Skip to main content

Full text of "An illustrated guide to the flowering plants of the middle Atlantic and New England states (excepting the grasses and sedges) the descriptive text written in familiar language"

See other formats



Natural Size 

This interesting and almost universally distributed little plant was 
selected by tbe Dutch botanist Gronovius, with the concurrence of Linnaeus, 
to be named in lionor of the preat Carl von Linnaeus, father of modern 
botany and indeed of modern systematic natural liistory. 














Copyright, 1910, by 

Published, June, 1910 

,^ ! 


The purpose of this book is to furnish a practically complete 
handbook containing descriptions of the native flowering plants of 
the Northeastern United States, including not only the showy 
herbs but also the trees, shrubs and weeds growing native in that 
region and to adapt the work to the convenience and assistance of 
the very large and ever growing class of educated people who are 
interested in the study of this most attractive branch of natural 
history but who, by reason of unfamiliarity with the technical 
terms which have been in universal use for handbooks of botany, 
have absolutely no adequate aid in the prosecution of an agreeable 
and refining pursuit. While aiming to render the work available 
to the non-technical student, the arrangements and descriptions 
are intended to conform to the requirements of the technical bot- 
anist to the extent of furnishing a convenient handbook. 

That there is a distinct and urgent demand for such a work is 
recognized not only by the cultured general public but also by pro- 
fessional botanists. 

In reply to the question recently published in a botanical jour- 
nal, " AVhy does not the subject of botany more often create a last- 
^V^ ing interest ? " a distinguished professor in one of our great uni- 
^^. versifies replies : " All our botanical courses and our text books 
. . . are too technical . . . they are written by technical 
botanists who have forgotten that they were ever young them- 

The classification adopted in this work is, in the main, that of 
Professor Adolph Engler in his Sillahns der Pflanzcnfamilien, con- 
ceded to be the latest and highest authority on this subject, yet, in 
■3 a few instances in the interest of a more simplified arrangement, 
^^ I have followed the classification of Professor Eichler. 

By introducing the modern Orders as well as the Families of 
toplants I have hoped to familiarize the student with their natural 
Ci J relations, thus furnishing the observing beginner something of in- 
*"" finitely greater value than the empty knowledge of the names of a 
"' ^ few plants. By thus giving a correct impression of the developmen- 
__^ tal or evolutionary relations between the dilYerent species, the be- 
«^' ginner is soon prepared to recognize as an acquaintance and friend 


the plant which he or she meets for the first time. Its specific, or, 
if the term may be used, its baptismal name may have to be sought 
in the genealogical record, the handbook, but the student already 
knows its family and its relations to the family by its general 

In the preparation of the work I have made use of my very large 
private herbarium, a collection which has been the work of. many 
years, but I have had constantly before me the works of the latest 
German, French and English authorities and I have as constantly 
consulted the American works of Professor Wood, Dr. Asa Gray 
and that by Messrs. Britton and Brown. Indeed, without the aid 
of this last named invaluable work the preparation of this book 
would have been difficult. For numerous data, including locality, 
season of blooming and other necessary knowledge, I am greatly 
indebted to this authority. In the final revision of the manu- 
script the New Gray ]\Ianual has been freely consulted. 

The illustrations have been drawn by myself, mostly from the 
fresh living plants, but a small number of the drawings I have been 
obliged to make from the dried specimens in my herbarium. These 
drawings illustrate a very large proportion of our native plants, 
including nearly every species that the amateur is likely to meet. 

The book includes two parts. The first part is an outline of 
structural botany intended to be sufficient to enable a beginner to 
use with advantage the second and main part. 

The work has been the occupation of the hours of recreation 
from professional labor, a relaxation from the exacting demands 
of everv-day routine of surgical practice and of the writing of 
professional books and papers, occupations which have filled the 
larger measure of the time at my disposal. It lias, however, been 
an agreeable task to turn from the severe tension of professional 
pursuits to the refreshing attractions of this delightful branch of 
natural science. 

I am indebted to Prof. Charles H. Peck, the New York State 
Botanist, for his kindness in carefully examining tlie manuscript 
before it was placed in the hands of the printer and to the pub- 
lishers for the excellent manner in which the book has been brought 

George T. Stevejts. 

New York, 



Preface 1 

Outline of Structural Botany 3 

Key to Natural Orders 58 

An Artificial Key to the Families 71 

Descriptive Flora 81 

Explanation of Abbreviations of Names of Autpiorities 705 

Index of Technical Names 707 

Index of Common Names 739 



If we consider the characters of a plant from the point of view 
of its internal and ultimate structure we are occupied with its 
Internal Morphology, an important and necessary study, which 
reveals a great variety of interesting facts all worthy of the atten- 
tion of the student of nature. 

So also if we examine the different phenomena which contribute 
to the development and growth of the plant, the branch of study 
known as Vegetable Physiology, we are engaged in inquiries relat- 
ing to the actions and influences which contribute to the functions 
of growth and of reproduction and to the form of the plant in 
its various stages. In this branch of investigation we • study the 
influence of light, of heat, of moisture and of many physical and 
chemical forces. This brancli of botanical study is also most inter- 
esting and important, and both it and the study of internal mor- 
phology are essential to a well rounded knowledge of botany. 

Necessary as are these branches of study to one who would 
acquire a full conception of the science of botany, a familiarity 
with them is not essential to tlie student who seeks principally to 
recognise the various plants which he may encounter in his excur- 
sions through fields and forests or along lakes or streams or who 
desires to form a collection of plants for study or amusement. 

In the following pages it is the purpose to present only those 
facts respecting the Exterrial Morphology which will serve as aids 
to the student in determining the names and places in classifica- 
tion of the flowering plants which are found in the region selected. 

While space does not admit here of a consideration of the two 
first mentioned branches of the study of botany and while it admits 
of only an outline of that branch necessary to aid in the determina- 
tion of names and of classification of plants, the student should be 
impressed with the importance of a wider knowledge of the science 
of vegetable life than that which can be acquired by the superficial 
acquaintance of plants which one may encounter or collect. 

Books treating of both internal and external structural botany 
and of vegetable physiology are to be found in which the science 
is treated, some from an elementary standpoint, others from a most 
technical point of view. 


It is to sncli works that the student slionld resort according to 
tlie degree to which he wovild carry h\s study in order that his 
acquaintance with the vegetable world may become an intimate one 
of greatest interest. 


The organs of vegetation consist of the root, the stem and the 
leaves, with those modifications of leaves consisting of the organs 
destined to reproduce the species, the spore in non-flowering plants 
and the flower and fruit of flowering plants. 


The root is that part of the plant usually growing downward, 
whose office it is, especially, to absorb from its surrounding medium, 
most commonly the soil, the moisture and some other materials 

Fig. I 

from which the plant derives certain elements of its nourishment. 
The root also, in a great majority of cases, serves to fix the plant 
in a position favoral)!e to its existence and growth. It differs from 
the stem in not bearing leaves. 

Some plants, notably many species of the orchid group in tropical 
and semi-tropical climates and some trees, as for example the man- 
grove, are supplied with aerial roots. Some of these roots growing 
in the open air cling to the branches of trees, while other aerial 
roots hang as long, more or less fleshy, pendants or cords exposed 
to the winds. Otiier aerial roots, arising irregularly in the course 
of the stem, as for example, those from the stem of the ivy (Fig. 1), 
and which have for tboir purpose, in general, the support of weak 
climbing stems, arc known as adventitous roots. Such roots grow- 


ing at regular intervals, as at the leaf axils, are lateral roots 
(Fig. 3). 

Fig. 2 

Still other plants have roots swimming free in water on the sur- 
face of which the body of the plant floats. 

Many plants of the non-flowering class are devoid of roots, but 
with rare exceptions, as, for example, the floating grains constitut- 
ing the plants of Wolffia, flowering plants are 
provided with roots, terrestrial, aerial or 

Although the roots of a plant have their 
origin in the radicle of the em- 
bryo they may exist in large 
numbers having the appear- 
ance of arising from as many 
distinct origins, but at the 
very base of the stem. Thus, 
among the plants of the great 
grass family, a group of roots 
seems to spring from the same 
Fig. 3— Fibrous rootslevcl and to procced downward 
Avith few or no branches. In 
fact these numerous roots have sprung from the 
radicle all at nearly the same level and have so 
far monopolized its structure that they prac- 
tically, though not theoretically, arise from the 
base of the stem. Eoots of this kind, arising in 
numbers from apparently the same level are 
known as compound or fibrous roots, a form 
common among plants with parallel-veined 
leaves — (monocotyledonous plants) (Fig. 3). In 
case of plants with net-veined leaves — dicotyle- 
donous plants) — the axis usually extends downward as a tap root. 

Fig. 4 

Fig. 5 — Tuberous 
root of Apios. 


This tap root may continue as the principal axis, taking often the 
form which we see in tlie beet or carrot (Fig. 4), in which case it 
is said to be a fleshy root, or it may maintain a more slender form. 
In many cases roots become reservoirs of nutrient materials, in 
which cases they are thickened and fleshy, as in 
the case of the sweet potato, the peony and others 
(Fig. 5). These are tuberous roots, which differ 
from the tubers like the common potato in that 
this last uniformly bears buds or eyes, and is 
tlierefore a part of a modified stem. In the ma- 
jority of plants whose leaves are net-veined, 
branches diverge from the tap root which may 
equal or exceed it in size and importance and the 
root then divides like the branches of a tree, in 
which case it is said to be ramose. 
This is the form assumed by most 
shrubs and trees and by a great num- 
ber of herbs. 

If we examine a young root more in 
detail we find that at its very extremity 
it is terminated by a little cap. This cap may be seen ';''=•, ^-Two 

.,,,., r, ■' i -^ plants o £ 

Without the aid of a glass m the little thread hanging Lemna about 
from the body of the duckmeat, Lemna (Fig. 6), which enUrgraf 
floats at the surface of the water. The o/ the pen- 
cap varies in length and in comparative f"o n' tTe 
tliickncss, but is always present and isj^he'clT 
the advancing organ in the process of ^ '^ re'' r!o- 
growth. Above the cap, with some ex- «';^«'i^ie in 

, . '- this little 

ccptions, appears a more or less ex- r'^nt than 
tended ring of fine hairs, the pilose ot"iers?°^* 
portion of the root (Fig. 7). It is by way of 
these hairs and not by way of the cap that such 
nutritive material as is taken from tlie soil, the 
Avater or the air, through the root is introduced 
into the circulation of the plant. As the root 
extends in length these hairs disappear above 
and new ones appear, maintaining the ring in 
about a constant ilistaiice from tlie terminal cap. 
Above the ring of hairs the root assumes a 
smooth appearance. In the case of the roots of 
net-veined leaved plants the young rootlet ap- 
pears to enter the root by an opening, as there is 

I'iG. 7 — Young 
Morning (jlory. 
TJftween the two 
cotyledons or 
" seed leaves " is 
seen the expand- 
ing plumule 
Along the course 
of the branching 
roots the " pilose 
portion" is shown. 


seen at the point of union a ring raised more or less above the sur- 
face of tlie root at that point. 

The part just below the stem is known as the caudex (a Fig. 7). 


There are certain modifications of the stem which by reason of 
their position, mostly under the soil, the absence of green coloring 
matter and by their appearance, are, by those who have not con- 
sidered their nature sufficiently, regarded as roots. 

Although these forms are technically modified stems and not 
roots, we may consider them in tliis place as, to some extent, inter- 
mediate forms. 

If we were to draw from the soft soil a stalk of the common 
quack grass we would observe at its foot a white cylindrical exten- 
sion of the size of the stalk and that at intervals there spring fasci- 
cles of roots and also, if we have not broken the cylinder, that it is 

Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 

Fig. 8 — Rootstock of Solomon's Seal, showing the '* seals " from which arise the 

branches or aerial stems and the scars marking the point of growth of last year's 

aerial stems. 

Fig. 9 — Corm of Jack-in-the-Pulpit. 
Fig. 10 — Bulb of Wild Onion. 

terminated, not by the cap which terminates a root, but by a bud, 
in which it resembles a stem. Its course is horizontal beneath the 
soil and it may at intervals send up several stalks. This white 
cylinder is simply a subterranean stem modified by its position for 
the performance of its office. It is technically a rhizome, but in 
familiar language a rootstock. Such rootstocks are found in case 
of the iris, Solomon's Seal (Fig. 8), wild azalea and a great many 
other plants, 


Another form of modified stem is the corm (Fig. 9). It is a 
solid, rounded mass at the foot of the stem, often flattened, as it is 
in case of the Jack-in-the-pulpit. It resembles a bulb in form, but 
difi'ers from it in structure. 

The hulh, which occupies a position at the foot of the stem simi- 
lar to that of the corm, consists of a compact mass of scales from 
the midst of which proceeds a stem (Fig. 10). Both the corm and 
the bulb give out roots from their base. 

A tuber is an expansion of an underground stem in which is 
stored nutrient material which may be, after the dying down of the 
aerial part of -the plant, supplied to the young buds which have 
been formed on the surface of the tuber. The common white 
potatoe is the best example of such a tuber, its eyes being in fact 
so many buds which sprout in the spring and- are fed by the starchy 
material of the tuber. 

Other forms of modified stems, runners, stolons and suckers are 
less underground forms than those above described and will be 
mentioned in connection with the stem. 


As the root is usually the descending axis of the plant, so the 
stem is ordinarily the ascending axis, though, as we have seen 
above, the modified stem, the rootstocJc, the tuberous root, etc., are 
buried beneath the soil. 

With exceptions of a few minute species all flowering plants are 
furnished with a stem, althougli in the case of those improperly 
said to be stemless — acaulescent — the stem is extremely short, con- 
sisting only of a narrow ring al)ove the caudex of the root. 

Thus the stem may vary in extent from the simple ring above the 
root to the height of a giant sequoia. 

The young stems of most plants bear, at more or less irregular 
intervals, leaves and buds. " If we examine the young twig of a 
birch wo notice that tlie distance between tlie leaves diminishes 
toward tiie outer extremity until at tlie end we find a terminal bud 
which is, in fact, a collection of rudimentary leaves often covered 
by scales, themselves modified leaves, at the point at which the 
future growth is to take place. At the axil of each leaf and just 
above we notice a small top-shaped body, a lateral bud. It is 
destined to put forth as a l)ranch at a future time. The future 
branches, of which these lateral buds are the promise, will them- 



selves bear leaves and otlier buds. Wben a bud is formed not 
terminal nor at a leaf axil it is an extra axillary hud, or if in 
irregular order or at intermediate points, it is an adventive hud. 

The leaves usually arise from the stem in a certain fixed order, 
depending upon the species of plant, or the order of arrangement 
governed by a general law. In case of the presence of adventive 
buds or branches the orderly disposition of the leaves may be mate- 
rially disturbed. 

The points, or more exactly, the transverse 
planes, marking the insertion of the leaves are 
called nodes. These nodes are very clearly 
shown in the stems of gi-asses. The space com- 
prised between two successive nodes is an inter- 
node (Fig. 11). 

Upon the relative positions of axillary and 
terminal buds depend the divisions of the stem. 
A true bifurcation or forking from exactly op- 
posite buds is rare, especially in case of the 
higher plants, but a false bifurcation from buds 
situated in close proximity is much more com- 

N'aturally the character of the divisions or 
bifurcations will determine the general form or 
port of the plant. If the terminal bud con- 
tinues to hold a considerable lead, the lateral buds sending out 
branches in their order the plant will assume a comparatively 
regular spire-top form such as we observe in case of the fir tree. 
But if a bud close to the terminal bud sends out a branch about 
equalling the latter and if the process is repeated indefinitely we 
have a widely branching stem, the rounded or flat top, such as is 
shown by the apple tree. 

The stem may be cylindric, as it is in many grasses, triangular 
as in some sedges, fluted, quadrangular or flattened. 

From the stem may arise imperfectly developed branches, woody 
and sharp, which, are spines or thorns, these differ from the more 
superficial pricMes, such as are found on the stem of the rose and 
many other plants, and which arise entirely from the bark. The 
stem is also modified to form tendrils, as we find them on the vine 
of the grqpe, though some tendrils are modified leaf-forms, as we 
find them in many species of the pea family, as well as in some 
other plants. 

Fig. II — Diagram 
indicating the rela- 
tive distances between 
the buds — i, 2, 3, in- 


The stems of flowering plants may be divided into two classes 
upon which divisions are in large measure founded the two great 
groups of plants known as Endogenous and Exogenous plants. 

In the first of these groups, endogens, including the grasses, 
palms, liliaceous and many other plants, the accretion of growth 
is from within the stem. This latter does not become thicker as it 
extends in height. This statement will not appear correct when 
one remembers that the stalk of Indian corn is nearly or quite an 
inch in diameter at maturity, while in its early stage it has only 
a fraction of that diameter. This is not because the diameter of 
the first sprout has materially increased, but that successive joints 
or nodes have arisen from the root, each of greater diameter than 
the one preceding it. This form of growth may be observed in the 
grasses, rushes and all of the plants known as monocokjledonous 
plants. On the other hand, in another great group of plants, the 
exogens, the growth of the stem is from within outward. The 
stem of the ordinary tree of temperate climates increases in diame- 
ter in proportion to its growth, the accretion being made externally. 
This is true of most of the species of herbs growing in the same 
climate. In the stem of the endogen there is no distinction of 
bark, wood and pith, but in the stem of the exogen this distinction 
is clear, at least in the very young plant. The distinction of the 
bark from the wood is evident throughout the growth of the plant. 
Upon the character and size of the stem depend the division of 
plants into herbs, shrubs and trees. 

Plants, the stems of which do not become woody and which die 
down to the ground at the close of the season, or after flowering, 
are known as herbs, while those the stems of which become woody 
or which are persistent from year to year, are, if of small size 
when of mature growth, shrubs, but if the plant reaches or exceeds 
about twenty feet when fully grown it is a tree. 

While in the greatest number of species of plants the stem rises 
from the ground, standing erect or nearly so by its own strength, 

upright stems, there are others 
which have too little strength 
thus to rise independently. 
Their length is usually out of 
proportion to their diameter 
to enable them to stand up- 
FiG. 12 right without assistance. Some 

of these are procumbent stems which creep along the ground like 
the weak stem of the common blue veronica (Fig. 13), its head 




ascending at length, neither quite erect nor prostrate like its proxi- 
mate part; or like 

the strawberry (Fig. 
13), which sends 
out long slender, al- 
most horizontal 
stems, known as run- 
ners, each of which 
at length puts forth 
a cluster of leaves 
and a fasciculus of 
roots which find their 
way beneath the soil and then push out another or several run- 
ners from this new station. Runners less slender, such as those 

from the common antennaria, are 
called stolons (Fig. 14). A somewhat 
different form of prostrate stem is that 
of the creeping loosestrife (Lysim- 
achia), which lies flat upon the ground 
and throws out its fascicles of rootlets 
at the leaf-nodes (Fig. 15). 

Some of the stems of many shrubs 

and even of some trees droop, touching 

the soil at length and, taking root, give 

Fig- I'i rise to new plants in this manner. The 

drooping stems of the black raspberry are examples of this form of 

stem among shrubs, those of the banyan among trees. 

But these weak stems 
do not in all cases run 
along the ground nor 
droop to take root like 
those just mentioned. 
Some of these weak 
stems are held in more 
or less upright positions by means of tendrils, which may proceed 
directly from the stem as modified branches, as in case of the 
grape vine, or which are modified leaf stalks, as we find them in 
case of the clematis, the pea, etc., or the stem may be held by 
prickers, as in case of galiums. Still other weak stems wind about 
more erect plants or other bodies, of which the hop, the bindweed, 
the convolulus and many trailing vines are examples (Fig. 16). 




In general the leaf is the digestive organ of the higher plants, 

for the principal food of plants is carbonic acid which, within the 
leaf, is converted into starch with elements which are 
supplied from the roots. That it contributes to the 
beauty and interest of the plant is an obvious fact. 
Of its color and of its physiology we need not here 
speak, but of the forms which the leaf assumes and of 
the arrangement of the leaves it is necessary to take 
note, since on these forms and on these arrangements 
we must base many of the comparisons between dif- 
ferent groups of plants. 

In most of the orders of plants usually known as 
the lower orders leaves are not found, and even in a 
few of the plants which come under our observation 
as flowering plants, the leaves may be only rudimen- 
tary, yet we may regard the leaf as an essential organ 

of the class of plants which is to be described in this work. 
We may take the leaf of the buttercup as a study of the leaf 

structure (Fig. 17). 

We find then, first, the broad expanse. 

the hlade; second, the slender, yet 

thicker, somewhat cylindric organ, the 

petiole, or leaf-stalk, and third, and 

finally, the base of the petiole, which, in 

case of the buttercup, nearly or quite 

surrounds the stem to which it is closely 


These three parts constitute the typi- 
cal leaf, but not all leaves are typical. 

In the case of many leaves, for example, 

tlie broadened base of the leaf stem is 

wanting and the petiole is attached to 

the stem by a narrow base, which may or 

may not be somewhat more expanded 

than the column of the petiole. Again, 

the petiole may be almost completely 

absent and the leaf blade is apparently 

attaclied directly to the stem without the 

intervention of the petiole. The leaf is 

then said to be sessile, as flowers are 

said to be sessile when there is no pedicle or flower stem 

Fig. 17 — Leaf of 7?a)ii««CM- 
lus acris — a, the blade; b, the 
petiole or leaf-stalk; c, the 


So the leaf may consist of the blade and the base without the 
petiole, as we see it in the long and narrow blade of grass with its 
base clasping the stem without an intermediate part representing a 

Beyond these three very general forms there are various other 
modifications such as the formation of a hollow tube by the petiole, 
as in the Sarracenia, or of the simple awl-like or needle-like forms 
of the pine leaves or the thread-like leaves of many aquatic plants, 
and in some plants the form and general structure of the leaf is 
modified according to the medium in which it exists. Thus some 
species of Sagittaria have thread-like leaves which are entirely 
submersed, living wholly below the surface of the water ; broad, 
rounded blades floating upon the surface of water and sharply 
angled arrow-like leaves which rise above the water's surface. 
Many instances of this polymorphism might be mentioned, the 
modifications being due primarily to the adaptation of the leaf 
to divers circumstances. 

A great, and in classification, a very important, division in the 
general structure of leaves is that which distinguishes the so-called 
parallel-veined leaves from the net-veined leaves. 

With the former, the parallel-veined leaf, is commonly associated 
the seed of a single cotyledon or lobe ; while with the net-veined leaf 
is usually associated the two-lobed or dicotyledoned seed and upon 
these characters are founded the first great division in the class of 
flowering plants, the monocotylcdonoiis and the dicotyledonous 
angiosperms, that is, the one-lobed and the two-lobed sub-groups of 
the class of plants having the ovules within an enclosing ovary. 

These striking characteristics in the construction of the leaves 
permit us, in a great majority of cases, to judge without further 
consideration whether a given plant belongs to one or the other of 
these two great groups. 

Exceptions, as to most rules, occur here, for there are plants 
with net-veined leaves belonging to the great group of monocoty- 
ledons, for example; the trilliums, which are members of the lily 
family, have net veins. Then also a few plants belonging to the 
group of dicotyledons have apparently parallel veins. 

Notwithstanding the few exceptions it becomes easy after a little 
observation to determine with which of the great sub-classes we 
have to do. 

Eeturning to our -buttercup leaf, we find, that not only do the 
veins of the blade diverge and cross among themselves, but that 
the blade is deeply cut into several segments or lobes and that 
starting from the point of attachment of the petiole there radiate, 



fan-like, as many strong ribs or veins as there are lobes to the leaf, 
and that these radiating veins send out a network of smaller veins. 
If we compare this with the leaf of the elm (Fig. 
18), we see that in the latter a strong rib or vein 
runs from end to end through the center of the leaf, 
while other smaller veins diverge on either side and 
at fairly regular distances, like the barbs of a 
feather. Because, in case of the ranunculus leaf 
and others constructed on a similar plan, the veins 
radiate something like the fingers of the hand when 
spread out, such leaves are said to be pahnaiehj 
veined, while in the case of the elm leaf and others 
constructed on the feather plan they are said to be 
pinnately veined or feather veined. 

If we compare our ranunculus leaf and the elm 
leaf with a leaf from the common plantain which 
grows so freely about country dooryards and in waste places w^e 
observe that in case of the elm and the buttercup the borders are 
not continuous, one being broken by very deep interruptions, the 
other only by the deptli of the sharp teeth. On the other hand, the 
borders of the plantain leaf are continuous. Such a border is said 
to be entire, while the others are interrupted. It is somewhat rare 
to find blades of the palmate or feather-veined leaves with entire 
borders, though the entire border is characteristic of the jiarallel- 
veined leaf. 

As it is well known, the leaf blade assumes many forms, most of 
which have a resemblance to familiar objects, for example: to the 
outline of an egg; of an arrow-head; of a spatula, etc., and dia- 
grams representing several of these forms are given in the plate 
opposite the table which is to follow. 


1 8 — Pin- 



leal of 


Compound Leaves 

The leaf, as we have thus far examined it, has only tbo three 
elements which were at first mentioned, namely, the blade, the 
petiole and the base. Such a leaf is known as a simple leaf. But 
we often find leaves which are apparently more complex; for exam- 
ple, the leaf of the horse-ciiestnut is composed of five separate 
blades radiating from a stout common leaf-stalk or petiole. Tiiia 


petiole is not a branch or twig of the tree from which five leaves 
might arise, for when the leaf is ripe in autumn this common 
petiole looses its hold upon the stem and it and its five blades fall 
to the ground together. The petiole and the five blades then con- 
stitute a single leaf and the five blades are not five leaves, but so 
many leaflets of a componnd leaf. Another example of compound 
leaf is found in that of the locust tree, where the petiole proceeds 
as a main stem, on each side of which is a series of oval or rounded 
leaflets, the petiole terminating as the midvein of an odd leaflet. 
These rounded blades are no more separate leaves than are the 
radiating blades of the horse-chestnut, but are elements of the 
compound leaf. In the case of the radiating leaflets the arrange- 
ment is known as a palmately compound leaf ; while in the case 
where the secondary petioles branch from the main leaf-stalk like 
tlic barbs of a feather it is a ^innately compound leaf. Hence it 
will be seen that similar terms are used both for the simple and 
compound leaf and this is a fact which the amateur should not 
fail to comprehend, that while the terms of science may not be 
familiar the true scientist employs the least number of new terms 
that it is possible to use in the necessary description and classifica- 
tion of his object. 

We find many otlier examples of compound leaves, as in the 
clover with its three leaflets, most of the potentillas with their 
palmate five leaflets and many species of the pea family, with their 
pinnate double rows of leaflets. 


At the base of the leaf-stalk or of the blade of many leaves are 
found leaf-like appendages having often the color and general 
character of a leaf but differing usually in form and size from the 
leaf itself. Such appendages are found at the foot of the petiole 
of a rose leaf, where, starting from the very base of the petiole it 
extends along its column as a sort of fringed collar. 

The stipules constitute a very important feature of the leaf from 
the point of view of the determination of different species, for a 
great many leaves are without stipules, while some have very con- 
spicuous ones. About the bud of the magnolia two large brown 
stipules form a thick protecting cover, which falls as the leaf ex- 



pands. About the stem of the polygons the stipules take the form 
of tall collars while in the pea family the stipules in some species 
exceed the leaf in size and among the pondweeds it is often a long 
grass-like appendage. 

Eeferring to the diagrams on the succeeding page, we find a 
number of forms which, while each may not precisely represent 
all the leaves which are classed as belonging to that particular 

Fig. 19 — Stipules 
of Rose leaf. 

Fig. 20 — Stipules 
of Clover. 

Fig. 21 — Stipules 
of Viola arenaria. 

form, are all sufficiently typical to indicate the class of the leaf- 
blade which might be under observation, provided the leaf under 
consideration is not compound. 

We may conveniently arrange them in the following table: 


'A single principal vein traverses the main axis of the leaf 

The tissues intervening between the veinlets fully or mainly 

developed .... Feather Veined Forms. Pinnate-Veined 
The middle veinlot exceeds the others in length, the veinlets 

above and below becoming gradually shorter. 

The breadth of the widest i)art is: 

About equal to the length of the leaf (Fig. 1) . Orhicular 

About I to I the length (Fig. 2) Oval 

About i the length (Fig. 3) FUiptic 

About i to J the length (Fig. 4) Oblong 

The veinlets of the lower third exceed the otlier siile veinlets, 
which become gradually shorter above and below. 

The breadth of the widest part is: 

Nearly or quite equal to the length (Fig. (!) . . Deltoid 
About § the length, egg-sliaped (Fig. 7) . . . . Ovate 
About i the length or less, lance-shaped (Fig. 8) Lanceolate 




The side veinlets all very short (Fig. 5) Linear 

The veinlets of the upper third exceed the others, which become 
gradually shorter above and below. 
The widest part is : 

About i the length, jycar-shaped; inversely egg-shaped 

(Fig. 9) Obovatc 

About i the length, inversely lance-shaped (Fig. 10) 


About J that of the length or less spatula-formed 

(Fig, 11) ^pnluhtte 

The lower veinlets protrude notably outward beyond the gen- 
eral outline or conspicuously backward. 
The apex sharp, the two sides of the base rounded. Heart- 
shaped (Fig. 12) Cordate 

The apex sharp, the general shape triangular, the two pos- 
terior triangular lobes pointing backward, not outward. 

Arroti:-head-.shaped (Fig. 13) ^Sagittate 

General form triangular, but the lower part of the leaf sud- 
denly widening into two lateral triangular lobes. Halberd- 
shaped (Fig. 14) Hastate 

The leaf blade of various forms, the posterior lobes pro- 
truding backward and inward. Ear-shaped (Fig. 10) 


The posterior veinlets directed outward, backward and then 

inward, the leaf blade enclosing the stem (Fig. 17) Perfoliate 
The veinlets of each of two opposite leaves projecting back- 
ward, the two leaf blades uniting around the stem (Fig. 

18) Connate 

The middle veinlet shorter than the width of the leaf blade, 
the base heart-shaped. Kidney-formed (Fig. 15) . Rcniform 


There is a single principal vein, but the intervening tissue between 
the veinlets may be so irregularly developed as to give to the 
blade the appearance of having been deeply cut into lobes and 
sinuses. Such forms are known as pinnated leaves. 

1. The tissue shari)ly cut between the veinlets about A way to 

the midvein. Feather-eleft I'innatifid 

A i)innatifid leaf with rounded lobes and sinuses like that of 

the White Oak (Fig. 29) Sinuate 

With its lobes or segments pointing backward (Fig. 31) Runcinate 
The terminal segment large, broad and rounded. Lyre- 
shaped (Fig. 30) Lyratc 

2. The tissues between the veinlets cut out nearly to the midvein, 

the leaf is said to be (Fig. 32) Pinnatcly Parted 


Three or more i)rincipal veins radiate from the leaf stem and trav- 
erse the leaf blade Palmate veined 


1. The general outline of the leaf nearly or quite complete. 

General form rounded, broader than long, the posterior parts 
extending into two rounded lobes. Kidney-formed (Fig. 15) 

Several principal veins radiating in all directions, the leaf 
stem inserted in the midst of the blade. Shield-shaped 
(Fig. 25) Peltate 

2. General outline cut into deep divisions by deficiency of tissue 

between the principal veins, forming separate leaflets (Fig. 

35) Palmate-leaved 

Principal veins 3 (Fig. 33) Trilohate 

Principal veins 5 (Fig. 34) Five-lohed 

In these pinnately cleft leaves the intervening tissue is somewhat 
or largely wanting but in certain leaves this absence of intervening 
tissue is carried to the extent that the segments or lobes appear 
like quite perfect and independent leaves. An important difference 
will however be observed between such a group of apparently per- 
fect leaves and a really perfect leaf. 

If we separate by force a perfect leaf at the base of the leaf-stalk 
from the branch, it falls as a single blade as it does also in autumn 
by ripening. But if we separate the base of the leaf-stalk of one 
of these groups the whole group falls as did in the other case the 
single leaf blade. 

These groups of leaflets, all attached to a common leaf-stalk or 
petiole are known as Compound Leaves and a few forms are shown 
by the following table. 

If the number of leaflets is reduced to two the leaf is . . Binatc 

If there are three leaflets arranged in a palmate form the leaf is 
said to be teniatc (Fig. 33) ... Trifoliate 

If there are more than three leaflets, all arising at the end of the 
leaf stem, as in that of the Horse Chestnut, it is Hand-shaped 
(Fig. 34) Palmately Compound 

But if the leaflets are arranged along each side of a common leaf- 
stalk or petiole the leaf is (Fig. 35) . . Pinnatehj Compound 

If the number of leaflets is exactly the same on each side of the 
leaf stem and there is not an odd one at the end, the leaf is 
Even Pinnate 

But if there is an odd leaf at the end it is ... Odd Pinnate 

In the description of plants the point or apex of tlie leaf often 
forms an important feature for differentiation. 



When the point ends with an acute angle long drawn out, it is 

(Fig. 30) Acuminate 

If the angle is sharp but not long and tapering it is (Fig. 37) Acute 

But if the point is rounded it is (Fig. 38) Obtuse 

If terminated by a nearly straight edge, as though cut off, it is 

(Fig. 39) Truncate 

A leaf notched at the apex is (Fig. 40) Emarginate 

If terminated by a hard bristly point it is (Fig. 41) . Mueronate 

36 37 38 39 

The leaf margins are also important in difTercntiation. The 
margin is said to be : 

When it is divided into sharp teeth like those of a saw (Fig. 19) 



When these teeth are also serrate the margin is (Fig. 20) 

Doubly Serrate 

If the margin is formed of teeth with concave outlines as at Fig. 

21, it is Dentate 

When the margin is complete as at Fig. 22, it is . , . . Entire 
When the border is formed of rounded teeth with convex outline 

it is (Fig. 24) Crenate 

The diminutive terms denticulate and crcnulate are used in place 

of dentate and crenate when the teeth are very small. 


The disposition of the leaves upon the stem constitutes that part 
of botanical science technically known as Phyllotaxy , but to the 
non-technical it is the Arrangement of Leaves. 

Every part of botanical science is of great interest to one who 
intelligently investigates it and this science of Phyllotaxy is one 
which richly repays the investigator. But in this place we can 
only refer to the conspicuous facts of three forms of arrangement. 
They are : 

1st. Alternate, when the leaves are inserted singly at each node of 
the stem. In each case the insertion may appear to be first on one 
side of the stem and next on the exact opposite side. More frequently 
they appear to be inserted in a spiral line and this, as a matter of fact, 
is the real insertion, even when the leaves appear first on one then on 
the opposite side. 

2d. They are said to be opposite when they are inserted in pairs, one 
exactly opposite the other on the stem. 

3d. They are in whorls or verticils, whorled or vcrticillate, when 
three or more are inserted at the same node, forming a whorl about 
the stem. 

Upon some stems leaves which are in fact alternate are so 
closely disposed that it is difficult to see their alternate arrange- 
ment. In such case the leaves are said to be scattered. 


To the ordinary observer a flower is that gracefully formed group 
of colored petals and stamens surrounded at its base by a rosette 
of green bracts, which by its vivid hues, attractive shape and 
pleasant perfume seems to constitute the crowning glory of a plant. 

A more exact and perhaps a more useful conception of a flower 
is that which defines it as an organ essential to the inception and 
the perfection of the seed and therefore to the perpetuation of the 
plant species. 

In this sense the flower may not consist of gracefully formed 



and brightly colored parts. It may indeed consist of a single 
stamen lodged against the stem in the axil of a leaf or of a pistil 
unprotected by any envelope. In such a case the grace and brilli- 
ancy of the flower as it is usually thought of, is absent but at 
least one of the two essential elements necessary to the perpetuation 
of the species is present and in the view of the botanist this con- 
stitutes a flower. 

A flower, then, consists of a more or less complicated apparatus 
essential to the inception and perfection of the seed. 

Two elements are absolutely essential to this process of repro- 
duction of what are known as the higher plants, flowering plants. 
One is found in the pistil, at the base of which, or constituting 
the whole of which, is the ovary in which is found the ovule or 
ovules' or, eventually, the developed seed. 

The other element is seen in the stamen which furnishes the 
pollen which must be applied to the pistil in order to fertilize it 
and without which the ovules can not develop into seeds. 

The transference of this pollen from the stamen to the pistil 
may be affected by the wind, by water, by insects or by other 

Either of these elements, as we have seen, may be found alone, 
unaccompanied by the other element or by the conspicuous parts 
usually regarded as the flower. The flexible " pussy " of a willow 
consists of a great number of single flowers, each consisting of a 
pair of stamens at the base of which there is a single colorless 

Fig. 24 

Fig. 25 

Fig. 22 Fig. 23 

bract, or if the catkin is made up of pistillate flowers each flower 
consists of a single pistil with its bract (Figs. 22 and 23). But 
individuals of cither kind, pistils or stamens, may unite in a group 
of considerable numbers or again, pistils and stamens may grow 
together in the same group (Fig. 24). There may be a single 
stamen and a single pistil or a single pistil with several stamens 
or there may be several of each in association within the same flower. 
Examples in which many staminate flowers are found in one 
group and many pistillate flowers in another arc found in the 


willows and poplars. If the " pussies " of the willows are exam- 
ined with a little care it will be seen that the soft gray fur of a 
catkin from one tree covers only staminate flowers while the less 
smooth catkin from another tree covers exclusively pistillate 

An excellent example of a plant having both staminate and 
pistillate flowers, each in separate groups is found in the common 
Maize or Indian Corn.i In this case the tall " tassel " terminates 
the stalk and spreads into many almost horizontal branches each 
bearing a great number of staminate flowers. Below, at the side of 
the stalk, is a husky envelope from which protrudes a bundle of 
long slender filaments constituting the " silk." Each of these 
green filaments is the extended portion of a pistillate flower, or 
more exactly, of two such flowers for in this case two pistils unite 
as one. When these silky filaments have arrived at the proper 
stage for fertilization or pollination the wind wafts some of the 
pollen grains from the tassel of the plant or from a neighboring 
plant whicli falls upon the silky filaments and thus each fiber 
becomes pollinated and the conditions of growth of the individual 
seeds are supplied when each filament has been subjected to the 
action of the pollen. 

Examples of extremely simple flowers in which both stamens 
and pistils are found in the same group,^ are found in some of 
the aquatic plants such as the Zanichella (Fig. 26) of the fresh 
ponds where one or two pistils are situated at the axil of a leaf 
between two stamens. This simple arrangement constitutes the 
entire flower and indeed all the elements necessary to the develop- 
ment of the seed. 

When the flower is thus destitute of any floral envelope, naked,^ 
it is usually the case that the pollination is effected by the agency 
of the wind or by water. 

In the more conspicuous flowers that which gives them their 
character as blooms, the ornamental part, is the perianth. 

'■Linnaeus called plants having groups of staminate flowers only on one plant and 
pistillate flowers only on another of the same species Dioeceous (Ih'ing in two 
houses), but when such separate groups are found on the same plant he called the 
plant Monoeceous (one house). Jussieu, a later botanist, called plants having sta- 
mens in one flower and pistils in another Diclinous and those having the stamens 
and pistils grouped in the same flower Monoclmous. 

When diclinous and monoclinous flowers are found on the same plant the plant 
is said to be Polygamous. Flowers having both stamens and pistils are Hermaphro- 

^ Such flowers are, in the technical sense perfect, because they contain both the 
elements for the perfection of the seed. They are not, however, complete, because 
they do not have the appendages of the higher orders of flowers, the calyx and 

* Flowers without a calyx or a corolla are apetalous or, more technically achlamyde- 
ous, words which in the technical works on systematic botany are important and 
not unfrequently used. 



When this is complete it consists of two circles of organs (Fig. 
28). The outer one which is generally, though not always, green 
called the calyx, is almost always divided, cither partly or com- 
pletely, into several parts known as sepals. These green sepals are 
well seen in the case of the rose where each hccomes more or less 
sub-divided and thus more ornamental. Tlie inner circle of the 
perianth is known as the corolla and when this consists of several 
divisions the parts are called petals. 

In many flowers the petals remain distinct from each other^ while 
in other cases the petals are united showing but a single expansion 
since all the members are blended at their edges as we see the union 
in the harebell or in the convolvulus. 

The petals of a flower are in most cases symmetrical as are other 

28 29 

Fig. 26 — Part of a stem of Zanichella. The naked flowers are seen at the leaf 

Fig. 27 — An incomplete flower^ Clematis. The petals are nearly suppressed while 
the sepals are large and colored. 

Fig. 28 — A complete flower, Buttercup, with calyx, corolla, stamens and pistils. 

Fig. 29 — An irregular flower (Salvia). 

parts of the same flower. For example, the petals of the buttercup 
or of the apple blossom are all alike, one as long and as broad as 
the other and the sepals of the calyx are, in these blooms, similarly 
symmetrical (Fig. 28). Such flowers are called regular.^ 

But the parts of the flowers are not always thus symmetrical, for 
example, the petals of the sweet pea flower differ among themselves 
in size and shape, so also the parts of the larkspur and of the 
cypripedium flowers are not all alike. Such flowers are irregular 
(Fig. 29.) 

Flowers may be perfect in the sense that they include both the 
stamens and the pistils yet they may not be complete in the sense 

* Flowers, the corolla of which is composed of separate and distinct petals, are 
known as polypetalous or better, as choripetalous flowers, while flowers, the corollas 
each of which consists of a single member, made by the union of several petals, arc 
monnfictalutis or more correctly f^amofctalous. 

* When the petals are thus symmetrical the flower is technically homochlamedous 
or, in familiar language, regular. When the parts arc unsymmctrical the flower is 
heterochlamedous, or, irregular. 


that they do not have the envelopes which we have called the 
perianth, the calyx and the corolla, the organs which, as has been 
remarked above, are, by the 'casual observer regarded as the flower. 
But when all these parts are present, calyx, corolla, stamens and 
pistils we have not only a perfect but a complete flower. 

The calyx or outer circle of the perianth has ordinarily the color 
of leaves and appears as a little star-shaped circlet or cup-like 
receptacle at the base of the flower or extending upon the corolla 
enfolding it to a greater or less extent. (Fig 28.) 

In some cases, however, the calyx is not green like the leaves 
but takes on the vivid colors which we are accustomed to find 
associated with the petals. In some instances the calyx may re- 
semble the existing petals with which such sepals are generally 
alternate as in the case of the lily where the sepals are petaloid, 
alternate with the real petals and resembling them in size, form 
and color, the three sepals and the three petals uniting in an 
apparent bell-shaped corolla. 

But the calyx may so far usurp the place of the corolla as to 

30. Polypetalous flower of Chickweed, with 5 sepals, s petals and 10 stamens. 

31. Apetalous flower of Thalictrum, with 5 sepals, no petals and many stamens. 

32. Choripetalous flower of Ranunculus. 

33. Gamopetalous flower of Convolvulus. 

entirely supplant it and assume the color, the delicacy of texture 
and the brilliancy of hue of the suppressed corolla. In the flower 
of the clematis (Fig 27) we have an instance of this usurpation 
in which the petals are so nearly suppressed that they appear only 
as rudimentary bodies while the sepals spread out as a broad white 
or purple crown. The shining yellow cup of the swamp marigold 
or american cowslip is another familiar instance for the usurpation 
of the function of the corolla by the calyx. The calyx is not sup- 
planted by the corolla and when there is but a single envelope in 
the perianth we Icnow that it is the calyx. In the flower of the 
columbine we have ten members of the perianth all colored. The 
five petals resemble little cornucopias while the five sepals have 
more nearly the ordinary form of petals. 

The calyx, like the corolla, may be unsymmetrical and like the 
petals of the corolla the sepals may be concresently united into a 
single tube. (Fig. 29.) 


These external organs, corolla and calyx, are largely protective 
to the essential organs but they have, especially the corolla has, 
an important function aside from the protective one, that of 
attracting insects or birds and it is this function which undoubt- 
edly lends to the flower its charm of form, hue and perfume. 

When the several petals of a flower are distinct, one from the 
other to the base as we see them in the buttercup (Fig. 2S) the 
corolla is said to be dialypetalous, 1. e., separate petaled and the 
sepals being thus distinct the calyx is dialysepalous ; or the corolla 
is said to he' pohjpetalous, i. e. many petaled, and the calyx poIi/' 
sepalous. This arrangement of distinct petals is by no means 
constant and we see the parts of the corolla more or less united, 
from those corollas in which there is a faint union at the base to 
those in which, like the blue bell, the petals are all united to form 
a single envelope. The corolla of which the petals are thus joined, 
is said to be gamopetalous or monopetalous. (Fig. 33). In the 
great family of composite flowers, asters, thistles, etc., the heads 
are made up of from few to many of these gamopetalous flowers 
crowded into colonies, the whole having the appearance of a single 

The great majority of showy flowers are entomopMlous, that is, 
they are attractive to insects. The primary source of this attraction 
is a series of small sacs or glands secreting a sweet liquid or semi- 
liquid substance called nectar. These nectar sacs may be situated 
at the base of the pistil, at that of the stamen, in the inner extrem- 
ity of the pistils or even at the base of the sepals. In the violet 
it is hidden at the end of the spur. Nectaries are indeed sometimes 
situated outside the flowers but they are always enticements to the 
insects which are induced to visit the flower. (Fig. 34.) 

It is from the nectar that the perfume of the flower largely pro- 
ceeds and it is this nectar in which certain insects as well as hum- 
ming birds delight as an article of food. 

It is not always enough that the flower exhales a perfume which 
is pleasant and enticing to the insect, the wind or other ageni'ics 
might prevent the perfume reaching the sensitive organs of smell 
but there is added a display which is attractive to the sight. Hence 
the fine colors and even probably the varied and beautiful forms 
of the corolla are provided as additional attractions to these winged 

The instrumentality of these visitors in the fertilization of the 
flower will be seen as we proceed. 

The various elements of the flower are arranged with a certain 
degree of uniformity even in the most irregular forms. 



Selecting a well known " regular " flower as an illustration of 
the typical arrangement we may examine the blossom of the 
common buttercup when the petals are fully expanded. 

In the very center are several greenish bodies, arranged about 
the receptacle, which represent the pistils. They are attached to 
this receptacle which is tlie summit of the axis of the little stem of 
the flower, the peduncle. (Fig. 32). 

When there is but a single pistil in a typically regular flower 
it springs from the very central point of this axis which is often 
concave at the summit as we see it at Fig. 35. About this little 
group of carpels of the buttercup, stand, at regular intervals a 
row of stamens and beyond this another and still another row. 
These rows appear to be perfect but if we were to shave them all 
off at a level just above their origin at the receptacle and should 
examine this surface by the aid of a magnifying glass of moderate 
power w^e would find that there is in fact only a single row of 

34 35 36 37 

Fig. 34 — Nectary at base of a Buttercup . petal — a, view in front; b, longitudinal 

Fig. 3S — A typically regular flower. 

Fig. 36 — Diagram of arrangement of stamens in Ranunculus. 

Fig. 27 — Diagram of I arrangement of stamens in Columbine. 

stamens arranged in a spiral and that this spiral line goes around 
the carpels three times as we see it in the diagram. Fig. 36, where 
the shaded curved lines represent the insertion of -the petals and 
the small points that of the stamens. 

This arrangement is not universal nor even always found in 
the flowers of plants belonging to the same family as the buttercups. 
For example, the stamens of the columbine, which is a member of 
the great Ranunculus family, to wliich the buttercups belong, are 
arranged in about ten rows radiating from the central group of 
carpels. (Fig. 37). In flowers of other families there may be a 
single row of five, six, or more or less stamens or in still others, 
especially in flowers which are " irregular " the stamens may all 
be moved to one side or, as in orchids, consolidated and attached, 
to the pistil. 

Eeturning to our buttercup flower, beyond the spiral row of 
stamens we find the five petals, their inner borders being attached 
to the receptacle in a row just outside the ranks of the stamens. 

At the base of each of the petals is a little sac, the nectary, which 


is more distinctly shown in the buttercup petal than it is in many 
flowers. (Fig. 34.) 

These five petals appear at first to be arranged in a circular 
line, each occupying an equal space in the circle, but if we shave 
the fiower as before and examine with care we find that they over 
ride one another in a broken spiral as seen in the diagram, Fig. 36. 

As in the case of the arrangement of the stamens, this disposition 
of the petals may not hold for other flowers although it is typical 
of many. In the flowers of the lily, for example, three petals 
occupy each a portion of a circle while the three other petaloid 
members of the bell, in fact sepals, occupy a circle beyond these. 

As also in case of stamens, in " irregular " flowers the petals 
may assume positions not at all typical. Thus, in the flower of 
the sweet pea three of the petals are situated much to one side, 
while a fourth, which is in fact a union of two, occupies much of 
the other side. 

Leaving the petals and examining our buttercup flower further 
we find inserted into the base of the receptacle, in a ring outside 
the petals, the five green sepals. (Figs. 28, 32.) These are ar- 
ranged about the base of the receptacle in much the same order as 
the petals, one overlapping the other to a certain extent, but alter- 
nating with the petals. 

Thus we have the four elements of the complete flower arranged 
in four series from within outward in the order, the pistil, the 
stamens, the petals and the sepals; the petals forming tlie corolla, 
the sepals the calyx. 

But wliile these four sets of organs 'are generally in this order 
they are not always thus disposed, for in certain cases the stamens 
are inserted, not in 'a circular group next to the pistil but upon the 
base of the petals and again, tliey may find this insertion upon 
the calyx. So also the calyx and corolla may seem to arise, not 
from below the base of the pistil but from above the rounded base. 

Such peculiarities are important as characteristics in the classi- 
flcation and description of the flower and should be carefully 

When the whorls of stamens and petals are arranged ])e1ow the 
pistil and free from it they are technically said to be hypoqynons. 
(Fig. 38), and as this term is much used in botanical works it is 
a good one to romomber as is also the term epigj/nmis (Fig. 40) 
which is applied when iho calyx, corolla and stamens seem to grow 
at the summit of the rounded base of the pistil, the ovary, as is 
the case with the rose where the ovary forms a gracefully oval base 


to the remainder of the flower. When the petals and the stamens 
are united with the calyx at its base, appearing to rise from it, 
whether the calyx adheres or not to the ovary the flower is said to 
be perigynous (Fig. 39.) 

These few technical words are introduced here because they 
occur so frequently in botanical literature and the characters are 
so important from the point of view of describing the flower that 
the student of plants even if he proposes to interest himself only 
as an amateur should carry these terms in his mind. 

Before leaving the description of the flower we must not fail 
to call attention to some characteristics of the inner whorls, the 
pistils and the stamens. On a knowledge of these characteristics 
much depends in the identification of a plant by means of its 


The pistil or pistils occupy, as we have seen, the central portion 
of the typical flower. (Fig. 43.) At the basal part of each pistil 
is the distended portion containing the ovules, destined to become 
the seeds, and this distended portion is known as the ovary. This 

Fig. _ 38 — Diagram of a flower in which the corolla and stamens are hypogynous, 
i. e., situated below the ovary. 

Fig. 39 — Diagram of a flower in which, although the corolla is inserted below the 
ovary, the stamens are inserted on the corolla, above the ovary. The stamens are 

Fig. 40 — Corolla and stamens inserted above the ovary, epigynous. 

ovary may consist of a single enclosure or carpel or it may be par- 
titioned into several compartments or cells. 

The ovules are found in these compartmens or cells as they are 
called but the part of the cell to which they may be attached diiTers 
in different plants. Thus, in our buttercup the single ovule is at- 
tached to the side of the single cell of the carpel. (Fig. 41.) 
In other flowers a column rises through the center of the ovary 
and about this the ovules are arranged. In still others, the ovules 
are attached to the partitions which divide the ovary into com- 
partments and in still other cases they are attached to the ridges 
which represent unfinished partitions. The adjoining figures 
illustrate some of the methods of arrangement of the ovules and 
the character of the cells or locules of the ovaries. (Figs. 43, 44.) 


The parts of the flower are regarded as modified leaf-forms and 
the ovary is not an exception. If we suppose a leaf folded once 
with its borders united we have a conception of an ovary of a 
single carpel, from the united borders of which may arise a single 
ovule or several ovules. If two or more such folded leaves are 
combined to form an ovary we have an ovary of several carpels 
which may be permanently separated by the infoldings of the 
elemental leaves which will form so many partitions or, should 
these infoldings not extend to the center or should, in the course 
of the process of formation, some part of the infolding borders 
fail of development the partition will be only partially or not at 
all formed and the compound carpel may show only some partial 
indications of partitions and when although the original borders 
may have united, parts of the folds are wanting there may remain 


41 42 43 44 

Fig. 41 — Carpel of Buttercup — a, shell of carpel; b, seed. 

Fig. 42 — A pistil-^a, ovary; b, style; c, stigma. 

Fig. 43 — Diagrain of attachments of ovules to placentas on the wall of the ovary. 
These placentas are known as parietal placentas. 

Fig. 44 — Attachments of the ovule around a central column. The points of at- 
tachments are central placentas. 

a central column in the cavity of the ovary with only the peri- 
pheral indications of the typical structure. 

Kising from the rounded ovary is found, in a majority of the 
more typical flowers, a column which, in botany, is known as the 
style. There may be a single style which may arise from an ovary 
of a single locule or from one in which several locules are united 
or there may arise several styles from a number of carpels. The 
style differs in length and in comparative thickness in dilTerent 
flowers as in the case of the long and slender style of the tiger 
lily and in the short and thick one of the buttercup. Altliough, 
in its typical form it is a rounded and regular column it assumes 
other forms as in the orchid in which it is flattened ami bears 
the stamen on its side or as we have seen it in the silk of the Indian 
corn where it is a long drawn out filament. Many other flowers 
may be found which afford an interesting study of this organ for 
each form of the pistil as a whole is designed so as best to promote 
the function of the organ, wliich is an ndjum-t lo fho jirocess of 


perfection of the seed. In some cases the style appears to be 
wanting as in the case of the poppy in the flower of which the 
broad capital, the stigma, of which we are presently to speak, rests 
directly upon the globe-shaped ovary. 

Culminating the style as its terminal is a glandular, somewhat 
spongy appurtenance known as the stigma and which is destined 
to receive the pollen grains which must fertilize the ovules. This 
stigma is porous and the style is not as it appears from a super- 
ficial glance a solid column, but it encloses a canal or several canals 
leading to the ovary and through the pores of this stigma and 
through these canals of the style the pollen grains or the extensions 
of these grains find their way to the ovules. The stigma to a 
single style may be divided into several parts, for the style may 
branch at its summit into two or more divisions and on each of 
these divisions is found a stigma. 


The stamens, forming a ring outside the pistil and in some 
measure protective of it are designed as the source of supply of 
pollen grains. Like the pistil the stamens may assume various 

Fig. 4.q — A few forms of stamens — a. Anther; b, Filament. 

forms but the typical stamen arises as a filament terminated by 
an organ which appears to be differentiated from itself and to be 
attached to it, sometimes firmly and sometimes very slightly at 
the end of the filament. This is the anther of which more will be 
said as we proceed. 

These stamen filaments are more or less numerous in different 
flowers but in one great class of flowering plants, the class in which 
the leaves are parallel veined or nearly so, (the lily family, the 
rushes, etc.) they are usually three in number or in multiples of 
three. In another great class which includes many of those plants 
with net veined leaves, the stamens are generally five or multiples 
of five, less frequently four. If we strip the petals from a flower 
of cranesbill geranium, so common in our woods in early spring, 
we shall find ten stamens alternately in two rows the filaments of 


the inner row being much longer than those of the outer row. In 
other flowers the stamens may number twenty or more.^ Even 
when found in these large numbers the arrangement in rows can 
generally be made out and the multiples of five are also generally 
to be observed. (Fig. 45.) 

Notable exceptions to the general arrangement occur some of 
which Avill be mentioned when the architecture of the flower is 

The terminal body attached to the stamen is the anther. If we 
examine one of the anthers which dangle from the long stamens 
of the tiger lily we shall see that it is an elongated elliptic body 
along which, from end to end, extends a groove on the side opposite 
the attachment of the stamen. This groove is so deeply cut in 
some anthers that it almost or completely divides the anther into 
two which are connected by a narrow band of connective tissue. 
Again, each of the two divisions has a lesser groove, generally, as 
in the case of our lily, running longitudinally, and again, the two 
main divisions of the anther may be divided by a deep transverse 
groove, making four lobes of a single anther, each with its lesser 
longitudinal or transverse groove. In instances far less common 
the anther may be divided into sinuous lobes or into lobes which 
are transverse to the axis of the filament or it may take other forms 
which are quite atypical. Whatever form is found in the anther 
of an individual plant, as for example, that of our lily, it is the 
common form for that species and no important modification of 
form is found in the anthers of flowers from the same species of 

The antlier is the pollen carrier and the secondary grooves form, 
when the pollen is mature, the openings tlirough wliich the pollen 
grains escape. For as the grains enlarge the anther bursts open 
at these secondary grooves and the pollen lies exposed in such a 
way that the wind, tlie foot or the head of an insect or some other 
instrumentality may reach it and carry it to a neigliboring pistil. 

In the case of our lily the anther is seen to swing liglitly from 
the slender point of the somewhat strong filament l)ut if we look 
at a stamen of a water lily we see the anther attacliod by its back 
along the course of the flattened filament and again in some flowers 
the anther is fixed solidly as a capital at the summit of the filament. 

We may now examine the pollen wliich is tlie essential product 

^Collectively the stamens are called the androccixtm, as collectively the carpels 
and pistils arc called the gynoccium. 



of the anther and the substance without the application of which 
to the pistil the ovules do not become seeds. 

The yellow dust constituting the pollen when viewed by the 
unaided eye appears like other dust with no especial individuality 
of form. But if we place some grains of it under the lenses of a 
moderately magnifying microscope we see at once that each grain 
is a beautiful organized structure, though there are comparative 
grades of beauty in the grains of pollen from different flowers and 
it is interesting to note that the forms of greatest beauty are not 
always from the most attractive flowers. (Fig. 46.) 

Generally rounded but sometimes spindle-shaped or cubical its 
surface may be elegantly facetted, delicately lined, covered with 
small points or smooth and glistening. Usually the grains are 
dry with little inclination to cohere to each other but in exceptional 
cases they are more or less glued together in little masses such as 
are found in the flowers of the milkweed and orchids so that when 
any part of the pollen is removed from its bed the whole mass 


Fig. 46 — Some forms of Pollen Grains. — a. Phlox; b. Monarda; c. Marigold; d. 
Lily — all magnified about 500 times. 

clings to the object which removes it. The grains may also be 
comparatively heavy or comparatively light. In some of the pines, 
for example, the pollen grains are supplied with little air vesicles 
which serve as balloons and enable the grains to float at long dis- 
tances in the air. 

When the pollen grain is brought into immediate relation with 
the stigma it begins to grow into an elongated fibril which pene- 
trates the spongy substance of the stigma and finds its way down 
the channeled pistil till it comes in contact with the ovules which 
at once take on a new form of life and develop into perfect seeds. 
Naturally the amount of pollen produced by individual plants 
will depend largely upon the probable waste that must occur in the 
process of transmission to the stigmas of other flowers than the 
one which bears the pollen. ITence we find a greater abundance 
of pollen produced by wind fertilized plants than by those in which 
the process of fertilization is carried on by the aid of insects. In 


some of these wind fertilized plants the amount of pollen is almost 
incredible. The cone bearing plants, pines, spruces, etc., must pro- 
duce such an infinite number of these floating bodies as to insure 
the falling of great numbers upon distantly removed cones in 
such a way that they must remain attached to the stigmas. 


Notwithstanding tlie great variety of forms of flowers a close 
comparison indicates that, in the main, flowers are constituted on 
a few general and pretty uniform plans and that the variations 
of form depead, not so much on the adoption of new plans as on 
the modification of the few general plans. 

We have examined the various elements of a flower, pistil, 
stamens, corolla and calyx and we have found that the first two of 
this group of organs are essential while the others are protective 
or useful as auxiliaries. 

Botanists have adopted certain diagramatic figures to express in 
graphic form the relations of these floral organs in the architectural 
structure of the flower. For example : if we would express the numher 
and relative position of the members of a flower of the Iris family, 
a diagram something after the manner of that at Fig. 47 would be 
employed. At the center Is found the three-rayed figure enclosed by 
a thin line. The three rays are lobed at their extremities. This cen- 
tral figure represents the column to which are attached the two rows 
or" ovules in each of the three cells of the ovary. The ovary with its 
closed cells is represented by the heavy line just beyond the center. 
Beyond the line representing the ovary is seen a dottotl line with throe 
small crosses. The dotted line indicates the circle in which three sta- 
mens would be found were they develojied, but since they are unde- 
veloped the crosses indicate the points at which they would have been 
found had they been developed. 

Beyond this is another dotted line in which are three scolloped fig- 
ures and these figures represent the actual, fully developed, three sta- 
mens of the iris. Beyond the circle for the stamens we find a circle 
represented by three heavy lines and another circle of three i)arts not 
shaded. It is customary to represent the inner of these two circles by 
solid lines, the other by shaded lines. They represent, the inner circle, 
the petals, the outer, the sepals. In this case both circles represent 
colored organs. Below this circular part of the diagram is seen an- 
other heavy curved line which represents a bract at the base of the 
(lower and, as the flower of iris is not always terminal we see at the 
upper side of the diagram the line representing another bract and a 
small circle, which represents the stem. 

In expressing the arrangement of a flower with five sejials, five 
fK'tals, five stamens and a pistil with a five-celled ovary the diagram 
Fig. 48 would be used. 

In each of these cases the diagram is drawn without reference to 


the level of the origin of these members and, as will be seen, in each 
case the members are not only regularly but typically disposed since 
we have, in the case of the Iris, three members of each of the four 
whorls, while at the inner whorl, the fifth, the ovules are shown as 
two for each cell of the ovary or, for each border of the folded leaf 
of which the cell is supposed to be formed. In the other case the 
members are five in each of the whorls and, like the first, the members 
of one whorl alternate with those of the adjoining one and are sym- 
metrically placed. 

But while the general plan may remain, many modifications of it 
may occur, for example : the five members in the whorl of stamens 
may be doubled or multiplied several times. On the other hand, some 
one or more of the meml)ers of one or more of these whorls may be 
suppressed or, as frequently, it is merged with a neighboring member. 

Thus, in the case of the lily, there are two I'ows of stamens of three 
each, while as we see in our diagram of the iris there is but one row 
of developed stamens while another row, indicated by the crosses, re- 
mains undeveloped. Also a single member of one or of several of the 
whorls may be suppressed as it happens in the great mustard family 
where we have four sepals, four petals, four long and two short sta- 
mens and one pistil composed of two united carpels. 

Besides the multiplying of the whorls in some cases and the sup- 
pression of the whole or a part in other cases we find frequent in- 
stances in which the members of some or of several of the whorls have 
been moved toward one side of the peduncle and as a result we have 
a one-sided flower as in case of the pea. 

This, like other parts of the delightful study of botany would be 


an interesting topic to pursue much more in detail were the fpace 


The arrangement of flowers on the flower stem constitutes one 
of the means of identifying the different species of the plant. 

Wlien the single flower finds itself the sole occupant of an 
isolated portion of the stem it is said to he solitary as it is in case 
of the violet or the tulip hut very frequently the flowers are disposed 


in groups which ma}' be simple or quite complicated. We speak 
of such a group as the inflorescence. 

In the inflorescence of many plants there are found members 
which do not answer exactly to leaves and are not properly a part 
of the flower, they are bracts, often found at the base of the im- 
mediate flower stem or at the base of the flower itself. We have 
an example of the first in the fringy collar below the radiating 
pedicles in the flower cluster of the wild carrot and of the other 
in the green organs below the head of the china aster. These 
bracts sometimes take unusual forms, as that at the base of the 
small cluster of flowers of the linden, and from which the cluster 
appears to grow. These bracts often fill an important part in the 
arrangement of clusters of flowers though many clusters are 
without bracts. 

Coming to the most common arrangement of flower clusters we 
may conveniently arrange them in the form of a table : 

L Flowers arranged along the plant stem without flower stems 

or with very short ones A Spike 

II. Arranged along the plant stem on short flower stems, but 
which are gradually somewhat longer toward the base 
A Raceme 

III. A similar arrangement, but each flower stem branching into 

two or more A Compound Ruccinc or Panicle 

IV. Flowers on flower stems branching from nearly the same 

point and reaching about the same level . A Simple Corymb 

V. Flowers borne on branched divisions of a corymb 

A Compound Corymb 

VI. and VII. Flowers on somewhat long flower stems all from 
the same point and radiating like the rods of an mnbrella 
to a common level or rounded (Figs. VI and VII) An Umbel 

VIII. The flower stems of an umbel branched to form secondary 

umbels .1 Compound Umbel 

IX. A si)iko more or less snrrounded on at least one side by a 

spatho A Spadix 

X. The flowers arranged more or less compactly on a I'eceptacle 

and surrounded by bracts A Head 

XI, Inflorescence on a succession of new a.xes, the primary, 

secondary, etc., axes each terminated by a flower . A Cyme 

XII. A cyme in which the inflorescence coils upon itself 

, 1 Storpoid Cyme 

XIII. Arrangement similar to a panicle, but the branches one- 
sided A Sccund Panicle 

Abkangement of Flowers 



As the ovules, under the fertilizing influence of the pollen 
advance toward maturity, they and the immediate envelopes which 
enclose them become modified and are known as the fruit. 

While in fact the maturing seed with its immediate protecting 
membranes is the fruit, popularly the fleshy or pulpy modification 
of some accessory part is regarded as the fruit. Thus, in the 
strawberry the little hard shining bodies are the real fruit while 


the delicious pulpy substance which gives value for us to the berry- 
is a modification of the floral receptacle, and the rich substance 
of the apple is another example of the excessive growth of the 
receptacle on which tlie seeds first rested and then were enveloped 
by it. 

The forms which the fruit may take during the process of 
ripening are important elements in the determination of the species 
of plants and are often employed in the differential descriptions. 

The following table will serve to show some, but not all, of the 
principal forms of fruit. 

1. Simple Fruits 

This division includes fruits which have a dry envelope in contrast 
with the fleshy fruits. 

a. Fruits in which the carpels at maturity are burst by the in- 

ternal pressure of the seed, but which have no regular seam 
which opens when the seed is ripe. 
Pericarp (surrounding of the seeds) not a winged fruit. 
Fruit of a single cell and enclosing a single seed. Example: 
buttercup, anemone, fruit of composite flowers (Fig. 49 and 

50) Ati AcJiene 

Fruit in which 2, 3, or 4 achenes are united into one is known 
respectively as, Diachene, Triachene, etc. 
Pericarp developed at the borders into a broad, spreading wing 
or wings. Example: maple, ash, etc. (Fig. 51) . .A Samara 

b. Fruits in which the carpels, at maturity open at a regular 

seam or, technically, a dehiscence. 
Fruits which consist of a single carpel or of several carpels not 

joined together, the dehiscence of which is in the direction 

of the axis of the carpel. 
Opening by a single seam. Example: columbine, larkspur 

(Fig. 52 and 53) A Follicle 

Opening by two seams. Example: the pea (Fig. 54) 

A Pod or Legume 

Fruit a compound ovary more or less hard and woody and which 

opens at the side or top (Fig. 55 and .50) A Capsnle or Casket 
An ovary of two elongated carpels which are joined, side by 

side, and which open from bottom to top leaving a partition 

between the two I'alrcs (Fig. 57) A Silique 

A .silicic is a short silique. Those forms arc characteristic of 

the family of cruel fers. 
An ovary of one or more carpels opening transversely, a cap- 
sule like a little cup with a lid (Fig. 58) . A Pyxis or Box 

2, Fleshy Fruits 

Fruit in which the seed is immediately surrounded by a strong 

membraneous or woody wall. 

o. The seeds each (usually 5) surrounded by a tougli membrane- 
ous or cartilaginous wall. Example: apple, pear, etc. (Fig. 
GU) A Pome 

Fbuit Forms 




49. Cluster of achenes of buttercup. 

50. A single achene from the group. 

51. Samara of maple. 

52. Follicles of columbine. 

53. A single follicle half open. 

54. Pod of pea. 

55. Capsule of violet, open. 

56. Capsule of sileiie showing the 

complete capsule and a section. 

57. Silique of mustard. 

58. Pyxis of " four o'clock." 

59. Berry of gooseberry. 

60. Pome. 

61. Drupe. 

62. Cone. 

63. Husk oi horse chestnut, showing two 


64. Hip of rose. 

65. Compound fruit of strawberry. 

66. Compound fruit of raspberry. 


h. A small fruit with a membraneous covering which includes a 
soft pulp in which lie the seeds. Example : currant, goose- 
berry, blueberry (Fig. 59) A Berry 

The orange and lemon would come under this group. 

c. A compound ovary of carpels with a strong, rather thick 

envelope containing a pulp in which are distributed the seeds. 
Example : melon, cucumber A Gourd or Pcpo 

d. A fruit in which the seed is protected by a hard, woody wall, 

a nut, or stone. 
The stone covered by a fleshy succulent layer. Example : 

cherry, plum (Fig. 61) A Drupe 

The stone not covered by a fleshy layer. Example : oak, 

chestnut (Fig. G3) A Nut 

3. Aggregated Fruits 

Many small seed bodies included on the surface of a pulpy or dry 

convex receptacle Multiple Fruits 

The receptacle pulpy. Example: strawberry (Figs. 05, GG). 
The receptacle dry. Example: potentillas, roses (Fig. G4). 

4. Compound Fruits 

Include the cones of the Pine family, Fig. G2, and some other forms 
not common with us. 


The ovule, when it has been fertilized through the influence of 
the pollen, takes on a new form of growth in which there is the 
beginning of the prospective plant, the embryo. 

In the ovules of plants belonging to the great division to which 
the grasses, sedges, palms and lilies belong — ^the monocotyledons — ■ 
the embryo is formed at the base of a single lobe or cotyledon of 
the developing seed (Fig. 70), while in the grand division to which 
most of the plants with net-veined leaves belong — ^the dicotyledons 
— the embryo is formed between two lobes or cotyledons (Fig. G7). 

The presence then of one or of two cotyledons or lobes in the 
seeds, constitutes the distinguishing feature characterizing the two 
great types of plants whose seeds are enclosed in an ovary. In the 
group of cone-bearing trees, pines, spruces and the like, the coty- 
ledons are not uniform in number, there being from three to 
several cotyledons in the single seed. Fig. 71 shows a young pine 
with the expanding cotyledons, numbering eleven, in a verticel. 
At the summit, still holding tlie cotyledonous leaves together at 
their extremities is seen the tegument of the seed, not yet cast off. 
As the plantlct pushes upward a new whorl of leaves will appear 
and later other whorls. 

Even in the- class of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants 
there are occasional exceptions in the numbers of cotyledons, for 
the seeds of the pond-weeds, for example, among the first great 



class may have more than one cotyledon, while exceptions, like the 
seed of the African Kola tree, in which there may be from one to 
several cotyledons, occasionally occur in the other class. 

These cotyledons with the enveloping tegument and the embryo 
comprise the essential elements of the seed. 

Commencing our examination with the tegument we find that 
not only does it invest the seed, but that while apparently a single 
organ it consists, in fact, of several layers of each to which names 
are given> 

To the outer membrane or layer which is commonly smooth, as 
we see it on the grain of corn or wheat, may occur various modifica- 
tions which are devices for the dissemination or protection of the 
seeds. These modifications may be in the form of appendages such 
as hairs, hooks, bristles or wings. 

The ovule is lield in relation to the ovary by a little connective 
organ, the funiculus, and the point at which this little bond of 
union is attached to the ovule or seed is marked, 
when the latter separates from the ovary, by a spot 
known as the chalaza. 

The essential part of the seed is, of course, the 
embryo, which is, in fact, the rudimentary young 
plant, and it is to this that all other parts of the 
seed are subsidiary. Thus, the cotyledons store up 
nutriment which will be required by the embryo 
during the early stages of its development until it 
can draw its nourishment from the soil or other 

The embryo consists of a radicle which is des- 
tined to form the root and of a plumule, the rudi- 
ment of the stem and leaves (Fig. 67). The coty- 
ledons occupy, as a rule, much the largest portion 
of the seed and form, in dicotyledonous plants, the 
first pair of leaves which are often thick and fleshy fig. ' 67 — Coty 
(Figs. 67 and 68), while the single cotyledon of the £in"'shoVin™'^m" 
grain of corn forms, in germination (Fig. 70) a ^''y between, 
storage body which does not rise above the surface 
of the soil and does not assume a green color, as do the cotyledons 
of the bean, the maple or the oak. 

While the nutrient material is often stored in the cotyledons, a 
reservoir of nutritious matter is sometimes found in an independent 
body known as the albumen, which varies in its nature and position. 

1 The outer layer of the integument is the testa, the second is the mesosperm and 
the third the endosperm. 



The embr3'o, which lies at the base of the single cotyledon of the 
grain of wheat and almost straight between the lobes of the bean 
ma}' curve around the albumen mass in the seeds of certain plants 
and from the fact of the encircling of the albumen by the embryo 
of such plants, as for example, the Corn Cockle, and many other 
plants of the pink family, this feature is an important element in 
the classification of the plants. In still other seeds tlie albuminous 
mass completely encloses the embryo. 

It is unnecessary here to discuss the processes attending the 

Fig. 68 

Fig. 69 

l^G. 71 

germination of the seed beyond mentioning some of the more obvi- 
ous phenomena. Under the influence of the air, of moisture and 
of a certain degree of heat the parts enclosed within tlie mem- 
braneous or woody coverings swell and break through the outer wall 
by separating its parts at certain seams or joints, or tearing it in 
an irregular manner. Thus the young plant commences an inde- 
pendent existence. 

The plumule of a seed which has been buried in the soil pushes 
toward the ■ light and air while the radicle penetrates even deeper 
into the soil. At this stage the cotyledon may, as it usually does 
in case of plants of the dicotyledonous class, cling. one to one side 
of the little stem, the other to the other side and as the stem pushes 
upward they appear above ground as the two first leaves as we see 
them in the fleshy seed leaves of the bean (Fig. 67). As the expan- 
sion of the plumule proceeds the characteristic leaves of the plant 
appear as we see them in the young maple shown at Fig. 08. At 
Fig. (id we see a young oak, one of the cotyledons of which has not 
yet thrown off the shell of the acorn. 


The single cotyledon of the nionocotyledonous class does not 
usually rise above the soil as do those of the other great class, but 
remains hidden where the moisture of the soil can aid it in its 
nourishment of the new plant. At Fig. 70 is shown the young 
plant of maize, tlie shell and cotyledon remaining near the branch- 
ing and descending radicle. 

In the seed of the pines there are several cotyledons, and they 
rise in a little spindle-shaped structure formed of a number of 
symmetrically curved ribs, lifting the shell of the seed at their 
summit like a little cap, as we see it at Fig. 71. At length the 
cap is thrown off and from the midst of the group of cotyledon 
rays arises whorl after whorl of needle-like leaves. 


To the amateur the names of plants are a source of difficulty 
and often of perplexity. The common name of an individual plant 
usually differs not only in words, but in meaning, so far as it has 
a meaning, in different languages. Even in the same language 
there are often many names for the same plant in different local- 
ities and the same name is often applied to plants widely different 
in character and appearance. 

Hence, for an English-speaking person to know the common 
names of the plants growing in his or her vicinity might be of 
little advantage, since in another locality these common names 
might be differently applied or other names might be used for the 
same species. 

This unfortunate state of confusion existed when Linnaeus, the 
great systematizer, not only of botany, but of other branches of 
natural science, adopted a system of giving to each plant two 
names which, in some sense, compare with the names which we 
apply among ourselves; for example, we say, James Monroe; Mon- 
roe referring to a group of persons and James to an individual. 

In plant naming we use the two names much in the same way; 
thus, we say: Viola tricolor: Viola being the name of a group 
which is called a Genus, while the qualifying or specific name tri- 
color refers to the three colors found in the flower of this species 
and is its specific name. 

A rule which is now almost universally accepted requires that 
the Genus or the Species shall bear the name given it by the person 
first describing the Genus or Species. Thus, although many species 
of violets were known before Linnaeus, he first applied the name in 


the system now current ; hence Viola remains in all countries the 
name of a group of plants having many common characteristics, 
while the specific name tricolor, also given by the same great botan- 
ist, remains the name for this particular species. 

In writing this name botanists are accustomed to follow it by the 
name or the initial letter of the authority giving the name; thus, 
Viola tricolor, L. But another species of Viola described and 
named by the botanist De Candolle is Viola arenaria, DC. 

A plant which has been assigned to a Genus, not the one to which 
it was originally assigned, retains the specific name given by the 
first authority whose name follows in brackets and the name of the 
later authority follows this: thus, Ranunculus Cymbalaria, Pursh, 
is now Oxygraphis Cynibalaria (Pursh), Prantl. 

It must be acknowledged, even by those who do not like to charge 
their memories with unfamiliar names, that this general system is 
most important and even necessary, yet it is unfortunate that so 
many men of learning have, in the naming of the plants which they 
have described, forgotten that simplicity and euphony should char- 
acterize the nomenclature of objects of interest. 

It is an interesting and most fortunate fact that the great 
Linnaeus, who introduced and established the double-name system 
and who gave their names to a vast number of plants, was a true 
lover of them and made it a rule to employ the simplest terms that 
he could find for his specific names; the terms which he used as 
generic names were, in a great number of cases, those which had 
already been employed for one or other plant of the group before 
he introduced his nomenclature, so that he was not always responsi- 
ble for these generic names, but even here, when he was at liberty 
to choose, he selected the most euphonic or the most familiar name. 
Thus the generic name Viola was not originally used by Linnaeus, 
but was selected by him from several applied to the same group; 
then, to specify a particular form of Viola he gave tlie specific 
name tricolor, an easy name to remember and one in eupliony with 
the generic term. Through all the vast lists of these specific names 
given by tbis great man the character of simplicity will be observed 
and it will be noticed also that these simple terms are repeated 
over and over. • This systematic effort at simplicity, it is unfor- 
tunately necessary to add, has not always been imitated by botanists 
of lesser fame. 



When we observe a considerable number of plants we may find 
among them striking differences in manner of growth, in compara- 
tive size and in the form of leaves and tlowers as well as in other 
details. But on further observation we may find in this diversified 
collection a number of groups, the individuals of which can only, 
with difficulty, be distinguished from each other, or which are 
quite indistinguishable from a slight examination. Observing still 
further we may see that some of these groups, the individuals of 
which are alike, strongly resemble some other groups, while the 
individuals of one group differ in some important respects from 
individuals of the other groups. We may carry these comparisons 
to several degrees of approximate resemblance and we may find 
that of the diversified collection, which at first seemed to possess 
no organization, we may separate the individuals into several more 
or less approximately related groups. 

Taking those first, the individuals of which resemble each other 
more than they resemble any others in the collection, we would 
have the first of our series of groups. Selecting next from these 
first groups the groups which most strongly resemble each other, 
that is, which have the greatest number of common characteristics, 
we would have a second grouping which, with perhaps many com- 
mon features, would still include some difl^erences. Still carefully 
observing we might still arrange this secondary group into a more 
general assemblage. 

This is what has been done in the classification of plants. In 
respect to the first group, the group in which the individuals so 
strongly resemble each other that, given the name of one individual 
we call all the others by the same name, it has been found that 
from the seed of one of these individuals we may obtain a plant 
just like the parent plant and like the other individuals of the 
original group. 

Such a group of individuals, from the seeds of which may be 
produced succeeding generations of similar plants, is known as a 

We need not then further define a Species than by saying that 
it is a group of individuals resembling each other more than they 
resemble individuals of any other group and that from the seed or 
from cuttings may be produced other generations similar to the 

Our second grouping would include plants which, although hav- 


ing characteristics common to all, would have less resemblances 
among the individuals than we find in the Species and if the seed 
of one member of the group were planted it would not produce a 
plant which would resemble all the members, but only members 
exactly like that which produced the seed. 

This secondary grouping is known as a Genus (meaning race, 
stock). It is the second step in our classification and the second 
easiest, for there are usually found between the species of a genus 
very obvious connecting features. 

But on much closer scrutiny we may collect these Genera into 
other groups with evident general resemblances shown either in 
general appearance or by the comparative study of one or more 
classes of organs. It is, in fact, by this latter method principally 
that this third grouping is determined and the groups are called 

Even these Families may be united into larger groups and we 
have Orders, and the collection of Orders leads us to Classes, and 
these Classes finally form Divisions. 

Thus, the mushrooms, which are without flowers and without 
seeds, belong to one Division, while the violet, with its flower and 
its seed, belongs to another Division; and of the flowering and 
seeded plants we have the large group of plants with parallel veined 
leaves whose ovules have a single lobe, belonging to one Class, while 
the plants with net-veined leaves and two-lobed ovules belong to 
another Class. 

We may then arrange our groups of plants, from the most gen- 
eral to the most specific groups, as follows : 

Divisions. Classes. Orders. Families. Genera. Species. 

It is found convenient in some cases to subdivide some of these 
groups, when the subdivisions are known as Sub-Classes, Sub- 
Families, etc., or, in the case of Species, as Varieties. 

In treatises and text-books during most of the nineteenth century 
it was the custom to arrange the sequence of Families according 
to a prevailing view of the perfection of the development of the 
plants from highest to lowest; commencing with what were regarded 
as the most fully developed, the plants of the jRanunculns Famihj, 
and proceeding towards those less completely organized. 

This system of arrangement has, within the past few years, given 
way to the much more natural and more reasonable arrangement of 
finding the sequence of the Families in the gradual evolution of 
the organs of the plants. This system has not simply reversed 
the order of arrangement with which many of us have become fa- 


miliar; investigation has changed the comparative rank of many 
Families so that the newer arrangement dilfers not only in the 
reversal of the sequences, but in a more or less general rearrange- 

Again, the text-hooks universally known in this country during 
the last half century and more, those of Gray and Wood, like others 
less generally used, employed the term Order for the grouping 
next higher than that of the Genus. The term Family is now used 
where Gray and Wood and their contemporaries used the term 
Order and this latter term is employed for a group of FainiUes. 

Thus we have, in the main, returned to the method of classifica- 
tion of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu which was published in 1789, 
but with modifications such as more recent investigations have 

The arrangement most generally accepted at present is that of 
Dr. Adolph Engler,^ which system, witli few modifications, has 
been followed in this work. 

The system is based upon the principle of development from the 
more simple to the more complex. Yet it is not always practicable 
to follow in a direct line such an evolutionary principle, since evolu- 
tion has progressed along different lines. Hence, one line is fol- 
lowed to its highest point of development. For example, along the 
line of monocotyledonous plants the Orchid Family represents the 
highest degree of development. It is more highly specialized than 
many plants of the Class of Dicotyledons, yet because, on the whole, 
this latter Class contains the most complex organizations, the 
whole of the Class takes rank above the whole of the Class of 
Monocotyledons, including the Orchids. 

This system of arrangement reveals the beauty of the principle 
of development in the Plant Kingdom and by the gradual modifi- 
cations which contribute to the characters of the successive Families 
the student is presented with a panorama of the history of the 
plant world which not only charms by the beauty of its symmetry, 
but enables him with much greater facility to comprehend and 
remember the relationship of the groups which he studies than was 
possible by the former system. 


Evidently in order to form a practical system of classification of 

^ Dr. Engler is Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanical Gardens and 
Museums of Berlin. 


plants certain characters must be chosen which are common to one 
group and which are absent from another. 

Thus we may commence with the individuals which are most 
alike and proceed toward those which have the least number of 
common characteristics or we may commence with those having 
but few characters in common and proceed to those in which most 
of the characters are common. 

The system which we may adopt may be an artificial one, such, 
for example, as the distinction between trees and herbs, water 
plants and land plants and other such characters. The beautiful 
system of Linnaeus which served so long as an almost indispensable 
aid in the study of plants was an artificial one based, for flowering 
plants, in great part, upon the number and relations of the stamens 
and pistils. Even now this system is perhaps the most convenient 
for the determination of the species. 

It has, however, in later times, given way to the system known 
as the natural method which has infinitely greater scientific value. 
It is in fact based, so far as our knowledge extends, upon the theory 
of genealogical descent, determined by the analogy of characters. 
To this we have referred in the preceding section. 

It would be impracticable in this place to indicate every element 
in such a great system, but for our present purpose we may con- 
sider the first great division in the plant kingdom as that which 
places all plants propagated by seeds in one class and those which 
are perpetuated without seeds in another. 

The plants included in this work belong to a single Grand Divi' 
sion of the Vegetable Kingdom. They are E ml ryo-h earing Plants 
(technically) Emhrj/ophyta. 

This Grand Division is also called the Division of Flower-Bearing 
Plants. It is characterized by the fact tliat the succeeding gener- 
ations are developed from true seeds which contain in themselves 
an embryo stem which terminates at one extremity in what is known 
as the plumule, the embryonic first leaf or leaves, and at the other 
extremity as the radicle or embryonic rootlet. 

The seed containing the embryo is always developed while con- 
nected with the parent plant. 

Ferns, true mosses, mushrooms and otiior non-flowering plants 
are propagated by a different form of generation. The non-flower- 
ing species of higher development arc propagated ])y spores which 
differ from seeds in being less specialized and apparently less 
elevated in the scale of development. In the lowest orders propa- 
gation is by simple division of the cell constituting the plant or by 
the formation within the parent cell of a group of similar cells 


which are set free by the bursting of the wall of the parent cell. 
This separating the seed-bearing from the non-seed bearing plants 
constitutes a natural and to a great extent a definite division. 

Taking now the plants which are developed from seeds we find 
certain very general features which are characteristic of large 
groiips. Thus, in a great class of seed-bearing plants the seeds are 
borne within a closed cavity; for example, the seeds of the pea-vine 
are enclosed within the pod, those of the rose within the rounded 
red fruit and those of the portulaca in a round capsule. On the 
other hand, if we examine one of the " cones " from a pine tree 
we find, on separating the more or less woody scales of which it is 
composed, the seeds lying between these scales not enclosed in a 
protecting chamber. This character prevails with all the species 
of pines, spruces and the like and seems to be an extremely old 
form of seed growth, for it is frequently found among the fossils 
of the carboniferous age. 

Tliis contrast between plants bearing seeds in an enclosed cham- 
ber and those plants bearing seeds not enclosed has been taken 
by botanists as the first line of division, and we have the First 
Division of embryo-bearing plants consisting of those with the 
seeds not enclosed, naked seeded, and a Second Division, including 
all those whose seeds are enclosed within a chamber and these two 
great divisions include all the embryo-bearing plants. Hence we 
have reached the first step in Classification. 

Although the Gymnosperms are divided into a number of groups 
all of the species in our northeastern States belong to a single class, 
the Coniferae. 

A difference in the construction of the seeds leads to two great 
classes among the Angiosperms or plants whose seeds are protected 
within an ovary. 

If a grain of wheat, or a seed from some other grassy plant, and 
a garden bean or pea are placed in water for a few hours the outer 
covering or integument can then be easily removed, when it will be 
seen that the two kinds of seeds act quite differently, that in case of 
the bean or pea the seed easily divides into two principal lobes 
between which lies a small leaf-like object, the embryo, while in the 
case of the wheat kernel no such division occurs, but the embryo 
lies curled at the base of the single lobe. The two larger parts in 
the case of the bean and the one principal mass in the case of the 
wheat are i^e lobes, or technically the cotyledons, which are 
masses of nutriment stored up for the ; support of the embryo 
until it can draw its own subsistence from the soil. 

The single lobe, with the embryo attached, the single cotyledon 


of the wheat seed represents for the whole class to which the grains, 
grasses, lilies, etc., belong, as the two lobes or cotyledons of the 
bean represent the structure of the seeds of the other class. 

Upon these facts then we may commence the formation of a 
table of classification as follows. 

First Grand Division.— CRYPTOGAMS 

This is not the more technical division for, in more recent times 
that division of the vegetable kingdom which has been long distin- 
guished by this term has been divided into several groups, which in- 
clude the Green Algae, Diatoms, Stoneworts, Fungi, Mosses, Fern-like 
plants and others. Since none of these classes are included in this 
work it is unnecessary to specify these divisions. The character which 
divides all these so-called loircr forms of vegetation from those with 
which we shall be occupied is the absence of flowers and of seeds. 
They were called in the Linnean system of classification Cryptor/ams 
{crypt OS, hidden), because the manner of fertilization was not under- 


This gi'eat division includes all plants having stamens and pistils 
and bearing seeds. The term Phanerogamia {phancros, visible), re- 
fers to the manifest organs of i-eproduction, the pistils and stamens, 
while the term Embryophyta signifies an embryo hcurcr. The division 
is divided into two subdivisions. 


Characterized by the naked ovules (gymnos, naked), that is, ovules 
not enclosed in an ovary. 


The subdivision characterized by the fact that the ovules are pro- 
tected within an ovary. 

The subdivision anoiospebms is divided into two great classes. 


Plants whose seeds have but a single lobe. 


Plants whose seeds have two (rarely more) lobes. 

These classes are again di-vided as we have seen in tlie preceding 
section into orders, these orders into families and these families 
into genera and then species. 

In the extended table at page 57 will be found characters gen- 
erally sufficient to lead us to the Order in Avliich we may lind a 
given plant growing native in our region. 



Many intelligent people believe that they have a genuine love for 
plants, yet they take a seeming pride in the fact that they know 
little or nothing of their natural relations or even their names, 
with few exceptions. 

It is impossihle to have any true appreciation of any class of 
objects or beings of which we have only the most superficial knowl- 

The pleasure experienced by one who has gained some acquaint- 
ance with a group of plants when such an one encounters a mem- 
ber of the group, which he or she has not met before, and the 
enjoyment of one who is prepared to make comparisons between the 
different species which may be encountered in a morning's walk, 
quite surpasses the indifferent satisfaction of one who is pleased 
only by the color and form of a flower, while the body of the plant 
is almost or completely disregarded. 

Fortunately something be3'ond a vague undefined enjoyment of 
plants is now desired by a much larger class of people than was 
formerly interested in them. 

If the technical names of the common plants met with in our 
excursions through the fields and groves arej learned, one soon be- 
comes interested in finding that these names express relations 
between individuals of different aspect, which would otherwise be 
unsuspected. A knowledge of the common names is quite insuffi- 
cient to enable the casual observer to detect these relations. An 
illustration of this statement might be found in the case of two 
species of Cornns common in our region. The excursionist meets 
with a little plant two to four inches high with a white flower 
succeeded by a bunch of red berries. He knows the plant as the 
" Bunch berry." Extending the walk, a tree twenty or thirty feet 
high is met with ; it is adorned with hundreds of large white 
flowers with green centers. The tree is the dogwood. In these 
names there are no suggestions of any relation between the little 
dwarf plant and tlie flower-bedecked tree. Should the excursionist, 
however, learn that the name of each is Cornus, he would be inter- 
ested to search for the resemblance and he would soon find that 
the " flower " in each case is a group of flowers arranged in very 
similar fashion, and that there is in fact a striking resemblance 
between the little herb and the spreading tree. 

Such relations and resemblances are to be observed on every 


hand and mainly by the use of technical names are these resem- 
blances and relations suggested. 

The corollary of this is that in order to enjoy the plants and 
flowers which we meet we should possess a knowledge of botany at 
least to the extent of recognizing common plants by their technical 

To one who would like to have a knowledge of the plants of his 
or her immediate locality an herbarium is important, not to say 
essential. One cannot alwaj's find a growing specimen which has 
already been identified with which to compare a newly found speci- 
men. The exercise which will soonest fix the name, character and 
relations of a plant in mind is the act of preparing it for and 
preserving it in an herbarium. 

An herbarium is a collection of dried plants arranged according 
to a system of classification. 

When the beginner thinks of the great number of plants which 
would constitute a complete herbarium he is in danger of discour- 
agement, but it is to be remembered that no herbarium is complete, 
even the greatest. A collection of tlie plants of a certain locality, 
a county, a town or even a lesser area is valuable according to its 
completeness for the given region and the amateur who will make 
a thorough collection of the plants growing in his town or even in 
his school district will be a contributor not only to his own enjoy- 
ment and to his own intellectual culture, but to science as well. 

Hence the collection should begin in the best way, and the best 
way is, after all, the easiest way. 

First, the botanist or the amateur plant-lover should be provided 
with a receptacle for the specimens to be taken home from his 
or her excursions. The most convenient receptacle is a tin box 
made for the purpose and sold by dealers and known as a vasculum 
or botanist's box. In absence of tlie conventional botanist's box 
any closed tin box may serve, such, for example, as those in which 
certain biscuits are sold at the grocers. Cardboard boxes are 
scarcely a protection and they absorb the moisture from the plant 
as blotting paper al)sorbs ink. People who send flowers by mail in 
cardboard boxes usually waste tlie stamps they use, while the friend 
to whom the flowers are consigned receives a crushed box with 
wilted flowers. A tin box with a fairly close cover will preserve 
plants quite fresh during several days, often more than a week. 

Plants for preservation or for study should be placed at once in 
the closed box in order to preserve their freshness. A few speci- 
mens of a single species are better than many. Small plants 
should be taken with the roots. Larger plants should always show 
characteristic leaves and portions of stem. The beginner should 


always commence with a collection of the commonest plants. If 
one waits for rare or beautiful specimens the collection will grow 
slowly and will be imperfect and unsatisfactory. 

The specimens which are to be preserved must go into the press. 
The form and materials for a press should next be considered. 
The purpose is to dry the specimens in the best manner, and in 
the least practical time. 

A press may be made of two thin boards, a few newspapers and 
a pair of straps with buckles. Dealers supply much better presses 
at a low cost, which are made of thin slats fastened to cross-bars, 
the two sides enclosing the drying papers, straps with buckles being 
used to produce the pressure which should be sufficient to flatten 
the specimens, but not enough to crush them. Such presses permit 
of more rapid drying than those made of boards. A temporary 
press may be made of a number of layers of newspapers laid upon 
the floor or a table over which a board is laid upon which is placed. 
a weight. Drying papers are sold by dealers, but by far the most 
convenient papers are ordinary newspapers, not calendered. While 
for some purposes they are not equal to prepared dryers they are 
always at hand. Many persons press small plants between the 
leaves of illustrated magazines. As these magazines are made up 
largely of highly calendered paper absorption is prevented and the 
specimens turn black or the leaves drop off. Experience will soon 
help the beginniner to know about how much paper should lie 
between the different specimens, but one rule might be stated. 
If a very considerable number of plants is to go into the press 
more layers should lie between the different specimens than would 
be required for a few. 

The plant to be preserved should, after being identified, be laid 
carefully between the drying papers in such a way as to show the 
leaves, stem, root, when practical, the flowers and fruit, if the fruit 
and flower are both on the same plant at the same time. If not 
there should finally be a specimen each for flower and for fruit. 
As the specimen is placed between the sheets there should always 
he placed with it a slip of paper with the name of the plant, the 
date when collected, the locality and, generally, the kind of soil 
in which it grew. This slip should be carefully preserved in con- 
nection with the specimen until the latter is finally mounted on the 
herbarium sheet when the record should be transferred to it also. 

Ranunculus acris. L. 

Englewood, N. J., 

May 15, 1909. 

Found in moist meadows, or dryer soil. 


Placing the press in the open air in the sunlight will hasten the 
drying, or at the seaside or in damp weather the press may be 
placed near a stove. When the specimen is dried it is ready for 
the herbarium. The mounting papers should if possible be of the 
standard size, 10^ x 16| inches. If it is inconvenient to have such 
papers the specimens may be kept in folders of fragments of news- 
papers or sheets of thin wrapping paper or they may be transferred 
temporarily to sheets of paper of any size by using fasteners which 
will permit of the final removal of the specimen to standard size 
paper, care being alwa3's taken that the record follows it. 

When a considerable number of specimens have been properly 
dried and mounted they should be placed in folders of manilla 
paper, each folder to receive the plants of a genus, the name of 
the genus to appear on the lower left hand corner. Should a genus 
contain many species and these perhaps some varieties, thinner 
folders may be used within the genus holders to separate the 
species, especially when it is desirable to preserve several speci- 
mens of the same species to illustrate the growth of the plant under 
different circumstances of soil or climate. It is a mistake to 
mount the specimens in a book. 

Finally, should the collection become large the genus folders 
should be arranged in a cabinet according to their families. 

It is better to keep specimens gathered in widely different locali- 
ties, for example, those collected in the Northern States and those 
from the Southern States in separate collections unless the collec- 
tion has become so important that it fully represents this broad 
extent of country. 







Among the plants familiar to us are found some wliicli do not 
produce seeds, that is, seeds in the sense that the grains of wheat 
or of mustard are seeds, each containing the embryo of a future 
plant. Such plants as ferns, mosses, mushrooms and a great num- 
ber of less conspicuous forms do not produce seeds of this kind, 
and, therefore, since a flower is a collection of organs essential to 
the evolution of the seed, these plants which are not reproduced 
from seeds have no occasion for flowers and consequently do not 
produce them. 

Plants producing neither flowers nor seeds constitute a great 
group by themselves, while those commonly known as "the higher 
plants " constitute another well defined group. 

This latter group, characterized by the production of flowers and 
seeds is known as the Grand Division of Flowering Plants. Tech- 
nically the Grand Division is known as Enihryophyta,^ the word 
meaning Emhryo-'plants or Phanerogamia, meaning plants having 
manifest flowers. 

In the introductory part of this work more detailed information 
regarding the principles of grouping in this Grand Division will 
be found. This should be carefully studied. 

The following table includes the Sub-divisions, Classes and 
Orders of this primary plant series so far as the orders are repre- 
sented by native plants in our area. 

The word Order as employed in the table and throughout this 
work is applied to a larger group than that to which it was applied 
in text-books a few years ago. The groups then known as orders 
are now known as families and an order, as the term is now used, 
may include several families. 


Plants which produce seeds. They are provided with fully devel- 
oped or with rudimentary stamens and pistils which are the essen- 
tial elements of flowers. They are grouped into two Sub-divisions 

' Thi3 grand or primary division is also known as Phanerogamia, meaning visible 
flowers, while the primary series, not endowed with such flowers is known as Crypto- 
gamia, or hidden flowers. 




Sub-Division I— GYMNOSPEEMAE^— Naked-Seeded Plants 

(Page 8i) 

Plants whose seeds are not enclosed in protective seed vessels. There 
are several Classes of Gymnosperms, only one of which is represented 
in our region, though the Ginko tree, which is somewhat extensively 
planted as an ornamental tree, is a member of one of these classes, 
not, however, growing as a native tree with us. Our native plants with 
this peculiarity of paked seeds are all included in a single group. 

Class— CONIFERAE—Cone-Beaeing Plants 

CPage 8i) 

The plants of this class are included in the Pine and Yew families. 
They are trees or shrubs with needle-shaped or scale-like leaves and 
are mostly evergreen. The seeds are borne on the face of a scale, a 
number of scales forming a cone. 

A vast majority of our flowering plants, however, have their seeds 
concealed in some form of closed envelope as is the case with the pea 
in its pod, the small seeds of the larkspur in their dry follicle or the 
seeds of the apple, enclosed by the tough parchment-like walls which 
are themselves surrounded by the pulp, those of the squash covered in 
by the pulp and the tough thick shell. Plants whose seeds are thus 
enclosed constitute the second great Sub-division. 

Sub-Division II— ANGIOSPEEMAE ^—Plants with Ex- 
closed Seeds 

(Page 89) 

Plants whose ovules or seeds are enclosed in a protective seed ves- 
sel, the ovary. 

This second Sub-division is divided into two classes, each charac- 
terized by the manner of growth of the stem and by the number of 
lobes constituting the seeds. 

Below are seen three figures representing the naked seeds of the Pine 
family and three examples of enclosed seeds. 

I. A scale from the cone of a pine with two winged seeds lying upon its surface. 
2. A cone of hemlock. 3. A single scale from a hemlock cone with its two winged 
seeds. The protection for the ovules thus lying upon the surface of a scale is from 
an overlying scale, the ovule resting between the two. 4. A pod of wild mustard, 
the three lower seeds are exposed by cutting parts of the pod. 5. Three follicles 
of monks-hood, the seeds of one follicle exposed. 6. Section of an apple, showing 
the membraneous core, which constitutes the immediate envelope for the seeds. 

» Ciymnos, naked; sperma, seed. 
^Aggeion, a vessel. 



Class I— MONOCOTYLEDONS— Plants with Single Lobed Ovules 

The seeds have a single lobe or cotyledon constituting a rudimentary 
leaf. The leaves of plants of this class are, in general, parallel- 
veined, and in the stem there is no distinction of pith, wood and bark. 
The flower of most of the land plants of this class and of the more 
highly developed of its aquatics, has its parts in 3's (petals 3 or 6, 
sepals 3 and stamens 3 or 6). In the submersed aquatics and in some 
other water plants of the class, also in some of the grass-like plants, 
the parts of the flower are in 2's or 4's or very rarely in 5's. 

Order I— PANDANALES— Cat-Tail Order 

(Page' go) 

Herbs growing in marshes or other wet places. The flowers are 
arranged on the fleshy terminal of the stem in the form known as a 
spadix, but without the leaf-like sheath characteristic of the Arum 
family. The envelope about the floral elements (perianth) is com- 
posed of bristles or chaffy scales and the flowers bearing stamens and 
those bearing pistils are in different groups, one above the other. The 
flowers are arranged in long cylindric groups or in rounded heads. 

7. Pistillate flower of Cat-tail 

Pistillate flower of 

Order II — HELOBIAE 1 — Water or Marsh Plants 

(Page 93) 

Plants wholly or partly submersed in water or partly floating. In 
some families the perianth (flower envelope) is wanting or incomplete, 
while in others it is present and conspicuous. The perianth has never 
more than 4 segments in a single series and it is only in the very 
inconspicuous flowers that there are so many. The more conspicuous 
flowers have a calyx of 3 sepals and a corolla of the same number of 
petals. The stamens number from 1 to many. 

II and 12 Pondweeds. 13. Ruppia. . 14. Arrowgrass. 15. Duckweed. 16. Arrow- 

Order III— GLUMIFLORAE— <5lumaceous Plants 

(Page 109) 

Flowers bearing glumes of dry husks, which take the place of the 
, ^Helos, marsh; bios, life. 



petals of other flowers. The class includes grasses and sedges. These 
are not included in this work. 

Oedeb IV— SPATHIFLORAE— Spadix-Flowebed Plants 

(Page 109) 

Flowers are borne on a fleshy, club-like receptacle (a spadix), which 
is usually surrounded by a broad leaf-like sheath, sometimes highly 
colored (A spathe). 






17. Calla. 

18. Arisaema. 

19. Acorus. 

20. Orontium. 

21. Peltandra. 

Ordee V — FARINOSAE — Plants with Mealy Seeds 
(Page 112) 

Flowers regular or nearly so (except in Commelina), the several 
carpels united into a single ovary. The flower parts are mostly in 
3's or 6's. Ovary situated above the corolla and calyx. Differs struc- 
turally from the following order in that the embi'yo is placed at the 
end of the seed opposite the point of attachment of the seed to the 

22. Xyris. 

23. Pipewort. 

24- 25. 

24. Day-flower. 25. Spiderwort. 

Oedeb VI — LILIFLORAE — Plants with Liliaceous Flowers 

(Page 117) 

Flowers generally conspicuous and symmetrical. The flower parts 
always in 3's; petals G, stamens 6 or 3, pistil 1 with a 3-celled ovary. 

26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 

26. Lily. 27. Onion. 28. Veratrum. 29. Bellwort. 30. Hyacinth. 31, False Lily- 
of-the-Valley. 32. Trillium. 33. Smilax. 

Oedeb VII — ORCHIDACEAE — Plants with Orchidaceous Flowers 

(Page 146) 
Leaves with parallel veins or veins spreading in elliptical lines. 
Flowers usually unsymmetrical, stamens growing in union with the 
pistil within the flower envelope. 

34- 35- 3<5- 37- 38. 39 40. 

34. Cypripcdiutn. 35. Orchis spectabilis. 36. Orchis orbicularis. 37. White bog 
orchis. 38. Fringed orchis. 39. Pogonia. 40. Calypso. 



Class II— DICOTYLEDONS— Plants with Twin-lobed Ovules 

(Page 164) 

The seeds have 2 lobes or cotyledons. The leaves are, almost al- 
ways, net-veined, and the distinction of pith, wood and bark is evident. 
The flower parts or members are very rarely in 3's, but usually iu 5's 
or less frequently in 4's. 


(Page 166) 

Petals separate (examples: Buttercup, Pink, Violet). This natural 
Sub-Class is here divided into two more or less natural groups, for 
notwithstanding the sub-class is composed of plants, the flowers of 
which are assumed technically to have divided petals there is, in fact, 
a great group in which the petals are undeveloped or in which the 
floral envelope is of a very rudimentary character. We shall then 
assume the groups : 

1. Flowers without petals 1st. Group, Apetalae 

2. Flowers with several petals or colored sepals. 2d. Group, 



Obdeb I- 

-JULIFLORALES — CatkiN-beaeing Tbees and Heebs 
(Page 166) 

Flowers grouped in large numbei's in catkin-like inflorescence or 
In fascicles. Flowers without corolla and often without calyx. Trees, 
shrubs and herbs. 

40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 

40. Staminate catkin of Willow. 41. Single flower. 42. Pistillate catkin of Wil- 
low. 43. Staminate catkin of Poplar. 44. Pistillate catkin of Poplar. 45. Pistillate 
catkin of Hornbeam. 46. Single pistillate flower. 47. Staminate cluster of Elm. 
48. Winged seed of Elm. 49. Catkin of Nettle. 50. Catkin of Hop. 

Oeder II— SANTALES— The Mistletoe Ordee 
(Page 196) 

Plants, (ours) all parasites; calyx present, sometimes colored, co- 
rolla absent, flowers not in catkins. Ovary 1-celled, below the sepals. 

5' S2 53 

SI. Mistletoe. 52. Flower of Wild dinger. 53. Flower of Dutchman's Pipe. 


Obdeb III — POLYGONALES— The Buckwheat Obdeb 

(Page 200) 

Our species, herbs, mostly in wet places. Flowers in general, regu- 
lar, the parts mostly in 3s. Ovary l-celled, 1-seeded, the seed arising 
from the base of the ovary. Leaves alternate, subtended by a collaret 
or sheathing stipule, technically an ocrea. 

54- 53- 56. 57. 

54. Single joint and leaf of Polygonum. 
Buckwheat. 57. Spike of flowers of Dock. 
of Door Weed. 60. Spray of Bind Weed. 

58. 59. 60. 

55. Catkin of Polygonum. $6. Leaf of 
58. Winged seed of Dock. 59. Spray 

Obdeb IV— €HEN0P0DIINEAE— Pig Weed Obdeb 

(Page 210) 

Our species always herbs, mostly weeds in cultivated grounds. (The 
beet and spinach are valuable cultivated species.) Flowers always 
with the members equal, but these are generally very small and incon- 
spicuous, rarely colored and the corolla is nearly always absent. Ovary 
1-cellel, 1-seeled. Leaves without stiimles or collaret. 

64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71- 7-2. 73- 74, 75. 

64. Summit of Pig Weed. 65. Transverse section of seed of Pig Weed. 66. 
Flower of same. 67. Summit of Orache. 68. Seed of Orache. 69. Summit of 
Slender Glasswort. 70. Spray of Dondia. 71. Section of seed of same. 72. Flower 
of Poke Weed. 7.S. Flower of Pink. 74- Flower of Carpet Weed. 75. Flower of 

Obdeb V— PHYTOLACCINEAE— Poke Root Ordeb 

(Page 221) 

A single, rather coarse plant, in our area, with flowers in a long 

nearly cylindric cluster. Individual flowers regular, stamens as many 

or more than the parts of the calyx. Corolla wanting, the calyx white 

or colored. 


In this group the flowers have, as a rule, both calyx and corolla fully 
developed, the corolla consisting of several petals distinct and separate 
from each other. Examples: Buttercup, Wild Rose, Poppy. In a few 
species in the Order Caryophyllineae, a few in the Order Ranales, and 
a very few in other Orders the petals are undeveloped. 

Obdeb I— PORTULACINEAE— Obdeb of Pubslanes 

(Page 223) 

Flowers with calyx and corolla, the former of 2 (or more) sepals, 

the latter of 4 or 5 (or more) petals. Stamens as many as the petals 

and opposite to them or sometimes more or less. Ovary of 1 cell with 

many ovules arising from the base. Fruit a capsule, opening as a lid 



at the top or by 3 teeth at top. 
above the petals and staiueus. 

Floral receptacle concave and the ovary 


(Page 224) 

Flowers generally with both calyx and corolla, the latter of several 
distinct petals, mostly 5. In Paronichia and in certain species of some 
other genera the corolla is undeveloped or only rudimentary. Ovary 
of 1 cell, above the stamens and corolla, many seeded, the ovules arising 
from the central column. Leaves always opposite and without teeth 
or lobes and without stipules. 

Order III — RANALES — Order of Polycarpes 
(Page 240) 
Flowers with several petals or in a few exceptional cases without 
apparent petals, regular or irregular. Stamens usually numerous more 
than the petals. Stamens and petals beloiv the ovary, which consists 
of 1 or more, frequently several, seed vessels (carpels) which, in gen- 
eral, are free from each other (example, those of the Buttercup). 
The parts of the flower are usually inserted in a spiral line. The 
Order includes Families differing widely in appearance, but which are 
united by these general characteristics. 

76. Flower of Water Lily. 77. Spray of Hornwort. 78. Section of flower of 
Ranunculus. 79. Flower 01 Columbine. 80. Flower of Larkspur. 81. Flower clus- 
ter of Barberry. 82. Flower of Mandrake. 83. Menispermum. 84. Leaf and fruit 
of Sassafras. 85. Flower of Tulip Tree. 

Order IV— RHOEADALES— The Poppy Order 
(Page 268) 

Flowers with double perianth, the petals usually 4, the sepals 2 or 
4, sometimes 8. The parts of the perianth are always independent. 
The receptacle is, with few exceptions, convex ; stamens 4 or more. 
Seed caskets (carpels) 2 or more, which ordinarily grow together, form- 
ing a single ovary as in the Poppy. 

86. " Head " of Poppy. 87. Fruit of Celandine. 
Flower of Cardimine. 90. Stamens and pistil of Cardimine. 91. 
Tower Mustard, opened. 92. Pod (silicle), of Shepherd's Purse. 

of Bicucula. 89. 
Pod (silique), of 
93- Pod (silicle), 

of Penny Cress. 94. Flower of Cleome. 95. P'lower of Mignonette' 

Order V — SARRACENIALES— Order of the Pitcher Plants 

(Page 291) 
Seed caskets (carpels) 2 or more united into one. Ovaries above the 
stamens, corolla usually of 5 petals. Leaves all at the base. In Sar- 



raconia the leaf stalk is transformed into a hollo\N' tube. Insectivorous 
plants growing in swamps, secreting a viscid substance which aids in 
the capture of insects. 

98. Flower of Pitcher Plant. 99. Leaf of Droscera. 

Ordeb YI — ROSALES — Order of the Rose Alliance 

(Page 292) 

Seed caskets (carpels) of variable number, free from each other or 
growing together. Petals and sepals usually 5. Stamens more numer- 
ous or of the same number. Flowers symmetrical or not. Receptacle con- 
cave. Leaves simple or compound. The stamens are usually inserted on 
the calj'.x a short distance from the ovary or at the top of the ovary. 

100. loi. 102. 103 104. IDS. 106. 107. 108. 109. 

TOO. Schematic section of Rose hip. loi. Fruit of Gooseberry. 102. Fruit of 
Cherry. 103. Section of Apple. 104. Fruit of Strawberry. 105. Fruit of Black- 
berry. 106. Flower of Wild Vetch. 107. Flower of Clover. 108. Pod of Wild 
Vetch. 109. Flower of Sensitive Pea. 

Order VII — GERANIALES — Order of the Geraniums 

(Page 364) 

Ovary superior to and free from the calyx. Stamens few, as many as 
the sepals and opiiosite them or fewer when the corolla is irregular. 
The ovules are pendulous, the raphe or ridge toward the axis of the 

110. III. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 

no. Fruit of Geranium. :ii. The same alter the bursting of the ovary. 112. Sec- 
tion of flower of Oxalis. 113. Flower of Flax. 114. Fruit of Flax. 115. Cluster 
of fruit of Prickly Ash. 116. Cluster of flowers of I'olygala. 117. I'lower of Poly- 
gala. 118. Flower of Acoylpha. 119. Flower of Eui)liorbia. no. Summit of Cali- 

Order VIII— SAPINDALES— Order of the Maples 

(Page 380) 

The characteristics which differentiate this order from the preced- 
ing is the fact that the ovules are ixMidulous tcith the ridge or raphe 
turned aKay from the axis of the ovary. 

121. 122. J23. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 

T2I. Spray of Empctrum. 122. Cluster of flowers of Sumac. 123. Berries of 
Holly. 124. Flowers of Kuonymus. 125. Leaf of Staphylca. 126. Fruit (key) of 
Maple. 127. Flower of Jewel Weed. 128. Flowers of Buckthorn. 129. Grapes. 



Oedeb IX — RHAMNALES — Order of the Buckthorn 

(Page 394) 

Shrubs, trees or vines. Ovary superior and free from the calyx. 
Stamens as many as the divisions of the calyx and alternate with them. 
When petals are present the stamens are opposite to them. Ovules 
not pedulous. 

Order X — MALVALES — Order of the Mallows 

(Page 396) 
Trees, shrubs or herbs with distinct petals and, usually, numerous 
stamens. Carpels united into a compound ovary, which is free from 
the calyx and above it. Sepals, in the bud, meeting but not overlapping. 
Ovule bearing surface forming a central column within the capsule. 

130. 131. 132. 

130. Leaf and fruit of Linden. 131. Flower of Mallow. 132. Fruit of Mallow. 

Order XI— PARIETALES— Order of the Violets 

(Page 400) 

Herbs, rarely trees or shrubs, ours all small herbs. Sepals overlap- 
ping each other in bud or are longitudinally rolled. Ovules generally 
attached to the sides of the capsule or rarely to central axis. 

133. Flower of Hypericum. 134. Spray of Water-wort 
weed. 136. Fruit of Pin-weed. 137. Flower of Violet. ' 
Passion .Flower. 

125. Flower of Frost- 
138. Flower of Yellow 

Order XII— OPUNTIALES— Order of the Cacti 
(Page 417) 
Fleshy and generally, spiny plants. Ovary inferior to the calyx and 
attached to it. Sepals and petals numerous, indefinite in number. 

Order XIII— THYMELEALES— Order of the Moose Wood 

(Page 417) 

In our area, all shrubs, not fleshy or spiny. Calyx extending up- 
wards upon the ovary and attached to it. In our species petals are 
wanting. Ovary of a single cell with a single ovule. 



Oedeb XIV— MYRTALES— Order of the :Myrtles 

(Page 418) 

Calyx attached to the ovary or the latter is free. Ovules are numer- 
ous. Petals present except in one family of aquatic plants. 

139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144 145. 146. 

139. Buffalo Berry. 140. Lythrum. 141. Flower of Rhexia. 142. Flower of 
Ludwigi-'. 143. Flower of Epilobium. 144. Flower of Evening Primrose. 143. 
Flower of Enchanters Nightshade. 146. Spray of Myriophyllum. 

Oedeb XV — UMBELLALES — Order of the Caeeot 

(Page 434) 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Flowers in umbels or umbel-like heads. 
Ovary surrounded by the calyx, each cell of the ovary containing a 
single ovule. Stamens equal in number with the petals and alternate 
with them. 

147. 148. 149. 150. 

147. Umbel of Aralia. 148. Umbel of Wild Carrot. 
150. Hydrocotyle. 141. Umbel of Cornus. 

149. Umbel of Bupleurum. 

{For Key to the Orders of Sub-Class II — Sympetalous or 
Monopetalous Exogens — See Page 456.) 


(Numerals in parentheses refer to corresponding numbers of the small 

1. Ovules lying naked, usually between the scales of a cone or a 
berrv-like body or on a fleshy disk. (1, 2, 3) 
. ! Class CONIFERAE. 2 

1. Ovules developed in a closed cavity (an ovary). (4, 5) 


2. Seeds (ovules) in a cone-like (1) body or in a 3-seeded berry 

PiNACEAE. Pg. 82 

2. Seeds (ovules) on a fleshy disk. (3) . . . Taxaceae. Pg. 82 

3..' Leaves mostly parallel-veined; flower parts visually in 3's; 

stem without pith. (6, 7) 4 

3. Leaves net-veined; flower parts mostly in 5's or 4's, not in 3's; 

stems with pith, at least when young. (8, 9, 10) . . . 25 

6. 7. 8. 9. 10, 



4. Plants not aquatic 13 

Aquatic Plants 

4. Aquatic plants, floating or submersed 5 

4. Aquatic plants, not floating nor wholly submersed .... 8 



5. Small green disks floating on the surface of water, usually with 
thread-like roots extending downward in the water 
Lemxaceae. Pg. 93 

5. Plants with true leaves and stem 6 

6. Flowers without white or colored perianth, arranged along a 

fleshy, club-like receptacle or in few flowered umbels. (11, 

12) ' Naiadaceae. Pg. 91 

6. Flowers with white or colored perianth 7 

7. Perianth adherent to the surface of the ovary. (15, 16) 

Vallisxeriaceae. Pg. 108 

7. Perianth not adlierent to the ovary, flowers subtended by a 

small leaf-like sheath, one or few in heads 

Heteranthera in Poxtederiaceae. Pg. 116 

8. Perianth of bristles, hairs or scales 9 

8. Flowers with minute perianth or none 11 

8. Perianth of well-developed and conspicuous parts .... 12 

9. Perianth of bristles or hairs, flowers in compact cylinders. 

(17) Typhaceae. Pg. 90 

9. Perianth of scales 10 

10. Perianth of one or more very small scales, flowers in dense 

heads. (18) Spargaxiaceae. Pg. 92 

10. Perianth of 6 husk-like scales, green or brown, rush-like 

plants. (22) Juxcaceae. Pg. 118 

11. Flowers without perianth, on a flosliy spike (spadix), usually 
surrounded by or subtended by a leaf-lilvo bract. (21) 
Araceae. Pg. 109 

11. Plants witli rusli-like cylindric leaves and flower stems. 
Flowers in slender spikes, periantii herbaceous. (1!)) 




11. Plants with basal leaves, often wholly submersed. Flowers 

in dense round heads. (14) . . . Eeiocaulaceae. . Pg. 113 






Flowers white; petals 3; sepals 3; flowers usually in succes- 
sive whorls on the stem. (13) . . . Alismaceae. Pg. 103 

Flowers blue, in a thick spike which, is subtended by a leaf- 
like sheath. (23) Poxtedereaceae. 

Flowers yellow, in elongated heads. (26) . Xyridaceae. 

Terrestrial Plants 

13. Flowers without perianth, on an elongated fleshy receptacle 

subtended by a leaf-like sheath. (27) . . Araceae. Pg. 109 

13. Flowers with perianth of dry scales; grass-like plants. 

(21) Order GLUMALES 

(The Glumales are not included in this work.) 

13. Perianth not of scales 14 

23- 24- 25. 26. 

14. Flowers regular or irregular, blue, the flower or cluster sub- 
tended by a leaf-like sheath. (24, 25) Commelinaceae. Pg. 114 

14. Flowers 'or clusters not subtended by a leaf-like sheath . 15 

15. Stamens and pistils free from each other 16 

15. Stamens and pistils united. (28, 29) . . Orchidaceae. Pg. 146 

16. Herbs 17 

16. Woody vines. (30) Smilaceae. Pg. 140 

17. Stamens 6, petals 6 19 

17. Stamens 3 18 


18. Perianth of unequal parts. (31) 
18. Perianth of equal parts. (33) 

. Iridaceae. Pg. 142 
Haemodoraceae. Pg. 141 



19. Veinlets of leaves in form of a net-work. (32) 

Trillium, in Convallariaceae. Pg. 138 

19. Veinlets not in form of a net-work 20 

20. Flowers in umbels, leaves and stem arising from a bulb . . 21 
20. Flowers not in umbels 22 

32. 33- 34- 35- 

21. Perianth adherent to the ovary . . . Amabillidaceae. Pg. 141 

21. Perianth not adherent to the ovary. (34) . Alliaceae. Pg. 130 

22. Climbing vines. (35) Dioscoriaceae. Pg. 142 

22. Plants not vines 23 

23. Styles 3, distinct. (36) Melanthaceae. Pg. 125 

23. Style 1 24 

24. Fruit a fleshy berry. (37) . . . . Convallariaceae. Pg. 134 
24. Fruit a capsule splitting lengthwise. (38) . Liliaceae. Pg. 124 



o. Flowers without Petals, 25 

l. Flowers with Several Petals, 54. c. Flowebs with United 

Petals, 119 

25. Trees, shrubs or undershrubs 26 

25. Herbs 39 

Trees, shrubs and undershrubs 

26. Flowers in catkins or catkin-like heads. (30, 40) .... 27 

26. Flowers not in catkins nor catkin-like heads 33 

27. Leaves compound, fcathor-formed (pinnate). (41) 

Juglandaceae. Pg. 178 

27. Leaves simple. (42) 28 

28. Parasitic shrubs, on other trees; fruit a berry 


28. Trees and shrubs, not parasitic 29 


29. Sap milky . Mobaceae. Pg. 194 

29. Sap not milky « ..... 30 

30. Calyx not present. (43) ............ 31 

30. Calyx present. (44) ...... , 32 

31. Ovary of 1 cell, with 1 seed. (45) . . . Myricaceae. Pg. 177 

31. Ovary folliculate, many seeded (46) . . Salicaceae. Pg. 167 

32. Both pistillate and staminate flowers in catkins 

. . . Betulaceae. Pg. 180 

32. Pistillate flowers subtended by an involucre, which becomes 

a bur or a cup at maturity ...... Fagaceae. Pg. 185 

33. Fruit a key (Samara) 

33. Fruit a rounded bur-like head 

. Liquidamber in Hamamelidaceae. 

33. Fruit a drupe or berry . 

33o Fruit a single seeded achene with a plumose tail 

Clematis in Ranui^culaceae. 

Pg. 306 
. 36 

34. Fruit a douhle key. (47) 

34. Fruit a single key. (48) 

35. Leaves simple .... 
35. Leaves of several leaflets 


. Ulmaceae. 
Fraxinus in Oleaceae. 

36. Leaves alternate 

36. Leaves opposite . 

37. Calyx 4- or 5-parted 

37. Calyx 6-parted . . 

38. Stamens 4 or 5 

38. Stamens 9 . . . 

Shepherdia in Elaeaganaceae. 
. . . . Thymeleaceae. 

. Santalaceae. 
. Laubaceae. 

Pg. 248 

Pg. 389 
. 35 

Pg. 191 

Pg 485 

. 37 

Pg. 418 

Pg. 417 
. 38 

Pg. 198 
Pg. 268 

Flowers without Petals, Herts 

39. Leaves alternate or all from the root 40 

39. Leaves opposite ,..........,.., 47 

40. Plant entirely aquatic, leaves dissected, the segments thread- 

like 41 

40. Plants terrestrial, leaves not dissected, not thread-like ... 42 

41. Leaves alternate Podostemaceae. Pg. 295 

41. Leaves in whorls Ceratophyllaceae. Pg. 243 

42. Stipules present, sheathing the stem above the joints. 

(49) Polygonaceae. Pg, 200 

42. Stipules absent 43 


43. Flowers white or pink, in long slender catkin-like spikes or 

spikes with small flowers 44 

43. Flowers never white, mostly in rounded masses or clusters or 

in spikes 45 

43. Flowers neither in close masses nor in spikes 46 

44. Fruit, 4 fleshy carpels Saurubaceae. Pg. 166 

44. Fruit a dark purple berry Phytolaccaceae. Pg. 221 

45. Calyx green or colored, minute . . . Chenopodeaceae. Pg. 211 

45. Calyx of dry scales or husks, and surrounded by dry, often 

colored bracts Amaeanthaceae. Pg. 218 

46. Calyx attached to the whole extent of the ovary. (50) 

Aeistolociiiaceae. Pg. 19{> 

46. Calyx not attached to the ovary 47 

47. Fruit a 3-lobed capsule. (51) .... Euphorbiaceae. Pg. 374 

47. Fruit an indefinite number of 1-celled carpels. 

Some species of Ranuxculaceae. Pg. 246 

48. Plants entirely aquatic 49 

48. Plants terrestrial 50 

49. Leaves opposite Callitrichaceae. Pg. 37& 

49. Leaves in whorls Haxoragidaceae. Pg. 431 

47. 48- 49 50. 51- 52- 

50. Leaves with stipules. (52) 51 

50. Leaves without stipules 52 

51. Twining vine or a plant with leaves of 5 leaflets from a com- 

mon point of insertion . . . Part of Ubticaceae Pg. 194 

51. Plants not twining and leaves not divided into leaflets 

Ubticaceae. Pg. 194 

52. Fruit a 3-celled capsule 53 

52. Fruit usually a 1 -colled capsule. 

Species in Caryophyllaceae. Pg. 225 

53. Capsule pendulous. (51) Euphorbiaceae. Pg. 374 

53. Capsule not pendulous Aizoaceae. Pg. 221 

h. Flowers with several Petals. Polypetalae 

54. Trees, shrubs, icoody vines 55 and 60 

54. HerU 82 














o. Woody Tines 

Fruit a number of single-seeded achenes, each with a plumose 

tail; sepals 4, resembling petals. (53) 

Clematis in Ranunculaceae. Pg. 248 

Fruit a berry 56 

Leaves of 3 leaflets . . Rhus radicans in Anicardiaceae. Pg. 384 
Leaves never of 3 leaflets 57 

Stamens 4 or 5 . 
Stamens 12 or more 

. 58 

Pff. 2GG 

54 \ . . . Menispermaceae. 

Throat of calyx crowned with a double or' triple fringe. 

(55) Passifloraceae, Pg. 416 

Throat of calyx not fringed 59 

Stamens alternate with the petals. 

Celastrus in Celastraceae. Pg. 388 

Stamens opposite to the petals Vitaceae. Pg. 395 

6. Trees and shrubs 

Leaves opposite 61 

Leaves alternate , 64 

Leaves opposite 

Fruit a capsule 62 

Fruit a berry 63 

Fruit a disk-shaped fleshy pod .... Celastraceae. Pg. 386 

Fruit of 3 inflated carpels Staphyleaceae. Pg. 388 

Fruit a double key (samara). (47) . . . Aceraceae. Pg. 389 

Fruit a membraneous 2-celled capsule. 

Hydrangea in Saxifragaceae. Pg. 302 

Fruit a globose leathery nut-like capsule. (56) 


Flowers in elongated clusters 
Flowers in umbel-like clusters. 


. cornaceae. 

Pg. 390 

Pg. 264 
Pg. 450 

53- 54- 55- 56- 57- 

Leaves alternate 
64. Leaves compound . 65 

64. Leaves simple 70 

65. Juice milky Anacabdiaceae. Pg. 382 

65. Juice not milky 66 

66. Leaves compound, fruit a Key (48) or stems armed with 

large prickles (not thorns) Rutaceae. Pg. 370 

66. Fruit not a Key and stems not armed with prickles on the bark 67 




















Flowers irregular 68 

Flowers regular 69 

Flowers yellow 
Flowers white 

Fruit a twisted key 
Fruit not a key . 

. Caesalpixaceae. Pg. 336 

Robinia in Papilioxaceae. Pg. 348 

. Simarcbaceae. Pg. 371 
Rosaceae. Pg. 306 

Flowers irregular Caesalpinaceae. Pg. 336 

Flowers regular 71 

Leaves with mostly permanent stipules 72 

Leaves without stipules or with small ones which fall early . 73 

Fruit a pendulous head of several ni'tlets. (50) 

Platanaceae. Pg. 306 

Fruit not a pendulous head of nutlets . . . Rosaceae. Pg. 306 

Stamens few 74 

Stamens usually more than 12 77 

Stamens 2 to 4, calyx segments 3. (60) . Empetraceae. Pg. 381 
Stamens 4 or 5, calyx segments more than 3 75 

Stamans alternate with the petals 
Stamens opposite to the petals 


Rhamnaceae. Pg. 394 

Fruit a 1 -celled globular berry . Grossulariaceae. Pg. 303 
Fruit a fleshy pod, splitting in the meridians. 

Celastraceae. Pg. 386 

Fruit a berry-like drupe with several hard nutlets. 

Ilicaceae. Pg. 384 

Fruit a woody 2-beaked capsule . . . Hamamelidaceae. Pg. 304 

Stamens united in 5 sets, flowers from a broad spatula- 
formed bract TiLiACEAE. Pg. 398 

Stamens distinct 78 

Stamens arising below the base of the ovary 79 

Stamens arising at or above the base of the ovary .... 80 

Fruit of many carpels borne on an elongated receptacle. 

(61) . Magxoliaceae. Pg. 244 

Fruit a large fleshy pod. (02) . . . . Anonaceae. Pg. 244 













Pistil 1, fruit fleshy, enclosing a single hard bony nut, a 

stone. (G3) Dbupaceae. Pg. 332 

Pistils several 81 

Fruit of several carpels not pulpy .... Rosaceae. Pg. 306 
Fruit a flesliy pulp enclosing leathery carpels. (64) 

. . . ". ' . . , POMACEAE. Pg. 328 

Leaves alternate or at tlie base 83 

Leaves opposite 105 

Leaves alternate or basal 

Flowers regular 84 

Flowers irregular 114 

Stamens not more than 12 85 

Stamens numerous 98 

Climbing or trailing vines Menispermaceae. Pg. 2G6 

Not vines 86 

Sap milky. (51) Euphokbiaceae. Pg. 374 

Sap watery s ... 87 

Petals 3. (65) '^. . . . ., * . . Limxanthaceae. Pg. 382 

Petals 4, rarely 2 , 88 

Petals more than 4 .... ^ ... 90 

Plant aquatic. (GO) Tbapaceae. Pg. 431 

Plants not aquatic 89 

63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 

89. Stamens 6 of equal lengths. (67) . . Capparadaceae. Pg. 288 
89. Stamens 6 of luiequal lengths. (68) . . . Ckuciferae. Pg. 272 

89. Stamens 2, 4 or 8 Oxagraceae. Pg. 422 

90. Flowers in umbels 91 

90. Flowers not in umbels : 92 

91. Styles 5, fruit a berry. (70) Abaliaceae. Pg. 434 

91. Styles 2, fruit 2 dry carpels. (69) , . Umbellifebae. Pg. 436 

92. Stamens arising below the ovary and free from it (hypo- 

gynous). (71) 93 

92. Stamens arising from the ovary, either near its base or from 

its summit. (72) . . . . 94 


93. Stamens 6 Beebekidaceae. Pg. 2G4 

93. Stamens 5 Linaceae. Pg. 368 

93. Stamens 10 or 12 95 

94. The long capsule splitting from below into 5 carpels, when 

ripe. ^(72) Geraniaceae. Pg. 364 

S?. Capsulo oval, round or columnar, not splitting from below, 

(73) Oxalidaceae. Pg. 366 

68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 

95. Calyx adherent to the ovary. . Ly thrum of Lytheaceae. Pg. 421 

95. Calyx free from the ovary 96 

96. Leaves all from the root. (74) . . . . Drosekaceae. Pg. 291 

96. Leaves mostly from the stem 97 

97. Fleshy herbs Crassulaceae. Pg. 296 

97. Herbs not fleshy Saxifbagaceae. Pg. 297 

Leaves alternate 
Stamens numerous 

98. Leaves floating on water, shield-shaped. (75) 

■ Nymphaeaceae. Pg. 242 

98. Leaves not shield-shape'd nor floating 99 

99. Stems of jointed fleshy masses without leaves. 

Cactaceae. Pg. 417 

99. Stems not fleshy, leaves present 100 

100. Plants with milky sap . . . (Part of) Papaveraceae. Pg. 269 

100. Plants with watery sap 101 

101. Leaves hollow, pitcher-form, (76) . . Sarraceniaceae. Pg. 291 

101. Leaves not hollow or pitcher-formed 102 

102. Stamens united at base forming a central column around the 

pistil. (77) Malvaceae. Pg. 398 

102. Stamens free, attached to the ovary. (78) . Rosaceae. Pg. 306 
102. Stamens free, arising below the ovary 103 

74- 75- 76. 77- 78- 

103. Carpels numerous Ranunculaceae. Pg. 240 

103. Carpel 1 . . . . Cistaceae. Pg. 400 



Leaves opposite 

104. Flowers regular 
104. Flowers irregular 



105. Aquatic weeds, usually fully submersed Haloragidaceae. Pg. 431 
105. Plants terrestrial or at least not fully submersed . . . 106 

79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 

106. Stem and leaves usually fleshy . . . Poetulacaceae. Pg. 223 

106. Stem and leaves not fleshy 107 

107. Calyx adherent to the ovary 108 

107. Calyx free from the ovary 109 

108. Leaves distinctly 3-nerved Melastomaceae. Pg. 422 

108. Leaves not 3-nerved Onageaceae. Pg. 422 

109. Stamens and pistils not in the same flower. Plants often 

with milky juice Euphorbiaceae. Pg. 374 

109. Stamens and pistils in the same flower 110 

110. Fruit a 5-celled berry-like drupe .... Araliaceae. Pg. 434 

110. Fruit not berry-like 111 

111. Stems swelling at the nodes. (81) . Caeyophyllaceae. Pg. 225 

111. Stems not swelling at nodes . . , 112 

112. Stamens numerous. (82) . .'.~. . Hypeeicaceae. Pg. 402 

112. Stamens not more than 12 . 113 

113. Leaves lobed Geraniaceae. Pg. 364 

113. Leaves entire Lytheaceae. Pg. 420 


Flowers with several petals 


114. Trees Hippocastanaceae. Pg. 390 

114. Herbs 115 

115. Stamens 20 or more Eanuxculaceae. Pg. 246 

115. Stamens not more than 12 116 

116. Calyx of 2 sepals Papaveraceae. Pg. 269 

116. Calyx of 3 sepals Balsaminaceae. Pg. 392 

116. Calyx of more than 3 divisions 117 

117. Fruit a pod (legume, example, Pea) 

Caesalpinaceae. Pg. 336, or Papilionaceae. Pg. 339 

117. Fruit a capsule 118 

118. Capsule splitting into 3 equal parts. (83) . Violaceae. Pg. 409 
118. Capsule splitting at the margin .... Polygalaceae. Pg. 371 

118. Capsule opening at the top Resedaceae. Pg. 290 

a Flowers with the petals partly or wholly united. 

119. Herbs 127 

119. Trees or shrubs 120 

120. Leaves alternate 121 

120. Leaves opposite 125 

121. Lofty tree, stamens more than 10 ... . Ebenaceae. Pg. 482 
121. Shrubs, stamens 10 or less than 10 122 

^2!Cc Petals united only at the base (84). Fruit a capsule 

Clethraceae. Pg. 458 

122g Petals distinctly united, fruit a capsule, drupe or berry . 123 

123= Calyr below the ovary. (85) 124 

123o Calyx attached to the ovary, its divisions above it. (86) 

Vacciniaceae. Pg. 470 

124, Small, moss-like plants Diapexsiaceae. Pg. 476 

124. Shrubs Ericaceae. Pg. 462 

125. Calyx above the ovary Caprifoliaceae. Pg. 590 

125. Calyx below the ovary 126 

126. Stamens 2 or 4 . . . Paulownia in Scrofulariaceae. Pg. 556 
126o rJtamens 5 Bigoniaceae. Pg. 576 

127. Climbing vines with long and juicy stems furnished with 

tendrils; Cucurbitaceae. Pg. 604 

127e. Climbing vines, or more or less erect herbs, with juicy 

stems, not furnished with tendrils 128 

127. Creeping vine with twin flowers . . . Caprifoliaceae. Pg. 590 
127. More or less erect herbs 129 

'i28. Plants with leaves and bell-shaped flowers. 

Convolvut.aceae. Pg. 500 


128. Plants without leaves, parasitic vines with small star-like 

flowers in dense clusters. (87) . . . Cuscutaceae. Pg. 503 

129. Herbs with milky juice 130 

129. Herbs with watery juice 131 

130. Styles united, pollen grains not in waxy masses, ovary su- 

perior to the calyx Apocynaceae. Pg. 493 

130, Styles not united, pollen in waxy masses, ovary superior 

to the calyx. (88) Asclepiadaceae. Pg. 494 

130. Style 1, ovary inferior to the calyx. (89) 

Campanxjlaceae. Pg. 605 

131. Ovary superior to the calyx 132 

131. Ovary inferior to the calyx 149 

132. Stamens twice as many as the lobes of the corolla. (90) 

Pyrolaceae. Pg. 458 

132. Stamens not twice as many as the lobes of the corolla . . 133 

133. Parasitic plants without green leaves 134 

133. Plants with green leaves, not parasitic 135 

134. Corolla regular. (91) Monotropaceae. Pg. 460 

134. Corolla irregular. (92) Orobanchaceae. Pg. 574 

135. Stamens free from the corolla 136 

135. Stamens borne on the corolla 137 

136. Style 1, fruit a capsule. (93) . . . . Primulaceae. Pg. 477 

136. Styles 5, fruit a bladder-like, 1-seeded sac. 

Plumbaginaceae. Pg. 482 

137. Corolla regular 138 

137. Corolla irregular 144 

138. Ovary 2, distinct 139 

138. Ovary 1 140 

139. Leaves with stipules, at least a line connecting their bases. 

Loganiaceae. Pg. 485 

139. Leaves without stipules 141 

90. 91- 92- 93- 94- 

140. Leaves opposite or in whorls .... Gentianaceae. Pg. 486 

140. Leaves all at the base, aquatic or marsh plants. 

^Iexyaxthaceae, Pg. 493 

141. Ovary 1, deeply 4-lobed Eoragixaceae. Pg. 508 

141. Ovary 1, not 4-lobed 142 



142. Styles 3 Polemoniaceae. Pg. 504 

142. Style 1 143 

143. Calyx deeply cleft Htdeophyllaceae. Pg. 507 

143. Calyx not deeply cleft Solanaceae. Pg. 545 

144^ Aquatic plants with dissected leaves. (95) 

Lentibulaeiaceae. Pg. 571 

144. Terrestrial plants 145 

145. Ovary of 4 cells, a single ovule in each cell 146 

145. Ovary of 1 or 2 cells 147 

146. Ovary not lobed Vebbenaceae. Pg. 518 

146. Ovary 4-lobed. (94) Labiatae. Pg. 519 

147. Ovary 1-celled, 1-seeded 148 

147. Ovary 2-celled, 2-seeded in each cell. (96) Acanthaceae. Pg. 576 

147. Ovary 2-celled, many seeded .... Scrofulariaceae. Pg. 550 

148. Leaves all at the base Plantaginaceae. Pg. 579 

148. Leaves on the stem. (97) Phrymaceae. Pg. 578 

149. Flowers in heads subtended by an involucre 153 

149. Flowers not in heads subtended by an involufre . . . . 150 

150. Ovary 1-seeded Valerianaceae. Pg. 598 

150. Ovary with more than 1 seed 151 

150. Ovary forming a drupe of several hard nutlets. 

Caprifoliaceae. Pg. 592 

151. Ovary with very numerous small seeds Campanulaceae. Pg. 605 

151. Ovary with few (1 to 5) seeds 152 

152. Leaves with stii)Ule3 Puriaceae. Pg. 580 

152. Leaves without stipules Caprifoliaceae. Pg. 590 

153. Flowers all expanded into rays. (98) . Cichoriaceae, Pg. 610 
153. Flowers not all rays 154 

154. Stamens distinct 155 

154. Stamens united into a tube around the style. (100) 


155. Stamens 2 to 4 Dipsacaceae. Pg. 602 

155. Stamens 5. (99) Ambbosiaceae. Pg. 628 




Examples of Flowers of Gymnosperms 

Z. A Cone of Pinus rigida with the scales separated to permit the escape of the 
seeds. 2, a single scale from the cone showing at a the thin covers of the 
seeds, the' location of which is shown at the base. 3, staminate flowers of a 
pine. 4, a spray oi' White Cedar with the small modified cones. 5, a berry 
of the pistillate flower of Dwarf Yew which is, in fact, a modified cone. 
6, the staminate flower of Yew. 

GYMNOSPERMAE. Naked Seeded Plants. 

A principal characteristic is the ahsence of an ovary or seed 
casket. The embryo is developed from a thin flat scale which is 
protected by the woody scales lying on each side of it (1), or 
within a fleshy fruit resembling a berry (5), but which is in 
fact a modification of one or more of the scales at the apex of a 
scaly cone while some of the lower scales may still be seen encir- 
cling the base of the drupe. In the first form the group of woody 
or leathery scales arranged spirally around a long axis forms the 
cone familiar as the fruit of the family of pines. In the second 
the berry-like fruit is that characteristic of the yew and the juni- 
per. In either case, whether the fertile flowers are in the form of 
a cone or of a drupe, the pollen flowers are scaly cones or cat- 
kins (3). 

The pollen and the ovules are not borne upon the same flowers. 
In our species the pollen bearing and the ovule bearing cones are 
found on the same plant (monoecious). 

Of this sub-division there is, in our region, but one class. 

Class— CONIFERAE. Cone Bearing Trees or Shrubs 

All the cone bearers are trees or shrubs and with a single ex- 


ception (the larch) they are evergreens. The leaves are either 
needle-formed or are flattened, scale-like, which overlap each 
other like little tiles (imbricate). The pollen flowers and the 
fertile flowers are in separate groups. There is no floral en- 
velope and the scale which bears the ovule, like that on which the 
pollen lies, is naked. There is neither style nor stigma. 

The class of cone bearers is, so far as we know, one of the oldest 
of all the classes of true seed bearing plants. Fossil remains of 
such trees are found in very ancient geological formations. 

In the class of cone bearers there are tw^o families. 

Fruit a red berry TAXACEAE 

Fruit a cone of woody or leathery scales or a brown or 

blue berry PINACEAE 

Family I.— TAXACEAE. The Yew Family 

The red, one seeded berry-like fruit (Fig. 5, page 81) is con- 
spicuous among the dark green, flat, needle-shaped leaves wliich 
are about an inch in length and arranged in opposite rows, one 
on each side of the stem. The pollen bearing cones are very small 
and inconspicuous (Fig. 6, page 81), with numerous (6 to 8) 
pollen sacs, while the disk-formed or hemispherical fruit is con- 
spicuous and attractive. The juice is not resinous. 

Characters of the Family. 

T. baccata, (L.) American Yew. {T. canadensis, Willd.) A low, 
spreading shrub with evergreen prickly leaves, which are dark shining 
green. Berries bright red. In rich shao^ naccs. 

Family' II.— PINACEAE. The Pine Family 

Trees and shrubs with resinous juice. The cones bearing pollen 
and the seed-bearing cones are on the same tree. Tliose with pol- 
len consist of an elongated floral axis bearing stamens arranged 
spirally. The fruit bearers are the ordinary cones, more conspicu- 
ous and permanent. At the base of each scale of the fruit cone are 
two or more ovules. 


The leaves are, 

1st. ISTeedle-shaped (pine, spruces, balsams and junipers). 
2d. Flat, scale-like leaves overlapping each other (white and 
red cedars). 
Fruit berry-like. 

Berry brown or blue Juniperus 

Fruit a cone composed of leathery or woody scales. 
Leaves in small bundles or fasciculi. 

Falling in autumn Larix 

Evergreen Pinus 

Leaves inserted singly on the stem. 

Needle-shaped leaves spreading in all directions. 

Leaves prismatic, more or less 4-sided . . . Picea 

Leaves flattened, not prismatic Abies 

Needle-shaped leaves spreading on opposite sides Tsiiga 
Leaves flattened and overlapping each other, not 

Two rows of leaves keeled, stem appearing flat- 
tened Thuja 

Four rows of leaves keeled, stem rounded Chamaecyparis 

The family is divided into two tribes, Cupressineae and 

Tribe L— CUPRESSINEAE. The Cypress Tribe 
The leaves are opposite or in whorls, not in bundles, and the 
scales of the cones are few compared with those in the next tribe. 


Leaves awl-shaped, in our species arranged in whorls of about three 

leaves each, or scale-like and overlapping. Fruit a false berry containing^ 

1 to 3 hard seeds. Berry embraced below by a few scales. Pollen bearing 

cones small, oval or globular, in the axils of the leaves near the extremity 

. of the stem and usually on a different plant from the fruit bearer. 

1. J. communis, L, (Fig. 8, pi. 1). Commox Juniper. A small 
tree or shrub, aromatic, leaves needle-shaped, prickly, 1/2 to 2/3 in. long. 
Berries turning from greenish the first year to dark brown or bluish- 
brown the second year. On dry hillsides southeast portion of our region 
and southward. Not common in our area. 

2. J. nana, Willd. Low Juniper. (J. communis, var. depressa^ 
Pursh. ) A low shrub spreading in a broad circular patch, sometimes 8 
or 10 ft. in diameter and about 2 ft. high. Leaves and fruit resemble 
those of the erect species, No. 1. Barren hillsides. Common. 

3. J. virginiana, L. (Fig. 7, p. I.) Red Cedar. A tree, generally, 
in our region less than 40 ft. high. Leaves somewhat flattened, short. 


overlapping, in four ranks. Ends of the leaves sometimes spiny. Berries 
round or oval, light blue or greenish-blue. Dry hillsides. Common. 

4. J. sabina, L. Shrubby Red Cedar. (J. sahina, var. procumhens, 
Pursh.) A low trailing shrub, often resembling a vine. Similar to red 
cedar in leaves and fruit. In northern sections of our region, mostly on 
sea coast. 

2. THUJA, L. 

Cones leathery or woody with but few (6 to 8) scales, ovoid, green or 
reddish-brown attached to extremities of the twigs. Leaves in four ranks 
clasping and overlapping each other, the lateral leaf keeled, giving the 
leaf-enveloped stem a broad flattened appearance. 

T. occidentalis, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 1.) White Cedar. Arbor Vitae. A 
tree often of large dimensions, branching extensively. Growing mostly 
in swamps. All parts aromatic. 

Trees similar to Thuja, with very small leaves in 4 ranks, forming a 
rounded l-eaf-encircled stem. Cones globose, with small knobs on the sur- 
face of the scales. 

C. thyoides, (L.) BSP. (Fig. 4, pi. 1.) Southern White Cedab. 

A tree, cone-like in form, generally in swamps. Young leaves bluish-green. 

Cones about i in. diameter, bluish, knobby. Swamps, principally in 
southern part of our area. 

Tribe II.— ABIETINEAE. The Pine Tribe 

Trees and shrubs with resinous juice. The leaves, all prismatic 
and needle-shaped, are arranged in spirals around the stem. This 
arrangement holds whether the leaves are grouped in bundles or 
are inserted separately. In the first instance the groups are ar- 
ranged spirally, in the second the individual leaves are so 

I. LARIX, Adams 

Tall tree with spreading branches. Leaves in fascicles of 20 or more, 
without shoath but growing directly from a knobby, woody support (sup- 
pressed branch) ; leaves deciduous. 

L. laricina,(Du Roi) Koch. (Fig. G, pi. 1.) Larch. Tamarack. Tree 
attaining a height of over 50 ft. It is our only species of the pine family 
with deciduous leaves. These grow in thick, diverging clusters, which in 
the spring are of a light and brilliant green color, J in. to 1 in. long. 
Each leaf of the fascicle starts in the axil of a minute scale. The brown 
cones are borne at the base of young branches. In swamps Leaves ap- 
pear in May. 

L. decidua, (^lill), the European species, with longer leaves, often 
cultivated in our region. 

3. PINUS, L. 
The young branches have short scaly leaves, in the axils of which spring 



Plate 1 
1. Picea mariana. 2. Tsuga canadensis. 3. Abies balsamea. 4. Chamae- 
cyparis thyoides. 5. Thuja occidentalis. 6. Larix laricina. 7. Juniperus 
virginiana. 8. J. communis. 


the fascicles (bundles) of the more ordinary needle-formed leaves. These 
last spring from short, woody pedicels (short branchlets) and each group 
is surrounded at the base by a fibrous sheath. The scale leaves fall as the 
others attain their growth. The bundles contain each from 2 to 5 leaves, 
the number depending on the species. Both pollen flowers and ovTiles in 
cones, the first smaller than the others and situated more terminally. 

The pines are mostly large trees with branches in whorls at regular 
intervals. The number of leaves in the bundles aids us in determining the 

Leaves in fascicles of 2's. 

Leaves 4 to 6 in. long P. resinosa 

Leaves 2 to 2J in. long P. itrginiana 

Leaves about 1 in. long, stout and thick P. divaricata 

Leaves in fascicles of 2's or 3's. 

Leaves 2J to 4 in, long, stout and rigid P. pungcns 

Leaves 3 to 5 in. long, slender and flexible. 

Cones pyramidal or conic P. echinata 

Cones globose or short oval P. rigida 

Leaves 6 to 8 in. long P. Taeda 

Leaves in fascicles of 5's P. strobus 

1. P. resinosa, Ait. (Fig. 2, pi. 2.) Canadian Pine. Red Pine. 
A very large tree. Cones oval with a rounded base, li to 2 in, long, 
near the ends of the branches. Bark reddish, flaky. Common in the 
northern half of our area, 

2. P, virginiana, Mill. (Fig. 3, pi. 2.) Jersey Pine. Scrub Pine, 
(P. inops, Ait.) Usually a small tree (20 to 30 ft, high), ungraceful in 
form, bark rough. Pollen cones 1/3 in, long, terminal; ovule cones at 
base of young branches, oval, 1 to 2 in, long, curved, scales with slender 
prickles. Rare north of Long Island. (Wadhams, N. Y,, also Jay, 
N, Y.—G. T. 8.) 

3. P. divaricata, (Ait.) Gord, (Fig, 4, pi, 2,) Labrador Pine, 
Scrub Pine. Gray Pine. (P. Banksiana, Lamb.) Sometimes a very 
tall tree, sometimes a tree of medium height, but often short and scrubby. 
Bark rough. Leaves may vary from | to 2 in. long, curved, diverged, with 
sharp points. Sheaths of fascicles quite short. Cones, long oval, the 
scales with minute prickles. Sandy soil, forming extensive forests, 
northern N. Y, and W. New England. 

4. P, pungens, Miclix. Table Mountain Pine, Large tree. Leaves 
mostly in 2's, sheath of leaves 5/12 to 8/12 in. long. Cones oval, scales 
with awllike spines at extremities uhich curve downward. Mountains 
in southern part of our area and further south, 

5. P. echinata, Mill. Yellow Pine. Very large forest tree. Cones 
pyramidal, about 2 in, long, extremities of scales of cone with small, 
straight spines, which do not curve downward. Southern part of our area 
and southward, 

6. P. rigida, Mill. (Fig. 5, pi. 2.) Pitch Pine, A forest tree 50 
to 80 ft. high. Leaves stout and stifT, Cones ovoid to globular, 1 to 2 in, 
long. Scales wedge-shaped, each with a recurved spine. Common, espe- 
cially in what are known as " Pine Barrens." 

7. P. Taeda, L. Old Field Pine, Large forest tree in the southern 
states, only rarely in the southern section of our region. Pollen cones 



^ ^/'i 

Plate 2 
1. Pinus strobus. 2. P. resinosa. 3. P. virginiana. 4. P. divaricata, 
5. P. rigida. 


terminal, long, almost cylindric. Fertile cones 6 to 10 in. long, 2 in. 
thick. Scales large with a ridge running transversely, a recurved point 
at its center. 

8. P. strobus, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 2.) White Pine. One of the largest 
of the pines. Formerly very common throughout our region. Young trees 
still quite common. Leaves more slender than either of the foregoing 
species, light green, 3 to 5 in. long. Cones cylindric, 3 to 5 in. long, 
without prickles on the scales. 

9. P. sylvestris, L. Scotch Pine. Cultivated species, at some points 
naturalized in our region. Leaves in 2's. 

3. PICEA, Link. 

Trees with rough bark, leaves all needle-formed, 1/3 to 2/3 in. long, not 
included in a sheath but each leaf is separately inserted. The spiral 
manner of insertion of the leaves gives the appearance of a cylindric 
brush to the leafy branch, the 4-angled leaves spreading in all directions. 
They are borne upon small woody projections which, when the leaves are 
fallen, give to the branch a rasp-like surface. The cones are oval or 
cylindric with thin scales, which have none of the ridges or points seen. 
upon the scales of pines. Tree cone-shaped, with spiry summit. 

1. P. canadensis, (Mill.) BSP. White Spruce. Cones nodding, 
cylindric, about 2 in. long, with short foot-stalks. Edges of scales not 
notched or toothed. Twigs not downy, whitish-green. N. Y. and north- 

2. P. rubra, Link. Red Spruce. Cones long oval becoming some- 
what acute at apex. Scales only slightly toothed and with striations on 
the surface Leaves very acute, light green, twigs sparingly downy. In 
our area generally. 

3. P. mariana, (Mill.) BSP. (Fig. 1, pi. 1.) Black Spruce. Cones 
oval or almost spherical, blunt at apex, without foot-stalk, 1 to 2 in. 
long. Edges of the scales jagged. Twigs downy, brown. 

Var. P. mariana brevifolia, Peck, is a slender tree which on high 
mountains is reduced to a small shrub with leaves ^ to ^ in. long. Scales 
with irregularly notched tips. Swamps and bogs in the northern part of 
our area. 

4. TSUGA, Carr. 

Trees with slender, very flexible branches with flat leaves, | in. long, 
which although actually arranged spirally appear as though in two ranks 
one on each side of the stem. Staminate cones about 1/5 in. long, in the 
axils of the leaves. Ovule bearing cones terminal, i in. long. Throughout 
our area. 

T. canadensis, (L.) Carr. (Fig. 2, pi. 1.) Hemlock. A large forest 
tree, with flat leaves and reddish-brown cones about i in. long. Through- 
out our area. 

5. ABIES, Juss. 

Trees with smooth bark on which are found " balsam blisters." These 
trees assume a beautiful pyramidal form and are the most ornamental 
of the coniferae of our region. The leaves are flat, scattered, longer than 
those of the spruces and of a rich, dark green color. Fertile cones cy- 

1. A. balsamea, (L.) Mill. (Fig. 3, pi. 1.) Single Balsam Fib. 



Leaves spreading, but appearing nearly as though in 2 rows on opposite 
sides of the stem. Dark green above, light bluish-green below. Through- 
out our area. 


The ovules in this great division are concealed in a cavity known 
as the ovary. (Fig. 1, below.) 

The flower consists essentially of a pistil, at the base of which 
is the ovary containing the ovules and one or two or more stamens 
bearing anthers on which are developed the pollen grains destined 
to fertilize the ovules. The pistil and stamens may occupy dif- 
ferent flowers. Flower receptacles bearing these two essential ele- 
ments separately may grow upon the same plant, in which case 
they are said to be monoecious, or the pistillate flowers may oc- 
cupy one plant the staminate another, in which case they are said 
to be dioecious. 

When the pistils and stamens are found on the same receptacle 
the flower is said to be a perfect flower and this is the form pre- 
vailing in the great majority of plants of this great division. 

Plants of this sub-division are divided into two classes. 

I, showing the numerous cotyledons of pine. 2, a grain of wheat showing 
the position of the embryo at the base. 3, a grain showing the development 
of the young plant. 4, the two cotyledons of a garden bean with the embryo 
between them. 5, a leaf 01 grass, showing the parallel veins of the mono- 
cotyledons. 6, a leaf of Asarum, showing the net veins of the dicotyledons. 


Plants with Single-Lobed Ovules 
The embryo has a single seed lobe (cotyledon) (Figs. 2 and 3, 
above). Leaves generally parallel-veined (or nerved) (Fig. 5), 
enfolding one another at the base (sheathing). Earely the leaves 
are net-veined. 


Flower, as a rule, 3 parted in its various divisions, thus, the 
perianth consists of 3 + 3 parts, all of which may have the appear- 
ance of petals, but which structurally may be regarded as being 
3 petals and 3 sepals. There are two rows of stamens, one row of 
which may not be fully developed. Although there is usually but 
one pistil, it divides at the base into an ovary of 3 divisions. Most 
of the plants of the first two orders vary in several respects from 
the prevailing type. 

Order I PANDANALES. Naked Flowering Plants 

Flowers without ja proper floral envelope. Stamens and pistils 
in different groups. These groups consist either in dense cylin- 
dric spikes or in ball-shaped masses. Instead of a floral envelope 
each staminate and each pistillate flower composing the dense 
mass of a spike is surrounded by a few hairs (in Typhaceae) or by 
small scales (in Sparganiaceae). They are all marsh plants with 
creeping root-stalks and grow in clusters. 

Flowers arranged in dense cylindric masses . . TYPHACEAE 
Flowers arranged in rounded heads . . . SPAKGANIACEAE 

Family I.— TYPHACEAE. Cat Tail Family 

Tall marsh plants with very long linear leaves and tall flower 
stalks bearing at the summit two cylindric flower masses, the more 
slender cylinder containing the staminate flowers above, the 
thicker and more conspicuous, the pistillate flowers, below. 


Cylinder of pistillate flowers 5 to 8 in. long, that of the staminate 
about the same length. Flowers immensely numerous. The bristles, 
which alone represent the floral envelope, enclose, in staminate flowers, 
groups of 2 to 7 stamens each. One (rarely more) pistil may also be 
enclosed by a single set of bristles. 

1. T. latifolia, I^. (Fig. 2, pi. 3.) Broad-leaved Cat Tail. The 
slender straiglit stems are from 5 to 8 ft. high, leaves as high or higher. 
The ilower cylinders become dark velvety brown. Tlie staminate cylinder 
extends down to and is in contact with the other, but the division may 
be distinctly seen. Marshes throughout the country. 

2. T. angustifolia, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 3.) Narrow-lkaved Cat Tail. 



Plate 3 
1. Typha angustifolia. 2. T. latifolia. 3. Sparganium eurycarpum. 4. S. 
simplex. 5. S. minimum. 6, Heteranthera dubia. 7. H. reniformis. 


Stem more slender than the last and generally higher. The cylinder of 
staminate flowers does not extend down to the other cylinder, but there 
is between the two a space of naked stem, oi from 1 to 3 inches. Sit- 
uations similar to No. 1. 

Family II.— SPARGANIACEAE. Bur-reed Family 

Marsh plants with long linear leaves and tall flower stem usually 
branching near the summit and bearing several globe-formed heads, 
the heads nearest the summit being much smaller than those be- 
low. The upper are the staminate flowers, the others the pistillate. 
Immediately below each of the larger balls a long slender leafy 
bract starts, which is related to the spathe of the arum family. 
Each ball of pistillate flowers represents a collection of many seed- 

SPARGANIUM, (Tourn.) L. 
Has the characters described above. 

1. S. eurycarpum, Engelm. (Fig. 3, pi. 3.) Broad Fruited Bub- 
BEED. Stem 3 to 8 ft. high; 2 to 4 pistillate heads on each stem, each 
usually on a short flower stalk; 5 or more smaller staminate heads above 
the pistillate. The extremity of the pistil divides in two parts (stigmas). 

2. S. androcladum, Engelm. Branching Bur-reed. Pistillate heads 
3 to 7, plant more branching than No. 1, and smaller, 1 to 2 ft. high. 
Pistil extremity (stigma) single. 

3. S. americanum, Nutt. American Bur-reed. Resembles No. 2, but 
is not branching. The lower flower heads on short stems. Low grounds. 

4. S. simplex, Hudson. (Fig. 4, pi. 3.) Simple Stemmed Bub-reed. 
Stem 2 to 24 in. high, not branching. Pistillate and staminate heads on 
a straight stem. Generally erect. Lower flower heads witliout stems. 

5. S. minimum. Fries. (Fig. 5, pi. 3.) Small Bur-reed. A slender 
floating species. From a few in. to 2 ft. high, with pclucid floating leaves. 
Generally, one staminate and about two pistillate heads. 

6. S. lucidum, Fernald & Fames. Plant 30 to 36 in. high, the leaves 
much overtopping the inflorescence. Pistillate flower heads only at the 
axils and on short stems. Fruit lustrous. Muddy shores, Mass. and 

7. S. angustifolium, IMichx. Slender, 12 to 36 in. high, growing in 
ponds and slow streams. Leaves very long and narrow. Head;* of pis- 
tillate flowers somewhat above the axils and lower ones on short stems. 
New England and west. 

8. S. fluctuans, (Morong.) Robinson. Plant l.'i to 40 in. high. Leaves 
narrow and long. Flower heads on branches, each of 2 or 3 branches 
bearing 3 to 5 heads. Margins of cool lakes, usually at a depth of 20 or 
30 inches. 


Order II.— HELOBIAE. Water Plants 

While all the plants of this order are fluvial the order does not 
by any means include all aquatic plants. 

The flowers may be destitute of floral envelopes or may have 
very imperfect perianths, or have perfectly developed and showy 
flowers, as in the Sagittaria. The stamens vary from one to many, 
the pistils also are indefinite in number. 

The characteristics of plants included in this order are therefore 
so varied that they must be found in the characteristics of the 
different families. 


Small rounded green bodies floating on the surface of pools 


Plants submersed or floating with very inconspicuous green- 
ish flowers. Submersed plants with upper leaves some- 
times floating, lower leaves alternate. Flowers situated 
on a fleshy cylinder, in a small axillary group or on a 
grooved receptacle, perianth wanting or consisting of 4 
fleshy segments. Leaves sheathing at base. Flowers in 
axils of leaves, pollen flowers with double perianth 

Plants with roots in water, hut with aerial stems and more 
or less conspicuous flowers. Perianth segments 6; sta- 
mens 6. Marsh plants with half-rounded, deeply-grooved 
leaves with membraneous sheaths at the base, not en- 
tirely submersed, flowers in long spikes terminally on tall 
flower stems TRIGLOCHINEAE 

Marsh herbs commonly not wholly submersed, but usually 
growing in water, with sheathing leaves, with flowers on 
a tall aerial spike and with the perianth (calyx and co- 
rolla) in 3's ALISMACEAE 

Submersed herbs with flowers arising from a spadix (a fleshy 
cylinder), but not surrounded by or resting upon a spathe 
■ (a leaf-like envelope) VAILISNERIACEAE 

Family I. — LEMNACEAE. Duckweed Family. 

Minute swimming plants, small green scales floating on the sur- 
face of still pools. The vegetative apparatus is reduced to a small 


disk less specialized than a leaf (a thallus). The rootlet is a 
floating thread extending from the under side of the green disk 
downward about an inch. From one side of the disk grows the 
minute flower, or, technically, flowers, for the minute group con- 
sists of two stamens and a pistil which, although in close relation 
are not considered as in the same receptacle. These are surrounded 
by a green envelope which is regarded as a spathe, hence these 
plants have been classified as closely related to the Arums. 

In the genus Woljjia, minute floating bodies, there is no root- 
like appendage. 

Characters included abovCj with the root-like appendages. 

1. L. trisulca, 1- (Fig. 3, pi. 6.) Ivy-leaved Di ckweeo. Fronds 
in form of a snow shoe, often more than ^ in. long. Ponds, ditches, etc. 

2. L. perpusilla, Torr Minute Ditckweed. Scale or frond about 
1/10 in. long, pear-shaped, with 3 nerves on the surface, purplish be- 
neath. Ponds, lakes, etc. 

3. L. minor, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 6 ) Lesser Duckweed. Nearly round, 
more or less 3-nerved, about J in. diameter, several sticking together. 
Common in stagnant pools. 

4. L. cyclostasa, (Eli.) Chev. Valdivia Duckweed. Oval with one 
extremity pointed, 1/12 in. diameter. No nerves on surface. 

5. L. polyrhiza, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 6.) Greater Duckweed. Disk 
rounded or oblong, 7 to 12 nerved. Rootlets in a cluster of 5 to 11. 
(This plant is assigned to a genus Spirodella, 8. polyrhiza, by Schleiden.) 

2. WOLFFIA, Horkel. 
In our region, minute flowering plants, the smallest of flowering plants, 
small grains which can only be distinguished from the lowor, non-flower- 
ing plants, by the aid of a strong magnifying glass. There is no root- 
like thread, the plant is not flattened like Lemna, but more or less glob- 

1. W. Columbiana, Karst. (Fig. 11, pi. G.) Plant nearly spherical, 
about 1/50 in. diameter. Not dotted. Floating near the surface of 
stagnant waters. 

2. W. punctata, Orisch. (W. brasilirnsis, Englm.) Plant oblong, 
about l/.'iO in. long, with brown dots above and below. Floating in simi- 
lar situations to No. 1. 

Family II. — NAIADACEAE. Pondweed Family 

Plants of fresh or salt water, entirely immersed except that the 
flowers may appear above water, and the upper loaves may float. 
Upper leaves usually in pairs, the lower generally alternate, and in 
2 rows. Flowers usually small, inconspicuous, in lengthened 


groups, tlie corolla absent or of various forms. The stamens con- 
sist of the anthers only, being without filaments or with only the 
rudiments of filaments. The stamens and pistil may occupy the 
same flower or separate flowers. 

Flowers on fleshy spikes. Perianth, when present, 4-parted. 

Found in fresh water Potamogeton 

Flowers without perianth, on a long-grooved receptacle which 

is nearly hidden by the grass-like leaf. Marine plant 


Flowers few, without perianth, fruit arranged in a false umbel 

surmounting a tall spiral fruit stalk .... Ruppia 
Flowers naked, pear-shaped, green, in small radiating groups 

m the axils of the leaves Zannichellia 

Margins of leaves spiny-toothed. Pistillate and staminate 

flowers on dift'erent plants. Pistil solitary, naked . Naias 


Aquatic plants mostly in shallow pools or streams of fresh water, with 
inconspicuous, greenish or sometimes dull reddish masses of flowers ar- 
ranged on a fleshy pediceled spike, perianth 4-parted, stamens 4 ; ovaries 
4; leaves all submersed or, the uppermost spreading into a long narrow 
or a rounded oval expanse, floating on the surface of the water. Lower 
leaves alternate, upper generally opposite. Lower leaves quite thin, mem- 
braneous; the floating leaves leathery and firm in structure. Stipules 
thin and generally resembling the membraneous leaves, they are, in some 
species, several inches in length. 

Group I : Upper leaves floating on the surface of the water and differing 
from the submersed leaves in form and texture. 

This group is again divided into two sections. 

Sec. 1. Floating leaves more or less heart-shaped at base, sometimes but 

slightly so. 

1. P. natans, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 4.) Common Pondweed. Stem 2 to 
4 ft. long; floating leaves 2 to 4 in. long, half as wide, on long leaf stems 
which are as thick as the main stem. Leaves elliptic or ovate, obtuse, 
tipped with an abrupt point at outer extremity. The nutlet has a deep 
impression down the middle. Leaf wings (stipules) very long (4 to 6 
in.) ; spike of flowers 1 to 2 in. long, dull green, protruding above the 
surface of the water. Common in still ponds and borders of lakes and 

2. P. Oakesianus, Robbins. (Fig. 1, pi. 5.) Oakes's Pondweed. 
Stems more slender than those of No. 1. Leaf stems thicker than the 
main stem. No groove on the side of the nutlet. Leaves elliptic, very 


slightly heart-shaped at base, about * as large as those of P. natans. 
Still waters, most of our area. 

3. P. pulcher, Tuckerm. Spotted Pondweed. Floating leaves large, 
3 to 5 in. long, 1 to 3 in. wide, oval, generally heart-shaped at base. 
Leaf stalks rather short. Flower stalk longer and spotted. Submersed 
leaves of two kinds, the upper lance, almost ribbon-shaped, 3 to 8 in. 
long, thin, pelucid, the lower broader, thicker and on a leaf stalk. Fruit 
3 ridged. Lakes and ponds, north to south in our area. 

Sec. 2. Floating leaves not heart-shaped. 
A. Submersed leaves expanded to somewhat hroad leaf blades. 

4. P. amplifolius, Tuckerm. (Fig. 2, pi. 4.) Large-leaved Pond- 
weed. Floating leaves (not always present) oval or broadly elliptic, 
rounded at base 2 to 4 in. long. Submersed leaves broader and longer 
(4 to 8 in. long), with short leaf stalks. Stipules very long, grass-like. 
Lakes, especially in northern half of our area. 

5. P. alpinus, Balbis. (Fig. 5, pi. 4.) Northern Pondweed. Float- 
ing leaves 2 to 5 in. long, often absent, lance-shaped, with apex broadest 
narrowing to a very short leaf-stalk. Submersed leaves much the same 
form, but with almost no leaf-stalks. Stipules broad, obtuse at free 
extremity. Flower stem 2 to 8 in. long, spike of flowers 1 to IJ in. long. 
Fruit reddish. Ponds and borders of streams, our area. 

Var. Faxoni, Morong. Faxon's Pondw^eed. Floating leaves rather 
shorter and broader tlian No. 6, and with very blunt points. Submersed 
leaves broader and with leaf-stalk i to 1 in. long. Creeks entering Lake 
Champlain from the east. 

6. P. lonchites, Tuckerm. Long-leaved Pondweed. (P. amerieanus, 
C. & S.) Floating leaves thin, opposite, elliptic, blunt or somewhat acute 
at apex, 2 to 6 in. long with lotig leaf stalks. Submersed leaves long, 
ribbon-like, wavy, acute at each end with leaf stalk 1 to 4 in. long. 
Stipules acute, 1 to 4 in. long. Fruit with 3 distinct ridges on the back. 
Ponds and streams. 

B. Submersed leaves narrowed to grass-like blades, not thread-like. 

7. P. heterophyllus, Schreb. Various-leaved Pondweed. Stems 
very long and .sk'iider. Floating leaves 1 to 2 in. long, broad, elliptic, 
sometimes approaching to heart-shaped at base, pointed at apex. Leaf 
stalks 1 to 4 in. long. Submersed leaves narrow lance-shaped or linear, 
acute at both ends, rather stiff, no leaf stalk. Stipules long, broad at 
base, obtuse at outer extremity. A very variable species as the name 
indicates. Common. 

8. P. spathulaeformis, Morong. Spatt'late-leaved Pon'oweed. Float- 
ing leaves broadly elliptic or ovate, with the external extremity broadest, 
ap(!X sharp jxiinted. Submersed leaves lance-shaped broader at outer ex- 
tremity and tapering to a short leaf stalk, stipules obtuse. Mystic Pond, 
Medford Pond, Mass. (said to be hybrid of /'. heterophyllus and P. Zizii). 

0. P. Nuttallii, Cham. & Sch. (Fig. 3, pi. 4.) Nuttall's Pondweed. 
(P. cpiphydrus, Kaf.) Floating leaves oblong, 1 to 4 in. long, tapering 



Plate 4 
1. Potamogeton natans. 2. P. amplifolius. 3. P. Nuttallii. 4. P. lucens. 
5. P. alpinus. 6. P. perfoliatus 


toward the base and blending into the short leaf stem. Lower floating 
leaves gradually modified until they pass to the form of the submersed 
leaves. Submersed leaves pear-shaped or elliptic and generally with 
nerves diverging from the base. Ponds and streams, through our area. 

C Upper leaves elliptic, lower leaves thread-like. 

10. P. hybridus, Michx. Rafinesque's Pondweed. (P. diversi- 
folius, Raf. ) Floating leaves elliptic, sometimes narrowed to lance- 
shaped, about 1 in. long, i as wide. Submersed leaves 3 or 4 in. long, 
thread-like, stipules obtuse, less than i as long as submersed leaves. 
Spikes of flowers at surface of water, i in. long, those in the axils of 
submersed leaves with about 4 flowers on a flower stalk J in. long, dif- 
fering in this respect from No. 9. Still waters, throughout our area. 

11. P. dimorphus, Raf. (Fig. 8, pi. 5.) Spiral Pondweed. (P. 
spiriUus, Tuckerm.) Stem 6 in. to 2 ft. long. Floating leaves 2/3 to 
1 in. long, i as wide. Leaf stalk about as long as leaf. Near the float- 
ing leaves are the cylindric flower spikes on stems ^ to 1 in. long, while 
in the axils of the submersed leaves the small rounded flower masses are 
tcithout flower stalks. Ponds and ditches, our area. 

12. P. Vaseyi, Robbins. Vasey's Pondweed. Floating leaves 1 to 
4 pairs, opposite, on fruit-bearing stems, i to ^ in. long, more than * as 
wide, stipules long and narrow. Flower spikes only on the stem of floating 
leaves. Eastern Mass. and westward. 

D. Floating leaves both elliptic and very narroio grass-like. 

13. P. lateralis, IMorong. Opposite-leaved Pondweed. Stem thread- 
like, branching, the brandies with floating leaves have no flower spikes. 
Floating leaves elliptic, obtuse, 1/3 in. long, i as wide as linear. Sub- 
mersed branches with very narrow linear leaves bearing flower groups on 
flower stalks 1 to 2 in. long, flower spike with about 4 flowers. Lakes and 
streams. Eastern Mass. and westward. 

Group 2. Leaves all submctscd or exceptionally a feio floating. 
A. Leaves hroad, rounded or heart-shaped at base, clasping the stem, 

14. P. perfoliatus, L. (Fig. G, pi. 4.) Clasping-leaved Pondweed. 
Leaves brf)ad]y oval or rounded, nearly or quite as broad as long, cordate 
and clasping the stem, upper leaves opposite, lower alternate. Ponds 
and streams, our area. 

Var. P. lanccolatus, with longer lance-shaped leaves. Lake Champlain 
and northward. 

15. P. Richardsonii, (l>enn.) Eybd. Leaves long, lance-shaped, base 
heart-shaped and chiH])iiig the stem, wavy, pale bright green. Quiet 
waters, New England and N. Y. 

B. Leaves broad lance-shaped not clasping at base. 

IC. P. bupleuroides, Fornald. Leaves nearly orbicular to lance- 
shapt.'d, olitusc at ajx'X, flat not crisped. Stipules inconspicuous, not 
usually developed. Fruit rounded, .somewhat 3-keeled. Brackish waters. 


17. P. angustifolius, Berchtold & Prest. Resembleg P. lucens, but is 
smaller and whereas all the leaves of P. lucens are submersed the upper 
leaves of this form are sometimes floating on the surface. The fruit of 
this species is 3-keeled while that of P. lucens is roundish and scarcely- 
keeled. Lakes, Vt., Conn., and N. Y. 

18. P. lucens, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 4.) Shining Pondweed. Leaves 3 
to 4 in. long, 1 in. broad, lance-shaped or the uppermost oval, often shin- 
ing. Leaf stalks short, flower stalk often 4 to 6 in. long. Through our 

Var. P. lucens connecticutensis, Robbins; leaves crisped, not shining. 
Conn, and N. Y., rare. , 

19. P. Zizii, Roth. Ziz's Pondweed. Smaller than P. lucens, but 
much like it. Branched at base. Floating leaves elliptic, 2 to 4 in. long 
with long leaf-stalks. Submersed leaves long, lance-shaped, wavy, the 
surface shining, on long leaf-stalks. Flowers on stems thicker than the 
general stem. Flower spikes 1 to 2 in. long. Lakes and streams 
throughout our region. 

20. P. praelongus, Wulf. White-stemmed Pondweed. Very long 
stem, leaves broader at base and half clasping the stem. Stems white. 
Some leaves 12 to 14 in. long. 

21. P. mysticus, Morong. Mystic Pondweed. Plant slender, upper 
leaves lance-ovate, opposite, 1 to 1^ in. long, 1/12 to i in. wide. Lower 
leaves alternate, longer than the upper. No leaf stalks. Stipules gen- 
erally small. Spikes with 4 to 6 flowers. Ponds in Mass. 

22. P. crispus, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 5.) Curled-leaved Pondweed. 
Leaves oblong, rounded at summit, wavy, half clasping at base, 2 to 4 
in. long, 1/3 as wide. Spikes with few more or less scattered flowers. 
Fresh or sometimes brackish water, Mass. and southward. 

C. Leaves very narrow, grass-lilce or thread-like. 

23. P. obtusifolius, Mertens & Koch. Blunt-leaved Pondweed. 
Leaves very narrow grass-like, 3-veined, 2 to 3 in. long, 1/20 to 3/20 in. 
wide, very obtuse at extremity. Stipules rather long and also very 
obtuse. Spike 5 to 8 flowered. Fruit not keeled. Our region, in still 

24. P. zosteraefolius, Schum. (Fig. 9, pi. 5.) Eel Grass Pond- 
weed. Leaves similar to No. 23, but often much longer and less obtuse 
at extremity. Indefinitely veined. Fruit keeled. Stipules falling early. 
Still or running waters, N. J. and northward. 

25. P. Hillii, Morong. Hill's Pondweed. Leaves narrow grass-like 
1 to 3 in. long, pointed at free extremity. Ponds, Eastern N. Y., west- 

26. P. foliosus, Raf. Leafy Pondweed. Stem thread-like; leaves 
very narrow 1 to 2 in. long, sharp pointed; stipules obtuse; fruit dis- 
tinctly keeled. Ponds and streams, our region. 

27. P. Friesii, Rubrecht. Fkies's Pondw^eed. Stems 2 to 4 ft. long. 
Plant resembles No. 23 but stipules are acute. Still waters, N. Y. and 


28. P. rutilus, Wolfg. Slender Pondweed. Stems almost thread- 
like, 1 to 2 ft. long; leaves about 1 in. long, very slender grass-like and 
narrowing all the xoay to a sharp point. Most northern parts of our 

29. P. interruptus, Kitaibel. Interrupted Pondweed. Leaves 
grassy, in clusters sheathed by the stipules. Flowers on interrupted 

30. P. Robbinsii, Oakes. Eobbin's Pondweed. Stems rigid, much 
branching; leaves rigid, in 2 opposite rows closely investing the stem, 
3 to 5 in. long, acute at outer extremity; stipules sheathing the stem, 
but at length free, very acute. Flowers very few in interrupted spikes. 
Lakes and ponds, N. J. and northward. 

D. Leaves all thread-like. 

31. P. pectinatus, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 5.) Fennel-leaved Pondweed. 
Spikes on long flower stalks with interrupted rounded spikes of flowers. 
Stem much branching. Stipules in contact with leaves half the length 
of the former. Some obscure raised lines on the back of the seed. Fresh 
or salt waters, our area. 

32. P. filiformis, Pers. (Fig. 7, pi. 5.) Filiform Pondweed. Stems 
thread-like, 3 to 20 ft. long; leaves 2 to 12 in. long. Differing from No. 
31 by absence of the lines on back of seed. Ponds, western N. Y. 

33. P. gemmiparus, IMorong. Capillary Pondweed. The stipules 
are ^owce-shaped, acute at outer, broad at inner extremity. Ponds, east- 
ern Mass. and R. I. 

34. P. pusillus, L. Small Pondweed. Resembles Nos. 31 and 32 
but flower groups are small rounded masses, each spike containing from 
3 to 8 flowers in a nearly globular mass. Ponds, lakes and streams, 
our area. 

35. P. strictifolius. Leaves much more rigid than those of P. pusillus, 
the edges turned back. In other respects strongly resembles P. ptisillus. 

36. P. confervoides, Reichb. Alga-like Pondweed. Stems very slen- 
der, thread-like, 6 to 18 in. high. Leaves thread-like or flat bristle- 
formed, about 1 in. long, the point very fine, 1 -nerved or nerveless. 
Stipules nearly or quite i in. long, blunt. Flower stem long and erect. 
Flowers in sliort spikes or heads, about i in. long. In cold mountain 
ponds throughout most of our region. 

2. ZANNICHELLIA, Mitchell 

Rubmorsed water plant with creeping roots, slender stems and thread- 
like h-avcs each broadened to a slieathiiig base. In the axils of the leaves 
sjiring the naked flowers which consist each of a single stamen and a 
group of 4 or less or more pistils, which expand toward the base into 
oval-shaped ovaries. Fruit directly on the receptacle or on a very short 

Z. palustris, L. (Fig. 3, pi. .5 ) Zanntcitktj.ta. Stems tliroad-like; 
leaves 1 to 3 in. long. Fruits 2 to 5 in a cluster. Fresh water, pools 
and ditclies througiiout our area. 



Plate 5 
1. Potamogeton Oakesianus. 2, P. pectinatus. 3. Zaniiichellia palustris. 
4. Potamogeton crispus. 5. Naias gracillima. 6. Ruppia maritima. 7. Pota- 
mogeton tiliformis. 8. P. dimorplius. 9. P. zosteraefolius. 10. Naias 



Submersed water plant in salt water. Stems creeping; leaves narrow 
linear, often 2 to 3 ft. long. The flowers are naked, arranged in 2 rows 
of about 10 to 20 in each row, on a long receptacle, which arises at the 
axil of the sheathing leaf, and which is nearly enclosed by it. Each 
flower consists of an anther or of a pistil. These alternate in the 2 
rows, each being sessile. 

Z, marina, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 6.) Eel Grass. Leaves 1 to 6 ft. long, 
less than i in. wide, 3 to 7 nerved. Flower mass 1 to 2i in. long. Along 
the Atlantic coast. 

4. RUPPIA, L. 

Submersed plants in salt water with creeping roots and thread-like, 
much branching, stems. Leaves alternate, thread-like, their bases ex- 
panding to a membraneous sheath. From the axil of this sheath arises 
the flower stalk which, at first, is partly enclosed by the membraneous 
sheath, but as the fruit matures the flower stalk becomes a long thread- 
like spirally-wound peduncle bearing an umbel-like cluster of hard seeds. 
The flower consists of 2 anthers attached directly to the receptacle, each 
so nearly divided in halves that they appear like 4 anthers. These en- 
close several (generally 4) pistils, which are also sessile. 

Re maritima, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 5.) Ditch Grass. Maritime Euppia. 
Stem 2 to 3 ft. long; leaves 1 to 3 in. long; the slender spiral fruit stalk 
about 1 ft. long. The only species within our limits. Common along 
the Atlantic coast. 

5. NAIAS, L. 

Slender branching submersed plants with leaves generally in whorls 
(3 to 5). Margins of the leaves toothed. Pistillate and staminate 
flowers on different receptacles, sometimes on different plants. Stami- 
nate flower with a cylindric calyx, entire or with 4 diverging points. 
The inner perianth is pelucid, adhering to the single stamen. Capsule 

1. N. marina, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 5.) Large Naias. Stem stout, with 
whorls of al)out 3 leaves, which are about 1 in. long by 1/12 broad, 
deeply toothed on tiie nuirgin with spiny teeth. Several sucli teeth on 
the back of the central nerve. Lakes, marshes and salt springs, western 
N, Y. and westward. 

2. N. flexilis, Willd. (Fig. G, pi. G.) Slender Naias. Tx'aves in 
pairs, narrower tiian No. 1, acute at outer extremity somewhat sheath- 
ing at base. Few teeth on margin. Lakes, ponds and streams, all of our 

3. N. gracillima, Morong. (Fig. 5, pi. 5.) Tiibead-like Naias. 
Stem thread-like, l)ranching. Leaves thread-like but minutely notched 
on margins, in 2's or in verticles of 3 to 5. Ponds, pools. Local in Mass., 
N. Y., N. J., and southward. 

Family J 1 1.— TRIGLOCHINEAE. Arrow Grass Family 

Plants growing in marslies. Leaves half cylindric, stem naked, 
with broad membraneous sheath at base. Flowers small, green or 


yellowish-green, with 4 to 6 segments to the perianth, on a tall, 
slender, round scape, arranged in spindle-shaped cluster (raceme). 
Stamens 6 or 4. Carpels 6 or 3. 


Characters as above. 

1. T. palustris, L. Marsh. Akkow Grass. Leaves linear, 5 to 12 
in. long, tapering to sharp point. The naked flower scape 8 to 20 in. 
high. Flowers erect on the scape, nearly i in. long and 1/16 in. wide. 
Segments of perianth 6. Anthers 6. Fruit of 3 carpels joined, linear 
club-shaped. In marshes. New York and northward, 

2. T, maritima, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 6.) Seaside Arrow Grass. A 
large species 2 to 2 ft. high. Flower stem much longer than leaves. 
Raceme often 15 in. or more in length. Fruit ovate or ovoid, of 6 united 
carpels. Salt marshes and lake shores. New Jersey and northward. 


Marsh plant with leafy stem. Leaves half round below, grass like 
above, with broad membraneous sheath at base. Flower stem with long 
leafy bracts, each flower growing from the axil of a bract. Flowers 
greenish, perianth of 6 segments. Stamens 6, ovaries 3, radiating. 

S. palustris, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 6.) Scheuchzeria. A rush-like plant 
8 in. to 1 ft. high. Leaves 4 to 6 in. long. The sheath of the basal 
leaves is often 4 in, long. Bays throughout our area. 

Family IV. — ALISMACEAE. Water Plantain Family 

Marsh or aquatic plants with showy flowers borne in whorls on 
scape-like stems, which arise at the root, with sheathing leaves, 
also arising from the root, and with flowers with stamens and pis- 
tils on the same flower or on different flowers on the same stem. 
Petals 3, white, sepals 3, green. Stamens 6 or more. Ovaries 
numerous. The leaves are found on long leaf-stalks and are 
strongly marked by the nerves which arise and terminate at the 
ends of tlie leaf. The blade of the leaf is in some species reduced 
to a grass-like or strap-shaped extension of the leaf-stalk. 

1. ALISMA, L. 

Flowers numerous, small, white or rosy, in elongated clusters con- 
sisting of several whorls, arranged on the scape wliich arises from the 
root. Flowers with both stamens and pistils. Leaves all from the root. 

1. A, Plantago-aquatica, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 7.) Water Plantain. 
Leaves all at the base, spreading, broad egg-shaped with 5 to 7 nearly 
parallel or elliptically arranged nerves. Leaf stalk longer than the leaf. 
Flowers on a stem 6 to 30 in. tall, arranged in a loose pyramidal cluster 
composed of numerous smaller fan-shaped clusters of whorls, each made 
up of 3 to 10 flowers on slender individual flower stalks an inch or more 
in length. Swampy places or shallow water. Common. June-October. 


2. A. tenellum, Mart. Dwarf Water Plantain. {EeJianihinm 
tcncUum, Britton. Echinodorus tennellus, Buchenau.) Leaves lance- 
shaped, on long leaf-stalks all basal. Flower stem naked, bearing at 
summit a spreading whorl or umbel of 2 to 8 white flowers on unequal 
flower stalks. Muddy places. Mass. southward and westward. April- 

3. A. Geyeri, Torr. Leaves linear-lance-shaped to elliptic, overtop- 
ping the shorter flower scapes. Whorls of flowers several, the cluster 
more difli"use than that of No. 1. Individual flower stems thick, strongly 
divergent in fruit. Petals rose color at the margins with a yellow spot 
at base. Locally, N. Y. and westward. 


Aquatic herbs with leaves and flowers resembling sagittaria and hardly 
distinguished from it. In this genus the flowers are all perfect, i. e„ 
stamens and pistils are on the same receptacle. In sagittaria the stamens 
and pistils are in difi'erent flowers. 

1. L. calycinus, J. G. Smith. Lopiiotocarpus. Leaves lance-arrow 
or halberd-shaped. Flower stem decumbent. Plants with habits and ap- 
pearance of sagittaria. Swamps and muddy bottoms, our area. July- 

2. L. spongiosus, (Engelm.) J. G. Smith. Spongy Sagittaria. 
Submersed aquatic with thick spongy stem-like leaves which are 4 to 12 
in. high, sometimes expanding to an arrow-shaped leaf-blade, 2 to 4 in. 
long, with or without diverging acute lobes half as long as the leaf-stalks, 
at length decumbent. New Brunswick south to Virginia. July-August. 

3. L. spathulatus, J. G. Smith. Spatula-leaved Sagittaria. Small 
aquatic with stem-like leaves, without leaf-blades. These bladeless leaves 
1 to 2i in. high. Flower stem usually shorter than the leaves, 1 or 2 
flowered. Stamens 6 to 9. On sandy beaches within influence of the tide. 
Newburyport, Mass. 


Water plants growing in muddy borders of ponds and streams. Leaves 
and flowers aerial. Leaves all at base, varying from the extreme arrow- 
head form to long lance-shape or even to long leaf stalks without blade. 
Flowers on a spike in whorls of 3's, each whorl subtended by a whorl of 
3 bracts; ujiper flower whorls consisting of staminate, the lower of 
pistillate flowers. Corolla of 3 broad white petals, calyx of 3 green 
sepals. Carpels on a convex receptacle. The beak at the extremity of the 
carjKjl forms an important feature for identification of some variable 

Leaves arrow-shaped (sagittate), with the posterior lobes at least J as long as the 
Bracts below the pistillate (lower) flowers as long as the individual flower stems. 
Beak at extremity ot fruit more tli;in ] the k-uptli of the fruit 

itself ^"- longirostra 

Beak less than ^ length of fruit S. arifolia 

Bracts below pistillate flowers shorter than the flower stems. 

Leaves broad -S"- latifolia 

Leaves very narrow, not always arrow-shaped .... 5. lingclmannia 



Plate 6 
1. Elodea canadensis. 2. Lemna polyrhiza. 3. L. trisulca. 4. L. minor. 
5. Triglochin maritima. 6. Naias flexilis. 7. Sagittaria Engelmannia. 
8. Scheuclizeria palustris. 9. Zostera marina. 10. Vallisneria spiralis. 
llo WolfSa Columbiana, 

106 alis:maceae 

Leaves not generally arrow-shaped. 

Flowers with very short or with no individual flower stems , S'. heterophylla 
Flowers with rather long flower stems. 

Leaves reduced to short rounded stems generally without leaf-blade S. teres 
Leaves more or less grass-like. 

Leaves lance-shaped S. graminea 

Leaves linear. 

Flowers white S. subulata 

Petals with a rose-colored spot at base S, Eatoni 

1. S. longirostra, (Micheli.) J. G. Smith. (Fig. 1, pi. 7.) Long- 
beaked Arrow-head. Plant 1 to 3 ft. tall. Leaves on leaf stalks longer 
than themselves, often broad, spreading at base to 2 receding lobes, acute 
at apex and at the ends of the lobes. Flower scape at base 6-angled, 
longer than leaves, very erect; at upper 1/3 about 2 whorls of pistillate 
and 2 to 4 whorls of staminate flowers, each subtended by 3 bracts, 
longer than the flower pedicel. The white petals greater in breadth than 
length. Fruit with a stout beak, nearly erect. This is a common species 
in this country and it is also native in Europe. Its leaves are ex- 
tremely variable in form and hence the species is known also as 8. varia- 
bilis. The drawing, Fig. 1, pi. 7, shows the very narrow form of the 
leaf, the blade is, however, sometimes several inches across. Margins 
of lakes and ponds and in swamps. July-September. 

2. S, arifolia, Nutt. (Fig. 2, pi. 7.) Arum-leaved Sagittaria. 
Leaf wings about i the length of blade. Flowers arranged as in No. 1. 
Leaf stalks bend outward. Fruit with a very small hcak less than 1/10 
length of fruit. Situations similar to No. 1. August-September. 

3. S. Engelmannia, J. G. Smith. (Fig. 7, pi. 6.) Engelmann's 
Arrow-head. Stem quite slender, leaves very narrow, basal lobes being 
linear, about i as long as the blade. The bracts below the pistillate 
flowers about 1/3 the length of the flower pedicels. The fruit (achene) 
is terminated by a beak, nearly ^ its own length, which points directly 
upioard. Situations similar to No. L August-September. 

4. S. latifolia, Willd. (Fig. 3, pi. 7.) Broad-leaved Arrow-head. 
Variable in size and form. Flower scape from G in, to 2 ft. tall. Leaves 
often very broad, but also sometimes quite narrow. Lobes 1/4 to 1/3 a3 
long as blade. The beak at the summit of the fruit points obliquely or 
almost horizontally. 

5. S. heterophylla, Pursh. (Fig. 4, pi. 7.) Sessile-fruited Arrow- 
head. ((S. riijiila, Pursh.) Plant from | to 2 ft. high. Leaves variable, 
from broad linear, almost grass-like, to lance-shaped or elliptic or ovate, 
about as high as flower stalk. Pistillate (lower) flowers with very short 
pedicel (sessile), staminate flowers above, on long pedicels. Fruit with 
an upright beak \ length of the fruit itself. 

C. S. graminea, Michx. Gbass-leaved Sagittaria. Leaves linear, 
lance-shaped or elliptic. The pistillate flowers on pedicels as long as or 
longer than those of the upper staminate llowers. Ponds, our area. 

7. S. Eatoni, J. E. Smith. Eaton's Sagittaria. Aquatic with mostly 
bladele.-is leaves or rarely with these leaf-stems exi)an(ling to a linear 
lance-shaped blade. Flower stem 4 to 8 in. high, weak, bearing 1, 2 or 
rarely 3 whorls of flowers. Lowest whorl with 2 fertile and 1 staminate 
flower, Pedicel? of fertile flowers about * in. long. In new edition of 



Plate 7 
1. Sagittaria longirostra. 2. S. arifolia. 3. S. latifolia. 4. S. hetero- 
phylla. 5. Alisma Plantago-aquatica. U. Enlarged flower of A. Plantago- 


Gray regarded as a form of 8. graminea. On sandy shores between high 
and low tide, Newburyport, Mass. 

8. S. teres, S. Watts. Slender Sagittaria. Leaves reduced to short 
rounded leaf stalks without blades or bracts. Flower stalk slender ^ to 
li ft. high; few flowered. Ponds, Mass. and southward. 

9. S. subulata, (L.) Buchenare. Subulate Sagittaela. Leaves 
simply leaf stalks or with narrow lanceolate blades. Flower stalk very 
slender 1/6 to J ft. high. Bracts below flower whorls united to their 
extremities or nearly so. Conn., southward. 

Family V.— VALLISNERIACEAE. Tape-grass Family 
Submersed aquatic herbs, with regular flowers which terminate 
a long thread-like peduncle, which arises from a spathe or in- 
volucre. Flowers tubular, 3- or 6-parted at summit. Pistillate 
and staminate flowers on the same or on diflEerent plants. Stamens 
3 to 12, separate or in union. Fruit ripening under water. 


Submersed. Leaves long, grass-like with 5 parallel nerves including the 
marginal. Pistillate flowers white, with 3 lobes, on a long thread-like 
pedicel starting near the root and extending to the surface of the water 
when expanded. After fertilization the long pedicel becomes spiral and 
draws the flower below the surface. Fruit much elongated. Staminate 
flowers on short scape on a conic receptacle. 

V. spiralis, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 6.) Lake Grass. Eel Grass. In still 
waters throughout our region. 

2. ELODEA, Michx. (Philotria, Raf.) 
Submersed plant with many whorls of 3 or 4 short awl-shaped or 
elliptic leaves. Much branching. Flowers white, 6-parted at summit, on 
a long white thread-like pedicel (6 to 12 in.), which arises from a tubular 
" spathe " but little thicker than itself and which generally terminates a 
branch. The tiny white flower floats on the surface of the water, the 
remainder of the plant submersed. Staminate flowers without the long 
pedicel, breaking off and rising to surface of water to shed the pollen. 

E. canadensis, Michx. (Fig. 1, pi. 6.) Ditcu Moss. In quiet ponds 
and lakes, throughout our area. May-Aug. 

3. LIMNOBIUM, Richard. (Hydrocharis, Bosc.) 
Water herbs spreading by stolons with broad egg-shaped or heart- 
shaped leaves which arise in fascicled groups at the stolon nodes. Flowers 
white on flower stalks shorter than the leaves. Pistillate and staminate 
flowers on same plant. Perianth 6 parted, segments unequal. Staminate 
flowers in a spatlie, 2 to 4. Fruit berry-like. 

L. Spongia, (Bosc.) Richard. Froo-ijit. Leaves round or somewhat 
egg-shaped, 1 to 2 in. long, nearly or quite as wide, 5 to 7 nerved. Flowers 
and leaves arising from the nodes of the runners. In shallow still water, 
our area. July-Aug. 


Order III.— GLUMIFLORAE. Glumaceous Flowered Plants 

The order Glumiflorae includes tlie great families of grasses and 
sedges. The inflorescence is characterized by the dry, scale-like 
bracts, which are known as glumes. These glumaceous plants 
number, in our region, more than 400 species. Though of much 
interest as including some of the most valuable plants, the study 
of tbem is, to some extent, a speciality. Owing to the great num- 
ber of tlie species and with the view of limiting the extent of this 
work, these families are omitted. 

Order IV.— SPATHIFLORAE. Order of the Arums 

The order includes, in our region, only one family, Araceae. 

Family I. — ARACEAE. Arum Family 

Herbs bearing a fleshy spike which supports a large number of 
flowers, which are destitute of a perianth (a spadix). The spadix 
is enclosed by a sheath-like organ, the spathe. In Acorns the 
sheath appears like a continuation of the grass-like stem and does 
not wholly enclose the spadix. When the flowers are perfect, that 
is, when stamen and pistil are included in the same flower, the 
fleshy spike is surrounded by flowers which are alike on all parts 
of the receptacle. When some of the flowers are staminate and 
others are pistillate the former are on the upper part of the spadix, 
the latter below. The stamens are without filaments or with very 
short ones, and the styles are wanting to the pistils or are very 

Leaves divided into 3 or more segments .... Arisaema 

Leaves arrow-head shaped Peltandra 

Leaves egg-shaped, heart-shaped at base. 

Spathe (flower envelope) white Calla 

Spathe brown to yellow Symplocarpus 

Leaves elliptic Orontium 

Leaves long, grass-like Acorus 

I. ARISAEMA, Martins. (Arum, L.) 
Stem arising from an acrid, flattened, fleshy, bulb-like mass, a corm. 
Flower and leaf stems from the same base. Spadix consists of a column. 


the upper part of which bears staminate flowers, the lower, pistillate. 
The column is enclosed by a sheath, generally striped in green and dark 
purple (the spathe). Fruit a fleshy oval berry, red when ripe. A number 
of such berries surround the fleshy, club-like mass. 

1. A. triphyllum, Torr. (Fig. 1, pi. 8.) Jack-in-the-pulpit. {Arum 
triphylluni, L.) One or two leaf stems, each bearing 3 leaflets, the stem 
and leaf § to 3 ft. high. Flower stem shorter than stems bearing leaves. 
The green- or purple-striped sheath curves over the spadix. Found com- 
monly in moist woods. April- June. 

Var. A. jiusillum, Peck. Small Jack-in-the-Pulpit. Similar to No. 
1, but smaller and more slender, 14 in. high or less, spathe striped below; 
hood deep brown or nearly black. Open soggy bogs, New York. May-July. 

Var. A. Siewardsonii, Britton. Fluted Spatiied Indian Turnip. Simi- 
lar to No. 1, but spathe is distinctly fluted and leaves are shining on both 
sides. Spathe about as long as the stem from which it springs. Wet 
woods, growing among sphagnum, Penn. to Vermont, July. 

2. A. Dracontium, (L.) Schott. (Fig. 7, pi. 8.) Green Dragon, 
Leaf stem bears 5 to 17 leaflets, the stem and leaflets rnuch exceeding the 
flower scape in height, the leaflets 3 to 10 in. long. Sheath greenish or 
whitish, not curving over the spadix, which tapers to a long, slender 
appendix. Moist shady places, our area. May-June. 


Large, undivided, arrow-shaped, shining, green leaves on long sheathing 
stalks, native of bogs. Flower column (spadix) slender and tapering, 
closely enveloped by the long green sheath (spathe). As the fruit is 
perfected the long flower stems bend toward the ground in goose neck 
fashion and the extremity of the sheath as well as the column fall ofi". 

P. virginica, (L.) Kunth. (Fig. 1, pi. 9.) Green Arrow Arum. 
In swamps and bogs throughout our region. 

3, CALLA, L. 

Low herb with heart-shaped or rounded leaves, in swamps or in borders 
of sluggish streams. Flower column much shorter than the sheath, which 
is white within and greenish on the outside. Leaf stem 2 to G in. long, 
leaf blades 2 to 6 in. long and nearly as wide. Berries in a cylindric 
group around the fleshy spadix, each involucre conic, red, few seeded. 

C. palustris, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 8.) Water Arum. Resembles the culti- 
vated callu, but is more or less creeping, and the central cohnnn is nuich 
thicker and longer in proportion to the white sheath. Bogs throughout 
our area. 

4. SYMPLOCARPUS, Salisb. (Spathyema, Raf.) 

Leaves large, heart-shaped or nearly oval. Whole plant fa'tid. Flower 
column oval, surrounded by a purplish-brown sheath, 3 to in. high and 
i as wide. 

S. foetidus, (L.) Nutt. (Fig. 4, pi. 9.) Skunk Cabbage. The un- 
attractive flower appears very early in the spring (Feb. to April), pre- 
ceding the large leaves, these become from 1 to 3 ft. long and J as wide. 
In swamps and wet soil, our area. Fob.-April. 



Plate 8 
1. Arisaema triphyllum, la. Corm of A. triphyllum. 2. Commelina com- 
munis. 3. C. virginica. 4. C. hirtella (leaf and sheath). 5. Tradescantia 
virginiana. G. Calla palustris. 7. Arisaema Dracontium. 



Water plant with elliptic leaves. Flower column (spadix) tall, cylin- 
dric. The sheath (spathe) at first covers the column, then recedes, and 
in many cases falls. 

O. aquaticum, L, (Fig. 2, pi. 9.) Golden Club. Leaves often float- 
ing in water, 3 to 12 in. long, J as wide; entire, with veins nearly parallel. 
Swamps and ponds, southeast part of our area and southward. April- 

6. ACORUS, L. 

Long, aromatic, creeping rootstalks and grass- or flag-like leaves; grow- 
ing in wet places. Flower column appearing to start from the side of a 
bayonet-like leaf. 

A. Calamus, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 9.) Sweet Flag. Calamus Root. 
Leaves 2 to (1 ft. high, 1 in. or less broad. Flower stem triangular or 
somewhat rounded. Swamps and along streams, common. May-July. 

Order V.— FARING SAE. Order of the Spiderworts 

A small order including herbaceous plants, mostly aquatic, but 
including the family Commelinaceae, the plants of which are 
found in rich moist soil. Flowers with 3 or 6 stamens and 1 to 3 
ovaries. Petals 3 or rarely 2; sepals 3. Flowers, except Commeli- 
naceae, are nearly or quite regular; the petals and sepals are below 
the ovary. Flowers generally not individually conspicuous, but in 
some families forming heads or spikes, which are quite showy. 

The order is specially characterized by the technical fact that 
the embryo arises at the end of the ovule opposite to the point of 
attachment of the ovule to the ovary. 

Flowers yellow, in chaffy heads XYRIDACEAE 

Flowers white or dull lead color in globose heads 


Flowers blue. 

Plants not aquatic COMMELINACEAE 

Aquatic plants PONTEDERIACEAE 

Family I.— XYRIDACEAE. Yellow-eykd Grass Family 

Marsh plants with grass-like tufted leaves and with twisted, 
angular flower stalks, bearing chaffy terminal heads with yellow 


flowers. Petals 5; sepals 3; fertile stamens 3 inserted on the 
corolla (3 aborted stamens), capsule many-seeded. 


Characters, those of the Family. 

Scape with a conspicuous bulb at base X. arenicola 

Scape not arising from a conspicuous bulb. 
Heads nearly globose. 

The two side sepals without wings X. Hexuosa 

The two side sepals winged. 

Scape decidedly flattened X. caroliniana 

Scape not distinctly flattened X. montana 

Heads cylindric or oblong. 

Keel of lateral sepals fringed X. fimbriata 

Keel oi' lateral sepals not fringed X. Smalliana 

1. X. flexuosa, Miihl. (Fig. 8, pi. 9.) Slender Yellow-eyed Grass. 
Heads globose, ^ in. high; leaves narrowly linear. The 2 side sepals 
without icings. The flower scape only slightly or not at all twisted, 4 to 
18 in. high, expanding to a bulb at base. Expanded flower about i in. 
diameter. Swamps and wet places. July-Sept. 

2. X. montana, H. Ries. Northern Yellow-eyed Grass. Two side 
sepals with wings, flower scape only slightly twisted, not bulbous at base, 
heads oblong. Smaller than No. 1, but much resembling it. White Moun- 
tains. In cold bogs. July-Aug. 

3. X. fimbriata, Ell. (Fig. 6, pi. 9.) Fringed Yellow-eyed Grass. 
Scape stout, 2 to 4 ft. high, angled, heads cylindric, ^ to 1 in. long. 
Lateral sepals narrow and twice as long as the subtending chaff"y bract 
and distinctly fringed. Wet pine barrens. New Jersey. 

4. X. caroliniana, Walt. Carolina Yellow-eyed Grass. Scape de- 
cidedly flattened, 6 in. to 2 ft. high. Lateral sepals winged, obscurely 
fringed above, these lateral sepals shorter than the chaffy bract, sub- 
tending them. Swamps mostly near the coast. 

5. X. arenicola, Small. (Fig. 7, pi. 9.) Twisted Yellow-eyed Grass. 
{X. torta, Kunth.) Scape much twisted, arising from a bulbous base. 
Leaves also spiral twisted. Heads narrow oblong. Lateral sepals ex- 
ceeding the bract and slightly fringed. Dry pine barrens, New Jersey. 

6. X. Smalliana, Nash. Congdon's Yellow-eyed Grass. {X. Cong- 
doni, Small.) Larger than X. caroliniana, the stem 16 to 22 in. high. 
Leaves about 3/8 in. broad at base, the longer ones as long as the flower 
stem. Bracts forming the head numerous with irregularly notched bor- 
ders. Lateral sepals J in. long. Low grounds, Mass. to New Jersey. 

Family II.— ERIOCAITLACEAE. Pipewort Family 

Plants growing in bogs and in water. Leaves tufted, grass-like, 
springing directly from the root. Flower stem longer than the 
leaves, sometimes very long, angular and twisted. Flowers in 
rounded heads, each individual flower subtended by a thin dry 
bract. Pistillate and staminate flowers in the same head or occa- 


sionally all the staminate flowers on one plant, the pistillate on 
another. Stamens equal in number or twice the number of the 


Leaves short, grass-like. Flower stem with a sheathing bract at the 
base. Flowers in white or dull lead-colored rounded heads. Flowers bear- 
ing stamens nearly tubular, of 2 segments at the summit, united below. 
Stamens 4 to fi. The staminate flowers generally exterior to the pistil- 
late. Calyx of 2 or 3 scaly sepals. Corolla tubular, spreading above and 
divided at summit into 2 or 3 segments. Stamens twice as many as 
the segments. Bracts bearded. 

1. E. articulatum, (Huds.) Morong. (Fig. 9, pi. 9.) Seven-angled 
PiPEWOKT. (E. sciiUingularc, With.). Leaves as long as the sheaths of 
the flower scapes. Flower scapes twisted, 7-angled. When growing in 
water the heads reach the surface, hence the scape may be 2 to 10 ft. 
long; when on the muddy bank 1 or more inches high. Our area. 

2. E. Parkeri, Robinson. Parker's Pipewort. Growing in tufts, 
smooth, flower stem 2J to 5 in. high. Leaves linear-lanceolate, about i 
in. wide, I5 to 2 J in. long. Difi"ers from ^o. 1 in that the head of the 
latter is snid to be "ellipsoid," while this species has heads said to be 
" campanulate " in fruit and the flowers of the present species are erect 
while the outer ones of No. 1 are spreading. In tidal mud, near Camden, 
New Jersey. Sept. -Oct. 

3. E. compressum, Lam. Flattened Pipewort. Leaf blades sharp- 
pointed, shorter than the sheatJis of the flower stem, the latter slender and 
flattened, 10- to 12-angled, ^ to 3 ft. long. Shallow water, south New 
Jersey and southward. 

4. E. decangulare, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 9.) Ten-angled Pipewort. Leaf 
blades blunt-pointed, much longer than the sheath of the flower scape, 
rather broad, grass-like, to 20 in. long, often ^ in. wide. Flower stem 
1 to 3 ft. tall. Swamps, south New Jersey and southward. 

Family III.— COMMELINACEAE. Spiderwort Family 

Generally somewhat succulent plants, annual or perennial by 
their roots. Leaves alternate, always sheathing the stem at the 
base. Flowers blue, generally several, subtended by a leaf-like 
spathe {Commdina) or leafy bracts (Tradescantia). Sepals 3; 
petals 3, unequal; stamens G. 


Weak, semi-prostrate, juicy herbs, with base of leaves encircling the 
stem. Flowers J in. broad, enclosed below by a heart-shaped folded leaf 
or spathe. Sepals or petals unequal. Of the stamens 3 are usually 
sterile and smaller than the others. Flowers all summer. 

1. C. communis, Ti. (Fig. 2, pi. 8.) Creeping Day Flower. (C. 
vuili flora, L. ?). Leaves and stem light green, semi-prostrate, often rooting 



Plate 9 
1. Peltandra virgiiiica. 2. Orontium aquaticum. 3. Acorns Calamus. 
4. Symplocarpus foetidus. 5. Eriocaulon decangulare. 6. Xyris fimbriata. 
7. X, arenicola. 8. X. flexuosa. 9. Eriocaulon articulatum. 10. Pontederia 


at the nodes. Leaves lance-shaped or oval lance-shaped, 4 to f in. wide, 
their sheathing bases not fringed with hairs or very slightly ciliate, and 
of the color of the leaf or with whitish veins; the margins of the spathe 
not united. In moist places, southern part of our area. 

2. C. hirtella, Vahl. (Fig. 4, pi. 8.) Bearded Day Flower, Simi- 
lar to No. 1, leaves broader and sheaths bearded on the edges with a fringe 
of rather stiff hairs. Penna. and southward. 

3. C. virginica, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 8.) Virginia Day Flower. A larger 
species, IJ to 3 ft. high and witli flowers 1 in. broad. N. Y. and southward. 


Branching herbs with long, narrow leaves, almost grass-like, and regular 
flowers. Petals blue, 3 in number; sepals 3, stamens 6, all alike. The 
loose cluster of a few flowers is subtended by long leafy bracts. 

1. T. virginiana, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 8.) Spiderwobt. Stem and leaves 
smooth, light green, stem ^ to 3 ft. tall. Leaves linear, channeled. Woods 
and thickets. Conn., and southward. 

2. T. pilosa, Lehm. Zigzag Spiderwort. Eesembles No. 1, but the 
whole plant is more or less hairy. Stem zigzag. Southern Penna. and 
southward. June-Aug. 

Family IV.— PONTEDERIACEAE. Pickerel-weed Family 

Aquatic plants, herbs with fiower-stem bearing clusters of blue 
Irregular flowers subtended by a leaf-like spathe. Leaves broad 
or linear. Flowers of 6 unequal petals, with 3 or G stamens in- 
serted in the tube of the corolla. Pistil 1, the head being 3-lobed. 

]\Iany flowers forming a nearly cylindric spike . . Pontederia 

A few flowers in a loose cluster subtended by a spathe Heteranthera 


Perianth tubular with 2 lips of 3 divisions each, the lower lip more 
spreading than the upper. Leaves thick, heart-shaped. Flower stalk 

P. cordata, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 9.) Pickerel Weed. Leaves heart- 
arrow-sliaped. Flower spike densely flowered, forming a cylindric spike 
from 1 to 3 in. long. Found in shallow borders of jwnds and streams 
where the thick creeping rootstalks form a net-work in the muddy bot- 
tom. July-Aug. 


Perianth spreading with 6 nearly equal segments. Flower clusters witfi 
few flowers, subtended by a spathe. Stamens 3, inserted in the throat 
of the perianth. Creeping and floating herbs with various forms of leaves. 


1. H. reniformis, R. & P. (Fig. 7, pi. 3.) Mud Plantain. Leaves 
kidney-formed. Flowers 2 to 5 in a cluster, white or pale blue. Mud in 
shallow borders of ponds and streams. Conn., westward. 

2. H. dubia, (Jacq.) MacM. (Fig. 6, pi. 3.) Water Stab Grass. 
Leaves grass-like. One flower only arising from the spathe, yellow. In 
still water or in the muddy borders of streams. In our whole region. 

Order VI.— LILIIFLORAE. Order of Lily-like Flowers 

Periantli (except in Iris and Trillium) of 6 similar parts, 
usually all colored. In Juncaceae the parts are dry, greenish or 
brown, scales or glumes, and in Muscari, Aletris and a few others 
the divisions are more or less united. The divisions are arranged 
in an outer and an inner row, the outer in fact representing the 
calyx. In Trillium the segments of the outer row are green sepals. 
The divisions are, however, in other genera generally structurally 
similar and all have the appearance of petals. The anthers face 
toward the inside of the flower. 

In the Iris and Bloodwort families 3 stamens are suppressed 
and in the Iris itself 3 petals are less in size than the other 3, while 
the 3 styles are so expanded and colored as to resemble petals. 
There are, therefore, with the exceptions mentioned, 6 petals, and 
in all our species, 6 stamens and 1 or 3 pistils, the latter surmount- 
ing an ovary divided into 3 cells, the ovary being situated above 
the stamens and perianth in some families and below in others. 
In general the leaves are long and narrow with parallel veins. 
In most of the berry-bearing species the leaves are broadened and 
in the plants with twining or woody stems the leaves are decidedly 
broad, often oval or even round. This fact holds also with 

The order is an extensive one, including Eushes, the onion-like 
Alliums, the Hyacinths, Smilax and other tribes besides the true 

1. Flowers with dry, chaffy perianth (glumes) similar to that 
of the grasses, sedges, etc., but with the general structure 
of Liliiflorae Eush Family JUNCACEAE 


2. Flowers not with chaffy perianth, perianth colored. 
Flowers with G stamens. 

Ovary situated above the perianth. 
Fruit a capsule. 

Capsule splitting at the partitions. 

. Bunch Flower Family MEIANTHACEAE 
Capsule splitting between the partitions. 
Flowers in loose clusters or solitary. 


Flowers in rounded umbels. Tribe ALLIOIDEAE 
Fruit a fleshy berry. 

Vines climbing by tendril, 

Smilax Family SMIIACEAE 

Erect herbs with perfect flowers CONVALLARIACEAE 
Ovary situated helow tho 'perianth. 

Erect herbs. Amaryllis Family AMARYLLIDACEAE 
Herbaceous vine . Yam Family DIOSCOREACEAE 
Flowers with 3 stamens. 

Ovary situated wholly or partly helow the perianth. 
Stamens opposite the inner corolla segments. 

. . . Bloodwort Family HAEMODORACEAE 
Stamens opposite the outer segments of the corolla. 
Iris Family IRIDACEAE 

Family I.— JUNCACEAE. The Eusii Family 

Grass-like herbs with small dry, greenish flowers much resem- 
bling the grasses, but having the divisions of the lily order. The 
perianth is of G parts, glume-like, in 2 series, ail equal and regu- 
lar. Stamens G (rarely 3); style 1; ovary 1-celled or 3-celled. 
Inflorescence in spreading or elongated clusters, often one-sided. 

Capsule many-seeded Juncus 

Capsule 3-seeded Luzula 


Plants principally inhabiting swamps or wet ground. Loaves grass- 
like. Stamens G or 3. Capsule 1- or 3-celled. Seeds many. Flowers 
usually on a long, cylindric scape, which to most people is mistaken for 
the leaf. Tliis long scape forms the rush that is used for various purposes. 


A. Clusters of flowers apparently growing from ihe side of the scape. 

1. J. effusus, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 10.) Common Rush. Scape straight, 
^ to 4 ft. high, growing in dense tufts. The cluster of green flowers 
grows apparently on one side of the scape, which extends above it from 
2 to several inches. The cluster is twice compound, the flowers sepa- 
rate, not in heads, the cluster subtended by several bracts. A long leaf- 
like bract sheaths the scape at base. The segments of the perianth are 
green, lance-shaped, acute. Common in swamps and other wet places. 

2. J. filiformis, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 10.) Thread Rush. Scape straight, 
weak, very slender. The cluster of flowers is nearly simple, not twice 
compound as in No. 1. The petals are shorter than the sepals, while in 
No. 1 they are longer. 

3. J. setaceus, Rostk. Awl-leaved Rush. Scape lA to 3 ft. high, 
plant in dense tufts. The bract, or leaf sheathing the scape at base is 
extended into a cylindric stem like the scape. Cluster of flowers com- 
pound, witli conspicuous bracts at the base of the secondary groups. 
Sepals longer than petals and both narrow lance-shaped and acute at 
apex. The apparent prolongation of the stem is really the involucral 
leaf to the flower cluster. Marshes along the sea coast, Delaware, south- 

4. J. Smithii, Coville. Pennsylvania Rush. (/. gymnocarpus, 
Englm.) Stem 1 to 2 J ft. high; basal leaves reduced to clasping sheaths. 
The loose cluster of flowers about an inch high, difl"use, the leaf below 
the cluster 4 to 10 in. long. Parts of the perianth reaching only to the 
middle of the capsule. The capsule broadly oval with a sharp point or 
spine at the apex, brown and glistening. Swamps, mountains of Schuyl- 
kill and Lebanon Counties, Penna. 

5. J. balticus, VVilld. Baltic Rush. Scape 1 to 3 ft. high, the plants 
arising in dense rows from a stout rootstock. Flower cluster brown, 
1 to 1^ in. high, the parts of the perianth lance-shaped, acute, nearly 
equal, Sandy shores, most of our region. 

6. J. trifidus, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 10.) Highland Rush. A small rush, 
densely tufted; scape 4 to 12 in. high. Basal leaves sheathing the scape, 
scarcely diverging as leaf blades. At from 1 to 3 in. below the small head 
of flowers a single-stem leaf arises, which is from 3 to 5 in. long; very 
narrow. Cluster of 1 to 3 flowers in the axil of a bract resembling the 
leaf-stem, but rarely more than 2 in. long. Flowers dark brown. Stamens 
6. On the high mountains of the Adirondack and White Mountain ranges. 

7. J. Roemerianus, Scheele. Rcemer's Rush. A large rush, growing 
in salt marshes; scape stout, rigid, \^ to 4 ft. high, arising singly from 
a horizontal rootstock. Basal leaves short, sheathing, or nearly as long 
as the stem. Cluster of flowers diffuse, 2 to 6 in. high, with flowers in 
heads of 5 to 8, dark brown. Stamens and pistils not always all on same 
plant. Seeds without tails. Sepals sharp-pointed, the petals shorter. 
Salt marshes, New Jersey and southward. 

8. J. maritimus, Lam. (Fig. 5, pi. 10.) Sea Rush. Resembles No. 
6. Flower green, not dark brown as it is in. that species and seeds are 
tailed. Salt marshes at Coney Island, N. Y. 


B. Clusters of flowers terminal on the scape. 
Flowers separate, not in heads. 

9. J. bufonius, L. (Fig- 6, pi. 10.) Toad Rush. Stem branching, 
tufted, 3 to 8 in. high. Leaves from root and stem^ the latter 1 to 2 
in. long. Flowers terminal in forked clusters. Final clusters of 2 or 3 
flowers. Parts of the perianth lance-shaped, sharp, the petals much 
longer than the sepals, not equal among themselves. Common. 

10. J. tenuis, VVilld. (Fig. 10, pi. 10.) Slender Rush. Stems not 
branched, wiry, 8 to 30 in. high. Leaves flat, thread-like, J the height 
of stem. Flowers in a diff'use fan-shaped cluster, not in heads, sub- 
tended by a bract much longer than the cluster. Parts of the perianth 
green, spreading; pod globular. Common. 

11. J. secundus, Beaur. Secund Rush. Growing in tufts. Stem 6 
to 16 in. high. Flowers in a one-sided cluster. Capsule oblong, 3-sided, 
equaled by the perianth. Leaf at base of cluster about as long as the 
cluster. Dry soil. 

12. J. Dudleyi, Weigand. Dudley's Rush. Stems 12 to 40 in. high. 
Leaves basal, about one-half the length of the scape, narrowly linear, flat. 
Inflorescence 1 to 2 In. high, the subtending leaf or bract exceeding it in 
length. Cluster few flowered. Capsule ovoid, shorter than the perianth. 
Me., Washington, Conn. 

13. J. dichotomus, Ell. Forked Rush. Stems not branched, wiry, 
1 to 3 ft. high. Leaves thread-like, round, channeled on one side, ex- 
tending from long sheaths. Flowers in a forked cluster, each flower 
separate. Pod round, as Jong as the sepals. This and the preceding 
species closely resembling each other. Common in dry soil. 

14. J. Gerardi, Lois. (Fig. 2, pi. 10.) Black Grass. Stems 8 to 
30 in. high, from creeping rootstocks. Basal leaves sheathing then spread- 
ing, flat, narrow; stem leaves thread-like. Flowers in a forked cluster, 
not in heads, each subordinate cluster subtended by a long bract. Pod a3 
long as the sepals, black ; parts of the perianth obtuse. Style conspicuous, 
3-branched at summit. Mostly in salt marshes. 

15. J. Greenei, Oakes & Tuckerm. Greene's Rush. Scapes wiry, 
8 to 30 in. higli. Leaves slender, round, grooved. Cluster forked; flowers 
separate; bract at base of cluster very slender and several times longer 
than the cluster. Flowers straw colored. Sepals shorter than the pod, 
egg-shaped. Stamens 6. Near the sea coast, Maine, southward. 

16. J. Vaseyi, Engelm. (Fig. 3, pi. 10.) Vasey's Rush. Resembles 
No. 12, but sepals are as long as the pod and the bract is usually not 
much longer than the flower cluster. Dry soil, throughout our area. 

C. Clusters of flowers terminal. 
Floicers in heads. Seeds tailed. 

17. J. asper, Engelm. New Jersey Rush. {J. C<tesariensis, Co- 
ville. ) Stems rigid, 20 to 40 in. high, stout. Leaves of the stem long, 
rounded, roughened. Cluster 1 to 4 in. high, subordinate clusters (heads), 
2- to 3-flowered; parts of the perianth lance-shaped, sharp pointed, not 
as long as the 3-sided lance-shaped capsule, which at length becomes 



Plate 10 
1. Juncus effusus. 2. J, Gerardi. 3. J. Vasey'i. 4. J. canadensis. 5. J. 
maritimus. 6. J. bufonius. 7. J. trifidus. 8. J. filiformis. 9. J. nodosus. 10, 
J. tenuis. 11. Luzula spicata. 12. L. confusa. 13. L. pilosa. 14. L. cam- 


black. Seeds tailed at both ends. Sandy swamps. Southern part of our 
area. (New Jersey). 

18. J. canadensis, Gay. (Fig. 4, pi. 10.) Canada Rush. Stems 1 
to 4 ft. high, stout, with 2 to 4 stem leaves, which are erect and smooth. 
Flower cluster in whorls, the heads containing from 3 to 40 flowers. 
Parts of the perianth lance-shaped, acute, the inner row longer than the 
outer. Stamens 3. Capsule 3-sided, lance-shaped, longer than the peri- 
anth. Seeds tailed at each end. Common; quite variable. 

19. J. marginatus, Rostk. Grass-leaved Rush. Growing in tufts. 
Scape 6 to 30 in. tall, 2- to 4-leaved. Flowers in several nearly spherical 
heads on branching stems or one above another. Stamens 3; capsule ovoid, 
as long as the perianth. Grassy places. 

20. J. stygius, L. ]\Ioor Rush. Not tufted. Stems 3 to 12 in. high; 
1 to 3 leaves below. Flowers in 1 to 4 heads, each of 1 to 4 flowers. 
The bract subtending the cluster or clusters, usually exceeding the clus- 
ters in length. Capsule spindle-shaped, sharp-pointed, rather longer than 
the perianth. Maine, northern New York. 

Seeds acute, not tailed. 

21. J. pelocarpus, Meyer. Brownish-fruited Rush. (J. suhtilis, 
Meyer.) Stems slender, 3 to 20 in. high, with 1 to 5 leaves, which are 
slender and rounded. Flower cluster of whorls of branches bearing very 
small heads, 1 to 3 flowers, which are reddish. Pod oblong, pointed, 
longer than the perianth. Bract subtending the cluster shorter than the 
cluster* Northern part of our area to southern New Jersey. 

22. J, articulatus, L. Jointed Rush. Stems 8 to 20 in. high, with 
1 or 2 leaves, which are rounded and slender. Cluster of several whorls 
of branches, the branches carrying 1 or more heads each. Heads of 6 
to 12 flowers. Perianth brown, its parts oblong. Pod deep brown ex- 
ceeding the perianth. Seeds not tailed. Bract of base of cluster shorter 
than cluster. Throughout our area. 

23. J. militaris, Bcgel. Bayonet Rush. Stems stout, 2 to 4 ft. 
high, each bearing a single leaf or less frequently 2 rounded leaves, one 
of which may be 2 to 3J ft. high, overtopping tlie flower cluster. At 
base are dense fascicles of thread-like leaves from the nodes of the root- 
stock. Cluster branching, with many heads, each containing from 5 to 
12 or more brown flowers. Parts of the perianth acute, as long as the 
cone-shaped cajjsulc. In bogs and streams, nortliorn New York. 

24. J. nodosus, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 10.) Knotted Rush. Stem slender, 
* to 2 ft. higli, with 2 or 3 stem leaves, the upi>cr (the bract) over- 
topping the cluster. Cluster of few or many heads; tlie heads nearly 
spherical of IS to 20 flowers. Cnpsulc conical, very slender-pointed, the 
parts of the involucre also narrow and slender-pointed, 1/2 or 2/3 as 
long as the capsule. Wet sands. 

25. J. Richardsonianus, Schult. Richardson's Rush. In loose tufts. 
Stems G to 20 in. higli, 1- to 2-lcaved. Clusters of rounded heads 2.V to 
8 in. high, branching, the brandies somewhat p.arallel or spreading. Loaf 
below the cluster about i as long as the cluster. Heads 3- to 12-ilo\vered. 
Capsule ovoid-oblong, slightly exceeding the perianth, straw-colored or 
brown. Througliout our area. 


20. J. Torreyi, Coville. Toery's Rush. Stems 8 to 40 in. hisli, not in 
tufts. Stem leaves 1 to 4. Heads round, i to | in. diameter, 1 to 20 
in a cluster. Stamens 6, Capsule 3-sided with a long beak, exceeding the 
perianth. Western New York, extending westward. 

27. J. acuminatus, Miclix. Sharp-fruited Rush. Stem 1 to 3 ft, 
high, with 2 or 3 stem leaves, the lower 4 to 8 in. long. Cluster long, 
with remote whorls of flower stems; heads 3 to 15 flowered. Stamens 
3. Parts of the perianth narrow, awl-shaped, very sharp pointed, about 
as long as the brown capsule. Throughout our area. 

28. J. scirpoides, Lam. Scirpus-like Rush. Stem 1 to 3 ft. high, 
slender, rigid, with about 2 rounded stem leaves. Cluster of 2 to 30 
spherical pale green heads, the cluster sometimes 6 in. long. Parts of the 
perianth narrow awl-shaped to bristle-like, nearly as long as the conical 
capsule. Wet sandy soil, New York, southward. 

LUZULA, DC. (Juncoides, Adams) 

Perennial plants with some of the cha:racteristics of the Rushes, but 
with flat, grass-like leaves which are soft and often hairy, and with 
flowers in umbels, spikes or diffuse clusters. Flowers, each subtended by 
a bract. Capsule of 1 cell with 3 seeds; stamens 6. Plants usually found 
in dry grounds. 

1. L. pilosa, Coville. (Fig. 13, pi. 10.) Hairy Wood Rush. (L. 
saltue^isis, Fernald. ) Stem erect, 2- to 4-leaved, 6 to 12 in. high. Leaf 
blades grass-like, hairy; stem leaves shorter than those from the basa. 
Flowers in an umbel subtended by a bract J to 1 in. high, the thread- 
like flower stems bearing each a single flower or rarely 2. Parts of the 
perianth 6, triangular, narrowed at apex, longer than the toothed bract- 
lets, brown, with a translucent margin. Capsule longer than the perianth 
segments, pjTamidal, surmounted by the 3-parted pistil. Found in a 
considerable part of our area. 

2. L. parviflora, (Ehrh.) Coville. Small-flowered Wood Rush. 
Stem 10 to 30 in. high, with 2 to 5 grass-like leaves, which are smooth. 
Flowers small, in a cluster composed of 2 or more whorls of flower stems, 
each of which may be terminated by a sort of umbel, the cluster 1 to 4 
in. high, bracted at the base of each whorl and at the branchings. Flowers 
borne singly on the thread-like branches of the cluster. Parts of the 
perianth G, narrowed at the apex, scarcely as long as the egg-shaped 
capsule. Maine, New Hampshire, New York and westward. 

3. L. spicata, (L.) Kuntze. (Fig. 11, pi. 10.) Spiked Wood Rush. 
Stem 4 to Ifi in. hijih, with 1 to 3 leaves; basal leaves forming a grassy 
tuft. Flowers brown in a narrow interrupted spike, more or less nodding. 
Parts of the perianth bristle-pointed; capsule egg-shaped, about as long 
as the parts of the perianth. Found generally on the high mountains of 
our area. 

4. L. confusa, Lindb. (Fig. 12, pi. 10.) Northern Wood Rush. 
(L. hyperhorca, (R. Br.) Sheldon.) Plants 4 to 8 in. high. Leaves in 
a small cluster at base and 1 or 2 on the stem. Flowers in an oblong 
cluster or two clusters, dense, J in. or less in length. Parts of the peri- 
anth brown. Higher mountains of our area, 



5. L. campestris, (L.) DC. (Fig. 14, pi. 10.) Common Wood Eush. 
Stem 4 to 20 in. high, rising from a grassy tuft of leaves and bearing 
1 or 2 stem leaves. Flowers in a terminal umbel, straw colored, the 
parts of the perianth bristle-pointed, longer than the rounded capsule. 
Common in dry woodlands. 

Family II.— LILIACEAE. Lily Family 
In our region, herbaceous plants or woody vines with flowers 
in clusters of various forms. Flowers regular, with 6 segments of 
the perianth, exceptionally united at base, in 2 rows, an outer 
and an inner, the outer series in fact representing the calyx. 
Stamens 6, the anthers mostly with their face inward. Fruit of 
3 carpels; style with an entire summit or divided into 3 lobes. 
Capsule usually splitting at the partitions. 

A. Herbs not having twining or woody stems 
Fruit not a round herrij. 

Ovary with few exceptions, situated above the perianth. 
Flowers with 6 symmetrical petals, all uniformly colored 
and not united. 
Flowers solitary or in loose clusters, pistil not divided 

in 3 parts .... Lily Tribe. (5) Lilioideae 
Flowers few or solitary in more or less dense clusters. 
tStijles divided into 3 spreading lobes. 
Flowers solitary. Genus Uvularia (3). 

. EuNcii Flower Tribe. (2) Melanthioideae 
Flowers in a rounded umbel. Style not divided. Stem 
springing from a bulb. Onion Tribe. (4) Allioideae 
Flowers witli 6 petals all united at tlie base, forming a G- 
toothcd hell or tube. Hyacinth Tribh. (1) Hyacinthineae 


Ovary situated below the perianth. 

Erect herbs. . Convallakia Tribe. (7) Convallariineae 

B. Plants with twining stems. 
Stems woody Smilax Tribe. (8) Smilacoideae 

Tribe I.— MELANTHIOIDEAE. Bunch Flower Tribe 

Herbs springing from a rootstock or less frequently from a bulb. Leaves 
all from the root or arising from the stem. Perianth of 6 equal parts, 
separate or slightly connected at the base. Flowers generally in length- 
ened clusters (spikes, racemes, panicles, I, II, III, p. 36, Part I), in 
JJvidaria solitary. Ovary superior to the stamens and perianth and free 
from both. Stamens 6, inserted, not directly on the receptacle, but at the 
base of the segments of the perianth. Styles 3, sometimes quite short, 
the 3 divisions of the ovary closely connected, but not completely united 
as they are in the Lily and other flowers of the Lily family. The di- 
visions are, however, always free at the summit. Fruit a 3-parted cap- 
sule, splitting longitudinally through the partitions. 
Flowers in more or less elongated clusters. 

Flowers purple Helonias 

Flowers greenish or white. 
Leaves narrow, grass-like. 

Flowers each with an involucre of 3 bracts . . . Tofieldia 
Flowers without an involucre. 

Segments of the perianth with 2 glands or protuberances 
at base. 

Segments without a claw Zygadenus 

Segments with a claw Melanthium 

Segments of corolla without glands. 

All tlie flowers with stamens and pistils. 

Flower stems quite leafy . . . Xerophyllum 
Flower stems with a few short leaves. 

Basal leaves not over 1/10 in. broad 


Basal leaves 1/6 in. to more than 1 in. 

broad Amianthium 

Some of the flowers with only one set of the above 

organs Stenanthium 

Leaves broad. 

Leaves oval or egg-shaped Veratrum 

Leaves broader at outer extremity than inner (spatula- 
formed). Flowers mostly either staminate only or 

pistillate only Chamaelirium 

Flowers solitary, yellow Uvularia 


I. TOFIELDIA, Huds. (Tofield, an English botanist) 

Perennial plants with narrow flower clusters, each terminal to a long and 
slender flower-stem (spike, raceme, I, 11, p. 36, Part I). Leaves narrow, 
grass-like and mostly at the base. Flowers with both stamens and pis- 
tils, white or green, spreading, each subtended by a small, scale-like 3- 
parted involucre. At base ot each flower stem is a small, green, leaf- 
like bract below the calyx. Segments of the perianth without claws. 
Stamens bearing anthers which look inward. Capsule 3-angular and 
separable into 3 parts, each part with many seeds. 

1. T, glutinosa, (Michx.) Pers. Glutinous Tofieldia. Stem 6 to 
20 in. high, covered with soft, viscid hairs. The flower pedicels very 
glutinous and clustered in 3's. Seed with a long tail at each end. Cap- 
sule oblong. 

2. T. racemosa, (Walt.) BSP. (Fig. 5, pi. 11.) Viscid Tofieldia. 
Stems very viscid, downy, somewhat taller than No. 1. Flowers clustered 
in 3's. Seed with a short tail at each end, in an oval capsule. Swamps, 
southern New Jersey and southward. 

2. NARTHECIUM, (Moehring), Juss. (Abama, Adams) 

Perennial herbs with the general appearance of Tofieldia. Flowers 
small, greenish-yellow. Segments of periantli C, linear-lance-shaped. No 
involucre at base of flower as there is in Tofieldia. Seeds appendaged at 
end. Capsule oblong-cylindric. Stalk less viscid than that of Tofieldia. 
Stamens covered with white hairs. 

N. americanum, Ker. American Bog Asphodel. Stem 8 to 20 in. 
tall, not hairy, wiry. Basal leaves 3 to 8 in. long. Flower cluster 1 
to 2 in. long. Rare, swamps in southern New Jersey. 


Perennial herbs in bogs. Leaves evergreen, broadly spatula-formed or 
inversely lance-shaped, all from the base. Stem surmounted by a some- 
what narrow bunch (raceme) of purple flowers. Perianth of G parts. 
Seed with a white tail at each end. Capsule broadly egg-shaped. 

H. buUata, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 11.) Swamp Pink. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high, 
wilii few or no bracts. Southern New York, New Jersey and Peuna. 


Tall perennial herbs with woody rootstock, very slender linear leaves 
and with very numerous showy white flowers in a slender cluster (II, 
p. 3t), Part I). Petals iciihout glands at base, widely spreading; sepals 
white resembling petals, oval. Stamen filaments dilated at middle. Cap- 
sule oval, or nearly globular, 3-grooved. The summits of the 3 styles 
turn outward. Each of the 3 lobes of the capsule with 2 seeds. 

X. asphodeloides, (T-i.) Nutt. Turkey-beard. Stem 2i to 5 ft. high, 
many leaves below with few above. Leaves from the base 1 ft. or more 
in length and 1/12 of an inch broad. In pine barrens of New Jersey and 
southward. May-July. 



Plate U 
1 Veratrum viride. 2. Helonias bullata. 3. Amianthium muscaetoxicum. 
4. Chamaelirium luteum. 5. Tofieldia racemosa. 6. Melanthium virginicum. 



Herb, from thick tubrous rootstock. Stem tall and smooth. Staminate 
and pistillate flowers growing on dilTerent plants, each class of flowers 
in a linear cluster (spike I, p. 36), the petals spatula-formed, white, 
witii a single central nerve. Leaves at the base, spatula-formed (Fig. 
11, p. 17, Part I), those of the stem few and lance-shaped. Seeds winged 
at each end. The plants vpith pistillate flowers are usually taller than 
those with staminate flowers. 

1. C. luteum, (L.) A. Gray. (Fig. 4, pi. II.) Blazing Star. Plant 
li to 2 ft. high, leafy, basal leaves 2 to 8 in, long, spatula-formed. Low 
grounds. New England and south. 

2. C. obovale, Small. Similar to No. 1, but the capsule of No. 1 
is oblong on a slender pedicel, that of C. obovale is obversely egg-shaped, 
on a stout pedicel, Mass., northward. Spring. 

6. AMIANTHIUM, Gray (Chrosperma, Raf.) 

Tall smooth herb, starting from a bulb, with many long, linear, blunt 
pointed leaves from the base and only a few short leaves on the flower 
stem. Flowers all with stamens and pistils, white, in slender elongated 
clusters (II, p, 36, Part I). Petals without claws or glands, oval, obtuse 
and spreading. Ovary 3-lobed, ovoid. 

A. muscaetoxicum, (Walt.) Gray. (Fig. 3, pi, 11.) Fly-poison, 
Stem 1^ to 4 ft. high. Cluster of flowers dense; seeds fleshy, red. Leaves 
keeled, grass-like, about i in. broad. In southern part of our region. 

7. STENANTHIUM, (Gray) Kunth. 

Plants resembling Amianthium, the terminal cluster of greenish-white 
flowers less compact and broader below (panicle). Segments of the 
perianth narrow and long. Leaves grass-like, keeled. Some of the 
flowers are perfect, bearing both stamens and pistils, others only one set 
of these organs, 

S. robustum, S. Wats. Stout Stenanthium. {8. gramineum, (Ker.) 
Kunth.). Stem leafy, 3 to 5 ft. high. Leaves 1 ft. long or more, the upper 
reduced to bracts. Flower cluster pyramidal, compound (panicle). Moist 
soil, southern Penna, July-Sept, 

8. ZYGADENUS, Michx. 

Smooth perennial herbs, in our species from a bulb, with nearly naked 
stems and grass-like leaves. Petals each with 1 or 2 glands at base. 
Seeds angled. Flowers greenish- wliite, in a loose spike or raceme (I, 11, 
p. 36, Part 1) from G to 12 in. long. Flowers generally bearing both 
stamens and pistils, greenish, yellowish or white. Capsule 3 lobed, 

L Z. chloranthus, Richards. Glaucus Zygadenus. (Z. clcgans, 
Pursh.?), Plant covered with a whitened bloom. Bulb about 1 in. long, 
about i in. broad; leaves grass-like. Oland at base of petals distinetly 
heart-shaped. Tlie flower cluster only moderately spreading (II, p. 36). 

2. Z. leimanthoides, A. Gray. Pinimjaiiren Zygadenus. Flower 


cluster quite spreading (III, p. 36, Part I). The gland at base of petals 
only a yellow spot. Flowers about J in. broad. Swamps, wet soil. 


Perennial herbs, tall, leafy, with greenish flowers in a long loose termi- 
nal pyramidal cluster (panicle, III, p. 24, Part I). Leaves broad-linear. 
Flowers simply staminate or simply pistillate on the same plant or 
both classes of organs in the same flower, greenish-white or cream color. 
Perianth of 6 spreading, oblong or somewhat heart-shape'd segments raised 
on slender claws with or without 2 glands at base. Capsule conical; 
seeds flat, broadly winged. 

1. M. virginicum, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 11.) Bunch-flower. Stems 2 to 
5 ft. high. Leaves somewhat broadly linear-lanceolate. Cluster pyramidal. 
Petals oblong, the outline not indented. June-Aug. 

2. M. latifolium, Desr. Crisped Bunch-flower. Leaves broader 
toward the outer extremity. Petals nearly rounded and with undulating 
outline. June-Aug. 

ID. VERATRUM, (Tonrn.) L. 

Perennial herb with tall leafy stem springing from a thickened root- 
stock (poisonous). Leaves alternate, mostly broad oval, passing to lance- 
shaped, marked by strong parallel veins and longitudinal foldings. 
Flowers in a loose pyramidal cluster (panicle) at the summit of the 
stem. These are mostly perfect or some may be staminate only and 
others pistillate only. Stamens not arising from the segments of the 
perianth, but from the receptacle, nearly erect at first, then spreading. 

V. viride, Ait. (Fig. 1, pi. 11.) American White Hellebore. 
Indian Poke. Stem from 2 to 8 ft. high; flowers yellowish-green in the 
axils of bracts, forming a large pyramidal cluster. Wet places through- 
out our region. May-July. 


Perennial erect herbs from rootstoeks. Stems smooth, forking, leafy 
above with clasping scales below. Flowers large, drooping, solitary at 
the extremities of branches or rarely 2 at end of the same branch. Peri- 
anth narrow bell-shaped, 1 to IJ in. long. Stamen filaments thread-like, 
the anthers quite long. Ovary 3 angled, ovoid. 

Leaves completely surrounding the stem. 

Leaves downy beneath U. grandifiora 

Leaves smooth beneath V. pcrfoliata 

Leaves not completely surrounding the stem U. scssilifolia 

1. U. perfoliata, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 12.) Perfoliate Bellwort. Stem 
and leaves smooth, light green. Stem forked above the middle, G to 18 in. 
high, often with a few leaves below the fork. Leaves penetrated by the 
stem. Flowers pale yellow, an inch or more long, drooping. Ovary with 3 
somewhat obtuse angles. Moist woods. May-June. 

2. U. grandifiora, J. E. Smith. Large-flowered Bellwort. Stem 
penetrating the leaves which are downy heneatli and oval or egg-shaped. 
Flowers larger than in the preceding species. Growing in similar situa- 
tions. April-June. 


3. U. sessilifolia, L- (Fiff. 6, pi. 12.) Sessile-leaved Bellwobt. 
(Oakcsia sessilifolia, Wats.) Leaves narrowly oval or lance-shaped, not 
penetrated by the stem but half clasping it, 1 to 3 in. long. Flowers 
greenish-yellow. Ovary with 3 winged angles. Moist woods. May-June. 

Tribe II.— AILIOIDEAE. Onion Tribe 
Only a single species, Allium, native in our territory. 


Herbs with a characteristic garlicky odor with leaves and flower stem 
springing from a bulb. Leaves mostly narrow and flat or hollow cylindric 
tubes. Less frequently broader lance-shaped. Flowers terminal on an 
erect, generally cylindric, scape, in a rounded umbel which sometimes con- 
tains also snuiU bulblets. Perianth of 6 segments, all colored. Seeds 
angular, black. 

Leaves broad, lanceolate A. tricocctim 

Leaves linear, flat. 

Heads containing both flowers and bulblets A. canadense 

Heads with flowers only, heads nodding, stamens nearly twice the 

length of perianth A. cernmim 

Leaves hollow tubes. 

Stamens, at least the inner 3, with a prolonged tooth or spine 

at each side extending above the anther A. vincale 

Stamens simple, not furnished with spines A. Schoenoprasuin 

1. A. tricoccum, Ait. Wild Leek. Leaves G to 12 in. long, disap- 
pearing before the flowers are developed. Flower stalk | to IJ ft. high. 
Tlie two bracts subtending the umbel as long or longer than the pedicels 
of the flowers; failing early. Flowers white, filaments of the stamens 
flattened, as long as the petals. June-July. 

2. A. Schoenoprasum, L. Chives. Leaves as long as the flower 
stem, permanent. Bracts of the umbel broad, often partly enclosing the 
umbel after tlie opening of the flowers. Flowers forming a dense head, 
rose-colored, the flower longer than the pedicel. Stamens shorter than the 
petals. Moist soil, often cultivated. June-Aug. 

3. A. cernuum, Roth. Nodding White Onion. Stem 4-angled, 1 
to 2 ft. high, leaves about as long, flat. Bracts below the umbel small 
and falling early. Flower umbel nodding. Rather dry localities, New 
York and westward. July-Aug. 

4. A. vineale, L. Wild Carlic. Stem 1 to 3 ft. high, leaves few 
and sliortcr tlian the stem, cylindric, hollow. Umbel containing flowers 
or bulblets or botli. Fields, Connecticut and westward. June-July. 

5. A. canadense, L. Meadow Caklic. Stem I to 2 ft. high; leaves 
linear, flat, sliortcr than flower stem; umbel bracts conspicuous, white, 
acute at apex. Flowers pink or white, often replaced by bulblets. Moist- 
fields, throughout our area. May-Jime. 

Tribe III.— IILIOIDEAE. True Lily Tribe 

Flowers of the typical construction of the order; petals, fl stamens, 
1 pistil, ovary of 3 cells, above the stamens and free from tliem; stamens 



Plate 12 
1. Maianthemum canadense. 2. Smilacina racemosa. 3. Polygonatum 
biflorum. 4. P. commutatum. 5. Uvularia perfoliata. 6. U. sessilifolia. 


having anthers which face toward the inside of the flower. Stem spring- 
ing from a bulb or rootstock bearing one or several flowers in a loose 

Leaves numerous on the stem Lilium 

Leaves 2 at lower part of stem Erythronium 

Leaves all from the bulb Ornithogalum 


Tall herbs with leafy stems, bearing at or toward the summit one or 
several large sliowy bell-shaped flowers of 6 colored, petaloid, segments. 
Stamens generally shorter than the long, graceful style. Seed capsule 

1. L. philadelphicum, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 13.) Red or Wood Lily. 
Stem very erect, 1 to 3 ft. tall, with one or more large deep orange 
flowers at the summit, erect or nearly so. Leaves lance-shaped, 1 to 4 
in. long, in whorls, 3 to 8 leaves in each whorl. Petals with dark purple 
dots, spreading above. A plant of much elegance in dry woods and 
thickets. June-July. 

2. L. canadense, L. (Fig. 3, pi, 13.) Wild Yellow Lily. Leaves 
in whorls; stem much taller than No. 1. (2 to 5 ft.), and bearing a 
pyramidal cluster of yellow or orange bell-shaped drooping flowers, the 
petals of which are turned back or spread outward. Leaves lance-shaped 
with the veins beneath covered with hairs. Edges of leaves also rough- 
ened. In moist meadows. Throughout our range. June-July. 

3. L. superbum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 13.) Turk's Cap Lily. Stem 3 to 
8 ft. high. Leavi'S in whorls or tlie upper alternate, the edges and under 
veins of the leaves smooth. Flowers orange or orango-ycllow, purple- 
spotted, notably darker in color than No. 2. Wet meadows and marshes, 
throughout our region. 

4. L. tigrinum, Andr. Tiger Lily. Stem tall, dark purple with 
dark bulblets in the axils of the alternate leaves. Flowers similar but 
larger than those of No. 3. An elegant lily, escaped from cultivation. 


Low herbaceous plants arising from a dilated root base resembling 
a bulb in form. Leaves 2, opposite, at the lower half of the stem, broad 
lance-form. Flower solitary, nodding, bell-shaped. Perianth of G seg- 
ments; stamens 0; ovary 3 celled. 

1. E. americanum, Ker. (Fig. 4, pi. 13.) Yellow Adder'.-? tongue. 
Stem G to 12 in. liigii. Leaves 3 to 8 in. long, i to 1 in. wide, dark 
green, usually mottled with brown. Flowers yellow. In wet .shady places. 
Common. March-May. 

2. E. albidum, Nutt. White Adder's tongue. Similar to No. 1, 
■with white or purple flowers. In similar situations. March-May. 

Low herbs arising from bulbs. Leaves all from tlie bulb; flower stem 



Plate 13 
1. Lillum superbum. 2. L. philadelphieium. 3. L. oanadense. 4.-Eryth= 
ronium americanum. 5. Muscari racemosum. 6. Ornithogalum umbellatum. 


leafless, smooth, bearing a loose broad cluster of white flowers. (VII, p. 
30, Part I.) 

0. umbellatum, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 13.) Star of Bethlehem. Seg- 
ments of perianth green beneath, spreading, opening in sunshine. Nat- 
uralized. In fields and meadows. May-June. 

Tribe IV.— HYACINTHINEAE. The Hyacinth Tribe 

Bulbous or fibrous rooted herbs. Flowers with 6 stamens, a single style 
and a 3-celled ovary. Perianth segments united to form a globose or tubu- 
lar bell. 

Flowers globose or not spreading at the outer borders . Muscari 
Flowers tubular, spreading at their outer borders . . Aletris 

I. MUSCARI, Mill. 

Leaves fleshy, arising from the bulb. Flower stem bearing a grape-like 
cluster of globose or oblong flowers. 

1. M. botryoides, (L.) Mill. Grape Hyacinth. Flower stem 4 to 
10 in. high, about equalling the leaves. Flowers dark blue or purple, 

2. M. racemosum, (L.) Mill. (Fig. 5, pi. 13.) Starch Grape 
Hyacinth, FUnvurs ovate or oblong. Contracted at outer border. Es- 
caped from gardens. 


Herbs with slender flower stem and spreading rosette of yellowish- 
green leaves at base. Flowers tubular, spreading at the outer extremity, 
each with 6 lobes; arranged in a slender spike, 1 to 3 ft. high, tlie 6 
stamens inserted on the segments of the united periantli, the tall style 
somewliat deeply divided, outer surface of perianth roughened. Ovary 
3 celled rounded or ovoid. 

1. A. farinosa, L. (Fig. 5, pi. IG.) Star Grass. Colic Root. 
Flowers white, spike of flowers 3 to 12 in. long, each flower subtended 
by a bract longer than the flower pedicel. May- July. 

2. A. aurea, Walt. Yellow Colic Root. Similar to No. 1 but with 
yeUuw flowers. In the southern part of our region. July-Aug. 

Tribe Y.— CONVALLARIINAE. Lily of the Valley Tribe 
Perennial plants, herbs and woody vines arising from rootstocks, leaves 
all from the root or from the stem. Fruit, except in Trillium, a rounded 
fleshy berry. Leaves broad with parallel veins. In Trillimn and Aspara- 
gus the arnangcnient of the veins is exceptional, being net-veined in the 
former and the leaf scale-like or needle-sliaped in tlie latter. Perianth of 
6 segments (Maianthcmum 4 segments) usually free, but in a few species 
united, forming a tubular flower. Flowers in U-ngthened clusters, in pairs 


or single. Ovaries, except in Maiantlicmum, 3-celled above the perianth 
and free from it. 

Herbs icithout Woody Stems 

Leaves small, needle-formed Asparagus 

Leaves broad, but parallel veined. 

Perianth segments 4, stamens 4 Maianthemum 

Perianth of 6 segments free, stamens 6. 
Flowers in an umbel. 

Leaves from the root Clintonia 

Leaves in a whorl of more than 3 about the stem . Medeola 
Flowers in a lengthened cluster (raceme) . . . Smilacina 
Flowers in pairs. 

Flower pair terminal Disporum 

Flowers along the course of the stem (or sometimes single). 

Flower segments free Streptopus 

Flower segments united, tubular . . . Polygonatum 
Leaves broad, veins not parallel. 

Perianth of 3 colored and 3 green segments .... Trillium 


Rootstock perennial, stem slender, branching with many short needle- 
like leaves (or branchlets) arising in groups. The earlier leaves are 
scale-like with broad insertions and it is in the axils of these scale-like 
leaves that the needle formed leaves arise. Flowers numerous along the 
branches of the stem, bell-shaped, segments deeply divided but joined at 
the base. Berry red when ripe. 

A. officinalis, L. Escaped from gardens, naturalized in places in our 


Herbs, growing in shade with spreading roots, few leaves, all from the 
root and a slender scape or flower stem bearing an umbel-like cluster of 
bell-shaped flowers. Ovary 2-celled. 

1. C. borealis, (Ait.) Raf. (Fig. 5, pi. 14.) Yellow Clintonia. 
Flower stem covered with fine soft hairs, 6 to 15 in. higli. Flowers, 3 to 
5 in the umbel, yellow. Common, 

2. C. umbellulata, (Michx.) Torr. White Clintonia. Stem more 
hairy and leaves broader. Flowers 12 to 30 in the umbel, -white. Rich 
woods; New York and southward. 

3. SMILACINA, Desf. (Vagnera, Adams) 
Slender horizontal rootstocks. Leafy stems with loose many flowered 


clusters at the summit. Leaves alternate. Flowers white or greenish- 

1. S. racemosa, (L. ) Desf. (Fig. 2, pi. 12.) False Spikenakd. 
Floiccr cluster branching (panicle) ; leaves oval, strongly veined. Berry 
red, dotted. Common. May-July. 

2. S. stellata, (L.) Desf. Star-flowered Solomon's Seal. Stem 
10 to 18 in. high; flower cluster not branching (raceme). Leaves 
numerous, oval lance-shaped. Berry red. Moist soil. Common, May- 

3. S. trifolia, (L.) Desf. Three-leaved Solomon's Seal. Stem 2 
to 15 in. high. Flower cluster simple, not branching. Leaves 3, oval 
lance-shaped. Bogs, in most of our region. May-June. 

4. MAIANTHEMUM, Wiggers (Unifolium, Greene) 

Small plants springing from slender rootstocks with shining alternate 
leaves (1, 2 or 3). Flowers in an oval terminal cluster, white, suc- 
ceeded by berries which, when ripe, are pale red. Petals only 4; ovary 
of 2 cells; pistil about as long as the ovary. 

M. canadense, Desf. (Fig. 1, pi. 12.) Two-leaved Solomon's Seal. 
Wild Lily of the Valley^ A very frequent little plant in borders of 
woods, often forming extensive beds. Stem 1 to 6 in. high, angular. Leaves 
heart-shaped, li to 2 in. long, half as wide, generally blunt at outer ex- 
tremity. Flower cluster of 20 or more small white flowers. 

5. DISPORUM, Salisb. 

Herbs resembling Uvularia but with hairy stem and leaves and with 
flowers erect in pairs. Leaves ovate, with long tapering points, without 
leaf stems, rarely clasping; segments of perianth 6, slender; stamens 6, 
below the ovary and free from it. Flowers greenish-yellow or white. 
Berry ovoid. 

D. lanuginosum, (Michx.) Nichols. Hairy Disporum. Plant IJ to 
2 ft. high, with an abundance of soft hairs. Flowers bell-sliaped, nearly 
erect. In shady places, western New York and westward. 

6. STREPTOPUS, Michx. 

Herbs arising from rootstocks. Branching, with alternate leaves which 
clasp the stem. Flowers solitarj' or in i)airs, from the leaf axils, bell- 
shaped, with G slender segments. Stamens (i, opposite the petals and below 
the ovary. Pistil 1, slender. Berry roundish. 

1. S. amplexifolius, (L.) DC. Clasping-leaved Twisted Stalk. 
Flowers grciiiisli, drooping. Borders of leaves smooth, pale green on the 
under side, darker above. Leaves 2 to 3 in. long, i as wide. Plant 1 to 
2 ft. high. In moist woods throughout our region. May-June. 

2. S. roseus, Michx. (Fig. 3, pi. 14.) Rose Twist Foot. Margins 
of leaves roughened and hairy. Leaves equally green on both sides. Plant 
about the size of No. I. Common. May-June. 

Perianth segments united into a licll-shapcd lube, G parted at the border. 



Plate 14 
1. Trillium grandiflorum. 2. T. erectum. 3. Streptopug roseus. 4. Med- 
eola virginiana. 5. Clintonia borealis. 


Herbs arising from a horizontal rootstock. Stems not branching, slender. 
Leaves without leaf stalks, alternate, ovate or lance-shaped, with slender 
points. Flowers in pairs, or 3 or 4 from a common stalk, the common 
flower stalks arising at the axils of the leaves. Berry dark blue. 

1. P. biflorum, (Walt.) Ell. (Fig. 3, pi. 12.) Hairy Solomon's 
Seal. Plant hairy, J to 3 ft. high. Common. In woods and shady places. 

2. P. commutatum, (R. & S.) Dietr. (Fig. 4, pi. 12.) Smooth 
Solomon's Skal. I'lant entirely smooth, 1 to 8 ft. high. In moist woods, 
New Hampshire, Rhode Island and southward. May-July. 


Slender, erect herb arising from a tubrous root, without branches, stem 
surrounded, at about the middle, by a whorl of about 6 or more leaves 
and terminated above by another whorl of 3 to 5 leaves which are sur- 
rounded by several greenish-yellow flowers. Perianth of 6 re-curving seg- 
ments; stamens 6, slender and conspicuous; styles 3, dark red, much 
longer than the segments of the perianth and spreading. Berry globose. 

M. virginiana, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 14.) Indian Cucumber Root. Plant 
from 1 to 2J ft. high. The 3 or 4 flowers may rise above the upper whorl 
or droop between its leaves. Moist rich woods. Common. May-June. 


Herbs arising from tubrous roots or short rootstocks, with simple stems 
surmounted by a whorl of 3 broad leaves and a single flower. Flower of 
6 segments, 3 green, 3 colored. Stamens 6; ovary 3-angled and 3-celled. 

Leaves on leaf-stalks. 

Plant 2 to 6 in. high T. nivale 

Plant 8 to 24 in. high T. undulatum 

Leaves without leaf stalks or with very short ones. 

Petals broadest at outer extremity T. grandifiorum 

Petals broadest at inner extremity. 

Pedicel of flower not more than ij in. long T. centuitm 

Pedicel of flower more than ij in. long T. erectum 

1. T. grandifiorum, (Michx.) Salisb. (Fig. 1, pi. 14.) Large- 
FLOW^EREi) VVake-roiun. Petals broadest at outer extremity, white or 
liglit rose with greenish veins, and much longer than the green sepals. 
Flower nearly erect, larger and less spreading than tlie other species. 
Stem 8 to 18 in. high. Somewhat common. In moist woods or lowlands. 

2. T. erectum, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 14.) Ill-scented Wake-eobin. 
Petals broadest at inner extremity, and scarcely exceeding the green 
sepals in length or even shorter, an inch long and twice as wide as the 
sepals, spreading to a wheel-formed flower. Flower nodding on a nearly 
erect peduncle, dark purple. Stem a foot or more high. Common in 
moist woods. April-June. 

3. T. cernuum, L. Nodding Wake-robin. Leaves more rounded than 
either of tlie other species. Petals white, rather longer than the green 
sepals, lance-sliaped. Flowers spreading with petals rolled back. Stem 
10 to 15 in. high. 




Page l.">8, loth line 
For surrounded read surmounted. 

Plate 15 
1. Smilax glauca. 2. S. rotundifolia. 3. S. tamnifolia. 4. S. Walteri. 5. 
Dioscorca villosa. 


Herbs arising from a horizontal rootstock. Stems not branching, slender. 
Leaves without leaf stalks, alternate, ovate or lance-shaped, with slender 
points. Flowers in pairs, or .3 or 4 from a common stalk, the common 
flower stalks arising at the axils of the leaves. Berry dark blue. 

1. P. biflorum, (Walt.) Ell. (Fig. 3, pi. 12.) Hairy Solomon's 
Seal. Plant hairy, i to 3 ft. high. Common. In woods and shady places. 

2. P. commutatum, (R. & S.) Dietr. (Fig. 4, pi. 12.) Smooth 
Solomon's Seal. I'laiit eniirely smooth, 1 to 8 ft. high. In moist woods. 
New Hampshire, Rhode Island and southward. May-July. 


g. TKii^i^x. , 

Herbs arising from tubrous roots or short rootstocks, with sim^.^ _ 
surmounted by a whorl of 3 broad leaves and a single flower. Flower of 
6 segments, 3 green, 3 colored. Stamens 6; ovary 3-angled and 3-celled. 

Leaves on leaf-stalks. 

Plant 2 to 6 in. high T. nirale 

Plant 8 to 24 in. high T. undulatum 

Leaves without leaf stalks or with very short ones. 

Petals broadest at outer extremity T. grajidifiorum 

Petals broadest at inner extremity. 

Pedicel of flower not more than ij in. long T. cernuttm 

Pedicel of flower more than jj in. long T. erectum 

1. T. grandiflorum, (Michx.) Salisb. (Fig. 1, pi. 14.) Large- 
flowered VVake-roiun. Petals broadest at outer extremity, white or 
light rose witli greenish veins, and much longer than the green sepals. 
Flower nearly erect, larger and less spreading than the other species. 
Stem 8 to 18 in. high. Somewhat common. In moist woods or lowlands. 

2. T. erectum, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 14.) Ill-scented Wake-robin. 
Petals broadest at inner extremity, and scarcely exceeding the green 
sepals in length or even shorter, an inch long and twice as wide as the 
sepals, spreading to a wheel-formed flower. Flower nodding on a nearly 
erect peduncle, dark purple. Stem a foot or more high. Common in 
moist woods. April-June. 

3. T. cernuum, L. Nodding Wake-robin. Leaves more rounded than 
either of the other species. Petals white, rather longer than the green 
sepals, lance-shaped. Flowers spreading with petals rolled back. Stem 
10 to 15 in. high. 



Plate 15 
1. Smilax glauca. 2. S. rotundifolia. 3, S. tamnifolia. 4. S. Walteri. 5. 
Dioscorea villosa. 


4. T. undulatum, Willd. Painted Wake-eobin. Leaves with leaf 
stalks and with long narrow points. Petals lance-shaped or lance ovate, 
nearly equal at the extremities, edges wavy, longer than the green sepals. 
Flowers on nearly erect Hower stems (pedicels) white, beautifully marked 
with pink veins which distinctly color the throat. Stem 8 to 12 in. high. 
Common in woods. April-June. 

5. T. nivale, Beck. Early Wake-eobin. Plant 2 to 6 in. high. 
Leaves on leaf-stalks, the blade 1 to 2 in. long, broadly oval. Flower 
on a flower stem 1 in. long, bent or curved beneath the leaves. Petals 
white, oblong or oval. Woods, Penna. and southward. March-May. 

Tribe VI.— SMILACOIDEAE. Smilax Tribe 

Woody or, in Nos. 1 and 2, herbaceous vines, climbing by ten- 
drils, arising from large tubrous rootstocks. Pistillate and 
staminate flowers on different plants, in rounded umbels, generally 
on long pedicels. Segments of the perianth 6, small, white; 
stamens inserted at the base of the perianth segments. Berry 
globular, 3-celled, with 1 or 2 seeds in each cell. 

One family, Smilaceae, and only one genus. 

Which has the characters named above. 

Herbaceous, annual plants S. herbacea and S. tamnifolia 

Woody perennial vines. 

Stems all armed with prickles . . S. glauca, S. rotundifolia and S. hispida 
Smaller stems without prickles. 

Leaves shield-shaped 5". bona-nox 

Leaves lance-shaped S. laiiri folia 

Leaves oval-heart-shaped S. Walteri 

Leaves egg-shaped 5'. pseudo-china 

Herbaceous Annual Plants 

L S. herbacea, L. Carrion Flower. Stem round or slightly angled, 
very smooth, green, bushy, with slender branches. Leaves oblong-egg- 
shaped, 7-nerved. Flower stems longer than leaf stems. Woods and 
thickets of our area. April-June. 

2. S. tamnifolia, Michx. (Fig. 3, pi. 15.) Halberd-leaved Smilax. 
Climbing or erect, smooth light green. Leaves heart-shidd-shapcd, 
5-ncrvcd. Flower stems much longer than leaf stems. Southern New 
Jersey and Penna., and southward. ]\Iay-July. 

Stems woody, perennial 
Stems armed with many prickles. 

3. S. glauca, Walt. (Fig. 1, pi. 15.) Glaucus-leaved Gkeenbriab. 
Stem round or the smaller branches slightly 4-angled. Leaves broadly 
ovate or rarely heart-shaped at base, thick, 3-nerved. Leaf stems bearing 
tendrils. Flower sterna considerably longer than leaf stems. Dry soil, 
eastern Mass. and southward. May-June, 


4. S. rotundifolia, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 15.) Common Greenbriar. Stem 
stout, round. Leaves round-egg-shaped, often broader than long. Points 
of leaves sharp, borders smooth, 5-nerved. Flower stems not longer than 
leaf stems. Woods and thickets of our area. April-June. 

5. S. bona-nox, L. Bristly Greenbriar. Stem round or slightly 
angular, branchlets angular, with many prickles. Leaves "deltoid-heart- 
shaped, 5-nerved, often with prickles along the leaf borders. Flower- 
stem longer than leaf-stem. Southern two-thirds of our area and south- 
ward. April-July. 

6. S. hispida, Muhl. Hispid Greenbriar. Stem climbing, covered 
below by a dense growth of soft bristly prickles, main stem round, the 
branches somewhat angular. Leaf stems about i in. long; leaves thin, 
egg-shaped, sharply pointed at apex, obtuse or somewhat heart-shaped 
at base, 7-veined. Stem of flower-cluster from 2 to 5 in. long. Berries 
bluish-black. Moist thickets, rare. Conn, southward. May-July. 

§ Stems without prickles or with prickles only on main stems. 

7. S. laurifolia, L. Laurel-leaved Greenbriar. Stem round, high 
climbing, prickles only on main stems or rarely on small branchlets. 
Leaves narrow lance-shaped, broader at outer third than at inner third. 
Leaves generally 3-nerved, leaf stems very short. Flower stems ^ to 1 
in. long. In southern part of our region. March-Sept. 

8. S. Walteri, Pursh. (Fig. 4, pi. 15.) Walter's Greenbriar. 
Stem angled. Leaves egg-shaped, heart-shaped, obtuse at apex, 3-nerved. 
New Jersey and southward. MarchAug. 

9. S. pseudo-china, L. Long-stalked Greenbriar. Rootstock tu- 
brous. Stem climbing, without prickles or with few. Leaves egg-shaped, 
somewhat heart-shaped at base, 5-veined; leaf stem flattened. Flower stem 
nearly as long as the leaves. Berries black. Bare. Dry or sandy soil. 
New Jersey and southward. March-Aug. 

Family III.— HAEMODORACEAE. Bloodwort Family 

General characteristics of the Lily family, but with only 3 
stamens, which are opposite the 3 inner segments of the perianth. 
Perianth situated partly or wholly above the ovary which is 3 
celled. Perennial herb with erect stems and narrow, grass-like 

I. LACHNANTHES, Ell. (Gyrotheca, Salisb.) 

A stout herb with fibrous, perennial roots N to 2 ft. high, woolly or 
hairy above. Flowers in a head or loose rounded cluster, yellow. Calyx 
segments long, narrow and pointed, as long as the yellowish petals. 

L. tinctoria, (Walt.) Ell. Red Root. Flowers 15 to 20 in a terminal 
umbel-like cluster, covered with woolly hairs. Found in swamps and wet 
places, Mass. and southward. July-Sept. 

Family IV.— AMARYILIDACEAE. Amaryllis Family 
Perennial herbs with grass-like leaves. Flowers showy in um- 


bel-like clusters, yellow or white. Perianth segments 6, adherent 
to the ovary. Stamens, in our species, G. Ovary 3-celled, each 
cell with many seeds. 


Low herbs arising from short rootstocks not unlike bulbs. Leaves all 
from the rootstock, grass-like. Flowers star-shaped, green on the out- 
side, yellow within, tlie few-flowered cluster terminal to a naked scape. 
Below the flower cluster are 2 lance-shaped bracts. 

1. H. hirsuta, (L.) Coville. (Fig. 4, pi. IG.) Stab Grass. Leaves 
all from tlie root. Flower stem generally not as long as the grass-like 
leaves. Wliole plant hairy. Flowers 2 to 6 in the group. Stem 3 to 10 
in. high. Dry woods throughout our region. May-Oct. 

2. LOPHIOLA, Ker. 

Erect herb arising from a slender rootstock. Leaves grass-like, mostly 
from the root but found sparingly on the flower stem. Tiie spreading 
cluster is compound, a dozen to 20 flowers in tlie group, the flower branch- 
lets being subtended by 2 lance-shaped bracts. Capsule ovoid. 

1. L. americana, (Pursh.) A. Wood. Lophiola. Golden Crest 
Flower. Perianth segments woolly. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high, when young 
covered witli whitish woolly hairs. Root leaves smooth, narrow and 
long, those from the stem shorter. Flowers yellow within and woolly, 
greenish on tlie outside. Bogs, New Jersey and southward. June-Aug. 

Family V.— DIOSCOREACEAE. Yam Family 

Twining slirubs with alternate heart-shaped leaves. Staminate 
and pistillate flowers on different plants or the two kinds on the 
same plant. Perianth of 6 segments, adlierent to the ovary. In 
tlie staminate flowers tlie stamens are inserted into the base of the 
perianth segments. Both kinds of flowers in long slender clus- 
ters. Leaves at lower part of stem in whorls of 4s; above, alter- 
nate, each witli about 9 conspicuous nerves. Styles 3, ovary 
3-celled, winged. 


A twining vine in woods and thickets, mostly clinging to trees. Leaves 
egg-shaped, with slender pointed outer extremities, on long slender leaf 

D. villosa, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 15.) Wild Yam -boot. Mostly in the 
southern part of our region. June-July. 

Family VI.— IRIDACEAE. Iims Family 

Perennial herbs, in wet or moist grounds. Leaves linear, erect, 
in two ranks. Perianth of 6 segments, in ricmmingia and Sisy- 
rinchium alike, in Iris the 3 inner segments smaller than the 


others. Flowers subtended by conspicuous leaf-like bracts. 
Stamens 3, opposite the outer segments of the perianth. 

Segments of perianth in two unequal series .... Iris 

Segments of perianth equal. 

Flowers orange Gemmingia 

Flowers blue Sisyrinchium 

I. IRIS, L. 
Three inner segments of the perianth curved outward, narrower than 
the others. Outer segments more erect but curved inward. The 3 di- 
visions of the style are ilattened and colored, resembling petals, the stigmas 
being on the under (outer) side of the generally 2 lipped style. 

Stem I to 2 in, high 7. verna 

Sterns about 6 in. high 7. lacitstris 

Stems from i to 2 ft. high. 

Flowers yellow 7, pseudacorus 

Flowers blue. 

Leaves sword-shaped 7. versicolor 

Leaves narrow, grass-like. 

Flower pedicel shorter than the bracts subtending it . 7. Hookeri 
Flower pedicel much longer than the bracts, plant i 

ft. or more high /. prismatica 

1. I. versicolor, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 16.) Larger Blue Flag. Stems 
1 to 3 ft. high. Leaves shorter than the stem, ^ to 1 in. wide. Bract 
longer tlian the flower stem. Flowers blue, with yellow, green and white. 
The common blue flag along borders of springs and in moist places. May- 

2. I. pseudacorus, L. Yellow Flag. Leaves sword-like. Stems IJ 
to 3 ft. high. The only native or naturalized species with yellow flowers. 
Not common. Marshy places. Introduced from Europe. May-July. 

3. I. Hookeri, Penny. Hooker's Blue Flag. (7. setosa, Pall.). 
Leaves grass-like, mostly from the base. Seed capsules nearly egg-shaped 
with 3 obtuse lobes. The bracts below the flowers are as long or longer 
than the pedicel of the flower. Stem 10 to 20 in. high. Banks of 
streams, throughout our area. May-July. 

4. I, verna, L, Dwarf Iris, Stem 1 to 3 in. high, usually 1 -flow- 
ered. Leaves narrowly linear. Flowers violet-blue or rarely white. 
Shaded hillsides, S. Penna. and southward. April-May. 

5. I. prismatica, Pursh. Slender Blue Flag. Leaves grass-like; 
plant slender. Flowers solitary or two together, the flower on a long 
delicate flower pedicel. Capsule acute at each end. Mostly along the 
eastern coast. May-July. 

6. I. lacustris, Nutt. Dwarf Lake Iris. One of the smallest of the 
genus native in 'Our region. Stem about 5 or 6 in. high. Flowers 1 to 
li in. long. Leaves as long or longer than the flower stem. A local 
species on the shores of Lake Huron and Lake Superior. May. 

2. GEMMINGIA, Fabricius 
An introduced erect herb, perennial, with leaves resembling the Iris 


and with a broad loose terminal cluster of flowers with equal spreading, 
brange, purple-mottled, flowers, the petals and sepals nearly or quite 
equal. Stamens 6, inserted at the base of the perianth segments. 

1. G. chinensis, (L.) Kuntze. Blackberry Lily. Stem 1 to 5 ft. 
tall. Fruit many knob-like protrusions, resembling in form and ap- 
pearance a blackberry. In southern part of our region. June-July. 

Herbs arising from rootstocks. The three branches of the style thread- 
like. Leaves grass-like. Segments of perianth 6, equal, the petals widest 
at outer extremity; stamens 6. From the midvein of each petal extends 
a delicate spine-like projection. Flowers wheel-formed. Below the little 
umbel of flowers are two leaf-like bracts which form a sort of spathe. 
From this spathe arise by delicate pedicels the two, three, or more star- 
like flowers. 

Bracts below the flowers very unequal. 

The long bract generally bright purple S. mucronatxim 

The long bract not purple S. angustifolium 

Bracts below the flowers nearly or quite equal. 
Leaves from i/io to 1/5 in. wide. 

Stem wings notched S. intermedium 

Stem wings not notched . . . . • S. graminoides 

Leaves from 1/40 to 1/20 in. wide S. atlanticum 

1. S. graminoides, Lamark. Stout Blue-eyed Grass. A common 
species in damp grassy soil. Flower stem somewhat flattened, branching, 
one branch shorter than the other. Leaves broad grass-like. Plant 8 to 
20 in. high. 

2. S. atlanticum, Bicknell. (Fig. 2, pi. 16.) Eastern Blue-eyed 
Grass. Ijcss common than No. 1. Stem and leaves very narrow, whole 
plant slender. Stem branching, 8 to 24 in. high. Generally growing in 
tufts. Umbel often many flowered. In moist fields throughout our region, 
but mostly in the Eastern part. May-June. 

3. S. angustifolium. Mill. (Fig. 1, pi. IG.) Pointed Blue-eyed 
Grass. Stem flat, two edged. Leaves about 1/12 in. wide and from 3 to 
16 in. high. Umbel few flowered, subtended by a long bract which ex- 
tends considerably above the flowers and a second very inconspicuous 
bract. In moist meadows. Common. June-Aug. 

4. S. mucronatum, Miclix. Michaux's Blue-eyed Grass. Growing 
more in tufts than the last; stem and leaves much more delicate and 
slender, from thread-like to 1/15 in. wide. Stems with very narrow wings 
on margins. Leaves often as long as flower stems. The outer long bract 
at the base of the umbel i to 2i in. long, often bright purple; the inner 
bract about 1 in. or less in length. Flowers deep violet-blue. Meadows 
and fields, New .Jersey and westward. May-June. 

5. S. intermedium, Bicknell. Intermediate Blue-eyed Grass. Grow- 
ing in tufts, stems 4 to 16 in. high, slender, simple or branched above 
into two long flower stems. Leaves nearly 1/8 in. wide. Stem very flat, 
the wings very finely notched. Flower stem usually sliorter tlian tlie leaf 
situated just below the branching (2 to 3 J in. long). Outer bract below 
the little umbel of flowers tapering to a very slender point, 1 to 2i in. 
long, usually purple. Flowers 2 to 6, pale blue. Soutiicrn New Jersey 
and southward. May-June. 



Plate 16 
1. Sisyriiicliiiini angustifolium. 2. S. atlanticum. 3. Iris versicolor, 
4. Hypoxis hirsuta. 5. Aletris farinosa. 


Order VII.— ORCHIDACEAE. Orchidaceous Plants 

Of this order there is, in our region, only one family. 

ORCHIDACEAE. Orchid Family 

Among the Monocotyledonous plants the orchid family is pe- 
culiar in being that in which the flowers are always irregular. 
The perianth is of two rows of flower leaves, an outer, the calyx, 
of 3 segments which are alike or very nearly so and an inner, the 
corolla, also of 3 generally very nnequal parts. The two side 
segments are nearly alike, but the middle or upper one is unlike 
the others and generally forms a lip, simple or fringed, or a boat- 
like pouch, and is often extended into a long spur. This upper 
segment, by the twisting of the ovary or of the flower pedicel 
may become the lower one. This upper lip differs from the other 
segments, not only in form and size but it is often strikingly in 
contrast in its color. Of the stamens, only one is, as a rule, de- 
veloped, but in Cypripedium two are fertile. The stamen or the 
two stamens grow in union with the pistil, forming what is known 
as the column. This arrangement brings the pollen bearing an- 
ther directly over or behind the stigma. The ovary is, contrary 
to the general rule with monocotyledonous plants, entirely in- 
ferior to all the parts of the flower, is elongated and in nearly all 
cases twisted, the torsion in general being 180°, while in some 
foreign species the rotation is fully 300°. 

In Cypripedium the bending of the flower stalk serves the same 
purpose as does the torsion of the ovary in other genera. The 
one-celled ovary is divided by three deep partitions to which are 
attached the very numerous small seeds. Orchidaceous plants are 
all perennial, the bulb for the succeeding year forming at the side 
of the bulb of the current year. Leaves generally from the stem 
and alternate but sometimes all from the root or opposite on tlie 
stem or even in whorls on the stem, they are parallel nerved. 
Flo^vers in a slender spike or loose broadened cluster or, less fre- 
quently, solitary. 

There are over 5000 known species of orchidaceous plants, the 
great majority of which are found in tropical climates, the most 
of tlicso latter being air plants, finding their homes on the branches 
of trees and deriving their nourishment largely through the long 
trailing aerial roots. In our region all the species are plants 
having their roots in the soil or in wet mosses. 


Flowers witli two fertile anthers resting each on a lateral 
projection from the common column, the odd, center sta- 
men (which answers to the fertile stamen of other orchids) 
spread into a petal-like expansion .... Cypripedium 
Lip extended into a spur. 

Flower with one fertile stamen. Pollen in masses drawn 
out and forming a little stalk (caudicle) which is con- 
nected with a glutinous adhesive suhstance known as 
a " gland." 

The glands enclosed in a hood or pouch which opens 

at the mouth of the spur Orchis 

Glands not enclosed in a pouch . . . Habenaria 
Pollen masses waxy, terminal to the column. Slender 
herb arising from a solid bulb. Spur slender, 2 or 3 
times as long as the flower. Flowers greenish in a 

loose lengthened cluster Tipularia 

Lip not extended into a spur. 

Pollen masses not drawn out to form the little stalk, 
grains more or less powdery, but cohering in 4 or 5 deli- 
cate masses and attached to the summit of the anther. 
Leaves 2, opposite. The pair of green leaves near 
middle of stem. Lip of flower split . . Listera 

The pair of shining leaves near the base of the 
stem. Sepals and petals linear . Liparis 

Leaves along the stem, mostly below. Flowers 
in twisted spikes Spiranthes 

Leaves in rosette at base of stem, often blotched 
with white, not reticulated; lip entire, round- 
ish Epipactis 

Stem very leafy, flowers in a long slender clus- 
ter, anther hooded Serapias 

Leaves mostly reduced to sheaths; flower soli- 
tary, purple Arethusa 

Leaves broad grass-like; flowers several in a 
loose cluster, pink purple. Lip crested with 
long yellow hairs Calopogon 

Flowers few or solitary. Leaves few, alternate 
or in a whorl. Anther attached to the back 
of the column Pogonia 


Leaf single. 

Oval, with a single flower having a double, 

bearded lip Calypso 

Leaf broadly oval clasping the stem with sev- 
eral scales below. Flowers greenish Microstylis 
Grass-like, with a long cluster of yellow-brown 

flowers Aplectrum 

Plants without leaves or with inconspicuous ones. 
Flowers dull, roots coralloid . . . Corallorrhiza 


Plants with terminal nodding flowers. Two stamens fertile. Stigma 
in 3 lobes. Lip developed into a large inflated pouch or sac. Leaves from 
the stem or from the root, large, many nerved. 

Stem not leafy, leaves directly from root C. acaule 

Stem leafy. 

Flowers yellow. 

Lip I to 2 in. long C. hirsutum 

Lip i to I in. long C. parviHorum 

Flowers purple. 

Petals as long or longer than the lip C. arietinum 

Petals shorter than the lip. 

Stem I to 2 ft. high C. spectabile 

Stem 6 to 12 in. high C. candiJuin 

1. C. arietinum, R. Br, (Fig. 4, pi. 17.) Ram's Head. Stems 8 to 
12 in. high, often in clusters. Leaves broad elliptic, petals linear, green- 
ish-brown; lip red with white veins, somewhat downy, the apex prolonged 
into a spur. Lateral sepals not united. In damp woods, most of our 
region. May-Aug. 

2. C. acaule, Ait. (Fig. 2, pi. 17.) Mocassin Flower. Flower 
scape 10 to 14 in. high. Leaves from the base of stem, opposite, broad 
elliptic, strongly nerved. Flower 2 in. long. Petals not as long as the 
pouch-like lip. Lateral sepals more or less united. An exquisite flower. 
In damp woods. May-June. 

3. C. spectabile,. Salisb. (Fig. 3, pi. 17.) Showy Lady's Slipper. 
(C. rc()inac, Walt.). Stem leafy, 2 ft. high; leaves broad lance-ovate, 
strongly veined. Sepals broad, blunt at end, not as long as the lip. Lip 
purplish white with many red veins. The most showy of our Cypripe- 
diums. In wot meadows and swamps. June-Sept. 

4. C. candidum, Willd. Small White Lady's Slipper. Stem with 
3 or 4 broad lancc-sliapcd leaves, 6 to 12 in. high. Sepals and petals 
longer than the lip. Lip white with purple veins within. Flower rather 
less than an inch long. Woods and swamps. May-July. 

5. C. hirsutum, Mill. (Fig. 1, pi. 17.) Large Yellow Lady's Slip- 
per. Stem leafy, 1 to 2 ft. high, hairy; leaves oval or broad lance- 
shaped. Flowers large, lip 1 to 2 in. long, greenish-yellow with purple 
stripes. Sepals long, twisted, narrow lance-shaped. Woods and thickets 
throughout our region. May-July. 

6. C. parviflorum, Salisb. Small Lady's Slipper. Stems very leafy, 
about as tall as No. 5, flower smaller; lip \ to 1} in. long, bright yellow 


Plate 17 
1. Cypripedium hirautum. 2. C. acaule. 3. C. spectabile. 4. C. arietinum. 
5. Aplectrum spicatum. 


with purple spots within. Sepals long egg-shaped to lance-egg-shaped. 
Woods and thickets. May-July. 

2. ORCHIS, L. 

Perennial, from fleshy roots. Leaves, in our species, 1 or 2 from base 
of stem. Flower stem lealk'ss with a narrow spike of exquisite purple 
flowers. Lip spurred. Pollen in two masses, related to each other by 
the slender elastic threads. 

1. O. spectabilis, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 18.) Showy Orchis. (Galeorchis 
sijcctabilis, (L. ) Rydb.). Stem 4 to 12 in. high, but rarely more than 6 
in., 4-angled with 1 or 2 lance-shaped bracts. Leaves 2, opposite, rarely 
more, broad oval, spreading, about as long as flower stem. Flowers 3 to 
6, showy, rose-white or somewhat violet, lip not lobed. Throughout our 
region in rich, generally piny, woods. April-June. 

2. O. rotundifolia, Banks. (Fig. 2, pi. 18.) Small Round-leaved 
Okchid. Stem more slender than No. 1, about as high. Leaf single, from 
base of stem, broadly oval or nearly orbicular. Flower stem with few 
flowers. Lip white or light purple with purple spots, three lobes, the end 
one notched. In damp woods mostly in northern part of our area. July- 

3. HABENARIA, Willd. 
Plants diff"ering from the orchids only in some, to the amateur, rather 
obscure features. Mostly with leafy stems. Flowers in long narrow 
clusters (spikes) or in loose clusters (racemes). Lip entire, 3 loljed or 
fimbriated. The two glands to which are attached the delicate threads 
{or caiidicles) connected with the pollen masses are not enclosed in a 
pouch hut lie quite naked. The petals are usually smaller than the sepals. 
Color of flowers, purple, white, green or yellow. 

Flowers Grccnish-yellow 

One leaf at base of stem H. obtusata 

Two leaves at base of stem. 

I'"lower stem with one or more leaf-like bracts //. orhiculata 

Flower scape without bracts //. Hookcri 

Stem leafy, bracts about as long as the flowers. 
Lip not divided in 3 lobes, border entire. 

Upper sepal finely notched H. Il^'perborca 

Lip with a tooth at each side of the base H. flora 

Stem leafy, bracts much longer than the flowers H. hractcnta 

Stem with one leaf at base H. clavcUata 

Flowers Yellow or Orange 

Lip not fringed H. intcgra 

Lip fringed. 

.Spur longer than the ovary H. ciliaris 

Spur shorter than ovary. 

Lip in 3 divisions //. laccra 

Lip not 3 parted H, cristata 

Flowers White 
Lip not fringed. 

Not very fragrant //. dilatata 

Lip fringed. 

Very fragrant H. fragrans 

3-parted H. Icucofyltaea 

Not 3-parted H. blephariglottis 

Flowers Purple 

Segments of the lip deeply fringed. 

Lip i to I in. broad //. fimbriata 

Lip i to i in. broad H. psycodes 

Segments of lip toothed, not fringed //. perainocna 



Plate 18 
1. Orchis spectabilis. 2. O. rotundifolia. 3. Habenaria orbiculata. 4. H. 
bractcata. 5. H. dilatata. 


1. H. orbiculata, (Pursh.) Torr, (Fig, 3, pi. 18.) Large Round- 
leaved Okciiis. ytem slender 1 to 2 ft. high, bearing a long loose clus- 
ter of green llowers and one or more leafy bracts. Leaves large, shining, 
3 to 6 in. long and nearly round, lying flat on the ground. Spur longer 
than the long twisted ovary. In rich damp woods throughout our area. 

2. H. Hookeri, Torr. Hooker's Orchis. Scape only about half as 
high as No. 1 and leaves also smaller and less spreading. Flowers yel- 
lowish-green, spur 1 in. long. In most respects strongly resembling No. 
1, but the green bracts on the stem are loanting. In situations similar 
to No. 1. June-Sept. 

3. H. obtusata, (Pursh.) Richards. (Fig. 4, pi. 19.) Small 
Northern Bog Orchis. Stem 4 to 10 in. higli, slender, 4-angled. The 
single leaf arising from base of stem ovate, widest toward apex. Lip 
narrow lance-shaped and as long as the spur. Bogs, generally distributed 
in our area. July-Sept. 

4. H. hyperborea, (L.) R. Br. Tall Leafy Green Orchis. {Lim- 
norchis media, Rydb. ). Stem 1 to 3 ft. high, leafy. Lance-shaped or 
broad lance-shaped 2 to 12 in. long. Spike of numerous flowers very 
narrow; floicers greenish-yellow, the bracts, one subtending each flower, 
are longer than the flower. Spur as long as the slightly indented lip. 
Swamps and damp woods. May-Aug. 

5. H. dilatata, (Pursh.) Gray. (Fig. 5, pi. 18.) Tall White Bog 
Orchis. Slender stem 8 in. to 2 ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped to grass- 
like. Spike of flowers narrow, long. Bracts below the flowers about as 
long as or shorter tlian the white floicers. Lip linear and ending in an 
obtuse point. Swamps and wet woods. June-Sept. 

6. H. fragrans, A. Gray. Fragrant Orchis (Limnorchis fragrans, 
Rydb.). Resembles No. 5. Lip narrowly linear, dilated at the base, 
shorter than the spur. Flowers small, white, very fragrant. Bogs, 
Willoughby mountains, Vermont. July. 

7. H. integra, (Nutt.) Spreng. Small Southern Orchis. Stem 1 
to 2 ft. higli; leaves lanceolate to grass-like, about 3; spike of flowers 
short (1 to 3 in.), with numerous orange-yellow flowers. Lip ovate, 
longer than the sepals, spur longer than the sepals. Wet places. New 
Jersey and southward. July. 

8. H. bracteata, (Willd.) R. Br. (Fig. 4, pi. 18.) Long-bracted 
Orchis. Stem J to 2 ft. high. Leaves oblong, obtuse at apex or some- 
what sliarp pointed. Lip somewhat 3-toothed at outer end. Bracts below 
the flowers lance-sliapcd and three times as long as the greenish flowers. 
Petals very narrow, twice as long as the white spur. Woods and mea- 
dows. May-Sept. 

9. H. clavellata, (Michx.) Spreng. (Fig. 7, pi. 19.) Small Green 
Wood Orchis. Stem i to li ft. liigh, with only a single leaf, which is 
near the base, and with several leaf-like bracts along the stem above. The 
larger single leaf, widest toward the aj)ex, 2 to (> in. long. Bracts below 
tlin flowers not so long as the ovary. Flower spike i to 2 in. long, with 
numerous small greenish flowers. Moist woods. July-Aug. 

10. H. flava, (L.) A. Gray. (Fig. 5, pi. 19.) Small Pale Green 
Orchis. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves oblong to lancc-shaped, sharp 



Plate 19 
1. Habenaria lacera. 2. H. cristata. 3. H. fimbriata. 4. H. obtusuta, 
5. H. flava. 6. H. psycodes. 7. H. bracteata. 8. H. ciliaris. 


pointed or obtuse at outer extremity. Bracts below the flowers longer than 
the yelloicish-broicn flowers, the lips of which are 3-tootlied, rather longer 
than tlie petals and with a tubercle at the base. Moist soil. June-July. 

11. H. cristata, (Michx.) R. Br. (Fig. 2, jjl. 19.) Crested Yellow 
Orchis. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high, slender; leaves lance-shaped to grass-like. 
Flowers in a somewhat dense spike 2 to 4 in. long. Lip rather longer 
than the roundish sepals. Spur ^ as long as the ovary. Flowers orange. 
Swamps, New Jersey and south. 

12. H. ciliaris, (L.) R. Br. (Fig. 8, pi. 19.) Yellow Fringed 
Orchis. Stem about 2 ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped, pointed at extremity. 
Flower spike with many yelloio flowers. Sepals rounded, ^l to J in. long, 
petals not as long, toothed. Lip not lobed, oblong, the border profusely 
fringed. Spur very slender, more than an inch long. Wet meadows. July- 

13. H. blephariglottis, (Willd.) Torr. White Fringed Orchis. 
Stem 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves lanee-shaped. Spikes with many xvhite 
flowers. Lip long and narrow with copious, sometimes sparse, fringe. 
Spur 1 in. long. Swamps. July-Aug. 

14. H. lacera, (Michx.) R. Br. (Fig. 1, pi. 19.) Ragged Orchis. 
Slender stem 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped to linear about 6 in. 
long, upper smaller. Flower spike with many greenish-yclloio flowers. 
Petals obtuse. Spur aiout as long as the lip. Lip divided into 3 seg- 
ments, each fringed at the end by long thread-like segments. Wet meadows 
and woods. June-July. 

15. H. leucophaea, (Nutt.) A. Gray. White Prairie Orchis. Stout 
angled stem 1 to 2 J ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped, tapering and sharp 
pointed. Flower parts much like No. 13 but spur twice as long as the 
lip and flowers white. Moist fields. June-July. 

16. H. fimbriata, A. Gray. (Fig. 3, pi. 19.) Large Purple Fringed 
Orchis. Fimhriated Orchis. (//. grandiflora, Torr.). Stem 15 in. to 

3 ft. tall, angled. Leaves oval, broad lance-shaped or narrow, 2 to 6 in. 
long; extremely obtuse. Segments of lip fan-shaped, broader than in 
Nos. 13 and 14. Ends bordered with thread-like fringes; the petals 
pointed, notched. Spvr as long as or slightly longer than the ovary, 
curved. Cluster of lilac flowers 3 to 15 in. long, forming an extremely 
sho\vy and beautiful florescence. Moist and sluidy places. June-Aug. 

17. H. psycodes, (L.) A. Gray. (Fig. fi, pi. 19.) Smaller Purple 
Fringed Orchis. Stem more slender than No. 15, not angled, 1 to 3 ft. 
high. Leaves lancc-sliaped to oval, with sharp points. Spike 2 t-o 6 in. 
long icilh viany lilac flowers. Lip fringed as in No. 15, but fringe ia 
noticeably shorter and side segments less broad. Petals erect with deli- 
cately fringed border. Spur 11 times as long as the ovary. Wet meadows. 

18. H. peramoena, A. Gray. Frinoeless Purple Orchis. Stem 1 
to 2J ft. high, h-afy. Leaves lance-shaped to linear, the longer ones 

4 to 8 in. in length. Spike of flowers 3 to 7 in. long, of numerous violet- 
purple showy flowers. Lip segments with very short fringe, or row of 
fine teeth, middle lobe notched in center. Spur longer than ovary. Moist 
meadows. July-Aug. 


4. POGONIA, Juss. 

Flowers solitary or few, always conspicuous compared to the delicate 
plant. Tlie setrments of the llower distinctly se2)arate. Lip without 
spur, fringed along the border or deeply notched at outer extremity. 
Column bearing the stigma and anthers erect and prolonged. 

1. P. ophioglossoides, (L. ) Kcr. (Fig. 4, pi. 20.) Rose Pogonia. 
Stem delicate, 8 to 15 in. high, with single leaf or rarely 2 or 3 broad 
lance-shaped leaves, a leaf-like bract also at base of flower. Where single, 
the leaf is near the middle of the stem, J to 3 in. long, without leaf- 
stalk. A leaf sometimes also arises by a long leaf-stalk from the base 
of the stem. Petals and sepals leaning to side, elliptic or oval, 1/2 to 2/3 
in. long, beautifully shaded light purple. The lip has a conspieiious 
fringe about the border, and on the inner surface a crest or beard, it 
is longer than the petals. One of the prettiest of the orchis family in 
our region. In wet meadows and swamps. June-July. 

2. P. trianthophora, BSP. Nodding Pogonia. (Triphwa triantho- 
phora, ( Sw. ) Rydb. ) . Stem 3 to 18 in. high. Leaves, broad ovate, J to f 
in. long without leaf-stalks, 3 to 8 and alternate. Flowers 1 to 5 or 
more on rather long flower stems. Lip not quite as long as the petals 
and sepals, broad and somewhat irregularly notched. Petals elliptic. 
Flowers, 1 in. long, purple, drooping when expanded. In rich woods. 

3. P. divaricata, (L.) R. Br. (Fig. 3, pi. 20.) Spreading Pogonia. 
Stem 1 to 2 ft. high, with one leaf near the middle and a leaf-like bract 
just below the single flower. Leaf without leaf-stalk, clasping the stem, 
2 to 4 in. long and 1 to A in. wide, blunt at outer end. Petals and 
sepals long lance-shaped, the former 1 in. the latter 1:^ in. long. Lip 
broad with a prolonged middle or two short lateral lobes. Flowers rather 
dark purple. In swamps. Southern part of our region. Southern New 
Jersey, southward. July. 

4. P. verticillata, (Willd.) Nutt. Whorled Pogonia. (Isotria ver- 
iicillata, (Willd.) Raf.). Stem about 1 ft. high. Leaves 5 in a whorl 
at summit of stem, broad oval. Single greenish-yellow flower, on a slen- 
der flower stem, nodding. Sepals very narrow and more than twice the 
length of the petals, which are about f in. long. The sepals are dark 
purple, the petals yellowish. Lip with a 3-lobed extremity and a crest 
of hairs in the inner side. Moist woods. May-June. 

5. P. affinis, Austin. Smaller Whorled Pogonia. (Isotria ver- 
ticillata, (Willd.) Raf.). Stem about 10 in. high; leaves in a whorl at 
summit, resembling No. 4. Flowers greenish-yellow. Sepals only about 
equal in length toith the petals. Moist woods, rare. Connecticut, south- 
ern New York and New Jersey. June. 


Of the two known species ours is an exquisite low herb found usually 
in bogs. The sheathed stem arises from a small bulb and is terminated 
by a single or rarely by two, large, richly colored, rose-purple flowers. 
The solitary leaf is at first concealed by a sheath of the stem but at 
the time of the opening of the flower it expands and protrudes. Sepals 


and petals are nearly equal, adhering below, in the form of a hood above. 
The broad lip curves upward, outward and downward, broadest at the 
summit, crested with hairs down the face. The cohunn is adherent to 
the lip and becomes petal-like and expanded at the apex. The anther is 
terminal and lid-shaped. Capsule ellipsoid, erect, angular. 

A. bulbosa, L. (I'ig- '^, pi. -0.) Akkthusa. Plant 5 to 10 in. high; 
flower solitary or rarely 2 ilowers from the same scape. In bogs through- 
out our region. May-June. 

6. SERAPIAS, L. (Epipactis, R. Br.) 

Tall herbs with leafy stems. Leaves alternate, clasping the stem. 
Flowers in a long narrow cluster (raceme), with bracts below the indi- 
vidual flowers. Lip with a sac at the base, without a spur, free, broad, 
the upper portion petal-like. Segments of the perianth all separate. 

E. viridiflora, Reichb. Hellebokine. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high, with soft 
hairs above. Leaves egg-shaped, clasping the stem, 1 to 3 in. long. 
Flowers greenish to purple. Petals narrow, lance-shaped. Lip lobed, 
wavy. Introduced rfrom Europe. July. 

7. SPIRANTHES, Richard (Gyrostachys, Pers.) 

Herbs with slender stems, the flower spike spiral. Leaves few, mostly 
at the base, generally narrow lance-shaped. The small white flowers 
are arranged in from 1 to 3 rows which wind, more or less, about the 
stem. Lip without a spur, broad compared with the other floral seg- 
ments which are quite narrow, the border wavy. The 3 upper segments 
of the corolla are often united. 

Flowers in 3 ranks which are only slightly twisted. 

The .^ upper seRmcnts converge and overlie each other forming a sort 

of hood; spike dense 5. RomansofHana 

The segments separate, they do not form a hood. 

Leaves lance-shaped 5". plantaginca 

Leaves linear S. cernua 

Flowers in a single rank, the spike much twisted, not dense. 

Stem leafy, leaves grass-like 5. praccox 

Stem not leafy, the basal leaves withering before flowering time. 

Root a single spindle-shaped tuber 5. simplex 

Stem not leafy, 2 basal leaves more prominent than those of S. 

simplex. Root of several tubers S. gracilis 

1. S. Romanzoffiana, Cliam. TToooEn Lady's Tressfs. Stem 6 to 
15 in. liigh, leafy bcloir, aborc, leaves redueed to bracts, the larger loaves 
below ranging from rather broad lanceolate to narrow linear, 3 to 8 in. 
long. Spike of flowers 1 to 4 in. long with bracts at the base of and 
shorter than the flowers. The three upper segments converge and overlie 
each otlwr, io a greater or less extent, forming a sort of hood. Moist 
cold soil in all our area. July-Aug. 

2. S. plantaginea, Haf- W'idi: ikavep Lady's Trksses. (8. lucida, 
Ames.) Stem 4 to 9 or more in. high, smooth and naked except at lower 
part. Leaves oblong or lance-shaped 1 to 5 in. long, i to J in. wide, all 
close to the base and all distinctly 3-nerved. Spike 1 to 3 in. long, 
narrow. The outer floirer segments do not unite icith the upper inner 
segments and are narrow lance-shaped. The upper segment of the outer 
row somewhat united with the two upper petals. Face of lip pale yel- 
low. Moist soil, common. Junc-Aug, 



Plate 20 
1. Spiranthes gracilis. 2. Arethusa bulbosa. 3. Pogonia divaricata. 
4. P. ophioglossoides. 5. Spiranthes cernua. G. Calopogon pulcliellus, 7. Epi- 
pactis pubescens. 


3. S. cernua, (L.) Richard. (Fig. 5, pi. 20.) Nodding Lady's 
Tkesses. Stem leafy at base, bracted above, 6 to 20 in. high. Leaves 

3 to 14 in. long, narrow lance-shaped, tiot distinctly 3-nerved. Spike of 
flowers 2 to 10 in. long. Flowers sometimes hairy, nodding. Lateral 
sepals not turned up or connected with the upper petals. Moist soil, 
common. June-Aug. 

4. S. praecox, (Walt.) Wats, and Coulter. Gbass-leaved Lady's 
Tresses. Stem 10 to 30 in. high, hairy above. Leaves long, grass-like 
growing from the base and upward. Flowers in a linear spike, somewhat 
densely crowded. Lip smooth beneath. Moist soil. New Jersey and 
southward. June-Aug. 

5. S. vernalis, Engelm. and Gray. Early Lady's Tresses. Similar 
to No. 4 but lip downy beneath. Mass., southward. 

6. S. gracilis, (Bigel.) Beck. (Fig. 1, pi. 20.) Slender Lady's 
Tresses. Stem extremely slender, 5 to 25 in. high. Leaves, oblong or 
ovate, the outer and broadest, all in a cluster on the ground, mostly disap- 
pearing at flowering time. A few very narrow, acute bracts on the stem. 
Spike of flowers, about 1 to 3 in. long, slender, the flowers run nearly 
in a straight row a part of the length of the spike, then twist to another 
side of the stem, running again in a nearly straight line, then again 
shifting. Woods and shady places. Common. July-Sept. 

7". S. simplex, A. Gray. Little Lady's Tresses. A smaller species, 
stem 5 to 9 in. high. Leaves all at the base, ovate or oblong, disappear- 
ing at flowering time; very delicate bracts (2 - 3) along the stem. 
Flowers small and nearly in a straight row on one side of the very 
delicate stem. Dry soil, Mass., southward. Aug.-Scpt. 

8. LISTERA, R. Br. 

Small herbs growing in wet places; a pair of opposite leaves near 
the middle of the stem. Sepals and petals spreading or turned backward. 
Lip 2-lobcd, drooping and longer than the other segments. Flowers small 
in a slender spike, greenish or purplish. 

Leaves oval, base of lip with a triangular tooth at each side at the base 

, . . _ L. _ convallarioides 

Leaves heart-shaped at base. Lip twice as long as the petals, linear, not 

toothed at base .... L. cordata 

Leaves oval. Lip not linear but about 1/3 as broad as long, with basal ear- 
like lobes L. aurintlata 

Leaves kidney-formed; lip broadly 2-lobed at apex L. S»iiillii 

Leaves oval: lip 4 to 8 times as long as petals, split L. australis 

1. L. convallarioides, (Sw.) Torr. TJuoad-lipped Twayblade. Stem 

4 to 10 in. higli, with delicate hairs on tiie upper half. Leaves oval or 
nearly round. Lip tuirc as long as the petals, broad generally, loith a 
tooth at each side of the base, and at the apex 2 lobes separated by a 
broad notch. Flowers white. DaYnp woods. June-Aug. 

2. L. cordata, (L.) R. Rr. (Fig. 1, pi. 21.) Heart-leaved Tway- 
blade. Plant nnu'h resembling No. 1, but leaves heart-shaped at base, 
and flowers purplish or purple-brown. June-Aug. 

3. L. australis, Lindl. (Fig. 2, pi. 21.) Southern Twayblade. Size 
and general aspect of No. 1. Leaves ovate; lip 3 times as long as the 
petals and drrjtly cleft. Flowers white. Swamps. New York, New Jer- 
sey and southward. Junc-Aug. 


4. L. Smallii, Weigand. Small's Twayblade. Stem slender, 6 to 8 
in. high ; leaves at or below the middle of the stem, egg-shaped to kidney- 
formed, abruptly pointed. The elongated cluster of flowers loose. Sepals 
and petals lance-shaped, longer than the ovary. Lip large, 4 in. long, 
wedge-shaped, 2-lobed at the apex and with prominent lateral teeth at 
the base. Damp woods, mountains of Penna. and southward. June-Aug. 

5. L. auriculata, Weigand. Auricled Twayblade. Slender, 4 to 7 
in. high. Leaves large li to 2 in. long, oval or elliptic egg-shaped, borne 
above the middle of the stem. Cluster many flowered. Lip 2-cleft, J to 
1/3 as broad as long, slightly hairy. Cedar swamps, New Hampshire and 
Maine. July. 

g. EPIPACTIS, (Haller) Boehm. (Peramium, Salisb., Goodyera, 

R. Br.) 

Low herbs with leaves clustered at base of stem and with pointed 
bracts on the stem. Flowers in narrow spike. Upper sepal and two 
petals united in sort of hood. Lateral sepals free. 

Flowers on one side of the spike E. repens 

Flowers in a spiral spike E. tesselata 

Flowers all around the stem. 

Lip nearly round E. pubescens 

Lip long and grooved E. Menziesii 

1. E. repens, (L.) Crantz. Lesser Rattlesnake Plantain. Stem 
6 to 12 in. high. Ijeaves in a cluster at base, ovate, the upper surface 
beautifully marked with white reticulations, on dark back ground, reticu- 
lations do not follow the main nerves which are nearly parallel. Flowers 
small, greenish-white. June-July. 

Var. P. repens ophioides, Fernald, the leaf blotches are whiter than in 
E. repens. This form represents the species in our area. Woods. 

2. E. pubescens, (Willd.) Eaton. (Fig. 7, pi. 20.) Downy Rattle- 
snake Plantain. Stem 6 to 20 in. high, densely covered with delicate 
hairs. Leaves oval loith leaf-stalks which are nearly or quite wanting 
in No. 1. Reticulations similar to No. 1. Tlie lip which is nearly round 
is strongly saccate. Dry woods. Common. July-Aug. 

3. E. Menziesii, (Lindl.) Morong. Menzies Rattlesnake Plan- 
tain. {E. dccipiens, (Hook.) Ames.) Stem 9 to 12 in. high. Leaves 
much like No. 2. Lip long, trough-like, narrowed toward the outer ex- 
tremity but spreading at the apex. Dry woods, northern part of our 

4. E. tesselata, (Lodd.) Eaton. Checkered Rattlesnake Plan- 
tain. Leaves dark green with pale blotches or no blotches. Spike of 
flowers 2} to 3 in. long, spiral. Flowers greenish-white; lip forming a 
sac. Woods, Mass. and northward. July-Aug. 

lo. MICROSTYLIS, (Nutt.) Eaton. (Achroanthes, Raf.) 

Low herbs arising from solid bulbs with somewhat the general aspect 

of Listera but with a single broad elliptic leaf below the middle of the 

stem. Flowers white or greenish-white in a narrow spike. Lip broad, 
about as long as the petals. 


1. M. monophyllos, (L.) Lindl. (Fig. 4, pi. 21.) White Adder's 
Mouth. Stem sleiuier, 4 to 6 in. high. The single leaf sheathing the 
stem. The very slender spike of snwll white flowers about i the length 
of the stem. The flouer stalk shorter than the floicer, each with a small 
bract. Lip heart-shaped with the apex contracted to a narrow point. 
In woods and wet places, throughout our area. July. 

2. M. unifolia, (Michx.) BSP. (Fig. 7, pi. 21.) Green Adder's 
Mouth. Stem tj to 10 in. high, i.t and the leaves much like No. 1. Spike 
of flou-ers short, not 1/3 tlie length of the stem and much broader than 
that of No. 1. The flower pedicel longer than the flower. Lip broad, al- 
most fan-shaped, 3-lobed at apex. Cold wet ground, not frequent. July. 

II. LIPARIS, Rich. (Leptorchis, Thouars) 
Low herbs arising from solid bulbs with naked stem and two broad 
leaves at base. Flowers in rather broad spikes. Sepals and petals nar- 
row and nearly equal; lip broad, often with 2 tubercles near tlie base. 

1. L. liliifolia, (L.) Richard. (Fig. 8, pi. 21.) Large Twayblade. 
Stem 4 to 10 in. high; leaves broad elliptic or oval. Spike of 5 to 15 
sliowy flowers, the linear petals and sepals white or greenish-white, the 
lip purple-brown. Flower stalk nearly an ineh long. Lip broad oval, 
as long as the petals. Woods and thickets. May-July. 

2. L. Loeselii, (L.) Richard. (Fig. 9, pi. 21.) ¥es Orchis. Stem 
2 to 8 in. high; leaves oval. Spike few flowered (3-6). Petals and 
sepals linear, unequal; lip wedge-shaped, often in 3 lobes at apex, the 
middle lobe longest. Sepals and petals greenish-white, lip yellowish- 
green. Wet places. June. 

12. CALYPSO, Salisb. 

A small herb arising from a solid bulb, with stem 3 to G in. high and 
with a single leaf at the base of the stem and a single flower at its 
summit. Stem with 2 or more sheathing bracts. The sepals and petals 
nearly equal, the lip large and inflated. 

C. bulbosa, (L.) Oakes. (Fig. 3, pi. 21.) Calypso. Flower showy; 
leaf nearly round but somewhat pointed at apex. Flower purple, pink 
and yellow, somewhat resembling the flower of Cypripedium. Rare in our 
region, but found occasionally in woods. May-June. 

Plants mostly without green coloring. Stem and scales brown or 
purplish. Flowers in loose terminal spike. Lip 1 to 3 ridged, projecting 
backward as a spur which grows fast to the ovary or which is entirely 
suppressed. Petals and sepals nearly equal. Roots of coralloid branch- 
ing masses. 

Small spur or little sac or depression of lip at summit of ovary. 

l,ip cRK-shapcd with 2 conspicuous lateral tcctli near the base C. trifida 
Lii) inversely CRR-shaped, wavy or with minute teeth at the borders. 

C. odontorhisa 

Lip broadly ORg-shapcd, white with crimson spots . . . C. Wislcriana 
Lip in general outline CRR-shaped, with a conspicuous rounded lobe 

at each side near the base C. maculnta 

No spur or sac to the lip. 

Lip egg-shaped, with wavy border C. strtata 




Plate 21 
1. Listera cordata. 2. L. australis. 3. Calypso bulbosa. 4. Microstylig 
monophyllos. 5. Corallorrliiza odontorhiza. G. C. trifida. 7. Microstylis uni- 
folia. 8. Liparis liliifolia. 9. L. Loeselii. 


1. C. trifida, Chatelain. (Fig. 6, pi. 21.) Early Coral Root. 
Stem brown, 4 to 12 in. high. Flower scape 1 to 3 in. with few (5 to 
10) dull purple flowers which are drooping. Petals and sepals nearly 
equal; Up shorter than the petals, with a tooth on each side near the 
base and a double notch at the apex, no spur except a small protuber- 
ance. Flower stalk very short or absent. Damp woods. Rare. June. 

2. C. odontorhiza, (Willd.) Nutt. (Fig. 5, pi. 21.) Small-flow- 
ered CoRAL-KOOT. Stem 9 to 14 in, high, purplish. Flower scape with 
6 to 20 purplish drooping flowers, quite small, on flower stalks about 
i as long as the flowers. Sepals and petals nearly equal, i in. long, 
marked with purplish lines. Lip broadly oval, as long as the petals, 
wavy but not notched at the apex. Ovary oval, drooping. Spur absent 
or represented by a small sac connected with the ovary. Woods. July- 

3. C. Wisteriana. Conrad. Wister's Coral-root. Stem 8 to 16 in. 
high, not as slender as No. 2. Flower spike with 6 to 18 drooping 
flowers, each about h in. long with slender flower stalks 1/6 as long as 
the flowers. Petals and sepals about equal. Lip longer than petals, 
broadly oval with very slight indentation at apex and with purplish 
dots on the upper surface. Woods. Feby.-May. 

4. C. maculata, Raf. Large Coral-root. (C multiflora, Butt.). 
Stem 8 to 20 in. high; flower spike 2 to i8 in. long with from 10 to 30 
nearly erect brownish-purple flowers. Petals and sepals unequal. Lip 
much shorter than the lateral sepals, broad, almost quadri-lateral with 
3 distinct lobes. Spur present but adherent to the ovary. Woods. July- 

5. C. striata, Lindl. Striped Coral-root. Stems 6 to 20 in. high; 
flower spike 2 to 6 in. long. Flowers larger than either of the pre- 
ceding species, purple. Petals, sepals and lip about the same length. 
Spur none. Lip oval without lobes or notches, narrowed at the base, 

14. TIPULARIA, Nutt. 

Herb, arising from a large solid bulb, with a single broad leaf on a 
slender stalk which arises, in autumn, directly from the bulb. Leaf 
purplish beneath ; the flower scape, arising also from the bulb, appears 
in the following summer, bearing a number of small greenish flowers. 
Sepals and petals nearly alike, but the latter narrow; lip slightly longer 
and with 3 lobes. Spur about 3 times as long as the flower and very 

T. discolor, (Pursh.) Nutt. Crane-fly Orctits. (T. unifolia, 
(Mulil.) liSP. Flower stem 15 to 20 in. high. Flower spike 5 to 10 
in. long. Flowers green, tinged with purple. In woods. July-Aug. 

15. CALOPOGON, R. P.r. (Limodorum, L.f) 

Herb arising from a bulb with a long grass-like leaf and a naked 
flower scape on which are from 3 to 15 showy flowers. The ovary 
(which is in those orchidaceous plants the flower stalk), docs not tivist 
and the lip is therefore on the upper or inner side of the flower. It is 
conspicuously bearded on its upper side. 


C. pulchellus, (Sw.) R. Br. (Fig. fi, pi. 20.) Grass Pink. Calo- 
POGON. {Limodorum tuberosum, (?)). Flower scape 12 to 20 in. high, 
leaf 8 to 12 in. long, ^ to | in. wide. Flowers exquisite pink-purple, 1 in. 
broad, a small bract below each flower. Petals and sepals nearly alike, lip 
broad at apex, 2-lobed. The column (combined anther and stigma) is 
about as long as the lip. Face of the lip light with yellow or rose-colored 
hairs. In mossy bogs throughout our area. June-July. 

i6. APLECTRUM, Nutt. 

Herb arising from a .solid bulb-like corm, which is filled with a glutinous 
substance. In the autumn it sends up a large oval leaf and in the fol- 
lowing spring or summer a scape which bears a number of dingy dull 
yellowish-brown flowers, sprinkled with purple, each about an inch broad. 

A. spicatum, BSP. (Fig. 5, pi. 17.) Adam and Eve. Putty Root. 
{A. hyemale, (Muhl.) Torr.). Stem 12 in. or more high. Flowers in a 
loose spike. Petals longer than the lip which is somewhat 3-lobed. Rich 
mould in woods. May-June. 




Embryo with two lobes (see page 50). Leaves generally net- 
veined. In a few cases, by abortion of a cotyledon, there is an 
apparent condition of monocotyledonism. In a number of in- 
stances also the leaves are constructed nearly on the parallel- 
veined plan. 

Dicotyledons are divided into two great sub-classes. In the 
flowers of the first sub-class the petals are separate as in the 
case of the buttercups, violets, pinks, etc., while in the flowers of 
the second sub-class the petals are so united that, in general, they 
appear as a single envelope as in the case of the hare bells, the 
mints, the huckleberry tribe and others. 

Curiously, a large group in which no petals are to be seen, be- 
longs to the first sub-class, since it is assumed that although the 
petals are little or not at all apparent they are technically present 
but suppressed. 

The first sub-class, Choripetalae,* then, is composed of two 
GROUPS, in a certain sense artificial, but convenient for our pur- 

Plants whose flowers have no apparent petals and, gen- 
erally, only very rudimentary envelopes. 1st Group. 

Plants whose flowers have, generally, several petals or 
colored sepals which are distinctly potaloid. 2d 

In the second sub-class Gamopetalae, the petals are united, but 
in a few exceptional cases nearly or quite separated. 

* Cir. Clioris, asunder: pctalmi, a petal. 



1, Flowers in catkins or in various groups resembling catkins. 

Flowers without corolla and usually without calyx 

Herb with nodding spike resembling a catkin 

Sub-Order Piperales 

Flowers in true aments or catkins, calyx none 

Sub-Order Amentaceae 

Flowers in catkins, a calyx usually present 

Sub-Order Fagales 

Flowers in groups of various forms, each flower bear- 
ing stamens alone or pistils alone, leaves with- 
out stipules Sub-Order TJrticales 

2, Flowers not in catkins, calyx present, plants all para- 

sites Order II. SANTALALES 

3, Flowers not in catkins, calyx present, ovules arranged 

around a central column of the single celled ovary. 
(Only a small part of this Order is apetalous.) 

(For the continuation of the Synopsis of the Orders of Chori- 
petalae sec the beginning of the Group Pohjpetalae.) 

While the apetalous Orders and Sub-Orders are usually re- 
garded as an artificial group, it is doubtless true that they differ 
materially from the typical Choripetalae and that the herbs and 
trees belonging to this group are more primitive in respect to the 
flower than those belonging to groups with more specialized 
flowers. The flowers of this group are not only of very simple 
structure but in most cases the stamens are borne on one tree or 
plant while the pistils are borne on another. 



Plants With Free Petals or With no Apparent Petals 

Group I. APETALAE. Flowers without petals 

Flowers without a corolla, often with no floral envelope, or with 
a very simple one. The group includes all the plants of the Order 
Jidiforae, the Order Uysterophytes and all but two Families in 
the Order Centrospermae. The special characters are shown in 
the descriptions of the Orders and Families. 

Order I.— JULIFLORALES. Catkin-Bearing Trees and 


Flowers individually quite inconspicuous, wanting the corolla 
and most frequently the calyx except in a rudimentary form. 
Flowers grouped in large numbers in catkin-like inflorescence or 
in fascicles. Stamens opposite to the divisions of the calyx, when 
a calyx is present. 

The Order Juliflorales is divided into three Sub-Orders: 

1st. Sub-Order, of which we have but a single species Piperales 
2d. Sub-Order, the true catkin bearers, all trees and 

shrubs Amentaceans 

3d. Sub-Order, the nettle group, all licrbs except 

Ulmus ITrticaceans 

Sub-Order I.— PIPERALES. Tiperales 
Our only species an herb witli long nodding spikes of flowers 
which bear both stamens and pistils, dilfcring in this from cat- 
kins. The flowers have neither calyx nor corolla. Fruit a berry. 

Family L— SATJRURACEAE. Lizard Tail Family 
The characters of tbc family are included in the description of 
those of tlie Genus Saururus. 



Flowers without a perianth or with a very rudimentary one. Stamens 
and pistils iu the same flower; stamens 6 or 8 or less, long and white, 
giving to the spindle-sliaped cluster of flowers the appearance of a fully 
developed spike of pure white flowers. Pistil of 2 or more ovary cells 
at base. 

S. cernuus, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 22.) Lizard's Tail, Herb, 2 to 3 ft. high, 
branching. Leaves egg-shaped, heart-shaped at base, with 5 to 9 dis- 
tinct, nearly parallel veins; 2 to 6 in. long, 2 to 3 J in, wide, tapering 
at apex to a slender point. Spike of wliite flowers dense, 5 or 6 in. long, 
on a common flower-stem considerably longer. Swamps and wet borders 
of ponds or streams, southern half of our area and in central and western 
New York. Jvuie-Aug. 

Sub-Order II. — AMENTACEAE. Ament or Catkin Bearers * 
Stamens and pistils in different flower groups. Trees and 
shrubs. Inflorescence of staminate flowers always in catkins; 
pistillate flowers generally catkin-like. Flowers without a perianth 
or with a very rudimentary one. Leaves always well developed 
and always alternate. 

Trees with compound leaves Juglandaceae 

Trees with simple leaves. 

Pistillate and staminate clusters on difi^erent trees Salicaceae 
Pistillate and staminate clusters on the same tree. 

Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled and 1-seeded in fruit Myricaceae 

Family I. — SALICACEAE. Willow Family 
Flowers all in catkins. Catkins with pistillate flowers not on 
the same tree with those with staminate flowers. A single flower 
consists of a cluster of stamens or cluster of pistils in the axil of 
a bract which is entire, tooth-like, or slit into strips. No perianth 
except a paddle-like projection in case of the willows and a some- 
what cup-shaped disk at the base in poplars. Stamens, in willows 
2 to 5, in poplars numerous. Some willows have permanent 
stipules to the leaves, others and the poplars have stipules which 
fall before the leaf acquires its growth. Fruit a pod (usually 
several attached to the axis of the catkin) with numerous seeds 
each furnished with a silky down. 

*A catkin or anient consists of a group of apetalous flowers, each flower springing 
from the axil of a scale and all arranged spirally on an undividing stem or axis. 
The flowers of an individual group or catkin consist, generally, exclusively either 
of staminate or of pistillate flowers. The axis or stem of the catkin is not, for 
the staminate group, a comi)!ete continuation of the branch from which it grows, but 
is attached in the manner of a leaf and falls when its purpose is served. The 
staminate catkins are usually flexible, drooping dangles, while the pistillate aments 
are frequently erect. 


Bracts at base of flowers not slit or divided .... Salix 
Bracts at base of flowers divided Populus 

I. SALIX, (Tourn.) L. 

Trees or shrubs, mostly along streams. Long slender flexible branches 
with, in most species, long narrow sharp pointed leaves, sharply toothed, 
or nearly entire. The aments — " pussys " — appear in early spring before 
the leaves. 

I. Catkins on short leafy branches; leaves all lance-shaped 
Stamens more than z in each axil 
Trees from is to 50 or more ft. high. 
Leaves very finely and closely notched around the entire border. 

Leaves linear lance-shaped S. Whceleri 

Leaves narrow lance-shaped S. nigra 

Leaves broad lance-shaped 5". amygdaloides 

Leaves ovate-lance-shaped S. lucida 

Leaves elliptic lance-shaped S. serissima 

Stamens 2 only in each axil 

Tall tree with reddish-green twigs S. fragilis 

Tall tree with yellow twigs S. alba 

Tall tree with very long slen-der green twigs S. babyhntca 

Leaves with distinct teeth (1/20 to i/io in. apart). Branching shrub, 2 to 
10 ft. high. 

Leaves narrow lance-shaped S. longifolia 

Leaves broad lance-shaped or oblong S. glaucophyila 

2. Catkins lateral on the branches or at the terminals 

Stamens 2 in each axil 

Small trees or shrubs 6 to 18 it. high. 

Leaves narrow lance-shaped, broadest near the apex S. purpurea 

Leaves elliptic or lance-ovate. 

Hairy above S. Bebbiana 

Smooth green above, nearly white beneath, teeth minute or none S. discolor 
Leaves oblong, firm, borders distinctly toothed, young branches densely hairy. 

Bracts not as long as the individual flower pedicels .... 5. eriocephala 
Leaves as above, young branches not hairy, bracts as above . . S. prinoides 

Bracts longer than the flower pedicels S. squamata 

Leaves rather broad lance-shaped S, scricea 

Shrubs 2 to 10 ft. high. 

Leaves lance-shaped, scarcely notched. 
Twigs not very hairy. 

Leaves grayish, hairy beneath S. humilis 

Leaves silvery with silky hairs beneath S. viminalis 

Twigs very hairy, leaves oval S. adcnophylla 

Leaves narrow egg-shaped S. coactilis 

Leaves heart-shaped at base S. cordata 

Leaves elliptic or broad lance-shaped, tapering at base S. phylicifolia 

Leaves ovate or oval, rounded at base S. balsamifera 

Shrub 2 to S ft. high. 

Leaves narrow lance-shaped or elliptic, white beneath S. Candida 

Shrubs 6 in. to 2 ft. high. 

Leaves lance-shaped 5. tristis 

Leaves narrow elliptic, broadest toward the apex 5'. argyrocarpa 

Leaves elliptic, tapering equally at both ends S. myrtilloidcs 

Shrubs less than i ft. high. 

Leaves pear-shaped, broadest toward apex S. Uvii-ursi 

Leaves orbicular S. herbacea 

1. S. nigra, Marsh. (Fig. 1. pi. 23.) Black Willow, Usually a 
email tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, but rarely reaching a much greater height. 
Leaves narrow lance-shaped, tapering sharply at both ends. Branches 
pale yellow; leaves deep green above, somewhat lighter below; leaf- 



Plate 22 
L Saururus cernvmg. 2. Salix lucida. 3. S. cor data. 4. S. Bebbiana. 5. S. 
Uva-ursi G. 6. lierbacea. 


stalk rather short; stipules small and falling early; capsule ovoid, rather 
longer tlian its pedicel. Stamens 3 to 7. Along the banks of streams 
and lakes. Common. 

2. S. amygdaloides, Anders. (Fig. 1, pi. 23a.) Peach-leaved Wil- 
low. Tree, usually small but sometimes attaining a height of 70 ft. 
Leaves broad lance-shaped, tapering to a long delicate point at apex and 
to a more blunt point at base, pale beneath, dark green above, on a long 
leaf-stalk. Stipules very small and falling early. Capsule egg-shaped. 
Central and western New York, on banks of lakes and streams. 

3. S. lucida, Muhl. (Fig. 2, pi. 22.) Siiiining Willow. Shrub, 5 to 
15 ft. high, rarely higher, with green or yellowish-brown, shining twigs. 
Leaves smooth and glossy on both sides, egg-shaped to lance-shaped; 
stipules small, oblong. Basal third of leaf an in. wide, tapering to a long 
slender point at apex, while at the base the taper is more abrupt. Stamens 
about 5. Along banks of streams. Common. 

4. S. serissima, (Bailey). Fernald. (Fig. 2, pi. 23a.) Late Fruit- 
ing Willow. Shrub, 13 ft., or less, high, with smooth shining brown 
twigs. Leaves elliptic-lance-shaped or lance-shaped, ^ to 4 in. long, i to 
1^ in. wide, finely toothed, tapering to a slender point. Leaf-stalks ^ in. 
long, or less. Catkins borne at ends of short, leafy branches, the catkin 
stem and scales densely white silky. Staminate catkins nearly an in. long, 
loosely flowered. Bogs and wet meadows, Mass., New Jersey and New 
York. May-June. 

5. S. Wheeleri, (Bowlee.) Rydb. Wheeler's Willow. A low shrxib 
with silky tw'igs and linear lance-shaped leaves 3 in. long or more, \ in. 
wide, densely white silky on both sides. Catkins borne at ends of short 
leafy branches. Sandy beaches, New York and northward. June-July. 

Stamens 2 only, catkins on short branches (Figs. 1 and 2, pi. 23) 
C. S. ffagilis, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 23a.) Crack Willow. Brittle Wil- 
low. Tree, 60 to 80 ft. high; twigs reddish green. Leaves lance-shaped, 
broad at basal third, green and shining, tapering to a long slender point 
at apex. Serrations fine. Capsule conic on a short pedicel. Escaped from 
cultivation, mostly in the southern section of our region. 

7. S. alba, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 23.) White Willow, Large tree with 
yellow twigs and very narrow lance-shaped, finely toothed leaves which 
taper to a slender point at both ends, green above or ashy gray, paler 
or silky white beneath. Stipules, when present, ovate lance-shapt^d. 
Capsule somewhat conic witliout a pedicel. Branches not drooping. 
Moist soil, frctiuent along borders of streams, common. 

8. S. babylonica, L. Weeping Willow. A very large tree with 
long drooping and flexible green twigs. An ornamental tree well known 
and of well marked characteristics. 

Stamens 2 in each axil; horders of leaves remotely notched 

9. S. longifolia, Muhl. (Fig. 3, pi. 23.) River-bank Willow. {S. 
fluviatilis, Nutt. )• Shrub, 2 to 10 ft. high, trunks growing in clumps. 
Loaves very narrow, 2 J to 4 in. long, with remote teeth. Leaf-stalka 
very short. River banks, common. 

10. S. glaucophylla, Pobb. (Fig. 4, pi. 23a.) Broad-leaved Wil- 



Plate 23 
1. Salix nigra. 2. S. alba. 3. S. longifolia, 4. S. sericea. 


LOW. Shrub about as high as the last. Leaves dark green, shining above, 
whitish below, broad lance-shaped, 2^ in. long, toothed; stipules ear-shaped, 
rather large, persistent. Catkins leafy at base. Dry soil, Maine and 

11. S. purpurea, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 23a.) Pubple Willow. A small 
tree, escaped from cultivation and seen only rarely as a naturalized 
species. Twigs flexible, long, purple. Leaves lance-shaped but broadest 
toward the apex. The stamens may be 2 in each axil or their diflferent 
filaments may be so united as to form a single stamen. The capsules in 
the pistillate flowers are sessile, i. e., they have no pedicel or an extremely 
short one. 

12. S. Bebbiana, Sarg. (Fig. 4, pi. 22.) Bebb's Willow. {S. 
rostrata, Richards.) Small tree or shrub, 8 to 15 ft. Twigs covered 
with soft down. Leaves egg-shaped, or generally broadest toward the 
apex ( pear-shaped ), 2 to 3 in. long, dull green above, blue or white be- 
low; borders scarcely notched but uneven, upper surface rather deeply 
and irregularly reticulated between the principal veins. Pistillate flowers, 
the pedicel of the capsule as long as the capsule itself. Moist or dry 
soil, common. 

13. S. discolor, Muhl. (Fig. 6, pi. 23a.) Glaucus Willow. Pussy 
Willow. Generally a shrub, but sometimes a small tree. Twigs dark 
reddish purple with silky hairs. Leaves broad lance-shaped or oblong, 
often broadest toward the apex, 3 to 5 in. long; notches remote; bright 
green above, smooth and nearly white beneatli. Catkins appear much 
earlier than the leaves. The pedicel of the capsule of pistillate flower 
about J to i as long as the capsule and style together. Capsule downy. 
Borders of streams, common. 

14. S. eriocephala, Michx. Pussy Willow. Leaves firm, oblong, the 
borders distinctly toothed; young branches densely hairy. Catkins short 
and dense. Wet places. New England to Penna. and westward. 

15. S. prinoides, Pursh. Chestnut Oak Willow. Resembles the 
last but young branches are not hairy and catkins are long and loose. 
New York to Virginia. 

16. S. squamata, Rydh. Loxg-bracted Willow. Resembles S. erio- 
cephala but young branches are less hairy, bracts at base of individual 
flowers are longer than the flower pedicel. New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

17. S. sericea. Marsh. (Fig. 4, pi. 23.) Silky Willow. Shrub, 
rarely 10 ft. high, but sometimes about 12 ft. Twigs slender, with fine 
silky hairs. Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, narrow lance-sliaped, tapering at 
both ends but somewliat broader toward the base than toward the apex. 
Notches fine and even. Pedicel of capsule less than i as long as capsule 
and style. Capsule downy. Wet places, borders of streams. 

18. S. humilis, Marsh. (Fig. 7, pi. 23a.) Prairie Willow. Shrub 
3 to 8 ft. liigh, with rather broad lance-shaped leaves, the lower even egg- 
shaped, in general broadest toward the apex, 2 to 4 in. long; borders only 
slightly toothed, upper surface dull green, lower gray with hairs. Pedicel 
of capsule about i as long as capsule and style. Dry soil. 

10. S. viminalis, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 23a.) O.sier Willow. Shrub, often 
cultivated in rows in low grounds for basket work. Introduced and only 



Plate 23a 
1. Salix amygdaloides. 2. S. serissima, 3. S. fragilis, 4. S, glaucophylla. 
5. S. purpurea. 6. S. discolor. 7. S. liumilis. 8. S- viminalis. 9. S. adeno- 
phylla. 10. S. balsamifera. 11. S. Candida. 12. S. tristis. 13. S. myrtil- 
loides. 14. S. argyrocarpa. 15. S. coactilis. 10. S. phyllicifolia. 


rarely escaped. Twigs very slender, green, flexible. Leaves linear lance- 
shaped, tapering about equally toward both ends; 3 to 6 in. long; borders 
scarcely toothed or notched, smooth, dark green above, silver white and 
silky beneath. Pedicel of capsule wanting or very short. 

20. S. adenophylla, Hook. (Fig. 9, pi. 23a.) Furry Willow. Shrub 
3 to 9 ft. high, with broadly lance-shaped or egg-shaped leaves. The twigs, 
leaves and stipules clothed, even when the leaves are fully grown, with a 
dense covering of long silky hairs. Leaves 1 to 2 in. long, sharply pointed 
at apex, rounded at base, with close and fine serrations at the borders. 
Stipules heart-shaped at base, conspicuous. Catkins long, densely flow- 
ered. Lake and river shores, throughout our region. 

21. S. cordata, Muhl. (Fig. 3, pi. 22.) Heart-leaved Willow. 
Shrub 5 ft. or more high, rarely 10 or 12 ft. high. Leaves broad lance- 
shaped, often heart-shaped at base, 1^ to 3 in, long, sparingly or not at 
all notched, both upper and lower surface nearly green. Pedicel of 
capsule less than ^ the length of capsule and style. In wet soil, common. 

22. S. phylicifolias, L. (Fig. 16, pi. 23a.) Tea-leaved Willow. 
Shrub, 1 to 10 ft. high; leaves broad lance-shaped or elliptic, tapering 
nearly alike at both ends; smooth both sides, the lower lighter in color 
than the upper, IJ to 3 in. long. Pedicel of capsule very short. Moist 
ravines toward the summit of the White Mountains. 

23. S. balsamifera, Barratt. (Fig. 10, pi. 23a.) Balsam Willow. 
Shrub with egg-shaped leaves rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at base, 
2 to 3 in. long. Pedicel of capsule about as long as capsule and style. 
Swamps in the northern section of our region. 

24. S. Candida, Fluegge. (Fig. 11, pi. 23a.) Hoary Willow. Small 
shrub, 2 to 5 ft. high. Young twigs white, hairy, later becoming red or 
purple. Leaves with smooth borders or sparingly toothed, narrow or 
elliptic-lance-shaped, persistently white and silky beneath, green and some- 
what silky above, 2 to 4 in. long. Pedicel of capsule very short. In 
swamps, most of our area. 

25. S. tristis, Ait. (Fig. 12, pi. 23a.) Sage Willow. Shrub 1 to 2 
ft. liigh. Twigs hairy. Leaves lance-shaped, broadest toward apex; bor- 
ders smootli, wliite silky beneath, light green above, 1 to 2 in. long. Cat- 
kins with few flowers. Pedicel of capsule about i the length of capsule 
and style. Dry soil, our area. 

20. S. coactilis, Fernald. (Fig. 15, pi. 23a.) Large shrub with 
coarse branchlets, the younger downy. Leaves oblong or narrow egg- 
sliaped, remotely toothed, witli lustrous reddisli-white down at first, later 
velvety. Stipules half-egg-shaped, persistent. Banks of Penobscot river, 

27. S. argyrocarpa, Anders. (Fig. 14, pi. 23a.) Silver Willow. 
Difluse shrub, A to 2 ft. high. Twigs sliining. Leaves 1 to 2 in. long, ob- 
long and widest toward the apex, white silky bciu'ath, bright green above. 
Catkins few flowered. Pedicel as long as the silvery capsule and the style. 
On the White Mountains. 

28. S. myrtilloides, L. (Fig. 13, pi. 23a.) Boo Willow. Shrub 1 
to 3 ft. higli. Twigs l)rown. Leaves elliptic or egg-shaped, 1 to 2 in. long, 
tapering nearly (Mjually toward each end. A]icx obtuse or somewhat 



Plate 24 
1. Populus heteropliylla. 2. P. balsamifera. 3. P. alba. 4, P. grandi- 
cTentata. 5. P. tremuloides. G. P. deltoidea. 


pointed, border without notches or teeth, bright green above, pale beneath. 
Pedicel of capsule more than i as long as capsule and style. Bogs, 
throughout our area. 

29. S. herbacea, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 22.) Dwarf Willow. Prostrate 
matted shrub with rounded leaves and catkins with few flowers. Height 
from 1 to 6 in. On the summits of the White Mountains. 

One stamen only in the axil of the bract or rarely two 

30. S. Uva-ursi, Pursh. (Fig. 5, pi. 22.) Bearberry Willow. A 
prostrate herb-like shrub, generally less than 6 in. high, with crooked 
stems and egg-shaped or elliptic leaves, which are generally less than 
i in. long and i or 1/3 as wide, broadest toward apex, slightly toothed. 
Catkins on lateral leafy bases, the pistillate becoming quite long. On 
the summits of the White Mountains and Adirondacks. 


Pistillate and staminate catkins on difTerent trees. Each staminate 

group containing from 8 to 30 stamens. Bract at base of stamens slit. 

Buds without hairs, scaly, resinous. Leaves on long slender leaf-stalks, 

broad, heart-shaped or oval. Catkins long and drooping. Large trees 

with soft wood. 

Leaves permanently covered beneath by a dense, white, silky coat . . P. alba 
Leaves usually only when young covered beneath by a dense silky coat 

P. heterot'hylla 

Leaves never covered by dense white coat. 

Leaves narrowly egg-shaped, with rounded leaf-stalks . . P. batsamifera 
Leaves broadly egg-shaped, with leaf-stalks flattened laterally. 

Borders coarsely and deeply toothed P. grandidentata 

Borders finely toothed, leaves short-pointed at the apex P. trcmuloides 
Leaves with long and slender points. 

Bases often rounded in P. nigra 

Bases generally rounded out P. dcltoides 

1. P. alba, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 24.) White Poplar. Silver-leaf Pop- 
lab. Large tree. Leaves somewhat obliquely 4-sided (rhombic) with 
deep sinuous cuttings. LTnder surface of leaves permanently covered 
by a dense, white, silky coat. March-May. 

2. P. heterophylla, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 24.) Swamp or Downy Poplar. 
Large tree. Loaves egg-shaped with, usually, a somewhat heart-shaped 
base. When young the leaves are covered beneath by a white silky coat 
•which usually disappears as the leaf matures. In moist places mostly 
in the southern half of our area. April-May. 

3. P. balsamifera, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 24.) Balsam Poplar. Largo 
tree. Buds large and varnished, shining, resinous. Leaves broadly egg- 
shaped, finely notched at borders, smooth, shining above and beneath. 
Leaf-stalks round. 

Var. P. balsamifera cnndieans. Gray, is the Balm of Gilead tree common 
in cultivation. P. balsamifera is found throughout our area. April. 

4. P. grandidentata, Miclix. (Fig. 4, pi. 24.) Large TooTiiEn Aspen. 
Leaves roundcd-cgg-sluiped, sharply tapering at apex, with very conspicu- 
ous, irregular tcetli. Bark rather smooth, greenish. Leaves at ex- 
tremities of branches only. Rich woods througliout our region. Ajjril. 

5. P. tremuloides, Michx. (Fig. .'5, pi. 24.) AMF.uirAN Aspen. 
White Poplar. Leaves rounded, heart-shaped at base, sharply tapering 


at apex. Teeth not large. Leaf -stalks longer than the leaves and flat- 
tened laterally. A slender tree, very common throughout our area. 

6. P. nigra, L. Black Poplar. Leaves almost triangular (deltoid), 
tapering to a slender point at the apex. When young the leaves are 
somewhat silky. Base of leaf bluntly rounded, sometimes rounded in. 
A large tree, naturalized, found in the Hudson and Delaware Valleys. 

7. P. deltoides, IMarsh. (Fig. 6, pi. 24.) Cottonwood. Leaves 
broadly triangular (deltoid), abruptly pointed at apex, generally rounded 
out at the base. Leaf-stalk about as long as the leaf-blade. Along 
streams, throughout our region. March-May. 

P. pyramidaJis, Rosier. Lombardy Poplar, with its broad, deltoid leaves 
and erect branches, is found wild occasionally. 

Family II.— MYRICACEAE. Bayberry Family 

Shrubs with alternate leaves which are aromatic. Catkins, 
small and erect, Loth pistillate and staminate flowers found on 
the same plant or one form only on a single plant. In the aments 
a single flower only is found at the axil of a bract. Staminate 
flower consists, usually, of 4 to 6 stamens, the filaments somewhat 
united. Each pistillate flower subtended by 2 to several bractlets. 
Ovary 1-eelled; fruit a small berry-like nut. 


Shrubs with pear-shaped leaves, broadest at the apex, or with linear 
lance-shaped leaves. After the fall of the catkins the branches of some 
species bear an abundance of whitish, waxy, berry-like nuts. 

1. M. Gale, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 25.) Sweet Gale. Leaves pear- 
shaped, about 4 times as long as broad. Toward the apex the leaves are 
notched while the basal half of the border is generally smooth. Com- 
mon at the borders of streams, ponds and swamps. April-May. 

2. M. carolinensis, Mill. (Fig. 8, pi. 25.) Waxberky. Shrub, 
rather larger than the preceding (2 to 8 ft. high). Leaves similar to 
No. 1, but without teeth at the borders. Berries very numerous, light 
grayish-white, waxy to the touch. In early times in this country these 
berries furnished an important supply of wax to the settlers. In sandy 
soil, moist or dry. April-May. 

3. M. asplenifolia, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 25.) Sweet Fern. (Comptonia 
perigrhid, Coulter.) Shrub, 1 to 2 ft. higb, very leafy, the leaves and 
stems decidedly aromatic. Leaves linear-lance-shaped, tbe borders cut 
into a number of shallow lobes giving the leaves a fern-like appearance. 
Stipules half heart-shaped. The pistillate aments at the leaf axils have 
a bur-like appearance, the staminate aments dangle from the ends of the 
branches. Dry hillsides and sterile soil, frequent in our region. 


Family III.— JUGLANDACEAE. Walnut Family 

Trees, the leaves of which are alternate and each consisting of 
several leaflets (compound leaves). Stipules none. Flowers in 
simple catkins or, in case of the pistillate flowers, solitary or in 
a group of several at the end of a shoot of the season. Perianth 
formed on tlie typical plan of 4 lobes for the pistillate flowers and 
3 to 6 for the staminate ones. 

Fruit a hard nut, rounded or egg-shaped, the woody husk or 
case enclosing a hard nut within which is the oily meat or seed. 

Staminate catkins single Juglans 

Staminate catkins in 3s Carya 


Compound, pinnate, leaves, the leaflets arranged opposite along the 
main leaf stalk, except the terminal leaflet which is alone. Staminate 
•flowers in long drooping cylindric catkins, lohich hang singly. Fertile 
flowers in small cluster or solitary. 

1. J. cinerea, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 25.) Butternut. Leaflets 7 to 16 
pairs with an odd one, narrow egg-shaped or oblong lance-shaped; pointed 
at apex, notelied borders, rounded at base; smooth above, soft hairy 
beneath. Fruit a long egg-shaped nut, the woody case being roughened 
by irregular deep ridges, the kernel double and irregular. Nut occurs 
singly or in groups of 2 to 4. A broad tree well known for its oily 
nuts. Bark light gray, not rough. April-May. 

2. J. nigra, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 25.) Black Walnut. Leaflets 7 to 11 
pairs and an odd one, resembling those of former species but more taper- 
ing at apex and somewhat heart-shaped at base. Smooth above, some- 
what downy beneath. Fruit spherical, outer husk roughly dotted, woody 
shell corrugated. Bark brown, rough. A large tree. April-May. 

2. CARYA, Nutt. (Hicoria, Raf.) 
Trees, often very large (SO to 120 ft. higli), witli pinnately compoimd 
leaves, resembling the former genus. The staminate catkins lohich, in 
Juglans are single, arc in Carya in clusters of 3's. Fruit spherical to 
oblong, consisting of a woody husk, a hard shell within this and an 
irregular kernel or seed within the shell of the nut. The number of 
leaflets varies in dilVerent species, being few in Nos. 5 and G, and numer- 
ous (7 to 13) in the other species. 

1. C. cordiformis, (Wang.) K. Koch. Bitter Nut. Swamp Hick- 
ory. Leaflets 7 to !», 3 to 6 in. long. Fruit sub-globosx?, husk narrouly 
G ridged, si)litting tardily into 4 valves. 'Nut not angled, white, 1 in. 
long. Kernel bitter. Moist woods, swamps, throughout our region. 

2. C. ovata, ^lill. (Fig. 4, pi. 25.) Siiag-bark Hickory. Bark 
shagg}'. Lcailcts 5, rarely 7, oblong, 4 to G in. long. Fruit sub-globose 
1\ to 2.^. in. long. Husk splitting early into 4 valves; nut white, angular, 
pointed. Kernel sweet. New England and westward. 



Platk 25 
1. Juglans nigra. 2. Carya alba. 3. Juglans cinerea. 4. Carya ovata. 5. 
Myrica asplenifolia. 6. Carya laciniosa. 7- Myrica Gale, with pistillate 
catkins. 7a. Staminate catkins. 8. M. carolinensis. 


3. C. laciniosa, I\Tichx. (Fig. 6, pi. 25.) Big Shag-baek. King 
Nut. Bark less shaggy. Leaflets, 7 to 9 (rarely 5), 8 in. long by 5 in. 
wide. Fruit 2 to 3 in. long, oblong, splitting early. Nut angular, large 
(1| to 2 in. long), pointed at both ends, yellowish-white. Kernel sweet. 
Central New York, Penna., and southward. 

4. C. alba, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 25.) White Heart Hickory. Mocker 
Nut. Bark not shaggy but rough. Leaflets 7 to 9, persistently covered 
with soft hairs. Fruit globose 1^ to 3i in. long, husk very thick and 
hard. Nut globose, not compressed at sides, 4 ridged, angled, pointed 
at summit. Kernel swest. East Mass., northward and westwurd. 

5. C. microcarpa, Nutt. Small-fruited Hickory. Bark close but 
rough. Leaflets 5 to 7, oblong, 3i to 5 in. long, not hairy. Fruit small 
(less than 1 in. long), globose, husk thin, splitting imperfectly toward the 
base. Nut globose, small, sliglitly compressed, not angular. Kernel 
sweet. East Mass., and southward. 

6. C. glabra, Mill. Pig Nut. Brown Hickort. Bark close, not 
shaggy. Leaflets 5 to 7, oblong, widest at apex. Fruit top-shaped, the 
apex pointed. Nut brown, sharp pointed, thick shelled. Kernel bitter. 
Throughout our area. 

Sdb-Oeder III.— FAGALES. The Beech Tribe 

Trees or shrubs with simple alternate leaves, the borders of 
which are generally notched or lobed, with leaf stems. Flowers 
of two forms almost always on the same tree. The staminate 
flowers always in catkins, in Castanea and the oaks they are ar- 
ranged in interrupted clusters on the catkin. In Fagus they are 
in a single cluster. The stamens are arranged in groups of 1 to 
20 in the axil of a bract or attached to the receptacle. The pis- 
tillate flowers in catkins in Betulaceae, in small groups in Fa- 
gaceae. Fruit a nut. 

Pistillate flowers in a short more or less erect catkin or when 
not in a catkin the involucre at the base of the group 
without' spines, consisting of leaf-like, generally divided, 

tracts Betulaceae 

Pistillate flowers never in catkins, tlie pistillate involucre 
forming a small cup containing one or more flowers 

Family I.— BETULACEAE. The Birch Family 

The birches and ahlors liavc tlie pistillate flowers in short erect 
catkins. In Carpinus and Oslnja tliey are arranged in a leafy 



Plate 26 
1. Carpinus caioliniana. la. Single bract with nut at base. 2. Ostrya 
virginiana. 3. Castanea dentata. 4. Corylus rostrata. 5. Nut of C. ameri- 
cana. 6. Fagus americana. Ga. Cluster of staminate flowers. 


hop-like group of bracts, while in Corylus the bracts form a much 

divided fringe-like collar which encloses the oval nut. 

Pistillate flowers not in catkins. 

Bract of the involucre halberd-shaped . . . Carpinus 
Bract of the involucre pointed, oval .... Ostrya 
Bracts of the involucre much incised .... Corylus 

Pistillate flowers in catkins. 

Scales of pistillate flowers falling early . . . Betula 
Scales persistent Alnus 


Small tree with smooth gray bark and very compact wood. Stems fur- 
rowed. Staminate catkins long, drooping and scaly. Pistillate, two 
flowers to each leaf-like bract, the latter in a spiral around a pro- 
longed stem. Nut small ovoid. 

C. caroliniana, Walt. (Fig. 1, pi. 26.) American Horxbeam. Blue 
Beech. A small tree, generally growing imder the protecting cover of 
larger trees. Leaves long ovate with sharp notches, the teeth extending 
to the spine. Terminal spine very acute. In shady and damp places, 
throughout our area. April-May. 

2. OSTRYA, Scop. 

Small tree, in general resembling the hornbeam. The leaves are less 
prolonged and the cluster of fertile flowers and fruit resembles an 
elongated hop flower. 

0. virginiana, (IMills.) Willd. (Fig. 2, pi. 20.) Hop Hornbeam. 
iRONWOon. Staminate flowers scaly, the scales extending to the branch. 
Nut oblong ovoid, small. In dryer places than Carpinus. 


Shrubs with broad leaves, staminate flowers in a scaly catkin, scales 
reaching the branch, expanding before the leaves. Pistillate flowers in 
small groups also appearing before the leaves. The involucre surround- 
ing the seed becomes a strong rough envelope to the seed or nut. 

1. C. americana, Walt. (Fig. 5, pi. 26.) Hazel Nut. Leaves 
broad, rounded, with rather fine serrations. The involucre largo and 
spreading with deeply Jacinated borders. Throughout our area. 

2. C. rostrata, Ait. (Fig. 4, pi. 26.) Beaked Hazel Nut. Leaves 
less round tluin the previous species, extremity narrowly pointed, ser- 
rations coarse. The involucre of the nut contracts to a long narrow 
neck and is covered with hairs. Tiiroughout our area. 

4. BETULA, L. 

Trees and shrubs, outer bark generally in layers of horizontal fibers. 
Bark and young twigs aromatic. Both kinds of flowers expand before 
the leaves. Staminate catkins drooping, each scale covering 3 flowers. 



Plate 27 
1. Betulca lenta. 2. B. populifolia. 3. B, nigra. 4. B. glandulosa. 5- Alnua 
crispa. 6. A. rugosa. 


Pistillate catkins erect or spreading, scales each covering 3 flowers in 
the axis. 


Bark white or yellowish-white. 
Leaves deltoid. 

Green B. populifolia 

Bluish-green . .' B. cocrulca 

Leaves egg-shai)ed B. papyrifera 

Bark brown or greenish-brown. 

Pistillate catkin with a stem ^g. nigra 

Pistillate catkin stemless or nearly so. 

Bark dark brown . B. lenta 

Bark yellowish or greenish-brown. 

Twigs not silky B. lutea 

Twigs quite silky P. alleghaniensis 


Young branchlets dotted with wart-like glands B. glandidosa 

Young branchlets not glandular B. pumila 

1. B. populifolia, Marsh. (Fig. 2, pi. 27.) American White 
Birch. Tree, from 15 to 30 ft. high. Bark smooth and white. Twigs 
brown. Leaves triangular with the free point very slender. Smooth and 
shining both sides, tremulous. Mostly in damp places but grows in dry 
soil, most of our area. 

2. B. coerulea, Blanchard. Blub Birch. Larger than No. 1. 
Foliage bluish-green ; young shoots warty. Leaves egg-shaped to del- 
toid on long leaf-stalks, irregularly and sharply toothed; base of leaf 
nearly straight across, apex tapering to a long narrow point, both sur- 
faces smooth. Woods, Vermont. May. 

3. B. papyrifera, IMarsh. Paper or Canoe Birch. Tree, 50 to G5 
ft. high; bark white, splitting into layers. Leaves egg-shaped to heart- 
shaped, free point less tapering than in No. 1, pale above, somewhat 
dotted below, double serrations with petiole about 1/3 length of leaf. 
Rich woods and wet places, throughout our range. 

4. B. nigra, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 27.) Eiver Birch. Red Birch. Tree, 
50 to 75 ft. high; bark greenish-brown, peeling in very thin layers. 
Leaves rhombic ovate, tapering at each end, serrations irregular, the 
larger serrations including several of the smaller, smooth and deep green 
above, light below. Banks of streams and lakes, east Mass., southward. 

5. B. lenta, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 27.) Cherry Birch. Sweet Birch. 
Black Birch. Tree 50 to 70 ft. high; bark dark brown, n-ot separating 
into layers like No. 3. Twigs very aromatic. Leaves egg-shaped, some- 
times heart-shaped; doubly serrate, serrations generally regular, bright 
green above, veins beneath dull green. Rich woods, our range. 

6. B. lutea, Michx. Yellow Birch. Gray Birch. Tallest of tho 
birches. Bark yellowish or gray; not always separable into layers; 
twigs less aromatic than No. 4; leaves ovate or long-ovate, generally 
with tapering points, dull green above, downy on the veins beneath. 
Rich moist woods, our range. 

7. B. alleghaniensis, Britton. Southern Yellow Birch. Resem- 
bles B. lutea. Young twigs downy with long hairs. Leaves egg-shaped, 
tapering, 5 in. long, coarsely and sharply toothed, heart-shaped at base 
or rounded, dark green above, yellow-green and more or less downy be- 
neath, especially on the veins. Leaf-stalks downy A in. long. Stamen 
bearing catkins about 2} in. long. Mass., northward. 


8. B. pumila, L. Low Birch. Shrub, 2 to 15 ft. high. Young twigs 
and leaves quite downy; leaves pear-sliaped, or round, serrations coarse, 
single and regular. In bogs. 

9. B. glandulosa, Michx. (Fig. 4, pl. 27.) Dwarf Birch. A pros- 
trate or erect shrubby plant, 1 to 2 ft. high. On elevations of White 
Mountains, 4 to 6 inches. Leaves orbicular or somewhat egg-shaped. 
Smooth and dark green both sides. Branchlets dotted with glands. Found 
on high mountains in New York, Maine, New Hampshire, etc. 

5. ALNUS, Gaertn. 

Small trees or shrubs. Like the birches, the catkins of the staminate 
flowers are long and pendulous, while those of the pistillate flowers are 
erect, both kinds expand before or with the leaves. The bark is dark 
brown, in old trees grayish. Leaves alternate, egg-shaped, toothed, dark 

Flowers appearing with the leaves. 

Twigs not downy A. crispa 

Twigs downy. 

Leaves blunt at both ends A. mollis 

Flowers appearing before the leaves. 

Leaves broadest at base A. incana 

Leaves broadest at outer-half A. rugosa 

Leaves acute at both ends A. Novehoracensis 

1. A. crispa, Pursh. (Fig. 5, pl. 27.) Green or Mountain Alder. 
(A. Alnohctula, Koch.?). Low shrub, 2 to 8 ft. high. Leaves oval or 
egg-shaped, when young more or less downy, teeth small and regular, in 
single series, when older the upper surface dark green and lower light 
green with pubescence on veins. Leaves and catkins expand together. 
On high mountains and along cold streams. New York and New Eng- 
land and southward. 

2. A. mollis, Fernald. Hairy Green Alder. More downy than No. 
1, the under surface of leaves often densely hairy. Otherwise in general 
similar to No. 1. New York, westward and northward. May-June. 

3. A. incana, Willd. Speckled or Hoary Alder. Shrub, or small 
tree, 8 to 25 ft. high. Leaves more broadly oval than No. 1, dentation 
generally double, dark green above, whitish beneath. Borders of streams 
and swamps. 

4. A. rugosa, Koch. (Fig. 6, pl. 27.) Smooth Alder. {A. ser- 
rulata, Willd.). Shrub or tree reaching height of 30 ft. or more. Loaves 
tapering at base, broad at upper third and rounded at apex, serrations 
double, deep green above and below. Forms thick masses of growth along 
streams or in wet soil. 

5. A. Noveboracensis, Britton. New York Alder. Shrub or small 
tree. Young twigs and leaf-stalks densely downy. Leaves oblong to 
pear-shaped, acute at both ends, 4§ in. long or less, sharply and irregu- 
larly toothed, densely downy on the veins beneath. Woods and thickets 
near the coast, southeastern New York. 

Family II.— FAGACEAE. The Beech Family 
Trees and shrubs with alternate leaves and with small flowers. 


the staminate on drooping catkins or in heads, the pistillate en- 
closed in a little leafy perianth which finally becomes tlie bur in 
Fagtis and Castanea and the cup in Quercus. Fruit, one or more 
nuts, each enclosed in a woody shell. 
Fruit surrounded by a prickly bur. 

Nuts triangular Fagus 

Nuts rounded Castanea 

Fruit subtended by a woody cup ftuercus 


Trees with smooth light gray bark, widely branching. Leaves alter- 
nate. Staminate flowers on a slender peduncle, only the terminal flower 
being developed. Pistillate flowers, two together, surrounded by an 
involucre which, at maturity is composed of 4 valves, which open to per- 
mit the falling of the fruit. 

F. americana, Sweet. (Fig. 6, pi. 26.) American Beech, {F. 
grandifolia, Ehrh.). A handsome forest tree with rounded aborescence, 
leaves long egg-shaped with conspicuous and regular serrations. The 
bur contains two 3-angled nuts which are pleasant to the taste. Through- 
out our area. April-May. 

2. CASTANEA, Hill 

Tall, profusely branching tree, with long egg-shaped leaves with coarse 
serrations. Staminate flowers in pendulous interrupted catkins. Pistil- 
late flowers 3 to 5 together in a little cup which becomes at maturity 
the prickly bur. 

1. C. dentata, (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fig. 3, pi. 26.) American 
Chestnut. A forest tree, sometimes 100 ft. high. Leaves 5 to 12 in. 
long. Nuts 1 or more in each bur. In most of our region. June-July. 

2. C. pumila, (L.) Mill. Chinquapin. A tree usually not as large 
as No. 1, and sometimes a shrub. Leaves 3 to 6 in. long, sharply toothed, 
the teeth narrow, almost spiny. The staminate catkin is continuous, 
not interrupted at lower part as is the case with that of V. dentata. 
Bur smaller than that of No. 1. New Jersey, Penna., and south. June. 


Trees and shrubs with loaves deeply lobed or entire. The flowers ap- 
pear before tlie k'aves, tlie staminate in drooping catkins witli inter- 
rupted groups of stamens, each group containing from 5 to !) members 
(Fig. 8, pi. 28). Pistillate flowers solitary, each surrounded by an 
oblong involucre or calyx. Tlie inner bracts of the involucre unite to 
form a cup in which is developed the oval-shaped nut or acorn. 


Leaves not lobed or conspicuously tootlicd. 

Hairy gray beneath Q. imbricaria 

Not hairy gray beneath Q, phellos 

Leaves not lobed, but with deep serrations. 

Leaves lancc-shaped, about 4 times as long as broad . . Q. Muhlenbergii 



Plate 28 
1. Quercus palustris. 2. Q. niacrocarpa. 3, Q. ilicifolia. 4. Q. alba. 
5. Q. rubra. G. Q. stellata. 7. Catkin of Quercus. 8. Stamens. 9. A pistillate 


Leaves egg-shaped or pear-shaped. 

Cup deep Q. prinus 

Cup shallow Q. Michauxii 

Leaves pear-shaped, cup shallow Q, Alexanderi 

Leaves all deeply lobed. 

Leaves tipped, each with a conspicuous bristle. 

Dull green above, pale beneath Q, rubra 

Shining above, green beneath. 

Cup covering ^ the nut Q. palusiris 

Cup covering i the nut Q. coccinea 

Cup covering more than i the nut. 

Inner bark orange Q. velutina 

Inner bark gray or reddish Q. borealis 

Leaves green above, grav beneath, lobes lance-shaped . Q. falcata 
Leaves green above, grav beneath, lobes triangular . . Q. ilici'olia 

Leaves green above, brown beneath Q. marylandica 

Leaves not tipped with bristles. 

Deep green beneath Q. alba 

Dark brown beneath Q. stellata 

White and silky beneath. 

Acorn nearly covered by cup Q. lyrata 

Acorn 2/3 covered, border oi cup fringed . . Q. macrocarpa 
Acorn } covered by cup, leaves not usually deeply lobed Q. bicotor 

Leaves oval, coarsely toothed Q. prinoides 

1. Q. rubra, L. (Fig, 5, pi. 28.) Red Oak. Tall forest tree. 
Leaves in general outline oval but cut into lobes by deep rounded sinuses, 
the lobes triangular. Main lobes number about 5. Cup, saucer-shaped, 
arising from a short stalk, covering about 1/3 of the acorn. Bark dark 
gray. Common. 

Var, borealis, Michx. Gray Oak. Large tree with leaves similar to 
those of Q. rubra. Cup hemispheric, on a short stem covering i the nut, 
its bracts triangular. Leaves deeply 7 to 13 lobed, lustrous deep green 
above, dull, paler beneath. Penna., New York and northward. 

2. Q. palustris, Muench. (Fig. 1, pi. 28.) Swamp Oak. Pin Oak. 
Tall forest tree, growing mostly in moist or wet places. Cup shallow 
saucer-shaped, covering about i or less of the mature acorn. Leaves in 
general outline broadest at outer third, with very deep sinuses which are 
quite broad, main lobes about 5, each terminated by several sharp points. 
Eark dark gray. Low grounds, Mass., southward. 

3. Q. coccinea, Muench. (Fig. 1, pi. 2fl.) Scarlet Oak. Tall tree, 
cup top-shaped and covering more than i the somewhat elongated acorn. 
Leaves in outline oval. Sinuses very deep and more angular than in the 
preceding species; lobes sharply angled, about as many as in No. 1 arid 
No. 2. Bark gray, inner bark reddish. Dry soil in our area. 

4. Q. velutina, Lam. (Fig. C, pi. 20.) Black Oak. Quercitrott. 
Tall forest tree, cup less top-shaped than No. 3 and covering only h the 
mature acorn. Leaves with rounded sinuses, lobes about 7 often extend- 
ing to the middle. Bark dark gray, inner bark reddish or orange. 

5. Q. falcata, Michx. (Fig. 2. pi. 29.) Spanish Oak. (Q. difiitafa, 
(Marsh.) Sudw. ). Tall tree. Leaves with sharp lobe? and angular 
sinuses. Lobes about 7 but often reduced to 4 or 3; dark green and 
smooth above, silky gray beneath. Acorn globular, cup nearly half sur- 
rounding it. Bark dark brown. New Jersey and southward. Rare in 
our region. 

fi. Q. ilicifolia, Wang. (Fig. 3, pi. 28.) Beab or Scrub Oak. 
{Q. nana, Sarg.). Shrub or small tree, often growing in dense thickets. 



Plate 29 
1. Quercus coccinea. 2. Q. faleata. 3. Q. marylandica. 4. Q. phellos. 5. Q. 
lyrata. 6. Q. velutina. 7. Q. prinus. 8. Q. bicolor. 9. Q. Michauxii. 10. Q. 
prinoides. II. Q. Muhlenbergii. 12. Q. imbricaria. 


Leaves about 5 lobed, sometimes less, often more. Lobes sharp, sinuses 
angular, but variable; when mature, dark green aljove, with silvery silki- 
ness beneath. Bark dark brown, scaly. Maine and westward. 

7. Q. marylandica, IMuench. (Fig. 3, pi. 29.) Black Jack. Bar- 
ken Oak. IModcratcly tall or small tree. Leaves much broadest at the 
free extremity; lobes rounded shallow and generally 3, confined to the 
free extremity. Cup covering 1/3 the acorn. Branches irregular; bark 
almost black, scaly. Long Island and westward. 

8. Q. phellos, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 29.) Willow Oak. One of two oaks 
native in our region whose leaves are neither lobed or serrated. A 
moderately high tree with long narrow leaves with smooth edges; the 
basal extremity acute and the free extremity generally so. Surface of 
leaves above deep shining green, below lighter. Acorns quite small. Long 
Island and southward. 

9. Q. imbricaria, Michx. (Fig. 12, pi. 29.) Shingle Oak. A tall 
tree with lance-shaped leaves with smooth margins and bristle points. 
The under surface of the leaves gray with silky hairs lohich are perma- 
nent. Central Penna., and southward. 

10. Q, alba, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 28.) White Oak. One of the largest 
of the oaks. Leaves deeply cut into narrow but rounded lobes without 
spines or bristles, the sinuses generally very deep; lotes about 6, dark 
green above, rather lighter below. Cup shallow covering about 1/5 the 
acorn. Bark light gray with shallow fissures. Throughout our area. 

11. Q. stellata, Wang. (Fig. 6, pi. 28.) Post or Iron Oak. {Q. 
minor, Sarg. ). Sometimes a shrub, sometimes a moderately tall tree. 
Leaves deeply divided by rounded sinuses, the lobes, about 5, about as 
broad as, or even broader at the outer extremities, than at the inner; 
bristles absent. Dark shining green above, silky brown beneath. Cup 
covering about i the acorn. Mass., southern New York, westward and 

12. Q, lyrata, W^alt. (Fig, 5, pi. 29.) Swamp Oak. Overcup Oak= 
Post Oak. Tall tree. Leaves with about 5 lobes, the deep and broad 
sinuses near the center giving the leaf a peculiar construction there which 
is characteristic. Surface of leaves bright green above, densely silky and 
white below. Cup covering 2/3 -of the nut which is broad and flat. New 
Jersey and southward. 

13. Q. macrocarpa, Michx. (Fig. 2, pi. 28.) Mossy Cup Oak. Bub 
Oak. Tall tree. Leaves with about 7 rounded lobes with generally shal- 
low sinuses, deep green above, silky gray beneath. Cup with coarse scales 
and with a distinct fringe at its border composed of the bristly tips of 
the upper layer. Bark gray, in flakes or scales. Throughout most of our 

14. Q. bicolor, WiTld. (Fig. S, pi. 29.) Swamp White Oak. ((?. 
jilatnnoidrs, Sudw.) Large tree. Leaves, in general form, ovate with free 
extremity broadest. Lobes rounded, about 7 in number, the sinuses gen- 
enerally quite shallow, the stem end decidedly tapering. Bright yellowish- 
green above, pale green to white, silky beneath. Bark gray, flaky. Acorn 
narrow, cup covering the lower half. Generally in our area. 

15. Q. Muhlenbergii, Englm. (Fig, 11, pi, 29.) Chestnut or Yel- 


LOW Oak. (Q. acuminata, Sarg. ). Tree resembling the chestnut in size 
and appearance of trunk. Leaves not lobed but with very coarse ser- 
rations, lance-shaped or broad lance-shaped. Most of our region. 

16. Q. Alexanderi, Britton. Alexander's Oak. Similar to the last; 
leaves pear-shaped. Cup cup-shaped, short stalked or not stalked. Ver- 
mont and westward. 

17. Q. prinus, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 29.) EocK Chestnut Oak. Chin- 
quapin. Large tree with ovate leaves broadest at outer third. Ser- 
rations coarse. Bark dark brown in broad ridges. Maine. 

18. Q. prinoides, Willd. (Fig. 10, pi. 29.) Scrub Chestnut Oak. 
Shrub, from 2 to 12 ft. high; leaves resembling those of No. 14 but 
smaller (about 2i to 5 in. long, 2 to 3 wide), silky gray beneath. Maine 
and southward. 

19. Q. Michauxii, Nutt. (Fig. 9, pi. 29.) Basket Oak. Leaves 
oval with regular dentations, usually more or less silky beneath; acorn 
with a shallow cup, bordered by a stiff fringe, the acorn twice as high as 
the cup. Only in the most southern part of our area. (Del.). 

Sub-Order IV.— TJRTICALES. The Nettle Alliance 

This section contains plants of widely different general aspect, 
some being among the highest of our trees, some shrubs, the great 
majority herbs with inconspicuous greenish flowers. The leaves 
in all cases have stipules (appendages at the base of the leaf stalk) 
but in all the trees and shrubs these appendages fall away with the 
early development of the leaves. In the herbaceous plants they 
are permanent. The flowers, like those of other plants of the 
great order of Juliflores are without petals, are small, greenish or 
yellow-green, with various forms of clusters. Ovary formed of 
1 or 2 carpels, one of which is usually sterile, with the calyx-like 
envelope below. 

Trees with watery sap TTLMACEAE 

Trees with milky sap MORACEAE 


Family I.— TJIMACEAE. Elm Family 

The family of Elms contains some of our loftiest and most 
beautiful trees. The species of the family are characterized by the 
inconspicuous flowers, the two forms of which may be upon the 
same tree or some of the flowers may contain both stamens and 
pistils. They occur along the course of the twig, not at its ex- 
tremity, forming little tufts (Fig. 5, pi. 30), or the pistillate (es- 
pecially in Celtis) may be solitary. Stamens as many as the lobes 


of the envelope. Ovary 1-celled, above the envelope. Fruit a dry 
nut-like winged body. 

Elowers opening before the appearance of leaves . . . Ulmus 
Flowers opening after the appearance of the leaves . Celtis 


Leaves alternate, with oval, sharply notched leaves, which are unequal 
on the two sides of the midvein. Staminate flowers in tufts of reddish- 
brown, small, bell-shaped (Fig. 5, pi. 30). Seeds in samaras or dry, flat, 
ovoid, winged encasements which float in the wind or drop at the foot of 
the tree (Fig. 4, pi. 30). 

Flowers without pedicels (sessile on the stem) U. fnlva 

Flowers on pedicels. 

Bark of twigs smooth V. americana 

Bark of twigs with corky wings or ridges U. racemosa 

1. U. fulva, Michx. Slippery Elm. Red Elm. A tree 45 to 60 ft. 
high; leaves oval or ovate, one side much shorter than the other, ser- 
rations double, the apex slender tapering, upper surface very rough with 
short papilliE, under surface downy, length 5 to 7 in. by 2 to 3 in. broad. 
The roughness of the leaves of this elm is felt whether the hand passes 
from stem to point or in the opposite direction. Those of No. 2 feel 
rough only in passing the hand from apex to stem. New England and 

2. U. americana, L. (Figs. 4 and 5, pi. 30.) American Elm. 
White Elm. The more common species. Leaves similar to No. 1 but 
on the whole smaller, rough only one way. Common. 

3. U. racemosa, Thomas. Cork Elm. Rock Elm. Leaves similar 
to those of Nos. 1 and 2 but the serrations are liner and the base of the 
leaf is more rounded. Corky ridges often appear on twigs which are 
more than a year old. New England and westward. 

2. CELTIS, L. 

While the leaves of the elms have a single main vein extending through 
the center from which feather veins run from each side with much 
regularity, in Celtis the leaves have 3 main veins with lesser veins 
coursing in various directions. Flowers greenish, the staminate in clus- 
ters of several flowers, the pistillate solitary or 2 or 3 together. Calyx 
of 4 to 6 segments. Fruit a globular berry. 

1. C. occidentalis, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 30.) American Nettle Tree. 
Hackberry. Tree resembling an elm witli sweet fruit. Leaves egg- 
shaped with reticulate veinings from 3 main veins; serrations single, 
coarse. Staminate flowers numerous on drooping pedicels; pistillate 
usually solitary. Some of the flowers have both stamens and pistils. 

Var. 0. occidrnialis crassifolia, Lam. IIackukrry. Tree or slirub with 
downy twigs and egg-shaped leaves which ar(' rough above. Otherwise 
much like C occidentalis. New York and southward. 



Plate 30 
1. Phoradendron flavescens. 2. Aristoloclua Serpentaria. 3. Asarum cana- 
dense. 4. Ulmus americaiia. 5. Staminate flowers of U. americana. 
6. Celtis occidentalis. 7. Morus alba. 


Family II. — MORACEAE. Mulberry Family 

Trees and shrubs with alternate, dentate leaves which are often 
lobed. Stamens and pistils in different flowers, both kinds on 
the same tree or on different trees. Stamen bearing flowers on 
a long, pendulous spike arising from the leaf axils, each flower 
4-parted with 4 stamens. Pistillate flowers also in pendulous 
clusters, the ovary becoming succulent and sweet, the aggregation 
constituting the berry. Juice milky. 

The Genus has the characters of the family. 

1. M. rubra, L. Red Mulberry. Leaves broad, egg-shaped, some- 
what heart-shaped at base, rough above, silky beneath, with a principal 
nerve and about 4 secondary nerves with lesser nerves forming reticula- 
tions. Fruit an elongated dark purple sweet pleasant berry. 

2. M. alba, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 30.) White Mulberry. Leaves similar 
to No. 1, but smaller and more heart-shaped at base, often lobed, smooth 
and shining. Fruit drooping, white or pinkish. (Escaped from culti- 
vation. It is the tree the leaves of which are used for feeding silk 


Tree or shrub with milky juice. Leaves alternate, broad, with con- 
spicuous serrations and generally with deep sinuses dividing the leaf into 
3 irregular lobes. Sometimes the sinus is only on one side, in other 
cases it is absent. Fruit globular. 

B. papyrifera, (L.) Vent. Paper IMulberry. Leaves rough above, 
silky bcnoatli, irregularly lobed or without lobes. Fruit red globular 
berries. Escaped from cultivation. 

Family ITT.— URTICACEAE. Nettle Family 

Herbs with permanent stipules and with the stamens and pis- 
tils in different flowers, on different plants or on the same plant. 
Leaves opposite or alternate, flowers green; the staminate with as 
many stamens as the lobes of the calyx and vis-a-vis to them, in 
loose clusters, inflorescence about a single axis, or more closely 
crowded in a catkin-like spike or into an erect flllet. Pistillate 
flowers with a single ovary, in catkins, with leafy bracts or in 
spikes without bracts. 

Twining vine Humulus 

Leaves with radiant lobes Cannabis 

Loaves simple, undivided but toothed. 


Herbs with stinging hairs. 

Leaves opposite Urtica 

Leaves alternate Laportea 

Herbs without stinging hairs. 
Leaves opposite. 

Pistillate calyx 3 parted Pilea 

Pistillate calyx 2 to 4 parted . . Boehmeria 
Leaves alternate Parietaria 


Herbs, 1 to 6 ft. tall, with opposite simple leaves, stem and leaves 
covered with stinging hairs. Flowers minute, green, in long hanging 
clusters at the axils of the leaves. Staminate flowers (sometimes on same 
plant with the pistillate and sometimes on same group) with 4 stamens 
and a 4 parted calyx. The calyx of the pistillate flower also 4 parted but 
2 parts are larger than the other pair. Nos. 1 and 2, perennial; No. 3, 

1. U. dioica, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 31.) Stinging Nettle. Great Nettle. 
Leaves ovate with rounded or heart-shaped base, 5 to 7 veined, 1 to 3 in. 
wide, tapering at apex, serrations very deep, very bristly with stinging 
hairs. Not as common as No. 2. Found in waste places and roadsides. 

2. U. gracilis, Ait. (Fig. 4, pi. 31.) Slender Nettle. Leaves slen- 
der-ovate to lanceolate. Stinging hairs less profuse than No. 1. Apex 
tapering, base rounded, rarely heart-shaped, 3 to 6 in. long, 1 to 1^ in. 
wide. Plant 2 to 6 ft. high. Common. 

3. U. urens, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 31.) Small Nettle. Leaves elliptic 
or egg-shaped, very coarsely and deeply serrate, mostly 3 nerved. Stinging 
hairs more sparingly provided than in No. 1 or No. 2. Two flower clus- 
ters in each leaf axil. Plant from 8 in. to 18 in. high. In waste places. 

4. U. Lyallii, Wats. Lyall's Nettle. Similar to TJ. gracilis, but 
the leaves broader, the surface somewhat bristly, sometimes quite downy, 
usually heart-shaped at base. Teeth fewer and coarser than in U. gracilis. 
Waste places, New Foundland south to Conn., and western New York. 

2. LAPORTEA, Gaud. (Urticastrum, Fabr.) 
Perennial plants with stinging hairs. Flowers small, green, in loose 
brandling and spreading clusters. Staminate flowers, sepals 5; stamens 
5. Pistillate flowers, calyx 4-parted, the inner pair of segments larger 
than the others, surrounding an ovary. 

L. canadensis, (L.) Gaud. (Fig. 9, pi. 31.) Wood Nettle. 
(Urticastrum divaricatum, Kuntze.) Leaves, usually very large (3 to 7 
in. long, 2 to 5 in. broad), thin, ovate, with spreading feather veins; 
serrations sharp and conspicuous. Flowers in large loose clusters larger 
than the leaf steams. Found in rich woods of our area. 

3. PILEA, Lindley (Adicea, Raf.) 
Herbs without stings, with opposite leaves. Flowers of both kinds on 


a single plant or the two kinds on different plants. Stamens 3 or 4; 
calyx 3- or 4-parted; pistillate calyx 3-parted. Leaves ovate, pointed at 
each end, 3 nerved. * 

P. pumila, (L. ) Gray. (Fig. 7, pi. 31.) Clearweed. Richweed. 
Succulent, half transparent stems 3 in. to 2 ft. high. Leaves egg-shaped, 
coarsely and deeply toothed, pointed at base or apex. Flower clusters, 
two in axil of a leaf, much shorter than leaf stalk. Moist places; fre- 

4. BOEHMERIA, Jacq. 

Flowers of both kinds or only of one kind on a single plant, collected 
in spikes of globular clusters, or, the lower spikes non-continuous. Leaves 
opposite, 3 nerved. Staminate flowers, stamens 4. Calyx generally 
4-parted; calyx of pistillate flowers tubular or 4-toothed. 

B. cylindrica, (L.) Sw. (Fig. 10, pi. 31.) Wild False Nettle. A 
coarse weed in low places, 2 to 3 ft. high. Leaves ovate, opposite on 
long leaf stalks, coarsely dentate. Flower spikes from leaf axils, the 
upper spikes leafy at top. Moist places; frequent. 


Herbs with alternate 3-nerved leaves, with dense axillary clusters of 
greenish flowers. Staminate and pistillate in the same groups, surrounded 
by leafy bracts; stamens 4; calyx of both kinds of flowers 4-parted. 

P. pennsylvanica, IMuhl. (Fig. 5, pi. 31.) Pennsylvania Parie- 
TARiA. stem weak, delicate, leaves broadly lanceolate, 3-nerved, without 
indentations, tapering at each end, apex rather blunt; flowers in a rounded 
group. In dry shady places. 


A twining vine, often 25 ft. or more in length. Leaves opposite, 3 or 
more lobed, rough; staminate flowers in loose branching chi.sters, yellow- 
ish-green; pistillate flowers in catkin-like, rounded or elongated clusters 
of yellowish-green bracts inclosing each a single ovary. 

H. Lupulus, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 31.) Hop. Extensively cultivated, but 
found wild in thickets and along streams. 

7. CANNABIS, Tourn. 
Erect herb with opposite loaves divided in long finger-like lobes. 
Stipules persistent; clusters of greenish flowers axillary; tli(> staminate 
in loose branching clusters, the pistillate in spikes; pistillate flowers, 
each surouiided by a leafy bract. 

C. sativa, L. (Figs. 2 and 3, pi. 31.) Hemp, Very erect herb, 3 to 
6 ft. tall, branching; the leaves consisting of from 5 to 7 long leaflets 
joined at the base. In waste places, and cultivated for its fibers. 


This small order, containing two families, each witli very few 
species?, includes plants which arc parasitic or half parasitic. Be- 
yond this there are few common characteristics between the two 



Plate 31 
1 Humulus Lupulus. 2. Cannabis sativa. 3. Pistillate flo\Yers of C. 
sativa. 4. Urtica gracilis. 5. Parietaria pennsylvanica. 6. Urtica dioica. 
7. Pilea pumila. 8. Urtica urens. 9. Laportea canadensis. 10. Boehmena 


families. The flowers in all have a simple and single perianth 
which closely surrounds the ovary and on which are borne the 

In the Family Loranthaceae all the species are parasitic. 

In the Family Aristolodiiaceae the species are of plants wliich 
find their home at the roots of decaying trees and are in some 
measure parasitic. 

Parasites on trees ; fruit a berry. Family I. LORANTHACEAE 

Plants not parasitic Family II. SANTALACEAE 

Parasites on roots or shrubs; fruit a nut. 


Family I.— LORANTHACEAE. Mistletoe Family 
Plants growing on trees as parasites, nourishing themselves 
through roots which penetrate the bark of the supporting tree. 
They have opposite leaves but these in Arceutlio'bium are reduced 
to thickened scales. Flowers at the end of the branches or in the 
leaf axils, generally in clusters. They have no colored perianth. 
Fruit a berry with a single seed. 

Leaves foliaceous Phoradendron 

Leaves scale-like Arceuthobium 

I. ARCEUTHOBIUM, Bieb. (Razoumofskya, Hoffm.') 
Small plants, parasitic on the conifers, branches 4 angled, opposite 
leaves scale-like. Berry globose, fleshy, on a short stem. 

A. pusillum. Peck. Small Mistletoe. Plant from J to 1 in. long, 
greonisli-brown, leaf scales rounded; staminate and pistillate flowers on 
different plants which may grow from the same tree or from difTcrent 
trees. On twigs of spruce trees. Adirondack region, White Mountain 
and Pocono regions. 


Leaves leathery, flowers in jninted clusters, staminate and pistillate 
on different plants. Berry pulpy. Yellowish-green plants growing on 
other trees. 

P. flavescens, (Pursh.) Nutt. (Fig. 1, pi. 30.) American ^Mistle- 
TOE. irregularly brandling; leaves oblong, tiiick and leathery. Berries 
in clusters. New Jersey, southward and westward. 

Family II. — SANTALACEAE. Sandalwood Family 

Herbs and shrubs witli alternate leaves (opposite in some 

foreign species) which have entire borders and are without stipules. 

Flowers in clusters or solitary, terminal or from the leaf axils, 

cacli flower with stamens and pistils, or flowers vviUi one of these 


elements only, both kinds of flowers on the same plant or on 
different plants, mostly greenish. Calyx adherent to the base of 
the ovary, 3 to 6 lobed; petals none. Stamens as many as the 
lobes of the calyx. Pruit a drupe or nut; seed one. 


Characters as above. 

1. C. livida, Richards. Northerx Comandra. Stem slender, simple, 
4 to 12 in. high. Leaves oval, rounded at apex, tapering at base. Flowers 
in small clusters at the leaf axils, from a slender common flower stem 
about 1 in. long, 1 to 5 flowers in the group. Drupe globose. Vermont 
and northward. June-July. 

2. C. umbellata, Nutt. Bastard Toad-flax. Stem G to 18 in, high, 
leafy, branclied. Leaves oblong or broad lance-shaped, pale green, acute 
or nearly acute at each end, without leaf-stalks. Flowers in umbel-like 
clusters, a number of these small clusters arising from as many leaf 
axils. Calyx greenish-white. Through the extent of our area. April- 

Family III.— ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Birtiiwort Family 

Low herbs, twining vines and, beyond our area, sometimes shrubs, 
with leaves from the root or alternate on a stem. Stipules ab- 
sent; flowers from the axils of the leaves, usually solitary but ex- 
ceptionally in clusters, greenish or purplish. Petals none, the calyx 
tube adhering to the ovary and dividing above the latter into 3 
more or less spreading lobes. In some species beyond our limits 
the lobes are 6 or irregular. Stamens 6 or 12 inserted on the 
short and fleshy style. 

Low herbs, not vines, leaves from the root . . Asarum 
Twining vines or nearly erect herbs, with irregular 
flowers; leaves from the stem .... Aristolochia 


Herbs with, generally, two broad heart-shaped leaves starting from the 
root and borne on hmg leaf-stalks, between wliich springs the single 
flower. Eoot branching, aromatic. Calyx bell-shaped, adlierent to the 
ovary, dividing into 3 lobes. Stamens 12, also adherent to the ovary. 

1. A. canadense, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 30.) Wild Ginger. Leaves broad 
kidney-shaped at base, with fine silky or downy pubescence. Between 
the two long leaf-stalks arises the slender flower stalk, bearing the 
brownish-purple, bell-shaped flower, the 3 divisions of the calyx extend- 
ing into long slender, tapering points. Generally at the base of trees 
where some, at least, of the wood is decaying. April-May. 

Var, rcflexum, (Bicknell.) Robinson. SiiOBT Lobed Wild Ginger. 


Flowers smaller than the typical form and lobes of the calyx early re- 
flexed. Conn., and southward. April-May. 

Erect herb or twining vines with alternate leaves on leaf-stalks, egg- 
shaped, base heart-shaped, apex tapering. Flowers irregular. Stamens 
6, style 3 to 6 parted. 

1. A. Serpentaria, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 30.) Virginia Snake Root. 
Leaves egg-sliapod or broad lanceolate with heart-shaped base, 1^ to 5 
in. long, alternate. Flowers from a pedicel arising from the root and 
which bears scaly bracts. The calyx tube elongated and curved like an 
S, the mouth broadly open. Rare in our region. June-July. 

2. A, Clematitis, L. Birthwort. European species, escaped from 
cultivation, naturalized near Flushing, Troy, and Utica, N. Y., with 
straight calyx tube and clustered flowers. 

3. A. macrophylla, Lam. Dutchman's Pipe. A twining vine mostly 
cultivated. Leaves broad, kidney-shaped, densely downy. Flower in the 
form of a pipe. Rich woods, southern Penna. 

Order III.— POLYGONALES. Order of the Sorrelworts 

Flowers without corollas, the perianth consisting of a regular 
envelope which is not adherent to the ovary. Stamens generally 
equal in number to the divisions of the green or colored calyx, 
rarely double the number or less or more. Ovary one, surmounted 
by a pistil which divides into 2 or 3 stigmas. Fruit a dry 3-angled 
seed or a compressed one with wings. Stamens and pistils in the 
same flowers or in different flowers. Only one family. 

Family. POLYGONACEAE. Buckwheat Family 
Herbaceous plants erect or twining, with alternate leaves. Cah^x 
green, colored or white, divided in 3 to G parts; seed carpels 2 or 
3. In our species the joints at tlie leaf-stalks are always sur- 
rounded by a long sheathing collaret extending on the stem above 
tbe insertion ol' the leaf stalk. There is no true stipule. These 
collarets are known as ocreae. Flowers in elongated terminal clus- 
ters or more compressed clusters in the leaf axils. 

Calyx in 4 parts, stamens 6 Oxyria 

Calyx in G parts Rumex 

Calyx in 4 or 5 parts; stamens 5 to 9. 

Pedicels of flowers solitary and closely jointed Polygonella 
Pedicels several in a group. 

Fruit ordinarily enveloped by the poriantli Polygonum 
Fruit larger than the perianth . . . Fagopyrum 



Erect herbs, annual or perennial. Stems branching, grooved; leaves in 
some of the species mostly grouped about the root, in others alternate 
along the stem. Calyx of 6 sepals, the 3 inner ones conspicuously larger 
than tlie others in fruit; stamens 6, opposite the sepals; pistil divided 
into 3 parts with tufted or stellate summits (stigmas). Flowers in great 
numbers disposed along the stems in groups, these groups branching, 
simple or in whorls. The fertile and sterile flowers are found on different 
plants or in separate groups on the same plant or mingled in the same 

Leaves arrow-head- or halberd-shaped; stems and leaves sour to the taste, low 

Sepals of the fruit-hull not longer than the fruit. 

Exterior sepals below the fruit, erect R. Acetosella 

Exterior sepals below the fruit, turned down . . . . R. Acetosa 
Sepals of the fruit-hull several times longer than the fruit R. hastatxdus 
Leaves not arrow-head- or halberd-shaped. 
Leaves not heart-shaped at base. 

Margins of leaves not wavy. 

Fruit-hull wings diamond-shaped R. salicifolius 

Fruit-lnill wings club-shaped R. verticillatus 

Fruit-hull wings heart-shaped R. altissimus 

Margins of leaves wavy. 

Seed wings scarcely toothed R. Patientia 

Seed wtngs toothed R. britannica 

Leaves heart-shaped at base. 

Flowers in a dense almost uninterrupted spike . . R. pcrsicarioidcs 
Flowers in loose interrupted spikes. 

Seed wings heart-shaped, not toothed. Leaf borders wavy. 

R. crispus 

Seed wings spatula-formed R. sanguineus 

Seed wings arrow-head-shaped with long spines R. obtusifolius 

% Leaves mostly clustered about base, halberd-shaped ; leaves and stem 


1. R, Acetosella, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 32.) Field Soreel. Sheep Sor- 
BEL. Leaves narrow, the base lobes spreading, 1 to 4 in. long, usually 
broader at or above the middle than elsewhere except the lobes. Upper 
leaves lance-shaped, not lobed. Flowers crowded in erect, somewhat 
branching clusters. Fruit longer than the greenish perianth. Common 
in dry fields. 

2. R, hastatulus, Muhl. Engelmann's Sorrel. Base lobes of leaves 
usually less conspicuous than in No. 1, but sometimes more, leaves 1 to 5 
in. long; stem leaves linear; collaret silvery; perianth greenish, as long or 
longer than the fruit. Sea coasts, southern section of our region. March 
to August. 

3. R. Acetosa, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 32.) Sorrel. Sour Dock. Lobes 
extending backward almost parallel with the leaf stalk; lower leaves 
with long leaf-stalks, upper with none. Flower clusters more crowded 
than in No. 1, or No. 2. Exterior sepals turned backward. Introduced. 

§§ Leaves neither halberd-shaped nor heart-shaped at base. Borders not 


4. R. salicifolius, Weinm. (Fig. 5, pi. 32.) Pale Dock. Willow- 
leaved Dock. {R. ameri(anus, Meisn.) Plant erect or spreading, 1 to 
3 ft. high. Leaves narrow lance-shaped, acute at each end; panicle of 
flowers interrupted, at least at lower part, clusters dense, of pale green 


flowers. Fruit, smooth, shining, dark red, winged or triangular, not 
heart-shaped. Swamps. In bloom from May to September. 

5. R. verticillatus, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 32.) Swamp Dock. Leaves ob- 
long, lance-shaped, acute at each end, 2 to 12 in. long. Flower cluster 
a tall spike, densely crowded with whorls of green flowers, 10 to 30 
flowers each; and leafless. Leaves with long stalks; wings of fruit, 
diamond-shaped. Plant 2 to 5 ft. high. In swamps May to July. 

6. R. altissimus, Wood. (Fig. 8, pi. 32.) Tall Dock. Peach- 
leaved Dock. Leaves narrow elliptic, acute each end, 2 to 10 in. long. 
Flow«r panicles leafless with interrupted dense clusters of light green 
flowers. Wings of fruit triangular, cordate at base. Plants 3 to 4 ft. 
high. Swamps and moist places. April-June. 

^Leaves as in §§, but with icavy "borders 

7. R. Patientia, L. (Figs. 1 and 6, pi. 32.) Patience Dock. Lower 
leaves broad lance-shaped, 4 to 16 in. long, borders wavy; flower panicle 
of dense whorls of green flowers. Seed wings broad, nearly orbicular or 
kidney-shaped, cordate, obscurely toothed at margin. Plant 3 to 5 ft. tall. 

8. R. britannica, L. (Fig. 13, pi. 32.) Great Water Dock. I^eaves 
broad lance-shaped, 1 to 2 ft. long, somewhat wavy margined. Flower 
panicle nearly leafless. Fruit wings broadly triangular, cordate, the 
margins distinctly toothed. Swamps and wet places. July-August. 

XXLeaves cordate at base. Flower panicles more or less interrupted 

Ol R. crispus, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 32.) Curled Dock. Yellow Dock. 
Leaves lance-shaped, 6 to 12 in. long, margins strongly wavy. Flowers 
in long wand-like panicles, leafless above; seed wings heart-shaped. Plant 
3 to 4 ft. high. Fields and waste cultivated grounds. 

10. R. sanguineus, L. (Fig. 4, 12, pi. 32.) Bloody Dock. Red-veined 
Dock. Leaves lance-shaped or oblong, often fiddle-shaped; 1 to 5 in. long; 
panicle of flowers leafless; whorls at some distance from each other. 
Seed wings club-shaped. Plant 1 to 3 ft. high. Waste cultivated grounds. 
May to August. 

11. R. obtusifolius, L. (Figs. 2 and 7, pi. 32.) Fiddle Dock. 
Stem somewhat rough. Leaves broad ovate, heart-shaped at base, blunt 
at apex, 6 to 14 in. long, wavy margined. Whorls, few flowered and dis- 
tant, seed wings halberd-shaped with conspicuous spines or awl-shaped 
teeth. Plant 1 to 3 ft. high. In waste places. June to August. 

%1(. Flowers in a dense uninterrupted panicle 

12. R. persicarioides, L. (Fig. 14, pi. 32.) Golden Dock. Leaves 
narrow lancc-sliapcd, blunt or even slightly cordate at base, more or less 
wavy. Plant erect or prostrate, 1 to 3 ft. high. Flowers in a dense 
uninterrupted spike. Seed wings with 4 or 5 long spine-like bristles. 
Sandy shores. July to Oct. 

2. FAGOPYRUM, Tourn. 
Annual herb, widely cultivated, most of the plants found wild are 
from seeds escaped from cultivated fields. Leaves alternate, deltoid or 
balberd-shaped. Collaret (ocrea) cylindric. The 5 divisions of the calyx 




Plate 32 
1. Rumex Patientia. 2. R. obtusifolius. 3. R. Acetosella. 4. R. san- 
guineus. 5. R. salicifolius. 6. Fruit of R. Patientia, 7. Fruit of R. obtusi- 
folius. 8. Fruit of R. altissimus. 9. Fruit of R. crispus. 10. Fruit of R. 
verticillatus. 11. Fruit of R. Acetosa. 12. Fruit of R. sanguineus. 13. 
Fruit of R. britannica. 14. Fruit of R. persicarioides. 


white or greenish-white or rosy, resembling petals, stamens 8; ovary 
1 celled, with a 3-parted style and a stellate stigma. 

1. F. esculentum, Moench. Buckwheat. {F. Fagopyrum, Karst.) 
Flowers in dense clusters, terminal to the branches of the loose inflores- 
cence. Seed much longer than the perianth, its borders not winged. 

2. F. tartaricum, (L.) Gaertn. Tartary Buckwheat. Leaves simi- 
lar to • No. 1, but broader and more arrow-shaped. Flowers smaller. 
Seed winged, the borders of the wings wavy or lobed. 


This family includes several somewhat distinct groups of plants, all 
of which are, in our region, herbs, erect, prostrate or twining. The 
flowers generally include both stamens and pistils and the corolla is 
wanting. The divisions of the calyx, generally 5, which are nearly equal, 
are often colored or white, producing the apparent efl'cct of a corolla. 
Stamens vary from 5 to 8. Fruit a dry hard grain, enclosed in some 
species by the calyx as a seed hull, while in other cases it projects above 
the hull, the seed being partly uncovered. The ocrea or collaret at the 
nodes mentioned as characteristic of the Order Polygonales, is in this 
genus peculiarly conspicuous. 

1ST. Group. — The Persicariae 

Erect or prostrate herbs, not twining. Flowers in terminal, elongated clusters. 

I. Flowers surrounding the axis stem in dense, crowded clusters 

Flower clusters single. 

Plant found on mountain summits P. viviparum 

Flower clusters generally one, sometimes two. Aquatic plants. 

Plants smooth. Leaves elliptic P. amphihium 

Leaves egg-shaped, but with long tapering apex P. Muhlcnbcrgii 
Plant distinctly hairy, generally aquatic . . . . P. Hartwrightii 
Flower clusters several. 

Herbs, generally less than 3 ft. high. 

Clusters drooping P. lapathifolium 

Clusters erect. 

Plant hairy P. Careyi 

Plant not hairy. 

Collaret conspicuously fringed .... P. pcrsicaria 

Collaret not fringed P. pcnnsylvanicum 

Herb 3 to 8 feet high P. orientate 

2. Flowers arranged on the long axis stem in loose interrupted series 
The Water Peppers 

Collaret long, hairy and fringed with long bristles. Leaves lance-shaped 

P. hydropiperoides 

Collaret long, not hairy,, fringed with short bristles. 

Stamens 4 to 6 P. Hydropiper 

Stamens 8 P. acre 

Collaret hairy and fringed, leaves broad egg-shaped. 

Apex of leaves tapering P. virgin ianum 

Apex of leaves blunt P. littorale 

2D. Group 
Prostrate, or, less frequently, erect herbs with flowers all in the axils of the leaves. 
The Knotgrasses 

Stem leafy to the end; plant prostrate. 

Leaves as long as, or usually longer than, the internodes. 

Leaves rolled at the margins P. maritimutn 

Leaves not rolled at margins P. ai'iculare 

Internodes as long as or longer tlian the leaves P. Rayi 

Plant erect, leaves broad ,....,,. P. exsertum 


Leaves at extremity of stem much reduced and transformed to bracts. 

Stem round. Plant yellowish-green P. ramosissimum 

Stem angular. 

Flower and fruit directed upward P. tcntic 

Flower and fruit directed downward . . . . P. Douglasit 

3D. Group 
Herbs climbing by twining stems or by recurved prickles. 
Twining stems, unarmed by prickles. 

Seed hull not winged at the angles, or obscurely winged. 

Collaret not bristly , . . P. convolvulus 

Collaret bristly P. cilinodc 

Seed hull conspicuously winged at the angles. 

Leaves ovate, cordate at base P. scandens 

Leaves narrow, arrow-head shaped P. sagittattim 

Leaves triangular, slightly cordate at base .... P. dnmctorum 

Leaves egg-shaped, stem prickly P. arifoliiim 

A. Erect or prostrate herbs. Flowers in elongated terminal clusters 

1. P. pennsylvanicum, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 33.) Pennsylvanian Persi- 
CARIA. Plant less erect and less high than No. 5, the clusters of flowers 
erect or nearly so, bright rose color, spikes often blunt at summit. 
Leaves long lance-shaped. Moist soil. July-Sept. 

2. P. viviparum, L. (Fig. 6. pi. 33.) Alpine Bistori. A small 
plant found on the heights of mountains in New England. Slender, 4 to 
8 in. high ; collaret conspicuous ; flowers crowded, flesh colored, some- 
times replaced by small red bulblets (hence the name, viviparum). Lowest 
leaves oblong with more or less heart-shaped base and blunt apex; upper 
leaves narrow, lance-shaped. 

3. P. amphibium. L. (Fig. 7, pi. 33.) Water Persicaria. Aquatic; 
leaves broad, elliptic, thick, rather blunt at each end; generally floating; 
roots springing from the nodes. Flowers bright pink or rose color. 
Ponds and lakes, northern New Jersey and northward. 

4. P. Hartwrightii, Gray. Hartwright's Persicaria. (New Edi- 
tion, Gray, var. of P. amphibium.) Much like No. 2, but -is rough with 
hairs, at least on the collaret. Grows in mud or floats on water. Swamps 
and wet places, generally distributed. 

5. P, Muhlenbergii, (Meisn.) Wats. Swamp Persicaria. (P. 
emersum, (Michx.) Britton.) Plant 1 to 3 ft. high; leaves long, egg- 
shaped, the apex prolonged and tapering. Swamps and wet places, gen- 
erally distributed. 

6. P. lapathifolium, L. (Fig. 3, pL 33.) Dock-leaved Persicaria. 
Pale Persicaria. Plant larger than most of those of the genus and 
more ornamental, from 1 to 4 ft. high, often in dense masses. Leaves 
lance-shaped,' acute at each end, the apex long and tapering. Clusters 
of flowers dense, gracefully drooping, white or rose color. Wet places. 
New England and westward. 

Var. incarnatum, Watson, the leaves longer and broader and the spikes 
long, drooping, linear, several in a cluster. Still another variety, incanum, 
found in the northern and western sections of our region, is a much 
smaller plant with smaller leaves and which are covered with a white 
Bilkiness beneath, tapering at each end and especially at apex. Ditches 
and way-side places. Very common. 

7. P, persicaria, L. Lady's Thumb. Plant G to 20 in. high; leaves 
narrow lance-shaped, tapering at each end; the collaret fringed with 
short bristles. Group of flowers oval or oblong. Leaves conspicuously 


marked with dark spots, often a rather large spot, triangular or other 
formed, near the central part. Waste places. Common. 

8. P. Careyi, Olney. Carey's Peesicaria. Plant hairy; clusters of 
lloAvers lung and curved, less dense than the preceding species. Leaves 
narrow lance-shaped, tapering at both ends. Shady swamps, mostly in 
eastern part of our area. 

9. P. orientale, L. Prince's Feather. Plant 3 to 8 ft. tall, often 
grown in gardens but to some extent naturalized in waste places. Leaves 
3 to 12 in. long, broad egg-shaped with tapering apex. Clusters of flowers 
dense, large, bright rose color. 

10. P. hydropiperoides, IMichx. Wild Water Pepper. Plant 1 to 
3 ft. high, much brandling; leaves narrowly lance-shaped to linear; 
collarets conspicuously long and hairy with long bristly borders. Flowers 
arranged on long slender stems in loose series, nearly white. Swamps 
and wet places. Common. 

11. P. Hydropiper, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 33.) Water Pepper. Smart 
Weed. Plant 1 to 2 ft. high, smooth. Leaves lanoe-shaped, sometimes 
linear, tapering at apex. Flowers arranged as in No. 10. Collarets not 
hairy and bordered by short bristles. Wet places. Generally distributed. 

12. P. acre, HBK. (Fig. 4, pi. 33.) Dotted Water Pepper. Water 
Smart Weed. (P. punctatum, Ell.) Plant 2 to 5 ft. high, smooth. 
Leaves narrow lance-shaped, acute at each end. With conspicuous spots 
on tlie surface. Flowers greenish-white or tinged with pink. Collaret 
fringed. Wet places; common. 

13. P. virginianum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 33.) Virginia Knotweed. Plant 
3 to 4 ft. high, growing mostly in woods and shady places. Leaves broad 
egg-shaped with tapering apex, the upper often narrow, all on short leaf- 
stalks. Sheaths hairy, fringed. Flowers arranged on a long slender 
stem, sparse. Flower stem usually occupying -J the height of the plant 
or more. Rich soil ; common. 

14. P. aviculare, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 34.) Door Weed. Knot-grass. 
Plant very common in neglected door yards, generally prostrate, bluish- 
green. Leaves oblong or lance-shaped, mostly acute at each end 1/4 to 
2/3 in. long, witli very short or no leaf-stalk; interval between the joints 
rather longer than tlie leaves. Flowers very small, green, with white 
borders. Yards and waste places; common. 

15. P. littorale, Link. (Fig. 10, pi. 34.) Shore Knotweed. Simi- 
lar to No. 13, but leaves mostly blunt and somewhat broader. Common 
on shores and in waste places. 

16. P. maritimum, L. Seaside Knotweed. Leaves flesliy, narrower 
and shorter than Nos. 13 and 14, the manjins (jencrall]/ rolled ; nodes at 
very short intervals; sheaths torn by the swelling of the joints. Sands 
along the seashore. 

17. P. Rayi, Tiabingt. Ray's Knotweed. Plant 3 to 24 in. long, 
prostrate, blnish-green ; leaves longer and broader than either of the three 
preceding. Naturalized, found in waste places. 

18. P. Fowleri, Robinson. Fowi.ek's Knotweed. Differs from P. 
Rayi chiefly in the more obtuse leaves, the oblong calyx lobes and tlie 



Plate 33 
1 Polygonum virginianum. 2. P. Ilydropiper. 3. P. lapatliifolium. 4. P« 
acre. 5. p" pennsylvanicum. 6. P. viviparuin. 7. P. amplnbium. 


smaller more gradually narrowed fruit. Sandy shores, Maine and north- 
ward. Aug.-Sept. 

19. P. erectum, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 34.) Erect Knotweed. Plant 
i to 2 ft. high. Leaves oval or oblong, apex acute or somewhat obtuse; 
joints large with 1 or 2 greenish llowers in the leaf axils. Mostly in 
rich soil. 

'20. P. exsertum, Small. (Fig. 4, pi. 34.) Long Fruited Knotweed. 
Plant about 2 ft. high, slender but erect; leaves similar to P. aviculare, 
etc. The sheaths at the nodes divided into long silvery points. The 
3-angled seed projects much beyond the hull, hence the name. Brackish 
marshes, Maine to New York. 

B. Leaves of extremity of stem reduced and transformed to hracts. 

Plants mostly erect 

2L P. ramosissimum, Michx. Bushy Knotweed. Plant erect, often 
3 or 4 ft. high, yellowish-green. Leaves similar to preceding species, 
inter-nodes usually shorter than leaves. Collaret fringed in long coarse 
points which arise from lacerations. Saline soil, coast from Maine to 
New Jersey. 

22. P. tenue, Michx. (Fig. 2, pi. 34.) Slender Knotweed. Stem 
slender, angled, i to 1 ft. high, smooth; leaves linear, from ^ to 1 in. 
long with a lateral impression or fold on either side of the mid-vein. 
Flowers green in axils of leaves, pointing ujjicard. Dry soil; generally 

23. P. Douglasii, Green. Douglas's Knotweed. Similar to No. 20, 
but leaves broader and without the folds. The flowers at the leaf axils 
point downward. Northern New York and Vermont. 

C. Leaves arrow-shaped, egg-shaped or halberd-shaped. All heart-shaped 

at base. Plants climbers or trailers 

24. P. convolvulus, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 34.) Black Bindweed. Stem 
somewhat angular; leaves egg-shaped or arrow-hoad-shaped, upper ones 
lance-shaped, tapering at apex. The angles of the seed hull either with- 
out wings or very slightly winged. Flowers in pendulous spreading 
clusters at leaf axils, green. The plant trailing or twining. Common in 
waste grounds. 

25. P. cilincde, Michx. (Fig. 12, pi. 34.) Fringed Black Bind- 
weed. Leaves l)rnad egg-shaped or spear head-shaped; collarets fringed 
witli depressed bristles, not at border but near the base. Clusters of 
flowers on stems only slightly spreading or branching. Plant generally 
twining or trailing over stone fences, etc. 

Var. crectum, Peck. Rocky places; generally distributed. 

26. P. scandens, L. (Fig. 0, pi. 34.) Climdino False Buckwheat. 
Vine, sometimes 20 ft. high, smooth. Leaves cgg-sliajjcd, heart-shaped 
at l)ase, sharp pointed. Seed hull conspicuously winged at tiie angles, 
the wings with entire borders. Fruiting calyx about A in. long. Woods 
and tliieUets. Common. Tlie form /'. (lunictortun, T^., fruiting calyx about 
J in. long, occasional in our region and very similar to P. scandens. 

27. P. dumetorum, L. (Fig. 0. pi. 34.) Ckksted False Buck- 
wheat. (/'. cristatum, Engelni. and Gray.) Vine similar to No, 24, 



Plate 34 
1. Polygonella articulata. 2. Polygonum tenue. 3. P. arifolium. 4. P. 
exsertum. 5. P. erectuin. 6. P. scandens 7. P. aviciilare. 8. P. convolvulus 
9. P dunietoium. 10. P. littorale. 11. P. sagittatum. 12. P. cilinode. 


but leaves broad triangular with depression at base. Margin of wings 
of seed hull irregularly notched. Shady woods, New York and southward. 

28. P. sagittatum, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 34.) Arrow-leaved Tear 
Thumb. Stem slender, 4-angled, the plant reclining upon other plants 
and clinging to them by recurved prickles. Leaves narrow arrow-head- 
form, heart-shaped at base; leaf -stalk short. Wet or moist soil; com- 

29. P. arifolium, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 34.) Halbekd-'leaved Tear 
Thumb. Stem 4-angled, armed with recurved prickles, climbing by these. 
Leaves broad egg-shaped with spreading wings at base, on long leaf- 
stalks. Flowers few in an elongated cluster. Moist soil. Common. 

4. OXYRIA, Hill. 

A few alpine species with round kidney-form leaves on long leaf- 
stalks mostly from the root. Flowers on a scape arising from the base, 
small, greenish, clustered in a rather loose narrow and elongated group 
(raceme). Calyx of 4 divisions; stamens 8; fruit a thin, flattened, lens- 
shaped body extending beyond the calyx and surrounded by a broad wing. 

O. digyna, Hill. Mountain Sorrel. High regions of the White 
Mountains and far north and west. July-Sept. 


Herbs with branched conspicuously jointed stems and narrow leaves. 
Flowers on jointed flower stems. Calyx 5-parted, colored. The 3 inner 
segments investing the fruit and becoming larger than the others and 
often developing wings at the angles. Stamens 8; style 3-parted. Fruit 
a 3-angled dry nut similar to the fruit of Polygonum. 

P. articulata, (L.) Meisn. (Fig. 1, pi. 34.) Coast Jointw'eed. 
Plant 4 to 15 in. high; stem wiry, slender, branching. Leaves linear. 
Flowers in slender diff'use clusters on fowcr stalls closeh/ jointed. 
Flowers very small, rose color. Sandy coasts and inland sandy places. 

Order IV.— CHENOPODIINEAE. The Order of the Pig- 

TTerhaceous plants, some with fleshy stems and leaves. Leaves 
alternate (except in Salicornia, in our region), smooth or covered 
with hairs. The flowers arc, in general, small, inconspicuous, 
green, crowded in glomerate masses or in spikes, hut sometimes 
solitary and moderately conspicuous, while in one instance tlic 
glomerate masses are brightly colored. Among the Amaranths 
some species have colored bracts. In some families the flowers 
are perfect, having the stamens and pistils in the same envelope; 
in other families the stamens and pistils occupy difl'crent flowers 
and sometimes different plants. The corolla is always wanting; 
calyx generally divided in 5 parts, but in Salicornia and some 


Species of Amaranths, 2 or more. The stamens are ordinarily as 
many as tlie parts of the calyx and opposite to them. In general 
there are 2 carpels (divisions of the pistil). The fruit is a small, 
hard, dry seed (achene) which is persistently enveloped by the 
perianth. It becomes in many instances an important indicator 
of the genus by the form which the embryo takes in the seed. If 
cut longitudinally the embryo may be seen in the form of a horse- 
shoe or in that of a complete ring or as a spiral. 

Flowers without membraneous bracts . . CHENOPODIACEAE 
Flowers with dry membraneous bracts . AMARANTHACEAE 

Family I.— CHENOPODIACEAE. Goosefoot Family 
Flowers without bracts, minute, greenish. Stamens generally 
as many as the divisions of the calyx and inserted opposite to them 
or on their base. Calyx persistent and enclosing the fruit. 
Flowers in glomerate masses. 
Leaves net-veined, spreading. 

Stamens and pistils in same flower. 
Calyx 5-parted. 

Flower groups axillary and terminal 


Flower groups only axillary . . . Roubieva 

Calyx in 3 parts Blitum 

Stamens and pistils in different flowers . Atriplex 

Leaves linear, plant not fleshy Kochia 

Leaves aborted or fleshy and linear. 

Flowers glomerate, fleshy herbs, leaves reduced to 

scales Salicornia 

Fleshy herbs, leaves linear, rounded . Suaeda 
Flowers not in glomerate masses. 

Fleshy herbs, leaves terminated by prickles Salsola 


Herbs with alternate leaves on lonj^ leaf stems with small green 
■flowers arranged in glomerate masses, without bracts, the glomerules in 
the axils of the leaves, and mostly in terminal groups. Calyx generally 
5-parted. Stamens 1 to 5. 

(The leaves used here in difTerentiating the species are those which are 
most typical, those from about the middle of the plant and possibly the 
general appearance of a group and not of an individual leaf. ) 


Leaves white, mealy. 

Rhomboid C. album 

Lance-egg-shaped, the borders toothed C. glaucum 

Egg-shaped, the borders entire C vulvaria 

Lance-sliaped C. leptophyllum 

Elliptic . . ., C polyspermum 

Leaves green, not mealy. 

Narrow, generally lance-shaped C. Boscianum 

Rhombic C. rubnim 

Feather-formed by deep sinuses C. Botrys 

Oblong or broad lance-shaped C. ambrosioides 

Egg-shaped C. antheltninticum 

Triangular or nearly so. 

Border not toothed or notched C. Bonus Henricus 

Border with i to 4 long teeth C. hybridum 

Border with a number of indentations or sharp serrations. 

Base of leaf convex, more or less rounded out . . C. murale 
Base of leaf concave, more or less depressed inward C. urbicu)n 

All annual except No. 10 

1. C. album, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 35.) White Goosefoot. Pigweed. 
Plant smooth; 1 to 10 ft. high. Wliole plant more or less mealy-white. 
Leaves, rhomboid with sinuate dentations on the two sides; upper leaves 
narrow to lance-shaped. Stem with alternate green and white or purplish 
and green stripes. Flowers in compact glomerules which are arranged 
in loose, leaf}/, clusters axillary and terminal. Calyx, with keels at the 
angles, completely enveloping the fruit. Seeds shining black. Embryo 
completely annular. A common weed in cultivated and waste places. 

2. C. glaucum, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 35.) Oak-leaved Goosefoot. Plant 
smooth J to li ft. high, prostrate or erect. Plant white, mealy. Leaves 
oblong to lance-sliaped with deep indentations; teeth rounded, about 4 
on each side; green above, bluish-white beneath. Upper leaves narrow 
and entire. Seed globose, sharp edged, only partly enveloped by calyx, 
embryo annular. Like the former species a common weed. 

3. C. vulvaria, L. Stinking Goosefoot. Similar to No. 2, but 
leaves are egg-sliapcd and the margins are without lobes or teeth. In 
situations similar to the last. 

4. C. leptophyllum, (:\roq.) Nutt. (Fig. 5, pi. 35.) Narrow- 
leaved Goosefoot. Plant densely n>ealy, erect, i to 2 ft. high. Leaves 
narrow lajice-shaped irith entire borders, i to 1 in. long. Glomerules 
closely packed about the stem. Sea shore, Connecticut to New Jersey. 
Shores of Lake Erie. 

5. C. polyspermum, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 35.) Many-seeded Goosefoot. 
Plant smooth, low, spreading or sometimes erect. Leaves elliptic or 
ogg-.shaped. green, no mealiness. Clusters of flowers leafy; calyx partly 
exposing the fruit. Weed, not very common. 

6. C. Boscianum, Moq. (Fig. 1, pi. 35.) Bosc's Goosefoot. Plant 
slender, erect (about 2 ft. high), smooth, not mealy or only slightly so. 
Leaves mostly lance-shaped, tapering at each end, the borders not in- 
dented, green on bftth sides. Flowers in loose leafy clusters on slender 
branches. Calyx nearly covering seed. Woods and tliickets. New York, 
New .Jersey and south. 

7. C. urbicum, L. UrRioiiT Goosefoot. City Goosefoot. Plant 
erect, 1 to 3 ft. high. Stem striated, green and white. Leaves triangular 
with irreguhir triangular teetli. Flower clusters leafless or nearly so, tall 
and spike-like, the flower groups crowded against the stem. Common. 



Plate 35 
1 Chenopodium Boscianum. 2. C. rubrum. 3. C. album. 4. C. polysper- 
mum. 5. C. leptophyllum. 6. C. anthelminticum. 7. C. Bonus Henricus. 8. 
C. ambrosioides. 9. C. glaucum. 10. C. murale. 11. C. hybridum. 


8. C. murale, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 35.) Nettle-leaved Goosefoot. 
Plant with an oll'ensive odor, leaves thin, shining green, rhombic to egg- 
shaped, apex acute, margins sharply and deeply toothed, clusters of flowers 
loose and spreading. Seeds not shining, acute at borders. Waste places; 

9. C. hybridum, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 35.) Maple-leaved Goosefoot. 
Plant bright green, 2 to 4 ft. high. Leaves triangular with long taper 
point and 1 to 3 triangular or lance points on margin of each side. 
Clusters of flowers leafless. Calyx leaving fruit exposed. Woods and 
thickets. Common. 

10. C. rubrum, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 35.) Red Goosefoot. Somewhat 
fleshy, 1 to 25 ft. high, stetiis becoming mostly red or with red and green 
stripes. Leaves shining, green or red, rhombic, deeply and sharply 
toothed, base pointed, apex acute; upper leaves lance-shaped. Flower 
clusters scattered in axillary and terminal leafy spikes often the whole 
length of stem. Calyx lobes rather fleshy, and nearly or quite covering 
the seed. Saline soil; along the sea coasts. 

11. C. Bonus Henricus, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 35.) Good Kiwg Henry. 
Perennial Goosefoot. Stem ridged 1 to 2i ft. high. Leaves large, 
triangular, margins entire, green or slightly mealy. Flower groups rathei 
dense, crowding closely around the stems, which are not freely branching, 
clusters leafless. Naturalized. Not very common. In waste places. 

12. C. Botrys, L. Feather Geranitjm. Jerusalem Oak. Plant 
J to 2 ft. high, with a strong odor; stem silky and glandular, somewhat 
hairy; leaves with long stems, oblong but cut by deep sinuses into a 
feather-formed leaf, the lobes rounded and toothed. Flowers in small 
groups loosely arranged in clusters only slightly leafy. Calyx partially 
enclosing fruit. Waste places throughout our area. 

13. C. ambrosioides, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 35.) Mexican Tea. Plant 
2 to 3 ft. high, strong scented, much branching. Leaves 1 to 3^^ in. long, 
with very short leafstalk, ovate, margins sinuous. Glomerules, small 
axillary masses in long narrow ,very leafy clusters, these clusters de- 
scending far upon the stem. Calyx completely enclosing the fruit. In 
waste places. 

14. C. anthelminticum, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 35.) Wormseed. Plant re- 
sembling No. 12, but leaves strongly toothed and clusters of glomerules 
more elongated, less leafy. Upper leaves very narrow. Waste places. 
Naturalized from Europe, 

2. ROUBIEVA, Moq. 

A perennial plant of somewhat olFensive odor, prostrate, much branched, 
with glomerules of very small flowers only in the leaf axils. Flowers 
with stamens only or pistils only or with both. Calyx 3- to 5-parted, 
enclosing the fruit; stamens 5, within tlie calyx. 

R. multifida, (L.) Moq. (Fig. 2, pi. 30.) Cut-leaved Goosefoot. 
Leaves small, lance-shaped, deeply cut at margins into linear or lance- 
shaped lobes, about 2 on each side, ai)ex acute. Flowers 1 to 5 in a group, 
situated at the leaf axils. In waste places. Naturalized, June-Sept. 



Plate 36 
1. Blitum capitatum. 2. Roubieva multifida. 3. Atriplox arenaria. 4. A. 
rosea, 5. A. hastata. 6. A, patula. 7. Salicornia lierbacea. 8. S. mucronata, 
9. S. ambif'ua. 10. Suaeda maritima 11. S. americana. 


3. BLITUM, L. 

Plant strongly resembling the Clieno}X)diiims with flowers bearing sta- 
mens or pistils or both. Calyx fleslii/ and turning bright red at maturity 
giving to the rounded flower groups, which are arranged in long, erect, 
interrupted clusters, the appearance of bright berries attached to the 
stem. Stamens 1 to 5. 

B. capitatum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 36.) Strawberry Elite. Stem leafy 
below, but leafless above where the glomerules of flowers appear. Leaves 
triangular or spear-shaped, the base slightly concave, the other margins 
wavy indented. Leaf stems about as long as the leaves. Mostly in 
waste places. June-Aug. 


Plants resembling the Chenopodiums. Flowers bearing stamens or 
pistils, mostly the two forms on diflferent plants, but often on the same; 
rarely also flowers with both stamens and pistils. Calyx of staminate 
flowers 3- to 5-parted, the parts united at the base; that of pistillate 
flowers of 2 sepals which completely enclose the fruit, and which are 
more or less united and which are leafy bract-like. Embryo completely 
annular. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite. 

Leaves long, narrow with plane margins or with one conspicuous tooth or more 

on each side A. patula 

Leaves triangular, the bases arching in A. hastata 

Leaves egg-shaped or triangular, bases arching out . , . . A. rosea 
Leaves oblong, margins plane A. arenaria 

1. A. patula, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 36.) Spreading Oeaciie. Stems very 
much branched at base, the lowest branches spreading. Leaves alternate, 
narrow lance-shaped, with one or more conspicuous teeth on each margin 
or without teeth, the upper leaves linear. All the leaves tapering at the 
base, the upper nearly or quite without leaf-stalks, the lower with 
moderately long stalks. Flowers in glomerules along a branching stem. 
Waste places, July-Aug. 

2. A. hastata, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 36.) Halrerd-leaved Oraciie. Stem 
erect, branching, rigid. Lower branches spreading. Leaves on slender 
stems, opposite, sometimes alternate, triangular with tJie bases arching 
in. Tiic margins somewhat sinuous or toothed. Upper loaves narrow, 
margins entire. Calyx segments triangular, with or without teeth. Salt 
marshes and waste places. Aug.-Oct. 

3. A. rosea, T^. (Fig. 4, pi. 36.) Red Orache. Stem erect or pros- 
trate, mealy. Leaves egg-shaped or rhomboid with the base arching out- 
yard, often turning red. Upper leaves narrow lance-shaped and gen- 
erally toothed. Ijcaf margins sinuate or toothed. Calyx of fruiting 
flowers rhomboid with conspieuous teeth and with several tubercles on 
the sides. Clomerules arranged as in the preceding species. Waste 
places, sea coasts, occasionally inland. 

4. A. arenaria, Nutt. (Fig. 3, pi. 36.) Sea-T?eactt Atriplex. Mealy, 
whitish, stem prostrate much branched; leaves oblong, margins without 
teeth. Fruiting flower, calyx triangular, toothed with tubercles on sides. 
Sandy sea beaches, Mass., southward. 


5. KOCHIA, Roth. 

Flowers with both stamens and pistils or with staminate and pistillate 
flowers separate but on the same plant. The herbaceous perianth cup- 
shaped, of 5 divisions. Stamens 5, pistils 2, which are united at the base. 
Fruit dry and hard, covered by the 5-parted calyx. 

K. Scoparia, (L.) Roth. Kochia. An herbaceous or shrubby plant, 
stilf, erect, with linear leaves pointed at the end ; branches long, flowers 
in the leaf axils. Introduced from Europe, where it is sometimes culti- 
vated for making brushes, brooms, etc. 


Low fleshy plants growing in salt marshes; leafless or with the leaves 
reduced to small scales. Stem round ; branches opposite. The stem 
articulated, the inconspicuous flowers partly buried in the nodes. Flowers 
mostly of 4 toothed, fleshy, sometimes winged divisions. Generally a 
single stamen, pistils 2. Fruit dry. 


1. S. herbacea, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 36.) Slender Glasswort. {8. 
europaea, L.). Stems quite slender, the flower bearing spikes being at 
most only slightly more than one line in diameter, simple or freely 
branched. The scales very inconspicuous and rounded at the ends. Sta- 
mens of the middle flower protrude beyond the scale higher than do those 
of the two flowers at its sides. The plant remains green or turns red in 
autumn. Salt marshy places along the coast. 

2. S. mucronata, Bigel. (Fig. 8, pi. 36.) Pointed-scaled Glass- 
wort. (/S'. Bigclovii, Torr.). Stems much stouter than those of No. I. 
Scales conspicuous and pointed at the extremities. At maturity the 
whole plant turns red. Plant 3 to 15 in. high. SaJt marshes. 


S. S. ambigua, Miehx. (Fig, 9, pi. 36.) Woody Glasswort. Plant 
arising from a woody rootstock; erect or reclining; scales pointed, short. 
Salt marshes along the sea coast. 

7. SUAEDA, Forskal. (Dondia, Adams) 

Flowers without footstalks, in the axils of the thick, almost rounded 
fleshy leaves, Avith both stamens and pistils. Perianth consisting of the 
fleshy calyx, wliich is in 5 divisions and which surrounds the fruit. Sta- 
mens 5, pistils 2 or 3. Plant of the sea-side. 

1. S. americana, (Pers.) Fernald. (Fig. 11, pi. 36.) Tall Sea- 
Bligiit. Plant 1 to 2 ft. high, erect or rarely prostrate, much branched 
or nearly simple; dark green without whitish bloom. Leaves of the 
stem linear, sharp pointed, ^ to 1* in. long, somewhat 3-angled. Salt 
marshes, common. 

2. S. maritima, (L.) Dumort. (Fig. 10, pi. 36.) Low Sea-Blight. 
Plant 5 to 12 in. high, light green and covered with whitish bloom. 
Leaves i to 1 in. long, half round, not as sharp at extremity as those of 
No. 1. Salt marshes along the coast. 


3. S. Richii, Fernald. Rich's Suaeda. Stems procumbent, forming 
mats. Leaves dark green, nearly cylindric, obtuse. Salt marshes and . 
wet sand. Maine. 


Herbs with branching stems and stiff awl-shaped prickly leaves in the 
axils of wliich the solitary flowers appear, directly on the main stems. 
Flowers with two fleshy bracts, calyx of 5 parts, stamens mostly 5, 
styles 2. 

1. S. Kali, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 37.) Saltwort. A coarse dull green, 
diffusely branching plant at the seaside. The branches more or less 
ascending or nearly prostrate. Leaves alternate, prickly; flowers solitary 
in axils of leaves, the divisions forming a violet colored rosette. 

2. S. Tragus, L, (Fig. 5, pi. 37.) Russian Thistle. Stem more 
slender than No. 1, leaves similar but less fleshy. Grows in cultivated 
fields. Introduced. 

Family II.— AMARANTH ACE AE. Amaranth Family 

Herbaceous plants, weeds, with simple leaves without stipules 
and with the greenish or white flowers generally in more or less 
densely crowded terminal heads or in lesser clusters in the axils 
of the leaves. Flowers with both stamens and pistils or with 
these organs in separate flowers in tlie same plant or with stamens 
on one plant and pistils on another. Petals absent; calyx dry 
herbaceous with 5 divisions, or absent. Flowers partly or wholly 
surrounded hy dry persistent bracts, commonly 3. These bracts 
in some cases brightly colored. 

Flowers with stamens and pistils, or, if these organs are in 
different flowers, both kinds on the same plant. Calyx of 
5 divisions Amaranthus 

Staminate and pistillate flowers not on the same plant; pis- 
tillate flowers without calyx Acnida 


Coarse herbaceous weeds in waste grounds and gardens. Leaves sim- 
ple, alternate, oval or rhomboid, indented. Stamens 5 or rarely less, 
either in the same flower with the pistils or in separate flowers gen- 
erally on the same plant. Pistils 2 or 3. Flowers small, green or 
purplish, with three bracts. 

Flowers in terminal spikes and axillary clusters. 

Clusters in tliitk dense spikes A. retroflexus 

Clusters in slender spikes. 
Leaves pointed at apex. 

Dry spines at base of leaves A. sfinosus 

Leaves without spines at base A. hyhridus 

Leaves rounded and dented at apex A. hvidits 

Leaves rounded, not dented at apex, flowers in interrupted spikes. 
, A. deflexus 



Plate 37 
1. Amaranthus retroflexus. 2. Phytolacca decandra, 8. Mollugo verticil- 
lata. 4, Claytonia virginica. 5. Salsola Tragus. 6. S. Kali. 7. Acnida cau- 
nabina. 8 Claytonia caroliniana. 9. Amaranthus graecizans. 


Flower clusters in the axils of leaves. 

Leaves broadest at apex, with smooth margins, and a bristle point at apex. 

Stem prostrate A. blitoides 

Stem erect A. graccicans 

Leaves broadest at base. 

Borders indented A. crisfms 

Borders smooth, indentation at apex A, pumilus 

1. A. retroflexus, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 37.) Rough Pigweed. A common 
coarse weed in gardens with stout branching stem and long slender stalked 
leaves which are egg-shaped, rhombic or irregular, generally pointed at 
apex and less pointed at base. The leaf margins are smooth or undulate. 
Plant more or less covered by soft hairs. Flowers in compact spikes 
without leaves. Found mostly in cultivated grounds. 

2. A. hybridus, L. Slender Pigweed. Similar to No. 1, but more 
slender. The flower spikes are longer and less thick, leaves less rough 
and of a deeper, dull green, or dark purple. Found, like No. 1, in 
cultivated grounds. 

3. A. spinosus, L. Spiny Amaranth. Plant smooth. Leaves egg- 
shaped or ovate-rhombic on long slender leaf stalks. At the base of the 
leaf stalk and of the small branches start two narrow, dry spines. The 
upper clusters of flowers form cylindric spikes and are staminate, while 
the pistillate flowers are in globular clusters below. Flowers incon- 
spicuous, yellowish-green. Waste grounds. Naturalized. 

4. A. blitoides, S. Wats. Prostrate Amaranth. Plant prostrate, 
smooth, pale green. Leaves broadly rounded at apex, narrow and pointed 
at base. Flowers in leafy clusters in the leaf axils. On railroad ballast 
in our area. 

5. A. graecizans, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 37.) Tumble Weed. Smooth, 
pale green; stem ^ to 2 ft. high, much branched and whitish. Leaves 
similar to No. 4, i. c, obversely egg-shaped or spatulate, with a fine 
spine at the apex. Flowers surrounded by dry spiny bracts in small axil- 
lary groups. Common in waste grounds. 

6. A. lividus, L. Purplish Amaranth. Plant slender, 1 to 2 ft. 
higli, with pur])lish and somewhat succulent stem. Leaves _ egg-shaiwd 
or rliomboid-ovate with apex obtuse and conspicuously indented. Termi- 
nal slender spikes of staminate, lower rounded clusters of pistillate 
flowers. Not very common. Eastern parts. 

7. A. deflexus, L. Low Amaranth. Similar to No. 6, with leaves 
less obtuse and not indented at apex. Waste places, eastern parts of our 

8. A. crispus, (L.) Braun. Crisp-leaveu Amaranth. Slender, pros- 
trate, profusely branched, spreading as a mat i to 2 ft. in diameter over 
the ground. Leaves oval or rhomboid with undulating borders. Clusters 
of flowers small in the leaf axils. Stems hairy. Albany, New York City 
and a few other localities. 

0. A. pumilus, Raf. Coast Amaranth. Low or prostrate, 3 to 8 
ill. high, witli Meshy oval leaves or with leaves broader at apex. All 
distinctly indented at apex. On sea beaclies, Rhode Island and south- 

2. ACNIDA, L. 

Our species a tall succulent herb resembling the Amaranths. The 


flowers, however, occur, the staniinate on one and the pistillate on an- 
other plant. The pistillate flowers have no floral envelope except the 
dry bracts. Both forms are grouped in slender cylindric clusters similar 
to those of the Amaranth. 

A. cannabina, L. (Pig. 7, pi. 37.) Salt Marsh Water Hemp. 
Plant 2 to 6 ft. tall, in swampy places. Leaves, lance-shaped to linear 
with long not very sharp points at apex, narrowed at base. Leaf stalk 
rather shorter than leaf. Salt marshes, New Hampshire and southward. 


Herbs with simple alternate, opposite or verticillate leaves. In 
our species all without stipules Flowers regular in form, with 
both stamens and pistils. Number of stamens variable. Perianth 
of 5 parted calyx, the sepals white or slightly colored. Ovary 
of several cells composed of as many carpels, united to form a 
fleshy berry or a capsule which splits either longitudinally or 

Fruit a fleshy berry PHYTOLACCACEAE 

Fruit a capsule AIZOACEAE 

Family I.— PHYTOLACCACEAE. Pokeweed Family 
The general characters of the family are those of the order, 
with, in the family, a calyx which more or less resembles a corolla, 
with 5 to 15 stamens and with fruit composed of several carpels 

PHYTOLACCA, (Tourn.) L. 

The divisions of the white or pinkish calyx rounded and equal. 

P. decandra, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 37.) Pokeweed. Plant 4 to 12 ft. 
high, stem succulent, branching, the flowers shallow bell-shaped. Flowers 
arranged along the flower stem as a raceme generally 4 to 6 in. long. 
Stamens 10, shorter than the rounded sepals. Ovary of 10 cells which 
form a ring constituting the fleshy berry which, when ripe, is dark 
purple in color. The root is an acrid poison. Rich soil throughout our 

Family II.— AIZOACEAE. Carpet Weed Family 
In our region two species only, these are prostrate, spreading 
herbs with opposite or verticillate leaves without stipules; flowers 


small, calyx of 5 sepals, petals absent. Fruit a capsule opening 
by a circular transverse line or by lines up and down. 

Capsule opening by a transverse line . . . Sesuvium 
Capsule opening by a longitudinal line . . . Mollugo 


Prostrate fleshy herb at sea side with opposite spatula-shaped leaves, 
broadest at apex, which is rounded and sometimes slightly indented. 
Flowers without flower stems, springing at the leaf axils, small, pink or 
purple; stamens 5; capsule 3 to .5 celled with many seeds. The capsule 
opens by a circular line by which the cap separates from the cup-like 
seed basket. 

S. maritimum, (Walt.) BSP. (Fig. 5, pi. 38.) Sea Pubsl.\ne. 
Growing in sands by the sea shore. Long Island and southward. 


Herb, profusely branching with leaves inserted in whorls, of about 5 
each, spatula-shaped, outer third broadest. Stipules absent. Flowers 
growing in circles at the leaf whorls, of 5 sepals, white, small. A pros- 
trate weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. 

M. verticillata, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 37.) Carpet Weed. Indian Chick- 
weed. Prostrate, branching profusely, forming a mat. Flower pedicel? 
several at the axils of the leaves, each bearing a single white flower. 
Roadsides and cultivated grounds. 


Group II. POLYPETALAE. Flowers with Distinct Petals 

Wliile, among modern botanists the division Clioripetalae in- 
cludes botli plants whose flowers have calyx and corolla and plants 
whose flowers have no corolla, it is most convenient for the pur- 
poses of tliis work to follow the older practice of dividing the 
class into Apetalous and Polypetalous Exogens. In the preced- 
ing orders of Exogens or Dicotyledons the corolla has been absent 
or only in a rudimentary stage. In the remaining orders of 
Choripetalae the petals are evident and distinctly separate, with 
few exceptions. 


The general characters of the order are found in those of the 
single family. 

Family. PORTTJLACACEAE. The Purslane Family 
This family is represented in our region by three genera, Clai/' 
tonia, Montia and Portulaca. They are all small herbs with weak 
stems and more or less fleshy leaves which are always, in our 
native species, opposite. The flowers are provided with both 
calyx and corolla. The divisions of the former are but 2, of the 
latter 5, which are regular or very nearly so. Stamens 5, opposite 
the petals {Claytonia) or less in number (Montia) or variable in 
number (Portulaca). The fruit is a capsule, opening, in Portu- 
laca, like a lid, in Montia and Claytonia splitting at the sides 
by 3 valves. 

Stamens 3 Montia 

Stamens 5 Claytonia 

Stamens 8 to 15 Portulaca 


Small annual spreading plant with opposite fleshy leaves. Flowers 
small, funnel-siiaped, white, of 5 petals and 2 sepals; flowers arranged 
in groups or singly. Stamens 3, style 3-parted, capsule 3-valved with 3 

M. fontana, L. (Fig. 2, pi, 38.) Water Chickweed. Blinks. 
Watee Blinks. A densely tufted plant in springs and wet places. 


Light green, spreading, prostrate or partly erect. Flowers mostly 


Low weak stemmed plants with a pair of opposite leaves, exceptionally 
2 or even 3 pairs. Sepals 2, petals 5, stamens 5, inserted at the base of 
the petals, the style 3 parted at apex, capsule 3 to 6 sided. The bell- 
shaped, pretty, purple veined flowers in a loose terminal cluster. 

L C. virginica, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 37.) Spring Beauty. The weak 
stem springing from a tuberous root. Leaves linear lance-shaped (3 to 
7 in. long). Grows in moist open woods. Common. April-May. 

2. C. caroliniana, ^lichx. (Fig. 8, pi. 37.) Carolina Spring 
Beauty. Springing from a tuberous root. Leaves broader than No. 1, 
ovate-lanceolate or oblong. Principally along the Alleghanies. April- 


Prostrate spreading weed with opposite fleshly leaves, smooth, with 
terminal inconspicuous yellow flowers. Sepals 2, petals 5, stamens 7 to 
15, petals generally 5 inserted on the calyx. Styles united below, di- 
vided above to 2 to 8. Seed box a capsule which often divides as a lid. 

P. oleracea, L. Purslane. Pursley. Prostrate, freely branching. 
Leaves fleshy, broad-ovate, clustered at the end of the stems. Flowers 
without flower stems at the axils of the leaves. In cultivated grounds. 
A troublesome weed. 

(The portulaca of the flower gardens is P. grandiflora, Hook. It is 
occasionally found escaped from cultivation.) 


Flowers all re£!;iilarly symmetrical, with calyx and corolla ex- 
cept in Paronychia, Anychia and Scleranthus, in which genera 
the corolla is wantinsr, as it is also in a few species of other genera. 
Divisions of the calyx 4 or 5, the petals when present equal in 
number to the calyx divisions. Sepals free or growing together 
forming a calyx tube. Petals never growing together. Stamens 
twice as many as the sepals or less than that number. The stamen 
filaments sometimes united with each other, more frequently free. 
Ovary formed of 2 to 5 carpels, at maturity of a single cell. 
Styles 2 to 5. Seeds several or man}-, attached to a central 

Herbs, annual or with perennial roots. Stems often swollen 
at the nodes, leaves opposite, without sli])ides or, in a few S2)ecies, 
with membraneous stipulate appendages to the leaves. 


Family. CARYOPHYIIACEAE. The Pink Family 
Sepals united to form a calyx tube . Tribe Silenoideae 
Sepals distinct or united only at the base 

Tribe Alsinoideae 


Calyx segments united, with ribs at tlie commissures. Stamens and 
petals situated, each in a circle below the ovary and free from it. 
Styles distinct from each other. 

Calyx ribs Injtween the united sepals at least twice as many as the teeth. 
Styles 5, alternate with the calyx teeth .... Agrostemma 
Styles 5, opposite the calyx teeth. 

Capsule with a single cell extending to the base . . Lychnis 

Styles 3 or rarely 4 Silene 

Calyx ribs only 5. 

Segments of calyx connected by a rather broad intermediary 

membraneous band Gypsophila 

Segments of the calyx not united by membraneous intermediary 

Petals with a lip-like appendage at the base of the spread- 
ing blade Saponaria 

Petals without appendage. 

Leafy bracts enclosing the base of the calyx . Dianthus 


Herb with narrow, grass-like leaves which are without leaf-stems. 

Whole plant hairy. Flowers large, terminal, not grouped. Calyx divided 

above, the long narrow divisions or teeth exceeding the length of the 

rounded petals. The blades of the petals without appendages. 

A. Githago, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 39.) Corn Cockle. Corn Campion. 
Plant from 1 to 3 ft. high, quite erect, with few branches. Leaves quite 
narrow, slightly united at the base with those opposite. Whole plant 
hairy. Flowers red, from li to 2j in. broad. Found mostly in fields of 
grain or in waste places. Introduced from Europe. Not common. 

2. SILENE, L. 
Herbs with annual or perennial roots. Leaves opposite or crowded, 
generally long and narrow, with simple margins. Calyx tubular or much 
inflated; teeth 5 with twice as many nerves or ridges. Base of the 
flower without bracts. Petals 5, each with a lip-like appendage at the 
throat of the flower. Stamens 10. Styles 3 or rarely 4, 


Leaves crowded on the stem in moss-like tufts, plant of high mountains S. acaulis 

Leaves in verticils, 4 leaves in a whorl S. stellata 

Leaves opposite, long and narrow. 

Leaves mostly spatula-formed, at least the lower ones and rounded at 
the apex. 

Calyx much inflated. 

Mowers numerous S, latifolia 

Flowers few S. alba 

Calyx tubular, if inflated, only by the ripening of the pod. Stem- 
leaves viscidly hairy. 

Petals crimson S. virginica 

Petals pink S. pennsylvanica 

Stem and leaves smooth or nearly so. Flowers in loose clusters . S. nutans 
Leaves narrow lance-shaped, pointed at apex. 
Stem at the nodes glutinous. 

Flowers in loose clusters S. antirrhina 

Flowers in compact clusters S. Armeria 

Stems and leaves viscid hairy. 

Flowers in loose terminal clusters S. noctiftora 

Flowers in spike-like clusters. 

Flowers small, petals not deeply toothed . S. angelica 
Flowers large, petals deeply toothed . . S. dicliotoma 

1. S. acaulis, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 38.) Moss Campion. A dwarf 
species growing on the White Mountains. Leaves linear, densely crowded 
around the branching stems. Flowers without footstallcs or with very 
short ones, solitary at the summit of the stem. Petals purple or whitish- 
purple. Flowers during the summer. 

2. S. stellata, (L.) Ait. (Fig. 9, pi. 38.) Starry Campion. Eoots 
perennial. Stems 2 to 3 ft. high. Leaves in whorls of 4s, broader than 
in other species, with sharp points. Calyx bell-shaped; petals white, 
fringed at the borders. Flowers nearly an in. across, in loose clusters. 
Woods of our region. June-Aug. 

3. S. alba, Muhl. (Fig. 1, pi. 39.) Western White Campion. 
Stem simple or somewhat branching, weak, smooth or nearly so. Leaves 
lance-shaped, 3 to 5 in. long, i in. wide, tapering to a slender point. 
Flowers few or solitary, white, about 5 in. broad. Calj'x inflated, downy. 
Petals wedge-sliaped. Moist places, Penna., and west. June-July. 

4. S. latifolia, (Mill.) Britton and Rendle. (Fig. 3, pi. 38.) Blad- 
DER Campio.x. (8. vulgaris, Garcke.) Stem and leaves smooth; joints 
somewliat swollen, especially the lower ones. Lower leaves somewhat 
spatula-formed, upper ones lance-shaped. Calyx nearly globular, mucit 
inflated, witli strongly marked nerves. Petals deeply 2-cleft, the lip in- 
conspicuous, white. Flowers all summer. 

5. S. nutans, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 39.) Nodding Catciifly. Pvoot 
perennial. Stem and leaves smooth or nearly so. Plant slender, erect, 
with loose clusters of flowers at the summit. Lower leaves sometimes 
broadest toward the apex, upper ones narrow, lance-shaped, with pointed 
ends. Flowers white or pink, 1/2 to 2/3 in. broad, the petals deeply 
2-cleft. Not common. Sparingly naturalized from Europe. June-Sept. 

6. S. virginica, L. Fire Pink. Catchfly. Root perennial. Stem 
12 to 20 in. high. Plant covered with viscid down. Lower leaves spatula- 
formed, broadly rounded at apex. Tapper leaves broadly lance-sliapod. 
Flowers few, loosely clustered, eaeh flower on a foot-stalk about as long 
a.^ the calyx. Calyx cylindric but with maturity of the capsule becom- 
ing broader at the top. Petals narrow, with two short teeth, color deep 
crimson. In southern part of our region. June-Aug. 



Platk 38 
1. Silene pennsylvanica. 2. Moiitia fontana. 3. Silene latifolia. 4. S. 
Armeria. 5. Sesuvium maritimum. 6. Lychnis alba. 7. Saponaria offici- 
nalis. B Silene acaulis. 9. S. stellata. 


7. S. pennsylvanica, Michx. (Fig. 1, pL 38.) Wild Pink. (8. 
caroliniana, Walt.). Root perennial. Stem erect or prostrate, 4 to 16 
in. high. Upper parts of the plant viscid, hairy, the lower less viscid 
or even without that character. Basal leaves narrow and rounded at 
apex. Stem leaves lance-shaped but not with very sharp points. Calyx 
tubular, swelling with the ripening of the seeds. Petals wedge-shaped, 
the outer border slightly notched. Flowers deep pink, conspicuous against 
the gravelly soil in the early spring. Rocky places, mostly in woods, 
southern half of our region. April-June. 

8. S. antirrhina, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 39.) Sleepy Catchfly. Root an- 
nual. Stem slender and erect, generally smooth, branching above, 8 to 
30 in. high. Lower leaves broader than those above but lance-shaped and 
with sharp points. Flowers whitish pink, small, in a loose terminal 
cluster. Calyx ovoid, the small petals each with a single notch at the 
outer extremity. Fields and woods, most of our area. July-Sept. 

9. S. Armeria, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 88.) Sweet William. Lobel's 
Catchfly. Root perennial. Stems erect, smooth. Leaves somewhat 
egg-shaped, the lower with blunt, the upper with sharp points. Flowers 
in flat crowded, terminal cluster, purple or pink. Calyx tubular. Es- 
caped from gardens. June-July. 

10. S. noctiflora, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 39.) Nigiit-floweking Catchfly. 
Root annual. Stem 1 to 3 ft. high, viscid, hairy. Lower leaves blunt, 
upper ones sharp pointed, all broadly lance-shaped or somewhat egg- 
shaped. Flowers few in a terminal cluster. Petals white or pinkish. 
Flowers open at dusk and remain open till morning. Waste places, in- 
troduced from Europe. July-Sept. 

11. S. angelica, L. English or Small-Flowered Catchfly. (8. 
gallica, L.). Annual. Plant 1 to 2 ft, high, the stem rough with rather 
stiff hairs. Flowers small, white, with short foot-stalks, arranged along 
the upper part of the stem. Calyx cylindric, hairy. Waste places, intro- 
duced from Europe. April-July. 

12. S. dichotoma, Ehrh. (Fig. 4, pi. 89.) Forked Catchfly. An- 
nual. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high, branching, hairy. Leaves lance-shaped or 
with the broadest part toward the apex, hairy. Petals white, each 
deeply divided, with only a partially developed lip. Calyx hairy with 5 
ribs. Flowers arranged along the upper parts of the much forked stem, 
each flower with a very short foot-stalk. Fields and waste places, in- 
troduced from Europe. June-Sept. 


Plants resembling the Silene. Calyx egg-shaped, tubular or inflated, 
with commissural nerves. The flowers diller from those of 8Hnie in 
that in Lychnis there are 5 styles while in Sileric there are but 3 or 
rarely 4. The plants of this genus have, for the most part, perfect 
flowers, that is, they have both stamens and pistils, but occasionally the 
stamens and pistils occupy dilVerent flowers which are not upon the 
same plant, tliat is, they are (lioccious. All the siiccics in our region 
have been introduced from Europe. 



Plate 39 
1 Silene alba. 2. S. noctiflora. 3. S. antirrhina. 4. S. dicliotoma. 5. 
Lychnis dioica. 6. L. Flos-cuculi. 7. Sileiie nutans. 8. Agrostemma 


Flowers white L. alba 

Flowers red or purple, rarely white. 

Stems very viscid L. dioica 

Stems not viscid or only slightly so. 

Petals cut in two lobes . L. chalcedonica 

Petals cut in i'our lobes L. Flos-cuculi 

1. L. alba, Mill. (Fig. 6, pi. 38.) White Campion. Evening 
Lychnis. Koots biennial. Stems 1 to 2 ft. liigh, hairy and viscid. Calyx 
broadly egg-shaped, hairy. Petals with two lobes and with a conspicuous 
lip appendage at the throat of the flower. Flowers white or with a tinge 
of pink, opening toward evening and remaining oiien until the following 
morning. Waste places; naturalized. Blooms through the summer. 

2. L. dioica, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 39.) Red Campion. Root biennial, 
stem 1 to 2 ft. high; viscid, hairy. Lower leaves with long foot-stalks, 
upper without foot-stalks, broad lance-shaped or oval. Petals indented, 
forming two lobes. Flowers red or white. Calyx with erect narrow 
teeth. Capsule globose. In waste places, roadside, etc. Blooms during 

3. L. chalcedonica, L. Scarlet Lychnis. Root perennial. Sterna 
with soft hairs, not viscid, 1 to 2J ft. high, erect. Leaves egg-shaped. 
Petals 2 lobed. Flowers red, in hemispheric clusters. Escaped from 
gardens locally. July-Sept. 

4. L. Flos-cuculi, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 39.) Ragged Robin. Cuckoo 
Flower. Root perennial. Stems 1 to 2 ft. high, roughish above. Lower 
leaves with foot-stalks, points rounded, upper without foot-stalks, apex 
sharp pointed. Capsule teeth rolling outwards. Flowers rosy, blue or 
white. Escaped from gardens. June-Sept. 


Slender annual plant with profusely branching stems and small flowers. 
Leaves smooth, narrow. Flowers from the leaf nxils. Calyx 5-toothed, 
bell-shaped. Stamens 10. Styles 2. 

G. muralis, L. Low Gypsophila. Annual. Stems about 6 in. high, 
much branched, slender. Leaves small and very narrow. Flowers from 
the leaf axils on long delicate foot-stalks. Flowers purplish. Waste 
places. Introduced. June-Sept. 


Root perennial. Stem erect, with broad lance-shaped to oval leaves, 
witii 3 conspicuous veins. Flowers rather large in a crowded, or loose 
conspicuous terminal cluster. Calyx ovoid or tubular with inconspicuous 
nerves, teeth 5. 

1. S. officinalis, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 38.) Bouncino Bet. Soapwobt. 
Plant growing in masses at roadsides and waste places. Flowers whitish- 
pink in dense terminal clusters, sometimes double. 

2. S. Vaccaria, L. Cow IlERn. (Vaccaria Vaccaria, (L.) Britton.) 
Annual. Stem and leaves very smooth. Flowers in loose clusters, pale 
red, petals without the lip-like appendage at throat of flower. Waste 
places; from Europe. June-Aug. 



Perennial or annual herbs with narrow grass-like leaves and generally 
swollen joints. Calyx cylindric, at its base two leafy bracts sometimes 
nearly enclosing the calyx. Stamens 10; styles 2. Capsule cylindric 
opening at the summit dividing it into 4 or 5 teeth. 

1. D. Armeria, L. Deptford Pink. Annual. Flower cluster inter- 
spersed with long bract-like leaves which are as long as the calyx tube. 
Leaves hairy. Flowers small, dark rose colored. Introduced from Europe. 

2. D. prolifer, L. Peoliferous Pink. Annual. Slender stem and 
leaves. Flowers small. Calyx surrounded by bracts which are rather 
broad and less acutely pointed than those of No. 1. Not common. 

3. D. deltoides, L. Maiden Pink. Lower leaves short and blunt 
at summit, upper ones narrow and acute, rough at the edges. Striae on 
the calyx extending its whole length. Flowers almost solitary, pink 
or whitish. In waste places. Blooms during the summer. 

Dianthus iariatus, L. (Sweet William) with flowers in a somewhat 
crowded head is found occasionally growing wild, escaped from gardens. 


Divisions of the calyx not united at the base. Fruit capsules with as 
many or with twice as many teeth as there are styles. 

Flowers with petals 
Leaves without stipules or stipular appendages. 

Petals bifid. 

Plant smooth, without hairs, capsule ovoid or oblong Stellaria 
Plant more or less hairy, capsule cylindric . . Cerastium 

Petals not bifid. 

Petals and sepals 4, rarely 5. Styles as many as the sepals 

and alternate with them Sagina 

Petals 5, styles fewer than the sepals. 

Plants not fleshy. 

Stamens 10 Arenaria 

Stamens 8 Moehringia 

Plants fleshy Ammodenia 

Leaves with stipules or membraneous appendages. 

Leaves in whorls Spergula 

Leaves in pairs Spergularia 


Flouers icithout petals 

Leaves with membraneous stipules. 

Sepals with a terminal prickle ....... Paronychia 

Sepals Avithout terminal prickles Anychia 

Leaves without membraneous stipules. 

Sepals united at base Scleranthus 

I. STELLARIA, L. (Alsine, L.) 

Perennials or annuals, generally tufted delicate herbs rarely more than 
a few inches in height, erect or recumbent. Flowers single or in a sort 
of irregular umbel; white; petals white, 4 or 5, deeply 2-notched, or 
cleft, sometimes wanting. Stamens 10 or less. Styles commonly 3. Cap- 
sule 1 celled, globose, dividing by twice as many valves as there are 

Styles 5 S. aquatica 

Styles 3, rarely 4. 

Leaves mostly with footstalks S. media 

Leaves without footstalks or with very short ones at the base. 
Leaves broad, breadth at least one-third the length. 
Stems hairy, at least in lines. 

Leaves generally more than J in. long . . S, pubcra 
Leaves generally less than ^ in. long . . S. uliginosa 

Stems without hairs S. Iiuimfusa 

Leaves narrow linear. 

■ •'lowers single or rarely several in a group . . . S. longipes 
Flowers in loose terminal clusters. 

Leaves acute at each end. Petals longer than sepals. 

Flowers usually less than * in. broad S. longifolia 
Flowers usually more than i in. broad S. Hotostea 
Leaves acute at each end. Petals shorter than the 

sepals S. borealis 

Leaves acute at apex, broad at base . . S. graminea 

1. S. aquatica, (L.) Scop. (Fig. 6, pi. 40.) Water Mouse-ear 
ClllCKWEKi). .Stems angular, diffuse, 1 to 2 ft. long, recumbent or erect. 
Leaves egg-shaped to slightly heart-shaped at base, acute at apex. Lower 
loaves an inch or more in length with short footstalks. Flowers in termi- 
nal loose clusters, sepals ovate, not as long as the petals. In wet places 
in our area. Blooms from INIay to August. 

2. S. humifusa, Kotfl). Low Chickweed. Stems 2 or 3 in. long, 
without hairs, spreading, prostrate or partly erect. *Leaves fleshy, egg- 
shaped or oblong, l/G to 1/4 in. long, rather obtuse or somewhat acute 
at apex. Petals equal to or longer than the sepals. Wet places, mostly 
salty marshes. Blooms all the summer. 

3. S. uliginosa, Murr. Boo Starwort. Marsh Chickweed. Stem 
weak, 6 to 10 in. long, nearly erect or decumbent, 4-angled; leaves ob- 
long or nearly lance-shaped, the lower with short footstalks, the upper 
without. Flowers in groups of few flowers with short flower stems. In 
brooks and spring.^, common. In bloom all summer. 

4. S. media, (L.) Cyrill. (Fig. 1, pi. 40.) Commott Chickweed. 
Stems weak, partly or wholly erect or decumbent. Along the stem runs 
a line of hairs, otherwise stem smooth. Leaves broadly egg-shaped with 
footstalks as long or longer than the leaves below, shorter or none above. 
Flowers from the axils of the opposite leaves, small, white, on delicate 



Plate 40 
1. Stellaria media. 2. S. longifolia. 3. S. graminea. 4. S. longipes. 5. S. 
pubera. 6. S. aquatica. 7. Cerastium viscosum, 8. C. arvense. 9. C. nutans. 
10, C. vulgatum. 


flower stems, or in terminal clusters; petals 2-parted; sepals acute and 
longer than petals. Plant 4 to 15 in. high. Waste and cultivated places. 
Common. Blooms all summer. 

5. S. pubera, Michx. (Fig. 5, pi. 40.) Great Chickweed. Stems 
somewhat weak, ercot or decumbent, with two lines of hairs. Leaves 
oblong, i to li in. long, narroWed at each end, without footstalks except 
the lower ones. Flowers white, about i in. broad, in terminal leafy 
groups. Flower stems more or less supplied with soft hairs. Petals 
2 parted, longer than the sepals. Moist rocky places in southern part 
of our region. Blooms May and June. 

6. S. Holostea, L. Greater Stitciiwort. Erect; rootstock creeping. 
Stem 18 to 24 in. high. Leaves without leaf-stems, lance-shaped, tapering 
to a long slender tip. Flowers showy, 1/2 to 2/3 in. broad, in terminal, 
leafy, spreading (panicled) clusters. Flower pedicels rather slender. 
Sepals i as long as the 2-cleft petals. Naturalized in a few localities; 
at Train's Meadow Road, Long Island and at Poland, Maine. 

7. S. longifolia, Muhl. (Fig. 2, pi. 40.) Long-leaved Stitciiwort. 
Stem weak, slender, the plant lying on or ascending by aid of grasses 
or other plants, 8 to 18 in. high, branching freely, angles rough; leaves 
linear, acute at each end, 1 to 21 in. long and about 1/10 as wide. 
Flowers in a broadly spreading cluster on slender flower stems. Petals 
longer than the sepals. Common in damp meadows. May-June. 

8. S. graminea, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 40.) Lesser Stitchwort. Lesser 
Starwokt. Stem similar to last but somewhat stouter. Leaves broader 
at base or just above it. Flowers also similar to those of No. 7, but 
larger. May-July. 

9. S. longipes, Goldie. (Fig. 4, pi. 40.) Long-stalked Stitciiwort. 
Stem very slender, smooth and shining. Leaves lance-shaped, narrow, 
broadest at or near the middle. Flowers few. Plant similar to Nos. 

6 and 7. Moist places. Blooms all summer. 

10. S, borealis, Bigel. Northern Stitciiwort. Stem similar to Nos. 

7 and 8. Leaves narrow lance-shape, broadest near the middle. Flowers 
few in loose terminal cluster. Petals shorter than sepals. In southern 
part of our region. Wet places. All summer. 

Generally hairy herbs with white flowers in regularly forking terminal 
groups. Petals all 2-cleft. Stamens nearly always 10. Styles 3 to 5 
(generally 5). Seed capsule 1 -celled, many seeded. 

Flower stem (pedicel) not longer than the sepals C. viscosum 

Flower stem lonRer than the sepals. 

Leaves linear-oblong C. arvcnse 

Leaves oblong. 

Tctals not longer than the sepals C. vulgatum 

Petals longer tlian the seiials. 

Leaves i to 2 in. long C. nutans 

Leaves i to J in. long C. alpmuin 

1. C. viscosum, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 40.) Mouse-ear Ciiickweko. Stems 
nearly erect, chinimy, 4 to 12 in. high. Leaves broad egg-shaped witliout 
leaf stems; ajxix rounded, base tapering, quite hairy. The sharp pointed 
hairy sepalg longer than the petala or about the same length. Flower 


stem not longer than the sepals. Flowers in terminal groups. lu moist 
grassy places. Not common. May- June. 

2. C. vulgatum, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 40.) Larger Mouse-ear Chick- 
weed. Stems clammy. Leaves oblong, tapering at each end, without leaf- 
stems, ^ to 1 in. long, half as wide. Flowers in loose terminal groups, 
the pedicels longer than the sepals, mostly turning downward between 
flowering and fruiting. Petals equal to or longer than the sepals. Fields 
and woods, common. May-Sept. 

3. C. nutans, Raf. (Fig. 9, pi. 40.) Nodding Chickweed. Powder 
Horn. (C longipedunculatum, Muhl.). Stems diffusely branched, clammy 
or nearly destitute of hairs; 6 to 24 in. long. Leaves 1 to 2 in. long, 
i as wide; the middle and upper ones without leaf-stems, lower with 
short leaf-stems. Flowers in loose terminal clusters. Petals about twice 
the length of the sepals. Pods nodding and curved upward. Moist soil; 
much of our area. May-July. 

4. C. arvense, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 40.) Field Chickweed. Growing 
in dense tufts, 4 to 10 in. high. Stems and leaves downy. Leaves linear 
lance-shape ; on the flowering stems the pairs are distant. Petals more 
than twice the length of the calyx. Flowers terminal in groups of about 
4. i to f in. broad. Dry rocky hills in all of our area. April-July. 

Var. oblongifolium, Britt., (Fig. 13, pi. 41), Taller; leaves broader; pod 
about twice as long as the calyx. New York and southwest. 

5. C. alpinum, L. Alpine Chickweed. Flowering stems erect, 2 to 
6 in. high, sterile stems prostrate. Leaves broad lance-shaped, rather 
obtuse at apex, i to | in. long and about ^ as broad, hairy. Flowers 
terminal, about 2 to 4 in cluster. Petals twice as long as sepals. Scarcely 
found south of Canadian line. 

3. SAGINA, L. 

Small matted herbs with thread-like or awl-like leaves, without stipules 
and with small white or whitish flowers on very slender flower stems. 
Petals not divided as in the two preceding genera and sometimes absent. 
Petals and sepals equal in number when petals are present, sometimes 
varying in the same species, 4 or 5. Stamens as many as the sepals. 
Ovary with a single cell, many seeded. Styles as many as the sepals and 
opposite to them. 

Parts of the flower in 4's. 

Plant depressed S. procumhens 

Plant erect S. apetala 

Parts of the flower in 5's. 

Petals longer than the sepals 5. nodosa 

Petals shorter than the sepals 6". decumbcns 

1. S. procumbens, L. Procumbent Pearlwort. Growing in dense 
mats, stems 1 to 3 in. high, semi-erect or lying on the ground. Leaves 
thread-like, 1/12 to 1/4 in. long, the pairs joining at the stem. Flowers 
1/12 in. broad, terminal or from the axils of the leaves, on thread-like 
flower stems which are 6 to 8 times longer than the flower. Sepals gen- 
erally longer than the petals. In moist places, in our area. May-Sept. 

2. S. apetala, Ard. Small-flowered Pearlwort. Partly or wholly 
erect, 1 to 4 in. high, stem very delicate. Leaves 1/12 to J in. long, 
)t)roadened at the stem and at the base sparingly hairy. Flowers on long 


thread-like flower stems, without petals or with very minute ones. Sepals 
generally 4. Dry soil in Mass., westward. June. 

3. S. nodosa, (L.) Fenzl. (Fig. 11, pi. 41.) Knotted Pearlwort. 
Growing in tufts, partly or wholly erect, 2 to 6 in. high. Leaves in pairs 
or mostly, below, in 4's, thread-form. Flowers i in. broad, the petals 
much longer than the calyx, 1 or 2 to each stem. Wet sandy places. 
Northern part of our area. June-Sept. 

4. S. decumbens, (Ell.) T. and G. (Fig. 10, pi. 41.) Decumbent 
Pearlwort. Tufted annual with stems decumbent or partly erect, 2 to 
4 in. long. Leaves narrowly linear, sometimes bristle-tipped, about J 
in. long. Flower stems thread-like J to li in. long; flowers about 1/12 
in. broad. Sepals, petals and styles, each 5; stamens 5 or 10. Petals 
equal to or shorter than the sepals. Dry soil, eastern Mass., south and 


Small tufted herbs, annual or perennial. Leaves opposite, without leaf 
•stems and flowers in terminal groups. Flowers always white, petals 
rounded, not divided or notched at apex, or rarely with minute notch. 
Sepals 5, styles 3, stamens 10. 

Leaves egg-shaped, the intervals about equal to or exceeding the length of the 

leaves A. serpyllifolia 

Leaves awl-shaped. 

Lower leaves sparingly overlapping A. verna 

Lower leaves densely overlapping A. caroliniana 

Lower leaves in distinct whorl-like bundles A. striata 

Intervals between all the leaf pairs exceeding the length of the leaves 

A. groenlandica 

1. A. serpyllifolia, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 41.) Thyme-leaved Sandw^ort. 
Stems 2 to in. high, somewhat hairy, dift'usely branched. Leaves egg- 
shaped, without leaf-stems, 1/6 to 1/4 in. long, the intervals between the 
pairs about equal or sometimes exceeding the length of the leaves. Flowers 
in terminal loose clusters, small; sepals sharp pointed with 3 to 5 nerves. 
In waste sandy or rocky places. June-Aug. 

2. A. verna, L. Vernal Sandwort. Stems 1 to 3 in. high, growing 
in dense tufts. Leaves narrow awl-shaped, overlapping below but not 
densely so. Flowers numerous in loose clusters. Sepals sharp pointed 
with 3 nerves. Petals somewhat exceeding the sepals in length. Smug- 
gler's Notch, Vermont and northward. June-Sept. 

3. A. caroliniana, Walt. (Fig. 6, pi, 41.) Pinebarren Sandwort. 
Stems densely tufted, 4 to 6 in. high. Leaves of lower part of stem 
densely overlapping, the upper portion of the stem without leaves or with 
1 or 2 pairs. Flower clusters terminal, about 3 or 4 to a stem, 1/2 to 
2/3 in. across. Sepals blunt, without nerves. Petals narrow, 3 or 4 
times as long as the sepals. In sand, in the southern part of our area. 

4. A. stricta, Michx. (Fig. 4, pi. 41.) Rock Sandwort. Stems 
slender in dense tufts, 5 to 15 in. high. Leaves bristle-like with clusters 
of 6 to 8 extra leaves in the axils forming a whorl-like fascicle. Flower 
cluster diffuse, leafless except a few bracts at the divisions of the stems. 
Petals rounded at apex, twice as long as the narrow and acute sepals. 

5. A. groenlandica, (Retz.) Spreng. (Fig. 3, pi. 41.) Mountain 



Plate 41 
1. Ammodenia peploides. 2. Spergularia marina. 3. Arraaria f?rocn- 
landica. 4. A. stricta. 5 Sclerantlms annuus. 6. Arenaria caroliniana. 7. 
Moehringia lateriflora. 8. Arenaria serpyllifolia. 9. Sporgularia rubra. 10 
bagina decumbens. 11. S. nodosa. 12. Spergula arvensis. 13. Cerastium 
arvense var. oblongifolium. 


Sandwort. Mountai?t Starwobt. Stems in dense tufts 3 to G in. high, 
each dividing into a few (about 3) branches above, eacli slender branch 
bearing a somewhat showy, white flower. The tuft presents a gay ap- 
pearance. Leaves bristle-form, about 1/3 the length of the node between 
the pairs. Flowers about i in. in diameter on thread-like foot stalks. 
On high mountains, Adirondacks, Catskills and White Mountains. June- 


Our species low herbs, perennial, with oblong or oval loaves, with no 
leaf stalks or with a very short one, with small white flowers in a diff'use 
lateral or terminal cluster. Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Stamens 8 or 10. 
Capsule few-seeded, oblong or ellipsoid, 

1. M. lateriflora, (L.) Fenzl, (Fig, 7, pi. 41.) Blunt-leaved 
Sandwort. Stems covered with a fine down, 4 to 12 in. high, erect or 
nearly so. Leaves oblong or oval i to 1 in. long, blunt at each end. 
Clusters few flowered, lateral or terminal or flowers solitary, about J 
in. broad, petals and sepals 4 or 5. Stamens 8 to 10. Petals and sepals 
rounded at apex. Capsule nearly twice as long as the calyx. Moist 
places, southern and central New York, New Jersey and southward, May- 

2. M. macrophylla, Hook. With narrower leaves and with pointed 
sepals. N. Guildford and Durham, Conn., Vermont and northward. 

6, AMMODENIA, J. G. Gmel. 

Fleshy herbs at seaside. Leaves egg-shaped or oblong. Flowers small, 
in the axils of the leaves or at the division of the stem. Petals small, 
inconspicuous, 3 in number, rarely 4. Sepals equal in number to the 
petals. Stamens 8 to 10. Styles 3. 

A. peploides, (L.) Eupr. (Fig. 1, pi. 41.) Sea beach Sandwort. 
Stems tufted, 6 to 10 in. high, branching or simple. Leaves egg-shaped, 
the apex sometimes broadest, clasping the stem at base. Flowers about 
i in. broad, in the leaf axils (usually only 1 flower to a pair of leaves), 
at the branching of the stem or terminal. Sands of the sea shore. June- 


Branching herbs with bristle or awl-formed leaves with stipules. 
Flowers in diffuse clusters, white. Stamens 5 to 10; styles 5; sepals and 
petals 5. 

S, arvensis, L, (Fig, 12, pi. 41.) Spurry. Corn Spurry. Stems 6 
to 18 in, high, the whole plant hairy. Leaves with stipules, slender, 
cylindric, awl-shaped, clustered in fascicles about the stem (20 or more 
in a sort of whorl). Flowers white, i in. or more in diameter, in dif- 
fuse clusters at summit of stem. Petals somewhat pointed at apex. 
Sepals about as long or slightly longer than the petals. Mostly a weed 
in fields and waste places. Common. 

8 SPERGULARIA, J. & C. Presl. (Tissa, Adams, Buda, Adams) 

Low herbs with bristle-like, mostly fleshy, leaves, opposite or in whorl- 
like bundles, stipules at of leaves. Flowers singly in the axils of 


the leaves or terminal, whitish or pink. Sepals 5; petals 5; stamens 2 
to 10; styles 3 except No. 1. Found on or near the sea coast, in wet sand. 

1. S. rubra, (L.) J. & C. Presl. (Fig. 9, pi. 41.) Sandy Spurry. 
Purple Sandwort. Growing in dry soil, in waste places as a low, slen- 
der, spreading weed, stems 2 to 6 in. long. Plant smooth or nearly so. 
Leaves flattened, scarcely fleshy. Flowers bright pink, small, the petals 
generally not exceeding the calyx. 

2. S. marina, (L.) Griseb. (Fig. 2, pi. 41.) Salt-marsh Sand 
Spurry. Grows in brackish sands, salt marshes along the New England 
coast, spreading with numerous branches, stems 4 to 8 in. long; smooth 
or with fine hairs. Leaves not in fascicles, bristle-form, roimded, quite 
•fleshy, with egg-shaped stipules at base. Flowers small, pink, the flower 
stem about twice as long as the flower. Salt marshes on the coast, also 
those at Salina, N. Y. 

3. S. canadensis, (Pers.) Don. Northern Sand Spurry. Plant 
similar to No. 2, but with white flowers on flower stems three or four 
times as long as the flowers. Muddy shores, R. I., Mass., and northward. 


Tufted herbs, sometimes woody at base, with opposite leaves and mem- 
braneous, dry, silvery, leaf appendages (stipules). Flowers clustered 
among dry membraneous bracts, without petals. Calyx of 5 divisions, 
bristle-pointed. Stamens 5 ; style 2-clef t at summit. 

P. argyrocoma, (Michx.) Nutt. (Fig. 7, pi. 43.) Silver Whitlow- 
wort. Growing in tufts in rocky, generally high, situations (White 
Mts., etc.), stems 3 to 8 in. high, with silvery scale-like hairs. Flowers 
in A'ery dense clusters surrounded by dry silvery bracts. Rocky places, 
Maine, White Mountain region and southward, 

10. ANYCHIA, Michx. 

Slender herbs not growing in tufts, with repeatedly forking stems and 
small inconspicuous greenish flowers without petals in the axils of the 
leaves. Leaves elliptic, smooth, opposite, with very small dry stipular 
appendages. Calyx of 5 divisions, greenish without bristle points; 
stamens 2 to 5 ; styles 2. 

1. A. polygonoides, Raf. (Fig. 6, pi. 43.) Forked Chickweed. 
(A. dichotoma, Mich.) Stem and leaves downy, mostly prostrate or 
partly erect, 3 to 10 in. long. Leaves very narrow, elliptic, rounded at 
apex, about 1/6 in. long, without foot-stalks. In dry thickets and open 
places, throughout our area. 

2. A. canadensis, (L.) BSP. (Fig. 8, pi. 43.) Slender Forked 
Chickweed. Resembling the last, but stem and leaves mostly without 
hairs; plant 6 to 12 in. high and usually erect. Leaves 1/4 to 2/3 in. 
long. Dry woods and open places. 


Low tufted herbs with forking stems. Leaves without stipulate ap- 
pendages, narrow awl-shaped. Flowers green, without petals, at axila 


of leaves and in diffuse terminal clusters. Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Stamens 
usually 5 opposite to and attached to the divisions of the calyx. 

S. annuus, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 41.) Knawel. German Knot Grass. 
Stems 3 to 5 in. long, much branched, prostrate or partly erect, smooth 
or with very soft hairs. Leaves mostly curving backward. Calyx tube 
10-angled. Fields and waste places. Common. 

Order III.— RANALES. Order of the Buttercups. Polycarpes 

The most characteristic feature of this large order, in wliich 
plants of widely different appearance and habits are united, is 
found in the carpels or fruits, each carpel being regarded as a sort 
of modified leaf folded so as to contain the ovules. By referring 
to the figures at the head oi the Family Eanunculacese a general 
idea of these carpels may be obtained. They are most frequently 
independent, as in the buttercups, and in general they are quite 
numerous but, e. g., in the barberry the number is reduced to one. 

The insertion of the parts of the flower is for the most part 
spirally around the base of the carpels, but in some instances, 
as in the case of the common white water lily, the stamens and 
petals are inserted into the sides of the consolidated group of 
carpels which form a single globe-like fruit. In the greatest 
number of genera the flowers are regular, that is, parts of the 
same kind are alike as in the common buttercup, but in other 
genera the flowers are quite irregular (Larkspur, Aconite). 

Aquatic Plants. 

With broad heart-shaped or shield-shaped leaves and con- 
spicuous flowers NYMPHAEACEAE 

With whorls of dissected leaves and flowers without floral 



With large conspicuous flowers. 

Leaf buds covered by membraneous stipules 


Leaf buds naked, leaves without stipules ANONACEAE 
Trees and shrubs with small, mostly inconspicuous flowers. 
With thorny spines below leaf axils. Carpel one 




Plate 42 
1. Castalia odorata. 2. Bransenia purpurea. 3. Nymphaea micropliylla. 4. 
N. advena. 5. Ceratophyllum demersuin. 6. Nelumbo lutea. 


Without thorny spines LAITRACEAE 

Woody climber, leaves not compound . MENISPERMACEAE 
Woody climber, leaves compound. Clematis in Raiiaiiculaceae. 

With several or many independent carpels, stamens 
mostly more than 12 . . . . RANUNCULACEAE 

Family I.— NYMPHAEACEAE. Water Lily Family 

Aquatic herl)s, the long creeping rootstocks of which are per- 
ennial. The shield-shaped or large heart-shaped leaves float on 
the surface of the water. Flowers solitary, regular, with both 
stamens and pistils. Divisions of the calyx and corolla in some 
species variable, passing from one form to the other. Stamens 
more than 10, also passing by slight gradings into petals. 

Leaves all oval, shield form with footstalks near the center 

. Brasenia 

Leaves all heart-shaped, deeply cut at base. 

Flowers yellow Nymphaea 

Flowers white. 

Fruit globose Castalia 

Fruit an inverted cone Nelumbo 

I. BRASENIA, Schreb. 

Submersed stems often several feet long, branching. Leaves on long 
slender foot-stalks, oval, shield-form with the foot-stalks inserted near the 
center. Floating, borders undivided, 2 to 4 in. long. 

B. purpurea, (Michx.) Casp. (Fig. 2, pi. 42.) Water Shield. 
Water Tarcet. (B. i<c]irebcri, Gmel. B. pcltata, Pursh.) Flowers dull 
purple. The oval leaves floating in groups on the surface of ponds and 
streams. Blooms through the summer. 

2. NYMPHAEA, L. (Nuphar, Sibthorn and Smith) 
Submersed stems rather stout. Leaves with deep sinus at base. Flowers 
yellow, sepals 5, colored, petals small, in tlie cup of tlie colored calyx, 
graduating into tlie stamens. Sepals, petals and stamens surrounding 
the foot-stalk at base of the ovary. The compound carjK'ls uniting into 
a single pistil. 

1. N. advena, Soland. (Fig. 4, pi. 42.) Large Yellow Pond Lilt. 
Leaves 5 to 12 in. long, 2/3 as wide. Flowers IJ to 3i in. diameter, 
deep yellow. Disk at summit of pistil 12 to 25 rayed, yellow or pale 
red. Common in still water. April-Sept. 

2. N. hybrida, Peck. Red Disked Pond Lily. Similar to No. 1, but 
smaller and witli the disk at summit of pistil bright red or crimson and 


9 to 12 rayed. Intermediate between 1 and 3. Ponds, northern New 
York. May-Sept. 

3. N. microphylla. Pers. (Fjg. 3, pi. 42.) Small Yellow Pond 
Lily. (N. Kalmiana, Sims.) Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, § as broad, some 
leaves submersed. Flowers smaller than No. 1 or 2. Sepals 5. Lakes and 
ponds in our area. 

3. CASTALIA, Salisb. 

Aquatic lierbs with showy white flowers. Sepals 4. Petals many, 
graduating into stamens. Stamens many. Petals and stamens arising 
from surface of the rounded seed casket. 

1. C. odorata, (Dryand.) Woodv. and Wood. (Fig. 1, pi., 42.) 
SwEET-ecENTED WiiiTE VVateb Lily. (Nynijihaea odorata, Ait.) Leaves 
orbicular with a deep narrow sinus, 4 to 12 in. in diameter. Flowers 
white or tinged with pink, perfume adundant but pleasing. Ponds and 
slow streams. June-Sept. 

2. C. tuberosa, (Paine.) Greene. Tuberous White Water Lily. 
Similar to No. 1, but without or nearly without perfume. Lake Cham- 
plain and other northern lakes and ponds. 

4. NELUMBO, (Tourn.) Adams 

Resembling Castalia, but leaves with foot-stalks at or very near the 
center and with petals and stamens arising below the seed casket, which 
is in form of an inverted cone. The upper surface shows a number of 
pits in which the seed carpels are lodged. 

1. N. lutea, (Willd.) Pers. (Fig. 6, pi. 42.) American Lotus. 
Leaves prominently ribbed. Plant and flower resembling Castalia, but 
the petals are less uniform and the knobbed upj)cr surface of the seed 
casket is conspicuous in the midst of them. In Connecticut River and 
in lakes in southern New Jersey. Also in Sodus Bay, N. Y. 

2. N. nucifera, Gaertn. Indian Lotus. (N. Nelumbo, (L.) Karst.) 
Leaves rounded, standing above the surface of the water or floating, 2 to 
3 ft. in diameter, the leaf-stalks 3 ft. or more in length. Flowers pink 
or white, 4 to 10 in. broad on flower stems 3 to 6 ft. high. Introduced 
into this country by Mr. Edmund D. Sturtevant. Now naturalized at 
Bordentown, N. J. Cultivated in many parks. July-Aug. 

Family II.— CERATOPHYLLACEAE. Hornwort Family 
Submersed aquatics with finely dissected leaves in whorls. 
Staminate and pistillate flowers separate, on the same or on dif- 
ferent plants. Staminate flowers with numerous stamens sur- 
rounded by an 8 to 12 parted colorless perianth, as is the pistil 
in the pistillate flower. 

Herbs growing under water in ponds and other quiet waters. Leaves 
very finely dissected. 

C. demersum, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 42.) Hornwort. Stems 2 to 8 ft. 


long, depending on the depth of the water. Found commonly throughout 
our region in still waters. 


Trees with alternate undivided leaves which in bud are covered 
by membraneous stipules which may fall as the leaves spread. 
Flowers always large and showy on a convex or conical receptacle. 
Parts of the perianth not united and always regular. Stamens 
numerous, carpels (seed caskets) several and independent, ar- 
ranged upon the elongated conical or cylindric receptacle. 


Flowers large, white, or yellowish-green with 3 colored sepals and from 
6 to 12 petals in 2 to 4 rows, smaller than the sepals. Fragrant. Seeds 
fleshy which hang to the elongated receptacle by slender threads which 
hold them in relation to the thin matrix till they are well ripened. 

1. M. virginiana, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 43.) Laurel Magnolia. Sweet 
Bay. (M. glaiica, L.). Tree 15 to 70 ft. high, rarely attaining the 
height of the latter figure in our region. Leaves thick, broad, oval, 
tapering at base, obtuse at apex or suddenly acute. Dark, shining green 
above, light green and slightly hairy beneath. Flowers globe-shaped. 
In swampy places, in the southern half of our region. May-June. 

2. M. acuminata, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 43.) Cucumber Tree. A large 
tree (00 to 90 ft. high). Leaves thin, broadly rounded at base, acute 
at apex. Flowers smaller than No. 1, 2 in. high, bell-shaped, greenish- 
yellow. Cone of fruit a long cylinder from which the common name of 
the tree is derived. Southern New York, New Jersey and southward. 
Other species of Magnolia are found in our parks and private grounds 
which are native further south. 


Large forest tree with leaves in general form of a heptagon, 4 to 6 
lobes. Flowers large, sepals 3, petals 6, the former turned backward, the 
latter erect, seeds suspended by filaments. 

L. Tulipifera, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 43.) Tulip Tree. White Wood. 
Leaves hectagonal or nearly orbicular, the apex abruptly terminated with 
a notch at midvein. Flowers a delicate greenish-yellow, orange within. 
In woods and along fences. 

Family IV.— ANONACEAE. C'ustard Apple Family 

The characters arc sulliciently indicated in those of the genus below. 

Small tree with alternate leaves which are long and broadest 
toward the apex (6 to 12 in. long by 3 or 3 in. broad). Flowers 
1 to 2 in. across; sepals 3, as broad as long. Petals G, arranged 



Plate 43 
1. Magnolia virginiana. 2. Liriodciulioii Tulipifera. 3. Asimina triloba 
(mature leaves). 4 A. triloba (young leaves and flower). 5. Magnolia 
acuminata. 6. Anycliia polygonoides. 7. Paronychia argyrocoma. 8. Any- 
chia canadensis. 



in 2 series. Stamens from 3 to 15. Carpels also from a few to 
several. Only a single species in our region. 

A. triloba, (L.) Dunal. (Figs. 3 and 4, pi. 43.) North American 
Papaw. Tree found only in the soutliern part of our region. Flowers 
dull purple, petals 3 or 4 times as long as sepals. 

I. Section of a flower of Buttercup sliowing the arrangement of calyx, petals, 
stamens and the numerous carpels (achenes), which are arranged about the re- 
ceptacle. 2. The cluster of achenes on the rccejitacle with a single stamen, which 
is sepii to arise from a ring at the foot ol' the receptacle. 3. .\ single achene cut 
lengthwise to show the single seed. 4. A group of achenes of Hepalicd above the 
three bracts of the involucre. s. Flower of Ranunculus bulbosiis, showing the re- 
flected sepals. 6. A group of follicles with a single stamen arising from the base 
of the receptacle. 7. T.enf of Ranunculus hulbosus. 8. Leaf of R. acris. o- A 
follicle partly opened showing the dotible row of seeds. to. Section of a flower 
of Thalictrum showing stamens, carpels and small sepals, much enlarged. 11. Clus- 
ter of berries of Actea. 12. Flower of Myosurus. 

Family V.— RANUNCULACEAE. The Crowfoot Family 

(Numerals in brackets refer to figures above.) 

A large and important family with a great varit^ty of forms. 
All of our species are herbs witli the exception of tlioso of Clem' 
ails and Atragcne, wliicli are climbing vines and Xnnthorrliiza 


which is a small shrub. Leaves alternate, except Clematis and 
Atragene, with the base of the foot-stalk broad and often clasp- 
ing. In this family are found plants widely differing in ap- 
pearance, but certain characteristics are common to all. The 
flowers in most of the species are regular, but in some they are 
quite irregular, as in the larkspur. So also the flowers of most 
species are complete in having sepals, petals, stamens and pistils, 
yet some, as for example, the clematis species, have large colored 
sepals while the petals are greatly reduced or are absent. In 
Thalictrum the flower is still further modified, for here not only 
is the corolla absent (10), but in some of the species the stamens 
are found in the flowers of one plant and the pistils in those of 
another. The seeds are contained in carpels which have the form 
of achenes in which there is but a single seed in the casket; of 
follicles when there are numerous seeds in the casket, while in a 
few instances the seeds are enclosed in a fleshy berry (11). Sta- 
mens numerous. Pistils numerous, few, or only one. 

The carpels or seed caskets form a convenient means of divid- 
ing the genera into groups and they should be studied with care. 
Observe the difference between the entirely closed nut-like achene 
(3) and the generally longer seed casket, the follicle (6), with 
its line for splitting when the fruit is ripe (9). 


(References to figures in tliis Key are to those at the head of 
Family Banunculaceae.) 

Seeds in achenes (see Fig. 1). 

Achenes with long plumose tails . Clematis, Atragene 
Achenes grouped around a tall spike (Fig. 12) Myosurus 
Achenes in rounded or slightly elongated heads (Fig. 2). 

Flowers with only one envelope, hut with a short ivhorl of 
leaves resembling a calyx near the flower (Fig. 4). Hepatica 

Whorl of stem leaves at some distance below the flower. 

Flowers in an umbel Anemonella 

Flowers not in an umbel . . . „ . Anemone 

Leaves on flower stem not in a whorl. 

Flowers numerous Thalictrum 

One-flowered Hydrastis 

Flowers with two envelopes, calyx and corolla. 
Herbs, flowers yellow. 


Head rounded or elongated, achenes (Fig. 2) 

smooth Kanunculus 

Heads elongated, achenes ridged . . . Oxygraphis 
Herbs, flowers white Batrachium 


Seeds in a follicle 
(Figs. 6 and 9) 

Shrub Xanthorrhiza 


Flowers yellow. 

Leaves undivided Caltha 

Leaves dissected Trollius 

Flowers red and yellow Aquilegia 

Flowers blue. 

Upper petal a long spur Delphinium 

Upper petal a hood Aconitum 

Flowers wliite. 

In a spike Cimicifuga 


Flower stem naked Coptis 

Flower stem leafy Isopyrum 


Seeds in berries (Fig. 11) Actaea 

(A.) Carpels one seeded. Floircrs icith a single envelope, a calyx colored 

like a corolla 

Climbing woody vinos and erect herbs. Leaves of the twiners opposite 
on slender foot-stalks, simple or more frequently compound. Those of 
No. 3 without foot-stalks. Flower of 4 conspicuous colored sepals, the 
petals wanting. Achenes numerous, each with a long plumose tail. 

Vines lo to 20 ft. long. 

Flowers while C. virginiana 

Flowers purple C. viorna 

Erect herbs with greenish flowers C. ochrolcuca 

I. C. virginiana, L- (Fig. 1, pi. 46.) Virgin's Bower. A long 
vine, common, clinging by its leaf stalks to shrubs, trees and fences and 
bearing a profusion of white flower clusters, which are borne on long 
llowier stalks springing from the axils of the opposite comixtund leaves. 
After the fall of the flowers the vine continues to be highly ornamental 



Plate 44 
1. Aquilegia canadensis. 2. Caltlia palustris. 3. Coptis trifolia, 4. He- 
patica triloba. 5. Actaea rubra. 6. Cimicifuga racemosa. 


by virtue of the clusters of plumed seed caskets, which become nearly 
or quite as conspicuous as the clusters of white flowers. July-Sept. 

2. C. viorna, L. Leather Flower. Flower purple, bell-shaped. 
Rare, if found at all, in our region. 

3. C. ochroleuca, Ait. (Fig. 3, pi. 46.) Erect Silky Clematis. 
Erect, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves not compound, broadly egg-shaped and 
witliout foot-stalks or with very short ones. Flower nodding, solitary, 
bell-shaped, about 1 in. long. Color, yellowish-brown. Fields and copses, 
in our region. May. 


Similar to Clematis, but differentiated by the presence of a few small 
petals. The sepals very large, forming a showy flower, 

A. americana. Sims. (Fig. 4, pi. 46.) Purple Virgin's Boweb. 
{Clematis verUcillaris, DC.) A climbing vine, 10 to 20 ft high, cling- 
ing to shrubs and trees. Leaf stems forming a whorl about the main 
stem. Leaflets on foot-stalks nearly as long as themselves. Flowers 
solitary, 2 to 4 in. broad, of 4 large purple sepals on a long flower stem. 
One or more flower stems from the same axil. Rocky hills, not common. 

3. HEPATICA, Hill 

Leaves all from the base (radical) except the three small leaf -like 
organs which are situated just below the flower and resemble a calyx 
(Fig. 4, p. 396). The true leaves, which are somewhat triangular, or 
broadly heart-shaped are three-lobed and rather thick and form a brown- 
ish or dark green mat which spreads upon the surface of the ground 
or over the dead leaves of the woods in which the plant best thrives. 
Several hairy flower-stalks usually arise from the same root, each from 
3 to 6 in. high, bearing a single blue, purple or whitish-purple flower 
just above the calyx-like involucre of three stem-leaves. The hepatica 
is one of the earliest and most attractive flowers of the spring. 

1. H. triloba. Chaix. (Fig. 4, pi. 44.) Round-leaved Hepatica. 
Liverleaf. Liverwort. With the lobes obtuse or rounded. 

2. H. acutiloba, DC. Sharp-lobei) Hepatica. Witii lobes much more 
acute than in H. triloba. In rich moist woods. April-May. 

Herbs, erect, with leaves arising by a leaf-stalk directly from the base 
and with leaves also on a separate flower stem. Flowers with 5 to 9 
petal-like sepals, white, brownish-white or reddish. Pistil column very 
short or its capital (stigma) in direct contact with the fruitlet. Pistils 
and stamens numerous. Fruit, dry one-seeded cells in a cluster. Be- 
low the flower, at some distance, is a wliorl of 3 leaves, each loaf divided 
(except in A. canadensis), into 3 separate leaflets, each of these leallets 
is deeply cut into 3 acute lobes. In .1. canadensis the leaves are deeply 
divided but not into separate parts. In all our si)ecies, except A. quinquc- 
folia, the flower stem divides at the main whorl of leaves into from 2 to 
5 flower stalks, each bearing a single bud or flower and on some of these 
secondary stalks may occur also a secondary, leaf whorl above which an- 
pther division of the stem may appear. 



Plate 45 
1. Anemone quinquefolia. 2. A. canadensis. 3, A. virginiana. 4. A. mill- 
tifida. 4a. Head of fruit of A multilida. 5. Leaf and head of fruit of Ane- 
mone cylindrica. 


The floral envelope consists of 5 or more petal-like sepals, greenish or 
yellowish white, about | in. across, on naked stalks, 3 to 10 in. long. 

Pistils not more than 20. 

Flowering stem bearing a single flower. 

Leaves 5 parted A. quinqucfolia 

Leaves 3 parted A. trifolia 

Flowering stem bearing more than one flower A. canadensis 

Pistils generally more than 20 (30 to 50). 

Flowers red A. miiltifida 

Flowers white or greenish-white. 

Head of fruit oblong A. virginiana 

Head of fruit cylindric. 

Leaves of involucre egg-shaped A. cylindrica 

Leaves of involucre lance-shaped A. riparia 

1. A. quinquefolia, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 45.) Wind Flower. (A. ncmo- 
rosa, Mich.x.). Small, delicate plant with the leaf stems about as high 
as the leaves. Flowering stem 4 to 9 in. high. Leaves divided into 5 
leaflets, the terminal one being on an independent foot-stalk, the two 
lateral ones on each side having a common foot-stalk. Borders of all 
the leaves deeply notched. The flowering stem bears a whorl of 3 leaves 
an inch or two below the solitary flower. The basal leaves appear later 
than the flower stem and leaves. Flower about 1 in. broad, white or, on 
the outside, somewh9-t purplish. In woods of our area. April-June. 

2. A. trifolia, L. Mountain Anemone. Resembles No. 1, but is 
usually larger and stouter and the lower leaves are divided into 3 leaflets 
which are broad lance-shaped. Southern Penna., and southward. May. 

3. A. canadensis, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 45.) Canada Anemone. Plant 
1 to 2 ft. high. Leaflets pale beneath, breadth of most of them greater 
two or more branches which bear each a leaf whorl about which there 
may spring one or more stems each bearing a flower. Leaves 3-parted by 
sinuses extending half way or more toward the base. Borders notched. 
Basal leaves on long foot-stalks. Pistils 12 to 20. Low grounds. Com- 
mon. May-June. 

4. A. multifida, Poir. (Fig. 4, pi. 45.) Cut-leaved Anemone. {A. 
hudsoniana, Richards.) Plant silky hairy. Flowering stem to 18 in. 
high. Leaves from the base on long foot-stalks. Foot-stalks of the 
whorl leaves short. Leaves cut into many linear segments. Flower of 5 
to 9 reddish or greenish-red sepals. In the northern part of our region; 
rare. June. 

5. A. virginiana, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 45.) Tall Anemone. Flowering 
stem 2 to 3 ft. high. Whole plant hairy. Foot-stalks of the leaves of 
the whorl nearly as long as the leaves themselves. Leaves 3-lobed, the 
divisions of the whorl leaves less deep than those of the basal ones. 
Breadth greater than length. Sepals generally 5, white or greenish- 
white. The fruit head elongated but less cylindric than the next species. 
Shady places. Common. June-Aug. 

6. A. cylindrica, A. Cray. (Fig. 5, pi. 45.) Long-leaved Anemone. 
Flowering stem 1 to 2 ft. high. Whole plant covered with silky hairs. 
Leaves more deeply divided than in the last species. Flowers similar to 
the last. Fruit head cylindric, often an inch or more long. Open places, 
common. June-Aug. 

7. A. riparia, Fernald. Resembles A. cylindrica but is less downy, 
with thinner leaves, those of the flower stem forming the involucre, lance- 



Plate 4G 
1 Clematis virginiana. 2. Anemonella thalictroides. 3. Clematis ochro- 
leu^v 4 Mrlglne' a„.erieana. 5. Head of fruit of C. virgin.ana. 6. Myo^ 
surus minimus. 


shaped. Head of fruit sub-cylindric. Maine, Conn., and southward. 

5. ANEMONELLA, Spach. (Syndesmon, Hoffmg.) 

From a cluster of tubrous roots arises a stem 6 to 10 in. high sur- 
mounted by a whorl of leaves, above which arises a loose umbel of white 
flowers on long delicate foot-stalks. Later arise the stems of the basal 
leaves which are ternately compound, the common foot-stalks 1 or 2 in, 
long dividing into three branches, each bearing a rounded obtusely lobed 

A. thalictroides, (L.) Hoffmg. (Fig. 2, pi. 46.) Eue Anemone. 
Flowering stem 4 to 9 in. high, smooth. Sepals white, about 5 or 7. 
Flowers from 2 to G in the cluster. Common in open woods. Early 


Rather tall herbs, flowering from April to June. Stems 1 to 7 ft. 
high. Leaves on the stem bearing the flowers and on one springing from 
the root and which is flowerless. Leaves of the flowering stem on a main 
leaf-stalk which divides into 3 branches, each branch again dividing into 
3 parts from each of which spring 3 leaflets, each leaflet is also to some 
extent divided into 3 parts. The tall leaf -stalk which springs from the 
root has a less regularly divided leaf-stalk. Flowers in conspicuous white 
or greenish-yellow clusters. Individually the flowers are small (Fig. 10, 
page 396). Petals are absent and the small sepals 5, rarely 4, in num- 
ber, are white with a tinge of green. Stamens and pistils may occupy 
the same flower or different flowers either on the same or different plants. 
The stamens of the staminate flowers form rather conspicuous little tas- 
sels of 20 or more stamens. The pistillate flowers are less conspicuous. 

1. T. dioicum, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 47.) Early Meadows-Rue. Smooth, 
1 to 2 ft. high, somewhat hairy. At the first whorl of leaves sending 
than the length, often heart-shaped at base, 3 or rarely 4 leaflets in a 
group, each with 3 principal lobes with secondary sinuses or notches. 
Flowers, pistillate and staminate on different plants, the latter green or 
yellowish-green, dangling from the slender foot-stalks, the group forming 
pretty green tassels. A very early flower in rocky woods. Usually 
blooms in April. 

2. T. revolutum, DC. (Fig. 3, pi. 47.) Purplish Meadow-Rue. 
{T. pui'purasccns, («ray.) Stem 4 to 7 ft. high, purple, branching above. 
Stem leaves with short or no foot-stalks. Leaflets longer than broad, 
pear-shaped or nearly triangular, tapering at base and with about 2 deep 
notches at summit or none. Some of the leaflets narrow egg-shaped. 
Flotvcrs ivith both stamens and pistils. Woods and copses, Mass., New 
Jersey, and southward. June-Aug. 

3. T. polygamum, Muhl. (Fig. 1, pi. 47.) Tall Meadow-Rue. 
Stem green, 3 to 11 ft. high. Growing in open swamps or wet places. 
Leaflets as broad as long with 3 lobes at summit, heart-shaped at base. 
Flowers with both pistils and stamens. Common. June-July. 

7. HYDRASTIS, Ellis. 

Erect herb with deeply cut, broad, kidney-shaped leaves and solitary 



Plate 47 
1 Thalictrum polygamum. 2. T. dioicum. 2a. Pistillate flowers 3. T. 
rev^l^m 4 Deljlnurum Consolida. 5. Flower of T. revolutum, enlarged. 


flower, with 3 sepals whicli fall as the flower expands. Petals none. 
Stamens numerous, carpels several, forming a rounded bunch. 

H. canadensis. L. Orange Root. Golden Seal. Basal leaf on stalk 
separate from flower-bearing stem, 5 to 9 in. broad, heart-shaped at 
base, at periphery cut by 3 to 5 deep sinuses, the various segments with 
notched borders. Flowering stem with two smaller leaves similarly cut. 
Flower greenish-white, the whole plant covered with soft hairs. Woods, 
most of our area. April. 


A small plant found in moist places, its carpels arranged about a 
spindle-shaped receptacle. Sepals 5 (sometimes none), petals yellowish. 
Pistils many; stamens 5 to 25. Leaves linear. 

M. minimus, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 46.) Mouse Tail. Plant 2 to 5 in. 
high, the elongated seed receptacle occupying nearly or quite i the 
length. Doubtful if found in our area, but has been reported in extreme 
southern part. 

B. Flowers with two envelopes, calyx and corolla 


Herbs, most of which have the leaves much divided (Figs. 7 and 8, 
page 396). Flowers solitary or in loose clusters. Sepals 5, or rarely less, 
falling off as the seeds develop. Petals 5 or more or less, sometimes 
minute, flattened, with a small pit and a scale at the base (the former 
to contain nectar). Seed carpels numerous in a rounded or elongated 
group, smooth. Stem leaves alternate, the foot-stalks broad and clasp- 
ing. Flowers all yellow, in our region. 

Aquatic, with dissected leaves R. delphinifolius 

Terrestrial (Nos. 2 and 3 in ditches and muddy places). 
Fruit in cylindric heads. 

Plant nearly or quite destitute of hairs R. sceleratus 

Plant very hairy R. pennsylvanicus 

Fruit in globose heads. 

Plants creeping 7?. rcptans and R. repots 

Plants not creeping; erect or spreading. 

Leaves grass-'ike R. laxicaulis 

Leaves undivided, egg-shaped or lance-shaped . . . . R. pusillus 
Lower leaves broadly rounded and heart-sliapcd, upper deeply 

divided R. micranthtts 

Summit of fruit armed with a hooked style R. allcgluinicnsis 

Lower leaves egg-shaped but somewhat deeply lobed, upper leaves 

divided . . j?. ahortivus 

Lower leaves elliptic R. arvensii 

Leaves divided into 3 parts by deep sinuses, the leaflets- not on 
elongated foot-stalks. 

Lobes without deep secondary sinuses . . . . R. recurz'atus 
Lobes cut by deep secondary sinuses. 

Plant usually 2 to 3 ft. high R. acris 

Plant usually 6 to 15 in. high 7?. parvtilus 

Leaves 3-divided. one or all of the divisions on elongated foot- 
stalks and these divisions 2- or 3-divided by deep sinuses. 
Sepals reflexed (I'lg. 5, pi. 396). 
The terminal leaf division only on a lengthened foot-stalk 

7?. bulbosus 

Sepals spreading. 

Each of the leaf divisions on a lengthened foot-stalk 

R. scptentrionaHs 

Leaflets with segments mostly rounded at apex 

. , R. fascicularis 

Leaflets with segments mostly acute at apex R. hispidus 



Plate 48 
1. Ranunculus acris. 2. R. septentrionalis. 3. R. reptans. 4, R. aborti- 
VU3. 5. E. sceleratus. 


Aquatic Plants 

1. R. delphinifolius, Torr. Yellow Water Crowfoot. Stem partly 
or entirely iminersod. Leaves divided into many segments, the sub- 
mersed ones mostly of thread-like segments, the floating ones somewhat 
broader and flattened, even rounded or kidney-shaped. Flowers yellow. 
In ponds throughout our area. May-July. 

Terrestrial Plants growing in marshes, ditches and wet places 

2. R. pusillus, Poir. Low Spearwort. A low slender plant, 6 to 
12 in. high. Lower leaves egg-shaped, mostly with very shallow den- 
tations, on long foot-stalks. Upper leaves narrow lance-shape on short 
or no foot-stalks. Flowers small, yellow, usually with few petals or 
with 5. In marshes, southern New York, New Jersey and south. April- 

3. R, laxicaulis, (T. and G.) Darby. (Fig. 2, pi. 50.) Water 
Plantain Spearwort. (R. obtusiusculus, Raf.). Plant ascending or 
nearly erect, smooth, 1 to 3 ft. high. Leaves grass-like, 3 to 6 in. long, 
about i to f in. wide, not toothed or with very shallow indentations; 
on broad foot-stalks which clasp the stem. Stems throwing out roots at 
joints. Flowers yellow, rather conspicuous. Marshes and ditches, our 
area. June-Aug. 

Terrestrial Plants not peculiar to wet places. Heads of fruit cylindric 

4. R. sceleratus, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 48.) Celery-leaved Crowfoot. 
Stem * to 2 ft. high, smooth, sometimes quite thick. Lower leaves on 
long foot-stalks more or less triangular, the two deep sinuses extending 
i way or more toward the base. Upper leaves without foot-stalks in 3 
long narrow divisions. Flowers numerous, yellow, petals small, calyx 
spreading. Fruit cluster elongated, oblong or cylindric. Swamps and 
wet places. Common. April-Aug. 

5. R. pennsylvanicus, L. f. (Fig. 4, pi. 49.) Bristly Buttercup. 
Stem similar to No. 4, hut bristling unth hairs. Leaves 3-divided and on 
short foot-stalks. All the segments narrow. Flowers yellow, petals rather 
small, not exceeding the length of the reflexed sepals. June-Aug. 

Beads of fruit globular. Loicer leaves broadly rounded, heart-shaped 

fi. R. abortivus, L. (Fig. 4. pi. 48.) Kidnfy-lf.avkd Crowfoot. 
A smooth plant in borders of woods and in moist places, J to 2 ft. high. 
Lower leaves rounded, undivided except by wavy undulations, heart- 
shaped at base, on long foot-stalks. ITjipcr leaves witliout or with very 
short foot-stalks, divided into 3 narrow segments, each either notched 
or acute at apex. Flowers yellow, petals shorter than the divisions of 
the calyx. Woods and moist grounds. April-June. 

7. R. alleghaniensis, Britton. Closely resembles R. abortivus, but 
stem has a whitish bloom and achenes have a recurved beak which is 
not found in R. abortivus. Situations same as R. abortivus. 

8. R. micranthus, Nutt. Rock Crowfoot. Plant similar to the 
preceding, but covered with hairs and lower leaves with sinuses extend- 



Plate 49 
1, Ranunculus bulbosus. 2. R. fascicularis. 3. Batrachium divaricatum. 
4 Ranunculus pennsylv aniens. 5. R, repens. 


ing half way to base. Rich woods, rocky places. Throughout our region. 

9. R. arvensis, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 50.) Corn Crowfoot. Plant without 
hairs or with few hairs; about 1 ft. high. Lower leaves on rather long 
foot-stalks elliptic or more rounded. Upper leaves cut into wedge- 
shaped or linear segments, these segments entire or notched at the edges. 
Leaves at middle of stem on foot-stalks, those above without foot-stalks. 
Flowers about + in. broad; segments of calyx not reflexed. Fruit covered 
with prickles. Waste places. New Jersey and southward. Summer. 

Lower leaves 3-parted nearly or quite to the base, divisions not on 
elongated foot-stalks 

10. R. recurvatus, Poir. (Fig. 4, pi. 50.) Hooked Crowfoot. Stem 
•J to 2 ft. high, hairy. Leaves broadly kidney-shaped with two deep 
sinuses extending about half way to base. Lobes indented. Flowers not 
large. Achenes icith a strong hooked beak (Fig. 3, page 396). Common. 
Mostly in woods. 

11. R. acris, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 48.) Tall, or Meadow Buttercup. 
Stem 2 to 3 ft. high, somewhat hairy. Leaves deeply cut into 3 lobes 
and these lobes again divided. LTpper leaves, segments very narrow. 
Flowers rather large. Sepals spreading. This is the very common but- 
tercup of meadows. Blooms all summer. 

12. R. parvulus, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 50.) Hairy Buttercup. Stem 
6 to 15 in. high. Whole plant hairy. Leaves 3-divided, the divisions 
more or less deeply cleft or lobed, the upper leaves linear or divided. 
Flowers about 1 in. broad; calj'x reflexed. Head of fruit oblong. Waste 
places. New Jersey and southward. All summer. 

One leaflet on each of the S divisions of the leaf with an elongated foot- 
stalk (Fig. 7, page 2Ji6). Only the terminal leaflet on a foot-stalk 

13. R. bulbosus, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 40.) Bulbous Buttercup. Stem 
erect, witii few branches, hairy, ^ to 11 ft. high. Leaves in 3 parts, the 
terminal part on a foot-stalk, the other divisions directly on the leaf 
stem. Each segment deeply indented. Flowers large, calyx reflected. 
Root bulbous. In grassy fields, mostly in eastern section of our area. 

14. R. fascicularis, ]\ruh1. (Fig. 2, pi. 40.) Early Buttercxjp. 
Tufted Butteuoup. Low, spreading. Stem and leaves hairy. Leaves 
similar to No. 13, but leaflets less deeply indented. Cali/x segments 
spreading. Flowers rather large. In shady places and fields. New 
York, New England and southward. May-June. 

Each of the three leaflets on a foot-stalk 

15. R. septentrionalis, Poir. (Fig. 2, pi. 48.) Marsh Buttercup. 
A brandling j)laiit, smooth or slightly hairy, 1 to 3 ft. high. Leaflets 
of 3 distinct leaflets, each on a long foot-stalk and each deeply cut into 
3 segments. Moist, shady places. 

16. R. hispidus, Mielix. (Fig. 1, pi. 50.) IIlspid Buttercxtp. 
Densely hairy, A to 2 ft. high, spreading. Leaflets, the terminal on a 


long foot-stalk, the lateral ones on quite short ones, each leaflet divided 
into 2 or 3 segments by sinuses reaeliing 1/3 the distance to tlie base. 
Upper leaves linear. Dry woods and thickets. Marcli-May. 

Creeping Plants 

17. R. repens, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 49.) Creeping Buttercup. Plant 
nearly smootli, spreading by runners. Leaves of 3 leaflets, the terminal 
one on a foot-stalk. 

18. R. reptans, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 48.) Creeping Speaewort. A very 
small plant, creeping by runners, rooting at the nodes. Leaves grass- 
like, in a tuft, 1 to 2 in. high. Flowers solitary from the nodes. On 
sandy shores, somewhat rare but in most of our area. May-Sept. 

10. OXYGRAPHIS, Bunge. 
Small herb resembling Ranunculus, the achene longitudinally striated 
Flowers small; leaves mostly from the root. 

0. Cymbalaria, (Pursh.) Prantl. (Fig. 3, pi. 50.) Seaside Crow- 
foot. iRa7nt7icuIus Cymhalaria, Pursh.). Low, about 2 to 6 ft. high. 
Spreading by runners. Leaves mostly directly from the root, broadly 
rounded, heart-shaped at base. Flowers small, singly or in clusters, on 
a nearly naked flower stem; fruit cluster elongated. On wet sandy 
shores. May-Aug. 

Aquatic herbs with leaves alternate and finely dissected. Flowers 
white. Achenes not ridged. Sepals and petals usually 5. 

1. B. divaricatum, (Schrank.) Wimm. (Fig. 3, pi. 49.) Stiff 
Water Crowfoot. {Ranunculus aquatilis, Gray.) Leaves all under 
water, cut into thread-like divisions which, under water are spreading 
but which collapse on being drawn from the water. Leaves mostly with- 
out foot-stalks. 

2. B. tricophyllum, (Chaix.) Bossch. White Water Crowfoot. 
{Ranunculus aquatilis, L.). Similar to No. 1, but the dissected leaves, 
at least the lower ones, have rather long foot-stalks and the leaves are 
longer than those of No. 1. 

3. B. longirostris, (Godr.) F. Schultz. Long-beaked White Water 
Crowfoot. Resembles No. 1, but the dissected leaves are on short leaf- 
stems. The fruit (achene) has at its apex a beak nearly 1/16 in. long, 
that of B. divaricatum being minute. In ponds and streams. New Eng- 
land and westward. June-Aug. 

Seeds in a follicle {Fig. 9, page 306). Bhruh 

Low shrub, with once or twice compound leaves each with about 5 leaf- 
lets. Terminal leaflet broad and deeply 3-lobed. Side leaflets nearly egg- 
shaped with lobed or nearly continuous border. Bark and long roots 
deep yellow. Flowers in long drooping clusters (racemes), pistillate and 
staminate on same stem. Petals small; color, brownish-purple. Stamens 


5 to 10. Carpels, originally follicles with more than one seed. As the 
follicle matures one seed is suppressed. 

X. apiifolia, L'Her. Shrub Yellow Root. Leaves clustered at the 
top of the stem. Stems in clusters 1 to 2 ft. high. Southern section of 
our region. April-May. 


Flowers yellow. Leaves undivided 

13. CALTHA, L. 

Herbs with large kidney-shaped or fan-shaped leaves with somewhat 
sinuate borders or with prominent teeth. Most of the leaves on foot- 
stalks from the root. Leaves of flower stems similar to the basal ones, 
the upper ones clasping the stem. Follicles numerous or few. 

L C. palustris, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 44.) Marsh Marigold. Stem stout, 
hollow, more or less furrowed. Flowers without petals but with yellow 
sepals resembling petals. Leaves rounded, heart-shaped at base, margins 
with quite low teeth. Plant found in swampy meadows. Early May. 

Var. G. ftahellifolia, Pursh. Mountain Marsh Marigold. Plant less 
stout; leaves fan-shaped with broad sinuses at base. Teeth at margin 
conspicuous. Pocono plateau, Pa., and northern New Jersey. June-July. 


Plant closely resembling Ranunculus, but usually stouter, 1 to 2 ft. 
high. Leaves divided by several sinuses extending to the stem or only 
part way to it. Flowers yellow, usually solitary with 5 sepals resembling 
petals. Carpels 5 or numerous. Stamens numerous. 

T. laxus, Salisb. American Glob' '-Flower. Slender, 1 to 2 ft. high. 
Upper leaf without a foot-stalk. Sepals yellowish or purplish, 5 to 6; 
petals minute. Follicles forming a head nearly or quite an inch in 
diameter, each follicle is tipped with a straight bristle J the length of 
the follicle. Swamps. New Hampshire and New York. May-July. 

15. COPTIS, Salisb. 

Five or six sepals. Petals none or very small. Stamens 15 to 25. Seeds 
in follicles, of which there are from 3 to 10 in a stellate group. Small 
herbs with long creeping roots from which spring clusters of root leaves 
(2 to 4) each 3 parted, in the midst of which arises the delicate naked 
flower stem bearing a single flower. 

C. trifolia, (L.) Salisb. (l*'ig. 3, pi. 44.) Colutiiread. Three nearly 
e(|ually divided kite-shaj)cd Icallets, each slightly lobed at the summit 
and notched along the outer 2/3 or 3/4 of the border. Sepals white. A 
pretty star-shaix-'d flower of early spring with shining leaves and golden 
cfjlored thread-like running roots. In woods throughout our area. May. 


Petals and sepals colored alilxc. Flower usually nodding so that the 
long tubular spurs of the petals point upward. The 5 ovate sepals form 
a 5-pointed star, l)etween the division of which the petals ascend. Petals 
5, of horn-of-plcnty form, each attached to the receptacle by the short 


lip of the opening. Pistils 5, developing 5 follicles (see Fig. 7, page 88S). 
Leaf stem divided into 3 secondary stems, each bearing a 3-parted leaf 
with deeply lobed segments. 

A. canadensis, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 44.) Wild Columbine. Plant 1 to 
2 ft. liigh, branching. Spur of the petals long, curving in at summit and 
tipi)ed by a slight rounded extremity. Petals red outside, yellow inside. 
Sepals red. One of the most interesting of our native spring flowers. 
Rocky places in woods throughout our region. May. 

The garden Columbine, with blue or purple flowers, A. vulgaris, L., is 
occasionally found in our area as an escape and to some extent nat- 


Tall plants with large radiately lobed leaves and with a tall spike of 
irregular showy dark blue flowers. Sepals 5. the upper one hooded. 
Petals 2, under cover of the hooded sepal. Pistils 3 to 5. Stamens many. 

L A. noveboracense, Gray. New York Monkshood. Plant 2 ft. 
high, flowers on a tall spike, the arched helmet conspicuously beaked. 
Leaves broad, deeply 5-parted with the segments deeply cut. Southern 
New York. 

2. A. uncinatum, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 50.) Wild Monkshood. Stem 
weak, sometimes climbing. Leaves 3 to 5 lobed, each lobe deeply cut. 
Cluster few flowered. Helmet conic, slighily beaked. W'oods, southern 
Penna., and south. July-Sept. 

Sepals 5, the upper long-spurred. Petals 4, blue, small, irregular, the 
two upper ones forming spurs which are enclosed in the long spur of the 
sepal. Carpels follicular, about 3. Showy plants with rounded deeply- 
divided leaves and tall clusters of blue flowers. 

1. D. exaltatum, Ait. Tall Larkspur. (D. itrccolatum, Jacq.). Two 
to five ft. higli. Flowers dark blue on a tall spike, not large. Pistil 1 ; 
leaves 3-parted, the segments 2 or 3 cleft. In woods. Southern section 
of our region. July-Aug. 

2. D. tricorne, Michx. Dwaef Larkspur. Plant 1 to 3 ft. high. 
Leaves deeply 3- to S-parted, each segment deeply cleft. Cluster of 
flowers loose, only 4 or 5 in. high. Pistil 1, Western Pennsylvania. 

3. D. Consolida,-L. (Fig. 4, pi. 47.) Field Larkspur. Plant 1 to 
2J ft. high. Leaves without leaf-stalks, finely dissected into linear seg- 
ments. Flotcer tcitli 3 pislUs. Southern New Jersey and Penna. Nat- 
uralized in a few places. Summer. 

4. D. Ajacis, L. Flowers more numerous than in No. 3. Pods downy, 
those of D. Consolida are without down. Naturalized in places. 


Leaf-stalks twice or thrice 3-parted. Flowers white in long slender 
wand-like clusters (racemes). Pistils 1 to 8. Stamens many, with white 
filaments. Tlie 4 or 5 small petals, falling as the flower opens, leave the 


cluster of white stamens as the conspicuous element of the flower. Fruit 
a dry pod-like follicle. 

1. C. racemosa, (L.) Nutt. (Fig. fi, pi. 44.) Black ConOvSii. 
Black Snakkkoot. A tall handsome plant in rich woods, often 5 ft. 
high or more, with very long and slender forked spikes of flowers. Pistil 
1, rarely 2 or 3. Clusters of feathery white stamens. Southern New 
England and soutliward, July. 

2. C. americana, Michx. American Bugbane. Plant generally not 
80 large as No. 1. Pistils 3 to 8, which develop into several more or less 
star-like groups of short inflated follicles. Southern Pennsylvania, Wat- 
kins, N. Y. Aug.-Sept. 

20. ACTAEA, L. 

Erect branching herhs with 3-parted leaf stalks, each division fur- 
nished with 3 to 5 leaflets. Upper leaves without leaf-stalks. Leaflets 
generally more or less 3-lobed and more or less deeply notched. Flowers 
in an ovate or oblong white cluster. Petals much shorter than the spread- 
ing cluster of numerous stamens. Plants of both species from 1 to 2 ft. 

1. A. rubra, (Ait.) Willd. (Fig. .'5, pi. 44.) Red Banebekry. 
Flower cluster egg-shaped or almost rounded. Leaflets egg-shaped, deeply 
notched at borders. Berries red when ripe. Common. May. 

2. A. alba, (L. ) Mill. White Baneberry. Flower cluster more 
elongated, oblong. Leaves also longer and narrower and more deeply 
incised. Berries white. Rich woods. Common. May. 

Family VI.— BERBERIDACEAE. Barberry Family 

Shrubs and herbs. Leaves of the shrubs in rosette-like groups, 
those of tlie herbs solitary and springing directly from the root 
or from the flowering stem. Shrubs with stipulate leaves, herbs 
without stipules. Stamens equal in number to the petals or 
double the number. Pistil 1. Fruit a berry. 


Shrub with spiny leaves and with grape-like pendant clusters of yellow 
flowers. Petals and sepals, each 6, exceptionally sepals exceed G. Below 
the flower are found 2 or 3 bract- like bodies. 

B. vulgaris, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 51.) Barberry. Shrub 6 to 8 ft. high. 
Leaves in close groups of about 3, in a rosette, not in a perfect whorl 
but condensed. Below each of the groups of leaves are 3-forked spines 
which are modified leaves. Leaves pear-shaped, sharply notched, the 
serrations each terminated by a soft bristle. Fruit, an elongated berry, 
red when ripe. Woods and thickets; naturalized. May -June. 


Herbs with thickened rootstock, the compound leaf arising from the 
flowering stem. Calyx of G sejials, below which are 3 or 4 small scale- 
like bracts. Stamens C. Seeds in berries. 



Plate 50 
1. Ranunculus hispidus. 2. R. laxicaulis. 3. Oxygraphis Cymbalaria. 4 
Ranunculus recurvatus. 5 R. parvulus. G. R. arvensis. 7. Aconitum unci- 


C. thalictroides, (L.) IMichx. (Fig. 2, pi. 51.) Blue Cohosh. Stem 
1 to 3 ft. high, with 2 or more sheathing bracts at its origin. Stem other- 
wise simple, at length giving otT a stem for the 3-tlivided compound leaf, 
each division of wliich has 5 leaflets. The flower branch has also a smaller 
compound leaf of similar composition. Flowers small, in one or two grape- 
like clusters, greenish-purple, succeeded by blue berries. Woods in our 
area, and southward. April-May. 


Smooth herbs with leaf stems directly from root and with a solitary 
flower also from a slender basal stem. Sepals 4; petals 8; stamens 8. 
Sepals falling early. Seed casket (capsule), a pear-shaped pod opening 
by a sort of lid near the top, rather less than half the circumference 
serving as hinge. Capsule many seeded. 

J. diphylla, (L-) Pers. Twin Leaf. Plant when in flower 6 to 8 in. 
high, twice that in fruit. Leaves broad (bifid), each divided by a deep 
sinus at each end. These divide the leaf into two almost completely sepa- 
rated oval parts. Flowers about an inch broad, white. Woods, New 
York, westward and southward. April-May, 


Erect herbs with poisonous rootstocks and with two or three large, 
deeply sinused leaves and from the flowering stem a solitary flower. 
Petals 6 to 9; sepals 3; stamens 12 to 18; pistil an oval-shaped ovary 
capped by a flat crown. 

P, peltatum, L. (Fig. 5, pi, 51.) May Apple, Wild Mandrake, 
Plant 12 to 20 in. high; leaves nearly a foot in diameter. The flower 
springs from between the stems of the large leaves. Flowering stems 
taller than those without flowers. Flower white, cup-shaped, about an 
inch in diameter on a stem rather longer than the diameter of the flower. 
Fruit an oval berry about as large as and resembling in shape an ordi- 
nary plum, yellow when ripe. Throughout our region. May. 

Family VII,— MENISPERMACEAE. Moonseed Family 

Our only representative a woody climbinpf vine with alternate, 
lobcd, leaves without stipules. Flowers in grape-like clusters, 
staniinato and pistillate on diU'erent jilants. Fruit a fleshy drupe 
with a stone-like seed. 


Climber 6 to 12 ft. high. Leaves 4 to 8 in. wide, heart-shaped at base 
and with several sharp-pointed lobes, or none, at the circumference. 
Sepals 4 to 8, concealing the shorter petals. Stamens 12 to 24; pistils 2 
to 4. Fruit rounded, 

M, canadense, L. (Fig. 0, pi. 51.) Canada Moonseed. Climbing 
on trees or bushes in borders of woods and along streams. Lower leaves 
broadly oval, upper somewhat lobed or scalloped. New England, west- 
ward and southward. June-July. 




Plate 51 
1. Berberis vulgaris. 2. Caulophyllum thalictroides. 3. Sassafras varii- 
folium. 4. Benzoin aestivale. 5. Podophyllum peltatum. 6 Menispermum 


Tamilv VIII. lAURACEAE. Laiikki- Family 

Trccfl rich in nrotriiilic ^IiiikIh. licavcH allpmiiic, williout 
BiipiiN'H. KIdwcrs rc^Miliir, Htiiiill, in oiir only Hpci'icH l.lic sliiini- 
Tiiili! imd piKl.iiJMl.c on (liircicnl, pliinl,-!, or al. I<asl, on fJillVicnl, 
[)arlH of IIk! Hanic plani,, ^rowiiij'; in a (Iciikc cIuhIci- surrounded 
\>y nil invoiucn! of hrat Ih. 


T,r'(ivi'M (lividrd in iil)(>ii(, .'< iim('i|iiiiI IdIh'h or cf.'^; Hlmpcil mid iitidiviflcd. 
CIIiihIcih of (l<iw«TH lit rnd of (wi>^H. I'l-riimlli of (( diviHioriH. SIii.iimiih 
!t. 'I'lii' |)iH(,ilIiilf llowiTH \\nvi' (I to 1) H(.iTil(^ HliunciiH. 

S. variifolium, (SnliMl..) Kl/.c ( Ki^'. :<, pi. r.l.) Sahhaiuah 'I'ukic. 
((V. KiiHHiijtiiH, (\,.) KimhI,.) Orowinjj in wihkIh, iiiitrc cMpccMiilly in tli« 
HMiiflii'iM liiilf of our Hccriiiii 'I'll*' Ircd ih itHiially hiiiiiII liiit may atlaiti 
(n (lie hv\y\A. of I '^f, fcrl,. April May. 

2. mCNZOIN, I'.ihrir. 

8hrul» wifli ullfrnalc jtcar-Hlinpcd h-avi-H atid yellow floworH, llio wlaitil- 
iia(4; and piHiilliilc foiiMH on tlic Hiiinc pliinl. or on dilVncnl. plaiilH. Tlicy 
urn found in (duHti-rH very HJiort or no fool, HtiilkH and are Hnrronnded 
liy an itivoliiere of Hcale like ))railH. l''lowerH appenriiiK before l.lie leaveH. 

B. acHtivalc, (('•) N<'eH. ({''i^. L id. 51.) Si-mk Uhhii. (H. Hen- 
zoin, (I-.) CoMller.) Sniootli HJirnl*, d to lid ft. Iiifd". LeaveH naiHtly 
I)ear Hliii|ied, liiit Home ej^'^^'-HJiaped. Kiowern Hinall, yidlovv, fra/^^rant. In 
niolHt woodrt, nortliern part <tf our area and wcHtward. 

Order IV.— RIIOEADALES. Order of the Poppies 

Our H[)cci('M idl licrliaccoMH planlK, IcavcH willioiH, stipules. Tlio 
parlH of 11i(! (lower are, in ^'cneral, arran^n'd spirally; calyx, 
coi-olla, and slarnens are all arran,"i'd helow IJii' ovary and ar(? 
free, llnil, is, OIK! ;^M'oup of Ihesc! or^^Mins is n(»l, aliaclied to anollior 
and llic nicnda-rs of (trie of llie /groups are not conneetetl ainonj^ 
llienisel ves. Mxceplioiis are found in a partial conereseeiiee of Ihe 
paris of llie calyv in a, few species. The ovary consists of two 
or more eai-pel; whi<h, in Ihe family I'd/Kircniccdc, are concres- 
eerd, willi phucnlal parlilions helweeii Ihe cells. In Ihe family 
('riicifcrdc Ihe ovary divides inio Iwo valves, j^cnerally elonj^fidcd, 
with II i;lron;_'; wall he! ween the valvcH. 

rianls with Hlicl<y, vvhit(( or colored juico. 

Sepals 2, falling' with IJie developmeid of Ihe (lower. Slamens 

I'()I'I'\' I'AMII-V 209 

I'liiitis wKli wiilcry jiii<'<'. 
Sepals I or inori!, (!(|iiiil. 
^'lowers nyiiitii(;l,i'ic!i.l. 

Slaiiicns C, iiii<'(|iiiil, 1 Ion-', )l sliorl, CRUCIFERAE 
Slaniciis (I lo many, ciiial . CAri'AllIDACEAE 
inowci'M iiiisyiiiiiicl.i'ical. 

Siatnciis ;! lo t.iaiiy .... RESEDACEAE 

Family I. PAPAVERACEAE. Tin; I'oi-rv I<'amii,y 

l^'lowi^i'H rc^nilar; fruil, u capHiilc coiiMiKliiij^ iiKiially dl" iwvcral 
coticn'sccnl, carix'lH hy IJicir ioiiH irilo cell;! or of 
an clniijralcil [lod. All llic H|i('('i('H have milky jnicc. heiivcH 
allcr'iiah! ov dirt'clly from llie rool,, deeply lohcd or Uncly (Wn- 
Keeled. Se|)alK 2 (in Arf/rrnona .'{), driippirij^' iin I In- llovver nx- 
pjindH. I'el.alH I l<t (1, or more. SlameiiH ^c/ierally iiiimeroiiH, 
bolow, and cneirelin^f Um; ovary. 

I. PAPAVrCK, l>. or liiiiry licrim vvilli iiliiiii(liiiil, iriilky Hn|». l,<'iiv<'H <l<'<'|ilv 'nt 
or IoIm'iI. Si'pjilH 2, fiiJiin^' iiH Uic Ijovvcr fXpiimlH. I'cdiJK A (<» (1. ( jipf^njit 
/.'loltc loririi'd wiUi a liroiiij MiiU,i'tic<l or (loiivex cup iikr covi-r-, (lu- hI ij/iiin,. 

1. P. RhocaH, ('. I'lr III oit <'oum I'oitv. [''.n-d, I 1.. :; ll. lii,r||, 
liiiiry, iowf-r IciivcH wiUi Ifiif hIii,IUh. Ii'Iowcih wiirli'L ('iipHiilc (/ioliouc?, 
Minoolli. Inl rodiiccd. 'I'liiH \h 1,Ii<! n<'lil peppy wliicli HpriiiklcH Uie oat 
and wliedt (ii-IdH of Kn{',l;itid ;iiid lln' r'nut inciil, willi luijdil, Hciir!<!t 


2. P. somnifcrum, I'. ('''i;.^. .'(, pi. r>2.) Cakdkn I'oitv. KMcnpcd 
from (^arrJcMH; I l(» .'{ fl,. hi;j;li. I^'lowcr hliiiHli wliilf. l-i-nvin (dimpinj^ 
by u lioart-Hliiiped I>uhc. Rare (!X(;i-j)l, in f.Mirdi'iiH, Iml, in :i, fi w lociilit,icrt 
ui)i)iir<'nl,ly nal iir;ili/,cd. 

•i. P. Ar^icmonc, I'. ( i'^'i^^- 2, ]>]. r»2.) IJotrori iitniiKn I'oi'i-v. A 
Hlendcr |»i;inl. occiiHionjiliy fonnd in w.ihI,!' (/;ronndH. Sl-f-m I lo '2 fl. lii^lij 
<!<»V('r<'d widi HofI, liiiirH. I>i'av<'rt ratln-r firndy ciil inl.o f<'ii,llii'r formed 
Hfj^mcnl.H, Utf lower on HJendi-r leaf M(,iiil<H, l,lie upper wiflioiil/ leaf hI,)i,I)<h. 
Flower r«Ml, UMually with a dark <;enl/er. A pliinL ofUii ween in y/n'in 
lleIdH ill Europe, only Hpari/ij^ly inlrodueed Ikih!. 


Rmool,li j)l!inf,n; milk yellow. Sepals .'{; [)el,alH (J. ]>e)iven H|>iny looUn-d ; 
flowerH Hliowy. Stamenn mimermiH. 

A, mexicana, Ti. (KiK- '. [»'• '>2) Mi',xk:an I'oci'V. SU-m I lo 2 
ft,. Iiij^li. l/';i,veK lonjj; with iniiny deep MinnwH (uid jiiickleH reMemldinj^ 
thoHC, of tli(! thiHtle. Fn waHt«; |»la(!ert. Introdnc.ed. .dine Sept. 



Herb with leaf-stalk arising directly from root and flower also on 
slender basal foot-stalk. Leaves light green, heart-shaped at base, rounded, 
with a number of shallow scallops. 

S. canadensis, L. (Fig- 4. pi. 52.) Bloodroot. Flower scape slen- 
der bearing a single wliite star-like flower. Root-stock bleeds a red 
juice when broken. Shady places, rich soil. April-May. 


Branching herbs preferring shady places, with reddish-yellow, sticky 
milk. Sepals 2; petals 4; stamens numerous. Capsule a lengthened 
silique or pod dividing to the base. 

C. majus, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 52.) Celandine. Grows usually in masses 
in shady places. Leaves, in general outline oval but deeply lobed and 
divided in feather-formed leaflets. Flowers bright yellow ^ in. across, 
in a loose umbel-like cluster surmounting the tall stalk. Seed pod an 
inch or more long. In cultivated grounds. Common. April-Sept. 


This sub-division of the family Papaveraceae is differentiated 
by the modification of the flowers, which, in none of our species 
are regular. The stamens are 4 to 6 and the single style at the 
top forms a 4-lobed stigma. Leaves alternate without stipules. 

Flowers with a spur at base of each division. 

Climbing vine Adlumia 

Erect herbs, leaves all basal Dicentra 

Flowers with only one division spurred. 

Pod one seeded Fumaria 

Pod several seeded Corydalis 

I. DICENTRA, Bernh. (Bicuculla, Adams) 

Erect herbs with finely dissected ternately compound leaves. Flower 
stem becoming taller than the leaves. Flower broadly heart-shaped with 
a spur on each side. Pods many seeded. 

1. D. Cucullaria, (L.) Bornh. (Fig. 1, pi. 53.) Dutchman's 
Breeches. Leaf and flower stems arising from somewhat angular tubers 
of reddish color, 5 to 10 in. high. Flowers as broad as long, white, the 
spurs spreading, inner petals minutely crested. An interesting plant with 
delicately colored, light green, finely divided leaves and a stem of nodding 
2 spurred flowers. In rich woods, throughout our area. April-May. 

2. D. canadensis, (Coldic.) Walp. (Fig. 3, pi. 53.) Squirrel 
Corn. Plant with much the same general appearance as No. 1. The 
spurs at base of fiower are, however, much Ipss spreading and more 
rounded; the inner petals, only slightly crested in No. 1, are in this 



Plate 52 
1. Argomone mexicana. 2. Papavcr Aroeraonc. 3. P. somniferum. 4. 
Sanguinaria canadensis. 5. Clielitlonium niajiis. 


species conspicuously crested. Color, greenish-white tinged with purple. 
In rich woods. Common. May-June. 

3. D. eximia, (Ker.) Torr. Wild Bleeding Heart. Plant much 
larger than the two preceding, and leaves much less divided. 1 to 2 ft. 
high. Corolla oblong resembling that of No. 2, but larger and of a pink 
color, arranged in clusters more or less compound. Western New York. 

2. ADLUMIA, Raf. 

A delicate vine many feet in length climbing on shrubs, trees, etc. 
Sepals 2, quite small; petals 4, united into a rather long oval sac with 
resemblance to the flowers of Dicentra, but with short rounded spurs at 
base, which is somewhat heart-shaped, while the tips of the petals are 
only slightly spreading. Leaflets mostly in 3's. Pods few seeded. 

A. fungosa, (Ait.) Greene. (Fig. 4, pi. 53.) Mountain Fringe. 
The vine bears many clusters of pale pink flowers. Many of the leaf 
stalks are prolonged into winding tendrils. Native in rocky hills. Often 
cultivated. June-Aug. 

3. CORYDALIS, Vent. (Capnoides, Adams) 

Corolla spurred on one side only. Plants, in our region, erect with 
compound leaves found on the flower stem. Flowers in terminal clusters 
or in clusters springing from the stem opposite the nodes of the leaf 
stalks. Petals 4. Stamens 6. Seed pod linear. 

1. C. sempervirens, (L.) Pers. (Fig. 5, pi. 53. Pink Corydalis. 
(C glauca, Pursh.). Flowers with delicately alternating sliades of red 
and yellow. Stem light green, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves of about 5 leaflets, 
each leaflet with 3 deep and 3 or more shallow sinuses. Rocky places. 

2. C. aurea, Willd. (Fig. 6, pi. 53.) Golden Corydalis. Very 
smooth, light bluish-green, 6 to 15 in. high. Leaves 3-compound. Flowers 
with one conspicuously long spur, bright golden-yellow. Woods. April- 

3. C. flavula, (Raf.) DC. Pale Corydalis. Stem slender, smooth, 
pale green. 6 to 14 in. high. Leaves finely dissected. Flower yellow, with 
a short sjmr 


Much branched herbs, with finely dissected leaves and many small 
flowers in long slender clusters. Calyx of 2 sepals, small scale-like. Petals 
4, both pairs approaching, the inner pair coherent at ape.x, one of the 
outer pair spurred. Stamens <5, in 2 groups. 

F. officinalis, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 53.) Fumitory. Stem smooth, very 
leafy, 6 in. to 3 ft. long. Corolla flesh colored or crimson. Waste places, 
only occasionally; about dwellings. Introduced from Europe. 

Family II.— CRUCIFERAE. Mustard Family 
A large family of herbs with, generally, quite distinctive char- 
acters. While this is true it is not always easy for the amateur 
to distinguish the individual species. 



Plate 53 
1. Dicentra cucullaria. 2. Funiaiia officinalis. 3. Dicentra canadensis, 4. 
Adlumia fungosa. 5. Corydalis sempervirens. G. C. aurea. 


The corollas are all regular. All have 4 petals, equal and simi- 
lar, forming a cruciform flower. The sepals are also 4, and equal. 
The stamens are 6 in number and, unlike the corolla, are unequal, 
4 being longer tlian the remaining 2 ; in some species some of the 
stamens are suppressed. Pistil 1, of 8 united carpels. The fruit 
is almost always in a linear pod, a turn, or in short more or less 
triangular, orbicular or oblong pod, a turn. 

First Group 

Fruit pod pear-shaped, triangular or oblong, distinctly flattened con- 
trary to the partition. Flowers white. 
Fruit-pod longer tlian broad. 

Pod oval with a notch or with a slender stjle at the apex, or 

with both Lepidium 

Pod pear-shaped or triangular; leaves clasping the stem by 
broad ear-like appendages. 

Leaves feather-formed (pinnate), with deep sinuses Capsella 

Leaves not feather-formed, sinuses shallow or none Thlaspi 

Pod broader than long Coronopus 

Second Group 

Fruit oval or globular, not flattened or only slightly so. 
Flowers white or purple. 

Fleshy plant growing in sand at sea side Cakile 

Aquatic plant with awl-shaped leaves, all basal . . Subularia 
Plants not fleshy and leaves not awl-shaped nor all basal. 
Leaves mostly in a whorl about the base, plants gen- 
erally less than a foot high Draba 

Leaves not mostly in whorl at base, plants 1 ft. high or 

more Berteroa 

Flowers yellow. 

Leaves clasping stem by a broad base. 

Pods marked by distinct reticulations .... Neslia 

Pods not reticulated Camelina 

Leaves not clasping stem by a broad base. 

Leaves small, spatula-formed, pod without a conspicu- 
ous style Alyssum 

Leaves pinnate (2 species) Roripa 

Third Group 

Fruit in linear pods (.s?7ir/«r.<t, see page 3S, Part T), gonerallj^ in 
length more than 4 times the diameter of the flower. Exception, No. 
18, about twice the lengtli of the diameter of the flower. 
Flowers yellow. 

Pods not jointed nor markedly constricted between Ihe seeds. 
Leaves, at least the lower ones, featbcr-fonned. 


Pods not hairy. 

Pods 4-angled Barbarea 

Pods rounded, not 4-angled, term- 
inated by a long beak Brassica 

Pods hairy Sinaois 


Page 274, lines 6 and 7, should read: 

The fruit is almost always a linear pod, a silique, or a short, 
more or less triangular, orbicular or oblong pod, a silicle. 

Leaves broad, cordate or kidney-formed . . . AUiaria 
Leaves feather-form (pinnate), lobed or ovate Cardamine 
Leaves mostly in a whorl or rosette about the base, hairs when 
present not forked. 

Seed pods quite short but generally with several seeds Draba 

Seed pods linear, hairs simple Arabis 

Seed pods linear, hairs forked 

Petals white ....... Stenophragma 

Flowers purple Hesperis 

The arrangement of these groups is based upon a few of the more 
general characteristics and does not follow the more technical grouping. 


Fruit-pod pear-shaped, triangular or obJonrj, distinctly flattened contrary 

to the partition. 

Flowers white 

Erect or diffused plants with pear-shaped, feather-formed or deeply 
lobed leaves. Pods rounded or pear-sliaped, flattened, with two seeds, one 
in each valve of the pod or witli only one seed. Stamens sometimes less 
than 6. Flowers small or petals sometimes wanting. 

Stem leaves arrow-formed, clasping with ear-like appendages. 

Pods with a somewhat conspicuous slender style L. Draba 

Pods without the style /,. camfestre 

Stem leaves, pear-shaped, on long leaf stalks L. virginicunt 

Pods distinctly pear-shaped L. sativum 

Pods oval or orbicular. 

With wings L. apefalum 

Without wings L. rudcrale 

Stem leaves tedther-formed (pinnatifid). 


The corollas are all regular. All have 4 petals, equal and simi- 
lar, forming a cruciform flower. The sepals are also 4, and equal. 
Tlie stamens are 6 in number and, unlike the corolla, are unequal, 
' 1 --•__ 1 — „^^ f)ion tlip rfimaining; 2; in some species some of the 

L.eaves leamci-.v/. ...^^ ^r 

Leaves not feather-formed, sinuses shallow or none Thlaspi 
Pod broader than long Coronopus 

Second Group 

Fruit oval or globular, not flattened or only slightly so. 
Flowers white or fturple. 

Fleshy plant growing in sand at sea side Cakile 

Aquatic plant with awl-shaped leaves, all basal . . Subularia 
Plants not fleshy and leaves not awl-shaped nor all basal. 
Leaves mostly in a whorl about the base, plants gen- 
erally less than a foot high Draba 

Leaves not mostly in whorl at base, plants 1 ft. high or 

more Berteroa 

Flowers yellow. 

Leaves clasping stem by a broad base. 

Pods marked by distinct reticulations .... Neslia 

Pods not reticulated Camelina 

Leaves not clasping stem by a broad base. 

Leaves small, spatula-formed, pod without a conspicu- 
ous style Alyssum 

Leaves pinnate (2 species) Roripa 

Third Group 

Fruit in linear pods {ftilifiiir.t, see page 38, Part T), generallj'^ in 
length more than 4 times the diameter of the flower. Exception, No. 
18, about twice the length of the diameter of the flower. 
Flowers yellow. 

Pods not jointed nor markedly constricted between the seeds. 
Leaves, at least the lower ones, feather-formed. 


Pods not hairy. 

Pods 4-angled Barbarea 

Pods rounded, not 4-angled, term- 
inated by a long beak . Brassica 

Pods hairy Sinapis 

Leaves lance-shaped, not lobed ... Erysimum 

Flowers, yellow white or purple. 

Seeds in single row in each valve. 

Pods not constricted between the seeds . Sisymbrium 

Pods constricted between the seeds .... Raphanus 
Seeds in two rows in each valve. 

Pods generally an in. or more long . Diplotaxis 

Pods less than 1 in. long Roripa 

Florvers white or purple. 

Leaves mostly on the stem, not in a whorl at base. Sisymbrium 
Leaves in a whorl on the stem. 

Leaves divided in 3 to 7 radiating divisions or leaflets 


Leaves broad, cordate or kidney-formed . AUiaria 

Leaves feather-form (pinnate), lobed or ovate Cardamine 
Leaves mostly in a whorl or rosette about the base, hairs when 
present not forked. 

Seed pods quite short but generally with several seeds Draba 

Seed pods linear, hairs simple Arabis 

Seed pods linear, hairs forked 

Petals white Stenophragma 

Flowers purple Hesperis 

The arrangement of these groups is based upon a few of the more 
general characteristics and does not follow the more technical grouping. 


Fruit-pod pear-shaped, triangular or ohlong, distinctly flattened contrary 

to the partition. 

Flowers white 


Erect or diffused plants with pear-shaped, feather-formed or deeply 
lobed leaves. Pods rounded or pear-shaped, flattened, with two seeds, one 
in each valve of the pod or with only one seed. Stamens sometimes less 
than 6. Flowers small or petals sometimes wanting. 

Stem leaves arrow-formed, clasping with ear-like appendages. 

Pods with a somewhat conspicuous slender style L. Draha 

Pods without the style /,. campcstre 

Stem leaves, pear-shaped, on long leaf stalks L. virginicum 

Pods distinctly pear-shaped L. sativum 

Pods oval or orbicular. 

With wings L. apetalum 

Without wings L. ruderale 

Stem leaves teAther-formed (pinnatifid). 


1. L. Draba, L. Hoary Cress. Plant 10 to 12 in. high, hairy, stem 
leaves arrow-formed, basal leaves elliptic. Seed pods oval or rounded, 
flat, without wing-like appendages but with a distinct style at summit. 
Fields, waste places; rare. Naturalized, May-July. 

2. L. campestre, (L.) R. Br. Field or Crow Cress. Stem leaves 
similar to No. 1, basal rosette of pear-shaped leaves, rounded at apex. 
Pod without a style, but thin wing-like appendage at sides and especially 
at summit. Flowers and fruit pod crowded on fruit bearing stem. A 
weed in cultivated ground, naturalized. April-June. 

3. L. virginicum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 54.) Wild Peppergrass. Stem 
leaves elliptic, deeply notched, basal rosette of pear-shaped leaves, rounded 
at apex, notched at borders, the leaf stalk feather-formed. Seed pod 
nearly round with a notch at the summit and a narrow wing-like ap- 
pendage on either side of it. A weed in cultivated fields and in waste 
places. May-Nov. 

4. L. sativum, L. Garden or Golden Peppergrass. Stem about a 
foot high, smooth, bright green. Leaves, at least the lower, feather- 
formed, 3-parted, each division feather-formed. Upper leaves more or 
less linear with deep sinuses cutting into narrow lobes. Seed pod with 
narrow wing-like border. Waste places. Naturalized. May-Aug. 

5. L, apetalum, Willd. Apetalous Peppergrass. Basal rosette of 
feather-#ormed leaves, upper nearly linear, more or less distantly notched. 
Flowers small, petals quite small or wanting. Pods round, notched at 
top with narrow wing-like border above. Naturalized. May-Aug. 

6. L. ruderale, L. Nareow-leaved Peppergrass. Similar to last, 
but seed pod has no wing-like margin. 

2. CAPSELLA, Med. Pfl. Gatt. (Bursa, Weber) 

Stems spreading, one or more erect. Leaves mostly in a basal rosette, 
those of the upper part of stem narrow, clasping, more or less arrow- 
shaped. Those of the rosette lyrate, feather-formed, somewhat hairy. 
Pod triangular or pear-shaped, several seeds in each cell. 

C. Bursa-Pastoris, Med. Pfl. Gatt. (Fig. 6, pi. 54.) Shepherd's 
Purse. Very common in waste places. 


Plant i to 11 ft. high. Lower leaves with leaf stalks, pear-shaped, 
upper stem leaves arrow-shaped without leaf-stalks, toothed or distantly 
dentate. Pod round or pear-shaped. 

T. arvense, L. Field Penny Cress. Pods nearly round, with a rather 
deep sinus at apex and with a broad margin of wing-like expansion. 
Flowers and pods crowded on a long slender stem. In waste places. June- 

4. CORONOPUS, Gaertn. 

Diffuse, 3 to 15 in. high. Leaves crowded, feather-formed. Flowers 
in crowded clusters quite small. Stamens 2 to 4. Pods with the lateral 
diameter greater than tlie longitudinal. Valves of the pod rough, de- 
pressed at apex. 



Plate 54 
1 Lepidium virginicum. 2. Barbarea vulgaris. 3. Sisymbrium officinale 
4. Brassica nigra. 5. Cakile cdentula. G. Capsella Bursa-Pastoris. 7. Lrys- 
inum cheiranthoides. 8. Roripa hispida. 


1. C. didymus, (L.) J. E. Smith. Lesser Water Cress. Tufted, 
spreading on the ground, slightly hairy. Flowers quite small. Nat- 
uralized; in waste places. 

2. C. procumbens, Gilbert. Swine's Cress. (C. coronopus, \h.) 
Karst. ) Similar to No. 1. Pod with an elevated point at apex. Nat- 
uralized; in waste places. 

second group 

Fruit oval or globular, not flattened or only sliglitly so 

Flowers white or purple 

5. CAKILE, Geertn. 

Diffuse, smooth, fleshy, witli purple or whitish-purple flowers. Pods 
two jointed, the upper joint larger. 

C. edentula, (Bigel.) Hook. (Fig. 5, pi. 54.) American Sea 
Rocket. Very flesliy and brandling. Leaves long and narrow, rounded 
at apex, border sinuous or notched. Pod of two joints, each with a single 
seed. Sands at the sea shore. 


Small aquatic plant. Leaves all basal and awl-shaped. Stem few 
flowered. Pods oval or globose, seeds several. 

S. aquatica, L. Water Awlwort. Plants growing in tufts in shallow 
water. Maine, New Hampshire, and northward. 


Herbs 1 to 2 ft. high, with forked hairs. Leaves narrow, not notched 
or toothed. Flowers in long terminal clusters. Petals deeply 2-cleft. 
Pod nearly globose or oval with a short style at apex, 

B, incana, (L.) DC. (Fig. 1, pi. 55.) Hoary Alyssum. Pods very 
numerous on short stiff spreading pedicels. In waste places. Introduced. 

Flowers yellow 

8. NESLIA, Desv. 

Erect or branching, velvety, hairs stellate. Leaves of the rosette ob- 
long, on long foot-stalks. Seed pod without wings. 

N. paniculata, (L. ) Desv. (Fig. G, pi. 55.) Nesi.ia. Plant 1 to 
2 ft. high; stem leaves lance-sliaped with broad arrow-shaped bases and 
no leaf stalk. Flowers small, yellow. Pods round, distinctly reticulated. 
Waste places, inlruduced. 

9. CAMELINA, Crantz. 

I^rcct herb with soft hairs, simple or branched. Lower leaves with 
leaf stalks, up|)er without. Those of the rosette lance-elliptic, those 
of the stem lanee-shaped, clasjiing the stem. Flowers small. Pod globose 
with a jirominent style at apex. 

C. sativa, (L.) Crantz. (ioi.i) of Pmcasurk. False Flax. In fields, 
especially in those in which flax has been grown. Introduced from 
Europe. June-July. 


lo. ALYSSUM, L. 

Stems branching, low, hairy, with small flowers. Pod orbicular, with 
a small style at apex. 

A. alyssoides, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 55.) Yellow or Small Alyssum. 
{A. cali/citium, L.) . Leaves, mostly on the flowering stems, small pear- 
shaped, without teeth or notches. In waste places and fields. Naturalized. 


Fruit in linear pods, gcna-ally in length more than four times the 
diameter of the flower. 
Flowers yellow 
Seeds in a single row in each valve of the pod. 

Erect branching herbs with angular stems and with leaves with entire 
margins or with margins deeply lobed, forming distinct segments, or 
feather-formed. Flowers somewhat conspicuous, petals twice as long as 
the sepals. Pod long, linear, 4-angled. 

Pod acutely 4-angled B. praecox 

Pods bluntly 4-angled. 

Diverging strongly from stem B. vulgaris 

Standing almost parallel with the stem B. stricta 

1. B. vulgaris, R- Br. (Fig. 2, pi. 54.) Yellow Rocket or Cress. 
(B. Barbarca, Mac M.). Stem 1 to 2 ft. high. Tufted at base. Lower 
leaves so deeply lobed as to divide them into about 5 distinct leaflets, 
the terminal one much larger than the others, ovate with rounded ex- 
tremity and cordate base, the lateral leaflets also ovate and rounded at 
apex. Upper leaves smooth margined or notched. Lower leaves on slen- 
der foot-stalks, upper without foot-stalks. Seed pods diverging from the 
stem. Naturalized. Common, in fields and waste places. April-July. 

2. B. stricta, Andrz. Erect-fruited Winter Cress. Similar to No. 
1, but the seed pods follow closely the direction of the stem. Naturalized. 
In fields and waste places. April-July. 

3. B. praecox, (J. E. Smith.) R. Br. Early Winter Cress. Belle 
Isle Cress. The segments of lower leaves generally more numerous than 
in No. I -or 2, and less rounded. Pods very long and sharply angled. 
Naturalized. Situations similar to the above. 


Herbs mostly with basal leaves deeply cut by sinuses (feather-formed)', 
upper leaves toothed or entire. Pods nearly round, terminated by a long 
beak. Seeds in a single row in each valve. 

Upper leaves clasping the stem B. campestris 

Upper leaves not clasping. 

Pods nearly parallel with stem B. nigra 

Pods spreading. 

Slender, with very Jong beak B. juncea 

Rather thick, beak not very long B. arvensis 

1. B. nigra, (L.) Koch. (Fig. 4, pi. 54.) Black Mustard. Plant 
somewhat hairy, 2 to 7 ft. high. Upper leaves lance-formed, margins 


entire or dentate. Lower leaves on long leaf-stalks, pear-shaped in general 
outline, but deeply cut by sinuses into more or less feather-form Apex 
broadly rounded. Flowers ratlier large, pods cylindric with 4 angles, 
nearly parallel with the stem. Common in waste places. 

2. B. juncea, (L.) Cosson. Indian Mustaed. Plant smooth or 
slightly hairy, 1 to 4 ft. high. Upper leaves without leaf-stalks, borders 
mostly entire. Lower leaves on long foot-stalks, broad and cut by sinuses, 
but less deeply, as a rule, than those in No. 1. Flowers similar to No. 1. 
Seed pods slender, the beak being nearly or quite 1/3 as long as the re- 
mainder of the pod. Pods more or less spreading. Naturalized, Common 
in waste places and fields. June-Nov. 

3. B. arvensis, (L.) ESP. Wild Mustard. Similar to last but 
leaves egg-shaped and much less deeply cut by sinuses. Pods ratlier 
thick, somewhat constricted between the seeds. Naturalized. Common. 

4. B. campestris, L. Turnip. The ruta-baga or turnip of the gar- 
dens is occasionally found wild and sometimes persists in grounds in 
which it has been cultivated. 

13. SINAPIS, L. 
Plant erect, branching, hairy. Lower leaves on long stalks, in general 
outline pear-shaped, but deeply cut by sinuses, the terminal lobe broad, 
rounded, toothed, the lateral lobes toothed. Upper leaves without leaf 
stems but cut and toothed. Pods long, constricted between the seeds, 
densely hairy. 

5. alba, L. White Mustard. Plant 1 to 2 ft. high, covered with 
hairs which turn backward. Naturalized. In waste places. 

Erect herb with narrow lance-shaped leaves, with entire or slightly 
dentate margins. Pods 4-angled, seeds in one row in each valve of the 

E. cheiranthoides, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 54.) Wormseed. Treacle-mus- 
tard. Plant i to 2 ft. high, branching. Leaves lance-formed, narrow, 
tapering at base, somewhat blunt at apex. Naturalized. In moist places. 

Flowers yellow, white or purple 

Seeds in a single roio in each valve of the pod. 


Tall erect herbs, sparingly branciied, with feather-formed leaves. 
Flowers yellow except in /S'. humile, in which they are white or pink. 
Pod rather long (in No. 2, very long) and slender. 

1. S. officinale, (L.) Scop. (Fig. 3, pi. 54.) Hedge Mustard. 
Rather tall and stilT, branching below, not much branched above. The 
long pods hug the stem, lying in almost their whole length against it. 
Loaves rather long, in general form more or less triangular or arrow- 
lioad-sliapcd, the lobes toward the inner end extending widely. Flowers 



Plate 55 
1. Berteroa incana. 2. Alyssum alyssoides. 3. Roripa palustris. 4. Car- 
damine pennsj^lvanica. 5. C. bulbosa. 6. Neslia paniculata. 7. Diplotaxis 
tenuifolia. 8. Arabis lyrata. 9. A. hirsuta. 


2. S. Sophia, L. Flixweed. Herb Sophia. (Sophia Sophia, Brit- 
ton.) Herb 1 to 2^ ft. high, hairy, with forked hairs. Stems slender, 
branching. Leaves doubly feather-formed. Flowers small. Pods 1 to 
2 in. long on slender foot-stalks. Naturalized. Waste places. June- 

3. S. altissimum, L. Tall Sisymbrium. Stem 2 to 4 ft. high, slen- 
der, branching, not hairy or with few hairs. Leaves feather-formed. 
Flowers small. Pods 2 to 4 in. long, very slender, spreading. Waste 
places. Naturalized. 

4. S. humile, Meyer. Low or Northern Rock Cress. Stem 4 to 
10 in. high. Rosette of leaves lance-shaped with sinuses or dentate edges. 
Stem leaves linear. Pod slender. Flowers white or pink. Rocky places; 
mountains of Vermont, rare. July. 

Erect, branching. Leaves somewhat hairy, long, cut by deep sinuses. 
Fruit pods not hairy, constricted between the pods, with a long style. 

1. R. Raphanistrum, L. Wild Radish. Plant 1 to 2} ft. high, 
somewhat hairy. Leaves lyre-shaped, rough ; pod tapering at apex to a 
long style, necklace shaped from the constrictions between the ceeds. 
Naturalized. Fields. 

2. R. sativus, L. Garden Radish. The garden radish with pale pur- 
ple petal is sometimes found persistent in old fields. 

Plants smooth or nearly so. Leaves long, in general form lance-shaped 
but cut by sinuses into feather-form. Pod long, somewhat flattened, beak 
short or absent. 

1. D. tenuifolia, (L.) DC. (Fig. 7, pi. 55.) Wall Rocket. A 
bushy plant 1 to 4 ft. high, with leaves cut almost to the mid-vein by 
the numerous deep sinuses. Tlie lower leaves 3 to 6 in. long, the lobes 
generally narrow and the sinuses broad. Fruit pods long and slender on 
slender footstalks about 1/3 the length of the pod. Stems leafy up to 
the loose cluster of flowers. Introduced. Waste places. Summer. 

2. D. muralis, (L.) DC. Sand Rocket. Plant resembling No. 1. 
The leaves of No. 1 are in general outline egg-shaped or long lance- 
shaped, broadest near the center or at the anterior third. The leaves 
of this species are long and narrow the broadest part being near the 
apex. The sinuses are much more shallow than those of No. 1, the lobes 
being reduced almost to coarse teeth. Tlie stem above is nearly or quite 

18. RORIPA, Scop. 
Very leafy, branching herbs with lobed or dissected leaves. Flowers 
white in two of our species, yellow in all the others. Fruit pods short 
in most of the species, sometimes elongated in a few. Seeds in two rows 
in each valve of the pod. 

Flowers white 
Aquatic plants. 

Leaves mostly trifoliate R, Nasturliuin 

Leaves dissected int(j ihrcad-likc divisions R. anirriniiia 

Plants not strictly aijualic A', annoracia 


Flowers yellow 

Pods elongated. 

Slender, not constricted between seeds 5. syh'estris 

About as long as the pedicel and constricted between seeds . R- palustris 

Pods globose or ovoid R. Iiispida 

3. R. armoracia, (L.) Rusby. Rusby's Water Cress. Branch- 
in}]; plant, lloatinfi; or spreadinf:; and rootinf^ at branches in brooks and 
ditches. Leaves generally of 3 leaflets, but these may be in greater 
number, from 5 to 0. Terminal leaflet largest. Brooks and streams. 
Naturalized. April-Nov. 

2. R. americana, (Gray) Britton. Aquatic, upper leaves oblong, 
not. divided, immersed leaves pinnately divided and finely dissected. 
Pods ovoid. 

1. R. Nasturtium, (L.) Hitchcock. (Fig. 8, pi. 56.) Horse Radish. 
Basal leaves feather-formed, oblong, very large, those of stem lance-form. 
Roots long and large. Escaped from gardens. Moist grounds, along 
streams, etc. 

4. R. sylvestris, (L.) Boss. Creeping Yellow Water Cress. 
Stems smooth, angular, from creeping root-stocks. Leaves variable, 3 to 
5 in. long and deeply divided pinnately, the sinuses extending to mid- 
vein. Flowers yellow, pod ^ in. long or less. Moist grounds. Nat- 

5. R. palustris, (L.) Bess. (Fig. 3, pi. 55.) Marsh Water Cress. 
Hairy plant 1 to 2 ft. high, with leaves deeply cut pinnately, the sinuses 
less completely dividing into leaflets than No. 4. Terminal leaflet larger, 
sometimes 6 in. long. Flowers 1/8 in. in diameter, yellow. Pods linear- 
oblong, turgid, 2 to 6 times as long as thick. Wet places. Naturalized. 

6. R. hispida, (Deev.) Britton. (Fig. 8, pi. 54.) Hispid Yellow 
Cress. Resembling No. 5, but generally stouter, 1 to 4 ft. high. All 
parts covered with spreading hairs, pods ovoid or round. Naturalized. 
Waste places. May-June. 

Flowers white or purple 


Herbs with 3- or 5-divided leaves; slender and rather long and flat seed 
pod. Seeds in a single row in each valve, the seed stalks alternating on 
opposite sides of the valves. Stems naked below, bearing above 2- or 
3-parted or rarely 5-part('d leaves and a cluster of whito or purple 
flowers. Rootstocks rather fleshy and knotted, mostly horizontal. 

1. D. laciniata, Muhl. (Fig. 3, pi. 56.) Cut-leaved Toothwort. 
Pepper Root. Plant 8 to 15 in. high, root-stock markedly jointed. Stem 
branching into 3 leaf-stalks and the flower stem. Leaflets each carrying 
a leaf 2 to 5 in. broad, divided into 3 leaflets, these sometimes rather 
deeply divided; teeth coarse. Other leaves start on long leaf-stalks di- 
rectly from the root. Flowers numerous, white or rose color. Woods. 

2. D. diphylla, Michx. (Fig. 4, pi. 56.) Two-leaved Toothwort. 
Plant about as high as No. 1 ; stem bearing two leaf-stalks, each 3-parted, 


and a flower stalk, the leaflets broad-ovate, with coarse teeth. Root 
leaves Avith the single 3-part division. Flowers white. Woods and 
meadows. May. 

3. D. maxima, Nutt. Large Toothwort. Similar to No. 2, but 
larger. Leaves generally. 3 but there may be but 2, or there may be as 
manj^ as 7, each with 3 leaflets, the leaflets distinctly stalked. Flowers 

4. D. incisifolia, Fames. Cut-leaved Toothwort. Stem leaves 2, 
usually opposite. The 3 leaf divisions are iinthout stalks. In other 
respects the plant resembles No. 3. Sherman, Conn. 

5. D. heterophylla, Nutt. Slender Toothwort. Plant 10 to 14 in. 
high, stem slender and stem leaves, of which there are 2, of 3 quite 
narrow lance-shaped leaflets, remotely notched. The leaf from the root 
has a long slender leaf-stalk and the leaflets are broad-ovate. Woods 
in the southern part of our region. April-May. 

20. ALLIARIA, Adams 

Branching herb with broad heart-shaped or rounded leaves with the 
margins cut by deep and broad notches; flowers in a long cluster; seed 
pods cylindric or nearly so. 

A. officinalis, Andrz. Hedge Garlic. {A. AlUaria, (L.) Britton.) 
Erect branching plant 1 to 3 ft. high. Smooth or with few soft hairs; 
leaves broad, 2 to 7 in. wide, with conspicuous notches in the margin. 
Flowers white. May-June. 

Herbs, usually smooth, stems mostly unbranched. Leaves compound 
(pinnate) or simple. Flowers white or purpli.sli-white, the petals each 
with a claw at the throat. Pods long and slender, flattened, with the 
seeds in a single row in each valve. 

Leaves pinnately compound (feather-iormed). 

Leaflets of lower leaves generally as broad as long. 
Plant not hairy. 

Flowers from ^ to J in. broad C. pratensis 

Flowers i/6 to 1/4 in. broad C. pcnmylvanica 

Plant hairy C. hirsuta 

Leaflets of lower leaves generally narrow. 

Leaflets usually more than 3 pairs in addition to the terminal one 

C. arenicola 

Leaflets nsnallv not exceeding .1 pairs but more than one. 

Seed pods nearly parallel with stem . . . . C. parviflora 

Seed pods decidedly sjireading C. Hcxuosa 

Leaves not compound, but often conspicuously lobed. 

Plants tufted, 2 to 5 in. high C. bcllidifolia 

Plants usually 6 to 15 in. high. 

Plants weak, rooting at the joints C. rotundifoha 

Plants erect. 

Flowers purple C. purpurea 

Flowers white C. bulbosa 

1. C. pratensis, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 56.) Meadow Bitter Cress. All 
the leaves pinnately compound (feather-formed), the lower ones on a 
somewhat long leaf-stalk, the leaflets orbicuhir or broadly angular. The 
upper leaves on shorter foot-stalks, the leaflets narrow, in about half 
a dozen pairs. Flowers in a terminal cluster, white or purple, 1/2 to 3/4 
in. broad. Wet meadows and swamps. April-May. 



Plate 56 
1. Cardamine pratensis. 2. C. purpurea. 3. Dentaria laciniata. 4. D. 
dipiiylla. 5. Draba caroliniana. 6. D. incana. 7. D verna. 8. Roripa armo- 


2. C. hirsuta, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 57.) Hairy Bitter Cress. Whole 
plant liairy. Leaves nearly all basal, feather-formed, with usually about 
5 leaflets, the terminal one orbicular or nearly so, the other more or less 
oval or oblong. Stem leaves few, their segments linear. Flowers white, 
pods erect, linear. Moist places, Penna., south and west. March-May. 

3. C. pennsylvanica, Muhl. (Fig. 4, pi. 55.) Pennsylvania Bitter 
Cress. Stem '8 in. to 3 ft. high, leafy up to the clusters of flowers; 
leaflets of lower leaves rounded, of upper narrow; terminal leaflet pear- 
shaped with conspicuous notch on each side. Leaflets of all leaves from 
4 to 8 pairs. Flowers small, white. Swamps and wet places. April-. 

4. C. arenicola, Britton. Sand Bitter Cress. Stem usually much 
branched, i to 1 ft. high. Leaves compound of 4 or more pairs of linear 
leaflets, the terminal one long and narrow. Flowers white, about 1/6 in. 
across. Wet sandy soil. March-April. 

5. C. parviflora, L. Small-flowered Bitter Cress. Somewhat simi- 
lar to No. 3, but leaflets less numerous, the stem less branching and 
flowers smaller. Stem very slender. Dry rocky places. April-Maj'. 

6. C. flexuosa, With. Wood Bitter Cress. Stem 6 to 15 in. high, 
rather stout; lateral leaflets narrow but broadest toward apex, about 
3 pairs, the terminal one pear-shaped or orbicular. Wet woods and 
along streams. May-Aug. 

7. C. bellidifolia, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 57.) Alpine Cress. A dwarf 
species on the White Mountains and other elevations. Leaves ovate, the 
lower on long, the upper on short foot-stalks. Flowers few, white. July. 

8. C. purpurea, (Torr.) Britton. (Fig. 2, pi. 56.) Purple Cress. 
Stem not branched, 6 to 15 in. high. Basal leaves orbicular, heart- 
shaped, on long slender foot-stalks; upper, broad, with coarse toothed 
borders and without foot-stalks. Flowers purple. Cold wet places. April- 

9. C. bulbosa, (Schreb.) BSP. (Fig. 5, pi. 55.) Bulbous Cress. 
Stems not brajiohing, A to II ft. high. Lower leaves orbicular heart- 
shaped on long slender foot-stalks. Upper, broad and dentate without 
loaf-stalks. Flowers white. Wet places. April-June. 

10. C. rotundifolia, Michx. Round-leaved Water Cress. Stem weak, 
often rooting at the joints and sending out runners. Leaves rounded, 
somewhat angled; sometimes heart-shaped. Flowers white. In cold 
springs in the southern part of our area. 

22. DRABA, L. 
Small herbs growing mostly in tufts; leaves and stems hairy with 
forked hairs; stems generally with few or no leaves, the leaves, which 
may be toothed or not, arranged in a rosette at the base. Flowers in 
elongated or rounded chisters, small, and in our species, white. Pods 
oval, or linear, flat, oblong, pointed at the apex, few to many seeded. 
Seeds arranged in two rows in each valve. 

Prt.nls 2-r1oft ^- I'^rna 

Petals not notched or cleft. 

Lc.ives elliptic, niarpin without teeth or notches . . D. caroltmana 

Leaves oblong, margins with teeth D. incana 


1. D. verna, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 56.) Vernal Whitlow Grass. A low 
spreading plant, 1 to 5 in. high, with stems naked from the rosette to 
the flowers or fruit. Leaves of the basal rosette elliptic, numerous, 
hairy. Flowers small on foot-stalks J to 1 in. long. Fruit an oval or 
oblong pod. Common in sandy places. Feb.-May. 

2. D. caroliniana, Walt. (Fig. 5, pi. 56.) Carolina Whitlow 
Grass. Plant about the size of the last. One or two pairs of leaves 
extending upon the llower stem. Pods 1/3 to 2/3 in. long. March-June. 

3. D. incana, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 56.) Twisted Whitlow Grass. 
Leaves long, lance-shaped or with the apex broadest, remotely toothed 
with rather conspicuous teeth. Small leaves extending up the flower 
stem arranged alternately. In the Green Mountains and Adirondacks. 

23. ARABIS, L. 

Plants usually rather small; hairy or smooth. Pods long and slender 
flattened. Flowers white or purple. 

Basal leaves not in a rosette A. patens 

Basal leaves in a rosette. 

Leaves of rosette lyre-formed. 

Pods erect A. lyrata 

Pods drooping A. canadensis 

Leaves of rosette narrow elliptic, deeply or not deeply dentate. 

Plant very hairy A. hirsuta 

Plant not very hairy A. brachycarpa 

Leaves of rosette long, narrow and deeply toothed or cut by broad and 

deep sinuses A. glabra 

Leaves of rosette egg-shaped, dentate. 

Upper stem leaves with entire margins A. laevigata 

Upper stem leaves markedly dentate A. dcntata 

1. A. lyrata, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 55.) Lyre-leaved Rock-cress. Slen- 
der plants, in tufts, 4 to 12 in. high. Smooth or sometimes somewhat 
hairy below. Basal leaves feather-formed, upper narrow, with' entire 
margins and blunt apex.. Flowers few in a terminal cluster, white. 
Pods long and very slender. Sandy places and rocky precipices. April- 

2. A. patens, Sulliv. Spreading Rock-cress. Plant downy, 1 to 2 
ft. high. Leaves alternate on the stem, without leaf-stalks and to some 
extent auricled, the margins sharply toothed or nearly smooth. Flowers 
white; pods an inch or more long. Eastern Penna., westward. Summer. 

3. A, canadensis, L. Sickle-pod. Stem not branching, 1 to 3 ft. 
high; smooth or with soft hairs below. Basal leaves deeply dentate or 
feather-formed, stem leaves, the lower rather broadly lance-shaped with 
dentate margins, the upper ones narrow lance-sliaped with entire margins. 
Pods long and drooping. Flowers greenish-white. Woods. June-Aug. 

4. A. hirsuta, (L.) Scop. (Fig. 0, pi. 55.) Hairy Rock-cress. 
Stem scarcely branching, 1 to 2 ft. high; leaves of rosette deeply den- 
tate or more or less lyrate. Stem leaves narrow lance-shaped, clasping 
the stem. Whole plant quite hairy. Flowers greenish-white. Pods long 
and slender. Sandy and rocky places. May-Sept. 

5. A. brachycarpa, (T. and G.) Britton. Purple Rock-cress. 
Stem branched, 1 to 3 ft. high, smooth except at lower part. Basal 


leaves narrow, broadest at apex, 1 to 3 in. long, margins notched. Stem 
leaves quite narrow, abouit an inch long, clasping the stem at base. 
Flowers white or pink, small. June-July. 

6. A. glabra, (L.) Bernh. (Fig. 6, pi. 57.) Tower Mustard. 
Stem erect, rarely branching, smooth and light green above; 2 to 4 ft. 
high. Basal leaves 2 to 10 in. long and I to | in. wide, margins entire 
or with prominent and unequal dentation. Leaves of the rosette hairy, 
those of the stem more or less arrow-shaped, clasping the stem and mostly 
without hairs. Flowers small yellowish-white in terminal cluster; pods 
parallel with and close to the stem. Seeds in 2 rows. May-Aug. 

7. A. laevigata, (Muhl.) Poir. (Fig. 4, pi. 57.) Smooth Rock- 
cress. Whole plant smooth and covered with whitish bloom. Basal 
leaves broad lance-shaped with deep notches, 2 to 3 in. long. Upper leaves 
narrow, clasping the stem, notched at the borders. Pods 3 to 4 in. 
long, spreading and curved downward. Seeds in one row. Flowers green- 
ish-white. Rocky woods. April-May. 

8. A. dentata, T. and G. Toothed Rock-cress. Stem sparingly 
branching, 1 to 2 ft. high, slender, plant hairy. Lower leaves egg-shaped 
or pear-shaped, with margins coarsely toothed 2 to 4 in. long. Stem 
leaves oblong, dentate, clasping at base. Flowers greenish-white, small. 
Pods spreading. April-June. 


An herb resembling Arahis. Covered with stiff forked hairs. Stem 
branched, slender, 

S. Thaliana, (L.) Celak. (Fig. 1, pi. 57.) Mouse-ear Cress. Plant 
ranging from an inch to 16 in. high, with freely branching stem. Leaves 
of the rosette spatula- or pear-formed, dentate; those of the stem broad 
ovate without foot-stalks. Flowers small, white. Southern part of our 
area. April-May. 


Erect lierbs with simple leaves and large clusters of purple or white 
flowers. Pods (siliques), slender, linear, cylindric. Petals purple. 

H. matronalis, L. (Fig. 2, pi, 57). Rocket. Dame's Violet. Stem 2 
to 3 ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped, borders wavy. Flowers purple, each 
nearly an inch broad. The Rocket of the gardens, naturalized in places. 

Family III.— CAPPARIDACEAE. Caper Family 

The characteristics of this family are mucli the same as those 
of the Crucifers. So nearly related are these two families that 
it is not, in the case of every species, easy to distinguish the one 
family from the other. An important difference is, however, 
found in the fact that while in the flowers of tlie Crucifers there 
are four long and two shorter stamens, in the Caper family the 
stamens are equal or nearly so. The number of stamens in our 
species is 6 as in the Crucifers, or more than six . 



Plate 67 
1. Stenophragnia Thaliana. 2. Hesperis mationalis. 3. Cardamine belli- 
difoha 4 Arabia laevigata. 5. A. virginica. 6. A. glabra. 7. Polanisia 
graveolens. 8. Cardamine hirsuta. 9. Cleome spinosa. 



Herbs or shrubs. Leaves compound, leaflets radiating, 3- or 7-foliate. 
Calyx of 4 sepals; stamens 6, equal. Seed- pod elongated, like the silique 
of mustard, many seeded. 

C. spinosa, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 57.) Spider Flower. Plant 2 to 4 ft. 
high, erect. Stem and leaves furnished vi'ith soft hairs. Leaves divided 
into 7 leaflets radiating from the common center. Lower leaves with 
rather long leaf-stalks, upper with short leaf-stalks or none. Leaflets 
lance-shaped. Above, the leaves become simple, not divided into leaflets, 
egg-shaped or heart-shaped at base. Flowers of 4 purple or whitish 
petals, each with a long, slender claw. The flower is about an in. broad. 
The stamens are two or three times as long as the petals. Seed-pod 2 to 
6 in. long. In the southern part of our area. New York and New Jersey. 


Herbs with a disagreeable odor. Leaves divided into .3 radiating leaf- 
lets. Flowers in clusters, small, white or yellowish. Stamens 9 to 12. 
Pod cylindric. 

P. graveolens, Raf. (Fig. 7, pi. .57.) Clammy Weed. Branching, 
^ to lA ft. high. Leaves 3-foliate (clover-formed) ; lleaflets oblong, 
obtuse, without teeth or notches. Flowers in terminal clusters, yellow- 
ish-white. Stamens about 11. Pod 1 to 2 in. long. Sandy shores, our 
area and southward. June-Aug. 

Family IV.— RESEDACEAE. Mignonette Family 

Annual or perennial herbs with iinsymmetrical flowers, intro- 
duced from Europe and only found growing wild in our region 
in certain localities where the species have become naturalized in 
waste places near sea-ports. Leaves alternate, either simple or 
compound, feather-formed. Flowers in spikes; calyx of 4 to 7 
parts and corolla of about as many. Stamens, in our species, 3. 


Cliaractcrs as above. 

Leaves entire R. Luteola 

Leaves compound (feather-l'ornicd). 

Petals greenish-yellow R. lutea 

Petals white R. alba 

1. R. Luteola, L. (Fig. 7, pi. .'jS.) Dyer's Rocket. Yellow Weed. 
Calyx and corolla each of 4 divisions, unequal. Plant 1 to 2\ ft. high. 
Leaves long, lance-shaped, often with shallow or even rather deep lobes, 
especially of lower leaves, upper leaves generally with entire edges. Seed 
capsule rounded. Introduced. In waste places on Long Island and 

2. R. lutea, L. Yellow Cut-leaved Miononette. Plant erect or de- 
cumbent. Ix'aves feather-formed, the divisions sometimes rather irregular. 


often secondarily divided. Plant hairy. Calyx and corolla each G-parted, 
irregularly divided. Petals quite small, greenish-yellow. Introduced. 
In waste places, in southern part of our area. 

3. R. alba, L. White Cut-leaved Mignonette. Calyx and corolla 
of 5 divisions each, petals with about 4 teeth, white. Plant smooth, 1 to 
3 ft. high. Introduced in widely separated localities. 

Order V.— SARRACENIALES. Order of Pitcher Plants 

Insectivorous plants which secrete a viscid substance attractive 
to insects and which aids in their capture. The leaves are all 
basal and from the midst of this basal cluster of leaves arises a 
slender flower stem bearing one or several nodding flowers. There 
are 4 or 5 calyx divisions arising below the ovary and 5 petals. 
Stamens numerous. Fruit a capsule 3- to 5-celled. 

Family I.— SARRACENIACEAE. Pitcher Plant Family 

Characters those of the order, but all leaves are hollow, pitcher- 
formed or trumpet-shaped. " 


Perennial herbs growing in bogs. Leaws all at the base, hollow or 
pitcher-shaped, with a wing at one side. Flowers solitary on a tall scape, 
nodding; calyx of 5 sepals with 3 small bracts at base. Petals 5. Tlie 
extremity of the pistil spreads out as a broad shield-like plate covering 
the ovary. Its 5 rays terminate below and constitute as many stigmas. 
Fruit a capsule of 5 cells. 

S. purpurea, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 58.) Pitcher Plant. Side-saddle 
Flower. This, the only species in our region, is one of the most curious 
of our plants. It is found in peat bogs wkere it often grows in con- 
siderable beds. The hollow leaves entice insects within their recesses 
where, owing to the stifT hairs pointing downward and the viscid se- 
cretions, may of the prisoners die. It is supposed that the juice from the 
insects contribute toward the nutrition of the plant. The flower stem 
is from 15 to 20 in. high. Flowers purple and yellow. Blooms in June. 

Family II.— DROSERACEAE. Sundew Family 

Delicate herbs growing in mossy bogs. Leaves mostly in a 
basal whorl covered, especially at the edges, with glandular hairs 
and in the center with a viscid exudation. Flowers on a slender 
scape, nodding, with 4 or 5 sepals and 5 petals. Stamens 4 to 
numerous; pistils 3 to 5; ovary globose with the calyx attached 
at base. 


Bog herbs with the characters of the Family as above. 

Leaf blades round, fiillv as broad as long D. rotundifolia 

Leaf blades spatula-formed, rounded at apex D. intermedia 

Leaf blades linear, but broader than the leaf-stalk . . . . D. longifolia 

Leaf blades thread-like, not broader than the leaf-stalk . . D. fihformis 

1. D. rotundifolia, T^. (Fig- 1, pi- •''8.) Round-leaved Sundew. 
Plants 4 to 10 in. high. Leaves nearly orbicular, depressed at center, 
vvliich is occupied by a viscid exudation. Leaf-stem and edges of leaves 
thick set with glandular hairs. Flowers 4 to 12 on a slender scape with 
quite short flower stems, white, about 1/6 in. broad. In swamps, through- 
out our area. July-Aug. 

2. D. intermedia, Hayne. (Fig. 2, pi. 58.) Spatulate-leaved Sun- 
dew. Similar to No. I, but leaves are elongated, spatulate, rounded at 
apex and narrowed at base. The plant is usually smaller than No. 1 
and the color of leaves darker. Less common than No. 1, growing in 
similar situations. July-August. 

3. D. longifolia, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 58.) Oblong-leaved Sundew. Re- 
sembles No. 2, hut leaves are still more elongated, and while in Nos. 
1 and 2 the leaves lie flat upon the surrounding moss or mud, in this 
species the leaves are more nearly erect. Whole plant more delicate than 
either of the preceding species. In bogs, less common than No. 1, bloom- 
ing at about the same time. 

4. D. filiformis, Raf. (Fig. 4, pi. 58.) Thread-leaved Sundew. 
Leaves narrowly linear, from 5 to 15 in. long, covered throughout with 
hairs. Flower scape 8 to 20 in. high with a number of purple flowers 
which are from 1/3 to 1 in. broad. Sand, near the eastern coast. July- 

Order VI.— ROSALES. Order of the Rose Alliance 

This large order unites within itself plants of widely divergent 
habits and appearance. They include trees, shrul)s and herbs. 
Mostly they are land plants, but a few find their homes in swamps 
and one, in our region, Podostemon, is an entirely submersed 

The characteristics which join this greatly varied group into 
an order are: 

1st. The presence of both sepals and petals, the latter of which 
are distinct, that is, they are not united by their edges as they 
are in such flowers as tlio blue-bell or morning glory, but are 
separate as in the single rose. The sepals of the calyx are to 
some extent confluent, but always show at least a partial division. 
To this general law of characterization there are exceptions: 



Plate 58 
L Drosera iutiiii<lifoIia. 2. D. intermedia. 3. D. longifolia. 4. D. fili- 
forniis. 5. Sarracenia purpurea. (3. Sedum acre. 7. Reseda Luteola. 8. Se- 
dum ternatum. 9. Penthorum sedoides. 


for example, the Podostemon lias neither sepals nor petals, the 
style and double stamen being partly surrounded at base by a 
small spathe. In Liquidamhar the pistillate flower has a small 
confluent calyx but no corolla, and from the staminate flower 
both calyx and corolla are absent. In 'Sanguisorha the petals, 
and in Xantlioxylum the sepals are wanting. 

2nd. The carpels (seed caskets), are solitary or several may be 
united in one or collected in a group. 

3d. The stamens do not, with very few exceptions, arise from a 
ring just at the base of the ovary, but spring from the calyx or 
around the summit of the ovary. 

4th. Except Podostemon, Avhich is a submersed aquatic, all are 
land plants, though a few are found growing in mud or in 

5th. In the great majority of species of this order the stamens 
and pistils are found in the same flower. In exceptional cases 
the stamens and pistils occupy different flowers. Examples: 
Hamamelis, Liquidamhar and Platanus. 

Families of the Order Eosales 

Submersed aquatic plant PODOSTEMACEAE 

Trees, shrubs and herbs, land plants. 

Fruit a simple or compound dry capsule. 
Stamens less than 20 
Fleshy or succulent herbs, leaves without stipules; 
ovaries as many as the divisions of the calyx. Sta- 
mens inserted on the calyx . . CRASSULACEAE 
Herbs or trees, not fleshy, ovaries 2, fewer than the 
divisions of the calyx. Stamens inserted on the 


Fruit a one-celled globular berry . GROSSULARIACEAE 
Fruit contained in a rounded woody capsule. 

Slinil) with altornnte undivided leaves, with flowers 
appearing in late summer or in autunm, petals 4, 
long, strap-like sepals 4 . . HAMAMELIDACEAE 


Fruit a rounded bur-like head. 

Tree with broad leaves and with fruit in globular 
heads hanging by long peduncles. Stamens and 
pistils in different flowers. Flowers without sepals 

or with minute ones PLATANACEAE 

Fruit a legume, that is, a pod formed like that of a pea. 

Flowers slightly irregular, but not in form of a pea 
blossom. Stamen filaments united gener.iUy in 2 

Flowers quite irregular, papilionaceous — having the 
general shape of a pea blossom PAPILIONACEAE 

Stamens more than 20 

Stamens all free. 

Fruit, follicles or achenes, i. e., dry one-celled seed vessels witli 
several seeds, or a dry vessel with a single seed ROSACEAE 

Fruit a drupe, i. e., like a plum or cherry, with a fleshy exte- 
rior and woody stone within DRTJPACEAE 

Fruit a pome, i. e., a fleshy fruit like the apple or pear 


(In the Hawthorns, IMountain Ash and Shad-berry the fruit 
is small and less fleshy tlian the pear and apple.) 

Family I.— PODOSTEMACEAE. River Weed Family 

Only a single species in our region. A fresh water submersed 
plant with the general appearance of the Naiads. The leaves are 
thread-formed, much divided. Flowers without perianth except 
a small spathe-like envelope at base of the very simple flower 
which consists of the ovary and of a rather long stamen filament 
dividing toward the top into two stamens. 


Characters as above. 

1. P. ceratophyllum, Michx. (Fig. 1, pi, 59.) River Weed. Thread 
Foot. Plant submersed, dark green with thread-like leaves forming 
dense fascicles. Flowers very small, inconspicuous, at axils of loaf 
branches. In shallow streams, northern New York and southward 
throughout the range. July-Sept. 


Family II.— CRASSULACEAE. Orpine Family 

Fleshy or succulent herbs with alternate leaves and regular 
flowers in terminal spreading clusters (cymes). Stipules none. 
Calyx of 4 or 5 sepals. Petals equalling the number of sepals. 
Stamens equal in number to petals or double the number, gen- 
erally the latter. Seed caskets (carpels) opposite the petals and 
of the same number. Fruit, dry seed caskets with several seeds 
in each casket or follicle. 

Minute herbs, stamens equal to number of sepals . . Tillaea 
Very fleshy herbs ; twice as many stamens as sepals. Leaves 

small, scale-like Sedum 

Plant not very fleshy, leaves conspicuous, on leaf stalk. 
Flowers in forked terminal clusters (cymes). Petals 
usually wanting Penthorum 


Very small smooth plant growing in mud. Leaves opposite. Flowers 
v«ry small, one in a leaf axil. Petals 3 to 5. Calyx of 3 to 5 sepals. 
Stamens 3 to 5. 

T. aquatica, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 59.) Pigmy Weed. Stem * to 3 in. 
high. Leaves linear, opposite. In the axes of the leaves appear the small 
rounded bud or flower, having calyx lobes, petals and carpels, each 4. 
The petals are greenish. Muddy banks and streams, mostly near sea 
coast. July-Sept. 

2. SEDUM, L. 

Smooth fleshy plants, generally escapes from gardens. Leaves alter- 
nate. Flowers with stamens and pistils. Stamens twice as many as 
the petals. Flowers generally in 5's, exceptionally 4-parted. Stamens 
8 or 10. 

Flowers with 4 petals and 8 stamens. 

Stamens and pistils on different plants S. roseum 

i-'lowers with 5 petals and 10 stamens. 
Stamens and pistils in the same flower. 
Petals pur[)le or white. 

Leaves broad and flat, x to 2 in. long . . . S. piirfurcum 
Leaves less than an inch long. 

Flowers white S. teniatum 

Flowers pink S. telephioides 

Flowers yellow. 

Plant I to 3 in. hiph S. acre 

Plant 8 to 15 in. high S. rettexum 

L S. roseum, (L.) Stop. (Fig. 7, pi. 59.) Rosewort. Stems 5 
to 10 in. high. Leaves oval without leaf-stalks, toothed, overlying each 
other. Cluster of leaves terminal, dense, greenish-yellow, turning purple. 
A northern species rare in our region, but extending into Maine and 
further south. 

2. S. purpureum, Tausch. (Fig. 2, pi. 59. Gardex Live-For-Eveb. 


(S. Telephium, Gray.) Stems 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves broad egg-shaped, 
without leaf-stalks. Less densely crowded than No. 1. Plant light green. 
Flowers purple. Escaped from gardens. 

3. S. telephioides, Michx. American Orpine. Similar to No. 1, 
but more sk'iulor. Flowers pink ; jjetals twice as long as sepals. Southern 
Penna., and southward. 

4. S. acre, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 58.) Mossy Stonecrop. Growing in 
dense mossy tufts. Plant 1 to 3 in. high, with bright yellow blos3om.s. 
Leaves short, thick, egg-shaped, about 1/12 in. long. Escaped from 

5. S. reflexum, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 59.) Crooked Yellow Stonecrop. 
Plant 8 to 15 in. high. Leaves lance-formed, crowded on the stem, :} to 
2 in. long. Flowers yellow in broadly spreading cluster. Escaped from 
gardens. Rare. 

6. S. ternatum, Michx. (Fig. 8, pi. 58.) Wild Stonecrop. Grow- 
ing in mossy tufts. Stems 3 to 8 in. high. Leaves in verticles of .3 or 
opposite in pairs, i to 1 in. long. Flower cluster of about 3 spreading 
branches, thickly studded with purplish or white flowers. Rocky woods 
in southern part of our region. April-June. 


Erect, only slightly succulent. Herbs with alternate leaves with foot- 
stalks. Petals generally absent, when present 5. Calyx of 5 sepals, 
stamens 10, carpels 5, united to the middle. Flowers in spreading clus- 
ters, the branches one-sided and drooping (cymose). 

P. sedoides, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 58.) Ditch Stonecrop. Leaves lance- 
shaped, pointed at each end, with foot-stalks i to | in. long, finely 
notched at borders. Wet places, borders of ponds, etc. July-October. 

Family III.— SAXIFRAGACEAE. Saxifrage Family 

In our region nearly all small herbs; perennial. Leaves mostly 
alternate or in whorls about the base; less frequently opposite. 

Flowers with both stamens and pistils. Sepals 5, generally 
free, but sometimes adherent to the ovary. Petals 5, rarely want- 
ing. Stamens 10 in all our species. Styles 2, terminating below 
in a two-celled capsule or a many-seeded casket, opening at the 
side or, rarely, in a berry. 

Flowers in clusters or solitary and purple. 
Petals with undivided borders. 

Styles 2, ovary of 2 lobes, parted about half way up 


Styles 2, ovary of 1 lobe. 

' Stamens 10 Tiarella 

Stamens 5 Heuchera 


Petals fringed at borders Mitella 

Petals mostly al)sent. Plant aquatic . Chrysosplenium 
Flowers not in clusters, white; scape bearing a single star- 
shaped flower Parnassia 

Leaves opposite Hydrangea 

Leaves alternate Itea 


Herbs, perennial; leaves mostly basal, less frequently opposite and 
scattered along the stem. Stipules none. In all of our species borders of 
leaves furnished with sharp teeth. Flowers generally in loose, or crowded, 
terminal clusters. Petals 5, sepals 5, stamens 10, inserted with the 
petals. Ovary, generally superior to the calyx, 2-lobed above, joining 

Flowers purple, leaves opposite, over-lapping S. opfiositifoUa 

Flowers yellow, or yellowish-green. 

Leaves alternate along the stem ....,,,,,. S. aizoides 
Leaves mostly in a rosette at base. 

Leaves mostly less than an in. long S. Aisoon 

Leaves more than 3 in. long S. pennsylvanica 

Flowers white. 

Leaves trilobate S. rivularis 

Leaves 5 to 12 in. long, less than i as broad . . . S. micranthidifolia 

Leaves i to 3 in. long, about i as broad 5. virginiensis 

Leaves usually less than an in. long, narrow, with toothed apex 5. stellaris 

1. S. oppositifolia, L. Purple, or Mountain Saxifrage. Stems in 
tufts, 6 to 8 in. long, creeping. Leaves crowded, overlapping, opposite, 
small rather flesliy 1/12 to 1/6 in. long, oval. Flowers solitary, light 
purple, showy, petals 5-veined. Wet rocks, Mt. Mansfield and Willougliby 
Mountain, Vt., and further north. 

2. S. aizoides, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 59.) Yellow Mountain Saxifrage. 
Stems branched, in tufts, 2 to 6 in. high. Leaves scattered along the 
flowering stem, linear, rather thick and fleshy; 1/3 to 2/3 in. long, with 
occasional stiff hairs along the margin. Flowers yellow, conspicuous. 
In the same location as No. 1. 

3. S. rivularis, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 59.) Alpine Brook Saxifrage. In 
dense tufts, stems creeping, rooting at leaf nodes. Lower leaves kidney- 
shaped with 3 to 5 deep lobes, upper leaves oval or lanee-shaped. Flowers 
few (1 to 5), wliite, \ in. broad. Calyx lobes nearly as long as the 
petals. Ovary with two widely diverging tips. Summits of White 
Mountains and north. 

4. S. Aizoon, Jacq. (Fig. 3, pi. 59.) Livelong Saxifrage. Stems 
viscid, hairy, to 10 in. high; leaves in a dense basal rosette, spatula- 
shajied, with sharp white firm teeth at bordens. A few small leaves along 
tlic stem. Flowers in a spreading cluster, white with yellowish spots, about 
:} in. broad. Petals twice as long as sepals. Dry rocks, Mt. Mansfield, 
Vt., and northward. 

5. S. virginiensis, INTiclix. (Fig. 2, ])1. 00.) Early Saxifrage. Stems 
viscid, growing in tufts on wet rocks and moist places. Leaves mostly 
at base in a rather dense rosette, egg-shaped with bhint teeth at borders. 



Plate 59 
1. Podostemon ceratopliyllum. 2. Sedura purpureum. 3. Saxifraga Ai- 
zoon. 4. S. aizoides. 5. Tillaea aquatica. 6. Sedum reflexum. 7 S. roseum. 
8. Saxifraga rivularis. 9. Chrysosplenium americanum. 10. Parnasia caro- 
liniana. 11. Hj'drangea arborescens. in fruit. 


Stem 4 to 12 in. liigh. Leaves 1 to 3 in. long, tapering at base to a 
long leaf-stalk. Flowers white. Early spring, March to May. 

6. S. micranthidifolia, (Haw.) BSP. Lettuce Saxifrage. Flower 
scape somewhat viscid, 1 to 3 ft. high. Flowers small, white in a loose 
pyramidal cluster. Leaves inversely lance-shaped or oval, from a few 
in. to 1 ft. long. Coarsely toothed at margins, Bethlehem, Pa., and 
southward. May- June. 

7. S. pennsylvanica, L. Tall or Swamp Saxifrage. Plant 1 to 3^ 
ft. high. Leaves mostly basal, broad lance-sha])ed, 5 to 8 in. long by 
1 to 2 in. broad, tapering at base to short leaf stalk, borders toothed. 
Flowers yellowish-green on tall scape with a few small leaves or none. 
In wet places in all our range. May. 

8. S. stellaris, L. Foliose Saxifrage. (/?. comosa, Eritton.) Slen- 
der plant 2 to G in. high, with a rosette of lance-shaped leaves, broadest 
at apex with about 3 teeth. Flowers few, white, some of them replaced 
by small tufts of leaves. Mt. Katahdin, Maine, and northward. Summer. 


Herbs, similar in many respects to Haxifraga. There are, however, at 
the base of the leaf-stalks, small stipules, and the ovary, which is 2-lobed 
in Huxifraya, has but a single lobe in Tiarella which is divided into 2 
unequal valves. Leaves nearly all basal on long leaf-stalks, broadly 
rounded and deeply 3-lobed to several lobed. 

T. cordifolia, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 60.) Cool wort. False Miterwoet. 
Leaves basal, rounded, deeply 3- to 7-lobed. Flower scape 6 to 12 in. 
high, with a long narrow cluster of about a dozen white flowers. Calyx 
bell-shaped of 5 sepals; petals slightly longer than sepals. In moist 
woods in early spring, throughout our range. 


Perennial herbs with rounded, heart-shaped leaves, principally from the 
root. When leaves are found on the stem they are alternate. Calyx 
bell-shaped, .5-cleft, the tube adhering to the ovary. Petals small, offen 
shorter than the sepals. Stamens 5; styles 2, slender; capsule 1-celled. 

1. H. americana, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 60.) Alum Root. Stem 2 to 3 
ft. high, stout, hairy. Ix;aves all or nearly all from the base, on long 
leaf-stalks, round or roundish with 5 to 9 rounded lobes and with blunt 
teeth; the veinlets radiating from the stem insertion. Calyx broadly 
bell-shaped; petals very small, greenish. Stamens extending much be- 
yond the calyx and petals. Dry woods. Conn., and southward. May- 

2. H. pubescens, Pursh. Downy Heuciiera. Plant much like the 
l)rece(ling, ni<;re decidedly downy, the lobes of the leaves deeper. Petals 
cxccedimj the calyx lobes, purplish. Stamens scarcely longer than the 
petals. Mountains of Pennsylvania and southward. May-June. 


Herbs with the general character of Saxifrage. Leaves mostly basal 
but, in our species, the llower scape has, near the center, a pair of broad 



Plate 60 
1. Tiarella cordifolia. 2. Saxifraga virginiensis. 3. IMitella mula. 4. M. 
diphylla. 5. Heuchera americana. 


leaves (one or even both wanting in M. nuda). Petals fringed. Ovary 
1-lobed, 1-valved. 

1. M. diphylla, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 60.) Two-leaved Bishop's Cap. 
MiTEBWORT. Basal leaves broadly heart-shaped. Flowering stem 10 to 
18 in. high, with a pair of broad leaves less than half way up. Flowers 
clustered along the upper part of the slender stem. Petals white, two 
or three times longer than the sepals, beautifully fringed. In rich woods. 
Early spring. In all our range. 

2. M. nuda, L. (Fig. .3, pi. 60.) Nakf.d Bishop's Cap. Mitebwort. 
Flowering stem 3 to 7 in. high. Leaves all basal or with one small leaf 
half way up the stem ; rounded, heart-shaped at base, hairy. The hairy 
flower stem bears about half a dozen white flowers, the petals being more 
deeply cut and delicately fringed than No. 1. In similar situations as 
No. 1. Blooms in early spring and also again in autumn. 


Low, creeping, rather fleshy herbs, growing in wet places. Leaves, in 
our species, opposite, witiiout stipules. Flowers minute, greenish, spring- 
ing in the axils of the leaves. Petals wanting. Stamens 8 to 10. Ovary 
of 1 cell, separating above into 2 lobes. Lobes of the calyx, which are 
the conspicuous elements of the flower, yellowish-green. 

C. americanum, Scliwein. (Fig. 9, pi. 59.) Wateb Cabpet. Golden 
Saxifrage. Stems 3 to 8 in. long, creeping, branched, smooth and shin- 
ing. Lower leaves opposite, round or broadly ovate, with shallow notches 
in margin. Flowers yellowish or purplish. In wet places, not common. 
In the central part of our region. From the northern to southern part 
of our area. Early spring. 


Smooth herbs, with basal leaves on long leaf stalks and with slender 
flower stems bearing a single leaf near the middle. Leaves with 5 end- 
to-end veins. Stem with a single terminal conspicuous white flower. 
Ovary 1-lobed, 1 -celled with short styles or none. Stamens 10 or more, 
5 of which are fertile, the others without anthers. 

P. caroliniana, Michx. (Fig. 10, pi. 59.) Gbass-of-Parnassus. 
Flowering sfape 8 to 24 in. high, with a broad heart-shaped leaf clasping 
below the middle. Basal leaves on long slender leaf-stalks, somewhat 
heart-shaped at base and decurront on the leaf-stalk, 1 to 2 in. long, 
nearly as wide. Flower white with several greenish veins 2/3 to lA in. 
in diameter; calyx segments 1/3 as long as petals, light green. In 
swamps, brook-sides and wet meadows, throughout our area. June- 


Our species a shrub with oitposito egg-shaped leaves and terminal 
clusters of flowers. Leaves without stipules. The exterior flowers of the 
spreading cluster are often sterile and without petiVls, but with large 
and conspicuous calj^ lobes. Calyx tulxj of fertile flowers hemispheric 
with 8 or 10 ribs. Stamens 8 to 10. Petals generally 5, sometimes 4. 
Ovary 2- to 4-lol)ed with 2 diverging styles. External to the ovary are 
10 to 12 vertical ribs. 


H. arborescens, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 59.) Wild Hydrangea. Shrub 2 
to 10 ft. high. Leaves smooth, young twigs somewhat hairy. Leaves 
ovate, sharp pointed with leaf-stalks about 1/6 as long as the leaves. 
Flowers in a rounded, spreading cluster. Along streams, New York and 
New Jersey and southward. 

8. ITEA, L. 

Shrub with alternate leaves. Flowers small, white, in narrow elongated 
cluster. Calyx tube rounded. Sepals 5. Petals 5, much longer than 
sepals. Stamens 5. Fruit capsule oblong, 2-lobed, spreading above into 
two slightly diverging styles. 

I. virginica, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 61.) Virginia Willow. Shrub 4 to 10 
ft. high. Leaves oblong, pointed with small serrations at borders. Wet 
places in southern part of our area, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. May- 

Family IV.— GROSSULARIACEAE. Gooseberry Family 

This family contains only the single genus, Rihes, gooseberries. 
The species are all shrubs with alternate leaves which are, how- 
ever, often in groups or fascicles. The leaves are broad and 
generally deeply cut by sinuses which divide the blade into 3 or 
4 lobes. At the base of the leaf stem are two small stipules. The 
stems are, in some species, armed with sharp spines just below the 
leaf axils, in other species the spines or sharp bristles are dis- 
persed along the stem, while in some the stems are entirely desti- 
tute of spines or of bristles. The flowers are, in some species, 
solitary or in groups of 2 to 4, while in others they are numerous, 
arranged along a main flower stem in a long slender cluster 
(raceme). At the base of each small foot-stalk for the flower is 
a small bract. The calyx has 4 or 5 sepals, sometimes colored; 
petals 4 or 5, generally 5, inserted into the throat of the calyx; 
they are small, usually less than the sepals. There are 5 stamens 
and 3 styles which unite at base into a one-celled ovary. The 
fruit is a berry containing several seeds. 

The only genus. The characters are those of the family. 

Flowers few (i to 4), in the leaf axils. 

Berries covered with long bristles R. Cynosbati 

Berries smooth or with few bristles. 

Spines below the leaf clusters, slender and generally single, some- 
times v/anting. 

Stamens not longer than the lobes of the calyx R. oxyacanthoides 
Stamens longer than the lobes of the calyx R. rotundifolium 
Spines at leaf axils stout, usually 3 together, branches not bristly 

R. Crofsularia 

Flowers in long slender pendulous clusters. 

Sriines below leaf clusters, and bristles dispersed along stem R. lacuslre 
Spines absent. 

Branches prostrate or spreading R. prostratuin 

Branches erect. 

Calyx bell-shaped, fruit black R. Horidum 

Calyx cylindric, fruit red R. vulgare 


1. R. Cynosbati, L. (Fig. 2. pi. 61.) Wild Gooseberry. Shrub; 
branches with prickles at base of leaf clusters; leaves about 5-lobo(l; 
flowers 1 to 3 at the leaf axils, succeeded by rather large ovate berries 
with many rather long bristle-like prickles. Rocky woods, throughout 
our area. April-June. 

2. R, oxyacanthoides, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 61.) Hawthorn Gooseberry. 
Northern Gooseberry. Prickles at base of leaf groups, solitary or none; 
bristles on stem dispersed or absent. Leaves deeply 5-lobed. Stamens 
not longer than sepals. Berry smootli, reddish-purple or red. Through- 
out all but the most southern part of our area. 

3. R. rotundifolium, Michx. Eastern Wild Gooseberry. Similar 
to No. 2, but stamens are distinctly longer than the long segments of the 
calyx. Berry smooth. Rocky woods, in eastern border of our region. 

4. R. Grossularia, L. Garden Gooseberry. (R. Uva-crispa, L.). 
Three stout spines at base of leaf cluster. Leaves 3-lobed. Berry large, 
smooth or with a few weak bristles^ Escaped from gardens, along 

5. R. lacustre, (Pers.) Poir. (Fig. 7, pi. 61.) Swamp Gooseberry. 
Stem covered with prickles. Spines below leaf clusters several, generally 
2 below each leaf cluster. Leaves deeply incised, the lobes angular, toothed. 
Flowers 10 to 20, arranged in a pendulous cluster along a main flower 
stalk, green. Fruit covered with long prickles. Disagreeable to taste. 
In swampy places. May-June. 

6. R. prostratum, L'Her. (Fig. 4, pi. 61.) Fetid Currant. 
Branches prostrate or widely spreading. Stems without spines or prickles. 
Leaf stems long and slender. Leaves 3- to 5-lobed. Flowers 10 to 20, 
small, green. Fruit red, about the size of the garden currant and re- 
sembling it, but covered with bristles. Taste disagreeable. On moun- 
tains and in wet places. May-June. 

7. R. fioridum, L'Her. (Fig. 6, pi. 61.) Wild Black Currant. 
Branches erect, without prickles or spines; leaves 3- to 5-lobed, somewhat 
dotted below. Flowers numerous, in pendulous clusters, the caljrx cylin- 
dric, bracts exceeding the length of the flower pedicels. Fruit black, 
smooth, insipid. In woods, rather common. April-May. 

8. R. vulgare, Lam. (Fig. 5, pi. 61.) Red Currant. The garden 
currant, sometimes growing wild. Fruit red, pleasantly acid. 

Family V.— HAMAMELIDACEAE. Witch Hazel Family 

In our region, a small tree or shrub, with alternate broad leaves 
and with clusters of yellow flowers on the newer branches in the 
late Slimmer or autumn. Calyx small, greenish, of 4 sepals rolled 
backward, corolla of 4 elongated strap-shaped yellow petals. Sta- 
mens 4 or more. Fruit a 2-cellcd woody capsule. 

Tall shrubs or small trees. Tiie genus is sufTlciently described under 
our only species, below. 



Plate 61 
1 Itea virgin ica. 2. Ribes Cynoshati. 3. R. oxyacanthoides. 4. R. pros- 
tratum. 5. Rrvulgare. 6 R. floridum. 7. R. laciistre. 8. Platanus occiden- 
talis. 9. Liquidambar Styracifhia. 10. Hamamelis viigiiiiana. 


H. virginiana, L. (Fi{r. 10, pi. fil.) Witch Hazel. Shrub or small 
tree. Leaves on short leaf-stalks, broadly oval, somewhat heart-shaped 
and unequal at base, covered, at least when young, with soft hairs; bor- 
ders with rounded teeth. Flowers in clusters of several, makinn; tufts 
of yellow, the long narrow petals appearing like threads of yellow in 
the tuft. They appear, as the leaves fall or earlier, at the axis of the 
coming leaves. An interesting shrub in damp woods. Blooms Aug.-Dec. 


In our region, a tree with broad 5-fnigered or 5-lobed leaves. Stamens 
and pistils in different flowers which are in different groups on the same 
tree. Stamens in staminate flowers numerous, calyx and corolla absent. 
Pistillate flowers have a small calyx the sepals of which are confluent. 
Petals none. 

L. Styraciflua, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 61.) Sweet Gum. Alligator Tree. 
A forest tree 60 ft. or more high. Trunk covered by deeply furrowed 
bark. Leaves broader than long, divided into 5 deep, sharp pointed, 
lobes. Fruit in a compact pendulous ball consisting of numerous cap- 
sules each with 1 or 2 seeds. Connecticut, southern New York and 

Family VI.— PLATANACEAE. Plane Tree Family 

Large tree with broad, lobed leaves and sheathing stipules, 
bark falling in large scales. Stamens and pistils in different 
groups of flowers on same tree; clusters of fertile flowers forming 
at length a globose mass of capsules with many bristly projecting 
points. Sterile flowers also in spherical masses which hang from a 
thin pendulous stem, the globular masses forming at intervals. 
The individual flowers have an insignificant calyx and corolla and 
few stamens. Fruit a nutlet. 


Characters of the family. 
P. occidentalis, L. (Fjg. 8, pi. 61.) Button Wood. Sycamore. 
Our largest tree, 80 to 130 ft. high. Bark falling in thin plates, exposing 
the grayish-white new bark beneath. Leaves orbicular, angularly lobed, 
points of lobes sharp. Heads of flowers hanging on long peduncles. Wet 
woods and along streams. May. 

Family VII.— ROSACE AE. Eose Family 

A large family consisting of lierbs, shrubs and trees. In all our 
species the leaves, which are simple or compound, arc alternate 
and the flowers are all regular and contain both stamens and 
pistils. In most species the leaves are subtended by stipules, 
often quite conspicuous. Calyx of 5 sepals eitlier free or attached 
to the ovary. Petals 5, or, in a few cases, none. Stamens usually 


numerous (more than 10), Seed carpels one to many, distinct, 
ripening into one-seeded or several-seeded hard dry fruit. 

Stamens numerous. 

Ovaries naked, i. e., not completely surrounded by the 
Leaves simple, not deeply lobed .... Spiraea 
Leaves deeply 3-lobed (rarely 5-lobed). Flowers in 

dense spherical cluster Physocarpus 

Leaves mostly trifoliate, rarely 5-foliate; flowers in 

loose clusters or solitary Rubus 

Ovaries enclosed in tube of calyx but free from it. 

Leaves pinnate (i. e., leaflets arranged in pairs along 
the central leaf stem except the terminal leaflet) Rosa 
Stamens only 5 Sibbaldia 

Flowers green in rather dense heads .... Alchemilla 
Flowers not green, not in dense heads or spikes. 

Leaves not basal, nearly orbicular, not lobed, except at 

base Dalibarda 

Leaves all at base. 
Flowers yellow 

Bracts of calyx shorter than sepals . Waldsteinia 
Bracts of calyx longer than the sepals . Duchesnea 
Flowers white, plant sending out runners . Fragaria 
Leaves along the stem as well as at base. 

Flowers arranged in a long slender spike Agrimonia 
Flowers in loose clusters or solitary. 
Petals nearly as broad as long. 

Fruit in a spongy receptacle . . Comarum 
Fruit dry. 

Carpels with tail-like appendages 

Petals not more than 5 . . Geum 
Petals more than 5 . . . . Dryas 
Carpels without tail-like appendages 


Carpels 2-ovuled ; leaves pinnate 



Petals 3 times as long as broad Gillenia 

Flowers white in dense elongated heads or spikes; 

flowers without petals Sanguisorba 

Flowers without petals, in slender spikes forming a 

compound cluster Aruncus 


Branching shrubs with alternate, broad, deeply lobed leaves. Flowers 
in dense terminal rounded clusters, white. Calyx bell-shaped, with 5 
sepals; petals 5, inserted in the throat of the calyx. Fruit 1 to 5 dry, 
several seeded carpels inflated. 

P. opulifolius, Maxim. (Fig. 2, pi. 62.) Ninebark. {Opulaster 
opulifoliiis, (L. ) Kuntze. Spiraea opuUfolia, L.). A rare and beautiful 
shrub, 3 to 10 ft. high. Leaves 1 to 2 in. long, roundish with 3 lobes 
and notched borders. Bark loose, falling in strips. Stipules falling 
early. Clusters of white flowers nearly spherical. River banks and 
rocky hills of our region. June. 


Shrubs with alternate simple leaves without lobes. Sepals 5; petals 
5; stamens 10 to 50. Fruit dry, several seeded carpels, 3 to 12. Flowers 
in terminal clusters, white or rose color, not yellow. 

Flowers in pyramidal cluster. 

Twigs smooth, yellowish-brown; flowers white . . . . S. salicifolia 

Twigs smooth, reddish-brown; flowers white or light pink . S. latifolia 

Twigs hairy, flowers rose color S. tomentosa 

Flowers in flattened cluster 5. corymbosa 

1. S. salicifolia, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 62.) Willow-leaved Meadow 
Sweet. Erect shrub with smooth yellowish-brown twigs and elliptic, egg- 
shaped or lance-slinped leaves on short leaf -stalks. Borders of leaves 
sharply toothed. Flowers in a pyramidal group, individual flowers 1/6 
to 1/4 in. broad, white or pinkish-white. In moist grounds and on hill- 
sides in southern section of our range. June-Aug. 

2. S. latifolia, Borkh. ]\Teadow Sweet. Similar to No. 1, but twigs 
are reddish or reddish-brown. Color of flowers as in No. 1. Common in 
pastures, etc. June-Aug. 

3. S. tomentosa. L. (Fig. 3, pi. 62.) Hardtiack. Steeple Bush. 
Erect, slender shrub, generally with few or no branches. Stem covered 
with soft hairs. Flowers in a tall conical cluster, purple or pink. In 
old fields and pastures in our area. July-Sept. 

4. S. corymbosa, Raf. Cokymbed Spiraea. Leaves broadly oval or 
egg-shaped. Flowers in a spreading flattened cluster (corymb), white. 
Rocky places. New Jersey and south. May-June. 

3- GILLENIA, Mcrnch. (Porteranthus, Britten) 

Erect herbs from a perennial root. Leaves 3-foliate with conspicoua 
stipules. Flowers wiiitc or ])iiik with .5 hnig narrow petals inserted 
into the throat of the calyx. Calyx tubular, of 5 sepals. Stamens 10 



Plate 62 

1 Spiraea salicifolia. 2. Pl.ysocarpus opulifolius. 3. Spiraea tomentosa. 
4 Gillenia trifohata. 5. G. stipulata. 6. Kubus Chamaemorus. 7. R. odo- 



to 20, quite short. Seed carpels 5, united at base, each carpel with 2 
to 4 seeds. 

Stipules linear, not leaf-like G. irifoliata 

Stipules large, leaf-like G. stipulata 

1. G. trifoliata, (L.) Moench. (Fig. 4, pi. 62.) Indian Physic. 
Bowman's Root. Plant 2 to 4 ft. high. Leaves 3-foliate; at the base, 
where the leaflets unite at the stem, are 2 narrow lance-shaped stipules 
without teeth. Flowers in loose terminal clusters, the ovary small, the 
petals long, slender, spreading, white or pink. Pods reddish. Wood- 
lands, southern part of our region. May-June. 

2. G. stipulata, (Muhl.) Trel. (Fig. 5, pi. 62.) American Ipecac. 
Resembles tlio last species, but at the base of the 3 leaflets, which have 
a short leaf-stalk, is a pair of broad leaf-like stipules, giving the leaf 
the appearance of having 5 leaflets. The stipules are toothed like the 
leaflets. Flowers similar to No. 1, rose color. In the western part of 
our region. June-July. 

4. ARUNCUS, Adams 

Herbs with flowers of two kinds, the staminate and pistillate on dif- 
ferent plants, perennial. Flowers in long slender clu.sters (spikes) white, 
the spikes forming a pj'ramidal compound cluster. Leaves compound, 
doubly feather-formed. Stamens numerous; petals as many as the calyx 
lobes, mostly 5; pistils usually 3. Seed casket (follicle), usually 2-seeded. 

A. Sylvester, Kosteletzky. Goat's-beard. Stem erect, branched, 3 to 
7 ft. high. Leaves doubly compound of 3 to many leaflets. Leaflets egg- 
shaped, toothed, with or without leaf-stalks. Rich woods, mountains of 
Penna., and south. May-July. 

5. RUBUS, L. 

Perennial shrubs, rarely herbs or trailing vines often armed wdth 
prickles. Leaves mostly compound, usually of 3 or 5 leaflets, rarely of 
more. Calyx 5-parted; corolla of 5 petals; stamens and pistils, each 
numerous. Fruit a berry with many seeds, or an aggregation of small 

Leaves not consisting of several leaflets. 

Flowers purple R. odoratus 

Flowers white R. Chamacmorus 

Leaves consisting of .•^ or more leaflets. 

Fruit concave beneath and when ripe falling away from the dry receptacle. 

Stem armed with prickles. 

Fruit dark i)urple R. occidentalis 

F-ruit light red R. strigosus 

FVuit dark red R. neglectus 

Stem no't armed with prickles R. tri/iorus 

Fruit not separating from the juicy receptacle. 

Stems stout, erect or curved. 
Stems 2 to 12 ft. high. 

Lower surface of leaves covered with white down R. ciincifolius 
Lower surface of leaves not white-downy. 

Leaflets mostly in 3's R. frondosus 

Leaflets mostly in 5's. 

I'Vuit cylindric R. nllcghnniensis 

F'ruit oval or oblong R. canadensis 

Stems prostrate, mostly trailing. 


Leaves generally of i; leaflets, plant not trailing. 

Hairs tipped with glands R. setosiis 

Hairs not glandular R. nigricans 

Leaves generally of 3 leaflets. 
Stems trailing. 

Stem bristly, scarcely prickly R. hispidus 

Stem prickly. 

Leaflets somewhat downy beneath. Rounded or heart-shaped at 

base R. Baileyanus 

Leaflets smooth, both sides, not rounded or heart-shaped at base 

R. villosus 

(Many new species of blackberries have recently been proposed. Those described 
below are established and recognized forms. Many of the others may be varieties 
or hybrids.) 


1. R. odoratus, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 62.) Purple-flowering Raspberrt. 
An erect shrub, 3 to 5 ft. high, witli broad 3- to 5-lobed leaves with small 
stipules or none, and covered, especially along the veins of the lower side, 
with hairs. At base the leaf is heart-shaped, often nearly or quite a 
foot wide. Flowers in loose terminal clusters, each flower 1 to 2 in. 
broad, purple, sho\vy; calyx with a long slender appendage. Fruit red 
when ripe, broad, thin and dish-shaped, sometimes called thimble berry 
because the fruit fits over the end of the finger. Along tlie borders of 
woods and in hedges. June-Aug. 

2. R. Chamaemorus, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 62.) Mountain Raspberry. 
Cloudberry. Herbaceous, 3 to 10 in. high. Leaves rounded, 3- to 5-lobed; 
borders finely toothed, 1 to 3 in. broad. Flower solitary, white, from ^ to 
1 in. broad. Peat bogs and swamps. New England. June-July. 

3. R. strigosus, Michx. (Fig. 1, pi. 63.) Wild Red Raspberry. 
Shrub, 3 to 6 ft. high. Stem covered with stifl" bristles, older stems 
armed with prickles. Leaflets 3 ( rarely 5 ) , rounded or heart-shaped 
at base, pointed at apex; borders doubly notched. Under side of leaflets 
whitish with fine hairs. Flowers in loose clusters, white. Fruit red. 
In cultivation varieties with yellow or with white fruit occur. Along 
fences, and in dry pastures. May-June. 

4. R. neglectus, Peck. Purple Wild Raspberry. Stem recurved 
and rooting at the tip, smooth, but stems sparingly bristly and prickly. 
Leafiets egg-sliaped, sharply toothed. Inflorescence a flattened cluster, 
rather compact. Flowers nearly i in. broad; petals white. Fruit nearly 
hemispheric, dark red or purple. Dry rocky soil, New England to Penna. 

5. R. occidentalis, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 63.) Black Raspberry. Thim- 
bleberry. Stems from 5 to 12 ft. high, not much branched, recurved 
and armed with strong hooked prickles. Leaflets 3, ovate, pointed, cov- 
ered, as are also the newer stems, with a whitish down. Flowers white, 
petals shorter than the sepals. Fruit purple-black. Common in pastures. 

6. R. triflorus, Richards. (Fig. 5, pi. 63.) Dwarf Raspberry. 
Stems 6 to 12 in. liigh, generally trailing, without prickles or bristles. 
Leaflets 3, broadly and somewhat angularly egg-shaped with double ser- 
rations. Flowers few, white, petals recurved. Fruit red-purple, of a 
few grains. Swamps, most of our region. May-July. 


7. R. frondosus, Bigel. (Fig. 7, pi. 63.) High Blackberry. (R. 


villosus, Gray.) Stems 3 to 10 ft. high, erect or recurved, armed with 
strong curved prickles. Young branches and lower surface of leaves 
covered with short hairs. Leallets 3, rarely 5. Stipules at base of com- 
mon leaf-stem linear; borders of leaves coarsely serrate. Flowers white 
in terminal conic or pyramidal clusters. Fruit black, sweet and pulpy. 
Dry soil. New England and southward. May-June. 

8. R. alleghaniensis, Porter. (Fig. 8, pi. 03.) Mountain Black- 
berry. Similar to last, but stems more slender and leaflets, often 5, 
generally narrower, while the fruit is quite narrow, cylindric, less pulpy 
and of different flavor from the preceding species. Dry soil northern 
New York to Penna., and southward. Aug.-Sept. 

9. R. canadensis, L. IMillspaugii's Blackberry. {R. Millspaughii, 
Britton.) Stem with few or no prickles. Berry shorter than either of 
last two species. Adirondack and White Mountains. 

10. R. cuneifolius, Pursh. (Fig. 4, pi. 63.) Sand Blackberry. 
Stems much branched, 1 to 3 ft. high, upriglit with strong straight or 
recurved prickles. Young branches and under side of leaves whitish 
downy. Leaflets generally 3, sometimes 5, deeply serrate at borders; 
rounded at apex, the terminal one broadly wedge-shaped. Fruit black. 
Sandy woods, in southern part of our area. 

11. R. hispidus, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 63.) Running Swamp Blackberry. 
Stems trailing, slender with many weak bristles. Branchlets ascending. 
Leaflets 3, broad at ajie.x, pointed at base. Fruit of a few grains, black. 
In moist shaded places. June-July. 

12. R. setosus, Bigel. (Fig. 0, pi. 63.) Bristly Blackberry. 
Similar to last, but stems stouter and less trailing. Older branchlets 
covered with stout reflexed bristles which are tipped with glands. Leaf- 
Jets generally in 5s, narrower and longer than those of No. 10. Fruit 
small, sour. Northern New York and eastern Penna. July-Aug. 

13. R. nigricans, Rydb. Peck's Dewberry. Stouter than Nos. 10 
and 11, and more upright. Stems armed with fine pritkles, which are 
not tipped with glands. Leaves, the lower, at least, in 5s; both sur- 
faces smootli ; leaflets on short stalks. 

14. R. Baileyanus, Britton. Bailey's Blackberry. Stems generally 
trailing, 3 to 6 ft. long, armed with many prickers. Leaflets generally 
3, broadly oval, downy; margins coarsely serrate. Flowers rather large, 
white; fruit small. Woods and shady places, Maine to southern New 
York and southward. May-June. 

15. R. villosus, Ait. (Fig. 0, pi. 63.) Low Blackberry. Dew- 
BF^RRY. (A*, procumhcns, Muhl.). Stems trailing, 5 to 12 ft long, the 
ascending branches 4 to 12 in. high. Trailing stem and erect branches 
armed with prickers. Flowers white, rather large. Fruit black, juicy and 
of fine flavor. Throughout our area. 


A low herb of the general appearance of a violet. Stem and leaves 
downy. Leaves nearly orbicular with heart-«haj)ed bases. Flower soli- 
tary, white, with calyx of 5 or 6 parts, generally 3 lonyxT than tiie others. 
Petals 5 ; stamens numerous. 



Plate 63 

1. Rubus strigosus. 2. R, hispidus. 3. R. occidentalis. 4. R. cuneifolius. 
5. R. tritiorus. G. R. villosus. 7. R. frondosus. 8. R. alleghaniensis. 9. R. 



D. repens, L. (Fig. 1, pi, 64.) Dalibarda. Stems creeping, send- 
ing up tufts of leaves and naked scapes each terminated by a single 
spreading tiower. Borders of leaves serrated. At base of leaf-stalks are 
found narrow stipules. Found in moist woods; most of our area. 

Herbs, with leaves and flower stalks springing from the root, propa- 
gating largely by runners. Leaves of 3 leaflets, coarsely serrated, hairy, 
as are the leaf stems. At base of leaf stems are narrow linear stipules. 
Flowers white in loose terminal, clusters. Stamens numerous. Fruit 
a pulpy berry on a conical receptacle, red when ripe. 

1. F. virginiana, Duchesne. (Fig. 3, pi. 64.) Strawberry. Leaves 
in tufts; leaf stems hairy, 2 to 6 in. high. Fruit a juicy pulp in which 
is imbedded many yellowish achenes or seeds. Form of fruit broad oval 
or round. In all of our range. 

2. F. canadensis, Michx. (Fig. 4, pi. 64.) Northern Strawberry. 
Plant more slender, less hairy than No. 1, fruit narrow cylindric, and 
less juicy. Leaflets generally on leaf-stalks. 

3. F. Terrae-novae, Pvvdb. Newfoundland Strawberry. Leaflets 
almost or entirely without leaf-stalks. Otherwise nearly like No. 2. 

8. DUCHESNEA, J. E. Smith 

An herb with general appearance of the strawberries, but with yellow 
flowers and with red fruit much resembling the strawberry, but not 

D. indica, (Andr.) Focke. (Fig. 2, pi. 64.) Yellow or Indian 
Strawberry. Introduce<l from India and found occasionally in waste 
places. Southern jmrt of our area. 


Herbs, rarely shrubs, generally with perennial roots, rarely annual. 
Leaves, which are furnished with stipules, are compound of three or 
more leaflets. Flowers white, yellow or purple, with both pistils and 
stamens, the latter generally numerous, rarely 5 or 10. Calyx double, 
that is, with 5 sepals and with 4 or 5 bracts below. Corolla of 5, rarely 
of 4 petals. The seed carpels grouped upon a dry receptacle. 

Shrubs P. fruticosa 

Herbs fa few with woody stems at base). 
Flowers white. 

Leaflets 3 -P. tridcntata 

Leaflets 7 to 1 1 P. arguta 

Flowers yellow. 
Leaflets 3. 

Plant * to 2 in. hich P. Robhiitstana 

Plant i to 2* ft. high P. monspeltciists 

Leaflets 5, exceptionally 7. 

Leaves silvery white beneath P. argentea 

Leaves green both sides. 

Plants erect or nearly so. 

Leaflets incised at border. 

l'"lowcrs about 1/4 in. broad ... P. intermedia 

I"lowcrs about 2/3 in. broad P. recta 

Leaflets feather-formed, the incisions extending to the 

mid-rib P. pcnnsylvanica 

Plant recumbent, trailing P. canadensis 

Leaflets 5 to 1 1 P- Mradoxa 

Leaflets 7 to 25. Plant recumbent, trailing .... P. Ansertna 



Plate 64 
1 Dalibarda repens. 2. Duchesnea indica. 3. Fragaria virginiana. 4. F. 
canadensis. 5. F. americana. 6. PotentiUa paradoxa. 7. P. Robbinsiana. 
8. P. pennsylvanica. 


1. P. arguta, Pursh. (Fig. 7, pi. G6.) Tall Cinquefoil. Stems 
stout, erect, 1 to 4 ft. high, hairy. Leaves compound, of 7 to 11 leaflets, 
borders coarsely serrate, broad oval or rhomboid; stipules membraneous. 
Flowers in a ratlier close cluster, creamy-white, about ^ in. diameter. 
r)ry places. Maine to southern New Jersey. June-July. 

2. P. argentea, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 65.) Silvery Cinquefoil. Small, 
tufted, stem branching, 4 to 12 in. long, half prostrate, silvery-white, 
as is also the under surface of the leaves. Leaflets 5, each deeply cut 
into about 5 narrow segments. Flowers in loose terminal clusters, yel- 
low, i to 2/3 in. diameter. In dry pastures, etc., in our area. May-Sept. 

3. P, intermedia, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 66.) Downy Cinquefoil. Stems 
leafy, much l)ranclu'd, 1 to 2^ ft. long, partly prostrate, hairy. Leaves 
of 3 to 5 leaflets, which are oblong or pear-shaj)ed, with coarsely serrate 
borders. Flowers numerous, in loose termina.1 clusters. Mass., New 
York and New Jersey. 

4. P. recta, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 66.) Rough-fruited Cinquefoil. 
Erect, hairy, stems 1 to 2 ft. high, branching mostly in 2s at the top. 
Lcallets narrow oblong -or lance-shaped, 5, less often 7, spreading from 
a common center, borders coarsely serrate; stipules rather conspicuous, 
the lower ones leaf-like. Flowers in loose terminal cluster, each 1/3 to 
i in. broad. In waste places, New York and southward. June-Sept. 

5. P, Robbinsiana, Oakes. (Fig. 7, pi. 64.) Robbin's Cinquefoil. 
(f. frigida, (j!ray.) Dwarf, i to 2 in. high, growing in dense tufts; plant 
silky. Leaves of 3 egg-shaped leaflets, coarsely toothed. Flowers small, 
generally solitary, the sepals and adjoining bracts equal. White Moun- 
tains, N. H. 

6. P. monspeliensis, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 66.) Rough Cinquefoil. {P. 
norvefjica, L. ) . tStenis i to 2 ft. high, rough-hairy. Leaflets 3; stipules 
leaf-like. Flowers in close leafy terminal clusters. Calyx as large as, 
sometimes larger, than the corolla. Petals falling quickly. Common in 
dry soil. June-Sept. 

7. P, paradoxa, Nutt. (Fig. 6, pi. 64.) Bushy Cinquefoil. Plant 
bushy, 1 to 3 ft. high, decumbent or erect, soft downy. Leaves pinnatcly 
compound with 6 to 11 leaflets, except the very upper ones which are 
trifoliate; stipules conspicuous, egg-shaped or oval. Flowers scattered, 
terminal to the branches or bi'anchlets, yellow, J to i in. broad. New 
York, shores of fireat Lakes and soutliward. June-Sept. 

8. P. pennsylvanica, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 64.) Coast Cinquefoil. {P. 
littoralis, Kydberg. ) Stems erect or prostrate, * to 2 ft. high, slightly 
hairy or smooth. Leaflets 5, sometimes 7, feather-form, incised to the 
mid-rib. Flowers small, about ^ in. broad, in terminal clusters. Coast 
of Maine and New Hampshire. June-July. 

n. P. fruticosa, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 65.) Shrubby CiNQtiEroiL. Low, 
much branched shrubs growing in tufted groups. Stems ^ to 4 ft. high, 
with shreddy bark. Leaflets 5 (or 7), narrow oblong, without serrations 
at borders, silky, the margins rolling. Flowers yellow, about an inch 
broad, terminal. In moist pastures, Maine to New Jersey. June-Sept. 

10. P. tridentata, Soland. (Fig. 2, pi. 65.) Three-toothed Cin- 
quefoil. btcma 1 to 10 in. high, woody at base. Plants growing in 



Plate G5 
1 Potentilla canadonsis. 2. P. tridentata. 3. P. fruticosa. 4. P. argeu- 
tea. 5. P. monspeliensis. Var. norwegica. G. P. Anserina. 


tufts. Leaflets 3, oblonf^, broad at apex and terminated by 3 conspicuous 
teeth. Flowers white, about 1/3 in. broad, few, in terminal cluster. 
Rocky places, especially on high mountains. June-Aug. 

11. P. Anserina, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 65.) Silver Weed. Goose Grass. 
Stem slender, trailing, rooting at nodes. Leaflets many, silky. Flowers 
yellow, about 1 in. broad, solitary. Moist places, throughout our area. 

12. P. canadensis, L. (Fig. 1, pi. fi5.) Five-finger. Common 
CiXQUEFOiL. Stems slender, running on ground and spreading by run- 
ners whioh are from a few inches to 2 ft. long. Leaflets 5 from a com- 
mon center, toothed at borders. Common in fields and road-sides. April- 

10. COMARUM, L. 

A stout herb, nearly smooth, with purple flowers. General appearance 
that of a Potentilla (P. palustris of Gray). Stamens and pistils numer- 

C. palustre, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 66.) Purple Cinquefoil. Marsh Five- 
finger. {Potentilla palustris, (L.) Scop.). Prostrate herb with stems 
i to 2 ft. long, rooting along the stems. Leaves of 5, or more frequently 
7 leaflets, which are oblong, but broader at apex than at base, sharply 
toothed at borders, 1 to 3 in. long. Stipules broad, enfolding the leaf 
stems. Flowers purple inside, about 1 in. broad. In swamps and peat 
bogs, north to south as far as New Jersey. June-Aug. 


Low, decumbent, shrubby plant found on summit of high mountains. 
Leaves of 3 leaflets. Flowers with broad calyx of 5 divisions and with 
small petals extending only about i the length of the calyx segments. 
Stamens 5, pistils 5 or 10. 

S. procumbens, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 66.) Sibbaldia. Creeping, densely 
tufted, woody stems. Leaflets 3, wedge-shaped. Flowers yellow, the 
calyx much larger than corolla. Summits of White Mountains. 

12. WALDSTEINIA, Willd. 

Herb with appearance of strawberry. Leaves and flowering stem from 
the root, 3 leaflets, each broadly wedge-shaped, with loI)ed and serrated 
borders. Flowers of 5 yellow petals and 5 sepals, the calyx top- or in- 
verted cone-shaped. Stamens numerous, inserted into the throat of the 
calyx. Seed cases 2 to 6. 

W. fragarioides, (Michx.) Tratt. (Fig. 6, pi. 66.) Barren Straw- 
berry. Plant 4 to 6 in. high. The flower scape bearing 3 to 8 yellov?^ 
flowers Wooded hills. New England and westward. May-June. 

13. GEUM, L. 
TTorbs. Pistils numerous, each carpel with one ovule; the seed casket 
becoming dry fruit when ripe, the styles becoming hairy tails. Calyx 
of 5 parts with 5 alternating small bracts. Leaves compound, feather- 
formed, i. e., of several leaflets arranged along each side of the common 
leaf stalk, the terminal leaflet being in most instances much larger than 



Plate 66 
1. Potentilla monspeliensis. 2. P. recta. 3. P. intermedia. 4. Comarum 
palustre. 5. Sibbaldia procumbens. 6. Waldsteiiiia fragarioides. 7. Poten- 
tilla arguta. 


the lateral ones. Leaves attended by stipules. Stamens many. Petals 
5, rounded, exceeding the divisions of the calyx. 

Flowers white. 

Plant silky, pubescent G. canadense 

Plant with stiff hairs G. virginianum 

Flowers yellow. 

Leaflets rarely more than 3, basal often of an individual leaf . G. vernum 
l>eaflets 3 to 7. Terminal one orbicular or kidney-formed . . G. Peckii 
Tarminal one generally elongated, flowers creamy-yellow . G. Aavum 
Leaflets numerous, the terminal large, rounded and deeply lobed 

G. macro [ihylhim 

Leaflets s to 7, terminal one egg-shaped, about 3 lobed . . . G. striatum 

Flowers purple. 

Flowers nodding G. rivale 

Flowers erect , G. triflornm 

1. G. rivale, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 68.) Purple Avens. Water Avens. 
Plant erect, 1 to 3 ft. high, hairy. Basal leaves compound, feather- 
formed with the terminal leaflets much larger than the others. Flowers 
few, nodding, petals and sepals purple. Seed caskets with plumed tails. 
Moist grounds, Maine to Pennsylvania. May-July. 

2. G. triflorum, Pursh. (Fig. 2, pi. 67.) Long-plumed Pxjrple 
Avens. ((/. cilia turn, Pursh.). Plant erect, i to IJ ft. high; basal 
leaves in tufts much divided, the terminal ones not large. Flowers erect, 
light purple, plumes of the seed caskets 1 to 2 in. long. Dry soil. 
Northern New York and New England. May-June. 

3. G. Peckii, Pursh. (Fig. .5, pi. 07.) Yellow IMountain Avens. 
(G. radiatum, Michx.). Erect, i to 2 ft. high, branching at top, simple 
below. Basal leaves of several leaflets, the terminal one very large (3 to 
6 in. broad), nearly round, or kidney-shaped. Flowers yellow. White 
Mountains and in Maine. July-Aug. 

4. G. vernum, (Raf.) T. and G. (Fig. 4, pi. 67.) Spring Avens. 
Erect, or ascending, A to 2 ft. high, slender, few leaved. Leaflets 3 to 5, 
sometimes the leaf is simple. Leaflets all egg-shaped. Flowers yellow, 
few. Calyx reflcxed, bracts at base of calyx absent. Fruit head stalked 
but not plumed. Shady places. New Jersey and southern New York. 

5. G. canadense, Jacq. (Fig. L pi. 67.) White Avens. (G. al- 
bum, (imelin.) Erect, slender, 1-i to 24 ft. high, sparingly covered with 
soft hairs. Basal leaves of 3 to 5 leaflets or of a simple leaf. Of the 
compound leaves the terminal leaflet is broadly egg-shaped or pear- 
shaped. Flowers white, f in. broad; calyx lobes reflexed; receptacle 
bristly. Shaded places. Generally distributed. June-Aug. 

6. G. virginianum, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 6S.) Rough Avens. Much 
stouter than preceding species. Covered with stiff hairs. The reflexed 
sepals exceed in length the white petals. Moist grounds, throughout 
our area. May-July. 

7. G. flavum, (Porter.) Bicknell. (Fig. 6, pi. 67.) Cream Colored 
Avens. JCrcct, 1 to 3 ft. tall. Stem bristly below. Basal leaves some- 
times of 3 leaflets, in other cases more. Stem leaves, lower ones oft6n 
.')-parted, the terminal leaflet often elongated, upper leaflets egg- or 
lanre-shaped. Flowers cream-yellow, petals shorter than the reflexed 
segments of the calyx. Woods. New York, southward. June-August. 

8. G. macrophyllum, Willd. (Fig. 3, pi. 07.) Large-leaved 



Plate 67 
1. Goum canadense. 2 G. triflorum. 3. G. macrophyllum. 4. G. vernum. 
5. G. Peckii. G. G. flavum. 


AvEXS. Erect, 1 to 3 ft. high, bristly hairy. Stem simple, branched above. 
Leaflets of basal leaves numerous, the terminal one very large and heart- 
shaped at base with several lobes at margin. Lateral leaflets quite smalL 
Flowers yellow, petals exceeding the reflexed sepals. Receptacle nearly 
naked. Low grounds. New England, New York and northward. May- 

9. G. strictum, Ait. (Fig. 2, pi. 68.) Yellow Avens. Erect, 3 to 
5 ft. high. Somewhat hairy. Leaflets of root leaves 5 to 7; terminal one 
generally of 3 to 5 lobes. Flowers yellow; receptacle covered with soft 
hairs. Low grounds, Maine to Penna. June-Aug. 

14. DRYAS, L. 

Low matted plant, found on the White Mountains by Prof. Peck. 
Flowers white, rather large, solitary with 8 or 9 petals and many stamens 
and seed heads, which have plumose tails. 

D. integrifolia, Vahl. (Fig. 4, pi. 68.) Entire-leaved Dryas. Sum- 
mit of White Mountains. 

15. FILIPENDULA, (Tourn.) Hill. (Ulmaria, Hill!) 
Perennial herbs with compound feather-parted (pinnate) leaves and 
with flowers in loose inverted pyramidal clusters. Petals 5; calyx 5-lobed; 
stamens numerous; pistils 5 to 15; ovary with 2 ovules. 

Leaflets hand-shaped F. rubra 

Leaflets on each side of the leaf stem, not lobed except the terminal one 

F. Uhnaria 

1. F. rubra, Hill. Queen-of-thePrairie. Herb, 2 to 8 ft. high, 
smooth. Leaves sometimes 3 ft. long, compound, the leaflets, except the 
terminal, on each side of the leaf stem, with stipules at the base, the leaf- 
lets themselves hand-shaped compound, the borders sharply toothed. 
Flowers in a loose cluster, pink or purple. Introduced. Escaped from 
gardens in some parts of our area. June-July. 

2. F. Ulmaria, (L.) Barnhart. Meadow-sweet. Stem 2 to 4 ft. 
high. Plant resembles No. 1, but, except the terminal leaflet, which is 
hand-shaped compound, the leaflets are egg-shaped. Flowers yellowish- 
white. Also an escape from gardens. June-Aug. 


Low herb with rounded and lobed leaves and small greenish flowers in 
crowded clusters. Sti])nlos conspicuous and leaf-like. Calyx inversely 
conical of 4 or 5 lobes, petals wanting. Stamens 1 to 4. 

A. vulgaris, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 69.) Lady's Mantle. Dew-cup. Stems 
a few inelies long, more or less reclining. Leaves round or kidney-shaped 
with 5 or more distinct lobes; stipules toothed. Flowers small, many in 
the rather crowded cluster. Calyx usually of 4 lobes. In grassy places, 
roadsides, etc., mostly in northern part of our area and only occasional. 


Perennial herbs, all of ours 1 to 5 ft high, with compound feather- 
formed leaves, the leaflets arranged on opposite sides of the leaf -stalk with 
a terminal leaflet and with several small, apparently partly-developed 



Plate 68 
1. Geum rivale. 2. G. strictum. 3. G. virginianum. 4. Dryas integri- 
folia. 5. Agrinionia gryposepala. 


leaflets interspersed among those fully formed. Stipules at base of leaf- 
stalks conspicuous, deeply toothed. Flowers arranged along a slender 
flower stem, small, yellow. Calyx 5-lobed; petals 5; stamens 5 to 15; 
seed carpels 1 or 2, included in the tube of the calyx. 

LeaHcts. ^ to c; ^. microcarpa 

Leaflets, generally y. 

Elliptic or oblong A, gryposepala 

Pear-sliaped A. striata 

Egg-shaped or oblong A. mollis 

Leaflets generally more than 7. 

Ellii)tic or egg-shaped A. Brittoniatia 

Narrow, lance-shaped A, parvMora 

1. A. gryposepala, Wallr. (Fig. 5, pi. 68.) Tall Hairy Agrimony. 
(A. Eupotoria, Cray's Manual, 6th ed.). Leaflets 5 to 7, elliptic or ob- 
long, pointed at each end, teeth coarse. Plant hairy with stiff hairs. 
Petals twice as long as sepals. Roots not tubrous. Flower scape long 
with many yellow flowers. Woods and thickets, common. July-Sept. 

2. A. striata, Michx. (Fig. 1, pi. 60.) Woodland Agrimony. Leaf- 
Jets 5 to 7, oblong or pear-shaped. Plant with only a few hairs. Flower 
scapes short, quite slender, with few small flowers. Roots tubrous. Woods 
and thickets, Connecticut and southward. July-Sept. 

3. A. mollis, (T. and G.) Britton. (Fig. 2, pi. 69.) Soft Agri- 
mony. Plant with soft hairs. Leaflets narrowly oblong or pear-shaped 
with a pale pubescence beneath. Roots tubrous. Flowers small on slen- 
der spike. Woods and thickets, Connecticut, westward and southward. 

4. A. Brittoniana, Bicknell. Brixton's Agrimony. Similar to last, 
but roots are not tubrous, stem and leaves with stiller hairs and leaflets 
generally 9 to 11. Thickets 'and roadsides, northern New York and 
southward. June-Sept. 

5. A. parviflora, SoJand. (Fig. 3, pi. 69.) Many-floweked Agri- 
mony. Stems covered witli coarse brown hairs. Roots not tubrous. Leaf- 
lets 11 to 17, narrow lance-shaped. Southern New York and southward. 

6. A. microcarpa, Wallr. Small-fruited Agrimony. (A. pumilla, 
Muhl.). Plant slender, 1 to 2 ft. high, with few branches. Stem hairy. 
Leaves mostly of 3 leaflets, but often of 5 leaflets, small, elliptic, sharply 
toothed. Flowers few, small. Dry soil, Penna., and southward. Aug. 

Herbs with feather-formed compound leaves. Calyx of 4 lobes, petals 
wanting, stamens 4 to many. Fruit a single nut-like seed enclosed in the 
dry, angular calyx. 

L S. minor, Scop. (Fig. 4, pi. 69.) Salad Burnett. (S. Sangui- 
fiorhfi, I'.ritton.) Slender, about 1 ft. high. Leaflets generally 11 to 13, 
arranged along the leaf-stalk, rounded, toothed. Flowers in terminal 
dense rounded clusters, greenish with a sprinkling of red. Occasional. 
Introduced, from gardens. June-Sept. 

2. S. canadensis, L. (l''ig. 5, jil. (»9.) Creat American Burnett. 
Stem 1 to 6 ft. high. Smooth or with pubescence toward the base. 
Leaflets 7 to 15, egg-shaped, rounded or heart-shai)ed at base, coarsely 



Plate Of) 
1. Agrimonia striata. 2. A. mollis 3. A. pa.villora. 4. Sanguisorba 
minor. "5. S. canadensis. 0. Alchemilla vulgaris. 


toothed. Flowprs in a conspicuous cylindric or pyramidal head, sepals 

4, stamens 4, long, white; the long spike taking its color from these ex- 
serted filaments. Bogs and wet meadows. July-Oct. 

8. oMcinalis, L., and 8. minor, Scop., the former with more dense spikes 
than No. 1, wliich are brownish or purplish-red, the latter with globular 
greenish heads, established in a few places. 

19. ROSA, L. 

Shrubs with, usuaTIy, prickly stems and compound, feather-formed 
leaves, subtended by stipules, wliich are united to the sides of the leaf- 
stalk. Flowers solitary or, in our species, in loose clusters. Petals 

5, spreading, calyx tube urn-shaped, contracted at the mouth. Stamens 
numerous, inserted on the ring that lines the calyx tube, within which are 
the numerous pistils. 

Stems without prickles R. blanda 

Stems with both slender and stiff prickles R. nitida 

Stems with stiff prickles only. 

Prickles straight and slender R. huinilis 

Prickles recurved, short and slender, stipules narrow . . . R. Carolina 
Prickles stout, recurved. 

Leaf borders with single row of teeth R. canina 

Leaf borders with double row of teeth R. rubiginosa 

1. R. blanda, Ait. (Fig. 2, pi. 70.) Smooth or Meadow Rose. Shrub 

1 to 4 ft. high, growing in moist rocky places; stems wholly unarmed or 
with very few (rarely many) prickles. Stipules broad, extending nearly 
to the first pair of leaflets, not toothed. Leaflets 5 to 7, elliptic or nar- 
rowly oblong. Serration simple. Flowers pink, 2 to 3 in. broad. Sepals 
entire. Moist rocky places. June-July. 

2. R, Carolina, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 70.) Swamp Rose. Shrub often 8 ft. 
high, growing in swamps. Stems usually straight and stout. Prickles, 
below the stipules generally recurved, short, in pairs. Leaflets 5 to 9, 
usually 7; narrowly oblong, pointed at the ends; usually silky beneath; 
serrations of leaves simple. Flowers 2 to 3 in. broad, pink. Calyx lobes 
simple. Wet grounds; swamps. June- Aug. 

3. R. humilis. Marsh. (Fig. 5, pi. 70.) Low or Pasture Rose. 
Shrub, i to 3 ft. or more high. Stem slender, armed with strni()ht, slen- 
der prickles. Stipules long and narrow; leaflets mostly 7, narrowly ob- 
long, pointed at ends; borders simply toothed. Flowers few or solitary, 

2 to 3 in. broad, the petals dilated above and usually lobed. Sepals with 
prickles and somewhat lobed. Dry soils. 

Var. lucida, Ehrli. Leaves shinitig above and flowers more numerous. 
Moist places. (Sometimes described as a species, R. virginiana, Mill.) 

4. R. nitida, Willd. (Fig. 3, pi. 70.) Northeastern Rose. Low 
bushy shrub. Stems armed thickly with prickles; spines slender. Leaf- 
lets 5 to 9. Stipules rather broad. Flowers few or solitary. Margins of 
swamps. June-July. 

5. R. canina, L. Boo Rose. Wn.D Briar. Shrub, reaching height 
of 10 ft. Stems armed with stout recurved prick^es. Leaflets 5 to 7, 
borders with simple serrations. Sepals, lobed at free extremities. Road- 
sides and waste places. Naturalized. June- July. 

0. R. rubiginosa, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 70.) Eclantine. Sweet BriAR. 
Shrub, similar to last. Stems wand-like, curving, armed with strong re- 



Plate 70 
1. Rosa Carolina. 2 R. blanda. 3. R. nitida. 4. R. rubiginosa. 5. R. 


curved prickles. Leaflets with donhly serrated horders, resinous and very 
aromatic beneath. Dry pastures. June- July, 

Family VIII.— POMACEAE, Apple Family 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple or compound (feather- 
formed). Flowers regular, sepals and petals generally 5 each. 
Stamens numerous (rarely few). Ovary 1- to 5-celled, most fre- 
quently 5. Fruit consists of a wall or walls of stiff parchment-like 
texture or of a more woody structure which encloses the seeds 
and of a fleshy substance which envelopes the 5 or less seed caskets 
and their contents. 

Shrubs and trees armed with thorns Crataegus 

Shrubs and trees without thorns. 

Leaves compound (feather-formed) Sorbus 

Leaves simple. 

Fruit usually more than au inch in diameter. 

Flowers usually white; flesh with gritty cells Pyrus 
Flow^ers mostly pink; flesh without gritty cells 


Fruit small, less than 4 in. in diameter. 

Seed cells partially or completely doubled. 

Small trees Amelanchier 

Seed cells not doubled. 

Low shrubs Aronia 

1. SORBUS, L. 

Trees or sliruhs, with compound leaves with about 10 to 16 leaflets 
arranged on the sides of tlie leaf-stalk, and with an odd terminal leaflet. 
Flowers in a compact, terminal, nearly flat cluster. Fruit small, berry- 
like, red. 

1. S. americana, Marsh. (Fig. 1, pi. 71.) American IMountain 
Ash. (Pyrus americana, (Marsh.) DC.). Small trees, reaching a lieight 
of 50 ft. Leaflets 11 to 17, narrow, lance-sha]x;d with tapering points, 
without hairs, above or below, except when young. ]5errii'S as large as 
peas, red when ripe. Swamps and mountain woods, mostly m northern 
half of our area. 

2. S. sambucifolia, (A. Gray.) Roem. Western Mountain Ash. 
(Pyrus siilchnisis, (Roem.) Piker.) Leaflets 7 to 15, oblong or oval, to 
lance-shaped; less tapering at points than those of No. 1, and usually 
clothed with soft hairs beneath. Fruit larger than that of No. 1. North- 
ern New England and northward. 

2. PYRUS, L. 

Trees, sometimes shrubs, with simple leaves. Flowers while or pink, 



Plate 71 
1. Sorbus americana. 2. Aronia arbutifolia. 3. A. nigra. 4. Malus coro- 
naria. 5. Pyrus communis. 6. Amelanchier spicata. 7. A. oligocarpa. 8. 
A. rotundifolia. 9. A. canadensis. 


showy, in a flat or flattish cluster, the flower stalks of the outer rows 
beiiij,' longer than those at the center; tlie center flowers blooming first. 
Calyx of 5 acute lobes, urn-shaped. Petals 5, stamens numerous, styles 
usuallj' 5. Fruit containing many grit-cells; not deijressed where at- 
tached to stem. 

P. communis, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 71.) Peak. Tree well known in culti- 
vation and found also wild, escaped from cultivation, 

3. MALUS, Juss. 

Trees and shrubs, with simple leaves; with uml)ol-like clusters of 
flowers; fruit fleshy without grit-cells, depressed at stem attacliment. 

Leaves often heart-shaped at base M. sylvestris 

Leaves not heart-shaped, generally nearly triangular M. coronaria 

Leaves narrowly oblong M. angtistifolia 

1. M. sylvestris, (L.) Mill. Apple. (,1/. Mains, (L.). Britton.) 
Leaves broad egg-shaped, more or less heart-shaped at base, or rounded, 
point tapering, smootli above, silky hairy beneath. Fruit globose, de- 
pressed at insertion of stem. In woods, escaped from cultivation. Southern 
New York, New Jersej'^ and Pennsylvania. 

2. M. coronaria, (L.) Mill. (Fig. 4, pi. 71.) American Crab Ap- 
ple. A tree, smaller and more slender than the common apple. Leaves 
broadly egg-shaped or triangular, with lobes toward the base. Borders 
deeply serrated. Flowers white or rose color. Fruit 1 in. to lA in. 
diameter, globular, or the stem insertion slightly depressed. In thickets, 
occasional througliout our area. 

3. M. angustifolia, (Ait.) Michx. Narrow-leaved Crab Apple. 
Small tree resembling No. 2, but leaves are narrow-oblong or lance-form. 
Fruit rather smaller than No. 2. Occasional in southern part of our area. 

4. ARONIA, Pers. 

Low shrubs with fruit resembling the huckleberry in size and form 
and witli leaves oblong or lance-shaped. Flowers in terminal compound 
clusters. Calyx of 5 lobes; petals 5, spreading; stamens numerous; styles 
3 to 5 united at base. 

Fruit red. Flower cluster hairy A. arbutifolia 

Fruit black. Flower cluster nut hairy //. nigra 

1. A. arbutifolia, (L.) EU. (Fig. 2, pi. 71.) Eicn Choke Berry. 
Shrub, 1 to 4 ft. high; leaves oblong or inversely lance-shaped, silky be- 
neath. Compound clusters of flowers silky. Flowers white or tinged 
with red. Fruit 1/G to 1/4 in. diameter, astringent. Swamps and damp 
thickets. IMarch-May. 

2. A. nigra, (Willd.) Britton. (Fig. 3, pL 71.) Black Choke 
Berry. Leaves similar, but sometimes more and at other times less 
pointed than those of No. 1. Compound cluster of white or reddish 
flowers without hairs on the flower stems. Moist shady places. March- 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves simple; stems unarmed; flowers in clusters, 
white. Calyx of 5 parts; corolla of 5 petals; stanions numerous; pistils 
5, joined below. Fruit a beiTy with 10 seeds, when all mature. 


1. A. canadensis, (L.) Medic. (Fis. 0, pL 7L) Shad Bush. Serv- 
ice Bekry. Tree, usually small and slender, but sometimes attaining a 
considerable size. Leaves egg-shaped to oblong, usually heart-shaped at 
base, borders sharply serrated, 1 to 3 in. long, not woolly beneath. Bracts 
at base of flower steins purplish, silky, falling early. Flowers large, white, 
in drooping graceful clusters. Fruit about I in, diameter, globose; on 
long stems, crimson or purple, sweet. In dry woodlands. A handsome 
tree when in bloom in early spring. Woods and swamps. March-May. 

2. A. Botryapium, DC. Shad Bush. Tree similar to No. 1, rarely 
30 ft. high. Leaves densely ivhite-ivoollij beneath. Swamps. April-May. 

3. A. spicata, (Lam.) Dec. (Fig. 6, pi. 71.) Low June Berry. 
Stems 2 to 9 ft. high. Leaves | to 4 in. long. Flowers about half as 
large as those of No. 1 or No. 2. Southern part of our area. Grows 
among rocks, from long creeping roots. Blooms in May. 

4. A. rotundifolia, (Michx.) Roem. (Fig. 8, pi. 71.) Round-leaved 
June Berry. Similar to No. 1, but leaves broad and rounded at both ends, 
coarsely toothed at borders, sometimes heart-shaped at base, smooth on 
both surfaces. Fruit similar to that of No. 1, but ripening after that 
has fallen. Woods and thickets. New York and westward. 

5. A. oligocarpa, (Michx.) Roem. (Fig. 7, pi. 71.) Oblong-fruited 
June Berry. (A. arguta, Nutt.) Low shrub, 2 to 4 ft. high. Leaves 
oblong, pointed at each end with fine serrations at borders, 1 to 2 in. 
long. Flowers, only from I to 4, generally 2, in the cluster. Fruit pear- 
shaped, dark purple, 1/4 to 1/3 in. long. Northern borders of our area. 

Trees or shrubs armed with woody thorns and with umbel-like clusters 
of white or pink flowers. Leaves simple or deeply lobed. Calyx of 5 
parts, short; petals 5, spreading; stamens numerous; pistils 1 to 5. 
Ovary 1 to 5 celled with a single seed in each cell or when two they are 
not alike. Fruit small, nearly globular, with thin fleshy parts and rather 
large nutty seeds. 

Leaves pear-shaped or oblong, not deeply lobed or incised. 
Flowers in clusters. 

Leaves without hairs C. Crus-Galli 

Leaves silky beneath C. punctata 

Flowers single C. uniflora 

Leaves broad, nearly orbicular or broadly egg-shaped, with deeply incised or 
lobed borders. 

Leaves abrupt or heart-shaped at base C. coccinea 

Leaves acute at base. 

Fruit pear-shaped. 

Flower stems without hairs C. rotundifolia 

Flower stems hairy. 

Fruit smooth C. tomentosa 

Fruit hairy C. mollis 

Fruit globular C. niacracantha 

Leaves 3- to 7-lobcd C. Oxyacantha 

1. C. Crus-Galli, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 72.) Cockspub Thorn. Shrub or 
small tree, with horizontal branches, growing in pastures and thickets. 
Branches armed with thorns 2 to 4 in. long. Leaves dark shining green 
above, broadest at apex (pear-shaped) and tapering to a short leaf stalk. 
Serrations at borders except at basal third. Fruit globular, red, 1/3 in. 
broad. Common in pastures. Blooms, May or June. 


2. C. punctata, Jacq. (Fig. 6, pi. 72.) Large-fetjited Thorn. Small 
tree, similar to above, leaves generally broader, and thorns only about 
i as long. Leaves, when young at least, hairy beneath. Fruit about 1 
in. diameter, globose, red or yellow, 

3. C, uniflora, Muench. (Fig. 4, pi. 72.) Dwarf Thorn. Shrub, 3 
to 8 ft. high, with slender thorns about 1 to 2 in. long. Leaves pear- 
shaped, with serrate borders Fruit globose. Flowers with narrow lance- 
shaped deeply incised calyx lobes, petals shorter than sepals; flowers not 
generally in clusters but single or few. In southern part of our section. 

4. C. coccinea, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 72.) Scarlet Thorn. Shrub or 
small tree, witli reddish branches and stout spines 1-J to 2 in. long. 
Leaves on slender leaf-stalks, broad and abrupt at base or somewhat 
heart-shaped, borders serrate and deeply incised, point acute. Flowers 
many in a cluster, each about an in. in diameter. Fruit red, globose. 
Growing in thickets and pastures. Blooms in April or May. 

5. C. rotundifolia, (Ehrh.) Borck. (Fig. 1, pi. 72.) Glandular 
Thorn. Small tree similar to above, with smaller leaves which are 
tapering at base and rather smaller than No. 4. Flowers about the size 
of No. 4. Fruit pear-shaped, red. Often grows with C. coccinea and 
blooms later. 

6. C. tomentosa, L. Pear Thorn. Small tree much like the two 
preceding. Thorns generally less numerous. Leaves serrated and deeply 
incised and tapering to base, rather rounded at apex. The leaf-stalks and 
larger prominent veins of leaves quite downy when young. Fruit oblong. 
Less common than Nos. 4 and 5. 

7. C. macracantha, Lodd. (Fig. 5, pi. 72.) Long-spined Thorn. 
Similar to last three. Spines much larger, 2 to 5 in. long. Leaves re- 
semble those of No. 6. Fruit hairy, rather larger than that of No. 4. 

8. C. Oxyacantha, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 72.) Hawthorn. Leaves 3- to 
7-lobed. Clusters many flowered. Fruit small. Usually a shrub but 
sometimes a tall tree. Sparingly escaped from cultivation. May. 

9. C. mollis, (T. and G.) Scheele. (Fig. 7, pi. 72.) Red-fruited 
Thorn. Resembles C. tomentosa, but fruit is quite hairy. Rarely in 
northern section of our area. May. 

Family IX.— DRTJPACEAE. Plum Family 

Trees and shrubs, bearing fleshy fruit enclosing a liard woody 
" stone," which is irregularly grooved or smooth. Bark exuding 
a clear gum. Leaves simple, alternate, with small stipules which 
fall early. Flowers in flat or, less frequently, in elongated clusters. 
Totals 5; sepals 5; stamens numerous; pistil 1. 


Shrubs and trees with, mostly, edible fruit. Fruit a fleshy drupe or 
stone fruit. Flowers white or purplish in clusters of various forms. 
Petals 5; sepals 5; stamens numerous. 



Plate 72 
I. Crataegus rotundifolia. 2. C. coccinea. 3. C. Criis-Galli. 4. C. uniflora 
5. C. macra^antha. G. C, punctata. 7. C. mollis. 8. C. Oxycantha. 


Drupes smooth, with a bloom on the skin, stone more or less flattened. 


Leaves egg-shaped. 

Fruit red, leaves and calyx-lobes glandular ... P. nigra 
Fruit yellow, leaves and calyx-lobes not glandular P. americana 

Leaves narrow, lance-shaped P. angustifolia 


Leaves lance-shaped P. alleghaniensis 

Leaves elliptic P. maritiina 

Leaves rounded P. Gravesii 

Leaves pear-shaped; branches thorny P. spinosa 

Drupes smooth, without bloom on the skin, stone stnooth, globular. 


Shrubs, * to 4 ft. high. 

Stems prostrate or reclining; leaves pointed at each end . P. pumila 

Stems erect; leaves rounded at apex P. cuneata 

Shrub 3 to lo ft. high P. virginiana 

Trees 20 to 70 ft. high. 

l'"ruit black P. serotina 

Fruit red P. pennsylvanica 


1. P. nigra, Ait. (Fig. 7, pi. 73.) Horse Plum. Tree, sometimes 
30 ft. liiffli. Leaves egg-shaped, rounded at base, tapering in a lengthened 
point at apex, about 1 in. broad. Fruit egg-shaped, about an in. long, 
red. Woods and thickets. May. 

2. P. americana, Marshall. (Fig. 9, pi. 73.) Wild Yellow or Red 
Plum. Tree, sometimes 3i) ft. high, generally, however, about 15 to 20 
ft. Branches somewhat thorny. Leaves directly or inversely egg-formed, 
with the apex conspicuously taper-pointed, and the borders coarsely or 
doubly serrate; base rounded. Fruit rounded, f to 1 in. in diameter, 
orange or red. Stone flattened. The pulp of the fruit has a pleasant 
taste, the skin tough and acrid. Woods and river banks. Blooms April 
to May. 

3. P, angustifolia, Michx. Chickasaw Plum. Tree or shrub, 8 to 
15 ft. high. Branches scarcely thorny. Leaves narrow lance-form with 
both ends tapering, or less frequently with base somewhat rounded, ser- 
rations not coarse. Fruit round, i to | in. diameter, red. Stone nearly 
globular. Southern part of our region only. 

4. P. alleghaniensis, Porter. Porter's Plum. Low straggling shrub 
or small irec, seldom lliorny. Leaves egg-shaped to lance-sha])ed with 
sharp teeth at the margins; apex slender tapering. Flowers in an 
elongated cluster. Fruit globose or egg-shaped. Eastern Conn. Across 
the Allegliany mountains to Pa. April. 

5. P. maritima, Wang. (Fig. 8, pi. 73.) Beach Plum. Shrub, 1 
to 7 ft. high, straggling, growing on sandy sea beaches. Leaves egg- 
shaped or pear-shajK-d. Fruit about I in. diameter, purple, sweet. 

«. P. Gravesii, Small. (Fig. 10, pi. 73.) Grave's Beach Plum. 
T>e.aves round or slightly oval. Fruit smaller than No. 4. Rare. Croton, 

7. P. spinosa, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 73.) Sloe, Buckthorn. Although 
not native is sometimes found along roadsides. Shrub, '2 to 10 ft. high. 
Tt has egg-shaped leaves, pointed at each end, ])r:tnches thorny. Flower 
clusters consisting of one or two blossoms. Fruit nearly black. 



Plate 73 
1. Primus virginiana. 2. P. p„mila. 3. P. pennsvlvanica. 4. P. spinosa 
5. P^serotina. G. P. cuneata. 7. P. nigra 8. P. mar'itnna. 9. P. ame.icana. 
lU. P. Gravesu 


Fruit small, without bloom on the skin, red or nearly black. Stone 
rounded or egg-shaped, destitute of margins. 

8. P, pumila, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 73.) Dwarf Cherry. Sand Cherry. 
A dwarf shrub about 1 ft. high, though it may bloom at the height of 

6 in. or grow to a height of 6 ft., the latter very rare. Stems and slender 
branches smooth and often reclining. Leaves narrow, inversely lance- 
shaped, but pointed at each end, pale beneath, deep green above; teeth 
at borders except toward the base. Flowers few (2 to 4 in cluster) ; 
fruit dark red or nearly black. Banks of streams and wet sandy places. 

9. P, cuneata, Eaf. (Fig. 6, pi. 73.) Appalachian Cherry. A 
small shrub similar to the last, but erect. Leaves rather broader and 
distinctly rounded at apex. Wet or rocky places. New Hampshire, 
westward and southward. 

10. P. virginiana, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 73.) Choke Cherry. Shrub, 
growing along fences, in fields or along river banks; generally from 5 to 

7 ft. high, but more rarely 2 to 10 ft. Leaves broadly oval, pointed at 
each end. Flowers in narrow elongated clusters, pendulous or nearly 
erect, 20 or more in the cluster. The fruit, which hangs in long clusters 
is nearly black when ripe, and has an astringent unpleasant taste. Blooms, 

11. P. pennsylvanica, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 73.) Wild Eed Cherry. Pin 
Cherry. Tree, 20 to 35 ft., rarely shrubby. Bark smooth, reddish-brown. 
Leaves oblong-egg-shaped or lance-shaped, tapering at each end or rounded 
at base, shining above and below. Flowers white on long slender flower- 
stalks in an umbel-like cluster. Fruit small, red, rather acid. Common 
at borders of woods and as " second growth" tree. Blooms, April to June. 
Fruit ripens in August. 

12. P. serotina, Ehrh. (Fig. 5, pi. 73.) Wild Black Cherry. 
Large tree, sometimes 80 or 90 ft. high. Bark black and rough. Leaves 
oval, tapering at each end and somewhat rounded at base, smooth and 
shining above, unequally serrate, 3 to 5 in. long. Flowers rather small, 
numerous, in long cylindric clusters. Fruit in grape-like clusters of 
nearly black cherries with an agreeable taste. In woods and borders of 
fields. Common. Blooms. May. Fruit ripe in August. 

Besides those above described, a number of species of Prunus are found 
occasionally in tiiiekcts or woods where they remain in deserted grounds 
or have found a lodgment as escapes from cultivation. 

Family X.— CAESALPINACEAE. Senna Family 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, with flowers of some species closely ap- 
proachinf;^ the typical form of the pea flower, in others nearly 
symmetrical and regular. Pod resembling the pod of the pea. 
Leaves alternate, simple or, more generally, compound, feather- 
formed with from 8 to many leaflets arranged along the leaf stem. 



Plate 74 
J, Cassia nictitans. 2. C. Chamaecrista. 3. C. marylandica. 4. Cercia 
canadensis. 5. Gymnocladus dioica. 6. Gleditsia triacanthos. 


With simple leaves Cercis 

With compound feather-formed leaves. 

Flowers greenish Gleditsia 

riowers, white, showy Gymnocladus 

Herbs Cassia 

1. CERCIS, L. 

Small tree, with simple, broad leaves heart-shaped at base, and with 
clusters of purple flowers which appear before the leaves. Corolla of 5 
unequal petals, nearly pea-flower shaped. Stamens 10; pod like that of 
the pea with several seeds. 

C. canadensis, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 74.) Red Bud. American Judas 
Tree. Tree, usually 15 to 30 ft. high, but occasionally higher. In early 
spring the purple blooms cover the tree before the leaves expand. South- 
ern part of our area. April. 

2. CASSIA, L. 

Our species herbs with compound leaves, feather-formed with an equal 
number of leaflets on each side of the leaf-stalk, no odd terminal leaflet. 
Flowers yellow. Corolla of 5 petals only slightly pea-blossom-shaped or 
almost regular. Seeds in an elongated pod, numerous. 

1. C. nictitans, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 74.) Sensitive Pea. Wild Sensi- 
tive Plant. A lowj annual, somewhat erect or spreading upon the 
ground, much branching. Stipules long and narrow at base of common 
leaf-stalk. Leaves sensitive. If a few leaflets are touched by the finger 
they and those directly opposite close; if the touch is more rude or if 
repeated, the whole leaf drops at the hinge-like connection with the stem. 
Leaflets about 30, narrow lance-formed. Flowers solitary, or two or three 
together between the leaf-stalks, but considering the plant as a whole, 
flowers numerous, 1/6 to 1/4 in. diameter. Pod linear, an inch or more 
in length. Mostly in dry sandy soil. July-October. 

2. C. Chamaecrista, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 74.) PARTRinoE Pea. Large- 
flowering Sensitive Pea. Resembles No. 1, but is larger and flowers are 
an inch to \i in. broad. Petals spotted with purple; pod linear, li to 2. J 
in. long. Leaves sensitive. Dry sandy soil. >Iuly-Sept. 

3. C. marylandica, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 74.) Wild or American Senna. 
Herb, 3 to H ft. hi<,di. Leaflets elliptic, 12 to 20, one or two inches long. 
Flowers generally less than an inch broad, clustering at the base of the 
leaves at the upper part of the plant. Moist places. July-August. 


Large trees with conspicuous thorns, with leaves compound or doubly 
coinponnd, fcatiii'r-formed, witliout tlie odd terminal leaflet. Flowers 
grccnisli, SOUK! perfect, some imperfect, in slender elongated clusters. 
Pod long, straight or twisted, many seeded. 

G. triacanthos, T.. (Fig. 6, pi. 74.) IIonp:y Locust. Sweet Lo- 
cust. TiiUEE-TiiOKNED AcAClA. A large tree with rough bark and with 


many stout branching thorns from the trunk. Pods linear, 1 to IJ ft. 
long, twisted. Woods and along fences. May- July. 


Tree with doubly featlier-formed leaves with showy white, perfect or 
imperfect flowers in clusters. Pods sickle formed. 

G. dioica, (L.) Koch. (Fig. 5, pi. 74.) Kentucky Coffee Tree, 
Large tree with rough bark. Leaflets broadly egg-shaped, rounded at 
base, 7 to 12, with or without the odd terminal leaflet. Rich woods. 
Southern part of our area. 

Family XI.— PAPILIONACEAE. Pea Family 

Herbs, shrubs, vines and trees. Flowers perfect (with stamens 
and pistils), with the petals) very unequal, the superior petal 
(known as the "standard" or "banner") more or less com- 
pletely enclosing the two lateral ones and the two lower being more 
or less united (known as the "keel"). Stamens 10, generally in 
a group of 9, more or less united, with a single one free (dia- 
delphous) but less frequently all united in a single bundle (mono- 
delphous), or still less frequently all the stamens are free or sepa- 
rate. Pistil 1. Fruit a pod similar to that of the pea (a legume) 
with one, two or many seeds, dividing into two valves. 

Leaves generally simple, not divided into leaflets. 

Pods flat Genista 

Pods much inflated Crotalaria 

Leaflets 3. 

The three leaflets springing from a common center. (Ex- 
ample, Clover.) 

The two stipules similar to leaflets, giving appear- 
ance of 5 leaflets Lotus 

The stipules differing from the leaflets. 

Stamens 10, all distinct and equal, flowers yel- 
low Baptisia 

Stamens 10, 1 distinct, 9 united in a group. 

Pod (legume) sickle-shaped or spiral Medicago 
Pod, egg-shaped or globose, not included in 
tlie calyx; flowers in terminal, elongated 

clusters Melilotus 

Pod included in the calyx; flowers in 

rounded head Trifolium 

The 3 leaflets arranged as a pair and an odd one. 


Pods (legumes) not jointed. 

One-seeded Lespedeza 


Calyx of 4 teeth Galactia 

Calyx of 5 teeth. 

Flowers 1 to 4, pod 4 to 5 inches 
long Centrosema 

Flowers 1 to 3, pod about an inch 
long Clitoria 

Flowers small, in elongated clusters. 

Vines, not hairy . . . Phaseolus 
Vines, hairy . . . Amphicarpa 

Flowers in small heads or umbels 


Pods two jointed, one-seeded, flowers yellow Stylosanthes 

Pods (loments) of several joints and seeds numerous 

Leaflets 3 on the leaf of a single blade .... Cytisus 

The leaflets consisting of stiff spines Ulex 

Leaflets more than 3 (5 to 10), all arising from a common 

center Lupinus 

Leaflets more tlian 3, arranged symmetrically along both 
sides of the leaf-stalk. 

Number of leaflets equal on both sides, terminating 
abruptly, or by a tendril. 

Wings (side petals) attached to the keel (i. e., 

the united lower petals) Vicia 

Wings nearly free Lathyrus 

Leaflets more than 3, arranged with an odd one at the ex- 

Trees Robinia 


Pods jointed. 

Flowers purple, in an umbel . . Coronilla 
Flowers purple, in an elongated cluster 


Flowers reddish-yellow, few in chistor or 
solitary ...... Aeschynomene 


Pods not jointed. 

Stem erect, pod linear, flat . . . Cracca 
Stem erect or decumbent, pod turgid, 

oblong Astragalus 

Stem twining Apios 

Herbs with leaves of three leaflets, which arise apparently from the 
same center (or rarely with simple, undivided leaves). Stipules leaf- 
like, small, or none. Calyx of 4 or 5 parts cleft half way. Petals (of 
our species) yellow and of nearly equal length, somewhat united. Sta'^ 
mens 10, all distinct. Pods inflated, with generally, many seeds. 

1. B. tinctoria, (L.) R. Br. (Fig. 1, pi. 75.) Wild Indigo. Yellow 
Bboom. Clusters of flowers numerous, yellow, plant 3 to 4 ft. high, much 
branched. Leaflets pear-shaped, the whole plant more or less covered 
with a whitish bloom. Stipules very small and falling early. Pods egg- 
shaped or nearly globose. Growing in dry or sandy soil. June-Sept. 

2. B. australis, (L.) R. Br. Blue Wild Indigo. Leaflets less blunt 
than those of No. 1. Flowers blue. Otherwise much like B. tinctoria. 
Western Penna., and westward. June-Aug. 


Herbs, with simple undivided leaves (in our region), and with yellow 
flowers in loose, somewhat elongated clusters. Calyx 5-parted, stamens 
9 united, 1 free. Pod oblong to globose, much inflated. Seeds several, 
loose when ripe. 

C. sagittalis, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 75.) Rattle Box. Erect, branching, 
generally less than 1 ft. high. Plant covered with silky pubescence. 
Leaves simple, oval or oblong, 1 to 2 in. long, 1/3 as broad, with very 
short leaf-stalks. Flowers solitary or 2 to 4 in loose cluster, yellow. 
Pod oblong about 1 in. long, much inflated. June-Sept. 


Herbs. Leaves of about 7 to 15 radiating leaflets. Flowers showy in 
long spikes. Calyx 5-toothed, upper lip of 2 teeth, lower of 3, sometimes 
without division. Stamens, 9 united, 1 free. Pod flattened, uneven, 
constricted between the seeds. 

L. perennis, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 75.) Common Lupine. Sometimes erect, 
more frequently procumbent, spreading. Stems about a foot long, nearly 
smooth. Leaflets 7 to 9, soft, downy on long leaf-stalks. Flowers in a 
long slender spike, blue varying to white. Sandy hillsides and roadsides. 


Shrubby plants, with simple leaves and clustered yellow flowers. Calyx 
of 2 lips, the upper one 2-cleft, the lower with 3 tcctli. Stamens, 9 united, 
1 free. Pods flat with several seeds. 

G. tinctoria, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 75.) Dyeweed. Woad Waxen. 


Brandies round, the flowerings ones erect, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves not 

conipuuiid, lance-shaped, broadest at middle, without leaf-stalks, shining. 

Flowers numerous, yellow, in loose terminal clusters. Dry hills, eastern 
part of our region. Summer. 

5. ULEX, L. 

Shrubs with spiny branches, the leaves stiff, linear, spiny. Flowers 
large, generally thickly distributed among tlie spiny leaves. Calyx di- . 
vided almost completely into 2 lips. Stamens united in a single group. 
Pod egg-shaped or elongated.- 

U. europaeus, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 75.) Furze. Gorse. Shrub, 2 to G 
ft. high, branching. Leaves spiny. Flowers yellow, appearing among the 
spiny leaves. Escaped from cultivation in southern part of our area. 


Shrubs with 3-foliate leaves or leaves undivided, the stems often spiny. 
Flowers showy, in clusters. Calyx divided to base into 2 lips. Stamens in 
a single group. Pod, flat, oblong to linear, several seeded. 

C. scoparius, (L.) Link. (Fig. 6, pi. 75) Broom. Stiff, wiry 
shrub, 3 to 5 ft. high, stem angular, erect, branching. Leaves trifoliate 
or of a single blade, small. Flowers bright yellow about 1 in. long. Waste 
places, introduced sparingly. 


Herbs, with trifoliate leaves, the leaflets arising from a common center. 
Flowers small, yellow or violet, terminal or from the leaf axils. Leaf- 
lets commonly slightly toothed, the veins terminating in the teeth. Calyx 
of 5 nearly equal parts. Pods curved or twisted. 

Flowers blue or violet M. sativa 

Flowers yellow. 

Stipules fringed at borders. 

Leaflets with a purple spot M. arabica 

Leaflets without a jmrple spot M. hispida 

Stipules tuothed, not fringed M. lupulina 

1. M. sativa, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 70.) Alfalfa. Lucerne. Cultivated 
for fodder in southern and western States. Much branched, erect or de- 
cumbent, 1 to ]\ ft. high. Leaflets inversely lanee-shaped or wedge- 
shaped, the middle one on rather longer leaf-slalk than the others. 
Flowers blue, in elongated slender clusters. Fields and waste places. 
Blooms all summer. 

2. M. lupulina, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 75.) Black Medic. Nonesuch. 
Brandies spreading, dccunilnjut, 1 to li ft. long, downy. Leaflets wedge- 
shaped or egg-shaped to nearly orbicular, toothed at apex. Flowers yel- 
low, small, in dense oblong or cylindiic heads. Pods when rijx;, black, 
curved into a spiral, oiio-seeded. Fields and waste places. March-Dec. 

3. M. hispida, Gaertn. Toothed Medic. (M. dcnticulnta, Willd.). 
Txaflets larger than the last and decidedly wedge-shaped. Stipules large 
and frimjcd ul hordrrs. Flowers small, yellow. The spiral pods elegantly 
reticulated, the edges armed with curved prickles. Waste places, etc., 
mostly near sea-ports. Summer. 



Plate 75 
1. Baptisia tinctoria. 2. Crotalaria sagittalis. 3. Ulex europaeus. 4. 
Lupinus perennis. 5. Genista tinctoria. 6. Cytisus scoparius. 7. Medicago 
lupuliiift. 8. M. arabica. 9. Trifolium hybridum. 


4. M. arabica, All. (Fig. 8, pi. 75.) Spotted Medic. Leaflets in- 
versely heart-sliaped. Stipules similar to those of No. 3. Leaflets with 
1 or more purple spots near the center. Pod with reticulations and with 
marginal prickles. Waste places. All summer. 

8. MELILOTUS, (Tourn.) Hill. 
Tall herbs, with trifoliate leaves and with numerous small flowers in 
long slender spikes. Calyx teeth 5, nearly equal. Pod ovoid with one or 
more seeds. Plants very fragrant. 

Flowers white M. alba 

Flowers yellow M. officinalis 

1. M. alba, Desv. (Fig. 5, pi. 76.) White Sweet Clover. Erect; 
branching, with slender branches, 3 to 10 ft. high. Leaflets oblong or 
inversely lance-shaped, notclied or rounded at extremity. Flowers white. 
Along roadsides and waste places. June-Nov. 

2. M. officinalis, (L.) Lam. (Fig. 4, pi. 76.) Yellow Sweet 
Clover. Ptesembles No. 1, but leaflets are mostly rather broader and 
flowers are yellow. 


Tufted or spreading herbs with (in our species) trifoliate leaves, the 

leaflets usually toothed. Flowers small, in more or less dense heads. 

Stamens, 9 united, 1 more or less free. Pod oblong or cylindric, 1 to 6 

seeded, often included in the calyx. 

Mowers yellow. 

Stipules long and narrow (length at least 3 times the breadth) T. agrariunt 
Stipules broad (length not more than twice the breadth). 

Flowers in the head usually more than 20 T. procumbens 

Flowers in head few (10 to 12) T, dubtum 

Flowers pink and purple. 

Leaflets oval, with a pale spot on upper side T. pratense 

Leaflets oblong, without the pale spot T. medium 

Leaflets pear-shaped or wedge-shaped T. incarnatum 

Flowers white. 

Calyx teeth long, silky, nearly hiding the small white or slightly pink 

corolla T, arvense 

Calyx teeth not hiding the corolla. 

Plant I to 2 ft. high T. hybridum 

Plant 6 to 12 in. high T. repens 

Flowers yellow 
L T. agrarium, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 76.) Yellow Clo\^r. Hop Clover. 
Stems bending, ascending. Leaflets inversely ovate, finely notched at sum- 
mit. Stipules narrowly lance-shaped, tapering to a sharp point. Flowers 
bright yellow in dense heads, the flowers of which are, as they mature, 
turned back, calyx teeth not equal, the inferior being twice as long as 
the superior. Along roadsides, in waste places. All summer. 

2. T. procumbens, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 76.) Low or Hop Trefoil. Hop 
Clover. .Stems more spreading than No. 1 and more silky, 3 to G in. 
long. leaflets wedge-shaped, rounded and generally notched at apex. 
Stipules egg-shaped, rather greater in length than breadtii. Heads of 20 
to 40 flowers, turned back when mature. Sandy fields and roadsides. 
All .summer. 

3. T. dubium, Sibth. (Fig. 3, pi. 76.) Least Hop Clover. Stems 
similar to last. I-icaflets decidedly notched at apex. Flowers only 3 to 
15 in head. Waste places. Summer. 



Plate 70 
1. Medicago sativa. 2. Trifolium incarnatura. 3. T. dubium. 4. Melilo- 
tu3 officinalis. 5. M. alba. 6. Trifolium agrarium. 7. T. prociimbens. 8. T. 


Flowers pink or purple 

4. T. incarnatum, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 76.) Crimson Clover. Stems 
erect, * to 3 ft. high, liairy. Leaflets wedge-shaped, hairy. Heads of 
flowers on ratlier long stalks, oblong or long egg-shaped. Introduced. 

6. T. pratense, L. Eed Clover. Erect or decumbent, stems i to 
2 ft. high, silky. Leaves on long or short leaf-stalks. Leaflets oblong, 
often notched at apex, often with a pale spot near base. Stipules broad 
with bristle points. Heads without much of a flower stalk, round or 
oblong. Cultivated in fields and growing in rich soils commonly. 

6. T. medium, L. Zig-Zao Clover. Resembles the last. Heads 
longer and on a flower stem. Flowers of deeper color. Leaves without 
central spot. Dry fields. Introduced. Summer. 

Flowers white 

7. T. arvense, L. (Fig. \, pi. 83.) Rabbit Foot. Stone Cloveb. 
Plant velvety, branching, mostly procumljent. Leaflets oblong, narrow, 
notched at summit. Flowers small, u-hite or rosy. Nearly hidden by the 
long silky calyx teeth. Heads cylindric. Fields, waste places. Summer. 

8. T. repens, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 76.) White Clover. Stems prostrate, 
rooting. Leaves on long leaf-stalks, leaflets inversely ovate or nearly 
round, finely notched at borders and abruptly terminated by one or two 
teeth at apex. Flowers white, sometimes rose. Common. Summer, 

9. T. hybridum, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 75.) Alsatian Clover. A larger 
plant than the last and more generally erect. Leaves on shorter leaf- 
stalks; leaflets elliptic, borders notched; stipuk^s oval with sharp points. 
Heads globose; flowers white, later rose. Roadsides. Summer. 

ID. LOTUS, L. (Hosackia, Douglas) 
Herbs, with (in our species) 3-foliate leaves and small reddish yellow 
flowers in loose umbellate clusters (3 to 12 in cluster). Calyx teeth 
equal or nearly so. Standard (two upper united petals) orbicular or 
ovate; stamens, 9 united, 1 free. Pod linear, compressed, 1 to several 

L. corniculatus, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 77.) Rird's-koot Trefoil. Sterna 
slender, decumbent. Leaflets 3, but the two stipules, which are about 
the size and shape of the leaflets, appear to make f) leaflets. Flowers in 
an umbel, corolla bright yellow, the standard frequently red or reddish. 
Introduced. June-Sept. 

II. CRACCA, L. (Tephrosia, Fcrs.) 
Hairy herbs, with compound feather-formed leaves, with an odd num- 
ber of leaflets; flowers white or purple in terminal or lateral clusters. 
Leaflets (in our species) about 13 to 25, elliptic. Stamens all united or 
one free. Pod linear, several seeded. 

1. C. virginiana, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 77.) Goats Rue. Plant silky 
with whitish hairs. Stem erect, not branching, 1 to 2 ft. high. Flowers 
in clusters, large and often numerous, yellowish-white marked with pur- 
ple. Dry sandy soil. June-July. 



Plate 77 
1. Lotus corniculatus. 2. Cracca virgiuiana. 3. Robinia Pseudacacia. 4. 
Astragalus alpinus. 5. A. Robbinsii. 6. Aeschynomene virginica. 7. Hedy- 
sarum boreale. 8. Coronilla varia. 


12. ROBINIA, L. 

Our species a tree with long pendant clusters of showy white flowers. 
Leaves feather-formed; stipules small, sometimes spiny. Calyx teeth 
slightly unequal. Standard large, rounded and turned backward. Pod 
flat, linear, several seeded. 

R. Pseudacacia, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 77.) Common Locust. Our com- 
mon locust tree has rough bark and grows to height of 80 ft., but is 
usually not more than from 30 to 50 ft. high. Pod 2 to 4 in. long. 
Leaflets 8 to 12 pairs with an odd one at the end. Stipules are often 
spin}'. ]\Iay-June. 


Herbs, leaves compound, mostly with an odd number of leaflets; purple, 
white or yellow flowers in spikes, loose clusters or solitary. Stamens, 
9 united, 1 free; calyx of 5 nearly equal teeth. Standard erect, ovate 
or oblong, usually narrow, keel blunt; pod several seeded, generally 

L A. Robbinsii, (Oakes.) A. Gray. (Fig. 5, pi. 77.) Robbins's 
Milk Vetch. Nearly smooth, erect, * to 1 ft. high. Leaflets 9 to 2.'). 
Flowers white or purplish, i to J in. long, in loose elongated or short 
clusters. Rocky places, Maine and northern Vermont. June-July. 

Var. A. Robbinsii Jesupi, Eggleston and Sheldon, has larger, darker 
purple flowers, longer pod, and a flower-stalk longer than the calyx. 
Localities as above. 

' 2. A. alpinus, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 77.) Alpine Milk Vetch. Plant 
branching, decumbent or erect, J to 1 ft. high, smooth or slightly hairy. 
Flowers violet-purple. Rocks, northern New England. June. 

3. A. canadensis, L. Carolina Milk Vetch. (A. carolinianus, 
L. ). Plant 1 to 4 ft. high. Leaflets 15 to 31. Stipules lance-shaped. 
Flowers yellowish. Pod without stem, 2-celled. Shores of Lake Cham- 
plain. (Brainerd. ) 


Herbs with several pairs of leaflets and an odd one. Flowers purple 
or yellowish, in an umbel. Pod linear, jointed. Calyx teeth nearly equal. 
Standard nearly orbicular. 

C. varia, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 77.) Coronilla. Leaflets 6 to 7 pairs 
and an odd one. Flower stalks longer than the compound leaves. Flowers 
light purple (standard pink, wings white or purple). Plant 1 to 2 ft. 
high, generally reclining on shrubs or other plants. Connecticut and 
southern New York. Introduced. June-August. 


Herbs with several pairs of leaflets and an odd one. Flowers showy 
in axillary clusters. Calyx of 5 awl-sliajKnl teeth, nearly equal. Stamens, 
9 united, 1 free. Pod flattened and distinctly jointed. 

H. boreale, Nutt. (Fig. 7, pi. 77.) IIedysabum. (Tl. americanum, 
(Michx.) iSritton.) Plant i to 2i ft. high, erect or somewhat decumbent. 
Leaflets 13 to 21, oblong to lance-shaped, nearly smooth. Stipules scaly. 
Flowers purple in a many-flowered cluster. Pods of 3 or 4 joints, smooth 


and marked with reticulations. Northern parts of our region. June- 


Herbs, resembling Hedysarum, with odd pinnate leaves and clusters of 
yellow flowers. Stamens in two groups of 5 each. Pod on a lengthened 
stalk, jointed. 

A. virginica, (L.) BSP. (Fig. 6, pi. 77.) Sensitive Joint Vetch. 
Erect, 2 to 5 ft. high, rough hairy. Leaves of 25 to 55 leaflets, which 
are somewhat sensitive, closing when touched. Flowers few, reddish- 
yellow with veined petals. Pod linear of 5 to 10 nearly square joints. 
Southern part of our area. Aug.-Sept. 

17. STYLOSANTHES, Swartz. 

Low herbs, branching, with wiry stems and 3-foliate leaves. Stipules 
sheathing and uniting with the leaf-stalk. Flowers small, yellow, in 
terminal clusters. Calyx tube slender, bell-shaped, the 4 upper teeth 
somewhat united. Standard (upper petal) orbicular. Stamens in two 
groups, each of 5. Pod short, strongly reticulated. 

S. biflora, (L. ) Swartz. (Fig. 3, pi. 83.) Pencil Flower. Grow- 
ing in tufts, stems 2 to 2 ft. long, nearly erect or decumbent. Leaflets 
lance-shaped. Clusters few flowered, yellow. Pine barrens, L. I. June- 

18. DESMODIUM, DC. (Meibomia, Adams) 

Erect or trailing herbs, with (in our species), 3-foliate leaves, the 
leaflets of which are arranged as a pair and an odd leaflet. Flowers 
purple, usually small, in terminal or axillary clusters. Calyx small, its 
divisions being more or less united as two lips. Upper petals (standard) 
round or pear-shaped, side petals (wings) adherent to the keel by means 
of a small transverse band. Stamens in 1 or 2 groups. Pod (loment) 
flat, stalked, consisting of one to several joints. These joints roughened 
by short hairs which aid in their dissemination. 

Stamens 10 in a single group. Pods constricted on lower side. 

Leaves and flowers on separate stalks D. ntidifiorum 

Leaves and flowers on the same stalk. 

Flower stalk long, with many flowers . . . . D. grandiflorum 

Flower stalk bearing but few flowers D. pauciHonim 

Stamens g, united, i more or less free. Pods constricted above and below, though 
scarcely on the upper margins in Nos. s, 6 and ii. 
Stems trailing or reclining. 

Leaflets nearly orbicular D. rotundifolium 

Leaflets egg-shaped. 

Plant decidedly hairy, flowers nearly white . D. ochroleucum 
Plant nearly smooth, flowers purple . . . . D. glabellum 
Stems erect, not trailing nor decumbent. 

Leaflets narrow, lance-shaped or linear. 

Leaf stalk wanting or nearly so .... D. sessilifolium 
Leaf stalk present. 

Flowers in elongated simple cluster . . D. strictum 
Flowers in a compound cluster ...£>. paniculatum 
Leaflets egg-shaped. 

Length more than 3 times the breadth. 

Plant quite hairy D. canadense 

Plant not hairy D. bracteosiim 

Length less than t, times the breadth. 

Joints of pod decidedly longer than broad, plant de- 
cidedly hairy, leaflets abrupt at each end D. canescens 
Joints about as long as broad. 


Plant smooth, almost without hairs. 

Leaflets an inch or more in length, not 

velvety D. lacvigatu>n 

Leaflets i to si in. long, velvety beneath 

D. z'iridiflorum 

Leaflets less than an in. in length 

D. marylayidicum 

Plant more or less hairy. 

Leaflets rough to touch . . D. rigidum 
Leaflets not rough to touch. 

Oblong or oblong-egg-shaped D. Dillcnii 
Round ovate D. obtusum 

1. D. nudiflorum, (L.) DO. (Fig. 1, pi. 78.) Naked-flowered 
TicK-TKEFOiL. This plant is easily recognized by its long naked, or al- 
most naked flower stalk springing from the root and the leafy stem at 
the summit of which all the leaves are crowded. The flower scape often 
iea,ohes a heiglit of 2 ft. or more. Leaves of 3 broadly egg-shaped leaf- 
lets. Flowers purple, not very numerous; pod 2 to 3 jointed. Common 
in dry woods. July-August. 

2. D. grandiflorum, (Walt.) DC. (Fig. 2, pi. 78.) Pointed- 
leaved Tick-trefoil. Plant 1 to 5 ft. high, erect; leaves crowded at top 
from which arises the elongated flower stalk. Leaflets round-ovate with 
long taper points. Flowers large, purple. Pod 2 to 3 jointed. Dry 
woods. June-Sept. 

3. D. pauciflorum, (Nutt.) DC. Few-flowered Tick-trefoil. 
Plant erect or more or less decumbent, 1 to 3 ft. high. Somewhat hairy. 
Leaflets oval or egg-sliaped, the end one rhomboid, silk}% pale beneath. 
Flowers few on a terminal, or axillary naked flower-stalk. Woods. July- 

4. D. rotundifolium, DC. (Fig. 4, pi. 78.) Prostrate Tick-tre- 
foil, Stems prostrate, 2 to 6 ft. long, soft hairy; leaflets orbicular, tiie 
odd one less rounded. Flowers purple; pods constricted nearly equally 
at botii margins, 3 to 5 joints. Dry rocky woods. July-Sept. 

5. D, ochroleucum, M. A. Curtis. Cream -flowered Tick-trefoil. 
Stems with scattered hairs, prostrate; leaflets smooth, egg-shaped, yellow- 
ish-green. Flower stalks much elongated; flowers whitish. Pods 2 to 4 
jointed, twisted. Woods in southern part of our area. Aug.-Sept. 

6. D. glabellum, (IVIichx.) DC. TRAn,iNo Tick-trefoil. Plant pro- 
cumbent, stems sometimes 8 ft. long, smooth or nearly so. Leatlets eg^- 
shaped or oval, the terminal one somewliat rhomboid. Flower clusters 
terminal or axillary, flowers purple. Pods 2 to 5 jointed, the joints 
somewhat rough to the touch. Dry woods. Aug.-Sept. 

7. D. sessilifolium, (Torr.) T. and G. (Fig. 6, pi. 78.) Sessile- 
leaved TicK-iKKi oil. Stems silky, 2 to 4 ft. high. Leaflets linear, ob- 
tuse at each end, almost irithout leafstalk. L'pper surface rough, lower 
silky. Flowers small in long simple or. compound clusters. Dry soil in 
eastern part of our region. July-Sept. 

8. D. strictum, (Pursh.) DC. Stiff Tick-trefoil. Erect, very 
straight, 2 to 3 ft. high, silky. Leaflets narrow linear, 1 to 2 in. long, 
obtuse at base, strongly reticulated, not hairy, smooth, on leaf stalks 
which are i to ^ in. long. Joints of pod 1 to 3 (mostly 1). Flowers 
small on slender scapes. July-Sept. 



Plate 78 
1. Desmodium niulilloruin. 2. D. grandiflorum. 3. D. canescens. 4. D, 
rotundifolium. 5. D. marylandicum. G. D. sessilifolium. 


9. D. canescens, (L.) DC. (Fig. 3, pi. 78.) Hoaey Tick-tkefoil. 
Steins branching, densely hairy with soft downy hairs, 3 to 5 ft. high. 
Leaflets egg-shaped, on leaf stalks about as long as the terminal leaflets, 
rather rough above and below, the under side reticulated and wliitish. 
Flowers small on long hairy scapes. Pods of about 4 joints. Mass., and 
southward. July-Sept. 

10. D. bracteosum, (Michx.) DC. Large-bracted Tick-trefoil. 
Erect, straight, smooth below, somewhat silky on the flower stalk, 3 to 
6 ft. high. Leaflets 2 to 8 in. long, egg-shaped with long slender points. 
Flowers large, purple. Joints of pod 3 to 5. Thickets. Common. Aug.- 

11. D. paniculatum, (L.) DC. Panicled Tick-trefoil. Slender, 
erect, 2 to 4 ft. high, nearly smooth. Leaflets linear or oblong, blunt at 
each end, 3 to 5 in. long on short leaf-stalks. Small purple flowers in 
compound clusters, the branches of the clusters being in many instances 
at right angles to the main stem. Common. July-Sept. 

12. D. laevigatum, (Nutt.) DC. Smooth Tick-trefoil. Stems 
erect, straight, smooth, 2 to 4 ft. high. Leaflets egg-shaped, 2 to 3 in. 
long, on long leaf-stalks. Flowers in compound clusters. Joints of pod 
4 or moie. Aug. -Sept. 

13. D. viridiflorum, (L.) Beck. Velvet - leaved Tick - trefoil. 
Leaves rough above, velvety with long silky hairs beneath. Flowers pur- 
ple. In form of leaf and general appearance otherwise like D. laevigatum. 
Eastern Penna., southern New York, and westward. Aug.-Oct. 

14. D. Dillenii, Darl. Dillon's Tick-trefoil. Stem 2 to 3 ft. high, 
erect, silky with hairs scattered. Leaflets oblong or somewhat egg-shaped, 
blunt at both ends, 2 to 4 in. long, on leaf-stalks 1 to 2 in. long, pale 
beneath. Flowers in compound clusters. Pods 2 to 4 jointed, the joints 
nearly triangular. Common. June-Sept. 

15. D. canadense, (L.) DC. (Fig. 11, pi. 79.) Showy Tick-tre- 
I'OIL. Stem stout, erect, quite hairy, 2 to 8 ft. high. Leaflets oblong- 
lance-shapod, blunt at base, blunt or somewhat sharp at apex. Flowers 
large, in somewhat dense showy clusters. Common. July-Sept. 

10. D. rigidum, (Ell.) DC. (Fig. 10, pi. 79.) Rigid Tick-trefoil. 
Stems rigid, branched, somewhat whitish hairy, as is the lower surface 
of the leaves. Height 2 to 3 ft. Leaflets long egg-shaped, blunt at each 
end, hairy underneatli and on edges. Flowers small, purplish, in com- 
pound clusters. Pods 1 to 3 jointed. Common. July-Oct. 

17. D. marylandicum, (L.) DC. (Fig. 5, pi. 78.) Smooth Small- 
leaved TicK-THKioii.. Erect, slender, nearly smooth, 2 to 3 ft. high. 
Leaflets broad egg-shaped with rounded ends J to J in, long on a leaf- 
stalk about the length of the lateral ones. Flowers quite small, purplish. 
Pods 1 to 3 jointed. Common. July-Sept. 

18. D. obtusum, (Muhl.) DC. Hairy Small-leaved Tick-trefoil. 
Much like the last, but covered with silky rather rough hairs. Leaves 
crowded on short leaf-stalks, leaflets broad egg-shaped or round. Com- 
mon. July-Oct. 

19. LESPEDEZA, Alichx. 
Herbs, with ;]-foliate leaves, with small stipules or without any. Flowers 



Plate 79 
1. Lespedeza angustifolia. 2. L. violacea. 3 L. Stuvei. 4. L. procumbeTis. 
5. L. cajjitata. 0. L. virginica. 7 L. frutesccns. 8. L. hirta. 9. L. Nuttallii 
10. Desiuodium rigiduui. 11. D. canadense. 


often of two kinds (staminate and pistillate, and pistillate only), the 
former with purplish corolla, the latter without petals or with minute 
ones. Pods of a single, one-seeded joint, lens-shaped. Keel of the corolla 
very obtuse. 

All the flowers having stamens and pistils, corolla yellowish or whitish, flowers 
in dense spikes or heads. 

Leaflets broadly oval or nearly round L. hirta 

Leaflets oblong or narrowly oblong L. capitata 

Leaflets linear L. angustifolia 

Flowers purple, of 2 kinds, those which are perfect (stamens and pistils) but 
seldom fertile. The smaller, pistillate only, with very small or no petals. 
Plants trailing or procumbent; 

Leaves covered with woolly hairs L. repens 

Leaves not very hairy L. procumbens 

Plants not trailing or procumbent; 

Leaves linear L. virginica 

Leaves oblong; 

Flower stalks slender, longer than the leaves; 

Inflorescence in compact, elongated heads; 

Plant not velvety above . . . . L. Nutfallii 
Plant decidedly velvety above . . . L. Brittonii 
Inflorescence loose clusters, few flowered . L. violacea 
Flower stalks shorter than the leaves; 

Leaves downy on both sides L. Stm'et 

Leaves downy only on lower side . . L. frutescens 

1. L. hirta, (L.) Ell. (Fig. 8, pi. 70.) Hairy Bush-clover. Erect, 
hairy, somewhat shrubby. Stems scarcely branching, 2 to 4 ft. high. 
Leaf stalks not as long as leaves. Leaflets broadly oval or nearly round. 
Clusters of flowers in elongated cylindric dense heads. All the flowers 
perfect, reddish-white. C'alj'X teeth as long or longer than the lens-shaped 
pod. Dry woods, New Jersey and southward. Aug.-Sept. 

2. L. capitata, Michx. (Fig. 5, pi. 79.) Eound-iieaded Bush-clover. 
Erect, hairy, half-shrubby, stems with few or no branches, 2 to 5 ft. 
high. Leaves on short leaf-stalks, leaflets narrow, elliptic, 1 to H in. 
long by J as wide, blunt at each end. Flower clusters of dense rounded 
or oblong heads; flowers yellowish-white with a purple spot on the stand- 
ard. Dry soils. New England and southward. Aug.-Sept. 

3. L. angustifolia, (Pursh.) Ell. (Fig. 1, pi. 79.) Narrow-leaved 
Bush-clover. Erect, simple or somewhat branched above, somewhat 
downy,. 2 to 3 ft. high. Leaves on very short leaf-stalks, leaflets narrow, 
linear, 1 to lA in. long, blunt at each end. Flower stems considerably 
longer than the leaves, clusters rounded or somewhat cylindric, flowers 
whitish. Calyx teeth longer than the pod. Dry sandy soil. Aug.-Sept. 

4. L. repens, (L.) P>art. Creeping Bush-clover. Stem prostrate, 
spreading, smooth or slightly hairy. Leaflets oval or pear-shaped, rounded 
at apex, generally narrow at base. Flower stems thread-like, few flow- 
ered, the lower flowers being without petals. Petalous flowers purple. 
Dry soils. Aug.-Sept. 

5. L. procumbens, IVTichx. (Fig. 4, pi. 79.) Trailing Bush-cloveb. 
Stems ])rocumbeiit, spreading, with silky hairs. Leaflets oval or nearly 
round, upper surface with few or no hairs, lower surface pubescent. 
Petalous flowers violet. Dry soils. Aug.-Sept. 

6. L. Nuttallii, Darl. (Fig. 9, ph 79.) Nuttall's Bush-cloveb. 
Erect or somewliat reclining, downy, 2 to 3 ft. high. Leaflets oval to 
roimded, obtuse at each end or with a notch and a terminal bristle at 
apex, smooth above, silky beneath. Flower stems mostly exceeding the 


leaves. Flower clusters in heads or somewhat cylindric spikes. Petal 
bearing flowers violet-purple. Calyx teeth shorter than pod. Southern 
portion of our area. Aug.-Sept. 

7. L. Brittonii, Bicknell. Britton's Busn-CLOVER. Stems partly 
upright, wand-like, 15 to 40 in. long, with short flowering branches. 
Plant densely velvety above, the upper surface of leaves smooth. Flower 
branches short; terminal clusters spike-formed on slender stems. Lower 
clusters few flowered. Corolla pinkish-purple, much longer than the calyx. 
Pod egg-shaped to oblong, downy, about twice the length of the calyx 
lobes. Bronxville, New York, also eastern Mass. Aug.-Sept. 

8. L, violacea, (L.) Pers. (Fig. 2, pi. 70.) Bush-clover. Erect, 
usually much branched, with few hairs, 2 to 3 ft. high. Leaflets elliptic 
or oval, blunt at each end, i to 2 in. long, on short leaf-stalks. Flowers 
in loose clusters, violet-purple. Calyx teeth shorter than pod. Dry soil, 
in all of our area. Aug.-Sept. 

9. L. Stuvei, Nutt. (Fig. .3, pi. 70.) Stuvei's Bush-clover. Stems 
erect, branching or simple, very velvety, and very leafy, 2 to 4 ft. high. 
Leaflets oval to rounded, blunt at each end, silky white beneath and 
sometimes above. Flower stalks short, clusters terminal or a.xillary, 
those with petals violet-purple. Calyx teeth shorter than the nearly 
round pod. Dry soil, Vermont, Massachusetts and south and west. Aug.- 

10. L. frutescens, (L.) Britton. (Fig. 7, pi. 79.) Wand-like 
BusH-CLOVKK. Similar to above, but less hairy and hairs shorter. Leaf- 
lets smooth above, somewhat silky beneath. Upper flowers violet-purple. 
Dry soil, our area. Aug.-Sept. 

11. L. virginica, (L.) Britton. (Fig. G, pi. 70.) Slexdeb Bush- 
clover. Erect, with a simple stem or somewhat branched above. Leaf- 
lets linear with or without fine soft hairs. Flower clusters close to main 
stem without lengthened flower-stalks, violet-purple. Dry soil, New Hamp- 
shire, and southward. Aug.-Sept. 

20. VICIA, L. 
Climbing or trailing vines with feather-formed leaves, leaflets of an 
even number, the leaf terminated by a tendril. Stipules conspicuous. 
Flowers in axillary clusters, generally conspicuous, mostly blue or violet- 
purple. Standard egg-shaped or oblong with a depression at the summit; 
wings oblong, adhering to the curved keel. Stamens, united, 1 free. 
Style slender, curved, with a ring or tuft of hairs at summit or through- 
out its extent. Pod 2-valved, 2 to several seeded. 

Flowers on elongated flower-stems. 

Leaflets about i as broad as long; 

Stipules broad with conspicuous teeth y, americana 

Leaflets generally less than i as broad as long. 
Ends sharp or rounded. 

Flowers in dense clusters, usually more than 20 . V. Cracca 

Flowers from 8 to 20 in cluster J7. ca'roliniana 

Flowers i to 6 in cluster. 

Leaflets rounded or pointed at both ends V. tetrasperma 

Leaflets abrujit at apex J/, hirsuta 

Flowers with very short or with no flower stems. 
Leaflets abruiit at apex. 

One-third as wide as long p_ sativa 

One-half as wide as long y ' sepium 

Leaflets sharp at apex {/. an'gitstifolia 


1. V. Cracca, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 80.) Tui'ted Vetch, Trailing vine 
2 to 4 ft. long, with leaves of 9 to 12 pairs of leaflets and with flowers 
overlapping in a rather dense one-sided cluster (20 to 40 flowers). Leaf- 
lets linear, pointed at each end or somewhat rounded with a bristle- 
point at apex. Flower clusters on long stalks from the axils of the 
leaves. Stem square, somewhat downy as are also the leaflets. A slender 
climber or trailer with blue or purple flowers. Dry soil, New Jersey and 
northward. June-Aug. 

2. V. americana, Muhl. (Fig. 1, pi. 81.) American Vetch. Trail- 
ing vine, 1 to 3 ft. long, nearly without hairs. Stipules broad with 
several conspicuous teeth. Leaflets, 4 to 7 pairs, elliptic to egg-shaped 
on the one hand or lance-shaped on the other, blunt at each end. Flowers 
4 to 8, bluish-purple, tlie flower-stem shorter than the leaf-stalk. Pod 
about an incli long, 4- to 7-seeded. Moist grounds. New York and south- 
ward. May-August. 

3. V. caroliniana, Walt. (Fig. 2, pi. 80.) Carolina Vetch. Slen- 
der vine, 4 to G ft. long, smooth. Leaflets 4 to 6 pairs, oblong or linear. 
Flowers 8 to 20 in a cluster, the stem of which is generally somewhat 
shorter than the leaf-stalks. Flowers nearly white or pale blue, the ban- 
ner tipped with purple. Moist places, our area. May-July. 

4. V. tetrasperma, (L.) Moench. (Fig. 4, pi. 80.) Slender 
Vetch. Stem slender, clinging, smooth or nearly so. Leaflets 3 to 6 
pairs, linear, obtuse or rather sharp at the ends. Stipules simple, nar- 
row, spread at base. Flower stem slender, shorter or about equalling 
the leaf-stalk, carrying from 1 to 6 pale blue or purple small flowers. 
Calyx tube of 5 unequal teeth. Pod linear-oblong with 2 or 3 globular 
seeds. Fields and waste places. May-Sept. 

5. V. hirsuta, (L.) Koch. Hairy Vetch. Vine, somewhat hairy, 
stem branching. Leaflets 8 to 10 pairs; individual leaflets having the 
appearance of having been cut ofl" at the end, a small bristle appearing 
as the termination of the mid-vein. Flowers small, purplish. Pod some- 
what velvety, oblong, dark, crimpled, 2-seeded, about i in. long. Fields 
and waste places. May-Sept. 

6. V. sepium, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 81.) Busii Vetch. Wild Tare. 
leaflets 10 to 18, broad egg-sliaped very blunt or depresed at apex. 
Flowers few, without flower-stalks. Waste places, only in northern part 
of our area. May-July. 

7. V. sativa, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 80.) CoMAfON Vetch. Stem flexible, 
clinging by the leaf tendrils, more or less hairy, angular. Leaflets 4 to 
7 pairs, inversely oval, the base narrowed, the apex rounded with a rather 
deep notch at center and with a bristly point to the central vein. Flowers 
large, bluish-purple, without leaf-stalks, or with very brief ones, gen- 
erally 2 flowers at the leaf-axils. Pods solitary or in pairs, broad, strongly 
veined, dark brown wlien ripe. Fields. Introduced from Europe where 
it is cultivated for fodder. May-August. 

8. V. angustifolia, Roth. (Fig. 2, pi. 81.) Smaller Common 
Vetch. Stcnis imnHTous, l)ranching, partly erect, 1 to 2 ft. long. Stipules 
simple or toothed. Loaflets 3 to 8 pairs, narrowly linear, i to 1^ in. long. 
Purple flowers without flower-stalks or with very short ones in upper 


Plate 80 
1. Vicia Cracca. 2. V. caroliniana. 3. V. sativa. 4. V. tetrasper 


leaf-axils. Pod linear, terminated by a recurved beak, somewhat hairy. 
Mostly near the coast. April-July. 

Vines, mostly trailing, some species partly or wholly erect. Leaves 
of an even number of leallets, the leaf-stalk terminating by a tendril. 
The nervules are usimlly nearly parallel with the central nerve. Flowers 
in clusters or single, nearly like those of Vicia, often large. Stamens, 9 
united, 1 free, or 10 united. 

Leaflet* broadly oval or clli))tic. 

Flowers purple. . , 

Stipules broad halberd-shaped, not divided at apex . L. tnariturms 

Stipules deeply divided from apex L. z'enosus 

Leaflets narrow lance-shaped or somewhat egg-shaped. 

Stems with wings at the angles L. paltistns 

Stems angled, but not winged. 

Stipules broad, arrow-head-formed and divided . . L. myrtifohus 

Flowers yellowish. 

Stipules narrow, leai'-like, lance-shaped L. pratensis 

Stipules broad L. ochroleucus 

1. L. maritimus, (L.) Bigel. (Fig. 3, pi. 82.) Beach Pea. Nearly 
erect, or dccumljcnt, stout, stems about 1 ft. high, angled. Stipules very 
conspicuous, hall)erd-shaped and nearly as large as the leaflets. Leaflets 
elliptic or oval, 1 to 2 in. long, 1/3 to 1/2 as wide. Flowers showy, 
purple, in thick clusters on flower-stalks rather shorter thaii the com- 
pound leaves. Pod linear with a beak turned at a sharp angle. Sand 
at seashores. May-August. 

2. L. venosus, Muhl. (Fig. 7, pi. 81.) Veiny Pea. Stem climbing, 
nearly smooth or covered Avith soft hairs, 2 to 3 ft. high, strongly 4- 
angled. Htipulcs very small and slender. Leaflets 4 to 6 pairs, broadly 
elliptic or oval. Flowers purple about as large as those of No. 1, and 
on a stem about as long as the compound leaf. Pod linear with a beak 
not much bent. Southern part of our region. May-July. 

3. L. palustris, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 82.) Marsh Vetchling. Stems 
slender, usually with wings at the angles, smooth or nearly so. Stipules 
broad, split down the center. Leaflets 2 to 4 pairs, narrow lance-shaped, 
about 1 to 2 in. long and 1/5 as wide. Flowers in loose clusters (2 to 
6 in cluster), ])urple, each about i in. long. Pod narrow li to 2i in. 
long. Moist places, northern part of our area. May-August. 

4. L. myrtifolius, Muhl. (Fig. 2, pi. 82.) Myrtle-leaved Marsh 
Pea. Stems slender, angled but not winged. Stipules broad and long, 
resembling leaflets. Leaflets 2 to 4 pairs, oval or oblong, 2/3 to 2 in. 
long. Flowers purple, 2 to 9 in cluster. Pods long, the beak recurved. 
Moist places, our area. May-July. 

5. L. pratensis, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 81.) Meadow Pea. Climbing or 
straggling, 1 to 3 ft. long. leaves of a single pair of leaflets which are 
linear or broad-linear, i to 1 in. long. Stipules of similar form and size 
so that apparently there arc 4 leaflets, the lower pair attached to the 
stem. Flowers in a long slender cluster on a long flower stalk, yellow. 
Maine to New York. June-Aug. 

«. L. ochroleucus, TTook. (Fig. 6, pi. 81.) Cream-colored Vetch- 
ling. Stem suniewhat angled, climbing, 1 to 2i ft. high. Stipules broad, 



Plate 81 
1. Vicia americana. 2, V. angustifolia. 3. V. sepium. 4. Amphicarpa 
monoica. 5. Lathyrus pratensis. G. L. ochroleucus. 7. L. venosus. 8. Gal- 
actia regular! s. 


leaf -like. Leaflets 3 to 5 pairs, broadly oval or egg-shaped. Flowers 
yellowish-white in clusters of 5 to 9, | in. long. Pod straight, beak 
curved. Distributed through most of our area. May-July. 

22. CENTROSEMA, DC. (Bradburya, Raf.) 

Slender twining lierb, with 3-foliate leaves, a pair and an odd one. 
Both leaves and leaflets stipulate. Flowers in axillary clusters or solitary, 
showy. Calyx short, bell-shaped, its teeth nearly equal. The large stand- 
ard erect and rounded with a spur-shaped projection on the back toward 
the base. Wings pear-shaped, keel broad and curved. Style bearded. 
Pod long and slender, flat with elongated point. Stamens, 9 united, 1 
more or less free. 

C. virginianum, (L. ) Benth. Spurred Butterfly Pea. Somewhat 
rough hairy, stem trailing 2 to 4 ft. long. Leaflets egg-shaped to oblong 
or linear, shining. Flower stalks each bearing 1 to 4 showy violet hand- 
some flowers about an inch long. Pods 4 to 5 in. long, very slender, with 
a long awl-shaped point. Southern part of our area. July-August. 


Climbing, erect or trailing herbs or more or less woody vines. Leaves 
3-foliate, a pair and an odd one. Leaflets with stipulate bracts. Calyx 
tubular, 5-toothed. Flowers large, the standard rounded, erect with a 
distinct depression at summit and with no spur at the hack. Stamens, 
9 united, 1 more or less free. Pod slender, flattened, knotty, several- 

C. mariana, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 83.) Butterfly Pea. Stem 1 to 3 ft. 
high, reclining or partly erect, smooth. Leaflets oblong or very narrow 
egg-shaped. Stipules awl-shaped. Flower stalk short, with 1 to 3 showy 
pale blue flowers about 2 in. long. Southern part of our area. June-July. 

24. AMPHICARPA, Ell. (Falcata, Gmel.) 

Slender herbs, twining, the stem clothed with brown hairs. Leaves 
3-foliate, the leaflets broad. Flowers small, white or violet, in simple 
slender clusters (in our species). Flowers of two kinds, those of the- 
upper branches having colored petals, those on lower branches solitary 
without petals, but producing seed. 

L A. monoica, (L.) Ell. (Fig. 4, pi. 81.) Wild Pea-nut. Hoa 
Pea-nut. Leaflets 3, A to 2 in .long. Flower clusters simple and gen- 
erally nodding; flowers purplish or white. Bracts at base of flov.'ers 
egg-shaped. Common. Aug.-Sept. 

2. A. Pitched, (T. and G.) Pitcher's Hog Pka-nut. Leaflets 3, 
2 to 4 in. long. Bracts below flowers orbicular. Western New York. 

25. APIOS, Moench. 

Twining vines climbing on trees and shrubs with leaves of 3 to 7 
leaflets. Flowers in compact, short, often branching clusters, brownish- 
purple or red. Calyx Iwll-sliaped, somewhat 2-lipped. Standard very 
broad and turned backward, the long keel twisted. Stamens, 9 united, 
1 free. Pod linear. 



1 A • X , Plate 82 

1 Apios tuberosa. 2. Latl.yrus myrtifolius. 3. L. 


maritinnis. 4. L. pa- 


A. tuberosa, (L.) Moench. (Fig. 1, pi. 82.) Ground-nut. A vine, 
climbing on shrubs and trees often found along banks of streams. The 
undcrgrountl tubers are said to be edible. Flowers brownish-purple. 
Moist grounds. July-Sept. 

26. GALACTIA, P. Browne 

Prostrate or twining herbs, with 3-foliate leaves and small stipules, 
which fall early. Caly.x 41obed, the lobes narrow and sharp at apex and 
nearly equal in length. Standard orbicular, keel nearly straight, wings 
narrow. Stamens, 9 united, 1 free. Pod straight linear, few seeded. 

1. G. regularis, (L.) BSP. (Fig. 8, pi. 81.) Milk Pka. Mostly 
prostrate, smooth. Leaflets elliptic, oblong, obtuse at each end, shining 
above, somewhat hairy beneath, about 1 to li in. long. Flower cluster 
from leaf axils on somewhat lengthened flower-stalks, the cluster about as 
long as leaves. Flowers purple, greenish on the outside, rather large. 
Dry soils, near the coast, southern New York, and southward. Aug.-Sept. 

2. G. volubilis, (L.) Britton. Downy Milk Pea. Generally twin- 
ing, stem covered with silky hairs, several feet long. Leaflets similar in 
form to Ko. 1, Silky and whitish beneath. Flower cluster generally ex- 
tending beyond the leaves. Flowers smaller than those of No. L Dry 
soils, southern part of our area. June-Aug. 


Herbaceous twining or trailing plants, with 3-foliate leaves with stipules 
■which fall early. Flowers in clusters from the leaf axils. Calyx 5- 
toothed or lobcd, the upper two somewhat united. Standard orbicular, 
keel siJtralli/ tirisled. Pod sickle-shaped or nearly straight. 

L P. polystachyus, (L.) BSP. Fig. 5, pi. 83.) Wild Bean. 
Bean Vine. (P. perennis, Walt.). Vine, often many feet long, climb- 
ing and twining on other plants, often forming extensive masses of the 
light green vine. LeaHets large, broadly egg-shaped, li to 3 in. long, 
acute at apex, rounded at base. Flower clusters narrow, long, loose 
flowered. Flowers light purple. Pod about 2 in. long, with compressed 
dark purple seeds. Common. July-Sept. 

2. P, helvolus, L. (Fig. 2, pi. S3.) Trailing Wild Bean. (Stro- 
phostylcs hclvola, Britton.) Stem slender, trailing, 2 to 8 ft. long, rather 
rough-hairy, l^eaflets egg-shaped, acute or obtuse at apex. Flower-stalk 
much longer than the compound leaves. Flower clusters of few (2 to 
6) flowers. Corolla greenish-purple. Keel not twisted, but slender and 
curved. Sandy shores and river banks, eastern section of our area. 


Similar to Phaseolus, but keel of corolla is not spirally coiled, but is 
strongly incurved. 

S. umbellata, (Muhl.) Britton. (Fig. 4, pi. 83.) Pink Wild Bean. 

Re.scnililts l'li<ts<o!ufs lirlrolKs, but the l(\allets are often narrower and 
often with one or more shallow lobes at border. Long Island and soutii- 
ward. July-Sept. 



Plate 83 
1. Trifolium arvense. 2. Phaseolus helvolus. 3. Stylosanthes blflora. 4. 
Strophostyles umbellata. 5, Phaseolus polystachyus. 6. Clitoria mariana. 


Order VII.— GERANIALES. Order of the Geraniums 

This order includes families differing so widely that they do 
not appear related except to the expert. There are, however, cer- 
tain common characteristics. There are present the calyx and 
corolla except in rare instances. The ovary is superior to and 
free from the calyx and the divisions of the calyx (sepals) are, 
in nearly all cases distinctly separate from each other to the base 
or nearly to it. The stamens are few, usually 5 or 10 in flowers 
in which the petals are all similar (flowers regular), but in flowers 
in which the petals of the same flower are dissimilar the number 
is reduced. The carpels (ovule bearing parts of the pistils) 5 or 
less, are united, retaining, however, their dividing partitions, but 
in Geranium these carpels separate when ripe. The ovules are 
pendulous from the part of the carpel entering into the constitu- 
tion of the central axis of the combined carpels, and the ridge 
which connects the two ends of the ovule {tlte raphe) lies toward 
t]iis central axis. 


With colored, showy flowers. 
Flowers symmetrical. 

Leaves with radiating lobes . . GERANIACEAE 

Leaves 3-foliate OXALIDACEAE 

Leaves not lobed or divided . . . IINACEAE 
Flowers unsymmetrical .... POLYGALACEAE 

With mostly inconspicuous flowers, plants witli milky juice 


Small aquatic plants with very slender stems, ()])posito 
leaves and minute axillary flowers . CALLITRICHACEAE 

Leaves of not more than 13 leaflets . . . RTJTACEAE 
Leaves of from 13 to more tlian -10 leaflets SIMARUBACEAE 

Family I.— GERANIACEAE. Geranium Family . 

TTerbs, rarely shrubby, the stems of which often divide in pairs. 
Leaves usually deeply lobed, nearly always with stipules at the 


base of the leaf stalk. Flowers generally regular the calyx and 
corolla each of 5 divisions. In some foreign species the calyx has 
less than 5 sepals. Stamens 10, united at the base, 5 long and 5 
short, in Geranium all fertile, in Erodium 5 only fertile. Styles 
5, adherent to a central column, the whole forming a slender beak. 
Ovary free with 5 cells, the cells each with 2 ovules. 

Stamens 10, all bearing anthers Geranium 

Stamens 10, 5 only bearing anthers .... Erodium 


All of our species herbs, the stem swollen at the nodes. Leaves opposite 
or alternate usually cut or lobed, our species all with stipules at foot of 
leaf stalk. Flowers regular with 5 petals, 5 sepals, 10 stamens, 5 long 
and 5 short, usually ripening at different times. Ovary 5-celled, terminat- 
ing in a long beak. Fruit when mature of 5 one-seeded carpels. These 
at maturity elastically separate from the central column, a thread-like 
portion of the carpel to which the seed is attached coiling upward. (Fig. 
la, pi. 84.) 

Flowers t in. broad or more G. nigculatum 

Flowers about i in. broad. 

Leaves divided to the base into 3 compound leaflels, the middle one at 

least with a stem G. Robertianum 

Leaves cleft nearly to the base into 3 compound divisions, the middle one 
not on stem. 

Flower stalks exceeding the leaves G, columbinnm 

Flower stalks not exceeding the leaves. 

Beak of seed capsule i in. long G. Bicknellii 

Beak of seed capsule about ^ in. long G. dissectum 

Leaves cleft from 4 to J to the base. 

Flower stalk with a single flower G. sibiricum 

Flower stalk with 2 flowers. 

Leaves nearly round, sinuses extending not more than half way to 

base G. rot undi folium 

Sinuses extending more than half way to base. 

Flowers in compact clusters G. carolinianum 

Flowers in loose clusters, leaves rounded. 

Carpels hairy G. pusillum 

Carpels not hairy G. inolle 

Leaves divided into 7 parts G. pratense 

1. G. maculatum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 84.) Crane's Bill. Stem 1 to 
2 ft. high, erect, hairy; leaves about 5-parted nearly or quite 2/3 to base, 
the basal ones on long leaf-stalks, more or less rounded, 3 to 6 in. wide. 
Flowers in loose clusters at upper end of stem. Petals light purple; 
sepals slender pointed. Common in woods. April-July. 

2. G. Robertianum, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 84.) Herb Robert. Annual 
or bieiuiial. Extensively branching, the branches prostrate or partly 
erect, often covered with sticky hairs. Leaves deeply divided into lobes 
which are distinct to the base, the lobes also deeply incised. Leaf -stalks 
longer than the leaves. Flowers, 2 on a stalk exceeding the leaves; 
petals red-purple, sepals velvety, awl-shaped. The plant has a strong and 
rather unpleasant odor. Common in rocky woods. May-Oct. 

3. G. carolinianum, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 84.) Carolina Crane's-bill. 
Erect, diffusely branched, stems hairy, 6 to 1.5 in. high. Leaves divided 
into about 5 to 7 lobes, the sinuses extending rather more than half way 


to base; lobes also cleft into numerous divisions. Flower stalks rather 
short, branched, each branch with 2 flowers. Sepals as long as the pale 
purplish petals. Beak about 1 in. long. Barren soil, east Mass., westward 
and southward. April-Aug. 

4. G. Bicknellii, Britton. Bicknell's Crane's-bill. Similar to last, 
but flower-stalks do not exceed the leaf-stalks. New York, New England 
and northward. May-Sept. 

{The following species, introduced, are more or less naturalized and are 
found in limited localities in our area.) 

5. G. dissectum, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 84.) Cut -leaved Crane's-bill. 
Petals not longer than the sepals. Sepals not curved outward. Flower- 
stalks shorter than leaves, two flowered. 

6. G. columbinum, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 84.) Long-stalked Crane's-bill. 
Slender, mostly prostrate; leaves 1 to U in. diameter. Sepals and petals^ 
of about the same length. Borders of sepals curved outward. Flower- 
stalks longer than leaves. 

7. G. pusillum, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 84.) Small-flowered Crane's- 
bill. Stems procumbent, diff"usely branching, with soft hairs. Petals 
longer than sepals. Carpels not wrinkled. Stamens 5. 

8. G. molle, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 84.) Dove's-foot Crane's-bill. 
Similar to last, but more hairy. Petals about twice as long as sepals. 
Carpels transversely wrinkled. Stamens 10. 

9. G. rotundifolium, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 84.) Round-leaved Crane's- 
bill. Stems decumbent, slightly hairy. Leaves divided nearly to base; 
lobes linear; general form rounded. Sepals velvety. Fruit and seeds 
with long silky hairs tipped with purple glands. 

10. G. sibiricum, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 84.) Siberian Crane's-bill. 
Stems decumbent, freely branched, silky. Leaves deeply 3-parted, divisions 
strongly toothed. Floicers dull lohite, generally solitary. 

n. G. pratense, L. Spreading Crane's-bill. Leaves mostly 7- 
parted, the narrow lobes deeply cut. Flower stems downy. Corolla deep 
purple. Maine and locally in Mass. 

2. ERODIUM, L'Her. 

Resembles Geranium, but leaves are, in our' species, pinnate, i. e., feather- 
formed. Of the stamens 5 are perfect, the others sterile, greatly reduced 
or wanting. 

E. cicutarium, (L.) L'Her. Hemlock Stork's-bill. Heron's-bill. 
Growing in tufts. Hairy, low, spreading. Leaves of opposite leaflets 
on an elongated axis, the leaflets deeply cut. Flowers purple, nearly i 
in. broad. The beak very long. Introduced. April-Sept. 

Family II.— OXALIDACEAE. Wood-sorrel Family 

Herbs, with 3-foliate leaves, 10 stamens, of which 5 are shorter 
than tlie reinainin<^ 5 (rarely 15) ; 5 styles, more or less coherent. 
Sepals 5; petals 5; symmetrical. Fruit a capsule with 5 valves. 
Ovules several in each cavity. Leaves basal or alternate. 



Plate 84 
L C4«rainum maculatum. la. Pistil of G. maculatum. 2. G. carolinianum. 
3. G. Robertiamim. 4. G. pusilhim. 5. G. dissectum. 6. G. sibiricum. 7. 
G. rotundifolium. 8. G. columbinum. 9. G. molle. 10. Oxalis violacea. 11. 
O. Acetosella. 12. O. stricta. 



Characters as above. 

Leaves and flower-stems directly from the rootstock. 

I'"lower-stem one-flowered O. Acetosella 

I'"lowcr-stem several-flowered O. violacea 

Leaves and flower-stems not from the rootstock. 

Stipules conspicuous O. corniculafa 

Stipules not conspicuous O. stncta 

1. O. Acetosella, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 84.) White Wood-sorrel. Herbs, 
2 to 6 in. high; leaves all from the base. Rootstock creeping and scaly. 
Flower stem from the root, one-flowered; petals white with reddish veins. 
Moist woods. May- July. 

2. O. violacea, L. (Fig. 10, jpT. 84.) Violet Wood-sorrel. Root 
bulbous, scaly. Flower stems froin root, with from 3 to 12 flowers, 
which are rose-purple or nearly white. Rocky woods. May-June. 

3. O. corniculata, L. Yellow Wood-sorrel. Stems branching, 
mostly precumbent, 1 to 6 in. long. Flowers yellow, 2 to G on a flower- 
stem. Pods linear. Stipules conspicuous. Less common than No. 4. 

4. O. stricta, L. (Fig. 12, pi. 84.) Upright Wood-sorrei.. Stems 
erect, stipules not conspicuous. Plant ■without hairs. Flowers yellow. 
Common in woods and fields. April-Oct. 

In addition to the al)ove a considerable number of forms found in our 
area are reported as species by Dr. Small. 

Family III.— LINACEAE. Flax Family 

Herbs (always in our area), with alternate or opposite leaves 
which are simple, with borders entire, attached directly to the 
stem (sessile) and without stipules. Flowers regular, symmetri- 
cal, in our genus of 5 petals; sepals 5. Stamens 5 fertile, 5 sterile 
or suppressed, the fertile alternate with tlie petals. Ovary mostly 
of 5 cells. 

In oiir area we have only one genus. 

Which has the characters of the family, i. e., sepals 5, petals 5, longer 
than the calyx; stamens 5; styles 3 to 5. Seed capsule globular. 

Flowers blue L. usitatissiiniiin 

Flowers yellow. 

I-"lowcrs about i in. broad, stem striped or angular . . L. rirgiiiia>tnm 

l'"lowcrs about i/8 in. broad, stem not striped L. medium 

I'lowers about i in. broad, branches sharply angled or winged L. striatum 
l-'lowers i in. broad or more, stem angled with wings . . L. sulcatum 

1. L. usitatissimum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 85.) Flax. Linseed. Stem 
brandling al>(»ve, generally simple below, erect, about 12 to 20 in. high. 
Flowers boll-shaped, large, in loose clusters, each flower on a slender 
more or less elongated flower stalk. Sepals oval, sharply pointed. Found 
occasionally spontaneous. Introduced. Summer. 

2. L. virginianum, L. ( l'"ig. 2, pi. 85.) Sle.nder Yellow Flax. 



Plate 85 
1. Linum usitatissiraum. 2. L. virginianum. 3. L, medium. 4 L. stri- 
atum. 5. Ptelea trifoliata. 6- Xanthoxylum americanum. 


Erect, 1 to 2 ft. high, lower part of stem simple, upper branching, 
striped or somewhat angular. Branches all reaching nearly the same 
height. Leaves oblong, without leaf-stalks. Flowering stems spreading 
or recurved. Flowers small, sepals ovate, pointed. Styles distinct. Dry 
woods, our area. June-Aug. 

3. L. medium, (Planch.) Britton. (Fig. 3, pi. 85.) Stiff Yel- 
low Flax. Similar to Ko. 2. but branches do not recurve, and stems 
are never angular. Most of our area. 

4. L. striatum, Walt. (Fig. 4, pi. 84.) Ridged Yellow Flax. 
Generally numerous stems together, all erect and branched above; leaves 
generally opposite, lance-shaped. Stem and branches sharply angled with 
about 4 wing-like angles, somewhat viscid. Wet grounds, Mass., and 
southward. Summer. 

5. L. sulcatum, Riddell. Grooved Yellow Flax. Stem erect, sim- 
ple, branching only at the upper part. Stem and branches winged or 
grooved, at least above. Leaves alternate, lance-shaped, the upper ones 
with glandular hairs along the borders, 3-nerved. In place of stipules 
are dark glands. Most of our area. 

Family IV.— KUTACEAE. Eue Family 

The meml)ers of this family in our area are trees and shrubs. 
Flowers bearing stamens on one tree and pistils on another in 
Xanthoxylum, starainate pistillate and perfect flowers on the same 
tree in Ptelea. Sepals 4 or 5 or more, stamens twice as many as 
sepals or equal in number. Petals 4 or 5. Pistils 2 to 5 generally 
united. Fruit a capsule or a winged fruit (samara). Leaves of 
our species compound, alternate or opposite and abounding with a 
pungent or heavy aromatic volatile oil. 


Staminate and pistillate flowers on difl'crcnt plants. Sepals 4 or 5 or 
none, petals 4 or 5. Pistils 2 to 5, separate above, but united below. 
Capsule tiiick and fleshy. 

X. americanum, Mill. (Fig. 0, pi. 85.) Prickly Asti. Tootuaciie 
Tree. A small tree or more frequently a shrub, sometimes 25 ft. high, 
the stems and often the leaf-stalks prickly. Leaves compound of about 
4 pairs and an odd leaflet. Flowers in iimbellate clusters in the axils of 
the leaves, greenish, appearing bofore the leaves. Caly.K none, petals 
4 or 5. Woods, throughout our area. April-May. 

2. PTELEA, L. 

Flowers perfect or staminate only or pistillate only. Petals and sta- 
mens .3 to 5. Ovary of 2 cells, pistils 2 above. Fruit a 2-cellod, 2-seeded, 
broad-winged samara. Leaves 3-foliate; flowers greenish-white in com- 
pound clusters. 

P. trifoliata, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 85.) Ttiree-leaved Hop-tree. Rather 
tall shrub, with 3-foliate leaves, the leaflets egg-shaped, pointed, 2 to 5 


in. long, the group on a long leaf-stalk. Flowers in compound cluster, 
greenish-white. Seeds, 2 in a broad winged fruit, the wings reticulated, 
nearly round, about i in. in diameter. In southern part of our area. 
Not common. June. 

Family V.— SIMARUBACEAE. Ailanthus Family 

Trees or shrubs. Flowers regular, with calyx and corolla, gen- 
erally 5 sepals, 5 petals and twice as many stamens ; staminate and 
pistillate flowers separate. Carpels generally free or united above. 
Fruit (in our species) winged. Leaves compound, without stipules. 

A. glandulosa, Desf. The only species in our region, the Ailanthus, 
planted as a shade tree, grows to a height of from 40 to 90 ft. The com- 
pound leaves are often 2 or 3 ft. long with from 6 to 20 pairs of leaflets 
and an odd one. 

Family A^.— POLYGALACEAE. Milkwort Family 

In our area, all herbs, with unsymmetrical flowers; calyx of 5 
sepals and corolla usually of 3 petals; two of the sepals resembling 
petals. Stamens generally 8, sometimes 6. Ovary of 2 cells. 
Style simple. Fruit a capsule. 

Flowers generally showy, colored, quite irregular, in grape-like clus- 
ters. Calyx of 5 sepals, the upper and the two lower small and greenish, 
the two side sepals large and colored like petals. Three petals only are 
developed, the anterior of which is much the largest and is covered by the 
two posterior. The large petal is 3-lobed, the middle lobe being fringed 
or tufted, the whole petal resembling the keel of a boat or in some 
species it is spoon-like. Stamens 6 to 8. Fruit a 2-seeded pod. 

Principal leaves mostly in whorls. 

Flower heads in close contact with leaves P. cruciata 

Flower heads removed from leaves by elongated flower stems. 

Heads of flowers cylindric or rounded, blunt ... P. brcvifolia 
Heads (spikes) slender and spindle-formed .... P. verticillata 

Lower leaves only in a whorl P. ambigua 

Leaves alternate. 

Flowers orange-yellow P. lutea 

Flowers purple to white; 

In spindle-shaped spikes or heads. 

Leaves linear to narrow lance-shaped, not distant from each other, 

flowers greenish or yellowish-purple P. Nuttallii 

Leaves linear, quite distant from each other. Flowers pink P. incarnata 
Flowers in rounded heads, blunt at top. 

Bracts persistent P. sanguinea 

Bracts deciduous P. mariana 

Flowers in elongated spikes. 

Leaves linear P. polygama 

Leaves lance-shaped P. senega 

Flowers few, showy, in loose clusters P. paucifolia 

1. P. cruciata, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 86.) Cross-leaved Milkwort. 
Marsh Milkwort. Erect, 4 to 16 in. high, branching above, nearly or 


quite simple below, stem somewliat winged at the angles, or square. 
Leaves in whorls of 4, or a few scattered, linear obtuse at apex, 2 to li 
in. long, quite narrow (1/12 to 1/G in. wide). Clusters of flowers con- 
densed, oval, quite blunt above, on very short flower stalks, . the leaves 
extending around and above the cluster. Flowers purple, greenish or 
white. Wet grounds, our area. July-Sept. 

2. P. brevifolia, Nutt. (Fig. S, pi. 8G.) Shokt-leaved Milkwort. 
Similar to No. 1 ; leaves in whorls of 4s but shorter ; flower stem ex- 
tending considerably above leaves. Wet sandy places, Rhode Island, Mass., 
and southward. June-Sept. 

3. P. verticillata, L. " (Fig. 3, pi. 86.) Wiiorled Milkwort. Very 
slender, 4 to 10 in. high, with many branches. Leaves in whorls of 4, 
rarely more, narrow, sharp pointed, \ to \\ in. long. Flowers in spindle- 
shaped clusters on long flower-stalks. Flowers greenish-purple. Com- 
mon in dry or moist fields. June-Nov. 

4. P. ambigua, Nutt. (Fig. 4, pi. 86.) Loose-spiked Milkwort. 
Resend)les No. ;5, but leaves, except the lower ones, which may be in one or 
two whorls, are scattered along the stem. Flower groups more extended, 
and slender, nearly cylindric. Dry soil, our area. June-Nov. 

5. P. lutea, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 86.) Or.\nge Milkwort. Erect, few 
brandies except at top, leaves alternate, narrow spatulate; flowers in 
rounded heads, yellow. In southern part of our area. June-Oct. 

0. P. Nuttallii, T. G. (Fig. 5, pi. 86.) Nuttall's Milkwort. Stems 
very slender, 4 to 6 in. high. Simple below, brandling above. Leaves 
scattered along the stem 5 to f in. long, very slender linear. Flowers in 
spindle-shaped heads, greenish-purple. Dry soil. Aug.-Sept. 

7. P, incarnata, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 86.) Pink Milkwort. Erect, heads 
of flowers spindle-shaped or more or less interrupted and cylindric. Leaves 
narrow linear sitiuxtcd at long distances from each other. Dry soils, 
southern \r.\Yi of our area. June-Oct. 

8. P. polygama, Walt. (Fig. 6, pi. 86.) Bitter Polygala. Erect, 
not brandling, leafy, several stems from the same root, 4 to 20 in. high. 
Leaves scattered, lance-shaped or linear, obtuse at end. Flowers in an 
elongated spike (1 to 3 in.), rather loosely clustered, purple to light rose 
or even white, with a tinge of rose, showy. Dry soil. .June-July. 

9. P. sanguinea, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 86.) Purple Milkw^ort. (P. 
viride.seens, L. ). Erect, branching above, 6 to 1.') in. high. Leaves linear, 
alternate, f to 1| in. long. Heads of flowers rounded, blunt at top, red to 
purplisli-wliite. IMoist meadows, wet grounds. July-Oct. 

10. P. mariana, Mill. Maryland Milkwort. Resembles P. san- 
guinea. The two little bracts at the base of each short flower stem in the 
cluster of flowers are, in /'. sanguinea persistent. In the present species 
these bracts fall early. Flowers rose-purple. Southern New Jersey and 
southward. July-Sept. 

n. P, senega, L. (Fig. 1, pi. SO.) Senega Snakeroot. Erect, 
smooth, scarcely branching, leafy 8 to 14 in. high. Leaves alternate, lance- 
shaped tapering at each end, ajicx sharp. IMowcrs in rather close spike, 
white. Rocky woods. May-June. 

12. P. paucifolia, W illd. (Fig. 2, pi. SO.) Fringed Polygala. 



Plate 86 

6. P. Nuttallii. 6. P. polygama. 7. P. sanguinea. 8. P. brcvifolia 9 P 
incarnata. 10. P. lutea. 11. P. ciuciata. oicvitoha. J. 1. 


Steins simple, half prostrate or erect, 3 to 4 in. high. Leaves crowded, 
egg-shaped or oblong 1 to 1^ in. long, i as wide, the leaves below the 
main cluster are reduced to scales or very small leaves. Flowers few, 
showy rose-purple, the keel beautifully fringed. Another form of flowers 
small, greenish, are found close to the ground or beneath the surface. In 
rich grounds, often at foot of rocks. One of the most attractive of our 
spring flowers. May. 

Family VII.— EUPHORBIACEAE. Spurge Family 

In our region all herbs, with pistils and stamens in different 
flowers, sometimes on the same plant in other cases on different 
plants. Whole plant abounds in acrid milky juice. Leaves op- 
posite or alternate. Flowers witbout petals or with. Stamens 
few or numerous. In fertile flowers the ovary is composed of 
from 3 to 9 or more carpels (mostly 3) fused to a central pro- 
longation of the axis. An ovule or a pair of ovules may hang 
from the summit of each cell of the ovary. 

Flowers in spikes. 

Staminate uppermost . Croton 

Pistillate uppermost Acalypha 

Flowers in loose clusters. 

Staminate flowers (2 or 3 in the loose group) above the 

pistillate^ which is generally solitary . . Crotonopsis 
Staminate and pistillate flowers enclosed in the same ' 
involucre (leafy bracts resembling a calyx), the ovary 
generally, toward maturity, becoming exserted and 
nodding on its little stalk. (Fig. 1. pi. 88.) Euphorbia 
Flowers solitary, at leaf-axils Phyllanthus 

Herbs, witli wiry stems and altcrnat*', entire leaves. Staminate and 
pistillate flowers separate, but on tlie same plant without flower stems. 
Calyx 4- to 6-parted. Stamens usually 3, the lilaments more or less 
uiiit<'il. Capsule globe-formed. 

P. carolinensis, Walt. (Fig. G, pi. 87.) Carolina Phyllanthus. 
Slender, 4 to 20 in. high. Leaves oblong or pear-shaped, J to f in. long. 
Calyx lobes G, linear. Stamens and styles each, 3. Gravelly soil, eastern 
Penna., west and south. May-Oct. 

2. CROTON, L. 

IncoiL-^jficuous weeds. Leaves, in our species, alternate. Flowers of 
two kinds on tlie same ilower stalk, the upper bearing stamens, the 
lower pistils. Calyx of staminate flowers of 5 sepals. Petals usually 
rudimentary. Stamens 5 or more. Pistillate flowers, calyx 5 to 10 
sepals. Petals wanting. Ovary of 3 cells, each with one seed. 


Plate 87 
1. Acalypha ostryaefolia. 2. A. virginica. 3. A. gracilens. 4. Crotonopsls 
linearis. 5. Croton capitatus 6. Pliyllantlius caroliiiensis. 


C. capitatus, IMiclix. (Fig. 5, pi. 87.) Capitate Croton. Stem 
densely woolly, leaves woolly on both sides, oblong-lance-sliaped with 
the base rounded or heart-shaped. Clusters of inconspicuous staminate 
flowers just above the more dilated group of pistillate ilowers. Tiiese 
staminate flowers have 5 small petals and 10 or more stamens. Pistillate 
(lowers in a rounded group. Only in southern part of our area. May- 


Herbs, with silky but shining leaves, leaves alternate (opposite in our 
species). Calyx 5-parted. Petals, none. Stamens 5. Flowers in loose 
branching clusters, staminate above. 

C. linearis, Michx. (Fig. 4, pi. 87.) Crotonopsis. Whole plant sil- 
very from shining scales. Stem erect, branching in regular pairs, 12 to 
18 in. high. Leaves 1 to IJ in. long, narrow lance-shaped or broader, to 
narrow egg-shaped, on short leaf -stalks, opposite. Flowers very small in 
terminal spikes or masses. Southern part of our area. July-Sept. 


Our species herbs, with pistils and stamens occupying difTorent flowers 
on the same plant. Stems erect and branching. Leaves alternate. The 
staminate flowers in axillary spikes below the pistillate flowers with calyx 
of 4 sepals. Pistillate flowers each subtended by a leafy bract, calyx of 
4 or 5 sepals. Ovary 3-celled, styles 3; cells each with one seed. 

1. A. ostryaefolia, Kidd. (Fig. 1, pi. 87.) Three-seeded Mercury. 
Stem branched, hairy, 1 to 2 ft. high; leaves on leaf-stalks about 1 length 
of leaves or more; leaves egg-shaped, sharp pointed at ajiex, rounded or 
heart-shaped at base, with toothed borders, 2 to 4 in. long. Staminate 
flowers very small on somewhat lengthened spikes. Corolla absent. Plant 
resembles a nettle, hence its name, Acalypha, an ancient name for the 

2. A. virginica, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 87.) Virginia Three-seeded Mer- 
cury. Plant 1 to 2 ft. liigh becoming purple. Leaves egg-shaped, not 
heart-shaped at base but somewhat tapered. Flowers of both kinds are 
enclosed within a fringed leafy bract. 

3. A. gracilens, A. (iray. (Fig. 3, pi. 87.) Slender Three-seeded 
Mercury. Leaves linear or lanf-e-shajied. Stems very slender. The 
staminate spike generally exceeds the fringed bract. Otherwise the plant 
has characters of No. 2. 


Herbs, with staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant and 
generally surrounded by the same involucre. These involucres are bell- 
shaped, having 4 or 5 segments resembling petals which alternate with as 
many gland-like teeth (Fig. 1, ])1. 88). The involucres are subtended by 
bracts which are often brightly colored. Stamens scattered over the 
inner surface of the involucre; pistillate dower solitary, the ovary is 
situated on a pedicel, which increases until it lifts the ovary in general 
outside the bell -shaped involucre, where it droops outward and downward. 
Capsule 3-lobcd. 



Plate 88 
1. A flower of Euphorbia Darlingtonii. 2. Euphorbia polygonifolia. 3. 
E. maculata. 4. E. helioscopia. 5. E. Peplus. 6. E. Lathyris. 7. E. corol- 
lata. 8. E. nutans. 9. E. Ipecacuanhae. 10. E. Esula 11. E. lucida. 12. E. 


Flowers in axils of the opposite leaves not in umbel-like clusters, usually one 

riant prostrate. 

Borders of leaves without teeth E. polygonifolia 

Borders of leaves with teeth. 

Stem and leaves without hairs E, glyptosperma 

Stem and leaves hairy. 

Involucres split on one side E. humistrata 

Involucre not split E. maciilata 

Plant erect. 

Leaves notched E. nutans 

Leaves entire E. Ipecacuanhae 

Flowers in umbel-like clusters subtended by a whorl of leaves. 

Appendages to involucre petal-like E, coroUata 

No petal-like appendages. 

Rays of the umbel 3, rarely more. Stem leaves with leaf 

stalks E. Peplus 

Rays of the umbel 4 E. Latliyris 

Rays of the umbel 5 to 8. 

Floral leaves broad heart-shaped. 

Stem leaves elliptic lance-shaped . . E. Darlitigionii 

Stem leaves pear-shaped E. Iiclioscopia 

Stem leaves oblong, blunt at each end . . E. litcida 
Stem leaves linear, sharp at both ends. 

Whorl of leaves at base of umbel not repeated 

E. Esula 

Whorls 2 to several, one below the other on 

main stem E. cyparitsias 

1. E. polygonifolia, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 88.) Sea-side Spurge. Stems 
spreading, prostrate, 3 to 8 in. long, lying flat upon the sand. Leaves 
^ to f in. long, opposite, very narrow with blunt ends, fleshy, horders 
not serrated. Flowers, a single involucre at the axil of one of a pair of 
leaves, seeds egg-shaped. Sandy shores. July-Sept. 

2. E. glyptosperma, Engelra. Eidge-seeded Spurge. Smooth, pros- 
trate, spreading, stems 2 to 15 in. long. Leaves oblong or narrow, 
broader at base, and generally very unequal there; blunt at each end, 
borders tcith small serrations toward the bkmt apex. Involucres often 
clustered; seeds 4-angled. June-Oct. 

3. E. maculata, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 88.) "SUj.k Purslane. Eairi/, both 
leaves and stem. Stems prostrate, much branclied, 2 to 15 in. long. 
Leaves about i in. long, reddish, usually blotched v/ith a brown-red spot 
near center, oblique at base with small serrations toward the apex. 
Flowers in dense leafy axillary clusters. Seeds ovate with 4 .sharp angles 
and 4 shallow grooves. Common, sandy places. June-Nov. 

4. E. humistrata, Engelni. Hairy Spreading Spurge. Resembles 
No. 3, but leaves are less hairy beneath and color of leaves and stems 
light green. Leaves about 1/3 to 1/2 in. long, oblong or oval. Invol- 
ucres in lateral clusters, split on one side. Aug.-Oct. 

5. E. nutans. Lag. (Fig. 8, pi. 88.) Large or ITprigut Spotted 
Spurge. Stems upright, simple or more generally brancliing above i to 
2 ft. high. Leaves opposite, irregularly and inisynunetrically oblong, 
slightly notched on the borders. Flowers white or red. Common in 
sandy soil. May-Oct. 

6. E. corollata, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 88.) Flowering Spurge. Erect, 
1 to 3 ft. high, briglit green, simple below, branched as an umbel above. 
Leaves forming the whorl subtending the umbel, narrow, 3 to 0, those of 
the stem narrow lance-shaped, alternate, those of the umbel also narrow 


lance-shaped or linear. Rays of the umbel 3 or more. Flowers (invol- 
ucres) terminal with white petal-like divisions. Sandy soil. April-Oct. 

7. E. Ipecacuanhae, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 88.) Wild Ipecac. Spreading 
or erect, 4 to 10 in. high. Leaves opposite, varying from linear to orbicu- 
lar, mostly oval. Involucre on a very long slender peduncle. Dry sandy 
soil, south and east part of our region. May-Oct. 

8. E. Lathyris, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 88.) Caper Spurge. Erect, stout, 
1 to 3 ft. high. Branched as an umbel above. Leaves of the whorl and 
stem narrow lance-shaped or linear, those of the stem scattered, those of 
the umbel broadly egg-shaped with sharp points. Introduced. May-Aug. 

9. E. Darlingtonii, A. Gray. Darlington's Spurge. Stem stout, 
erect, 1 to 5 ft. high, branching as an umbel at top. Rays of umbel 5 to 
8. Leaves of whorl several, lance-shaped, those of stem also lance-shaped 
tapering at each end, those of umbel broad heart-shaped or kidney-ehaped. 
(For the flower see Fig. 1, pi. 88.) 

10. E. helioscopia, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 88.) Sun Spurge. Stem about 
1 ft. high, often branched at base. Stem leaves spatulate, those of the 
whorl inversely egg-shaped or nearly round as are those of the umbel. 
Rays of the umbel 3 to 5, flowers yellowish. Introduced. June-Sept. 

11. E. Esula, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 88.) Leafy Spurge. Stems 1 to 2 
ft. high, branched above. Rays of umbel 4 to 8. Leaves of stem and whoii 
linear, those of umbel broadly heart-shaped. Introduced. May-Oct. 

12. E. lucida, Waldsl. and Kit. (Fig. 11, pi. 88.) Nicaean Spurge. 
(E. nicaeensis, All.). Stem 1 to li ft. high. Rays of umbel 4 to 7. Stem 
leaves linear or oblong, those of the whorl and of the umbel broad heart- 
shaped or kidney-shaped. Flowers (involucres), yellowish. Introduced. 

13. E. Cyparissias, L. (Fig. 12, pi. 88.) Cypress Spurge. Stems 
mostly erect, about 1 ft. high. Plant bright green, the involucres of the 
umbel showing yellow. Grows in patches, escaped from gardens. Rays 
of tlie umbel numerous. Whorls of linear leaves; leaves of the stem 
thickly scattered, also linear; those of the umbel broadly egg-shaped. 
Along roadsides where, for the most part, it has been thrown from gar- 
dens. May-Sept. 

14. E. Peplus, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 88.) Petty Spurge. Plant 4 to 12 
in. high.- Leaves of the stem pear-shaped, pn leaf-stalks. Seeds with 2 
grooves on the back and with several pita on the inner face. New Jer- 
sey, New York, and southward. June-Sept. 

Family VIII.— CAILITRICHACEAE. Water Starwort Family 

Small aquatic herbs, with opposite leaves which are simple, and 
with entire (not serrated or notched) borders. FloWers solitary 
in the axils of the leaves very minute, without corolla, but in some 
species, with two colored bracts. Stamens and pistils generally 
not in the same flowers, but on the same plant. Generally 1 sta- 
men, exceptionally 2. Ovary of 4 cells. Styles 1. Stems very 
slender. Leaves spatula-formed or linear. 



Characters, those of the family. 

Without colored bracts. 

Terrestrial, growing in mud C. deflexa 

Aquatic, submersed C. autumnalis 

With colored bracts. 

Aquatic, submersed or growing in mud. 

Fruit oval C. palustris 

Fruit pear-shaped C. heterophyila 

1. C. deflexa, A. Br. (Fig. .5, pi. 89.) Terrestrial Starwort. (0. 
Austini, Engelm.). Plant forming tufts on moist soil, stem i to 2 in. 
high. Leaves very small (about 1/10 in. long), spatula-formed, 3-nerved, 
tapering at base. Fruit notched at each end. In wet soil. Summer, 

2. C. palustris, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 80.) Vernal Water Starwort. 
Growing in mud or in the water. Stems 2 to 10 in. long, very slender. 
Leaves of two sorts, the floating pear-shaped or spatula-formed, about 
^ in. long, the submersed, linear of about the same length. Fruit borne 
in the axils of the higlier leaves, enclosed in two small bracts. Common 
in stagnant waters. July-Sept. 

3. C. heterophyila, Pursh. (Fig. 7, pi. 89.) Large Water Stab- 
wort. Resembles No. 2. In No. 2 the fruit is higher than broad, thick- 
est at base, without a visible pedicel, its lobes keeled, or acutely angled. 
In this species the fruit is broader than high, its lobes obtusely angled. 
In quiet waters. July-Sept. 

4. C. autumnalis, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 89.) Northern Water Star- 
wort. (C bifida, (L.) Morong.) Stem entirely submersed; leaves all 
alike, linear or narrow lance-shaped, notched at the apes, somewhat clasp- 
ing at the stem. In flowing waters. July-Sept. 

Order VIII.— SAPINDALES. Order of the Sapindales or 


The plants of this order have the general characteristics of the 
last (Geranium Order), except that the ov^^les are in an opposite 
position, tliat is, with tlie ovules pendulous, hut with the ridge 
connecting tlie two ends (the raphe) away from the axis of the 
ovary, or ascending from the hase of the ovary and inverted. On 
this somewhat ohscurc and quite technical character the classifica- 
tion of this large group depends. The families of the order in- 
clude herh.s, woody heath-like plants {empciraccac), sliruhs and 

Flowers regular or nearly so . . . LIMNANTHACEAE 

Flowers very irregular BALSAMINACEAE 

Woody, heath-like, depressed plants . . . EMPETRACEAE 


Shrubs and trees. 

Fruit of two long winged samaras j veins of the leaves 

radiate from the end of the leaf-stem . . ACERACEAE 
Fruit a much inflated, bladder-like capsule; veins of the 

leaves diverging from a mid-vein , STAPHYLEACEAE 

Frnit a berry-like drupe; veins of leaves diverging from a 
Flowers in" terminal, generally dense clusters 


Flowers in axillary, generally few-flowered clusters; 

leaves alternate IIICACEAE 

Fruit in a 2- to 5-celled pod, leaves opposite ' CELASTRACEAE 
Fruit a nut enclosed in a spiny bur-like capsule. Leaflets 

radiating from the leaf-stem . . HIPPOCASTANACEAE 
Fruit a 3-seeded berry, leaves pinnate . . SAPINDACEAE 

Family I.— EMPETRACEAE. Crowbeery Family 

Low spreading plants, with slender woody stems, which are 
freely branching and covered with small narrow leaves. Flowers 
inconspicuous, of two kinds, pistillate and staminate^ both on the 
same plant or the two on separate plants. Berry black or red with 
several hard nutlets within. 


Our only speeie3 a branching and depressed woody plant with slender 
stems and thickly scattered, small, linear leaves. Flowers having both 
calyx and corolla or with calyx only; the pistils and stamens in different 
flowers on the same plant or on dill'erent plants. Calj'x of 2 or 3, usually 
3, sepals. Stamens of the staminate flowers 3. Flowers toward the sum- 
mit of the slender stem in the axils of the leaves. Corolla present. 

E. nigrum, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 89.) Black Crowbeery. A small pros- 
trate shrub growing on White Mountains and other elevated places and 
on northern part of oiir coast. 

2. COREMA, Don. 

Corolla absent, flowers in terminal clusters. Otherwise resembling 

C. Conra^ii, Torr. (Fig. 10, pi. 89.) Conrad's Crowbeeky. Low 
bushy tufted shrub, 1 ft. high. In pine barrens. 


Family II.— LIMNANTHACEAE. False Mermaid Family 

Herbs, with alternate compound leaves, without stipules. Sta- 
mens few (6 to 10), twice as many as the petals. Sepals and 
petals equal in number. Carpels equal in number to tbe stamens, 
uniting in a single style, which above, is cleft into as many stigmas 
as there are carpels. 


Small plant with compound feather-formed leaves (about 2 pairs of 
leaflets and an odd one), growing in marslies and on river and lake banks. 
Sepals usually 3, longer than the 3 oblong petals. 

F. proserpinacoides, Willd. (Fig. 4, pi. 89.) False Mermaid. A 
small slender plant growing in marshes and on river banks. Stems about 
1 ft. long prostrate or partly submersed. Leaves of 5 leaflets, those sub- 
mersed of three leaflets or divisions. Flowers, in the leaf axils, white. 
Fruit one or two globular carpels. 

Family III.— ANACARDIACEAE. Sumac Family 

Trees or shrubs, with resinous milky acrid juice, with alternate 
compound leaves in our species; flowers which may be perfect, but 
which often contain either stamens only or pistils only. Calyx, 
and corolla usually cacli of 5 members. Stamens usually 10 or 
twice tlie numl)cr of tbe sepals, but by suppression the number 
may be reduced to 1. Ovary 1- to 4-celled, 1-seeded, Styles 1 to 
3 but, when 1, divided into 3 stigmas at top. Fruit a pulpy berry- 
like drupe with hard seed-coats. Of the family we have but one 

RHUS, L. (Toxicodendron, Mill.) 

TreeSj shrubs and woody vines. Leaves mostly compound. Flowers 
usually small, in dense clusters. Fruit small with a central strong seed. 
Seed inverted on a stalk that rises from the base of the ovary. 

Trees or slirubs. 

Leaves of 3 leaflets . . R. canadensis 

Leaves of 9 to 21 leaflets. 

Leaf-stalk between the leaflets wing-niarRined R. co{>aUina 

Leaf-stalk between the leaflets not winged. 

Leaves and new branches velvefy R. typhina 

Leaves and new branches not velvety. 

Leaflets generally more than 13 7?. glabra 

Leaflets from 7 to 13 R. I'crnije 

Woody vine R. toxicodendron 

1. R. copallina, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 00.) Dwarf Sttmac. Mountain 
Sumac. Small tree or shrub. Branches and leaf-stalks silky. Leaves 
of 4 to 10 pairs of leaflets with an odd one. The common leaf stalk 
broadens, bctweens the leaflets, into a wing on each side which difl'eren- 
tiates it from all the other species' of Rhua. It is usually a low shrub 
or tree, but may rise to a height of 20 or even 30 ft. The cluster of flowers 



Plate 89 
1. Elms glabra. 2. R. canadensis. 3. Aesculus glabra. 4. Floerkea pro- 
serpinacoides. 5. Callitriclie deflexa. 6. C. palustris. 7. C. heterophylla. 
8. C. autumnalis 9. Empetrum nigrum. 10. Corema Conradii. 


is dense and spindle-shaped of greenish flowers. Found throughout our 
region on hillsides and in pastures. June-Aug. 

2. R. typhina, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 90.) Staghorn Sumac. {R. hirta, 
(L. ) Sudw.). Branches and common leaf-stalks densely silky or velvety. 
Leaves of 11 to 31 leaflets, the compound leaf being from 7 to 30 in. long. 
Leaf-stalks not winged. A small tree generally 15 to 20 ft. high, but 
often reaching a height of more than 30 ft. Common. June-Aug. 

3. R. glabra, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 89.) Smooth Upland Sumac. Shrub 
or tree, 10 to 30 ft. high, with long compound leaves, leaflets from about 
11 to about 31. Leaflets and leaf-stems smooth, lance-shaped, with ser- 
rated edges, very acuto at outer extremity, pale beneath. No wings on 
the main leaf stem. Hillsides. June-August. 

4. R. canadensis. Marsh. (Fig. 2, pi. 89.) {R. aromaiim, Ait.). 
Shrub, 3 to 8 ft. high. Leaves trifoliate. Leaflets egg-shaped or rhombic, 
aromatic, with coarse teeth at edges. Flowers yellowish-green in dense 
rounded or oblong masses. Flowers appearing before the leaves. Woods, 
not common. March-April. 

5. R, Vernix, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 90.) Poison Sumac. A shrub or small 
graceful tree, very poisonous. Height from 6 to 25 ft. Leaflets 7 to 13, 
smooth or when young somewhat downy, oval and without teeth. Flowers 
green, in clusters much less dense than those of the preceding species. 
Found in swamps. Is more poisonous than the following species. 

6. R. toxicodendron, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 90.) Poison Ivy. (R. radi- 
cans, L.). Climbing vine, adhering to rocks or trees by rootlets which 
shoot from the stem. Often erect as a low bushy shrub. Leaves of 3 
egg-shaped leaflets which have smooth edges. Flowers greenish. Along 
fences and thickets or climbing trees. 

A pernicious species which is too often permitted to grow to the detri- 
ment of the health of many people, even when not poisoned by contact. 
Many persons living in neighborhoods where this vine is tolerated become 
ill from obscure nervous troubles, which are often considered as malarial 
and the value of property is in such places reduced since the localities 
acquire the reputation of being " malarial." This is especially the case 
with many interesting localities along the Hudson River. 

Family IV.— ILICACEAE. Holly FxVmily 

Trees or shrubs, with small white flowers in the leaf axils, gen- 
erally of 4 or 6 petals, 3 to 6 sepals and 4 to 6 stamens. Fruit 
a berry-like drupe. Leaves alternate and simple. 

Petals oval or oblong Ilex 

Petals linear Ilicioides 

I. ILEX, L. 

Shrubs or small trees, with alternate leaves and with flowers, several 
or solitary, appearing at the leaf-axils. Petals, in our species, 4 to 6; 
stamens as many as the petals (No. 5 has from 4 to 8 petals). Calyx 
minute of 4 or 6 divisions. Fruit a round berry inclosing 4 or 6 small 
nutlets. Tlio flowers may enclose both stamens and pistils or stamens 
may be found in one flower and pistils in another. 



Plate 90 
1. Rims copallina. 2. R. typhina. 3. R. Vernix. 4. R. toxicodendron. 


Leaves evergreen. 

With spiny tips at borders I. opaca 

Without spiny tips /. glabra 

Leaves falling in autumn. 

Flowers on short flower stalks. 

Nutlets ribbed 1. montkola 

Nutlets not ribbed. 

Twigs not gray /. veriicillata 

Twigs gray /. bronxensis 

Flowers on long flower stalks /. laevigata 

1. I. opaca, Ait. (Fig. 2, pi. 91.) American Holly. A tree, 20 to 
40 ft. high, with evergreen glossy foliage, the leaves having wavy margins 
with spiny tips. Flowers in axillary clusters of from 3 to 10, white, of 
4 petals and 4 stamens. Fruit a round berry turning red when mature. 
Moist woods, near the seacoast. April-June. 

2. I. glabra, (L.) A. Gray. (Fig. 6, pi. 91.) Inkbekry. Shrub, 2 
to 3 ft. high, with evergreen spineless leaves which are inversely lance- 
shaped or elliptic. Flowers, the pistillate generally single on rather long 
peduncles, the staminate in groups of 3 to 6. Sandy ground, near the 
coast. June. 

3. I. monticola, A. Gray. (Fig. 3, pi. 91.) Large-leaved Holly. 
Usually a shrub, but less commonly a tree with falling leaves, which are 
thin, lance-shapod or oval lance-shaped, from 2 to 6 in. long, with serrated 
borders and with leaf-stems 1/4 to 1/3 the length of the leaves. Flower 
pedicels very short and bear a single flower, but the staminate flowers 
may grow in clusters while the pistillate are solitary. The nutlets within 
the berry are rihhcd. Woods. May. 

4. I. verticillata, (L.) A. Gray. (Fig. 5, pi. 91.) Black Alder. 
Shrub, resembling the last. Leaves usually broader, thicker, more shin- 
ing and of dark green color. Petals and stamens usually 6, Veins on 
lower side of leaves downy. Flowers on very short pedicels. Nutlets 
within the berry are not ribbed. In wet grounds. June-July. 

5. I. bronxensis, Britton. Bronx Winter-rerry. Similar to No. 4, 
but with light gray twigs, pear-shaped leaves and with larger orange- 
red fruit. Swamps, Maine to New Jersey, and west. 

fi. L laevigata, (Pursh.) A. Gray. (Fig. 4, pi. 91.) SArooTii WiN- 
TER-HERRY. A shrub, usually rather smaller than the last, with similar 
leaves. Petals and stamens 4 to 8 each. Flowers on long pedicels, usually 
solitary, but the staminate growing 2 or more together in some cases. 
Swampa. May-June. 

2. ILICIOIDES, Dnmont. (Nemopanthes, Raf.) 
A smoolli slirub with falling leaves, wliich .are without serrations at 

the borders and which have flowers bearing stamens, others bearing pistils 

and yet others bearing both sets of organs. Petals 4 or 5 linear. Berries 

on long stalks deeply grooved. 

I. mucronata, (L. ) Britton. Mountain Holly. A branching shrub 

with gray bark resembling Ilex. Found in damp woods. May. 

Family V.— CELASTEACEAE. Staff Tree Family 

Shnibs or trees. Our species all shrubs, some of which are 
climbing. Leaves simple and ours, except Cclaslrus, opposite. 


Plate 01 
1. Celastrus scandens. 2. IIpx opaca. 3. I. monticola. 4. T. laevio-ata. 5. 
I. verticillata. G. I. glabra. 7. Euonymus americanus, 8. E obovatus. 9. 
Staphylea trifolia. 


Petals 4 or 5, stamens as many and alternate with tlie petals. 
Flowers usually with petals, sepals, stamens and pistils. Fruit a 
rounded or more or less angular pod which splits at maturity. 
The dominant characters are the regularity of the flowers and the 
equality in numbers of petals and stamens. 


Erect shrubs, with opposite leaves and small axillary purple or greenish 
flowers on rather long pedicels, which spring at the leaf-axils. Calyx of 
4 or 5 divisions, flat and spreading. The disc on which the 5 stamens are 
inserted is above the 4 or 5 (5 in our 2 species), petals which are rounded 
and spreading into a flat greenish or purple corolla. The pistil is short 
as are the stamens. The capsule or pod is more or less lobed or angular 
and splits from below upward showing the seeds. 

1. E. americanus, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 91.) Strawbeery Bush. Shrub, 
2 to 5 ft. high, somewhat simple or branching. Leaves, almost without 
leaf-stalks, lance-egg-shaped with finely toothed edges, the veins nearly 
opposite and symmetrical, outer extremity acutely pointed. Flowers 1 
or more on a single rather long pedicel, which is solitary in the leaf 
axil. Petals greenish, generally 5; stamens of the same number alternate 
with petals. Pod or berry rough, warty, bright red when ripe. When 
the pod splits the seeds are seen adherent to the central column or aril, 
which is bright scarlet. 

2. E, obovatus, Nutt. (Fig. 8, pi. 01.) Eunning Strawberry Bush. 
A low trailing bush, rising about a foot from the ground. Leaves pear- 
shaped. Flowers similar to the last, but smaller, 3 or 4 on the single 
long pedicel. Low Avet places. April-May. 

3. E. atropurpureus, "Tacq. Burning Bush. Shrub, 6 to 14 ft. high, 
with ellijitic or long oval leaves the borders of which are finely ser- 
rated, outer extremity sharp pointed. Length of leaf about 2 to 5 in. 
Twigs 4-angled. Flowers purple, several on the single long pedicel aris- 
ing at the leaf axil. Pods smooth, deeply lobed, crimson, very showy. 
In copses and borders of woods. June. 


Our species a climbing woody vine, bearing an abundance of clusters 
of orange capsules which remain during the winter and are very orna- 
mental. Leaves alternate with small stipules which fall early. Petals 
and stamens, each 5, which are inserted at the margin of a flattened 
disk below which the petals are inserted. Flowers in elongated clusters 
at the ends of the branches. Pod globose, orange-colored when ripe and 
sj)litting into 3 valves which expose the scarlet seeds. 

C. scandens, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 91.) Bittersweet. Tlic twining vino 
which in the autumn adorns many of •our tall trees with its clusters of 
bright berries. 

Family VI.— STAPHYLEACEAE. Bladder-nut Family 
In our region only one representative, which is a shrub with 


opposite, 3-foliate leaves supplied with small stipules and droop- 
ing clusters of whitish flowers from the leaf-axils. Stamens 5 ; 
petals 5, alternate witli the petals. Ovary of 3 or 3 parts, numer- 
ous ovules. Pod a large membraneous inflated capsule of 3 cells, 
each containing 1 to 4 hard seeds. 


Characters as above. 

S. trifolia, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 91.) American Bladder Nut. A shrub, 
6 to 12 ft. high, with smooth striped bark. Found in thickets. April- 

Family VII.— ACERACEAE. Maple Family 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite leaves. Flowers which are gen- 
erally small in pendulous or spicate clusters may be perfect, having 
both stamens and pistils or these organs may find their homes in 
separate flowers, on the same plant or perfect and imperfect 
flowers may be found on the same tree. There is usually a calyx 
and a corolla, each of 5 divisions. Stamens 3 to 10. There are 2 
carpels or dry seed capsules which are joined together and to 
each of which is attached a winged appendage, a samara (see 
Fig. 51, p. 39), the "Maple Key." 


Characteristics of the family. 

Leaves simple and generally deeply lobed. 

Flowers in lateral pendulous fan-shaped clusters, appearing before the 

Leaves silvery white beneath A. saccharinum 

Leaves dull white beneath A. rubrum 

Leaves pale green beneath A. saccharum 

Leaves full green both sides A. nigrum 

Flowers in elbngated, more or less spicate clusters. 

Clusters drooping A. pennsylvanicum 

Clusters erect A. spicatum 

Leaves compound, of 3 to 5 leaflets on a leaf-stem (pinnate) ... .A. Ncgundo 

1. A. saccharinum, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 92.) Silver Maple. White 
Maple. Tree, 50 to 100 ft. high. Leaves deeply 5-lobed, the sinuses 
acute and the lobes narrow with irregular teeth ; at base the leaf is cut 
almost squarely off or is slightly heart-shaped. Flowers appear before 
the leaves, corolla absent. The samaras diverge and become nearly or 
quite 2 in. long each, or often are unequally developed. Found in woods. 
Flowers open February to April. 

2. A. rubrum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 92.) Red Maple. Swamp Maple. 
Tree, generally of less height than No. 1. Twigs red or reddish. Leaves 
2 to 6 in. long, 3- to 5-lobed, length exceeding width; the middle lobe 
generally longer than the others. The sinuses are acute and the lobes 
are irregularly and coarsely toothed. Flowers with both calyx and cor- 
olla, the latter of 4 or 5 red petals. Stamens scarlet, 5 or 6 in number. 
The key is scarlet borne on drooping stem 4 or 5 in. long. The wings 


at first incurved but later diverging, forming a key from an inch to 2 
inches across. Leaves turn brilliant crimson in early autumn. Found 
along river banks and in swamps but often grows in dry places. Flowers, 

3. A. saccharum, Marsh. (Fig. 2, pi. 92.) Sugar Maple. Tree, 
similar to No. 1. Leaves 3 to 6 in. long, width greater than length, the 
5 lobes separated by rounded sinuses. Base of leaf heart-shaped, margin 
with few or no teeth except the extremities of the secondary lobes. Color 
dark green above, light green beneath. Flowers appearing with the 
leaves, greenish-yellow. Perfect or imperfect flowers in separate clusters; 
corolla wanting. Stamens 7 or 8. Wings of the " key " diverging, each 
from -J to 1 in. long. The key hangs pendulous from a long and slender 
footstalk. Flowers appear in May. Tree found in woody uplands. From 
it is produced most of the maple sugar of the market. April-May. 

4. A. nigrum, Michx. Black Sugar Maple. Tree similar to the 
last. Leaves dark green both sides. Found in similar situations. Flowers 
appear in May. 

5. A. pennsylvanicum, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 92.) Striped 1\Iaple. 
Whistle Wood. JMoose Wood. A small tree, mostly in damp and shady 
woods. Height generally less than 30 ft. Leaves 5 to 8 in. long, rounded 
or heart-shaped at base, free end of 3 sharp lobes; border sharply toothed. 
Flowers yellow in long, narrow, drooping clusters, those bearing stamens 
usually in different clusters from those bearing pistils. Calyx and 
corolla present. The bark of this beautiful tree is of a dark green marked 
with streaks of reddish-brown. When young striped with lighter lines. 
In woods, most of our area. 

6. A. spicatum, Lam. (Fig. 5, pi. 92.) Mountain Maple. A small 
bushy tree, or more frequently a shrub. Leaves 3 to 5 in. long, rounded 
or heart-shaped at base, terminated by 3 lobes, the larger of which are 
often slightly divided into two. Flowers greenish-yellow in slender, erect 
clusters 5 to 7 in. long. The keys are from la to 2 in. across. Rocky 
woods, our area. Flowers in May. 

7. A. Negundo, L. (Fig. G, pi. 92.) Box Elder. Small tree, with 
compound leaves of from 3 to 5 leaflets. These latter are from 2 to 4 in. 
long, oval or egg-shaped, sharply pointed^at apex and generally rounded 
at base. They are irreg\ilarly and coarsely toothed, the terminal one 
often 3-lobed. The "keys" are similar to those of other maples, but the 
wings are less diverging. Occasional in most of our area. 

The XoRWAY Maple, Acer platinoides, with leaves more rounded than 
the native sugar maples and with sinuses more shallow and color of 
darker green, is common as a planted tree in parks and along streets of 
cities and villages; and the Sycamore Maple, A. pseudo-plataniis, with 
smaller leaves, with more rounded lobes is also extensively planted as 
an ornamental tree. Neither are native species. 

Family VIII.— HIPPOCASTANACEAE. Buckeye Family 

Trees and shru])S, ^vit]l opposite compound leaves and conspicu- 
ous flowers in large clusters. Flowers irregular. Stamens 5 to 8. 



Plate 92 
1. Acer rubrimi. 2. A. saccharum. 3. A. pennsylvauicum. 4. A. sacchari- 
num. 5. A. spicatum. 6. A. Kegundo. 


Ovary 3-celled. Fruit a leathery capsule studded with spines en- 
closing 1 to 3 smooth roundish seeds. 


Characters as above. 

1. A. Hippocastanum, L. Horse Chestnut. A large tree, ex- 
tensively planted as an ornamental tree. Leaves opposite, compound, of 
7 leaflets all springing from a common center. Each leaflet wedge-shaped 
and notched along the borders. The two outer leaflets smaller than the 
others. The showy, erect clusters of white (sometimes purple) flowers 
are conspicuous in parks and along roadsides in May and June. 

2. A. glabra, Willd. (Fig. 3, pi. '89.) Ohio Buckeye. Leaflets 5. 
Otherwise much resembling No. 1, but with yellow flowers. Found in 
southern Pennsylvania of our region. 

Family IX.— SAPINDACEAE. Soapberry Family 

Trees, shrubs or herbaceous vines, with alternate leaves, which 
are usually compound. Flowers regular or slightly irregular. 
Calyx division 4 or 5; petals 3 to 5. Stamens 5 to 10. A single 
species in our region. 


Description included with the only species in our area. 

C. Halicacabum, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 93.) Balloon Vine. Heart Seed. 
A slender vine, climbing on shrubs and trees, 2 to 6 ft. long. Leaves 
alternate and doubly compound, i. e., of 3 divisions, each of 3 wedge- 
shaped or oval leaflets, these coarsely toothed. Flowers in small clusters, 
the two lower footstalks of each cluster changed to tendrils. Divisions 
of calyx 4, of which two are larger than the other two; petals also 4, with 
similar disproportion between two pairs, white. Stamens 8, unequal. Fruit 
a much inflated bladder-like capsule 1 in. long, containing black globose 
seeds. Escaped from cultivation, occasional only. 

Family X.— BALSAMINACEAE. Jewel Weed Family 

Annual herbs, with succulent stems, Avith simple alternate leaves 
and very unsymmetrical flowers. Calyx of 3 sepals, unequal and 
unlike; stamens 5; petals 5 or 3, two of them divided into unequal 
and dissimil^ lobes. Ovary compound, of 5 cells; pistil very short. 
Fruit in our genus a cylindric capsule which bursts elastically on 


Divisions of calyx colored like the corolla. Petals apparently 2, the 
lower being united with the two lateral. Joints of stem swollen. 

1. I. biflora, Walt. (Fig. 1, pi. 03.) Spotted Toucii-me-xot. Jewel 
Weed, Succulent herb, 2 to 5 ft. high, with ovate or elliptic leaves, the 



Plate 93 
1. Impatiens biflora. 2. T. pallida. 3. Rhamnus cathartica. 4. R. alni- 
folia. 5. R. Frangula. (>. Ceanothus americanus. 7 C. ovatus. 8. Cardio- 
spermum Halicacabum. 9. Tilia americana. 


edges of ■which are coarsely toothed. They are thin, pale and smooth. 
Flowers orange-yellow mottled with brown, in pairs at extremilics of 
branches. The lower sepal forms a conical spur which is elongated and 
curved. Sac broader than long. In moist places, borders of streams 
mostly. July-Oct. 

2. I. pallida, Nutt. (Fig. 2, pi. 93.) Pale Jewel Weed. Touch- 
me-not. (/. aurea, Muhl.). Plant similar to preceding species, but 
leaves larger and longer. Flowers pale yellow, with a few brown dots. 
Spur short. Sac longer than broad. In situations similar to last. 

Order IX.— RHAMNALES. Order of the Buckthorns 

Shrubs, small trees or climbing vines, with or without thorns. 
Leaves always simple, not lobcd. Stamens as many as the divisions 
of the calyx and alternate with them. When petals are present the 
stamens are opposite them. 

Family I.— RHAMNACEAE. Buckthorns 

Leaves opposite or alternate, not lobed or compound. Stipules 
present but small and falling early. Flowers in clusters either 
terminal or from the axils, always small, regular of 4 or 5 sepals 
and when petals are present they are of the same number and in- 
serted on the calyx. Stamens of same number as sepals and alter- 
nate with them. Fruit a dry berry-like drupe or a capsule. Seeds 
solitary in tlie cells of the drupe or capsule. 

Shrubs with axillary clusters of flowers . . . Rhamnus 
Shrubs of herbaceous appearance with terminal umliols 
of flowers Ceanothus 


Small shrubs with alternate leaves and clusters of small dowers in the 
axils. Calyx of 4 or 5 divisions, petals inconspicuous or absent. Fruit 
a berry-like drupe with from 2 to 4 hard seeds. 

Leaves toothed at borders. 

Long and narrow R. lanccolata 


Branches thorny 7?. cathar^ica 

Branches without thorns R. alnifolia 

Leaves without teeth at borders R- Frangula 

Leaves with remote teeth R. caroliniana 

1. R. cathartica, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 93.) Buckthorn. Shrub with 
thorny branches, cultivated for hedges. Leaves egg-shaped or broadly 
elliptic. Flowers small, greenish, a few clustered in the axils. Calyx 
divisions 4. Stamens of like number. Berries round, black. Escaped 
from cultivation. May-June. 

2. R. lanceolata, Pursh. Lance-leaved Buckthorn. Tall erect 


shrub. Leaves 1 to 3i in. long, about J as wide, very finely toothed. 
Flowers in the leaf-axils, a few in a cluster, greenish, mostly staminate 
and pistillate on different plants. Moist soil. Penna., and westward. 

3. R. alnifolia, L'Her. (Fig. 4, pi. 93.) Dwarf Alder. Alder- 
leaved Buckthorn. A low shrub, growing in clumps in swamps or wet 
grounds, height 2 or 3 ft. Leaves oval or rounded at the base, 2 to 4 
in. long with fine serrations at borders. Flowers small, yellow, at leaf 
axils. Fruit black. 

4. R. Frangula, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 93.) Aldeb Buckthorn. Shrub re- 
sembling the last, but with larger leaves, which are not serrated at 
borders. Flowers at the axils borne on foot-stalks i in. long. Found in 
bogs, Long Island and other points in southern part of our area. May- 

5. R. caroliniana, Walt. Carolina Buckthorn. Tall shrub or 
small tree, thornless. Leaves elliptic or oblong, 2 to 6 in. long. Flowers 
at the leaf-axils on foot-stalks, all with stamens and pistils. Wet grounds, 
New Jersey, and southward. 


Low shrubby plants resembling herbs. Leaves alternate; flowers in 
terminal, nearly umbellate, clusters. Calyx of 5 lobes. Corolla of 5 
small hooded petals, white or yellowish-white. Fruit dry, 3-lobed. 

1. C. americanus, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 93.) New Jersey Tea. Red Root. 
Stems 1 to 3 ft. high, slender, branching at top. Leaves oval with 3 
prominent ribs running longitudinally. More or less covered with soft 
hairs, especially above. Flowers in dense umbel-like clusters at summit 
of naked flower branches. Dry woods. May-July. 

2. C. ovatus, Desf. (Fig. 7, pi. 93.) Smaller Red Root. Similar 
to No. 1, but leaves smaller, less pointed at apex and less rounded at 
base and ivithout hairs or nearly so. Occasional, not common in our area. 

Family II.— VITACEAE. Grape Family 

Vines climbing by tendrils. Earely shrubs, but never in our 
area. Leaves simple, alternate, broad, with the principal veins 
starting from a common center at the extremity of the foot-stalk 
or of 5 leaflets starting from a common center. Flowers small, 
greenish, in elongated, conical clusters. Stamens 4 or 5, opposite 
the petals. Stamens and pistils not always in the same flower and 
sometimes not on the same plant. Fruit a grape berry. 

Leaves simple Vitis 

Leaves compound, of several leaflets Cissus 



Characters as above. 

Leaves decidedly downy beneath. 

Generally 3-lobed with shallow sinuses V. labrusca 

Generally 5-lobed with deep sinuses V. aestivalis 

Leaves not downy. 

Not lobed or only sligiitly lobed V. cordifolia 

3-lobed toward apex V. vulpina 

3- to 5-lobed, lobes extending back V. bicolor 

1. V. labrusca, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 04.) Fox Grape. Northern Plum 
Grape. Leaves broad, generally 3-lobed at the apex and rounded or heart- 
shaped at base. Decidedly downy beneath. Berries large, few, brownish- 
purple. In thickets. This is the original of several varieties of culti- 
vated grapes: Concord, Isabella, Catawba, etc. 

2. V. aestivalis, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 94.) Small Grape. Summer 
Grape. Leaves of about 5 lobes with deep sinuses; downy beneath. Ber- 
ries small, deep blue. Clusters wanting opposite each third leaf. Thickets 
and shady banks. 

3. V. bicolor, Le Conte. (Fig. 4, pi. 94.) Winter Grape. Similar 
to No. 2, but leaves not downy or with few hairs. Fruit dark blue, ripen- 
ing after the frosts. New Hampshire, and southward. 

4. V. vulpina, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 94.) Sweet-scented Grape. Leaves 
smaller than either of the preceding species, heart-shaped at base, slightly 
3-lobed at summit. Berries bluish-black, rather sweet. In situations 
similar to those of other species. 

5. V. cordifolia, Michx. (Fig. 5, pi. 94.) Frost Grape. Leaves 
cordate, not lobed or only slightly so. Smooth and shining on both sides. 
Berries black, ripening after frosts. In thickets and along streams. 

2. CISSUS, L. 

Climbing vinos, the tendrils being, in our species, terminated by ex- 
panding tips wliich adhere to supporting surfaces. Flowers much like 
those of Vitis but in more expanding clusters. 

C. Ampelopsis, Pers. (Fig. 6, pi. 94.) Virginia Creeper. {Parthe- 
nocissus qjiiiu/iirfolia, Planch. Ampelopsis quinquejolia, Michx.). A 
slender woody vine climbing upon trees. Leaves of 5 diverging leaflets. 
Common in woods and thickets. 

Order X.— MALVALES. Order of the Mallows 
Leaves net veined, petals distinct, carjicls united into a com- 
pound ovary. Ovaries free from the calyx and above it. Stamens 
numerous. Sepals, in bud, meeting at the edges, not overlapping. 
Ovule bearing surface forming a central column witliin the cap- 





Plate 94 
1. Vitis aestivalis. 2. V. labrusca. 3. V. vulpina. 4. V. bicolor. 5. V. 
cordifolia. 6. Cissus Ampelopsis. 


Family I. — TILIACEAE. Linden Family 

Trees, shrubs or herbs. In our area trees only. Leaves alternate 
(rarely opposite) not compound. Stipules present but small and 
falling early. Divisions of calyx generally 5, falling; petals of the 
same number when present. Stamens numerous in several united 
sets. Fruit a dry rounded berry or nutlet containing 1 or more 


Trees, with simple heart-shaped leaves, one side of which developes 
larger than the other. Flowers yellowish, in clusters, the foot-stalks of 
these clusters subtended by a broad bract to which the foot-stalk is also 
to some extent attached. 

1. T. americana, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 93.) Basswood. Ameeican Lin- 
den. A large tree with comparatively smooth bark. Leaves heart-shaped, 
one side larger than the other, smooth on both sides or with hairs along 
the under side of tlie nerves only. This is our common Basswood growing 
in woods and fields throughout our area. Blooms May and June. 

2. T. pubescens, Ait. Southern Basswood. Leaves rather smaller 
than No. 1, and decidedly dowmy or densely woolly beneath. In southern 
part of our area. 

3. T. heterophylla. Vent. White Basswood. Leaves larger than 
either of the above. White downy beneath. In New York, southern 
Pennsylvania and south from there. 

4. T. europaea, L. European Linden. Has smaller and more regu- 
lar leaves. Our native species have scales at the base of the petals. This 
has none. Planted extensively as an ornamental tree. 

5. T. Michauxii, Nutt. Michaux's Linden. Resembles T. hetero- 
phijlla, but wlrile in this the floral bract is recurrent along the flowering 
stem to its base or nearly so, in T. Michauxii it extends within J in. of 
the end of the stem. Penna., and westward. 

Family XL— MALVACEAE. Mallow Family 

Herbs, in our area, elsewhere herbs and trees, with alternate 
leaves with small falling stipules. Flowers regular, with both 
stamens and pistils. Stamens numerous, forming a single set in 
union which forjns a column around the pistiU Ovary often lobed, 
several seeded. 

Columns of stamens hearing anthers only at top 

Involucre of (i to I) bractlets Althaea 

Involiun; of .'i dislinct bracts. 

Summit of pistil (stigma) linear Malva 


Bracts of involucre absent. Summit of pistil a flattened 

Carpels, each one seeded Sida 

Carpels, each 3 to 9 seeded Abutilon 

Bracts of involucre incised, each forming 3 teeth Kosteletzkya 

Columns of stamens hearing anthers along much of their lengths 
Bracts of involucre numerous Hibiscus 


Below calyx an involucre of 6 to 9 bracts which unite at base. Styles 
numerous, the stamens forming a column about them. Petals 5; calyx of 
5 sepals. Divisions of the ovary several, 1-seeded each, 

A. officinalis, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 9.5.) Marsh Mallow. Leaves large, 
somewhat 3-lobed, serrated at borders; downy on both sides. Flowers 
large and showy, in axils of leaves. Pink. Abundant in salt marshes. 

2. MALVA, L. 
Herbs, leaves often deeply divided. Flowers generally conspicuous; 
petals 5, calyx of 5 sepals with a 3-leaved involucre at the base. Pistils 
numerous, the stigma running down the inner side. Fruit a depressed 
disk-like body ("a cheese"), which, at maturity separates into many 
1-seeded divisions. 

1. M. sylvestris, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 95.) High Mallow. Stem erect, 
2 to 3 ft. high ; leaves rounded but somewhat divided into 7 lobes more 
or less angxilar, hairy. Flowers reddisli-purple crowded toward the sum- 
mit of the stem. Frequent along way-sides, blooming through the sum- 
mer. Sometimes called " pink cheeses.'" 

2. M. rotundifolia, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 95.) Dwarf or Common Mal- 
low. Cheeses. Stems spreading upon the ground, 4 to 10 in. long; 
leaves heart-shaped at base, on very long foot-stalks. Flowers pale blue, 
or whitish, at the leaf axils. Fruit a flattened, disk-like collection of 
carpels. Common about cultivated grounds, door yards and way-sides. 

3. M. verticillata, L. Whorled Mallow. Flowers clustered in the 
axils appearing to surround the stem. Rare except as an escape from 

4. M. moschata, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 95.) Musk Mallow. Stem 1 to 
2 ft. high. Leaves 5-parted, the divisions again once or twice parted into 
linear segments. Basal leaves round. Flowers 1 to 2 in. broad, rose- 
pink, at the summit of the stem. 

3. SIDA, L. 

Herbs, with alternate leaves. Bracts at the base of the calyx wanting, 
sepals and petals, each 5. Stigma (summit of pistil) a small head. 

5. spinosa, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 95.) Prickly SinA. A weed 10 to 20 
in. higli. Leaves egg-shaped to oblong, serrate, downy, on leaf-stalks ^ 
as long as the leaves. Flowers at the axils of the leaves, yellow, small. 
Waste places. Summer. 


4. ABUTILON, Gaertn. 

Our only species an herb with broad heart-shaped leaves. Flowers at 
the axils; the carpels each 2- to 9-seeded. Calyx with no bracts at base. 
In general appearance like Sida. 

A. Theophrasti, Medic. (Fig. 6, pi. 95.) Velvet Leaf. Indian 
Mallow. {A. Ahutilon, (L.) Rusby.) Plant 2 to 6 ft. high, whole plant 
downy. Leaves rounded, heart-shaped, acute at apex, 4 to 12 in. wide, on 
long leaf-stalks. Flowers yellow, ^ to 1 in. broad. Fruit about an in. 
in diameter. In wet places. Aug.-Oct. ^ 


Our species an herb, downy, with angular leaves. At base of calyx 
some small bracts, incised, forming linear segments. Stamens, all united 
about the pistils which are 5 in number, and have capped summits. 

K, virginica, (L.) A. Gray. (Fig. 7, pi. 95.) Virginia Koste- 
LETZKYA. Plant 2 to 4 ft. high. Leaves 2 to 5 in. long, generally less 
than i as wide. Point of leaves long and narrow, base rounded; at 1/3 
distance from base to apex is a rather pronounced angle at each side. 
Flowers pink, 1* to 2J in. broad. Southern New York and southwards. 
In brackish marshes. August. 

Shrubs or herbs. In tropical regions sometimes trees. Leaves simple. 
Flowers large and showy. The column of stamens which surrounds the 
pistils bears anthers throughout much of its length. Calyx of 5 sepals 
subtended by a fringe of linear bracts. Fruit a 5-celled pod with several 
or many seeds in each cell. 

1. H. Moscheutos, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 95.) Swamp Rose Mallow. 
Leaves 3 to 7 in. long, egg-shaped or lance-shaped, rounded or heart- 
shaped at base, slender tapered at apex, downy white beneath, smooth, 
green above. The lower leaves often 3-lobed. Flowers 4 to 7 in. broad, 
pink or white. Pod smooth. Salt marshes on the eastern coast. Aug.- 

2. H. oculiroseus, Britton. Ceimson-eye Rose Mallow. Corolla 
wliite with a dark crimson center. Growing with E. Moscheutos and 
blooming at the same time. 

3. H. Trionum, L. Flow-er-of-an-Houe. Plant, low, branching, 
rather hairy, annual. Leaves much incised, the middle one of the 3 main 
divisions much the longest. Flowers pale yellow with a purple center, 
the edges of the petals also tinged with purple. Flowers open only a 
few hours. Pods much in fluted, 5-winged. Waste places. Introduced. 

Order XI.— PARIETALES. Order of the Violets 

Generally herbs, rarely shrubs and still more rarely trees. Leaves 
opposite, alternate or from the root. FloTrers with stamens and 
pistils, the former numerous or few. Petals H to 5, distinct. Sepals 
or divisio7is of calyx overlap each other or are longituclinally rolled. 



Plate 95 
1. Hibiscus Moscheutos. 2. Althaea officinalis. 3. Malva sylvestris. 4. 
M. moschata 5. M. rotundifolia. 6. Abutilon Theophrasti. 7. Kosteletzkya 
virginica. 8, Sida spinosa. 


The ovules are generally attached, not to a central column as in 
the preceding order, but to the sides of the capsule, or rarely to 
a central axis. 
Herbs or shrubs with opposite leaves. 

Plants from a few to many in. high, without stipules 


Minute marsh plants with stipules . . ELATINACEAE 
Herbs (not climbing) with alternate leaves or leaves from the 

Flowers regular CISTACEAE 

Flowers irregular VIOLACEAE 

Climbing woody vines PASSIFLORACEAE 

Family I.— HYPERICACEAE. St. John's-wort Family 
Herbs or shrubs, with opposite leaves, which are neither lobed 
nor serrated at borders and with no stipules. Flowers regular, 
ours all yellow. Stamens generally numerous, commonly collected 
in 3 or more clusters or bundles. Petals in bud mostly rolled longi- 
tudinally. Pod 1-celled. 

Divisions of calyx 4, in 2 unequal pairs . . . . . Ascyrum 
Divisions of calyx 5, all alike. 

Stamens numerous Hypericum 

Stamens 10 or less, leaves scaly .... Sarothra 
Stamens usually 9 or more, leaves not scaly . Elodea 

Low, somewlmt shrubby, smooth plants, with opposite leaves without 
serrations at lK)rders. Petals 4, sepals 4, 2 of wliicli are larger than the 
other pair. Stamens numerous, scarcely collected in clusters. 

1. A. stans, Michx. (Fig. 4, pi. 96.) St. Pktkr's-wort. Stem 
simple, 1 to 2 ft. high, but with a few branches at top. Leaves oval 
without foot-stalks. Flowers about an in. broad, bright yellow, one to 
three at summit of stem, showy. Dry soils. July-Aug. 

2. A. hypericoides, L. (Fig- G, pi. OC.) St. Andrew's Cross. 
Stems miicii i)ranclied and partly decumbent. Leaves narrow oval or 
egg-shaped. Flowers in the leaf axils along the stem, the ])etals scarcely 
exceeding the sepals. Dry sandy soil. Eastern coast. July-Aug. 

Herbs or shrubs, with opposite leaves dotted with black points, without 
serrations and with no stipules. Flowers regular, yellow, sepals and 
petals each .'i; si aniens numerous, either distinct from each other or, 
more commonly, collected in 3 to 6 clusters. 


Stamens 25 to 100, more or less united in groups. 
Styles five. 

Leaves egg-shaped or nearly oval. 

Flower an in. or more Inoad H. Ascyron 

Leaves oblong-linear, flower nearly an in. broad . . . . H. Kalmianum 

Styles three, rarely four. 

Plants shrubby, at least at base. 

Leaves lance-shaped or oblong. 

Flowers an in. broad H. prolificum 

Flowers i in. broad //. densiftorum 

Plants not shrubby. 

Creeping at base, stem winged H. ad/^ressum 

Creeping at base, stamens not in phalanxes . . H. Bissellii 
Erect, not creeping at base. 

Leaves elliptic, styles united at base . . H. ellif'ticum 

Leaves oblong or linear H. perforatum 

Leaves egg-shaped, obtuse //. maculatum 

Stamens s to i%. Flowers small. 

Clusters of flowers with leafy bracts H. borcale 

Clusters of flowers with narrow awl-shaped bracts. 

Leaves egg-shaped or oval H. mutilum 

Leaves linear, obtuse at apex H. canadense 

Leaves lance-shaped, acute at apex H. majus 

1. H. Ascyron, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 96.) Giant St. Joiin's-wort. {E. 
pyramuJatum, Ait.) Plant, 2 to 6 ft. high. Leaves oblong egg-shaped 
with rather blunt points, 2 to 5 in. long, clasping at base. Flowers 
briglit yellow about 1 in. broad. On dry hills also along banks of streams. 

2. H. Kalmianum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 96.) Kalm's St. John's-wort. 
Shrubby, at least at base, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves narrow-oblong, obtuse 
but with the niid-vcin protruding as a stiff bristle; about 2 in. long, 
^ in. wide at apex, narrowed at base; rather numerous. Branches 4-angled. 
Clusters of flowers mostly terminal. Individual flowers about | in. 
broad. Fruit capsule 5-celled, tipped with 5 styles. 

3. H. prolificum, L. Shrubby St. Joiin's-wort. Shrubby, 2 to 4 
ft. higli. Leaves very numerous, oblong, narrow, rounded at tip, nar- 
rowed to a short leaf-stalk at base, 1 to 3 in. long. Flowers yellow, 
numerous, i to | in. broad. Branches 2-edged. Sandy soil. July-Sept. 

4. H. densiflorum, Pursh. Bushy St. John'vS-wort. Similar to No. 
3, but branches, leaves and flowers smaller and crowded. July-Sept. 

5. H. adpressum, Bart. Creeping St. Joiin's-wokt. Shrubby at 
base, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves oblong-linear, 1 to 2 in. long, rounded at 
tip, brandies 2-winged, Flowers in terminal clusters, without leaves, 
each about i in. broad. Styles 3 to 4. 

6. H. Bissellii, Robinson. Bissell's St. John's-wort. Resembles 
n, adpressum. Stamens in the latter are separable into phalanxes, in 
tills not. C'apsule of H. adpressum partly divided into 3 or 4 cells, this 
has only 1 cell. Southington, Conn. July-Aug, 

7. H. ellipticum, Hook. (Fig. 5, pi. 96.) Elliptic-leaved St. 
Joiin's-wort. Smooth with 4-angled stem, ^ to 2 ft. high. Leaves thin, 
rather broadly elliptic, rounded at tip, without leaf-stalk at base. 
Flowers few, terminal, pale yellow, ^ in. broad. In marshy grounds and 
along streams. July-Aug. 

8. H. perforatum, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 96.) Common St, John's-wort. 
Stems 1 to 2 ft. liigh, 2-winged, much branched. Letaves oblong, rounded 
at tip, attached directly to stem, many shoots commonly springing from 


leaf-axils. Leaves black dotted, generally broader at tip than at base. 
Clusters of flowers nearly terminal, of many flowers, leafy. Common in 
l^astures, etc. July-Sept. 

9. H. maculatum, Walt. (Fig. 9, pi. 96.) Spotted St. Joiin's- 
WORT. (H. punctatum. Lam.). Shrubby at base, 1 to 3 ft. high. Leaves 
oval, hroadcst at base, abundantly sprinkled with black dots, 1 to 3 in. 
long. Flowers small, crowded; petals black dotted, much longer than the 
sepals. Styles 3. Capsule 3-celled. Moist soil. July-Sept. 

10. H. boreale, (Britton) Bicknell. (Fig. 11, pi. 96.) Nobthern 
St. Joiin's-wort. St^ms rounded or somewhat 4-angled, 1 to IJ ft. high. 
Leaves elli])tic, } to 1 in. long, 1/12 to 1/3 in. wide, commonly 3-nerved. 
Clusters leafy, few flowered. Stamens few. Capsule purple, longer than 
the sepals or petals. Wet soil. July-Sept. 

11. H. mutilum, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 96.) Dwarf St. John's-wort. 
Stems slender, | to 2 ft. high, abundantly branched, 4-angled. Leaves 
oblong, clasping at base, somewhat rounded at tip, 5-nerved. Flower 
clusters not leafy, but with awl-shaped bracts. Flowers small. A slender 
species. Low grounds. July-Sept. 

12. H. majus, (A. Gray) Britton. Larger Canadian St. John's- 
wort. Stems 1 to 3 ft. high, stouter than No. 12, branched above. Leaves 
lance-shaped, clasping at base, tapering but rounded at tips, 5-nerved. 
Moist soil. June-Sept. 

13. H. canadense, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 96.) Canadian St. John's-wort. 
Stems 2 to H ft. high, branching. Leaves linear, i to 2 in. long, rounded 
at tip. Flower clusters with awl-like bracts. Flowers small. Low 
grounds. July-Sept. 


Small branching herb, with leaves reduced to scales. Flowers small, 
yellow, along the stem in the axils of some of the scales. Petals 5; 
sepals 5, stamens 5 to 10. 

S. gentianoides, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 96.) Orange-grass. (Hypericum 
mulieaxde, Walt.). Stems wiry, 3 to 9 in. high. In sandy fields. Com- 
mon. June-Oct. 

4. ELODEA, Pursh. (Triadenum, Raf.) 

Perennial herbs growing in marshes. Leaves opposite and without 
lobes or teeth. Flowers in terminal clusters also in smaller clusters in 
the leaf axils. Calyx of 5 divisions; petals 5; stamens 9 or more in 
3 groups. Alternating with these stamen groups are three large glands 
resembling petals. The presence of these glands forms the distinctive 
feature of tlie Mower of Klodea. 

1. E. virginica, (L.) Nutt. (Fig. 3, pi. 97.) Marsh St. John's- 
wort. Opposite leaves oblong, blunt at eaeh end and attached directly 
to the stem ivithout intervention of leaf-stalk, dotted with black dots. 
Flowers reddish-purple each about i in. broad. Swamps. July-Aug. 

2. E. petiolata, Pursh. Larger Marsh St. John's-wort. Plant 
usually larger than No. 1, and leaves attached to the stem by a short 



1. Hypericum 

Plate 96 
Kalmianum. 2. H. Ascyron (leaves). 3. Sarotlira gentian- 

oicks. 1 Ascyrum stans. 5. Hypericum ellipticum. 6. Ascyrum hyper- 
icoides. 7. Hypericum perforatum. 8. H. canadense. 9. H. maculatum. 10. 

H. mutilum. 11. H. boreale. 


Family II.— ELA.TINACEAE. Water-wort Family 

Low herbs, with opposite leaves; in our species with undividod 
borders; provided with small membraneous stipules between the 
opposite leaves. Flowers of our species mainly solitary in the leaf 
axils. Pod round, 2- to 4-celled. 


Divisions of calyx and of corolla 2 to 4. Stamens usually as many as 
petals. Dwarf plants growing in mud or in water, often rooting at the 
leaf nodes. 

E. americana, (Pursh.) Arn. (Fig. 4, pi. 97.) Water- wort. Mud 
Purslane. Tufted, spreading, stems 1 to li in. long; leaves obtuse. 
Flowers generally solitary in leaf-axils. Margins of ponds and sluggish 
streams. Blooms all summer. 

Family III.— CISTACEAE. Eock Eose Family 

Low, shrubl)y plants, mostly of herbaceous aspect with regular 
flowers, but with the two outer sepals (wdien 5 sepals are present) 
smaller than the others, resembling small bracts. Petals 3 to 5, 
falling early. Stamens generally numerous, each free from the 
others. Fruit capsule one-celled with 3 to 5 valves. Leaves simple, 
not lobed or serrate, upper alternate, lower usually differing in 
size and form from the stem leaves, usually opposite. 

Petals five. 

Flowers small yellow. 

Style long and slender Hudsonia 

Flowers large, yellow. 

Style very sliort or none Helianthemum 

Petals three. Flowers small, greenish-purple . . . Lechea 


Woody herbs, with conspicuous yellow flowers, also, in our species, with 
other tlowers without petals and therefore inc()nsi)icuous. Petals of the 
large yellow flowers falling on the day following the opening of the 
flowers. Valves of the cajjsule 3. Stamens numerous. 

1. H. majus, (L.). r.Sl\ (Fig. 1, pi. 07.) Hoary Frostwkkd. 
Stems 1 to 2 ft. high, fro.stcd with grayish-white hairs. Leaves oblong 
lance-shaped, the nuiin stem leaves alternate + to li in. long. Flowers 
in a terminal cluster of 5 to 10, bright yellow about an inch broad. 
Calyx hoary like the stem, the outer sepals nearly as long as the three 
inner. Later there appear at the leaf axils branches bearing llowers 
without petals. These apctalous flowers grow (lireclli/ upon the stem or 
with very short footstalks. Dry soils. June-July. . 



Plate 97 
1. Heliaiithcmuin uiajus. 2. II. canadense. 3. Elodea virgiiiica. 4. Ela- 
tine americana. 5. Hudsonia ericoides. 6. H. tomentosa. 7. Lecliea inter- 
media. 8. L. minor. 9. L. juniperina. 10. L. racemulosa. 


2. H. canadense, (L.) Michx. (Fig. 2, pi. 97.) Long-branched 
Frostweed. Resembles the last, but the apetalous flowers are furnished 
with foot-stalks longer than those of No. 1, and the branches bearing the 
apetalous flowers overtop those which have borne the pctalous flowers, 
which is not the case with No. 1. Dry places. May-June. 

3. H. corymbosum, Michx. Pine-barren Frost-weed. All the 
flowers are borne at summit of stem in a rather broad spreading cluster 
(corymb). Pine barrens, New Jersey, and southward. 


Low, heath-like little shrubs, the stems covered with small scale-like 
or minute awl-shaped, leaves. Flowers small, bright yellow, crowded 
among the small leaves along the upper part of the branches. Petals 5, 
sepals 3 subtended by 2 others much smaller. Stamens 9 to 30. 

1. H. tomentosa, Nutt. (Fig. 6, pi. 97.) Woolly Hudsonia. False 
Heather, Low, tufted little shrub with scale-like leaves which are about 
1/12 in. long overlapping one another. Flowers mostly toward the sum- 
mit of the stem ; the whole plant downy-grayish. Sands by the sea shore 
and in pine barrens. May-July. 

2. H. ericoides, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 97.) Heath-like Hudsonia. Leaves 
much more slender than No. 1, and more in circling clusters. Flowers 
scattered along the whole length of stem. Dry sandy soil. May-June. 

3. LECHEA, L. 

Inconspicuous perennial herbs often shrubby at base. Flowers very 
small, greenish-purple. Petals 5; sepals 5 or 3, of which when 5, the 
outer 2 are very minute. Stamens 3 to 12. 

Plant decidedly hairy. 

Outer sepals distinctly longer than inner L. minor 

Outer sepals not longer than inner L. villosa 

Plant hairy only at base. 

Plant shrubby L. maritima 

Plant not shrubby. 

Branches spreading L. racemulosa 

Branches nearly erect L, junipcrina 

Whole plant hairy L. stricta 

Plant with few or no hairs. 

Leaves narrowly linear. 

Inner sepals i-nerved L. tcnuifoUa 

Inner sepals 3-nerved L. Lcggcttii 

Leaves at the base oval L. intermedia 

1. L. villosa, Ell. Larger Pin-weed. Plant, erect, hairy, 1 to 2J 
ft. high. Leaves of the stem elliptic, those from the basal shoots oval 
or rounded. Flowers small, crowded. The outer sepals arc shorter than 
the inner or less frequently equal to them. 

2. L. minor, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 97.) Thyme-leaved Pin-weed. Less 
hairy, in nK)st other respects similar to No. 1. The outer sepals are longer 
than the inner. 

3. L. racemulosa. Michx. (Fig. 10, pi. 97.) Oblong-fruited Pin- 
weed. Stem and stem leaves scarcely hairy, but stem and leaves of 
hasal shoots hairy. Upper stem leaves linear, those of basal shoots oval. 
Flowering branches decidedly spreading; outer sepals shorter than inner. 
Dry sandy soil. July-Aug. 


4. L. maritima, Leggett. Beach Pin-weed. Shrubby, especially at 
base from which spring many hairy shoots with oval leaves. Stem leaves 
linear, blunt at the ends. Flowers much crowded, petals reddish; the 
outer sepals shorter than the inner. Sea-shore and pine barrens. July- 

5. Lr. tenuifolia, Michx. Narrow-leaved Pin-weed. Slender, 4 to 10 
in. high. Growing in dense tufts. Branches spreading. Leaves linear, 
as are those of the basal shoots. Outer sepals equalling the inner. Petals 
red or purple. Dry soil, eastern Mass., and westward. July-Aug. 

6. L. Leggettii, Britt. and Hoi. Leggett's Pin-weed. Resembles 
the last but is higher; 1 to 2 ft. high. Outer sepals nearly equalling the 
inner. Long Island, westward and southward. July-Aug. 

7. L. intermedia, Leggott. (Fig. 7, pi. 97.) Large-podded Pin- 
weed. Plant, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves elliptic, smooth but basal shoots 
hairy. Basal leaves oval. Outer and inner sepals about equal. Dry 
places throughout most of our area. Aug. 

8. L. juniperina, Bicknell. (Fig. 9. pi. 97.) Maine Pin-weed. 
Growing in tufts, i to 2 ft. high. Very leafy, the leaves more or less in 
whorls, the mid-vein with very short hairs which give to the plant a. 
grayisli-hoary appearance. All branches short and so nearly erect that 
the outline of the plant is slender. Coast of Maine. July-Sept. 

9. L. stricta, Leggett. Bushy Pin-weed. Very slender and straight, 
densely branched, the branches nearly erect, covered ivith a fine, thin 
down. Inflorescence spine-like. Open places, western New York, and 
southward. July-Aug. 

Family IV.— VIOLACEAE. Violet Family 

Herbs or shrubs, with mostly irregular flowers often of two 
kinds, first those which open and are showy, second, those which 
do not open, but are usually hidden beneath dead leaves or even 
by the soft soil. These last are known as chistogamoiis. They are 
not fertilized by insects yet bear an abundance of seeds. The 
leaves are furnished with stipules, are all basal or, when on a stem, 
alternate. Petals 5, the lowest the largest; sepals 5, the latter 
nearly equal. Ovary of 1 cell with many seeds, the capsule splits 
into 3 wedge-like valves at maturity. 


Small herbs. Leaves all from the base or alternate on a stem, stipulate. 
Flowers of two kinds. The closed form is known as cleistogamous. These 
pollinate themselves, being furnished with abundance of pollen. The 
larger lower petal of the open flower is spurred as are the 2 lower of the 
5 stamens. Sepals not united, each free from the others. 

§. Leaves and flowers all arising from the rootstock 
Flowers blue. 

Leaves heart-shaped or rounded, not deeply incised or parted. 
Leaves and stems hairy. 

Leaves spreading on the ground V. villosa 

Leaves erect „ V. sororia 


Leaves and stems without hairs or with very few hairs. 
Rootstock short thick and erect. 

Capsule not 3-angled F. cucutlata 

Capsule 3-angled J', septcntrionalis 

Rootstock very slender, horizontal. 

Spur of flower 1/3 in. lon.i; F. Sclkirkii 

Spur of flower 1/12 in. long y, palustris 

Leaves deeply incised. 

The middle lobe broad. 

Leaves and stem smooth or with few hairs. 

Leaves arrow-shaped V. sagittafa 

Leaves egg-shaped in outline V. notabihs 

Leaves and stem hairy. 

Leaves as broad as long V. palmata 

Leaves longer than broad V. ovata 

All lobes narrow lance-shaped. 

Flower scapes higher than the leaves V. atlantica 

Flower scapes about equal to leaves V. pedata 

Flower scapes shorter than the leaves . . . . V. Mulfordne 

Flowers yellow V. rotundifolia 

Flowers white. 

Leaves nearly or quite orbicular. 

Decidedly hairy V. reiii folia 

Smooth or nearly so V. blanda 

Leaves ovate or oval V. priimtlacfolia 

Leaves narrow lance-shaped V. lanceolata 

t. Leaves and flowers arising from stems ahore the rootstock 

Flowers blue or whitish. 

Stipules not fringed or deeply incised V. canadensis 

Stipules fringed. 

Spur 01' flower shorter than the corolla. 

Flowers never creamy-white V. labradorica 

Flowers varying to creamy-white /'. striata 

Spur as long or longer than corolla. 

Spur about as long as corolla, plant hafry V. arenaria 

Spur longer than corolla, plant not hairy V. rostrata 

Flowers yellow. 

Leaves halberd-shaped V. hastata 

Leaves broadly egg-shaped or nearly round. 

Hairy V. puhcscens 

Not hairy V. scabriuscula 

§ Leaves and flowers all from the rootstock 

Leaves not incised. Flowers blue 

1. V. cucullata, Ait. (Fijj. 4, pi. 98.) Hooded Blue Violet. (F. 
ohlif/ua, Ilill.) Stems and leaves smooth or with few hairs. Rootstock 
thick and short. Early in season of bloom flower scapes are usually 
shorter than leaves, but later they usually much exceed the leaves. Leaf 
blades vary from ejrg-shaped to orbicular, not deeply incised but with 
coarse tcetli at margiiis. Woods and meadows. April-June. 

2. V. septcntrionalis, Greene. Northern Blxte Vioi-et. Similar to 
V. cucullata, capsule of V. cucullata strongly ,3-anfjled, tliat of the present 
form not angled and plant extending more northward. Extending from 
Ontario into northern New England. 

3. V. villosa, Walt. Southern Wood Violet. Leaves rounded or 
less frequently egg-sliaped ; downy, lying flat upon the ground. Petals 
bearded, blue. Only in the southern part of our area. April-May. 

4. V. sororia, Willd. (Fig. 2, pi. 98.) Woolly Blue Violet. Koot- 
stock thick, generally oblique. Tx^aves heart-shaped, from egg-shaped to 
orbicular, covered, as are the leaf-stalks and flower scapes, with long soft 
hairs. Dry soils, mostly in soutiicrn part of our area. April-May. 



Plate 98 
1. Viola palmata. 2. V. sororia. 3. V. pedata. 4. V. cucullata. 5. V at- 
lantica. 6. \. sagittata. 


5. V. palustris, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 99.) Marsh Violet. Leaves kid- 
ncy-fonn, round or broadly egg-shaped. Not hairy. Rootstock slender. 
Flower spur very short; petals sliglitly bearded. In wet grounds. Moun- 
tains of Kew England and northward. May-July. 

6. V. Selkirkii, Pursh. (Fig. 6, pi. 99.) Selkirk's Violet. Leaves 
broadly egg-sliajied to round, heart-shaped at base. Flower spur nearly 
as long as the petals, blunt. Moist soil, woods, throughout our area. 

Leaves incised. Flowers hlue 

7. V. palmata, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 98.) Early Blue Violet. Downy; 
rootstock thick, usually oblique. Flower scapes at first shorter than 
leaves, later generally longer. Leaf-stalks generally much longer than 
leaf-blades, the latter as broad or broader at base than the length, it is 
incised at base, forming from a few to 11 or 13 lobes, the middle lobe 
remaining broad and egg-shaped, while the lateral ones are narrow, often 
witli only sliallow incisions. Division of calyx linear or narrow lance- 
shapcd. Lateral petals bearded. Hidden flowers numerous. In dry 
woods, througliout our area. April-May. 

8. V. Mulfordae, Pollard. Miss Mulford's Violet. Leaves and 
flowers from tlie root-stock. Whole plant somewhat downy. Leaf blades 
oblong or egg-shaped in general outline but the margin cut into several 
lobes on each side. The lateral lobes lance-shaped, acute at apex, the 
terminal lobe much larger, oblong to lance-oblong, the margins finely 
toothed. Flower stems shorter than the leaves or at first somewhat longer 
than the leaves. Flowers violet-purple about | in. broad. Dry sandy 
soil, Hemiistcad Plains, L. I. May. 

9. V. atlantica, Britton. (Fig. 5, pi. 98.) Coast Violet. Leaves 
on long slender leaf-stalks, nearly or quite smooth. Leaves deeply in- 
cised but middle lobe rather broadest, the others narrow and diverging. 
The loicer hares arc small, nearly or quite undivided, egg-shaped or club- 
shaped * Upper leaves 4 to 8 in. high. Flower scapes as high or higher. 
Lateral petals bearded. Somewhat rare. Eastern Mass., and southward. 

10. V. notabilis, Bicknell. Elec.ant Violet. Flowers and leaves 
from the root-stock. Leaves in outline broadly egg-shaped or oblong, 
heart-shaped at base, obtuse or rounded at apex, divided at lower half 
or third, several oblong obtuse lobes cut half way or less to the mid-rib, 
the basal lobe l)rf)ader and itself toothed or lobed. Flower stems generally 
exceeding the leaves, becoming 8 to 10 in. high. Flowers very large, deep 
purple. Southwestern Long Island, low grounds. 

11. V. sagittata, Ait. (Fig. 6, pi. 98.) Arrow-leaved Violet. 
Leaves long, lialiicrd-shaped. generally incised at base, smooth, hollowed 
but not heart-sliaped at base which is somewhat winged, the wings being 
more or less lol)cd. Petals densely bearded, dark blue. Dry hills, through- 
out our area. April-May. 

In the form V. cmarginata, Le Conte, the leaves arc more nearly 

* According to the author's specimens, by others not so specified. 



Plate 99 
1 Viola ovata. 2. V. blanda. 3. V. palustris. 4. V. rotundifolia. 5. V. 
lanceolata. G. V. Selkirkii. 7. V. primulaefolia. 


12. V. ovata, Nutt. (Fig. 1, pi. 99.) Ovata-leaved Violet. Leaves, 
leaf -stalk and tlower scapes hairy; long egg-shaped, rounded at apex, in- 
cised, not winged at base. Southern part of our area. April-May. 

13. V. pedata, L, (Fig. 3, pi. 98.) Bird's-foot Violet. Rootstock 
short, thick, erect. Leaves parted nearly to leaf stem into 5 to 9 narrow 
lobes which are smooth-bordered or somewhat toothed to\Vard apex. All 
parts smooth. One of our most beautiful violets. Color, lilac to dark 
blue. Dry fields, somewhat prevalent, April-June. 

Floicers yellow 

14. V. rotundifolia, INIichx. (Fig. 4, pi. 99.) Round-leaved Violet. 
Leaves smooth or slightly downy; broadly egg-shaped when young be- 
coming nearly round at lengih; heart-shaped at base, the sinus nearly 
closed. Flower scapes short (2 to 4 in. high); flowers yellow. The plant 
sends out many stolons later in the season as well as many hidden 
(cleistogamous) flowers. Woods, in rich soil. April-May. 

Flowers white 

15. V. blanda, Willd. (Fig. 2, pi. 90.) Sweet White Violet. 
Leaves cordate at base, round, kidney-formed or broadly egg-shaped. All 
parts except the flower scape usually smooth, the latter generally some- 
what hairy. Flowers white, with purple veins. Wet places. April-May. 

16. V. primulaefolia, L. (Fig. 7. pi. 99.) Primrose-leaved Violet. 
Leaves lance-egg-shaped, suddenly contracted at base, the edge of the 
leaf following along the leaf-stalk. Flowers white, petals beardless. Long 
stolons late in summer with many hidden (cleistogamous) flowers. Open 
moist soil, New York. New England, and southward. April-May. 

17. V. lanceolata, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 99.) Lance-leaved Violet. 
Leaves smooth, lance-shaped, tapering at base. Flowers white. Many 
stolons late in season and many cleistogamous flowers. Moist meadows, 
prevalent to some extent throughout our area. April-June. 

18. V. renifolia, A. Gray. Kidney-leaved Violet. All parts of 
plant hairy. Leaves broad, egg-shaped, kidney-shaped or round. More 
or less heart-shaped at base. Flowers white. Stoloniferous. Woods and 
fields, New York and westward. April-June. 

ifLeaves and Flowers all springing from a stem 
Flowers yelloio 

19. V. pubescens, Ait. (Fig. 1, pi. 100.) Hairy Yellow Violet. 
Plant 5 to 20 in. high. Leaves broadly egg-shaped to round, toothed, 
those at the base of stem having leaf-stalks longer than the blades, while 
of the upper leaves tlie blades excel the leaf-stalks in length. The lower 
leaves at blooming time are usually wanting. Stipules not fringed or 
divided, egg-sliaped or lance-shaped. Whole plant covered with soft hairs. 
Flowers bright yellow. Woods. April-May. 

20. V. scabriuscula, Schwein. (Fig. 5. pi. 100.) Smooth Yellow 
Violet. Resembles No. 10, but the hairy covering is nearly or quite 
absent and the surface of the stem is rough. Lower leaves generally 
picscnt at blooming time. Stipules similar to those of No. IC. Flowers 
yellow. Woods. April-May. 



Plate 100 . 

,.. , , o V rn^^tr^ta, 3 V. labradorica. 4. V. arenana. 5. 

1. Viola pubescens. 2. V. rostiaia.. o. v. 

V. scabriuscula. 6. V. canadensis. 


21. V. hastata, Michx. Halberd-leaved Violet. Leaves halberd- 
shaped or oblong with lieart-shaped base, slightly toothed, apex acute, 
stipules small, egg-shaped. Mountains of Penna. and southward. May. 

Flowers blue 

22. V. canadensis, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 100.) Canadian Violet. Stems 

4 to 14 in. high. Leaves egg-shaped, heart-shaped at base, apex sharp 
pointed. Whole plant smooth or nearly so. Stipules not fringed or di- 
vided, egg-shaped. 

23. V. striata. Ait. Pale Violet. Striped Violet. Similar in size and 
general growtli to No. 22. Leaves round or egg-shaped, the apex less 
sharply pointed than No. 22. Stipules long, narrow, loith sharp teeth at 
borders. Flowers on long flower stalks, light blue to white. Spur ^ as 
long as the corolla. Woods. May-July. 

24. V. labradorica, Shrank. (Fig. 3, pi. 100.) American Dry 
Violet. Stem weak, half reclining. Leaves from broadly egg-shaped to 
kidney-form or round, finely toothed at borders; plant smooth. Stipules 
lance-shaped with fringed borders. Flowers on long flower stems, spur 
half as long as the corolla, obtuse at the end. Color pale purple. Wet 
places. March-May. 

25. V. arenaria, DC. (Fig. 4, pi. 100.) Sand Violet. Resembles 
No. 24, but plant is covered with soft hairs. Color somewhat darker. 
Stipules are longer and are deeply incised. Sandy soil, Maine and west- 
ward. May-June. 

26. V. rostrata, Pursh. (Fig. 2, pi. 100.) Long-spurred Violet. 
Plant smooth, erect; leaves as in Nos. 24 and 2.5. Stipules fringed. 
Petals bearded. Spur longer than the corolla. Moist woods, generally 
distributed. June-July. 

V. tricolor, L., and V. odorata, L.. are sometimes found in our region 
as escajx^s from gardens. 

2. HYBANTHUS, Jacq. .(Cubelium, Raf. Solea, Spring') 
Our species an erect leafy plant with rather incons]iicuous greenish 
flowers growing from the leaf axils. Sc])als equal, narrow lance-shaped. 
I'elals nearly equal, the lower one 2-lobed and with a blunt spur. Sta- 
mens uniting to form a sort of sheath about the ovary. 

H. concolor, (Forst.) Raf. (Fig. 4, pi. 101.) Green Violet. 
Plant slightly downy, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves alternate, lance-shaped, 3 
to 4i in. long, 1/3 as wide, tips very slender and tapering. Flowers 2 oi 
3 in tlie axils, on short flower-stems, greenish. Moist woods, northern 
New York and southward. May-June. 

Family V.— PASSIFLORACEAE. Passion Flower Family 

Sepals more or less united, forming a tube from which project 

5 points. The throat of the caly.x is covered by rows of sterile 
stamen fihtments. Above tliese is the corolla. Fertile stamens 5. 
Our single species is a climbing, tendril-bearing, vine. 



In our species leaves lobed, alternate. Flowers axillary, single or in 
pairs on rather long flower stems. Petals greenish-yellow, longer than 
the sepals. Fruit a berry with many seeds. 

P. lutea, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 101.) Yellow Passion Flower, Vine, 3 to 
10 ft. long, trailing or climbing. Leaves much broader than long, 3-lobed. 
Flowers and tendrils from the axils. Flowers yellow. In southern part 
of our area. May-July. 

Order XII.— OPUNTIALES. The Order of the Cacti 

An order of fleshy, generally spiny plants of which we have but 
a single species. The ovary is inferior to the calyx and attached 
to it. The flowers are regular with an indefinite number of petals 
and stamens. The stems are fleshy and the leaves often rudi- 

The Family CACTACEAE is the only one of the order and in 
our North Eastern States we have only a single Genus. 


With its succulent branching stems and spiny leaves. Flowers upon 
the sides of the stem, with numerous petals, which are slightly united 
at base. Stamens also numerous. Fruit a pear-shaped spiny berry. 

O. vulgaris, Mill. (Fig. 7, pi. 101.) Eastern Prickly Pear. (0. 
Opuntia. (L.) Coult.) Is our only species, growing on rocks and in dry 
soil in the southern and eastern section of our region June-Aug. 

Order XIIL—THYMELEALES. Moose Wood Order 

The species of this order are, in our area, all shrubs. The calyx 
extends upward upon the ovary, covering it and adhering to it. 
The flowers are without petals. The ovary has but a single ovule. 
For other characters, see those of the two Families. 

Leaves green THYMELEACEAE 

Leaves silver-scurfy . . . . . . ELAEAGNACEAE 

Family L— THYMELEACEAE. Moose Wood Family 

Our only native species a small shrub. Floivers without petals. 
Ovary with a single ovule. The inner bark is tough and fibrous, 
the leaves without lobes and with entire borders are alternate. 
Flowers with colored calyx, stamens and pistils, the calyx of 4 
sepals. Fruit a hard, dry, ovoid drupe. Another species, an 


escape from cultivation, occasionally fonnd is the Daphne or 
Spurge Laurel, a shrub of small size. 


With the characters above mentioned. The only species is: 
D. palustris, L. (Fig. 1, pi- 101.) Leathebwood. Moose Wood. 
A shrub 2 to G ft. high, with tough yellow bark, oval leaves and small 
yellow flowers. Stamens much longer than tlie yellow sepals. Fruit a 
"small oval red berry. The flowers appear in April, before the leaves. 
The bark is used for withes and binders. Mostly in wet soil. 

2. DAPHNE, L. 

Small shrubs, with alternate leaves and purple or white flowers in clus- 
ters, in our species encircling the stem at the inter-nodes of leaves. The 
flower is without petals, the 4 spreading lobes of the calyx forming the 
perianth. Stamens 8, arising fi'om the calyx, usually included within the 
tube of the calyx. Ovary 1-celled; style very short. Fruit an ovoid drupe. 

D. Mezereum, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 101.) Spurge Laurel. A fragrant 
shrub, 1 to 5 ft. high, with lance-shaped leaves and purple or white 
flowers. Escaped from gardens. April-May. 

Family II.— ^ELAEAGNACEAE. Oleaster Family 

Shrub, in our region, with a silvery scurf. Leaves with lobes 
or teeth, opposite in our species, without stipules. Flowers spring- 
ing at the leaf axils or at the nodes of the twigs of the preceding 
season in small clusters. Corolla absent. The calyx divided into 
4 sepals. Stamens few. Ovary 1-celled with a singe ovule. Seeds 
erect. Our only Genus is: 

SHEPHERDIA, Nutt. (Lepargyraea, Raf.) 

With opposite leaves and small flowers. Staminate flowers with 8 
stamens. Calyx tube investing the ovary but not adliering to it. Fruit 

S. canadensis, (L.) Nutt. (Fig. 2, pi. 101.) Canadian Buffalo 
Berry. A slinib, 4 to 8 ft. higli, with elliptic loaves, smooth above, 
covered below with hairs and silvery scales. An ornamental shrub grow- 
ing on banks and along streams. April-June. 

Order XIV.— MYRTALES. Order of the Myrtles 
Herbs, shrubs or trees. Flowers, with rare exceptions, regular, 
the calyx rising partly or completely above the ovary and adhering 
to it or entirely free. Styles usually fused into one, ovaries with 
many ovules, carpels 2. Petals present except in the small flowered 
water plants of the family Ilaloragidaceae. 



Plate 101 
1. Dirca palustris. 2. Shepherdia canadensis. 3. Daphne Mezereum. 4. 
Hybanthus concolor, 5. Rotala ramosior. 6. Passiflora lutea. 7. Opuntia 


Ovary completely free or only partly inferior. 

Anthers opening by a longitudinal split MELASTOMACEAE 
Anthers opening by a pore at the summit LYTHRACEAE 

Ovaries inferior to the calyx, the calyx adhering to it. 

Water plants with finely divided leaves HALORAGIDACEAE 
Water plants w^ith broad floating leaves . . TRAPACEAE 
Land plants or marsh plants .... ONAGRACEAE 

Family I.— LYTHRACEAE. Loosestrife Family 

In our region all herbs except Decodon. Leaves opposite, except 
in Lythrum. Flowers regular or somewhat irregular. Ovary free 
or more or less adherent to the calyx, 2- to several-celled. 
Stipules none. Calyx of 4 or more lobes. Petals as many as 
the principal lobes of the calyx, but sometimes absent. Anthers 
attached to the filament of the stamen near the middle and open- 
ing longitudinally. 

Flowers regular. 

Flowers large, many Decodon 

Flowers small, few. 

Capsule bursting at the partitions between the cells 


Capsules bursting irregularly .... Ammannia 

Calyx cylindric Lythrum 

Calyx tubular, swollen below Cuphea 

Our plant an herb, 2 to G in. liigh, with opposite leaves, in the axils 
of wliich are 1 to 3 inconspicuous llovvers witli boll-shaped calyx and 4 
small purple petals which fall early. Stamens 4. Low herbs of no special 

1. A. Koehnei, Britton. Koeiine's Ammannia. Plant, rather more 
than 1 ft. high, sometimes less; smooth. Leaves mostly lance- or spatula- 
shaped, with blunt extremities, the base of the upper ones clasping with 
ear-like lobes at base. Flowers 1 to 3 in each upper axil, quite incon- 
spicuous. In Hackensack marshes, New Jersey, and south. Flowers all 

2. A. coccinea, Rottb. Long-leaved Ammannia. Leaves sharp- 
pointed at extremity, narrow lance-shaped. Swamps and muddy banks. 
New Jersey, and southward. July-Sept. 

2. ROTALA, L. 
Ix)W inconspicuous herb, witli ojjposite leaves and small axillary 
flowers, generally solitary. Calyx 4l()b('d with as many accessory teeth 
between the lobes. 


R. ramosior, (L.) Koelin. (Fig. 5, pi. 101.) Rotala. Leaves nar- 
row, oblong, about an in. long. Flowers 1 in each axil Swamps July- 

3. DECODON, Gmcl. (Lythrum, L.) 

Herbaceous shrub, with leaves in whorls and with dense whorl-like 
clusters of flowers at the axils. Calyx short, broadly bell-shaped with 
5 to 7 lobes and as many slender accessory teeth, one at each sinus. 
Petals 5, stamens 10, inserted on the calyx tube, alternately longer or 

D. verticillatus, Ell. (Fig. 5, pi. 102.) Swamp Loosestrife, Wil- 
low Hi;rb. Plant, 2 to 8 ft. high, growing at edges of streams and in 
swamps. Stems 4- to 6-angled; leaves opposite or in whorls of about 4, 
lance-shaped, 2 to 5 in. long and rather less than i as wide. In the axila 
of the upper whorls of leaves are clusters of purple flowers, each nearly 
an inch broad of lance-shaped petals and with 10 stamens, which con- 
siderably exceed the petals in length. July-Sept. 


Slender herbs, with 4-anglcd stems and opposite or alternate leaves and 
purple or white flowers which are found at the axils or in terminal slen- 
der clusters. Petals 4 to (i, usually 0. Stamens the same number as the 
petals or double the number, inserted on the calyx. Capsule 2-celled. 

Flowers in tall slender clusters L. Salicaria 

Flowers at the leat axils. 

Leaves opposite . . L. lineare 

Leaves mostly alternate. 

Leaves acute at apex L. alatnm 

Leaves rounded at apex L. Hyssopifolia 

1. Lw Hyssopifolia, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 102.) Hyssop Loosestrife. 
Plant, 6 to 10 in. high; leaves oblong-linear, obtuse at apex, without 
leaf-stalk, longer than the inconspicuous pale purple flowers. Marshes 
along our coast. June-Sept. 

2. L. alatum, Pursh. (Fig. 6, pi. 102.) Wing-angled Loosestrife. 
Tall, slender, branches with winged edges or simply angled. Stem 1 to 
4 ft. high. Leaves without leaf-stalks, alternate or the lowest opposite, 
lance-shaped or oblong, acute or nearly so at the end, rounded at base. 
Flowers deep purple, stamens of some of the flowers longer than the petals. 
Low swampy grounds. June-Aug. 

3. L. lineare, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 102.) Linear-leaved Loosestrife. 
Stem tall, slender (2 to 4 ft. high). Leaves opposite, very narrowly 
linear, an inch or less in length. Petals whitish-purple. In some flowers 
the style is long, stamens short, in others stamens are long, style short. 
Salt marshes. July-Sept. 

4. L. Salicaria, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 102.) Spiked Loosestrife. Slender, 
2 to 4 ft. high. Leaves opposite or in whorls of about 3, lance-shaped, 
rounded or heart-shaped at base, sharp at apex, 2 to 3 in. long. Flowers 
purple in a long narrow terminal cluster. In respect to the length of 
stamens and style there are three forms. Swamps, wet meadows. June- 


5. CUPHEA, Jacq. (Parsonsia, P. Br.) 
An herb, with opposite leaves and showy flowers, in clusters or from 
the axils. Calyx tubular, Inflated, 12-ribbcd, oblique at the mouth, 
with 6 teeth and as many secondary ones. Petals 6. unoqual. Stamens 
1 1 or 12, in 2 sets ; unequal. Ovary with a curved gland at base. Cap- 
sule oblong, few seeded, included in the calyx. 

C. petiolata, Rusby. (Fig. 9, pi. 102.) Blue Wax Weed. Clammy 
CuriiEA. Petals ovate, purple. Leaves lance-shaped on leaf-stalks about 

1 as long as the leaves. Dry fields. July-Oct. 

Family II.— MELASTOMACEAE. Meadow Beauty Family 

Herbaceous plants (or woody), with opposite leaves or leaves 
in whorls. Leaves without stipules, 3- to 5-nerved. Flowers 
regular, showy, with stamens and pistils. The anthers open hi/ a 
pore at the summit. In other respects similar to family Ona- 


Calyx tube 4-cleft, urn-shaped, adhering to the ovary below. Petals 4, 
larg«. Stamens 8; style 1. Low perennial herbs with showy flowers. 

Stem square with wing-like angles. 

Leaves oval-lance-shaped R. virginica 

Leaves linear-oblong R. aristosa 

Stem round , . . . R. mariana 

L R. virginica, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 102.) Meadow BEAunr. Flowers 
bright purple; petals 4; stems and leaves downy. Sandy swamps. June- 

2. R. aristosa, Britton. (Fig. 3, pi. 102.) Awn-petaled Meadow 
Beauty. Stem square; flowers bright purple; petals 4; stem and leaves 
not downy. Sandy swamps. July-Aug. 

3. R. mariana, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 102.) IMaryland INIeadow Beauty. 
Leaves narrow, lance-shaped. Stem round; plant downy or hairy, 1 to 

2 ft. high. Flowers pale purple of 4 petals. Swamps and pine barrens, 
New Jersey and southward. June-Sept. 

Family III. — ONAGRACEAE. Evening Primrose Family 

Herbs, rarely shruljs, with opposite or alternate leaves without 
stipules; calyx tube adherent to the ovary and rising above it, 2- to 
6-lobed. Petals usually 4, but may be more or less, or rarely ab- 
sent. Stamens usually in 2 rows and twice as many as the petals. 
Ovary usually 4-celled, styles united. 

Petals and sepals, each 4. 

Leaves opposite Isnardia 

Leaves alternate. 



Plate 102 

]. Rhexia virginica. 2. R. mariana. 3. R. aristosa. 4. Lythrum salicana. 
5. Decodon verticillatus. G. Lythrum alatum. 7. L. Hyssopifoha. 8. U 
lineare. 9. Cuphea petiolata. 


Calyx tube not longer than the ovary. 

Seeds without hairs Ludwigia 

Seeds with silky hairs .... Chamaenerion 
Calyx tube longer than the ovary. 

Seeds with silky hairs Epilobium 

Seeds without hairs. 
Floivers yellow. 
Stamens of equal length. 

Ovules, 2 rows in each of tlie 4 divisions of 
the ovary lying liorizontalhj and by com- 
pression angled in the long axis . Onagra 
Ovules in 1 row in each of the 4 divisions, 
upright and not angular . Oenothera 

Stamens of unequal length .... Kneiffia 

Flowers pinJc Gaura 

Petals and sepals, each 2 Circaea 


Herbs, with alternate leaves and with rather inconspicuous axillary 
flowers. Lobes of the calyx 4, adherent to the ovary but not prolonged 
beyond it. Petals 4, often wanting; stamens 4 inserted into the petals. 
Ovary 4- or 5-celled. Capsule short or cylindrical, winged or ribbed. 
Seeds very small. 

Capsules nearly globe-formed. 

Flowers small, without flower stalks, in the leaf-axils, with small greenish 
petals or none. 

Bractlets at base of capsule very small or none . . L. sphaerocarpa 
Bractlets at base of capsule as long as capsule . . • L. polycarpa 

Capsules much longer than broad L. linearis 

Flowers showy. 

Plant hairy L. hirtella 

Plant not hairy L. alternifolia 

L L. sphaerocarpa, Ell. (Fig. 10, pi. 10.3.) Globe-fruited Lxjd- 
WIGIA, Plant growing in swampy or wet places, 2 to 3 ft. higli. Leaves 
. lance-shaped or linear, some Icivves with very small teeth at borders, 
alternate, 2 to 4 in. long. Whole plant or at least upper part of it finely 
downy. Bractlets at base of flowers minute or absent. Capsules globular. 
Petals very minute or none. Calyx 4-parted, generally shorter tlian the 
capsule. Swamps, eastern Mass., southern New York and southward. 

2. L. polycarpa, Sliort and Peter. (Fig. 9, pi. 103.) Many-fruited 
Ludwigia. Plant growing in swamps, 1 to 3 ft. higli, with runners at 
base. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, borders not toothed, acute at each 
end, without leaf-stalk, 2 to 4 in. long. Leaves of the runners spatula- 
formed. Bractlets at base of flowers linear and conspicuous. Wet places. 

3. L. linearis, Walt. Lixear-leaveu Ludwigia. Plant, 1 to 2 ft. 


high, often with runners at base. Leaves very narrow lance-shaped, 
tapering at base to a flower stalk, 1 to 2 in. long, without teeth. Fhiwers 
in axils, petals pale yellow. Capsule a reversed 4-sided pyramid, longer 
than the calyx lobes. Swamps, New York and southward. June-Sept. 

4. L. hirtella, Raf. (Fig. 8, pi. 103.) Hairy Ludwigia. Plant 
erect, 1 to 2 ft. high, decidedly hairy with stiff hairs. Leaves -oblong, 
more or less egg-shaped, blunt at ends. Flower-stem in leaf-axil witli 2 
bracts. Petals showy, yellow, longer than the sepals. Pod 4-angled, 
winged, nearly globular. Swamps, New Jersey and southward. June- 

5. L. alternifolia, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 103.) Seed Box. Erect, 2 to 3 
ft. high, not hairy. Leaves lance-shaped, sharp at each end, 2 to 4 in. 
long. Flower-stems at the axils, 2 bracted. Petals yellow, longer than 
the purple sepals. Pod 4-angled, winged. Swamps, Mass., to northern 
New York. 


General characters similar to those of Ludwigia, but leaves are opposite. 

I. palustris, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 103.) Marsh Purslane. (Ludioigia 
palustris, Ell.) Plant, lying flat in the mud, floating or partly erect, 
branching, 4 to 15 in. long. Leaves oval or spatula-formed, tapering at 
base to a leaf-stalk 1/3 as long as the leaf. Flowers at the axils, small, 
solitary, without bracts below the calyx. Pod oblong, 4-angled. Stem 
and leaves reddish. Muddy ditclies and swamps, generally distributed. 

3. CHAMAENERION, Adams. (Epilobium, L.) 

A single species, in our region which has been more generally known 
as the most conspicuous Epilobium. A showy herb with alternate leaves 
and perfect irregular flowers in terminal pyramidal clusters. Calyx tube 
adherent to the ovary, but not exceeding it in length, of 4 segments. Petals 
4. Capsule 4-celled, 4-angled. 

C. angustifolium, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 103.) Willow Herb. Simple, not 
branching, erect, 2 to 8 ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped, 2 to 6 in. long. 
Flowers purple, in a long pyramidal cluster, a small bract below eaeh 
flower. Petals 4, unequal, sepals 4, seeds with silky down. In recently 
burned lands, along fences, a conspicuous herb in mid-summer. June- 


Our species all herbs, with alternate or opposite leaves and with flowers 
in terminal clusters. Petals 4, sepals 4, the calyx tube adhering to the 
ovary and produced beyond the latter. Stamens 8. Ovary of 4 cells, 
capsules elongated, 4-angled. Seeds small, each with a tuft of silky hairs 
attached. Flowers purple or less frequently white. 

Plant densely hairy. 

Flowers about i in. broad E. hirsufum 

Flowers less than i in. broad £. molle 

Plant not hairy or with few hairs, lower leaves broadly oval and opposite E. al[<inum 

Leaves narrowly linear E. lincare 

Leaves lance-shaped. 

Without serrations at borders E. palustre 

Borders serrated. 

Pods densely hairy E. adcnocaulon 

Pods only slightly hairy E. coluraHim 

Pods free from hairs E. Hornemanni 


1. E. hirsutum, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 103.) Hairy Willow Herb. Plant, 
stout, branching, 3 to 5 ft. high, densely hairy. Some of the leaves op- 
'posite, lance-shajjed or oblong, sharply toothed, without leaf-stalks. 
Flowers in terminal clusters or in the axils of the upper leaves, about an 
inch broad, purple. Waste grounds. June-Sept. 

2. E. alpinum, L. Alpine Willow Herb. (E. lacliflorum, Haussk.) 
Plant, from 6 to 12 in. high, not hairy. Lower leaves opposite, broadly 
elliptic or oval, slightly toothed, obtuse at apex, tapering to a leaf-stalk 
at base. A few of the upper leaves alternate and lance-shaped. Flowers 
few from the upper axils, small, white. Adirondack and Whits moun- 
tains. June-Sept. 

3. E. palustre, L. Swamp Willow Herb. Plant, slender, about 1 
ft. high, branched, with fine down; leaves lance-shapcd, somewhat pointed 
at apex, rounded at base, without leaf-stalks, nearly all opposite. Flowers 
few, in upper axils, pink or whitish. Marshy places. White mountains 
and north. June-Sept. 

4. E. lineare, ]\Iuhl. (Fig. 2, pi. 103.) Linear-leaved Willow 
Herb. (E. densum, Raf. ) Plant, 1 to 2 ft. high, slender, usually branched. 
Leaves alternate or to some extent opposite, very narrow, 1 to 2 in. long 
by 1/12 as wide, sharply pointed at each end. Flowers pale pink, numer- 
ous. Bogs. July-Sept. 

5. E. molle, Torr. Downy Willow Herb. (E. strictum, Muhl. E. 
densum, Raf. ) Erect, 1 to 2 ft. high, somewhat densely covered with 
soft whitish hairs. Leaves lance-shaped, broader than those of No. 4. 
Flowers in upper axils, small, pink or whitish. Bogs, generally distributed. 

6. E. coloratum, (Muhl.) (Fig. 1, pi. 103.) Purple-leaved Willow 
Herb. Tall, branching, 1 to 3 ft. high. Leaves rather large, lance-shaped, 
distinctly tootlied at borders, sharp pointed at apex, tapering at base, 
with leaf-stalk. Above, plant slightly downy. Flowers numerous in 
leafy clusters from the axils, pale purple. Wet places. July-Sept. 

7. E. adenocaulon, Haussk. (Fig. 3, pi. 103.) Northern Willow 
Herb. Differs little from No. 6, but leaves are less sharp at apex and the 
long seed capsules are covered with a dense growth of soft hairs. Wet 
places. July-Sept. 

8. E. Hornemanni, Reichenb. Hornemann's Willow Herb. Plant, 
not much branched, % to lA ft. high; smooth. Leaves egg-sliaped on 
short leaf stalks, with few remote teeth. Flowers in the terminal leaf 
axils, purple. White Mountains. July-Sept. 

5. ONAGRA, Adams 

Herbs, with erect stems, alternate leaves and yellow flowers which open 
in the evening. They are arranged in long slender clusters. The calyx 
is prolonged beyond the ovary and has 4 lance-shaped lobes. Petals 4. 
Capsule long, 4-sided, 4-cclled, the ovules in 2 rows in each cell, compressed 
and angular. 

Flowers small, petals narrow about 1/12 in. broad C cruciata 

Flowers large, petals broad. 

Capsules an inch long O. biennis 

Capsules more than an inch long O. Oakcsiana 



Platk 103 
1. Epilobium coloratum. 2. E. lineare. 3. E. adenocaiilon. 4. Isnardia 
pahistris. 5. Chaniacnerion angustifolium. G. Epilobium hirsutum. 7. Lud- 
wigia alternifolia. 8. L. hirtella. 9. L. polyoarpa. 10. L. sphaerocarpa. 


1. O. biennis, (L.) Scop. (Fig. 5, pi. 104.) Evening Primrose. 
Stout, erect, 1 to 9 ft. higli, slightly branching, with a few or many downy 
hairs. Leaves lance-shaped to oblong, narrowed at base and somewhat 
clasping, 1 to 6 in.' long. Flowers bright yellow, opening in the evening, 
about 2 in. broad. Calyx adherent to ovary and much longer than the 
latter. Capsule hairy. In waste places. Common. June-Oct. 

2. O. cruciata, (Nutt.) Small. Small-flowered Evening Prim- 
rose. Similar to No. 1, but petals are lance-shaped and much smaller 
than those of O. biennis. June-Oct. 

3. O. Oakesiana, (A. Gray) Britton. Oakes's Evening Primrose. 
Resembles No. 1, but is more slender, leaves generally narrower, and 
plant not hairy or with few hairs. Flowers about i as broad as those of 
No. 1. Capsule about 1/3 longer than that of No. 1. Dry waste places 
in northern section of our area. June-Oct. 


Similar fo Onagra, but seeds not compressed and not angular. 

1. O. humifusa, Nutt. (Fig. 4, pi. 104.) Seaside Evening Prim- 
rose. Plant, 5 to li ft. high, much branched, generally reclining, cov- 
ered with a silvery down. Leaves narrow with wavy, somewhat toothed, 
margins ^ to 2 in. long. Flowers yellow, from the leaf-axils, not numer- 
ous, 1/2 to 2/3 in. across. Sea beaches. New Jersey and southward. 

2. O. laciniata, Hill. Sinuate-leaved Evening Primrose. Plant, 
about the size of the last. Leaves deeply waved, the sinuses reaching 
nearly to mid-vein. Hairs not silvery and much loss dense than in No. 1. 
Sandy soil. New Jersey, Pennsylvania and westward. May-June. 

7. KNEIFFIA, Spach. 

Herbs, usually more slender than the species of Onagra. Leaves mostly 
narrow, without teelh or with low teeth. Flowers yellow in terminal 
clusters, petals 4, calyx segments 4. Stamens 8, the alternate ones longer. 
Ovary 4-angled; pistil 4-cleft at summit. Seeds numerous, not angled. 

Plants not covered with coarse hairs. 

Leaves without teeth or divisions. 

Plants reclining K. Alleni 

Plants erect K. puinila 

Leaves with tnnthed or wavy borders. 

Foot-stalk of the capsule loiiRcr than the capsule . K. longipcdiccllata 
Foot-stalk of the capsule shorter than the capsule. 

Leaves broadest toward the apex K. linearis 

Leaves broadest toward base K. fruticosa 

Plants covered with coarse hairs K. pratcnsii 

1- K. Alleni, Small. Allen's Sunorops. Plant, reclining, much 
brancl)C(l, slenis from 3 in. to 2 ft. long. Leaves inversely lance-shajx'd 
without teeth; the whole plant covered with fine down. Flowers yellow 
2/3 to 1 in. broad in mort; or less terminal clusters. Capsule 4-angled, 
winged, nearly glol)C- or pear-shaped, on a foot-stalk longer than itself. 
Sandy places on l>ong Island. Junc-Aug. 

2. K. longipedicellata. Small. (Fig. 3, pi. 104.) Long-stemmed 



Plate 104 

1. Kneiffia linearis. 2. K. pumila. 3. K. longipedicellata 4 Oenothera 
mifusa. 5. Onagra biennis. 6. Gaura biennis. 7. Circaea lutctiana. 8. C. 


SuNDROPS. Slender, 1 to 2 J ft. high, somewhat downy; stem red, not 
much branched. Lower leaves spatula-shaped, upper narrow lance-shaped 
with wavy borders, without leaf-stalks or with very short ones. Flowers 
yellow, 1 to 2 in. broad in terminal clusters. Calyx hairy, of linear seg- 
ments. Capsule pear-shaped with 4 wings, hairy, on a foot-stalk longer 
than itself. Sandy soil. May-Aug. 

3. K. linearis, (Michx.) Spach. (Fig. 1, pi, 104.) Narrow-leaved 
SuNDBOPS. Plant, ^ to 2 ft. high, sometimes much branched above. Leaves 
inversely lance-shaped, the upper ones quite narrow, with wavy borders. 
Generally with few hairs. Flowers yellow, about 1 in. broad. Capsule 
pear-shaped or elongated, winged, on footstalk not as long as itself. 
Sandy soil. June-Sept. 

4. K. pumila, (L.) Spach. (Fig. 2, pi. 104.) Small Sundrops. 
Plant, quite slender, generally about 8 to 10 in. high, but may reach 
height of 2 ft.; covered with soft down. Leaves narrow lance-shaped, 
blunt at apex, not toavy or toothed at borders. Lower leaves spatula- 
formed. Flower from 1/3 to 1 in. broad, yellow, in a narrow leafy cluster. 
Capsule pear-shaped, slightly winged. Dry fields. June-Aug. 

5. K. pratensis, Small. Hairy Sundrops. Stem 15 to 30 in. high. 
Whole plant covered with coarse spreading hairs. Leaves oblong-lance- 
sliaped, both sides hairy. Low grounds, Maine to Conn. 

fi. K. fruticosa, (L.) Raimann. Common Sundrops. Plant, 1 to 
3 ft. liigh, usually much branched, downy. Leaves lance-shaped generally 
wavy with low teeth. Flowers 1 to 2 in. broad in terminal loose cluster. 
Capsule oblong with conspicuous wings on a very short foot-stalk or 
without one. Common in dry soil. June-Aug. 

8. GAURA, L. 

Herbs, somewhat woody at base with alternate narrow leaves and rose- 
colored or white flowers. Calyx tubular, with 4 narrow sepals turned 
backward. Stamens 8. Petals 4, unequal, narrow witli a long narrow 
claw extending down the calyx tube. Fruit nut-like with prominent ribs 
or angles. 

1. G. biennis, L. (Fig. G, pi. 104.) Biennial Gaura. Plant slen- 
der, sliglitly downy, branching above; leaves lance-shaped, sharp pointed 
at each end, wavy witli remote teeth. Flowers in terminal clusters, rose- 
colored or white. Dry soil. July-Sept. 

2. Q. coccinea, Pursh. Scarlet Gaura. Resembling the last, but 
with scarlet flowers, established about Rochester, N. Y. July-Sept. 


Low, rather delicat<> herbs, ours growing in deep shades. Leaves op- 
posite on slen<lor leafstalks. Flowers small, white, in long slender clus- 
ters. Calyx tubular, its 2 lohes prolonged beyond the ovary. Petals 2, 
stamens 2, alternate with the petals. Ovary 1- or 2-celled. Fruit small, 
ovoid, hriathj vnth hooked hairs. 

1. C. lutetiana, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 104.) Enchanter's NianTsnADE. 
Plant, from 1 to 2 ft. high, very fine hairs. Leaves egg-shaped, wavy, 
toothed, the stem swollen where the opposite leaves join it. Flowers 


white in a tall spike, each on a short foot-stalk. Damp woods. Com- 
mon. June-Aug. 

2. C. alpina, L, (Fig. 8, pi. 104.) Smaixee Enchanter's Night- 
shade. Plant, 3 to 8 in. high. The leaves heart-shaped at base, teeth 
more conspicuous than in No 1. Damp woods. July-Sept. 

Family IV.— TRAP ACE AE. Water-nut Family 

Aquatic herbs, the submersed leaves of which are finely dis- 
sected, feather-formed, those which float are rounded and deeply 
indented. Of these last the leaf-stalks are inflated. Petals and 
sepals, each 4; stamens 4. Fruit a large spiny nut. 


Characteristics as above. 

T. natans, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 105.) Swimming Watee-nut. A large 
leaved aquatic, which has been introduced in lakes and parks and which 
has become naturalized in a few localities. June-July. 

Family V.^HALORAGIDACEAE. Water Milfoil Family 

Our species all aquatic herbs. Calyx adherent to the ovary. 
Leaves in whorls or opposite, or rarely alternate, often finely dis- 
sected. Flowers with stamens and pistils or with those having one 
set of these organs on one plant and those with the other on an- 
other plant or with the two kinds of flowers on one plant. Petals 
small or none, when present 2 to 4. Stamens 1 to 8. Ovary 
oblong or cylindric, ribbed or angled. 

Stamen 1, ovary 1-celled Hippuris 

Stamens 2 to 8 ; ovary 3- to 4-celled. 

Fruit sharply angled Proserpinaca 

Fruit splitting into 4 carpels .... Myriophyllum 


Stems erect, not branching. Leaves simple, without serrations, arranged 
in whorls. FloM^ers greenish, in the leaf axils, having a single stamen on 
the margin of the calyx and a single style, which is longer than the 
stamen. Petals absent. Fruit a small 1-celIed drupe. 

H. vulgaris, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 105.) Mare's Tail. Joint Weed. 
Plant, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves narrow linear, sharply pointed at the apex, 
attached directly to the stem at base where about 6 or more are arranged 
in a whorl. In borders of ponds and in marshes, in the northern part of 
our area. Flowers found all summer. 


Aquatic; stems not generally branching, reclining at base, finally erect. 


Leaves alternate, toothed or finely dissected. Flowers in the leaf axils, 
small, without petals. Stamens 3; pistils 3. Fruit long. 3- or 4-celled. 

1. P. palustris, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 105.) Mermaid-weed. Aquatic. 
Plant from i to 2 ft. long. Leaves which float are narrow lance-shaped or 
elliptic, with sharp serrations. Those submersed are finely feather- 
formed. Common in swamps. June-July. 

2. P. pectinata, Lam. (Fig. 10, pi. 105.) Cut-leaved Mermaid- 
weed. Aquatic. Leaves all finely feather-formed. Otherwise much like 
the former species. Plant 5 to 10 in. long. Rare in our section. Swamps. 


Aquatic herbs, with creeping roots; leaves in whorls or alternate and 
with greenish flowers. Leaves, which are wholly under water, are dis- 
sected into capillary segments, those above toothed or with smooth bor- 
ders. The upper flowers are generally stamen bearers, those below are 
pistillate. Petals none, calyx 4-toothed. Stamens 4 to 8. Some of the 
flowers have both stamens and pistils. Fruit of 4 nut-like hard carpels, 
which are coherent at their angles. 

Flowers in narrow spikes above the submersed leaves. _ 

Leaves of the flower spike very small; flowers in whorls . ._ M. spicatuw, 
Leaves of the flower spike longer than the flowers and much dissected; 

submersed leaves in dense whorls, stamens 8 .... ill. verticillatum 
Plant nearly leafless, the leaves being reduced to small bract- or hair-like 

appendages, stamens 4 M. tenelltint 

Flowers on both submersed and emersed parts of the plant. 

Plant with a few scattered leaves, those of the upper part linear, those 

of the lower part feather-formed, dissected; stamens 4 . . M. humile 
Leaves of flower bearing portion of stem in whorls of 4 or 5, not thread- 
like, with conspicuous teeth; stamens 4. 

Flowers alternate M. alternifJornm 

Floral leaves linear M. scabnituin 

Floral leaves lance-shaped or egg-shaped . . . M. heterofhyllum 
Flowers only on spikes which are submersed -A/. Farwellii 

L M. spicatum, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 105.) Spiked Water- milfoil. 
Plant, growing in deep water, the submersed leaves finely dissected into 
capillary segments, in whorls of 4 or 5 leaves. At the summit is a long 
spike with whorls of inconspicuous greenish flowers which are accompanied 
or not by leaves reduced to bracts, Avhich are shorter than the small 
flowers. Stamens 8. In ponds and quiet waters. 

2. M. alterniflorum, DC. Loose-flowered Water- milfoil. Sub- 
mersed leaves finely feather-formed. Flowers alternate. Ponds, lakes and 
streams, Mass. and Lake Champlain. 

3. M. verticillatum, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 105.) Wiiokled Water-milfoil. 
Plant of deep or shallow water. The arrangement of submersed leaves 
similar to that of No. 1. The floral leaves are conspicuous and like those 
under water are finely dissected. Stamens 8. 

4. M. tenellum, Pigel. (Fig. 2, pi. 105.) Slender Water- milfoil. 
Plant, growing mostly at borders of ponds, 3 to 10 in. high. Stems nearly 
leafless, or with very small capillary appendages. Flowers in a spike on 
upper part of stem. Stamens 4. 

5. M. humile, (Paf.) Morong. (Fig. 3, a and I, pi. 105.) Low 
Water-milfoil. Plant of ponds and ditches. The form growing in mud, 
out of water, Fig. 3, b., about 1 to 2 in. high, with the uppei; leaves, 




Plate 105 
1. Ilippuris vulgaris. 2. Myriophyllum tenellum. 3a M. humile aquatic 
form 3b M. humile, land form. 4. M. spicatum. 5. M. vert,c.l atum. 6. 
M heterophyllum. 7. M. scabratum. 8. M. Farwellii. 9. Proserpinaca pa- 
lustris. 10. P. pectinata. 11. Trapa natans. 


among which are found the small flowers, narrowly linear. The form 
growing in water has finely dissected leaves. Fig. 3, a. Stamens 4. 

G. M. heterophyllum, ilichx. (Fig. 6, pi. 105.) Various-leaved 
Water- MILFOIL. Plant of ponds and still waters. Stems stout. Lower 
leaves dissected into fine capillary segments; the upper, floral leaves, egg- 
shaped or lance-shaped with conspicuous teeth. Flowers with 4 stamens. 

7. M. scabratum, Michx. (Fig. 7, pi. 105.) Pinnate Water-mil- 
foil, (if. pinnatum, (Walt.) BSP.) Eesembles No. 5, but floral leaves 
are linear, with conspicuous teeth. 

8. M. Farwellii, Morong. (Fig. 8, pi. 105.) Farwell's Water- 
milfoil. Leaves in whorls of 3s or 63 or scattered, narrow, feather- 
parted, the divisions thread-like, in 5 to 7 opposite pairs with minute 
black spines at the axils. Petals 4, •oblong; styles 4. Still water. Maine, 

Order XV.— UMBELLALES. Order of Umbelliferous 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Flowers in umbels or umbel-like heads. 
Ovary surrounded by the calyx which is superior to it; each cell 
of the ovary containing a single ovule. Calyx segments little de- 
veloped or absent. Stamens free from each other and equal in 
number with, tlie petals, alternate with them. 
Stamens 5, flowers in umbels. 

Fruit composed of 2 dry carpels, which separate at 


Fruit a fleshy berry ARALIACEAE 

Stamens 4. Trees and shrubs. Flowers in heads or umbel- 
like groups CORNACEAE 

Family I. — ARALIACEAE. Ginseng Family 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, perennial. Leaves all compound. Flowers 
small ; stamens 5. Fruit a flesby berry. Calyx tube surrounding 
and adhering to the ovary, 5-toothed. 

Leaves alternate Alalia 

Leaves in a whorl Panax 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, with alternate compound leaves and small white 
or greenish flowers in umbels or heads. Calyx of 5 divisions; petals 5; 
stamens 5; ovary 5-celled. 

Shrub or tree A. spinosa 


Umbel compound on a lenRtlicned axis A. raccniosa 

ITmbcls of about 3 secondary umbels A. nudicaulis 

Unibcl of a single head A. hispida 



Plate lOG 
1. Panax trifolium. 2. Alalia nudicaulis. 3. A. liispida. 4. A. racemosa. 
5. Panax quinqiiefoliuni. 


1. A. spinosa, L. Hercules's Club. Angelica Tree. Shrub or low 
tree, with tliick stem, with prickles on the branches. Leaves doubly com- 
pound, of several pairs of egg-shaped, thick leaflets, with an odd one for 
each division. River banks, in southern part of our region. June-Aug. 

2. A. racemosa, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 106.) American Spikenard. A 
large, much branched herb, with egg-shaped leaflets, which are heart- 
shaped at base and slender pointed at apex. Umbel on an extended axis, 
giving the cluster of flowers a more or less pyramidal shape. Flowers 
greenish; fruit a dark purple or brown berry. Rich woods. July- Aug. 

3. A. nudicaulis, L. (Fig. 2, pi. lOG.) Wild Sarsaparilla. Stem 
divides before or almost immediately after leaving the ground into a leaf- 
stem and a flower-stem. The former axis straight and slender about 1 ft. 
high, when it divides into 3 branches, each bearing 3 or 5 leaflets, which 
are oval or egg-shaped. The flower-stem is shorter and naked to the 
summit where a three branched umbel is found, each branch of the umbel 
bearing a small rounded umbel or head. In woods. Common. May-June. 

4. A. hispida, Vent. (Fig. 3, pi. lOG.) Wild Elder. A plant, 
shrubby at base, more or less bristly, 1 to 2 \ft. high. Leaves doubly 
compound; leaflets egg-shaped, toothed at the edges. Umbels on long 
slender flower-stems. Common about decaying stumps and rocky places. 


Herbs or shrubs. Our species herbs, arising from a globose or spindle- 
shaped root with a slender stem branching into 3 leaf-stalks at the top, 
each bearing 5 or less leaflets, which are inversely lance-shaped, or in- 
versely egg-shaped, and a single flower-stem bearing a rounded umbel 
of a few white flowers. Stamens 5. Fruit a somewhat flattened berry. 

1. P. trifolium, L. (Fig. I, pi. 106.) Dwarf Ginseng. Ground 
Nut. Plant, 3 to 8 in. high, in moist woods. Leaflets 3 to 5, the lower 
pair single, the upper ones inversely lance-shaped. Root globular. Woods, 
common. April-June. 

2. P. quinquefolium, L. (Fig. 5. pi. 106.) Ginseng. A large plant, 
8 to 15 in. high. Root spindle-shaped. Leaves inversely egg-shaped. 
Rich woods, New England. April-May. 

Family II.— UMBELLIFERAE. Carrot or Parsley Family 

Herbs, witli nsiially hollow stems and alternate leaves which, 
in all but a few species, are compound. Leaf-stalks expanded, 
often forming a sheath to the stem. Flowers in umbel, that is, the 
flower stems of the cluster of flowers all spring from one point 
and radiate like the rays of an umbrella. In general each primary 
ray gives off a secondary group, which is known as an umhellet, on 
which are borne the flowers. The flowers are small and indi- 
vidually inconspicuous, but the groups or umbels constitute showy 
heads or clusters, as for example, those of the wild carrot. At the 
base of the umbel in certain species there is found a whorl of bracts 


which is known as the involucre, this involucre may be simple or 
divided. In several species in which no involvicre is found when 
the umbel is mature some small bracts may be found at an earlier 
stage, but these fall as the umbel approaches the mature state. 
In other species while there is no whorl of bracts, involucre, at 
the base of the primary umbel, there is an involucel at the base of 
the umhellet. This involucel may be found also in connection with 
the involucre. The small corolla has 5 petals; calyx 5-toothed, 
adliering to the ovary; stamens 5; pistils 3. Fruit of 2 dry co- 
hering carpels. The fruit is usually oval or rounded but is some- 
times long and spindle-shaped and, in case of the Saniclcs, the 
fruit is covered with hooked spines forming a bur-like body. 

Flowers white, or at least not yellow; seeds rounded or- oval. 
Leaves not compound. 

Leaves long, narrow, with spiny teeth . . Eryngium 

Leaves round Hydrocotyle 

Leaves reduced to hollow leaf-stalks . . . Liliaeopsis 
Leaves compound. 

Involucre to main umbel present. 

The bracts dissected or at least divided. 
Leaves dissected. 

Fruit flattened, ribs bearing bristly 

hairs Daucus 

Fruit oval, without bristles Ptilimnium 

Bracts of the main umbel not finely divided or at 
most only toothed or ternatcly cleft. 

Leaves of 3 sots of trifoliate leaflets Ligusticum 
Leaves of 3 to 5 leaflets radiating from a 

common center Sanicula 

Leaves of stem compound, feather-formed, 
(once pinnate). 
Involucre of linear bracts . . . Slum 
Involucre of broad leaf-like bracts Berula 
Leaves compound, doubly feather-formed. 

Segments of leaflets narrowly linear Carura 
Segments somewhat broad. 

Stem spotted Coniuin 

Main umbel without involucre or with few small 
bracts which fall early. 


Umbellets with invohicels. 

Segments of leaflets rather broad Conioselinum 

Segments narrow linear .... Aethusa 

Leaflets not dissected .... Cicuta 

Fruit compressed . . . Angelica 

Umbellets without involucels. 

Fruit densely bristly . . Caucalis 
Fruit not bristly. 
Leaves finely dissected .... Apiuiu 
Leaves simply or doul^ly feather-formed 

Fruit compressed. Leaves not dis- 
sected Angelica 

Leaflets round deeply toothed Pimpinella 
Leaflets lance-shaped . . . Oxypolis 

Leaflets linear Cicuta 

Leaves of 3 broad leaflets (ternate). 

Flower umbels regular . . Heracleum 
Flower umbels irregular . Cryptotaenia 
Leaves doubly ternate. 

Sea coast plant . . . Coelopleurum 
Inland plant Aegopodium 

Fruit long sp'mdh-sliaped 

Fruit less than an in. long. 
Long tapering at base 


Blunt at base . Osmorhiza 

Fruit and appendage more than an 
incli long Scandix 

Flowers Yellow 

Leaves undivided, the stem appearing to penetrate tlie leaf 

plate Bupleurum 

Leaves feather-formed, of deeply lobed leaflets . . Pastinaca 
Leaves ternately or ])i-ternately divided. 
Borders of leaflets notched. 

Fruit laterally flattened Zizia 

Fruit not flattened Thaspium 


Borders of leaflets not notched Pimpinella 

Leaves of 3 to 7 radiating lobes Sanicula 

Flowers Purple 

Leaves radiating Sanicula 

Leaves ternately divided Thaspium 

Floivers ivhite. Seeds rounded or oval 
Leaves not compound 


Herbs, with spiny toothed elongated leaves. In our two species the 
leaves are grass-like, with spines along both edges. Flowers are col- 
lected in dense heads, below each of which is an involucre of conspicuous 
bracts both at the base of the individual head and at the base of the 
group of heads. Calyx lobes somewhat leafy; petals white or bluish. 

1. E. aquaticum, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 109.) Button Snake-root. Stem 
2 to 6 ft. high. Leaves from 1 to 2 ft. long, about an in. wide, with 
parallel veins and with the edges armed with spines. Heads rounded, 
averaging about | in. diameter. Low grounds, New Jersey and westward. 

2. E. virginianum. Lam. (Fig. 5, pi. 109.) Virginia Eryngo. 
Stem 1 to 3 ft. high; leaves, the upper grass-like with spines at the 
borders; 2 to 8 in. long. The basal leaves long and narrow on a leaf- 
stalk. Heads about i in. diameter. Marshes near sea-coast, New Jersey 
and southward. July-Sept. 

By some authorities tliis is regarded as only a variety of E. aquaticum. 


Marsh herbs, ours quite small, prostrate and rooting at joints. Leaves 
of our species round with leaf-stem near the middle; whole plant smooth. 
Flowers small, white in small heads, either simple or one head above 
the other on the flower stem. 

1. H. umbellata, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 111.) Marsh Pennywort. Stem 
creeping, several in. long, rooting at joints. Leaf-stem arising from the 
creeping stem and above the small fasiculus of roots. Leaves round, veins 
radiating from near the center. Flowers in small round heads or umbels 
at the summit of the llower stem. Wet places, eastern Mass., and south- 
ward. Nearly all summer. 

2. H. Canbyi, C. and R, (Fig. 5, pi. 111.) Canby's Pennywort. 
Resembles No. 1, but flowers are in several small heads, one above the 
other on the flower stem. Flower stem considerably longer than leaves. 
Wet grounds. New Jersey and southward. June-Sept. 

3. H. verticillata, Thumb. (Fig. 6, pi. 111.) Whoeled Marsh 
Pennywort. Flower heads very small, one above the other; the flower 
stem shorter than the leaves. Mass., and southward. June-Sept. 

4. H. americana, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 111.) American Marsh Penny- 
wort. Stems thread-like; leaf stem affixed near the border of the rounded 


heart-shaped leaves. Flowers on a very short flower stem, only from 1 
to 5 verj' small flowers in the cluster. Wet places, throughout our area. 

3. LILAEOPSIS, Greene. (Crantzia, Nutt.) 
Small creeping herbs, rooting at the joints, in the mud. Leaves simply 
hollow cylindric stems. The few white flowers in small heads, with in- 
volucre below the head. 

L. lineata, (Michx.) Greene. (Fig. 6, pi. 107.) Lii.aeopsis. Leaves 
about 1 to 3 in. high, from the creeping root. In salt marshes. July- 

Leaves compound; seeds rounded. Involucre to main stem present. In- 
volucre bracts finelij dissected 


Herbs, with more or less bristly hairs and with much-divided leaves 
and with leaf-like bracts of the involucre, which are divided into linear 
or tiiread-like segments. Flowers white in compound umbels. Fruit oval 
with 5 slender ribs which are winged, each rib bearing a single row of 
barbed hairy prickles. 

D. carota, L. Wild Cabrot. Our wild carrot, now found too abundant 
in meadows and fields as well as at roadsides. All summer. 

5. PTILIMNIUM, Raf. (Discopleura, DC.) 
Herbs, smooth, branching, annual. Leaves finely dissected. Involucre 
of leaf-like bracts which are divided into thread-like segments. Flowers 
white, in secondary umbels each with its involucel. Fruit egg-shaped, 
ribs without bristles. Calyx teeth small or none. 

P. capillaceum, (Michx.) Hollick. (Fig. 1, pi. 111.) Mock Bishop- 
weed. Plant 1 to 2 ft. high, leaves dissected into thread-like segments. 
Umbels compound with involucres and involuccls. Wet soil. June-Oct. 

Flowers white. Fruit rounded, involucre bracts not divided or at most 
only toothed or tcrnately cleft 


Plant smooth, with compound leaves. Umbels subtended by narrow 
bracts or none. Leaves of our species of 3 divisions each terminated by 
3 wedge-shaped, deeply notched leaflets, each leaflet from 1 to 4 in. long. 

L. scothicum, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 111.) Sea Parsley. Scotch Lovaoe. 
Plant growing at seaside, 1 to 2 ft. high. Stem simple, or slightly branched 
above. Leaflets wedge-shaped, mostly 3-lobed and deeply notched. Fruit 
oblong. July-Aug. 


Plants smooth with alternate leaves, which arc divided into 3 to 5 
segments, which radiate from the leaf stem. Rays of umbel few, each 
terminated by from 1 to 3 or more bur-like heads. Involucre leaf-like 
of 2 or more broad greenish bracts, which in Nos. 1 and 3 are tcrnately 
divided. Fruit globular, without ribs but thickly beset by hooked prickles. 

L S. marylandica, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 109.) Sanicle. Plant, 1 to 4 



Platk 107 

1. Zizia cordata. 2. Z. aurea. 3. Apium leptophyllum. 4. Caucalis an- 
thriscus. 5. Pimpinella integerrima. 6. Lilaeopsis lineata. 7. Angelica vil- 


ft. high. Leaves of 3 to 7 radiating lobes, the divisions sharply toothed. 
Involucre of broad leaf-like bracts often ternately divided. Flowers 
greenish-white. Several sterile flowers in each group on long pedicels. 
In rich woods throughout our region. May-July. 

2. S. gregaria, Bicknell. (Fig. 2, pi. 109.) Clustered Sanicle. 
Similar to No. 1, but plants thickly clustered and flowers yellow. Woods 
and thickets, southern New York and southward. May- June. 

3. S. canadensis, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 109.) Short-styled Sanicle. 
Similar to No. 1, but there are few sterile flowers and those on short 
pedicels. Flowers white. Dry woods, Mass., southward. June-Aug. 

4. S. trifoliata, Bicknell. (Fig. 3, pi. 109.) Large-fruited Sanicle, 
More slender than either of the other forms. 1 to 24 ft. high. Leave? 
ternately divided as are the broad bracts of the umbel. Flowers white. 
Woods, southern New York, Conn., and northward. June-July. 

8. SIUM, L. 
Herbs of wet places, with feather-formed stem leaves, the lower leaves 
being often dissected, and with compound umbels and umbellets having 
involucres of narrow bracts. Flowers white. Fruit oval or egg-shaped, 
compressed, prominently ribbed, not bristly. 

5. cicutaefolium, Gmel. (Fig. 4, pi. 108.) Hemlock Water Parsnip. 
A stout plant in marshes, 2 to G ft. high. Leaf-stems slieathing at base, 
the leaf consisting of from 7 to 17 linear leaflets, these sharply notched 
at borders. The lowest leaves often finely dissected. In swamps and salt 
marshes. July-Oct. 

Var. 8. Carsonii, Durand. Carson's Water Parsnip. IMore slender 
than No. 1, 1 to 2 ft. higli. Leaf of 3 to 7 linear or lance-shaped leaflets, 
sharply toothed. In streams. July-Aug. 

g. BERULA, Hoffm. 
Smooth plant in marshes or in water. Leaves feather-formed, the 
leaflets, about 15, more or less, often partly divided but all with sharp 
teeth. Fruit orbicular with smooth slender ribs. 

B. erecta, (lluds.) Ilofl'm. (Fig. 9, pi. 111.) Cut-leaved Water 
Parsnip. In swamps and streams, 1 to 2 ft. Iiigh, stout, branched. Leaf- 
lets 7 to 19, oval, often partly divided, borders sharply notciied. I'mbels 
with rather conspicuous involucres, umbellets with small narrow bracts. 
Fruit orbicular with inconspicuous ribs. July-Sept. 

10. CARUM, L. 

Our species an herb, escaped from cultivation. Leaves feather-formed 
or doubly featiier-formed, the leaflets of thread-like segments. Involucre 
for the main unil)el. Leaf-stem clasping. Seeds aromatic. 

C. carui, L. Caraway. Plant, 1 to 2 ft. high. Involucre of 1 to 3 
narrow bracts. Waste places. May-July. 

Tall smooth herb, in waste places, generally in rich soil. Stems branch- 
ing, spotted. Leaves twice feather-formed, the segments deeply incised. 



Plate 108 
1. Conium maculatum. 2. Cicuta maculata. 3. C. bulbifcra. 4. Siiim 


Flowcrg small, white in many rayed umbels. The umbels and umbellets 
supplied with involuciate bracts. Calyx teeth obscure or absent; petals 
small. Fruit Uattened, wavy ribbed. 

C. maculatum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 108.) Poison Hemlock. Leaves finely 
dissected, the divisions, however, not thread-lil;e, but deeply notched nar- 
row plates. In waste places throughout our area. June-July. 


Plants, in stems and foliage much resembling the carrot. Involucre 
absent. Flower umbels of our species either in the form of a rather close 
head or of an umbel with few rays. Calyx teeth 5, prominent. Flowers 
white or tinged with pink. Fruit with prickles or hooks arranged along 
the ribs. 

1. C. nodosa, (L.) Hudson. Knotted Hedge Parsley. Stem re- 
clining, branched only at base. Leaves dissected into linear segments. 
Flowers in heads opposite the leaves. Fruit long-oval armed with long 
stiff hairs or prickles. Waste places. May-Aug. 

2. C. anthriscus, (L.) Hudson. (Fig. 4, pi. 107.) Erect Hedge 
Parsley. Plant, 2 to 3 ft. high, erect. Leaflets not so finely dissected 
as in No. 1. Flowers in few rayed umbels. Fruit long-oval, very bristly. 
Waste places, Philadelphia, etc. July-Sept. 

13. CONIOSELINUM, Hofifm. 

Tall slender herbs, without hairs, with finely dissected, doubly compound 
leaves. Involucre to main umbel absent, or of a few bracts which fall 
early. Involucels of secondary umbels present. Fruit oval, flattened, 
ribs on the back prominent, those of tlie sides extended into wings. Calyx 
teeth absent. 

C. chinense, (L.) BSP. (Fig. 3, pi. 111.) Hemlock Parsley. 
Stem round, 2 to 5 ft. high, striped. The lower leaves on long leaf-stalks, 
the upper with short stalks or none. Flower umbels !) to 16 rayed, the 
umbollets with a few narrow bracts. Wings of the seed nearly as broad 
as the seed itself. Cold swamps, southern New York and nortiiward- 

14. AETHUSA, L. 

Poisonous herbs,' with much the a])pcaraiice of the Carrot in respect 
to stem and foliage. Umbels not flattened at tij) like carrot, but more 
or less rounded. The two bracts of the umbellet are narrow and long 
and both turn in the same direction. 

A. cynapium, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 109.) Fool's Parsley. Stem 1 to 
2 ft. higii. In waste grounds that have been cultivated. Waste places 
throughout our area. June-Aug. 

15. CICUTA, L. 
Tall poisonous herbs, found .in swamps. Leaves doubly compound but 
leaflets not dissected- Umbels of white flowers, involucres absent or 
falling early. Involucels present, of many bracts. Fruit smooth, ribs 
not prominent. 



Platk 100 
1. Sanicula marylan.lica. 2. S. o.ega.ia. 3. S. trifoliata. 4. R. canaden- 
sis, basal leaf. 5. Eryngium virginianum. G. E. aquaticum. 7. Thaspium 
ti-ifol.atiim. 8. Coeloplourum G.nelini. 9. Aegopodium Podagraria 10 
Chaoropliyllum procumbens. 11. Aethusa cynapium. 


1. C. maculata, L. (Eig. 2. pi. 108.) Water Hemlock. Spotted 
CowBANE. Stem stout, 2 to C ft- high, streaked with purple and arising 
from lleshy tuberous root-stocks. Leaves doubly or trebly compound ; 
leallcts lance-shaped, 1 to 5 in. long coarsely toothed at margins. Umbels 
of many rays, without bracts. Flowers ivhite. Plant very poisonous in 
all its parts, 

2. C. bulbifera, L. (Fig. 3, pi- 108.) Biilb-bearing Water Hem- 
lock. Plant much branched, 1 to 3 ft. high. Leaflets linear. The upper 
leaves bear bulblets at the axis of the leaves. Swamps throughout our 
area. July-Sept. 


Stout, erect, branching herbs, with twice or thrice compound leaves 
and large umbels of white or greenish flowers- Involucres absent or 
scanty. Involucels of several small bracts. Umbels compound, of white 
flowers ; many rays. Calj-x teeth absent. Fruit strongly flattened, the 
primary ribs very prominent, the laterals forming distinct wings. 

L A. Curtisii, Buckley. Curtis's Angelica. Erect, 2 to 31 ft. tall, 
smooth; leaves doubly or trebly compound, the leaflets, 5 to 7, egg-shaped 
and one sided with sharp irregular teeth at margins. Southern part of 
our area- Aug.-Sept. 

2. A. atropurpurea, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 110.) Purple-stemmed An- 
gelica. A very stout plant, from 4 to 6 ft. high, with dark purple stem. 
Leaves compound, the segments of from 5 to 7 leaflets which are lance- 
or egg-shaped with sharp teeth at margins. River banks. June-July- 

3. A. villosa, (Walt.) BSP. (Fig. 7, pi. 107.) Pubescent An- 
gelica. More slender than No. 1 or 2; 2 to G ft- high. The umbels and 
upper part of the stem densely downy. Dry soil, Connecticut and south- 
ward. July-Aug. 

17. APIUM, L. 

Annual and biennial smooth herbs. Leaves compound, divided in 3 
main segmenls, which latter may be composed of broad or of narrow linear 
elements, lanbels compound with no bracts or with few. Flowers wiiite. 
Fruit oval, laterally compressed- 

A. leptophyllum, (DC.) F. Muell. (Fig. 3, pi. 107.) Fine-leaved 
Marsh Pakslky. Plant, 3 to 24 in. high, slender, branched. Leaves di- 
vided in 3 parts, each subdivided into fine linear segments- Umbels of 
inconspicuous white flowers. New Jersey and southward. June-Aug. 


Smooth herbs, with leaves once or twice compound. Involucres and 
involucels absent. Flowers wiiite or yellow. Fruit 5-angled. 

Flowers white P. saxifraga 

l-'lowers yellow P. intcgcrrima 

1. P. saxifraga, L. Burnett Saxifrage. Smooth, erect, 1 to 3 ft- 
higli. l>eaves feallier-formed, the leaflets, 9 to H), egg-shaped or nearly 
round, with very compound sharp teeth at the margins. Flowers white. 
Waste places, southern part of our area. June-Oct. 

2. P. integerrima, (L.) A. Cray. (Fig. 5, pi. 107.) Yellow Pim- 

(^ARROT 1-AMILY 447 

PEUXELL. Smooth with a whitish bloom on stem and leaves; 1 to 3 ft. 
high, branching. Leaflets lance- or egg-shaped, not dissected and with- 
out marginal teeth. Rays of the umbel numerous. Flowers yellow. Rocky 
or sandy soil, eastern Pennsylvania and in New Jersey. May-June. 

ig. OXYPOLIS, Raf. (Tiedemannia, DC.) 

Erect aquatic herb, without hairs. Leaves simple feather-formed (in 
our species). Rays of umbel few, compound, ours without involucre. 
Flowers white. Calyx teeth 5. Fruit without bristles, ribbed, the lateral 
ribs winged. 

O. rigidus, (L. ) Britton. (Fig. 6, pi. 110.) Cowbane. Plant grow- 
ing in swamps, 2 to 5 ft. high. Leaves, the lower ones sometimes a foot 
long of 3 to 9 narrow but thick leaflets, remotely toothed on the margins. 
New York and southward. Aug.-Sept. 


Tall herb, leaves ternate, of broad leaflets each of which is deeply lobed. 
Umbels of white flowers, the latter rather larger than those of most species 
in this family. Petals heart-shaped or 2-lobed. Involucels of several nar- 
row bracts. 

H. lanatum, Michx. (Fig. 11, pi. 111.) Cow Parsnip. Plant 4 to 
8 ft. high, woolly with grooved stem, which is thick and rigid. Leaves, 
on leaf-stalks, divided into 3 large rounded or egg-shaped lobed leaflets, 
which beside the deep lobes are sharply toothed at the margins. The 
flowers, on large umbels are larger and individually more showy than 
any of the family, bearing white flowers, in our region. Moist grounds, 
throughout our area. June- July. 

21. CRYPTOTAENIA, DC. (Deringa, Adams) 

Erect plant, with 3-parted leaves and umbels of very unequal rays. 
Fruit oblong, carpel with 5 ribs, calyx teeth absent. Involucre and in- 
volucels absent. 

C. canadensis, DC. (Fig. 2, pi. 110.) Hone Wort. Plant smooth, 1 
to 2 ft. high. Leaves of 3 large ovate leaflets which are toothed at the 
margins, the center leaflet generally only slightly lobed, the side leaflets 
commonly deeply lobed. Fruit narrow at both ends. Flowers small, 
white. Moist woods, throughout our area. June-July. 


Stout smooth herb, found at sea-coast with leaves once or twice 3-parted. 
Leaves on leaf-stalks which are greatly inflated. Umbels large, involucre 
absent or falling very early. Involucels of narrow bracts often decidu- 
ous, never, conspicuous. Fruit oblong to globose, the lateral ribs slightly 
broadest. Flowers greenish-white. 

C. Gmelini, (DC.) Ledeb. (Fig. 8, pi. 109.) Sea Coast Angelica. 
Plant 1 to 3 ft. high. Leaflets egg-shaped, deeply toothed and often 
lobed at margins. Fruit about 1/5 in. long. Sea coasts, Mass., and north- 
ward. Summer- 



Coast herb, with leaves once or twice 3parted. Leaflets egg-shaped, 
sharply toothed, umbels large: calyx tcetli absent. Fruit egg-shaped, 
smooth with thread-like ribs. Seed cylindric. 

A. Podagraria, L. (Fig. 9, pi. 109.) Goutweed. Plant 1 to 2i 
ft. high. Found in waste places. June-Aug. 

Fruit long, spindle-shaped 

Floicers White 


Herbs, with leaves twice 3-parted, the leaflets deeply incised, making 
feather-formed segments Flowers white; calyx teeth absent. Fruit ob- 
long to linear. Umbels of few rays, compound, the umbellets also few 
rayed. Involucres absent, involucels of several small bracts. 

C. procumbens, (L.) Crantz. (Fig. 10, pi. 100.) Spreading 
Chervil. Plant somewhat downy, 2 to H ft- high. Leaves on long leaf- 
stalks. Flowers few in each umbel. Moist grounds, New York and south- 
ward. April-June. 

25. OSMORHIZA, Raf. (Washingtonia, Raf.) 

Ours, downy herbs, with compound leaves and white flowers. Umbels 
few rayed, involucres absent, involucels of a few bracts. Calyx teeth 
absent. Fruit linear with short beak, 5-angled- Roots thick, aromatic. 

1. W. Claytoni, (Michx.) Clarke. (Fig. 8, pi. 111.) Woolly 
Swt:et-cicely. Somewhat stout, decidedly downy. Leaves twice 3-parted, 
the central leaflet of each division more or less feather-formed, and all 
the divisions more or less incised. LTmbels 2 to 6 rayed. Fruit about 
i in. long. Woods, throughout our area. May-June. 

2. W. longistylis, (Torr.) DC. Smoother Sweet-cicely. Much 
less hairy than No, 1. Woods, common. May-June. 


Herbs, with finely dissected leaves and with few rayed umbels and white 
flowers. Involucre absent or of a single bract, involucels present. Fruit 
greatly elongated, the "beak" much longer than the body. 

S. Pecten-Veneris, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 110) Venus's Comb, Shep- 
herds' Needle. Plant 6 in. to 18 in. high, much branched. Leaves finely 
dissected- Fruit with its beak 2 in. or more in length. Waste places. 
Introduced, May-July. 

Flowers Yellow 

{Thaspium trifoliatum, Purple) 


Herb, with clasping leaves or with llie stems apparently passing through 
tho leaves and witli compound umbels of yellow flowers. Involucre ab- 
sent, in\"c)luccls of .') conspicuous, rather broad bracts. Calyx teetii absent. 
Fruit oblong; ribs slender. 



Plate 110 
1. Pastinaca sativa. 2. Cryptotaenia canadensis 3. ^upleuruin roUindi^ 
folium. 4. Scandix Pecten-Veneris. 5. Angelica atropurpurea. 6r Oxypolia 


B. rotundifolium, L. (Fig- 3, pi. 110.) Hare's Ear.. Modesty. 
Plant 1 to 2 ft. high, common in cultivated grounds. July- Aug. 


Tall, stout, smooth herb, with large feather-formed leaves, broad umbels 
without involucres or involucels and with yellow flowers. Fruit oval, 
smooth, much flattened. Ribs very slender. 

P. sativa, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 110.) Wild Parsnip. Plant 2 to 5 ft. 
high ; stem grooved. Leaflets about 3 pairs and an odd one, broadly egg- 
shaped, or lobed; margins with coarse teeth. In waste lands. June- 

29. ZIZIA, Koch. 

Herbs, smooth with at least the upper loaves once or twice 3-divided 
or the basal leaves undivided. Umbels of yellow flowers without in- 
volucre, the involucels consisting of a few small bracts. Fruit ovate or 

1. Z. aurea, Koch. (Fig. 2, pi. 107.) Golden Alexanders. Golden 
Meadow Parsnip. Erect, 1 to 2i ft. high. Lower leaves on long leaf- 
stalks, the very upper ones of three leaflets without leaf-stalk, the inter- 
mediate on moderately long leaf-stalks twice 3-parted. Leaflets egg- 
shaped, with sharply toothed margins. Rays of the umbel 12 to 25. 
Flowers yellow. Wet fields, throughout our area. April-June. 

2. Z. cordata, DC. (Fig. 1, pi. 107.) Heart-leaved Alexanders. 
Branched, 1 to 3 ft. high. Lower leaves undivided, margins toothed, on 
long leaf-stalks. Stem leaves 3 or 5 parted, with egg-shaped or lance- 
shaped leaflets. Woods and moist places, southern New Jersey, New 
York, Connecticut, and southward. May-June. 

30. THASPIUM, Nutt. 

Herbs, 2 to 5 ft. high, with 3-parted or twice ternate leaves, the leaf- 
lets of which are sometimes lobed and always deeply toothed. The basal 
leaves sometimes witiiout division. Flowers in compound umbels without 
involucre but with involucels of a few bracts. Color of flowers yellow 
or purple. Fruit oval, the carpels ribbed and winged. 

1. T. trifoliatum, (L.) Britton. (Fig. 7, pi. 109.) Purple Mea- 
dow Parsnip. Plant 1 to 2 ft- high. Basal leaves sometimes undivided, 
upper ones once or twice 3-parted. Leaflets egg-shaped or lance-shaped, 
with .serrated margins. Petals dark purple. Bare, Rhode Island, New 
.Jersey, and southward. June-July. 

2. T. barbinode, (Michx.) Nutt. Hairy Jointed Meadow Parsnip. 
Erect, 2 to 4 feet, branched. At joints a tuft of hairs. Leaves once, twice 
or thrice 3-parted. Lea (lets egg-shaped to lance-shaped, sometimes lobed, 
margins toothed. Flowers bright yellow. Banks of streams, throughout 
our area. May-June. 

Fai^iily TIL— CORNACEAE. Dogwood Family 

SliruLs or trees; one plant, Cornus canadensis, in onr area, 
small, herbaceous in appearance. Leaves without stipules, opposite 



Platk 111 
1. Ptilimnium capillaceum, 2. Imperatoria ostriithium. 3. Conioselinum 
chinense. 4. Hydrocotyle umbellata. 5. H, Caiibyi. 6. H. verticillata. 7. 
H. americana. 8 Osmorhiza Claytoni. 9. Berula erecta. 10. Ligusticum 
scothicum. 11. Heracleum lanatum. 


or rarely alternate. In all of our species the margins are entire. 
Flowers in umbel and umbel-like clusters. They have generally 
4 or 5 divisions of the calyx, which is joined to the ovary. Petals 
also 4 or 5, alternate with the calyx teeth, or they may be absent. 
Stamens equal in number with the petals when petals are present, 
and opposite to them. Style 1. Ovary surrounded by the calyx, 
which adheres to it, of 1 or 2 cells. Fruit a fleshy berry with 1 or 
2 hard woody seeds. 


Leaves opposite or in a whorl or, in a single instance in our region, 
alternate. Flowers with stamens and pistils, small, in heads or umbels. 
When in heads the group of flowers is surrounded by an involucre of 
broad wliite bracts which simulate petals. 

Low herbaceous appearing plants, flowers greenish C. canadensis 

Tree with greenish flowers in a head with 4 large petal-like bracts . C. florida 
Shrubs with nnibel-Iike clusters of flowers, without involucre. 

Leaves alternate C. alternifolia 

Leaves opposite. 

Under surface of leaves covered with a woolly pubescence. 

Leaves nearly round C. circinata 

Leaves oval or nearly lance-shaped, fruit blue . C. Amonum 
Leaves oval, the upper surface and the young branches 

rough, fruit white C. asperifolia 

Under surface of leaves smooth or with fine silky hairs. 

Young twigs red or bright purple C. stolonifera 

Young twigs gray C. paniculata 

1. C. canadensis, L. (Fig. 4, pi- 112.) Bunch Berry. Dwarf 
Cornel. A low herbaceous plant, woody only at the base. Leaves in a 
whorl toward the summit of tho stem with a pair or two pairs of small 
opposite leaves below. The bracts of the involucre, resembling broad 
petals are white and 4 in number. The real flowers are in the head, en- 
closed by three bracts and are green. In fruit the plant bears a rounded 
cluster of bright red berries. In damp woods, common- May-July. 

2. C. florida, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 112.) Floavering Dogwood. A slender 
tree, with spreading branches, with opposite broadly egg-shaped loaves 
without teeth at the margins and with tapering pointed tips. Flowers 
greonish-yellow in a crowded head which is surrounded by the 4 large 
and conspicuous v;hite bracts of the involucre. In woods, generally dis- 
tributed- April-Juno. 

3. C. alternifolia, L- (Fig. fi, pi. 112.) Alternate-leaved Dog- 
wood. Small tree or shrub, with alternate loaves which are oval with 
narrow pointed tips on slender leaf-stalks; the young twigs bright red- 
dish-i)tirplo. Branches warty. Flowers white or cream color in umbel- 
like clusters. Fruit globular, blue when ripe. Woods, common. May- 

4- C. circinata, T/TTor. (Fig. H, pi. 112.) Round-leaved Dogwood. 
81irub, with oj)posite leaves whicli are broadly oval, nearljj round, the tip 
narrowed to a point, silky white beneath slighlly downy above, 2 to 6 
in. long- Branches warty. Flowers white in dense uml)el-like clusters. 
Fruit globular, light blue. Shady places, common. May-June. 

5. C. Amonum, Mill. (Fig. 7, pi. 112.) Silky Dogwood. (C. 



1. Cornus asperifolia. 2. C. flor 
C. paniculata. ii. C. alternifolia. 7. C. Amonuui. 

Plate 112 

ida. 3. C. circinata. 4. C. canadensis. 5. 


scricea, L. ) Branches purple, tlie smaller woolly. Leaves elliptic or egg- 
shaped, densely silky witl; brownish hairs beneath. Flowers yellowish- 
white, the umbellate clusters rather compact. Fruit dark blue. Woods, 
and along streams. May-July. 

6. C. asperifolia, ivrichx. (Fig. 1, pi. 112.) Rougii-leaved Dog- 
wood. General appearance of the shrub similar to last. Leaves rough, 
hairy above, downy beneath. Fruit globular, white. Wet places. May- 

7. C. stolonifera, INIichx. Red Osier. Shrub, often sending out run- 
ners, wiiich take root. Branches slender, the younger bright reddish- 
purple- Leaves egg-shaped on slender leaf-stalks, with few soft hairs 
above, whitish silky beneath. Berries bluish-white. Moist places. May- 

8. C. paniculata, L'Her. (Fig. 5, pi. 112.) Panicled Dogwood. 
(C candidissima, Marsh.) Branches gray, smooth. Leaves lance-shaped 
or somewhat egg-shaped. Pale, silky beneath- Clusters of flowers pyra- 
midal. Berries bluish-white. 

2. NYSSA, L. 
Our species large trees, with rough bark. Leaves alternate without 
teeth at tiie margins. Flowers small, greenish, the stamens and pistils 
on different flowers or dilferent trees or perfect and imperfect flowers on 
the same tree. Petals 5, minute and fleshy; stamens 10. Pistillate flowers 
few in a group, staminate flowers numerous. Berry oval, one-seeded- 

1. N. sylvatica, Marsh. Pepperage. Sour Gum. Large tree, with 
rough bark. Leaves alternate, oval, smooth at margins, pointed at each 
end. Berry nearly black. Swamps and rich soil. April-June- 

2. N. biflora, Walt. Southern Tupelo. Similar to No. 1. Leaves 
mostly smaller, oval or pear-shaped, mostly obtuse at apex. Swamps and 
along ponds- New Jersey and southward. 


Sub-Class 11. SYMPETALAE 

Called also Gamopetalac, or Monopetalae 

Plants, the flowers of which nearly always have both a calyx and 
corolla and which have the petals more or less united at the base, 
forming a corolla, which seems to be a single, undivided or only 
partially divided envelope. 


Of the groups of plants thus far described we have found either 
an absence of petals or when, as in the greater number of groups 
there has been present a corolla, it has consisted of several petals, 
as in case of the rose, the buttercups, and the members of the 
pea family. 

In case of the sub-class now to follow, the general rule is that 
all the petals are so united as to appear as a single member, as in 
the morning glory and the blue bell. To this complete union there 
are, liowever, some exceptions, for the clethra and some of the 
pyrolas and even some plants of the heath family besides a few 
others, have corollas divided nearly or quite to the base, thus form- 
ing an envelope of several j)etals. Other characters of these plants 
hold them in the sub-class to which they really belong, yet to which 
they form, in respect to the petals, exceptions. Thus, for example, 
the corolla in some pyrolas is composed of a single member with 
moderate sinuses between its 5 elementary parts. In case of other 
pyrolas the sinus is so deep that the corolla is practically divided 
into 5 distinct petals. Yet these pyrolas are evidently closely allied 
to each other. 

In a few cases, as in Fraxinus and Glaux, the corolla is absent. 

In general the calyx has 5 points and, as we observe in the 
morning glory, the corolla is usually 5 pointed. 

There are, in a considerable group, 5 stamens; in another group 
this number is doubled, while in still another group there may 
be less than 5 or more than 10 stamens. 



The Sympetalous or Monopetalous Exogens 

(Characters are for plants within our area only). 

1. Ovary Superior 
(The corolla and calyx form, each a whorl heJow the ovary to 
which neither is attached. Exceptions: Family Vacciniaceue, 
Family Si/wplocaceae.) 

1st. Group. Stamens as many as the lohes of the corolla and 
alternate with them; or stamens twice as many as the corolla 
lobes. Stamens free from the corolla or very nearly so. 

2nd. Group. Five stamens inserted into the corolla, each opposite 
to a lobe of the corolla, or twice as many as the lobes, or more. 

Eight to IG stamens, inserted into the tube of the 4-hibod 
corolla. Shrubs and trees . Order III. EBENALES 

3rd. Group. Stamens 5 or less, inserted into tlie corolla tube. 

When equal in number to the lobes of corolla, alternate with 


Ovaries 2, distinct (except in Gentianaceae and in Men- 
yanthes). Flowers regular; leaves mostly opposite; sta- 
mens attached to the lower part of the corolla tube 

Ovary 1, compound; floivers regular (irregidar in Echium). 
Stamens mostly joined to corolla tube above ihe middle. 
Herbs twining or erect . . Order V. TUBIFLOREAE 

Ovary 1, mostly deeply 4-lobed, around the style. Flowers 
irregular (regular in Solanaceae, in Mentha and Lycopus). 
All irregular corollas 2-lipped. Stamens as many as the 
lobes of the corolla. Herbs. Capsule 2, rarely l-sceded. 
Leaves mostly opposite . Order VI. VERBENINALES 


Calyx and corolla each of 4 lobes, the latter dry, membrane- 
ous. Stamens 4. Styles 2, one short, one longer and 
feathery .... Order VIL PLANTAGINALES 

2. Ovary Inferior 
(The calyx and corolla are inserted above the ovary and are at- 
tached to it.) 
Stamens as many as the corolla lobes and free from each 
other, not forming a tube about the pistils 

Stamens fewer than the lobes of the corolla 

Stamens at their summit united or leaning toward each other 
nearly in union .... Order X. CAMPANULALES 

Order I.— ERICALES. Order of the Heaths 
Herbs, slirubs and trees. Corolla with petals united except in a 
few instances. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and 
alternate with them, or twice as many, free from the corolla or 
nearly so, and not forming a tube about the pistils except in Fara. 
Diapensiaceae. Ovary superior to the calyx and corolla to which 
these are not attached. 

Stamens free from the corolla. 

Shrubs, the ovary 3-celled, the leaves not persistent, the petals 
divided so nearly to the base as to be practically poly- 

Perennial herbs, mostly evergreen, ovary 4- or 5-celled. Sta- 
mens twice as many as the slightly united petals 

Herbaceous plants, growing from the roots of other plants and 
without green leaves, petals more or less separate 

Ovary superior; shrubs, often with evergreen leaves; sta- 
mens usually twice as many as the corolla lobes; ovary 
2- to 5-celledl ERICACEAE 


Ovary inferior, the calyx adhering to it; the summit of the 
stamens with two prominences, — " two horned." Fruit a 

Ovary superior; low tufted shrubs; stamens 5, arising from 
the throat of the corolla and alternate with the lobes 

Family I.— CLETHRACEAE. ^yHITE Alder Family 

Our only species a shrub. Flowers regular; sepals 5; petals 5. 
Leaves alternate, with serrate borders and witli leaf-stalks, falling 
in autumn. Flowers in long slender clusters (II, p. 37), white. 
Stamens 10. Ovary 3-angled, 3-celled, with numerous ovules. 


Characters, those of the family. 

C. alnifolia, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 115.) White Alder. Shrub, 3 to 10 ft. 
high ; leaves pear-shaped, with sharply toothed borders, except toward the 
base. Wet places, mostly near the coast- July-Aug. 

Family II.— PYROLACEAE. Wintergreen Family 

Perennial herbs, low, with long branching root-stocks. Flowers 
regular, with stamens and pistils; calyx of 4 or 5 divisions, equal 
to the divisions of the corolla. Stamens twice as many as the 
lobes of the corolla. The anthers without horns. Style short or 
long and slender; often bent toward one side. Capsule 4- or 
5-celled. seeds numerous, very small. 

Flowers in tall slender spikes (I, p. 37) Pyrola 

Flowers solitary Moneses 

Flowers few in a loose umbel-like cluster . . . Chimaphila 


Low herbs, with the leaves crowded at base. Roots branching at base. 
Flowers on a slender spike. Corolla of 5 lobes or divisions. Calyx of 5 
sepals. Flowers nodding (in case of No. 1, ascending) ; tlie pistil in most 
cases doubly curved and tlie stamens leaning toward tlie outer side of the 
corolla. Capsule nearly globular, but compressed, 5-lobcd. 

Flowers White or Greenish 

Style with a double curve, stamens leaning to one (the outer) side of the corolla. 

Petals lance-shapcd and sharply pointed P. oxyf'ctala 

Petals broad, obtuse at apex. 

Leaves shining P. rotundifolia 

Leaves dull green. 

Leaf-blades leathery, generally shorter than the leaf-stalk 

P. chloranlha 


Leaf-blades not leathery, generally longer than the leaf- 
stalk P. elHftica 

Style straight, stamens not leaning to one side. 

Leaves rounded P- minor 

Leaves elliptic P. secunda 

Flowers Pink or Purple 

Leaves more or less heart-shaped at base P. asarifoha 

Leaves not heart-shaped at base P. uliginosa 

1. P. oxypetala, Austin. Sharp-petaled Wintergreen. Leaves 
leathery, dull, egg-shaped, on leafstalks longer than the blades. Flowers 
greenish, about 9 on a slender flower-stalk which is about 8 in. high. 
Petals lance-shaped with sharply tapering points. Rare. Found in Dela- 
ware Co., N. Y., by C. F. Austin. June. 

2. P. rotundifolia, L. (Fig. 1, pi- 113.) Round-leaved Winter- 
green. {P. amrricana. Sweet.) Leaves shining, nearly round or round 
egg-shaped; leaf-stalk dilated above. Flower scape ^ to IJ ft. high with 
about a dozen nodding white flowers. Style with a double curve; stamens 
leaning to one side. Common in woods- June-July. 

3. P. chlorantha, Swartz. (Fig. 4, pi. 113.) Green-flowered Py- 
BOLA. Leaves round or broadly oval, leathery, dull green, on leaf-stalks 
longer than the blades. Flowers greenish, nodding. Calyx segments short 
and obtuse. Leaves much smaller than those of No. 2 or No. 4. Woods. 

4. P. elliptica, Nutt. (Fig. 2, pi. 113.) Peak-leaved Pyrola. Shin- 
leap. Leaf blades dark green, broadly oval, thin, not leathery, about ^ 
as wide as long. Flower scape 5 to 10 in. high, with about a dozen nod- 
ding white flowers. Calyx lobe triangular, style with a double curve, 
stamens leaning to one side. Rich woods. June-Aug. 

5. P. minor, L. (Fig- 7, pi. 113.) Smaller Pyrola. Lesser Win- 
tergreen. Leaves rounded on leaf-stalks as long as the blades and di- 
lated toward the blade. Flowers nodding, white; style straight and sta- 
mens not leaning to one side. On high hills and mountains, northern New 
England. June-Aug. 

6. P. secunda, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 113) One-sided Pyrola. Leaves 
elliptic, thin, on leaf-stalks generally shorter than leaves. Flower scape 
4 to 10 in. high, with the nodding white flowers all on one side of the 
scape. Style straight, stamens not leaning to one side. Woods and 
thickets, common. 

7. P. asarifolia, Michx. Liver-leaved Pyrola. Leaves round or 
kidney-shaped, the base heart-shaped, leathery, shorter than the leaf- 
stalk. F'lowers nodding, purple with curved style and leaning stamens. 
Wet woods. Mass., northern New York and northward. June-July. 

8. P. uliginosa, Torr. Boo Pyrola. Resembles P. rotundifolia, but 
flowers are purple. A swamp plant, central New York, New England and 
northward. June. 

2. MONESES, Salisb. 

A low, smooth herb, with leaves at the base of the stem, which are 
nearly round with fine serrations at the borders. Stem leaning at base. 
From the cluster of leaves a flower stem arises bearing a solitary white 


notldinp flower. Stamens 10; pistil straight, the stigma 5-lobed. Calyx 
lobes and petal lobes each 4 or 5, generally 5- 

M. uniflora, (L.) A. Gray. (Fig. 3, pi. 113.) One-flowered Win- 
TERtiREEX. stem with a few whorls of leaves at base. Flower stem 2 to 
4 in. liigh- Flower about i to | in. broad, shallow cup-shaped. Woods, 
common. June-Aug. 

3. CHIMAPHILA, Pursh. 

Small herbs, with shining, thick leaves, which are coarsely toothed at 
borders, growing near the ground. Flower stem with a few flowers in a 
spreading umbel-like cluster. Calyx lobes and lobes of corolla each 5. 
Stamens 10. Ovary 5-lobed. 

1. C. umbellata, (L.) Nutt- (Fig. 6, pi. 113.) Prince's Pine. 
Leaves green, shining, long, broader toward" apex, the apex blunt. Woods, 
common. June-Aug. 

2. C. maculata, (L.) Pursh. (Fig. 8, pi. 113) Spotted Winter- 
green. Leaves 2-colored, long and narrow, broader toward the base and 
tapering toward the apex. Woods, common. June-Aug. 

Family III.— MONOTROPACEAE. Indian Pipe Family 

Low herbs, without green foliage, growing mostly as parasites 
from the roots of trees in dark shady places. Leaves reduced to 
scale-like bracts. Flowers regular, white ; stamens 6 to 12. Petals 
3 to 6; calyx 3 to 6 parts. Ovary above the calyx and corolla, 
4- to 6-lobed. 

Corolla egg- or bell-shaped Pterospora 

Corolla of several parts. 

Flowers solitary Monotropa 

Flowers several Hypopitys 


A reddish or purple leafless plant, woolly, consisting of a slender scape, 
from which hang rounded bells or globose fruit, arising from a rounded 
mass of roots- Calyx 5-parted; corolla with 5 lobes; stamens 10; capsule 

P. andromedea, Nutt. (Fig. 5, pi. 11'8.) Pine Drops. Scape 6 to 
30 in. high, with from 12 to 50 or more nodding white llowers. In rich 
woods; rare- June-Aug. 


White, succulent parasitic herb, without leaves, but with white or 
yellowish bracts along the stem and with a solitary nodding flower which 
at length becomes more or upright. Sepals 2 to 4; petals 5 or 6; 
stamens 10 to 12. Ovary 5-celled. 

M. uniflora, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 118.) Indian Pipe. Scapes generally 
in clusters, 4 to in- high, surmounted by the nodding white bell-shaped 
flower about 1 in. long. In rich woods. Junc-Aug. 



Plate 113 
1. Pyrola rotundifolia. 2. P. elliptica. 3. Moneses uniflora. 4. Pyrola 
chlorantha. 5. P. secunda. 6. Chimaphila umbellata. 7. Pyrola minor. 8. 
Chimaphila maculata. 


3. HYPOPITYS, Adams 

White, succulent, parasitic herb. Scape slender, with a niimber of 
flowers in a narrow cluster at summit. Lower flowers with 3 or 4 petals, 
terminal one with 5; stamens 8 to 10; capsule 4- to 5-ceUed. Root a 
mass of fibers. 

H. americana, Small. (Fig. 3, pi. 118.) Pine Sap, (H. Eijpopitys, 
Small.) Scapes 4 to 12 in. high, clustered, more or less hairy. Flowers 
yellowish-white. The lateral flowers have 8 stamens and 4 petals; the 
terminal one 10 stamens and 5 petals. Woods, throughout our area. 

Family IV.— ERICACEAE. The Heath Family 

Mostly shrubs, rarely, in our region, small trees. Leaves often 
evergreen, not divided or lobed. Flowers regular or slightly ir- 
regular; commonly stamens twice as many as lobes of tbe corolla, 
free from the petals. Stamen summits (anthers) often sending 
out on each side a projection or so-called '' horn."' Ovary 2- to 
5-celled. Fruit a berry. 

Low undersliruhs mostly with the general aspect of herbs 

Corolla egg-formed. 

Leaves oblong-linear. 

Flowers erect Chamaecistus 

Flowers nodding. 

Plant heath-like Phyllodoce 

Plant moss-like ........ Cassiope 

Leaves spatula-formed or pear-shaped. 

Berry red Arctostaphylos 

Berry black Mairania 

Leaves oval. 

Fruit a red berry Gaultheria 

Fruit a globose capsule Epigaea 

Erect shrubs 

Corolla of separate petals. 

Leaves brown, woolly beneath Ledum 

Leaves not woolly beneath Dendrium 

Corolla formed of united petals. 

Corolla very irregular, 2-lippcd Ehodora 

Corolla slightly irregular. 

Roll-shaped, stamens 10 Rhododendron 

Funuel-form, stamens 5 Azalea 


Corolla regular. 

Saucer-shaped, holding anthers in 10 sacs . . Kalmia 

Leaves linear Andromeda 

Leaves oblong. 

Flowers in long, narrow, lateral clusters, not 

leafy Leucothoe 

Flowers in lateral clusters attended by leafy 

bracts Pieris 

Flowers in long, lateral, leafy clusters 


Corolla globular ' Xolisma 

Leaves minute, overlapping each other . . Calluna 
Tree, 15 to GO ft. high 
Corolla ovoid Oxydendron 


Our species a small evergreen shrub, with alternate leaves which are 
smooth and green above and brown-woolly beneath and are rolled at the 
borders. Flowers white, in broad umbel-like clusters- Calyx minute; 
corolla of 5 spreading petals; stamens generally 10; capsule globose. 

L. groenlandicum, Oeder. (Fig. G, pi. 114.) Labrador Tea. Shrub, 
^ to 2^ ft. high; the younger twigs downy. Leaves elliptic, green above 
and woolly beneath, borders recurved, i to IJ in. long. Flowers i in. 
broad, about a dozen in a cluster. In bogs and swamps in our area and 
northward. May-July. 

2. DENDRIUM, Desvaux 

A very small shrub, with leathery evergreen alternate leaves and many 
small white flowers in terminal clusters. Calj-^c 5-parted; petals 5; sta- 
mens 10, longer than the petals, capsule egg-shaped- 

D. buxifolium, Desvaux. (Fig. 0, pi. 11 7-) Sand Myrtle. {Leio- 
phylhim buxifolium, Pers.) Shrub, i to li ft. high. Leaves crowded along 
the stem, oval or oblong, obtuse at apex, shining above, black dotted be- 
neath. Flowers several in broad terminal clusters. Dry sandy places, 
New Jersey and southward. April-June. 

3. CHAMAECISTUS, Oeder. (Loiseluria, Desv.) 

A small evergreen plant, with straggling branches, growing in tufts; 
leaves opposite, leathery, very narrowly elliptic or linear, the margins 
turned back. Flowers white, small, erect, a few in a terminal cluster. 
Calyx 5-parted, corolla 5-lobed; capsule egg-shaped, 2-celled. 

C. procumbens, L. (Fig. 11. pi- 117 ) Alpine Azalia. Found on 
summits of White Mountains. July-Aug. 

4. PHYLLODOCE, Salisb. 
Low, heath-like shrubby jjlant, with evergreen leaves crowded about 


the stems, which are more or less reclining. Leaves linear with blunt 
points. Flowers rather large on long slender pedicels. Calyx 5-parted, 
corolla egg-shaped with 5 low teeth at the spreading border. Stamens 
10; ovary 5-celled- 

P. coerulea, (L.) Babington. (Fig. 5, pi. 117.) Mountain Heath. 
A minute shrub, 4 to 6 in. high, on summits of White Mountains. July- 

5. CASSIOPE, D. Don. 

A minute shrub, with a mossy aspect; evergreen; leaves small, over- 
lapping, stem an inch to 3 in- high, terminated by a bell-shaped wliite or 
pinkish-white nodding flower. Calyx and coi'-olla 4- or 5-lobed. Stamens 
8 to 10; capsule globe-formed, 4- or 5-celled. 

C, hypnoides, (L.) D. Don. Moss Plant. Cassiope. Found on 
the summits of the higher Adirondack Mountains and of the White 
Mountains. ( " I have never seen it on the Adirondacks and do not think 
it is there now, though it was on Mt- Marcy many years ago. — C. H. 


Low trailing shrubby plant, with alternate, thick leathery leaves, ever- 
green. Flowers white or pink, small, in terminal clusters. Calyx 5-parted; 
corolla egg-shaped; stamens 10, rarely less. Fruit a red berry. 

A. Uva-Ursi, Spreng. (Fig. 6, pi. 117.) Uva-Ursi. Red Bearberry. 
Trailing and nmcli branched, stems 6 to 24 in. long. Leaves spatula- 
formed. Found mostly on cold hills or on mountains, our area and north- 
ward and westward. 

7. MAIRANIA, Necker. 

Low, trailing shrub, with deciduous leaves and white egg-shaped flowers 
in scattered or terminal clusters Calyx 4- to 5-parted. Fruit a black 

M. alpina, Desvaux. Alpine Blackberry. {Arctostaphylos alpina, 
Spreng.) Leaves pear-sliaped, notched at margins; flowers mostly in 
terminal clusters. Found on summits of White Mountains. 


Our species a small plant witii alternate, evergreen, shining leaves, with 
a few flowers at the leaf axils. These are urn-shaped, white or pink. 
Calyx 5-parted ; stamens 10. Fruit an aromatic red berry. 

G. procumbens, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 115) Wintergreen. Checker- 
berry. Stem 2 to 6 in. high. Leaves clustered toward the ends of 
branches. Found extensively in woods, especially those in which ever- 
green trees prevail. 

Plant trailing, flat upon the ground; stems woody. Leaves alternate, 
evergreen, broad, nearly orbicular, hairy beneath, smooth but rusty col- 
ored above- Flowers in a terminal duster, salver-form. Stamens 10; 
capsule 5-celled. 

E. repens, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 115.) Trailing Arbutus. Mayflower. 
Stems liairy, 10 to 15 in. long, trailing flat upon the ground; loaves 
alternate, I to 3 in. long, more or less heart-shaped at base and blunt at 




Plate 114 
1. Azalea caiiescens. 2. A. imdiflora. 3. A. lutea. 4. A. viscosa. 5. 
RhododeiKlrou maxinium. G. Ledum groenlandicum. 


apex. Tube of the corolla hairy within; flowers with a delicate spicy 
fragrance. It is one of the earliest plants to bloom in the spring, its 
cliarniing white blooms often in close proximity to a belated snow drift. 
Slarch to May. 

10. RHODORA, L. 

A small branching shrub, with alternate leaves (deciduous) and pur- 
ple flowers wliich grow in a terminal umbel-like cluster. The corolla is 
deeply divided into two parts, the upper part or lip composed of 2, mostly 
3 parts, the lower of two long narrow segments. Calyx small. Stamens 
10. Capsule 5-celled. 

R. canadensis, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 117.) Rhodora. {Rhododendron 
canadensis, B8P. ) A handsome shrub, 2 to 3 ft. high, with terminal 
clusters of large flowers. Leaves appearing with or later than the flowers, 
oblong, downy beneath. Bogs and wet hillsides. May. 


Shrubs, with evergreen leaves and large white, pink, or purple flowers. 
Corolla bell-shaped with rather short tube and rounded spreading lobes, 
nearly equal. Calyx small, 5-parted; capsule woody, with 5 to 20 cells 
and numerous seeds. 

1. R. lapponicum, (L. ) Wahlenberg. (Fig. 7, pi. 117.) LAPtAND 
EosE Bay. A dwarf shrub, with elliptic leaves and purple flowers in a 
spreading terminal cluster. Tlie leaves clustered toward the summit of 
the stems, i to 2 in. long, nearly half as broad, with brownish scales 
above and below. Flowers purple f in. broad. Summits of the higher 
Adirondacks and White Mountains. 

2. R. maximum, L. (Fig. 5, pi- 114.) American Rose Bay. A 
splendid shrub or small tree, growing in wet places, with evergreen leaves 
which are from 4 to 7 in. long and from 1 to 3 in. wide. Sliining above 
and dark green below. Stems crooked and branching, growing in clusters. 
Flowers in large clusters, white or rose-colored, each 11 to 2 in. long and 
an inch broad at mouth; the lobes rounded and indented. Before the 
blooms are expanded the cluster is enveloped in a covering of broad 
sticky bracts, an inch or more in length- It is found in a few localities 
in New England, but is more abundant in the middle States. In low 
grounds and along borders of streams. Blooms latter part of June or in 

12. AZALEA, L. (Rhododendron, L.) 

Erect shrubs, with conspicuous flowers, mostly in terminal clusters. 
Leaves deciduous. Calyx 5-parted; corolla funnel-formed, tlie lobes spread- 
ing, the tube long and viscid. Stamens 5, exserted from the mouth of the 
flower. Capsule oblong, 5-celled. 

Flowers expanding before leaves. 
Corolla white or pink. 

Leaves gray-downy beneath A. cancscens 

Leaves not downy beneath A. nudiHora 

Flowers expanding after the leaves A. viscosa 

I'lowcrs yellow or orange A. lutca 

Flowers white A. arborescens 

1. A. nudiflora, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 114.) Pink Azalea. IMnksteb. 
Branching shrub, 2 to C ft. high. Leaves, alternate, narrowly oblong or 

Plate 115 

1. Gaultheria proeumbens. 2. Andromeda polifolia. 3. Cletlira alnifolia. 
Calluna vulgaris. 5. Kalmia latifolia. 6. K. glauca. 7. K. angustifolia. 

8. Epigaea repens. 


oval, taperiiifi at eaA end, margins with stiff hairs. Flowers larg«, con- 
sisting of a long slender tube which is covered by soft down, and of 5 
broad and spreading lobes which are, each, rather shorter than the tube 
and wliich are somewhat unequal. Both stamens and pistil are much 
exserted beyond the tube. Color pink to nearly white. Rocky woods and 
thickets. April-May. 

2. A. canescens, Michx- (Fig. 1, pi. 114.) Mountain Azalea. In 
general a tailor shrub than No. 1; 4 to 15 ft. high. Leaves wider and 
shorter than those of No- 1 and covered beneath by a soft gray down, 
while along the principal veins grow stiff hairs. Leaves margined with 
stiff hairs. Flowers rose eolor to white, very fragrant. Stamens less 
exserted than in No. 1. Flower at lobes 2 in. broad. Woods; Catskill 
Mountains; Mass., and southward. April-May. 

3. A. viscosa, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 114.) Swamp Pink. White Azalea. 
Branching shrub, 4 to 8 ft. higli, the whole plant sticky. Leaves alter- 
nate, pear-shaped, 2 to 4 in. long, with bristly hairs on the veins beneath. 
Flowers expanding after the leaves, white or tinged with pink, less broad 
than No. 1 or No. 2. Stamens exserted. The whole flower viscid. In 
swamps and at borders of ponds, general in our area. June-July. 

4. A. lutea, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 114.) Flame Azalea. (A. calendu- 
lacea, Terr.) Shrub, 4 to 15 ft. high, with terminal umbellate clusters 
of yellow or orange flowers. Leaves pear-shaped, with finely toothed mar- 
gins. Flowers apjiearing with- the leaves, yellow or orange, very showy. 
Dry woods, southern part of our area. May-June. 

5. A. arborescens, Pursh. Tree Azalea. A shrub, 8 to 20 ft. 
high, without hairs on stems or leaves. Leaves oval pear-shaped or in- 
versely lance-shaped. Flowers white or tinged with pink, very fragrant- 
Woods; southern Penna., and southward. June- July. 

13. KALMIA, L. 
Evergreen shrubs, with flowers in terminal or lateral clusters and with 
shining leaves; calyx 5-parted; corolla wheel-shaped, cupped, with 10 
small sacs or depressions for the lodgment of the antliers. Capsule 
globose, 5-celled. Stamens 10, extending only to the pits in the corolla. 
In our species the showy flowers are in an umbel-like terminal cluster, 
or a dense whorl a little below the terminal portion of the branch. 

Leaves opposite or in 3s. 

Flowers in terminal clusters ,r" ^'.'?"f* 

Flowers in lateral clusters ^- ongustifoha 

Leaves alternate ■^- 'atnolta 

1. K. angustifolia, L. (Fig- 7, pi. 115.) Sheep Laurel. Shrub, 
erect, Ijrancliing, A to 3 ft. high. Leaves usually opposite, but often in 
whorls of 3, whitish beneath, oblong or lance-shaped, tapering at each 
end. Flowers numerous in collar-like clusters which enrich the stem be- 
low the termination of the branch. Found in moist places, cold hillsides 
and often at borders of bogs. May-June. 

2. K. latifolia, I>. O^if^- 5, pi- 1 !.''>.) Mountain Laurel. Shrub, 
2 to 15 ft. higli, with commonly alternate leaves and with terminal flower 
clusters. Leaves oval or elliptic, tapering at each end, bright green on 
both sides. Flowers numerous in very showy clusters, rose-color to white. 


This shrub often forms dense thickets and when growing in woods often 
attains the height of 20 ft. or more. May-June. 

3. K. glauca, Ait. (Fig. 6, pi. 115.) Pale or Swamp Laurel. {K. 
polifolia, Wang.) A smooth shrub, l^ to 2 ft. high, with leaves opposite 
or in 3s. Leaves long, narrow, tapering at each end, bright green above, 
whitish beneath, the borders rolled backward. Flowers in loose terminal 
clusters, purple. In bogs. May-Aug. 

14. LEUCOTHOE, D. Don. 

Shrubs, with alternate leaves and many egg- or cylindric-shaped small 
flowers in lengthened slender clusters, axillary or terminal. Calyx of 
5 sepals; corolla cylindric or egg-shaped; stamens 10; capsule 5-lobed, 

L. racemosa, (L.) A. Gray. (Fig. 2, pi. 118.) Swamp Leucothoe. 
Shrub, 3 to 10 ft. high. Leaves oblong to egg-shaped, tapering at each 
end, 1 to 3 in. long, | as wide. Flowers in long spike-like clusters, each 
flower with a bract at tiie flower pedicel, the clusters more or less as- 
cending. Swamps and thickets. April-June. 


A shrub, with globose or egg-shaped white flowers, in a terminal clus- 
ter. Leaves evergreen, linear or narrowly oblong, the margins rolled 
backward, whitish beneath. Calyx 5-parted; corolla globose or egg- 
shaped; stamens 10; capsiile nearly globose, 5-celled. 

A. polifolia, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 115.) Wild Rosemary. A shrub, 1 to 
3 ft. high. Leaves narrow with margins rolled back, dark green above, 
whitish beneath. LTmbels of flowers terminal, few-flowered. Bogs, north- 
ern New Jersey, Penna., and northward. May-June. 

16. PIERIS, D. Don. 

Our species a shrub, with alternate leaves and cylindric or egg-shaped 
white or pinkish flowers in lateral clusters, the flower pedicels attended 
by sharply tapering bracts. Stamens 10; capsule 5-celled. 

P. mariana, (L.) Benth. and Hook. (Fig. 1, pi- 118.) Stagger 
Bush. (Lyonia mariana, D. Don.) Shrub, 2 to 4 ft. high; leaves ob- 
long or oval, 1 to 3 in. long, \ as wide. Flowers nodding in lateral clus- 
ters, appearing on the nearly leafless stems of the preceding season. Co- 
rolla about i in. long, pink or pinkish-white. Low wet grounds, south- 
eastern New York and along the eastern coast from Rhode Island south- 
ward. May-July. 

17. CHAMAEDAPHNE, Moench. (Cassandra, D. Don.) 
Low, much branched, erect shrub, with alternate, leathery, nearly 
evergreen leaves and with many white ovoid flowers in one-sided leafy 
clusters. Calyx of 5 rigid sepals bracted at the base. Corolla 5-toothed, 
narrowed at the throat. Stamens 10. Capsule globose, depressed, split- 
ting when ripe, into an inner and an outer layer, the inner dividing into 
10, the outer into 5 valves, 

C. calyculata, (L.) Moench. (Fig. 7, pi. 118.) Leather Leaf. 
Dwarf Cassandra, Shrub, 2 to 4 ft. high, branching. Leaves oblong, 


obtuse, i to IJ in. long, densely covered with scurfy scales, at least when 
young. Upper leaves reduced to floral bracts. Bogs and swamps through- 
out most of our area. Also on high mountains. April-June. 

i8. XOLISMA, Raf. 

A bushy tree, found in low grounds, witli alternate leaves and terminal 
clusters of small globe-formed flowers. Calyx 4- or 5-parted; stamens 8 
to 10; capsule 4- or 5-celled, globose. 

X. ligustrina, (L.) Britton. (Fig. 6, pi. 118.) Privet Andromeda. 
{Andromeda ligustrina, Muhl.) Shrub, 3 to 15 ft. high. Leaves oblong, 
oval or pear-shaped, with flne serrations at margins, tapering at eaCh 
end. Corolla globular or nearly so. Swamps and wet soil. New England, 
New York and southward. May-July. 

19. CALLUNA, Salisb. 

A low shrub, naturalized from Europe. Evergreen, branching; our 
species with minute overlapping leaves and with long slender clusters of 
bell-shaped flowers. Calyx of 4 sepals; corolla with 4 lobes; stamens 8; 
capsule 8-angled, 4-celled. 

C. vulgaris, (L.) Hull. (Fig. 4 pi. 115.) Heather. Found occa- 
sionally in sandy or rocky soil. Flowers pink. July-Sept. 


Tree, 15 to 60 ft, high, with alternate, deciduous leaves which are 
oblong or broad lance-shaped, sharp pointed at apex and tapering at base, 
sour to the taste. Flowers numerous, ovoid, white, in long one-sided 
slender clusters. Stamens 10. Calyx of 5 nearly distinct sepals; corolla 
5-tootlied; capsule pyramidal, 5-celled, 5-valved. 

O. arboreum, (L.) DC. Sour Wood. A tree found in rich woods of 
Penna., and further south. June-July. 

Family V.— VACCINIACEAE. Huckleberry Family 

Shrubs, with alternate, undivided leaves and small bell- urn- or 
egg-shaped flowers. The calyx is adherent to the ovary through 
tlie whole extent of the latter, the 5 (rarely 4) sepals expanding 
above the ovary. The petals are united to form an undivided 
corolla tliough in exceptional cases the lobes are somewhat deeply 
cleft, as in the oxycoccus (cranberry). Stamens twice as many 
as the petals, arising from the base of the pistil or from the corolla. 
Fruit a berry. 

Corolla bell-cylindric or egg-shaped. 
Berries not white. 

Seeds 10 Gaylussacia 

Seeds sinall, numerous Vaccinium 

Berries white Chiogenes 

Corolla deeply cleft, with recurved lobes . . . Oxycoccus 


Plate 116 
1. Vaccinium vacillans. 2. V. pennsylvanicum. 3. V. pcnnsylvanicum, 
fruit. 4. V. stamineum. 5. V. corymbosum. G. V. caespitosum. 7. V. Vitis- 
-Idaeaf 3- Gaylussacia resinosa. 9. G. dumosa. 



Shrubs, Avith alternate, undivided leaves and with small white or red- 
dish flowers in lateral clusters. Flower pedicels usually with 2 small 
bracts. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla tubular. Fruit a dark blue or black 
berry with 10 hard seed-nutlets. 

Fruit blue, leaves with a whitish bloom beneath C. frondosa 

Leaves leathery, without whitish bloom G. brachycera 

Fruit black, both sides of leaves green. 

Bracts at the flower pedicels leaf-like, oval, persistent . . . G. diimosa 
Bracts of the pedicels small and falling early G. resinosa 

1. G. frondosa, (L. ) Torr. and Gray. Dangleberry. Shrub, 3 to 
C ft. high, smooth, young shoots green or yellowish; leaves oblong or pear- 
shaped, li to 2 in. long, blunt at apex tapering at base, pale whitish 
beneath. Flowers in slender loose lateral clusters; corolla small, bell- 
shaped. Flower pedicel with a small bract at base. Fruit dark blue with 
a whitish bloom, sweet. Moist woods, New York. New Hampshire and 
southward. May- June. 

2. G. resinosa, (Ait.) Torr, and Gray. (Fig. 8, pi. 116.) Black 
Huckleberry. High-bush Huckleberry. (G. baccata, C. Koch.) Shrub, 
1 to 3 ft. high, branching, the young stems often deep red, leaves oval or 
oblong, pointed or rather blunt at apex, tapering at base, with a resinous 
covering when young, studded with resinous dots. Clusters of flowers 
one-sided, with few reddish-yellow flowers. Bracts at the base of the flower 
pedicel sviull and falling early. Fruit black with a bloom. Woods and 
thickets, extent of our area. May-June. 

3. G. dumosa, (Andr.) Torr. and Gray. (Fig. 9, pi. 116.) Bush 
Huckleberry. Shrub, 1 to 3 ft. high, young branches somewhat downy. 
Leaves pear-shaped or oblong, green on both sides, thick and shining 
when old. Bracts at the base of flower pedicels large, leaf-like, oval, per- 
sistent. Flowers in loose, slender clusters, corolla bell-shaped. Fruit 
black without a bloom, insipid. The whole plant more or less sprinkled 
with resinous dots. Sandy swamps, from north to south in our area. 

4. G. brachycera, (Michx.) A. Gray. Box Huckleberry. Branch- 
ing shrub, about 1 ft. high, with oval, finely toothed leaves, which are 
thick and leathery and without leaf-stalks or with very short ones. Co- 
rolla cylindric-bell-shaped, white or pink in short close clusters. Wooded 
hills, Penna., southward. May. 


Shrubs, branching, mostly quite low, with scattered leaves and small 
flowers .solitary or in currant-like clusters. Corolla monopetalous with 
4 or 5 teeth at free margin or 4- or 5-lobed. Stamens twice as many as 
lobes ox corolla and included within it. Fruit a berry with numerous 
small seedsj smaller and less observable than those of Gaylussaeia. 

Corolla rather deeply cleft, lobes expanding. 

Lobes 4 V. Vitis-Idaea 

Lobes 5 V. slamineum 

Corolla cylindric or ovate, generally more or less contracted at the throat. 
Flowers solitary or only 2 to 4 together; alpine dwarf species. 

Corolla mostly 4-tootbcd V. uligiiiosnm 

Corolla 5-toothcd V. cacspitosum 


Flowers in slender currant-like clusters. 

Flower 2 or 3 times as long as broad. 

Leaves not usually toothed. 

Leaves smooth or only slightly downy . . . V. corymhosum 
Leaves, under surface, densely downy, especially on veins 

V. atrococcum 

Leaves toothed V, siinulatum 

Flower nearly as broad as long. 

Leaves lance-oblong, not downy F. pennsylvanicum 

Leaves lance-oblong, downy V. canadense 

Leaves oblong. 

Fruit black V. nigrum 

Fruit blue V. vacillans 

1. V. Vitis-Idaea, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 116.) Mountain Cranberry. 
A little evergreen shrub, found where cold winds sweep the northern 
coasts of our region and on the summits of the White Mountains. Its 
stems are creeping with erect branches rising from 3 to 8 in. in height. 
Its broadly oval or pear-shaped leaves, leathery, green and shining above 
and black dotted beneath, curve backward at their margins and are 
crowded near the summit of the slender stems. Flowers in a small clus- 
ter at the extremity of the stem, the corolla bell-shaped, rather thickly 
cleft into 4 lobes which expand from the throat. They are white or pink- 
ish and nodding. Fruit a globular dark red berry about 1/3 in. in 
diameter. Augxist-Sept. 

2. V. stamineum, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 116.) Deerbeery. A branching 
shrub, with deciduous leaves and large numbers of bell-shaped flowers 
dangling in leafy bracted lengthened clusters. Stems 2 to 5 ft. high. 
Leaves oval, oblong or rarely broader toward base than at center, I to 
4 in. long, on ratlier short leaf-stems, light green above, paler beneath. 
Corolla rather deeply cleft into 5 lobes, which expand into a bell-shaped 
flower of purplish tinge. The stamens project somewliat beyond the 
bell of the corolla. Berry greenish-white, yellowish or dull red. Woods 
and thickets, frequent, especially in the southern half of our area. April- 

3. V. uliginosum, L. Bog Wortlebeeey. A dwarf shrub, found on 
the summits of the Adirondack and White Mountains. Stems ^ to 2 ft. 
high, much branched. Leaves pear-shaped, or oblong, * to 1 in. long, 
thick, dark green above, lighter beneath. Flowers solitary or in clusters 
of 3 or 4, about i as long as the leaves. Fruit a large blue berry. June- 

4. V. caespitosum, Michx. (Fig. 6, pi. 116.) Dwarf Billbeeey. 
Dwarf, much branching shrub, growing in dense tufts, stems 3 to 6 in. 
high, found on summits of White Mountains and Adirondacks. Leaves 
broad at apex, narrow at base, i to 1 in. long, with blunt teeth at mar- 
gins. Calyx 5-toothed; corolla egg-shaped, 5-toothed, contracted at throat. 
Stamens 10. Berry blue, with a bloom. June-July. 

5. V. corymbosum, Michx. (Fig. 5, pi. 116.) High-bush Blue- 
berry. A tall shrub (6 to 10 ft. high), with oval or oblong leaves and 
clusters of white flowers and sweet blue berries with a bloom. Leaves 
on short leaf-stems, 1 to 3 in. long, smooth above, very slightly downy, 
if at all, beneath. Corolla i to J in. long, cylindric or constricted at 
throat, white or pink. Fruit a blue berry with a bloom. Swamps and 
moist woods. May-June. 


6. V. atrococcum, (A. Gray) Heller. Black Blueberry. Differs 
from V. corymbosum in tlie absence of bloom on the berry, in the down on 
tlie under side of the leaf, which i3 dense, and in the form of the flower, 
■which is smaller and more round. Leaf borders entire. Swamps and wet 
woods, throughout our area. May-June. 

7. V. simulatum. Small. Serrulate-leaved Blueberry, Shrub, re- 
sembling the last two. Leaves elliptic to oblong-lance-shaped, acute at 
apex and usually at base, smooth, bright green above, somewhat downy 
beneath at least on the veins; margins notched ivith fine teeth. Berry 
■with a bloom. New York and southward. 

8. V. pennsylvanicum, Lam. (Figs. 2 and 3, pi. 116.) Low-bush. 
Blueberry. A nearly prostrate shrub, with stems ^ to 2 ft. long, found 
in dry rocky soil, mostly on high hills. Stem branching, the newer 
shoots light green, warty, the older stems reddish. Leaves elliptic-lance- 
shaped, green and smooth on both sides, the apex tapering to a hard tip. 
Flower bell-shaped, white, in few flowered, short clusters. Calyx 5-toothed. 
Fruit a round berry 3/8 in. in diameter, blue with a thick white bloom. 
The sweetest and earliest of the blueberries. May-June, Fruit ripe 

9. V, canadense, Richards. Canadian Blueberry. Similar to last, 
but leaves somewhat broader and somewhat downy. The fruit ripens later 
and is the latest of the blueberries to ap]^)ear in market. May-June, 
Fruit ripe July-Sept. 

10. V. nigrum, Britton. Low Black Blueberry. Similar to No, 
8, often growing with it, but has a broader leaf, which is commonly more 
rounded at base, and rounder bell than the latter and the black berry has 
no bloom on its surface. 

11. V, vacillans, Kalm, (Fig. 1, pi. IIC.) Blue Huckleberry. A 
branching shrub, ^ to 4 ft. high, with oval leaves or with leaves some- 
times broadest to-ward apex, 1 to 2J in. long. Margins entire or finely 
serrated, sharp points at apex, terminated by a sharp bristle. Flowers 
pink or greenish-wiiite, bells i in. long, cylindric, constricted at throat. 
Fruit a round blue berry with a bloom. A fine fruit. Dry, sandy soil. 
May-June. Fruit ripe July to Sept. 

3. CHIOGENES, Salisb. 

Our species a trailing evergreen, with delicate stem, scarcely woody, 
with small roundish oval, alternate leaves. Calyx adiierent to the ovary 
except at the summit, 4-lobed; corolla bell-shaped rather broad at the 
throat. Fruit a white berry with many seeds. 

C. hispidula, L. (P'ig. 4, pi. 117.) Creeping Snowherry, Leaves 
1/4 to 1/3 in. long; flowers small, at the leaf-axils. Found in shady 
woods and on mountains, throughout our area. May-June. 


Our species delicate creepers found in l)ogs. Stem extremely slender; 
leaves small, alternate, oval or ovate, with margins rolled back. Calyx 
adherent to the ovary to its summit, its border 4- or 5-cleft. Corolla 
deeply cleft, nearly divided into 4 petals, these turning outward and 



Plate 117 
1. Oxycoccus palustris. 2. 0. macrocarpus. 3. Diapensia lapponica. 4. 
Chiogenes hispidula. 5. Phyllodoce coerulea. 6. Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi. 
7. Rhododendron lapponicum. 8. Rhodora canadensis. 9. Dendrium buxi- 
folium. 10. Pyxidanthera barbulata. 11. Chaiuaecistus procumbens. 


backward. Stamens 10, the anthers in contact forming a cone about the 
pistil. Fruit a red acid berry. 

1. O. palustris, Pers. (Fig. 1, pi. 117.) Small Cranberry. (0. 
Oxycoccus, (L.) Me. M.) Stem 6 to 18 in. long. Leaves egg-shaiied, 1/6 
to 1/3 in. long, acute at apex, margins strongly rolled back. Flowers all 
terminal. Berries red, 1/3 in. in diameter. May-July. 

2. O. macrocarpus, (Ait.) Pers. (Fig. 2, pi. 117.) Large Ameri- 
can Cranberry. Leaves oval, 1/4 to 2/3 in. long, margins slightly rolled 
hack, points blunt. Flowers not generally terminal. Berries red 1/3 in. 
in diameter. June-Aug. 

Family YI.— DIAPENSIACEAE. Diapensia Family 

In our region only two species which are very small, moss-like, 
tufted, evergreen plants of herbaceous appearance but with woody 
stems, small crowded leaves without stipules and with perfect bell- 
formed or wheel-shaped flowers. Calyx deeply 5-parted; corolla 
5-lobed; stamens, 5 pollen bearers and 5 rudimentary. Ovary 
free from the calyx and superior to it; capsule 3-celled, many 


Cah'x partly invested by 2 to 4 bracts below its base; corolla bell- 
shaped. Small Alpine mossy plant growing in dense tufts. Leaves op- 
posite, overlapping, small, spatula-sliaped. Stem 1 to 3 in. high, termi- 
nated by a single white bell-shaped flower. 

D. lapponica, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 117.) Diapensia. Found on summits 
of the Adirondack and White Mountains. June-July. 


Moss-like plant, resembling Diapensia, the stems longer, prostrate, 
creeping, corolla wheel-shaped. Flowers solitary, white or rose-color, 

P. barbulata, Miclix. (Fig. 10, pi. 117.) Pyxie. This little plant 
blooms early in April or even in March and is welcomed as the first 
flower of Spring. Grows in rounded tufts, in the pine barrens of New 
Jersey and farther south. 

Order II.— PRIMULALES. Order of the Primroses 

Flowers regular; corolla of united petals. Stamens borne on the 
corolla, as many as the lobes of the corolla and opposite to them 
or twice as many or more. Ovary superior to the calyx and co- 
rolla or in exceptional instances these arc more or less attached to 
it. Ovules arising from a central placata. Style single; fruit a 


Family I.— PRIMULACEAE. Primrose Family 

Herbs, with mostly imdividcd leaves and regular flowers, with 
both stamens and pistils. Corolla of united petals (absent in 
Glaux) ; stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and inserted 
opposite them. Ovary of 1 cell with a free column in the interior 
supporting the ovules. 

Leaves all at the base of the stem. 

Aquatic, leaves feather-formed Hottonia 

Terrestrial Primula 

Leaves alternate Samolus 

Leaves in whorls of more than 4 Trientalis 

Leaves opposite or in whorls of not more than 4. 

Flowers white Glaux 

Flowers red Anagallis 

Flowers yellow. 

In axillary dense clusters Naumburgia 

Solitary in the axils or in loose axillary clusters. 

Stamens 5 and rudiments 5 . . . Steironema 
Stamens 5 to 7, no rudiments . . Lysimachia 


Aquatic plant, with feather-formed, composite leaves and hollow flower 
stems fringed with bands of whitish flowers. Calyx 5-parted, its divisions 
linear and longer than the corolla which is tubular with 5 lobes. Sta- 
mens 5 ; capsule 5-valved, many seeded. 

H. inflata, Ell. American Featiierfoil. In stagnant pools and 
ditches, Mass., central New York and south. June-Aug. 


Herb, with a radicle rosette of leaves at the base and a spike sur- 
mounted by an umbel of a few flowers, below which is a whorl of bracts, 
an involucre. Calyx bell-formed or tubular with 5 lobes. Corolla nearly 
tubular, expanding at the throat into a wheel-shaped 5-lobed border. Sta- 
mens 5 inserted on the tube. 

1. P. farinosa, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 119.) Bird's Eye Primrose. Plant, 
4 to 18 in. high ; leaves long, narrow, broadest above the center, tapering 
to the leaf-stalk which is about i as long as the blade. Leaves and in- 
volucre covered with a white mealiness. Flowers pink or lilac with a 
yellowish eye. Moist places, northern part of our area. 

2. P. mistassinica, Michx. Canadian Primrose. Smaller than No. 
1, 1 to 6 in. high. Leaves oval, not broadest above the center. Leaves 
not covered loith mealiness. Northern part of ovir area. 



A smooth herb of wet places, with alternate, undivided, leaves and small 
flowers in elongated terminal clusters. Calyx adhering to the ovary be- 
low, 5-cleft. Corolla bell-shaped, 5-lobed. Stamens 5 fertile, and commonly 
5 sterile. Capsule globose, many seeded. 

S. floribundus, HBK. (Fig. 6, pi. 119.) Water Pimpernell. Brook 
Weed. Plant, 6 to 18 in. high, branching. Leaves 1 to 3 in. long, rounded 
at apex, narrowed at base. Growing in wet places. June-Sept. 


Low, smooth perennial, with simple erect stem surmounted by a whorl 
of thin lance-shaped leaves and by one or more white star-like flowers 
borne on long, very slender pedicels. The stem also bears a few minute 
scale-like bracts or leaves alternately arranged. Calyx of about 7 linear 
segments, corolla spreading, flat and star-like with about G or 7 rays. 

T. americana, Pursh. (Fig. 5, pi. 119.) Stab Flower. Stem 3 to 
9 in. high; leaves li to 4 in. long, tapering at both ends. Flower about 
^ in. broad. In moist woods. May-June. 

5. GLAUX, L. 

A low, fleshy perennial, with many opposite fleshy leaves, which are 
oblong and undivided and without teeth. Flowers in the axils of the 
leaves, solitary but opposite Calyx 5-parted, the lobes colored like petals, 
the latter wanting. Stamens 5, at the base of the calyx, opposite the 
corolla lobes. Capsule 5-valved, few seeded. 

G. maritima, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 119.) Sea Milkwort. Plant, 2 to 8 in. 
high, leaves i to ^ in. long, oblong, oval or linear. Growing in salt 
marshes and on sea beaches. June-Aug. 


Our species a low spreading herb found in moist pastures and waste 
places, with opposite loaves and solitary scarlet or whitish flowers. Calyx 
of 5 narrow tapering lobes; corolla wlicel-shaped of 5 rather deeply-parted 
lobes; ovary globose, the top separating like a lid to allow the escape 
of the minute seeds. 

A. arvensis, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 119.) Scarlet Pimpernell. Poor 
Man's Weather Glass. Plant procumbent, stems 4 to 12 in, long, 
4-sided. Leaves broadly egg-shaped without leaf stems. Flowers in leaf- 
axils, on slender pedicels generally -opposite; petals rounded, somewhat 
deeply sci)arated. Moist places. Naturalized. June-Aug. 

7. NAUMBURGIA, Moench. 

A plant of cold swamps. Erect, leaves opposite, the lower reduced to 
scales, smooth; flowers in dense rounded tufts from the leaf-axils, yel- 
low, the calyx and corolla each 5- to 7-parted, sepals and petals linear; 
stamens 5 to 7, extending beyond the corolla. Ovary globose, 

N. thyrsiflora, (L.) Duby. (Fig. r>, pi. 120.) Tufted Loosestrife. 


Plate 118 
1. Pieris mariana. 2. Leucothoe racemosa. 3. Hypopitya americana. 4. 
Monotropa uniflora. 5. Pterospora andromedea. 6. Xolisma ligustrina. 7. 
Chamaedaphne calyculata. 


Stem 1 to 2 ft. high; leaves lance-shaped tapering at each end. May- 


Perennial smooth herbs, with opposite leaves, or leaves in whorls on 
the flowering branches. Flowers yellow, spreading or nodding; calyx 
5-parted; corolla wheel-formed, lobes rounded each tcith a tooth at apex, 
the base of each folding on a stamen. Fertile stamens 5, sterile as many. 
Capsule 10- to 20-seeded. 

Leaves egg-shaped, the leai-stalk hairy 5. ciliatum 

Leaves lance-shaped, tapering at each end 5. lanceolatum 

Leaves linear 5. quadriiiorum 

1. S. ciliatum, (L-) Raf. (Fig. 4, pi. 120.) Fringed Loosestrife. 
Erect; stems 1 to 4 ft. high. Leaves egg-shaped, broadly or narrowly, 
the leaf stems hairy, the blade 2 to 6 in. long. Flowers on thread-like 
pedicels arising at the leaf-axils; calyx 5-parted, the lobes sharp; corolla 
wheel-formed, the petals rounded, fringed, at outer margin. Capsule ex- 
tending beyond the calyx. Moist thickets throughout our region. June- 

2. S. lanceolatum, (Walt.) A Gray. (Fig. 2, pi. 120.) Lance- 
leaved Loosestrife. Similar to the last, but leaves are narrow and 
tapering at each end and petals are not fringed at border, but have a 
tooth at outer extremity. Moist soil, throughout the area. June-Aug. 

3. S. quadriflorum, (Sims.) Hitche. Peairie Moneywort. Stem 
stiff, erect, 4-angled, 1 to 3 ft. high. Stem leaves narrowly linear, 2 to 
4 in. long, smooth and shining. Corolla 2 to 1 in. broad. Along streams, 
western New York and southward. June-July. 


Perennial herbs, with leafy stems, the leaves opposite or in whorls of 
3 or 4, or more. Leaves without divisions or teeth, commonly dotted. 
Flowers wheel-shaped, yellow. Calyx 5- or 7-parted, free from the ovary; 
corolla 5- to 7-parted; the petals without teeth at border. Stamens 5 to 
7, inserted in the throat of the corolla. Capsule globose; seeds few or 

Prostrate, creeping herb L. Nnmmnlaria 

Erect herbs. . 

Leaves arranged in whorls of 4s, corolla lobes dark streaked . L. quadnfoha 
Leaves in whorls of 3 or more, corolla pure yellow. 

Flowers in terminal leafy clusters L. vulgaris 

Flowers from the leaf axils L. punctata 

Leaves opposite, flowers in jjyramidal cluster L. terrestris 

L L. vulgaris, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 119.) Golden Loosestrife. Erect, 
branching, 2 to 3 J ft. high, densely covered with soft hairs. Loaves, op- 
posite or in whorls of 3s or 4s, on short leaf-stalks, oval or broadly lance- 
shaped, tapering at each end, 2 to 4 in. long. Yellow flowers an inch, 
more or less, in diameter, in terminal leafy clusters. A naturalized species, 
not very common. June-Aug. 

2. L. punctata, L. Spotted Loosestrife. Another naturalized spe- 
cies, not common. Resembles the last, but flowers arise in the leaf-axils 
down the stem. Waste places. June-July. 

3. L. quadrifolia, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 120.) Crosswort. Wuokled 



Plate 119 
1. Primula farinosa. 2. Lysimachia vulgaris. 3. L. Nummularia. 4. 
Glaux maritima. 5. Trientalis americana. 6. Samolus floribundus. 7. Ana- 
gallis arvensis. 8. Limonium carolinianum. 


Loosestrife. Plant slightly downy or smooth, 1 to 2 ft. high; loaves in 
whorls of 4s, sometimes of 5s, or more or less than 4, without leaf-stalks, 
lance-shaped or oblong, 1 to 4 in. long. Flowers in whorls at the leaf- 
axils, on long tliread-like pedicels. Corolla wheel-shaped, the petals ob- 
long-egg-shaped. Moist soils. Common. June-Aug. 

4. L. terrestris, (L.) Ait. (Fig. 1, pi. 120.) Bulb-bearing Loose- 
STEIFE. (L. stricta, Ait.) Stems 1 to 2 ft. high, often bearing small 
globular bulbs at the axils. Leaves opposite or rarely some of them 
alternate, lance-shaped, tapering at each end with short leaf-stalks or 
none, 1 to 3 in. long, often dotted with black points. Flowers yellow 
with purple streaks, about i in. broad, in terminal pyramidal cluster, 
each on a thread-like pedicel. Swampy places. July-Sept. 

5. L. Nummularia, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 119.) Creeping Loosestribe. 
An introduced species, from Eurojje, escaped from gardens, not common. 
Stems creeping, extending 1 to 2 ft. Leaves roundish, opposite on short 
leaf-stalks, ^ to 1 in. long. Flowers yellow about an in. broad. July- 

Family II.— PLUMB AGIN ACE AE. Plumbago Family 

Herbs, ours with the leaves all radicle. Flowers perfect but 
small, in clusters at the summit of a flower stem. Calyx not ad- 
herent to ovary, its parts more or less united, tubular, with 5 
points. Corolla of 5 lobes; stamens 5 opposite the petals; styles 
5. Fruit a dry one-seeded pod. A single species in our region. 

LIMONIUM, Adams. (Statice, Tour.) 

Herb growing at tlie sea-side, with thick perennial loaves arising at the 
base and with naked, branching flowering stem bearing large numbers of 
lavender-colored flowers. Flowers one-sided on the branches; calyx 
5-lobed; the lobes linear; corolla bell-formed, tubular, 5-parted. Stamens 
5, usually attaelied to the lobes of the corolla. 

L. carolinianum, (Walt.) Britton, (Fig. 8, pi. 119.) Sea Laven- 
der. Marsh Kosemary. Leaves narrow, broadest toward the apex, taper- 
ing into long loaf-stems, one conspicuous rib tipped with a bristly point. 
Stems with flower cluster 1 to 2 ft. high. Salt meadows, all along our 
coast. July-Oct. 

Order III.— EBENALES. Order of the Ebonys 

Shrubs or trees, with hard wood. Flowers with stamens as many 
as tiie corolhi lobes or twice as many; with both stamens and pis- 
tils or staminate and pistillate flowers separate. Fruit a berry. 

Family I. — EBENACEAE. Ebony Family 

Calyx well developed, 5- to 7-parted, but its parts united below 
the fruit. Ovary free from calyx; in the staminate flowers it is 



Plate 120 

1. Lysimachia terrestris. 2. Steironema lanceolata. 3. Lysimachia quad- 
rifolia. 4. Steironema lanceolata. 5. Naumburgia tliyrsiflora. 


only partially or not at all developed. Fniit a berry containing 
one or more seeds. 


A tree of considerable size in southern part of our area, common fur- 
ther south. Bark furrowed, dark; leaves broad egg-shaped or oval, 2 to 
5 in, long, about i as wide, dark green above, light beneath. Corollas 
with petals united but parted i way into 4 lobes or more. Stamens 8 to 
20; styles 2 to 6. In the sterile flowers stamens reach the highest num- 
ber, in the fertile flowers very few or no stamens. Berry pulpy. The 
berry has an extremely astringent taste before ripening, but when ripe 
is sweet and palatable. 

D. virginiana, L. (Fig. 11, pi. 121.) Persimmon. Is occasionally 
found in the south eastern part of our area. Blooms May-June, Fruit 
ripe Sept. to Nov. 

Order IV.— GENTIANALES (Contortae, Engler). Order 
of the Gentians 

An order including herbs and trees. Stamens borne on the co- 
rolla, when this is present, as many as the corolla lobes or fewer. 
The corolla is not dry and chaffy, in contrast with that of the 
Plantains. Flowers regular, stamens attached to the lower part of 
the corolla only. Leaves in our species opposite except in Men- 
yanilies, in which they are from the root. Ovary superior to calyx. 

Herbs. With water juice. 

Leaves from the stem. 

With stipules LOGANIACEAE 

Without stipules GENTIANACEAE 

Leaves from the rootstoek . . MENYANTHACEAE 

Herbs. With milky juice. 

Stamens distinct, styles united . . APOCYNACEAE 
Stamens grouped, styles distinct . ASCIEPIADACEAE 

Family L— OLEACEAE. Olive Family 

Trees or shrubs; leaves opposite, mostly compound feather- 
formed with an odd leaflet. Flowers of our species of 4 divisions 
of the corolla when it is present, and 4 divisions of the calyx in 
all cases. Stamens mostly 2, sometimes 4. Fruit a capsule, a 
winged samara, a berry or drupe. 



Trees, with opposite compound leaves, which are feather-formed, with 
several pairs and an odd leaflet. Flowers small, green, rarely with both 
stamens and pistils in the same flower and generally with staminate and 
pistillate flowers on diflerent trees, in compound crowded clusters, which 
appear with the leaves, or before them in the axils of the leaves of the 
preceding year. Petals none or 2 or 4, small; calyx small with 4 points 
or the points may be wanting or irregular. Fruit a flat winged samara, or 
" key," usually 1-seeded. 

Leaflets stalked. 

Wing extending along the sides of the samara. 

Under side of leaf not velvety F. lanceolata 

Under side of leaf velvety. 

Leaf margins with very fine teeth . . . . F. pennsylvanica 

Leaf margins entire F. Michauxii 

Wing only at the outer end of the samara F. americana 

Leaflets not stalked F. nigra 

1. F. americana, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 121.) White Asii. Large forest 
tree. Leaflets 5 to 9, egg-shaped or narrow-egg-shaped. The twigs smooth, 
leaves witliout teeth or with very fine dentations. Fruit a rounded body 
appended to which is a wing 2 or 3 times as long as itself and extending 
only from the outer extremity, in form elliptic lance-shaped. April-May. 

2. F, lanceolata, Borkh. (Fig. 10, pi. 121.) Green Ash. Forest 
tree, not as large usually as No. 1. Leaflets 5 to 9, egg-shaped or oblong, 
tapering at each end, sometimes with small serrations toward the outer 
extremity. Samara 1 to 3 in. long, the wing extending along the sides, 
blunt at the apex. April-May. 

3. F. pennsylvanica. Marsh. (Fig. 9, pi, 121.) Red Ash. Large 
tree. Leaflets 5 to 9, egg-shaped or narrow-egg-shaped. The twigs, leaf- 
stalks and the lower surface of the leaves downy or velvety. Pistillate 
and staminate flowers on different trees. Body of the samara surrounded 
by the wing on all sides and which extends beyond it to a length equal 
to the body, the whole being elliptic or spatula-formed. 

4. F, Michauxii, Britton. Michaux's Ash. Leaf margins entire; 
leaves thick, either velvety or smooth; samaras broadly spatula-formed. 
Swamps, New York and southward. 

5. F. nigra, Marsh. (Fig. 8, pi. 121.) Black Ash. Hoop Ash. 
Large forest tree. Leaflets without stalks, 7 to 11, lance-shaped, tapering 
at each end, sharply indented at borders. Samara 1 to 2 in. long, the 
wing extending all around, broad at apex, usually with an indentation. 
Swamps and other wet places. April-May. 

Family II. — LOGANIACEAE. Logania Family 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite or in whorls, with 
stipules or witli a membrane between the opposite leaf-stalks. 
Flowers regular, ours with calyx and corolla each 5-parted; the 
calyx below the ovary. 



Herb, Avith opposite leaves with entire margins. Flowers in long nar- 
row one-sided clusters. Stamens 5; style 1, slender; capsule short. 

S. marylandica, L. Maryland Pink-root. Stem simple, 4-angled, 
erect, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves without leaf-stalks, a membrane passing 
from one to its opposite, egg-shaped or lance-shaped. Corolla tubular 
with 5 narrow segments above, scarlet outside, yellow within. Flowers 
in one-sided cluster. Woods, New Jersey, and south. 


Smooth, diffusely branched annual herb, with narrowly linear or awl- 
shaped opposite leaves with their bases connected by a membrane repre- 
senting stipules. Flowers small, white, in terminal bracted clusters. 
Corolla not longer than the calyx, almost wheel-shaped with 4 lobes. 
Stamens 4, short; style 1, short. Capsule ovoid, notched at apex. 

P. procumbens, L. Polypremum. Flowers in the forks at the ends 
of tlie branches. Dry sandy fields, New York, Pennsylvania, and south- 
ward. June-Oct. 

Family III.— GENTIANACEAE. Gentian Family 

Smooth herbs, with opposite (rarely whorled) leaves and con- 
spicuous flowers, the corolla of which is tubular, bell-shaped or 
wheel-shaped, and which, in the bud is twisted. The divisions of 
the calyx are i to 10 which are united at base. The corolla lobes 
are as many as the divisions of the calyx and the stamens number 
as many as tbe corolla lobes and are inserted alternately with 
them into the throat. Styles united into one, but sometimes want- 
ing. Ovary 1-celled; capsule many seeded. 

Leaves reduced to scales, whole extent of stem . . Bartonia 

Lower leaves reduced to scales Obolaria 

Leaves fully developed. 

Often in whorls Frasera 


Corolla with horns Halenia 

Corolla without horns or spurs. 

Wheel- or bell-shaped, deeply cleft . Sabbatia 

Style short or none Gentiana 

Style long, slender .... Erythraea 

I. ERYTHRAEA, Rencahu 

Herbs; leaves opposite without leaf-stalks, sometimes clasping the stem; 
flowers numerous, ratlicr small; corolla a long slender tube witli 4 or 6 



Plate 121 

1. Sabbatia angularis. 2. S. stellaris. 3. S. gracilis. 4. S. dodecandra 5. 
Erythraea centaurium. 6. E. pulchella. 7. Fraxiiius amencana. 8. 1. nigra. 
9. F. pemisylvaiiica. 10. F. Janceolata. 11. Diospyros virgmiana. 


short lobes; calyx 4- or 5-parted. Anthers twisting spirally and extend- 
ing beyond the throat of the tube. Low branching annuals with purple, 
white or yellow flowers. 

1. E. centaurium, (L.) Pers. (Fig. 5, pi. 121.) Centaury. (Cen- 
tmirium unibellatum, Gilib. ) Stem upright, branching, 6 to 12 in. high; 
leaves oblong, obtuse at apex, narrowed at base, at the base of the stem 
the leaves form a rosette. Clusters of flowers form a nearly flat-topped 
compound cluster of purple flowers which have very short flower stems. 
Waste grounds. June-Sept. 

2. E. spicata, (L.) Pers. Spiked Centaury. {Centauria spicata, 
Fernald.) Resembles No. 1, but flowers are arranged in slender spikes. 
Coast of Nantucket. May-Sept. 

3. E. pulchella. Fries. (Fig. 6, pi. 121.) Branching Centaury. 
{E. raviossissinia, Pers. Centauria, Druce.) Low, much branched, 2 to 
6 in. high; leaves mostly oval, not in a rosette at base; stem widely 
forking above, the flowers forming a diffuse cluster, all the flowers on 
flower stems. Fields and wet places. Southern part of our area. June- 

2. SABBATIA, Adams 
Slender stemmed annual or biennial herbs, with diffusely clustered, 
showy flowers and with opposite or whorled leaves. Corolla 4- to 
12-parted, as is also the calyx; stamens 4 to 12, inserted in the tube of 
the corolla, which is shallow, the lobes expanding to a wheel-shaped 
flower. Ovary 1 -celled; style slender, 2-cleft. 

Calyx and corolla, each 8- to i2-parted S. dodecandra 

Calyx and corolla 4- to s-parted. 
Branches opposite. 

I-'lowers white S. lanceolata 

Flowers pink S. angularis 

Branches alternate. 

Flowers white S. gracilis 

Flowers pink, center yellow 5'. stcllaris 

1. S. lanceolata, (Walt.) T. and G. Lance-leaved Sabbatia. Stem 
simple, slender, 2 to 3 ft. high, with opposite branches at top bearing 
diffuse cluster of white 5-rayed flowers. Leaves 3-nerved, egg-shaped, the 
upper sharp-pointed. Wet pine barrens, southern part of our area. May- 

2. S. angularis, (L.) Pursh. (Fig. 1, pi. 121.) Rose Pink. Stems 

1 to 2i ft. high, somewhat 4-winged; leaves opposite, broadly egg-shaped, 
somewhat heart-shaped at base, apex tapering, 5-nerved. Flowers in loose 
clu.ster3 above, corolla of 5 radiating lobes which are rounded at apex 
and are twice as long as the linear calyx lobes. Flowers pink, with a 
greenish or yellowish star in the center, on long slender flower stems. 
Tliickets. Rich soil. Southern part of our area. July-Aug. 

3. S. stellaris, Pursh. (Fig. 2, pi. 121.) Marsh Pink. Stem i to 

2 ft. high, .sliglitly angular or round; branches alternate; leaves opposite, 
lance-sliapcd or linear. Flowers pink or white with a yellowish starry 
center. Calyx 5-pointcd, the points linear, half as long as the loies of the 
corolla. Corolla .'S-lobed, the lobes spreading and rounded at apex. Salt 
marshes. July-Sept. 

4. S. gracilis, (Miclix.) Salisb. (Fig. 3, pi. 121.) Slender Marsh 




Plate 122 
1, Gentiaiiu ciinita. 2. G. saponaria. 3. G. Andrewsii. 4. G. rubricaulis. 
5. G. Porphyrio. 6. G. quinquefolia. 7. G. linearis. 8. Obolaria virgini- 
ca; 9. Bartonia virginica. 10. Menyanthes trifoliata. 11. Halenia deflexa 
12. Limnanthemum lacunosum. 


PiXK. (S. campatuilata, (L.) Torr.) Stem very slomlor, 1 to 2 ft. liigh, 
diU'usely branched above, the branches alternate. Leaves opposite, the 
lowest oval, those along the stem linear, reduced to narrow thread-like 
bracts. Flowers in diffuse clusters, pink with a yellow eye, the calyx 
points as long as the 5 lohes of the corolla and thread-like. Salt marshes, 
rare, in fresh water swamps. May-Aug. 

5. S. dodecandra, (L.) BSP. (Fig. 4, pi. 121.) Large Marsh 
Pink. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high, branching above, branches alternate; leaves 
opposite, those at base spatula-formed, those above linear. Calyx lobes 
8 to 12, linear; corolla 8 to 12 lobes, radiating, rose-colored or nearly 
white. Sandy borders of brackish ponds. July-Sept. 


Herbs, with opposite or rarely whorled leaves which have entire, or in 
some cases, hairy margins, and with flowers in terminal and axillary 
groups or solitary at the end of the stem. Flowers blue, purple, yellow 
or white. Calyx mostly 4-parted, but may have 5 to 7 lobes; corolla 
also of 4 lobes, but less frequently 5 to 7, often with intermediate folds 
or plaits at the sinuses. Stamens equal in number to the lobes of the 
corolla, inserted at the throat and alternate with the lobes. Styles short 
or none. Capsule 2-valved. 

Corolla without folds or teeth at the sinuses 

Borders of corolla fringed, leaves egg-shaped or lance-shaped ... (7. crinifa 

Borders of corolla lobes fringed, leaves linear G. proccra 

Borders of lobes not fringed G. quinqucfolia 

Corolla with teeth or folds in the sinuses 

Flowers blue or bluish-white. 

Corolla closed, club-shaped, margin of leaf rough. 

Corolla lobes distinct, longer than, or as long, as the inter- 
mediate plaits G. Saponaria 

Corolla lobes obscure or absent, the plaits very broad G. Andrewsii 
Corolla open, margins of leaves smooth. 
Flowers in terminal clusters. 

Leaves narrow lance-shaped G. linearis 

Leaves broad at base, tapering toward apex . . G. rubricaulis 

Flowers solitary G. Porphyria 

Flowers green, striped with white G. villosa 

Flowers yellow G. Aavida 

1- G. crinita, Frnel. (Fig. 1, pi. 122.) Fkinoed Gentian. Stem 
1 to 2 ft. high, branching above; leaves lance-sliaped or egg-shaped with 
the base heart-shaped or rounded. Calyx lobes 4, unequal and extending 
the length of the corolla tube. Corolla 4-lol)ed, the lobes rounded and 
strongly fringed at tlie borders. Ovary tall, conical. Found in wet 
places and flowering in autumn. 

2. G. procera, Holm. Smaller Fringed Centian. (0. dctonsa, 
Rottb. ) Similar to G. crinita, but smaller, with linear leaves, the base 
not rounded or heart-shaped. Western New York and westward. July- 

3. G. quinqucfolia, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 122.) Stiff Gentian. Stem 
slender, stilF, usually branched, 1 to 2 ft. high. Loaves egg-shaped, partly 
clasping tlic stem, generally 5-nerved (or 3- or 7-norved), tipped by a 
sharp point. Flowers in clusters at the end of the stem or at the axils; 
calyx about 1/3 as long as the corolla. Corolla pale blue, its lobes tri- 


angular, tipped with bristle points. Capsule spindle-shaped. Flowers 
smaller than those of the Fringed Gentian and nearly cylindric. Moist 
places, southern Maine and southward. Aug.-Oct. 

4. G. saponaria, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 122.) Soapwobt Gentian. Stem 
erect, without or with a few short branches above, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves 
oval-lance-shaped, tapering at each end, the borders rough with short 
stiff hairs. Flowers in close branches at top of stem and often a single 
or a few flowers at each of several leaf axils, large, bright blue, closed 
at top. Calyx of 5 egg-shaped segments. Corolla lobes evident, as long 
as or longer than the intermediate plaits. In wet soil and usually in 
shady places. Aug.-Oct. 

5. G. Andrewsii, Griseb. (Fig. 3, pi. 122.) Closed Gentian. Very 
similar to the last, 1 to 2 ft. high; corolla lobes scarcely evident, the in- 
termediate plaits being broad and somewhat fringed, nearly obscuring 
the narrow lobes (Fig. 5, pi. 122). Stamens gathered into an adhering 
ring. Moist, shady places. Aug.-Oct. 

6. G. linearis, Froel. (Fig. 7, pi. 122.) Narrow-leaved Gentian. 
Stem mostly without branches, ^ to 2 ft. high; leaves very narrow lance- 
shaped, Ij to 3 in. long, 1/6 to 1/3 in. wide, smooth at borders. Flower 
branches at top of stem and one or more at each of several leaf-axils. 
Corolla funnel-shaped, open at top, about 1^ in. long. Lobes 5, inter- 
mediate plaits much narrower than lobes. Calyx tube funnel-shaped, 
the 5 linear lobes as long as the tube. In bogs and other wet places. 

7. G. rubricaulis, Schwein. (Fig. 4, pi. 122.) Red-stemmed Gen- 
tian. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high; leaves li to 2-1 in. long, oval, narrow, or 
broadened at base and tapering to a sharp point at apex, 3-nerved, mar- 
gins somewhat rough. Stem tinged with red, leaves brown or reddish. 
Flowers bunched at top of stem, the bunch being subtended by 2 broad 
leaf-like bracts. Corolla open at top, the 5 lobes conspicuously longer 
than the 5 intermediate plaits, bright blue or greenish-blue. The whole 
plant has a somewhat marked appearance of rigid regularity. Wet 
soil, central New York and northward. Aug.-Sept. 

A form with leaves broad at the base was regarded by Dr. Gray as a 
variety of G. linearis, (var. latifolia). 

8. G. Porphyrio, J. F. Gmol. (Fig. 5, pi. 122.) One-flowered Gen- 
tian. Stem simple or branched, slender, ^ to li ft. high. Leaves linear. 
Flowers terminal, solitary; corolla 5 lobes, the lobes spreading, much 
longer than the plaits. Calyx lobes thread-like. Color of flower bright 
blue, sometimes whitish or greenish. Pine barrens, southern part of our 
area. Aug.-Oct. 

9. G. villosa, L. Striped Gentian. Stem i to U ft. high. Leaves 
broadly ovate, widest toward apex, narrowed at base. Flower branches 
at top of stem and one or more at some of the leaf -axils. Calyx tube 
funnel-shaped, the lobes thread-like, longer than the tube; corolla open 
at top, greenish-white striped on the inside with green veins and purple 
stripes; lobes much longer than the appendages. Shady places, soutliern 
part of our area. Sept.-Nov. 

10. G. flavida, A. Gray. Yellowish Gentian. Stout, 1 to 3 ft. 


high. Leaves 2 to 5 in. long, broad at the rounded base, tapering to a 
sharp point, smooth at margins. Flowers bunched at top of stem with 
one or more in upper axils. Calyx tubular, the lobes short, triangular. 
Corolla funnel-formed, 5 lobes and 5 appendages. Color, yellow or green- 
ish-white. Moist soil, occasional in most of our area. Aug.-Oct. 

4. FRASERA, Walt. 

Tall showy herbs, bearing opposite or whorled leaves. Stem mostly 
simple; flowers in terminal spreading clusters. Calyx, a shallow tube and 
4 narrow sepals. Corolla 4-lobed, spreading; stamens 4, inserted at base 
of the corolla tube. Capsule oval, flattened, few seeded. 

F. caroliniensis, Walt. American Columbo. Stem stout, 3 to 8 ft. 
high; leaves mostly in whorls of 4, oblong or lance-shaped, the lower 
spatula-formed, 3 to 6 in. long. Flower cluster pyramidal; corolla about 
1 in. broad, greenish-yellow with brown purple dots. Rich soil, western 
section of our area. June-Aug. 

5. HALENIA, Borkh. (Tetragonanthus, Kuntze) 

Small herbs, usually growing in tufts; leaves opposite; flowers terminal 
and in the upper leaf-axils. Tube of calyx shallow^ lobes narrow and long; 
corolla of 4 lobes, each lobe xcith a Jiolloio spur projecting helow; stamens 
4 or 5; ovary 1-celled, many seeded. 

H. deflexa, (J. E. Smith) Griseb. (Fig. 11, pi. 122.) Spureed Gen- 
tian. Stem simple or branched above, i to 1^ ft. high; leaves oval or 
egg-shaped, sharp pointed at apex, 3- to 5-nerved, 1 to 2 in. long. Flowers 
purplish or white, bell-shaped, the spurs cylindric, i to i as long as the 
4-lobed corolla. Damp woods, most of our area. July-Aug. 


A low perennial plant, purplish-green with a simple or branched stem 
and opposite fleshy scales which occupy the place of leaves. Flowers 
axillary and terminal, the 2 divisions of the calj'X leaf-like. Corolla 
4-cleft; stamens 4, inserted at the sinuses of the corolla. Capsule ovoid; 
seeds numerous. 

0. virginica, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 122.) Pennywort. Root and stem 
fleshy, stem 3 to 6 in. high. Stem leaves scale-like, those among the 
flowers about ^ in. long, purplish, triangular, broad at the apex, narrowed 
and extending down the stem at base. Flowers about i in. long, pale 
purple or whitish, longer than the 4 stamens. Southern part of our area. 

7. BARTONIA, Muhl. 

Small slender herbs, with simple stems or with few branches, and with 
opposite leaves, wliich are reduced to awl-shaped scales; some of these 
scales may be alternately arranged. Flowers small, white or yellow, ar- 
ranged in slender upriglit clusters. Calyx 4-parted; corolla 4-lobed, boll- 
shaped; stamens 4, short. Capsule oval or oblong, flattened and pointed 
with the persistent style. Seeds numerous. 

1. B. virginica, (L.) BSP. (Fig. 9, pi. 122.) Yellow Rartonia. 
Stem thread-like, 4 to 12 in. high, 5-anglcd; scales about 1/10 in. long; 


flowers opposite, yellow, from 2 to several pairs, less than J in. long. 
Moist soil, most of our area. July-Sept. 

2. B. iodandra, Robinson. Purplish Babtonia. Stem 2 to 8 in. 
high, simple or alternately branched. Scales alternate. Corolla dis- 
tinctly purplish, about twice as long as the calyx. In sphagnum, New 
Jersey, northward. 

3. B. paniculata, (Michx.) Robinson. Panicled Babtonia. Slen- 
der, 8 to 16 in. high. Stem beset by scales in place of leaves, these often 
alternate. Flowers yellowish or greenish-white. W«t woods and swamps, 
Mass., southward. Aug.-Oct. 

Family IV.— MENYANTHACEAE. Buckbean Family 

Perennial herbs, growing in marshes. Eoot-stock steiTL-like. 
An aerial stem absent, the long leaf-stalks arising from the root- 
stock as does also the flower-bearing scape. Flowers in clusters, 
regular, bearing both stamens and pistils. Calyx 5-cleft; corolla 
5-lobed ; stamens 5, arising between the lobes of the corolla. Fruit 
a capsule. 


Leaves 3-foliate on long leaf-stalks arising from the root-stock; leaflets 
oval or pear-shaped, each about 1 to 2 in. long. Flowers borne on a tall 
scape forming a cylindric cluster consisting of from 10 to 20 tubular 
purple flowers, the corolla lobes triangular, spreading, the tube and lobes 
bearded with white hairs. Stamens shorter than the corolla; capsule 
egg-shaped, tipped by the permanent style. 

M. trifoliata, L. (Fig. 10, pi. 122.) Buckbean. A beautiful plant 
found in sphagnous bogs. May-June. 

2. LIMNANTHEMUM, S. G. Gmelin. (Nymphoides, (Tourn.) 

Leaves floating, the leaf-stalks arising from the root-stock which is 
buried in mud. The leaf is broadly oblong or nearly orbicular, with a 
deep sinus and with leaf-stalk from 1 to 10 ft. long, from the summit of 
which arise, the leaf, which is small in proportion to the length of the 
leaf -stalk ( 1 to 2 in. long), an umbel of small white flowers and a cluster 
of narrow tubers each of which may produce a new plant. Primary leaves 
submersed, without flowers or tubers. 

1. L. lacunosum, (Vent.) Griseb. (Fig. 12, pi. 122.) Floating 
Heaet. Found in ponds. Flowers white, leaves 1 to 2 in. long. July- 

2. L. aquaticum, (Walt.) Britton. Large Floating Heart. The 
plant is stouter, the sinus shallow and leaves 2 to G in. long. Southern 
part of our area. May-Aug. 

Family V.— APOCYNACEAE. Dogbane Family 

Plants, all of which in our region, have acrid milky juioe. Leaves 
sometiuies alternate but generally opposite. Flowers regular; 


calyx deeply 5-cleft (rarely 4-cleft) ; corolla 5-lobecl; stamens 5 
(lobes of corolla sometimes 4 and stamens 4, but not in our species). 
Stamens not united, inserted on the corolla. Ovaries (in our 
species) 2, free from the calyx; styles united into 1. 
Leaves opposite. 

Flowers solitary Vinca 

Flowers in clusters, small Apocynum 


Herbs, with oppoi?ite loaves and solitary blue or whitish flowers arising 
from leaf-axils. Our species a trailing herb which has escaped from 
cultivation. The leaves smooth at the edges, firm, dark green on both 
sides, egg-shaped, with short leaf-stalks. Flowers solitary, generally blue, 
with a short cylindric tube and 5 broad spreading lobes. Ovaries of 2 
long cylindric follicles. 

V. minor, L. Myrtle. Periwinkle. In borders of woods and at 
roadsides. Blooms nearly all summer. 

Perennial herbs, with opposite leaves and white or pink flowers in 
spreading clusters, generally terminal. Calyx small, deeply 5-cleft; co- 
rolla bell-shaped, bearing at the throat 5 small triangular appendages. 
Stamens 5, inserted at base of corolla. Seeds in two long cylindric 

Branches spreading A. androsaemifohum 

Branches erect or nearly so. 

Base of leaves tapering A. caniiabinum 

Base of leaves rounded A. hypcricifolium 

1. A. androsaemifolium, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 123.) Spreading Dog- 
bane. Stem 1 to 4 ft. high; branches spreading. Leaves broadly elliptic 
or oval, sharply pointed or blunt at apex, generally rounded at base. 
Corolla pink, the lobes shorter than the tube. Fields and roadsides, 
throughout our area. June-July. 

2. A. cannabinum, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 123.) Indian Hemp. Resembles 
No. 1, but branches more erect; base of leaves narrowed or somewhat 
rounded. Lobes of corolla as long as or longer than the tube. Fields and 
thickets. June-Aug. 

3. A. hypericifolium. Ait. (Fig. 2, pi. 123.) Clasping-leaved Dog- 
bane, riant smooth with a whitened bloom, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves ob- 
long to oval, obtuse at apex, heart-shaped or clasping the stem at base. 
Central New York, Maine and northward. 

(Several forms, found in our area and dilTering in some rcs])octs from 
these have been described as species by some, as varieties by others.) 

Family VI.— ASCLEPIADACEAE. Milkweed Family 

Plants, with milky juice, with leaves opposite or in whorls or 
less frequently alternate, without lobes or teeth. Flowers in termi- 


Plate 123 
L Apocynum an(lrof5aemifolium. 2. A. hypericifolium. 3 A. cannibinum. 
4. Asclepias puipurascens. 5. A. lanceolata. 6. A. rubra. 7. A. verticil- 
lata. 8. Aceratos viridillora. 


nal or axillary clusters; calyx 5-parted, the sepals turned back; 
corolla bell-shaped, urn-shaped or wheel-shaped. Between the co- 
rolla and the stamens is a 5-lobcd crown attached either to the 
corolla or to the stamens. Stamens 5, the anthers in close con- 
nection with the summit of the pistil. The pollen grains cohere 
in masses. Ovary of two long pods. 
Crown of 5 hooded bodies, each with an incurved horn. Leaves 

opposite Asclepias 

Crown without the incurved horns, leaves alternate. 

Erect plant Acerates 

Trailing vine Cynanchum 


Our species have opposite, whorled or scattered leaves, a milky juice, 
and small flowers in terminal or axillary umbels. Crown of 5 hood-like 
bodies each bearing an incurved horn. 

Stem reclining A. decumhens 

Stem erect. 

Leaves scattered. 

Flowers orange A. tuberosa 

Leaves opposite, not whorled. 

Flowers bright red or deep purple. 

Leaves narrow lance-shaped A. lanceolata 

Leaves egg-shaped, the apex narrow tapering . . . A. rubra 
Leaves egg-shaped with blunt taper . . . , A. purpurascens 
Flowers pink or light purple. 

Plant not hairy A. incarnata 

Plant downy or hairy A. pulchra 

Flowers greenish-purple. 

Leaves blunt at each end. 

Plant downy A. syriaca 

Plant not downy A. obtusifolia 

Leaves tapering at each end A. exaltata 

Flowers white or partly purplish A. varicgata 

Leaves, at least a part of them, in a whorl of 4 . . . .A. quadrifolia 
Leaves in whorls of 3 to 7 A. vcrticillata 

1. A. tuberosa, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 124.) Butterfly Weed. Pt.ecbisy 
Root. Stems rather stout, 1 to 2 ft. high, hairy, rough, bearing at the 
summit a number of umbels of orange-colored flowers. Leaves linear to 
lance-shaped, attached directly to the stem or by a short leaf-stalk. Pods 
erect on pedicels which first dip downward then curve upward. Dry 
fields. June-Sept. 

2. A. decumbens, L. Decumbent Butterfly-weed. Plant hairy; 
stems decumbent; loaves oblong or elliptic. Flowers dark orange. Dry 
fields. Conn., not common in our area. June-Aug. 

3. A. lanceolata, Walt. (Fig- 5, pi. 123.) {A. paupercula, Michx.) 
Stem slender, few if any brandies, 2 to 4 ft. high, smooth, without hairs, 
as arc tlie leaves. Leaves opposite, 4 to 10 in. long, linear or narrowly 
lance-shaped, rough on the edges, tapering at each end, but broadest to- 
ward the base, generally on very short leaf-stalks. Flowers in terminal 
umbels, one or more, each with from 5 to 12 flowers; corolla segmeuta 
red, hoods deep orange. Pod erect, about 4 in. long. Wet places, mostly 
near the coast, southern part of our area. June-Aug. 



Plate 124 
1. Asclepias syriaca. 2. A. variegata. 3. A. tiiberosa. 4. A. exaltata. 5. 
A. quadrifolia. 6. A. pulchra. 7. A. obtusifolia. 


4. A. rubra, L. (Fig. 6, pi. 123.) Red Milkweed. Plant with few 
if any hairs, stem 1 to 4 ft. high, few if any branches. Leaves opposite, 
2 to 6 in. long, egg-shaped to lance-shaped, the base rounded, apex taper- 
ing to a very sharp point, on very short leaf-stalks or none, bright green. 
Umbels terminal of many purplish-red flowers, the incurved horns long 
and slender. Pods slender, spindle-shaped, about 4 in. long. Moist soil, 
southern part of our area. June-July. 

5. A. purpurascens, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 123.) Pubple Milkweed. Stem 
rather stout, with few if any branches, slightly downy or free from hairs, 
2 to 4 ft. high. Leaves opposite, elliptic or oblong, the upper ones taper 
pointed, base of all rounded or narrowed, the under side downy, upper 
smooth, on short leaf-stalks, 3 to 8 in. long. Flowers in terminal umbels, 
color deep purple. Pods 4 to 5 in. long, downy, nearly erect. Dry grounds, 
Kew Hami^shire and northward. June-Aug. 

G. A. incarnata, L. Swamp Milkweed. Stem 2 to 3 ft. high, smooth 
or slightly downy, very leafy, branching or rarely without branches. 
Leaves opposite, lance-shaped, sharply tapering at each end or somewhat 
rounded at base, 3 to 6 in. long. Flowers light purple or rarely white, 
horns of the croAvn longer than the hoods, slender, needle-pointed. Pod 
2 to 3^ in. long, slender. Common in swamps. 

7. A. pulchra, Ehrh. (Fig. 6, pi. 124.) Hairy Milkweed. Similar 
to No. 5, but leaves are broader and more rounded or slightly heart- 
sliaped at base and the under surface of leaves is decidedly velvety. 
Flowers light red, pink or white. Moist fields throughout our area. July- 

8. A. obtusifolia, IMichx. (Fig. 7, pi. 124.) Blunt-leaved Milk- 
weed. {A. amplexicaulis, Sm.) Stem 2 to 3 ft. high. Leaves oblong, 
usually wavy, very blunt at apex and base, on very short leaf-stalks or 
clasping at base, 2A to 5 in. long. Flowers green-purple, in a many- 
flowered terminal uml)el. Dry fields throughout our area. May-Aug. 

9. A. exaltata, Muhl. (Fig. 4, pi. 124.) Tall Milkweed. Poke 
Milkweed. {A. phytolaccoides, Pursh.) Stem 3 to 6 ft, high, with 2 
downy lines. Leaves opposite, oval or egg-shaped, thin, tapering at each 
end, 4 to 9 in. long, H to 4 in. wide, the lower sometimes broadest to- 
ward the apex, sometimes downy beneath. Umbels terminal and from 
the Icaf-axils. Flowers greenish with white crown. Horns each with a 
long projecting slender point. Moist thickets and woods. June-Aug. 

10. A. variegata, L. (P'^g- 2, pi. 124.) White Milkweed. Stem 1 
to 2 ft. high, somewhat downy above when young. Leaves opposite, thick, 
egg-shaped, oval, or pear-shaped, sometimes about the middle of the stem 
whorled, rather blunt at eacli end, the margins wavy or toothed, 3 to 6 
in. long, on leaf-stalks about i in. long. Flowers in 1 to 4 compact termi- 
nal umbels or rarely also in one or two lateral umbels, white with purplo 
or purplish crown. Dry woods, southern part of our area. June-July. 

11. A. quadrifolia, Jacq. (Fig. 5, pi. 124.) Four-lkaved Milkweed. 
Stem slender, 1 to 2 ft. high, mostly leafless below or with a pair of egg- 
shaped leaves at lower third, with one or two whorls of 4 or 5 leaves about 
the middle and sometimes one or two pairs of leaves immediately below 
or above these whorls. Leaves of the whorls more or less broadly lance- 


shaped, tapering at each end, tliin, 2 to in. long, J to 2§ in. wide, on 
short leaf-stalks. Flowers in 1 to 4 terminal umbels (rarely some small 
umbels in upper axils), pink or white. Woods and thickets. May -July. 

12. A. syriaca, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 124.) Common Milkweed. Stem 
stout, branching little, if any, slightly downy above, 3 to 5 ft. high. 
Leaves opposite, oblong or oval, blunt at each end, densely downy beneath, 
4 to 9 in. long. Flowers dull green-purple to whitish, in numerous um- 
bels. Fields, rich grounds. June-Aug. 

13. A. verticillata, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 123.) Wiiorled Milkweed. Stem 
slender, sometimes branched, leafy, 1 to 2i ft. high. Leaves linear in 
whorls of 3 to 7 or more. Flowers in terminal umbels, greenish-white. 
Dry hills. New York and southward. July-Sept. 

2. ACERATES, Ell. 

Herbs similar to Asclepias, but the hoods compassing the crown are 
without the horn which is characteristic of Asclepias. 

A. viridiflora, Eaton. (Fig. 8, pi. 123.) Green Milkweed. Stem 
whitish, downy, at least when young, without branches, reclining or nearly 
erect, 1 to 3 ft. high. Leaves opposite, or, less frequently alternate, egg- 
shaped, on short leaf-stalks, thick, 1 to 3 in. long, J as wide, slightly 
rough, base rounded, upper blunt. Flowers in axillary umbels, green. 
Pod long and slender. Dry sandy soil. June-Sept. 

3. CYNANCHUM, L. (Vincetoxicum, Moench) 
A trailing vine, with opposite or whorled leaves and umbels of small 
flowers which resemble those of Asclepias. Calyx and corolla wheel- 
formed; crown cup-like, not divided into 5 distinct parts as in Asclepias, 
but has 5 lobes. 

C. nigrum, Pers. Black Swallow-wort. Twining vine, 2 to 5 ft. 
long, with lance egg-shaped leaves, rounded at base, tapering at apex. 
Flowers dark purple. Pod slender, resembles that of Asclepias. Escaped 
from gardens. June-Sept. 

Order V.— TUBIFLORALES. Order of Tubular Flowers 

Flowers almost always regular, the corolla of a single envelope 
more or less parted into 5 lobes at the border. Stamens 5 inserted 
with the corolla and alternating with its lobes. Seed pods (car- 
pels) 2 to 5, always above and free from the calyx. Style nearly 
always simple. 
Ovary deeply 4-lobed. 

Corolla regular (except in Genus Echium), pods (car- 
pels) separating as nutlets. Herbs, not trailing or 

twining vines BORAGINACEAE 

Ovary not 4-lobed. 


Corolla regular; twining vines. 

Yellowish-white leafless vines, parasites CTJSCUTACEAE 
Vines with normal leaves, not parasitic 


Herbs, not vines. 

Ovary 3-celled. Flowers in umbel-like, 
spreading clusters, rarely solitary, or in 
a loose irregular compound cluster, sta- 
mens not plumose . . POIEMONIACEAE 
Ovary 1-celled, stamen filaments plumed 
with rather long hairs HYDROPHYLIACEAE 

Family I.— CONVOLVULACEAE. Morning-glory Family 
Herbs, mostly with twining vines. Leaves alternate, without 
stipules. Flowers regular, corolla of a single petal (by concres- 
cence of 5) ; calyx 5-parted; margin of corolla in 5 lobes; stamens 
5, inserted at the very base of the corolla or with it. Ovary su- 
perior to tlie calyx and not connected directly with it; styles 1 to 
3. Fruit a capsule or 2 to 4 pods, distinct. 

Styles 2, or one deeply 2-parted Breweria 

Style 1. 

Stigmas 3 Convolvulus 

Stigma 1 Ipomoea 


Ours a slender species, nearly or quite prostrate, with long narrow leaves 
and axillary bell-shaped flowers resembling those of Convolvulus. Cap- 
sule globose, 2-celled. 

B. Pickeringii, (M. A. Curtis) A. Gray. (Fig. 4, pi. 125.) Picker- 
ing's Bkkweria. Stem 1 to 2 ft. long, downy. Leaves very narrowly 
linear, tapering at base. Flower stems spring at axils, bearing from 1 
to 3 flowers. Southern part of our area. June-Aug. 

Twining or trailing vinos. Corolla funnel-form to bell-form, the mar- 
gin only slightly lobed. Calyx icithout bracts at the base. Style undi- 
vided, terminated by a single cap or 2 or 3 globose nearly united caps. 
Capsule globular. 

Flowers white. 

Corolla 2 to 3 in. long I. pandurata 

Corolla i to i in. long /• lacunosa 

Flowers pink or purple. 

Leaves deeply lobcrl L hederacca 

Leaves not deeply lohed /. purpurea 



Plate 125 
1. Convolvulus arvensis. 2. C. spithamaeus. 3. C. sepium. 4. Breweria 
Pickeringii. 5. Ipomca pandurata. 0. I. liederacea. 7. Cuscuta arvensis, 
growing on Nightshade. 8. C. Gronovii, on Jewel weed. 9. C. Coryli. 10. 
C. compacta, single flower. 11. C. cephalanthi, single flower. 


1. I. pandurata, (L.) Meyer. (Fig. 5, pi. 125.) Wild Potato Vine. 
Perennial vine from a very large root, smooth or slightly downy, stems 
2 to 12 ft. long. Leaves alternate, broadly egg-shaped, heart-shaped at 
base, sharp pointed at apex, without teeth at margins and generally with- 
out lobes, but sometimes contracted at middle, giving leaf a fiddle-shaped 
outline or some of the later ones angular. Flower stem usually longer 
than the leaf-stalk, with from 1 to 5 white, funnel-form flowers with pink 
or purple stripes in the throat, the corolla about 3 in. long and as broad. 
Dry soils. Connecticut and southward. May-Sept. 

2. I. lacunosa L. Small-flowered White Morning-glory. Stem 
trailing, 2 to 8 ft. long, downy or hairy. Leaves on slender leaf-stalks, 
heart-shaped at base, egg-shaped or 3-lobed. Flower stem shorter than 
the leaves; flower white, i to -f in. long. Penna., and southward. July- 

3. I, purpurea, (L.) Roth. Common Morning-glory. Climbing vine, 
escaped from gardens. Stem 4 to 10 ft. long, hairy. Leaves broadly 
ovate, heart-shaped at base, sharp pointed at apex, sometimes more or 
less lobed, hairy. Flower stems slender, 1- to 5-flowered. Flowers funnel- 
formed, purple, blue, pink, etc. Ovary 3, rarely 2-celled, capsule globose. 
Waste places, mostly from gardens. July-Oct. 

4. I. hederacea, Jacq. (Fig. 6, pi. 125.) Ivy-leaved Morning- 
glory. Stem 2 to 5 ft. long, hairy. Leaves deeply 3-lobed, lobes acute, 
heart-shaped at base, hairy. Flower stem bearing 1 to 3 funnel-shaped 
flowers nearly white, the rim light blue or purple, 1 to 5 in. long. Ovary 
3-celled, capsule globose. Southern part of our area. July-Oct. 

Herbs, with trailing or climbing vines or erect stems. Leaves in our 
species without teeth at margins and without stipules; the vines with 
heart-shaped, or arrow-shaped leaves, the erect plant with oval leaves; 
corolla funnel-shaped, pink, purple or white, the border 5-angled, plaited, 
or continuous. Calyx with or without bracts at its base. Pistil dividing 
into 2 near the top. Stamens 5, inserted at the base of the corolla. 
Capsule globose. 

Stems climbing or trailing, leaves heart-shaped at base. 

Stems 3 to 10 ft. long C. sefium 

Stems I to 2§ ft. long C. aneiisis 

Stems not climbing or trailing C. sl'itliamaeus 

1. C. sepium, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 125.) Rutland Beauty. Hedge Bind- 
weed. Stems trailing or twining, 3 to 10 ft. long, smooth or slightly 
hairy. Leaves triangular spear-shaped on slender leaf-stalks, acute at 
apex, deeply depressed at base. Flowers, one on an elongated flower stem, 
arising from a leaf-axil; corolla white or pink, about 2 in. long and aa 
broad across the border. Bracts at the base of Ike corolla large, egg- 
shaped, heart-shaped at base. On stone walls and in thickets. June- 

2. C. arvensis, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 125.) Small Bindweed. Trailing on 
the ground, stems 1 to 2J ft. long. Leaves triangular, arrow-sliaped, 
1 to 2i in. long, the basal lobes spreading. Flowers 1 to 4 on a flower 
stem, wiiich is shorter than the leaves, with 1 to 3 bracts at the summit. 


Corolla about an in. long and as broad, pink or wliite. Calyx without 
bracts at base. Waste places. May-Sept. 

3. C. spithamaeus, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 125.) Upright Bindweed, 
Stems erect or curving upward, smooth or mostly downy, not twining or 
the summit slightly twining, J to 1 ft. high. Leaves alternate oblong, 
with or without a heart-shaped base, round at apex. Corolla 2 in. long, 
white, a single flower on the flower stem. Calyx enclosed by 2 large 
bracts. Dry sandy soil. May-Aiig. 

Family II.— CUSCUTACEAE. Dodder Family 

Long thread-like white, yellowish or reddish vines with leaves 
reduced to small scales, rising from the ground, but becoming en- 
tirely parasitic, lying upon or twining about herbs or shrubs to 
which they adhere by means of suckers. Flowers in more or less 
densely compact rounded or irregular clusters, white or yellowish. 
Flowers with calyx and corolla, pistil and stamens. Calyx below 
the ovary and not adherent to it, of 5 lobes or divisions; corolla 
bell-shaped, urn-shaped or egg-shaped, in the tube of which are, 
alternating with the corolla lobes, 5 scales which are finely toothed 
or fringed. At the sinuses of the corolla lobes and above the scales 
arise the 5 short filamented stamens. Pistils 2. Capsule globose. 


Characters as above. 

The scales within the corolla bordered with small rounded teeth. Summit of 
pistil elongated. 

The scales not incurved C. Epilinum 

The scales strongly incurved C. Epithyinum 

The scales within the corolla bordered by a fringe. Summit of pistil rounded. 

Flowers without flower stems C. arvensis 

Flowers with short flower stems. 
Calyx not deeply divided. 

Tips of corolla lobes sharp, turning in .... C. Coryli 
Tips of corolla lobes rovmded, turning out. 

Capsule pointed C. Grotiovii 

Capsule globose C. cephalanthi 

Calyx deeply divided C. compacta 

1- C. Epilinum, Woihe. Flax Dodder. Stem yellow or reddish, very 
slender. Flowers globular, in dense heads, flowers closely connected with 
the stem without flower stem. Corolla with 5 lobes, scarcely exceeding 
the divisions of the calyx; scales within the corolla rounded, the upper 
border with rounded teeth which do not curve imuard. The lobes of the 
corolla spreading outward. Growing on flax, hence its name. June. 

2. C. Epithymum, Murr. Thyme Dodder. Clover Dodder. Stem 
reddish, thread-like. Flowers in small dense rounded clusters, without 
flower-stems, the clusters pinkish. Corolla tube longer than the calyx; 
scales within the tube toothed, and strongly curved inward. Found on 
clover and alfalfa in this country. In Europe on thyme, hence its name. 


3. C. arvensis, Beyrich. (Fig. 7, pi. 125.) Field Dodder. Stems 
pale yellow, slender. Flowers small, each on a very short flower-stem, 
clusters few flowered. Corolla bell-shaped, with 5 shallow lobes, the scales 
within being fringed around the xohole margin. The aeute tips of the 
lobes of the eorolla are strongly turned in. Found on various plants on 
rather dry soil. July-Aug. 

4. C. Coryli, Engelm. (Fig. 9, pi. 125.) Hazel Dodder. Stem 
coarse, twining about stems of shrubs, etc. Flowers with distinct flower- 
stems in dense elongated clusters. Calyx of 5 lobes, not deeply divided, 
triangular; corolla bell-shaped, 4- or 5-lobed. Scales inside the corolla 
small, obtuse with a scant fringe or the scale reduced to a few fringe 
elements. Corolla lobes angular, deflected inward at apex. Grows on 
hazels and other shrubs or on coarse herbs. 

5. C. Gronovii, Wind. (Fig. 8, pi. 125.) Gronovius's Dodder. 
Love Vine. The most common of the dodders. Stems coarse, sometimes 
climbing high. Corolla lobes rounded, the tips turning out. Scales within 
deeply fringed; pistils with rounded heads (stigmas). Wet shady places. 

6. C. compacta, Juss. (Fig. 10, pi. 125.) Compact Dodder. Stem 
coarse, flowers in densely compact clusters, each without flower-stem. 
Calyx of 5 parts, deeply divided from each other, subtended by 3 to 5 
bracts resembling the 'calyx lobes. Corolla salver-form, the 5 lobes spread- 
ing, obtuse at tip, scales narrow, fringed. On shrubs in damp woods. 

7. C. cephalanthi, Engelm. (Fig. 11, pL 125.) Button-busii Dod- 
der. Stems yellow, coarse, high climbing. Flowers in compact masses, 
the lobes of the corolla rounded, spreading or rolling outward. Tall herbs 
and shrubs, Pennsylvania, south and westward. July-Aug. 

Family III.— POLEMONIACEAE. Phlox Family 

Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves and with regular and 
perfect flowers; a 3-celled ovary superior to the calyx; the pistil 
3-parted above ; stamens 5, inserted on tlie corolla tube and alter- 
nate with the corolla lobes; calyx tubular or bell-shaped, 5-parted; 
corolla funnel-formed, bell-shaped, wheel- or saucer-shaped. Cap- 
sule splitting at the sides, 3-valved, 

Leaves simple, opposite Phlox 

Leaves compound (feather-formed), alternate Polemonium 


Ornamental herbs, with opposite leaves and terminal clusters of flowers. 
Calyx tubular with 5 narrow divisions, 5-ribbed. Corolla a long slender 
tube abruptly expanding into a flat wheel-like expanse, the border 5-l()l)cd. 
Stamens 5, inserted into the tube of the corolla at about its middle, pistil 



Plate 126 
1. Phlox divaricata. 2. P. paniculata. 3. P. maculata. 4. P. pilosa. 5. 
P. subulata. 6. Polemoniiim cooruleum. 7. P. reptans. 


1, divided near summit into 3 branches. Capsule 3-celled, each cell 
1 -seeded. 

Leaves flat, opposite. 

Stems strictly erect. 

Stem with purple spots P. maculata 

Stem without purple spots P. paniculata 

Stem more or less decumbent, at least at the base. 

Calyx not hairy P. oi^ata 

Calyx hairy. 

Flowers blue or lilac P. divaricata 

Flowers purple, pink or white P. pilosa 

Leaves awl-shaped, in whorls P. subulata 

1- P. maculata, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 126.) Wild Sweet-william. Stem 
erect, H to 3 ft. high, generally flecked with purple spots; leaves op- 
posite, lance-shaped, rounded or more or less heart-shaped at base, taper- 
ing to an acute point at apex, not hairy. Flowers in an elongated rather 
compact cluster. Calyx teeth triangular, lance-shaped, without hairs. 
Corolla purple, pink or rarely white. Moist woods, southern and central 
part of our area. June-Aug. 

2. P. paniculata, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 126.) Garden Phlox. An escape 
from gardens which has become naturalized in the very southern part of 
our area. Stem erect, 2 to 6 ft. high. Leaves opposite, lance-shaped, 
tapering at both ends, the upper sometimes heart-shaped at base. Flowers 
in a large pyramidal cluster; calyx teeth awl-shaped. Corolla pink to 
white. Not found wild except in southern section of our area. Common 
in gardens. Established in a few localities. June-July. 

3. P. ovata, L. Mountain Phlox. Stems leaning at base, 1 to 2 
ft. high, whole plant without or with very few hairs. Leaves opposite, 
more or less leathery, the upi^er egg-shaped, or somewhat lance-shaped, 
the base broad and rounded or even heart-shaped, 1 to 2 in. long, tapering 
to a point at apex, the lower leaves pear-shaped. Calyx teeth lance- 
shaped, not hairy or viscid, nearly i as long as tlie corolla tube. Corolla 
pink or red. Woods in the very southern part of our area. May-Aug. 

4. P. pilosa, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 126.) Downy Phlox. Stem slender, 
mostly more or less decumbent at base, the upper i)art of stem erect or 
nearly so. Whole plant soft downy. Leaves opposite, linear or narrow 
lance-siiaped, tapering at each end, 1 to 4 in. long. Flowers in rather 
flat clusters. Calyx viscid, hairy. Corolla pink-purple or red, rarely 
purpiisli-wliite. Dry woods. New Jersey and south. April-June. 

5. P. divaricata, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 126.) Wild Blue Phlox. Stems 
decumbent at base, 'i to H ft. high, viscid downy. Leaves opposite, lance- 
sliaped, rounded or heart-shaped at base, pointed at apex. Cluster of 
flowers broad, rather flat, loosely flowered; lohcs of corolla notched at 
tlie end, rarely entire, blue or pale lilac. Rocky damp woods. April- 

6. P. subulata, Tj. (Fig. 5, pi. 126.) Moss Pink. Common in gar- 
dens in New KiigUmd and New York. In southern part of our area found 
often in extensive patches forming in spring a large expanse of bright 
pink or purple color. Stems decumbent, ij^ to A ft. long; leaves linear, 
awl-sliaped, in whorls about the stem. Flowers in terminal flat clusters. 
Corolla lobes notched at the end. Dry hills, New York, southward and 
westward. April-June. 


Perennial (rarely annual) herbs, with alternate compound (feather- 
formed) leaves and with clusters of blue, white or yellow flowers. Calyx 
bell-shaped. Corolla funnel-formed; stamens 5, inserted at the summit 
of the short tube of the corolla. Capsule ovoid, few to several seeded. 

1. P. coeruleum, A. Gray. (Fig. 6, pL 12G.) American Jacob's 
Ladder. (/'. Van Bruntiae, Britton.) Stem 1 to 3 ft. high, erect, smooth 
or slightly hairy above. Compound leaves alternate, the lower ones 
consisting of from 9 to 21 leaflets, the upper mostly of 3 leaflets, egg- 
shaped, pointed at each end, A to li in. long. Flowers in a loose terminal 
cluster; divisions of the calyx longer than its tube; the 5 lobes of corolla 
rolled outward; stamens and pistil extending considerably beyond the 
corolla. Flowers blue. Swamps and wet places and on mountains, Ver- 
mont, northern New York and southward. May-July. 

2. P. reptans, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 12G.) Greek Valerian. Stems more 
or less reclining, about 1 ft. high or less, smooth or slightly downy. Leaf- 
lets 5 to 15'; oblong, pointed at each end, the upper leaves of 3 leaflets. 
Calyx lobes obtuse; stamens not extending beyond the corolla. Color 
light blue. Woods, New York, southward and westward. May-June. 

Family IV.— HYDROPHYLLACEAE. Water-leaf Family 

Herbs, mostly with alternate, large, deep-lobed leaves, generally 
hairy, with regular flowers, blue, purple or white. Calyx inferior 
to and free from the ovary, 5-cleft, often with an appendage at 
the cleft. Corolla tubular bell-shaped, 5-lobed, often with 10 
horny scales near the base. Stamens 5, inserted into the corolla. 
Style deeply bifid. Capsule 1- to 3-celled, ovoid. 

Stamens extending beyond the corolla. 

Anthers linear or oblong Hydrophyllum 

Anthers egg-shaped Phacelia 

Stamens not extending beyond the corolla EUisia 


Herbs, with large, lobed or somewhat feather-formed, leaves and with 
floweres in clusters. Other characters as above. 

Calyx with a reflexed appendage between the sepals at base . . H. appendiculatum 

Calyx without appendages between the sepals. 

Plant sparingly if at all downy H. virginianunt 

Leaves downy at least beneath H. canadense 

1. H. appendiculatum, Michx. Appendaged Water Leaf. Stems 
usually branched, 1 to 2 ft. high, usually covered with viscid hairs above. 
Leaves deeply 5-lobed, the lobes with acute tips; margins coarsely toothed, 
leaves on long leat-stalks. Appendages between the sepals deflexed. Co- 
rolla violet, blue or purple. Woods. May-June. 

2. H. virginianum, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 127.) Virginia Water Leaf. 


Stems slender, 1 to 3 ft. high. Not hairy or with very few hairs. Leaves 
deeply 5-lohed, the lobes sharp pointed and with coarse sharp teeth, the 
lower leaves with 5- to 7-lobes, feather-formed. Calyx without appendages 
between the sepals. Flowers white or pale purple. Woods. May-Aug. 

3. H, canadense, L. (Fig- 2, pi. 127.) Broad-leaved Watee Leaf. 
Stem slender, 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves nearly round with 5 to 7 acute lobes 
and with coarse teeth. Appendages between the sepals absent. Lower 
side of leaves somewhat downy or hairy. Woods. June-Aug. 

2. ELLISIA, L. (Macrocalyx, Trew.) 
Our species a hairy branching, slender herb, with alternate feather- 
lobed leaves and solitary star-shaped flowers. Calyx equally 5-partea, 
large; tlie bell-shaped corolla much enlarged in fruit. Appendages be- 
tween sepals absent. Stamens 5, inserted at base of corolla and included 
within it. Capsule 2- to 4-seeded. 

E. Nyctelea, Kuntze. Nyctelea. Stem much branched; leaves pin- 
natcly divided. Flowers white, solitary; calyx, in flower about 1/6 to 
1/4 in. broad, in fruit about 1 in. or more broad. Capsule globose. Moist 
soil, southern part of our area. April-July. 

3. PHACELIA, Juss. 
Small annual herbs, usually with still' hairs. Leaves alternate, some- 
times entire, but more frequently deeply cut or lobed. Flowers in coiled 
clusters (cymes). Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla open bell-shaped, tubular or 
funnel-formed. Styles united below, stamens included in the corolla or 

1. P. dubia, (L.) Small. Small-flowered Phacelia, Small branch- 
ing plant, .5 to 12 in. high. Leaves divided into 3 to 5 oblong segments, 
opposite and terminal. Flowers in narrow clusters, the clusters not much 
coiled, blue or white, 5 to 15 in a cluster. Capsule globular, 6- to 12- 
seeded. Moist shady places. New York, and southward. April-June. 

2. P. Purshii, Buckl. (Fig. 3, pi. 127.) PuR.sii's Phacelia. Branch- 
ing, 6 to IS in. high. Lower leaves on leaf-stalks, narrow, much lobed; 
iipix>r witiiout leafstalks less lobed; cluster partly one sided, scarcely 
cf)iled, with 10 to 20 blue or white open bell flowers with exserted sta- 
mens. Calyx lobes linear. Penna., southward, locally further north. 

Family V.— BORAGINACEAE. Borage Family 

Herbs, annual, biennial or perennial. Leaves alternate or rarely 
opposite. Flowers, mostly blue, generally in one-sided, curved or 
coiled clusters. Flowers mostly regular, with both stamens and 
pistils, the corolla of one piece forming a tube and a spreading 
border, which is divided into 5 lobes. At the throat of the co- 
rolla often a slight crest. Stamens 5, alternate with corolla lobes 
and inserted at the throat of the corolla or deeper. Pistil 1, sim- 
ple or divided at top. Ovary superior, of 2 rounded pods each 



Plate 127 
1. Hydrophyllum virginianum 2. H. canadense. 3. Phacelia Pursliii. 
4. Cynoglossum officinale. 5. Lappula virgiiiiana. G. L. cchinata. 7. Pneu- 
niaria maiitima. 8. lieliotiopium europaeum. 9. Merteiisia virginica. 


2-seedecl, the base of the ovary being 4-lobed except in Helio- 
tropium. Fruit mostly 4 one-seeded nutlets. 

Ovary not lobed Heliotropium 

Ovary 4-lobed. 

Corolla horders regular, tube not bent 

Nutlets (the 4 divisions of the ovary) armed with barbed 

Corolla funnel-form, the nutlets spreading . Cynoglossum 
Corolla salver-form, the nutlets incurved . . . Lappula 
Nutlets not armed with prickles. 
Corolla throat closed by scales. 

Fleshy herb Pneumaria 

Herbs not fleshy. 

Corolla star-shaped, the lobes sharp pointed, no 

tube Borago 

Corolla with a long tube . . . Symphytum 

,Corolla throat not closed by scales. 

Lobes of the corolla erect, tube cylindric 


Lobes of the corolla spreading, rounded, the tube 

tapering Myosotis 

Lobes of corolla forming a bell-shaped body. 

Flowers white or yellow . . Lithospermum 
Flowers blue or purple .... Mertensia 

Corolla border irregular, tube not bent 
Flowers blue, lobes of the corolla unequal .... Echium 

Tube of corolla bent 
Flowers blue Lycopsis 


Herbs, some of which have more or loss woody stems, rarely shrubs, 
our only species purely lierl)act'<)us. Leaves alternate, rarely lolied or 
notched at margin. Flowers in slender one-sided clusters which coil 
nearly to the extent of forming; a rinp. Corolla small, funnel-form or 
salver-form, the .'> lobes roun(le(i, calyx with .') lance-shajied lobes. Ovary, 
although of 2 cells, each containing 2 seeds, is not deeply lobed as is the 
case with other genera of this family. 


H. europaeum, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 127.) European Heliotrope. Much 
branched, i to li ft. high. Leaves oval, apex obtuse; the whole plant 
rough hairy. Flowers white in terminal curved spikes. Naturalized from 
Europe. In southern part of our area. June-Oct. 


Mostly rough hairy tall herbs. Leaves alternate, with smooth mar- 
gins, the lower with long leaf-stalks. Flowers in curved clusters; corolla 
funnel- or salver-form with short tube, throat closed by 5 scales. Calyx 
5-parted. Ovary deeply 4-lobed, the lobes spreading and covered with 
short barbed prickles. 

1- C. officinale, L. (Fig. 4, pi. 127.) Hound's Tongue. Gipsy 
Flower. Stem li to 3 ft. high, usually branched, downy, leafy to the top. 
Lower leaves narrow-oblong, A to 1 in. long, upper lance-shaped without 
leaf-stalks. Flowers in terminal curved clusters in which there are no 
leafy bracts. Corolla dull purple. Plant with an unpleasant odor. In 
fields and waste places. May-Sept. 

2. C. virginianum, L. Wild Comfrey. Plant much larger than No. 
1, li to 2i ft. high, and leaves broader and longer, 4 to 12 in. long, ob- 
tuse at apex. Leafless above, leaves below oblong. Flowers blue. Woods. 

3. LAPPULA, Moench. (Echinospermum, Sw^.) 

Herbs, mostly rough hairy. Leaves alternate, margins entire. Flowers 
in long, somewhat curved and more or less one-sided spikes, with leafy 
bracts among the flowers. Nutlets erect or curving with barbed prickles 
on the bank . 

1. L. echinata, Gilibert. (Fig. 6, pi. 127.) European Stickseed. 
(L. Lappula, Karst. ) Whole plant hairy, branching, 1 to 2 ft. high. 
Leaves lanoo-sliapcd to linear, without leaf-stalks. Flowers in long and 
slender spike, scattered, with a bract below each flower. Nutlets with 
prickles in 2 rows. Waste places. May-Sept. 

2. L. virginiana, (L.) Greene. (Fig. 5, pi. 127.) Virginia Stick- 
seed. Plant downy, 2 to 4 ft. high. Leaves broadly oval, the lower, 3 
to 8 in. long and sometimes nearly round. Flowers in slender spikes, 
several from the main stem, hracied only at the base of the spikes. 
Flowers white or purplish-white. Dry woods and thickets, Maine and 
southward. June-Sept. 

4. PNEUMARIA, Hill. (Pulmonaria, L. Mertensia, S. F. Gray) 

A fleshy, smooth, difi'usely-branching herb, with alternate leaves, en- 
tire at margins and with small blue-purple or pinkish flower in loose 
terminal, leafy clusters. Corolla tubular, crested in throat, 5-lobed. 
Ovary 4-lobed, rounded; style 1. Nutlets fleshy not armed with prickles. 

P. maritima, (L.) Hill. (Fig. 7, pi. 127.) Sea Lungwort. Oyster 
Plant. P>ranches spreading 3 to 15 in. long, pale green. Leaves thick, 
fleshy, egg-shaped, oblong or pear-shaped, obtuse at apex. Flowers blue 
or purple. Sandy sea shores, rare. Long Island, Mass., and northward. 


5. MERTENSIA, Roth. 

Perennial herbs, stem and leaves usually smooth. Leaves alternate, 
sometimes dotted with pelucid dots. Flowers in slender or spreading 
clusters. Corolla tubular, spreading above, 5-lobed, without scales at the 
throat. Stamens 5, inserted at the top of the tube. Nutlets smooth; 
ovary 4-lobed. 

M. virginica, (L.) Link. (Fig. 9, pi. 127.) Virginia Cowslip. Stem 
somewhat decumbent or erect, very smooth, branched, 1 to 2 ft. high. 
Leaves, the lower large, 2 to 5 in. long, obversely or directly egg-shaped, 
lower on leaf-stems, the upper without. Flowers in terminal cluster not 
one-sided ; corolla trumpet-shaped, blue io lilac, handsome, about 1 in. 
long, erect or pendant. Nutlets rounded, not prickly. Moist places, most 
of our area. March-May. 


Low herbs, branching, somewhat decumbent or erect, hairy or downy. 
Flowers in slender curved clusters, spikes not bracted, or with a few small 
bracts at base of cluster. Calyx 5-cleft; corolla funnel- or salver-form, 
border of 5 lobes, throat closed by scales. Stamens 5, inserted into lower 
part of corolla tube. Nutlets egg-shaped, smooth. 

Hairs on the calyx minute and straight. 

Lobes of calyx shorter than calyx tube M. scorpioides 

Lobes as long as tube M. laxa 

Hairs on calyx stift and bent backward at end. 

Fruit-stems longer than calyx M. arvensis 

Fruit-stems shorter than calyx. 

Corolla yellow, changing to bluish M. versicolor 

Corolla white M. virginica 

1. M. scorpioides, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 128.) Forget- me-not. (M. palus- 
tris, (L. ) Lam.) Plant downy or nearly smooth, leaves lance-shaped or 
oblong, blunt at apex. Flowers in one-sided curved spikes (XII, p. 38) ; 
corolla blue with a yellow eye. Escaped from gardens. In brooks and 
marshes, more especially in the northern half of our area. May-July. 

2. M. laxa, Lehm. (Fig. 2, pi. 128.) Smaller Forget-me-not, 
Leaves long and narrow, blunt at apex. Flowers in very loose curved 
spikes, the fruit stem much longer than the calyx which has short soft 
hair.s. Corolla blue with yellow center. In luuddy places and in water 
throughout our range. May-July. 

3. M. arvensis, (L.) Hill. Lam. Field Scorpion Grass. Very 
hairy, leaves long and narrow; the hairs on the calyx stiff and turned 
back at end. Stem of fruit much longer than calyx. Corolla blue. Moist 
fields, northern part of our area. June-Aug. 

4. M. versicolor, (Persh.) Reichenb. (Fig. 3, pi 128.) Yellow 
AND Blue Scorpion Grass. Stem slender, leaves long and narrow. Plant 
very hairy; slender flower spikes without bracts; calyx 5-partcd; corolla 
pale yellow, changing to violet; stem of fruit not as long as calyx. Fields 
and roadsides, gouthern part of our area. May-July. 

5. M. virginica, (L.) BSP. (Fig. 4, pi. 128.) Spring Scorpion 
Grass. Very hairy; lower leaves spatula-form. Calyx longer than the 
fruit stem. Flowers white. Dry hills, northern part of our area. April- 



Plate 128 
1. Myosotis scorpioides. 2. ]M. laxa. 3. M. versicolor. 4. M. virginica. 5. 
Lithosix'rmum arvense. 6. L, latifoliiim. 7. L. canescens. 8. L. officinale. 9. 
Oiaosinodium hispidissimum. 10. O. virginianum. 



Hairy herbs, the hairs soft or rigid. Stems from a thick reddish root. 
Flowers white, yellow or blue, in leafy spikes or terminal spreading 
clusters. Calyx 5-parted; corolla funnel- or salver-form, border 5-lobed. 
Stamens 5, included in the corolla; head of pistil bifid; nutlets 4, horny, 
rough or smooth. 

Flowers white. 

Nutlets brown L. arvense 

Nutlets white. 

Leaves lance-shaped L. officinale 

Leaves egg-shaped, the flowers yellowish-white . . . L. latifolium 
Flowers yellow. 

Corolla tube bearded within L. Gmelini 

Corolla tube not bearded L. ccincscens 

1. L. arvense, L. (Fig. 5, pi. 128.) Corn Gromwell. Stem erect, 
Visually branched, 12 to 15 in. high. Whole plant hairy, the stems rough 
hairy, leaves downy. Leaves alternate, narrow lance-shaped, 1 to 2 in. 
long, obtuse at apex, without leaf-stems. Flowers small, white in the 
axils of the upper leaves. Nutlets brown, hard, shining. A weed, in waste 
places, May-Aug. 

2. L. officinale, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 128.) Officinale Gromwell. Stem 
very branching, 1 to 2 ft. high ; leaves lance-shaped, sharp pointed at 
apex. Flowers small, white in leaf-axils. Whole plant hairy, rough; 
leaves gray-green. Nutlets white. Waste places, in most of our range. 

3. L. latifolium, Michx. (Fig. 6, pi. 128.) Broad-leaved Grom- 
well. Stems erect not much branched. Leaves round egg-shajjed, taper- 
ing at each end. Flowers at leaf-axils, yellowish-white or white. Corolla 
crested at throat of tube. Nutlets shining white dotted with small points. 
Dry woods and thickets, New York and northward and westward. May- 

4. L. Gmelini, (Michx.) Hitchcock. Hairy Gromwell. Stems erect, 
usually clustered, 1 to 2 ft. high, hairy. Leaves lance-shaped sharp 
pointed at apex, no leaf-stem. Flowers nearly an inch long in terminal 
spreading clusters; corolla yellow; calj'x segments about A as long as 
corolla tube. Dry woods. New York and westward, April-June. 

5. L. canescens, (Michx.) Lehm. (Fig. 7, pi. 128.) Hoary Puc- 
COON. Stems in clusters 6 to 18 in. high, hairy with soft hairs. Leaves 
lance-shaped rather sharp at apex, without leaf-stem. Flowers handsome, 
yellow, crowded near the top of the stem. Corolla not bearded at throat; 
nutlets white, shining. Dry places, throughout most of our range. April- 

8. ONOSMODIUM, Michx. 

Coarse hairy herbs, willi Mlleniatc, strongly veined leaves, without 
leaf-stems. Flowers in one-sided, more or less coiled spikes or loose one- 
sided clusters. Calyx 5-parted, the divisions linear; corolla tubular, or 
funnel-form, without crest at throat. Stamens 5, inserted in the tube 
or at the throat of the corolla, not extending beyond the corolla. Nut- 
lets bony, white, smooth, 4, of which generally only one is perfected. 

1. O. hispidissimum, Mackenzie. (Fig. 9, pi. 128.) SriAociY False 
Gromwell. (O. carolinianum, DC.) Plant, 1 to 3 ft. hiyh, the whole 


plant shaggy with long, spreading, loose hairs. Leaves broad lance- 
shaped, acute at apex; corolla tubular, 5-lobed, the lobes sharp pointed 
the points hairy outside. Flowers yellowish-white. Dry fields, woods 
and thickets, Mass., and southward. May-July. 

2. O. virginianum, (L.) DC. (Fig. 10, pi. 128.) Virginia False 
Gromwell. Similar to No. 1, but leaves blunt at apex, and lobes of 
corolla narrow, awl-shaped, very sparingly hairy on outside. Flowers 
yellowish-white. New York, New England and southward. May-July. 


Coarse hairy perennial herbs, with thick bitter mucilaginous roots, the 
clusters of flowers somewhat one-sided and nodding. Corolla tubular, 
inflated above, the border more or less spreading, the throat closed with 
the 5 very narrow, awl-like scales. Calyx, 5-pleft, the segments narrow. 
Flowers yellow, blue or purple. Stamens 5, inserted on corolla tube, not 
extending beyond tube. Style 1, thread-form. Nutlets 4, smooth. 

S. officinale, L. (Fig. 8, pi. 129.) Comfret. Whole plant very 
hairy, stem 2 to 3 ft. high. Leaves broad lance-shaped, the lower nearly 
a foot long on narrow leaf-stalk, the upper shorter without leaf-stalk, 
the insertion extending down the stem, forming wings. Flowers in rather 
spreading clusters, yellowish or purplish. Moist places, escaped from gar- 
dens. June-Aug. 

10. BORAGO, L. 

Hairy herbs, with alternate leaves and star-shaped, showy blue flowers 
in loose terminal clusters. Calyx 5-parted, deeply cleft, hairy; corolla 
wheel-shaped, with the 5 acute lobes forming a star, the tube shallow. 
Stamens 5, inserted into tube of corolla, the 5 anthers cohering about the 
pistil. Nutlets 4, smooth. 

B. officinalis, L. (Fig. 1, pi. 129.) Borage. Stem 1 to 2 ft. high; 
leaves oblong to egg-shaped, 2 to 5 in. long without leaf-stalks, mostly 
clasping the stem. Flowers bright blue. Escaped from gardens. June- 


Bristly herbs, with alternate leaves and small blue flowers. Calyx 
5-parted; corolla somewhat irregular, tubular, the tube curved, the border 
5-lobed; throat closed with scales. Nutlets 4, wrinkled. 

L. arvensis, L. (Fig. 2, pi. 129.) Small Bugloss. Stem branched, 
1 to 2 ft. high, covered with stilf hairs. Leaves alternate with stiff hairs, 
lance-shaped or narrowly oblong, obtuse at apex, without leaf-stalks. 
Flowers in a narrow crowded, one-sided coiled spike. Fields and waste 
places, generally in our area. June-Sept. 

12. ECHIUM, L. 

Plants covered with bristly hairs, with alternate leaves and with rather 
large, blue or rarely white, flowers in leafy, more or less one-sided clusters. 
Calyx 5-parted, corolla tubular, spreading at border, 5-toothed or lobed, 
the lobes unequal. Stamens 5, inserted low in corolla tube, unequal in 


length, the longer ones extending beyond the corolla tube. Nutlets 4, 

E. vulgare, L. (Fig. 3, pi. 129.) Blue Weed. Viper's Bugi.oss. 
Soniewliat branching, 1 to 2 ft. high. Flowers showy, blue, varying to 
reddish-purple; corolla about an inch long, lobes unequal. Leaves lance- 
shaped, pointed at apex, A weed in fields and waste places. June-July- 

Order VI.— VERBENINALES. Order of the Vervanes 

Flowers mostly irregular. Carpel or nutlet usually containing 
2 seeds or rarely 1 seed. Leaves mostly opposite or in whorls. 
Fruit mostly dry carpels. Flowers not in one-sided spikes. In 
other respects the characters of this order are similar to the pre- 
ceding (of which this is a sub-order, according to Engler, but 
here advanced to an order in the interest of simplicity and con- 

Nutlets 1- to 2-seeded. 
Corolla 2-lipped. 

Ovary not lobed, 2- to 4-celled . . VERBENACEAE 
Ovary 4-lobed around the style, the lobes ripening 

into 1-seeded nutlets LABIATAE 

Nutlets several seeded. 

Flowers regular, stamens 5; ovary 2-celled SOLANACEAE 
Flowers more or less irregular, mostly 2-]ippe(l ; stamens 


Flowers 2-lipped. Marsh or water plants without leaves 
or with leaves, mostly thread-like at tlie root 


Flowers 2-lipped, plants nearly destitute of green, para- 

Flowers trumpet-shaped, somewliat irregular; vines mid 


Corolla 5-lobed, nearly regular, 2-lippcd, stamens 4, 2 
long, 2 short; ovary 2-celled, the cells several seeded 


Corolla nearly cylindric, 2-lipped; ovary 1-celled, 1- 
seeded. Calyx in fruiting season reflexed to side of 



Plate 129 
1 Boracro officinalis. 2. Lycopsis arvensis. 3. Ecliium vulgare. 4 \ er- 
bena urticifolia. 5. V. hastata. G. V. angustifolia. 7 V. officinalis 8. 
Symphytum officinale. 9. Lippa lanceolata. 


Family I.— VERBENACEAE. Vervain Family 

American species, herbs, rarely shrubs, with opposite or whorled 
leaves. Corolla of our species 4- or 5-lobed, generally regular or 
more or less 2-lippe(l, generally with a cylindric tube and spread- 
ing 4- or 5-lobed border. Stamens attached to corolla tube gen- 
erally not the same number as the corolla lobes, often 4, 2 of which 
are longer than the other 2. Sometimes there are 2 stamens and 
in other cases 5, alternate with the corolla lobes. Pistil simple 
with one or two caps (stigmas). Ovary superior to the calyx and 
corolla; the fruit composed of 2 nutlets (carpels) wliich at ma- 
turity split into 4. 


American species, herbs. Leaves opposite or in whorls, with notched 
or deeply incised borders. Flowers in slender spikes; corolla usually 
slightly 2-lipped, Slobed border and with a curved or straight tube. 
Stamens 4; 2 long, 2 shorter, rarely 2 only. Ovary 4-celled with a single 
ovule in each cell. Fruit at first a single nutlet, which at length divides 
into 4, each 1 -seeded. 

Flowers blue or purple. 

Margins of leaves deeply incised V. ofRcinalis 

Margins of leaves notched. 

Leaves egg-shaped V. hasfata 

Leaves obversely lance-shaped V. angustifoHa 

Flowers white V- urticifolia 

1. V. hastata, L. (l^'ig- 5, pi. 129.) Blue Vervain. Perennial, 
rather rough; stems erect, slightly branching; leaves opposite, broad 
lance-shaped or egg-shaped with coarse teeth at margins. Flowers dark 
blue in slender sjiikes, several of which at summit of stem form a more 
or less pyramidal outline. Low wet grounds, throughout our region. 

2. V. officinalis, L. (Fig. 7, pi. 129.) European Vervain. Flowers 
on slender spikes similar to those of No. 1, but spikes few. Leaves deeply 
incised. Otherwise quite similar to No. 1. Moist grounds, generally 
distributed. June-Sept. 

3. V. angustifolia, Michx. (Fig. 6, pi. 129.) Narrow-leaved Ver- 
vain. Si>ik(! of purj)U! (lowers usually solitary. Leaves narrow, linear, 
broadest toward apex, the margin toward apex, notched. Dry fields, 
Mass., southward. June-Aug. 

4. V. urticifolia, L. (Eig. 4, pi. 129.) White Vervain. General 
aspect of plant similar to No. 1, but flowers white. Waste places, through- 
out our region. Junc-Sept. 

2. LIPPIA, L. 

Herbs and shrubs. Leaves opposite or in wliorls, rarely alternate. 
Flowers small, each attended by a bract, in compact heads or spikes. 
Calyx small, membraneous, 2- to 4-cleft; corolla 2-lipped with 4 lobes, 
the lower one often partly divided. Stamens 4, of dilFcrent lengths. 


Ovary 2-celled with a single ovule in each cell. Style short. Fruit at 
length separating into 4 nutlets. 

L. lanceolata, Michx. (Fig. 9, pi. 129.) Fog Fruit. Stem procum- 
bent, rooting at the nodes, the erect part little if at all branched. Smooth 
or with a few hairs. Leaves opposite, lance-shaped, notched at margins. 
Flowers blue, in rounded heads. Moist soil, New Jersey, westward and 
southward. June-Aug. 

Family II.— LABIATAE. Mint Family 

In our region all the labiates are herbs, with opposite leaves 
without stipules, generally the stem is 4-sided. Many of these 
herbs are aromatic. Flowers are, in general, irregular. The calyx, 
5-parted, is regular or irregular, in the latter case the divisions are 
more or less 2-lipped, the upper being of 3, the lower of 3 teeth. 
Corolla tubular, expanding above into 2 lips, the upper of 2 lobes 
which often coalesce to the extent of appearing as one; the lower 
of 3 distinct lobes. Stamens borne on the tube of the corolla, 
mostly 4, two of which are longer than the other two (didynam- 
ous). Sometimes the anterior (lower) pair is longer than the 
upper and less frequently the posterior (upper) pair is longest. 
In a certain number of species one pair of stamens is sterile or 
absent. The pollen sacs are usually double, lying parallel with 
each other along the fdament or diverging from each other, form- 
ing with the filament a sort of cross. The ovary is always above 
and free from the calyx ; it is 4-lobed or deeply divided into 4 
parts. Fruit 4 one-seeded nutlets. 

1. The Mint Tribe 
Corolla of 4 nearly equal lobes, one of which is concave or plane 
at top. Stamens 4, 2 longer than the other pair. 

Stamens all fertile Mentha 

Two stamens fertile, two rudimentary Lycopus 

2. The Thyme Tribe 
Corolla clearly 2-lipped; the upper lip plane or feebly concave; sta- 
mens 4, straight or divergent, the anterior or lower pair the 

Creeping herb, leaves very small Thymus 

Erect herbs. 

Calyx tubular, with 5 equal teeth, 15-nerved. Longest 
stamens extending much beyond the corolla. Leaf mar- 
gin not incised or toothed Hyssopus 

Calj'x oval bell-shaped with 5 nearly equal teeth, 10- to 

Anther sacs divergent Origanum 

Anther sacs parallel Pycnanthemum 


3. Balm Tribe 

Corolla clearly 2-lipped; upper lip plane or only slightly concave. 

Stamens 4, diverying at base, converging above, the anterior • 

(lower) pair longest. 
Calyx with 5 equal teeth, bell-shaped, naked at the throat, 

10-ncrved; corolla tube straight Satureia 

Calyx tubular (not bell-shaped), 2-lipped, mostly 13-ncrved; corolla 

tube much longer than calyx, naked or hairy at throat; anther 

sacs divergent Clinopodium 

Calyx somewliat bell-shaped, 2-lipped; corolla tube curved. Stamens 

scarcely extending beyond tube. Anther sacs divergent . . Melissa 

^. The Sage Tribe 

Corolla clearly 2-lipped; fertile stamens 2 only, the other pair when, 
existent reduced to rudimentary organs. 
The two sacs of the anthers divergent. 

Between the two sacs of the anther is a bridge of connec- 
tion as broad as the anther sac. At one extremity is a 

fertile sac, at the other a sterile one Salvia 

The connection between the two anther sacs is not broad or 

well developed, the two sacs coalescing at their extremities. 

Superior lip of the corolla erect or arched. Calyx tubular, 

15-nerved, the teeth equal Monakda 

Calyx 13-nerved, the teeth unequal. Throat of corolla tube 
not hairy, the two stamens extending beyond the upper 

lip Blephilia 

Stamens not extending beyond the upper lip. Throat of 

corolla hairy Hedeoma 

The two anther sacs parallel; calyx equally 5-toothed, corolla 

tube hairy Cunila 

5. The Hedge-Nettle Tribe 

Corolla plainly 2-lippcd; the upper lip concave. Stamens 4; the 
anterior (lower) pair longest. Stamens approaching above under 
the upper lip of the corolla. 

Calyx not distinctly 2-lipped, teeth 3 to 10. 

Calyx nearly equally 5-toothed, the teeth membraneous; anther 

cells parallel to the filaments PiiysostegiA 

Anterior branch of the style longer than the posterior . Piilomis 
Branches of the style nearly equal. 

Anthers with 2 equal sacs wliich are divergent. 

Teeth of the calyx spiny Leonurus 

Teeth of the calyx not spiny Lamium 

Anthers with divergent sacs each of which is transversely 

2-valved Galeopsis 

Anther sacs divergent, but not transversely 2-valved. 

Calyx funnel-form, the 5 teeth spreading into a fringe; 

anther sacs divergent Ballota 

Corolla tube not longer than the calyx, anther sacs di- 
vergent; filaments lean outward Stacuys 


Calyx tube 5- to 10-nerved, corolla tvibe longer than the 
calyx. Anther sacs parallel. Lower leaf-stalks very 
long Betonica 

6. The Skullcap Tribe 

Corolla 2-lipped. Stamens 4, shorter than the upper lip of the 
corolla and ascending under it. The upper lip arched over sta- 

Calj^ deeply 2-lipped, 10-nerved, upper lip of 3 short teeth, 

lower of 2 lance-shaped teeth Prunella 

Calyx with a protuberance on the upper side . . . Scutellaria 
Calyx without a protuberance. 

Calyx spiny-pointed Marrubium 

Calyx not spiny-pointed Meehania 

7. The Catmint Tribe 

Corolla 2-lipped; stamens 4, the posterior (upper) longest. Anther 
cells divergent or parallel. Stamens shorter or scarcely longer 
than the upper lip of the corolla. 

Calyx tubular with 5 sharp teeth, not 2-lipped, but the upper 

2 teeth longer than tlie 3 lower, 15-nerved, erect plant . Nepeta 
Anther sacs diverging and at right angles to the connecting 

bridge. Creeping herb Glecoma 

Calyx with 5 sharp teeth, the upper largest, the whole calyx 

covered with long hairs. Calyx tubular, 15-nerved Dracocephalum 
Anther cells parallel or nearly so. Very tall herbs, with long 

cyliudric clusters of flowers Agastache 

8. Horse Balm Tribe 

Of the 5 lobes of the corolla 4 are nearly equal, while the 5th is 

very long and dependent, its border fringed .... Collinsonia 

9. Wood Sage Tribe 

Corolla border very irregular, stamens 4, extending beyond the tube 
of the corolla, the anterior longer. Calyx 5- to 10-nerved. 

Corolla border very irregular; tube straight; the upper lip very 

short Ajuga 

Corolla border very irregular, the tube and parts of the border 

hairy, stamens longer than corolla . . . . . . Teucrium 

Corolla small, with spreading lobes; calyx short; stamens very 

much longer than corolla Triciiostema 

Calyx tubular, corolla small, the lobes distinct and rounded, 

stamens shorter than corolla Isanthus 

:j: Corolla of 4 nearly equal divisions, one of which is concave at the sum- 
mit. Stamens -i, in Mentha a