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Mayavaram-Mutupet, and Peralam- 
Karaikkal, Railways. 

Offices of the South Inhian Raii.wav Company, Limited; 

IN ENGLAND, 55, Graoecfiurch Street, London, E. C. 
IN INDIA, Trichlnopoly. 

AaEiras : 
PrInMri uid Pabllihan br Appalntmant to H. R. H. the Prim 
H. E. the OoTernor ol Madna, and to tha UnlvonlEr o[ N. 




©opcrnment H)(recton 

CoLOxNEL Sir W. S. S. BISSET, RE., K.C.I.E. 

Sir DOUGLAS FOX, m.i.c.e. 

Major-general J. H. M. SHAW-STEWART, R.E. 


/iDanafliitfl Btrector, 


Consultiud fingiueer. 

Past Preaideiitj Inst. C.E. 

©tflcers in 3n6ia. 

Major A. D. G. SHELLEY, R.E., Agent, Trichinopolij. 
HENRY DAVIES, Esq., Traffic Manager, Trichinopoly. 
T. J. McCLOUGHIN, Esq., Dy, Traffio Manager, Trichinopoly. 
A. E. BICE, Esq., District Traffic Supdt., Madras {Egmore). 
S. BRYANT, Esq., District Traffic Superintendent, Pakala. 
J. O. SHOOBRIDGE, Esq., District Traffic Supdt,, Tanjore. 
R. SAN GAR, Esq., District Traffic Supcrint4.nulenty Madura, 

All correspondence in connection with routes, fares, timing of trains, etc., 
should be addressed to the Traffic Officers named above by designation and 
not by name. 





I ^ 



This work being equally intended for the use of 
those visiting India for the first time as for the 
assistance of the more permanent residents in the 
country, it has been considered advisable to supple- 
ment the information usually given in railway guide 
books, by a brief account of the history, manners, 
and religions of the various peoples who have in- 
habited the country traversed by the South Indian 
Kailway. To extract the information from standard 
works of reference is a task which the ordinary plea- 
sure seeker would hesitate to undertake, but it is 
obvious that, without some knowledge of these 
subjects, a tour in Southern India would for most 
persons be largely deprived of its interest. To avoid 
inflicting these details on the unwilling minority, 
they have, as far as possible, been dealt with in the 
Introduction, so that they can be readily skipped. 
The historical section has been compiled in the 
Agent's OflBce, but has had the advantage of revi- 
sion by the Kevd. Thomas Foulkes, the eminent 
antiquarian. The sections dealing with races, reli- 
gions, and architecture have obligingly been contri- 
buted by the same gentleman, while the articles on 
sport are due to the kindness of Sir Frederick Price, 
K. C.S.I, (whose name is a guarantee that the 
subject is authoritatively treated), and Mr. R. H. 
Morris. The remainder of the work has been com- 
piled by the Company's officers of the Agent's and 
,^ Traffic Departments. 




(a) General History ... ... ... ... 1 

(b) Races and Peoples ... ... ... ... 46 

(c) Religions and Castes ... ... ... ... 56 

{d) Architecture ... ... ... ... 110 


(a) Description of the Railway ... ... ...115 

(b) Information for Travellers ... ... ... 121 

(c) Tourist Routes ... ... ... ... 149 


Itinerary ... ... ... ... ... 158 

Sport ... ... ... ... ... 407 





Mahamakham festival of 1897, Kumbakonam 

The Periyar Dam ... 

The High Court, Madras 

Bastion, Chingleput Fort 


The Shore Temple, Mahavallipore 

Arjuna's Penance, Mahavallipore 

Bridge to Citadel, Gingee 

Ruins of Fort St. David, Cuddalore 

Figures in Brickwork near Cuddalore 

Temple Gopuram and Tank, Chidambaram 

Processional Car 

Gopuram, Sarangapani Temple, Kumbakonam 

Interior Eamasawmy Temple, Kumbakonam 

Brahathisvarar Temple, Tanjore 

Subramania's Temple, Tanjore ... 

The Stone Hull at Tanjore 

Interior of the Palace at Tanjore 

The Rock and Temple, Trichinopoly 

Gateway, Srirungam 

Rock Fort, Dindigul 


The Great Corridor — Temple at Rameswaram 

Statue of Ganesha in the Temple, Madura... 

Corridor in the Temple, Madura 

Pillar Tirumala Nayakka's Choultry, Madura 

Tirumala Nayakka's Palace, Madura 


To face 
page No. 



To face 
page No. 

Teppakolam, Madura ... <.. 


Kock and Teppakolam , Tiruparankundram ... 


Hall of 100 Columns, Conjeeveram 




Ganesha Temple, Tiruvannamalai 


Vellore Fort 


Gopuram of the Temple at Vellore 


Column Vellore Temple 


Column Vellore Temple 


Chandragiri Palace .. . 

327 • 

Cobra Stone near Tummanamgutta 


Entrance to Temple, Tinnevelly 


Bathing Ghat, Papanasam 


Maps — 

General Map of the Railway in cover pocket 
Ancient Divisions of India — to face page 2. 





The earliest traditions of Southern India point to its 

„ .. , ^, habitation by Dravidian races either 

EarlieBt Times. . . 

aboriginal or allied to the Brahuis of 
Beluchistan. It is a matter for speculation whether the 
Dravidians emigrated from the west through Sind and 
Gujerat, dropping the Brahui tribes en route, or whether 
they were the original inhabitants of the country partially 
civilized by commercial enterprise maintained viA the 
Persian Gulf. In the latter case the Brahuis would either 
be a migratory ofif-shoot, or independent emigrants. In 
remotest times a considerable portion of Northern India 
appears to have been populated by races allied to the 
Dravidians in Turanian origin but descended from the 
Scythian and Mongolian branches of that family. Thesft 
Scythic races are supposed to have been expelled in large 
numbers at the time of the so-called Aryan invasion and 
driven into Southern India and Ceylon. The modern 
repKJsentatives of those early tribes are practically limited 
to the Todas of the Nilgiri mountains, and the more 
northern hill tribes known as Bhils, Kols, Ghonds, Santals 
and Nagas. The Aryans, the supposed ancestors of the 
Indo-Germanic nations, are said to have invaded India 
from Central Asia, and after remaining for a long time in 
the Panjab, passed into Oudh, whence they raided into 

Southern ladia and Ceylon. Passing over the indigenous 
tribes the Hindus have usually been broadly divided into 
two separate races, — the one, Dravidian, occupying the 
southern portion of the peninsula, the other, Aryan, 
inhabiting the northern provinces. Separating these two 
regions lies a broad belt of country extending from Orissa 
on the east to Mysore on the west, in which the two races 
have overlapped. 

Before proceeding to the history of Southern India it is 

desirable to have some idea of the 
Geographical geographical divisions of the country, 

as reference must of necessity be made 
to them. The Dakhan properly includes the whole of 
India south of the Vindhya mountains, and of the Nerbudda 
river and the Satpura range. From the time of the 
Muhammadan invasion the term has been generally 
appHed to the Hyderabad and Daulatabad provinces lying 
between the Kistna and Berar and from the Western Gh&ts 
to Telingana. Some authorities, however, consider the 
Dakhan to be the tableland bounded by the Satpura 
mountains and the Eastern and Western Gh4ts. Dravida 
is popularly considered to be the region in which the Tamil 
language is spoken and thus occupies the extreme south of 
the peninsula, the northern limit being a line from Pulicat, 
near Madras, to Tirupati ; thence to the southernmost 
point of Coorg and on to the sea so as to include Malabar. 
The term, however, when used as the name of one of the 
old political divisions of the country is restricted to the 
area lying between the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern 
Gh&ts, bounded on the north by a line from Pulicat to 
Tirupati, and on the south by the Ponniar river. Caiimta 
comprises the Canarese country from the southern limits 
of the Mysore country, the western boundary being the 
sea as far north as Goa, and the Gh4ts from Goa to 
Kolhapur. The northern boundary is the line betw^een 
Kolhapur and Beder in the Nizam's Dominions, and the 













eastern from Beder through Adoni to Tinipati. Telingana, 
the original province in which Telugu is spoken, is situated 
between Dravida, Camata, the Bay of Bengal, and a line 
from Ganjam to Beder. Maharashtra, or the Mahratta 
country, lies between the hills south of the Nerbudda and 
a line thence to Chanda, the remaining boundaries being 
the Arabian Sea and the territories of Carnata and Talinga. 
Orissa, the home of the Urya language, lies north of 
Talinga, and is bounded on the west by a line from 
Sohnpore to Midnapore and on the east by the Bay of 
Bengal. The Konkana consists of the belt between the 
Arabian Sea and the Western GhAts, including the districts 
of Bombay, Kanara, Colaba, Ratnagherry, and Thana. 
The Carnatic was formerly the tableland in the south 
between the Eastern and Western Gh4ts, but is now 
understood to be the country below the Eastern Ghftts. 
Kalingana may be defined as the land below the Eastern 
Gh4ts between Dravida and Orissa. 

Consideration of Southern Indian history is suuplified by 

dividing it into three epochs, the first 
?I^*!*^'* ^ embracing the period from earliest 

known times to the invasion of the 
Mussulmans under Malik Kafur in A. D. 1810, the second 
from this date to the fall of the Golkonda kingdom in 
1687, and the third from 1687 to the establishment of the 
English supremacy. In dealing with this subject a brief 
account of the first two periods will be given, supplemented 
by fuller details in regard to such dynasties as more 
particularly affect the country served or likely to be served 
by the South Indian Railway. 

The earliest recorded kingdoms in Southern India were 

the Pandiya, Chola, andChera or Kerala, 
General History ... , , • ^ . • 

to A. D. 1310. which seem to have been existent m 

the 3rd century B. C. The Pandiyans 
then held the extreme south of the peninsula, occupying 
the present revenue districts of Madura and Tinnevelly, 

and South Travancore : the Cholas had possession of the 
belt of country between the Eastern Gh4ts and the coast 
extending from the Madura district to the Ponniar river ; 
and the Cheras were located in North Travancore, Cochin, 
Malabar and South Canara. In these remote times the 
ruling race in the north of the Madras Presidency were 
the Andhras — a nation which became extremely powerful 
about the beginning of the Christian era. The Andhras 
then held the whole of the inland country to the north 
of the Kistna. The country intervening between the 
dominions of the Andhras and those of the Pallavas seems 
to have been a wild and almost uninhabited region of rock 
and forest. The Pallava kingdom extended along the coast 
from the Ponniar river to the southern limit of the Kalingas, 
and stretched inland over the whole area of the basin 
of the Palar river up to the Palmaner and Kolar districts 
with the northern half of the present district of Salem. 
From about the 9th century onwards the Cholas began 
to forge their way westwards and northwards, conquering 
and annexing the old Konga kingdom from the neighbour- 
hood of Karur westwards to the eastern limits of the present 
Mysore country, and overthrowing the fast-decaying Pallava 
kingdom to their north as far as the Eastern Chaluleyan 
kingdom in the delta of the Godaveri. In the course of 
centuries the Kurumbas — a branch of a once powerful old 
nomad race, according to one of the modern popular 
traditions — developed into the nation known as the 
Pallavas. This nation became at a very early period the 
dominant race in Southern India, and when in the zenith 
of its power embraced the whole of the Pallava region 
described above. The dynasty and nation of Kalingana 
are alluded to by early Grecian and Roman writers and it 
would seem that the kingdom was powerful and independent 
in very early times. The people were adventurous maritime 
traders undertaking lengthy voyages to distant countries. 
In later years their southern districts were ruled by Pallava 

kings until the country was ultimately absorbed by more 
powerful neighbours about A. D. 1000. The Pandiyan 
kingdom was the earliest to be civilized and it retained 
a leading position in the extreme South until the time 
of the upheaval of the Cholas, who in the 11th century 
attained a supremacy hitherto unknown in Southern 
India. During this period the balance of power was 
repeatedly disturbed by wars, invasions, and the formation 
of new nationalities, with the result that at the beginning 
of the 11th century the state of affairs had assumed the 
following aspect. The Pandiyan, Chola and Chera nations 
had maintained their independence, though the latter were 
much harassed upon their northern boundary by the attacks 
of the Hoysala Bellalas, a small but rising Yadava state 
founded in Mysore by a branch of the Western Chalukyas. 
The Chalukyas, a Eajput nation, settled near Kalyan, in 
the Nizam's Dominions, had intruded by expansion towards 
the Eastern Coast and had conquered and annexed the 
northern districts of the Pallava territories. The Chalukyas 
then became divided into two branches — the western 
remaining within their original limits in the Western 
Dakhan, the eastern settling in the provinces between 
the Kistna and Godaveri which it had taken from the 
Pallavas. In A. D. 1064 the Chola and Eastern Chalukyan 
dynasties were united under Bajandra Chola, his father 
having married a Chalukyan princess, and this increase in 
power was subsequently followed by the conquest of Ceylon, 
the Pallavas, and the Pandyan kingdom, where a short 
dynasty of Chola-Pandiyan kings was established. A 
little later the Hoysala Ballalas obtained a further extension 
of territory and would probably in time have defeated 
the ancient nations of the plains, had not their victorious 
career been checked by the first Mussulman invasion of 
the Dakhan in A. D. 1310, which resulted in a serious 
undermining of the ancient dynasties of the South. 
The following additional information regarding the more 

iiuportant kingdoms referred to in the foregoing paragraphs 

may be of interest. 

The Pandiyan nation is said to have been founded by 

an agriculturist named Pandiya in the 

5th century B.C. The dynasty was 

also known as the Minavar, from the Tamil word min, a 

fish, this being the royal emblem. The original capital 

was Korkai, near the mouth of the Tinnevelly river, but it 

was moved to Kalyana, near Cape Comorin, and finally 

to Madura. The kingdom of Pandiya is referred to by 

Megasthenes (B.C. 802) under the name of Pandaia, and 

in the Periplus Maris Erythroei the capital Madura and 

the then king under the name of Uavliiov being mentioned. 

In the sectarial legends of the Madura temple a list, more 

or less untrustworthy, of 73 Pandiyan kings who are 

supposed to have ruled the country prior to its conquest 

in 1064 by the Chola sovereign, Eajendra Koluttunga, 

is given in various works, but it will suffice to mention the 

46th Vamsasekhara Pandiyan, who fortified and enlarged 

Madura, and established there the once celebrated Tamil 

College of Poets. On the death of the first Chola-Pandiyan 

monarch a short period of anarchy obtained till about 

1100, when a line of kings about 41 in number commenced 

to reign. The most noteworthy events of this period 

were repeated wars and alliances with the Cholas, the 

conquest of the country in 1171 by King Parakrama 

Bahu I. of Ceylon, and tlie final subversion of the dynasty 

by the Mussulmans in 1310. 

The Chola kingdom was also of greater antiquity than 

the Pandiyan dynasty, but its history 

prior to 1023 is almost a blank. Under 

the name of Choda it is referred to in the edicts of Asoka, a 

celebrated king of Magadha in Northern India, who reigned 

from about the middle of the 3rd century B.C. The capital 

of the kingdom was at Warriore, near Trichinopoly, in the 

second century ; at Kumbakonam in the seventh ; and at 


Tanjore in the tenth. Incessant struggles with the 
Pandiyans seem to have been the most prominent events 
in the early career of the Cholas, but later on they 
transferred their attention to their neighbours the Kongus, 
whom they defeated about A.D. 900. According to 
Singhalese narratives the Cholas invaded and conquered 
Ceylon before the Cliristian era, and ruled the island for a 
period of 44 years. Another and unsuccessful invasion is 
supposed to have occurred in the middle of the 10th 
centurj-. King Rajaraja by marriage obtained for his son 
the dominions of the Eastern Chalukyas comprising the 
territories known as Kalinga and Vengi. In 1059 this 
monarch invaded Ceylon, took King Mihindu and his 
queen prisoners, seized the crown jewels and appointed a 
Chola viceroy to the government of the island. The 
succeeding king, Kulottunga I. or Eajendra Chola, was the 
most powerful sovereign of the dynasty. He consolidated 
his kingdom to the borders of Orissa, crushed the Pallavas 
of Conjeeveram, annexed for a time the Pandiyan king- 
dom, and seems to have devastated the country of the 
Western Chalukyas. After prolonged fighting Ceylon was 
lost, but a retaliatory invasion by the Singhalese in the 
following reign was easily repulsed. On the defeat of the 
Pandiyans, Gangaikondan, a son of Eajendra Chola, was 
placed on the throne of that kingdom, and took the name 
of Sundara Pandiyan. From the time of Kulottunga the 
power of the Cholas steadily diminished imtil the dynasty 
sank into obscurity after the invasion of the Mussulmans 
in 1310. The word '^Coromandel" is derived from 

According to the inscriptions of Asoka the Cheras were 
Cheras and contemporaneous with the Pandiyans 
Kon^ttB. g^jj^ Cholas. Little, however, is known 

about them and until recently it was a matter of opinion 
whether they were separate from, or identical with, the 
race dwelling in the Kongu countiy. Under these cir- 


cumstances it is necessary to deal separately with the 
kingdoms of Kongu and Chera or Kerala. The first known 
reigning dynasty in the Kongu country consisted of seven 
kings of the Eatti tribe under whom the kingdom was 
extended by annexation of Camata, and its prestige 
increased by victories over the Cholas, Cheras, and 
Pandiyans. The first six kings were Jains, but the seventh 
adopted the Shiva religion. It would appear that this last 
sovereign lost his life in battle against a Mysore chieftain, 
who then seized the vacant throne, and established a 
Ganga dynasty which lasted from A.D. 189 to about 878. 
Under these monarchs the kingdom was further enlarged, 
and their authority extended to the neighbourhood of 
Harihar. The country was finally annexed by the Cholas 
who held it till about the middle of the 11th century, 
when it revolted and broke up into numerous petty 
principalities. These were absorbed by the Hoysala Ballalas 
about A.D. 1080, who retained possession of them for 
some 250 years. Of the Ch3ras but little is known. In 
earliest times they appear to have occupied North 
Travancore, Cochin, Malabar and portions of Canara, but 
shortly after the commencement of the Christian era, 
Canara separated under an independent djmasty which 
lasted until the 12th century. According to tradition the 
Chera empire was divided into 24 divisions under Brahmin 
control. This arrangement did not prove satisfactory and 
after a system of government under four chiefs had been 
unsuccessfully tried, a Kshatriya king was appointed. 
The la^t of these sovereigns, Cheraman Perumal, embraced 
the Muhammadan religion and in A.D. 825 proceeded on 
a pilgrimage to Mecca from which he never returned. 
Before his departure he partitioned the kingdom among 
his principal nobles, thus originating the states of 
Travancore and Cochin, and the independency of the 
territories pertaining to the Zamorin of Calicut. The 
Jews are said to have settled on the Chera coast in 

the 6th century B. C, and their colonies exist there to 

this day. 

The Pallavas are of more than ordinary interest by reason 

_ „ of their architectural remains. They 


claimed descent from Tadu, the common 

ancestor of the shepherd races of India, and, as before 
mentioned, belonged to the Kurumba tribe. The legends 
say that on their first settlement in Dravida they had no 
government, but dissensions arising they elected a king 
named Komandu Kurumba l^rabhu and thus originated the 
Pallava dynasty. Under this king the country was divided 
into 24 divisions, each containing a fort, the principal 
stronghold being at Puralm*, near Madras. The remains 
of other forts are still to be found at Mahendravadi, 
Amburpet, Narayanavanam, Vallimalai and Padaved, the 
ruins at the last-named place showing that the city had a 
circmnference of about sixteen miles. The authentic 
history of the Pallavas is to be gathered from their copper- 
plate inscriptions and those of the rulers of the neighbour- 
ing kingdoms, which shew that when at the height of their 
prosperity at the end of the sixth century, they ruled over 
an empire extending from the Nerbudda and Orissa on the 
north, to the Southern Pennar river in the south, and from 
the sea on the east to a line through Salem and Bangalore 
to Berar on the west. The capital of the kingdom was 
Kanchipuram, the modem Conjeeveram, then one of the 
most civilized cities of India, and the religious capital of 
the South. The state religion at one period was Jainism, 
but apparently liberal views prevailed, as it is reported that 
both Buddhists and Brahmans were settled in Conjeeveram 
in the fourth century A. D. Conmiercial enterprise was 
vigorously pursued and through the numerous ports 
between Cuddalore and Ganjam, maritime trade was 
maintained with the Komans and other western nations. 
The celebrated monolithic temples and raths at Maha- 
mallapuram known as the Seven Pagodas are attributed to 


the Pallavas, inscriptions both on the Ganesha and southern- 
most temples disclosing the name of a king of this dynasty. 
The decline of the Pallava empire commenced in the 
seventh century, when Kubja Vishnuvardhana, the first 
of the Eastern Chalukyan kings, annexed the northern 
provinces of Vengi, Andhra, and Kalinga, and Pulakesi II 
of West Chalukya inflicted serious defeats in the south. 
The final conquest of the Pallavas occurred in the eleventh 
century when Adondai, the son of the Chola king Bajendra 
Kulottunga I, defeated them at Puralur and annexed the 
province of Dravida which was thereafter called by the 
name of Tondamandalam. 

The Chalukyas, a Eajput race, first rose into prominence 

in the early part of the sixth century, 
the founder of the dynasty, Jayasimha I, 
claiming descent from the kings of Ayodhya, the modern 
Oudh. The early capital of the kingdom was at Kalyan, 
in the Nizam's Dominions, whence the Chalukyas extended 
their territories eastward to the coast between the God- 
averi and Kistna, and northward as far as Daulatabad, 
a large portion of Mysore being included in their posses- 
sions. Raja Sinha, a posthumous son of Jayasimha, made 
extensive conquests, and cemented his power by an 
alliance with the Pallava king of Conjeeveram. About 
A. D. 610 the reigning family divided, Satyasraya I 
remaining in the Western Dakhan, and Kubja Vishnuvar- 
dhana founding the kingdom of Eastern Chalukya on 
territories wrested from the Pallavas. Satyasraya was 
one of the greatest kings of the Western Chalukyan 
branch, but after his death the dynasty was interrupted 
until about 670 when Vikramaditya I regained the throne. 
Some hundred years later another collapse of the dynasty 
occurred and the kingdom remained in obscurity for a 
period of about two hundred years, when it again became 
powerful and remained so until the year 1126. A rapid 
decline then set in and nothing is known of the Western 


Chalukyan dynasty after the year 1189. The Eastern 
Chalukyans after their separation gradually extended their 
dominions to the borders of Orissa, the capital of the 
kingdom being fixed at Eajahmundry. In 1064 the dynasties 
of Eastern Chalukya and Chola were united under Eajendra 
Chola by the marriage of his father Bajaraja with the 
daughter of a Chalukyan king, when the kingdom became 
a northern province of the Cholas, to subsequently fall 
under the sway of the Ganapatis of Warangal. The 
Chalukyas were essentially a race of builders and have 
left many noble architectural remains in the territories 
they occupied. The defeat of thePallavas was of importance 
from the fact that it was a victory of the Brahmanical 
religion over Buddhism and Ja^nism. 

Betuming to the general history of Southern India, we 

find that in 1306 Ala-ud-din, the Muham- 

Oeneral HUtopy, madan Emperor of Delhi, despatched 
A. D. 1310 to A. D. y fxnn u a 

1^^^ an army of 100,000 horse under an 

ennobled slave named Malek Kaf ur into 
the Dakhan for the purpose of compelling the Yadava 
Bajah of Devagiri to pay tribute which had been withheld 
for three years. In 1309 the same general was again 
sent into the Dakhan to reduce another principality to 
submission. In the following year Malek Kafur headed a 
third expedition against the Hoysala Ballalas of Dvara- 
samudra, the modem Halebidu. The Muhammadans 
were completely victorious, Halebidu being captured, its 
famous temple sacked, and the power of the Hoysala 
Ballala dynasty efTectually shattered. The king Ballala 
was taken prisoner, but was subsequently released and 
allowed to exercise a nominal sovereignty, a privilege 
which seems to have been continued to his successors. 
The conquest of the Ballalas was followed by the reduction 
of both the Pandiyans and the Cholas, and on the with- 
drawal of the Muhammadan force complete anarchy 
prevailed over the southern portion of the peninsula for 


some years. In tlie struggle foi* supremacy the Mussul- 
mans received a check by the defeat of a large Muhaunnadan 
army at the hands of a combination of Hindu rajahs, 
and a serious blow in 1847, when Ala-ud-din Hassan, 
the Mussulman viceroy of Daulatabad, revolted against 
the Emperor of Delhi and established in the Dakhan the 
independent Bahmani kingdom. Simultaneously with the 
consolidation of this State a powerful Hindu Empire was 
in course of formation at Vijayanagar on the ruins of the 
Hoysala Ballalas and other sovereignties. The growth of 
the new state was rapid, and it soon attained a degree 
of power -far superior to that possessed by any prior 
southern kingdom. The Mussulmans seem to have held 
possession of the Chola country until 1847, when they 
were expelled and a short native dynasty established. 
In 1896 the Vijayanagar monarchs secured possession of 
the Chola kingdom, and probably in 1872 had expelled 
the Muhammadans from the Pandiyan territories. At 
the close of the 15th century the supremacy of Vijayanagar 
was acknowledged throughout the peninsula, although 
mall independent States as Mysore and Travancore con- 
tinued to exist. About this time the Bahmani kingdom 
split up into five distinct principalities, their rivalry further 
increasing the pow^r of the Hindu Empire. In 1564, 
however, the Muhammadan king combined against Vijaya- 
nagai', and after inflicting a crushing defeat at Talikota, 
sacked the city, slew the king and seized the Hindu pos- 
sessions north of the Kistna. Owing to jealousy among 
the victors, and the loyalty of the Hindu provinces of the 
south, further partition of the Vijayanagar territories did 
not inmiediately follow the Mussulman success, but early 
in the next century serious dismemberment of the empire 
commenced. In 1657 a war broke out between the Kayar 
of Vijayanagar and the Nayakka of Madm-a, which led to 
interference by the kings of Golkonda and Bijapur. Tlie 
most important results of these foreign invasions were the 


establishiuent ot* a Mahratta dynasty in Tanjore by Ekoji 
or Venkaji in 1074-6 and the invasion of the Carnatic by 
Sivaji in 1676. 
The Bahmani kingdom established by Ala-iid-din Has- 
san in 1847 lasted 250 years, and had its 

Bahmani King- capital first at Kulbarga and subsequently 
domfi of tlie Dali- . „.j ,, . . , ^_.. 

jjjyj^ at 13idar. l^requent wars with Vijaya- 

nagar were the principal events of the 
first ten reigns. The twelfth king, Nizan Shah, had to 
meet invasions from Orissa, Telingana, and Mai war which 
were successfully resisted. The succeeding monarch, 
Muhammad Shah II, came to the throne in 1468 at the 
youthful age of nine years, and in 1468 appointed the cele- 
brated minister Mahmud Gawan to be his chief adviser. 
In 1469 the Konkana was captured from Vijayanagar and 
in 1471, Telingana was invaded, Kondapalle and Kajah- 
mundry being taken. Six years later another expedition 
was made into Orissa, during which a flying visit was paid 
to Conjeeveram, when the town was sacked and an immense 
amount of loot secured. In 1481 Mahmud Gawan was 
believed by tlie king to be guilty of treason and was, in 
consequence, put to death. Though the dismemberment 
of the empire commenced in the following reign, the decline 
of the kingdom dated from the time of Mahmud's execution. 
Muhammad Shah II was succeeded in 1482 by his son 
Mahmud II, whose minister was Nizamu'1-mulk Bhavu. 
Within a few years of this king's accession the minister 
was murdered, an event which led to his son, Ahmad 
Nizam Shah, declaring his independence at Ahmadnagar 
in 1490. The Governor of Berar had previously revolted, 
establishing the 'Imad Shahi dynasty at Ellichpm-, and a 
third kingdom was founded at Bijapur in 1489 by Yusuf 
'Adil Shah. In 1504, on the death of his father. Amir 
Barid became minister to Mahmud and acquired extra- 
ordinary influence over the king. A fourth dynasty dates 
from 1512, when the Governor of Telingana, Qutbu'1-mulk, 


formed a new kingdom at Golkonda. On the death of 
Mahmud II, Amir Barid placed fom- successive kings on the 
throne, two of whom were mm-dered, and the fomi;h fled, 
presmnably to avoid a like fate. On this Amir Barid threw 
off all pretence of allegiance to the Bahmani dynasty and 
established the Barid Shahi monarchy at Bidar. Space does 
not admit of the career of all these separate dynasties being 
traced, and it will suflice to mention that the Bijapm- 
kingdom absorbed Bidar, and Ahmadnagar incorporated 

The Bijapm: and Golkonda dynasties, however, call for 
Kingdoms of BI- more particular notice on account of the 
Japur and Gol- influence they subsequently exercised in 
^^ ** the Carnatic. After the defeat at Tali- 

kota of the Rajah of Vijayanagar by the confederation of the 
Mussalman kings of Bijapur, Golkonda, Bidar and Ahmed- 
nagar, the doab between the Kistna and Godaveri was 
divided amongst the victors, while the Hindu Kajah was 
allowed to exercise a more or less nominal sovereignty 
over his southern possessions of Gingee, Tanjore and 
Madura. Some seventy years later the Nayakka or Viceroy 
of Madura rebelled against his suzerain and on the latter 
eventually proceeding to warlike measures solicited and 
obtained aid from the king of Golkonda. The Mussalmans 
after ravaging the country were ejected, but returning in 
greater force compelled the Rajah of Vijayanagar to take 
refuge in Mysore. On the Golkonda troops advancing 
further south the Viceroy of Tanjore submitted, but the 
Nayakka of Madura invoked the assistance of Bijapur, and 
in response a large force of cavalry was sent to his aid. At 
this time the Golkonda Army was besieging Gingee, but 
the two Mussalman forces having cometoanundei-standing, 
the Golkonda troops drew off to hold the surrounding 
country, leaving the fort to be captured by the Bijapur 
contingent under Shahji, the father of the celebrated 
Sivaji. In 1646, after a further invasion, the forts of 


Gingee and Vellore with the country south-east of Chandra- 
giri were taken by Bijapur, while Chingleput and the 
teiTitories more to the north and around Madras were 
annexed by Golkonda. An attempt in 1659 by the Nayakka 
of Madura to throw ofif the Mussalman yoke produced 
another invasion from Bijapur, when Gingee and Tanjore 
were held for three years. No further attacks by Bijapur 
and Golkonda are recorded, and these dynasties were 
annihilated in 1686 and 1687 by the Mogul emperor 

The early history of the kingdom of Vijayanagar is 

shrouded in obscurity. The first dy- 

Yijaywia^. ^^^^^ ^* ^^^^^^ ^® ^^^® knowledge 

claimed descent from the Yadava rajahs 

of Magadha, themodem Behar, and the first kingmentioned 
in authentic history was Nanda, 1034 A.D., the founder of 
Nandapur and Warangal. The city of Vijayanagar, now 
known as Humpi, is situated on the right bank of the 
Tungabadhra in the Bellary district. The town was 
founded about 1338 in the reign of Mohammed Tughlak of 
Delhi, according to one account by two fugitives who fled 
from Telingana after the overthrow of Warangal by the 
Mussalmans in 1323, and, according to another by Belal 
Deo of Kamata. In 1380 a king named Harihara II expel- 
led the Muhammadans from Goa and placed the captured 
country under one of his ministers. About 1490 this 
dynasty was succeeded by the powerful line of kings called 
after Narasimha, the founder of the family, a monarch who 
seems to have extended his power into the Dravida country. 
One of his successors, Krishnadeva Kaya, 1509-1530, was 
the greatest monarch of the dynasty, and largely increased 
the possessions of the empire. He commenced by settling 
the district round Conjeeveram, and then captured the fort 
of Sivasamudram and the city of Seringapatam from the 
Mysore Kajah, Ganga Eaja of Ummatur. In 1513 he cap- 
tured the fortress and dependencies of Udayagiri in Cuttack, 


and two years later the hill fort of Kondavidu from a 
Gajapati chief. These victories were followed by numerous 
conquests between Nellore and the Kistna, including the 
subversion of Bezwada and Kondapalle. The southern 
forts of Chandragiri and Vellore are attributed to this 
monarch who, by his conquests, became ultimately the 
virtual ruler of a kingdom whose limits nearly coincided 
with those of the Madras Presidency of to-day. The chief 
officials under the Vijayanagar kings were always styled 
Nayakkas and as two persons, named Lakkana Nayakka 
and Mattanan Nayakka, ruled jointly in Madura from A. D. 
1404 to 1451, it would appear that the power of Vijayanagar 
was felt in the extreme south prior to the accession of 
Narasimha. These Nayakkas were succeeded by four des- 
cendants of the old Pandiyan Kings, but in 1499 a second 
line of Nayakkas ruled in Madura till 1558 and a third till 
1736. The second dynasty of Nayakkas are described in 
inscriptions as servants of the Eayar of Vijayanagar. In 
1530 a line of four Nayakkas reigned till 1665 in Tanjore, 
so it is probable that Krishnadeva Eaya had then establish- 
ed other Viceroys as rulers of his southern dependencies. 
Achjmtya, the successor of the last mentioned king, finally 
reduced Tinnevelly in 1532-83 and was succeeded in 154*2 
by an infant son, Sadasiva, who was kept in subjection by 
his ministers, and can hardly be said to have ever reigned. 
In 1565, during the time when the minister Rama Raja was 
usurping the power of his sovereign, the Mussulman kings 
of the Dakhan combined and inflicted the disastrous 
defeat of Talikota on Vijayanagar. Rama Raja was killed 
in cold blood after the battle, and his head, smeared over 
with red paint and oil, was preserved as a trophy at 
Bijapur for a century afterwards. The victorious allies, 
after sacking the city of Vijayanagar and committing every 
conceivable atrocity, annexed all the Hindu possessions 
north of the Kistna. With Sadasiva terminated the Nar- 
asimha dynasty and henceforward the sovereignty passed 


to the line of the usurping minister, Kama Baja. The 
successor of this minister estabhshed himself in Penna- 
konda, 85 miles south-west of Bellary, and a successor, 
Timmah Kaja, removed from there to Chandragiri in 1570, 
at which place he ruled with some degree of magnificence 
over his Nayakkas of Gingee, Tanjore, Madura, Madras, 
Seringapatam and Pennakonda. In 1577 a Muhammadan 
attack on Pennakonda was repelled by the Viceroy Jagadeva 
Kaya, who received, as a reward for this service, large 
grants of land in Mysore and Salem. In 1597 the seat of 
Government was removed to Vellore and two years later 
war broke out with the Governor of Madura. In the reign 
of this king, Venkatapati, European Missionaries were well 
received and the trade of the East India Company encourag- 
ed ; but the Dutch, who were established at Pulicat, per- 
suaded him to refuse the English a settlement. On the 
death of Venkatupati in 1614 wild disorder prevailed. The 
various Viceroys proclaimed their independence and the 
capture of Seringapatam by Kaja Udaiyar of Mysore 
virtually destroyed the power of Vijayanagar above the 
ghats. In 1644 the Camatic was invaded by armies from 
Bijapur and Golkonda and the then Kajah, Sri liangaBayel, 
escaped to Mysore, where he was afforded shelter, and from 
this time the dominion of Vijayanagar may be considered 
as finally terminated. It is to be remarked that in 1639 
Damarla Venkatadri Nayudu, Zemindar of Kalahasti, gave 
to the English the village of Chennakuppum, and they 
obtained a sanad (warrant) for it from the then Eajah of 
Chandragiri. The Zemindar stipulated that the settle- 
ment wa3 to be called Chenna-pattanam after his father 
Chennappa Nayudu, and on the site so granted Fort St. 
George vras built, and the city founded, now known as 
Madras to Europeans and Chenna-pattanam by the natives. 
The course of events in Southern India after 1687 can 
A. D. 1687toEng- best be followed by a perusal of separate 

narratives of the most important nation- 


alities which influenced the history of the period. This 

method will, therefore, be adopted ; but, to make matters 

clearer, a short general account of Carnatic history will also 

be given. 

On the fall of Golkonda and Bijapur, the armies of 

the Moffhul Emperors of Delhi, under 
Camatic Histopy. ^ ^ 

Zulnkar Khan, were set m motion 

against the Mahratta possessions in the Carnatic. Rajaram, 

a king who had usurped the Mahratta throne, established 

himself at Gingee, and for eight years resisted the attempts 

of the Muhammadans to capture the fortress. Gingee 

was, however, eventually taken, when Rajaram escaped to 

Vellore, and from thence proceeded to Satara, where he 

collected a large army. The Mussulmans at first intended 

to make Gingee their head-quarters, but increasing troubles 

with the Mahrattas in the north compelled Aurungzeb to 

abandon these designs. After the death of this Emperor 

in 1707, Zulfikar Blhan was appointed subadar or viceroy 

of the Dakhan, but for political reasons he deputed one 

Daud Khan to act for him, when, in consequence of the 

unhealthiness of Gingee, the seat of government w^as 

removed to Arcot. Zulfikar Khan was murdered in 1718, 

and his deputy in the Carnatic was then replaced by 

a minister named Chin Kilick Khan, better known by the 

title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, still borne by his descendants in 

Hyderabad. The Nizam was removed from office within 

one year of his arrival at Arcot, and was succeeded by a 

subadar named Hussain Ali, who, before long, incurred 

the displeasure of his sovereign. In consequence of this 

Hussain Ali had soon to meet an attack by Muhammadan 

troops, followed by troubles with the Mahrattas who were 

persuaded to annoy him. Ultimately Hussain Ali bought 

off the Mahrattas by yielding to them the right to collect 

the ** chout ** or the fourth and the tenth of the revenues 

of the six provinces of the Dakhan, and of the tributary 

States of Tanjore, Mysore and Trichinopoly. Hussain 


All then luarched to Delhi and captured the Emperor, 
whose assassination he procured. Hussain Ali was shortly 
afterwards murdered, when the Nizam was appointed Vizier 
or Prime Minister at Delhi, which post he soon vacated. 
He retired to Hyderabad in 1724 and from that time 
became practically independent. The Carnatic was sub- 
ordinate to him and was governed by a deputy or Nabob 
named Sadat-ulla with head-quarters at Arcot. On Sadat- 
ulla's death in 1782, his nephew Dost Ali, became Nabob, 
but without securing the Nizam's sanction. In 1736 Dost 
Ali attacked Trichinopoly capturing the fort there, but in 
1740 the Mahrattas, at the instigation of the Nizam, sent 
a large army against him on the pretext of collecting the 
'*chout, " which had long remained unpaid. Dost Ali 
advanced to meet the invaders with what force he could 
collect and determined to make a stand at Damalcheru 
in North Arcot district until such time as re-inforcements 
could be despatched to his succour. Owing to treachery 
the Mahratta army was enabled to gain, during hours of 
darkness, a position in rear of the Nabob's line, and after 
a stubborn fight obtained a complete victory, both Dost 
Ali and his son Hussain Ali being killed. Safdar Ali, 
another son, eventually bought oflf the Mahrattas and 
assumed the governorship of the Carnatic. He was mur- 
dered by a Pathan, at the instigation of his nephew, Mortiz 
Ali, who succeeded to the vacancy. Owing to troubles 
with his army the latter had to retire in favour of Mahom- 
med Ah, the infant son of Safdar Ali, who ruled under 
the guardianship of his uncle, Tuckia Sahib, at Wandi- 
wash. About this time the Nizam with a large army visit- 
ed Wandiwash, and confirmed Mahommed Ali as Nabob, 
but appointed one Anwar-ud-din as guardian. This change 
was followed by the retransfer of the court to Arcot. 

In 1744 Mahoimiied Ali was murdered presumably at 
the initiation of Mortiz Ali, whereupon the Nizam elevat- 
ed Anwar-ud-din to the vacant throne, and he became the 


ancestor of those Nabobs of the Carnatic from whom the 

comitry was obtained by the EngHsh. Subsequent events 

in the Carnatic will be referred to when dealing with the 

development of the British Empire in India. 

There are some grounds for supposing that the territories 

of the Pandiyans were invaded by the 
Kingdom of Vadnra. ^^ , . . ., , 

Mussulmans prior to the subversion 

of the dynasty in 1310, but these earlier visits, if real, were 

of minor importance compared with the devastation 

wrought by the notorious Malik Kafur and his immediate 

successors. During the period when the Madura country 

was administered by Muhammadan chiefs, atrocities of 

every kind were perpetrated. Among other acts of 

vandalism, the outer wall of the town with its fourteen 

towers was levelled, and the magnificent temple, excepting 

only the shrines of the gods, Sundareshwara and Minakshi, 

was utterly destroyed. About 1372, a Mysorean General, 

named Kampana Udeiyar, presumably the agent of Buk*ha, 

the Eayar of Vijayanagar, marched on Madura and 

succeeded in expelling the Muhammadan rulers. After 

administering the country for some time and providing for 

its future government by Udeiyars, Kampana Udeiyar left 

the country. About 1404 the last Udeiyar, Porkasa, was 

succeeded by a Viceroy named Lakkana Nayakkan, who 

was either followed by or ruled jointly with another 

Nayakkan called Mathanan. In 1451 four persons supposed 

to be of Pandiyan origin were placed on the throne of 

Madura by one Lakkana Nayakkan and reigned for a 

period of 48 years. To these Pandiyans are attributed the 

four lofty gopuras (towers) connected with the enclosure 

walls of the great temple. About 1515 the government of 

the country again reverted to Vijayanagar agents and 

remained so until 1557 when, during a brief period of 

anarchy, another Pandiyan secured the throne for a short 

time until deposed by a Chola king, named Virashekhara. 

The fugitive Pandya fled to the court of Vijayanagar and 


besought the aid of the Kayar in regaining his kingdom. 
Help was given and a General, named Kotiya Naganna 
Nayakkan, was ordered to chastise the Tanjore Eajah and 
reinstate the Pandiyan at Madura. For this undertaking 
Naganna was successful, but soon assumed the reins of 
government on his own account. This disobedience was 
promptly dealt with, and Naganna's son Visvanatha, was 
despatched against his father whom he defeated and 
imprisoned until the rebel was ultimately pardoned. Visva- 
natha placed Chandrashekhara on the throne, but as he 
proved unequal to the position, Visvanatha, with the 
consent of the Rayar, became the viceroy of Vijayanagar. 
With Visvanatha commenced the well-known dynasty of 
the Nayakkas of Madura, the date of his accession being 
generally accepted as 1559. A very remarkable man, 
named Arya Nayaga Muthali, came to Madura with 
Visvanatha. He was the son of poor parents of the Vellala 
caste, but being possessed of energy and talent, rose rapidly 
to a position of trust in the service of the Rayar. The 
history of Arya Nayaga or Nat'ha, as he is frequently called, 
is much shrouded in legend, but there is no doubt that he 
was a man of great power and authority who was General 
and Prime Minister to Visvanatha and during the three 
succeeding reigns. The Madura Poligars pray to him as 
the founder of their order and his equestrian statue in 
Tirumala Nayakka's choultry is garlanded to this day. To 
him is due the hall of a thousand pillars within the enclosure 
of the great temple at Madura. Under Visvanatha the 
country was wisely governed, fortifications constructed, 
temples rebuilt, and irrigation works undertaken. Trichino- 
poly was obtained from the Tanjore king in exchange for 
Vallam, and its rock suitably fortified. The Tinnevelly 
District was put in order after some trouble from five chiefs 
who called themselves the *' five Pandavas," and who 
allowed the dispute to be settled by personal combat between 
one of their number and a Madura champion. To provide 


for the stability of the kingdom, each of the 72 bastions 
of the Madura Fort was placed in charge of a particular 
chief, who was bound for himself and his heirs to keep his 
post at all times and under all circumstances, to maintain 
a body of troops for Imperial service, and to pay a fixed 
annual tribute. Thus originated the famous Madura 
Paliyakarans or Poligars, some of whose descendants still 
possess the family estates. Visvanatha died in December 
1563 and was succeeded by his son, Kumara Krishnappa, 
w^ho reigned until 1573. Arj^a Natha seems to have been 
the real ruler of the kingdom, so the beneficent policy of 
the previous Nayakka was continued. Kumara was 
succeeded by his two sons, Krishnappa and Visvanatha II, 
who ruled jointly until Visvanatha's death. During this 
reign a rebellion was quelled and Trichinopoly and Chidam- 
baram were strengthened. Krishnappa died in 1595 and 
was succeeded by his two sons, Lingayya and Visvanatha 
III. The great Arya Nat'ha died in 1600, and Lingay^^a, 
the survivor of the two brothers in 1002. Kasturi Rangayya, 
the uncle of the previous kings, then usurped the kingdom ; 
but, being murdered a week later, Muttu Krishnappa, 
Lingayya*s son, succeeded to the throne. The most 
important event of this reign was tlie re-establishment, in 
1604, of the Setupati dynasty of Ramnad. The Setupatis 
claim to be of the ancient Marava race, and were probably 
vassals of the Pandiyan kings prior to the supremacy of 
Vijayanagar. At various times their capitals have been 
Devapura, or Eameshwara, Tondi, Raghunat'hapura, 
Verava Nallur and Ramnad. The Setupatis seem to have 
sunk into obscurity for a considerable time, and, at the 
accession of Muttu Krishnappa, the Ramnad country was 
under the management of two Commissioners appointed by 
the Viceroy of Madura. These officers having failed to 
maintain order within their charge, Sadeika Tevan Udeiyan 
Sethupati was appointed Governor of the territory between 
Madura and the sea coast and chief of the 72 Poligars. 


This act of policy was productive of the happiest results, 
Kamnad and Pokalur were fortified and improved, the 
important villages of Vadakku Vattakei, Kaliyar-Kovil, and 
Pattamangalam were taken from refractory chiefs, and a 
considerable tribute was annually remitted to Madura. In 
1606 Eobert de Nobilibus visited Madura and finding that 
the spread of Christianity was prevented by the abhorrence 
in which the Portuguese were held by the Hindus on 
account of their eating beef, drinking spirits, and associat- 
ing with pariahs, he determined to devote his life to missi- 
onary enterprise. With the consent of the Archbishop of 
Cranganore, he represented to the Brahmans that he was 
not a Portuguese, but a Eoman prince and a religious 
devotee. He then commenced to live a life of strict Hindu 
asceticism and withdrew from all intercourse with Father 
Fernandez, the Portuguese Missionary. His efforts were 
soon crowned with some success, but this naturally resulted 
in provoking the hostility of the Brahman Gurus or priests, 
who lost a considerable portion of their customary fees. 
More serious, however, than this persecution was the 
peremptory suspension of de Nobilibus' administration by 
his superiors in Europe, an action undoubtedly due to 
hostile reports by Father Fernandez, and which was the 
severest blow ever inflicted on Christianity in India. Muttu 
Krishnappa died in 1609 leaving three sons, Muttu 
Verappa, Tirumala, and Kumara Muttu, the first of whom 
succeeded to the throne. This king resided at Trichinopoly 
and was hostile to Christianity. The only features of note 
during this reign of fourteen years were a small war with 
Tanjore and unimportant incursions of predatory bands 
from Mysore directed against Dindigul. Muttu Verappa's 
successor was Tirumala Nayakka, the greatest of all the 
modern rulers of Madura. He was at the time of his 
accession suffering from a severe attack of catarrh of long 
standing, which his physicians were unable to cure. During 
a halt at Dindigul, the god, Sundareshwara and the goddess. 


Minakshi are said to have appeared to him in a vision and 
promised him a speedy recovery if he would make Madm^ 
his capital and permanently reside there. Tirumala 
therefore removed to Madura when his health was restored. 
In gratitude for his recovery he undertook the construction 
of the magnificent reUgious edifices unseparably connected 
with his name, and then built himself an enormous palace 
which he furnished with the greatest splendour. The first 
war in which Tirumala was engaged appears to have been 
against Cham Raj Udeiyar, the Bajah of Mysore. The 
Madura Dalavay (Commander-in-Chief) Bamappayya 
encountered the Mysore army near Dindigul and defeated 
it with great loss. This victory was followed by an active 
pursuit of the enemy into Mysore and the capture of one 
of the principal fortresses of that kingdom. A few years 
after the war with Mysore, troubles arose with the Setupati 
of Ramnad, and in the ensuing conflicts Tirumala was not 
particularly successful. Tirumala had from the first 
been desirous of freeing himself from subordination to 
Vijayanagar, and, in 1657, his want of loyalty led to war 
with the Rayar. Tanjore and Gingee combined with 
Madura, while the Mussulmans, at Tirumala's suggestion 
invaded the territories of Vijayanagar, and greatly extended 
their possessions. The Muhammadans then turned their 
attention to the south and captured Madura without 
bloodshed, when Tirumala entered into an alliance with 
the State of Golkonda which then ravaged Mysore and the 
remaining territories of Vijayanagar. In consequence of 
this, war broke out between Mysore and Madura and 
ultimately ended in favour of the latter kingdom in 1659, 
the year in which Tirumala died. In this w^ar the Setupati 
particularly distinguished himself and was liberally rewarded 
with additions to his territories and exemption from 
payment of tribute. Tirumala is supposed to have had a 
strong leaning towards Christianity and Robert de Nobilibus 
resumed his ministrations in June 1625. There are some 


grounds for concluding that Tirumala was murdered by the 
Brahmans, one tradition being that he was enticed into a 
supposed treasure vault and there confined until he died of 
starvation. Tirumala was succeeded in 1659 by his 
illegitimate son, Muttu Arakadri, the rightful heir, Kumara 
Muttu, having been induced to waive his claims. This 
reign only lasted a year ; but during this period, the 
Mussulmans invaded the country, and, after capturing 
Tanjore and other places, unsuccessfully besieged Trichi- 
nopoly. This king was followed in 1660 by his son 
Chokkanatha, a youth of sixteen, who, after outwitting 
a plot to dethrone him, successfully besieged Tanjore, 
whither the traitors had fled. In 1663-64 another Mussul- 
man invasion occurred, during which Trichinopoly was 
unsuccessfully besieged and fearful massacres of innocent 
villagers took place. The Nayakka of Tanjore, Vijaya 
Raghava, having assisted the Muhammadans, Chokkanatha 
attacked and defeated him. Shortly after this the Setupati 
rebelled and was unsuccessfully attacked. In 1674 Tanjore 
was again invaded, reduced, the king Vijaya Raghava 
slain with almost all his family, and Chokkanatha's foster 
brother, Alagiri Nayakka, appointed Viceroy. In 1675 
Chokkanatha married Mangammal, who afterwards became 
Regent, and gave himself up to private enjoyments, living 
at Trichinopoly and neglecting the government which was 
carried on by his brother, Muttu Arakadri. The ministers 
soon began to intrigue with Arakadri at Madura, and 
finally induced him to declare his independence. At the 
same time the Muhammadans in alliance with Ekoji, the 
half-brother of Sivaji and a refugee Tanjore prince, seized 
first Tanjore, and then almost all the Madura territory 
without opposition. At length Chokkanatha assembled 
an army for the attack of the Muhammadans in Tanjore, 
and at the same time the Rajah of Mysore prepared to 
attack Madura. A raid by Sivaji, as far south as the 
C'oleroon, was taken advantage of by the Muhammadans 


to attack Gingee, but the eflfort was unsuccessful, and 
Sivaji's armies returned in safety to garrison the fortress. 
Chokkanatha had meanwhile advanced on Tanjore, but 
remained inactive, and in 1677 the Rajah of Mysore invaded 
Madura, when Chokkanatha was dethroned by his ministers 
and his brother, Muttu Lingappa, placed on the throne. 
This prince, however, only reigned a few months, when 
Chokkanatha was restored. In 1680 the annies of Mysore 
invested Trichinopoly, and the Nayakka was further 
threatened by the Setupati, the Mahrattas and the Tanjore 
Muhammadans. Eventually the Mahrattas, who nominally 
were supposed to be in alliance with Chokkanatha, having 
defeated the Mysoreans with great slaughter and retaken 
their conquest in the Madura territories, proceeded to 
besiege Trichinopoly on their own account. This last 
misfortune proved too much for the Nayakka, who fell into 
a profound melancholy and died of a broken heart in 1682. 
The whole country was now in a state of anarchy and 
the territories of Madura were divided between the new 
Nayakka, Ranga Krishna Muttu Virappa, the Rajah of 
Mysore, the Setupati, Sambuji of Gingee, and Ekoji of 
Tanjore. Ranga Krishna gradually shook off the Mysore 
control, recovered the lands annexed by the Setupati, and 
regained possession of his capital. This Nayakka, who 
governed well and energetically, died of small-pox in 1689. 
The kingdom then fell under the regency of Mangammal, 
a charitable but unscrupulous woman, who permitted 
religious toleration. The Setupati of Ramnad, however, 
was violently opposed to Christianity and in 1698 beheaded 
the missionary John De Britto at the instigation of the 
Brahmans. In 1698 troubles arose with Travancore, the 
outcome of which is not definitely known, although the 
Madura troops claim to have boen victorious. In 1700 the 
Dutch of Tuticorin acquired the monopoly of the pearl 
fisheries, and a desultory war with Tanjore broke out, 
during which the Madura forces ravaged Tanjore and had 


to Ixj bought off. In 1701 Madura and Tanjore combined 
against Mysore, but war was averted, and in the follow- 
ing year the Setupati defeated and killed the Delavay 
Narasappayya. The regency terminated in 1704, when 
the young prince Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha came of age 
and Mangammal was starved to death. This reign was 
remarkable for a terrible flood in 1709 and a famine which 
lasted from 1709 to 1720. The Tondaman or Rajah of 
Pudukottai revolted against his liege lord the Setupati of 
Ramnad, who died whilst marching to chastise his rebellious 
vassal. On this a struggle ensued for the throne of Ramnad, 
which terminated in a division of territory, Tanjore 
securing a share. Vijaya Ranga died in 1731 without issue, 
when his widow, Minakshi, adopted the son of a person, 
named Vangaru Tirumala, who considered himself the legal 
heir. This led to further troubles and, in 1734, the 
Muhammadans under Safdar Ali Khan ravaged the country 
as well as Tanjore, Travancore, and the Western Coast. 
Vangaru Tirumala induced Safdar Ali Khan to declare him 
king, and Chanda Sahib, a son-in-law of Dost Ali was left 
to enforce the decision. Minakshi, however, bribed Chanda 
Sahib, who, in 1736, sent troops against Vangaru Tirumala 
at Dindigul and Madura. They were victorious and 
Chanda Sahib seized the sovereignty. Minakshi then 
committed suicide and the Hindu government of Madura 
was thus put an end to for ever. Vangaru Tirumala sought 
aid from the Mahrattas, when Raghuji Bhonsle with an 
immense army marched on Madura. The Muhammadans 
were defeated with great slaughter, Chanda Sahib taken 
prisoner, and Trichinopoly captured. Morari Rao, a 
Mahratta chief, was left in charge of Trichinopoly, while 
another Mahratta, Appaji Rao, administered Madura ; this 
arrangement ceased in 1743, when the whole was yielded 
up to the Nizam on his invasion. Vangaru Tirumala 
gained the protection of the Nizam, but was shortly 
afterwards poisoned. From the time of the Mahratta 


expulsion the Madura country was governed by officers 
nominated by Anwar-ud-din. In 1750 the then ruler 
Alluin Khan threw in his lot with Chanda Sahib who, after 
regaining his liberty in 1748, had, with the aid of the 
French and Muzaffir Jung, defeated and killed Anwar- 
ud-din at Ambur in 1749, when Muhammed Ali fled to 
Trichinopoly and proclaimed himself Nabob. In 1751 
Muhammed Ali, in alliance with a small English force, 
made an unsuccessful attack on Madura. The next 
Governor, May ana, is supposed to have sold the city to 
Mysore, but the English under Captain Cope returned and 
took possession. They were expelled by the Setupati who, 
in 1758, placed the adopted son of Minakshi upon the 
throne of Madura. Complete confusion for two years 
followed, when Muhammed Ali sent another expedition 
against Madura. The city was surrendered without a 
struggle, and a European garrison under a Muhammadan 
Governor was installed. In 1758 the English obtained 
permanent possession of Madura, but troubles in the 
surrounding district did not cease until 1783, w'hen Colonel 
FuUarton quieted the whole country, which was thereafter 
administered solely by the English. The first ** Collector 
of Madura," Mr. McLeod, was appointed in 1790. 

Reverting to the history of Tanjore, which has l^een 

carried up to the time of the Mussal- 
man invasion when dealing with the 
Cholas, it is to be noted that, as there is no record of 
the country having been ruled by the Muhammadans in 
the fourteenth century, it is probable it was only ravaged 
by a wing of Malek Kafur's army. During this century 
the old Chola kingdom seems to have become tributarj- 
to Vijayanagar under the Udeiyars. Little, however, is 
known of Tanjore history during this period until the 
expedition of the Vijayanagar General, Kotriya Naganna 
Nayakka, against Madura, after which a Nayakkan dynasty 
appears to have been established in Tanjore. In all four 

Kingdom of Tanjore. 


Nayakkas — Sevappa, Acutappa, Kagliunatha, and Vijaya 
Raghava, governed the country. These rulers soon became 
virtually independent of Vijayanagar, but were never so 
powerful as the Madura Viceroys. Although they did not 
undertake any very great utilitarijin works, several forts, 
tanks and temples were constructed by the first and last 
two Nayakkas. During the existence of this dynasty, 
which terminated about 10(55, the Portuguese, in 1612, 
formed a settlement at Negapatam, and the Danes at 
Tranquebar in 1620. Negapatam was taken by the Dutch 
in 1660 and possession confirmed by a grant from the 
last Nayakka. Vijaya Kaghava and his son, Mannaru, 
were killed in a final and desperate sortie from Tanjore 
during the attack of the Madura army under Alagiri. To 
prevent any member of his family, or of his numerous 
zenana falling into the hands of his enemies, Vijaya 
Raghava caused the female apartments to be blown-up just 
before he sallied forth, but the crown Rani managed to 
save her male baby. The nurse, wlio had charge of the 
child, fled to Negapatam, where she was received into the 
house of a Chetty and allowed to bring up the infant as 
her own. Twelve years later, a Brahman named Venkanna, 
who had been Vijaya Raghava*s secretary, collected a 
number of the old Nayakka's dependents and took the boy 
to Bijapur, where he laid his unfortunate case before the 
king. After some delay an anny was sent under the 
command of Ekoji, a Mahratta General, then in charge 
of the recent Bijapur conquests in the Carnatic. Ekoji 
defeated Alagiri, who, in the meantime, had usm-ped the 
throne, and conducted the young prince in triumph to the 
palace, where he was crowned with due solemnity. 
Troubles soon arose in connection with the appointment 
of a Minister, which resulted on the death of the Bijapur 
sovereign, in Ekoji ejecting the young king, Sengamal- 
adas, and securing the throne for himself . It is generally 
agreed that Ekoji seized Tanjore in 1674. He came of a 


respectable Mahratta family siirnamed Bhunsle and was 
half-brother of the f^reat Sivaji. In 1677 Sivaji raided 
the Camatie, capturin*^ all the Bijapur conquests, and 
claiming a moiety of the Tanjore possessions. Eventually, 
Ekoji was allowed to retain Tanjore and the family estate 
in Mysore, but had to pay a large sum of money and divide 
his father's jewels and the revenues of the territories left 
to him. The Mysore property was captured by a Moghul 
General and Chikka Deva Rajah of Mysore about 1688. 
Ekoji died either in 1686 or 1687, leaving three sons, Shahji, 
Sharabhoji, andTukkoji. Shahji reigned for 25 years and 
in 1691 was compelled by Zulfikar Khan, the Moghul 
Deputy, to pay an annual tribute of 4 lakhs of rupees. 
In 1696 Zulfikar Khan compelled the Bajah to restore 
several places he had >\Tested from the Nayakka of 
Trichinopoly. The reign of Sharabhoji, 1712 — 1727, was 
uneventful, but that of the following king, Tukkoji, was 
noteworthy for the extension of the Tanjore territory 
southwards into the Marava country. In 1725 the succes- 
sion to the throne of Kamnad was violently disputed by two 
rival claimants, Tanda Tevan and Bhavani Shankara. The 
cause of the latter, an illegitimate son of the preceding 
Setupati, was espoused by Tukkoji, while the Nayakka 
of Kamnad and the Tondaman of Pudukottai supported 
the former. The Tanjore General, Ananda Rao Peshva, 
was victorious, and, having slain Tanda Tevan, placed 
Bhavani Shankara on the throne. Soon after this event 
two other claimants appeared named Katta Tevan and 
Slieshavarna Tevan, who succeeded in enlisting the active 
sympathy of the Tanjore Rajah. This resulted in the 
Ranmad territory being divided into three portions : the 
comitry north of the Pamban river fell to Tanjore ; that 
around Ramnad to Katta, and the present Zemindari of 
Sivaganga to Slieshavarna. Shortly afterwards Katta 
Tevan captured from Tanjore all the Ranmad territory, 
except Arantanji and its dependent districts. Tukkoji 


was succeeded in 1736 by his son Baba Sahib, who reigned 
only a year, when his wife Sujana Bai was appointed 
regent. Some two years later a pretender named Savai 
Shahji or Kattn Eaja succeeded, with the aid of the 
Muhammadan Commander of the fort, in ousting Sujana 
Bai. He was, however, soon deposed and Saiyaji, the 
second son of Tukkoji, placed on the throne. For some 
unknown reason, Saiyaji also was removed from power, 
and his illegitimate brother, Pratapsing, appointed Eajah 
in 1740. Pratapsing's reign of 24 years embraced an 
eventful period in South Indian history, for, during his 
time, the Carnatic was the scene of fierce contests for 
supremacy between two rival Muhammadan families 
aspiring to the rank of Moghul Deputy, and of the first 
intervention of the English and French in the political 
affairs of India. Early in 1749 Saiyaji, the deposed Rajah, 
solicited the aid of the English in deposing Pratapsing, 
promising to pay the expenses of the expedition if successful , 
and to give them the fort of Divikkottei, near the mouth of 
the Coleroon. The offer was accepted ; but the expedition 
was unsuccessful. To retrieve the lost prestige, a second 
and more powerful force, under Major Stringer Lawrence, 
was sent against Divikkottei in May 1749. The fort was 
taken in the following month, the assault being led by 
Lieutenant, afterwards Lord, Clive, the founder of the 
British Empire in India. After a temple at Achavaram 
had been captured, Pratapsing agreed to cede for ever 
the fort of Divikkottei with its adjoining territory worth 
81,500 rupees per annum, pay a war indemnity of a lakh 
of rupees, and allow a yearly pension of Rs. 4,000 to Saiyaji. 
In December 1749, Pratapsing was pressed by Chanda 
Sahib, and Muzaffar Jung, a claimant to the Subadarship 
of the Dakhan for payment of 4 crores of rupees on account 
of arrears of tribute and as a contribution towards the 
expenses of the war against Anwar-ud-din. The confeder- 
ates, who were then on their way to attack Muhammed 


AH in Trichinopoly, forced the Rajah by bombarding 
Tanjore to make heavy payments in money and to give 
extensive grants of land. The attack on Trichinopoly wa3 
postponed in consequence of the approach of a large army 
under Nazir Jung, the second son of the Nizam. A battle 
was fought at Valdavur, in which the allies were utterly 
defeated, and after which Muzaflfar Jung was thrown into 
prison. The victorious army retired to Arcot, where Nazir 
Jung gave himself up to a life of ease and luxury, after 
having sent large numbers of his troops back to the north. 
Advantage was taken of this inaction by Chanda Sahib, 
who proceeded to besiege Muhammed Ali in Trichinopoly, 
and by the French, who secured Gingee. Trichinopoly 
wan eventually relieved by Clive with the assistance of 
some Mysore troops, the Mahratta Horse under Murari 
Rao, and a Mahratta contingent under Mankoji. Chanda 
Sahib surrendered himself to Mankoji, who caused him to 
b3 beheaded. As a reward for his assistance, Mahommed 
Ali granted to Pratapsing a release of ten years' arrears 
of tribute and the districts of Koiladi and Yalangudu. 
Subsequently Mysore and the Mahratta Horse went over 
to the French, and the intrigues of Dupleix nearly 
resulted in Pratapsing taking their side in the struggle 
against the Nabob and the English. However, the Tanjore 
prince remained staunch, and, in revenge, the Mahratta 
contingent plundered the country until driven out by 
Mankoji. In May 1754 the French ravaged the country, 
inflicting a most wanton injury on the cultivators by 
cutting through the large irrigation bank, which prevented 
the waters of the Cauvery escaping into the Coleroon. 
The bank was, however, repaired when the French with- 
drew, the labourers working under the protection of 
the Tanjore army. In 1758 the French Governor, Lally, 
looted Nagore and Kivalur, and finally encamped in front 
of Tanjore, but soon raised the siege on hearing that an 
English fleet had anchored off Karaikka^ Pratapsing 


died in 1763 and was succeeded by his son Tulzaji. 
Hyder Ali from Mysore invaded the Carnatic in 1769, but 
spared Tanjore in consideration of a heavy payment exacted 
from Tulzaji. At the persuasion of Muhammed Ali, the 
English undertook an expedition against Tanjore- in 1771 
for the purpose of enforcing tribute due by Tulzaji. The 
fort of Vallam, near Tanjore, was taken in September of 
that year, and in October the siege of the capital was raised 
on the Eajah coming to terms. The Nabob, however, was 
not satisfied, and, in 1773, induced the English to undertake 
the reduction of the country. This resulted in Tulzaji being 
deposed and Muhammed Ali being put in possession of the 
district together with the port of Nagore. The Court 
of Directors of the East India Company, however, dis- 
approved of these unjust wars, and, after removing from 
office the President of the Madras Council, directed the 
re-installation of Tulzaji, who, on 11th April 1776, was 
formally put in possession of all his territories, including 
Vallam, Yalangudu and Koiladi. During the two years 
Muhammed Ali held Tanjore, the country was subjected 
to the most cruel oppressions and exactions. In 1781 
Hyder Ali for a second time invaded Tanjore, ravaged the 
country, and, with the exception of the capital, made 
himself master of the whole district. He was, however, 
signally defeated by Sir Eyre Coote at Porto Novo on 
1st July 1781, and by November of that year, except for 
occasional raids, the troops of Hyder had left the country. 
A lamentable disaster occurred to a force under Colonel 
Brathwaite, in February 1782, which was overpowered on 
the banks of the Coleroon by an overwhelming army under 
Tippu, Hyder's son. Tulzaji died in 1787, and was succeed- 
ed by his half-brother Amarsing, his adopted son Sharabhoji 
being set aside on the grounds of illegal adoption and the 
imbecile state of Tulzaji's mind when the selection was 
made. Sharabhoji was educated at Tanjore under the care 
of the celebrated German Missionary Mr. Schwartz. In 


179*2 loud complaints were made of the ill-treatment of 
Sharabhoji by Amarsing, and the Madras Government 
interfering, Sharabhoji was removed to Madras and placed 
under the care of the Eevd. W. Fr. Gericke, of the 
Lutheran Mission. On arrival at Madras, and by the 
advice of Mr. Schwartz, Government was memorialized to 
reinvestigate Sharabhoji*s claim to the throne of Tanjore. 
The appeal was ultimately successful and, in June 1798, 
Amarsing was deposed and Sharabhoji installed. Soon 
after Sharabhoji consented to resign the Government of 
Tanjore wholly into the hands of the Company, and under 
a treaty, dated 25th October 1799, Tanjore became a 
British province. Sharabhoji lived till 1832 and made an 
extensive collection of English and Sanskrit works, his 
library being probably the largest and most valuable in 
Southern India. He was succeeded by his son Sivaji, who 
died in 1855 without male heirs, when the title and 
dignity of the Tanjore raj became extinct. The whole of 
the late Eajah's property, real and personal, excepting only 
the insignia of royalty, are now in possession of his family, 
subject to the ordinary laws of Hindu succession. The 
palace is State property, and the estate is managed under 
the control of the Collector by a receiver appointed by 

The cradle of the Maharatta race is known as Maha- 

rashtra, being all the southern portion 

Th6 MftDFfttt&B* 

of the Bombay Presidency, and large 
areas in the Central Provinces, Central India Agency, and 
Nizam's Dominions. Nothing authentic is known of the 
early history of the Mahrattas ; but they were conquered 
by the Mussulmans before the fall of the Pathan dynasty 
of Delhi, and, between the times of the Moghul emperors, 
Akbar and Aurangzeb, were partly subject to the Moghuls 
and partly to Ahmadnagar and Bijapur. The Mahratta 
dynasty sprang from a family named Bhonsle, residing at 
EUora, and which traced its descent from the royal house 


of Oudipur. Babaji Bhonsle, the head man of three villages, 
had a son named Maloji, who rose in 1577 to be a cavalrj' 
commander under Nizam Shah II of Ahmadnagar. 
Maloji's eldest son, Shahji, became prominent first under 
Nizam Shah and then under the Moghuls and Ibrahim Adil 
Shah of Bijapur, governing the southern conquests of the 
last king. Shahji had three legitimate sons, the first of 
whom was killed in action ; the second was the great Sivaji, 
the founder of the Mahratta power; and the third was 
Ekoji, who seized Tanjore from its Nayakkan Governor, 
and established the last dynasty, which ruled the ancient 
Chola kingdom. In 1638 Shahji came into the Camatic as 
second-in-command of the Bijapiur force, which eventually 
conquered a considerable portion of modern Mysore, the 
fortresses of Vellore, Gingee and Arni, and other places of 
minor importance. On his own account, Shahji acquired 
extensive landed property near Bangalore, and estates at 
Ami and Porto Novo. Sivaji's connection with the Carnatic 
was comparatively of smaU consequence. In 1677 he inva- 
ded the country, seizing the Bijapur conquests and the 
family possessions in Mysore and Arni, and in 1680, the year 
of his death, obtained from the Bijapur Government a grant 
of all the territories he had conquered in the Carnatic, 
together with the principality of Tanjore. The further 
history of the Mahratta race, except as regards the Tanjore 
branch already narrated, is connected with districts beyond 
the limits of the Madras Presidency, and is, therefore, 
outside the scope of this work. 
The family of the Eajahs of Mysore is supposed to be 

descended from Vijaya, the elder of two 
Yadava brothers, who left the Court of 
Vijayanagar, and, after rescuing the daughter of the ruler 
of Hadanad or Udaiyar from an enforced marriage with the 
chieftain of Karugakalli in Mysore, married her himself 
and finally became lord of Hadanad. Very little is known 
of the early history of the dynasty. The first ruler of note 


was Hire Chama Kaja (1571 — 76), who became independ- 
ent on the fall of the Vijayanagar empire. Bajah Udaiyar 
(1578 — 1617) largely increased the extent of his dominions, 
and in 1609 ejected the Viceroy of Vijayanagar from 
Seringapatam, which town he then occupied. The next 
Kajah Kanthirava Narasa (1638 — 1659), and his successor, 
Kempa Deva (1659 — 1672), further enlarged their kingdom, 
the latter takingErode from the Nayakka of Madura. The 
following Rajah, Chikka Deva (1672 — 1704), was the most 
powerful sovereign of the dynasty. He governed well, 
reformed the land-tenure system, defeated the Mahrattas, 
and added several new tracts, including Bangalore, to the 
State. With Chama Raja (1731—1733) the dynasty was 
interrupted for a period of 66 years by anarchy, the elevation 
to the throne of puppet sovereigns of distant branches, and 
by the usurpation of Hyder Ali Khan and his son Tippu 
Sultan. Hyder Ali, who made himself master of the king- 
dom in 1760, was the grandson of a religious mendicant 
from the Panjab, and the son of a dashing cavalry officer. 
He was bom at Kolar in 1702, and, at the age of thirty, entered 
the Mysore service, in which he was soon promoted to the 
leadership of 50 horse and 200 infantry and the command 
of the Dindigul district. In June 1761, after fighting and 
negotiation, Hyder Ali obtained from the weak Rajah a 
formal renimciation of the kingdom of Mysore. Two 
years later he attacked and took the large city of Bednor 
or Nagar, where he obtained immense treasure. In 1765 
he was signally defeated by the Mahrattas and compelled 
to relinquish his new conquest. The following year Hyder 
invaded Malabar and took Calicut, the Zamorin burning 
himself in his palace to avoid captivity. A confederacy 
against Hyder was now formed by the Mahrattas, into 
which the English were unfortunately drawn by their 
treaty with the Nizam, but Hyder managed to detach the 
Mahrattas and Mussulmans, leaving the English to meet 
him unsupported. The Europeans, however, proved equal 


to the occasion, and were victorious at Changamma and 
Tiruvannamalai in the South Arcot district. The subse- 
quent history of Hyder Ali and his son, Tippu, will be found 
in the account of the rise of the English power in India. 
After the death of Tippu, the British Government placed 
the son of Chama Kaja on the throne, since which time the 
succession has been continued in the same line. 

Portugal was the first European nation to form settle- 
ments in India. On 28th May 1498 
The Portuguese. 

. Vasco da G^ma havmg rounded the 

Cape of Good Hope, anchored off Calicut. He soon got 
into trouble with the Zamorin, and the hostihty thus excited 
was extended to the Rajah of Cochin and the succeeding 
Portuguese captains, Alvarez Cabral, Alphonso and Fran- 
cisco Albuquerque, Duarte Pacheco, and Lope Soarez. 
The Portuguese had further to face hostihty from Egypt, 
Gujarat and the Arabian Moors. The first two Viceroys, 
Francisco Almeyda (1505 — 1508) and Alphonso Albuquerque 
(1508 — 1515), did much to extend the empire, but their 
reUgious intolerance, subjection to Spain, and the hostility 
of the Dutch, soon led to a decline, and the Portuguese 
now possess only Goa, Damaun, and Diu. 

The Portuguese were followed in 1594 by the Dutch, 

who, after a struggle of fifty years' dura- 
tion, gained decided but brief supremacy 
among European settlers. The chief Dutch possessions 
were, Negapatam, taken from the Portuguese in 1660, 
Sadras, Pulicat, Tuticorin and Bimlipatam, all of which 
have now fallen into the hands of the English. 

The Danes arrived in India in 1616, but only held 

two settlements, Tranquebar, bought 
from the Eajah of Tanjore in 1616, and 
Serampore on the Hoogly. Both these places were bought 
by the Enghsh in 1845, and were principally noted 
for the learned ecclesiastics attached to their missions. 
Ziegenbalg (1706—1719), Fabricius (1739—1791) and 


Schwartz (1750 — 1798) are names still justly respected in 

connection with the religious establishments atTranquebar. 

The French appeared on the scene in 1668, when Francis 

Caron formed the first settlement at 
The French* 

Surat in connection with the East India 

Company formed by Colbert. In 1669 a site was obtained 

at Masulipatam, and three years later Trincomalee and 

Mylapore (St. Thom6) were captured from the Dutch, to 

be lost after two years' possession. In April 1674 the site 

of Pondicherry was bought from the Bijapur Government 

and the city founded by Francois Martin. In 1693 the 

Dutch captured the settlement, but restored it on the peace 

of Ryswick being signed in 1697. In 1688 Chandernagore 

was obtained from Aurungzeb and in 1725 M4he was added 

to the French possessions. In 1731 Joseph Francois 

Dupleix, the ablest Indian statesman ever produced by 

France, was appointed Director of Chandernagore. The 

French history from this time is so involved with that of 

the English, that it can be profitably dealt with when 

discussing the English struggle for supremacy in India. 

The British East India Company was incorporated in 

1600, during the reign of Queen Eliza- 
The EngUsh. » 5 & ^ 

beth, and a second charter was obtained 
in 1661. The Moghul Emperor, Jehangir, in 1611, gave 
permission for the establishment of four factories in his 
dominions, and from time to time other settlements were 
made in various parts of India. A second company was 
formed in 1698, but the two rival concerns were united by 
King William III in 1702. The first trading settlement 
in the Madras Presidency was formed at Masulipatam in 
1620 and shortly afterwards a second was established at 
Armogum, about forty miles north of Pulicat. In 1639 Fort 
St. George was constructed at Madras, and in 1691 Fort 
St. David at Tegnapatam, near Cuddalore. Until the end 
of the first-half of the 17th century, trading operations were 
carried on in comparative peace amid the perpetual wars 


between the Mahrattas and Mussalmans, the only event 
really affecting the future of the settlements being the 
acquisition of Pondicherry by the French in 1672. In 1744 
war broke out between the English and the French, when 
Fort St. George was taken to be restored five years later 
at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Nearly the whole of 
Southern India was at this time subject to the Nizam of 
Hyderabad, the country in the neighbourhood of Madras 
being immediately under the Nabob of the Carnatic, while 
the Mahrattas held Tanjore and the adjoining districts. 
The assistance of the English given to Saiyaji in 1749 and 
their espousal of the cause of Muhammed Ali have already 
been referred to. The French went to the aid of Chanda 
Sahib, who, in alliance with Muzaffir Jung, opposed Muham- 
med Ali. Muzaffir Jung succeeded in securing the throne 
of the Nizam, and the triumph of the French under Dupleix 
was complete, until Clive appeared on the scene. He 
changed the whole course of the war by seizing Arcot on 
30th August 1751, at the time when Chanda Sahib and 
the French were besieging Muhammed Ali in Trichino- 
poly. Clive in turn was besieged, and, after brilliantly 
repulsing all attacks, followed up his success by a victory 
at Arni, which virtually placed the Carnatic once more 
under the rule of the Nabob. The siege of Trichinopoly, 
however, was not raised until the French detachment sur- 
rendered in June 1752 to Clive and Major Lawrence at 
Srirangam. A quarrel next broke out between the Nabob 
and Nunjeraj, the minister of the Eajah of Mysore. The 
English at first hesitated to assist Muhammed Ali, but 
Nunjeraj 's conduct was such as forced them to treat him 
as an enemy. The French supported Nunjeraj, and a 
succession of combats took place, chiefly in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Trichinopoly, in which the English were 
almost uniformly successful. The recall of Dupleix, on 
14th October 1754, led to a cessation of hostilities, but 
the English continued to aid the Nabob in his internal 


administration, while the French, under M. Bussy, per- 
formed a similar office for the then Nizam, Salabut Jung. 
Hostilities in Southern India were resumed in 1757, when 
it became known that war had broken out in Europe 
between England and France. The French taking advan- 
tage of the English forces being dispersed in various expedi- 
tions, unsuccessfully attacked Trichinopoly, and captured 
Vizagapatam. In 1758 a French fleet appeared off Fort St. 
David and the fort fell on 2nd June ; Devikkottei was next 
reduced, but an expedition against Tanjore completely 
failed. In December Madras was besieged and was 
not relieved until February 1758, when an English fleet 
appeared in the roads. In the North Clive captured 
Masulipatam on 7th April, securing to the English a tract 
of territory around the town extending eighty miles along 
the coast and twenty miles inland, and destroying French 
influence with the Nizam. In the South, Colonel Coote, 
on 22nd January 1760, completely defeated the French 
under Lally, at Wandewash, and followed up the victory 
by taking both Gingee and Arcot. Minor forts then fell 
in rapid succession and by May the English were in a 
position to lay siege to Pondicherry. Lally then invoked 
the aid of Hyder Ali, who totally defeated an English 
detachment, but was then obliged to return home on 
account of internal troubles. The withdrawal of the 
Mysoreans rendered the French cause hopeless, and, on 
16th January 1761, Pondicherry surrendered. With this 
event the power of the French in the Carnatic may be con- 
sidered to have ended. In 1765 the Northern Circars, 
consisting of the districts of Ganjam, Vizagapatam, Goda- 
veri, and Kistna, were transferred to the Company by the 
Emperor of Delhi, whose paramount authority was recog- 
nized by the Nizam. The Madras Council, however, hesi- 
tated to take over these territories until the consent of 
the Nizam had been given to the acquisition ; and in 1776 
a treaty was entered into with Nizam Ali agreeing to pay 


tribute for the Circaors and to defend the Nizam against 
his enemies. The EngUsli were soon required, under this 
latter stipulation, to assist the Nizam and the Mahrattas 
in checking the aggression of Hyder AH. No sooner had 
operations commenced than Hyder bought oflf the Mah- 
rattas, and induced the Nizam to desert the British and 
join him in a descent upon the Carnatic. Colonel Smith, 
who commanded the English forces, finding himself op- 
posed to an infinitely superior force, commenced a retreat, 
but was overtaken in South Arcot. The first attack, 
made at Changamma, was repulsed, the second, at Tiru- 
vannamalai, resulted in a decisive English victory, and the 
disorderly flight of the troops of Hyder and the Nizam. 
Colonel Smith was too weak to follow up his victory and 
withdrew into cantonments for the rainy season. Hyder 
availed himself of this inaction to reduce a few unim- 
portant fortresses, but was checked by Captain Calvert's 
defence of Ambur. On its rehef by Colonel Smith in 
December 1707, Hyder drew oflf to commence operations 
on the West Coast, where a Bombay expedition had 
captured his fleet. The Madras Government continued 
their offensive operations, one corps under Colonel Wood 
proceeding to the reduction of the fortresses under the 
south-eastern slopes of the Gh&ts, while another force, 
under Colonel Smith, entered Mysore. Hyder could not 
be induced to risk a general engagement, and, after he 
had retaken a few forts, concluded a treaty with the English 
on 4th April 1769. From this time until 1780, the only 
military operations, beyond assisting the Nabob in his 
quarrels with the Kajah of Tanjore, were the capture of 
Pondicherry and MAhe in 1779. In 1880 war broke out 
with Hyder owing to the Nabob failing to provide the 
English with means to fulfil the treaty of 1769. In 
alliance with the Nizam and Mahrattas, Hyder invaded 
the Carnatic, burning crops and devastating villages, until 
Madras was enclosed bv a blackened area of desolation. 



The English Commander-in-Chief, Sir Hector Munro, 
proceeded to Conjeeveram, directing Colonel Baillie to 
join him there with troops from the North. Hyder 
managed to overwhelm Baillie's force on 9th September 

1780, when Munro retreated to Madras, leaving the field 
open to Hyder. On receipt of the intelligence of this 
disaster, Warren Hastings, the Governor-General in Cal- 
cutta, despatched Sir Eyre Coote to Madras with rein- 
forcements. The latter took the field on 17th January 

1781, relieved Chingleput on the 19th, retook Carangooly 
on the 21st, and caused the siege of Wandewash, which 
had been brilliantly resisted by Lieutenant Flint, to be 
raised. Coote, after proceeding to Pondicberry, turned 
his attention to the protection of Cuddalore. Hyder, who 
had followed him down the coast, shirked a general 
engagement, until he heard of an unsuccessful attack on 
Cellumbrum, when he advanced 'and took up a position 
close to Sir Eyre Coote's camp at Porto Novo, some four- 
teen miles south of Cuddalore. The battle commenced 
early on 1st July 1781, and was long and severe ; but by 
4 P.M. the enemy were in precipitate retreat. The want of 
proper equipment prevented Coote from following up his 
success, but he again relieved Wandewash, and eluding 
Hyder's troops, captured Tripassore on 22nd August. Five 
days later an indecisive general engagement was fought, 
but on 27th September the Mysoreans were surprised near 
Sholinghur and adecisive victory was gained, which enabled 
provisions to be thrown into Vellore. In November the 
English army retired into Madras for the monsoon, where 
it remained till January 1782, when it proceeded once 
more to the relief of Vellore. Hyder then turned his 
attention to Cuddalore, and with the assistance of a French 
contingent captured it and also Permacoil, but Sir Eyre 
Coote arrived in time to save Wandewash. In the mean- 
time, war liad broken out with the Dutch as well as with 
the French, and the Dutch settlements of Sadras, Pulicat, 


and Negapatam had been taken. A portion of the force 
employed for the reduction of Negapatam, while proceeding 
under Colonel Brathwaite to operate in Tanjore, was 
surprised by Hyder's son, Tippu Sultan, and annihilated 
almost to a man. At this juncture a rebellion against 
Hyder broke out in Malabar, and with the assistance of 
the English a considerable victory was gained at Telli- 
cherry. This necessitated the immediate despatch of 
Tippu to the West Coast, when Hyder feeling himself 
overmatched determined to quit the Coromandel Coast. 
The death of Hyder at Chittoor, on 7th December 1782, 
left the field open to the English, and after being rein- 
forced from Bombay they took several places on the West 
Coast, penetrating as far as Bednor above the GhAts. 
Tippu succeeded in stopping further progress, retook 
Bednor on 3rd May, and laid siege to Mangalore, which, 
after a gallant resistance, capitulated on 30th January 
1784. After much evasion and delay, peace was con- 
cluded on 10th March on the basis of mutual restoration 
of conquests. On account of Tippu's fanatical zeal, many 
rebellions of the Nairs of Malabar arose from time to 
time. Eventually Tippu resolved to invade Travancore, 
where many Nairs had taken refuge, although cautioned 
that such a proceeding would involve him in another war 
with the English. His first attempt to enter Travancore 
was a failure ; a second was successful, and the country 
was overrun in his usual cruel manner. However, on 
Tippu's return to Coimbatore, he found an English army in 
the field under General Medows, the Governor of Madras. 
Tippu first withdrew to Seringapatam, and the English 
experienced little opposition in the reduction of the various 
forts on the south-eastern slopes of the Gh&ts until 7th 
September 1790, when an army, commanded by Tippu 
in person, descended by the Guzalhatti Pass. General 
Medows repulsed the attack, but Tippu declined to com- 
mit himself to anything more serious than skirmishes. 


On 29th January 1791 the Grovernor-General, Lord Com- 
walHs, took command in person, and proceeded to concen- 
trate his army at Veliore preparatory to a march on 
Bangalore. Tippu hastened to oppose the advance which 
he expected would be made by the passes near Ambur. 
In this Tippu was deceived, as the tableland was reached 
by the more northerly Moogly Pass. The town of Banga- 
lore fell early in March, and, on the night of the 20th, the 
fort was taken by assault. While these operations were 
in progress in Mysore, Colonel Hartly had defeated 
Tippu's troops near Calicut, and General Abercrombie, the 
Governor of Bombay, had reduced Cannanore, so that in 
a very short time the whole of Malabar was in possession 
of the English. On 4th May 1791 the English marched 
against Seringapatam, but, notwithstanding a victory at 
Arikera, only nine miles distant from that place, were 
compelled to retire on Bangalore, in consequence of the 
devastated nature of the country. The Nizam and Mali- 
rattas, who were in alliance with Lord Cornwallis, worked 
their way up from the North and reinforced his army, both 
with men and supplies, so that Lord Cornwallis again was 
able to appear before Seringapatam. On 6th February 
1792 the outlying encampment and redoubts were carried 
and the city closely invested on two sides. On 24th 
February a peace was agreed to, under which Tippu had 
to pay three crores and thirty lakhs of rupees, and to 
surrender half his kingdom. By this treaty the English 
came into possession of the Baramahal, Dindigul, Malabar 
and Coorg, the latter being restored to the Kajah, who 
had rendered material aid to the British. In 1798 it 
became known that Tippu was intriguing with the French, 
and it was decided to act against him before he had 
matured his plans. The Madras army was placed on a 
war footing and an alliance was entered into by him with 
the French. General Harris was placed in command of 
the army of the Carnatic, while another force from Malabar, 


under General Stuart, entered Coorg in 1799. Tippu 
dkected his first efforts against tlie latter anny, but was 
beaten at Sedasseer, near Periapatam, and, in the mean- 
time, General Harris and the Nizam's troops crossed the 
Mysore frontier. Tippu turned to meet them and was 
defeated with severe loss at Malvelly, on i27th March. He 
then retired to Seringapatam, and the allies there besieged 
him for a month before a practical breach was made. The 
assault commenced at one o'clock on the 4th May, and 
before evening Tippu was dead, and the whole town in 
the possession of the English. With Tippu terminated 
the dynasty of Hyder, and the settlement of the country 
was effected by the restoration of Mysore to the ancient 
royal family. The greater portion of the remainder of 
Tippu's empire was then divided between the English and 
the Nizam, the districts of Canara, Coimbatore, and 
Wynad falling to the share of the former. On the fall of 
Seringapatam, it was discovered that Muhammed Ali had 
been carrying on treasonable correspondence with Mysore, 
and the treaty of 1792 having thus been infringed, the 
British Government assumed the entire management of 
the Carnatic, thus securing the whole of the country from 
the Northern Circars to Cape Comorin, with the exception 
of the French settlements of Pondicherry and Karaikkal, 
and the Danish settlement of Tranquebar. The titular 
dignity of Nabob of the Carnatic was continued until 1855, 
when there was a failure of direct heirs. The present 
representative of the family bears the title of Prince of 
Arcot, and has the position of the first native nobleman 
of Madras. In 1838 internal misadministration led to the 
Nabob of Kurnool being deposed and his territory annexed, 
and since then no territory has been acquired by conquest. 



The Districts of the Madras Presidency served by the 
South Indian Kailway are the following twelve, namely : — 
Madras, Chingleput, South Arcot, Tan j ore, Trichinopoly, 
Coimbatore, Madura, Tinnevelly, North Arcot, Anantapur, 
Cuddapah, and Nellore. 

The following Table shows the principal statistics of 
these districts respecting their population : — 

J:? tJ 

Ratio of 

§o2 . 


in sq. 


•IS ^^ 



o43 o 






15,604 1 


• • 


Chingleput . . 



400 1,997 




South Arcot . . 








Tan j ore 








Trichinopoly . . 








Coimbatore . . 
























North Arcot . . 
































Total . . 


• • 





With regard to the languages spoken in them, the first 
nine have the Tamil language for their true vernacular, 
and the other three Telugu ; but the Telugu language is 
largely spoken throughout the Tamil districts, as Hindu- 
stani also is in the whole twelve ; and, in some portions of 
their western fringe, Canarese has a small place. 

The census divides the population, in regard to their 


occupation, into seven classes. These classes, with the 
total number in each of them, are as follows : — 





Government Service 


..! 622,065 


Pasture and Agriculture 

..; 12,111,177 

Personal Service 

. . ! 676,094 


Trades, Ac. . . 















• • 


By far the most numerous class of the population is that 
which is connected directly or indirectly with the cultiva- 
tion of the soil. They number 61 per cent, of the whole 
people. Fifty-two per cent, of them are in immediate 
connection with the land, either as landlords or tenants ; 
and 7 per cent, more are dependent on these as agri- 
cultural labourers. The proportions of this class differ 
much in town and country. In the urban population, 
only 20 per cent, are connected with the land, while, in 
the rural population, there are 66 per cent. The great 
majority of the farmers, therefore, either reside on the land 
which they cultivate, or close to it. Corresponding with 
this distribution, there are only 84 per cent, of the rural 
population belonging to the classes of tradesmen, mer- 
chants, domestic servants, general labourers, the learned 
professions, the Government service, and all others, 
whereas in the towns these classes absorb 80 per cent, 
of their inhabitants. 

The most numerous class of these non-agriculturists is 
that which contains the traders and artizans, dealing in 
all articles of general consumption and use — Class D. 
They form 15 per cent, of the people. Closely allied to them 
are the upper commercial classes, merchants, bankers, 
brokers, and their agents, foniiing class E, and representing 


3 per cent, of the population. These two classes, who 
carry on the trade and commerce of these districts, form 
together nearly a moiety of the non-agricultural classes. 

Next to them, in point of numbers, is the class of 
General Labour, which includes the unskilled workers 
of all sorts. It represents 9 per cent, of the people : 4 
per cent, are engaged in different kinds of personal service, 
(Class C), of w^hom about 8 J per cent, are domestic servants. 
Of the remaining number. Government officials (Class A) , 
the members of the different learned-professions (Class F), 
and persons of independent means take about 2 per cent, 
each ; and the final balance consists of those persons 
whose occupations have not been recorded, and includes 
the fractions omitted in all the above round numbers. 

It may be asked here, where the pauper-class falls in 
under this distribution. Strictly speaking, the only 
paupers in India are the destitute members of the 
European and Eurasian communities : for, though there 
may be the usual proportions of infirm and -constitutionally 
idle members in this as in all other nations, the recognized 
right of the indigent to share the better fortune of their 
more prosperous relatives excludes the necessity for the 
poor-laws and workhouses of England from the shores of 
happier India. 

There are, indeed, various classes of professional mendi- 
cants, so called, in this country ; but more properly these are 
to be regarded as members of the tail of the religious, 
and the low artistic classes than as vagrant paupers. 

It would not be an easy task to frame an exact estimate 
of the material condition of these people ; for there are 
intricacies on both the income and the expenditure sides 
of the problem which would have to be explained. 

But a fairly approximate estimate of it can be made 
from wellknown facts sufficient to afford a general idea 
of the kind and amount of comfort in which they live 
their ordinarv lives. It is obvious from the very names 


of some of the census groups that their ordinary members 
are respectable, well-to-do people. It is evident enough 
also that the large section engaged in trade and commerce 
can only continue to belong to those classes so long as 
they earn that margin of profit which is necessary to 
maintain them in those positions. Even the domestic 
servants have all their necessary wants secured to them, 
while they continue to be employed. The existing standard 
of comfort, in every community, is a thing which has 
grown-up in the natural course of things, and it has taken 
its present shape upon lines which are inherent in the 
circumstances of that community. It is therefore in a 
state of constant development, continually rising, in the 
ordinary slow, but sure processes of nature, by the side 
of the growth of the prosperity of the community. 

These general remarks apply especially to classes A, C, 
D, E, and F, in whole or in part ; and these sections 
cover 6 millions of the 20 million inhabitants of the twelve 
districts which we are here considering. The great agri- 
cultural section (class B), and the class of indefinite 
occupations (class G) require to be considered separately. 

There is a considerable difference in the percentage 
of class B in the different districts. While it forms only 
53"78 per cent, of the general population in Nellore, it 
rises to 5783 in Coimbatore, 59*62 in Tinnevelly, 60*42 
in Chingleput, 61*02 in Tanjore, 61*55 in Anantapur, 
6419 in Cuddapah, 6514 in Madura, 69*84 in North Arcot, 
69*89 in Trichinopoly, and 70*64 in South Arcot. 

The full title of this class in the census is '* Pasture and 
Agriculture," and its separate sections must therefore be 
discriminated. Those who have to do with cattle, and 
those who have only an indirect connection with the 
land, together with the tea-and-coffee planters, market 
gardeners, &c., form 2*36 per cent, of the population, 
the landlord and the ryot sections cover 52*20 per cent., 
and the section of agricultural labourers 6*50 per cent. 


These labourers again are sub-divided into those who are 
constantly employed on the land and thus form part of the 
farmer's families, and those who are only temporarily 
hired. These last, who are a little more numerous than 
the others, fall back into the class of unskilled labour 
when they are not needed on the farms, and become 
amongst the earliest to feel the first pinches of famine. 

A great deal was said and written some little time back 
regarding the supposed poverty of this large class of the 
population. It is to be hoped that better information 
has now become available for an estimate of their true 
condition, while some erroneous impressions have been 
removed in the meantime. It is not at all improbable 
that some of them may be in comparatively low circum- 
stances; but to those who have an intimate knowledge 
of their condition no signs of indigence are to be found in 
the class as a whole body: on the contrary it is not 
difficult to see that, except in years of bad agricultural 
seasons, most of them possess a fair amount of prosperity 
judged from the standpoint of their position in the 
community. They pay their land-assessment with fair 
punctuality : they spend considerable sums of money 
upon their marriages : they are able to afford a large 
expenditure of time and money upon their numerous 
law suits : and they maintain in all respects a remarkable 
amount of hereditary independence of character. These 
things are not tokens of a state of semi-starvation such 
as has been said to be their normal condition. 

The census gives 12,111,117 as the number of this class 
in the twelve districts which we are now considering : and 
this number of individuals represents 2,422,288 families 
at the rate of five members to each family. It is required 
to know, as nearly as it can be made out, what annual 
income each of these families derives from the produce 
of his land and the other products of his industry. An 
answer to this question may be obtained in a general way 


by the following concise process. The area of these 
twelve districts, as shown by the table on page 46, is 67,861 
square miles : and this, in agricultural terms, represents 
48,431,040 acres. Of this area, according to the propor- 
tions given in the last Parliamentary Statistical Abstract, 
10,857,760 acres are cultivated, namely, 2,714,440 acres 
with rice crops, 6,333,693 acres with several kinds of dry 
grain, and 1,809,627 acres with various other kinds of field 
and garden food-stuff. The yield per acre of these crops 
varies from year to year according to the character of 
the seasons : and hence the quantity of the yield of the 
grain crops in any year is the key to the valuation of 
the farmers' income for that year. As a medium yield, 
that of the rice crops may be taken to be 2,400 lbs. 
per acre, and that of the dry (unirrigated) grains 1,200 lbs. 
Calculated on this basis the total yield of the rice crops 
in an ordinary year is 6,514,656,000 lbs., and that of the 
dry grains 7,600,431,600 lbs. The quantity required by the 
ryots for their own use during the succeeding year is 
put aside and stored at home, and the rest is sold. The 
quantity stored is about 11 million pounds : and about 
3,115,087,600 lbs. is available for sale. 

Thus the whole of the food of this class of the popu- 
lation is grown by themselves upon their own farms, 
for they are all vegetarians, using flesh-meat only on 
special occasions : and even when any outside labour is 
needed to supplement their own, those labourers also are 
paid in grain. As the rule of their life, therefore, their 
food is secured to them in all years, except those when 
the yield falls below one-third of a full crop of both the 
wet and dry grains, a circumstance of very rare occurrence. 
Even then the pinch is not of vital importance until a 
second year of bad crops follows the first. 

With regard to the section of petty ryots whose hold- 
ings are too small for them to live upon, most of them 
have some other employment, and the deficiency of their 


non-earnings is made up by those of their very industrious 
wives. In times of difficulty, or perhaps for some domestic 
ceremony, these men mortgage their holdings, arranging 
to pay off their debt from the proceeds of their future crops. 

The lenders are usually some of the more thriving 
members of their own class, and not infrequently the 
grain merchants of the neighbouring towns. 

When the necessity is only temporary they soon succeed 
in extricating themselves ; but if they are unable to do so 
within a reasonable number of years they relinquish their 
holdings to the creditor, receiving some additional sum to 
cover the value of the land. 

The case of the agricultural labourers stands apart from 
these, and is very simple. They form one-eighth part of 
the whole agricultural class, and are 1,366,511 in number 
in these twelve districts. They hve in the families of their 
employers, receiving their wages in grain, together with 
certain recognized perquisites at certain times of the year. 
When a famine comes on they share the troubles of their 
masters : and when that stage arrives when the master has 
to curtail his daily doles from the grain-store, the labourer 
is obliged to seek a subsistence abroad or to seek help from 
the Famine Commissioner. For the greater part of his 
life he lives in stolid contentment, with all his necessary 
wants always ready to his hands, and then he is scarcely 
ever heard of ; but when tlie fatal famine year arrives, the 
poor fellow falls into a practically helpless condition. 

The value of the surplus rice thus available for sale, at 
its present market price, is Bs. 38,457,871, and that of the 
dry grains Rs. 39,183,492, making together lis. 77,641,363. 
Besides these grains the ryots sell the unused surplus of 
their pulses, fruit-trees, oil-seeds, narcotics, condiments, 
and other similar products of their land : and these have 
been calculated to be of about the same value as the serial 
crops. And further they sell their dairy produce, surplus 
straw, hides and skins, wool, pigs, cow and buffalo calves, 


lambs and poultry, the estimated value of which is 
Rs. 19,410,325. All these sources together bring their 
income in a year of ordinarily good seasons up to 
Rs. 174,693,051. Out of this income the first great 
pa)mient is the Government land-assessment, which in the 
year 1897-8, the last at present available, amounted to 
Rs. 30,426,807. When this has been paid they have a 
balance of Rs. 144,266,244 in hand for their clothing, the 
repaii's of their houses and out-houses, to cover the wear and 
tear of their stock, and to meet the expenses of their domestic 
ceremonies, festivals, travelling, and sundry luxuries. 

This balance when divided amongst the 2,422,288 
families of which this class consists, gives to each of them 
Rs. 60 a year after abundant provision has been made for 
their food-supply, and after the full payment of their 
Government dues. They have no house-rent to pay ; for 
their houses are their own property. This result represents 
the outcome of the calculation for an ordinary year when 
the yield is three-quarters of a full crop, — a twelve-anna 
crop in agricultural terms, — which may be taken to be the 
average for a long series of years, subject to the fluctua- 
tions in the market price of all the produce. 

In years when the yield reaches a higher rate than this 
the final balance is correspondingly greater. Such years 
are not of infrequent occurrence ; for it has been shown 
for one of the neighbouring districts that in a series of 49 
consecutive years the rice crops were above this average 
in 14 years, and the dry crops in 13 years. In that series 
there were also 13 years of rice crops of the average yield 
and 11 similar years of the dry grains. Putting it in 
another form 27 years of the 49 had good rice crops 
ranging from three-fourths of a full crop upwards, 11 
years had crops of medium yield, and there were 11 years 
of poor crops below the half of a full crop : and similarly 
for the dry-grain crops, 24 years had good crops, 12 years 
medimn, and 13 years poor crops. 


Some valuable data for an estimate of the general 
condition of the people are afforded by the taxes which 
they pay. Table II, shows the principal items of the 
taxation for the official year 1897-8. Besides these there 
are Municipal taxes which fall upon the inhabitants of 
the great towns, and Local-Fund cesses which fall upon 
the occupiers of the land, and tolls paid by those who 
use the roads. 


DLtrict. , He^l^J ^^ S»™I»J Abk«i. I Opimn. r ".l!^1 Rdl. 

With regard to the Income-tax in the above table, the 
total collections, Hs. 15,79,158, represent an income of 
Ks. (>06,3y,G(j7 from which it was collected, taking the 
assessment at the uniform rate of 5 pies per rupee. This 
tax is paid by those whose income is Ks. 500 a year and 
upwards, the Agricultural class alone being exempted, as 
they are taxed under separate legislation. To obtain the 
number of those who pay the tax, therefoi'e, the 1'2,111,177 
who constitute class B. must be eliminated from the total 
population, as well as all those members of the other 
classes whose income is less than Be. 41-10-8 a month. 
The actual number of those who pay the tax in our twelve 
districts is computed to be only 39,014. The incidence 
of the tax has been calculated to be Hs. 25 a head on 
those who pay the tax, or l> annas a head on the whole 


population. In the North Arcot District, — and presumably 
the other districts do not widely diflfer, — the percentages 
of the tax-payers, according to the amount of their income, 
is as follows : — 71 per cent, have taxable incomes from 
Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,000 a year ; 23*5 per cent, from Rs. 1,000 
to Rs. 2,000 ; 45 per cent, from Rs. 2,000 to Rs. 5,000 ; 
0-8 percent, from Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 10,000, and 0*2 per cent, 
over Rs. 10,000. 

Regarding the column headed ** Stamps" it may be 
worth noticing that one- third of these stamps represent 
the value of those used for commercial purposes of all 
kinds, and the rest of them are judicial stamps. It thus 
appears that the large sum of Rs. 33,77,422 per annum is 
spent upon the stamps attached to the documents used in 
the people's lawsuits. This is considerably more than 
douUe the amount of the Income-tax : and yet it forms 
but a small portion of the whole amount of their litigation 
bill, which includes, in addition to that sum, advocates' 
fees, payments to witnesses and various Court expenses. 

The column headed *'Abkari" is made up of Ucense 
fees for distilleries, and for the shops and taverns in which 
the liquors are sold, also the tax upon the trees from which 
the toddy is drawn, and the excise duty. These things 
amount to Rs. 71,40,141. To this sum must be added the 
value of the liquors as produced or purchased by the 
vendors, and the amount of the vendors' profit upon the 
retail sales ; which last is apparently said to be about 25 
per cent, upon the cost price. Nevertheless the ** drink 
bill" of the North Arcot District, which may probably be 
taken as a general example, is said to be only 8^ annas per 
head per annum, notwithstanding that some of the lower 
castes of the community are notorious drinkers. The 
average consumption of the spirits (arrack) is about one- 
twentieth of a gallon per head per annum, but in the 
towns it is much higher, rising in some of them to over 
half a gallon per head. 


The Hindu religion of the present day is regarded by 
its votaries as the representative of the ancient reHgion of 
the Veda, which, in obedience to the tendencies always 
inherent in it, has passed through a long series of develop- 
ments on the lines of those natural laws of its growth. 
This theory furnishes a satisfactory basis for a sketch of 
this ancient and eminently interesting religion. Here the 
word * Veda ' should be understood to mean that collec- 
tion of the hymns of the ancient Rishis known as the 
* Rig-veda,* which is the root and source of all that great 
body of vedic literature, — the accumulated growth of all 
the intermediate ages, — to which the name * Veda* is also 
sometimes applied. It stands alone at the head of the 
three other collections, — the Srima-veda, the Yajur-veda, 
and the Atharva-veda, which have, in considerable pro- 
portion, borrowed their contents from it for the special 
purposes of their ritual or other objects. 

The Rig-veda consists of a body of 1,017 hymns of 
various lengths, written in many varieties of metre. The 
Rishis, to whom these hymns are attributed, belonged, for 
the most part, to several ancient Brahminical families ; 
and many of them are assigned to members of the old 
royal dynasties, and some few to persons of the inferior 
classes. There are female Rishis also among them, and 
even some of the older divinities themselves and their 
human offspring. The hymns are distributed into ten 
books (niandalas) of various dimensions, in which they 
are arranged primarily with regard to the gods addressed 
in them, partly to the authors of the hymns, and partly 
to the number of the verses in them. No attempt appears 
to have been made by any vedic writer to fix the date 
of any of the Rishis, though some of them at least are evi- 


dently historical personages ; but in the later literature an 
eternal existence is claimed for the hymns, their Rifhis 
being merely privileged Seers, and not their actual authors, 
having ** seen" them by means of their supernatural sight, 
and the special favour of the gods. 

The fonn in which this hymn-book has come down to 
modern times is admittedly the last of a long series of 
'* aiTangements " which it has undergone from time to time ; 
but the changes which were made in it at those times are 
said to have been confined to minor matters such as the 
distribution of the hymns or the order of their verses. 
Great care has been taken from a very early period to pre- 
vent any further alterations being made in them in any 
respect, by recording the number of the hymns, and their 
verses and words, together with the names of the god or 
gods to whom each of them is addressed, their Rishis, and 
the metres in which they are composed. It is clear, how- 
ever, that no attempt was ever made to arrange them in 
any form of historical or chronological order. 

The language in which they are written is an archaic 
form of Sanskrit, representing, it is supposed, a transition 
state of that language during the process of its evolution 
into classical Sanskrit. The meaning of many words is 
consequently not known in the present day, and some of 
its grammatical forms have become obsolete. It has been 
remarked by an oriental scholar, that there are apparently 
no varieties of this archaic language notwithstanding the 
long period covered by the hymns, such as we should 
naturally expect to find if this dialect was ever the 
vernacular of the people or even of the Rishis themselves. 

The theory which seems best to combine the traditions 

regarding the current recension of these hymns is that it 

is a collection of the hymnals of several vedic families 

which were originally distinct, each of which had for its 

nucleus the hymns composed by the founder of that 

family, to which those of his sons and descendants were 


added from time to time, which were hoarded up in the 
undivided priestly family as a religious treasure, and trans- 
mitted from generation to generation as a sacred family 
inheritance, and the source of its wealth and influence. 
Later on, these separate hymn-books were gathered to- 
gether to form a general collection for the use of the whole 
sacerdotal community ; to which other new hymn's were 
subsequently added until the compilation, after under- 
going the several re-arrangements referred to above, attained 
its present dimensions and shape. In its present form 
there stand, side by side in it, the extensive collections of 
those mighty old rivals Vasishtha and Vishvamitra and 
their descendants, whose ritual warfare once shook the 
whole vedic world to its foundations : and it may be pre- 
sumed that the bitterness of that strife had, in some great 
measure, passed away, when it became possible to bring 
their songs together into one book. Of the ten books 
in this recension, seven are family collections of the above 
description, bearing the names of Gritsamada, (the son of 
the Rishi Bhrigu), Vishvamitra, Vamadeva, (of the Gotama 
sub-division of the race of the Rishi Angiras), Atri, 
Bharadvfija, Vasishtha, and Kapva, respectively, and con- 
taining hymns addressed to diflferent gods. Books I and X, 
on the other hand, are miscellaneous collections by a great 
variety of authors, and similarly addressed to many 
different gods, while Book IX contains hymns to Soma 
alone by various Rishis. 

The munber of the vedic gods is usually said to be 
thirty- three ; but to these are sometimes added Agni, or 
Soma, or some other special divinity, and sometimes the 
two Ashvins or Dyaus, and Prithivi, making them thirty- 
four or thirty-five. They are divided into three classes, 
eleven upon earth, eleven in the lower firmament, and 
eleven in the upper sky. According to another classifica- 
tion, there are eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas, 
and the two Ashvins. These thirty-three are privileged 


to drink the soma-juice oflFerings which occupy an im- 
portant place in the vedic worship ; and there is another 
class of thirty-three who are not entitled to that privilege, 
or who abstain from drinking that beverage. They are 
not always limited to this number, however; and other 
more numerous groups are mentioned. In two of the 
hymns, 3,339 deities are said to have worshipped Agni. 
In the hymnal itself each hymn is addressed to its own 
appropriate divinity or combination of divinities, selected 
by the worshipper or the priest for the special occasion 
on which it was to be used, or as their favourite object of 
worship. It is but seldom that hymns are addressed to 
the whole pantheon together. 

The actual number of gods and other divinities, to 
whom hymns are addressed individually in the Rig-veda, 
is sixty-two. Their relative importance in the ritual 
may be gathered from the nimaber of hymns addressed 
to them. At the head of them, in his proper position 
as king of the gods, stands Indra with 226 hymns : next 
to him comes the god of fire, Agni, the convener of the 
gods and their official-general, with 187 hymns : and then 
Soma, the Moon, who is often not to be distinguished 
from the intoxicating beverage of that name which forms 
the chief offering at the sacrifices, — with 115 hymns. 
The 528 hymns addressed to these three gods thus make 
up considerably more than half of the whole hymnal: 
and the proportion is really much gi-eater than this ; 
for of the remaining 489 hymns, only 291 are addressed 
to individual gods. Following the above three principal 
gods come the Vishvadevas, or general assembly, with 
59 hymns, the Ashvins, or heavenly twins, with 50, the 
Maruts, or Winds, with 34, and Ushas, the beautiful 
Dawn, with 20, and Savitri, the Ribhus, and the Apris with 
10 each. Thus the gods, who own ten hymns each 
and upwards, are only 10 in number. Of the lesser groups 
of hymns, Vai'una has 8 ; Pushan 7 ; Surya (the sun) aud 


the A'dityas 6 each ; Briliaspati 5 ; Vayii and the Waters 
4 each ; Rudra, Vishnu, and Parjanya 8 each ; Kapinjala, 
Vishvakannan, Manyu, the Cows, and the Horse, 2 each ; 
andMitra, Sarasvati, Prithivi, Yama, thePitris, the Frogs, 
and 33 others have a single hymn each. Thus 819 of 
the hymns are addressed to individual gods; the remain- 
ing 198 are combination hymns addressed to gi'oups of 
two or more gods, impersonal things, charms, and such 
like. Of these last hymns, 61 occur in the tenth book 
alone, which is, perhaps, to be regarded as a book of final 
gleanings and of later date. The relative importance 
of Indra becomes enhanced when we add the 77 hymns 
which he shares with various other gods to the above 
226 addressed to him alone, which will bring up his 
whole number to 303. Similarly Agni's 26 combinations, 
added to his 187 personal hymns, bring up his total 
to 213. Then the hymns of Indra and Agni together 
become 516 against the 291 of the other single gods : and 
the predominance of the relative position of these two gods 
in the vedic system becomes very marked. 

The comprehensive character of the religion of these 
hymns is shown by the great variety of the objects of wor- 
ship to which they are addressed, covering, as they are 
evidently designed to do, the whole cycle of nature. Thus 
there are hymns to the two Ashvin brothers (Castor and 
Pollux), the martial outriders in the van of the daily 
procession of the Sun through the heavens to inspect his 
vast dominions, and to the exquisitely lovely Ushas, 
(Aurora), gambolling in front of his gorgeous chariot, as he 
comes forth, full of glory and power, attended by his 
mighty celestial body-guard clothed in an inexhaustible 
variety of shape and colour ; hymns also to the route of his 
progress, the great ocean above the earth, weighted with 
its heavy waters ready to be poured forth '*as nourishing 
milk from the udder of the cow," for the fructification of 
the Earth-goddess and the sustenance of all her worship- 


ping children, — along which are built the cities of the gods 
and of their many formidable enemies ; hymns to the 
Night-Sun also when he lias descended below the horizon 
to visit the realm of the timidly worshipped Yama, the 
abode of the dead. There are many hymns to **King 
Soma" also, for the vedic moon is of the male sex, the 
secondary ruler of the heavens, during the nightly inter- 
regnum of the greater lord of light, — the polygamous 
husband of the twenty-seven lunar mansions, the separate 
abodes of his wives, with each of whom, by stellar law, it 
is his marital duty to spend each well-measured day of his 
monthly tour of the sky ; but, notwithstanding that law, 
in his actual practice w-illingly lingering some while longer 
in the abode of his favourite Kohini (Aldebaran), under the 
pretence of filling up the unexhausted interval until the 
exact moment for starting on his succeeding tour, and so 
exposing himself to charges of unjust partiality towards 
her, and causing inevitable irritations in the others, and 
deceptions and assumed repentances on his part, and 
general heart-burnings all round. There are hymns also 
to the grave and wise Brihaspati, the philosophical teacher 
and sage counsellor of the gods ; hymns for the peaceful 
periods of man's life addressed to the lord of the fields and 
their cultivation, and for times of strife addressed to his 
weapons of war ; hymns for his ceremonial duties addressed 
to the post to which the victims of their sacrifices were 
bound, to the fire which consumed their oblations and carried 
them upwards into the mouths of the gods, and to the sacri- 
ficing priests, to the stones with which the Soma-juice was 
expressed for their offerings, as well as to the Soma-juice 
itself which they produced ; hymns to Heaven and Earth, 
to the Kivers and the Floods, to the seasons and times, to 
their Cattle and Horses, to the nutritious and the medicinal 
Herbs of the field ; to things on earth, things in the sky, 
and things in the upper heavens above the firmament. 
Each of these gods has his own particular . sphere, 


especially the Sun and the Moon, the planets and the 
greater stars and the constellations. But they have also 
a common home, separated from all other localities, to 
which is given the special name of ** the abode of the gods." 
The heaven above is distributed into seven well-defined 
regions, each of them increasing in sanctity and in the 
quality of its happiness in the proportion of its elevation 
above the earth : — 1, the abode of the ancestors of mankind ; 
2, the abode of Indra ; 3, the abode of the Maruts, or 
wind-gods ; 4, the abode of the celestial choristers ; 5, the 
abode of saintly men; 6, the abode of the fii??his, and 7, 
the abode of the Supreme Being. The limits of some of 
these regions are marked out astronomically : thus the 
abode of the ancestors extends northwards from Canopus 
to the constellations Scorpio and Sagittarius ; the abode of 
the seven Ri§his is in the constellation of the Great Bear 
and its adjacent belt ; between these two regions, and 
particularly between the constellations Aries and Taurus 
and the Great Bear, is the abode of the gods. It is from 
this region that their convener, the god Agni, calls them 
when he smnmons them to partake of the sacrifices prepared 
for them. For their locomotion on these journeys, as well 
as for their more ordinary requirements, decorated chariots 
of various degrees of splendour, built by the divine artificer, 
are at their disposal, drawn by highly bred horses, harnessed 
and yoked by the mere effort of their will ; and in a more 
modern period, these primitive vehicles were improved 
into aerial cars, whose wheels, thought-guided, moved 
noiselessly and with enormous rapidity along the friction- 
less paths of the sky, straight on to the place of sacrifice 
upon the earth. 

The following hymn to Agni, in his capacity as convener 
of the gods, contains a vivid illustration of the vedic 
worship, and will also serve as a suitable specimen of the 
general style of the hymns. It is the 14th hymn of the 
first book. 


*'l. Come, Agni, to our adoration and to onr praises, 
with all these gods to drink the Soma-juice : and do thou 
oflfer sacrifice. 

** 2. The Kapvas invoke thee, sapient Agni, and extol thy 
deeds : come, Agni, with the gods/' 

**8. Sacrifice, Agni, to Indra, Viyu, Brihaspati, Mitra, 
Agni, Piishan, and Bhaga, the Adityas, and the troop of 

**4. For all of you are poured out these juices, satisfying, 
exhilarating, sweet, falling in drops, or gathered in ladles. 

'*5. The wise priests desirous of the protection of the 
gods, having spread the sacred grass, presenting oblations, 
and offering ornaments, praise thee. 

** 6. Let the coursers who convey thee, glossy-backed and 
harnessed at will, being the gods to drink the Soma-juice. 

** 7. Agni, make those objects of veneration, augmenters 
of pious acts, participiant of the offering, together with 
their wives : give them, bright-tongued, to drink the 

**8. Let those objects of veneration and of praise drink 
with thy tongue of the Soma-juice at the moment of 

**9. Let the wise invokers of the gods bring hither from 
the shining sphere of the sun all the divinities awaking 
with the dawn. 

**10. With all the gods, with Indra, Viyu, and the 
glories of Mitra, drink Agni, the sweet Soma-juice. 

**11. Thou, Agni, appointed by man as the invoker of 
the gods, art present at sacrifices : do thou present this 
our oblation. 

**12. Yoke, divine Agni, thy fleet and powerful mares, 
Rohits, to thy chariot, and by them hither bring the gods.*' 

The Soma-juice which occupies so prominent a place in 
the hymn, is the expressed juice of the moon-plant, and 
was frequently, perhaps always, mixed with milk. It was 
prepared with prescribed ceremony by the priest the day 


before it was used, to give it time to ferment, in sufficient 
quantity for two sacrifices : it was pressed between two 
boards, which were beaten with tlie sacred soma-stones, 
and allowed to trickle into troughs resting on the skin of a 
goat, and then strained through a cloth for its purification. 
After pouring out the libation to the gods, the remainder 
was drunk by the officiating priest. Its effects on Indra 
are described in the 175th hymn of the same book. 

''1. Lord of Steeds, thou art exhilarated when the sacred 
Soma-juice has been imbibed by thee as by its appropriate 
vessel ; for to thee, showerer of benefits, it is exhilarating, 
inebriating, invigorating, the yielder of delight, satisfying 
as food, and the giver of a thousand pleasures. 

**2. May our Soma-libation reach you, for it is exhilarat- 
ing, invigorating, inebriating, most precious: it is com- 
panionable, Indra, enjoyable, the overthrower of hosts, 

'*5. Thy inebriety is most intense; nevertheless thy 
acts for our good are most beneficent. Thou desirest, 
bountiful giver of horses, that both thy inebriety and thy 
beneficence should be the means of destroying enemies and 
distributing riches." 

In the 119th hymn of the 10th book, he himself thus 
describes those effects : — 

**1. Thus, indeed, thus my mind resolved, — I will give 
cows and horses to my worshippers ; for I have often drunk 
of the Soma. 

**2. Like the winds, violently shaking the trees the 
draughts of Soma have lifted me up ; for I have often drunk 
of the Soma. 

**3. The draughts of Soma have lifted me up like swift 
horses ; for I have often drunk of the Soma 

**6. The five castes have not eluded the glance of my 
eye ; for I have often drunk of the Soma 

**12. I am the Sun, the greatest of the great, raised to 
the firmament ; for I have often drunk of the Soma. 


*U3. Keceiving the offering, 1 go, graced by the worship- 
pers, beaming the oblation to the gods ; for I have often 
drunk of the Soma." 

A rapid view of the vedic conception of the character of 
the gods may be obtained from the epithets apphed to 
them in the hymns. The matter available for this purpose 
is very abundant, and it may be sufficient here to collect 
some of those which occur in the first book and in the 
hymns to Indra alone : — **Indra of wonderful splendour," 
** apprehended by the understanding, and appreciated by 
the wise," '*the mighty in battle," **the protector of 
wealth, the mighty, the accomplisher of good deeds, the 
friend of the offerer of the libation," '*the discomfiter of 
many enemies, the lord of many blessings," *'the lord of 
food," **the protector of the virtuous," **ever young, ever 
wise," **wielder of the thunderbolt," *'the ruler of the 
world," **of boundless wealth," **who delights in the 
sacrificial food," **the lord of the vast god-frequented 
Svarga," ** of whom the waters of heaven have not reached 
the limit," ''the giver of horses, of cattle, of barley," 
** haughty," ''ambitious of renown," "whose irresistible 
impetuosity is like the rush of water down a precipice," 
"the showerer of desires, who is the co-dweller with all 
energies, the supreme ruler over the vast heaven and earth," 
/'the lord of all moving and breathing creatures," "whose 
great power pervades heaven and earth, in whose service 
Varuiia and Siirya are steadfast, and whose command the 
rivers obey," "the seven rivers display his glory; heaven 
and earth and sky display his visible form ; the Sun and 
Moon, Indra, perform their revolutions that wc may see 
and have faith in what we see," "strong as a twice-twisted 
rope thou art the type of strength." " Protector of man, 
thou art more than able to sustain the three spheres, the 
three luminaries, and all this world of beings, Indra, who 
hast from thy birth been without a rival." 

A similar general view of the hopes and desires with 


which the worshippers approached Indra with their sacri- 
fices may be gathered from the prayers and direct state- 
ments contained in their hymns to him : — *' May he be to 
us for the acquirement of riches; may he be to us for 
the acquisition of knowledge; may he come to us with 
food:** *' let not men do injury to our persons:'* "shedder 
of rain .... set open this cloud :'*** whatever men 
have recourse to Indra in battle, or for the acquirement 
of offspring, and the wise who are desirous of under- 
standing, obtain their desires :'* ** grant to us, Indra, wealth 
beyond measure or calculation, inexhaustible, the source 
of cattle, of food, and of all life :** ** set open the cow- 
pastures:** **ca8t asleep the two female messengers of 
Yama ; looking at each other let them sleep never waking :** 
*' destroy this ass praising thee with such discordant 
speech:** **Let the adverse breeze with a crooked course 
alight far off in the forest :" ** destroy everyone that reviles 
us ; slay everyone that does us injury :" ** bestow upon us 
abundance of cows with projecting jaws, . . . robust 
and rich in milk, with which we may be happy :'* *' may we 
prosper through thy divine favour, the source of prowess, of 
cattle, and of horses :** " bestow upon us, Indra, increasing 
reputation ; bestow upon us great, augmenting, and foe- 
subduing strength ; preserve us in aflfluence ; cherish those 
who are wise ; and supply us with wealth from which 
proceed excellent progeny and food :*' ** do thou who art 
possessed of horses sit down with pleasure upon the sacred 
grass, attended-by the Maruts, at this sacrifice :*' ** rejoice, 
Indra, with the steeds who are of thy nature, open thy 
jaws, set wide thy throat, and drink the Soma-juice ; let 
thy horses bring thee who hast a handsome chin hither ; 
and benignant towards us, be pleased by our oblations :'* 
'* excite in us, Indra, veneration for the Sun, for the 
Waters, and for those who are worthy of the praise of 
living beings : . . . harm us not, Indra, abandon us 
not ; deprive us not of the enjoyments that are dear to 


us ; injure not, affluent Shakra, our unborn offspring ; 
hami not those who are capable only of crawling on their 
knees ;" ** come into our presence, they have called thee, 
fond of the Soma-juice ; it is prepared, drink of it for 
thine exhilaration ; vast of limb, distend thy stomach, and 
when invoked hear us as a father listens to the words of 
his sons :*' " preserve us from this poverty that is so diffi- 
cult to be destroyed, and from misfortune in war ; grant 
us riches conspicuous for chariots, remarkable for horses, 
for the sake of food, of fame and of truth :" ** annihilate, 
Maghavan, the might of malignant hosts ; hurl them into 
the vile pit, the vast and vile pit :" ** destroy, Indra, the 
tawny-coloured, fearfully roaring Pishachas [goblins], 
annihilate all the Bakshasas [giants]:" '' quickly grant us 
that wealth that thou possessest, for we gratify the donor 
with a most worthy present :'* ** this is the sacrifice ; these 
are the prayers ; this, Indra, is the Soma-juice ; the sacred 
grass is ready strewn ; come, therefore, Indra, quickly ; 
sit down, drink the libation, here let loose thy steeds." 

It remains to be said that the vedic gods were of human 
birth and of anthropological nature and character in all 
respects : their parentage and marriages and offspring, 
their food and clothing and ornaments, their passions and 

elevations and griefs, are mentioned in the most matter-of- 
fact tenns ; and their helpless infancy and mischievous 
childhood, and the great deeds and moral defects of their 
more mature years are illustrated by legends of the ordi- 
nary type. They earned their elevation to the Heavens, 
with its accompanying immortality, by their austerities 
and righteousness ; and their continuance in that exalt- 
ation was subject to the usual contingencies. Their im- 
mortality too was intermittent, and passed away with all 
the other things of time at the end of each divine period 
of the world, to be renewed, however, with them, when 
the seeds of the new heavens and the new earth begin to 
germinate at the rising of the new Brahmii in the navel lotus 
of Narayana at the dawn of each succeeding dispensation. 



The names of the Rishis to whom the hymns of the Rig- 
veda are ascribed have been handed down from early 
times in carefully prepared indices ; and that ascription is 
upheld in many instances by the contents of the hymns. 
They are distributed into the three classes of Brahmar^his, 
Devarshis, and RAjarshis. The individual names of the 
authors of the Brahmarshi class are very nimierous, 
namely, 938 including combinations : in the clans to which 
they belong these family groups are only seven in 
number. Arranging them alphabetically, Agastya and 
his family have 34 of the hymns ; Angiras, in the two 
sub-divisions of his family, has the greatly preponderating 
number of 454, namely, 351 in the BhAradvaja sub-division, 
and 103 in the Gotama sub-division ; Yamadagni has 59; 
Kashyapa 4(5 ; Vasishtha 144 ; and Vishvdmitra 105. 
These Rishis represent the seven primitive sages who con- 
stitute the constellation of the Great Bear, in which the 
star Alpha, is the Rishi Pulaha ; Beta is Kratu ; Gamma 
is Atri ; Delta is Pulastya, Epsilon is Angiras ; Zeta is 
Vasi^hiha and Eta is Marlchi. Here the Brahmarshis re- 
present the five founders of the principal Brahmanical 
families, namely, Angiras, Atri, Bhrigu (who stands for 
his father Marlchi), Kashyapa, and Vasishiha : the Devar- 
shis are represented by Kratu, Kardama the son of Pulaha, 
Kuvera the son of Pulastya, Narada and Parvata the sons of 
Agastya, and some others : and the Rajarshis are Ikshvaku 
and other similar princes. It is not that the hymns call 
this constellation ** the Great Bear, '' although that name 
is at least as old as Homer ; for the vedic map of the 
heavens is a religious map, scientifically divided into regions 
whose limits are defined by their astronomy while their 
names are derived from their mythology ; the vedic name 
for it is simply ** the seven Rishis,'* because the surrounding 
region is the heaven assigned to these sages as the reward 
of their piety on earth, and where they still continue to 


offer their prolonged sacrifices and prayers for the good of 
mankind. Meanwhile their wives are separated from them ; 
for these are the Pleiades, — the seven nursing mothers of 
the fiery Mars (Kartikeya) ; and yet not all of the seven, 
for one of them, Arundhati, the devoted wife of Vasishtha, 
has wandered far away from her companions in search of 
her husband, and is now pointed out to young Hindu brides 
as the model for their own fidelity, in the little star of the 
sixth magnitude below the middle star of the Bear's tail. 
One of the most remarkable of the vedic songsters, however, 
is not with them there, viz., Agastya the son of Pulastya, 
the civilizer of Southern India, and the paternal uncle of 
Kiivaua the demon-king of the Kamayaiia legend, whose 
stellar abode is far down in the opposite hemisphere in the 
great star Canopus. 

The pedigree, which the hymns with their indices enable 
us to construct, shows that a more or less close relation- 
ship existed amongst these vedic Rishis, and that this natural 
connexion was extended from time to time by inter- 
marriages. The following skeleton pedigree compiled 
from full genealogical tables for each of the great families, 
will show this inter-connexion more effectively than a dies- 
cription in words at length. The names of the seven 
primitive Risfhis are in capital letters ; and those of the 
daughters of the families, by whose marriages the com- 
pletion of the unity was effected, are in italics. The 
figures in brackets after the names show the number of 
hymns ascribed to each of them. The '* generations," A, 
B, &c., in the first column of this pedigree, correspond 
with those in the heading of the diagram on page 70. 
A few other names of hymn-makers have been omitted 
for want of space. 






r s — 




^ S 



















































i^ S- ;= 









Ci ^ ^ ^ P- 




This pedigree shows that an alliance between the houses 
of Marichi and the brothers Pulaha and Pulastya was 
formed at an early period by the marriage of Yedashiras, 
the grandson of Marichi, with Pivari the daughter of 
Pulaha, that in the next generation, Atri joined that alliance 
by his marriage with Pulaha's grand-daughter, and then 
extended it to Vasishtha by his second marriage with the 
daughter of Bharadvaja, whose other daughter was Vasi^h- 
tha's wife, and who was himself first cousin of Kratu and 
Angiras, the remaining two of the seven sages of the Great 
Bear. Another great hymn-maker, though not of the 
primitive families, Vishvamitra, was brought into the 
connexion about the same time by the marriage of his 
sister with Bichika, one of Bhrigu's grandsons. 

Moreover this pedigree shows the number of generations 
that the poetical afflatus continued in each of the families, 
culminating in the important result, that the whole period 
covered by the Rig- Veda hymns, from Bhrigu, Kashyapa, 
and BahAgana down to Suhastya of the house of Angiras, 
the latest poet in Vyasa*s recension, was eight genera- 
tions, or 240 years at the rate of thirty years to a generation. 
The diagram on page 75 will show this latter circum- 
stance in a more definite form. 

The legends scattered through the hymns regarding the 
Bi!»his and the royal and other personages connected with 
them contain many geographical references which throw 
light upon the position of their hermitages and the localities 
which they frequented. Several rivers are mentioned, 
which are capable of precise identification, some of them 
in the basin of the Indus, the SarasvatI, the Drishadvati, 
the Sutlej and the Beas, — and others in the great eastern 
basin, the Ganges, the Jumna, the Sarayu, the Gumti, 
the Gogra, and the Gandak. The river Sarasvati is men- 
tioned definitely only four times : in a few other places 
there is a double reference to the river and the goddess of 


the same name : but in the great majority of the passages 
where this name occurs, the goddess alone is meant quite' 
apart from the river. The confluence of the Beas and the^ 
Sutlej is mentioned once, namely, in the h3rmn in which 
the Rishi Vishvamitra prayed them to heap up their waters 
and grant him a passage over their dry bed. With these 
exceptions, it is by no means certain that the Panjab and 
its rivers are referred to in any of the hymns. The 
expression, **the seven rivers*' is of very frequent occur- 
rence : but it is evident that it does not refer specially to 
the rivers of the Pan j jib, but is a mere set phrase for anj' 
group of seven ; for it includes, when the rivers are named, 
several distinct groups which, in the words of one of the 
hymns, " flowed by sevens through the three worlds ; '' and 
not one of these groups is confined to the Panj ib streams. 
The name ** Sindhu," which might be supposed to mean the 
InduSj occurs in the hymns upwards of two hundred times ; 
but, with v^ry few exceptions when it applies to other 
rivers of that name, as the context shows, it is a general 
term for any stream or other form of running water, and; 
even the ocean. v. 

As regards the hermitages of the Rishis, if we supple- 
ment the information obtained from the hymns by the 
legends of the epic poems and puninas, they were all 
situated within an area extending from the Jumna on'^ the 
west to the neighbourhood of Patna on the east, ahd from the' 
mountains at the head-waters of the Ganges southwards 
through its confluence with the Jumna to the Chitra-kiita 
hills in Bundelkhand : southwestwards from this spot 
they spread themselves to the sources of the Godivarl in 
the neighbourhood of Nasik and throughout the great 
Dautlakaraiiya wilderness. 

More particularly, the usual spheres of action of the two 
great Rishis, Vasishtha and Vishvamitra Were ccrtiffined t-o 
the. two doabs on the right and left banks of the Ganges, 
above its junctionwith the Jumna, with a special- visit- to-* 


Mithila, to the eastwards and to the confluence of the Sntlej 
and the Beas to the westwards in the case of Vishvdmitra. 
The Rishi region of the hymns is thus limited to the north- 
western districts of the basin of the Ganges and the 
adjoining wild country to the south, having the Upper 
Panj lb and less known farther west on its left hand, and 
on its right hand the sphere of the preaching tours of 


It is very much to be desired that some reliable clue 
should be found to fix the date of these Hishis, in order to 
settle the time when these hymns were written, and to 
place this particular phase of religious development in its 
chronological position in the general history of religion. 
Various extreme dates have been put forward as not 
unreasonable ; but they have been calculated from data 
which no one considers to be satisfactory ; andthis impor- 
tant question remains still open for solution. 

It is possible that one of the Vasishtha-Vishvamitra 
legends may supply the required answer. One of Vishva- 
mitra's hymns alludes in strong language to an enemy 
who entertained a deadly hatred against him, whom he 
calls upon Indra to destroy : — ** Indra, hero, possessor of 
wealth, protect us this day against our foes with many and 
excellent defences : may the vile wretch who hates us fall 
before us ; may the breath of life depart from him whom 
we hate.*' According to the commentator, following the 
general tradition, the enemy referred to is the Eishi 
Vasishtha with reference to the remarkable legend which 
pervades the epic and puranik literature, and even more 
modern tradition. Vishvamitra, when on one of his 
conquering expeditions in his pre- Rishi days, encamped 
with his army in the neighbourhood of Vasi?»htha*s her- 
mitage, and admired the tokens of great affluence which he 
saw there. Vasishtha explained that these were the gifts 
of his cow-of-plenty. VishvAmitra made great efforts to 



purchase the cow ; and when Vasishtha declined to sell her 
at any price, the king with his men proceeded to take her 
by force. The cow herself then took the matter into her 
own hands, and produced from her different limbs large 
bodies of foreign and unregenerate warriors — Shaka- 
Scythians, Bactrian-Greeks, Parthians, Persians, Kahili- 
Kaffirs, together with the uncivilized mountaineers of 
Central India, and various races of the Dakhari, — by whose 
aid she defeated the army of Vishv4mitra and drove him 
from his kingdom to seek refuge in exile amongst the 
hermitages of Southern India. 

The mention of the foreign members of this alliance, 
assuming that this wide-spread legend has a historical 
significance, points to a time when it was possible for an 
alliance of this formidable and heterogeneous character to 
have been formed ; and it can only point to the time when 
the Greek Kings of Bactria (the Yavanas) had been defeated 
by the Parthians in confederacy with the Rhaka-Scythians 
and driven over the Hindu-Kush, and had been followed 
in their flight into Afghanistan by their implacable foes, 
who there completed their final overthrow. At that time 
alone in history had these Scythians won for themselves 
the dominant position over all the nationalities mentioned 
here, which the legend implies that they possessed. 

Without entering into the details of the invasion which 
this interpretation suggests, it will be sufficient to note here 
that Kanishka, the great king of the Scythians had 
well established his power as far as the river Jumna in the 
5th year of the Vikrama era, or 52 B.C., as is shown by 
an inscription of that date, bearing his name as paramount 
king, upon an image dug out of the ruins of the ancient 
city of Mathura. In accordance with the above theory, 
this date may probably not be far from the time of the 
overthrow of Vishvtimitra's kingly power by the Scythian 
confederacy, and may mark the commencement of the 
second part of his career as an ascetic among the Rishis. 


It would therefore correspond with generation C in the 
genealogical tree on page 70 : and from this date the other 
generations marked on that tree may be calculated back- 
wards and forwards. 

The following Diagram wnll now show the relative 
positions of these Rishis in their generations, together 
with the dates which the above method of calculation 
roughly assigns to them. It shows the number of gene- 
rations during which the members of the different families 
continued to write hymns : and it also shows that the 
whole period which the Eig-Veda covers was somewhat 
over two centuries, namely, from the last quarter of the 
second century B.C. down to the close of the first century 
of the Christian era. 




First Rishi. 

• • 

B.C. 112 


B.C. 82 


B.C. 52 

B.C. 22 

A.D. 8 



A.D. 68 

A.D. 98 

Labi RUbi- 

■ • 

Bhriga .. 


.. ' .. 


• • • ■ 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 



• • 

• • 

• • 



• ■ 
■ • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


Bharadv&ja . . 

• • 




• • 



• • 

• 1 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• ■ 

VishvAmitra , . 


It is, however, due to another group of oriental scholars, 
whose views are deserving of high consideration, to mention 
here, that the epoch which they assign to the Scythian 


invasion is not the Vikrama era of 57 B.C., upon which 
the above diagram is buUt, but the Shahvtihana era of 
A.D. 78. The effect of this preference, while not disturb- 
ing the construction of the above skeleton-pedigree, would 
be to bring each of its generations 135 years lower down 
in the chronology, by dating Kanishka's inscription of the 
year 5, in A.D. 83 instead of in 52 B.C. 

We may now proceed to enquire what religions held 
possession of the countries to the east and west of this 
well-dejBned Rishi-region during the period when the vedic 
sages were singing their hymns there. 


We may begin with the region beyond its eastern 

boundary. Here we find that the Jaina and Buddhist 
religions had taken firm root, and had been progress- 
ing on strangely parallel lines of time, locality, and 
personal circumstances, from the seventh century B. C. 
downwards, — that is to say, from the second century 
after the building of Eome, or about the time when 
Nebuchadnezzar carried the Jews captive to Babylon 
(B. C. 598), and when Solon (B. C. 594) was legislating 
in Greece. 

The founder of the Jaina lieligion was Vardhamana, the 

son of a respectable member of the Kshatriya caste living 
in the suburbs of the city of Vaishala, the capital of the old 
Kingdom of Videha on the northern banks of the Ganges 
opposite Patna. He was born about the year 639 B. C. 
On the death of his parents, when he was twenty-eight 
years old, he became an ascetic, and spent twelve years 
performing austerities in the wilderness. In the second 
of those years he cast off all clothing, and carried his self- 
mortification to the utmost conceivable lengths. Having 
thus acquired the necessary qualification he reappeared to 
the world in 599 B. C. in the character of an omniscient 
jina, and spent the remaining thirty years of his life as the 


prophet of his new religion under the title of * Mahavira,' 
or * The Great Hero.' He went about preaching his 
doctrines throughout the kingdoms of Videha, Magadha, 
and Anga, that is to say, all the region to the east of Patna, 
on both sides of the Ganges, as far as the neighbourhood 
of Bhagalpur, and paying occasional visits to the wilder 
country at the foot of the Himalayas. He appointed 
eleven of his principal followers as the heads of his sect ; 
and with them he organised a regular order of ascetics. 
The five vows of his community are, (1) Not to destroy life ; 
(2) Not to tell an untruth; (3) Not to take anything which 
is not given ; (4) To observe complete celibacy ; (5) To 
renounce all interest in worldly things. Their views of 
the sacredness of life is carried to a greater length than by 
all other sects ; for they hold that not only all breathing 
animals, and the w^hole vegetable kingdom, but also every 
particle of matter included in the category of the prime 
elements, earth, fire, water, and air, have individual souls 
endowed with self-consciousness and the knowledge of 
surrounding things, and are subject to all the vicissitudes 
of soul-life. 

Their ultimate hope is in a final emancipation from all 
imperfection through the attainment of perfect knowledge 
and absolute purity and goodness, which will then stamp 
the condition of the jina for eternity. 

They have temples, in which one of their own sect is 
always the reader ; but a Brahmin is usually the officiating 
priest at their services. The objects of worship in their 
temples are the images of the old saints of their sect, whose 
memorials are kept up by annual festivals in their honom*. 

The total Jaina population of India at the last census 
was 1,416,638. In Southern India there are only 68,588, 
of whom the greater part belong to the Nizam's territory 
and Mysore. Their chief seats are in the Bombay Pre- 
sidency and the native states connected with it, and in 
KcLJputana, Central India, the Central Provinces, Baroda 


and Ajmere, where tliey number 1,140,086, or about 
four-fifths of the whole Jaina population of India. 

Buddhism until very lately might have seemed to have 

but a slight claim to a place in a brief sketch of this kind, 

seeing how few real Buddhists were to be found in the land 

of its birth. The name had indeed a place in the census 

classification ; but the Jainas were at that time taken to be 

Buddhists. The inclusion of Burmah with its seven million 

Buddhists out of a total population of seven-and-a-half 

millions, has now altered that case ; and India has once 

more to be reckoned amongst the Buddhist nations. 

Siddharta or Gautama Buddha, the founder of this 
religion, was the son of the king of Kapilavastu in the old 
kingdom of Kosala, a few days jom*ney to the north of 
Benares, which was a dependency of the kings of Magadha. 
The young prince was bom there about 623 B.C., a few 
years later than the birth of the founder of Jainism. 
While still a young man he was overcome by a pessimistic 
view of the present life ; and after a series of mental strug- 
gles for 10 years, he secretly fled from the luxuries of his 
father's palace to become a homeless ascetic. 

He settled for a time in the suburbs of the capital of 
Magadha, and gave himself up to profound philosophical 
study under the successive guidance of two Rishis resident 
there ; but all the highest attainable knowledge failed to 
give him the mental repose which he was seeking. He 
then retired into the jungles of the Vindhya mountains to 
go through a course of self-torture and sin-annihilating 
austerities, with the same object, and with a similar 
disappointing result. At length, at the end of five years 
of that miserable life, the enlightenment came to him 
suddenly and in the last extremity of his emaciated body 
and his exhausted mind. His future course became clear 
to him : and he came forth from the mountains to preach 
his new doctrine of emancipation from the five passions. 


He began his work in a grove in the outskirts of Benares ; 
and there by degrees he became surrounded by a number 
of disciples. At the end of the rainy season he sent each 
of his leading converts separately into different parts of the 
country round about to propagate his teaching and to 
initiate disciples into his order. He himself returned to 
the neighbourhood of his old hermitage in the Vindhyas, 
where there was already an extensive settlement of older 
Rishis, the *Rathees* of the Burmese legend, with their 
numerous disciples, all of whom became his converts. 

This preaching itineration became the established custom 
of his order, all returning to some appointed centre to 
spend each rainy season together with their master, each 
of them bringing one or more of his new converts with 
him. Buddha's itinerating circuits extended to a distance 
of 150 miles around Benares, the kings of Magadha 
sometimes patronizing his work, and at others persecut- 
ing him and his followers. Thus he passed his life for 
forty-five years after his enlightenment. He died on one 
of these tours at Kusinagara, a few day's journey to the 
east of his birthplace, in 543 B. C. in the 80th year 

of his age. 

The Buddhist holds, in common with some other sects, 
that his position in each of his successive transmigrations 
is the direct result of his character and conduct in some 
one or more of his previous existences, and consequently 
that all life is a connected chain of causes and effects. 
Birth itself is one of those effects, and is itself an evil of 
downward growth : and the present life is therefore a 
misery, made up of mental and bodily pains. The sole 
cause of all this misery is desire in its various forms : and 
the remedy for this evil is to stamp out that cause, — to 
uproot every form of desire, (1) by embracing the faith of 
Buddha, (2) by forming a right judgment in all things, (3) 
by bridling the tongue, (4) by setting up right aims 
for one's life, (5) by avoiding all wrong actions, (6) by 


cultivating a meek and reverential spirit, (7) by maintaining 
a memory of all that is good, and (8) by solemn meditation 
upon spiritual things. The final result of all this, the 
supreme object of his hope is the Nirvana, namely, the 
complete extinction of all desire in his nature, and a conse- 
quent state of spiritual tranquillity and unadulterated joy. 
It is not the extinction of the man's existence ; for the 
cessation of spiritual life is an inconceivable thing, especi- 
ally to such a philosopher as Buddha : it is not that the 
"lamp is blown out at the casement,*' nor is it that the 
sources of the hopes and fears and sorrows of man have been 
removed from his surroundings ; but that the emancipated 
man himself has been raised above them, far beyond their 
reach, and that no attracting or repelling force exists which 
can thenceforward put him in contact with them any more 
throughout the ages to come. 

Beyond the western boundary of our Ri^hi-region lies 

the Panjib, and the countries bordering on the Indus 

westwards and northwards, together with those to the 

north of the Hindu-Kush which have always largely shared 

the destinies of Afghanistan. 

Our true chronological starting-point for this region is 
the reign of Cjrrus the Great ; for it was through his con- 
quests that it was brought within the circle of Persian 
civilization and to share the influences of the great religious 
movement which was so largely fostered by him. 

Cyrus won the decisive battles of Pasargadte in 558 B.C., 
and so became the founder of the empire of the Medes and 
Persians. The early years of his reign were occupied by 
his conquest of Asia Minor. Sardis fell in 554 B.C., and 
then he turned his face towards the mysterious East. He 
spent fourteen years in his eastern wars ; and at their close 
he had added to his dominions the vast tract from the 
Caspian Sea to the plains of Kasbgar and the right bank 
of the Indus, and from the Jaxartes to the Indian Ocean. 


It is expressly stated that he never crossed the Indus. 
From 539 B. C. onwards he conquered Susiana, Babylonia, 
Syria and Palestine, and there dealt a mortal blow to the 
Semitic civilization of those nations with its debasing 
idolatry, from which it never recovered. 

It was after his retmrn to Babylon at the close of those 
western conquests that he permitted the Jews of the cap- 
tivity to return to their native land ; and he gave them his 
help to rebuild their temple at Jerusalem. He thus be- 
came the restorer of pure monotheism to its old home, and 
so relaid the foundation of that spiritual life for mankind 
which, in the natural course of its evolution, has grown 
into the Christian civilization of the persent day. 

E^ypt still remained unconquered : but he was now 65 
years of age ; and his great empire also required rest and 
much prudent care. He was apparently seventy years old 
when something unrecorded occurred to set him once more 
upon the war-path This time it was against the MassagetsB 
beyond the Jaxartes : and there, in the ends of the earth, 
this mighty warrior met his death. He survived his mortal 
wound long enough to know that his army had inflicted 
a crushing defeat upon the enemy. 

At the time of his conquest of the country north of the 
Hindu-Kush he found the religion of Zoroaster well estab- 
lished on both banks of the river Oxus ; for Bactria was 
the cradle of that religion. To the north of that region, 
beyond the Jaxartes, it had not spread : the Massagetse 
who inhabited it had some form of solar worship ; for they 
sacrificed horses to the Sun, and their queen, when she 
gave her oath to Cyrus, swore '' by the Sun, the Lord of 
the Massagette." 

Cyrus died in 529 B.C. We have therefore a solid basis 

for the religious history of the Bactrian provinces with 

their southern continuation in Afghanistan and Baluchistan 

from the 6th century downwards. The state religion was 

necessarily the religion of the king : and as regards the 


masses of his subjects, while they paid due respect to the 
religion of the state, they continued free, under the king's 
well-understood toleration, to worship the old gods of their 
fathers. Cyrus* own early life and education fell in a time 
when a great religious movement, under various phases, 
was stirring up the whole oriental world: he lived the 
first fifteen years of his life during the last days of 
Zoroaster, and he survived Mahavira by forty years, and 
Buddha by fourteen years ; Confucius also was transform- 
ing the religion of China during the last twenty-one years 
of his reign. His great genius was susceptible of all purely 
spiritual influences: and the religious character which 
they contributed to mould in him, and which fascinated 
his own contemporaries, became the type of the religion 
of his empire for many generations to come. 

We may here pass by the short reigns of Cambyses 
and the Pseudo-Smerdis, as they contain nothing which 
permanently affects our subject. Darius I, the son of 
Hystaspes, began to reign in 521 B.C. The absence of 
Cambyses from his kingdom for so long a time led to a 
general relaxation of authority throughout the empire, and 
that state of semi-anarchy burst out into a succession of 
rebellions in several provinces during the first five years of 
the new king's reign. There was more or less of a religious 
element in these revolts, connected with the old idolatries 
of Babylon and the adjacent provinces ; but the eastern 
provinces, Bactria and its neighbours, which were the 
chief seats of Zoroastrianism, remained faithful to Darius 
throughout the struggle. When these disturbances had 
been quelled the empire had rest for ten years. Darius 
then entered upon a series of conquests which occupied 
the remaining twenty-one years of his reign ; but it is only 
necessary here to follow his Indian campaign. 

Cjrrus' conquests stopped short at the Indus: and 
Darius now desired to extend that eastern boundary. He 
sent forward an exploring party from some point upon the 


Cabul river, with the Carian navigator Scylax at its head, to 
descend that river, and to trace its connexion with his 
western dominions, not from mere curiosity, but with the 
practical object of establishing a continuous commercial 
route from the Indus to the Nile by way of the Erythraean 
sea. The spirit of Milesian maritime enterprise was 
incarnate in Scylax : and the successful completion of his 
task marked a new epoch in the commerce of the East. 
When Scylax returned from this voyage, Darius crossed 
the Indus and conquered the Panj&b and Sind. This large 
acquisition of territory added upwards of a million poimds 
sterling per annum to the tribute-revenue of his empire, 
and extended its boundary eastwards to the line of the 
river Sutlej. At the same time, it put forward the sphere 
of Persian civilization, both political and religious, over the 
same additional extent of area. 

Darius I, died in 486 B.C. after a reign of 35 years, at 
the age of 68, leaving behind him a character as one of the 
wisest and most successful of the rulers of men, and from 
our present point of view, as one of the chief promoters of 
the religious education of the oriental world. His religious 
character corresponds in its main features with that of 
Cyrus. All through his life he was a consistent disciple 
of Zoroaster ; and he observed the same large toleration 
as Cyrus towards the different religions of his subjects. 
This is well illustrated in his inscriptions. In his great 
rock inscription at Behistun, in which he recorded the 
events of the early years of his reign, he attributes all his 
successes, one after the other, to the grace of Auramazda. 
** This is what I accomplished, what I accomplished with 
the grace of Auramazda ; I have fought nineteen battles 
and taken captive nine kings :" At the foot of the principal 
inscription there is another explanatory one which has a 
remarkable addition illustrative of his toleration, — '* What 
I have done, I have done by the grace of Auramazda; 
Auramazda came to my aid. and the other gods, who did so 


because I was not hostile** (to them). And similarly in an 
inscription at Persepolis belonging to the later years of his 
reign, — ** By the grace of Auramazda 1 have founded this 
fortress, strong, beautiful and complete. May Auramazda 
and all the gods protect me and this fortress and all that 
is in it." The kindliness of Darius' nature together with 
his personal piety are well seen in his sympathy with the 
Jewish prophet Daniel when in tribulation, and in his joy 
at his deliverance ; for this is that same Darius who 
published his proclamation throughout his empire, — 
** Peace be multiplied to you. I make a decree, that in 
every dominion of my kingdom men tremble before the god 
of Daniel : for he is the living God, and stedfast for ever, 
and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed, and his 
dominion shall be even unto the end. He delivereth and 
rescueth, and he worketh signs and wonders in heaven and 
in earth, who hath delivered Daniel from the power of 
the lions." 

No material change is mentioned regarding the eastern 
limits of the Persian empire during the reigns of its sub- 
sequent kings : the Sutlej continued to mark its boundary 
in that direction down to its collapse in the reign of 
Darius III. The satraps of the Panjab may have con- 
ducted their affairs with various degrees of independence 
in the meantime ; nevertheless they sent in their tribute. 
For, if they had not done so, the loss of a million sterling 
a year, or one-third of the whole land-revenue of the 
empire, could hardly have occurred without some reference 
being made to it and to its cause. Even in the time of 
Darius Nothus (B.C. 424 to 405), whose reign was a 
constant scene of revolts and insurrections, India does not 
appear among the revolting provinces : and the presence 
of elephants with Indian troops in the place of honour 
around the king's person in the battle of Gaugamela is 
sufficient to show that the Panjab was still faithful down 
to Darius' last struggle in defence of liis throne. 


Nor on the other hand, had there been any material 
change in the state rehgion of Persia during this period. 
Laxness regarding the ** other gods" no doubt waxed and 
waned in the proportion of the firmness or weakness of the 
personal character of the kings, and of the influence of 
their queens ; but the empire was supported by other strong 
conservative forces all the while, sufficient to maintain a 
steady equilibrium in its religious and all its other leading 
principles. Mithra, the ancient Sun-god, retained his 
influence over both throne and people down to the end : 
his ten sacred sacrificial horses and his splendid chariot 
were prominent featm^es of the magnificent procession of 
Xerxes when he went forth to the invasion of Greece : and 
when he was about to cross the straits, he waited for the 
moment of sunrise to worship Mithra w-ith a libation, and 
with a prayer that he would enable him to conquer Europe. 
It was also not without some reference to the worshij) 
of Mithra that he transported the whole body of the priests 
of the Milesian Phoebus-Apollo into the interior of his 
empire, and built them a city, and endowed them with 
lands, where Alexander found them in their sixth genera- 
tion still maintaining the traditions of Didyma, and pro- 
pagating the worship of their Sun-god among the sm-round- 
ing Scythian hordes. It was in the reign of Xerxes also that 
the worship of Anaitis, the Babylonian Venus, the Isis of the 
Egyptians, the Aphrodite, Artemis, or Hera of the Grreeks, 
the great goddess Diana of the Ephesians, — was introduced 
into Persia. But his great-grandson Alexander Mnemon 
(B. C. 405 to 859) went much further, and did his utmost 
to raise her previous casual worship into a full national 
idolatry ; for he set up images of this goddess for the worshi)) 
of the people at Susa, Persepolis, and Ecbatana, at Baby- 
lon and Damascus, at Sardis in the far west, and at Balkh 
in the far east. Magnificent temples were also built for 
her worship with pillars plated with gold, and bricks of 
solid silver and gold. This king set up a statue of 


Mithra also, to whom the form of an idol had never before 
been given in Zoroastrian lands, and invoked him as his 
special protector: and his example in this respect was 
followed by his son Ochus (B. C. 359 to 338). And yet 
Zoroaster's Anramazda, the nearest approach to Jehovah 
which man had thus far discovered, was never deposed 
from his supremacy in the midst of all these decadencies ; 
and the religion of Cyrus, '* the anointed shepherd of the 
Lord,'' continued to be the paramount religion of his 
empire down to its fall. 

We are now approaching the time of the conquest of the 
Persian empire by Alexander the Great. He started from 
Macedon on this great enterprise in 334 B. C. : and it 
may well be doubted whether he then quite realized the 
full extent of the work which was before him ; for at that 
moment Darius' dominions extended from the Nile to the 
Sutlej, and from the northern extremity of the Caspian 
Sea to the shore of the Erythraean, covering along the 
crow-line a distance of 2,820 miles of longitude by 1,380 
of latitude. He did, however, realize the necessity of 
divine help for the work ; for he o£fered sacrifices to Jupiter, 
Pallas-Athene and Hercules for the success of the expedi- 
tion when he started upon it, and committed both himself 
and his army to the patronage of these divinities for 
protection and victory. There is a running record through- 
out his campaigns of similar public sacrifices being offered 
on every special occasion. Arrian says of him that he 
was " strictly observant of his duty to the deity," and that 
it was his custom to offer sacrifices daily. There are also 
repeated instances of his desire to conciliate the religious 
feelings of his army and the people through whose territory 
he was marching, and to impress a religious character 
upon his movements. For instance, he built a temple to 
Olympian Zeus at Sardis; he celebrated the festival of 
Hercules at Tyre ; he sacrificed to the Egyptian god Apis at 
Memphis ; he rebuilt the ancient temple of Bel at Babylon, 


which Xerxes had destroyed, and sacrificed there in the 
way prescribed by the Chaldean priests ; he sacrificed to 
Apollo when he was about to take his army across the 
Hindu-Kush to Bactria ; he made libations to the divinities 
of the Panj4b rivers when he was about to sail on them, 
and to Neptune and the other water-gods when he dismiss- 
ed his fleet from the mouths of the Indus on their ocean- 
voyage to Persia; he offered thanksgiving sacrifices at 
the end of his distressing march through Beluchistan ; and 
by some strange arrangement he induced the Greek 
soothsayers and the Persian Magi to hold a mixed religious 
service at the feast of reconciliation at Susa, when 9,000 
men made their libations together and raised a united 
hymn of praise for their happy deliverance from the great 
perils and dangers which they had passed through. 

Alexander's Persian campaigns occupied altogether 
eleven years; he crossed over into Asia in 334 B. C, and 
he returned to Babylon to die in 323 B.C. Of this period, 
five years, namely, from 330 to 325 B.C. were spent in the 
reduction of the Bactrian and Indian provinces, two of 
which he spent in the Panjib: he turned his back on 
the Sutlej in 326 B.C., and finally left the mouths of the 
Indus in 325 B.C. 

He found the Panjdb in a flourishing condition. The 
first of its doabs (mesopotamias) lying between the Indus 
and the Jhelum, was said to be as large as Egypt. Its 
capital then and for a long time afterwards was Taxila, 
which gave its name to Taxiles who occupies a prominent 
place in the histories as the regal satrap who welcomed 
the new master of the empire into his satrapy with right 
loyal services. In the second doab, between the Jhelum 
and the Chenab (Acesines) lay the dominions of Porus, 
another of the regal satraps of the empire, whose greater 
distance from its heart had led to the assumption of a large 
degree of independence. Alexander conquered him, but 
treated him with great generosity, restoring him to his 


tjovernment, and makintr larjife additions to his territory, 
which Arrian says comprised seven nations and contained 
more than two thousand cities. 

When he had advanced into the last of the doabs he 
stood face to face with the river Sutlej, the furthest limit 
of the empire of Darius, and he had therefore substantially 
fulfilled the real object of his march into India, namely, 
to recover and settle the whole of the satrapies which he 
had won at Gaugamela. On the other side of the Sutlej 
runs the main waterparting which separates the basins of 
the Indus and the Ganf;(es : and in the latter basin lay the 
great empire of Magadha, whose enormous military power 
had become known, probably in an exaggerated degree, to 
Alexander's soldiers durini^ the vear thev had now been in 
the Panjab. The veterans of the army formed an adverse 
opinion of the prudence of the proposed advance into 
altogether new territory : and they respectfully but firmly 
declined to be led beyond their present position. The gods 
were consulted ; but the auspices were unfavourable ; and 
preparations were made for the return march. Alexander 
built here twelve colossal altars to mark the site of his 
last camp ; and after celebrating a farewell festival there, 
he took the army back to the Jhelum where he completed 
the erection of the two cities, one on eacli side of the river, 
which he had previously founded there, and established 
colonies of Europeans in them. The garrisons of these 
two cities commanded the doabs which formed the two 
satrapies of Taxiles and Poms respectively : and the latter 
was at this time raised to the dignity of Maha-Kshatrapa, 
or Governor-General, of the whole of the Panjab. 

The twelve gods to whom the above tower-altars were 
dedicated, and who were thus elevated into an official 
pantheon for the Greek dominions in India, can be identi- 
fied by the help of a passage in Arrian which names these 
who were w'orshipped on a corresponding occasion when 
Alexander started on his honieward voyagj^ down the 


Hydaspes. They are there distributed into two groups; 
(1) ** the god3 of his fathers, ** namely, the triad worshipped 
when he started on this expedition, — ^Jupiter, Pallas- Athene, 
and Hercules ; (2) '' those who were named by the sooth- 
sayers," of whom Ammon and Apollo have been named 
already, to ** Poseidon, Amphitrite, and the Nereids, to 
Oceanus himself, to the river Hydaspes from which he 
was starting, to the Acesines into which the Hydaspes 
falls, and to the Indus into which they both fall." A very 
large number of animals were sacrificed on these altars ; 
for, at the accompanying feast, he ** distributed the flesh of 
the slaughtered animals throughout the divisions of the 
whole army." 

With regard to the religions of *' the Indians" of the 
Panjab at this time, one circumstance is particularly 
interesting and important, and is related by all the leading 
classical authorities. During his stay at Taxila, Alexander 
made the acquaintance of some Indian sages whose her- 
mitages were in the neighbourhood of that city. One of 
these groups were *' Gymnosophists," or ** Naked Sages : " 
and as the Digambara-Jainas were the only naked ascetics 
in those days, it follows that Calanus and his campanions 
belonged to that sect. Their great reverence for every 
thing that has life, which is particularly mentioned, is also 
an indication to the same effect. Another group is also 
mentioned whose doctrines and customs, where they 
differed from those of Calanus, show that they were 
Buddhist monks. There is also a third group mentioned 
as distinct from those two, namely the Brahmins, who 
were the counsellers and ministers of the kings, and the 
directors of their religious duties, who also occupied them- 
selves with the sciences of physiology and astronomy. 
These Brahmins also had their own class of ascetics, both 
male and female, who lived in the forests, and there 
perpetually supplicated the gods on behalf of the kings. 
Their gods were ** Jupiter-Ombrius, the river Ganges, and 



the indigenous deities of the country.*' Lower down the 
Indus also, as well as on the hanks of the Kiivi, there was 
a fringe of Brahmin settlements. One of these was a 
walled city with a citadel and fortifications, which had a 
population whose fighting men numbered over 5,000. 

Alexander founded a large number of cities during this 
expedition, in which he settled numerous colonies of 
Europeans both to garrison them and also to carry out his 
favourite intention of amalgamating the people of Europe 
and Asia and their civilizations. There were several of 
these colonies in both the Bactrian and Indian provinces : 
and from these centres there went forth a continuous 
influence of Greek ideas connected with their manners, 
recreations, sciences, literature, language and religion upon 
the surrounding population, with far-reaching results for 
many succeeding generations. 

When the fragments of Alexander's empire came to be 
permanently divided amongst his generals after the battle 
of Ipsus in 301 B. C, the provinces of old Percia from the 
borders of Phoenicia eastwards fell to the share of Seleucus. 
He had been in more or less precarious possession of Baby- 
lon and all that naturally went with it from B. C. '^'11. 
Now he transferred the capital of the East from Babylon 
to Antioch in Sjnria, thus rendering his control over the 
Bactrian and Indian satrapies little better than nominal. 
Difficulties had already arisen in the Indian satrapies. 
Poms, whom Alexander left there as governor-general, was 
slain in B. C. 317 by Eudemus : and Chandragupta, king 
of Magadha, then overran the Panjib. Seleucus, after an 
unsuccessful eflfoi-t to defend the province, ceded it to 
Chandragupta about B. C. 302 : and thenceforward it 
ceased to form part of the Persian empire, whose boundary 
was thus thrown back to the line of the Indus which had 
formerly been Cyrus' eastern limit. 

The rehgion followed the king, according to the general 
rule : and for a short time the state religion of the PanjAb 


became the old Brahminical religion of the Nandas and 
Mauryas, for the kings of Magadha had not yet become 

It remained in this position during the rest of Chandra- 
gupta's reign, and also throughout the reign of his son and 
successor Binduaara (B. C. 291 to 263). This king ap- 
pointed his son, the famous Ashoka, viceroy of the Punjab, 
with old Taxila as his capital, which was at that time a 
rich and flourishing city and very populous. Chandragupta 
extended his dominions in another direction also, along the 
southern boundary of the Punjab, through Eajputana and 
the Vindhya territories as far as Gujarat. Over these 
conquests with Ujain as their capital he made Ashoka his 
viceroy, while he was still a young man. 

Ashoka succeeded his father on the throne of Magadha 
in B. C. 263 and reigned down to 222. Other dates are 
also given ; but the reader of a sketch like this will not 
care to be troubled with them. 

He began his career as a pronounced enemy of Buddhism, 
and then became its ardent supporter, devoting to it the 
immense resources of his great empire. Under his zealous 
patronage, and by means of an organized propaganda, this 
religion was disseminated throughout the whole of his 
dominions, and in all the adjoining countries. Monuments 
containing relics of Buddha, or to serve as memorials of 
the localities connected with his career, were erected by 
this king in many places, and he also established a large 
nmnber of monasteries, with their appendages, to accom- 
modate many thousand monks. Several rock inscriptions 
ascribed to him have survived to the present day, in which 
he commands full toleration to be observed towards all 
religions, and general encouragement to be given to ascetics 
of all denominations. According to the legends of later 
times, Ashoka extended his dominions much beyond the 
limits of his grandfather's conquests. As regards Southern 
India, there are traces of his presence in Conjeveram, in the 


neigbourhood of Madras : and one of his edict-inscriptions 
has been discovered quite recently in the Mysore territory. 
Upon his death, the provinces of his empire were divided 
amongst his four sons : Magadha and Central India fell to 
Sujasus, and Kundla established himself in the Punjab and 


We have seen above when Seleucus Nicator made over 
the Punjab to Chandragupta, Bactria, together with the 
country to the south of the Hindu Kush and along the 
right bank of the Indus, still remained part of the Persian 
empire. This territory continued in the hands of Seleucus 
and his two successors, Antiochus I. (B. C. 281 — 261), and 
Antiochus II. (B. C. 261 to 246), down to the revolt of 
Bactria and its formation into a separate kingdom about 
250 B. C. The religion of the Seleucid kings was substan- 
tially the same as Alexander's, as is shown by their coins ; 
and the Greek colonists maintained the popular cults of 
their nation in their new homes during that period, with 
such modifications, as time went on, as came in the natural 
course of things from the influence of their Bactrian wives 
and other local and personal influences. One circumstance, 
however, there was which drew forth a special preference 
for the worship of Apollo. The ancestors of Seleucus 
claimed to be the children of this god, and his worship, 
already well established in eastern Persia, since the days 
of Xerxes, was consistently encouraged now through the 
Seleucid empire. And concerning Bactriana in particular, 
a new Antioch was founded amongst the Scythians beyond 
the Jaxartes by Antiochus II., and altars were dedicated 
there to his patron divinity, the Apollo of Didyma, as if to 
replace the city of the BranchidsB priests in Sogdiana, whose 
temple and sacred groves had been destroyed by Alexander. 

The revolt of Bactria in 250 B. C. cut off from the Se- 
leucid dominions not only the province properly so called, 
but also all to the east of it beyond the ** Roof of the World' 
in the Kashgaoran plains, in the Sogdianian territory also, 


and the oasis of Merv, together with the whole region to 
the south of the Hindu Kush as far as the Indus. And 
when Parthia soon afterwards followed the example of 
Bactria, the eastern boundary of Khorasan thenceforward 
marked the frontier of the empire. During the period at 
which we have now arrived, Bactria, practically and histori- 
cally, consisted of two divisions : (1) Old Bactria and its 
appendages on the northern side of the Hindu Kush, with 
Balkh, "the mother of cities," for its capital, and (2) the 
region to the south of that great range with Alexander's 
great colony, Alexandria ad Caucasum, for its chief city, 
the Alasadda of the Buddhist literature, whose colossal ruins 
still lie in the plain of Beghran, 25 miles north of Kabul. 

The northern division remained under the rule of the 
revolting dynasty for two successions of its kings down to 
209 B. C, when it was extinguished by the Satrap of the 
adjoining province, Enthydemus of Magnesia. Shortly 
after this event, Antiochus IH. (B. C. 222 to 187), marched 
at the head of a great army to recover his lost Satrapies. 
He defeated Enthydemus in the neighbourhood of Herat, 
and shut him up in Balkh. After a prolonged siege the 
Bactrian king threatened to call in the neighbouring 
Scythian hordes to his aid, and thus succeeded in inducing 
Antiochus to enter into a friendly treaty with him leaving 
him in possession of his kingdom, Antiochus then crossed 
the Hindu Kush (208 B. C), and marched down the 
Kabul river towards India, where he spent three years in 
an ineffectual attempt to restore the PunjAb to his empire. 
Nearly a century had now elapsed since Seleucus left this 
province in the hands of Chandragupta ; and the rule of 
the Magadha kings there has been traced above, from the 
Indian side of its history, down to Chandragupta's great 
grandson Kunala. In the early part of that century, 
Seleucus* son, Antiochus I., renewed friendly relations with 
Chandragupta's son, Amltraghata ; and nothing had disturb- 
ed the good feeling on either side down to the time of their 


grandsons, Antiochus II. and the Great Ashoka. At the 
end of that century, Antiochus III. now found Subhaga- 
send, who appears to have been either Ashoka's son or his 
grandson, representing the old Magadha power here ; and 
these two princes once more renf»wed the old treaties of 
their ancestors. At that time Ashoka had been dead 
about twenty years ; and as Kunala remained in the religion 
of his father, Buddhism still continued to be the predomi- 
nant religion of the PunjAb. 

While the negotiations for peace between Antiochus and 
Enthydemus were in progress, Demetrius, the youthful 
son of the latter, visited the camp of the S3nrian emperor, 
who formed a high opinion of him, and promised him his 
daughter in marriage. This marriage could not fail to 
have an important influence upon the young princess future 

Not long afterwards we find Demetrius in full career 
of conquest in the Punjab. He reduced the whole of the 
Indus provinces down to the delta, and also the further 
country eastwards and southwards through Bajputana and 
Guzerat, to the basins of the Nerbudda and the Tapti. 
He made old Sakala (Sangala), on the Bavi, his capital, 
and changed its name to Enthydemia in honour of his 
father. Some years had now gone by ; and, in the mean- 
time, Enthydemus had been driven from his throne by 
Eucratides about the time when Mithradates I. began to 
reign in Parthia (Jusfian Book XLI), i,e,, B. C. 171. 

Demetrius, backed by the full power of his Indian 
triumphs marched his army into Bactria to recover his 
father's throne, and laid siege to Balkh for several months. 
Eucratides having received seasonable succours, at length 
defeated the invading anny, and followed up his victory 
until he had conquered some large portion of Demetrius' 
possessions in India. The strain of this and his numerous 
other wars at length proved too much for him; and 
Mithridates took advantage of this exhaustion, and, finally, 


in the reign of Heliodes the son of Eucratides, annexed 
Bactria to the rapidly extending Paxihian empire about 
135 B. C. 

The extinction of the parent kingdom on the northern 
side of the mountains led to a variety of changes in the 
dependent Satrapies on their southern side. But presently 
a prince of enduring fame restored the eclipsed Greek 
power and, with his two successors, carried forward the 
hellenizing traditions of Alexander down to tho time of 
their absorption in the new- order of things in the middle 
of the century before the Christian era. This prince is 
Menander of the classical historians, the Milinda of the 
southern Buddhist literature. 

Menander was born in the neighbourhood of Alexander's 
great colony of Alexandria ad Caucasum (Alasadda), 
under the hills to the north of Cabul. He began to reign 
while he was a young man, as his earlier coins show : the 
portraits on his later coins make him a man of mature 
years ; but none of them have the marks of old age. This 
accords with the tradition which assigns to him a reign of 
thirty years, and with another tradition that he died in 
camp. His coins have been found in great abundance 
and in great variety — indicating a long and prosperous 
reign — and over a very large extent of country, from 
Beghran and Cabul eastwards to Mathura on the Jumna, 
and southwards to the mouth of the Indus. This shows the 
credibility of the statement that he consolidated the whole 
of the Greek conquests in India undtr his rule ; while it 
also illustrated the statement of Greek authors that he 
was one of the two kings who advanced the Greek power 
farthest to the East. His coins were current in the sea- 
port town of Baroach, at the mouth of the Nerbudda 
river, during the first century of the Christian era. He 
was a wise and just king, and an eminently learned philo- 
sopher; eloquent also, and very skilful and successful in 
controversy. He made the ancient city of Sakala in the 


heart of the PunjAb his capital ; and he converted it into a 
kind of Indian Athens by the encouragement which he 
gave to learned men who resorted thither in great numbers, 
and with whom he spent much time in public discussions 
and religious investigations. The controversies of this 
Greek prince, well versed in the philosophy of his own 
nation, with the most learned of the Buddhist and other 
Indian philosophers of his time during the long period of 
thirty years, form an interesting episode in the religious 
history of India, and are suggestive of an interchange of 
oriental and western ideas, which could hardly be 'without 
some permanent result. 

The legends of the Singhalese say that he became a 
convert to Buddhism ; but his coins do not support this 
statement. They show him to have been a consistent 
worshipper of Minerva during the whole of his reign. 
Amongst his subjects, however, Buddhism was in a more 
flourishing condition than ever before ; and upon his death 
his subjects are said to have given him the imperial funeral 
rights of a Chakravarti in imitation of the obsequies of 

During the reign of Menander, Pushpamitra, a Par- 
thian ruling a portion of the country upon the Nerbudda, 
and the General of the forces of the last prince of Ashoka's 
line, slew his master and usurped his throne. By the 
advice of his Brahmin minister he persecuted the Bud- 
dhists throughout India from the Ganges to the Indus. 
In particular he massacred the Buddhist monks of 
Sakala and Pataliputra and destroyed their monasteries. 
Menander delivered them from this oppressor, and raised 
them again to a state of high prosperity. 

During the three centuries when these Greek kings 
reigned in Bactria and Bactrian India, a great movement 
was in progress amongst their Scythian neighbours 
making for their ultimate overthrow and supersession. It 
would be out of place here to relate the details of this 


movement. It will be enough to mark the progress of the 
two races whose influence was most directly felt in India. 

The Saca tribes became troublesome from the earUest 
days of the Bactrian and Parthian revolts (B. C. 250). 
They were ultimately impelled southwards by the pressure 
of their northern neighbours the Tochari; and, passing 
along the south-eastern borders of Parthia and around 
Herat, they settled in the province to which they have 
permanently attached their name, Sistan (Seistan, Sakas- 
tene), **the abode of the Sakas.*' Prom this new home 
they sent forward detachments later on towards India; 
and, passing through southern Afghanistan (Arachosia) 
by the double route of the Ghazni Mountains and the 
Bolan pass, they struck the lower Indus and formed there 
the Indo-Scythian kingdom of the early historians. 

The Tochari tribes then occupied Sogdiana, between the 
Jaxartes and the Oxus, and subsequently Bactria proper, 
between the Oxus and the Hindu Kush ; and by about 
126 B. C. they had driven the last of the Greek rulers of 
that province across the mountains into Afghanistan. 
Then, finally, following up these conquests, they them- 
selves passed the great mountain barrier in the course of 
the succeeding half-century ; and under Kadphises, their 
king, they extended their empire to the seashore of the 
Indian ocean southwards, and to Kashmir and the Punjab 
eastwards, and ultimately to the river Jumna. 

Upon his coins Kadphises calls himself ** King of Kings, 
the great Saviour Kadphises," thus asserting a suzerainty 
over all the surviving remnants of Alexander's successors 
and all the separate tribes of the Tochari hordes. His 
name is added to that of Hermaeus, the last of the Greek 
kings, upon the latest coins of that prince, thus indicat- 
ing that he was left in possession of his kingdom as a 
regal satrap of the new empire after its conquest by Kad- 
phises. Moreover, he issued gold coins, thus showing his 
independence of all external control ; for this was one of 
the exclusive prerogatives of a paramount sovereign. 



King Kadphises is an important personage from om* 
present point of view. He represents a great revolution in 
the religious history of India, and a new starting point 
of religious thought and worship in a direction which 
has retained its predominance down to the present day. 
His people had been in possession of the country on 
both banks of the Oxus at this time for about a centurj^ 
making this the meeting place of the commerce of India 
and China with Parthia and China, and all the world beyond, 
at the time when these nations represented the sources 
of the w^ealth of the eastern and of the luxuries of the 
western world, and where the intellectual wealth of man- 
kind also found a common resting place and a new centre 
for its dissemination in the grand old '' mother of cities." 
The religious surroundings in which he was brought up 
were also of a cosmopolitan character representing the 
intermingling of the Zoroastrianism of the older Persian 
period of his country's history with the Greek faiths of its 
more recent nilers, and with the polytheistic nature 
worship of his Scythian ancestors, and the all-embracing 
Buddhism of his Indian neighbours. 

The principal subject upon the reverse side of the coins 
of Kadphises is the figure of the god SMva. It appears 
there for the first time in the records of the religious 
history of Indra ; but it is continuously repeated upon the 
coins of his Scythian successors. A good specimen of these 
reverses occurs on a large gold coin of this king. It has a 
bi-form androgynous standing figure of Shiva (Ardha- 
Narishvara), with his hair coiled into a pointed top-knot 
(jada), in the special fashion of this god, with a rayed 
nimbus around his head to indicate that he is the solar 
divinity, and wearing a garland of skulls suspended from 
his right shoulder, holding, moreover, a trident, Shiva's 
special w^eapon, in his right hand, with his left hand resting 
on the bull, Nandi, Shiva's constant companion, dressed 
with housings like the sapient bulls taken about down to 


the present time by the professional mendicants of the 

Kadphises was succeeded by Kanishka (Kanerki), in 
whose reign the worship of the sun underwent some 
modification. The legend on some of his reverses is 
** HeHos," the sun of the Greeks, written, like all the other 
legends of these kings in the Greek language and character : 
on others it is '* Mithro," '' Mioro,'* or '* Miiro,** the sun of 
the Persians, wearing a royal fillet on his head surrounded 
by a rayed nimbus, and clothed in Persian costume. Some 
of his coins have the legend ** Mao," the moon of the old 
Persian language, accompanied by a figure with the horns 
of the moon rising from his head and sometimes from his 
shoulders. The legend on some of his coins is ** Nanaia," 
**Nana,'* or **Nana Eao," accompanied by a female figure, 
the goddess Anaitis or Anahid of the Persians representing 
that Artemis, the twin sister of Phoebus Apollo, whose 
worship Artaxerxes Mnemon made great efforts to spread 
throughout his dominions, and in whose temple in Elymais, 
in the second book of Maccabees, king Antiochus was 
slain. Her figure has sometimes four arms ; and this is 
the earliest appearance on these pictures of a many-mem- 
bered figure to signify superhuman power : in one of her 
hands she holds a royal fillet, in another she has Shiva's 
trident, and in a third Shiva's small drum. Sometimes 
she has a fawn standing on its hind legs by her side, which 
is another of Shiva's emblems. 

Huvifthka, the successor of Kanishka, returned in the 
main to the simpler form of worship of Kadphises' Shiva ; 
although both he and his successors have the legends 
*' Mithra," ** Mao," and '* Nana " in some of their reverses. 

These Indo-Scythian kings have sometimes been de- 
scribed as zealous Buddhists. Their coins, which are the 
official and contemporaneous records of their religion, do not 
support this view. Buddhist emblems are not entirely 
absent ; but they are found on only a few small copper coins of 


Kanishka amongst the many thousands of these Scythian 
coins which have been discovered. These few are, never- 
theless, sufficient to point to the rehgious tolerance of 
these kings while they themselves continued to be staunch 
worshippers of Shiva throughout their career. 

The coins of Kadphises were minted in immonse quanti- 
ties sufficient to supply the necessities of the people for many 
generations. To this day they are met with in the bazaars 
of Northern India, and they are found buried in the earth 
throughout that part of the country. They served, there- 
fore, from the beginning as a popular medium for the propa- 
gation of the new religion amongst the masses of the 
people who used them in their daily bazaar transactions 
and familiarized them with Shiva's form and symbols. 

Shiva is U3ually represented ai th? destructive power of 
the Hindu triad; but he is in reality much more than 
that: like the sun in nature he has also nourishing, 
recuperating, and regenerating attributes : in the Shaiva 
literature he is a creator and a preserver, as well as a 
dsstroyer. Brahma, the author of the first creation, 
completed his work when he had produced the first 
generation of created things : and he then retired to rest 
until the beginning of a new dispensation. During the 
intervening time for the reproduction of each succeeding 
generation, the secondary creative attribute of procreation 
in all the spheres of nature belongs to Shiva. He is more- 
over the rival of Vishnu in his attribute of preservation to 
all who regard that god as a separate and inJ3pendent 
divinity ; for Shiva, like Apollo, is the averter of evil, as 
well as the god of destruction, the healer of diseases also, 
and the protector of all medicinal herbs : and, again, like 
Apollo, he has the special care of all flocks and herds. 

The worship of Phoebus Apollo had been cultivated in 
Sogdiana for several centuries before the time of Kadphi- 
ses : the great treasures of the Milesian Apollo, whose oracle 
was second only to that of Delphi together with the whole 


race of the priests attached to his temple, had been carried 
into Persia by Xerxes on his return from his expedition 
against Greece: and a new strong walled city, a new 
Branchide, had been founded for them midway between 
Balkh and Samarkand, which was endowed with lands and 
surrounded with sacred groves. There they were found 
by Alexander, still keeping up their old worship and home 
customs, and speaking the Greek language modified by 
the vernacular tongue. As the reputed ancestor and 
cherished patron of the Seleucid kings, the worship of 
Apollo was naturally fostered by them in these distant 
satrapies of their empire, and especially so during the 
period when Antiochus I. ruled them as a subordinate 
kingdom in the lifetime of his father (B. C. 293 to 281). 
Later on another temple of this god was established farther 
to the north amongst the Scythians beyond the Jaxartes. 
It would be no difficult thing for the hellenized nomads 
of Kadphises race to recognize in the splendid Phcebus 
Apollo thus presented to them their own old solar divinity, 
that god of their ancestors by whom the Queen of the 
MassgetaB swore her oath to Cyrus : and in the course of 
those centuries the ancient traditions of that divinity 
would readily entwine themselves around this new form 
of the god of their fathers. 

Here then we find the making of Shiva whose origin is 
nowhere distinctly made known to us in the early. Indian 
record, but who appears later on in the bi-form androgy- 
nous Brahma of Manu's code, and more clearly in the still 
later legends of the Puninas, which literally interpret the 
mysterious effigy on these Scythian coins. The glorious 
Apollo of the Milesians was transformed into the ** great 
god " (Mahadeva) of India by successive stages : first, by 
the identification of the Mithra of the old Persians with 
the Apollo of the Greaks; secondly, by his elevation to 
the supreme place in the court rehgion of the Seleucid 
kings and their semi-orientalized Bactrian successors; 


thirdly, by his acceptance as the representative of their 
own primitive sun-god by the Scythians ; to be finally 
introduced into his new home in India, destined there to 
occupy the suprem3 place in its religious firmament for 
two successive millenniums. Nor was he brought there, 
by Kadphises as a totally unknown guest ; for, in his 
simpler Greek form, Apollo had a place on the coins of 
Enthydemus, Demetrius, Eucratides, Agathocles, ApoUo- 
dotus and Hermasus down to the last years of Greek rule 
in India. 

It is quite in accordance with these facts, and is also a 
confirmation of their historical value, that legends of the 
solar worship of the early centuries of the Christian era, 
and rains of ancient temples of the sun should be found 
in various places along the track of these mighty con- 
querors from Cabul through Jalalabad and Peshawur to 
Kashmir, and from Kashmir down the course of the Ravi 
to Multan, and from Taxila in the neighbourhood of the 
great ford of the upper Indus at Attock through Umballa 
and Thanesar to Muthra (MathurA) on the Jumna, and 
still farther eastwards to Shahabad, Budda-GAya and 
Behar, and far southwards also to Somnath in Kathiawar 
and Saurishtra in the Uakhaii. 

On the other hand, the religious toleration of these kings 
is illustrated by the colossal Buddhist topes of Beghram, 
Peshawur, Taxila, and Manikyala; for their foundation 
contained caskets of Kadphises, Kanishka, Huvishka, and 
Vasudeva. In addition to these we have the invaluable 
Muthra (Mathuni) inscriptions recording gifts of temple- 
pillars and statuary to both Buddhist and Jaina buildings 
erected by disciples of those sects, containing the names of 
these same Scythian kings as the reigning kings there at 
the time when these donations were made, together with 
the dates of the donations. 

Moreover the ruins are still in existence of the immense 
memorial mound of Kanishka at Peshawur with its ac- 


companying Buddhist monastery, and also of the Buddhist 
monastery of Huvishka at Muthra, and to crown this evi- 
dence, the last general council of the Buddhists, at which 
the canon of the Buddhist sacred books was finally settled, 
was held in Kashmir under the protection of Kanishka. 

The date of these Indo-Scythian kings, and the great 
revolution effected by their invasion in the political and 
religious history of India, is ascertained by means of two 
kinds of evidence, namely, (1) from Roman coins, whose 
dates are well known ; and (2) from dated contempo- 
raneous inscriptions engraved upon ancient monuments. 

As a good example of the first class of this evidence, 
seven silver Roman coins have been found deposited in a 
memorial mound (tope, stiipa), erected by one of these 
kings at Manikyala in the Punjab, together with a few 
coins of Kadphises and many others of Kani-^hka. The 
date of these Roman coins thus deposited, after the fashion 
which has survived to the present time in laying the 
foundation stones of our public buildings, tells us the date 
of the erection of these buildings, and also the date of 
the kings whose current coins are found deposited with 
them. Three of these Roman coins are denarii of Julius 
CsBsar, Augustus, and Mark Antony. They belong there- 
fore to the last half of the century before the Christian 
era ; and the end of the period covered by these coins may 
therefore be taken as the date of Kanishka*s reign. 

The second kind of evidence referred to above is obtained 
from the dated inscriptions of these kings. An inscription 
found in the southern great tope of Manikyala states that 
it was built in the Samvat year 18, during the reign of 
Kanishka. Similarly, numerous dated inscriptions have 
been obtained from the ruins of Mathur^ referred to above, 
giving full particulars of the serial day and month, the 
season of the year, and the era-year or Samvat of the gift 
recorded in them, together with the name of the reigning 
king. The Samvat, to which these dates are to be referred, 


is most probably, perhaps certainly, the Vikrama-Samvat 
commencing in the year 57 B. C, the initial year of 
Kanishka's reign. Upon this basis the reign of the four 
earliest of these kings, as gathered from their inscriptions, 
may be arranged as follows : — 

(1) Kadphises reigned down to B. C. 57. 

(2) Kanishka reigned down to B. C. 57 to B. C. 27. 

(3) Huvishka reigned down to B. C. 27 to A. D. 13. 

(4) Vamadeva reigned down to A. D. 13 to A. D. 41. 
The excavations at Mathura have yielded Jaina and 

Buddhist statues in equally large numbers, some of them 
of colossal size, together with many richly carved raiUngs 
which usually encircle the larger memorial mounds of the 
Buddhists ; and similarly the gifts recorded in the inscrip- 
tions were made by people of both these sects. A ** splen- 
did" Buddhist monastery of king Huvis^hka has also been 
discovered amongst the ruins. Thus these monuments, 
together with the coins found with them, afford ample 
proof that the Jaina and Buddhist religions flourished in 
great vigour side by side under the patronage of these 
Scythian kings upon the western bank of the Jumna at 
the commencement of the Christian era. We have pre- 
viously found the ascetics of both these sects dwelling at 
Taxila in the north-western extremity of the Punjab three 
centuries before this period at the time of Alexander's 
invasion ; and there appears to be no reason to doubt that 
these two classes had continued to enjoy equal freedom in 
the profession of their religions throughout the inter- 
mediate period in these parts of India. 

Moreover, we may here remind ourselves that we have 
now come back to the western limits of the region where 
we left the sages of the Rig-veda perfonuing their hymned 
sacrifices to a pantheon of nature-gods not entirely dissimilar 
to the system of divinities prevailing amongst the mixed 
Bactrian and Scythian, Persian and Greek people of the land 
of the Oxus during the centuries when Kadphises' ancestors 


were moulding the Milesian Apollo into the form of that 
Shiva which he ultimately brought with him to India; and, 
before proceeding to the next stage of development, we may 
also recall the fact that Shiva was quite unknown to the 
Vedic sages. He does not enter into the Hindu mjrthology 
until a comparatively late period of the Scythian conquest. 

It is said that the Tochari can be traced by inscriptions 
down to A.D. 213 and 239; and the Chinese records 
have statements to the same effect. The prevalence of 
Buddhism is also mentioned in those records ; and several 
classical authors, such as Clemens of Alexandria, (A.D. 
180 to 230), and the Neo-Platonist Porphyry, (A.D. 270 to 
305), bring down this record to the beginning of the fourth 
century. But the Scythian ascendancy was in a condition 
of decay at that time; and by A.D. 319 the paramount 
power had passed from them into the hands of the Gupta 
kings to remain with them for the succeeding three 

The territory of the Guptas, at the time of its full ex- 
tension, was conterminous with the whole basin of the 
Ganges and its affluents. In the middle of the fifth 
century they ruled over the whole of Northern India from 
Gujerat to the Gangetic delta; and for at least some 
portion of their period the petty kings of the Nerbudda 
region were tributary to them. The capital of this great 
empire was still the old Patna (Pataliputra) of Gautama 
Buddha's days. 

Buddhism maintained its ground to a considerable extent 
during the whole of the Gupta period, but not without 
various vicissitudes. At least three of the Guptas sup- 
ported the orthodox Vedic religion of the Brahmins, and 
offered great sacrifices to the old gods Indra, Varuna, and 
Yama ; and two of them were worshippers of the more recent 
divinities, Krishna and Vi&hnu. Under one of them Bud- 
dhism suffered grievous persecution ; and another of them 
was a successful student of the secret and incommunicable 


** wisdom of the Tantras." It was during this period that 
Buddhism was introduced into Nepal and Tibet ; but it 
was laden with the Tantrika ritual and the gross sensual 
form of the worship of Shiva and his consort which have 
remained engrafted on it to the present day. 

The Shiva brought to India by Kadphises was an 
androgynous divinity formed by the unification of the 
Phoebus Apollo introduced into Bactria by Xerxes with 
his twin-sister Artemis (Nanaia) introduced by Artaxerxes. 
On the reverses of Kanishka's coins the bi-form figure has 
disappeared ; a bisection of its two halves has taken place, 
and each of them appears there as a separate divinity, 
sometimes standing, sometimes sitting, but each of them, 
in some instances, with four anns, bearing the usual em- 
blems of Shiva, to indicate their superhuman power, and 
both with a nimbus around their heads to indicate that 
they are forms of the solar divinity ; or, rather, forms of 
the sun and his female complement, or Shakti, who bears 
a cornucopia in his hand to indicate that she is the earth- 
goddess, the nourisher of all living beings, the many-breast- 
ed Diana of the F'iphesians; and having the title of 
" Ardokro" (Arddharka), *' the half-sun" to show that she 
has sprung from her husband's side. The same legend is 
repeated in the Puranas with several variations of its 
details, in one of which, the Vishiiu Purana, this bi-fold 
god is distinctly named ** Rudra, radiant as the noon-tide 
sun, fierce and of vast bulk/' 

Hitherto no female divinity has been particularly promi- 
nent upon these coins ; but in the Gupta period a great 
change came over the religious ideas of Northern India ; 
for the principal feature of the Gupta coins is the absence 
of male divinities from their reverses. The male side of the 
bi-form Shiva of Kadphises has disappeared, and its female 
side now stands alone. There are several symbols on these 
reverses which show plainly who this female divinity is. 
On some of them her head is encircled with the nimbus of 


the solar divinity, on others, she bears Shiva's trident in 
her hand : on some of them she feeds a peacock, the 
vehicle of Skanda, the son of Shiva ; and in others, she is 
mounted on the peacock ; in many of them, she carries the 
cornucopia of the earth-goddess in her left hand, and 
holds out a royal fillet in her right hand. There is also 
another very distinct mark, for some of these coins repre- 
sent her riding on a lion, which is the special vehicle of 
Durga, the fierce consort of the still fiercer Shiva, and, 
to complete her identification, she sometimes sits on the 
high-backed chair of Nanaia as in the Kanishka coins, 
which does not appear in any other connection in these 
Indian mintages. 

Much valuable information regarding the state of 
religion in Northern India at this period is obtained from 
the record of the travels of a Chinese pilgrim, Fa Hian, 
who came on purpose to visit the sacred places connected 
with the life of Buddha, and to collect Buddhist books to 
take back with him to China. He left China in A.D. 399, 
and returned there in A.D. 415. He visited old Patna 
(Pataliputra) in the early part of the reign of Chandra- 
gupta-Vikramaditya, who was a munificent patron of the 
Buddhists, and, at the same time, a believer in the spiritual 
power of the Jaina divinities. All religious sects appear 
to have been treated with full toleration along the route 
by which he travelled ; but the Buddhists greatly exceed- 
ed the other sects in point of numbers at that time. 
The annual festival of Buddha was celebrated at Patna 
with great pomp, while he (Fa Hian) was in that city. 
He specially mentions that the '* Brahmans came to visit 
Buddha (Foe) on these occasions," and that the whole 
population of the city, and of the surrounding country, 
and *' from all the provinces" joined in the festivities. 
From Patna he continued his journey down to the mouth 
of the Ganges, where he took ship and passed on to 


About two centuries later another Chinese, Hwen- 
Thsang, paid India a similar visit, and extended his tour 
to Southern India. He left China in A.D. 629 and 
returned in 645. He came to India by the Tashkand, 
Samarkand, Balkh and Bamian route, and returned thither 
by way of Ghazni and the Helmand crossing the Hindu- 
Kush,* by the Khawak Pass above Kunduz,t and through 
Badakshan across the Pamirs to Kashgar. 

His route in Northern India extended from the neigh- 
bourhood of Kabul down to Atrek on the Indus and across 
the Punjab through Jalandhara to Muttra (Mathura) on 
the Jumna, where he foimd Buddhism to be the prepon- 
derating religion. There were also a few temples of 
various Hindu gods flourishing in its midst. At Thanesar, 
a hundred miles to the north of Muttra, the reUgious 
condition of the people was reversed; there were only 
three Buddhist establishments there, while there were 
** some hundred ** temples of the Hindu gods, and sectaries 
of various kinds in great number. Farther east, across 
the Ganges, he found the temples of the gods in consi- 
derable numbers; but the Buddhist estabhshments out- 
numbered them. At Kanouj (Kanya Kubja) he found a 
Bajput King reigning, who had obtained a throne by 
election. This was ShilMitya-Shri Harshavardhana, the 
conqueror of the five Indies. J He was a great patron of 
Sanskrit literature, and promoted religion in all its forms. 
For the Buddhists, he erected very many memorial-mounds 
(stupas) and settled numerous Buddhist establishments 
along the course of the Ganges ; and (in the interest of the 
Jainas) he forbade the slaughter of animals for food through- 
out his empire. He also fed large numbers of people of all 
religions daily at his palace. Moreover, there was a great 
temple of the Sun§ at Kanouj at this time, and not far from 

• Beal'R Buddhist Records^ Introd., p. xix. 

f Ward's Oxus p. 274. 

I A. D. 610 to 660, by Max Muller, but A, D 606 or 607, by BendaU, 

J lijal 1, p. 223. 


it there was a temple of Shiva, both of them elegantly built 
and adorned with rich sculptures. There was also a large 
Buddhist monastery, two hundred feet high, in the close 
neighbourhood of these temples, in which there was a 
colossal bronze statue of Buddha, thirty feet high, decorated 
with costly gems, and its four walls were sculptured with 
pictures of the various incidents of Buddha's life. 

At Oudh (Ayodhyd), the old home of R6ma, the hero of 
the Ramayana epic and of the solar race of kings, he 
found one hundred Buddhist establishments and ten tem- 
ples of the gods of the Brahmins. At Allahabad (Pray ' ga) , 
however, the ancient capital of Vikrama, the hero of 
Kalidasa's drama ** Vikramorvashi," and the lunar race of 
kings, on the other hand, there were only two small 
Buddhist establishments with several Brahminical temples, 
one of which was beautifully ornamented and has become 
famous for its many miracles and as a popular place for 
the self-immolation of its worshippers practised there from 
very ancient times. ** The undecaying banyan tree " of 
this temple is still an object of worship at Allahabad.* 
At Kausambi, another ancient place on the Jumna (the 
scene of B;ina*s drama, the Eatnivali), Hwen-Thsang 
found the ten old Buddhist establishments deserted and 
in ruins, while there were fifty Brahminical temples 
there, the number of whose votaries was ** enormous. '* 
In an old palace in this place there was a large Buddhist 
chapel which had a sandal- wood statue of Buddha under 
a stone canopy. 

Salem, Thos. Foulkes. 

24:th JantLary 1900. 

• Beal 1, p. 282. 


The Dravidian or Carnatic style comprises nine-tenths 
of the architectural objects in the whole of peninsular 
India, though it is actually confined for the most part to a 
small angle of it in the south. The style shows the ancient 
inhabitants of the south to have been one of the chief 
building races of the world. The Dravidians are 
constructive as the Aryans are literary. The typical 
Dravidian style consists of a square base ornamented with 
pilasters externally and containing the cell in which the 
image or emblem of the deity is placed. Above this rises 
a pyramid the general outline of which is straight-lined, 
but always divided into storeys; in small temples [coil, 
pagoda] generally three, but frequently, as in the great 
pagoda at Tanjore, into as many as fourteen storeys. 
Upwards the building terminates in a small dome of 
polygonal or circular shape. The second feature belonging 
to Dravidian temples consists in the great gateways, or 
gopoorams which are frequently more important in 
size than the vimaunams or pyramids themselves. 
They form the entrance through the large circumvallating 
wall [praucauram] . Their outline and general design is 
the same as that of the temples, except that in plan they 
are generally twice as wide as they are deep, and are always 
crowned by an oblong roof instead of a circular dome 
[goombaz]. In the Dravidian style again the temple 
almost invariably includes, beside the vimaunam or 
towered shrine and the gopooram or gateway, the 
mantapam or porch leading to the shrine ; the choultry 
or pillared hall ; numerous other buildings ; elegant stamb- 
hams or pillars bearing the images or flags [dhwajam] 


of the gods, or numberless lamps all connected with the 
temple worship and service [poojah] ; tanks and gardens 
and avenues [shaulay] of palms [taur] and sacred trees 
[poonyoshadhy] ; all within the temple enclosure. The 
Dravidian form of design has apparently arisen from a form 
of building in receding terraces which prevailed in earlier 
times, though existing only in wood. In such early forms 
it is to be concluded that the basement was probably a 
pillared hall like those of Buddhist [booddha] monasteries 
[vihauram] found in Burmah at the present day. Above 
this was apparently a smaller hall, with detached cells in 
the edge of the platform on which it stood ; though whether 
these were chapels, or sleeping apartments, or cooking 
rooms, cannot now be determined. In the oldest buildings 
belonging to the style, the cells are still observable 
detached from the vimaunam and used as chapels. Later 
the cells are only semi-detached, and afterwards they 
become mere ornaments of the pyramid. Another feature 
by which this style is to be recognized is the double curve 
of the cornices. In all other Indian styles the cornice is 
straight-lined and sloping downwards to throw oflf the wet. 
In the Dravidian style they are universally formed with a 
double curv^ature. In connection with this style, it is 
necessary to point out that no Dravidian architect uses the 
arch as part of his art. According to a Tamil proverb, an 
arch never sleeps. An arch in fact contains in its principle 
an active force, always tending to thrust outwards. A 
pillar supporting a beam is on the contrary in stable 
equilibrium ; and the Tamulians prefer it, though its use 
frequently limits their interiors to an undesirable extent. 
When they find it necessary to cover larger spaces than 
can be done by single stones, they bracket out one stone 
beyond another, as was done in ancient Etruria and Greece, 
till the stones approach near enough to be covered by one 
stone. The special exhibition of Dravidian architecture 
known as the south-east style arose under the Chola 

or Tanjore king in the eleventh century A.D., when nearly 
all the great temples to Shiva in Southern India were built, 
and it continued in use in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, during which time the great temples to Vishnoo 
were erected. Up to the beginning of the sixteenth 
century these temples remained almost unchanged ; but at 
that time all Southern India became subject to the kings 
of Vijayanagar, and Krishnaroya, A.D. 1509 — 30, rebuilt 
or added to most of the great buildings of the south. The 
chief feature of the architecture of this later period is the 
construction of the enormous gopoorams which are 
so conspicuous at Conjeeveram, Chidambaram, and Shree- 
rungam. All these were built by Krishnaroya, they do not 
form part of the original south-east style, but were intended 
as fortifications to protect the shrines from foreign invaders. 
The following may be taken as a descriptive catalogue of 
the chief present South Indian specimens of Dravidian 
architecture. — (i) First, the Dravidian rock-cut temples 
at Mahavallipore [seven pagodas] ; (ii) Secondly, Dravidian 
temples of the ordinary description. Those at Chidam- 
baram, Kumbakonam, Conjeeveram, Madura, Peroor, 
Bameshwaram, Srirungam, Tanjore, Tinnevelly, Tri- 
vellore, and Vijayanagar may be taken as typical. The 
temple at Chidambaram is one of the most venerated, and 
has also the reputation of being one of the most ancient 
temples in Southern India. This temple has been aggregated 
at different ages. At Kumbakonam there is a fine 
gopooram. The two towns. Great and Small Conjee- 
veram, possess groups of temples as picturesque and 
nearly as vast as any to be found elsewhere. The great 
temple at the first-named place possesses some remarkable 
gopoorams. At Madura the most important of Tirumala 
Nayakka's original buildings is the celebrated choultry 
which he built for the reception of the presiding deity of 
the place. The great temple at Madura is, however, a 
larger and far more important building than the choultry, 


and it also owes all its magnificence to Tirumala Nayakka. 
Although the temple at Peroor, near Coimbatore, can only 
rank among the second class as regards size, it possesses 
a portico of extreme interest to architectural history. Of 
Bameshwaram it may be said that in no other temple has 
the same amount of patient industry been exhibited. It 
was begun and finished on a previously settled plan, as 
regularly and as undeviatingly carried out as that at 
Tanjore, but on a principle diametrically opposed to it. 
It is double the dimensions of Tanjore and has ten times 
its elaboration. The chief ornament of this temple resides 
in its corridors. Srirungam is certainly the largest, and, 
of its principle of design could be reverse would be one of 
the finest temples in the south of India. Here the central 
enclosure is quite as insignificant as that at Trivellore. 
Tanjore has a very celebrated temple. In nine cases 
out of ten, Dravidian temples are a fortuitous aggregation 
of parts, arranged without plan, as accident dictated 
at the time of their erection. The principal exception 
to this rule is to be found at Tanjore. The great 
pagoda there was commenced on a well-defined plan, 
which was persevered in till its completion. One of the 
peculiarities of the Tanjore temple is that all the sculp- 
tures of the gopoorams belong to the religion of Vishnu, 
while everything in the courtyard is dedicated to the 
worship of Shiva. Tinnevelly temple also has the advantage 
of having been built on one plan, and at one time without 
subsequent alteration or change. The great thousand- 
pillared portico in the temple is well known. Trivellore is 
about 30 miles west of Madras. The nucleus was a small 
village temple drawn to the same scale as the plan of 
Tanjore. It, however, at some subsequent period, became 
enriched and a second or outer court was added. Additions 
were again made at some subsequent date. The buildings 
mentioned in the above catalogue are in number rather 
more than one-third of the great Dravidian temples known 


to exist in the Presidency. Of the remainder, none 
have vimaunams like that of Tanjore, nor corridors 
[praucauram] hke those of Kameshwaram ; but several 
have gopoorams quite equal to or exceeding those 
mentioned above and many have mantapams of great 
beauty and extent. Several, such as Avadaiyarkovil, 
Tam'amungalani, Virinjipooram, and others, possess 
features unsurpassed by any in the south, especially the 
first-named, which may, perhaps, be considered as one of 
the most elegant of its class as well as one of the oldest, 
(iii) Thirdly, Forts. Among the most remarkable of 
these are those of Dindigul, Ginjee, Oodayagherry, Palam- 
cottah, Penucondah, Seringapatam, Trichinopoly, and 
Vellore ; with the droogs or hill forts in the Bara- 
mahaul, Mysore, Canara, &c. Many of these are very 
ancient. The works of Ginjee are specially interesting 
[aursham, chauvady, coil, dewal, droog, goody, gopooram, 
mantapam, pagoda, rath, stambham, vimaunam]. — *' // " 
Chalukyan architecture is easily distinguished from either 
the Dravidian or the North Indian. In plan the temples 
are generally star-shaped and of sixteen sides. The typical 
characteristic is that four of these sides are flat and form 
the principal faces, and between each of these are three 
facets arranged angularly. The same principle pervades 
the design of the spire, which is always rectilinear in out- 
line, and generally made up of miniature repetitions of 
itself heaped one over the other. The peculiarity, how- 
ever, which is more characteristic of the style than the 
outline of its form, is the great richness and beauty of the 
details with which the buildings are elaborated. The most 
celebrated temples are those at Halabidu in Mysore. 




The South Indian Railway is a metre (3'-3f") gauge, 

single-track system comprising with 

„ -*-. „ ^ worked lines a total length of 1,121 

S. I. Ry. System. . . 

miles. The main line runs from the 
Beach at Madras to Tuticorin, a distance of 446 miles, 
serving the important towns of Chingleput, Cuddalore, Ma- 
yavaram, Kumbakonam, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Dindigul 
and Madura. From Chingleput, 34j miles from Madras, 
Egmore, a branch line, 39 miles in length, and which 
passes through the historic city of Conjeeveram, con- 
nects the main line with the Madras Railway at Arkonam. 
From Villupuram, 98J miles from Egmore, connection 
is made with the French Town of Pondicherry, 24 miles 
distant. Another line, 223J miles in length, leaves at this 
Junction, and crossing the Madras Railway at Katpadi and 
Renigunta Junctions, meets the East Coast Railway at 
Gudur. At Pakala Junction on this branch, a line 142 miles 
long, forms a connection with the Southern Mahratta 
Railway at Dharmavaram. At Mayavaram, 174 miles from 
Egmore, a branch railway, 54 miles in length, takes off for 
Mutupet. From Peralam on the Mayavaram-Mutupet 
Railway, a short line of 15 miles gives railway facilities 
to the French port of Karaikkal. Tanjore, 217^ miles from 
Egmore, is the junction with a 48-mile branch to the 
large port of Negapatam ; and from Trichinopoly 248J 
miles from Egmore, a line 88 Diiles in length, gives another 
connection with the Madras Railway at Erode. At 


Maniyachi Junction, a branch, 19 miles in length, serves 
Tinnevelly and Palamcottah, through which latter town 
passes the road to Trevandram, the capital of Travancore 
State. A railway, some 100 miles in length, which will 
form a portion of the express route between India and 
Ceylon, is about to be made from Madura to the main- 
land coast at Palks Straits; and another extension, 
slightly longer, is to be made from Tinnevelly to Quilon 
on the West Coast. It is also probable that the Maya- 
varam-Mutupet Kailway will be continued to Avadayar- 

The South Indian Kailway system has developed from 

the amalgamation and extension of two 

History of the -^^ ^^ ^j^^ -Great Southern of 

8. 1. Ry. ^ 

India" connecting Negapatam and 

Erode, and the ** Indian Tramway " extending from Con- 
jeevaram to Arkonam. The former of these railways was 
commenced in May 1859 and was completed on the 5 '-6" 
gauge in December 1867, the latter a 3 '-6" gauge line was 
begun in March 1864 and was completed in May 1865, 
its name being subsequently changed to the *' Camatic 
Eailway." Later on, the Great Southern of India Kailway 
Company wa^ entrusted with the construction on the 
metre gauge, of a line from the Coleroon river to Tan j ore 
and from Trichinopoly to Tuticorin and Tinnevelly, while 
the Carnatic Railway Company undertook the making of 
a line on this gauge from the Coleroon to Madras. On 
July 1st, 1874, the two Companies were amalgamated 
under the name of the South Indian Kailway Company 
and this was followed by the conversion of their respective 
lines to the metre gauge. The extensions from Trichino- 
poly to Tuticorin and Tinnevelly, and from Tanjore to 
Madras were opened in January 1876 and July 1879 
respectively. In December 1879 a branch line from 
Villupm'am to the French frontier on the Gingee river 
was opened in connection with a line constructed by 


the French Government between the frontier and Pondi- 
cherry, and in January 1881 the old Tramway Company's 
line was connected at Chingleput with the rest of the 
system. The remaining lengths of the South Indian 
Kailway woro opened on the following dates : — 

Timpati to Nellore ... September 1887. 

Villupuram to Tirupati ... March 1891. 
Pakala to Dharmavaram ... March 1892. 

In April 1894 the Mayavaram-Mutupet Kailway, which 
is the property of the Tanjore District Board, was opened 
for traffic and handed over for working to the South 
Indian Railway Company. 

The extensions from Villupuram to Nellore and Dhar- 
mavaram were made for the protection against famine 
of certain districts which suffered severely in 1876-78. 
The construction of the Mayavaram-Mutupet Eailway, 
which traverses the Cauvery delta, is due to the enterprise 
of the Tanjore District Board. This corporation for years 
past has levied a special land cess for the provision of 
such railways as are required for the development of the 
district, and funds are now sufficient to enable further 
extensions to be undertaken. On the 1st January 1891 the 
South Indian Railway was purchased by the Secretary of 
State, and together with the Villupuram-Dharmavaram 
and Pakala Nellore branches was handed over to the present 
South Indian Railway Company for working, which Com- 
pany, in addition to these lines, and the Mayavaram- 
Mutupet Railway, also works the French lines from 
the Gingee river to Pondicherry and from Peralam to 
Karaikkal. On 1st November 1898, the section between 
Nellore and Gudur was transferred to the East Coast 
Railway after conversion to the standard 5' -6'' gauge. 

With the exception of the length between Vellore and 

General descrip- Dharmavaram, the whole of the South 
tionofcountFy tra- Indian Railway system lies between 
Yemd. ^j^^ gg^y ^f Bengal and the Eastern 


Gh4ts, a mountain range averaging 1,500 feet in elevation 
and forming in the South the Eastern scarp of the 
Mysore plateau. The general scenery in the neighbour- 
hood of the coast is flat and somewhat monotonous ; but 
inland, particularly in the proximity of the gh&ts, the 
country becomes undulating and in places even moun- 
tainous. Between Madras and Trichinopoly, the line 
traverses alternating stretches of paddy (rice) fields, dry 
cultivation, and scrub jungle, the country, on the whole, 
being decidedly fertile. The landscape is occasionally 
diversified by low hills, sometimes in the form of 
solitary peaks of crystalline rock, and sometimes as 
continuous ranges, the former class of eminence being 
often crowned by a Hindu Temple, or by the remains of 
an ancient fort. Numerous tanks are also met with, 
which, before they have dried up under the demands of 
irrigation, form, with their fringes of palmyra and cocoa- 
nut palms, a prominent feature in the South Indian land- 
scape. When the tanks are exhausted, or in places where 
none exist, the ryots (agriculturists) may often be seen 
raising water from wells and channels with the assistance 
of bullocks, or by means of the picottah. This appliance 
consists of a balanced lever, suspended several feet from 
the ground on stout posts, and which is actuated by one 
or more men who, by moving along the beam, cause it 
to swing and thus raise or lower a bucket suspended 
from one end. From Porto Novo to Tanjore, Tanjore to 
Negapatam, and Mayavaram to Mutupet, it will be noticed 
that the country for miles is one enormous flat of paddy, 
the level being only broken by clumps of cocoanut or 
other fruit trees interspersed among the rice-fields. This 
area is known as the Cauvery delta, and is a large and 
extremely fertile alluvial plain falling gently towards the 
sea, and irrigated from artificial channels fed by the con- 
trolled waters of the river. So successfully is the water 
distributed that the Cauvery which, at Trichinopoly, is 


about half a mile wide is crossed at Mayavaram by the 
railway on a bridge of three spans of twenty feet. 

At Ayyalur, 291 miles from Madras, the main line 
reaches its highest elevation (1,090 feet above sea level) 
in passing over the Sem MuUai hills. For several miles, 
on either side of the summit, the scenery is charming, 
particularly in the morning and evening, when the varying 
lights on the wooded hills are very beautiful. From here 
southwards the curious umbrella tree, so called from 
the mushroom-like growth of its foliage, is of frequent 
occurrence. After passing Madura the railway enters a 
district where large plains of black cotton soil or regar 
are met with. This is a fine, dark, highly argillaceous 
and adhesive soil which was probably at one time covered 
with luxuriant forest. The fertility of black cotton soil is 
generally very remarkable, and it is said that, in some 
districts, it has produced crops for 2000 years without 
manure, irrigation, or periods of fallow. 

The branch line, which runs from Trichinopoly to 
Erode, passes for some 50 miles through extremely fertile 
country in*igated by the Cauvery ; but, after traversing 
this tract, continues in a barren region for the remaining 
87 miles of its length. The section of the railway, which 
ascends the Mysore plateau towards Dharmavaram, passes 
through picturesque but, on the whole, unfertile country. 
The scenery is, in many places grand, weird-shaped rocks 
and weathered boulders being piled up on every side in 
wild confusion, sometimes simulating fantastic forms, 
and sometimes threatening in their apparent instability, 
to crash down the hill-sides on the least disturbance of 
their tottering equilibrium. 

As is naturally to be expected in the case of a railway, a 

long mileage of which crosses the drain- 
flood**^*"*^ *"** ^^® ^^ ^^^ country near its outflow into 

the sea, many and large bridges are 
necessary to protect the line against flood damage. The 


extent of waterway originally provided was very insufficient ; 
but, as this defect became apparent, the deficiency was 
remedied until it is now hoped that the line is safe from 
any but phenomenal floods. As an example of the severity 
of the inundations which have occurred, it may be men- 
tioned that in November and December 1884 the railway 
was breached for an aggregate length of five miles and 
several large bridges were wrecked. The force of the floods 
was so great that six of the girders of a bridge of seven 
spans of 150 feet were broken up, and that a forty feet 
girder was found in the bed of a river about half a mile 
below the site of the bridge to which it belonged. 

The mileage of the railway is measured from Egmore 

and is shown on the telegraph poles 

. !!u**™n''' !*"**" alongside the line. To identify mile- 
ing the mUeage* 

ages of the same value the number-plates 

on the branches bear a distinguishing letter. Thus ^ji 

denotes the Villupuram-Dhannavaram branch, and the 

fourteenth telegraph post in mile 210 from Egmore. On 

the main line no distinguishing letter is shown on the 


Southern India should be visited, if possible, during Novem- 
ber, December, January and Fobruaiy, 

atare'and^ra^anr ^vhich are the coolest and pleasantest 

months in the year. During this period, 
the mean temperature below the GhHts varies from 69" to 79", 
with a daily range of about 20". May is the hottest month, the 
thermometer occasionally registering as much as 110" in the 
shade and 170" in the sun. The greatest rainfall on the Eastern 
Coast of the Madras Presidency occurs during October and 
November. The total annual fall varies greatly in different 
places ; but an average of 35 inches is probably near the mark. 
The higher temperatures of the land over the sea surfaces 
during the day and the converse during the night produce 
the daily sea and land breezes, which, except during the full 
force of the monsoon, are gratefully felt on the Coromandel 
The monsoons are properly the periodic winds which blow 

from the South -West from April to October, 

and from the North-East from about the 

middle of October to the end of February. The monsoons 
especially the North-East, are frequently ushered in by heavy 
gales, occasionally cyclonic, and produce the seasonable rain 
fall popularly known as the South-West and North-East mon- 
soons. The elevation of the Western GhAts is sufficient to 
deprive the South-West monsoon of most of its vapour, so that 
it produces but little rain on the Eastern side of these moun- 
tains. This monsoon produces the periodical rains with such 
unfailing certainty that agricultural distress, as the result of a 
bad season, is unknown. A similar condition, unfortunately, 
does not obtain with the North-East monsoon on which the 
greater portion of the Presidency is dependent for its rainfall 



The irregularity of its rainfall has forced cultivators to guard 
against deficiency by the construction of tanks, and has induced 
Government to undertake its large schemes of canal and river 

Though the Carnatic may be said to enjoy an equable 

climate, the temperature must be considered 
as varying between hot and hotter. The 
clothing required by travellers is therefore light ; but, at the 
same time, it is not advisable to adopt the extreme course of 
wearing such thin clothes that the body is insufficiently protect- 
ed against the sun, or the difference between day and night 
temperatures. Light English siunmer clothes can generally be 
worn with comfort during the cold weather on the plains in 
Southern India, and there is no necessity to incur the expense 
of a special Indian outfit. Warm clothes are necessary on the 
hills, and, during the cold weather, in Northern India, where 
it should be remembered that a sudden fall in temperature 
occurs soon after sun down. Warm clothes should be easily 
accessible, so that they can be worn directly a feeling of cold 
is felt. When within the tropics, it is well to treat the sun with 
respect, and, in addition to the proper protection of the head, 
care should be taken that the spine is not exposed to the 
prolonged action of the sun through an insufficient thickness of 
clothes. A pad, four inches wide buttoning to the inside of 
the coat from the collar to the small of the back, will afford the 
necessary protection without inconvenience to the wearer. A 
kummarband, or w^oollen waist belt, should be worn at night, 
especially when travelling. Sun-hats are, of course, a necessity 
for all Europeans, and can be purchased either in England or 
India. The most convenient pattern for men is that known as 
the Shikar hat, its one fault being its weight. Clothes of all 
descriptions can be procured in the largest towns as Madras, 
Bangalore and Secunderabad ; and in most towns of any size 
there are native tailors who can make-up shooting, riding, and 
travelling clothes sufficiently well for wear in the country. 
Travellers will find it very essential to take bedding with 

them everywhere in India. A waterproof 
valise containing a couple of blankets, a 


razai or padded quilt, a pair of sheets and having a pocket to 
hold two pillows and sleeping clothes will be found the most 
convenient arrangement for railway travelling. It is also 
advisable to take a small tiliin or luncheon basket in the train, 
although it is not absolutely necessary when travelling on the 
main line of the South Indian Eailwav, where refreshment 
rooms are numerous, and ice and aerated waters are procurable 
on the day mail trains. 

Messrs. Thomas Cook & Son and Messrs. Henry Gaze & Sons, 

under agreement with the South Indian 

Toarist coupons. ^ ., ^ n ^ j j 

Hallway Company, issue first and second- 
class single journey coupons available for two months and return 
journey coupons available for six months to tourists visiting 
India, and third-class coupons for servants accompanying them 
to and from stations on this railway. These coupons are 
treated, in every respect, as ordinary paper tickets. Each 
coupon must bear the perforated stamp of Messrs. Thomas 
Cook & Son, or Messrs. Henry Gaze & Sons, as the case may be. 

The holders of these coupons are allowed to break journey 
at any station within the distance for which the coupons are 
available, provided the line is not travelled over more than 
once in the same direction, and the period allowed free for 
the journey is not exceeded. 

The ordinary rules as to luggage apply in all respects to 
the holders of these coupons. Any luggage in excess of the free 
allowance should be paid for by the holders of the coupons 
on the spot, before the journey compiences, at the ordinary- 
rates for excess luggage. 

Passengers can be booked at intermediate stations only on 

condition that there shall be room in the 
BeSero ^ ^**" ^^*"^ ^^^ class of carriages for which their 

tickets shall have been issued. To insure 
being booked, passengers should be at the station at least thirty 

minutes before the time mentioned in the tables. The door of 
the Booking office will be closed five minutes before the train is 
expected at the station. Passengers cannot be re-booked at 
roadside stations to proceed by the train in which they have 


Tlie scale of fares for passengers is as follows : — 

Bate Minimum 
per mile. charge. 
Bs. a. p. Ks. a. p. 
For a tirst-class passenger ... ... 10 030 

For a second-class do. ... ... 006 016 

For a third-class do. 2 6 

Children under three years of age travel free ; above that 
and under twelve years of age are charged half -fare. 

Fractions of miles and of annas are calculated as whole 

First and second-class passengers are advised not to keep 

^ , „ . their servants' tickets with them. The 

Servants' Tickets. 

tickets should be given to their seiTants, 

so that they may produce them when called upon to do so. 

The following charges will be made for servants travelling 
in the servants' compartments in addition to the ordinary 
third-class fare : — 

For distances from 15 to 25 miles inclusive ... 1 anna. 
,, ,, 25 to 50 ,, ,, ... 2 annas. 

„ above 50 ,, ... 4 ,, 

These tickets will not be issued for distances under 16 miles. 

Children are not allowed in these compartments. 

The tickets given to passengers on payment of their fares, 

will be required to be produced to the 
Company's servants or given up to them 
whenever demanded. Passengers unable or refusing to pro- 
duce their tickets are liable to be charged the fare from the 
most distant station whence the train started. The tickets are 
not transferable, are only available for the station named 
thereon, and can only be used on the day or for the journey 

Tickets which have been torn or mutilated, particularly when 
the date or progressive number is off, will not be recognised 
and the holder will be charged the full fare. 

A person to whom a ticket has been issued, and for whom 
there is not room available in the train for which the ticket 
was issued, shall, on returning tlie ticket within three liours 


after the departure of the train, be entitled to have his fare 
at once refunded. 

Passengers who have purchased tickets and are unable to 
travel in consequence of their own private business or fault, 
should report the matter at once to the Station Master, get the 
tickets endorsed to the effect that they did not travel and apply 
to the Traffic Manager who will, if the circumstances of the 
case are of an exceptional nature, allow a refund of the amount 
paid for the anmed ticket ^ less a commission of 10 per cent. 

No return of any portion of the fare will be allowed on 
tickets used for part of a journey, except in cases where pas- 
sengers cannot complete their journey, owing to accidents to 
trains or to any other default of the Company. 

Passengers are requested to examine their tickets before 

leaving the Booking Office counter, as 
Examining tickets . . , x- i 4. 11x1. 

d chantfe mistakes in tickets or money will not be 

afterwards recognised. 
It must be distinctly understood that the Railway Company 

reserves the right to correct any charges 
Ctorrection of ^^^^ ^^^y have been incorrectly entered 

chapges. ., . a- 1 i. 

m railway receipts or tickets. 

Notice of intention to prefer a claim for loss of, or damage 

to, luggage or parcels must be given in 

writing to the Station Master previous to 

removal from the railway premises, and a written statement 

of the nature of the damage received or of the articles missing 

should be sent to the Traffic Manager, Trichinopoly, without 


Holders of single tickets for distances over 100 miles will be 

allowed one day extra for every additional 
Break of Jour- ^qq ^^.j^g ^^ ^^ ^j ^^ ^^-j^g -^^ ^^^ 


through distance, to enable them to break 

their journey if they wish to do so at any place along the route 
at which the train stops. Holders of single tickets betw^een 
stations less than 100 miles apart will be allowed to halt at 
one or more stations on the route, provided they reach the 
place of destination writhin 24 hours from the time the ticket 
was issued. This break of journey can be made at one or 


more places along the route for one or more days at each 
provided the time of an-ival at destination, reckoned at one 
day for ever}* one hundred miles, from the place of starting to 
the place of destination, is not exceeded; but it will be incajn- 
bent upon passengers breakuiy their journey immediately they 
alight, to have their tickets endorsed on the back at the halting 
station to the effect that they broke their journey at that 
station. Each ticket so endorsed must bear the Station Master's 
signature and date, failing which passengers will be liable 
to be charged excess fare at destination for travelling on 
an out-of-date ticket. 

Passengers will not be allowed to travel in superior class of 
carriage when the accommodation for which they hold tickets 
is fully occupied, unless the difference in fare is paid. 

Passengers may either travel by the train following or the 
value of the ticket will be refunded if application be made. 

Passengers wishing to exchange their tickets at a starting 
station for a superior class of carriage should return the ticket 
they originally purchased to the Booking clerk, who is author- 
ized to issue a ticket for the higher class collecting only 
the difference of fare. 

Passengers wishing to change to a superior class of carriage 
at an intermediate station, either for a part or the remainder 
of the journey, can do so with the permission of the Station 
Master, who will advise the Guard of the train to give the 
required information at the end of the journey. When pas- 
sengers so travel, the difference of fare only should be collected 
and no excess penalty charged. 

Any passenger who unintentionally travels beyond the 

distance for which he has paid fare, will be 

, , . » , . *" allowed to return to the station to which he 
yond deBtination. i. . i 

was booked, on payment of a smgle fare 

for the distance over-ridden provided he returns by the next 
passenger train. 
As a matter of convenience, guards in charge of night passen- 
ger and mixed trains have been instructed 

Waiung pasten- ^ awake first and second class passengers 
gen at night. r 

at any station, on request of passengers to 


do so. It must be undei'stood, however, that tlie Company 
accepts no responsibility in the matter. 

In all cases of excess being paid, an exce s ticket should be 

obtained from the Station Master, and 
ticketo! ^"^ passengers are requested to satisfy them- 

selves that the excess ticket specifies the 
amount paid. 
Passengers who allege they have h,Ht or tfiislaid their 
tickets and apply for a return of their fares, are requested 
to take notice that the Company do not liold themselves hahle 
to make any return to passengers who, from neglect or any 
cause, fail to produce their tickets. 

Each dog must be provided with a muzzle and collar, or 

chain, or the dog must be properly secured 
Dogs for despatch in a strong basket or crate. A full and 

legible address must be tendered wuth each 
owners accompany- ^ 

ing them. consignment. Dogs are conveyed in special 

compartments provided for the purpose. 

The charge for dogs in dog boxes or brake-vans rs. a. p. 

is for each dog for everv 50 
Rate for dogs. , ^^ .*, ^ , ^ 

miles or any part of 50 miles .. 4 

The charge for dogs in passenger carriages is 
for each dog for every 50 miles or any part of 
50 miles ... 080 

Food for dogs whilst on rail should be provided by the owner. 

Water will be obtained for them from the 
Food and water. ^ , ^ • . . x- i 

Company s w^ater carriers at station where 

there is sufficient time. 

No passenger is allowed to take any dog into a passenger 

carriage (unless the owner of the dog has 
ogs n P* " reserved a carriage or compartment) except 

with the consent of the Station Master at the 
starting station, and also with the concurrence of fellow-pas- 
sengers. Dogs so carried will be charged at double the dog 
rate for each animal. The acceptance of a dog at the double 
rate for conveyance with the ow^ner at the starting station is 
subject to the condition that the dog shall be revtoved if 
suhseqiienilif objected to, no refund being given. 


Gats, monkeys, (fee, also birds, accompanjanpf passengers 

Live AnimaU ^^^ ^^^ *^ ^® considered as luggage, but 

must be separately charged for. 
The following are charged at the dog rates : — 

(a) Puppies, cats, kittens, mongooses, ferrets, rabbits, 
monkeys, guinea-pigs, and other small ammals not 
in cages separately for each animal. 
(h) Live turkeys, geese, ducks, and other poultry, if not in 
baskets, hampers or coops, separately for each bird. 
Puppies, cats, kittens, mongooses, ferrets, rabbits, monkeys, 
Conveyance of ^"^^^a-pigs, and other small animals, \\all 
pet animals in pas- ^^ allowed to be carried in passenger car- 
senger carriages riages in cages ojily, with the permission 
with the owner. ^^ ^^^ Station Mast3r at the starting station, 

and also with the consent of the fellow-passengers, and then only 
on payment of double the dog rate for each animal, subject to 
the condition that they will be removed if subsequently objected 
to, no refund being given. 

This prohibition does not apply to pet animals conveyed in 
reserved compartments or carriages or in private special trains ; 
but the number to be taken by the owner into a reserved 
compartment must not exceed three cages. 

Bioyoles Tri- ^^ *^® South Indian Railway packed 
cycles, Perambu- bicycles and tricycles are charged at full 
latere, etc. parcels rates. 

The charge for an unpacked bicycle shall be as for one 
maund and that for an unpacked perambulator or tricycle shall 
be as for two maunds if accompanving the owner as luggage 
at these w^eights, subject to the ordinary' free allowance. 

Bicycles and tricycles are carried at Company's risk if 
packed in cases or protected by wood work, and at owner's risk 
if not so packed. Bicycles and tricycles merely packed in 
straw or gunm'^ are to be considered as unpacked. 

Bicycles and tricycles are not allowed to be taken in 
carriages with owners, but must always be loaded in the guard's 
van. When conveyed by passenger trains with owners, they 
may be taken out of the guard's van at any station short of 
destination at which the owner mav wish and is entitled to 
break his journey free of extra cost. 


Luggage should be delivered twenty minutes before train time 
to be booked. 

Luggage accompanying passengers will be w^eighed, and 

after a deduction has been made of the 

Free allowanoe ^^^^^^ allowed free by the Company, the 
of Passengen Lag- . r ^ * 

gg^i^^ balance will be charged for. In the case 

of first- and second-class passengers, the 

bundle of rugs, tiffin baskets, and small hand-bags, walking 

sticks, or umbrellas, and in the case of third-class passengers 

the razai or blanket, which passengers usually take into the 

carriage with them for their requirements on the journey, shall 

not be weighed. Furniture, live animals, treasure, opium, 

indigo, dangerous goods, wet skins, and other offensive articles, 

are not considered as luggage. The company reserves the right 

to refuse to receive for conveyance as passengers' luggage bulky 

articles which it would be inconvenient to carry as luggage by 

passenger train. 

The free allowance of luggage for first-class passengers is 
1^ maunds ; for second-class passengers 30 seers, and for third- 
class 15 seers. 

Calculation of charges in through booking where the free 

allowance differs : — In cases where the class 

rf**!***"^®"' ^"*" of ticket, or the free allowance differs in 

through booking, charges on passengers' 
excess luggage will be calculated at the through rate on the 
through distance, granting the lowest free allowance. 

All passengers neglecting or failing to obtain a ticket for 

luggage at the station where he purchases 

, , ^ a ticket for himself will be required to pay 
ance on unbooked , . . , , . , . 

Lutfgage. ^t destmation for the gross Weight of 

the luggage, and no allowance whatever 

will be made. 

No luggage is allowed in the carriages, which cannot be 

placed under the seat occupied by the owner. Station Masters 

and guards are required to remove all packages which cannot 

be deposited under the seat. 

Luggage will not be accepted and booked at the Beach, Fort, 
Park, Chetpat, and Kodambakam stations ; but passengers using 

Mo free allow- 


those stations are allowed to take with them small packages 
under 30 lbs. in weight that can go under the seat of a carriage. 
The charge for excess luggage must be prepaid at the booking 
station, and to insure its being sent away it mfist be delivered 
at that station twenty minutes before the time announced 
for the departure of the train. Passengers not conforming to 
the rule run the risk of travelling without their luggage being 
sent in the same train. 
It is particularly requested that each package of luggage 

be well secured and plainly addressed in 
Lavage to be English with the name of the owner and 

destination; in the absence of which the 
Company will not be responsible for damage or loss. 
Passengers intending to break their journey at one or more 

places en route may either book their lug- 
Booking Luggage gg^gg ^Q accompany them throughout, or 

book the heavy portion, or the whole direct 
to the station for which they have taken tickets. Luggage 
booked through to destination will be allowed to remain at the 
station free of charge up to the day on which (after allowing 
for break of journey) the. passenger would be due to arrive, 
after which it will be charged at the rate for left luggage. 

Passengers requiring their luggage at stations where they 

intend to break journey should give to the 
Laggagereqaired station Master or clerk, at the commence- 
ment of the journey, the names of the 
stations at which halts will be made, and the places will be 
entered on the back of the luggage ticket. When starting from 
such halting places, any luggage in excess of the quantity 
booked at the commencement of the journey, will be booked and 
charged at the luggage rates. Passengers cannot be permitted 
to take with them any portion of their luggage in the Com- 
pany's charge, unless they consent to relinquish the luggage 
ticket unconditionally, as the Company is liable for the safe 
custody of such luggage until the luggage ticket is given up. 
Passengers desiring to leave their luggage until called for, 

at the station to which it is booked, may 
c ^gg 6 • do so at the following rates : — 


2 annas per package for the first twenty-four hours or part 

of twenty-four hours. 
1 anna per package for each subsequent day or part 
of a day. 
The Company is not responsible for the loss, destruction or 

deterioration of any luggage belonging to, 
ReftponBibility for ^^ ^^ charge of, a passenger, unless a rail- 

tvay servant has booked and given a receipt 

Unolaimed Articles found in railway carriages, or at stations, 
will be kept at the station where found forty-eight hours, and 
if not then claimed will be sent to the Lost Property Office 
at Trichinopoly Junction. Applications concerning lost pro- 
perty so lost should be made to the nearest Station Master, 
or to the Traffic Manager, Trichinopoly. 

A fee of 2 annas will be charged for each article of luggage 
when claimed from the Lost Luggage Office ; and, if articles be 
not claimed within one month, an additional storage charge of 
As. 4 per month, or portion of a month afterwards, will be 
made. All lost luggage, if not claimed within six months, will 
be sold by the Company to pay expenses. 

The cost of transmitting telegrams giving directions regarding 
luggage or property that has been left at any of the Company's 
stations or in trains must be borne by the owner. 

No part of a consignment booked as passenger's luggage left 
in charge of the Company, can be delivered unless the owner 
or holder of the luggage tickets delivers up the ticket granted 
at the forwarding station. 

Penalty for Offensive or Dangerous goods :— 

(a; No person shall take with him upon the railway any 
offensive or dangerous goods, such as gunpowder, luci- 
fer or congreve matches, vitriol, ardent spirits, tur- 
pentine, naphtha, sulphuric acid, gun cotton or other 
articles of an explosive or highly combustible nature 
without giving notice of their nature to the Station 
Master or other railway servant in charge of the place 
where he brings the goods on the railway. 

(6) And no person shall tender or deliver any such goods 


for carriage upon the railway without distinctly mark- 
ing their nature on the outside of the package con- 
taining them, or otherwise giving notice in wi'iting of 
their nature to the railway servant to whom he tenders 
or delivers them. Any one guilty of these offences 
will he liable to a fine which may extend to Hs. 500, 
and shall also be responsible for any loss, injury or 
damage which may be caused by reason of such goods 
having been brought upon the railway. ( See Sees. 59 
and 67 of the Indian Railway Act of 1890. ) 
Any traveller who smokes without the consent of his fellow- 
passengers, if any, in the same compart- 
^' ment (except in a compartment specially 

provided for the purpose), is liable to be punished with a fine 
which may extend to Bs. 20. 

The Company's servants are prohibited 
seryiuite? **^ from receiving any gratuity under pain of 

Guards are authorized on requisition by first- and second-class 

passengers to order meals at the refresh - 

*^Diom»?*"* °^®^* rooms, but to prevent disappoint- 

ment telegraphic notice ought to be given 
at least six hours before a meal is required. For tarifif rates, see 
page 141. 

Sleeping Aooommodation for Europeans is provided at Villu- 
puram, Negapatam, Trichinopoly Junction and Madura stations 
at the following charges : — 

RS. A. p. 
Not exceeding three hours for each adult . . ..080 

And for each child of twelve years and under 
Exceeding three hours and not exceeding twenty 

or one night only for each adult 
And for each child of twelve years and under 

Dogs are not allowed inside these rooms.— Punkah- 
pullers and hot and cold water baths are charged as extras. 
Application should be made to the Station Masters at the stations 

European, Eurasian and Native Women Servants are 
allowed to accompany their mistress in a first-class carriage, on 

four hours 



payment of second-class fare, and in a second-class carriage on 
payment of third-class fare. The same arrangement applies 
when they accompany young children, with or without the 
parents of such children. This concession will not be allowed 
to servants in charge of children under three years of age 
travelling free. 

The wives of oflBcers travelling under Government warrant 
are allowed the same privilege in respect to women servants. 

Invalids, producing a certificate from a medical man, ap- 
proved by the Company showing that personal attendance 
during the journey is necessary, will be allowed to take an attend- 
ant in a first-class carriage on payment of second-class fare and 
in a second-class carriage on payment of third-class fare. 

One servant only is allowed to travel in each of the fore- 
going cases at the reduced fare. 

Except on occasions of festivals, reserved accommodation 

will be provided, tvJien available^ at the 
m^^^on!*^^^^"' following rates on application to Station 

Masters; but to prevent disappointment 
twelve hours' notice must be given at the undermentioned 
stations and twenty-four hours' notice at all other stations : — 
Madras. Madura. Pondicherry. 

Chingleput. Tuticorin. Tiruvallur J. 

Villupuram. Tinnevelly. Peralam. 

Guddalore O. T. Pakala. Negapatam. 

Mayavaram. Tirupati West. Earaikkal. 

Tanjore. Dharmavaram. Erode. 

Trichinopoly J. Arkonam. 

The payment to be made for a reserved compartment or 
carriage will be : — 

(a) First-olass Aooommodation. — One double saloon car- 

riage, on payment for eight first-class tickets. 
Half of a double saloon, on payment for four first-class 

(b) Seoond-olass Aooommodation. — The whole of a second? 

class carriage on payment for twelve second-class 
A second-class compartment on payment for six second^ 
class tickets. 

(c) Third-olaBS JLcoommodation. — The whole of an ordinary 

third-class carriage on payment for thirty-two third- 
class tickets. 
A compartment on payment for eight third-class tickets. 

(d) ClemenBOii's ThiFd-olass Carriage. — The whole of a 

third-class Glemenson's carriage on payment for 
sixty-four third-class tickets. 
A compartment on payment for eight third-class tickets. 

(e) There are 4 kinds of Composite carriages as stated helow, 
and the charges will be made as follows : — 

D. Composite carriages. — Pour first-class seats and 

six second-class seats. 

E. Composite carriages, — Six first-class seats and 

six third-class seats. 

-2 >* 

rQ I— J 

S ^ 


F. Composite carriages, — Two first-class seats and >f3 § 

eight second-class seats. 

T. Composite carriages {Bogie). — Four first-class 

seats and eight second- 

^ ^ « 

2 c 



class seats. ' o -^ 

Whenever the number of tickets taken for reserved accom- 
modation or special train accommodation is exceeded by the 
number of persons actually travelling, each passenger in excess 
of the number specified will be charged ordinary fare. 

The fares, on payment of which, first-, second-, and third- 
class reserved accommodation as shewn above, will be provided, 
are the ordinary fares. 

k Ladies' Compartment will be provided in a first- or second- 
class carnage without extra charge if twenty-four hours' notice 
be given. None but women and young children can travel in 
compartments so resei^ed. 

A reserved second-class compartment is set aside on the 

through main line mail train running between Madras and 

Tuticorin for the accommodation of ladies travelling second- 

! class. 

A reserved third-class carriage or compartment is set aside 

in every passenger-train for the accommodation of women 

travelling third-class. 

Passengers reserving carriages or compartments from stations 


on the branch lines to main line stations will be required to 
change carriages at the main line junctions if they wish to 
travel by the fast Bogie mail trains. 

When a carriage is ordered but is not used, a demurrage 

charge of 4 annas for an ordinary carriage 

haal![!g^'(^6s^n *°^ ^ *''''*^ ^^'^ * ^^^® carriage will be 
earriages not used, made per hour, or part of an hour, with a 

minimum charge of Es. 3 in the former 
and Bs. 5 in the latter case. The charge will be reckoned from 
the time the vehicle is available until intimation is received 
that it is not required, subject to a maximum charge of Es. 6 
for an ordinary carriage and Es. 12 for a Bogie carriage. 

When first-, second- and third-class carriages are fully reserved, 

they can be run through to stations on the 
*1!!7.!* ***~"<^ Southern Mahratta Eailway on twenty-four 

hours' previous notice being given. 


The charges for Passengers by Special Train 

Double saloon with compartment for servants, \ \ 

carrying capacity sixteen first- and six ^ Rs. 1-6-0 per mile. 

second-class passengers ) 


First-class carriage 
Double saloon carriage 

D. Composite carriage 

E. Composite carriage 

F. Composite carriage 
T. Composite carriage (Bogie) 

C First class 
t Second class 


First class 
Third class 

( First class 
I Second class 
( First class 

( Second class 

Second-class carriage 
Third-class carriage (ordinary) 
Do. Clemenson's 






6 / 



















Each passenger by special train is entitled to the ordinary 
allowance of luggage, and any excess will be charged for. 

Application for Special Trains must be made to the Traffic 
Manager, Trichinopoly, or to the District Traffic Superintendents, 
at Madras, Pakala, Tanjore, and Madura, and should reach them 
at least thirty-six hours before the special trains are required. 

The charge for engine-power is, for any distance less than 
100 miles, Rs. 4 per mile, subject to a minimum charge of 
Bs. 100 and a maximum of Es. 300. 

For 100 miles and upwards Rs. 3 per mile. 

For through special trains over the Madras Railway and 
South Indian Railway, when the charge over either or both 
Companies' lines at the above rates is under Rs. 100, a mini- 
mum charge of Rs. 100 for either or both Companies will be 

Outside porters are engaged at some of the principal stations 

Outside Porters. *^ ®^"^ passengers* luggage from outside 

the stations to carriages of trains and vice 
versa. These men wear a brass badge marked ** S. I. R. 
outside porters " on their right arm. The charges are 6 pies 
for each head-load with a maximum of 2 annas for clearing 
the whole of a passenger's belongings to or from the carriage. 


The South Indian Railway Company forward telegraph 
messages for the public on the following conditions, viz. : — 

That the wires are not occupied by messages relating to the 
Company's service. 

The accuracy of telegrams is not guaranteed ; and the sender 
and receiver must accept all risks arising from non -delivery, 
errors, or delays. 

The address includes the addressee's name and address and 
the name of the office to which the telegram is to go. Care 
should be taken that the latter is written as given in the List 
of Telegraph Offices published in the Telegraph Guide, The 
address must contain all the information necessary to ensure 
delivery without search or enquir}\ The sender in all cases 
has to bear the consequence of insufficiency in the address, 


which, after the telegi'am has heen despatched, can neither l>e 
completed nor altered, except by a paid service advice. 

No private telegram or series of telegrams containing more 
than^re hundred words can be sent at any one time by any 
individual or firm, and no subsequent telegram by the same 
individual or firm till after the lapse of three hours, unless the 
telegraph lines be free of all other traffic. 

The following are the rates of charges for messages between 
any two stations in India : — 

No charge is made for the transmiRsion 
of the address. 

Urgent mesfiages 
Ordinary do. 
Deferred do. 

First eight 

words or 

groups of five 


R8> A. P. 




Each addi- 
tional word 
or group of 
five figures. 

R8. A. p. 


Between any station in India and any station in Ceylon. 
For each word including those in the address, 3 annas. 
A message for Ceylon can be sent from any station on the 
South Indian Eailway. 

(a) Urgent telegrams receive instant transmission, and 
have precedence over ordinary telegrams and the right 
of special delivery at destination. In cases of life and 
death, or of extraordinary emergency, an urgent tele- 
gram can be sent from any office at any time. 
{h) Ordinary telegrams are transmitted in their turn after 
urgent telegrams, and are delivered by messengers 
between day-break and 9 p. m. (local time), 
(c) Deferred telegrams are transmitted when the lines are 
clear of urgent and ordinary telegrams, and are deli- 
vered by messengers betw^een day-break and 9 p. m. 
(local time). 
The words comprising the address of a telegram are not 
charged for ; the address includes names of stations from and 
to which the telegram is to be despatched, the bond-fide names 
or designation of the sender and addressee, and the latter's 


Every word of fifteen letters or less is counted as one word. 
Words containing more than fifteen letters are charged for as two 
words up to thirty letters, and so on by multiples of fifteen plus 
one word for any excess. 

When numbers are expressed in figures, all the characters, 
figures, letters, or signs in each group are added together, the total 
divided by five, and the quotient, plus one for remainder, if there 
be any, gives the number of words the group represents. Signs 
used to separate groups, and letters added to figures to form 
ordinal ntunbers, are counted each as a figure or letter. Groups 
of letters not forming words (letter cipher) cannot be transmitted 
in private telegrams. 

_. . Telegrams are delivered free of charge 

within five miles of a Telegraph Office. 

(a) Beyond the free delivery circle, telegrams will be sent by 

post without charge, or by such other means as the 
sender may arrange and pay for. 

(b) Should the addressee of a telegram have left the place to 

which it is addressed, it will, if returned unopened with 
definite instructions as to the new address, be re-trans- 
mitted without extra charge. Similarly it will be re- 
transmitted immediately to any new destination, without 
being sent out for delivery at the first address, if the 
addressee has left written instructions at the Telegraph 
Office, or if his new address is known. 

(c) The messenger who delivers a telegram may be entrusted 

\vith the reply, provided he be not detained for this 
purpose more than five minutes. The fact of the reply 
having been given to the messenger, and the amount 
paid to him, should be mentioned on the receipt given 
for the original telegram. 

If the sender desires his message to be delivered open, he is to 

write the instructions (R. O.) in the space 

Open aeliveFy. marked •* official instructions" on the form. 

The sender of a message can pre-pay a reply, depositing for 

Reply pre-paid. ^^^® purpose a sum not less than 8 annas 

and not more than 2 rupees and not in- 
cluding any fraction of an anna ; but the message to which a 


reply is pre-paid must not be addressed to more than one 
person. On depositing the corresponding sum, the sender can 
add (free) to the words ** Beply paid" or ** Answer paid" the 
amount to which he wishes the reply to be limited. The 
terminal station sends to the receiver a pass for the amount 
pre-paid, leaving it to him to send his answer within thirty days 
to what address he pleases. Should the cost of the reply exceed 
the sum deposited as specified above, the difference must be paid 
by the sender of the reply. Should the cost of the reply be less 
than the amount of the pass, no refund will be given for the 
amount not availed of ; but, if the pass be not used, the amount, 
which has been pre-paid for it, will be refunded upon application 
to the Check Office, Calcutta. Application must, however, be 
made within two months and be supported by this pass, without 
which no refund will be granted. It should be distinctly imder- 
stood that the pass is only available for thirty days. Should it 
be impossible to effect delivery of a reply pre-paid message, the 
terminal station sends a service telegram to that effect to the 

If an ordinary or urgent private telegram be not delivered, 
or be subjected to serious delay, through the fault of any 
telegraph administration in India, the whole charge made for 
it will be returned to the sender. 

(a) If an ordinary or urgent private telegram be delivered wholly 

or partially in an unintelligible state, a refund will be 
made only when the extra -charge for repetition has 
been paid by the sender. 

(b) No refund will, under any circumstances, be made for a 

deferred private telegram. 

Full and detailed information respecting the transmission of 
messages may be had on application to any of the Station Masters, 
Traffic Manager, Trichinopoly, District Traffic Superintendents, 
Madras, Pakala, Tanjore and Madura. 

The stations on the South Indian Bail way, where there is no 
Grovemment Telegraph office, are authorized to accept messages 
for despatch to stations other than those in India. (For rules 
and charges, vide Government Telegraph Tariff Book.) 

Urgent paid telegrams are accepted at roadside stations 


where a night station staff is employed for transmission only to 
stations where a night signalling staff is employed. 

The Office hours for receipt of paid messages are from 6 a.m., 
to 6 P.M., daily on this railway. Exception will be made in 
cases of bofid-fide travellers by railway from whom messages 
may be received for despatch, at any time an office is open ; but 
they must be given to understand that the Company do not 
guarantee immediate despatch as delay may occur in consequence 
of the station, to which they are addressed, being closed. 

The following Railway stations are opened for receipt 
and despatch of paid messages from 6 a.m. to 9. p.m. : — 

St. Thomas' I^Iount. 


Ghiugleput Junction. 


Porto Novo. 








Tirupati We»t. 

Tiruvallur Junction. 


Tlie Refreshment Hooim on the South Imlian liailway are utider 
tJie vuinayenient of Messrs, Spencer d' Co.^ Ld.^ Madras, 
Refreshment Uooms are provided at the undermentioned 
stations and meals will be served at the times shewn, if previous 
notice has been given and tickets purchased : — 


Madras-Egmore (Kef reshment Buffet) 
Chingleput J. 

Villupuram J. 

Katpadi J. . . 

Pakala J. . . 

Dhamiavarani J. 
Benigunta J. 
Cuddalore (Old Town) 

Tanjorc J. 

Trichinopoly J. 

Tuticorin . . 

Breakfast. ' Tiffin. 



9 Oi 

9 '12 

11 60 

10 20 

12 25' 

12 38 

io 25| 

9 61 

8 40, 

10 40 


12 86 
10 61 


16 17 


14 28 



14 46 

14 26 

14 62 

13 46 


14 40 

19 43 

21 30 

22 16 

20 45 

22 10 

22 5 

18 45 

19 60 
21 IG 

18 65 

20 50 

19 38 

20 10 

A Refreshment Buffet has been opened at the Eginore station. 


A compartment of a third-class caiTiage is set apart for the 
sale of ice and aerated ivaters to passengers in certain trains. 

Note. — Passengers intending to travel by the evenitig Mail from Madras 
are requested to purcluise tickets early in the day, 


When ticket is previously purchased, 

or a telegram gi\ing six hours' 

notice is sent. 

When ticket is not previously 

purchased, or telegram giving six 

hours' notice is not sent. 

I I 

, R8. ' A. 





1 ! 8 











Children will be charged half these rates. 

Meals do not include Drinks and Ice. 

Light refreshments, such as tea, coffee, biscuits, aerated 
waters and a variety of English tinned provisions can also be 
obtained at Tiruvannamalai, Chinna Tippa Samudram, Maya- 
varam, Kumbakonam, Dindigul, Virudupatiand Koilpati stations. 
At Tiruvannamalai, Chinna Tippa Samudram and Kumbakonam, 
if not less than twelve hours' notice is given, breakfast, tiffin 
and dinner can be got ready for two or three passengers only. 

Tea or coffee will be served free of charge at breakfast. 

Coffee after dinner must be paid for at 2 annas per cup. 

At least six hours' notice should be given for refreshments 
required to avoid disappointment. Passengers joining the 
railway at roadside stations should notify to the guard of the 
train if there is sufficient interval, and, in such cases, a message 
will be sent by the guard to the refreshment room to provide 
meals; but if six hours' notice is not given passengers must pay 
the higher rates. 

Passengers are requested to purchase the tickets themselves 
at the booking offices. 

Butlers will reserve seats at the refreshment room tables for 
the number of meals ordered on tickets. Passengers will be 
required to give up their breakfast, tiffin, or dinner tickets 
before taking their seats, and the proprietors of the refreshment 
rooms will bo responsible for seeing that those passengers who 


have obtained tickets for meals are fully supplied, before other 
passengers are attended to, unless there happens to be sufficient 
for all. 

Befreshnients are not served in carriages. 

Breakfast^ Tiffin and Dinner Tickets will be sold at 
the Booking Offices of thefollaioing stations : — 

S.I.R. Booking Office, Mount Road to Ghingleput J. . . Breakfast and dinner 

Do. Mount Road to Cuddalore O. T . . Tiffin tickets. 
Do. Do. to Tanjore J. . . Dinner do. 

Do. Do. to Madura . . Breakfast tickets. 

Do. Madras (£gmore) to Ghingleput J. . . Breakfast and dinner 


to Villupuram J. . . Tiffin tickets. 

to CuddaloreO.T.. Do. 

to Tanjore J. .. Dinner tickets. 

to Madura .. Breakfast do. 

to Guddeaore 0. T . . Tiffin do. 

to Tanjore J. .. Dinner do. 

to Madura . . Breakfast tickets. 

to Tuticorin .. Do. 

to Ghingleput J. . . Do. 

to Cuddalore O. T. . Tiffin tickets. 






Ghingleput J. 
Arkonam J. 
Villupuram J. 




to Tanjore J. 
to Do. 
to Pakala J. 
to CuddaloreO.T. 
to Tuticorin 

Cuddalore N. T. to Negapatam 
Cuddalore 0. T. to Tanjore J. 










. Do. 





Tanjore J. 







Dinner tickets. 

Breakfast tickets. 

Tiffin do. 

Breakfast do. 

Dinner do. 

Tiffin and dinner 

to Villupuram J. . . Breakfast and dinner 

to Kumbakonam . . Breakfast tickets, 
to Negapatam . . Dinner do. 
to TrichiuopolyJ.. Breakfast tickets, 
to Tuticorin .. Do. 

to Ghingleput J. . . Tiffin tickets, 
to Kumbakonam . . Breakfast tickets, 
to Madura .. Do. 

to Trichinopoly J . . Do. 

to Tuticorin . . Do. 

to Kumbakonam . . Do. 





















Do. Erode J. 













8.I.B. Booking Office, Guddalore to Yillupuram J. . . Breakfast and dinner 

to Negapatam .. Do. 

to Tanjore J. . . Dinner tickets, 
to Trichinopoly J . . Breakfast do. 
to Madura . . Breakfast and dinner 

Trichinopoly J. to Negapatam . . Breakfast, tiffin and 

dinner tickets, 
to Guddalore O.T. . Breakfast tickets, 
to Kumbakonam . . Do. 

to Madura .. Do. 

to Tuticorin .. Do. 

to Trichinopoly J . . Breakfast and dinner 

to Negapatam . . Tiffin and dinner 

to Trichinopoly J . . Breakfast tickets, 
to Madura .. Dinner do. 

to Do. .. Breakfast do. 

to Do. . . Breakfast and dinner 

to Trichinopoly J.. Dinner tickets, 
to Negapatam . . Breakfast and dinner 

Ammayanayaka- to Trichinopoly J . . Do. 


to Madura .. Do. 

to Guddalore O. T . . Breakfast tickets. 

to Trichinopoly J . . Breakfast and dinner 

to Tanjore J. . . Tiffin tickets, 
to Negapatam . . Breakfast and dinner 

to Guddalore O.T.. Breakfast tickets, 
to Tuticorin .. Do. 

to Negapatam . . Breakfast and dinner 

to Madura . . Tiffin and dinner 

to Trichinopoly J. . Dinner tickets, 
to Negapatam . . Breakfast and dinner 

to Katpadi J. . . Breakfast tickets. 

to Madura . . Tiffin and dinner 


to Negapatam . . and dinner 

































S.I.R.BookingOffice,Pondicherry to CuddaloreO.T.. Tiffin tickets. 



to Benigunta J. . . 




to Katpadi J. AVil 


lupuram J. . . 

Breakfast tickets. 



to Villupuram J. . . 




to Pakala J. 

Breakfast and tiffin 



to Katpadi J. 

Breakfast tickets. 



to Villupuram J. . . 




to Renigunta J. . . 

Tiffin tickets. 



to Pakala J. 

Breakfast and tiffin 



to Tiruvannamalai. 

Dinner tickets. 



to Villupuram J. . . 

Breakfast tickets. 


Katpadi J. 

to Do. 




to Pakala J. 



Pakala J. 

to Tiruvannamalai. 

Dinner tickets. 


Benigunta J. 

to Pakala J. 

Breakfast and dinner 



to Benigunta J. .. 

Breakfast tickets. 



to Pakala J. 




to Benigimta J. .. 

Breakfast and dinner 


Dhanmavaram J 

. to Katpadi J. 

Breakfast tickets. 



to Pakala J. 


Breakfast, tiffin and dinner tickets can also be had at Chin- 
gleput J., Villupuram J., Tiruvannamalai, Pakala J., Cuddalore 
O. T., Tanjore J., Negapatam, Trichinopoly J., Madura and 
Tuticorin for meals required at these stations, but the prescribed 
notice must be given to the butler. 

Befreshment Tickets may also be obtained at the Hotel 
of Messrs. Spencer d Oo.y Ld., Mount Road, 


R8. A. 

Chota Hazaree consisting of 2 cups tea or coffee, toast and 2 eggs, 
or bread, butter and jam . . . . ..08 

Plate of Bread, butter and cheese . . ..08 

Do Cold meat, or sandwiches . . . . ..08 

Do. Bread, butter and 2 eggs . . . . ..06 

Do, Ourrj' and rice . . . . . . ..06 

Do. Soup . . . . . . . . ..04 

Cup of tea or coffee, and toast with butter 

Cup of tea or coffee with 6 biscuits 

Do. or coffee 
Pint of milk 
Eggs cooked 
Qlass of iced water 

(if with jam 2 annas 





Champagne, Spencer's, Carte Blanche Extra Sec. 
Sherry do. Red Seal 

Port do. Yellow Seal. 

Claret do. Medoc 

Do. Vin Ordinaire 

St. Raphael Wine in halMitrea 
Ginger Wine, Crabbio's 
Vermouth, Italian, Silver Label 
Bull, or Swan Brandy, Spencer's 
Brandy, Spencer's, 2 Stars 
Whiskey, Spencer's, Club No. 1 

Do. do. Imperial Highland 

Do. do. Glenlivet 

Gin, Pljrmouth 

Do. Old Tom, Boord & Sons . . 
Do. Hollands, Eagle Brand flasks 
Beer, Bass' "Dog's Head" brand 
Stout, Guinness' do. 

Beer, Pilsener, Beck & Cc.'s . . 
Do. do. Tennent's 


Arrowroot, Speed's 

Asparagus, C. & B.'s . . 

Bacon, Wiltshire in Tins, C. & B.'s Ij to 8 lbs. each 

Do. Finest Wiltshire on cut . . 
Barley, Finest Pearl, C. & B.'s .• 
Biscuitu, Huntley & Palmer's assorted 

Do. Mixed (20 different kinds) 
Bloaters, Yarmouth 1 lb., C. & B.'s 
Butter, Esbensen's Danish 
Catsup, Walnut or Mushroom . . 
Cheese, Gouda on cut 

Do. Dutch Ball 

Do. do. . • 

Do. Cheddar or Berkeley in . . 
Chutnies and Pickles, Indian assorted 
Cocoa (Van Houten's) . . 
Coffee, Finest Ground 

Do. Essence, Branson's 

Do. Medium .. .. 

Com Flour, Brown & Poison's . . 
Herrings, Kipperd, C. & B.'s 
Jams, Moir's assorted . . 

Do. Strawberry and Raspberry 
Marmalade, Moir's 
Mellin's food . . • t 



BS. A. 




. .1 


2 10 









BS. A. 

2 12 

1 2 



RS. A. 

• • 



. .1 


1 14 









per lb . . 


per tin.. 


pint . . 

per lb.. 

»» • • 
) per ball . . 

2 lb. tins.. 

• • 

Jib. tin.. 



lar^e bottles, 

RS. A. 

1 5 
1 8 
1 4 


1 6 


1 1 


3 4 

a 8 



1 9 

2 4 


BT0RB8, ETC.-— continued. 

Milk, Swiss, Milkmaid brand 
Do. do. small 

Mustard, Coleman's . . 
Oatmeal, Bound, Moir's 
Olives, French 
Peas, Green, Petits Pois 
Pickles, assorted 

Do. do. 
Potted Meats, C. & B.'s and Moir's 
Do. Macon ochies, Rinall 

Salad oil, S. A Co.'s . . 
Salmon, Oregon, C. & B.'s 
Salt, English, Table . . 
Sardines, Philippe <& Canads 

Do. do 

Do. Victor Tertrais 

Do. do. 

Sauce, L. & P.'s Worcester 
Do. Sutton's do. 
Do. Essence of Anchovies 
Sausages, Oxford, small 
Soups, assorted, Moir's 
Tapioca, C. Sc B.'s 
Tea, K. T. E., Orange Pekoe 
Do. do. Pekoe .. 
Do. do. Pekoe Souchong 
Do. do. Souchong 
Do. do. Congou . . 
Vinegar Malt, Cas. & S. 


Soda water, large 
Do. per dozen 
Do. Splits 

Lemonade . . 

Do. • per dozen 

Ginger Ale . . 

Orange Ale . . 

Kola Tonic . . 

Quinine Tonic 

Any of the above, per dozen 

)-lb. tins.. 


^ pint . . 


pint . . 

1 t» 

pint. . 
• • 

2 lbs., 
large tin . . 

small. . 

large . . 

small . . 

pints. . 
»» • • 
»» • • 

• ■ 


per lb . . 

f> • • 
»» • • 
i» • • 

B8. A.. 
























1 14 


1 9 
1 5 


1 6 
1 2 


RS. ▲. 

4 2 
4 10 
4 12 



Beef, Koast 
Do. Spiced 2 lbs. 
Do. Luncheon 
Mutton, Boast 

Do. Corned 

Do. Spiced 
Minced Collops 
Ox Cheeks . . 
Lunch Tongues 
Cambridge Sausages 
Oxford do. 

A sicggestion book is kept ia each refreshment room and 
passengers are invited to enter therein any remarks they have 
to offer. 

It is requested that complaints of inattention may be ad- 
dressed to the Traffic Manager. 

Dinner Tickets for service on the Madras Eailway are sold, 
at the following stations at the reduced rate of Ks. 1-8-0 each 
provided sufficient notice is given and tickets purchased, other- 
wise the fixed rate, Rs. 2, will be charged : — 

RS. A. 

per lb.. 10 

1 2 







1 4 



Stations at which Tickets arc sold. 

""Stations at which Dinner is supplied. 

Trichinopoly J. 
Trichinopoly Fori . . 

Cuddalore (New Town) 
Villupuram J. 

" ' Erode J., or Salem, as passenger may 
' ' J require. 

• Arkonam J. 


Refreshments are provided in the above room at the follow- 
ing rates : — 

RS. A. 

Chota Hazaree, tea or coffee, bread, butter and eggs . . ..08 

Breakfast, hot with meat, eggs, &c. . . • • ..18 

Tiffin, hot . . . . . . . . . . ..18 

Do. cold . . . . . . . . • • ..10 

* Salem is the proper dinner station for passengers t ravel liug from 
stations on the South Indian Railway to Salem or beyond. 
















Dinner, hot. . 


Meat sandwiches, per plate 

Ham do. do. 

Cup of tea . . 

Do. with bread and butter 

Do. with bread and eggs 
Cup of cofiee 
Milk, per seer 
Plate of soup 

Do. bread, butter and cheese 

Do. bread and butter 

Children under twelve years of age half -rates for Breakfast^ 

Tiffin or Dinner, 

Eefreshment rooms are provided by the Madras Eailway 

Company at Erode, Katpadi, Arkonam and Kenigunta; and 

by the Southern Mahratta Eailway Company at Dharmavaram. 

For tariff charges at these rooms, see the time-tables of those 


Befreshments are not served in the carriages. 



Refreshments prepared under Brahmin maimgement are sup- 
plied in the refreshment room for Native passengers at Villu- 
puram J. station, at the rates shewn below : — 

BS. A. p. 
Superior meals, per head 
Sweet pongul, one full cake 
Pongul do. 

Pooliyorai do. 

Thathyovannam do. 
CofEee, per tumbler 
Tea do. 




















It has hitherto been customary for persons visiting India 
to commence and finish their tour at Bombay, a practice 
which has resulted in Southern India being either excluded 
from their programme or only visited at the expense of 
needless travelling. A far better arrangement is to either 
disembark or embark at Colombo, and commence or 
conclude the Indian tour at Tuticorin. This will enable 
the beautiful and interesting Island of Ceylon to be seen 
without materially adding to the duration of the trip. The 
passage between Colombo and Tuticorin has been greatly 
improved during recent years ; but, in rough weather, 
the crossing is not altogether a pleasant experience to in- 
different sailors. It is, however, intended to construct a 
line of railway from Madura to I'amban which, when 
opened, will enable the more comfortable sea route between 
Colombo and Pamban to be adopted. During the North- 
East monsoon months the Gulf of Manaar is generally 
smooth, and tourists are therefore advised to so arrange 
their programmes as to admit of the crossings being made 
during these months. 

Assuming that the visitor to India has decided to 
commence his trip from Tuticorin, the following itinerary 
might advantageously be adopted. 

There being but little to be seen in Tuticorin, the town 
should be left, if possible, by the express train running 
in connection with the Colombo boat. Madura will be 
reached after a journey of five hours, and in this town a 


day can profitably be spent in visiting the temples and 
palace. The tourist, limiting his stay to this period, 
should proceed by the express train of the following day 
to Trichinopoly, which is reached in about four and three 
quarter hours. During this journey, Ammayanayakanur 
and Dindigul are passed, the former being the station for 
Kodaikanal (altitude 7,209 feet), in the Pulney Hills, and 
the latter being noted for its old rock fort and large cigar 
industry. The journey to Kodaikanal occupies about 
twelve hours, and is usually made in a comfortable bullock- 
cart, as far as the foot of the hills, and thence in a chair 
carried by coolies, or on horseback. This expedition is, 
however, somewhat fatiguing, and tourists, desirous of 
visiting a southern hill station, should go from Trichinopoly 
to Coonoor (altitude 5,616 feet), a journey which can now 
be performed entirely by train. Ootacamund, the summer 
residence of the Madras Government, is eleven miles from 
Coonoor, and will repay a visit. If this trip to the 
NUgiris is made, the tourist should return to Trichino- 
poly, where two days can be spent seeing the rock temples, 
and irrigation works. The next town to be visited is 
Tanjore, which is only 31 miles from Trichinopoly. The 
objects of interest in Tanjore can easily be seen in a day, 
when the visitor should proceed to Chidambaram, four 
hours' journey by rail. There is no refreshment room at 
this station, and the dak bungalow is unfurnished; so 
travellers should bring food with them from Tanjore. On 
leaving Chidambaram, the train should be taken to 
Chingleput, the journey occupying nearly seven hours by 
the ordinary mail train. From Chingleput, Conjeeveram 
should be visited and an expedition of about eighteen miles 
by road should be made to the extremely interesting rock- 
cut and monoHthic temples known as the Seven Pagodas. 
Near the temples is a Public Works Rest House, permis- 
sion to occupy which can generally be obtained on applica- 
tion to the Executive Engineer, Buckingham Canal 



Division, Madras. The Pagodas can also be visited by 
canal from Madras, unfurnished house-boats being obtain- 
able on payment through this officer. This journey is, 
however, dreary, as it takes about a day to travel 33 miles 
of canal ; but it has the convenience that the boats afford 
shelter, and that meals can be cooked on board. From 
Chingleput to Madras, the distance is only 34J miles, and 
several trains are run daily. Tourists, desirous of visiting 
places of interest on the South Indian Railway other than 
those specified above, should consult the ** Itinerary ** 
section of this guide. On leaving Madras, the tourist is 
recommended to travel by the Madras Railway to Katpadi, 
taking an early train, and, after having inspected the 
buildings in Vellore Fort, either to proceed to Renigunta 
by the South Indian Railway, or to return to Arkonam, 
and from there travel to Hospet {vid Guntakal) on the 
Southern Mahratta Railway. The metre-gauge line to 
Renigunta passes by Chandragiri, where there are build- 
ings worth seeing ; but the journey vid Arkonam, while 
offering no such inducements, will be found the more 
comfortable, as the mail train to Guntakal leaves at a 
more convenient hour from Arkonam than from Renigunta. 
From Hospet, the extremely interesting ruins of Vijaya- 
nagar, or Humpi, can be easily reached, if previous 
arrangements for conveyance can be made with the 
Station-master. From Hospet, the journey should be 
continued to Bijapur, a ruined Masalman city, well worth 
seeing, and where board, lodging and conveyance can be 
obtained, without trouble, on more than a few hours' notice. 
The country in the neighbourhood of Dharwar abounds 
in beautiful architectural remains in the Chalukyan style ; 
but special arrangements, involving a lengthy stay in the 
district, will probably be necessary to enable them to be 
visited. Haiderabad, the capital of the Nizam's Domi- 
nions, might next be seen, and the journey continued 
thence to Puri and Cuttack, where there is much of inter- 


est to be viewed. From Oattack, the tourist should go 
to Calcutta, by the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, when the 
route is open for traffic, or by launch and steamer. On 
leaving Calcutta, the tour should be arranged to include 
Dar^'eeling, Benares, AJIahabad, Cawnpore, Lucknow, 
Agra, Delhi, Ulwar, Jeypore, Ajmere, Oodeypore, Ahmeda- 
bad, Baroda and Bombay. From Bombay, interesting 
expeditions should be made to the caves of Nasib, EUora 
and Ajanta, and an excursion to the caves of Elephanta 
in the Harbour. 




1. Madras (lat. 13°-4' 6" N.; long. 80°-17' 22" E.) is 
the principal town of the Presidency which bears its name, 
and in 1891 had a population of 452,518 souls. It is the 
third largest city in India, and with its suburbs, extends 
9 miles along the Coromandel Coast and 3J miles inland, 
covering an area of 27 square miles. It is bounded on 
the East by the sea, on the West by Shambian, Shirloor, 
Shembadanbaukam, Einavaram, Kodambakam, Saidapet 
and Guindy, on the North by Shattancaud, Kodangiyur 
and Yeroocancherry, and on the South by the river 

The site on which the city of Madras is built was 
obtained from one Dannala Venkadri in 1639 by Mr. 
Francis Day, the then Chief of the Settlement of Armegam 
of the East India Company on the Coromandel Coast. 
The transfer of the land to the Company was ratified in 
Chandragiri Palace by Shree Eunga Koyal Rajah of 
Vijayanagar. Darmala Venkadri stipulated that the new 
factory should be called Chennapatnam in memory of his 
father Chennappa, and the city is known to the natives 
under this name at the present time. There has been 
considerable speculation as to the origin of the word 
Madras, the most generally accepted theory being that it 
is derived from Madre Dios, the supposed name of the old 
Armenian Church of St. Mary in Black Town. Koughly 



speaking, Madras may be considered as divided into the 
following districts : — 

(1) The Northern suburb of Thandiyarpet, Viyasar- 
padi and Koyapuram. The general offices of the Madras 
Railway Company and the original terminus of its system 
are situated in the last named sub-division. 

(2) Black Town, a densely populated block about a 
mile square lying immediately South of the Northern 
suburbs and having a sea frontage of about a mile and a 
half. The name of Black Town was given to the district 
by the early English settlers, because of its occupation by 
natives, and in contradistinction to their own quarters 
then known by the now obsolete name of White Town. 
This is the business portion of the town and contains the 
Banks, Customs, Port and Harbour offices, the High Court 
and Law College, the Presidency Post office, and the offices 
of the principal European mercantile finns. The Madras 
Harbour lies opposite the Northern portion of Black 
Town, and is controlled by Trustees appointed under 
special legislative enactment. The works were originally 
designed by William Parkes, Esq., m. inst. c.e., and the 
construction was commenced under the superintendence 
of James Walker, Esq., m. inst. c.e., in June 1875. By 
the end of October 1881 the two break-waters were nearly 
finished, but on 12th November 1881, a cyclone wrecked 
the Eastern walls from the elbows to the entrance, half a 
mile of break- water being breached or otherwise damaged. 
The work of reconstruction on an amended design was 
commenced in July 1884, and the Harbour may now be 
considered as practically completed. An earthen embank- 
ment from the centre of the shore face of the Harbour 
gives access to a screw pile pier which extends 1,000 feet 
beyond high water mark and accommodates four lines of 
rails. The pier has a cross-head 160 feet long by 40 feet 
broad which, together with the main portion of the pier, 
is furnished with fixed and travelling cranes. 


(3) A fairly open block with a sea frontage of about 
two miles and a depth of three-quarters of a mile. In 
this area are situated Fort St. George, Government 
House, the Island, Government offices, the Presidency 
College, Senate House, and the district of Chepauk. 

(4) The suburbs of Vepery, Pursevaukam, Perambur 
and Kilpauk lying to the West of Black Town. 

(5) The densely populated native and Eurasian dis- 
tricts of Triplicane and Mylapore including Koyapetta 
and St. Thome. The latter constitutes a Eoman Catholic 
Diocese and contains the Cathedral pertaining to the See. 

(6) The residential suburbs of Egmore, Chetpat, 
Nungambaukam and Teynampet, where the principal 
Europeans live, and in which are situated the South Indian 
Railway stations of Egmore and Chetpat, the Civil Orphan 
Asylum, the Presidency Magistrate's Court, Police Commis- 
sioner's office, the Scotch Kirk, School of Arts, Government 
Central Museum, Lying-in Hospital, Eye Infirmary, the 
Madras Club, St. George's Cathedral, the Horticultural 
Gardens and the Observatory. 

(7) The district of Adyar in the extreme South con- 
taining some of the finest European Mansions in Madras, 
the Adyar Ladies' and Gentlemen's Club, and the Boat 
House of the Madras Rowing Club. 

Madras stretches along the Coromandel Coast for some 
10 miles, and, owing to the large size of the compounds or 
grounds attached to the European houses has been appro- 
priately styled, ** The city of magnificent distances." The 
town is traversed from East to West by the river Cooum, 
and from North to South by the Buckingham Canal. 
Except after heavy rain the Cooum is a body of stagnant 
water noted for its offensive smell, a condition of affairs 
which Government has long proposed to remedy. To the 
West of Madras lie two tanks, the Spur Tank principally 
used by the washermen, and the Long Tank on which 
boating may be obtained after the rains. Extending aloi^ig 



the sea face from tlie Fort to St. Thomo is a fine Marina 
having on its Western side a long lengtli of tan ride. In 
the evening it is a place of much resort for the sake of the 
cool sea breeze which rarely fails throughout the year. 
Despite the unpleasant odours arising from the Cooimi, 
Madras is not ordinarily an unhealthy place either for 
Europeans or natives, the death-rate averaging 40 per 
1,000 per annum. The mean temperature in the shade 
ranges between 86°. 7 and 76°. 1 Fahrenheit, the extremes 
being 98°, 3 in June and 67°.5 in January. 

The distances from Egmore to the principal junctions on 
the South Indian Eailway are : — 

Chingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram) . . . . 35 miles. 

Villupuram Junction (for Pondicherry) . . . . 98 

Tanjore Junction (for Negapatam and Mutupet) . . 218 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) . . . . 249 

Maniyachi Junction (for Tinnevelly) . . . . 425 

2. Local Acoommodation. — The following is a list of the 
principal hotels : — 

The " Connemara '* . .Commander-in-Chief's Road, Egmoro. 

The '* Buckingham " . . Westcott Road. 

" Capper House " . . South Beach, St. Thome. 

• * Central " . . Rundall's Road, Vepery. 
*' Dents Garden " . . Moimt Road. 

" Elphinstone " . .Mount Road. 

" Elphinstono " (Branch). . .Commander-in-Chiefs Road, Egmore. 

" Esplanade " . . Errabauloo Chetty Street, Black Town. 

• • Harbour " . . Beach. 

" National " . .Armenian Street, Black Town. 

" Royal " . . Mount Road. 

'• Union " . .Esplanade Row, Black Town. 

" Victoria " . .Commander-in-Chiefs Road, Egmore, 

With the exception of the Bachelors* quarters of the 
Connemara Hotel, the Madras Hotels are not celebrated 
for comfort, cleanhness, or cuisine. 

For natives there are a large number of hotels, the best 
being in Munnadi and Periamettoo. There are also a few 
choultries, the most important of which are the *' Mone- 
gar," the ** Venkatagiri Eajah's," and '* Sir Kamasamy 
Mudaliar's,*' where many poor natives are fed daily. 


3. Road Conveyance. — The following are the rates for 
hackney carriages, carts and coolies : — 
From Egjfiore station — 


Hackney Carriages. 


I Jutkas ,n rt ^ 

Second j or Bui- ^^^^ ^^^y- 
class. I lock- I 
I carts. 

Iks. a. p.iRs. A. p. Rs. A. p. 
108 006 0, 020 

10 0080030 

Chintadripet, Vepery, New Towii, . 

Periamettoo, Central Station, - 

Puthupet, Komaraswarampet. i 
Black Town, Mount Road, Purse- 

waulkam, Choolay, Fort St. 

George, Goojelly, China Bazaar, 

General Market, Patchiappah's 

Hall, Napier Park, Salt Cot- I 

taurs, High Court, Law College. / 
Triplicane, North Black Town, \ 

Royapuram, Mint, Kilpauk, I 

Chetpat, Nungumbaukam, > 

Thousand Lights, Beach, Pre- 
sidency College, Chepauk. j 
Koyapettah, Puthupakam, Tey- 

nampet, Botanical Gardens, 

VVashermanpet, The Luz, Per- }- 1 0. 12 

ambore, Kodambakam, Office of 

Inspector-General of Police. 
Mylapore, St. Thom^, Thondiar- ^ K , n 14 

pet. ^ I I 

The Adyar, Saidapet, Kalahipet, \^ . ^ ^| . 

Trivettore, Toll Bar. ^ , i a u i 

as. A. 



12 Oi 10 

4 Oi 2 

2 Oi 







The better description of carriages and bullock-carts are 
allowed inside the station compound, but jutkas are not 
allowed inside and must be engaged at the Stand outside 
the station. 

Conveyances plying from Egmore station can be hired 
by the day or half-day at the following rates : — 

Periods of time for which hired. 

First Class Con- 

Second Class 

16th Mar 

15th Oct. 

16th Oct.lSth Mar 

to j to 

16th Oct. 

15th Mar 

For the day 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

/6 A.M. to 12 noon. 

For tho half-day. 


12 noon to 6 p.m. r 
.6 p.m. to midnight.) 

RS. A. P.lRS. A. p. RS. A. P. 

38 o' 380280 

18 0; 180140 

RS. A. P. 

2 8 


KS. A. P. 

Or per mile at the following rates : — 

First-class conveyances, Ist mile . . ..080 

For every subsequent mile . . . . ..040 

SecoQil -class conveyances, 1st mile . . ..060 

For every subsequent mile . . . . ..030 

Stoppages of over quarter hour to be paid for at the rate 
of 2 annas for each quarter hour. 

4. Railway Facilities.— The South Indian Railway has 
six stations in Madras, viz. : — 

Beach. Park. Chetpat. 

Fort. Egmore. Kodambakam. 

Egmore is the most important station and passengers 
for Madras generally alight here. There is a Refreshment 
Buflfet and a waiting-room for ladies. The Beach station 
situated near the Harbour is the most convenient station 
for those employed in the offices at Black Town and for 
passengers arriving by or disembarking from steamers. 

The Fort station is principally used by those attending 
the Government and Military Offices in Fort St. George. 
Passengers for Madras Railway trains, Vepery and for 
Sir Ramaswamy Madaliar's choultry should book to the 
Park station. Chetpat is used by the residents of Kilpauk, 
Nungumbaukam and Chetpat. 

Kodambakam is the nearest station to Teynampet. In 
addition to the above stations the Company maintains an 
office in the Mount Road for booking passengers and 
receiving parcels and small consignments. 

5. Shipping arrangements. — The following steamship 
Companies have agencies in Madras as under : — 

P. A O. S. N. Co. . , . .Messrs. Arbuthnot & Co. 

B. I. 8. N. Co. . . . .Messrs. Bimiy & Co. 

Messageries Mari times .. M, CE singer. 

Clan Line . . . .Messrs. Gordon, WoodrofEe & Co. 

Austro-Uungarian Lloyds. . . Messrs. Binny & Co. 

Anchor Line . . . . Messrs. Best & Co. 

Passengers and goods are landed or embarked in jolly 

and masula boats, the charges being : — 

lis. A. p. 

For jolly boats . . . . . . ..100 

Foe masula boats . . . . . . ..280 


6. Local Manuf aotures and Produots. — The trade of Mad - 
ras does not depend upon any special local manufactures or 
products, such industries as once flourished — weaving for in- 
stance — have decayed and no others have taken their place. 

7. Offloials. — Madras is the seat of Government during 
the cold season of the year, and is the head-quarters of the 
Eastern Division of the Madras Army, of many Military 
and Civil Departments, and the seat of the High Coui*t of 
Judicature of the Presidency. The garrison usually numbers 
8,000 men, of whom about one-third are Europeans. The 
City Police consists of a Commissioner, a Deputy Com- 
missioner, an Assistant Commissioner and 980 subordinate 
officers and constables. The Municipality is controlled by 
a President appointed by Government, and thirty-two Com- 
missioners, of whom one-fourth are nominated by Govern- 
ment, and three-fourths are elected by the rate-payers. 

8. Hissions, Ghurohes, etc. — Churches, chapels and 
other places of religious worship are numerous in Madras, 
presenting almost every phase of Christian belief. The 
principal churches are : — 

St. Geo7'ge's Cathedral built in 1815, and situated in 
Teynampet on the Mount Eoad. Visitors are admitted 
daily from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. The exterior is far from 
handsome, but the interior is well worth inspection. At 
the east end of the north aisle is a fine monument to the 
Eight Rev. Daniel Corrie, l.l.d., first Bishop of Madras, 
and on the north wall of the north aisle, one to Bishop 
Heber, who died in 1826. There is also a monument to 
Major Broadfoot, C.B., who was one of the illustrious 
garrison of Jellalabad. 

St. Mary's Church in the Fort was built in 1680 and is 
the oldest and most interesting church in the Presidency. 
It contains several monuments of interest and antiquity, 
notably those in memory of the celebrated German Mis- 
sionary Schwartz, Sir Francis Wittingham, Sir Henry 
Ward, Sir Thomas Munro, and Lord Hobart. 


St. Afidrew's, the Scotch Church, is architecturally 
superior to any other European religious edifice in the 
Presidency. The building was designed by Major de 
Havilland, and is entirely constructed of solid masonry, no 
timber work of any description being used. The steeple, 
which is 165 feet in height, is visible far out at sea. 

St. Matthias' Church (originally known as the New 
Mission Church) at Vepery was built at the expense of 
Admiral Boscawen, in replacement of one near the Beach, 
which was destroyed during the war between the French 
and the English. 

St. Thome Cathedral. — This spacious and elegant Roman 
Catholic edifice is supposed to be built over the remains 
of St. Thomas, whose reputed tomb lies beneath a large 
trap-door on the south side of the building. 

Holy Emmanuel Church in South Black Town has a 
tastefully laid out compound with a handsome fountain at 
the east end. 

The Armsnian Church of St. Mary bears on its street 
portal the date A. D. 1712. The slabs in the court are 
covered with inscriptions indicating that the Armenian 
community at Madras was once a large and wealthy body, 
fonning the leading merchants of the place. 

The Boman Cathedral {St. Mary of A fig els) situated in 
Armenian Street, was built in 1785 and is under the 
immediate charge of the Archbishop of Madras. 
Among religious Societies the principal are : — 

Church Missionary Society. 

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

London Missionary Society. 

Wesleyan Missionary Society. 

Danish Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Society. 

American Baptist Telugu Mission. 

Free Church of Scotland Mission. 

Young Men's Christian Association, 


9. Clubs. The Madras Club, for many years con- 
sidered the best in India, is situated near the Mount 
Bead. The main entrance is opposite to Neil's statue, 
about two miles from Fort St. George. All members of 
Her Majesty's services, of the Bar and clergy and gentle- 
men received in general society are eligible for member- 
ship. Gentlemen visiting Madras for a period not exceed- 
ing three months, and who are not residents within the 
limits of the Presidency, can be admitted as Honorary 
Members for an aggregate of 30 days, upon being proposed 
and seconded by members. The subscription payable by 
Honorary Members is Bs. 10 per mensem, after a residence 
of 48 hours. 

The Madras Gymkhana Club has its head-quarters on 
the Island near the Fort. It has separate departments 
for Bacing, Paper-chasing, Polo, Golf, Football, and Trap- 

The Madras Cricket Club has a nicely laid out ground 
at Chepauk, where both cricket and lawn-tennis are played. 

The Cosmopolitan Club is situated on the Mount Boad, 
and was established in 1873 to promote familiar inter- 
course between Europeans and Natives. 

In addition to the above, there are a large number of less 
important Clubs and Societies, among which may be 
mentioned the Amateur Photographic, the Philharmonic, 
and the Dramatic Societies. 

10. Histopical. As before mentioned, Mr. Francis 
Day, obtained in March 1639, from the representative of 
the waning power of Vijianagar, Shree Bunga Boyal, 
Bajah of Chandragiri, the confirmatory grant of the site 
on which Madras now stands. A factory with some slight 
fortifications was at once constructed ; and induced by 
favourable terms, a gradually increasing number of natives 
settled round the buildings. In 1702, Dawood Khan, 
Aurungzebe's General, blockaded the town for a few weeks, 
and in 1741, the Mahrattas attacked the place unsuccess- 



fully. The Fort was extended and strengthened in 1743, 
and by this time the city had already become the largest 
in South India. 

In 1746, Labourdonnais bombarded and captured the 
Fort ; but the settlement was restored to the English two 
years later by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1758, the 
French under Lally occupied Black Town and invested the 
Fort ; but it was relieved after a siege of two months on the 
arrival of a British fleet, when the besiegers retired with 

With the exception of the threatened approach of Hyder 
Ali*s horsemen in 1769, and again in 1787, Madras has, 
since the French siege, been free from external attack. 

11. Objects of Interest. The School of Arts (near 
Egmore Station) was established by Dr. Alexander Hunter 
in 1850 and was taken over by Government some five years 
later. The subjects taught are drawing, painting, engrav- 
ing in metal and wood, modelling, moulding, carpet- 
weaving and pottery-making, etc. 

The Gun Carriage Factory was originally established 
in 1802 at Seringapatam ; but, as the supply of timber from 
the teak forests of Mysore and Coorg failed, it was removed 
to Madras in 1830. The Factory is replete with all the 
requisite machinery. 

The Peoples' Park, for which Madras is indebted to 
Sir Charles Trevelyan, is near the Central Station of the 
Madras Eailway. It was established in 1859, and is 
controlled by a Superintendent under the orders of the 
Municipal Commissioners. The main entrance, open from 
5 A.M. to 8-30 P.M., is in the Poonamallee Koad adjacent 
to the Hospital Bridge. The Park contains 116 acres of 
land, eleven lakes, 5J miles of road, a band-stand, public 
bath, two lawn-tennis courts, and a small zoological and 
ornithological collection. A portion of the Park has been 
taken up for the Victoria Public Hall in the neighbourhood 
of the Poonamallee Koad. 


The Victoria Public Hall, — This building was erected 
in 1887 at a cost of Rs. 1,79,000, with funds partly raised by 
public subscription and partly borrowed from the late 
Rajah of Vizianagaram. The hall is intended for public 
or private meetings, exhibitions, lectures, concerts, dinners, 
balls, theatrical or musical performances, and for any 
other purpose conducing to the moral, social, and intellec- 
tual welfare, or rational recreation of the public of Madras. 
The upper hall will accommodate 600, the gallery 200, 
and the lower hall 600 persons. Applications for the use 
of the building should be made to the Honorary Secretary. 

The following is the present scale of charges : — 


1. For professional theatrical parties. For one single night, Bs. 60. 
If engaged for more than one night — 

From 1st to 6th both inclusive . . . . Rs. 40 per night. 

„ 7th to 12th „ „ . . . . „ 36 „ 

,, 13th to 18th „ „ . . . • ,, SO „ 

„ 19th to 24th „ „ . . . . „ 20 „ 

2. For Amateur Dramatic Societies — half the above rates. 

3. For private entertainments . . . . Bs. 30 per night 

4. For purely charitable purposes . . . . „ 20 ,, 

5. For meetings and lectures when the public 

are admitted free . . . . Bs. 16-0-0 on each occasion. 

Lower Hall . . . . ,, 10-0-0 „ „ 

North and South rooms . . „ 3-8-0 ,, „ 

Munro's Statue. — Midway between Government House 
and the Fort stands the noble equestrian statue of Sir 
Thomas Munro, by Chantrey, erected by public subscrip- 
tion at a cost of over i'12,000. 

The Napier Park is a memorial of Lord Napier and 
Ettrick, who was Governor of Madras in 18G6 — 72. On 
the west side there is a native girls* school, the last gift of 
Lord Napier. 

The Memorial Hall, near the General Hospital, was 
erected by public subscription in commemoration of *' the 
goodness and forbearance of Ahuighty God in sparing 
this Presidency from the Sepoy Mutiny which devastated 
the sister Presidency of Bengal in the year 1857. It is 


available for public meetings of a religious, educational, 
charitable, or scientific character; its doors being closed 
against balls, concerts, theatrical exhibitions and such like 
entertainments as of the character of mere worldly amuse- 
ments.'* It is managed by a committee of gentlemen 
representing the various religious bodies of Madras. 

Pachaiyappa's Hall, on the Esplanade Koad, Black 
Town, was built in 1850 from funds bequeathed by Pachai- 
yappa Mudaliyar for public charities. The building is in 
the Greek Ionic style ; but the general effect is marred by 
its environment of insignificant native buildings. 

The High Court and Law College form a handsome and 
extensive group of buildings recently constructed from the 
designs of Messrs. Brassingfcon and Irvin, Consulting 
Architects to Government. The elevation of the buildings 
is imposing and the internal decorations of the High Court 
in carving, ornamental tiling, stained glass, and iron works 
is particularly good. The new light for the Madras road- 
stead is exhibited from the main dome of the High Court, 
the old light-house being consequently no longer used. 
This light has a full power service intensity of 18,000 
candles showing all round the compas3, and giving white 
double flashes of half-minute periods. 

Fort St. George contains extensive barracks for the 
accommodation of the troops in garrison, St. Mary's 
church, the principal Government Secretariat offices and 
the Arsenal. Here in writers buildings, Clive twice 
attempted suicide by snapping a pistol at his head. From 
this Fort he marched to his first victories and from it went 
the army which on May 4th, 1799, defeated Tippoo and 
captured Seringapatam. For some years past the walls of 
the Fort have showed signs of failure and in places the 
masonry has been replaced by earthen parapets. 

Lord Coniwallis* Statue. — This statue within the Fort 
was erected in 1800, and represents in a standing attitude 
the British General, who conquered Tippoo Sultan at 

t(f( . 



Seringapatam. A panel illustrating the surrender of 
Tippoo's two sons in 1792 is sculptured in alto relievo on 
one side of the pedestal. 

Ghepauk Park and Palace. — The site of this park once 
belonged to the Nawabs of the Carnatic ; but, on the death 
of the last occupant of the musnud, the property escheated 
to Government. 

The palace is built in the Moorish style and with its 
stately tower presents a most imposing appearance. It is 
occupied by the ofl&ces of the Board of Eevenue, and an 
addition to the south accommodates the College of Civil 

Tlie Senate House, — North of the offices of the Board of 
Revenue is the Senate House of the Madras University. 
It was begun in 187 -4 and completed in 1879 at a cost of 
lis. 289,000. 

The Presidency College is situated on the Marina, south 
of the Public Works Secretariat. Within its walls stands 
a statue of Mr. E. B. Powell, C.S.I., once a leading 
educationalist of this city and a late Director of Public 

Government House is situated in an extensive deer park 
lying between the Cooum, the Marina, and the Mount and 
Wallajah Uoads. There are many interesting pictures 
in it, including a portrait of Lady Munro (by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence) and one of Clive. The Banqueting Hall is a 
lofty detached building, 80 feet long by 60 feet broad, 
principally used for State functions and Balls. It was 
constructed during Lord Clive's government to comme- 
morate the fall of Seringapatam. Among the portraits of 
past Governors of Madras are many pictures of interest 
including the following : — 

George III. (taken at the beginning of his reign), Queen 
Charlotte, a full length portrait of Sir Thomas Munro, 
Lord Hobart, Lord Harris, Lord Mornington (afterwards 
Marquis Wellesley), and General Wellesley (Duke of 
Wellington) . 


The Government Museum in Pantheon Road dates from 
1851 when the collections previously kept in Fort St. George 
were removed to the older portion of the present buildings. 
In this section is a small vivarium of indigenous snakes 
and collections illustrating the fauna, flora, mineralogy, 
archaeology, and economic products (including timbers) 
of Southern India. The new building is devoted to the 
arts, industries, and ethnology of the Madras Presidency, 
and contains a very fine selection of arms, and armour 
obtained from the Tanjore armoury, and by transfer from 
the arsenal in Fort St. George. The museum possesses 
an excellent collection of Indian coins which can be seen 
by those interested in numismatics on application to the 
superintendent and an anthropometrical Laboratory for 
research purposes which is not open to the public. Under 
Dr. Edgar Thurston's control the museum has developed 
largely in recent years and is well worth visiting. Attached 
to the museum is the Connemara public library and 
theatre. The interior of the library is beautifully decorated 
and should certainly be seen. The museum and library 
are open gratuitously to the public daily, Fridays excepted, 
from 7 A.M. to 5 p.m., but on the first Saturday of every 
month male visitors are required to leave after 12-noon to 
enable native gosha women to view the collections. 

General NeilVs Statue occupies a prominent position on 
the Mount Road near to the Club Road. 

The Government Observatory, established in 1792, is 
situated in Nungambaukam and has been under the control 
of very eminent men. 

The Agri-Horticultural Society's Gardens are in Teynam- 
pet, opposite to the chief entrance of the cathedral, the 
nurseries being located in a separate plot of land on the 
east of the cathedral. The gardens are mainly due to the 
late Dr. Wight, formerly a Surgeon in the Madras Army 
and a distinguished botanist. They occupy an area of 
22 acres and arc well laid out and stocked with many rare 


plants, tropical palms and Australian trees. The gardens 
are open free to the public at all times, and seeds can be 
bought by non- members at the office. A botanical library 
is attached to the gardens which can be used by permission 
of the Honorary Secretary. 

Madras Literary Society. — This Society possesses a 
library of over 40,000 volumes, especially complete in 
history, biography, fiction, travel, and literature, attached 
to which are reading and writing rooms. The library is 
situated in the Pantheon Road and is open to members 
from 7 A. M. to 6 p. m. on week days. Any one wishing to 
join the Society should communicate with the Honorary 


Saidapet (pop. 5,702) is a union town situated in a 
taluq of the same name, 5i miles from Madras (Egmore), 
and is the head-quarters of the Collector of the District 
of Chingleput. 

Local Accommodation. — There is no accommodation for 
Europeans, except the waiting room at the Kailway 

In the town are 4 hotels for Brahmins and 3 for native 
travellers of other castes, the charges varying from 2^ to 
4 annas per meal, according to quality. At '* Muniappa's 
Choultry,'* three-quarter of a mile from the station, free 
lodging for three days is allowed to all classes of natives. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and single bullock-carts are 
procurable at the station, the fares being — 

Jutkas — 

To the town . . . . . . . . IJ annas. 

To St. Thomas' Mount . . , . . . 2 „ 

To Madras . . . . . . . . 8 ,, 

Bullock-carts — 

To the town . . . . . . . . IJ 

To St. Thomas' Mount .. .. ..I4 

To Madras . . , . . . . . 6 




Local Manufactures and Products, — ^Weaving is the 
principal industry, suflScient cloth being made to supply 
local wants. 

Local Officials. — Besides the Collector, an Assistant 
Collector, Treasury Deputy Collector, and a District Sur- 
geon are stationed at Saidapet. The ofi&ces of the Collector 
are located in a house known as Holmes Gardens. The 
central depot for salt from the south is at this place. There 
is a local fund dispensary and a high school. 

Objects of Interest* — Two small temples, one dedicated 
to Siva, the other to Vishnu. 

The College of Agriculture, which has been in existence 
for about 25 years, gives instruction in agriculture and allied 
subjects, as veterinary knowledge, chemistry, botany, etc. 
The buildings include lecture rooms, offices, two labora- 
tories, a museum and a library, the two latter being open 
to the public during working hours. Within the college 
compound are the PrincipaPs quarters and several cottages 
for students. Attached to the institution are a botanical 
garden containing specimen crops and plants, a model 
farm of 168 acres, and a veterinary hospital. On the 
farm a herd of pure bred Nellore cattle is maintained and 
a collection of agricultural implements is open to inspection. 
The veterinary hospital can accommodate about 20 in- 
patients, and owners can send their animals for treatment 
at any time either as in- or out-patient at a moderate charge. 


Guindy is a small station, about a mile south of Saidapet, 
and between that station and St. Thomas' Mount, at which 
trains only stop, by arrangement, when H. E. the Governor 
is in residence at his country-house and during the Madras 

The Governor's residence at Guindy is in many respects 
superior to that at Madras, and owes its modern form 
to Lord Elphinstone. The house has a very handsome 


appeamnce, being faced with the beautiful shell lime plaster 
for which Madras is so famous and is surrounded by a large 
and beautiful Park. 

The Madras Race Course, one of the best in Southern 
India, is close to the station. 

Local Offi<^ials, — The following oflBcials have offices in 
Guindy , the District Kegistrar, Divisional Deputy Collector, 
Tahsildar and Sub-Magistrate. 

Local Manufactures andProducts. — Messrs. Oakes & Co. 
have established a cigar factory and tobacco depot so as 
to be outside the Municipal limits of Madras. 


St. Thomas' Mount (pop. 18,290) is a cantonment town 
in the Saidapet taluq of the Chingleput District, 8 miles 
from Madras (Egmore). 

The Mount, which is 220 feet above sea level, is composed 
of green stone and syenite and is ascended by masonry 
steps. On the plain at the Eastern side of the base, lies 
the military cantonment, which is the head-quarters of 
the Artillery in the Madras Presidency, and the station 
of a brigade of Field Artillery. The cantonment contains 
the usual neatly built barracks, offices, hospitals and stores, 
necessitated by military occupation. 

The bungalows of the officers and other residents with 
their trimly-kept gardens, give the place a pleasant appear- 
ance, while the absence of bazaars and native huts, which 
are hidden away to the eastward, adds to the favourable 
impression made on the visitor who sees the cantonment 
for the first time. 

Local Accommodation. — With the exception of the 

waiting room at the station, there is no accommodation for 

Europeans. There are two choultries about half a mile 

north of the station, where meals are served to natives of 

all classes at the rate of 24 to 3 annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are pro- 


curable at the station at train times ; and hackney carriages, 
if previously arranged for. The charge to the town is : — 

Hackney carriages . . . . . . . . 12 annas. 

•I u vKas >• •• •• •• ••%)! 

Bullock-carts . . . . . . . . 2 „ 

Local Officials. — The officials having offices in the 
cantonment are the Cantonment Magistrate, Superintend- 
ent of Police, officers commanding the batteries of Artillery 
and the Madras Infantry. 

Missions and Churches, — Below the hill are the well 
built Protestant Church of St. Thomas' a Wesleyan and 
two Roman Catholic Chapels. The summit of the Mount 
is crowned by an old Roman Catholic Church called the 
** Expectation of the Blessed Virgin," which belongs to 
the Armenian Catholics. Behind the altar is a curiously 
carved stone cross, bearing a very ancient inscription, 
which translated, reads : — 

** Who believes in the Messiah and in God above 
** And in the Holy Ghost, is in favour with him 
** Who bore the cross." 

Historical. — St. Thomas' Mount figured in British 
History long before it was made a cantonment. The battle 
of the Mount, fought on February 7th, 1759, was one of the 
fiercest struggles of the Franco-British war in India. It 
lasted from early morning till 5 p.m., when the French 
retreated, the British at that time having only sufficient 
ammunition left to last another two minutes. 

In 1774 the Cantonment became the head-quarters of 
the Artillery in the Madras Presidency and six years later 
a well equipped expedition was despatched from it to assist 
Colonel Baillie, who was then operating against a triple con- 
federation of native princes headed by Hyder Ali. Baillie's 
detachment was cut up and the force had to return to 
cantonments, harassed by countless swarms of Mahratta 

Objects of Interest, — The Little Mount, the traditionary 
site of St. Thomas' martyrdom, lies to the south-east of 


the cantonment and contains a cave in which is a spring 
of water. St. Thomas is said to have taken refuge in the 
cave when pressed by his pm'suers, and by the miraculous 
creation of the spring inside the cave he was protected 
against thirst. Two stones are pointed out as impress of 
his feet and knees, while a third stone is supposed to be 
stained with his blood. A church has been erected over 
the cave at which a large festival is annually held. At 
the foot of the steps leading to the church is a stone slab 
inscribed in Armenian characters. 


Pallavaram (pop. 4,222) is a cantonment town in the 
Saidapet taluq of the Chingleput district, 12 miles south 
of Madras (Egmore). It was formerly known as the 
Presidency Cantonment, native troops being stationed 
in it for garrisoning Madras. The lines were originally 
constructed for four regiments, but at present are only 
occupied as a European pensioner's depot. 

A range of hills separates Pallavaram from the sea, so 
that the temperature is high. The place is, however, 
healthy, and the water good and abimdant. There are two 
peaks from 400 to 500 feet in height rising from the range 
in question, each of which is crowned by a bungalow. 

Local Accommodation. — There is a choultry close to the 

station, where free lodging is allowed for three days to all 

classes of natives. After three days, 2J to 4 annas per 
meal is charged. 

Boad Co?iveya7ice. — Jutkas and bullock-carts can be had 

at the station, if previous notice is given, the fares being : — 

To the town . . . . . . 2 annas. 

Elsewhere (per mile) . . . . . . 1| „ 

Railway Facilities. — There is a good local train service 
to and from Madras. Waiting accommodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Mayiufactures and Products, — The principal 
industries are the tanning of hides for the Madras market, 


and the quarrying of stone for the Madras Harbour works 
and for road metal. 

Local Officials. — The Cantonment Magistrate of St. 
Thomas* Mount holds court here twice a week. 

Missiofis, Churches, etc. — There is a Eoman Catholic 

Objects of Interest. — In the neighbom'hood is the Pancha- 
pandava hill which contains ancient remains. 

There is a small bungalow on the top of a hill near the 
station containing a relic of the prophet, kept by Nawab 
Feroz Hussein Sahib. An annual festival is held in May. 
There is also a Durga (cemetery) about a mile east of the 
station containing the tomb of one Buddoo Shaheed 
Sahib, a hero who fought with the Portuguese, about three 
centuries ago. 


Vandalur (pop. 541) is situated in the Chingleput 
taluq of the Chingleput district, 18J miles from Madras 
(Egmore). During the wars of the Carnatic troops were 
frequently quartered in an entrenched camp, near the 
village, and a substantial house of two storeys erected by 
General Joseph Smith in 1765 is still existent. 

Pilgrims proceeding to Sriperumbudur, the reputed 
birth place of Ramanujachari, the great Vaishnavite teacher, 
and, of Udaiyavar, a Vaishnavite devotee, usually break 
their journey at Vandalur. The local temple also attracts 
a large number of pilgrims during the annual festival in 

Local Accommodation. — A free P. W. D. rest-house 
having accommodation for one person is close to station ; 
but has no furniture nor cook. Another bungalow near 
the station can be occupied on payment of one rupee per 
adult per day. It contains neither furniture nor crockery, 
and has no cook. Provisions are not procurable. 


lioad Conveyance, — Bullock-carts can be procured at a 
minimum charge of one rupee, but can be kept the whole 
day for a payment of two rupees. 

Local Manufactures and Products.— Pwm^pkins are 
grown here in large numbers. 

Objects of Interest. — The Vishnu temple having an 
inscription of Vijianugur dynasty is worth a visit. 

Sport. — In the reserved forest close to this station hare 
and partridge are fairly plentiful, and excellent snipe 
shooting can also be had in the season. The wages of 
shikarries is one to two rupees daily according to sport, 
and coolies receive 4 to 6 annas per diem. 


Guduvancheri (pop. 831) is situated in the Chingleput 
taluq of the Chingleput district, 2*2\ miles from Madras 
(Egmore), and is one of the healthiest villages in the 

Local Accommodation. — For Europeans there is a fully, 
furnished travellers' bungalow, which can accommodate 
two persons ; but occupants must provide their own cook. 
The rent is one rupee per diem for each person. Provisions 
are procurable at tlie bazaar close by. For natives of all 
classes a choultry is provided, where free lodging is allowed 
for three days. If has no cook nor cooking utensils ; so 
travellers must make their own arrangements for food. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are procurable on 
previous notice being given. The minimum charge for a 
cart is one rupee ; but the vehicle can be used the whole 
day for two rupees. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Kice is grown in 
large quantities and is sent to Madras for sale. 

Sport. — In the reserved forest near the station hare and 
partridge can be obtained, and the snipe ground is con- 
sidered one of the best in the neighbourhood of Madras. 
Shikarries can be procured at a charge of from one to two 


rupees daily according to sport and coolies at from 4 to G 
annas per diem. 


Singaperunialkoil (pop. 430) is situated in the Chingleput 
taluq of the Chingleput district, 29^ miles from Madras 
(Egmore). The village, which is about half a mile from 
the station, is the scene of a yearly festival held in May. 

Boad Conveyance, — Bullock-carts can be procured if 
previous notice be given to the local officials. The 
minimum charge is one rupee ; but the cart can be used the 
whole day on payment of two rupees. 

Object of Interest, — The village contains an old temple 
which bears inscriptions both in Telugu and Nagari. 

Sport, — Hare and partridge can be obtained in the 
reserved forest near the station, and there is good snipe 
shooting during the cold weather. The charge for a 
shikarry is from one to two rupees per diem according to 
the sport shown and for a cooly 4 to 6 annas. 


Chingleput (lat. 12-42, long. 80*01, .pop. 3,466) is the 
chief town of the Collectorate and Taluq of the same name. 
It is 34J miles from Madras (Egmore), and is the Junction 
station for a branch line to Arkonam on the Madras 
Railway. It stands half a mile from the northern bank 
of the river Palar, the intermediate space being occupied 
by a ridge of low hills. The health of Chingleput is 
generally good and the climate wonderfully cool. It is 
nearly surrounded by a number of hills, none of them much 
exceeding 500 feet in height, and these, together with the 
large tank, and several lesser sheets of water, lend to the 
scenery, especially after the rains, an appearance of 
picturesque beauty, seldom met with on the plains. The 
large tank is two miles long by one mile broad, and is 

39 miles. 










formed by the damming of the surplus water of the country 
for 10 miles to the north. Passengers for the ** Seven 
Pagodas *' can ahght at this station. 

The distances to the principal junctions on the South 
Indian Eailway are : — 

To Arkonam Junction (for Madras Railway, etc.) 
Villupuram Junction (for Pondicherry) 
Mayavaram Junction (for Negapatam and Mutupet) 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) 
Anunayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) 

Maniyachi (for Tinnevelly) 

Local Accommodation. — There is a good travellers' 
bungalow close to the Railway station, which is fully 
furnished and has a butler in charge, who can supply 
meals, if required. This bungalow can accommodate four 
persons at one time. If previous notice is given, arrange- 
ments can be made to accommodate as many as twelve as 
there are sufficient servants, crockery, etc., at the bungalow. 
The rent is one rupee per diem for a single person, and 
Re. 1 and As. 8 for a married couple. Near the station are 
four Brahmin hotels where meals are served to all classes of 
natives at from 2 J to 4 annas per head. There is also a 
commodious choultry, where free lodging for three days 
is allowed. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are pro- 
curable at the station at 2 annas per mile. 

Railway Facilities. — There is a first and second class 
waiting-room at the station, also refreshment rooms for first 
and second-class passengers, at which a small stock of 
travellers* requisites is kept by Messrs. Spencer & Co., 

Missions, Churches, etc. — Near the travellers' bungalow 
are Protestant and Roman Cotholic churches, the former 
of which maintains a Mission High School. 

Local Officials. — The District Judge, Joint Magistrate, 


Civil Surgeon, Superintendent of the Jail, District Munsif, 
Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate and the Superintendent of the 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Brick-making is 
the principal industry, the clay being the best in the district 
for bricks. Weaving is also carried on at the Reformatory. 

Historical. — The Fort was erected at the end of the 
sixteenth century, when the Vijianagar Rajahs held their 
court alternately here and at Chandragiri. Its trace is 
nearly a parallelogram of 400 yards from north to south, 
and 320 yards from east to west, and it is built of roughly 
dressed stone. About 1644 it passed into the hands of the 
Golcondah Chiefs, who gave it up to the Nawabs of Arcot, 
and by the latter, it was surrendered in 1751 to Chunda 
Sahib. In 1752, Clive bombarded it, and compelled the 
French garrison to yield. After the reduction of Fort 
St. David in 1758, the English, apprehensive of an attack 
on Madras, called in all the garrisons and stores from 
outlying forts, andChingleput was consequently abandoned. 
On the advance of the French from the south it was again 
garrisoned, but Lally, the French Governor, finding it 
impregnable, left it in his rear and passed on to Madras. 
In 1780, the British force operating against Hyder Ali 
found refuge here after the destruction of General Baillie's 
column. During the later wars with Mysore, this fortress 
was once taken by the enemy, re-occupied by the British, 
and twice unsuccessfully besieged, from which time 
it remained uninterruptedly in the hands of the Piast India 

Objects of Interest. — The remains of the old Fort, the 
Refonnatory School, the Shrine of Tirukalikundram, 
Sadras, the Fort at Tiruvadisulam and the old ( 'emetery. 

Sport. — Excellent snipe shooting can be had in the 
season. Shikarries are available at a charge of rupee one to 
rupees two daily, according to sport shown. Coolies are 
paid 4 annas per day. 







The ''Seven Pagodas'* or Mahavellipore, stand midway 
between Sadras and Covelong and are conveniently reached 
vid Chingleput on the South Indian Kailway. There is a 
good metalled road from Chingleput to Sadras bridge 
(18 miles), the fare by jutka for this portion of the journey 
being Es. 2 and As. 8. At Sadras bridge it is necessary to 
take a boat, and application for one to be in readiness 
should be made previously to Varatha Rajalu Chetty, though 
generally boats can be picked up at the bridge without 
prior notice. The charge for a boat from Sadras to Maha- 
vellipore (5 miles) is about Rs. *2. An alternative road 
branches ofif from tlie Sadras road at Tirukalikundram 
(sacred kite village) leading to the point on the Buckingham 
Canal opposite to Mahavellipore (Seven Pagodas). This 
is an unmetalled road and difficult in the rainy season, but 
it is nine miles shorter than vid Sadras, and bullock-carts 
frequently prefer to take it. Assuming that Chingleput is 
left early in the morning, the following would be the appro- 
ximate time-table for the journey by jutka and boat : — 

Leave Chingleput . . . . 7-15 

Arrive Sadras Bridge , . . .10-15 

Leave Sadras Bridge . . . .10-30 

. . o Ti J f 152-0 if wind is favourable. 
Arrive Seven PagodaR J 

® I 1-30 with head wind. 

If the journey were made entirely by road, it would take 
4 hours by jutka and 7i to 8 hours by bullock-cart and the 
fares would be — 

By jutka . . . . . . . . Ks. 4 

By bullock-cart . . . . . . ..,,180 

At Mahavellipore there is a rest-house which is in charge 

of the Executive Engineer, Buckingham Canal Division, 

and will shortly afford accommodation for six persons, at 

one time. Eggs, fowls, sea-fish and milk are procurable ; 

also food for servants. The charge for the use of this 

building (which is furnished and contains cutlery, crockery 

and a cook) is 8 annas per diem or portion of a day of 24 

hours per person. Should accommodation be required 

by a Government official on duty, private individuals must 


vacate. As it is improbable, however, that more than one 
Government official would be there at one time and the 
bungalow will be furnished for six persons, this is a remote 
contingency. The best way for tourists to see the place 
is to go from the rest-house to the monolithic temples and 
figures called the raths, thence to the structural Shore 
Pagoda, then through the village to the low range of hills 
containinig several excavations, the sculpture of Arjuna's 
Penance and the light-house on top of a pagoda. The 
raths are situated close together about ^ mile from the 
sea. With regard to these Mr. Fergusson, in his Historj* 
of Indian and Eastern Architecture, says: — **The oldest 
and most interesting group of monuments are the so- 
called five raths, or monolithic temples standing on the 
sea-shore. One of these, that with the apsidal termina- 
tion, stands a little detached from the rest. The other four 
stand in a line north and south, and look as if they had 
been carved out of a single stone or rock, which originally, 
if that were so, must have been between 35 feet and 40 
feet high at its southern end sinking to half that height 
at its northern extremity, and its width diminishing in a 
like proportion. The first on the north is a mere Pausala 
or cell, 11 feet square externally, and 1(3 feet high. It is 
the only one too that seems finished or nearly so, but it 
has no throne or image internally from which we might 
guess its destination. The next is a small copy of the 
last to the southward, and measures 11 feet by 1(5 feet in 
plan and 20 feet in height. The third is very remarkable : 
it is an oblong building with a curvilinear-shaped roof with 
a straight ridge. Its dimensions are 42 feet long, 25 feet 
wide and 25 feet high. Externally it seems to have been 
completely carved, but internally only partially excavated, 
the works being apparently stopped by an accident. It is 
cracked completely through, so that daylight can be seen 
through it, and several masses of the rock have fallen to 
the ground. This has been ascribed to an earthquake and 




other causes. My impression is, the explanation is not 
far to seek, but arose from unskilfulness on the part of the 
workmen employed in a first attempt. Having completed 
the exterior, they set to work to excavate the interior, so 
as to make it resemble a structural building of the same 
class, leaving only such pillars and supports as were 
sufficient to support a wooden roof of the ordinary con- 
struction. In this instance it was a mass of solid granite 
which, had the excavation been completed, would certainly 
have crushed the lower storey to powder. As it was, the 
builders seem to have taken the hint of the crack, and 
stopped the further progress of the works. The last, 
however, is the most interesting of the series. Its dimen- 
tions are 27 feet by 25 feet in plan, 34 feet in height. Its 
upper part is entirely finished with its sculptures, the lower 
merely blocked out. It may be that, frightened by the 
crack in the last-named rath, or from some other cause, 
they desisted, and it still remains in an unfinished state." 
Mr. Fergusson adds: '* I see no reason for doubting the 
inference drawn by Sir Walter Elliot from their inscriptions 
that the excavations could not well have been made later 
than the 6th century." Add to all this that the raths are 
certainly very much like Buddhist buildings as we learn to 
know them from the early caves, and it seems hardly to 
admit of doubt that we have here petrifactions of the last 
fonns of Buddhist arcliitectui-e, and the first forms of that 
of the Dra vidian. 

The Shore Temple (plate No. 6) has, owing partly to 
its romantic position within range of the spray from the 
surf, attracted more general attention than the whole of 
the rest of the remains put together. It is in the purest 
early Dravidian style, the vimanah or tower over the 
shrine forming the central and principal mass, while the 
gopuram, or original gateway alongside is comparatively 
insignificant. The superficial extent of this temple is 
small, about 1,600 feet, and the height of the vimanah is 


about 60 feet. Like the smaller one, it is surmounted by 
the umbrella-shaped summit called Kalasa, made of basaltic 
rock which, unlike the granite below, bears no signs of 
destruction by the sea-air. It is built of blocks of granite, 
but time and religious strife have done much to conceal 
and alter the original design. What was no doubt the 
gateway on the eastern side has afterwards been converted 
into a separate shrine, and the passage of communication 
between the two has been blocked up at each end. 

Additional support is given to this view by the fact that 
a stone screen surrounds the larger vimanah, but stops 
opposite the smaller. Moreover, the only entrance at 
present to the larger is through a large bare doorway cut 
in the screen, the only access to which is by scrambling 
along the edge of precipitous rocks, while that to the smaller 
is from the south over bare ground ; but these rocks bear 
marks of the cutting of the rude stone steps, and apparently 
of platforms to support some terrace or superstructure. A 
pillar supposed to be a Dhipastamba, or lamp-pillar, such as 
is found in all pagodas, stands in the surf, but there is no visi- 
ble means of ascent, and, except a sort of peg at the top, no 
appliance for fixing a light. Near the temple lie various 
figures of small crouching bulls and a mahishesura, all much 
eaten away by the action of the sea-air. The garbhagriha 
or ** womb of the temple '' under the principal vimanah, is 
occupied by a large lingam, sixteen sided made of black 
marble which is much mutilated. In a sort of verandah 
behind is a recumbent figure of Vishnu with the ordinary 
Nagasesha above and below him. This unusual presence 
of the two deities under one roof is unexplained, unless it 
be that the temple like the raths was erected before the 
intolerance of sects had produced irreconcilable antagonism 
between the Sivite and Vishnuvite faiths. In confirmation 
of this theory, images of Brahma and Vishnu are found 
carved on the wall along with those of Parvati, Parames- 
wara and the young Subramanyaswami. 

— ^ 


Dr. Hunter, late of the Madras School of Arts, thus 
describes the great bass-relief which goes by the name of 
**Arjuna's Penance" (plate No. 7). On the left side of 
the rock, which is divided by a deep natural cleft, the 
chief figure in the upper part appears to be the giant rajah, 
Mahabali Chakravurthi, with his attendant dwarfs, five 
rajahs with their wives, four w^arriors, five ascetics, and a 
holy rishi in his cave temple. The lions, tigers, cheetahs 
and deer, in different parts of the sculpture, show that the 
people have travelled from a distance through the jungles. 
In the central part of the cleft at the bottom, on the left, 
is a figure seated, which I take to be Buddha, with his five 
disciples in front of the cave temple with the holy Rishi. 
The heads of three of the disciples have been broken off. 
In the deep recess formed by the natural cleft in the centre 
of the rock sculpture is the lower part of the body and 
tail of the snake deity Vasuki, the Naga Rajah, and below 
this is the entire figure of Ulipi, his daughter, with a 
canopy of three snakes rising over the head. The upper 
portion of the Naga deity had been broken off and was 
said to be buried in front of the sculptures. I made search 
for it, found it and got it dug up, set upright and photo- 
graphed ; it is the figure of a man with his hands raised in 
prayer, and a canopy of seven snakes rising over a 
pyramidal head-dress, and with the usual emblems of the 
Buddhist religion. To the right of these are several 
rajahs and men, each accompained by his wife, six dwarfs, 
and eight garudas, or figures of men and women with the 
legs of birds ; several monkeys, a cat doing penance, while 
rats are running near it. Two large, and several small 
elephants, lions, tigers, geese, cocks and hens. I thought at 
first that all the figures were coming to do reverence, or to 
worship the snake deity, but when we first took photo- 
graphs of this rock sculpture, the whole of the central cleft 
was overgrown with trees and brushwood and the five 
disciples of Buddha were buried . Lord Napier, then Gover- 


nor of Madras, visited the spot about a week after the snake 
deity was dug up, and had excavations made to the depth 
of 7 or 8 feet, which exposed a great number of figures 
and animals, and showed that the old road must have 
passed in front of the rock at a depth of five or six feet 
below the present level, the ground having been filled up 
chiefly with broken bricks and earth, with here and there 
large fragments of sculptured rocks, dressed stone, and 
cornices from the adjoining temples. The broken tusk 
of the large elephant was also found. To the left and 
below the five disciples of Buddha is a deer, in a very 
natural attitude, scratching its nose with its hind foot. 
The male and female elephants with their young behind 
them, and some of the figures of crouching tigers and 
cheetahs, are in a very natural and spirited style, and 
there is a great look of natural animation, movement and 
bustle in the whole group of which Buddha and his five 
disciples appear to occupy the principal position and to 
attract the greatest attention, while the snake deity and 
his daughter are, as it were, in the background, and ascetics 
are scattered about in several parts . . . One point of 
great importance in these early rock sculptures is that 
they represent scenes of peace, with men and their wives, a 
single wife accompanying each, and the animals, garudas, 
and birds in pairs, while the Bajah Mahabali is accompanied 
by dwarfs, and other rajahs, whose rank is indicated by 
umbrella-bearers, have each his wife beside him. The 
ascetics, of whom there are five or six, have no wives. It 
appears to me that the story is one which represents the 
establishment of the Buddhist religion or one of peace, 
goodwill, toleration, and kindness to all men, and to 
animals and birds." 

With regard to the return journey from Mahavellipore, 
the best time to leave is in the afternoon, the following 
being an approximate time-table with a fair wind. With 
a head-wind the boat journey to Sadras bridge will occupy 



about three hours, unless extra coolies be engaged for 
towing when the time may be shortened by one liour. 

Leave Seven Pagodas . . . . . . 2- p.n). 

Arrive Sadras Bridge . . . . . . 8-15 

Leave Sadras Bridge . . . . B-25 

Arrive Ghingleput . . . . . . 6-90 

The cost of the return journey is the same as that of the 

The Seven Pagodas can also be reached from Madras, the 
journey being made entirely by boat, and occupying about 
8 hours in one direction and 17 in the other, according to 
the wind. Applications for house, boats and particulars 
as to charge should be made to the Wharf Superintendent, 
the Basin, Madras. For this journey, furniture must be 
hired, and servants and provisions taken. It is usual to 
go onboard and leave the boats at the bridge near Searle's 
Gardens at the Adyar. 


Kolatur {North) (pop. •2,017) is situated in the Chingleput 
taluq of the Chingleput district, about 1^ miles, north of 
the river Palar, on the main line, 40^ miles from Madras 
(Egmore). The native name of this place is ** Porkalan- 
thy'* and it was the birthplace of the Tamil poet, Puha- 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are available, if previ- 
ous notice given, at a charge of 2 annas per mile. 

Local Officials. — The Village MunsiflF and kumam. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — There is a Mission School 
under the management of Rev. A. Andrews, of Chingleput, 
near the station. 

Objects of Interest, — In the village of Manapakam, 
about J of a mile south, is a temple dedicated to ** Kanney- 
ammon" where a festival is held every Friday. 

Sport. — Snipe shooting can be had during the season. 
Shikarif s are not available ; but coolies can be engaged at 
4 annas per day. 



Padalam (pop. 900) is situated in the Madurantakain 
taluq of the Chingleput district, on the southern bank of 
the river Palar, on the main line, 42J miles from Madras 
(Egmore) . Men in this village are credited with the power 
of curing snake-bite. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained, on 
previous notice, at 2 annas per mile. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiflf and kurnam. 

Objects of Interest. — The Kailway Bridge near the sta- 
tion is one of the largest on the line, having 18 spans of 
120 feet. 

Sport. — Snipe shooting can be had here in the cold 
season. Shikaries are not available ; but coolies can be 
hired at 4 annas per diem. 


Madiirantakam (pop. 5,143) is situated in the Madu- 
rantakam taluq of the Chingleput district, on the main 
line, 51 miles from Madras (Egmore). The village is about 
J of a mile west of the station, which comtmands a view of 
cocoanut and plantain groves on all sides. The chief 
residents of this place are Brahmins of the Vishnava sect. 

Local Accommodation. — There is a travellers' bungalow 
about 2^ miles west of the station which is fully furnished. 
No cook is kept, and fowls, milk and eggs are the only 
eatables for Europeans obtainable in the village. 

For Hindus there are four hotels close to the railway sta- 
tion, where meals are served at from 2i to 3 annas per head. 

A choultry is also being constructed. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are pro- 
curable at the station. 

Charges — 

Jutkas . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Bullock-carts . . . . 1 J 

Local Manufactures and Products — liice is largely 
grown and laced and other cloths are woven. Salt is 

M fl 



brought into this station in great quantities from Seyyur 
and Soonampet. 

Local Officials. — The Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, Sub- 
Begistrar, and Inspector of Police. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — About IJ miles, east of the sta- 
tion, is a Eomaa Catholic Church. 

Clubs. — Madurantakara possesses a Keading-roora at- 
tached to the Hindu High School, a Tennis Court for the 
oflScials of the place, and a Literary Society called the 
Hindu Young Men's Association, which possesses a fairly 
good library. 

Objects of Interest. — The large tank about half a mile, 
south-west of the station, formed by damming up the 
Kiliyaur, is 1^ miles long, and its circumference when full is 
seven miles. Its overflow or surplusing weir is a very fine 
work, the height from the crest to the bed of the river below 
being 30 feet. The southern portion is a curious and 
beautiful specimen of masonry. Instead of being built in 
steps, the face of this part of the weir is parabolic in 
section and consists of huge blocks of granite dressed to 
this shape and clamped together. 

About two miles, north of the station, at Karunguli, are 
the remains of an old fort apparently Muhammedan, sur- 
rounded by a moat and containing the ruins of granaries. 

Sport. — During the cold season, snipe shooting can be 
had in the neighbourhood of Madurantakam. 


Acharapakam (pop. 1,272) is situated in the Maduranta- 
kam taluq of the Chingleput district, the village being 
about A mile, south-west of the station. 

Local Accomviodation. — About \ mile, west of the sta- 
tion, is a travellers' bungalow, containing one cot, one chair 
and a table and which can be occupied free of charge. 
There is no cook, and, except eggs, fowls and milk, no 
provisions are to be had. 



For natives, there is a choultry which can be occupied 
three days free of charge. Meals can be supplied at from 
2i to 3 annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are available at a 
charge of from 1\ to 2 annas per mile, according to season. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Rice is largely 
grown, and mats are manufactured. Salt is imported in 
large quantities from Seyyur and Soonampet. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiff, Revenue Inspec- 
tor, Sub-Inspector of Salt and Abkari and a Vaccinator. 

Missions, ChurcheSy etc. — There is a Roman Catholic 
Church near the railway station. 

Objects of Interest. — A big Siva temple at Sothuppola, 
some 2 miles north of the station, contains inscriptions. 
Festivals are held here during March and April. 

Sport. — Snipe shooting can be had during the cold 
weather. The wage of a shikary is from 8 annas to one 
rupee, and of coolies 4 annas per diem. 


Peramhair (pop. 600) is situated in the Madurantakam 
taluq of the Chingleput district, on the main line 62J 
miles from Madras (Egmore). 

The village is about J mile, north-west of the station, 
and has an old Siva temple dedicated to Subramanya. 


Olakiir (pop. 2,767) is situated in the Tindivanam taluq 
of the South Arcot district, on the main line 68 miles from 
Madras (Egmore). 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Rice and varagu 
are grown. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiff and Kurnam. 


Tindivanam (pop. 9,191), the station for Wandiwash, is 
the chief town of the taluq of the same name in the 


South Arcot District. It is on the main Hne 75j miles 
from Madras (Egmore), and consists of the hamlets of 
Avarapaukam, Cauverypauk, Gidangal, Jafifarabad, Moo- 
rangapaukam and Tindivanam. Gidangal was formerly 
fortified. The ruins of the ramparts and ditch still exist, 
and the place most probably was once of considerable 
importance, being situated close to the large Gidangal 
tank, where it would afford a secure granary for the rice 
crops grown under the tank. 

Local Accomvwdation, — For Europeans a fully furnish- 
ed travellers' bungalow is kept up under the charge of a 
butler, but there is no cook, and travellers must make 
their own arrangements for food. Rent 8 annas per day. 

For natives, a choultry is maintained close to the 
station, where meals are supplied at 2^ annas per head. 
There are besides a number of small hotels in the town. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be hired at 2 annas 
per mile. 

Railway Facilities.— There is a Waiting-room at the 
station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Eice cultivation, 
weaving and tanning are the principal industries. 

Local Officials.— The Sub-Collector, P. W. D. Sub- 
Divisional Officer, District Munsiff, Tahsildar and Sub- 

Missions, Churches, etc. — There is a Protestant as well 
as a Roman Catholic Church, while the American Mission 
have established a station. 

Clubs. — A small Reading-room for natives is main- 

Historical. — Tindivanam itself possesses but little of 
interest. Gingee, however, was formerly of great import- 

Gingee. — From the Tamil Chenji, probably meaning a 
fortified place, is situated 18 miles from Tindivanam station 
with which it is connected by an excellent metalled road. 


The distance is covered by a pony-jutka in two hours by 
day and three by night, and by bullock-cart in about 
4i hours. The Station Master at Tindivanam can usually 
arrange for transport, if given a few hours' notice, at 
2i annas for a jutka. and IJ annas for a bullock-cart per 
mile. The road is sufficiently good throughout to permit 
of the journey being made by bicycle. Close to Gingee is a 
Local Fund Eest-house, but as it only contains a bedstead, 
one chair and two tables, it is necessary to take bedding, 
furniture, and cooking utensils. Milk, butter, eggs, poultry 
are procurable locally, and it is advisable to take a supply 
of small change to pay for such purchases. The charge 
for the bungalow is 8 annas for each 24 hours or shorter 
period per person, or 12 annas for 2 persons sharing the 
same room. 

Visitors to this ancient and almost impregnable strong- 
hold will be amply repaid for any trouble taken in reaching 
it, and if they desire to thoroughly investigate the stupen- 
dous ruins, should devote at last three clear days to the 
trip. Gingee comprises a group of three strongly fortified 
hills rising from 400 to 600 feet above the surrounding 
plain. The hills with their connecting massive granite 
walls of circumvallation enclose an irregular triangle 
whose area, according to Orme, exceeds seven square miles. 
The citadel is on the summit of Eajagiri, the highest peak, 
and is absolutely unapproachable, except from the north 
side, where a frail bamboo bridge spans a natural chasm 
artificially enlarged to 24 feet in width and 60 feet in depth. 
This bridge, some idea of which is given in plate 9, is 
reached by a staii'case of rough hewn granite blocks wind- 
ing from the base to the summit by a fairly easy gradient. 
The ascent is admirably commanded by the strong gate- 
ways of the three inner walls, and the bridge is dominated 
at 30 yards range by another masonry gateway, the flank- 
ing walls of which are pierced with embrasures and loop- 
holes. The remaining hills, Kistnagiri or the English 



Mountain, and Chandrayan Drug or St. George's Mountain, 
form suitable outworks to the citadel with which they are 
connected by the outer wall. Space will only admit of 
the most interesting objects being enumerated and which 
the visitor should not miss seeing. These are briefly the 
two unfailing springs on the summit of Rajagiri, the two 
pagodas, the Kaliyana Mahal, the Gymkhana, the Grana- 
ries, the Edgahs, the Prisoners' Well, and the Devil's Gate 
and Tank. The great gun of Gingee bearing the figures 
7660 stamped in the breach and made of a metal which 
has successfully resisted oxidation should be seen, as also 
a granite slab 15 feet square and 4 or 5 inches thick and 
known as the Rajah's bathing stone. If possible, the visitor 
should endeavour to secure the services of an obliging 
village official in the capacity of cicerone. Many of them 
speak English very well, and they have a never-failing 
fund of fable and anecdote relating to the by-gone glories 
of Gingee. At the present time the forts are practically 
deserted, a casual devotee or cooly being the only living 
persons to be seen. 

The construction of the fortress is generally attributed 
to the Vijayanagar rajahs, an hypothesis which receives 
some support from the marked similarity of the ruins to 
those of Vijayanagar at Humpi. Gingee was in possession 
of these rajahs from the close of the 13th century until 
A.D. 1564, when it was captured by the Bijapur troops 
during the struggle between Vijayanagar Viceroys of the 
south and the combined forces of Bijapur, Golconda and 
Ahmednagar. In 1661-62 famine and pestilence caused 
the Muhammedans to evacuate Gingee, with the result 
that five years later Sivaji was able to obtain possession of 
the place by treachery. In 1689, Ram Raja, a brother of 
Sivaji, fled to Gingee for refuge when it became a rallying 
point for the Mahrattas. The Mogul army, under Zulfikar 
Khan, is said to have besieged the fortress for eight years, 
though it seems doubtful whether he was not in secret 


communication with the enemy during the greater part of 
the time. However, in January 1698, news reached Madras 
that he had captured the place by escalade, and it remained 
in possession of the Moguls until taken by the French in 
1750, by a night attack. Two years later, a small Enghsh 
force attempted to capture the fortress, and in 1761 a 
second investment by the British resulted in a successful 

Objects of Interest, — At Perumukal, six miles from 
Tindivanam, is an isolated rock, which was a fortified 
post during the 18th century, and was captured and re-cap- 
tured by the French and English on several occasions. 


Mailam (pop. 1,505) is situated in the Tindivanam 
taluq of the South Arcot district, on the main line 81 
miles from Madras (Jlgmore). The village is about 3 miles, 
south-east of the station, to which there is a good metalled 
road. Mailam stands at the foot of a hill, on the top of 
which is a Siva temple dedicated to Subramanya Swami, 
the eldest son of the god. 

Local Accommodation. — There are ten chuttrams for 
natives, in nine of which free lodging is allowed for three 
days, and food is supplied at 2^ annas per meal. In the 
remaining chuttram (known as Vencataramana Iyer's) free 
meals are served to Brahmins. 

Road Conveyance, — Bullock-carts are available. 

Charges — 

To tho village . . . . . . 4 annas. 

Elsewhere . . . . • • li annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Some three miles, 
east of the station, are important stone quarries which are 
largely worked for religious purposes. 

Local Officials, — The Village Munsiff and Kurnam. 

Objects of Interest,— At Chittanur, four miles north of 
the station, is an old Jain temple containing inscriptions 
and a stone car said to have been brought from Tanjore. 



Vikravandi (pop. 2,734) is situated in the Villupuram 
taluq of the South Arcot district, on the main line 90J 
miles from Madras (Egmore). The village is about a mile 
south of the station. 

Local Accommodation, — A travellers' bungalow having 
accommodation for two persons, but containing only one 
cot, two chairs and two tables, and unprovided with either 
crockery or servants, is situated near the station. Charge 
8 annas per diem. Fowls, eggs and milk are the only 
eatables suitable for Europeans procurable locally. Two 
chuttrams are maintained — one for Brahmins only, the 
other for Brahmins and other natives which travellers 
may use free of rent for three days. The charge for meals 
varies from 2 to 8 annas, but occupants may do their own 
cooking if they wish. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are available on pre- 
vious notice at 2 annas per mile. 

Local Afanufactures and Prodiicts. — Indigo, rice, gin- 
gelly seeds and tamarind are grown. 

Local Officials, — The Village Munsiff, Kurnam, Sub- 
Registrar and Sub-Inspector of Salt and Abkari. 

Afissions, Churches, etc. — There is a Roman Catholic 

Objects of Interest. — Two miles, south-east of the sta- 
tion, is an old Siva temple dedicated to Nethrotharakar, 
embellished with good sculptures and some inscriptions. 
Festivals are held in January and April. The legend with 
regard to this temple is that once a Raksha did penance 
for a long time. Siva appeared before him and asked him 
what he wished for. The Raksha thereupon requested 
Siva to grant him power to destroy by fire any one upon 
whom he placed his hands. This request was granted and 
the Raksha immediately desired to test the supernatural 
powers thus conferred. Finding no human subject for the 
experiment, he attempted to lay his hands on the head of 


Siva himself, but the god Siva being afraid ran away pur- 
sued by the Raksha and entered into a creeper where he 
disappeared. The name of this creeper is given to the 
village, and its blossom, if opened, is said to shew a lingam 
on close examination. 


Vilhipuram (lat. 11-57^; long. 79-32°; pop. 7,950) 
situated in the Villupuram taluq of the South Arcot 
district is an important Junction station on the main line 
98 miles south of Madras (Egmore). Branch lines to 
Pondicherry, Dharmavaram and Gudur take off at this 
station. Though the place is low lying it is healthy, and 
is liked by its European and large Eurasian population of 
railway employes. 

The distances to the principal stations on the South 
Indian Railway are — 

Chingleput . . . . . . . . 63 milefi. 

Arkonam (for Madras Railway) . . . . 103 ,, 

Pondicherry . . . . . . 24 

Mayavarara (for Negapatam and Mutupet) . . 75 

Peralam (for Raraikkal) . . . . . . 85 

Tanjore . . . . . . . . 119 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) . . . . 150 

Ammayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) . . . . 221 

Madura . . . . . . 246 

Tuticorin . . . . . . . . 345 

Local Accommodation. — About 1\ miles from the station 
is a travellers' bungalow which can accommodate two 
persons. It is fully furnished ; but occupants must make 
their own arrangements for cooking. Provisions are not 
procurable locally. Rent one rupee each person per diem. 

Close to the station are two choultries for native travel- 
lers. Charge 2J annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are available at the 

Charges — 

To the town . . . . . . 1 anna. 

Neighbouring villages . . . . 1^ annas per mile. 




Baihcay Facilities. — A Waiting-room for first and second 
class passengers, and a Refreshment-room is provided at 
the station. The butler in charge of the refreshments has 
usually a small stock of travellers' requisites for sale. 

For native passengers a Refreshment-room, under 
Brahmin management, is given at the north end of the 
waiting shed, the charges being — 

Meals . . . . . . 3 annas each. 

Coffee or Tea . . . . . . 1 anna 3 pies per glass. 

Near this Refreshment-room is a small enclosed bathing 
place for the use of natives. 

On the first floor of the station building are two bed- 
rooms and a sitting-room fully furnished for Europeans, 
which may be occupied on payment of the following 
charges : — 

For periods not exceeding three hours . . . . 8 annas. 

Exceeding three and not exceeding twenty-four hours . . 1 rupee. 

Local MaJiufactures and Products. — -Rice, ragi, ground- 
nuts and indigo are the chief products. 

Local Officials. — The Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, Dis- 
trict Munsifif, Sub-Registrar, Forest Ranger and Police 
Inspector. The East India Distilleries Company have an 
office here. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — There are several schools, a 
Protestant Church of the Lutheran Mission near the 
Travellers' bungalow, and a Roman Catholic Church near 
the station. 

Historical. — On the 24th July 1752, this place was 
captured from the French, and in the same year the fort 
was retaken by Dupleix. The English regained possession 
on the 3rd April 1760. 

Objects of Interest. — At Villupuram itself there is little 

to see ; but about 2J miles north-west is the village of 

Tiruvamathur, held sacred by the Hindus on account of an 

ancient temple dedicated to the god Abhi Rameswarer, and 

where the great Rama and the seven recognised sages of 

old are said to have worshipped. A festival takes place 


annually in April. The name of the village which means 
** sacred milk, " is accounted for in the following legend : — 
When first created, cows were without horns, and, finding 
themselves helpless against ferocious animals, they prayed 
to Siva for some weapons of defence. The god presented 
himself before them in this village and blessed them with 
horns. About 3 miles east of Villupuram is a place called 
Kolianur which contains a Mariammen Temple, dedicated 
to Puttalayi Ammen, and is visited by pilgrims on Fridays. 
Sport. — Good snipe shooting can be had from November 
to February at the Anangur and Kondangi tanks, 2 and 3 
miles, respectively, south-east of the station when the water 
is not too high. In the reserved forests of Adanur and 
Kandambulyur, 3 and 6 miles, respective!)', north of the 
station, deer may be found in abundance ; and in Aryatore, 
Odyanatham and Gangarambolum, 12, 13 and 17 miles, 
respectively, west, leopards and hysenas may be shot. To 
shoot in these forests, passes must first be obtained from 
the local Government Forest Officers. 


Serndanur (pop. 1,489) is situated in the Villupuram 
taluq of the South Arcot district on tlie main line 1054 
miles from Madras (Egmore). The village is about } 
mile east of the station. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiflf and Kurnam. 


Panruti (pop. 8,956) is a union town situated in the 
Cuddalore taluq of the South Arcot district, 110^ miles 
from Madras (Egmore). 

Local Accommodation. — A Travellers' bungalow fully 
furnished and having accommodation for two persons is 
situated at the Salem Frontier Koad next to the Local Fund 
Dispensary. No cook is kept, and a charge of 8 annas per day 
for each person using the bungalow is levied. Provisions 
to a limited extent can be obtained in the local bazaar. 


Two choultries are maintained, the one close to the 
station and the other in the town, where native travellers 
of all classes can put up for three days without charge. 
Meals are served if required at a charge of 2^ annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — ^Jutkas and bullock-carts are procur- 
able at the station. 

Charges — 

T ifVfto ^ ^ *^® town . . . . IJ anuas. 

juiKas -(elsewhere .. ..2 „ per mile. 

V, 1, , . C to the town .. ..lanna 

BuUock-cartB . . -^ ^i^^hore . . . . U anuao 


Railway Facilities. — A waiting-room is provided at the 
station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufacture and Products. — Weaving, the manu- 
facture of toys, and tanning are the principal industries. 
The chief products are ground-nuts, jaggery, rice, cereals, 
cashunuts and jack-fruit, oil and oil cake. 

Local Officials. — The Deputy Tahsildar, Union Chair- 
man, Police Inspector, Hospital Assistant. The East India 
Distilleries Company have an office, where banking is car- 
ried on. 

Missions, Churches, etc.— The Church of Scotland have 
established a Mission centre at Panruti, and there is a 
Koman Catholic Church about 1;! miles south-west of the 

Objects of Interest. — An old Siva temple with a fine 
gopuram, an ancient mosque and two Siva temples about 
1 mile south-east of the station at Thiruvethe. 



Netlikuppam (pop. 1,112) is a union town in the 
Cuddalore taluq of the South Arcot district, on the main 
line 118| miles from Madras (Egmore). 

Local Accomvwdation. — There are three Brahmin hotels 
and two choultries, where meals are supplied at a charge 
of 2J annas each. At one of the choultries, travellers may 
make their own arrangements for food if they prefer to 
do 60. 


Road Conveijatice. — Bullock-carts can be had at the 
station at a charge of li annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The East Indian 
Distilleries Company have a large Sugar Factory and Dis- 
tillery connected with the station by a private siding. 
Betel leaves are grown at Nellikuppam in large quantities. 

Local Officials, — The Sub-Registrar, Union Chairman, 
and Inspector of Salt and Abkari. 

Missions^ Churches, etc. — About three miles, west of the 
station, is a Protestant Church. 


Cuddahre (lat. ll•43^ long. 79-49"; pop. 47,855) is the 
chief town of the taluq of the same name and the head- 
quarters of the South Arcot district, 127J miles from 
Madras (Egmore). The Municipality is a large one 
comprising an area of about 13 square miles. It embraces 
the old town or Cuddalore proper, Fort St. David, 
BandipoUiem, Devanampatnam, Munjacoopam, Puthu- 
poUiem, Tirupapuliyur, and nine smaller villages. The 
mouth of the Gadilam river having silted up, only native 
craft and lighters can come up to the town ; but good 
anchorage can be obtained in the roads IJ miles from the 
shore. The Ponniar and Gadilam rivers run through 
Cuddalore, and afford an abundant water-supply. The 
old town, however, depends more or less on the reservoir 
close to the Railway station, which is fed by a channel 
from the Capper Hill. 

Local Accommodation. — There is a furnished Travellers' 
bungalow on the Napier Road at Munjacoopam, which 
can be occupied on payment of one rupee per day. The 
butler in charge can supply meals if required, or occupants 
may make their own arrangements. Liquor, if required, 
must be privately purchased. There are two choultries 
close to the Railway station at Tirupapuliyur (new town) 
both intended for the accommodation of Hindus. Meals 


are supplied gratis at the former. In addition to these 
are half a dozen hotels for Brahmins, in which meals are 
supplied at 2 J annas each ; and about 20 small hotels 
scattered about the town for the accommodation of other 
caste than Brahmins, where the cost of meals varies accord- 
ing to quality. 

Boad Conveyance, — Jutkas and bullock-carts are procu- 
rable at 2 annas per mile ; and coaches can be hired at 
Rs. 1-8-0 per drive within the town. 

Railway Facilities. — Waiting-rooms are provided at 
Cuddalore (new town and old town stations) for first and 
second class passengers. At the latter station a Refresh- 
ment-room is maintained by Messrs. Spencer & Co., where 
a small stock of travellers' requisites is usually kept. Fruit 
and native refreshments are available at both stations. 

Shipping Arrangements.- The British India Steam 
Navigation Company's and the Asiatic Company's coasting 
steamers running between Calcutta and Bombay regularly 
call at this port (old town), also steamers and native 
vessels pl3ang between the Madras Coast and the Straits 
Settlements and Ceylon ports. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Weaving and dyeing 
are the principal industries, and the chief products are 
paddy and sugarcane. 

Local Officials, — Cuddalore (new town) being the head- 
quarters of the district, all the chief offices are located 
there. The principal officials are the Collector and Political 
Agent, the District and Sessions Judge, the Head Assistant 
Collector and Assistant Collector, the Treasury Deputy 
Collector, the Head-quarters Deputy Collector, the 
District Superintendent of Police, the Government 
Chaplain, the Executive Engineer, the P. W. D. Sub- 
Divisional Officer, the Assistant Commissioner of Salt, 
Abkari and Customs, the Superintendent of Post Offices, 
the District Medical and Sanitarv Officer, the District 
Munsiflf, the Tahsildar and the Sub-Magistrate. It is the 


head-quarters of the Resident Engineer of the Railway, 
and the East India Distilleries Company maintain an agency 

Churches, Missions, etc. — At Old Town the Government 
Church is situated ; and in New Town, in charge of a Euro- 
pean minister under the Pondicherry Mission, is a Roman 
Catholic Church, which has a large congregation of native 

Clubs. — There are three clubs in the town, one for 
Europeans, another for Eurasians, and the third for natives. 

Historical. — In 1682, the Company opened negotiations 
with the Khan of Gingee for a factory at Cuddalore. The 
first building was erected in 1683, and, during the next ten 
years, trade increased so rapidly that the Company erected 
Fort St. David and rebuilt their warehouses. In 1702, 
the whole of the fortifications were rebuilt. On the fall 
of Madras in 1746, the British Administration withdrew 
to Cuddalore, which was soon afterwards twice unsuccess- 
fully besieged by the French under Dupleix. In 1752, the 
head-quarters of the Presidency were removed to Madras, 
and, six years afterwards, the French occupied the town and 
stormed and destroyed the fort. After the battle of 
Wandiwash in 1760, Cuddalore was retaken by a British 
detachment ; but twelve years later it again fell into the 
hands of the French and their ally, Tippoo Sultan, by whom 
the fortifications were renewed sufficiently to enable it to 
stand a siege the following year. On the 1st February 
1785, Cuddalore was formally restored to the British under 
the treaty of Versailles and in 1801 included in the cession 
of the Camatic. 

Objects of Interest, — Fort St. David, the ruins of which 
still exist, (plate No. 10) the old garden house built in 1738, 
where the Governors and Deputy Governors of Fort St . David 
formerly had their residence, now occupied by the Collector, 
and the Dutch cemetery at old town, which contains 
many old European tombs. About a mile to the west of 



Cuddalore is Capper Hill, named after Colonel Capper, of 
the Commissariat Department, who received permission 
from Government in 1796 to enclose a piece of ground on 
the hill and built himself a house there. The property 
has since reverted to Government. 


Alapakam (pop. 736) is situated in the Cuddalore 
taluq of the South Arcot district, 7J miles from Cuddalore 
(0. T.), 16i from Chidambaram, and 134J from Madras 
(Egmore) . 

Local Accommodation. — At Shonagam Chavady about 
two miles south-west of the station, is a travellers' bungalow, 
which can accommodate two persons. It has only a table 
and a few chairs and no servants, so travcillers should make 
their own arrangements for cooking, furniture, crockery, 
etc. Provisions are not procurable. The charge for the 
use of this bungalow is — 

Single persons . . . . 8 annas per diem. 

Married couples . . 1 rupee do. 

In the same village are two hotels, where meals are served 
at 2i annas each to natives of all classes. 

Road Conveijance, — Bullock-carts can be had on previ- 
ous notice at a charge of 2 annas per mile 

Local Afanufactures and Products. — Salt is manufac- 
tured at the Kambali Madu Factory about a mile from the 
Bailway station. The chief products of Alapakam are 
paddy and firewood. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Fairs.— A fair is held every Sunday in the village of 
Kulen Chavady, three miles from the station. 


Porto Novo (pop. 14,061) is a union town in the 
Chidambaram taluq of the South Arcot district, 17 miles 
from Cuddalore ((). T.), 29J from Mayavaram, and 145 
from Madras (Egmore). This place, known also as Paran- 


gipett and Muhammed Bander, received its name from the 
Portuguese, by whom the settlement appears to have been 
established during the sixteenth century. The town is 
about a mile east of the Kailway station. 

Local Accommodation, — There is neither hotel nor tra- ' 
vellers' bungalow for Europeans. But for natives, there 
are three Brahmin and two other hotels, where meals are 
served at a charge of 2^ annas per meal. 

BooaI Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
available at the station, the fares being — 

Jutkas . . . . . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Bullock-carts . . . . . . IJ do. do. 

Shipping Arrangements, — The port carries on a busy 
trade with Ceylon, Acheen, Penang and Singapore, and is 
largely frequented by native craft. The B. I. S. N. Co.'s 
steamers for Singapore also call about once a fortnight, 
anchoring two miles from the shore in from 4^ to 5 
fathoms of water. Cargo is shipped and landed at the 
Government Jetty opposite the Custom House, for which 
purpose about 20 boats are available. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Weaving of coarse 
cloth, and the production of a species of mat made from 
the leaves of the wild pine-apple, in imitation of similar 
mats of a very soft make imported from Acheen, are the 
chief manufactures. Salt is made at the Government 
Factory at Manambodi about two miles south-west of the 
Railway station. The chief agricultural produce is paddy. 

Local Officials. — The Assistant Engineer, P. W. D., 
Assistant Inspector of Salt, Sea Customs' Superintendent, 
Sub-Kegistrar and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Thursday. 

Historical. — A cowle for founding a settlement was 
obtained by the English from Harjee Rajah, Subbadar of 
Gingee, in 1G81 ; but, before trading was commenced in 
1682, the Danes and Portuguese were already established. 
In 1748 the Factory being in a ruinous condition, a good 


house was purchased for 500 pagodas and a Resident ap- 
pointed. Nine years later Porto Novo, together with Fort 
St. David and Cuddalore, were captured by the French; but 
they were driven out in 1760 by Coote after his victory 
over Lally at Wandiwash. The town was burnt down by 
Hyder AH in July 1780 ; but was, to some extent, rebuilt 
almost at once, as a year afterwards Sir Eyre Coote march- 
ed out of Porto Novo with 8,000 men to meet the whole 
array of Mysore, some 60,000 strong. In the battle which 
ensued at MettupoUiem the EngUsh won the most signal 
victory of the war. The French landed a large force at 
Porto Novo in 1 782 and marched thence with Tippoo and 
captured Cuddalore. The settlement was restored to 
England under the treaty of Versailles on the 1st Feb- 
ruary 1785, 

Objects of Interest, — In 1824 efforts were made to 
establish an iron foundry for the working of Salem ore, 
and the Porto Novo Iron Company built a large factory, 
which, after many years of patient endeavour, had to be 
abandoned. Nothing of the works remains now, but the 
ruins of one or two buildings, while the chimney, once a 
conspicuous object from seaward, has been destroyed. 


Kille (pop. 3,105) is situated in the Chidambaram 
taluq of the South Arcot district, 20 miles from Cuddalore 
(0. T.), 26i from Mayavaram, and 147^ from Madras 
(Egmore). The village is about two miles north-east of 
the station. 

Local Accommodation. — In the village is a chuttram 
where natives of all classes can find accommodation free 
of charge, but must make their own arrangements for 
food. In addition are two hotels where meals are served 
to all classes of natives at a charge of 2^ annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained at 
2 annas per mile, provided previous notice is given. 




Local Manufdctures and Products, — The chief produce 
is paddy. 
Local Official, — The Village Munsif. 


Chidambaram (lat. 11-25° ; long. 79-46° ; pop. 18,640) is 
situated in the Chidambaram taluq of the South Arcot 
district, the town lying about half a mile west of the sta- 
tion. The following are the distances to the principal 
stations on the South Indian Railway : — 

To Madras (Egmore) 

Chingleput (for Gonjeeveram and Arkonam) 

Villupuram (for Pondicherry, Dharmavaram and 
Gadur branches) 
„ Katpadi (for Madras Rail>K ay) 

Mayavaram (for Mutupet, Karaikkal, etc.) 

Tan jore 
„ Triohinopoly (for Erode) 
„ Anunayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) . . 
„ Madura . . . . . . • 

„ Tuticoriu or Tinnevelly 

Local Accommodation. — ^A furnished travellers* bunga- 
low, which can accommodate two persons, is situated about 
IJ miles south-west of the station. It has no cook, but 
provisions can be obtained in the local bazaar. The charge 
for the use of this bungalow is : — 

For single person .. .. ..10 1 ^j. ^.^^ 

For married oouple .. .. ..ISOJ 

For natives there are over 60 chuttrams, maddams and 
hotels in the town. In one of these (the Natukkottai 
chuttram) free meals are given to all caste people through- 
out the year. In 25 other chuttrams free meals are given 
on the occasion of festivals, and in 27 others, free lodging 
only is given. 

Eleven hotels supply food to all classes of Hindus at 
from 2 J to 3 annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are avail- 
able at the station, the fares being : — 

BullocK-carts .. .. .. IJ ,, ) 

151 miles. 











Railway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Weaving of silk and 
cotton cloths is carried on, and paddy is largely grown. 

Local Officials. — The Municipal Chairman, Tahsildar, 
Sub-Magistrate, District Munsif, Sub-Registrar, Sub- 
Engineer, P. W.D., Hospital Assistant and Police Inspector. 

Fairs and Festivals. — Two festivals are held annually, 
one in July, called the ** Ani Thirumanjanam," and the 
other, in December, called the *' Aruthira Darseuiam." 
These festivals last for ten days each, and from 30,000 to 
40,000 pilgrims attend from all parts of the Presidency. 

Missions and Churches. — About two miles north of the 
station is a Lutheran Mission Church. 

Historical. — In 1749, the ill-fated expedition under 
Captain Cope against Devikotta, halted at Chidambaram 
on its retreat to Fort St. David, and in the following year 
the armies of Morari Rao and Moozuffer Jung met here. 
In 1753, the French took the neighbouring fort of 
Bowanigiri and occupied the Chidambaram pagoda on its 
being evacuated by the small English garrison which then 
held it, and in the same year the French and Mahratta 
forces united at Chidambaram before marching against 
Trichinopoly. In 1759, an attempt to capture the pagoda 
by the English failed, chiefly through mismanagement, but 
it was not strong enough, however, to withstand a regular 
siege and the garrison surrendered to Major Monson in 
1760. A few years later, Hyder Ali improved the defences 
slightly and placed a garrison in the pagoda to maintain 
his line of communication with Pondicherry. An un- 
successful attack probably directed against the western 
entrance was made by Sir Eyre Coote in 1781. 

Objects of Interest. — The Siva temple, about ten minutes* 
drive from the Railway station, is famous as being one of 
the few religious buildings in India, where both Siva and 
Vishnu have shrines in such close proximity that their 


respective followers may worship in the same place and 
view both deities at the same time ; and where, moreover, 
is reputed to exist the Akasa Linga (the Air Linga), one of 
the live great Lingas of India, sometimes known as the 
** Chidambaram Rahusiyam** or the secret of Chidam- 
baram. The temple premises are situated in the centre 
of the town and cover an area of about 40 acres. They 
have four enclosures protected by high walls, one within 
the other. The outer enclosure consists merely of unkempt 
gardens or waste-land covered with scrub. The next 
enclosure contains the hall of 1,000 pillars, the golden tank, 
colossal figures of Siva*s bull (Nandi) and several temples 
of more or less importance. The third enclosure contains 
a temple to Lukshmi, the wife of Vishnu, the ** Coach- 
house" for the gods' vehicles, the Sreemoolastanam (the 
temple containing the stone image of Siva), Parvati's 
temple, mantapams, colonnades, and resting places for 
pilgrims ; and the fourth or innermost enclosure con- 
tains the audience and dancing chambers of Siva locally 
called Nattaraja and a temple to Vishnu locally called 

There are four main entrances to the temple enclosures 
on the south, north, east and west sides. The entrances 
in the outermost wall are mere gateways, but those in the 
second wall, immediately in front of the outer ones, are 
conspicuous by fine gopurams. 

The south entrance being nearest the station, is the one 
most convenient for visitors. Entering here and passing 
under the gopuram into the second enclosure, the visitor 
is recommended to inspect first the innermost enclosures. 
These are best reached by turning to the right and entering 
the third enclosure, nearly opposite to the east gopuram. 
Passing straight through the halls, which occupy the third 
enclosure, the visitor arrives at the entrance to the fourth 
enclosure, i.e., the cella of the temple containing the audi- 
ence chamber of Siva and temple of Vishnu. The former 



is in front of the entrance and at once attracts attention by 
its gorgeous golden roof, with 9 golden finials, the silver 
staircase and silver mounted doorways, leading to the 
dais, where stands Siva in the image of a naked giant with 
four arms, in the attitude of dancing. Roofed with copper, 
surmounted with 9 golden finials, and, standing slightly to 
the left on a raised platform, is the temple of Vishnu. It 
is in front of this sanctuary that devotees worshipping can 
see the images of Siva and Vishnu at the same time. 
Passing between the dancing chamber and the temple of 
Vishnu, the visitor sees in the peristyle several small 
apartments containing images of minor deities and a very 
beautiful structiire of polished black granite, the ** bed 
room " of the god Siva. Close by is the pretended " Air 
Lingam.'* No Lingam exists, but a curtain is hung before 
a wall, bearing an inscription, and, when visitors desire to 
see the Lingam, the curtain is withdrawn and the bare 
wall is shown, the explanation being that air is invisible. 
Returning to the third enclosure, the visitor should now 
pass half-way up the hall or mantapam and turn to the 
right passing on his left a number of Brahman kitchens and 
store-rooms. The next building of interest is the temple 
dedicated to Lukshmi, the wife of Vishnu. This temple 
being admired for its beautiful carving, the visitor next 
passes the west (the only other) entrance to this enclosure 
on his left and proceeds to the north corner, where is the 
Vahanamantapam or shed already mentioned for stabling 
the vehicles of the gods. The adjacent building on the left 
is the Sreemoolastanam (or holy original place) of Siva 
containing a stone image of the god. This is really the 
holy of holies. Here also is a small temple to Parvati 
remarkable for its elegant porch. All the way along are 
springing up new colonnades and mantapams, now in the 
hands of the builders. Having thus finished the two inner- 
most enclosures, the visitor returns to the second enclosure. 
Facing him as he emerges is the east gopuram which is 


distinguished from the others by being the one through 
which Siva enters on his car on occasions of festivals. 
Proceeding northward on the left is a small temple con- 
taining a huge image of the bull Nandi as though richly 
caparisoned and ornamented with bells attached to necklets 
and saddle cloth, and to the right is the hall of 1,000 
pillars. This is a very interesting structure, measuring 340 
feet by about 190 feet, in front of which are rows of cylin- 
drical granite monoliths, about 70 in all, evidently intended 
for a building which has never been finished and which 
are now used for supporting a pandal roof on ceremonial 
occasions. The visitor ascends by a grand stone stair- 
case to a fine portico and by further flights of steps at 
intervals to an immense hall with elliptical roof and rows 
of columns on either side, at the north end of which is a 
dais fenced off to accommodate Siva on festival occasions 
in full sight of the crowds in the hall. The roof over this 
dais is frescoed with religious scenes. Using the steps on 
the left, nearly opposite to a second stone bull, the Siva- 
gangay or the golden tank is reached. This is a fine deep 
tank measuring 160 feet by 100 feet, and is said to have 
derived its name ** Golden *' from the ancient King Verma 
Chukrawho, after bathing in it, was cured of the leprosy 
from which he suffered, and thereafter assumed a golden 
colour. It has a mantapam and flights of dressed stone 
steps at the north end, a similar flight at the south-east 
and south-west corners, and a colonnade running all round 
it for the use of bathers with steps down to the water. 
Passing round by the north end of the tank, the next 
structures that attract attention are the north gopuram on 
the right and the Pandianayar Subramanya temple close 
by in the corner facing east. Just vdthin the enclosure is 
a large stone figure of a peacock on a pedestal, and a stone 
altar. The temple itself is entered by a flight of stone 
steps flanked by stone elephants. The pillars of the hall 
are carved and the plinth all around the temple is covered 


with figures of musicians and devotees in various attitudes. 
Continuing the circuit, the next building on the right is a 
temple dedicated to the goddess Sivakami or Parvati. 
The cella of this temple is much below the level of the 
open courtyard. After passing through the portico and 
arriving at the great door ornamented with brass spikes 
or knobs, the visitor descends a flight of stone steps bearing 
inscriptions in Tamil and sees a massive ornamented 
golden flagstaff said to be made of sandalwood covered 
with gold-plated metal. The roof of the hall of the temple 
is frescoed and decorated with tapestry representing scenes 
in the lives of devotees, saints and deities. The pillars of 
the hall are carved ; and running all round the cella is a 
sculptured stone gallery. Ascending again to the open 
courtyard, the next building on the right is the 100 pillar 
hall, a dilapidated structure which is now closed. Along- 
side is a small temple dedicated to Sundaraswara, a minor 
deity and disciple of Siva and on the left is the west 
entrance to the third enclosure. The walls of this enclo- 
sure have many ancient inscriptions in Tamil. On the 
right is the west gopuram with a smaller temple dedicated 
to Subramanya already mentioned. The space hereabouts 
is occupied by shops for the sale of food during festivals. 
The building in the south-west corner of the enclosure is 
the temple of Mukuruny Arisi Pilliyar or the ** three- 
measure-of -rice-eating Ganasha.'* This temple is said to 
contain the largest idol of Ganasha in India. The hall of 
entrance has some well carved columns and the walls near 
the door of the sanctuary are ornamented with body- 
guards of the god and other figures carved in stone. The 
roof is surmounted wdth a small gopuram with coloured 
stucco figures in bas-relief. Another small temple dedicated 
to Dekshanamoorthy, the god who looks to the South, 
and another image of the bull Nandi situated in front of 
the south entrance exhaust the programme, and the visitor 
has returned to the gopuram by which he entered, having 
occupied in the round little more than two hours. 



Coleroon (otherwise called Aunikkaran chuttram), (pop. 
2,431) is situated in the Shiyali taluq of the Tanjore dis- 
trict, 29 miles from Cuddalore (0. T.), 19 from Mayavaram, 
and 156 J from Madras (Egmore). The village is about a 
quarter of a mile south of the Coleroon river, after which 
it is named. 

Local Accommodation. — On the north bank of the 
Coleroon, about half a mile from the station, is a choultry 
where lodging is given and meals served free to Brahmans. 
Close to it is a native hotel where meals are served to all 
classes of Hindus, except Pariahs, at 2 J annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had if previous 
notice is given at 2 annas per mile. 

Railway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local .}fanu/actures and Products. — Korray mats and 
rattan baskets are made, and paddy, kumboo and raggi are 
the chief products. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Monday at a place about 
half a mile south-east of the station. 

Missions and Churches. — The Lutheran Mission have a 
church at Achapuram, S^ miles from this station. 

Objects of Interest. — The Bail way crosses the Coleroon 
on a bridge of 14 spans of 150 feet. 


Shiyali (pop. 6,715) is a union town in the taluq of 
the same name in the Tanjore district, 34J miles from 
Cuddalore (0. T.), 12J from Mayavaram, and 162 from 
Madras (Egmore). 

Local Accommodation. — About a njile east of the station 
is a travellers* bungalow, which is fully furnished and can 
accommodate two persons. A cook is in charge, who can 


supply meals if required. Liquor must be privately pur- 
chased. The charge for the use of this bungalow is : — 

BS. A. 

For single person . . . . . . 1 i 

For married couple . . . . ..18)*^ 

For natives there are 4 Brahman hotels, 3 other hotels 
and 2 chuttrams : in the hotels meals are served at 2^ annas 
each, and in the chuttrams free accommodation is given to 
all classes and free meals to Brahmans. Iyengar Brahmans 
can also obtain free meals in the Vishnu temple. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are procurable at the 
station at 2 annas per mile. 

Railway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Shipping Arrangements. — Tirumalavasal, 7 miles east of 
this station, is a small port, whence large quantities of rice 
are exported annually to Colombo, the British India 
Coasting Steamers calling as cargo offers. 

Local Manufactures and /^roducts.—KorrB^y mats of good 
quality Jire made, and some 8 miles south-east of this 
station is the Nidavasal Salt Factory, which sends large 
quantities of salt into Shiyali for export to the interior. 
The chief produce of Shiyali is paddy. 

Local Officials. — TheTahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, District 
Munsifif, Sub-Registrar, Police Inspector and Apothecary. 

Fairs and Festivals. — In the local Siva temple festivals 
lasting 10 days are celebrated annually during the months 
of April and May, when a large crowd of worshippers 
assemble from all parts of the district. 

Missions and Churches. — The Lutheran Mission has a 
church about three-quarters of a mile south-east of the 
station, and in the same locality is a Boman Catholic 

Objects of hiterest. — The Siva temple above referred to 
is perhaps worth seeing. 


Vaithisvarankoil (pop. 4,155) is situated in the Shiyali 
taluq of the Tanjore district, 38 miles from Cuddalore 



(0. T.), 8J from Mayavaram, and 165 from Madras 
(Egmore) . It is a place of pilgrimage for those who are sick 
as implied by its name which is derived from the Sanskrit 
**Vaidya" a physician, "ishvara" lord, and the Tamil 
** kovil " a temple, or the lord of Physician's temple. 

Local Accommodation. — For natives, there are 15 hotels 
and 2 choultries. At the hotels meals are served at 
2| annas each, and at the choultries free accommodation 
is given, but travellers must make their own arrangements 
for food. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are procurable at the 
station, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Paddy is the chief 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held everj- Saturday at 
Thirupangar, a small village 2 miles west of the station. 

The festival of ** Kirthigai " is celebrated monthly, 
and the ** Brahmautsavam " in February and March 
annually at the temple. 

Missions and Churches. — In the village is a Lutheran 
Mission Church, and at Attengudi, a small village close by, 
the Boman Catholics have a church. 

Objects of Interest. — The Siva temple at which a 
favourite offering to the god by sick persons is the hair of 
their heads ; and it is a common sight to see natives, both 
male and female, leaving the temple with clean shaved 


Antandavapuram (pop. 1,617) is situated in the Maya- 
varam taluq of the Tanjore district, 43 miles from Cudda. 
lore (0. T.), 4 from Mayavaram, and 170 from Madras 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Paddy is the chief 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff, 




Mayararam (lat. ll'^ 6' ; long. 79° 43' ; pop. 23,765) is a 
municipal town in the taluq of the same name in the 
Tanjore district, situated on the south bank of the river 
Cauvery, and is one of the chief seats of the Brahmanical 
religion in the district. The town is about 2^ miles east 
of the station. 

Passengers for stations on the Mayavaram-Mutupet 
and Peralam-Karaikkal Bailways and Negapatam change 
here. The distances to the principal stations on the South 
Indian Kailway are as under : — 

To ^ladras (Egmore) 

Chingleput (for CoDJeeveram) 

Villupuram (for Pondicherry, etc.) 





Dharmavaram (for S. M. Railway) 

Gudur (for East Coast Bailway) 

Cuddalore . . 


Trichinopoly (for Erode) 


Tuticorin or Tinnevelly 

Local Accommodation. — About a quarter of a mile south 
of the station is a travellers' bungalow which is fully 
furnished and can accommodate two persons. A cook is 
in charge who can supply meals if required ; but liquor 
must be privately purchased. The charge for the use of 
this bungalow is : — 

R8. A. 

For single person .. .. 1 0) ^^.^^ 

For married couple . . . . 18/ 

For natives, 3 choultries, 5 chuttrams, 4 Brahman hotels 
and 10 other hotels exist in the town. In one of the 
choultries (that maintained by the Natukottai Chetties) 
Brahmans can obtain both accommodation and food free. 
In the other 2 choultries free abccommodation is given to 

. . 174 miles. 

.. 140 



. 76 


. 118 


. 99 


. 169 


. 214 


. 856 


. 298 


. 47 


. 44 


. 76 


. 171 


. 270 



all classes of natives but not food. In the 5 chut trams 
Brahmans are fed free during the Tulakaveri festival only. 
At other times they, in common with other classes of 
natives, can get free accommodation only at the chuttrams. 
At all the hotels meals are served at from 2^ to 3 annas 
per meal. 

Boad Conveyance, — Jutkas and bullock-carts can be had 
at the station, the fares being : — 

Jutkas . . . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Bullock-carts .. .. 1^ ,, „ 

Bailway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided at the station for first and second class passengers, and 
also a refreshment stall under the management of Messrs. 
Spencer & Co., where light refreshments, such as tea, 
coflfee, aerated waters, &c., can be obtained. The Eailway 
Company maintain an Officers* Kest-house within the 
station compoimd and have also a dispensary at the 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Eomad, a suburb 
of Mayavaram, is noted for the production of native 
female cloths, known all over the Presidency as ** Kornad 
cloths.'' Paddy, cocoanuts and plantains are the chief 
products of Mayavaram. 

Local Officials, — The Tahsildar, Municipal Chairman, 
Sub-Magistrate, District Munsiff, Sub-Registrar, Police 
Inspector and Apothecary. 

Fairs and Festivals, — A fair is held every Monday and 
Friday. Festivals attended by from 30,000 to 40,000 
persons are held in the Siva and Vishnu temples in 
October and November annually. These festivals last for 
30 days, though the last 10 days are considered the most 
important. Ablutions in the Cauvery are considered to 
confer special spiritual benefit. 

Missions and ( 'hurches. — The Lutheran Mission and the. 
Boman Catholic community have churches in the town. 

Clubs, — The Native officials maintain a reading-room. 


Objects of Interest — The Siva and Vishnu temples, 
the jewels and the silver bedstead for the god at the latter 
temple, are worth seeing. 


Kuttalam (pop. 3,537) is situated in the Mayavaram 
taluq of the Tanjore district, 6 miles from Mayavaram 
Junction, 14 from Kumbakonam, 39 from Tanjore, and 179 
from Madras (Egmore). The village, which is on the 
south bank of the river Cauvery, is about a quarter of a 
mile from the station. 

Local Accommodation, — Native travellers of all classes, 
except Pariahs, can find free accommodation in two chut- 
trams in the village, where, however, they must make their 
own arrangements for food. Besides these chuttrams are 
3 hotels where natives of all classes can obtain meals at 
2^ annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had if previous 
notice is given, the fares being 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Prodiicts. — Cloths of the best 
quality (for native women) are manufactured and the chief 
agricultural produce is paddy, cocoanuts and plantains. 

Local Official.— The Village Munsiff. 

Fairs and Festivals. — The '* Brahmautsavam*' festival 
is held in May and June annually at the Vishnu temple 
at Teralunthur, about 3 miles from here. It lasts for 10 
days and attracts many pilgrims. 

Objects of Interest, — Two Siva temples which are in a 
decayed state, but contain some good stone carving. 


Narasinganpet (pop. 2,018), named after an ancient 
Bajah ** Narasinga," is situated in the Kumbakonam taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 10 miles from Mayavaram Junction, 
10 from Kumbakonam, 35 from Tanjore, and 183 from 
Madras (Egmore). 


Local Accommodation. — About a quarter of a mile east of 
the station is a travellers* bungalow which is furnished, but 
has no crockery or a cook. It can accommodate two 
persons and the charge for occupying it is 12 annas each 
person per diem. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained at 
the station, the fares being 2 annas per vehicle per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Froducts. — Cloths of the best 
quality for natives are manufactured at Thugili, about a 
a mile north of the station. The chief products are paddy, 
cocoanuts and plantains. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Fairs and Festivals. — At a village called Thiruvadu- 
thorai, about a mile east of this station, lives the Mahunt 
of Thiruvaduthorai, a high priest of the Sudr^s, of the 
Siva sect. In the month of January annually the " Brahma- 
utsavam" is celebrated in the Siva temple attached to 
the Mutt (high priest's residence), on which occasion he 
goes round the four main streets of the village attended 
by thousands of his disciples who bow down before him 
and make him ofiferings of money, jewels, fruit, flowers, 
&c., and receive in return his blessing accompanied by 
a present of a shawl or a cloth. On the occasion of this 
festival, meals are supplied free to all Hindus, bonfires 
are lighted and fireworks are let oflf. The high priest is 
very wealthy, as, in addition to receiving presents from 
rajahs and zemindars, a large quantity of land is set apart 
in various districts, the revenue derived from which 
belongs to this office. Some 3,115 people live in Thiruva- 
duthorai, practically the whole of whom are dependent on 
the high priest for their livelihood. 


Aduturai. — 186 miles from Madras on the main line and 
12 J miles from Mayavaram Junction. The public road 
which crosses the railway line is connected with the two 


trank roads, viz., Kmnbakonam-Karaikkal road on the 
south and Madras road on the north. 

There are several rivers, viz.y Palavar, Kauveri, Veera- 
sholan and Pooratti, all of which are bridged. 

Local A ccommodation. — There is a choultry for Brahmans 
only, where free meals are served and supplies given to 
religious mendicants. There is a Brahman hotel, also hotels 
in the neighbourhood, where native travellers of other 
castes can find accommodation. Two annas per meal. 


Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be hired, the charge 
being one anna per cart per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Prodtccts. — Weaving cloth for 
native women. The chief products are plantains, cocoa- 
nuts, and paddy. 

Objects of Interest. — In the vicinity there are Siva and 
Vishnu temples. 


Tiruvadamarudur (pop. 2,580) is a union town on the 
south bank of the river Cauvery, situated in the Kumba- 
konam taluq of the Tanjore district, 15 miles from Maya- 
varam Junction, 5 from Kumbakonam, 30 from Tanjore, 
and 188 from Madras (Egmore). It formed the centre of 
the four sacred places of the Chola Kingdom, viz., Trivadi 
in the west, Chidambaram in the north, Mayavaram in the 
east, and Tiruvallnr in the south. 

Local Acomnwdation.^ln the town are 3 chuttrams, 
where Hindus of all classes, except Pariahs, can find free 
accommodation. In one of them, meals are served gratis 
to Brahmans and supplies given to Bairagis for 3 days. In 
the other two, meals are served at 2 J annas each. Besides 
these there are two hotels, where all classes can obtain 
meals at 2^ annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Single and double bullock-carts are 
usually procurable at the station, the fares being IJ and 2 
annas per mile, respectively. 


Local Manufactures and Products. — Native cloths are 
manufactured, and the chief products are paddy, cocoanuts 
and plantains. 

Local Officials. — The Deputy Tahsildar and Sub-Magis- 
trate, Sub-Registrar, Police Inspector and Hospital 

Fairs and Festivals. — No fairs are held, but festivals 
are frequent. In January annually a large **Pushyam" 
festival takes place which lasts 10 days, when the cars of 


the temple are dragged round the streets. The large car 
(one of the biggest in India) has attached to it, at the time 
of this festival, life-sized representations of three white 
horses, and is decorated with flags, flowers and fruit, while 
inside are seated a band of musicians. The dragging of 
this car is generally reserved for the concluding days of 
the festival, when ropes, quite 6 inches in diameter and 
about a quarter of a mile in length, are attached to it. 
The car, which is shewn in plate No. 2, is generally dragged 
by from 7,000 to 8,000 men. Cocoanuts are broken on the 
wheels, lighted camphor placed in front of the god and 
other ceremonies performed before commencing to pull it, 
and, as soon as it moves, fowls are sacrificed under the 
wheels. In May and June the * * Tirukkalyanam" (marriage 
festival) takes place, and in October and November the 
'* Navarathri '* is celebrated. The ** Unjal " festival, last- 
ing 10 days, is held in December and January. 

Objects 0/ Interest. — The old Siva temple, which is 
well sculptured and has a fine gopurum. On the east 
gateway is a carving of Brahmahatti. The legend regard- 
ing this is as follows: — A Chola King is said to have 
committed the sin of Brahmahatti, i e,, murdering a 
Brahman. To cleanse himself of the sin and obtain salva- 
tion, he went on pilgrimage to many sacred places, but 
all to no purpose, as he could not shake oflf the ghost of 
his victim. At last he by chance entered this temple, and, 
to his surprise, found that the spirit of the murdered man 


did not follow him into the temple, bnt waited at the 
gateway for his return. The king knowing this did not 
go out of the temple the way he came in, but made a 
hole in the western wall and fled towards his capital of 
Tanjore. When he was a mile ojBf the temple and found 
that the spirit lalso called Brahmahatti) did not follow 
him, he there built a temple and founded a village named 
Terupuvanam in honour of the deity and in gratitude for 
his salvation. The temple remains to this day, and is 
well sculptured, containing inscriptions in Tamil, Grantha, 
Malayalam and Nagari characters. 


Kumbakonam (lat. 10° 57'; long. 79^25'; height 85 feet 
above sea-level ; pop. 54,307) is a municipal town situ- 
ated in a taluq of the same name in the Tanjore district, 
in a low level tract between two considerable branches of 
the river Cauvery. It extends about 3 miles in length 
from east to west and 1^ miles in breadth from north to 
south, and is one of the most ancient towns in the Madras 
Presidency, having been at one time the capital of the 
Chola Kingdom. It is the centre of the Brahmanical reli- 
gion and literature, and is sometimes called the Indian 
'* Cambridge.'* A branch mutt of Shunkaracharry, the 
founder of the Adweitam philosophy, is presided over by 
a chief guru belonging to the Smartha Brahmans. It is 
the head-quarters of the Sub-Collector of the district, and 
was the seat of the Zillah Court from its first establish- 
ment in 1806 until 1863, when it was removed to Tanjore. 
The following are the distances to the most important 
stations on the South Indian Eailway : — 

Tanjore Junction (for 


. . 25 miles. 

Trichinopoly Junction 



..56 „ 

Madura . . 

.. 152 „ 


.. 261 „ 


..251 „ 

Mayavaram Junction 

..20 „ 

Villupuram Junction 

.• 96 „ 



Chingleput (for Gonjeeveram) . . 

.. 159 miles. 

Madras (Egmore) . . 

.. 194 „ 


.. 137 „ 

Vellore . . 

.. 189 ., 

Pakala Junction 

..234 „ 

Gudur Junction (for East Coast Railway) 

.. 328 „ 

Dharmavaram (for Southern Maharatta Bailway) 

..328 „ 

Local Accommodation. — About a mile north of the sta- 
tion is a travellers' bungalow, which is furnished, and can 
accommodate two persons, but has neither a cook nor 
crockery. The charge for the use of this bungalow is : — 

R8. ▲. 

For single person . . • ' ^ ^ I per diem. 

For a married couple . . . . ..18) 

Provisions are procurable in the local bazaar. For natives, 
there are 18 chuttrams, where free accommodation can be 
obtained by all classes of Hindus, except Pariahs; but 
private arrangements must be made for food. In addition 
are 2 chuttrams, where free accommodation is obtainable 
and meals are served gratis to Brahmans and supplies 
given to Bairagis. Brahmans can also get free meals in the 
Shunkaracharriar mutt, the Sarangapani Swami and the 
Chakrapani Swami temples. Supplementary to these 
institutions are more than 50 hotels, where natives of all 
classes can obtain meals at from 2^ to 3 annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and single and double bullock- 
carts are usually procurable at the station, the fares being : — 

For jutkas and double bullock-carts . . 2 annas per mile. 
For single bullock-carts . . . . 1} ,, „ 

Bailway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided at the station for first and second class passengers, 
and a refreshment room under the management of Messrs. 
Spencer & Co. The butler in charge of the latter has 
usually a small stock of travellers' requisites for sale. 
Wines and spirits are not supplied. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Native cloths, brass, 
copper and bell-metal vessels are manufactured in large 
quantities. The chief products are paddy, cocoanuts, 
betel leaves and plantains. 



Local Officials, — The Sub-Collector, Municipal Chair- 
man, Sub-Judge, Tahsildar, two District Munsiffs, Town 
Sub-Magistrate, Stationary Sub-Magistrate, Sub-Uegistrar, 
Police Inspector, Civil Apothecary and two Hospital As- 

Fairs and Festivals. — The ** Bralimautsavam'* festi- 
val is celebrated in the Sarangapani Swami, Kumbaiswara 
Swami, Chakrapani Swami and Bama Swami temples in 
February, March and April, when as many as 15,000 
worshippers attend from different parts of the district. 

Missions, Churclies, dx. — In the town are two Christian 
Churches, one of which belongs to the Lutheran Mission, 
and one to the Boman Catholics, both of which have large 

Clubs. — ^The native officials have a Club in the Porter 
Town Hall and a reading-room in the Gopalrao Library. 

Objects of Interest. — There are 16 temples, 12 dedicated 
to Siva and 4 to Vishnu. The following are the most 

Ttie Sarangapani Swami (Vishnu) Temple in the centre 
of the town which is entered through an enormous gopu- 
rum 147 feet in height, richly ornamented with figures 
and other devices. The back view of this temple with its 
5 smaller gopurums and the Potamarai tank, is particuleurly 
fine. Attached to this temple are two processional cars of 
carved wood of elaborate design, one of the cars being of 
a very large size. 

The Kumbaiswara Swami Temple , a Siva temple close 
by, is approached by a corridor 330 feet long by 15 feet 
wide. The principal gopurum is 128 feet high and leads 
to a court 83 feet by 55 feet. This temple is remarkable 
for the variety of its silver vahanams (conveyance for the 
idols) which are well worth seeing. The five cars, which 
stand in a row in front of the temple, belong to it and are 
of the same design as those mentioned above. 

The Rama Swami Temple, which is also close by, has only 


one small gopurum leading into the muntapam, but in it 
are to be found the finest carvings in all the Kumbakonam 
temples, the pillars having upon their faces splendid 
sculptured figures representing the various incarnations of 
Vishnu and the feats of Rama, the hero of the Kamayana. 
Each pillar is carved from one large stone and the deli- 
cacy of the execution is most remarkable. The interior 
of this mantapam is illustrated in plate No. 12. 

The Ghakrapani Swami Temple near the river Cauvery 
is another temple much resorted to by pilgrims. 

The Mahiiniagam Tajik is one of the most sacred in 
Southern India ; and to bathe in it, pilgrims come from the 
remotest parts of the country. It covers about 20 acres 
in area, has flights of steps on the four sides, and is sur- 
rounded by many small temples. An annual bathing 
festival is held here in February, but once in twelve years 
is held the celebrated Mahamagam festival, at which it is 
estimated from 400,000 to half a million persons are pre- 
sent. This festival takes place when Brihaspati (Jupiter) 
is in conjunction with Simham (Leo) and if this occurs on 
the day of full moon, it becomes an exceptionally auspicious 
time for bathing. Plate No. 1 (frontispiece) illustrates the 
Mahamagam festival which was held in February, 1897, 
and shows the crowd beginning to collect in the tank on the 
principal day of the feast. Previous to the festival the 
tank is emptied until the depth of water is reduced to 2 J 
feet, a precaution very necessary as the entry of many 
thousand persons into the tank causes the level of the 
water to rise considerably. During the most auspicious 
time for bathing, the crowd in the tank is so dense that 
nothing but a mass of heads is visible, and the spectacle 
is decidedly impressive. On the gods being exhibited, 
the worshippers raise their hands in prayer, and dip 
their heads beneath the surface of the water. Soon after 
the festival commences, the water is transformed into a 
black viscous fluid of the consistency of thick peasoup, 


and judging from the hesitation displayed by the more 
educated bathers in submerging their heads, the act is one 
which nothing but intense religious devotion would induce 
them to perform. After bathing in the tank the worship- 
pers proceed to the Cauvery and in its waters are relieved 
alike of their loads of sin and black oily sludge. Super- 
stition attributes the efficacy of this bathing festival to the 
fact that once in every twelve years the holy waters of 
the Ganges find their way into the Mahamagam tank at 

A unique temple is the Brahma temple which is dedi 
Gated to the sun, being the only one so dedicated in the 
whole of Southern India. Besides the above temples and 
tank, the following are objects of interest : — 

The Government College has a good library and excellent 
play grounds attached to it. This institution has played 
an important part in the educational annals of the Presi- 
dency, many of the most cultured natives of the south 
having studied there, a result due in great measure to the 
labours of Mr. W. A. Porter and Eao Bahadur T. Gopalrao. 

The ** Town High ScliooV and tlie '' Native High School " 
are both old institutions and educate up to the Matricula- 
tion standard. The former has 500 scholars and the 
latter 300. 

The Municipal Hospital, a deservedly appreciated insti- 
tution, treats daily about 150 out-door and many in-door 

The Municipal Office has a very well kept up garden much 
resorted to by the public for recreation. 

The Sub-Court J a fine building, where all the Magistrates 
hold their Courts. 

The Porter Town Hall and the Gopalrao Library erected 
in memory of the two great educationalists of this city. 


Sundaraperumalkoil (pop. 2,689) is situated in the Kum- 
bakonam taluq of the Tanjore district, 6 miles from Kum- 
bakonam, 19 from Tanjore, 25 from Mayavaram, and 199 


from Madras (Egmore). The village is about half a mile 
from the station on the south bank of the river Arasalar. 

Local Accommodation, — In the village is a choultry 
where Hindus of all classes, except Pariahs, can find 
accommodation free ; but must make their own arrange- 
ments for food. At Darasathiram, about 3 miles east of 
the station, is a choultry maintained by the late Tanjore 
Bajah's family, where meals are served gratis to Brahmans 
and supplies given to Bairagis. Besides these there are 
two hotels in Sundaraperumalkoil, where meals are served 
to natives of all classes at 2^ annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had if pre- 
vious notice be given, the fares being 2 annas per vehicle 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Produ^cts. — Weaving is carried 
on, a very good description of native cloth being manu- 
factured. The chief produce is paddy. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs and Festivals. — At Swamimalai, 3 miles north-east 
of the station, is a Subramanya temple, at which every 
month a festival is held, a large crowd generally attending. 

Objects of Interest. — An old temple built by a Chola King 
and dedicated to Sundaraperumal (Vishnu) . 

The brick remains of the palace of a Chola Bajah, which 
are situated about one mile south of a village called Tiru- 
valanjooly, itself a mile away from the station, possess 
antiquarian interest. 


Papanasam (pop. 1,688) is situated in the Kumbakonam 
taluq of the Tanjore district, 9 miles from Kumbakonam, 
16 from Tanjore, 28 from Mayavaram and 202 from 
Madras (Egmore). The village is on the south bank of 
the river Kodamuruty. 

Local Accommodation. — ^About a quarter of a mile from 
the station is a choultry, where Hindus of all classes, except 


Pariahs, can obtain free lodging, but must make their own 
arrangements for food. There is also an hotel in the 
village, where meals are served to all classes at 2^ annas 
per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are usually procurable 
at the station, the fares being 2 annas per vehicle per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Weaving is carried 
on at two villages about two miles from this station called 
Conjemedu and Venkarampet, a coarse kind of country 
cloth being made. The chief product is paddy. 

Local Officials, — The Sub-Kegistrar and Hospital Assist- 

Fairs and Festivals. — In March and April annually the 
** Brahmautsavam " festival is celebrated in the Vishnu 
temple. At Bajagheri, about 1^ miles west of the station, 
a Muhammedan festival is held at the Peerali mosque 
annually in September. 

Mission and Churches. — In the village is a Boman 
Catholic Church. 

Objects of Interest. — An old Siva temple which contains 
108 lingams. It was here that Bama on his return from 
Ceylon, after killing Havana, performed poojah (worshipped 
god) to cleanse himself from the sin he committed in 
killing the rakshasas. 


Ayyampet (pop. 7,695) is situated in the Tanjore taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 11 miles from Tanjore, 14 from 
Kumbakonam, 33 from Mayavaram and 207 from Madras 
(Egmore). The village, which is 114 feet above sea-level, 
is about three-quarters of a mile north of the station. 

Local Accommodation. — In the village are 3 chuttrams, 
in one of which meals are served gratis to Brahmans and 
supplies given to Bairagis. In the other two, Hindus of 
all classes, except Pariahs, can find free lodging and can be 
supplied with meals, if they wish, on payment of 2^ annas 


per meal, or they may make their own arrangements for 
food. There are also 2 Sudra hotels, where meals are 
served at 2} annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are usually available 
at the station, the fares being 2 annas per vehicle per 

Local Manufactures and Prodxicts. — Silk cloths, car- 
pets of silk floss, and korray mats are largely manufactured. 
The chief produce is paddy. 

Local Official, — The Village Munsifif. 

Missions and Churches. — At Eegunathapuram, IJ miles 
east of the station, is a Roman Catholic Church. 

Objects of Interest. — About 3 miles north of the station 
is an old Vishnu temple with inscriptions, where free 
meals for 12 Brahmans are supplied daily. 


Titte (pop. 971) is situated in the Tanjore taluq of the 
Tanjore district, 6 miles from Tanjore, 18 from Kumbako- 
nam, 88 from Mayavaram, and 212 from Madras (Egmore). 
The village, which is 128 feet above sea-level, is one mile 
west of the station. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had if previous 
notice is given, the fares being 3 annas per vehicle per mile. 

Local ManufoA^tures and Products, — The chief produce 
is paddy. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 


Tanjore (lat. 10^48' N. ; long. 79^11' E. ; height above 
sea-level 193 feet ; pop. 54,390) is the principal town of a 
CoUectorate of the same name. The district has an area 
of 3,654 square miles and contains the fertile deltaic lands 
of the Cauvery, the irrigation of which is controlled by the 
important anicuts "Upper" and '* Grand*' near Trichi- 


nopoly. The town of Tanjore derives its name from 
** Tanjan," a mythological giant, who haunted the neigh- 
bourhood and was slain by the god ** Vishnu," who granted 
the dying request of the giant that the place should be 
called after him. The European and East Indian quarters 
are in the suburb of Manamboo Chavady, south-east of the 
fort, while the native town outside the fort extends 
northward for about 2 miles to the Jamboo Cauvery 
channel. The greatest length of the town south and north 
is about 4, and its greatest breadth east and west about 3 
miles. The station is the junction for the Negapatam 
branch line. The following are the distances to the 
principal stations on the South Indian Railway : — 


Mayavaram Junction . . 


Villuparam Junction . . 


Ghingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram) 

Madras (Egmore) 


Vellore . . . . * 

Pakala Junction 

Benigunta Junction (for Madras Railway) 

Gudur Junction (for East Ooast Railway) 

Dharmavarain Junction (for Southern Maharatta Ry. ) 400 

Tiruvaliur Junction (for Mutupet) . . 84 

Negapatam . . 48 

Trichinopoly Junction . . . . 31 

Erode Junction (for Madras Railway) . . 118 

Local A cco7nmoda tion. — Close to the station is a travellers* 
bungalow, which can accommodate 4 persons, is furnished, 
and has a cook, who will supply meals, if required. The 
charge for the use of this bungalow is, for single persons, 
one rupee each, and for married couples Es. 1-8-0 per 
diem. For natives there are 4 chuttrams, where all classes 
can find accommodation, making their own arrangements 
for food ; and about 50 hotels, where meals are served at 
from 2^ to 3 annas each, 


24 miles. 













Road Conveyance, — Hackney carriages, jutkas and 
bollock-carts are obtainable, the fares being : — 

B8. A. P. 

Hackney oarriages 



• • 

• • 

(8 8 per diem. 

\2 for half a day or less. 

1 2 per diem« 

1 1 for half a day or As. 3 

per mile. 
2 per mile. 

If a hackney carriage be required, previous advice should 
be sent to the Station Master. A guide is generally at the 
station to meet trains, whose services can be obtained to 
shew the sights of the town at Bs. 1-8-0 per diem. 

Railway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided at the station for ladies, and a refreshment room 
is maintained by Messrs. Spencer & Co., the butler in 
charge of which has usually a small stock of travellers' 
requisites for sale. A new station is about to be built, in 
which sleeping accommodation and good waiting-rooms 
will be provided. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Tanjore is noted for 
its artistic manufactures, including silk cloths and carpets, 
jewellery, repouss^ work, and models of temples, etc., in 
pith and other materials. At the Central Jail weaving is 
carried on, and carpets, mats, coir rope and other articles 
made by the prisoners may be purchased cheaply. The 
chief produce is paddy. 

Local Officials, — The Collector (who lives at Vallam 
6 miles from Tanjore), the Judge, the Superintending and 
Executive Engineers, P. W. D., the Superintendent of 
Police, the District Surgeon, the Local Fund Engineer, 
District Traffic Superintendent, Municipal Chairman, 
Deputy Tahsildar, District Munsiflf and Sub-Judge. 

Fairs and Festivals, — An annual festival is held at the 
temple in April which attracts many pilgrims. 

Missions, GhurcheSy etc. — The Tanjore district was the 
scene of the earliest labours of Protestant missionaries 


in India. In 1706 a Lutheran Mission was established in 
Tranquebar. The Mission at Tanjore was founded in 1778, 
by the 'Bev. C. F. Schwartz, of the Tranquebar Mission, 
who, having previously transferred his services to the 
Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, came 
to Tanjore from Trichinopoly. The Tanjore Missions were 
taken over in 1826 by the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel, under which Society they are at present. St. 
Peter's Church, which belongs to this Mission and is used 
by the Church of England congregation, was built in 1780. 
It was re-constructed in 1829 in accordance with the last 
wishes of Bishop Heber. 

In the Little Fort is situated the church built by Mr. 
Schwartz in 1779, which contains the monument to his 
memory. This church is not used now, except for an 
annual service on New Year's day. The Leipzig Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Mission formed a congregation in Tanjor 
in 1856, and they also have a church here. The Boman 
Catholic Missions in Tanjore were established long before 
the Protestant, and this city is still one of their principal 
seats, their church being near the Club. 

Clubs. — The European Club is very close to the Railway 
station. It has a good library, two tennis courts and golf 
links. Grentlemen received in society are eligible for 
membership. Visitors may become honorary members 
on being proposed and seconded, and are required to pay 
8 annas per diem or Bs. 7 per mensem. The ' ' Union ' ' Club, 
where educated natives associate. The upper storey of the 
building is called the '' Marsh Memorial Hall " to perpe- 
tuate the memory of a distinguished educationalist of the 

Historical, — The early history of Tanjore is buried in 
antiquity ; but there are fair grounds for presuming that, in 
the eleventh century A. D., it was made the capital of the 
Kola dynasty by Bajah Eulottunga, and that probably it 
was the seat of Kola Idngs in the second century A. D. 


Prom about 1530 the city has been successively the seat 
of two Hindu dynasties, the Nayak and Maharatta. 
There were only four Nayak princes in all, and their 
dominion lasted till about 1665 A. D. These rulers were 
at first but Viceroys of the monarchs of Vijayanagai- 
(the modern Bijanagar in the Bellary district), but seem 
to have been virtually independent later on, in consequence 
of the decline of the Vijayanagar Empire. The first Nayak 
built the Sivaganga Fort, generally known as the ** Little 
Fort," which forms a projecting square at the south-west 
angle of the larger fort of Tanjore, and also the tank out- 
side the fort called Sevappa Nayakkan kulam. The larger 
fort was constructed by Vijaya Baghava Nayak the last 
king. During this dynasty the first European settlements 
on the Tanjore coast were formed by the Portuguese at 
Negapatam and by the Danes at Tranquebar. Vijaya 
Baghava is said to have been a brave prince, but too much 
occupied in religious devotion to pay attention to affairs of 
State. He was killed in action together with his son 
Mannaru when endeavouring to repulse an attack on the 
town by Alagiri the General of the then Nayak of Madura. 
To prevent any member of his family or zenana from 
falling into the hands of his enemies, Vijaya Baghava 
directed his son to fill the zenana with gunpowder, to set 
fire to it at a given signal, and then to join him sword in 
hand, so that they might die together. This programme 
was duly carried out and the tragedy is commemorated 
to this day by the shattered tower over the Nayak*s zenana 
at the south-west comer of the Tanjore palace and which 
is still supposed to be haunted by the ghosts of the unfortu- 
nate women. The crown Bani of Vijaya Baghava contrived, 
however, to save her male baby, whp, afterwards, with the 
assistance of the Pathan King of Bijapur, ascended the 
throne. The young sovereign seems never to have been 
independent, and, on the death of the ruler of Bijapur, was 
deposed by Ekoji, the Mahratta General, who had placed 


him on the throne, and who thus founded the Mahratta 
dynasty. Ekoji came of a respectable family surnamed 
Bhonsale and was half-brother of the great Sivajee, founder 
of the modem Mahratta Empire in the Deccan. The 
history of this dynasty from the accession of Ekoji in 1674 
to the first connection of the British with this principality 
in 1749 presents but few events of historical importance. 
In the early portion of this year the deposed Bajah Saiyaji 
requested the aid of the English in regaining his kingdom 
from the then reigning Bajah, Pratapsing, and promised 
to give them, in the event of success, the fort of Divikottei 
and certain contiguous territory. In response to this appli- 
cation a small force was despatched in April 1749 from 
Fort St. David at Cuddalore. The expedition was unsuc- 
cessful ; but a second, which was despatched the follow- 
ing month, captured Divikottei and enforced the terms de- 
manded. In 1764 and 1758, the district was overrun by 
the French, but they were finally compelled to evacuate 
the country on the English coming to the assistance of the 
rajah. At the instance of the Nawab of the Camatic, two 
English expeditions were undertaken against Tanjore in 
1771 and 1773, respectively, resulting in the city being 
entirely reduced, the rajah and his family taken prisoners, 
and the country being handed over to the nawab. This 
prince extracted all the money and jewels he possibly could 
from the inhabitants of the country ; but his career of extor- 
tion was cut short by the Court of Directors of the East 
India Company disapproving of the action of the Governor 
of Madras, and ordering the reinstatement of Bajah Tulzaji. 
In 1781 the district was invaded byHyder Ali and, with the 
exception of the town of Tanjore, remained in the occupa- 
tion of his troops for some six or seven months. The 
decisive victory of Porto Novo, coupled with the capture 
of Negapatam from the Dutch allies of Hyder Ali, and the 
surrender to the British of other places of minor importance, 
compelled the invaders to withdraw from the district. 


Bajah Tulzaji died in 1787 and was succeeded ultimately by 
his adopted son Sharabhogi, who was at first set aside for 
Amarsing, half-brother of Tulzaji. The history of Bajah 
Sharabhogi is intimately associated with the career of 
Mr. Schwartz, of the German Mission, a man who was not 
only honorably associated with the spread of Christianity, 
but also with the political history of Tanjore. A mural 
monument to Schwartz, by Flaxman, was erected by Sha- 
rabhogi in the small church situated in the little fort. 
Sharabhogi made an extensive collection of books, chiefly 
English and Sanskrit, and the library in the Tanjore 
palace is perhaps the largest and most valuable in the whole 
of Southern India. This rajah consented to resign the 
Government of his country to the East India Company, 
provided they made a suitable provision for his mainte- 
nance, and, in consequence, under a treaty made on the 
25th October 1799, Tanjore became a British province. 

Sharabhogi was succeeded by his son Shivaji, who died 
in 1855 without male heirs, when the titulaj: dignity became 
extinct. The British Government made liberal provision 
for the family of the rajah, some of whom are still in 
occupation of the palace. 

Objects of Interest. — The ruins of the old fort, which 
was originally formed of thick masonry walls 15 feet high, 
and a moat some 3 miles long and 15 feet deep. The 
walls, however, are being gradually removed by the Munici- 
pality and used for filling up the moat. 

The httle fort south-west of the main fort contains 
The Great TempUy the centre of attraction for all travellers 
in Southern India. This temple, generally called Braha- 
deeswaraswami koil, was built during the reign of Ghola 
King Bajaraja, who reigned from A. D. 1023 to 1064, under 
the superintendence of the Bajah's Commander-in-Chief, by 
a man from Conjeeveram named Samavarma, and, as appears 
from the inscriptions which cover the walls, was endowed 
by the Bajaraja and his son Bajendra Baja by grant of 



lands, money and golden jewels set with precious stones. 
The entrance is by a small bridge over the fort moat, 
whence an avenue leads through a small arched gateway, 
ornamented with brilliantly coloured stucco representations 
of some prominent members of the Hindu pantheon. A 
few yards beyond the gateway, the path leads under a 
gopuram 90 feet high, a little beyond which is a second 
gopuram of smaller dimensions (60 feet high) opening 
directly on to the courtyard of the temple. Immediately 
facing the gopuram is a large raised platfonu, the first 
structure on which is a ** Balipeedam," or place of feeding 
crows. In front of this is a stone mantapam sheltering an 
enormous monolithic bull, and to the left, and somewhat in 
advance of the latter, is a small stone bull, and another 
'' Balipeedam." To the right of the large bull is a small 
temple dedicated to Parvati under the name of Periya- 
nayagiammal. A flight of steps from the platform leads 
to the mantapam in front of the great vimanah. Sepa- 
rated from the Periyanayagiammal temple by a narrow- 
pathway, and lying immediately to the right of the main 
temple, is a garden in which are grown the flowers used for 
decorating the idols. Ketuming to the second gopuram, 
and taking a route along the left side of the courtyard, the 
first structure to be observed is a raised railed platform 
known as the ** Astakodi," where the dancing girls perform 
during festivals. Further on is a colonnade containing 
lingams, and another platform on which dancing also takes 
place. Outside the wall, on the left side of the courtyard, are 
the cooking room for the god, the temple stables, store-rooms, 
a garden, and a house in which Brahmans are fed. When 
passing the main tower of the temple, a small cell project- 
ing from its base and reached by a flight of steps should 
be noticed as being the mantapam of Dakshnamurti, or 
the god who faces the south. In the left-hand comer of 
the enclosure is the Ganapati mantapam — an insignificant 
building — and a thatched shed for repairing cars. Com- 


mencing from this corner and running round the west and 
north sides of the enclosure is a colonnade containing 108 
lingams, the walls of which are decorated with pictures 
of the gods and the 64 miracles. A margosa tree, under 
which is said to be buried the body of an extremely holy 
priest, is situated immediately to the west of the tower. 
Beturning by the right side of the courtyard, the beautiful 
Subramanya temple is the first structure of note and 
attached to it is the Maha mantapam containing pictures 
of the Mahratta Bajahs. The Sabapathy mantapam, 
which is being extended, is on the right-hand side of the 
raised platform near the entrance gopuram, and the Oma- 
kuntam mantapam and the colonnade near it complete the 
buildings on the east side of the yard. 

The outer-enclosure of the pagoda measures 415 feet by 
800 feet. 

The huge bull (Nandi), said to be of black granite, 
measures 16 feet in length, 12 feet in height, and 7 feet 
across^ and is estimated to weigh 25 tons. It was popularly 
supposed by the natives that this bull was growing and, as 
they feared it might become too large for the mantapam 
erected over it, a nail was driven into the back of its head, 
and, since this was done, the size of the monolith has 
remained stationary. 

The Chandikeswaran kovil is the shrine of the god who 
reports to the chief god the arrival of worshippers. 

The great tower of the temple is 216 feet high, viz., 168 
feet from the base to the storey, on the four comers of 
which are nandis or bulls (each 6 feet by 4 feet), 33 feet 
from there to the top of the building, and 15 feet thence 
to the top of the gilded kalasam (spiked ornament). This 
ornament stands on a single block of granite, 25^ feet 
square, estimated to weigh 80 tons, which was elevated to 
its present position by means of an inclined plane com- 
mencing at a village called SarappuUam (scaffold hollow) 
about 4 miles north-east of Tanjore. According to a 



local legend, this tower took 12 yeaors to build. On the 
north, against one of its outer walls, is placed a waterspout. 
The water which flows from it, being the washings of the 
idol (god Siva), is sprinkled over their heads by worshippers 
as a purifying act. On the south side of the tower, about 
half-way up, is a figure said to represent an Englishman ; 
and tradition has it that, at the time of building the tower, 
the supremacy of the English was foretold and the prophecy 
recorded by representing an Englishman among the other 
sculptured figures. A more probable version is that the 
builders of the tower were aided by a Dutch architect, 
whose services were in part rewarded by thus perpetuating 
his memory. At any rate the figure more resembles a 
Dutchman than an Englishman. The Subramanya temple 
is ** as exquisite a piece of decorative architecture as is to 
be found in the south of India." (Fergtisson,) Though 
built behind an older shrine, which may be coeval with the 
great temple as originally designed, Subramanya's temple 
is certainly a century or two more modem than the great 
pagoda. It consists of a tower 55 feet high raised on a 
base 45 feet square adorned with pillars and pilasters, which 
ornament is continued along a corridor 50 feet long com- 
municating with a second building 50 feet square lying 
to the east. The beautiful carving of this temple, which 
is as clear and sharp as the day it left the sculptor's hands, 
seems to be in imitation of wood. 

The great temple at Tanjore is one of the very few 
temples in Southern India which have been built at one 
time and on one plan, most of the other temples having 
been originally very small buildings, which were subse- 
quently added to, with the result that there is no uniformity 
in their design. 

A little to the north of the temple enclosure is a garden, 

which was formerly the pleasure resort of the Mahratta 

Bajahs of Tanjore. It contains a tank of excellent water 

which, before Tanjore had a Municipal supply, was the 



only good water in the place. A larger reservoir, called 
the *' Old Sivagunga Tank," lies to the west of the garden 
and close to the Schwartz Church (above described). Near 
the southern gate of the small fort is a gigantic " Arasu" 
tree with enonnous branches around the trunk of which 
many images of **Naga'^ or representation of the cobra 
have been placed by childless religious Hindus. 

The Palace, situated within the great fort, bears un- 
mistakable signs of being a very old structure, which 
has been added to from time to time. The entrance is on 
the east side of the palace enclosures about three-quarters 
of a mile from the railway station. After passing through 
two quadrangles a third is reached, on the south side of 
which is a gopuram-hke building of stucco some 90 feet in 
height. The palace itself is 5 storeys high, and the apart- 
ments, many of which are now locked up unused, are 
huge. On the east of the quadrangle is the Durbar 
Hall, in which, on a platform of black granite, stands 
the statue of Rajah Sivajee, executed by Flaxman in white 
marble, and representing the rajah standing with the palms 
of his hands joined as if in welcome to his courtiers. The 
reproduction in marble of the curious triangular pointed 
turban formerly used by the Tanjore princes is so heavy 
that it has been removed from the head of the statue and 
lies on a cushion near its base. In this hall is a fine bust 
of Lord Nelson presented to Sivajee by the Hon. Anne 
Seymour Damer, whose work it is, and a portrait of Lord 

The library is in the ** Saraswati Mahal '' and contains, 
among other works, 18,000 Sanskrit manuscripts, of which 
8,000 are written on palm leaves. In another quadrangle 
is a building known as the Mahratta Durbar Hall, on the 
walls of which are portraits of the Mahratta Eajahs. The 
throne seems to have disappeared, and there is only a big 
chair placed under a canopy to shew where the throne was. 
In this hall is a large picture representing Sivajee, the last 











Bajah of Tanjore with his Chief Secretary on his right and 
his Dewan on the left. 

In the Armoury within the palace are many curious 
weapons, the greater nmnber of which are more suited for 
display at a pageant than for use in war. Gold and silver 
handled swords, miniature guns, out of date rifles and 
pistols, howdahs, gold caps for ornamenting elephants and 
various dresses for men and animals worked up in lace are 
exhibited in considerable profusion. 

Near the eastern gate of the fort is a tower called the 
" Tasa Modu,'* which has a curious device on it for showing 
the time, and near to which is an old cannon, 25 feet in 
length and 2 feet in bore. 

Outside the fort is a clock tower constructed in 1883 
at the expense of one of the Tanjore Princesses. North of 
the clock tower is the Bajah Mirasdar Hospital, which is 
under the management of the District Surgeon. 

About 7 miles south-west of Tanjore lies the small town 
of Vallam originally containing a strong fort surrounded 
by a deep moat and said to have been constructed in the 
sixteenth or seventeenth century. The fort was taken by 
the English Army from the Nawab of the Carnatic in 
1771 and remained in British possession until its restoration 
to Bajah Tulzaji in 1776. Except the ditch and a few 
ruined walls but little now remains of the old fort. 
Quartz pebbles, rock crystals and other similar stones are 
found at Vallam and are cut into various ornamental and 
useful articles, among which may be mentioned brooch 
stones and spectacle lenses. 

Tirmmyar or Tiruvadi is a small town on the north 
bank of the Cauvery, 7 miles from Tanjore and is one of the 
centres of the Brahmanical religion and contains a large 
well-sculptured temple dedicated to Siva. Aged Brahmans 
retire to this town to spend the evening of their lives and 
terminate their existence in view of the beatification which 
is considered to follow death at this place. In consequence 
of this belief, nearly one-third of the population are 



Alakkvdi, — Six and half miles from Tanjore Junction 
and 224 miles from Madras. It is on the south side of the 
Bailway line where the Vallam road crosses, and, being 
nearer to Vallam than Tanjore, those wishing to see the 
Collector should alight at the station. There are two 
roads, one going to Vallam on the south, and one going to 
Perambur, &c., on the north. 

Local Produce. — ^Varagu, kambu, thuvarai (dhoU), raggy, 
cotton and coriander seeds. 


Budalur (pop. 2,054) is situated in the Tanjore taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 11 miles from Tanjore Junction, 
20 miles from Trichinopoly Junction and 229 from Madras 
(Egmore). The village is 188 feet above sea-level. 

Local Accommodation. — If previous notice is given, 
natives of all classes can obtain meals at an hotel in the 
village, the charge being 2 J annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — ^Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
to be had at the station, the fares being 2 annas per mile 
for the former and 1^ for the latter. There is a good 
metalled road to TirukattupuUi, a village 5 miles from this 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief produce 
is dholl-gram and paddy. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Thursday at 

Historical. — Colonel Smith took possession of the pagoda 
in 1773 when marching from Trichinopoly against Tanjore. 

Objects of Interest. — At Tirukattupulli are the remains 
of an old fort and a Siva temple. The latter was built by 
Chola King and contains inscriptions. 



Tiruverumbur (pop. 1,042) is situated in the Trichino- 
poly taluq of the Trichinopoly district, 7 miles from 
Trichinopoly Junction, 25 from Tanjore Junction, and 242 
from Madras (Egmore). The village is 230 feet above sea- 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief product 
is paddy. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Historical. — This was formerly an important place as 
commanding the road from Trichinopoly to Tanjore. 

Objects of Interest. — A strongly built Siva temple on a 
low rock with a rock-cut cave below it. Six miles north 
of this station is the Grand Anient, which, though making 
no pretensions to architectural merit, is remarkable for its 
great utility. 

Sport. — Good snipe shooting can be had here in the 


Trichinopoly (lat. 10*49 ; long. 78*46 ; pop. 90,609) is a 
large Municipal town situated in a taluq of the same 
name in the Trichinopoly district, on the right bank of 
the river Cauvery. The town is divided into two parts, 
one called the ** Cantonment," which contains the resi- 
dences of the European and Eurasian community and the 
barracks of the native troops; the other, the **Fort,'' a 
densely populated locality occupied by natives. The ** Can- 
tonment*' was formerly garrisoned by European and 
native regiments, but in 1878, when the fourth Afghan War 
broke out, the whole of the Em-opean troops were removed, 
and the garrison subsequently reduced to two native 
regiments. The ** Fort ** was rectangular in trace, measur- 
ing about a mile by half a mile, and was originally 
surrounded by ramparts and a ditch, but the walls have now 
been completely levelled and the ditch filled in. The 


streets in this part of the town are narrow, bat have been, 
on the whole, regularly laid out. Inside the Fort is the 
Trichinopoly Eock, which rises abruptly out of the plain to 
a height of 273 feet above the level of the street at its foot. 
Trichinopoly has two railway stations, ** Trichinopoly 
Junction " which serves the Cantonment and ** Trichino- 
poly Fort,*' 2i miles distant on the Erode branch, which 
accommodates the native town. 

The South Indian Railway Company's head-quarters 
are in the Cantonment, the " General offices " being close 
to the Junction station. 

The following are the distances from this Junction to the 
principal stations on the South Indian Railway : — 

Erode Junction (for Madras Bailwaj) 

Ammayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) 

Madura .. 



Tanjore Junction (for Negapatam) 


Mayavaram Junction 

Villupuram Junction 


Ghingleput Junction (for Con jeeveram) 

Madras (Egmore) . . 


Vellore . . 

Pakala Junction 

Gudur Junction (for East Coast Railway) 

Dharmavaram (for Southern Mahratta Railway) 

Local Accommodation, — About a mile from the Junction 
station is a travellers* bungalow which is fully furnished 
and can accommodate two persons at one time. The 
butler in charge can supply meals, if required, but wines 
and spirits must be privately purchased. The charge for 
the use of this bungalow is one rupee for each person per 
diem. Close to the river Cauvery, about three-quarters of 
a mile from the **Fort" station, are 4 choultries, where 
natives of all classes can find free lodging, but must make 

. . 87 miles. 

. 71 

.. 96 

.. 196 

.. 196 

.. 31 

.. 79 

.. 76 

.. 151 

.. 174 

.. 215 

.. 249 

.. 193 

.. 244 

.. 282 

.. 373 

.. 430 


their own aorangements for food. Besides these, in the 
Fort there are 2 Brahman and about 27 other hotels, where 
meals are served at 2^ annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance, — ^At the Junction station hackney 
carriages, jutkas and bullock-carts are procurable, the 
fares being : — 

For a Day. 

For half Day. 

R8. A. p. 

B8. A. P. 

Palanquin carriage 

. . a 12 


Broughams . . 



Victoria (Ringle) 


1 12 

Do. (pair) 







. 10 


A guide is generally at this station, who will show the 
sights of the town. His charge is Es. 3 per diem. 

At the Fort station, jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
available, the fares being 2 annas and 1 anna per vehicle 
per mile, respectively. 

Railway Facilities, — At the Junction station, waiting 
accommodation is provided for first and second class pas- 
sengers. There is also a refreshment room under the mana- 
gement of Messrs. Spencer & Co., the butler in charge of 
which has usually a few copies of the Madras MaiZand 
Madras Times for sale, as well as a small stock of 
travellers' requisites. On the first floor of the station 
building are two rooms furnished for sleeping, each of 
which contains two beds. The charges for the use of 
these rooms are as under : — 

Not exceeding 3 hours, for etbch adult . . . . 8 annas. 

And for each child of 12 years and under . . . . 4 „ 

Exceeding 3 hours and not exceeding 24 hours, or one 

night only, for each adult . . 1 rupee. 

Do. do. for each child of 12 years and under . . 8 annas. 

Punkah-pullers, and hot and cold water baths, are charged 
as extras. At the Fort station, waiting accommodation 
is provided for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The most import- 
ant local industry is the manufacture of cigars, for which 
Trichinopoly is famous. Articles in silver and gold are 


excellently made by the local gold and silversmiths, who are 
very successful with their filagree and repousse work. The 
cost of well-made silver articles is usually double the value 
of their weight in rupees. Hardware and native shoes are 
largely manufactured and weaving is carried on. At the 
Central Jail many useful articles are made by the prisoners. 
The chief products are paddy, plantains, cocoanuts and 

Local Officials, — The Collector and District Magistrate, 
Deputy Collector, District Judge, Sub-Judge, Superin- 
tendent of Police, District Surgeon, Deputy Commissioner 
of Salt and Abkari, Salt and Abkari Inspector, Forest Officer, 
Tahsildar, Town and Stationary Sub-Magistrates, District 
and Sub-Eegistrars and District Munsifif. The Agent, 
Chief Engineer, Traffic Manager, Chief Auditor, Superin- 
tending Physician, and many other officers of the South 
Indian Railway also reside in the Cantonment. 

Fairs and Festivals, — A market is held daily in the 
centre of the town, about a mile east of the Fort station. 
In December-January of each year, a large cattle fair is 
held at Srirungam, and in March annually a similar fair is 
held at Samayapuram. Every year, in December-January, 
the Yekadasi festival takes place at Srirungam, and in March 
a festival is celebrated at Samayapuram. In August an- 
nually a large festival is held at the Fort temple, when 
the gods and goddess, Siva, Parvati, Ganesh and Subra- 
manya are carried in procession round the four maiii 
streets of the temple. 

Missions, Churches, dtc, — Close to the Junction station 
is St. John's Church, used by the European and Eurasian 
Protestant community of Trichinopoly, which contains the 
remains of Bishop Heber. There are several Roman 
Catholic Churches, the finest being one recently built by 
the Jesuit fathers near the Fort station. The Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel, the Wesleyans, Lutherans 
and Jesuits, all have Missions, the S. P. G. and the Jesuits 


each maintaining first-grade colleges affiliated to the 
Madras University. 

Clubs, — The Trichinopoly Club is a well known 
institution and has over 50 local members. In connec- 
tion with it is the '* Gymkhana Club," which maintains 
the tennis courts, golf links, racquet courts, &c. Visitors 
making a short stay in Trichinopoly may join either of 
these clubs, the following rules being applicable to honorary 
members : — 

Visitors and gentlemen holding acting appointments, 
whose stay in the station or district is not likely to exceed 
one month, may alone be admitted as honorary members 
of the club without ballot during their stay in Trichino- 
poly on being proposed by one member and seconded by 
two other members. 

Honorary members pay a subscription of Es. 6 a month. 
Half-subscription to be paid for any part of a month not 
exceeding 15 days. 

In the Town Hall in the Fort is a reading-room main- 
tained by native officials. 

HistoricaL — Worriur, now a suburb of Trichinopoly, 
was an early capital of the old Chola Dynasty, whose 
authority in the city seems to have been terminated 
by the Muhammedan incursion under Mahk Kafur in 
A.D. 1310. The Musalmans governed the district until 
about 1372 when a Vijayanagar General, named Eampana 
Udeiyar, obtained possession of both Trichinopoly and 
Madura. In 1559, Visvanatha Nayakkan established the 
Nayakka Dynasty in Madura, and obtained Trichinopoly 
from the king of Tanjore in exchange for the fort of 
Vallam near Tanjore. Visvanatha is supposed to have 
fortified the town, constructed the large teppakulam, and 
built the walls and gopurams of Srirangam temple. The 
eighth king of the dynasty, Mutthu Krishnappa, made 
Trichinopoly the capital of his empire, but his successor, 
the great Tirumala Nayakka, re-transferred the seat of 


Government to Madura. During the reign of the next 
monarch, Muttu Verappa, the country was constantly 
devastated by Muhammedan incursions necessitating the 
strengthening of the Trichinopoly fortifications. The suc- 
ceeding king again removed his capital to Trichinopoly and 
erected in the city the building known as the Nawab's 
palace, obtaining the necessary materials by demolishing 
portions of Tirumala Nayakka's palace in Madura. In 
1663, the Musalmans again invaded the south and besieged 
Trichinopoly without success, while four years later an 
incursion of Mysoreans took place. On the death of the 
last Nayakka, Vijaya Eanga Choka in 1731, his widow, 
Minakshi, attempted to gain possession of the kingdom. 
In this she was opposed by Vangaru Tirumala, the son 
of a prominent minister of the late king, and the contest 
for supremacy finally resulted in Nawab Dost Ali being 
applied to for assistance by Vangaru. The Nawab's son, 
Safdar Ali, marched to Trichinopoly, accompanied by his 
brother-in-law, Chanda Sahib, and, having summoned the 
rival claimants, decided in favour of Vangaru. Chanda 
Sahib was left in Trichinopoly to collect Safdar Ali's fee of 
30 lakhs for the arbitration. Minakshi entered into intri- 
gues with Chanda Sahib, who, finally, in consideration of 
the promise of a crore of rupees, took possession of Trichi- 
nopoly in the queen's name. Minakshi retained Trichi- 
nopoly for herself, and left Tinnevelly , Madura and Dindigul 
with the Bamnad and Sivagunga Zemindaries under the 
management of Vangaru Tirumala. In 1736, Chanda Sahib 
gained possession of Trichinopoly, apparently by treachery, 
deprived Vangaru of Madura, and confined the queen as a 
prisoner in her own palace. The unfortunate lady seems 
to have poisoned herself shortly after, and, as a last resource, 
Vangaru Tirumala invoked the assistance of the Mahrattas. 
This appeal resulted in the invasion of the Camatic by a 
large force under Raghuji Bhonslai, which, after defeating 
Nawab Dost Ali on the 20th May 1740, marched at once 


on Trichinopoly. Chanda Sahib defended himself with 
vigour, but, after a three months' siege, was obhged to sur- 
render the town to the Mahrattas on the 26th March 1741. 
He, his son, and his principal officers were sent as prisoners 
to Sattara, and Morari Bao, a Mahratta General, was ap- 
pointed Governor of Trichinopoly with a force of 14,000 
men to assure his position. Two years later, the Nizam of 
Hyderabad, Asaf Jah, entered the Camatic with a large 
army, and demanded the surrender of Trichinopoly. Morari 
Kao refused to comply, whereupon the Nizam laid siege 
to the place which soon surrendered, and in 1743 Morari 
Bao with his Mahrattas retired from the Camatic. In 
1748 the Nizam Asaf Jah died, when a contest for succes- 
sion arose between his son Nazir Jung and a favorite 
grandson Muzuflfer Jung. At this time Chanda Sahib, who 
had been released by the good offices of the French, and 
was a claimant to the nawabship of the Camatic, then held 
by Anwar-ud-din, associated himself with the cause of 
MuzujBfer Jung. These allies defeated and killed Anwar- 
ud-din at the battle of Ambur in July 1749, when his son, 
Muhammad Ali, fled to Trichinopoly, and soHcited the 
assistance of the Enghsh. The French and English, who 
had been at war since 1744, took opposite sides, the latter 
espousing the cause of Nazir Jung and Muhanmied AU. 
A small detachment under Captain Cope was accordingly 
sent to Trichinopoly in response to the latter' s appeal, while 
the French supplied 800 European soldiers to Muzuflfer 
Jung and Chanda Sahib, who immediately marched against 
Trichinopoly. En route, being short of funds, they pro- 
ceeded to squeeze the king of Tanjore, a delay which 
proved disastrous to their plans as the arrival in the Camatic 
of Nazir Jung compelled them to return to Pondicherry. 
Muhammed Ali and Cope's detachment joined Nazir Jung's 
force at Voldore, some 16 miles from Pondicherry, where 
they were confronted by Muzuffer Jung's army. No battle 
was fought as, owing to dissatisfaction on the part of the 


French Officers who resigned their commissions, Muzuflfer 
Jung surrendered and Chanda Sahib and the French retired 
to Pondicherry . In December 1750, Nazir Jung was assas- 
sinated when the greater portion of his army went over to 
Muzuflfer Jung. Muhammed Ali thereupon fled to Trichi- 
nopoly, where he was reinforced in February 1751 by 280 
Europeans and 300 sepoys under the command of Captain 
Cope. On receiving intelligence that Chanda Sahib was 
about to besiege Trichinopoly. Muhammad Ali applied to 
the English for further assistance, and in April 1751, 500 
Europeans and 1,000 sepoys with eight field pieces under 
Captain Gingen were sent from Cuddalore. Near the 
village of Yalikandapuram, on the high road between 
Trichinopoly and Madras, this force, which had been joined 
by a detachment from Trichinopoly, came in sight of Chanda 
Sahib's army, then encamped along the bed of the Vellar 
river. The French advanced the following morning, when 
the English troops, after a smart skirmish, retreated in great 
confusion on Trichinopoly by forced marches. A company 
of Grenadiers under Captain Dalton fought an unsuccessful 
rear-guard action with the allied troops of Chanda Sahib 
and the French near the village of Uttattur in the Perum- 
balur taluq, and the retreat was continued as far as the 
north bank of the Coleroon. This river separates from 
the Cauvery at Trichinopoly, but for several miles after 
the division the two streams continue so close together 
that their banks are never more than two miles apart, 
and 15 miles east of Trichinopoly at Koviladi, the two 
rivers are only separated by a strong embankment. The 
enclosed strip of land is known as the island of Srirungam 
and is famous for its great temple. The English force, 
after first occupying the pagoda at Pichandarkovil on the 
Salem road, crossed the Coleroon and located themselves in 
the Srirungam temple. This building, though well adapted 
for resistance, was found to be too large for defence by so 
small a body of men, and the English force, therefore, 


crossed the Cauvery and took shelter under the walls of 
Trichinopoly on the west side of the city. On Srirungam 
being vacated by the English, the French and Chanda 
Sahib's force immediately occupied the island ; but, elated 
by their success in capturing the small mud fort at Kovi- 
ladi, Chanda Sahib*s army was shortly afterwards moved 
across the Cauvery, and encamped to the east of Trichino- 
poly, a garrison being left in Srirungam. At this juncture, 
Lieutenant Clive was despatched with a small force from 
Fort St. David to the assistance of the city, but even with this 
reinforcement the disparity between the opposing armies 
was so great that, on his return in August to Fort St. David, 
Clive was permitted to create a diversion by undertaking 
his now famous expedition against Arcot The siege oper- 
ations against Trichinopoly devolved on the French, who 
erected their principal battery of three S-pounders and three 
mortars about 1,200 yards to the south of the north-east 
angle of the town. On a little eminence, now known as 
the French Eocks, situated near the spot where the Tan- 
jore road crosses the Wyacondan channel, two 18-pounders 
were mounted, and another 2-gun battery was con- 
structed on Srirungam island. Muhammud Ali, who was 
now reduced to great distress for want of funds, entered 
into a secret treaty with Mysore, under which, as the price 
of his surrender of the country from Trichinopoly to Cape 
Comorin to that State, an army under the Dewan Nundi- 
raz, and 4,000 Mahratta horse under Morari Rao, were sent 
to his aid. In preventing the French from intercepting 
the arrival of these reinforcements. Captain Cope was killed. 
Shortly afterwards, the Rajah of Tanjore sent to Muhammud 
Ali*s aid 3,000 horse and 2,000 foot under Monakji, and 
the Tondiman of Pudukottai supplemented the force with 
400 horse and 3,000 men. In March 1752, 400 Europeans 
and 1,100 sepoys under Major Lawrence, after successfully 
opposing an attempt by the French to prevent their pro- 
gress beyond Tiruverumbur, arrived at Trichinopoly. The 


garrison being now superior in niuubers to the besieging 
force, offensive operations against the French and their 
allies were prosecuted with vigour. Lawrence determined 
to first attack Chanda Sahib's camp, but Captain Dalton, 
the officer entrusted with the duty, was misled during a 
night march by his guides, and at daybreak, on April 2nd, 
found himself in the centre of the French outposts between 
Erumbisvaram rock near Tiruverumbur and the French 
Kocks. This mistake, which should have resulted in the 
annihilation of Dalton*s force, so far from being availed of 
by Law, the French commander, actually determined this 
incompetent officer to fall back on Srirungam and thus 
allow Erumbisvaram to be easily captured by the English. 
Clive, who was now serving under Lawrence, persuaded the 
latter to divide his army into two divisions, and to allow 
him to lead one to the north of the city so as to intercept 
any possible reinforcement from Pondicherry. Clive 
fought a series of minor actions at the village of Samaya- 
puram, 8 miles north of Trichinopoly on the Madras 
road, and on one occasion, being surprised at night by a 
body of French reinforcements, his force narrowly escaped 
disaster, and he himself nearly lost his life in the Mariyam- 
man temple at the hands of an Irish deserter, who treach- 
erously fired at him during a parley. M; D'Auteuil, who 
commanded the French troops was, however, prevented 
from reaching Srirungam, and, after halting some days at 
Uttattur, was driven back on Yalikandapuram by Dalton. 
In the meantime Clive proceeded to the attack of Srirun- 
gum, bufr on the fall of Pichandarkoil and the consequent 
closing* of communication with Pondicherry, Chanda 
Sahib's army dispersed, the majority going to their homes, 
but some joining the English. M. D'Auteuil hearing of this 
disaffection marched out of Yalikandapmram was promptly 
defeated by Clive and compelled to surrender. Chanda 
Sahib shortly after gave himself up to the Tanjore General 
Monakji on the promise of a money reward and of his life 


being spared. This promise was immediately broken and 
Chanda Sahib brutally murdered. 

Lawrence then called upon the French remaining in 
Srirungam to surrender, which, after some delay, they did. 
Prior to the murder of Chanda Sahib the English were in 
ignorance of the treaty between Muhammud Ali and 
Nandiraz, and it became necessary for an English detach- 
ment to remain in Trichinopoly to prevent rupture between 
the two, as the Nawab plainly evinced his reluctance to 
give up the town to the Mysore Dewan. Dupleix, who 
had received large reinforcements from Europe, after 
having appointed Beza Sahib, the son of Chanda Sahib, to 
be Nawab, entered into an alliance with the Mysore and 
Mahratta troops. This led to an early recommencement 
of hostilities by the French, but, after gaining a few trifling 
successes, they sustained a crushing defeat from Lawrence 
at Bahoor, near Pondicherry. This English victory at first 
inclined Nandiraz to give up any intention of keeping 
faith with Dupleix, but subsequent inaction on the part 
of Muhammud Ali, to whom the next campaign was in- 
trusted, resulted in the Mysore and Mahratta troops siding 
definitely with the French. The Madras Government, 
therefore, declared war against Nandiraz, whereupon 
Dalton, who had been left in Trichinopoly, proceeded to 
attack the Mysore army in Srirungam. This engagement, 
which took place on the 23rd December 1752, was, on the 
whole, unfavorable to the English, so that Nandiraz was 
able to make arrangements for the starving out of the 
garrison by intercepting the supplies which were derived 
from the Pudukottai State. He stationed a strong detach- 
ment in the Fakir's tope, and the blockade thus estab- 
lished compelled Lawrence to march to the relief of the city. 
The news of his approach, however, caused the Mysoreans 
to retreat to Srirungam, so that he was able to reach Trichi- 
nopoly without molestation. The first move of Lawrence 
was to attack Srirungam, but in this he only obtained a 


negative result, and, as the enemy declined to be drawn 
into a general engagement in the open, he temporarily 
devoted himself to provisioning the city. Dupleix con- 
trived to send large reinforcements to the Mysoreans, and 
in a short time Lawrence found himself with 500 Euro- 
peans and 2,000 sepoys opposed to 450 Europeans, 1,600 
trained sepoys, 2 companies of topasses, 8,000 Mysore 
horses, 3,500 Mahrattas, and 15,000 irregular infantry. 
The Mysore General, on being reinforced again, left Sri- 
rungam and encamped on the plains three miles to the 
north of Fakir's Tope. Failure on the part of an English 
officer to maintain, as usual, a detachment on Fakir's 
Bock, led to its occupation by the enemy and the conse- 
quent cutting off of the Pudukottai supplies. On 26th 
June 1753, M. Astruc, the French commander, proceeded 
to attack a guard of 200 sepoys, who held a small eminence, 
half a mile to the south-west of Lawrence's camp, the 
possession of which would have enabled him to drive the Eng- 
lish inside the city walls. This attack developed into the 
action properly known as the battle of Fakir's Eock and 
in which Lawrence gained a brilliant victory. After the 
battle, Lawrence left for Tanjore in order to procure some 
cavalry from the Bajah ; and on his departure, Trichinopoly 
was again blockaded. After a month's absence he returned 
with reinforcements. The enemy opposed his advance 
near the Golden Eock, but were completely defeated, and 
Trichinopoly was reached without further trouble. Law- 
rence soon fought a minor successful action at Wyacon- 
dantirumalai, after which both sides remained passive 
awaiting reinforcements. At the end of September, Law- 
rence provoked a general engagement and gained a signal 
victory, capturing 11 guns, and the whole of the French 
tents, baggage and equipment. This action should pro- 
perly be called after Golden Eock, near which it was fought, 
but occasionally it is incorrectly referred to as the battle 
of the Sugarloaf Eock, Trichinopoly was now virtually 


out of danger, but in November the French made one 
more despairing effort to capture the city. The attack 
was delivered against that portion of the fortifications 
known as Dalton's Battery and resulted in some 360 
Frenchmen being taken prisoners. In February 1754 ^ 
convoy of provisions, military stores, and cash en route 
to Trichinopoly was captured and the guard cut to pieces 
at Kiliyur, 10 miles from the city, by an overwhelming 
force of French and Mahrattas, and the disaster was the 
severest blow experienced by the English during the war. 
The next item of importance was a dispute between Morari 
Rao and Nandiraz, which resulted in the former being 
bought off by the Rajah of Tanjore after he had defeated a 
body of Tanjore troops, and retiring to his own country. 
Hostilities between the French and English were sus- 
pended in September, and a provisional treaty concluded 
on 31st December 1764. As the Mysore Dewan refused 
to be bound by this treaty, he continued to direct futile 
attacks from Srirungam, until the news of an invasion of 
Mysore, by the Nizam, recalled him hurriedly to his own 
country. The provisional treaty was ratified and the 
French remained peacefully in Srirungam until war was 
again declared between France and England in 1756. 
Operations in the Trichinopoly district were commenced 
by the French sending a detachment of 200 Europeans 
and 2,000 sepoys under M. D'Auteuil to collect tribute 
from the Poligar& of Ariyalur and Udaiyapolayam. After 
reinforcement by 800 Europeans and 1,000 sepoys, 
D'Auteuil advanced to Srirungam and joined the garrison 
of that island ; Captain Joseph Smith, who then command- 
ed the small force of 150 Europeans and 700 sepoys form- 
ing the company's garrison in Trichinopoly, obtained 600 
men from Tanjore and Pudukottai, and sent for assistance to 
Captain Calliaud at the time in Madura with 120 Europeans 
and 1,200 sepoys. Calliaud skilfully eluded D'Auteuil's 
troops and after he joined the garrison the French Com- 



mander withdrew to Pondicherry. In May 1758 with a 
view of strengthening the army besieging Fort St. David, 
the French Governor Lally recalled all the French troops 
in Srirungam, which was handed over to a detachment of 
Mysoreans from Dindigul. Fort St. David fell in June, 
but the Trichinopoly garrison was not immediately re- 
duced, and soon after assisted in repulsing a French attack on 
Tanjore, when, however, the French had captured a number 
of outlying English posts, and were threatening Chingle- 
put, Calliaud, with all the European troops, was recalled 
from Trichinopoly ; and in November, when Madras was 
invested, the garrison was further reduced by 2,000 sepoys. 
In July 1759 the French captured Thiagar, an important 
fortress commanding the road through Valikandapuram 
to Trichinopoly, and proceeded to ravage the country as 
far as Uttattur. They re-occupied the Srirungam pagoda 
in the following October, but the disastrous defeat inflict- 
ed on them at Wandiwash by Colonel Coote soon neces- 
sitated the recall at first of a portion, and, finally, the whole 
of their troops in the island. In 1766 Trichinopoly was 
threatened by Hyder Ali, who occupied Thiagar in June ; 
beyond the capture, however, of Karur, by Captain Smith, 
nothing further of importance occurred in the district 
during this war. In 1768-69 Hyder Ali again devastated 
the country round Trichinopoly, but made no move against 
the city itself. Once more in 1781, he appeared on the 
scene, and on this occasion proceeded to invest the town, 
but was compelled to raise the siege after his defeat at 
Porto Novo. In the later Mysore war of 1790, Tippoo 
Sultan marched through Karur on Trichinopoly, laid 
waste the island of Srirungam, and retired after making 
a few feints against the city. Since this time Trichinopoly 
has been free from hostile demonstrations, and it passed 
quietly into the possession of the English by treaty with 
the Nawab in 1801. 
Objects of Interest — Trichinopoly Rock, — The ascent is 


made by series of flights of steps commencing at an 
entrance close to the junction of the Main Bazaar street 
with the China Bazaar street. On each side of the gateway 
are stone figures of elephants, the passage itself being 
lined with pillars having carved capitals. The first three 
flights of steps terminate on a landing, at the four comers 
of which are granite monoliths, and which gives access to 
the high level street encircling the rock. This road is 
generally followed by religious processions and from it a 
hall is entered on the left of which is a small shrine to 
Ganesha and on the right the stable of the temple ele- 
phant. The second series of steps leads out of this hall 
through an exit ornamented with statues of Dwarapalagals 
on each side. After ascending three more flights of steps 
a second landing is reached, on each side of which is a 
large hundred-pillared mantapam, that on the right being 
used as a store, and that on the left being used twice 
a year for the reception of the idol belonging to the 
main temple. More steps lead to a third landing, to the left 
of which is a small room for the temple records and in 
front of which is a shrine to Ganesha. The ascent now 
turns sharply to tlie left and then to the right tenninating 
on a fourth landing, giving access to the great temple, this 
the visitor cannot of course enter, but a view of a portion 
of the interior can be obtained from the landing. The 
steps now emerge into the open, passing on the left a 
chamber hewn out of the rock and covered with Sanscrit 
inscriptions of the Puranas. This chamber was used as a 
magazine by the British during the siege. Two short 
flights lead to a mantapam, to which the temple deity is 
taken once a year, and to a platform on the shoulder of the 
rock whence the final series of steps commences. These 
terminate on the top of the rock in a small temple dedica- 
ted to Ganesha, whose slirine is surrounded by a gallery 
from which a fine view of the town and the adjacent 
country is obtained. At the end of tliis gallery overlooking 


the great temple is a narrow door (to open which the 
visitor must secmre the services of one of the custodians to 
be found at the entrance to the great temple) leading on 
to a small platform from which a good view is seen of the 
''Kalasam'' or golden covering over the god. Beneath 
will be seen, sculptured in relief on the surface of the rock, 
two foot-prints which the Hindus state to be those made 
by a giant named Vibishna when engaged in carrying off 
Kama. The Muhammedans, however, claim the foot-prints 
as those of a great saint called Nattu, who took up his resi- 
dence on the rock from which he was ejected by the god 
of the place. At the foot of the rock, on the north-eastern 
side, will be seen a row of low buildings with semi-circular 
arched roofs said to be the old bomb-proof barracks, and 
further on — more to the east — a portion of the outworks of 
the fort, the line of the walls being indicated by the open 
space surrounding the town. On the top of the shrine is 
a flagstaff on which the British flag was flown when the 
fort was garrisoned. 

The visitor may be interested to know that a representa- 
tion of the rock is sculptured on a tablet to Major Law- 
rence in Westminster Abbey. 

The Teppakulam. — At the foot of the rock is a large 
masonry tank or teppakulam in the centre of wliich a 
small but graceful mantapam has been built. Overlook- 
ing the tank, at its south-east corner, is the house which 
was once the residence of Clive, but is now occupied by 
St. Joseph's College. 

The Nawab's Palace, a part of which is at present used 
as the Town Hall and part as offices for the Tahsildar, 
District Munsiff, District Kegistrar, Town Magistrate and 
other public ofiicials, is situated close to Trichinopoly Rock. 
It originally consisted of a suite of rooms, galleries and 
inner apartments and had fountains playing in the garden 
attached to it. Though not kept up in the manner it was 
in days gone by, it is still worth a visit. 


Chunda SahiVs Tomb. — Situated near the Trichinopoly 
Fort station contains the remains of Chunda Sahib, who 
himself built the dome of the edifice, which appears to be 
constructed from materials of Hindu temples. 

The Central Jail. — Situated near the Golden Eock is 
built upon the radial principle, almost every part of it 
being commanded by the central tower. It is capable of 
acconunodating nearly 1,000 prisoners. Visitors can see the 
jail on permission being obtained from the Superintendent 
who resides near the jail. 

Sessions Court Bath. — ^Within the precincts of the Ses- 
sions Court is a small swimming bath in which the late 
Bishop Heber, the well-known author of the hymn ** From 
Greenlands Icy Mountains " met his death. It is supposed 
that while bathing he had an apoplectic fit. To coimiie- 
morate the sad event a tablet has been erected by Govern- 
ment at the side of the bath. 

The Great Vishnu Temple at Srirungain. —A bridge of 
32 arched openings of 49 feet span over the Cauvery joins 
the mainland to the island of Srirungam, which contains 
one of the largest and richest temples in Southern India. 
This temple can hardly be considered architecturally 
beautiful and is imposing simply on account of its enor- 
mous extent as is only too frequently the case with Dra- 
vidian temples. It is rather a fortuitous assemblage of 
walls, gopurams and mantapams, than a structure built to 
a well arranged and preconceived design. In all proba- 
bility the temple is the work of many kings and originated 
in the central shrine, which successive monarchs left un- 
touched while rivalling each other in surrounding it with 
walls and lofty gopurams. Be the explanation what it 
may, the fact remains that the architectural merit of the 
entire structure becomes less, the closer the proximity to 
the central shrine. This is to be the more regretted, 
as it must be admitted with Fergusson, that could the 
principle of design be reversed, Srirungam would be 


one of the finest temples in Southern India. The central 
shrine is dedicated to Runganadaswami, and is surrounded 
by no fewer than seven enclosing walls and 15 gopurams. 
The outermost wall, which is 20 feet 8 inches in height and 
6 feet wide at the top, measures in plan 3,072 by 2,521 
feet, and is built of fine cut stone. The entrance through 
it from the Trichinopoly side is by means of a magnificent 
but unfinished gateway, built of enormous blocks of granite, 
which is one of the finest structures in the whole temple, 
a narrow staircase gives admittance to the platform at the 
top, and the climb is well worth facing, not only for the 
view obtained, but also for the sake of examining the mas- 
sive character of the building. The second enclosure 
measures 2,108 feet by 1,846 feet and the third 1,653 feet 
by 1,270 feet the intervening areas being occupied by sepa- 
rating streets and houses, each face of the tlu'ee outer walls 
is surmounted by a gopuram, but the fourth wall has only 
three and the remaining walls none. The fourth enclosure 
wall measures 1,235 feet by 849 feet and among its three 
gopurams is that known as the vellai or " white gopuram,*' 
which is 146^ feet in height and is the finest in the whole 
temple. Rumour has it that there was originally a fourth 
gate in the west face of the enclosure, but that it was 
blocked up in consequence of the residents of the neigh- 
bouring houses having plundered the temple. After passing 
through the Vellai gopuram a mantapam is entered which 
is separated by an enclosed yard from the hall of 1,000 
columns. The mantapam contains the best example of 
carving in the temple, but this is not high praise, as the 
work is decidedly inferior to that at Madura, Vellore, Chi- 
dambaram and many other places. The mantapam or hall 
of 1,000 pillars is in reality misnamed, as the number of 
columns is only 940. To remedy this deficiency, the yard is 
covered in on the occasions of the annual Yakadesy festival 
in December by a handsomely decorated bamboo structure 
or pandal, which is supported by the deficient number 


of pillars. The fifth, sixth and seventh enclosure walls 
measure 767 feet by 503 feet, 426 feet by 295 feet and 
240 feet by 181 feet, respectively ; but Europeans are not 
permitted to pass them. The jewels and plate of this 
temple are well worth seeing and are worth many lakhs of 
rupees. Amongst them is a golden salver presented by 
H. R. H. the Prince of Wales on the occasion of his visit- 
ing India in 1875. In order to see the jewels prior notice 
must be given to the temple trustees as these valuables are 
in the custody of several persons whose joint presence is 
necessary before they can be shown. It is customary to 
pay at least five rupees to the trustees for making the 
necessary arrangements. 

The Jambukeshwara Temple. — About half a mile to the 
east of the famous Vishnu temple at Srirungam is another 
remarkable temple dedicated to Siva and known as the 
Jambukeshwara temple. The name is a compound of the 
words ** Jambu,** a kind of a tree, and '' Iswara " (lord), one 
of the names of Siva. The image of the deity in this 
pagoda, said to be a hundred years old, is placed under a 
Jambu tree and is much venerated. Mr. Fergusson con- 
siders the edifice to far surpass the larger temple in 
architectural beauty. The Jambukeshwara temple has 
five enclosures, of which the first and innermost contains 
the shrine or vimanah and is surrounded by a wall 30 feet 
in height and encloses a space of 126 feet by 123 feet. The 
second wall is 306 feet by 197 feet with a wall 35 feet high. 
There are several small mantapams in this enclosure the 
surrounding wall of which contains a gopuram 60 feet in 
height. The third enclosure is 745 feet by 197 feet and is 
surrounded by a wall 30 feet high containing two gopurams 
73 feet and 100 feet in height. In this portion of the build- 
ing is a cocoanut tope, a small tank and a temple to which 
the idol from the great Vishnu temple at Srirungam is 
brought for one day in each year. The fourth enclosure 
measures 2,436 feet by 1,493 feet, the wall surrounding it 


being 35 feet in height and 6 feet in thickness. The fifth or 
outer enclosure contains four streets of houses, and has a 
small gopuram over the western entrance, which is probably 
not more than seventy to ninety years old. There are 
numerous inscriptions in various parts of the building record- 
ing grants of lands made to the pagoda from time to time. 
This temple is not properly kept up and portions are falling 
into ruins. 


Kolatur South (pop. t2,5'25) is situated in the Trichino- 
poly taluq of the Trichinopoly district, llj miles from 
Trichinopoly Junction, and 260 from Madras (Egmore). 
The village is about half a mile north-west of the station. 

Local Accovimodation. — Close to the station is a chut- 
tram, where native travellers of all classes can find free 
lodging, but must make their own arrangements for food. 
In the village are two hotels, where meals are served to 
natives of all classes at 2^ annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had at the 
station, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Not far from the 
station are granite quarries which yield excellent stone. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Tuesday. 


Manaparai (pop. 3,158) is situated in the Kulitalai taluq 
of the Trichinopoly district, 28 miles from Trichinopoly 
Junction, 74 from Madura, and 271 from Madras (Egmore). 
The village is a quarter of a mile east of the station. 

Local Accommodation. — Close to the station is a travel- 
lers' bungalow. This building has a lofty circular dome 
resembling the large hall in the Nawab's palace at Trichi- 
nopoly. It is said to have been built by the queen 
Mangammal, who acted as Eegent during the minority of 


one of the Nayak kings in the sixteenth century. It is fur- 
nished and can accommodate three persons at one time, but 
no cook is entertained. The charge for the use of the bunga- 
low is 8 annas for each person per diem. In the village is 
a choultry, where natives of all classes can find free lodging, 
but must make their own arrangements for food. Besides 
this are 5 hotels, where meals are served to natives of all 
classes at 2^ annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are usually procurable 
at the station, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are paddy, ragi, cholam, horse-gram, chillies, tamarind and 

Local Officials. — The Deputy Tahsildar and Sub-Magis- 
trate, Sub-Eegistrar, Hospital Assistant, Police Inspector, 
Local Fund Overseer, Forest Eanger, Sub-Inspector of Salt 
and Abkari and the Revenue Inspector. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair, the largest in the district, 
is held here every Wednesday. 

Missions and Churches, — At Malayadiputti, about three 
miles west of the station, is a Roman Catholic Church, at 
which a large festival is held in Easter week. 

Objects of Interest, — About seven miles north-east of this 
station in a village called Kuppanarpatti, are the remains 
of a small military station. The ruins consist of two 
buildings once used as barracks for European troops, 
quarters for their oflBcers, stables, a magazine, a guard-room 
and three wells. The ground on which these buildings 
were erected rises considerably above the surrounding 
plain and is about 10 acres in extent. It is evident that 
the settlement was once fortified to some degree and it 
was probably an outlying station for the garrison in 
Trichinopoly, when it was necessary to awe the wild sur- 
rounding tribes into peaceful behaviour. 

Sport. — Good shooting can be had close to the station, 
teal and duck being obtainable in the tanks during the cold 



season, while, in the hills close by, wild pig may be found. 
Shikarries can be obtained at 8 annas and coolies at 4 
annas per diem. 


Vaiyampati (pop. 1,544) is situated in theKuhtali taluq 
of the Trichinopoly district, 32 miles from Trichinopoly 
Junction, 64 from Madura, and 280 from Madras (Egmore). 

Road Conveyance, — If previous notice be given, bullock- 
carts can be obtained, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief produce 
is firewood. 

Local Official, — The Village Munsiff. 
Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Saturday, 
which is poorly attended. 


Ayyalur (pop. 4,275) is situated 1,087 feet above sea-level 
in the Dindigul taluq of the Madura district, 43 miles 
from Trichinopoly Junction, 54 from Madura and 291 from 
Madras (Egmore). 

Local Accommodation. — In the village is a chuttram, 
where native travellers of all classes can find free lodging, 
but they must make their own arrangements for food. 
Besides this are two hotels, where meals are served if 
previous notice is given, at 2J annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — If previous notice be given, bullock- 
carts can be obtained, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief products 
are horse-gram, ragi and kumboo. 

Local Official, — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs and Festivals, — A fair is held every Thursday. 



Vddamadura (pop. 4,770) is situated in the Dindigul 
taluq of the Madura district, 48 miles from Trichinopoly 
Junction, 48 from Madura and 296 from Madras (Egmore). 
The village is about 969 feet above gea-level. 

Local Accommodation, — In the village is a choultry, 
where natives of all classes can find free lodging, but must 
make their own arrangements for food . There are also four 
hotels, where meals are served to all classes at 2^ annas 
per meal. 

Road Conveyance, — Bullock-carts can be obtained, the 
fare being 2 J annas per vehicle per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are tobacco, tamarind, oil-seeds, gram and firewood. 

Local Official.— The Village Munsifif. 

Fair and Festivals, — A fair is held every Saturday. 


Dindigul (lat. 10^22' ; long. 78^00 ; height 924 feet ; pop. 
20,203) is a municipal town situated in a taluq of the same 
name in the Madura district. The town, which enjoys a 
comparatively cool climate, is in the middle of an extensive 
plain, bounded on the east by the Sirumalais, rising to 4,000 
feet above sea-level and on the west by the Lower Pulneys. 
The following are the distances to the principal stations on 
the South Indian Eailway : — 

Madura .. 

Maniyachi Junction (for Tinnevelly) 


Anunayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) 

Trichinopoly Junction 

Tanjore . . 


Mayavaram Junction 

Villupuram Junction 

Chingleput (for Conjeeveram, etc.) 

Madras (Egmore) . . . . . . ' 

Pakala Junction 

Gudur Junction (for East Coast Railway) . . 

Dharmararam Junction (for S. M. Railway) 

. . 38 Tnlles. 

.. 119 

.. 187 

.. 13 

.. 67 

.. 88 

.. 186 

.. 131 

.. 208 

.. 271 

.. 806 

.. 346 

.. 446 

.. 489 


Local Accommodation. — In the town, close to the Muni- 
cipal Office, is a travellers' bungalow, which is furnished and 
can accommodate two persons at one time. A cook is in 
charge, who can supply meals if required. The charge for 
the use of this bungalow is one rupee per diem for each 
single person, and for a married couple Rs. 1-8-0. For 
natives there are 5 chuttrams and 23 hotels in the town. 
In two of the chuttrams, natives of all classes can find free 
lodging ; but must make their own arrangements for food. 
The other 8 chuttrams are reserved for Brahmans. The 
hotels supply meals at 2^ annas each to all classes of 

Boad Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
procurable at the station, the fares being : — 

Jutkas during daylight . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Do. at nights . . . • . • 4 „ „ 

Bullock-carts . . . . . . 2 

M M 

If a jutka is hired for the whole day, the charge is one 
rupee and a bullock-cart for the same period 12 annas. 

Bailway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided for first and second class passengers, and there is 
also a refreshment room, under the management of Messrs. 
Spencer & Co., where light refreshments are obtainable. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief manu- 
factures are cigars, safes, locks, bell-metal vessels, coimtry 
cloth and leather, and the chief produce is paddy and dry 
grains. Coflfee and cardamoms are received from the 
neighbouring hills. 

Local Officials. — The Sub-Collector, Tahsildar, Sub" 
Magistrate, Sub-Eegistrar, District MunsiflF, Pubhc Works 
Department Sub-Divisional Officer, Inspector of Police, 
Salt and Abkari Inspector and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs and Festivals. — ^A fair is held every Monday close 
to the station. Two festivals are held annually, one called 
the Alagar festival, which is celebrated at Dindigul on the 
day of the full moon in the month of Chittrai (April or 
May), and the otlier takes place at a village Agaraui, six 


miles from Dindigul in the month of Arpisi (October or 
November). Both of these festivals attract a large number 
of pilgrims. 

Missions and Churches, — Dindigul possesses a very fine 
Boman CathoUc Church, and the American Mission has 
a Church in the town. 

Historical. — ^Dindigul was formerly the capital of an 
independent province, nominally part of the Madura King- 
dom. As a strategical point of great natural strength, com- 
manding the passes between Madura and Coimbatore, its 
possession was always keenly contested. Between 1623 
and 1659 it was the scene of many encounters between 
Mahrattas and Mysore and Madura troops, the Poligar of 
Dindigul holding at that time feudatory authority over 
eighteen neighbouring chieftains. Chunda Sahib, the 
Mahrattas, and the Mysore troops occupied the fort in 
turn ; and during the intervals in which no greater power 
was in possession, the strongest local chief made it his head- 
quarters. It was attacked by troops of the Poligars in the 
reign of Moottoo Verappa Nayak of Madura, in 1609-1622, 
and three years later, during the reign of Tirumala Nayakka, 
was besieged by an army from Mysore which was driven 
back by the Dalavy Sethupati of Ramnad. In 1736 it 
was stormed by Chunda Sahib, and, nine years later, con- 
quered by the Mysore Rajahs. In 1755 it was garrisoned by 
Hyder Ah and used by him as a base of operations against 
the Poligars of Madura, when he contemplated annexing 
the greater part of that district as well as of Coimbatore. 
From its position as commanding the route from Coimba- 
tore to the south, the fort proved a serious obstacle to the 
operations of the British troops at Trichinopoly and 
Madura in the wars with Hyder Ali. Dindigul was taken 
by the British in 1767, but was lost again the following 
year. In 1783 it was retaken, and in the following year 
given up to Mysore by the treaty of Mangalore. It was 
recaptured in 1790 9Jid finally ceded to the East India 


Company by the treaty with Tippoo Sultan of the 18th 
March 1792. 

Objects of Interest. — The fort is built on a remarkable 
wedge-shaped rock 400 feet in length and 300 in breadth, 
1,223 feet above sea-level. The strong fortifications extend- 
ing on all sides but the south-west (which is precipitous 
and inaccessible) were constructed in the times of the 
first Nayakkan Kings. Hyder Ali also added to the fortifi- 
cations which are at the present day in a state of good 
preservation and well worth a visit. 

Messrs. Spencer d Go's. Cigar Factory. — This includes 
the tobacco warehouse, rolling rooms and box making, 
packing and labelHng department. Visitors can see the 
various processes to which the tobacco is subjected from 
the time it comes into the premises fresh from the fields* 
to the time it is turned out a finished cigar. Some hundreds 
of natives are employed in the industry and a visit to the 
factory will prove extremely interesting and instructive. 


Ambaturai (pop. 4,975) is situated in the Dindigul taluq 
of the Madura district, 32 miles from Madura, 65 from 
Trichinopoly Junction, and 813 from Madras (Egmore). 
The village, which is three-quarters of a mile north-west 
of the station, is 997 feet above sea-level. 

Boad Conveyance. — If previous notice is given bullock- 
carts can be obtained, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Country cloths are 
manufactured and the chief products are coffee, cardamoms 
and plantains, which come from the neighbouring hills. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Thursday 
near the station. 

Missions and Churches. — ^At Paiyamputti, about 4 miles 
north-west of the station, is a Boman Catholic Church. 






Ammayanayahanur (pop. 3,820) is situated in the Dindi- 
gul taluq of the Madura district, 25 miles from Madura, 
71 from Trichinopoly Junction, and 319J from Madras 
(Egmore). Passengers for Kodaikanal, the well known 
sanitarium on the Pulney Hills, alight here. 

Local Accommodation. — Close to the station is a fur- 
nished travellers' bungalow, which can accommodate four 
persons at one time. The butler in charge can supply meals, 
if required, at the following rates : — 

KS. A. p. 

Chota-hazri . . . . . . . . 12 

Breakfast .. .. ..100 

Tiflan . . . . . . . . . . 12 

Dinner .« .. .. •. ..180 

He is not authorized to sell liquor, and alcohohc drinks 
must be privately arranged for. The charge for the use 
of the bungalow is one rupee for each person per diem, 
provided, however, that, if a short stay not exceeding 4 
hours is made, 8 annas only is charged. Native travellers 
of all classes can find free lodging in a choultry in the 
village, but must make their own arrangements for food. 
In the village are also 7 hotels, where meals are served at 
from 2^ to 3 annas each. 

Boad Conveyance, — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
procurable at the station at 2 and 1^ annas per mile, res- 
pectively. In the case of passengers proceeding to Kodai- 
kanal, however, it is advisable to write ahead to one of the 
Transit Agencies or Carrying Companies at Ammayanaya- 
kanur station informing them of the number of persons for 
whom transit is required and the manner the journey is 
proposed to be performed. From Ammayanayakanur to 
the foot of the hills, 33 miles, the journey is usually per- 
fonned in a spring cart drawn by a pair of bullocks, the 
charge for which is Es. 5. The ghat journey can either be 
made in a chair, a dhooly or on a pony. The charge for a 
chair is Rs. 5-4-0, dhooly Rs. 7-8-0 and for a pony Rs. 2. 


A charge of 8 annas is made for each 50 lbs. of luggage. 
The journey from Ammayanayakanur to the tope or grove 
at the foot of the hill occupies from 7 to 8 hours, and up the 
ghat about 6 hours. At the tope is a travellers* rest-house, 
where hght refreshments can be obtained, if prior notice is 
given to the butler in charge. 

Eaihoay Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided at the station for ladies and gentlemen. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are kumboo, cholam, ragi, and coffee and cardamoms from 
the surrounding hills. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Fairs and Festivals, — A fair is held every Wednesday. 

Historical. — This was one of the five poUiems, or estates, 
held by a military chieftain, which Hyder Ali failed to 
resume, but it was afterwards sequestered by Tippoo Sultan. 
On the British occupation it was restored as a tributary 
polliem. A battle fought here in 1741 decided the fate of 
Dindigul, which then fell into the hands of Chunda Sahib. 

Kodaikanal. — This favourite hill station, situated on the 
upper ranges of the Pulney Hills, is 7,000 feet above sea- 
level, and is much resorted to by Europeans, during the 
summer months. It has a cool and bracing climate, and, 
the soil being gravelly, it soon dries up after the heaviest 
rain. The annual rainfall is about 60 inches, and the shade 
temperature ranges from a maximum of 76 in summer to 
a minimum of 42 in winter. There are a Club, Hotel 
and several boarding houses ; the lake is very beautiful and 
good boating can be obtained on it through the Boat Club. 
In the vicinity of Kodaikanal are many lovely walks and 
rides, while good large game shooting may be obtained 
at no great distance from the settlement. 


Sholavandan (pop. 2,885) is situated in the Madura taluq 
of the Madura district, 18 miles from Madura, 88 from 



Trichinopoly Junction, and 332 from Madras (Egmore). 
The village is 547 feet above sea-level. 

Local Accommodation, — ^About a quarter of a mile from 
the station is a choultry, where native travellers of all 
classes can find free lodging, but must make their own 
arrangements for food. There are also 3 hotels in the 
village, where meals are served at 2^ annas each. 

Road Conveya7ice. — Bullock-carts can be obtained if 
previous notice is given, the fare being 2^ annas per vehicle 
per mile. 

Loral Manufactures and Products.^-The chief product 
is paddy. 

Local Officials, — The Sub-Registrar and Hospital As- 

Fairs and Festivals, — A fair is held every Friday. 

Missions and Churches, — There is a Protestant Church 
in the village. 

Historical, — The old fort now in ruins was occupied by 
Mahomed Yoosoof in 1757 to cover the operations of Cal- 
liaud against Madura. In the same year it was captured 
by Hyder Ali and retaken by the British. 

Objects of Interest. — Two temples containing inscrip- 
tions, and a Musjid or Muhammedan mosque. 

Sport, — Good snipe shooting can be had about 2 miles 
from this station in the cold season. Coolies can be pro- 
cared at a charge of 6 annas each per diem. 


Samayanallur (pop. 976) is situated in the Madura 
taluq of the Madura district, 8 miles from Madura, 89 from 
Trichinopoly Junction, and 837 from Madras (Egmore). 

Local A ccommoda tion. — Close to the station is a chuttram, 
where native travellers of all classes can find free lodging, 
but must make their own arrangements for food. 

Boad Conveyance, — If previous notice is given, bul- 



lock-carts can be had, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief produce 
is paddy. 

Local Official, — The Village Munsiff. 


Madura (lat. 9^55' ; long. 78^10') is situated 440 feet above 
sea-level and contains 87,428 inhabitants. It is the princi- 
pal town of a collectorate of the same name and from time 
immemorial has been the political and religious capital of 
the extreme south of India. The ancient Pandyan kings 
made it their seat of Government and it remained the 
metropolis of the empire for many years. In the second 
century Yamsa Sekhara established in the city a celebrated 
college which existed until the eighth century and 
made Madura the great seat of Tamil learning. The 
town, which is situated on the Vaigai river, was well known 
to the Greeks and Bomans, being mentioned by several 
classical writers. Commercial relations must have existed 
with the Western markets, as several Boman copper coins 
have been found in the bed of the river. The line to 
Pamban and Bameswaram takes off at this station. The 
following are the distances to the most important stations 
on the South Indian Bailway : — 

Tinnevelly or Tuticorin 

Ammayanayakanar (for Kodaikanal) 

Trichinopoly Junction 

Tanjore .. 

Mayavaram Junction 

Villupuram Junction 

Ghingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram) 

Madras (Egmore) . . 

Pakala Junction 

Gudur Junction (for East Coast Bailway) 

Dharmavaram Junction (for S. M. Railway) 

Local Accommodation. — Close to the station is a travellers' 
bungalow, which is fully furnished and can accommodate 

99 miles. 













4 persons at one time. The butler in charge can arrange 
to supply meals, if required, but wines or spirits must be 
privately arranged for. The charge for the use of this 
bungalow is one rupee for each person per diem. For natives 
many choultries and hotels exist in different parts of the 
town. Free lodging can be obtained at the former, and 
meals are served at from 2^ to 3 annas each at the latter. 

Road Conveyance. — Hackney carriages, jutkas and bul- 
lock-carts can be procured at the station, but, if a hackney 
carriage is required, previous advice should be sent. The 
following are the charges : — 

BS. A. p. 

per diem. 
for half a day. 
per diem. 
for half a day. 
per diem. 
for half a day. 
per diem. 
for half a day. 
per mile. 

A guide can be procured at the station to shew the 
sights of the town. His charge is Ks. 3 per diem. 

Bailway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided at the station for first and second class passengers. 
There is also a refreshment room in the station building 
under the management of Messrs. Spencer & Co., the but- 
ler in charge of which has usually a few copies of the 
Madras Mail and Madras Times for sale, as well as a small 
stock of travellers' requisites. Upstairs are two rooms each 
containing two beds, comfortably furnished for sleeping. 
The charge for the use of these rooms is — 

B8. A. p. 
Not exceeding 3 hours for each adult . . ..080 

For each child of 12 years and under . . ..040 

Exceeding 8 hours and not exceeding 24 hours 
for each adult . . . . . . ..100 

For each child of 12 years and under . . ..080 

Punkah-pullers and hot and cold water baths are charged 

Landau with pair of horses 

.. 7 

Do. do. 

.. 4 

Brougham with pair of horses . . 

.. a 

Do. do. 

.. 8 


Brougham with single horse 

.. 8 

Do. do. 

.. 2 

Phaeton with single horse 

.. 8 

Do. do. 

.. 2 

Jutkas or bullock-carts 




Local Afanufactures and Products. — Muslins of a very 
delicate texture, into which gold lace is interwoven, are 
made, also turbans and puggrees embroidered with gold 
thread, and silk cloths. Madura is also noted for its wood 
carving and brass work. Handsome tables are carved in 
blackwood, and, in addition to the ordinary brass work, 
animals, insects, etc., are made in that metal. The gold- 
smiths and silversmiths also do excellent work, and the 
tourist will find here much Indian workmanship of great 
interest. The chief produce is paddy and plantains. 

Fairs and Festivals. — Fairs are held every Thursday 
and Sunday ; and festivals are frequent at the temple, the 
most important being the ** Chittrai," which is celebrated 
in April or May annually, and the great floating festival, 
which is held in the month of January or Febniary. 

Local Officials. — The Collector, the Judge, Superintend- 
ent of Police, Executive Engineer, P.W.D., Local Fund 
Engineer, two Subordinate Judges, two District Munsiflfs, 
the Treasury Deputy Collector, the District Registrar, 
the District Traffic Superintendent and the Assistant 
Engineer, S.I.R. 

Missions and Churches. — Christianity is making rapid 
progress in the district of Madura. A Jesuit Church was 
founded about the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
when a Portuguese priest ministered to a small congrega- 
tion of fishennen, converted by St. Francis Xavier in 1606. 
Kobert de Nobilis came to Madura, adopted the life, diet 
and dress of a religious devotee. He founded the flourish- 
ing Mission which is now said to number 70,000 converts. 
The American Mission was established in 1834, and is 
at present in a very flourishing condition, having two 
Churches, one high school and a large hospital in the town 
of Madura itself, besides an important college at Pasu- 
malai, 2 J miles from Madura. About three-quarters of a 
mile from the station is a Church belonging to the Church 
of England, in which sei-vice is held once a month by the 
Chaplain of Trichinopoly. 



Clubs. — About two miles from the station is the European 
Club, attached to which are tennis and racquet courts, and 
a swimming bath. Gentlemen making a short stay in 
Madura may join this club as honorary members on being 
proposed by one member of the club, seconded by two others 
and approved by the Committee. The subscription for 
honorary members is Ks. 10 per mensem. 

A club for native gentlemen is also maintained in the 

Historical. — The history of Madura has been fully dealt 
with in the introductory chapter to this work, to which 
the visitor is referred for information regarding tliis most 
interesting city. 

Objects of Interest. — The great temple, situated about 
one mile west of the railway station, is divided into two 
parts, the southern dedicated to Meenatchy, the consort of 
Siva, and the northern to Siva himself under the name of 
Sunderaswerar. The usual entrance is that leading from 
the Vitta vasal Street into the portion dedicated to Meenat- 
chy. At the entrance is the Ashta-Lakshmy Mantapam, or 
the mantapam of the eight Lakshmies (goddesses presiding 
over eight sources of wealth) the statues of which support 
the roof on either side. Above these are depicted scenes 
from the life of Meenatchy representing her birth, war 
with Siva, marriage with him, the birth of their son Subra- 
manya, and the assumption of sovereignty by Sunderas- 
werar. At the end of this mantapam is a doorway, on the 
left of which is a statue of Ganesha, and on the riglit one 
of Subramanya as the six-faced deity. Passing through this 
door a passage is entered, having on the right hand side a 
statue of Siva as a himter, and on the left one of his con- 
sort Meenatchy as a huntress. This passage gives access 
to a large mantapam built by Meenatchy Naick, a prime 
minister of one of the Naick kings, in which the temple 
elephants are stabled. The exit from this mantapam is 
through a handsome brass faced doorway with receptacles 


for oil lights which are lighted every night ; this doorway 
is a gift of the Sivaganga Zemindar. A dark mantapam is 
now entered lined with statues representing Siva in various 
forms ; passing through this mantapam the Pottamarai, or 
the golden lotus tank is reached, this is surrounded by an 
arcade on the walls of which is depicted the history of the 
sixty-four miracles wrought by Siva at Madura as well as 
other mythological stories and which are intended for the 
education of the masses who attend on festival occasions. 
Turning to the left and proceeding along the eastern arcade, 
the visitor will observe over the roof of the opposite side 
the golden covering, or Vimanam, over the shrine of the 
goddess, and from near the end of the southern arcade can 
be similarly observed the golden roof over the shrine of 
Sunderaswerar. At this end of the arcade is the southern 
temple gate, a fine example of workmanship. Turning to 
the right the western arcade is now traversed, the first 
portion being lined with handsome pillars, beyond which is 
the entrance to the shrine of Meenatchy. In this portion 
of the arcade there are statues of the five Pandava brothers, 
the heroes of the Mahabarata. Further on is the shrine of 
Subramanya with two statues on either side of the path- 
way in front of it, the first being statues of Sugriva and 
his brother Vali, and the two in the next group being king 
Harichandra and his queen Chandramathi. Passing by this 
shrine, a gateway through the tower dividing the temple 
of Meenatchy from that of Sunderaswerar is reached; 
this gateway (opposite to which is a shrine to Ganesha, 
containing a figure said to have been found when excavating 
the Teppakulam tank), gives entrance to a fine corridor en- 
circUng the Sunderaswerar shrine. This corridor was built 
by the Pandyan kings, and along the right hand wall of the 
northern corridor will be seen inscriptions in Tamil and 
Sanskrit, giving the history of the temple. At the end of 
the northern corridor is the hundred-pillared mantapam, 
containing a shrine to Sabapathy (Siva) who, instead of 










being invisible as at Chidambaram, is here represented 
by a figure. Adjacent to this mantapam is a small enclosure 
dedicated to the nine planets which are : — 

Mercury, Saturn, 

Venus, Moon, 

Mars, Eahu, 

Jupiter, Kathu, 

with the Sun in the centre. 
Turning to the right a large hall is entered, a doorway 
in the centre of its western wall giving access to the shrine 
of Sunderaswerar guarded on each side by colossal figures 
of Dwarapalagas or guardians. Opposite to the entrance is 
a fine mantapam enclosed by eight pillars ornamented with 
twenty-five representations of Siva, and containing a figure 
of the sacred bull, also a gold plated flagstaff. Opposite 
to this mantapam, and on each side of the exit from the 
hall, are four finely carved columns, the two on the right 
representing Siva overcoming Dakshan, a great demon, 
while on the left are figures of Siva and KaU in dancing 
attitudes ; behind these four figures are situated the rooms 
containing the gold and silver-plated figures of various 
animals used in processions. Passing through this exit 
and turning to the right a handsome hall with a wooden 
celling, called the Marriage Mantapam, is entered ; travers- 
ing this and turning to the left the Veeravasantharayar*s 
mantapam is reached, in the centre of which is the thou- 
sand-pillared mantapam built by Ariyanayaga Mudaliar, a 
prime minister of the Nayakkan dynasty, whose statue 
will be seen on the left mounted on a horse. This manta- 
pam contains some fine sculptures, and, after they have 
been seen, the temple is left by the road through the large 
eastern gate which gives access to the same street from 
which the entrance to Meenatchy's temple was made. 
Outside the temple, over the other side of the road, is the 
**Puthu Mantapam," otherwise known- as ** Tirumala's" 
choultry. This, had it been finished, would have surpassed 


in magnificence all the other buildings of this monarch. 
It was built as a guest house for Siva, who promised to 
pay the king Tirumala an annual visit for ten days on 
condition that a hall worthy of his dignity was built for his 
reception. The hall has four rows of pillars supporting a 
flat roof and on either side of the centre corridor five 
pillars representing ten of the Nayakkan dynasty. Tiru- 
mala is distinguished as having a canopy over him and 
several figures at his back, one being his wife, a Princess of 
Tanjore. This hall was erected in 1623 — 45, and is said to 
have cost a million sterhng. The effect of this fine hall is 
greatly destroyed by its being rented to shopkeepers for 
the sale of cloths, etc. 

The Palace of Tirumala Nayak is about a mile and a 
half west of the railway station. It covers a vast area of 
ground. It has pillars of rough granite cased with cement 
supporting scalloped arches, has been restored and is uti- 
lised for the Judges' Courts and other public offices. The 
entrance is on the east side by a granite portico built in 
honor of Lord Napier and Ettric, who first ordered the res- 
toration. At each corner of the east face of the palace is a 
low tower. The Napier gateway gives entrance to a quad- 
rangle 252 feet by 151 feet. On the east, north and south 
sides are corridors, the roofs supported by arches resting 
on granite pillars. On the west side the corridor is double 
and is 67 feet broad. The west side is occupied by a lofty 
hall. On one of the stones of the staircase which leads 
up to it is a Tamil inscription. Passing from the staircase 
to a corridor 25 feet broad, a court, under the grand dome 
which was the throne room, is reached. It is 61 feet in 
diameter and 78 feet high and is unsupported by pillars. 
Outside round the room are galleries, where ladies in Tiru- 
mala' s time sat and watched the State receptions. To the 
west of the grand dome is another domed chamber used for 
the records and treasury. Passing north to the west of 
tliis is an apartment called Tirumala's bedroom. There 




are four holes in tlie middle of the roof, two on either 
side, and between the two on the south side was a large 
open hole. There is a legend that Tirumala's cot was 
suspended from hooks fixed in the four holes and that the 
large hole was made by a thief who descended from it by 
the chain supporting that corner of the cot and stole the 
crown jewels. Tirumala is said to have offered an here- 
ditary estate to the thief if he would restore tlie jewels 
adding that no questions w'ould be asked. On recovering 
the jewels he kept liis word, but ordered tlie man to be 

On the further side of the river Vaigai, north of the city 
and about a mile from the bridge, is a building calhxl the 
Tomkam built by Tirumala for exhibiting fights l)etween 
wild beasts and gladiators. This is now the residence of 
the Collector. Three miles east of the station and south of 
the river Vaigai is a very fine Teppakuhim (tank of thci raft) 
said to have been built by Tirumala. The walls are faced 
with finely dressed granite surmounted with a handsome 
parapet beneath which runs a continuous paved platform. 
In the centre is a square island with a lofty pagoda in the 
middle and dainty little shrines at the four corners. Once 
a year at the floating festival, held in January or February, 
the parapets and pagoda are outlined with lights number- 
ing about 10,000, while the idols from the great temple are 
drawn round in a raft (Theppem) . 

The Great Banyan Tree. — Tn the compound of the Judge's 
bungalow is a veiy fine Banyan tree. The main stem is 
70 feet in circumference and the ground shaded by this tree 
has a diameter of 180 feet in whatever direction it is mea- 

About five miles north-east of Madura is a rock called the 
^^ Elephant Rock'' for its remarkable resemblance to a 
colossal figure of that animal couchant. It is a solid block 
of gneiss two miles in length, a quarter of a mile in breadth, 
and about 250 feet in height. On new moon days many, 
chiefly silk weavers, resort to the place and make poojah. 




Tiruparankundrarn (pop. 850) is situated in the Madura 
taluq of the Madura district, 4 miles from Madura, 100 
from Trichinopoly J unction, and 349 from Madras (Egmore) . 
It is otherwise known as '' Skanda Mallai " (the hill of 
Skanda, the son of Siva) . 

Local Accomnwdation. — Close to the station is a chuttram, 
where native travellers of all classes can find free lodging, 
but must make their own arrangements for food. 

Local Manufactures and. Products. — Granite is quarried 
in large quantities from tlie hill near the railway. Grain is 
the chief produce. 

t\ii?-s and Festirals. — A **Karthigai " festival is held 
monthly, and annually in April the " Pangani" Utsavamis 
celebrated in the Siva temple attracting large number of 
pilgrims from all parts of the district. 

Objects of Interest. — The Siva temple, which is fairly 
well sculptured, and contains a number of inscriptions. In 
the hill are some rock-cut caves adorned with carved figures, 
and on its summit a small lake well stocked with fish. 
Other objects worth seeing are the tomb of Secundra Batcha, 
a Mussulman saint ; the ** Saravanapoigai," a large bathing 
tank, about quarter of a mile north of the temple, and 
the Teppakulam. The last, which has a small mantapam 
in the centre, is picturesquely situated near the line and has 
been selected for the illustration given on plate No. 28. 


Tirumangalam (pop. 6,451) is situated in a taluq of the 
same name in the Madura district, 11 miles from Madura, 
107 from Trichinopoly Junction, and 855 from Madras 
(Egmore). The town is 416 feet above sea-level. 

Local Accommodation . — Close to the station is a travellers' 
bungalow, which is partly furnished, and can accommodate 
two persons at one time. It has neither crockery nor a cook. 
The charge for the use of this bungalow is one rupee for each 



person per diem. In the town is a choultry, where natives 
of all classes can find free lodging. Brahmans are fed with- 
out charge and provisions given to other class pilgrims. 
Besides this are several native hotels, where meals are served 
at from 2i to 3 annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are usually procurable 
at the station, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle per mile. 

Hallway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief industry 
is cloth dyeing. Cotton is extensively cultivated , and paddy, 
cholam, dhall and gingelly seeds are also grown. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every P'riday. 

Local Officials. — The Tahsildar, Stationary Sub-Magis- 
trate, Police Inspector, Salt and Abkari Inspector, Sub- 
Registrar, Imperial and Local Fund Overseers, and the 
Hospital Assistant. 

Missions and Churches. — The American Mission has 
established a Church and schools. 

Clubs. — The ** Union " Club in the town is a native 
institution, to which all the prominent residents belong. 

Sport. — In the Saptur and Elumalai Zemindaries, some 
24 miles from this station, good shooting can be had, deer, 
bison and wild boar being fairly plentiful. Permission to 
shoot must first be obtained from the Zemindars. Shikar- 
ries and coolies can be hired at the spot. 


Kalliyudi (pop. 8,827) is situated in the Tirumangalam 
taluq of the Madura district, 20 miles from Madura, 116 
from Trichinopoly Junction, and 864^ from Madras 

Local Accommodation. — Near the station is a choultry, 
where native travellers of all classes can obtain free accom- 
modation for three days. 


Local Officials. — The Sub-Registrar and Kevenue In- 

Local Manufactures and P?'oducts. — Cotton is grown in 
considerable quantities. 


'Virudupati (pop. G,(314) is situated in the Satur taluq of 
the Tinnevelly district, 27 miles from Madura, 123 from 
Trichinopoly Junction, and 371 from Madras (Egmore). 
The town is 83(3 feet above sea-level. 

Local Accommodation. — About IJ miles from the station 
is a travellers' bungalow, which can accommodate two per- 
sons at one time, but is unfurnished and has no cook. 
The charge for the use of this building is 8 annas for each 
person per diem. For natives the Local Fund Department 
maintains a choultry in which cooking utensils are sup- 
plied free to enable travellers to prepare their own food. In 
addition to these are several native hotels in the tow^n, 
where meals are served at from 2^ to 3 annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are usually available 
at the station, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle per mile. 

Haihcati bWtlifles. — Waiting accommodation is provided 
for first and second class passengers, and light repasts can 
be had at the refreshment room in the station building. 

Local \famifactiires and Products. — Ordinary bed sheets 
of rough texture and dusters are manufactured. The chief 
products are cotton, chillies and dry grains. 

Local Ofjicials. — The Stationary Sub-Magistrate, Civil 
Apothecary, Sub-Kegistrar, Police Inspector and Station 
House Ofhcer. 

Missions and Chii relies. — In the town is a Protestant as 
W'cll as a lioman Catholic Church. 

Objects of Interest. — At Kosalpati, about a mile east of 
Virudupati, is a temple, where a large number of peacocks 
are kept. The only objects of interest in Virudupati itself 
are four cotton presses. 



7'ulu/cicjf.ifi (pop. 850) is situated in the Satur taluq of 
the Tinnevelly district, 80 miles from Madura, i:^•2 from 
Trichinopoiy Junction, and 381 from Madras (Egmore). 
The village is about 2J miles south of the Kailway station. 

Local Accommodation. — Half a mile from the station is a 
chuttram, where Brahmans can find free accommodation. 

Local Ojficials. — The Village Munsiff and Kumam. 

Fairs ami Festivals, — A fair is held every Friday and 
Sunday at which sheep are principally sold. An annual 
festival takes place in July and attracts a large number 
of people. 


iSatur (pop. 2,887) is situated in a taluq of the same name 
in the Tinnevelly district, 44 miles from Madura, 140 from 
Trichinopoiy Junction, and 388 from Madras (Egmore). 
The town, which was formerly the centre of a Zemindary of 
great antiquity, is on the north bank of the river Veippaur. 

Local Accommodation. — About three-quarters of a mile 
from the station is a travellers' bungalow, which is fur- 
nished and can accommodate 3 persons at a time, and is 
provided with a cook, who can supply meals if required. 
Wines and spirits must be privately arranged for. The 
charge for the use of this bungalow is one rupee for each 
person per diem. For natives the Local Fund Department 
maintains a chuttram and supplies cooking utensils, so 
that all classes can find free lodging and do their own 
cooking. Besides this there are several hotels in the town, 
where meals are served at from 2^ to 3 annas each. 

Road Coni'eijance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
available at the station, the fares being 3 annas per mile 
for the former and 2^ annas per mile for the latter. 

Local Majiufactures ami Products. — Bell-metal vessels are 
manufactured at Srivilliputur some 24 miles from this 
place. Cotton, tobacco, cotton-seeds and chillies are the 
chief products. 


Fairs (tnd FeMtcals. — Two festivals are held annually, 
one in January and the other in July. 

Lih-al OJi rials. — The Tahsildar, District Munsifif, Sub- 
Registrar, Stationary Sub-Magistrate, Pohce Inspector, 
and Civil Apothecary. 

Ohjerts of hderest. — On a mantapain, 4^ miles to the east 
of the station, are sculptured figures. Five miles north- 
east is an old temple on a rock built over a statue found at 
Coondalcoot, and near this is a temple of Chokalinga- 


Koilpati (pop. 8,0(K)) is situated in the Satur taluq of 
the Tinnevelly district, 57 miles from Madura, 158 from 
Trichinopoly Junction, and 401 from Madras (Eginore). 

Loral Arroinmodation. — About three-quarters of a mile 
from the Railway station is a travellers' bungalow, which is 
turnished, and can accommodate 4 persons at one time. A 
cook is in charge, who can supply meals, if required, but 
wines and spirits must be privately arranged for. The charge 
for the use of this bungalow is one rupee for each person per 
diem. Besides this there is a bungalow belonging to the 
Ettiapuram Zemindar, which may be occupied on his per- 
mission being obtained. This bungalow is unfurnished and 
has no cook. Natives of all classes can find free lodging 
in two chuttrams, but must make their own arrangements 
for food. In the town are 5 Brahman hotels as well as 
several hotels for natives of other castes, where meals are 
served at from 2J to 8 annas each. 

Hoiul Conret/anrr. — Jutkas and bullock-carts can be pro- 
cured, if previous notice is sent, the fares being 8 annas per 
mile for the former and 2 annas per mile for the latter. 

Railway Farilities. — Light meals can be obtained at a 
small refreshment room at the station managed by 
Messrs. Spencer & Co. 

Loral Manff/arfarr.tand Prod'frfii, — The Koilpati Weaving 


Company manufacture twist yarn, fine colored cotton 
carpets, country clotli:, checks, blankets, etc. The chief 
products are cotton, chillies and coriander seeds. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair io held every Monday.. 

Ao.-a/ Of/jcials. — The Sub-Kegistrar and Station House 


Missions and (liurches. — In the town is a Koman Catholic 


Objects of Interest. — The Siva temple, in the tank of 
which is a perennial spring known as the Agastya teertam. 
About a mile south-west is a remarkable rock containing 
a cavern. The Spinning and Weaving Mills. 

Sport. — Seven miles to the soutli of Koilpati is Kuru- 
malai, a small range of hills belonging to the Pittiapuram 
Zemindar, where there is good shooting (deer, wild boar 
and hares). Permission must be previously obtained, when 
the Zemindar will cause all necessary arrangements to 

be made. 

Eftiapuram (pop. 7,000), the residence of the Zemindar, is 
about 8 miles from Koilpati. On a copper-plate attached 
to the wall of the temple close to the Zemindar's palace is 
an inscription containing a proclamation issued to the 
people of the Zemindary, on the 20th October 1799, urging 
them to submit to British authority and deliver up their 
arms to Major Bannennan. 

Kahummal li. — Twelve miles south-west of Koilpati con- 
tains a celebrated rock-cut temple, and also Jain sculptures 
and inscriptions. 

Sank(tmnainark'oil. — Twelve miles west of Kalugumalai 
is a taluq town famous as a place of pilgrimage. 


Kuniarapuram (pop. 400) is situated in the Ottapidaram 
taluq of the Tinnevelly district, i^^^ miles from Madura, 
159 from Trichinopoly Junction, and 408 from Madras 


Tjocal Accommodation. — Three miles west of the station 
at Chatrapati is a chuttram, where natives of all classes 
can obtain free lodging and the loan of cooking utensils. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief produce 
is cotton. 

Sport. — Kurumalai (described under Koilpati) is only li 
miles east of this station. It is best for sportsmen to 
make Koilpati their head-quarters on account of the bun- 
galow accoiinuodation there available. 


Kadamhur (pop. *2,4'21) is situated in the Ottapidaram 
tahiq of the Tinnevelly district, 10 miles from Maniyachi 
Junction, 71 from Madura, 167 from Trichinopoly Junction, 
and 415 from Madras (Egmore). 

Local Acc(tw?nodation. — Three-fourths of a mile from the 
station is a choultry, where natives of all classes can find 
free lodging, but must make their own arrangements for 
food. In addition there are 4 hotels, where meals are 
served to all classes of natives at from 2i to 8 annas each. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every* Wednesday. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Cotton, chillies, 
kumboo, cholam and ragi are the chief produce. 

Local Official.— The Village Munsifif. 


Maniyachi (lat. 8°o*2' ; long. 77°56' ; height above sea-level 
406 feet ; pop. 1,896) is situated in the Ottapidaram taluq 
of the Tinnevelly district. It is the Junction for Tinnevelly, 
from which station the proposed line to Quilon will start. 
The following are the distances to the principal stations on 
the South Indian Railway : — 

Tinnevelly . . . . . . . . 18 miles. 

Tuticorin . . . . . . . . 18 „ 

Madura . . .. .. .. . . 81 ,. 

Ammayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) .. .. 100 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) . . , . 177 „ 


« • 










Tanjore Junction (for Negapatam) 

Mayavaram Junction 

Villupuram Junction (for Tiruvannamalai) 

Ghingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram) . • 

Madras (Egmore) .. ,. .. 

Pakala Junction 

Gudur Junction (for East Coast Railway) 

Dharmavaram Junction (for S. M. Railway) 

Local Accommodation. — Close to the station is a chut- 
tram, where natives of all classes can find free lodging for 3 
days, but must make their own arrangements for food. In 
the village are several native hotels, where meals are served 
at from 2^ to 3 annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — If previous notice is given, bullock- 
carts can be procured, the fare being 2 annas per vehicle 
per mile. 

Hallway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Cotton, cotton 
seeds, kumboo, gram, and coriander seeds are the chief 

Missions and Churches. — A Boman Catholic Church has 
recently been built in the village. 


Tataparai (pop. 1,386) is situated in the Ottapidaram 
taluq of the Tinnevelly district, 9 miles from Maniyachi 
Junction, 9i from Tuticorin, and 434 from Madras (Egmore) . 
This is the Emigration Dep6t of the Ceylon Government, 
the coolies for the tea estates breaking their journey here 
before undertaking the sea voyage from Tuticorin to 

Local Accommodation. — ^About 14 miles from the station 
are two chuttrams, where natives of all classes can find free 
lodging, but must make their own arrangements for food. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts can be had 
at the station in the morning, the fares being for jutkas 3 
annas per mile and bullock-carts 2 annas. If required in 



the evening, previous arrangements must be made with the 
Transit Ofl&ce at Ottapidaram. 

Local Manufactures and l*roducts, — At Puthiamputhur, 
3 miles from this station, net towels are manufactured. 
Cotton, kumboo, chillies, onions and coriander seeds are 
the chief products. 

Objects of Interest. — At Panchalamkurichi, 7 miles from 
this station, are the remains of an old Poligar fort and the 
tombs of the European officers and men who were killed 
in the. assaults on the fort. 

Ottapidaram (pop. 3,631), the head-quarters of the taluq 
of the same name, is about 6 miles from Tataparai. A 
fair is held every Tuesday, and the Tahsildar,' Sub-Magis- 
trate, Sub-Registrar and Hospital Assistant reside here. 


Tutirorin (lat. 8°48' ; long. 78°12' ; height above sea-level 
6 feet ; pop. 25,107) the southern terminus of the main line 
is a municipal town in the Ottapidaram taluq of the 
Tinnevelly district situated on the north-west shore of 
the Gulf of Manaar and between the mouths of the Tambra- 
pumi and the Veippaur. Tuticorin is the chief port of the 
district, affording good shelter for small boats, but, owing 
to the extreme shallowness of the water, steamers of even 
moderate draught have to anchor from 5 to 6 miles from 
the shore. The distances to the principal stations on the 
South Indian Railway are : — 

Maniyachi Junction (for Tinnevelly) . . . . 18 miles. 

Madura . . . . . . . . . . 99 „ 

Ammayanayakanur (for Pulney Hills) . . 124 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) . . . , 195 

Erode Junction (for Madras Railway and Nilgiri 

Mountains).. .. .. ..282 

Tanjore Junction (for Negapatam and Mutupet) . . 226 
Villupuram Junction (for Vellore and Katpadi) . . 346 

Katpadi Junction (for the Madras Railway) . . 444 

Ghingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram and Arkonam) . . 409 „ 
Madras (Egmore) .. .. .. .. 448 „ 


Local Accommodation. — The British India Hotel, imme- 
diately opposite the station, has accommodation for 3 first 
class and 2 second class visitors. The charge for board 
and lodging is — 

RS. A. p. 

First class . . . . ..480] 

■ per diem. 
Second class . . • • . . 3 j 

There are three Brahman hotels at Melur, about a mile 
from the station, and some twenty small hotels in the 
vicinity of the station, where native travellers of other castes 
can find accommodation. A Local Fund choultry is provided 
at Melur, where free lodging for three days is allowed to all 
classes, except Europeans and Eurasians. There is also a 
choultry for Brahmans only, about half a mile from the 
station on the Melur road, where free meals are served, and 
supplies given to religious mendicants. 

Boad Conveyance. — Carriages and jutkas are usually 
procurable at the station, the fares being 8 and 2 annas per 
mile, respectively. Bullock-carts can be hired in the town, 
the charge being 2 annas per mile. 

Railway Facilities. — First and second class carriages are 
run to and from the pier in connection with the departure and 
arrival of the mail steamers to and from Colombo. Waiting 
accommodation is provided at the station for ladies and 
gentlemen, and there is also a refreshment room under 
the management of Messrs. Spencer & Co. The butler in 
charge has usually a few copies of the Madras Mail and 
Madras Tim^es for sale, as well as a smatt stock of travellers' 
requisites. In case of the late arrival of the Colombo 
steamer, Messrs. Spencer & Co. can generally arrange to 
serve breakfast in the train. Ice and aerated waters are 
carried by all main line mail trains during day journeys, 
and can be purchased at the rates published in the 
Company's Guide. 

Shipping Arrangements. — A British India Steam Navi- 
gation Company's steamer leaves daily (Sundays excepted) 


at 5 P.M. for Colombo, and one arrives from Ceylon daily 
(Mondays excepted) at about 8 a.m., the passage occupying 
about 16 hours. The journey between the pier and steamer 
is made in a steam launch belonging to Messrs. Adamson, 
Mactaggart & Company, the British India Agents at 
Tuticorin, and occupies about three-quarters of an hour. For 
further particulars, in connection with the launch service, 
the Company's Guide should be consulted. The B. I. S. N. 
Company's coasting steamers between Calcutta and Bombay 
touch at Tuticorin once a week and their other vessels as 
occasion offers. The Asiatic Company's steamers and 
those of the Japanese line also call at the port. A large 
nmnber of sailing boats of 20 tons burden are always 
procurable on an average payment of Es. 12-8-0 per trip to 
steamer and back. The pier belongs to Government and 
is under the control of the Port Officer. There are also 
several private jetties belonging to the various mercantile 

Local Manufactures and Products, — There is a large 
Government salt factory about a mile and a half from the 
station with which it is connected by a siding. In the 
town are several cotton presses and an important 
spinning mill. Tuticorin is the centre of very ancient 
pearl and conch shell fisheries, but since the deepening of 
the Pamban channel between India and Ceylon the yield 
has greatly decreased. The Manaar pearl, which is not of 
good colour, is usually fished for in March, April and May 
under Government management. 

Local Officials, — The officials having offices in Tuticorin 
are the Sub-Collector, Deputy Tahsildar, Sub-Eegistrar, 
Assistant Superintendent and Inspector of PoUce, Assistant 
Commissioner of Salt and Abkari, Customs Superintendent 
and the Port Officer, who is also the Superintendent of 
Pearl Fisheries. The Bank of Madras and the National 
Bank of India have branches, and British India and Asiatic 
Steam Navigation Companies, Agencies in the town. 


Missions, GhurclieSy etc. — The Society for the Propagation 
of the Grospel maintains a training school, and a college 
named after the late Bishop Caldwell. Within easy reach 
of the station are a Protestant and two Roman Catholic 
Churches. The native fishing community profess Christi- 
anity to a large extent and are almost entirely Eoman 

Clul). — A club for Europeans is situated on the sea 

IlistoricaL — Tuticorin was orginally a Portuguese settle- 
ment and was founded about 1540. In 1658 it was captured 
by the Dutch, and in 1782 by the English. It was restored 
to the Dutch in 1785 and again taken by the English in 
1795. During the PoUgar war of 1801, it was held for a 
short time by the Poligar of Panchalamkurichi and was 
ceded to the Dutch in 1818. It was finally handed over to 
the EngUsh in 1825. 

Objects of Interest. — The old Dutch cemetery containing 
several tomb stones, on which are carved armorial bearings 
and raised inscriptions, is worthy of a visit. Twenty 
miles south of Tuticorin on the sea lies the village of 
Trichendur, which contains a large and important temple 
dedicated to Subramanya, the god of war, and second son 
of Siva. The temple contains some excellent sculpture 
and several inscriptions. A few miles further south is a 
group of 16 columns each bearing an inscription. There 
is a good road to Trichendur, and carts can be hired for the 
journey there from Tuticorin at Rs. 5 each. 




Villiyampakkam (pop. 500) is situated in the Chingleput 
taluq of the Chingleput district, on the Chingleput-Arkonam 
branch, 7 miles from Chingleput, and 41J from Madras 
(Egmore) . 



Local Acconimodat/on. — ^A travellers* bungalow close to 
the station can be used free of charge. It has neither 
furniture, crockery, nor cook. There is also a choultry, 
capable of accommodating 15 persons, which is in charge 
of a cook, who supplies meals at from 2^ to 4 annas each. 

Road Conceyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained, if pre- 
vious notice is given, at 2 annas per mile. 

Local ^fanu/(lctures and Products, — Rice is the staple 
product of the surrounding country. 

Local Officials, — The Village Munsiflf and Kumam. 

Objects of Interest. — About 2J miles west of the station is 
a temple, where the three rivers Palar, Cheyyar and Vega- 
vathy meet. 

Sport, — Duck and teal can be found in the cold season 
on a large lake to the south of the station, and snipe are 
also procurable. The wages of shikarries are from 8 annas 
to one rupee daily, according to sport shown. Coolies 
4 annas per diem. 


Walajabad (pop. 4,534), 14 miles from Chingleput, and 
48 from Madras (Egmore) vid Chingleput, is situated on 
the left bank of the Palar river in the Conjeeveram taluq 
of the Chingleput district. It received its name from 
Nawab Wallajah in 1776, and became a British Cantonment 
about 1786. It was garrisoned for many years by a Euro- 
pean regiment, a regiment of native cavalry, and two or 
three regiments of native infantry. A race course was laid 
out on the plain which lies to the north of the place. Wal- 
ajabad up to 1860 continued to be the head-quarters of a 
native veteran battalion, but is now quite given up as a 
military station. 

Local Accommodation. — There is a Brahman hotel, 
where meals are supplied at 2J to 3 annas per head. No 
travellers' bungalow or chuttramb. 



Boad Conveyance, — Bullock-carts can be had, if previous 
notice be given, at a charge of 2 annas per mile. 

Bailway Facilities, — Waiting accommodation at the 
station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Chintz, for which 
Walajabad was formerly famous, is still manufactured. 
Rice and ragi are the chief crops. 

Local Official, — The Sub-Registrar has an ofl&ce here. 

Missions, Churches, dtc, — The Free Church of Scotland 
: has two schools, inclusive of an industrial school in which 

carpentry is mainly taught, and a hospital. 

Objects of Interest. — The ruins of the Grand Stand, two 
of the officers* houses, a few gate posts, and the cemetery 
are all that now remain of this once bustling cantonment. 
The last is in a very good state of preservation, the oldest 
tomb is that of Ensign Edmund Bacon, who died in Octo- 
ber, 1802. 

Tenneri, 5 miles north of Walajabad, has a large tank, 
some stones in the dam of which bear inscriptions. One 
in Tamil records that a man named Tettacharayar dug 
the tank. 

Sport. — Good snipe shooting can be had in the season. 
Shikarries available at a charge of from 8 annas to one 
rupee daily, according to sport shown. Coolies 4 annas 
per diem. 


Conjeev&ram (pop. 42,800) was formerly knowTi as Kanchi, 
or Kanjipuram (the golden city) and is a large municipal 
town on the Chingleput-Arkonam branch, 22 J miles from 

It is one of the seven holy cities of India and is called 
the Benares of the South. The town is five or six miles 
long, the streets are usually broad and are planted on both 
sides with cocoanut and other trees, and there are many 
gardens and topes, under the shade of which weavers erect 


their looms. The town is divided into Great Conjeeveram 
and Little Conjeeveram, the latter being two miles south- 
east of the Bail way station. The Municipality supplies 
the whole town from its water-works. 

Local Accommodation. — There are five Brahman and 
one Sudra hotels, which charge from 2\ to 4 annas per 
meal, and also 10 chuttrams and 25 maddams, where 
natives can find accommodation, but to which they must 
bring their own provisions and cook. During festivals, 
meals are supplied free to all Brahmans. 

Boad Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are procu- 
rable at the station. Charge to the town : — 

^ ,. , r Jutkas .. .. .. 4 annas. 

Ordinary d»>» • • ( BuUook^artB .. ' .. 2 .. 

_ . , , f Jutkas . . . . . . 1 rupee. 

During festivals . . | Bullock-carts . . . . 8 annas. 

Railway Fanlities. — Waiting accommodation is pro- 
vided at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Cotton handkerchief 
and native cloths are woven, also silk sarries. The arti- 
ficers of the town are clever workers in brass and copper, 
and also expert at fashioning native jewellery. 

Local Officials. — The Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, District 
Munsiff, Police Inspector, Sub-Registrar, Municipal Chair- 
man,?. W. D. and Local Fund Overseers. 

Missions, Churches^ etc. — The Scottish Free Church has 
a Mission in the town. There is also a High School main- 
tained by Patcheyappa's charities. 

Historical. — A great deal has yet to be learnt of the 
history of Conjeeveram. Poolikeshy, of the Chalukyan 
dynasty, conquered aChola king and burned Conjeeveram. 
The date of this ruler is about 489 A.D. It was the resi- 
dence of the Palava kings in the eleventh century. In the 
fourteenth century, it became the capital of Tondaimunda- 
1am. After the fall of the Vijianagar family in 1644, it was 
subject to the Golcondah Princes, and, afterwards, passing 


under Mahomedan rule, became part of Arcot dominions. 
Captured by Clive from the French in 1751, it was in the 
same year taken by Eaja Sahib, but re-captured by Clive 
in 1752. In 1767, the French, beaten off in an attack upon 
the pagoda, set fire to the town ; in 1758 British garrison 
was temporarily withdrawn on account of the expected 
advance of the French on Madras, but was soon sent back 
with reinforcements ; retaken from the French in 1759, and 
plundered by Hyder Ali in 1780. 

Hwenthsang, the Chinese traveller, makes Conjeeeveram 
as old as Buddha, for he states that Buddha himself con- 
verted the people, that Dharmapala was bom in Kancha, 
and that Asoka built many stupas there. 

Objects of Interest. — Conjeeveram is full of temples and 
sculptures, many of considerable antiquity, the great Siva 
temple being the most conspicuous. This temple is dedi- 
cated to Ekambaranatha, and the lingam is one of the five 
principal lingams in Southern India. The temple grew 
from small beginnings and is very irregular in shape. 
The great gopuram was built by Krishnadeva Banja, of 
Vijianagar. It bears the mark of Hyder Ali's cannon balls. 
The principal festival takes place in April annually and 
lasts 15 days. Its origin is given in the following fable : — 
Siva was conducting the united offices of the Hindu 
trinity (creating, preserving and destroying) . His consort, 
Parvati, giving way to a levity unworthy of her exalted 
position, went behind her husband and put her hands over 
his eyes, with the result that the whole world was enve- 
loped in darkness. Siva cursed and deposed her, but of 
course immediately regretted what he had done. Being 
unable, however, to cancel his act, he advised her to sit for 
6 months in the Kambana»di tank in Ekambaram's temple 
meditating on the deity, and at the end of this period he 
appeared before her and took her back. This is sjnmbo- 
lised on the tenth day of the feast, by placing images of the 
god and goddess together in one chamber for the night. 



The next most important shrine is the Vishnn temple at 
Little Conjeeveram. There is some splendid carving here, 
notably in the mantapam of the hundred pillars. 

The alleged origin of this temple is as follows : — Brahma 
once upon a time had great trouble with his wife, Saraswati, 
the goddess of learning, because, on her putting the question, 
he was compelled in truth to answer that he preferred 
Vishnu's wife, Lutchmi, the goddess of riches. Saraswati 
then ran away from Brahma and lived apart. The latter, 
meanwhile, went to Conjeeveram to perform the " Aswa- 
mathayagam, " or horse sacrifice. He chose Conjeeveram 
on the score of economy, as one sacrifice there was equi- 
valent to 1,000 performed anywhere else. While he was 
performing his sacrifice on the spot on which the temple 
now stands, his wife, assisted by goblins and devils, 
appeared in the form of a flood, which threatened to carry 
the whole thing away. Vishnu, being invoked to come to 
Brahma's assistance, was eventually obliged to take the 
form of a naked man and lie across the course of the 
torrent. This was too much for the modesty of the irate 
lady, and she gave in on condition of being held more sacred 
than the Ganges everywhere south of the Deccan . Brahma' s 
sacrifices were successfully offered, when the delighted 
common people standing round asked Vishnu to dwell 
permanently among them, and, on his agreeing to do so, 
the temple was constructed. 

In a part of the town called Yathatakari is a small 
Vishnu temple with a recumbent nude statue, probably of 
Jain origin. 

The Kamatchi temple is the third in importance. 

Besides these Hindu temples, there is the Jain temple in 
the hamlet of Tiruparattikundram about two miles from 
Conjeeveram, which is well worth a visit, and a mosque of 
considerable size, the result of the Muhammedan occupation. 
This building is said to mark the burial place of a fakir 
from Bijapur called Hajarath Sahib Amir Avalya. 




The tanks of the town are considered scarcely less sacred 
than the temples. 
The hospital is a fine building. 


Pallur (pop. 1,572) is a village situated in the Walajabad 
taluq of the North Arcot district on the Chingleput- 
Arkonam Branch, 30 miles from Chingleput. The village 
is about half mile north-west of the station. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained on 
previous notice, at a charge of 2 annas per mile, or to the 
Pullalur cemetery and back 8 annas. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Eice of the finest 
quality is grown here. 

fjocal Officials, — The Village Munsiff and Kurnam. 

Objects of Interest. — About IJ miles north of Pallur 
Kailway station is a village called Pullalur, remarkable 
only as being the scene of the most grievous disaster which 
ever befel the British arms in India, namely, the total defeat 
of Colonel Baillie's force by Hyder Ali in 1780. 

A tombstone was erected in 1781 on the field of battle 
in memory of those slain, and is still in good preservation. 


xirkonam (pop. 4,236), situated in the Walajabad taluq 
of the North Arcot district, is the terminus of the South 
Indian Bailway Company's Chingleput-Arkonam Branch, 
and is an important Eailway Junction with the Madras 
Railway, where passengers change for the Madras Eailway 
Company's north-west and south-west lines. 

Local Acconiiiiodatwn.— There are two chuttrams and 15 
hotels for natives of all classes in the village close to the 
station, where meals can be had at 2^ to 4 annas per head. 

Road Convet/anee. — Bullock-carts can be had. Charge 
2 annas per mile. 

RofUcay Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is provided 

at the station for first and second class passengers. On 
the Madras Railway platform is a refreshment room and 
comfortable upstairs quarters, where passengers can find 
accommodation on payment of the following charges : — 

RS. A. p. 
Not exceeding 3 hours . . . . ..080 

Above 3 and not exceeding 24 hours ..100 

The charges for meals at the refreshment room here 
are: — 

Itti. A. p. 
Breakfast ..100 

Dinner .. .. ..180 

when previous notice has been given, or tickets pur- 
chased, otherwise : — 

B8. A. p. 

Breakfast .. .. ..180 

Dinner .. .. ..200 

The Madras Railway also maintain a native refreshment 
room. The scale of charges being : — 

RS. A. P. 

Superior meals 

• • . 


Sweet pongul (one cake) 

• . . 



. • 



. • . 



• • . 


Coffee (per tumbler) . . 

. . . 


Tea do. 

. • • 


Local Officials, — The Sub-Magistrate and Sub-Registrar. 

Clubs, — The Madras Railway have a reading room in 
their station compound, where passengers can see the 
papers at a charge of 4 annas per diem. 



Valavanur (pop. 3,527) is a union village on the 
Villupuram-Pondicherry Branch, 5J miles east of Villu- 
puram, and 103} from Madras (Egmore), in the Villupuram 
taluq of the South Arcot district. 


Local Accommdation. — There are two Brahman hotels 
and two choultries near the station for natives of all classes, 
where meals are supplied at a charge of 2^ annas per meal. 
At the choultries travellers may make their own arrange- 
ments for cooking, when no charge is made. 

Boad Conveyance. — Both single and double bullock-carts 
are available, if previous notice is given. Charge 1 anna 
and 1^ annas per mile, respectively. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Oil and oil-cake are 
manufactured here. At Siruvanthadu, 3 miles south of 
the station, a good description of cloth is manufactured, 
which is exported to different parts of the district. The 
chief articles of produce are ground-nuts, paddy, ragi, 
indigo, kombu, gingelly seeds and onions. 

Local Officials. — The Sub-B^gistrar, Chairman of the 
Union and Messrs. Parry & Co.*s agent here. 

Objects of Interest. — Two old temples bearing inscriptions 
are situated here. 

Sport. — Snipe shooting can be had close to the station 
in the cold season. Shikarries are not available, but coolies 
can be hired at a charge of 4 annas per diem. 


Kandamamjalam (pop. 718) is situated in the Villuporam 
taluq of the South Arcot district, 14 miles east of YiUu- 
puram, and 112 miles from Madras (Egmore). It is the 
frontier station for French territory (Pondicherry). The 
British Customs authorities here inspect all luggage com- 
ing out of French territory, and levy duty usually at 5 
per cent, on goods of every description, except wearing 
apparel, which has been used, and food-grains. 

Passengers, possessing dutiable articles when going into 
French territory on a short visit, should declare them, 
depositing such articles as are not required for immediate 
use with the British Customs Superintendent, who will 
deliver them on the return journey without collecting duty. 


Roatl Conreya/we. — Bullock-carts can be had, if previous 
notice is given, at a charge of 2 annas per mile. 

Loral Maniifarture,^ aiul Pnxluctg. — Indigo is produced at 
the village of Nallathur, about 4 miles south of this station- 

Loral O/TiriaU. — The British Customs Superintendent, 
Salt Sub-Inspector, Village Munsiflf and Kurnam. 

Objects of Interest. — At Sannasikuppam in French terri- 
tory, about 8 miles north-west of this station, is a colossal 
stone bull elaborately sculptured. At Valadavur, 4 miles 
north, are the ruins of an old fort, containing several sub- 
terranean cells, which is said to have been the residence of 
one Mahud Khan, the Prime Minister of a ruler of Gingee. 
On the west side of the fort stand three stone figures well 
sculptured and larger than life, which are supposed to 
represent Kama, Lakshmana and Sita. As there is a better 
road from Villianur than from Kandamangalam to this 
place, passengers, who wish to see the above, are advised to 
go from that station, though the distance is longer. 


VllUanui* (pop. 4,900) is a municipal town in French 
territory on the Pondicherry liailway, 19^ miles from 
Villupuram, and 118 from Madras (Egmore). 

Local Accommodation, — There is a choultry about quarter 
mile south of the station for native travellers, where meals 
are served at 2 J annas each. 

Road Conce(/ance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are available 
at a charge of 2 annas per mile. 

Railtcaij FarlUties. — Waiting accoiinuodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Ojjicials, — Chief of Police, Health Officer, the 
Mayor and the Notary. 

yUssions^ Churc/iegf etc. — A fine Koman Catholic Church 
has been built close to the station and is attended by large 
numbers of worshippers during the festival held annually 
in April. 




PoTuUrhei^t/ (lat. 11^56' ; long. 79° 58' ; pop. 50,000) is the 
capital of the chief settlement of the French in India 
and the residence of the Governor. It is the terminal 
station of the Pondicherry Branch and is 24 miles from 
Villnpuram, and 122^ from Madras (Egmore). 

Until the middle of the last century, Pondicherry was the 
largest European city in India and it now extends along 
the sea-coast for a distance of about a mile and a quarter, 
and inland for about three-quarters of a mile. The town 
is well built, and is divided into two parts, separated by a 
canal. Its streets, lined with trees, are systematically laid 
out and cut each other at right angles, while its water- 
supply is excellent, owing to the successful artesian wells 
which have been sunk in recent years. The town lies on 
a flat sandy coast, oflf which good anchorage is obtained, 
but this open roadstead can hardly be considered a satis- 
factory port in the north-east monsoon. 

The distances of the principal stations from Pondicherry 
are as under : — 

Ghingleput Jiuiction . . . . . . 88 miles. 

Katpadi Junction (for Madras Railway) . . . . 123 

Mayavaram Junction (for Negapatam and Mutupet) . . 99 

Tanjore . . . . . . . . 143 

Trichlnopoly Junction (for Erode) . . . . 174 

Ammayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) . . . . 245 

^Madura . . . • • . . . . • 270 

Maniyachi Junction (for Tinnevelly) . . . . 860 „ 

Tuticorin . . . . . . . . 368 „ 

Loral Anommmiation. — The principal European hotels 
are the Grand Hotel d'Europe and the Hotel de Paris et 
Londres. The fonner is in the European part of the town 
close to the station, and has accommodation for 8 persons. 
The charges for board and lodging per head ai'c : — 

RS. A. 

First floor .. .. .. .. 4 Q-j 

Ground floor . . . . ..30)*^ 

The Hotel de Paris et Londres is situated near the 
lighthouse and the sea, about 10 minutes' drive from the 



station. It has accommodation for 14 persons at the 
following tariflf per person for board and lodging : — 

BB. ▲. 

First floor (double rooms) . . . . 5 \ 

First floor (single rooms) .. ..4 1 per diem. 

Ground floor . . . . . . • . 3 1 

In addition to these hotels, a fully fomiBhed travellers' 
bmigalow for Europeans is maintained by a native gentle- 
man. Travellers are allowed to reside in the bungalow, 
which is close to the station, for three days, free of rent, and 
meals can be supplied at the occupant's expense. About 
half a mile from tlie station are 7 Brahman hotels, and in 
the town, some 15 small hotels for native travellers of 
other castes. There are also 5 choultries, where free lodg- 
ing is allowed to all natives. 

l^oad Gonreifance, — The means of conveyance most 
generally adopted by Europeans and Eurasians is the 
pousse-pousse, a kind of bath chair pushed by one or more 
coolies, the rate of hire being one rupee per day. Jutkas 
and carts are also procurable at the station at a charge of 
one rupee per day for the former, and 2 annas per mile for 
the latter. 

Railioay Facilities. — There is a waiting room at the 
station for first and second class passengers and a Customs 
office, where passengers for British Territory must submit 
their luggage for examination, and pay duty on such 
articles as are liable. 

Shipping Arrangements, — The British India Steam Navi- 
gation Company's steamers between Negapatam and 
Eangoon call here once a week, and the same Company's 
steamers between Madras and Singapore fortnightly. In 
addition, the French mail steamers and the Asiatic Com- 
pany's steamers touch at the port every alternate week. 
There is an exceedingly neat iron screw pile pier, from 
which passengers are embarked and landed in surf boats. 
The journey to and from the steamers takes about 10 
minutes in fair weather. 


Local Manufactures and Products, — Three mills for the 
manufacture of cloth for shipment to France and the French 
Colonies are in operation, and a fourth (a very large one) 
is under construction. 

Local Oficiah, — His Excellency the Governor and staff, 
the General Secretary, Commander-in-Chief, Mayor, 
British Consul, Chief of Control, Captain of the Port, Chief 
Justice, Judges of the Civil and Magistrates Courts, Pro- 
cureur-General, Procurator of the Eepublic, Commissioner 
of Police, City Treasurer, Agent of the Indo-China Bank, 
and the Agents of Messageries Maritimes, British India 
and Asiatic Steam Navigation Companies. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — Pondicherry is the head-quarters 
of the French Eoman Catholic Mission, and the seat of an 
Archbishop, and contains one Protestant and five Eoman 
Catholic Churches. The Cathedral, built in 18e55, is called 
** Notre Dame des Anges." 

Clubs. — There is a club for Europeans, as well as for 

Historical. — Pondicherry was purchased by the French 
from the Vijianagar Eajah in 1672. In 1693 it was cap- 
tured by the Dutch, but was restored at the peace of 
Eyswick in 1699. It was besieged unsuccessfully by the 
English in 1748, but it was, however, captured by Sir Eyre 
Coote in 1761 to be restored to the French some 2 years 
later. In 1778, Sir Hector Munro laid siege to and cap- 
tured the town which was given back in 1785. It was again 
captured by Colonel Braithwaite in 1793, and finally restored 
in 1816, since which time it has remained under French 
rule. The old fort, which was built 500 feet from the sea 
with bricks and covered with fine plaster resembling marble, 
was demolished by the English in 1761. 

Objects of Interest. — Government House, a handsome 

building, situated on the north side of the Place Dupleix 

within 300 yards of the sea. The pier 150 metres long, 

which is the fashionable promenade in the evenings ; the 



Marina extending from the pier to the south end of the 
European town; the statue of Dupleix standing on a 
pedestal of stones brought from the temple at Gingee ; the 
Place de Government, where the band plays twice a week ; 
the Lighthouse, about 90 feet high ; the High Court, a 
handsome square building ; and the Library, Hospital, and 
Public Gardens. The Roman Catholic cemetery, with its 
numerous carved tomb stones, is very interesting. Three 
miles south of Pondicherry on the coast lies the village of 
Veerampatnam, which contains an ancient temple dedi- 
cated to the goddess Sangalaniammal, and which attracts 
numerous pilgrims annually in August. Four miles south 
of Pondicherry is the village of Aryankuppam, where there 
is a very ancient Roman Catholic Church. 



Venkatesapuram (pop. 362) is situated in the Villupuram 
taluq of the South Arcot district, 5 miles west of Villu- 
puram, and 94J from Katpadi Junction. 

Local Accommodation. — About a mile north-west of the 
station is an old Vishnu temple in which meals are served 
free to Brahmans, and which constitutes the only public 
accommodation for travellers. 

Road Conveyance, — If previous notice is given, bullock- 
carts can be had at the station, at a charge of 2 annas per 
vehicle per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Common cloth is 
manufactured, and paddy, ragi, kumboo, indigo and 
jaggery are the chief products. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiff and Kumam. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Friday near the Railway 

Objects of Interest. — The great Ahobela Swami, the 


Jaiyar or Chief Priest of the Vadagalay branch of the 
Vaishnava sect in South India, resides at Vittalai Perum- 
bakam, about a mile from the station, where he is visited 
by his numerous disciples. 


Mambalapattu (pop. 1,758) is situated in the Villupuram 
taluq of the South Arcot district, 10 miles west of Villu- 
puram, and 89J from Katpadi Junction. 

Local Accommodation. — There is a small choultry about 
a quarter of a mile west of the station, where natives of 
all classes can obtain accommodation, but private arrange- 
ments for food must be made. 

Road Conveyance, — If previous notice is given, bullock- 
carts can be had at the station, at a charge of 2 annas per 
vehicle per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The East Indian 
Distilleries Company possess a sugar factory at Tiruvanna- 
nuUur, some seven miles south of this station. The chief 
products of Mambalapattu are paddy, ragi, kumboo, cholam, 
indigo, ground-nuts and gingelly seeds. About IJ miles 
west of the station are two granite quarries. 

Local Officials, — The Village Munsiff and Kumam. 

Fairs. — ^A fair is held every Thursday at the village. 

Sport. — Snipe shooting can be had in the season. 
Shikarries are procurable at one rupee and coolies at 4 
annas per diem. 


Mugaiyur (pop. 1,259) is situated in the Tirukoilur taluq 
of the South Arcot district, 15f miles west of Villupuram, 
and 83i from Katpadi Junction. The village is about 
three-quarter mile from the station. 

Local Manufa>ctures and Products. — Mats and country 
cloths are manufactured, and paddy, gram and gingelly 
seeds grown. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiff and Kurnam. 



Tirukoilur (pop. 5,732) is a Union town situated in the 
Tirukoilur taluq of the South Arcot district, 21 miles 
north-west of Villupuram, and 79 miles from Katpadi Junc- 
tion, The town is on the south bank of the Pennar 
river, which has to be crossed to reach the station. 

Local Accommodation. — In the town are 4 Brahman 
hotels and a choultry, where native travellers of all classes 
can jfind accommodation. Meals are served at from 2 J to 
4 annas each according to quaUty. 

Road Conveyance. — If previous notice is given, bullock- 
carts can be hired at the station, at a charge of 2 annas 
per mile in the fair season, and 6 annas per mile in the 
rainy season. 

Local Manufacturets and Products. — The chief products 
are jaggery, paddy and stone. 

Local Officials. — The Deputy Collector, Assistant Su- 
perintendent of Police, Hospital Assistant, Forest Eanger, 
District Munsiff, Salt Inspector, Local Fund Sub-Engi- 
neer, Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate and Sub-Kegistrar. 

Fairs. — A fair is held in the town every Wednesday. 

Missions, Churches^ etc. — There is a Danish Mission 
estabhshment at Kiloor, about a mile from the town. 

Objects of Interest. — Tirukoilur possesses an elaborately 
sculptured Vishnu temple containing inscriptions and 
dedicated to Thiruvikrama Gopalmoorthy or Krishna. 
Large numbers of worshippers attend the great festivals 
which are held in April and December annually. In the 
bed of the Pennar is a large boulder supporting a temple 
dedicated to Ganesha. The suburb of Kiloor contains an 
old Siva temple, and on a small hill on the opposite side 
of the river is a deserted temple, neither of which possesses 
architectural merit. In Kiloor is also a Siva temple 
with a gopurum eight storeys in height which a century 
ago was partially used for storing Government salt. At 
Arikandanallur near to the station and built on a rocky 


eminence is an ancient Siva temple the walls of which 
bear nmnerous inscriptions and below which are three 
caves. Below the temple in a depression of the hill 
is a small lake which has never been known to dry up. 


Tandarai (pop. 666) is situated in the Tiruvannamalai 
taluq of the South Arcot district, 31J miles north-west of 
Villupuram, and 67f miles from Katpadi Junction. The 
village is about half a mile west of the station. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Common cloths are 
manufactured, and paddy, ragi, kumboo, and gram are 

Local Officials, — The Village Munsiff and Eumam. 


Tiruvannamalai (lat. 12^15' ; long. 79^07' ; pop. 12,155) 
is the head-quarters of the taluq of the same name in the 
South Arcot district, 41| miles north-west of Villupuram 
and 57 J miles from Katpadi Junction. The name Tiruvan- 
namalai, which means the sacred red mountain, has been 
given to the town from the red appearance before sunrise 
of the hill below which it lies. It is the first town on the 
road from the Baramaha in the Salem district, through 
the Chengam Pass and from it roads diverge to the north, 
south and to the coast. It is thus a trade centre for South 
Arcot and the country above the ghats, while its hill with 
three fortified peaks has always been considered an import- 
ant military point. The main peak is covered with 
jungle accessible only on foot and from its summit rises 
a natural vertical column held by Siva Brahmans to 
be a sacred hngam. The peak is 2,668 feet high and 
the town, which is situated at the foot of it, is about 
three-quarter mile south-west of the Eailway station. 


52 miles. 












The following are the distances to the principal stations 
on the South Indian Railway : — 


xrftKftlft • • ■ • • • 


Dhannavaram Junction (for 8. M. Railway) 





Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode, etc.) . . 




Local Accomviodatum. — ^A travellers' bungalow close to 
the station, which contains two rooms fully furnished, is 
in charge of a butler, who can supply meals, if required ; 
but spirits and aerated waters must be privately purchased. 
The daily charge for the use of this bungalow is one rupee 
for each person, but if two persons share one room, only 
Es. 1-8-0 per diem is charged. There are 5 chuttrams 
and 37 maddams in the town, where free accommodation 
is allowed to all classes of Hindus. In two of the 
chuttrams, meals are supplied gratis for three days, but in 
the others travellers must make their own arrangements. 
There are also more than a dozen hotels, in which meals 
are served to all classes at from 2^ to 3 annas per meal. 
The Municipality maintains a dispensary. 

Road Conveyance, — Jutkas and bullock-carts are pro- 
curable at the station. Charges : — 

Bullock-carts . . 

A. p. 
1 6 

per mile. 


Railway Facilities, — There is a refreshment room at 
the station, where hght refreshments and aerated waters 
may be obtained. The butler in charge keeps a small 
stock of travellers' requisites for sale. The Bailway Com* 
pany has an oihcers' rest-house near the station, which, 


when not in use by railway officers, may be occupied by 
any European gentleman with the previous sanction of 
the Resident Engineer residing at Vellore. If gentle- 
men are accompanied by their families, the prior sanction 
of the Agent, South Indian Eailway, must be obtained. 
The charge for the use of this bungalow is for each person : — 

Per diem . . . . . . . . 12 annas. 

For a stay not exceeding 8 hours . . . . 8 „ 

This rest-house is partially furnished, but travellers must 
make their own arrangements for food while staying 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief products 
are jaggery, paddy, ragi, kumboo, cholam, sugarcane, soap- 
nuts, myrabolams, tobacco, bamboos and granite obtained 
from four large quarries around the foot of the hill. 

Local Officials, — The Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, Sub- 
Registrar, Municipal Chairman, Forest Ranger, Police 
Inspector, Salt Inspector and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs. — A fair is held in the town every Tuesday, and, 
during the yearly Karthigai festival, a large cattle market 
is also held. 

Missions, Churches, etc, — About two miles south of the 
station is a Church of the Danish Mission. 

Clubs, — A reading room for natives is maintained in 
the town. 

Eistoiical, — Between 1753 and 1791 Tiruvannamalai 
was besieged on ten separate occasions and was six times 
taken, thrice by assault. The temple and the town ad- 
joining it were on several occasions the scene of severe 
fighting, the marks of cannon balls being visible on these 
temple walls to this day. In 1753 it was closely besieged 
by Murtiz Ali Khan and Morari Row and very gallantly 
defended by Barkat Ulla Khan on behalf of the Nawab of 
the Camatic, until on reinforcements from Arcot being sent 
to his assistance the siege was raised. In 1757 the garrison 
abandoned the place on the approach of a French army 


under Soupires, but in August of the following year it was 
recaptured by Krishna Row, the Killadar of Tiagar. A 
month later, however, a strong detachment under Saubinet 
attacked and captured it after three assaults when the 
garrison was put to the sword. In 1760 it was taken by 
Captain Stephen Smith, and in August of the same year 
was attacked by the Mysore troops which, after two unsuc- 
cessful assaults, withdrew to Tiagar. On the outbreak of 
the First Mysore War the allied forces of Hyderabad and 
Mysore invaded the Carnatic by the Chengam Pass. 
A desperate fight took place on 3rd September 1767, 
near Chengam, 16 miles from Tiruvannamalai, when some 
6,000 men under Colonel Smith totally routed the invading 
army. A second battle was fought at Tiruvannamalai 
which lasted two days and resulted in the allies losing 4,000 
men and 64 guns. In 1790, after being repulsed from 
Tiagar, Tippu captured Tiruvannamalai. 

Objects of Interest, — The large Siva temple at the foot of 
the hill dedicated to the ' * Tejo " or * * Fire * ' lingam. It has 
four large gopurums from nine to eleven storeys high, and 
five minor ones. The temple contains many inscriptions 
and several fine structures, among which may be specially 
mentioned the small temple of Ganesha (see plate No. 32), 
and the hall of 1,000 columns. The Nattukottai Chetties, 
a wealthy mercantile community, are at present erecting a 
fine mantapam containing 24 columns of polished granite, 
and are about to undertake extensive restorations. The 
temple is famous on account of the Karthigai festival cele- 
brated in honour of the completion of Parvati's penance and 
her reconciliation with Siva, who then appeared to her in 
the form of a flame of fire spouting from the top of Tiru- 
vannamalai Hill, and thus terminating the darkness which 
had enveloped the world. The festival continues 10 days, 
and on the evening of the last day, just before the rising of 
the full moon, is perfonncd the ceremony of the "Dipam." 
This consists in the temple Brahmans removing a large 



covered vessel of blazing camphor from before the lingam 
within the Mulastanam or ** holy of holies," and carrying 
it to a mantapam in the centre of the temple courtyard, 
when the cover is suddenly removed and the flaming 
camphor dashed on the ground in front of the idol Aruna- 
chelleshwara (Siva), which has been previously placed in 
the mantapam. This is the signal for a party of temple 
Brahmans to light up on the top of the hill a large torch 
built up in a huge bowl containing the camphor and ghee 
which have been offered by pilgrims during the festival. 
The blaze generally lasts for 48 hours, and the worshipper 
who first sees it, after having witnessed the ceremony in 
front of the idol, is supposed to secure great good fortune 
for the future. The rush of pilgrims to view the flame on 
the hill-top is so great that only by careful pohce control 
are accidents prevented. The number of persons attending 
the festival has been estimated at the high figure of 100,000. 

Behind the temple on the hill above is a tank known by 
the name of Mulaippal theertham and which is noted for 
the remarkable purity of its water. In the hills about 
Tiruvannamalai are several rock-cut caves, and on a low 
eminence, quarter mile west of the station, is a small 
temple dedicated co Subramanya, the eldest son of Siva. 

Sport. — About two miles south of the station, hares, 
partridges, quails and antelope can be shot. Shikarries 
can be engaged at a charge of 8 annas, and coolies at 
4 annas per diem. 


Agaram Sibbandi (pop. 159) is a small village situated 
in the Tiruvannamalai taluq of the South Arcot district, 
52f miles north-west of Villupuram, and 47 from Katpadi 

Local Official — The Village Munsiff. 



Polur (pop, 8,6S1) is a Union town in a taluq of the 
same name in the North Axcot district, 61^ miles north- 
west of Yillupuram, and 38 miles from Eatpadi Jmiction. 
The whole of this taluq is mountainous, the Javadi Hills 
rising to 2,800 feet in height, occupying a large portion of 
it. The town is 544 feet above sea-level, and lies 2 miles 
west of the Cheyar river, which irrigates the surrounding 

Local Accommodation. — There is a travellers* bungalow, 
which can be occupied on payment of 10 annas per diem ; 
but is provided with neither furniture, crockery nor serv- 
ants. Fowls, eggs and milk are the only items of food 
procurable locally. There are three hotels and a chuttram 
for natives. Travellers can live rent free at the chuttram, 
but must make their own arrangements for food. The 
charge at the hotels is from 2^ to 3 annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance, — ^Jutkas and bullock-carts are pro- 
curable at the station. Charges : — 

Jutkas • . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Bullock-carts .. .. .. .. 1} „ „ 

Locul Manufactures and Products, — ^Weaving and shoe- 
making are the principal industries, and paddy, ragi, kum- 
boo, cholam, gram, tamarind, karanai root, bamboos, jungle- 
wood, myraboUams, soapnuts and tanning bark are the 
chief products. 

Local Officials, — The Tahsildar, Union Chairman, Sub- 
Magistrate, Sub-Begistrar, Forest Banger, and Hospital 

Fairs, — A fair is held every Wednesday. 

Missions^ ChurclieSy etc, — A Boman Catholic Church has 
been built about a mile north-east of the station. 

Historical. — The history of the taluq can be traced back 
as far as the year 1596, when Bungauroo Yatusama Naidoo, 
the 22nd Zemindar of Venkatagiri, who had obtained the 
title of Bajah Bahadur from the Court of Hyderabad, having 


suddenly died, his three young sons, and an adopted 
Brahman boy, Kama Row, were summoned to Hyderabad 
to receive their shares of the ancestral property. The 
adopted son, who was given the taluq of Polur, dying 
without issue, Polur returned to the eldest branch of 
the family. 

Objects of Interest, — The only objects of interest are a 
temple on a hill near the town dedicated to Narasimma- 
swami, or the lion incarnation of Vishnu, and a small 
ruined fort, about which nothing is known. The following 
is the legend regarding the River Cheyar : — Many years ago 
the river was called the Skandanadi, because Skandaswami 
or Subramanya, when fighting against the demon Taraka- 
suran, requiring water for his army, ordered his peacock to 
procure it by picking a hole in a hillside and this formed 
the source of the present river. After the lapse of ages, two 
brothers, the sages Vasadu and Sumati, took up their abodes 
upon opposite sides of the river. They were both so deeply 
engaged in meditations that they only opened their eyes 
once in 12 years to eat what fruits they found to hand. 
Upon one of these rare occasions the brother, who Uved on 
the southern side of the river finding the country desolated 
with famine and impelled by hunger, crossed the stream and 
plucked fruit within his brother's domain without the 
latter' s knowledge . This crime , which rendered the offender 
hable to punishment, both in his present and future exist- 
ence, was atoned for by the loss of a hand. The other 
brother advised the mutilated man to worship at Polur and 
after that to bathe in the Skandanadi. The remedy proved 
efficacious, the hand was restored and the river became 
known as the Bahudanadi or "hand-giving river," the 
Telegu equivalent for which is ** Cheyar." 

Tirumalaiy 6 miles north-east of Polur, contains two 
Jain temples, and in it reside many Jain families. In this 
village is a most striking representation of a Jain figure, 16^ 
feet high, which is roughly cut on the face of a cliff near 


the summit of the hill. Close to the lower temple are some 
rock chambers constructed in a natural cave formed in a 
scarp of the mountain side. The walls of the caverns are 
decorated with numerous frescoes, on the whole very well 
executed, the most interesting being a circular design, 
having a Jain figure seated in the centre, with the surroimd- 
ing partitions filled with nagas, monks, white-hooded nuns 
and others. 

Sport, — Good shooting is obtainable in the Beserved 
Forests on the Javadi and Kamatighur Hills with the 
permission of the Forest Department. Wild bufiEaloes, 
cheetahs, bears, hyaenas, sambur, deer and wild pigs are 
common, while tigers are occasionally seen. 


Kalamhur (pop. 570) is situated in the Polur taluq of the 
North Arcot district, 72J miles north-west of Villupuram, 
and 28 miles from Katpadi Junction. Passengers for Ami, 
6 miles east of Kalambur, alight at this station. 

Road Convet/ance, — Jutkas and bullock-carts are procur- 
able at the station. Charges : — 

Jutkas . . . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Bullock-carts .. .. 1^ » »» 

Railway Facilities. — A waiting room is provided at the 
station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Paddy and gram are 
the chief products. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsifif, Kumam, Revenue 
Inspector and Salt Sub-Inspector. At Ami the local 
officials are the Deputy Collector, Deputy Tahsildar, 
District Munsiff and Sub-Begistrar. 

Objects of Interest, — About 6 miles west of this station at 
Padaved are the ruins of a great city probably of Pallava 
origin, but now for the most part buried or covered with 
scrub-jungle.. The following are the principal remains at 
present visible : — The Rumkambalana temple, at which a 


festival is still held annually in July, and the Bamaswami 
kovil. These two temples are about three-quarters of a mile 
apart and the road between them was originally floored with 
stone ; a portion of the pavement is still existent. In olden 
days the festival car used to be dragged from one temple to 
the other along this road, on the sides of which are several 
small temples all in ruins and overgrown with prickly- 
pear and shrubs. In one of these temples is a stone image 
of the monkey god, Hanuman, well carved and in a good 
state of preservation, and near the roadway the foundations 
of some of the old houses are still to be seen. Traces of a 
large fort are also visible, which evidently contained many 
buildings, though only a ruined temple, known as the Peria 
Varatha Eajah Perumal, is now left as a relic of the past. 
A small fort is still in existence ; but the structures which 
were in it have all disappeared with the exception of a 
small temple called Chinna Varatha Raj ah Perumal . There 
are rumours that ryots occasionally find ancient coins 
while tilling the land ; but such finds have always been 
kept secret. 


Kaiinamanyalam (pop. 2,500) is situated in the Ami 
Jagir of the North Arcot district, 80J miles north-west of 
Villupuram and 19 from Katpadi Junction. The village 
is about half a mile east of the station. 

Road Conveyance. — BuUock-carts can be obtained, if pre- 
vious notice be given. Charge 1^ annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Paddy, ragiand cholam 
are the chief items of produce. 

Local OJicials, — The Village Munsifif and Kurnam. 

Fairs, — A fair is held here every Monday. 


Kaniyamhadi (pop. 2,467) is situated in the Vellore taluq 
of the North Arcot district, 86| miles north-west of Villu- 


puram, and 134 from Katpadi Junction. The village is 
about three-quarters of a mile from the station. 

Local Accommodation, — A travellers' bungalow, having 
neither furniture, crockery nor servants, can be occupied 
free. Fowls, eggs and milk are procurable. For natives 
there is a choultry, where meals are served to all classes 
at 3 annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance, — Single and double bullock-carts are 
available at the station, if previous notice is given. 
Charges : — 

Single bullock-carts . . . . . . 1^ annas per mile. 

Double bullock-carts . . . . . . 2 „ ,, 

Local Manufactures and Products, — From the Thellai and 
Amirithi forests, 8 to 12 miles south of this station, bam- 
boos, myraboUams, pungam seeds, kabili powder, tamarind 
and gunia are procured. 

Local OJicials, — The Village Munsiflf and Salt Sub- 

Fairs, — At Amirithi a market is held every Monday, 
Wednesday and Friday, and at Thellai every Thursday 
and Sunday. 


Vellore (lat. 12^55' ; long. 79°11' ; pop. 44,926) is an 
important municipal town in the taluq of the same 
name in the North Arcot district, 93J miles north-west of 
Villupuram, and 6 miles from Katpadi Junction. More 
than a foiurth of the total population are Musalmans, the 
descendants of the soldiery brought down by the Muham- 
medan invaders from Bijapur and Golconda. The town 
stands about a mile south of the Palar river and is about 
700 feet above the level of the sea. The original settlement 
was Vellappadi, now a suburb, which derived its name 
from the circumstance of its being situated in the midst of 
a forest of ** Vela " or babool trees. Vellore is often called 
Royavellore to distinguish it from EUore in Godavery, 


known as Uppuvellore, or Salt Ellore. It contains a large 
masonry fort which is considered to be one of the most 
perfect specimens of military architecture in the south of 
India and was formerly a cantonment, but no troops are 
quartered here now. A Station Staflf Officer is, however, 
8tm maintained for the disbnrsement of payments to the 
famihes of sepoys serving elsewhere. Overlooking the 
town on the east is a range of hills from which rise three 
peaks, Murtizghar, Gajjaraoghar and Sajjaraoghar, which 
were formerly fortified. The defences on the first named 
and most northern eminence were constructed by the 
last Governor of Vellore ; while the other two, of which 
Sajjaraoghar is the more southerly, were due to the 
Mahrattas. The town at the foot of the hills was sur- 
rounded by a wall and connected by lines of fortification 
with the hill forts, from which another defensible wall was 
constructed to the banks of the Palar river. The station 
is very healthy, though the heat is great, owing to radiation 
from the rocky hills which surround it. 

The mileages to the principal stations on the South 
Indian Eailway are as under : — 

Pakala Junction 

.. 45 miles. 

Gudur (for East Coast Railway) 

.. 129 „ 

Dharmavaram Junction (for S. M. Railway) 

.. 187 „ 


.. 117 „ 

Ouddalore .. •• 

.. 123 „ 


.. 208 „ 


.. 218 „ 

Trichinopoly (for Erode, etc.) . . 

.. 244 „ 

Madura •• 

..840 „ 


.. 489 „ 


.. 489 ,. 

Local Accommodation, — A fully furnished travellers' 
bungalow, capable of accommodating two persons, is main* 
tained. Meals can be supplied by the butler in charge, if 
required ; but beer, spirits, etc., must be privately arranged 
for. The charge for the use of the bungalow is for a single 
person, one rupee per day, and for a married couple. 


Bfl. 1-8-0. No charge is made for children. Provisions of 
all sorts are procurable in the local bazaar. For natives 
there are two chuttrams, where travellers of all classes 
may put up, making their own arrangements for food 
and cooking. In addition to these, there are 5 Brahman, 
8 Sudra and 4 Muhammedan hotels, where meals are served 
at 2^ to 4 annas per meal, according to the quaUty. There 
is a hospital under the supervision of a District and 
Assistant Surgeon close to the station, and a Military 
Hospital within the fort. 

Roiul Conveyance, — Jutkas and bullock-carts are available, 
the fares being : — 

Jutkas . . . . . . 1 anna per mile. 

Double bullock-carts . . . . . . 1^ ,, „ 

Single bullock-carts . . . . • • S m i» 

RiiJlway Facilities. — A waiting room is provided at the 
station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Froducts, — ^At Saidapet, 1\ miles 
north-east of the station, brassware is made in large 
quantities. Native boots, shoes and slippers, and wooden 
toys are made in the local bazaar. At the Central Jail, 
about 2J miles south of the station, much excellent work 
is done by the prisoners, such as brass and copper work, 
weaving, carpentry, shoe-making, carpet-making, tent 
manufacture, etc., etc. Tourists should make a point of 
seeing the goods exhibited at the sale room, where all 
articles made by the prisoners such as carpets, blankets, 
sheets, towels, napkins, tablecloths, furniture, tents, fancy 
tables, purdahs, mats, etc., can be purchased cheaply. 

The chief produce of Vellore is paddy, kumboo and ragi, 
and it is the most important centre of the grain trade of 
the district. 

Local Ojjicials. — The Sub-Collector, District Forest Officer, 
District Medical Officer, Chaplain, Executive Engineer, 
Assistant Engineer, Deputy Inspector-General and Assistant 
Superintendent of PoUce, Talisildar, Sub-Registrar, Assist- 


ant Commissioner of Salt and Abkari, Jail Superintendent 
and Staff Officer. The Resident Engineer and Assistant 
Engineer of the South Indian Eailway also reside here. 

Missions^ Churches, etc. — There is a Protestant Church 
within the Fort, and a Church belonging to the American 
Mission, quarter of a mile to the east of the station, close to 
the hospital. The town also possesses two Roman Catholic 
Chm'ches, one close to the station, the other about a 
mile and a half east of it. The American Mission supports 
a college for the education of all classes of children, and 
Government maintains a girls' school and a Native High 
School. A fourth school is under the management of the 
Chaplain of the district. 

Clubs. — The Local European residents have established 
a small club about three-quarters of a mile from the station, 
and the natives possess a reading room. 

The following are the rules with regard to the honorary 
members of the former. 

A candidate for honorary membership shall be proposed 
by one member and seconded by another, and then be 
elected or rejected by the Committee. 

An honorary member shall cease to be such at the ex- 
piration of three months from date of election. 

The subscription of an honorary member shall be Rs. 7 
per mensem. He shall not be required to pay any entrance 

Historical. — ^According to the tradition, the fort was 
built in 1295 by a native of Bhadrachalam on the Kistna 
named Bommi Reddi or Naidoo, who obtained permission 
to settle in Vellore from a Chola Rajah. The designer is 
said to have been a son of Bommi Reddi, but it is not 
improbable that the fort was laid out by early Italian 
Engineers ; at any rate, it is obvious that the upper brick 
parapets, which are pierced with embrasures, is a work of 
European and much later construction than the remainder 
of the fortifications. From an inscription on the walls of 


a temple in the Gudiyattam taluq, it would appear that 
neither the fort nor the temple inside it, could have been 
built before the middle of the fourteenth century, and 
that their antiquity must have been locally exaggerated. 
About A.D. 1500, Vellore passed into the possession of 
Narasinga Eayar, of Vijayanagar, from which dynasty it 
was taken by the Sultan of Bijapur in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The Musalmans ruled in Vellore 
until ousted by the Mahrattas under Tukoji Kow, to whom 
the fort was surrendered in 1677 by AbduUa Khan, the 
then Commandant. Towards the close of the seventeenth 
century, Zulfikar Khan, a celebrated General of the Moghul 
Emperor Aurungzeb, beseiged the fort for two years, but 
was ultimately bought off by the Governor Sinkoji on pay- 
ment of 1,50,000 pagodas. In 1708 Daud Khan, another 
Moghul General and Nabob of the Camatic, drove the 
Mahrattas out of this strong hold after a siege of four and a 
half months, and two years later, his successor, Sudat-Ulla 
Khan gave Vellore and the surrounding country in jagir to 
his brother Ghulam Ali Khan, whose grandson Mortiz Ali 
held the fort for many years until dispossessed by the com- 
bined forces of the English and the Nabob Muhammad Ali 
after a three months* siege in 1763. In 1779 Hyder Ali, 
during the second Mysore War, surrounded Vellore with a 
circle of desolation by burning down the villages and crops 
within a radius of ten miles, and two years later, he pro- 
ceeded to regularly besiege the place, but, after his failure 
to capture Wandiwash, was obliged to restrict his opera- 
tions to a blockade. The troops in Vellore, who were com- 
manded by Colonel Eoss Lang, were reduced to dire straits 
for want of food until November 3rd, 1781, when Sir Eyre 
Coote succeeded in throwing in a fresh supply of provisions. 
The relief was, however, only temporary, as, after news of 
the reverse at Palupet, near Sholinghur, and, in consequence 
of the approach of the rainy season, the English troops 
were compelled to retire to Madras, and thus allowed the 



blockade to be renewed. On January 2nd, 1782, the English 
again took the field and on the 11th a convoy with three 
months' provisions was passed into the fort, which had 
again been reduced to extremities. On the outbreak of the 
Third Mysore War in 1790, the British troops were massed 
at Vellore, and except for the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the 
military history of the fort then closed. During the opera- 
tions of 1780 — 81, the value of the hill forts which could 
command the main work with artillery fire was recognised 
and they were accordingly held with great stubbornness 
against attacks, directed by skilled French officers. The most 
determined attempts were made to capture Sajjaraoghur, 
now known as '' Sayers Hill," but all proved ineffectual 
against the courage and skill of Lieutenant Parr, who com- 
manded the fort. On the 10th July 1806, at 2-30 a.m., the 
native troops in Vellore rose against the European por- 
tion of the garrison consisting of two companies of the 
69th Kegiment now the 2nd battahon of the Welsh Regi- 
ment. Ten officers and 115 men were killed besides others 
wounded. The immediate cause of the rising was the intro- 
duction of a new turban and a cross-shaped turnscrew which 
superstition translated into a design to convert the sepoys 
to Christianity, though it was proved that the dissatisfaction 
had been encouraged by the menibers of Tippu Sultan's 
family who had been permitted to live in Vellore under 
scarcely any restraint. The native garrison consisted of 
six companies of the first battalion of the 1st Regiment and 
the second battalion of the 23rd Regiment of Infantry 
numbering upwards of 1,500 men. On the night of July 
9th, the guards were furnished by the 1st Regiment who 
were the principal conspirators. In the early morning a 
band of mutineers marched silently to the main guard 
which was composed principally of Europeans, and with 
the native sepoys on guard turned on their English com- 
rades and killed them. A party of mutineers then ran to 
the parade ground where the 23rd Regiment had formed up 


and induced them to join in the rising. These men allowed 
themselves to be marched to the European barracks (now 
the Civil dispensary) and after surrounding the building 
poured, under the orders of their native officei-s, volley after 
volley upon the sleeping and defenceless soldiers. A party 
of the Ist Kegiinent then proceeded to massacre the 
European officers and their families many of whom were 
killed in bed. In the meantime the Europeans who had 
escaped managed to collect and offered a most gallant 
resistance. They succeeded in securing possession of the 
main entrance to the fort, and by so doing, prevented the 
drawbridge from being raised. While these events were 
progressing the leaders of the mutiny proclaimed Futteh 
Hyder, the second son of Tippu Sultan as Bajah and hoisted 
the Mysore banner on the fort flag-staff. The Europeans 
then sallied, and a man of the 69th Regiment succeeded in 
climbing the pole and removing the flag. News of the 
mutiny had in the meantime reached Colonel Gillespie, 
commanding the 19th Dragoons at Ranipet, and at 9 a.m. 
he reached Vellore with a squadron of his own corps and a 
troop of the 7th Native Cavalry. These reinforcements 
quickly put a different complexion on the struggle and in 
a short time the mutiny was effectually extinguished. 
About 350 sepoys were killed in the fort, the ringleaders 
were blown away from guns, and the 1st and 23rd Native 
Regiments were struck off the strength of the army. 

Objects of Interest. — The fort, which is of an irregular 
four-sided trace, is one of the most perfect specimens of 
military architecture to be found in Southern India, and 
consists of a main rampart broken at irregular intervals by 
round towers and bastions. Below the ramparts is a 
fausse-braie with machicolated turrets and separated from 
a solid masonry counterscarp by a broad wet ditch of 
varying width. A covered way surrounds the fort, except 
on the north side, where the main road to Salem now 
occupies the glacis. The old entrance was by a winding 




roadway with massive gates, and protected by a draw- 
bridge. The ditch is supplied with water by a subterranean 
drain connecting with the bathing tank of Sooryagoouta. 
The main walls are built of massive granite stone, admir- 
ably cut to join and fitted together without mortar. The 
upper parapets are of brickwork in which the embrasures 
are cut. Within the fort in the north-east angle stands the 
temple, which for many years was used as an arsenal, and is 
a most interesting structure. Two centuries ago the temple 
was defiled by the shedding of blood in it and has since 
never been used regularly for religious purposes. The 
entrance is topped by a fine gopurum, of seven storeys, 
about 100 feet high with massive gates and rich carvings. 
It is sacred to Siva under the title of Jalakanteswara, or 
Siva ** residing in the water." There are two dwarpals or 
door-guardians of blue granite at the entrance of the 
gopurum. The sides of the passage through the gopunun 
are lined with pilasters ornamented with medallions con- 
taining groups of figures. Among them is a representation 
of Bommi Reddi, who built the fort and temple. On the 
left hand after entering, within a distance of a few yards, 
is a stone pavillion called the Kaliana muntapam, in which, 
formerly the idol was placed when his marriage was yearly 
celebrated. It contains monolithic sculptures of marvellous 
beauty. On either side of the steps of the muntapam, there 
are pillars carved to represent various animals and mon- 
sters, one above another, in a way, which shews enonnous 
labour and great skill. In the mouth of one of the animals 
was a ball of stone which could be freely turned within its 
jaws, but could not be extracted. This has, however, been 
lately destroyed by some mischievous person. The two 
ornaments of the roof are particularly striking, representing 
three circles of parrots hanging heads downwards and 
holding in their beaks and claws the open petals of a lotus 
flower. Each is carved from one large stone and the 
delicacy of execution is most remarkable. The centre of 


the hall is supported upon huge monoliths, cat into groups 
of fine pillars, joined by thin stone panels, fretted with 
graceful patterns, the pillars and the four panels joining 

being carved out of a fiingle stone. Each pillar h"- 

its faces, figures from one to two feet in heigl 
proportioned and magnificently chiselled, in ve 
relief the limbs standing clear away from the back 
In fact, every stone in this wonderful building is we 
notice. A corridor runs round the temple ei 
supported by many pillars, all with carvings oi 
There is a muntapam at each corner of the encloBOi 
have some carvings also. Opposite the muntapam, in the 
north-west corner, is a well which is worthy of notice from 
the fact that below the usual water-level it has a pivoted 
stone doorway. This leads to a spacious subterranean 
muntapaiu supported on stone pillars, and from which a 
passage leads probably to the Palar. Bumour has it that 
the temple jewels are concealed in this muntapam under 
the guard of malignant evil spirits. The supply of water 
in the well is too copious to allow of it being emptied for 
the investigation of this curious muntapam which was 
viewed by the station staff officer's clerk during the excep- 
tionally dry season of 1877-78. Around the church, inside 
the fort, are the Mahals which were the residence of the 
family and descendants of Tippoo. The old cemetery is a 
little to the south-east of the fort and contains the tombs 
of European officers and soldiers of the 69th Kegiment 
who fell during the Mutiny of 1806. Hazrat Makam, the 
tomb of a Muhammedan saint is in a street of the same 
name about 250 yards west of the fort. The tombs of 
Tippoo's family, consisting of ten chiefs and about 400 
minor ones are about three-fourths of a mile, west of the 
fort, in an enclosure which is not well kept up though out 
of 15 acres of land granted by Government in 1805, three 
acres only are now covered by these tombs, the rest of the 
land being rented for up-keep of the place. 



Half a mile from the fort lies the tomb of a dancing 
girl who was murdered in the temple by a Muhammedan 
Governor about the end of the 17th century Service at 
the temple was discontinued in consequence of this 
murder, the temple jewels disappearing about the same 
time. The jewels have never been found and were either 
seized by Muhammedans, or concealed in the underground 

There is a ruined temple at Vellappadi said to have been 
in existence at Vellore before the construction of the fort. 
Native tradition asserts that this was the residence of a 
Chola Chief at the time that Bommi Beddi came from the 
north and built the fort. 


Katpadi (lat. 12^58'; long. 79^11' ; pop. 2,511), 696 feet 
above sea-level is a junction station with the Madras 
Eailway, 99J miles from Villupuram in the Gudiyattam 
taluq of the North Arcot district. Passengers for Madras, 
Arkonam, Jalarpet, Bangalore, Salem, Erode and Calicut 
change here. Two miles from the station, the river Palar 
is crossed by a masonry bridge about half a mile in length. 

The mileages to the most important stations on the 
South Indian Kailway are as under : — 

Pakala . . . . . . . . . . 39 miles. 

Gudur (for East Coast Railway) . . . . 128 

Dharmavaram (for S. I\I. Railway) . . . . 181 

Pondicherry . . . . . . . . 123 „ 

Cudi^.alore .. .. .. .. 129 „ 

Negapatam .. .. .. 214 „ 

Tonjore .. .. .. .. .. 219 

Trichinopoly (for Erode, Ac.) . . . . . . 250 

Madura . . . . . . 346 „ 

Tinnevelly . . . . . . . . 445 „ 

Tuticorin . . . . . . 445 „ 

Local Accommodation. — Near the station is a travellers' 
bungalow which is fully furnished and can accommodate 
two persons. Meals can be supplied by the butler in 





charge, if required, but liquor must be privately purchased. 
The charge for the use of the bungalow is for single per- 
sons, one rupee per diem ; and for married couples, one 
rupee eight annas. Children free. Fowls, eggs and milk 
can be purchased locally. 

There are two chuttrams and 5 hotels, where native 
travellers of all classes can find accommodation. The 
charge for meals is from 2^ to 8 annas each. 

Boad Conveyance, — Jutkas and single bullock-carts are 
procurable at the station Charge — 

Jutkas . . . . . . . . 2 annas per milo. 

Bullock-carts . . . . . . IJ „ „ 

Bailway Facilities. — A waiting room is provided at the 
station for Ist and 2nd class passengers, and a refresh- 
ment room under the management of the Madras Railway 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiflf, Kurnam and Sub- 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Saturday near the station. 


Bavmpuram (pop. 275) is situated in the Chittoor taluq 
of the North Arcot district, 109 miles north-west of 
Villupuram, and 9| miles from Katpadi Junction. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Kumboo, ragi, and 
cholum are the chief products. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 


The station is situated at mile G. 212/8, at a distance 
of two furlongs from the village. It is 14 miles from 
Vellore and 6 miles from Chittoor. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts available at a charge 
of 2 annas per mile. 

Products. — Paddy, ragi, cholum, kuiuboo, dhall-gram, 
horse-gram, ground nuts and chillies. 


Local Officials, — Monigar and Kurnam. 

Fairs, — A weekly fair is held every Sunday, at Nararipet 
Village, 2 miles south of the station, and one every Monday, 
at Narasinganrayanpet, 3 miles east of the station. 


Chittoor (pop. 9,965) is a union town, situated in the 
Chittoor taluq of the North Arcot district, 119| miles 
north-west of Villupuram and 20J miles from Katpadi 
Junction. It is not only the Head-quarters of the taJuq 
but of the district, though it is by no means the most 
important town in North Arcot. It was chosen as the 
Collector's residence not merely on account of its central 
position, but because it was close to the estates of the 
principal Poligars, whose lawless conduct caused Govern- 
ment considerable anxiety for many years. These people 
have, however, long ceased to be troublesome. The 
scenery of the neighbourhood is very picturesque, low 
ranges are seen to rise on every side as far as the eye can 
reach, the shapes of some of the peaks being very fantastic. 
A magnificent view may be had from the summit of one 
of the highest hills called Chase's Folly, to which there is 
a good road. 

Several miles of roads have been made between the hills 
by convict labour, forming pleasant drives for the residents 
and from the town, excellent roads branch to all parts of 
the district. 

Local Accommodation, — There are two travellers' bun- 
galows, about- half a mile south-west of the station. One 
(maintained by the Local Fund Department) is furnished 
and can accommodate four persons. A cook is in charge, 
who can supply meals if required, but liquor must be 
privately purchased. The charge for this bungalow is 12 
annas for each person per diem. The other rest house 
(maintained by the Forest Department) is unfurnished and 
has no cook and can be occupied free of charge. Travellers 



must make their own arrangements, but provisions of all 
description^ are procurable in the local bazaar. For 
natives, accommodation is procurable in 4 chuttrams 3 
Brahman hotels and 5 other hotels. In the chuttrams^ 
lodging is free, but travellers must make their own arrange- 
ments for food. In the hotels, meals are served at 2J to 
4 annas each. There is a fine hospital about a mile west 
of the station. 

Road Conveyance. — ^Jutkas and bullock-carts are pro- 
curable at the station if previous notice given. Charges : — 

Jatkas . . . . . . . . 2 aunas per mile. 

BuUock-carts . . . . . . 1} „ „ 

Bailway Facilities. — A waiting room is provided at the 
station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Proditcts. — The soil is parti- 
cularly suitable for mangoes and large quantities of this 
excellent fruit, are grown and exported.. 

Local Officials. — The Collector and District Magistrate, 
District . Judge, Superintendent of Police, Assistant 
Surgeon, Treasury Deputy Collector, District Munsiflf, 
District Begistrar, Tahsildar and Sub-Magistrate. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — ^About half a mile south-east of 
the station is a Protestant Church, and about the same 
distance south-west an American and a Boman Catholic 

Clubs. — The Native officials have a club, within the 
town and also maintain a Beading room. 

Historical. — Chittoor was formerly the private estate of 
the Arcot family, and in 1781 was occupied by British 
troops under Sir Eyre Coote, and remained a military 
station until 1874. There was a small fort here, the 
residence of the Chittoor Jaghirdar, to whom the Poligare 
were subordinate, but nothing remains of it now. 

Sport. — At Palmanair, about 25 miles west of the 
station, good shooting is obtainable. Deer, wild pig and 
panthers are fairly common and both tigers and bears are 


occasionally seen in the jungle at the foot of the hills. 
On the slopes, hares, pea-fowl, jungle-fowl and pigeons are 
plentiful and in the season excellent duck, teal and snipe 
shooting are to be had in the neighbourhood of the station. 
Shikarries are available at a charge of one rupee to two 
rupees per diem, according to sport shown. Coolies 4 


Putalapattu (pop. 2,337) is situated in the Chittoor 
taluq of the North Arcot district, 128^ miles north-west 
of Villupuram and 29i from Katpadi Junction. The 
village is about 1^ miles north of the station on the 
Ouddapah road, at the confluence of the rivers Eiraula 
-and Poyney. 

Local Accommodation, — In the village is a Travellers' 
bungalow, which can accommodate four persons, but occu- 
pants must make their own arrangements for furniture, 
crockery and food, as the bungalow is very poorly furnished 
and has no cook. Fowls, eggs and milk only are procura- 
ble, Eent 8 annas per diem. For natives, there is a 
choultry which provides accommodation free of charge. 
Travellers using this must make their own arrangements 
for food. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are procurable at the 
station, if previous notice given. Charge 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Prodticts, — Paddy, ragi, and 
sugar-cane are the chief products. 

Local Officials, — The Village Munsifif and Kurnam. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Tuesday. 

Objects of Interest. — Putalapattu and Kalavagunta 5 
miles south of it, are both il&garded as somewhat sacred 
places. A Brahman was, the local legend says, many 
years ago, carrying the bones of his mother to the Ganges. 
Halting at Kalavagunta one night, where the rivers above 
mentioned meet, he found that the bones had all mysteri- 


oasly changed into the buds of the "Kalava*' or blue 
water lily. At Patalapattu, next morning he again 
examined them and found the bones had opened into 
dowers. He did not look at them again until he got 
to Benares when he found them bones. He therefore 
concluded that the river near Patalapattu was more sacred 
than the Ganges, and retracing his steps, cast his mother's 
bones into the river near a rock in its bed, on which is 
seen the print of Siva's foot. The bones of deceased 
persons are even now brought from all parts of the taluq 
and deposited in the river near this rock. 


Pakala (pop. 5,192) is situated in the Chandragiri taluq 
of the North Arcot district, 1,208 feet above sea-level, is 
an important Junction on the Villupuram-Dharmavaram- 
Gudur Sections, 13&J miles from Villupuram, 142J miles 
from Dharmavaram, and 84 miles from Gudur. 

Passengers to and from Vayalpad, Madanapalle via 
Chinna Tippa Samudram, and the Southern Mahratta 
Eailway Junction at Dharmavaram change here. 

The distances to the principal stations on the South 
Indian Eailway are as under : — 

Benigunta (for Madras Railway) . . . . 38 miles. 

Vellore .. .. .. .. .. 46 

Tiruvannamalai .. .. .. ..97 

Cuddalore .. .. .. ..168 

Mayavaram (for Mutupot and Tiruvallur) . . . . 214 

Negapatam .. .. .. ..268 

Tan jore . . . . . . . . . . 268 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) . . . . 289 

Madura .. .. ,. .. ..886 

Tinnevelly ,. .. .. ..484 

Tuticorin .. ., .. ..484 

Local Accommodation, — There is a Native hotel, where 
meals are served to all classes of natives at 2J annas 
per meal. 

Mailway Facilities, — ^About J mile from the station there 


is a rest bouse, belonging to the South Indian Bailway 
Company. When not in use by the Company's officers, 
European gentlemen not belonging to the Kailway may 
occupy it on obtaining the previous sanction of the Resi- 
dent Engineer, Vellore. Charge Rs. 1-8 per day. The 
house is fully furnished for two persons, but travellers 
must make their own arrangements for food while staying 
there. The station contains a Ladies' Waiting Eoom and 
a Refreshment Room, under the management of Messrs. 
Spencer & Co. The butler in charge has usually a small 
stock of travellers' requisites for sale. 

Local Manufdctures and Products. — The chief products 
are sugar-cane, tamarind and dry grains. 

Local Officials, — The Village Munsiflf and Sub-Registrar 
and the District Traffic Superintendent. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Monday. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — Service is held in the Railway 
Recreation Room, the Chaplain coming from VelJore 
periodically for this purpose. There is a small Roman 
Catholic Church near the station, and the American Mission 
is just commencing to build a church near the station. 

Object of Interest. — Pakala is essentially a ** Railway" 
village. There is a large number of Railway buildings 
here, but nothing to interest the traveller. 


Panapakam (pop. 2,465) is situated in the Chandragiri 
taluq of the North Arcot district, 7J miles from Pakala 
Junction, and 145| miles from Villupuram. The village 
is about half a mile south-east of the station. 

Local Accommodation. — Free accommodation is given in 
a chuttram in the village to all classes of Hindus, who 
must make their own arrangements for food. There is 
also a Native hotel where on previous notice, meals are 
served to all classes of natives at 2} annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained at 


the station, on previous notice, at a charge of 2 unnas 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Sugar-cane and 
tamarind are the chief products. 

Loral Officials, — The Village Munsiff. 


Chatidragiri (pop. 4,790) is a union town, situated in a 
taluq of the same name of the North Arcot district, 18J 
miles from Fakala Junction, 14 miles from Benigunta and 
156| miles from Villupuram. The town, which is 675 
feet above sea-level is 2^ miles south of thie station on the 
right bank of the River Swarnamukhi and east of the hill, 
on which the fort stands. 

Local Acconmwdation. — A portion of the old Palace is 
now used as a travellers' bungalow. It has only a table 
and a few chairs and as no cook is on the establishment, 
travellers should make their own arrangements for every- 
thing. Fowls, eggs and milk can be purchased locally. 
The charge for the use of the bungalow is one rupee each 
person per diem. There are 2 Brahman, and 5 Sudra, 
hotels in the town, where meals are served to all classes 
of Hindus at 2^ annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are available at 2 annas 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are sugar-cane, paddy, myraboUams, bamboos, avaram 
bark and firewood. 

Jaggery and gingelly oil are manufactured. 

Local Officials. — The Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate and 
Forest Ranger. 

Historical, — The fort was originally built in A. D. 1,000 
by a Yadava Rajah named Immidi Narasinga, the first of 
a line of 11 kings, who reigned in Chandragiri until ousted 
by Krishna Deva Roya of Vijayanagar in 1314. On the 
fall of the Vijayanagar dynasty in 1505, the deposed king 


first retired to Penukonda and twenty-seven years later 
the seat of Government was removed to Chandragiri. In 
1639 Shree Runga Royer of Vijayanagar signed in this 
palace the treaty bj^ which the site of the Presidency town 
(Madras) was made over to the English. The fort fell 
in 1646 into the power of the Sultan of Golconda from 
whom it was wrested a century later by the Nawab of 
Arcot. In 1758, it was held by Nawab Abdool Wahab 
Khan, who assumed the protection of the sacred town of 
Tirupati. In 1782, it was captured by Hyder Ali and 
remained subject to Mysore until the Treaty of Siringapa- 
tam in 1792, when it came into possession of the British. 
Objects of Interest, — There are several very interesting 
remains in Chandragiri, among which may be mentioned 
the old forts and the two mahals or palaces within the 
lower one. The hill fort is constructed on an isolated 
rounded mass of gneiss rising some 600 feet above the 
surrounding country and dominating the lower fort and 
palaces. The hill is surrounded by two walls of enormous 
blocks of granite, the outer of which is the more pretentious 
both in massive strength and defensive merit. The forti- 
fications are discontinued where the steepness of the hill 
side renders ascent impracticable. Upon the summit are 
the remains of some small buildings and a pool of water, 
while upon the eastern side of the hill is an old gong stand. 
A similar stand was erected upon the Tirumalai cliff near 
the holy temple, and by means of these gongs the rajahs 
used to be informed when the idol had dined after which 
they partook of food themselves. The lower fort is divided 
into three portions by two inner walls, the latter of which 
inclosed the two mahals. One of these was the residence 
of the Ladies and is believed to be connected with the 
larger building by a subterranean passage. The main 
building which faces south is about 150 feet long and has 
an imposing and well balanced facade of three storeys. 
The sky line is pleasingly broken by Hindu terminations, 


the largest of which surmounts the Durbar hall an 
apartment of about 21 feet square and noted as being the 
room in which the Deed granting the site of Madras was 
signed. The lower portion of the building is of stone and 
the upper of brick in mortar. The illustration shows the 
front elevation of the building and brings into prominence 
a lack of ornamentation which suggests the conclusion that 
the structure was never fully completed. In close proxi- 
mity to the place are several small temples and mantapams 
now in ruins. Upon the eastern slope of the hill is a 
somewhat remarkable boulder, known as the bell rock 
which when struck produces a clear metallic sound. About 
a mile east of Chandragiri on the north of the road leading 
to Tirupati is a decayed temple, once of considerable size 
and grandeur. The ruins are exceedingly picturesque, the 
stone sculptures being extensive and well executed while 
judging from the height of its lower portion the gopurum 
must have been of great elevation. The Head Works of 
the Tirupati water supply are situated within a mile of 
Chandragiri station at the foot of the Eailway embankment 
at the Kalian Eiver crossing. 

Sport. — Good shooting (cheetahs, deer, etc.,) can be had 
in the Reserved Forest, on permission from the Forest 
Department. Coolies can be hired at 6 annas per diem. 


Tirupati (pop. 14,292) is a Municipal town, 514 feet 
above sea-level, in the Chandragiri taluq of the North 
Arcot district, 25 miles from Pakala Junction, 6J miles 
from Renigunta and 163J miles from Villupuram. It is 
served by two railway stations ** Tirupati East*' and 
'* Tirupati West," a mile apart, the former being open for 
passenger trafific only and the latter for both passengers and 
goods. Tirupati proper is a very old town with some 
interesting temples and is sometimes called ** Lower Tiru- 
pati " to distinguish it from Upper Tirupati or Tirumalai. 


Tirumalai is about 6 miles from the Tirupati West station, 
and contains one of the most sacred Hill Pagodas in India. 
The scenery about Tirupati is very picturesque, the steep 
cliflfs of the Tirumalai range looking down upon it from a 
distance of about a mile on the north, while to the south 
and west innumerable ranges of hills rise one above the 
other as far as the eye can reach. The principal water- 
supply of the town dsrived from springs near Chandragiri, 
is brought to the town through pipes, which deliver the 
water into two large stone reservoirs. 

Local Accommodation. — There is a travellers* bungalow 
about IJ miles from Tirupati West, and ^ a mile from 
Tirupati East stations, which can accommodate two persons, 
but travellers using it should make their own arrangements 
for everything, as it contains practically no furniture and 
there is no cook. Provisions are procurable in the local 
bazaar. The charge for use of the bungalow is 8 annas 
per room per diem. Natives can find lodging in 5 chuttrams 
where accommodation is given free to all classes, but they 
must make their own arrangements for food. Besides 
these, there are 3 chuttrams, where meals are served gratis 
to Brahmans and supplies for 3 days given to Bairagis. 
Accommodation can also be procured in 5 Brahman hotels 
and 8 hotels for other classes, the charges being from 2J 
to 3 annas per meal. The Local Fund Board maintains 
a dispensary and the Municipality a hospital in the town. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are avail- 
able. Charge : — 

Jutkas . . . . . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Bullock-carts .. .. •• 1^ >» m 

Railway Facilities. — There are waiting rooms at both 
stations for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Very good work is 

locally executed in brass, copper and in red wood (Petro- 

carpus santalinus). On brass and copper plates, are 

skilfully engraved, floral devices or pictures illustrating the 



religious fables of the Hindus ; and in red wood, images of 
the gods are carved^ Brass and copper vessels are also 
made in considerable quantity. The chief products of 
Tirupati are paddy, ragi and castor seed. 

Local Officials, — The Deputy Tahsildar, District Munsiflf, 
Sub-Registrar, Assistant Engineer, P. W.D., Inspector of 
Police and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs and Festivals, — Pilgrims and religious devotees 
flock from all parts of India throughout the whole year to 
Tirupati, but the most important festival is the ** Brahma- 
utsavam" held on the hill annually in the month of 
September. In April or May, in Lower Tirupati, a feast 
is celebrated called the ** Gangajatra" which is largely 
frequented by people of the district. At this festival, a 
large number of buffaloes, sheep, goats and fowls are 

Missions^ Churches, etc. — ^About a mile to the north of 
Tirupati East station are a Lutheran Church and a con- 
nected High School. 

Clubs. — The native officials of the town have a reading 
room and library, which is situated about quarter of a 
mile north of Tirupati East station. 

Objects of Interest. — There are about 12 temples in the 
lower town, many of which are insignificant, the most 
important being those of Govindarajaswami and Kama- 
swamy, the former having an imposing gopurum. A mile 
north of the town is the '* Kapila Tirtam " or bathing pool, 
where all pilgrims bathe before ascending the sacred hill. 
This pool is a picturesque spot fed by a waterfall and 
surrounded by muntapams and shrines. Those who can 
swim are expected to sit upon a figure of Hanuman, the 
monkey-god, over which the water falls. The most gene- 
rally adopted ascent to the sacred hills is from Lower 
Tirupati and commences from a large gopurum at the foot, 
called *'Alipiri'' whence the pilgrim proceeds up a long 
flight of broad steps to the **Gali Gopurum" at the 


summit. From this a walk of 5 miles over a rough granite 
pavement provided with resting places and muntapams at 
intervals, leads through the forest to the town and temple 
of Tirumalai or Upper Tirupati. The view from the Gali 
Gopurum or ** Wind Tower" which is built on the very 
edge of the cliffs is magnificent. 

Tirumalai (pop. 2,712) is situated at the top of the 
range, about 6 miles from Lower Tirupati. The range 
has 7 separate peaks, each of them sacred and each bear- 
ing a distinct name. Near one of them named Seshacha- 
lum, stands the temple and the whole range is frequently 
called after this peak. The hills are said to have origi- 
nally formed part of Mount Meru, the paradise of Siva, and 
their change of locality to have arisen from a dispute 
between Adi Sesha, the thousand-headed serpent, and 
Vayu, the god of the winds as to which of them was the 
more powerful. To exhibit his strength, Adi Sesha lifted 
one of the peaks of Mount Meru upon one of his heads, 
when Vayu raised so terrible a tempest with his breath 
that the peak was blown away and falling to the earth 
formed the Tirupati Hills. Near the temple is a large 
tank surrounded with cut-stone steps called the Swami- 
pushkarani. Every pilgrim bathes in this as the act is a 
sure purification from sin though the green, stagnant 
liquid filth which it contains is most uninviting. About 
3 miles from the temple is a waterfall and pool known by 
the name of Papavinasam. Bathing in this is even more 
morally purifying than bathing in the Swamipushkarani. 
By standing under this fall, murder and every other sin 
under the sun may be washed away. The extent of the 
bather's sinfulness is even by educated Hindus said to be 
revealed by the water becoming dark and foul in propor- 
tion to the wickedness of his life. Besides these, there are 
many other Tirtams or pools of water all more or less 
sacred, and to which pathways lead from the town of 
Tirumalai. They are generally paved with flat stones 


which bear rudely cut inscriptions to the effect that a cer- 
tain person came and visited the swami, the idea being 
that if the dust from a really pious man's foot should 
chance to fall upon the name, the salvation of the person 
named is assured. All classes of people may go as far as 
the ** Alipiri Gopurum," but beyond this, none but caste 
natives can proceed. European oflBcers are allowed to visit 
Tirumalai, but the desecration has to be removed by 
ceremonies costing Es. 105, and prior permission must be 
obtained from the District Magistrate at Chittoor, who 
will arrange matters with the temple authorities. The 
town of Tirumalai is said to be squalid and mean in 
extreme, most of the buildings being modem choultries 
erected by native chiefs and small shops. The only struc- 
ture worthy of notice is a thousand-pillared muntapam on 
the skirts of the town, which, though much inferior to 
similar buildings at Madura, Tiruvannamalai and Bames- 
waram, is still a fine piece of architectural wprk. 

The temple which no European has yet entered is sur- 
rounded by three stone walls on the outer one of which are 
inscriptions. In the centre of the enclosed space is seen 
a dome. While an inferior gopurum marks the entrance 
to the enclosure. The size of the outer enclosure is 137 
yards by 87 yards. The shrine has a small chamber, 
lighted only by lamps, which contains the idol, a standing 
representation of Vishnu in stone, seven feet in height. 
This idol was originally worshipped as Siva and the ornament 
of the hair, the cobras carved upon the body, and other 
peculiarities, prove that Siva and not Vishnu was intended 
to be represented. In front of the holy of holies is an 
ante-room, before which is a muntapam having in the 
centre a brass vessel containing a bag, for the reception of 
the money and jewels offered by the pilgrims. On either 
side of it hangs a gong. When struck on the left side it 
is said to distinctly utter the name '* Govinda" and when 
struck on the right '* Narayana/' 


Sickness and the desire of male offspring are the 
chief causes which induce persons to make a vow to the 
Tirupati idol. 

A very common oblation by women is the hair of their 
heads, and there is a spot near the large muntapam where 
barbers shave these votaries in such numbers that the hair 
forms an enormous pile. 

The temple is one of the richest in Southern India and 
is controlled by two Jiyengars and the Mahunt. The latter 
is the secular head and is always a north country Brahman. 
The Jiyengars are the religious heads and are so holy as to 
almost rank as divinities. The conduct of the Mahunts 
has not always been above reproach, one having been 
ejected from his office by his disgusted disciples, and 
another having in recent years been sentenced to impri- 
sonment for misappropriating money. 

Tiricchanur. — Three miles south-east of Lower Tirupati 
is Tiruchanur, celebrated for its temple dedicated to 


Benigunta (lat. 13^38'; long. 79^33'; pop. 781) sicuated 
in the Chandragiri taluq of the North Arcot district, 368 
feet above sea-level, is a Junction station with the Madras 
Eailway, 32J miles from Pakala, 51J miles from Gudur 
and 170| miles from Villupuram. 

Passengers for Arkonam, Madras, Cuddapah, Eaichur 
and Northern India change here. 

The distances to the principal stations on the South 
Indian Railway are as under : — 

175 miles. 

xyucki.jxiarvai.aiui iiui. kj. ax.* xvariivTorj^ • 




Tiruvannamalai .. .. 




Mayavaram (for Mutupet) 




Tan j ore 


Triohinopoly Junction (for Erode) 











Local Accommodation, — There are two chuttrams, where 
Hindu travellers of all classes, except Pariahs, can obtain 
free accommodation. They must make their own arrange- 
ments for food. Besides these, are 2 Brahman and 4 other 
native hotels, where meals are served at from 2J to 3 
annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are procur- 
able at the station. Charge : — 

Jutkas . . . . . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

BuUock-carts . . . . . . 1 J „ „ 

Railway Facilities. — A waiting-room is provided at the 
station for first and second class passengers and also a 
refreshment-room under the management of the Madras 
Railway. Besides this retiring and sleeping accommoda- 
tion is available for both Europeans and natives. The 
charge for the rooms are : — 

For Europeans — 

Not exceeding 3 hours . . . . . . 8 annas. 

Exceeding 8 and not exceeding 24 hours . . . . 1 rupee. 
For Natives — 

Not exceeding 8 hours . . . . . . 4 annas. 

Exceeding 3 and not exceeding 24 hours . . . . 8 „ 

Local Officials. — The Railway P. W. Inspector and 

Missions, GhurcheSy etc. — A Roman Catholic Church 
has been built near the station. 


Yerpedu (pop. 598) is situated in the Kalahasti taluq of 
the North Arcot district, 6 miles from Renigunta, 38^ miles 
from Pakala and 1 76f miles from Villupuram. The village 
is about one mile north of the station. 

Local Accommodati7?i.— There is a travellers' bungalow 
about a mile east of the station which can accommodate 
two persons, but travellers using it must make their own 
arrangements for everything, as it contains practicaUy no 
furniture and there is no cook. Provisions are not pro- 
curable. The charge for the use of the bungalow, 6 annas 


per room per diem. For natives, accommodation can be 
obtained in a choultry in the village, which may be used 
free of charge, but travellers must make their own arrange- 
ments for food. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The only industry 
is the manufacture of bangles. Paddy, bamboos and 
firewood are the chief products. 

Objects of Interest. — At the foot of a hill to the west of 
the village is a small temple dedicated to Oottaleswara, 
where a perennial stream issues from the ground, and 
being believed to flow from Benares, is called ** Kasiboogga." 


Kalahasti (pop. 11,754) is the chief town of a taluq of 
the same name in the North Arcot district. The town, 
which is 215 feet above sea-level, is built upon the right 
bani^ of the Swarnamukhi river, at the extremity of the 
Nagari hills. These hills are considered so holy in the 
neighbourhood that it is not permitted to quarry stone or 
gravel from them. 

Local Accommodation. — There is no travellers' bungalow, 
but H. H. the Rajah of Kalahasti provides a hill-tent with 
furniture to European travellers and oflicials, on previous 
application, for which, of course, no charge is made. Pro- 
visions are procurable in the local bazaar. The Eajah 
maintains a choultry in the town, where meals are supplied 
free to Brahmans and supplies given to Bairagis, additional 
accommodation can be obtained in two choultries attached 
to the temple, where respectable natives may put up, mak- 
ing their own arrangements for food. There are two hotels 
in the town, where meals are served to all classes of Hindus, 
except Pariahs, at 2 J to 3 annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — ^Jutkas and bullock-carts are pro- 
curable at the station. Charges : — 

To the Town— 

(Fair season) Jatkas . . . . . . . . 6 annas. 

Bullock-carts . . . . . . 3 ,, 

(Wet season) Jutkas • . . . . . . . 8 ,, 

Bullock-carts . . . . . . 4 „ 


If previous application is made, the Kajah will kindly send 
a Palanquin to cross the river and in the case of Europeans 
and native gentlemen, a carriage to drive about in. 

Railway Facilities. — A waiting room is provided at the 
station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Fine lace cloths, 
bangles and wooden combs are made and indigo is manu- 
factured. Paddy is the chief produce. 

Local Officials. — The Deputy Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, 
Sub-Eegistrar, Police Inspector and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs and Festivals. — The Shivaratri festival which 
takes place here annually in February is a most important 
one. The Kajah sends his elephants, horses and retainers 
to take part in the various processions. As many as 15,000 
persons attend this festival ; and on the 7th day, a most 
gorgeous torchlight procession takes place. All the Zemin- 
dar's elephants gaily caparisoned and carrying gilded and 
silver howdahs take part in the pageant, as well as horses 
with gold and silver trappings, spearmen, torchbearers and 
the like. This spectacle is worth seeing. 

Afissions, Churches^ etc. — There is a Lutheran Mission 
Church about 3 miles north-east of the station. 

Historical. — The Eajahs of Kalahasti appear to have 
always belonged to the Velama caste and to have come 
south with the Vijayanagar kings who made them menka- 
valgars or minor custodians, from which position they rose 
to be Poligars. The first man of note seems to have been 
one Jabbi Naidu, who assisted in raising the siege of 
Warangal in the 12th century. The next person of whom 
tradition speaks was Damara Javi Rayanivaru, the first 
Poligar, and an ally of a local King named Orontangi Pra- 
tapa Rudra. The Damarala Varus or Kalahasti Poligars 
might be described as free lances in the early history of 
the Zemindari, but in the 15th century having helped 
the Gajapatti rajahs, tliey were given large tracts of land, 
a considerable portion of which was lost on the fall of the 


Vijayanagar Dynasty. Kalahasti Poligars had possession 
of the country as far as Madras and Conjeeveram and 
from one of them named Damerala Vencatadri Naidu, 
Mr. Francis Day in 1039 obtained the grant of the site on 
which Madras now stands. A sanad was obtained from 
Sree Eunga Royal, Rajah of Chandragiri, but it was the 
Poligar who first invited Mr. Day, the chief of the 
Armoogam Factory to move to Madras. 

In 1790 when the Company's troops were absent in 
Mysore, the Kalahasti Poligar's son took up arms against 
his father, who was forced for a time to resign his authority, 
until the Commandant of Chandragiri marched up and 
suppressed the disturbance. A few years later, the two 
Poligars of Kalahasti and Karvetnagar waged a small war 
against one another, a contest which resulted in many lives 
being lost. In 1799, two brothers contested the right to 
possession of the Matta Zemindari in Cuddapah and each 
invoked the assistance of these Poligars, who, accordingly 
took opposite sides and both intrigued with the Fouzdar 
of Cuddapah for considerable sums of money. They took 
the field with some (5,000 men each and Kalahasti was 
defeated losing two guns. He, however, reinforced his 
little army, and, in spite of the remonstrance of Govern- 
ment seized Matta and placed his ally in possession of the 
estate. In 1801, botli Poligars were forced to disband 
their armed retainers and in the following year obtained 
permanent sanads as ** Zemindars." 

Objects of Interest. — The temple, which stands at the foot 
of the hill, about half a mile from the station is said to have 
been created by Brahma, and to have been extended and 
improved by the Cholas and by the Rajah of Vijayanagar. 
If is dedicated to Siva, and is one of the five ** Lingams of 
the Elements," this being the ** Air Lingam." The sacred 
lamp suspended over the idol though entirely shut off from 
the breeze is in perpetual motion, the swaying being 
attributed to Siva manifesting hunself in the fonn of a 


mysterious and imperceptible cm-rent of air. As a matter 
of fact, the movement of the lamp is due to the rising of 
the air heated by a lower lamp, but of course, this natural 
explanation is not accepted by the Hindus. To the south- 
east of this temple is a rock-cut muntapam, which is called 
**Manikanniaghattam** in memory of a woman who 
prayed steadfastly to Siva until he whispered into her 
right ear the *'taraka muntram" or dying prayer. The 
bodies of those who are at the point of death are often 
brought to this place, and placed upon their right side, the 
ear resting upon the ground. At the moment of death, it 
is asserted, the body turns round upon its left side, while 
the spirit passes out of the right ear and attains everlast- 
ing bliss. 


Yellakaru station is situated in the Venkatagiri taluq of 
the Nellore district, 54^ miles from Pakala, 22 from Reni- 
gunta, 29J from Gudur and 192J from Villupuram. There 
is no village of the name and the station is the boundary 
dividing the Kalahasti and Venkatagiri Zemindaries. 

Sport. — There are said to be panthers in this jungle, 
but to shoot them it would be necessary for the sportsman 
to bring with him the beaters and shikarries he requires. 


Venkatagiri (pop. 9,623) is situated in the Venkatagiri 
taluq of the Nellore district, 286 feet above sea-level. The 
Rajah of Venkatagiri resides in the town, about 2 miles 
from the station, which is 62 miles from Pakala, 22 from 
Gudur, 29^ from Renigunta and 200J from Villupuram, 

Local Accommodation. — Two travellers' bungalows are 
maintained by the Rajah, one close to the Railway station 
and the other in the town, the former being unfurnished. 
The latter is fully furnished, but there is no cook. 
Either bungalow may be occupied without charge, on 


pennission from the Rajah. Provisions can be procured 
in the local bazaar. 

In the town are two choultries, where accommodation 
can be had, free of charge, by all Hindus, except Pariahs. 
Travellers must make their own arrangements for food. 
In another choultry, 50 poor persons are fed daily by the 
Rajah. Besides the above, are three native hotels, where 
meals are served at a charge of two annas per meal. 
Native gentry are accommodated in the Town Hall, free 
of charge. 

Bodd Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are procurable at the 
station at a charge of two annas per mile. If European 
travellers wish to see the town, the Rajah will kindly send 
a carriage. For this, of course, no charge is made, but 
previous advice should be sent. 

Local Manufactures ayid Products. — Fine lace cloths 
and bangles are made and indigo is manufactured. The 
chief products of Venkatagiri are dry grains and tobacco. 

Local Officials. — The Deputy Tahsildar, Sub-Registrar, 
Apothecary and Police Inspector. 

Fairs and Festivals. — In June of every year, a great 
Car Festival takes place which lasts ten days. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — The Lutheran Mission has a 
church in the town. 

Clubs. — There is a reading room in the town, where 
the Madras Mail and the Illustrated London Neivs can 
be seen. 

Historical. — The Zemindary was formerly held on mili- 
tary tenure under the Nawab of Arcot. The house of 
Venkatagiri was founded by Chevy Reddy, 28 generations 
ago, whose great-grandson, Yerra Yautsama Naidu, a 
noted warrior, assisted in driving the Pandyan Rajahs of 
Madura from Conjeeveram. His successors distinguished 
themselves in all parts of Telingana as far north as 
Rajahmundry and as far south as Madras. In 1751, the 
Zemindar asssisted the English against Hyder Ali, who 


destroyed the town in retaliation. The family has always 
been distinguished for its loyalty to the British, and, in 
recognition of this, a sanad was forwarded to tlie Zemindar 
with a complimentary letter by Lord Chve, dated 24th 
August 1802. The present Ilajah who is the chief of the 
Velama caste is the 28th of the line. 

Objects of Interest. — The palace of the liajah and his 
garden, two temples (one Siva and the other Vishnu) and 
the water-supply tank. 


Vendod (pop. 1,187) is situated in the Gudur taluq of 
the Nellore district, 72J miles from Pakala, 39| from 
Benigunta, llf from Gudur and 210J from Villupuram. 
The village is about two miles nortli of the station. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Indigo is manu- 
factured, and paddy and mica are the chief products. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Missions^ Churches, etc. — There is a Lutheran Mission 
Church in the village. 


Gudur (lat. 15°4()'; long. 77^51'; pop. 5,749), situated in 
the Gudur taluq of Nellore district, is a Junction station 
with the East Coast Railway, 51 miles from Kenigunta, 
84 from Pakala, and 222| from Villupuram. The following 
are the distances to the most important stations on the 
South Indian Railway : — 

Vellore .. .. .. .. .. 1-29 miles. 

Tiruvannamalai .. .. .. . . 181 „ 

Pondicherry .. .. .. '216 

Mayavaram (for Mutupct) . . . . 298 

Tanjore .. .. .. ..342 

Trichinopoly Junction (for lirodc) . . . . 373 

Madura .. .. .. .. . . 469 „ 

Tinnevelly .. .. .. . . 668 ,. 

Tuticorin .. .. .. . . 668 „ 

Local Accommodatkn. — About qiuutcr of ii mile cast of 

• » 


the station is a furnished travellers' bungalow which can 
accommodate two persons. It has neither cook nor croc- 
kery, so occupants must make their own arrangements for 
food. Charge one rupee each person per day. For natives, 
a large choultry is provided in the village, where all classes 
may put up, free of charge. They must, however, make 
their own arrangements for food. Besides the above, are 
two hotels, where meals are served to all classes of Hindus 
at 2 J to 3 annas per meal. 

Railway Facilities, — Waiting accommodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Mica is obtained in 
moderate quantities, and it is thought that before long, the 
industry will largely develop. 

Local Officials. — The Head Assistant Collector, Tahsil- 
dar, Sub-Magistrate, Sub-Registrar, Police Inspector and 
Hospital Assistant. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — There is a Lutheran Church 
near the station. 



Danialcheruvu (pop. 8,581) is situated in the Chandragiri 
taluq of the North Arcot district, 4| miles from Pakala, 
14'2^ from Dharmavaram and 148 from Villupuram. The 
village, which is about quarter of a mile north-east of the 
station, is surrounded by lofty granite hills, covered with 
low jungle, and lies near the mouth of a valley leading by 
the KallurPass to the Mysore plateau. 

Loral Accommodation. — There are two native hotels, 
where meals are served on previous notice being given, to 
all classes of Hindus. Charge 2 J annas per meal. 


Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had, if previous 
notice be given, at a charge of 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Brown sugar is 
made in two small factories owned by natives. The chief 
products are tamarind, sugarcane, paddy, ground-nuts, ragi, 
dhall, gram and castor seeds. In the reserved forest — soap- 
nuts, avarum bark, myrabolams and honey are procured. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiff and Police 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Sunday in the village. 

Historical. — Damalcheruvu is noted for the great battle 
fought in 1740, some two miles to the north between an 
invading force of Mahrattas under Kaghoji and the Cama- 
tic Nabob, Dhost Ali. The Mahrattas descended from the 
Mysore plateau by the Kallur Ghaut and were hurriedly 
opposed by the Nabob who utilized an old earthen embank- 
ment which crosses the road as a screen for his artillery. 
This bund is said to extend from Tirupati to Yelagiri in 
the Salem district and to mark the frontier between the 
ancient Chola Kingdom and the more northern Empires. 
The Mahratta leader succeeded in corrupting the Puli- 
cherla Poligar who allowed his forces to gain the rear of 
the Nabob's lines under the cover of darkness. By this 
stratagem, the Nabob's artillery was useless, and after a 
stubborn fight, the Mahrattas gained a complete victory, 
both the Nabob and his son being amongst the slain. 
During Hyder Ali's invasion of the Carnatic in 1780-81, 
the Kallur Ghaut formed the main route by which the 
supplies for his troops were drawn from Mysore. 

Sport. — Wild boar can be shot in the neighbouring hills. 


Mangalampeta (pop. 867) is situated in the Chandragiri 
taluq of the North Arcot district, 11^ miles from Pakala, 
131 from Dharmavaram and 149f from Villupuram. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Jaggery is manu- 
factured, and tamarind is exported. 


Tjocal Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 
Fairs. — A fair is held in the village every Saturday. 
Sport. — Panthers and deer may be got on the surround- 
ing hills. 


Pulicherla (pop. 152) is situated in the Chandragiri 
taluq of the North Arcot district, 16J miles from Pakala, 
126J from Dharmavaram, and 152J from Villupuram. 

Local Accommodation. — There is a choultrv near the 
station, where all classes of Native travellers may put up 
without charge. They must make their own arrangements 
for food. Provisions can only be obtained on the weekly 
market day. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Jaggery is manu- 
factured and the chief products are tamarind, paddy, 
kumboo, ragi and castor seed. 

Fairs. — A fair is held here every Wednesday. 


Filer (pop. 1,781) is situated in the Vayalpad taluq of 
the Cuddapah district, 25| miles from Pakala, 116| from 
Dharmavaram, and 164 from Villupuram. The village is 
about a mile south of the station. 

Local Accommodation. — A two-roomed travellers' bun- 
galow is situated close to the station, which only contains 
a few chairs, a table and one cot, so travellers should make 
their own arrangements for furniture and supplies. There 
is no cook. Charge 8 annas each person per day. Fowls, 
eggs and milk can be procured locally. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Jaggery is manufac- 
tured and the chief products are tamarind, paddy, kumboo 
and castor seeds. 

Local Officials. — The Deputy Tahsildar and Hospital 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Tuesday. 



Kalikiri (pop. 638) is situated in the Vayalpad taluq of 
Cuddapah district, 34^ miles from Pakala, 108 miles from 
Dharmavaram, and 172| from Villupuram. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are tamarind, paddy, cheakoy, soapnuts and avarum bark, 
and the only manufacture is that of woollen carpets. 

Local Official.— The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Monday. 

Objects of Interest. — The scenery about here is very 
pretty, but beyond this there is nothing noteworthy. 


Vayalpad (pop. 4,016) is a union town in a taluq of 
the same name in the Cuddapah district, 46^ miles from 
Pakala, 95J from Dharmavaram, and 184| from Villupu- 
ram. The town is about quarter of a mile north-east of 
the station. 

Local Accommodation. — A travellers' bungalow is situ- 
ated close to the station, which can accommodate two 
persons. It contains a few chairs and a table, but no 
crockery and has no cook, so travellers must make their 
own arrangements for food and kit. Charge 8 annas for 
each person per day. Fowls, eggs and milk can be procured 
locally. For natives of all classes there is a choultry in 
the town. Occupants must, however, make their own 
arrangements for food. There are also 4 hotels, where 
meals are supplied to all classes of natives at 2J annas 
per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are available on pre- 
vious notice. Charge 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — There are two large 
tanneries in the town, and the chief products are tamarind, 
castor seeds, cholam and tanning bark. 

Local Officials. — TheTahsildar, Sub-Kegistrar and Police 


Fairs and Festivals, — A fair is held every Wednesday, 
and there is a ten days' festival in March annually at tne 

Clubs. — The native officials have a reading room in the 

Objects of Interest. — Near the station is a hill called 
**Ancaulamma Konda" crowned by a tall square rock, 
which is a very conspicuous landmark for 10 miles round. 
Gurram Konda, 10 miles north of this station, was once an 
important hill fortress and is situated in a commanding 
position on an isolated rock. It was built by a Pathan 
Nawab after the fall of Vijayanagar and remained one of 
the principal Muhammedan strongholds till the fall of 
Seringapatam in 1799. Near the fort are several sculp- 
tured Muhammedan buildings and the tomb of Mir Eajah 
Ali Khan, uncle of Tippoo. There is a Persian inscription 
on this tomb embodying an epitaph, and the date of Ali 
Khan's death in 1780. Gurram means a horse and Konda 
a hill, and the current story is that a horse, which was 
supposed to be the guardian of the fort, was always kept 
on the top of the hill that, as long as the horse remained 
there, the fort would be impregnable. It is said that for 
generations this horse, or, at all events, a descendant of it, 
was kept in a stable in the upper fort. At length a 
Maharatta thief made the attempt to steal the horse. He 
climbed up the bare perpendicular rock by making steps 
with long iron nails, and, on reaching the top, gained the 
stable, and, wonderful to relate, conveyed the horse down 
the cliff in the same way that he had ascended. The 
upward climb must have been perilous enough, but was 
nothing compared to this miraculous descent. He reached 
the foot of the hill in safety, but, while stopping in a tope 
to rest, was captured together with the horse. The Gover- 
nor of the fort, astonished at the boldness and skill of the 
thief, contented himself with inflicting the comparatively 
lenient punishment of cutting off both his hands. The 



spell had, however, been broken, the divine horse had been 
carried away, and, when next the fort was attacked, it was 
taken. At Targonda, 4 miles north of Vayalpad, is an old 
Vishnu temple of some importance. 


Chinna Tippa Samudram (pop. 2,642) is situated in the 
Madanapalli taluq of tlie Cuddapah district, 51J miles 
from Pakala, 90J from Dharmavaram, and 189J from 
Villupuram. As it is about 2,000 feet above sea-level the 
climate is very- cool and pleasant. Passengers for the 
small hill station of Madanapalli alight here. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are avail- 
able at the station. Charges : — 

Jutkas . . . . . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Bullock-carts . ^ . . . . 1 J „ ,, 

Railway Facilities. — There is a waiting room at the 
station for first and second class passengers, and also a 
refreshment room, under the management of Messrs. 
Spencer & Co., where light refreshments are procurable. 
A rest house belonging to the Railway Company, within 
the station compound, when not in use by the Company's 
officers, may be occupied by European gentlemen not 
belonging to the Railway on obtaining the previous sanction 
of the Resident Engineer, Vellore. The bungalow can 
accommodate 2 persons at a time and is fully furnished, 
but travellers using it must make their own arrangements 
for food. The charge for use of bungalow is Re. 1 for 
each person per diem. 

Local AfanufaHures and Produrts. — The chief products 
are tamarind, oil seeds and ragi, and near Madanapalli 
jaggery is manufactured. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Sport. — Excellent duck shooting can be had here in the 
cold season. 

Madanapalli. — About eight miles south-west of Chinna 


Tippa Saonudram is Madanapalli, the sanitarium of the 
Cuddapah district. It was once the residence of a PoUgar, 
whose family is now extinct, but the remains of his old 
fort still exist. This town is the favourite resort of the 
pensioned officials of the district. The Sub-Collector, 
Assistant Superintendent of Police, District Forest Officer 
and Executive Engineer have their head-quarters in 
Madanapalli. An European Club and an American Mission 
Depot are among the institutions of the place. 


Kurabalakota (pop. 3,836) is situated in the Madanapalli 
taluq of the Cuddapah district, 57 i miles from Pakala, 85 
from Dhannavaram, and 195| from Villupuram. The 
village is about IJ miles south-east of the station. For 
travellers coming from the north, this is the station to alight 
at for Madanapalli. 

Boad Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are pro- 
curable at the station. Charges : — 

Jutkas . . . . . . . . 2 annas per mile. 

Biillock-carts . . . . . . IJ „ „ 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Jaggery is made, 
and castor seeds, tamarind, kumboo, avarum and konnam 
bark produced. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Fair. — A fair is held every Monday. 

Horsleykonda. — About seven miles to the west of Kura- 
balakota is the highest peak in the district, called Horsley- 
konda after a Collector, who was the first to build on it. 
The hill rises to 4,100 feet above sea-level, and is free 
from fever. It is ascended by a ghaut-path about 4 miles 
in length. The climate is from 10 to 12 degrees cooler 
than that of the plains below. The bungalow built by 
Mr. Horsley now belongs to the Forest Department and 
can only be occupied with the permission of the Forest 
Officer. Travellers, obtaining permission to occupy, have 


to pay a charge of 8 annas per diem, and must take with 
them servants, provisions and such furniture as they re- 
quire. The American Mission also possess a bungalow on 
this hill. 


Tummanam^utta (pop. 679) is situated in the Madanapalli 
taluq of the Cuddapah district, 66| miles from Pakala, 75f 
from Dharmavaram, and 205 from Villupuram. The 
village is about a mile east of the station. 

Local Accommodation, — About two miles east of the 
station is a travellers' bungalow, which can accommodate 
two persons. As it contains only a table and a few chairs 
and no cook, and no provisions are procurable, occupants 
must make their own arrangements for food and lodging. 
Charge for use of bungalow : — 

RS. A. p. 

For single person .. .. ..100) 

Forafamily 18 OJPe^d^em. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had, if previous 
notice is given, at a rate of 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief products 
are paddy, kumboo, ragi, gram and castor seeds. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Saturday at Burnkayakotta, 
about two miles from the station. 

Missions, ChurcheSy etc. — There is an American Mission 
Church about a mile from the station, and one close to the 
travellers' bungalow. 

Sport. — Good shooting can be got in the adjacent hills, 
in which tigers and bears are frequently seen, and sanibur 
and deer occasionally met with. Shikarries can be engaged 
at 8 annas, and coolies at 4 annas per diem. 

Horsleykonda. — Although about three miles nearer this 
station than Kurabalakota, Horsleykonda is better reached 
from the latter station, as pony-jutkas are there available. 

Objects of Interest. — Alongside the line at mile 304, near 
Tummanamgutta station, is a granite stone some 14 feet 




in height which has weathered into an extraordinary resem- 
blance to the head of a cobra with expanded hood. It is, 
at first, difficult to believe that the stone has not been 
shaped by the hand of man, but a close inspection of plate 
No. 37 will show that this is not the case. 


Battulapuram (pop. 365) is situated in the Madanapalli 
taluq of the Cuddapah district, 72J miles from Pakala, 
70 J from Dharmavaram, and 210 i from Villupuram. The 
village is about IJ miles north-east of the station. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief products 
are tamarind, ragi, kumboo and cholum. 


Mulacalacheruvu (pop. 1,073) is situated in the Madana- 
palli taluq of the Cuddapah district, 77 miles from Pakala, 
65i from Dharmavaram, and 215 i from Villupuram. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had, if previous 
notice is given, at a rate of 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Jaggery is manu- 
factured, and the chief products are paddy, cholum, kumboo, 
beans, gram, castor seeds and tamarind. 

Local Official, — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs, — A fair is held every Friday at Soampulli, about 
four miles from this station. 

Objects of Interest, — About three miles south-east of the 
station, on a hill called Kanukonda, is a temple dedicated 
to Tiruvenketanathaswami (Vishnu), but by the side of the 
image of the deity is a Siva Lingam. The god is therefore 
called Harihara, i.e., the conjoint deity. The temple is 
said to have been founded by Nandana Chakravati Roya 
and to have been subsequently enlarged. One mile south- 
east of this, and four from the liailway station, is a place of 
pilgrimage called Soampulli, where there is also a very 
fine old Vishnu temple with some very good stone-carving. 


In front of the pagoda stands a sculptured monolithic 
pillar 50 feet high. About 1 J miles east of this is the fort 
of Causincote, the age of which is approximately 800 


Tafiakallu (pop. 3,236) is situated in the Kadiri taluq of 
the Cuddapah district, 86 J miles from Pakala, 66 from 
Dharmavaram, and 225 from Villupuram. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief products 
are gram, tamarind, avarum and konnam bark and castor 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Fairs. — A fair is held here every Saturday. 


Nallacheruvu (pop. 2,472) is situated in the Kadiri taluq 
of the Cuddapah district, 94 J miles from Pakala, 48J from 
Dharmavaram, and 232| from Villupuram. The village is 
about 2J miles south-east of the station. 

Local Manufactures and Prodiuits. — The chief products 
are cholum, beans, tamarind and avarum bark. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Sport. — Good shooting is obtainable on the surround- 
ing hills, antelope and wild boar being found, as well as 
larger game. 


Kadiri (pop. 6,059) is a union town in the Kadiri taluq of 
the Cuddapah district, about 2,000 feet above sea-level, 
lOOJ miles from Pakala, 42 J from Dharmavaram, and 238J 
from Villupuram. The whole taluq is very rocky and 
barren and is cut up by detached rocky hills perfectly des- 
titute of vegetation. Though so high above sea-level, 
Kadiri is hot during the summer season. The ryots are 
then entirely dependent on wells for water, the rivers and 


almost all the tanks being quite dry. The wells are con- 
structed at great cost and with considerable labour, being 
often from 30 to 40 feet in depth and requiring four pairs 
of bullocks for drawing water. The Muduleru rises in the 
taluq and the Paupugnee passes through it, but they are of 
little advantage as far as the supply of water is concerned. 

Local Accommodation, — There is a travellers* bungalow 
about a mile north-west of the station, which has two 
rooms, but neither furniture, crockery nor servants. Travel- 
lers occupying this must make their own arrangements 
for everything. Fowls, eggs, milk and vegetables can be 
purchased in the bazaar, but bread cannot be obtained. 
The charge for the use of the bungalow is 8 annas per day 
of 24 hours or part of it. For natives of all classes, except 
Pariahs, a choultry is kept up in the town, where accom- 
modation is supplied free of charge. Travellers must 
make their own arrangements for food. There are also two 
Brahman and 8 other hotels, where meals are served at 
from 2^ to 3 annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are procurable at a 
charge of 2 annas per mile. 

Railway Facilities. — Within the station compound is a 
rest house belonging to the South Indian Railway Company. 
WTien not in use by the Company's officers, European 
gentlemen, not belonging to the railway, may occupy it, on 
obtaining the previous sanction of the Resident Engineer, 
Vellore. This bungalow is partially furnished (no cots) , and 
there are no servants. The charge for its use is 12 annas for 
each person per day. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — There is a tannery 
about a mile east of the station where skins are dressed and 
tanned. The chief products of Kadiri are wheat, cholum, 
horse-gram, kumboo, castor seeds, tamarind, chillies and 
avarum bark. 

Local Officials.— The Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, Sub- 
Registrar, Police Inspector and Apothecary. 


Fairs and Festivals, — A fair is held every Sunday. 
During February and March, a festival is held in the 
temple, to attend which people come from Bellary, Mysore 
and other distant places. T wo days after the car procession. 
Pariahs are allowed to enter the temple, after bathing in 
the river Muduleru. 

Missions, Churches, etc. — There is an American Mission 
Church about three-quarters of a mile from the station. 

Objects of Interest, — Kadiri possesses a large pagoda 
dedicated to Narasimmaswami, or the boar incarnation of 
Vishnu, and which has two stone columns 40 feet in height 
in front of it. An image of the god is said to have been 
found in an ant-hill under a Chendra tree, whose Sanskrit 
name is '* Khadri," and when the jungle was cleared by 
Kenga Naidu, a Poligar of Patnam, and the pagoda built, 
this name was given to the town which arose round it. It 
was for a long time the practice to let loose a tiger at the 
Pongul festival, which tiger was at once shot. On one 
occasion, however, an ill-directed shot resulted in loss of 
human life, when this dangerous practice was stopped by 
Mr. Smith, a late Collector of the district. Kadiri shews 
signs of having been at one time a Mussalman town for, 
though the building shews no signs of Muhammedan archi- 
tecture, there are a very large number of tombs and 
mosques, mostly decayed around the town within a two- 
mile radius. 


Kalasamiidram (pop. 1,069) is situated in the Kadiri 
taluq of the Cuddapah district, 109 miles from Pakala, 33J 
from Dharmavaram, and 247 J from Villupuram. The 
village, which is about half a mile from the station, is sur- 
rounded by hills on all sides. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had, if previous 
notice is given, on payment of 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief products 


are cholum, ragi, wheat, knmboo, horse-gram and castor 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Monday at Patnam village, 
about a mile from the station. 

Objects of Interest. — About four miles east of the station 
are some caves in the hills, which are said to have been 
occupied by Bama and his wife Seeta. 

Sport. — Good shooting can be obtained on the surround- 
ing hills, where deer, wild boars and cheetahs are found. 


Maluku Vemala (pop. 727) is situated in the Kadiri 
taluq of the Cuddapah district, 114 miles from Pakala, 
28| from Dharmavaram, and 252J from Villupuram, and is 
surrounded by a range of lofty hills. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are wheat, ragi, cholum, horse-gram and dhall gram. 

Local OJiciul. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fuirs. — A fair is held every Thursday at Eeddipally, and 
one every Monday at Patnam, 5 and 3 miles, respectively, 
from this station. 

Sport. — Excellent duck shooting can be had in the cold 
season, but as the tanks are large, it is advisable to come 
provided with a collapsible boat or some other means of 
getting within range of the birds. Wild boars, deer and 
cheetahs can be found in the surrounding hills. 


Mudii/ubha (pop. 422) is situated in the Kadiri taluq of 
the Cuddapah district, 120f miles from Pakala, 22 miles 
from Dharmavaram, and 259 from Villupuram. The vill- 
age is about half a mile south of the station. 

Railway Facilities. — About a quarter of a mile from the 
station is a rest house belonging to the South Indian Railway 
Company. When not in use by the Company's oificers, 
European gentlemen, not belonging to the Eailway, may 



occupy it, on obtaining the previous sanction of the Resident 
Engineer, Vellore. This bungalow is unfurnished and there 
are no servants. The charge for occupancy is 12 annas for 
each person per diem. Provisions are not procurable, so tra- 
vellers must make their own arrangements for everything. 

Local Manufactures and ProdiLcts, — The chief products 
are cholum, ragi, kumboo and horse-gram. 

Local Official, — The Village Munsiff. 

Sport. — Good shooting can be had in the surrounding 
hills, bear and deer being the chief game. 


Muktapuram (pop. 400) is situated in the Kadiri taluq 
of the Cuddapah district, 125 J miles from Pakala, 17 J from 
Dharmavaram, and 263J from Villupuram. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are cholum, ragi and kumboo. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Monday at KodavanlapuUi, 
about 6 miles from this station. 

Sport, — Excellent duck shooting can be had here in the 
season, and bears, cheetahs, deer, etc., can be obtained on 
the surrounding hills. 


Chinnehmtapalli (pop. 1,1()2) is situated in the Dhar- 
mavaram taluq of the Anantapur district, 183| miles from 
Pakala, 9 from Dharmavaram, and 272 from Villupuram. 
The village is about half a mile from the station. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsifif. 


Dharmavaram Junction (pop. G,83G), situated in the 
Dharmavaram taluq of the Anantapur district, 142 J miles 
from Pakala, and 280| miles from Villupuram, is the ter- 
minal station of the Pakala-Dharmavaram section and the 
Junction station with the Southern Mahratta Railway. 


187 „ 

239 „ 

304 „ 

356 „ 

400 „ 

431 „ 

627 „ 

626 „ 

626 „ 


Passengers for Bangalore, Anantapur, Guntakul, Bellary, 
etc., change here. 

The following are the distances to the most important 
stations on the South Indian Kailway : — 

Kadiri . . . . . . . . . . 42 miles. 

Ronigunta (for Madras Railway) . . . . 176 

Vellore . . 



^layavaram (for Mutupet) 

Tanjore . . 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) 

Madura . . 



Local Accommodation. — Thereare two chuttrams, where 
natives of all classes (except Pariahs) can find accommo- 
dation free of charge. They must make their own arrange- 
ments for food. Additional accommodation is also obtain- 
able in 3 Brahman and 5 other hotels near the station, 
where meals are served at from 2^ to 3 annas per meal. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are procurable at the 
station at a charge of 2 annas per mile. 

Railway Facilities. — A waiting room is provided at the 
station for first and second class passengers, and also a 
refreshment room maintained by the Southern Mahratta 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Silk cloths of 
superior quality are manufactured, and the chief products 
are paddy, ragi and cholum. 

Local Officials. — The Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, Sub- 
Registrar, Police Inspector and Apothecary. 

Historical. — The town was founded by Kriyashacty 
Wodeyar, of Mysore, and was formerly fortified. The fort 
walls have been demolished, and only the ruins now 

Sport. — Good duck shooting can generally be obtained 
on the large Dharmavaram tank, but to properly cover the 
water several guns are required. 




Manganallur (pop. 1,124), on the Mayavaram-Mutupet 
Branch Une, is situated in the Mayavaram taluq of the 
Tanjore district, 5 miles from Mayavaram, 49 from Mutu- 
pet, and 179 from Madras (Egmore). The village, which 
is on the north bank of the river Arasilar, is about three- 
fourths of a mile from the Eailway station. 

Local Accommodation, — In the village is a choultry, 
where native travellers of all classes (except Pariahs) can 
find accommodation free of charge. They must, however, 
make their own arrangements for food. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained at the 
station, if previous notice is given, the fare being 2 annas 
per vehicle per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Paddy is the chief 

Local Official— The Village Munsiflf. 

Objects of Interest. — At a place called Valavoor, about a 
mile and a half north of this station, is a Siva temple with 
inscriptions, which attracts a large number of worshippers 
during the time of its annual festival, held in the months 
of April and May. The legend with regard to this temple 
is as follows : — 

In remote ages many Kishis with their families lived in 
the Darakavanam (sacred forest) at Valavoor, where 
they passed their days in penance and meditation. The 
god, Siva, in order to test their honesty of purpose, disguised 
himself as a beggar and appeared naked before them hold- 
ing in his hand a ** Thiruvasee " (cocoanut shell for alms) 
and singing sacred songs very melodiously. The wives of 
the Kishis, hearing the music, came out of their houses, and, 
being attracted by his beauty and his sweet songs, followed 
him for a considerable distance, some of them throwing 


their bangles down and otherwise showing they could not 
control themselves. They wanted to embrace the Swami, 
but he replied that he would embrace them at Madura in 
the form of a Chetty (bangle-seller), and so saying picked 
up all the bangles and disappeared. The Kishis, having 
heard of their wives' behaviour, determined to kill the sup- 
posed beggar, and, for this purpose, made a big yagam or 
sacrifice and thus raised several devils, giants and other 
monsters, whom they ordered to destroy Siva. This they 
could not do, and the Rishis then procured an elephant 
which they directed to swallow Siva. This it did to the 
grief of Parvati and her son Skandar, who witnessed the 
scene. Siva, however, soon burst the body of the animal, 
which he afterwards wore as a garland round his neck, 
and his deliverance is thus represented in the temple to 
the present day. 


Peralam (pop. 961) is situated in the Nannilam taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 10 miles from Mayavaram, 44 
from Mutupet, 15 from Karaikkal, and 184 from Madras 
(Egmore) . This station is the Junction for the Peralam- 
Karaikkal Railway and that at which the Customs exam- 
ination takes place on goods, luggage or parcels arriving 
from French territory. No duty is levied on goods going 
into French possessions. Passengers going on a short 
visit beyond the English frontier are advised to declare 
the contents of their baggage to the Customs (Sayer) 
Superintendent at Peralam, depositing with him such 
articles as would be dutiable if brought from French ter- 
ritory and which will be returned free when they again 
reached British soil. 

The scale of charges for dutiable articles are 5 per cent. 
ad valorem. Piece-goods are charged at 3^ per cent., and 
food-grains are passed free. 

Local Accommodation, — A travellers' bungalow near the 


station. Close by is a choultry for natives, where all 
classes can find accommodation free of charge, but they 
must make their own arrangements for food. There are 
also two native hotels in the village, where meals are 
served at 2J annas each. 

Boad Conveyance, — Bullock-carts are usually procurable 
at the station, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Bailway Facilities, — Waiting accommodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — Paddy is the chief 

Local Officials. — The Customs (Sayer) Superintendent, 
Sub-Registrar and Kevenue Inspector. 

Objects of Interest. — Two miles south-east of this station 
is Tirumalappathu, a place of pilgrimage, containing a Siva 
temple. At the time of the annual festival, during the 
month of Vyasi (May or June), large numbers of worship- 
pers assemble from all parts of the district. 


Ambagarattur (pop. 390) is situated in French Territory, 
5 miles from Peralam, 10 from Karaikkal, 15 from Maya- 
varam, and 189 from Madras (Egmore). 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Paddy is the chief 

Local OJicials, — There is a Customs (Sayer) Superin- 
tendent here for examining the road traffic between French 
and British territory. 



Tirunalar (pop. 9,180) is situated in French territory, 
10 miles from Peralam, 5 from Karaikkal, 20 from Maya- 
varam, and 194 from Madras (Egmore). The town, which 
possesses several tanks with good drinking water, is about 
half a mile north of the station. 


Local Accommodation, — In the town are 4 chuttrams, 
where accommodation can be had free by all classes of 
native travellers, except Pariahs, but those using it must 
make their own arrangements for food. In addition there 
are two native hotels, where meals are served to all classes 
at 2^ annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance, — Bullock-carts can be had at the station, 
if previous notice be given, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 
Ijocal Manufactures and Products, — Paddy is the chief 

Fjocal OJicials, — The Adjutant de PoHce Notaire, Ecrivain 
de I'etat, Receveur Adjoint. 

Fairs and Festivals, — The **Vasanta Utsavam *' festival 
lasting 20 days is held annually in the Siva temple here 
during April and May. Five cars are then drawn round 
the main streets by the large number of worshippers who 
attend from surrounding parts. Another festival called 
'' Swamy Paythi*' is celebrated once in every 2 J years, 
when about 30,000 pilgrims attend. 

Missions and Churches, — About 2 miles north of the 
station is a Eoman Catholic Church. 

Objects of Interest, — The Siva temple, the shrine in 
which is dedicated to ** Darbaraniaswaraswami.*' 


Karaikkal (lat. 10°55' N.; long. 77°24' E. ; pop. 34,770), 
the chief town of the French province of the same name 
and the terminal station of the Peralam-Karaikkal Railway, 
is situated on the Coromandel Coast about IJ miles from 
the mouth of the river Arasilar, one of the branches of the 
Cauvery. This place, which is in charge of an Adminis- 
trateur, who is subordinate to Pondicherry, is a nicely laid 
out healthy little town, the streets being for the most part 
broad and straight and, in some cases, planted with trees. 


The distances to the principal stations on the South 
Indian Railway are as under : — 

Peralam Jonotion . . . . . • . . 15 miles. 

Mayavaram Junction . . . . . . 25 

Villupuram (for Pondicherry) . . . . . . 101 

Chingleput (for Conjeeveram) . . . . . . 166 

Madras (Egmore) . . . . . . . . 199 

Tanjore . . . . . . • . . . 69 

Trichinopoly . . . . . . 100 

Madura . . . . . • . . • • 196 

Tinnevelly or Tutioorin . . . . . . 295 

Local Accommodation. — For European travellers there 
is no accommodation, except the waiting rooms at the 
station, as the only travellers* bungalow in the place is 
reserved for the use of French officials travelling on duty. 
For natives, there are 4 chuttrams, where free accommoda- 
tion can be obtained by all classes, who must, however, 
make their own arrangements for food; and 2 hotels, 
where meals are served at from 2 J to 3 annas each. 

Boad Conveyance. — To Negapatam and Tranquebar, 12 
and 7 miles distant, respectively, are good metalled roads. 
Jutkas and bullock-carts can be had at the station, if 
previous notice be given, the fares being 2 annas and li 
annas per vehicle per mile respectively. 

Bailway Facilities, — There are two Railway stations, one 
at the north end of the town called **Porear Road" and 
the other Karaikkal near the European quarter of the 
town. At the latter station, in addition to a waiting room 
for first and second class passengers, is sleeping accommo- 
dation (one bed), a lavatory, and a saloon reserved. 

Shipping Arrangements. — The port carries on a con- 
siderable trade in rice with Ceylon ; and in betel-nuts, 
sandalwood, camphor, spices and crackers with the Straits 
Settlements. There is also a large passenger traffic with 
Penang and Singapore, the B. I. S. N. and Asiatic Com- 
panies' steamers calling here regularly every fortnight. 
The port is in charge of a Harbour Master (Maitre de 
Port), and there is a well-organised boat service. In front 


of the Port oflSce, which is about a quarter of a mile south 
of Karaikkal station, is a jetty at which passengers land 
and embark, and cargo is shipped. The charge for a 
boat from the jetty to the steamer is Rs. 3, the journey 
occupying about an hour. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The weaving of 
country cloth is the principal industry, and paddy is the 
chief local production. 

Local Officials, — The Administrateur (Administrator) 
Juge President (Judge), Procureur de la Republique (Pubhc 
Prosecutor), Lieutenant de Juge (Sub- Judge), Medecin 
des Colonies (Doctor), Percepteur (Treasurer), Recevur de 
I'enregistrement, (Collector), Conducteur dos ponts et 
chausse's (Sub-Engineer), Maitre de Port (Port officer), 
Juge de Paix (Justice of the Peace), Commissaire de Police 
(Commissioner of Police), Directeur d'Ecoles (Director of 
Schools), Superieur de College (Principal of the College), 
and Maire (Mayor). 

Fairs and Festivals. — On the 14th of July is celebrated 
annually the **F6te Nationale." In October, the annual 
**Kandiri" festival is held at the Muhammedan mosque 
and in June the Mango festival at the Hindu temple. 
The legend with regard to this last festival is as follows :— 

On a certain occasion an individual in Karaikkal sent to 
his wife, Kariamman, two mangoes of a special kind, with 
strict orders that they should be kept and served to him at 
his meals. In the meantime a sanyasi (recluse) came to 
the woman's house and begged for meals, whereupon she, 
in accordance with custom, invited the recluse into her 
house and served him with the best she could. After the 
recluse had had the meal, he asked for dessert. The woman 
having no other fruit than the two mangoes sent by her 
husband, deliberated, but thinking that her husband would 
no doubt give her one and take one for himself, gave hers 
to the visitor. He finding the fruit delicious begged for 
another. She was then puzzled, fearing her husband's 


anger if she gave away the other mango, and the maledic- 
tions of the recluse if she refused. Finally her devotion 
for the aged recluse prevailed and she gave him the other 
mango and he, after pronouncing his benediction, departed. 
The husband shortly afterwards returned and asked for the 
mangoes, whereupon the wife with implicit belief in god 
went to the place where the mangoes had been kept and 
there found two others resembling those she had parted 
with. She gave these to her husband who, on tasting them , 
found them unusually delicious, but detected that they were 
not those he had sent. After taxing his wife for an 
explanation, she finally confessed what had occurred, when 
the husband overjoyed prostrated himself at her feet. She 
could not bear this and prayed that she might be destroyed. 
This request was granted and her body immediately crum- 
bled into dust, but divine honours have ever since been 
paid to her memory. On festival occasions mangoes are 
thrown on the ground in front of the temple, the crowd 
scrambling for them. 

Missions and Churches. — The Church of '* Notre Dame 
des Anges " is a fine building of the Gothic order of archi- 
tecture, the steeple of which was recently re-erected at the 
expense of Madame Laforgue, a munificent lady of the 

HistoricuL — The French seized the town in 1736 and 
constructed a fort, which was taken by the English on the 
5th April 1760. Five years later it was restored, but it 
was seized again in 1778 and finally restored by treaty in 
1814, on condition that no fortifications should be erected 
therein. By the terms of the treaty, no military are to 
be retained, but such as are required for police duties. 
Karaikkal formed the base of Lally's operations against 

Objects of Interest. — The ** Hotel du Gouvemement, *' the 
residence of the ** Administrateur " a fine building close to 
Karaikkal Bail way station; the Church of ** Notre Dame 


des Anges," the ** Hospital Colonial" near the Church; 
and the ** Petit Seminaire " containing about 300 scholars 
and controlled by 4 European and 7 native professors. 

Tranquebar. — About 6 miles to the north of Porear Boad 
station lies the old fortified town of Tranquebar, an ancient 
Danish settlement, which was at one time a busy port 
and the head-quarters of the Tanjore coUectorate. Tran- 
quebar was the first seat of the Protestant Missions in 
India and even now is one of the principal stations of the 
Lutheran Evangelical Mission. Many of the former 
European houses are now in ruins, but there is an old- 
world restf ulness about the place which makes it a favourite 
resort for those desiring a few days' quiet. The former 
residence of the Danish Governors, a large furnished house 
close to the sea belongs to Mr. Ponnusami Nadar, who is 
kind enough to place it at the disposal of European gentle- 
men with whom he is acquainted. He has a residence in 
Porear, a populous native town, some two miles from 
Tranquebar, and in the grounds surrounding his house is 
a tank, which affords excellent labeo fishing. In Tranque- 
bar is a large Government Salt Factory, and some old 
graves of pioneer European Missionaries. 


Nannilam (pop. 2,758) is a union town in a taluq of 
the same name in the Tanjore district, 15 miles from 
Mayavaram, 9 from Tiruvallur, and 189 from Madras 
(Egmore). The Railway station is at Sennavur, Nannilam 
being 8 miles west of it. 

Local Acconwwdatiofi, — A travellers' bungalow, which 
contains a table and a few chairs only and has two rooms, 
is maintained by the Local Fund Board at Nannilam. 
The charge for the use of the bungalow is : — 

BS. A. p. 

For single person . . ' ' ^ « 1 ^.^ 

For a married couple . . ..1003 

Fowls, eggs and milk are the only articles of food which 


can be procured locally. There is no cook at this bungalow. 
Close to the Railway station is a chuttram for natives, 
where free accommodation can be had by all classes and in 
Sennavur are *2 hotels, where meals are served at 2^ annas 
each. In Nannilam there are 3 chuttrams, '2 Brahman 
hotels and 3 other hotels. Free accommodation is given 
to all classes at the former, and meals are served at 2 J 
annas each at the latter. At Enangudi, a village 2 miles 
east of the station, a wealthy cultivator maintains a chut- 
tram, where free meals are given to Brahmans and supplies 
to bairagis. The Local Fund Board maintains a dispensary 
at Nannilam. 

Road Conveyance. — From the Railway station to the town 
of Nannilam is a good metalled road. Jutkas and bullock- 
carts are usually procurable at the station, the fare being 
2 annas per mile. 

Railway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures a/ul Products. — Paddy is the chief 

Local Officials. — The Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, Sub- 
Registrar, Police Inspector and Hospital Assistant. 

Missions and Churches. — One mile south of Nannilam 
is a Wesley an Mission Church. 

Objects of hiterest. — At Nannilam is an old Siva temple, 
and within 3 or 4 miles are several places of pilgrimage, 
among which may be mentioned : — 

Thiruppugalur^ which contains a famous Siva temple, 
where a large festival is held in the Tamil month of Chittrai 
(April and May) ; Thirukkanapuram, where there is a 
Vishnu temple as important as the large one at Srirungam 
(Trichinopoly) ; Thiruchungattangudi or Rakta aranaiyam 
(Red forest) at which an annual festival is held in April 
and May ; Srivanjium (so called because Vishnu here 
recovered his separated wife Lukshmi) where there are 
tanks so sacred that bathing in them removes all sin, even 
so great a sin as Brahmahatti (the murder of a Brahman) ; 
and Tiruppanayiir containing a Siva temple. 



Veftar (pop. 654) is situated in the Nannilam taluq of 
the Tanjore district, *20 miles from Mayavaram, 5 from 
Tiruvallur, and 193 from Madras (Egmore). The station 
is named after the river Vettar, on the north bank of which 
it stands, Kangalancheri being the name of the village. 

Local Accommodation, — Near Kangalancheri is a P.W.D. 
free rest house, which can accommodate one person. 
Travellers wishing to use this bungalow should bring every- 
thing with them, as it is unfurnished and has no cook. For 
natives there is a chuttram, where all classes can find free 
accommodation, and 2 hotels, where meals are served at 
2^ annas each. 

Road Conveyance, — Bullock-carts can be had, if previous 
notice be given, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manu/acfares ami Products. — Paddy is the chief 

Local OJicial. — The Village Munsiff. 

Mfssiona and Churches. — At Karaiyur, 3 miles east of the 
station, is a Koman Catholic Church. 


Tinivallur (lat. 10^47'; long. 79°41'; pop. 9,415) is a union 
town situated in the Negapatam taluq of the Tanjore 
district. It was formerly the chief town of a taluq of the 
same name. The station is an important Junction on 
the Tanjore-Negapatam and Mayavaram-Mutupet branch 
lines. The following are the distances to the principal 
South Indian Railway stations : — 

Negapataui . . . . . . 16 miles. 





Tuticorin or Tiunevelly 



Villupiiram (for Tiruvannamalai, etc.) . . . . 100 

Chiiiglcput (for Conjeevcram, etc.) . . . . 164 

Madras (Egmore) . . . . . . . . 196 


Local Accommodation. — The old Rajah's palace near the 
temple tank has been converted into a travellers* bungalow 
and the building is sufficient to accommodate 3 families at 
one time. It is unfurnished and intending visitors should 
take their own furniture, crockery and servants. Fowls, 
eggs and milk can be procured locally. The charge for the 
use of the bungalow is : — 

BS. A. 

For single person . . . . • • ^ 8 , p^^ ^j^^ 

For a married couple . . . . . . 12 > 

For natives there are 4 choultries, where free accommo- 
dation is given to all classes, except Pariahs, free meals in 
addition being given to Brahmans and supplies to Bairagis, 
and 21 hotels, where meals are served to all classes at from 
2 J to 3 annas per meal. 

Road Concei/ance. — Bullock-carts are usually available at 
the station, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Railway Facilities, — Waiting accommodation is provided 
for first and second class passengers. The Eailway Com- 
pany also maintains a rest house, which can accommodate 
two persons, and which, when not being used by Company's 
officials, may be occupied by other European gentlemen, on 
sanction being first obtained from the Resident Engineer, 
Cuddalore. The charge for the use of this building, which 
is partially furnished, is : — 

BS. A. 

Under 8 hours « « I each person. 

Over 8 hours and not exceeding 24 . . . . 12 j 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The weaving of 
Native cloths is the principal industry, and paddy is the 
chief product. 

Local OJicials. — The Deputy Tahsildar and Sub-Magis- 
trate, Sub-Registrar, Police Inspector, District Munsiff, 
and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs ami Festivals. — A fair is held every Thursday 
near the Railway station. In March and April, a large 
festival is held at the Siva temple, which attracts pilgrims 
from all parts of the district. 


Missions ayid Churches. — The Wesleyan Mission has a 
small Church in the town. 

Cluhs, — The Native officials maintain a reading room. 

Objects of Interest, — The Siva temple with its 4 large 
gopurams, and sacred tank in front on an island, in the 
centre of which is a small pagoda. North of the temple 
is a stone car, having under one of its wheels the figure of 
a child. Near the car is a cow with a dead calf, also 
sculptured in stone. 

Within the temple is a 1,000-pillared muntapam, the roof 
of which is decorated with pictures, now much dilapidated, 
illustrating stories from Hindu mythology. Outside this 
muntapam are many stone pillars which are roofed in 
during the time of festivals. There is but little carving to 
be seen inside the temple, the best work being the small 
stone figures placed in the niches of the gopurams. There 
are five wooden cars belonging to the temple, the largest 
of which is a fine example of its kind. The group of stone 
figures to the north of the temple is intended to comme- 
morate a legendary incident in the career of a Chola king 
named Manuneethekanda, who was noted for his goodness 
of heart and sense of justice. The god Siva wishing to test 
the king's reputation for justice, after having disguised 
himself as a cow and '* Yamadarma'* (the destroyer) as a 
calf, went to Tiruvallur to graze in the streets. The king's 
only son, Veethevidangan, who happened to be driving at 
this time ran over the calf and killed it. The Prince 
trembling at the terrible sin he had committed in killing so 
sacred an animal as a calf and, fearing his father, went to 
the Brahmans for advice as to how he should free himself 
from the sin. Meanwhile the cow, being unable to bear her 
grief, went to the king's palace to inform him of the matter, 
and, having reached the Palace, she rang the bell with her 
horns. The king, who was with his ministers at tlie time, 
was informed of what had occurred. After consulting with 
them how best to render his son guiltless he decided that 


as all the ceremonies in the world would not restore the calf 
to life, it would only be just if he himself experienced the 
same grief that the cow had suflfered. He therefore ordered 
one of his ministers to cause his son to be run over by his 
car, but the minister, afraid of executing so dreadful a task, 
committed suicide. The king then decided to do the deed 
himself and, having ordered his son before him, crushed 
him to death under his chariot wheels. Siva, being much 
pleased with the king's justice, resumed his proper form, 
and, accompanied by Parvati, visited the city, after embrac- 
ing the monarch, he restored to life the calf, the Prince and 
the minister and took them all up with him to heaven. 
Four miles west of Tiruvallur is Tinikkannamangaif where 
there is an important Vishnu temple dedicated to '*Bak- 
thabaksalar" and the goddess ** Abishekavalli*' his wife. 
An annual festival is held in April and May. 


Tirunattiyattangudi (pop. 463) is situated in the Tiru- 
turaipundi taluq of the Tanjore district, 6 miles from Tiru- 
vallur Junction, 25 from Mutupet, 80 from Mayavaram, and 
203i from Madras (Egmore). The village is about three- 
quarters of a mile north-west of the station and is a place of 
pilgrimage. Its name is a compound of the words Tiru+ 
Natti-fYattan-fGudi meaning Holy+Holding+Receiv- 
ing+Temple. The legend connected with the place is as 
follows : — A General of one of the Chola Kings reigning 
at Tanjore had a country seat at this village. Being a 
religious man he spent his time, when not in the field, in 
worshipping the presiding deity Ruthnapureswara and 
Mangalanayaki, his divine spouse. On a certain occasion, 
war having broken out, he was called away to the command 
of his Sovereign's army. He anticipated the war would 
last two years and, before leaving, he provided a store of 
grain for his family and for the daily offerings to the deity 
sufficient to last the time he would be away. During his 


absence a severe famine broke out and the wife finding 
her store of grain exhausted made use of that set aside 
for the deity, considering the god would think it no sin on 
her part to appropriate it for such a purpose. On the ter- 
mination of the war, the General returned home filled with 
pleasure at the prospect of resuming his devotions. Great, 
however, was his horror at finding how the grain had been 
disposed of and so great was his rage that he at once slew 
his wife and pursuing his three sons, who on seeing the 
fate of tlieir mother, had fled for their lives, he caught one 
up and slew him at a place called Kumaramangalam (place 
of the son), a second was overtaken and killed at Puttaman^ 
galam (a place of the same meaning), the third he killed at 
Virkunnam (Perspiration Hill) . He now returned to put an 
end to his youngest son and notwithstanding the interces- 
sion of his neighbours who pleaded that so young a child 
could not be guilty of a crime, he threw him up in the air 
with the intention of receiving him on the point of his 
sword in the fall, when, lo, the sword was turned into a soft 
flower wreath and the child was miraculously stayed in the 
air. The astonished father on looking upward saw the god 
robed in light with the forms of his slain wife and children 
standing on either side of him and heard that what had been 
done had been but to test his faith. He then rising in the 
air was translated w4th his wife and children to Kylasa (Hea- 
ven). The General was known as Kotpali Nayanar and the 
village from this time was called Tirunattiyattangudi. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained, if 
previous notice be given, fare 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief product 
is paddy. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsifif. 


TinmelUkaval, 32 J miles from Mayavaram Junction, 

and 206^ miles from Madras (Egmore), is situated on 

the boundary limit of the three taluqs of Negapatam, 

Tiruturaipundi, and Mannargudi, nejir the Junction of the 



Nannilam to Tiruturaipundi, and the Mannargudi to 
Negapatam roads. 

Produce, — Large quantity of paddy is available for export. 

Objects of Interest. — The village of Tirunellikaval is a 
place of pilgrimage, and in its vicinity there are several 
Siva temples. 


Ponnirei (pop. 397) is situated in the Tiruturaipundi taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 12 miles from Tiruvallur Junction, 
19 from Mutupet, 36 from Mayavaram, and 209J from 
Madras (Eji^more). The villa^^e in three-quarters of a mile 
east of the station. 

Local Accomviodation, — Close to the station is a chavadi 
(resting place), where natives of all classes can find accom- 
modation. They must, however, make their own arrange- 
ments for food. 

Road Conveyance, — Bullock-carts can be obtained, if pre- 
vious notice be given, fare 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief product 
is paddy. 

Local Official, — The Village Munsiflf. 


Tiruturaipundi (pop. 2,666) is situated in a taluq of the 
same name in the Tanjore district, 14 miles from Mutupet, 
16 from Tiruvallur Junction, 40 from Mayavaram, and 213f 
from Madras (Egmore). The town is about half a mile 
south-east of the station. Passengers alight here for 
Kodikary, where sea-baths are taken in January, August 
and September on new moon days. 

Local Accommodation, — In the town are three chuttrams, 
where accommodation can be had by natives of all classes, 
except Pariahs, but private arrangements for food must be 
made. Besides these there are 2 Brahman and 3 other 
hotels, where meals are served at 2 J annas each, 


Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are usually procurable 
at the station, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are paddy and cocoanuts. 

LocaJr Officials. — The Tahsildar, Sub- Magistrate, District 
Munsiff, Sub-Kegistrar, Police Inspector, Sub-Divisional 
Officer, P. W. D., and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Friday, which is well 

Missions and Churches. — In the town is a Koman Catholic 

Objects of Interest. — The old Siva temple, which has 


Pandi (pop. 444) is situated in the Tiruturaipundi taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 10 miles from Mutupet, 20 from 
Tiruvallur Junction, 44 from Mayavaram and 218 from 
Madras (Egmore). The village is about a mile north-east 
of the station. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained at the 
station, if previous notice be given, the fare being 2 annas 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief product 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiflf. 


TillaivUagam (pop. 2,715) is situated in the Tiruturai- 
pundi taluq of the Tanjore district, 5 miles from Mutupet, 
25 from Tiruvallur Junction, 49 from Mayavaram, and 222J 
from Madras (Egmore). The village is about 2^ miles 
south-west of the station. 

Local Accommodation. — At Gopalasamudram, about one 
mile south-west of the station, is a choultry, where all 
classes of native travellers, except Pariahs, can find ac- 


comiiiodation free, but must make their own arrangements 
for food. In Tillaivilagam is an hotel, where meals are 
served to natives of all classes at 2^ annas each, if previous 
notice be given. 

Eoad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be procured on 
previous notice, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are cocoanuts and paddy. 

Local Official, — The Village Munsiff and Kumam. 

Fairs and Festivals. — Festivals are held in the Vishnu 
temple in January, July, September and October. 

Objects of Interest. — About 30 years ago, large sized idols 
of Rama, Lutchmanan, Seetay, Hanuman and Natesan 
were unearthed. They appear to be made of a mixture of 
metals in which gold predominates and are worth seeing. 
A small temple has been constructed for them, and pilgrims 
from distant places now come there to worship. 


Mutupet (lat. 10'^^23' ; long. 79^32' ; pop. 5,381) is a busy 
trading port on the river Korayar, 7 miles from the sea and 
situated in the Tiruturaipundi taluq of the Tanjore district. 
It has a large Muhanmiedan (Lubbay) community, who 
trade principally with Ceylon. 

The station is the terminus of the Mayavaram-Mutupet 
Kail way. 

The following are the distances to the principal South 
Indian Kailway stations : — 

Tiruvallur Junction . . . . . . . . 30 miles. 


Mayavaram Junction . . 

Villupuram Junction .. 


Chingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram, etc.) . . 

Madras (Egmore) 



Pakaltt ., ., ,, ., 

45 „ 

64 „ 

180 „ 

153 „ 

194 „ 

230 „ 

172 „ 

223 „ 

208 „ 

. . :^5'i miles 

.. 410 „ 

.. 61 , 

.. 96 , 


.. 191 , 


.. 290 „ 



Ciudur Junctiou (for East Coast liailway) 

Dharmavaram Junction (for S. M. Railway) 




Tinnevelly or Tuticorin 

Local Acconmiodatioji, — Close to the Kailway Station is a 
travellers' bungalow maintained by the P. W. D., which 
has sufficient accommodation for two families, but is prac- 
tically unfurnished, and has no cook. The charge for the 
use of this building is 8 annas for each person per day. 
Meat, eggs, fowls and milk can be procured locally. For 
natives there are two choultries, where free accommodation 
is given to all classes, except Pariahs, but travellers must 
make their own arrangements for food. Besides these, 
there are one Brahman and 3 other hotels, where meals 
are served at from 2^ to 3 annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts are usually procurable 
at the station, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Shipping Arrangements. — The river Korayar runs 
through the town down to the sea 7 miles away. Cargo 
is shipped from the town into boats of shallow draught 
which sail down the river and out to sea, where the 
goods are transferred to large native vessels which ply 
between Mutupet and Colombo and are generally anchored 
some 6 to 7 miles from the shore. The journey down the 
river and out to the ships takes 12 hours in the fair season 
and 10 in the monsoon, the charge being Bs. 6 per boat. 
There are 35 boats in Mutupet and 9 large sailing vessels 
on the Colombo service. Rice is the chief export and 13,665 
tons of it were sent to Ceylon in the year 1896-97 ; betel- 
nuts and timber are the chief import, but the trade in 
them is small. A Sea Customs' Superintendent is stationed 
at Mutupet to collect duty. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
of Mutupet are cocoanuts and salt. The latter is manu- 
factured at Adirampatnam about 8 miles west of the 


station, from which place salt-fish is also sent inland in 
large quantities. 

Local Officials. — The Customs' Superintendent, Sub- 
Begistrar, and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A festival is held in September 
annually in the Muhammedan mosque, large numbers 
assembling on the occasion from surrounding villages. 

Objects of Interest. — ^About one mile west of the station 
is an old musjid, erected to the memory of one Shaik 
Dawood Avooliah, who died here many years ago. 



Mariammankovil. — Four miles from Tanjore Junction 
and 221 J miles from Madras (Egmore). There is a public 
road from Tanjore to Negapatam, and its distance from 
the station is about 5 furlongs. 

Objects of Interest. — There are two large temples, Mari- 
amman temple, and Srikothandaramaswami temple, to 
which pilgrims from remote places resort during the festi- 
vals in April and August. 


Saliyamangalam (pop. 1,336) is situated in the Tanjore 
taluq of the Tanjore district, 8J miles from Tanjore Junc- 
tion, 39 from Negapatam, 53 from Mayavaram Junction, and 
226| from Madras (Egmore). The village is about 121 feet 
above sea-level. 

Local Accommodation. — ^At Poondi, about 2 miles west 
of the station, is a furnished bungalow maintained by a 
wealthy Mirasidar, which European travellers may occupy 
free of charge on application. For native travellers of all 


classes there is a hotel in the village, at wliicli, if previous 
notice be given, meals are served at 2^ annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — To Tanjore (9 miles) and Papana- 
sam (10 miles) is a good metalled road. Bullock-carts can 
be obtained, the fare being IJ annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Weaving is carried 
on and paddy and ground-nuts are the chief produce. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiflf and Kumam. 


Ammapet (pop. 3,804), 106 feet above sea-level, is situat- 
ed in the Tanjore taluq of the Tanjore district, 12^ miles 
from Tanjore, 8(5 from Negapatam, 5(5 J from Mayavaram 
Junction, and 280 from Madras (Kgmore). The village is 
about a mile north of the station. 

Local Accommodation . — In the village are 2 Sudra hotels, 
where meals are served to natives of all classes at 2^ annas 

Road Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be obtained, if 
previous notice be given, the fare being 1^ annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Produ/:ts. — Silk cloths for 
females and common country-cloths are woven, and paddy 
is the chief produce. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiflf and Kumam. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Sunday. 
About 3 miles south of the station is a place called Vadu- 
vur, which contains an old Vishnu temple, at which a 
festival, attracting many pilgrims, is held during March 
and April, annually. 


Nidamangala^n (pop. 2,806) is situated in the Mannar- 
gudi taluq of the Tanjore district, between the rivers 
Vennar and Korayar, 19 miles from Tanjore Junction, 80 
from Negapatam, and 286 from Madras (Egmore), and is 78 
feet above sea-level, . 


Local Accommodation. — To Brahmans meals arc sup- 
plied free of charge, and to bairajjis supplies are given, at a 
well endowed chuttraiu built here in 17()1, by Rajah Pra- 
tapa Singh in honour of his Rani Yauioonah Bye Sahiba. 
Besides this chuttram, there are 8 Brahman and 3 Sudra 
hotels, where meals are served at from 2J to 3 annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — To Mannargudi (9 miles) and Kum- 
bakonam (15 miles) are good metalled roads. Jutkas and 
bullock-carts are available at the station, the fares being 
IJ annas per mile. 

Local Manufacturer and Products. — Messrs. Arbuthnot 
& Co. have a Rice Mill near the station, under the 
management of a European. The chief produce of Nida- 
mangalam is paddy. 

Local Officials. — The Deputy Tahsildar, and Sub-Regis- 

Objects of Interest. — The Korayar head works, where 
three rivers discharge by means of a fine masonry sluice, is 
close to the town. 

Mannargudi (pop. 20,89e5) on the southern bank of the 
Paumaniyar, a branch of the Vennar, has a considerable 
Brahman population. It contains a bathing tank called 
Haridranuddy, 1,168 feet long and 887 feet broad, and 
9 old temples, 4 of which are Vishnu and 5 Siva. At the 
Rajah Gopalswami temple, the largest and most important, 
an annual festival is held in March, which lasts for 16 days. 
On the 7th day the image of the god is placed under an 
artificial ** Pinnai " tree, the brandies of which are hung 
with the garments and ornaments of females, and around 
which several nude female figures are represented in a 
standing attitude begging for their clothes. Krishna is 
seen seated on a branch playing a flute. This spectacle is 
one of the credas (plays) of Krishna, who, on a certain 
occasion, appeared and rebuked certain maidens, who, in 
observance of a vow, were bathing ** in puris naturalibus.'* 

Mannargudi is the chief seat of the Wesleyan Mission 
in Southern India, 



Koradacheri (pop. 612) is situated in the Nannilam taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 24 miles from Tanjore Junction, 10 
from Tiruvallur, 25 from Negapatam, and 241 from Madras 
(Egmore) . 

Local Accommodation. — Close to the station is a large 
travellers' bungalow, maintained by the P. W. U., whichi 
though it can accommodate 4 persons at one time, is 
practically unfurnished. The charge for the use of this 
building is : — 

For a single person . . . . 8 annas] •.. 

For a married couple . . . . . . 1 rupee I 

For natives about a furlong north of the station is a 
chuttram, where all classes can find accommodation, but 
they must make their own arrangements for food. Besides 
this, in the village are 1 Brahman and 2 Sudra hotels, 
where meals are served at 2J annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
available at the station, the fares being 2 annas and IJ 
annas per mile respectively. 

Railway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is provided 
at the station for ladies. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief product 
is paddy. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsiflf and Eumam. 

Kodavasal (pop. 7,785), 7 miles north of this station and 
connected with it by a good road, has two temples and a 
large Brahman population. 


Kulikarai (pop. 587) is situated in the Nannilam taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 4 miles from Tiruvallur Junction, 
18 from Negapatam, 30 from Tanjore, and 247 from Madras 

Road Conveyance. — ^Bullock-carts can be obtained, if pre- 
vious notice be given, the fare being 1 J annas per mile, 



Local Manufactures and Prodticts. — The chief products 
are paddy and cocoanuts. 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsifif and Kumam, 


Adiyakkamangalam (pop. 3,015) is situated in the Nega- 
patam taluq of the Tanjore district, 3 miles from Tiruvallur 
Junction, 12 from Negapatam, 37 from Tanjore, and 20O| 
from Madras (Egmore). The inhabitants are chiefly 
Muhammedans . 

Local Manufactures and Prodticts, — The chief products 
are paddy and cocoanuts. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiff. 

Fairs and Festival. — A festival is celebrated aimually 
in the local mosque in September. 


Kivalur (pop. 2,108) is situated in the Negapatam taluq 
of the Tanjore district, 7 miles from Negapatam, 8 from 
Tiruvallur Junction, 41 from Tanjore, and 205| from 
Madras (Egmore). The village is about half a mile north 
of the station. 

Boad Conveyance. — Bullock-carts can be had on previous 
notice, the fare being IJ annas per mile. 

Local Manufactttres and Products. — The chief product is 

Local Officials. — The Village Munsifif and Local Fund 

Historical. — In 1758, this place was ransacked by Lally 
in the hope of finding treasure. 

Objects of Interest. — An old Siva temple with inscriptions, 
one of which records a grant of lands to the temple by 
Tulzagi, Eajah of Tanjore. 


Sikkil (pop. 2,648) is situated in the Negapatam taluq of 
the Tanjore district, 3 miles from Negapatam, 12 from 
Tiruvallur Junction, 45 from Tanjore, and 209| from 
Madras (Egmore). 


Local Accommodation. — Near the station are 2 chuttrams, 
where free accommodation can be had by native travellers 
of all classes, except Pariahs, but private arrangements for 
food must be made. In addition, there is an hotel in the 
village, where meals are served to all classes of natives at 
2^ annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance, — Bullock-carts can be had, if previous 
notice be given, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief product 
is paddy. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A festival called ** Soora Samharam " 
(to kill a Eaksha) is held in November annually at the Siva 
temple which is well attended. The festival was originated 
to commemorate the destruction of a demon named Tricira, 
who hved on the Trichinopoly rock, and with his followers 
ravaged the country along the Cauvery. Tricira, who was 
a three-headed giant, was killed by one Suravadhittan, who 
afterwards ruled as a local chief. 

Sport. — Snipe-shooting is obtainable here in the season, 
and shikaries can be procured at 8 annas per diem. 


Negapatam (lat. 10^46'; long. 79°o3' ; pop. 59,221) is 
one of the most important Ports in the Madras Presidency. 
It is called by the natives ** Nagapattanam '* or snake- 
town, and, according to Colonel Yule, is the Malefattan of 
Arab geographers. This important municipal town, which 
is situated in a taluq of the same name in the Tanjore 
district, was the city of Coromandel of the early Portu- 
guese. About 20 per cent, of its population are Lubbays, 
a bold, active and thrifty race, in descent half- Arab and 
half-Hindu, who have established prosperous Colonies in 
Ceylon, Burma and the Straits Settlements. The town, 
which is divided into three parts, viz., Negapatam proper 
(south), Velippalaiyam (central), and Kadambadi (north), is 


situated at the mouth of the river Cadoovaiyar on an open 
level sandy expanse having a gentle slope to the sea. The 
South Indian Kailway Company has here its Locomotive 
and Carriage Workshops, employing several thousands of 
natives, and General Stores Dep6t. 

The distances to the principal stations on the South 
Indian Railway are as follows : — 

Tiruvallur Junction . . 

Tan j ore Junction 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) 


Tuticorin or Tinnevelly 

Mayavaram Junction . . 

Cuddalore . . 

Villupuram Junction (for Pondicherry, etc.) . . 

Chingleput Junction (for Gonjeeveram) 

Madras (Egmore) 



Pakala Junction 

Dharmavarani Junction (for S. M. Railway) . . 

Gudur Junction (for East Coast Railway) 

Local Accommodation. — There are no hotels for Euro- 
peans, but at Kadambadi an unfurnished rest-house is 
maintained by the P. W. D. The charge for the use of 
the bungalow is 8 annas for each person per diem. For 
natives there are two choultries, where accommodation is 
given free to all classes, but occupants must make their 
own arrangements for food. In addition are 40 hotels, 
where meals are served at from 'li^ to 4 annas per meal. 
In Velippalaiyam is a municipal dispensary in charge of 
an Assistant Surgeon. 

Road Conveyance, — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
available at the station, the fares being 2 annas per mile 
for jutkas and double bullock-carts, and 1 anna per mile 
for single bullock-carts. The following charges are, how- 
ever, levied for journeys to Velanghanny : — 

BS. A. 

Jutkas .. ,, .. .. ..10 

Double buDock-carts . . . . . . ..10 

Single do. •• ,. .. ,.0 8 

. . 15 miles. 

.. 48 

.. 79 

.. 175 

.. 274 

.. 39 

.. 85 

.. 114 

.. 178 

.. 212 

.. 156 

.. 208 

.. 253 

.. 394 

.. 836 









Railicay Facilities, — There is a ladies' waiting room at 
the station for first and second class passengers, and sleep- 
ing accommodation is also provided, the room set apart 
for this purpose containing two beds. The charge for the 
use of the room is : — 

For periods not exceeding 8 hours for each adult 

For each child of 12 and under . . 

For occupation exceeding 8 hours and not exceeding 24 

hours, or one night only for each adult 
For each child of 12 and under . . . . . ; 

There is also a refreshment room under the management 
of Messrs. Spencer & Co., the butler in charge of which 
has usually a few copies of the Madras newpapers for 
sale, as well as a small stock of travellers* requisites. In the 
station compound is a railway dispensary. 

Sliippiny Arraufftments. — The Port carries on an active 
and increasing trade and a large passenger traffic with 
Ceylon, Burma and the Straits Settlements, and great 
quantities of cattle and other live-stock are exported 
annually. Both the B. I. S. N. and Asiatic Companies' 
steamers call regularly, and a large number of native brigs 
and barques are owned at and sail from this Port. Steamers 
lie from a half to one mile from the shore and some 160 
boats are employed to take the cargo and passengers on 
board, the charge for a boat being Bs. 3 to 5, according 
to the weather. The Port is under the management of a 
Port Officer, who is also Superintendent of Mercantile 
Marine, Kegistrar of Shipping and Emigration Officer. 
Cargo is landed and shipped at the wharf (opposite the 
Customs House), on which there are two cranes, each of 
3 tons lifting capacity. Government contemplate erecting 
a screw pile pier shortly which will greatly facilitate work. 

The light-house, which is built of stone and painted 
white, is situated on the wharf and has a fixed white 
dioptric^ light of the fourth order, which is visible in clear 
weather to a distance of 14 miles. 


The following is a list of steamer lines calling at Nega- 
patain : — 

British Ifidia Steam Navigation Company. 

Goanting Steamers from Calcutta to Bombay . . . . Weekly. 

Coasting Steamers from Bombay to Calcutta . . . . Do. 

(These steamers also call at Colombo.) 
To Rangoon, vid Cuddalore, Pondicherry and Madras 

(voyage takes 6 days) . . . . . . W^eekly. 

To Penang and Singapore . . . . . . On alternate 

The voyage to Penang, Singapore and back occupies 
three weeks, and the steamers on this line are the finest 
in the Company's Coasting Service, the first and second 
class passenger accommodation being excellent. 
To Colombo, vid Ammapatam, Tondi and Pamban (voyage 

36 to 40 hours) . . . . . . Every Tuesday. 

Asiatic Steam Navigation Company, 

Coasting Steamers from Calcutta to Bombay . . . . Fortnightly. 

Coasting Steamers from Bombay to Calcutta . . . . Do. 

Local Manufactures and Products. — Piece-goods are dyed 
here, and soap is manufactured. The principal exports 
are rice, cattle, earthenware, ground-nuts and oil, copra, 
castor seeds, ghee, tamarind, coriander seeds, onions, 
chillies, tobacco and cigars and dyed piece-goods, while 
the imports are principally coal, timber, railway material, 
grains, pulse, turmeric, sandalwood and betel-nuts. 

Local Officials. — The Head Assistant Collector, Port 
Officer, Assistant Superintendent of Police, Assistant 
Commissioner of Salt and Abkari, Executive Engineer, 
P. W, D., Assistant Surgeon, Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, 
Sub-Judge, District Munsiflf, and Customs Superintendent. 

The Madras Bank, and the B. I. and Asiatic S. N. Com- 
panies, have agents in the town, in which also reside the 
Locomotive and Carriage and Wagon Superintendent, the 
Deputy Locomotive Superintendent, and the General 
Storekeeper, of the South Indian Eailway. 

Fairs and Festivals, — A fair is held every Sunday at 


A/isslons and Churches. — St. Peter's, an old Dutch Church, 
is now used by the Church of England cmgrogation, and 
the Wesleyan Mission also have a chapel. 

Cluh,^. — At Kadambadi, abov.t 2^ miles north of the 
station, is an European Club. Visitors may become 
Honorary Members, on being proposed by one member and 
seconded by one other. A visitor can remain an Honorary 
Member for a period not exceeding three consecutive 

The Wesleyan Mission maintain a reading room near 
the station. 

HistoricaL — This place was one of the earliest Portu- 
guese Settlements on the Coromandel Coast, but was taken 
from the Portuguese by the Dutch in 1660, and became 
head-quarters of the latter. In 1781, it was taken from the 
Dutch by the English, and 18 years later, was constituted 
the principal station of the Collector of the District, an 
arrangement continued until 1845, when the Collector's 
head-quarters were removed to Tranquebar, and subse- 
quently to Tanjore. 

Objects of Interest — The old Dutch cemetery (near the 
Railway Company's Workshops) with its quaint and bulky 
tombs, (two Hindu temples, one dedicated to Siva and the 
other to Vishnu, a wall of the former containing a stone 
which bears an epitaph in Dutch in memory of a Dutch- 
man who died in A.D. 1777), the bastion (the sole remain- 
ing portion of the old Dutch fort). 


Nagore (pop. 16,000), 4J miles from Negapatam and 
within the municipal limits of the latter, is situated on the 
Vettar Eiver, which is deep enough in places for docking 
and repairing native craft from 300 to 400 tons burden. 
It is 7 miles south of the French Station of Karaikkal (see 
page 359). 

Objects of Interest. — An old Hindu temple, which gives 
the place the name of Punnagavanam, and a large Muham- 


medan mosque, the latter with five minarets, one of which 
is of a fine architectural design and is 124 feet in height. 
This mosque is resorted to by pilgrims from Arabia, parts 
of India, Ceylon and the Straits Settlements, and is said to 
have been built about 300 years ago by the then Kajah 
of Tanjore, who endowed it with a large area of land in 
order to provide for the celebration of the annual festival 
(Kandiri) in honor of the saint who lies interred in the 
mosque, and who is said to have worked miracles here. 

General Information . — A large number of wealthy Hindu 
and Muhammedan merchants reside at Nagore, who carry 
on trade with Burma and the Straits Settlements. 

Local Official. — Sub-Registrar. 

Boad Conveyance. — 

To Karaikkal 

BA. A. 


• • 

• • 

..0 8 

Double bullock-cart 

• • 

• • 

..0 12 

Single do. 

• « 

• • 

.. G 

To Tranquebar — 


• • 

• • 

..1 8 

Double bullock-cart 

• • 

• t 

.. 1 12 



Elamanur (pop. 296) is situated in the Trichinopoly taluq 
of the Trichinopoly district, 35 miles from Karur, 12 from 
Trichinopoly Junction, and 75 from Erode Junction. The 
river Cauvery divides itself into the Coleroon, and the Cau- 
very, at this place, in consequence of which, is considered 
very sacred by the Hindus. 

Local Accommodation. — On the south bank of the Cauvery, 
close to the station, is a bungalow belonging to the Forest 
Department, and about a mile from tlie station on the spot, 
where the Coleroon branches from the Cauvery, is another 
maintained by the P. W. Department. Either of these bun- 
galows, when not in use by Officers of these Departments, 


may, on permission being obtained, be occupied by Euro- 
pean travellers. At neither bungalow is there furniture 
nor cook. The charge made in each case is one rupee for 
each person per diem. The P. W. D. bungalow is a well 
built house, close to the anicut across the Coleroon, and is 
located charmingly in a shady situation. About a mile 
west of the station is a chuttram, where Hindus of all 
classes, except Pariahs, can find free accommodation, but 
must make their own arrangements for food. In the 
village is a hotel, where meals are served to all classes at 
from 2J to 3 annas per meal. 

Local Manufacturefi and Prodncta. — Plantains are grown 
in large quantities. 

Local Official— The Village Munsiflf. 

Pairs and Festivals. — In October annually a large bathing 
festival is held. 

Objects of Interest. — The Upper Anicut, which has been 
built across the Coleroon at the point where that river 
separates from the Cauvery. Shortly after Trichinopoly 
came into possession of the British Government, it was 
observed that the bed of the Coleroon was gradually 
deepening, while that of the Cauvery was silting up. The 
eflfect of the change was to cause a constantly increasing 
difficulty in securing sufficient water in the Cauvery for 
the irrigation of the Tanjore district. Colonel (now Sir) 
Arthur Cotton, one of the Madras Engineers, therefore 
proposed to build an anicut across the head of the Cole- 
roon, and this work was carried out in 1836. The anicut, 
although situated in the Trichinopoly district, was designed 
for the benefit of Tanjore and has always remained under, 
the supervision of the P. W. D. officers of that district. 
In its original form, the upper anicut consisted of a simple 
bar of masonry, 750 yards in length, divided into 3 parts, 
by the interposition of two small islands formed in the bed 
of the stream. The northern portion is 7 feet 4 inches 
and the remainder 5 feet 4 inches in height. The body 



of the dam is of brick masonry, coped with cut stone, 
there being 6 feet 4 inches or 4 feet 4 inches of the 
former, according to position. The thickness throughout 
is 6 feet. This bar, forming the portion of the dam, rests 
on a foundation of masonry 3 feet deep, built on three 
lines of wells, 6 feet in exterior diameter and sunk to a 
depth of 6 feet into the sandy bed of the river. In the 
rear of the bar, there is an apron of masonry, 21 feet broad, 
covered with cut stone, one foot in thickness, carefully 
laid in cement. Below the apron, a mass of rough stone 
from 9 to 12 feet broad and 4 feet deep has been formed 
to protect the junction of the apron and river bed. 
Twenty-two openings or sluices, 2 feet in width by 3J feet 
in length are distributed throughout the length of the 
dam, their sills being on the same level as the apron or 
bed of the stream. The object of this arrangement is to 
afford free passage to the sand, and, if possible, to prevent 
the bed of the Coleroon above the dam being raised by 
deposits. In consequence of the obstruction caused by the 
anient, a greatly increased volume of water was thrown 
into the Cauvery during freshes and this led to great 
erosion of its banks and the deepening of its bed. Simul- 
taneously with these changes in the Cauvery, the waterway 
of the Coleroon became contracted by heavy deposits, 
sand-banks were formed above the dam, and the deep 
channel which formerly followed the right bank of the 
river was thrown across to the left. In a word, the inver- 
sion of the former relations of the two branches became 
imminent, the Cauvery becoming the main stream, and the 
Coleroon ceasing to obtain its due share of water. This 
would have led to disastrous results in Tanjore and mea- 
sures were accordingly adopted to obtain entire command 
over the bed of the Cauvery. The first of these measures, 
executed in 1843, on the recommendation of Colonel Sim 
of the Engineers, was to lower the central portion of the 
Coleroon dam by two feet. This was done on a length of 


about 700 feet, and, of course, added considerably to the 
volume of the Coleroon. Still, however, the enlargement 
of the head of the Cauvery continued ; the banks were cut 
away, and there was great difficulty in preserving the nar- 
row part of the island which separated the two branches. 
These effects were especially noted in 1844, and a masonry 
regulating dam across the mouth of the Cauvery was con- 
structed. This work, consisting of a bar of masonry 650 
yards in length, was executed in 1845. The level of the 
ground at the central portion was the same as that of the 
river bed, while 150 feet at each flank were raised from 
1 foot to 18 inches above it, being protected by strong 
wing walls. The measures thus adopted proved sufficient 
to control the two rivers for some time, but it is now 
proposed to remodel the anient and an estimate amounting 
to Bs. 5,34,000 has been sanctioned by Government for 
this purpose. The new work has been commenced. 

Sport, — Good snipe shooting can be had near this station 
in the cool season, the charge for coolies being 4 annas 
each per diem. 


Pettaivayfalai (pop. 170) is situated in the Trichinopoly 
taluq of the Trichinopoly district, 29 miles from Karur, 19 
from Trichinopoly Junction, and 69 from Erode Junction. 
The village is on the east bank of the Vyacondan river, an 
important irrigation stream taken off the Cauvery. 

Local Accommodation. — About half a mile, west of the 
station, is a bungalow maintained by the P. W. D., which, 
when not in use by Officers of that Department, may, 
on permission being obtained, be occupied by European 
travellers. This bungalow is unfurnished and has no cook, 
and the only articles of food for Europeans which can 
be purchased locally d*re fowls, eggs and milk. One rupee 
per diem is charged for the use of this bungalow, 

Rocul Conrf^f/ance, — If previous notice is given, bullock- 


carts can be obtained at the station, the fare being 2 annas 
per mile. 

Fairs, — A fair is held every Tuesday. 

Spwt. — Good snipe shooting can be had in the fields 
surrounding the station in the cold season, the charge for 
coolies being 4 annas each per diem. 


Kulitalai (pop. 7,000) is situated in a taluq of the same 
name in the Trichinopoly district, 24 miles from Karur, 13 
from Trichinopoly Junction, and 64 from Erode Junction. 
Kulitalai itself is only a small village (pop. 1,451), but it is 
the centre of three or four other villages, which almost 
adjoin and together form a small tov^n. The greater part 
of the land around is highly cultivated and there are 
numerous clumps of cocoanut and other trees, which give 
the place a green and fresh appearance. 

Local Accommodation, — About two miles, south of the 
station, at a place called Pudupolium, is a rest-house 
belonging to the Forest Department, which, when not in 
use by the Oificers of that Department, may be occupied 
by European travellers, on permission being obtained. This 
bungalow, which can accommodate 2 persons at one time, 
is practically unfurnished and has no cook. The charge 
for the use of it is one rupee each person per diem. Close 
to the station is a chuttram, where natives of all classes 
can find free lodging, but they must make their own 
arrangements for food. In the town are 4 hotels, where 
meals are served at from 2 J to 3 annas each. 

Road Conveyance, — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
procurable at the station, the fares being 3 and 2 annas 
per mile respectively. 

Railway Facilities, — Waiting acconmiodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. 

Local Manufactures and IWoducts, — The weaving of 
country cloth is carried on, and paddy, cocoanuts and 


plantains are the chief products. 


Local Officials. — The District Munsiff, Tahsildar, Sta- 
tionary Sub-Magistrate, Sub-Kegistrar, Police Inspector, 
and Hospital Assistant. 

Fairs and Festivals, — The most important festival held 
here is the ** Pushyam *' in January annually. On the day 
of the full moon, 8 Hindu gods are brought to the bed of 
the river and halt there for a whole day. These gods come 
from Kadambarkoil(i a mile west) , Karupattur (4 miles west) , 
Tiruvangimalai (2 miles north), Musiri (IJ miles north), 
Sivayam (5 miles south), Rajendram (2^- miles south-east), 
Pettaivaytalai (4 miles east), and Vallur (3 miles south- 
west). It is estimated that 1,000 pilgrims assemble on the 
occasion, who, after bathing in the river, go in their wet 
clothes to receive holy waters from the priests in charge 
of the gods. Other minor festivals are the Magam, which 
takes place on the next full moon (February or March) and 
the floating festival on the tank near the railway station 
in the same month. These are, however, of purely local 

Missionn and Churches, — The Roman Catholics have two 
churches, one close to the station, and the other at Musiri, 
2 miles north of it. 

Clubs. — The Local Fund Department maintains a read- 
ing room and library in the town. 

Objects of Interest. — The Siva and Vishnu temples, the 
Taluq Cutcherry, the Courts of the District Munsiflf and 
Stationary Sub-Magistrate. 

Sport. — Good snipe shooting is to be had in the cool 
season, shikarries and coolies being obtainable at the rate 
of 12 annas per diem for the former and 4 annas for the 

Objects of Interest. — About 5 miles from Kulitalai is a 
place called Sivayam, noted for its temple situated on the 
top of a hill, and which can be seen from the station 
platform. There are about 1,000 steps to the top of 
the hill, and Cauvery water is carried up daily to bathe 
the god. 


MusiH, a taluq town, is situated almost exactly opposite 
to Kulitalai, on the north bank of the river Cauvery. It is 
a fair sized town and possesses an old Siva temple. 


Lalapet (pop. 992) is situated in the Kulitalai taluq of 
the Trichinopoly district, 18 miles from Karur, 29 from 
Trichinopoly Junction, and 58 from Erode Junction. The 
village, which is about 317 feet above sea-level, is on the 
south bank of the river Cauvery. 

Road Conveyance, — Single bullock-carts can be had, if 
previous notice be given, the fare being one anna per mile. 

Local Manufactures ami Products. — Weaving is carried 
on, country cloth being manufactured, and paddy and plan- 
tains are the chief produce. 

Local 0/ficiaL — The Village Munsiff. 


Katalal (pop. 2,110) is situated in the Kulitalai taluq of 
the Trichinopoly district, 11 miles from Karur, 36 from 
Trichinopoly Junction, and 51 from Erode Junction. The 
village is 346 feet above sea-level. 

Local Accommodation. — Close to the station is a chuttram, 
where Hindus of all classes, except Pariahs, can find free 
lodging, but they must make their own arrangements for 
food, besides this, there are three hotels in the village, 
where meals are served at 2 J annas each. 

Road Conveyance, — Single bullock-carts are usually avail- 
able at the station, the fare being one anna per mile. 
Should a cart be engaged for the whole day, however, a 
charge of one rupee is made for that period. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The chief products 
are paddy, plantains, cocoanuts and firewood. 

[jocal Official, — The Village Munsiff. 

Fairs, — A fair is held every Monday. 


Sport. — During the cold season there is vory good snipe 
shooting, and coolies can be hired at 6 annas each per diem. 


PuUyur (pop. 2,762) is situated in the Karur taluq of the 
Coimbatore district, 5 miles from Karur, 42 from Trichi- 
nopoly Junction, and 45 from Erode Junction. The village 
is about one mile west of the station. 

Local Manufactures ami Products. — Dry grains are the 
chief produce. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Sunday. 

Sport. — During the cold season there is good snipe 
shooting about half a mile from the station, and coolies can 
be had at 4 annas each per diem. 


Karur (lat. 10^58' ; long. 78K)7' ; height 391 feet ; pop. 
10,750), the Karoora of Ptolemy, is situated in the Karur 
taluq of the Coimbatore district, on the left bank of the 
Amaravati near its confluence with the Cauvery. It is a 
place of great antiquity and during the struggle among 
theChera, Chola and Pandiya dynasties, frequently changed 
hands. These troublous times were finally ended in 1790, 
when the British captured and dismantled the stone-built 
fort. Karur possesses considerable sanctity, being one of 
the seven sacred Sthalams or Sivalayams of the Kongu 
country. Its principal temple is dedicated to Pasu Pathis- 
wara Swami (Siva) and is a large edifice, the walls of which 
are covered with inscriptions. The lingam is 5 feet high 
and is noted for a mark on it, the origin of which is explained 
as follows : — A cow originally discovered the lingam 
buried in the earth, and, being piously inchned, bathed it 
with milk. The owner of the cow discovering the animal, 
but not recognizing the holy act in which it was engaged, 
struck it a heavy blow, when the hoof of the startled 
animal coming in contact with the lingam, caused the mark 

40 miles. 






























in question. Many Eoman coins have been found in Kanir. 
The following are the distances to the most important 
stations on the South Indian Railway : — 

Erode Junction (for Madras Railway) 

Trichinopoly Junction 

Ammayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) 

Madura . . 



Tanjore Junction ( for Negapatam) 

Negapatam . . . . . • 

Villupuram Junction 

Ghingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram) 

Madras (Egmore) 

Katpadi Junction (for Madras Railway) . . 

Pakala Junction 

Dharmavaram Junction (for S. M. Railway) 

Gudur Junction (for East Coast Railway) . . 

Loral Accommodation, — About half a mile south-west of 
the station is a P. W. D. rest-house, which, when not occu- 
pied by the Officers of that Department, may be used by 
European travellers, on application to the Executive Engi- 
neer. This bungalow contains two rooms, which are prac- 
tically unfurnished, and has neither crockery nor a cook. 
The charge for the use of the building is 8 annas per diem! 
for each person. In the town are two chuttrams, where 
Hindus of all classes, except Pariahs, can obtain free lodg- 
ing, but must make their own arrangements for food. 
Besides these, there are about 10 native hotels, where food 
is served to aU classes at from 2 to 2^ annas per meal. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
procurable at the station, the fares being 3 annas and 
IJ annas per mile respectively. 

Railway FaciUties, — Waiting accommodation is provided 
at the station for first and second class passengers. A pri- 
vate room is also reserved for the use of Railway Officers. 

Local Afannfacfures and Products, — The chief products 
are chillies and dry grains. For ** Local Manufactures," 
see the paragraph under the head of ** Missions/* 


Local OJie/ah. — The Tahsildar, District Munsiff, Sta- 
tionary Sub-Magistrate, two Sub-Eegistrars, Apothecary, 
Local Fund Supervisor, P. W. D. Overseer, and Police 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Saturday. In 
March and April annually a festival is held in the Pasu 
Pathiswara Swami temple, which draws a large number of 

Missions, Churches, etc. — Karur is one of the four chief 
stations of the Wesleyan Mission in the southern parts of 
the Madras Presidency. The Mission here was started 
about 1870 by the Eev. Henry Little, and, during the famine 
of 1877, a large orphanage was established, out of which 
has developed the present extensive Industrial School which 
employs about 100 men and boys and teaches carpentry, 
cabinet-making, smithing, weaving and rattan work. It is 
the largest establishment of the class in the Presidency, edu- 
cates boys for the most advanced Government examina- 
tions, and is well worth a visit. The beautiful new churieh 
built of brick which stands close by is almost entirely 
the product of the school, which has also supplied the 
woodwork for the new cutchery on the West Eoad. Spe- 
cimens of fine cabinet-making and wood-carving, as well 
as choice rattan work and woven goods, may be seen and 
purchased at the sale room. The Christian community 
connected with this Mission, which also has 4 girls' schools 
in the town, numbers about 500. On the north bank of 
the river Amaravati, about three-quarters of a mile from 
the station, is a Eoman Catholic Church. 

Cluhs. — A very nice little building is situated in the town 
about half a mile from the station called the ** Diamond 
Jubilee Eeading Eoom.*' It was partly constructed in 1887 
and added to in 1897. 

Historical. — In 1736, Chanda Sahib besieged Karur un- 
successfully. In 1760, it was captured by the English 
after a short siege, and held by a British garrison for 8 years, 


when it was taken by Hyder Ali, to whom its possession 
was confinned by treaty in 17G9. In 1788, Colonel Lang 
held the fort for a few months, and 7 years later, it was a 
third time captured (by General Meadows) and again 
restored in 1792. At the close of the Second Mysore War 
in 1799, it was finally ceded to the English and was aban- 
doned as a military station in 1801. 

Objects of Interest. — An obelisk, 3 miles from the station, 
which bears the following inscription : — 

This obelisk commemorates the siege of the fort of Caroor 
and its evacuation on the 2nd April 1788, during which 
operations, there was sustained a loss of 1 officer Lieutenant 
Stanely, 102 regiment, killed 19 Europeans, 30 sepoys 
killed and wounded. 

A small cemetery, which contains the tombs of the British 
soldiers who died at Karur on their way to Trichinopoly, is 
situated in the town near the Weflleyan Mission buildings. 

The Siva temple described abovo. 

The new cutchery. 

The hospital. 

At Tluxnthom, about IJ miles from Karur, on a small hill, 
is a Vishnu temple, one of the 108 Tirupatis in Southern 
India. Pilgrims who are unable to go to Tirumalai often 
resort to this shrine, treating it as equivalent to Tirupati. 
There is, however, nothing much to see at the temple. 


Pugalur (pop. 4,757) is situated in the Karur taluq of the 
Coimbatore district, 31 miles from Erode Junction, 9 from 
Karur, and 56 from Trichinopoly Junction. The village, 
which is about 2 miles north of the station, is 504 feet 
above sea-level. 

Local Accommodation. — Hindu travellers of all classes, 
except Pariahs, can find free lodging in two chuttrams in 
the village, but must make their own arrangements for 


food. There are also 5 hotels, where meals are served at 
from 2^ to 8 annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — If previous notice is given, jutkas and 
bullock-carts can be obtained at the station, the fares being 
2 annas and 1 J annas per mile, respectively, with a mini- 
mum charge of 4 annas for a jutka and 2 annas for a 

Local Manufa^turen and Products. — The chief products 
are paddy and dry grains. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs. — A fair is held every Thursday. 

OhjecU of Interest. — About two miles, north of the station, 
on a small hill, close to the Cauvery, is an ancient Siva 
temple, to which a large number of pilgrims go for the 
monthly ** Kirthigai " festival. 


Noyal is situated in the Coimbatore district, and is 
25 miles from Erode, a terminal station, and 15 miles 
from Karur. 

Local Accommodation. — There are neither choultries nor 
hotels at this place, but there is a P. W. D. rest-house 
within half a mile of the station available for travellers at 
a charge of 8 annas per diem. The rest-house is very 
poorly furnished. It has only 2 tables, 2 chairs and a 
wash-hand stand, but no crockery. It can conveniently 
accommodate 2 persons, and tliere is no cook. 

Provisions are not procurable, and persons intending to 
halt at the place will have to bring their own cook and 

Road Conveyance. — Only common carts are procurable, 
for which the charge is 2 annas per mile. 

Fairs and Festivals. — No fairs, but there is a temple 
named ** Sellandiammankoil *' about 100 yards from the 
station, where a feast is held everv vear in the month of 
March, and to wliich about two or three thousand people 



Kodinnudi (pop. 4,020) is situated in the Erode taluq of 
the Coimbatore district, 2S miles from Erode Jmiction, 17 
from Karur, and 64 from Trichinopoly Junction. The 
village is 480 feet above sea-level. 

Local Accommodatidn. — The nearest travellers' bungalow 
is 3 miles away close to Unjalur station, under which it is 
described. There is a chuttram for Brahmans close to 
Kodmnudi station, where free accommodation and meals 
are given. For other classes of natives, a hotel in the 
village supplies meals at 2^ annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — If previous notice is given, bullock- 
carts can be had at the station, the fare being 2 annas per 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are paddy and ragi. 

Local Officials, — The Sub-Kegistrar, Hospital Assistant, 
and Salt and Abkari Sub-Inspector. 

E^airs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Monday, which 
is much frequented by grain merchants. 

Objects of Literest. — On the banks of the Cauvery is an 
ancient and well sculptured Siva temple, at which a car 
festival is held during Chittrai (April and May). Large 
number of pilgrims attend from all parts of the district. 


Unjalur (pop. 4,399) is situated in the Erode taluq of the 
Coimbatore district, 19J miles from Erode Junction, 21J 
from Karur, and 68 from Trichinopoly Junction. The 
village is 440 feet above sea-level. 

Local Accommodation. — About a mile, north of the sta- 
tion, on the right bank of the river Cauvery, is a rest-house 
maintained by the P. W. D., which, when not in use by the 
Officers of that Department, may be occupied by European 
travellers on application to the Executive Engineer. This 
bungalow can accommodate 2 persons at one time, but is 


practically unfurnished, and has no cook. Eight annas per 
diem is charged to each person who occupies it. Close to 
the station is a well endowed chuttrain, where high caste 
native travellers are provided with meals free. Besides 
the above, there are two hotels near the station, where 
natives of all classes can obtain meals at 2^ annas per 

Road Conveyance. — If previous notice is given, bullock- 
carts can be obtained at the station, the fare being *2 annas 
per mile. 

Local Manufactures and ProducU. — The chief products 
are paddy and dry grains. 

Local Official. — The Village Munsiflf. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Tuesday. 

About 3 miles west of the station, on the Karur-Erode road, 
at the village of Kolanalli, is a small modem temple of 
Kottai Mariamman, which is now in great repute amongst 
the ryots of this and the neighbouring taluqs ; great 
numbers of fowls are sacrificed every Tuesday, and at the 
annual festival on the full moon of Masi (February and 
March) a large number of sheep and buffalo calves (male) 
besides fowls innumerable are sacrificed by ryots to bring 
good luck in the coming year, or in satisfaction of vows 
made in the past year. The fame of the temple is due to 
an alleged miracle upon the person of a blind man, a few^ 
years ago to whom the goddess is said to have appeared 
and restored sight. 


Pa.sur (pop. 1,335) is situated in the Erode taluq of the 
Coimbatore district, 11 J miles from Erode Junction, 29 from 
Karur, and 7() from Trichinopoly Junction. The village, 
which is half a mile east of the station, is 497 feet above 

Local Manufactures and Products. — The chief products 
are paddy and dry grains. 

Local Official. — The Village MunsiU". 



Chavadipaktiyam (pop. 250) is situated in the Erode taluq 
of the Coimbatore district, 6^ miles from Erode Junction, 
38i from Karur, and 81 from Trichinopoly Junction. The 
village is about a mile south-east of the station. 

Local Accomvwdaiion. — Native travellers of all classes, 
except Pariahs, can obtain free lodging at a choultry close 
to the station, but must make their own arrangements 
for food. 

Road Gonvf.yauce. — If previous notice is given, bullock- 
carts can be obtained, the fare being 2 annas per mile. 

Local Manufactures and Products, — The products are 
ragi, paddy and saffron. 

Fairs, — A fair is held every Wednesday about two miles 
from the station. 


Erodii (lat. 11^20' ; long. 77°46' ; height 543 feet ; pop. 
12,339) is a municipal town, situated in a taluq of the same 
name in the Coimbatore district. The town, which is 
surrounded by paddy-fields, plantain and betel-nut gardens, 
has a very fertile and refreshing appearance, the country 
about here being irrigated by the Kalingarayan channel 
which runs close to the station. This channel, which takes 
off from the Bhavani river, is said to be of great antiquity 
and to have been constructed many hundreds of years 
8'go by a Hindu prince named Kalingarayan. The river 
Cauvery also runs through Erode, which is situated on the 
south bank of it. The station is the terminal station of 
the Trichinopoly-Erode branch and a Junction with the 
Madras Kailway. Passengers for Madras, Bangalore, 
Salem, Mettupalaiyam and Calicut change here. The 
following are the distances to the most important stations 
on the South Indian Eailway : — 

Trichinopoly Junction .. .. .. 88 miles. 

Ammayiiuayakauur (for Koilaikanal) . . . . 159 ,, 

Madura . . • • • • • • . . 184 ,, 


Tuticorin . . . . . . 282 mi lea. 

Tinnevelly . . . . . . . . 282 

Tanjore Junction . . . . . . . . 119 

Negapatam . . . . . . . . 167 

Villupurara Junction . . . . . . 288 

Vellore . . . . . . . . . . 331 

Pakala Junction .. .. .. .. 376 

Chingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram) . . . . 836 

Madras (Egmore) . . . . . . . . 331 

Local Accommodation. — About three-quarters of a mile 
from the station is a P. W. D. bungalow, which can accom- 
modate two persons, but is unfurnished. No charge is made 
for its occupation. Native travellers can find free accom- 
modation in 3 chuttrams in the town, but must make their 
own arrangements for food. Besides these, there are 
some 17 native hotels, where meals are served at from 2J to 
3 annas each. 

Road Conveyance. — Jutkas and bullock-carts are usually 
procurable at the station, the fares being 2 annas and 1 J 
annas per mile respectiveI5^ 

Railway Facilities. — Waiting accommodation is provided 
at both the South Indian and Madras Railway Stations for 
first and second class passengers. In the Madras Railway 
building there is also a refreshment room (for Tariff, see 
their Guide) and (upstairs) two airy and comfortable rooms 
furnished for sleeping. Four persons can be accommodated 
in these sleeping rooms at one time, and, as they are let in 
the order of application, timely notice should be sent to 
the Madras Railway station master. The charges for these 
rooms, which include cold water baths, are : — 

Each Child of 12 
years and under. 
R». A. p. us. A. p. 

Not exceeding 3 hours ..080 040 

Exceeding 3 hours and not ex- 
ceeding 24 hours ..100 080 

Local Manufactures and Prodiuits.— The chief products 
are paddy, saffron, plantains, chillies, betel-leaves and 

Each Adult. 


Local Officials, — The Sub-Collector, Municipal Chairman, 
Tahsildar, Sub-Magistrate, District MunsilSF, Sub-Eegistrar, 
Assistant Superintendent of Police, Assistant Engineer, 
P. W. D., and the Apothecary. 

Fairs and Festivah, — A fair is held every Thursday. A 
bathing festival in the river Cauvery takes place in October 
and November annually which draws a large number of 

Missions and Churches, — The London Mission has a 
chapel near the station and the Roman Catholics a church 
in the centre of the town at which there is a European 

Clubs. — In the town is a reading room and small library 
maintained by natives, also a tennis court. 

HistoricaL — In the time of Hyder Ali, this town con- 
tained about 8,000 houses with a population of 15,000 ; 
but in consequence of successive Mahratta, Mysore and 
British invasions, it eventually became almost deserted and 
fell into ruins. Until 1667 it formed part of the Madura 
Kingdom, but in that year was captured by Dodda Deo Rajah 
of Mysore. In 1768 it was taken and lost by the British, 
and 22 years later, finally recaptured. As soon as the treaty 
of peace was signed, the people returned to a place with so 
many advantages in position and fertility, and within a 
year, it had 400 houses and a population of over 2,000. 
The garrison was withdrawn in 1807 and the ruined fort 
levelled as a relief work during the famine of 1877, the 
space enclosed within the ramparts having long before 
been occupied by cotton presses and saltpetre warehouses. 

Ohjecfs ff Inferesf. — Tw'o old temples with inscriptions, 
one dedicated to Siva and the other to Vishnu. 

Bhavani (pop. 7,341), situated at the confluence of the 
Cauvery and Bhavani rivers, 8 miles north-east of Erode, 
contains a well sculptured Siva temple. It is related that 
4 Asuras (giants) attempted to steal a vessel of nectar 
(Amirtham) presented by Vishnu to a devout Rishi. He 


thereupon prayed to Vishnu, when Kalis were sent to 
his assistance, who slew the Asuras and undertook the 
guarding of the nectar, which afterwards was found to 
be solid and was at once worshipped as the ** Amirtha 
Lingain." Several Kishis are said to have attained 
salvation after bathing at the confluence of the Bhavani 
and Cauvery rivers and consequently numbers of pilgrims 
now patronize the place. There is a thriving industry in 
the manufacture of cotton and woollen rugs at this town. 



Gangnikondan (pop 2,971) is situated in the Tinnevelly 
taluq of the Tinnevelly district, 9 miles from Maniyachi 
Junction, 9 miles from Tinnevelly, and 434 from Madras 
(Egmore). The village is about two miles north of the 

Local Accommodntim. — Native travellers of all classes 
can find free lodging in a chuttram in the village, where, 
however, they must make their own arrangements for food. 
Besides this there are native hotels at which meals are 
served at from 2J to 3 annas each. 

Road (-onveyance, — Bullock-carts are usually procurable 
at the station, the fare being Ih annas per mile, 

Loral Manufactures and Prmhu'ls. — Cotton, paddy, cho- 
lum, and senna are the chief produce. 

Fairs and FesHvaU. — An annual festival takes place in 
April, and during the time this is celebrated, a cattle fair 
is held. 

Ohjects of hiietesi. — The large ancient Siva temple on 
the banks of the river Chittranadi, which is richly sculp- 
tured and contains several inscriptions. 




Tinnevelly (lat. 8^44' ; long 77°44' ; height 213 feet ; pop. 
24,768), on the left bank of the Tambrapumi, is the largest 
town in the district of the same name, and the terminal 
station of the Tinnevelly Branch of the South Indian 
Kailway. The administrative head-quarters of the district 
are at Palamcotta on the right bank of the same river about 
2 miles distant, the two places being connected by a bridge 
of eleven arches of 66 feet span each, which was erected 
by the Naib Sheristadar, Soluchenam Mudeliar. Close to 
the bridge is a column erected by the East India Company 
to commemmorate this public-spirited act. The following 
are the distances to the principal stations on the South 
Indian Railway :— 

Maniyachi Junction 

Tuticorin • . 

Madura • • • • 

Ammayanayakanur (for Kodaikanal) 

Trichinopoly Junction (for Erode) 

Tanjore Junction (for Negapatam) 

Mayavaram Junction 

ViUupuram Junction 

Ghingleput Junction (for Conjeeveram) . . 

Madras (Egmore) . . 

Pakala Junction 

Gudur Junction (for East Coast Railway) . . 

Dharmavaram Junction (for S. M. Kailway) 

Local Accommodation, — About 2 miles from the railway 
station (at Palamcotta) is a travellers* bungalow which is 
furnished and can accommodate 3 persons at one time. 
A butler is in charge, who can supply meals if required, but 
the traveller must provide his own wines and spirits. The 
charge for the use of this bungalow is one rupee for each 
person per diem. Hindu travellers of all classes can 
obtain free lodging for 3 days in a chuttram close to the 
station, and not far from this is a similar chuttram for 
Muhamedans. Besides these are many native hotels, 
where meals are served at from 2^ to 3 annas each. 

. . 18 miles. 

.. 86 

.. 99 

.. 124 

.. 195 

.. 226 

.. 269 

.. 845 

.. 409 

.. 448 

.. 488 

.. 667 

.. 626 


Road Conveyance. — Jutkas, bullock-coaches and ordinary 
bullock-carts are always procurable at the station, the 
fares being : — 

BS. A. p. 

Jutkas to Tinnevelly or Palamcotta . . ..040 

Bullock-coaches . . . . . . ..100 

Ordinary bullock-carts . . . . ..030 

If these vehicles are hired by the mile, the charge is : — 

Jutkas . . . . . . . . . . 8 annas. 

Ordinary bullock-carts , . . . . . 2 „ 

A transit goes daily to Trivandrum. The United Transit 
Company supply special vehicles forthis journey, if required, 
the charge being : — 

BS. A. p. 
Spring buUock-cart . . . . . . . . 15 4 

Ordinary bullock-cart . . . . . . 12 4 

Eailway Facilities, — Public waiting accommodation is 
provided at the station for ladies and gentlemen, and also 
a private room for the use of the officers of the Eailway. 

Local Manufa/^tares and Products. — Cloth is woven and 
cotton carpets are made in Melapolium, a village close to 
Tinnevelly, and metal utensils are made in Tinnevelly 
itself. The chief produce is jaggery, a large quantity of 
which is exported to the sugar factories at Nellikuppam. 
The local sugar mills also (one of which turns out as much 
as 7 tons of refined sugar per diem) are large consumers 
of jaggery. 

Fairs and Festivals. — A fair is held every Thursday. In 
July a car festival is held at the Siva temple, which attracts 
numerous pilgrims from the surrounding villages. 

Local Officials. — The Collector and District Magistrate, 
the Judge, the District Forest Officer, the Executive 
Engineer, the Local Fund Engineer, the District Sanitary 
and Medical Officer, the Superintendent of Police, Subor- 
dinate Judge, District Munsiflf, Additional Munsiflf, Deputy 
Collector and Magistrate, and Treasury Deputy Collector. 

Missions and Churches. — Tinnevelly is now the most 
Christian district in India, and it was here that St. Francis 


Xavier began his work as an apostle to the Indies. The 
converted fishermen of the coast (protected by the Portu- 
guese against Mussuhnan oppressions) were formed by 
Xavier into churches and still speak of themselves as the 
children of St. Francis. The Church Missionary Society 
and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel are also 
most successful with their mission work. The ** Sarah 
Tucker " College belonging to the former society has some 
400 pupils and several affiliated branch day and boarding 
schools, besides schools for the blind, deaf and dumb. It 
is estimated that there are about 175,000 Christians in the 
Tinnevelly district, of whom 100,000 belong to these two 
missions, the remainder being Roman Catholics. 

Clubs, — At Palamcotta there is a European Club. A 
reading room and a tennis court are maintained by promi- 
nent native gentlemen at Vannarpet. 

Historical. — During early times the history of Tinnevelly 
is practically a repetition of that of Madura. Both districts 
formed portion of the old Pandy's kingdom and both 
suffered from the Muhammedan irruption of 1310 and 
subsequently fell under the sway of Vijayanagar, and the 
Madura Nayakkas. The first Pandyan capital was at 
Koskai near the mouth of the Tambrapurni river, and was 
known to the Greeks as the seaport of Kolkoi. For 
sometime this emporium was the head-quarters of the 
pearl fisheries, but being gradually left by the sea was 
replaced by a port named Kayal, which was visited by 
Marco Polo, and in its turn deserted by the retreating sea. 
The earliest connection of the English with the district 
was due to the espousal of the cause of Nawab Mahamed 
Ali, to whom Tinnevelly and Madura belonged after the 
Nayak dynasty had been expelled by the Mussulmans. 
Tinnevelly was farmed out by the Nawab at a low rent ; 
but this generally ruined the renters partly because of 
the resistance of the Poligars, the feudal chieftains of the 
old dynasties, and partly because of the mismanagement 



and tyranny of the renters themselves. The PoHgars kept 
about 30,000 peons, a rabble of ill-armed and ill-drilled 
soldiers, which secmred their independence. Up to 1781 
the history of the district is a confused tale of anarchy and 
bloodshed. In 1756 Mahamed Yoosuf Khan was sent by the 
Nawab of Arcot to settle the two countries of Madura 
and Tinnevelly. He gave Tinnevelly in farm to a Hindu 
at Rs, 11,00,000 a year, and invested him with civil and 
criminal jurisdiction. Mahamed Yoosuf was recalled from 
the south in 1758, and the country immediately relapsed 
into its previous state of anarchy. He returned in 1759 
and undertook himself the farm of Madura and Tinnevelly. 
He ruled till 1763, but, as he could not or would not pay 
his tribute, an army was sent against him by the Nawab, 
and he was captured at Madura and hanged. In 1781 the 
Nawab of Arcot assigned the revenues of the district to 
the East India Company, whose officers then undertook 
the internal administration of affairs. In 1782, the strong- 
holds of Choccaniputty and Panjalamkurichi were reduced 
by Colonel FuUerton, who also subdued some refractory 
Poligars. However, to the end of the century, some of the 
Poligars exercised civil and criminal jurisdiction in their 
temtories. They rebelled in 1799, when the war with 
Tippoo had withdrawn our troops from the south and 
were therefore disarmed and their forts destroyed; but 
another rising took place in 1801. This was put down, 
and, in the same year, the whole Carnatic, including Tinne- 
velly, was finally ceded to the English. Since that time 
there has been no historical event worthy of notice. 

Objects of Interest.— The temple contains many inscrip- 
tions and is dedicated half to Nelliappan (Siva) and half to 
Kanthimathi (Parvati). Though not so large as the 
Madura temple, it gives a good idea of the arrangement of 
the large Dravidian temples, having been built on one plan 
at one time without subsequent alteration or change. 
There are three towers to either half, those on the east 


being the principal, and having porches outside them. 
After entering there is in front an internal porch of large 
dimensions, on the right of which is a Teppakulam (tank) 
and on the left a 1,000-pillared mantapam, a mass of 
columns ten deep and extending to 100 in length which 
runs nearly the whole breadth of the enclosure. There are 
two entrances to the temple, both on the east face. This 
temple is certainly worth a visit, for it contains a good deal 
of excellent carving and sculpture, though some of the best 
work has been spoilt by yellow wash. At both entrances 
are porches, the roof and sides of which are carved in wood, 
a most unusual practice in Dra vidian architecture. 

The Hindu ddlege, close to the Railway Station. 

The Government Industrial Institution and Normal :<chool, 
which produces some very good work in carpentry, etc. 

ITie i\ M, S, College, midway between the Railway 
station and Tinneveliy town, which has about 300 scholars 
and teaches up to the F. A. class. 

The Sarah Tucker Institution, 

The Jail at Pnlnmcottay at which weaving and carpet- 
making is done by the prisoners. The Sugar Mills, one 
owned by the East India Distilleries Company, and the 
other by the Tinneveliy Sugar Mills Company. 





Although the country through which the South Indian 
Bailway passes, lying, as it does, in a closely-populated 
region, fails to offer the same opportunities for big game 
shooting as the Madras Bailway, it is far above that line 
in the facilities which it affords for sport, in the way of 
small game, particularly snipe. To obtain to a satisfactory 
extent, however, anything but this particular description 
of bird, one must go to places beyond the range within which 
it pays the native shikari, or trapper, to kill, or catch, game 
for the European market ; but it is questionable whether 
it is always worth the trouble to go so far, as the shooting to 
be found is, chiefly, in the shape of partridges, which can 
give the French bird points in the way of running, and 
which, when tired of that, and marked, perhaps, into a bush, 
will squat there like a stone, not rise until poked out by a 
beater's pole, and then get up, generally, on the wrong side 
for the gun ; and hares, which are not much larger than a 
good sized rabbit, and which lie almost as close as the 
partridges. Now and then, one comes upon them on 
favourable ground i.e., low scrub in small and pretty thick 
clumps, with open spaces between, in fair numbers and in 
the flying, or bolting, mood, and on such occasions, pretty 
good sport is to be had; but to get it, even then, requires a 
considerable experience, which is not to be gathered by a 
brief apprenticeship of the ways of the Indian partridge, 
or hare, and the chances are, as nothing but human 
retrievers can be used, that but little of what is not shot 
dead is brought to bag. 

Duck and teal shooting is more satisfactory ; but even 
this, frequently, proves disappointing, as, after a shot or 
two, which one does not, often, get within a really reason- 


able distance, except when far out of the beat of the 
native sportsman, the birds become exceedingly wary, 
and seem to be able to fix, with an accuracy, most satis- 
factory to themselves, but quite the reverse to the gunner, 
the exact effective range of the weapon used. It does 
not matter much what one shoots with, the quarry very 
promptly learns how far it carries, and the usual result of a 
day, devoted to duck and teal, is a lot of empty cartridge cases, 
with, by no means, a corresponding number of victims. I 
recollect a friend of mine, a hot sportsman of herculean pro- 
portions and strength, who, finding himself unable, after 
the first essay, or so, to circumvent the swarms of ducks 
on a large tank, not far from the station at which he 
was quartered, invested in a huge, single, 4-bore, shoulder 
gun, which carried a cartridge like a Bologna sausage, 
and an appalling charge of shot and which had been sold 
as firing it had broken the collar bone of its owner. It 
was a success for a while, and astonished the ducks, 
upon which it was used from a small canoe, very much, 
but the range of the new weapon was soon calculated, 
and the hand cannon became as useless as the ordinary 
gun had been. Sometimes, one stumbles on satisfactory 
sport in pretty shallow, moderately sized tanks, with a 
good lot of lilies, or weed, in them, such as that at Peram- 
bair, about two miles south-west of the Acharapakam 
station, on the Une to Cuddalore. These, the cotton teal 
{Netappus coromajidelicics), which is omithologically a 
diminutive goose, loves. It is the only really stupid bird, in 
the web-foot game line, that I have ever seen, and will not, 
like the duck and true teal, which are to be found in the 
same localities, clear out for other quarters after having been 
shot at for a short time. A flock can, often, be driven back- 
wards and forwards, past the gun, or guns, by three, or four, 
knowing beaters, until a large portion of it has been 
knocked over. The bird, though small, affords, not only 
good sport, as its flight is very rapid and it turns very 


quickly, but it is, during the winter, very good eating. 
I do not think it necessary to go into a dissertation on the 
different varieties of duck and teal which are obtainable 
in Southern India. They are numerous, and some are very 
handsome. There are two, however, which, for both sport 
and food, are utterly worthless ; the Brahminy duck {Casarca 
rutila) and the whistling teal (Dendrocygna awsuree). 
There is one word of caution to be given, before quitting 
the subject of Indian wild fowl shooting, and that is, be- 
ware of tanks, in which a floating feathery weed grows. 
This is a most dangerous plant, and has been the cause of 
very numerous deaths from drowning, when bathing, or 
attempting to recover game which has fallen on its 
treacherous surface. It catches round and clings, as though 
it was some living, crawling, creature, to the limbs of the 
swimmer and, gradually enveloping him, draws him down. 
The only chance of getting out of the tangle is to turn on 
one's back and use only the arms. No sportsman should, 
unless a buoyant log, or raft of dry reeds, or bamboo, is 
used as a help, allow, under any circumstances, anyone 
with him to go, beyond his depth, into a tank, having 
in it weed of the kind described above, nor should he 
venture in himself, under like conditions, unless, on the 
emergency of trying to save life. Peafowl may be obtained 
in the jungles between Chingleput and Sadras, and near 
Tirukalikundram and Tiruporur, which are, respectively, 
12 and 19 miles to the eastward of Chingleput ; but the 
cover is, generally, very thick, and the birds are difficult 
to get out of it. The most successful method of obtaining 
them, is to ascertain their morning and evening feeding 
grounds. They come out into the open then, and may 
be picked up by lying in wait with a gun loaded with 
No. 1 or 2 shot, or a small gauge pea rifle. Shooting them 
can, hardly, be called sport, though a cock, when in full 
plumage, as he is in February and March, is a handsome 
trophy to anyone collecting birds. From the gastronomic 



point of view, the chicks, alone, are worth anything, and 
are, for table, something like an indifferent pheasant. 
During the cold season, the golden plover is, not infre- 
quently, to be found, in large flocks, on the flats near the 
sea, which are accessible from the Buckingham Canal, 
between the Adyar river and Sadras, a village 19 miles 
east of Chingleput, with a good road to it. They 
occur, too, on open, grassy ground, often at some distance 
inland. One comes across them, also, now and then, on 
paddy-fields which are being prepared for cultivation. 
They are excellent eating ; but, as a rule, very wary, and 
the only way of getting at them satisfactorily, is for the 
sportsman, when a flock is observed, to make a long 
circuit, down wind of it, if possible, walk cautiously up 
to about 150 or 200 yards, and lie down, and then for 
three, or four beaters to make a like circuit in the opposite 
direction and walk, in a half circle, towards the shooter. 
The flock will, almost always, go down wind and, if 
properly driven, can be put over the gun. A winged bird 
will, generally, bring the flock circling back, and three or 
four shots may, then be had before it finally clears out. 
It is good enough sport, whilst it lasts, as the birds fly fast 
and wheel very unexpectedly. 

The grey, and the black-breasted quail, (Cotumix com- 
munis and Coturnix coromandelica) are to be found, 
principally, in the fields of dry grain, and rice stubble in 
which a vetch, known as black gram, has been sown directly 
after the crop has been cut, and whilst the ground is 
still damp, but, as the season advances and reaping is 
pretty well over, they take to the scrub bordering on the 
cultivation. If only enough of them can be found, they 
afford nice sport, but, of late years, they seem to have dis- 
appeared, in a marked degree, from the areas anywhere 
within reach of the sportsman who cannot, or does not 
care, to go very far afield. This is, as in the case of the 
partridge and the hare, probably the result of the constant 


snaring and trapping, which, in the absence of any real 
effort on the part of Government to enforce the forest rules 
as regards close seasons and the snaring and netting of game, 
goes on, year in and year out, to supply the markets in 
Madras and the towns where there is any decent number 
of European inhabitants and which will lead, before many 
years are over, to the virtual extinction, for sporting pur- 
poses, of many of the game birds of the country. There 
is, at present, not a month in the year, during which one 
cannot go into the Madras market and buy live partridges 
and quail, and, very often, junglefowl, and this is the case, 
though the forest rules lay down that no netting, or snaring 
of these birds is permitted and make doing so, a punisha- 
ble offence. The excuse of the captors of game of this 
sort, is, that it has been taken on private lands, not under 
the Government rules ; but those who have been about the 
jungles, etc., under the care of the Forest Department, as 
much as I have, and who know anything about the native 
game-trappers arrangements, have no doubt as to the 
real truth. 

The lesser florican (Sypheotides auritus) is to be had, 
all along the shooting grounds accessible from the 
South Indian main line, for, certainly, 100 miles from 
Madras, which is the distance along that line with which 
I have a more, or less, personal shooting acquaintance. 
The bird is, decidedly, rare anywhere near the rail- 
way, and shooting one is quite an event. It is, however, 
stumbled upon sometimes, in the most unexpected way, 
and in the most unexpected places. I have killed the 
florican along the railway line — chiefly about Chingleput, 
in the neighbourhood of which I have shot more con- 
stantly than elsewhere — in pretty high jungle (when look- 
ing for partridges and hares) in ripe paddy, in raggi 
stubble, in the grass at the head of tanks, in raggi and in 
varagu fields, in the long grass in young topes of trees and 
even in a damp, growing, paddy field. The Tamil name of 


the bird is " Yaragu k61i ** (the varagu fowl) and it is so 
called because it is, most frequently, found in fields of 
this description of crop, which is a coarse millet, growing 
usually, not very thickly and about knee high, on unirri- 
gated lands. It lies, generally, very close and is apt to startle 
the shooter, when flushed near him, as it springs up 
suddenly and goes off with a peculiar, short, sharp, flap of 
the wings, which gives it the appearance of flying much 
faster than it really is. The result is, not infrequently, 
especially when the bird, which is about the size of a hen 
pheasant, is seen for the first time, a miss. It is, however, 
very easily dropped, even with No. 8 shot, as the skin is 
very thin, and the bones peculiarly fragile. As a bird for 
the table, it is one of the best in India, and that is saying a 
good deal: this, its beautiful plumage, and game appear- 
ance, and its comparative rarity in places within the reach 
of civilization, render it a prize which most sportsmen 
will take a good deal of trouble to obtain, though, from 
the shooting point of view, alone, it is not of much 

The usual way of getting a florican up, when marked 
down, as it, very frequently, is beforehand by one's shikari, 
or one of his assistants, is with a line of beaters, as in 
ordinary snipe shooting, but a very good way to make sure 
of flushing the bird, is to have a long light rope along which 
are fastened, at intervals of about 6 inches, narrow strips, 
about half an inch wide and 18 inches long, of the inner, 
blanched, young leaves of the palmyra palm. This 
trailed between a couple of men, walking parallel to each 
other, over anything in the grass, or crop line, will very 
seldom faU to bring out any florican that may be in it. 

There is a bird which is sometimes palmed oflf, on the 
unknowing, as a florican. It is the golden-eyed plover, or 
thick-knee. It is often called the bastard florican, but is 
not found in the same class of country as the true florican. 
It is something like the real bird, at first sight, and I have 


more than once been put on to one, in my salad days, on 
the representation that it was a florican, but anyone who 
has even only a smattering of ornithology, would at once 
be able to detect the imposition. It, however, not infre- 
quently, does duty at Madras dinner tables as a florican, 
as sandpipers do for snipe. 

I have now mentioned all, save one, of the chief varieties 
of game available along so much of the South Indian line, 
as is within my ken as a sportsman. That one, though 
last, is not by any means the least, for it is the snipe — the 
bird which, wherever there is ground suited to it, is, in 
the pleasanter part of the year, to be found all over the 
Balmy East in varying quantities, according to locality 
and season, and one which, though, year after year, killed 
oflf, in thousands, by everyone who shoots small game, from 
the grifif to the grey-headed oldster whose adieu to India 
is not very far oflf, and potted and snared by the hundreds of 
purveyors of game for the large towns, who make their 
living in this way, returns every cold season in apparently 
unabated numbers. Where the myriads of snipe, that we 
have, come from, is, I believe, not quite clear, but it seems 
to be agreed that they breed in the steppes to the north 
of Hindustan. 

The South Indian Eailway runs through country in 
which some of the best snipe-shooting in the Madras 
Presidency is to be had, and as I have pursued this 
amusement, pretty assiduously, from the time that I 
landed as a youngster, and am even still, though not so 
young as I was, given to it, when opportunity oflfers, 
I shall now go, as far as in me lies, into the how, when 
and where, to chase this blessing to the sporting exile, 
and give some hints connected therewith, which may be of 
use to those who have not had much experience of this 
class of shooting, though, perhaps, stale enough infor- 
mation to the many past masters in the art to be 
found in India. As what I have to say is however, not 


intended for them, I hope that they will acquit me of any 
attempt to teach my grandmother to suck eggs. 

I shall commence with a statement of the varieties of 
snipe which may be brought to bag on the plains. The 
haunts of the woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) and wood 
snipe {Gallinago nemoricola) are too far from any portion 
of the existing South Indian line, and the birds, themselves, 
are, comparatively, too few in number, in the places where 
they are found, to render it worth while saying anything 
about them. The solitary snipe [Gallinago solitaria) does 
not, I believe, occur in Southern India. This name is 
frequently, incorrectly, applied to the wood snipe, which is, 
occasionally, met with on the Nilgherries and, I believe, 

Three varieties of snipe are to be found in the plains : — 

(1). The pintail snipe (Oallinago stenura). 

(2). The common snipe (Gallinago scolopacinus). 

(3). The jack snipe (Gallinago gallinula). 

As far as I have seen, the first named of these is, by far, 
the most common. Its flight is slower than that of the 
common snipe, it, very frequently, rises without calling, 
which the common snipe never does, and it can be easily 
identified, when killed, by the dark barred lower wing- 
coverts, and six small stiff and pointed feathers in the tail, 
three on each side. Jerdon says that it is slightly smaller 
than the ordinary snipe ; but my experience — and I have 
shot some thousands — is that exactly the reverse is the case. 
Lastly, the pintail snipe is much better eating than the 
other, a fact which it is as well to bear in mind when one 
has to eat what one shoots. The common snipe, which is 
often called the **fantair' by Europeans, on account of 
the shape of its tail, which one can easily open out, like a 
fan, and which is usually known t^ the shikaries as the 
** white snipe," from its colour, as contrasted with the other, 
which is very marked when on the wing, is the same 
bird as that met with at home and, notwithstanding 
the Eastern sun, is, usually, a remarkably free mover 


and quite up to the ** Europe" standard. It is not of 
much use going out after this snipe in places where — as 
is sometimes the case — it is found, to the exclusion of 
the pintail, until certainly 9, or even 10, in the morning. 
Before that time, or on a showery day, or after heavy rain, 
or even in continuously cloudy weather, the bag where 
** white snipe " abound, will, even with good and practised 
shots, be comparatively small, and the empty cartridge 
cases and maledictions many. 

The jack snipe is, to all appearance, the same as the 
bird found at home. It is comparatively rare. The largest 
bag of it that I have shot in one day, within reach of the 
South Indian Railway, was four couple ; but I once killed, 
on the Mysore plateau, in the course of an afternoon stroll 
with the gun round a grassy tank, double that number. In 
its flight, it looks like a drunken butterfly, and, once missed, 
it is very difi&cult to get up again. When bagged, it is a 
very pretty little fellow, and, as far as eating goes, is far 
superior to its cousins. 

There is a bird which one sometimes comes across, oc- 
casionally in some numbers, especially in swampy ground 
with bushes and scrub interspersed, and which is, usually, 
called the ** painted snipe,'* omithologically known as 
Bhynchcea bengalensis, or Rhynchcea orellata. The natives 
call it the " Rajah ** (King) snipe, but it is not a snipe at 
all, though it looks something like one, and is not worth, 
either from the sportsman's, or the gastronomic point of 
view, a charge of powder and shot. The plumage is, 
however, very beautiful, though the colours are quiet. 
This bird, which is rather larger than a pintail snipe, can 
bs easily identified by its slow, lumbering flight, and by 
the ocellations, on its olive green wings, which are, on a 
very reduced scale, rather like those of the argus phea- 
sant. The pintail snipe affects the short, wiry grass and 
prickly weed to be found at the heads of many tanks, 
young paddy, particularly in the stage when it is unweeded. 


and the stubble in the rice-fields in which grass and weeds 
have grown up, and it specially loves the patches of unculti- 
vated land which one, with feelings of gratitude towards 
the lazy, or litigious native farmer, finds, not infrequently, 
in the midst of cultivation, and which are usually covered 
with short, brown, grass, ankle deep. In the early part of 
the season, it favours the stubble of the raggi (millet) 
which, during the dry season, is, in many parts of the coun- 
try, raised, in patches, on irrigated lands. The ears are cut 
off well up the plant, and the stubble, which is usually 
knee high, is left to rot. When the rain comes, the ground 
becomes thoroughly soaked, and the bird finds abundant 
food beneath the decaying straw, which, at the same 
time, aflfordsgood cover. A small patch of raggi stubble will, 
under these circumstances, often hold a swarm of snipe, all 
of the pintail variety, which lie well, do not get up ** all 
of a heap," but singly, or in couples, and afford excellent 
shooting. The sportsman should never leave an uncultivat- 
ed plot in the midst of, or partly surrounded by, cultivation, 
or a patch of raggi stubble, unexplored. Later on, when 
the crops are pretty well all cut, and the sun, towards the 
close of the season, begins to grow strong, the pintail be- 
takes itself to the neighbouring scrub, or jimgle, if any, 
and thence may be beaten out in considerable numbers. 
It is quick shooting and, though bags are not often large, 
the sport is, to my mind, the cream of snipe shooting, 
as one has to look sharp and shoot straight. The birds 
come fast and a miss means, as a rule, gone for good, 
for, generally speaking, a driven snipe, if it escapes the 
gun, clears out for some distant and ungetatable place, and 
is not at all — as is the case with the bird flushed out of 
grass, paddy, or stubble — inclined to give the shooter 
another chance. 

The common snipe, on the other hand, delights in the 
swampy fields at the head of tanks and the half-mud, half- 
water, which lies between the body of the tank and the 


grass fringing its upper margin. A special haunt is the 
head of a tank, with water just deep enough to make a 
noise when one walks along, and with tussocks of grass, etc., 
which afiford resting places for the birds, scattered about. 
It also likes recently cut paddy-fields, particularly if there is 
water in them, and then the proverbial hawk is a joke to 
it in wildness. It does not frequent raggi stubble much, nor 
is it, often, found in the short grass, with pretty nearly dry 
ground underfoot, which is the usual haunt of the pintail. 
It, however, often lies, mixed with Scolopax stenuray in 
short, young, paddy and the mixture is a nuisance, as, not 
only does the common snipe as a rule, rise wild, but its shrill 
cry starts off its more phlegmatic cousin, which would, 
otherwise, have remained where it was, until beaten up 
decently and in due order, and its rapid and twisting flight 
is apt to put the shooter off when he has it and the much 
easier target, which the pintail affords, to deal with, and 
does not know which will first offer. It is ever on the alert, 
and is often aided by the sandpipers, which are dotted 
about on every coign of vantage and which lose no oppor- 
tunity of letting their friends know that a man with a gun, 
whom they themselves do not, in the least, fear, is about. 
It appears to migrate sooner than the other variety, 
though it seems to arrive no earlier, and it seldom, if ever, 
is found in the scrub, and jungle, to which the pintail be- 
takes itself towards the close of the season, and in which I 
have seen the latter so numerous, and come out so fast and 
thick, that I have had to stop shooting to let the gun cool : 
driven, then, as I have often had them, from the steep, 
rocky, hills, clad with low jungle, which abound in the 
neighbourhood of Chingleput, they afford sport unequalled 
in the small game line by anything that I have seen in 
India, or elsewhere. Both the pin and the fantail snipe, 
begin to come in, in Southern India, about the end of 
August, and their arrival is heralded by the appearance of a 
very pretty little yellow white and brown wagtail ; but it is 



not worth while going oat for them until about the middle 
of September. The best of the shooting is from the middle 
of October to the middle of January, and, by the end of 
March, the snipe shooting may be said to be over. I have 
shot them, in the plains, in small numbers, up to the end of 
April, but they fly lazily then, and are abominably oily and 
fishy to eat. The latest date upon which I ever saw a 
snipe was the 8th May. On the Mysore plateau, however, 
the snipe are found, in considerable numbers, well into 
April. Many years ago, on the 22nd of that month, I bagged, 
not far from Oosoor with my friend the late Sir Penn 
Symons, who was shooting with a muzzle loader, 59 
couple. We killed many more, which were not recovered, 
as they fell in long ripe crop. During February and 
March — sometimes earlier, if the season is a dry one — the 
snipe take to jungle, scrub and betel gardens, and, where 
there is sugarcane, to fields of that crop, and, when driven 
out of cover of this description, afford, as has been said 
before, excellent sport, though really big bags are, then, 
never attainable. The best time for these is November. 

I shall now make some remarks regarding guns, dress, etc. 

The usual weapon is a 12-bore, which has no doubt 
sundry advantages, the chief being that ammunition for it 
can be procured everywhere and that, if one runs out 
of cartridges when shooting with a companion, one has the 
chajice of indenting upon him. It also carries a heavier 
charge than the smaller bores, and on that account is better 
for duck and teal shooting. But, to my mind, it is big to 
handle and feels clumsy. It is certainly, very appreciably, 
heavier than a small bore, if built, as every gun should be, to 
carry its largest effective charge without recoil, and the am- 
munition not only weighs more, but takes up more room. 
I prefer a 16-bore, with one barrel cylinder and the other 
modified choke. This requires straighter holding than 
a 12, but it is a lighter and handier weapon, which is a con- 
siderable advantage when one has to carry a gun about, in 


a tropical sun, pretty nearly all day. There is, practically, 
no difficulty in getting 16-bore ammunition, almost any- 
where, now-a-days. Having an ejector gun is a great pull 
in a warm corner with snipe, or when duck shooting. 

It is desirable to, always, take out, even when snipe are 
all that one expects, some No. 6, 4 or 3 shot cartridges, 
in case of coming across, as one not infrequently does in 
the most unexpected manner, duck, teal, partridges, etc. 
No. 6 shot is rather too light for ducks or hares. No. 5 is, 
perhaps, the best size to carry, in addition to No. 8 
if one does not care to be troubled with an assortment of 
cartridges with different grades of shot. The question of 
powder is a vexed one. There is, I think, but small doubt 
that a fine grained black powder combines evenness of 
shooting, with strength, to a degree not to be found in any 
smokeless powder, but there are the objections to it 
that, when a gun is fired, with black powder, rapidly, or 
in warm weather, it quickly fouls and kicks a good deal — 
sometimes very heavily — and that, in the morning and 
evening, and in damp cloudly weather, the smoke, which 
is always a nuisance, hangs so thickly that it is, occa- 
sionally, impossible to see to get in the second barrel. 
Added to this, the heavy report alarms the birds and, 
where they lie thick is, on this account, very objectionable. 
Lastly, it is, not infrequently, the cause of gun headache. 
I have never suffered from this myself, but I have known 
many who did, and severely. I have tried, in some cases 
fully, several smokeless powders and I consider that E. C. 
is the best, not only to shoot with, but for the gun. 
Cartridges charged with it remain good for a considerable 
time, and they seem to be affected by damp less than the 
others. The corrosive effect too seems to be less. 

The cartridge bag should be of good water-proof mate- 
rial, to hold 50, with a pocket which will carry a dozen or 
so cartridges, with larger sized shot. The reserve can be 
carried in a bag, which will hold a hundred, or a ** Payne 


Gallwey " bag of stiflf leather, which, if properly dressed, 
will keep out any amount of rain, which can be locked so 
as to prevent pilfering — a by no means uncommon occur- 
rence — and which will contain 150 cartridges. 

A stout, brown, water-proof canvas cover for the gun, 
tipped with leather at the muzzle, should always be carried 
in the field, as rain is not an infrequent feature of a day's 
snipe shooting, and nothing injures a gun like a thorough 
wetting. It should be made to slip on and off, easily. An 
oil rag should always be carried in a small tin, or a leather 
pouch, in order to rub the gun over as soon as the day's 
shooting is at an end. Two game carriers of some sort or 
the other, to hold twelve couple of birds each, should 
form part of the kit. I have always used the ordinary- 
Indian snipe stick, the fashion, of which is well known 
to every shikari and which I think the handiest and best ; 
as it will carry any kind of game, which the English pattern 
will not. 

As regards dress, I have in my time, tried all sorts 
of things ; thick and thin, cotton, wool and flax, and 
have come to the conclusion that the best is a suit of 
brown shikar kaki, of the kind made at the Basel Mission 
Weaving Establishment, at Calicut and Mangalore. I 
do not believe in knickerbockers and stockings, or in lea- 
ther, or water-proof canvas gaiters: the knees of the 
knickerbockers hold the moisture if one walks through 
water, or high wet grass, and stockings get heavy with water 
and chill one's legs, whilst, if one walks, as one often does, 
through spear grass, or prickly jungle, in them, the effect 
is anything but pleasant. Leather gaiters soon get sodden 
and are, then, very uncomfortable, and water-proof gaiters 
are exceedingly hot when one is out of the water and mud, 
and very cold when one is in them ; as for keeping one dry, 
they do not, excepting for a very short time. I advocate 
pantaloons fitting easily and buttoning well down below 
the swell of the calf, and gaiters made of the same materials 


as the shooting dress and lined with holland, fitting tightly 
to the leg and over the top of the boot, and fastened 
to a button, at the back of the leg, just below the bend of 
the knee. The socks are pulled up over the bottom of the 
pantaloons, and the gaiter should fit as tightly as is com- 
patible with comfort, over all. This arrangement will 
keep out spear grass and all thorns, excepting very special 
ones, will, completely, prevent mud and gravel getting 
into one*s boots and will keep one's legs and feet dry much 
longer than anything else that I know of. The foot gear 
question is one on which opinions dilGfer a good deal. My 
experience is that a stout, ordinary shooting boot, with 
plenty of nails, is, far and away, the best. If good and 
properly rubbed with dubbing, or some other like composi- 
tion, they will keep one dry in all ordinary walking ; 
stony ground does not hurt the feet, and the nails prevent 
slipping on muddy ground, or on paddy bunds. Weight is 
the general objection raised to boots, but one soon gets 
used to that, and the protection and general comfort 
which they aflford, infinitely outweigh the pound, or two, 
extra to carry, which wearing them involves. The kit which 
I have worn, for years, when shooting, has been a thick 
flannel shirt, a soft silk handkerchief for the neck, a Basel 
Mission kaki Norfolk jacket, pantaloons with gaiters, 
as described above, thick socks and stout boots. It is 
advisable to use, and I now always do, on the plains a light, 
tightly quilted, cotton pad, with tapes sewn at each angle 
which covers the shoulders completely and reaches to the 
top of the pelvis. This is tied to tapes inside the coat, cor- 
responding with those on it ; and should be allowed to hang 
fairly loose. It cannot be regarded as an absolute necessity, 
but it is a great relief in a blazing hot sun and makes 
a great difference when one has to walk all day : 
moreover, it acts as a considerable protection if one is, as 
is sometimes the case, caught, in a heavy shower, without 
umbrella, or water- proof ; the rain will very soon go 


through k4ki and a flannel ehirt, but it takes a long 
while to penetrate the cotton quilt. One thing that I 
have always worn, having picked up the wrinkle directly 
after I began to shoot in India, has been a belt of broad 
horse girthing, double the usual width and fastened by 
three small straps and buckles. This not only keeps one to- 
gether, but serves as a very great protection to the abdomi- 
nal region from the sun and chills. For a head covering, 
the safest thing to wear is a large and thick pith hat. 
The only drawback to this is that, if rain comes on, 
the pith is apt to become sodden and heavy. This can be 
obviated, to a considerable extent, by carrying a light 
water-proof cover, which can be slipped on, if there is a 
shower, or the day turns out wet. There are some men, 
with thick heads, who can wear ordinaxy hats, but it is as 
well not to try experiments, as doing so is, frequently, 
attended with serious results. Whatever is worn, the 
colour, or covering of the hat, must be brown or grey, as 
there is no bird sharper than a snipe at catching sight of 
anything white, or light coloured, and then promptly 
sheering off. A common bazaar umbrella, with a white 
cover, is a very useful adjunct to one's shooting kit. It 
is, very often, a particularly comfortable thing to have 
over one's head and face, when walking in the sim, from 
one patch of shooting ground to another, and equally so, 
if a shower, suddenly comes on. It can easily be carried 
by a beater, or one's shikari. An old light overcoat is use- 
ful too, when one sits down to tiiBBin, and there is a cold 
wind blowing. In the latter days of my shooting experi- 
ences, I took to carrying with me a small circular air 
cushion as a seat at tiffin and to put under me when 
riding in the very hard-bottomed carts of sorts, which one 
has to use very largely, when going out to distant and out- 
of-the-way spots. Like the overcoat, it is a luxury, no 
doubt, but it is one which occupies a very small space in 
the tiffin basket, on top of which the coat can easily be 


tied, and they both add very materially to one's case, espe- 
cially when the day is over, the evening air is chill, and one 
does not feel at all disposed to have the tender spots in 
one's body emphasised by the hard frame of a native cart 
or a jutka and finds one's change of clothes not so warm 
as one could wish. A flannel shirt and suit, a spare set of 
under clothing, if usually worn, socks, a pair of light shoes 
and a thick silk neckerchief, should always be taken out 
and the sportsman, as soon as he has finished shooting 
and has reached a point beyond which he knows that there 
will be no further water, mud, or rough walking to en- 
counter, should at once change into these and put on an 
overcoat. Doing this will save many an attack of fever 
and many a cold, to say nothing of the resulting comfort, 
which is very great, and which makes all the difference 
between feeling fagged and, often, shivery and appetiteless 
and being comparatively, if not quite, fresh and, veiy 
appreciably, hungry, when one gets back to dinner. 

There are one or two things more, which are neither 
heavy nor cumbrous, and which are very useful articles 
to have when shooting. One is a light water-proof, to be 
carried in the early part of the season, as one may, at that 
time of the year, start with a cloudless and gloriously fine 
morning, to find it, by midday, raining ** cats and dogs ;'* 
another article is a small, light and sharp bill-hook, for 
many a bird is lost through dropping into thorny jungle, 
or a prickly-pear bush, which could easily have been re- 
covered, if something to chop a way to it was at hand. If 
this is not carried, the sportsman should always have a 
sharp clasp knife with him, as one never knows when a 
cartridge may not jam, even with the best of guns, and the 
only way of getting rid of it is to cut a stick and push the 
offender out by thrusting this down the barrel. 

What one should eat, and what one should drink, before 
going out, and when out shooting, is another point upon 
which opinions vary very much. 


There is no doubt, I consider, that it is desirable, before 
starting out in the morning for a day's shooting, to have a 
good, solid meal, the best drink at which is unsweetened 
cocoa (Van Houten's being a particularly good one) : 
this has a very sustaining effect when taking hard 
exercise, can be prepared in a minute or two, does not re- 
quire absolutely boiling water, and can be drunk without 
milk. Whilst out, however, it is a mistake to eat meat of 
any kind. The best meal for one person is a half pound 
tin of preserved soup, of one of the thick varieties, with 
half an ordinary pound loaf of bread and, perhaps, where 
the appetite is large, a cuddy biscuit and cheese, with 
plantains, or a cold milk pudding of some sort or the other 
after it. The only drink that can safely be taken, is a 
very weak whisky, brandy, or gin, and soda water. Wine 
and beer are both, to my mind, absolutely pernicious. A 
pound tin of soup is quite enough for two persons. It 
should be diluted with half the tin full of water ; salt, 
pepper, and a little sugar, which last takes all taste of tin 
off, should be added, and the mixture then heated up to 
the verge of boiling, which can be done either in a small 
enamelled saucepan, or, what is very much better, in the very 
handy cooking tin, used by the German soldiers, which 
stows into a very small space and can be made of brass 
or aluminium. The beaters can always pick up the few 
sticks necessary to boil the soup. Whether the weather 
is warm, or cold, hot soup, fairly thick (hotch-potch is one 
of the best) polls one together in a most wonderful way, 
and the effect of it lasts for a considerable time. Whilst 
actually shooting, the best drink is, I believe, water, and 
drinking it, freely, is good, as it makes the skin act. I 
have tried pretty nearly everything, weak tea, with and 
without milk or sugar, tea, with a slice of lime in it, 
weak cocoa and weak coffee — the former of which produces 
a consuming thirst whilst the latter does not allay it — ^lime 
juice and water, lime cordial and water, and divers other 


concoctions including, once, when I knew no better, weak 
claret and water, and I have finally returned, and adhered 
to water. It is often difficult to get this good, on the spot, 
but, wherever obtained, it is always desirable to have it 
boiled before drinking. Filtered water is popularly supposed 
to be quite safe, but with the filters generally in use, this 
is, by no means, the case. The water should be procured 
from the best source available and the sportsman ' should 
make sure that, before being put into his bottle, it has been 
thoroughly boiled. He should, in this respect, take nothing 
on trust ; wherever natives have anything to do with the 
supply, boiled water means safety, and unboiled, the re- 
verse. The best bottle to use is a half gallon vulcanite 
one, with a cup of the same material fitting on top of it, 
and fastened by a strap, fixed to the back of the vessel 
and running through a slot at the bottom of the cup. This 
is secured by an eylet to a hasp in front, and the whole 
thing can thus be padlocked so as to prevent a cooly helping 
himself to a drink, when other water is not handy. The 
bottle is covered with thick felt and if this is well soak- 
ed, before starting and wetted at intervals during the day, 
the water will remain agreeably cool during the hottest 
weather. It is desirable to have a stout rattan tiffin 
basket, which, unless the sportsman is prepared, when at 
the close of the day and after he has changed, he sets to 
work to mix for himself the peg which he has been long- 
ing for, but from which he has virtuously refrained, to find 
that the whiskey has evaporated, ** God knows how,*' as 
the tiffin cooly will tell him, should be kept fastened with 
a good padlock. Ice is a very pleasant adjunct to a day's 
shooting, and if one is within, what an up-country friend 
of mine used to call " the glacial circle," it is as well to 
have it. It fully repays the cost of the extra cooly, neces- 
sary to carry it. 

Having mentioned what has occurred to me as likely 
to be of use as regards preparations for snipe shooting, 


I shall now proceed to give the outlines of a day out, say 
from Chingleput, which is the main centre from which the 
snipe shooter, residing in Madras, works. I shall then 
refer to some of the best shooting grounds in close proximity 
to the line of rail, and make less detailed mention of some 
others which are less easily workable from the railway 
itself. But, before doing so, I shall deal with an import- 
ant point with regard to obtaining sport, and that is, the 

This is the individual upon whom the sportsman must 
very largely depend, if, unless he is an old hand, he is to 
get any shooting worthy of the name, and even then, the 
bag is not likely to be always satisfactory, as it is quite on 
the cards that he may go over very good ground, which 
contains nothing, as Mr. X, or Mr. Y, has shot it a day or 
two before. He will be able to pick up a considerable 
assortment of empty cartridge cases, but only a bird or 
two, and the sole consolation — ^not at all an adequate 
one — for the empty bag, will be the knowledge that there 
were, very recently, plenty of snipe, on the ground ajad 
that his judgment, as to where he ought to have found 
them, was not wrong. As for the tyro, his chance, 
whether there are birds about or not, will always be a 
poor one, unless he has some one to show where they are. 
A shikari is, therefore, a necessity if sport is to be obtained 
anywhere near Madras. Further afield, of course, the 
sportsman, who knows the habits and haunts of snipe and 
the language of the country, can get on, but there is, 
frequently, a lot of time and temper lost looking about and 
enquiring for ground which snipe are likely to affect. All 
this is saved by keeping a shikari, who knocks about look- 
ing for birds. When he has found them, he informs his 
employer, who can then come out, be at once conducted to 
the spot and can promptly set to work. This makes 
matters pretty nearly a certainty, though not an absolute 
one, for, occasionally a ** claim" is ** jumped" either 


through ignorance, or very rarely, intentionally, by some- 
one else. 

The difficulty is to get a good shikari, for the demand is 
much larger than the supply. The really good men, whose 
word can be trusted, who will give an amazingly close 
estimate of the number of birds in a particular place, who, 
when a snipe is dropped, will mark it with accuracy, and 
who are not afraid to tell the truth about a bird which has 
** gone on," but has really not been touched, are but few 
in number and are snapped up by the leading sportsmen 
of Madras, as permanent servants. There are, however, 
some good, though not first-class men, always to be had, 
and they will show sport which would satisfy most people. 

As regards remuneration, 8 annas to an ordinary shi- 
kari, taken by the day, is ample ; a tip not amounting to 
more than Re. 1 at the outside being admissible where a 
good bag is made. If a regular shikari is employed, 
the best plan is to give him 5 or 6 rupees a month — 
certainly never more than 10 — and then pay him by results, 
not exceeding Re. 1 for every 10 couple bagged. 

We will now suppose that a permanent shikari is kept, 
that he brings, or sends, news of a find of birds, that 
Madras is the point of departure, and that Chingleput is 
the station from which the start for the shooting ground 
is to be finally made. It is desirable to go down the 
night before, if possible, as if one takes the earliest 
morning train, which is a slow one, there is considerable 
delay before breakfast at the station can be got through and 
a start made. The night train, on the other hand, takes one 
down, rapidly and comfortably, to dinner at the station 
at which, when not staying with friends, of whom I, fortu- 
nately, had, at Chingleput, a long succession of very kind 
ones, including one very well known shot and right 
good fellow, I always had my meals, which were good and 
served at any time that one wished, if ordered beforehand. 
There is a pretty fair public bungalow, not far from the 


station, which, thanks partly to my friends, and partly to my 
having rented, for two or three years, a small and handily 
situated house, I but seldom occupied. The friendless 
must use the bungalow as a halting place, but where this 
is done, it is desirable, for all commissariat matters, to go 
to the station, which is within easy reach. The sportsman 
should bring with him, besides his shooting paraphernalia 
and the materials for his tiffin, a couple of pillows and a 
rug, for not only are public bungalow pillows and blankets, 
not nice, but he will require them, next day, to ease his 
journey to and from the shooting ground. The shikari 
interviewed, beaters are ordered. Where there is only one 
gun, and the shooting does not involve any beating of 
scrub, or jungle, five men — ^four to beat and one to carry 
the tiffin — constitute, with the shikari, quite a sufficient 
number. With more than this, birds are constantly 
flushed out of range and ground uselessly disturbed. 
If ice is taken out, another cooly is required. If it is 
likely that there will be much scrub, or jungle beating, 
a couple more men, making eight at the outside, 
should be taken out, and two-thirds of the party 
should be provided with stout sticks. The day's wage, per 
cooly, is 4 annas. If one has an exceptionally good day, 
2 annas extra, each, is not money thrown away. The 
shikari and beaters having gone out early in the morning 
to the point where the sportsman has to take to riding, if 
he has sent out a horse, or walking, if he has not, he has 
breakfast at about eight, and this over, gets into what is 
known, all over the shooting country, as a jutka ; not the 
square box, on wheels, with four generally much undressed 
natives closely packed inside it, so familiar to residents in 
Madras, but a little, light, tilted cart, long enough for one 
to lie down in, and classed by courtesy and Municipal Chair- 
men as ** a spring ed vehicle.'* This is drawn by a wretched 
looking pony, which, nevertheless, can get along at an 
astonishing pace, and thinks nothing of ten miles out and 


the same back. The harness is still more disreputable 
and wretched in appearance than its wearer, and it has 
often been a mystery to me how it held together for even 
a couple of minutes. 

With pillows and the rug on top of the grass put in for 
the pony's day feed, one can be comfortable enough in this 
machine, into which the gun and other shikar impedimenta, 
are stowed. Cranky as it looks, and emitting, as it does 
during the journey, constant sounds as if its dissolution 
was imminent, it is safe enough, and, though I have used 
jutkas many scores of times on shooting trips, I have only 
once come to grief in one, and then all the damage done 
was the breaking of a gun-stock. It is on the return jour- 
ney that the air cushion comes into play, as the pony has, 
by this time, finished the grass, and the thin cotton carpet 
and the rug which, then, cover the bottom of the cart, are but 
small protection to weary bones from the endless knobs and 
projections which beset the floor of the conveyance. 

The proper hire of a jutka is, I believe, 12 annas a day. 
Be. 1 will be received, but not thankfully. I used to give 
Bs. 2, but I employed the same jutka for years and the 
driver was an expert valet, and did not care when, or where, I 
took him or how long I kept him out . Having driven between 
two and three miles, along the Conjeeveram road, to the 
eastward of Chingleput, the jutka pulls up and, is unpacked, 
and the sportsman, unless luxurious enough to bring out a 
horse, has to take to his legs for the rest of the day ; a short 
walk westward, across dry fields, brings one to the bank of 
the Pilar, which is, at this point, more than half a mile wide 
and sandy, with, in ordinary weather, a small stream or 
two running along its bed. The trudge across is nothing 
much when one is fresh, but, when returning, especially 
after a hot day, constant walking and poor sport, it is an 
undertaking to which I have, many a time, looked forward 
with anything but pleasure, even though beyond was a 
change of dry clothes, a cold drink, a smoke lounging in the 


moonlight on a rug, and a chat over the day's doings with 
one or the other of the good shooting chums, who can shoot 
with me no more. The river passed, a walk of two or three 
hundred yards brings one to the first bit of shooting ground. 
This is the bed of the K&vitandalam tank around which 
grow mixed together a short wiry grass and a soft prickly 
weed, which, when the ground is fairly damp, hold a goodly 
number of snipe. I have seen this place, in the palmy 
days when Chingleput and its neighbourhood were un- 
known to any but a very few, swarm with birds. A few 
teal are, occasionally, to be found in the tank when pretty 
full, and, as the season draws on, and the water falls, 
grey quail are often to be picked up in the grass and 
stubble inside the tank. This bit of ground shot over, 
there is, about a mile and a half to the South-west, with 
paddy fields intervening, the Vichiir tank with, again, short 
grass and weed, and a good long stretch of it, in its 
bed ; beyond and, practically adjoining it, there is, 
again, another tank (Tandiri) with yet more grass and 
weed. On this bit of water there are, very often, teal and 
sometimes duck, and I have, not infrequently, bagged a 
partridge or two in the prickly-pear and bushes which line 
a deep water channel, running along its western side. Both 
Vichilr and Tandiri are excellent grounds for snipe. A 
friend and I once, when, by some happy chance, it had not 
been disturbed for some little time, took 69 couple oflf the 
beds of the three tanks which I have mentioned, and I 
have, frequently, got over 30 couple oflf this ground by 
myself. If the sportsman has fair luck, it will be, when 
the Vichur tank bed has been beaten, time to halt for tifl&n. 
A fire is lit, the soup is prepared and eaten and an 
hour's rest in all may be put in. The Tandiri tank is then 
taken and when this has been beaten out, it is, if there 
has been a decent number of birds about, quite time to 
think of turning back. If he has had about enough, and 
the day is wearing on, the sportsman may retrace his steps, 


taking, if they are in proper order, the wet cultivation and 
grassy waste fields above the beds of the tanks which he 
has already shot over and into which a good many of the 
birds, which may have been missed, or which got away 
unshot at on the way out, will have pitched. If, however, 
he prefers to try quite fresh ground, he can, when facing 
homewards, turn either right or left-handed, taking, in the 
former case, the cultivation under the Vichiir tank, the 
fields intervening between it and the Pittapiir tank and 
shooting the bed of the latter tank, in which there is a long 
stretch of grass. Eastward of this, and not marked in the 
maps, is a small and partly ruined tank, in the bed of which I 
have bagged very many snipe. Beyond this is the river, and, 
if this route is taken, the jutka will have to be moved down 
the road, about a mile or so towards Chingleput and brought 
along a sandy little lane to the river bank. If the left-hand 
line is taken, there is, to the north and slightly east of 
Tandiri, a small and beautifully grassy little tank called 
MAmbAkum TAngal, which, almost always, abounds in snipe 
and north-east again of this is, what I think is called the 
Mulumeni tank, either the bed of, or the cultivation under, 
which — the latter for choice — can be worked through and 
this, brings one out, after a short walk, to the cultivation at the 
head of the Kavitandalam tank, in the bed of which the start 
was made in the morning. By this time, at the best season 
of the year for shooting, it will be very nearly dark : the river 
is again crossed — a weary trudge after the day's walk — the 
welcome glimmer of the lantern, which should always form 
part of the outfit for an expedition covering the whole day 
out and which the jutka-driver, if he knows his business 
properly, lights as soon as it grows dusk, is seen as soon as the 
bank is topped, the jutka is then soon reached, the shooting 
clothes are bundled off, the dry flannels, which the jehu 
should have put ready, are slipped on, and then comes the 
drink and the lounge over a cheroot, before one clambers into 
the trap and rattles, in more senses than one, back to Chingle- 


put ; a bit tired, perhaps, but, if the bag has been a gocnl 
one, in a contented frame of mind, and quite ready for a 
really hot bath, which is the best thing to prevent stiffness, 
and then dinner. 

When shooting, there are, besides observing the ordinary 
rule of not beating up wind, if it can be avoided, two points 
to attend to — 

(i) Not to allow talking, or noise, amongst the 
beaters — a practice to which they are very prone. 

(ii) Never to let a cooly run in to pick up a bird that 
is dropped ; it should be marked by one of the men and 
gathered only after the shooter has reloaded and the line 
moves on. Many a warm comer is ruined by beaters 
rushing in— a very common trick with unbroken hands— to 
pick up the first two, or three, fallen birds. 

I shall now take the line of railway down from Madras, 
as far as I know it and give some of the best places within 
easy, or pretty easy, reach of stations. I cannot pretend 
to mention every spot, as I have to write a good deal from 
memory and to indicate every ground, would be a very 
long business, even if I could recollect them all. 

It is useless to begin from any station nearer Madras 
than VandalAr. There is but one place which can be got 
at from Pallavaram, that is worth anything much, and 
that is the ground under the ChembrambAkam tank, about 
five or six miles from the station and along a good road. 
This, however, is pretty well harried by shooting men 
from the Mount and the Poonamallee Dep6t. Vandaliir, 
the next station to Pallavaram, used to be good ground, but 
of late years it has beeji very much shot over, as, when 
going out for the day from Madras, one can begin earlier 
and leave off later there, than anywhere else. 

The best ground in the neighbourhood of Vandaliir 
is in the bed of, as well as the fields under, the Maniman- 
galam tank, a large reservoir about three and a half or four 
miles west of the station, on the road to Striperumbudiir. 


To the eastward, on the road to Covelong, there is, or was, 
a very good place, about five or six miles out and about 
half to three-quarters of a mile south of the road. I have 
forgotten the name of it, but think that it is Edrani. 
The sportsman should beware of being decoyed into beat- 
ing the scrub-jungle on the way to the two spots which 
I have mentioned, for partridges and hares. There used 
to be heaps of them, but they have now been pretty well 
trapped and shot out of all this ground, and trying for them 
is mere waste of time : a bird, or two, and a stray hare 
may, now and then, be picked up, but it may be regarded 
as a piece of luck if they are. 

There used to be some very good ground under the 
Vandaliir tank, and north of it, on either side of the rail ; 
but this is so much shot over by soldiers from the Mount, 
and native shikaries who supply the game purveyors of 
Madras, that there is, now-a-days, but little use in trying 
it. There is, I believe, some very good shooting ground on 
the road to Walajabad, but I have no personal knowledge 
of it. 

No jutkas, unless one is brought from the Mount, are 
to be had at Vandalur and the ordinary country cart, 
which, at best, does about three miles an hour, is the only 
conveyance procurable there. 

Guduv&ncheri, the next station down the line and at which 
there is a good public bungalow, was, for a long while, 
the centre of the snipe shooting world of Madras, but it has 
been pretty well cut out by the superior attractions of, 
and the larger area available at, Chingleput. A marvellous 
number of birds has been taken ofif this place, year after 
year, for quite twenty years; the fields around must, 
by now, be a young lead mine. The snipe, however, never 
seem to get much wiser and still appear, every season, in con- 
siderable numbers. The ground usually shot is on both 
sides of the line, north and south of the station. There 
used to be plenty of grassy, waste land about, but, of late 


years, it has, almost entirely, been brought under cultiva- 
tion. Early in the season, however, there is a good deal 
of raggi stubble, which is, always, a pretty certain find. 
There are three or four good tanks to the south-west of 
the station ; but they are some distance off, and can be 
taken comfortably, only, when one stays for the night at 
the bungalow. The south-eastern part of the ground, past 
the station, and on the Chingleput road, is, to my mind, 
the best. There is beyond it and over a low ridge, a bit 
which used to be very good. Kondangi, a very fine piece 
of ground, off which, shooting both alone and with others, 
I have taken many a good bag, and which hes some 
seven miles south-east of the bungalow, along a cross 
country track, used to be worked from Guduvincheri, 
before Chingleput came to the fore, when it was found 
that it could be far more readily got at from there. To 
do Kondangi from Guduvincheri, one must sleep the pre- 
vious night at the latter place. As at Vandaliir, the only 
conveyances available at Guduvancheri are country carts, 
but the ordinary shooting grounds being so close at hand, 
one hardly requires them. 

The station before reaching Chingleput is Singaperumal- 
kovil. This, though a wretched little place, is an excel- 
lent centre to shoot from. 

Immediately close to the station, and to the eastward of 
it, there is notliing ; but a walk of a mile or two in that 
direction will bring one to a series of small tanks and to 
the grass and cultivation at the head of the large Chingle- 
put tank. 

This ground may be worked in three ways, vi:z., (i) either 
by shooting round from the starting point to and along the 
eastern side of the big tank, and coming out where the 
line of rail crosses the Chingleput- Sadras road, and then in 
to Chingleput, or (ii) after working the small tanks, taking 
the western side of the main tank and coming out on to 
the trunk road, below the escape weir and then shooting 


the ground below the bund and so in to Chinglepat, or 
(iii) by shooting the small tanks, working the top of the 
Ghingleput tank, and then beating the ground further 
south, and returning by that route to Singaperumalkovil 
station. Each of these lines of country will afford, if the 
season is a decent one, a full day's sport. 

On the western side and close to the railway line, is 
the large Chettipiinyam tank, the bed of which, with the 
cultivation under the tank north of it — in the waters of 
which there are often teal and duck — will, not infrequently, 
afford a day's shooting, during which one need never lose 
sight of the station. 

Some two or three miles west of the station, beyond a 
ridge of low hills and beginning at a village called, I 
believe, Kolatiir, there is some very good ground, which 
is not much worried. 

Yet another line to take, is the bed of the Chettipiinyam 
tank, and the eastern edge of the cultivation under it : the 
sportsman can then pass through a gap in the low hills 
beyond this, cross what is known as the Madavu, which 
is a wide and permanent water-course, often impassable 
in the rains, and either shoot the Ahtur ground, to the west 
of this, and strike the road on the other side of the railway, 
about a couple of miles, or so, from Ghingleput, or work, 
in a north-westerly direction, to the Villiyampakkam sta- 
tion, on the Conjeeveram line, where the afternoon train 
may be caught, or a jutka sent out beforehand from 
Ghingleput, may be met, or Ghingleput may be reached 
by going south-east, across country, as soon as one has 
got over the Madavu. There is, if the last mentioned line 
is followed, shooting pretty nearly the whole way into 
Ghingleput, and it is often good, but it makes a long day 
of it and cannot be properly done, unless one delays the 
return to Madras until next morning. 

From Ghingleput, ground, at pretty well all points of the 
compass, may be conveniently got at, if one halts for two 


nights — ^nmning down one evening by the Mail, shooting 
the next day, and returning by the first train the following 
morning. The whole of the Singapemmalkovil beats may 
be thus worked. It is impossible to indicate all the good 
grounds that there are, as they are so numerous. Taking 
spots to be reached by rail along the Chingleput-Conjee- 
veram line, Yilliyampakkam, the first station out, affords 
excellent sport on what is conmionly known as the Ahtur 
beat. This is to the north of the line, and east of the 
station there is shooting nearly the whole way down 
to Chingleput, which can easily be reached on foot. Many 
large bags have been obtained here. Another beat from 
Yilliyampakkam station is the bed of the Palltir tank, the 
ground under it, and a long, grassy, tank to the west north- 
west of Palliir. On this beat, which is a very good one 
for snipe, grey quail, often, and duck, teal and partridge, 
occasionally, are to be picked up. On the roadside, a little 
beyond the station, there is a lot of scrub-jungle and wild 
orange trees, out of which I have killed, towards the end 
of the season, many snipe, and sundry partridges ; but to 
work this jungle properly, two guns are required. 

The bed of the Yilliyampakkam tank, not far from the 
station, is very good holding ground, as are the fields 
under it. 

At Walajabad, the next station towards Conjeeveram, 
there is also a good bit which is not far from, and on 
the Chingleput side of, the station and close to the northern 
side of the line, but the best beat is under the Kattu- 
v&kam and Tenn^ri tanks, on the road from Walajabad 
to Striperumbudiir and distant some three or four miles 
from the former place. 

This, being somewhat out of the line of the ordinary run of 
snipe shooters, is not so frequently worried, as is ground 
closer to Chingleput. There is no halting place at Walaja- 
bad, and no jutkas are to be had, unless specially sent 
out from Chingleput . 


There is, I believe, a good ground, across the river, to 
the south of the station, but I have never shot it, as I 
could get plenty of sport elsewhere and this bit of country 
is diJB&cult to get at, as the river has to be crossed, going 
and returning and the shooting is a good way off. It can 
be managed by running up by rail to Walajabad and 
having a jutka sent out, in which to return to Chingleput, 
but this makes a very long day of the business. 

Walajabad is the last place on the line to which it is 
worth while to go from Chingleput. About Conjeeveram 
itself, unless one goes south, some four or five miles across 
the PilAr and another smaller river, into the North Arcot dis- 
trict, where there is a large tank at the side of the Wandi- 
wash road, the shooting is, I do not know why, poor, and there 
is nothing much to be had until one reaches Palldr, the 
last station before arriving at Arkonam, from which anyone 
wishing to shoot this ground, which is a very good one, 
but much shot over owing to its proximity to the junction 
station, should work. 

To return now to the railway line southwards from 
Chingleput. The first station, in this direction, is Kolatur. 
North and all round this, there is very good ground on 
which I have, on sundry occasions, bagged florican, both 
in grass and crop. About a mile north of the station, on 
the eastern side of the line, and close to it, is a tank called, 
I think Mosivikam, which is easily identifiable, as it 
is the only large sized one with a grassy bed in that 
neighbourhood ; in this, when the grass is in order, I have, 
more than once, spent the whole day shooting, with 
good results. But, if one does not have like luck, there is 
ample ground to occupy, for the day, a couple of guns, 
below the tank, and in the fields under the small tanks 
around it. One can easily work this beat by going down 
by the early train from Chingleput, and returning by 
the last. 

There is an excellent and extensive ground, to the east 


of the station, which is reached by going through the vil- 
lage of Kolator, walking about half a mile along a cross 
country cart road, and then striking eastwards, in which 
direction there is a chain of small tanks, about which, one 
may be pretty certain of obtaining good sport. 

On the western side of the railway, and north-west of 
the station, there is, in the Tirumani and Olakur tanks, 
very good ground. The bed of the tank (name unknown) 
nearly abreast of the station, and some little distance 
west of it, sometimes, particularly in November and De- 
cember, swarms with snipe. Some of the biggest bags, 
that I know of, have been got on the ground west of Kolatur 
station, and on it I have killed duck, teal, quail, partridges 
and occasional florican and hares, in addition to very large 
numbers of snipe. This beat cannot be fully worked by 
using the railway, alone. The best way is to take the 
early train down, shoot the ground, then work up towards 
Chingleput and have a jutka at the old race course, close 
to which the shooting ground ends. 

Beyond Kolatur, the next station from which to shoot 
is Paddlam, on the southern bank of the PAlAr. This is 
ground which I, myself, never visited much, as I had 
others which I liked better. I have shot it, occasionally, 
and have often taken the western edge of it from the 
Chingleput-MadurAntakam road. There are always birds 
to be had there in the season ; but I have never heard of 
any really good bag being shot about Pad&lam — certainly, 
nothing like what I have known taken off the Kolatur 
beats. There are rice-fields around the station, raggi 
stubble at the beginning of the season and some swampy 
grass, but one cannot get from the railway to the really 
good ground, which is considerably to the westward, and 
return to catch the train, without much more hurry than is 
compatible with either proper beating, or good shooting. 
The best way to work the ground to which I allude, is 
from Chingleput, using a jutka. Eastward of the station, 


there is some pretty good country with sundry small tanks, 
but I don't think very much of it. 

Beyond Pad&lam, is Madurantakam station. There are 
several grounds about this, which, when I first knew them, 
were very good, but which seem, of late years, though 
not much harried by the " out and back " sportsman, to 
have fallen oflf considerably. 

There are only two beats which one can shoot from the 
station, if obliged to return the same day. The one is to 
the east and the other to the west, of the line of rail. The 
former of these is about a mile and a half, or two miles, 
from the station and the path to it hes, mostly, along a 
water channel, in the bed of which one has frequently to 
walk, getting, of course, wet feet before the day's work 
begins. There is nothing to shoot on the way. The 
ground consists of a chain of three shallow tanks, the beds 
of which are, generally, more than half empty and bear a 
plentiful crop of grass and weeds, in which I have seen 
the snipe very thick. It is a very pleasant bit of shooting, 
even for two guns, and is just enough to fill up the time, 
nicely, between trains. If one has not trains to trouble 
one, there is another long, grassy tank, not far north of 
the last of the chain which I have mentioned, and beyond 
that, the Kindr tank, with a long expanse of grass ; but 
shooting these means staying for the night at the 
Karanguli public bungalow, which is two and a half miles 
north-east of the station, and a very good one. 

The other ground starts from close to the station, and 
a little south-west of it. The best part is around the 
village and old fort of Karanguli, which is a couple of 
miles further north, and across the stream rising from 
the escape weir of the Madurantakam tank : one can beat 
from the southern end, along the fields abutting the line, 
cross the stream near the railway bridge and so get on to 
the Karangiili ground, returning, after shooting that, by 
the fields along the road, back to Madur4ntakam. 


'Hiere are other good places, both east and west, but, to 
shoot them really satisfactorily, the sportsman mnst be, in 
the one case, prepared to camp ont, or, at any rate, to have 
a jutka from Chinglepnt and stay the night at the Karan- 
gtili bungalow, and, in the other, to put in two nights 

The ground to the eastward is very good indeed, but, 
practically, unknown. It is about five miles from the 
Madur&ntakam station, near the junction of the roads 
leading to Ch6yur and Chdnampett. Here, there is a large 
tank, which frequently contains, in the cold season, very 
many waterfowl, and below it there used to be, when I 
knew it, a long stretch of swampy grass, which was 
excellent holding ground. 

The beats easily accessible from the public bungalow, 
are, to begin with, the Earangtili ground, already referred 
to, taken with the beds of the Earangdli and Einar tanks 
and the fields below the latter. The others are to the 
westward and the first of these begins about three-quarters 
of a mile behind the bungalow. There is here, a small 
tank, divided only by its bund (there is no land under it), 
from the waters of the Madurdntakam tank, which is a 
fine one and never entirely dry. I have shot very many 
teal and some duck, off the small tank by hiding on the 
bund and sending a man in, on a raft of rushes, or a log 
of buoyant wood, to flush the birds, which, when making, 
as they always did, for the large tank, often afforded very 
good shots, though nothing which was not killed on the 
spot was, as a rule, gathered, as what carried on fell 
into deep, weedy water, infested by what are called out here 
alligators, though they are really crocodiles. The bed of 
the small tank, to which I have alluded, the fields under 
another above it and the bed of another small tank still 
further beyond and on the northern side of the Maduran- 
takam-Utremeriir road, will always, in an average season, 
give a very decent amount of shooting. 


Westward of the small tank, there is some very good 
ground, which forms part of the northern foreshore of the 
Madurantakam tank. I some years ago, frequently killed 
golden plover on the grass and partridges in the low jungle, 
bordering on the wet cultivation in the bed of the tank, but 
that has, probably, now been cleared off. There are sundry 
small tanks about this spot, which are all good for snipe. 
One of these is rather remarkable. I have forgotten the 
name, but the tank is easily recognized by its being full of a 
tree, like the mangrove, which flourishes in standing water, 
when not deep, but which is not often met with inland. 
An ancestor of the ryot who now holds most, if not 
all, of the lands under it, obtained, what he thought, 
was the written permission of a Collector who ruled many 
years ago, to preserve this sheet of water as an asylum for 
aquatic fowl of all sorts, and, though the document on 
which the claim is based, confers no such authority, the 
protection of the birds, has, somehow or the other, been 
very generally respected, with the result that an enormous 
quantity of cormorants, herons, cranes, and waterfowl of 
all sorts, resort to the tank, which is quite a small one, 
and are wonderfully tame. The perching birds make the 
trees in it their roosting places, and the ducks and 
teal, doze out the day on the mud and weeds on its shores. 
The manurial effect of this congeries of birds on the water 
of the tank, and, through it, on the crops below, is very 
marked, and this has probably much to do with the tenacity 
with which the ryot proprietor adheres to his alleged 
privileges. The sportsman would do well to leave this 
tank alone ; but it is, at the same time, worth while, if 
in its immediate neighbourhood, to have a look at it, as it 
is a curious sight. 

There is another good ground further south, at the head 

proper of the Madurdntakam tank, but to work right 

round this sheet of water, is a long stretch and the mud is 

deep and tenacious. There is also the channel, which feeds 


the tank, to be n^otiated, and this is, at times, of an 
uncomfortable depth. 

The next point down the hne, which may be made I 

a shooting station, is Acharap&kam. There is, here, a I 


bungalow, which was formerly a public one, but which 
can, now, only be occupied with the permission of the Local 
Fund Engineer, or the Collector of the district. It con- 
tains no furniture to speak of, and no conveniences, so any- 
one halting at it, would have to bring everything with him. 
There is, however, some very good shooting about the 
place, and the only really comfortable way of working it is 
to engage, from the Bail way Company, a shooting carriage, 
which can be detached at the station. To attempt it from 
Chingleput is out of the question, as the time between the 
down and up trains is too short. The Acharapakam tank 
is immediately alongside, and to the eastward, of the station. 
The bed of this reservoir is good ground and so is the 
long stretch of waste and cultivation below it. In the 
low scrub to the eastward of the tank, there used to be 
a good many partridges and quail, but these have, pro- 
bably, been long ago trapped. North of the station, and 
on the western side of the line, is another good beat, near 
the village of Palliapettai, where, besides snipe, a florican 
is occasionally to be found, and there used, when I knew 
it, to be, in the season, a good many grey quail. 

About a mile or so westward of the station, is the village 
of Uttamanellur, in the bed of the tank of which, the 
ground under it and the country further westward, I have 
found large numbers of birds. It is reached by going round 
the northern end of the range of hills to the westward of 
the station. I have shot along the edge of the Uttama- 
nellur ground, and then, instead of continuing to the 
westward, kept along the western foot of the hills, alluded 
to above, beating, the jungle and scrub, in a southerly 
direction, until I reached the Perambair tank, about two 
and a half to three miles south-west of the station : this, in 


the proper season, is about the best place, within reach of 
the railway, that I know in the Chingleput district for 
duck and teal. I have seen it pretty well black with them, 
but the worst of it is that it is a very weedy sheet of water 
and has a good deal of lotus in it, and this makes it diffi- 
cult, and sometimes dangerous, to retrieve birds from it. 
I used a Berthon's shooting boat, which made matters 
pretty easy. The snipe shooting at the head of the tank, 
and under it, is fair, but not so good as on other grounds 
in the neighbourhood. There is good sport to be had at 
the villages of Irumbali and Perunkdranai, to the eastward 
of the station, but this involves a rough cross-country 
walk, of some distance, and, when staying at Acharapakam, 
I very seldom went in that direction, as there was plenty 
of shooting closer at hand. 

Beyond Acharapakam, I have not shot very much. Olakiir, 
the last station in the Chingleput district, I never tried, 
and there are only two places further south to which I 
have been for sporting purposes. These are Tindivanam 
and Villupuram, both in the South Arcot district; the 
latter is the junction of the main line with the Pondicherry 
and Dharmavaram branches. I do not know the names 
of the tanks, etc., at either place, and have been only 
within a day's shooting distance on either side of the 
railway stations. At Tindivdnam, there is a very good, 
well-furnished and well-kept public bungalow, and there 
is excellent ground, on both sides of the station, and close 
at hand. That to the eastward is the better and there is, 
on the road to it, a Government reserved scrub-jungle (by 
courtesy a forest), to shoot in which, as in all other Forest 
Eeserves, an annual license, costing Es. 10, is necessary. 
In this, there are a good many partridges and hares. The 
tanksbeyond, being out of the ordinary range of the European 
or native shikari, hold, or used to, duck and teal, sufficientlj' 
unacquainted with man to allow of their being approached 
within shooting distance without very much trouble. 


At Villapuram, I shot but once, spending a couple of 
days there, in the course of which I and a shooting 
companion, saw a great quantity of birds, but, unfortu- 
nately, a cyclone was on and the weather was such that 
they would not lie, and all that we got, after much 
cowering under a bush in our waterproofs during squalls, 
much bad language, much watching of scores of snipe, 
flying sky high and much expenditure of cartridges, was a 
comparatively small bag, slain, almost entirely, by using 
the choke barrels of our guns, only. The ground, of which 
there is a huge stretch on both sides of the railway, and 
which is quite handy to the station, is ideal country for 
snipe, and, in favourable weather, and at the proper time 
of the year, viz,, November and December, there must be 
no lack of birds on it. We got a teal or two there, and if 
there had been sunshine and calm, instead of storm and 
rain, would probably have got more, as there were many 

At Villupuram, there is very good accomimodation at the 
station, and the sportsman who gives the place a trial, 
need bring only the bedding which one carries for night 
travelling on the railway, towels, his clothes and shooting 
tackle, and, perhaps, if the weather is warm, a box of ice. 
If turned out of the station rooms, on account of overstay- 
ing the time that travellers may occupy them, there is a 
good public bungalow, close at hand, to which one can 
go, coming over to the station refreshment room for meals. 

South of Villupuram, I have no knowledge of the shoot- 
ing along the line of rail, but I have heard, from sporting 
friends, that, about both Trichinopoly and Madura, it is very 
good, though, at the former place, heavy work, owing to the 
deep mud which prevails. Tanjore, I believe, is singularly 
bad anywhere near the railway, not because there are no 
birds, but because there is such an immense unbroken 
expanse of wet cultivation, that one may often walk all day 
without happening on the piece of cotmtry in which they lie. 


Having dealt with the immediate neighbourhood of 
railway stations on the southern line, as far as I am 
acquainted with them, I will now return to Chingleput and 
say more of it, as a snipe shooting centre, it being, certainly, 
far and away, the best that there is in the civihzed parts 
of Southern India. I have already mentioned several pieces 
of country around Chingleput which aflford excellent sport, 
but any account of the shooting along the South Indian 
line would be incomplete, if I did not add to the list places 
accessible by road, only, from that point. 

To the eastward there are two roads — both very good 
going for jutkas — which run together for a short distance 
and then bifurcate, the one to Tiruponir and the other to 
Sadras — places on the sea coast. About five miles along 
the Tiruponir road is the village of Eeddikuppam, and, 
beginning almost at the roadside, in the grassy bed of a 
tank, and shooting the ground south of this, one may 
either go on vid Ooragadam, until the Sadras road is 
struck at KeerapAkkam (the jutka having been sent round 
to meet one at this point), or else a circuit may be made, 
east about, after shooting a couple of miles or so south of 
Reddikuppam, and the day finished at Kon^rikuppam, a 
mile or two beyond Reddikuppam, on the way to Tiruponir. 

It is by this road that the Kondangi ground, to which 
I have already referred (page 434), can be most conveniently 
reached. The point nearest to it is KArambakam, a village 
on the roadside, just ten miles from Chingleput station and 
the nm out can be made in a little over an hour in a good 
jutka. The shooting begins about half a mile, or even less, 
north of the road and the ground is of large extent and 
very good. There is ample room and sport for a couple 
of guns here. 

South of Edrambakam, there is a good ground, running 
down to the village of MuUipdkkam, where there is a large 
tank, which, often, holds very considerable numbers of 
duck and teal ; a return may, after shooting the bed of this, 


be made by turning either left or right handed and working 
back to the road, coming out, in the one case, about a mile 
and a half beyond K&rambakam and, in the other, near 
Kon^rikuppam. This beat will carry two guns, easily, and 
partridges and quail are to be found on it. 

Along the Chingleput-Sadras road, there used to be an 
excellent ground at Nemali, a village four miles out : it is, 
however, a good deal harried, not only by shikaries for the 
local and Madras market, but by Europeans coming out 
for a short day. The best way to shoot this place is to 
begin on the northern side of the road, work the ground 
under the Nemali tank, then cross the road and go on 
down south to the S6kandi tank, the bed of which is an 
excellent bit, and large. If, when this has been finished, 
there is time for it, the ground below the tank may be 
taken, and a return be made through the scrub-jungle 
between this and the railway crossing at the old race 
course, where the jutka should be in waiting. But few 
people go to the lower part of the ground, as it can be 
worked, only, if one stays the night at Chingleput. 

About three or four miles beyond Nemali is the village 
of KeerapAkkam, of which I have previously made mention, 
but only as a terminal point. It is well worth going out 
there, shooting the ground to the north, which cannot be 
done properly if one comes across from Reddikuppam, 
when only the cream of it can be taken. Going up as far 
as Chinna Irumbedu, one can return to the starting point, 
or very close to it, vid Periya Irumb6du, Amaradapallam 
and Ooragadam. This beat is too far for the professional 
snipe slayer and he never troubles it. A couple of miles 
or so beyond Keerap&kkam, on the right hand side of the 
road, is a low hill with, on its north-eastern edge, a small 
jungle-clad gorge, leading into a hollow, which was once 
cultivated and to the bed of a small ruined tank beyond. 
Here, in years gone by, I have had, late in the season, with, 
amongst other companions, the well known " Smooth 


Bore/' many a day's exciting sport, beating the snipe out 
of the then low jungle on the hillside. It was like shooting 
miniature and very fast woodcock, and there was, at 
times, a bewildering number of birds coming out all round 
and giving one an equally bewildering variety of shots. 
There were also many peafowl in it, but, though, now and 
then, one was to be caught napping, they were not given 
to getting up until well out of range. A paternal Govern- 
ment has, since then, converted this happy hunting 
ground into a reserved forest, for the purpose of supplying 
fuel to future generations, and, though one may, by taking 
out a license, beat it and other neighbouring reserves, for 
game, the jungle has now grown up so much and the 
undergrowth is so thick, that shooting it must be well nigh 
an impossibility, as beaters cannot get through it without 
being much mauled by thorns. There are, however, some 
other spots, of which I shall speak presently, where sport, 
similar to that which I have mentioned, can still be had. 

Of the remaining two grounds to the east of the railway, 
which occur to me, the one is the entire circuit of the bed 
of the Chingleput large tank — a long walk — ^but one which 
will, often, furnish a good day. The way to work it is to 
drive out to the escape weir of the tank, close to which one 
can make a start, sending the jutka to about half a mile or 
so, beyond the railway crossing, on the Chingleput- Sadras 
road, to pick one up in the evening. The other ground is 
onewhichisof no use, until February, or March and then 
it is delightful. It lies along the rocky hills, covered with 
bushes, scrub, euphorbia, and — in the hollows — low jungle, 
which border part of the old race course and are to the south 
of it. These hillsides should be beaten by at least half a dozen 
men, armed with pretty long and stout sticks, who should, 
generally, be not more than a hundred yards up the 
hillside, the gun or guns keeping below : if there are two, 
one should be well in front, and the other about level with 
the beaters ; aU the little ravines, of which there are a good 


many, should be driven from the top, downwards. The 
proceedings are varied at times by the appearance of wild 
pigs, of which there are, owing to the conservancy of 
Government jungles by the Forest Department, a good many 
now about. A friend, out with me here, had once the chance 
of bagging a snipe with one barrel, and a pig, which turned 
out at the sound of the shot at the bird, with the other, as 
the latter ran quite close enough to him to be killed with 
a charge of No. 8. It was spoiled, however, by there 
being two pigs, which came one on either side of a bush, 
and, whilst my friend was looking out for No. 1, which was 
dashing through some thick stuff. No. 2 slipped out, an 
easy shot, close behind him and was, before he could 
turn, gone. It was very tantalising to stand as I did on 
the other side of a narrow ravine, within easy reach if I 
had had a ball cartridge, but out of the effective range of 
the shot with which my gun was loaded, and to look on at 
the ** tumash," helpless to take part in it. The best plan 
to work this beat is to go about half a mile along an old 
'* famine ** road leading to Kolatiir, which branches off from 
the race course and is, close to the hills to be driven. 
The sportsman should then arrange his line, facing towards 
Chingleput, and beat along the hill sides, following all the 
ravines, until the eastern face of the range is reached : beyond 
this is very seldom productive of much, and the best thing 
to do, unless one gets a full day, as I have more than once 
had, on the bit which I have mentioned, is to cross the line 
at the race course gate, and work the jungle and low hills 
to the east and north-east of the line, keeping south of the 
race course until the Chingleput-Sadras road is met, about 
a couple of miles or so from the station and here the jutka, 
which can easily get along the race course, should be 

To the westward of the line of rail, there are sundry 
good grounds, in addition to those which I have already 


The first of these, m order of distance, is one of use 
only late in the season and this is reached by going out 
about a quarter of a mile beyond the escape weir of the 
Chingleput tank on the road to Madras and then beat- 
ing the jungle along the base of the hills (the hill slopes, 
in this case, are of but little value) northwards, for 
about a mile and a half, or two miles. There used to be a 
good many hares in this bit, but they have, of late years, 
since it ceased to be so called ** reserved forest,** been much 
trapped, and the appearance of one now-a-days causes 
pretty well as much excitement amongst the beaters as if 
a tiger had turned out. There are still a few partridges 
and, in the season, a sprinkling of grey quail. Its merits 
as a shooting ground lie, however, in the snipe which are 
found, at times, pretty thickly along it. These give 
very good sport, as one can get, where the jungle is fairly 
high, real driving ; the beaters being put in at one end of 
the cover, and the gun or guns standing at the other. 
The birds then have plenty of time to get on pace, and, 
generally, fully avail themselves of the opportunity ; coming 
out, in addition, at all sorts of unexpected places and 
angles. If, instead of going beyond the escape weir of 
the tank, one stops short of it, and turns to the left 
through the village of KAndalur, the western face of the 
hills, to which I have just alluded, can be beaten, begin- 
ning at about quarter of a mile north of the village. There 
is ground here for about two miles, and the birds are 
generally much thicker than on the other side, but there 
being a good deal of prickly-pear and dense, scrubby, 
thorny, bush, just in the very best part of it, recovering 
one's game is often an unsatisfactory process. I, once, 
on this bit, shooting with an ejector gun and without 
moving from my original post, knocked over, certainly, not 
less than twenty-six snipe in one short drive. I picked up, 
owing to the difficult nature of the cover, only thirteen 
birds, but the like number was gathered, shortly afterwards, 


by some cow-boys and there were no doubt other birds, 
which were not recovered. I mention this to show what 
a quantity of snipe may be found on this ground in, say, 
the month of February, or the beginning of March and 
what a large proportion of those shot on it may be lost. 

During the early part of the season, there is a very good 
ground below the K&ndalur tank, in the bed of it, and in 
the waterspread of and under, another tank, about a mile 
and a half to the northward, the name of which I forget. 
The Ahtur, Villiyampakkam and other shooting grounds, to 
the right of the Chingleput-Conjeeveram road and which 
run pretty well parallel to the railway line, have, already, 
been sufficiently referred to by me elsewhere (page 436). 
On the left of the road, however, there is a beat which is 
some considerable distance out and which calls for special 
mention. This is the spot on which Captain Baring, 
A.-D.-C. to the then Governor, Lord Wenlock, bagged, in 
one day, 92 couple, which, I believe, is the record, in this 
part of the world, for a single gun. The ground is reached 
by driving out to Palaya Sivaram, a village nine miles on the 
Conjeeveram road. The place at which to alight is easily 
distinguishable by a small hill, at the roadside, on which 
there is a temple. The Pildr, which is on the other side 
of the road, has to be crossed. Beyond the river is a walk 
of quite five miles to the scene of Captain Baring's exploit ; 
there is some very fair ground on the way and a tank 
out of which one may occasionally get duck and teal, but 
there is no time to take this and the cream of the beat, 
too, in the one day, so it is better not to linger en route, 
I, unfortunately, have forgotten the names of the tanks 
and find that I made no record of these, and I am 
unable to recall them even with the aid of a map. The 
course is, however, south by west after crossing the 
PAlAr, and there is a track which commences near an old 
temple, standing on the river bank, about opposite Palaya 
Sivaram, runs through a village hard by and then on, 


until one comes to a small tank on the right hand, the 
bund of which is covered with palmyra trees. The path 
must now be left, and the bank of the tank crossed : on 
the other side of a small rise ; just beyond this, is the 
beginning of the shooting ground. It consists, mainly, of 
the beds of and areas under, two tanks, not very far apart, 
one of which is pretty large and shallow, with a fine stretch 
of grass at its head. There used to be, and was, when 
Captain Baring shot his huge bag, a long expanse of grassy, 
uncultivated land under the tanks, which swarmed with 
snipe, but of late it has been gradually brought under the 
plough, and, when I last visited the spot, some three or four 
years ago, there was, to my disgust, not much of the grass 
left : it is very possible that, by now, it has entirely disap- 
peared. However, there is plenty of other ground about 
for snipe, though not of the concentrated kind that there 
used to be. I have always found jack snipe, sometimes 
quite a number, in this beat, and grey quail are fairly 
common in the grass in the bed of the large tank, in 
January and February. 

To do this trip, with anything like comfort, one must 
make a very early start from Chingleput, and have a horse 
posted at Palaya Sivaram, to which it is best to drive out 
in a jutka. It makes a great difference to the sportsman's 
shooting, if, before beginning business, he rides, instead 
of walks, some five or six miles in the sun, and it makes 
a still greater difference in his bodily condition, when he 
gets back to the jutka, in the evening. I speak this from 
actual experience, as, upon the first occasion on which I 
followed in Captain Baring's steps, I did not know what 
the distance was and walked from the jutka to the ground 
and back, with the result that, though then as hard as 
nails, I was pretty well done up, when, at 8-30 p.m., I 
got back to Chingleput, and would have shot better and 
had a longer day if I had known what the real distance 
was and taken a horse. Another good beat on the 


Conjeeveram road, but nearer Chingleput, is reached by 
driving out about four miles, crossing the PA14r and, 
making a start near the village of Sattanjeri, working on to 
that of Kavanipakam, the tank of which is large, with a 
lot of good grass — and in places, very deep and tenacious 
mud — at the head of it, and then going on to PerunkAvani 
tank, which is an excellent bit, when the water is low 
enough. A return can be made vid the Mulam6ni tank, 
and the top of that at Kavitandalam, to the river and so 
across to the jutka, which should have been brought a 
couple of miles nearer Chingleput. Yet another beat, along 
the same road is reached, by crossing the masonry bridge, 
which spans the Madavii not far from Chingleput, on the 
Conjeeveram road and taking a lane to the left, a httle 
further on, which leads to the river on the further side of 
which, a commencement may be made in the grassy bed of 
a small ruined tank, close at hand. This having been 
worked over, either the cultivation under the Pillapiir 
tank, which is immediately to the westward, or its bed, 
according as the tank is full, or not, can be taken. 
Beyond, and still westward, is the Sidhandi tank, the bed 
of which is, usually, very good ground. This gone through, 
the fields under the Annandiir tank, which adjoins that 
of Sidhandi, but in the bed of which there is never any 
cover to speak of, can, then, be shot in two beats, one to 
the westward and the other to the eastward, and the 
sportsman, walking along the bund of the Sidhandi tank, 
can return through the cultivation and grass, mixed with 
weeds, to be found at the head of the Maiyiir tank, in the 
waterspread of which is a grassy and pretty large island, 
which, when the water is low enough to allow of one's 
getting out to it, is very well worth shooting. To do this, 
however, necessitates turning homewards as soon as the 
bed of the Sidhandi tank has been beaten, and omitting 
the Annandiir tank from the programme. Following the 
outer line of the cultivation eastward of the head of the 


Maiydr tank, there is shooting almost up to the river and 
the day ends but a short distance from the point at which 
the morning's start was made. The worst of taking this 
line, is, that one has to cross a supply channel, which is, 
at all times, pretty well waist deep and, not infrequently, 
up to one's neck. 

The beat just mentioned, may be varied by, instead of 
going on to Sidhandi after beating the bed of the Pillapiir 
tank, keeping a little north of west and taking the Sitta- 
nakavur, and the Porupandal tanks, in the low jungle around 
the escape weir of the former of which, I have often got par- 
tridges. The northern edge of the cultivation under the 
S&lav&kam tank, can then be gone through and a return 
made over the cultivation below the Annanddr and Sidhandi 
tanks, finishing up in a little, narrow, grassy tank, called 
AhturTangal, which is good and, frequently, holdsanumber 
of birds. This brings one out to the bund of the Maiyiir tank, 
along which the path to the river lies. The jutka should 
be brought from the point at which it halted in the 
morning, through Nattam, a suburb of Chingleput, and 
stationed abreast of the northern end of the Maiydr Tope 
on an old road running along, and down, the river. 

South of Chingleput, a very fair, though, perhaps, not 
full day, may, as the season draws on, be had by shooting 
round the bed of, and under a queer, circular, tank, which 
seems never to be either full, or empty, which has grass 
all round its waterspread and which lies to the left-hand 
side of the road to Madurantakam, a short distance before 
it reaches the Paldr river. In the scrubby euphorbia 
jungle above it, hares and partridges and, now and then, 
a florican, are to be found. The area under the tank is 
small, but often holds birds and, late in the season, a fair 
amount of snipe and a few quail, may be picked up out 
of the scrub along the slopes of the low hills, to the right 
of the road, looking south, on which I have, more than 
once, seen wild pig : in the bed of the tank I have often had 


very good sport, but the snipe there seem capricious in their 
comings and goings, and one can never look upon it as a 
sure find. 

Crossing the river, which can always be done in a jutka, 
unless the stream is in fresh, and turning to the right 
hand almost immediately afterwards, there is, at a distance 
of something about a mile, a very good ground, which 
consists, largely, of the fields and waste lands under the 
Maiyiir tank : beating these, in a westerly direction, for 
about a mile and a half, one can then strike southerly, and 
work out to the Chingleput-Utramerur road, there meet- 
ing the jutka, which should have come on from the river 
bank. There is shooting the whole way down to the spot 
where the jutka should be — about a mile down the Utra- 
merur road. If the sportsman has time and does not 
mind taking the chance of negotiating a channel which, 
occasionally, is unpleasantly deep, he can, instead of going 
out to the Utramerur road, turn eastwards, about half a 
mile short of it, and work out to the Chingleput-Madu- 
rantakam road, meeting the jutka upon that, a mile and a 
half or so nearer the river. 

There is, some seven miles from Chingleput, on the way 
to MadurAntakam, on the left hand side of the road and 
quite close to it, an excellent ground, at a village called 
Palayamuttur, on which I have seen the snipe in swarms. 
It can be reached, from Pad&lam, but, as I remarked when 
writing of that place (page 438) , it is ground which can be 
more easily got at from Chingleput. Starting with this, 
one can shoot for some distance south, until abreast, or 
nearly so, of a low hill, on the western side of the road, 
with a temple on it ; when the road can be crossed, and the 
ground, in a homeward direction, worked until one has bad 
enough of it, or the day closes. 

I think that I have now, though I have not by any 
means exhausted the subject, said enough regarding the 
snipe grounds of Chingleput and thereabouts. 


I thought, when I commenced this paper, that I should 
be able to say something of the shooting in other districts 
(North Axcot and Cuddapah), through which the South 
Indian Railway runs, but I was in these, long before that 
line came into existence, and on wading through sundry 
old journals, find that I but seldom noted particular places 
and that I cannot identify them, when I did. I then led 
a nomad life, my notes show only the approximate direc- 
tion in which I went out from the camping ground, or 
bungalow, at which I halted, and the bags which I then 
got, when compared with those which I killed afterwards 
in the Chingleput district, look very insignificant and 
were what I should, now, call decidedly poor. Added 
to this, my experiences go back, as regards North Arcot, 
to thirty-five years ago and, as regards Cuddapah, to 
twenty-three, and of Nellore I know nothing, except 
by repute. What I could say, therefore, would not 
be of much use now-a-days and might prove misleading, 
especially as one of the first effects of the opening-up of a 
railway, is the speedy disappearance of all non-migratory 
game, within easy reach of it, which is not specially 

There is, no doubt, good shooting to be had along the 
Nellore line; snipe are to be found, in satisfactory 
numbers, about the Trichinopoly and Madura Districts 
and, possibly, in the portion of the South Arcot District of 
which I have not knowledge, and in Tanjore, and duck and 
teal abound, in the season, in parts of the country through 
which the railway runs from Filer to Kadiri, in the 
Cuddapah District. Around Chittoor and Vellore and in 
the Chandragiri Taluk, of the North Arcot District, too, 
there used to be, when I knew them, a very fair amount 
of smaU game. 

The casual sportsman, by which term I mean, the 
visitor, or the man who does not shoot regularly and who 
wants something satisfactory when he does, had, however. 


better not attempt such places as those referred to above, 
unless he has a friend at, or near, any spot which he 
wishes to try, who shoots and who can either take him 
out, or put him, under the guidance of a competent shikari, 
on to the ground where he will find birds. He will, if he 
is wise, and desires a certainty of decent, if not always 
good sport run no risks in exploring the unknown, and 
confine himself to the country around the main line of the 
railway, which I have, in the foregoing pages, described, 
I fear, at somewhat tedious length. 

My readers will, perhaps, forgive me this, when I plead, 
as my excuse, the hope that some of them, at any rate, 
may, with the aid of what I have written, be able, when 
their snipe shooting days are over, to look back, as I now 
do, with never-failing pleasure, mingled, though it be, with 
a shsbdow of regret that such things cannot come again, 
to many a good bag killed along the South Indian line 
and to many a happy day of freedom from the worries and 
slavery of ofl&cial life, spent, often with right good sporting 
companions and hospitable friends, shooting at Chingleput, 
and places within reach of it. 

J. F. P. 


The animals to be found in the jungles of Southern 
India, which may be classed as *' big game," are — the ele- 
phant, the bison, the tiger, the panther, the leopard, and 
the bear. Wolves and hyoBnas are occasionally come across, 
but they are not, from a sportman's point of view, worth 

Elephant shooting is truly royal sport, but can. only be 
enjoyed on very rare occasions, as the killing of elephants 
is prohibited by special legislation, except in self-defence, 
or when a tusker, because of his mischievous or dangerous 
nature, has been proclaimed by the Collector of the district. 
In the latter case a reward is generally offered which goes 
a good way towards paying the expenses of the ** shoot :" 
the tusks, however, are Government property, but may be 
purchased from the District Forest Officer at the market 
rate for ivory. In regard to shooting **in self-defence,** I 
think that if one accidentally finds oneself within fifteen 
or twenty yards of a wild tusker, unless the opportunity 
for a speedy and noiseless retreat is extremely good, the 
safest course, provided one happens to be carrying a heavy 
rifle, is to kill the elephant then and there. The brain- 
shot is of course the one to try for ; there are several rules 
for finding the exact spot to fire at in an elephant's head, 
from various angles ; the simplest, perhaps, is to imagine a 
stick driven through the head, in at one ear and out at the 
other, a bullet breaking that stick at the centre, or even 
going very near to it, will be instantly fatal and the mighty 
brute will sink to the ground without a sound. If the 
1 brain has been missed and the weapon being used is a 

! 4 bore, the left barrel may be put in behind the shoulder, 

but dropping him in his tracks is then improbable, and the 



dangerous business of tracking up the wounded animal 
will have to be undertaken. To those who are ever Ukely 
to go out after elephants, I ^ould strongly recommend tlie 
purchase of that most fascinating and valuable book, the 
best book on shooting in this Presidency, so far at least as 
big game is concerned, I allude to Sanderson's ** Thirteen 
Years among the Wild Beasts of India/* 

Let us now turn to the consideration of how best to do, 
and where to go, to secure that magnificent trophy, the 
head of a solitary bull bison. 

We will suppose we are starting from Tuticorin, and 
that we wish to get into one of the best, and (I daresay it 
will appeal to the instincts of most English sportsmen if 
I add) one of the least known jungles in the Madras Presi- 
dency. Granting then that this is the idea, I would say 
take tickets for Erode junction, where bullock-carts must 
be engaged for the rest of the journey into the wild jungles 
of the Bhawani taluq in north-east Coimbatore. The hill 
ranges of the Bhawani taluq are almost uninhabited, and 
numerous herds of bison are to be found all over them. 
Perhaps, however, the best point for a sportsman, who did 
not know the ground, to make for would be the little ham- 
let called Burgoor or, as it is spelt in the maps, ** Bargor." 
This place is some forty miles from Erode, and would be 
three marches from that station ; the road goes by Bhawani 
village, and Andiyur, another small village at the foot of 
the Burgoor hills. With willing cartmen and good bullocks 
Andiyur could be reached in one day from Erode. Next 
day's march is the stiffest : it is not such a very long one. 
Only some sixteen miles from Andiyur to Tamarakarai 
Forest bungalow ; but a severe ghaut of some three thous- 
and feet has to be surmounted, the ascent begins seven 
miles out from Andiyur and it continues a steep up hill climb 
almost the whole way to Tamarakarai. Permission to use 
the Forest bungalows on the Bargur hills should be obtained 
from the District Forest Officer of Coimbatore (North), to 


whom also application must be made for shooting licenses ; 
the fee for the license is Us. 10. The distance from Ta- 
marakarai bungalow to Tattakarai bungalow is about eight 
miles, and Bargur lies half-way between the two. Bison 
are to be got in the jungles, on both sides of the road, 
throughout the whole of these eight miles, but trackers, 
or at least men who know where to find the game, must be 
got hold of ; the best men to have are the Sholagars, a few 
of these wild aboriginals live at Tattakarai, and more are 
to be found in the jungles to the north-east of that bunga- 
low. In bison shooting, there are two methods which may 
be adopted for getting within shot of the grand object of 
pursuit ; first and foremost, there is the sure and certain 
plan of tracking^ and, if the ground is fairly soft from recent 
rain, it is, in my opinion, not only the most interesting* 
but also the most certain way of approaching ; the trackers, 
if good men, should not be hustled, but should be allowed 
to pick up the tracks, and follow them, at their own pace ; 
by watching them, a sportsman (even if he does not under- 
stand their language, which is a dialect of Canarese,) can 
usually tell at once if they are getting close to the bull ; 
they become very cautious and frequently climb trees to 
look ahead. A Sholagar who knows his work will, on 
sighting the animal, stop dead and point to it, stooping 
down if the beast is very close to enable the shot to be 
fired over him. If a picked shot can be had within twenty 
or thirty yards, the neck is the best spot to put the bullet 
in. As a rule, though, the shot behind the shoulder and 
not too high should be taken. The best gun for the work 
is undoubtedly the 8 or 10 bore paradox, but an 8 bore rifle 
burning ten drams of powder is very efficient. A word 
here on the subject of stalking boots may be of value ; the 
writer has had a very long experience of tracking and 
stalking in Indian jungles, and can confidently say that 
there is nothing to beat rubber soles, the solid red rubber 
ones weai* best, but whether two or three pairs of cheap 


rubber soled tennis shoes will not prove a better investment 
than one pair of best quality is open to argument. The 
second method for getting bison can only be adopted in 
jungles where the hill tops are clear, and open, covered 
with short grass. In such cases the bison may be sighted 
and stalked as are the red deer in Scotland. This is most 
charming sport, and lucky is the man who can enjoy it, 
for it is the exception, rather than the rule, to come on bison 
in jungle of this nature. 

If, however, after a day or two of tracking such hill tops as 
I have described, or any large open stretches of short grass 
have been come across, and with fresh tracks through or 
near them, a good position should be chosen that will 
command a clear view, and at the same time be to leeward 
of the feeding ground. A very early start must be made 
next morning, for bison never stop in the open for long 
after the sun has got up. 

Tigers and panthers are fairly numerous in these hills, 
as indeed they generally are in jungles where there are 
cattle to prey upon, and Bargur is entirely a cattle-grazing 
village. The best way to get a shot at a tiger is to tie up 
baits in likely places, and sit up over the ** Kill." Great 
pains should be taken in selecting the position, so that 
when the tiger comes to feed he may not get the wind ; 
the direction in which he will probably retire, to lie up for 
the day, must be carefully studied ; and, the ** Machan " 
or platform, in a suitable tree, should invariably be pre- 
pared beforehand, so that the tiger may not be disturbed 
by the noise of cutting poles, and by (what is probably 
worse still) the stage whispers of the men employed. I am 
quite sure that if more attention wa^ paid to these points 
the shooting of tigers and panthers over ** Kills'* would 
be more frequently successful than it is. As the remarks 
which I have made apply equally where panthers and 
leopards are concerned, and as the same procedure may be 
adopted in their case, except that a bleating goat is a better 


bait for the latter, I will now turn to the consideration of 
our great friend the black bear. 

Black bear shooting is most amusing and exciting sport, 
and the spice of danger gives a zest to a pursuit which is, 
in this part of the world at any rate, second only to the 
tracking of elephants and bison. Bears are very fond of 
certain fuits, the principal ones in these jungles being the 
Neral, the Yellchi, and the Attie, I have given the Cana- 
rese names of the trees, and all jungle men know perfectly 
their fruit, when it is ripe, and where to find them. Bears 
are also very partial to the little black oblong berries of 
the bastard date bush ; in jungles where these grow, if the 
fruit should happen to be ripe, they will come down from 
their caves and fastnesses in rocky hills to feed at about 
sunset, and a shot ma}' often be obtained before it gets too 
dark. This is also the case when the Yellchi fruit is drop- 
ping : if it is at all plentiful, they will come to it quite early 
in the evening. A couple of years ago I shot three bears, 
all dropped within a radius of fifty yards. They were 
feeding on the ruddy brown berries, intent only on the 
sweet repast, so that I got up close, and had commenced 
operations with my 12 bore paradox before they dreamt 
of danger. The right barrel dropped the old she bear, and 
with the left I mortally wounded one of the two almost 
full-grown cubs. These two were close together, and, as 
luck would have it, immediately started fighting. In the 
midst of a most infernal din I reloaded, and killed them 
both. This, needless to say, was a red-letter day, but my 
good fortune did not here come to an end, for the old 
father bear still remained unaccounted for, and I killed 
him next evening within 200 yards of the same spot. 

From the sportsman's point of view, this is a most 
excellent habit that bears have, of fighting with each other, 
when one gets wounded ; it generally results in their great 
undoing, if only the man keeps cpol. Therein lies the 
only difficulty, for the scuffling that ensues, comingled 


with yells and howls, is quite enough to disturb the 
equanimity of most men. I am of opinion that they do 
not intend to fight, and that it is very rough luck on the un- 
wounded one, who, in the most kind-hearted way possible, 
has rushed up to see what is the matter with his miserable 
brother, and to comfort him. The stricken bear instantly 
goes for his comforter, attacking him ferociously. Proba- 
bly most of my readers have heard of *' a bear with a sore 
head." So far as my experience goes they are at all times 
inclined to be cross. 

And now, let us work out what is best to be done, if one 
finds oneself in a jungle, where there are tracks of bears, 
but when, alas ! there is apparently no fruit that they are 
fond of, ripe. In this event, they must be tracked to their 
caves, and, sometimes, if fresh tracks are come on early in 
the morning, especially at times when the dew is heavy, 
they can be followed so speedily that they are caught and 
encountered before reaching their retreat. Nothing is 
easier in all the dififerent branches of tracking than the 
rapid following up of a bear's trail, if he has gone away 
through grass two feet high, when there has been a heavy 
dew ; the broad dark line of grass with the dew brushed 
off shows up most distinctly against the silvery glistening 
shimmer of the herbage on either side. Even if the trail 
may lead, as it often does over sheet rock, the tell-tale line 
will usually be clearly visible in the grass on the other side 
from many yards away. 

When the tracks have not been found at a sufficiently 
early hour, in all probability our black-haired shaggy friend 
will have made good his point, and with a little skill, and 
care, may be found lying sound asleep, in a little dry 
hollow, under an overhanging rock. What a perfect 
reward for a little toil, and with what eager, though care- 
fully subdued, delight we make our preparations. At 
times, to our joy we find that, whereas we have only been 
following the track of a single animal, now, to our rapture, 


there are two, lying snugly, and peacefully slumbering. 
As often as not, however, if there are real cavee in the 
neighbourhood, the sleeping bear cannot be seen from out- 
side. In either case, the supremely important point to be 
borne in mind is that the approach must be noiseless. If 
the final drawing near has been properly done, the effect 
of a few taps by the tracker with his little axe at the back of 
the cave will be almost magical. Out rushes Bruin by the 
front entrance, — the sportsman, it is needless to remark, 
has not gone behind. By the way, an incident that hap- 
pened to myself on the Billigarungan hills, some years ago , 
leads me to warn the novice at this work not to stand in 
the path that will probably be chosen by the fleeing bear. 
On that occasion, I very nearly came off second best. 
The Shoiagar had hardly tapped the rock behind, when 
out they came, two bears, and down the path they charged, 
the very path in which I was standing. A right and left 
stopped neither of them, and the next thing I remember 
clearly was i-unning round and round a tree with a wound- 
ed bear trying to get hold of me. The other, which was 
unhurt, had fortunately for me gone straight on. For a few 
seconds, the bear had most distinctly the command of the 
situation. Had I stumbled and fallen, my chance would 
have been a poor one, as it happened, I kept cool, and 
kept my feet ; the bear was badly wounded, and presently 
made off. I reloaded and after a few minutes, greatly 
against the wishes of old Jeddiah, the Shoiagar (who had 
watched the episode from a safe place above with horror- 
stricken eyes), we followed the blood tracks, and came up 
with him within a few hundred yards, going very slow, 
and almost played out, so that I finished him off without 
further trouble. I will now, before concluding, give a 
few words of advice, which are mainly intended for the 
sportsman who knows perhaps very little of Indian big 
game shooting, and least of all of the parts I write about. 
In the first place, always write to the District Forest 

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L^ :>:=.. i^.vii. 









Main Line. 

Main Line — continued. 







Singaperumalkoil .. 








Tanjore Junction . . 






Ammayanayakanu r 
Antandavapuram . . 













Tiruvadamarudur . . 








Titte .. 


Chingleput Junction 


















Vaithisvarankoil . . 


Guindy . . 












Kille .. 


Villupurau)^ Junction 






Kolatur North 


Kolatur South 


Arkonam Branch. 





Arkonam Junction 






Madras . . 


Pallur . . 




Villiyampakkam . . 




Walajabad . . » » 






Pondioharry Branah. 

Maniyachi Junction 
Mayavaram Junction 


Kandaniangalinn . . 


Valavanur . . « , 



Villiunur . . • . 


Olakur . . 


VVVvSW^V^VW vv vv 



Yillupuram-Oudiir Baotlon* 



Agaram Sibbandi . . 










Porto Novo 


Gudur Junction 






St. Thomafi' Mount 






Kannamangalam . . 


Satur . . 






Katpadi Junction . . 


Shiyali . . 






Officer for permission to shoot. A courteous letter to this 
official will not be thrown away. Secondly, be sure to 
take enough food for servants and coolies, and metal cook- 
ing pots for them, when going into unknown jungles ; 
a fair allowance is 2 lbs. weight of rice for each man, 
per diem : and for every rupee's worth of rice, 2 annas of 
curry-stuff (salt, chillies, etc.,) should be purchased. It is 
advisable also to take a good big bundle of common tobacco, 
with which to gain the hearts of the trackers. Thirdly, 
get the topographical map of the parts you are about to 
explore, and don't forget to carry a compass. 

Lastly, one must be prepared to work hard ; a good col- 
lection of trophies is not made by a series of lucky flukes, 
but by downright hard work, and only after enduring very 
many disappointments, and recking not of blank days. 
When all is said and done, if bison and bears could be got 
without difficulty or trouble, where would the pleasure 
come in ; and, it is well worth all one's pains ; at least such 
is the opinion, formed on experience, of the writer, who 
was born and brought up in one of the most beautiful 
parts of Perthshire, and who early acquired a strong liking 
for shooting and fishing, which has ever since given a 
charm to his twenty-one years in the bamboo jungles and 
on the forest-clad hills of Southern India. 

BiLiGiRi Sholagar. 







Main Line. 







Antandavapuram . 





Chingleput Junction 





Guindy . . 



Kille . . 


Kolatur North 

Kolatnr South 




l^ladras . . 





Maniyachi Junction 

^layavaram Junction 



Olakur . . 






Porto Novo 


St. Thomas' Mount 




Shiyali . . 




Main Lw— continued. 


Si ngaperumalkoil 


Tanjore Junction 







Titte . . 









Villupuram Junction 


Arkonam Branch. 

Arkonam Junction 
Pallur . . 

Villiyampakkam . . 

Pondioherry Branch. 

Kandamangalam . . 

Yilluparam-Ondar Seotlon, 

Agaram Sibbandi 



Gudur Junction 





Katpadi Junction 









Villupuram-Oudur S^etion — 



Pakala Junction 


Polur . . 



Benigunta Junction 





Vellore . . 








Ghinna Tippa Samudram 

Chinnekuntapalli . . 


Dharmavaram Junction 

Kadiri . . 




Malaka Vemala 




Mulcu^alacheruvu . . 





Tummanamgutta .. 































Mayavaram-Mutupei Railway — 

Pandi . . 

Peralam Junction . . 







Tiruvaliur Junction 

Vettar . . 

Pepalam-Kapaikka! Railway. 




Nagore Branch. 

Adiyak kamangalam 





Mariammankovi 1 

Nagore . . 




Sikkil .. 

Erode Branch. 

Erode Junction 
Karur . . 
Katalai . . 
Lalapet . . 
Noyal . . ^ 
Pasur . . 

Tinnevelly Branch. 







ARLICK & Qo., 




EXPERTS IN :— Sugar-making and Re- 
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Our own Bottling. CASH. 


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Manufacturers of the Finest Indian Cigars and Proprietors of the 

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A dvertisements . 



Diamona IRercbanu and mounters, 

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No. 254 Diamonds, in neat claws, artistically airanged, Rs. 400. 

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No. C. 13 6 do. 3 Emeralds . ... ,, 38/- 

No. C. 14 3 do. 3 Rubies and 3 Emeralds... ,, 38/ 

No. 217 A Rs. 12. 

206 Pearl set, Rs. 16. 

Jewellery. — A large and varied selection of Gem set and plain gold 
Jewellery of the latest designs and fashion always in stock. 

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Catalogue of Jewellery and Electro-plate post free on application. 

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Bsplanade Road, Blaok Town ; Huntar'a Road, Vapery, Madraa. 


During an Epidemic, when Cholera is rife, it is not safe to wait 
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Smith's Specific for Diarrhoaa and Dysentery. 

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SMITH'S SPECIFIC is a most elegant preparation, having a yory pleasant 
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Is the most perfectly appointed B^actory in India, the most recent additions being 
a Beck's Disinfecting Apparatus through which all bottles pass before being filled, 
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A dvertisements. 

Colour IPhotographv. 


'^ n'HE passenger through India is privileged to buy photographs 
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Typical Pictures of ^<e>o 
<^^^^ Indian Natives^ 


Business Manaijcr of the *' Times of India.'' 

Jl Series of large Pictures, beautifully printed by the new Colour- 
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Just the thing to send Home. 

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Size of Volume — 10 inches x 8 inches. 

PRICE, In cloth covers, 5 rupeesi 

Presentation copy, in leather covers, ^It edges, Rs. 7-8. 

Postage 8 annas. 

*\^^^^M^^^%^ s 




ComplimeJitan/ letters have been received from H, M. 
The Qiieen- Empress, and B. RrH, The Prirtce of Wales. 

vi Advertisements. 


A Manual for the use of Persons desiring: to protect 

Inventions or register Desi^s in India. 



Sivperifiterident, Patents Office, Government of India. 

Pvio« Its. 3/8 i>«p Copy. 

Obtainable firom the Compiler, 

at No. M, Free Sohool Street, Calcutta. 


22^ Mount Road, Madras, 

[Confectioner^ Glacier, BeataurcUeur and Caterer to H. E. LORD 
ELGIN, o.r.ii.i., g.m.i.e., THE EAEL OF DUFFEBIN, Viceroys 
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Contracts taken for 




Personal attendance by arrangement. 


The Balmoral Hotel 

[Near the MADRAS CLUB] 

3^5 under ]£uropean. OyCanagenieal aad will be fouadl 
to be a perfect 3{onxe ia every sease of tae word. ,^ 
short trial v/ill coaviace you of the fact. £,iquors of the 
best Braads ia stock. 

Table Exeellent— Terms Moderate. 

Advertisements, vii 

To Travellers^ 

<:^ pbotOQcapbe of -^ 

The Ancient Temples of Madras, Madura, 
TanJore, Trichinopoly, Streerungum, etc., etc. 

Vypes of Native characters, descriptive of Indian life and Character. 


Representations de la vie et des eoutiim^s indiqeii-es. 


Bilder, welche das Leben und die Oebrauche der Eingebornep 

wahrhaftig besohreiben. 

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PHOTOGRAPHERS. Opposite Qovernnvent House. 


Engineers and Contractors, 

J/icholas <$ Qo., 


WORKS COY., Ld., Silvertown, England, 
are prepared to supply from stock all 
sorts of Electrical Apparatus and Plant 
from the smallest descriptions to the 
largest. Complete installations fitted 
up. Esimates on application. 

viii Advertisements. 

Hn XHeetul ipublication 




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ObiW Stores f urnisbetBt Aacbineri? agents • . . 

an6 itailwas Contractors. 


4^ JYCessrs. 5>^tti^ & S^ineh 60., 

largest manufacturers of all classes of Marine Lubricat- 
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" BEEHIVE " FOUHDBY . - . ■ 



Ship Chandlers and 

-f -l- -? 

General Merchants 

^Ve beg to draw the attention of all the 
leading Shipowners, Millowners and Railway 
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Cylinder, and 2J 
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Steam cut off 
at f stroke. I^p 
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i inch. 



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half a cylinder of steam 
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For prices and particulars — 
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xii Advertisements. 

De Bnrlingtoii n^anofactiiring Compy, 

17, Convent Road, Entally, Caloutta. 


7he gu^l^^d^^n jvtonufaeturing 60/5 


Is much cheaper and cleaner than gum and ttickB harder. 


Household Purposes and Mounting Photograhps, &€.| 



Small bottle, with wooden j-over and brush As. 6 

Large do. do. ... ... ,,12 

Ask for ESlephant Brand, and see you get it. 

Same as supplied to the Government Stationery Department, Caleutta. 

Indian Made Stickfast. — We have received a sample bottle of an 
adhesive locally made by the Burlington Meuiufacturing Company, 17, 
Convent Boad, Entally, under the name of stickfast. It is an excellent article, 
and as a local enterprise deserves general support. The Government 
Stationery Department are large purchasers of the article as well as many 
mercantile firms. Banks, etc. It is obtainable retail at the Great Eastern 
Hotel, Co., Ld , the London Pharmacy, 55, DharamtoUa Street, Messrs. 
Gangooly & Co , 12, Mangoe Lane, and Messrs. Mukerji & Co., 19, Mangoe 
Lane. The stickfast is guaranteed to remain good for one year, and, in the 
event of any of their manufacture becoming unfit for use from fermentation, 
the company offer to replace it at once. Attention is invited to the adver- 
tisement of the Burlington Manufacturing Co. in another column. — 
Englishman, 10th May 1900. 

For the preservation of Steel and Iron from rust. Iron or steel instruments 
for implements of any kind anointed with it remain free from corrosion for 
years. Sold in Phials, As. 8, la and Re. i each* 

Writing on the 5th Aot?., 1899, on the subject of our *» TREMOLA," 
Mb. Fbaser- Forbes, of the Bengal Silk Co., Ld., Sardah, says : 

r have found your " TREMOLA'^ excellent, and answers the description 
yc u give of it. 

Wholesale Prices on application. 

Jfgenfs wanted in every Qommercia! Centre in the /Madras 

Presidency, address the J^anayer. LIBERAL TERMS.