

scarious wings three times as long as the reticulate seminiferous part ; two upper ovules abortive ; 

seeds reniform, dark, minutely and sparsely puberulent. 

Rocky hillsides and along desert washes. Lower Sonoran Zone; at Coral Reef Ranch, Coachella Valley, 
Riverside County, California, and in southern Arizona, Sonora, and Lower California. Type locality: north- 
western Sonora. March-April. 



84 MALVACEAE 

2. Horsfordia Newberryi (S. Wats.) A. Gray. Newberry's Velvet-mallow. 

Fig. 3162. 

Abutilon Newberryi S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 125. 1876. 
Horsfordia Newberryi A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22:297. 1887. 

Virgate shrub 1-2.5 m. high, densely tomentose throughout with velvety, pale gold, short- 
rayed stellate hairs. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, shallowly cordate, 1-4 cm. broad, 3-10 cm. long, 
entire or faintly serrulate, prominently veined beneath ; petioles 1-3 cm. long ; stipules minute, 
caducous ; flowers solitary or in 2-3-flowered panicles ; pedicels and peduncles 3-20 mm. long ; 
calyx 3-5 mm. long and broad, lobes ovate-acuminate ; petals 5-6 mm. long, yellow to orange ; 
stamineal column hirsute with simple hairs; fruit 6-8 mm. high, 12-18 mm. in diameter; carpels 
8-9, the wings ovate, acute to obtuse, slightly longer than seminiferous portion. 

Occasional along washes and on rocky hillsides, Lower Sonoran Zone; western borders of the Colorado 
Desert to Arizona and south to Sonora and Lower California. Type locality: Canebrake Canyon on the lower 
Colorado River. March. 

3. MODiOLA Moench, Meth. 619. 1794. 

Perennial herb. Leaves rounded, palmately lobed or divided. Flowers small, axillary. 
Involucel present. Calyx S-cleft. Petals entire. Fruit depressed. Carpels 12-30, trans- 
versely 2-celled, 2-seeded, longitudinally dehiscent into two subulately beaked valves, cris- 
tate dorsally, the sides smooth or wrinkled below. Seeds small, reniform. [Name Latin, 
modiolus, from the likeness of the fruit to a small Roman measure.] 

A monotypic genus of tropical and warm-temperature America. Naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands and 
South Africa. Type species, Malva caroliniana L. 

1. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. Wheel Mallow. Fig. 3163. 

Malva caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753. 

Modiola tnultifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1794. 

Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. 1: 466. 1831. 

Prostrate to ascending, perennial herb with slender, leafy stems, 2-5 dm. long, sparsely 
pubescent throughout with appressed simple and geminate hairs. Leaves orbicular to ovate- 
triangular, 1-5 cm. broad, palmately 3-5-lobed or cleft, the divisions dentate to incised; petioles 
1.5-10 cm. long, hirsute; flowers axillary, solitary on pedicels 10-15 mm. long; bractlets distinct, 
ovate, 4-5 mm. long ; calyx-lobes ovate-acuminate, 3-5 mm. long, hirsute ; petals obovate, 4-6 mm. 
long, vermilion ; carpels 3-4 mm. high, black, cristate, sides striate on lower half, smooth above, 
transversely wrinkled dorsally. 

Roadsides and low ground, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America; nat- 
uralized in California, Oregon, and the Hawaiian Islands. Type locality: "Carolina." June-Sept. 

4. ILIAMNA Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 206. 1906. 

Perennial, sparsely pubescent shrubs 0.6-2 m. tall with large, aceriform, thin leaves. 
Inflorescence of axillary clusters, becoming lax, interruptedly spicate or corymbose-race- 
mose. Involucellate bractlets 3, distinct, persistent. Flowers large, pink to rose-purple 
or rarely white. Stamineal column stout, hirsute. Stamens numerous, in a single series. 
Fruit subglobose, retuse at the apex. Carpvels oblong, thin-walled, smooth laterally, densely 
pubescent dorsally with coarse, erect simple hairs and smaller intermingled stellate hairs, 
dehiscent, attached to receptacle by a stout vascular strand. Seeds reniform, 2-4 in each 
carpel. Embryo curved, cotyledons conduplicate at the apices. Endosperm scanty. [The 
name is of Greek origin, but its significance is uncertain.] 

A Kenus of 7 species, chieflv in the monntains of western North America from British Columbia to Arizona; 
/. remota occurs in Illinois and western Virginia. Type species, Malva rivularis Dougl. 

Leaves deeply 5-lobed, truncate or cordate at the base, 6-20 cm. long; plants 1-2 m. high. 

Bracts of involucel linear, one-half to two-thirds as long as the calyx-lobes; stellate pubescence fine, rarely 
overlapping. 

Calyx-lobes 6-8 mm. long, acute; herbage sparsely stellate-puberulent; seeds puberulent. 

1. /. rivularis. 
Calyx-lobes 15-20 mm. long, attenuate-acuminate; herbage pubescent with both stellate and simple hairs; 
seeds glabrous. 2. /. longisepala. 

Bracts of involucel ovate, equaling or exceeding calyx-lobes; stellate-pubescence coarse, overlapping, sub- 
scabrous. 3. /. latibracteata. 
Leaves cuneate-obovate, shallowly crenately 3-lobed, 1-4 cm. long; plants 3-7 dm. high. 4. /. Bakeri. 

L Iliamna rivularis Torr. Stream-bank Globe-mallow. Fig. 3164. 

Malva rivularis Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 107. 1830. 

Sphaeralcea acerifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 228. 1838. 

Sphaeratcea rivularis Torr. ex A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 23. 1849. 

Iliamna rivularis Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 206. 1906. 

Iliamna acerifolia Greene, loc. cit. 

Phymosia acerifolia Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 40: 60. 1913. 

Phymosia rivularis Rydb. loc. cit. 

Erect paniculately branching perennial 1-2 m. high, sparsely pubescent throughout with short- 



MALLOW FAMILY 



85 




3166 



3159. Abutilon Theophrasti 

3160. Abutilon parvulum 

3161. Horsfordia alata 



3162. Horsfordia Newberryi 

3163. Modiola caroliniana 

3164. Iliamna rivularis 



3165. Iliamna longisepala 

3166. Iliamna latibracteata 



86 MALVACEAE 

rayed stellate and scattered simple hairs. Leaves cordate-orbicular to cordate-ovate in outline, 
10-20 cm. long, thin, bright green, deeply 5-7-lobed, the lobes triangular-ovate, acute, coarsely den- 
tate with broad rounded teeth ; flowers in loose axillary clusters to paniculately racemose ; involu- 
cellate bracts linear-setaceous 4-6 mm. long, one-half to two-thirds as long as the calyx ; calyx 6-8 
mm. long, finely stellate-puberulent ; calyx-lobes broadly triangular-ovate, rounded, abruptly 
acute; petals obovate, deeply emarginate, 2-2.5 cm. long, rose or white; fruit 8-10 mm. high; 
carpels ovate-elliptical, acutish at the apex, densely pubescent with stellate and coarse simple 
bristles dorsally, 3-4-seeded; seeds reniform-orbicular, minutely puberulent. 

Along banks of streams, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; British Columbia to Montana, Utah, 
Colorado, and northern New Mexico. Type locality: "North- West America, from the ocean to the Rocky 
Mountains." June-Aug. 

2. Iliamna longisepala (Torr.) Wiggins. Chelan Globe-mallow. Fig. 3165. 

Sphaeralcea longisepala Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. 255. 1874. 
Phymosia longisepala Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 40: 61. 1913. 
Iliamna longisepala Wiggins, Contr. Dudley Herb. 1 : 227. 1936. 

Erect paniculately branching perennial 1-2 m. high, sparsely pubescent throughout with 
simple, forked, and few-rayed stellate hairs. Leaves cordate-orbicular to truncate-pentagonal in 
outline, 6-10 cm. long, about as wide, 5-lobed, the lobes acutely triangular to rounded-ovate, 
coarsely dentate ; stipules 6-8 mm. long, subulate-lanceolate, caducous ; inflorescence paniculately 
branched, lax; involucellate bracts linear, 5-8 mm. long; calyx 15-20 mm. high, hirsute with 
few-rayed hairs 1-2 mm. long, the lobes lanceolate, acuminate-attenuate; petals rose-pink, 2-2.5 
cm. long ; fruit truncate-globose, 6-8 mm. high ; carpels ovate-elliptic, 2-3-seeded, densely hirsute- 
bristly on the back ; seeds reniform, dark brown, glabrous. 

Mountain slopes, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Chelan and Kittitas Counties, Washington. 
Type locality: Upper Columbia. July-Aug. 

3. Iliamna latibracteata Wiggins. California Globe-mallow. Fig. 3166. 

Iliamna latibracteata Wiggins, Contr. Dudley Herb. 1 : 225. pi. 20. 1936. 
Sphaeralcea riviilaris var. cismontana Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 504. 1936. 

Perennial shrub 1-2 m. high, stellate-pubescent throughout. Leaves palmately 5-7-lobed, 8-20 
cm. long, the lobes broadest about the middle, serrate or irregularly dentate; petioles 5-10 cm. 
long; stipules subulate, 6-10 mm. long, deciduous; involucellate bractlets broadly elliptic-lan- 
ceolate to broadly ovate, acute to short-acuminate, 10-14 mm. long, equaling or surpassing the 
calyx-lobes ; calyx-lobes triangular-ovate, 5-8 mm. broad, 8-10 mm. long, broadly rounded and 
abruptly short-acuminate; petals 2.5-3 cm. long, rose-purple; fruit subglobose, 8-10 mm. high, 
10-15 mm. broad; carpels 10-14, glabrous laterally, densely hirsute dorsally; seeds 2 mm. high, 
puberulent. 

Creek banks and moist ground, Humid Transition Zone; Coos and Douglas Counties, Oregon, to northern 
Humboldt County, California. Type locality: Prairie Creek, California. June-Aug. 

4. Iliamna Bakeri (Jepson) Wiggins. Baker's Globe-mallow. Fig. 3167. 

Sphaeralcea Bakeri Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 635. 1925. 
Iliamna Bakeri Wiggins, Contr. Dudley Herb. 1 : 228. 1936. 

Herbaceous perennial 3-7 dm. high, several erect stems from a woody rootstock, more or less 
stellate-pubescent throughout. Leaves suborbicular to cuneate-obovate, the lower more or less 
truncate at the base, crenately 3-lobed and irregularly serrate, 1.5-3 cm. long, finely and closely 
stellate-puberulent; flowers solitary or in 2-3-flowered axillary clusters; peduncles 5-15 mm. 
long, stout; bracts linear, about 8 mm. long; calyx 9-12 mm. high, the lobes round-ovate, 
abruptly acute to short-acuminate, 4-6 mm. high at anthesis, densely stellate-pubescent; petals 
rose-pink, 15-20 mm. long; fruit depressed-globose, about 8-10 mm. high, 10-15 mm. wide; 
carpels smooth on the sides, closely stellate-pubescent and densely hirsute dorsally; seeds 3-4 
in each carpel, reniform, about 2 mm. long, dark brown, finely stellate-puberulent. 

Rocky slopes and chaparral, Arid Transition Zone; southern border of Klamath County, Oregon, and 
Siskiyou, Modoc, and Shasta Counties, California. Type locality: Fall River Valley, California. July-Aug. 

5. SPHAERALCEA St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. 1 : 209. 1825. 

Annual or perennial herbs, usually suffrutescent at the base, stellate-pubescent through- 
out. Leaves alternate, of various outlines. Flowers in axillary clusters or in terminal 
panicles, racemes or sometimes corymbs. Calyx 5-cleft. Involucellate bractlets 3. Petals 
5, white, rose, orange or rose-purple. Stamineal column slender, antheriferous at the sum- 
mit. Fruit spherical or subspherical. Carpels 5-20, 1-3-ovulate, 1-3-seeded, upper ovules 
pendulous, often abortive. Carpels with an empty apical portion that is smooth laterally 
and dehiscent at maturity, and a seminiferous, indehiscent, laterally reticulate lower por- 
tion. Seeds reniform, smooth or hispidulous, dark brown to black. Embryos curved, co- 
tyledons conduplicate at the apices. [Name Greek, alluding to the spherical fruit.] 

A genus of about SO species in the drier parts of North and South America, South Africa, Caledonia, and 
Australia. Type species, Sphaeralcea cisplatina St. Hil. 



MALLOW FAMILY 87 

Plants annual or biennial, not markedly suffrutescent; smooth, dehiscent part of the carpel forming less than 
one-third of the carpel, much narrower than the indehiscent part. 

Carpels 2. S-;-3 mm. high, notch about one-third the width of the carpel; plant densely yellow-canescent, 

biennial. 1. S. Orcuttii. 

Carpels 1.2-2.5 mm. high, notch not over one- fourth the width of the carpel; plant sparsely pubescent, 
bright green, annual. 2. S. Coulteri. 

Plants perennial, distinctly suffrutescent; smooth dehiscent part of the carpel forming over one-third of the 
carpel, as wide or wider than the indehiscent portion. 
Indehiscent part of the carpels rugose or muricate dorsally; reticulations coarse, prominent. 

Fruit truncate-conical, not strongly depressed; carpels cuspidate, not conspicuously galeate. 

3. 5". Emoryi. 
Fruit hemispherical or nearly so, strongly depressed; carpels muticous or mucronulate, conspicuously 
galeate. 4. 5. ambigua. 

Indehiscent part of the carpels smooth dorsally; reticulations fine, usually inconspicuous. 

Calyx conspicuously more densely pubescent than the stems and leaves. 5. .S. Rusbyi eremicola. 
Calyx and leaves equally pubescent. 

Leaves 3-10 times as long as wide, basal lateral lobes not over one-tenth as long as the mid-lobe; 

carpels oblong-ovate, twice as high as broad. 6. 5. angustifolia cuspidata. 

Leaves about as wide as long, lateral lobes usually equaling mid-lobe; carpels broadly ovate to 
nearly orbicular, nearly or quite as broad as high. 

Carpels acute at ape.x, mucronate or cuspidate; fruit equaling or higher than the calyx; leaves 
thick, rugose. 7. S. parvifolia. 

Carpels rounded or obtuse at apex, sometimes muticous; fruit shorter than the calyx; leaves 
thin, not rugose. 

Herbage bright green, sparsely pubescent; leaves cuneate to subcordate, rarely strongly 

cordate. 8. S. Munroana. 

Herbage densely whitish- or grayish-pubescent; leaves usually strongly cordate. 

9. S. grossulariacfolia. 

1. Sphaeralcea Orcuttii Rose. Orcutt's Desert-mallow. Fig. 3168. 

Sphaeralcea Orcuttii Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1:289. 1893. 

Annual or biennial, 1 to several erect stems 5-10 dm. high from a large taproot, canescent- 
stellate throughout. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to subhastate, 2-5 cm. long, thick, entire to slightly 
crenulate ; petioles 5-25 mm. long ; flowers crowded on flexuous peduncles in narrow panicles ; 
calyx 4-7 mm. long, the lobes incurved over mature fruit; petals 8-12 mm. long, emarginate, 
scarlet; fruit depressed-globose, densely puberulent; carpels about 2-3 mm. high, usually 1- 
seeded, deeply reticulate on the sides except on the short, sharply incurved empty portion. 

Washes and sandy places, Lower Sonoran Zone; the Colorado Desert, California, into Arizona and north- 
western Sonora and middle Lower California. Type locality: near Canso Creek, Colorado Desert. March-Aug. 

2. Sphaeralcea Coulteri (S. Wats.) A. Gray. Coulter's Desert-mallow. Fig. 3169. 

Malvastrum Coulteri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 125. 1876. 
Sphaeralcea Coulteri A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 291. 1887. 

Annuals, sparsely pubescent throughout, stems several, erect or ascending, up to IS dm. 
high, usually less than 5 dm. high. Leaves thin, soft, broadly ovate to orbicular, sparsely 
pubescent and bright green, truncate or cordate at the base, obscurely to distinctly 3-5-lobed, 
1 . 5-3 cm. long, coarsely crenate ; inflorescence thyrsoid ; calyx 5-7 mm. high, lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate; petals salmon-orange, 8-15 mm. long; fruit hemispherical; carpels 1.5-2.5 
mm. high, reniform, shallowly notched, truncate or rounded at the apex, muticous, finely stellate- 
pubescent dorsally, indehiscent part two-thirds to three-fourths of the carpel, wider than the 
dehiscent part, prominently fenestrate-reticulate on sides and back. 

Sandy or rocky soil or sometimes in heavy clay. Lower Sonoran Zone; southeastern California through 
Arizona and Sonora to Sinaloa. Type locality: southeastern California. March-April. 

3. Sphaeralcea Emoryi Torr. Emory's Desert-mallow. Fig. 3170. 

sphaeralcea Emoryi Torr. ex A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 23. 1849. 
Sphaeralcea angustifolia var. gavisa Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 502. 1936. 

Perennial with several to many erect stems 6-12 dm. high, densely gray-canescent through- 
out. Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, 2-9 cm. long, 1-6 cm. wide, cordate at the base, angulate or 
shallowly 3-lobed near the base, crenulate to irregularly crenate, prominently veined beneath ; 
inflorescence a narrow, interrupted thyrse, leafy to the apex ; calyx 5-10 mm. high, the lobes 
ovate, acute to lance-acuminate, 1-2 times as long as the tube ; petals pink, lavender or grenadine, 
1-2 cm. long; fruit truncate-conical, often equaling the calyx; carpels 3.5-6 mm. high, deeply 
notched, prominently beaked, dehiscent part erect, tipped with cusps 1-1.5 mm. long, indehiscent 
portion forming one-third to one-half of the carpel, coarsely reticulate, usually 2-seeded. 

Sandy soil or loam in fields and along roadsides, Lower Sonoran Zone; southeastern California to Nevada, 
Arizona, and northern Lower California. Type locality: valley of the Gila River, Yuma County, Arizona. 
April-Oct. 

Sphaeralcea Emoryi subsp. variabilis (Cockerell) Kearney, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 19: 39. 1935. {Sphaer- 
alcea Fendleri var. calif ornica Parish, Zoe 5: 71. 1900.) Similar to the species but with more deeply divided, 
thinner, greener, less pubescent leaves; carpels with somewhat longer cusps. Southwestern Arizona and southern 
California in the Lower Sonoran Zone. Type locality: Phoenix, Arizona. 

Sphaeralcea Emoryi subsp. nevadensis Kearney, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 19: 40. 1935. Differs from the 
species and subspecies variabilis in having thinner walled, finely reticulate carpels, and leaves unlobed, only one- 
third to one-half as wide as long; and from subspecies arida in having much narrower leaves. Eastern Riverside 
County, California, to Arizona and Nevada. Type locality: St. Thomas, Nevada. 

Sphaeralcea Emoryi subsp. arida (Rose) Kearney, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 19:41. 1935. (Sphaeralcea 



88 MALVACEAE 

arida Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 177. 1899.) Differs from the other forms of Emoryi in having the 
indehiscent part of the carp 
broader leaves. Southeaster 
locality: Guaymas, Sonora. 



arida Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 177. 1899.) Differs from the other forms of Emoryi in having the 
indehiscent part of the carpel distinctly narrower than the dehiscent part; usually glabrous seeds; and shorter, 
broader leaves. Southeastern California to southern Nevada and through Arizona and bonora to Sinaloa. Type 



4. Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray. Desert-mallow or Desert-hollyhock. Fig. 3171. 

Sphaeralcea Emoryi A. Gray in Ives Rep. 8. 1860. Not Torrey, 1849. 
Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22:292. 1887. 
Sphaeralcea Macdougalii Rose & Standley, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 16: 13. 1912. 
Sphaeralcea ambigua var. Keckii Munz, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 31 : 68. 1932. 

Suffrutescent with numerous erect stems 6-10 dm. high from a thick, woody crown, densely 
white- or yellowish-canescent throughout. Leaves thickish-rugose, prominently veined beneath, 
broadly ovate, deltoid, to nearly orbicular in outline, cordate at the base, rather shallowly 3-lobed 
near the middle, 1-^ cm. long, nearly to quite as broad, coarsely crenate to crenate-dentate ; 
inflorescence open panicled or rarely narrowly thyrsoid ; calyx 6-20 mm. high, lobes lanceolate, 
attenuate-acuminate, 2-4 times as long as the tube; petals grenadine, 15-35 mm. long; fruit 
hemispherical, 6-12 mm. wide, usually not over half as high as broad; carpels with chartaceous 
walls, 3 . 5-6 mm. high, galeate, narrowly and deeply notched, dehiscent portion erect, prommently 
beaked, forming about two-thirds of the carpel; indehiscent portion prominently and coarsely 
reticulate, usually 2-seeded. 

Dry rocky slopes and margins of sandy washes, Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones; Colorado and Mojave 
Deserts and the desert slopes of the Sierra Nevada in Inyo County, California, to Utah, Arizona, and northern 
Sonora and Lower California. Type locality: Big Canyon of the Colorado. April-July. 

Sphaeralcea ambigua subsp. rosacea (Munz & Jtn.) Kearney, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 19:46. 1935. 
{Sphaeralcea purpurea Parish ex Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 635. 1925.) Petals purplish pink, drying violet; 
anthers usually purple instead of yellow or orange. Sandy washes and rocky hillsides of the Lower Sonoran 
Zone from Palm Springs to southwestern Arizona and northern Lower California. Type locality: Palm Springs, 
Riverside County, California. 

Sphaeralcea ambigua subsp. monticola Kearney, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 19:47. 1935. {Sphaeralcea 
pulchella Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 635. 1925. Not Philippi, 1892.) Inflorescence narrowly thyrsoid; plant 
herbaceous above the crown; stems seldom over 5 dm. high; leaves 3 cm. or less in length, thin, not rugose. 
Rocky slopes of desert mountain ranges at elevations of 4,000 to 7,000 feet from eastern San Bernardino County, 
California, to west-central Nevada and Utah. Type locality : Panamint Mountains, Inyo County, California. 

Sphaeralcea ambigua subsp. rugosa Kearney, Univ. CaliL Pub. Bot. 19:49. 1935. Similar to subspecies 
monticola but pubescence yellowish instead of whitish; leaves rugose, thick; carpels finely reticulate. Sandy 
soil, southern San Bernardino County southward along the western edge of the Colorado Desert, California, into 
northern Lower California. Type locality: Idyllwild, San Jacinto Mountains, Riverside County, California. 

Sphaeralcea ambigua var. aculeita Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 503. 1936. Leaves ovate-oblong, subhastately 
3-lobed, the middle lobe much longer than the lateral ones; carpels 6-8 mm. long. Western and central Mojave 
Desert, California. Type locality: West Palmdale, Los Angeles County. 

5. Sphaeralcea Rusbyi supsp. eremicola (Jepson) Kearney. Rusby's Desert- 

mallow. Fig. 3172. 

sphaeralcea eremicola Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 635. 1925. 

Sphaeralcea Rusbyi subsp. eremicola Kearney, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 19:56. 1935. 

Several erect or ascending stems 5-8.5 dm. high from a heavy, woody crown, sparsely 
pubescent throughout or glabrate in age. Leaves thin, broadly ovate, deltoid, to nearly orbicular, 
cordate at the base, 1.5-3 cm. long, pedately 5-parted or divided, the divisions cuneate-obovate 
to oblanceolate, few-cleft or coarsely toothed; inflorescence a few-flowered thyrse or panicle; 
calyx more densely pubescent than the leaves, 11-14 mm. long, the lobes lanceolate to deltoid, 
acuminate, about 3 times as long as the tube ; petals grenadine, 10-20 mm .long ; fruit truncate- 
ovoid, about half as high as the calyx ; carpels shallowly and broadly notched, dehiscent portion 
erect, obtuse and muticous at the apex, indehiscent portion forming about one-fifth to two-fifths 
of the carpel, finely and faintly reticulate. 

Desert slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; known only from the type locality. Emigrant Canyon, Panamint Moun- 
tains, Inyo County, at an altitude of 4,200 feet. April-May. 

6. Sphaeralcea angustifolia var. cuspidata A. Gray. Narrow-leaved Desert- 

mallow. Fig. 3173. 

Sida stellata Torr. Ann. Lye. N.Y. 2: 171. 1828. Not Cav. 1790. 

Sphaeralcea stellata Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 228. 1838. 

Malva stellata D. Dietr. Syn. PI. 4:816. 1847. 

Sphaeralcea angustifolia var. cuspidata A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22:293. 1887. 

Sphaeralcea cuspidata Britt. in Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. 3: 519. 1898. 

Suffrutescent, many erect simple or narrowly paniculate-branched stems 4-12 dm. high from 
the woody base, finely stellate-puberulent throughout when young, stems and upper surfaces of 
leaves glabrate in age. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, sometimes obscurely lobed at the base, crenu- 
late, 2-7 cm. long; flowers in few-flowered axillary clusters; calyx 5-6 mm. high, the lobes 
ovate, acuminate; petals emarginate, 8-12 mm. long, saffron-red; carpels 4-6 mm. high, 1-3- 
seeded, cuspidate, smooth and scarious above, reticulate opposite the lower seed. 

Sandy desert washes, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; rare in California (Indio, Desert Center) and at 
Santa Monica, where it is probably introduced, and Arizona to Colorado, Texas, and Coahuila. Type locality: 
sources of the Arkansas River. Aug.-Oct. 



MALLOW FAMILY 



89 




3167. Iliamna Bakeri 

3168. Sphaeralcea Orcuttii 

3169. Sphaeralcea Coulteri 



3170. Sphaeralcea Emoryi 

3171. Sphaeralcea ambigua 

3172. Sphaeralcea Rusbyi 



3173. Sphaeralcea angustifolia 

3174. Sphaeralcea parvifolia 

3175. Sphaeralcea Munroana 



90 MALVACEAE 

7. Sphaeralcea parvifolia A. Nels. Small-leaved Desert-mallow. Fig. 3174. 

Sphaeralcea parvifolia A. Nels. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 17:94. 1904. 
Sphaeralcea marginata York ex Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 33: 145. 1906. 
Sphaeralcea arizonica Heller ex Rydb. Bull Torrey Club 40: 59. 1913. 

Perennial from a woody taproot, whitish-canescent throughout, stems several, erect, 5-10 dm. 
high Leaves prominently veined beneath, thick, ovate-deltoid to suborbicular, cordate to truncate 
at the base 1.5^ cm. long, usually shallowly 3-lobed near the middle, crenate; mflorescence 
narrowly thyrsoid-glomerate, 10-30 cm. long ; calyx 4-8 mm. high, densely pubescent, lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, short-acuminate; petals grenadine, 10-18 mm. long; fruit hemispherical to truncate- 
conical, slightly surpassing the calyx; carpels 3-5 mm. high, walls chartaceous, the dehiscent 
portion erect, ovate, mucronate or short-cuspidate, the indehiscent portion 1-1 . 5 mm. high, finely 
reticulate, usually 2-seeded. 

Dry slopes, mesas, and openings in pine forests, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Inyo County, 
California, to Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and central Arizona. Type locality: Caliente, Lincoln County, 
Nevada. Aug.-Oct. 

8. Sphaeralcea Munroana (Dougl.) Spach. Munroe's Desert-mallow. Fig. 3175. 

Malva Munroana Dougl. in Lindl. Bot. Reg. 16:^/. 1306. 1830. 
Nuttallia Munroana Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 7: 16. 1834. 
Malvastriim Munroanum A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 21. 1849. 
Sphaeralcea Munroana Spach ex A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 292. 1887. 
Malveopsis Munroanum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1:86. 1891. 

Suffrutescent, stems 1 to several, erect or ascending, 3-8 dm. high, ashy pubescent through- 
out, or glabrate below. Leaves ovate to orbicular, 1-3.5 cm. long and broad, cordate to truncate 
at base, 3-lobed, the lobes rounded to acute; inflorescence thyrsoid-paniculate, compact, of few- 
flowered axillary clusters ; calyx 4-5 mm. long, densely stellate-pubescent, the lobes ovate-acute ; 
petals 9-12 mm. long, brick-red ; fruit depressed-globose, 6-8 mm. broad, 4 mm. high ; carpels 
oval-reniform, 1-2-seeded, densely stellate-pubescent on back, reticulate on sides below, smooth 
above, obtuse at the apex. 

Sagebrush plains, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; British Columbia south through eastern 
Washington and Oregon to Inyo County, California, and east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah. Type locality: 
plains of the Columbia. Aug.-Oct. 

Sphaeralcea Munroana subsp. subrhomboidea (Rydb.) Kearney, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 19:85. 1935. 
(Sphaeralcea subrhomboidea Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 40: 59, 60. 1913.) Leaves cleft more than halfway to the 
midrib, or even 3-parted, subcuneate at the base. Eastern Oregon to Utah and Wyoming. Type locality: 
Wasatch County, Utah. 

9. Sphaeralcea grossulariaefolia (Hook. & Arn.) Rydb. Currant-leaved 

Desert-mallow. Fig. 3176. 

Sida grossulariaefolia Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 326. 1840. 
Malvastriim grossulariaefolia A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 21. 1849. 
Malvastriim coccincum var. grossulariaefolium Terr, in Stansbury Exp. 384. 1852. 
Sphaeralcea pedata A. Gray (in part), Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 291. 1887. Not Torr. 1849. 
Sphaeralcea grossulariaefolia Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 40:58. 1913. 

Perennial from a woody taproot and crown, with few erect or ascending stems 5-11 dm. 
high, whitish-canescent throughout. Leaves deltoid to broadly ovate in outline, usually cordate 
at the base, 2-4.5 cm. long, pedately deeply cleft or parted, the divisions usually again_ parted, 
coarsely and irregularly toothed; inflorescence thyrsoid-glomerate; calyx 5-10 mm. high, the 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; petals grenadine, 8-20 mm. long; fruit hemispherical, 5-8 
mm. wide; carpels 2.5-3.5 mm. high, nearly orbicular in outline, shallowly and narrowly notched, 
dehiscent portion erect or nearly so, broadly deltoid-ovate, obtuse at the apex, indehiscent part 
forming about one-half the carpel, finely reticulate. 

Dry plains and hillsides. Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; south-central Washington and Idaho 
south to Lassen County, California, and east to Utah. Type locality: Bannock River, Power County, Idaho. 
Aug.-Oct. 

Sphaeralcea grossulariaefolia subsp. pedata (Torr.) Kearney, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 19:88. 1935. 
(Sphaeralcea pedata Torr. in A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 23. 1849.) Carpels broadly ovate m outline, 
three-fifths to three-fourths as wide as high, acute at the apex, often mucronate or even cuspidate. Eastern 
Oregon to Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. Type locality: "Moving Fork, 1st Camp, Utah. Collected by 
Fremont's Expedition in 1845-47. 

6. MALVASTRUM A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 21. 1849. 

Herbs and shrubs with simple, orbicular, angular, or lobed leaves, more or less_ stellate- 
pubescent throughout. Leaves alternate. Inflorescence capitate, interrupted-spicate, or 
paniculate, few- to many-fiowered. Involucellate bractlets 1-3. or rarely wanting. Flow- 
ers perfect, white, pink, or rose-purple. Stamineal column antheriferous at the summit. 
Style-branches filiform; stigmas capitate. Fruit depressed-globose or discoid, pubescent 
at the summit, at least when young. Carpels several, 1-ovuled, dehiscent; seeds ascending, 
irregularly minutely puberulent, filling the carpel; embryo curved. [Name coined by 
De Candolle, meaning False Mallow.] 



MALLOW FAMILY 91 

A genus of over 100 species, distributed in the temperate and subtropical regions of North and South 
America, South Africa, and Australia. Type species, Sida tricuspidata DC. 

Involucellate bractlets inconspicuous, equaling the calyx-tube or shorter. 

Pubescence on apex of carpels of erect, stellate hairs, harsh, at least near the base of the style, not ap- 
pressed-horizontal. 

Calyx constricted at apex of the tube; lobes of leaves acute. 1. M.Hallii. 

Calyx not constricted; lobes of leaves rounded or obtuse. 

Inflorescence interrupted-spicate; inner surface of calyx-lobes glabrous; pubescence of calyces long, 

hirsute. 2. M. orbiculatum. 

Inflorescence paniculate; inner surface of calyx-lobes tomentose, at least near the apex; calyces 
pubescent with short-rayed hairs. 

Leaves cordate, thick; inflorescence many-flowered, pyramidal; pubescence harsh. 

3. M. Davidsonii. 
Leaves truncate or cuneate at the base, thin; inflorescence narrowly racemose-paniculate; 
pubescence velvety. 4. M. Jonesii. 

Pubescence on carpels of appressed, horizontally spreading stellate hairs. 

Buds broadly ovoid; calyces broadly campanulate at anthesis; pubescence fine or coarse, but the central 
rays erect. 

Pubescence on calyces uniform, short-rayed; leaves thin, not rugulose; petioles slender, 1 mm. 
thick or less. 5. M, fasciculatum. 

Pubescence on calyces of coarse, long-rayed and finer, short-rayed hairs; leaves thick, rugose; 
petioles stout. 6. M. arcuatiim. 

Buds oblong; calyces narrowly campanulate to nearly cylindrical at anthesis; pubescence minute, of 
fine-rayed, horizontally appressed stellate hairs. 7. M. nesioticum. 

Involucellate bractlets conspicuous, about equaling or surpassing the calyx-lobes. 

Inflorescence capitate; involucellate bractlets ovate to suborbicular. 8. M. Palmeri. 

Inflorescence not capitate; bractlets linear to lanceolate. 

Buds distinctly plicate-angled; bractlets ovate-lanceolate. 

Inflorescence interrupted-spicate; floral bracts 1-3-dentate; inner surface of calyx-lobes tomentose 
to base. 9. M. aboriginum. 

Inflorescence paniculate; floral bracts simple; calyx-lobes tomentose only on upper half of inner 
surface. 10. M. Abbottii. 

Buds not plicate-angled; bractlets linear or setaceous. 

Pubescence of the inflorescence thick-lanate, obscuring the calyx-lobes; buds globose; leaves densely 
and nearly equally stellate-pubescent on both sides. 11. M. Fremontii. 

Pubescence of the inflorescence harsh or fine, but not obscuring the calyx-lobes; buds ovoid to ovoid- 
acuminate; leaves more densely pubescent beneath than above. 

Calyces clothed with simple, purplish glandular hairs intermingled with the stellate-pubescence; 
inflorescence divaricately paniculate. 12. M. gracile. 

Calyces without coarse glandular hairs; inflorescence interrupted-spicate. 

Upper surface of leaves sparsely pubescent to glabrate; inflorescence silky white-tomentose. 

13. M. clementinttm. 

Upper surface of leaves moderately stellate-pubescent, not glabrate; pubescence harsh, 

tawny, not white nor silky. 
Stipules 4-8 mm. long; leaves more or less 3-S-lobed, the margins irregularly crenate. 

Leaves not rugose; calyces hirsute, the lobes acuminate; stipules 4-5 mm. long. 

14. M. densiflorutn. 

Leaves strongly rugose; calyces harshly stellate-pubescent, not hirsute; stipules 
5-8 mm. long. ^. M. arcnatum. 

Stipules 10-12 mm. long; leaves scarcely at all lobed, the margins serrate-dentate. 

15. M. marrubioides. 

I. Malvastrum Hallii Eastw. Hall's Malvastrum. Fig. 3177. 

Malvastrum Hallii Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1: 216. 1936. 
Sphaeralcea fasciculata var. Elmeri Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 501. 1936. 

Erect shrub 1-2 m. high with long slender branches, densely canescent with fine, short-rayed 
stellate hairs. Leaves ovate to suborbicular, irregularly crenate, shallowly 3-5-lobed, broadly 
cuneate to shallowly cordate at the base, 1-6 cm. long, rugulose, paler and prominently veined 
beneath; petioles stout; stipules lance-subulate, 5-8 min. long; inflorescence paniculate; pedicels 
2-6 mm. long; involucellate bractlets linear, 1.5-3 mm. long; calyx campanulate, often slightly 
constricted at the apex of the tube, 4-5.5 mm. long, the lobes deltoid, 2 mm. wide, 2-2.5 mm. 
long, densely stellate-canescent ; petals 10-15 mm. long, pink to rose; stamineal column slender, 
glabrous, half as long as the petals; carpels 2.5-3 mm. high, densely stellate-pubescent on the 
summits and about one-third the way down the backs with erect, bristly, several-rayed hairs and 
intermingled with a few smaller, appressed stellate hairs ; seeds ovate-reniform, 2 mm. high, dark 
brown, sparsely and irregularly puberulent. 

Stony south slopes and canyon sides, Upper Sonoran Zone; Inner Coast Ranges from Mount Diablo to the 
vicinity of Pacheco Pass, Santa Clara County, California. Type locality: west side of Mount Diablo north of 
Pine Canyon, Contra Costa County, California. May-Aug. 

Malvastrum mendocinense Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 2: 188. 1939. Leaves somewhat broader, the pubes- 
cence more tawny, and the calyx-tube scarcely or not at all constricted, may be conspecific with or a variety of 
M. Hallii. Between Ukiah and Booneville, Mendocino County. June-July. 

2. Malvastrum orbiculatum Greene. Round-leaved Malvastrum. Fig. 3178. 

Malvastrum orbiculatum Greene. FI. Fran. 109. 1891. 
Malacothamniis orbiculatus Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 208. 1906. 
Malvastrum Fremontii var. orbiculatum I. M. Johnston, PI. World 22: 109. 1919. 
Sphaeralcea orbiculata Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2:499. 1936. 

Suffrutescent, stout erect branches 1-2 m. high, densely stellate-tomentose throughout with 



92 MALVACEAE 

tawny slender-rayed hairs. Leaves orbicular-cordate, the upper often 3-5-lobed, coarsely crenate, 
2-6 cm long and broad, veins more coarsely scurfy-pubescent on the under surface; petioles 
stout, 3-18 mm. long ; stipules thin, subulate, 4-5 mm. long ; inflorescence interrupted-spicate or 
of short-pedunculate axillary clusters; involucellate bractlets linear-lanceolate, 4^6 mm. long, 
shorter than the calyx-lobes ; calyx densely tomentose with long-rayed stellate hairs, 7-10 mm. 
long, the lobes triangular-lanceolate, 2>-7 mm. long, 2-A mm. wide; petals obovate, rose-pmk, 
10-12 mm. long; stamineal column glabrous ; carpels obovate-reniform, about 2 mm. high, densely 
stellate-pubescent with bright yellow hairs on the summits, glabrous on the backs and sides ; 
seeds reniform, black, minutely stellate-puberulent. 

Dry slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; bordering the desert from the Tehachapi Mountains of Kern and Ventura 
Counties and the eastern slope of the southern Sierra Nevada in Inyo County to the San Bernardino Mountains, 
California. Type locality: mountains south of Tehachapi, Kern County, California. June-Oct. 

3. Malvastrum Davidsonii Robinson. Davidson's Malvastrum. Fig. 3179. 

Malvastrum Davidsonii Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. P: 312. 1897. 
Malacothamnus Davidsonii Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 208. 1906. 
Sphaeralcea Davidsonii Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 634. 1925. 

An arborescent shrub 2-5 m. high with coarse branches, leaves and inflorescence scurfy with 
a coarse, thick, stellate tomentum. Leaves thick, orbicular to pentagonal, usually shallowly 3-5- 
lobed, 2-10 cm. wide and long, cordate, irregularly dentate or crenate, somewhat rugose, both 
surfaces stellate-tomentose, veiny beneath ; petioles stout, 1-4 cm. long ; inflorescence a pyramidal 
panicle and with short-pedunculate clusters of flowers in the axils of the upper leaves ; pedicels 
stout, 0.5-1 cm. long; involucellate bractlets lance-linear, 3-5 mm. long, about equaling the 
calyx-tube; calyx 5-8 mm. long, the lobes ovate, 2-4 mm. long, acute, sometimes mucronate; 
petals rose-pink, 8-12 mm. long; stamineal column 3-6 mm. long; carpels 2-2.5 mm. high, 
stellate-pubescent on the summits, glabrous on the backs and sides ; seeds ovate-reniform, irreg- 
ularly stellate-puberulent, the surface finely reticulate. 

Dry washes, Upper Sonoran Zone; San Fernando Valley below 2,000 feet altitude, Los Angeles County, 
California. Type locality: San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles County, California. July-Nov. 

4. Malvastrum Jonesii Munz. Jones's Malvastrum. Fig. 3180. 

Malvastrum Jonesii Munz, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 24: 88. 1925. 
Malvastrum Dudleyi Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1 : 218. 1936. 
Sphaeralcea fasciculata var. Jonesii Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 501. 1936. 

An openly branching shrub with dense stellate-canescent branchlets and herbage. Leaves 
rhomboidal-ovate to suborbicular, truncate to cuneate at the base, irregularly crenate above the 
base, scarcely lobed, 1.5-5 cm. long, prominently veined beneath; petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; 
stipules lance-subulate, 4-6 mm. long; inflorescence racemose-paniculate, 10-30 cm. long; invo- 
lucellate bractlets linear-setaceous, 3-4 mm. long; pedicels stout, 2-7 mm. long; calyx broadly 
campanulate, densely canescent-tomentose, 6-8.5 mm. long, the lobes ovate, acute, 3-3.5 mm. 
wide, 4-5 mm. long; petals 10-14 mm. long, oblong, rose-colored; stamineal column about two- 
thirds as long as the petals; carpels reniform-ovoid, 2.5-3 mm. high, pubescent over the summit 
when young, glabrate except on the angles and about base of style in age; seeds black or dark 
brown, 2-2.5 mm. high, minutely puberulent in irregular patches. 

Hillsides and in chaparral. Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Lucia Mountains in southern Monterey County to 
the vicinity of Paso Robles, San Luis Obispo County, California. Type locality: Paso Robles, California. 
April-July. 

5. Malvastrum fasciculatum (Nutt.) Greene. Mesa Malvastrum. Fig. 3181. 

Malva fasciculata Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 225. 1838. 
Malvastrum Thurberi A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 5: 307. 1854. 
Malveopsis fasciculata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 72. 1891. 
Malvastrum fasciculatum Greene, Fl. Fran. 108. 1891. 
Malacothamnus fasciculatus Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 208. 1906. 
Sphaeralcea fasciculata Arthur, Torreya 21: 11. 1921. 

Openly branched shrub, 1-3 m. high with flexuous, sparingly leaved branches, finely stellate- 
pubescent on young herbage, bark becoming smooth and gray in age. Leaves broadly pentagonal, 
shallowly 3-5-lobed, crenate, 1-6 cm. long and broad, truncate to subcordate at base, green 
above, stellate-canescent beneath; petioles slender, 0.5-2 cm. long; stipules setaceous, 2-4 mm. 
long; inflorescence interrupted-spicate, often virgate, the flowers in ebracteate clusters and in 
the axils of the upper leaves ; involucellate bractlets setaceous, shorter than the calyx-tube ; 
calyx 6-8 mm. long, finely scurfy-stellate, the lobes ovate, acute, 3-4 mm. long; petals 12-20 
mm. long, deep rose; carpels ovate, 2.5-3 mm. high, appressed stellate-puberulent on the summit 
and one-fourth the way down the back, glabrate in age ; seeds dark brown, irregularly and finely 
stellate-puberulent. 

Foothills and lower mountains. Upper Sonoran Zone; west of the divide from Tehachapi Mountains, Cali- 
fornia, south into northern Lower California. Type locality: probably near San Diego, California. Jan.-July. 

Malvastrum fasciculatum var. laxiflorum (A. Gray) Munz & Jtn. Bull. Torrey Club 51: 296. 1924. 
(Malvastrum Thurberi var. laxiflorum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 291. 1887; Sphaeralcea fasciculata var. 
laxiflora Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 634. 1925; Malvastrum Parishii Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1: 216. 1936.) 
Inflorescence lax, paniculately branching, pedicels and peduncles 1-5 cm._ long, otherwise as in the species. 
Canyon sides and in chaparral from Ventura and western San Bernardino Counties south through Orange 
County, California, into northern Lower California. Type locality unknown. 



MALLOW FAMILY 



93 












-:r-^ 



i ^ 




2 •v{vlK-:;?!Kf^ 



3176 



3177 



3178 





3176. Sphaeralcea grossulariaefolia 

3177. Malvastrum Hallii 

3178. Malvastrum orbiculatum 



3179. Malvastrum Davidsonii 

3180. Malvastrum Jonesii 

3181. Malvastrum fasciculatum 



3182. Malvastrum arcuatum 

3183. Malvastrum nesioticum 

3184. Malvastrum Palmeri 



94 MALVACEAE 

6. Malvastrum arcuatum (Greene) Robinson. Northern Malvastrum. Fig. 3182. 

Malveopsis arcuata Greene, Man. Bay Reg. 66. 1894. 

Malvastrum arcuatum Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 311. 1897. 
Malacothamnus arcuatus Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 208. 1906. 
Sphaeralcea arcuata Arthur, Torreya 21: 11. 1921. 

Erect shrub 1-2.5 m. high, densely stellate-tomentose throughout, the hairs appressed, white 
on stems and leaves, stramineous and slightly scurfy on the calyces. Leaves ovate, 1-4 on. 
broad, 1.5-5 cm. long, obscurely 3-5-lobed, crenate, rugose, veiny and paler beneath; petioles 
stout, '0. 5-2 cm. long; stipules lanceolate, 5-8 mm. long; inflorescence interrupted-spicate, some- 
what' secund, flowers sessile ; involucellate bractlets linear-subulate, 5-8 mm. long, equaling or 
surpassing the calyx-tube ; calyx obovate, 6-10 mm. long, densely stellate-pubescent ; calyx-lobes 
ovate, acute to short-mucronate, 2-4 mm. long and broad; petals 15-20 mm. long, rose-colored; 
stamineal column slender, about one-third to half as long as the petals, glabrous ; carpels reni- 
form-ovate, about 3 mm. high, closely appressed-stellate-pubescent on the summit and about one- 
third down the backs ; seeds dark brown, irregularly stellate-puberulent, surface minutely tessel- 
lated. 

Occasional on hillsides and dry ravines, Upper Sonoran Zone; San Mateo County to southern Santa Clara 
County, California. Type locality: eastern slopes of the Coast Range back of Belmont, San Mateo County. 
May-Sept. 

7. Malvastrum nesioticum Robinson. Insular Malvastrum. Fig. 3183. 

Malvastrum nesioticum Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 312. 1897. 

Malacothamnus nesioticus Abrams, Bull. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 6:419. 1910. 

Sphaeralcea nesiotica Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 634. 192S. 

Sphaeralcea fasciculata var. nesiotica Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 501. 1936. 

Malvastrum fasciculatum var. nesioticum McMinn, 111. Man. Calif. Shrubs 348. 1939. 

A much-branched shrub 1-2 m. high, stems, inflorescence, and lower surfaces of the leaves 
minutely but densely stellate-canescent. Leaves pentagonal, leathery, 3-5-lobed, cordate, 2-4.5 
cm. long, green and glabrate above, densely fine-canescent beneath, irregularly crenate, margins 
often revolute; petioles stout, 5-15 mm. long; stipules ovate, 2-3 mm. long; inflorescence a 
rigid, ascending panicle, many-flowered; involucellate bractlets setaceous, 2-3 mm. long; calyx 
campanulate, 5-8 mm. long, finely but densely stellate-canescent, the lobes broadly ovate, 2-3 
mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide at the base, abruptly acute, veiny at maturity; petals rose-pink, 10-15 
mm. long, slightly clawed; stamineal column about equaling the calyx-lobes; carpels oboyate- 
reniform, 4 mm. high, stellate-puberulent on the summit ; seeds irregularly covered with minute 
stellate puberulence. 

Dry slopes and small canyons. Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Cruz Island, Santa Barbara County, California. 
Type locality: "Island of Sta. Cruz.'' April-Aug. 

Malvastrum nesioticum subsp. Nuttallii (Abrams) Wiggins. (Malacothamnus Nuttallii Abrams, Bull. 
NY. Bot. Gard. 6: 417. 1910; Sphaeralcea fasciculata var. Nuttallii Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 501. 1936.) Leaves 
equally pubescent on both surfaces, not revolute; calyx-lobes glabrous on the inner surface except at the very 
tip. Rocky hillsides and small gulches, Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. 
Type locality: Casitas Pass, Ventura County, California. 

8. Malvastrum Palmeri S. Wats. Palmer's Malvastrum. Fig. 3184. 

Malvastrum Palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 12:250. 1877. 
Sphaeralcea Palmeri Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 633. 1925. 

A stout leafy shrub 1-2.5 m. high, densely and coarsely stellate-tomentose throughout with 
scurfy, tawny hairs. Leaves broadly ovate to pentagonal, 5-lobed, 2-6 cm. broad, 2.5-7 dm. long, 
truncate to subcordate at the base, crenate-serrate, densely stellate-tomentose on both surfaces ; 
petioles 1-3 cm. long; stipules ovate to lance-triangular, abruptly acuminate, 6-10 mm. long, 
sparsely pubescent ; inflorescence of dense capitate terminal, usually solitary clusters, the flowers 
sessile, subtended by ovate, entire or 3-lobed foliaceous bracts; involucellate bractlets ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, equaling or exceeding the calyx-lobes; calyx densely stellate-pubescent, 
the lobes ovate, acute or short-acuminate, 2^ mm. broad, 4-6 mm. long; petals obovate, emar- 
ginate or rounded at the summit, 10-14 mm. long, rose-colored; carpels obovate-reniform, 3-3.5 
mm. high, stellate-pubescent on the summit, glabrous on the backs and sides. 

Canyons and hillsides near the sea, Upper Sonoran Zone; in San Luis Obispo County, California. Type 
locality: Cambria, a mile from the sea, San Luis Obispo County. April-Aug. 

Malvastrum Palmeri var. involucratum (Robinson) McMinn, 111. Man. Calif. Shrubs 339. 1939. (Mal- 
vastrum involucratum Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. l^: 310. 1897.) Differs from M. Palmeri m 
having leaves bright green and glabrate on the upper surface; entire, somewhat narrower bracts subtending the 
flowers; and the heads of the inflorescence denser and frequently several subterminal clusters below the terminal 
one. Hillsides and valleys in the Upper Sonoran Zone from Carmel Valley to Jolon, Monterey County, California. 
Type locality: Jolon, Monterey County. 

9. Malvastrum aboriginum Robinson. Indian Valley Malvastrum . Fig. 3185. 

Malvastrum aboripinum Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 311. 1897. 
Sphaeralcea aboriginum Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 498. fig. 240. 1936. 

A Stout shrub 1-1.5 m. high, with densely stellate-tomentose foliage and branches. Leaves 
ovate to orbicular, shallowly cordate and 3-5-lobed, irregularly dentate-crenate, 1 . 5-5 cm. long, 
nearly as broad to slightly wider, densely pubescent on botH surfaces with short-rayed, tawny 
stellate hairs; petioles 0.5-3 cm. long, stout; stipules lance-ovate, 4-6 mm. long; inflorescence 



MALLOW FAMILY 95 

interrupted-spicate, 1-3 dm. long, the flower-clusters subtended by reduced leaves or 3-dentate 
foliaceous bracts; involucellate bractlets broadly ovate, 6-10 mm. long; calyces 6-10 mm. long, 
plicate-angled and acuminate in bud, densely stellate-pubescent, the lobes broadly ovate, abruptly 
acuminate, 5-8 mm. long ; petals rose-pink, 12-18 mm. long ; stamineal column about one-third 
as long as the petals ; carpels ovate-reniform, 3-4 mm. high, stellate-pubescent over most of the 
upper surface, smooth and glabrous on the back. 

On open rocky slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; southern San Benito County and eastern Monterey County 
Type locality: Indian Valley, Monterey County, California. June-Sept. 

10. Malvastrum Abbottii Eastw. Abbott's Malvastrum. Fig. 3186. 

Malvastrum Abbottii Eastw. Leaflets West Bot. 1:215. 1936. 

Slender shrub 1-2 m. high with finely stellate-canescent twigs, herbage and inflorescence. 
Leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular, truncate or subcordate at the base, crenate, 1 . 5-6 cm. long, 
moderately rugulose-veined, pale beneath; petioles 7-20 mm. long, slender; stipules lance- 
subulate, 4-5 mm. long; inflorescence a spreading panicle 3-5 dm. long, lateral branches often 
15 cm. long; pedicels 1-4 mm. long, stellate-canescent; involucellate bractlets ovate-lanceolate, 
1-2 mm. broad, 6-8 mm. long, purplish toward the tip ; calyx ovoid-acuminate in bud, 7-8 mm. 
long, lobes ovoid-acuminate at anthesis, tomentose on the upper half on the inside; petals 12-15 
mm. long, rose-colored ; stamineal column 5-6 mm. long, glabrous ; fruits unknown. 

Stream banks, Upper Sonoran Zone; known only from the type specimen, collected among willows on the 
Salinas River, Monterey County, California. Sept.— Oct. 

11. Malvastrum Fremontii Torr. Fremont's Malvastrum. Fig. 3187. 

Malvastrum Fremontii Torr. ex A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 21. 1849. 
Malveopsis Fremontii Greene, Erythea 1: 171. 1890. 
Sphaeralcea Fremontii Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 633. 1925. 

Shrub 1-2.5 m. high, densely white stellate-tomentose. Leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular, 
truncate to subcordate, shallowly 3-7-lobed or crenate, 1.5-5 cm. long, rugose, prominently 
veined beneath; petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; stipules linear, 5-10 mm. long; inflorescence interrupted- 
spicate-glomerate ; involucellate bractlets linear-setaceous, about equaling the calyx; calyx 
globose in bud, 6-10 mm. long, densely tomentose, the lobes acute, 3-4 mm. long, obscured by 
the thick wool; petals pink to rose-colored, 12-15 mm. long; stamineal column stout, 6-7 mm. 
long; carpels ovate, 3-3.5 mm. high, coarsely stellate-pubescent on the summit in youth, soon 
glabrate; seeds dark brown, minutely and irregularly puberulent. 

Foothill slopes and dry canyons. Upper Sonoran Zone; Inner Coast Ranges and west side of the Sierra 
Nevada, Colusa and Amador Counties to Tehachapi Pass, California. Type locality: "Interior of California." 
May-Sept. 

Malvastrum Fremontii var. cercophorum Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1': 311. 1897. (Mal- 
vastrum Howellii Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1: 220. 1936; Malvastrum Howellii var. cordatum Eastw. loc. cit.; 
Sphaeralcea Fremontii var. cercophorum Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: SOD. 1936.) Tips of caly.x-lobes erect in bud, 
lanceolate-acuminate, 6-10 mm. long, nearly or quite equaling the petals. Dry hillsides and arroyos, eastern 
slopes of the Inner Coast Ranges, from Contra Costa County to western Stanislaus County, California. Type 
locality: Arroyo del Valle, Alameda County. 

Malvastrum Fremontii subsp. exfibulosum (Jepson) Wiggins. {Sphaeralcea Fremontii var. cxfibulosa Jep- 
son, Fl. Calif. 2:500. 1936; Malvastrum Helleri Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1:217. 1936.) Leaves broadly 
cuneate at the base, the lobes acute instead of rounded, coarsely and irregularly dentate, scarcely at all rugose 
above. Dry hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; northwestern Colusa County, and adjacent Lake County south to 
western Yolo County, California. Type locality: near Winters, Yolo County. 

Malvastrum Fremontii var. niveum (Eastw.) McMinn, 111. Man. Calif. Shrubs 343. 1939. (Malvastrum 
fragrans Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1:218. 1936. Not M. fragrans Harv. & Gray, 1859-60; Malvastrum 
niveum Eastw. op. cit. 232.) Stipules setaceous, 3-4 mm. long; leaves 2 cm. or less in width; inflorescence 
paniculate. In chaparral, Inner Coast Ranges, central San Luis Obispo County to northern Santa Barbara 
County, California. Type locality: near Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County. 

12. Malvastrum gracile Eastw. Slender Malvastrum. Fig. 3188. 

Malvastrum gracile Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1:219. 1936. 

Shrub 1-2 m. high, felty-tomentose on new growth. Leaves broadly ovate, shallowly 3-lobed, 
crenate, truncate or obtusely rounded at the base, obtuse at the apex, faintly veined and pale 
green above, ashy and prominently S-veined beneath, 1-3 cm. long; stipules minute, subulate- 
setaceous, 1.5-3 mm. long, purplish; inflorescence paniculate, 15-30 cm. long; pedicels stout, 
0.5-4 mm. long; calyx broadly obturbinate and 5-7 mm. long, felty-stellate, nearly white at the 
base, purplish toward the apex with purplish glandular hairs among stellate hairs, lobes narrowly 
short-acuminate, 3-4 mm. long ; involucellate bractlets filiform, about equaling the calyx, purplish ; 
petals 10-15 mm. long, oblong, rose-colored; stamineal column glabrous, 8 mm. long; carpels 
2 mm. high, ovate-reniform, stellate-puberulent on the summit, glabrate on the back. 

Hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; central San Luis Obispo County, California. Type locality: between 
Arroyo Grande and Huasna, San Luis Obispo County. June-July. 

13. Malvastrum clementinum Munz & Jtn. San Clemente Malvastrum. 

Fig. 3189. 

Malvastrum clementinum Munz & Jtn. Bull. Torrey Club 51 : 296. 1924. 
Sphaeralcea orbiculata var. Clementina Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 499. 1936. 

Shrub 1-2.5 m. high, the stems white-tomentose with soft, silky stellate hairs when young. 
Leaves ovate or pentagonal, shallowly 3-5-lobed, cordate, 3-5 cm. long and broad, irregularly 



96 MALVACEAE 

crenate, bright green, with few sparse long-rayed, slender stellate hairs on the upper surface, 
densely soft-stellate-tomentose and veiny beneath; petioles stout, woolly, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; 
stipules scarious, subulate, 8-12 mm. long; inflorescence interrupted-spicate, 2-4 dm. long, the 
flowers subsessile in white-woolly clusters ; involucellate bractlets filiform, conspicuous, equaling 
the calyx-lobes; calyx 6-7 mm. long, white-tomentose, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, 4-5 
mm. long; petals pink, oblong-obovate, 12-18 mm. long; stamineal column slender, 5-6 mm. 
long; carpels 2.5-3 mm. high, stellate-pubescent over whole summit when young, glabrous in 
age; seeds 1.8 mm. high, short-puberulent. 

Known only from the vicinity of the type locality on San Clemente Island. Type locality: canyon above 
Lemmon Tank, San Clemente Island, California. April-July. 

14. Malvastrum densiflorum S. Wats. Many-flowered Malvastrum. Fig. 3190. 

Malvastrum densiflorum S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 17: 368. 1882. 
Sphaeralcea densiftora Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 633. 1925. 

SufTrutescent, 1-2 m. high, with scurfy, short-rayed stellate pubescence throughout. Leaves 
broadly ovate to orbicular, shallowly 3-5-lolDed, shallowly cordate to broadly cuneate at the base, 
irregularly dentate-crenate to serrate, 2-4 cm. long, 1.5-3.5 cm. wide, sparsely stellate above, 
more densely so and prominently veined beneath; petioles 0.5-2 cm. long; inflorescence inter- 
rupted-spicate, flowers sessile, crowded; involucellate bractlets conspicuous, linear, 8-18 mm. 
long, equaling or exceeding the calyx-lobes ; calyx ovoid, deeply cleft, stellate-pubescent with 
hairs much longer than those of the leaves and stems, the lobes lance-ovate, acuminate, 10-15 
mm. long; petals 10-15 mm. long, rose-pink; carpels 2 mm. high, stellate-pubescent on the upper 
surface, glabrous on the backs and sides. 

Dry slopes in chaparral, Upper Sonoran Zone; Orange and Riverside Counties to San Diego County, Cali- 
fornia, and northern Lower California. Type locality: Agua Caliente (Palm Springs), Riverside County, 
California. March-July. 

Malvastrum densiflorum var. viscidum (Abrams) Estes, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 24: 85. 1925. {Malvastrum 
viscidam Abrams, Bull. Torrey Club 34: 264. 1907; Sphaeralcea densiflora var. viscida Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 498. 
1936.) Differs from the typical plant in having calyx-lobes only 3-7 mm. long, correspondingly shorter bractlets, 
and leaves usually viscid-glandular on the upper surface. Southern San Diego County, California, into northern 
Lower California. Type locality: El Nido, San Diego County, California. 

15. Malvastrum marrubioides Dur. & Hilg. Foothill Malvastrum. Fig. 3191. 

Malvastrum marrubioides Dur. & Hilg. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 3: 38. 1854. 
Malacothamnus marrubioides Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 208. 1906. 
Malvastrum gabrielense Munz & Jtn. Bull. Torrey Club 52:223. 1925. 
Sphaeralcea densiflora var. gabrielensis Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 498. 1936. 

Shrub 1-2 m. high with slender virgate branches and moderately dense, fine-rayed stellate 
pubescence. Leaves ovate to suborbicular, 2-4.5 cm. long, serrate-dentate, truncate to subcordate 
at the base, green above, paler and conspicuously veined beneath; petioles 5-15 mm. long; stipules 
9-12 mm. long, linear-subulate; inflorescence interrupted-spicate; pedicels 1-4 mm. long; bract- 
lets linear-subulate, 8-12 mm. long; calyx 10-12 mm. long, loosely stellate-pubescent, the lobes 
lance-ovate, 3-3.5 mm. wide, 7-9 mm. long, acuminate, densely white-tomentose to base of the 
lobes within; petals rose-colored, 15-18 mm. long; stamineal column 10—12 mm. long; carpels 
cochleate-reniform, 2-2.5 mm. high and wide, puberulent with erect-rayed stellate hairs over 
entire summit, glabrous on the back ; seeds dark brown, irregularly puberulent. 

Dry hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; Fort Miller, Fresno County, north slopes of San Gabriel Mountains, 
Los Angeles County, California. Type locality: Fort Miller, Fresno County, California. July-Oct. 

7. EREMALCHE Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 208. 1906. 

Low annual herbs with alternate orbicular or palmately parted leaves, stellate-pubes- 
cent throughout. Involucellate bractlets 3, distinct, persistent. Flowers solitary or in 
pairs in the axils of the upper leaves. Petals white to rose-purple, hairy along the margins 
of the claws. Stamineal column simple, glabrous. Style-branches from one and a half to 
two times as long as the stamineal column, filiform, as many as the carpels; stigmas capi- 
tate. Fruit discoid. Carpels 10-40, 1-ovulate, indehiscent, reticulate or transversely 
ridged on the back and angles, glabrous. One seed in each carpel, completely filling the 
cavity. Embryo forming an incomplete circle ; endosperm scanty, oily. [Name Greek, re- 
ferring to the desert habitat.] 

A genus of 4 species of the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico. Type species, Malvastrum 
rotundifolium A. Gray. 

Leaves reniform-orbicular, crenate; carpels strongly reticulate dorsally and laterally, flattened laterally, the 

angles acute. 1. £• rotundifolia. 

Leaves palmately 3-S-lobed; carpels less strongly flattened laterally, transversely ridged, scarcely reticulate, 
angles rounded. 
Calyx-lobes ovate, abruptly short-acuminate; inflorescence hispidulous, hairs coarse, 10-20-rayed; corolla 

rose to rose-purple; mature carpels stramineous. 2. E. Parryi. 

Calyx-lobes lance-attenuate; inflorescence puberulent, hairs slender, 3-8-rayed; corolla creamy white; mature 
carpels brown or grayish. 

Petals 10-12 mm. long; pubescence of leaves of 5-7-rayed hairs; carpels gray to light brown. 

3. E. kernensis. 
Petals 2-5 mm. long; pubescence of leaves of 3-5-rayed hairs; carpels dark brown. 

4. E. exilis. 



MALLOW FAMILY 97 

L Eremalche rotundifolia (A. Gray) Greene. Desert Five-spot. Fig. 3192. 

Malvastrum rotundifoliiim A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7:333. 1868. 
Eremalche rotundifolia Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 208. 1906. 
Spliaeralcea rotundifolia Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 633. 1925. 

Erect annual 1-3 dm. high ; stems sparsely hispid. Leaves orbicular-cordate, crenate, 1^ 
cm. broad, sparsely stellate-hispid; petioles 1-8 cm. long, sparsely hispid; stipules triangular- 
lanceolate, 3-4 mm. long; flowers axillary, solitary or in pairs; pedicels slender, 2-6 cm. long; 
involucellate bractlets linear-lanceolate, 5-10 mm. long ; calyx densely and finely stellate-pu- 
bescent, the lobes broadly ovate-lanceolate, 4-6 mm. broad, 8-12 mm. long, acuminate; petals 
obovate, 10-25 mm. long, rose-purple, with a crimson spot near the base; fruit discoid, 10-15 
mm. broad; carpels 20-40, orbicular, strongly flattened laterally, 3-3.5 mm. in diameter, dark 
brown to black, angles acute. 

Sandy soil, Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County through the Mojave and Colorado Deserts, California, to 
southwestern Arizona and northern Lower California. Type locality: Fort Mojave. Feb.-June. 

2. Eremalche Parry i Greene. Parry's Mallow. Fig. 3193. 

Malvastrum Parryi Greene, Fl. Fran. 108. 1891. 
Eremalche Parryi Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 : 208. 1906. 
Sphaeralcea Parryi Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 633. 1925. 

Erect or decumbent annual, finely stellate-pubescent throughout, stems 1-3 dm. long. Leaves 
1-2 cm. broad, palmately 3-5-lobed, the lobes irregularly 3-7-toothed; petioles slender, 1-3.5 
cm. long; stipules linear-subulate, 2-4 rnm. long; flowers polygamo-dioecious, solitary, the 
pistillate smaller and darker than the staminate ; pedicels 3-6 cm. long ; bractlets 5-8 mm. long, 
filiform; calyx 3-5 mm. broad at anthesis, densely stellate-pubescent, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, 
6-8 mm. long, incurved in age ; petals obovate, rose to rose-purple, 8-20 mm. long ; fruit discoid, 
6-8 mm. broad; carpels 10-15, reniform, 1.5-2 mm. high, about 1 mm. thick, transversely ridged 
on the back and angles, smooth on the sides. 

Interior valleys and foothills, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; Alameda and Mariposa Counties south to 
Kern and Santa Barbara Counties, California. Type locality: Monterey County. March-May. 

3. Eremalche kernensis C. B. Wolf. Kern Mallow. Fig. 3194. 

Eremalche kernensis C. B. Wolf, Occ. Papers Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Gard. 1 : 66. 1938. 

Prostrate to erect annual with sparsely stellate-puberulent stems 10-20 cm. long. Leaves 

deeply 3-5-lobed, 1-3.5 cm. long, about as wide or slightly wider, the lobes irregularly crenate, 

stellate-puberulent; petioles 1-4 cm. long; flower solitary, axillary, on pedicels 1-2.5 cm. long; 

bractlets filiform, 3-4 mm. long ; calyx-lobes lance-triangular, 2-3 mm. wide, 7-10 mm. long, 

closely stellate-pubescent with S-8-rayed hairs ; petals white to pale lavender, obovate, 10-13 

mm. long ; carpels 8-13, transversely corrugated dorsally, about 2 mm. long, gray to light brown, 

dull. 

Dry hills and valley floors. Lower Sonoran Zone; western Kern County, California. Type locality: Temblor 
Valley, Kern County. April-May. 

4. Eremalche exilis (A. Gray) Greene. White Mallow. Fig. 3195. 

Malvastrum exile A. Gray, Ives Rep. 8. 1860. 
Eremalche exilis Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1: 208. 1906. 
Sphaeralcea exilis Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 633. 1925. 

An erect or decumbent annual with stems 1-4 dm. long, finely stellate-puberulent throughout. 
Leaves 1-2.5 cm. broad, cuneate or truncate at the base, palmately 3-5-lobed, irregularly crenate 
or dentate; petioles 1-4 cm. long; stipules subulate, 2-3 mm. long; flowers perfect, solitary; 
pedicels 0.5-3 cm. long; bractlets linear-lanceolate, 2i-7 mm. long; calyx 4-6 mm. long, 2.5-3 
mm. wide at anthesis, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, stellate-puberulent inside and out, 
erect in fruit; petals obovate, 2-5 mm. long, white; fruit discoid, 5-7 mm. broad; carpels 10-15, 
orbicular-reniform, 1 . 5 mm. high, transversely ridged on the back and rounded angles, dark 
brown. 

Sandy soil, Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo and Los Angeles Counties, California, south to Arizona, northern 
Lower California, and Sonora; also near King City, California. Type locality: Pyramid Canyon, Colorado 
Desert, California. Feb.-June. 

8. SIDAlCEA a. Gray in Benth. PI. Hartw. 300. 1848. 

Erect or ascending annual and perennial herbs with stellate or simple pubescence and 
orbicular palmately lobed or divided alternate leaves. Stipules small, deciduous. Inflores- 
cence terminal, racemose or spicate, simple or paniculately branched. Involucels absent. 
Flowers often polygamo-dioecious, the pistillate flowers smaller than the perfect or stami- 
nate ones. Stamineal column distinctly double except in Hickmunii and malachroides. 
Style-branches slender, stigmatic along the inner surface. Carpels short -beaked or_ beak- 
less, somewhat flattened laterally, smooth or reticulate on the sides and back, indehiscent, 



98 MALVACEAE 

1 -ovulate; ovule ascending. [Name compounded from the two generic names, Sida and 
Alcea, because of resemblances to each.] 

A genus of about 35 species in western North America, chiefly in California and Oregon. Type species, 
Sida malvaeflora DC. 

Annuals; plants flowering in early spring. 

Outer stamineal phalanges dilated, undivided, shorter than the inner. 

Carpels dorsally favose-reticulate, the meshes nearly as broad as long; herbage more or less hispid. 

Bracts palmately 3-7-divided, conspicuous, equaling or exceeding the calyx-lobes. 

1. o. atploscypna. 

Bracts simple, not palmately divided, shorter than the calyx. 

Divisions of cauline leaves linear-lanceolate, entire; inflorescence many-flowered; lower part 

of stems glabrate. 2. S. hirsuta. 

Divisions of cauline leaves oblanceolate, irregularly 2-S-toothed; inflorescence few-flowered; 

stems hirsute throughout. 3. 5. Keckit. 

Carpels dorsally striate-reticulate, the meshes several times as long as broad; herbage glabrate or 

sparsely hirsutulous above. 4. S. calycosa. 

Outer stamineal phalanges divided into narrow divisions, not dilated, equaling the inner phalanges. ^ 
«- o 5. o. n artwegil. 

Perennials; plants flowering in late spring and summer. 

Herbage and stems somewhat succulent; stamineal column conspicuously biseriate. 6. S. rhizomata. 
Herbage not succulent; outer phalanges of stamineal column closely approximating the inner series. 
Leaves thick, not vitiform; stamens numerous; plants herbaceous. 

Inflorescence distinctly spiciform, the buds and flowers crowded, rachis elongating in fruit. 
Leaves all alike, pedately parted; stems scapose. 7. S. pedata. 

Leaves not alike, lower lobed only, not pedately parted; stems more or less leafy. 

Spike dense; pedicels 0.5-4 mm. long at anthesis; lower part of stems hirsute or glabrate, 
not stellate. 
Carpels 1.8-2 mm. high, about as broad, strongly reticulate, much depressed; stems 

procumbent; rootstocks creeping. 8. S . ranunculacea. 

Carpels 2.5-3 mm. high, two-thirds as broad, smooth or nearly so; stems erect: 
rootstocks not creeping. 
Lower leaves 3-6 cm. broad; stipules 3-6 mm. long; spikes narrow. 

9. S. spicata. 

Lower leaves 10-20 cm. broad; stipules 8-15 mm. long; spikes broad. 

10. 5". exitnia. 

Spike lax; pedicels S-7 mm. long; stems sparsely stellate-pubescent, not hirsute; carpels 
distinctly reticulate. H- S. oregana. 

Inflorescence laxly racemose, not crowded. 

Leaves distinctly lobed or parted; stamineal column biseriate. 

Carpels smooth; stems glabrous or nearly so. 12. S. Hendersonii. 

Carpels distinctly reticulate, at least on the angles; stems usually pubescent. 

Stems decumbent, rooting at the nodes; rootstocks creeping; leaves mostly basal. 

13. A. reptans. 
Stems erect; rootstocks not creeping; stems leafy. 

Basal and cauline leaves dissimilar, the upper divided, the lower merely lobed; 
carpels distinctly reticulate laterally. 
Pubescence of harsh stellate hairs; notches between lobes of lower leaves 
broad, equaling lobes. 
Herbage green; pubescence coarse; stems rarely glabrate; petals 15-30 

mm. long; beak stout. 14. S. asprella. 

Herbage glaucous; pubescence minute; stems usually glabrate; petals 
10-18 mm. long; beak weak. 15. S. glaucescens. 

Pubescence soft; notches between lobes of lower leaves narrower than the 
lobes. 
Stems and herbage green, not glaucous; stems decimibent; rachis of 
inflorescence densely pubescent. 
Calyx-lobes 7-10 mm. long; carpels strongly reticulate dorsally. 

16. S. malvaeflora. 

Calyx-lobes 4-6 mm. long; carpels smooth dorsally. 

17. 5. virgata. 

Stems and herbage glaucous; stems erect; rachis of inflorescence gla- 
brous or nearly so. 18. 5. neo-mexicana. 
Basal and cauline leaves similar, all parted to base of blade; carpels faintly 
reticulate laterally, smooth dorsally. 
Leaves 1-5 cm. broad, glaucous; stems cespitose; petals deep rose-purple, 

retuse. 19. 5'. multifida. 

Leaves 5-20 cm. broad, green; stems not cespitose; petals pink to white, 
emarginate. 20. S. campestris. 

Leaves crenate, scarcely lobed, flabelliform; stamineal column not distinctly biseriate, the 
stamens clustered at the apex. 21. S. Hickmanu. 

Leaves thin, vitiform; stamens few; flowers small, white; plants suflfruticose. 22. S. malachroides. 

1. Sidalcea diploscypha (Torr. & Gray) A. Gray. Fringed Sidalcea. Fig. 3196. 

Sida diploscypha Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 234. 1838. 

Sidalcea diploscypha A. Gray ex Benth. PI. Hartw. 300. 1848. 

Sidalcea diploscypha var. minor A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 19. 1849. 

Sidalcea secundiflora Greene. Fl. Fran. 103. 1891. 

Erect annual 1-7 dm. high, pilose-hirsute throughout, short-stellate hairs intermixed with 
the simple. Basal leaves orbicular-cordate, crenate, 1-2.5 cm. broad; cauhne leaves 2-6 cm. 
wide deeply 5-7-parted, the divisions oblong, 2-3-lobed ; stipules simple, hnear, or 2-5-parted 
into filiform segments, 5-22 mm. long; inflorescence laxly racemose to cymose, few-flowered; 



MALLOW FAMILY 



99 



^& 


















'^? !^ 



3185 










3186 



3187 



y^.fmi^ 







w| 



/y "^ -v-iv '-.•/■■•.'i?&// 






^11 T 



3191 



3185. Malvastrum aboriginum 

3186. Malvastrum Abbottii 
8187. Malvastrum Fremontii 



3192 

3188. Malvastrum gracile 

3189. Malvastrum clementinum 

3190. Malvastrum densiflorum 



3193 



3191. Malvastrum marrubioides 

3192. Eremalche rotundifolia 

3193. Eremalche Parryi 



100 



MALVACEAE 




3194 



3195 



3196 





3199 




3194. Eremalche kernensis 

3195. Eremalche exilis 

3196. Sidalcea diploscypha 



3197. Sidalcea hirsuta 

3198. Sidalcea Keckii 

3199. Sidalcea calycosa 




3202 

3200. Sidalcea Hartwegii 

3201. Sidalcea rhizomata 

3202. Sidalcea pedata 



MALLOW FAMILY 101 

bracts 1.5-2.5 cm. long, palmately 5-7-parted, the segments filiform, hirsute; calyx-lobes lan- 
ceolate-subulate, 8-15 mm. long; petals rose to deep purple, with or without a deeper spot near 
the base, 1.5-3 cm. long; outer phalanges of stamineal column 5, dilated; carpels depressed, 
subreniform, rugulose dorsally and on the sides, dorsal midnerve obvious. 

Grassy hillsides and valleys, particularly on serpentine outcrops. Upper Sonoran Zone; Humboldt and 
Shasta Counties southward to Mariposa and San Luis Obispo Counties, California. Type locality: California. 
April-June. 

2. Sidalcea hirsuta A. Gray. Hairy Sidalcea. Fig. 3197. 

Sidalcea delphinifolia A. Gray ex Benth. PI. Hartw. 300. 1848. Not Sida delphinifolia Nutt. 1838. 
Sidalcea hirsuta A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 3°: 16. 1852. 

Strict or ascendingly branched annual 1-8 dm. high, usually glabrous below, soft-hirsute 
above. Basal leaves round-cordate, crenately lobed, 1-2.5 cm. in diameter; cauline leaves 3-8 
cm. broad, 7-9-parted, the segments narrowly linear, entire, acute, hirsute ; petioles 1-5 cm. long, 
hirsute ; stipules linear-subulate, purplish, 3-10 mm. long, ciliate ; inflorescence densely spicate, 
5-20 cm. long, tawny-hirsute ; bracts bifid, segments linear ; calyx tawny-hirsute and stellate- 
tomentose, the lobes triangular-lanceolate, acuminate, 8-15 mm. long; petals 1-2 cm. long, rose- 
purple, emarginate ; outer stamineal phalanges dilated, shorter than the inner ; carpels 3-4 mm. 
high, favose-reticulate, stellate-pubescent, beak erect, 1-2 mm. high. 

Margins of vernal pools and rills. Lower Sonoran Zone; Butte County to Mariposa County, California. 
Type locality: temporary rain pools of the Sacramento Valley. April-June. 

3. Sidalcea Keckii Wiggins. Keek's Sidalcea. Fig. 3198. 

Sidalcea Keckii Wiggins, Contr. Dudley Herb. 3: 56. pi. 13. figs. 2-6. 1940. 

Annual with erect to decumbent hirsute stems 1.5-3.5 dm. high. Basal leaves orbicular, 

1.5-2.5 cm. wide, shallowly 7-9-lobed, the lobes irregularly crenate-toothed, stellate-hirsute; 

stipules filiform, 3-5 mm. long; petioles slender, 2^.5 cm. long, sparsely stellate-hirsute; cauline 

leaves deeply divided into 3-7 oblanceolate, irregularly 3-7-toothed lobes ; inflorescence lax, 

racemose, 5-12-flowered ; bracts 5-7 mm. long, bifid to the base, the lobes filiform ; pedicels 2-8 

mm. long ; calyx deeply cleft, densely stellate-hirsute at the base, less densely so on the narrowly 

lanceolate-attenuate lobes, these 9-11 mm. long, 2 mm. wide at the base; petals pale pink, obovate, 

emarginate, 1-22 mm. long ; stamineal column 3-5 mm. high, hirsutulous, distinctly dilated above ; 

style-branches 4-5 ; carpels 4-5, broadly obovoid, 3-4 mm. high, favose-reticulate, beakless, the 

angles rounded. 

Grassy clay hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; western slopes of the foothills in the vicinity of White River, 
Tulare County, California, the type locality. April-May. 

4. Sidalcea calycosa M. E. Jones. Annual Sidalcea. Fig. 3199. 

Sidalcea calycosa M. E. Jones, Amer. Nat. 17: 875. 1883. 
Sidalcea sulcata Curran ex Greene. Bull. Calif. Acad. 1 : 79. 1885. 

Annual, erect or ascending, 3-6 dm. high, glabrous below, sparsely hirsute above. Lower 
leaves 1 .5-2 cm. broad, round-reniform, crenate, obscurely lobed, glabrous ; upper leaves 3-5 cm. 
broad, digitately 5-parted, the divisions spatulate-linear, entire; petioles 1-6 cm. long; stipules 
linear to ovate-lanceolate, 3-8 mm. long ; inflorescence spicate, many-flowered, sparsely hirsute ; 
bracts bifid, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, 4-10 mm. long; calyx 5-8 mm. long, the lobes broadly 
ovate-lanceolate, abruptly acuminate; petals 1.5-2 cm. long, obovate, emarginate, purple; outer 
phalanges of stamineal column slightly stouter than inner, dilated; carpels reniform, often pur- 
plish, strongly striate-grooved dorsally, finely reticulate on the seeds ; seeds sparsely puberulent 
with very short, simple hairs. 

Moist grassy places in the foothills. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; North Coast Ranges and the 
Sierra Nevada from Shasta County to Mariposa County, and in the Sacramento Valley, California. Type lo- 
cality: Duncan's Mills, Sonoma County. March-June. 

5. Sidalcea Hartwegii A. Gray. Hartweg's Sidalcea. Fig. 3200. 

Sidalcea Hart-wepii A. Gray ex Benth. PI. Hartw. 300. 1848. 

Sidalcea tenella Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1 : 7. 1884. 

Sidalcea Hartwegii var. tenella A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 286. 1887. 

Erect,_ slender, paniculately branching annual, 1-5 dm. high, sparsely pubescent with soft 
simple hairs, or glabrate below. Basal leaves small, shallowly 5-7-lobed, caducous ; upper leaves 
2-4 cm. broad, digitately 3-7-parted, the divisions linear, entire, spatulate and shallowly 2-3- 
lobed at the apex ; stipules 1-2 mm. long ; inflorescence racemose, few-flowered, closely stellate- 
puberulent; bracts 1.5-2 mm. long, bidentate or bifid; calyx deeply cleft, the lobes lanceolate, 
acuminate, 6-8 mm. long; petals 10-20 mm. long, rose-purple, retuse; stamineal column slender, 
hirsutulous below, exterior phalanges approximate to the inner at the apex; carpels reniform, 
beakless or weakly beaked, rugose-reticulate. 

Grassy flats and hillsides. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Sacramento Valley and foothills of the 
Sierra Nevada and the Coast Ranges from Shasta and Mendocino Counties to San Francisco Bay region and 
Mariposa County, California. Type locality: fields of Butte County. April-June. 

6. Sidalcea rhizomata Jepson. Point Reyes Sidalcea. Fig. 3201. 

Sidalcea rhizomata Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 629. 1925. 

Perennial, stems succulent, erect or ascending, 3^.5 dm. high with the rhizomatous bases 



102 MALVACEAE 

rooting at the nodes ; herbage glabrous below, sparsely hirsute above. Basal leaves orbicular, 
shallowly crenately incised, 2.5-10 cm. broad; cauline leaves 7-11-parted, the divisions oblanceo- 
late to oblong-lanceolate ; stipules 8-16 mm. long, ovate, obtuse to acuminate ; bracts thin, bilobed, 
hirsute, 1-12 mm. long; inflorescence a dense spike 1.5-3 cm. long; calyx densely hirsute, 8-12 
mm. long, the lobes ovate, acuminate, 6-10 mm. long, purplish, distinctly nerved in age; petals 
obovate, 15-25 mm. long, rose-purple; outer phalanges of stamineal column distinct; carpels 
striate on the back, faintly reticulate laterally, beak slender. 

Marshy meadows. Humid Transition Zone; in the vicinity of Point Reyes, Marin County, California. 
Type locality: Russel Ranch, Point Reyes. May-July. 

7. Sidalcea pedata A. Gray. Pedate Sidalcea. Fig. 3202. 

Sidalcea pedata A. Gray. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 288. 1887. 
Sidalcea spicata var. pedata Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 630. 1925. 

Perennial with 1 to several slender erect or ascending scapiform stems 1-5 dm. high from a 
tuberous-thickened root, more or less purplish throughout, glabrescent to hirsute with some 
intermingled stellate hairs. Leaves mostly basal, 3-5 cm. broad, all alike, pedately 5-7-parted, 
the divisions 2-3-lobed, the lobes linear to oblong, 1-3 mm. wide, hirsute on both surfaces, with 
intermingled stellate hairs beneath ; petioles 3-10 cm. long, hirsute ; inflorescence many-flowered, 
minutely stellate-puberulent ; bracts simple to bifid, 3 mm. long ; calyx campanulate, 2-3 mm. 
broad, 5-6 mm. long, the lobes narrowly lanceolate, acuminate ; petals 8-10 mm. long, narrowly 
obovate, emarginate ; carpels 2-3 mm. high, smooth and glabrous, the angles rounded, beak 
deltoid, recurved, ciliolate. 

Wet meadows. Transition Zone; San Bernardino Mountains, California. Type locality: Bear Valley. 
June-Aue. 

8. Sidalcea ranunculacea Greene. Marsh Sidalcea. Fig. 3203. 

Sidalcea ranunculacea Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1 ; 75. 1904. 

Sidalcea interrupta Greene, loc. cit. 

Sidalcea spicata var. ranunculacea Roush, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 18: 166. 1931. 

Sidalcea reptans var. ranunculacea Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 489. 1936. 

Slender plant 3-5 dm. tall from a creeping horizontal rootstock, sparsely villous-hirsute 
throughout or stems often glabrate. Leaves orbicular in outline, 1-6 cm. broad, the lower shal- 
lowly 5-9-lobed and irregularly crenate, the upper divided into 3-7 lanceolate entire or 1-3- 
toothed segments ; stipules broadly ovate to oblong, membranaceous, 3-8 mm. long ; inflorescence 
a short, crowded spike 2-4 cm. long at anthesis, elongating somewhat in maturity; pedicels 0.5—3 
mm. long; calyx silky-villous and with some stellate hairs, 4-6 mm. long at anthesis, the lobes 
lanceolate-acuminate, 1-1.5 mm. wide; petals obovate, rose-purple, 6-10 mm. long; carpels 1.5-2 
mm. high, nearly as wide, depressed, distinctly reticulate, grooved on the back, beak erect or 
slightly recurved, 0.5 mm. high. 

Moist meadows and marshy places, Transition and Canadian Zones; mountains of Tulare, Kern, and San 
Bernardino Counties, California. Type locality: Hockett Meadows, Sierra Nevada. July-Sept. 

9. Sidalcea spicata (Regel) Greene. Spiked Sidalcea. Fig. 3204. 

Callirhoe spicata Regel, Gartenfl. 2\:29\. pi. 737. figs. 3. 4. 1872. 
Sidalcea spicata Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: 76. 1885. 

Perennial 3-6 dm. high, stems hirsute at base, with intermingled stellate hairs on the leaves, 
upper part of the stem and the inflorescence. Leaves reniform-orbicular, hirsute on the upper 
surface, pubescent with geminate and stellate hairs beneath, 3-6 cm. broad, basal leaves 5-7- 
lobed, the lobes deeply 3-5-toothed, upper leaves palmately 5-7-divided, the divisions entire or 
deeply trifid, oblong to linear-lanceolate; petioles 6-15 cm. long, hirsute; inflorescence spicate, 
many-flowered ; pedicels 2-4 mm. long at anthesis ; calyx 4-8 mm. long, the lobes ovate-acute, 
stellate-puberulent with simple hairs along margins and midvein ; petals obovate, deeply emar- 
ginate, rose-purple, 8-14 mm. long; carpels smooth or very faintly reticulate on the angles, 2.5-3 
mm. high, beak small, slender, recurved. 

Open coniferous forests and mountain meadows, Transition and Canadian Zones; western Oregon to Ne- 
vada, southward through the Siskiyou Mountains and Sierra Nevada to Mono County, California. Type lo- 
cality: Sierra Nevada, California. June-Aug. 

Sidalcea spicata subsp. valida (Greene) Wiggins. (Sidalcea valida Greene, Pittonia 3: 157. 1897; 
Sidalcea hydrophila Heller, Muhlenbergia 1: 107. 1904.) Only stellate-puberulent on the inflorescence; plant 
robust, to 2 m. tall, stems open, glabrate and purplish; spikes broad, crowded; beak stout, erect. ^ Marshy places 
and wet meadows. Klamath County, Oregon, to Sonoma County, California. Type locality: Knight's Valley, 
Sonoma County, California. 

Sidalcea spicata var. tonsa M. E. Peck, Madrono 6: 14. 1941. Leaves mostly devoid of long, simple 
hairs beneath; calyx stellate-puberulent but lacking spreading hairs except along margins of lobes. East of 
the Cascades from Klamath County to Wasco and Wallowa Counties and the Steen Mountains, Oregon. Type 
locality: Big Summit Prairie, Ochoco National Forest, Oregon. 

10. Sidalcea eximia Greene. Coast Sidalcea. Fig. 3205. 

Sidalcea eximia Greene, Cyb. Columb. 1: 34. 1914. 

Robust paniculately branched plant 1-2 m. high with stout stems and coarsely hirsute herbage. 
Lower leaves 10-20 cm. wide, palmately cleft into 5-9 irregularly coarse-toothed lobes, petioles 
15-45 cm. long; upper leaves 5-9-divided into linear or oblong, entire or few-toothed segments 



MALLOW FAMILY 103 

3-8 cm. long; stipules lance-elliptic, membranaceous, 8-15 mm. long; inflorescence densely 
spicate, the spikes 2.5-4 cm. wide, paniculately arranged; bracts lance-hnear, 6-10 mm. long; 
calyx 5-6 mm. long at anthesis, 8-12 mm. long in age, densely hirsute; petals pink, 12-15 mm. 
long ; carpels 3-3 . 5 mm. high, smooth, beak slender, 1 mm. long. 

Wet meadows. Humid Transition Zone; northern Humboldt County, California. Type locality: valley of the 
Elk River. June-Aug. 

IL Sidalcea oregana (Nutt.) A. Gray. Oregon Sidalcea. Fig. 3206. 

Sida oregana Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 234. 1838. 
Sidalcea oregana A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 20. 1849. 
Sidalcea nervata A. Nels. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 17: 94. 1904. 

Erect perennial 5-15 dm. high, stellate-puberulent throughout or base of stems glabrate. 
Leaves orbicular, 5-10 cm. broad, palmately 5-7-lobed, the lobes 2-3-dentate at apex, harshly 
stellate-puberulent; upper leaves 3-5-parted, the divisions lanceolate; inflorescence spicate-race- 
mose, manv-flowered, densely stellate-puberulent; pedicels 5-7 mm. long at anthesis; calyx 3-5 
mm. broad', 4-8 mm. long, the lobes triangular-lanceolate, 3-5 mm. long; petals 1-2 cm. long, 
obovate, emarginate, deep rose-purple; pistillate flowers smaller and darker than the perfect; 
carpels about 3 mm. high, reticulate on the sides and obtuse angles, lightly reticulate to smooth 
on the back, beak short or wanting. 

Meadows and along streams. Transition Zone; central Washington to northern California and eastward 
to Montana and Utah. Type locality: west side of the Rocky Mountains. June-Sept. 

Sidalcea oregana var. Cusickii (Piper) Roush. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 18: 174. 1931. (Sidalcea Cusickii 
Piper. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 29: 99. 1916.) Pubescence distinctly scrabrous; basal leaves more deeply lobed; 
inflorescence congested; calyx campanulate, slightly constricted at base of lobes. Umpqua Valley, Oregon. Type 
locality: "In swales near Roseburg, Oregon." 

12. Sidalcea Hendersonii S. Wats. Henderson's Sidalcea. Fig. 3207. 

Sidalcea Hendersonii S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 23: 262. 1888. 

Stout perennial 1-1.5 m. high, stems glabrous or very sparsely hirsute. Lower leaves 
orbicular in outline, 8-12 cm. broad, shallowly 5-7-lobed, the lobes crenate, ciliate, glabrous 
above, sparsely appressed-hirsute along the veins beneath ; upper leaves 3-5-parted into narrow, 
coarsely dentate segments ; stipules purplish, triangular-subulate, 8-10 mm. long, acuminate ; 
inflorescence stellate-puberulent, densely racemose, paniculately branched; bractlets exceeding 
the pedicels; calyx purple-tipped, accrescent, the lobes triangular-lanceolate, 6-10 mm. long; 
flowers perfect or gynodioecious, the perfect larger; petals deep rose, 15-25 mm. long, obovate, 
truncate to shallowly emarginate at the apex ; carpels 7-9, smooth and glabrous, 3 . 5-4 mm. high, 
subulate beak about 1 mm. long, recurved, persistent. 

In marshes near the sea and on small islands along the coast, Humid Transition Zone; Vancouver Island, 
British Columbia, to Lane County, Oregon. Type locality: near the shore of Clatsop Bay, Oregon. May-July. 

13. Sidalcea reptans Greene. Creeping Sidalcea. Fig. 3208. 

Sidalcea reptans Greene. Pittonia 3: 159. 1897. 
Sidalcea favosa Congdon, Erythea 7: 183. 1900. 
Sidalcea spicata var. reptans Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 630. 1925. 

Perennial with slender stems 5-8 dm. high, decumbent at the base and rooting from the 
nodes, hirsute throughout, few-rayed stellate hairs intermingled with simple on leaves and in- 
florescence. Basal leaves orbicular in outline, 2^ cm. broad, shallov^dy 5-7-lobed, crenate, sinus 
narrow ; upper leaves 5-7-parted, the segments coarsely dentate or lobed ; petioles of basal leaves 
up to 2.5 dm. long, ascending, densely hirsute with spreading hairs, those of upper leaves shorter; 
stipules thin, oblong, acute to acuminate, 3-8 mm. long, purplish; inflorescence racemose, _ few- 
flowered ; bracts simple or bidentate, ovate to oblong, acuminate, ciliate, equaling the pedicels ; 
calyx 4-7 mm. long, stellate-puberulent, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; petals obovate, 
8-20 mm. long, emarginate, rose-purple; carpels favose-reticulate, lightly stellate-puberulent on 
the back, beak erect. 

In wet meadows. Transition and Canadian Zones; Amador County to San Bernardino County, California. 
Type locality: Panther Creek, Amador County. June-Aug. 

Sidalcea reptans var. nana Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 489. 1936. "Plants 2.5 to 3.25 inches high, the leaves 
in a close basal tuft; spikes 1- or 2-flowered, the flowering stems nearly naked." Trinity County, California. 
Type locality: Soldiers Ridge, southeast Trinity County. 

14. Sidalcea asprella Greene. Harsh Sidalcea. Fig. 3209. 

Sidalcea asprella Greene. Bull. Calif. Acad. 1 : 78. 1885. 

Sidalcea elegans Greene, Cyb. Columb. 1: 35. 1914. 

Sidalcea malvaeflora var. asprella Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 630. 1925. 

Erect herbaceous perennial 3-8 dm. high, with rough short-rayed stellate pubescence 
throughout. Leaves 1-10 cm. broad, palmately 5-7-lobed, the lobes crenate or irregularly den- 
tate ; stipules subulate, 3-5 mm. long ; inflorescence a simple loose raceme ; calyx densely stellate- 
puberulent, the lobes 5-10 mm. long, narrowly triangular-lanceolate, acuminate; perfect flowers 
larger and paler than the pistillate; petals 15-30 mm. long, obovate, emarginate, rose-purple; 
carpels 3-4 mm. high, strongly reticulate, angles acute, beak stout, somewhat recurved. 

Hillsides, Transition Zone; Marion County. Oregon, south to Humboldt County in the Coast Range 



104 



MALVACEAE 




3208 



3203. Sidalcea ranunculacea 

3204. Sidalcea spicata 

3205. Sidalcea eximia 



3209 



3206. Sidalcea oregana 

3207. Sidalcea Hendersonii 

3208. Sidalcea reptans 



3210 



3209. Sidalcea asprella 

3210. Sidalcea glaucescens 



MALLOW FAMILY 105 

and on the lower western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to southern California. Type locality: near Compton- 
ville, Yuba County, California. April-Aug. 

Sidalcea asprella var. robusta (Roush) Jepson, Fl. Calif . 2 : 490. 1936. Stems stout, glabrous below; 
lower surfaces only of leaves stellate-pubescent; flowers 25-32 mm. long; calyx lobes 3-nerved. Foothills, Butte 
County, California. Type locality: near Chieo, Butte County. 

15. Sidalcea glaucescens Greene. Glaucous Sidalcea. Fig. 3210. 

Sidalcea glaucescens Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: 77. 188S. 
Sidalcea montana Congdon, Erythea 7: 183. 1900. 

Perennial 5-8 dm. high from a woody root, glaucous and minutely stellate-puberulent to 

glabrescent throughout. Basal leaves round-reniform, 2-4 cm. broad, S-7-lobed, the lobes simple 

or usually shallowly 3-dentate, the teeth rounded or acute, cauline leaves more deeply parted, 

the lobes and teeth narrower, those of uppermost leaves lanceolate, entire ; petioles slender, 2-10 

cm. long; inflorescence a loose, few-flowered raceme, up to 3 dm. long, stellate-pubescent; pedicels 

3-10 mm. long; calyx 3-4 mm. broad, the lobes triangular-lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long, acuminate, 

becoming broader and conspicuously veined in fruit; petals 12-18 mm. long, rose-purple, obovate; 

carpels about 4 mm. high, favose-reticulate, sparsely puberulent, beak minute. 

Mountain meadows and hillsides, Transition and Canadian Zones; Siskiyou and Lassen Counties southward 
in the Sierra Nevada to Mariposa County, California. Type locality : Summit Station, Donner Pass. June-Aug. 

16. Sidalcea malvaeflora (DC.) A. Gray. Checker Bloom. Fig. 3211. 

Sida malvaeflora DC. Prod. 1: 474. 1824. 

Sida delphinifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 235. 1838. 
Sidalcea malvaeflora A. Gray in Benth. PI. Hartw. 300. 1848. 
Sidalcea humilis A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 20. 1849. 
Sidalcea scabra Greene, Pittonia 3: 158. 1897. 

Decumbent to suberect perennial, 5-9 dm. high, retrorsely hirsute throughout, often with 

intermingled stellate hairs. Leaves orbicular, 1-8 cm. broad, the lower 7-9-lobed, the lobes 

crenate; upper leaves 5-7-parted, the segments cuneiform, entire to 3-lobed; petioles 2-15 cm. 

long; stipules ovate-lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long; inflorescence racemose, few-flowered; calyx-lobes 

narrowly triangular-lanceolate, 2 mm. wide, 7-10 mm. long, stellate-pubescent with few simple 

hairs on margins and nerves; petals rose-pink or rarely white, 1-2.5 cm. long, emarginate; 

carpels about 3 mm. high, rugose-reticulate on back and sides, beak erect. 

Grassy hillsides and meadows, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Curry County, Oregon, southward 
through the Coast Ranges to northern Lower California. Type locality: Monterey, California. March-July. 

Sidalcea malvaeflora var. celata Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2:493. 1936. Herbage stellate-hispid, bearing few 
simple hairs; basal leaves deeply lobed or cleft; inflorescence more elongated. Upper Sacramento Valley, Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: Olinda, Shasta County, California. 

Sidalcea malvaeflora var. californica (Nutt.) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 630. 1925. Velvety stellate- 
tomentose throughout, nearly devoid of simple hairs; leaves less deeply lobed and more densely stellate-pubescent 
than in the species; calyx-lobes strongly 3-5-nerved. Hillsides and low mountains from the vicinity of Lompoc, 
Santa Barbara County, to Ojai Valley, Ventura County, California. Type locality: Santa Barbara. 

Sidalcea malvaeflora subsp. rostrata (Eastw.) Wiggins {Sidalcea rostrata Eastw. Bull. Torrey Club, 
29: 80. 1902.) Leaves all orbicular, dentate to shallowly lobed and dentate, densely strigose-hirsute, the hairs 
simple; calyx-lobes lance-attenuate, 8-14 mm. long; carpels strongly beaked. Coastal cliffs and near-by slopes, 
Humboldt County to Monterey County, California. Intergrading with the species inland. Type locality: Men- 
docino, Mendocino County. 

17. Sidalcea virgata Howell. Rose Sidalcea. Fig. 3212. 

Sidalcea virgata Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 101. 1897. 

Perennial, 2-6 dm. high with 1 to several erect stems softly stellate-pubescent throughout. 
Leaves orbicular, 4-7 cm. broad, 5-7-lobed, sinuses narrow, lobes coarsely irregular-dentate, 
pubescence denser on upper surface than on lower ; inflorescence virgate, racemose, stellate- 
puberulent ; calyx-lobes 5-6 mm. long, triangular-lanceolate, acuminate ; petals rose-purple, 
shallowly emarginate or truncate, 6-10 mm. long in pistillate flowers, twice as long as perfect 
flowers ; carpels about 3 mm. high, finely and highly reticulate on the angles, the back smooth 
or nearly so. 

Dry hillsides. Humid Transition Zone; Willamette Valley, Oregon. Type locality: Willamette Valley. 
May-July. 

18. Sidalcea neo-mexicana A. Gray. Rocky Mountain Sidalcea. Fig. 3213. 

Sidalcea neo-mexicana A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 23. 1849. 

Sidalcea parviflora var. Thurbcri Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 305. 1897. 

Sidalcea crenulata A. Nels. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 17: 93. 1904. 

Sidalcea confinis Greene, Cyb. Columb. 1: 35. 1914. 

Erect perennial 1-8 dm. high, hirsute to glabrescent throughout, occasionally a few geminate 
or stellate hairs on leaves and calyces. Leaves orbicular, 1-6 cm. broad, crenate to shallowly 
5-9-lobed, the lobes crenate ; upper leaves 3-5-divided, the segments entire or 2-5-Iobed, ciliate ; 
inflorescence racemose, rnany-flowered ; rachis glabrous to sparsely hirsute or stellate-pubescent ; 
bracts 0.5-1 cm. long, bifid ; pedicels densely hirsute to glabrous; calyx 4-6 mm. long, more or 
less hirsute and with a few intermingled stellate hairs in some specimens, the lobes triangular- 
ovate, acuminate; petals 10-15 mm. long, rose-purple; carpels 2.5-3 mm. high, nearly as wide. 



106 MALVACEAE 

reticulate on the angles, the back usually smooth, beak stout, obtuse, somewhat reflexed, hispid- 
tipped. 

Mountain meadows. Arid Transition Zone; eastern Oregon, Idaho and Wyoming southward through Ne- 
vada and Utah to Coahuila and Durango. Type locality: Las Playas, New Mexico. May-Aug. 

Sidalcea neo-mexicana var. parviflora (Greene) Roush, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 18: 186. 1931. (Sidalcea 
parviftora Greene, Erythea 1: 148. 1893.) Differs from the species in being less pubescent and more glaucous 
throughout, having thicker leaves, smaller, less conspicuous bracts, more stellate calyces and pedicels, and more 
erect, narrower beak. Subalkaline soil from southern Monterey County (Jolon) to eastern San Bernardino 
County, California. Type locality: Santa Monica, Los Angeles County. 

Sidalcea neo-mexicana var. Covillei (Greene) Roush, op. cit. 187. Differing from the preceding in being 
sparsely stellate-pubescent and less glaucous throughout; pedicels and calyx-lobes more densely stellate-puberu- 
lent, devoid of coarse, simple hairs; beaks of the carpels broader, obtuse, recurved. In the vicinity of Lone Pine, 
Inyo County, California. Type locality: Haiwee Meadows. 

19. Sidalcea multifida Greene. Cut-leaved Sidalcea. Fig. 3214. 

Sidalcea multifida Greene, Cyb. Columb. 1 : 34. 1914. 

Cespitose perennial 2-5 dm. tall, from a woody root, pale glaucous and stellate-puberulent 
throughout. Leaves 1-5 cm. broad, 5-7-parted into 2-7-lobed cuneate segments, the lobes linear 
to oblong, segments of upper leaves sometimes entire ; stipules linear-lanceolate, 5-8 mm. long ; 
inflorescence few-flowered, racemose, minutely stellate-puberulent ; bracts ovate, bidentate or 
bifid, equaling the pedicels ; calyx densely stellate-puberulent, the lobes narrowly triangular- 
lanceolate, acuminate, about 2 mm. wide, 4—6 mm. long, purplish ; petals deep rose-purple, 14-20 
mm. long, erosulate, retuse; carpels about 2.5 mm. high, delicately reticulate on the sides, smooth 
or nearly so on the back, sparsely and minutely puberulent ; beaks small, 0.5 mm. or less high, 
erect. 

Dry foothills and alkaline flats, Arid Transition Zone; Klamath County, Oregon, to Lander County, Nevada. 
Type locality: foothills near Reno, Nevada. May-July. 

20. Sidalcea campestris Greene. Meadow Sidalcea. Fig. 3215. 

Sidalcea campestris Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1 : 76. 1885. 

Sidalcea asplenifolia Greene, Pittonia 3: 158. 1897. 

Sidalcea sylvestris A. Nels. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 20: 36. 1907. 

Stout perennial 0.5-2 m. tall, hirsute at base, stellate-puberulent above. Leaves orbicular, 
5-20 cm. broad, the lower 7-9-lobed, the lobes 2-5-dentate ; upper leaves divided into 3-9 linear 
or cuneate, entire or pinnatifid segments; petioles 10-20 cm. long, hirsute; inflorescence densely 
racemose, stellate-puberulent ; calyx-lobes deltoid, 3-4 mm. broad, 4-6 mm. long, stellate-puberu- 
lent, hirsute on the nerves and margins ; petals 1 . 5-2 cm. long, obovate, deeply emarginate, rose- 
purple to nearly white; carpels 3.5 mm. high, lightly rugose-reticulate, furrowed on the back, 
puberulent, beak slightly recurved, weak. 

Grassy pastures and hillsides, Humid Transition Zone; confined to the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Type 
locality: vicinity of Multnomah, Oregon. May-July. 

21. Sidalcea Hickmanii Greene. Hickman's Sidalcea. Fig. 3216. 

Sidalcea Hickmanii Greene, Pittonia 1: 139. 1887. 

Suffruticose perennial from a woody root, stems procumbent to erect, leafy and densely 
stellate-pubescent throughout. Leaves flabelliform to reniform-orbicular, 1.5-4 cm. broad, crenate 
to shallowly lobed ; petioles stout, 0.5-2 cm. long; stipules 3-5 mm. long, linear to ovate- 
lanceolate ; inflorescence loosely racemose, few-flowered ; bracts narrowly linear to lanceolate, 
4-6 mm. long, ciliate ; bracteoles 3, similar to the bracts ; pedicels 2-3 mm. long ; calyx deeply 
divided, 6-8 mm. long, the lobes deltoid, abruptly acute or acuminate ; petals rose-purple, about 
5-6 mm. long, in pistillate flowers, paler and 10-15 mm. long in perfect flowers, obovate, slightly 
emarginate ; stamineal column very short ; carpels glabrous, smooth except for a few transverse 
wrinkles on the angles. 

Hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; Big Carson Ridge, Marin County, and the Santa Lucia Mountains, Mon- 
terey County, California. Type locality : Reliz Canyon, Monterey County. May-July. 

Sidalcea Hickmanii var. Parishii Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 307. 1897. Similar to 
the species but with larger, broader bracts, less leafy stems and congested spiciform inflorescence. On burns 
and meadows. Transition Zone; San Bernardino Mountains, California. Type locality: western slopes of the 
San Bernardino Mountains. 

22. Sidalcea malachroides (Hook. & Arn.) A. Gray, Maple-leaved Sidalcea. 

Fig. 3217. 

Malva malachroides Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 326. 1840. 
Sidalcea malachroides A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 332. 1868. 
Sidalcea vitifolia A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 332. 1868. 
Hesperalcea malachroides Greene, Pittonia 2: 301. 1892. 

Erect leafy perennial 1-2 m. high, pubescent throughout with soft, simple hairs and few- 
rayed stellate hairs. Leaves vitiform, palmately 3-7-lobed, 2-15 cm. broad, coarsely dentate; 
stipules 2>-7 mm. long, lanceolate, membranous ; inflorescence densely spicate-paniculate ; bractlets 
linear, simple or bifid, 6-9 mm. long, ciliate ; calyx stellate-pubescent, the lobes narrowly ovate- 
lanceolate, 6-12 mm. long, acuminate, membranous and strongly veined when mature ; petals 



MALLOW FAMILY 107 

white, deeply emarginate, 6-18 mm. long; flowers gynodioecious ; carpels orbicular-reniform, 
3-4 mm. high, smooth, glabrous or sparsely stellate-puberulent. 

Along streams and in moist places near the coast, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Curry County, 
Oregon, to southern Monterey County, California. Type locality: California. Collected by Douglas. May-July. 

9. mAlVA L. Sp. PI. 687. 1753. 

Annual, biennial, or perennial, procumbent to erect herbs. Leaves alternate with pu- 
bescent, lobed or dissected suborbicular blades. Flowers perfect, solitary or in axillary 
clusters or in terminal spikes, subtended by 2-3 distinct bractlets. Calyx 5-cleft, the lobes 
broad. Petals 5, emarg-inate. Fruit discoid. Carpels numerous, 1-celled, indehiscent, 
beakless, reniform, 1 -seeded. Ovule ascending. [Name Greek, referring to the emollient 
properties of the leaves.] 

A genus of about 30 species, of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Type species, Malva tomcntosa L. 

Leaves deeply palmately dissected; petals white. !• M. moschata. 

Leaves rounded or shallowly lobed; petals rose-tinged to purple. 
Carpels reticulate dorsally. 

Calyx-lobes strongly reflexed at maturity; petals scarcely equaling the calyx-lobes, the claws glabrous; 

carpels pubescent. 2. M. parvtflora. 

Calyx-lobes incurved at maturity; petals 2-4 times as long as calyx, the claws villous-ciliate. 

Petals white, tinged with rose at apex and along the veins, 5-12 ram. long; bractlets of calyx ovate. 

3. M. nicaeensis. 

Petals mauve-purple, 15-20 mm. long; bractlets oblong-lanceolate. 4. M. sylvestris. 

Carpels smooth dorsally, pubescent. 5. M. rotundifolia. 

L Malva moschata L. Musk Mallow. Fig. 3218. 

Malva moschata L. Sp. PI. 690. 1753. 

Perennial herb, 5-8 dm. high, from a woody rootstock, sparsely pubescent throughout with 
simple and stellate hairs. Leaves suborbicular in outline, the lower small, 1 cm. or less broad, 
shallowly incised, the cauline 2-5 cm. broad, deeply 3-5-parted, the divisions further incised or 
lobed; petioles hirsute, 0.5-5 cm. long; stipules subulate-lanceolate, 3-8 mm. long, villous-ciliate, 
membranaceous; flowers in a crowded terminal raceme, usually a few solitary in the axils of 
upper leaves ; bractlets ovate-lanceolate, 3-4 mm. long ; calyx 8-10 mm. long, the lobes broadly 
ovate, acute; petals obovate, emarginate, 10-15 mm. long, white, the claws villous; fruit discoid; 
carpels numerous, densely hispid dorsally, orbicular-reniform, beakless, side walls smooth or 
lightly striate. 

Waste places and roadsides. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; British Columbia to Nova Scotia, and 
southward to Oregon, Wisconsin, and Virginia. Type locality: Italy. Summer. 

2. Malva parviflora L. Cheese-weed. Fig. 3219. 

Malva parviflora L. Amoen. Acad. 3: 416. 1756. 
Malva obtusa Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 225. 1838. 

An erect, widely branching annual or biennial, 2 dm. to 2 m. high, sparsely stellate-pubescent 
to glabrate throughout. Leaves suborbicular in outline, 1.5-10 cm. broad, shallowly 5-7-lobed, 
cordate at base, dentate to crenate ; petioles 3-15 cm. long; stipules triangular- to ovate-lanceolate, 
5-8 mm. long; flowers in axillary clusters or sometimes solitary; pedicels slender, 2-12 mm. 
long; bractlets linear-lanceolate, 3-5 mm. long; calyx pubescent, 4-6 mm. long at anthesis, the 
deltoid-ovate lobes spreading to form a rotate scarious disk 12-16 mm. broad in fruit; petals 
obovate, emarginate, 4-6 mm. long, white, tinged with rose or purple at tips and along the veins, 
claw glabrous ; carpels 8-12, reniform-orbicular, transversely reticulate dorsally, dentate on the 
angles, puberulent ; seed minutely papillate-puberulent. 

A wayside weed, chiefly in the Upper Sonoran Zone; Humboldt County, California, to Lower California and 
Sonora; adventive to North Dakota, Missouri, and along the Atlantic seaboard. Type locality: described from 
cultivated plants at Upsala, Sweden. April-Nov. 

3. Malva nicaeensis All. Bull Mallow. Fig. 3220. 

Malva nicaeensis All. FI. Pad. 2: 40. 1785. 

Malva borealis of authors. Not M. borealis Wallm. 

Malva pusilla of authors. Not M. pusilla With, nor M. pusilla Smith. 

Erect, spreadingly branched annual 0.3-1.5 m. high, sparsely pubescent throughout or the 
stems glabrous. Leaves orbicular-cordate in outline, 2-10 cm. broad, shallowly 5-7-lobed, irreg- 
ularly crenate; petioles 5-15 cm. long; stipules deltoid-ovate, acute, 3-8 mm. long; flowers m 
axillary clusters ; pedicels 5-20 mm. long ; bractlets ovate- to oblong-lanceolate, acute, 4-8 mm. 
long; calyx 4-6 mm. long and pubescent at anthesis, later glabrate, the lobes deltoid-ovate, 
becoming scarious, finely reticulate and closely incurved over fruit at maturity ; petals obovate, 
deeply emarginate, 8-12 mm. long, pale rose-lavender with darker veins, the claws white, villous ; 
carpels 8-12, reniform-orbicular, 3-4 mm. high, rugose-reticulate on the back, angles smooth, 
not dentate; seeds smooth, glabrous. 

An introduced weed in waste places, mostly in the Upper Sonoran Zone; Humboldt County southward to San 
Bernardino, California, east to Montana. Type locality: Europe. April-Nov. 



108 



MALVACEAE 




3211. Sidalcea malvaeflora 

3212. Sidalcea virgata 

3213. Sidalcea neo-mexicana 



3214. Sidalcea multifida 

3215. Sidalcea campestris 

3216. Sidalcea Hickmanii 



3217. Sidalcea malachroides 

3218. Malva moschata 



MALLOW FAMILY 109 

4. Malva sylvestris L. High Mallow. Fig. 3221. 

Malva sylvestris L. Sp. PI. 689. 1753. 

An erect or branching biennial herb 3-10 dm. high with stout stems and glabrous or sparsely- 
pubescent herbage. Leaves suborbicular, cordate, shallowly 5-7-lobed, 3-10 cm. broad; petioles 
2-20 cm. long, more densely pubescent than the stems or leaves ; stipules ovate-acuminate, 5-10 
mm. long; flowers in axillary clusters; pedicels 1-2.5 cm. long, glabrous; bractlets oblong- 
lanceolate, acute, 3-7 mm. long ; calyx 4-7 mm. long and pubescent at anthesis, the lobes accres- 
cent, closely incurved over fruit at maturity; petals narrowly cuneate, deeply emarginate, 15-20 
mm. long, deep mauve-purple, the claws villous-ciliate ; style-branches dark purple ; carpels 
about 10, orbicular-reniform, 3-3.5 mm. high, rugose-reticulate on the back and sides, the angles 
rounded. 

In waste places and along roadsides at scattered stations from Oregon to Quebec, south to central California, 
Colorado, and North Dakota; also sparingly adventive in southern California, Mexico, and Florida. Type locality: 
Europe. May-Oct. 

5. Malva rotundifolia L. Round-leaved Mallow, Fig. 3222. 

Malva rotundifolia L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753. 

A profusely branched procumbent annual with stellate-pubescent to glabrate herbage. Leaves 
round-reniform, 3-6 cm. broad, very shallowly 5-7-lobed, the lobes rounded, crenate; petioles 
5-10 cm. long, erect; flowers solitary or in few-flowered axillary clusters; pedicels 5-15 mm. 
long; bractlets linear-lanceolate, 3-4 mm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, acute, 4-5 mm. long, slightly 
accrescent; petals obovate, emarginate, 8-10 mm. long, pale lilac or whitish, the claws villous 
on the margins; fruit discoid, the central axis broad; carpels 12-15, rounded, puberulent, smooth 
or very inconspicuously reticulate on the back, the angles rounded. 

Roadsides and waste places, Washington east to Massachusetts, southward to central California and North 
Carolina. Also known as a waif in Imperial County, California. Type locality: Europe. April-Nov. 

Callirhoe involucrata (Torr. & Gray) A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II 4: 16. 1849. Herbage hirsute; leaves 
4—8 cm. broad, palmately divided into 3-7 irregularly incised or lobed divisions; flowers solitary in the axils 
on slender peduncles 10-25 cm. long; involucellate bractlets 2-3, lance-linear, 10-15 mm. long; calyx deeply 
cleft, the lobes lanceolate, 10-15 mm. long; petals rose-purple, 2-2.5 cm. long, broadly obovate; carpels 12-20, 
about 3 mm. high, sparsely hirsute, strongly reticulate transversely on the backs, short-beaked. Locally abundant 
but thought to be adventive near Medford, Jackson County, Oregon. 

10. LAVATERA L. Sp. PI. 690. 1753. 

Stout herbs or arborescent shrubs with large, long-petioled palmately lobed leaves, 
caducous stipules, and showy axillary flowers. Involucel 2-3-lobed. Pedicels jointed 
below the flowers. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5, obtuse to truncate or emarginate, short-clawed. 
Ovary discoid. Carpels 5-12, beakless, 1-seeded, indehiscent. [Named for a Swiss physi- 
cian, Lavater.] 

A genus of about 30 species growing near the coast in the Mediterranean region, Canary Islands, Australia, 
central Asia, and on the islands off the coast of southern and Lower California. Type species, Lavatera arborea L. 

Shrubs; flowers 3.5-6 cm. broad; calyx tubular-campanulate, twice as high as broad at anthesis. 

1. L. assurgentifiora 

Herbs; flowers 2-2.5 cm. broad; calyx broadly cup-shaped, as broad as high at anthesis. 2. L. cretica. 

1, Lavatera assurgentifiora Kell. Malva Rosa. Fig. 3223. 

Lavatera assurgentifiora Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 1: 14. 1854. 
Saviniona Clementina Greene. Leaflets Bot. Obs. 2: 160. 1911. 
Saviniona reticulata Greene, op. cit. 161. 
Saviniona dendroidea Greene, loc. cit. 
Saviniona suspensa Greene, op. cit. 162. 
Saviniona assurgentifiora Greene, op. cit. 163. 

Shrub 1-5 m. high with smooth bark and finely stellate-puberulent leaves and young branches. 
Leaves thin, 4-20 cm. broad, palmately 5-7-lobed halfway to the petiole, the lobes ovate-deltoid, 
coarsely dentate; petioles 8-12 cm. long; stipules 2-3 mm. long, triangular-subulate; flowers 
1 to several in axils of the leaves; pedicels 3-5 cm. long, recurved-assurgent ; involucellate 
bractlets united at the base, oblong-lanceolate, 7-10 mm. long ; calyx 10-18 mm, long, the lobes 
deltoid-ovate, accrescent; petals 2.5^.5 cm. long, truncate to emarginate, rose with darker 
veins, the claws pubescent at the base ; fruit depressed, glabrous to puberulent ; carpels 6 mm. 
high, 1-seeded. 

Coastal slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; on the islands oil the coast of southern California, naturalized and used 
as windbreak along the mainland coast as far north as San Francisco. Type locality: Anacapa Island, California. 
Aoril-Nov. 

Lavatera arborea L. Sp. PI. 690. 1753. A small shrub with densely stellate-pubescent herbage: erect pedi- 
cels; deltoid-ovate involucellate bracts which exceed the calyx-lobes; smaller, darker violet-purple flowers; and 
smaller, lightly reticulate carpels. Introduced from Europe and escaped at Pebble Beach near Pescadero, San 
Mateo County, and at San Diego, California. 

2. Lavatera cretica L. Cretan Lavatera. Fig. 3224. 

Lavatera cretica L. Sp. PI. 690. 1753. 

Stout herbaceous annual or biennial with erect, ascendingly branched stems 0.6-1.5 m. 
high. Leaves pentagonal, shallowly and obtusely 3-5-lobed, crenate, stellate-hirsutulous to 



110 MALVACEAE 

glabrate, dark green, 4-15 cm. long; petioles 5-20 cm. long, stellate-hirsute; stipules lance- 
deltoid, 5-8 mm. long; bractlets ovate, 3-6 mm. wide, 4-10 mm. long, abruptly acute; calyx 
short-hirsute, 5-6 mm. wide and broad at anthesis, the lobes ovate, acute, accrescent; petals 
narrowly obovate, 10-12 mm. long, emarginate, white tinged with rose or lavender; fruit dis- 
coid; carpels 8-12, 3-3.5 mm. high, smooth dorsally, radiately reticulate laterally. 

Introduced from Europe and established as a weed in the San Francisco Bay region. Type locality: Crete. 
May-Sept. 

11. SIDA L. Sp. PL 683. 1753. 

Perennial herbs or shrubs. Herbage stellate-scurfy. Leaves alternate. Involucellate 
bractlets 1-3, distinct, linear. Flowers perfect, solitary or clustered in the axils of the 
leaves; pedicels articulate. Petals (in ours) stellate-puberulent on the exposed outer part. 
Stamineal column simple, antheriferous at the summit. Styles filiform; stigmas capitate. 
Carpels 5-12, 1-celled, 1-seeded, indehiscent or incompletely 2-valved. Seeds pendulous, 
3-angled. Embryo curved, endosperm scanty. [The Greek name of some plant.] 

A genus of ISO species or more in the warmer parts of both hemispheres, represented in our region by one 
species. Type species, Sida spinosa L. 

1. Sida hederacea (Dougl.) Torr. Alkali Mallow. Fig. 3225. 

Malva hederacea Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1 : 107. 1830. 
Sida ohliqua Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 233. 1838. 
Sida hederacea Torr. ex A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 4: 23. 1849. 
Disella hederacea Greene. Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1: 209. 1906. 

Stems 1-5 dm. long; herbage densely stellate-scurfy-canescent throughout. Leaves 1-5 
cm. broad, ovate-subcordate to obliquely subreniform, crenate, prominently veined beneath; 
petioles thick, 1-2 cm. long; stipules linear-subulate, 3-4 mm. long, marcescent; calyx cam- 
panulate to turbinate, the lobes ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 mm. broad, 6-10 mm. long, 
short-acuminate; bractlets linear, 3-5 mm. long; petals 1-2 cm. long, narrowly obovate, pale 
cream, dotted or suffused with lavender or rose, stellate-puberulent along one side; stamineal 
column short, glabrous; fruit conical-truncate, 5-8 mm. wide, about 4-5 mm. high; carpels 
6-10. dark brown, triangular, sparsely stellate-puberulent on the backs. 

In alkaline or heavy soil, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; Washington south to northern Lower California, 
east to Utah, Texas, and adjacent Mexico. Type locality: "interior districts of the Columbia. June-Uct. 

12. ANODA Cav. Diss. 1: 38. pi 10. 1785. 

Herbaceous annuals with hastate, deltoid or cordate, alternate leaves, glabrous to 
sparsely pubescent throughout. Flowers solitary (in ours), or in terminal racemes. Calyx 
accrescent. Petals obovate. yellow, violet, or purple. Stamineal column short. Fruit dis- 
coid, hirsute to glabrate. Carpels 5-20, cristate, muticous or smooth, pubescent or glabrate 
dorsally, 1-seeded. Seeds pendulous to horizontal, ovate-reniform, turgidly rounded on 
the angles. [Ceylonese name for some Abutilon, applied to the American genus by Cava- 
nilles.] 

A genus of IS or 20 species, chiefly in Mexico, extending into Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas; adventive in 
the middle San Joaquin Valley, California. Type species, Sida cristata L. 

1. Anoda cristata var. digitata (A. Gray) Hochr. Crested Anoda. Fig. 3226. 

Anoda arizonica A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 298. 1887. 

Anoda arizonica var. digitata A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 298. 1887. 

Anoda triangularis var. digitata Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 319. 1897. 

Anoda critata var. digitata Hochr. Ann. Conserv. & Jard. Bot. Geneve 20: 47. 1916. 

Annual erect herb 1-1.5 m. high, paniculately branched above, sparsely pubescent with 
stiff, spreading hairs. Leaves variable, ovate-triangular to hastate, sometimes 3-5-lobed, acute 
at the apex, serrate or crenate, 5-7 cm. broad, 6-8 cm. long; petioles slender, about equaling 
the blades; flowers solitary or in few-flowered axillary clusters, the pedicels hispid, 3-6 cm. 
long • calyx 4-5 mm. long in flower, densely canescent, the lobes narrowly triangular-lanceolate, 
10-15 mm. long and spreading in fruit; petals broadly obovate, 6-9 mm. long pale purple 
or bluish; stamineal column short, minutely pubescent at the base; fruit discoid, 10-15 mm. 
broad; carpels 10-20, cristate dorsally, hispid-pubescent, appendage 2-4 mm. long, the dissepi- 
ments rupturing at maturity; seeds turgidly reniform-ovate, minutely papillose, dark brown. 

Growing occasionally as an adventive weed in gardens and cultivated fields. Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones; 
central San Joaquin Valley and adjacent foothills of the Sierra Nevada from Amador County to Mariposa 
County. California. Native in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and adjacent Mexico. Type locality: southern 
Arizona. June-Sept. 

13. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PL 693. 1753. 
Herbs, shrubs, or small trees. Flowers showy, axillary (in ours) solitary. Leaves alter- 
nate, entire or variously lobed, estipulate. Involucel of several to many linear bractlets. 
Calyx 5-cleft. Stamineal column bearing anthers along upper half, but naked at the 



MALLOW FAMILY 



111 




3219. Malva parviflora 

3220. Malva nicaeensis 

3221. Malva sylvestris 



3222. Malva rotundifolia 

3223. Lavatera assurgentiflora 



3224. Lavatera cretica 

3225. Sida hederacea 



112 MALVACEAE 

5-toothed summit. Style-branches 5, short. Stigmas capitate. Ovary 5-celled, 2 to several 
ovules in each cell. Capsule loculicidal. Seeds minutely papillate to short-hairy. [Greek 
name used by Dioscorides for the marsh mallow.] 

A genus of about 200 species of the tropical and warm temperate parts of the world. Some species fre- 
quently cultivated as ornamentals. Type species, Hibiscus moschatus L. 

Annual; leaves pedately lobed or divided; calyx inflated. \. H. Trionum. 
Perennial; leaves merely serrulate or dentate; calyx not inflated. 

Leaves 5-1 5 cm. long; seeds papillate; involucellate bracts equaling calyx. 2. H. calif amicus. 

Leaves 1-3 cm. long; seeds silky-hairy; involucellate bracts shorter than the calyx. 3. H. denudatus. 

1. Hibiscus Trionum L. Bladder Ketmia or Flower-of-an-hour. Fig. 3227. 

Hibiscus Trionum L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. 

Depressed annual branching from the base, sparsely pubescent throughout with spreading 
hairs. Leaves ovate to orbicular in outline, 2-6 cm. long, pedately 3-7-lobed or divided, the lobes 
obtuse, dentate-crenate or crenately cleft, the middle one longer ; petioles hirsute, about equaling 
the blade ; involucellate bracts linear, hirsute-ciliate, about two-thirds as long as the calyx at 
anthesis ; flowers axillary to the upper leaves, 2.5-4 cm. broad, pale yellow, purplish at the center; 
calyx 5-angled, 1-1 . 5 cm. long at anthesis, hispid-nerved and prominently nerved, becoming larger 
and inflated in fruit ; petals tinged with purple on the outer edge ; capsule globose-ovoid, 10-15 
mm. high, hirsute, black ; seeds roughened with short papillate processes. 

In waste places from South Dakota to Nova Scotia and south to Kansas and Florida; in California rare, 
at Stockton and Riverside. Adventive from southern Europe. Type locality: Italy. June-Sept. 

2. Hibiscus californicus Kell. California Hibiscus. Fig. 3228. 

Hibiscus californicus Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 4: 292. 1873. 
Hibiscus moscheutos var. occidentalis Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. 256. 1874. 
Hibiscus lasiocarpus var. occidentalis A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 303. 1887. 
Hibiscus lasiocarpus var. californicus Bailey, Cycl. Hort. 1486. 1915. 

A stout, freely branching shrub, 1-2.5 m. high, densely pubescent throughout with short-rayed 
stellate hairs. Leaves ovate to orbicular-cordate, 5-10 cm. broad, dentate, acute to acuminate at 
the apex, dark green above, lighter beneath ; petioles stout, about equaling the blades ; flowers 
subterminal, each flower on a stout peduncle 2-3 cm. long, from the side of which a small leaf 
arises about halfway between the base and the joint; involucellate bractlets linear-subulate, 2-3 
cm. long, closely clasping the calyx; calyx 2-2.5 cm. long, 5-cleft, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, 
short-acuminate ; petals 6-10 cm. long, white or roseate, deep crimson at the base ; capsule ovoid, 
2.5-3 cm. long, acute, slightly stellate-pubescent; seeds round, striate, minutely papillate. 

On low islands and wet banks, Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones; Sacramento River, Butte County to the 
lower San Joaquin River, California. Type locality: Webb's Landing, on an island in the San Joaquin River. 
Sept.-Oct. 

3. Hibiscus denudatus Benth. Pale Face or Rock-hibiscus. Fig. 3229. 

Hibiscus denudatus Benth. Bot. Sulph. 7. pi. 3. 1844. 

Hibiscus denudatus var. involucellatus A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 3^: 22. 1852. 

Suffruticose perennial 3-9 dm. high, erect or diffusely branching, the stems slender, sparsely 
leaved, roughly canescent-tomentose throughout with short-rayed, stellate hairs. Leaves ovate to 
orbicular, 1-3 cm. long, serrulate, prominently veined beneath, smooth above; flowers axillary, 
solitary; involucellate bractlets 4-7, setaceous, half as long as the calyx or shorter, sometimes 
nearly wanting ; calyx narrowly ovoid, 5-cleft nearly to the base, 5-8 mm. long, the lobes tri- 
angular-lanceolate, acuminate; petals 1-2 cm. long, white to rose-purple, capsule ovoid-globose, 
acute, glabrous, slightly shorter than the calyx, dehiscent to the base ; seeds reniform, dark brown, 
covered with silky hairs 3-4 mm. long. 

Rocky slopes and hillsides, Lower Sonoran Zone; vicinity of Palm Springs in the Colorado Desert, Cali- 
fornia, to central Texas, southern Lower California and central Sonora. Type locality: Magdalena Bay, Lower 
California. Flowering after rains, chiefly spring and summer. 

Gossypium barbadense L. Sp. PI. 693. 1753. Cotton. A suffrutescent plant with slender, brown-barked, 
sparsely pubescent or glabrous stems and large palmately 3-5-lobed leaves 6-10 cm. broad; petioles 5-15 cm. 
long; stipules triangular-lanceolate, 3-4 mm. broad, 10-15 mm. long, scarious; flowers perfect, axillary; bract- 
lets 3 2.5-3 cm. broad, 3-4 cm. long, the summit deeply dissected into 10-15 narrowly triangular-lanceolate 
divisions, purplish; calyx-lobes short, 5-10 mm. long, 10-18 mm. wide, glabrous; petals 3-4.5 cm. long, obovate, 
cream-colored and more or less purplish at the base; fruit a loculicidally dehiscent, 3-5-valved capsule, 2-4 cm. 
in diameter; seeds ovoid-oblong, 5-8 mm. long, covered with long, white fibers and a short persistent wool. 
Grown for the cotton in the San Joaquin and Imperial Valleys in California and there occasionally escaping 
from cultivation. Native in the Barbados. 



Family 93. STERCULIACEAE. 

Sterculia Family. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, usually more or less stellate-pubescent, and often with 
simple hairs intermixed. Leaves alternate, simple or rarely compound, pinnately or 
palmately nerved ; stipules usually present, often caducous. Flowers perfect or uni- 



STERCULIA FAMILY 



113 




^iA"^ 



3226. Anoda cristata 

3227. Hibiscus Trionum 

3228. Hibiscus californicus 



3229. Hibiscus denudatus 

3230. Fremontia califomica 



3231. Fremontia mexicana 

3232. Ayenia compacta 



114 STERCULIACEAE 

sexual, commonly axillary. Calyx persistent, 4-5-lobed or -parted, sometimes petal- 
cid. Petals 5, hypogynous, sometimes wanting. Stamens 5, alternating with the 
petals, usually united below into a column. Pistil compound, free ; ovary 3-5-celled 
or rarely 10-12-celled ; ovules 1 to many, anatropous or rarely orthotropous ; style 
simple, or with as many branches as ovary-cells. Fruit a capsule, or rarely a nut 
or berry. Seeds with a bony or membranaceous coat ; endosperm present or none. 

A family of 50 genera and about 800 species, mainly tropical and most abundant in the Old World. 

Flowers showy: calyx corolla-like, yellow, the lobes rounded; corolla none; tree or arborescent shrub. 

1 . Fremontta. 

Flowers small; petals with a filamentous claw, the limb hooded, brownish; low desert shrub. 2. Ayenia. 

1. FREMONTIA Terr. Smiths. Contr. 6^: 5. pL 2. 1853. 

Arborescent shrubs or small trees, with hard wood, dark bark, and more or less stellate 
branchlets. Leaves persistent, entire or commonly more or less palmately lobed, stellate- 
pubescent. Stipules lanceolate, caducous. Bracdets 3 or 5, small, caducous. Sepals 5, 
larg-e, petaloid, nectariferous-pitted at base. Petals none. Stamens 5, their filaments united 
below into a column, adnate at the base to calyx; anthers elongate-oblong, extrorse. Ovary 
5-celled ; ovules several in each cell, anatropous ; style subulate, stigmatic at the apex. Cap- 
sule ovoid-prismatic, firm-coriaceous, loculicidally 5-valved. Seeds ovoid, black, bony, with 
a small caruncle at the chalaza end ; endosperm present. 

A genus of 2 species, natives of California and Lower California. Type species, Fremontta californica Torr. 

Gland of the calyx-lobes hairy; fruit not acuminate. 1- F- calif oriiica. 

Gland of the calyx-lobes not hairy; fruit distinctly acuminate. 2. F. mexicana. 

1. Fremontia californica Torr. California Fremontia. Fig. 3230. 

Fremontia californica Torr. Smiths. Contr. 6^: 5. pt. 2. 1853. 
Chiranthodendron californicum Baillon, Hist. PI. 4: 70. 1873. 
Fremontodendron calif omicwn Coville, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 4: 74. 1893. 
Fremontia obispoensis Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1: 140. 1934. 

Arborescent shrub or small tree, 3-8 m. high, trunk with a rough bark, young twigs more or 
less densely covered with a short-stellate pubescence. Leaves ovate to broadly ovate, entire or 
commonly 3-lobed, 1-2.5 cm. long, green above, with scattering stellate hairs, canescent beneath 
with a dense short-stellate puberulence ; petioles usually shorter than the blades ; bractlets small, 
lanceolate-subulate ; flowers 3-5 cm. broad, yellow ; sepals broadly ovate, mucronate, stellate with- 
out, more or less bristly at the base within, especially on the large sunken gland ; capsule ovoid, 
2-2.5 cm. long, densely bristly; seeds dark brown, short-pubescent. 

Hillsides and mountain slopes. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; in the Sierra Nevada from Tehama 
County, and in the Coast Ranges from San Luis Obispo County, southward to San Diego County, California. 
Type locality: "Sources of the Sacramento, in the northern part of the Sierra Nevada." April-June. 

Fremontia californica subsp. crassifolia (Eastw.) Abrams. {Fremontia crassifolia Eastw. Leaflets West. 
Bot. 1: 139. 1934.) Arborescent shrub, 2-3 m. high, young twigs of the season densely pubescent with rather 
long-rayed sellate hairs, becoming glabrous and reddish brown in age. Leaves broadly ovate or rounded, com- 
monly 3-lobed with broad rounded lobes, cordate at base, glossy green and thinly stellate above, densely stellate 
below; petioles densely long-stellate like the twigs, the pubescence becoming ferruginous in age; flowers yellow, 
5-6 cm broad; gland on the inner surface of the sepals hairy. Chaparral-covered slopes. Upper Sonoran and 
Humid Transition Zones; Santa Cruz Mountains, central California. Type locality: on hills above Big Basin 
Park, north of Governor's Camp, Santa Cruz County, California. 

Fremontia californica var. napensis (Eastw.) McMinn, 111. Man. Calif. Shrubs 355. 1939. (Fremontia 
napensis Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 1: 140. 1934.) Shrub, often spreading from the base, 2-3 m. high, young 
twigs of the season densely stellate-pubescent with very short-rayed stellate hairs, the older portion of the 
branchlets glabrous and reddish brown. Leaves 1-2 cm., rarely 2.5 cm. long, entire to shallowly 3-5-Iobed, 
obtuse or rounded at base, rather dark green above with scattering short-rayed stellate hairs, pale green and 
densely stellate beneath, the pubescence whitish at first, becoming ferruginous in age; calyx yellow or often 
tinged with rose, small, the sepals commonly only 1-1.5 cm. long. Chaparral-covered slopes, Upper Sonoran 
Zone- Coast Ranges of southern Lake County and adjacent Napa County, California. Type locality: north 
side of Mount Saint Helena, Napa County. Small-flowered plants usually with smaller subentire leaves 
occur almost throughout the range of the species, but none of these seems as extreme in its variations as the 
plants from the Mount Saint Helena region. 

Margaret Harvey (Madroiio 7: 100-110. 1943) has made critical herbarium studies of Fremontia and 
recognizes 5 species: F. californica Torr., F. napensis Eastw., F. crassifolia Eastw., F. obispoensis Eastw., 
and F. mexicana (Davidson) J. F. MacBride. Under F. caltformca she also recognizes 4 varieties, which she 
distinguishes as follows: 

Leaves variously lobed: (a) leaves dull green or dark green above, pubescence decidedly tawny below and 
often matted, variety typica (Shasta County to San Diego County); (6) leaves bright green above, pubescence 
whitish below, not tawny, variety viridis (Tehama County). 

Leaves entire, dull green or dark green above, pubescence of lower surface becoming tawny: (c) petioles 
short, one-half to one-third the length of the blade, variety integra (Tulare and Kern Counties); id) petioles 
longer than one-half the length of the blade, variety diegensts (San Diego County). 

As the typical form of the species seems to occur throughout the range, the biological significance of these 
variations is not clear. Much more study, especially in the field, must be given before the constancy of the 
characters noted can be determined. 



ST. JOHN'S-WORT FAMILY 115 

2. Fremontia mexicana (Davidson) J. F, Macbride. Mexican Fremontia. 

Fig. 3231. 

Fremontodendron mexicana Davidson, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 16: SO. 1917. 
Fremontia mexicana J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. S3: 14. 1918. 
Fremontia californica var. mexicana Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 637. 192S. 

Arborescent shrub or small tree, 2-6 m. high, the branches widely spreading, branchlets 
densely clothed with long-rayed stellate pubescence, this yellowish or ferruginous often becom- 
ing blackened in age, usually deciduous the second year leaving a smooth reddish brown bark. 
Leaves round-ovate in outline, 5-lobed with broad rounded lobes and narrow sinuses, deeply 
cordate at base, 2.5-3.5 cm. long, conspicuously S-veined and thick, dark green above with 
scattered often dark stellate hairs, pale beneath and densely stellate-pubescent ; petioles about 
equaling or shorter than the blades, densely stellate ; calyx 6-7 cm. in diameter, orange becom- 
ing tinged with red at base and on the midrib, stellate exteriorly, the rounded pits on the inner 
surface of the lobes near the base not hairy ; capsule ovoid, acuminate, 3-4 cm. long ; seeds 
black, shining. 

Open chaparral, Upper Sonoran Zone; Otay Mountain, San Diego County, California, southward into 
northwestern Lower California. Type locality: described from cultivated tree, planted in San Diego, the original 
source of which is not definitely known. See a discussion of its possible origin by Margaret Harvey 
(Madrono 7: 109. 1943). 

2. AYENIA Loefl. Iter. Hisp. 199. 1758. 

Herbs or low woody plants, stellate-pubescent, hirsute or glabrescent. Leaves alter- 
nate, serrate. Flowers small, axillary. Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, long-clawed, the limb 
cucullate-concave, the apex inflexed and adnate to the stamen-column concealing- the an- 
thers. Stamen-column short, bearing 5 fertile stamens alternating with 5 staminodia; 
anthers 3-celled. Ovary stipitate, 5-celled; ovules 2 in each cell. Style simple; stigma 
capitate or obscurely 5-lobed. Capsule globose, muricate ; carpels 5, separating septicidally 
and then splitting loculicidally. Seeds 1 in each carpel, transversely rugose ; endosperm 
none; cotyledons spirally convolute around the radicle. [Name in honor of the Due 
d'Ayen.] 

An American genus of about 15 species inhabiting the tropical and warm temperate regions. Type species, 
Ayenia sidaeformis Loefl. 

1. Ayenia compacta Rose. Ayenia. Fig. 3232. 

Ayenia compacta Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 8: 321. 1905. 
Ayenia californica Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 637. 1925. 

Low shrub, 1-4 dm. high, much branched from the base, branches gray-green-tomentose 
with 2-3-forked hairs." Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, 5-15 mm. long, serrate, rninutely stellate 
on both surfaces, about twice as long as the slender petioles ; flowers solitary in the axils, on 
slender pedicels, brownish, 2 mm. long; capsule 4 mm. in diameter, stellate-pubescent and muri- 
cate with black glands. 

Rocky canyons, Lower Sonoran Zone; western edge of the Colorado Desert, Riverside County, California, 
to central Lower California. Type locality: near Santa Rosalia, Lower California. March-May. 

Family 94. HYPERICACEAE.* 

St. John's-wort Family. 

Herbs or shrubs, sometimes small trees in tropical regions, v^ith opposite or 
rarely verticillate simple entire or rarely glandular-ciliate or dentate leaves, no 
stipules, resinous juice, and terminal or axillary, solitary or cymose-paniculate 
flowers. Foliage pellucid-punctate or black-dotted. Flowers regular and perfect. 
Sepals 5 or 4, imbricated, herbaceous, persistent. Petals of the same number, hy- 
pogynous, generally oblique or contorted. Stamens numerous or few, hypogynous, 
often in sets of 3 or 5 ; anthers versatile or innate, 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent. 
Ovary superior, 1-7-ceIled, composed of 1-7 carpels ; styles as many as the carpels ; 
ovules numerous, in 2 rows in each cavity, anatropous. Fruit mainly capsular; 
seeds with a straight embryo ; endosperm none. 

A family of about 40 genera and over 800 species, mostly of temperate and warm regions. Only the fol- 
lowing genus is represented in the Pacific States. 

1. HYPERICUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. Fl. 783. 1753. 

Herbs or shrubs, with opposite, sessile, more or less punctate leaves, and mostly cymose 
yellow flowers. Sepals 5, equal or nearly so. Petals 5, mainly oblique or contorted, con- 

* Text contributed by George Neville Jones. 



116 HYPERICACEAE 

volute in the bud, deciduous or marcescent. Stamens 5 to many, distinct, or more or less 
united in clusters, sometimes with interposed hypogynous glands. Ovary 1 -celled, with 
3-5 parietal placentae which sometimes project far into the cavity, or 3-5-celled (rarely 
6-celled) ; ovules generally numerous; styles 3-6. Capsule 1-5-celled (rarely 6-celled). 
[Ancient Greek name, of obscure meaning.] 

About 300 species, of wide geographical distribution, principally in subtropical regions. In addition to the 
following, 25 others occur in eastern and southern United States. Type species, Hypericum perforatum L. 

Petals much longer than the sepals; capsule 3-celled. 
Leaves flat, obtuse; stems few from a rhizome. 

Leaves oval, 2-3 cm. long; stems simple. 1. H. formosum Scouleri. 

Leaves oblong-linear, 1-2 cm. long; stems much branched. 2. H. perforatum. 

Leaves folded, acutish, linear-lanceolate; stems numerous, from a woody caudex. 3. H. concinnum. 
Petals shorter than or only slightly longer than the sepals; capsule 1-celled. 

Leaves usually less than 1 cm. long; stamens 15-20. 4. H. anagalloides. 

Leaves 1—4 cm. long; stamens 5-12. 

Leaves lanceolate to linear; flowers 6-10 mm. broad. S. H. majus. 

Leaves ovate or oval; flowers 2-4 mm. broad. 6. H. tnutilum. 

1. Hypericum formosum var. Scouleri (Hook.) J. M. Coult. Scouler's 

St. John's-wort. Fig. 3233. 

Hypericum Scouleri Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 111. 1830. 

Hypericum formosum var. Scouleri J. M. Coult. Bot. Gaz. 11: 108. 1886. 

Perennial, stems erect, few from a rhizome, slender, simple, or branched at the summit, 
15-60 cm. high, lacking sterile basal shoots. Leaves ovate, oval or lanceolate, flat, obtuse, black- 
dotted along the margins, sessile by a more or less clasping base, 1-3 cm. long; flowers 15-20 
mm. broad, in more or less paniculate cymes ; sepals ovate or oval, 3-4 mm. long, obtuse or 
acutish, with a few sessile black glands ; petals obovate, bright yellow, black-dotted on the mar- 
gin, 7-9 mm. long ; stamens numerous, in 3 clusters ; anthers black-dotted ; capsule 3-lobed, 
6 mm. long. 

In wet meadows and along streams, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; British Columbia to Wyoming, 
Utah, and southern California. Type locality: "Abundant in dry gravelly soils and limestone rocks on the 
North-West coast of America, near the Columbia." June-Aug. 

Hypericum form6sum H.B.K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 196. pi. 460. 1821. The typical species has the 
sepals narrower and sharply acute or acuminate, and usually more glandular-dotted, with the_ glands forming 
minute glandular teeth on the margins. It ranges from southern Mexico to New Mexico and Arizona, with inter- 
grades in Colorado, Utah, and San Bernardino Mountains, southern California. Type locality: Pazcuaro, Mexico. 

2. Hypericum perforatum L, Common St. John's-wort. Fig. 3234. 

Hypericum perforatum L. Sp. PI. 785. 1753. 

Perennial, herbaceous from a woody base, 30-60 cm. high, much branched; stems erect, 
stoloniferous, with numerous short sterile shoots at base. Leaves sessile, oblong or linear, 1-2 
cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, obtuse, more or less black-dotted; cymes terminal, many-flowered; 
flowers bright yellow, 15-25 mm. broad; sepals lanceolate, acute, pellucid-dotted, shorter than 
the linear-oblong copiously black-dotted petals which are twisted after anthesis ; stamens united 
at their bases into 3 sets; styles 3, usually spreading; capsule ovoid, 4-6 mm. long, 3-celled, 
glandular, not lobed, reddish. 

In fields and waste ground, a very noxious weed, difficult to exterminate, poisonous to horses. Naturalized 
from Europe. British Columbia to central California, and eastward to the Atlantic Coast. Type locality: Eu- 
rope. June-Sept. Klamath Weed, Tipton-weed. 

3. Hypericum concinnum Benth, Gold Wire. Fig. 3235. 

Hypericum concinnum Benth. PI. Hartw. 300. 1848. 
Hypericum bracteatum Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 1 : 65. 1855. 

Perennial, stems slender, wiry, tufted, numerous from a woody caudex, forming a bushy 
plant 15-30 cm. high. Leaves numerous, thickish, linear to lanceolate, acute, ascending or spread- 
ing, narrow at the base, not clasping, usually folded, sparsely black-dotted, 1.5-3 cm. long; 
flowers 2-2.5 cm. broad, in rather close terminal cymes; sepals ovate, or lanceolate, acute or 
acuminate, 5-9 mm. long; petals golden yellow, obovate, 10-15 mm. long, black-dotted on the 
margin, much longer than the sepals ; stamens numerous, 4 of the filaments in each of the 3 
clusters distinctly united at base, the others free; styles long, divaricately spreading; capsule 
3-celled and 3-lobed, 10-12 mm. long. 

Dry ridges and slopes in the mountains. Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; North Coast Ranges, 
and the Sierra Nevada from Butte County to Mariposa County, California. Type locality: said to have been 
collected in the "Sacramento Valley," but probably on one of Hartweg's trips from the valley into the Sierra 
Nevada, in Butte County or along the American River. May-July. 

4. Hypericum anagalloides Cham. & Sch. Creeping St. John's-wort 

or Tinker's Penny. Fig. 3236. 

Hypericum anapalloides Cham. & Sch. Linnaea 3: 127. 1828. 
Hypericum anagalloides var. nevadense Greene, Fl. Fran. 113. 1891. 
Hypericum bryophytum Elmer, Bot. Gaz. 36: 60. 1903. 
Hypericum tapetoides A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 52:266. 1911. 

Annual or perennial, often forming dense mats ; stems numerous, weak, slender, procumbent 



ST. JOHN'S-WORT FAMILY 



117 



or ascending, rooting at the lower nodes, with angled, simple or dichotomous branches 3-25 
cm. high. Leaves pale, obtuse, ovate or elliptic, 5-7 nerved, somewhat clasping, 5-15 mm. 
long ; cymes peduncled, loose, the branches elongated or sometimes the flowers solitary on very 
short peduncles ; petals small, not dotted, 6-8 mm. broad, dark yellow ; sepals unequal, lanceo- 
late, obtuse or acute, 2-4 mm. long; petals 3^ mm. long, oval; stamens 15-20; styles short; 
capsule 1 -celled, about 3 mm. long. 

Springy places and wet meadows. Transition and Boreal Zones; British Columbia to Lower California. 
Type locality: San Francisco, California. June-July. 

5. Hypericum majus (A. Gray) Britt. Larger Canadian St. John's-wort, 

Fig. 3237. 

Hypericum canadense var. major A. Gray, Man. ed. S. 86. 1867. 
Hypericum majus Britt. Mem. Torrey Club 5:225. 1894. 

Annual or perennial, stem erect, 10-70 cm. high, usually branched above, the branches strict, 
nearly erect. Leaves lanceolate to linear, sessile or somewhat clasping, 5-7-nerved, 1-4 cm. 
long, acute or obtuse at the apex ; cymes several- to many-flowered ; bracts subulate ; flowers 
6-10 mm. broad; sepals 5-7 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate, about as long as the petals or 
shorter ; stamens 5-12 ; styles 3 ; capsule narrowly conical, acute, 8-10 mm. long, longer than 
the sepals ; seeds minute, cross-lined and faintly longitudinally striate. 

Wet ground, Humid Transition Zone; Washington (Green Lake, Seattle, Piper) and British Columbia; 
also in Colorado and the Eastern States. Type locality: Lake Superior. July-Aug. 

6. Hypericum mutilum L. Small-flowered St. John's-wort. Fig. 3238. 

Hypericum mutilum L. Sp. PI. 787. 1753. 
Ascyrum Crux-Andreae L. loc. cit. 

Usually annual, slender, erect or ascending, generally tufted, abundantly and diffusely 
branched, 15-50 cm. high; branchlets 4-angled. Leaves ovate to oval, sessile, clasping, obtuse, 




3233. Hypericum formosum 

3234. Hypericum perforatum 



3235. Hypericum concinnum 

3236. Hypericum anagalloides 



3237. Hypericum majus 

3238. Hypericum mutilum 



118 ELATINACEAE 

1-2 cm. long, 4-15 mm. wide, 5-nerved at the base; cymes many-flowered, terminal, subulate- 
bracted; pedicels slender, 2-12 mm. long; flowers 2-4 mm. broad, light orange-yellow; sepals 
foliaceous, linear-oblanceolate, acutish or obtuse, much shorter than or slightly longer than the 
petals; stamens 5-12; styles 3; capsule ovoid, pointed, 1 -celled, 2^ mm. long, somewhat longer 
than the sepals. 

Introduced along ditches and shores; lower Sacramento and lower Sau Joaquin Rivers, California; also 
Nova Scotia to Manitoba. Kansas, Florida, and Texas. Type locality: Europe. Aug.-Sept. 



Family 95. ELATINACEAE. 

Waterwort Family. 

Low herbs or some tropical species woody, with opposite or verticillate, entire or 
serrate leaves and small stipules. Flowers small, axillary or fascicled, perfect and 
regular. Sepals 2-5, imbricated. Petals of the same number as the sepals, hy- 
pogynous. Stamens of the same number as the petals or twice as many. Ovary 
2-5-celled; styles of the same number, stigmatic at the apex; ovules many, ana- 
tropous. Capsule ovoid or globose, septicidal, with the placentae central. Seeds 
reticulately rugose or ribbed. 

A family of 2 genera and 35 species, of wide geographical distribution. 
Flowers 2— 4-merous; plants glabrous, growing in or near water. 1. Elatine. 

Flowers 5-merous; plants pubescent, terrestrial. 2. Bergia. 

1. ELATINE L. Sp. PI. 367. 1753. 

Small glabrous herbs, growing in water or creeping on mud, suggesting the chick- 
weeds in general habit. Flowers minute, mainly solitary in the axils, in submerged plants 
often remaining closed. Sepals 2-4, membranous, persistent. Petals of the same number. 
Stamens of the same number or twice as many ; styles 2-4. Capsule globose, membranous, 
2-4-valved. [Name Greek, meaning fir-like, in reference to the leaves.] 

A genus of 15 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. Type species, Elatine Hydro- 
piper L. 

Plowers 2-5-merous, sessile; seeds nearly or quite straight. 

Petals and stamens 3; seeds indistinctly sculptured. 1. E. triandra. 
Petals and stamens normally 2; seeds distinctly sculptured. 

Leaves obovate; seeds with 9-10 longitudinal lines and 20-30 crossbars. 2. E. americana. 

Leaves oblong or oval; seeds with 6-7 longitudinal lines and 10-12 crossbars. 3. E. hrachysperma. 

Flowers 4-merous, the stamens usually 8, short-pedicelled; seeds strongly curved. 4. E. calif ornica. 

1. Elatine triandra Schk. Long-stemmed Waterwort. Fig. 3239. 

Elatine triandra Schk. Bot. Handb. 1: 345. 1791. 

Plants immersed or terrestrial, tufted or creeping, flaccid, the stems 5-10 cm. long. Leaves 
oblong or oblanceolate, very thin, 4-8 mm. long ; flowers sessile, minute ; sepals commonly 2 ; 
petals, stamens and stigmas 3 ; seeds slender, slightly curved, rather faintly sculptured with 
11-12 longitudinal and 15-20 transverse lines. 

Shallow ponds and pools, Transition Zones; rarely collected, has been found in Washington (Usk), Colo- 
rado, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Illinois; also in Europe. Type locality: Germany. July-Sept. 

2. Elatine americana (Pursh) Arn. American Waterwort. Fig. 3240. 

Peplis americana Pursh, FI. Amer. Sept. 238. 1814. 
Elatine americana Arn. Edinb. Journ. Sci. 1:430. 1830. 

Tufted slightly fleshy herb, the stems 2-4 cm. long, growing on mud or often submerged. 
Leaves obovate, obtuse, 2-6 mm. long ; flowers sessile, 2-merous or rarely 3-merous in the ter- 
restrial forms ; capsule globose, about 1 mm. in diameter ; seeds nearly 1 mm. long, slightly 
curved, marked by 9-10 longitudinal lines and 20-30 crossbars. 

Margins of ponds and streams. Transition and Boreal Zones; British Columbia to the mountains of south- 
ern California and across the continent. Type locality: Pennsylvania. June-Sept. 

3. Elatine brachysperma A. Gray. Short-seeded Waterwort, Fig. 3241. 

Elatine brachysperma A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 13: 361. 1878. 

Plants tufted, terrestrial or sometimes submerged, the stems 2-5 cm. long. Leaves oblong, 

varying from oval to lanceolate, usually oblong, narrowed at the base, 4-6 mm. long ; flowers 

sessile, minute, 2-merous or rarely 3-merous ; seeds short-oblong, about 0.5 mm. long, distinctly 

sculptured with 6-7 longitudinal lines and 10-12 crossbars. 

Margins of ponds. Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Washington and Oregon to the Coast Ranges of central 
and southern California, east to Ohio. Type locality: Illinois. April-May. 



FRANKENIA FAMILY 119 

4. Elatine californica A. Gray. California Waterwort. Fig. 3242. 

Elatine californica A. Gray, Proc. Araer. Acad. 13: 364. 1878. 

Plants forming small mats or tufts, terrestrial or submerged, the stems 2-5 cm. long. Leaves 
obovate to oblanceolate, 3-4 mm. long ; flowers minute, on short pedicels ; sepals and petals 4 ; 
stamens 8 ; stigmas and ovary cells 4 ; seeds strongly curved, rounded on one end, truncate and 
apiculate on the other, marked with 8-10 longitudinal lines, and 20-25 crossbars. 

Margins of ponds and pools. Arid Transition Zone; eastern Washington (Spokane County) south to the 
mountains of southern California. Type locality: Sierra Valley, altitude 5,000 feet, Sierra Nevada, California. 
May- Aug. 

2. BERGIA L. Mant. 1:152. 241. 1771. 

Herbs, or somewhat woody plants, with diffuse or ascending branches, more or less 
pubescent. Leaves opposite, serrate or entire. Flowers small, in axillary clusters, 5-merous 
or rarely 3-4-merous. Capsule crustaceous, ovoid, 5-valved. Seeds many, reticulately 
sculptured with longitudinal lines and crossbars. [Name in honor of Dr. P. J. Bergius, 
1723-90, professor of natural history in Stockholm.] 

About 15 species, chiefly in warm temperate and tropical regions. Type species, Bcrgia capensis L. 

1. Bergia texana (Hook.) Seub. Texas Bergia. Fig. 3243. 

Merimea texana Hook. Ic. PI. 3: pi. 278. 1840. 
Bergia texana Seub. ex Walp. Rep. 1: 285. 1842. 

Plants scabrous and somewhat glandular, the stems diffusely branching from the base, 
ascending, 1-3 dm. long, scabrous and slightly glandular. Leaves opposite, obovate or those at 
the tips of the branches ovate, narrowed to a petiole, 5-20 mm. long, sharply serrate ; flowers 
1 or 2 in the axils, short-pedicelled ; sepals acuminate, scarious-margined, 3-4 mm. long; petals 
a little shorter. 

Moist ground, Sonoran Zones; Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys to Lake Elsinore, southern California, 
east to Nevada, Texas, and Illinois. Type locality: Texas. June-Nov. 

Family 96. FRANKENIACEAE. 

Frankenia Family. 

Low perennial herbs or undershrubs. Leaves opposite, sessile and often united 
at the membranous and somewhat sheathing base, entire, often revolute. Stipules 
none. Flowers small, perfect, solitary, and sessile in the axils of the branches. Calyx 
4-5-lobed, the tube tubular or prismatic, furrowed, the lobes short, valvate. Petals 
4 or 5, borne on the edge of the calyx-tube, narrowed to a claw bearing an append- 
age on its inner face. Stamens 4-7, or rarely more, borne on the edge of the calyx- 
tube. Pistil of 2^ carpels united into a 1 -celled ovary with 2-4 parietal placentae. 
Styles 2-4-cleft into filiform lobes. Fruit a capsule, invested by the persistent calyx. 
Seeds few to many, on slender funiculi attached to the margin of the valves, the testa 
crustaceous ; endosperm present, farinose. 

A family of 4 genera and about 65 species, warm temperate and tropical regions. 

1. FRANKENIA L. Sp. PI. 331. 1753. 

Characters of the family. [Name in honor of J. Franke (Frankenius), professor of 
anatomy and botany, Upsala, seventeenth century-] 

A genus of about 60 species, natives of warm, temperate, and tropical regions of both hemispheres. Type 
species, Frankenia laevis L. 

Styles 3-cleft; ovules numerous; herbs. 1- -F. grandifolia. 

Styles 2-cleft; ovules 2 or 3; shrubby plants. 2. F. Falmcri. 

1. Frankenia grandifolia Cham. & Sch. Alkali Heath or Yerba Reuma. 

Fig. 3244. 

Frankenia grandifolia Cham. & Sch. Linnaea 1 : 35. 1826. 
Velezia latifolia Eschsch. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 10: 286. 1826. 
Frankenia latifolia Presl ex Schultes f. Syst. Veg. 7: 1620. 1830. 

Stem much branched from a slightly woody base, erect or reclining, slender, 1-3 dm. high 
pubescent to nearly glabrous. Leaves many, obovate to oblanceolate, plane or revolute, 6-12 
mm. long, dull green; calyx-tube cylindric, 6 mm. long, strongly furrowed, the lobes short, 
acute; petals spatulate, deep rose, exserted beyond the calyx-tube 2-4 mm., appendages of the 
claws bifid; stamens 4-7; style 3-cleft; capsule shorter than the calyx, Imear, angled; seeds 
numerous. 

Salt marshes, near the coast, Transition and Sonoran Zones; Marin County, California, to northern 
Lower California and Guadalupe Island. Type locality: salt marshes, San Francisco, Caluornia. May-JNov. 



120 TAMARICACEAE 

Frankenia grandifoHa var. campestris A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. li:208. 1895. More compactly 
branched and tufted, 1-4 dm. high. Leaves narrowly oblanceolate to linear-spatulate, strongly revolute, 4-8 mm. 
long, pale green; petals smaller, exserted 1-2 mm. beyond calyx, pale rose or white. Moist alkaline soils of the 
interior valleys, Sonoran Zones; Sacramento Valley to Inyo and Riverside Counties, California, and southern 
Nevada. Type locality: plains near San Jacinto, Riverside County, California. 

Frankenia pulverulenta L. Sp. PI. 332. 1753. Stems much branched, spreading, herbaceous, slender, 
10-25 cm. long. Leaves broadly ovate to broadly spatulate, rounded at the apex, scarcely revolute, 3-5 mm. 
long, scurf y-puberulent beneath; calyx-tube 2.5 mm. long, grooved; petals little exceeding the calyx, rose. Ad- 
ventive from southern Europe, ballast, Portland, Oregon. 

2. Frankenia Palmeri S. Wats. Palmer's Frankenia or Yerba Reuma. 

Fig. 3245. 

Frankenia Palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 124. 1876. 

Low shrub with slender spreading or creeping branches, 1-3 dm. high, the branchlets short 
and divaricate. Leaves numerous, fascicled, strongly revolute, appearing nearly terete, 2-4 mm. 
long, canescent with a short papillose pubescence; calyx-tube 3 mm. long; petals linear, 1.5 mm. 
long, white or tinged with pink ; stamens 4 ; style 2-cleft ; seeds 1-3. 

Salt marshes, Lower Sonoran Zone; San Diego, California, south to Lower California. Type locality: 
"Lower California, on the gulf side." May-Aug. 

Family 97. TAMARICACEAE. 

Tamarisk Family. 

Shrubs or suffrutescent plants, rarely small trees or perennial herbs. Leaves al- 
ternate, small and usually scale-like, entire. Stipules none. Flowers usually in race- 
mose spikes or solitary and terminal or axillary. Sepals 4—5, distinct, or united at 
base. Petals 4-5, inserted under the edge of the hypogynous disk, distinct. Stamens 
4 to many, borne on the disk. Ovary superior, 1 -celled with 3-5 parietal placentae. 
Styles 3-5. Ovules anatropous, few to many. Fruit a capsule, dehiscent by valves, 
coriaceous. Seeds erect, often beaked and bearing long plumose hairs; endosperm 
present or none. 

A family of 4 genera and about 100 species, native of the Old World. 

1. tAMARIX L. Sp. PL 270. 1753. 

Shrubs or small trees, with minute scale-like evergreen or deciduous leaves. Flowers 
white or rose, minute, borne profusely in spikes or dense racemes on lateral branchlets. 
Sepals and petals usually 4 or 5, rarely 6. Stamens 5 or 10, rarely 4 or 12, distinct or the 
filaments connate at base. Ovary and capsule attenuate at apex. Seeds many, bearing 
long plumose hairs; endosperm none. [Name from Tamaris, a river in Spain.] 

A genus of about 80 species, inhabiting Europe, Asia, and Africa. Type species, Tamarix gallica L. 
Flowers 4-merous; racemes lateral on last year's branchlets. 1. T. parvifiora. 

Flowers 5-merous; racemes in usually large terminal panicles, rarely a few scattered laterally on the branchlets 
of the season. 2. T. pcntandra. 

1. Tamarix parvifiora DC. Small-flowered Tamarisk. Fig. 3246. 

Tamarix parvifiora DC. Prod. 3:97. 1828. 

Shrub or small tree, 2-3 m. high, densely branching with slender arching branchlets. Leaves 
scale-like, ovate, acuminate, about 1 . 5-2 mm. long, green, deciduous ; the densely flowered 
slender racemes 2-3 cm. long, lateral on last year's branches ; flowers 1-2 mm. long, appearing 
before the leaves, the subtending bracts about as long or a little surpassing the pedicels ; petals 
4, spreading ; sepals 4, rarely 3 ; styles 3, less than one-half the length of the ovary ; capsule 3-4 
mm. long. 

Widely cultivated in California and well established as an escape from Lake County south to southern 
California. Native of southeastern Europe and central Asia. April-May. This and the next are confused fre- 
quently with the French Tamarisk, Tamarix galhca L. 

2. Tamarix pentandra Pall. Five-stamened Tamarisk. Fig. 3247. 

Tamarix pentandra Pall. Fl. Ross. 1^: 72. 1788. 
Tamarix Pallasii Desv. Ann. Sci. Nat. 4: 349. 1825. 

Shrub or becoming a small tree in age, with glabrous often purplish branches. Leaves lance- 
olate to ovate-lanceolate, scale-like, pale glaucous-green; racemes arranged in large panicles 
terminating the branches, or rarely a few racemes scattered along the branches of the season, 
densely flowered, 2-4 cm. long ; bracts ovate to lanceolate, about as long as or slightly exceeding 
the pedicels; flowers pink, petals 5, narrowly elliptic-oblong, barely 2 mm. long; disk S-lobed 
the lobes emarginate ; styles usually 3. 

A native of western Asia and southeastern Europe frequently cultivated in southern California, Nevada, 
and Arizona; and often growing spontaneously in the interior and desert regions. March-April. 

Tamarix articulata Vahl. Symb. Bot. 2:48. pi. 32. 1791. Athel or Tamarisk Salt Tree. Tree with a 



TAMARISK FAMILY 



121 




3239. Elatine triandra 

3240. Elatine americana 

3241. Elatine brachysperma 



3242. Elatine californica 

3243. Bergia texana 

3244. Frankenia grandifolia 



3245. Frankenia Palmeri 

3246. Tamarix parviflora 

3247. Tamarix pentandra 



122 CISTACEAE 

bushy or often conical crown, the branchlets numerous, very slender, divided into short articulate joints, pale 
glaucous-green. Leaves minute and cusp-like; flowers in slender racemes forming panicles, 5-raerous. A native 
of western Asia frequently planted as a windbreak in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and in southern 
California, especially in the desert regions, but seldom growing spontaneously. The branchlets exude a salt that 
forms encrustations, hence the name. 



Family 98. CISTACEAE. 

RocKROSE Family. 

Shrubs or low woody plants, with alternate or opposite simple leaves. Flowers 
regular, generally perfect, solitary, clustered, racemose, or paniculate. Sepals 3 or 
5, persistent ; when 5 the outer ones smaller and bract-like, the inner 3 convolute. 
Petals 3 or 5 or sometimes none, fugacious. Stamens many, hypogynous. Pistil 1 ; 
ovary sessile, 1- to several-celled; style 1; stigma entire or 3-lobed; ovules ortho- 
tropous, attached by a slender funiculus. Fruit a capsule, dehiscent by valves. Seeds 
several to many ; embryo slender ; endosperm present, farinose. 

A family of 8 genera and about 150 species of wide geographical distribution. 

1. HELIANTHEMUM [Tourn.] Mill. Card. Diet. abr. ed. 4. 1754. 

Low shrubs or perennial herbs with woody bases. Leaves alternate, simple, and 
entire. Flowers all alike, with rather showy yellow petals, or of two sorts, showy petal- 
bearing ones, and small apetalous cleistog-amous ones. Sepals 5, the 2 outer_ smaller. 
Petals 5, yellow, fugacious. Stamens numerous. Carpels 3; ovary with 3 parietal pla- 
centae or false partitions. [Name Greek, from two words meaning sun and flower.] 

A genus of about 70 species of wide geographical distribution. The Pacific States species belong to the 
section Spartioides, characterized by the broom-like habit, and the absence of cleistogamous flowers. Type species, 
Helianthemum Chamaecistus Mill. 

Inflorescence puberulent, not glandular. 

Petals 4-6 mm. long; plants 2-3 dm. high. 1. H. scoparium. 

Petals 8-12 mm. long; plants 3-8 dm. high. 2. H. Aldersonii. 

Inflorescence glandular-pubescent. 3. H. Greenei. 

1. Helianthemum scoparium Nutt. Common Rush-rose. Fig. 3248, 

Helianthemum scoparium Nutt. in Terr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 152. 1838. 
Halimium scoparium Gross. Pflanzcnreich 4''*3: 35. 1903. 
Crocanthemiim scoparium Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 5: 175. 1923. 

Low tufted plant with many spreading branches from a woody crown, 2-3 dm. high, 
minutely stellate-pubescent. Leaves narrowly linear, 1-3 cm. long, canescent with a close stellate 
pubescence or glabrate ; flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, pedicelled, formmg a 
leafy-bracted, few-flowered terminal raceme ; pedicels 3-6 mm. long ; inner sepals ovate-lanceo- 
late, 4-5 mm long, stellate-pubescent or glabrate, the outer shorter and narrowly linear ; petals 
broadly obovate, &-10 mm. long. 

Dry usually sandy rocky soils, along the coast. Humid Transition Zone; Mendocino County to Monterey 
County. California, and also on Santa Cruz Island. Type locality: "Dry hills around Monterey. Dec-Sept. 

Helianthemum scoparium var. vulgare Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif 641. 1925. Branches strictly erect 
and broom-like. Leaves narrowly linear, early deciduous, those of the paniculate inflorescence reduced to small 
bracts- outer sepals 3-4 mm. long. Dry hillsides, mainly in chaparral. Upper Sonoran Zone; Coast Kanges 
from Lake County to San Diego County; also in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality: 
Coulterville, Mariposa County, California. 

Helianthemum suffrutescens Schreiber, Madrono 5:81. fig. 1. 1939. Suffrutescent, 4-8 dm. high, vir- 
gately branched at base, rather densely leafy, canescent throughout with a short stellate-pubescence. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate to ohlanceolate, densely stellate-pubescent, persistent; flowers panicu ate, leafy-bracted; petals 
about 6 mm. long. Dry slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; vicinity of Bisbee Peak and Michigan Bar, Amador 
County California. This recently discovered, apparently local, species would seem to be quite distinct, espe- 
cially from Helianthemum scoparium var. vulgare Jepson, which is the other representative of the genus in the 
Sierra Nevada foothills. Type locality: Bisbee Peak. 

2. Helianthemum Aldersonii Greene. Alderson's Rush-rose. Fig. 3249. 

Helianthemum Aldersonii Greene, Erythea 1: 259. 1893. 

Halimium Aldersonii Standley, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23:832. 1923. 

Crocanthemum Aldersonii Janchen in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf. ed. 2. 21 : 305. 1925. 

Helianthemum scoparium var. Aldersonii Munz, Man. S. Calif. Bot. 316. 1935. 

Low plant with a woody base and erect broom-like branches 5-8 dm. high. Leaves linear, 
or the lower sometimes narrowly ohlanceolate, 2-6 cm. long, pale green and glabrate or some- 
what stellate-pubescent; inflorescence paniculate or somewhat corymbose-paniculate; peduncles 
in the axils of small bracts; inner sepals 5-6 mm. long; petals 8-12 mm. long. 

Dry rocky or sandy soils. Upper Sonoran Zone; interior valleys and foothills of cismontane southern Cali- 
fornia Caion Pass to San Diego County, Californria, and adjacent Lower California Type locality: mountains 
of the southern borders of San Diego County, California, among rocks in hard, sterile granitic soil. heb.-July. 



VIOLET FAMILY 



123 



3. Helianthemum Greenei Robinson. Island Rush-rose. Fig. 3250. 

Helianthemum occidentale Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 2: 144. 1886. Not Nym. 1878. 
Helianthemum Greenei Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1^: 191. 1895. 
Crocanthemiim occidentale Janchen in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf. ed. 2. 21: 305. 1925. 

A much-branched suffrutescent plant with a woody base, 3-5 dm. high, canescent on the 
leaves and stems with a stellate-hirsute pubescence, branches of the inflorescence and calyx with 
simple glandular-villous wine-colored hairs. Lower leaves oblanceolate, the others linear, 10-25 
mm. long; inflorescence corymbose-branched; inner sepals 6-7 mm. long, villous or glandular- 
villous; petals broadly ovate, 8-10 mm. long; capsule ovoid, 5 mm. long. 

Dry rocky ridRes. Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Cruz Island, California. Type locality: "on a dry summit 
near the central part of the island of Santa Cruz." Usually associated with H. scoparium, and apparent 
hybrids occur having the open corymbose inflorescence and large flowers of H. Greenei, but the whole plant 
densely canescent with stellate-hirsute pubescence and lacking the simple glandular hairs on the inflorescence. 
April-Tuly. 

Family 99. VIOLACEAE. 

Violet Family. 

Herbs or some tropical species shrubs, with alternate or basal simple stipulate 
leaves. Flowers solitary or clustered, perfect and mostly irregular. Sepals 5, equal 
or unequal. Petals 5, hypogynous, imbricated in the bud, the lower often larger or 
spurred. Stamens 5, hypogynous ; filaments short or none ; anthers erect, connivent 
or syngenesious. Ovary solitary, 1 -celled, with 3 parietal placentae; style simple. 




3248. Helianthemum scoparium 

3249. Helianthemum Aldersonii 



3252 



3250. Helianthemum Greenei 

3251. Viola Douglasii 



3253 



3252. Viola Beckwithii 

3253. Viola Hallii 



2. 


V. 


Beckwithii. 


3. 


V. 


Hallii. 


4. 


V. 


trinervata. 


5. 


V. 


Sheltonii. 



124 VIOLACEAE 

Fruit a capsule, dehiscent by valves. Seeds anatropous, with a crustaceous testa; 
embryo straight; endosperm copious. 

A family of IS genera and about 300 species, of wide geographical distribution. 

1. VIOLA* [Tourn.] L. Sp. PL 933. 1753. 

Herbs, with scattered or basal leaves, or some tropical species arborescent. Flowers 
often of two sorts, the ordinary petaliferous, which are followed later in the season by 
cleistogamous ones that are usually very fertile. Petals 5, the lowest one usually larger 
and spurred. Stamens 5, the two lowest with appendages projecting into the spur of the 
lower petal. [The ancient Latin name.] 

A genus of about 200 species of wide geographical distribution. Type species, Viola odorata L. 

Flowers yellow, or if of some other color, at least with yellow centers; lateral petals with a tuft of very short 
clavate hairs at base (naked in V. Sheltonii) ; stems well developed. {Chamaemelanium) 
Leaves divided. 

Lateral petals with a tuft of short clavate hairs at base. 

Upper petals yellow on the inner surface, brownish purple on the back, the others yellow. 

1. V. Douglasii. 

Upper petals violet-purple, the others various. 

Leaves pubescent with short spreading hairs, at least on the margins. 
Leaves glabrous. 

Lobes of the leaves not 3-nerved nor coriaceous. 
Lobes of the leaves prominently 3-nerved, becoming coriaceous. 
Lateral petals glabrous, and all of them pale yellow. 
Leaves entire, or variously toothed or lobed {V. lobata). 

Inner surface of petals yellow except for dark veining. 

Stems erect, the lower internodes much elongated, the leaves and flowers therefore mostly crowded 
at the apex. 
Upper petals brown on the outer surface; leaves palmately lobed except in the subspecies. 

6. V. lobata. 
Upper petals yellow on the outer surface as well as the inner. 7. V. glabella. 

Stems erect or prostrate, the lower internodes not pronouncedly longer than the upper, the flowers 
and leaves therefore appearing scattered along the stem. 

Leaves distinctly cordate at base; plants often stoloniferous. 

Stems stoloniferous; leaves dark green above, brownish-punctate on both surfaces. 

8. V. sempervirens. 
Stems not stoloniferous; leaves bright green above, not brownish-punctate. 

9. V. orbictilata. 

Leaves not cordate at base or sometimes obscurely so in V. peduncutata. 

Rootstock deep-seated, with slender elongated offshoots; inner surface of petals with 
brownish patch at base. 10. V. peduncutata. 

Rootstock shallow, the flowering stems arising directly from the usually simple crown. 

Ovary glabrous or very sparely pubescent; upper petals not brownish purple on 
the back. 

Leaves more or less toothed, more or less pubescent; petals bright yellow, often 
fading purplish on the back, 12-18 mm. long. 11. FT praemorsa. 

Leaves entire, glabrous or slightly puberulent; petals light yellow, not purplish 
on the back, 8-10 mm. long. 12. V. Bakeri. 

Ovary more or less densely puberulent; upper petals dark brownish purple on the back. 

13. V. purpurea. 
Inner surface of petals purple or blotched with purple and white, yellow only at center. 
Flowers purple and white. 

Plants glabrous; petals mainly purple, bordered with white; leaves cuneate at base; stipules 

herbaceous. 14. V. cuneata. 

Plants more or less pubescent; leaves cordate; stipules scarious. 

Stipules fimbriate; inner surface of lateral petals blotched with purple, the others white. 

15. V. ocellata. 
Stipules entire; inner surface of all the petals white, purple only on the back. 

1 6. V. canadensis. 
Flowers violet on both surfaces; plants glabrous. 17. V. Flcttii. 

Flowers blue, violet, or white, never yellow; lateral petals with a tuft of very slender elongated hairs at base. 
(^Nominium) 
Plants with evident, erect or ascending stems, not stoloniferous (stems short and often horizontal in 
V. simulata). 
Head of style bearded; flowers normally violet, rarely white. 
Leaves and corolla-spur longer than broad. 

Petals 4-5 ram. long, white at base or about to the middle and purple-veined; plants very dwarf, 

almost stemless. 18. V. bellidifolia. 

Petals rarely less than 10-lS mm. long, blue-violet throughout or rarely with a little white 
at base. 19. V. adunca. 

Leaves and corolla-spur as broad as long. 20. V. Howcllii. 

Head of style naked; petals violet, the lower three often white at base. 21. V. Langsdorfii. 

Plants stemless or producing creeping stolons. 

Plants not stoniferous; rootstocks thick and fleshy; flowers violet. 22. V. nephrophylla. 

Plants producing slender stolons; rootstocks slender. 
Leaves ovate-cordate. 

Flowers normally blue; leaves distinctly crenate, glabrous. 23. V. palustris. 

Flowers white with purple veins; leaves entire or obscurely and remotely crenate. 

24. V. Macloskeyi. 
Leaves elliptic; flowers white. 25. V. occidentalis. 



See Appendix for resume on the recent work of Milo S. Baker on Viola. 



VIOLET FAMILY 125 

1. Viola Douglasii Steudel. Douglas' or Golden Violet. Fig. 3251. 

Viola chrysantha Hook. Ic. PI. 1 : pi. 49. 1837. Not Schrad. 1834. 
Viola Douglasii Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 771. 1841. 

Plants 5-14 cm. high, the stems mainly subterranean from short deep-seated rootstalks. 
Leaves bipinnatifid, 2-5 cm. long, the segments linear or linear-oblong, light green, more or less 
hirsutulous with short spreading hairs, especially on the margins ; petioles 5-10 cm. long ; 
peduncles equaling or surpassing the leaves; petals 12-18 mm. long, orange-yellow, the lateral 
and lower purple-veined, the two upper brownish purple on the back; capsule 6-8 mm. long, 
acute. 

Dry open slopes, usually in gravelly soils. Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Josephine County 
to Klamath County, Oregon, south through the Inner Coast Ranges and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to 
the Cuyamaca Mountains, California. Type locality: California. Collected by Douglas. March-May. 

2. Viola Beckwithii Terr. & Gray. Beckwith's or Great Basin Violet. 

Fig. 3252 

Viola Beckwithii Torr. & Gray, Pacif. R. Rep. 2: 119. pi. 1. 1855. 

Plants low, 3-10 cm. high, the stems mainly subterranean, arising from short rootstocks. 
Leaves palmately biternate or triternate, 2-4 cm. broad, minutely pubescent with short, stiff 
spreading hairs, especially on the margins, the lobes linear or linear-oblong, obtuse and callous- 
tipped; peduncles usually surpassing the leaves; petals 10-15 mm. long, the upper two deep 
violet, the others pale violet with a yellow base, the lateral ones bearded on the claw with short, 
clavate hairs; the stigma-head retrorsely bearded. 

Moist, stony ground. Upper Sonoran Zone; Wallowa Mountains, Oregon, southward east of the Cascade- 
Sierra Nevada divide to Inyo County, California, eastward through the Great Basin region to Utah; in the 
Klamath Basin, extending westward to Siskiyou County, California. Type locality: "On the slopes of a 
mountain between Great Salt Lake and the Sierra Nevada." March-May. 

3. Viola Hallii A. Gray. Hall's Violet. Fig. 3253. 

Viola Hallii A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 377. 1872. 

Plants low, 5-10 cm. high, glabrous, the stems mainly subterranean arising from a short 
deep-seated rootstock. Leaves 3-4 cm. long, oblong-ovate in outline, pinnately twice divided into 
linear-oblong callous-apiculate acutish lobes; peduncles mostly surpassing the leaves; petals 
8-12 mm. long, the two upper deep violet, the other pale yellow or white, veined with purple, 
the lateral ones bearded on claw with short clavate hairs. 

Open grassland, in light gravelly soils, mainly Transition Zone; Willamette Valley, Oregon, to Mendocino 
and Trinity Counties, California. Type locality: Salem, Oregon. March-June. 

4. Viola trinervata Howell. Sagebrush or Howell's Violet. Fig. 3254. 

Viola chrysantha var. glaberrima Torr. Hot. Wilkes Exped. 238. 1874. 
Viola Beckwithii var. trinervata Howell, Bot. Gaz. 8: 207. 1883. 
Viola trinervata Howell, Bot. Gaz. 11: 290. 1886 

Plant low, 5-8 cm. high, glabrous, the stems mainly underground from a short deep-seated 
rootstock. Leaves pedately parted, the segments lanceolate to lanceolate-ovate, acute, becoming 
firm in age and distinctly 3-nerved, the lateral nerves marginal ; peduncles usually longer than 
the leaves ; petals 12-15 mm. long, the upper pair dark violet, the others varymg from pale violet 
to white, with a yellow base ; capsule 7-8 mm. long, obtuse. 

Dry hillsides, usually in gravelly soils. Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Washington from the Grand Coulee 
southward, east of the Cascade Mountains to Sherman County and eastern Malheur County, Oregon, lype 
locality: near Goldendale. Klickitat County, Washington. March-May. Three-nerved Violet. 

5. Viola Sheltonii Torr. Shelton's Violet. Fig. 3255. 

Viola Sheltonii Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 67. pi. 2. 1856. 

Plants 8-20 cm. high, from slender elongated and rather deep-seated rootstocks Leaves 
suborbicular in outline, 3-5 cm. broad, palmately biternate, the divisions cuneate at base, the 
ultimate lobes oblong, rounded at apex, glabrous or sparsely puberulent with short stout hairs ; 
peduncles shorter or surpassing the leaves ; petals yellow, vemed with brownish purple, lU-lZ 
mm. long, beardless ; capsule 7-8 mm. long. 

On moist banks or in open woods, usually in partial shade. Arid Transition Zone; Klickitat County, W^ 
ington. Klamath Basin and Rogue River, Oregon, southward through the Sierra Nevada to the ban liernar 
dino Mountains, California. Type locality: Yuba River, California. March-June. 

6. Viola lobata Benth. Yellow Wood or Pine Violet. Fig. 3256. 

Viola lobata Benth. PI. Hartw. 298. 1848. 
Viola seqiwiensis Kell. Free. Calif. Acad. 2: 185. 1863. 
Viola dactylifera Greene, Pittonia 3: 317. 1898. 
Viola psychodes Greene, op. cit. 318. 

Plants arising from rather shallow simple or branching rootstocks, the ^erba£ glabrous 
and more or less glaucous, varying to rather thickly puberulent, ^^0 cm. high Basal leaver 
with slender petioles about as long as the lower internode of the stem the leaf-blades remform 
to ovate, 3-8 cm. broad, usually cordate at base more or less de^P^ylf^^^^ or parted .^^^^^^^^^^^ 
several divisions; stipules herbaceous or even foliaceous, entire, toothed or lacmiate, peduncles 



126 VIOLACEAE 

seldom surpassing the. leaves ; petals 12-18 mm. long, yellow, the upper ones brown on the outer 
surface ; capsule 8-10 mm. long, acutish, glabrous. 

Open coniferous forests, Transition Zone; Jackson and Josephine Counties, Oregon, southward through 
the North Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada to the Cuyamaca Mountains, California. Type locality: northern 
Sierra Nevada. April-June. 

Viola lobata var. integrifolia S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 57. 1876. {Viola deltoidea Greene, Pittonia 3: 
317. 1898.) Leaves ovate-deltoid, irregularly toothed but not lobed, complete intergradation with the typical 
species is evident in the North Coast Ranges of California. Siskiyou Mountains, southern Oregon, to the North 
Coast Ranges, California; also in the Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, California. Type locality: 
not given. 

7. Viola glabella Nutt. Stream or Smooth Yellow Violet, Fig. 3257. 

Viola glabella Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 142. 1838. 

Plants bright green and glabrous or sparsely puberulent, arising from branching horizontal 
scaly rootstocks, the stems ascending or erect, 7-30 cm. high. Basal leaves reniform-cordate, 
3-8 cm. broad, crenate-serrate, long-petioled ; stem-leaves similar, usually exceeding their short 
petioles; stipules small, membranous; peduncles 2-A cm. long; petals pale yellow, 8^14 mm. 
long, the lower and lateral ones purple-veined, the lateral pubescent on the claw, with short 
clavate hairs ; spur saccate, 2-3 mm. long ; capsule 8-10 mm. long, oblong, abruptly beaked. 

Moist banks usuallv in deep shade, mainly Transition Zones; southern Alaska southward through the 
Coast Ranges to Monterey County, California; Cascade Mountains south to Tulare County, California, in the 
Sierra Nevada and eastward to northern Idaho and Montana. Type locality: "Shady woods of the Oregon 
[Columbia River]." March-July. 

8. Viola sempervirens Greene. Evergreen or Redwood Violet. Fig, 3258. 

Viola sarmentosa Dougl. ex Hook Fl. Bor. Amer. 1 : 80. 1830. Not Bieber. 1808. 
Viola sempervirens Greene. Pittonia 4: 8. 1899. 

Plants arising from slender rootstocks, glabrous or very sparsely pubescent, the stems 
slender, prostrate and stoloniferous. Leaves broadly ovate-cordate to round-cordate, 2-4 cm. 
broad, finely crenate-serrate, becoming rather firm and persistent, dark green above, brownish- 
punctate on both surfaces, especially in age, sparsely pubescent on the veins with pointed 
appressed hairs; stipules lanceolate, brown-scarious ; peduncles well surpassing or the latter 
about equaling the leaves; petals yellow, 8-12 mm. long, finely purple-veined; spur saccate, 2-3 
mm. long; capsule ovoid, 6-7 mm. long, obtuse, smooth. 

Moist wooded banks, mainly Humid Transition Zone; western British Columbia southward mainly west 
of the Cascade Mountains to the California Coast Ranges, reaching the southern limit in Monterey County. 
Type locality: "Hilly wooded places near Fort Vancouver [Vancouver, Washington]. March-June. 

9. Viola orbiculata Geyer. Western Round-leaved Violet. Fig. 3259, 

Viola orbiculata Geyer ex Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 6: 73. 1847, as a synonym. 
Viola sarmentosa var. orbiculata A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. l^: 199. 1895. 
Viola orbiculata Howell. Fl. N. W. Amer. 70. 1897. 
Viola sempervirens var. orbiculata Henry, Fl. S. Brit. Columbia 208. 1915. 

Rootstocks rather stout, short, 2-5 cm. long, never stoloniferous and creeping. Leaves thin- 
ner than in sempervirens, reniform-cordate, 2-5 cm. wide, rather finely crenate-serrate, bright 
green and glabrous or sparsely short-pubescent above, pale beneath and not brownish-punctate; 
petioles glabrous ; peduncles a little surpassing or often shorter than the leaves ; petals 8-12 mm. 
long, yellow and purple-veined, the lateral ones little or not at all bearded ; spur short-saccate ; 
later cauline flowers often cleistogamous ; capsule glabrous or obscurely scabrous. 

Canyons and moist coniferous woods, mainly Canadian Zone; southern British Columbia south in the 
Cascade Mountains to Crater Lake and also to the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, Oregon, east to northern 
Idaho and western Montana. Type locality: Coeur d'Alene Mountains, Idaho. May-July. 

10, Viola pedunculata Torr. & Gray, California Golden Violet. Fig. 3260. 

Viola pedunculata Torr. & Gray. Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 141. 1838. 

Plants arising from deep-seated tuber-like rootstocks, stems branching at the surface of 
the ground and ascending, 10-35 cm. high. Leaves broadly ovate-deltoid, 2-3 cm. broad, mostly 
truncate at base, shallowly crenate, sparsely pubescent; stipules narrowly lanceolate, herba- 
ceous; peduncles 6-12 cm. long, erect, much surpassing the leaves; petals broad, 12-18 mm. 
long, golden yellow, the upper pair brown on the back, the others purple-veined, the lateral with 
short clavate hairs on the claws; capsule broad, ovoid. 

Grassy hillsides. Upper Sonoran Zone; California Coast Ranges and southern Sierra Nevada, from Napa and 
Tulare Counties to San Diego County and adjacent Lower California. Type locality: probably near Monterey, 
originally collected by Douglas. Feb.-May. Yellow Pansy, Johnny-jump-up. 

11. Viola praemorsa Dougl. Astoria Violet. Fig. 3261. 

Viola praemorsa Dougl. ex Lindl. Bot. Reg. 15; pi. 1254. 1829. 

Viola Niittallii subsp. praemorsa Piper, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 11: 393. 1906. 

Plants arising from rather short vertical rootstocks, when young flowering from the base, 
the stems elongating tardily, at length with two or three short internodes, ascending or decum- 
bent, 5-20 cm. long, more or less densely villous. Lower leaves long-petioled, rather densely 
villous especially on the petioles, the blades ovate-elliptic, 4-8 cm. long, entire or usually shal- 
lowly crenate ; peduncles shorter than or surpassing the leaves ; flowers lemon-yellow, the petals 
rather narrowly oblong-obovate, 12-15 mm. long, the lateral with a tuft of short clavate hairs 



VIOLET FAMILY 127 

on the inner surface, the lower veined with brownish purple ; capsule very sparsely pubescent 

or usually entirely glabrous. 

Open prairies and slopes, mainly Humid Transition Zone; Pierce and Klickitat Counties, Washington, 
southward west of the Cascade Mountains to Humboldt and Trinity Counties, California. Type locality: along 
the lower Columbia River. Collected by Douglas. April-June. 

Viola praemorsa var. linguaefolia (Nutt.) M. E. Peck, Man. PI. Oregon 486. 1941. (Viola linguae- 
folia Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 141. 1S38; Viola Nuttallii subsp. linguaefolia Piper in Piper 
& Beattie, Fl. S. E. Wash. 166. 1914.) Plants sparsely retrorsely pubescent; petioles usually well elongated, 
the blades often well elongated, entire or remotely and shallowly toothed. Kittitas County, eastern Washington 
to northeastern Oregon and east to Wyoming and Colorado. Type locality: "Kamas Prairie, near the sources 
of the Oregon." 

Viola praemorsa var. major (Hook.) M. E. Peck, loc. cit. {V. Nuttallii var. major Hook. Fl. Bor. 
Amer. 1: 79. 1830.) Stems more elongate, up to 20 cm. long, sparsely short-villous or glabrate. Leaves 
narrowly to rather broadly ovate, 4-8 cm. long, somewhat undulate crenate-dentate, both sides more or 
less pubescent, the long petiole slightly winged; sepals acute; capsules puberulent. Spokane County, Washing- 
ton, and adjacent Idaho, southward east of the Cascade Mountains to the Blue Mountains of Oregon and to 
northeastern California. Type locality: "Abundant under the shade of pines on the dry sandy plains of the 
Columbia." 

Viola praemorsa var. oregona Baker & Clausen ex M. E. Peck, loc. cit. Stems short and tufted; 
under surface of the leaves, petioles and peduncles more or less densely hirsute; leaves more numerous 
and the blades smaller, lanceolate to ovate, 2-4 cm. long, entire to irregularly sinuate-toothed; petals smaller, 
about 1 cm. long. Dry ground in open woods. Arid Transition Zone; southern Klamath County, Oregon, to the 
vicinity of Yreka, Siskiyou County, California. Type locality: southern Klamath County. 

12. Viola Bakeri Greene. Baker's Violet. Fig. 3262. 

Viola Bakeri Greene. Pittonia 3: 307. 1899. 

Plants with a deep-seated vertical woody taproot giving rise at the crown to 1 to several 
short subligneous caudices, glabrous or usually minutely retrorse-puberulent or pubescent. 
Leaves oval to oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-3.5 cm. long, usually much shorter than the petioles, 
entire or sometimes the margins slightly undulate, both surfaces similar, rather indistinctly 
veined; flowers shorter than or little surpassing the leaves, light yellow, the lower veined with 
purple, 8-12 mm. long, the upper not purplish on the back. 

Open ground, usually flowering where snow has recently melted. Boreal Zones; Cascade Mountains, Lane 
County, Oregon, south to the Siskiyou Mountains and Eldorado County, California. Type locality: Bear 
Valley, Shasta County. California. 

13. Viola purpiirea Kell. Mountain Violet. Fig. 3263. 

Viola purpurea Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 1: 56. 1855. 

Plants from shallow rootstocks usually with several stems from the same crown, the herbage 
more or less pubescent with retrorsely spreading pubescence, and usually tinged with purple, 
the stems ascending, 8-30 cm. high. Lower leaves broadly to narrowly ovate, obtuse at apex, 
usually truncate or subcordate at base, 2-4 cm. long, irregularly serrate-dentate, upper leaves 
narrower and usually more pubescent ; stipules at least the upper foliaceous, oblong-lanceolate, 
lacerate or dentate; peduncles scattered in the upper axils, well surpassing the leaves; flowers 
yellow, 15-18 mm. broad; upper petals brown on the back, the lateral purple-veined and bearded 
at the top of the claw, the lower purple-veined ; capsule ovoid, pubescent. 

Open coniferous forest in dry gravelly soils. Arid Transition Zone; Siskiyou Mountains, southern Oregon 
southward through the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada to southern California. Type locality: Placerville, 
California. April-June. 

Viola purpurea var. pinetorum Greene. Fl. Fran. 243. 1891. {Viola pinetorum Greene, Pittonia 2: 14. 
1889- V. purpurea var. grisea Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 521. 1936.) Leaves ovate-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 
irregularly and sinuate-dentate to lacerate or subentire, canescent with a dense retrorse-spreading pubescence. 
This subspecies replaces the typical species in the higher altitudes, occupying the Boreal Zones of the central 
and southern Sierra Nevada and extending to the high peaks of the southern California ranges. Type locality: 
"Pine woods of the higher mountains south of Tehachapi," Kern County, California. 

Viola purpurea var. aurea (Kell.) M. S. Baker ex Jepson. Fl. Calif. 2: 521. 1936. iViola aurea Kell. 
Proc Calif Acad. 2: 185. fig. 54. 1862.) Leaves especially the lower surface more or less densely white- 
woolly-pubescent, broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, irregularly crenate-dentate, pale sage-green Eastern base 
of the Sierra Nevada from Plumas County, southward to the edges of the Mojave Desert, and eastward into 
western Nevada. In the Mojave Desert the pubescence becomes more like that of variety pinetorum and the 
two varieties intergrade or hybridize freely. Type locality: western Nevada, probably near Keno. 

Viola purpurea var. venosa (S. Wats.) Brainerd, Bull. Vt Agr. Exper. Sta. No. 224: 111. 1921 (Viola 
Nuttallii var. venosa S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 35. 1871; V. atnphctfoha Greene, Pittonia 3. 38 1896, 
V. venosa Rvdb. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 1:262. 1900; V. purpurea var. geophyta M. E. Peck Man PI. 
Oregon 486. "l941.) Herbage not canescent, minutely and rather thinly Pubescent Leaves broadly ovate, enUre 
or usually coarsely and irregularly dentate. Montane and mainly confined to the Boreal Zones British Colum- 
bia southward through eastern Washington and Oregon to northeastern California, eastward to Montana and 
Colorado. Type locality: near snow line, Humboldt Mountains, Nevada. 

14. Viola cuneata S. Wats. Wedge-leaved Violet. Fig. 3264. 

Viola cuneata S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 290. 1879. 

Plants from rather deep-branching rootstocks, glabrous throughout, the stems slender as- 
cending, 6-25 cm. high. Basal leaves rhombic-ovate, often broader than long, 2^ cni. long, 
crenate-serrate, abruptly acute at apex, abruptly attenuate at base; petioles elongated very 
slender; stem-leaves narrower, cuneate at base, their petioles much shorter; stipules Herba- 
ceous, entire ; peduncles mostly not surpassing the leaves ; petals all purple on the back, _»-l^ 
mm. long, the upper pair deep purple bordered with white, the lateral paler or whitish with a 
large deep purple spot, very sparsely bearded or naked, the lower veined with dark purple. 

Rocky soils, especially in serpentine. Transition Zones; Curry and Josephine Counties, Oregon, to Trinity 



128 



VIOLACEAE 




3254. Viola trinervata 

3255. Viola Sheltonii 

3256. Viola lobata 



3257. Viola glabella 

3258. Viola sempervirens 

3259. Viola orbiculata 



3260. Viola pedunculata 

3261. Viola praemorsa 

3262. Viola Bakeri 



VIOLET FAMILY 129 

and Mendocino Counties, California. Type locality: "high ridge south of Trinity River," Humboldt County, 
California. April-June. Northern Two-eyed Violet, Butterfly Violet. 

15. Viola ocellata Torr. & Gray. Two-eyed Violet. Fig. 3265. 

Viola ocellata Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 142. 1838. 

Plants from rather slender deep-seated rootstocks, sparsely pubescent with short stout 
spreading hairs, the stems erect or ascending, 10-30 cm. high. Basal leaves cordate, 3-7_ cm. 
long, acute, crenate-serrate, the upper shallowly cordate or truncate at base; stipules scarious, 
glandular-fimbriate ; flowers in the upper axils ; peduncles mostly shorter than the leaves ; 
petals 10-15 mm. long, the two upper white on the inner surface and deep violet on the back, 
the two lateral white or yellow with a large purple spot at base on the inner surface, the lower 
petal purple-veined; capsule puberulent with short papillate hairs. 

Wooded slopes, mainly Humid Transition Zone; Douglas County, Oregon, southward through the Coast 
Ranges to Monterey County, California. Type locality: California, collected by Douglas. March-June. Pinto 
Pansy. 

16. Viola canadensis L. Canada Violet. Fig. 3266. 

Viola canadensis L. Sp. PI. 936. 1753. 

Plants from rather stout rootstocks, glabrous or sparsely short-pubescent, erect, 2-A dm. 
high. Leaves broadly ovate, cordate, acute or acuminate, serrate; stipules scarious, lanceolate- 
subulate; peduncles solitary in the axils of the stem-leaves and not surpassing them; sepals 
subulate; inner surface of petals white with bright yellow spots at base, the outside of the 
upper pair purple, the others veined with purple, the lateral pair bearded; capsule ovoid, 
puberulent. 

Moist woods. Transition and Boreal Zones; British Columbia and northeastern Washington to New Bruns- 
wick. Virginia, New Alexico, and Arizona. Type locality: Canada. May-July. 

17. Viola Flettii Piper. Olympic or Rock Violet. Fig. 3267. 

Viola Flettii Piper, Erythea 6: 69. 1898. 

Plant from a rather deep-seated slender rootstock, glabrous, the stems slender, ascend- 
ing, 6-15 cm. high. Basal leaves on elongated slender petioles, broadly reniform, 2.5-4 cm. 
broad, closely crenate-serrate, purple-veined; stem-leaves similar but small and short-petioled ; 
stipules scarious, lanceolate, attenuate, entire ; peduncles about equaling the leaves ; sepals glab- 
rous or minutely puberulent; petals all lavender-violet, tinged with yellow at base, 12-14 mm. 
long; the lateral pair papillose-bearded at base of the blade. 

Rock crevices. Boreal Zones; Olympic Mountains, Washington. Type locality: near Mount Constance. 
July-AuE. 

18. Viola bellidifolia Greene. Daisy-leaved Violet. Fig. 3268. 

Viola bellidifolia Greene, Pittonia 4: 292. 1901. 

Plants very dwarf, not over 2-5 cm. high, glabrous throughout, rootstock erect, short, the 
leafy stems very short. Leaves broadly ovate, subcordate to broadly cuneate at base, 8-15 mm. 
long, shallowly and rather remotely crenate; peduncles equaling or well exceeding the leaves; 
sepals oblong, acute ; petals white at base or about to the middle and purple-veined ; deep blue- 
violet above, 4-5 mm. long, the lateral pair bearded near the base, spur rather stout, equaling 
or a little shorter than the blade. 

Wet meadows. Boreal Zones, Cascade, Paulina, and Wallowa Mountains, Oregon, east to Idaho, Wyomin|r, 
Utah, and Colorado. Closely related to Viola adunca and possibly not specifically distinct. Type locality: ' Slide 
Rock Canyon, west of Mt. Hesperus," Colorado. June-Aug. 

19. Viola adunca J. E. Smith. Western Dog Violet. Fig. 3269. 

Viola adunca J. E. Smith in Rees, Cycl. 37: no. 63. 1817. 

Viola canina var. adunca A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 377. 1872. 

Plants from a slender branching rootstock, glabrous or usually puberulent, the stems 
scarcely perceptible to 25 cm. long, ascending, sometimes decumbent but not rooting. Basal 
leaves ovate to round-ovate, cordate to subtruncate at base, 2-3 cm. long, crenate with low 
broad teeth ; petioles slender, 2-8 mm. long ; stem-leaves similar, with shorter petioles ; stipules 
herbaceous, commonly lacerate, peduncles well exceeding the leaves ; flowers violet-blue ; petals 
1-1.5 cm. long, obovate, the lateral with a tuft of slender hairs at the base of the blades; spur 
narrow, straight or often hooked at tip, about half as long as the blades. 

Meadows and slopes. Boreal and Transition Zones; widespread over the northern part of North America. 
In the Pacific States it is found on both sides of the Cascade Mountains, ranging from sea level to near the 
snow line and extending southward to central California along the coast and to southern California in the 
mountains. This is a polymorphic species of which many segregates have been proposed, lype locality: West 
Coast of North America. April-July. Hooked-spur Violet. 

Viola adunca subsp. oxyceras (S. Wats.) Piper, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 11 : 395. 1906. (Kto/a canina 
var. oxvceras S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 56. 1876; V. oxyceras Greene, Pittonia 3: 255. 1897; K adunca var 
oxvceras S. Wats, ex Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 647. 1925.) Corolla-spur more slender usually straight and 
pointed. This is the common subspecies of the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon and extend.s throu-h the 
Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino Mountains. California. Type locality: Yosemite Valley and Donner Pass, 
California. 

Viola adunca var. uncinulata (Greene) Applegate, Amer. Midi. Nat. 22: 282. 1939. (Viola uncinulaia 
Greene. Leaflets Bot. Obs. 2: 97. 1910.) Plants glabrous; peduncles very slender almost filiform. Leaves 
broadly ovate; petals rather narrowly oblong; spur very slender, distinctly curved or uncinate at the tip, one- 
half to two-thirds as long as the blade. Mountain meadows. Boreal Zones; Cascade Mountains of Oregon from 



130 



VIOLACEAE 




3269 



3263. Viola purpurea 

3264. Viola cuneata 

3265. Viola ocellata 




3265 





3271 



3266. Viola canadensis 

3267. Viola Flettii 

3268. Viola bellidifolia 



3269. Viola adunca 

3270. Viola Howellii 

3271. Viola Langsdorfii 



VIOLET FAMILY 131 

Deschutes County to Crater Lake. These plants closely resemble the subspecies oxyceras, and possibly repre- 
sent only an alpine phase of it. Type locality: Crater Lake, Oregon. 

20. Viola Howellii A. Gray. Howell's Violet. Fig. 3270. 

Viola Howellii A. Gray. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 318. 1887. 

Plants from slender elongated branching rootstocks, the stems slender ascending, 5-20 cm. 
long. Leaves round-cordate or reniform, 2-4 cm. broad, rather thin, sparsely pubescent on the 
veins and short ciliate-pubescent on the margins; petioles glabrous or pubescent, all but the 
uppermost well elongated; stipules herbaceous, remotely fimbriate and ciliate; peduncles sur- 
passing the leaves; flowers blue or white, 12-15 mm. long, the lateral pair with a tuft of slender 
hairs at the base, shorter than the petals, and as broad as long. 

Moist ground, mainly Humid Transition Zone; western British Columbia, southward west of the Cascade 
Mountains to Jackson County, extending east to Klamath Lake (flowers white) and along the coast to Mendo- 
cino County, California. Type locality: Portland, Oregon. March-July. 

21. Viola Langsdorfii Fischer. Langsdorf's Violet. Fig. 3271. 

Viola Langsdorfii Fischer ex DC. Prod. 1 : 296. 1824. 

Plants from rather stout creeping rootstocks, glabrous, the stems ascending, 5-30 cm. long. 
Leaves long-petioled, round-cordate, 2.5-4 cm. broad, crenate ; stipules foliaceous, lanceolate, 
the lower usually incised; flowers pale violet; petals 12-16 mm. long, the three lower white at 
base, the lateral pair bearded; spur very short and stout, as broad as long; head of styles not 
bearded. 

Swamps usually near the coast. Boreal and Humid Transition Zones; Aleutian Islands to central Oregon, 
where it extends inland to Marion County. Type locality: Unalaska. The Alaskan and Aleutian specimens 
are more robust with the petals 20 mm. long. June-July. Alaska Violet. 

Viola superba M. S. Baker, Madrorio 5: 220. 1940. (Viola simulata var. caulescens M. S. Baker ex 
M. E. Peck. Man. PI. Oregon 484. 1941.) Plants glabrous throughout, stems erect or ascending, 2-25 cm. 
long, roots adventitious in older plants and somewhat woody, stolons wanting. Leaves 3-5 cm. long and 
approximately as broad, broadly ovate to round-ovate, deeply cordate at base with a rather narrow sinus; 
stipules ovate to lanceolate, entire, becoming scarious; peduncles stout, 5-15 cm. long; corolla violet-purple, 
about 2.5 cm. broad; petals rounded, the lateral ones bearded at base; spur 2 mm. long and about as broad, 
cream-colored; style unusually stout, bearded at apex. Bogs near Brookings, Josephine County, Oregon, the 
type locality. This species is closely related to the more northern Viola Langsdorfii, and may not be specifi- 
cally distinct. 

Viola simulata M. S. Baker. Madrorio 3: 237. pi 11. 1936. Very similar to Viola Langsdorfii, differing 
in its very short horizontal stems that appear as an annual elongation of the branching rootstock. in its rela- 
tively narrower petals and especially in its larger stigmas. The two species together with Viola superba may 
belong to the same species complex, but detailed genetic studies are needed to determine their relationship. 
Type locality: Shawnigan Lake. Vancouver Island. 

22. Viola nephrophylla Greene. Northern Bog Violet. Fig. 3272. 

Viola nephrophylla Greene, Pittonia 3: 144. 1896. 
Viola cognata Greene, op. cit. 145. 
Viola Austiniae Greene, Pittonia 5: 30. 1902. 
Viola subjuticta Greene, op. cit. 31. 

Plants stemless, with stout rather fleshy rootstocks, not stoloniferous, glabrous throughout. 
Leaves long-petioled, broadly cordate to reniform, 2-5 cm. broad, shallowly crenate; stipules 
lanceolate, acute; peduncles elongated usually equaling or surpassing the leaves; sepals ovate- 
lanceolate; flowers violet; petals 10-15 mm. long, the lateral and lower strongly bearded 
with slender hairs; capsule oblong 7-10 mm. long, glabrous. 

In springy places, mainly Boreal Zones, widely distributed from British Columbia to Quebec south to 
Wisconsin, Colorado, Arizona, and southern California. In the Pacific States mainly east of the Cascade 
Mountains in Washington and Oregon and the Sierra Nevada Mountains to southern California, lype locality: 
the valley of the Cimarron River, Colorado. April-June. 

23. Viola palustris L. Marsh Violet. Fig. 3273. 

Viola palustris L. Sp. PI. 934. 1753. 

Plant from creeping rootstocks, producing runners, glabrous. Leaves round-cordate, 2-4 
cm. broad, crenate, long-petioled; stipules ovate, acuminate; peduncles surpassing the leaves; 
flowers pale violet, rarely white; petals 10-12 mm. long, the lateral pair bearded; spur short 
and strongly saccate ; capsules oblong. 7-8 mm. long. 

Swamps, Boreal and Humid Transition Zones; widely distributed over northern North America and 
Europe. On the Pacific Coast it grows in bogs along the coast and in the Cascade Mountains, from Alaska to 
the coast of Mendocino County, California. Type locality: Europe. Apnl-Aug. 

24. Viola Macloskeyi Lloyd. Macloskey's Violet. Fig. 3274. 

Viola Macloskeyi Lloyd, Erythea 3: 74. 1895. 

Viola blanda var. Macloskyi Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 648. 1925. 

Viola anodonta Greene. Pittonia 5: 32. 1907. 

Plants from slender creeping rootstocks, at length producing stolons. Leaves sparsely 
pubescent or rarely glabrous, suborbicular to broadly ovate, shallowly cordate at base, 2-3.5 
cm. broad, entire or remotely and obscurely crenate, thin and light green ; peduncles exceeding 
the leaves; minutely bibracteolate below the middle; sepals oval, obtuse; petals obovate, 6-8 



132 



VIOLACEAE 



mm. long, white, the lower veined, the lateral pair with a tuft of slender hairs at the base of 

the blade ; spur very short. 

Wet bogs, Transition and Boreal Zones; British Columbia southward through the Pacific States to southern 
California. Type locality: at the base of Mount Hood, Oregon. June-Aug. Western Sweet White Violet. 

25. Viola occidentalis (A. Gray) Howell. Western Violet. Fig. 3275. 

Viola primulacfolia var. occidentalis A. Gray, Bot. Gaz. 11: 255. 1886. 
Viola occidentalis Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 1: 69. 1897. 

Plants acaulescent, glabrous throughout, arising from short rootstocks, producing elongated 
very slender runners. Leaves ovate to oblong-spatulate, narrowed to a long slender petiole, ob- 
scurely and remotely crenate; peduncles 8-15 cm. long, mostly shorter than the leaves; petals 
white, the lower veined with purple, 8-12 mm. long, the lateral pair bearded with slender hairs ; 
spur short, saccate. 

Bogs and swamps, Transition Zone; Josephine County, Oregon, to Del Norte County, California. Type 
locality: Waldo, Oregon. April-June. Western Water Violet. 

Viola lanceolata L. Sp. PI. 934. 1753. Eastern Water Violet. Plants glabrous throughout, stems very 
short, the leaves and peduncles appearing as arising from the slender, creeping, and diffusely branching 
stolons. Leaves lanceolate to elliptic, the blades 5-10 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, gradually narrowed into the 
margined petioles, shallowly and often obscurely crenate; peduncles reddish, about as long as the leaves; sepals 
lanceolate, acuminate, 4-6 mm. long; petals white, the lower three veined with purple, 6-8 mm. long; cleistoga- 
mous flowers borne on shorter peduncles; capsules ellipsoid, remaining green. This species of the eastern 
United States, has become well established in Washington in marshes and cranberry bogs near the mouth of 
the Columbia River in Pacific County and in marshlands near Tacoma and Roy, Pierce County. Type locality: 
eastern North America. 





3274 







3275 



3276 



3277 



3272. Viola nephrophylla 

3273. Viola palustris 



3274. Viola Macloskeyi 

3275. Viola occidentalis 



3276, Petalonyx Thurberi 

3277. Petalonyx Gilmanii 



LOASA FAMILY 133 

Family 100. LOASACEAE. 

LoASA Family. 

Erect, climbing herbs, often clothed with barbed, stinging or viscid hairs. Leaves 
alternate or opposite, without stipules. Flowers racemose or cymose, regular and 
perfect. Hypanthium adnate to the ovary, turbinate to cylindric. Sepals 4-5, im- 
bricate or convolute. Petals 4—5 or apparently 10, yellow or red. Stamens 5 to many, 
usually arranged in clusters opposite the petals ; outer filaments sometimes dilated or 
becoming staminodia and passing into petals ; anthers introrse, longitudinally de- 
hiscent. Ovary 1 -celled (rarely 2-3-celled), with 2-5 parietal placentae; styles 
slender, entire or 2-3-lobed. Ovules anatropous. Fruit a capsule; seeds solitary or 
usually numerous, with scanty endosperm. 

About IS genera and 250 species, all but one, natives of North America. 

Stamens 5; seed solitary. , 1. Petalonyx. 

Stamens many; seeds several to many. 

Style entire or 3-cleft; ovary with 3 placentae. 2. Mentzelia. 

Style 5-cleft; ovary with 5 placentae. 3. Eucnide. 

1. PETALONYX A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. 5 : 319. 1854. 

Low desert shrubs or at least woody at base, the stems brittle and the whole plant 
rou^h with barbed hairs. Leaves alternate, entire or toothed, petioled or sessile. Flowers 
in terminal spicate or head-like racemes. Hypanthium minute, cylindric. Sepals 5, linear, 
deciduous. Petals 5, with long very slender connivent claws and spreading blades. Sta- 
mens 5, the slender filaments protruding between the claws in bud up to the base of the 
overlapping blades which cover the anthers until anthesis. Ovary 1-celled; style entire, 
exserted; ovule solitary, pendulous. Capsule very small, irregularly dehiscent; seeds 
oblong, smooth. [Name Greek, meaning petal and claw.] 

A genus of 4 species, natives of the arid southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Type species, 
Petalonyx Thurberi A. Gray. 

Leaves sessile, dull and cinereous. 

Leaves and young branches scabrous with short stiflF hairs; bracts toothed at base. 1. P. Thurberi. 

Leaves and young branches clothed with soft spreading villous hairs concealing the interspersed short stiff 
ones 2. P. Gilmanii. 

Leaves petioled, shining. 

Leaves round-ovate; bracts 7-8 mm. long. 3. P. nitidus. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate; bracts 5-7 mm. long. 4. P. linearis. 

1. Petalonyx Thurberi A. Gray. Common Sandpaper Plant. Fig. 3276. 

Petalonyx Thurberi A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. 5: 319. 1854. 

Stems with erect branches from a more or less woody base, 4-6 dm. high, retrorsely pubescent. 
Leaves ovate to linear-lanceolate, 1-2 cm. long, sessile and more or less clasping at base, entire 
or with a few teeth toward the base, gray-green on both surfaces with short, stiff barbed hairs ; 
flowers in short dense spikes ; bracts ovate, acuminate, toothed toward the base ; petals light 
yellow, about 5 mm. long, hispid on the back ; stamens about twice the length of the petals ; 
capsule 2 mm. long. 

Dry desert washes and hillsides, Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave and Colorado Deserts, California, to southern 
Nevada, Arizona, Sonora and Lower California. Type locality: Valley of the Gila River, Arizona. Dec^July. 

2. Petalonyx Gilmanii Munz. Death Valley Sandpaper Plant. Fig. 3277. 

Petalonyx Gilmanii Munz, Leaflets West. Bot. 2: 69. 1938. 

Diffusely branched shrub, up to 1 m. high and about as broad, the short stiff barbed hairs 
concealed by interspersed longer spreading soft villous hairs both on the leaves and the young 
branches, older branches whitish with exfoliating papery bark. Leaves broadly ovate, cordate- 
clasping at base, those of the principal branches 1-2 cm. long, entire, acute or abruptly short- 
acuminate at apex; flowers in short dense terminal spikes; bracts thin, greenish becoming straw- 
colored in age, sessile, subcordate, 4-7 mm. long, pubescent with short stiff hairs; sepals mem- 
branous, linear-lanceolate, 2 mm. long, pubescent ; petals white, 3-4 mm. long, pubescent on the 
back ; stamens well exserted. 

Desert washes. Lower Sonoran Zone; vicinity of Death Valley, Inyo County, California. Type locality: 
Ryan Wash, Death Valley. May-June. 

3. Petalonyx nitidus S. Wats. Shining Sandpaper Plant. Fig. 3278. 

Petalonyx nitidus S. Wats. Amer. Nat. 7: 300. 1873. 

Petalonyx Thurberi var. nitidus M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 12: 16. 1908. 

Low desert shrub, much branched, 25-45 cm. high, young branches short-pubescent and 



134 LOASACEAE 

rough. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, 15-25 mm. long, narrowed at base to a short petiole, usually 
crenate-serrate, rough scabrous, gray-green, but shining ; flowers in bracted racemes ; bracts 
long-acuminate ; pedicels short ; sepals subulate, membranous, 4—5 mm. long ; petals about 1 cm. 
long, pale yellow; stamens but little exserted. 

Sandy or rocky soils. Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave Desert, in Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, Cali- 
fornia, to southern Nevada and northern Arizona. Type locality: southern Nevada. May-Aug. 

4. Petalonyx linearis Greene. Narrow-leaved Sandpaper Plant. Fig. 3279. 

Pctalonyx linearis Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1 : 188. 1885. 

Bushy almost globose shrub, 15-30 cm. high, the branches light gray-green and scabrous. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 1-2.5 cm. long, short-petioled ; flowers in short capitate spikes that 
elongate in fruit; bracts broadly ovate, obtuse at apex, cordate at base, entire, 5-7 mm. long, 
densely pubescent ; petals white, 2 mm. long ; stamens but little exserted. 

Rocky places, Lower Sonoran Zone; eastern Mojave Desert, California, to western Arizona southward in 
scattering localities to Lower California. Type locality: Cedros Island, Lower California. March-May. 



2. MENTZELIA [Phimier] L. Sp. PI. 516. 1753. 

Herbs or some tropical species trees or shrubs, clothed with variously barbed hairs, 
the stems often white and shining-. Leaves alternate or sometimes opposite, usually 
toothed or lobed. Flowers in terminal cymes, mostly yellow, subtended by bracts. Sepals 
5, persistent or deciduous. Petals 5-10, imbricate, distinct or slightly united at base. 
Stamens numerous, distinct or united in clusters opposite the petals; filaments filiform or 
the outer petaloid ; anthers introrse. Hypanthium cylindric, ovoid or turbinate; style 3- 
cleft ; ovary 1-celled; ovules few to many, anatropous. Fruit capsular, 3-5-valved. Seeds 
smooth, striate or punctate; endosperm copious or sometimes scanty. [Name in honor of 
C. Mentzel, German botanist, seventeenth century.] 

An American genus of about 60 species, most abundant in western North America. Type species, Mentselia 
aspera L. 

Outer filaments, when dilated not toothed at the apex, or obscurely so in M. micrantha. 

Perennials or some winter annuals; placentae thick and fleshy or lamellate; seeds horizontal, in two or more 
series. iBartonia) 

Seeds numerous (50-80), flat and broadly winged. 
Petals 5. 

Petals lanceolate, acuminate, 1 . S-S cm. long. 

Petals 5-8 cm. long; capsule 3-4 cm. long. 1. M. laevicaulis. 

Petals 1.5-2 cm. long; capsule 1.5-2 cm. long. 2. M. Brandegei. 

Petals narrowly obovate, obtuse at the apex, 8-12 mm. long. 

Sepals narrowly lanceolate, 6-8 mm. long; bracts linear. 3. M. puberula. 

Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 9-11 mm. long; bracts lanceolate. 4. M. oreophila. 

Petals 10, the five inner being petaloid staminodia. 5. M. multiflora. 

Seeds few (7-12), ovoid, merely angled. 

Capsule erect in fruit. 6. M. Torreyi. 

Capsule on a strongly recurved pedicel. 7. M. reflexa. 

Annuals; petals 5; filaments all filiform or subulate, or the outer sometimes somewhat dilated; seeds pen- 
dulous, in one series on the filiform placentae, minutely or conspicuously muriculate or tuberculate, 
not winged. {Trachyphytum) 

Inflorescence not congested; bracts linear-lanceolate, not concealing the capsules. 
Petals 15-40 mm. long; sepals 6-15 mm. long. 

Petals 20-40 mm. long, yellow with vermillion spot at base. 8. M. Lindleyi. 

Petals 15-25 mm. long, golden yellow throughout. 9. M. nitens. 

Petals 10 mm. or less in length. 

Seeds prismatic or cubical, grooved on 3 antjles, microscopically muriculate, appearing almost 
smooth to the naked eye; filaments all filiform. 
Leaves deeply pinnatifid; petals 5-7 mm. long. 10. M. affinis. 

Leaves usually entire, rarely toothed; petals 2-5 mm. long. 11. M. disperse. 

Seeds irregularly angled or somewhat prismatic, grooved only on 1 angle or not at all, con- 
spicuously muriculate. 
Sepals 2-3 mm. long; petals 2-6 mm. long. 

Petals 2—4 mm. long; seeds irregularly angled, not grooved on the angles. 

12. M. albicaulis. 

Petals 4-6 mm. long; seeds usually truncate at one end and grooved on 1 angle. 

13. M. Veatchiana. 

Sepals 5-6 mm. long; petals about 10 mm. long. 

Seeds somewhat prismatic and grooved on one angle; petals golden yellow throughout. 

14. M. gracilenta. 

Seeds irregularly angled, none of the angles grooved; petals with a copper-colored 
spot at base. 15. M. pectinata. 

Inflorescence congested; bracts ovate, concealing the capsules. 

Bracts membranaceous; filaments filiform. 16. M. congesta. 

Bracts herbaceous; outer filaments dilated. 17. M. micrantha. 
Outer filaments dilated and prolonged at apex into 2 blunt or cuspidate teeth with the anther in the sinus. 
{Bicuspidaria) 

Bracts herbaceous, small, not concealing the flowers. 18. M. tricuspis. 

Bracts white, membranaceous, large and concealing the flowers. 19. M. involucrata. 



LOASA FAMILY 135 

1. Mentzelia laevicaulis (Dougl.) Torr. & Gray. Blazing Star. Fig. 3280. 

Bartonia laevicaulis Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 221. pi. 69. 1834. 
Mentzelia laevicaulis Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 535. 1840. 
Touterea laevicaulis Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 276. 1903. 
Nuttallia laevicaulis Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1: 210. 1906. 

Perennial, the stems stout, erect, 3-10 dm. high, branched above. Leaves lanceolate, sinuate- 
toothed, 5-15 cm. long, canescent with short appressed hairs ; flowers sessile on short branches, 
diurnal; bracts linear-subulate, irregularly toothed, long-acuminate; sepals lanceolate, _ 2-4 cm. 
long, reflexed in fruit ; petals 5, or sometimes apparently 10 on account of the 5 petaloid stami- 
nodia, yellow, oblong-lanceolate, 5-8 cm. long ; stamens numerous, in several series ; capsule 
cylindric, 3 cm. long; seeds winged, minutely tuberculate. 

Gravelly or sandy plains and washes. Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; eastern Washington and 
Montana south to Utah, Nevada, and southern California. Type locality: "on the gravelly islands and rocky 
shores of the Columbia near the Great Falls." June-Sept. 

2. Mentzelia Brandegei S. Wats. Brandegee's Stick-leaf. Fig. 3281. 

Mentzelia Brandegei S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 367. 1885. 
Touterea Brandegei Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 276. 1903. 
Nuttallia Brandegei Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1: 210. 1906. 

Perennial or biennial, from a simple root, stems erect, branched, 2-3 dm. high, scabrous. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, 2-5 cm. long, the lower petioled, the upper sessile, sinuate-pinnatifid 
with linear lobes, scabrous on both surfaces ; flowers corymbose, sessile, 1-3, terminating the 
branches ; bracts narrow, usually entire ; sepals 3-4 cm. long, densely pubescent ; petals 5, yellow, 
15-20 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate, pilose ; stamens 20-35, the outer 5 petaloid and alter- 
nating with the petals; capsule narrowly oblong-cylindric, 15-20 mm. long; seeds narrowly 
winged. 

Sandy soils, Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; eastern British Columbia south to Yakima County, 
Washington. Type locality: "Near the Simcoe Mountains on the mesa bordering Satus Creek." June-Aug. 

3. Mentzelia puberula Darlington. Darlington's Stick-leaf. Fig. 3282. 

Mentzelia puberula Darlington, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 177. 1934. 
Mentzelia Peirsonii Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 529. 1936. 

Perennial, 15-25 cm. high, the stems widely branching from the base, white, short-hirsute. 
Basal leaves broadly oblanceolate, narrowed to a slender petiole, the upper sessile, oblong-oval 
to ovate, irregularly dentate, grayed with a dense scabrous puberulence ; flowers terminating the 
numerous branches, pedicellate ; bracts narrowly linear-lanceolate ; sepals narrowly lanceolate, 
revolute, 6-8 mm. long ; petals 5, narrowly obovate, 8-10 mm. long, rounded at apex, distinctly 
clawed at base ; 5 outer filaments spatulate, rounded or slightly notched at apex, antheriferous, the 
inner linear ; capsule turbinate-campanulate, scabrous ; seeds broadly winged, faintly punctate. 

Desert ranges, Sonoran Zones; eastern Mojave Desert and Colorado Desert, California, to western Arizona 
and northern Lower California. Type locality: Kane Springs, Ord Mountains, San Bernardino County, Cali- 
fornia. Feb.-April. 

4. Mentzelia oreophila Darlington. Argus Stick-leaf. Fig. 3283. 

Mentzelia oreophila Darlington, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 175. 1934. 

Perennial from a stout lignescent root, the stems 1-2 dm. high, scabrous becoming smooth 
and white. Leaves few, sessile, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, attenuate at base, 2-6 cm. long, 
the upper smaller, irregularly sinuate-dentate, scabrous, the pale green epidermis evident be- 
tween the short whitish hairs ; flowers borne on the ends of the branches ; bracts linear ; sepals 
ovate-lanceolate, 9-11 mm. long, reflexed in fruit; petals 5. narrowly obovate, 10-12 mm. long, 
yellow, glabrous ; outer filaments dilated, rounded or slightly notched at the apex ; capsule 
oblong-ovoid, 8-10 mm. long, pedicelled, short-hirsute; seeds numerous, broadly winged and 
minutely punctate. 

Rocky mountain slopes, Sonoran Zones; desert ranges of Inyo and eastern San Bernardino Counties, Cali- 
fornia, and adjacent Nevada and Arizona. Type locality: Argus Mountains, altitude 5,000 feet, Inyo County, 
California. This species is closely related to Mentzelia leucophylla Brandg. of Nevada, but that has the leaves 
thicker with strongly revolute margins and whitish gray with a dense covering of short stiff hairs. April-June. 

5. Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray. Yerba Amarilla. Fig. 3284. 

Bartonia multiflora Nutt. Proc. Acad. Phila. 4: 23. 1848. 
Mentzelia multiflora A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. 4: 48. 1849. 
Nuttallia multiflora Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 1: 210. 1906. 
Mentzelia longiloba Darlington, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 176. 1934. 

Perennial from a stout taproot, the stems 4-8 dm. high, corymbosely branched, often smooth 
below, barbellate-pubescent above. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 2-8 cm. long, sessile, sinuate- 
dentate, scabrous on both surfaces with stiff barbate hairs; bracts linear, revolute; sepals sub- 
ulate, 7-10 mm. long, spreading or reflexed in fruit; petals 10, oblong-obovate, rounded or obtuse 
at the apex, 15-20 mm. long; stamens numerous, filaments of the outer slightly dilated; capsule 
15-20 mm. long, broadly oblong ; seeds light brown, flat with broad wings. 

Dry sandy plains, Sonoran Zones; Invo Countv, California, to Colorado, and south to western Texas, Sonora, 
and Lower California. Type locality: "Sandy hills along the borders of the Rio del Norte, Santa Fe," New 
Mexico. April-Sept. 



136 



LOASACEAE 




--^A;- 









^^' ^■:- 






21^ 



1. "-^^i' 













"X. 



XL 



^.Mi'.Ai.>»H**^ 



3281 










3278. Petalonyx nitidus 

3279. Petalonyx linearis 

3280. Mentzelia laevicaulis 



3281. Mentzelia Brandegei 

3282. Mentzelia puberula 

3283. Mentzelia oreophila 



3284. Mentzelia multiflora 

3285. Mentzelia Torreyi 



LOASA FAMILY 137 

6. Mentzelia Torreyi A. Gray. Lava Stick-leaf. Fig. 3285. 

Mentzelia Torreyi A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 10: 72. 1874. 
Mentzelia acerosa M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 17: 30. 1930. 

Cespitose, 5-15 cm. high, the stems several from the crown of a perennial taproot, densely 
short-hispid, much branched. Leaves sessile, 2-3 cm. long, thick and firm, divided into 3-5 sub- 
ulate spine-tipped lobes with revolute margins and prominent midribs ; flowers solitary in the 
axils; sepals 5, subulate, 10 mm. long; petals yellow, spatulate to oblanceolate, 12-15 mm. long; 
stamens 25-30, all with filiform filaments; capsule ovoid-urceolate, 5-6 mm. long; seeds few, 
turgid, obscurely angled, slightly rugose, not winged. 

Dry plains in volcanic or saline soils. Upper Sonoran Zone; southern Idaho south to Nevada and Mono 
County, California. Type locality: "Sterile saline plains, Humboldt County, Nevada. June-Sept. 

7. Mentzelia reflexa Coville. Panamint Stick-leaf. Fig. 3286. 

Mentzelia reflexa Coville, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 8: 74. 1892. 

Annual, hirsute with barbed hairs, the stems diffusely branching from the base, 5-15 cm. 
high. Lower leaves narrowly oblanceolate, petioled, 4-6 cm. long, the upper sessile or subsessile, 
broadly ovate, irregularly sinuate-dentate, densely short-hirsute beneath with barbed hairs, 
sparsely pubescent with stiff spine-like hairs above; flowers solitary in the upper forks of the 
branches, pedicelled ; sepals subulate, 6-8 mm. long ; petals 8, slightly exceeding the sepals, oblan- 
ceolate, acute; stamens 9-15, the filaments somewhat dilated above; style cleft one-third its 
length ; capsule oblong-ovoid, 8-10 mm. long, reflexed on the short recurved pedicels ; seeds 10— 
12, obovoid, angled and with rather deep transverse grooves on each face, muriculate. 

Desert washes. Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo and northern San Bernardino Counties, California. Type local- 
ity: Surprise Canyon, Panamint Mountains, California. April-June. 

8. Mentzelia Lindleyi Torr. & Gray. Lindley's Blazing Star. Fig. 3287. 

Bartania aurea Lindl. Bot. Reg. 22: pi. 1831. 1836. Not Mentzelia aurea Nutt. 1818. 
Mentzelia Lindleyi Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 533. 1840. 
Acrolasia aurea Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 278. 1903. 

Annual, the stems 1-6 dm. high, simple or branched. Leaves lanceolate to narrowly lanceo- 
late, sessile, 4-10 cm. long, pectinately pinnatifid, terminal lobe elongated and acute, the lateral 
entire or toothed ; flowers solitary or in 2-3-flowered clusters at the end of the branches ; sepals 
10-15 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate; petals obovate, 2-4 cm. long, abruptly rounded to a short 
acumination, golden yellow with a vermillion base; stamens numerous, outer filaments somewhat 
dilated at base, the others filiform ; capsule 2-5 cm. long, linear-clavate, hirsute ; seeds numerous, 
irregularly angled, minutely tuberculate. 

Rocky or sandy hillsides and canyons, Upper Sonoran Zone; Inner Coast Ranges, central California. Type 
locality: California, collected by Douglas. May-Aug. Golden Bartonia. 

Mentzelia Lindleyi subsp. crocea (Kell.) C. B. Wolf, Occ. Papers Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Gard. 1: 71. 
1938. {Mentzelia crocea Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 7: 110. 1876.) Plant with leaves less pinnatifid than the 
species; petals ovate to narrowly obovate, tapering to the apex, the short acumination at the apex less pronounced 
than in the species. Sierra Nevada foothills from Tuolumne County to Tulare County, California. Type locality: 
Sierra Nevada foothills. 

9. Mentzelia nitens Greene. Shining Stick-leaf. Fig. 3288. 

Mentzelia nitens Greene, Fl. Fran. 234. 1891. 

Acrolasia nitens Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 278. 1903. 

Mentzelia Lindleyi var. eremophila Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 650. 1925. 

Mentzelia Lindleyi var. nitens Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 534. 1936. 

Annual, the stems branching from the base and more or less decumbent. 3-5 dm. high, white, 
smooth and shining. Leaves lanceolate, sessile, pinnatifid with linear lobes, or the uppermost 
entire, short-pubescent and scabrous ; flowers in the upper axils and terminal ; sepals lanceolate- 
acuminate, 6-10 mm. long; petals golden yellow throughout, obovate, 15-20 mm. long, rounded 
or emarginate at apex ; stamens one-third to half as long as the petals, dilated at base ; capsule, 
clavate-cylindric, 15-25 mm. long; seeds irregularly and sharply angled, tuberculate. 

Sandy mesas and hillsides, Lower Sonoran Zone; Mono County, California, south to the Mojave Desert of 
southern California and adjacent Nevada and Arizona. Type locality: near Benton. Mono County, California. 
April-May. 

10. Mentzelia affinis Greene. Hydra Stick-leaf. Fig. 3289. 

Mentzelia affinis Greene, Pittonia 2:203. 1890. 
Acrolasia affinis Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 278. 1903. 

Annual, the stems branching from the base or simple below and branching above, 4-6 dm. 
high, white, shining, glabrous or minutely pubescent. Basal leaves oblanceolate, narrowed to a 
petiole, the cauline sessile, lanceolate, sinuate-pinnatifid ; flowers scattered; bracts lanceolate- 
acuminate, entire or few-toothed below, shorter than the ovary; sepals, attenuate-subulate, 4-6 
mm. long; petals yellow, 6-8 mm. long, obovate; stamens 25-40, filaments all filiform; capsule 
15-20 mm. long, narrowly cylindric, hispid, the hairs short, stiff, and strongly pustulate at base ; 
seeds short-cubical, grooved on the angles and minutely muriculate on the sides. 

Sandy soils or rocky slopes, Sonoran Zones; San Joaquin Valley and the surrounding foothills to Orange 
County, California, east to western Arizona. Type locality: "Plains of the San Joaquin near Lathrop," Cali- 
fornia. April-June. 




3286. Mentzelia reflexa 

3287. Mentzelia Lindleyi 

3288. Mentzelia nitens 



3294 



3289. Mentzelia affinis 

3290. Mentzelia dispersa 

3291. Mentzelia albicaulis 



3292. Mentzelia Veatchiana 

3293. Mentzelia gracilenta 

3294. Mentzelia pectinata 



LOASA FAMILY 139 

11. Mentzelia dispersa S. Wats. Nada Stick-leaf. Fig. 3290. 

Mentzelia albicaulis var. integrifolia S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 114. 1871. 
Mentzelia dispersa S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 137. 1876. 
Acrolasia integrifolia Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 278. 1903. 

Annual, the stems branching from the base, 3-6 dm. high, finely pubescent. Leaves pubescent, 
hardly scabrous, the basal oblanceolate, 3-6 cm. long, entire, the middle entire or sahently 
toothed, narrowly oblong-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, the upper entire, shorter and broader ; 
flowers scattered; bracts broadly ovate to spatulate, entire, herbaceous; sepals 1-2 mm. long, 
subulate; petals yellow, 2-3.5 mm. long; capsule narrowly cylindric, 15-25 mm. long, densely 
pubescent ; seeds cubical, grooved on the angles, muriculate on the sides. 

Drv sandy or gravelly soils, Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; eastern Washington to northern Lower 




locality: East Humboldt Mountains, Nevada. May-Aug. 

Mentzelia dispersa var. latifolia (Rydb.) J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 56: 26. 1918. A more 
robust plant differing from the typical species chiefly in the larger flowers, the petals being 5-6 mm. long. 
Eastern Washington to central California, east of the Sierra Nevada. Type locality: mountains between bun- 
shine and Ward, Colorado. 

12. Mentzelia albicavilis Dougl. White-stemmed Stick-leaf. Fig. 3291. 

Bartonia albicaulis Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1:222. 1834. 

Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl. ex Hook. loc. cit., as a synonym; A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 3^: 74. 1852. 

Acrolasia albicaulis Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 277. 1903. 

Annual, the stems 1-4 dm. high, slender, usually branched and decumbent at base, white, 
smooth and shining above, sparsely pubescent below. Leaves sessile, scabrous, the lower linear- 
lanceolate, 3-5 cm. long, the middle with linear lobes, the upper merely toothed or entire ; flowers 
a.xillary, the lower solitary, the upper usually in clusters of three; sepals 2-2.5 mm.long; petals 
obovate, 3-4 mm. long, golden yellow and prominently veined; capsule narrowly cylindric, 10-15 
mm. long; seeds irregularly angled, finely muriculate. 




Arizona 
locality : 
June-Aug. Kuha. 

13. Mentzelia Veatchiana Kell. Veatch's Stick-leaf. Fig. 3292. 

Mentzelia Veatchiana Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 99. 1861. 

Acrolasia Veatchiana Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 278. 1903. 

Mentzelia gracilenta var. Veatchiana Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 652. 192S. 

Annual, the stems rather slender, branching, 3-6 dm. high, greenish or yellowish white, 
glabrous or sparsely puberulent Basal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, narrowed at base to a 
petiole; the cauline sessile, lanceolate mostly sinuate-pinnatifid or toothed, or the uppermost 
usually entire ; flowers in small clusters at the end of the branches : bracts herbaceous, ovate to 
lanceolate ; sepals subulate, 2-3 mm. long ; petals yellow, obovate, 4-6 mm. long, strongly veined ; 
capsule slender, clavate-cylindric, 20-25 mm. long; seeds somewhat prismatic, grooved on one 
angle, conspicuously tuberculate. 

Light sandy or gravelly soils, Sonoran Zones; southeastern Oregon to the deserts of southern California, 
east to Utah and Arizona. Type locality: vicinity of Virginia City, Nevada. April-Aug. 

14. Mentzelia gracilenta Torr. & Gray. Slender Stick-leaf. Fig. 3293. 

Mentzelia gracilenta Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 534. 1840. 
Mentzelia albicaulis var. gracilenta S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 151. 1871. 
Acrolasia gracilenta 'Ry Ah. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 278. 1903. 

Annual, the stems simple or sparingly branched, greenish or yellowish white, more or less 
pubescent especially above. Basal leaves narrowed to a petiole, the cauline sessile, oblong- 
lanceolate, all sinuate-pinnatifid, sparselv pubescent and somewhat scabrous; flowers solitary or 
in small clusters at the ends of the branches ; bracts ovate-lanceolate, sinuate-toothed, herbaceous, 
villous ; sepals 5-6 mm. long, lanceolate ; petals obovate, 8-14 mm. long, golden yellow ; stamens 
about 40, outer filaments subulate; capsule somewhat clavate or obconic, 12-18 mm. long, seeds 
subprismatic and grooved on one angle, minutely tuberculate. 

Dry slopes in light soil, Upper Sonoran Zone; Coast Ranges of central and southern California. Type 
locality: California. May-July. Buckaroo Penny. 

15. Mentzelia pectinata Kell. San Joaquin Blazing Star. Fig. 3294. 

Mentzelia pectinata Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 3: 40. 1863. 

Acrolasia pectinata Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 278. 1903. 

Mentzelia gracilenta var. pectinata Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 652. 1925. 

Annual, the stems rather stout and usually with spreading branches. Leaves sessile, broadly 
lanceolate, pectinately lobed or pinnatifid, usually acuminate, sparingly scabrous-pubescent; 
bracts lanceolate, few-toothed, herbaceous ; sepals narrowly lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long, spreading 
or reflexed in fruit; petals orange above, coppery red toward the base, obovate, 10-15 mm. long; 



140 LOASACEAE 

capsule clavate-cylindric, 20-25 mm. long, villous; seeds irregularly angled, rarely grooved on 
the angles, minutely tuberculate on the sides. 

Dry slopes, usually in light sandy soil or on rocky ledges, Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones, Upper San 
Joaquin Valley and surrounding foothills to the Colorado Desert, California. Type locality: near Visalia, Cali- 
fornia. March-June. 

16. Mentzelia congesta (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray. Ventana Stick-leaf. Fig. 3295. 

Trachyphytum congestum Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 534. 1840. 
Mentsclia congesta Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 534. 1840. 
Acrolasia congesta Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 277. 1903. 

Annual, the stems erect, 2-3 dm. high, simple or sparingly branched, pubescent. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate, entire or with a few sinuate teeth ; bracts broadly lanceolate to obovate, usually 
toothed at the apex, scarious except at the tip ; sepals lanceolate, 3 mm. long ; petals yellow, 4-5 
mm. long ; capsule cylindric, villous ; seeds irregularly angled, not grooved on the angles. 

Drv hillsides and mountain slopes. Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Idaho, Nevada, and Cali- 
fornia, mainly on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Type locality: Lewis River, Idaho. May-July. 

Mentzelia congesta var. Davidsoniina (Abrams) J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 56: 28. 1918. 

(Acrolasia Davidsoniana Ahrams, Bull. Torrey Club 32: 538. 1905.) Differs chiefly in the smaller bracts, which 
are often lanceolate and acute at apex. This variety replaces the typical species in the mountains of southern 
California. Type locality: Mount Wilson, Los Angeles County. 

17. Mentzelia micrantha (Hook. & Arn.) Torr. & Gray. Small-flowered Stick- 
leaf. Fig. 3296. 

Bartonia micrantha Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 343. 1840. 
Mentzelia micrantha Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 535. 1840. 
Acrolasia catalinensis Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 5: 177. 1923. 

Annual, the stems 3-6 dm. high, simple below, corymbosely branched and rather compact 
above. Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, sinuate-toothed to entire, 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers in 
clusters at the ends of the branches; bracts foliaceous, broadly ovate, exceeding the flowers; 
sepals lanceolate 1.5-2 mm. long; petals oval, 3 mm. long; 5 outer filaments dilated; capsule 
narrowly cylindric, 6-12 mm. long, densely villous; seeds few, prismatic, with a shallow groove, 
the sides faintly muriculate. 

Sandy and gravelly soils, Upper Sonoran Zone; Coast Ranges, from Trinity County, California, to northern 
Lower California and Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Type locality: California Coast Ranges. Collected by Douglas. 
May-July. San Luis Stick-leaf. 

18. Mentzelia tricuspis A. Gray. Desert Stick-leaf. Fig. 3297. 

Mentzelia tricuspis A. Gray, Amer. Nat. 9: 271. 1875. 

Bicuspidaria tricuspis Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 275. 1903. 

Mentzelia tricuspis var. brevicornuta I. M. Johnston, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 7: 444. 1922. 

Annual, branching from the base 5-15 cm. high, the branches short-hirsute. Leaves narrowly 
oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 4-6 cm. long, acute at apex, narrowed at base to a short petiole, 
coarsely and saliently toothed to subentire; flowers terminating short branches; sepals 8-10 mm. 
long, long-attenuate, becoming involute and subulate in age; petals obovate, 15-20 mm. long, 
obtuse or rounded at the apex, and often apiculate, pale yellow ; stamens in 4 or 5 series, the 
outer filaments dilated and toothed at apex, the anthers arising above the teeth on a filiform 
prolongation from the sinus; capsule 10-15 mm. long, 5-10 mm. in diameter, hirsute, reflexed in 
fruit ; seeds irregularly angled, rugose, not winged. 

Dry rocky hills, Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave and Colorado Deserts, southern California to southern 
Nevada and Arizona. Type locality: "Desert districts south of St. George," tJtah. April-May. 

19. Mentzelia involucr^ta S. Wats. White-bracted Stick-leaf. Fig. 3298. 

Mentzelia involucrata S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 367. 1885. 
Bicuspidaria involucrata Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 30: 275. 1903. 
Nuttallia involucrata Davids. & Moxley, Fl. S. Calif. 240. 1923. 

Annual, the stems stout, branching from the base, white, hispid, 15-30 cm. high. Leaves 
lanceolate, acute, the lower narrowed to a petiole, the upper sessile, irregularly sinuate-dentate, 
3-8 cm. long, densely short-hispid; flowers terminating the branches; bracts ovate-lanceolate, 
1.5-2.5 cm. long, pectinately toothed; white-scarious with green margins; sepals lanceolate- 
attenuate, 10-18 mm. long; petals 25-30 mm. long, yellow, oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, 
apiculate; outer filaments bicuspidate at apex with long linear cusps; capsules subcylindric, 
about 15 mm. long, 5-7 broad; seeds horizontally flattened to ovoid, irregularly angled, densely 
tuberculate. 

Dry desert hillsides and washes. Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave Desert, California, to Lower California, 
Western Arizona and Sonora. Type locality: San Bernardino County, California. March-May. Samija. 

3. EUCNIDE Zucc. Linnaea 18:508. 1844. 

Herbs or low shrubs, clothed with short barbed pubescence and stinging hairs. Leaves 
alternate, petioled, toothed or lobed. Flowers mostly in terminal bracted cymes. Hypan- 



LOASA FAMILY 



141 




^^t% 



37 - \ i^lh 



aSl 



I -^M 



3295 





fj .^4"-Ws 













3299 








_■£- 




3295. Mentzelia congesta 

3296. Mentzelia micrantha 



3297. Mentzelia tricuspis 

3298. Mentzelia involucrata 



3299. Eucnide urens 

3300. Datisca glomerata 



142 DATISCACEAE 

thium adnate to the ovary. Sepals 5, persistent. Petals 5, united at base, yellow or yel- 
lowish. Stamens numerous, inserted in a broad band on the base of the petals ; filaments 
filiform. Style 5-cleft, the lobes often twisted; ovary 1-celled with 5 prominent placentae; 
ovules numerous. Capsule obovoid, opening by 5 valves at the apex. Seeds numerous, 
minute, longitudinally striate. [Name Greek, meaning well and nettle, in reference to the 
stinging hairs.] 

A genus of about 8 species, natives of the arid regions of southwestern United States and northern Mexico. 
Type species, Eucnide bartonioides Zucc. 

1. Eucnide urens Parry. Desert Rock-nettle. Fig. 3299. 

Mentzelia urens Parry ex A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 10: 71. 1874. 
Eucnide urens Parry, Amer. Nat. 9: 144. 1875. 

Low shrub, 3-5 dm. high, the branches spreading or sometimes decumbent, the herbage 
clothed with fine villous hairs, stouter multi-barbed ones, and longer stout stinging ones. Leaves 
suborbicular to broadly ovate, 2.5-5 cm. long, coarsely and irregularly toothed, the lower 
petioled, the uppermost sessile and more or less clasping ; flowers somewhat corymbose ; pedicels 
stout ; sepals oblong-lanceolate, 20-25 mm. long ; petals pale yellow tinged with green, obovate, 
3-4 cm. long, the mucronate tip hispid ; stamens about half as long as the petals. 

Sandy or rocky soils, Lower Sonoran Zone; desert ranges of Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California, 
to southern Utah. Type locality : St. George, Utah. April-June. 

Sympetaleia rupestris (Baillon) A. Gray ex S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 50. 1889 Annual resem- 
bling Eucnide in general habit, hispid with stout simple hairs interspersed with shorter barbed ones. Leaves 
petioled rounded, shallowly lobed and toothed, often subcordate at base, 2-6 cm. broad; flowers solitary in the 
axils, on more or less recurved pedicels; sepals 5-7 mm. long; corolla sympetalous, the tube 8-10 mm. long, 
slender, lobes 2-3 mm. long. Desert washes, Lower Sonoran Zone; Painted Gorge near Coyote Wells, western 
edge of Colorado Desert, California, otherwise known only from Lower California and Sonora. Type locality: 
Guaymas, Sonora. 



Family 101. DATISCACEAE. 

Datisca Family. 

Herbs or trees with alternate, simple, or pinnate leaves. Flowers dioecious or 
rarely perfect. Hypanthium in the staminate flowers short, in the pistillate flowers 
adnate to the ovary. Sepals 3-9, somewhat unequal. Petals none or 8. Stamens 
few to many, when present in the pistillate flowers usually reduced in number. 
Styles 3-8. Ovary 1-celled; placentae parietal, alternating with the sepals. Capsule 
dehiscing at the apex between the styles. Seeds numerous, striate and punctate, 
strophiolate, anatropous. Endosperm present ; embryo straight. 

A family of 3 genera and 5 species. The two other genera are trees of southern Asia with simple leaves, 
and belong to a distinct subfamily. 

1. DATISCA L. Sp. PI. 1037. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, with unequally pinnatifid leaves and apetalous flowers in axillary 
racemes or glomerules. Staminate flowers with hypanthium very short, the sepals 4-9; 
stamens 10-25, with short filaments. Pistillate flowers with hypanthium adnate to the 
ovary, ovoid, obscurely 3-angled. Sepals 3; styles 3, filiform, 2-parted. Capsule oblong, 
coriaceous, 3-5-ribbed, dehiscent at the apex between the styles. [An old Greek name 
applied to some plant] 

A genus of 2 species natives of Asia and western North America. Type species, Datisca cannabina L. 

1. Datisca glomerata (Presl) Baillon. Durango Root. Fig. 3300. 

Tricerastes glomerata Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 88. pi. 64. 1835. 
Datisca glomerata Baillon, Hist. PI. 3: 407. 1871. 

Glabrous perennial herb, 1-2 m. high, simple or sparingly branched. Leaves ovate to lanceo- 
late in outline about 15 cm. long, unequally and laciniately pinnatifid, the floral reduced; flowers 
in the axils forming an elongated leafy raceme ; anthers 4 mm. long, subsessile, yellow ; styles 
elongated, exceeding the ovary ; capsule oblong-ovoid, 6-8 mm. long, truncate, 3-angled ; sepals 
3, triangular-subulate, 1 . 5-2 mm. long. 

Stream banks, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; North Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada, California, 
to northern Lower California, east to western Nevada. Type locality: western Mexico and Monterey, Cali- 
fornia. The Mexican reference may be an error as it is not known otherwise south of northern Lower California. 
May-Aug. 



CACTUS FAMILY 143 

Family 102. CACTACEAE.* 
Cactus Family. 

Perennial succulent woody or herbaceous plants with globose, cylindrical, colum- 
nar, or flattened stems, these ribbed, smooth, tuberculate, bearing broad, fleshy 
leaves, or in ours, leafless or with small, caducous subulate leaves in Opuntia. Are- 
oles complex, bearing wool, glochids (barbed spicules), spines, branches, or flowers, 
or various combinations of these structures. Flowers perfect or incompletely uni- 
sexual, sessile, solitary in an areole, but clustered when borne by contiguous areoles. 
Perianth-segments numerous, grading from sepals to petals, imbricated, the bases 
coalescent to form cup or tube borne at the apex of the ovary. Stamens numerous, 
inserted on the throat of the tube. Style 1 ; stigma-lobes 1 to numerous. Ovary 
inferior, 1 -celled, many-ovulate. Fruit a dry or fleshy berry, many-seeded. 

A family of about 120 genera and 1,200 species, native to North, Central, and South America, reaching 
their finest development in the drier regions of Mexico. Introduced and thoroughly established in Australia. 
Cultivated extensively as ornamentals in Europe and the United States. 

Areoles containing glochids; leaves small, caducous; flowers rotate, definite perianth-tube lacking. 

1. Opuntia. 

Areoles without glochids; leaves on vegetative parts wanting; flowers with definite, though often short perianth- 
tubes. 
Stems ribbed; fruits scaly or spiny, or both, often laniferous (except Pediocactus). 

Flowers borne laterally, immediately above mature spine-bearing areoles; fruit more or less spiniferous; 
dehiscing irregularly. 
Stems erect, 4—16 ra. tall; flowers creamy white; fruit sparingly spinose. 2. Carnegiea. 

Stems erect or decumbent, 1.5 m. tall or less; flowers not white. 

Fruit quite spiny. 

Stems 0.5-1.5 m. tall, branching near the base but not crowded-cespitose; flowers yellow. 

3. Bergerocacti'.s. 

Stems 1-3 dm. long, cespitose; flowers red to purple. 4. Echinocereus. 

Fruit naked. 9. Pediocactus. 

Flowers borne subterminally above young areoles; fruit scaly (except Pediocactus), but not spiny, 
usually dehiscing by a basal or terminal pore (except Pediocactus). 
Fruit ovoid to oblong, scaly. 

Ribs continuous, not markedly undulate-tuberculate; principal spines annulate, some of them 
flattened. 
Axils of scales on fruit copiously and persistently woolly; fruit dehiscing by a terminal 
pore; plants cespitose. 5. Echinocactus. 

Axils of scales on fruit naked; fruit dehiscing by a basal pore; plants usually solitary. 

6. Ferocactus. 

Ribs distinctly undulate-tuberculate; principal spines terete, not markedly annulate. 

Axils of scales on fruit naked; spines straight, not hooked; seeds muricate, hilum ventral. 

7. Echinotnastus. 

Axils of scales on fruit woolly; some of central spines hooked; seeds tuberculate, hilum 
lateral. 8. Sclerocactus. 

Fruit globose, smooth, scaleless or essentially so; dehiscing irregularly down the side. 

9. Pediocactus. 

Stems bearing spirally arranged tubercles; fruits smooth, scaleless, berries with no definite dehiscence. 

Tubercles distinctly narrowly grooved on the upper side; fruit greenish when mature. 

10. Coryphantha. 

Tubercles not grooved; fruit red when mature. 

Seeds rugose, with a large corky aril half as large as body of the seed. 11. Phellosperma. 

Seeds favose-reticulate or pitted, no aril present. 12. Mammillarta. 



1. OPUNTIA [Tourn.] Mill. Card. Diet. abr. ed. 4. 1754. 

Fleshy cacti with more or less woody skeletons and jointed cylindrical, clavate, or 
flattened stems and branches. Roots fibrous or fleshy-tuberous. Areoles axillary, bearmg 
short, readily detached barbed bristles or glochids and usually 1 to several stout spines. 
Spines naked or ensheathed in dry, papery coverings. Leaves usually small and terete, 
early deciduous. Flowers borne in areoles of year-old growth ; perianth-tube cup-shaped, 
short. Ovary areolate, 1 -celled, many-ovulate. Sepals green, grading into colored petals. 
Stamens numerous, shorter than the petals, sensitive. Stigma-lobes short. Fruit fleshy 

* Text contributed by Ira Loren Wig/gins except for text of the genus Opuntia which is contributed jointly 
with Carl Brandt Wolf. 



144 CACTACEAE 

or dry, spiny or spineless. Seeds covered witli a bony aril, light-colored, flattened. 
[Greek, named for town in Greece of the same name.] 

A genus of over 2S0 species (over 1,000 names occur in the literature) from British Columbia and Massa- 
chusetts to the Straits of Magellan. Type species, Cactus Optintia L. 

Joints terete, globose to elongate-cylindric, not flattened, tuberculate; yearly accretions of wood in branches not 
separated by fleshy tissue. 
Spines terete, acicular; sheaths deciduous. 
Fruit dry, not fleshy when mature. 

Tubercles on branches flattened, diamond-shaped, forming regular pattern; branches scarcely fleshy, 
spines usually solitary. 1. O. ratnosissima. 

Tubercles not flattened nor diamond-shaped, less regularly arranged; branches obviously fleshy; 
spines usually several. 

Tubercles elongated, 2-3 times as long as wide; branching essentially terminal. 

Fruit-spines in clusters of 8-12, stout; spines densely interlocked, obscuring the younger 
joints; plants light green. 2. O. acanthocarpa. 

Fruit-spines solitary or few, acicular; spines not interlocked, not covering the joints; 
plants dark green. 3. O. Parryi. 

Tubercles short, less than twice as long as wide; branching lateral as well as terminal. 

Spines interlocking, obscuring the stems, the sheaths straw-colored; tubercles not flattened; 
stems not prostrate. 4. O. echinocarpa. 

Spines not interlocking nor obscuring the stems, these and sheaths brownish; tubercles 
flattened; stems prostrate or scrambling. 5. O. serpentina. 

Fruit fleshy when mature. 

Fruit not proliferous* spine-sheaths pale yellow, roseate, or white, densely interlocking and ob- 
scuring body of the joints. 6. O. Bigelovii. 

Fruit proliferous; spines and sheaths rusty yellow, scarcely interlocking, not obscuring the joints, 

7. O. prolifera. 

Spines 4-angled, subulate; sheaths caducous. 8. O. Parishii. 

Joints flattened, pad-like, not tuberculate; yearly woody accretions, at least in pads, separated by thin layers of 
fleshy tissue. 

Plants low, mostly basilate; areoles 1-3 mm. in diameter. 

Areoles, or some of them, containing 1-5 spines; joints not pubescent. 9. 0. Treleasei. 

Areoles containing glochids only, spineless; joints distinctly puberulent. 

Joints thin, 7-30 cm. long; flowers numerous, 6-10 cm. broad. 10. O. basilaris. 

Joints thick, over one- fourth as thick as broad, broadly ellipsoid in cross-section, 2-6 cm. long; 
flowers few, 4-6 cm. broad. 11. O. hrachyclada. 

Plants 0.5-4 m. high, or if low, not basilate; areoles 2-5 mm. in diameter. 

Fruits dry, not juicy when mature, spiny. 

Joints turgid, nearly or quite as thick as broad, terminal ones easily detached; areoles containing 
white wool; stems often malted. 12. O. fragilis. 

Joints flattened, not readily detached; areoles containing spines and glochids only, not woolly; 
stems not matted. 

Spines subulate; areoles distant; only upper areoles of joints spiny. 13. O. hystricina. 

Spines acicular; areoles approximate; all areoles of joints more or less spiny. 

Spines stout, rigid, straight, 1-5 cm. long, some of them deflexed; joints orbicular. 

14. O. polyacantha. 

Spines slender, more or less flexuous, 3-12 cm. long, spreading; joints ovate to oblong. 
Spines mostly acicular, 3-5 cm. long. 15. O. erinacea. 

Spines bristle-like, flexuous, 6-25 cm. long. 16. O. ursina. 

Fruits fleshy and juicy when mature, bearing glochids but not appreciably spiny. 

Plants large shrubs or arborescent, 1.5-5 m. tall, with a well-defined trunk and ascending branches. 
Joints 2-5 dm. long; trunk spineless; fruit 5-9 cm. long; spines brown or white. 

Fruit yellow to reddish yellow; umbilicus flat; spines brownish. 17. O. megacantha. 

Fruit deep red to purplish; umbilicus depressed; spines white. 18. O. ficus-indica. 

Joints 0.75-2 dm. long; trunk densely clothed with deflexed spines; fruit 3-5 cm. long; 
spines yellow. 19. O. chlorotica. 

Plants low shrubs or assurgent, much branched from the base, usually less than 1 m. high. 

Spines clear yellow, or faintly reddish at the base, curved downward or deflexed in age; 

coastal. 20. O. littoralis. 

Spines white, reddish or brown, spreading. 

Flowers salmon to magenta; joints usually less than 20 cm. long, not very spiny; spines 
1-3 per areole or lacking, not over 3 cm. long. 21. O. Vaseyi. 

Flowers yellow; joints frequently much more than 20 cm. long, spiny; spines 1-6 cm. 
long. 

Joints ovoid to oblong, 1.5-3 times as long as broad. 22. O. Covillei. 

Joints broadly ovoid to orbicular, usually as broad as long, or nearly so. 

Plants low bushes; branches few to many joints high; spines brownish only at 
the base. 
Spines 3-8; joints comparatively thick; cismontane. 23. O. occidentalis. 

Spines mostly 1-2 (1-4); joints comparatively thin; western margin of 
deserts. 24. O. megacarpa. 

Plants prostrate, branches forming chains of joints, on edge, mostly 2 joints 
high; spines predominantly brownish throughout; eastern Mojave Desert. 

25. O. mojavensis. 



CACTUS FAMILY 145 

1. Opuntia ramosissima Engelm, Lead Pencil Cholla. Fig. 3301. 

Opnntia ramosissima Engelm. Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 339. 1852. 

Opuntia tessellata Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 309. 1856. 

Cylindropuntia ramosissima F. M. Knuth in Backeb. & Knuth, Kaktus-ABC 124. 1935. 

Low bush 0.4-2 m. high, with gray-green, widely spreading branches 0.5-1 cm. in diam- 
eter. Joints 2.5-10 cm. long; tubercles low, crowded, 5-8 mm. long, nearly as wide, 4- or 6- 
angled, covering the surface with diamond-shaped plates ; leaves ovoid, 1-3 mm. long, acute ; 
areoles circular when young, compressed into a narrow slit in age, with white to tawny wool and 
pale yellow glochids ; spines 1-4 at an areole 1 larger if more than 1, often wanting, acicular, 
porrect to spreading, 1-6 cm. long, reddish when young, nearly white in age, covered by a loose 
yellow papery sheath ; flowers 3-4 cm. long, including the ovary ; sepals subulate ; petals obovate, 
9-12 mm. long, aristulate, greenish yellow, tinged with red; stamen-filaments greenish yellow, 
anthers orange ; style and stigma cream-colored ; ovary narrowly obconic, covered with low 
emarginate tubercles, areoles filled with wool, glochids and 10-15 unsheathed spines; fruit dry, 
1-2.5 cm. long, the spines making it appear bur-like; seeds few, lenticular, 3-5 mm. wide, 
stramineous. 

Low hills and desert flats, Lower Sonoran Zone; from the vicinity of Victorville, San Bernardino County, 
and western Colorado Desert to southern Nevada, Arizona, and northwestern Sonora. April-May. 

2. Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow. Buckthorn Cholla. Fig. 3302. 

opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 308. 1856. 
Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa F. M. Knuth in Backeb. & Knuth, Kaktus-ABC 124. 1935. 

Erect, slender, terminally branched shrub 1-2 m. high. Terminal joints 4-25 cm. long, 2-3.5 
cm. in diameter; tubercles prominent, 2-2.5 cm. long and laterally flattened; spines SylS, unequal, 
1.5-3.5 cm. long, yellowish to dark brown, each covered with a light yellow or whitish sheath; 
glochids numerous, yellow; flowers reddish to brownish yellow, 5 cm. long and wide when 
expanded ; perianth-segments broadly obovate, obtuse ; ovary short-turbinate, with a few promi- 
nent tubercles bearing 8-12 rigid acicular spines from middle to apex; fruit dry, 2.5-3.5 cm. 
long, naked below, tuberculate and spiny above the middle; seeds crowded, irregularly angled, 
4^6 mm. long, light yellowish. 

Desert mesas and slopes, Lower Sonoran Zone; eastern Mojave and Colorado Deserts, California, to 
southern Utah, central Arizona, Sonora and northern Lower California. April-May. 

Opuntia acanthocarpa subsp. Ganderi C. B. Wolf, Occ. Papers Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Card. 1 : 75. 
1938 Plants of vigorous growth; joints brighter green; spines 20-25, more slender, the lower ones deflexed; 
flowers smaller. San Felipe Valley, San Diego County, and southward along the east base of the Laguna 
Mountains and desert slopes of San Jacinto Mountains, California. 

3. Opuntia Parryi Engelm. Valley Cholla. Fig. 3303. 

opuntia Parryi Engelm. Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 339. 1852. 

Opuntia bernardina Engelm. in Parish, Bull. Torrey Club 19: 92. 1892. 

Cylindropuntia Parryi F. M. Knuth in Backeb. & Knuth, Kaktus-ABC 124. 1935. 

x\n erect or ascending, openly, sparingly to profusely branched shrub 0.5-1.5 m. high. Joints 
slender, 7-30 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. in diameter; tubercles 1.5-2.5 cm. long, narrow, with 1-5 (8) 
unequal, slender, brownish spines 0.5-3 cm. long at the apex of each, the longest spme usually 
porrect or deflexed ; glochids brown, fading to yellow or ash-colored ; flowers m clusters of 3-8 
at the ends of older stems, 2-3 cm. long ; sepals green to reddish ; petals obovate, obtuse, yellow 
tinged with red ; fertile fruit 2-3 cm. long, ovoid, deeply and broadly umbihcate, more or less 
tuberculate above the middle, the areoles bearing yellowish glochids, and the upper ones 1-7 
acicular spines 5-12 mm. long; sterile fruit subglobose to obovoid, fleshy, less spmy; seeds few, 
whitish, 4-6 mm. broad, the margin shallowly grooved. 

Dry gravelly fans and washes and in interior valleys, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; Cuyama Valley, 
Santa Barbara County, Los Angeles County in the vicinity of San Fernando, to the San Bernardino Valley, 
and eastern San Diego and western Imperial Counties, California. April-June. 

4 Opuntia echinocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow. Summer Cholla or Staghorn Cholla. 

Fig. 3304. 

opuntia echinocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 305. 1856. 

Opuntia echinocarpa var. major Engelm. loc. cit. 

Opuntia echinocarpa var. robustior J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 446. 1896. 

Opuntia dcserta Griff. Monatss. Kakteenk. 23: 132. 1913. 

Cylindropuntia echinocarpa F. M. Knuth in Backeb. & Knuth, Kaktus-ABC 124. 1935. 

Erect, ascending or spreading branched plant 0.5-1.5 m. high. Joiiits turgid, 8-25 cm. long, 
1.5-2.5 cm. in diameter; tubercles prominent, broadly ovate, about 1 cm. long; areoles /-o, 
bearing stout spines 2-3 cm. long and 6-12 shorter, more slender ones, fine yellowish wool and 
glochids; spines interlocking; flowers clustered at end of older branches, 2-3.5 cm. long, yellow 
tinged with red ; ovary short-turbinate, tuberculate and densely clothed on the upper two-thirds 
with acicular spines 8-20 mm. long; fruit 1.5-2.5 cm. long, very spiny over upper two-thirds, 
6-12 spines in each areole ; seeds numerous, 5-6 mm. long, the margins grooved. 

Desert areas and dry interior foothills, Lower and dry ridges in lower Upper Sonoran Zones, Mojave and 

Colorado Deserts and adjacent western foothills to Utah, Sonora, and northern Lower California. April June. 

Opuntia echinocarpa var. Parkeri (Engelm.) J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 446. 1896. Plant 



146 CACTACEAE 

more robust, less intricately branched; joints 10-25 cm. long; flowers and fruits larger. Borrego Valley, foot of 
Mountain Springs Grade, Imperial County, California. 

5. Opuntia serpentina Engelm. San Diego Cholla. Fig. 3305. 

Cereus californicus Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 555. 1840. Not Opuntia californica Engelm. 1848. 

Opuntia serpentina Engelm. Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 338. 1852. 

Opuntia californica Coville, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 13: 119. 1899. 

Cylindr opuntia californica F. M. Knuth in Backeb. & Knuth, Kaktus-ABC 125. 1935. 

Prostrate-scrambling or low, ascending shrub with slender, cylindrical bluish green stems. 
Joints 10-30 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. in diameter, with somewhat flattened prominent tubercles 
1-1.5 cm. long, slightly narrower than broad; areoles bearing 7-20 brownish acicular, rigid 
spines 8-20 mm. long, yellowish brown felt and light brown glochids ; spines not interlocking nor 
hiding the blue-green stems; flowers clustered at tips of branches, 2.5-3 cm. long (including the 
ovary), about as broad when open, greenish yellow, the sepals and outer petals tinged with red; 
fruit broadly ovoid, umbilicate at the apex, prominently tuberculate, spiny except at very base ; 
seeds crowded in the fruit, angulate. 

Coastal foothills and mesas to 1,000 feet elevation, lower part of Upper Sonoran Zone; vicinity of San 
Diego southward into Lower California about to Ensenada. April-May. 

6. Opuntia Bigelovii Engelm. Jumping or Ball Cholla. Fig. 3306. 

Opuntia Bigelovii Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 307. 1856. 

Cylindropuntia Bigelovii F. M. Knuth in Backeb. & Knuth, Kaktus-ABC 125. 1935. 

Sturdy erect plant usually with a central spiny trunk 7-10 cm. in diameter, 1-2.5 m. high, 
and numerous short lateral branches, these soon deciduous below. Joints 5-20 cm. long, turgid, 
with crowded tubercles and dense, closely interlocked armament, the terminal ones very easily 
detached, primary ones persistent, turning sooty-black ; tubercles more or less 4-sided, 8-10 mm. 
long, low; spines and sheaths shining pale yellow or roseate on young growth, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, 
7-12 per areole, divergent; glochids and felt yellowish; flowers in clusters at the ends of joints, 
greenish yellow, 2.5-4 cm. long, the petals rather few in number; ovary bearing areojes filled 
with brown wool, glochids, and 1 to several small acicular spines 5-15 mm. long; fruit deeply 
umbilicate, dry, greenish, nearly or quite spineless ; seeds flattened, angulate, greenish white, 
seldom fertile. 

Forming extensive stands on dry hillsides, outwash slopes, mesas, and stabilized sand dunes, Lower 
Sonoran Zone; southern Nevada to the western Colorado Desert, northern Sonora and east of the mountains in 
northern Lower California. April. 

Opuntia Fosbergii C. B. Wolf, Occ. Papers Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Gard. 1:79. 1938. (Opuntia 
Bigelovii var. Hoffmannii Fosberg, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 32: 121. 1933, Opuntia Bigelovii X O. echinocarpa.) 
Trunk vigorous, 2-3 m. high, often 2 to several branches from the base; shorter terminal joints more crowded 
than in O. Bigelovii; tubercles essentially as in O. echinocarpa, twice as long as broad; the green stem showing 
through armament; fruit as in O. Bigelovii. Mason Valley to Vallecitos, San Diego County, California. 

Opuntia Miinzii C. B. Wolf, Occ. Papers Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Gard. 1: 79. 1938. (Opuntia Bigelovii 
X O. acanthocarpa.) Plant to 4 m. tall, with general h.ibit of X O. Fosbergii; tubercles narrower, 2-3 times as 
long as broad; spines more slender and less crowded. Chocolate Mountains, Colorado Desert, California. 

7. Opuntia prolifera Engelm. Coast Cholla. Fig. 3307. 

Opuntia prolifera Engelm. Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 338. 1852. 

Cylindropuntia prolifera F. M. Knuth in Backeb. & Knuth, Kaktus-ABC 126. 1935. 

Bushy or with a well-defined trunk 1-2.5 m. high, the trunk and older branches woody. 
Joints 3-15 cm. long, 3-5 cm. in diameter, fleshy, turgid, easily detached, dark green; tubercles 
short and usually low and inconspicuous ; areoles bearing yellowish brown felt, light yellow 
glochids 1-2.5 mm. long, and 5-12 rusty to nearly black spines 8-25 mm. long, these more or less 
divergently interlocked on young joints, sparser and fewer to lacking on older joints because of 
weathering ; sheaths from sordid-yellow to rusty-brown ; flowers 1 to several at the ends of 
branches, 2-3 cm. long (including the ovary) ; sepals green, tinged with rose; petals few, obovate, 
obtuse, 5-8 mm. long, rose to rose-purple ; filaments greenish ; ovary tuberculate, the areoles 
rather crowded, filled with light brownish glochids, the upper' containing also 1-5 ascending 
acicular brown spines 5-18 mm. long; fruit globose, 2-3 cm. long, turgid, usually spineless, pro- 
liferous, usually seedless ; seeds, when present, 5-6 mm. long, ovate, flattened. 

Arid hills and mesas, near the coast. Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Rosa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, 
and Anacapa Islands, and vicinity of Ventura, California, southward into coastal Lower California to at least 
Rosario; occasionally inland to limits of ancient beach. April-July. 

8. Opuntia Parishii Orcutt. Mat Cholla. Fig. 3308. 

opuntia Parryi Engelm. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 48. pi. 22. figs. 4-7, pi. 24. fig. 7. 1856. Not O. Parryi Engielnv 

1852. 
Opuntia Parishii Orcutt, West Amer. Sci. 10: 1. 1896. 
Corynopitntia Parishii F. M. Knuth in Backeb. & Knuth, Kaktus-ABC 115. 1935. 

A low, creeping, matted plant rooting along the under surface, forming mats up to 1.5 m. 
across, with erect, clavate branches 5-15 cm. high. Joints 2-3 cm. in diameter, nearly hidden by 
the dense, interlocking spines; tubercles 5-10 mm. long, narrow, 3-6 mm. high, prominent; 
areoles filled with white wool and yellowish glochids ; spines sheathless, reddish, fading to ashy, 
the 3-4 centrals divergent, strongly flattened, subulate, 2-4 cm. long, the lowest broadest and 
longest; radials 6-12, acicular, terete, spreading; sheaths early caducous; glochids numerous, 



CACTUS FAMILY 











3302 



3301 



3303 




3307 



3308 



3301. Opuntia ramosissima 

3302. Opuntia acanthocarpa 

3303. Opuntia Parryi 



3304. Opuntia echinocarpa 

3305. Opuntia serpentina 

3306. Opuntia Bigelovii 



3307. Opuntia" prolifera 

3308. Opuntia Parisbii 



148 CACTACEAE 

2-8 mm. long, light yellowish brown ; flowers yellow to reddish ; fruit dry, 4-6 cm. long, nar- 
rowly ovate, narrowly tuberculate, the areoles 3-4 mm. in diameter, filled with white wool and 
radiating, acicular, yellowish brown glochids 3-9 mm. long that conceal the surface; seeds 
flattened-ovoid, smooth, turgid, 3.5-5 mm. long, yellowish white. 

Infrequent in loose sandy or gravelly soil, upper part of Lower and lower part of Upper Sonoran Zones; 
southern Nevada to the eastern Mojave and western Colorado Deserts, and the Little San Bernardino Moun- 
tains, California. May. 

9. Opuntia Treleasei J. M. Coult. Trelease's Tuna. Fig. 3309. 

Opuntia Treleasei]. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 434. 1896. 

Opuntia basilaris var. Treleasei Tourney in Bailey, Cyclop. Hort. 1147. 1901. 

Opuntia Treleasei var. Kernii Griff. & Hare, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 81. 1906. 

Low, spreading at the base, 2-3.5 dm. high, some of the branches of 2-4 erect joints. Joints 

broadly obovate, 8-15 cm. long, fleshy, 1-1.5 cm. thick, minutely papillose but glabrous, pale 

blue-green; areoles numerous, about 5-12 mm. apart, elliptic, 2-2.5 mm. wide, 3-4 mm. long, 

filled with sordid-yellow glochids 1-5 mm. long, a tuft of white wool at the base of young 

areoles, spineless, or more frequently with 1-3 divergent to subporrect acicular, sordid-yellow to 

brown spines 4-15 mm. long; flowers orchid- or rose-colored, 4-5 cm. broad; petals obovate, 

obtuse, 1.5-2 cm. long; fruit dry, broadly ovate to subglobose, bearing large areoles filled with 

dirty yellow glochids, dingy wool and the upper ones 3-10 rigid spines, 3-8 mm. long ; seeds 6-7 

mm. in diameter, rather turgid. 

Dry grassy hills and valley floor, Lower Sonoran Zone; in the southern San Joaquin Valley south and east 
of Bakersfield, Kern County, California. April-May. 

10. Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & Bigelow. Beaver-tail Cactus. Fig. 3310. 

opuntia basilaris Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 298. 1856. 

Low, prostrate to erect plant, usually growing in clumps, branching mostly from the base, 
seldom over 2-5 dm. high. Joints orbicular to broadly obovate, 7-25 cm. long, short-puberulent, 
pruinose to glabrate in age, occasionally tinged with red or purplish ; areoles numerous, circular 
to elliptic, 2-3 mm, in diameter, spineless, filled with dingy wool when young, this soon replaced 
by erect yellowish brown glochids 1-3 mm. long; flowers borne on upper margins of joints, 
somewhat clustered, 10-15 cm. broad, deep rose to rose-purple, a conspicuous velvety sheen on 
the petals ; fruit dry at maturity, 5-6 cm. long, globose to obovoid, spineless, areoles and glochids 
as on the joints; seeds 6-10 mm. broad, more or less angled. 

Arid mountain slopes and desert washes, Lower Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Mojave and Colorado 
Deserts and adjacent mountain slopes to southern Utah, Arizona, and northern Sonora. March-June. 

Opuntia basilaris var. ramdsa Parish, Bull. Torrey Club 19:92. 1892. Joints oblong to narrowly obo- 
vate, 5-8 cm. wide up to 30 cm. long; stems frequently 3-6 joints high, branching freely above. Northwestern 
Los Angeles County eastward to the western edge of the Mojave Desert, south to western Riverside and north- 
eastern San Diego Counties; Caliente and Democrat Hot Springs, Kern County, California. 

Opuntia whitneyana E. M. Baxter, Calif. Cactus 37. 1935. A low plant with quite thick, obovate red- 
tinged joints 4-15 cm. long, and small (2 mm. diameter) deeply sunken areoles; glochids short, scarcely reaching 
surface of joint; flowers with numerous, crinkly, erose, red petals. Rocky mountain sides and talus slopes on 
eastern side of the Sierra Nevada in Inyo and Mono Counties, California. Transition Zone. 

Opuntia whitneyana var. albiflora E. M. Baxter, Calif. Cactus 39. 1935. Differing from the species in 
having more profusely branching green stems and white flowers. "Rounded mountain top 'flats' in the eastern 
Sierra Nevada Mountains near Mount Whitney." 

11. Opuntia brachyclada Griff. Short- jointed Beaver-tail. Fig. 3311. 

opuntia brachyclada Griff. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:25. 1914. 
Opuntia basilaris var. brachyclada Munz, Man. S. Calif. Bot. 325. 1935. 

Low cespitose plant forming compact clumps, 1^ joints high. Joints thick, obovate to nearly 
clavate-cylindrical, 3-6 cm. long, minutely and closely puberulent, deep green, often red-tinged; 
areoles 2-3 mm. in diameter, spineless, filled with gray wool when young, with yellow-brown 
glochids 1-3 mm. long in age ; flowers few, 4-6 cm. broad, rose to rose-purple ; fruit dry, obovoid. 
2-3 cm. long, truncate at the apex, bearing areoles and glochids similar to those of the joints. 

Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; on desert slopes of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. April-June. 

Opuntia brachyclada subsp. humistrata (Griff.) Wiggins & Wolf. (Opuntia humistrata Griff. Bull. Torrey 
Club 43: 83. 1916.) Joints 6-12 cm. long, obovate, thick but distinctly flattened, more freely branching, 4—6 
joints high; flowers few, these and fruit as in the species. Interior cismontane valleys from the San Bernardino 
Valley to Temescal Canyon, Riverside County, California. 

12. Opuntia fragilis (Nutt.) Haw. Pigmy Tuna. Fig. 3312. 

Cactus fragilis Nutt. Gen. PI. 1:296. 1818. 

Opuntia fragilis Haw. Suppl. Syn. PI. Succ. 82. 1819. 

Opuntia brachyarthra Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 302. 1856. 

Opuntia fragilis var. brachyarthra J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 440. 1896. 

Opuntia fragilis var. caespitosa Hortus in Bailey, Cyclop. Hort. 2363. 1916. 

Opuntia fragilis var. tuberiformis Hortus, loc. cit. 

Opuntia Columbiana Griff. Bull. Torrey Club 43: 523. 1916. 

Tunas fragilis Nwd. & Lunell, Amer. Midi. Nat. 4: 479. 1916. 

Low, spreading plant, sometimes forming matted clumps 1-2 dm. high, 3^ dm. in diameter 



CACTUS FAMILY 149 

of several hundred stems. Joints orbicular to obovate, 1-5 cm. long, often greatly thickened, 
subglobose, dark green, the terminal ones breaking off very easily ; areoles 2-3 mm. in diameter, 
approximate, filled with white wool and a few light yellow glochids 1-4 mm. long ; spines (2) 
5-7, straight, brown throughout or ashy yellow below, brown at tips, 1-3.5 cm. long, spreading, 
or usually 1-3 subporrect; flowers yellow, 3-4 cm. long, 2.5-5 cm. broad w-hen expanded, fila- 
ments reddish brown ; areoles on ovary bearing wool, glochids, and the upper ones a few acicular 
spines 5-10 mm. long; fruit dry, 1.5-2 cm. long, sparsely spiny, with a slightly depressed 
umbilicus ; seeds 5-6 mm. broad. 

Dry flats and hillsides. Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; southern British Columbia east to Wisconsin 
and Kansas, south to Siskiyou County, California, Arizona, and Texas. May-July. 

13. Opuntia hystricina Engelm. & Bigelow. Rock Tuna. Fig. 3313. 

Opuntia hystricina Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 299. 1856. 
Opuntia rhodantha of authors, not Shum. 1896. 

A low, prostrate plant with numerous few- jointed stems forming mound-like clumps 2-3 dm. 
high. Joints obovate to oblong or infrequently orbicular, 2.5-12 cm. long; areoles 10-15 mm. 
apart, the lower ones of the joint containing brownish glochids and short wool only, the upper 
ones spinose; spines 5-7, stout, subulate, brownish, 3-4 of them 1.5-3 cm. long, 2-3 accessory 
ones shorter, less spreading; flowers (including the ovaries) 5-6 cm. long, 6-8 cm. wide when 
expanded; petals pink or salmon color, obovate, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, apiculate; filaments yellow or 
reddish; fruit dry, armed with brownish, spreading spines 1-2 cm. long; seeds flattened, 4-5 
mm. in diameter. 

Rocky mountain sides and talus slopes, Canadian and Hudsonian Zones; vicinitv of Pinon Flats, San Tacinto 
Mountains, Riverside County, and White Mountains, northeastern Inyo County, California, to -western Nebraska. 
Aug. 

14. Opuntia polyacantha Haw. Plains Tuna. Fig. 3314. 

Cactus ferox T>!iin. Gen. PI. 1 : 296. 1818. Not Willd. 1813. 
Opuntia polyacantha Haw. Suppl. Syn. PI. Succ. 82. 1819. 
Opuntia missouriensis DC. Prod. 3: 472. 1828. 
Opuntia Schwcriniana Schum. Monatss. Kakteenk. 9 : 148. 1899. 
Tunas polyacantha Nwd. & Lunell, Amer. Midi. Nat. 4: 479. 1916. 

Low, spreading, freely branching plants forming small rounded clumps, 1-2 dm. high, 1 . 5-3 
dm. in diameter. Joints orbicular to obovate or oblong, 3-10 cm. long, light green, glabrous ; 
areoles circular to broadly elliptic, 2-3 mm. in diameter, 1 cm. or less apart, bearing dingy wool, 
yellowish to reddish brown glochids, and ashy gray to dark brown spines ; spines 5-11, 7-20 mm. 
long, on some plants 1-3 of these slender, somewhat flexuous, up to 6 cm. long ; marginal areoles 
usually bearing 1-3 flexuous white, gray, or reddish brown spines 3-8 cm. long ; flowers 4-7 cm. 
long; sepals tinged with red, apiculate; petals yellow, 2.5-4 cm. long, obovate, obtuse to emar- 
ginate; fruit dry, oblong, 2-3 cm. long, bearing 1-7 light yellow or white spines 5-15 mm. long; 
seeds 6 mm. long, the margins acute. 

Dry plains, hills and mountain valleys, in open or sparse pine woods. Arid Transition to Canadian Zones; 
British Columbia to Alberta, North Dakota, eastern Oregon, Arizona, Utah, and Texas. June-July. 

15. Opuntia erinacea Engelm. & Bigelow. Old Man Prickly Pear. Fig. 3315. 

Opuntia erinacea Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 301. 1856. 

Low plants with prostrate stems and ascending or erect branches in dense clumps, 1-6 dm. 
high, 1-3 m. in diameter. Joints suborbicular to ovate, 6-15 cm. long, light yellowish green; 
areoles prominent, 7-12 mm. apart, 3-5 mm. in diameter, bearing ashy wool, numerous sordid- 
yellow to reddish brown glochids 3-6 mm. long, and slender acicular spines; spines 3-11, white, 
ashy or dark reddish brown, straight, 1.5-7 cm. long, spreading, 1-2 spines in each areole usually 
1.5-3 times as long as the others; flowers, including the ovaries, 4-6 cm. long, nearly as broad, 
greenish yellow tinged with pink to light red, the yellow flowers fading pink; outer petals 
broadly obovate, apiculate, the inner 2-3 cm. long, obovate, the margins erosulate; fruit ovoid, 
2.5-3 cm. long, closely covered with woolly areoles bearing stiff acicular spines 5-15 mm. long; 
seeds 5-6 mm. broad. 

Gravelly washes and stony slopes, in desert mountains from 5,000 to 6,100 feet altitude. Upper Sonoran 
Zone; Mono County, San Bernardino Mountains and eastern Mojave Desert, California, to southern Utah and 
northern Arizona. April-June. 

Opuntia erinacea var. paucispina Dunkle, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 34: 3. 1935. Joints bluish green; areoles 
bearing 1-5 spines 0.5-4 cm. long. Vicinity of Ribbonwood, San Jacinto Mountains. 

16. Opuntia ursina Weber. Grizzly Bear Cactus. Fig. 3316. 

Opuntia ursina Weber in Bois, Diet. Hort. 2: 896. 1898. 

Opuntia erinacea var. ursina Parish in Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 542. 1936. 

A low, decumbent, branching plant 2-5 dm. high, forming dense mats 1-6 dm. wide. Joints 
obovate to oblong, 5-8 cm. wide, 8-15 cm. long, light green; areoles orbicular to ovoid, 3 mni. 
wide, 3-5 mm. long, 6-10 mm. apart, woolly when young, filled with yellowish to brownish 
glochids 1-5 mm. long; spines 8-15, ashy gray to white, 2-20 cm. long bnstle-like reflexed. 
flexuous, usually copious and concealing the surface; flowers 6-7 cm. long and wide; petals 



150 CACTACEAE 

yellow, suffused with red, apiculate to short-acuminate ; fruit 3—^ cm. long, obovoid-truncate, its 
areoles 3-6 mm. apart, filled with glochids and acicular spines 8-20 mm. long. 

Gravelly slopes and rocky hillsides, Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County and Ord Mountains, northeastern 
San Bernardino County, California, to southern Nevada. April-May. 

17. Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck. La Tuna or Rancheria Prickly Pear. 

Fig. 3317. 

opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck 363. 1834. 

Opuntia robusta var. megacantha Schelle, Handb. Kakteenkultur 57. 1907. 

Opuntia castillae Griff. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19:261. 1908. 

Opuntia incarnadilla Griff. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22:27. 1912. 

Arborescent, 3-6 m. tall with a definite woody spineless trunk. Joints obovate to oblong, 
3-6 dm. long, often asymmetrical and becoming concave-convex on lateral branches, pale green, 
somewhat glaucous; areoles 2.5-4 mm. in diameter, 5-8 cm. apart on large joints, bearing brown 
wool, a few light brown glochids, and 1-5 spines or spineless ; spines 1-5, brown, slightly spread- 
ing to subdeflexed, 2-3 cm. long, confined to upper and marginal areoles in most plants ; glochids 
usually deciduous, though sometimes reappearing on older joints; flowers 6-9 cm. broad, sepals 
greenish yellow, tinged with orange on the midribs ; petals yellow, to deep orange ; fruit obovate, 
7-1 1 cm. long, clear yellow or tinged with orange-red, fleshy, edible ; seeds yellowish white, 
4-6 mm. broad. 

Cultivated and occasionally escaped, Upper Sonoran Zone; in the coastal area from Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia, south into Lower California. April-July. 

18. Opuntia Ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Indian Fig or Prickly Pear. Fig. 3318. 

Cactus Ficus-indica L. Sp. PI. 468. 1753. 

Opuntia Ficus-indica Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. no. 2. 1768. 

Cactus Opuntia Guss. Prodr. Sic. 559. 1827-28. Not. L. 1753. 

Opuntia vulgaris Tenore, Syll. Fl. Neap. 239. 1831. Not Mill. 1768. 

Opuntia Ficus-barbarica Berger, Monatss. Kakteenk. 22: 181. 1912. 

Large, spreadingly branched shrub or small tree up to 5 m. high, with a definite, spineless, 
woody trunk. Joints obovate to oblong or spatulate-oblong, 15-50 cm. long, slightly glaucous; 
areoles circular or broadly elliptic, containing a tuft of short brownish wool, numerous yellow- 
brown deciduous glochids, and 1-3 spines, or sometimes spineless ; spines white, rigid, subulate, 
slightly flattened, unequal, 1.5-4 cm. long, subspreading ; flowers 6-10 cm. broad, bright yellow, 
the sepals and outer petals sometimes faintly tinged with red ; fruit obovate, 5-9 cm. long, often 
faintly pruinose, red-purple throughout the juicy flesh, the umbilicus deeply depressed; seeds 
4-5 mm. broad. 

Widely cultivated in tropical and sublropical countries, and occurring as an occasional escape about old 
gardens and ranches in coastal southern California. March-June. 

19. Opuntia chlordtica Engelm. & Bigelow. Golden Prickly Pear. Fig. 3319. 

Opuntia chlorotica Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856. 
Opuntia Tidballii Bigelow, Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 11. 1856. 
Opuntia curvospina Griff. Bull. Torrey Club 43: 88. 1916. 

Erect plant, with ascending branches, 1-2.5 m. high, usually with a definite woody trunk and 
persistent scaly gray or brownish bark densely armed with rigid deflexed spines. Joints orbicular 
to ovate, 12-20 cm. long, occasionally broader than long, light green, faintly glaucous ; leaves 
subulate, 4-6 mm. long; areoles 1-3 cm. apart, conspicuous, extending 2-4 mm. above the sur- 
face, 5-8 mm. in diameter on young joints, becoming larger in age, containing a conspicuous tuft 
of sordid-yellow wool, numerous yellow glochids and 3-7 unequal spines; spines on the joints 
1.5-4 cm. long, bright yellow, terete, mostly reflexed; those on main stem 15-40 in an areole, 
yellow, flattened, 2-5 cm. long, stellately radiating and covering whole surface ; flov(;ers yellow, 
6-7 cm. broad; petals oblong, 2.5-3 cm. long, 12-15 mm. wide; fruit reddish purple, with greenish 
flesh, 4-5 cm. long, bearing rather crowded areoles containing wool, glochids and occasionally 
a few short spines ; seeds small. 

Occasional in canyons and rocky slopes, Lower and lower parts of Upper Sonoran Zones; northeastern San 
Bernardino County to western edge of the Colorado Desert, California, to southern Nevada, New Mexico, 
Sonora, and northern Lower California. April-June. 

20. Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose. Coastal Prickly Pear. Fig. 3320. 

opuntia Engelinannii var. littoralis Engelm. Bot. Calif. 1: 248. 1876. 

Opuntia Lindhcimeri var. littoralis J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 422. 1896. 

Opuntia littoralis Britt. & Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 529. 1908. 

Opuntia occidentalis var. littoralis Parish in Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 657. 1925. 

Ascendingly branched shrub 0.6-1.5 m. high, forming extensive dense colonies. Joints 
orbicular, ovoid, obovate, or broadly oblong, 10-20 cm. wide, 15-30 cm. long, 2-5 cm. thick; 
areoles prominent, 4-7 mm. in diameter, filled with dark brown wool, yellowish glochids 1-4 mm. 
long, and bearing 2-7 (9) unequal, slightly flattened, clear yellow spines 1-3 cm. long ; spines of 
marginal areoles spreading, straight; those on face of joint mostly deflexed, curved, frequently 
slightly twisted; flowers 5-8 cm. broad, petals yellow, often suffused with red toward the base; 



CACTUS FAMILY 



151 



,^ «>v '-''.■■■'. L-'; 




3309. Opuntia Treleasei 

3310. Opuntia basilaris 

3311. Opuntia brachyclada 



3312. Opuntia fragilis 

3313. Opuntia hystricina 

3314. Opuntia polyacantha 



3315. Opuntia erinacea 

3316. Opuntia ursina 



152 CACTACEAE 

fruit fleshy, subglobose to obovoid, 4-5.5 cm. long, shallowly umbilicate, bright reddish purple, 
bearing glochids in areoles 1-1.2 cm. apart; seeds 3-4 mm. broad, the margm ridged. 

Along the coast, Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Barbara County, California, to northern Lower California; 
occasionally a few miles inland. April-July. 

21. Opuntia Vaseyi (J. M. Coult.) Britt. & Rose. Mesa Tuna or 
Vasey's Prickly Pear. Fig. 3321. 

opuntia mesacantha var. Vaseyi J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896. 

Opuntia Rafinesquei var. Vaseyi Scherm. Gesamtb. Kakteenk. 717. 1898. 

Opuntia humifusa var. Vaseyi Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. ed. 2. 8. 1900. 

Opuntia magenta Griff. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 268. 1908. 

Opuntia Vaseyi Britt. & Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 532. 1908. 

Opuntia rubiflora Davidson, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. IS: 33. 1916. 

Opuntia intricata Griff. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 29: 10. 1916. 

Opuntia Vaseyi var. magenta Parish in Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 657. 1925. 

Main stems prostrate or low-spreading, with some branches erect, 4-6 dm. high, forrning 
dense mats several meters in diameter. Joints orbicular, ovate or obovate, 8-25 cm. long, light 
green, glaucous; areoles 3-5 mm. in diameter, bearing light brown wool, glochids, some spine- 
less, others with 1-3 light brown or whitish, yellow-tipped spines 1-2 cm. long, these deflexed, 
acicular to subulate; flowers 4-5 cm. broad, salmon or salmon-yellow; fruit globose to short- 
oblong, 4-6 cm. long, spineless, bearing a few glochid-fiUed areoles, red-purple, the pulp red 
throughout, scarcely edible, umbilicus truncate or slightly depressed ; seeds brown. 

Gravelly washes and dry mesas, Upper Sonoran Zone; western and southern foothills of the San Gabriel 
and San Bernardino Mountains to western Riverside County and northern San Diego County, California. 
May-June. 

22. Opuntia Covillei Britt. & Rose. Coville's Tuna. Fig. 3322. 

Opuntia Covillei Britt. & Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 532. 1908. 

Opuntia rugosa Griff. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:27. 1914. 

Opuntia occidentalis var. Covillei Parish in Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 657. 1925. 

Opuntia phaeacantha var. Covillei Fosberg, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 33: 102. 1934. 

Ascendingly branched shrub 0.5-2 m. high. Joints narrowly obovate, 7-15 cm. wide, 10-25 
cm. long, light green to glaucous ; areoles orbicular, 3-4 mm. in diameter, filled with brownish 
wool and yellow-brown glochids 1-3 mm. long; spines 1-9 (mostly 1-3 on sides of joint), 1-4 
cm. long, terete to slightly flattened, frequently twisted, spreading, brown, or gray with a darker 
base, the tips often yellowish, dull; flowers clear yellow, 5-8 cm. broad; fruit fleshy, obovate, 
shallowly umbilicate, bright red to red-purple, 6-10 cm. long, bearing several glochid-filled 
areoles near the summit, nearly naked on the lower third ; seeds 4-5 mm. long, ridged marginally. 

Interior cismontane regions, Upper Sonoran Zone; southern California, from Los Angeles County to San 
Diego County. May-June. 

Opuntia Covillei var. Piercei (Fosberg) Munz, Man. S. Calif. 327. 1935. (O. phaeacantha var. Piercei 
Fosberg, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 33: 102. 1934.) Plant low, decumbent; spines 3.5-6 cm. long mostly on upper 
half of joint; glochids numerous, 4-10 mm. long. Dry hillsides, interior cismontane ranges Upper Sonoran Zone; 
Saugus, Los Angeles County to Warner's Hot Springs, San Diego County, California. At higher elevations 
than O. Covillei. 

23. Opuntia occidentalis Engelm. & Bigelow. Western Prickly Pear or Thicket 

Tuna. Fig. 3323. 

opuntia occidentalis Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856. 

Opuntia Engelmannii var. occidentalis Engelm. Bot. Calif. 1:248. 1876. 

Opuntia Lindheimeri var. occidentalis J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 421. 1896. 

Opuntia demissa Griff. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 29. 1911. 

Opuntia semispinosa Griff. Bull. Torrey Club 43: 89. 1916. 

Ascendingly or spreadingly branched shrub 0.6-1 m. high, forming clumps 2 to several meters 
in diameter. Joints oblong-ovate to narrowly oblong, 1-2.5 dm. long, bright green or glaucous; 
areoles broadly elliptic, remote, 1.5-3.5 cm. apart, about 3 mm. broad, filled with dark brown 
wool, numerous golden-brown to dark brown glochids 1-3 mm. long, and bearing 1-7 stout, 
brown or brown but white-tipped, terete or slightly flattened spines 1-3.5 cm. long; the long-est 
spine porrect or subporrect, the others downward-spreading; flowers 5-8 cm. long, nearly as 
broad when open, lemon-yellow with tinge of red toward base of outer perianth-segments ; fruit 
obovoid to narrowly pyriform, 4-8 cm. long, red-purple, seeds orbicular, flattened, 8-10 mm. 
broad and prominently margined. 

Subcoastal hillsides and washes. Upper Sonoran Zone; from Ventura County, California, to northern Lower 
California, occasionally reaching the coast from Los Angeles County southward. April-July. 

24. Opuntia megacarpa Griff. Large-fruited Tuna. Fig. 3324. 

opuntia megacarpa Griff. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 91. 1909. 

Opuntia Engelmannii var. megacarpa Fosberg, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 33: 100. 1934. 

Decumbent spreading shrub 5-8 dm. high, forming open clumps up to 2.5 m. wide. Joints 
broadly oval to suborbicular, 9-12 cm. wide, 15^17 cm. long, thin, rarely over 2 cm. thick, bluish 



CACTUS FAMILY 153 

green ; areoles broadly elliptic, 3-4 mm. long, bearing grayish wool and comparatively few 
yellow-brown glochids 1-4 mm. long; spines 1-2 (occasionally 4), terete or somewhat flattened, 
dull, light gray, or sometimes darker at the base, 1-4 cm. long, mainly on the upper two-thirds 
of the joint; flowers yellow, 5-6 cm. broad; fruit subglobose to obovoid, shallowly umbilicate, 
5-7 cm. long, bright reddish purple ; seeds 4-5 mm. long. 

Western edge of Mojave and Colorado Deserts, upper Lower Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Los 
Angeles County to San Diego County, California. May-July. 

25. Opuntia mojavensis Engelni. & Bigelow. Mojave Tuna or Lost Tuna. 

Fig. 3325. 

opuntia mojavensis Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856. 
Opuntia phaeacantha var. mojavensis Fosberg, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 33: 103. 1934. 

Low prostrate plant forming small patches, or occurring as isolated individuals. Joints 
orbicular to obovate, 2-3 dm. long ; light green and shiny, or tinged with red along the margins ; 
areoles distant, 1.5-3 cm. apart, bearing sordid yellow glochids 3-10 mm. long and from 1-6 
spines or spineless ; spines somewhat flattened, reddish brown at the base with whitish or yel- 
lowish tips, unequal, the main one 4-6 cm. long, usually somewhat t\yisted, angled, deflexed or 
downward-spreading, the others slenderer, shorter; flowers 5-6 cm. wide, yellow; style, stamens 
and stigma pale yellow; fruit narrowly ovate, 2-3 cm. long, red throughout, spineless, or with 
1-2 slender spines near the apex ; seeds about 5 mm. wide, irregularly angled. 

Washes and adjacent slopes, low Upper Sonoran Zone; Providence, New York, and Clark Mountains, 
eastern Mojave Desert, California. May-June. 

2. CARNEGIEA Britt. & Rose, Journ. N.Y. Bot. Card. 9: 187. 1908. 

A large columnar cactus with erect, stout, many-ribbed stems and branches, and 
crowded areoles bearing spines and tufts of brown felt. Flowers borne singly at the 
uppermost areoles, funnel form-campanulate, diurnal, the tube cylindrical; scales on the 
tube felted in the axils; inner perianth-segments white, waxy, short, spreading to re- 
flexed. Ovary oblong. Stamens numerous, stigma-lobes narrowly linear, slightly exceed- 
ing the stamens. Fruit ovoid to ellipsoid, sparingly spinose, fleshy, containing a red 
edible pulp filled with small, black, shining seeds. Embryo sharply curved, cotyledons 
incumbent. [Named in honor of Andrew Carnegie.] 

A monotypic genus of the southwestern United States and northern Sonora. 

1. Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. «Sz; Rose. Sahuaro or Giant Cactus. 

Fig. 3326. 

Cereus giganteus Engelm. in Emory, Notes Mil. Rec. 159. 1848. 
Pilocereus Engelmannii Lemaire, 111. Hortic. 9: Misc. 97. 1862. 
Pilocereus giganteus Riimpler in Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 662. 1885. 
Carnegiea gigantea Britt. & Rose, Journ. N.Y. Bot. Card. 9: 188. 1908. 

Stem simple and upright, or with 1 to several lateral branches, up to 16 m. high; branches 
3-6.5 dm. in diameter. Ribs 12-25, obtuse, 1-3 cm. high, varying in width with the water 
supply ; areoles 2-4 cm. apart on older growth, closely crowded at apex of stem, densely brown- 
felted; spines at the top of the flowering plant acicular, yellowish brown, porrect; those on 
sterile branches or older parts of the plant, broader, stouter, subulate, the central stouter than 
the radial spines, up to 7-8 cm. long, usually dark brown to black; flowers 10-12 cm. long, 5-8 
cm. in diameter when fully expanded; tube 1-1.5 cm. long, green; throat 2.5-3.5 cm. long, 
expanded; filaments white; style 5-6.5 cm. long, cream-colored to white; ovary bearmg scales 
with felted axils ; fruit red to purple, 6-10 cm. long, splitting irregularly down the sides ; seeds 
about 0.75 mm. in diameter. 

On gravelly slopes, rocky ridges, and outwash fans, Lower Sonoran Zone; from northern Arizona and 
along the Colorado River in Riverside and Imperial Counties, California, to northern Sonora and Lower Cali- 
fornia. May. 

3. BERGEROCACTUS Britt. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 12: 435. 1909. 

Low colonial cactus with branching cylindrical, erect, ascending and procumbent 
stems. Ribs many, low; spines many and closely interlaced, bright yellow, acicular. 
Flowers small, with widely spreading pale yellow petals; scales on the short tube and 
ovary small, bearing wool and slender spines in their axils; perianth-segments obtuse. 
Fruit globular, dry, closely covered with straight slender spines. Seeds obovate, black, 
pitted ; embryo curved. [Named in honor of the German botanist, Alwin Berger.] 

A monotypic genus. Type species, Cereus Emoryi Engelm. 

1. Bergerocactus Emoryi (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose. Cunado or 
Golden-spined Cereus. Fig. 3327. 

Cereus Emoryi Engelm. Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 338. 1852. 
Echinocereus Emoryi Riimpler in Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 804. 1885. 
Bergerocactus Emoryi Britt. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 12: 435. 1909. 

Branches 0.2-1.5 m. long, stout, erect, ascending or procumbent, spreading then rooting on 



154 



CACTACEAE 




3323 

3317. Opuntia megacantha 

3318. Opuntia Ficus-indica 

3319. Opuntia chlorotica 



3324 

3320. Opuntia littoralis 

3321. Opuntia Vaseyi 

3322. Opuntia Covillei 



3325 

3323. Opuntia occidentalis 

3324. Opuntia megacarpa 

3325. Opuntia mojavensis 



CACTUS FAMILY 155 

the lower side, 2-4 cm. in diameter, entirely clothed with a dense mat of bright yellow spines, 
turning gray to nearly black in age; ribs 18-25, 2-3 mm. high, somewhat tuberculate; spines 
10-30 at an areole, slender-acicular, 1-6 of central spines sometimes 6 cm. long; flowers 2-2.5 
cm. broad when expanded, the outer perianth-segments obtuse, obovate 5-8 mm. long, lemon- 
yellow, tinged with green, inner segments narrower, oblong, 8-10 mm. long, almost or quite 
devoid'of the greenish tinge; fruit globular, 2-3.5 cm. in diameter, covered with spines 0.5-1.5 
cm. long, dry; seeds oblong, black, shining, pitted, about 2.5-3 mm. long. 

On coastal bluffs and hillsides never more than a few miles from the sea, Lower and lower Upper Sonoran 
Zones; from the vicinity of San Diego and Santa Catalina Island, California, southward a few miles beyond 
Rosari'o, Lower California. April-May. 

4. ECHINOCEREUS Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. Tour. North. Mexico. 91. 1848. 

Low erect, prostrate, or pendent, usually cespitose plants with globose to cylindric 
stems, which are considerably elongated if prostrate or pendent over rocks or cliffs. 
Spines of flowering and sterile areoles similar, acicular, subulate, terete or flattened, 
crowded or distant. Flowers usually (always in ours) large, diurnal, campanulate to short 
funnelform, the tube and ovary spiny. Stigma-lobes green. Fruit thin-skinned, spiny, 
though spines easily removed when mature. Seeds black, tuberculate. [Name Greek, 
referring to the spiny fruit.] 

A genus of about 60 (65-70) species in the western United States and Mexico. Type species, Echinocereus 
viridiflorus Engelm. 

Stems in loose clusters, 3-20; flowers rose-purple. 1. E. Engelmannii. 
Stems crowded in compact mounds, 10-300; flowers pink or scarlet. 

Flowers cerise-pink; stems 10-60. 2. E. Muneii. 

Flowers scarlet; stems up to several hundred. 3. E. mojavensis. 

1. Echinocereus Engelmannii (Parry) Riimpler. Saints' Cactus. Fig. 3328. 

Cereus Engelmannii Parry ex Engelm. Amer. Jour. Sci. II. 14: 338. 18S2. 

Cereus Engelmannii var. variegatus Enselni. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 283. 18S6. 

Echinocereus Engelmannii Rumpler in Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 805. 1885. 

Echinocereus Engelmannii var. variegatus Riimpler in Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 806. 1885. 

Loosely branched cespitose plant with 3-20 ascending cylindric branches 1-3.5 dm. high, 5-8 
cm. in diameter. Ribs 11-14, obtuse, 5-10 mm. high; areoles nearly circular; radial spmes 
8-15, 1-1.5 cm. long, appressed-spreading, rigid, straight or slightly curved; central spines 3-6, 
stout, more or less twisted and curved, white to brown, terete to slightly flattened, 3-4 (7) cm. 
long; flowers 5-8 cm. long, as broad or broader when expanded, reddish purple; perianth- 
segments oblong, acuminate, 3-4 cm. long; fruit ovoid to oblong, 2.S-3 cm. long covered with 
clusters of acicular spines and woolly felt borne in the a.xils of acuminate scales 3-5 mm. long ; 
seeds black, globose, 1-1.5 mm. in diameter, tuberculate. 

Gravelly or stony hillsides and washes, Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County through Mojave and Colorado 
Deserts, California, to southern Utah, Arizona, Lower California, and Sonora. April-May. 

2. Echinocereus Munzii (Parish) L. Benson. Munz's Nigger-head. Fig. 3329. 

Cereus Munzii Parish, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 25: 48. 1926. 

Echinocereus Engelmannii var. Munzii Pierce & Fosb. Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 32: 123. 1933. 

Echinocereus Munzii L. Benson, Amer. Journ. Bot. 28: 361. 1941. 

A cespitose plant with 10-60 oblong stems 10-20 cm. long, compactly crowded in cushion-like 
clumps. Ribs 10-20, undulate, low; spines all white to ashy gray, radials 8-16,_ acicular to nar- 
rowly subulate, spreading and interlocking, unequal, 2-3 cm. long; central spines 1^, stouter 
than the radials, 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers campanulate, 4-7 cm. long, 3-4 cm broad when ex- 
panded, cerise-pink; perianth-segments obtuse; floral tube and ovary clothed with clusters ot 
unequal, white acicular spines 5-12 mm. long, embedded in short, felt-like white wool; truit 
obovoid 2-2.5 cm. long, red, clothed with clusters of acicular readily deciduous spines; seeds 
rugulose. 

Dry stony slopes along the lower margins of the Arid Transition Zone; desert side of the San Bernardino 
and San Jacinto Mountains, California, southward into northern Lower California. May. 

3. Echinocereus mojavensis (Engelm. & Bigelow) Rumpler. Mojave Nigger- 

heads. Fig. 3330. 

Cereus mojavensis Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 281. 1856. 
Cereus Bigelovii Engelm. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: pi. 4. fig. 8. 1856. 
Echinocereus mojavensis Rumpler in Forster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 803. 1885. 

A cespitose plant with sometimes several hundred (to 800) closely crowded globose to oblong 
pale green spiny stems 5-20 cm. long, 4-7 cm. in diameter, forming rounded mounds. Ribs («) 
10-13, 5-6 mm. high, undulate, obtuse and becoming indistinct toward the base of the stem; 
spines white to gray, the radial spines 3-10, acicular, 1-2.5 cm. long, spreadmg and interlocking, 
straight or slightly curved; central spines 1-3, subulate, 2.5-5 cm. long porrect to spreading 
more or less flexuous ; flowers 5-7 cm. long, scarlet, narrower than long when expanded; 



156 CACTACEAE 

perianth-segments broadly obovate, obtuse to retuse ; stigma-lobes green ; ovary and fruit clothed 
with groups of short acicular spines embedded in white felt ; fruit oblong, 2-3 cm. long. 

Rocky hillsides, cliffs, mountain valley floors, and mesas in the desert ranges, Lower Sonoran to lower Arid 
Transition Zones; Inyo County south to San Bernardino County, California, east to Nevada, Arizona, and San 
Felipe Desert, Lower California. May. 

5. ECHINOCACTUS Link & Otto, Verb. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 3: 420. 1827. 

Single or cespitose plants with globose or cylindrical stems clothed with dense mat of 
wool or naked at the apex. Ribs few to many. Areoles large, very spiny. Flowers borne 
on the crown of the plant, yellow or pink, medium in size; flower-tube covered with 
imbricate, persistent, pungent scales. Ovary clothed with narrower scales having axillary 
mats of wool. Fruit densely white-woolly, dry, thin-walled, oblong. Seeds black, smooth, 
shining or papillose; hilum subbasal. [Name Greek, meaning hedgehog cactus, referring 
to the rigid spines.] 

A genus of about 12 species (narrower sense) of Mexico and the southwestern United States. Type species, 
Echinocactui platyocanthus Link & Otto. 

1. Echinocactus polycephalus Engelm. & Bigelow. Nigger-beads. Fig. 3331. 

Echinocactus polycephalus Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3:276. 1856. 
Echinocactus polycephalus var. flavispinus Haage Jr. Monatss. Kakteenk. 9: 43. 1899. 

Solitary when very young, but soon forming clumps of 3-60 heads, each globular to oblong- 
ovoid, 1-3 (7) dm. high. Ribs 10-21, 2-3 cm. high, tuberculately irregular ; areoles 10—12 mm. in 
diameter; radial spines 8-10, unequal, 2.5-5 cm. long, woolly and reddish when young, glabrate 
and gray to black in age, subulate, flattened ; central spines 3-5, stouter than the radial ones, 
more or less annulate, curved but not hooked, 3-10 cm. long ; flowers 5-6 cm. long, yellow ; 
perianth-segments linear-oblong, entire ; scales on flower-tube and ovary small, obscured by 
wool ; fruit 1 .5-2.5 cm. long, dehiscing by a basal pore ; seeds angulate, dull black, 3-4 mm. long. 

Rocky hillsides and gravelly slopes. Lower Sonoran Zone; deserts of San Bernardino County, California, 
to southern Utah, Arizona, northern Sonora, and Lower California. Feb. -March. 

6. FEROCACTUS Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 3: 123. 1922. 

Globular or cylindrical, often massive cacti. Ribs thick and prominent, often slightly 
twisted spirally about the stem. Spines heavy, straight or hooked, the central ones usually 
flattened and annulate. Areoles large, having flowers just above the spine clusters and 
more or less woolly-felted when young. Flowers conspicuous, broadly funnelform to 
campanulate, the tubes very short. Stamens numerous, short, borne in the throat of the 
corolla, about one-third to one-half the length of the perianth-segments. Ovary and 
flower-tube scaly, the scales naked in their axils. Fruit oblong, thick -walled and leathery, 
usually dry at maturity and dehiscing by a large basal pore. Seeds black, pitted; embryo 
curved. [From the Latin word, ferns, fierce, and cactus, referring to the heavy arma- 
ment.] 

A genus of about 35 species, all from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Type species, 
Echinocactus Wislizenii Engelm. 

Plants low, rarely over 2 dm. high; radial spines heavy; flowers greenish. 1. F. viridescens. 

Plants 0.5-3 m. high; some of the radial spines bristly or acicular; flowers yellow. 2. F. acanthodes. 

1. Ferocactus viridescens (Torr. & Gray) Britt. & Rose. San Diego Barrel 

Cactus. Fig. 3332. 

Echinocactus viridescens Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 554. 1840. 
Melocactus viridescens Nutt. in Teschemacher, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 293. 1845. 
Echinocactus limitus Engelm. in J. M. Couit. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 374. 1896. 
Ferocactus viridescens Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 3: 140. pi. 14. 1922. 

Simple, rarely 1-2 branched at the base, globose or subglobose-depressed when young, be- 
coming short-cylindric in age, 2.5-3.5 dm. in diameter, 3^ dm. high, usually broader than high; 
ribs 10-20, rounded or obtusely angled, 1-2 cm. high, undulate. Areoles narrow, elliptic, 1-2 cm. 
long, spinescent in the lower part, floriferous and felted in the upper part ; spines bright red to 
brown or yellowish, central spines 4, stout, flattened and somewhat annulate, cruciately spreading, 
the three upper about 2 cm. long, the lowest one stouter, 2.5-3.5 cm. long; radial spines 10-20, 
spreading, 1-2 cm. long, acicular, but heavy; flowers greenish yellow, 3.5-4 cm. long; perianth- 
segments oblong, serrulate on the margins, with reddish midveins ; scales on the ovary sub- 
cordate, imbricate when young, distinct in age ; fruit 1 . 5-2 cm. long, yellowish green, or some- 
times tinged with red; seeds about 1.5 mm. long, minutely pitted. 

Dry grassy hillsides near the sea coast. Upper Sonoran Zone; from vicinity of San Diego Bay, California, 
southward about fifty miles near the sea in northern Lower California. March-May. 



CACTUS FAMILY 157 

2. Ferocactus acanthodes (Lemaire) Britt. & Rose. Miner's Compass. 

Fig. 3333. 

Echinocactus acanthodes Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 106. 1839. 

Echinocactus viridescens var. cylindraceus Eng-elm. Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 338. 1852. 

Echinocactus cylindraceus Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 275. 1856. 

Echinocactus californicus Schum. Gesamtb. Kakteenk. 357. 1898. 

Echinocactus Copoldii Schum. loc. cit. 

Ferocactus acanthodes Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 3 : 129. 1922. 

Ferocactus Rostii Britt. & Rose, op. cit. 146. 

Simple or cespitose, globular when young but becoming cylindrical and 2-2.5 m. high, very 
spiny, the body almost completely hidden by the tangle of spines; ribs 20-30, acute, 1-2.5 cm. 
high. Areoles 1-1 . 5 cm. in diameter, densely brown-felted when young, crowded ; spines bright 
red to clear yellow; central spines 1-4, subulate, slender, somewhat flattened or only angled, 
annulate, often tortuous and more or less curved, not hooked at the tips, 5-12 cm. long; radial 
spines of 5-7 stout and 2-7 slender bristle-like spines, or the latter type lacking; flowers cam- 
panulate, yellow, often tinged with orange or red, 4-6 cm. long, the limb about as broad when ex- 
panded ; scales of tube and ovary imbricate when young, ovate, blotched with purple on the back ; 
perianth-segments oblong to spatulate, often erosulate ; filaments yellow ; style greenish yellow ; 
fruit 3-3.5 cm. long, oblong; seeds 3-3.5 mm. long, pitted. 

Dry rocky desert slopes and hillsides, Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County, California, to Nevada, Arizona, 
northwestern Sonora, and to southern Sierra San Pedro Martir, Lower California. April-June. 

7. ECHINOMASTUS Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 3: 147. 1922. 

Plants small, globose to short-cylindric, with low^, somewhat spiraled ribs divided into 
low but usually distinct tubercles. Areoles bearing several spreading, often intricately 
intertangled acicular spines, central spines 1 to several or absent, straight or slightly 
curved but not hooked, when present usually stoutish. Flowers borne at base of short, 
woolly groove nearly buried by spine-cluster in young areoles near apex of plant, purple 
or pinkish purple. Fruit oblong, scaly, at length dry, dehiscing by a basal pore, the scales 
and their axils naked. Seeds black, muricate, the hilum ventral, depressed. [Name Greek, 
meaning breast of a hedgehog, referring to the spiny tubercles.] 

A genus of less than a dozen species from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Type 
species, Echinocactus erectocentrus J. M. Coult. 

1. Echinomastus Johnsonii (Parry) E. M. Baxter. Eight-spined Hedgehog. 

Fig. 3334. 

Echinocactus Johnsonii Parry in Engelm. Bot. King Expl. 117. 1871. 

Echinocactus Johnsonii \s,r. octocentrus J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 374. 1896. 

Ferocactus Johnsonii Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 3: 141. 1922. 

Echinomastus Johnsonii E. M. Baxter, Calif. Cactus 75. 1935. 

Simple oval plant 8-15 cm. tall, 6-10 cm. in diameter; ribs 17-21, narrow, 3-6 mm. high, 
undulate-tuberculate, almost completely hidden by the interlocking spines. Areoles 1.5-2 cm. 
apart vertically, with a short, narrow woolly groove running from the upper margin of the areole 
to the axil of the tubercle ; apex of plant devoid of spines but a heavily felted-over circular patch 
1-1.5 cm. in diameter at the apex; radial spines 9-14, grayish to yellowish, tinged with red 
toward the apex, often becoming darker in age, 1-2 cm. long, radiate-spreading ; central spines 
4-8, stouter, darker red, 2-3.5 cm. long, straight, distinctly bulbous at the base, divaricately 
spreading; flowers 4-6 cm. long, nearly as wide, the petals pink to deep rose or red and with a 
silvery sheen; scales of the ovary obtuse, membranous on the margins; fruit oblong, 10-15 mm. 
long, nearly naked ; seeds finely reticulate-pitted. 

Rocky hillsides in lime-impregnated soil. Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County, California, and adjacent 
Arizona and Nevada. March-April. 

8. SCLEROCACTUS Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 3: 212. 1922. 

Simple, or rarely cespitose cactus with undulate, tuberculate prominent ribs, inter- 
tangled spines of three kinds. Areoles bearing short, terete, white acicular radial spines, 
maroon to bright red, longer, terete, strongly hooked central spines and angulate, flat- 
tened, somewhat tortuous, white, unhooked spines in upper part of the areole. Flowers 
borne above and adjacent to areoles near apex of plant, subcampanulate. Ovary oblong, 
with tufts of short wool in the axils of the scattered scales. Fruit pyriform, dehiscing 
by a basal pore, nearly naked. Seeds tuberculate, large ; embryo curved, endosperm abun- 
dant. [Name Greek, referring to the formidable hooked spines.] 

A genus of 2 species from the deserts of the southwestern United States. Type species, Echinocactus 

potyancistrus Engelm. & Bigelow. 



158 



CACTACEAE 




3326. Carnegiea gigantea 

3327. Bergerocactus Emoryi 

3328. Echinocereus Engelmannii 



3329. Echinocereus Munzii 

3330. Echinocereus mojavensis 



3331. Echinocactus polycepbalus 

3332. Ferocactus viridescens 



CACTUS FAMILY 159 

1. Sclerocactus polyancistrus (Engelm. & Bigelow) Britt, & Rose. Mojave 

Bisnaga. Fig. 3335. 

Echinocactus polyancistrus Engelm. & Bigelow in Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 272. 1856. 
Sclerocactus polyancistrus Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 3: 213. 1922. 

Simple globose to oblong plant up to 4 dm. high. Ribs 12-17, obtuse, 1-1.5 cm. high, strongly- 
undulate; radial spines 15-20, terete, 1-2.5 cm. long; hooked central spines 6-8, 3-6 cm. long, 
spreading, borne on the lower two-thirds of the areole, the upper third bearing 2-4 (usually 3) 
flattened, erect, white spines 4-12 cm. long; flowers magenta, 4-6 cm. long; inner perianth- 
segments oblong, 3-4 cm. long ; tube 2-3 mm. long ; stamens numerous, half as long as the peri- 
anth ; style 1-1.5 cm. longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes greenish; fruit becoming dry, nearly 
scaleiess, 3-i cm. long ; seeds black, 4 mm. long, hilum sublateral. 

Occasional on gravelly slopes and mesas, Lower Sonoran Zone; Mojave Desert, California, into southern 
Nevada and Utah, and northwestern Arizona. May. 

9. PEDIOCACTUS Britt. & Rose in Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2. 2: 569. 1913. 

Small globose, single or cespitose leafless cactus with large tubercles borne on 8-13 
low spiraled ribs. Areoles woolly when young, becoming naked. Flowers broadly cam- 
panulate, with a very short tube, pink, borne just to one side of the areole at the apex of 
a tubercle, the outer perianth-segments shorter than the inner; inner perianth-segments 
oblong, acute to mucronate ; axils of scales on the tube naked. Stamens numerous. Ovary 
globose, green. Fruit dry, greenish, dehiscing irregularly along the side._ Seeds black, 
tuberculate, keeled on the back ; hilum subbasal, large. [Name Greek, meaning plains and 
cactus.] 

A monotypic genus of western United States. Type species, Echinocactus Simpsonii Engelm. 

1. Pediocactus Simpsonii (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose. Hedgehog-thistle. Fig. 3336. 

Echinocactus Simpsonii Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 197. 1863. 

Echinocactus Simpsonii var. minor Engelm. loc. cit. 

Mammillaria Simpsonii M. E. Jones, Zoe 3: 302. 1893. 

Mammillaria Purpusii Schum. Moiiatss. Kakteenk. 4: 165. 1894. 

Echinocactus Simpsonii var. robustior J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 377. 1896. 

Pediocactus Simpsonii Britt. & Rose in Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2. 2: 570. 1913. 

Plants depressed-globose, turbinate at the base, 15-25 cm. in diameter, with strong, con- 
tiguous ovoid tubercles 1.5-2 cm. long. Radial spines 10-15, white, acicular, spreadmg hori- 
zontally, 10-25 mm. long ; central spines 8-12, stouter and longer than the radials, 1-3 cm. long, 
white to yellowish at the base, reddish brown to nearly black toward the tips, erect-spreadmg; 
flowers 2-3.5 cm. long, crowded in the center of the plant, surrounded by white to brownish 
wool; outer perianth-segments obtuse, serrulate; inner perianth-segments linear-oblong, acute; 
filaments, style and stigma-lobes yellow, fruit 6-8 mm. in diameter; seeds asymmetrically obo- 
vate, 3 mm. long. 

In dry interior mountain valleys and rocky ridges, timberless Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; 
central Washington to Nevada. April-May. 

10. CORYPHAnTHA (Engelm.) Lemaire, Cactees 32. 1868. 

Solitary or cespitose plants with globose to cylindric stems bearing conspicuous, 
spirally arranged tubercles. Tubercles mammillate, narrowly grooved from apex to base 
when mature. Flowers borne near the top of the plant in the axils of young tubercles, 
comparatively large and showy ; perianth-segments withering-persistent._ Ovary naked or 
sparsely scaly in some species. Fruit ovoid to oblong, greenish to yellowish. Seeds brown 
(or black), smooth to finely reticulate; hilum subbasal; embryo curved. [Name Greek, 
referring to the apical position of the flowers.] 

A genus of 40-50 species from the southern United States to central Mexico (one species ranging north to 
southern Canada). Type species, Mammillaria sulcolanata Lemaire. 

Central spines 12-14; tubercles broad, less than 1 cm. long. 1- C. Alversontt. 

Central spines 2-6; tubercles slender, 12-25 mm. long. 

Tubercles 12-15 mm. long; flowers straw-colored, or tinged with rose or purple toward the tips 3 cm. 

broad; radial spines 20-25. 2. C. desertu 

Tubercles 20-25 mm. long; flowers rose to purple, 5-7 cm. broad; radial spines 15-20. 3. C. amontca. 

1. Coryphantha Alversonii (J. M. Coult.) Orcutt. Foxtail Cactus. Fig. 3337. 

Cactus radiosus var. Alversonii J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 122. 1894. 
Mammillaria Alversonii Zeiss. Monatss. Kakteenk. 5: 70. 1895. 
Mammillaria radiosa var. Alversonii Schum. Gesamtb. Kakteenk. 481. 1898. 
Coryphantha Alversonii Orcutt, Cactography 3. 1926. 

Stems simple, or infrequently 1-2-branched at the base, oblong to short-cylindric, 1-2 dm. 
high, 5-8 (10) cm. in diameter. Tubercles short and thick; radial spines 20-3:), acicular, 1-/ cm. 



160 CACTACEAE 

long, white, or slightly tipped with black, closely interlocking-spreading, nearly concealing the 
stem; central spines much stouter, 10-14, unequal, 1-2.5 cm. long, divaricately spreading, white 
to ash-yellow at the base, shading through deep maroon to black from about the middle toward 
the tips; flowers 2.5-3 cm. long, about 1.5 cm. broad when expanded; perianth-segments with 
rose-colored midveins, shading into light purple toward the margins; outer perianth-segments 
ciliate-margined ; style and stigma-lobes white ; fruit clavate, green, naked or nearly so ; seeds 
brown, minutely tuberculate. 

Infrequent on rocky mesas and in desert mountain canyons, Lower _ Sonoran Zone; Morongo Valley to 
Indio and in the mountains between the Mojave and Colorado Deserts, California. May. 

2. Coryphantha deserti (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose. Yellow Foxtail Cactus. 

Fig. 3338. 

Mammillaria deserti 'Engelm. Bot. Calif. 2: 449. 1880. 

Cactus radiosus var. deserti J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 121. 1894. 
Mammillaria radiosa var. deserti Schum. Gesamtb. Kakteenk. 481. 1898. 
Coryphantha deserti Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 46. 1923, in part. 

Simple or very rarely 1-3-branched, globose, ovoid to short-cylindric plant 5-25 cm. high, 
6-9 cm. in diameter, densely covered with interlocking spines. Areoles slender, 8-12 mm. long; 
radial spines 20-25 (30), acicular, unequal, 9-16 mm. long, spreading, white or ash-gray, black- 
tipped; central spines 2-4, stout, terete, 5-15 mm. long, somewhat spreading, those at top of 
plant black or blue-black on the upper half, fading through red to white at the base, the whole 
spine light at base of old plants; flowers straw-colored, tipped with pink or rose, 2.5-3 cm. wide 
when expanded, outer perianth-segments ciliate; fruit oblong; seeds obliquely obovate, curved, 
minutely pitted. 

Infrequent on rocky hillsides and mesas. Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County to the southern edge of the 
Mojave Desert in eastern San Bernardino County, eastward to Utah. May. 

3. Coryphantha arizonica (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose. Arizona Foxtail Cactus. 

Fig. 3339. 

Mammillaria arizonica Engelm. Bot. Calif. 1: 124. 1876. 

Cactus radiosus var. arizonica J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 121. 1894. 
Mammillaria radiosa var. arizonica Sebum. Gesamtb. Kakteenk. 481. 1898. 
Coryphantha arizonica Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 45. 1923. 

Solitary or in age forming cespitose clumps up to 1 m. wide, each head globose to ovoid, 6-10 
cm. in diameter. Tubercles large, 2-2.5 cm. long, cylindric, often slightly curved upward, the 
groove deep ; radial spines 12-20, acicular, rigid, unequal, 1-3 cm. long, spreading but scarcely 
interlocking, white or ashy ; central spines 2-6, stouter, deep brown on upper part, whitish at the 
base, 1-2 . 5 cm. long ; flowers 5-7 cm. broad, pink to rose ; outer perianth-segments _ linear- 
subulate, the margins fimbriate ; inner perianth-segments alternately linear-lanceolate ; fruit oval ; 
seeds compressed, pitted. 

On rocky mesas and desert mountain canyons. Lower Sonoran Zone; from eastern San Bernardino County 
in the vicinity of Cima and Goff eastward into northern Arizona, southern Nevada, and possibly southern Utah. 
May. 

11. PHELLOSPERMA Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 60. 1923. 

A solitary or few-branched cespitose cactus w^ith globose to cylindrical stems and 
large fleshy, simple or branched roots. Tubercles terete, not grooved, naked in the axils. 
Flowers axillary to older tubercles, funnel form. Fruit obovate to narrowly clavate, bright 
red. Seeds dull black, rugulose, embedded in a thick corky base nearly as large as the 
seed proper. [Name Greek, referring to the corky base of the seed.] 

A monotypic genus of the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico. Type species, Mammillaria 
tetrancistra Engelm. 

1. Phellosperma tetrancistra (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose. Yaqui Cactus. Fig. 3340. 

Mammillaria tetrancistra Engelm. Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 14: 337. 1852. 
Mammillaria Phellosperma Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3:262. 1856. 
Cactus Phellosperma Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 261. 1891. 
Cactus tetrancistrus J. M. Coult. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 104. 1894. 
Phellosperma tetrancistra Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 60. 1923. 

Stems oblong to cylindrical, 5-35 cm. high, densely spiny ; root carrot-like or branched. 
Tubercles commonly elongated; radial spines 30-60, acicular, white or slightly darkened toward 
the tip, spreading, forming a dense white covering; central spines 4 (rarely only 1), from 1 to 
all of them hooked, 1-2.5 cm. long; flowers 2.5—3.5 cm. long, rose, orchid, or light purple; tube 
naked, slender, greenish at the base ; scales at apex of tube and outer perianth-segments ciliate- 
margined; style and stigma-lobes cream-colored; fruit 1.5-3.5 cm. long, depressed-umbilicate 
at the apex; seeds 1.8-2.2 mm. in diameter. 

_ Gravelly or stony slopes and mesas, Lower Sonoran Zone; southern Nevada and Utah to northern Lower 
California and western Arizona. April. 



CACTUS FAMILY 



161 




^ii/Cw:<M> 



3334 



3336 









nl^ 










;1" 



;>^; 



m. 








3338 



3333. Ferocactus acanthodes 

3334. Echinomastus Johnsonii 

3335. Sclerocactus polyancistrus 



3339 

3335. Pediocactus Simpsonii 

3337. Coryphantha Alversonii 

3338. Coryphantha deserti 



'\^'P#L 



3340 

3339. Coryphantha arizonica 

3340. Phellosperma tetrancistra 



162 



CACTACEAE 



12. MAMMILLArIA Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 177. 1812. 

Small, globose, to short-cylindric plants with watery or milky juice. Tubercles terete, 
angled, or flattened, in spiral rows, usually woolly but glandless in the axils and tipped 
by spine-areoles ; spines all alike or (in ours) with central ones differing from the radials, 
often hooded. Flowers diurnal, axillary to the tubercles, campanulate, small, perianth- 
segments narrow, spreading. Stamens numerous, borne in lower part of the tube, in- 
cluded. Style equaling stamens. Fruit clavate, naked, scarlet. Seeds brown or (in ours) 
black, small, shining ; embryo curved. [From the Latin word mammilla, meaning breast, 
nipple, in reference to the shape of the tubercles.] 

A genus of over ISO species of the southwestern United States and Mexico. Two species occur in the West 
Indies. Type species, Mammillaria simplex Haw. based on Cactus mammillaris L. 



Outer perianth-segments not ciliate, yellowish; areoles densely woolly when young. 
Outer perianth-segments ciliate, white tinged with rose or purple; areoles naked. 



1. M. dioica. 

2. M. microcarpa. 



1, Mammillaria dioica K. Brandg. Strawberry Cactus or Pitayita. Fig. 3341. 

Mammillaria dioica K. Brandg. Erythea 5: IIS. 1897. 
Mammillaria Fordii Orcutt, West Amer. Sci. 13:49. 1902. 
Neomammillaria dioica Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 158. 1923. 
Mammillaria incerta Parish in Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 549. 1936. 

Solitary or cespitose, plant-body cylindric, 4-25 {ZZ) cm. tall. Axils of tubercles woolly 
and more or less short-setose; radial spines 10-20, white, or in some the tips rose-colored, 
purplish, brown or black, 5-8 mm. long, spreading ; central spines 1^, brown, the lower one 
stouter and hooked ; flowers yellowish white with a pink or purplish midrib, 10-20 mm. long, 
incompletely dioecious; inner perianth-segments usually notched at the apex; styles white or 
greenish ; stigma-lobes yellowish to green ; fruit scarlet, ovoid to clavate, 10-25 mm. long ; seeds 
black, shining, minutely pitted. 

Grassy hillsides and gravelly slopes, Lower and Upper Sonoran Zones; San Diego County, California, 
southward along the western side of the mountains to Magdalena Bay, Lower California. Feb.-April. 

2. Mammillaria microcarpa Engelm. Pincushion Cactus. Fig. 3342. 

Mammillaria microcarpa Engelm. in Emory, Notes Mil. Rec. 157. 1848. 

Mammillaria Grahamii Engelm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 262. 1856. 

Cactus Grahamii Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1:260. 1891. 

Mamtnillaiia Grahamii var. arisontca Quehl, Monatss. Kakteenk. 6: 44. 1896. 

Coryphantha Grahamii Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 581. 1917. 

Neomammillaria microcarpa Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 155. 1923. 

Cespitose or simple plant 4-8 cm. high, with small tubercles becoming corky in age. Axils 
of tubercles naked; radial spines 15-30, spreading, white or with dark tips, 6-10 mm. long, 
usually nearly hiding the flesh of the plant ; central spines 1-3, dark brown to purplish black, 
if more than one, the lower stouter and hooked, 12-18 mm. long; flowers near the top of the 
plant, 2-2 . 5 cm. long, broadly f unnelf orm ; outer perianth-segrnents ovate, obtuse ; inner perianth- 
segments obovate, acuminate, with purplish midribs and whitish margins ; style purple ; stigma- 
lobes green; fruit clavate, scarlet, 2-2.5 cm. long; seeds black, shining, globose, about 1 mm. in 
diameter. 

Sandy plains, gravelly slopes and rocky ridges, Lower Sonoran Zone; Santa Rosa Mountains, Colorado 
Desert, California, to southern Utah, southwestern Texas and the desert areas of central Lower California, 
Sonora and Chihuahua. Feb. -May. 




^M?i;i'-y^ 










3341 
3341. Mammillaria dioica 



3342 
3342. Mammillaria microcarpa 



OLEASTER FAMILY 163 

Family 103. THYMELAEACEAE. 

Mezereum Family. 

Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs with opposite or sometimes alternate simple ex- 
stipulate leaves. Flowers in short racemes or spikes, capitate or rarely solitary, 
bracteate, regular or slightly irregular, perfect or unisexual. Calyx usually colored 
and corolla-like, 4-5-lobed. Corolla none. Stamens as many or twice as many as 
calyx-lobes, inserted on the calyx-tube ; anthers basifixed. Disk hypogynous or 
wanting. Ovary superior, 1-2-celled ; style simple ; stigma capitate or discoid ; 
ovules 1 in each cell, pendant. Fruit a berry or drupe. Seed solitary or in the 2- 
celled fruits 2 ; endosperm present or sometimes none. 

A family of 40 genera and about 425 species of wide geographical distribution but mainly tropical. Besides 
the following native genus, Daphne and Pimelea are commonly cultivated in our gardens. 

1. DIRCA L. Sp. PI. 358. 1753. 

Shrubs, with smooth tough fibrous bark. Leaves deciduous, alternate, entire, short- 
petioled. Flowers yellow, appearing before the leaves in peduncled clusters of 2-4 from 
scaly buds at the nodes of the previous season. Calyx campanulate or funnelform, 4-lobed. 
Stamens 8, exserted, the alternate ones longer. Disk wanting. Ovary subsessile, 1 -celled; 
style elongated, very slender; stigma small, capitate. Fruit a red oval-oblong drupe. 
[Named for a celebrated fountain in Thebes (Boeotia), the plants growing in moist 
places.] 

An American genus of 2 species. Dirca palustris L. of eastern North America is the type of the genus. 

1. Dirca occidentalis A. Gray. Western Leatherwood. Fig. 3343. 

Dirca occidentalis A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 631. 1873. 

Low erect shrub, 1-2 m. high, with mostly erect or ascending branches, smooth very tough 
leathery bark and soft wood. Leaves obovate-oval, 4-6 cm. long, thin. Flowers in clusters of 
2 or 3, more or less deflexed ; calyx 8-10 mm., the tube narrowed below, the lobes broadly ovate; 
stamens 8 or rarely 9 or 10 ; drupe 6-7 mm. long, ovoid. 

Moist wooded hillsides, Humid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; locally distributed in Marin, Alameda, 
and San Mateo Counties, California. Type locality: Oakland Hills, near Oakland, California. Feb.-March. 



Family 104. ELAEAGNACEAE. 

Oleaster Family. 

Shrubs or a few trees, with entire alternate or opposite leaves, mostly silvery- 
scaly or stellate-pubescent. Flowers perfect, polygamous or dioecious, clustered or 
rarely solitary, on the nodes of the preceding season. Calyx in the pistillate or per- 
fect flowers with lower part tubular or urceolate and persistent, 4-lobed and decidu- 
ous ; in the staminate flowers 4-parted. Corolla wanting. Stamens 4 or 8, in the 
perfect flowers borne on the calyx-throat. Disk annular or lobed. Ovary superior, 
sessile, 1 -celled ; style slender, ovule 1, erect, anatropous. Fruit drupe-like, the calyx- 
base becoming thickened and enclosing the achene or nut. Seed erect; embryo 
straight ; endosperm scanty or none. 

A family of 3 genera and about 20 species, widely distributed. 

1. SHEPHERDIA Nutt. Gen. 2:240. 1818. 
Shrub clothed with a brown- or silvery-scurfy or stellate-pubescence. Leaves oppo- 
site, entire, petioled, deciduous. Flowers dioecious or polygamous, small, spicate or clus- 
tered in the axils or the pistillate solitary. Staminate flowers with a rotate 4-parted calyx ; 
stamens 8, alternating with the lobes of the disk ; filaments short. Pistillate flowers with 
the lower part of calyx urceolate, bearing an 8-lobed disk at the mouth the upper part 
4-cleft. Fruit drupe-like, the fleshy calyx base enclosing the achene [Name m honor 
of John Shepherd, at one time curator of the Liverpool Botanic Garden.] 

A North American genus of 3 species. Type species, Hippophae canadensis L. 

Shrub not thorny; leaves green above. o' c 

Shrub usually thorny; leaves silvery on both surfaces. ■ ■ '^^^en ca. 



164 LYTHRACEAE 

1. Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. Canadian Buffalo-berry. Fig. 3344. 

Hippophae canadensis L. Sp. PI. 1024. 1753. 
Shepherdia canadensis l^utt. Gen. 2:240. 1818. 
Lepargyraea canadensis Greene, Pittonia 2: 122. 1890. 

Erect shrub 1-3 m. high, the branchlets not thorny, silvery-scurfy and brown-scurfy when 
young. Leaves ovate to oblong-oval, 2.5—6 cm. long, green and glabrous above or somewhat 
silvery-stellate when young, densely silvery-stellate and brown-scurfy-dotted beneath; flowers 
brown without, greenish yellow within, 4-5 mm. broad; fruit broadly ellipsoid, 4-6 mm. long, 
red or yellow, insipid. 

Moist woods or stream banks, Canadian Zone; Alaska south along the coast to western Washington, and east 
of the Cascade Mountains to Grant County, Oregon, east to the Newfoundland, New York, Michigan, Colorado, 
and Utah. Type locality: Canada. April-June. Bitter Buffalo-berry. 

2. Shepherdia argentea Nutt. Silvery Buffalo-berry. Fig. 3345. 

Elaeagnus argentea Nutt. in Eraser's Cat. 1813. (Nomen nudum.) 
Hippophae argentea Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 115. 1814. 
Shepherdia argentea Nutt. Gen. 2: 241. 1818. 
Lepargyraea argentea Greene, Pittonia 2: 122. 1890. 
Elaeagnus titilis A. Nels. Amer. Journ. Bot. 22: 682. 1935. 

Shrub or small tree 2-6 m. high, the branches often terminating in thorns. Leaves oblong 
or oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm. long, obtuse at the apex, usually cuneate at base, densely silvery- 
scurfy on both sides; petioles 4-12 mm. long; flowers appearing before the leaves, fascicled at 
the nodes, brown, 4-5 mm. broad, the pistillate scurfy on the back; fruit broadly ellpisoid, 4-6 
mm. long, scarlet to golden-yellow, acid. 

Along streams or washes, Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; Alberta and Manitoba to Kansas and 
New Mexico; Nevada and southeastern Oregon south to eastern and southern California. Type locality: "On the 
banks of the Missouri." Collected by Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. April-May. Sour Buffalo-berry. 



Family 105. LYTHRACEAE. 

Loosestrife Family, 

Herbs, shrubs, or, in tropical regions, often trees. Leaves opposite, verticillate 
or rarely alternate, usually exstipulate. Flowers solitary or clustered, perfect, regu- 
lar. Calyx persistent, free from the ovary, but the tube often enclosing it, 4-6- 
toothed often with accessory teeth in the sinuses. Petals when present as many as 
the primary calyx-teeth, inserted with the stamens on the calyx-tube. Anthers ver- 
satile, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 2-6-celled, or rarely 1 -celled ; style 1 ; stigma 
2-lobed; ovules many or rarely few, anatropous. Capsule 1- to several-celled, vari- 
ously dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds without endosperm. 

A family of 21 genera and about 400 species. 

Calyx-tube short, campanulate or hemispheric; leaves opposite; petals 4. 

Flowers solitary in the axils; capsule septicidally dehiscent; leaves, in ours, narrowed at base, not auriculate- 

clasping. 1- Rotala. ■ 

Flowers usually more than one in the axils; capsule bursting irregularly; leaves, in ours, auriculate-clasping. 

2. Ammannta. 

Calyx-tube cylindric; petals usually 6; leaves mainly alternate. 3. Ly thrum. 

1. ROTAlA L. Mant. 2: 175. 1771. 

Low annual mosdy glabrous herbs, with 4-angled stems. Leaves opposite or verticil- 
late, usually sessile. Flowers solitary in the leaf -axils, small, 4-nierous ; calyx-tube cam- 
panulate or globose, 4-lobed with accessory teeth in the sinuses. Petals 4, attached to the 
rim of the calyx-tube. Stamens 4, attached rather low on the calyx-tube ; filaments short. 
Capsule spherical, enclosed by the membranous calyx, 4-celled, septicidally dehiscent. 
Seeds many, minute, angled. [Name Ladn, meaning wheel, in reference to the verticil- 
late leaves in the type species.] 

A genus of about 40 species, of wide geographical distribution, especially in tropical regions. Type species, 
Rotala verticillaris L. 

1. Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne. Tooth-cup. Fig. 3346. 

Ammannia ramosior L. Sp. PI. 120. 1753. 

Ammannia hnmilis Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1 : 99. 1803. 

Boykinia humilis Raf. Aut. Bot. 9. 1840. 

Rotala ramosior Koehne in Mart. Fl. Bras. 13-: 194. 1875. 

Stems branched from the base or simple, erect or ascending, 5-30 cm. high, 4-angled. Leaves 
opposite, oblong or linear-oblong, 10-35 cm. long, narrowed to a sessile base or to a short petiole. 



LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY 165 

not auriculate ; flowers solitary or rarely 2-3 in the axils ; petals minute, broadly obovate ; cap- 
sule spheroid, 3 mm. long ; seeds very minute, angled, faintly reticulate. 

Swamps and edges of ponds. Transition Zone to the tropics; in the Pacific States ranging from southern 
Washington (Klickitat County) to southern California; also extending to New England and south to tropical 
South America. Type locality: Virginia. June-Sept. 

2. AMMANNIA [Houst.] L. Sp. PI. 119. 1753. 

Annual g-labrous or g-labrate herbs, mostly with 4-angled stems, opposite sessile narrow 
leaves, and small axillary solitary or clustered flowers. Calyx campanulate, globose or 
ovoid, 4-angled, 4-toothed, often with small accessory teeth in the sinuses. Petals 4, 
deciduous. Stamens 4—8, inserted on the calyx-tube; filaments slender or short. Ovary 
enclosed in the calyx -tube, nearly globose, 2-4-celled, bursting irregularly. Seeds numer- 
ous, angled and minutely pitted. [Name in honor of Johann Ammann, 1699-1741, a Ger- 
man botanist.] 

A genus of approximately 20 species, of wide geographical distribution, most abundant in warm temperate 
and tropical regions. Type species, Ammannia latifolia L. 

1. Ammannia coccinia Rottb. Long-leaved Ammannia. Fig. 3347. 

Ammannia coccinia Rottb. PI. Hort. Havn. Descr. 7. 1773. 

Annual erect glabrous herb, branching below, 1-4 dm. high. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 2-5 cm. 
long, cordate-auriculate clasping, acute or acuminate at the apex, entire ; flowers 2-5 or rarely 
solitary in each axil, sessile or subsessile ; petals purple, 1-2 mm. long, fugacious ; fruiting capsule 
4 mm. long, slightly exceeded by the calyx ; style persistent, about half as long as the capsule. 

Swamps and wet banks. Transition to Tropical Zones; of wide geographical range extending from northern 
United States to Brazil. In the Pacific States it is not abundant but ranges from Klickitat County, Washington, 
to southern California. Type locality: not ascertained. May-Nov. 

Peplis Portula L. Sp. PI. 332. 1753. Common Peplis or Water Purslane. Glabrous annual, creeping and 
rooting at the base of the branches; leaves obovate or oblong, mostly 5-10 mm. long, narrow at base, entire; flowers 
minute, sessile in the axils of the leaves; calyx short-campanulate, with 6 outer and 6 smaller inner teeth; petals 
minute or none; stamens 6; style very short; capsule globose, included in the calyx, barely 2 mm. in diameter. 
This adventive from Europe has been collected by J. T. Howell, in Summit Valley, Placer County, California. 

3. LYTHRUM L. Sp. PI. 446. 1753. 

Herbs or shrubs with 4-angled stems and opposite, alternate or rarely verticillate, 
entire leaves. Flowers solitary in the axils, or cymose-paniculate or spicate and terminal, 
often dimorphous. Calyx-tube cylindric, 8-12-ribbed, 4-6-toothed, with an equal number 
of appendages in the sinuses. Petals 4-6, attached to the rim of the tube, rarely wanting. 
Stamens 4-12, inserted rather low on the calyx-tube. Ovary oblong, 2-celled ; style fili- 
form; ovules numerous. Capsules included in the calyx-tube, membranous, 2-celled, 2- 
valved or bursting irregularly. Seeds minute, flat or angled. [Name Greek, meaning gore, 
from the purple color of the flowers.] 

A genus of about 30 species, of wide geographical distribution. Type species, Lythrum Salicaria L. 

Leaves mainly alternate; flowers axillary and solitary; stamens same number as petals. 

Flowers sessile or subsessile; petals 1-2 mm. long; seeds broadly and somewhat obliquely ovoid, nearly as 
broad as long. 
Annual, not stoloniferous. 1- L. Hyssopifolia 

Perennial, stoioniierous. ~- L. adsitrgens. 

Flowers pedicelled; petals 4-6 ram. long; seeds linear-lanceolate in outline, twice as long as wide. 

3. L. cahforntcum. 

Leaves opposite or verticillate; flowers in a terminal spicate panicle; stamens twice as many as petals. 

4. L. Sahcaria. 

1. Lythrum Hyssopifolia L. Hyssop Loosestrife or Grass Poly. Fig. 3348, 

Lythrum Hyssopifolia L. Sp. PI. 447. 1753. 

Annual, pale green and glabrous, the stems erect or assurgent, becoming much-branched, 
1.5-5 dm. high. Leaves alternate or in young plants opposite near the base, sessile, oblong to 
linear, obtuse at apex, rounded at base, 8-20 mm. long ; flowers solitary and sessile in the axils, 
not dimorphous ; petals erect, rose-colored or white, 1-2 mm. long ; stamens included ; fruiting 
calyx-tube cylindric, narrowed at base, 4 mm. long, the teeth lanceolate-subulate, 1 mm. long; 
seeds obliquely and broadly ovoid, barely 1 mm. long, and nearly as wide. 

Moist ground, Boreal and Austral Zones; wide geographical distribution in both the New and Old World; 
in the Pacific States ranging from Washington to California. Type locality: Europe. Apnl-Oct. 

2. Lythrum adsurgens Greene. Wallow Poly. Fig. 3349. 

Lythrum adsurgens Greene, Pittonia 2: 12. 1889. 

Perennial by stolons, branching from the base, the branches prostrate, or ascending, 2-5 drn. 
long. Leaves linear to oblong, 1-2 cm. long, obtuse or acutish at apex rounded at base, pale 
green ; flowers sessile or subsessile ; petals rose-purple to white, 1-2 mm. long ; fruiting calyx- 



166 



LYTHRACEAE 




3349 



3343. Dirca occidentalis 

3344. Shepherdia canadensis 

3345. Shepherdia argentea 



3351 



3346. Rotala ramosior 

3347. Ammannia coccinia 

3348. Lythrum Hyssopifolta 



3350 



3349. Lythrum adsurgens 

3350. Lythrum californicum 

3351. Lythrum Salicaria 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 167 

tube cylindric, 4 mm. long, the teeth lanceolate, scarcely 1 mm. long ; seeds obliquely and broadly 
ovoid. 

Moist ground. Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; Curry County, Oregon, and Siskiyou Mountains, Cali- 
fornia, south to southern California. Type locality: "low meadow lands adjacent to the salt marshes of San 
Francisco Bay, especially about west Berkeley," California. May-Nov. 

3. Lythrum californicum Torr. & Gray. California Loosestrife. Fig. 3350. 

Lythrum califonticiim Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 482. 1840. 

Lythrum Sanfordii Greene, Pittonia 2: 12. 1889. : 

Perennial with rootstocks, the stems mostly erect, paniculately and rather divaricately branch- 
ing above, 5-15 dm. high, pale green and glabrous. Leaves narrowly linear to linear-oblong, or 
the lower lanceolate, 1-3 cm. long; flowers distinctly pedicelled; petals 4-6 mm. long, bright 
purple ; calyx-teeth subulate, sharply acute ; the tube cylindric, 5-6 mm. long ; seeds linear-lanceo- 
late, about 1 mm. long, scarcely half as broad. 

Moist ground, mainly Upper Sonoran Zone; central California to northern Lower California. Type locality: 
California. Collected by Douglas. April-Oct. 

4. Lythrum Salicaria L. Spiked or Purple Loosestrife. Fig. 3351. 

Lythrum Salicaria L. Sp. PI. 446. 1753. 

Perennial, the stems erect, 5-10 dm. high, simple or at length much branched, pubescent or 
tomentose at least above. Leaves opposite or occasionally in threes, lanceolate, cordate or clasp- 
ing at the base, 5-7 cm. long ; flowers several in the upper axils, forming a dense compound in- 
terrupted terminal spike, trimorphous ; calyx-teeth subulate, 2 mm. long; petals 6-8 mm. long, 
bright purple. Stamens 8-10, alternately longer and shorter. 

Naturalized from Europe; western Washington, also in the northern Atlantic States. July-Oct. 

Lythrum tribracteatum Salzm. ex Tenore, Ind. Sem. Hort. Neap. 13. 1830. Stems prostrate, 5-25 cm. 
long, rather densely leafy; leaves somewhat decussate, 5-25 mm. long, normally oblong to linear, obtuse; calyx 
4-7 mm. long, the teeth and appendages very short; stamens included, irregularly inserted on the corolla-tube. 
This native of the Mediterranean region has been collected by J. T. Howell (Madroiio 2: 20. 1931.) in "beds of 
summer-dried rain-pools," in the vicinity of Elmira, Solano County, California. 

Family 106. ONAGRACEAE * 

Evening-primrose Family. 

Herbs or rarely shrubs with simple alternate or opposite leaves ; stipules none. 
Flowers perfect, axillary or in terminal racemes, the parts mostly in twos or in fours. 
Hypanthium adnate to ovary and usually prolonged beyond. Sepals 4 (sometimes 
2 or 5). Petals 4 (sometimes 2 or 5), inserted at summit of hypanthium. Stamens 
as many or twice as many as petals or sepals, borne at summit of hypanthium. Ovary 
inferior, 4-celled (sometimes 2- or 5-) ; style 1 ; stigma 4-lobed, or capitate, or 
discoid. Fruit a capsule, rarely nut-like. 

About 20 genera and 600 species of wide distribution, particularly well represented in western North America. 

Sepals persistent. 

Petals 5, 1 cm. or more long; stamens 8-12, in 2 series; capsule at length reflexed. 1. Jussiaca. 

Petals lacking or minute; stamens 3-6, in 1 series; capsule erect. 2. Ludungia. 

Sepals deciduous after flowering. 
Flowers 4-merous. 

Seeds with tuft of hairs (coma) at one end. 

Hypanthium 2-3 cm. long and funnelform, with row of 8 scales within at about one-half its length; 

flowers scarlet. ^- Zauschncria. 

Hypanthium less than 1 cm. or lacking, no scales within; flowers not scarlet. 4. Epilobium. 

Seeds without coma. 

Fruit a capsule, dehiscent. 
Ovary 4-ceIled. 

Anthers innate, attached near base, erect; petals not yellow, but ranging from pink to 
lavender or rose, sometimes whitish. 
Sepals erect; petals small or wanting; pollen in tetrads. 5. Boisduvalia. 

Sepals reflexed or the tips remaining united and turned to one side in anthesis; pollen 
not in tetrads. 
Petals distinctly clawed, the claw at least one-sixth as long as the blade. 

6. Llarkta. 

Petals not at all or scarcely clawed, the claw not more than one-tenth as long as 
the blade. '■ Codetta. 

Anthers usually versatile, attached near the middle; petals yellow or ^'""'u^^,*^'';),/^^'^'^"^ 
in ag^e. 
Ovary 2-celled; hypanthium not prolonged beyond the ovary; flowers "^^^''^ ™"%^= .^l,^™^ 
capillary. 
Fruit indehiscent, nut-like. 

Biennials or perennials; anthers all fertile; stigma 4-lobed. 10. Gaura. 

Annual; anthers opposite the petals sterile; stigma discoid, entire. H. Heterogaura. 

Flowers 2-merous; fruit indehiscent, obovoid. bristly with hooked hairs. 1^- Circaea. 



* Text contributed by Philip Alexander Munz. 



168 ONAGRACEAE 

1. JUSSIAEA L. Sp. PI. 388. 1753. 

Perennial herbs with alternate leaves. Flowers yellow, solitary in leaf-axils, pediceled. 
Hypanthium not prolonged above ovary. Sepals (in ours) 5, green, quite persistent. 
Petals 5, obovate, spreading. Stamens twice the number of petals. Ovary (in ours) 5- 
celled, many-ovuled; stigma capitate. Capsule cylindric-clavate. Seeds (in ours) in 1 
row in each cell, covered by a layer from the capsule wall. [Named for Bernard de 
Jussieu, 1699-1777, founder of the Natural System of Botany.] 

About 40 species, in the warm and temperate regions, particularly of America. Type species, Jtissiaea 
repens L. 

1. Jussiaea repens var. peploides (H.B.K.) Griseb, Yellow Water Weed. 

Fig. 3352. 

Jussiaea peploides H.B.K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 97. 1823. 
Jussiaea repens var. peploides Griseb. Cat. PI. Cubens. 107. 1866. 
Jussiaea repens var. californica S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 217. 1876. 
Jussiaea californica Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif. 326. 1901. 

Glabrous perennial herbs with decumbent stems rooting freely at the nodes, 3 to many dm. 
long. Leaves oblong to spatulate-oblong, obtuse to acute, subentire, plainly and evenly pinnate- 
veined, the blades 1-4 cm. long, on petioles 1-2.5 cm. long or longer on 'floating leaves; pedicels 
1-4 cm. long in fruit ; flower pubescent about the base of stamens and style ; sepals lanceolate, 
4-7 mm. long ; petals yellow, obovate, pinnately veined, 10-14 mm. long ; stamens about one- 
third as long ; pistil as long as stamens, sometimes somewhat pubescent at base ; stigma globose ; 
capsule hard, quite cylindric, about 2 cm. long, at length reflexed and the sepals deciduous from 
the mature fruit ; seeds large for the order, with a very thick, tough outer coat. 

In wet places, Upper Sonoran Zone; Oregon south through the western United States to Central America 
and South America. Type locality: "in humidis convallis Combeimensis, prope urbem Ibague^" Colombia. May- 
Sept. 

2. LUDWIGIA L. Sp. PI. 118. 1753. 

Perennial herbs of marshes and wet places ; ours with opposite leaves and 4-merous 
flowers, though the petals may be lacking. Ours with 4 stamens, alternate with the petals 
and with short filaments. Ovary in ours usually flattened at the broad apex. Capsule in 
ours short, many-seeded, 4-valved, dehiscent laterally and septicidally or by terminal pores. 
Seeds minute. [Named in honor of C. G. Ludwig, 1709-1773, professor of botany at 
Leipzig.] 

A genus of about 30 species, of warm and temperate regions, most abundant in North America. Type species, 
Ludwigia alternifolia L. 

Hypanthium and capsule with 4 evident longitudinal green bands; bracteoles basal, not more than 1 mm. long or 

not evident. 1. L. palustris. 

Hypanthium and capsule without green bands; bracteoles above the base and 1-5 mm. long. 2. L. nutans. 

1. Ludwigia palustris var. americana (DC.) Fern. & Griscom. American 

Marsh Purslane. Fig. 3353. 

Ludwigia apetala Walt. Fl. Car. 89. 1788. 

Isnardia palustris P americana DC. Prod. 3: 61. 1828. 

Ludwigia palustris \zr. americana Fern. & Griscom, Rhodora 37: 176. 1935. 

Glabrous, with stems creeping or floating and with erect branches 1-3 dm. tall. Leaves lan- 
ceolate to elliptic-ovate, subentire, acute, the blades 1-2.5 cm. long, usually at least half as wide 
as long, long-petiolate ; flowers solitary, axillary, sessile ; sepals deltoid, acute, persistent, 1-2 mm. 
long ; petals lacking ; stamens about 1 mm. long ; stigma 4-lobed ; capsule 3-5 mm. long, oblong, 
2-3.5 mm. broad, somewhat 4-angled; seeds yellowish, broadly obovoid, 0.5 mm. long. 

About ponds and muddy places. Transition and Canadian Zones; Cascade Mountains of Washington and 
Oregon south to the Sierra Nevada, California; also throughout the United States and in Canada, Mexico, and 
Central America. Type locality: eastern North America. June-Sept. 

Ludwigia palustris var. pacifica Fern. & Griscom, Rhodora 37: 176. pi. 249. figs. 5, 9. 1935. Leaves mostly 
short-petiolate, leaf-blades of terrestrial form mostly more than 1 cm. long, and one-third to one- fourth as wide; 
sepals acuminate; capsules 2-2.8 mm. thick. Ponds and muddy places along the coast and in the Coast Ranges 
from British Columbia to central California. Type locality: Sproat Lake, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

2. Ludwigia natans var. stipitata Fern. & Griscom. Southern Marsh Purslane. 

Fig. 3354. 

Ludwigia natans var. stipitata Fern. & Griscom, Rhodora 37: 175. pi. 349. figs. 1, 4. 1935. 

Habit as in preceding species. Leaf-blades up to 4.5 cm. long, rhombic-ovate, petiolate; 
flowers solitary, axillary, short-pedicillate ; sepals triangular-acuminate; petals shorter than the 
sepals, easily shed; pedicel of the capsule 2-4 mm. long; capsule 6-8 mm. long, 3-3.5 mm. broad, 
somewhat 4-angIed, light brown without longitudinal green bands. 

Muddy places in ponds and marshes. Lower Sonoran Zone; San Bernardino Valley, San Bernardino County. 
Known only from the type locality. Aug.-Sept. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 169 

3. ZAUSCHNERIA Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 : 28. />/. 52. 1835. 

Erect or decumbent perennials, somewhat woody and with shredding- bark at the base. 
Leaves sessile or nearly so, opposite or alternate, more or less fascicled. Inflorescence 
spicate, the flowers large, horizontal, fuchsia-like. Hypanthium scarlet, globose at base, 
then narrowed into a long tube bearing at the narrow part, and within, 8 lobe-like ap- 
pendages, 4 erect and 4 deflexed. Sepals 4. Petals 4. Stamens 8, the alternate ones 
shorter; anthers versatile. Ovary 4-celled; stigma 4-lobed, peltate to capitate. Capsule 
imperfectly 4-celled, many-seeded. Seeds oblong, narrowed at base, comose at apex. 
[Named for Dr. M. Zauschner, a professor of natural history at the University of 
Prague.] 

A genus of 5 species, occurring in the western United States and in Mexico. Type species, Zauschneria 
californica Presl. 

Leaves narrow, usually less than 6 mm. wide; plants suffrutescent at base. 

Leaves 2.5-6 mm. wide, linear to lanceolate, little or moderately fasciculate; flowers 30-40 mm. lon^. 

1. Z. californica. 

Leaves nearly or quite filiform, not over 2 mm. wide, densely fasciculate; flowers 25-35 mm. long. 

2. Z. cana. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate to oval, the principal ones over 6 mm. wide; plants strictly herbaceous. 

Broadest leaves 7-15 mm. wide, often denticulate, not white-canescent; stems 1.5-3.5 dm. lone. 

3. Z. latifolia. 
Broadest leaves 5-8 (rarely 10) mm. wide, subentire, the lower ones usually white-canescent; stems up to 

2 dm. high. 4. Z. septentrionalis. 

1. Zauschneria californica Presl. California Fuchsia. Fig. 3355. 

Zauschneria californica Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 28. pi. 52. 1835. 

Zauschneria me.xicana Presl, op. cit. 29. 

Zauschneria Eastwoodiae Moxley, S.W. Sci. Bull. 1: 23. 1920. 

Stems 3-9 dm. tall, suffrutescent at the base, often much-branched, green- to gray-pilose, often 
very glandular. Leaves green to grayish, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, 0.5-4 
cm. long, 1.5-6 mm. wide, entire or remotely denticulate, the lower ones sometimes opposite or 
subopposite, the upper usually alternate, lateral veins not usually evident ; inflorescence spicate ; 
hypanthium scarlet, funnelform, globose at base, then narrowed, then gradually ampliate, 2-3 cm. 
long; sepals erect, lanceolate, 8-10 mm. long; petals 2-cleft, scarlet, 8-15 mm. long; capsule 
sessile to short-pediceled, linear, 4-angled, 8-nerved, with short beak, often curved, 1.5-2 cm. 
long, many-seeded ; seeds broad, 1 . 5 mm. long. 

Dry slopes and fields, Upper Sonoran Zones; Lake County, California, to northern Lower California. Type 
locality: Monterey, California. Aug.-Oct. 

Zauschneria californica subsp. angustifolia Keck, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. No. 520: 221. 1940 Plants 
suflFrutescent at the base; leaves linear, densely tomentose-canescent; flowers 3-4 cm. long. Hills near the coast 
from Monterey County to San Diego County, California. Also found on Santa Catalina Island. Type locality: 
Dana Point, Orange County. 

Zauschneria californica var. villosa (Greene) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 667. 1925. (Zauschneria vUlosa 
Greene, Pittonia 1: 27. 1887.) Very villous with white spreading hairs. Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa Kosa, 
Santa Cruz, and San Clemente Islands, California. Type locality: Santa Cruz Island. 

2. Zauschneria cana Greene. Hoary California Fuchsia. Fig. 3356. 

Zauschneria californica var. microphylla A. Gray, Bot. Calif. 1: 218. 1876. 

Zauschneria cana Greene, Pittonia 1: 28. 1887. 

Zauschneria microphylla Moxley, S.W. Sci. Bull. 1 : 22. 1920. 

Like the preceding species except for foliage ; stems 3-6 dm. tall, tomentose-canescent, en- 
tirely gray, usually not very glandular. Leaves narrowly linear-lanceolate to nearly filiform, not 
over 2 mm. wide, entire or nearly so, much-fascicled ; hypanthium scarlet, 2-3 cm long ; sepals 
scarlet, 8-10 mm. long; petals 2-cleft, scarlet, 8-12 mm. long; capsule Imear, 1.5-2 cm. long, 
many-seeded, curved or almost straight, beaked or not. 

Dry slopes of Upper Sonoran Zone; Monterey County to Los Angeles County, California, including' Santa 
Cruz and Catalina Islands. Type locality: Santa Cruz Island. Aug.-Oct. 

3. Zauschneria latifolia (Hook.) Greene. Broad-leaved California Fuchsia. 

Fig. 3357. 

Zauschneria californica var. latifolia Hook. Bot. Mag. 75: pL 4493. 1850. 

Zauschneria latifolia Greene, Pittonia 1 : 25. 1887. 

Zauschneria totncntella Greene, op. cit. 26. 

Zauschneria glandulosa Moxley, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 15: 22. 1916. 

Zauschneria pulchella Moxley, S.W. Sci. Bull. 1 : 27. 1920. 

Zauschneria canescens Eastw. ex Moxley, op. cit. 29. 

Zauschneria vclutina Eastw. ex Moxley, op. cit. 25. 

Stems herbaceous, slender, 1.5-5 dm. tall, pilose, somewhat glandular above. Leaves mostly 
opposite, ovate to lance-ovate, tapering to both ends or rounded at base, sessile, 6-lS mm. wide, 
denticulate, with lateral veins evident ; flowers and fruits as in Z. calitormca. 

Largely on dry slopes and ridges. Transition Zone; in the mountains in southern Oregon southward to lulare 
County, California, and western Nevada. Type locality: not given. Aug.-bept. 

Zauschneria latifolia var. viscosa (Moxley) Jepson. Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 667. 1925. (Zauschneria viscosa 



170 ONAGRACEAE 

Moxley, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. IS: 22. 1916; Z. Hallii Moxley, S.W. Sci. Bull. 1: 27. 1920; Z. orbiculata 
Moxley, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 19: 50. 1920; Z. elegans. Eastw. ex Moxley, S.W. Sci. Bull. 1: 26. 1920.) 
Lower plants, 1-3 dm. tall, often much branched and with the branches at right angles to the stem, viscid and 
glandular. Leaves from broadly ovate and with round base to nearly elliptical, crowded on stem. On exposed 
ridges at higher altitudes, Upper Transition and Canadian Zones; southern Sierra Nevada to the San Gabriel 
and San Jacinto Mountains, California. Type locality: Barley Flats, San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles 
County. 

Zauschneria latifolia var. Johnstonii M. Hilend, Amer. Journ. Bot. 16: 67. 1929. Plants usually over 
3 dm. tall, coarse, very leafy, villous, often glandular and clammy. Leaves broadly lanceolate to elliptical, not 
crowded on stem, mostly opposite. Dry slopes, mountains of southern California, at an elevation of 3,500-6,500 
feet. Type locality : San Jacinto Mountains. 

4. Zauschneria septentrionlilis Keck. Northern California Fuchsia. Fig. 3358. 

Zauschneria septentrionalis Keck, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. No. 520: 219. 1940. 

Herbaceous perennial with matted stems 1-2 dm. high. Leaves broadly lanceolate to oval, 
4-8 mm. wide, 10-25 mm. long, entire or sometimes obscurely denticulate, white-canescent 
below, sometimes greenish and villous above; flowers 28-32 mm. long; capsules as in Z. cali- 
jornica. 

Rocky ledges, Transition Zone; Humboldt County to northern Mendocino County and adjacent southwestern 
Trinity County, California. Type locality: mouth of South Fork of Trinity River, Humboldt County. Aug.-Sept. 

4. EPIL6bIUM L. Sp. PI. 347. 1753. 

Mostly herbs, sometimes suffruticose; annual, or usually perennial and wintering by 
rosettes or turions. Leaves opposite or alternate, nearly or quite sessile, denticulate or 
entire. Flowers axillary or in terminal racemes or panicles, perfect. Hypanthium sliort 
or not prolonged at all above the ovary. Sepals 4. Petals 4, usually notched, purplish, pink, 
or white, even yellow. Stamens 8, the alternate ones shorter. Stigma oblong or 4-lobed. 
Capsule elongate, subcylindric to fusiform or clavate, 4-celled, loculicidal. Seeds with 
tuft of silky hairs (coma) at upper end. [Name Greek, meaning upon a pod, flowers and 
capsule appearing together.] 

Over 100 species, cosmopolitan except in the tropics. Type species, Epilobium hirsutum L. 

Hypanthium not prolonged above the ovary; flowers large, slightly irregular, the petals 1-2 cm. long, entire, 
spreading. (Subgenus Chamacncrion) 
Style pilose at base, exceeding stamens; leaves 5-20 cm. long, membranaceous, reticulate-veiny beneath, with 
lateral veins confluent in marginal loops; racemes many-flowered, elongate, not leafy; seeds oblong, 
1-1.3 mm. long. 1- ■£■ angustifolium. 

Style glabrous, shorter than stamens; leaves 2-6 cm. long, thick and fleshy, glaucous, not veiny; racemes 
few-flowered, short, leafy; seeds fusiform, 2 mm. long. 2. E. latifolium. 

Hypanthium prolonged above the ovary; flowers usually smaller, regular, the petals ascending. (Subgenus 
Ettepilobium) 
Flowers large, the petals 14-20 mm. long; stigma evidently lobed. 
Petals purplish or rose-colored; plants cespitose, suffrutescent. 

Leaves rounded at base, denticulate, 1-2 cm. long, subsessile; hypanthium 2-4 mm. long. 

3. E. obcordatum. 

Leaves acute at base, quite entire, 3-4 cm. long, petioled; hypanthium 1-1.5 mm. long. 

4. E. rigidum. 

Petals yellow; plants with creeping underground rootstocks and turions; stems subsimple. 

5. E. luteutn. 
Flowers smaller, the petals 2-12 mm. long; stigma usually oblong. 

Plant suflfrutescent with several stems from woody caudex and 1-2 dm. tall, pubescent throughout. 

6. E. nivium. 
Plant not suffrutescent. 

Annuals; stems with exfoliating epidermis; plants of dry situations. 

Stems 3-9 dm. tall, glabrous except in upper parts; leaves usually alternate with fascicles in 

axils; hypanthium 1-3 (8) mm. long. 7. E. paniculatum. 

Stems 0.5-3 dm. tall, puberulent throughout; leaves mostly opposite, without fascicles; hypan- 
thium scarcely 1 mm. long. 8. E. minutum. 
Perennials (except sometimes E. calif ornicum) ; epidermis not exfoliating; mostly in moist situations. 
Rootstocks bearing turions (globose or ovoid winter-buds with fleshy overlapping scales) which 
may be rather loose in E. glandutosum. 
Leaves linear-oblong, sessile, nearly entire, obtuse, with margin slightly revolute; rare, 
very northern part of our range. 9. E. palustre. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate, not at all revolute. 
Leaves quite sessile. 

Flowers rather large, the petals 5-10 mm. long; stems simple to divaricately 
branched. 
Hypanthium narrow; sepals suberect; stems coarse, simple or virgately 

few-branched above. 10. E. glandulosum. 

Hypanthium about as wide as long; sepals more divaricate; stems rather 
slender, freely spreading-branched above. 11. E. cxaltatum. 
Flowers smaller, the petals 2-5 mm. long; stems simple. 

Stems glabrous to pubescent, but not with decurrent lines of hair from leaf- 
bases. 12. £. brevistylum. 

Stems with decurrent lines of hair from the leaf-bases. 

13. E. Halleanum. 

Leaves (at least some of them) distinctly short-petioled. 

Petals 5-8 mm. long; stems simple. 14. E. delicatum. 

Petals 3-4 mm. long; stems usually branched. IS. E. leptocarputn. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 171 

Rootstocks not turioniferous. 

Plant pallid, glaucous and glabrous almost throughout; montane. 

17. £. glaberrimum. 
Plant not glaucous, but green or canescent. 

Stems 1-3 dm. tall, simple above, with few pairs of opposite leaves; high montane. 
Leaves sessile, oblong or linear, suberect; stem slender. 

16. E. oregonense. 
Leaves more or less distinctly petioled and spreading. 

Plant densely cespitose, stoloniferous; stems sigmoidally bent, 1-1.5 dm. 
tall; petals purplish to rose-colored, 4—6 mm. long; leaves 1-2 cm. 
long. 

Capsule linear, slender, 1 mm. or less thick, 2-4 cm. long; seeds smooth, 
1 mm. long; buds nodding. 18. E. alpinum. 

Capsule subclavate, stouter, 1.5-2 mm. thick, 2-2.5 cm. long; seeds 
papillose, 1.5-2 mm. long; buds erect. 

19. E. clavatum. 

Plant not so densely cespitose; stems erect, 1-3 dm. tall; leaves 1.5-5 cm. 
long. 
Petals purplish, 5-8 (12) mm. long; seeds papillose, 1 mm. long. 

20. E. Hornctnannii. 

Petals white or with pink tips, about 3 mm. long; seeds smooth, 1 mm. 
long. 21. E. lactiflorum. 

Stems 3-10 dm. tall, usually freely branched, especially above; innovation by rosettes. 
Petals 2-6 mm. long, white to purplish; stems greenish to light colored, gland- 
ular to canescent especially above; many of upper leaves alternate. 
Inflorescence glandular-pubescent. 22. E. adenocaulon. 

Inflorescence whitish-pubescent, not glandular. 23. E. calif ornicutn. 
Petals 6-10 mm. long, purplish; stems reddish, canescent above; leaves mostly 
opposite. 24. E. franciscanum. 

1. Epilobium angustifdlium L. Fireweed. Fig. 3359. 

El>ilobium angustifolium L. Sp. PI. 347. 1753. 

Chamaenerion angustifolium Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2. 1 : 271. 1772. 

Epilobium spicat urn La.m. Fl. Franc. 3 : 482. 1778. 

Epilobium angustifolium var. pygmaeum Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 565. 1936. 

Perennial, with erect, mostly simple and few stems, 0.5-2.5 m. tall, glabrous below, com- 
monly puberulent above. Leaves alternate, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute, nearly entire, 
paler below, with lateral veins confluent in submarginal loops, sessile or nearly so, 5-15 (20) cm. 
long; flowers numerous in long terminal racemes, with small almost linear bracts; pedicels 5-12 
mm. 'long; hypanthium not prolonged above ovary; sepals lance-linear. 8-12 mm. long, commonly 
canescent-puberulent throughout, tinged lavender ; petals lilac-purple, rose, or even white, clawed, 
obovate, 8-18 mm. long; stamens 8, in a single series, often unequal, shorter than the petals; 
filaments dilated below ; style hairy at base, exceeding stamens ; stigma-lobes slender and elon- 
gate; capsule 5-7 cm. long; seeds oblong; 1-1.4 mm. long, with long dingy coma. 

In disturbed areas, especially burns, in fairly moist places, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Alaska to 
southern California east to the Atlantic coast; also Eurasia. A variable species for which many forms and va- 
rieties have been proposed. Type locality: Europe. July-Sept. 

2. Epilobium latifdlium L. Broad-leaved Willow-herb. Fig. 3360. 

Epilobium tatifolium L. Sp. PI. 347. 1753. 

Chamaenerion latifolium Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2. 198. 1830. 

Stems several from a cespitose rootstock, depressed or arched-ascending, 1-6 dm. tall, gla- 
brous below, puberulent above. Leaves elliptic-ovate to lanceolate, subopposite, fleshy, glaucous 
on both surfaces, entire, not veiny, acute, quite sessile, 2-6 cm. long ; racemes short, few-Howered, 
leafy-bracted ; pedicels 5-10 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, purplish. 13 mm. ong ; petals purple, 
rose-colored, or even white, purple-veined, rhomboid-obovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; stamens », in 
one series, about two-thirds the length of the petals; style glabrous, shorter than stamens, 
stigma-lobes oblong ; capsule canescent, 5-8 cm. long ; seeds fusiform, 2 mm. long. 

Wet places along streams, Arctic Alpine Zone; Arctic America to Mono County, California, east to Colorado; 
also Eurasia. Type locality: Siberia. July-Sept. 

3. Epilobium obcordatum A. Gray. Rock-fringe. Fig. 3361. 

Epilobium obcordatum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 6: 532. 1865. 

Epilobium obcordatum var. puberulum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 669. 1925. 

Stems several from cespitose suffrutescent base, decumbent, 5-15 cm. tall, simple, gjabrous 
below, usually minutely puberulent at summit, leafy. Leaves opposite usually crowded, glabrous 
and glaucous, ovate, obscurely and remotely denticulate, 6-10 mm. long, obtuse 'o^rf'.^m LJ 
short winged petioles; flowers 1 to few, borne singly m uppermost axils; Pe,<^'"ls 2- „ "\"^- /""f •' 
slender; hypanthium funnelform, 2-4 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, purplish. 9-12 n m lonfe , 
petals rose-purple, broadly obcordate. 12-20 mm. long; stamens 8. in 2 series ''if^fi'^I'Lous 
Sne-half, the longer two-thirds the length of the petals ; style purplish, ^.^"^6 Petals glabrou. 
stigma-lobes short; capsule cylindric-clavate, 2.5-3.5 cm. long; seeds 1.5 mm. long, finely 

^^^ Ri?g« and slopes, Hudsonian and Arctic-Alpine Zones; Cascade Mountains, central Oregon to the Sierra 



172 



ONAGRACEAE 





3358 



3352. Jussiaea repens 

3353. Ludwigia palustris 

3354. Ludwigia natans 



3359 



3355. Zauschneria californica 

3356. Zauschneria cana 

3357. Zauschneria latifolia 




3360 

3358. Zauschneria septentrionalis 

3359. Epilobium angustifolium 

3360. Epilobium latifolium 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 173 

Nevada, California, east to Idaho and Nevada. Type locality : Squaw Valley, Tahoe region, California. July-Sept. 
Epilobium obcordatum var. laxum (Hausskn.) Dempster ex Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 566. 1936. (.Epilobium 
obcordatum f. laxum Hausskn. Mon. Epilob. 251. 1884.) Leaf-blades 10-22 mm. long, subacute. Hudsonian Zone 
of Trinity, Siskiyou, and Placer Counties, California. Type locality: not given. 

4. Epilobium rigidum Hausskn. Stiff Willow-herb. Fig. 3362. 

£/>t7o6tum riffirfiim Hausskn. Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. 29: 51. 1879. 

Epilobium rigidum var. canescens Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 2: 83. 1891. 

Resembling the preceding species, but somewhat taller, canescently pubescent above or even 
throughout. Leaves 3-4 cm. long, obscurely if at all denticulate, acute or nearly so at both ends, 
cuneately narrowed into petioles 5-8 mm. long ; flowers rather few in axils of reduced upper 
leaves; hypanthium 1-1.5 mm. long; sepals 9-10 mm. long; petals, stamens, pistil much as in 
the preceding; capsules densely white-glandular, 2-2.5 cm. long; seeds apparently smooth, about 
2 mm. long. 

Dry stream beds. Transition and Canadian Zones; Siskiyou Mountains, Josephine County, Oregon. Type 
locality: "Coast Range, California. Lat. 42°." July-Aug. 

5. Epilobium liiteum Pursh. Yellow Willow-herb. Fig. 3363. 

Epilobium lutcum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1 : 259. 1814. 

Perennial, with creeping underground rootstock and turions ; stem subsimple, erect, 1 .5-7 dm. 
tall, glabrous except for the pubescence in decurrent lines above. Leaves 2-7 cm. long, ovate to 
ovate-lanceolate, quite glabrous, acute to acuminate, sessile or nearly so, sinuate-dentate, the teeth 
gland-tipped ; inflorescence glandular-pubescent ; flowers few, in axils of somewhat reduced 
upper leaves; pedicels 1-2 cm. long; hypanthium campanulate, 1.5 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, 
10-12 mm. long; petals yellow, obcordate, 14-18 mm. long; stamens 8, in 2 series, one-half and 
two-thirds the length of the petals ; style exceeding petals, obconic toward apex and 4-parted ; 
capsule linear, 4-7 cm. long; seeds obovoid, quite smooth, 1.25 mm. long, coma reddish. 

Wet places, Canadian and Hudsonian Zones; from Alaska to Oregon. Type locality: northwest coast of 
America. July-Aug. 

Epilobium suffruticosum Nutt. in Terr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 488. 1840. Said to have come originally 
from "Oregon near Walla Walla," occurs from Montana and Wyoming at least as far west as Idaho, and is doubt- 
ful for our range Characterized by its suffruticose habit; lanceolate, sessile, mostly opposite, cinereous-stngose 
leaves which are 1-2.5 cm. long; pale yellow flowers with petals 5-8 mm. long; capsules 1.5-2.5 cm. long, and 
seeds 2.5-3 mm. long. 

6. Epilobium nivium Brandg. Snow Mountain Willow-herb. Fig. 3364. 

Epilnbium nivium Brandg. Zoe 3: 242. 1892. 

Sufifrutescent with several stems from a short, branched caudex, 1-2 dm. tall, pubescent 
throughout. Leaves oblong- to elliptic-lanceolate, thick, not veiny, entire, tipped with stout gland, 
sessile or short-petioled, 8-15 mm. long; flowers few, in axils of upper leaves; pedicels 3-5 mm. 
long- hypanthium reddish, enlarged above ovary, narrow, 5-7 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, 3-5 
mm. long ; petals violet-purple, obcordate, 7-10 mm. long ; stamens in 2 sets, the longer one-lialt 
the length of the petals ; pistil equaling petals ; stigma with 4 short lobes ; capsule subfusitorm, 
stout, 10-12 mm. long; seeds rather few, smooth, with dingy coma. 

Dry slopes, Canadian Zone; Inner North Coast Ranges of California. Type locality: Snow Mountain, Lake 
County, California. Sept. 

7. Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. Panicled Willow-herb. Fig. 3365. 

Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 490. 1840. 
Epilobium paniculatum f. bracteata Hausskn. Mon. Epilob. 247. 1884. 

Erect annual with simple stem and shreddy epidermis below, paniculately branched above, 
3-9 (20) dm. tall, glabrous except for the tips of the inflorescence which are usually slightly 
glandular-puberulent. Leaves linear-lanceolate to linear, 2-3 (5) cm. long, usually alternate 
short-petioled, remotely denticulate, with thickened acute tip and teeth, quite early deciduous and 
with fascicles of smaller leaves in axils; flowers in lax racemes «" j^l'^^^^^ i"; ^"^i\^f °^^^^^^ 
panicle; bracts subulate; pedicels 5-15 mm. long, usually slightly glandular-puberulent hypan^ 
fhium 2-3 mm. long, usually glabrous; sepals 2-3 mm. long ; petals pink to almost wh e 3-^ 
mm. long, deeply 2-cleft, rotate; stamens about one-third the length of petas ; style about one- 
hLlf the length of petals ; capsule 2-2 . 5 cm. long, 4-angled, linear-clavate, beaked, usually slightly 
glandular-puberulent; seeds obovoid, flattened, 2 mm. long, with tawny coma. , ^ ,• 

Open, usually rather dry ground. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones BHtish Columbia t^^^^^^^ 
fornia, east to South Dakota and New Mexico. A variable species. Type locality, plains ot the uregon ana x^ocKy 
Mountains." June-Sept. . 

Epilobium paniculatum f. adenocladon (first s^tWti adcnoclada) Hausskn. 5°"- Epilob. 247 1884^ {tp^- 
lobiumadcnocladon Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 33: 146. 1906; £. ^°"?^"'?/X' J-SuksT^ W^^^^^ 
E. apricum Suksd. W. Amer. Sci. 11 : 77. 1901; £, ]ucundum var. '^'^^'{f "*"• ^^^e soedeJ^^^^^^ of 

Pedicels and capsules glandular-puberulent, the pedicels densely so; flowers as in the species. Witn rne ra t. 
the species and very common. Type locality: mountains of Loloraao. 

EpHobium paniculatum f. subulatum (spelled subulata originally) Hausskn. ^^.^Jffif^^'^^lfs"'''^^^^^ 

Rydb. ^Bull. Torrey Club 40 : 64. . 1913 ; E paniculatum var ^"^" ^'"f^/^^^f/^^'tKngt of 'the species;' fairly 

name.) Pedicels and capsules entirely glabrous; flowers as in the species, vv itn tne range oi 

common. Type locality: on the Columbia River. • -d jk 

Epilobium paniculatum f. Tracyi (Rydb.) St. John Fl. S-E-Wash^ 275 1937. ^/£g-J-g|iKf- 
Bull. Torrev Club 40: 63. 1913.) Hypanthium less than 2 mm. long; flowers whitish. WasUington 
and east to Montana and Ontario. Type locality: Ogden, U tan. out 

Epilobium paniculatum f. laevicaule (Rydb.) St. John, loc. cit. (Epilobium laevicaule Rydb. Bull. Torrey 



174 ONAGRACEAE 

Club 40: 64. 1913; E. altissimum Suksd. Werdenda 1: 28. 1927.) Hypanthiutn 4-6 mm. long; petals 5-8 mm. 
long, rose to pink. Transition Zone, Washington to California and east to Montana and Colorado. Type locality: 

Manhattan, Montana. 

Epilobium paniculatum var. jucundum (A. Gray) Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 2: 85. 1891. {Epilohium 
jncundum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 12: 57. 1876; E. Hammondii Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 1: 224. 1903.) 
Hypanthium 8-15 mm. long; petals 7-12 mm. long, purplish. Transition Zone, southern Washington to northern 
California and Idaho. Type locality: Scott Valley, Siskiyou County, California. 

8. Epilobium minutum Lindl. Minute Willow-herb. Fig. 3366. 

Epilobium minutum Lindl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1 : 207. 1834. 
Crossostigma Lindleyi Spach, Ann. Mus. Paris II. 4: 404. 1835. 
Epilobium adscendens Suksd. Deutsch. Bot. Monatss. 18: 87. 1900. 

Annual, 5-30 cm. tall, from simple or nearly so to diffusely branched, branches erect, often 
opposite, puberulent throughout. Leaves mostly opposite, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate or 
oblanceolate, entire or remotely denticulate, rather fleshy, 1-2 cm. long, on a much shorter but 
distinct petiole; flowers in axils of upper somewhat reduced leaves; pedicels 3-10 mm. lotig; 
hypanthium less than 1 mm. long; sepals about 1.5 mm. long; petals rose-lavender to white, 
emarginate, 2-4 mm. long ; stamens and style about one-half as long as petals ; capsule subclavate, 
arcuate, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, beaked; seeds broadly obovoid, smooth, scarcely 1 mm. long. 

Open disturbed, dry places. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; British Columbia to central California, 
and east to Montana and Nevada. Type locality: "near the Grand Rapids of the Columbia." Collected by Douglas. 
May-Aug. 

Epilobium minutum var. foH6sum Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 490. 1840. {Epilobium minutum var. 
Biolettii Greene, Pittonia 2: 296. 1892; li. foliosum Suksd. Deutsch. Bot. Monatss. 18: t>7. 19UU.) Flowers 
smaller, petals scarcely 2 mm. long; leaves narrower, with some tendency to fascicles in axils. With the species. 
Type locality: "Dry rocks, Oregon and the Rocky Mountains of California." Collected by Nuttall. 

9. Epilobium palustre L. Marsh Willow-herb. Fig. 3367. 

Epilobium palustre L. Sp. PI. 348. 1753. 

Perennial, with filiform sobols ending in well-formed turions ; stems simple or few-branched, 
1-3 dm. tall, glabrate below% quite canescent above with incurved hairs. Leaves mostly opposite, 
lanceolate or oblong, obtuse, slightly revolute, not crowded, almost or quite sessile, 1-3 (5) cm. 
long ; fruiting pedicels 1-3 cm. long ; sepals 3 mm. long ; petals 4-5 mm. long, emarginate, pale ; 
capsule slender, suberect, 3-6 cm. long, canescent; seeds 1.5-2 mm. long, papillate, with pale 
brownish or white coma. 

Wet places in high mountains. Transition Zone; Alaska to Washington, east to New Brunswick; also Eurasia. 
Type locality: Europe. June-Aug. 

Epilobium leptoph^llum Raf. Precis des Decouv. 41. 1814. (Epilobium lineare Muhl. Cat. 39. 1813, 
an illegitimate name.) Has been collected in Klickitat and Skamania Counties, Washington. It differs from 
E. palustre in its more branched habit and narrower, petioled, more acute and more revolute leaves, which are 
more pubescent. Ranging east to Colorado, Delaware, and New Brunswick. 

10. Epilobium glandulosum Lehm. Glandular Willow-herb. Fig. 3368. 

Epilobium glandulosum Lehm. Stirp. Pug. 2: 4. 1830; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1 : 206. 1834. 

Perennial, apparently with large loosely formed turions; stems 3-9 dm. tall, rather thick, 
light-colored, simple or few-branched above, glabrous below, crisp-pubescent and glandular above. 
Leaves crowded near summit, not conspicuously decreased in size in the inflorescence, ovate to 
ovate-lanceolate, prominently serrulate, 5-12 cm. long, nearly or quite sessile ; flowers erect, near 
end of stem ; pedicels 1-2 cm. long in fruit ; hypanthium narrow, 2-3 mm. long ; sepals suberect, 
3-5 mm. long; petals purple, 5-10 mm. long, not conspicuously spreading; capsule 4-7 cm. 
long, pubescent; seeds about 1.75 mm. long, with dingy coma. 

Wet places. Transition and Canadian Zones; Alaska to northern California, eastern Canada and Colordo; 
also Japan. Type locality: Cumberland-House Fort, on the Saskatechewan. July-Aug. 

11. Epilobium exaltatum Drew. Elevated Willow-herb. Fig. 3369. 

Epilobium exaltatum Drew, Bull. Torrey Club 16: 151. 1889. 

Epilobium Sandbergii RyAh. Bull. Torrey Club 40: 64. 1913. 

Epilobium californicum var. exaltatum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 670. 1925. 

Epilobium glandulosum var. exaltatum Munz, Man. S. Calif. 333, 559. 1935. 

Epilobium brevistylum var. exaltatum Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 570. 1936. 

Perennial, with large turions; stems 3-9 dm. tall, rather slender, more or less pubescent, 
freely branched above with very slender branches. Leaves lance-ovate, serrulate, nearly or quite 
sessile, 5-12 cm. long, the uppermost much reduced; flowers near ends of glandular-pubescent 
branches; pedicels 5-10 mm. long in fruit; hypanthium 2-3 mm. long, almost as wide; sepals 
suberect, 3-4 mm. long; petals pink to rose-purple, 5-10 mm. long; capsules 3-5 cm. long; seeds 
beaked, rugose, 1 mm. long; coma white. 

Wet places, Transition Zone; southern Washington to the San Bernardino Mountains, California, east to 
Idaho and Nevada. Type locality: Grouse Creek, Humboldt County, California. June-Aug. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 



175 




3367 

3361. Epilobium obcordatum 

3362. Epilobium rigidum 

3363. Epilobium luteum 



3368 

3364. Epilobium nivium 

3365. Epilobium paniculatum 

3366. Epilobium minutum 



3369 

3367. Epilobium palustre 

3368. Epilobium glandulosum 

3369. Epilobium exaltatum 



176 ONAGRACEAE 

12. Epilobium brevistylum Barbey. Slender Willow-herb. Fig. 3370. 

Epilobium brevistylum Barbey, Bot. Calif. 1: 220. 1876. 

Perennial with well-formed, compact turions, the dried scales of which persist at the base of 
the stem of the succeeding year ; stems erect, simple or subsimple, slender, 2-6 dm. tall, glabrous 
below, crisp-pubescent or somewhat glandular about the inflorescence. Leaves ovate to elliptic- 
lanceolate or even linear-lanceolate, denticulate, with rounded, sessile base, almost entirely oppo- 
site, 2-4 cm. long, not crowded, drying pale ; flowers several, but not in great numbers ; fruiting 
pedicels 5-15 mm. long; sepals 2-3 mm. long; petals purplish or paler, emarginate, 3-5 mm. 
long; capsules 4-6 cm. long; seeds about 1 .5 mm. long, papillate, broad, with whitish coma. 

Wet places, Transition and Hudsonian Zones; Washington to southern California, east to Montana and 
Colorado. Type locality: Sierra County, California. June-Aug. 

Epilobium brevistylum var. ursinum (Parish) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 670. 1925. {Epilobium Smithii 
Levi. Rep. Nov. Spec. 5: 8. 1908.) Simple, 2-5 dm. tall; both leaves and lower stem pilose with remote and 
spreading, long, white hairs. With the species from Washington to southern California and Idaho. Type lo- 
cality: San Bernardino Mountains, California. 

Epilobium brevistylum var. subfalcatum (Trelease) Munz. {Epilobium ursinum subfalcatum Trelease, 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 2: 101. 1891; Epilobium brevistylum var. Pringleanum (Hausskn.) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. 
Calif. 670. 1925.) Low, 10-15 cm. tall, with a short, dense, pilose pubescence throughout; leaves oblong-linear, 
remote, entire or nearly so, erect, obtuse, sessile, of only 3-5 pairs. Occasional in similar situations to the 
species; Washington to the mountains of central California, Idaho, and Nevada. Type locality: "California, 
mountains about the headwaters of the Sacramento River." 

Epilobium brevistylum var. tenue (Trelease) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 670. 1925. {Epilobium delicatum 
var. tcnue Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 2: 99. 1891.) Like the preceding variety and growing with it, but 
glabrous. Rare. Type locality: Union County, Oregon. 

13. Epilobium Halleanum Hausskn. Hall's Willow-herb. Fig. 3371. 

Epilobium Halleanum Hausskn. Mon. Epilob. 261. 1884. 

Perennial, with small turions ; stems erect, slender, simple or nearly so, 1-4 dm. high, sub- 
glabrous below, with lines of hair from the decurrent bases of the leaves, glandular-puberulent 
in upper parts. Leaves lance-linear, erect, some with clasping base, 1.5-4 cm. long, serrulate to 
entire, acute; flowers small; hypanthium 1-1.5 mm. long; sepals 2-3 mm. long; petals 2-4 mm. 
long, white to purplish; fruiting pedicels 3-5 mm. long; capsules 2-5 cm. long; seeds 1-1.5 mm. 
long, beaked. 

Wet places, Transition Zones, British Columbia to northern California, Montana, and Colorado. Type locality : 
Oregon. July-Aug. 

14. Epilobium delicatum Trelease. Delicate Willow-herb. Fig. 3372. 

Epilobium delicatum Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 98. 1891. 

Perennial producing turions, the stems slender, mostly simple, glabrous except for the crisp 
hairy lines decurrent from the upper nodes, and with glandular inflorescence. Leaves opposite, 
ovate-lanceolate, up to 7.5 cm. long, divergent, rounded at base and subsessile or cuneate and 
short-petioled, thin and pale, undulately denticulate ; flowers few ; petals 5-8 mm. long ; capsules 
4-6 cm. long, their pedicels slender, about half as long; seeds 0.3-1 mm. long, finely papillate. 

Bogs and wet meadows, Arid Transition and Canadian Zones; British Colmnbia to eastern Oregon and Mon- 
tana. Type locality: Union County, Oregon. July-Aug. 

15. Epilobium leptocarpum Hausskn. Slencier-fruited Willow-herb. Fig. 3373. 

Epilobium leptocarpum Hausskn. Mon. Epilob. 258. pi. 14, fig. 67. 1884. 

Perennial, apparently with small turions ; stems slender, much branched, reddish, 1 dm. or 
less tall, glabrous except for some incurved pubescence. Leaves 1-2 cm. long, broadly lanceolate, 
obtuse, remotely few-toothed, with short-winged petioles ; flowers abundant for the size of the 
plant; petals 3 mm. long, white to pinkish; capsules 2-3 cm. long, on slender pedicels 1-2 cm. 
long; seeds 0.75-1 mm. long, ellipsoidal, shortly hyaline-beaked, and with brownish coma. 

Apparently rare. Boreal Zones; Cascade Mountains, Oregon. Type locality: Oregon. July-Aug. 

Epilobium leptocarpum var. Macounii Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 103. 1891. {Epilobium paddoense 
Levi. Rep. Nov. Spec. 5: 8. 1908.) Less branched; pubescence of stem more definitely in lines and extending to 
flowers and capsules. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; seeds 1 mm. long. Rock crevices in Boreal Zones; Alaska to Wash- 
ington (Olympic Mountains, Mount Adams, and Pend Oreille County), and Idaho. Type locality: Lake Athabasca. 

Epilobium mir^bile Trelease in Piper, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 11: 404. 1906. Uncertainly distinct from 
E. leptocarpum, from which it differs by having seeds almost 2 mm. long. Olympic Mountains, Washington, the 
type locality. 

16. Epilobium oregonense Hausskn. Oregon Willow-herb. Fig. 3374. 

Epilobium oregonense Hausskn. Mon. Epilob. 276. 1884. 

Epilobium oregonense var. gracillimum Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 109. 1891. 

Perennial, stoloniferous ; stems simple, slender, erect, 1-3 dm. high, glabrous except for some 
sparse glandular pubescence in inflorescence, often purpHsh above. Leaves somewhat crowded on 
lower portion of stem, reduced and remote above, glabrous, oblong-linear to -ovate, entire to 
remotely denticulate, suberect, obtuse, sessile, 1-2.5 cm. long; flowers 1 to few; fruiting pedicels 
1-3.5 cm. long; sepals often purplish, 1-2 mm. long; petals cream-colored to_ purplish, 4-7 mm. 
long, deeply emarginate; capsules erect, 2-5 cm. long, slender, often purplish; seeds smooth, 
blunt, scarcely 1 mm. long, with white coma. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 177 

Boggy places, upper Transition and Hudsonian Zones; in the mountains from British Columbia to southern 
California, Idaho, and Nevada. Type locality: Oregon. July-Aug. 

17. Epilobium glaberrimum Barbey, Glaucous Willow-herb. Fig. 3375. 

Epilohium glaberrimum Barbey, Bot. Calif. 1 : 220. 1876. 

Epilobium pruinosum Hausskn. Mon. Epilob. 252. pi. 15. 1884. 

Epilobium fastigiatum subsp. glaberrimum Piper, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 11: 404. 1906. 

Perennial, with several stems from branching scaly rootstocks ; stems simple or nearly so, 
slender, erect from somewhat decumbent base, glabrous and glaucous, sometimes slightly glandu- 
lar-puberulent above, often purplish, 3-6 dm. tall. Leaves pallid, glabrous, glaucous, ascending, 
oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, entire or minutely denticulate, sessile, 2-5 cm. long, gradually reduced 
up the stem ; flowers erect or somewhat drooping ; fruiting pedicels 1—2 cm. long ; sepals 1-2 mm. 
long ; petals 4-7 mm. long, purplish to almost white ; capsule 4-7 cm. long, slender, suberect; seeds 
papillate, about 1 mm. long, not beaked, with whitish coma. 

Stream banks and wet places, upper Transition and Hudsonian Zones; Washington to southern California, 
Idaho, and Nevada. Type locality; Yosemite Valley, California. July-Aug. 

Epilobium glaberrimum var. fastigiatum (Nutt.) Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 2: lOS. pi. 39. 1891. 
(Epilobium affinc var. fastiaiatum Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:489. 1840; E. glaberrimum var. 
latifolium Barbey, Bot. Calif. 1: 220. 1876; £. atrichum Levi. Rep. Nov. Spec. 7: 99. 1909; E. platyphyllum 
Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 40: 63. 1913.) Lower, 1-3 dm. tall. Leaves broader, shorter, ovate, 1.5-2.5 cm. 
long, more crowded. In similar situations to the species, from British Columbia to central California and Utah. 
Type locality: "Plains of the Oregon." 

Epilobium oreganum Greene, Pittonia 1 : 225. 1888. (Epilobium subcaesium Greene, Pittonia 2: 295. 1892.) 
An uncertain species of which more material is needed to decide whether or not it is only a large-flowered form of 
E. glaberrimum, from which it differs chiefly in having larger flowers with purplish petals 8-12 mm. long. 
Springy places. Grants Pass, Oregon, the type locality. 

18. Epilobium alpinum L. Alpine Willow-herb. Fig. 3376. 

Epilobium alpinum L. Sp. PI. 348. 1753. 
Epilobium anagallidifolium Lam. Diet. 2: 376. 1786. 

Densely cespitose perennial, stoloniferous ; stems numerous, simple, erect, slender, sigmoid- 
ally bent, nodding at apex, about 1 dm. tall, glabrous, or with pubescent lines, often purplish 
above. Leaves rather uniformly distributed, divergent, oblong-ovate to -lanceolate, obtuse, entire, 
or nearly so, 1-2 cm. long, on short petioles ; inflorescence nodding in bud, purplish, 1- to few- 
flowered, somewhat crisp-pubescent or even glandular; fruiting pedicels 5-15 mm. long; sepals 
2 mm. long; petals lilac to purple, 4-5 mm. long; capsule slender, linear, about 1 mm. thick, 
purplish, 2-4 cm. long ; seeds smooth, obovoid, broad, 1 mm. long, with dingy coma. 

Moist rockslides and stony places, Arctic-Alpine Zone; occasional, Alaska to central California, Colorado, and 
Labrador, Eurasia. Type locality : Europe. July-Sept. 

19. Epilobium clavatum Trelease. Clavate-fruited Willow-herb. Fig. ZZ77 . 

Epilobium clavatum Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 2: 111. pi. 48. 1891. 

Habit much as in preceding species ; stems 5-15 cm. tall, purplish, subglabrous to glandular- 
pubescent. Leaves broadly ovate, obtuse, divergent, 1-2 cm. long, subentire to remotely denticu- 
late, on short petioles ; flowers few, erect in bud ; fruiting pedicels 1-2 cm. long ; sepals 3-4 mm. 
long; petals purplish to rose-colored, 5-6 mm. long; capsule purplish, subclavate, 2-2.5 cm. long, 
stout, 1.5-2 mm. thick, frequently arcuate; seeds fusiform, papillose, 1.5-2 mm. long, with dingy 
coma. 

Talus and slides, Arctic- Alpine Zone; British Columbia to Oregon, Montana, Utah, and Colorado Intergrad- 
ing with the preceding species and the two following ones. Type locality: Kickmg Horse River, Birtish Columbia. 
July-Aug. 

20. Epilobium Hornemannii Reichb. Hornemann's Willow-herb. Fig. 3378. 

Epilobium Hornemannii Reichb. Ic. Bot. Crit. 2: 73. 1824. 

Perennial, with subterranean scaly branches ; stems slender, erect except at very base simple, 
1-3 dm tall, glabrous except for the crisp pubescence on the decurrent lines, slightly glandular 
above. Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, 1.5-4 cm. long, mostly obtuse, subentire or remotely serru- 
late, on short petioles ; flowers few, erect ; fruiting pedicels 1-2 cm. long ; sepals 3-4 mm. long ; 
petals purplish or violet, 5-8 mm. long ; capsules erect,_ linear, slender, less than 1 mm. thick, 
4-5 cm. long ; seeds usually papillose, 1 mm. long, with dingy coma. 

Damp banks and meadows. Hudsonian Zone; Alaska to central California, Greenland, New Hampshire. Colo- 
rado; also Eurasia. Type locality: Norway. July-Aug. 

Epilobium Treleasianum Levi. Rep. Nov. Spec. 5: 8. 1908. Like E. "^'\''2"::.'J^Sh'Vl?tllTo-''\^^mm 
with stems 2-4 dm. tall. Leaves ovate, acutish, serrulate, 3-;5.5 cm 1°%= ^^Pf^^ 5-6 mm. long P^t||^10-^2 ™rn^ 
long; seeds papillose. Damp places, Hudsonian Zone Washington (Mount Maimer Mount Ad^s btevens 
Pass). Not certainly distinct from E. Horncmanmv. Type locality: Selkirk Range, British Columbia. 



21. Epilobium lactiflorum Hausskn. White-flowered Willow-herb. Fig. 3379. 

Epilobium lactiflorum Hausskn. Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. 29: 89. 1879. 

Epilobium alpinum of American authors, not L. 

Size and habit of the preceding species, but more glabrous on decurrent lines as well as in 
the inflorescence. Leaves delicate, pale green, subentire or obscurely denticulate, elliptic or ob- 



178 



ONAGRACEAE 




3370. Epilobium brevistylum 

3371. Epilobium Halleanum 

3372. Epilobium delicatum 

3373. Epilobium leptocarpum 



3374. Epilobium oregonense 

3375. Epilobium glaberrimum 

3376. Epilobium alpinum 



3378 

3377. Epilobium clavatum 

3378. Epilobium Hornemannii 

3379. Epilobium lactiflorum 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 179 

long-ovate, obtuse, 2-5 cm. long ; flowers few ; petals 3 mm. long, white or rose-tipped ; capsules 
slender, erect, linear, less than 1 mm. thick 4—5 cm. long; seeds smooth, about 1 mm. long, at- 
tenuated to a beak, with dingy coma. 

Moist slopes and banks, Canadian Zone to Arctic- Alpine Zone; Alaska to southern California, Colorado, 
and New Hampshire; also Eurasia. Type locality: Old World. July-Aug. 

22. Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn. Northern Willow-herb. Fig. 3380. 

Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn. Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. 29: 119. 1879. 

Epilobium concinnum Congdon, Erythea 7: 184. 1900. 

Epilobium glandulosum var. adenocaulon Fernald, Rhodora 20: 35. 1918. 

Perennial, stem erect, 3-10 dm. tall, glabrous below, glandular-pubescent (and with few or 
no incurved hairs) in inflorescence, simple or weakly branched below, freely branched above, 
innovations by rosettes. Leaves glabrate to glabrous, ovate- to elliptic-lanceolate, 3-6 cm. long, 
obtuse to acute, serrulate, rounded into very short, winged petioles, upper leaves gradually re- 
duced and somewhat pubescent ; sepals 2 mm. long ; petals white or pale or even reddish, 4 mm. 
long ; fruiting pedicels 3-8 mm. long ; capsule slender, usually reddish, 4-6 cm. long, glabrate in 
age ; seeds obovoid, 1 mm. long, abruptly short-beaked, with whitish coma. 

Moist places, mainly in Transition Zone; British Columbia to southern California and Atlantic States. 
Type locality: Ohio. July-Aug. 

Epilobium adenocaulon var. occidentale Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 2: 95. pi. 23. 1891. (Epilobium 
occidentale Rydb. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 1:275. 1900; E. glandulosum var. occidentale Fernald, Rhodora 
20: 35. 1918; E. calif ornicum var. occidentale Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 670. 1925.) Leaves narrowly 
lanceolate, narrower than in the species; flowers purple or rose, the petals 5-6 mm. long. Wet places. Transition 
Zone; British Columbia to central California and Utah. Type locality: not given. 

Epilobium adenocaulon var. perplexans Trelease, op. cit. 96. (Epilobium perplexans Trelease ex Coult. 
& Nels. Man. Bot. Rocky Mts. 337. 1909; E. glandulosum var. perplexans Fernald, Rhodora 20: 35. 1915; 
E. praecox Suksd. Werwenda 1: 27. 1927; E. griseum Suksd. op. cit. 28.) Usually less than 3 dm. tall, not 
so glandular, slender and rather simple. Leaves thin, tapering at base to slender petioles; flowers whitish; petals 
4 mm. long. Moist places. Transition Zone; eastern Washington to eastern California and Rocky Mountains. 
Type locality: not given. 

23. Epilobium calif ornicum Hausskn. California Willow-herb. Fig. 3381. 

Epilobium californicum Hausskn. Mon. Epilob. 260. 1884. 
Epilobium Parishii Trelease, Zoe 1:210. 1890. 
Epilobium Palmcri Levi. Rep. Nov. Spec. S: 98. 1908. 
Epilobium cinerascens Piper, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 75. 1917. 
Epilobium californicum var. Parishii Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 670. 1925. 

Annual or perennial, erect, 3-10 dm. tall, branched freely, not at all glandular in the inflores- 
cence, having a whitish more or less appressed pubescence about the flowers and young capsules. 
Leaves lanceolate to lance-ovate, Z-7 cm. long, serrulate, short-petioled ; sepals 2 mm. long ; petals 
white or pink, 2-4 mm. long ; capsules slender, 4-6 cm. long ; seeds as in the preceding species. 

Moist places in valleys and lower canyons, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; western Washington to 
California, west of the Sierra Nevada. Intergrading freely with E. adenocaulon and the following variety. Type 
locality: "Colonia Ross," Sonoma County, California. June-Sept. 

Epilobium californicum var. holosericeum (Trelease) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 670. 1925. (.Epilo- 
bium holoscriccum Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 2: 91. pi. 17. 1891.) With habit of the species, but canescent 
throughout with soft subappressed hairs; petals 4-5 mm. long, pink to purple. Moist places, valleys of Calitornia 
west of the Sierra Nevada and south to the border. Type locality: San Bernardino County, California. 

24. Epilobium franciscanum Barbey. San Francisco Willow-herb. Fig. 3382. 

Epilobium franciscanum Barbey, Bot. Calif. 1: 220. 1876. 
Epilobium Congdonii Levi. Rep. Nov. Spec. 5: 98. 1908. 
Epilobium Watsonii var. franciscanum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 670. 1925. 

Perennial, rosuliferous, with rather coarse reddish stems, 3-10 dm. tall, glabrate ^f?^' ^^' 
canescent to subpilose and sometimes glandular above, with numerous usually crowded branches 
above. Leaves numerous, prevailingly opposite, elliptic-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, 
serrate, glabrate to pubescent, Z-^ cm. long, generally rounded at base mto very short broad 
petioles; flowers at first crowded, scarcely exceeding the somewhat reduced upper leaves ; truit- 
ing pedicels commonly 5-10 mm. long ; sepals 4-5 mm. long, reddish ; petals usually red-purple, 
6-10 mm. long, deeply emarginate; capsule slender, 5-8 mm. long, pubescent; seeds 1 mm. long, 
half as wide, with whitish coma. . 

Wet places, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Lower Columbia River to central coastal California. Type 
locality: near San Francisco, California. May-July. 

Epilobium Watsonii Barbey, Bot. Calif. 1: 219. 1876. Not certainly distinct frotn the preceding species; 
more pubescent, leaves less dentate. Coast of Sonoma County, California. Type locality. Fort Koss. 

5. BOISDUVAlIA Spach, Hist. Veg. 4: 383. 1835. 

Caulescent, mostly erect annuals. Leaves alternate, simple, sessile. Flowers small, or 
minute, in leafy spikes, or axillary to foliage leaves. Hypanthium produced above the 
ovarv, short, funnelform; sepals 4, erect. Petals 4, sessile, obovate 2- obed purple to 
white. Stamens 8, those opposite the petals shorter; anthers basifixed, all perfect; pollen 



180 ONAGRACEAE 

in tetrads. Stigma with 4 cuneate lobes. Capsule 4-celled, 4-valved, sessile. Seeds smooth, 
without a coma. [Named for Jean Alphonse Boisduval, French naturalist and physician.] 

Genus of 10 species of the western United States and adjacent Canada and of Chile, Argentina, and Tas- 
mania. Type species, Oenothera concinna D. Don. 

Capsule septifragal, the septa wholly adherent to the placental axis, making the latter 4-winged; leaves lanceolate, 
toothed, the upper broader. 1. B. densiflora. 

Capsule subterete and loculicidal, the septa adherent to the valves in dehiscence, or capsule 4-sided and not 
dehiscent. 

Capsule coriaceous, 4-sided, tardily if at all dehiscent; leaves narrowly lanceolate; ovules rather numerous, 

10-14 in each row. 2. B. cleistogama. 

Capsule membranous, terete, usually dehiscent; ovules fewer, except sometimes in B. glabella. 
Hypanthium 0.5-1 mm. long; petals 1.5-4 mm. long. 

Floral leaves ovate or oblong, broader than the foliage leaves; petals 2-4 mm. long; capsule 6-8 
mm. long, quite straight. 3. B. glabella. 

Floral leaves linear; petals 1-2 mm. long; capsule 8-10 mm. long, usually curved. 

5. B. striata. 
Hypanthium 2-3 mm. long; petals S-10 mm. long. 

Leaves serrulate, crowded; petals 7-10 mm. long; capsule straight. 4. B. macrantha. 

Leaves quite entire, not crowded; petals 5-8 mm. long; capsule curved. 6. B. pallida. 

1. Boisduvalia densiflora (Lindl.) S. Wats. Dense-flowered Boisduvalia. 

Fig. 3383. 

Oenothera densiflora Lindl. Bot. Reg. 19: pi. 1593. 1833. 

Boisduvalia Douglasii Spach, Hist. Veg. 4: 385. 1835. 

Boisduvalia densiflora S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1 : 233. 1876. 

Boisduvalia densiflora var. imbricata Greene, Fl. Fran. 225. 1891. 

Boisduvalia bipartita Greene, Erythea 3: 119. 1895. 

Boisduvalia densiflora var. montana Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif. 330. 1901. 

Simple or branched, particularly above, usually 3-10 dm. tall, commonly villous, green to 
canescent, leafy throughout. Lower leaves lanceolate to lance-linear, acute, entire or denticulate, 
2-5 cm. long, the floral ones ovate, acute, 5-12 mm. long, sometimes densely imbricated and con- 
cealing the capsules ; inflorescence dense, long-spicate in fruit ; sepals 2-4 mm. long, lanceolate ; 
petals rose-purple, sometimes whitish, bilobed, 6-12 mm. long ; capsule stout, straight, 8-10 mm. 
long, septifragal, the septa adhering to the placenta which thus becomes 4-angled; seeds few, 
ovoid, angled, brown, paler at ends, concave on inner face, 1.5 mm. long. 

In places moist in the early season. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; British Columbia to southern 
California, Idaho, and Nevada. Type locality: "Northern California." May-Aug. An exceedingly variable 
species. 

Boisduvalia densiflora var. pallescens Suksd. Deutsch. Bot. Monatss. 18:88. 1900. Pubescence spread- 
ing, usually with some gland-tipped hairs; floral bracts often remote, broadly ovate gradually acuminate; flowers 
pale; seeds 3-4 in each cell, 2 mm. long. Intergrading with the typical species and variety saticina. Klickitat 
County, Washington, south to Placer County, California. Type locality: near Bingen, Klickitat County, Wash- 
ington. 

Boisduvalia densiflora var. salicina (Nutt.) Munz, Leaflets West. Bot. 3: 53. 1941. {Oenothera salicina 
Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 505. 1840; Boisduvalia sparsiflora Heller, Muhlenbergia 1: 42. 1904.) 
Pubescence short strigose-canescent, the hairs not gland-tipped; petals pale, mostly 2.5-5 mm. long. Eastern 
Washington and Idaho south to Nevada County, California, and western Nevada. Type locality: "On the 
Wahlamet and Wallawallah," Oregon. 

2. Boisduvalia cleistogama Curran. Cleistogamous Boisduvalia. Fig. 3384. 

Boisduvalia cleistogama Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: 12. 1884. 

Erect and simple, or more usually branched from the base, 1-2 dm. tall, more or less villous 
and glandular throughout, densely leafy. Leaves linear to lanceolate, 2-3 cm. long, 1 . 5-5 mm. 
wide, acute, remotely denticulate, pale, not much reduced up the stem; flowers axillary along the 
branches, the earliest cleistogamous, the latter rose-colored; sepals 1-2 mm. long; petals bifid, 
3 mm. long; capsule hard, coriaceous, 4-sided, sharply angled, and with 4 nerves, pointed, slightly 
curved, 1 cm. long, 1.5 mm. thick, tardily if at all dehiscent; seeds light brown, linear, angled, 
1-1.5 mm. long. 

Dried beds of vernal pools, Upper Sonoran Zone; Great Valley of California. Type locality: Elmira, 
Solano County, California. May-June. 

3. Boisduvalia glabella (Nutt.) Walp. Smooth Boisduvalia. Fig. 3385. 

Oenothera glabella Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 505. 1840. 
Boisduvalia glabella Walp. Rep. 2:89. 1843. 

Simple or more frequently freely and decumbently branched from base, 10-30 cm. tall, 
glabrate or pubescent on veins, or throughout, the stems uniformly leafy. Leaves sessile, lance- 
ovate to -oblong, acute, serrulate, bright green, 1-1.5 cm. long; flowers axillary, sometimes even 
in lowest axils ; sepals 2 mm. long; petals purplish, 2-4 mm. long; capsule 6-8 mm. long, straight, 
pointed at tip ; seeds numerous, grayish brown, narrowly subfusiform, angled, 1 mm. long. 

Dry mud flats and vernal pools. Upper Sonoran Zone; at scattered stations from British Columbia to 
southern California, Saskatchewan, and Nevada, and also Argentina. Type locality: "Plains of the Oregon east 
of Wallawallah." June-Aug. 

Boisduvalia glabella var. campestris Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif, ed. 2. 276. 1911. (Boisduvalia 
campestris Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif. 330. 19U1.) Leaves of the upper branches ovate to oblong-ovate, densely 
overlapping and concealing the capsules. Modoc County and Glenn and Butte Counties south to Monterey and 
Merced Counties, Califoniia. Type locality: Little Oak, Vacaville, Solano County. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 181 

4. Boisduvalia macrantha Heller. Large-flowered Boisduvalia. Fig. 3386. 

Boisduvalia macrantha Heller, Muhlenbergia 2: 101. 1905. 

Stems 1-10 dm. tall, simple or few-branched at the base or above, glabrous near the base, 
villous above. Leaves rather crowded, 2-4 cm. long, 5-9 mm. wide, lanceolate to oblanceolate the 
upper almost ovate, acute to acuminate, remotely serrulate, sessile ; flowers solitary in the upper 
axils; hypanthium villous, 2.5-3 mm. long; sepals narrowly lanceolate, villous, 3-6 mm. long; 
petals rose-purple when dry, divided about one-half their length, the lobes asymmetrically rounded 
at the tips, 7-10 mm. long; capsule straight lance-linear, 1-2 cm. long, 2 mm. thick near base, 
with slender apical beak 2-3 mm. long; seeds 5-6 in each row, brownish, somewhat shining, 
2 mm. long, microscopically cellular-punctate. 

Gravel washes and fields. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Modoc and Shasta Counties to Butte 
County, California. Type locality : near Redding, Shasta County. May-July. 

5. Boisduvalia stricta (A. Gray) Greene. Narrow-leaved Boisduvalia. Fig. 3387. 

Gayophytum strictum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 340. 1867. 
Boisduvalia Torreyi S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 233. 1876. 
Boisduvalia stricta Greene, Fl. Fran. 225. 1891. 
Boisduvalia diffusa Greene, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1895: 547. 1896. 
Boisduvalia parviflora Heller, Bull. Torrey Club 25: 199. 1898. 

Stems 1-4.5 dm. tall, simple or with few to several erect, virgate branches from near base, 
pilose and quite canescent throughout. Leaves linear to lanceolate, 1-4 cm. long, 2-3 (4) mm. 
wide, acute, entire to sharply denticulate, nearly or quite sessile, the upper ones narrower than 
the lower ones; flowers axillary, often beginning near the base of the plant; sepals 1 mm. long; 
petals rose-purple or violet, 1.5-2 mm. long; capsule 8-10 mm. long, membranous, slender, 
usually curved outwards and attenuate, tardily loculicidal ; seeds ovoid, brown, 1 mm. long, 6 to 8 
in each cell. 

_ Moist spots, Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Washington and Idaho south to Nevada and to Tulare County, 
California. Type locality: Cloverdale, Sonoma County, California. May-July. 

6. Boisduvalia pallida Eastw, Pale Boisduvalia. Fig. 3388. 

Boisduvalia pallida Eastw. Leaflets West. Bot. 2: 54. 1937. 

Stems 1-4 dm. tall, slender, mostly branched from the base, sometimes simple, tomentulose 
and pilose, glabrescent below in age. Leaves not crowded, somewhat reduced above, 1.5-5 cm. 
long, 3-6 mm. wide, lanceolate, acute to acuminate, subentire, subsessile, strigose to subglabrous ; 
flowers axillary, even in lowermost axils ; hypanthium soft-pubescent, 2-3 mm. long ; sepals 
3-4 mm. long, pubescent; petals reddish, 5-8 mm. long; capsule 1.5-3 cm. long, 1.5-2 mm. thick 
at base, tapering gradually into a slender outcurved beak 2-4 mm. long ; seeds about 6 in each 
cell, brownish, 1.5—2 mm. long, cellular-pitted. 

Moist places. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Josephine and Jackson Counties, Oregon, and Modoc 
County, California, south to Tehama and Plumas Counties, California. Type locality: Goose Valley, Shasta 
County. June— July. 

6. CLArKIA Pursh, FI. Amer. Sept. 1: 260. pi. 11. 1814. 

Annual herbs, simple or branched above, with spicate inflorescence and nodding' or 
reflexed buds. Hypanthium short or greatly elongated ; sepals distinct or united in an- 
thesis. Petals distinctly unguiculate, claws at least one-sixth as long as blades ; blades 
simple or lobed, pink to lavender or purplish. Stamens 4 and alternate with the petals, or 
8, with the epipetalous ones shorter and sometimes not functional ; anthers linear, fixed 
near the base. Stigma 4-lobed. the lobes lance-linear to suborbicular. Capsule linear or 
attenuate above, 4-celled, usually 4-angled (at least when dried). Seeds in one row in 
each cell, cellular-pubescent and with the cresting reduced, or not pubescent but with 
minute transverse corrugations and conspicuous cresting. [Named for Captain William 
Clark, of the Lewis and Clark expedition to the Northwest in 1806. ] 

A genus of 7 species, confined to western North America. Type species, Clarkia pulchella Pursh. 

Blade of petal not lobed, although occasionally with small teeth on the claws; stamens 8; anthers glabrate; seeds 
cellular-pubescent, scarcely crested. (Subgenus Phaeostoma) 
Hypanthium with band of hairs within or with scales at summit; anthers not curling after dehiscence; 
blade of petal 2-4 times the length of the rather broad claw. 
Sepals united in anthesis- no scales on filaments, but band of hairs within the hypanthium: capsule 
nearly sessile; petals pinkish. 1- C. delicata. 

Sepals distinct in anthesis; scales present at base of filaments; capsule pediceled; petals piirpli<=b. 

2. C. rhomboidea. 

Hypanthium without band of hairs or scales within; anthers curling slightly after dehiscence; blade of 
petal about as long as the narrow claw. 3. C. clcgans. 

Blade of petal lobed; anthers usually ciliate-villous. 

Hypanthium 2-4 mm. long; stamens 8; seeds cellular-pubescent, minutely crested. (Subgenus Euclarkia) 
Petals bilobed with subulate tooth at base of sinus; short stamens functional; hypanthium with ring 

of hairs within. 4. C. Xanttana. 

Petals 3-lobed, lobes about equal; shorter stamens not functional; hypanthium without ring of hairs 
within. 5. C. pulchella. 



182 



ONAGRACEAE 







3383 



3384 





3386 





3387 

3380. Epilobium adenocaulon 

3381. Epilobium califomicum 

3382. Epilobium franciscanum 

3383. Boisduvalia densiflora 



3388 

3384. Boisduvalis cleistogama 

3385. Boisduvalia glabella 

3386. Boisduvalia macrantha 




3389 

3387. Boisduvalia stricta 

3388. Boisduvalia pallida 

3389. Clarkia delicata 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 183 

Hypanthium 15-30 mm. long; stamens 4; seeds not cellular-pubescent but transversely corrugated, and with 
conspicuous cresting. (Subgenus Eucharidmm) 

Filaments club-shaped toward tips; anthers not coiling after dehiscence; middle lobe of petal much 
narrower than lateral ones; stigma-lobes lance-linear, 3 mm. long. 6. C. Brcwcrt. 

Filaments flattened but not club-shaped; anthers coiling after dehiscence; middle lobe of petals at least 
as wide as lateral ones; stigma-lobes rounded, 1 mm. long. 7. C. concinna. 

1. Clarkia delicata (Abrams) Nels. & Macbr. Delicate Clarkia. Fig. 3389. 

Codetta delicata Abrams, Bull. Torrey Club 32: 539. 1905. 
Clarkia delicata Nels. & Macbr. Bot. Gaz. 65: 60. 1918. 

Simple to sparingly branched from the middle, with stems 3-5 dm. tall, nearly glabrous. 

Leaf-blades narrowly to broadly lanceolate, remotely to rather sharply denticulate, 2-5 cm. long, 

acute or nearly so, with slender petioles 5-15 mm. long; flowers in long loose spike; inflorescence 

strigillose ; buds nodding, obovoid ; hypanthium 1-3 mm. long with band of hairs on upper half of 

inner surface; sepals united in anthesis, green or reddish; petals spatulate, 1-1.5 cm. long, the 

blade rose-pink and 2-3 times as long as the slender whitish claw ; stamens 8, in two unequal sets, 

the longer ones about half the length of petals; stigma-lobes rounded, 1-1.5 mm. long; capsule 

1.5-2.5 cm. long, subsessile, slightly beaked; seeds brown, cellular-pubescent, oblique-prismatic, 

not crested. 

Dry slopes in the chaparral, Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern San Diego County, California. Type loc,ality: 
between Campo and Potrero. May. 

2. Clarkia rhomboidea Dougl. Rhomboid Clarkia. Fig. 3390. 

Clarkia rhomboidea Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Amtr. 1: 214. 1834. 

Phaeostoma Douglasii Spach, Ann. Mus. Paris II. 4: 395. 1835. 

Clarkia gauroides Dougl. ex Sweet, Brit. Flow. Card. II. 4: pi. 379. 1838. 

Clarkia virgata Greene, Erythea 3: 123. 1895. 

Godetia latifolia Nels. & Kenn. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19: 156. 1906. 

Simple or few-branched, 2-11 dm. tall, finely pubescent. Leaves few, subopposite, lance- 
ovate to ovate-oblong or elliptic, the blades 2—7 cm. long, acute, entire or remotely denticulate, 
glabrate to finely pubescent ; petioles 1-3 cm. long ; flowers in elongated spikes, buds nodding ; 
hypanthium 1-3 mm. long, with scales and white hairs at summit ; sepals green, usually distinct 
in anthesis ; petals 5-10 mm. long, rose-purple, sometimes dotted, rhomboidal, with the blade 
2-4 times as long as the claw ; stamens unequal, each with a scale at the base ; stigma-lobes 
rounded, 0.5 mm. long; capsules 1-3 cm. long, 2-4 mm. thick, 4-angled when dry, on pedicels 
1^ mm. long; seeds brown, densely cellular-pubescent, 1 mm. long, with a thickened ridge at 
summit, and almost no cresting. 

Fairly dry slopes, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Washington to northern Lower California and 
Arizona. Type locality: "From the Great Falls of the Columbia to the Rocky Mountains." Collected by Douglas, 
May-July. 

3. Clarkia elegans Dougl. Elegant Clarkia. Fig. 3391. 

Clarkia elegans Dougl. in Lindl. Bot. Reg. 19: pi. 1575. 1833. 
Clarkia unguiculata Lindl. Bot. Reg. 23: pi. 1981. 1837. 
Gauropsis lancifolia Presl, Epimel. Bot. 219. 1849. 
Clarkia Eiseniana KtW. Proc. Calif. Acad. 7 : 94. 1877. 

Simple or branched, 2-8 dm. tall, the stems glabrous, glaucous. Leaves lanceolate to lance- 
ovate, 2-5 cm. long, acute, remotely denticulate, glabrous, sometimes glaucous, sessile or with 
winged petioles, 2-7 mm. long; inflorescence pubescent to glandular and pilose, loose; hypan- 
thium 2-4 mm. long, with a ring of hairs within about half way from the base, and with hairs 
about the base of the stamens ; sepals united in anthesis ; petals rose to purple, 1-2 cm. long, the 
blade deltoid-rhomboidal, about as long as the narrow claw ; stamens unequal, 8, the longer alter- 
nate ones about as long as claws ; stigma-lobes short, rounded, 1-1.5 mm. long ; capsule 1-2.5 cm. 
long, about 2 mm. thick, sessile, beakless, usually glandular and pilose, curved to straight ; seeds 
brown, 1 mm. long, cellular-pubescent, angled, with very inconspicuous cresting. 

Dry slopes in chaparral and similar places, Upper Sonoran Zone; Mendocino County and Sierra Nevada 
foothills to southern California. Type locality: California. May-June. 

4. Clarkia Xantiana A. Gray. Xantus' Clarkia. Fig. 3392. 

Clarkia Xantiana A. Gray, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 7: 145. 1859-1861. 
Clarkia parviflora Eastw. Bull. Torrey Club 30:492. 1903. 
Phaeostoma Xanthiana A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 52:267. 1911. 

Simple or sparingly branched from near the middle, 2-7 dm. tall, glaucous especially below, 
strigillose above. Leaves lanceolate, acute, entire to denticulate, sessile or with short petiole, 
finely pubescent to glabrate; inflorescence a long loose, grayish strigillose spike; hypanthium 
2-4 mm. long, with a broad band of hair within; sepals 7-15 mm. long, grayish green, usually 
united in anthesis ; corolla irregular, the two lower petals turned aside ; petals lavender to rose, 
often with large spot of crimson or purple at base of blade, cuneate, bilobed, with small tooth at 
base of V-shaped sinus, the blade 7-11 mm. long, the claw 3-A mm.; stamens unequal, the longer 
about equaling the petals ; stigma-lobes short, rounded ; young ovaries deflexed ; capsules erect. 



184 ONAGRACEAE 

straight or curved, 4-angled, 1 .5-3 cm. long, sessile or nearly so ; seeds brown, obliquely cylindric, 
1.5 mm. long. 

Dry slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; Kern County and Los Angeles County, California, especially in the 
mountains bordering the western edge of the Mojave Desert. Type locality: Fort Taj on, Kern County. May- 
June. 

5. Clarkia pulchella Pursh. Beautiful Clarkia. Fig. 3393. 

Clarkia pulchella Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1 : 260. pi. 11. 1814. 

Simple to dififusely branched, 1-5 dm. tall, finely pubescent to strigillose, very leafy. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate to spatulate, sessile or with petiole up to 1 cm. long, the blades entire or re- 
motely denticulate, 2-7 cm. long, acuminate to acute, upper leaves not much reduced ; flowers in 
a short crowded spike which elongates in fruit ; buds nodding ; hypanthium 2-3 mm. long, lav- 
ender, without inner hairs; sepals usually united in anthesis, lavender, 1-1.5 cm. long; petals 
lavender to purple, with lighter veins, 1.5-3 cm. long, 3-lobed, the lobes 6-10 mm. long, about 
equal in length, the middle one usually wider than lateral ones, claw quite narrow, one-half to 
one-third as long as blade, with a divaricate tooth on each side ; stamens in 2 sets, the longer 
ones 3-8 mm. long, with erect scale at base ; anthers coiling after dehiscence ; stigma-lobes 
rounded, 1-3 mm. long; capsule 1-2.5 cm. long, straight or arcuate, 8-ribbed, grooved on each 
face, appearing square when dry, with pedicel 3-10 mm. long; seeds brown, depressed, oblique, 
not angled, 1 mm. long. 

Dry slopes. Upper Sonoran and lower Transition Zones; eastern British Columbia and Washington to 
Montana and South Dakota. Type locality: opposite the town of Kamiah, Idaho, on the Kooskooskie River. 
May-July. 

6. Clarkia Breweri (A. Gray) Greene. Brewer's Clarkia. Fig. 3394. 

Eucharidium Breweri A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 6: 532. 1865. 
Clarkia Breweri Greene, Pittonia 1: 141. 1887. 
Clarkia Saxeana Greene, op. cit. 140. 

Simple or branched, with stems 1-2 dm. tall, finely pubescent. Leaf-blades lanceolate to 
oblong-lanceolate, 2-4 cm. long, acute, entire, glabrate, on petioles 5-10 mm. long ; inflorescence 
sparsely strigillose, flowers few; hypanthium 2.5-3 cm. long, conspicuously swollen at juncture 
with ovary, finely pubescent within, but lacking scales or band of hair ; sepals reddish or green, 
united in anthesis; petals rose-pink, 1.5—2.5 cm. long, obcordate, with the central lobe merely a 
spatulate appendage from the sinus and one-third or one-fourth as wide as the lateral lobes, the 
sinus 4-6 mm. deep, the claw 3-4 mm. long ; corolla irregular ; stamens 4, equal, alternate with 
the petals, anthers conspicuously ciliate-villous, not coiled after dehiscence ; stigma-lobes lance- 
linear, 3 mm. long; capsule 2-3.5 cm. long, 2—3 mm. thick, sessile; seeds 3 mm. long, not pubes- 
cent, but conspicuously transversely corrugated, brown, flattened, with very prominent cresting. 

Occasional on dry slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; California from Napa County to San Benito and Fresno 
Counties. Type locality: Mount Oso, Stanislaus County, California. May. 

7. Clarkia concinna (Fisch. & Mey.) Greene. Lovely Clarkia. Fig. 3395. 

Eucharidium concinnum Fisch. & Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 2:37. 1835. 
Eucharidium grandiflorum Fisch. & Mey. op. cit. 7: 48. 1840. 
Clarkia concinna Greene, Pittonia 1: 140. 1887. 
Clarkia grandiflora Greene, Fl. Fran. 223. 1891. 

Stem simple to freely branched, 1.5-4 dm. tall, glabrate below, strigillose above. Leaves 
lance-ovate to broadly elliptic, 1.5-5 cm. long, acute, subentire, with petioles an additional 0.5-2 
cm. long; flowers axillary, often crowded; hypanthium 1.5—2.5 cm. long, slender, yellow to 
purple, finely pubescent within, but without scales or band of hair ; sepals reddish, or green, 1-2 cm. 
long, united at tips in anthesis ; petals 1 .5-3 cm. long, 1-1 .5 cm. wide, deep pink to rose-lavender, 
3-lobed, the middle lobe slightly exceeding the lateral ones in length and width, blade about twice 
as long as claw ; stamens 4, alternate with petals, anthers ciliate-villous, curled after dehiscence ; 
stigma-lobes 1 mm. long, equally broad; capsules 1.5-2.5 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 mm. thick, sessile or 
on short pedicels ; seeds minutely transversely corrugated, about 2 mm. long, flattened, with very 
prominent cresting. 

Loose slopes, LTpper Sonoran Zone; Coast Ranges of California from Humboldt County to Santa Barbara 
County. Type locality : Fort Ross, California. May-June. 

7. GODETIA Spach, Hist. Veg. 4: 386. 1835. 

Annuals, mostly erect, and with exfoliating epidermis on lower stems. Leaves linear 
to spatulate, lower ones usually deciduous, upper ones reduced in size, secondary ones 
born in fascicles. Inflorescence a spike or small panicle ; the flowers showy, white to 
purple. Hypanthium obconic to narrowly funnelform, with an inner ring of hair; sepals 
distinct and reflexed in anthesis or partially or wholly united and turned to one side. 
Petals cuneate to obovate, entire to bilobed, clawless, or with short claw. Stamens in 2 
series, the opposite ones shorter; filaments filiform to flattened; anthers subequal to equal, 
usually wholly fertile. Stigma-lobes short, ovoid to linear, yellow to purple. Capsule 
4-sulcate, terete and 8-nerved, heavily 8-ribbed, linear to ovoid, sessile to long-pedicelled. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 185 

beakless to long-beaked. Seeds brown, sometimes somewhat cellular-puberulent, with fim- 
briate upper margin. [Named for C. H. Godet, 1797-1879, author of Flora de Jura.] 

A genus of about 14 species, found in western North America and Chile. Most abundant in California. 
Type species, Oenothera purpurea Curtis. 

Hypanthium with inner ring of hairs from one-fourth to three-fifths the way from the base to the summit; buds 
erect, except in Numbers 3, 7, 8. 

Stigma-lobes less than 4 mm. long. 

Capsule 8-ribbed when immature, terete or somewhat square and 8-nerved when dried. 

Buds erect; sepals usually distinct, but sometimes united. 

Hypanthium 2-7 mm. long, tapered uniformly from base to summit; no annular swelling at 
top of ovary. 

Inflorescence not congested in normal plants; capsules not enlarged at center; leaves 2-8 
mm. wide. 1. G. quadrivulnera. 

Inflorescence congested in normal plants; capsule enlarged at middle; leaves 3-18 mm. 
wide. 2. G. purpurea. 

Hypanthium S-IS mm. long, slender toward base and flaring out at summit; ovary usually 
with annular swelling at top. 

Plants branching mainly from middle, erect; branchlets stout; capsules straight or nearly 
so. 5. G. viminea. 

Plants branching from base, somewhat ascending; branchlets filiform; capsule usually 
strongly arcuate. 6. G. parviftora. 

Buds nodding; sepals united in anthesis. 

Capsule rounded at base, not linear, with evident ribs in dry material; petals lavender without 
purple base; stigma-lobes linear; inflorescence frequently glandular-pubescent. 

7. G. hispidula. 

Capsule elongate, linear, frequently square and smooth in mature specimens: petals lavender, 
usually with purple base; stigma-lobes oval; inflorescence never glandular-pubescent. 

8. G. cylindrica. 

Capsule 4-sulcate when immature, terete and 8-nerved when mature. 3. G. amoena. 

Stigma-lobes 4-7 mm. long. 

Capsule not greatly enlarged at middle; petals not over 4 cm. long. 3. G. amoena. 

Capsule greatly enlarged at middle; petals 4-6 cm. long. 4. G. Whitneyi. 

Hypanthium with inner ring of hairs at least three-fifths of way from base to summit; buds nodding. 

Petals less than 1.5 cm. long, white or cream, or tinged with pink; stigma-lobes very short, less_ than 0.5 

mm. long. 1 1 . C epilobioides. 

Petals 1.5 cm. or more long, lavender to purple; stigma-lobes more than O.S mm. long. 

Capsule very narrowly linear, 2-4 cm. long, 1-2 mm. thick; petals lavender with purple base. 

8. G. cylindrica. 
Capsule thicker; petals lavender, but without purple base. 

Filaments unequal, slightly flattened; living capsule terete and faintly nerved, mature and dry 
capsule square and obscurely nerved or smooth; pedicels as much as 2 cm. long 

9. G. Bottae. 

Filaments subequal, subfiliform; capsule 8-ribbed, these ribs especially evident in dry or mature 
material ; pedicel usually less than 3 mm. long. 
Petals not bilobed; capsule sessile or nearly so. 10. G. Dudteyana. 

Petals bilobed; capsule with short pedicel. 12. G. biloba. 

1. Godetia quadrivulnera (Dougl.) Spach. Four-spotted Godetia. Fig. 3396. 

Oenothera quadrivulnera Dougl. ex Lindl. Bot. Reg. 13: pi. 1119. 1828. 
Godetia quadrivulnera Spach, Hist. Veg. 4: 389. 1835. 
Godetia hingensis Suksd. Deutsch. Bot. Monatss. 18:88. 1900. 
Godetia Goddardii Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 341. 1907. 
Godetia sparsifolia Jepson, loc. cit. 

Usually erect, branching from base or near middle, 1-8 dm. tall. Leaf-blades lanceolate to 
oblong, 2-5 cm. long, acute, sessile or nearly so; buds erect; hypanthium 2-6 mm. long, with 
inner ring of hairs about one-third way from base ; sepals green or yellow, usually distinct in 
anthesis, 5-10 mm. long; petals lavender to purple, with or without darker spot near center, 
5-20 mm. long, cuneate; capsules 1-3.5 cm. long, 2-3 mm. thick, terete and 8-ribbed with a faint 
nerve between the ribs when fresh, or square and conspicuously ribbed when dry, the ribs all 
about equally prominent, sessile or on pedicels as much as 2 mm. long, tapering into a beak 
. 5-2 mm. long ; seeds 1 mm. long, equally broad, with cresting about one-fifth as long as body 
of seed. 

Open hillsides, particularly at edge of woods, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Washington to Lower 
California. Type locality: "north-west of North America." Collected by Douglas. April-July. 

Godetia quadrivulnera var. Davyi Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 341 1907. Leaves short, 1-2 cm. 
long, oblong to spatulate; capsules scarcely beaked, ribs very prominent, especially along the sutures. Wear tbe 
coast from Del Norte County to Monterey County, California. Type locality: Point Reyes, Mann County. 

Godetia quadrivulnera var. vacensis Jepson, loc. cit. Leaves lanceolate, 2-5 cm long; sepals usually 
united in anthc-sis; capsule 2-4 cm. long, very slender, with a beak 2-4 min. long, capsule-ribs of equal pronii- 
nence. At scattered stations in California from Solano and Sacramento Counties to Ventura County, lype 
locality: Vaca Mountains. 

2. Godetia purptirea (Curtis) G. Don. Purple Godetia. Fig. 3397. 

Oenothera purpurea Curtis, Bot. Mag. 10: pi. 352. 1796. 
Godetia Willdenowiana Spach, Hist. Veg. 4: 387. 1835. 
Godetia purpurea G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 237. 1839. 

Erect, simple or with branches closely crowded at summit, 1-6.5 dm. tall, glabrate to pubes- 
cent. Leaves broadly elliptic, 2-4 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, puberulent yet appearing glaucous, tne 



186 



ONAGRACEAE 




3396 

3390. Clarkia rhomboidea 

3391. Clarkia elegans 

3392. Clarkia Xantiana 



3337 

3393. Clarkia pulchella 

3394. Clarkia Brewer! 

3395. Clarkia concinna 



3398 

3396. Godetia quadrivulnera 

3397. Godetia purpurea 

3398. Godetia amoena 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 187 

tips curving downward, short-petioled ; inflorescence crowded with flowers and fruits concealed 
by the leaves, buds erect ; hypanthium Z-7 mm. long, with inner ring of hairs about one-third way 
from base ; sepals 4-10 mm. long, usually distinct and reflexed in anthesis ; petals crimson to 
purple, sometimes with darker spot, not clawed, cuneate to obovate, 5-20 mm. long ; stamens un- 
equal ; capsule glabrate to pubescent, 1-3 cm. long, 3-5 mm. thick, usually enlarged at middle, 
strongly 8-ribbed, sessile or short-pedicellate, not beaked, terete when fresh, usually square when 
dry ; seeds 1 mm. long, slightly thicker, with minute cresting. 

Not common, dry open valleys, Upper Sonoran Zone; San Francisco Bay region. Type locality: "West- 
ern Coast of North America." May-June. 

Godetia purpurea var. parviflora (S. Wats.) C. L. Hitchcock, Bot. Gaz. 89: 335. 1930. {Oenothera 
lepida var. parviflora S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 597. 1873; Godetia lepida Lindl. Bot. Reg. 22: pi. 1849. 
1836; G. albescens Lindl. op. cit. 27: misc. 61. 1841; G. decumbens Spach, Hist, Veg. 4: 388. 1835; G. miaope- 
tala Greene, Pittonia 1: 32. 1887; G. lanata Elmer, Bot. Gaz. 41: 317. 1906; G. purpurea var. Elmeri Jepson, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 345. 1907; G. purpurea var. procera Jepson, op. cit. 346; G. purpurea var. lacunarum 
Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 679. 1925; G. Goddardii var. capitata Jepson, op. cit. 678.) Leaves 3-12 mm. wide, 
lanceolate to spatulate, pubescent, never glaucous in appearance, with tips erect; capsule pubescent to densely 
lanate. Dry slopes and valleys. Upper Sonoran Zone; in the cismontane region from Salem, Oregon, to southern 
California. Type locality: northern California. 



3. Godetia amoena (Lehm.) G. Don. Farewell-to-spring. Fig. 3398. 

Oenothera amoena Lehm. Ind. Sem. Hort. Hamb. 8. 1821. 

Oenothera Lindleyi Dougl. Bot. Mag. 55: pi. 2832. 1828. 

Godetia rubicunda Und\. Bot. Reg. 22 : />/. i55<5. 1836. 

Godetia vinosa Lindl. op. cit. pi. 1880. 

Godetia amoena G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3. 237. 1839. 

Godetia grandiflora Lindl. Bot. Reg. 27 : misc. 61. 1841. 

Godetia caurina Abrams ex Piper, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 11: 410. 1906. 

Godetia Blasdatei Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 330. 1907. 

Erect, simple to diff'usely branched, 1.5-10 dm. tall. Leaf blades lanceolate, 2-6 cm. long, 2- 
10 mm. wide, with petioles 5-15 mm. long; buds erect or slightly drooped; hypanthium 4-10 mm. 
long, with inner ring of hairs one-third to one-half way from base ; sepals 8-25 mm. long, gen- 
erally united in anthesis ; petals pink to purple, often with darker spot in center, cuneate to 
obovate, l.S-4 cm. long, with claw as much as 1.5 mm. long; stamens unequal to subequal ; 
stigma-lobes linear, 2-7 mm. long, yellow; capsule 1.5-4 cm. long, 2 mm. or more thick, linear, 
not enlarged above center, with or without short beak, usually pedicelled, deeply 4-sulcate when 
immature and with a rather inconspicuous nerve between the grooves, terete and plainly nerved 
when mature or dry; seeds 0.5 by 1.5 mm., brown, with inconspicuous cresting. 

Dry slopes at edge of coastal woods, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; British Columbia to Monterey, 
California. Type locality: "America septentrionalis." Exceedingly variable. June-Aug. 

Godetia amoena var. sonomensis C. L. Hitchcock, Bot. Gaz. 89: 338. 1930. Petals 1.5-4 cm. long, dark 
lavender, usually with darker spot; stigma-lobes 3-7 mm. long, linear; capsule sessile, considerably enlarged a 
little above the middle. Slopes of Sonoma County, California. Type locality: near Glen Ellen, Sonoma County. 

Godetia amoena var. albicaulis Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 329. 1907. (Godetia lassenensis Eastw, 
Leaflets West. Bot. 2: 281. 1940.) Petals light lavender, not spotted, 2-4 cm. long; stigma-lobes linear, 3-6 mm. 
long; capsule sessile or nearly so, 4-5 cm. long, 1.5-2 mm. thick, linear, with a beak 5-10 mm. long. Butte and 
Shasta Counties, California. Type locality: Butte County. 

Godetia amoena var. gracilis (Piper) C. L. Hitchcock, Bot. Gaz. 89: 342. 1930. (G. gracilis Piper in Piper 
& Beattie, Fl. Northw. Coast. 251. 1915.) Capsule nearly sessile, with or without a short beak; petals 1-2 cm. 
long; stigma-lobes oval, 1 mm. long. Dry plains. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones, British Columbia to 
Oregon. Type locality: Silvertown, Oregon. 

Godetia amoena var. c6ncolor Jepson, Fl. W. Mid. Calif. 334. 1901. Petals 1-1.5 cm long; stigma-lobes 
oval, 1 mm. long; capsule pedicelled, with a beak 3-7 mm. long. California. Butte County to Napa and bl Dorado 
Counties. Type locality: Pope Valley Grade, Napa County. 



4. Godetia Whitneyi (A. Gray) T. Moore. Giant or Whitney's Godetia. 

Fig. 3399. 

Oenothera Whitneyi A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 340. 1865. 

Godetia Whitneyi T. Moore, Flor. & PomoL 101. 1871. 

Oenothera grandiflora S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 596. 1873, in part. 

Godetia grandiflora Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 347. 1907, in part. 

Erect, stout, simple or with closely crowded branches above ; stems 2^ .5 dm. tall, finely 
pubescent. Leaf-blades lance-ovate to ovate, 3-6 cm. long, with petioles 2-10 mm. long; buds 
erect; hypanthium broad at summit, 8-11 mm. long, with mner rmg of hairs about one-third 
way from base; sepals 1.5-3 cm. long, united in anthesis; petals lavender, with dark or red 
splotch near base, cuneate to obovate, 4-6 cm. long, with claw 1-2 mm. long ; stamens unequal ; 
stigma-lobes linear, yellow, 6-7 mm. long; ovary densely canescent ; capsule broadly tusitorm, 
1.5-2.5 cm. long, 5-7 mm. thick, round in cross-section with 8 prominent ribs sessile or with 
pedicel as long as 3 mm.; seeds 1.5 mm. long, brown, covered with mmute cellular pubescence 
and with fairly well-developed cresting. 

Hills near the coast. Upper Sonoran Zone; Humboldt and Mendocino Counties, California. Type locality: 
Shelter Cove, Humboldt County. June-July. 



188 ONAGRACEAE 

5. Godetia viminea (Dougl.) Spach. Large Godetia. Fig. 3400. 

Oenothera viminea Dougl. ex Hook. Bot. Mag. 55: pt. 2873. 1828. 
Godetia viminea Spach, Hist. Veg. 4: 388. 1835. 
Oenothera Arnottii Terr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 503. 1840. 
Godetia Arnottii'WAv- Rep. 2:88. 1843. 

Erect, branching from middle, or rarely from base, often simple, the stems 1.5-10 dm. tall, 
finely pubescent; flowering branches with flowers in compact spikes. Leaves lance-oblong to 
spatulate, the blades 2-5 cm. long, on short petioles; buds erect; hypanthium 6-9 mm. long, 
slender, with inner ring of hairs about one-third way from base ; sepals 7-14 rnm. long, re- 
flexed in pairs or more commonly distinct in anthesis ; petals lavender or purple, without central 
spot, without claw, 13-25 mm. long; stamens unequal; stigma-lobes elliptic, 1.5 mm. long; 
capsule 1-3 cm. long, 2-A mm. thick, enlarged at middle, plainly 8-ribbed, sessile or with pedicel 
2 mm. long, with beak about 1 mm. long; seeds less than 1 mm., smooth, with cresting incon- 
spicuous. 

Dry mostly coastal slopes. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Multnomah County, Oregon, to Ventura 
County, California. Type locality: interior of northern California. June-Aug. 

Godetia viminea var. Congdonii Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 338. 1907. {Godetia Williamsonii Dur. 
&i Hilg. Pacif. R. Rep. 5: 7. 1855.) Petals yellow to lavender with purple spot in center; capsule not enlarged 
at middle, usually not over 2 mm. thick; flowers scattered on long flowering branches; hypanthium 8-12 inm, 
long. Dry slopes and fields, Upper Sonoran and lower Transition Zones; California, Shasta County to Kern 
County. Type locality: Hetch-Hetchy Valley, Tuolumne County. 

Godetia viminea var. incerta Jepson, op. cit. 339. Petals crimson with deeper colored spot in center; in- 
florescence and capsules much as in the preceding variety. Lower Transition Zone; Yosemite Valley, and 
Eshome Valley, Tulare County, California. Type locality: Yosemite Valley. 

6. Godetia parviflora (Hook. & Arn.) Jepson. Small-flowered Godetia, 

Fig. 3401. 

Oenothera viminea var. parviflora Hook & Arn. Bot. Beechey 342. 1836-38. 
Godetia parviflora Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 339. 1907. 

Erect and simple, or more commonly branching from base and ascending, 1^ dm. tall, 
branches filiform and wiry ; leaf-blades linear-lanceolate to oblanceolate, 1^ cm. long, short- 
petioled ; buds erect; hypanthium slender to quite broad at summit, 5-15 mm. long, with inner 
ring of hairs one-fifth to one-third way from base; sepals 5-15 mm. long, green to rose, united 
in anthesis, reflexed in pairs, or all distinct; petals crimson throughout, except for possible 
purple spot above base, cuneate, 1-2 cm. long ; stamens subequal, 1-4 mm. long, anthers usually 
lavender; stigma-lobes purple; capsule 1-2.5 cm. long, 8-ribbed, round in cross section, biit 
appearing square in dried specimens, pubescent, usually arcuate, sessile, or with very short pedi- 
cel, not beaked or barely so; seeds nearly equilateral, 1 mm. long, dark brown, with minute 
cresting. 

Upper Sonoran Zone; California, Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties. Type locality: Monterey. June- 
July. 

Godetia parviflora var. luteola C. L. Hitchcock, Bot. Gaz. 89: 349. 1930. Petals cream with purple spot; 
filaments unequal, anthers lavender; stigma-lobes lavender, the style about as long as longer stamens. Upper 
Sonoran Zone, San Luis Obispo County, California. Type locality: between Atascadero and Morro Beach. 

Godetia parviflora var. margaritae (Jepson) C. L. Hitchcock, op. cit. 350. Petals red with yellow base-, 
stamens unequal, anthers yellow; stigma-lobes purple, style about as long as longer stamens. Upper Sonoran Zone, 
San Luis Obispo County, California. Type locality: Santa Margarita Valley. 

7. Godetia hispidula S. Wats. Glandular Godetia. Fig. 3402. 

Oenothera hispidula S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 599. 1873. 
Godetia hispidula S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 231. 1876. 
Godetia arcuata Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 335. 1907. 
Godetia Hansenii Jepson, op. cit. 336. 

Erect, simple or branching from base, 1-6 dm. tall ; inflorescence usually glandular-pubes- 
cent. Leaf-blades linear to spatulate, 1-5 cm. long, short-petioled ; buds nodding ; hypanthium 
slender 4-9 mm. long, green without, usually purple within, inner ring of_ hairs about one-third 
way from base; sepals green to rose, 5-15 mm. long, united in anthesis; petals lavender to 
lilac, broadly cuneate, 1-3 cm. long, not clawed ; stamens unequal ; stigma-lobes linear, 2-3 mm. 
long, white or yellow ; capsule 1-3 cm. long, 8-ribbed, in dried specimens appearing square with 
a small nerve between each pair of ribs, glandular-pubescent, on a pedicel 2-8 mm. long, and 
tapering to a slender beak 3-6 mm. long; seeds dark brown, 1-5 mm. long, cellular-pubescent, 
with cresting one-fourth length of seed-body. 

Foothills, Upper Sonoran Zone; Butte County to Mariposa County, California. Type locality: Sacramento 
Valley. April-June. 

8. Godetia cylindrica (Jepson) C. L. Hitchcock. Cylindrical Godetia. Fig. 3403. 

Godetia Bottae var. cylindrica Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 332. 1907. 
Godetia cylindrica C. L. Hitchcock, Bot. Gaz. 89: 352. 1930. 

Erect, slender, simple or branched in upper half, 1-5 dm. tall. Leaf-blades narrowly lanceo- 
late to linear, 2-4 cm. long, with petioles 3-15 mm. long; inflorescence strigillose, the buds nod- 
ding ; hypanthium slender, 1 . 5-6 mm. long, green to lavender, with inner ring of hairs one-third 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 189 

to three-fourths way from base ; sepals green, tinged purple, 1-1 . 5 cm. long, united in anthesis ; 

petals lavender in upper half, shading to yellowish white at base, usually with small purple dots, 

cuneate to broadly obovate, 8-26 mm. long ; stamens unequal ; stigma-lobes narrowly ovate, 2-2 . 5 

mm. long; capsule linear, 1.5-4 cm. long, 1-2 mm. thick, sessile or with pedicel 1-4 mm. long, 

tapering to beak 2-6 mm. long, capsule-ribs 8, which quite disappear in old and dry material; 

seeds 1 mm. long, dark brown, with cresting inconspicuous. 

Dry grassy slopes especially among oaks, Upper Sonoran Zone; California from Fresno and San Luis Obtspo 
Counties to Los Angeles County. Type locality: Waltham Creek, near Alcalde, Fresno County. May-June. 

Godetia cylindrica var. Tracyi Jepson, FI. Calif. 2: 584. 1936. Petals blue-purple when dry, 1-3 cm. long; 
capsule thickened upward, 2-2.5 mm. thick. North Coast Ranges of California. Type locality: Plaskenta, Tehama 
County. 

9. Godetia Bottae Spach. Botta's Godetia. Fig. 3404. 

Godetia Bottae Spach, Ann. Mus. Par. II. 4: 393. 1835. 
Oeno*/tera Bo«ae Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 505. 1840. 

Erect, simple or branching from base, 1-8 dm. tall, strigillose above. Leaf-blades linear to 
lanceolate, 15-40 mm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, on petioles 3-10 mm. long; buds nodding; hypanthium 
1-4 mm. long, with inner ring of hairs just beneath the summit; sepals usually rose-colored, 
1-2 cm. long, united in anthesis or reflexed in pairs ; petals lavender, with or without purple 
dots, cuneate-obovate, 1-2.5 cm. long, narrowed into a claw 1 mm. or less long; stamens un- 
equal ; stigma-lobes white or purple, about 2 mm. long ; young ovaries erect or deflexed, densely 
pubescent, but not silvery ; capsule 1 . 5-5 cm. long, 2-3 mm. thick, terete and not ribbed when 
young, square and sometimes showing median nerve on each face when mature, without beak, 
or with short one 1-4 mm. long, on pedicel 2-30 mm. long ; seeds dark brown, 1 mm. long. 

Slopes and hills along the coast, Monterey County to Santa Barbara County, California. Type locality: 
Monterey. May-June. 

Godetia Bottae var. deflexa (Jepson) C. L. Hitchcock, Bot. Gaz. 89: 355. 1930. Sepals unusually green; 
leaves broad, 4-15 mm. wide and 2-7 cm. long; young ovaries deflexed, silvery canescent; plants robust. Coastal 
slopes, Santa Barbara County to Orange County, California. Type locality: "sandy plains of Los Angeles." 

10. Godetia Dudleyana Abrams. Dudley's Godetia. Fig. 3405. 

Godetia Dudleyana Abrams, Fl. Los Ang. 267. 1904. 

Godetia Bottae var. usitata Jepson, Univ. Calif. Pub. Bot. 2: 332. 1907. 

Godetia jucunda Jepson, op. cit. 334. 

Erect, usually branching from near middle, occasionally simple, 1 . 5-7 dm. tall. Leaf-blades 
narrowly lanceolate to spatulate, 2-5 cm. long, with petioles 3-12 mm. long, finely pubescent; 
inflorescence finely strigillose, buds nodding ; hypanthium 1-4 mm. long, lavender to green, with 
inner ring of hairs near summit; sepals 6-15 mm. long, lavender, united in anthesis; petals cu- 
neate, pink to deep magenta, shading to white at base, usually with crimson or purple dots in 
lower portion, 1-3 cm. long, with claw 1-2 mm. long ; stamens unequal ; stigma-lobes 1-2 mm. 
long, yellow to lavender ; capsule slender, 1-3 cm. long, 1-3 mm. thick, beakless or with beak 1-4 
mm. long, usually sessile, or with pedicel 1-5 mm. long, 8-ribbed, terete when fresh, often square 
and the ribbing obscure when old or dry ; seeds 1 mm. long, dark brown, with minute cresting. 

Grassy slopes and canyons, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Tuolumne County to Riverside County, 
California. Type locality: Little Santa Anita Canyon, San Gabriel Mountains. May-July. 

11. Godetia epilobioides (Nutt.) S. Wats. Willow-herb Godetia. Fig. 3406. 

Oenothera epilobioides Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 511. 1840. 
Godetia epilobioides S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 231. 1876. 
Clarkia epilobioides Nels. & Macbr. Bot. Gaz. 65: 60. 1918. 
Clarkia modesta Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 673. 1925. 

Erect, simple to diffusely branched throughout, but usually sparingly branched and only at 
the middle, 1.5-4.5 dm. tall, strigillose above. Leaf -blades linear to broadly lanceolate or spatu- 
late, 1-4 cm. long, with petioles 2-8 mm. long; buds nodding; hypanthium 1-1.5 mm. long, with 
inner ring of hairs near summit; sepals united in anthesis, 3-5 mm. long; petals obovate, 6-11 
mm. long, white, sometimes pinkish or lavender, with or without purple spots at base, tapering 
to a short claw; stamens unequal, 2-6 mm. long; stigma-lobes very short, 0.5 mm. long, yellow; 
capsule linear, 1.5-3 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. thick, rather densely strigillose when young, less so 
in age, weakly 8-ribbed, square in dried material, with beak 0.5-2 mm. long and pedicel 1-10 mm. 
long; seeds dark brown, 0.5 mm. long, cellular-puberulent, with minute cresting. 

Chiefly shaded slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; Contra Costa and Sacramento Counties to San Diego County, 
California. Most abundant in southern California. Type locality: San Diego. April-May. 

12. Godetia biloba (Durand) S. Wats. Lobed Godetia. Fig. 3407. 

Oenothera biloba Durand, Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 3: 87. 1855. 
Godetia biloba S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 231. 1876. 
Clarkia biloba Nels. & Macbr. Bot. Gaz. 65: 60. 1918. 
Godetia biloba var. Brandegcae Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 585. 1936. 

Erect, simple or branching near or above the base, 2-7 dm. tall, strigillose above. _ Leaves 
elliptic to linear-elliptic, 1-5 cm. long, with petiole an additional 5-15 mm.; buds droopnig; hy- 
panthium 1 . 5-5 mm. long, usually tinged red, the inner ring of hair near summit ; petals magenta, 
with or without purple dots near the base, cuneate, 1-2 cm. long, with claw 1-2 mm. long and 



190 ONAGRACEAE 

with apex exceedingly variable, from slightly to deeply retuse and bilobed; stamens subequal, 
4-8 mm. long; stigma-lobes 1-1.5 mm. long, lavender; capsule rather short, 1-2.5 cm. long, 
1.5-2 mm. thick, on pedicels 1-10 mm. long, beakless or short-beaked, 8-ribbed, terete, often ap- 
pearing square when dry ; seeds 1 mm. long, dark brown, with minute cresting. 

Hillsides, Upper Sonoran Zone; Contra Costa County, and Butte County to Mariposa County, California. 
Type locality: Nevada City, California. May-July. 

Godetia pacifica M. E. Peck, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 47: 187. 1934. Slender, simple or branched, 1-4 dm. 
high. Leaves few, entire, narrowly oblanceolate ; flowers few, remote; buds acute at apex; hypanthium 2 mm. long; 
sepals coalescent in anthesis except at base and apex, and slit to expose petals; petals rhombic-ovate, 9-13 mm. 
long pale rose-purple at tips, paler toward the base; capsule narrow-clavate, slightly curved, acutely 4-angled, 2-2.5 
cm. long, on pedicels 1-3 mm. long. Near the sea, Lincoln County, Oregon. Type locality: Otter Crest, Lincoln 
County. 

8. OENOTHERA L. Sp. PI. 346. 1753. 

Annual to perennial, caulescent or acaulescent herbs, with alternate or basal leaves. 
Flowers in ours yellow or white, often aging reddish or purplish. Hypantb.ium prolonged 
beyond the ovary, quite deciduous. Sepals 4, reflexed in anthesis. Petals 4. Stamens 8, 
equal, or if unequal the opposite ones shorter ; anthers mostly versatile. Stigma varying 
from being divided into 4 linear lobes, to discoid or capitate. Capsule membranous to 
woody, straight to curved or coiled, 4-celled, 4-valved, dehiscent. Seeds many, naked. 
[Name Greek, meaning wine-scenting, a name given to some now unknown plant, once 
used for that purpose.] 

Genus of perhaps 200 species, mostly of the temperate regions and confined to the New World. Type species, 
Oenothera biennis. L. 

Stigma with 4 linear lobes; flowers vespertine. 

Capsule terete or round-angled; plants usually with well-developed stems which bear leaves and flowers. 

Flowers yellow, the buds erect; seeds prismatic-angled, horizontal, in 2 rows in each cell. (Subgenus 
Etiociiothera) 
Petals 10-20 mm. long, not usually turning reddish in age. 

Sepals with free tips about 2 mm. long; plant grayish-strigose throughout. 

1. O. Ry doer git. 

Sepals with free tips 3 mm. or longer; plant finely pubescent and hirsute, the longer hairs from 
reddish pustules. 2. O. biennis. 

Petals 25-40 mm. long, turning reddish in age. 3. O. Hookeri. 

Flowers white, the buds drooping; seeds cylindric to ovoid, not sharply angled, ascending, in 1 row in 
each cell. (Subgenus Anogra) 
Plants spring or winter annuals, coarse; basal leaf -blades rhombic, 2-8 cm. long; capsules woody, 
with exfoliating epidermis, 2-7 cm. long; seeds 1.5-2 mm. long; buds often shaggy. 

4. O. delt aides. 

Plants perennial; basal leaves smaller and narrower; capsules not woody. 

Capsules often contorted; seeds linear-obovoid. 5. O. pallida. 

Capsules not contorted; seeds plump, ovoid. 6. O. calif arnica. 

Capsule crested or winged; plants usually acaulescent or nearly so, the leaves largely basal. 

Capsule tapering toward apex, not enlarged in upper half; seeds in 2 rows in each cell. (Subgenus 
Pachylophis) 
Flowers white; capsule oblong-ovoid, 2-3 cm. long, with low tubercles on the_ rounded angles; 
seeds 3 mm. long, conspicuously furrowed along the raphe. 7. O. caespttosa. 

Flowers yellow; capsule attenuate toward apex. 

Capsule 3.5-6 cm. long, winged on angles along the lower half; seeds with broad flat open de- 
pression along the raphe; plant of pine belt. 8. O. xylocarpa. 

Capsule 1.8-3.5 cm. long, not winged; seeds with narrow raphal groove; desert plants. 

9. O. prirmveris. 

Capsule enlarged in upper half, woody, winged especially above, 1-2 cm. long; flowers yellow; 
seeds cuneate-obovoid. (Subgenus Lavauxia) 10. O. flava. 

Stigjna capitate; flowers diurnal. 

Hypanthium about 1 mm. long, orange and pubescent within and lined with a lobed disk; plants erect, annual, 
2-10 dm. tall. (Subgenus Eulobus) H- O. leptocarpa. 

Hypanthium not lined with a lobed disk. 

Plants usually acaulescent; ovary fertile only in lower portion, gradually narrowed above into a per- 
sistent sterile tubular filiform portion equaling or much exceeding the fertile part and simulating 
an elongate hypanthium; flowers yellow. (Subgenus Taraxia) 
Capsules broadly and truncately 4-winged, not over 1 cm. long; seeds obovoid; annuals. 

Flowers small, the petals 2.5-3 mm. long; sterile portion of the ovary 10-15 mm. long; epi- 
dermis of stems exfoliating. 12. O. Palmert. 
Flowers larger, the petals 8-12 mm. long; sterile portion of ovary 12-35 mm. long; epidermis 
not readily exfoliating. 13. 0. gracihflora. 
Capsules somewhat cylindrical, at most angled, not winged, attenuate gradually at tip into sterile 
portion mostly over 1 cm. long; seeds not pointed at one end; perennials, acaulescent. 
Leaves entire or with few teeth ; capsule glabrous. 

Plants glabrous to glabrate; sterile portion of mature ovary 2-6 cm. long; capsules oblong- 
ovoid, S mm. or more thick; seeds 3 mm. long, distinctly minutely pitted. 

14. O. heterantha. 

Plants minutely pubescent, especially on veins and leaf-margins; sterile portion of ovary 
5-12 cm. long; capsules linear, not over 3 mm. thick; seeds 2 mm. long, with a 
scurfy surface. 15. O. ovata. 

Leaves deeply pinnatifid; capsule densely pubescent; sterile portion of ovary 25-80 mm. lo:ig; 
capsules ovoid, straight. 16. O. tanacettfoha. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 191 

Plants caulescent; ovary fertile to summit, not prolonged into long sterile portion. 

Capsule nearly or quite sessile. (Subgenus Sphaerostigma; see also O. cardiophylla.) 

Flowers white (yellowish in minor and red in one var. of decorticans) , often drying pinkish; 
borne in terminal spikes. 

Capsules cylindrical, terete, linear, not thickened in lower portion, scarcely if at all 
coiled, not noticeably attenuate at tip. 
Petals 5-7 mm. long, suborbicular; style exceeding corolla, 10-13 mm. long; hypan- 
thium 4-6 mm. long; capsules refracted or spreading, occasionally coiled. 

17. O. refracta. 

Petals 3 mm. long, spatulate; style shorter than corolla, 3-4 mm. long; hypanthium 
2.5-3 mm. long; capsules divaricately spreading. 

18. O. chamaenerioides. 
Capsules not strictly cylindrical, but somewhat enlarged near base and attenuate at tip. 

Mature capsules usually distinctly contorted and coiled, not merely bent and curved, 
quite slender, not subfusiform in shape (see also O. decorticans desertorum). 
Flowers minute; petals 1-2 mm. long, narrowly obovate; style 1.5 ram. long; 
hypanthium 1 mm. long; filaments distinctly unequal. 

19. O. minor Cusickii. 

Flowers larger; petals 3.5-5 mm. long, orbicular-ovate; style 6-12 mm. long; 
hypanthium 3-8 mm. long; filaments subequal. 
Flowers and leaves arranged in spicate tufts at ends of naked prostrate 
branches or on short central stalk; capsules 10-12 mm. long, conspic- 
uously quadrangular. 20. O. nevadensis. 

Flowers and leaves continuous from base of stems, not in terminal tufts; 
capsules 14-23 mm. long, not conspicuously quadrangular. 

21. O. alyssoides. 

Mature capsules merely curved or bent, not distinctly contorted or coiled, subfusiform 
in shape. 

Leaves largely near base, glabrate, lance-ovate to oblanceolate ; stems glabrous or 
glabrate, with epidermis exfoliating promptly; capsule 15-25 mm. long; 
seeds ash-colored and linear-obovoid. 22. O. decorticans. 

Leaves well-distributed, glandular-pubescent to glandular-villous, ovate to oblong- 
ovate; stems glandular; epidermis exfoliating tardily if at all; capsule 
10-15 mm. long; seeds brownish, rhomboid-prismatic. 

23. O. Boothii. 

Flowers yellow, often drying greenish, borne in axils of foliage-leaves. 

Capsules terete, cylindrical or subfusiform, but not quadrangular; leaves narrow, 1-4 mm. 
wide, usually linear-oblong. 
Plant with several naked, fine, often capillary stems, each bearing leafy inflorescence 
at tip; capsule subfusiform, almost straight, 5-8 mm. long. 

24. O. andina. 

Plants with stems leafy from base; capsules terete, straight or coiled, 15-40 mm. long. 

Flowers small; petals 2.5-3.5 mm. long; sepals 1.5-3.5 mm. long. 

25. 0. contorta. 

Flowers larger; petals 5-15 mm. long; sepals 3-12 mm. long. 

26. 0. dentata campestris. 

Capsules quadrangular; leaves 5-20 mm. wide, lanceolate to ovate. 

Flowers small; petals 1.5-7 mm. long. 27. O. tnicrantha. 

Flowers larger; petals 8-22 mm. long. 

Plants of sea bluffs and inland, greenish except in a desert form; cauline leaves 
lanceolate to lance-ovate, acute, wavy-margined, thin. 

28. O. bistorta. 

Plants of sea beaches, grayish to silvery (except in var. nitida) ; cauline leaves 
lance-oblong to orbicular-ovate, obtuse, not wavy-margined, thick. 

29. O. cheiranthifolia. 
Capsules long-pedicelled. (Subgenus Chylismia) 

Seeds oblong and with an incurving wing, making them appear somewhat boat-shaped, cellular- 
pubescent; small slender plants, villous below, finely glandular-pubescent above with 
pinkish white axillary flowers 4-5 mm. across. 30. O. pterosperma. 

Seeds obovoid, rounded or angled, not winged; flowers not axillary, but in terminal racemes or 
panicles. 

Leaves orbicular-cordate, well distributed, not at all pinnatifid. 

31. O. cardiophylla. 

Leaves ovate, oblong or lanceolate, commonly pinnatifid and near base of plant (except in 
O. kcrnensis). 
Capsules linear, elongate, usually over 2 cm. long. 

Leaves not in basal rosette, stem-leaves secund; plant 8-12 cm. high. 

32. O. kernensis. 
Leaves in basal rosette; plant 10-60 cm. tall. 

Stems coarse, commonly branched only at base if at all; pedicels 3-15 mm. 
long; capsules linear, widely spreading, commonly 5-9 cm. long; an- 
thers hairy. ii- O. brevipes. 

Stems slender, commonlv branched above; pedicels capillary, 10-25 mm. 
long; capsules linear, 15-35 mm. long; anthers glabrous. 

34. O. multijuga parvtflora. 

Capsules somewhat clavate, usually less than 2 cm. long. 

Branches in well-developed plants few to several and arising at base of plant 
only, not capillary; capsules 10-25 mm. long; anthers linear, beset with 
scattering white hairs; style longer than petals. 
Stems slender; flowers few, not congested; leaves ovate, subentire; petals 

usually less than 4 mm. long. 35. O. scapotdea seorsa. 

Stems fairly coarse; flowers crowded in close terminal clusters; leaves fre- 
quently with supplementary pinnules on petioles; petals 4-7 mm. long. 

36. O. clavaefortms. 
Branches in well-developed plants capillary and arising freely throughout the 

plant; anthers oblong, glabrous; style not longer than petals. 

37. O. heterochroma. 



192 



ONAGRACEAE 




3399. Godetia Whitneyi 

3400. Godetia viminea 

3401. Godetia parviflora 



3402. Godetia hispidula 

3403. Godetia cylindrica 

3404. Godetia Bottae 



3405. Godetia Dudleyana 

3406. Godetia epilobioides 

3407. Godetia biloba 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 193 

1. Oenothera Rydbergii House. Rydberg's Evening-primrose. Fig. 3408. 

Onagra strigosa Rydb. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 1:278. 1900. 

Oenothera biennis var. strigosa Piper in Piper & Beattie, Fl. Palouse Reg. 124. 1901. 

Oenothera strigosa Mack. & Bush, FI. Jackson Co. Mo. 139. 1902. Not O. strigosa Willd., a herbarium name 

as synonym in Sprengel, Syst. 2: 228. 1825. 
Oenothera Rydbergii House, N.Y. State Mus. Bull. No. 233-234: 61. 1921. 

Biennial, grayish-strigose throughout, erect, largely unbranched, 3-10 dm. tall, strigose and 
hirsute, sometimes with reddish tinge. Lowest leaves spatulate, obtuse, 3-10 cm. long, 1-2 cm. 
wide, with petioles an additional 1-3 cm. long, these leaves passing gradually into lanceolate, 
acute, repand-denticulate leaves of the stem, with shorter petioles ; inflorescence with leafy lanceo- 
late, subsessile bracts 1-5 cm. long ; flowers vespertine ; bracts longer than mature capsules ; hy- 
panthium 3^ cm. long, pubescent within, often hirsute without; sepals strigose and hirsute, 10-15 
mm. long, with free tips 2 mm. long; petals yellow, broadly obcordate, 1.2-2 cm. long; stamens 
quite equal, about as long as petals, glabrous ; style pubescent on lower portion ; stigma-lobes 
5-7 mm. long; capsule 2.5-3.5 cm. long, tapering slightly; seeds reddish brown, obtusely angled, 
irregular, 1-1.5 mm. long. 

Moist places, meadows, stream banks. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; from eastern Washington and 
Oregon to Minnesota and Kansas. Type locality: Pony, Montana. July-Aug. 

Oenothera cheradophila Bartlett, Bot. Gaz. 44: 302. 1907. Not certainly distinct from O. Rydbergii, 
differing by: sepal-tips 1 mm. long; petals about 8 ram. long; floral bracts usually much shorter than mature 
capsules. Southeastern Washington. Type locality: Bingen, Washington. 

2. Oenothera biennis L. Small-flowered Evening-primrose. Fig. 3409. 

Oenothera bicnttis L. Sp. PI. 346. 1753. 

Much like the preceding species, simple or branched, stems reddish, finely pubescent and hir- 
sute, the larger hairs from reddish pustules. Cauline leaves broadly lanceolate to narrowly rhom- 
boid ; flowers and buds in dense corymbose clusters ; sepals with free tips 3-4 mm. long ; petals 
12-15 mm. long. 

Moist places, Transition Zones; western Washington and Oregon into Canada, then east to Atlantic Coast. 
Type locality: "Virginia." July-Aug. 

3. Oenothera Hookeri Torr. & Gray. Hooker's Evening-primrose. Fig. 3410. 

Oenothera Hookeri Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 493. 1840. 
Oenothera Jepsonii Greene, Fl. Fran. 211. 1891. 
Onagra Hookeri Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 171. 1896. 
Oenothera franciscana Bartlett, Rhodora 15: 35. 1914. 

Perennial, or possibly short-lived perennial, largely with spreading pubescence ; the stems 
hirsute, muricate with reddish pustules, simple and erect, or somewhat branched mostly from the 
base, 6-12 dm. tall. Lower leaves oblanceolate to spatulate with blades 5-20 cm. long, on petioles 
half as long ; cauline leaves narrowly to broadly lanceolate, on shorter petioles, sinuate-denticu- 
late, green, wavy, soft-hairy, gradually reduced up the stem to the leafy bracts of the elongate 
inflorescence; hypanthium 3.5-4 cm. long, pubescent within; sepals red, densely hirsute, conspicu- 
ously papillose at base of longer hairs, 22-25 mm. long ; petals 25-35 mm. long, yellow but turn- 
ing reddish in age, broadly obovate; stamens equal, two-thirds as long as petals; stigma-lobes 
4-6 mm. long ; capsule obtusely quadrangular, 2-5 cm. long, hirsute ; seeds reddish brown, sharply 
angled, 1.5 mm. long. 

Moist places, Upper Sonoran and lower Transition Zones; largely from Lake and Sutter Counties to San 
Luis Obispo County, California. Type locality: California, probably San Francisco. June-Sept. 

Oenothera Hookeri subsp. montereyensis Munz, El Aliso 2: 14. 1949. Plants bushy; flowers large; buds 
blunt, the sepal-tips 1-2.5 mm. long; sepals with short gland-tipped hairs and papillose at base of longer hairs. 
Sea cliffs, central California, San Mateo County to San Luis Obispo County. Type locality: Alder Creek, 
Monterey County. 

Oenothera Hookeri subsp. Wolfii Munz, op. cit. 16. Flowers small, the petals 2-2.5 cm. long; sepals 
glandular-pubescent and papillose at base of longer hairs; sepal-tips 2-3 mm. long. In sand or gravel along 
streams, Jackson County, Oregon, to Trinity and Humboldt Counties, California. Type locality: near Trinidad, 
Humboldt County. 

Oenothera Hookeri subsp. veniJsta Munz, op. cit. 21. {Oenothera vcnusta Bartlett, Rhodora 16: 36. 
1914.) Whole plant rather grayish; stems 1.5-2 m. tlal, freely branched throughout, hirsute and' muricate; 
leaves soft-hairy, wavy; sepals green, sparsely hirsute, scarcely papillose at base of hairs; petals 3-4 cm. long; 
capsule hirsute. Moist places. Upper Sonoran and lower Transition Zones below 4,500 feet, central interior to 
southern California. Type locality: San Bernardino, California. 

Oenothera Hookeri subsp. ornata (A. Nels.) Munz, op. cit. 25. {Onagra ornata A. Nels. Bot. Mag. 
52: 268. 1911.) Stem-leaves plane; sepals pilose and glandular-pubescent; sepal-tips 2.5-4 mm. long; seeds 
about 1.3 mm. long. Eastern Washington and western Idaho. Type locality: Boise, Idaho. 

Oenothera Hookeri subsp. angustifolia (Gates) Munz, op. cit. 26. {Oenothera Hookeri var. angustifolia 
Gates, Mut. Factor in Evol. 10, 30. 1915.) Stems reddish, 3-9 dm. high, somewhat muncate, simple or tew- 
branched mostly from base; leaves plane, green, not conspicuously soft-hairy; sepals red, ,with long spreading 
hairs and short gland-tipped ones, scarcely or not at all papillose. Transition Zone, mostly above 5,10U teet, 
eastern Washington to southern California and east to Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico. Type locality: 
Asphalt, LUah. 

Oenothera Hookeri subsp. grisea Munz, op. cit. 29. {Oenothera venusta var. grisea Bartlett, Rhodora 

y br 
een, 
adJE 
fornia. 




194 ONAGRACEAE 

X Oenothera erythrosepala Borb. Magyar Bot. Lapok. 2: 245. 1903. Very near to O. Hookeri and 
differing from it by the broader, more crinkled leaves, the upper ones sessile, by the broad floral bracts, and 
by the perhaps paler yellow petals, there is an escape along the northern California coast to western Washington. 
It is the plant distributed by De Vries as O. Latnarckiana, but is not O. Lamarkiana Ser. 

Oenothera longissima subsp. Glutei (A. Nels.) Munz, op. cit. 46. {Oenothera Glutei A. Nels. Amer. 
Bot. 28: 22. 1922.) Like O. Hookeri, but with hypanthium 8-12 cm. long. California (eastern Mojave Desert) 
to southern Utah. Type locality: Navajo Mountains, Coconino County, Arizona. 

Oenothera stricta Ledeb. in Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 377. 1821. (Oenothera arguta Greene, Fl. Fran. 
212. 1891.) Decumbent perennial about 3 dm. tall with linear-lanceolate, saliently dentate leaves, the cauline 
broadest at the sessile, somewhat clasping base. A South American species growing spontaneously on the south- 
ern shore of Monterey Bay, California. 

Oenothera laciniata Hill, Hort. Kew. 172. pi. 6. 1769. This species of the subgenus Raimannia can be 
distinguished by its erect buds; petals pale yellow, about 1 cm. long; seeds not angled, yellowish, pitted; capsule 
narrowly cylindrical; leaves sinuate-dentate or pinnatifid. Native of the southern and eastern states and spar- 
ingly naturalized, as at Pasadena and Banning, California. Type locality: Carolina. 

Oenothera speciosa Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 2: 119. 1821. This species is of the subgenus Hartmannia 
and is characterized by having leaves lanceolate, sinuate or pinnatifid; flowers large, white, the petals 3-4 cm. 
long; capsules 4-winged and 4-ribbed, clavate, 1-1.5 cm. long. Native from Arizona eastward. Sparingly nat- 
uralized as at Pomona, California. A pink-flowered form (Oenothera speciosa var. Chitdsii (Bailey) Munz, 
Leaflets W. Bot. 2: 87. 1938.) native along the gulf coast of Texas is in common cultivation as Mexican 
Evening-primrose. 

4. Oenothera deltoides Terr. & Frem. Large Desert Evening-primrose. 

Fig. 3411. 

Oenothera deltoides Torr. & Frem. in Frem. Second Rep. 315. 1845. 
Oenothera trichocalyx of authors for much of our material, not Nutt. 

Coarse spring or winter annuals, simple or more frequently with central erect stem, 5-25 cm. 
tall, and few to several decumbent branches naked at the base and 5-100 cm. long; stems pale 
green, with exfoliating epidermis, glabrous in lower parts, with spreading hairs in upper parts. 
Lower leaves in sort of rosette, the blades rhombic-obovate to rhombic-lanceolate or oblanceo- 
late, subentire to remotely denticulate or even dentate, 2-8 cm. long, narrowed into slightly 
winged petioles of same or less length ; cauline leaves gradually somewhat reduced, becoming ses- 
sile and dentate, but not pinnatifid; flowers solitary in axils, vespertine, buds nodding, obtuse; 
hypanthium slender, 2-4 cm. long, it and buds having straight spreading hairs 1-1.5 mm. long; 
sepals lance-linear, 15-35 mm. long; petals white, turning pink with age, 2-4 cm. long; 
stamens subequal ; stigma-lobes Z-6 mm. long; capsules spreading, even reflexed, woody, with 
exfoliating epidermis, prismatic-cylindric, 4-5 (7) cm. long, commonly 2-3 mm. thick at base ; 
seeds narrowly obovoid, 1.5-2 mm. long, light brown, usually with purple spots and rows of 
minute cellular pitting. 

Sandy places. Lower Sonoran Zone; deserts of southern California and adjacent Arizona. Type locality not 
given. March-May. 

Oenothera deltoides var. HowelHi Munz, El AHso 2: 81. 1949. Leaves runcinate-pinnatifid, lanceolate, 
3-12 cm. long, 1-3 cm. wide, cinereous; buds acute. Sand dunes, Antioch, Contra Costa County, California. 

Oenothera deltoides var. Piperi Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 18: 314. 1931. Plants low, frequently less 
than 1 dm. tall and often simple; upper leaves lanceolate in outline and deeply and regularly sinuate-dentate to 
pinnatifid, with rachis 3-4 mm. wide, well provided with long soft curly hairs, about 2 mm. long; ovary and 
sepals with same hairs; petals usually less than 2 cm. long; capsules 1.5-3 cm. long, 3-5 mm. thick at base. 
Upper Sonoran Zone from eastern Oregon and northeastern California and western Nevada. Type locality: 
Man's Lake, eastern Oregon. 

Oenothera deltoides var. cognata (Jepson) Munz, op. cit. 313. Plants commonly 2-4 dm. tall and branched 
from base; upper leaves coarsely sinuate-dentate but rarely pinnatifid, blades 5-10 mm. wide; hair on upper parts 
as in Piperi; petals 2.5-3.5 cm. long; capsules 2.5-7 cm. long, 3-5 mm. thick at base. Sandy plains. Upper 
Sonoran Zone; Great Valley of California, and western end of Mojave Desert. Type locality: Corral Hollow, 
Alameda County, California. 

Oenothera deltoides var. cinerJcea (Jepson) Munz, op. cit. 316. Habit, foliage, and flowers as in the 
species, but hair short, less than 1 mm. long and closely appressed. Sandy desert. Lower Sonoran Zone, southern 
part of California and adjacent Arizona. Type locality: Borrego Springs, San Diego County, California. 

5. Oenothera pallida Lindl. Pallid Evening-primrose. Fig. 3412. 

Oenothera pallida Lindl. Bot. Reg. 14:/)/. 1142. 1828. 
Anogra Douglasiana Spach, Ann. Mus. Paris IL 4: 339. 1835. 
Oenothera leptophylla Nutt. ex S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 602. 1873. 
Anogra pallida Britt. Mem. Torrey Club 5: 234. 1894, in part. 

Strongly rooted perennial, with creeping rootstalks, with main stem erect, 2-5 dm. tall, and 
several spreading or ascending branches, epidermis white, quite glabrous and exfoliating, or with 
few scattering long hairs in upper parts. Cauline leaves mostly lanceolate to lance-linear, suben- 
tire to remotely denticulate or sinuate-dentate, usually with undulate margin ; the blades 2-6 cm. 
long, sessile or short petioled ; flowers vespertine, fragrant ; buds acuminate, nodding ; hypan- 
thium very slender, frequently reddish, 2-3.5 cm. long, usually glabrous; sepals 12-18 mm. long, 
the free tips 0.5-2 mm. long; petals white, turning pink, broadly obovate, 1-3 cm. long; stamens 
subequal, glabrous ; capsule usually curved, often somewhat contorted, glabrate, 1 . 5-4 cm. long, 
subcylindric, 2-3 mm. thick at base, tapering gradually toward apex ; seeds in 1 row, linear-obo- 
void, 1 . 5-2 mm. long, brown with dark spots or quite dark, minutely pitted under strong lens. 

Sandy places and dry plains. Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Washington and Oregon to Utah and New 
Mexico. Type locality: "north-west of North America." Collected by Douglas. May-Aug. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 195 

6. Oenothera californica S. Wats. California Evening-primrose. Fig. 3413. 

Oenothera albicauHs var. californica S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 582. 1873. 

Oenothera californica S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 223. 1876. 

Anogra californica Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 176. 1896. 

Oenothera pallida var. californica Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 681. 1925. 

Perennial from underground rootstalks, rather coarse-stemmed, rarely simple, usually 
branched, 1^ (6) dm. tall, frequently decumbent or ascending, ashy with short appressed hairs 
throughout and with some longer spreading ones in upper parts, epidermis exfoliating. Leaves 
variable, blades of lower ones oblanceolate to spatulate in outline, of cauline ones oblong to 
lanceolate, all varying from subentire to deeply and regularly sinuate-dentate, 1-6 cm. long, 
sessile or on very short petioles ; flowers several, vespertine ; buds nodding ; hypanthium slender, 
2-4 cm. long, strigillose and villous; sepals lance-linear, 1.5-2 cm. long, with free tips very short 
or quite wanting; petals orbicular-obovate, 2-3 cm. long, frequently emarginate and with small 
tooth in sinus ; stamens subequal ; stigma-lobes 4-6 mm. long ; capsule terete, usually divaricate 
and somewhat curved upwards, 2-5 cm. long, about 3 mm. thick near the base ; seeds plump, obo- 
void, about 1 . 5 mm. long, brown with dark spots. 

Dry planes, Upper Sonoran and lower Transition Zones; California from Ventura County to Lower Cali- 
fornia, and along the edge of the desert to Mono County and Nevada. Type locality: California. April-June. 

Oenothera californica var. glabrata Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 18: 327. 1931. {Oenothera pallida Jepson, 
Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 681. 1925. Not Lindl.) Like the species but glabrous throughout. Upper Sonoran Zone of 
cismontane Riverside, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Counties, California. Type locality: vicinity of San 
Bernardino, California. 

7. Oenothera caespitosa Nutt. Cespitose Evening-primrose. Fig. 3414. 

Oenothera caespitosa Nutt. ex Fraser's Cat. no. S3. 1813; Sims, Bot. Mag. 39: pi. 1593. 1813. 
Pachylophis caespitosits Raimann in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf. 3': 215. 1893. 

Cespitose perennial, acaulescent or nearly so, quite glabrous throughout. Leaves oblanceo- 
late, the blades 3-10 cm. long, sinuate-dentate to subentire, on winged petioles of about same 
length ; flowers fragrant, vespertine ; hypanthium 5-8 cm. long, often tinged reddish ; sepals 
2.5-3.5 cm. long, with scarcely any free tips; petals white, aging pink, broadly obcordate, 2.5-4 
cm. long ; stamens subequal, glabrous ; stigma-lobes 5-8 mm. long ; capsule lance-ovoid, 2-3 cm. 
long, with low rounded tubercles on the angles ; seeds dark brown, about 3 mm. long, obovoid, 
minutely cellular-roughened, conspicuously furrowed along the raphe. 

This glabrous typical form of the species is rare in our range and extends from eastern Oregon to Dakota. 
Type locality: Upper Louisiana, on the banks of the Missouri River. May-July. 

Oenothera caespitosa var. montana (Nutt.) Durand, Bot. Basin Great Salt Lake 164. 1859. (Oenothera 
tnontana Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 500. 1840; Pachylophis montanus A. Nels. Bull. Torrey 
Club 26: 128. 1899.) Plant acaulescent; leaves canescent-pubescent on margins; hypanthium 3-8 cm. long; 
capsule sessile, ovoid, not tubercled, about 2 cm. long. Dry slopes, LTpper Sonoran Zone; from eastern Oregon 
to Inyo County, California, and to Colorado and Nebraska. Type locality: "Plains of the Platte in the Rocky 
Mountains." 

Oenothera caespitosa var. purpurea (S. Wats.) Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 18: 730. 1931. (Oenothera 
marginata var. purpurea S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 108. 1871; Pachylophis canesccns Piper, Contr. U.S. Nat. 
Herb. 11: 409. 1906.) Acaulescent, densely canescent throughout with a fine appressed pubescence; capsule 
linear-oblong, 2-3 cm. long, sessile, with low rounded tubercles. Dry slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern 
Washington and Oregon and adjacent California to the Rocky Mountains. Type locality: east Humboldt Moun- 
tains, Nevada. 

Oenothera caespitosa var. marginata (Nutt.) Munz, op. cit. 733. (Oenothera marginata Nutt. ex Hook. 
& Arn. Bot. Beechey 342. 1838.) Villous-hirsute, frequently caulescent; leaves linear-lanceolate, sinuate-pin- 
natifid; capsule 3-4 cm. long, pedicelled, linear-cylindric, scarcely ridged, with low tubercles. Dry slopes, chiefly 
Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Washington to eastern California and Utah. Type locality: "Rocky Mountains in 
Upper California, about lat. 42°." 

Oenothera caespitosa var. longiflora (Heller) Munz, op. cit. 734. (Anogra longiflora Heller, Muhlen- 
bergia 2: 224. 1906.) Plant subglabrous except for a few hairs along the margins of the leaves,_ about the 
ovaries and sepals, which latter may also be finely glandular-puberulent; otherwise much as in marginata. Dry 
slopes, Inyo County, California, to adjacent Nevada. Type locality: Silver Canyon, White Mountains, Inyo 
County, California. 

8. Oenothera xylocarpa Coville, Woody-fruited Evening-primrose. Fig. 3415. 

Oenothera xylocarpa Coville, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 4: 105. pi. 8. 1893. 
Anogra xylocarpa Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 174. 1896. 

Acaulescent perennial with thick vertical root and thick caudex surmounted by crown of 
leaves at surface of ground. Leaf-blades pinnately parted, often spotted red, 2-7 cm. long, broadly 
oblanceolate to obovate in outline, with a dense soft, sometimes canescent pubescence, terminal 
lobe much the largest, petioles about as long as blades ; flowers vespertine ; hypanthium slender, 
almost villous, 2.5^.5 cm. long; sepals 2-3 cm. long; petals bright yellow, aging salmon-red, 
2.5-3 cm. long, with broad sinus 4-5 mm. deep; stamens subequal; stigma-lobes 4-5 mm. long; 
capsule somewhat woody, 3.5-6 cm. long, the body proper 7-8 mm. thick at base and winged, 
tapering gradually into a long slender wingless upper portion, capsule 4-faced, with medium 
nerve on each face; seeds in 2 rows in each cell, brownish, 2-2.5 mm. long, narrowly obo- 
void, angled, roughened and minutely tubercled, with a broad flat raphe. 

Dry benches among pines. Arid Transition Zone; east slope of the Sierra Nevada, Mono County to Tulare 
County, California; Washoe County, Nevada. Type locality: west side of Whitney Meadows, later called 
Volcano Meadows, in Upper Kern River Basin, Tulare County, California. June-Aug. 



196 ONAGRACEAE 

9. Oenothera primiveris A. Gray. Yellow Desert Evening-primrose. Fig. 3416. 

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 5*: 58. 1853. 
Lavaiixia primiveris Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 182. 1896. 
Oenothera bufonis M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 8: 28. 1898. 
Lavauxia lobata A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 47: 429. 1909. 

Apparently annual or winter annual, with long taproot, cespitose, acaulescent or nearly so, 
occasionally with stems up to 1 dm. long, villous or pilose-pubescent throughout, the leaf-surfaces 
sometimes glabrate. Leaf-blades oblanceolate in outline, 1-12 cm. long, usually deeply and regu- 
larly pinnatiiid into lanceolate or ovate lobes which are in turn lobed or toothed, petioles shorter 
than blades; flowers vespertine; hypanthium 2-6 cm. long; sepals lance-linear, 15-28 mm. long, 
without free tips ; petals canary yellow, aging orange-red, cuneate-obovate, usually 2-3 cm. long, 
with a terminal sinus 4-5 mm. deep ; stamens subequal ; stigma-lobes 6-8 mrn. long ; capsule 
pilose, quadrangular with heavy rib down middle of each face, reticulate, not winged nor tuber- 
culate, gradually tapering to attenuate apex, 6-8 mm. thick at base, 18-35 mm. long; seeds in 
2 rows in each cell, brown, somewhat roughened tuberculate, 2 . 5-3 mm. long, with narrow raphal 
groove. 

Dry plains, Lower Sonoran Zone; deserts from California to St. George, Utah, and El Paso, Texas. Type 
locality: El Paso. April-May. 

10. Oenothera flava (A. Nels.) Garrett. Dandelion-like Evening-primrose. 

Fig. 3417. 

Oenothera triloba var. ecristata M. E. Jones, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 5: 681. 1895. 
Lavauxia flava A. Nels. Bull. Torrey Club 31: 243. 1904. 
Oenothera flava Garrett, Spring Fl. Wasatch ed. 4. 106. 1927. 

Perennial, with thick taproot, acaulescent or nearly so, glabrate throughout or finely glandu- 
lar or pubescent about flowers. Leaf-blades oblong-linear to oblanceolate in outline, 3-20 crn. 
long, 1-2 cm. wide, deeply and irregularly runcinate-pinnatifid, with a broadly winged rachis 
passing gradually into the lanceolate to lance-linear terminal lobe, petiole slightly winged, 
shorter than blade; hypanthium slender, 2-12 cm. long; sepals distinct or united in anthesis, re- 
flexed, lance-linear, green, often drying purplish, 10-18 mm. long, with free tips an additional 
1-5 mm. long; flowers vespertine, the petals pale yellow, 10-20 mm. long, orbicular-obovate ; 
stamens subequal ; stigma-lobes 3-4 mm. long ; capsule indurate, ovate, 1-2 cm. long, 4-winged, 
each wing reticulate-veined, 2-5 mm. wide, especially above, and with a spreading terminal valve- 
like tooth 0.5-1.5 mm. long; seeds numerous, dark brown, 2 mm. long, minutely granular, 
cuneate-obovoid, slightly concave with carinate ridge on ventral side, and wing-like margin 
around the obtuse summit. 

About desiccating depressions, plateau region, high Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Shasta, Lassen, 
Sierra, and Modoc Counties, California, Yakima River, Washington, Saskatchewan to Colorado, northern Mexico, 
and Arizona. Type locality: Laramie, Wyoming. May-July. 

11. Oenothera leptocarpa Greene. Mustard-like Primrose. Fig. 3418. 

Eulobus californicus Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: SIS. 1840. 
Oenothera californica Greene, Pittonia 1: 290. 1889. Not S. Wats. 1876. 
Oenothera leptocarpa Greene, op. cit. 302. 

Annual, erect, fairly coarse-stemmed, simple or with few stiflf branches ; stems glabrous or 
glabrate, somewhat glaucescent. Leaves few, largely in basal rosette, these lanceolate in outline, 
pinnatifid, 5-15 cm. long, dying early, the cauline leaves smaller, remote, uppermost pendulous, 
the upper stems appearing quite naked ; flowers solitary, not crowded ; hypanthium obconic, 
1 mm. long, orange and pubescent within and lined with a lobed disk, glabrous to strigillose 
without ; sepals lanceolate, 5-8 mm. long, glabrous to pubescent, reflexed in anthesis ; petals yel- 
low or orange, drying pink, frequently with reddish spots at the base, 6-14 mm. long, rhombic- 
obovate ; stamens of two lengths ; stigma globose ; capsules linear, quadrangular, not contorted, 
commonly strongly refracted, 3-10 cm. long, about 1 mm. thick, not conspicuously beaked ; seeds 
obovoid, light brown with purplish dots, minutely cellular-pitted, 1 mm. long. 

Dry banks and disturbed places. Upper Sonoran Zone; cismontane southern California and adjacent Lower 
California, occasional in Lower Sonoran Zone of Arizona and Sonora. Type locality: San Diego, California. 
April-May. 

12. Oenothera Palmeri S. Wats. Palmer's Primrose. Fig. 3419. 

Oenothera Palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 12: 251, 1877. 
Taraxia Palmeri Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 184. 1896. 

Dwarf, cespitose annual with slender taproot, finely strigillose throughout, forming small 
acaulescent tufts 2-6 cm. tall, or with several short horizontal branches 2-4 cm. long ; stems 
pubescent, with loose white exfoliating epidermis and becoming tough and almost woody in age. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate to -oblanceolate, subentire to minutely denticulate, 2-6 cm. long ; sterile 
portion of upper part of ovary filiform, 8—18 mm. long; hypanthium proper obconic, 1-2 mm. 
long ; sepals lanceolate, 2-3 mm. long ; petals yellow, orbicular-obovate, 3-5 mm. long, the flowers 
apparently diurnal ; stamens of 2 unequal sets ; stigma globose ; capsules crowded, ovate, 5-7 mm. 
long, coriaceous and tough, 4-angled below, each angle growing into a thick, obliquely truncate 
wing along the upper edge of which is the line of dehiscence ; seeds smooth, few, brownish, nar- 
rowly obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, minutely cellular-pitted. 

Open places, LTpper and Lower Sonoran Zones; eastern Oregon to the Mojave Desert, California, and 
Arizona. Type locality: Arizona. April-May. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 197 

13. Oenothera graciliflora Hook. & Arn. Slender-flowered Primrose. Fig. 3420. 

Oenothera graciliflora Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 341. 1838. 

Taraxia graciliflora Raimann in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf. 3': 216. 1893. 

Cespitose annual with slender taproot, plant unbranched and with a single acaulescent tuft, 
or with several short horizontal branches becoming 1-3 cm. long, finely pubescent to hirsute 
throughout. Leaves linear to linear-oblanceolate, entire or remotely denticulate, 2-10 cm. long; 
sterile portion of ovary filiform, 15^0 mm. long; hypanthium proper 2 mm. long; sepals lance- 
acuminate, 6-;^8 mm. long ; petals yellow, turning red in age, 8-14 mm. long, with a broad shallow 
apical notch in which is a middle tooth ; stamens unequal ; stigma globose ; capsule ovate-oblong, 
8yl2 mm. long, coriaceous, 4-angled near base, each angle expanding upward into a broad wing 
giving the capsule a truncate apex; seeds straw-colored with grayish blotches, obovoid, 1.5-2 
mm. long, with very minute cellular pitting. 

Grassy slopes and plains, Upper Sonoran Zone; Oregon (Hornbrook and Kirbyville) to southern California 
(Los Angeles County). Type locality: California. March-May. 

14. Oenothera heterantha Nutt. Northern Sun-cup. Fig. 3421, 

Oenothera heterantha Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 507. 1840. 
Oenothera heterantha var. taraxacifolia S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 589. 1873. 
Taraxia heterantha Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 186. 1896. 

Acaulescent perennial, with general habit of the next species, but essentially glabrous, though 
it may be finely pubescent, especially on the leaf-margins. Leaf-blades lanceolate to ovate-lanceo- 
late, entire or repand-denticulate or sinuate-pinnatifid, especially at base, 3-15 cm. long, narrowed 
into winged petioles of almost same length ; sepals lanceolate, 5-8 mm. long ; petals yellow, or- 
bicular-oboyate, slightly notched at tip, 8-10 mm. long ; stamens unequal ; stigma discoid ; capsule 
oblong-ovoid, relatively smooth, coriaceous, persistent, somewhat 4-angled, pointed above, not 
concealed among leaf-bases, 12-15 mm. long; seeds oblong, straw-colored, 3 mm. long, with 
minute cellular pitting. 

Moist grassy places, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; eastern Washington to eastern central California 
(Tulare County), and Rocky Mountains. Type locality: "towards the sources of the Columbia." May-July. 

15. Oenothera ovata Nutt. Sun-cup. Fig. 3422. 

Oenothera ovata Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 507. 1840. 
Taraxia ovata Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 185. 1896. 

Acaulescent biennial or perennial, with thick root from the simple or branched crown of 

which arise numerous flowers and leaves. Leaves with lanceolate to lance-ovate blades, usually 

undulate, entire to denticulate or even sinuate, glabrous above, ciliate on margins and on veins 

below, 3-10 cm. long, with petioles of equal or less length ; sterile portion of ovary slender, 

5-10 (18) cm. long, glabrous; hypanthium 3 mm. long; sepals glabrate to pubescent, lanceolate 

to lance-ovate, 7-12 mm. long; petals yellow, obovate to suborbicular, 8-20 mm. long; stamens 

almost subequal ; capsule linear-ovoid, sessile to pedicellate, usually below the surface of the 

ground, torulose, chartaceous, 1-2 cm. long, tardily dehiscent; seeds relatively few, broadly 

oblong-ovoid, brownish or yellowish, with a peculiar shaggy cellular pubescence. 

Open hillslopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; alon^ the coast from Umpqua Valley, Oregon, to Monterey County, 
California. Type locality : Monterey. March-June. 

16. Oenothera tanacetifolia Torr. & Gray. Pinnatifid Sun-cup, Fig. 3423. 

Oenothera Nuttallii Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 506. 1840. Not Sweet, 1830. 
Oenothera tanacetifolia Torr. & Gray, Pacif. R. Rep. 2: 121. pi. 4. 1854. 
Taraxia tanacetifolia Piper, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 11:405. 1906. 

Perennial, with thick root and simple or branched crown, glabrate to finely pubescent. Leaves 
lanceolate in outline, deeply sinuate-pinnatifid. the blades 3-10 cm. long, the numerous segments 
unequal, acute, entire or toothed, the petioles slender, about as long as blades ; sterile portion of 
ovary pubescent, slender, 2-10 cm. long; hypanthium proper 3 mm. long; sepals lance-ovate, acu- 
minate, pubescent, 7-9 mm. long; petals yellow, aging red, narrowly obovate, 10-15 mm. long; 
stamens unequal ; stigma globular ; capsule rarely developed, pubescent, narrowly ovoid, quad- 
rangular, torulose, 17-20 mm. long, 5-6 mm. thick, relatively straight; seeds numerous, brown, 
oblong, slightly curved, carunculate, finely pitted in longitudinal rows, about 2 mm. long. 

Damp grassy places, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; eastern Washington to Mono County, Cali- 
fornia, Idaho, and Nevada. June-July. 

17. Oenothera refracta S. Wats. Refracted Desert Primrose. Fig. 3424. 

Oenothera refracta S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 17: 373. 1882. 
Sphaerostigma refractum Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 192. 1896. 
Oenothera deserti M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 12: IS. 1908. 

Annual, 5—40 cm. tall, erect, with few to several divaricately spreading branches, usually 
glandular-puberulent and somewhat strigillose throughout, the stems slender, commonly red, 
with epidermis exfoliating in age. Leaves largest near base of plant, but well distributed up to 
lowest flowers, oblanceolate to lanceolate to oblong-linear, entire to denticulate, 2-5 cm. long, 
short-petioled to sessile; inflorescence racemose, sometimes paniculate, 5-15 cm. long; hypan- 
thium 5-6 mm. long; sepals lance-oblong, 5-6 mm. long; petals white, suborbicular, 4-7 mm. 



198 



ONAGRACEAE 




3414 



3408. Oenothera Rydbergii 

3409. Oenothera biennis 

3410. Oenothera Hookeri 



3415 

3411. Oenothera deltoides 

3412. Oenothera pallida 

3413. Oenothera califomica 



3414. Oenothera caespitosa 

3415. Oenothera xylocarpa 

3416. Oenothera primiveris 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 



199 




3417. Oenothera flava 

3418. Oenothera leptocarpa 

3419. Oenothera Palmeri 



3420. Oenothera graciliflora 

3421. Oenothera heterantha 

3422. Oenothera ovata 



3423. Oenothera tanacetifolia 

3424. Oenothera refracta 

3425. Oenothera chamaenerioides 



200 ONAGRACEAE 

long ; stamens somewhat unequal ; style exceeding corolla ; stigma globose ; capsule linear, com- 
monly refracted or spreading and straight or curved, even coiled, 3-5 cm. long, generally not 
beaked ; seeds pale, linear, 1 mm. long. 

Open places, Lower Sonoran Zone; deserts from southern California to Arizona and southern Utah. Type 
locality: near the Colorado River. March-May. 

18. Oenothera chamaenerioides A. Gray. Willow-herb Primrose. Fig. 3425. 

Oenothera chamaenerioides A. Gray, Smiths. Contr. 5': 58. 18S3. 
Sphaerostigma chamaenerioides Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 189. 1896. 
Sphaerostigma erythrum Davidson, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 1: 118. pi. 9. 1902. 

Erect annual, 1-5 dm. tall, usually branching near the base, the stems slender, often reddish, 
lower portions glandular-puberulent, upper strigillose and glandular-puberulent. Leaf-blades 
thin, glabrate, 4-8 cm. long, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, entire, with petioles 1-3 cm. long, in 
inflorescence reduced to linear bracts; inflorescence a corymbose raceme, elongating in fruit 
to 2 dm.; hypanthium 2.5-3 mm. long; sepals lance-ovate, 2.5 mm. long; petals white, often 
reddish in age, about 3 mm. long ; stamens subequal ; capsule terete, linear, divaricately spread- 
ing, scarcely if at all beaked, 25-50 mm. long ; seeds pale, linear, about 1 mm. thick. 

Open places in the desert, Lower Sonoran Zone; southern California to St. George, Utah, and EI Paso, 
Texas. Type locality: near El Paso. March-May. 

19. Oenothera minor var. Cusickii Munz. Cusick's Primrose. Fig. 3426. 

Oenothera minor var. Cusickii Munz, Bot. Gaz. 85: 240. 1928. 

Annual, more or less canescent-strigillose throughout, scarcely if at all glandular, stems 
simple and erect or usually with several subequal ascending stems, somewhat reddish, slender, 
5-30 cm. high, with epidermis only tardily exfoliating. Basal leaves largest, the blades spatulate 
to oblanceolate to elliptic-ovate, subentire, 5-25 mm. long, with petioles almost as long, upper 
leaves reduced; flowers borne singly in almost all the leaf-axils, the upper being grouped in a 
spicate inflorescence; hypanthium 1 mm. long; sepals 1 mm. long; petals yellowish, 1-1.2 mm. 
long ; stamens unequal ; capsule 10-25 mm. long, more or less contorted, gradually narrowed 
from the base, 10-18 mm. long, often beaked; seeds narrowly obovoid, somewhat angled, grayish, 
1 mm. long. 

Dry slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Washington to adjacent Oregon and Idaho. Type locality: Mal- 
heur River, Oregon. May-July. 

The typical species, with flowers twice the size, ranges to the east from Idaho and Nevada. 

20. Oenothera nevadensis Kell. Nevada Primrose. Fig. 3427. 

Oenothera nevadensis Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 224. fig. 70. 1863. 
Sphaerostigma nevadense Heller, Muhlenbergia 6: 51. 1910. 

Annual, glabrate, forming a simple erect tuft, 2-5 cm. tall, or with several naked prostrate 
branches 3-10 cm. long with terminal tufts of leaves and flowers. Leaves narrowly oblanceolate, 
10-35 mm. long on petioles of about same length; flowers white, diurnal ; hypanthium 3 mm. long, 
sparingly pubescent; the petals 3.5-5 mm. long; capsules 10-12 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. thick, 
quadrangular with ridge running along middle of each face, swollen at base, narrowed toward 
slender beak, coiled and twisted, usually crowded; seeds pale gray, 1 mm. long, linear-obovoid. 

Depressions, Upper Sonoran Zone; Washoe and Ormsby Counties, Nevada, and apparently adjacent Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: not given. May-June. 

21. Oenothera alyssoides Hook. & Arn. Alyssum-Iike Primrose. Fig. 3428. 

Oenothera alyssoides Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 340. 1838. 
Sphaerostigma alyssoides Walp. Rep. 2: 78. 1843. 
Sphaerostigma implexum A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 52: 267. 1911. 

Annual, usually branching from base, central stem erect, others ascending and curved at tip, 
bright green, minutely pubescent, rather slender, 5-35 cm. tall. Leaves bright green, oblanceo- 
late to ovate-lanceolate, 15-40 mm. long, entire or remotely denticulate, the lowermost with 
petioles of about same length, upper leaves gradually reduced, subsessile ; hypanthium 2-3 mm. 
long, glabrous within; sepals 4—5 mm. long; petals white, often drying yellowish, 4-5 mm. 
long; stamens unequal; style glabrous, about as long as petals; capsule 15-25 mm. long, thick- 
ened at base, gradually attenuate toward beak-like tip, much coiled or only curved seeds pale, 
linear-obovoid, minutely cellular-pitted. 

Dry plains of eastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho. Type locality: "Pine Creek, Snake County." June-July. 

Oenothera alyssoides var. villosa S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 591. 1873. (Sphaerostigma a!\ssoir^cs 
var. macrophyllum Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 192. 1896; Sphaerostigma utahense Small, op. cit. 191.) 
Grayish in aspect, with canescent or villous hairs throughout; petals white, often drying pinkish; hypanthium 
4-8 ram. long, pubescent within; style pubescent about the base; capsules often merely curved. Dry plains and 
slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; east to the Sierra Nevada, California, from Lassen County to Inyo County; east 
to Utah and northern Arizona. Type locality: near Salt Lake, Utah. 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 201 

22. Oenothera decorticans (Hook. & Arn.) Greene. Shredding Primrose. 

Fig. 3429. 

Gaura decorticans Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 343. 1838. 
Oenothera gauraeflora Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 510. 1840. 
Oenothera decorticans Greene, Fl. Fran. 217. 1891. 
Sphaerostigma decorticans Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 191. 1896. 

Annual, erect, simple or branching below, with the branches ascending or spreading, glabrous 
to glabrate below, finely pubescent and often glandular above, with shining straw-colored epider- 
mis which exfoliates readily. Leaves largely near the base, bright green or tinged red, glabrous 
to finely pubescent, subentire, 2-8 cm. long, with petioles of almost equal length, upper leaves 
reduced ; inflorescence a fairly compact spike, elongating in fruit to as much as 3 dm. ; hypan- 
thium 4-6 mm. long ; sepals 4-5 mm. long ; petals white, 5 mm. long, distinctly longer than wide, 
reddish only in age ; stamens unequal ; capsule subfusiform, thickest in lower half, 2 mm. thick, 
15^25 mm. long, round in cross section, attenuate into a slender beak, and with simple curve 
so that the beak spreads away from the stem; seeds ash-colored, linear-obovoid, somewhat 
angled, minutely pitted, 1 mm. long. 

Loose slopes and disturbed places. Upper Sonoran Zone; Monterey County to Los Angeles County, Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: Monterey. March-June. 

Oenothera decorticans var. rutila (Davidson) Munz, Bot. Gaz. 85: 245. 1928. (Oenothera rutila David- 
son, Erythea 2: 62. 1894.) Rather slender-stemmed, considerably diffused with red; flowers small, petals 3.5-4 
mm' long red, distinctly longer than wide; capsules as in the species. Loose slopes in the mountains about the 
western end of the Mojave Desert, California. Type locality: San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles County. 

Oenothera decorticans var. desertorum Munz, op. cit. 246. More slender than the species, with whiter 
epidermis on the stems; capsules more slender, 1-1.5 mm. thick at base, more contorted so that tips turn down- 
ward- flowers as in the species, the petals longer than wide. Open slopes and plains, Lower Sonoran Zone; 
Mojave Desert of California to Palm Springs, California, and to Rhyohte, Nevada. Type locality: ten miles 
southwest of Garlic Springs, San Bernardino County, California. 

Oenothera decorticans var. condensata Munz, op. cit. 247. Stems low and thick, usually not over 15-18 
cm. tall, and with pure white epidermis; petals 4-5 mm. long, suborbicular; capsules woody, much thickened, 
about 3 mm. at base, quadrangular, and with supplementary ridge down middle of each face. Open plains, 
deserts of Lower Sonoran Zone; eastern half of the Mojave Desert and the Colorado Desert of California to 
St. George, Utah. Type locality: Dos Palmos Springs, Riverside County, California. 

23. Oenothera Boothii Dougl. Booth's Primrose. Fig. 3430. 

Oenothera Boothii Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 213. 1834. 
Sphaerostigma Boothii Walp. Rep. 2: 77. 1843. 
Sphaerostigma Lemmonii A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 40: 61. 1905. 

Annual, glandular-pubescent to glandular-villous throughout, erect, 1-4 dm. tall, usually with 
central stem more prominent than the branches which may spread widely. Leaves ovate to 
oblong-ovate, fairly evenly distributed, subentire, 2-5 cm. long, with petioles 1-3 crp. additional ; 
inflorescence racemose-spicate, often quite congested, elongating in fruit; hypanthium 4-8 mm. 
long; sepals 3-7 mm. long; petals white, pinkish in age, obovate, clawed, 3.5-9 mrri. long; sta-- 
mens subequal ; capsule 10-15 mm. long, usually ascending in lower half and wath terminal 
portion spreading but not contorted, thickest near base, 1.5-2 mrn. wide; seeds brown, rhomboid- 
prismatic, minutely cellular-pubescent, 1 mm. long, gray when immature. 

Dry plains and slopes, mostly in Upper Sonoran Zone; from Walla Walla region, Washington, to eastern 
California and Utah and Arizona. Type locality: "on the high sandy and gravelly hills of Lewis and Clark s 
River." June-Aug. 

Oenothera Boothii var. pygmaea (Dougl.) Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 510. 1840 (Oenothera pyg- 
maea Dougl. ex Lehm. in Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 213. 1834.) Flowers small, hypanthium 1 . 5-2 5 mm. long; 
sepals 1.5-2.5 mm. long; petals narrowly obovate, 1.5-2.5 mm. long. Similar situations. Upper Sonoran /.one; 
eastern Washington and Oregon. Type locality: "near the branches of Lewis and Clark s Kiver, lat. 46 nortn. 

24. Oenothera andina Nutt. Plateau Primrose. Fig. 3431. 

Oenothera andina Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 512. 1840. 
Sphaerostigma andinum Walp. Rep. 2: 79. 1843. 

Low, erect, very slender-stemmed annuals, with spreading branches from near the base or 
above, finely canescent throughout, 2-15 cm. tall and about as broad, lower stem and branches, 
in all except the smaller plants, rather free of leaves. Leaves alternate, linear to narrowly ob- 
lanceolate, entire, with short indistinct petioles; flowers axillary in a rather crowded corymb 
which becomes racemose in fruit; hypanthium 1 mm. long; sepals 1.5 mm. long; petals yellow, 
1.5 mm. long; stamens unequal; capsule 5-6 mm. long, fusiform, somewhat quadrangular; seeds 
fusiform, smooth, brown, 0.7 mm. long. . . 

Dried depressions, plains, Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern. Washington to northeastern California, Assiniboia. 
and Utah. Type locality: "Dry plains in the Rocky Mountams, near the Black-Foot River. May-Jul>. 

Oenothera andina var. Hilgardii (Greene) Munz, Bot. Gaz. 85: 251 1928 (0.n<,t/..ra H.7garrf« 
Greene, Bull. Torrey Club 10:41. 1883; Sphaerostigma andinum var Hilgardn A. Nels. Bot t,az. 4^0- ^_^- 
1905.) Flowers larger; hypanthium 1.5 mm. long; sepals 2 mm ; petals 2.5 "'"^/""fc^br°ade■■. capsule 
mm. In similar situations, eastern Washington. Type locality: "moist alkaline soil of Klickitat SNvale. \\ ash 
ington." 

Oenothera andina f. tripetala Levi. Mon. Onoth. 182. 1905. (Oenothera andina var. anWa ^I. E. 
Perk Torreva 32 • 151 193^ ) Like the species, but flowers trimerous and capsules somewhat 3-sided Occa- 
sional lith species esjecially in easJern Klamath and western Lake Counties, Oregon. Type locality: not given. 



202 ONAGRACEAE 

25. Oenothera contorta Dougl. Contorted Primrose. Fig. 3432. 

Oenothera contorta Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Araer. 1 : 214. 1834. 
Sphaerostigma contortum Walp. Rep. 2: 78. 1843. 

Annual, slender-stemmed, 5-10, occasionally 25 cm. tall, glabrate to finely pubescent, usually 
with several to few suberect branches from near the base. Leaves well distributed, linear to 
lance-linear, not over 2 mm. wide, 5-25 mm. long, subsessile, the lower ones frequently with 
fascicles of smaller leaves in the axils, upper leaves reduced to leafy bracts ; hypanthium 1-2 mm. 
long, glabrate to strigillose or glandular without; sepals lance-ovate, 1.5-2.5 mm. long; petals 
bright yellow, aging red, narrowly obovate to obcordate, 2.5-3 mm. long; stamens unequal; 
capsules linear, cylindrical, often torulose, sessile, curved or straight, 25-35 mm. long, ending in a 
definite beak ; seeds brown, obovoid, less than 1 mm. long, minutely cellular-pitted. 

Dry loose slopes, recently disturbed places, sandy areas, etc.. Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern British Columbia 
to Modoc County, California, and western Nevada. Type locality: "on sandy barren soils of the interior parts 
of the Columbia'River." April-July. 

Oenothera contorta var. flexuosa (A. Nels.) Munz, Bot. Gaz. 85: 253. 1928. (Sphaerostigrna contortum 
var ficxuosum A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 40: 58. 1905; Oenothera parvula Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 
511 1840- Sphaerostigma filiforme A. Nels. op. cit. 57.) Stems and leaves as in the species; capsules more 
slender, distinctly pedicelled, not beaked, 17-25 mm. long, frequently curved into a half circle. Ranging with 
the species, but extending farther south (Inyo County, California) and east (Wyoming and Utah). Type 
locality: Point of Rocks, Wyoming. 

Oenothera contorta var. pubens (S. Wats.) Coville, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 4: 104. 1893. {Oenothera 
strigulosa var. pubens S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 594. 1873; Sphaerostigma orthocarpum Nels. & Kenn. 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19: 155. 1906.) Coarse-stemmed plants with abundant spreading pubescence; leaves 
rather broad, commonly over 2 mm. wide; capsules 1 mm. or more in diameter, 25-35 mm. long, sessile or sub- 
sessile, not beaked. Eastern middle California and western Nevada. Type locality: Carson City. Nevada. 

Oenothera contorta var. strigulosa (Fisch. & Mey.) Munz, Bot. Gaz. 85:255. 1928. (Sphaerostigma 
strigulosum Fisch. & Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 2:50. 1835.) Stems densely pubescent, with short ap- 
pressed or incurved hairs, and growing to be 15-30 cm. tall; capsules short, 15-25 mm. long, not beaked, bandy 
soils, upper Transition and Sonoran Zones; along the coast from Humboldt County to Monterey County, Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: "Nova California." 

Oenothera contorta var. epilobioides (Greene) Munz, op. cit. 256. Large, commonly 25-40 cm. tall, erect; 
stems mostly glabrate, but if pubescent, the hair is spreading (especially in plants from central California); 

inflorescence often glandular; capsules 25-40 mm. long, sessile, slender, commonly beaked Upper bonoran 
Zone; cismontane region from southern Oregon to northern Lower California. Also in Chile. Type locality: 
not given. 

26. Oenothera dentata var. campestris (Greene) Jepson. Field Primrose. 

Fig. 3433. 

Oenothera campestris Greene, Fl. Fran. 216. 1891. 
Sphaerostigma campestre Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 189. 1896. 
Oenothera dentata var. campestris Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 685. 1925. 

Annual, usually bushy, freely branched from base, stems subdecumbent to ascending, occasion- 
ally subsimple and erect, slender, even capillary, 5-20 cm. tall, with light-colored epidermis tend- 
ing to exfoliate with age, short-villous below with spreading hair ; infloresence glandular. Leaves 
well distributed, mostly lance-linear, subsessile, often fascicled, pubescent to glabrous, remotely 
denticulate, 5-35 mm. long, gradually reduced up the stem to the leafy bracts of the inflorescence ; 
flowers few, not crowded; hypanthium 2-4 mm. long; sepals lance-ovate, 3-6 mm. long; petals 
bright yellow, with or without red dots at base, suborbicular to obovate to obcordate, 5-8 mm. 
long; stamens unequal; capsule linear, terete, somewhat torulose, straight or somewhat con- 
torted, strigillose or glabrate, 2-4 cm. long, slender, 0.5 mm. thick at base, usually with well- 
defined beak; seeds brown, linear-obovoid, somewhat angled and flattened, minutely cellular- 
punctate, 0.5 mm. long. 

Dry sandy plains. Upper Sonoran Zone; Great Valley of California and sparingly in the interior valleys of 
the coastal counties from Antioch to Santa Barbara. Type locality: California. April-June. Oenothera dentata 
Cav. was described from Chile and closely resembles our plant. 

Oenothera dentata var. Parishii (Abrams) Munz, Bot. Gaz. 85:259. 1928. {Sphaerostigma campestre 
var. Harishii Abrams, Fl. Los Ang. 272. 1904.) Stems glabrate or with short appressed hair; inflorescence 
usually canescent, sometimes glandular; flowers as in preceding variety; capsules slender^ 0.5 mm. thick, not 
distinctly beaked; seeds 0.5 mm. long. Upper Sonoran and high Lower Sonoran Zones; California, in western 
half of Mojave Desert and occasional in interior valleys of cismontane California from Santa Barbara County 
to Riverside County. Type locality: San Bernardino. 

Oenothera dentata var. Johnstonii Munz, loc. cit. Stems glabrate or glandular-pubescent; inflorescence 
glandular-pubescent. Leaves up to 6 mm. wide; flowers larger, sepals 5-12 mm. long; petals 10-16 mm. long; 
capsule 1 mm. thick, not conspicuously beaked; seeds 1 mm. long. Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones, western 
half of Mojave Desert, (California, eastward into Nevada. Type locality: near Mojave, California. 

Oenothera dentata var. Gilmanii Munz, Leaflets West. Bot. 2: 87. 1938. Whole plant viscid with short 
spreading gland-tipped hairs. Death Valley, California, the type locality. 

27. Oenothera micrantha Hornem. Small Primrose. Fig. 3434. 

Oenothera hirta Link, Enum. Hort. Ber. 1: 378. 1821. Not O. hirta L. 
Oenothera micrantha Hornem. ex Spreng. Syst. 2: 228. 1825. 
Sphaerostigma micranthum Walp. Rep. 2: 77. 1843. 

Annual, simple or several-stemmed, prostrate, hirsute, 5-50 cm. long, leafy throughout, with 
readily exfoliating epidermis. Basal leaves forming a sort of rosette, linear-lanceolate to oblance- 
olate, almost entire, 2-10 cm. long with equal or longer petioles ; cauline leaves shorter, oblong- 
lanceolate, sessile, obtuse, undulate, denticulate, commonly 5-7 mm. wide; flowers small, petals 
yellow, often drying green, 2-4 mm. long ; stamens unequal ; capsules curved or contorted, quad- 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 



203 




3426 







3429 





3432 

3426. Oenothera minor 

3427. Oenothera nevadensis 

3428. Oenothera alyssoides 



3433 

3429. Oenothera decorticans 

3430. Oenothera Boothii 

3431. Oenothera andina 



3434 

3432. Oenothera contorta 

3433. Oenothera dentata 

3434. Oenothera micrantha 



204 ONAGRACEAE 

rangular, 12-20 mm. long, gradually attenuate toward apex and generally beaked ; seeds brown, 
obovoid, finely cellular-pitted, 1 mm. long. 

Dry slopes and valleys, especially in sandy and disturbed places, Upper Sonoran Zone; along the coast, 
Bodega Point, California, to Lower California. Type locality: California. March-May. 

Oenothera micrantha var. Jonesii (Levi.) Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 19:778. 1932. {Oenothera hirta 
var. Jonesii Levi. Mon. Onoth. 213. 1905; Oenothera hirtella Greene, Fl. Fran. 215. 1891; Sphaerostigtna 
arenicolum A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 40: 58. 1905.) Erect or ascending, densely villous-pubescent throughout; 
cauline leaves oblong-ovate to broadly ovate, acute, often sessile, with subcordate clasping base; flowers small as 
in the species. Similar situations, but mostly on the hills and mountain bases of the interior valleys, northern 
California to Lower California. Type locality: Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County. 

Oenothera micrantha var. ignota Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 684. 1925. {Oenothera hirta var. ignota 
Munz, Bot. Gaz. 85: 263. 1928.) Glabrate stems simple, erect; calyx glabrate; flowers larger; petals 5-7 mm. 
long. Dry valleys and hills, in the interior, Kern and Madera Counties, California, to northern Lower Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: Riverside County. 

Oenothera micrantha var. exfoliata (A. Nels.) Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 19:778. 1932. {Sphaero- 
stigtna micranthum var. exfoliatum A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 40:59. 1905; Oenothera Abramsii J. F. Macbride, 
Contr. Gray Herb. No. 65: 41. 1922; Oenothera micrantha var. Abramsii Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 685. 1925.) 
Plant pallid with dense whitish pubescence; stems usually several from near the base, spreading; flowers rather 
large; petals 3-6 mm. long. Dry slopes and plains, Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones; deserts of southern Cali- 
fornia and western Arizona. Type locality; Colorado Desert, California. 

Oenothera guadalupensis S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 115. 1876. Much like Oenothera micrantha, 
but with oblong-pyramidal capsules 12 mm. long, 2.5 mm. thick and scarcely if at all curved. Sand dunes, San 
Clemente Island, California, and Guadalupe Island, Lower California, the type locality. 

28. Oenothera bistorta Nutt. Southern Sun-cup. Fig. 3435. 

Oenothera bistorta Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 508. 1840. 
Sphaerostigtna bistorta Walp. Rep. 2: 77. 1843. 

Annual, occasionally simple, but usually with several prostrate or ascending stems, these vil- 
lous, light green, often tinged reddish, with exfoliating epidermis, rather slender, 5-80 cm. long. 
Leaves green, pubescent to pilose, denticulate to subentire, those of the basal rosette 3-7 cm. long, 
linear-oblanceolate, narrowed into petioles 1-4 cm. long ; cauline leaves often secund, shorter and 
wider, the uppermost subsessile to cordate-clasping ; flowers in leaf-axils, only a few in anthesis 
at once; hypanthium 3—5 mm. long; sepals 7-10 mm. long; corolla yellow, often drying greenish, 
with or without dark spot at base, 8-14 mm. long; stamens unequal; capsule curved or contorted, 
2-2.5 mm. thick, 12-15 mm. long, sharply quadrangular, with beak lacking or not more than 
4-5 mm. long ; seeds brown, obovoid, 1 mm. long, finely cellular-pitted. 

Dry slopes, sea bluffs. Upper Sonoran Zone; largely about San Diego, occasional as far north as Los 
Angeles County, California. Type locality: San Diego. March-May. 

Oenothera bistorta var. Veitchiana Hook. Bot. Mag. 84: pi. 5078. 1858. {Sphaerostigtna Veitchianutn 
Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 191. 1896.) Capsule more slender, 1.5-2 mm. thick, and longer, 20-40 mm., 
with the beak 3-10 or more mm. long. Dry slopes and valleys, Upper Sonoran Zone; largely in the interior 
of cismontane southern California. Much more common than the species. Type locality: near San Gabriel, 
Los Angeles County. 

Oenothera bistorta var. Hallii (Davidson) Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 685. 1925. {Sphaerostigtna 
Hallii Davidson, Muhlenbergia 3: 107. 1907.) Foliage pallid with short appressed hair. Dry slopes and plains 
about the western edge of the Colorado Desert, southern California. Type locality: Banning, Riverside County. 

29. Oenothera cheiranthifolia Hornem. Beach Primrose. Fig. 3436, 

Oenothera cheiranthifolia Hornem. ex Spreng. Syst. 2: 228. 1825. 

Oenothera spiralis Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 213. 1833. 

Sphaerostigtna spirale Fisch. & Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 2: 50. 1835. 

Perennial, apparently flowering first year, with several prostrate to decumbent wiry stems 
radiating from a central rosette crowning the taproot, these 1-6 dm. long ; plant grayish pubes- 
cent throughout. Leaves thick, those of rosette oblanceolate, 1-7 cm. long, obtuse, narrowed into 
petioles 1-2 cm. long; lower cauline leaves lance-oblong, subsessile to short-petioled, obtuse, 
subentire, 2-4 cm. long, the upper ones still shorter and broader, oblong-ovate to orbicular-ovate ; 
flowers single in axils, mostly not near the base of the stems ; hypanthium 2.5—5 mm. long; sepals 
lanceolate, 4-10 mm. long; petals bright yellow, with or without reddish spots at base, usually 
drying green, often red, 5-9 mm. long ; stamens unequal ; capsule coiled, distinctly quadrangular, 
short-beaked or not at all beaked, pubescent, 12-22 mm. long; seeds dark brown, obovoid, 1 mm. 
long, minutely cellular-pitted. 

Sea beaches, LTpper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Coos County, Oregon, to Santa Barbara County, Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: California. April-July. 

Oenothera cheiranthifolia var. suffruticosa S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 592. 1873. {Oenothera 
viridescens Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 592. 1833; Oenothera spiralis var. viridescens Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 
684. 1925; Sphaerostigtna spirale var. clypeatum A. Nels. Bot Gaz. 40: 60. 1905.) Foliage silvery; perennial 
and usually suffrutescent; flowers large; petals 13-22 mm. long. Sea beaches. Upper Sonoran Zone; Santa 
Barbara, California, to northern Lower California. Type locality: California. Collected by Coulter. 

Oenothera cheiranthifolia var. nitida (Greene) Munz, Bot. Gaz. 85: 269. 1928. {Oenothera nitida 
(Ireene, Pittonia 1: 70. 1887; Oenothera spiralis var. nitida Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 684. 1925.) Flowers 
like those of the species itself, with petals 5-8 mm. long; the plants glabrous and green throughout. Sea beaches, 
rare, Upper Sonoran Zone, Monterey to San Miguel Island, California. Type locality: San Miguel Island. 

30, Oenothera pterosperma S. Wats. Wing-seeded Primrose. Fig. 3437. 

Oenothera pterosperma S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 112. pi. 14. 1871. 
Chylismia pterosperma Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 193. 1896. 
Sphaerostigma pterospermum A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 40: 63. 1905. 

Annual, low, 5-12 cm. tall, erect, simple or with few open branches ; stem slender, pilose 
below, finely glandular above. Leaves oblong- to ovate-lanceolate, often with a "shoulder" on 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 205 

each side the tip, entire, sessile or nearly so, 5-20 mm. long; flowers axillary, pinkish white; 
pedicels 5-8 mm. long, capillary; hypanthium 1.2 mm. long; sepals 1.5-2.5 mm. long; petals 
obcordate, equalling sepals ; stamens unequal ; capsules cylindric-clavate, slightly curved, erect, 
10-16 mm. long, attenuate at base; seeds oblong, 1.5 mm. long, brownish, flattened, bordered 
with a revolute, wing-like margin which is "minutely tubercled with cellular processes." 

Rare, dry places, Upper Sonoran Zone; Harper Ranch, eastern Orecon, to Inyo County, California, and Utah. 
Type locality: foothills. Trinity Mountains, northwestern Nevada. May-June. 

31. Oenothera cardiophylla Torr. Heart-leaved Primrose. Fig. 3438. 

Oenothera cardiophylla Torrey, Pacif. R. Rep. 5: 360. 1858. 

Oenothera cardiophylla var. pctiolaris M. E. Jones, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 5: 682. 1895. 

Chylismia cardiophylla Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 193. 1896. 

Annual to suff'rutescent perennial, 1-5 dm. tall, erect, usually freely branched, occasionally 
simple, typically soft-pubescent throughout, but varying from glabrate to white-villous, the stems 
fairly coarse. Leaves orbicular-cordate to ovate, irregularly dentate or denticulate, obtuse, some- 
what bicolored, subglabrate to white-villous, well distributed, 1-6 cm. long, almost as wide, on 
petioles 1-7 cm. long ; flowers borne singly in axils of reduced upper leaves or more commonly 
in dense terminal racemes ; hypanthium 5-10 mm. long ; sepals ovate, 3-7 mm. long ; petals a 
clear yellow, turning red with age, broader than long, 6-8 mm. long ; stamens unequal ; capsules 
rather coarse, cylindrical, usually slightly curved, 2-6 cm. long, on pedicels 2-10 mm. long ; seeds 
obovoid, brown, somewhat irregularly angled, 0.6 mm. long. 

Desert mesas and canyons. Lower Sonoran Zone; Inyo County, California, to northern Lower California 
and western Arizona. Type locality: near Yuma, Arizona. March-May. 

Oenothera cardiophylla var. splendens Munz & Jtn. Bull. Torrey Club 49:354. 1923. {Oenothera 
cardiophylla var. longituba Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 686. 1925.) Flowers larger, hypanthium 20-35 mm. 
long; petals 13-25 mm. long. With the species but more restricted in range, from Needles, California, to Yuma, 
Arizona. Type locality: Needles, San Bernardino County, California. 

32. Oenothera kernensis Munz. Kern County Evening Primrose. Fig. 3439. 

Oenothera kernensis Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 18: 737. 1931. 

Annual, erect, with few spreading branches from the base, 8-12 cm. tall, somewhat canescent 
throughout, minutely glandular-pubescent in inflorescence. Leaves well distributed, the basal ones 
oblanceolate, 10-15 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, almost sessile, obtuse or acute, subentire or denticu- 
late ; cauline leaves somewhat reduced, lance-linear ; flowers few, solitary in upper axils in a lax 
raceme ; hypanthium 2-3 mm. long ; sepals lanceolate, reflexed, 5-6 mm. long ; petals bright yellow, 
obovate, 1 cm. long; stamens of two lengths; stigma globose; capsule ascending, somewhat 
curved, cylindric-clavate, 2-2.5 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. thick, not beaked, pubescent, on a pedicel 
4-6 mm. long. 

Dry slopes, at 4,000-5,000 feet, Upper Sonoran Zone; east side of Walker Pass, the type locality, Kern 
County, California. May. 

33. Oenothera brevipes A. Gray. Desert Primrose. Fig. 3440. 

Oenothera brevipes A. Gray, Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 87. 1857. 
Chylismia brevipes Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 194. 1896. 

Annual, frequently rather coarse, usually 1- to few-stemmed from base, occasionally branched 
above, spreading-villous, especially below, 1-4 dm. tall, erect with nodding stem-tips. Leaves 
largely in basal rosettes with few scattering smaller ones on lower stem, the uppermost reduced 
to bracts, lower ones petioled, glabrate to villous, usually bicolored, with conspicuous reddish 
veins beneath, ovate to oblong-cordate, subentire to pinnate or pinnatifid ; inflorescence racemose ; 
pedicels short, 3-15 mm. long; hypanthium 3-7 mm. long; sepals 6-10 mm. long, pilose and 
glandular; petals bright yellow, obovate, 7-15 mm. long; stamens subequal, the anthers vvith scat- 
tered hairs ; capsule linear, spreading-divaricate, 5-9 cm. long, 2-3 mm. in diameter ; seeds straw- 
colored, obovoid, 1-1.5 mm. long, somewhat angled. 

Open deserts, Lower Sonoran Zone; southern California to adjacent Arizona and Nevada. Type locality: 
Colorado River. March-May. 

Oenothera pallidula Munz, Leaflets West. Bot. 2: 88. 1938. (Oenothera brevipes yar palliditla Munz, 
Amer. Journ. Bot. 15: 229. 1928.) Like Oenothera brevipes, but with no spreading hairs, the stems glabrate 
to finely canescent; sepals glandular-pubescent to canescent; capsules 1-1 .5 mm. in diameter. Death Valley to 
Riverside County, California, eastward to Utah. Type locality: Las Vegas. Nevada. 

34. Oenothera multijuga var. parviflora (S. Wats.) Munz. Pinnate-leaved 

Primrose. Fig. 3441. 

Oenothera brevipes var. parviflora S. Wats, ex Parry, Amer. Nat. 9: 271. 1875. 
Chylismia parviflora Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 603, 1064. 1917. 
Oenothera scapiodea var. tortilis Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 687. 1925. 
Oenothera multijuga var. parviflora Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 15: 231. 1928. 

Annual, glabrate to closelv fine-pubescent or villous, slender, l_-stemmed and erect, or 
branched especially above, 2-8' dm. tall. Leaves in a basal rosette, pinnate with 5-8 pairs of 
major lateral pinnae and a larger terminal one, usually quite villous, and with conspicuous red- 
dish veins beneath; upper parts of plant quite leafless ; the inflorescence of naked racemes which 
may be in a loose open panicle ; pedicels capillary, 1-2 cm. long ; sepals 3-4 mm. long ; petals 



206 ONAGRACEAE 

yellow, 3-5 mm. long; stamens unequal; capsules linear, slender, 1-1.5 mm. in diameter, 15—25 
mm. long; seeds numerous, light brown, obovoid, 1 mm. long. 

Dry slopes and washes, Lower Sonoran Zone; Death Valley region, eastern California to Utah and Arizona. 
Type locality: Valley of the Virgin, near St. George, Utah. March-May. Differing from Oenothera multijuga 
S. Wats, by having flowers about half as large, the species proper not entering California. 

35. Oenothera scapoidea var. seorsa (A. Nels.) Munz. Scapoid Primrose. 

Fig. 3442. 

Chylismia scapoidea var. seorsa A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 54: 140. 1912. 
Oenothera scapoidea var. seorsa Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 15: 233. 1928. 

Annual, simple or branching from base, erect or spreading, glabrate below, glandular-puber- 

ulent above, 1-4 dm. tall, the stems quite simple above. Leaves mostly in lower part of plant, 

prevailingly simple, ovate to oblong-ovate, the blades 1-4 cm. long, with petioles somewhat 

longer; upper leaves much reduced; inflorescence mostly racemose; pedicels capillary, 5-15 mm. 

long ; hypanthium 1 . 5-3 mm. long ; sepals 2 mm. long ; petals yellow, 2-3 mm. long ; stamens 

unequal; capsules quite erect, clavate, slightly curved, 10-25 mm. long, 2-2.5 mm. thick; seeds 

brownish, obovoid, 1 . 5-2 mm. long. 

Dry mesas and in disturbed areas, Upper Sonoran Zone; Baker County, Oregon, and Inyo County, Cali- 
fornia, to Wyoming and Colorado. Type locality : Evanston, Wyoming. May-June. Differing from the species, 
which does not enter our range, by its glandular pubescence. 

36. Oenothera clavaeformis Torr. & Frem. Clavate-fruited Primrose. Fig. 3443. 

Oenothera clavaeformis Torr. & Frem. in Frem. Second Rep. 314. 1845. 
Oenothera scapoidea var. clavaeformis S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 109. 1871. 
Chylismia clavaeformis Heller, Muhlenbergia 2: 105. 1906. 

Annual, simple or with few unbranched stems from the base, 1-4 dm. tall, glabrate to finely 
pubescent below, glabrate about the infloresence. Leaves mostly in a basal rosette, simple and 
irregularly dentate, with ovate blades 2-5 cm. long and petioles of same length, rarely pinnati- 
fid ; cauline leaves much reduced ; inflorescence racemose, somewhat peduncled, the flowers quite 
crowded in anthesis, pedicels 8-25 mm. long ; hypanthium and sepals glabrous, each about 5 mm. 
long ; petals white, often drying reddish, 4-6 mm. long ; the corolla often reddish brown at base ; 
stamens almost equal, the anthers with white spreading hairs ; capsule clavate, commonly about 
2 mm. thick, 12-20 mm. long, generally curved and ascending; seeds light brown, obovoid, some- 
what angled, 1.2 mm. long. 

Dry plains, high Lower Sonoran and Upper Sonoran Zones; western half of Mojave Desert of California 
to Inyo County, east to central Nevada. Type locality: Mojave Desert. March-May (June). 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. aurantiaca (S. Wats.) Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. IS: 237. 1928. {Oenothera 
scapoidea var. aurantiaca S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 595. 1873.) Stems glabrate to finely pubescent; 
flowers like those of the species, mostly whitish and often drying purplish, but sometimes a pale yellow when 
fresh; sepals and inflorescence finely strigillose-pubescent; leaves tending to be much pinnate. Open desert. 
Lower Sonoran Zone; California (Death Valley region to Colorado Desert) to St. George, Utah. Type locality: 
Fort Mohave, Arizona. 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. purpurascens (S. Wats.) Munz, Leaflets West. Bot. 3: S3. 1941. {Oeno- 
thera cruciformis Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 227. fig. 71. 1863; Chylismia scapoidea var. cruciformis Small, 
Bull. Torrey Club 23: 193. 1896; Oenothera scapoidea var. purpurascens S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 595. 
1873; Chylismia lancifolia Heller, Muhlenbergia 2: 226. 1906.) Stems closely and finely canescent-puberulent; 
flowers clear yellow or with reddish spots; leaves scarcely or not at all pinnatifid. Loose dry slopes and dis- 
turbed areas. Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern Oregon to Inyo County, California, and Washoe County, Nevada. 
Type locality: Mono Lake, Mono County, California. 

Oenothera clavaeformis var. Peirsonii Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 15:238. 1928. Stems spreading-vil- 
lous; leaves often much divided; flowers yellowish. Dry sandy plains, Lower Sonoran Zone, deserts of northern 
Lower California and Imperial and Riverside Counties, California. Type locality: Imperial County. 

Z7. Oenothera heterochroma S. Wats. Shockley's Primrose. Fig. 3444. 

Oenothera heterochroma S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 17: 373. 1882. 
Chylismia heterochroma Small, Bull. Torrey Club 23: 193. 1896. 

Annual, simple or branched at base, branching above, glandular-pubescent throughout, 

25-50 cm. tall. Leaves in lower portion only, but not actually in basal rosette, ovate, irregularly 

serrate, with fairly conspicuous veins beneath, villous, 2—6 cm. long, on petioles almost as long; 

upper leaves reduced ; pedicels capillary, 2-5 mm. long ; hypanthium 2 . 5 mm. long ; sepals the 

same ; petals purplish, 3-5 mm. long ; stamens unequal ; capsule 8-13 mm. long, 2 mm. thick, 

clavate ; seeds brown, obovoid, 1 mm. long. 

Rare, dry places, Upper Sonoran Zone; known in California only from Crooked Creek, Owens Valley; 
occasional in western Nevada. Type locality: Candelaria, Nevada. Aug.-Sept. 

Oenothera heterochroma var. monoensis Munz, El Aliso 2:84. 1949. Stems subglabrous, somewhat 
glaucous. Dry slopes and fans, Upper Sonoran Zone, Mono and Inyo Counties, California. Type locality: 
Sherwin Grade, north of Bishop, California. 

9. GAYOPHtTUM Juss. Ann. Sci. Nat. 25: 18. pi. 4. 1832. 

Slender caulescent annuals. Leaves alternate, entire, linear and subsessile, or lowest 
may be opposite and linear-oblanceolate and short-petioled. Flowers in upper axils. Hy- 
panthium not prolonged beyond the ovary. Sepals 4, usually reflexed in anthesis. Petals 
4, small, rhomboid-spatulate to -obovate, white, frequently drying pink or red. Stamens 8, 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 



207 




3435. Oenothera bistorta 

3436. Oenothera cheiranthifolia 

3437. Oenothera pterosperma 



3438. Oenothera cardiophylla 

3439. Oenothera kemensis 

3440. Oenothera brevipes 



3441. Oenothera multijuga 

3442. Oenothera scapoidea 

3443. Oenothera clavaeformis 



208 ONAGRACEAE 

the alternate set much reduced and usually sterile. Stigma capitate. Capsule 2-celled, 4- 
valved, linear or clavate. Seeds many, in a single row in each cell, not comose. [Name 
in honor of Gay, author of Flora of Chile, and Greek word for plant.] 

A genus of 9 species of the temperate regions of western North and South America. Type species, 
Gayophytum humile Juss. 

Capsule torulose, pedicelled; plants freely branched above the base, repeatedly dichotomous, the upper leaves 
bract-like. 
Seeds glabrous. 

Petals O.S-1.5 mm. long. 

Petals 0.5 mm. long; capsule 2-5 mm. long, shorter than the deflexed pedicel; plants quite glabrous. 

1. G. ramosisstmum. 

Petals 1-1.5 mm. long; capsule S-12 mm. long, exceeding the pedicel. 2. G. Nuttallii. 

Petals 2-4 mm. long. 3. G. diffusum. 
Seeds appressed-canescent. 

Petals 1-2 mm. long. 4. G. lasiospermum. 

Petals 3-4 mm. long. 5. G. eriospermum. 

Capsule not torulose, subsessile; plants branched mostly at the base, not so much above; upper leaves quite well 
developed. 
Seeds vertically placed in a very narrow capsule. 

Seeds glabrous. 6. G. racemosum. 

Seeds appressed-canescent. 7. G. Helleri. 

Seeds obliquely placed in a slightly broader capsule. 8. G. humile. 

1. Gayophytum ramosissimum Torr. & Gray. Much-branched Gayophytum. 

Fig. 3445. 

Gayophytum ramosissimum Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 513. 1840. 
Gayophytum ramosissimum var. deflexum Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 6: 224. 1847. 
Gayophytum ramosissimum var. obtusum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 688. 1925. 

Diffusely branched, mostly above the base, with the ultimate branches filiform, quite glabrous, 
sometimes slightly strigillose about the flowers ; plant 2-5 dm. tall. Leaves lance-linear, 1-3 cm. 
long, short-petioled, gradually reduced up the stem ; pedicels capillary, 3-5 mm. long, mostly 
spreading-deflexed ; flowers minute; sepals erect, 0.5 mm. long; petals 0.5 mm. long; stigma 
globose; capsule plump, 2-5 mm. long; seeds glabrous, 0.6 mm. long. 

Dry slopes and ridges. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; from eastern Washington and Oregon to 
northeastern California, Wyommg, Utah, and northern Arizona. Type locality: "Rocky Mountains," Blackfoot 
River. June-Aug. 

2. Gayophytum Nuttallii Torr. & Gray. Nuttall's Gayophytum. Fig. 3446. 

Gayophytum Nuttallii Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 514. 1840. 

Gayophytum ramosissimum var. strictipes Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 6:224. 1847. 

Gayophytum ramosissimum var. pygmaeum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 689. 1925. 

With habit and stature of G. ramosissimum, usually more evidently strigillose in the upper 
parts; pedicels 1-3, rarely 5 mm. long, erect; sepals 1-1.5 mm. long, reflexed in anthesis ; petals 
reddish, at least in age, 1-1.5 mm. long; capsules 5-12 mm. long, erect, usually exceeding the 
pedicels; seeds glabrous, 1-1.5 mm. long. 

Dry slopes and ridges, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Washington to southern Cailifornia, Dakota, 
and New Mexico; Chile and Argentina. Type locality: "Rocky Mountains." June— Aug. 

Gayophytum Nuttallii var. intermedium (Rydb.) Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 19: 772. 1932. (Gayophy- 
tum intermedium Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 31: 569. 1904.) Puberulence appressed; pedicels and fruit 
spreading or deflexed. Transition Zone, eastern Washington and Oregon to Wyoming and Colorado. Type 
locality: Ouray, Colorado. 

Gayophytum Nuttallii var. Abramsii Munz, loc. cit. Puberulence short and spreading; pedicels and cap- 
sules mostly erect. Dry slopes. Transition Zone; eastern Washington and Oregon to southern California, Mon- 
tana, and Nevada. Type locality: Coldwater Canyon, San Antonio Mountains, Los Angeles County, California. 

3. Gayophytum diffiisum Torr. & Gray. Diffuse Gayophytum. Fig. 3447. 

Gayophytum diffusum Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 513. 1840. 

With general habit and stature of G. Nuttallii; appressed-puberulent in upper parts ; pedicels 
2--8 mm. long, erect or divaricate ; sepals 2-3 mm. long, reflexed in anthesis ; petals white to 
pink, 2-4 mm. long ; stigma clavate-capitate ; capsules 5-12 mm. long, divaricate ; seeds glabrous, 
1—1 .25 mm. long. 

Occasional on dry slopes. Transition Zone; Washington to southern California, Montana, and Wyoming. 
Type locality: "Rocky Mountains and plains of Oregon." June-July. 

Gayophytum diffusum var. villosum Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 19: 773. 1932. Upper parts of plant with 
a short spreading pubescence. Rare, Washington to mountains of southern California and Idaho. Type locality: 
Farewell Bend, Crook County, Oregon. 

4. Gayophytum lasiospermum Greene. Hairy-seeded Gayophytum. Fig. 3448. 

Gayophytum lasiospermum Greene, Pittonia 2: 164. 1891. 

Plant 2-5 dm. high, branching freely above, with appressed puberulence in the upper parts. 
Leaves linear to lance-linear, 1-3 cm. long, entire ; pedicels 3-6 mm. long, divaricate to spreading 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 209 

or even reflexed ; sepals 1 mm. long, reflexed in anthesis ; petals white, turning to rose, 1 mm. 
long ; stigma capitate ; capsule 4-8 mm. long, torulose ; seeds strigose-canescent, 1 mm. long. 

Dry places, Transition Zone; Washington to southern California and Montana. Type locality: "near Julian, 
San Diego County, California." July-Sept. 

Gayophytum lasiospermum var. HoffmSnnii Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 19: 774. 1932. Upper parts puber- 
ulent with short spreading hairs. Occasional, dry slopes, Transition Zone; Mount Hood, Oregon, to southern 
California. Type locality: Staufler Postoffice, Mount Pinos, Ventura County, California. 

5. Gayophytum eriospermum Coville. Coville's Gayophytum. Fig. 3449. 

Gayophytum eriospermum Coville, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 4: 103. 1893. 
Gayophytum lasiospermum var. eriospermum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 689. 1925. 

Plants 2-5 dm. tall, branching freely, the branches ascending, appressed-puberulent above. 
Leaves linear to lance-linear, 5-30 mm. long, entire, 1-3 mm. wide ; pedicels 4-8 mm. long ; sepals 
3 mm. long ; petals 3-5 mm. long, white, turning to rose ; stigma capitate ; capsules torulose, 4-7 
mm. long ; seeds strigose-canescent, 1 mm. long. 

Rare, dry places, Transition Zone; Oregon and Idaho to southern Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality: 
east fork 'of Kaweah River, Tulare County, California. Aug-Sept. 

6. Gayophytum racemosum Terr. & Gray. Black-foot Gayophytum. Fig. 3450. 

Gayophytum racemosum Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 514. 1840. 

Plants low, 1-2 dm. high, subsimple to repeatedly branched from the base, the ultimate 
branches leafv and relatively simple, strigillose or subglabrous. Leaves linear to linear-oblanceo- 
late, 1-3 cm. long; pedicels from almost none to 2 mm. long, erect; sepals 0.5 mm. long; petals 
white, turning red, scarcely 1 mm. long; capsule subterete, narrowly linear, not torulose, erect, 
6-14 mm. long ; seeds erect, glabrous, 1 mm long. 

Dry slopes and flats. Transition Zone; Washington to southern California, Montana, Colorado, and Ari- 
zona, type locality: "Near Black- Foot River," Idaho. July-Aug. 

Gayophytum racemosum var. caesium (Torr. & Gray) Munz. Amer. Journ. Bot. 19: 776. 1932. {Gayophy- 
tum caesium Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 514. 1840.) Whole plant, or at least the upper portion, with 
minute short spreading hairs. Not common. Transition Zone; Washington to central California and Nevada. 
Type locality: near Walla Walla, Washington. 

7. Gayophytum Helleri Rydb. Heller's Gayophytum. Fig. 3451. 

Gayophytum Helleri Rydb, Bull. Torrey Club 40: 65. 1913. 
Gayophytum Helleri var. erosulatum Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 689. 1925. 

Plants 1-3 dm. high, the stems with strict nearly erect branches, puberulent with short 
spreading hairs. Leaves linear, 5-20 mm. long, soft hirsutulous ; sepals and petals scarcely 
1 mm. long ; fruiting pedicels about 1 mm. long ; capsule narrowly linear, not torulose, 8-10 mm. 
long, subsessile, hirsutulous ; seeds 1 mm. long, appressed-canescent. 

Occasional, dry places, Transition Zone; Washington to southern California and Idaho. Type locality: 
Forest, Nez Perces' County, Idaho. July-Aug. 

Gayophytum Helleri var. glabrum Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 19: 777. 1932. Plant quite glabrous. Occa- 
sional, Washington to central California, Idaho, and Colorado. Type locality: Silver City, Owyhee County. Idaho. 

8. Gayophytum hdmile Juss. Low Gayophytum. Fig. 3452. 

Gayophytum humile Juss. Ann. Sci. Nat. 25: 18. pi. 4. 1832. 
Gayophytum pumilum S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 18: 193. 1883. 

Low, 5-15 cm. high, glabrous, branched from base, the branches relatively simple. Leaves 
linear to lance-Hnear, 1-3 cm. long, entire, on short petioles, upper ones somewhat reduced, but 
quite well developed; pedicels scarcely evident; sepals 1 mm. long; petals white, 1 mm. long; 
capsule flattened, not torulose, erect, 10-15 mm. long; seeds obliquely placed m capsules, 0.6 
mm. long. 

Occasional, dry places, Transition Zone; Washington, and Idaho, to southern California; also Chile. Type 
locality: Chile. July-Aug. 

Gayophytum humile var. hirtellum Munz, Amer. Journ. Bot. 19: 778. 1932. Plant puberulent with short 
spreading hairs. Rare and local. Transition Zone, eastern central California and adjacent Nevada. Type locality: 
Snow Valley, Ormsby County, Nevada. 

10. GAURA L. Sp. PI. 347. 1753. 

Caulescent herbs, annual to perennial. Leaves alternate. Flowers white or pink, in 
terminal racemes or spikes. Hypanthium narrow and short ; sepals 4. deciduous. Petals 4, 
clawed. Stamens 8, usually with scale-like appendage at base of each filament. Ovary 
4-celled. usually with single ovule in each cell. Stigma 4-lobed, with cup-like border at 
base. Capsule nut-like, obovoid, nearly or quite indehiscent, 1-4 seeded. [Name Greek, 
meaning proud, some species being showy.] 

A genus of 18 species of the temperate parts of North America and Argentina. Type species, Gaura biennis L. 

Anthers oval, attached near middle; leaves 1-3 cm. wide, 5-10 cm. long; plants 5-20 dm. tall, biennial; fruit almost 
equally 8-ribbed, glabrous. '• G- parviflora _ 

Anthers linear, attached near the base; leaves 0.3-1 cm. wide, 1-4 cm. long; plants 1-5 dm. tall, perennial; fruit 
4-angled, pubescent. 2. G. cocctnea. 



210 



ONAGRACEAE 




3444. Oenothera heterochroma 

3445. Gayophytum ramosissimum 

3446. Gayophytum Nuttallii 



3450 

3447. Gayophytum difFusuro 

3448. Gayophytum lasiospermum 

3449. Gayophytum eriospermum 



3450. Gayophytum racemosum 

3451. Gayophytum Helleri 

3452. Gayophytum humile 



EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY 211 

1. Gaura parviflora Dougl. Small-flowered Gaura. Fig. 3453. 

Gaura parviflora Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 208. 1834. 

Erect biennials, 5-20 dm. tall, simple or with few erect branches, silky-pilose, with long 

spreading hairs on stems, veins and leaf-margins, as well as with minute, close-set, glandular 

pubescence. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, almost sessile, repand-dentate to subentire, 3-10 cm. long, 

1-3 cm. wide, the general leaf-surface finely pubescent ; leaves of inflorescence mostly reduced 

to minute linear bracts ; spikes 1-3 dm. long ; flowers numerous, quite glabrous ; hypanthium 

2 mm. long ; sepals 2-3 mm. long ; petals 2-4 mm. long, reddish ; fruit fusiform, 6-8 mm. long, 

almost equally 8-ribbed, quite glabrous ; seeds brown, 1 mm. long. 

Disturbed and waste places, Transition Zone; eastern Washington to eastern Oregon and the Mississippi 
Valley. Type locality: "sandy banks of the Walla-wallah River." June— Aug. 

2. Gaura coccinea (Nutt.) Pursh. Scarlet Gaura. Fig. 3454. 

Malva coccinea Nutt. ex Eraser's Cat. no. 51. 1813. 
Gaura coccinea Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 733. 1814. 

Stems several to many, branched so as to form a bushy plant, 1-S dm. tall, perennial, usually 
strigose-canescent. Leaves numerous, sessile, oblong-lanceolate to linear, entire to repand- 
dentate, sessile, acute to obtuse, 1-3 cm. long, 3-10 mm. wide ; floral bracts linear to lanceo- 
late, 3-6 mm. long, persistent; spikes short, 1-2 dm. long; hypanthium 6-10 mm. long; sepals 
6-9 mm. long ; petals pink or red, turning scarlet, 5-8 mm. long ; stamens equal, almost as long 
as petals ; pistil about same length ; fruits canescent, short-obovoid, 4-angled in upper half, 5-7 
mm. long ; seeds 2 mm. long. 

Dry slopes, Upper Sonoran Zone; Providence Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, to South Da- 
kota and Texas. Naturalized at Brea, southern California. Type locality: "Upper Louisiana," collected by Brad- 
bury. April-June. 

Gaura coccinea var. glabra (Lehm.) Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 518. 1840. {Gaura glabra Lehm. in 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer 1 : 209. 1834.) Plant nearly or quite glabrous on stem and leaves; leaves as in the species 
but more wavy; hypanthium strigillose. Montana southward to the eastern Mojave Desert. California, and Ari- 
zona and eastward to Nebraska and Texas. Type locality: "About Carlton-House on the Saskatchawan." 

Gaura sinuata Nutt. ex Ser. in DC. Prod. 3: 44. 1828. Glabrate, branched in lower portion; leaves 2-S 
cm. long, oblanceolate to oblong-linear, sinuate-dentate; floral bracts lanceolate to ovate with narrow tip, cadu- 
cous; spikes on long naked peduncles; flowers quite large; petals white becoming red, 6-8 mm. long. Native of 
Texas and adjacent regions; occasionally naturalized in California, in San Mateo County and in southern Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: "In Arkanza et Red-River." 

Gaura villosa Torr. Ann. Lye. N.Y. 2: 200. 1828. Perennial soft-villous with long hairs; petals white, 

becominsf red. about 8 mm. long; floral bracts ovate to ovate-lanceolate, caducous; stipe-like liase of fruit 3-6 mm. 
long. Kansas to Texas and New Mexico. Locally established in Los Angeles County, California. Type locality: 
"Sources of the Canadian." 

Gaura odorata Sesse ex Lag. Gen. & Sp. PI. 14. 1816. Winter annual or biennial with short-hairy 
stems; sepals 10-13 mm. long; petals white or pink, becoming red, 7-8 mm. long; floral bracts lance-ovate, cadu- 
cous. Texas to central Mexico. Locally established in southern California from Ventura County to San Diego 
County. Type locality: "Hab. in N.[ova] H.[ispania]." 

11. HETEROGAURA Rothrock, Proc. Amer. Acad. 6: 350. 1864. 

Caulescent annual herbs. Leaves alternate. Flowers pink, in terminal spicate racemes. 
Hypanthium short, obconic ; sepals 4, deciduous. Petals 4, clawed. Stamens 8, erect, the 
4 epipetalous ones sterile ; filaments not appendag-ed. Stigma discoid, entire, without any 
basal cup-like border. Ovary 4-cened, with 1 ovule in each cell. Fruit 2-4-celled, 1-2- 
seeded. [Name Greek, different, and Gaura.'] 

A monotypic genus found only in California. 

1. Heterogaura heterandra (Torr.) Coville. California Gaura. Fig. 3455. 

Gaura heterandra Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 87. 1857. 

Heterogaura calif arnica Rothrock, Proc. Amer. Acad. 6: 354. 1864. 

Heterogaura heterandra Coville, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 4: 106. 1893. 

Annual, stem erect, simple or paniculately few-branched, 1-4 dm. tall, minutely puberulent 

throughout. Leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate, entire to remotely and shallowly denticulate, the 

blades 2—5 cm. long, about half as wide, on petioles 5-10 mm. long; pedicels 1-1.5 mm. long; 

hypanthium 2-3 mm. long ; sepals about the same ; petals pink, becoming lavender, spatulate, 

3-5 mm. long ; alternate stamens fertile, 2 mm. long, opposite ones sterile, 1 mm. long ; capsule 

ridged, often triquetrous, 3 mm. long; seeds slender, 2 mm. long. 

Shaded slopes at 1,500-3,000 feet altitude, Upper Sonoran Zone; western base of the Sierra Nevada from 
Placer County to San Bernardino County, California. Type locality: "Mokelumne Hill," California. May-June. 

12. CIRCAEA L. Sp. PI. 9. 1753. 

Low, slender perennial herbs with subterranean rootstocks. Leaves opposite, thin, 
petioled. Flowers small, paniculately disposed in racemes. Hypanthium short, deciduous 
and with a ring-like disk within; sepals 2, reflexed. Petals 2. white, notched. Stamens 2, 
alternate with the petals. Ovary 1-2 celled, each cell 1-ovuled. Fruit nut-like, 1-2-seeded, 
obovoid, indehiscent, usually with hooked hairs. [Named for Circe, the enchantress.] 

A genus of about 8 species, from the northern hemisphere. Type species, Circaea lutetiana L. 

Plant 1-3 dm. tall; leaves cordate, sharply and coarsely dentate. 1. C. alpina. 

Plant 3-6 dm. tall; leaves usually rounded at base, sinuately denticulate. 2. C. pacifica. 



212 HALORAGIDACEAE 

1. Circaea alpina L. Small Enchanter's Nightshade. Fig. 3456. 

Circaea alpina L. Sp. PI. 9. 1753. 

Erect, simple or branching, glabrous or puberulent above, 1-3 dm. tall. Leaf-blades cordate, 
1.5-5 cm. long, almost or quite as wide, acute or acuminate, coarsely dentate, on petioles 1.5- 
3.5 cm. long; pedicels Z-A mm. long, reflexed in fruit; sepals and petals about 1 mm. long; 
capsule narrowly obovoid, 1-celled, 2 mm. long, covered with weak soft hooked hairs. 

Cold and moist woods, Boreal Zones; Alaska to Washington east to the Atlantic Coast; also Eurasia. Type 
locality: Europe. July-Aug. 

2. Circaea pacifica Aschers. & Magnus. Pacific Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Fig. 3457. 

Circaea pacifica Aschers. & Magnus, Bot. Zeit. 29: 392. 1871. 

Circaea alpina f. pacifica G. N. Jones, Univ. Wash. Pub. Biol. 5: 195. 1936. 

Stem from a short rootstock, simple, 2-4 dm. tall; plant glabrous. Leaf-blades ovate, 
sometimes orbicular, usually rounded at the base, sometimes cordate, entire or minutely denticu- 
late or obscurely repand-denticulate, 2-6 cm. long, acuminate; petioles 2-3 cm. long; racemes 
bractless; sepals and petals about 1 mm. long; capsule narrowly obovoid, 1-celled, 1.5-2 mm. 
long, with hooked hairs. 

Deep woods, Transition Zone; British Columbia to San Bernardino County, California, and the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Type locality: near San Francisco, California. June-Aug. 

Family 107. HALORAGIDACEAE. 
Water-milfoil Family. 

Perennial, mainly aquatic herbs, with alternate or verticillate leaves, the sub- 
merged ones often pectinate-pinnatifid, or pinnately divided into fine capillary divi- 
sions. Flowers perfect or unisexual, axillary, solitary or clustered, or in interrupted 
spikes. Calyx of 2-A sepals, or reduced to a narrow ring on the rim of the adnate 
hypanthium. Petals when present 2-4, small. Stamens 1-8. Ovary inferior, 1-4- 
celled ; styles 1-4. Fruit a nutlet or drupe-like, angular, ribbed or winged, with 2-4 
1-seeded carpels. Endosperm fleshy ; cotyledons minute. 

A family of 7 genera and about 100 species, of wide geographical distribution. 

Submerged leaves pinnatifid, the cmersed ones entire or toothed; petals 4 in staminate flowers; stamens 4-8; ovary 

2-4-celled. 1- Myrtophyllum. 

Leaves all simple and entire; petals none; stamen 1; ovary 1-celled. 2. Hippuris. 

1. MYRIOPHYLLUM [Vaill.] L. Sp. PI. 992. 1753. 

Aquatic or terrestrial herbs, with verticillate or alternate leaves, the emersed ones 
entire, dentate, or pectinate, the submerged ones pinnatifid into capillary segments. Flowers 
usually monoecious, 2-bracted, in the upper axils, often forming an interrupted spike, the 
upper ones generally staminate, the lower pistillate, and the intermediate often perfect. 
Staminate flowers with a very short hypanthium, 2-4 sepals, 2-4 petals and 4-8 stamens. 
Hypanthium of pistillate flowers 4-grooved. Sepals 4, minute, or sometimes reduced to a 
mere ring. Ovary 2-4-celled ; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous ; style 4, short, often plumose. 
Fruit splitting when ripe into 4 indehiscent 1-seeded bony carpels. [Name from the 
Greek myrios, numberless, and phyllon, leaf.] 

About 20 species, of wide geographical distribution. Type species M yriophyllutn spicatum L. 
Petals fugacious; stamens 8; flower-verticils in a terminal emersed interrupted spike; floral leaves reduced to 
bracts, shorter or but slightly exceeding the fruits. 

Bracts entire or the lower serrate, spatulate-obovate. 1. M. exalbescens. 

Bracts pectinate. 2. M. verticillatum. 

Petals tardily deciduous; stamens 4; flower-verticils in the axils of the linear pectinate emersed leaves, these 
much exceeding the flowers. 3. M. htppurtoides. 

1. Myriophyllum exalbescens Fernald. American Milfoil. Fig. 3458. 

Myriophyllum exalbescens Fernald, Rhodora 21: 120. 1919. 

Myriophyllum spicatum var. exalbescens Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 691. 1925. 

Stems simple or branching, 3-9 dm. high, submerged leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, commonly 
12-30 mm. long, pinnately divided into 7-11 pairs of capillary segments, the rachis scarcely 
thicker than the capillary segments ; flowers in emersed almost naked spicate verticils ; floral 
bracts rarely equaling the fruit, spatulate-obovate or cochleiform, the lower serrate, the upper 
entire ; petals fugacious, oblong-obovate, concave, 2 . 5 mm. long ; stamens 8, about 1 . 5 mm. long ; 
fruit subglobose, 2.5-3 mm. long; carpels rounded on the back, smooth or rugulose. 

Ponds and quiet streams, mainly Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; throughout the Pacific States and east 
across the continent, closely related to the Old World M. spicatum L. Type locality: York River, Quebec. July- 
Sept. 



GINSENG FAMILY 213 

2. Myriophyllum verticillatum L. Whorl-leaved Milfoil. Fig, 3459. 

Myriophyltiim verticillatum L. Sp. PI. 992. 1753. 

Aquatic herb, the stems simple or branched. Submerged leaves flaccid, in crowded whorls 
of threes or fours, pinnately divided into fine capillary segments, the rachis usually flattened and 
obviously broader than the segments; spikes 5-15 cm. long, emersed; floral leaves reduced to 
bracts, shorter or little exceeding the flowers, ovate, acute, pectinate ; petals or the staminate 
flowers 4, purplish, fugacious ; stamens 8 ; fruit subglobose, 2-3 mm. long. 

Ponds and quiet streams, mainly Canadian and Transition Zones; in the Pacific States ranging from Wash- 
ington to central California, thence across the continent; also Eurasia. Type locality: Europe. May-July. 

3. Myriophyllum hippurioides Nutt. Western Milfoil. Fig. 3460. 

Myriophyllum hippurioides Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 530. 1840. 

Aquatic herb, the stems simple or branching. Leaves in whorls of 4 or 5, the submerged 
ones 15-30 mm. long, pinnately dissected into capillary segments; emersed floral leaves linear 
to linear-lanceolate, much exceeding the flowers, pectinate or the upper entire ; petals greenish 
white, tardily deciduous ; fruit 2 mm. long, about 1 mm. thick ; carpels flattened on the sides and 
nearly smooth ; styles very short. 

Ponds, Upper Sonoran Zone to Canadian Zone; southern Washington to central California. Apparently most 
abundant in the Pacific States along the lower Columbia River. Type locality: "Ponds of the Wahlamet," prob- 
ably in the vicinity of Sauvies Island, Oregon. May-July. 

Myriophyllum elatinoides Gaudich. Ann. Sci. Nat. 5: 105. 1825. Specimens collected in the Deschutes 
River, Oregon, are very close if not identical with this species of South America, New Zealand and Tasmania. 
They have fugacious petals, 8 stamens; bracts 5-10 mm. long, lowest pectinate, the central serrate, and the upper 
entire, all exceeding the flowers; fruit ovoid, carpels smooth. 

2. HIPPURIS L. Sp. PI. 4. 1753. 

Aquatic or terrestrial herbs with simple erect stems and simple entire verticillate 
leaves. Flowers small, axillary, perfect or sometimes unisexual. Sepals minute, entire. 
Petals none. Stamen 1, inserted on the anterior edge of the calyx. Style filiform, stig- 
matic, its whole length along one side and lying in the groove of the anther. Fruit 1 -celled, 
1-seeded, drupe-like. [Name from the Greek hippos, horse, and oura, tail.] 

A monotypic genus of wide geographical distribution. 

1. Hippuris vulgaris L. Mare's-tail. Fig. 3461. 

Hippuris vulgaris L. Sp. PI. 4. 1753. 

Stems simple, glabrous, 2-6 dm. high, completely submerged or more commonly emersed 
for 10-15 cm., the base rooting at the nodes. Leaves verticillate, 6-12 in a whorl, linear or 
lanceolate, sessile, 5-25 mm. long, 1-3 mm. wide, acute at apex; anther about 1 mm. long; 
filament very short and stout ; fruit 2 mm. long, ellipsoid-obovoid ; stigma persistent. 

Ponds and streams, mainly Canadian and Transition Zones; Alaska to southern California on the Pacific 
Coast, east across the continent; also Eurasia and Patagonia. Type locality: in Europe. July-Sept. 

Hippuris montana Ledeb. ex Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 1: 71. pi. 86. fig. 181. 1834. Slender, 2-8 cm. high, 
forming mats, glabrous. Leaves nl^.^■tIv 4-6. linear, sessile, 4-8 mm. long; anther 0.3 mm. _ long, much shorter 
than the filament. Forming mats in wet alpine meadows, Hudsonian Zone; Alaska to Washington, where it has 
been collected on Stevens Pass, Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, and the Olympic Mountains. Considered by some 
as a form of Hippuris vulgaris L. Type locality: "Unalaschka." 



Family 108. ARALlACEAE. 
Ginseng Family. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate, verticillate, or rarely opposite leaves. 
Flowers perfect or polygamous, variously clustered. Hypanthium adnate to the 
ovary. Sepals often minute or sometimes absent. Petals usually 5, valvate or slightly 
imbricate, inserted on the margin of the hypanthium. Stamens as many as the 
petals and alternate with them, rarely wanting, inserted on the epigynous disk ; fila- 
ments filiform or short ; anthers introrse. Ovary 1- to several-celled ; styles as many 
as the ovary cells; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous, anatropous. Fruit a berry or 
drupe. Seeds flattened or 3-angled, with thin testa, copious endosperm and a small 
embryo. 

About 50 genera and 475 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. 

Leaves decompound; styles 5; our species smooth perennial herbs. 1. Aralta. 

Leaves simple, palmately lobed; styles 2; our species a spinescent shrub. 2. Oplopanax. 



214 



ARALIACEAE 




3458 





^: 







^^ -L 





M5S 

3453. Gaura parviflora 

3454. Gaura coccinea 

3455. Heterogaura heterandra 



3460 

3456. Circaea alpina 

3457. Circaea pacifica 

3458. Myriophyllum exalbescens 



3461 

3459. Myriophyllum verticillatum 

3460. Myriophyllum hippurioides 

3461. Hippuris vulgaris 



CARROT FAMILY 215 

1. ARALIA [Tourn.] L. Sp. PL 273. 1753. 

Perennial herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate pinnately or ternately decompound 
leaves and sheathing petioles. Flowers white or greenish, borne in racemose, corymbose 
or paniculate umbels. Pedicels jointed below the flowers. Sepals 5 or obsolete. Petals 5, 
spreading, obtuse with short inflexed points. Stamens 5. Disk depressed. Ovary 5-celled. 
Fruit a small berry. [Name unexplained.] 

About 30 species, natives of North America and Asia. Type species, Aralia racemosa L. 

Umbels numerous, paniculate. 1- ^ calif ornica. 

Umbels 1-7, corymbose. 2. A. nudicauhs. 

1. Aralia californica S. Wats. California Spikenard. Fig. 3462. 

Aralia californica S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 144. 1876. 

Aralia californica var. acximinata S. Wats, ex Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 271. 1898. 

Perennial herb from large roots with milky juice; the stems simple, stout, 1-3 m. high. 
Leaves ternate, then pinnately 3-5-foliolate, glabrous; leaflets 5-25 cm. long, ovate to elliptic 
ovate, acuminate at apex, subcordate at base, serrate ; panicle 30-45 cm. long ; glandular-tomen- 
tulose, umbels numerous, many-flowered ; pedicels 1-2 cm. long ; involucral bracts, several, small, 
linear'; sepals minute ; petals scarcely 2 mm. long ; berry red, becoming black in ripening, 4-5 mm. 
broad. 

Stream banks and moist woods, Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; southwestern Oregon, south in the 
Sierra Nevada, and the Coast Ranges to southern California. Type locality: northern California. July-Sept. 

2. Aralia nudicaulis L. Wild Sarsaparilla. Fig. 3463. 

Aralia nudicaulis L. Sp. PI. 274. 1753. 

Perennial from an elongated rootstock, the leaf and peduncle arising from a very short stem, 
sheathed at the base by thin dry scales. Leaves ternate, the primary divisions slender-stalked, 
pinnately 3-5-foliolate; petioles erect. 15-30 cm. long; leaflets oval to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
5-10 cm. long, finely serrate; umbels usually 3; involucre none; flowers greenish, 3 mm. broad; 
berry globose, 5-6 mm. in diameter, purple-black. 

Moist woods. Transition and Boreal Zones; in the Pacific States known only from Mount Carlton, Spokane 
County, Washington, extending from there eastward to Newfoundland, Colorado, Missouri, and Georgia. Type 
locality': Virginia. May-June. 

2. OPLOPANAX (Torr. & Gray) Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Batav. 1 : 16. 1863. 

A densely prickly shrub, with large palmately lobed leaves. Flowers in racemose or 
paniculate umbels, small, greenish white, the rays subtended by laciniate bracts. Sepals 
obsolete. Petals 5, valvate. Stamens 5, with filiform filaments. Ovary 2-3-celled ; styles 2. 
Fruit a berry, laterally compressed, bicarpellate. [Name Greek, meaning weapon, and 
Panax, a generic name used in the Araliaceae.] 

A monotypic genus of western North America and northeastern Asia. 

1. Oplopanax horridum (J. E. Smith) Miq. Devil's Club. Fig. 3464. 

Panax horridum J. E. Smith in Rees, Cyclop. 26: no. 10. 1813. 
Echinopanax horridum Cooper, Pacif. R. Rep. 12: 31. 1860. (Nomen nudum) 
Oplopanax horridum Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Batav. 1: 16. 1863. 
Fatsia horrida Benth. & Hook ex S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 1: 273. 1876. 
Ricinophy Hum horridum 'iic\& Si. 'iAzchr. Bot. Gaz. 61 : 45. 1916. 

Ill-scented, densely prickly shrub, 2-4 m. high. Leaves rounded in outline, 15-50 cm. broad, 
cordate at base with narrow sinus, palmately lobed, the lobes acute and irregularly serrate, the 
petioles and veins prickly ; inflorescence terminal, 10-30 cm. long, wooly-pubescent and prickly ; 
peduncles subtended by fimbriate bracts ; stamens well exceeding the ovate petals ; berry scarlet, 
4-5 mm. long. 

Streams and moist woods, Canadian and Humid Transition Zones; Alaska to Crater Lake Oregon, east to 
Montana, and Isle Royale, Lake Superior; also in Japan. Type locality: Nootka Sound. May-July. 



Family 109. UMBELLIFERAE.^:^ 
Carrot Family 

Herbs with usually hollow stems and alternate compound or rarely simple leaves, 
the petioles commonly dilated at base. Stipules when present minute. Inflorescence 

• Text contributed by Mildred Esther Mathias and Lincoln Constance. 



216 UMBELLIFERAE 

a compound or simple umbel or rarely a head, the umbels and umbellets usually 
involucrate or involucellate. Flowers small, epigynous, perfect or often polygamous. 
Hypanthium completely adnate to the ovary. Sepals usually 5, evident or often 
obsolete. Petals 5, inserted on the margin of the hypanthium, their tips often in- 
flexed. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals, inserted on the margin of the epigynous 
disk; filaments filiform; anthers versatile. Ovary bicarpellate, 2-celled; styles 2, 
distinct, slender, usually borne on a stylopodium ; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous, 
anatropous. Fruit dry, usually ribbed or winged, the two carpels separating at 
maturity along the plane of their contiguous faces (commissure), either flattened 
laterally, that is at right angles to the commissure, or dorsally, that is parallel with 
the commissure, or sometimes terete ; the 2 mericarps attached to a carpophore ; 
pericarp usually containing oil-tubes between the ribs and on the commissural side. 
Seed generally adnate to the pericarp ; endosperm cartilaginous ; embryo small. 

About 250 genera and 2,000 species, widely distributed geographically. 

Inflorescence a distinct umbel, more or less spreading, never capitate. 
Leaves simple; umbels simple or proliferous. 

Ovary and fruit glabrous; foliage glabrous. 

Leaves with a definite ovate to orbicular blade. 1. Hydrocotyle. 

Leaves reduced to hollow cylindrical jointed phyllodes. 2. Lilaeopsis. 

Ovary and fruit covered with stellate hairs; foliage more or less stellate-pubescent. 

3. Bowlesia. 
Leaves variously compound; umbels irregularly or perfectly compound. 
Ovary and fruit armed with bristles, spines or tubercles. 

Ovary and fruit variously armed with spines, uncinate bristles or tubercles. 

Plants biennial or perennial; flowers perfect and staminate. 4. Sanicula. 

Plants annual; flowers all perfect. 

Plants glabrous; leaf-divisions more or less elongate, filiform. S. Apiastrum. 
Plants more or less pubescent; leaf-divisions shorter. 

Involucre of conspicuous foliaceous bracts; leaves 3-4-pinnatisect ; fruit bristly only 

on the ribs. 6. Caucalis. 

Involucre absent or of linear bracts; leaves pinnate to 3-pinnatisect; fruit bristly or 
tuberculate throughout. 
Fruit not beaked; bractlets longer than the pedicels. 7. Torilis. 

Fruit beaked; bractlets shorter than the pedicels. 8. Anthriscus. 

Ovary and fruit armed with bristles; bristles never uncinate. 

Fruit linear or linear-oblong, several times longer than broad; oil-tubes absent or obscure. 

Plants annual; fruit with an elongated beak several times longer than the body. 

9. Scandix. 

Plants perennial; fruit not beaked or with a beak much shorter than the body. 

10. Osmorhisa. 

Fruit oblong to oblong-ovoid, not more than twice as long as broad; oil-tubes present. 

Leaves glabrous; fruit armed with unequal subulate bristles. 11. Ammosclinum. 

Leaves more or less pubescent; fruit armed with barbed bristles. 12. Daucus. 
Ovary and fruit not armed, sometimes pubescent. 

Ribs of the fruit not prominently winged; fruit terete in cross-section or somewhat laterally com- 
pressed. 
Flowers white, greenish or pinkish, rarely purple. 

Fruit elongate, several times longer than broad. 10. Osmorhiza. 

Fruit orbicular to oblong, not more than twice as long as broad. 
Plants annual. 

Petals conspicuously unequal; sepals prominent; fruit subglobose. 

13. Coriandrum. 

Petals equal; sepals absent; fruit ovoid to oblong. 14. Apium. 

Plants perennial or biennial. 

Plants mostly tall, caulescent; involucre usually present. 

Bracts divided into filiform segments, closely reflexed. 

16. Ammi. 

Bracts entire or toothed, spreading or rarely reflexed, sometimes wanting. 

Stems purple-dotted; oil-tubes absent or obscure; leaves decompound 

into small segments. 17. Conium. 

Stems not purple-dotted; oil-tubes present; leaves pinnately or ternate- 

pinnately divided, the segments mostly larger. 

Leaves all once pinnate. 

Ribs filiform, pericarp forming a continuous corky covering; 
stylopodium conical. 18. Berula. 

Ribs corky, equal; stylopodium depressed. 

19. Slum. 

Leaves pinnately or ternate-pinnately divided or the uppermost 
once pinnate. 
Ribs not corky; stylopodium prominent; plants of dry ground 
or moist meadows. 
Leaf-divisions few, mostly entire; ribs filiform. 
Biennials from taproots. 20. Carutn. 

Perennials from tuberous or fusiform fascicled roots. 

21. Perideridia. 



CARROT FAMILY 217 

Leaf-divisions many, incised or serrate; ribs prominent or 

somewhat winged. 22. Ligusticum. 

Ribs corky; stylopodium absent or low; plants of marshes or 

stream banks. 
Styles short, less than half the length of the fruit; fruit 

ovoid to subglobose. 23. Cicuta. 

Styles long, about half the length of the fruit; fruit sub- 

cylindric. 24. Oenanthe. 

Plants low, acaulescent; involucre absent. 

Plants pubescent. 

Pedicels of the flowers subequal; sepals not rigid. 

25. Podistera. 

Pedicels of the sterile flowers longer than or equaling the fruit; sepals 
rigid. 26. Oreonana. 

Plants glabrous. 

Fruit orbicular, the ribs 7, corky; leaves coriaceous. 

27. Rhysopterus. 
Fruit linear-oblong to oblong; leaves thin. 

Ribs unequal, the lateral conspicuously corky-thickened. 

28. Orogenia. 

Ribs equal, filiform. 31. Tauschia. 

Flowers yellow. 

Involucel absent; leaf-divisions filiform; plants with anise odor. 29. Foenicnlum. 
Involucel present; leaf-divisions linear to ovate; plants without anise odor. 
Basal leaves simple; stem-leaves simple, ternate or quinate. 30. Zisia. 
Basal and stem-leaves pinnate, ternate or pinnately or ternately compound. 
Biennials; stylopodium low, conical. 31. Tauschia. 

Perennials; stylopodium none. 15. Petroselinum. 

Some or all of the ribs of the fruit winged; fruit more or less dorsally compressed. 
Lateral ribs winged, dorsal ribs filiform. 

Marginal flowers of the umbel with subequal petals; plants lower, mostly slender. 
Leaves simply pinnate; leaf-divisions mostly ovate. 

Flowers white; aquatic herbs from fascicled tubers. 32. OxypoHs. 

Flowers yellow; plants not aquatic; roots fusiform. 33. Pastinaca. 

Leaves pinnately or ternate-pinnately divided; leaf-divisions mostly linear to filiform. 

Plants annual; stems leafy; leaf-divisions filiform; plants with anise odor. 

34. Anethum. 

Plants perennial; acaulescent or short-caulescent; leaf-divisions mostly broader; 
plants without anise odor. 35. Lomatium. 

Marginal flowers of the umbel with radiately enlarged petals; tall stout plants. 

36. lieracleum. 
Lateral, dorsal and intermediate ribs winged or prominent. 

Plants tall; stems leafy. 

Umbellets not capitate. 

Coarse plants; leaf-divisions large, ovate to lanceolate, serrate, toothed or entire. 

37. Angelica. 

Slender plants; leaf-divisions small, oblong, incised or deeply toothed. 

38. Conioseltnum. 

Umbellets capitate. -59. Sphciiosciudimn. 

Plants mostly low, acaulescent. 

Leaf-divisions broad, 0.5-3 cm. wide; maritime. 40. Clchnia. 

Leaf-divisions narrow, mostly less than 0.5 cm. wide; desert and mountain areas. 
Plants mostly caulescent; bractlets usually inconspicuous; sepals prominent. 

41. Pteryxia. 

Plants acaulescent; bractlets usually conspicuous; sepals not prominent. 

42. Cymopterus. 

Inflorescence capitate, not umbellate. ' 

Fruit winged, not squamose. '*2. Cymopterus. 

Fruit not winged, ribless, variously squamose. '*3. Eryngtum. 

1. HYDROCOTYLE L. Sp. PI. 234. 1753. 

Low perennials growing in or near water, with slender creeping stems. Leaves orbicu- 
lar, peltate or reniform; umbels simple or proliferous; sepals mmute or obsolete. Petals 
small, white. Fruit orbicular to ellipsoid, strongly flattened laterally. Carpel with 5 
primary ribs. Oil-tubes wanting or obscure. [Greek, meaning water-cup. J 

About 75 species, of wide distribution. Type species, Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. 

Leaves peltate; ribs of the fruit broad, thick and corky. 

T /J • 1 k 1 \. H. umbellata. 

Inflorescence a simple umbel. 

r a • i . 1 I . 2. H. vertictllata. 

Inflorescence an interrupted spike. 

Leaves roundish-reniform, not peltate; ribs of the fruit filiform. 3. H. ranunctiloides. 

1. Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Umbellate or Many-flowered Marsh-pennywort. 

Fig. 3465. 

Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Sp. PI. 234. 1753. 

Stems creeping, from tuberiferous rootstocks. Leaves orbicular-peltate, crenate, the petioles 
slender, erect ; peduncles often equaling or exceeding the leaves ; umbels many-flowered, simple 



218 UMBELLIFERAE 

or rarely slightly proliferous ; pedicels 2-25 mm. long ; fruit 1-2 mm. long, 2-3 mm. broad, deeply 
notched at apex ; pericarp thin between the thick and corky ribs. 

Borders of marshes and streams, Sonoran Zones; Oregon to southern California to the Atlantic States, south 
to Mexico and South America; also southern Africa. Type locality: "in America," probably Virginia. March- 
July. 

2. Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. Whorled Marsh-pennywort. Fig. 3466. 

Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. Diss. Hydroc. 2. 1798. 

Hydrocotyle cuneata Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 28. 1900. 

Stems creeping in mud, from tuberiferous rootstocks. Leaves orbicular-peltate, crenate, the 
petioles slender, ascending; peduncles about equaling the leaves; inflorescence an interrupted, 
simple, once or twice bifurcate, rarely trifurcate or quadrifurcate, spike ; fruit sessile or subses- 
sile, shallowly notched at apex, narrowly rounded to abruptly cuneate at base. 

Streams and low ground, Sonoran Zones; central and southern California to the Atlantic States, south to 
Mexico; also Bermuda, Jamaica and West Indies. Type locality: probably "America." April-Sept. 

Hydrocotyle verticillata var. triradiata (A. Rich) Fernald, Rhodora 41: 437. 1939. (Hydrocotyle pro- 
lifera Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 1: 15. 1854.) Peduncles slender, usually equaling or exceeding the petioles; 
inflorescence an interrupted simple, rarely branched, spike; fruit pedicellate, pedicels 1-10 mm. long. Borders of 
marshes and streams, Sonoran Zones; San Francisco Bay to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, Cali- 
fornia, east to the Atlantic States, and south to South America and West Indies. Type locality: "Mexico." 

3. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. Floating Marsh-pennywort. Fig. 3467. 

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. Suppl. 177. 1781. 

Stems floating or creeping in mud. Leaves 5-80 mm. broad, roundish reniform, not peltate, 
cordate at base, S-6-lobed and crenate, the petioles elongate, weak ; peduncles much shorter than 
the petioles, recurved in fruit; umbels simple, capitate, 5-10-flowered ; pedicels 1-3 mm. long; 
fruit suborbicular, 2-3 mm. broad ; pericarp thick, the ribs filiform, obscure. 

Ponds, marshes and slow streams, mainly Sonoran Zones; Washington to Lower California, east to Pennsyl- 
vania, and south to South America; also southern Europe. Type locality: Mexico. March-Aug. 

2. LILAEOPSIS Greene, Pittonia 2:192. (Sept.) 1891. 

Small, tufted, glabrous perennials from long creeping rhizomes. Leaves reduced to 
fistulose, septate phyllodes borne at the nodes. Inflorescence of simple, axillary, few- 
flowered umbels on slender peduncles. Involucre of a few small bracts. Pedicels slender, 
ascending to reflexed and pendulous. Flowers white; sepals small; stylopodium obsolete; 
styles short. Fruit globose or ovoid, slightly flattened laterally if at all ; dorsal ribs fili- 
form, the lateral very thick and corky next to the commissure. [Name Greek, meaning 
Lilaea-like.j 

A genus of world-wide distribution, comprising 4 or 5 closely related species. Type species, Hydrocotyle 
chinensis L. 

1. Lilaeopsis occidentalis Coult. & Rose. Western Lilaeopsis. Fig. 3468. 

Lilaeopsis occidentalis Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 24: 48. fig. 2. 1897. 
Lilaeopsis lineata var. occidentalis Jepson, Madrono 1: 139. 1923. 

Phyllodes linear, terete, 2.5-15 cm. long, 1-4 mm. broad. Peduncles 0.5-^.5 cm. long, weak, 
shorter tlian the leaves ; umbels 5-12-flowered ; pedicels slender, 2-8 mm. long; fruit ovoid, 2 mm. 
long, 1.25-2 mm. broad; dorsal ribs obscure, the lateral broad. 

Marshes, Transition Zone; Vancouver Island to coastal central California. Type locality: salt marshes of 
Tillamook Bay, Oregon. June-Aug. 

3. BOWLESIA Ruiz & Pav. Fl. Peruv. Prod. 44. pi. 34. 1794. 

Slender branching annuals, with stellate pubescence. Stipules scarious, lacerate. 
Leaves opposite, simple, lobed. Umbels on axillary peduncles, simple, few-flowered. 
Sepals rather prominent. Corolla white. Fruit stellate-pubescent, broadly ovoid, with 
a narrow commissure, and without ribs or oil-tubes, the dorsal portion of each carpel 
inflated. Seed flattened dorsally, the face and back plane or convex. [Named for William 
Bowles, 1705-1780, Irish naturalist and traveler.] 

A genus of about 20 species, chiefly South American. Type species, Bowlesia palmata Ruiz & Pav. 

1. Bowlesia incana Ruiz & Pav. Bowlesia. Fig. 3469. 

Bowlesia incana Ruiz & Pav. Fl. Peruv. 3: 28. pi. 268. 1802. 
Bowlesia lobata of North American authors, not B. lobata Ruiz & Pav. 
Bowlesia septentrionalis Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 31. 1900. 

Stems slender, weak, 1.5-5 dm. long or high, dichotomously branching. Leaves on slender 
petioles, cordate to reniform, 0.4-3 cm. broad, thin, 5-7-lobed, the lobes entire or toothed; umbels 
on short peduncles, 2-6-fiowered ; fruit 1-1.5 mm. long, sessile or subsessile. 

Partially shaded slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; central California to northern Lower California, east to 
Louisiana; also in South America. Type locality: Peru. March-May. 



CARROT FAMILY 



219 




346:2 





3463 



3465 





3464 




3466 



3467 




3468 

3462. Aralia californica 

3463. Aralia nudicauHs 
3454. Oplopanax horridum 





3469 

3465. Hydrocotyle umbellata 

3466. Hydrocotyle verticillata 

3467. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides 



3470 

3468. Lilaeopsis occidentalis 

3469. Bowlesia incana 

3470. Sanicula arctopoides 



220 UMBELLIFERAE 

4. SANICULAL. Sp. PI. 235. 1753. 

Glabrous or pubescent biennial or perennial herbs, with few-leaved or nearly naked 
stems. Leaves palmately or pinnately divided or rarely entire, the divisions pinnatifid or 
incised. Umbels irregularly compound, few-rayed, bearing involucres and involucels. 
Sepals evident, somewhat foliaceous, persistent. Corolla greenish yellow or purple. Fruit 
subglobose, densely covered with hooked bristles or tubercles. Carpels not ribbed; oil- 
tubes usually several to numerous. [Name Latin, meaning to heal.] 

A genus of about 20 species, widely distributed over the north temperate regions; also South America and 
South Africa. About 17 species are in the United States. Type species, Sanicula europaea L. 

Basal leaves ternately or palmately divided, rarely entire. 
Fruit pedicellate or stipitate. 

Involucels conspicuous, exceeding the heads. 1. 5". arctopoides. 

Involucels inconspicuous, not exceeding the heads. 
Primary leaf-divisions pinnatifid. 

Petiole and midrib somewhat glandular; leaves deltoid. 2. 5". arguta. 

Petiole and midrib glabrous, not glandular; leaves oblong-ovate. 3. S. nevadensis. 
Primary leaf-divisions lobed or merely serrate, not deeply pinnatifid. 4. .S". crassicaulis. 
Fruit sessile. 

Primary divisions of basal leaves lobed or serrate, not deeply pinnatifid. 

Involucels equaling to slightly exceeding heads; basal leaves deeply lobed; Oregon coast. 

4. 6". crassicaulis Howellii. 

Involucels shorter than heads; basal leaves entire or 3-lobed; San Francisco Bay region. 

5. S. maritima. 
Primary divisions of basal leaves deeply pinnatifid. 

Primary divisions distinct at base; fruit ovoid, 3-5 ram. long. 3. S. nevadensis. 

Primary divisions confluent at base; fruit globose to ellipsoid, about 2 mm. long. 

6. S. laciniata. 
Basal leaves pinnately divided to pinnately or ternate-pinnately decompound. 

Stem from a fusiform taproot. 

Leaves with a winged toothed rachis. 

Fruits several in each urabellet, bristly; pedicels of sterile flowers inconspicuous in fruit. 

7. S. bipinnatifida. 

Fruits solitary, rarely 2—3 in each umbellet, bristly only above; pedicels of sterile flowers conspicu- 
ous in fruit. 8. S. Pcckiana. 

Leaves without a winged rachis; leaves 2-3-pinnate. 9. S. bipinnata. 

Stem from a globose or somewhat irregular tuber. 

Flowers salmon-colored ; fruit 2 . 5-3 mm. long, the upper tubercles armed with short subulate bristles. 

10. S. saxatilis. 

Flowers yellow; fruit 1.5-2 mm. long, the tubercles unarmed. 11. S. tuber osa. 

1. Sanicula arctopoides Hook. & Am. Bear's-foot Sanicle or Snake-root. 

Fig. 3470. 

Sanicula arctopoides Hook. & Am. Bot. Beechey 141. 1832. 

Plants conspicuous by the yellowish foliage, the stems very short, from a stout taproot, bear- 
ing a cluster of basal leaves and several spreading scape-like branches, 5-30 cm. long. Leaves 
2-6.5 cm. long, deeply palmately 3-parted, the divisions once or twice laciniate-dentate, and the 
whole margin usually dissected into lanceolate acute segments ; umbels terminating the branches, 
1-4-rayed, the rays usually elongate; bracts 1 or 2, foliaceous; bractlets usually 8-12, conspicu- 
ously exceeding the heads ; fruit short-pedicellate, 2-5 mm. long, strongly bristly above, naked 
below ; seed-face concave. 

Open hillsides, mainly Humid Transition Zone; near the coast from northern Oregon to central California. 
Type locality: "northwest coast of America." March-June. Footsteps-of-spring, Yellow Mats. 

2. Sanicula argvita Greene. Sharp-toothed Sanicle. Fig. 3471. 

Sanicula arguta Greene ex Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 36. 1900. 

Stems more or less branched from a thickened taproot, 15-50 cm. high. Leaves 3—11 cm. 
long, palmately 3-5-parted, the middle divisions longer and distant, all the divisions spinose- 
serrate to sublaciniate, decurrent, forming a broad toothed wing to the rachis, glandular-rough- 
ened above ; umbels 3-5-rayed ; bracts foliaceous ; bractlets linear or linear-lanceolate, entire to 
3-lobed, spinosely tipped ; flowers yellow, the sterile pedicellate, the fertile sessile ; fruit 4-6 mm. 
long, obovoid, stipitate, bristly above, almost naked below. 

Open hillsides near the coast, Sonoran Zones; southern California. Type locality: hills near San Diego. 
March-April. 

3. Sanicula graveolens Poepp. Sierra Sanicle. Fig. 3472. 

Sanicula graveolens Poepp. ex DC. Prod. 4: 85. 1830. 

Sanicula nevadensis S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 139. 1876. 

Sanicula septentrionalis Greene, Erythea 1: 6. 1893. 

Sanicula divaricata Greene, Erythea 3: 64. 1895. 

Sanicula apiifolia Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 2: 46. 1910. 

Sanicula nevadensis var. glauca Jepson, Madrofio I: 113. 1923. 

Sanicula septentrionalis var. nemoralis Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 667. 1936. 

Stems erect, the main stem obsolete, short or elongated, peduncles thus arising basally or 



CARROT FAMILY 221 

separately along the stem, 1-4.5 dm. high. Leaves ternate, the divisions usually oblong-ovate 
3-5-lobed, the lobes irregularly lobed or toothed ; umbels 4-9 rayed ; bracts foliaceous, pinnatifid ; 
bractlets more or less united, small, acute ; flowers yellow, the sterile short-pedicellate ; fruit 3-5 
mm. long, short-pedicellate, bristly throughout; seed face slightly concave. 

Open coniferous forests. Arid Transition Zone; Clallam County, Washington to Siskiyou Mountains, Sierra 
Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains, California, and also Chile. Type locality: Chile. April-July. 

4. Sanicula crassicaulis Poepp. Pacific Sanicle. Fig. 3473. 

Sanicula crassicaulis Poepp. ex DC. Prod. 4: 84. 1830. 
Sanicula Menziesii Hook. & Am. Bot. Beechey 142. 1832. 
Sanicula nudicaulis Hook. & Arn. op. cit. 347. 1838. 
Sanicula tripartita ^inksA. Allg. Bot. Zeit. 12 : 5. 1906. 
Sanicula Menziesii var. foliacca Jepson, Madrono 1: 111. 1923. 
Sanicula Menziesii var. pedata Jepson, loc. cit. 
Sanicula diversiloba Suksd. Werdenda 1 : 29. 1927. 

Stems simple below, branching above, erect, 2.4-12.5 dm. high, from a stout taproot. Leaves 
round-cordate to subtriangular, 4-14 cm. broad, deeply palmately 3-5-lobed, the primary divisions 
incised-lobed, the teeth spinulose ; upper leaves with narrower lobes ; umbels with 3 or 4 slender 
rays ; bracts 2-3, small, foliaceous ; bractlets 6-8, small, entire ; flowers yellow, the sterile short- 
pedicellate ; fruit distinctly stipitate but not pedicellate ; subglobose, 2-5 mm. long, covered with 
stout bristles ; seed face deeply sulcate. 

Woods and shady slopes. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Vancouver Island to southern California, 
also in South America. Type locality: Chile. March-June. 

Sanicula crassicaulis var. HowrilUi (Coult. & Rose) Mathias, Brittonia 2: 242. 1936. {Sanicula Howellii 
Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 13: 81. 1888.) Usually lower; bractlets more prominent, about equalinfj the heads; 
fruit subsessile. Seashore sands, Canadian Zone; coastal Oregon. Type locality: "sandy shores, Tilamook Bay 
and Ocean Beach, Oregon." 

5. Sanicula maritima Kell. Adobe or Salt-marsh Sanicle. Fig. 3474. 

Sanicula maritima Kell. ex S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 451. 1880. 

Stems stout, 1 .5-3.5 dm. high from a thickened taproot. Basal leaves long-petiolate, cordate, 

2-5 cm. long, entire, repand or slightly serrate ; peduncles few, elongate ; umbels l--4-rayed ; 

bracts foliaceous, lobed or parted ; bractlets many, small, lanceolate ; flowers yellow, in dense 

heads, the sterile short-pedicellate ; fruit about 5 mm. long, somewhat naked below ; seed-face 

concave, with a prominent central longitudinal ridge. 

Heavy adobe soil, or edges of salt marshes, Upper Sonoran Zone; about San Francisco Bay, California. 
Type locality: "near the coast, about San Francisco or northward, California." April-June. 

6. Sanicula laciniata Hook. & Arn. Coast Sanicle. Fig. 3475. 

Sanicula laciniata Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 347. 1838. 
Sanicula serpentina Elmer, Bot. Gaz. 41 : 312. 1906. 

Stems usually slender, branching from the base, 0.9-5 dm. high. Leaves ovate, 3-lobed or 
3-parted, the divisions toothed to pinnately parted, with bristle-tipped teeth ; umbels 3-6-rayed ; 
bracts foliaceous, the bractlets small, apiculate ; flowers yellow ; fruit orbicular, 2 mm. long, 
sessile. 

Hillsides, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Coast Ranges from southwestern Oregon to San Luis Obispo 
County, California. Type locality: California, definite locality not given. March-June. 

7. Sanicula bipinnatifida Dougl. Purple Sanicle. Fig. 3476. 

Sanicula bipinnatifida Dougl. ex Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 258. pi. 92. 1832. 

Sanicula nemoralis Greene, Erythea 1 : 6. 1893. 

Sanicula bipinnatifida var. flava Jepson, Madroiio 1: 112. 1923. 

Sanicula bipinnatifida var. Hoffmanii Munz, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. 31: 110. 1932. 

Stems rather stout, 1.5-8 dm. high, from a thickened rootstock. Basal leaves several, poly- 
morphic, serrulate to pinnately 3-7-parted, the divisions cleft or lobed, decurrent on the rachis, 
forming a toothed wing ; umbel 3-5-rayed ; bracts foliaceous ; flowers purple or yellow, in dense 
heads, the sterile pedicellate ; fruit 3-6 mm. long, bristly throughout ; seed-face sulcate. 

Open hillsides, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Vancouver Island to Lower California. Type locality: 
"Fort Vancouver on the Columbia," Washington. Feb.-May. 

8. Sanicula Peckiana J. F. Macbride. Peck's Sanicle. Fig. 3477. 

Sanicula Peckiana J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 59: 28. 1919. 

Stems rather slender, usually solitary from a taproot, sparsely branched, 2.5^ dm. high. 
Basal leaves 5-10 cm. long, pinnate or the main divisions decurrent on the narrowly winged 
and toothed rachis, the divisions irregularly toothed with obscurely or not at all acicular teeth ; 
staminate flowers rather numerous, on slender pedicels surrounding and partly concealing the 
few fruits, these sessile, 3-4 mm. long, naked below, the tubercles above the middle terminated 
by weak prickles. 

Open woods, Transition Zones; Siskiyou Mountains of southern Oregon and northern California. Type 
locality: fourteen miles west of Waldo, Oregon. 



222 UMBELLIFERAE 

9. Sanicula bipinnata Hook. & Arn. Poison Sanicle. Fig. 3478. 

Sanicula bipinnata Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 347. 1838. 
Sanicula pinnatifida Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. 314. 1874. 

Stems slender, erect, 1—6 dm. high, from a slender fusiform root. Leaves twice or thrice pin- 
nate, the divisions not at all decurrent, ovate to oblong, incisely toothed ; flowers yellow ; fruit 
2-3 mm. long, with strong tubercles tipped with short hooked bristles ; seed-face deeply sulcata. 

Open woods, Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; California, from the North Coast Ranges and the Sierra 
Nevada to the southern part of the state. Type locality: California, but exact locality not given. April-June. 

10. Sanicula saxatilis Greene. Rock or Diablo Sanicle. Fig. 3479. 

Sanicula saxatilis Greene, Erythea 1 : 6. 1893. 

Stems many, about 1-2 dm. long, spreading from the base, from a large globose or somewhat 

irregular tuber. Leaves ternate, then 1-2-pinnate, coarsely to finely dissected, the ultimate 

divisions acute ; flowering branches repeatedly dichotomous ; flowers salmon-colored ; sterile 

flowers on pedicels 3-6 mm. long; fruit 2.5-3 mm. long; strongly tuberculate, the upper tubercles 

bearing short, subulate bristles ; seed-face plane. 

A local species known only from the summits of the Diablo and Hamilton Ranges, central California. Type 
locality: summit of Mount Diablo. May-June. 

11. Sanicula tuberosa Torr. Tuberous Sanicle. Fig. 3480. 

Sanicula tuberosa Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 91. 1857. 

Stems simple or branched near the base, 1-7.5 dm. high, from a globose tuber. Leaves 1-2- 
ternate, then pinnate, the ultimate divisions small ; umbel 3-rayed ; bracts foliaceous ; bractlets 
small, united; flowers yellow, the sterile long-pedicellate; fruit 1.5-2 mm. long, tuberculate and 
not at all bristly ; seed-face plane to slightly concave. 

Open, gravelly or rocky slopes, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada, 
southwestern Oregon to southern California. Type locality: Duffield's Ranch, Sierra Nevada, California. March- 
July. 

5. APlASTRUM Nutt. in Torr. & Gray. Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 643. 1840. 

Slender glabrous branching annuals. Leaves finely dissected, with filiform or linear 
segments. Umbels naked, unequally few-rayed. Sepals obsolete. Corolla white. Fruit 
ellipsoid-cordate, with obscure or obsolete ribs, more or less papillate-roughened ; pericarp 
thin. Stylopodium depressed; styles short. Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals and be- 
neath the ribs, 2 on the commissural side. Seed-face narrowly concave or shallowly 
sulcate. [Name Latin, meaning wild celery.] 

A monotypic Californian genus. 

1. Apiastrum angustifolium Nutt. Wild Celery. Fig. 3481. 

Helosciadium leptophyllum var. ? latifolixtm Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 347. 1838. 
Apiastrum angustifolium Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 644. 1840. 

Plants very slender, 0.5—5 dm. high, usually much branched. Leaves 1-5 cm. long, ternately 
dissected with linear-filiform to oblong divisions; umbels sessile; rays unequal, 1-5 cm. long; 
pedicels 0-15 mm. long; fruit with a narrow commissure, cordate at base, 1-1.5 mm. long. 

Sandy soils, Upper Sonoran Zone; North Coast Ranges and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to northern 
Lower California. Type locality: San Diego, California. March-May. 

6. CAUCALIS L. Sp. PL 240. 1753. 

Mostly hispid annuals with pinnately dissected, decompound leaves and white flowers. 
Sepals evident. Fruit ovoid or oblong, flattened laterally. Carpel with 5 filiform bristly 
ribs and 4 prominent winged secondary ones, with barbed or hooked bristles. Stylopodium 
thick, conical. Oil-tubes solitary under the secondary ribs, 2 on the commissural side. 
Seed-face deeply sulcate. [The ancient classical name.] 

A genus of 5 . species, natives of Asia, southern Europe, northern Africa and North and Central America. 
Type species, Caucalis microcarpa Hook. & Arn. 

1. Caucalis microcarpa Hook. & Arn. California Hedge-parsley. Fig. 3482. 

Caucalis microcarpa Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 348. 1838. 
Daucus brachiatits Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4: 93. 1857. 

Annual, more or less hispid, the stems slender, erect, 0.8-4 dm. high. Leaves pinnately de- 
compound into small segments ; umbels unequally 1-9-rayed ; bracts foliaceous, pinnately decom- 
pound ; rays slender, 1-8 cm. long ; pedicels very unequal ; fruit oblong, 3-7 mm. long, armed with 
rows of hooked prickles. 

Sandy or rocky soils. Upper Sonoran Zone; eastern British Columbia to southern California, east to Idaho, 
Utah, Arizona and Mexico. Type locality: California. April-June. 



CARROT FAMILY 



223 




3471 





3477 



3471. Sanicula arguta 

3472. Sanicula nevadensis 

3473. Sanicula crassicaulis 




3472 




3475 





3473 




3476 




3478 

3474. Sanicula maritima 

3475. Sanicula laciniata 

3476. Sanicula bipinnatifida 



3479 

3477. Sanicula Peckiana 

3478. Sanicula bipinnata 

3479. Sanicula saxatilis 



224 UMBELLIFERAE 

7. TORILIS Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 99, 612. 1763. 

Hispid or pubescent annual herbs with pinnately compound leaves and compound 
umbels of white flowers. Bracts of the involucre when present few and small ; bractlets 
several to numerous, narrow. Sepals triangular, acute. Stylopodium thick, conical. Fruit 
ovoid or oblong, laterally flattened; primary ribs 5, filiform; secondary ribs 4, winged, 
each bearing a row of barbed or hooked bristles or tubercles ; oil-tubes solitary under the 
secondary ribs, 2 on the commissural side. [Significance of the name unknown.] 

A genus of about 20 species, natives of the northern hemisphere. Type species, Tordylium Anthriscus L. 
Umbels sessile or short-pedunculate, capitate, opposite the leaves. 1. T. nodosa. 

Umbels long-pedunculate, spreading, terminal and lateral. 2. T. japonica. 

1. Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertn. Knotted Hedge-parsley. Fig. 3483. 

Tordylium nodosum L. Sp. PI. 240. 1753. 

Torilis nodosa Gaertn. Fruct. 1: 82, pi. 20. fig. 6. 1788. 

Stems erect with few branches, retrorsely scabrous. Leaves pinnately decompound; umbels 
scattered along the stems opposite the leaves on very short peduncles, simple or with supplemen- 
tary short proliferous umbels ; fruit 3-5 mm. long, the outside of the umbel with the exterior 
carpel densely covered with hooked bristles, the inner carpel as well as the inner fruits smooth 
or with tubercles. 

Partial shade, Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; Oregon to California. Naturalized from Europe. 
April-June. 

2, Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC. Japanese Hedge-parsley. Fig. 3484. 

Tordylium Anthriscus L. Sp. PI. 240. 1753. 

Caucalis japonica Houtt. Nat. Hist. II. 8: 42. pi. 45. fig. 1. \777. 

Torilis Anthriscus Gmel. F. Bad. 1: 615. 1805. Not Gaertn. 1788, nor Bernh. 1800. 

Torilis japonica DC. Prod. 4: 219. 1830. 

Plants hispid throughout. Leaves 1-2-pinnate, the leaflets dentate to incised or divided; 
peduncles 4-16 cm. long, exceeding the leaves; fruit 1.5-4 mm. long; the pericarp covered 
throughout with uncinate bristles. 

Transition and Sonoran Zones; Oregon to California. Naturalized from Eurasia. April-July. 

Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1 : 265. 1821. {Caucalis arvensis Huds. Fl. Angl. 98. 
1762.) Differs from T. japonica in its usual lack of an involucre, andits longer and straight fruit-bristles. In- 
troduced from Europe into southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. 

8. ANTHRISCUS Hoffm. Gen. Umbell. 38. 1814. Nomen conservandum. 

Annual or biennial herbs, with ternately or pinnately compound leaves. Flowers white 
in compound umbels. Involucre usually none; involucel of numerous bractlets. Sepals 
none or minute. Fruit ovoid to linear, beaked, laterally compressed; ribs and oil-tubes 
obsolete. Seed-face sulcate. [Ancient Greek name.] 

An Old World genus of about 10 species. Type species, Caucalis Scandix Scop. 

1. Anthriscus scandicina (Weber) Mansfeld. Bur-chervil. Fig. 3485. 

Scandix Anthriscus L. Sp. PI. 257. 1753. 

Caucalts Scandix Scop. Fl. Cam. ed. 2. 1: 191. 1772. 

Caucalis scandicina Weber ex Wiggers, Prim. Fl. Holsat. 23. 1780. 

Anthriscus vulgaris Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 320. 1805. Not A. vulgaris Bernh. 1800. 

Anthriscus scandicina Mansfeld. Rep. Spec. Nov. 46: 309. 1939. 

Annual herbs, more or less hispid throughout, the rather slender stems 4.5-9 dm. high. 
Leaves pinnately decompound, the stipules densely ciliate ; umbels usually 3-6-rayed ; involucre 
none or of a single small bract ; bractlets small, lanceolate ; pedicels 2-9 mm. long ; flowers white ; 
fruit ovoid, 4 mm. long, including the short beak, muricate with short hooked bristles. 

Shaded waste places and banks; western Oregon to central California. Naturalized from Europe. April- 
June. 

9. SCANDIX [Tourn.] L. Sp. PL 256. 1753. 

Annual herbs with pinnately decompound leaves and white flowers in compound umbels, 
the umbels sometimes reduced to a single ray. Involucral bracts none or rarely one ; in- 
volucels of several entire or dissected bractlets. Sepals minute or obsolete. Petals usually 
unequal, the outer larger. Fruit linear or narrowly oblong, flattened laterally, prolonged 
into an elongated beak much exceeding the body of the fruit, prominently ribbed ; oil-tubes 
solitary in the intervals or obsolete. [The ancient Greek name for chervil.] 

An Old World genus of about 10 species. Type species, Scandix Pecten-Veneris L. 

1. Scandix Pecten-Veneris L. Venus'- or Lady's-comb or Shepherd's-needle. 

Fig. 3486. 

Scandix Pecten-Veneris L. Sp. PI. 256. 1753. 

Plants hispid, the stems 15-35 cm. high with ascending branches. Leaves pinnately decom- 




3480 



^ M 




CARROT FAMILY 




3481 





3483 



3484 



3485 




3486 

3480. Sanicula tuberosa 

3481. Apiastrum angustifolium 

3482. Caucalis microcarpa 





3487 

3483. Torilis nodosa 

3484. Torilis japonica 

3485. Anthriscus scandicina 



3486. Scandix Pecten-Veneris 

3487. Osmorhiza occidentalis 

3488. Osmorhiza purpurea 



226 UMBELLIFERAE 

pound, the lower long-petiolate ; ultimate divisions scarcely 1 mm. wide, acute ; involucre of a 

single foliaceous bract ; bractlets several, lanceolate, entire or 2-3-lobed at the apex, ciliate ; 

pedicels very short; fruit 6-15 mm. long, the beak 2-7 cm. long, about 2 mm. wide, flat and 

straight with short ascending hairs on the edges. 

Waste places, naturalized from Europe or Asia; Vancouver Island to southern California and throughout 
the United States. April-June. 

10. OSMORHIZA Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 257. 1819. 

Slender to rather stout, caulescent, pubescent to glabrate perennials. Leaves ternate 
or ternate-pinnate; leaf-divisions lanceolate to orbicular, serrate to pinnately lobed. In- 
volucre none or of a few foliaceous bracts. Rays few, slender, ascending to divaricate and 
reflexed, unequal. Bractlets few, narrow, reflexed, or none. Flowers white, purple or 
greenish yellow. Sepals obsolete. Stylopodium conical. Fruit linear-oblong, linear-fusi- 
form or clavate, obtuse, tapering, beaked or constricted at apex, rounded or caudate at 
base, flattened laterally, bristly hispid to glabrous ; ribs filiform, acute, often bristly. Oil- 
tubes obscure or none; seed-face sulcate. [Name from two Greek words meaning smell 
and root.] 

A genus of about 12 species, natives of North America, western South America and eastern Asia. Type 
species, Myrrhis Claytonii Michx. 

Fruit glabrous or sparsely bristly toward base, obtuse at base, not caudate; rays ascending to spreading-ascending. 

1. O. occidentalis. 

Fruit bristly hispid, caudate at base with conspicuous tails; rays spreading-ascending to divaricate and reflexed. 
Involucel wanting; flowers greenish, white or purple. 

Rays and pedicels spreading-ascending; fruit linear-oblong, cylindrical. 

Flowers purplish or greenish; styles 0.5-1 mm. long; fruit 10-13 mm. long, constricted at apex. 

2. O. purpurea. 

Flowers greenish white or white; styles 0.2-0.5 mm. long; fruit 12-20 mm. long, tapering at apex. 

3. O. chilensis. 

Rays and pedicels divaricate; fruit clavate. 4. O. obtusa. 

Involucel present; flowers greenish yellow. 5. O. brachypoda. 

1. Osmorhiza occidentalis (Nutt.) Torr. Western Sweet-cicely. Fig. 3487. 

Glycosma occidentalis Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 639. 1840. 
Osmorhiza occidentalis Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 71. 1859. 
Myrrhis Bolanderi A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 346. 1868. 
Glycosma ambiguum A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 386. 1872. 

Plants rather stout, 3-12 dm. high, villous at the nodes and pilosulous to glabrate through- 
out. Leaves oblong to ovate, 10-20 cm. long, 1-3-ternate or ternate-pinnate ; leaf -divisions ob- 
long-lanceolate to ovate, 2-10 cm. long, serrate and usually incised or lobed; rays 5-12, stiffly 
ascending to spreading-ascending, 2-13 cm. long; bractlets usually none; pedicels spreading to 
ascending, 3-8 mm. long; flowers yellow; styles 1 mm. long or less; fruit linear-fusiform, 12- 
20 mm. long, constricted below apex, obtuse at base, glabrous or rarely sparsely bristly toward 
base. 

Woods, Transition and Boreal Zones; British Columbia and central California east to Alberta and Colorado. 
Type locality: "western side of the Blue Mountains of Oregon." May-July. 

2. Osmorhiza purpurea (Coult. & Rose) Suksd. Purple Sweet-cicely. Fig. 3488. 

IVashingtonia purpurea Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 67. 1900. 
fVashingtonia Leibergii Coult. & Rose, op. cit. 66. 
Osmorhiza purpurea Suksd. Allg. Bot. Zeit. 12: 5. 1906. 

Plants slender, 2-6 dm. high, sparingly hispidulous to glabrous. Leaves deltoid or orbicular, 
3-10 cm. long, 1-3-ternate; leaf-divisions lanceolate or ovate, 1.5-7 cm. long, coarsely serrate 
to incised or lobed; bractlets wanting; rays 2-6, spreading-ascending, 2-7.5 cm. long; pedicels 
spreading-ascending, 5-20 mm. long; flowers purplish or greenish; styles 0.5-1 mm. long; fruit 
linear-fusiform, 10-13 mm. long, constricted below the short-beaked apex, hispid toward base 
and caudate at base. 

Woods, Boreal Zones; Alaska south to Washington and Oregon and Del Norte County, California; also 
northern Montana and Idaho. Type locality: Sitka, Alaska. June-July. 

3. Osmorhiza chilensis Hook. & Arn. Mountain Sweet-cicely. Fig. 3489. 

Osmorhiza chilensis Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 26. 1830; Hook. Bot. Miscel. 3: 355. 1833. 

Osmorhiza Berteri DC. Prod. 4: 232. (September) 1830. 

Osmorhiza divaricata Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 639. 1840. (Nomen nudum) 

Osmorhiza nuda Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 41: 93. 1857. 

IVashingtonia brevipes Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 66. 1900. 

Plants slender, 3-10 dm. high, hispid, the younger parts densely so. Leaves orbicular, 5-15 
cm. long, biternate; leaf -divisions ovate-lanceolate to orbicular, 2-6 cm. long, coarsely serrate, 
incised or lobed; bractlets none; rays 3-8, spreading-ascending, 2-12 cm. long; pedicels spread- 
ing-ascending, 5-30 mm. long; flowers greenish white; styles 0.2-0.5 mm. long; fruit linear- 



CARROT FAMILY 227 

oblong, 12-20 mm. long, tapering toward apex into a slender beak, caudate and densely hispid 
at base. 

Woods, Transition and Boreal Zones; Alaska south to California and Arizona, eastward to Newfoundland 
and New Hampshire; also southern Argentina and Chile. Type locality: "Concepcion," Chile. April-July. 

4. Osmorhiza obtusa (Coult. & Rose) Fernald. Blunt-fruited Sweet-cicely. 

Fig. 3490. 

JVashingtonia obtusa Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 64. 1900. 
Osmorhiza obtusa Fernald, Rhodora 4: 154. 1902. 

Plants slender, 1.5-6.5 dm. high, the foliage hispid to glabrate. Leaves orbicular, 4-11 cm. 
long, biternate or ternate-pinnate ; leaf-divisions broadly lanceolate to ovate, 1.5-5 cm. long, 
coarsely serrate, incised or lobed ; bractlets wanting ; rays 2-5, widely divergent or some re- 
flexed, 2-7 cm. long; pedicels 2-5, widely divergent, 1-3 cm. long; flowers greenish white; styles 
minute; fruit clavate, 10-15 mm. long, obtuse or abruptly acute at apex, caudate and densely 
hispid at base. 

Woods, Transition and Boreal Zones; eastern Washington to northeastern California, eastward to Labrador 
and Vermont, Colorado and Arizona; also southern Argentina and Chile. Type locality: Ishawood Creek, north- 
western Wyoming. May-June. 

5. Osmorhiza brachypoda Torr. California Sweet-cicely. Fig. 3491. 

Osmorhiza brachypoda Torr. ex Durand, Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 3: 89. 1855. 
Osmorhiza brachypoda var. fraterna Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 670. 1936. 

Plants rather stout, 3-8 dm. long, short-pilose. Leaves ovate or deltoid, &-25 cm. long, ter- 
nate-pinnate ; leaf-divisions ovate, 2-6 cm. long, coarsely serrate, incised and pinnately lobed 
toward the base, pilose or strigose; bractlets several, linear or lanceolate, ciliate, spreading or 
reflexed, exceeding the pedicels; rays 2-5, spreading-ascending, 2.5-10 cm. long; pedicels as- 
cending, 1-3 mm. long; flowers greenish yellow; styles about 0.5 mm. long; fruit oblong-fusi- 
form, 12-20 mm. long, tapering into a narrow beak at apex, caudate at base, short-hispid on the 
conspicuous ribs. 

Woods, Transition Zone; central to southern California and Arizona. Type locality: "near the banks of 
Deer Creek," Nevada City, California. March-May. 

11. AMMOSELINUM Torr. & Gray, Pacif. R. Rep. 2*: 165. 1855. 

Low branching annuals with ternately dissected leaves, the ultimate divisions linear 
or spatulate. Flowers white, in sessile or peduncled compound umbels. Involucre absent 
or present; involucels of a few linear or divided bractlets. Sepals obsolete. Fruit oblong- 
ovoid to ovoid, flattened laterally; ribs prominent, tuberculate or spinulose-tuberculate; 
oil-tubes solitary in the intervals or in our species 3; stylopodium conical, styles short. 
[Name Greek, meaning sand-parsley.] 

A genus of 3 species of the southwestern United States and Mexico. Type species, Ammoselinum Popei 
Torr. & Gray. 

1. Ammoselinum giganteum Coult. & Rose. Western Sand-parsley. Fig. 3492. 

Ammoselinum giganteum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 89. 1900. 
Ammoselinum occidentale Munz & Jtn. Bull. Torrey Club 52: 224. 1925. 

Stems solitary or several from the base, 10-20 cm. high. Leaves glabrous, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, 
ternate-pinnately dissected, the divisions linear, 4-13 mm. long ; peduncles axdiary and teririmal ; 
bractlets few, linear-lanceolate; rays several, unequal, 0-22 mm. long; pedicels unequal, 1-8 mm 
long ; fruit oblong-ovoid, 3-5 mm. long, closely beset with callous teeth ; oil-tubes 3 in the intervals, J 
on the commissure. 

Desert basins. Lower Spnoran Zone; southern California to Arizona and Coahuila. Type locality: mesas 
near Phoenix, Arizona. April. 

12. DAUCUS L. Sp. Fl. 242. 1753. 

Pubescent caulescent annuals or biennials. Leaves pinnately decompound. Involucre 
of f oliaceous, pinnately divided bracts ; involucels of many entire or divided bractlets In- 
florescence compact in fruit. Flowers usually white. Sepals obsolete to evident. Fruit 
ovoid to oblong, flattened dorsally. Carpels with slender bristly primary ribs and winged 
secondary ribs bearing a single row of barbed or glochidiate prickles. Oil-tubes solitary 
in the intervals, 2 on the commissural side. Seed flattened dorsally, the face somewhat 
concave. [The ancient Greek name.] 

A genus of about 25 species of wide distribution, one native in the United States. Type species, Daucut 
Carota L. 
Bracts divided into short linear or lanceolate segments; central flower of the umbel white; plants^annuaL _^^ 

Bracts divided into elongate filiform segments; central flower of the umbel usually pink or P^'-Pjf :^Pl='c"„V%ia!""'^'' 



228 UMBELLIFERAE 

1. Daucus pusillus Michx. Rattlesnake Weed. Fig. 3493. 

Daucus pusillus Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 164. 1803. 

Plants annual from long slender more or less fibrous branching roots. Leaves finely dissected 
into linear divisions 1-5 mm. long ; bracts equaling to exceeding the rays, pinnately divided into 
short linear or lanceolate segments; bractlets linear, about equaling the pedicels; rays 0.4-4 cm 
long; flowers white; fruit oblong, 3-5 mm. long. 

Open hillsides and valleys, Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Vancouver Island to Lower California 
east to North and South Carolina. Type locality: "in campestribus Carolinae." April-June. 

2. Daucus Carota L. Wild Carrot or Queen Anne's Lace. Fig. 3494. 

Daucus Carota L. Sp. PI. 242. 1753. 

Plants biennial from slender fusiform taproots. Leaves finely dissected into linear or lanceo- 
late segments 2-12 mm. long; bracts shorter than the rays, pinnately divided into elongated 
filiform divisions; bractlets linear, equaling to exceeding the pedicels; rays 3-7.5 cm. long; 
flowers white, yellow or pinkish, the central flower of the umbel purple or pink; fruit ovoid, 
3-4 mm. long. 

Introduced from Europe and well established in western Washington and Oregon, less so in California. 
May-Sept. 

13. CORIANDRUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 256. 1753. 

Annual herbs with pinnately decompound leaves. Flow^ers white or roseate in com- 
pound umbels. Involucre wanting. Involucels of a few narrow bractlets. Fruit subglobose, 
hard, not constricted at the commissure, the ribs slender. Stylopodium conical; styles 
slender. Oil-tubes obscure. [The ancient Latin name.] 

A genus of 2 species of the warm temperate and subtropical regions of the Old World. Type species, 
Coriandrum sativum L. 

1. Coriandrum sativum L. Coriander. Fig. 3495. 

Coriandrum sativum L. Sp. PI. 256. 1753. 

Glabrous annual 2-7 dm. high. Lower leaves ternately or pinnately divided, the segments 
ovate or obovate, toothed or cleft; upper leaves decompound with narrowly linear divisions; 
umbels 3-5 cm. broad; rays slender; pedicels 2-5 mm. long; involucre none; involucels with 
small linear-lanceolate bractlets ; fruit subglobose, 1 . 5-5 mm. long, the ribs narrow, acute. 

A garden plant, occasionally escaped from cultivation. Native of southern Europe. May-July. 

14. ApIUM L. Sp. PI. 264. 1753. 

Glabrous annual, biennial or perennial herbs with pinnate to ternate-pinnately decom- 
pound leaves. Flowers white or greenish yellow, in compound umbels. Sepals obsolete. 
Stylopodium depressed or low-conical. Fruit ovoid to ellipsoid, laterally compressed, 
smooth or tuberculate. Carpels usually with prominent ribs and somewhat _5-angled; 
oil-tubes generally solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissural side. [The ancient Latin 
name.] 

A genus principally of Eurasia and the southern hemisphere, of some 30 species. Type species, Apium 
graveolens L. 

Plants annual: leaves pinnately or ternate-pinnately decompound, divisions linear to filiform. , ^^ ^, „ 

1. A. leptopnyllum. 

Plants perennial; leaves pinnate, divisions ovate to suborbicular or cuneate. 2. A. graveolens. 

1. Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Muell. Marsh-parsley. Fig. 3496. 

Sison Ammi Jacq. Hort. Vindob. 2: 95. pi. 200. 1773. Not S. Ammi L. 1753. 
Pimpinella leptophylla Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 324. 1805. 

Apium leptophyllum F. Muell. ex Benth. & Muell. Fl. Austr. 3: 372. 1866. 
Apium Ammi Urb. ex Mart. Fl. Bras. W^: 341. 1879. Not A. Ammi Crantz. 1767. 

Stems prostrate to suberect, 0.5-6 dm. high, branching. Basal leaves 3-4-pinnately decom- 
pound 3 5-8 cm. broad, petiolate, the upper smaller, ternate-pinnately decompound, short-petio- 
late- leaf-divisions linear to filiform, 4-35 mm. long; umbels opposite the leaves or termmal, 
3-5-rayed; bracts and bractlets wanting; pedicels 2-8 mm. long; flowers mmute, white; fruit 
ovoid, 1.2-3 mm. long. 

Humboldt County, California, probably introduced; widespread in southeastern United States. West Indies 
and South America; also in Europe and Asia. Type locality: Santo Domingo, West Indies. 

2. Apium graveolens L. Celery or Smallage. Fig. 3497. 

Apium graveolens L. Sp. PI. 264. 1753. 

Stems erect, 5-15 dm. high, branching. Basal leaves pinnate, 1-6 dm. long, petiolate, the 
upper much reduced, pinnate, nearly sessile; leaf-divisions 3-5, sessile or petiolulate, 2-4.5 cm. 
long, broadly ovate to oval or cuneate, coarsely toothed and incised ; umbels opposite the leaves 



CARROT FAMILY 



229 





3492 





3490 




3493 





3491 





3495 

3489. Osmorhiza chilensis 

3490. Osmorhiza obtusa 

3491. Osmorhiza brachypoda 



3496 

3492. Ammoselinum giganteum 

3493. Daucus pusillus 

3494. Daucus Carota 



3497 

3495. Coriandrum sativum 

3496. Apium leptophyllum 

3497. Apium graveolens 



230 UMBELLIFERAE 

or terminal; 7-16-rayed; bracts and bractlets wanting; pedicels 1-6 mm. long; flowers minute, 
white; fruit suborbicular to ellipsoid, about 1.5 mm. long, the ribs slightly winged. 

Salt marshes and wet places, California. Escaped from cultivation. Native of Europe. May-July. 

15. PETROSELINUM Hoffm. Gen. Umbell. 78. 1814. 

Slender, caulescent, glabrous biennials from taproots. Leaves ternate-pinnately or pin- 
nately decompound ; ultimate divisions ovate to linear, toothed or lobed. Involucre incon- 
spicuous or wanting. Rays few to numerous. Bractlets several, linear. Flowers yellow or 
greenish yellow. Sepals obsolete. Stylopodium low^-conical ; styles short. Fruit ovoid to 
oblong, flattened laterally, glabrous; ribs prominent, filiform. [Name Greek from words 
meaning rock and parsley.] 

A Eurasian genus of 3 species. Type species, Apium Petroselinum L. 

1. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Mansfeld. Parsley. Fig. 3498. 

Apium Petroselinum L. Sp. PI. 264. 1753. 

Apium crispum Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8. no. 2. 1768. 

Petroselinum hortense Hoffm. Gen. Umbell. 163. 1814. (Nomen nudum) 

Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. op. cit. 177. (Nomen nudum) 

Petroselinum crispum Mansfeld, Rep. Spec. Nov. 46: 307. 1939. 

Plants 3-13 dm. high. Leaves deltoid; ultimate divisions ovate-lanceolate to linear, 2-5 cm. 
long, toothed or lobed; bracts inconspicuous or none; rays 10-20, 1-5 cm. long; bractlets 5-6, 
linear, acute, shorter than the flowers ; fruit ovoid-oblong, 2-4 mm. long. 

In waste places; introduced in the Pacific States and throughout the world from Europe. 

16. AMMI L. Sp. PI. 243. 1753. 

Slender, erect, caulescent annuals or biennials, essentially glabrous. Leaves ternate- 
pinnately or pinnately dissected, the ultimate divisions lanceolate to filiform. Bracts 
numerous, entire or divided. Bractlets entire, shorter or longer than the pedicels. Flowers 
white. Sepals obscure. Stylopodium depressed-conical. Fruit ovoid-oblong to oblong, 
flattened laterally, glabrous, the ribs acute. [The ancient Latin name.] 

A genus of 6 species, natives of southern Europe and northern Africa. Type species, Ammi majus L. 

Inflorescence borne on a discoid receptacle; umbels compact in fruit. 1. A. Visnaga. 

Inflorescence not borne on a discoid receptacle; umbels spreading in fruit. 2. A. majus. 

1. Ammi Visnaga (L.) Lam. Toothpick Ammi or Bishop's-weed. Fig. 3499. 

Daucus Visnaga L. Sp. PI. 242. 1753. 

Ammi Visnaga Lam. Fl. Franc. 3: 462. 1778. 

Erect, glabrous, 2-8 dm. high. Leaves deltoid, 5-20 cm. long, pinnately decompound, the 
ultimate divisions linear to filiform, 5-35 mm. long; cauHne leaves ternately or pinnately dis- 
sected ; bracts equaling to exceeding the rays ; bractlets numerous, entire, equaling or exceeding 
the pedicels ; rays 60-100, subfiliform, unequal, 2-5 cm. long, spreading in flower but becoming 
rigidly contracted in fruit, borne on a discoid receptacle ; pedicels similar to the rays, also borne 
on a disk ; fruit oblong-ovoid to ovoid, 2-2 . 5 mm. long. 

Waste places, introduced from Eurasia into Oregon and California, also in the southeastern United States. 
June-July. 

2. Ammi majus L. Larger Bishop's-weed. Fig. 3500. 

Ammi majus L. Sp. PI. 243. 1753. 

Apium Ammi Crantz, Stirp. Austr. ed. 1. 3: 109. 1767. 

Erect, 2-8 dm. high, the inflorescence scabrous. Leaves oblong, 6-20 cm. long, ternate or 
pinnate, the leaf -divisions lanceolate, setulose-serrate ; cauline leaves bipinnate, the divisions 
linear; bracts exceeding the rays; bractlets numerous, entire, shorter than the pedicels; rays 
50-60, subfiliform, 2-7 cm. long, spreading to ascending in flower, spreading in fruit; pedicels 
similar to the rays ; fruit oblong, 1 . 5-2 mm. long. 

Introduced from Eurasia into Oregon and California, also in the southeastern United States. July. 

17. c6nIUM L. Sp. PI. 243. 1753. 

Tall biennial glabrous poisonous herbs with spotted stems and pinnately decompound 
leaves. Flowers small, white, in compound many-rayed umbels. Involucre and involucels 
of ovate acuminate bracts and bractlets. Sepals obsolete. Fruit broadly ovoid, glabrous, 
somewhat flattened laterally. Carpels with prominent, undulate ribs ; oil-tubes obscure, a 
layer of oil-secreting tissue' next to the deeply sulcate seed. [From the Greek name of the 
poison hemlock.] 

A genus of 2 species, the following, which is the type, native of Eurasia, the other South African. 



CARROT FAMILY 231 

1. Conium maculatum L. Poison Hemlock. Fig. 3501. 

Conium maculatum L. Sp. PI. 243. 1753. 

Stems erect, much branched, 5-30 dm. high. Lower and basal leaves petiolate, the upper 

sessile or nearly so, all pinnately dissected; leaf-divisions ovate in outline, thin, the ultimate 

divisions dentate or incised; petioles dilated and sheathing at the base; umbels 2.5-7.5 cm. 

broad; rays slender, 2.5-4 cm. long; pedicels filiform, in fruit 4-6 mm. long; fruit 2-2.5 mm. 

long, its ribs very prominent when dry. 

VVaste places, especially in damp ground, widely distributed in the Pacific States and eastward to the At- 
lantic seaboard. Naturalized from Europe. May-July. 

18. BERULA Hoffm. ex Bess. Enum. PL Volh. 44. 1822. 

Smooth aquatic perennial herbs with pinnate leaves, variously cut leaflets, and small 
white fliowers. Sepals minute. Fruit flattened laterally, emarginate at base, glabrous. 
Stylopodium conical ; carpel nearly globose, with very slender inconspicuous ribs, thick 
corky pericarp and no strengthening cells. Oil-tubes numerous and contiguous, closely 
surrounding the seed-cavity. Seed terete. [Latin name of the water-cress.] 

A monotypic genus of the north temperate regions. 

1. Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville. Cut-leaved Water Parsnip. Fig. 3502. 

Stum crectum Huds. Fl. Angl. 103. 1762. 

Slum angustifolium L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1672. 1763. 

Sium pusillum Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 611. 1840. 

Berula erecta Coville, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 4: 115. 1893. 

Stems erect, 2-8 dm. high, rather stout and much branched. Leaflets 5-9 pairs, oblong and 

subentire to serrate, often laciniate-lobed, sometimes crenate, 1.5-4 cm. long; rays 6-15, 1-2 cm. 

long ; bracts usually conspicuous ; bractlets narrow ; pedicels 2-5 mm. long ; fruit scarcely 2 mm. 

long, the ribs inconspicuous. 

Marshes and streams. Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; British Columbia south to Lower California 
and east to Ontario, Illinois and New Mexico; also in Eurasia. Type locality: England. July-Sept. 

19. SIUM L. Sp. PI. 251. 1753. 

Glabrous perennials growing in water or in wet places. Leaves pinnate to pinnately 
decompound. Involucre and involucels of numerous narrow bracts and bractlets. Sepals 
minute. Flowers white. Fruit flattened laterally, oval to orbicular, glabrous. Carpel with 
prominent corky nearly equal ribs. Stylopodium depressed ; styles short. Oil-tubes 1-3 in 
the intervals. Seeds subterete, with plane face. [Greek name of a marsh plant.] 

About 8 species, natives of the north temperate regions, and South Africa. Type species, Sium latifolium L. 

1. Sium suave Walt. Hemlock Water Parsnip. Fig. 3503. 

Sium suave 'VJaXt. Fl. Car. 115. 1788. 

Sium cicutaefolium Schrank, Baier. Fl. 1: 558. 1789. 

Sium h^terophyllum Greene, Pittonia 2: 102. 1890. 

Stems erect, stout, branched, 6-12 dm. high. Lower leaves long-petiolate, the uppermost 
subsessile; leaf-divisions of submerged leaves pectinately dissected, the others, linear to lanceo- 
late, sharply serrate, 1-4 cm. long; rays 10-20, 15-30 mm. long; fruit oval to orbicular, 2-3 mm. 
long, the ribs prominent. 

Marshes, Canadian to Sonoran Zones; British Columbia to central California, east to Nova Scotia and 
Florida. July-Aug. 

20. CArUM L. Sp. PI. 263. 1753. 

Slender, caulescent, branching biennials or perennials from taproots. Leaves pinnately 
dissected, the divisions narrow to filiform. Involucre of a few bracts or wanting. Bract- 
lets like the bracts. Flowers white. Sepals obsolete ; stylopodium low-conical. Fruit ob- 
long to oblong-oval, flattened laterally, glabrous; ribs prominent, filiform. Seed-face 
plane. [Name Latin, probably derived from the country Caria.] 

A Eurasian genus of about 50 species. Type species, Carum Carvi L. 

1. Carum Carvi L. Caraway. Fig. 3504. 

Carum Carvi L. Sp. PI. 263. 1753. 

Glabrous biennials, 3-10 dm. high. Leaves oblong to ovate, 8-15 cm. long, pinnately dissected ; 
leaf-divisions ovate, laciniately cleft; rays 7-14, unequal, 1-5 cm. long; pedicels 3-13 mm. long; 
flowers white or rarely rose-colored; fruit oblong-oval, 3-4 mm. long. 

Introduced from Europe, and occurring sporadically throughout the northern United States, from Washing- 
ton to the Atlantic coast. June-July. 



232 



UMBELLIFERAE 




3501 



3502 



3503 




3504 

3498. Petroselinum crispum 

3499. Ammi Visnaga 

3500. Ammi majus 




3505 

3501. Conium maculatum 

3502. Berula erecta 

3503. Sium suave 




3506 

3504. Carum Carvi 

3505. Perideridia Howellii 

3506. Perideridia Kelloggii 



CARROT FAMILY 233 

21. PERIDERIDIA Reichb. Handb. 219. 1837. 

Slender or stout, caulescent, branching-, glabrous perennials from tuberous or fusiform 
fascicled roots. Leaves ternately, pinnately or ternate-pinnately compound, with ovate 
to linear divisions. Flowers in compound umbels, white to pinkish. Involucre of few to 
numerous, entire, narrow, more or less scarious bracts; involucel of usually scarious or 
colored bractlets. Sepals evident. Fruit flattened laterally; carpels with filiform ribs; 
stylopodium conical or low-conical ; oil-tubes 1-5 in the intervals, 2-8 on the commissure. 
Seed subterete, the face plane or broadly concave. 

A genus of about 9 species, one in the eastern United States, the others native to western North America. 
The tuberous roots of several species formed a staple food of various Indian tribes. Type species, Eulophus 
americanus Nutt. 

Styles short, usually less than 1 mm. long, stout, erect or divaricate; plants coarse, from fascicles of numerous 
fibrous or slightly thickened roots. 
Leaves ternate-pinnately dissected; leaf-divisions ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 5-25 mm. broad; seed becominR 

free from the pericarp. 1. P. Howellii. 

Leaves pinnately dissected; leaf-divisions linear or lanceolate, 1-6 mm. broad; seed remaining attached to 
pericarp. 2. P. Kelloggii. 

Styles elongate, filiform, reflexed; plants usually more slender, from solitary tubers or fascicles of a few tuberous 
roots. 
Basal leaves 1-2-pinnate or 1-2-ternate, the petioles and rachis not dilated, leaf-divisions all alike. 

Fruit orbicular to suborbicular, 2-3 mm. long, 1.5-2.5 mm. broad; bractlets usually setaceous. 

3. P. Gairdneri. 

Fruit oblong to ovoid, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.5-2.5 mm. broad; bractlets scarious or scarious-margined, 
often conspicuous. 
Fruit usually rounded at base and apex; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals; Washington, Oregon 

and northern California. 4. P. oregana. 

Fruit usually narrowed at base and apex; oil-tubes 2-4 in the intervals; central and southern Cali- 
fornia, Nevada and Arizona. 5. P. Parishii. 
Basal leaves ternate-pinnately or pinnately decompound, the petioles and rachis dilated, leaf-divisions usually 
dimorphic. 
Rays 10-20, 1-2.5 cm. long, forming small, compact umbels. 6. P. Bolanderi. 
Rays 5-12, 3-8 cm. long, forming large, loose umbels. 

Fruit 4-6 mm. long; oil-tubes several in the intervals. 7. P. Pringlei. 

Fruit 6-8 mm. long; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals. 8. P. calif arnica. 

1. Perideridia Howellii (Coult. & Rose) Mathias. Howell's Yampah. Fig. 3505. 

Carum Howellii Coult. & Rose, Rev. N. Amer. Umbell. 129. 1888. 
Perideridia Howellii Mathias, Brittonia 2: 244. 1936. 

Plants stout, about 1 m. high, from a fascicle of thickened fusiform roots. Leaves few, 1-2- 
pinnate ; leaf-divisions ovate-lanceolate to ovate, deeply toothed or lobed, 2-4 cm. long, umbels 
many-rayed ; involucral bracts several, 1-2 cm. long, narrowly oblanceolate, becoming reflexed ; 
bractlets prominent, scarious-margined ; rays 3-6 cm. long ; pedicels 4-8 mm. long ; fruit oblong, 
3-6 mm. long, stylopodium prominent ; ribs acute, oil-tubes very large, solitary m the mtervals, 
2 on the commissure. 

Moist mountain slopes and meadows, Transition Zone; southern Oregon to Mendocino County, California. 
Type locality: Grants Pass, Oregon. July-Aug. 

2. Perideridia Kelloggii (A. Gray) Mathias. Kellogg's Yampah. Fig. 3506. 

Carum Kelloggii A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 344. 1868. 
Perideridia Kelloggii Mathias, Brittonia 2: 244. 1936. 

Plants stout, 7-15 dm. tall, from a fascicle of fibrous or slightly thickened roots. Leaves once 
or twice ternate-pinnate ; leaf-divisions linear to lanceolate, entire, 3-12 cm. long ; involucre of 
several linear to linear-lanceolate, scarious, reflexed bracts; rays 10-20, 1.5-6.5 cm. long; bract- 
lets linear to lanceolate, scarious, reflexed; pedicels 2-6 mm. long; styles about 0.5 mm. long; 
fruit oblong, 4-5 mm. long ; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissure. 

Moist places, Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges of northern 
and central California. Type locality: San Jose, Santa Clara County, California. July-Aug. 

3 Perideridia Gairdneri (Hook. & Arn.) Mathias. Gairdner's Yampah. 

Fig. 3507. 

Ataenia Gairdneri Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey 349. 1838. 

Carum erythrorhizum Piper, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 29: 100. 1916. 

Perideridia Gairdneri Mathias, Brittonia 2: 244. 1936. 

Plants slender, 3-12 dm. tall, from a solitary fusiform tuber or a small fascicle of tubers. 
Leaves pinnate or occasionally bipinnate ; leaf -divisions linear or rarely lanceolate, 2-15 cm. long, 
entire or rarely lobed or toothed ; involucre absent, or of one to several setaceous bracts ; rays 
8-20 1 5-6 cm. long; bractlets several, linear, green or scarious; pedicels 3-7 mm. long; styles 
about 1 mm. long ; fruit orbicular to suborbicular, 2-3 mm. long ; od-tubes solitary in the inter- 
vals, 2 on the commissure. ,„ , . . ,. 

Wpt heavv soil Boreal Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; British Columbia and Washington, through 
the C'^ast &s1o 'so^'uZn; California, east to'^^lberta and New Mexico TyPe locality : Califon^.a This plant 
is apparently the "yampah" of the Klamath Indians, or the yarhah of the Shoshones. June-July, false or 
Indian Caraway. 



234 UMBELLIFERAE 

4. Perideridia oregana (S. Wats.) Mathias. Oregon Yampah. Fig. 3508. 

Endosmia oregana Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, FI. N. Amer. 1: 612, as synonym. 1840. 
Carum oreganum S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 368. 1885. 
Perideridia oregana Mathias, Brittonia 2: 243. 1936. 

Plants slender, 3-6 dm. tall, from a fascicle of fusiform or ovoid tubers. Leaves l--2-ternate 
or ternate-pinnate ; leaflets linear to narrowly lanceolate, 1.5-6.5 cm. long, the terminal often 
elongate ; involucre of several linear to lanceolate, scarious bracts ; rays 6-20, 1-3 cm. long ; 
bractlets conspicuous, scarious, linear to lanceolate; pedicels 2-5 mm. long; styles 1-1.5 mm. 
long; fruit oblong-ovoid, 2.5-3.5 mm. long; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the com- 
missure. 

Moist meadows, Boreal and Humid Transition Zones; western Washington to northern California. Type 
locality: "Wappatoo [Suavies] Island," at the mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon. July-Aug. 

5. Perideridia Parishii (Coult. & Rose.) Nels. & Macbr. Parish's Yampah. 

Fig. 3509. 

Carum Gairdncri var. latifolium A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 344. 1868. 

Pimpinella Parishii Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 12: 157. 1887. 

Eulophus Parishii var. Rusbyi Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 14: 281. 1889. 

Carum Lemmonii Coult. & Rose, op. cit. 283. 

Eulophus simpler Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 112. 1900. 

Perideridia Parishii Nels. & Macbr. Bot. Gaz. 61: 33. 1916. 

Plants slender, 2-8 dm. tall, from a solitary tuber or a fascicle of fusiform or ovoid tubers. 
Leaves ternate, or sometimes simple or biternate; leaf-divisions linear to lanceolate, 2-10 cm. 
long, the terminal often elongate; involucre usually absent; rays 8-15, unequal, 1-4 cm. long; 
bractlets conspicuous, linear to obovate, scarious or colored; pedicels 3-8 mm. long; styles 1-3 
mm. long ; fruit oblong to ovoid, 2.5-3.5 mm. long ; oil-tubes 2-^ in the intervals, 6 on the com- 
missure. 

Moist meadows, Boreal Zones; Sierra Nevada, to southern California, eastward to Nevada and Arizona. 
Type locality: Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains, California. July-Sept. 

6. Perideridia Bolanderi (A. Gray) Nels. & Macbr. Bolander's Yampah. 

Fig. 3510. 

Podosciadium Bolanderi A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 346. 1868. 
Perideridia Bolanderi Nels. & Macbr. Bot. Gaz. 61: 33. 1916. 
Eulophus Bolanderi var. benignus Jepson, Madrono 1: 130. 1923. 
Eulophus cuspidatus Jepson, op. cit. 133. 

Plants slender, 2.5-8 dm. tall, from a fascicle of fusiform tubers. Leaves ternate-pinnately 
dissected; leaf-divisions oblong to filiform, 0.5-3 cm. long, the terminal often elongate, 5-8 cm. 
long, the lateral usually lobed and toothed, the petioles and rachis somewhat inflated ; involucre 
of 1 to several narrowly lanceolate to linear, scarious bracts; rays 10-20, 1-2.5 cm. long; bract- 
lets narrowly lanceolate to obovate, scarious; styles 1-2 mm. long; fruit oblong, 3-5 mm. long; 
oil-tubes 2-5 in the intervals, 6 on the commissure. 

Drv meadow lands and slopes, mainly Arid Transition Zone; eastern Oregon to the Sierra Nevada, central 
California east to Wyoming and Utah. Type locality: Mariposa Trail, Yosemite, California. June-Aug. 

7. Perideridia Pringlei (Coult. & Rose) Nels. & Macbr. Pringle's Yampah. 

Fig. 3511. 

Eulophus Pringlei Coult. & Rose, Rev. N. Amer. Umbell. 113. 1888. 
Perideridia Pringlei Nels. & Macbr. Bot. Gaz. 61: 33. 1916. 

Plants slender, 3-6 dm. tall, from a cluster of elongate fusiform tubers. Leaves pinnately 
dissected; leaf-divisions narrowly linear, 0.2-8 cm. long, the petioles and rachis broadly mflated; 
involucre of a few small lanceolate bracts, or absent ; rays 5-8, 3-8 cm. long ; bractlets several, 
narrowly subulate, scarious ; pedicels 5-10 mm. long ; styles about 1 mm. long ; fruit oblong, 4-6 
mm. long, oil-tubes 3-5 in the intervals, 8 on the commissure. 

Canyons and open slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; Coast Ranges and Tehachapi Mountains of central Cali- 
fornia to southern California. Type locality: California. April-July. 

8. Perideridia californica (Torr.) Nels. & Macbr. California Yampah. Fig. 3512. 

Chaerophyllum ? californicum Torr. Pacif. R. Rep. 4^: 93. 1857. 
Perideridia californica Nels. & Macbr. Bot. Gaz. 61: 33. 1916. 
Eulophus californicus var. sanctorus Jepson, Madrono 1: 130. 1923. 

Plants slender, 5-10 dm. tall, from a fascicle of fusiform tubers. Leaves ternate-pinnately 
dissected; leaf-divisions usually dimorphic, the terminal linear, elongate, entire, 3-8 cm. long, 
the lateral linear to ovate, entire to pinnatifid, 0.5-3 cm. long, rachis and petioles often slightly 
inflated ; involucre of several linear-lanceolate bracts ; rays 5-10, 2,-6 cm. long ; bractlets lanceo- 
late to ovate-lanceolate, scarious or colored ; pedicels 5-10 mm. long ; styles about 1 mm. long ; 
fruit oblong, 6-8 mm. long ; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 4 on the commissure. 

Wet soil, Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; central California, Sierra Nevada foothills and Inner 
Coast Ranges. Type locality: Knights Ferry, Stanislaus County, California. June-Aug. 



CARROT FAMILY 235 

22. LIGUSTICUM L. Sp. PI. 250. 1753. 

Erect glabrous or pubescent perennial herbs from fibrous root-crowns. Leaves ter- 
nate or ternate-pinnately decompound. Umbels lateral and terminal. Involucre usually 
none. Involucels of linear bractlets or often wanting. Sepals small or wanting. Flowers 
white, pinkish or purplish. Stylopodium low-conical. Fruit slightly flattened _ laterally, 
oblong or ovoid, glabrous; lateral and dorsal ribs prominent and equal, sometimes nar- 
rowly winged ; oil-tubes 1-6 in the intervals, 2-10 on the commissure ; seed- face plane to 
deeply concave. [Name from Liguria, a province of Italy, where lovage is endemic] 

A genus, widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in the northern hemisphere, with about 9 
species in North America. Type species, Ligusticum scothicum L. 

Stems more or less leafy; plants usually stout with elongated basal leaves. 

Fruit ribbed, not winged. 1- L. apiifoluim. 

Fruit narrowly winged. 

Leaflets ovate, irregularly cleft into few, linear-oblong divisions; cauline sheaths narrow; seed-face con- 
cave. 5. L- californicum. 
Leaflets lanceolate, very regularly cleft into numerous, linear divisions; cauline sheaths dilated; seed- 
face plane. 2. L. Canbyi. 
Stems naked or with one much-reduced cauline leaf; plants usually slender with shorter basal leaves. 

Leaves with ultimate divisions narrowly linear to filiform; stylopodium low-conical. 

3. L. filicinum tenuifoliitm. 

Leaves with ultimate divisions broadly oblong to ovate; stylopodium prominently conical. 

4. L. Grayi. 

1. Ligusticum apiifolium (Nutt.) A. Gray. Celery-leaved Lovage. Fig. 3513. 

Cynapium apiifolium Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 641. 1840. 

Pimpinella apiodora A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 345. 1868. 

Ligusticum apiifolium A. Gray, op. cit. 347. 

Ligusticum apiodorum var. Helleri Coult. & Rose ex Mathias, Brittonia 2: 245. 1936. 

Stems more or less leafy, usually stout, 3-15 dm. high, glabrous to pubescent, the inflor- 
escence puberulent. Leaves ternate-pinnate ; leaflets ovate to oblong, 1-5 cm. long, coarsely 
toothed to deeply pinnatifid into linear acute divisions, glabrous or slightly scabrous on the mar- 
gins and veins ; rays 12-20, slender, 2-5 cm. long ; bractlets few, linear or lanceolate ; pedicels 
5-10 mm. long, sometimes puberulent; fruit oval to orbicular, 3.5-5.5 mm. long; ribs slender, 
not winged; oil-tubes i-6 in the intervals, 6-8 on the commissure. 

Woods, Humid Transition Zone; western Washington and Oregon to the coast of central California. Type 
locality "plains of Oregon [Columbia], near the confluence of the Wahlamet [Willamette], Oregon. June- 
July. 

2. Ligusticum Canbyi Coult. & Rose. Canby's Lovage. Fig. 3514. 

Pimpinella apiodora var. nudicaulis A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 385. 1872. 
Ligusticum Canbyi Coult. & Rose, Rev. N. Amer. Umbell. 86. 1888. 
Ligusticum Leibergii Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 134. pi. 4. 1900. 
Ligusticum caerulcomontanum St. John, Fl. S.E. Wash. 297. 1937. 

Plants caulescent, inflorescence puberulent or glabrate, foliage scaberiilous ; stems more 
or less leafy, usually stout, 5-12 dm. high. Leaves ternate-pmnate ; leaflets lanceolate, 3-5 cm. 
long, laciniately cleft into linear, acute divisions; peduncles alternate or verticil ate ; rays lb-.5U, 
slender, 2.5-5 cm. long; bractlets 1 to several, linear; pedicels 5-10 mm. long; fruit oval 
to oblong, 4-5 mm. long ; ribs narrowly winged ; oil-tubes 4-6 in the intervals, 6-8 on the com- 
missure ; seed-face plane. 

Open slopes. Arid Transition Zone; central Washington and Blue Mountains, Oregon, east to Montana and 
Idaho. Type locality: near headwaters of Jocko River, Montana. June-bept. 

3. Ligusticum filicinum var. tenuifolium (S. Wats.) Math. & Const. 

Fern-leaved Lovage. Fig. 3515. 

Ligusticum tenuifolium S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 293. 1879. 
Ligusticum oreaanum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 138. 1900. 
Ligusticum filicinum var. tenuifolium Math. & Const. Bull. Torrey Club 68: 123. 1941. 

Stems slender, subscapose, 2-7 dm. high, glabrous throughout. Basal leaves, including the 
petiole, 7-35 cm. long, ternate-pinnately compound, ultimate divisions narrowly linear, acute, 
3-10 mm. long; stem-leaves much reduced, subtending the flowermg branches; rays 5-15, 
1 5-3 cm. long; bractlets 2-3. filiform, or wanting: pedicels 3-8 mm long; fruit oblong, 3-5 mm. 
long; ribs narrowly winged; oil-tubes 3-5 in the intervals, 6-8 on the commissure. 

Moist places. Boreal Zones; Blue and Wallowa Mountains, northeastern Oregon, east to Montana and 
Colorado. Type locality: "mountains of Colorado.' July-Aug. 



236 



UMBELLIFERAE 





3509 




3512 




3513 

3507. Perideridia Gairdneri 

3508. Perideridia oregana 

3509. Perideridia Parishii 



3514 

3510. Perideridia Bolanderi 

3511. Perideridia Pringlei 

3512. Perideridia californica 



3515 

3513. Ligusticum apiifolium 

3514. Ligusticum Canbyi 

3515. Ligusticum iilicinum 



CARROT FAMILY 



237 



4. Ligusticum Grayi Coult. & Rose. Gray's Lovage. Fig. 3516. 

Ligusticiim apiifolium var. minor A. Gray, Bot. Calif. 1 : 264. 1876. 

Ligusticum Grayi Coult. & Rose, Rev. N. Amer. Umbell. 88. 1888. 

Ligusticum purpiireum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 137. 1900. 

Ligusticum Cusickii Coult & Rose, op. cit. 138. 

Ligusticum Pringlei Coult. & Rose, loc. cit. 

Ligusticum teniiifolium var. dissimilis A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 53: 224. 1912. 

Stems naked or with one or few much-reduced cauHne leaves, slender, 2-6 dm. high, glabrous 
throughout. Leaves ternate-pinnate ; leaflets ovate to oblong, 1-2 cm. long, pinnatifid into 
oblong acute or obtuse divisions; rays 5-14, 2-3.5 cm. long; bractlets few, linear, setaceous; 
pedicels 3-8 mm. long; fruit oval-oblong, 4-6 mm. long; ribs narrowly winged; oil-tubes 3-5 
in the intervals, 8 on the commissure. 

Mountain meadows and open slopes, mainly Canadian Zone; Washington to the Sierra Nevada of central 
California, east to Nevada and Montana. Type locality: "Ostrander's Meadows," Yosemite Valley, California. 
June-Oct. 

5. Ligusticum californicum Coult. & Rose. California Lovage. Fig. 3517. 

Ligusticum californicum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 132. 1900. 

Plants caulescent, stout, glabrous throughout. Leaves bipinnate to ternate-pinnate; leaf- 
lets ovate, 2-4 cm. long, toothed or cleft into few, linear-oblong divisions ; peduncles alternate 
or occasionally verticillate ; rays 9-20, 2,-7 cm. long; bractlets several, linear; pedicels 5-11 
mm. long; fruit oval, 4-6 mm. long; ribs narrowly winged; oil-tubes several in the intervals 
and on the commissure ; seed-face concave. 

Open places, Transition Zone; North Coast Ranges, California. Type locality: Covelo, Mendocino County, 
California. June-Aug. 

23. CICUTA L. Sp. PI. 255. 1753. 

Caulescent, branching, glabrous perennials from a tuberous base bearing fibrous, 
fleshy-fibrous or tuberous roots. Leaves broad, 1-3-pinnate or ternate-pinnate, the leaf- 
divisions serrate to incised. Involucre wanting or inconspicuous. Rays numerous, slen- 
der, forming a convex umbel. Bractlets narrow, rarely none. Flowers white or green- 
ish. Sepals evident. Stylopodium depressed or low-conical ; styles short. Fruit oval to 
orbicular or ellipsoid, flattened laterally and often constricted at the commissure, glab- 
rous ; ribs usually prominent, obtuse and corky. Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on 
the commissure. [The ancient Latin name.] 

A circumboreal genus of about 8 poorly differentiated species. Type species, Cicuta virosa L. 

Axils of the leaves bulbiferous; fruit usually abortive. 1. C. bulbifera. 

Axils of the leaves not bulbiferous; fruit well developed. 

Oil-tubes large; seed oily, evidently channeled under the oil-tubes. 2. C. Bolanderi. 

Oil-tubes small; seed less oily, terete or only slightly sulcate under the oil-tubes. 3. C. Douglasii. 

1. Cicuta bulbifera L. Bulb-bearing Water Hemlock. Fig. 3518. 

Cicuta bulbifera L. Sp. PI. 255. 1753. 

Slender from an erect tuberous base, 3-10 dm. high, the upper leaf-axils bearing clustered 
bulblets. Leaves oblong to ovate, 0.5-1.5 dm. long, 2-3-pinnate ; leaf-divisions linear to linear- 
lanceolate, 1-8 cm. long, sparsely toothed to incised; rays 1.5-2.5 cm. long; fruit rarely ma- 
turing, globose, 1 . 5-2 mm. long, constricted at the commissure ; ribs low and broad ; oil-tubes 
small. 

Marshes and lake borders, mainly Transition Zones; British Columbia to Klamath Lake, eastern Oregon, 
and east to the Atlantic coast. Type locality: "Virginia, Canada." Aug. 





3516 



3516. Ligusticum Grayi 



3517 

3517. Ligusticum californicum 



3518 
3518. Cicuta bulbifera 



238 UMBELLIFERAE 

2. Cicuta Bolanderi S. Wats. Bolander's Water Hemlock. Fig. 3519. 

Cicuta Bolanderi S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 139. 1876. 

Stout, 10-30 dm. high. Leaves oblong to ovate, 1.5-3.5 dm. long, 1-2-pinnate; leaf-divisions 
linear to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 5-9 cm. long, finely to coarsely serrate ; rays subequal to 
very unequal, 2-5 cm. long ; fruit oval, 3-4 mm. long, constricted at the commissure ; ribs low 
and corky, narrower than the broad, darker-colored intervals ; oil-tubes large ; seed very oily, 
deeply sulcate under the tubes. 

Salt marshes. Upper Sonoran Zone; central and southern California. Type locality: Suisun, Solano County, 
California. Aug.-Sept. 

3. Cicuta Douglasii (DC.) Coult. & Rose. Douglas' Water Hemlock. Fig. 3520. 

r Slum ? Douglasii DC. Prod. 4: 125. 1830. 

Cicuta calif ornica A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 344. 1868. 

Cicuta occidentalis Greene, Pittonia 2: 7. 1889. 

Cicuta purpurata Greene, op. cit. 8. 

Cicuta vagans Greene, op. cit. 9. 

Cicuta Douglasii Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 95. 1900. 

Cicuta grandifolia Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 2: 24. 1909. 

Cicuta frondosa Greene, op. cit. 236. 1912. 

Cicuta subfalcata Greene, op. cit. 237. 

Cicuta valida Greene, op. cit. 238. 

Cicuta Sonnei Greene, op. cit. 239. 

Cicuta fintbriata Greene, op. cit. 240. 

Stout, from a vertical or horizontal tuberous base, 6-20 dm. high. Leaves oblong to ovate, 
1.2-3.8 dm. long, 1-3-pinnate; leaf-divisions linear-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 3-10 cm. 
long, remotely to coarsely serrate or incised; bractlets several, ovate-lanceolate to linear, 2-15 
mm. long ; rays 2-6 cm. long ; fruit ovoid to globose, 2-4 mm. long ; ribs low and corky, usually 
broader than the reddish browii or homochromous intervals ; oil-tubes small ; seed not very 
oily, not sulcate under the tubes. 

Marshes, mostly fresh-water, Upper Sonoran Zone to Canadian Zone; Alaska to California, east to Al- 
berta, Arizona and northern Mexico. Type locality: "in America boreali occid." June-Aug. 

24. OENAnTHE L. Sp. PI. 254. 1753. 

Mostly aquatic glabrous herbs with succulent stems and pinnate or pinnately decom- 
pound leaves. Involucres usually present. Involucels of numerous bractlets. Flowers 
white. Sepals rather prominent, persistent. Fruit oblong (in our species), slightly flat- 
tened laterally if at all, glabrous. Carpels semiterete with broad obtuse corky ribs; a 
band of strengthening cells investing the seed and oil-tubes. Stylopodium conical; styles 
elongate, persistent. Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissural side. Seed 
sulcate beneath each oil-tube. [Ancient Greek name of some thorny plant.] 

About 30 species, all but the following and one Mexican species native of the Old World. Type species, 
Oenanthe fistulosa L. 

1. Oenanthe sarmentosa Presl. Pacific or American Oenanthe. Fig. 3521. 

Oenanthe sarmentosa Presl in DC. Prod. 4: 138. 1830. 

Helosciadium californicum Hook. & Am. Bot. Beechey 142. 1832. 

Oenanthe californica S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 139. 1876. 

Oenanthe sarmentosa var. californica Coult. & Rose, Rev. N. Amer. Umbell. 92. 1888. 

Stems succulent, 5-15 dm. high. Leaves bipinnate; leaf-divisions approximate, ovate, 1-6 
cm. long, acuminate, toothed, often lobed at base ; rays many, 1 . 5-3 cm. long ; bracts few or 
none, when present linear ; bractlets similar and more numerous ; pedicels many, 2-6 mm. long ; 
fruit 2.5-3.5 mm. long, the ribs very corky. 

Aquatic, in sluggish streams or marshes, mainly Humid Transition Zone; British Columbia, mainly along 
the coast to southern California extending inland to the Willamette Valley, Oregon, and Idaho, south to the 
northern Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality: Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island. June-Oct. 

25. PODISTERA S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 475. 1887. 

Dwarf cespitose perennials with once or twice pinnate leaves. Umbels compound 
but condensed. Involucre present or none; involucels of conspicuous, dimidiate, entire, 
3-5-cleft or toothed bractlets. Flowers orange-yellow to purplish. Sepals prominent. 
Fruit flattened laterally, oblong-ovoid to ovoid, glabrous; ribs slender; stylopodium 
conical ; styles slender, short or elongate ; oil-tubes 2 to several in the intervals and on the 
commissure. [Greek meaning solid foot, in reference to the compact structure of the 
umbel.] 

A genus of 3 species, native respectively to Alaska, Colorado and California. Type species, Cymopterus ? 
nevadensis A. Gray. 



CARROT FAMILY 239 

1. Podistera nevadensis (A. Gray) S. Wats. Sierra Podistera. Fig. 3522. 

Cytnopterus nevadensis A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 6: 536. 1866. 
Podistera nevadensis S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 475. 1887. 
Podistera atbensis Jepson, Madrono 1 : 140. 1923. 

Plants scabrous, the caudex with numerous very short branches. Leaves tufted, 3-10 mm. 
long, the divisions 2i-7, lanceolate, acute; peduncles 0.5-3 cm. long; bractlets ovate, 3-5-cleft; um- 
bels congested and composed of 3-5 subsessile umbellets ; fruit 1-2 mm. long. 

Rocky slopes, Hiidsonian Zone; summits of high mountain peaks, Sierra Nevada, White Mountains, and 
San Bernardino Mountains, California. Type locality: Mount Dana, Sierra Nevada. Aug.-Sept. 

26. OREONANA Jepson, Madrono 1 ; 140. 1923. 

Low tufted stemless plants from a stout taproot, more or less pubescent or tomentose 
throughout. Leaves pinnately or ternately decompound into small crowded divisions with 
callous margins and cuspidate tips. Umbels compound, condensed and subcapitate ; in- 
volucre none ; involucels one-sided. Flowers white or purplish ; sepals evident. Sterile 
flowers on slender pedicels exceeding the rays ; fertile flowers sessile. Fruit ovoid, some- 
what laterally compressed; ribs filiform; oil-tubes several in the intervals and on the 
commissural side. [Name Greek, meaning mountain dwarf.] 

A genus of 2 species, natives of the California mountains. Type species, Oreonana californica Jepson. 

Rays membranously winged; sepals of sterile flowers conspicuous, the calyx star-shaped. 1. O. dementis. 
Rays not winged; sepals of sterile flowers inconspicuous. 2. O. vestita. 

1. Oreonana Clementis (M. E. Jones) Jepson. Clemens' Mountain Parsley. 

Fig. 3523. 

Drudeophytittn Clementis M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 14: 33. 1912. 
Oreonana californica Jepson, Madrono 1: 140. 1923. 
Oreonana Clementis Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 715. 1925. 

Low and tufted, peduncles and leaves from the root-crown, 3-8 cm. high. Leaves, pedicels 
and carpels tomentose (rarely glabrate), the peduncles and petioles glabrous; umbels globose, 
slightly exserted beyond the leaves ; rays 2-8 mm. long, membranously winged ; involucels with 
5 ovate-lanceolate lobes ; fruit 3-4 mm. long, sessile ; sepals evident ; pedicels of sterile flowers 
about equaling the fruit. 

Rocky ridges. Boreal Zones; southern Sierra Nevada, California. Type locality: Mount Whitney, California. 
July-Aug. 

2. Oreonana vestita (S. Wats.) Jepson. Woolly Mountain Parsley, Fig. 3524. 

Deweya vestita S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 17: 374. 1882. 
Orenonana vestita Jepson, Madroiio 1: 141. 1923. 

Plants 4-15 cm. high, densely white- woolly throughout. Peduncles equaling to longer than 
the leaves; rays 10-20 mm. long; bractlets numerous, lanceolate-lobed ; sterile pedicels 10-15 
mm. long; fruit subsessile, 5-6 mm. long, pubescent; oil-tubes 3-4 in the intervals, 3 on the 
commissure. 

Exposed rocky situations, Canadian Zone; San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, southern Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: summit of Mount San Antonio (Old Baldy), San Gabriel Mountains. June-July. 

27. RHYSOPTERUS Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 185. 1900. 

Low prostrate glabrous herbs, the stems slender, mostly subterranean, arising from 
a deep-seated woody taproot. Leaves ternate-subpinnate, coriaceous ; leaf -divisions lobed 
or pinnatifid. Peduncles usually shorter than the leaves ; involucre none ; involucels usually 
of conspicuous and scarious bractlets. Flowers white; sepals conspicuous; stylopodium 
wanting. Fruit ovoid to globose, flattened laterally, glabrous; carpels flattened dorsally, 
boat-shaped, with 7 equal prominent corky ribs appearing crenulate-winged when young ; 
oil-tubes small, solitary in the intervals and in the apex of each rib, 2 on the commissure. 
Seed-face concave. [Name Greek, meaning wrinkled wing.] 

A monotypic genus of western North America. 

1. Rhysopterus plurijvigus Coult. & Rose. Rhysopterus. Fig. 3525. 

Rhysopterus plurijugus Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 186. 1900. 

Leaves coriaceous, ovate-oblong, 10-40 mm. long, about equaling the petioles, the two lat- 
eral leaflets ternately lobed or divided, the terminal ternately divided and the divisions again 
ternately lobed or toothed, all the divisions about as broad as long ; rays several, stout, recurved 
in age ; bractlets frequently scarious-margincd, about equaling the pedicels ; fruit ovoid to or- 
bicular, often purplish, 3-4 mm. long, all the ribs similar, wing-like and wrinkled in the young 
fruit. 

Dry sandy ground. Upper Sonoran Zone; Malheur and Harney Counties, eastern Oregon. Type locality: 
Malheur Valley, nt-ar Harper Ranch, Oreaon. June-July. 



240 



UMBELLIFERAE 




3522 



3523 





3525 

3519. Cicuta Bolanderi 

3520. Cicuta Douglasii 

3521. Oenanthe sarmentosa 



3526 

3522. Podistera nevadensis 

3523. Oreonana dementis 

3524. Oreonana vestita 










3524 




3527 



3525. Rhysopterus plurijugus 

3526. Orogenia linearifolia 

3527. Orogenia fusiformis 



CARROT FAMILY 241 

28. OROGENIA S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 120. 1871. 

Low glabrous nearly acaulescent perennials, with tuberous or fusiform roots, the 
underground portion of the stem clothed with large scarious, bladeless sheaths. Leaves 
1-3-ternate, with narrow divisions. Involucre none ; involucels of a few linear bract- 
lets or none. Flowers white. Sepals minute. Fruit oblong to oval, slightly flattened 
laterally, with filiform dorsal ribs, the lateral corky -thickened and extending toward the 
other carpel. Stylopodium depressed. Oil-tubes minute, several in the intervals and on 
the commissural side. The commissure with a corky rib-like longitudinal projection on 
its face. Seed-face slightly concave. [Greek, meaning mountain race, in allusion to the 
habitat.] 

A genus of 2 species, natives of the western United States. Type species, Orogenia linearifolia S. Wats. 

Stems from deep-seated globose tubers; dorsal ribs prominent. 1. O. linearifolia. 

Stems from long fusiform roots; dorsal ribs obscure. 2. O. fusiformis. 

1. Orogenia linearifolia S. Wats. Great Basin Orogenia. Fig. 3526. 

Orogenia linearifolia S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 120. pi. 14. figs. 1-3. 1871. 
Orogenia linearifolia var. lata Payson, Bot. Gaz. 60: 379. 1915. 

Stems slender, rising 5-15 cm. from a globose or ovoid tuber. Leaves 2 or 3, ovate, ternate 
or biternate; petioles slender; leaf -divisions 1.5-7 cm. long, entire; rays 1-4, 0.2-2.5 cm. long; 
flowers subsessile ; fruit 3-4 mm. long, oblong-oval ; dorsal ribs prominent. 

Moist shaded slopes, Canadian Zone; Washington, east to Montana, south to Utah and southwestern Colo- 
rado. Type locality: damp shaded ridges, 7,500 feet altitude, Wahsatch Mountains north of Parley's Park, Utah. 
May-July. 

2. Orogenia fusiformis S. Wats. California Orogenia. Fig. 3527. 

Orogenia fusiformis S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 474. 1887. 

Resembling the preceding species, the stems rising 5-14 cm. from a fusiform tuber. Leaves 
ovate to deltoid, ternate to triternate; leaf -divisions 0.5-6 cm. long, the terminal often 3-parted; 
rays 1-8, 0.5-3 cm. long ; fruit 3-4 mm. long, oval ; dorsal ribs obscure or obsolete. 

Mountains, Transition Zones; southern Oregon to central California. May-July. 

29. FOENfCULUM Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 101. 1763. 

Erect biennial or perennial glabrous and glaucous herbs, with anise odor and with 
pinnately compound leaves and linear or capillary leaf-divisions. Flowers yellow, in com- 
pound umbels. Involucre and involucels wanting. Sepals obsolete. Stylopodium conical. 
Fruit oblong, slightly flattened laterally, glabrous; ribs prominent; oil-tubes solitary in the 
intervals. [Diminutive of the Latin word foenum, hay, for its odor.] 

An Old World genus of 4 species. Type species, Anethum Foeniculum L. 

1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Sweet Fennel. Fig. 3528. 

Anethum Foeniculum L. Sp. PI. 263. 1753. 

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8. no. 1. 1768. 

Perennial, branched, 9-21 dm. high. Leaves very finely pinnately dissected into capillary 
divisions; petioles broad, clasping; umbels large; rays 15-40, glaucous, 1-6.5 cm. long; pedicels 
2-10 mm. long, slender; fruit oblong, about 3.5-4 mm. long. 

Roadsides and waste places; frequent, especially in southern and central California. Naturalized from Eu- 
rope. May-Sept. 

30. ZiZIA Koch. PI. Umbell. Nov. Disp. 128. 1825. 

Perennial herbs with usually glabrous herbage. Leaves 1-2-ternate or the basal 
sometimes entire. Flowers yellow in compound umbels, the central fruit of each umbellet 
sessile. Involucre none; involucels of several small bractlets. Sepals prominent. Fruit 
oval or oblong, compressed laterally, glabrous or nearly so; ribs filiform; oil-tubes soli- 
tary, with a small one under each rib. Seed-face flat. [Named in honor of I. B. Ziz, a 
Rhenish botanist.] 

A North American genus of 4 species. Type species, Smyrnium aurea L. 

1. Zizia aptera (A. Gray) Fernald. Heart-leaved Alexanders. Fig. 3529. 

Zizia cordata Koch ex DC. Prod. 4: 100. 1830. Not Smyrnium cordatum Walt. 1788. 
Thaspium trifoliatum var. apterum A. Gray, Man. ed. 2. 156. 1856. 
Zizia aptera Fernald, Rhodora 41: 441. 1939. 
Zizia aptera var. occidentalis Fernald, loc. cit. 

Erect, branched, rather stout, 3-6 dm. high. Basal and lower leaves simple, or occasionally 
ternate, long-petiolate, ovate to orbicular, deeply cordate, finely crenate, 4-7 cm. long; stem- 



242 UMBELLIFERAE 

leaves short-petiolate, ternate or quinate, the leaf-divisions ovate or oval, toothed or in- 
cised; rays 12-16, 1-3 cm. long; fruit oblong to oval, 2-4 mm. long. 

Woods, mainly Transition Zone; eastern Washington and Oregon, east to the Atlantic States. Type 
locality: New York and New Jersey. May-June. 



31. TAUSCHIA Schlecht. Linnaea 9: 607. 1834. 

Acaulescent or caulescent herbs, with pinnately or ternately divided leaves. Involucre 
usually absent; involucel of usually prominent bractlets. Sepals evident, or wanting. 
Flowers yellow, purplish or white. Fruit orbicular to linear-oblong, flattened laterally, 
glabrous. Carpels with 5 slender or prominent ribs. Stylopodium none. Oil-tubes solitary 
to several in the intervals, and 2 to several on the commissure. Seeds nearly terete, the 
face sulcate. [Name in honor of I. F. Tausch, European botanist of the nineteentli 
century.] 

A genus of 20 species in western North America, Mexico and Central America. Type species, Tauschia 
nudicaulis Schlecht. 

The species of this genus occurring in the Pacific States have been variously referred to Drudeophytum, 
Deweya, Hespcrogcnia, and Velaea. 

Leaves simply pinnate or ternate. 

Leaflets entire, linear, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate. 

Flowers yellow; involucel present; fruit suborbicular. \. T. Stricklandii. 

Flowers white; involucel none; fruit linear-oblong. 2. T. Hooveri. 

Leaflets serrate, oblong to oval. i. T. arguta. 

Leaves ternate-pinnate or ternately or pinnately decompound. 

Sepals obsolete. ♦ 

Plants more or less scabrous, at least in the inflorescence. 

Involucels conspicuous; fruit 4-7 mm. long. 4. T. Hartwegii. 

Involucels inconspicuous; fruit 3-5 mm. long. 5. T. Kelloggii. 

Plants glabrous and glaucous. 6. T. glauca. 

Sepals evident; plants glabrous. 

Umbels open; fruit 5-8 mm. long. 7. T. Parishii. 

Umbels contracted; fruit 2-4 mm. long. 8. T. Howellii. 

1. Tauschia Stricklandii (Coult. & Rose) Math. & Const. Strickland's 

Tauschia. Fig. 3530. 

Hesperogenia Stricklandii Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 5: 203. pi. 27. 1899. 
Tauschia Stricklandii Math. & Const. Bull. Torrey Club 68: 121. 1941. 

Stemless or nearly so, 10-25 cm. tall. Leaves 3 or 4, basal, without stipular bases, pinnate 
to ternate or biternate ; leaf-divisions lanceolate, acute, 10-30 mm. long, glabrous ; petioles 2-10 
cm. long ; peduncles 5-20 cm. long, naked or with 1 or 2 bract-like leaves ; flowers yellow ; rays 
2-7, unequal, up to 15 mm. long; fruit suborbicular 2-2.5 mm. long, sessile or short-pedicellate; 
styles long, reflexed. 

Mountain meadows. Boreal Zones; Mount Rainier, Washington. The only known station. Aug.-Sept. 

2. Tauschia Hooveri Math. & Const. Hoover's Tauschia. Fig. 3531. 

Tauschia Hooveri Math. & Const. Madrofio 7: 65. fig. 1. 1943. 

Stemless, 10-14 cm. high from a globose tuber, glabrous and glaucous. Leaves deltoid- 
triangular, pinnate to bipinnate; leaflets linear, acuminate, callous-tipped; petioles 2-3 cm. long; 
bractlets wanting ; flowers white ; rays 3-7, 2-10 mm. long ; fruit linear-oblong, 5-7 mm. long, 
short-pedicellate ; styles short, recurved. 

"Scablands" with sagebrush, Upper Sonoran Zone; south-central Washington. Type locality: Near Cowiche, 
Yakima County, Washington. Feb.-April. 

3. Tauschia arguta (Torr. & Gray) J. F. Macbride. Southern Tauschia. 

Fig. 3532. 

Deweya arguta Torr. & Gray, FI. N. Amer. 1: 641. 1840. 

Velaea arguta var. ternata Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 14: 282. 1889. 

Tauschia arguta J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 56: 32. 1918. 

Stems 3-7 dm. high, or rarely nearly acaulescent. Leaves pinnate or 3-foliate by reduc- 
tion ; leaflets 5-7, 3-8 cm. long, oblong to oval, the lowest pair often subcordate, finely and 
sharply mucronate-serrate or spinulose-toothed, the terminal and lowest often 3-lobed; rays 
12-25, 2-12 cm. long; pedicels 3-9 mm. long; fruit oblong, 6-9 mm. long. 

Open woods and chaparral, Upper Sonoran Zone; coastal southern California and northern Lower Cali- 
fornia. Type locality: San Diego, California. April-June. 



CARROT FAMILY 243 

4. Tauschia Hartwegii (A. Gray) J. F. Macbride. Hartweg's Tauschia. 

Fig. 3533. 

Deweya Hartwegii A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 342. 1868. 

Tauschia Hartwegii J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 56: 32. 1918. 

Acaulescent, 3-10 dm. high, minutely scabrous throughout. Leaves 1-2-ternate-pinnate, 
the ultimate divisions more or less confluent; leaflets ovate, 2.5-6 cm. long, acute at base, 
coarsely mucronate-serrate and lobed ; rays 10-30, 2-13 cm. long; bractlets linear-lanceolate 
to lanceolate, reflexed on one side of the umbellets ; pedicels 2-7 mm. long ; fruit suborbicular, 
4-7 mm. long, oil-tubes 3-5 in the intervals, 6-8 on the commissural side. 

Partially shaded slopes. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Coast Ranges and the foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada of central California. Type locality: "on the Sacramento," California. Apnl-June. 

5. Tauschia Kelloggii (A. Gray) J. F. Macbride. Kellogg's Tauschia. 

Fig. 3534. 

Deweya Kelloggii A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 343. 1868. 

Tauschia Kelloggii J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 56: 29. 1919. 

Usuallv acaulescent, slender, 2-7 dm. high, minutely scabrous. Leaves 1-3-ternate or ternate- 
pinnate; le'aflets oblong to ovate, 1.5-3.5 cm. long; mucronate-serrate and often 3-lobed; rays 
10-20, 2-12 cm. long; bractlets small, linear; pedicels 3-15 mm. long; fruit suborbicular, 3-5 
mm. long, almost as broad, notched at base ; oil-tubes 2-3 in the intervals, about 6 on the com- 
missure. 

Wooded slopes. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; Siskiyou Mountains, southern Oregon south to. 
central California. Type locality: Bolinas Bay, California. April-June. 

6. Tauschia glauca (Coult. & Rose) Math. & Const. Glaucous Tauschia. 

Fig. 3535. 

Velaea glauca Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 321, pi. 14. 1895. 
Tauschia glauca Math. & Const. Bull. Torrey Club 68: 121. 1941. 

Slender, caulescent, 2-4 dm. high, glabrous and glaucous. Basal leaves ternate-pinnate or 
biternate; leaf-divisions 10-17 mm. long, ovate to orbicular, cuneate at base, often 3-lobed; 
rays 5-12, 1-6 cm. long; bracts usually none; bractlets lanceolate; pedicels 1-3 mm. long; fruit 
suborbicular, 2-3 mm. long; carpophore parted below the middle. 

Wooded slopes, Transition Zones; Umpqua and Rogue River regions, Oregon, and adjacent California. 
Type locality: Glendale, Oregon. April-June. 

7. Tauschia Parishii (Coult. & Rose) J. F. Macbride. Parish's Tauschia. 

Fig. 3536. 

Velaea Parishii Coult & Rose, Rev. N. Amer. Umbell. 121. 1888. 
Cymopterus owencnsis M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 12: 26. 1908. 
Tauschia Parishii J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 56: 32. 1918. 

Stemless, 1-4 dm. high, glabrous and glaucous throughout. Leaves ternate-pinnate or pin- 
nate, the leaflets oblong to ovate, irregularly cuspidate-toothed and pinnately lobed; rays 12-18, 
3-6 cm. long; bracts none; bractlets few, setaceous; pedicels 2-7 mm. long; sepals promi- 
nent; fruit oblong to oval, 5-8 mm. long; oil-tubes 4-5 in the intervals, 8-10 on the commissure. 

Open pine forests. Arid Transition Zone; southern Sierra Nevada to the San Jacinto Mountains, southern 
California. Type locality: north side of San Bernardino Mountains, California. May-July. 

8. Tauschia Howellii (Coult. & Rose) J. F. Macbride. Howell's Tauschia. 

Fig. 3537. 

Velaea Howellii Coult. & Rose, Rev. N. Amer. Umbell. 122. 1888. 
Tauschia Howellii J. F. Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. No. 56: 32. 1918. 

Plants short-stemmed, 5-8 cm. high, glabrous. Leaves 1 or 2, ovate, 1.5-3 cm. long, rather 
thick; leaflets oblong to ovate with revolute margins, irregularly toothed or lobed, the teeth 
pungently tipped ; rays 3-5, usually with 1 or 2 sessile umbels interspersed ; bracts none ; bract- 
lets resembling the leaves and forming most of the foliage of the plant; sepals prominent, 
pedicels up to 5 mm. long; fruit oblong, glabrous, 2-4 mm. long; oil-tubes several in the in- 
tervals and on the commissure. 

Known only from the vicinity of the type locality, the "top of Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon." June-July. 

32. OXYPOLIS Raf. Neogen. 2. 1825. 

Glabrous erect aquatic herbs, with fascicled fleshy roots. • Leaves pinnate or ternate 
or reduced to septate phyllodes. Involucre when present of few bracts; involucels of 
numerous small bractlets or sometimes absent. Flowers white or purple; sepals evident. 
Fruit strongly flattened dorsally, oblong to obovate; carpels with the dorsal ribs filiform, 
the lateral wings strongly nerved dorsally near the inner margin, the nerves simulating 



244 



UMBELLIFERAE 





3528 



3529 



3530 





3531 




3532 



3533 




3534 

3528. Foeniculum vulgare 

3529. Zizia aptera 

3530. Tauscbia Stricklandii 




3535 

3531. Tauscbia Hooveri 

3532. Tauscbia arguta 

3533. Tauscbia Hartwegii 




3536 

3534. Tauscbia Kelloggii 

3535. Tauscbia glauca 

3536. Tauscbia Parisbii 



CARROT FAMILY 



245 



ribs and giving the carpel a 5-ribbed appearance. Stylopodium conical. Oil-tubes solitary 
in the intervals, 2-6 on the commissure. Seed-face plane. 

A North American genus of about 7 species. Type species, Sium rigidius L. 

1. Oxypolis occidentalis Coult. & Rose. Western Oxypolis or Cow-bane. 

Fig. 3538. 

Oxypolis occidentalis Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 196. 1900. 

Plants 6-15 dm. high, the stems simple or sparingly branched. Basal leaves simply pinnate, 
12-30 cm. long, their leaflets ovate to linear-lanceolate, crenate, crenate-dentate, serrate, or 
incised, 3.5-6.5 cm. long; stem-leaves few, the leaflets fewer, lanceolate to linear-acummate, 
serrate, the uppermost reduced to the sheathing petiolar base ; involucre usually of 1-2 bracts ; 
rays 12-24, 2-8 cm. long; involucels of few linear-attenuate bractlets; fruit oval or oblong, 
5-6 mm. long. 

Mountain springs and bogs, Canadian and Arid Transition Zones; Cascade Mountains, southern Oregon, 
to the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains, California. Type locality: Crater Lake, Oregon. July- 

Aug. 

33. PASTINAcA L. Sp. PI. 262. 1753. 

Tall branching glabrous or pubescent biennials or perennials. Leaves pinnately com- 
pound. Involucre and involucels small or wanting. Flowers yellow or red. Sepals obsolete. 
Stylopodium depressed-conical. Fruit strongly flattened dorsally, oval to obovate. Car- 
pels with winged lateral and filiform dorsal ribs. Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 
2-4 on the commissural side. Seed flattened dorsally, the face plane. [The ancient Latin 
name.] 

A genus of about 14 species, natives of Eurasia. Type species, Pastinaca sativa L. 

L Pastinaca sativa L. Parsnip. Fig. 3539. 

Pastinaca sativa L. Sp. PI. 262. 1753. 

Stout glabrate biennials, 3-10 dm. tall. Leaves oblong to ovate, pinnate; leaflets oblong 
to ovate, serrate or somewhat incised or lobed, 5-10 cm. long; rays 15-25, 2-10 cm. long; 
pedicels 5-10 mm. long; fruit 5-6 mm. long. 

Escaped from gardens, and locally naturalized in the Pacific States. Type locality: southern Europe. 

34. ANETHUM L. Sp. PI. 263. 1753. 

Slender glabrous and glaucous annuals, with pinnately dissected leaves and filiform leaf- 
divisions. Flowers yellow, in compound umbels. Involucre and involucels wanting. Sepals 
obsolete. Stylopodium conical. Fruit ovate, strongly flattened dorsally, glabrous; ribs 
narrowly winged, the lateral broader than the dorsal ; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals. 
[The ancient name.] 

An Old World genus of 2 species. Type species, Anethum graveolens L. 




3537 
3537. Tauschia Howellii 



3538 
3538. Oxypolis occidentalis 



3539. Pastinaca sativa 



246 UMBELLIFERAE 

1. Anethum graveolens L. Dill. Fig. 3540. 

Anethum graveolens L. Sp. PI. 263. 1753. 

Branching annual, 4-17 dm. high. Leaves pinnately decompound, the ultimate divisions 
filiform; rays 10^5, 3-10 cm. long; pedicels 6-10 mm. long; fruit ovate, about 4 mm. long. 

Waste places, introduced throughout the United States. Naturalized from Europe. June-Aug. 

35. LOMATIUM Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 101. 1819. 

Low and short-caulescent or acaulescent, or tall and caulescent, simple or branching, 
perennial herbs, with slender or thickened subfusiform or tuberous roots, and ternate, 
pinnate or decompound leaves. Flowers in compound umbels, yellow, white or purple. 
Involucre mostly none ; involucels present or rarely wanting. Sepals small. Fruit strongly 
flattened dorsally; carpels with filiform dorsal ribs, the laterals winged, thin to corky; 
stylopodium none; oil-tubes 1 to several in the intervals or rarely obsolete, 2-10 on the 
commissure. Seed flattened dorsally, the face plane or slightly concave. [From the Greek 
word meaning border, referring to the winged fruit.] 

A genus of about 80 species, native to western North America. Type species, Lomatiutn villosum Raf. 

Peduncles not conspicuously inflated at the apex, slender or uniformly fistulose, the rays sometimes dilated into 
a prominent disc. 
Fruit more or less deeply emarginate at each end, the wings distinct on each side of the body; leaflets mostly 
broad in outline. I- 

Fruit not emarginate or scarcely so, the wings more or less joined above and below the body; leaflets mostly 
narrow. 
Plants mostly low, from globose or somewhat elongate or irregular tubers; leaves mostly small. II. 

Plants usually stouter, from more or less thickened elongate taproots, sometimes with a very deep-seated 
tuber. 
Leaves decompound, dissected into numerous small divisions. 

Ovaries and young (sometimes mature) fruit variously pubescent or roughened. III. 

Ovaries and fruit glabrous. 

Bractlets absent. IV. 

Bractlets present. V. 

Leaves with mostly few or large divisions, ternately or pinnately divided, the divisions mostly re- 
mote. VI. 
Peduncles conspicuously swollen and inflated at the apex. 64. L. nudicaule. 

I. 

Leaf-divisions not pinnatifid, merely toothed or sometimes 3-lobed. 

Leaves 1-2-ternate; wings thickened, much broader than the body; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals; south- 
ern California. 1- ^- I'tcidum. 
Leaves ternate-pinnate; wings thin, about equaling to broader than the body; oil-tubes 1-3 in the intervals. 
Fruit broadly oval; plants mostly low; Napa and Lake Counties, California. 2. L. repostum. 

Fruit suborbicular; plants mostly taller, southern Oregon and adjacent California. 

3. L. Hotvellii. 

Leaf-divisions pinnatifid, usually incised. 

Leaf-blades large, longer than the petioles; fruit 12-15 mm. long; San Nicolas Island, California. 

5. L. insulare. 

Leaf-blades smaller, mostly equaling or shorter than the petioles; fruit 7-10 mm. long; California mainland. 
Leaf-divisions acerose-tipped; wings less than half the width of the body; eastern slopes of the Sierra 
Nevada, Inyo County. 6. L. rigidum. 

Leaf-divisions not acerose-tipped; wings broader than the body; Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties. 

4. L. parvifolium. 

II. 

Ovaries and fruit variously pubescent. 

Flowers white or purple; bractlets absent or setaceous. 7. L. Gormanti. 

Flowers yellow; bractlets distinct, obovate and connate. 

Tuber deep-seated, oblong; bractlets united nearly to the apex; fruit ovate, sessile or subsessile; oil- 
tubes obsolete. IS. L. Watsonn. 
Tuber globose, or occasionally elongate; bractlets distinct, obovate, scarious-margined; fruit oblong, 
pedicels 2-4 mm. long; oil-tubes prominent. 19. L. Cous. 
Ovaries and fruit glabrous. 

Involucels absent or inconspicuous. 

Flowers yellow; pedicels prominent, 4-25 mm. long. 

Plants caulescent, alternately branched above; pedicels 4-15 mm. long. 

Plants glabrous; lower leaves ternate-pinnate; fruit oblong, 8-10 mm. long. 

17. L. ambiguum. 

Plants puberulent; lower leaves 2-3-pinnate; fruit ovate-oblong, 6-7 mm. long. 

18. L. RoUinsii. 

Plants acaulescent, unbranched; pedicels 15-25 mm. long. 11. L. Hambleniae. 

Flowers white; pedicels short or obsolete, up to 2 mm. long. 8. L. Piperi. 

Involucels conspicuous. 

Leaf-divisions few; fruit linear, 1-1.5 mm. broad, constricted toward the apex; wings almost obsolete. 

9. L. orogenioides. 



16. L. 


leptocarpum. 


10. L. 


farinosum. 


long. 
12. L. 


Geyeri. 


13. L. 


Hendersonii. 


-colored than the bod 
14. L. Canbyi. 


20. L. 


montanum. 


21. L. 


circumdatum. 



CARROT FAMILY 247 

Leaf-divisions several to many; fruit ovate to linear-oblong, 2-6 mm. broad, not constricted above; wings 
evident. 
Bractlets linear to linear-lanceolate, sometimes more or less connate. 

Leaf-divisions filiform to linear, mostly elongate, up to 8 cm. long; flowers white or yellow. 
Flowers yellow; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals. 
Flowers white; oil-tubes several in the intervals. 
Bractlets distinct; pedicels lax, 6-17 mm. long. 
Bractlets more or less connate; pedicels subcrect, 2-5 mm. 

Leaf-divisions short-linear, up to 10 mm. long; flowers white. 

Rays 2-6; fruit oblong-oval; wings corky, brown like the body. 

Rays 12-17; fruit linear-oblong; wings membranaceous, lightei 

Bractlets obovate, sometimes connate. 

Plants acaulescent; oil-tubes 2-4 in the intervals. 
Plants caulescent; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals. 

III. 

Bractlets oblanceolate to obovate. 

Plants glabrous to pubescent, not scabrous or roughened; umbels 5-13-rayed; wings mostly broader than 

the body. 23. L. utrtculatum. 

Plants scabrous or roughened; umbels 10-25-rayed; wings equaling the body. 22. L. vaginatum. 
Bractlets mostly linear, never obovate, sometimes reduced to a sheath. 

Young fruit granulate-roughened, not pubescent. 31. L. Peckianum. 

Young fruit variously pubescent, not granulate-roughened. 

Bractlets with a conspicuous scarious margin, never tomentose or villous. 32. L. ncvadense. 
Bractlets not conspicuously scarious-margined, more or less tomentose or villous. 
Plants acaulescent, usually low, up to 3 dm. tall. 

Plants more or less villous throughout; petioles shorter than the leaf-blades. 

34. L. Macdougaln. 

Plants hoary-pubescent, never villous; petioles longer than the leaf-blades; deserts of Cali- 
fornia and adjacent Nevada. 36. L. mohavense. 
Plants short-caulescent, rarely acaulescent, mostly taller, up to S dm. tall. 

Petals glabrous; fruit narrowly oblong, sparingly pubescent vath long hairs. 

38. L. macrocarpum. 

Petals tomentose; fruit ovate-oblong to orbicular, densely pubescent. 

Pedicels mostly longer than the mature fruit; wings broader than the body, membrana- 
ceous, thinly pubescent to glabrate. 35. L. dasycarpum. 
Pedicels mostly shorter than the mature fruit; wings narrower than to equaling the 
body, somewhat thickened, tomentose. 37. L. tomentosum. 

IV. 

Foliage and peduncles pubescent (or if glabrate, flowers yellow); umbels 2-7-rayed. 41. L. Engelmannii. 
Foliage and peduncles glabrous (or if scaberulous, not of northern California); umbels 5-16-rayed. 

Flowers white; pedicels 6-10 mm. long; central Sierra Nevada foothills, California. . 

39. L. Ccngdonit. 

Flowers creamy white to yellow; pedicels less than 6 mm. long (except L. angustatum var. flavum). 
Leaf-division filiform, 3-8 mm. long; southern Sierra Nevada, California. 40. L. Torieyi. 

Leaf-divisions ovate, 1-2 mm. long; Coast Ranges and Cascades, British Columbia to Oregon. 

42. L. angustatum. 

V. 

Bractlets obovate, sometimes connate. 

Plants usually with several stem-leaves; wings broader than the body, the dorsal ribs obsolete. 

Fruit ovate to obovate, 9-15 mm. long; calyx-lobes prominent in young fruit. 

24. L. Vaseyi. 

Fruit oblong to ovate, 5-11 mm. long; calyx-lobes obsolete. 23. L. utriculatum. 

Plants without or with one stem-leaf; wings narrower than the body, or if broader, the dorsal ribs evident. 
Plants glabrous or slightly pubescent; flowers yellow (or if purple, western Sierra Nevada). 
Plants cespitose; leaflets crowded; montane Oregon. 20. L. montanum. 

Plants not cespitose; leaflets distinct; California and western Oregon. 

Leaves broadly ovate to obovate; fertile rays 6-15. 28. L. caruifolium. 

Leaves oblong to ovate; fertile rays 2-5. 

Bractlets entire or toothed; leaf-divisions elongate, up to 60 mm. long; California. 

29. L. humile. 

Bractlets 1-3-ternately lobed; leaf-divisions shorter, up to 8 mm. long; Willamette Val- 
ley, Oregon. ■50. L. Bradshaivii. 
Plants scaberulous to densely pubescent; flowers white or purple (or if yellow, California North Coast 
Ranges). 
Flowers purple or yellow; leaves ternate, then 1-2-pinnate; California North Coast Ranges. 
*^ 25. L. ciholatum. 

Flowers white; leaves 3-pinnate; Sierra Nevada and Great Basin. 32. L. ncvadense. 

Bractlets filiform to linear-lanceolate, rarely oblanceolate-acuminate, never obovate. 

Bractlets more or less tomentose or villous. 38. L. macrocarpum. 

Bractlets glabrous or minutely and sparingly roughened. 

Fruit 12-16 mm. long, 6-10 mm. broad; wings very narrow and corky-thickened. 

43. L. dtsscctum. 
Fruit 5-13 mm. long, 3-7 mm. broad; wings thin and membranaceous. 

Plants more or less pubescent. 

Flowers yellow; plants mostly low, less than 3 dm. tall; Great Basin. 

33. L. Plummcrae. 

Flowers white; plants usually taller, up to 4.5 dm. tall. 32. L. ncvadense. 



248 UMBELLIFERAE 

Plants glabrous or occasionally scaberulous, never pubescent; flowers purple or yellow. 
Plants acaulescent or with a pseudoscape. 

Peduncles stout, fistulose; pedicels 1S-2S mm. long; fruit 16-24 mm. long, 8-12 mm. 

broad. 44. L. columbianum. 

Peduncles slender; pedicels 3-22 mm. long; fruit 5-7 mm. long, 3-8 mm. broad. 

Leaf-divisions lanceolate to oblanceolate, minutely papillose above; bractlets finely 

puberulent; Snake River drainage. 49. L. serpentinum. 

Leaf-divisions filiform, linear or linear-oblong, glabrous or scaberulous; bractlets 
glabrous, rarely slightly scaberulous. 
Leaves oblong to ovate, 4-10 cm. long; fruit 3-5 mm. broad. 
Fertile rays 8-30; pedicels 3-15 mm. long. 

Fruit ovate to ovate-oblong, 4-5 ram. broad; wings less than half the 
width of the body; northern Great Basin. 

50. L. Donnellii. 

Fruit oblong, 3 mm. broad; wings about half the widthof the body; 
western Oregon. 54. L. Hallii. 

Fertile rays 1-6; pedicels 1-S mm. long; northwestern California and south- 
western Oregon. 26. L. Tracyi. 

Leaves obovate, 6-26 cm. long; fruit 5-8 mm. broad. 

Leaf-divisions remote, elongate, up to 80 mm. long; petioles wholly sheath- 
ing or nearly so; bractlets scarious-margined; California. 

27. L. inarginatum. 

Leaf-divisions crowded, shorter, up to 11 mm. long; petioles sheathing only 
at base; bractlets not scarious-margined; Great Basin. 

45. L. Grayi. 
Plants short-caulescent. 

Leaf-divisions remote, mostly elongate, up to 80 mm. long. 27. L. marginatum. 

Leaf-divisions crowded, shorter, up to 11 mm. long. 

Petioles wholly sheathing; fruit acute at the apex; east-central California and ad- 
jacent Nevada. H- L. Plummerae. 
Petioles partially sheathing; fruit rounded at the apex; Great Basin. 

Peduncles stout, fistulose; rays stout. 47. L. minus. 

Peduncles and rays slender. 

Leaf-divisions rigid, cuspidate; flowers purple. 48. L. cuspidattim. 
Leaf-divisions herbaceous; flowers yellow or salmon-yellow. 

Fruit-wings thick, corky, colored like the body; flowers salmon-yellow. 

46. L. salmoniflorum. 

Fruit-wings thin, membranaceous, rarely obsolete, lighter-colored than 
the body; flowers yellow. 45. L. Grayi. 

VI. 

Plants acaulescent or short-caulescent; leaves 1 --2-pinnate ; rarely 3-pinnate. 
Foliage pubescent. 

Acaulescent; ovaries and fruit pubescent. 51. L. creganum. 

Caulescent, branching; ovaries and fruit glabrous. 18. L. Rollinsii. 

Foliage glabrous. 

Leaves 2-3-pinnate. 

Rays subequal, suberect; pedicels 10-17 mm. long; fruit 9-12 mm. long, wings equaling or some- 
what broader than the body; desert mountain ranges. 53. L. Parryi. 
Rays unequal, spreading; pedicels 4-7 mm. long; fruit 5-7 mm. long, wings about half the width 
of the body; western Oregon. 54. L. Hallii. 

Leaves pinnate, rarely bipinnate. 

Plants less than 1 dm. tall; leaf-blades less than 2.5 cm. long. 52. L. Greenmanii. 

Plants more than 1 dm. tall; leaf-blades more than 2.5 cm. long. 55. L. Martindalei. 

Plants mostly caulescent, tall; leaves ternate-pinnately or quinate-pinnately divided. 
Plants variously pubescent. 

Ovaries and young fruit glabrous. 

Leaves biternate; bractlets shorter than the pedicels; fruit 7-14 mm. broad, the wings equaling to 

broader than the body. 56. L. simplex. 

Leaves ternatepinnate; bractlets equaling the pedicels; fruit 3-S mm. broad, the wings narrower 
than the body. 57. L. triternatitm. 

Ovaries and young fruit pubescent. 

Leaves biternate; wings equaling or broader than the body. 56. L. simplex. 

Leaves ternate-pinnate ; wings narrower than the body. 

Fruit 24-28 mm. long; pedicels 6-17 mm. long. 61. L. Suksdorfii. 

Fruit 8-22 mm. long; pedicels 1-9 mm. long. 57. L. triternatum. 

Plants glabrous or rarely slightly scaberulous, never pubescent. 

Plants 9-21 dm. tall; fruit 15-32 mm. long. 61. L. Suksdorfii. 

Plants 1-12 dm. tall; fruit 6-15 mm. long. 

Plants 3-12 dm. high; leaf-division cuneate to obovate, 5-40 mm. broad, glaucous; southern 

Oregon and California. 63. L. californicum. 

Plants 1-4 dm. high; leaf-divisions filiform to oblong or oblanceolate, 0.5-8 mm. broad, not 
glaucous; central and eastern Oregon and Washington. 
Stems simple or occasionally few-branched; leaf-divisions filiform to oblong. 

Flowers white or purplish; involucels about equaling flowers; pedicels 2-6 mm. long. 

58. L. Cusickii. 

Flowers yellow; involucels wanting or inconspicuous; pedicels 4—15 mm. long. 

Leaves ternate-pinnate or partially biternate; leaf-divisions few; rays 3-7; fruit 

10-12 mm. long, 3-4 mm. broad. 60. L. idahoensc. 

Leaves ternate, then 2-3-pinnate; leaf-divisions numerous; rays 9-20; fruit 6-10 
mm. long, 4-6 mm. broad. 59. L. laevigatum. 

Stems few-branched; leaf-divisions linear-lanceolate to oblanceolate; fruit usually rcflexed. 

62. L. Brandegei. 



CARROT FAMILY 249 

1. Lomatium lucidum (Nutt.) Jepson. Shiny Lomatium. Fig. 3541. 

Huryptera lucida Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 629. 1840. 
feucedanum Euryptera A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 348. 1868. 
Peucedanum Hassei Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 14: 276. 1889. 
Lomatium lucidum Jepson, Econ. PI. Calif. 119. 1924. 

Plants short-caulescent, 2.6-5 dm. tall, glabrous, from a long, slender taproot. Leaves 
1-2-ternate; leaf-divisions deltoid to cuneate, regularly and sharply toothed, and often some- 
what lobed, 15-70 mm. long; rays 10-20, widely spreading, 2-8.5 cm. long ; bractlets hnear- 
lanceolate, acuminate; pedicels 7-17 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit suborbicular to broadly 
elliptical, emarginate at each end. 6-15 mm. long; wmgs thick, broader than the body; oil- 
tubes solitary in the intervals, 2-4 on the commissure. 

Partially wooded mountain slopes. Upper Sonoran Zone; cismontane southern California, from Los Angeles 
County to San Diego County. Type locality: San Diego, California. Feb.-March. 

2. Lomatium repostum (Jepson) Mathias. Napa Lomatium. Fig. 3542. 

Lomatium lucidum var. repostum Jepson, Madrono 1: 149. 1924. 
Lomatium repostum Mathias, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 25:237. 1937. 

Plants acaulescent, 1.5-3.6 dm. tall, glabrous, from a long, slender, sometimes branching 
taproot Leaves 1-2-ternate or ternate-pinnate ; leaf-divisions ovate to subflabellate, regularly 
and sharply toothed, rarely shallowly lobed, 10-40 mm. long; rays 8-20, spreading 3-8 cm. 
long- bractlets lanceolate, subacuminate ; pedicels 8-12 mm. long; flowers greenish-yellow; 
fruit' broadly oval, emarginate at each end, 10-15 mm. long; wings thin, equaling to much 
broader than the body ; oil-tubes 1-3 in the intervals, 4-6 on the commissure. 

Sandy or clay slopes. Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; Inner Coast Ranges, California, north- 
ern Napa and southern Lake Counties. Type locality: near Collin's Springs, Vaca Mountains, California. 
May- June. 

3. Lomatium Howellii (S. Wats.) Jepson. Howell's Lomatium. Fig. 3543. 

Feuccdanum Ho^vellii S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 369. 1885. 
Lomatium Howellii Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 637. 1936. 

Plants acaulescent or short-caulescent, 2.5-4 dm. tall, glabrous, from a long slender branch- 
ino- taproot. Leaves ternate, then 1-2-pinnate; leaf-divisions deltoid, sharply and regularly 
toothed, sometimes lobed, 10-25 mm. long; rays 10-15, spreading, 2.5-5.5 cm. long; bractlets 
lanceolate to filiform; pedicels 8-12 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit suborbicular, 7-11 mm. 
long, deeply emarginate at both ends; wings about equaling the body; oil-tubes 2-3 m the 
intervals, 9 on the commissure. 

Shaded rocky slopes, Humid Transition Zone; Siskiyou Mountains, Josephine County, Oregon, to Del 
Norte County, California. Type locality: near Waldo, Josephine County, Oregon. May-June. 

4. Lomatium parvifolium (Hook. & Arn.) Jepson. Small-leaved Lomatium. 

Fig. 3544. 

Fer1^la parvifolia Hook & Arn. Bot. Beechey 348. 1838. 

Peucedamim calif ornicum Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 13: 143. 1888. Not P. calif ornicum Nutt. 1840. 

Lomatium parvifolium Jepson, Madroiio 1: 150. 1924. 

Plants short-caulescent, 1.5-4 dm. tall, glabrous, from a long taproot. Leaves ternate, then 
1-2-pinnate; leaf-divisions lanceolate to cuneate, irregularly and sharply pinnatifid-incised, 
8-24 mm. long; rays 8-14, spreading, subequal, 0.8-2.5 cm. long; bractlets linear-lanceolate 
to filiform; pedicels 3-6 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit orbicular to oblong, 7-10 mm. long, 
emarginate at both ends ; wings broader than the body ; oil-tubes 1-3 in the intervals, 4-6 on 
the commissure. 



County 
March-June. 



Open pine forests. Humid Transition Zone; coastal California, Monterey County to San Luis Obispo 

My. Type locality: definite locality not stated, but probably near Monterey. Collected by Douglas. 

ch-June. 

Lomatium parvifolium var. pallidum (Coult. & Rose) Jepson, Madroiio 1: 150. 1924 {Euryptera 
pallida Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:242. 1900.) Foliage paler; rays 3-6.5 cm. long; pedicels 

7-17 mm. long. Monterey County to San Luis Obispo County, California. Type locality: Santa Lucia 
Mountains. 

5. Lomatium insulare (Eastw.) Munz. San Nicolas Lomatium. Fig. 3545. 

Peucedanum insulare Eastw. Proc. Calif. Acad. III. 1: 106. pl. 8. 1898. 
Lomatium insulare Munz, Man. S. Calif. 358. 1935. 

Plants acaulescent, 1-4 dm. tall, glabrous, from a long stout taproot. Leaves 2-3-ternate 
to biquinate, then pinnate; leaf-divisions oblong to ovate-oblong, cuneate, irregularly pmna- 
tifid, 4-14 mm. long; rays 15-20, spreading, subequal, 3.5-8 cm. long; bractlets filiform; ped- 
icels 6-12 mm. long; flowers vellow ; fruit oblong-ovate, 12-15 mm. long, emarginate at both 
ends ; wings thick, about equaling the body ; oil-tubes 2 in the intervals, 4 on the commissure. 

Bluffs, Upper Sonoran Zone; San Nicolas Island, southern California. Type locality: San Nicolas Island. 
Feb.-April. 



250 UMBELLIFERAE 

6. Lomatium rigidum (M. E. Jones) Jepson. Inyo Lomatium. Fig. 3546. 

Cogswellia rigida M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 13: U. 1910. 
Lomatium rigidum Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 637. 1936. 

Plants acaulescent or short-caulescent, 2.5-4 dm. tall, glabrous, from a cluster of dried 
leaf-sheaths. Leaves bipinnate; leaf-divisions ovate to cuneate, sharply pinnatifid, 10-20 mm. 
long, the lobes with acerose or spinulose teeth; rays 10-20, spreading, subequal, 2.5-5 cm. long; 
bractlets lanceolate, acuminate; pedicels 5-10 mm. long; flowers yellow; sepals conspicuous; 
fruit ovate to oblong, 7-9 mm. long, emarginate at base, rounded at apex ; wings less than half 
the width of the body ; oil-tubes 3 in the intervals, about 6 on the commissure. 

Rocky places, mainly Arid Transition Zone; eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada, Inyo County, California. 
Type locality: Big Pine, Inyo County. May-July. 

7. Lomatium Gormanii (Howell) Coult. & Rose. Gorman's Lomatium. 

Fig. 3547. 

Peucedanum Gormanii Howell, Fl. N.W. Amer. 1: 252. (April 1) 1898. 
Peucedanum confusum Piper, Erythea 6:29. (April 10) 1898. 
Lomatium Gormanii Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:208. 1900. 

Plants acaulescent, 1-1.5 dm. tall, from a shallow globose tuber up to 2.5 cm. in diameter, 
covered with fascicles of rootlets. Leaves ternate, then 1-2-pinnate; leaf-divisions oblong to 
linear, 2-13 mm. long, glabrous or sparingly puberulent; rays 4-10, unequal, 0.6-3 cm. long; 
bractlets absent or few, setaceous, scarious-margined; pedicels 0.5-3 mm. long; flowers white 
or purplish, anthers purple; fruit ovate, 5-7 mm. long, puberulent; wings about half the width 
of the body ; oil-tubes 3-4 in the intervals, 4-6 on the commissure. 

Stony ground, Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; central and southeastern Washington, central 
Oregon, and Idaho. Type locality: "high hills opposite the Dalles," probably Klickitat County, Washington. 
April-June. 

8. Lomatium Piperi Coult. & Rose. Piper's Lomatium. Fig. 3548. 

Lomatium Piperi Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 211. 1900. 

Plants acaulescent or short-caulescent, 1-2.5 dm. tall, glabrous or with somewhat puberulent 
foliage, from a small globose, sometimes deep-seated tuber. Leaves ternate, then tripinnate ; 
leaf-divisions linear, 3-30 mm. long ; rays 3-20, unequal, spreading, 1-6 cm. long ; bractlets 
absent or few, linear; pedicels obsolete or less than 2 mm. long; flowers white, the anthers 
purple; fruit ovate to oblong, 5-9 mm. long, glabrous; wings about half as broad as the body; 
oil-tubes 1-8 in the intervals, 2-4 on the commissure. 

Dry stony ground. Arid Transition Zone; central Washington to northern California, east to western 
Idaho. Type locality: EUensburg, Washington. April-June. 

9. Lomatium orogenioides (Coult. & Rose) Mathias. Leiberg's Lomatium. 

Fig. 3549. 

Leibcrgia orogenioides Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 575. 1896. 
Lomatium orogenioides Mathias, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 25: 242. 1937. 

Plants acaulescent, slender, 1-4 dm. tall, from a globose tuber 6-12 mm. in diameter. Leaves 
2-3-ternate, glabrous; leaf-divisions filiform, 10-45 mm. long; rays 3-10, glabrous or sparsely 
scaberulous, ascending, unequal, 3-15 cm. long; bractlets linear; pedicels 1-3 mm. long; flowers 
white; fruit linear, 8-10 mm. long, constricted toward the apex, glabrous; wings narrow to 
almost obsolete ; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissure. 

Darnp ground along streams, Arid Transition and Canadian Zones; northeastern Washington to northern 
Idaho. Type locality: Santianne Creek bottoms, Coeur d'Alene Mountains, Idaho. May-July. 

10. Lomatium farinosum (Geyer) Coult. & Rose. Coeur d'Alene Lomatium. 

Fig. 3550. 

Peucedanum farinosum Geyer in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 6: 235. 1847. 
Lomatium farinosum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:210. 1900. 

Plants short-caulescent, 1.5-3 dm. tall, glabrous, from a globose tuber 1-2 cm. in diameter. 
Leaves biternate; leaf-divisions linear, 1.5-8 cm. long; rays 3-12, ascending,^ weak, unequal, 
1-7 cm. long; bractlets 1 to few, linear, acuminate, sometimes scarious, deciduous; pedicels 
6-17 mm. long; flowers white; fruit linear-oblong, 5-6 mm. long; wings about half the width 
of the body ; oil-tubes several in the intervals. 

Heavy soil, among basaltic rocks. Arid Transition Zone; eastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Type 
locality: Coeur d'Alene Mountains, Idaho. April-June. 

11. Lomatium Hambleniae Math. & Const. Hamblen's Lomatium. Fig. 3551. 

Lomatium Hambleniae Math. & Const. Bull. Torrey Club 69: 153. 1942. 

Plants acaulescent or short-caulescent, 1-3.5 dm. tall, glabrous, from a globose tuber about 
1.5 cm. in diameter. Leaves 1-2-ternate, then pinnate or pinnately lobed ; leaf-divisions linear, 
remote, 5-23 mm. long; rays 2-8, unequal, 4-8 cm. long; bractlets few, linear or lanceolate; 



CARROT FAMILY 



251 






3541 





3542 



^ '"^'' -^ 





3543 



8544 



3545 




3546 

3540. Anethum graveolens 

3541. Lomatiura lucidum 

3542. Lomatium repostum 




3547 

3543. Lomatium Howellii 

3544. Lomatium parvifolium 

3545. Lomatium insulare 




3548 

3546. Lomatium rigidum 

3547. Lomatium Gormanii 

3548. Lomatium Piperi 



252 UMBELLIFERAE 

pedicels 15-25 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit oblong-ovate, 5-8 mm. long; wings much nar- 
rower than the body. 

"Scablands of central Washington; Arid Transition Zone. Type locality: Dry Falls, Grand Coulee, Wash- 
ington. April-May. 

12. Lomatium Geyeri (S. Wats.) Coult. & Rose. Geyer's Lomatium. Fig. 3552. 

Feucedanum Geyeri S. Wats. Bibl. Ind. 428. 1878. 

Orogenia fusiformis var. Leibergii Coult. & Rose, Rev. N. Amer. Umbell. 92. 1888. 

feucedanum evittatum Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 14: 277. 1889. 

Lomatium Geyeri Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:209. 1900. 

Plants acaulescent, 2-4.5 dm. tall, glabrous, from a shallow or deep-seated small tuber 
less than 1 cm. in diameter. Leaves ternate, then pinnate ; leaf-divisions few, remote, linear, 
10-50 mm. long; rays 5-20, spreading to ascending, unequal, 1-6 cm. long; bractlets connate, 
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, scarious-margined ; pedicels 2-5 mm. long; flowers white, anthers 
purple; fruit ovate-oblong, 6-13 mm. long; wings narrower than the body; oil-tubes small, 
obscure, 2-6 in the intervals, about 6 on the commissure. 

Open woods and plains, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; eastern British Columbia to central 
Washington. Type locality: "sandy woods and plains. Upper Columbia River." May-June. 

13. Lomatium Hendersonii Coult. & Rose. Henderson's Lomatium. Fig. 3553. 

Feucedanum Hendersonii Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 13:210. 1888. 
Lomatium hendersonii Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat Herb. 7: 209. 1900. 
Leptotaenia Leibergii Coult. & Rose, op. cit. 202. 

Plants short-caulescent, 8-25 cm. tall, glabrous, from a large shallow constricted tuber. 
Leaves ternate, then pinnate or bipinnate; leaf-divisions linear, 4-10 mm. long; rays 5-6, un- 
equal, 0.5-3 cm. long; bractlets lanceolate; pedicels 2-7 mm. long; flowers "deep yellow" (ap- 
pearing white in dried specimens) ; fruit oblong-oval, 4-8 mm. long, glabrous ; wings much nar- 
rower than and the same color as tlie body; oil-tubes minute, solitary in the intervals, 2 on the 
commissure. 

Stony hilltops, Arid Transition Zone; central to southeastern Oregon. Type locality: "on high hilltops, 
John Day Valley, Oregon." May-June. 

14. Lomatium Canbyi Coult. & Rose. Canby's Lomatium. Fig. 3554, 

Feucedanum Canbyi Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 13: 78. 1888. 
Lomatium Canbyi Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 210. 1900. 

Plants acaulescent, 1 . 5-2 dm. tall, glabrous, from a thick, more or less elongated rootstock 
ending in a globose tuber 1-2.5 cm. in diameter. Leaves ternate, then bipinnate; leaf-divisions 
linear, obtuse, 4-5 mm. long; rays 12-17, spreading, subequal, 2.7-5.5 cm. long; bractlets 
linear, acute to subacuminate ; pedicels 8-12 mm. long ; flowers white ; fruit oblong to oval, 
7-10 mm. long; wings narrower than the body; oil-tubes 1-2 in the intervals, 2-4 on the com- 
missure. 

Stony ridges. Arid Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones; eastern Washington and Oregon to northeast- 
ern California, and western Idaho. Type locality: "high ridges, Eastern Oregon." May-June. 

15. Lomatium Watsonii Coult. & Rose. Watson's Lomatium. Fig. 3555. 

Feucedanum IVatsonii Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 13:209. 1888. 
Lomatium iVatsonii Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat Herb. 7: 211. 1900. 

Plants acaulescent, puberulent, 0.8-1.5 dm. tall, from a deep-seated solitary oblong tuber 
with clusters of rootlets on its surface. Leaves 2-4-pinnate; leaf-divisions crowded, linear, 1-5 
mm. long; rays 1-9, ascending, unequal, 0.5-2.5 cm. long; bractlets scarious, dimidiate, connate 
to near the apex; pedicels obsolete to 1 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit ovate, 6-7 rnm. long, 
puberulent ; wings less than half the width of the body ; oil-tubes obscure, several in the intervals, 
about 6 on the commissure. 

Dry hills. Arid Transition Zone; central Washington and the Blue Mountains, Oregon. Type locality: 
•on denuded hilltops near "Alkali," Oregon. April-June. 

16. Lomatium leptocarpum (Torr. & Gray) Coult. & Rose. Slender-fruited 

Lomatium. Fig. 3556. 

Feucedanttm triternatum var. leptocarpum Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 626. 1840. 
Feucedanum bicolor S. Wats. Bot. King Expl. 129. 1871. 
Lomatium leptocarpum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 213. 1900. 
Feucedanum bicolor var. gumbonis M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 10: 55. 1902. 

Plants short-caulescent, 1.5-5.5 dm. tall, glabrous to scaberulous, from elongated monili- 
form tuberous roots. Leaves 1-2-ternate, then 2-4-pinnate; leaf-divisions filiform to linear, 
0.5-45 mm. long; rays 4-15, suberect, strict, unequal, 2-12 cm. long; bractlets linear, acute; 
pedicels 2-7 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit narrowly oblong, 10-15 mm. long, glabrous ; wings 
less than half the width of the body ; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2-4 on the commissure. 

Dry rocky ground. Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Blue Mountains, eastern Oregon, to north- 
eastern California, eastward to Colorado and northern Arizona. Type locality: "plains of the Oie?on near 
the confluence of the Wahlamet," but probably from somewhere east of the Cascades, Oregon. April-June. 



CARROT FAMILY 253 

17. Lomatium ambiguum (Nutt.) Coult. & Rose. Wyeth's Lomatium. 

Fig. 3557. 

Eutophus ambiguus Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 7:27. 1834. 
Feucedanum tenuissimntn Geyer ex Hook. Lend. Journ. Bot. 6: 23S. 1847. 
PeHCcdanum abrotanifolium Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 1: 184. 1848. 
Lomatium ambiguum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:212. 1900. 

Plants caulescent, 6-44 cm. tall, glabrous, stems solitary or clustered at the base, alternately 
few-branched above, from tuberous somewhat moniliform roots or elongated taproots. Leaves 
ternate-pinnate, the upper 2-3-pinnate ; leaf-divisions linear, 3-50 mm. long ; rays 5-17, unequal, 
15-80 mm. long; bractlets absent; pedicels 4-8 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit narrovi^ly oblong, 
8-10 mm. long ; wings very narrow ; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissure. 

Stony or gravelly ground, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; eastern British Columbia to eastern 
Oregon, eastward to western Montana and northern Utah. Type locality : "Flat-Head River, Oregon, Montana. 
April-July. 

18. Lomatium RoUinsii Math. & Const. Rollins' Lomatium. Fig. 3558. 

Lomatium Rollinsii l^lath. & Const. Bull. Torrey Club 70: 59. 1943. 

Plants caulescent, alternately branching, 2.5-5 dm. tall, from an elongate and often tuberous 
taproot, crisped-puberulent. Leaves bipinnate or partially 3-pinnate; leaf-divisions linear, 2-30 
mm. long, puberulent; rays 4-8, ascending, 1.5-5 cm. long, unequal, puberulent; bractlets tili- 
form, minute; pedicels 6-15 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit oblong-ovate, 6-7 mm. long; wmgs 
half the width of the body ; oil-tubes 1-2 in the intervals, 4 on the commissure. 

Basaltic slopes, Upper Sonoran and Arid Transition Zones; Snake River Canyon, Oregon and Idaho. Type 
locality: Deep Creek, Snake River Canyon, Wallowa County, Oregon. April-May. 

19. Lomatium Cous (S. Wats.) Coult. & Rose. Cous or Biscuit Root. Fig. 3559. 

Peucedanum Cous S. Wats. Free. Amer. Acad. 21 : 453. 1886. 
Lomatium Cous Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7: 214. 1900. 

Plants acaulescent or short-caulescent, 2-2.5 dm. tall, from a globose, sometimes more or 
less elongate tuber. Leaves ternate, then 2-3-pinnate or pinnately decompound; leaf-divisions 
crowded, ovate to oblong, 1-5 mm. long mostly glabrous ; rays 10-20, spreading, unequal, 1-5 
cm. long ; bractlets oblanceolate, shortly connate below ; pedicels 2-4 mm. long ; flowers yellow ; 
fruit oblong-oval, 7-10 mm. long, granulate-roughened ; wings narrower than the body ; oil-tubes 
usually solitary in the intervals, 4 on the commissure. 

Rocky ridges. Arid Transition Zone; southeastern Washington and central Oregon to western Idaho. 
Type locality: John Day Valley, Oregon. April-June. 

20. Lomatium montanum Coult. & Rose. Mountain Lomatium. Fig. 3560. 

Lomatium montanum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:214. 1900. 
Lomatium purpureum A. Nels. Bull. Torrey Club 28:226. 1901. 

Plants acaulescent, 1-3 dm. tall, glabrous, cespitose from a thickened taproot or a sub- 
globose tuber. Leaves ternate, then 2-3-pinnate; leaf -divisions crowded, oblong, 2-10 rnm. long; 
rays 5-15 unequal, 1-6.5 cm. long; bractlets obovate, distinct or united below, purplish; pedi- 
cels 2-3 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit oblong to oval, 5-12 mm. long; wmgs narrower than 
to about equaling the body ; oil-tubes 2-4 in the intervals, 6 on the commissure. 

Mountain slopes and ridges. Arid Transition and Canadian Zones; Wallowa Mountains, eastern Oregon, 
to western Montana and Wyoming. Type locality: mountain ridges in Yellowstone National Park. April-June. 

21. Lomatium circumdatum (S. Wats.) Coult. & Rose. Wallowa Lomatium. 

Fig. 3561. 

Peucedanum circumdatum S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22:474. 1887. 
Lomatium circumdatum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:213. 1900. 

Plants caulescent, 1.5-3.5 dm. tall, glabrous to somewhat pubescent, from an elongate to 
subglobose tuber. Leaves ternate, then 1-2-pinnate; leaf-divisions linear, 6-10 mm. long; rays 
7-12 ascending 2-8 cm. long ; bractlets obovate, acute, prominently nerved, sometimes connate ; 
pedicels 2-3 mm. long ; flowers yellow ; fruit oblong, 6-9 mm. long, glabrous ; wmgs much nar- 
rower than the body ; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 4 on the commissure. 

Rocky ridges. Arid Transition Zone; eastern Washington to southeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho 
and Nevada. Type locality: hillsides in the Wallowa region of eastern Oregon. May-June. 

22 Lomatium vaginatum Coult. & Rose. Vaginate or Sheathed Lomatium. 

Fig. 3562. 

Lomatium vaginatum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7 : 223. 1900. 
Lomatium Plummerae var. Helleri Mathias, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 25: 258. 1937. 

Plants caulescent, 2.3-4.5 dm. tall, scabrous, from an elongate, more or less thickened root. 
Leaves ternate, then 1-2-pinnate; leaf-divisions crowded, oblong 1-5 mm. long ; petioles en- 
tirely sheathing in the stem leaves; rays 6-15, ascending, unequal, 1-8 cm. long; bractlets ob- 
lanceolate to obovate, acute; pedicels 3-12 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit broadly oval to 



254 




3549 




UMBELLIFERAE 




3550 



3552 





3551 




3554 




3555 



3549. Lomatium orogenioides 

3550. Lomatium farinosum 

3551. Lomatium Hambleniae 




3556 

3552. Lomatium Geyeri 

3553. Lomatium Hendersonii 

3554. Lomatium Canbyi 




3557 

3555. Lomatium Watsonii 

3556. Lomatium leptocarpum 

3557. Lomatium ambiguum 



CARROT FAMILY 255 

obovate, 8-12 mm. long, granulate-roughened; wings nearly as broad as the body; oil-tubes 
1-4 in the intervals, 4-5 on the commissure. 

Rocky ridges, Arid Transition Zone; central Oregon to northeastern California. Type locality: Logan 
Valley, Union County, Oregon. May-June. 

23. Lomatium utriculatum (Nutt.) Coult. & Rose. Common Lomatium. 

Fig. 3563. 

Peucedanum utriculatum Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 628. 1840. 
Lomatium utriculatum Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:215. 1900. 
Cogswellia caruifolia var. patois M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 12: 41. 1908. 
Cogswellia Chandleri M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. No. 13: 11. 1910. 
Lomatium utriculatum var. glabrum Jepson, Madrono 1 : 152. 1924. 
Lomatium utriculatum var. anthcmifolium Jepson, Fl. Calif. 2: 639. 1936. 

Plants caulescent, 1-5 dm. tall, glabrous to pubescent, from a long slender taproot. Leaves 
tripinnate, sometimes ternate, then tripinnate ; leaf-divisions linear, 2-25 mm. long ; petioles 
entirely sheathing except in some of the basal leaves; rays 5-13, spreading to ascending, un- 
equal, 1-12 cm. long; bractlets obovate, entire or cleft, green with a scarious margin to purplish 
and subscarious, occasionally prominently nerved ; pedicels 2-9 mm. long ; flowers yellow ; fruit 
ovate to oblong, 5-11 mm. long, puberulent when young, glabrate; wings thin, mostly broader 
than the body ; oil-tubes 1-4 in the intervals, 2-6 on the commissure, rarely obscure. 

Grassy hillsides and plains. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones; British Columbia to southern Cali- 
fornia, west of the Cascade Mountains and Sierra Nevada. Type locality: near the mouth of the Willamette 
River, Oregon. March-June. 

Lomatium utriculatum var. papilliitum (Henderson) Mathias, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 25:251. 1937. 
(Cogswellia utriculata var. papillata Henderson, Rhodora 33: 204. 1931.) Mature fruit roughened with bud-like 
1- to several-celled papillae. Southwestern Oregon. Type locality: Jackson County near the California border. 

24. Lomatium Vaseyi Coult. & Rose. Vasey's Lomatium. Fig. 3564. 

Peucedanum Vaseyi Coult. & Rose, Bot. Gaz. 13: 144. 1888. 
Lomatium Vaseyi Coult. & Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 7:216. 1900. 

Plants caulescent, 2.5-3.5 dm. tall, pubescent with pilose hairs, from a long somewhat 
thickened taproot. Leaves ternate, then bipinnate; leaf -divisions oblong, 3-17 mm. long; petioles 
partially to wholly sheathing in the stem-leaves; rays 10-20, ascending, unequal, 2-7.5 cm. 
long ; bractlets obovate, scarious-margined, entire or lobed toward the apex, glabrous or villosu- 
lose; pedicels 3-8 mm. long; flowers yellow; sepals prominent, especially in the young fruit; 
fruit ovate to obovate, 9-15 mm. long, glabrous ; wings thin, usually broader than the body; oil- 
tubes solitary in the intervals, 4 on the commissure. 

Dry, sandy or gravelly hills and plains. Upper Sonoran Zone; southern California, southern Inyo County 
and San Luis Obispo County, south to San Diego County. Type locality: San Bernardino Mountains, Cali- 
fornia. March-May. 

25. Lomatium ciliolatum Jepson. Yollo Bolly Lomatium. Fig. 3565. 

Lomatium ciliolatum Jepson, Madrono 1: 155. 1924. 

Plants acaulescent, hoary-pubescent, about 0.9-1.6 dm. tall, from a long slender taproot. 
Leaves ternate, then 1-2-pinnate; leaf-divisions oblong to ovate, 0.5-2 cm. long, irregularly 
pinnatifid, densely hoary-pubescent throughout or only near the margins; fertile rays 2-5, un- 
equal, 0.8-4 cm. long; bractlets obovate to lanceolate, with dark purple veins; pedicels 2-4 mm. 
long ;' flowers purple or yellow ; fruit oval, 7-9 mm. long, glabrous ; wings thick, much narrower 
than the body ; oil-tubes obscure, 4-5 in the intervals, 2 on the commissure. 

Rocky slopes. Boreal Zones; Inner North Coast Ranges, California. Type locality: Soldiers Ridge near 
South Yollo Bolly, California. June-Aug. 

Lomatium ciliolatum var. Hooveri Math. & Const. Bull. Torrey Club 69:153. 1942. More slender, 
1.5-3 dm. tall, densely scaberulous; leaf-divisions linear, 1-10 mm. long; rays 3-10 cm. long; pedicels 3-8 
mm. long; fruit-wings thin. Inner North Coast Ranges, at lower altitudes. Type locality: northern Napa County. 

26. Lomatium Tracyi Math. & Const. Tracy's Lomatium. Fig. 3566. 

Lomatium Tracyi Math. & Const. Bull. Torrey Club 69: 154. 1942. 

Plants acaulescent, 1-3.5 dm. tall, glabrous to sparsely scaberulous-puberulent, from a long 
slender taproot. Leaves ternate, then 1-2-pinnate; leaf-divisions linear to oblong,