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Full text of "The illustrated hand-book, a new guide for travelers through the United States of America: containing a description of the states, cities, towns, villages, watering places, colleges, etc., etc.,; with the railroad, stage, and steamboat routes, the distances from place to place, and the fares on the great traveling routes. Embellished with 125 highly finished engravings. Accompanied by a large and accurate map"

s 

University of California Berkeley 



THE 

ILLUSTRATED HAND-BOOK, 

A 

Jfou) nitre for rat)elers 

THROUGH THE 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: 

CONTAINING A 

DESCRIPTION OF THE STATES, CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, WATERING 

PLACES, COLLEGES, ETC., ETC. ; WITH THE RAILROAD, STAGE, 

AND STEAMBOAT ROUTES, THE DISTANCES FROM PLACE 

TO PLACE, AND THE FARES ON THE GREAT 

TRAVELING ROUTES. 

Hmbellfo&etr toftf) 125 Wtfbly> ffnfsfjeti Hitfltatofnsa. 

ACCOMPANIED BY 

A LARGE AND ACCURATE MAP. 
BY if CALVIN SMITH. 




NEW YORK: 

PUBLISHED BY SHERMAN & SMITH, 

122 BROADWAY, COR. CEDAR-STREET, 

1847. 



A ' 



To PUBLISHERS. The proprietors of this work, having been 
at great expense in collecting the matter contained in this volume, 
which is mostly original, would respectfully remind persons 
who are getting up similar publications, that the copyright has 
been regularly secured according to the Act of the United States 
Congress. 

To BOOKSELLERS AND DEALERS. Any person or persons selling 
copies of a work which is an infringement of an existing copy- 
right, are liable to a fine on each copy sold by them. 

This work will be revised twice yearly, and all the latest infor- 
mation, relating to the railroads, stage-routes, &c., inserted. 

SHERMAN & SMITH. 

#3" ForJTable of foreign coins, and the value of American coins 
in English, French, and German currency, see page 234. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, by 

SHERMAN & SMITH, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 
District of New York. 



PECK & STAFFORD, Printers, 
New Karen, Conn. 



3-7 



. 

Bancroft Library 

PREFACE. 



IN presenting to the public a work like the present, it is ex- 
pected that the compiler should give some account of the grounds 
on which he rests his claim to attention. The materials for this 
little volume have mostly been drawn from official documents and 
from information procured by agents who have travelled over 
most of the territory herein described, and it will hence be found 
as perfect as it is possible for a work of this character to be made. 
The illustrations, which are mostly original, or have been carefully 
selected from the most faithful representations, are engraved 
in the best style by eminent artists, and will bear comparison 
with the most finished specimens of the art. They exhibit views 
of the most remarkable natural scenery, cities, colleges, fcc. 
These engravings will be found of great utility, conveying as 
they do a far better idea of the objects than could be derived 
from the most labored description. The directions for Travellers, 
printed in italics, and following the description of each place, 
will prove very useful, especially the time of arrival and de- 
parture of cars, steamboats, and stages at and from each place ; 
these, with the prices of fare, have been arranged with the greatest 
care, and may be relied upon for their accuracy. The Railroads, 
with the Depots, and the distances between them, are shown in 
the Tables of Routes, and will also be found, together with all the 
Steamboat and Stage Routes, accurately delineated on the ac- 
companying Map. Great labor has been bestowed in collating 
and adjusting, in the most minute manner, on the Map, a larger 
amount of correct information than can be found iu any similar 
work, in so condensed a form. 



RAILROADS. 

By referring to the number of route in the body of the work, from the 
last column of this table, the length of the road in operation may be found, 
with the name of each depot and the distances between. Those Rail- 
roads not having a reference are not in operation in any portion. 



Names of Railroads. 


State. 


From 


To 


Ms. No. of 
ong Route. 


Albany&W. Stockbridge N. Y. 


Greenbush 


Mass. S. Line 


38i 52,144 


Alabama, Florida &- Geo. 


Flor. 


Pensacola 


Montgomery, Ala. 


56 r 


Alexandria &. Cheneyv. 


La. 


Alexandria 


CheneVille 


30" Trans* 


Annapolis &, Elk Ridge 
Athens Br. Geo. R. R. 


Md. 


Washington Br. 
Jnion Point 


Annapolis 
Athens 


20 267 
39 ; 384 


Atlantic &. St. Lawrence 


Me.' 


Portland 


Montreal, Can. 






Attica and Buffalo . . 


N. Y. 


Attica 


Buffalo 


31 


150,205 


Attica and Hornellsville 


it 


N.Y.& Erie R.R. 


Attica 


60 




Auburn and Rochester 


it 


Auburn 


Rochester 


78 


150,205 


Auburn and Syracuse . 
Alton and Shelbyville . 


111. 


Syracuse 
Alton 


Auburn 
Shelbyville 


26 


150,205 


Alton and Shawneetown 






Shawneetown 


145 




Baltimore and Ohio . . 


Md. 


Baltimore 


Wheeling, Va. 


!t)ti 


264,336 


Bait, and Susquehanna 


it 


ii 


Penn. State Line 


30 


247,260 


Bangor and Old Town 
Bear Mountain . . . 


Me. 
Pa. 


Bangor 
Dauphin 


Old Town 
Bearrnont 


10 

28 


4 
Trans. 


Beaver Meadow . . . 


ii 


Perryv.lle 


Beaver Meadow 


26 


ii 


Berkshire 


flass 


Conn. Sute Line 


West Stockbridge 


23 


118 


Bloomirigton and Pekin 


111.' 


Bloomington 








Bordentown, Trenton Br. 


N.J. 


Bordentowa 


Trenton 


6 


206 


Boston and Lowell . . 






Lowell 


25 a 3 


27 


Boston and Maine . . 






S. Berwick, Me. 


72 


4, 21 


Boston and Providence 


it 


ii 


Providence, R. 1. 


42" 


67,85 


Boston and Worcester . 






Worcester 


44 


121,144 


Branch of Central . . 


111. 


Shelbyville 


Indiana State Line 


71 .1 




Buffalo & Niagara Falls 


N. Y. 


Buffalo 


Niagara Falls 


22" 


199 


Cahawba and Marion . 


Ala. 


Cahawba 


Manon 


27' 




Canal Railroad . . . 


Conn. 


New Haven 


Pittsfield, Mass. 






Camden and Amboy 


N.J. 


South Amboy 


Camden 


61 


207 


Camden and Woodburv 
Camden Br. S. C. R. R. 


S. C. 


Camden 
Columbia Branch 


Woodbury 


9 
30 


219 


Carbondale .... 


Pa. 


Carbondale 


Honesdale 


16, 


235 


Carrolton 


La. 


New Orleans 


La Fayette 


4", 


440 


Catawissa 


Pa. 


Tamaqua 


Catawissa 


U 


Trans. 


Central . . 


Mass. 


Greenfield 


Burlino-ton, Vt. 


1 "J | 




Central 


Pa. 




PittsbuV"' 


' ;>i ! ' 




Central 


Va. 


Richmond 


Guyandotte 


KM 




Central 




Macon 


\'.">M 


379,401 


Central . . . 


Mich. n.itrnit 


New Buffalo 




542* 


Central 


III. 


Cairo 


Galena 


4S6 




Champlain and Conn. R. 


Vt. 


Burlington 


Bellows Falls 


Itol 




Champln&St. Lawrence 


Can. 


St. Johns 


La Prairie 


15* 


129, C. 


Chesterfield .... 


Va. Manchester 


Coal mine 


13, 




Cheshire 


N. H. Fitzwill.am 


Bellows Falls 


45 




Chicopee Branch . . 


Mass. Conn. R. R. 


Chicopee Falls 


2 


62 


Chippewa&-Queenstown 


Can. Chippewa 


Queenstown 


10 1 205,0. 


Cayuga & Susquehanna 
City Point 


N. Y. Ithaca 
Va. ^Petersburg- 


Owego 
City Point 


284 134,136 
y ,294 


Clinton and Port Hudson 


La. iPort Hudson 




28 Trans. 


Columbia 


Pa. IPhiladelphia 


Columbia 


82 '223 


Columbia Br.S. C. R.R. 


S. C. [Branchville 


Columbia 


66 368 


Connecticut River . . 
Concord 


Mass. Springfield 
N. H.i Nashua 


Greenfield 
Concord 


36 62 
35 27 


Cumberland Valley . . 


Pa. 


Harrisbure- 


Chambersburg 


60 225,246 


Dedham Branch . . . 


Mass. 


B. and P. R. R. 


Dedham 


2 ! 67 


Detroit and Pu.itiac . . 


Mich. 


Detroit 


Pontiac 


25 540 


Eastern 


Mass. 


Boston 


Portsmouth, N. H 


51 


I, 21 


Elizabetht'n&,Somerville 
Erie and Kalarnazoo 


N.J. 
Ohio. 


Eliza be thport 
Toledo 


Somerville 
Adrian, Mich. 


26 
33 


210 
550 



The Railroads referred to thus [Trans.] are used for transportation of coal, &c. 





Mass. 


Fall River 


N. Braintree 42 leS.70 1 


Fitchburg 


Pa. 


^harlestown 
Chambersburg 
B. and O. R. R. 


Fitchburg 
Williamsport, Md 
Frederick 


49$ 
30 

*i 


37 
246 
263 


Frederick Branch . . 


Md. 


Franklin and Bristol . 


N. H. 


Northern R. R. 


Bristol 


12 




Galena and Chicago . 
Georgia 


111. 
Geo. 


Chicago 
Augusta 


Atlanta 


100 
171 


185,499 


Gloucester Branch . . 


Mass 


Beverly 


Gloucester 


If 




Grand Gulf & Pt. Gibson 


Miss. 


errand Gulf 


Port Gibson 


71 


). 158 


Great Falls Branch . . 


N. H. 


Somersworth 


jreat Falls 


3" 


3 


Gettysburg Extension . 
Greenville and Roanoke 


Pa. 

Va, 


Gettysburg 
Hicksford 


hlagerstown, Md. 
Gaston, N. C. 


41} 
17* 


292,349 


Great Western . . . 


Can. 


Niagara R. 


Sandwich 


no 




Harlem . 


N Y. 


New York 


Albany 


144 


126 


Hartford & New Haven 


Conn. 


New Haven 


Mass. State Line 


56J 


65,123 


Hartford and Springfield 
Harrisburg & Lancaster 

Hazleton 


Mass. 


Springfield 
Lancaster 
Hazleton 


Conn. State Line 
Harrisburg 
Hazleton mines 


6 
36 
10 


65,123 
223 
Trans. 


Hempstead Branch . . 
Hiawassee 


N. Y. 
Tenn. 


L. Island R. R. 
Knoxville 


tiempstead 
Cross Plains, Geo. 


4 


121 










73 


118,124 


Hudson and Berkshire . 


V. Y'. 


Hudson 


* 


31 


142 


Hudson River .... 


i< 


New York 


Albany 


145 




Jackson and Brandon . 


Miss. 


Jackson 


Brandon 


12 


471 


Kennebec and Portland 
La Grange and Memphis 


Me. 
Tem.. 


Portland 
Memphis 


Augusta 
La Grunge 


58 
63 




Lawrenceb'g&Indianap. 
Lewiston 


la. 

N. Y. 


Lawrencetrurg 
Lockport R. R. 


Indianapolis 
Lewiston 


100 
3 


199 


Lexington &. W. Camb. 
Lexington and Ohio 


Mass. 
Ky. 


Lexington 
Frankfort 


W. Cambridge 
Lexington 


7 
28 


37 

504 


Lehighaud Susquehanna 


Pa. 


Wilkesbarre 


White Haven 


20 


227 


Linden and Demopolis 


Ala. 


Linden 


Demopolis 


12 




Little Schuylkill . . . 
Little Miami .... 


Pa. 
Ohio. 


Port Clinton 


Tamaqua 
Spr.ngfield 


2s) 

84 


Trans. 
338 


Lockp't &, Niagara Falls 


N. Y. 


Lockport 


Niagara Falls 


24 


195 


Long Island .... 




Brooklyn 


Greenport 


96 


121 


Louisa 


Va. 


Potomac R. R. 


Gordonsville 


35 


288 J 


Macon and Western . 


Geo. 


Macon 


Atlanta 


101 


382,387 


Madison &. Indianapolis 
Mad River 


la. 
Ohio 


Madison 
Springfield 


Indianapolis 
Sandusky City 


Bl 

1 34 


530,534 
338 


Mansfield and Sandusky 




Sandusky 


Mansfiuld 


56 


338* 


Marblehead Branch . . 


Maes. 


Salem 


Marblehead 


3 


1 


Mauch Chunk . . . 


Pa. 


Mauch Chunk 


Coal mines 


9 


Trans. 


MemphisBr.W&A.R.R. 


Geo. 


Kingston 


Rome 


18 


499 


Mexican Gulf. . . . 


La. 


New Orleans 


Pascagoula Sound 


60 




Milbury Branch . . . 
Mine Hill 


Mass. 
Pa. 


B. and W. R. R. 
Schuvlkill Haven 


Milbury 
Mine Hill Gap 


li 

20 


52 
Trans. 




Miss 


Natchez 




140 


466 


Mine Hin&,Scnuylkiil H. 


Pa. 


Schuylkill Haven 


Coal mines 


HI 


Trans. 


Mohawk and Hudson . 


N. Y. 


Albany 


Schenectady 


16 


150,20$ 


Montgomery & West Pt. 


Ala. 


Montgomery 


West Point, Geo. 


85 


387,422 


Morris and "Essex . . 


N. J. 


Newark 


Morristown 




208 


Mount Carbon . . . 


Pa. 


Mu Carbon 


Coal mines 


I 


Trans. 


Muscogee 


Geo. 


Barnesville 


Columbus 


65 




Nashua and Lowell . . 


Maes. 


Lowell 


Nashua, N. H. 




27 


Nashville ^Chattanooga 
New Bedford & Taunton 


MM?.' 


Nashville 
New Bedford 


Chattanooga 
Taunton 


20 


68 


Newburgh Branch . . 


N. Y. 


N. Y. &E. R. R. 


Newburg 






New OrleansCity . . 


Lou. 


New Orleans 


Streets S 


j i 




N. Orleans & Nashville 




u 


Lou. State Line 


63 j 




N. Orleans <fc L. Borgne 


u 


it 


Lake Borgne 


5 




New York and Erie . . 


N. Y. 


Piermont 


Dunkirk 




131 


N. York and New Haven 




New York 


New Haven, Ct. 


78 




New Jersey .... 


N. J. 


Jersey City 
New Castle 


New Brunswick 
Frenchlown, Md. 


34 
16] 


135,231 
230 


New Castle &, French T. 


Del. 


N. Pittsb'rg&Mississipp 


III. 


Mississippi R. 


Coal mines 


6 


Traus. 


North Carolina . . . 


N. C. 


Raleigh 


Camden, S. C. 


150 




Northern 


N. H. 




Lebanon 


68 






N. Y. 
111. 


Plattsburg 
Quincy 


Ogdensburg 
Indiana State Line 


230 


566 


Northern Cross Road . 


Norwich and Worcester 
Ocmulgee and Flint . 


Mass. 
Geo. 


Worcester 
Spalding 


Allyns Pt., Conn. 
Albany 


66 
60 


66,121 1 



Ohio 


Ohio 


Conneaut 


Manhattan 


177 




Old Colony .... 




Boston 


Plymouth 


37 


69 


Paterson and Hudson . 


N. j'. 


2i from Jersey City 


Pa'terson 


14 


134 


Palmvra & Jacksonburg 
Philadelphia & Trenton 


Mich. 
Pa. 


Palmvra 
Philadelphia 


Jacksonburg 
Trenton, N. J. 


46 
28 


135,206 


Phila.Wilmingt'n&Balt. 






Baltimore, Md. 


97 


135,278 


Phila.Ger.T.&NorrisT. 


M 


H 


Norristowu 


21 


221 


Phila. Readmsr&Pottsv. 








Pottsville 


92 


221 


PliiladelphiaCitv . . 






Streets 


6 


City 


Peoria and Warsaw . 


111. 


Peoria 


Warsaw 


116 




Petersburg and Roanoke 


Va. 


Petersburg 


Blakely, N. C. 


63 


273 


Pittsfield&North Adams 


Mass. 


Pittsfield 


North Adams 


20 




Pontchanrain . . . . 


La. 


New Orleans 


L. Pontchartrain 






Portland and Augusta . 


Me. 


Portland 


Augusta 






Portsmouth & Roanoke 


Va. 


Portsmouth 


P rtsmouth N H 
Weldon, N.'c.' 


51 

78 2 


1,21 

297,342 


Ports. & Roanoke Exten. 


N. C. 


Weldon 


Littleton 






Portage 
Pottsville and Danville 


Pa. 


Holiidaysburg 
Sunbury 


Johnstown 
Shamokm 


36 

20, 


p. 230 
Trans. 


Providence & Worcester 


R. I. 


Providence 


Worcester, Mass. 






Qumcy 


Mass. 
Mich. 


Cluincy 
Monroe 


Neponsett R. 
Lake Erie 


3 

4 


Trans. 


Raisin River & L. Erie 


Raleigh and Gaston 


N. C. 


Raleigh 




84] 


292 


Raymond Branch . . 


Miss. 


Boulton 


Raymond 


6 


470 


Ramapo 


N. J. 




N. Y. &- E. R. R 






Rensselaer and Saratoga 
Richmond and Potomac 


N. Y. 
Va. 


Troy 
Richmond 


Ballston 
Potomac R. 


25 
75 


147 

273,288 


Richmond &, Petersburg 


M 




Petersburg 


22 


273,288 


Rochester 
Saratoga & Schenectady 
Saratoga & Washington 
Schenectady and Troy 
Selma and Tennessee . 
Shelby and Detroit . . 


N.^Y. 

Ala. 
Mich. 


Rochester 
Schenectady 
Saratoga Springs 
Troy 
Selma 
Detroit 


Carthage 
Saratoga Springs 
Whitenall 
Schenectady 
Gunter's Landing 
Utica 


3 

21; 

40" 
20, 
170 

17 


Trans. 
146 

151 


South Carolina . . . 


S. C. 


Charleston 


Hamburg 


1 3t> 


369,383 


Southern 


Mich 




Lake Michigan 






Skaneateles Branch . 


N. Y'. 


A. &, S. R. R. 


Skaneateles 


5 


150 


St. Josephs and lola . 


Flor. 


St. Josephs 


lola 


28 




Susquehanna &- Lehigh 


Pa. 


Wilkesbarre 


White Haven 


2o" 


227 


Syracuse and Utica . 


N. Y. 


Utica 


Syracuse 


53 


1 50,203 


Stonington 
Taunton Branch . . . 


Conn. 
Mass. 


Stonington 
Mansfield 


Providence, R. I. 


47 
H 


67,122 
67 


Tallahassee .... 
Tioga, C. I. & M. Co. . 
Tonawanda .... 
Trov and Greenbush . 


Flor. 
N. Y. 


Tallahassee 
Attica" 3 


Port Leon 
Blossburg 
Buffalo 
Troy 


24 

40 
43 
g 


408 
222 

150,203 
147,124 


Trenton &.N. Brunswick 


N. J. 


New Brunswick 


Trenton 


24 


i35!23l 


Tuscumbia and Decatur 
Utica and Schenectady 


Ala. 
N. Y. 


Tuscumbia 
Schenectadv 


Decatur 
Utica 


45 

78 


435,499 
150,203 


Valley 
Verm't & Massachusetts 
Vicksburo 1 and Jackson 
Warrenton Branch . . 
Waynesboro' .... 
Wash'tonBr.(B.&O.R.) 
West Feliciana . . . 
Western 


Pa. 

Mass. 
Miss. 
Geo. 

Md. 

Mass 


Schuvlkill R. 
Fitchburg 
Vicksburg 
Georgia R. R. 
Augusta 
* m. tm. Baltimore 
St Francisville 


Coal mines 
Brattleboro', Vt. 
Jackson 
Warrenton 
Brinsonville 
Washington 
Woodvifle, Miss. 


20 
65 
45 
li 
58 
3d., 
M 


Trans. 

472 
385 

266,278 
440 


Western New York . 


N. Y. 


Worcester 
Svraci.se 


N. Y. State Line 


1 18 
35 


52,144 


Western and Atlantic . 
Westmmsier Branch . 
West Chester Branch 
West Philadelphia . . 


Geo. 
Md. 
Pa. 


A'tlanta 
B. and S. R. R. 
Columbia R. R. 
Philadelphia 


Chattanooga,Ten. 
Westminster 
West Chester 
Columbia R. R. 


N 

10 
9 

C) 


382 
260 
223 
223 


West Siockbridge . . 
Williarnsport &, Elmira 
Wilmington &, Raleigh 
Winchelter&Potomac 
Worcester and Nashua 


Mass. 
Pa. 

N. C. 
Va. 

Mass. 


W. Stockbndge 
Williamsport 
Wilmington 
Carpers Ferry 
Worcester 


N. Y. State Line 
Elmira, N. Y. 
Weldon 
Winchester 
Nashau, N. H. 


n 

piv 

45 


118,124 
222 
273,352 
268 


Wetumpka and Coosa 
York & Maryland Line 
York and Wrio-htsville 
Ypsilanti and Tecumseh 


Ala. 
Pa. 

Mich. 


Wetumpka 
Ypsilanti 


Vlarvland Line 
Wnghtsville 
Tecumseh 


56 
21 
12 

24 


247,336 
247,336 



There are several other short roads used fot the transportation of coal, &c. 



INDEX. 



Abbeville, S. C., 176, 178. 


Belleville, 111., 216. 


Abingdon, Va., 112, 133. 


Belfast, Me., 16, 62. 


Accomac, Va., 128. 


Bellows Falls, Vt., 22, 65. 


Adams, Mass., 66. 


Bennington, Vt., 22, 65, 74. 


Adrian, Mich., 199,215,216. 


Berkely Springs, Va., 109. 


Akron, O., 119, 135. 


Berrien Springs Mich., 216. 


ALABAMA, state of, 153. 


Berwick, Pa., 124. 


Albany, N. Y., 53, 69, 73, 74, 75, 79. 


Binghamton, 60, 72, 75. 


Albion, Mich., 215. 


Bloomingtoii, la., 195. 


Alburg Springs, Vt., 22. 
Alexandria, D. C., 104, 129. 


Blooming-ton, Iowa, 212, 213. 
Blossburg, Pa., 123. 


Alexandria, La., 164, 182. 


BlountsvTlle, Tenn., 133, 184. 


Alton, 111., 201,216,226. 


Blue Sulphur Springs, Va., Ill, 133. 


Allentown, Pa., 124, 126. 


Blue Lick Springs, Ky., 190. 


Allyn's Point, Conn., 70. 


Bolivar, Tenn., 185, 187. 


Arnherst, Mass., 33, 66. 


Boniar Springs, Tenn., 186. 


Arnlierst, N. H., 64. 


Bonham, Texas, 183. 


Andover. Mass., 23, 6!. 


Booneville.Mo., 206,227. 


Angelica, N. Y M 72, 78. 


Bordentown, N. J., 83, 122. 


Annapolis, Md., 98, 129. 
Ann Arbor, Mich., 198, 215. 


Boston, Mass., 25, 61, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 70, 
71, 74. 


Apalachicola, Flor., 153, 179. 
Aquackanonck, N. J., 72, 82. 
Archidelpl.ia, Ark., 182. 
ARKANSAS, state of, 168. 


Botetourt Springs, Va., 112. 
Bowling Green, Ky., 192,185,212. 
Bowling Green, Mo., 220. 
Bradford Springs, S. C., 175. 


Arkansas Post, Ark., 169, 183. 


Branchville, S. C., 176, 177. 


Ashtabula, O., 127, 134. 


Brattleboro, Vt., 22, 64, 65. 


Ashville, N. C., 142, 173, 186. 


Brazoria, Texas, 167, 183. 


Astoria, Oregon, 221. 


Bridgeport, Conn., 39, 70, 71. 


Athens, Pa., 72. 


Bringiers, La., 182. 


Athens, O., 118, 135. 


Bristol, R. I., 35. 


Athens, Ala., 156, 181. 


Bristol, Pa., 93. 


Atnens, Ga., 148, 177, 178. 


Brooklyn, N. Y., 47, 70. 


Attica, N. Y., 74, 79. 


Brookville, la., 214. 


Atlanta, Ga., 177, 186, 187. 


Brownsville, Me., 62. 


Auburn, N. Y., 56, 74, 77, 79. 


Brownsville, Pa., 127, 130. 


Augusta, Me., 14, 62. 


Brunswick, Me., 15,61. 


Augusta, Ga., 148, 176, 178. 
Augusta, Ky., 190. 


Bucyrus, O., 135. 
Buttalo, N. Y., 68, 74, 78,79, 127, 134, 229. 


Augusta Springs, Va., 110. 


Burlington, Vt., 21, 64, 71, 75, 


Austin, Texas, 166, 182. 


Burlington, N. J., 83. 


Avon Springs, N. Y., 57. 


Burlington, Iowa, 210, 219, 220, 226. 
Butler, Pa., 126. 


Bainbridge, N. Y., 77. 
Bainbridge, Ga., 178, 179. 


Cahawba, Ala., 156, 180. 


Balcony Falls, Va., 133. 


Calais, Me., 16,61. 


Ba!i/.e. La., 225. 


Caldwell, N.Y., 55,74. 


Ballston. N. Y., 54, 74. 


Cambridge, Mass., 28, 64. 


Baltimore, Md., 97,74,125, 126, 128, 129, 
134, 137. 


Cambridge, Md., !28. 
Cambridge, O., 117, 130. 


Bangor, Me., 15, 62. 
Barcelona, N. Y., 72, 76. 


Camden, N. J., 83, 122. 
Camden, S. C., 145, 175. 


Bardstown, Ky., 191,212. 


Canals in the United States, 229. 


Barnstable, Mass., 67. 


Canajoharie, N. Y., 75. 


Bastrop, Texas, 167, 183. 
Batavia, N. Y., 58, 78, 79. 


Canaan, Conn., 69. 
Canandaigua, N. Y., 57, 74, 77. 


Bath, Me., 16. 


Cannonsburg, Pa., 90. 


Bath,Va., 131. 


Canton, N. Y., 79. 


Bath, N. Y., 72, 77. 


Cape Island, N. J., 83,123. 


Baton Rouse, La., 161, 182, 226. 
Beaufort, N. C., 140, 173, 174. 


Cape Girardeau, Mo., 207, 216. 
Cape Vincent, N. Y., 76. 


Beaufort, S. C., 176. 


Carbondale, Pa., 93, 125. 


Beaver, Pa., 90, 127, 134. 


Carlisle, Pa., 88, 124, 126. 


Bedford Springs, Pa., 89. 
Bellefontaine, O., 121, 137. 


Carlisle Sulphur Springs, 88. 
Castine, Me., 16, 62. 


Bellefonte, Pa., 124, 126. 


Cftslleton.Vt., 22. 



INDEX. 



Catskill, N. Y., 52,71,75. 


Danville, Va., 133, 173 


Centreville, la., 213. 


Danville, Ky., 191. 


Centreville, Md., 128. 


Dansville, N. Y., 72. 


Centreville, Mich., 216. 


Darien, Ga., 177, 178. 


Cerulian Springs, Ky., 18& 


Davenport, Iowa, 219. 


Chambersburg-, Pa., 88, 124, 126, 129. 


Davton.O., 121, 135, 213. 


Chapel Hill, N. C M 141, 173, 186. 


Decatur, Ala., 181. 


Chariton, Mo., 227. 
Charleston, S. C., 131, 144, 175, 176, 180. 


Defiance, O., 233. 
DELAWARE, state of. 94. 


Charlestown, Mass., 27. 


Delaware City, Del., 95. 


Charlestown, N. H., 64. 


Delhi, N.Y., 75. 


Charlestown, Va., 109. 


Delphi, la., 214. 


Charlotte, N. C., 141, 175. 


Demopolis, Ala., 155, 180. 


Charlottesville, Va., 108, 131. 


Derby, Vt., 65. 


Chatiahoochee, Flor., 179. 


Detroit, Mich., 78, 131, 198, 215, 2!8. 


Chattanooga, Tenn., 186. 


Dixon, 111., 216, 219. 


Cherry Valley, N. Y., 75. 


Donaldsonville, La., 163, 182. 


Chester, Pa., 94, 125. 


Dover, N. H., 19, 61. 


Chestertown, Pa., 99. 


Dover, Del., 95, 127. 


Chesterville, S.C., 145. 


Dover, N. J., 122. 


Cheraw, S. C., 145, 174, 175. 


Doylestown, Pa., 123. 


Chicago, 111., 202, 207, 219, 230. 


Drennon's Lick Springs, Kv., 192. 


Chillicothe.O., 118, 135. 
Chilhowee, 112. 


Dunkirk, N. Y., 72. 
Dubuque, Iowa, 210, 219. 


Christiansburg, KY., 123. 


Duxbury, Mass., 67. 


Cincinnati,O., 115/130, 134,135,136,137,214. 
Circleville, O., 118, 135, 136. 


Easton, Pa., 93, 122, 125, 126. 


Clarendon Springs, Vt., 64. 


Easton, Md., 99. 


Clarksburg, Va., 127, 130. 


Eastport, Me., 16,61. 


Clarksville, Ga., 149, 175, 178. 


Eastville, Va., 128. 


Clarksville, Tenn., 172, 219. 


Eaton, O., 135,213. 


Cleveland, O., 119, 78, 127, 134, 137. 
Clifton Springs, 57. 


Ebensburg, Pa., 124. 
Edenton,^.C., 133,140,174. 


Cloverport, Kv., 192. 


Edwardsville, III., 217. 


Coffeeville, Miss., 180, 184. 


Elizabeth Citv, N. C., 140. 


Coidwater, Mich., 215, 218. 


Elizabethtown, N. J., 81, 122, 125. 


Columbia, S. C., 143, 174, 176, 179. 


Elkton, Md., 99, 125. 


Columbia, Pa., 128. 


Elmira, N. Y., 60, 72, 77. 


Columbia, Ark., 225. 


Ellicottsville, N. Y., 78. 


Columbia, Tenn., 71. 


Ellsworth, Me., 62. 


Columbia, Mo., 206. 


Elyria,O., 120, 134. 


Columbus, O., 117, 130, 134, 135, 136. 


Emmettsburg, Md., 99. 


Columbus, Ga., 149, 176, 177, 179. 


Erie, Pa., 71,90,124, 126,127,134. 


Columbus, Miss., 159, 180, 184. 


Estillville, Va., 112. 


Columbus, Kv., 185, 192, 213, 224. 


Eufaula, Ala., 155, 179. 


Concord, N. H., 19, 63, 64. 


Evansville, la., 195, 214. 


Concord, Mass., 29- 


Exeter, N. H., 20, 63. 


Conhocton, N. Y., 77. 




Conneaut, O., 78, 134. 


Fairfield, Conn., 71. 


CONNECTICUT, state of, 36. 


Fall River, Mass., 32, 68. 


Conway, N. H., 63. 


Falmouth, Mass., 67. 


Cooperstown, N. Y., 60, 77. 


Farmville, Va., 109, 132. 


Corning, N. Y., 72, 77, 123. 


Farmington, Conn., 70. 


Cort land Village, N. Y., 77. 


Fauquier White Sulphur Springs, Va., 1 D8. 


Corpus Christi* Texas, 167, 183. 


Fayetteville, Mo., 220. 


Coshocton, O., 120, 135. 


Fayetteville, N. C., 140, 174, 175. 


Cotton Ginport, Miss., 184, 187. 
Covington, la., 214. 


Fayetteville, Ark., 184. 
Fincastle, Va., 112,133. 


Covington, Ga., 177. 


Fitchburg, Mass., 66. 


Covington, Ky., 190. 


FLORIDA, state of, 150. 


Council Bluffs, 227. 


Florence, Ala., 156, 181, 182, 185. 


Crawfordsvitle, Ga., 177. 


Forsyth, Ga., 178. 


Crawfordsville, la., 195, 213. 


Fort Gibson, Ark., 182, 183. 


Crown Point, N. Y., 71. 


Fort Leavenworth, Mo., 227. 


Cumberland, Md 100, 128, 130, i36, 137. 
Cumberland Gap, Tenn., 186, 211. 


Fort Madison, Iowa, 210,217, 219. 
Fort Smith, Ark., 182. 


Cuyahoga Falls, 119. 


Fort Snelling, Wis., 226. 




Fort Towson, Ark., 183 


Dacota. 


Fort Wayne, la., 196, 233. 


Dahlonega, Ga., 149, 176, 178. ? Fort Wirinebago, 219i 
Danbury, Conn., 71, 7S. ! Frankfort, Ky., 189, 212. 


Dandridge, Tenn., 186. I Franklin, Pa., 126. 



INDEX. 



Franklin, Tenn., 172. 
Frederick, Md., 99, 128. 
Fredericksburg, Va., 108, 132, 174. 
Frederickstown, Mo., 221. 
Fredonia, N. Y., 78. 
Fredonia, la., 214. 
Freehold, N. J., 83. 
Fryeburg, Me., 16, 62. 
Fulton, Mo., 206, 220. 

Gainesville, Ala., 155, 180, 184. 
Galena, 111., 203,216,218. 
Gallipolis, O., 118,135. 
Galveston, Texas, 166, 183. 
Garysburg, N. C., 174. 
Geneseo, N. Y M 72, 78. 
Geneva, N. Y., 57, 77, 79. 
GEORGIA, state of, 146. 
Georgetown, D. C., 103, 130. 
Georgetown, Del., 95, 127. 
Georgetown, S. C., 145, 175. 
Georgetown, Ky., 190,211. 
Gettysburg, Pa., 91, 1*24. 
Gilmanton, N. H., 20. 
Glasgow, Mo., 207, 220. 
Glenn's Falls, N. Y., 55, 74. 
Glasgow, Ky., '.36, 192. 
Golconda, 111., 216. 
Goldsboro, N. C., 130. 
Goshen, N. Y., 72, 75. 
Grand Coteau, 163. 
Grand Gulf, Miss., 158,225. 
Grand Haven, Mich., 199,215. 
Grand Rapids, Mich., 215, 216. 
Grayson Sulphur Springs, Va., 112. 
Great Harrington, Mass., 73. 
Great Crossings, Ky., 191. 
Great Falls, N. H., 19, 61. 
Greensboro', N. C., 141, 173, 186. 
Greenfield, Mass., 33, 66. 
Greenville, S. C., 146, 176, 178. 
Greenville, O., 213. 
Guildhall, Vt., 63. 
Gunter's Landing, Ala., 181, 187. 
Guyandotte, Va., 1 13, 133. 

Hackensack, N. J., 82. 
Hagerstown, Md., 100, 128. 
Hallowell, Me., 16, 61. 
Hamilton, O., 121, 136. 
Hampton, Va., 107, 133. 
Hancock, Md., 100,128. 
Hannibal, Mo., 207, 220. 
Hanover, N. H., 20, 65. 
Hardinshurg. Kv., 211. 
Harper's Ferry,'Va., 109, 128, 130. 
Hamburg, Pa., 125, 126. 
Hampton, Va., 107, 132. 
Harnsburg, Pa., 88, 123,125, 126. 
Harrisburg, La., 182. 
Harrodsburg, Ky., 136, 185, 191, 212. 
Hartford, Conn., 38, 68, 69. 
Haverhill, Mass., 20, 61. 
Haverhill, N. H., 63, 65. 
Havre de Grace, Md., 99, 125. 
Hawkinsville, Ga., 178. 
Helena, Ark., 169, 183. 
Herculaneum, Mo., 276. 
Herkimer, N. Y., 56, 74. 
Hickman, Ky., 192, 213, 224. 
Hicksford, Va., 133. 
Holmes Hole, Mass., 67. 



Holly Springs, Miss., 159, 184. 
Hollidaysburg, Pa., 91, 124, 126. 
Holston Springs, Va., 112. 
Honesdale, Pa., 72, 93, 125. 
Hopkinton Mineral Spring, 33. 
Hot Springs, Va., 110. 
Hot Springs, Ark., 169, 183. 
Houlton, Me., 16, 62. 
Houston, Texas, 166, 183. 
Hudson, N. Y., 52, 71, 73, 75. 
Hudson River, 48. 
Huntingdon, Pa., 91, 124. 
Huntingdon, Tenn., 185, 187. 
Huntsville, Ala., 156, 181, 186. 
Huron, O., 78, 215. 

ILLINOIS, state of, 200. 
Independence, Mo., 207, 220. 
INDIANA, state of, 193. 

ndianapolis, la., 194, 212, 213, 214. 

ndian Springs, Ga., 149, 177, 180. 

ndian Territory, 



OWA, state 01, zu. 
owa City, Iowa, 210, 219. 
onia, Mich., 215. 
Ithaca, N. Y., 60, 73, 75, 77. 

Jackson, Mich., 199,215,216. 

Jackson, Mo., 184. 

Jackson, La., 163. 

Jackson, Miss., 158, 184, 185. 

Jacksonville, Flor., 152. 

Jacksonville, 111., 201,216,217. 

Jamestown, N. Y., 126. 

Jamestown, Va., 105, 132. 

Jefferson City, Mo., 184, 204, 227. 

Jeffersonville, la., 223. 

Jersey City, N. J., 48, 82. 

Johnstown, Pa., 91. 

Joliet, III., 214,216, 218. 

Jonesboro, Tenn., 172, 174,186. 

Jordon's White Sulphur Springs, Va., 110. 

Kalamazoo, Mich., 199, 116, 215. 
Kanawha, Va., 133. 
Kaskaskia, 111., 201, 216. 
Keene, N. H., 64. 
Kenton, O., 137. 
KENTUCKY, state of, 188. 
Keytesville, Mo., 220. 
Kingston, N. Y., 72. 
Kingston, Tenn., 172. 
Knoxville, Tenn., 133, 172, 174, 176,177, 
178, 186,211. 

La Fayette, la., 196,213,217. 
La Favette, La., 182. 
La Grknge, Ga., 150, 177, 179. 
La Grange, Texas, 183. 
Lake George, 55, 74. 
Lancaster, N. H., 62. 
Lancaster, Pa., 124, 129. 
Laporte, la., 213. 
La Salle, III., 216, 219. 
Laurens, S. C., 176. 
Lawrenceburg, la., 136, 194. 
Lebanon, Pa* 126. 
Lehigh Gap, Pa., 125. 
Leonardstown, Md., 129. 
Lewisburg, Va., 133. 
Lewisburg, Ark., 183. 
Lew is town, Pa., 124, 126. 



10 



INDEX, 



Lewistown, D1 M 217. 


Morristown, N. J., 82, 182. 


Lexington, Mass., 9. 


Mottville, Mich., 215, fc!8. 


Lexington, Ky., 136, 185, 189, 21 1, 212. 


Mt. Clemens, Mich., 215. 


Lexington, Va., Ill, 133. 


Mt. Holly, N. J., 83. 


Lexington, Mo., 207, 227. 


Mt. Pleasant, la., 212. 


Liberty, Mo., 207, 227. 


Mt. rernon, Va., 103, 189. 


Lincolnton, N. C., 141, 175. 


Mt. Vernon, O., 120, 134. 


Litchfield, Conn., 39, 70. 


Mumfordsville, Ky., 212. 


Little Falls, N. Y., 22, 56, 76. 


Murfreesboro, Tenn., 172, 185. 


Little Rock, Ark., 169, 183. 




Littleton, N. H., 63. 


Nacogdocr.es, Texas, 167, 182. 


Lock Haven, Pa., 126. 
Lockport, N. Y., 58, 78. 


Nahant, Mass., 24. 
Nantucket, Mass., 33, 67. 


Loo-ansport, la., 196, 213, 214. 
Lon<r Branch, N. J., 122. 

LOUISIANA, state of, ieo. 


Napoleon, la., 214. 
Napoleon, Ark., 183, 224. 
Nashua, N. H., 20, 64, 66. 


Louisville, Ky., 185,188,191,211,212. 


Nashville, Tenn., 171, 181, 184, 186. 


Lowell, Mass., 30, 66. 


Natchez, Miss., 158, 184, 185. 


Lynchburg, Va., 109, 133, 173. 


Natchitoches, La., 164, 182. 


Lyons, N. Y., 228. 


Natural Bridge,V&., 112, 133. 




Natural Tunnel, Va., 112. 


Machias, Me., 61. 


Nebraska. 


Macon, Ga., 149,176,178,186. 


New Albany, la., 194, 212. 


Mackinac, Mich., 78, 137, 199. 


Newark, N. J., 82, 72. 


Madison, la., 194,211,214. 


Newark, Del., 95, 125. 


Madison, Ga., 177, 179. 


Newark, O., 120. 


Madison, Wis., 208,217, 218. 


New Bedford, Mass., 31, 67, 68. 


Madisonville, Tenn.. 178. 
MAINE, state of, 13. 


New Berne, N. C., !40, 173. 
New Brunswick, N. J., 81, 122, 125. 


Malone, N. Y., 79. 


Newburg, N. Y., 51, 75, 76. 


Manchester, Vt., -65. 


JNTewburyport, Mass., 30, 61, 63. 


Mansfield, O., 120, 137. 


Newcastle, Del., 95, 127. 


Marietta, O., 11.7, 135. 


Newcastle, Ky., 211. 


Marshall, Mich., 199, 216. 
MASSACHUSETTS, state of, 23. 
Massillon, O., 119, 127. 


New Echota, Ga., 186. 
NEW JERSEY, state of, 80. 
NEW HAMPSHIRE, state of, 17. 


Martinsburg, N. Y., 76. 


New Haven, Conn., 37, 69, 70. 


Martinsburg-, Va., 109, 137. 
MARYLAND, state of, 96. 


New Lebanon Springs, N. Y., 73. 
New Lisbon, 0., 119. 


Marysville, Tenn., 172. 


New London, Conn., 38, 68, C9. 


Matagorda, Texas, 166, 183. 
Mauc^Chunck, Pa., 92, 124, 125. 


New London, Mo., 220. 
New Madrid, Mo., 207, 224. 


Maurr.ee City, O., 121. 


New Milford, Conn., 70, 73. 


Maysville, Kv., 185, 190,212. 


New Orleans, La., 131, 162, 182. 


Meadville, Pa., 90, 124. 


Newport, R. I., 35, 68. 


Medina, O., 134, 135. 
Memphis, Tenn., 171, 182, 187,224. 


Newport, Ky., 190. 
NEW YORK, state of, 40. 


Mercer, Pa., 126. 


New York, N. Y., 42, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, "5, 89 


Meredosia, III., 217, 219. 


Niles, Mich.. 215,216. 


MICHIGAN, state of, 196. 


Niagara Falls, N. Y., 59, 78. 


Michigan Citv, la., 196, 213, 216, 219. 


Norfolk, Va., 106, 131, 132. 


Middlebury, Vt., 22, 65. 


Norridgewock, Me., 16, 62. 


Middtetown.Conn., 39,69. 


Norristown, Pa., 92, 123, 233. 


Mifflintown, Pa., 124, 126. 


Northampton, Mass., 32, 66. 


Milford, Pa., 72, 125. 


NORTH CAROLINA, state of, 138. 


Milford, Del., 95. 


Northumberland, Pa., 92, 123, 126 


Milwaukee, Wis.. 206, 17, 219. 


Norwich, Vt., 22. 


Milledgeville, Ga., 148, 178, 179. 


Norwich, Conn., 39, 69, 70. 


Millersburg, O., 135. 
Milton, N. C., 132. 


Norwich, N. Y., 77. 


Mineral Springs, Flor., 179. 


Oberlin, O., 120. 


MISSISSIPPI, state of, 157. 


Ogdensburg, N. Y., 60, 76,79. 


Mississippi City, Miss., 182. 
MISSOURI, state of, 203. 


OHIO, state of, 114. 
Old Point Comfort, Va., 107. 


Mobile, Ala., 154, 179, 180, 181. 


Oldtown, Me., 15, 61. 


Monroe, La., 182. 


Olean, N. Y., 78. 


Monroe, Mich., 198, 215. 


Onondaga, N. Y., 77. 


Montgomery, Ala., 155, 180, 181. 
Montpelier, Vt., 22, 64, 65. 
Montrose, Pa., 123, 126. 


Opelousas, La., 163, 182. 
Orangeburg, S. C., 44. 
Oregon Territory. 


Montreal, Canada, 74. 79. 


Oregon City, 111., 219. 


Morgan town, N. C., 174. 


Orkney Springs, 1 10, 



INDEX. 



Orono, Me., 61. 


Rockville, Md., 130. 


Oswego, N. Y., 60, 78, 77. 


Rome, N. Y., 56, 74, 76. 


Owego, N. Y., 72. 


Rome, Ga., 149, 179, 187. 


Oxford, O., 121. 


Roxbury, Mass., 29. 


Oxford, N. Y., 77. 


Rushville, la., 214. 




Ruaselville, Ala., 182. 


Paducah, Ky. T 182, 223. 


Russelville, Ky., 211. 


Painesville, 0., 119, 127. 


Rutersville, Texas, 167, 18J. 


Palestine, 111., 218. 


Rutherford, N. C., 176. 


Palmyra, Mo., 206, 219, 


Rutland, Vt. r 65. 


Paoli, la., 212, 213. 




Paris, Me., 62, 71. 


Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., 60, 76. 


Paris, Tenn., 185, 213. 


Sag Harbor, N. Y., 70. 


Paris, Ky., 185,212. 


St. Albans, Vt., 22, 65. 


Parkersburg,Va., 113,130. 


St. Augustine, Flor., 152, 179. 


Pateraon, N. J., 82, 72. 


St. Augustine, Texas, 183. 


Pawtucket, 36. 


St. Charles, Mo., 206, 227. 


Peekskill, N. Y. T 73. 
PENNSYLVANIA, state of, 84 


St. Clairsville, O., 1 17, 135. 
St. Francisvilfe, La., 163, 182. 


Penn Yan, N. Y., 60. 


St. Genevieve, Mo., 226. 


Pensacola, Flor., 153, 179. 
Peoria, 111., 202, 216, 217, 2l8 r 2l9r 


St. Joseph, Mich., 199, 2r2, 213, 215. 
St. John's, Canada, 71, 74. 


Peru, la., 233. 
Petersburg, Va., 107, 132, 174. 
Philadelphia, Pa., 73, 85, 123> 124, 125i 


St. Joseph, Mo., 207, 227. 
St. Louis, Mo., 183, 205,212, 220, 221,22 
St. Mary's, Ga., 177. 


Pickensville, S. C., 176. 


St. Stephen's, Ala., 156, 180. 


Pickensville, Ala., 180. 
Piermont, N. Y., 71. 


gaginaw, Mich., 215. 
Salem, Mass., 29> 61, 68. 


Pigeon Springs, la., 195. 
Pikeville, Ala., 182. 


Salem, N. Y., 64. 
Salem, N. J., 83, 123. 


Pittsburg, Pa., 89,126,127,128,1 34>137,22 


Salem, N. C., 141, 173. 


Pittsfield, Mass., 73. 
Platte City, Mo., 220. 
Plattsburg, N. Y., 55, 71, 76, 79. 
Plymouth, Mass., 31, 67. 


Salem, Ky., 185, 212. 
Salisbury, N, G., 141, 174,175. 
Salt Sulphur Springs, Va., 111. 
Sandusky, O., 120, 137. 


Point Coupee, La., 182. 


Sandy Hill, N. Y., 74. 


Point Pleasant, Va., 113, 133. 


San Antonio de Bexar, Texas, 167. 


Pontiac r Mich., 215. 


San Augustine, Texas, 167, 183. 


Pontotoc, Miss., 184, 187. 


San Philipe de Austin, Texas, 167, 183i, 


Portland, Me., 14, 61, 62, 6J. 


Santa F e , Texas, 168,221. 


Port Deposit, Md., 124, 125. 
Port Gibson, Miss., 159. 
Port Leon, Flor., 179. 


Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 54, 74. 
Saratoga Lake, N. Y., 54. 
Sault St. Marie, Mich., 78, 199. 


Port Huron, Mich., 215. 
Portsmouth, N. H., 19, 61, 63. 


Savannah, Ga., 146, 176, 177, 179. 
Schoharie, N. Y., 75. 


Portsmouth, Va., 133. 


Sehenectady, N. Y., 55, 74, 79. 


Portsmouth, O., 118, 135. 
Pottsville, Pa., 92,123,125. 


Schooley's Mountain, N. J., 83, 122: 
ScotUville, Ky. r 136. 


Potosi, Mo., 183, 207. 


Selma, Ala., 156, 181. 


Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 51, 73, 75. 
Prairie du Chien, Wis., 209, 218, 225. 
Princeton, N. J., 81. 
Providence, R. I., 35, 68, 70. 


Seneca Falls, N. Y., 56, 57, 74, 79. 
Shannondale Springs, Va., 109. 
Sharon Sulphur Springs, N. Y M 56, 79. 
Shawneetown, 111., 202, 216,217, 224. 
Shelbyviile, Ky., 211. 


Quebec, Canada, 62. 


Shelbyviile, la. r >36, 214. 


Quincy, Flor., 179. 


Shelbyviile, 111., 217. 


Qumcy, 111., 217. 


Shocco White Sulphur Springs, 1 49, 




Shreveport, La., 164, 182, 183. 


Racine, Wis., 217. 


Shrewsbury, N. J., 122. 


Rah way, N. J., 81. 
Raleigh, N. C., 139, 17?. 


Sing Sing, N. Y., 71, 73, 75. 
Skaneateles, N. Y., 77. 


Ravenna, O., 127. 
Reading, Pa., 92, 123, 125, 126. 


Skowhegan, Me., 62. 
SmithviTle, N. C., 174. 


Red Sulphur Springs, Va., 111. 
Revnoldsburg, Tenn., 185,187. 
RHODE ISLAND, state of, 34. 
Richmond, Va., 106, 129, 132, 174. 
Riverhead, N. Y., 70. 


Smithland, Ky., 192,212,224. 
Smyrna, Del., 95. 
Snow Hill, Md., 99, 128. 
Society Hill, S. C., 175. 
Somerville.N. J., 81. 


Rochester, N. Y., 57, 72, 78, 79. 


Somerville, Tenn., 185, 187. 


Rockford, III., 218. 
Rock Island City, 111., 203, 219. 


South Amboy, N. J., 83. 
South Bend, la., 196, 213. 


Rockport, la., 224. 


SOUTH CAROLINA, state of, l. 



12 



INDEX. 



Sparta, Ga., 186. 


Warsaw, 111., 280. 


Spartansburg, S. C., 146, 175. 
Springfield, Mass.,' 32, 66, 73. 


Washington, Pa., 90, 127, 136. 
WASHfNGTON, D. C., 73, 100, 128, 129, 


Springfield, O., 121, 134, 136. 


180,173. 174, 185. 


Springfield, Mo., 207,221. 


Washington, N. C., 140, 173, 


Springfield, 111., 201,216,217. 
Spring Place, Ga., 177. 


Washington, Texas, 166, 183. 
Washington, Miss., 158, 184. 


Stafford Springs, Ct., 39. 


Washington, Ark., 183. 


Statesville, N. C., 174. 


Washington, la., 212. 


Staunton, Va., 110, 132, 133. 


Washington, O., 136. 


Steubenville, O., 118, 127, 134. 


Watertord, Me., 62. 


Stonington, Conn., 39, 68, 69. 


Waterloo, N. Y., 57, 74, 79. 


Sulphur and Tar Springs, Ky., 192. 


Watertown, N. Y., 76. 


Sunburv, Pa., 92, 126. 


Waterville, Me., 16,62. 


Sweet Springs, Va., 111. 
Syracuse, N. Y., 66, 74, 76, 77. 


Weldon, N. C., 129, 140, 174. 
Wellsburg, Va., 1 13, 222. 




Westchester, Pa., 94. 


Talbotton, Ga., 176, 179. 


West Point, N. Y., 50,71 


Tallahassee, Flor., 152, 179. 


West Point, Ga., 177. 


Tarboro', 140, 173. 


Westport, Ky., 223. 


Taunton, Mass., 31, 67, 68. 


West Union, O., 135. 


Taylorsville, Tenn., 186. 
TENNESSEE, state of, 170. 


Wethersfield, Conn., 68. 
Wetumpka, Ala., 155, 180. 


Terre Haute, la., 195, 213, 2 IT. 
TEXAS, state of, 164. 


Wheeling, Va., 113, 127, 128, 180, 134 
Whitehall, N. Y., 55, 64, 71, 74. 


Thomaston, Me., 16, 61, 62. 


White Mountains, N.H., 17, 65. 


Tiffin, O., 137. 


White Plains, N. Y., 71. 


Toledo, O., 120,131, 134. 
Tolland, Conn., 69. 


White Sulphur Springs, Va., Ill, 129, 133 
White Sulphur Springs, Ga., 160. 


Topsham, Me., 16, 61. 


White Sulphur Springs, Flor., 152. 


Towanda, Pa., 125. 


Wilkesbarre, la., 93,123,125. 


Trenton, N. J., 81, 122. 


Wilkesboro, N. C., 173. 


Trenton Falls, N. Y., 56, 76. 


Williamsburg, Va., 107,132. 


Troy, N. Y., 71,74, 75. 


Williamsport, Pa., 92, 123, 126. 


Tunkhannock, Pa., 123. 


Williamsport, la., 214. 


Tuscaloosa, Ala., 155, 179, 181, 186. 


Williamstown, Mass., 33,66. 


Tuscumbia, Ala., 156, 181, 185. 


Wilmington, Del., 73, 95, 125, 127. 


Tyree's Springs, Tenn., 185. 


Wilmington, N. C., 140, 174, 176. 




Winchester, Va., 110, 129, 132. 


Union Point, Ga., 176, 187. 


Winchester, Tenn., 186. 


Uniontown, Pa., 180. 


Windsor, Vt., 22. 


Union ville, S. C., 175. 
Urbana, O., 137. 


Wiscassett, Me., 61. 
WISCONSIN, 208. 


Utica, N. Y., 56, 74, 76, 77. 


Woodbury, N. J., 83, 123. 




Woodstock, Vt., 22, 63. 


Valley Forge, Pa., 92. 


Woodstock, Va., 110. 


Van Buren, Ark., 182, 184. 


Woodville, Miss., 182. 


Vandajia, III., 202,213,216. 
Velasco, Texas, 183. 


Woonsocket Falls, R\ I., 34,68. 
Wooster, O., 120, 127, 134. 


Verg-ennes, Vt., 22, 64. 
VERMONT, state of, 20. 


Worcester, Mass., 32, 66, 69, 74. 
Wyoming, Pa., 93, 123. 


Versailles, Ky., 211. 


WytbeviRe, 112, 173, 184. 


Versailles, la., 214. 




Vevav, la., 214, 223. 


Xenia, O., 121, 134, 136. 


Vicksburg, Miss., 159, 184. 




Vienna, Ala., 180. 


YazooCity, Miss., 159.182. 


Vienna, 111., 216. 


Yellow Springs, O., 121, 134, 136. 


Vincennes, la., 212, 216. 


York, Pa., 91, 124, 128. 


VIRGINIA, state of, 104. 


York Sulphur Springs, 91. 




Yorktown, Va., 108, 132. 


Wadesboro, N. C., 175. 


Yorkville, S. C., 175, 176. 


Warm Springs, Va., 110. 
Warm Springs, N. C., 174, 186. 


Youngstown, N. Y., 78. 
Ypsilanti, Mich., 198, 215, 218. 


Warren, Pa.; 126. 




Warrenton, Va., 108. 


Zanesville, O., 117, 127, 134, 135. 


Warrenlon, N. C., 132, 140. 


Zebulon, Ga., 178. 


Warsaw, Ky., 223. 





STATE OF MAINE. 



13 






MAINE, 



THE most northeasterly state of the republic, extends 
from lat. 43 Q to 47 24' N., and between Ion. 6 and 10 
: E. from Washington, and contains an area of 30,000 
' square miles. Population, 1840, 501,792. The state is 
f divided into 13 counties. Its shores are indented by deep 
1 bays, forming many excellent harbors ; and its waters 
? are studded with numerous islands of every variety of 
' form and size, from the rocky islet to those of 150 square 

miles in extent. 

Near the coast the surface is level, but it rises on proceeding inland ; and 
most part of the state is hilly, forming in many places a congeries of hills, 
or elevated cones, several of which reach an elevation of 4000 feet, and 
Mt. Katahdin rises to the height of 5335 feet above the level of the sea. In 
the northwest, an elevated ridge forms the water-shed dividing the waters 
of the St. Lawrence from those of the Atlantic ; a lateral branch of this 
ridge, of still less elevation, separates the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers 
from the St. John's. 

It has been estimated that one-sixth part of the surface of Maine consists 
of water. There are numerous lakes, the largest and most noted of which 
are Moosehead, Sebago, Chesuncook, and Umbagog. A part of the 
waters of the latter extend into New Hampshire. Some of these lakes are 
justly celebrated for the picturesque beauties of their scenery. A steam- 
boat has been built to ply on the waters of Moosehead lake. The Kenne- 
bec and the Penobscot are the two most important streams, the former is 
navigable to Augusta, and the latter to Bangor. Their shores are adorned 
with villages, and the intervals along their margins are the most fertile and 
best cultivated in the state. The Saco, Androscoggin, and St. Croix rivers 
enter the Atlantic. St. John's and its confluents, the Walloostook, Alla- 
gash, and Aroostook, drain the northern part of the state. The St. John's 
forms a part of the northern boundary of the state, by the late treaty of 
Washington, and its waters are open to the free navigation of both nations. 
The principal bays are Casco, Penobscot, Machias, and Passamaquoddy. 
The climate is healthy ; but the winters are long and severe. The prin- 
cipal productions are Indian corn, wheat, barley, rye, flax, and the 
grasses. The uncleared lands are of great extent, and furnish an immense 
amount of pine and other lumber. Marble and lime are extensively ex- 
ported. On the sea-coast large quantities of cod-fish are dried and prepared 
for the market ; and the rivers abound in excellent salmon. Ship-building 
is extensively carried on. 

The principal literary institutions are Bowdoin College, at Brunswick ; 
Waterville College, at Waterville ; the Bangor Theological Seminary, at 
Bangor ; and the Wesleyan Seminary, at Read field ; and there are about 
90 academies and 4000 common schools throughout the state. 



14 STATE OF MAINE. 

The government is vested in a governor, senate, and house of represent- 
atives, who are elected annually. The senate consists of 31, and the house 
of representatives of 151 members. Seven counsellors are elected by the 
legislature to advise the governor on all matters pertaining to his legislative 
duties. The judiciary consists of a supreme judicial court and a court of 
common pleas, each composed of a chief-justice and two associate justices. 
The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the governor and coun- 
cil, and hold their offices during good behavior, or until they have attained 
the age of 70 years. The right of suffrage is possessed by every male citi- 
zen of the United States, 21 years of age, (excepting paupers, persons 
under guardianship, and Indians not taxed,) who shall have resided in the 
state for three months next preceding an election. 

The first permanent settlement in Maine was made about the year 1630 ; 
and in 1652 the inhabitants were placed under the jurisdiction, and formed 
a part of, the colony, subsequently the state of Massachusetts. It was 
styled the District of Maine until the year 1820, when it was admitted into 
the Union as an independent state. The constitution was formed in 1819. 

The railroads, with the distances between each depot, will be found in 
the accompanying tables of routes ; for example, see Portland, Saco, and 
Portsmouth railroad pages. 61 and 62 . 




PORTLAND, 

The metropolis, is situated on a peninsula, at the western extremity of 
Casco bay. It is 105 miles from Boston, 320 from New York, and 545 
from Washington. Population, 15,500. The harbor is safe, spacious, and 
easy of access ; completely land-locked ; and is well defended by forts 
Preble and Scammel. The ground on which the city is built, rises at its 
eastern and northern extremities, presenting a beautiful appearance when 
approached from the sea rising like an amphitheatre between two hills. 
The public buildings are a court-house, jail, city hall, custom-house, 
an exchange, an athena^um s with a library of 5,000 volumes, 16 churches, 
and 11 academies. On Mt. Joy, an eminence a little to the northeast part 
of the city, is an observatory 82 feet high, and 226 feet above the level 
of the sea, from which a beautiful view is obtained of the harbor, its islands, 
and the surrounding country. Cars leave daily for Boston and the inter- 
mediate places. Fare to Boston, $3. Stages leave daily for Eastport, 
and Calais, via Brunswick, Thomaston, and Belfast ; also for Houlton, 
via Augusta and Bangor. Jl triweekly line runs to the White Moun- 
tains ; and also to Quebec, via Augusta and Norridgewock. Steamboats 
ply between Boston and Portland, and Bangor and Portland. 

frCT" For tables of distances, see routes in Maine, pages 61 to 79 where 
will be found the railroad, steamboat, and stage routes from the cities and 
principal towns throughout the state, with the distances between the inter- 
mediate places. 

AUGUSTA, the capital, is situated on both sides of the Kennebec rivez, 



STATE OF MAINE. 



15 




43 miles from the sea, and at the head of sloop navigation. It is 150 
miles NNE. from Boston, 469 from New York, and 595 from Washington; 
and contains a state house, a United States arsenal, a state insane hospital, 
a high school, 6 churches, and 6,000 inhabitants. The State House is sit- 
uated on an eminence, on the west side of 
the river. The central part is 84 feet long, 
and 56 deep, with two wings, each 34 feet 
long and 54 deep. It has a Doric portico of 
8 columns; and before it is a spacious park, 
adorned with trees and shrubbery. There is : 
a tine bridge across the Kennebec, and a sub- 
stantial dam has been constructed across the 
river a short distance above, forming a very . 
extensive water-power. Stages leave daily *' 
for Portland and Bangor ; three times a week for Belfast and Thomaston ; 
for Jin son and Phillips, and also for Fryeburg. 

BANGOR is situated at the head of navigation, on the west side of the 
Penobscot river, which is here crossed by a bridge J ,320 feet long. It is 
222 miles from Boston, 436 from New York, 663 from Washington. It 
occupies an eminence from which a fine view is obtained of the surrounding 
country. Steamboats ply regularly between this place, Portland, and 
Boston. It contains a court-house, jail, a bank, 7 churches, the Bangor 
Theological Seminary, 2 academies, and about 11,000 inhabitants. The 
Theological Seminary has 3 professors, 50 students, 139 alumni, and 7,000 
volumes in its library. It gives a classical and theological course in four 
years. The lumber trade of Bangor is extensive. Stages leave daily for 
Portland ; three times a week to Houlton ; also for Calais, Castine, Bel- 
fast, Skowhegan, &c. 

Old Town is on an island of the same name in Penobscot river, 12 
miles from Bangor ; here are manufactured immense quantities of boards, 
&c. On another island, about a mile above, are the remnant of Penobscot 
Indians, (about 360. ) They have a small church. 

BRUNSWICK is situated on the left bank of the Androscoggin river, at the 
Pejepscot Falls, which here make an extensive water-power. It con- 
tains 9 churches, *- 

two academies, a 
cotton and wool- 
len factory, and 
4,500 inhabitants. 
It is the seat of 
Bowdoin College, 
which was found- \ 
ed in 1794, and or- 
ganized in 1802; 

has a president and nine professors, or other instructors, 749 alumni, 190 
students, and 23,950 volumes in its libraries. The commencement ia 
on the 1st Wednesday in September. Attached to this institution, is 
Maine Medical School, founded in 1820, which has 4 professors, 60 stu- 
dents, and 464 graduates. The lectures commence on the 15th of Feb- 
ruary, annually. The philosophical apparatus and cabinets of anatomical 
preparations, mineralogy, and natural history, are very complete. It re- 
ceived a donation of $10,000 from James Bowdoin, Esquire, its principal 
benefactor, from whom it was named. The state has granted it five 
townships of land and $3,000 annually. Its principal edifice has been 




16 STATE OF MAINE. 

several times burned, but has been rebuilt. The college chapel, a granite 
edifice, is in the Romanesque style of architecture. 

BATH is situated on the right bank of Kennebec river, 12 miles from the 
sea. It is built on a declivity, and extends for a mile and a half along the 
river, and three-fourths of a mile back from it. It has an excellent harbor, 
and vessels of the largest class come up to its wharves. It contains 2 
banks, several churches, 5 academies, 75 stores, and 5,500 inhabitants. 
Steamboats ply regularly between this place and Portland, and Boston, the 
most part of the year. 

THOMASTON is situated at the head of St. George's bay, and contains the 
Baptist Theological Institute, a bank, 3 academies, the state prison, several 
churches, and 5,000 inhabitants. The Theological Institute was founded 
1837 ; has 2 professors, 23 students, and 500 volumes in its library. The 
state prison is near the bank of the river, and attached to it are 10 acres of 
ground. The buildings are of stone, surrounded by a high wall. Im- 
mense quantities of lime of the best quality are manufactured here. 

BELFAST is pleasantly situated on an arm of Penobscot bay, 30 miles from 
the sea; and has a spacious harbor, sufficiently deep for vessels of the 
largest class. It has several churches, an academy, and 4,500 inhabitants. 
EASTPORT is situated on Moose Island, 
and is connected by a bridge with the 
main land. It is the easternmost town in 
! the United States; has a good harbor, and 1 
I contains 5 churches, an academy, a United 
j States garrison, and 2,000 inhabitants. 

CALAIS is situated on the right bank of the 
( St. Croix river, at the falls, opposite St. 
I Andrews, 250 miles from Portland, and has 
i about 3,000 inhabitants. 
HALLOWELL is pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Kennebec 
river, and contains 5 churches, an academy, and 5,000 inhabitants. 
Steamboats ply to Portland and Boston. Gneiss is extensively quarried 
under the name of Hallowell granite, and exported to most of the eastern 
states. 

CASTINE is situated on a promontory in the E. side of Penobscot bay, and 
has a good harbor. It contains about 1,200 inhabitants. 

HouLton, 120 miles NNE. of Bangor, is situated on a small stream 
emptying into St. John's river, near the New Brunswick line. It con- 
tains the Hancock barracks, a United States military post, several stores, 
and 1,500 inhabitants. 

WATERVILLE, 18 miles north of Augusta, ig situated on the right 
bank of the Kennebec river, near the Teconick Falls ; and contains a 
bank, several churches, and about 1,500 inhabitants. It is the seat 
of Waterville College under the direction of the Baptists. It has, a 
president and six professors, 210 alumni, 70 students, and 7,000 volumes 
in its libraries. The commencement is on the 2d Wednesday in August. 

Fryeburg, 48 miles from Portland, is beautifully situated on a plain, and 
contains a church and an academy. Lovell's Pond lies near the village, 
famous as the scene of a desperate fight between the whites and Indians in 
early times. 

Topsham on the Androscoggin river ; Gardiner and Norridgewock on 
the Kennebec river ; Bucksport and Frankport on the Penobscot river ; 
Bristol on the Damariscotta river ; and Machias on the Machias river, are 
large and thriving places. 




STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



17 




EW HAMPSHIRE . 

Is situated between lat. 42 41' and 45 11' N., and 
I 70 40' and 72* 30' W. Ion. It contains 9,194 square 

miles, and 284,574 inhabitants. 
This state has only 18 miles of seacoast, and the shore 

is generally a sandy beach. Portsmouth is the only 

good harbor in the state. A short distance from the 
- J coast, the country becomes beautifully diversified by hill 

\ and dale, and adorned by several picturesque sheets of 

water. The White Mountains are situated a little north 
of the centre of the state, and have become a place of great resort during 
the summer months ; they are usually ascended from the southeast. After 
climbing the sides of the mountain for some distance, the forest trees 
begin to diminish in height, until at the elevation of about 4,000 feet, you 
come to a region of dwarfish evergreens, which put forth numerous 
branches and surround the mountain with a formidable hedge, a quarter of 
a mile in thickness. On emerging from this thicket, you are above all 
woods, and at the foot of what is called the bald part of the mountain, 
which is very steep, and consists of a huge pile of naked rocks. After at- 
taining the summit, the traveller is recompensed for his toil and trouble, if 
the sky be serene, by a most noble and extensive prospect. The other principal 
mountain peaks are Moosehillock, 4,636 feet high ; the Grand Monadnock, 
3,254 feet above the level of the sea ; and Kearsarge, 2,461 feet high, on 
the west, and the Moose and Ossippee mountains on the east. These moun- 
tains, though not a connected range, are regarded as a continuation of the 
Alleghanies. 

The notch or gap in the White Mountains, is justly regarded as a 
curiosity. It is on the west side of the mountains, near the source of Saco 
river. It is a deep and narrow defile, in one part 
only 22 feet wide. The mountain mass appears 
as if riven quite to its base by some convulsion of 
nature, perpendicularly on one side, and on the 
other, at an angle of forty-five degrees. The ; 
road which has been made through this pass is 
Crossed by the river Saco, which rushes rapidly 
down the sides of the mountain, and gives a 
picturesque effect to the scenery. 

The Silver Cascade, a beautiful sheet of water 
is precipitated over three precipices, from a height ' 
of 250 feet into a basin formed by the hand of \ 
nature, in the rock beneath. In its fall it presents 
a diversity of pleasing appearances ; and in this 
whole mountain region, nature seems to have 
sported her wildest fancies. The lakes form another peculiar characteris- 
tic of this state ; Winnipiseogee is 23 miles long and 10 broad in ita 
2* 




18 STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

widest part. Its form is very irregular ; its shores exhibit almost every 
gradation of scenery, and its surface is studded with numerous islands. The 
waters are very pure, being supplied mostly by springs. Squam lake is 
6 miles in length and about 3 in breadth, and is surrounded by bold and 
rugged scenery. It embosoms many islands. Ossippee, Sunapee, Con- 
necticut, and Newfound lakes are smaller, but picturesque sheets of 
water. Another object of curiosity in this state is Bellow's Falls, 
in the Connecticut river, at Walpole. The descent of the water in the 
space of 100 rods, is 44 feet ; there are several pitches one above 
another; at the highest of which a large rock divides the stream into 
two channels, each about 90 feet wide. When the water is low, the 
eastern channel is dry, being crossed by a bar of solid rock ; and the 
whole stream falls into the western channel, where it is contracted to 
the breadth of sixteen feet, and flows with astonishing force and 
rapidity. A bridge has been constructed over these falls; and a canal 
half a mile long, with nine locks around them on the west side. 
Amoskeag Falls, in the Merrimac, consists of three successive pitches, 
falling nearly 50 feet. There are also extensive caverns at Chester. The 
Profile Mountain, at Franconia, is a singular eminence. It is a regular 
peak 1,000 feet in height, presenting a bold front of solid rock ; a side view 
of this exhibits a profile of the human face. 

The Connecticut river has its source in the highlands on the north border 
of the state, and its west branch forms the boundary line between New 
Hampshire and Canada, to within one mile of the 45th deg. of N. latitude. Its 
general course is south by west, and dividing New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont, it passes through the western part of Massachusetts, and the central 
part of Connecticut, where it enters Long Island Sound. Merrimac river, 
the Pemigewassit branch, rises near the Notch in the White Mountains, 
and is joined by the Winnipiseogee, 70 miles below the source of the 
former. It here takes the name of Merrimac. The Androscoggin and 
Saco, rise and have part of their course in this state. 

The principal literary institutions of the state are Dartmouth College in 
Hanover, and the Gilmanton Theological Seminary at Gilmanton. There 
are in the state about 70 academies, and 2,200 common schools. 

The constitution was formed in 1784, and in 1792 was altered to its 
present form. The governor is elected annually by the people on the 
second Tuesday in March. He must have resided in the state for seven years 
next preceding his election, be thirty-five years of age, and possess property 
to the amount of .500, one half of which must be a freehold within the 
state. The council consists of five members chosen by the people, who 
must have resided in the state for seven years, and possess property to the 
amount of Jt)500, and be thirty years of age. The legislature consists of 
the senate and house of representatives, and is denominated the General 
Court of New Hampshire. The senate consists of twelve members chosen 
annually by the people, who must be at least thirty years of age, have 
resided in the state for seven years preceding the election, and possess 
property within the state to the amount of .200. The house of represen- 
tatives consists of 250 members, elected annually by the people. A mem- 
ber must have resided two years in the state next preceding his election, 
be thirty years of age, and possess property to the amount of 100, 
within the district which he represents, one half of which must be a free- 
hold. All judicial officers are nominated and appointed by the governor 
and council, and hold their offices during good behavior ; but are removable 
by the governor, with the consent of the council, at the representation of 



STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 19 

both houses of the legislature. No judicial officer can hold office after he 
is 70 years of age. The secretary and treasurer are elected by the joint- 
ballot of both houses of the legislature. Every male citizen of the age of 
2] years or over, excepting paupers, and persons excused from paying taxes 
at their own request, has the right of suffrage. 

The first settlements made in the state were at Dover and Ports- 
mouth, in 1623. In 1641, all its settlements, by a voluntary act, submitted to 
Massachusetts, but were made a separate province by an act of Charles II. t 
in 1679. A temporary government was established in 1776, to continue 
during the war of the Revolution. June 21st, 1788, the state in convention 
adopted the constitution of the United States, yeas 57, nays 46. 

PORTSMOUTH, a port of entry, and the capital of Rockingham county, is 
the largest town in the state. It is pleasantly situated on a peninsula, on the 
right bank of Piscataqua river, three miles from the ocean. The harbor is 
completely land-locked, and has the advantage of being always free from ice. 
Portsmouth is 54 miles north of Boston, and 493 from Washington. Two 
bridges connect it with Kittery on the opposite side of the river in Maine ; an- 
other bridge connects it with Great Island, on which is alight-house. On Con- 
tinental Island, on the opposite side of the harbor, is the navy yard. The town 
contains 8 churches, 7 banking houses, a custom house, 2 markets, an 
academy, an atheneum, an almshouse, a state lunatic hospital, and about 
8,000 inhabitants. The atheneum, a very flourishing institution, was in- 
corporated in 1817, and has a library of more than 5,000 volumes, besides 
cabinets of minerals and of natural history. Cars arrive from, and depart 
daily for Boston, (fare $1.50,) and for Portland, (fare $1.50.) Stages 
leave three times a week for Concord. 

CONCORD, the capital of the state, is situated on the right bank of the 
Merrimac river. It is 76 miles NNW. from (~~ 
Boston, and 481 from Washington. It lies 
chiefly on 2 streets, one of which extends I 
nearly 2 miles. It contains a state house, a j 
court-house, jail, bank, state prison, eight I 
churches, 350 dwellings, and about 4,000 I 
inhabitants. The State House is an ele- I 
gant structure of hewn granite, 126 feet 
long, and 49 feet wide. The hall of repre- 
sentatives and the senate chamber, are i 
spacious and elegant rooms. By means of artificial locks and caucus 
around the falls in Merrimac river, and the Middlesex canal, a navigable 
communication exists from Boston to this place. Cars arrive from, and 
depart twice daily for Boston, (distance 76 miles ; fare $1.75.) Stages 
leave three times a week for Portsmouth ; and for the yVhite Mountains ; 
and for Burlington, Vt., via Hanover and Montveliei thence connecting 
with a steamboat line to Montreal ; and for Montreal, via Haverhill, 
Derby, and Stanstead, Canada : and also for Brattleboro, ft., via Keene. 
DOVER, the capital of Strafford county, is prettily situated at the Lower 
falls of the Cochecto, which affords an abundant water-power. It contains 
a court-house, jail, 2 academies, 10 churches, several extensive manufac- 
turing establishments, and about 5,000 inhabitants. Cars arrive from, and 
depart for Boston daily, (distance 66 miles; fare $1.75;) also from 
Portland, (43 miles ; fare $1.25.) Stages leave for the White Mountains 3 
times a week. 

GREAT FALLS VILLAGE, 6 miles north of Dover, contains several 
manufacturing establishments, and 2,500 inhabitants. 




20 



STATE OF VERMONT. 



EXETER, at the head of tide water, on Exeter river, has a court-house, 
a bank, 4 churches, an academy with a valuable library, philosophical 
apparatus, &c., and several manufactories. Cars pass through it daily 
from Boston to Portland. 

NASHUA is on the right bank of the Merrimac river, 41 miles from 
Boston. It contains several manufacturing establishments, 10 churches, 
many pretty residences, and about 7,000 inhabitants. Cars arrive from, 
and depart three times daily for Boston (fare $1,) and Concord, (fare 
75 cts. ) Stages leave daily for Windsor, Ft. ; three times a week to 
Bratlleboro, Vt., and three times a week to Worcester, Mass. 

HANOVER is pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Connecticut 
river, and contains a church, many neat dwel- 
lings, and the buildings of Dartmouth College. 
This institution was founded in 1770, and be- 
sides the collegiate, it has a medical depart- 
ment. It has a president and 15 professors or 
other instructors; has had 2,228 alumni, has 
331 students, and 16,500 volumes in its libraries. 
K The commencement is on the last Thursday in 
July. The medical department, instituted in 1779, has 6 professors, 80 
students, and has had 577 graduates. The lectures commence on the 
first Thursday in August. Stages pass through Hanover for Concord and 
Jlfontpelier. 

HAVERHILL is on the east bank of Connecticut river, and has a court- 
house, bank, a church, an academy, and about 60 dwellings. 

GILMANTON is 20 miles north of Concord, situated on the Suncook 
river. The village contains an academy and the Gilmanton Theological 
Seminary, founded in 1835. It has 3 professors, 26 students, and 4,300 
volumes in its libraries. 




'"* c& 






VERMONT lies between lat. 42 44' and 45 00' 30" 
: N., and 71 30' to 73 20' W. Ion., and contains an area 
[ of 9,056i sq. miles ; and in 1840, 291,948 inhabitants. 
This state presents a very considerable variety of sur- 
face. It is traversed from north to south by the Green 
Mountain range; some summits of which rise to a 
height of 4,279 feet above the sea. About the centre of 
,. the state, they divide into two ridges, the principal of 

which passes in a north-northeast direction, into Canada. The Green 
Mountnins are from ten to fifteen miles wide, much intersected by valleys 
abounding with springs and brooks, and are mostly covered with ever- 
greens to their summits, from which they have derived their name. The 



STATE OF VERMONT. 21 

rivers are inconsiderable : most, of those flowing east are merely small 
tributaries of the Connecticut ; those on the east side are larger and 
longer, and the three principal, viz., Lamoille, Missisque, and Winooski, 
rise on the east side of the principal mountain chain, which they break 
through and enter Lake Champlain. Otter creek rises on the west side of 
the mountains, and enters Lake Champlain. 

The climate varies according to differences of level and other circum- 
stances. It is healthy, although the winters are severe. The soil is 
fertile, but more suitable for pasturage than tillage. Wool is the staple 
production ; sheep, horses, and cattle are raised in great numbers. 

The legislature formerly consisted of a single house of assembly, but in 
1836, two separate houses (a senate of 30 members, and a house of 
representatives, composed of one member from each town) were established, 
which, together with its governor, lieutenant-governor, and executive coun 
cil, are chosen annually by the people. The right of suffrage is vested 
in every male citizen 21 years of age, who has resided in the state 
for the year previous to the election. The judicial power is in a supreme 
court of five judges, and county courts each composed of one judge of the 
supreme court, and two assistant judges. Judges are chosen annually by 
the general assembly, and a court of censors, by a popular vote once in 7 
years. The general assembly meet annually in October. 

There are three colleges in Vermont, viz., the University of Vermont 
at Burlington, Middlebury College at Middlebury, and Norwich University 
at Norwich ; and there are about 50 academies, and 2,500 common 
schools throughout the state. 



"V--* 




BURLINGTON is delightfully situated upon the tongue of land formed by 
the confluence of the Winooski, or Onion river, with Lake Champlain. It 
is the most important town in Vermont ; it is 40 miles WN W. from Mont- 
pelier, 300 N. from New York, and 513 from Washington. Population in 
1840, 4,271. Here is a court-house, a jail, 2 banking houses, 6 churches, 
one university, an academy, and a female seminary. The buildings of the 
University of Vermont, 4 in number, are on high ground on the east side of 
the village. This institution was founded in 1791. It has a president and 
7 professors, 277 alumni, 125 students, and 9,200 volumes in its libraries. 
The commencement is on the first Wednesday in August. The view 
from the cupola of the college embraces an extensive range. On the 
west lies the village the broad expanse of lake, with its islands and 
vessels ; and beyond, the Adirondack mountains, rising to the height of near 
6,000 feet, give grandeur to the picture ; while on the east, are presented 
in full view the Green Mountains, with their two highest peaks, Camel's 
Rump and Mansfield Mountain. Steamboats stop here daily (in summer) 
from Whitehall, JV*. Y., and from St. John's, Canada. Stages leave daily 
for Mbany, also for Boston via Middlebury, Bellows' Falls, and Fitck~ 
burg, Mass., and to Montpelier ; from thence, three times a week to Port 
land, Me., via the White, Mountains. 



22 



STATE OF. VERMONT. 




_MONTPELIER, the capital of the state, is situated in a rugged and 
-;=: ->:: ^^03^^^^ picturesque region, at the junction of the 
1 north and south branches of the Wi- 
I nooski river. It contains a state-house, 
| court-house, jail, an academy, 4 churches, 
I and about 1,800 inhabitants. The State 
I House is built of granite, 72 feet wide, 
I and 152 feet long ; it has a projecting 
I portico in the centre of six Grecian Doric 
I columns, 6 feet in diameter and. 36 feet 

9. high. Stages leave daily for Burlington 

and Concord, JV. //., via Lebanon, be. ; and three times a week for the 
White Mountains ; also to Derby, St. rflbans, <$-c. 

MIDDLEBURY is situated at the falls and on both sides of Otter creek. 
It contains a court-house, jail, bank, 5 churches, 2 academies, several ex- 
tensive manufactories, and about 2,500 inhabitants. In the vicinity .is a 
quarry of excellent marble, which is extensively wrought. It is the seat of 
Middlebury College, founded in 1800, which has a president and 7 pro- 
fessors, has 771 alumni, 97 students, and 7,054 volumes in its libraries. 
The commencement H on the third Wednesday in August. Stages pass 
through Middlebury daily for Burlington, Albany, and Boston. 

VERGENNES is situated at the Lower falls on Otter creek, and contains 3 
churches, a bank, and several manufactories. 

BENNINGTON is prettily situated on elevated ground, and contains a 
court-house, a church, 2 academies, a bank, and about 300 inhabitants. 
The Americans under General Stark defeated a large British force, August 
16, 1777, on the west border of the town. 

BRATTLEBORO is situated on the right bank of the Connecticut river, 
and contains 4 churches, a bank, and about 1,000 inhabitants. Stages 
leave daily for Albany, Springfield, Worcester, Nashua ; and also to the 
White Mountains, passing through the principal towns along the Con- 
necticut river. 

NORWICH is on the right bank of the Connecticut river, and contains 
several churches, an academy, and about 500 inhabitants. It is the seat of 
Norwich -University. It has a president and 6 professors, and 40 students. 
The commencement is on the third Thursday in August. Jl line of stages 
pass through this place three times a week from Montpdier and Concord. 
ST. ALBANS is situated near the east shore of Lake Champlain ; it has 
a court-house, jail, a bank, 3 churches, and about 700 inhabitants. Stages 
from Burlington to the Canada line, pass through this place three times 
a week. 

> CASTLETON, 74 miles from Montpelier, contains 2 churches, an 
academy, and the Castleton Medical College, founded in 1818, with 7 
professors, 104 students, 555 graduates. The lectures commence on the 
4th Thursday in August. Woodstock has 5 churches, and the Vermont 
Medical College, founded in 1835, with 7 professors, 94 students, and 
255 graduates. Windsor contains 3 churches, the Vermont state prison, and 
1,000 inhabitants. Bellows Falls village has 2 churches and 500 in- 
habitants. 

Alburg Springs are on the point, of land projecting into Lake Cham- 
plain, at the north ; the waters are of considerable efficacy in scrofulous and 
other diseases. 



STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



23 



VIEW FROM MT. HQLY.OKE; 
MASSACHUSETTS lies between 41 23'and425-r 
y N. lat., and between 69 50' and 73 30' W. Ion. It rs 
about 190 miles long, with an average breadth of 90 
miles, and contains 7,500 square miles ; and in 1840, 
737,699 inhabitants. 

I This state presents three distinct zones. The first, 
towards the ocean, is a marine alluvion, but little 
elevated above the sea; it is mostly sandy, and the 
least fertile and smallest in extent of the three sections. 
This plain is followed by a fine hilly tract, which crosses the state from 
north to south, elevated in some places 300 feet above the sea ; from these 
elevations the rivers flow in every direction. The second or middle zone 
includes part of the beautiful valley of Connecticut ; and is followed by 
the mountainous but highly fertile county of Berkshire, which comprises 
the whole western part of the state. Through Berkshire pass two moun- 
tain ranges, the Taghkannick, on the western border of the state ; and be- 
tween the Housatonic and Connecticut rivers, the Green Mountain range, 
here called Hoosick Mountains. Mount Holyoke, near Northampton, is 
near 1,200 feet above the level of the sea, and Wachusett Mountain, in 
Princeton, is an elevated peak from 2,000 to 3,000 feet high. Saddle 
Mountain in the Taghkannick range, in the northwest corner of the 
state, is 4,000 feet high ; and Mount Washington in the same range, 
in the southwest corner of the state, is about 3,000 feet high. The 
valleys of the Connecticut are fertile, as are also those of the Housa- 
tonic. 

The principal rivers are the Connecticut, a noble stream, winding for 50 
miles across the state ; Housatonic, which rises in Berkshire county, and 
flows through the west part of the state : and Merrimac, which rises in 
New Hampshire, and has a course of 50 miles in the NE. part of the 
state, and enters the ocean below Newburyport. It is navigable for large 
vessels to Haverhill, 15 miles. Besides these there are Nashua, Concord, 
Taunton, and Blackstone rivers. 

Massachusetts has numerous good harbors. There are several impor- 
tant islands off the S. shore of this state, to which they belong. The largest 
is Nantucket, 15 miles long and 11 broad, and which constitutes a county 
of its own name. Martha's Vineyard, W. of Nantucket, is 20 miles long and 
from 2 to 10 broad, which with other small islands constitutes Duke's coun- 
ty. The shores of Massachusetts are diversified by some bold promontories 
and capacious bays. Of the latter, Massachusetts bay, between Cape 
Ann on the N. and Cape Cod on the S., is about 40 milos in breadth. 
Buzzard's bay is on the SW. side of Cape Cod, and is 20 miles long. 
Cape Ann, in the N. part of the state, is a rocky promontory, 15 
miles in length. Cape Cod is a peninsula in the SE. part of the 




24 STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

state, extending 75 miles long, and from 2 to 20 broad, with a bend 
in the middle, nearly at right angles. The peninsula of JVahant, a 
^. t _ -_-,.-,.. - _ few miles north of the harbor of Boston, is 

connected with the main land by Lynn beach, 
two miles long. It has become, on account 

. of its cool breezes and wild sea-views, a place 

I of fashionable resort during the summer months. 

| Steamboats ply daily in s.ummer from it to 

" Boston. 

There are in this state 3 colleges, and 2 theological seminaries, viz., Harvard 
University, at Cambridge, the oldest and best endowed in the country, 
founded in 1638, about 18 years after the first landing on the rock of 
Plymouth ; Williams College at Williamstown, founded in 1793 ; and 
Amherst College at Amherst, founded in 1821, which has had an unex- 
ampled growth. The theological seminary at Andover is under the 
direction of the Congregationalists. It was opened for students in the 
autumn of 1808. The Baptists have a flourishing theological institution at 
Newtown, founded in 1825. There are 260 academies or grammar 
schools, and 3,500 common schools in the state. 

The government of Massachusetts consists of a governor, lieutenant- 
governor, senate, and house of representatives. They are elected annually 
by the people. The governor must have resided 7 years in the state, and 
own a freehold worth 1,000, and declare his belief in the Christian 
religion. The lieutenant governor must possess the same qualifications. 
A council of nine persons, besides the lieutenant-governor, are elected 
annually by the joint-ballot of the legislature, and not more than two can 
be chosen in one congressional district. They rank next to the lieutenant- 
governor. The senate consists of 40 members, who must possess a free- 
hold of .300, and a personal estate of .600, and must have resided in the 
state for 5 years next preceding the election. The house of representa- 
tives contains 356 members, who must possess a freehold of 300 pounds in 
the town for which he is chosen, or ratable estate to the value of .200. 
The judges and various other officers, as attorney-general, &c., are ap- 
pointed by the governor and council. The judges hold their offices 
during good behavior. The secretary, treasurer, and receiver-general, are 
appointed annually by the joint-ballot of both houses of the legislature. 
Every male citizen over 21 years of age, (except paupers and persona 
under guardianship,) who has resided in the state one year, and in the 
town or district in which he claims to vote, six months next preceding 
the election, and shall have paid a tax in the commonwealth within two 
years, or shall have been exempted from taxation, enjoys the right of 
suffrage. 

The Plymouth colony was settled by the Puritans, December, 1620. In 
1628 the settlements of Salem and Charleston were made, and in 1630 
that of Boston. In 1692 these colonies were united under the name of 
Massachusetts. The American revolution began at Boston, and this 
state bore a prominent part in that great struggle. In convention, this 
state voted (February 6th, 1788) to adopt the federal constitution ; yeaa 
187, nays 168. 



STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 25 




Mai 

New England,! 

commercial city in the Union, is situated mostly on a peninsula, 3 miles 

long, and a little more than one mile broad, at the head of Massachusetts 

bay, and possesses one of the best harbors in the United States. It is ia 

42- 21' 23" N. lat., and 71* 4' 9" W,lon. from Greenwich, and 5* 11' 15" E. 

from Washington. It is 105 miles from Portland, Me., 214 from New 

York, 302 from Philadelphia, 439 from Washington, 985 from Cincinnati, 

and 1,809 from New Orleans. The population in 1790, was J8.033, in 

1800, 24,937; in 1810, 33,250; in 1820, 43,298; n> 1830,61,391 ; in 1840, 

93,338; in 1845,114,366; 

The harbor extends from Nantasket to the city, and spreads from 
Nahant to Hingham, containing 75 square miles. It is defended by Forts 
Warren and Independence, the former of which is on Governor's Island, 
and the latter on Castle Island. The inner harbor has a depth of water 
sufficient for 500 vessels of the largest class to ride at anchor in safety, 
while the entrance is so narrow as scarcely to admit two ships abreast. 
Boston consists of three parts, viz., Boston on the peninsula, South 
Boston, formerly a part of Dorchester, and east Boston, formerly Noddle's 
island. The " Neck" or isthmus, which in early times formed the only 
connection of the peninsula with the main land, is over a mile in length, 
and still constitutes the main avenue to the city from the south ; but by a 
number of extension bridges and artificial avenues, it is connected in 
various directions with the surrounding country. 

The city exhibits a picturesque and beautiful appearance when ap 
proached from the sea ; and in surveying its several parts, the traveller 
finds much to admire. The peninsula had originally an uneven surface, 
and the place early received the name of Trrmountain, from its three hills, 
and their principal eminences on Beacon Hill. These eminences, though 
somewhat lowered, rontinue to adorn the city. Beacon Hill, on the W. 
part, is 110 feet above high-water mark; it was originally 30 feet higher. 
Fort Hill, on the E. side, fronting the harbor, is 80 feet high ; and Copp's 
Hill in the N. part, is 50 feet above high water On this hill the British 
had a battery in 1775, from which, during the memorable battle of 
Bunker Hill, they bombarded and burned Charlestown. South Boston 
constituted part of Dorchester until 1804, when, fay an act of the 
legislature, it was united to the city. It extends about two miles 
along the south side of the harbor. Nearly in the middle of this tract 
are Dorchester heights, or Mount Washington, 130 feet above the 
sea. On these heights, the Americans under Washington erected a 
fortification in 1775, which soon compelled the British to evacuate 
Boston. 

East Boston is built on Noddle's island. It is connected with the city by 
a steam ferry, and with Chelsea, on the main land, by a b.idge 600 feet 



26 



STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



long. The eastern railroad commences here. A wharf 1,000 feet long, 
called 1 Cunard's wharf, has been granted free of charge for 20 years, for 
the use of the Liverpool line of steamships. East Boston has wholly 
grown up since 1833, and already constitutes an important part of the 
city. 

The Common occupies the declivity of Beacon Hill ; it has a pleasantly 
diversified surface, and covers a space of 75 acres. The State House oc- 
cupies its north part. Boston is generally well built, mostly of brick, and 
many of its private residences are elegant. Among the public buildings, 
the State House is the principal. It is situated on the summit of Beacon 
Hill, 110 feet above the level of the sea, and fronts on the spacious Com- 
mon. This edifice is 173 feet long, and 61 wide. The lower story has a 
large hall or public walk in the centre, 50 feet square and '20 feet high, 
supported by Doric columns. In the middle of the south side of this 
story, is a statue of Washington, by Chantry. The rooms above are 
the representatives' room, in the centre, 55 feet square ; the senate cham- 
ber, 55 feet long, and 33 feet wide, arid 30 feet high, with two screens of 
Ionic columns, supporting with their entablature a richly-decorated 
arched ceiling. In another part of the building is the council-chamber, 
27 feet square. The dome is ascended by a spiral stairway on the inside ; 
and from its top is presented a view of the harbor, the bay, and the sur- 
rounding country. 

Faneuil Hall was erected in 1742, by a gentleman whose name it bears, 
and was by him presented to the city. It 
was enlarged in 1805, and is now 100 feet 
long and 80 wide, and three stories high. 
The lower story is occupied by stores. The 
great hall in the second story is 76 feet 
square and 28 high, with galleries on three 
I sides, supported by Doric columns, and the 
ceiling is supported by two ranges of Ionic 
i columns. The west end is ornamented by a 
full length portrait of Washington, by Stu- 
_J art; and another of Peter Funeuil, Esq., 
copied from an original picture. Above the great hall, is another in the 
third story, 78 feet long and 30 feet wide, devoted to military exercises. 
This venerable building has been appropriately called "the cradle of 
American liberty." It is the property of the city, and secured by its 
charter from ever being devoted to any but public purposes. There are 
75 churches in the city. The old State House, at the head of State-street, 
was built in 1658 ; it has been twice destroyed by fire, and was the last time 
rebuilt in 1747. It was formerly occupied by the state legislature. An 
elegant Merchants' Exchange has been recently erected in State-street. It 
contains the post-office, a reading-room, &c. Quincy Market is a 
splendid edifice, 585 feet long and 50 feet wide ; it is directly east of 
Faneuil Hall. The wings are two stories high, and at the E. and W. 
ends are five porticoes, of four Grecian Doric columns. The new court- 
house, constructed of hewn duincy granite, is 176 feet long, 54 feet 
wide, and 57 feet high ; and the N. and S. fronts are adorned with Grecian 
Doric porticoes. The interior has four court-rooms, each 50 by 40 feet, 
besides various public offices. The Custom-house has an elegant Doric 
portico its whole length, and a fine dome in the centre. The houses of 
Industry, Correction, and Reformation, are pleasantly situated in South 
Boston, near the brow of Dorchester heights, and are surrounded by 




STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 27 

ornamented grounds. The Tremont House is one of the finest hotels in 
the United States. There are two theatres in the city. 

The Medical Institution of Harvard University is located in Boston, 
where its professors reside. It was founded in 1782, has six professors, 
157 students, and over 5,000 volumes in its library. The lectures com- 
mence on the first Wednesday of November, annually. The Institution for 
the Blind has been liberally patronized ; it has a splendid edifice on Mount 
Washington, South Boston. 

Boston has 106 literary and charitable societies. Among the literary 
societies of a high order, is the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
founded in 1780, which has published four quarto volumes of its transac- 
tions, and has a library of over 2,000 volumes. The Massachusetts His- 
torical Society was incorporated in 1794. Its collections have been 
published in 26 volumes octavo, in which are many valuable papers. Its 
library, consisting of books and manuscripts, amounts to over 6,000 articles, 
many of them rare and valuable, besides several paintings of distinguished 
individuals. The Boston Athenaeum was incorporated in 1837, and has a 
library of over 30,000 volumes, a collection of over 2,000 coins and 
medals, and a reading-room well furnished with American and foreign 
newspapers. The Boston Society of Natural History was instituted in 
]830, and has a cabinet and museum. The Boston museum possesses a 
rare and valuable collection of curiosities. The Massachusetts hospital, 
in the western part of the city, is deserving of notice ; it has a beautiful 
edifice, built of granite, and surrounded by grounds highly ornamented 
with trees and shrubbery. 

There are 36 newspapers published here, of which 12 are daily ; of the 
remainder, a portion are semi-weekly and weekly, and others weekly. 
Besides newspapers, there are a number of magazines and reviews; 
the most distinguished of the latter is the North American Review. 

The city is supplied with water brought from Jamaica pond in Rox- 
bury, 4 miles from the city, by the Aqueduct Corporation, formed in 1795. 

Cars leave Boston twice daily, on each of the railroiMs for Port- 
land, (fare $3 ;) for Lowell, (fare 65 cts.,) three times, ana Concord, JV*. 
H., (fare $1.75,) twice daily; for Fitchburg three times daily, (fare 
$1.25;) for Jllbauy, JV. Y., twice daily, (fare $5 to $6.) Cars leave 
daily for New York on fire different routes, (fare $3 to $6.) (see page 66.) 
Cars leave twice daily for Providence, (fare $1.25 ;) for New Bedford 
(fare $1.50.) and Fall River, (fare $1.45;) and also for Plymouth, 
{fare $1 . ) See pages 65, 66, 67. 

CHARLESTOWN, one mile north of Boston, is situated on a peninsula, 
between Mystic and Charles rivers, and is connected by bridges with 
Boston, Cambridge, Chelsea, and Maiden. The streets, although not 
regular, are wide, and ornamented with trees. It has a square, around 
which a number of the public buildings are situated. It contains a state 
prison, the M'Lcan Insane Asylum, an almshouse, a town-house, 3 banks, 
a United States navy yard, a marine hospital, and 12 churches. The navy 
yard is situated on the north side of Charles river, embracing 60 acres of 
ground, enclosed by a wall, within which are erected the warehouse, 
arsenal, magazine, ropewalk, dwellings for the officers, &c., all of brick, 
and two immense edifices of wood, under which the largest vessels of 
war are constructed. Here is a dry-dock of hewn granite, 341 feet long, 
80 wide, and 30 feet deep. The M'Lean Insane Asylum is pleasantly 
situated on elevated ground ; the buildings are large and commodious, 
and attached to the institution are 15 acres of land, handsomely laid out. 



28 



STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 




and tastefully ornamented. The state prison is NW. of the city, and 
consists of four large stone buildings, a chapel, &c., enclosed by a high 
wall. Bunker Hill, or more properly, Breed's Hill, is a little north of 
Charlestown. On the site of the battle, 62 feet above 
the level of the sea, the Bunker Hill Monument has 
been erected. The corner-stone was laid by La Fayette, 
on the 50th anniversary of the battle, June 17th, J825. 
This foundation having been found insufficient, the 
corner-stone of the present structure was laid in March, 
1827. The monument was completed July 23d, 1842. 
i Its form is that of an obelisk, 30 feet square at the base, 
H and 16 feet 4| inches at the top. The height from the 
Jt base to the top, is 221 feet. It is substantially built of 
p hewnQuincy granite. The interior is circular, having a 
| diameter of 10 feet 7 inches at the bottom, and of 6 
< feet 4 inches at the top, and is ascended by 294 steps. 
I At the top is an elliptical chamber, 17 feet high and 11 
iSS feet in diameter, with 4 windows. A most beautiful 
view is obtained from this apartment, of Boston, its harbor, and the sur- 
rounding country. Omnibuses arrive from, and depart for Boston, every 
15 minutes daily. 

CAMBRIDGE, 3 miles NW. from Boston, consists of three parts Old 
Cambridge, the seat of the University ; Cambridge Port, about halfway be- 
tween the university and the bridge leading to Boston ; and East Cam- 
bridge, formerly Lechmere's Point, opposite to th north part of Boston. 
It is one of the oldest towns in New England, incorporated in 1630, by 
the name of Newtowa, but eight years after took its present name. It 
contains a court-house, jail, state arsenal 3 banks, 16 churches, 2 acade- 
mies, and 9,000 
inhabitants. It 
is the seat of 
(s Cambridge Uni- 
jjf versity, the old- 
|est and best 
I endowed insti- 
ll tution in the 
I Union ; founded 

-,,_ -^ - : in!638. Frorna 

donation "made to it by the Rev. John Harvard, it was called Harvard College. 
Its funds now amount to over halfa million of dollars. It has a president, 29 
professors or other instructors, has had 5,942 alumni, has 280 students, 
and 68,500 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is on the fourth 
Wednesday in August. The buildings consist of University Hall, an 
elegant granite edifice 140 by 50 feet, and 42 feet high, containing a 
chapel, 6 lecture-rooms, dining halls, &c. ; Harvard Hall, a brick edifice 
108 by 40 feet, containing the library, the philosophical apparatus, and 
mineralogical cabinet; and four other buildings, denominated Massa- 
chusetts, Hollis, Stoughton, and Holworthy Halls, with rooms for the 
accommodation of the students; Holden Chapel, containing the anatomi- 
cal museum, chemical laboratory, and lecture-rooms; and three other 
edifices for the students. The buildings occupy an enclosed pluin of 14 
acres. It has a botanical garden of 8 acres, with a large collection of 
trees, plants, and shrubs, native and foreign. The Medical Institution has 
6 professors. The lectures commence on the first Wednesday in JNo- 




STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



29 




vember. It has a library of over 5,000 volumes. Mount Auburn Cemetery 

is in Cambridge, 5 miles from Boston. The 

grounds occupy about 70 acres, and are prettily > 

diversified with hill and valley, mostly cover- ' 

ed with a great variety of native trees, and J 

planted with ornamental shrubbery. There | 

are also several beautiful sheets of water. 1 

It has been tastefully laid out with avenues \ 

and paths. Cambridge was a place of im- * 

portance in the early history of the country. * 

The first printing-press in America was established here, in 1639, by 

Stephen Day. It was long the literary centre round which the affections 

of the colonists clustered. Immediately after the battle of Lexington, at 

the commencement of the revolutionary war, 20,000 men collected here, 

and July 2d, 1775, Gen. Washington arrived and established his head 

quarters at this place. Omnibuses arrive from, and depart for Boston 

every half hour daily. 
ROXBURY, 2 miles south of Boston, is connected with the city by a 

neck of land. It contains 16 churches, 2 banks, many beautiful dwellings, 

and about 12,000 inhabitants. 

LEXINGTON is 11 miles NW. from Boston, and contains 2 churches and 

about 50 dwellings. This village is celebrated as the place where the fir^t 

blood was shed at the opening of the great drama of the revolution. The 

legislature of Massachusetts have caused a monument to be erected on the 

gpot where the first victims 

fell, to perpetuate the memo- \ 

ry of the slain, and of this is 

event. The engraving is 

view from the Concord road : | 

the monument is on an eleva j 

tion.onthe western side of the ( 

green; a school-house stood J 

there at the time the Britislif 

troops fired upon the Ameri-: 

cans, on the memorable 19th ot April, 1775. The church stands in the 

place of the old one, which was taken down in 1794, when the present 

one was erected. 

CONCORD lies 17 miles NW. of Boston. It contains a court-house, jail, 
a bank, 2 churches, and an academy. Population 1,784. The first blood 
of the revolution was shed here on the part of the British. They, after 
killing 8 Americans at Lexington, proceeded to this place, where they 
were resisted, and two British soldiers killed. A monument records the 
event. Cars arrive from, and depart for Boston, (fare 50 cts.~) 3 times 
daily, and also for Fitchburg. 

SALEM, the largest town in Essex county, is the oldest and largest sea- 
port but one in Massachusetts, situated 14 miles NNW. from Boston. It 
is, chiefly built on a point of land formed by two inlets from the sea, called 
North and South rivers, and contains 18 churches, 9 banks, and 16,000 
inhabitants. The public square, containing ten acres, lies in the northern 
part of the town, and is almost perfectly level, enclosed and shaded by a 
large number of elms. An aqueduct supplies the city with soft spring 
water. On a peninsula below the town, are Fort Pickering and Fort Lee, 
and on an island there is a light-house. In 1692, the witchcraft delusion 
prevailed in Salem, and 19 persons were tried and executed. Cars arrive 




30 STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

from, and depart several times daily for Boston. Jl branch railroad ex- 
tends from Salem to Marblehcad, a distance of four miles. Stages leave 
for Gloucester daily. 

NEWBURYPORT is a port of entry, and one of the principal towns of Essex 
county. It is situated 38 miles nortlreast of Boston, on a gentle accli- 
vity, on the right bank of the AJerrirnac, at the union of that river with 
the ocean. It is considered in point of natural advantages, as well as in its 
improvements, one of the most beautiful towns in New England. The 
harbor is safe and spacious, but difficult of entrance. It contains a 
custom-house, 8 churches, an academy, 4 banks, an almshouse, a lyceum, 
and 7,500 inhabitants. Mr. Whitefield, the celebrated preacher, died and 
was buried here. A monument in one of the churches records, " that in 
his ministry of thirty-four years, he crossed the Atlantic thirteen times, 
and preached more than 18,000 sermons." Cars arrive from, and depart 
twice daily for Boston, and also for Portland, Me. Stages leave for 
Haverhill and Exeter. N. H., 3 times a week. 

LOWELL, city, and the semi-capital of Middlesex county, is situated 

25 miles iNNW. 
from Boston. In 
the rapidity of 
? its growth, and 
| the extent of its 
? manufactures, 
stJinds un- 
jj rivalled in the 
United States. 
The town was 

incorporated in 18:26, and embraces four miles square; the population 
then was about 200, and its property valued at about $100,01)0. In 
1834, Belvidere village was added to it, and in 1836, it was incorporated 
as a city. The water-power of this place is very extensive and easily 
available. A canal 60 feet wide and 8 feet deep, commencing at the head 
of Pawtucket Falls, supplies the factories with the water of Concord 
river. The entire fall is thirty feet. In the factories there are employed 
6,430 females, and about 2,200 males. Besides the factories, there are 
print-works and bleacheries, and new manufactories are constantly being 
added. 

Lowell contains 3 banks, a city hall, court-house, market-house, 23 
churches, a Mechanics' hall, an hospital belonging to the factories, 
several public schools, and 25,000 inhabitants. The Mechanics' Associa- 
tion is a flourishing literary society. Besides several newspapers published 
here, there is issued monthly a magazine called the " Offering," edited, and 
its contributions furnished, by female operatives in the factories, which holds 
a very respectable place among the magazines of the day. Cars arrive 
from, and depart four times daily for Boston, (fare 65 cts.,} and three 
times for Concord, JV". H. Stages leave three times a week for New- 
buryport, Worcester , and of so for Brattleboro, Vt. 

ANDOVER, 23 miles north from Boston, contains 2 banks, 5 churches, 
the Andover Theological Seminary, Philips' Academy, and about 3,000 
inhabitants. The Theological Seminary was founded in 1807. It has 5 
professors one of sacred literature, one of Christian theology, one of 
sacred rhetoric and ecclesiastical history, and one assistant professor 86 
students, 965 graduates, and 17,500 volumes in its libraries. Commence- 
ment is on the 4th Wednesday of September. Funds to the amount of 




STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



31 




$400,000 have been contributed by a few benevolent donors. Philips' 
Academy was founded in 1778, and has a fund of $50,000. The number 
of students in limited to 130, all of whom study the learned languages. 
Cars arrive from, and depart for Boston twice daily. 

PLYMOUTH lies 37 miles SE. from Boston, on Plymouth bay. It has the 
noble distinction 
of being the place 
where the "Pil- 
grim fathers" 
landed, after their j 
perilous voyage, | 
on the twenty- i 
second of Decem- > 
ber, 1620, and 
also of being the 

first town built iu New England, by civiJized man. Plymouth coo- 
tains a court-house, 6 churches, 2 banks, 2 academies, and about 
5,500 inhabitants. The rock on which the Pilgrims landed has been con- 
veyed to the centre of the village. The anniversary of the landing is 
celebrated annually. In Pilgrim Hall is a large painting representing 
the landing from the Mayflower the chair of Governor Carver the sword- 
blade of Capt. Miles Standish, and other curiosities. Cars arrive from, 
and depart twice daily for Boston, (fare $1.) Stages leave three times 
a week for Barnstable, for Falmouth, for New Bedford, and for Taunton. 

NEW BEDFORD, a port of entry, and the semi-capital of Bristol coun- 
ty, is 56 miles 
south of Bos- 
ton. Population ^ 
15,000. It is on g 
the west side of * 
an arm of the | 
sea which sets 
up from Buz- {_ 
zard's bay. The | 
ground rises rap- ' 

idly from the water, and presents a fine appearance when approached 
from the sea. A wooden bridge and causeway, three-fourths of a mile long, 
connects it with Fairhaven. It contains a jail, court-house, 4 banks, a 
savings institution, and 18 churches. The harbor is safe and com- 
modious, but not easy of access. The whale fishery is extensively carried 
on here. There is a Friends' academy exclusively devoted to the educa- 
tion of females. As early as the year 1764, we find the settlers of the 
village of Bedford sending out small craft in search of the greasy monsters, 
some of which reached as far south as the Falkland Islands. Twice has 
the whale fishery been interrupted by war with Britain, but vigorously 
and successfully renewed as often, and is now continually increasing. 
The vessels engaged in the fishery amount to 22{), all ships but four, having 
on board 6,000 seamen. Cars arrive from, and depart twice daily for 
Boston, (fare $1.50.) Steamboats leave daily for Nantucket; stages 
3 times a week for Providence, for Newport, and also for Barnstable, via 
Sandwich. 

TAUNTON, semi-capital of Bristol county, 36 miles south of Boston, 
is pleasantly situated at the head of navigation on Taunton river. The 
village contains a court-house, a town house, 9 churches, 3 banks, 




32 



STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 




and 8,000 inhabitants. Iron works were established here in 1652. Cars 
arrive from, and depart twice daily for Boston, and for New Bedford, 
and also for Fall River. 

FALL RIVER, Bristol county, Massachusetts, is 53 miles south from 
Boston. Watuppa Pond, 2 miles east of the village, is 11 miles long and 
1 broad, and constitutes by its outlet, Fall River. This river, which ia 
an unfailing stream, descends 140 feet in 80 rods, creaiing an immense 
water power. It enters Taunton river on the east side, at its entrance into 
Mount Hope buy, producing a fine harbor, navigable for the largest ships. 
It is safe and easy of access. The village contains 13 churches, 2 banks, 
several factories, and 7,000 inhabitants. A steamboat plies daily to Prov- 
idence, R. I. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for Boston, (fare $1.45J 
WORCESTER, capital of the county of the same name, is 44 miles west 
by south from Boston. This village is one of the finest and largest of the 
inland towns of New England. It contains a court-house, 4 banks, 7 
churches, and 7,500 inhabitants. The hall of 
the American Antiquarian Society has a cen- 
, tral building, 46 feet long and 36 feet wide, 
\ with a neat Doric portico ; and two wings, 28 
t feet long and 21 feet wide. It has a library of 
12,000 volumes, containing many rare and 
valuable works relating to American history, 
and interesting specimens of early printing, nearly half of them dona- 
tions from Isaiah Thomas, Esq., its first president, and author of the 
"' History of Printing." The Massachusetts Lunatic Asylum, is a com- 
modious building. Cars arrive from, and depart several times daily fitr 
Boston; also for Albany, via Springfield; New Haven, via Springfie.d 
and Hartford ; Allan's Point, via Norwich ; and Providence, via Woon- 
socket Falls. Slaves leave 3 times a week for Lowell ; for Nashua, 
N. //., via Fitchburg; for Keene, N. H. ; for Brattleboro, Vt. % and for 
Greenfield, Mass. 

SPRINGFIELD, capital of Hampden county, is on the left bank of the Con- 
necticut river, 
26 miles north 
from Hartford, 
. 98 west from 
Boston. Popula- 
fl_ lion li. OOo. The 
main street ex- 
tends along the 
k. river between 2 

and three miles. 

The houses are well built, and many of them elegant. The town contains 
a court-house, jail, 8 churches, two banks, and one of the most extensive 
United States arsenals of construction in the country. The armory is situ- 
ated on elevated ground, half a mile east of the village. The buildings 
are very extensive, of brick, and admirably arranged for the manufacture 
and storage of fire-arms. The establishment has 250 workmen, and com- 
pletes 45 muskets daily. The water-power here employed is owned by 
the United States. It operates upon 18 water-wheels. A steamboat plies 
from Springfield to Hartford daily. Cars arrive from, and depart for 
Boston, for New Hirev, for Albany, and for Northampton, twice datty. 
Stages leave for Norwich, Ct., 3 times a week. 
JVoRTHAMPTON, capital of Hampshire county, is 93 miles west from 




STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 33 

Boston. Population 3,700. The village is on the right bank of Con- 
necticut river, and is regarded as one of the most pleasant for residence 
in New England. Round Hill, a considerable elevation in the west part 
of the village, is the seat of the celebrated Round Hill Seminary, on the 
plan of a German gymnasium. The village contains a court-house, a 
town-hall, Shanks, aad ti churches. The Female Seminary here, is pa- 
tronized from all parts of the United States. The scenery around is 
highly picturesque, including the beautiful valley of the Connecticut, and 
Mount Holyoke, 830 feet high, on the opposite side of the river, whose 
top affords one of the finest views in this part of the United States. Cars 
arrive from, and depart for Springfield, several times daily. Stages 
leave daily for the White Mountains, via Greenfield. Brattleboro, Ft. t 
Bellows' Falls, frc. ; and also fur Albany, JV. Y. 

AMHERST, 82 miles west from Boston, contains 3 churches, a bank, 
an academy, and 2,500 inhabitants. Amherst College was founded in 
1821, and incorporated in 1825. It has a president, 11 professors or 
other instructors, 662 alumni, 142 students, and 15,000 volumes in its 
libraries. The philosophical apparatus is very complete, and it has a 
valuable cabinet of natural history, including mineralogy. Commence- 
ment on the fourth Thursday in July. Stages leave daily for Springfield, 
and 3 times a week for Northampton, and also for Worcester. 

GREENFIELD, 92 miles WNW. from Boston, is situated on the right 
bank of the Connecticut river, and contains a court-house, a town-house, 
a bank, 5 churches, the Greenfield Institute for males, the Greenfield High- 
school for young ladies, and about 150 dwellings. Stages leave daily for 
Northampton and also for Brattleboro* Vt., and 3 times a week for 
Fitchburg, and also for Albany, via Williamstown. 

WILLIAMSTOWN is 131 miles west by north from Boston. The village is 
on uneven ground, and contains a church, an academy, the buildings of 
Williams College, and about 50 dwellings. Williams College was founded 
in 1793. It has a president and 7 professors, 967 alumni, 144 students, and 
7,500 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is on the third Wed- 
nesday in August. Stages pass through the village 3 times a week from 
Pittsfield, from Greenfield, and from Bennington, Vt. 

PITTSFIELD, 151 miles from Boston, 33 from Albany, is situated on the 
Housatonic river, which here affords an immense hydraulic power, giving 
motion to several mills and manufactories. The village contains five 
churches, a bank, and the Berkshire Medical Institution, founded in 
1823, having 5 professors, 100 students, and 500 graduates; the lectures 
commence on the first Thursday in September. Cars pass through this 
place twice daily for Boston, via Springfield ; and for Albany, JV. Y. 

NANTUCKET is situated on an island of the same nnme, 30 miles from 
the main shore, and 109 SSE. from Boston. It has a good harbor, nearly 
land-locked by two projecting beaches. About 150 vessels belong to this 
port, and are nearly all engaged in the whale fishery. The village is com- 
pactly built, and contains a court-house, 9 churches, 3 banks, an atheneum, 
with a neat edifice, and a library of over 2,000 volumes, a museum, and 
the Coffin School. This school was endowed by its founder, Admiral Sir 
Isaac Coffin, of the British navy, with a building and .2*500 sterling for 
its support. A steamboat pl>'es daily to JVetc Bedford via Holmes' Hole, Src. 

Hopkinton Mineral Spring is 77 miles from Boston, and 3 miles from the 
depot at Westborough ; the waters contain carbonic acid, and carbonate of 
Jime. and iron. There is a large and commodious hotel, near Whitehall 
Pond at this place. 



34 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND. 



RHODE ISLAND is the smallest state in the Union. 
^ being about 49 miles long and 29 broad, containing 1,360 
^square miles, of which Narragansett bay includes 130; 
md the whole state contains but 870,400 acres. Popu- 
lation in 1840, 108,830. 

This state on the north and west is hilly and broken, 
>ut becomes gradually level towards the sea. The 
'islands in Narragansett bay are distinguished by their 
pleasing and diversified scenery and fertile soil. The 
climate is healthy, particularly on the islands, where the sea-breezes have 
the effect not only of mitigating the heat in summer, but moderating the 
cold in winter, and rendering the climate truly delightful. The rivers, 
though not large, furnish many fine mill-seats, which are extensively used 
for manufacturing purposes. The principal are Pawtucket, Providence. 
Pawtuxet, Pawcatuck, and Wood rivers. Narragansett bay is a fine 
body of water, and contains a number of beautiful and fertile islands. 
Among them is Rhode Island, which gives name to the state. 

The government consists of a governor, a senate, and house of repre- 
sentatives. The governor and lieutenant-governor are appointed annually 
by the people. The senate consists of the lieutenant governor and one 
member from each town or city in the state. The house of representa- 
tives consists of 69 members, and cannot exceed 72. The judicial power 
is vested in a supreme court, and such inferior courts as the General As- 
sembly shall from time to time establish. Every person who is a citizen 
of the United States, of the age of 21 years, who has resided in the state 
one year, and in the county six months in which he offers his vote, is a 
legal voter, under the following regulations: 1st, all citizens native or 
naturalized, without regard to color, who are possessed of a freehold of 
$134, or renting for $7 per annum ; 2d, all native citizens, without regard 
to color, who either p;iy a property tax of one dollar or n voluntary 
registry tax of one dollar. A residence at any garrison or naval station in 
the state does not give a legal residence. 

Brown University was founded at Warwick in 1764, but removed to 
Providence in 1770. It, is under the direction of the Baptists. There are 
in the state 55 academies or grammar schools, and 500 common schools. 

Rhode Island was first, settled by Roger Williams in 1636. It was the 
last of the old thirteen states that adopted the constitution of the United 
Slates, which it did May 20th, 1790, by a majority of two votes. 

WOONSOCKET FALLS, 15 miles NNW. from Providence, is situated at 
the falls of Blackstone river. The village is partly in Smithfield. On the 
Cumberland side it contains 6 churches and 2 banks. It has a great 
number of factories, and about 4,000 inhabitants. The Blackstone eanni 
passes through the village. Cars pass through it daily from Provi- 
dence and Worcester. Stages leave for Boston 3 times a week 




STATE OF RHODE ISLAND. 35 

BRISTOL lies 18 miles S. by E. from Providence, on a branch of Narragan- 
cett bay. It contains a court-house, market-house, 2 banks, 5 churches, 
and about 3,000 inhabitants. Mount Hope lies about 2 miles northeast 
from the court-house. This was in early times the favorite residence of 
King Philip, the celebrated Pequod chief, so formidable an enemy of the 
colonists. From its summit a beautiful view is obtained of the bay and 
the surrounding country. Steamboats ply daily to and from Providence. 

PROVIDKNCE, city, and one of the capitals of the state, is situated at 
the head of Narragansett bay, on the Seekonk or Providence river, 35 
miles from the ocean, and is in 41 49' 22" N. lat., and 71 24' 48" W. Ion. 
It is 42 miles SSW. from Boston, 173 east from New York, and 396 from 
Washington. Population 32,000. The compact part of the city lies on 
both sides of the river, and is connected by two bridges, one of which is 
90 feet wide. The principal wholesale business is done on the east side. 
The Blackstone canal terminates here. Among the public buildings are, 
the State House, 
City Hall, Ar- 
cade, 21 banks, 
the state prison, = 
hospital, a thea- 1 
tre, the custom- 
house, atheneun. ! 
33 churches, the| 
halls of Brown = 
University, a high 

school, and several public schools. The buildings of Brown University 
occupy a commanding situation on Prospect-street, at the head of 
College-street, on the east side of the river. It has a president and 8 
professors, 1,690 alumni, 140 stude^s, and 25,000 volumes in its libraries. 
The commencement is on the first Wednesday in September. It has an 
extensive philosophical and chemical apparatus ; and the cabinets of 
mineralogy and natural history are very complete. The Friends' Boarding 
School, three-quarters of a mile northeast from the University, is a 
flourishing institution, with 10 instructors and 200 pupils. The Atheneum, 
founded in 1836, has a handsome granite building and 12,000 volumes in 
its library. The town was settled in 1636 by Roger Williams, who fled 
from Massachusetts on account of his religious opinions, and who adopted 
the principles of universal toleration. Steamboats arrive from, and 
depart daily for New York, (fare 2 to $3,) and for Newport, and also for 
Fall River, Mass. Cars leave daily fur Boston, (fare $1.25,) and for 
Stonington, and also for Worcester, via Woonsocket Falls. Stages ar- 
rive from, and depart daily for Newport, and also for New Btdford* via, 
Fall river ; and 3 times a week for Hartford. 

NEWPORT, the capital of Newport county, and one of the capitals of 
the state, is situated on the SW. side of Rhode Island, 71 miles SW. 
from Boston. The harbor, enclosed by Brenton's Point on the SW. 
and Goat Island in front, is safe, and has a depth of water sufficient for the 
Jargest ships. The harbor is defended by forts Adams and Green. The 
town is beautifully situated, being built on a gentle acclivity, which rises 
gracefully from the water. Its healthful climate, pleasing scenery, and 
the cooling sea-breezes, have rendered it a favorite summer resort. It 
contains a state-house, market-house, theatre, almshouse, a library con- 
taining over 4,000 volumes, many of them rare old folios, 3 academies, 7 
baa&s, 13 churches, and 9,000 inhabitants. Newport is unrivalled in its 



36 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



fish market, having nearly 60 different kinds of scale and shell fish, and in 
grent abundance. Steamboats arrive, from, and depart daily for JWzo 
York, and also for Providence, and '3 times a week for New Bedford. 

PAWTUCKET, four miles north of Providence, is situated on both sides 
of Puwtucket river. It is a large and v flourishing manufacturing village, 
and contains 9 churches, 3 banks, 12 cotton factories, and about 6,000 
inhabitants. 




CONNECTICUT, the southernmost of the eastern 
states, lies between 41 and 42 2' N. lat., and 71 20* 
and 73 15' W. Ion. It contains 4,674 square miles, 
} or 2,291,360 acres. Pop. in 1840, 300,015. 

Though generally hilly and broken, no part of the 
f" surface rises to a great elevation above the sea. The 
'greatest elevation is a range of mountains commencing 
" at a bluff called East Rock, near New Haven, and 
continuing northward through the state. The hills are generally of mod- 
erate size, and occur in quick succession, in ranges trending northward, 
presenting to the travelle? an ever varying prospect. The soil is generally 
fertile, but better adapted to grazing than tillage. 

The three principal rivers are the Connecticut, navigable for vessels 
drawing eight feet of water, 50 miles to Hartford, crossing the state nearly 
in the middle, and entering the Sound between Saybrook and Lyme ; the 
Housatqnic, navigable for small vessels 12 miles to Derby, and entering 
the Sound between Milford and Stratford; the Thames, navigable 14 
miles to Norwich, and entering the Atlantic at New London. Farmington 
and Naugatuck are considerable streams, furnishing extensive water- 
power. The principal seaports are New London, New Haven, and 
Bridgeport. Long Island Sound extends the whole length of the state. 

This state has 3 colleges : Yale College, at New Haven, one of the 
oldest, and also the most flourishing institution of the kind in the United 
States ; Washington College, at Hartford ; and the Wesleyan University, 
at Middletown. There are in the state 130 academies, and 1,700 common 
and primary schools. Connecticut has a larger school fund than any of 
the other states, amounting to about $2,000,000. 

The government is vested in a governor, lieutenant-governor, who is 
president of the senate, and a senate and house of representatives. The 
senate consists of not less than 18, nor more than 24 members. Most of 
the towns choose two representatives ; some, of Jess population, but one. 
The sessions of the legislature are held annually, alternately at Hartford 
and New Haven. The Supreme Court consists of five judges, appointed 
by the legislature, who hold their offices during good behavior, or until 
they are 70 years of age. 



8TATE OF CONNECTICUT. 37 

The colony of Connecticut was settled in 1633, at Windsor, by emi- 
grants from Massachusetts, who penetrated through the wilderness. Hart- 
ford was settled by the English in 1635, the Dutch having previously built 
a fort there. The colony at New Haven was settled by the English in 
1638. By a charter granted by Charles II., in 1665, these colonies were 
united. During the tyranny of Andros, an attempt was made to procure 
a surrender of the charter. The subject was publicly debated in the 
evening, at Hartford, when suddenly the candles were extinguished, and 
the charter was hid in the hollow of an oak tree, which has become 
famous since as the Charter Oak. This charter continued to be the basis 
of the government until the year 1818. The constitution of the United 
States was adopted in a convention, January 9, 1788 ; yeas 128, nays 40. 

NEW HAVEN, the capital of New Haven county, and semi-capital of 
the state, is beautifully situated round the head of a bay which sets up 
four miles from Long Island Sound. Population in 1840, ] 2,960. 

It lies on a plain with a gentle inclination towards the water, skirted in 
other directions by an amphitheatre of hills, two of which present at 
their termination bold bluffs which rise almost perpendicularly to the 
height of 370 feet. From these elevations a fine view of the surrounding 
country may be had, including in its range the Sound, which is here 20 
miles wide. The city extends about three miles from east to west, and 
two miles from north to south, and is laid out with regularity. The 
public square, shaded with elms, is one of the finest in the country. The 
State House, a large and well-constructed building of the Grecian Doric 
order, is on the western portion of the square, and on the west side, facing 
the east, is the fine range of buildings belonging to Yale College. The 
houses of the city are generally built of wood, neatly painted white, and 
surrounded by gardens ornamented with shrubbery and fruit trees. As a 
place for a quiet and elegant residence, it is unsurpassed. The city con- 
tains 20 churches, a custom-house, an almshouse, a museum, 3 banks, and 
a savings insti- 
tution. But the 
most important 
public institution 
is Yale College. \ 
It was founded 
at Killingworfh, jj 
in 1701, and per- j 
manently estab- j 

lished at New ______- , 

Haven in 1717. There are four college halls, J 04 feet long by 40 feet 
wide, and four stories high. There is also another hall for theological 
students, and three other buildings, denominated the chapel, the lyceum, 
and the atheneum. In the rear of the main buildings is another range, 
consisting of a chemical laboratory, the Commons' hall, which has in its 
second story the most complete mineralogical cabinet in the United 
States, and a building containing a fine collection of paintings by Col. 
Trumbull and others. A short distance from these are the buildings de- 
votod to the law and medical departments. Yale College has a greater 
number of students than any other college in the United States. It has a 
president and 31 professors, 394 students, 5,463 alumni, and 34,500 volumes 
in its libraries. The commencement is on the third Thursday in August, 
The Medical Institute of Yale College, founded in 1810, has 6 professor*. 
34 students, and 810 graduates. Lectures commence six weeks after the 




38 STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 

Jiird Thursday in August. There are in this city 11 select schools for 
males, 10 seminaries for females, 2 Lancasterian schools, besides many others. 

New Haven was settled in 1638. In July, 1779, the British under Gen. 
Tryon had possession of the town for a few days, and committed many 
outrages. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for New York. Cars 
leave daily for Boston via Hartford and Springfield. Stages leave daily 
for New York, via Bridgeport ; 3 times a week for New London ; for 
Middletown ; for Farmington ; and for Litchfield. 

HARTFORD, capital of Hartford county, and semi-capital of the state, is 
situated on the right bank of Connecticut river, at the head of sloop 
navigation, 50 miles from its mouth. Population in 1840, 9,468. 

Among the public buildings, the State House, standing on a public 
square fronting Main-street, is conspicuous. It is of the Doric order of 
architecture, 114 feet long, and, with the porticoes, 76 feet wide. The 
legislature meets here on each alternate year. The City Hall, fronting on 
Market-street, is a large and commodious building. Washington College 
occupies an elevated position, in the southwest part of the city. Its main 
building is 148 feet long, 43 wide, and 4 stories high. This institution, 
founded in 1824, has a president and 7 professors or other instructors, 
257 alumni, 80 students, and 6,500 volumes in its libraries. The com- 
mencement is on the first Thursday in August. It is under the direction 
of the Episcopalians. The American Asylum for the Instruction of the 
Deaf and Dumb, was the first institution of the kind established in the 
United States. Its principal building is 130 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 
4 stories high. Attached to it are eight or ten acres of land. The Re- 
treat for the Insane is located 1 miles southwesterly from the 'State 
House: the situation is elevated, and overlooks a wide extent of in- 
teresting scenery. The grounds around the buildings are handsomely 
laid out in walks ornamented with shrubbery and extensive gardens. 
The main bnilding is 254 feet square and 3 stories high, with wings 2 
stories high, each 70 feet long and 30 feet wide. The Atheneum is an ele- 
gant edifice of the Gothic order, on Main-street. The " Charter Oak," 
which is still vigorous, deserves mention as an object of interest. Hart- 
ford contains 13 churches, 5 banks, 2 markets, and an arsenal. The first 
settlement here was made by the Dutch from New York, in 1633. Steam- 
boats arrive from, and depart daily for New York. Cars leave daily 
for Albany via Springfield, Mass., for Boston* and for New Haven. 
Stages leave daily for Litchfield, and also for Poughkeepsie, N. Y., via 
Canaan ; 3 times a week for Providence, R. I. ; for Norwich, New Lon- 
don, and also New Haven, via Middletown. 

NEW LONDON, city, and port of entry, and semi-capital of New London 
county, is 54 miles east from New Haven and 120 from New York. It is 
on the right bank of Thames river, 3 miles from hs mouth, and is built on 
a declivity which descends to the south and east. Back of the city the 
ground rises to a considerable height, from the elevated parts of which a 
fine view is obtained of the surrounding country. It contains a court- 
house, a custom-house, 3 banks, an almshouse, 2 markets, 9 churches, and 
7,000 inhabitants. The harbor is the best in the state, easy of access, spacious, 
and safe, having a depth of water for the largest ships of war. There are 
belonging to this place 50 ships and several smaller vessels engaged in the 
whale fishery. In September, 1781, a large portion of the city was burned 
by the British under Arnold. Fort Griswold, in Groton, was captured, 
and a large part of the garrison massacred. A granite obelisk, 125 feet 
high, erected near the spot, commemorates the event ; and on a tablet are 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 39 

inscribed the names of those who fell. Steamboats leave daily for New 
York. Steamboats in connection with cars leave daily for Boston via 
Norwich and Worcester, Mass. Stages leave 3 times a week for Ston- 
ington ; for Providence, R. L ; for Hartford ; and also for New 
Haven. 

NORWICH, serai-capital of New London county, is situated at the 
junction of the Yantic and Shetucket rivers with the Thames. The city 
is built on a steep acclivity, the houses on each street, as you ascend, 
overlooking those on the streets below. It is at the head of navigation 
on the Thames river, and has a court-house, town-house, 4 banks, 8 
churches, 3 academies, and about 5,000 inhabitants. The falls of the 
Yantic are singularly wild and picturesque. From a high projecting rock 
which overhangs the foot of those falls, the Mohegan warriors plunged to 
destruction, when pursued by the Narragunsetts. The town formerly be- 
longed to the Mohegan Indians, the burial place of whose kings is still to 
be seen here. Cars arrive from, and depart for Boston daily, and steam- 
boats leave daily for New York. Stages leave 3 times a week for Hart- 
ford, and for Springfield, Mass. 

STONINGTON, 71 miles from New Haven, is situated on a rocky point of 
land, which projects about half a mile into the Sound. It has a good 
harbor, and contains 2 churches, 2 academies, a bank, and about 1,000 
inhabitants. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for New York. 
Cars arrive from, and depart daily for Boston via Providence. Stages 
leave 3 times a week for New London, New Haven, <$-c. 

Stafford Springs are situated on a small branch of Willimantic river, 
24 miles northeast from Hartford. They have been pronounced by 
chemists to be the most efficacious chalybeate springs in the United States. 
There are two distinct springs, one of which contains " a solution of iron, 
sustained by carbonic acid gas, a portion of marine salt, some earthy 
substances, and what has been called natron, or a native alkali.'" The 
other contains " a large portion of hydrogen gas, of sulphur, and a small 
proportion of iron." Stages arrive from, and depart daily for Hartford 
during the watering season. 

MIDDLETOWN is on the right bank of Connecticut river, and at the head 
of ship navigation. There are in the city, a court-house, a custom- 
house, 3 banks, 8 churches, the Wesleyan University, 3 academies, and 
about 4,000 inhabitants. The Wesleyan University, under the direction of 
the Methodists, was founded in 1831. It has a president and 8 professors, 
221 alumni, 105 students, and 1,100 volumes in its libraries. The com- 
mencement is on the first Wednesday in August. It has a valuable 
philosophical apparatus, and mineralogical cabinet. Steamboats arrive 
from, and depart daily for Hartford and New York. Stages leave three 
times a week for Hartford, for New Haven, and for Say brook. 

BRIDGEPORT, Fairfield county, situated on the west side of an arm of 
Long Island Sound, is 17 miles WSW. from New Haven, and 62 NE. 
from New York, and contains 5 churches, 2 banks, several extensive 
manufactories, and about 4.000 inhabitants. Steamboats ply daily to and 
from New York. Cars leave daily for Mbany via New Milford, Canaan, 
Great Barrington, Mass.. &c., frc. 

LiTCHfiELD, 33 miles west from Hartford, is pleasantly situated on the 
summit of a hill, and contains a court-house, 2 churches, an academy, a 
bank, and about 800 inhabitants. Stages leave daily for Hartford; 3 
times a week for New Haven ; for Cornwall ; and for New Milford. 



40 



STA.TE OF NEW YORK. 




NEW YORK is situated between 40 30 and 45 
1 00' N. lat., and between 71 56' and 79 56' W. Jon.. 
T and contains an area of 46,000 square miles. Eopula- 
S lion 1840, 2,428,921 ; 1845, 2,584,365. 

Physical features. This state is divided into three 
unequal parts, by two great valleys, viz. : First, the 
valley of the Hudson, including the depression in which 
Lake Champlain is situated or more properly the val- 
^s of the Hudson and of Champlain united : Second, 
jf the valleys of the Mohawk and Oneida lake and Os- 
- wego river united. The eastern division is a long 

narrow belt extending from New York Island to the 

nead ot .Lake Uhamplain. Its eastern limits are the borders of Con- 
necticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont, with a slope westward to the 
Hudson, traversed longitudinally by several narrow valleys. This division 
comprehends the western slope of the Taghkanic Mountains, which form 
the water-shed that separates the waters flowing into the Hudson from 
those which flow into Long Island Sound. The north division of the state 
is traversed by the Clinton range. There are several subordinate ranges 
connected with this group. It begins at Little Falls, in the valley of 
the Mohawk, and pursues a northeast course across the country to 
Trembleau Point, on the west shore of Lake Champlain. There are 
numerous lofty peaks, which form a remarkable group, and have been 
styled the Adirondack Mountains. Mount Marcy, the highest of the 
range, attains to an elevation 5,467 feet above the sea. This ridge pre- 
sents the water-shed of the region, dividing the waters of the Hudson, or 
those winch flow south into the Atlantic, from those which flow into the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. The south division is situated between Luke 
Ontario and the Mohawk and the Hudson valleys, and Pennsylvania. It 
rises with a gradual ascent until it reaches its maximum height near the 
southern boundary of the state. The southeastern part of this division is 
comprised in three ranges, viz. : the Highlands, broken through by the 
Hudson; the Shawangunk ; and the Catskill. 

The principal rivers are the Hudson, 324 miles long, navigable 156 
miles to Troy : the Mohawk, 135 miles long, which enters the Hudson a 
little above Troy ; the Genesee, 125 miles long, which enters Lake On- 
tario, having at Rochester, 5 miles from its mouth, two falls of 96 and 75 
feet ; Black river, which rises near the sources of the Hudson, and flows 
120 miles into Lake Ontario ; the Saranac, 65 miles long, entering Lake 
Champlain at Plattsburg ; the Oswegatchie, 100 miles, flowing into the 
St. Lawrence ; the Oswego, proceeding 40 miles from Oneida Lake into 
Lake Ontario ; the Au Sable, rising in the Adirondack Mountains, and 
having a course of 75 miles to Lake Champlain. The majestic St 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 41 

Lawrence forms a part of the northern boundary of the state. The head 
branches of the Susquehanna, the Alleghany, and the Delaware, rise in 
this state. 

Besides lakes Ontario and Erie on the N.. andChamplain on the E., which 
are but partly within it, there are wholly within the state many picturesque 
sheets of water viz., Lakes George, Oneida, Skaneateles, Owasco, Cayuga. 
Seneca, Crooked lake, Canandaigua, and Chautauque. 

The islands belonging to New York are Long Island, 120 miles long 
from W. to E., with an average width of about 15 miles, within whose 
waters on the east are Fisher's, Shelter, Robin's, and some other islands ; 
Staten Island, southwest of the harbor of New York, 18 miles long and 
8 wide; Manhattan Island, on which the city of New York stands, 13$ 
miles long and about H wide at an average breadth ; Grand Island, in 
Niagara river, 12 miles long and from 2 to 7 wide, and extending to within 
a short distance of the falls. 

The harbor of New York is one of the finest in the United States. On 
the bar at Sandy Hook, it has a depth of from 21 to 27 feet Sag Harbor, 
on the E., and Brooklyn on the W. end of Long Island, have good harbors. 
Sacketts Harbor has a good natural, and Oswego a good artificial harbor, 
on Lake Ontario. Buffalo and Dunkirk are harbors on Lake Erie. 

This state has a number of highly respectable literary institutions: 
Columbia College, (formerly King's,) founded in New York in 1754; 
Union College, at Schenectady, founded in 1795 ; Hamilton College, iu 
Clinton, founded in 1812; Geneva College, in Geneva, founded in 1823; 
the University of the City of New York, founded in 1831 ; St. John's Col- 
lege, at Fordham, founded in 1841 ; the Hamilton Literary and Theologi- 
cal Seminary, founded in 1819 ; the Theological Institute of the Episco- 
pal Church, founded in 1819, in the city of New York; the Union 
Theological Seminary, connected with the University, founded in 1826 ; 
the Theological Seminary, at Auburn, founded in 1821 ; the Hartwick 
Seminary, founded at Hartwick, in Otsego county, in 1816; the Theologi- 
cal Seminary of the Associate Reformed Church, founded at Newburg, in 
1836 ; the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in the city of New York, 
founded in 1807 ; the Albany Medical College, founded in 1839. There 
are in the state 550 academies, and 12,000 common and primary schools. 

The governor is elected biennially. He must be 30 years of age, be a 
native-born citizen of the United States, and have resided five years 
in the state. The lieutenant-governor is elected in like manner, and 
must possess similar qualifications. He is president of the senate ; and 
in case of the disqualification, absence, or death of the governor, discharges 
the duties of that office. The senate consists of 32 members, who are 
chosen for 2 years, one-half of whom are elected annually. The as- 
sembly consists of 128 members, elected annually. The secretary of state, 
comptroller, treasurer, and attorney- general, are elected biennially; as are 
the engineer and surveyor. The judges hold their offices during a term of 
eight years, and are elected by the people. Every male white citizen 21 
years of nge, who has resided one year in the state, and for four months 
preceding the election in the county where he offers his vote, enjoys the 
right of suffrage. Persons of color, who have resided three years in the 
state, and who possess a freehold of $250, and have held it one year 
previous to the election, and paid a tax upon it, are allowed the right of 
suffrage. 

In 1G09, Hendrick Hudson, an English navigator, serving the Dutch 
East India Company, discovered Hudson river, and in 1614 some Dutch 



42 STATE OF NEW YORK. 

merchants built a fort where the city of New York now stands. The 
state passed into the possession of the English in 1664, who governed 
it down to the revolution, with the exception of a single year. On the 
26th of July, 1788, this state in convention adopted the constitution of the 
United States ; yeas 30, nays 25. 




NEW YORK, the metropolis of North America, and the second com 
mercial city on the globe, is situated on Manhattan Island, at the con- 
fluence of the Hudson with the East river or strait of Long Island 
Sound, in lat. 40 42' 40", Ion. 74 00' 41" W. from Greenwich. Its 
harbor is safe, spacious, easy of access, and capable of accommodating 
the united navies of the world. The harbor occupies a wide circuit of 
twenty-five miles, everywhere bounded with variegated scenery, villages, 
and country seats, and embosoms several beautiful islands. New York 
has communication, by steam and sailing pockets, to all the principal sea- 
ports of America, Europe, Africa, Asia, East and West Indies, and the 
Islands of the Pacific. Its progress in population, commerce, and 
wealth, has no parallel. Population in 1790 was 33,131 ; in 1800, 00,489 ; 
in 1810, 96,373; in 1820, 123,706; in 1830, 202,589; in 1840, 312,710; 
in 1845, 371,223. 

The streets were originally laid out according to the surface of the 
ground, and some of them were crooked ; but in later times they have 
been widened and improved. No city can exhibit a more beautiful plan 
than the northern portion of New York. Principal Inisiness streets : Broad- 
way extends from the Battery nearly three miles to Union Square. It is 
80 feet wide, and occupies the height between the two rivers. It is well 
built, with many fine houses and stores. Being the great promenade of 
the city, it is much resorted to in pleasant weather by the gay and 
fashionable. Pearl-street, between Broadway and the East river, is in 
a crescent form, over a mile long, and is the principal seat of the whole- 
sale drygoods and hardware business, which has also extended into Cedar. 
Pine, and other adjacent streets. Water and Front streets, between 
Pearl-street and the East river, are occupied chiefly by wholesale grocers, 
commission merchants, and mechanics connected with the shipping 
business. South-street, extending along the margin of East river, con- 
tains the warehouses and offices of the principal shipping merchants. 
In front of it is, at all times, a dense forest of masts. Wall-street extends 
from Broadway to the East river, and is occupied by banks, insu- 
rance offices, newspaper and brokers' offices, the Custom-house, Mer- 
chants' Exchange, and many fine. granite buildings, and is the centre of 
the heaviest money transactions m America. The Bowery is a wide and 
extensive street east of Broadway, running north and south, connected 
\yith the third avenue, which is, macadamized to Harlem, and forms the 
principal entrance to the city from the northeast. 

PUBLIC SQUARES, '&&.- T/ie Battery, at the southeastern end of the 




STATE OF NEW YORK. 43 

island, is situated at the junction of the Hudson and East rivers. It is in 
the form of a crescent, and contains about 11 acres of ground, tastefully 
laid out, and from it is obtained a fine view of the bay, with its islands, 
and the adjacent shores. Castle Garden is built on a mole, and con- 
nected with the Battery by a bridge. It was originally erected as a 
fortification, and having become unnecessary for that purpose, was ceded 
by the United States to the corporation of the city, in 1823. It has been 
covered by a roof converting it into an immense room, which is used for 
exhibitions, &c. The Bowling Green, at the southern termination of 
Broadway, is an elliptical area, 220 feet long and 140 broad, containing a 
fountain supplied by the Croton water-works, and is enclosed by an 
iron railing. It was established before the revolution, and formerly con- 
tained a leaden statue 
George III,, which was 
converted into bullets at J 
that period. The Park, \ 
called in early times the 
Commons, is a triangular 1 
area of lOf acres, lying j 
between Broadway, Chat-f 
ham, and Chambers streets. I 
It contains the City Hall, 
the city buildings, or old I 
Almshouse, the Hall of< 
Records, and Rotunda for ^ 
the exhibition of paintings. It has also, towards its south part, a public 
fountain, within a basin 100 feet in diameter, the water of which ascends 
in a single stream to the height of 70 feet. St. John's Park in Hudson- 
street, containing about four acres of ground, is beautifully laid out with 
walks, shaded with trees, and embellished with a fountain. Washington 
Square, a mile and a half north of the City Hall, between Fourth- street 
n nd Waverley Place, contains about ten acres of ground. Two-thirds of 
this area was the Potter's Field until 1827. It is tastefully laid out with 
walks and shaded with trees. Union Square^ at the northern termination 
of Broadway, is in an elliptical form, enclosed with a fine iron fence, 
having a public fountain in the centre, with ornamental jets. Tompkins 
Square, in the northeast part of the city, is a large and ornamented 
ground. Grammercy Park, between the Third and Fourth avenues, is 
small, but very tastefully laid out, and ornamented with trees, shrubbery, 
&c. Madison, Bloomingdal,e, and Hamilton squares are very extensive 
grounds, but not yet regulated. 

The city of New York has many superb public buildings. The 
most splendid of these is the Merchants' Exchange, which covers the 
whole space between Wall, William, Exchange, and Hanover streets. 
It is built in the most substantial form, of duincy granite, and is 200 
feet long by 171 to 144 feet wide, 77 feet high to the top of the cor- 
nice, and 124 to the top of the dome. The front on Wall street has 
a recessed portico of eighteen massive Grecian-Ionic columns, 38 feet 
high and 4 feet four inches in diameter. Besides numerous other rooms 
for various purposes, the Exchange in the centre is in a circular form, 80 
feet in diameter, with four recesses, making the length and breadth each 
100 feet, the whole 80 feet high, surmounted with a dome resting in part 
on eight Corinthian columns of Italian marble, 41 feet high, and lighted 
by a skylight 25 feet in diameter. The Custom-house is a fine building, 



44 STATE OF NEW YORK. 

constructed in the Doric order of Grecian architecture. It is built in the 
must substantial manner, of white marble, after the model of the Parthenon 
at Athens, and occupies the site of the old Federal Hall, in the open 
gallery of which, WASHINGTON was inaugurated. The building is 200 
feet long, 90 feet wide, and 80 feet high. At the south end on Wall- 
street is a portico of eight columns, 5 feet eight inches in diameter and 32 
feet high ; and on the north end on Pine-street is a corresponding portico. 
The great business hall is a circular room, 60 feet in diameter, with 
recesses and galleries, making it 80 feet in diameter, surmounted by a 
dome, supported by 16 Corinthian columns 30 feet high. The City Hall 
is beautifully situated in the Park; it is 216 feet long and 105 wide. The 
front is ornamented with columns and pilasters of the Ionic, Corinthian, 
and Composite orders, rising above each other in regular gradations. 
There are 28 offices and other public rooms, the most conspicuous of 
which are the Governor's-room, and the Chambers of the Common 
Council and Assistant Aldermen. The Governor's-room is appropriated to 
the governor of the state when he visits the city, and has been used as a 
reception room for other distinguished persons. It is 52 by 20 feet. The 
walls are hung with a fine collection of portraits, including the governors 
of the state, the mayors of the city, since the revolution, some of the 
Dutch governors, and the principal military and naval heroes. The 
Common Council Room is 42 by 30 feet, and the president occupies the 
game chair in which General Washington sat when he presided over the 
first American Congress, which assembled in New York. The room con- 
tains several fine full-length portraits painted by Trumbull, of which 
that of Washington is thought the best in existence. The Superior Court 
Room is very neat and conveniently fitted up for its purpose. To the 
east of the City-hall is the Hall of Records ; it has a lofty portico of four 
Ionic pillars on each front; and in the rear of it, are the City Buildings, 
containing the United States Court rooms and several public offices. The 
Hall of Justice occupies the whole space between Centre, Elm, Leonard, 
and Franklin streets, and is an elegant building of the Egyptian order of 
architecture. 

There are 215 churches in the city ; many of them have been recently 
built, and are expensive, elegant, and commodious buildings. 

New York contains several literary institutions. The oldest is Columbia 
College, chartered by George II. in 1754, by the name of King's College, 
and confirmed, with alterations, by the legislature of New York, in 1784. 
It has a president, and 10 professors, 1,170 alumni, 124 students, and 
14,000 volumes in its libraries. The building is situated on a beautiful 
square at the head of Park Place, and contains a chapel, lecture-room, 
halls, museum, and an extensive philosophical and chemical apparatus. 
The funds amount to about $200,000. The commencement is on the Tues- 
day preceding the last Wednesday in September. There is a flourishing 
grammar school attached to the institution. The University of the city 
of Nevv York, in University Place, has a fine edifice of white marble, in 
the Gothic style of architecture. This institution, founded in 1831, has a 
chancellor and 12 professors, (besides 6 professors in its medical de- 
partment,) and in all its departments 737 students viz., undergraduates, 
145; medical, 343; grammar school, 249. It has a valuable library and 
philosophical apparatus. The General Theological Seminary of the Prot. 
Epis. Church in theU. S., corner of Ninth avenue and 21st-street, founded in 
18J9, contains two handsome buildings, and has 6 professors, 74 students, 
and 9,350 volumes in its library. The Union Theological Seminary. 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 45 

(Presbyterian,) organized in 1836, has 6 professors, 104 students, and 
16,000 volumes in its library The Rutger's Female Institute, in Madison- 
street, has a valuable library and philosophical apparatus. The Me- 
chanics' Society School, in Crosby-street, has a number of teachers and 
500 pupils. The College of Physicians and Surgeons, founded in 1807, 
has a handsome edifice in Crosby-street ; it has 6 professors, about 220 
students, a library of 2,000 volumes, and a superior museum of anatomical 
preparations. The lectures commence on the first Monday in November, 
and continue four months. The New York Hospital, handsomely situ- 
ated in Broadway, has extensive buildings. The Eye Infirmary has 
four surgeons attached to it. The New York Lunatic Asylum, con- 
nected with the New York Hospital, located at Bloomingdale. has a 
large and fine building, attached to which are 40 acres of ground, taste- 
fully laid out in gardens, pleasure-grounds, and gravelled walks ; it 
occupies one of the most elevated sites on the island. The Deaf and 
Dumb Asylum is on 50th- street, near the Fourth avenue, and has a 
principal and 8 instructors. The Institution for the Blind, on the 8th 
avenue, has about 70 pupils. 

The New York Society Library, an old institution, founded in 1754, 
has an elegant edifice on Broadway at the corner of Leonard-street, and 
besides spacious accommodations for the library, has a handsome and 
commodious lecture-room, and the rooms of the Academy of Design. 
The library, which contains about 40,000 volumes, is open on every 
week day. The Historical Society, at the University, has a valuable 
library of 12,000 volumes, besides a collection of coins, medals, and 
manuscripts; it has published several volumes of historical collections. 
The National Academy of Design, instituted in 1826, has purchased the 
statuary of the Academy of Fine Arts, and exhibits annually a large col- 
lection of paintings by living artists. Its exhibitions open on the 15th of 
April and close on the 4th of July annually ; the same painting is not al- 
lowed to be exhibited twice. Clinton-hall Association was founded in 
1830 for the promotion of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and is the 
proprietor of Clinton-hall, in which the Mercantile Library is located. 
The Mercantile Library Association was formed in 1820 for the special 
benefit of merchants' clerks. It has a library of 21,000 volumes, and a 
reading-room much frequented. It sustains, in the winter season, an in- 
teresting course of literary and scientific lectures. The Apprentices' 
Library, in Crosby-street, contains 12,000 volumes. The American In- 
stitute, incorporated in 1829, for the encouragement of Agriculture, Com- 
merce, and Manufactures, has a valuable library, reading-room, and a 
collection of models of machinery. It holds an annual fair. The New 
York Lyceum, founded in 1838, sustains, in the winter season, an able 
course of lectures. The Mechanics' Institute contains a library of about 
2,000 volumes, a reading-room, supplied with the reviews, literary and 
scientific journals, and newspapers ; a museum of models of machinery, 
and a valuable chemical and philosophical apparatus. It has established 
an annual course of lectures ; and also two schools, one for each of the 
sexes. There are many religious charitable institutions which have their 
centre in New York. 

There are 25 Banks in the city of New York, with an aggregate capital 
of 28 millions of dollars; several marine insurance companies, with a 
total capital of about 3 millions ; 26 fire insurance companies, with an ag- 
gregate capital of about 8 millions ; besides several mutual insurance 
companies. There are four savings banks, 15 markets, five theatres, an 




46 STATE OF NEW YORK. 

opera-house, a museum, and a circus. During the summer there are 
theatrical performances at Castle Garden . 

There are in New York many splendid hotels, of which the Astor 
House, is the most remarkable. 

The Croton Jlqucduct commences at the Croton river, five miles from 

the Hudson, in Westches- 
> ter county. The Dam is 
f 250 feet long, 70 feet wide 
I at the bottom, and 7 at 
I the top, and 40 feet high, 
i built of stone and cement. 
' It creates a pond 5 miles 
long, covering a surface 
^ of 400 acres, and contain- 
; ing 500 millions of gallons 
7 water. From the dam, 

^_ ^ ^^ * the .Aqueduct proceeds, 

sometimes tunnelling through solid rocks) crossing valleys by embank- 
ments, and brooks by culverts, until it reaches Harlem river, a distance of 
33 miles. It is built of stone, brick, and cement, arched over and under, 
6 feet three inches wide at bottom, 7 feet eight inches at top of the side 
walls, and 8 feet five inches high ; has a descent of 13$ inches per mile, 
and will discharge 60 millions of gallons every twenty-four hours. It 
crosses the Harlem river on a magnificent bridge of stone, 1,450 feet long, 
with 14 piers, 8 of them bearing arches of 80 feet span, and seven others 
of 50 feet span, \\4 feet above tide- water, at the top. The receiving 
reservoir, at 86th-street, 38 miles from the Croton dam, covers 35 acres, 
and holds 150 millions of gallons. The distributing reservoir, on Murray's 
Hill in 40th street, covers 4 acres, and is constructed of stone and ce- 
ment, 45 feet high above the street, and holds twenty millions of gallons. 
Thence the water is distributed over the city in iron pipes, laid so deep 
under ground as to be secure from frost. The whole cost of the work has 
been about 13 millions of dollars. "The water is of the purest kind of 
river water. There are laid below the distributing reservoir in 40th- 
street, more than 170 miles of pipe from 6 to 36 inches in diameter. 

There are not more t\\&u four cities in Europe larger than New York, 
vix., London, Paris, Constantinople, and St. Petersburg. 

Steamboats leave daily for Boston on four routes, viz.: via Providence, 
via Stonington ; via, New London and Jlllyn's Point ; and via Ntio 
Haven, (see routes 122, 123, 124, 125 ;) and daily for Bridgeport, Nor- 
walk, New Rochelle, Flushing, Glen Cove, Oyster Bay, Port Jefferson, 
<S*c. On the Hudson, several lines run daily for Albany , (fare 50 cts. 
$2, ) and also to the intermediate places, (see route 128;) a line runs 
daily for Piermont, (where it connects with the New York and Erie 
railroad, see route 131,) and also for Philadelphia, connecting with the 
Camden and Jlmboy railroad, (fare $3.) Cars leave daily on the Long 
Island railroad for Boston, fare $3 ; White Plains, <c., by tite Harlem, 
railroad; for Paterson, N. J., for Philadelphia, fare $4, twice daily 
via Jersey City, Newark, New Brunswick, Princeton, Trenton, i^-c. 
FARK to Baltimore, $7 ; to Washington, $3.60 ; to Richmond, Va., $13.60; 
to Wilmington, N. C., $23.50; to Charleston, S. C., $28; to Mobile, 
864.50; to New Orleans, $69.50 ; to Pittsburff, Pa.. $16; to Wheeling, 
$17; to Cincinnati, $21 ; to Buffalo, $14; to Cleveland, Ohio, $19; to 
Detroit. $20 ; to Mackinac, $24 ; to Milwaukee and Chicago, $26. 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



47 




Jersey City. New York. Brooklyn. 

BROOKLYN is situated on Long Island, opposite the southeastern part of 
the city of New York, with which it is connected by four ferries, upon 
which steamboats ply, every few minutes, day and rnht. Its beautiful, 
and for the most part elevated situation, has made it a favorite residence 
of many persons doing business in New York. It contains a City Hall, 30 
churches, 3 banks, a savings institution, 3 insurance companies, and in 
1845, 60,000 inhabitants. The Lyceum is a fine granite building with a 
spacious lecture-room. The City Library contains over 3,000 volumes, 
and has a tine building and reading-room. The Hamilton Literary 
Association supports annually an able course of lectures. The United 
States Navy Yard is situated on Wallabout bay, and covers 40 acres of 
ground, containing several extensive ship-houses, and houses for storage 
of materials, workshops, &c. An extensive drydock is in the course of 
construction. Connected with the Navy Yard is the United States Naval 
Lyceum, a literary institution formed in 1832, possessing a valuable 
library, an extensive collection of charts, and a museum. About half a 
mile east from the Navy Yard is the United States Naval Hospital, a fine 
building, beautifully situated, and surrounded by 33 acres of land, planted 
with trees and shrubbery. In Jackson-street, near the Navy Yard, is a 
vault, over the entrance of which is the following inscription : 

"PORTAL TO THE TOMB OF 11,500 PATRIOT PRISONERS, 

WHO DIED IN DUNGEONS AND PRISON-SHIPS, 

In and about the city of New York, during the Revolution.' 1 '' 
In the year J808, the bones of these martyrs were collected from the 
hill-sides in the neighborhood, where they had been slightly interred, and 
placed in this vault. 

Greenwood Cemetery, in the south part of Brooklyn, is admirably situa- 
ted, and presents an agreeable variety of surface 
and scenery ; from the elevated parts, the views 
are extremely beautiful, overlooking the cities of 
New York and Brooklyn, the bay of New York, i 
the Narrows, and the Atlantic ocean. The| 
ground has been laid out in the most tasteful \ 
manner, preserving its natural surface, ponds, | 
trees, shrubbery, dec.; and many appropriate! 
tombs and monuments have been erected. 

There are on Long Island several places much fre- 
quented in the summer season viz., Fort Ham- ! 
ilton, Coney Island, Rockaway, Patchogue, &c., 
on the south side ; and Glen Cove, Oyster Bay, Stony Brook, Port Jeffer- 
son, Greenport, and Sag Harbor, on the north. Sea bathing may be en- 
joyed at all these places ; and most of them afford abundance of sport in 
fishing and fowling. Most of these places may be approached daily by 
stages running in connection with the rail cars, or bylines of steam- 
boat*, or sailing vessels. 




48 STATE OF NEW YORK. 

TOUR ON THE HUDSON RIVER. 

[The figures on the left of the page denote the distance from Albany 
on the right, the distance from New York.] 

In ascending the Hudson, immediately on leaving the wharf, tho 
traveller's attention is drawn to the view seaward the bay of New York, 
with its moving panorama of vessels, its picturesque islands and shores- 
all of which constitute a scene of surpassing beauty. 
F1451 J ERSEY CITY, formerly known as Powle's Hook, is on the 
Jersey shore, opposite to the place of starting, and contains five 
churches and 4,000 inhabitants. At this place the New Jersey and the 
Paterson railroads commence, and also the Morris canal. One mile north is 
HOBOKEN, a favorite resort of the citizens of New York. The grounds 
for nearly 2 miles along the Hudson are laid out in walks, embowered in 



F1431 



, 
trees> VVEEHAWKEN, 2 miles north, is a bold rocky bluff, rising r 



abruptly from the water's edge. A villa occupies its summit. 
A short distance above, on the river-shore, overhung by beetling cliffs and 
almost inaccessible from the land-side, is the famous duelling-ground. 
Here it was that Gen. Hamilton fell, July llth, 1804. The Palisades, 
which commence at Weehawken, are a massy range of columnar rock, 
rising almost perpendicularly from the shore to the height of four or five 
hundred feet, and are regarded as one of the most picturesque and inter- 
esting objects on the Hudson. They extend for a distance of 20 miles 
F1391 tne ' r summ ' ts being slightly undulating table-land. BULL'S r fi -i 
L J FERRY. From this place to New York, a ferry has existed for L J 
more than half a century. Opposite is BLOOMINGDALE, a suburb of 
New York, extending north 3 or 4 miles. The Orphan Asylum, with 
numerous seats embowered in shrubbery, attracts the attention ; and the 
Lunatic Asylum, situated on elevated ground, is also an object of 
interest. Immediately above, is seen Manhattanvillc valley and its pretty 
T1351 v ^' age > containing a church and about 500 inhabitants. FORT ,-,-! 
* J LEE, on the Jersey side, (from which a steamboat plies several *- * 
times daily to New York,) derives its name from a fort built on the sum- 
mit of the rocks, 300 feet above the river. Traces of the ruins of the 
fortress still remain, overgrown with shrubbery. Just above, on the New 
York side, is FORT WASHINGTON, situated on the most elevated point 
of the island. It was taken by the British, after a desperate resistance, 
November 16th, 1776, and the garrison put to the sword. The ruins still 
exist, in the centre of which there has been erected a pretty mansion. 
F1321 ^ PUYTKN DUYVEL CREEK enters the Hudson two miles above rjoi 

Fort Washington, and connecting with Harlem river, sepa- L 
rates New York from the main land. Kingsbridge crosses this creek one 
mile east. On the north of this stream, on the heights, was Fort Inde- 
[1281 pen dence. YONKERS is on the east bank, at the entrance of rj7] 

Sawkill cr. It contains two churches, a seminary, and about 50 '- 
dwellings. Closter Landing is on the opposite side of the river. HAS- 
TINGS, three miles north of Yonkers, has several pretty country residences. 
OBBS FERRY was a noted place in the war of the Revolu- r^-i 
on. Here is a village containing two churches and 50 dwell- 
On the opposite shore, and just below the old ferry landing, is the 
commencement of the line dividing the states of New York and New Jersey. 
f!211 PIERMONT, on the west bank, was formerly known as the r^-i 
J " Sloat." At this place a pier has been erected about one mile *-~ J 
long, on which is the depot of the New York and Erie railroad, which 



[123] V OE 
tion 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 49 

commences here. A steamboat plies daily to and from New York. The 
village contains two churches and about 1,000 inhabitants. Three miles 
west lies the village of Tappan ; and about a quarter of a mile from 
this, on an eminence overlooking, to the east, a romantic and fertile val- 
ley, is the spot where Mnjor Andre was executed, October 2d, 1780. 
Cam leave Piermont every day on the route west see route 131. Here 
commences an expansion of the river, locally known as " Tappan Sea," 
and extending for a distance of ten miles, with an average width of 2i 
miles. The Van Tassell House is on the east shore, just above, and 
nearly opposite to Piermont. It is the residence of Washington Irving. 
riiQ-i TARRYTOWN, on the east bank, is prettily situated, and con- r27 -i 
L J tains 4 churches and about 1,000 inhabitants. About one- * 
fourth of a mile north of the village, is the spot where Major Andre was 
taken prisoner, and at the distance of a mile further north, is an ancient 
Dutch church, (supposed to be the oldest in the state,) erected in 1699. 
It was in this church that the never-to-be-forgotten Ichabod Crane, in 
rivalry of the Dominie, led off the choir. It was also in the ravine 
near by, that Ichabod had his fearful encounter with the headless horse- 
man, when he disappeared forever from the vale of Sleepy Hollow. 
NYACK, on the west bank, is a considerable village, containing 3 churches 
and 800 inhabitants. Near the northern extremity of Tappan bay, on the 
east side, is the thriving village of 

niQl SINQ SING, containing four churches, two seminaries, and r-, 
L J about 2,000 inhabitants. Mount Pleasant State Prison is a L J 
short distance south of the village, where are extensive quarries of 
marble, wrought by the convicts. The prison grounds cover an area of 
130 acres. Almost opposite to Sing Sing is Verdreitjes Hook, a rocky 
promontory. Half a mile above is ROCKLAND LAKE LANDING ; and 
about f of a mile from the Hudson is the lake, a picturesque sheet of 
water, from which immense quantities of ice of the purest kind are ob- 
tained. This lake is the principal source of Hackensack river. Abov^ 
Verdreitjes Hook the river expands again to an average width of two 
miles for a distance of six miles, and is called Haverstraw bay. 
HAVERSTRAW is a neat village on the west shore, and contains two ^^ 
churches, an academy, and 400 inhabitants, Grassy Point is two ' dOJ 
flOGl ni '^ es a ^ ove ' at which is a steamboat-landing. STONY POINT, a 
I J small rough promontory, is on the west side of the river, with a light- 
house on its summit. It was fortified in the war of the Revolution, and 
was distinguished by the celebrated and successful assault made upon it 
by the Americans under Gen. Wayne, on the night of the 16th July, 1779. 
On the east side, and opposite to Stony Point, is Verplanck 1 s Point, near 
which place was the famous continental village, containing the United 
lftl 1 States Barracks, destroyed by the enemy in Oct., 1777. CALD- r..-, 

J WELLS, at the entrance to the highlands, is the first landing-place *-** 

in ascending the river, and from which steamboats ply across the river to 

F991 P EKKSKILL a village mostly situated on an elevation 200 feet p^gi 

above the river. It contains a bank. 8 churches, an academy, * 
and 2,000 inhabitants. Stages leate 3 times a week (in the summer season 
daily] for Mohapack lake and Garnet, and 3 times for Danbury, Con. 
On the bluff north of Peekskill creek is the site of Fort Independence. 

The Highlands, or Matteawan Mountains, extend in a northeastern 

direction across Orange and Rockland counties, till they are broken by 

the Hudson ; rising again on the eastern side of the river, they pass off in the 

same general direction, occupying a breadth of from 15 to 20 miles. 

3 



50 STATE OF NEW YORK. 

Several of their summits attain to an elevation of 1,000 to 1,685 fcei. 
"They are composed principally of granite and gneiss, embedding loose 
nodules and fixed veins of magnetic iron ores, with other minerals of the 
same class. It is unequivocally a primitive chain, and in the early ag'es 
must have opposed a barrier to the passage of the waters, and caused a 
va^t lake, covering the present valley of the Hudson." The course of the 
traveller is now for a mile in a direction almost due west, through what 
is locally called the Horse Race, from the rapidity of its current; this ia 
caused by an abrupt angle in the bed of the river, which is contracted to 
a narrow space by its passage through the mountain mass. The Thunder 
Mountain on the west, and the noted eminence on the east, called Jln- 
thimy^s Nose, stand as guardians of the Pass. The Nose is 1,228 feet 
high. During the Revolution a large boom and chain extended across 
from the foot of this peak to Fort Montgomery on the west side. Forts 
Ointon and Montgomery were erected to defend the passage of the river 
at this place. On the 6th Oct., 1777, Sir H. Clinton, with a force of 
about 3,000 men, took these forts by storm. The works were bravely 
defended for a length of time by a garrison consisting of only 600 men, 
wiio were finally overpowered by superior numbers. Two miles above 
Anthony's Nose is the Sugar JLoaf Mountain, near the base of which is 
t ; ie Beverly House, where Arnold resided when he was meditating' that 
act of treachery which has stamped his memory with everlasting infamy. 
Buttermilk Falls (on the west side, and nearly opposite to the Sugar 
Loaf) descends in a succession of cascades for more than 100 feet, spread- 
ing out in sheets of milk-white foam, and making a beautiful appearance, 
especially when the stream is swollen by rains. 

T931 WEST PINT, on the right bank of the Hudson, where the p-, 
river makes an angle forming the point from which it derives its * 

name, is situated among 
the most picturesque riv- 
er and mountain scene- 
ry conceivable. It was 
strongly fortified during 
the warof theRevolution, 
and the ruins of Fort 
Putnam, on Mount Inde- 
pendence, (elevated 495 
feet above the river,) are 
objects of great interest ; as are also the earthen mounds of Fort Clinton, 
on the plain below. The United States Military Academy was established 
here in 1802. It is situated on a plain 157 feet above tide- water. The 
buildings are two stone barracks ; a building for exercises in winter, 275 
feet long ; a building of Gothic architecture, 150 feet long, with three 
towers, for astronomical apparatus and an observatory ; a chapel, hospital, 
mess-hall, 17 separate dwellings for the officers of the institution, several 
workshops and storerooms, cavalry stables, a magazine, laboratory, 
soldiers' barracks, a store, and about 25 dwellings for families connected 
with the establishment. There is also an extensive hotel situated on the 
bank of the river. About the grounds are several monuments that 
erected in memory of Kosciusko by the cadets, at an expense of $5,000, fa 
the most beautiful. The number of cadets is limited to 260. Opposite to 
West Point, on the E. shore, is Constitution Island, on which are the 
ruins of the fort erected during the Revolution. A massy chain was ex- 
tended from this island to West Point. In the cove just above is the West 




.STATE OF NEW YORK. 51 

Point Foundry, the largest establishment of the kind in America, and 
which employs 400 persons. COLD SPRING, on the E. shore, 1& miles 
above West Point, is very prettily situated, and contains 5 churches and 
1,250 inhabitants. Near the base of the mountain, north of the village, is 
Under Cliff, the elegant villa of Gen. Morris. Crow Nest Mountain on 
the west side, the summit of which is elevated 1,394 feet above the river, 
affords a beautiful and extended prospect. Butter Hill, just ubove, is 
1,530 feet above the river. On the E. side are the three elevations known 
as Bull Hill, 1,486 feet high, Breakneck Hill, 1,187, and Beacon Hill or 
Grand Sachem, 1,685 feet high. Polopels Island lies near the east shore, 

POO-, opposite the ravine between Bull and Breakneck Hills. CORN- ,-,...-, 

* J WALL, on the west side, at the termination of the Highlands, *\ 
contains about 150 inhabitants. The river expands here to the width of 
a mile for the distance of about five miles, and is called Newburg bay. 
Two miles above is NEW WINDSOR, which has two churches and about 
250 inhabitants. It is the birthplace of De Witt Clinton. 

rR11 NEWBURGH is situated on a steep acclivity, rising to about rfi .-. 

L" 4 J 300 feet. From the terrace there is a magnificent view of the L J 
river and the Highlands. There are in the village a theological seminary, 
several academies, 3 banks, 11 churches, and about 6,000 inhabitants. 
The stone house occupied by WASHINGTON as his head-quarters, is still 
standing near the village. On the 23d of June, 1783, the American army 
was disbanded here. Stages leave daily for Goshen and also for Dun- 
kirk via Binghamton. (See routes 160 and 161.) On the opposite side of 
the river, and to which a steamboat plies, is Ftshkill Landing, which has 

r _ fi 1 3 churches and about 800 inhabitants. Ftshkill, about 5 miles .. _-. 

" J east of the landing, contains 3 churches, an academy, and * ' 
1,000 inhabitants. It is noted as being the Head Quarters of the American 
Army for a time during the war of the Revolution. Three miles above 
the landing is Low Point, a scattered settlement extending along the 
river. NEW HAMBURG is on the eust side of the river, just above the en- 
trance to Wappinger's Creek. Hampton, a landing on the opposite side, 
is connected with New Hamburg by a ferry. Three miles above, on 
the west side, is Milton Landing. The village is about half a mile distant. 

P-,-, POUGHKEEPSIE, the capital of Dutchess county, is on the left r _ . 

!?7V bank of the Hudson. Population 10,000. This village, one of I- 74 ' 
the handsomest in the state, is built on an elevated plain 200 feet above 
the river, and contains a court-house, jail, a collegiate school, the 
Dutchess Academy, four seminaries for young ladies, 3 banks, a savings 
bank, a market, a lyceum, and 14 churches. The College edifice, modelled 
after the Parthenon at Athens, stands on Prospect Hill, having a wide 
range of prospect. The village has a rich back country. Stages leave 3 
times a week for Danbury, Con. ; for New Milford ; and for West Corn" 
wall via Sliaron. On the west side, opposite to Poughkeepsie, is JVeto 
Paltz Landing. The village of New Paltz lies some distance from the 
river. Six miles above, on the east side, is HYDK PARK, which contains 
3 churches and about 50 dwellings. 

Ffill R NDOUT situated at the mouth of a stream of the same .g^-i 

I " name, contains two churches, a seminary, and about 1,500 in- * 
habitants. It is the port of the Delaware' and Hudson canal. One mile 
further north is Kingston Landing. The village of KINGSTON is situated 
3 miles west of the landing. It was incorporated in 1805, and contains a 
court-house, 4 churches, two banks, an academy, and about 2,300 in- 
, habitants. This place was burned by the British army Oct., 1777. Stages 



52 STATE OF NEW YORK. 

leave 3 times a week for Delhi, and Ellcnmlle. Six miles above, on the 

T551 east S ' ( * 6 ' * s Rhi ne b ec k Landing. The village of KHINEBECK, roftl 

J two miles from the landing, contains 3 churches, an academy, LJUJ 

and ahout 1,200 inhabitnnts. Nine miles north is Lower Red Hook, and 3 

miles above is Upper Red Hook Landing. The villages lie some 3 or 4 

miles from the river. A ferryboat plies from the Upper Landing to the 

[441 West side ' at SAUGERTIKS a lar e e manufacturing village, on nml 

J Esopus creek, where is an extensive water-power. The village " " 

contains five churches and about 2,000 inhabitants. Bristol is 2 miles above. 

|-~.-i CATSKILL is prettily situated on the right bank, and contains nill 

* J a court-house, two banks, 5 churches, and about 3,000 inhabi- L 11] 
tants. Vehicles are ready on the arrival of the boats to convey pas- 
sengers to the celebrated summer resort, (12 miles distant,) at Pine 
Orchard, Catskill Mountain. There is here an excellent hotel, on an ele- 
vation 2,212 feet above the level of the Hudson, which gives to the 
atmosphere a refreshing coolness amid the most sultry heat of summer. 
A little to the west of the Mountain House are two ponds, the outlets of 
which unite, and proceed by falls and rapids, in a 
, deep ravine, to the plain below. The first fall is 180 
feet perpendicular; and within a short distance is a 
second fall of about 80 feet. By a circuitous path the 
, traveller can pass down and go under the rock, and 
fc behind the water of the first fall, where is presented a 
| singular and interesting view. From the Mountain 
House, is a most extensive and varied prospect, for the 
distance of sixty miles, (in a clear atmosphere:) the 
I landscape is distinctly visible, adorned with the pic- 
^^ ^ ^ iljturesque Hudson, its green isles and moving panorama 
of vesse's, its cities, villages, and villas. The range of vision extends from 
the Hudson Highlands to the Green Mountains. Stages leave Catskill 
daily for Ithaca. 

r g q -| HUDSON, on the left bank of the river, is built on an elevated rjjgi 
L J site, from which is obtained n fine view of the river and sur- I J 
rounding country. It has an elegant court-house, 8 churches, two banks, 
two markets, the Franklin Literary Association, with a respectable library 
and philosophical apparatus, two academies, a lunatic asylum, and 5,700 
inhabitants. The city is supplied with pure water from a mountain 
spring two miles distant, conveyed in iron pipes. Several whale-ships be- 
long to Hudson. The village of New Lebanon Springs is 24 miles NE. 
from Hudson. The Shaker Settlement contains a large church, several 
extensive workshops, and 600 inhabitants. The Springs are warm, emit 
nitrogen gas, and have a temperature of 73 Fahrenheit ; they are effica- 
cious for rheumatism, salt rheum, and cutaneous affections. The country 
around is beautiful and picturesque, and the springs are much frequented. 
Cars leave Hudson daily for West Stockbridge, Lebanon Springs, frc. ; 
and stages 3 times a week for Gnat Barrington, Mass. A ferryboat 
plies to the west shore at Athens, which contains 4 churches and about 
1,200 inhabitants. Four Mile Point, on which is a light-house, is at the 
r ji head of ship navigation. Coxsackie Landing is on the right r^i 

bank ; the village extends along the river for the distance of L 

a mile, and contains 3 churches, an academy, and about 1,200 inhabitants. 

r. R -, STUYVESANT, on the east side, contains a church and about rj27l 

J 300 inhabitants. A short distance above is KINDERHOOK L 
LANDING. The village of Kinderhook lies 5 miles east from the river. 




STATE OF NEW YORK. 53 

Rod contains two churches, a bank, an academy, and about 1,400 in- 
habitants. NEW BALTIMORE, on the west shore, has u church and 
r , about 300 inhabitants. Two miles above is COEYMANS, con- ^ 
I J taining two churches and about 700 inhabitants. Four miles L 
farther, on the east side, is CASTLETON, with a church and about 350 in- 
nl habitants. The Overslaugh has heretofore been an obstruction , J42 , 
I " to navignt'on for some distance below Albany, but the chan- L 
nel has been straightened and deepened, at a great expense, by the United 
States government, thus rendering it more navigable. 




ALBANY, the capital of the state, is situated on the right bank of the 
river, 145 miles from New York, 200 west by north from Boston, and 370 
from Washington. Population 42,000. On the margin of the river is a 
flat alluvial tract, from 15 to 100 yards wide, back of which the ground 
rises abruptly, and in the course of a mile attains to the height of 220 
feet, after which it becomes level. Originally the streets were not very 
regularly laid out, and some of them are narrow. State-street has a steep 
ascent, at the head of which is the Capitol, a fine edifice 115 feet long 
and 90 wide, with richly furnished apartments for the accommodation of 
the state legislature. In front of it is a handsome square, ornamented 
with walks, trees, and shrubbery. To the north of this, separated only 
by a street, is a corresponding square, on the east side of which is the 
City Hall, a splendid marble edifice ; and facing the same square is the 
State Hall for the public offices. The Albany Academy is a fine edifice. 
The other public buildings are, a Medical College, a Female Academy, the 
Exchange, thirty-two churches, three markets, a state arsenal, and eight 
banks. The old State Hall, on the south side of State street, is fitted up 
for the geological cabinet, collected in the geological survey of the state. 
The New York State Library occupies a large room in the Capitol, and 
contains 10,000 volumes. The Albany Medical College, founded in 1839, 
has 8 professors and 104 students. It has a museum and library. The 
lectures commence on the first Tuesday in October. The Albany 
Academy has able instructors, and 400 students. The Female Academy 
has about 350 pupils, and sustains a high reputation. The Young Men's 
Association has a library of 3,200 volumes. Albany was founded by the 
Dutch in 1623, then called Fort Orange, and was chartered as a city in 1686. 

Twenty or more steamboats, and 50 towboats, ply between this city and JV. 
York, and other places on the river. Cars arrive and depart twice daily for 
Boston and the intermediate places ; twice daily for Saratoga Springs, (fare 
$1.62;) awd3 times daily for Buffalo, (/are$12,) Niagara Falls, andthein- 
termediate places : (see pages 74 and 75. ) Stages leave daily for Pittsfield, 
Mass. ; far Bennington, Vt. ; for Burlington^ for Montreal, Can., via 
Whitehall, Plattsburg, &c. : and also Syracuse, via Cherry Valley. Twice a 
week for Binghamton ; and also for Williamstown, Mass. 

TROY, the capital of Rensselaer county, is pleasantly situated on the 
left bank of the Hudson, at the head of tide-water, 6 miles north of 
Albany, and 151 north of New York. Population 21,709. It extends 
about 3 miles along the river, with a breadth of U miles. It is bordered 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



on the E. by hills of considerable elevation, from which descend two con- 
siderable streams, which have romantic cascades and afford extensive 
water-power. The city is handsomely laid out, and its streets are wide 
and well paved. The Court-house is a fine building, constructed of 
marble, with a Grecian front of the Doric order. Here are the Troy Fe- 
male Institute and the Rensselaer Institute, with several other schools of a 
high order; the Lyceum of Natural History, a Young Men's Association, 
18 churches, 6 banks, and 11 academies. Cars leave daily for Saratoga 
Springs, for Schenectady, and also for Boston. Stages leave daily for 
Bennington, F~t. ; and for Whitehall, and also for Burlington, Ft. 

BALLSTON SPA, 31 miles from Albany, is situated on a small branch of 
Kayaderosseras creek, and contains a court-house, 4 churches, 1 bank, and 
about 1,500 inhabitants. The oldest and still most esteemed fountain is 
known as the " Public Well," on the flat west of the centre of the village. 
There are several other springs of less note, possessing medicinal prop- 
erties of a similar character. Cars pass twice daily from Albany and 
from Saratoga Springs. 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, 38 miles north of Albany, is the most celebrated 

watering-place in 
theUnited States. 
It contains some 
' of the largest and 
i most splendid ho- 
1 tels and board- 
| ing-houses in the 
[ country, which 
in the watering 
season are abun- 
dantly filled by the gay and fashionable from all parts of the Union, West 
Indies, &c. The village contains six churches, an academy, a female 
seminary, and about 3,000 inhabitants. 

The mineral waters are drawn from some 9 or more fountains or 
springs, and vary considerably in their characteristics. The principal 
springs are called the Congress, Iodine, Empire, Putnam's, Hamilton, 
High Rock, Columbian, Flat Rock, and Washington. The most promi- 
nent effects of these waters, when taken into the stomach, are cathartic, 
diuretic, and tonic. In all pulmonary affections arising from primary 
diseases of the Jungs, the waters are thought to be injurious, but they 
have proven highly efficacious in cutaneous diseases, scrofula, jaundice, 
bilious affections, chronic rheumatism, &c., &c. The objects of amuse- 
ment here are always sufficiently numerous for the gratification of the 
transient visitor. The reading-rooms afford mental recreation ; while, if 
other amusement be sought, it is afforded by the railroad carriages can 
leaving several times a day on trips of pleasure or by a short excursion 
into the neighborhood, where sufficient beauty and novelty of scenery are 
always presented Jo render it interesting. The amusements of the day 
are usually crowned by a ball or promenade. 
Saratoga Lake, 4 miles southeast of the vil- 
f lage, is much resorted to, by parties of pleas- 
[ ure. It affords ample sport to the angler, and 
^ its shores abound with game. The Sulphur 
'pring at the head of the lake is exciting 
much attention ; its waters, which are remark- 
ably clear, are moderately impregnated with sulphur 





STATE 0V NEW YORK. 



55 




The plain of Saratoga was the scene of the surrender of the British 
ormy under Gen. Burgoyne, Oct. 17, 1777. Bemus' Heights, Freeman's 
Farm, and other places in the vicinity, connected with the battles which 
preceded that event, are objects of interest. Cars arrive and depart 
twice daily for Albany, and also for Troy. Stages leave daily for 
Whitehall via Glenn's Falls, and three times a week for Ticonderoga. 

The village of GLENN'S FALLS, on the Hudson, is 18 miles north from 
Saratoga Springs. It has three churches, two 
seminaries, and about 1,200 inhabitants. The I 
falls in the river are exceedingly beautiful. 
Caldwell is delightfully situated at the head of jj 
Lake George, 62 miles north from Albany, j 
and contains a church and about two hundred ' 
inhabitants. A steamboat plies on the lake 
36 miles to its outlet, near Fort Ticonderoga. 

WHITEHALL, seventy-two miles N. of Albany, us situated at the head 
of Lake Champlain ; and contains 3 churches, 1 bank, and about 2.500 
inhabitants. Steamboats leave daily (in the summer season) for Montreal 
via St. John's. (See page 74.) Fort Ticonderoga, the ruins of which 
fortress still exist, was situated near Lake Champlain, at the outlet 
of Lake George. The scenery in this region is varied and picturesque. 

Lake George is justly celebrated for its wild, picturesque, and varied 
scenery ; its waters are remarkably transparent and pure. Its shores 
contain the remains 
of Fort William Hen- .--^ 
ry and Fort George, ^j^- 
and others memora- ^ 
ble in the French and ^ 
Revolutionary wars. 

PLATTSBUROH,| 
Clinton co. , is 166 miles i_ 
N. of Albany, and 538 
from Washington. Population 6,000. The village is on both sides of 
Saranac river, at its entrance into Cumberland bay, on the W. shore of 
Lake Champlain, and contains a court-house, a bank, a lyceum, an 
academy, and 4 churches. It is celebrated for the battle in the last war 
between the Americans and British, September llth, 1814, in which tho 
Americans under Gen. Macomb, on land, and Commodore Macdonough, 
on the lake, were victorious, after a hard-rought battle. Steamboats (in 
the summer) arrive and depart daily for Whitehall via Burlington, 
Ticonderoga, &c. ; and also for Montreal via St. John's. Stages (in the 
winter season) pass through daily from Montreal and from Albany. 
Stages leave three times a week for Ogdensburg via Fort Cov- 
ington. 

SCHENECTADY, 16 miles NW. from Albany, on the south bank of 
Mohawk river, contains a court-house, a market, a female academy, a 
lyceum, two banks, 9 churches, and 6,555 inhabitants. It is the seat of 
Union College, founded in 1795, which has a president, 10 professors or 
other instructors, 2,125 alumni, 242 students, and 13,000 volumes in its 
libraries. The commencement is on the fourth Wednesday in July. Its 
buildings are commodious, and attached to them are 250 acres of land, 
handsomely laid out. The reputation of this college is deservedly high. 
Cars pass through daily for Buffalo and the intermediate places, and also 
for Albany, and twice daily for Saratoga Springs. 





56 STATE OF NEW YORK. 

Sharon Sulphur Springs are 12 miles from the depot at Palatine Bridge, 
(see route 150,) from which stages leave daily in the summer season. 
These waters are highly efficacious in rheumatic, cutaneous, and dyspeptic 
complaints. There are in the vicinity several caves, and tftsego La.k& 
furnishes abundant sport for the angler. 

LITTLE FALLS, situated on both sides of Mohawk river, 73 miles from 
Albany, contains five churches, a bank, and about 2,500 inhabitants. 
There is a fall of 42 feet in the river, affording an immense hydraulic 
power. Ji line of stages leaves daily for Trenton Falls. 

TRENTON FALLS are 18 mile* 
. NE. from Utica, on West Canada 
]* creek. The waters fall 312 feet, 
| by a succession of cascades, in 
e course of two miles, and the 
I scenery is the most wild and pic- 
I turesque imaginable. The chasm, 
I for the whole distance, is broken 
I through limestone rock, and the 

_ pathway is mostly along the margin 

of the rushing Waters, upon a ledge or shelf so narrow and perilous, that 
the visitor will find difficulty in sustaining himself. 

HERKIM.ER, pleasantly situated on Mohawk river, contains a court- 
house, an academy, a bank, two churches, and about 800 inhabitants. 

UTICA is 94 miles from Albany, 202 from Buffalo, and 237 from New 
York. The city is beautifully situated on the south side of Mohawk river, 
on an inclined plain rising from the river, so as to command from its eleva- 
ted parts some fine prospects. It contains a court-house, 18 churches, an 
exchange building, two academies, the Utica Library, a Mechanics' As- 
sociation, an Apprentices' Library, two Orphan Asylums, 4 banks, and 
12,200 inhabitants. The State Lunatic Asylum, a mile west of the city, is 
a fine building, with a farm of 160 acres attached to it. The city occupies 
the site of old Fort Schuyler, and is now one of the finest in Western New 
York, though in 1794 there were only 3 or 4 dwellings on the spot. It 
dates its great prosperity from the completion of the Erie canal. Cars 
pass through 3 times daily from Buffalo, and from Albany. Stages ar- 
rive and depart daily for Sacketts Harbor, via Trenton, Watertown, 
<S-c. ; and for Binghamton ; three times a week for Ithaca and for 
Coopcrstown. 

ROME, situated on the Mohawk river, 108 miles from Albany, oc- 
cupies the site of Fort Stanwix, built in 1758, and which was rebuilt 
during the war of the Revolution and called Fort Schuyler. The village 
contains a court-house, 6 churches, a bank, a female academy, a United 
States arsenal, and about 2,500 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week 
for Oswego ; and for Sacketts Harbor. 

SYRACUSE, situated 14 miles south from Onondaga lake, and 147 miles 
from Albany, contains a court-house, an academy, two banks, 8 churches, 
and 7,500 inhabitants. Great quantities of salt are manufactured in the 
village and vicinity. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for Albany and for 
Buffalo, Stages leave daily for Ogdensburg, for Oswego, and for Ithaca. 
AUBURN, 173 miles W. from Albany, is a flourishing village, situated on 
the outlet of Owasco lake. It contains a court-house, two banks, 3 
academies, a female seminary, 7 churches, and 5,600 inhabitants. -The 
Auburn Theological Seminary, founded in 1821, is under the direction of the 
Presbyterians, and has 4 professors, 71 students, and 5,000 volumes in its 




STATE OF NEW YORK. 57 

libraries. The State Prison is regarded as a model for v such institutions. 
The building forms three sides of a square, the front of which is 276 feet 
and the wings 242. The prisoners labor together in silence, and when 
not laboring are confined in solitary cells. Cars arrive from, and depart 
daily for Mbany and for Buffalo. Stages leave for Ithaca daily, and fur 
Oswego thrte times a week. 

SENECA FALLS, 15 miles from Auburn, is situated on both sides of the 
outlet of Seneca lake, which has here a fall of 47 feet. The village con- 
tains 5 churches, several manufactories, and about 3,000 inhabitants. 

WATERLOO, on Seneca outlet, has a court-house, 4 churches, 1 bank, 
an academy, and about 2,500 inhabitants. 

GENEVA, 199 miles from Albany, is beautifully situated at the north 
end of Seneca lake. ^ 
The principal street |__ 
runs parallel with the !!!!!!!! 
lake shore, at an ele J~" 
vation of 120 feet.| 
Most of the houses = 
on the south side <A = 
this street have ter- = 

raced gardens extending clown to the shore. It contains nine i 
two banks, a seminary, and about 3,600 inhabitants. Geneva College, 
founded in 1823, is under the direction of the Episcopalians. It has a 
president, 5 professors, 70 students, 10,000 volumes in its libraries, a 
cabinet of minerals, and ample philosophical and chemical apparatus. 
Geneva Medical College was founded in J834, and has since been liberally 
endowed by the state for the erection of buildings, &c. It has a dean, 
register, 6 professors, and 175 students. Cars arrive from, and depart 
daily for Albany and for Buffalo. Stages leave daily for Ithaca, for 
Osicego, and for Williamsport via Corning, Blossburg, Src. 

Clifton Springs, 12 miles from Geneva, are becoming somewhat cele- 
brated for their medicinal properties. They are sulphur springs. 

CANANDAIGUA, 222 miles from Albany, is one of the most Deautiful 
villages in Western New York, situated on a plain at the north end of 
Canandaigua lake, at its outlet. The ground descends gently towards the 
lake, presenting a fine view of it from the village. It contains a court- 
house, jail, and county offices, a town-hall, 5 churches, two banks, an 
academy of a high order, a female seminary, and about 2,500 inhabitants. 
It is surrounded by a rich agricultural country. Stages leave daily for 
Erie, via Oeneseo, Ellicottsville, and Jamestown. 

Avon Springs, situated near the Genesec river, 20 miles south from 
Rochester, have become a place of much resort. The village contains 3 
churches, an academy, several extensive hotels, and about 600 inhabitants. 
The two most noted springs are about 80 rods apart, and are a short dis- 
tance southwest of the village. The waters have been found efficacious 
in disordered digestion, rheumatism, gout, and cutaneous affections. 
Stages arrive from, and depart daily for Rochester. 

ROCHESTER, situated on both sides of the Genesee river, 251 miles 
from Albany, was incorporated as a village in 1817 and a city in J834. 
Population 25,500. It is handsomely built, and to many of the dwellings 
are attached gardens ornamented with shrubbery. The city contains a 
court-house, two markets, 7 banks, twenty-two churches, a museum, a 
Collegiate Institute, two seminaries, two orphan asylums, an arcade, 
a Mechanics' Literary Association, an atheneum, and many extensive 
3* 




58 .STATE OF NEW YORK. 

flouring mills and manufactories. The Genesee Falls have an entire 
descent of 268 feet, 
composed of 3 per- 
pendicular falls, of p 
105, 96, and 20 feet, f 
besides rapids ; tfie 
best views of these ' 
falls are obtained from j 
the east side of the s 
river. The Erie ca- * 
nal crosses the ri\ 
here by a massive stone aqueduct. The Mount Hope Cenie7ery7"near 
the city, has been laid out in walks, and embellished with sculptured 
tombs, trees, shrubbery, &c. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for 
Albany and for Buffalo. Stages leave daily for Niagara FaUs via 
Lockport ; and to Corning, via Gen.eseo, and Dansville ; 3 times a week 
for Oswcgo ; also to Olean, via Mt. Morris, and Angelica. 

BATAVIA, 32 miles from Rochester, is prettily situated on a plain through 
which flows the Tonawanda creek ; it has a court-house, 4 churches, two 
banks, a land office, a seminary, and 2,000 inhabitants. 

BUFFALO is situated at the NE. end of Lake Erie, 325 miles west from 
Albany, 195 from Cleveland, and 327 from Detroit. Population 30,000. 
Its situation as a place of business is very commanding, being at the 
western extremity of the Erie canal, and at the eastern termination of the 
navigation of the great lakes Erie, Huron, and Michigan. The ground 
on which the city is built rises gradually to a considerable elevation, from 
which is a commanding view of the lake, Niagara river, the Canadian 
shore, &c. The streets are regularly laid out, and are wide and well- 
regulated. The public buildings and institutions are, a court-house, two 
markets, 17 churches, 4 banks, a theatre, an orphan asylum, and several 
large hotels. The Young Men's Association has c. reading-room and a 
library of 3,000 volumes. A mole or pier of stone, 1,500 feet long, haa 
been constructed at the mouth of Buffalo creek, which, by confining tl.e 
channel, has so far removed the bar that vessels requiring 8 feet of water 
freely enter. At the end of the pier is a stone light-house twenty feet in 
diameter, and 46 feet high. The harbor is well protected, and sospaciousi 
that several hundred vessels can be accommodated in it. Buffalo was 
originally laid out by the Holland Land Company, in 1801. In December, 
1813, it was burnt by the British and Indians. It was incorporated as a 
city in 1832. Cars leave Buffalo twice daily for Albany (fare $12) and 
Vie intermediate places; for Niagara Falls twice daily, (fare 75 cts.) 
Steamboats leave Buffalo almost daily for Erie, Pa., (fare $3 ;) Cleve- 
land, Ohio, (fare $5;) Sandusky, (fare $5.50;) Detroit, Mich., (fare 
$6 ;) Mackinac, (fare 10;) Milwaukee and Chicago, (fare $12:) for 
Port Stanley, Can. ; also for Quecnston, Can., via Chippeioa. Stages 
leave Buffalo daily for Erie, Pa. ; three times a week for Olean, for 
Geneseo, and for Batavia. 

LOCKPORT is on the Erie canal, 58 miles from Rochester ; the waters 
of the canal here descend 60 feet by 5 locks of 12 feet each. Tho 
surplus water of the canal creates an immense hydraulic power, and 
is extensively used. Lockport contains a court-house, twelve churches, a 
lyceum, two academies, and about 6,500 inhabitants. Cars arrive from % 
and depart twice daily for Niagara Falls, and for Lewistown. Stages 
leave daily for Rochester. 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



59 






ttl 



I 



. 

THE FALLS OF NIAGARA are about 21 
I miles from Lake Erie, and 14 miles from 
I Lake Ontario, and are regarded as one of 
I the greatest natural curiosities in the world. 
I The Niagara strait or river at its efflux 
] from Lake Erie, is three-quarters of a mile 
( < wide, from 40 to 60 feet deep, and flows 
I with a current of 7 miles an hour. As it 
"' proceeds, the river widens, and embosoms 

_ W( ,__ w _f Grand and Navy Islands, which terminate 

in beautiful points a mile and a half above the falls. Below the islands 
are rapids, which extend a mile to the precipice, in which space the river 
descends 57 feet. At the precipice it is three-quarters of a mile wide. 
Here Goat Island divides the waters into two channels ; and the channel 
between Goat Island and the eastern shore is also divided by a small 
island. Over the precipice the river falls perpendicularly about 160 feet. 
The greater part of the water passes in the channel between Goat Island 
and the Canada shore, and this fall is called from its shape the Horse-shoe 
fall Between Goat Island and Bath Island in the eastern channel, the 
stream is only about ten yards wide, forming a beautiful cascade. Between 
Bath Island and the shore, the sheet of water is broad, and the descent 
several feet greater than at the Horse shoe fall, but the stream is com- 
paratively shallow. The best single view of the falls is from Table 
Rock, on the Canada shore, and the best view of the rapids is from 
Goat Island, which is ingeniously connected by a bridge with the shore. 
While curiosity constitutes an attribute of the human character, these 
falls will be frequented by admiring and delighted visitors, as one of the 
grandest exhibitions in nature. Well has an American poetess said of this 
magnificent cataract 

" Flow on forever, in thy glorious robe 
Of terror and of beauty. God hath set 
His rainbow on thy forehead ; and the cloud 
Mantled around thy feet. And he doth give 
Thy voice of thunder, power to speak of Him 
Eternally bidding the lip of man 
Keep silence and upon thine altar pour 
Incense of awe-struck praise." 

About two miles below the falls on the American side, is the Bellvue 
fountain ; its waters contain sulphuric and muriatic acids, lime, and 
magnesia, and are useful in scrofulous, rheumatic, and cutaneous com- 
plaints. One mile further is the WHIRLPOOL, almost as famous as the 
Maelstrom of Norway. Apart from the falls, the region of the Niagara 
strait is one of deep interest, from historical reminiscences, its many objects 
of curiosity, its picturesque scenery, &c 



60 STATE OF NEW YORK- 

OSWEGO is situated on both sides of the Oswego river, at its entrance 
into Lake Ontario, 185 miles from Albany. It has a good harbor protected 
by two stone piers, and contains a custom-house, a court-house, a bank, 
7 churches, an academy, a seminary, and 4,500 inhabitants. Stages leave 
daily for Syracuse, and 3 times a week for Sacketts Harbor, Watertown, 
and Ogdensburg ; for Utica via Rome ; for Auburn ; and also for Roches* 
ter. Steamboats leave daily for Kingston, Sacketts Harbor, and Ogdens- 
burg, and for Lewiston via Rochester. 

SACKETTS HARBOR, 50 miles from Oswego, on the south side of Black 
Water bay, is one of the best ports on Lake Ontario. The village con- 
tains three churches, a United States Navy Yard, the Madison barracks, 
and about 2,000 inhabitants. 

OGDENSBURG, situated on the right bank of St. Lawrence river, 210 
miles from Albany, contains 5 churches, two banks, and 3,500 inhabitants. 
Stages leave daily for Utica, and for Plattsburg ; steamboats for Oswego, 
Rochester, and Lewiston, and for Montreal, Can. 

CLINTON, 9 miles from Utica, situated on Oriskany creek, contains the 
building of Hamilton College, 4 churches, two academies, two semi- 
naries, and about 1,000 inhabitants. Hamilton College, founded in 1812, 
has a president, 8 professors, 487 alumni, 126 students, and 7,000 volumes 
in its libraries. The commencement is on the fourth Wednesday in 
August. 

COOPERSTOWN is situated on a plain at the outlet of Otsego lake. The 
village is handsomely laid out, and contains a court-house, 5 churches, a 
bank, an academy, and about 1,500 inhabitants. The lake, 9 miles long, 
is a beautiful sheet of water, and affords first-rate sport for the angler. 
Stages leave daily for Albany, and for Syracuse, and 3 times a week for 
Utica, and also for Binghamton. 

ITHACA is prettily situated H miles from the head of Cayuga lake. It 
is surrounded on three sides by an amphitheatre of hills, which rise by a 
gentle ascent to the height of 500 feet ; and a part of the village lies on a 
hill, commanding an extensive view of Cayuga lake and the surrounding 
country. It contains a court-house, 6 churches, 3 banks, a lyceum, an 
academy, and about 5,000 inhabitants. Cars leave daily for Owego, con- 
necting with stages on the line of the Erie railroad. Steamboats leave 
daily (.in summer") for Jluburn. Stages leave daily for Catskill, and for 
Geneva ; three times a week for Albany, for Utica, for Syracuse, for 
Jluburn, for Rochester via Bath, and for Jamesport. 

BINGHAMTON is situated at the junction of Chenango and Susquehanna 
rivers, 133 miles from Albany. It contains a court-house, an academy, 9* 
churches, several extensive manufacturing establishments, and about 
3,000 inhabitants. Stages leave daily (connecting with the New York 
and Erie railroad} for New York, and also for Ithaca ; 3 times a week 
for Albany ; for Utica ; and for Philadelphia via Wilkesbarre, Easton, &c* 

PENN YAN is situated at the outlet of Crooked lake, 192 miles from 
Albany, and contains a court-house, a bank, an academy, several manur 
facturing establishments, and about 2,000 inhabitants. 

ELMIRA, situated on the left bank of Chemung river, 195 mites from 
Albany, contains a court-honse, 4 churches, and about 1,000 inhabitants. 
Stages pass through it daily on the line of the New York and Erie railroad, 
and also leave three times a week for Williamsport, Pa. It has a com- 
munication with the Blobsburg coal-mines by canal and railroad. 



RAILROAD, STAGE, AND STEAMBOAT ROUTES, 

THROUGH THE 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



(1) FROM BOST< 
EASTPORT, IV 
Via, Newbur 
Portsmouth, For 
Brunswick, Kits 
and Machias. 
Eastern Railn. 
To Lynn.... 
Salem* . . 


)N 

IE 
vp 

a, 

CO 

ma 

5 

2 
4 
5 
4 

5 
2 
4 
L' 

S 

E 

5 
, ( 

XII 

IS 

I, 

E 
6 
10 
8 
5 

5 
. 
( 
9 

\ 

b 


9 
7 
5 

1 


TO 

tri, 
lid 

nli, 

. 

l' 

K 

20 
2. 
2^ 
34 
3( 
4< 
42 
44 
4^ 
54 
nd 

6t 

72 
77 
82 
92 
l(H 
10.3 

110 
113 

!!;') 
12l 
130 
137 

140 
14H 

isa 

ir,s 

n HI 
m 

173 
179 
183 
192 
lii:i 
JIM 
208 
211 


West Prospect . . . 
Prospect 
Bucksport 


6!217 
6223 

5228 
3231 
14245 
6251 

6257 
23280 
4284 

4 JSH 

4292 

7 2! (It 

8307 
6313 
17330 
6336 
12348 

id ex- 
Mar- 
of 4 

N TO 
N TO 

zver- 
H., 

Rail- 

1 2 

3 5 

3 10 

2 12 

:; r, 

3 21 

2 23 
i 2.; 
5 31 
1 32 


' Atkinson 
Plaistow 


4 36 
1 37 
3 40 
4 44 
5 49 
4 53 
3 56 
5 61 
2 63 
3 66 
3 69 
I 71 

39110 

rth, a 
ds 3 

ictur- 
alls. 

NDtO 

.flu- 
r or. 

25 

1 26 
8 34 
6 40 
9 49 
4 53 
2 55 
6 61 
5 66 
4 70 
6 76 
5 81 
8 89 
5 94 
4 98 
B 106 


Orland 
ELLSWORTH 
N. Hancock 
Franklin 
Narraguagus 
Harrington 


East Kingston 
EXETER 
8. Newmarket ... 
Newmarket 
Durham 
Madbury 


Beverly 
Wenham 
Ipswich 
Rowley 
NEWBURYPORT . 
Salisbury, N. H.. 
Seabrook 


Columbia 
Jonesboro* 
MACHIAS.... 


Somersworth* 
South Berwick... 
To PORTLAND, (as 
in No. 1, by the 
Portsmouth, Sa- 
co, and Portland 
Railroad) 

* From Somerswo 
Branch Road exte 
miles, to the manuf 
ing villag-e of Great P 

(4) FROM PORTLA 

HOULTON, 

Via Brunswick, 
gusta, and Bang 
To BRUNSWICK, 
(see No. 1) 


E. Machias 
Dennysville 
Pembroke 


Hampton Falls . . 
Hampton 
Greenland 
PORTSMOUTH ... 
Portsmouth, Saco 
Portland Railrc 
S. Berwick, Me. . 
North Berwick... 
Wells 


* A Branch Railro, 
tends I'rom Salem to 
blehead, a distance 
miles. 

(2) FROM BOSTO 
CALAIS, ME. 
To Pembroke 
(see No. 1) 
Elobbinstown 
Calais 


Kennebunk 
Saco 


Scarboro' 


Stage. 
Jr almouth . . . 


(3) FROM BOSTO 
PORTLAND, 
Via dndover, H 
hill, Exeter, JV. 
and Dover. 

Boston # Maine j 
road. 
To Charlestown.. 
Somerville 
Vlalden 
North Maiden.... 
South Reading . . . 


Topsham 
Bowdoinlmm 
Richnrnd Corners 
(iardiner . 


Cumberland 
North Yarmouth. 
Freeport 


Hallowell 


BRUNSWICK .. 
Bath 


Brown's Corners . 
Vassal boro' 
East VassaJboro'. 
China 


Woolwich 

WlSCASSET ....! 

Sheepscot Bridge. 
DamariscottttMills 
Noblesboro' 
Waldoboro' 
Warren 


Albion .... 


Unity 


Troy .I 
Dixmont 
Newbury 


E. Thomaston . . . 
Camden 
Lincolnville 
Northport 
E. Northport 
BELFAST 


leading.. . 
Vilmington.... 
Ballardsville....; 
ANDOVER. 


Hampden 1 
BANOOR 


1117 

6123 
3 26 
4130 

2. 32 

3135 
2U37 


Vorth Bangor 
Orono 
W. Great Works. 
Old Town 


Vorth Andover... 
Bradford 
IAVERHILL '. 




Miltbrd 



62 



ROUTES IN MAINE. 



Sunkhaze 


3 

6 
7 
2 
4 

7 

(; 

2 
3 

10 

1!) 
20 
6 

>T 

12 

2 
7 
6 

R 

2 

3 
4 
5 
3 
11 
3 


140 
14H 

159 

it;,; 
172 

174 
177 

is:, 
I'.t:, 
Jll 
234 

24! i 
TO 

7 
19 
21 

2* 
34 

TO 
1 

10 
14 
li 

22 
33 

36 


Guilford 
Abbot 


2 

7 


47 
51 

5S 


Stron ' .....' 


11 
3 

6 


48 
51 
57 

TA 

cr- 

10 
15 

25 

63 
72 

ND 

op. 

A 

22 

1 

54 
60 
64 

L.ND 

5-5 

37 
43 
48 

NI> 
11. 

43 

70 

78 
!)0 
97 
1(13 
110 

LND 

10 
14 
17 

22 

:-;o 

38 
48 




ofi^oni 




PHILLIPS 


Passadilmkeag ... 
WestEnfield 
South Lincoln 


Shirley 


7 

R 
E. 

6 

8 

7 
6 
2 

us 

N. 

4 

4 
4 
9 

7 
6 

u& 

5 
5 
4 
5 
3 
H 

8 

us 


65 

72 

TO 

20 

2:! 

34 

4 ! 

49 

TA 

10 
14 

18 
2'2 
31 

;> 

44 

TA 

9 
14 
IS 

2S 

2S 
31 

40 
46 

TA 

q 


15) FROM Auous 

TO FRYEBURtf, 

Via Paris and Wat 
ford. 

To Winthrop 
Wayne 5 


Greenville, at the 
LAKE 

(10) FROM BANGC 
BROWNSVILL 

East Corinth 


Lincoln Centre... 
North Lincoln ... 
Mattawamkeag .. 
Mo' uncas 


Haynesville 
Linneus 


Atkinson 
Sebec 


Sorth Turner .... 
Bucksfield 


10 
7 
7 
5 

9 
6 
4 
9 

I.A 

hr 

13 

6 
7 
3 
6 
9 
7 
6 
4 

I,; 

7 
6 

8 
6 
5 

I-.A 
\. 

10 

B 

s 

s 
I-J 

/ 

L, 
ID 

4 

3 
5 
8 
8 
10 


HOULTON 

(5) FROM BELFA 
BANGOR. 
To Swanville 
(see No. 1) 
Frankfort Mills... 
Frankfort 


Williamsburg 
BROWNSVILLE... 

(11) FROM AUG 
TO THOMASTO 
Windsor 


PARIS 
Vorway 
Waterford 
Sweden 


Lovel 


FRYEBURG 


(16) FROM PORT 
TO AUGUSTA 
Via. Gray &r Wint 
To Stevens'Plains 


South Windsor... 
W. Jefferson 
Jefferson 


Hampden 


BANGOR 

(6) FROM BANGC 
CASTINE. 
To Brewer 
Brewer Village... 
Orrington 
South Orrington . 
North Bucksport. 
Bucksport 
Orlanu 


Waldoboro' 
W^arreu 


THOMASTON 

(12) FROM AUG 
TO BELFAST 
ToS.Vassalboro'. 
South China 
Palermo 


New Gloucester.. 
Auburn 
Lewiston 
Greene 


Momnouth 
VVinthrop 


North Palermo ... 
Montville 
North Searsmont. 


Hallowell x Roads 
AUGUSTA 

(17) FROM PORT 
TO PARIS. 

Yo Gray 


North Castine.... 
CASTINE 


(7) FROM BANGOR TO 
ELLSWORTH. 
To Brewer 1 


BELFAST 

(13) FROM Auc 
TO QUEBEC 


W. Gloucester ... 


East Brewer 
North Ellsworth . 
Ellsworth 


b 
! 
11 

03 

)R 

. 

5 
4 


16 
27 

130 

TO 
1 




Waterville 


9 

4 
10 
2 
B 
S 
4 
5 
3 
3 
14 
( 
9 
<) 
10 

a 

94 
}U 

5 
11 

4 


18 

2- 
32 
34 
31 
47 
51 
56 

a 

62 
7t 
HL 
91 
111 

ta 

141 
234 

3TA 

li? 

1 

37 


Norway 


From Ellsworth to 
Eastp't, see No. 

(8) FROM BANG< 
SKOWHEGAI* 
To Hermon 
Carmel 


Bloomfield 
Skowhegan 

NoRRIDGEWOCK. 

Madison 


(18) FROM PORT 
TO LANCASTER, J 

To Norway 


Anson 


Embden 
Solon 


Bethel 
Gilead 






Shelburn.N.H... 
Randolph 
Kilkenny 


Newport 
Palmyra 
Pittsfield 


7 
5 
j 

i 

OR 
VK 

ll 


2o 
30 
3b 
4: 
52 

TO 
E, 

13 

2- 

ll 


Currituck 
The Forks 


Jackman's 
Moose River 


Jefferson 
LANCASTER 

(19) FROM PORT 
TO WATERFOI 

South Windham . 
Windham 
North Windham. 


SKOWHEGAN 

(9) FROM BANG 
MOOSE HEAD L 
Via Dover. 
To Levant 


1 QUEBEC 


(14) FROM Auc 
TO PHILLIPS 
To Readfield 
Mt. Vernon 


East Corinth 
VV. Charleston . . . 
Dover 
Suiigerville 




Farmington Falls. 
Farmington 




WATERFORD .... 



ROUTES IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



63 



(20) FROM PORI 
TO CONWAY, N 
To Sacarappa 
(see No. 1) 
Gorham 


JT 

4 1( 
7 17 

8 25 
9 34 
6 40 

8 48 
81 56 

LAND 

JVew- 
'ern. 

and 
ad. 

8 13 


(23) F'.M PORTSM 

N. H., TO CONC 

1 To Durham 
NottinghamTurn- 
pike 


OUTH 
ORD. 

17 

9 26 
34 2','. 
:>..>. 33 
6 39 
4 43 
8 51 

IRTO 

. 

4 
4 8 
5 13 

:RTO 
r. 

3 ' 
9 


, '(28) FROM Coi 
TO CONWAY 
To Shaker Village 
Upper Gilmanton 
Guilford 


tCORD 

14 

8 22 
6 28 
9 37 
4 41 
5 46 
3 49 
7 56 
2 58 
7 65 
6 71 

CORD 

7 15 
2 17 
4 121 

8 29 
9 38 
5 43 
7 50 
\ 54 
14584 
1463 
4744 

NTO 

76 

9 85 
7 92 
6 98 
5103 
8111 
7118 
8126 
4130 
1131 
2143 
1154 
9163 
8171 
7178 
6184 
6190 
7197 
8205 
5210 
8,218 

ORD 
Lit 

(43 

2 55 
1 59 

In 


Staiulish . 


i East Northwood . 
YVest North wood. 


Meredith Village. 
CENTRE HARBOR 
Moultonboro' 
Sandwich 




Hiram 


Brownrield 
Fryeburg 


1 Chichester 




S. Tamworth 
Tamworth 


CONWAY 


(24) FROM EXETI 
PORTSMOUTH 

To Strntham 
Greenland 
PORTSMOUTH 

(25) FROM EXETI 
NEWBURYPOR 

To Kensington... 
Amesbury 
Salisbury 


(21) FROM PORT 
TO BOSTON, 
Via Portsmouth,, . 
buryport, and !Sa 

Portsmouth, Saco, 
Portland Railro 
To Scarboro' 
Saco 

Kennebunk J 


Eaton 


! CONWAY 

(29) FROM CON 
TO HAVERHIL 
Canterbury. . . 


Northfield 
Sanbornt'n Bridge 
Sanbornton 
New Hampton ... 
iHolderness 
Plymouth 


Wells 
North Berwick... 
South Berwick... 
PORTSMOUTH ll 
Eastern Railroa 
Greenland 


5| 28 
5 33 
6l 39 
21 51 
d. 
5 56 
5 61 
2 63 
2 65 
4 69 
2 71 
5 76 
4 80 
5 85 
4 89; 

3 96 
9105 

VTO 

H. 

oay, 
oun- 

66 
3 76, 
) 861 
3 92 
3 97 
J107 
3112 

3118 

H27 

3136 
H39 

' ii;i; 
J17!) 
3.184il 


Bellevilleport .... 
NEWBURYPORT.. 

(26) FROM EXETE 
CONCORD. 

To Epping 


2 11 

2| 13 

RTO 

8 15 
6 21 
4 25 

4 29 
5 34 
51 39 

NTO 
I. 

hua. 
Rail- 

5 

474 
410 

19 
4214 

d. 

21 28 

a so 

4 34 
3 37 
4 41 
d. 
5 46 
5 51 
55 
59 
63 
67 
71 
5 76 


Rumney. . 


West Rumney ... 
Went worth 
Warren 
HAVERHILL ] 

(30) FROM BOSTC 
BURLINGTON, 
Via Concord, Han 
and Montpeliei 
To CONCORD 
(see No. 27).... 
Boscawen 


Hampton 


North Raymond.. 
South Deerfield... 
WestDeerfield... 
Allenstown 
Pembroke . .... 


Hampton Falls... 
Sea brook 


Salisbury 


NEWBURYPORT.. 


CONCORD 


Ipswich . . 


(27) FROM BOSTO 
CONCORD, N. I 
Via Lowell $ Nas 

Boston $ Lowell j 
road. 
ToMedford 
South Woburn... 2 
Woburn.. $ 


VVenham 


Salisbury 


Beverly 


Andover . . . 


Salem 


Wilmot .. 




Springfield 


BOSTON 


Enfield.... 


(22) FROMBOSTO 

LITTLETON, N. 

Via Dover, Com 
and the White M 
tains. 

To DOVER 
(see No. 3) 
gochester 1 
Lilton 1 
Union 


Lebanon . 


HANOVER 


Norwich .... 


Stafford 1 


Wilmington i 
Billerica 4 


Washington 


Billerica Mills....! 
LOWELL 4 


MONTPELIER .... 
vi : i j| tt ._ 


Nashua Railroa 
To Middlesex.... 
Chelmsford... 


Waterbury 
Bolton 
Richmond 
Willston 


Waketield 
Ossipee 1 

Centre Ossipee... 
West Ossipee.... 
Eaton 


Little's 
NASHUA 
Concord Railroa 
Thornton's Ferry. 
Reed's Ferry 
GotFs Falls 
Manchester 
Martin's Ferry ... 
Hooksett 
Robertson's Ferry 
CONCORD 


BURLINGTON 

(31) FROM CONC: 
TO GUILDHALL 
Via Plymouth and 
tleton. 

To PLYMOUTH 
(see No. 29).... 
West Thornton . . 1 
Woodstock 
franconia 1 


CONWAY . 


North Con way... 
Lower Bartlett . . . 
Bartlett . 


The Notch 2 
Bethlehem 1 

LlTTLKTON 



64 



ROUTES IN VERMONT. 



LITTLETON 
Pingreeville 
Dalton 
Lancaster 
GUILDHALL 

(32) FROM CON 
TO KEENE. 
To Hopkinton ... 
Henniker 
Hillsboro' Bridge. 
Hillsboro' 


CO 

8 
6 
:i 
\-l 

H 
10 

JA 

^t 

R 

3 

9 

7 
3 
9 
7 
5 
8 
4 


85 
1)1 
98 
105 
111 

RB 

7 
15 
21 
24 
36 
41 
54 

TO 

oy- 
12 

24 
31 
34 
43 
50 
5," 
63 
67 


Chesterfield Fac. . 
Jhesterh'eld 
BRATTLEBORO' .. 

(36) FROM Lovi 
Mass., TO BRAI 
BORO', Vt. 
North Chelmsford 


8 

i 

8| 

'E 
TJ 

3 
3 

6 
4 

2 
6 
11 

7 
7 
6 
6 

7 

)N 

"cc 

Hi 
J 

at 
oa 
4 

2i 
4 
5 

4 
4 
5 
5 
5 

9 

9 
12 
4 
5 
5 
5 
9 

5 

8 


57 

60 
68 

LL, 

,E- 

4 
7 
10 
16 
20 
11 
2* 
89 
46 
53 
53 

eg 

72 

TO 

ne, 
ts t 

id- 
tie- 

d. 
6 
10 
18* 

16 
20 
2., 
27 
31 
35 

40 
45 
50 

57 

64 
73 

77 

86 

98 
102 
107 
112 
117 
126 




7 
f 
8 

25 

11 
11 

Li 

LSI 

9 
, T 
i 

a 

9 
5 
14 
4 

7 
7 

G1 

c 

6 
3 

8 
4 
6 
6 
6 
<l 
7 
10 
9 
8 
6 
6 
24 
4 
6 

Gl 

N. 

i 


206 
216 

230 

255 
280 

J.I4 
305 

uo- 
rn 

329 

>E- 
^L- 

nd 

2 

9 
18 
23 
37 
41 
48 
55 
67 
71 
77 

^ON 

as- 

8 
14 
21 
24 

31 
39 
43 
49 
55 
61 
70 
77 
87 
96 
104 
110 
116 
140 
144 
150 

ON 

Y. 

24 
30 


Ferrisburg 


Charlotte 
Shelburn 
BURLINGTON 
Steamboat. 
PLATTSBURG, 


Pyngsboro' 
Dunstable 
Fepperell 


Rouse's Point 
Isle aux Noix 
St. Johns, Canada 
C/iamvlain <& St. 
rence Railroac 
La Prairie 


Townsend Harbor 
Townsend. . . . 


South Stoddard . . 
Nelson 


Ashley 


KEENE 

(33) FROMNASHI 
MONTPELIER, " 
Via Windsor and 
alton. 
To Amherst 
Mt. Vernon 
Francestown 
West Deering.... 
Hillsboro' 


Rindge, N. H. ... 
Fitzwilliara 
Richmond. . . . 


Steamboat. 
MONTREAL I 

(38) FROM BRAI 
BORO', Vt., TO 

BANY, N. Y., 

Via Bennington 
Troy. 
To West Brattle- 


Winchester 
Hinsdale 


BRATTLEBORO'.. 

(37) FROM BOST 
MONTREAL, 
Via Fitchbtirg, R 
N.H., Bellows' j 
Vt., Rutland, 
dlebury, and Br 
boro'. 

Fitckburg Railr 
ToW. Cambridge 




Washington 
Lempster 


Wilmington 


Unity 


Wood lord 


Claremont 


BENNINGTON 
Hoosick 


West Claremont. . 


WINDSOR, Vt 
Woodstock 
Barnard 

ROYALTON 

Randolph 


1 
14 

9 
6 
5 
6 
6 

3 

LTA 
N. 

8 

7 

r 

10 
B 

8 
1 


87 
96 

10L 

107 
113 
119 
126 
12 

TO 

11 

]! 

a 

3! 

4" 

f>: 

61 

68 

TO 

t. 

1 

It 

18 
2-. 
3 
3t 

44 
49 


Weston 


Lansingburg 
TROY 


Lincoln . . 


Concord 
South Acton 
West Acton 


ALBANY 

(39) FR'MBURLIN 
TO ALBANY, 
Via Middlebury , 
tleton. 
To Shelburn 
Charlotte 
Ferrisburg 


Brookrield 


Williamstown 
Berlin 


Groton . . . 


Shirley Village... 
Leominster 


MONTPELIER .... 

(34) FROM NASH 
CHARLESTOW 
ToMilford 
.South Lyndboro'. 
Greenfield 


FlTCHBURO 

Stage. 
Ashburnharn 
Winchenden 
Fitzwilliam.N.H. 


Vergennes 
New Haven 
MIDDLEBURY 


Hancock 
Stoddard 
South Marlboro'.. 
Alstead 
Langdon 


KEENE .. 


Whiting 


Walpole 
BELLOWS' FALLS 
Rockingham 


Sudbury 


Hubbardton 
CASTLETON 
Poultney 


CHARLESTOWN.. 7 

(35) FROM NASHUA 
BRATTLEBORO', V 
Via Keene. 
To Milf'ord . . . 


Chester 


Granville, N.Y... 
Hebron 


r ii 


Salem 


Mt Holly 


Jackson 


Finlayville 
East Clarendon... 
RUTLAND 
Pittstord 


7 
6 
4 
8 
8 
5 
4 
10 
5 

8 


Mi! 
152 
K>6 

172 
177 
181 
191 

199 


Cambridge 
Lansingburg 
TROY 
ALBANY 


East Wilton 
Wilton 


5 
2 
4 
b 
( 
& 

e 


(40) FR'M BURLIN 
TOWHITEHALL, 

To Vergennes 
(see No. 39).... 


TTemple 


Leicester 




Salisbury 


Dublin ... 


MlDDLEBURY 

Wey bridge 
New Haven 


Marlboro* 





ROUTES IN MASSACHUSETTS. 



65 



Shoreham 
Orwell 


6 
6 
6 
6 

8 

GT 
LI 

1 

6 

8 
9 

Gl 

4 

4 
Hi 
3 
9 

1!! 

9 
6 

3 
8 
6 

% 

1 

5 

8 
7 
6 

t; 

9 
6 

1 

12 

t; 

5 
13 

12 
:LI 

12 

6 

1 


44 
50 
56 

70 

ON 
IG, 

6 

12 

18 
24 
32 
41 

ON 

8 
12 
16 

38 

4* 
57 
68 

6i ; 

74 

80 

S'O- 
TE 

At- 

8 
13 
21 

2* 
34 
40 

56 

t;u 

70 
77 
81* 
95 

113 
134 

146 

ER 

8 
20 
26 
31 

43 


Fairfield 
ST. ALBANS 

(45) F'MMONTPI 
TO DERBY. 
To Calais 


! 

:L 

6 
6 
5 
12 

9 

ft 

7 
5 
4 
9 
4 

BL 

. 

12 

4 

7 
8 
5 

y'D 
H. 

8 

H 
6 
5 
2 


4 

Gl 

7 
6 

3 
2 
5 

9 
3 
6 


56 
63 

ER 

10 
16 

2-2 
27 
39 
42 
49 
58 

ER 
i. 

6 
13 
18 
2-2 
31 
35 

RY 

8 
20 
24 

31 

44 
TO 

12 

20 
27 
33 
39 
44 
46 

TO 

12 
17 

20 
24 

ON 

i 

22 
24 

2!! 
37 

4i) 
55 


RO' TO DERBY LIN 
Via Bellows 3 Fa 
Windsor, Hanoz 
and Haverhill. 

To Chesterfield, 
N H 


K, 

Us, 
er, 

8 
14 

22 

26 

52 
59 
67 
71 
81 
88 
93 
98 
101 
107 
115 
118 
125 
129 
136 
145 
156 
1H3 
172 
175 

TO 

nd 
Icr 

5 
7 
9 
13 
17 
21 
24 
28 
32 
38 
44 

i 

62 
64 
67 
b-9 
73 
83 
89 
92 
98 


Benson 


W T est Haven 
WHITEHALL 

(41) FR'M BURLIN 
TO PHILLIPSI 
Canada. 
To Colchester .... 
West Milton 


LaMoilleville.... 


Westmoreland . . . 
Walpole 


6 

8 

4 

8 
9 
9 
7 
8 
4 
10 

5 

5 
3 

i! 

8 
3 

7 
4 

7 
9 

'! 

!i 
3 

)N 
C 

CCS 

2 
2 
4 

4 

3 
4 
4 

6 
6 
in! 
9 
4 
5 
2 
3 
2 
4 
HI 
6 
3 
6 


Glover 


BELLOWS' FALLS 
Vt 


Georgja 
ST. ALBANS 
High Gate 


Brownington 
Derby 


Chartestown, NH. 
Wethersfield 
WINDSOR 


(46) F'MMONTPI 
TO HAVERHILL,. 

To Barre 


Phillipsburg 

(42) FR'M BURLIN 
TO DERBY. 
To Essex 


Plainfield 


West Lebanon... 
HANOVER 
Lyme 
Orford 


Jericho 

Underbill 


West'Topsham .. 
East Corinth 
Bradford 


HAVERHILL 
Newbury, Vt 
Wells' River 
Mclndoes' Falls. . 
Barnet 


Cambridge 


Jerfersonville 
Johnson 
Eden 


HAVERHILL 

(47) F'M MIDDLE 
TO ROYALTO1< 

ToRipton 
Hancock 


Lowell 
Westfield 
Troy 


Passumsic 
St. Johnsbury 
Lyndon 
Sutton 


Derby 

(43) FROM BUR 

TON TO THE W 

MOUNTAINS, 
Via Montpelier < 
tleton. 

ToWilliston 
Richmond 
Bolton 


Rochester 
Stockbridge 
Bethel . ... 


Barton 
Brownington 
Derby... 
Derby Line. . . . 


Royalton 

(48}FR'MRUTLAT 

HANOVER, N. 
To Sherburn 
Bridgewater 
Woodstock 


(52) FROM BOST 
ALBANY, 
Via Worcester 
Springfield. 

Boston and Wor 
Railroad. 
To Brighton 
Angier's Corner.. 
Newton 
Needham ... 


Q,ueechee Villa ge . 
Hartford 


Waterbury 


Middlesex 




MoNTPELIER 

Plainfield 
Marshfield 


HANOVER . 


(49) FR'M RUTLAI 
WHITEHALL, J\ T 

To Castleton 
Fair Haven 
Low Hampton . . . 
WHITEHALL 

(50) F'M BENNIN 
TO RUTLAND 

ToShaftsbury.... 
Arlington 


Danville 
St. Johnsbury 
Waterford 
Littleton, N. H... 
Bethlehem 


Natick 
Framingham 
Hopkinton 


Southboro' .. 


Westboro' 


Notch, House 
Bartlett 


Grafton 
WORCESTER 
Western Railro 
Clappville. . . 


CON WAY . 


(44) F'MMONTP 
TO ST. ALB AN 
Via Johnson 
To Worcester . . . 
Elmore 
Morrisville 
Hyde Park 
Johnson . . 


Charlton . 


Spencer 


Sunderland 
Manchester 


East Brookfield . . 
South Brookfield. 
West Brookfield . 
Warren 
Palmer 
North Wilbraham 
Wilbrnharn 
SPRINGFIELD ... 


Factory Point 
Bast Dorset 
Dunby 

Wallmgford...... 


Waterville 


RUTLAND 



ROUTES IN MASSACHUSETTS. 



W. Springfield... 
Westlield . . 


2 
8 
8 
3 
ti 
10 
3 
5 
3 
5 

3 
<*< 
d. 

5 
5 

5 
7 
8 

1 

m 
w 

4 
5 
2 
4 
5 
2 
15 
4 
5 
8 
12 
5 
5 

si 

6 
5 
5 
2 
6 
5 
3 
5 
4 

S'l 

W 

6 

6 

5 
6 

12 


100 
108 
116 

119 
\'2 : , 
135 
138 

!!:] 
L46 
151 

i;,ii 
158 
Lffl 

ck- 

167 
178 

177 

184 
192 

!!: 
2ui> 

TIG 
N. 

8 
12 

1!) 
23 
2S 
30 
45 
4!) 
T>4 
62 
74 
79 
84 

ER 

13 

IS 
2:; 
2., 
31 
36 
89 
44 
48 

ER 

. 

13 

20 
21 i 
31 
37 
41 
53 


(56)FR'MWORCES1 

TO KEENE, N. H 
To Holden . . . 


^ER 

17 
23 
36 
38 

43 
51 

56 

KR 

Vt. 

17 
21 
* 

53 
58 
65 

ER 
21 

28 
31 
40 

it; 

53 

3K- 

rn- 

6 
13 
25 
30 
33 

)E- 

H 

20 

LD 

6 
9 
15 

25 
29 
31 
34 
36 
41 
45 
54 


Boston and Worcester 
Railroad. 
Graflon fi fift 


Russell 
Chester Village^.. 
Chester Factory.. 
North Becket .... 
Washington 
Hinsdale 


Hubbardton 
Templeton 
Baldwinsville 
Royalton 
Richmond, N. H. 
Swansea 
KEENE 

(57) FR'M WORCE 
TO BRATTLEBOR< 

To Paxton . . . 


9 
6 
3 
7 
10 
8 
5 

)', 

10 
4 

7 
8 
6 
11 
5 
7 

si 

D. 

7 
3 
9 
6 

10 
>R 

7 
12 
5 
3 

Rl 
ST 

10 

FII 

ad 

3 
6 
10 
4 

3 

5 
4 
9 


Westboro' 


6 66 
4 70 
4 74 
3 77 
4 81 
4 85 
4 89 
2 91 
2 93 
5 98 

-TO 
R.R. 

3! 3 I 

5 13 
4 17 

i 2H 
4 2 
3 28i 
4 35 
2 36 

7143 
lOl 53 
3 5 
is to 

lies. 

IELD 
D, 

4 8 

2 10 
4 14 
3 17 
3 20 

5 33 
5 38 
7 45 

PT'N 

1 6 
5 11 
5 16 

ill 97 

NTO 

inff- 
and 

93 


Sonthboro'. .. 


Hopkinton 


Framingham 
Natick 


PlTTSFIELD 

Shaker Village... 
Richmond 


Needham 
Newton 
Angier's Corner.. 
Brighton 


Albany and W. * 
bridge Railroa 
Canaan, N. Y. .. 
East Chatham 
Chatham 
Kinderhook 
Schodack 
Greenbush 
ALBANY. 


BOSTON 

(62) F'MSPRINOF 

BRATTLEBORO', 
Connecticut River 
ToCabotville*.. 
Willimansell.... 
Smith's Ferry... 
NORTHAMPTON. 
Hatfield 


Cold brook 
Barre 

Petersham 


N. New Salem... 
[rvingsville 
North field 
Vernon, Vt 
BRATTLEBORO'.. 

(58) FR'M WORCE 
TO GREENFIEI 

To Barre. 


<53) FROM FITCH 

TO WlLLIAMSTC 

To Westminster 
(see No. 37) .... 
South Gardiner .. 


Whately.. 


South Deerfield. 
Deerfield 
GREENFIELD ... 
Stage. 
Bernardston 
Guilford.Vt 
BRATTLEBORO'. 
* A branch extent 
Chicopee Falls, 2 m 

(63) F'M SPRINGF 
TO GREENFIEL 
Via Amherst. 
To Cabotville .... 
Willimansett 
S. Had ley Falls.. 
South Had ley .... 
Holyoke Place... 
Hadley 


Dana 


Templeton 
Phillipstown 
Athol 


Millington 
Lock's Village... 


South Orange .... 
Irvingsville. . . . 


GREENFIELD 
(59) FROM W. Bi 

FIELD TO N( 
AMPTON. 

To Ware, (see 
No. 52) 
Enfield. . . 


GREENFIELD 
Shelburn 
Shel burn Falls ... 
Charlemont 
Florida 


North Adams 

WlLLIAMSTOWN. 

(54) FR'M WORCE 
TO LOWELL 
To West Boylston 
Sterling 
Lancaster 
Shirley Village . . . 
Shirley 


Amherst 
Hadley 


NORTHAMPTON.. 

(60) FR'M PALME 
POT TO AMHER 
To Belchertown 

(see No. 52) .... 


AMHERST 
North Amherst... 
Sunderland 


Montague 




GREENFIELD 

(64) F'M NORTHAM 
TO ALBANY, N. 
ToW T . Hampton.! 
Norwich 
Chester Village.. 
ALBANY, (see 
No 52) K 


Forge Village 
Westfbrd 


(61) F'M SPRING 
TO BOSTON. 

Western Railro 
To Wilbraham... 
North Wilbraham 
Palmer 


Chelmsford 


LOWELL . 


(55) FR'M WORCE 
TO NASHUA, N 
Via Fitchburt 

To West Boylston 
Sterling 


(65) FROM BOSTO 
NEW YORK, 
Via Worcester, Spi 
field, Hartford* 
New Haven. 
To SPRINGFIELD, 
(see No. 52) .... 


Warren 
W. Brookfield.... 
N. Brookfield .... 
E. Brookfield 
Spencer 
Charlton 
Clappville 


Leominster 
FITCHBURG 
Lunenburg 
Groton 


NASHUA . . , 


WORCESTER .... 



ROUTES IN MASSACHUSETTS. 



67 



Hartford SrSprii 
Railroad. 
Thompsonville... 
Windsor Locks .. 


gfiela 

8106 
5111 
611 
7124 
fave 

81132 
313 
714 
614 
615 
7160 

80 tl 
NTO 

JVor- 
rrt. 

44 

ester 

11 55 

5 60 
4 64 
6 70 

5 75 
3 78 
6 84 
3 87 
6 93 
0103 
7110 

10140 

16236 

8118 
0238 

N TO 

and 
ence 


Providence fr Sto 
ton Railroad 


nine 

8 a 


(70) FROM BOSTC 
NEW YORK 
Old Colony Raili 
Dorchester 


)N TO 

oad. 

1* 4* 
3i 8 
3 11 

oad- 

8| 19 

733A 
74 41 
12 53 

181 71 
wl236 

HTO 
17 

4 21 
3 24 
4 28 
4 32 
4 36 
41 40 

H TO 
>. 

H5 
21 

27 
32 
33 

a TO 

8 17 
5 22 
9 30 

ORD 

'> 6 
3 11 
3 17 
I 20 
J 30 

ORD 

le. 

39 

> 65 

3RD 

11 


Greenwich 


HARTFORD 


Wickford 


6 59 
7 66 
6 72 

7 1\ 

54; 8i 

25(21 

NT 
), 

Fall 

24 
oad. 
5 29 
7 36 

6 42 
4 56 
Vail- 
^ree- 

1 53 

tTO 

fina- 
le. 
ad. 

B 

8 
10 
HI 

18* 

1 
I* 

40 
54 
56 
62 
66 
72 
75 
76 
79 
87 
92 


Neponset 
(luincy 


Hartford&Newl 
Railroad. 
New Britain 
Berlin 


Richmond 


South Braintree. 
Fall River Railr 
N. Bridgewater. 
Bndgewater 
Middleboro' 
Myricks.... 


Charleston 


Westerly 
STONINGTON 
Steamboat. 
To NEW YORK..! 

(68) FROM BOSTO 
NEW BEDFORI 

Via Taunton and 
River Branch 
To Mansfield 
(see No. 67) .... 
Taunton Br. Rath 


Meriden 


Wallingford 
North Haven 
NEW HAVEN 
Steamboat. 
To NEW YORK.. 

(66) FROMBOSTC 
NEW YORK, 
Via Worcester, 
wick, <Sr Greenp 
To WORCESTER,! 
(see No. 52) ...J 
Norwich $ Wore 
Railroad. 
Oxford 


FALL RIVER.... 
Steamboat. 
Newport 1 
VEW YORK.... |1 
(72.) F'M PLYMOUI 
FALMOUTH. 

To W. Sandwich. 
Monument 


'ocasset 


TAUNTON 


N. Falmouth 
iY. Falmouth.... 
Falmouth 


JVcto Bedford Railt 
Freetown* . . . 


Wood's Hole 

(73) F'M PLYMOUT 
NEW BEDFORI 


NEW BEDFORD.. 1 
* The Fall River , 
road extends I'm 3 
town 
To Fall River .. 
(see No. 83).... 1 

(69) FROM BOSTO 
ORLEANS, 
Via Plymouth, 8 
wich, <V Bamstai 
Old Colony Railro 
To Savin Hill.... 
)orchester 
Neponselt 1 


Webster 


Fishersville 


Pom fret 


Daysville 


V. Wareham.... 6 
Rochester 6 


Danielsville 
Central Village.. 
Plainfield. 


Hattipoisett fc 
''air Haven j 
>JEW BEDFORD .. ] 

74) F'M PLYMOUT 
TAUNTON. 
'o Plympton 
liddleboro' 
V. Middleboro' .. 
'AUNTON 

75) F'M NEWBEDF 
TO SANDWICH. 
'o Fair Haven... 
lattipoisett 


Jewett City 
NORWICH. 1 


Allyn's Point*.... 
Steamboat. 
To Green port,NY c 
L. Island R. R. 
To NEW YORK.. 

* Steamboat. 
To New London . 
NEW YORK 12 

(67) FROM BOSTO 
NEW YORK, 
Via Providence 
Stoningion. 
Boston and Provid 
Railroad. 
To Roxbury 


CJ,u i ncy 3 


\. Braintree 2 
W. Braintree.... 1 
^. Weymouth 3 
Abington 4 


5. Abington 1 


Wareham 


Halifax 3 


E. Wareham 
andwich 1 






76) F'M NEWBEDF 
TO NANTUCKET 
Via Holmes' s Ho 

Steamboat. 
olmes's Hole . . . 
antucket . 2f 


Jamaica Plains... 1 
Toll Gate 1 


i 3 

$1 

H4 
i 17i 


'LYMOUTH 4 

Stage. 
Cel River. . ; 


Dedham Low Pl'n 4 
Ca nton 5 


W Sandwich 14 


Sharon 3 


ANDWICH $ 




i21 
24 

^261 
,31 
i :L>i 
^35 
J39 
II4U 


{ j. Sandwich 1 


Mansfield 3 
Toby's Corner.... 2 
Attleborough 4 
Dodgeville 1 
Perrin's Crossing. 2 
Seekonk. . 4 


W. Barnstable ... 4 

ARNSTABLE 

Tarmouthport I 
Yarmouth . 1 


7) F'M NEWBEDF 
TO PROVIDENCE 
\> N. Dartmouth 
Westport |4i 
all River 8 


Dennis 3 


rewster 8 
rleans o 


PROVIDENCE 2 



68 



ROUTES IN RHODE ISLAND. 



Swansea 

S. Seekonk 

PROVIDENCE 

(78) FR'M TAUNTON TO 



SANDWICH. 
To Middleboro' .. 
S. Middleboro' . . . 

Wurelmm 

Sandwich 



(79) FROM BOSTON TO 
WOONSOCKET FALLS, 
R. L 

ToUedham 

W. Dedham 

Med field 

Rockville 

Franklin City .. 

Franklin 

WOONSOCKET 
FALLS 



10 



(80) FROM LOWELL TO 
NEWBURYPORT, 

Via, Haver hill. 

To Dracut , 

Methuen 

Huverhill 

E. Haverhill 

W. Amesbury... 

Arnesbury 

Salisbury 

Bellevilleport.... 
NEWBURYPORT. 

(81) FROM SALEM T( 

ROCKPORT. 
To Manchester...! J ! 

Gloucester I 7| It 

Rockport I 51 2. 

(82) FROM FALL RIVER 
TO NEWPORT, R. i. 

ToTiverton I I i 

Portsmouth I 31 ! 

NEWPORT i 91 1 

(83) FR'M PROVIDENCE 
TO NEW BEDFORD, 



) FR'M PROVIDENCE 
TO BOSTON. 

Boston and Providence 



Railroad. 

To Seekonk 2J 

3 errin's Crossing. 

Dodgeville 

Attleboro'. 

Poby's Corner 

Mansfield 

Foxboro' 



Canton 

Dedham Low PI'.. 

Toll Gate 

Jamaica Plain ... 
Roxbury 



BOSTON 



-. 
:; 
3*24 



16) FR'M PROVIDENCE 

TO WORCESTER, 
Via Woonsocket Falls. 
To Pawtucket. . . . 

Lime Rock 

WOONSOCKET 

FALLS 



......... 

Waterfbrd ....... 

Blackstone ....... 

Millville 



Mass. 
To S. Seekonk . . . 

N. Swansea 

Swansea 

Fuji River 

Westpnrt 

N. Dartmouth.... 
NEW BEDFORD .. 



ve .......... 

Uxbridge ......... 

Whitingville 
Northbridge ...... 

Farmersville 
Wilkinsonville... 
Milbury .......... 

WORCESTER ... 

(87) FR'M PROVIDENCE 
TO THOMPSON, Ct. 

To Fruit Hill ..... I I 

Greenville ........ 5 . 

Chepacket ....... 7 16 

Thompson ....... |1 

(88) FR'M PROVIDENCE 

TO KlLLINGLY, Ct. 

To N. Scituate... I ! 10 
Foster ............ I 9l 19 

IE. Killinsly ...... 61 25 



(84) FR'M PROVIDENCE 

TO NEWPORT. 
To Barrington 



Bristol 



6 14 

4 18 



Killi.igly... I 21 27 

89) FR'M PROVIDENCE 
TO PLAINFIELD, Ct. 
ToS. Scituate ... 

Mt. Vernon 

Rice City . 



it ice ouy i if> 

Sterling, Ct 5 24 

Plainfield I 4| 28 

(90) FR'M PROVIDENCE 
TO N. LONDON, Ct. 

irisioi 4i .10 jToNatick... I I 9 

'ortsmouth 6 24 ICentrevitle 2 11 

hcwPORT'.. .:...' 9| 33 (Coventry ...I 2l 13 



N. Greenwich... 

Pine Hill 

kand's IronW'ks 

lopkinton 

V. Stpnington,Ct. 

Vlystick 

iroton Centre 

Jrroton 

NEW LONDON 



,91) FR'M PROVIDENCE 

TO STONINGTON.Ct. 

Providence & Stoning- 

ton Railroad. 
To Apponag 



Greenwich 

^Vickford 

Kingston 

Richmond 

Charleston 

Westerly 

STONINGTON 



TJ 
. 18 
7 25 

31 

7 38 

4*42J 
5H8 



FR'M PROVIDENCE 

TO WlCKFORD. 

To Pawtucket.... I 5 

Warwick | 6 11 

E.Greenwich 13 14 

Wickford I 8122 

(93) FROM HARTFORD 
TO SPRINGFIELD. 

Hartford $ Springfield 
Railroad. 

To Windsor 

Windsor Locks .. 
Thompsonville. . . 
SPRINGFIELD 

(94) FROM HARTFORD 
TO NEW HAVEN. 

Hartford $ New Haven 
Railroad. 



\ 7 
6 13 

5 18 



1 8 
11 

18 
24 



To New Britain.. 

Berlin 

Meriden 

Wallingford...... 

North Haven 

NEW HAVEN 



(95) FROM HARTFORD 
TO NEW HAVEN, 



Via Middletown. 



To Wethersfield. . 

Rocky Hill 

Up'r Middletown. 

.Middletown 

Durham 

Northford 

Fair Haven 

NEW HAVEN 



ROUTES IN CONNECTICUT. 



9 



(96) FROM HARTFORD 
TO SAYBROOK. 



To Mkldletown.. 

Higgamum 

Ha.idam . 



E. Haddam 

Chester. . 



Deep River 

Essex 

SAYBROOK 



(97) FROM HARTFORD 

TO NEW LONDON. 
To E.Hartford... 1 

Glastonbury 

Marlboro' 

Colchester 

Salem . 



Chesterfield 



NEW LONDON... 

(98) FROM HARTFORD 
TO NORWICH, 
Via Colchester. 

To Colchester .... I 

Bozrah 1 

Norwich I ( 

(99) FROM HARTFORD 
TO NORWICH. 

ToE. Hartford... 

Manchester 

Bolton 

Andover. . - 

Columbia 



Liberty Hill 



Lebanon 

Franklin 

Norwichtown 

NORWICH 

(100) FROM HARTFORD 

TO W. KlLLINGLY. 

To Manchester 

(see No. 99).... 

Coventry ........ 

S. Coventry 

1*7:11: 



TiHimantic 

Windham 

Howard Valley... 

Brooklin 

W.Killingly 

(101) FROM HARTFORD 

TO KlLLINGLY. 



To Coventry . . . 

Mansfield 

Ashford 

Abington 

Pomfret Landing. 



Singly 
(102) FROM HARTFORD 

TO WlLBRAHAM, Ms. 

ToE. Windsor...! 7 
Scantic Village .. 6, 13 
Broad Brook | 3i 16 



Somers . . . 

N. Somers. . _. 

Wilbraham | 7| 

(103) FROM HARTFORD 

TO WESTFIELD, Ms. 
ToBloomfield.... 
TaritfVille, 



Granby 

Srmthwick, Mass. 
Westfield, 

(104) FROM HARTFORD 

TO CANAAN. 
To W. Hartford. 



Avon. 

Canton 

Collinsville 

New Hartford. . . 

Winchester 

Millbrook 

Norfolk 

CANAAN 



37 
43 

(105) FROM HARTFORD 

TO LlTCHFIELD. 

To W.Hartford.. 

Farmington 

Bristol 



Terrysville 

Plymouth 

Northfield 

LlTCHFIELD 



(106) F'M NORWICH 
WORCESTER, Ma: 



CH TO 
".ass. 

Norwich <$r Worcester 
Railroad. 



To Jewett's City. 

Plainfield 

Central Village... 

Uanielsville 

Daysville 

Pomfret 



Fishersville 

Webster, Mass. . . 
Oxford 

ORCESTER 

(107) F'M NORWICH TO 
NEW YORK. 

Railroad. I I 
To Allyn's Point. 7 

Steamboat. 
NEW YORK 1421149 

(108) F'M NORWICH TO 
SPRINGFIELD, Mass. 

To Norwichtown. 

Franklin 

Windham 

Mansfield 

Tolland 

Ellington 

Somers 



E. Long Meadow. 
SPRINGFIELD .... 



5 

10| 24 

6| 30 



6 42 

7 49 
5, 54 



(109) FR'M N. LONDON 
TO STONIN&TON. 



ToGroton... 

Pequot 

Mystick.. 

Porte rsville 

Mystick Bridge... 
STONINGTON 



(110) F'M NEW HAVEN 
TO NEW LONDON. 



ToE. Haven 

Branford 

Guilford 

Madison 

Clinton 

Westbrook 

SAYBROOK 

Lyme 

E. Lyme 

Riverhead 

Waterford 

NEW LONDON 



(111) F'M NEW HAVEN 
TO SPRINGFIELD. 

Hartford <& New Have*. 

Railroad. 
To North Haven . 



Wallingford 



Meriden 

Berlin 

New Britain 

HARTFORD 

Hartford &r Springjield 

Railroad. 
Windsoi 



54 



soi 

Windsor Locks .. 
Thompsonville ... 
SPRINGFIELD 



(112) F'M NEW HAVEN 
TO BOSTON, 

Via Springjield, 
(See No. 125)....! 1100 

FROM NEW HAVEN TO 
ALBANY, N.Y., 

Via Springjield. 

To Springfield 

(see No. 111).... 
ALBANY II 

(113) F'M NEW HAVEN 

TO LlTCHFIELD. 

ToWestville.. 

Straitsville __ 

"Vaugatuck 3 

rVaterbury 5 

Watertown 

LlTCHFIELD 



70 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



(114) F'M NEW HAVEN 

TO LlTCHIflELD, 

Via Derby. 

To Derby 

Humphreysville .. 
Oxford 



Southbury :. 

Wood bury 

Bethlehem 

South Farms 

LITCHFIELD 



34 

_ 37 
8 45 



(115) F'M NEW HAVEN 
TO FARMINGTON. 

To liamden 

Cheshire, 



8 14 
7 21 



Southington..... . 

Plamville 

FARMINGTON 

(116) F'M NEW HAVEN 
TO NEW YORK, 

Via Bridgeport and 

Norwalk. 
(See No. 126) ....I I 78 

(117) F'M NEW HAVEN 
TO NEW YORK. 

Steamboat. 
To Bridgeport.... I 120 
NEW YORK 160| 80 

(118) F'M BRIDGEPORT 
TO ALBA.NY, N. Y., 

Via West Stockbridge. 
Hoitsatonic R. R. 



To Stepney....... 

Bottstord 

Newtown 

Huwleyville 

Brookrield 

NEW MILFORD .. 

Gaylord's Bridge. 
Kent. 



Cornwall Bridge . 

Cornwall 

Canaan 

Mass. State Line. 



Berkshire and West 
Stockbridge R- R. 

Sheffield 

Great Barrington. 
Van Deusetiville . 
W. STOCKBRIDGE 
N. Y. State Line. I 
Albany and W. Stock- 

bridge Railroad. 
Canaan . 
Chatham 4 Corn's 

Kinderhook 

Schodack _ 

ALBANY 1 8136 



(119) F'M LITCHFIELD 
TO W. CORNWALL. 

To Goshen 
(see No. 118) ... 

Cornwall 

W. CORNWALL.. 

(120) F'M LITCHFIELD 
TO NEW MILFORD. 

To Woodville.... 7 

New Preston 4 11 

North vi lie 4 15 

NEW MILFORD... 4 19 

(121) FR'M NEW YORK 
TO BOSTON, 

Via Oreenport, Nor- 
wich, <Sr Worcester. 



To BROOKLYN . . . 
L. Island R. R. 



East New York . . 
Union Course 



Brushville 

Hempstead Br.... 

Carl Place 

Hicksyille 

Farmingdale 

Deerpark 

Suffolk Station .. 
Medfbrd 



St. George's Man. 

Riverhead 

Mattetuck 

Southold 

Greenport 

Steamboat. 
To New London . 

Allyn's Point 

Norwich d* Worcester 

Railroad. 
NORWICH 



Mansfield 
Foxboro 
Sharon 
Canton 



24120 



Jewett's City 

Plainrield 



rituuueiu ......... 

Central Village .. 
Danielsville ...... 

Daysville ......... 

Pomfret 



.......... 

Fishersville ....... 

Webster, Mass. . . 
Oxford ........... 

WORCESTER ..... 



3154 



3163 
5168 



4178 
5183 
11194 
Boston and Worcester 

Railroad. 
Grafton .......... 

Westboro' ....... 

Southboro' ....... 

lopkinton ....... 

ramingham ..... 

Natick ........... 

Needham ........ 

Newton .......... 

Angier's Corner.. 
Brighton ......... 

BOSTON ......... 



(122) F'M NEW YORK 

TO BOSTON, 
Via Stonington and 

Providence. 
Steamboat. \ I 
To STONINGTON. I |125 
Providence d; Stoning- 
ton Railroad. 



Westerly . . . 
Charleston . 
Richmond.. 
Kingston ... 
Wickford . . 
Greenwich . 

Apponag 

PROVIDENCE. 



5i 130J 
4^135 
142 
148 
155 
161 



Boston and Providence 
Railroad. 



Seekonk. 



Perrin's Crossing 4 

Dodgeville 

Attleborouffh 



2^175 



---- 

Toby's Corner... 



2k 190 
3 193 
3il96i 
3^00 



Dedham Low PI. 
Jamaica Plains.. 

Roxbury 

BOSTON 

(123) F'M NEW YORK 

TO BOSTON, 
Via New Haven, Hart- 
ford, Springfield, (- 
Worcester. 

Steamboat. 
Blackwell's Isl. .. 
Hell Gate. . . 



Brothers' Island.. 
Throg's Neck 

New Rochelle 

Captain's Island . 
Greenwich Point . 

Shippan Point 

Norwalk Islands . 

Black Rock 

Bridgeport 

Stratford 

Neck Point 

NEW HAVEN 

Hartford d- New Haven 

Railroad. 
To North Haven 

Wallingford 

Meriden 

Berlin 

New Britain 

HARTFORD . _ 

Hartford fr Springjield 
Railroad. 

Windsor 171121 

Windsor Locks.. I elliff 



7185 

5 90 

6 96 
7103 
3106 
8114 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



71 





18 
an 
( 
! 

u 

4 

5 

9 

CCi 

44 

IK 
JY 

*t. 

10 

5 
4 
4 
6 
6 
ti 
(i 
8 
4 
7 

ito 
d. 

I 
1 

Utt 
d. 

5 
Hi 

8 

8 


140 

U6 

r., 

165 

169 
174 
176 
181 
185 
194 

ter 

238 

TO 

60 

70 
75 
79 
83 
* 

i in 

107 
115 
119 

126 

0*. 

140 
146 
148 

156 
158 
ck- 

163 

173 

180 
IS8 


Darien 
Norwalk 


2 
( 
4 
4 
2 
4 
| 


4'-' 
48 

56 

68 

62 

( J 5 


Tarry town 
Sing Sing 




b 

4 
8 
2 

4 
6 

4 

6 
4 

6 

3 
1 


5 

N 

3 

4 

2 
4 
5 
3 
fo 

.'/> 

6 
3 

10 
9 
11 
10 

fi 

24 
id 
i) 
11 
U. 
14 

2i 

14 
11 

7,6 

I. 

15 

9j 
fti 

1 


27 
33 

40 
44 
52 

54 
57 
61 

67 
70 

74 
80 
84 

97 
100 
101 
111 
11 
124 
127 
131 
133 
137 
142 
14 1 


Western Railrt 
Wilbraham 
Palmer 
Warren 


Westport 


Verplanck's Poinl 
Cnldwell's Land'g 
WEST POINT .... 
Cold Spring 
Cornwall 




Fairfield 
BRIDGEPORT 
Stratford 


West Brookfield . 
East Brookfield .. 
Spencer 


Milford 
NEW HAVEN 

(126) F'M NEW 
TO ALBANY. 
Harlem Railro 
To Harlem 
Fordham 
Williams' Bridge. 
Hunt's Bridge 
Tucknhoe 


1 

Yc 

ad 

? 

I 

6 

2 
6 
5 
2 
5 

ctei 

4 
5 
6 
6 
4 
7 


68 

78 

RK 

& 

18 

an 

24 

"& 
34 

40 

t? 

52 
ted 

RK 

13 
17 

2-2 

28; 

34 
38 

45 


Newburgh 
New Hamburgh . 
Milton 


Clappville . ... 


PorGHKEEPSIE.. 

Hyde Park . . . 


WORCESTER 
Boston and Wor 
Railroad. 
To BOSTON 
(see No. 121) ... 

(124) F'M N. Yoi 
ALBANY & TR 

Via Bridgepo 
Steamboat. 
To Bridgeport, Ct 
Housatonic R. R. 
Stepney 


Pelham 


Rhinebeck . .. 


Red Hook, Lower 
Red Hook, Upper 
Sangerties 
^ATTSKILL 
HUDSON 
Coxsiickie 


Hart's Corners 
WHITE PLAINS . . 
Unionville 
Pleasantville 
New Castle 
Mechanicsville.. 
Golden 's Bridge. 
Croton Falls.... 

This road is to be e 
to Albany. 

(127) F'M NEW" 
TO ALBANY. 
To King's Bridge. 
Yonkers 


Kinderhook L'd'g 
\. Baltimore 
Joey mans 
Jastleton 
Overslaugh 
ALBANY 


Bottsford 
Newtown 
Hawleysville 
Srookfield 
ew Milford 
Gaylord's Bridge. 
Kent 


(129) F'M NEW' 

TO MONTREAI 

Via JUImnti, Trc 
Whitehall. 
Steamboat. 
To ALBANY 


RK 

145 
151 

154 

180 
191 
J01. 
208 
217 

241 
251 

260 
271 

>:5 
_W 

J49 
i63 
374 
w- 

389 
398 

RK 

24 


Cornwall Bridge . 
Cornwall 


Dobb's Ferry 


Stage. 
[jansiojrburgh 
Schagticoke 
Kaston 




Mass. State Line. 
Berkshire & W. 
bridge Railroa 
Sheffield, Mass. .. 
Great Barrington. 
Van Deusenville . 
W. Stockbridge.. 
N. Y. State Line. 
Albany fr West -4 
bridge Railroa 
Canaan 


SING SING 


Cortlandtown 
Peekskill 


Philipsburg 
Fishkil! 

Wappinger'sCr'k 

POUGHKEEPSIE.. 

Hyde Park 


9 
10 
7 
7 
6 
4 


54 

64 
71 

78 
84 


Argyle 


Hartford 
iranville 
WHITEHALL 

Steamboat. 


Staatsburg 


Rhinebeck 
Red Hook 
Upper Red Hook. 


6 
6 

3 
5 
4 

8 
6 

3 
!) 

7 
1 

f o 

2 
7 


94 
100 

iua 

HIS 
112 
120 

12.; 

130 
133 
142 
149 
150 
RK 

8 
10 

17 i 
20 
22 


Jrown Point 
Port Henry 
Westport 


Chatham 4 Cor's . 
Kinderhook 
Schodack .. 




Burlington, Vt. .. 
Plattsburgh 
House's Point 
Isle aux Noix, Ca. 
St. John's 
Champlain # St. 
rence Railroa 


HUDSON 
Stockport 
Stuyvesant Fulls . 
Kinderhook 
Schodack Centre. 


ALBANY 


Troy and Greenbush 
Railroad. 
TROY 1 6!202 


(125) F'M NEwYo 
TO NEW HAVEN. 
To Harlem 


RK 

7 
13 
20 
24 
27 
31 
34 


ALBANY 


(128) F'M NEW ' 
TO ALBANY. 
Steamboat. 
Manhnttanville. . . 
Fort Lee, N.J... 


Steamboat. 
MONTREAL | 

(130) F'M NEW 1 
TO ALBANY. 
West side of the 
son River. 
Steamboat. 

ToPlERMONT,..! 


West Chester 
NewRochelle.... 
Mamaroneck 
Rye 


6 

3 
4 

a 


Port Chester 
Greenwich, Conn 


Hastings 


Dubb's Furry 



72 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



Erie Railroad. 

Ramapo 

Monroe Works... 

Turner's Depot... 

Stage. 

NEWBURGH 

Marlboro' 
Milton 
New Paltz. 
Esopus .... 

Rondout 

KINGSTON 

Glasco .... 

Saugerties 

Maiden 

CATTSKILL 

Athens 

Coxsackie 

New Baltimore .. 

Coeymans 

ALBANY 



20 



8107 
2109 
9118 
3121 
3124 
!i i;j:J 
ti i:-;n 
8147 
i; 153 
2155 
121167 

(131) F'M NEW YORK 
TO DUNKIRK. 

Steamboat. 

ToPlERMONT 

JV. Y. & Erie RR. 



Blauveltville 

Sarkstown 
orsey's 
Saffern's 
Rarnapo. 



Monroe Works... 

Turner's 

Monroe Village .. 
Chester 

GOSHEN 

JNe,whampton 

Middle to wo 

Stage. 
Bloomingburg..*. 

Wurtsboro' 

Bridge ville 

Monticello 

White Lake 

Bethel 

Fosterdale 

Coshocton . , 



Damascus, Pa 

Rileyville 

Pleasant Mount . . 

Dimocksville 

Gibson 

NewMilford 

Great Bend 

Concklin,N. Y... 

BlNOHAMTON 

Union 

Campville 

OWEGO 

(see No. 136) 
Tioga Centre. . 
Smithsboro'... 

Barton 

Factory vi He... 
Athens, Pa. ... 



8 52 
57 

60 
65 

70 
74 

77 



Chemung ........ 

Baldwin .......... 

ELMIRA .......... 

Big Flats ......... 

E. Painted Post . . 
CORNING ......... 

Painted Post ..... 

Campbelltown . .. 
Mud Creek ....... 



............ 

vennedysville ____ 

Goff's Mills ....... 

Howard .......... 

Hornellsville ..... 

Almond .......... 

Centre Almond... 
W. Almond ...... 

ANGELICA ....... 

Belfast ........... 

Caneiidea ........ 

Rushford ......... 

Parmejsville ...... 

Franklinville ..... 

Ellicottsville ..... 

Little Valley ..... 

Napoli ........... 

Randolph ........ 

Waterboro' ...... 

Levant ........... 

Jamestown ....... 

Vermont ........ 

Gerry ............. 

Holdenville ....... 



5403 
5 408 

7415 
5420 



5103 
8111 
3114 
5119 
5124 
1 123 
9134 
12146 
6152 
7159 
8167 
6173 
9182 
8190 
8198 
6,204 

vtaj 

62l7i 
4221 

4225 

4229; 



Fredonia . 
DUNKIRK 

(132) F'M NEW YORK 
TO BARCELONA. 

To Jamestown 
(see No. 131) . . , 

Harmony 

Magnolia 

Maysville 

Westrield 

BARCELONA 

(133) F'M NEW YORK 
TO ROCHESTER, 

Via Owego, Geneseo, 

frc. 

To BATH 
(see No. 131) . . . 



8416 

7 42: J 
6:421) 



Kennedysville 

Avoca 

Conhocton 

Patchin's Mills... 

DANSVILLE 

Sparta 

Groveland 

I Groveland Centre. 

GKNESEO 

South Avon 

Avon 

Rush 

Henrietta 

ROCHESTER 



4290 



8310 






(134) F'M NEW YORK 
TO ITHACA, 

Via Pater son, JV. J., 
Milford, Penn. t and 
Honesdnlc. 

To Jersey City ... I I 1 

Paterson and Hudson 
Railroad. 

Bergen 

Aquackanonck. . . 



PATERSON 

Stage. 
tampion . 



Newfoundland... 

Stockholm 

Hamburg. 



Deckertuwn 

Libertyville 

MILFORD, Pa. ... 

Darlingsville 

Tatlon 

Cherry Ridge 

HONESDALE 

Way mart 

Carbondale 

DundafF 

Lenox 

Brooklyn 

Montrose 

Forest Lake 



92 



8100 
5105 
91114 
6120 
8128 
81136 
9:145 
7|152 
6158 



164 
172 
181 



Friendsville 

Warrenham 

Owego, N.Y. ... 
Ithaca <$r Owego Rail- 

road. 
ITHACA 1291210 

(134i) F'M N.YORK TO 
HONESDALE, Pa. 

Via Piermont and Go- 
s/ien. 

Steamboat fr Erie Rail- 
road. 

ToE.Middletown 
(see No. 131)... 

Mt. Hope 

Cuddybackville .. 

Forestburg 

Beaver Brook 

Narrowsburg 

HONESDALE 



14102 
10112 
8120 
12132 



(1-35) F'M N. YORK TO 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 

Via Trenton, Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington, <Sr 
Baltimore. 

Steamboat. 
To Jersey City . . . 
JV. Jersey R. R. 

NEWARK _ - 

Eli/abethtown ... if 14 

Rahway 51 19 

Metuchin 8| 27 

NKWBRUNSWICK 41 31 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



73 



Trenton $r JV. B- 
wick Railroad 
Kingston 1 
Princeton 


nins- 

14! 45 
4 49 
10 59 
11 60 
mton 

9 69 

19 88 
ling- 
RR. 
91 
98 
102 
105 
107 
115 
119 
121 
127 
133 
139 
142 
147 
148 
153 
1561 
U65 

;ICTJ 

U69 

\\m 

U82 

185 
R.R. 

81193 
RR. 

2)195 
OpOa 
8213 
6219 

6J225 

r ORK 

wgo, 

U, 

Ran- 

10221 
5236 

L4240 

7247 
5252 
0262 
8 270 
2-21-2 
4 276 
61282 


Auburn and Roc 
Railroad. 
Seneca Falls 
Waterloo 
GENEVA 


he. 

5 

4 
7 

8 
3 
3 
4 
5 
5 
6 
3 
4 
9 

SK 

a 

7 
5 
2 
6 
5 

so 



ter 

2*7 

2!)l 

m 

240 

248 
! 
254 
25S 
263 
268 
274 
277 
281 
290 

ILL 

13 
18 

31 

TO 

7 

16 


(141) FR'M HUDS 
GR'T BARRINGI 
To Claverack 
Smoky Hollow... 
Hillsdale 


">N 
^O 

! 
1 

D 

AJ 

csl 

5 
4 

6 

1 

S-Y 

is 

h 

8 

4 

1 
9 

SY 
St6 

d. 

1 
? 

ad 
3 
3 
5 
5 
3 

i 

to 

6 
3 
8 
8 
2 
ti 


TO 

"i 

Hi 

28 

>ON 

ON 

Are 

8 
13 
17 

23 
21 

TO 

. 

6 
12 
16 

i 

24 
33 

TO 

1 

cfe- 

!8 
16 

1 

1 

41 
44 

49 
54 

% 

65 
75 
81 
84 
92 
100 
102 
108 
111 
117 
127 
131 


TRENTON 


Morrisville, Pa. .'.] 
Philadelphia #7V 
Railroad. 
Bristol 


* To Ithaca (as 
above) 


S. Egremont, Ms. 
GR. BARRINGTON 

(142) FROM Ht 
TO NEW LED 
SPRINGS. 

Hudson # Ber) 
Railroad. 
ToMellenville... 
Ghent 


i i Stas fi" 
Jacksonville 

Trumansburg 
Covert 


Steamboat. 
PHILADELPHIA... 
Philadelphia, Wilv 
to?i, <$ Baltimore 
Gray's Ferry 3 


Farmer. . . 


Lodi 


Ovid 


Romulus 


Chester 4 


Varick 
West Fayette 
GENEVA 


Chatham 4Cor's.. 
Stage. 
New Lebanon... . 
NEW LEBANON 
SPRINGS 


Marcus' Hook... 3 
Naaman's Creek 2 
WILMINGTON... 8 
Newport 4 


(137) FR'M PEEK 
TO DANBURY, 

To Yorktown 
Somers .... 


Stanton 2 


(143) FR'M ALBA 
PITTS FIELD, M 
To Schodack Cen- 
tre 


Newark 6 


Elkton 6 


Northeast 6 
Charlestown 3 


Salern . . . 


N. Salem 


Havre de Grace . 1 
Hall's X Roads.. 5 
Ferryman's 3 
Gunpowder 8 
Harewood 2 


DANBURY 


Nassau 
Brainard's Bridge 
Motfit's Store .... 
New Lebanon 
NEW LEBANON 


(138) F'M SINO Si 
PAWLINO'S. 

To Pine's Bridge. 


Chase's 1 

Stemmer's Run . 5 
Canton.. 7 


PlTTSFIELD 


Owensville 


2 

8 

3 

EP 

c 

6 
4 
2 
7 
3 
3 
6 

CE 

lo 

g 

2 
3 


18 
26 
3S 
86 

3IE 
k 

5 
11 
15 
17 

j 

30 
36 

EP- 

^N- 

7 

12 
15 
17 

f ->0 


(144) FR'M ALBA 
BOSTON. 
ToGreenbush.... 

Albany <Sr West 
bridge RailroG 
Schodack 


BALTIMORE 3 
Baltimore Ohio 
Relay House 1 
Washington Br. 
Elkridge Land'g . 
Annapolis June... 
Beltsville 
Bladensburg 
WASHINGTON ... 

(136) F'M NEW! 
TO GENEVA, 
Via Picrmont, On 
and Ithaca. 
To Owego 
(see No. 131)... 
Ithaca <$ Oioego 
road. 
Candor 


Southeast 
Patterson 


Pawling's 


(139) F'M PO'KE 

TO N. MlLFORD, 

To Manchester 
Bridge.. 


Kinderhook 
Chatham 
E. Chatham 
Canaan 


Arthursburg 
Beekmantown 
Poughquag 


Pawling's 
Quaker Hill 
Sherman 

NEWMlLFORD .. 
(140) F'M POUOH 

SIE TO WEST ( 

WALL, Ct. 

To Pleasant Val- 
ley 


Western Railro 
Richmond .... .... 


Shaker Village... 

PlTTSFIELD 

Dalton 


Hinsdale . 


Washington 
North Becket 
Chester Factory.. 
Chester Village... 
Russell 


Wilseyville 
ITHACA* 
Steamboat. 
Ludlowville 
Frog Point 


Washington Hol- 
low 
Hartsville 


Westfield 
W. Springfield... 
SPRINGFIELD 


Mabbetsville 
Lithgow . . 


Sheldrake Point.. ] 
Aurora 
Levanna 
Springport 
Cay uga Bridge ..> 


Amenia . . 


5 
3 
2 

5 


2:, 
28 
30 
34 
39 


Wilbraham ... 
N. Wilbraham... 
Palmer 


Leeds ville 
Amenia Union... 
Sharon, Ct 
W. CORNWALL.. 


Warren 
W.Brookfield.... 



74 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



S. Brookfield ..... 

E. Brookfield ..... 

Spencer .......... 

Cnarlton ......... 

Chippville ........ 

WORCESTER 
Boston and Worcester 

Railroad. 
Grafton .......... 

Westboro* ........ 

Southboro' ....... 

Hopkinton ....... 

Framingham ..... 

Natick ........... 

Needham ......... 

ewton 



.......... 

Angler's Corner. . 
Brighton ......... 

BOSTON ......... 



2 L38 

51 143 
4147 
9il56 



6|- 
6' 168 
4172 

4 176 
:>> 17< 
4 !*:i 
4187 
-1 !!! 



2193 
L' 193 

5200 



(145) FR'M ALBANY TO 
BENNINGTON, Vt. 

To Troy 

Lansingburg .... 

Raymertown 

Pittstown 

Hoosick 

BENNINOTON.... 



(146) FR'M ALBANY TO 

LAKE GEORGE, 

Via Saratoga Springt 

and Glenn's Falls. 

Mohawk and Hudson 
Railroad. 

ToSCHENECTADYl I 16 

Saratoga & Schenecta- 
dy Railroad. 



Burnt Hills 



Ballston Centre... 
BaJkton 

SARATOGA SP'GS. 
Stage. 

Wilton 

Fortsville. 



GLENN'S FALLS . 
Caldwell (at the 
foot of Lake 

George) 



(147) FR'M ALBANY TO 
SARATOGA SPRINGS 
AND WHITEHALL, 
Via Troy. 

ToTROY I I 

Rcnsselaer <Sr Saratoga 
Railroad. 

Waterford }4 

Meohanicsville... 8 
Ballston Spa .... 
SARATOGA Sp'es. I 7 



Stage. 

Fortsville 

Sandy Hill 

Kingsbury 

Fort Ann 

WHITEHALL 



(148) FR'M N. YORK TO 
WHITEHALL, 

Via Albany $r Troy. 

Steamboat. \ 

To ALBANY 
(see No. 128) ... 
Stage. 

Watervliet 

TROY 

Lansingburg 

Waterford 

MeehanicsviHe ... 

Stillwater 

Bemus' Heights . . 

Schuylersville 

Northumberland . 

Fort Miller 

Fort Edward 

SANDY HILL 

Kingslmry 

Fort Ann 

Comstock's Land- 
ing 

WHITEHALL 

(149) FR'M ALBANY TO 
MONTREAL, 

(Winter Route,) 
Via Glenn's Falls 
Pittsburgh. 

To Glenn's Falls 
C^eeNo.146) .. 

Caldwell 

Warrensburg 

Chestertown 



145 

5150 

1 151 
4155 

2 157 
9 166 

3 H;:J 

4P3 
9182 

4 If 
311. 
8 197 
4201 
5206 
4210 



Schroon Lake... 
Schroon River .. 
Elizabethtown . . 



12 110 
19 129 



5134 

it; i;,( 
6fl56 
10 10 

j.; 192 

91201 

7 -_-(i;> 

42i 

6218 



Lewis 

Keeseville 

Peru.. 

PLATTSBURGH. . . 
Rouse's Point.... 
LaColle, Can 

Napierville 

Douglassville 

St. Philip 

La Prairie 

Across St. Law- 
rence to 

MONTREAL . 

(150) F'M ALBANY TO 

BUFFALO. 
Mohawk and Hudson 

Railroad. 
To Schenectady . . I I lb 



9233 



Utica and Schenectady 
Railroad. 

Hoffman's 

Cranes vi lie.. 

Amsterdam 

Tribe's Hill 

Fonda 

Spraker's 

Palatine Bridge .. 

Fort Plain 

Palatine Church.. 
St. Johnsville .... 

Little Falls 

Herkimer 

Schuyler 

UTICA 

Syracuse &r Utica Rail- 

rond. 

Whitesboro' .. 
Onsskany 



94 



.'erona Centre 
Oneida Depot . 
Wampsville. . . 

Canastota 

Chittenango... 

Manlius 

SYRACUSE .... 
Auburn and Syracuse 
Railroad. 



3 97 
4101 
7108 
9117 
4121 
3124 
3127 
6133 
4137 
10147 



Geddes 

Camillus 

EJbridge 

Skaneatelas June. 

Sennet 

AUBURN 

Auburn and Roch< 
Railroad. 



2149 
155 



4168 
5173 



Cayuga Bridge... 

Seneca Falls 

Waterloo 

GENEVA 

Oak's Corners 

E, Vienna 

VV. Vienna 

Clifton Springs... 

Short's Mills 

Chnpinsville 

Canaiulaigua 



10183 



199 
,204 
3207 
1208 
3 211 

3 219 
3222 



231 
12 243 
4247 



Victor 

Pittsford 

Brigliton 

ROCHESTER 

Tonaicanda Railri 

Churehville " 

Bergen 

Byron 

Batavia 

Alexander 

ATTICA.... 

Attica fr Buffalo Rail- 
road. 



412,1 

\&, 
4.269 

7:-T, 

7288 
8291 



Dnrieti 

Alden 

I .;.ii.-;,.>ler 

BUFFALO 



61300 
5305 
101315 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



75 



SCHKNECTADI 

Schenectady and 
Railroad. 

ToSdlENECTADY 

(152) FROM TRO 
WHITEHALL. 
To Lansingburgh. 
Junction 


r. 
Troy 

1 20 
Y TO 

6 1( 
4 14 

7 21 
8 29 
5 34 
6 40 
1 51 
9 60 
8 68 

ir TO 

>. 

7 11 
3 14 

8J 22 

a 25 

TO 
t. 

6 
4 10 

6 16 
4 20 
4 24 

5 29 
6 35 
t> 41 
B 47 
B 55 
9 64 
$ 72 
7 7& 

[Jl49 

r TO 

and 

9 
3 15 

1 19 

* 25 
1 29 
5 35 


Bridgewater 
S angerfield 


5 7 
7 80 
9 89 
7 % 
7103 
410 
6113 
211o 
21F 
3120 
5J125 

Y TO 
( 

6 15 
6 21 
6 27 
5 32 
5 37 
5 42 
5 47 
6 53 
5 58 
4 62 
7 69 
6 75 
9 84 


Yonkers 
Fort Lee, N. J. .. 
Manhnttanville. .. 
NEW YORK 

(158) FR'M CATTS 
TO CANAJOHAR 

To Leeds. 


3128 
7135 
21137 
81143 

KILL 
IE. 

4 

6 10 
7 17 
6 23 
2 25 
4 29 
4 33 
9 42 
5 47 
8 55 
10 65 
4 69 
7 76 

KILL 
6 10 

3 13 

3 16 
6 22 
5 27 
2 29 
6 35 
4 39 
8 47 
4 51 
4 55 
5 60 
7 67 
7 74 
7 81 
9 90 
1 91 
5 96 
7103 
7 HO 
3113 
6119 
8122 
4 126 
4 1,90 
3 '33 
1144 
6150 
3153 
&L3 

RGH 
t 2 

7 9 
2 11 
5 16 
4 20 


Madison 


MORRISVILLE 
Nelson 


Cazenovia 


Oran . 


Manlius 
Fayetteville 
De Witt 


Cairo 


Schagticoke 


SYRACUSE 


Winansville 


Greenwich 
N. Greenwich 
tgyle 


(156) FR'M ALBATS 

BlNGHAMTON 

To Guilderland .. 
Knowersville 


Oakhill 
Preston Hollow. . . 
Livingstonville... 
Middlebury 


rtford 1 


Granville 

HITEHALL 

(153) FROM TRO 1 
HANCOCK, Mas 
To Wynant's Kill! 
Sand Lake 


Schoharie 


Gallupsville 
SCHOHARIK 
fanchkiil 
Cobleskill 


Root 


Spraker's Basin . . 
CANAJOHARIE ... 

(159) FR'M CATTS 
TO ITHACA, 

Via Delhi. 
To Leeds 


itichmondville ... 
Sast Worcester . . 


Alps 


Stephentown 


Maryland 


(154) FROM TROTI 
BURLINGTON, V 
Via Castleton. 
To Troy.. 


Colliersville 
)neonto 


Unadilla 


94 
2106 
6112 


Acra 


Jtdnbridge '. 
S. Bainbridge 


S. Durham 
Jnion Society 
Windham 
Scienceville 


Lansingburgh 
Junction 
Tomhannock. 
Prospect Hi 11 
Buskirk's Bridge. 


iarpersville 


2120 


Colesville 


3123 
0.133 

t TO 

3 

5 8 
4 12 
2 14 
4 18 
3 21 
8 29 
5 34 
44 
1 4;> 

3 48 
7 55 
6 61 
4 65 
6 71 
4 75 
3 78 
B 84 
4 88 
3 91 
2 93 
B101 
4 105 

7 Hi' 

; IIH 

UL'l 

21123 


J rattsville 


BlNGHAMTON 

157) FR'M ALBAN 
NEW YORK. 
Overslaugh 


Mooresville 
Stamford 


lobart 


Jackson . . 


S. Kortwright 
?loomville 


Salem 


Hebron 

Cranville.... 


Coeymans 


W. Meredith 


W. Poultney.Vt.. 
Castleton 
BURLINGTON 
(see No. 39).... 17 

(155) F'M ALBANY 
SYRACUSE, 
Via. Cherry Valley 
Morrisville. 
So Guilderland .. 
unnsville 
Duanesburg 


STew Baltimore... 
underhook 




Unadilla 


HUDSON 


Sidney Plains 
Bainbridge 


Jattskill 


Saugerties 1 


Coventry vilte 


Upper Red Hook, 
jower Red Hook. 
Rhinebeck 


ireene . . . 


Geneganslet 
^riangle 
Vhitney's Point. 


Pelham. . . 


Hyde Park 


POUGHKEEPSIE.. 

Milton 


Richford 


Slounsville 
Carlisle 


New Hamburgh.. 
^Jewburgh 


Slatersville 

THACA 


Sharon .. 


j ;ji 

J 42 
J 45 
> 51 
1 55 
3 57 
J 60 
L 64 


"old Spring 
West Point 


160) F'M NEWBU 
TO GOSHEN. 

""o New Windsor. 
Salisbury Mills... 
Blooming Grove. . 
Hamptonburg 
GOSHEN ... 


Sharon Springs .. 
Leesville 


?aldwell's L'd'g. 
r erpla nek's Pt. .. 
iiNG SING 
^arrytown 
'iermont 
Dobb's Ferry 


CHERRY VALLEY ( 
E. Springfield .... * 
Springfield \ 
Warren { 
-Bichfield Springs. < 



76 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



TO BARCELON 
(Lake Erie.) 
To Coldenham . . . 
Montgomery 
Bullville 
Bloomingburg ... 
Barcelona 
(see No. 131)... 3 

(162) F'M AMSTE 
TO NORTHVILI 
To Perth 


6 

8 
3 

49 

ID 
E. 

4 

4 

5 
6 
3 

TT 

ro 

4 

3 

3 
3 

5 
3 

A 

BO 

4 
4 
14 

6 
5 


6 
12 

20 
23 

372 

AM 

11 
16 

25 
4 

LE 

N. 

8 
11 
15 

18 
21 

29 

TO 
R. 

9 
13 
17 
31 
37 
42 


OGDENSBURG 

(166) FROM Row 
TURIN. 

To W. Branch . . . 
W. Leyden 
Constablesville... 
Turin 
(see No. 164)... 

(167) FROM Row 
OSWEGO. 

To McConnells- 
ville 


7 

E 

9 

6 

5 

E 

7 
5 
6 
13 
4 
5 
6 
,1 


126 

TO 

10 
lit 
25 

30 

TO 

14 

21 

a ; 

32 
45 
41) 
54 
60 
64 

TO 

2 

10 
14 

18 
24 
27 
30 
38 
44 
49 

63 
70 
79 
86 
92 
99 

m 

133 
RG 

8 
18 
27 
35 
46 
52 
60 
68 
73 
80 
92 
105 
132 


TO CAPE VINCE 
To Brownsville . . 
Limerick 
Chaumont 
Three-mile Bay .. 
Cape Vincent 

(171) F'M SACK 
HARBOR TO 
FONT'S MANOR. 
ToSmithville... 
Belleville 
Ellisburg 


N'l 

i 

4 

8 

r 
i'l 

I 

SE 

3 
6 
6 
9 
11 

30 

7 
6 
6 
5 

4 
5 
5 

Q 


4 

8 
14 

18 
26 

r's 

JR- 

6 

16 
19 

TO 

2 

11 
17 

TO 

6 
13 
19 
25 

30 
33 

44 

49 
58 
70 

TO 

da. 

45 

85 
105 
117 
137 
139 
149 

TO 

18 
30 
60 
100 
120 
138 
139 
145 


Broadalbin 
Union Mills 
Northampton 
Osborne's Bridge. 
Northville 


Pierpont's Manor. 

(172) F'M SYRACU 
OSWEGO. 
To Salina 


Camden. . 


W. Camden 
Williamstown ... 
Union Square 
Mexico 


FROM FONDA TO 
JOHNSTOWN ... 

(163) FROM Li 
FALLS TOTREN' 
To Eatonville 
Fairrield.. .. 


Liverpool 
Clay 


New Haven 
Scriba 


Phoenix 




Fulton 


(168) F'M SYRACUSE 
OGDENSBURG, 
Via Watertown. 
ToSalina 




(173) FR'M OSWE 
ROCHESTER 
To N. Sterling... 
Little Sodus 


Middleville 
Newport . 


pohmS.. ::::::::: 


Trenton Falls .... 


Cicero 
Brewerton 



4 
4 
6 
3 
3 
8 
6 
5 
7 
7 

9 

6 
7 
7 
6 
10 
11 

BL 
IG 

10 
9 
8 
11 
6 
8 
8 
5 
7 
12 
13 
27 


Red Creek 
Wolcott 


(164) FROM Unc 
SACKETT'S HAR 
To S. Trenton . . . 
Trenton 


Central Square. . . 
Hastings . ... 


Huron 

Port Glasgow .... 
Alton 


Colosse 


Union Square 
Richland 
Sandy Creek 


Sodus 


Williamson 


Remsen 


Webster 


Booneville 


Adlims' 1 & 


ROCHESTER 12 

(174) F'M OSWEGO 
OGDENSBURG, 
Via Kingston, Cana 
Steamboat. 
To Sackett's Har- 
bor . 


Leyden 


A liner 


Turin 




Houseville 


4 

3 
3 

6 
7 
6 
6 
4 

8 

A 

, 

6 
5 

5 
6 
8 


46 
50 
53 
56 

62 

(ill 
75 
81 
85 

93 

TO 

62 
73 

92 
97 
103 
111 


Evans's Mills 
Philadelphia 
Antwerp 
Oxbow 


Marti nsburg 
Lowville 
Stow's Square . . . 
DENMARK 


Rossie 


Champion 
Rutland 
Watertown 
Brownville 


Hammond 
Morristown 
OGDENSBURG 

(169) F'M OGDENS 
TO PLATTSBUI 

To Lisbon . ... 


Kingston, Canada 
French Creek 


10 

20 

20 
2 
10 

GtO 



20 

1 

6 


SACKETT'S HAR- 
BOR 


Brockville, Can. . 
Morristown....;.. 
OGDENSBURG 

(175) FR'M OSWE 
LEWISTON. 
Steamboat. 

To Sodus Bay.... 
Pultneyville 
Genesee River 
Oak Orchard C'k. 
Olcott 


(165) FROM UTIC 
OGDENSBURG 
Via JDenmarf 

To Denmark 
(see No. 164) ... 


Waddington 
Madrid .. 


Norfolk . 


Massena 


Racket River 
Hogansburg 
Fort Covington .. 
W. Constable .... 
E. Constable 
Chateaugay 
Ellenburg 
PLATTSBURGH. . . 


Wilna. g 
Antwerp . 


Somerville 
Gouverneur 
Richville. 


Fort Niagara 
Youngstown 
LEWISTON 


DeKalb.... 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



77 



(176) FROM PALATINE 
BRIDGE TO BINGHAM- 
TON, 
Via Cooperstown. 

To Canajoharie . . 

Buel 

Cherry Valley 



.... 

Cooperstown 

HartwickSemin'y 



10 



Miltord 

Colliersville 

iilNGHAMTON 

(see No, 156)... 64 113 



(177) FROM UTICA TO 

BlNGHAMTON. 



To W. Hartford.. 1 

Paris 

Waterville 

Madison 

Bouckville 

Hamilton 

Earleville 

Sherburne 

N. Norwich 

Norwich 

Qxf.rl 

S.Oxford 

Greene 

Chenango Forks.. 

BlNGHAMTON 



(178) FROM UTICA TO 
ITHACA, 

Via Cortland Village. 



To New Hartford. 

Clinton 

Peansville 

Oriskany Falls... 

Madison 

Bouckville 

Eaton 

Erieville 

New Woodstock. 

De Ruyter 

Cuyler 

Truxton 

Homer 

CORTLAND VIL- 
LAGE 

McLean 

Dryden 

ITHACA 



(179) FROM ITHACA TO 
BAINBRIDGE. 

To Sauquoit , 

Paris Furnace.... 

Bridgewater 

W. Edmeston... 



New Berlin 

Mt. Upton 16 

BAINBRIDGE 13 



(180) FROM UTICA TO 

COOPERSTOWN. 
To Frankfort Hill 

Litchfield 

Columbia 

Richfield Springs. 
Oakville. 



COOPERSTOWN .. 

(181) FROM COOPERS- 
TOWN TO ITHACA. 
To Burlington 
Edmeston 



Sherburne 

Otselic 

De Ruyter 

ITHACA 

(see No. 178) ... 

(182) FROM RAILROAD 
DEPOT TO N. WOOD- 
STOCK. 

To Chittenango ., 

Cazenovia 

New Woodstock 
(see No. 178) ... 

(183) F'M SYRACUSE TO 

ITHACA, 

Via Cortland Village. 
To Onondaga Hol- 
low 

Cardiff 

Tally 

Homer 

Cortland 

ITHACA 



(see No. 178)... 



(184) F'M SYRACUSE TO 
SKANEATELES. 

ToGeddes 

Camillus 



Elbridge 

Skaneateles June. 
SKANEATELES ... 



(185) FR'M AUBURN TO 
ITHACA. 

To Fleming 

The Square 

Scipioville 

Poplar Ridge.... 

Ledyard 

King's Ferry .... 

Lansingville 

Ludlowville 

ITHACA 



(186) FR'M AUBURN TO 



OSWEGO. 

To Sennet 

Weedsport 

Cato 

Ira 



Hannibal f 

Kinney's Corners. 



(187) FROM GENEVA TO 

ITHACA. 
To W. Fayette... 



Ovid 

Farmersville 

Trumansburg 

ITHACA 



(188) FROM GENEVA TO 
ELMIRA & CORNING. 

Steamboats on Seneca 

Lake. 

To Salubria*....! 
Stage. 



Havanna. 
Millport... 
Fairport. . . 
ELMIRA... 

* To Salubria.... 1 

W. Catlin | . 

Hornby j 5 

CORNING 



(189) FROM GENEVA TO 
BATH. 

To Benton 

Penn Yan 

Barrington 

Wayne 

Urbanna 

Cold Spring Mills 
BATH 



(190) FROM GENEVA TO 
CONHOCTON. 



ToGorham 

Rushville 

[Middlesex 



I 10 
15 
20 



Naples ... 

N. Conhocton 

CONHOCTON 51 40 

(191) FROM GENEVA TO 

OSWEGO. 
To Junius 
Marengo . 

Clyde 

Rose 

Wolcott... 

DSWEGO 



(see No. 173)... 



.8 

19 
24 
31 



25 56 



192) F'M CANANDAIGUA 

TO ERIE, Pa. 
Via Geneseo,Franklin- 



ville, < Jamestown. 

I D To Bristol I I 8 

16 Allen's Hill 5 13 

1 22 1 W.Richmond....! 3l 16 



78 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



Livonia .. 

Lakeville 

GENESEO 

Moscow 

Perry 

Castile 

E. Pike 

Pike 

Centreville 

Fairview 

Farmersville 

Franklinville 

ELLICOTTSVILLE 

Little Valley 

Napoli 

Randolph 

Waterboro' 

Levant 

JAMESTOWN 

Harmony 

Panama 

Clymer 

Wattsburg, Pa... 
ERIE 

(193) F'M ROCHE; 
TO OLEAN. 

To Henrietta 

Rush 

Avon 

S. Avon 

Geneseo 

Mt. Morris 

Brook's Grove ... 
Nunda Valley.... 

Grove 

Allen 

Angelica 

Hobbieville 

Friendship 

Cuba 

Hinsdale 

OLEAN 



7100 
8108 
5113 
6119 
5124 
129 
,137 
6143 
10153 

n!63 
181 



ISTER 



5 12 

20 



6 _ 

6 65 
5 70 

5 75 
8 83 

7 90 

6 96 



(194) F'M ROCHESTER 

TO Moscow. 
ToO'Connellsville 



Scolsville 

Wheatland 

Caledonia 



Fork. 



Greigsville 

Moscow 



(195) F'M ROCHESTER 
TO NIAGARA FALLS, 

Via Lockport. 
To Adam's Basin. 

Krockport 

Holley 

Halburton 

Albion 

Knowlesville .... 



Medina 

Shelby Basin 



Middleport | 31 46 

Reynold's Basin.. 

LOCKPORT I 9| 58 

Lockport and Niagara 
Falls RR. 

Pekin 

Junction Lewis- 
ton RR.* 6| 76 

NIAGARA FALLS. 6| 82 

* 3 miles from Junction 
to Lewiston. 

Rochester to Lew- 1 
iston I | 79 

FROM ROCHESTER TO 

LOCKPORT, 
On the north road. I I 64 

(196) F'M ROCHESTER 

TO CHARLOTTE. 
To Hanford's 

Landing 

Charlotte ... 



3 

(197) F'M BATAVIA TO 
LOCKPORT. 

ToOakfield 

Alabama 
Royalton t 
LOCKPORT '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 



(198) F'M BATAVIA TO 

BUFFALO. 
To E. Pembroke , 

Pembroke , 

Newstead , 

Clarence , 

VVilliamsville 

Elysville 

BUFFALO 



(199) F'M BUFFALO TO 

YOUNGSTOWN, 

Via Niagara Falls. 

Buffalo and Niagara 

Falls RR. 



Sheldon 

Johnsonburg 

Orangeville 

Warsaw 

Perry 

Moscow 

GENESEO 



(201) F'M BUFFALO TO 

OLEAN. 
To Hamburg . . 
Boston . 



Springfield 

Ashford 



EHicottsville 

Great Valley 

Chapelsburg 

Burton 

OLEAN 

(202) F'M BUFFALI 

ERIE, Pa. 
To Hamburg (on 

the Lake) 

E. Evans 

Evans 

Irving 

Silver Creek 

Sheriden 

FREDONIA 

Salem X Roads . . 

Portland 

Westfield 

Ripley 

Northvilie, Pa. .. 
Vortheast 



l : 



rbor Creek .... 
estleyville ..... 



12 

7 19 
4 23 

8 31 

3 34 

4 38 

8 

7 



To Black Rock .., 

Tonawanda 8 

NIAGARA FALLS . 11 
Lockport and Niagara 

Falls RR. 
To Junction Lew- 
iston RR 

Lewiston 

Stage. 

YOUNGSTOWN . . . 



3 31 
37 



) F'M BUFFALO TO 

GENESEO. 
To E. Hamburg-.f 112 

WilJink 6 18 

Wales I 6124 



3 74 
78 
83 
87 

!RIE 4 91 

F'M BUFFALO TO 

CHICAGO, 

Via Cleveland, Detroit, 

and Mackinac. 

Steamboat. 
To Dunkirk.... 

'ortland 

"RIE, Pa .. 



Conneaut, Ohio 

Ashtabnla 

Grand River... 
CLEVELAND... 
Black River... 

Huron 

Sandusky 

DETROIT, Mich 

Fort Gratiot 

Point auBarques 
Thunder Baylsl. 

Presque Isle 

MACKINAC 

Manitou Island. 

MlLWAUKIE, 

Wis 

Racine 

Southport 

CHICAGO, 111. . . 



121 
135 
165 

195 

222 
242 
252 
327 
399 
474 



103 



571042 



ROUTES IN NEW YORK. 



79 



(204) F'M PLAT- 
TO OGDENSB 
ToEllenburg... 
Chateaugay.. .. 
Malone 


rsBUR 

URG. 
2 

. 13 < 
. 12 5 


Auburn and Rot 
Railroad. 
Brighton 
Pittsford 
Victor 


hestei 

4 1\ 
4 & 
12 94 
910S 
3 lOfc 
310JJ 
5114 
3117 
1118 
3121 

N 


Chittenango 
Canastota... 


41192 

ctady 

8239 
7246 
6 252 
10262 
3265 

3271 

3274 
8282 
6288 
5293 
4297 
3300 
9309 

dson 

LSI325 

MON. 

EC. 

W 45 

J8 83 
7 90 
55115 
JO 135 
5 150 
J2172 
8180 

EBBO 

o. 

99 

5 55 
5 80 
5105 
15140 
ol75 
5220 
0290 
0360 
5425 
0435 
0465 
5490 
5545 
8573 
4607 
3650 
0710 

01750 

ulsio 


Wampsville 
Oneida Depot 
Verona Centre . . . 
Rome 
Oriskany 


Bangor 
Dickinson 


. 5 5 
. 7 6 


Canandaigua 
Chapinsvflle 


Nicholville 
Hopkinville 
Parishville 


. 9 7 
. 2 7 
. 7 8 


| Short's Mills 
CJiflnn Springs... 
W. Vienna 
E. Vienna 
Oak's Corners 
i GENEVA 


Whitesboro' 
UTICA 

Utica and Schene 
Railroad. 
Schuyler . . . 


Potsdam 


. 9 9 


Canton . . . 


11 1n 


OGDENSBURG 18 12( 
(205) FROM BUFFALO 
TO ALBANY. 
Attica $ Buffalo Rail- 
road. 
To Lancaster....! 1 1( 
Alden |lO| 2( 


Waterloo.... 


Uerkimer. . . . 


Seneca Falls 
Cayuga Bridge... 
AUBURN 

Auburn and Syr 
Railroad. 
Sennet 
Skaneateles June. 
Elbridge 
Camillus 
Geddes 


4137 
5142 
10152 

acuse 

5157 
4161 

1162 
8170 
6176 

21178 

Rail. 
101188 

^.N. 
11 ao 

4 49 
J--j 74 
35 99 

H 12 
JO' 147 
0157 
1 H 1 
9220 

1I251 
6I397 

TO 

v 

8(100 

rge. 
fi!96 


Little Falls 
St. Johnsville 
Palatine Church. . 
Fort Plain 


Palatine Bridge .. 
Spraker's 


Darien 
ATTICA 


5 2c 
. I 6| 31 


Ponda 
Tribe's Hill 


Tonawanda Rai 
Alexander 


Iroad. 
3 34 


Amsterdam 
Jranesville 
Hoffman's. 


Byron 


as 

7 56 
4 60 
141 74 

ou 

TALO 
N. 

. 1 20 
*nston 

31 23 
1 24 

61 30 

ARA 
EAL. 

1 9 

7! 16 
36 52 
55 117 
7124 
10 234 
33297 
12309 
50359 
11400 
14414 
24438 

91447 

VfON 
ORK. 

1 9 

15! 24 


SYRACUSE 

Syracuse <- Utica 
road. 
Manlius 1 


Schenectady 

Mohawk and Hi 
Railroad. 
ALBANY |] 


Bergen ... . 


Churchville 
ROCHESTER .... 

R 

(205 i.) FROM Bu 

TO QUEKNSTO 

Steamboat. 
ToChippewa... 
Ckippewi ($- Qwe< 
Railroad. 
Niagara Fails.. 
Drummondnlle. 
Uueenston 
(205 ii.) NIAG 
JbALLa TO MONTH 
,_ Railroad. 
lo Lewiston 
Steamboat 
Fort George, Ca. 
TORONTO 
Port Hope 


TES IN C^ 

Steamboat. 
Isle au Noix 
Rouses Pt. N. Y. 
Pittsburgh 5 

BuRLINGT'N.Vt- 5 

West Port, N.Y.JS 
Crown Point ' ; 
Ticonderoga*. .. 
Whitehall;.....: i 
SARATOGA Sp's. c 

Railroad. 
Trov 1 ' 


4.DA. 

(205 iv.) FROM 

TREAL TO QUEB 

Varennes I 
William Henry.. 
St. Francis...;.. , 
Three Rivers 
St. Anne. -j 


Richelieu Rapids 5 
Cape Smite 
Cope Rouge 
QUEBEC 


Steamboat. 
NEW YORK 114 

FROM MONTREAL 
SARATOGA 
via Lake Georg 

*ToTiconderoga 
(HS above).... 
Alexandria 

Steamboat LakeGe( 
Caldwell 3 


(205 v.) FROM Qu 
TO HALIFAX, N. 
Steamer. 
Cape Tourment. 
The Pillars i 
Mai Bay S 


KINGSTON 1 
Brockville 

Cornwall, Can.. 
Coteau du Lac.. 


Pilgrim Islands.. 5 
TABOUSAC g 
Bid... 


Mitis Harbor.... 4 
Cape Chat 1 
JapeMagdelaine 7 
Jape Rosiere f 
Jape Gaspe ] 
Jape D'Espoir 3 
say of Cluileurs 2 
MirirnichiBay.. 5 
Richibucto Har. 2 
bhediac Hurbor. 3 
iay Verte 4 

'iCTOU... (J 


Luchine 


SARATOGA Sp's. 27 223 
FROM MONTREAL TO 
NEW YORK, 
To Saratoga, Springs, 
(as above.)....! 1220 
Railroad. 
Schenectady ....I 22i242 
Albany J 1 6 |258 

Steamboat. 
Navv YORK ....11451403 


Stage. 
MONTREAL 
(205 in.) FROM 

TREAL TO NEW Y 

Steamboat 
To La Prairie...! 
Champlain <$ St. 
r , rence Railroad 
fct. Johns | j 


Stage. 
Truro 4 


HALIFAX t> 



DESCRIPTION OF THE CENTRAL STATES, 



THE PRINCIPAL CITIES, TOWNS, WATERING-. 
PLACES, &c. 




NEW JERSEY lies between 39 and 41 24' N 
lat., and between 74 and 75 29' W. Ion. It is 163 
miles long and 52brond, containing 8,320 square miles. 
^ Population in 1840,373,306. 

v The northern part of the state is mountainous, being 
* crossed by a branch of the Alleghany ridge ; the mid- 
dle portion is agreeably diversified by hills and valleys, 
^z?? while the southern part is level, sandy, and mostly 
covered with pines and a scanty growth of shrub oaks. The northern and mid- 



passes through a bay 01 the same name, ana enters into the Atlantic. 
The principal bays are Newark and Raritan ; Delaware bay is on its 
southeastern border. It has two important capes, viz., Cape May, on 




wic , 

establ 



ssau nail, lounaea in i/oo, unu rvuiger B v^onege, in i\ew isruns- 
;k, founded in 1770, with which is connected a Theological Seminary, 
__.ablished in 1784, by the Dutch Reformed Church. There are in the 
state about 70 academies and 1,250 common schools. 
The government is vested in a governor, senate, and general assembly, 
'he senators are elected for three years, and the assembly are elected 



by the senate and assembly for five years. 





STATE OF NEW JERSEY. 81 

The first settlement of New Jersey, was by the Dutch about 1614. On 
the 19th of Dec., 1787, in convention, it adopted the constitution of the 
United States by a unanimous vote. 

TRENTON, the capital of the state, is situated on the left bank of the 
Delaware, and at the head of steamboat navigation, and is 59 miles from 
New York. The city is regularly laid out, and has many handsome public 
and private buildings. It contains a state-house, 2 banks, the State library, 
state prison, a city-hall, a lyceum, 11 churches, 4 academies, and 6,000 in- 
habitants. The town was first settled in 1720, and is memorable for the 
" Battle of Trenton," fought Dec. 25, 1776, when the enemy were routed 
by the forces under Washington. Cars leave twice daily for N. York, (fare 
$2,) for Philadelphia, (fare $1.50.) St ages leave 3 1 im.es a wcekfor Mansfield. 

PRINCETON, distant 50 miles from New York, is pleasantly situated and 
neatly built. Population 2,100. It contains 4 churches, a bank, and the 
buildings of the 
College of New 
Jersey. This in- 
stitution was first 
incorporated in 
1746. Nassau 
Hall, the princi- 
pal edifice, is 176 
feet long, 50 feet 

wide, and 4 stories _ ^ : ^__.^_,,._ _ 

high. It has a president and 12 professors or other instructors, 2,183 
alumni, 263 students, and 12,000 volumes in its libraries ; it has also a 
valuable philosophical, astronomical, and chemical apparatus, a min- 
eralogical cabinet, and a museum of natural history. The commence- 
ment is on the last Wednesday in September. The Princeton Theological 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, located here, has 5 professors, 120 
students, and 7,000 volumes in its libraries. Its buildings are commodious. 
Cars leave the Princeton depot twice daily for Philadelphia and for New 
York. Stages leave daily for Long Branch, via Freehold. 

NEW BRUNSWICK is situated on the right bank of the Raritan river, 
31 miles from New York. It contains a court-house, jail, eight churches, 
two banks, and 8,693 inhabitants. It is the seat of Rutger's College, 
founded in 1770, which has a president, 9 professors or other instructors, 
483 alumni, 85 students, and 1,200 volumes in its libraries. The com- 
mencement is on the fourth Wednesday in July. Connected with the 
college is a Theological Department, under the Dutch Reformed Church. 
Cars leave twice daily for New York, (fare 50 cts. ,*) and for Philadelphia 
steamboats daily for New York stages 3 times a week for Easton, Pa. 

RAHWAY, situated on both sides of Rahway river, 5 miles from its 
mouth, contains 5 churches, the Rahway Female Institute, an academy, 
a bank, several manufacturing establishments, and 4,500 inhabitants. 
Cars leave three times daily for New York, and twice for Philadelphia. 

ELIZABETHTOWN, 5 miles from Newark, has a court-house, a bank, 5 
churches, 4 academies, and 2,500 inhabitants. Cars leave several times 
daily for New York, and for Somerville. 

SOMERVILLE, on the north side of Raritan river, is mostly built on one 
street, and contains a court-house, 3 churches, an academy, and about 
1,500 inhabitants. Cars leave daily for New York via Elizabcthport. 
Stages leave daily for Easton, Pa. 

4* 



82 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY. 




NEWARK is situated on the right bank of Passaic river, 3 miles from 

its entrance into 
Newark bay, and 
9 miles from New 
York. It contains 
a court-house, 3 
banks, 25 church- 
es, two libraries, 
two literary and 
scientific associa- 
tions, 6 academies, 

and 17,290 inhabitants. Two large public grounds, bordered with trees, 
add much to the beauty of the place. The city is abundantly supplied 
with pure water from a spring two miles distant. Cars leave 9 times daily 
for New York, (fare 25 cts. ) and twice for Philadelphia, and also for 
Morristown. Jl steamboat plies to New York. 

JERSEY CITY, opposite to the city of New York, is beautifully situated 
on the right bank of the Hudson, and contains 5 churches, several manu- 
factories, and about 4,000 inhabitants. The New Jersey railroad com- 
mences here, and in connection with other railroads extends to Camden, 
opposite Philadelphia. The Paterson and Hudson railroad extends to 
Paterson. The Morris canal also terminates here. In the war of the 
Revolution, Powles Hook (as the place was then called) was occupied as 
an outpost of the British army. It was surprised by Major Lee, on the 
night of the 18th of August, 1779, and 159 prisoners taken. Steamboats 
ply to New York every few minutes daily. 

HOBOKEN is one mile north from Jersey City. The village has a church 
and about 500 inhabitants. The grounds along the bank of the Hudson 
have been laid out in gravelled walks, and embowered with shrubbery for 
the distance of two miles, terminating at a beautiful lawn called the 
Elysian Fields. Hoboken is much frequented in summer. Steamboats 
ply every few minutes daily between it and the city of New York, at three 
different ferries. 

PATERSON is situated on the right bank of the Passaic river, at the falls. 
It contains a court-house, 14 churches, two banks, a philosophical society 
with a library, an academy, several extensive cotton and other manu- 
factories, and about 9,000 inhabitants. The river has here a perpen- 
dicular descent of 70 feet, which was formerly a very picturesque and in- 
teresting cascade ; the effect however has been much diminished, by the 
waters having been drawn off from the river above in race-ways, to 
propel machinery. Cars arrive and depart twice daily for New York. 
Stages leave 3 times a week for Mil ford, Pa. 

HACKENSACK, situated on the right bank of Hackensack river, 14 miles 
from New York, contains a court-house, four churches, 2 academies, 2 
seminaries, and 1,500 inhabitants. Stages leave daily for New York. 

ACQUACKANONCK, 12 miles from N. Y., has 3 churches, an academy, and 
500 inhabitants. Blachley's Mineral Spring is H miles from the village. 
MORRISTOWN, situated on an elevated plain, 22 miles from Newark, ia 
laid out in streets crossing each other at right angles, with a square in 
the centre of the village. It contains a court-house, two banks, five 
churches, an academy, and about 2,000 inhabitants. Morristown was at 
two different periods the head-quarters of the American army during the 
Revolution. Cars leave daily for New York. Stages leave 3 times a 
week for Milford, and also for Easton, Pa. t via Schooley's Mountain. 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY. 



83 




Schooley's Mountain is eighteen miles from 
Morristown. The Mineral Spring, which is on 
the western declivity of the eminence, in a deep 
^ defile, contains muriate of soda, muriate of lime, 
| muriate of magnesia, sulphate of lime, car- 
I bonate of magnesia, silex, and carbonated oxyde 
? of iron. The pure air and the picturesque sce- 
p^ nery of this region render it a healthful and 
'-* pleasant place of summer resort. 

SOUTH AMBOY is situated on the right bank of the Uaritan river, at its 
entrance into Raritan bay. The village has an academy and about twenty- 
five dwellings. Here commences the Camden aixl Amboy railroad. 
(See route 207.) AMBOY, on the north side of the river, contains four 
churches, two academies, several manufacturing establishments, and about 
one thousand five hundred inhabitants. Steamboats ply daily to New York. 

FREEHOLD, built upon a plain a little elevated above the surrounding 
country, has a court-house, 5 churches, two academies, and about 600 
inhabitants. This village will ever be memorable in American history 
as the scene of one of the most sanguinary battles of the Revolution, 
fought June 28, 1778. Long Branch on the sea-shore, 18 miles east from 
Freehold, is a popular watering-place, much frequented. Steamboats ply 
daily to New York, and a line of stages run to Philadelphia. 

BORDKNTOWN is on the left bank of the Delaware river, at the head of 
steamboat navigation. This village is situated on the brow of a hill, and 
affords a magnificent view of the river and surrounding country. It 
contains 4 churches, a female seminary, and about 1,800 inhabitants. 
Cars pass through daily for New York and Philadelphia. 

BURLINGTON, pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Delaware, 19 
miles from Philadelphia, contains a city-hall, an arsenal, a Jyceum, an 
hospital, a bank, 7 churches, a public library, two seminaries, and 
3,200 inhabitants. Cars pass daily from New York and from Philadelphia. 

MOUNT HOLLY is situated at the foot of an eminence of the same name 
on the Rancocus creek, 7 miles from Burlington. It contain a court-house, 
7 churches, a bank, a seminary, several extensive manufactories, and 2,000 
inhabitants. Stages leave daily for Burlington and for Bordentown. 

Cape Island, near Cape May, 85 miles from 
Philadelphia, is a favorite watering-place. 
There are here several hotels and boarding- 
houses. In the summer months this island isi 
thronged with visitors, for the purpose of en-| 
joying the luxury of sea-bathing. A steam-l 
boat (in summer) plies daily to Philadelphia. 

CAMDEN, on the Delaware, opposite the city of Philadelphia, is the 
starting point of the cars for New York on the Camden and Amboy rail- 
road, and is connected with Philadelphia by several ferries. It contains a 
bank, 5 churches, several extensive manufacturing establishments, and 
about 4,000 inhabitants. Cars leave daily for New York, (fare $3.) 
Stages leave daily for Cape Island via Woodbury, Salem, Bridgeton, #c. 

WOODBURY, 9 miles from Philadelphia, is pleasantly situated on Wood- 
bury creek, and has a court-house, 3 churches, an academy, two public 
libraries, and about 1 ,000 inhabitants. 

SALEM, situated on a stream of the same name, is 34 miles from Phila- 
delphia. It has a court-house, 8 churches, a bank, two public libraries, a 
lyceum, an academy, and about 2,200 inhabitants 




84 



STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 




PENNSYLVANIA, lies between 39o 43' and 42* 

I N. lat, and between 74 and 80 40' W. Ion. It is 307 
miles long and 160 broad, containing 46,000 square 
miles. The population in 1840, was 1,724,033. 

The Alleghany Mountains cross the state from SW. 
' to NE., and there are many smaller ranges on each 
side of the principal ridge and parallel to it. The 
southeastern and northwestern parts of the state are 
either level or moderately hilly. The soil is generally 
good, and much of it is of a superior quality ; the best 
land in the southeast is on both sides of the Susque- 
hanna. Between the head waters of the Alleghany 
and Lake Erie, the soil is very fertile. The anthracite 
coal region ia immerwe. The Mauch Chunk, Schuylkill, and Lyken's 
Valley coal-field extends from the Lehigh river, across the head waters of 
the Schuylkill, and is 65 miles in length, with an average breadth of 
about 5 miles. The Lackawanna coal-field extends from Carbondale, 
on the Lackawannack, to ten miles below Wilkesbarre, on the Sus- 
quehanna. The Shamokin field has been less explored. 

The Delaware river washes the entire eastern border of the state, and 
is navigable for ships to Philadelphia. The Lehigh, after a course of 75 
miles, enters it at Easton. The Schuylkill, 130 miles long, unites with it 
6 miles below Philadelphia. The Susquehanna is a large river, which 
rises in New York, flows south through this state, and enters the Chesa- 
peake bay, in Maryland. It is much obstructed by falls and rapids. The 
Juniata rises among the Alleghany Mountains, and after a course of 180 
miles, enters the Susquehanna 11 miles above Harrisburg. The Alle- 
ghany river, 400 miles long from the north, and the Monongahela, 300 
miles long, unite at Pittsburg, and form the Ohio. The Youghiogeny is 
a small river which flows into the Monongahela. 

The governor is chosen by the people for three years, but cannot 
hold the office more than 6 years in 9. He must be 30 years of age, and 
have resided in the state for seven years. The senate consists of 33 
members, elected by the people for three years, one third being chosen 
annually. A member must be 25 years of age, and have resided four 
years in the state, and the last year in the district in which he is chosen. 
The house of representatives consists of 100 members, elected annually 
by the people. A member must be 21 years of age, have resided in the 
state three years next preceding his election, and the last year in the dis- 
trict for which he is chosen. All judicial officers are appointed by the 
governor, with the advice and consent of the senate. The judges of the 
Supreme Court hold their offices for 15 years ; those of the Court of 
Common Pleas hold theirs for 10 years ; and the associate judges of the 



STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 85 

Court of Common Pleas hold theirs for five years. The secretary of state 
is appointed by the governor, and holds office during his pleasure. The 
treasurer is elected annually by the joint-ballot of both houses of the 
legislature. Every white male citizen of the age of 21 years, who has re- 
sided in the state for one year next preceding an election, and ten days in 
the district where he offers his vote, and has paid a state or county tax, 
enjoys the right of suffrage. The legislature meets annually at Harrisburg 
on the first Tuesday in January. 

The principal literary institutions are the University of Pennsylvania, 
at Philadelphia ; Girard College, do. ; Dickenson College, Carlisle ; Jeffer- 
son College, Cannonsburg ; Washington College, Washington ; Alleghany 
College, Meadville ; Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg ; Lafayette College, 
Easton ; Marshall College, Mercersburg. Besides these, there are the 
Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia j 
Jefferson Medical College, do. ; Medical Department of Pennsylvania 
College, do. ; Theological Seminary of the Lutheran Church, Gettysburg ; 
German Reformed, York ; and the Western Theological Seminary, at 
Pittsburg. There are about 300 academies and 5,000 common schools. 

This state was first settled by the Swedes and Finns. William Penn ob- 
tained a grant of it in 1681. The constitution of the United States wa 
adopted in convention, Dec. 13th, 1787, yeas 46, nays 23, 




HILADELPHIA, the metropolis of the 
state, and the second city in the Union 
in population and in manufactures, is in lat. 39 57' 9" N., and Ion. 75 
10' 37" W., 137 miles from Washington, and 88 from New York. Popu- 
lation in 1840, 228.691. It is situated between the Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill rivers, 5 miles above their junction, and extends from one to the 
other. The rivers bounding it lie about two miles apart, in the narrowest 
place. The city is 120 miles distant from the ocean by the course of the 
Delaware. Its principal harbor is on the east, or Delaware river side, 
where ships come up, and its foreign commerce centres. Philadelphia 
has an extensive foreign, and a still greater domestic trade ; by means of 
failroads and canals, it possesses facilities for communication wrth a great 
extent of country, and shares with New York and Baltimore in the trade 
of the great West. There is an air of great neatness, and of almost 
peculiar cleanliness about this city ; but the extreme regularity of the 
streets is tiresome. It was laid out in 1682, by Thomas Holme, the 
first surveyor-general of the province. The ground selected was claimed 
by three Swedes by the name of Swenson, who held a title for it, obtained 
of the Dutch governor of N. Y., in 1664. This claim was purchased by Penn. 
The public buildings, which are generally constructed of white marble, 
are among the most elegant in the United States. The Custom-house, of 
white marble, built on the model of the Parthenon the Pennsylvania 
Bank the Mint of the United States the Exchange, with Corinthian 
columns, and comprising a spacious hall and news-room, the post office, 
&c. the Gitard Bank Girard College Masonic Hall, &c., are the public 



86 



STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 




buildings most remarkable tor beauty; but the most interesting, from ita 
venerable appearance and biatorical associations, is the Old State-house, 

or Independence Hall, It 
fronts on Chesnut-street, hav- 
ing Independence square in 
its rear. It was finished in 
1735. The wings, extending 
from it to Fifth and Sixth 
streets, are modern. In 1774 
most of the wood- work of the 
old steeple was taken down, 
being much decayed, leav- 
ing only a small belfry to 
cover the town clock. The bell for the first steeple was imported 
from England in 1752, but was broken by accident when first put 
up. A new one was cast in Philadelphia, under the direction of Isaac 
Norris, then speaker of the Colonial Assembly, who caused to be in- 
scribed on it this passage from Leviticus xxv. 10, as if prophetic of ita 
future use, " Proclaim LIBERTY throughout this land, unto all the in- 
habitants thereof." Accordingly its joyous tones first proclaimed to 
anxious thousands the declaration of American independence. The 
chamber in which the Declaration was signed is on the first floor, at the 
eastern end of the old building, and presents the same appearance that it 
did at the time that instrument was signed. 

There are in the city 150 churches, many of them fine specimens of 
architecture. The benevolent and charitable institutions are very numer- 
ous. One of the oldest and most respectable is Pennsylvania Hospital, 
founded in 1751. Its buildings are on the space bounded by Eight, Ninth, 
Spruce, and Pine streets. Between the street and the building is a colossal 
statue, in bronze, of William Penn. The Hospital contains a fine an- 
atomical museum and a medical library. The Insane Jlsylum, a branch 
of the Hospital, is about two miles west of the Schuylkill. The United 
States Marine Hospital or Naval Jlsylum is an elegant building on the 
east bank of the Schuylkill, below Cedar-street. It is intended for invalid 
seamen. The Almshouse is on the west side of the Schuylkill river. The 
Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb is at the corner of 
Broad and Pine streets. The Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction 
of the Blind is in Race-street, near Schuylkill Third-street. Besides 
these there may be mentioned, the Orphan's Asylum, the Asylum for 
Indigent Widows and Single Women, Wills' Hospital for the Lame and 
Blind, Preston Retreat, the Magdalene Asylum, Colored Orphan Asylum, 
St. John's Orphan Asylum, Christ's Church Hospital, Friends' Alms- 
house, Friends' Lunatic Asylum, two dispensaries, &c. 

Among the literary institutions, the University of Pennsylvania is one 
of the oldest and most considerable ; having been founded as a charity 
school in 1751, it was made a college in 1755, and a university in 1779. 
It has three departments, the Academical, Collegiate, and Medical. Here 
instruction is given in the usual branches taught in other colleges and uni- 
versities, and the usual degrees are conferred. It has a president and 1*3 
professors, 1,053 alumni, 120 students, and 5,000 volumes in its libraries, 
and possesses the most extensive anatomical museum in the Union, a 
cabinet of natural history, and an excellent chemical and philosophical 
apparatus. Its buildings are in Ninth-street, between Chesnut and Market 
streets. The Medical Department of the University has 8 professors, 



STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 87 

446 students, and 4,443 graduates. The lectures commence on the first 
Monday in November. The Girard College for Orphans, endowed by 
the late Stephen Girard with $2,0(10,000, was commenced on the 4th July. 
1833, and the great central temple, and the two buildings on the left side, 
are completed. No pupils have yet been admitted. Jefferson Medical 
College was founded in 1825, and has 7 professors, 409 students, and 880 
graduates. The lectures commence on the first Monday in November. 
Its hall is in Tenth, between Walnut and Chesnut streets. The Medical 
Department of Pennsylvania College was founded in 1839, and has 6 
professors, and 60 students. Lectures commence on the first Monday in 
November. The buildings are in Filbert-street above Twelfth. 

The public schools of Philadelphia are numerous. At the head of 
these stands the High School. There is also a model school, which has 
a principal and ten professors. 

Among the scientific and literary institutions is the American Philosophi- 
cal Society, founded in 1743, principally through the exertions of Doctor 
Franklin. Its hall is in south Fifth-street below Chesnut-street. It has 
a library of 15,000 volumes of rare books, and a collection of minerals, 
fossils, and ancient relics. The Franklin Institute was incorporated in 
1824, for the promotion of Manufactures and the Arts. It holds an an- 
nual fair, and possesses an extensive library. The Academy of Natural 
Sciences has a spacious building in Broad-street, a library of 9,000 
volumes, and a cabinet of natural science. The Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts was founded in 1805. There is also the Artists' Fund So- 
ciety. The Philadelphia Library, founded in 1731 by the influence of 
Doctor Franklin, has 50,000 volumes. To this has been added the Le- 
gonian Library of 11,000 volumes. The Mercantile Library, established in 
1822, has a collection of 8,000 volumes. The Atheneum, incorporated in 
1815, contains the papers and periodicals of the day, and several thousand 
volumes. The Apprentices' Library, established in 1819, has 14,000 
volumes. The United States Mint was founded in 1790, and commenced 
operations in 1793, in the building now occupied by the Apprentices' 
Library. Coining commenced in the present building in Chesnut-street in 
1830. This edifice is of white marble ; the south front is 123 feet long, with 
a portico 60 feet long, of six Ionic columns. 

There are in the city 14 banks, 20 insurance companies, and several 
theatres. The Philadelphia Museum, founded by Mr. Peule in 1784, is 
one of the best in the country. There are several very extensive markets. 
1'he United States Navy Yard, at the southern end of Swanson-street, 
has an enclosed area of about 12 acres. The public squares of the city 
are numerous, elegant, and capacious. 

The Fairmont Water-works are situated on the left bank; of the Schuyl- 
till, two miles from 
the centre of the city. 
The process by which 
the city is supplied 
with Witter is by means 
of a dam thrown across | 
the Schuylkill; ^_ 

water-power thus crea- fHEl- 
ted acts on six large wheels, which keep in operation six forcing-punins. 
to raise the water from the pool of the dam, 92 feet to the six reservoirs 
on the summit of the hill. These reservoirs, which are 100 feet above 
the tide-level, are capable of containing 22 millions of gallons. From tho 




88 STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

reservoirs the water is distributed throughout the city by iron pipes, the 
aggregate length of which is about 110 miles. On the summit and slopes 
of the hill, neat gravel walks and staircases are arranged ; and at the 
base of the precipice, in spaces not occupied by machinery, a garden has 
been laid out, tastefully decorated with flowers, shrubbery, statues, and 
fountains. From the summit a magnificent prospect is enjoyed of the 
city, the Schuylkill, and the romantic scenery of its valley. The Laurel 
Hill Cemetery, on the banks of the Schuylkill, is 4 miles north of the city. 
Nature seems to have lavished every variety of beauty and grandeur on 
this secluded spot ; the grounds are laid out with serpentine gravelled 
walks, and the whole is shaded by ancient forest and ornamental trees. 
At the entrance is a splendid colonnade, and just within the gate, in a 
small structure erected expressly for it, is an admirable group of statuary 
by Thorn, representing Sir Walter Scott conversing with Old Mortality. 
Cars leave 3 times daily for New York, (fare $3 to 4 ;) and a':?o for 
Harrisburg, (fare $4 ;) for Baltimore twice daily, (fare $3 ;) for Potts- 
ville daily, (fare $3.50 ;) for Washington, $4.00 ; for Wheeling, $14 ; for 
Pittsbitrff, $13 ; for Pittsburg via Harrisburg, $11. Steamboats leave 
daily for Burlington and Bristol ; and also for Wilmington, Del., New 
Castle ; and for Red Bank, Cape Island, frr,., N. J. Stages leave daily 
for Easton, Wilkesbarre, <$-c. ; three times a week for Port Deposit, 
Jtfrf., and also for Flemingtan, N. J. (See page 83.) 

LANCASTER is situated near the right bank of Conestoga creek, 71 miles 
from Philadelphia. The city contains a court-house, 12 churches, an 
academy, a female seminary, a Lancasterian school, 2 public libraries, 
a theatre, a Mechanics' Institute, a reading-room, and 8,500 inhabitants. 
Franklin College, once located here, has been discontinued, being at present 
a. mere grammar-school. The style of many of the houses is antiquated, 
retaining the character of the olden time. The city is well supplied with 
pure water. ' Cars pass daily for Philadelphia and for Harrisburg. 

HARRISBURQ, the capital of the state, is on the left bank of the Susque- 
hanna, 106 miles from Philadelphia. Its situation is commanding, and 

-=e= from it is obtained a view of 
"^ the river and the picturesque 
igi barrier of the Kittatinny 
S Mountains, broken through 
u by the river at the north. 
J The State House occupies 
Lan elevated situation ; the 
Imain building is 180 feet front 
|by 80 feet deep, and con 
rtains the hall of representa 
tives, the senate chamber, state library ot over 4,000 volumes, &c. The 
other public edifices are the court-house, the prison, the arsenal, a 
market, a Masonic-hall, an academy, two banks, and 10 churches. There 
are two elegant bridges thrown across the river, and the Mount Airy 
Water- works supply the city with water. Population in 1840, 6,002 
1845, 8,000. Cars leave 3 times daily for Philadelphia, (fare $4.) and 
daily for Chambersburg. Stages leave daily for Pittsburg, (fare $7 ;) 
for Northumberland, and also for Baltimore, via York. 

CARLISLE, situated in the Cumberland valley, 18 miles from Harrisburg, 
is an ancient and flourishing place. It contains a court-house, a town- 
hall, the buildings of Dickinson College, 11 churches, a bank, and 4,500 
inhabitants. Dickinson College, under the direction of the Methodists, 




STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 89 

was founded in 1783. It has a president and 7 professors, 561 alumni, 178 
students, and 12,000 volumes in its libraries, and a very complete chemi- 
cal and philosophical apparatus and mineralogical cabinet. The com- 
mencement is on the second Thursday in July. The United States Bar- 
racks, half a mile from the village, were built in 1777, chiefly by the 
labor of the Hessians captured at Trenton. A school of cavalry practice 
has recently been established there. The barracks will garrison 2,000 
men. Cars pass through daily for Harrisburg, and for Chambersburg. 
Stages leave daily in summer for Carlisle Springs. 

Carlisle Sulphur Springs are situated four miles north of the village, 
in a secluded valley, surrounded with the beautiful scenery of the Blue 
Mountains. The grounds are tastefully laid out, and there are ample 
accommodations for visitors. 

CHAMBERSBURG is at the confluence of Falling Spring and Coneco- 
cheague creeks, and contains a court-house, a bank, a Masonic-hall, 8 
churches, an academy, and 3,300 inhabitants. In the village and its 
vicinity are several extensive mills and manufactories. Cars leave daily 
for Harrisburg. Stages leave daily for Pittsburg, and 3 times a week for 
Baltimore. 

BEDFORD, on the Pittsburg turnpike, is 206 miles from Philadelphia. It 
is on a branch of Juniata river, and contains 
five churches, an academy, a seminary, an 
elegant court-house, and 1,100 inhabitants. 
The Bedford Springs are situated about 14 | 
miles south of the village, in a narrow, pic- j 
turesque valley. There are 6 springs, viz. : ; 
Anderson's, Fletcher's, Limestone, Sweet, Sul- J 
phur, and the Chalybeate springs. These * 
waters possess laxative and sudorific powers, 
and have been found efficacious in removing 
chronic obstructions, dyspepsia, diseases of the liver, cutaneous eruptions, 
&c. Houses for cold, shower, and warm baths, have been erected. 
There is an artificial lake on which boats sail ; and the other attractions of 
this beautiful and romantic spot and vicinity, cannot fail to gratify the 
most fastidious. Stages leave daily for Philadelphia. (See route 225.) 





PITTSBURG, 317 miles from Philadelphia, is situated at the confluence of 
the Allflghany and Monongahela rivers, which by their union form the Ohio 
river. It is mostly built on a plain, with streets running parallel to 
the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers. There are several fine bridges 
across the Alleghany, and one across the Monongahela. The hiUs with 
which Pittsburg is surrounded are filled with bituminous coal, which 
affords great aid to its manufactories. The city contains a new and 
beautiful court-house, the buildings of the Western University, 4 banks, 
a museum, a theatre, several literary societies with libraries, 35 churches. 



90 STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

many exten-sive hotels, and, with its suburbs, 40,000 inhabitants. The city 
is supplied with water from the Alleghany river. The water is raised by 
steam-power to a reservoir of a capacity to contain a million of gallons. 
The reservoir is 116 feet above the river, from which the water is dis- 
tributed over the city in iron pipes, having an aggregate length of 10 
miles. The Western University of Pennsylvania, founded in 1819, has a 
president and 4 professors, and 64 students. The Western Theological 
Seminary, founded in 1828, and located at Alleghany, on the north bank 
of the Alleghany river, has 3 professors, 54 students, and 6,000 volumes in 
its libraries. The Theological Seminary of the Associate Reformed 
Church, founded in 1826, has about 30 students, and possesses a valuable 
library. The Alleghany Theological Institute, founded in 1840, has a 
valuable library. The United States Arsenal is 2i miles east, on the bunks 
of the Alleghany. Most of the extensive manufactories are not in the 
city proper, but scattered around within a circle of 5 miles radius : the 
population within this range is over 50,000. Steamboats leave daily for 
JVeio Orleans and the intermediate places. Fare to Wheeling, $1.50; 
Marietta, $2.50; Guyandotte, $3; Maysville, Ky., $3.50; Cincinnati, 
$5; Louisville, Ky., $6; Smithland, $8; Cairo, mouth of Ohio river, 
$9; St. Louis, Mo., $10; Memphis, Tenn., $15: Vicksburg, Miss., 
$25 ; New Orleans, $26. Steamboats, in connection with stages, leave for 
Cumberland ; thence by railroad to Baltimore, fyc. Canal boats leave for 
Harrisburg daily. Stages leave daily for Erie ; for Cleveland, Ohio ; 
for Steubenville, Ohio ; for Wheeling ; and for Harrisburg, 

CANNONSBURG, 18 miles southwest from Pittsburg, has 4 churches, and 

about 900 inhabitants. Jef- 
ferson College, founded in 
* 1802, and located here, has 
| a president and 6 professors, 
I 693 alumni, 164 students, and 
f 4,500 volumes in its libraries. 
The commencement is on the 
| last Thursday in September. 
= It has a medical department 
I in Philadelphia. There i* 
also at this place a Theological Seminary under the direction of the As- 
sociate Church. Stages arrive and depart daily for Pittsburg. 

WASHINGTON, 25 miles southwest from Pittsburg, on the National 
road, is pleasantly situated on high ground, and contains 9 churches, a 
court-house, an academy, a seminary, and 2,200 inhabitants. It is the 
seat of Washington College, founded in 1806, which has a president, 5 
professors, 224 alumni, 190 students, 3,300 volumes in its libraries, a cabinet of 
minerals, &c. The commencement is on the last Wednesday in Septem- 
ber. Stages leave daily for Pittsburg. for Wheeling, and for Baltimore, 
BEAVER, on the right bank of the Ohio river, 35 miles below Pittsburg, 
at the entrance of Beaver river, contains a court-house, 3 churches, an 
academy, and about 600 inhabitants. Steamboats pass daily from 
Pittsburg to Cincinnati, &c- Stages leave daily for Cleveland. 

MEADVILOE is prettily situated on French creek, and has a court-house, 
7 churches, an academy, a state arsenal, and about 1,500 inhabitants. It 
is the seat of Alleghany College, founded in 1815, and has a president, 4 
professors, 160 students, and 8,000 volumes in its libraries. Stages leave 
daily for Pittsburg and for Erie. 
ERIE is beautifuWy skuated upon a bluff, affording a prospect of 




STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 91 

Presque-Isle bay and the lake beyond. It has one of the best harbors on 
Lake Erie, and contains a court-house, a bank, 7 churches, an academy, 
a seminary, and about 3,500 inhabitants. Perry's fleet was built here, the 
vessels being finished in 70 days from the time the timber was felled ; and 
here he returned with his prizes after the battle. The remains of his flag- 
ship, the Lawrence, lie in the harbor, from which visiters are constantly 
cutting pieces as relics. On the high banks a little to the right of the 
village are the ruins of the old French fort, Presque-Isle. Steamboats 
leave for Buffalo, for Cleveland, Detroit, <$-c. Stages leave daily for 
Buffalo, JV. Y. ; for Cleveland* Ohio ; and for Pittsburg. 

YORK, 11 miles west of the Susquehanna, on Codorus creek, contains a 
court-house, a bank, an academy, 10 churches, several manufactories, 
and 5,000 inhabitants : it has also a lyceum, possessing a cabinet of min- 
erals, &c., and which sustains a course of lectures. Congress retired to this 
place from Philadelphia, at the time of the battle of Brandywine, Sep.,- 
1777 ; and held their session for nine months in the old court-house. Car* 
leave daily for Philadelphia; and also for Baltimore. Stages leave daily 
for Harrisburg, and 3 times a week for Chambersburg. See route. 

York Sulphur Springs are situated twenty- 
one miles south from Harrisburg, among sce- 
nery exceedingly picturesque and varied. TheJ 
medical properties of the waters have been I 
highly extolled, particularly for their efficacy H 
in cases of debilitated constitutions. 

GETTYSBURG is situated on elevated grounds, 1 
35 miles from Harrisburg. The Theological! 
Seminary of the Lutheran Church, established 
here in 1826, has 3 professors, 26 students, " 
and 8,000 volumes in its libraries. This is also the seat of Pennsylvania 
College, founded in 1832, which has a president, 7 professors, 189 students, 
and 3,000 volumes in its libraries. The village contains a court-house, a 
bank, an academy, 6 churches, and 1,700 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times 
a week for York ; for Chambersburg ; and for Hagerstown, Md. 

HUNTINGDON is situated on the left bank of the Juniata river, and is 
built upon an elevated bank, sloping gently down to the river. It contains 
a court-house, 6 churches, an academy, and 1,200 inhabitants. The 
Juniata is here crossed by a substantial bridge. A short distance from 
the village, in Stone Valley, are the " Warm Springs," which are much 
resorted to. The waters are light on the stomach, diuretic, and are said to 
contain magnesia. Stages pass daily from Harrisburg and from Pittsburg. 

HOLMDAYSBURG is situated on the Juniata river, 143 miles by the 
course of the canal from Harrisburg, near the eastern base of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. It contains a court-house, 6 churches, a classical 
.school, several extensive manufactories, and about 3,000 inhabitants. 
Here is the termination of the Juniata division of the Pennsylvania canal, 
and the commencement of the Portage railroad through the mountain 
pass, overcoming in ascent and descent, by means of ten inclined planes, 
an aggregate of 2,572 feet. There is on the line a tunnel 870 feet long 
and 20 feet high, through the mountain ; and also several viaducts. 
All the viaducts and culverts have been built in the most substantial man- 
ner. Stages leave daily for Harrisburg, and for Pittsburg, and for 
Williamsport 3 times a week. Canal boats leave for Harrisburg daily. 

JOHNSTOWN is situated on a broad flat, completely encircled by moun- 
tains, at the confluence of Stony creek with the Little Connemaugh. and 




92 STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

at the commencement of the Western division of the Pennsylvania canal. It 
contains 4 churches and about 1,500 inhabitants. Canal boats leave for 
Pittsburg daily. 

SUNBURY is situated on the left bank of the Susquehanna, 58 miles from 
Harrisburg. Near the town, above and below, are ranges of high hills, 
affording a magnificent prospect of the valley. The village has a court- 
house, 5 churches, and 1,200 inhabitants. Stages leave daily for Harris- 
burg, for Wilkesbarre, and for Williamsport. 

NORTHUMBERLAND is a mile above Sunbury, on the Susquehanna, and 
at the junction of the north and west branches. There are three beautiful 
bridges crossing the rivers here. The village contains a town-house, a 
bank, 5 churches, and about 1,000 inhabitants. 

WILUAMSPORT is situated on an elevated plain on the left bank of the 
west branch of the Susquehanna, 99 miles from Harrieburg. It has a 
court-house, 5 churches, an academy, and 1,500 inhabitants. Cars leave 
daily for Ralston, thence in stages to Blossburg, and from thence in cars to 
Corning, JV*. Y. ; and by railroad and stages to Elmira, JV. Y. Stages 
leave t/iree times a week for Hollidaysburg. 

NORRISTOWN is situated on the left bank of Schuylkill river, 16 miles 
from Philadelphia. The dam across the river creates an immense water- 
power. The village contains a court-house, 6 churches, a bank, an 
academy, a seminary, a public library, and 3,000 inhabitants. Manu- 
facturing is extensively carried on here. Six miles above Norristown, on 
the west side of the river, at the mouth of Valley creek, is a deep rugged 
hollow. An ancient forge established here, gave to the place the name of 
VALLEY FORGK. Upon the mountain flanks of this valley, which over- 
look all the adjacent country, Washington established the winter-quarters 
of the army in 1777 and '8. This was the most gloomy period of the 
Revolution. The army reached the valley about the 18th of December. 
They might have been tracked by the blood of their feet in marching to 
this place barefooted, over the hard frozen ground. The encampment 
was surrounded on the land side by intrenchments, and several small re- 
doubts were built at different points. Some of the intrenchments may 
still be seen. Cars leave Norristown daily for Philadelphia, and for 
Pottsville. 

READING lies on the left bank of Schuylkill river, 56 miles from Phila- 
delphia. The streets are regular and spacious. It has an elegant court- 
house, 3 banks, an academy, 3 public libraries, (one in German,) a female 
seminary, 12 churches, and about 8,000 inhabitants. The town is abun- 
dantly supplied with spring water conducted through pipes. The scenery 
in the vicinity is wild and picturesque, and the location remarkably 
healthy. Cars leave daily for Philadelphia, and for Pottsville. Stage* 
leave daily for Ifarrisburg, and for Easton 3 times a week. 

POTTSVILLE, the great mart of the coal trade, is situated just above the 
gorge by which the Schuylkill river passes the mountains, 92 miles from 
Philadelphia. It is famous for its rapid growth. In 1824, it contained but 
five dwellings. It now contains a town-hall, 6 churches, a bank, , on 
academy, several extensive manufactories, and 4,335 inhabitants. Cars 
leave daily for Philadelphia ; stages daily for Sunbury, Danville, and 
Ca,tawissa, and 3 times a week for Mauch Chunk. 

MAUCH CHUNK is situated on the right bank of Lehigh river, in a deep 
romantic ravine, 122 miles from Philadelphia. The mountains rise ab- 
ruptly from the village to the height of 800 to 1,000 feet. The village has 
5 churches, several manufactories, and about h800 inhabitants. The ex- 



STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



93 




tensive coal mines here, and the operations of working them are ex- 
ceedingly curious and interesting. Stages leave 3 times a week fur Easton; 
for Philadelphia, fur Pottsville, and for Berwick. 

WILKKSBARRE is on the left bank of the Susquehanna river, 110 miles 
from Philadelphia. It contains a court-house, 3 churches, a bank, a 
female seminary, a classical school, and 1,800 inhabitants. The valley of 
Wyoming is rich in historical incident, and its landscapes combine beauty, 
variety, and grandeur. The site of Fort Wyoming is covered by the 
court-house. Fort Duryee was half a mile below the borough, near the 
Shawnee flats. There was another fort on the eastern bank, nearly op- 
posite the hotel, a little below the bridge, the redoubts of which are still 
visible on the hill to the north of the village. Stages leave daily for 
Northumberland ; for Binghamton, N. Y. ; 3 times a week for Hones- 
dale ; for Easton ; and for JMauch Chunk. 

EASTON is situated at the confluence of the Delaware and Lehigh 
rivers, 50 miles 
from Philadel- 
phia. It is reg- 
ularly laid out, t 
the streets cross- ! 
ing each other \ 
at right angles. \ 
There are here 2 1 
fine bridges, one ] 

crossing the Del- .^__ . ... , .. 

aware, and the other the Lehigh river. La Fayette College is located 
here, with which manual labor is connected. It has a president, 8 pro- 
fessors and tutors, 130 students, and 5,000 volumes in its libraries. Tho 
commencement is on the 2d Wednesday in September. The village has 2 
banks, a court-house, 5 churches, an academy, a classical school, a public 
library with 3,000 volumes, and 5,000 inhabitants. 

The three prominent gorges in the Kittatinny Mountains, the Lehigh 
and Delaware Water-gaps, and the Wind-gap, arrest the attention of the 
traveller. They arc all within a distance of 25 miles from Easton, and 
are celebrated for their picturesque appearance, and the beauty of the 
surrounding landscape. Stages leave daily for New York ; for Trenton. 
N. J. ; for Philadelphia, and for Reading ; three times a week for Bing- 
hamton, via Honesdale ; for Mauch Chunk, and for Wilkesbarre. 

HONESDALE, situated at the junction of the Lackawaxen and Dyberry 
creeks, is 147 miles from Philadelphia. It has been built up within a 
few years, and contains a court-house, five churches, two academies, and 
1,100 inhabitants. The Delaware and Hudson canal terminates here, and 
a railroad Id'i miles long connects it with the coal mines. Stages leave 
daily for New York ; for Owego ; three times a week for Easton ; and for 
Wilkesbarre. 

CARBONDALE, situated on Lackawana creek, owes its existence to the 
Lackawnna coal mine, from which are quarried 800 to 900 tons daily. 
The village contains 6 churches and about 1,000 inhabitants. Stages 
leave 3 times a week for Wilkesbirre and for Honesdale. 

BRISTOL, situated on the right bank of Delaware river, 20 miles above 
Philadelphia, contains 3 churches, a bank, and about 1,500 inhabitants. 
A ehort distance below, on the banks of the river, is the Bristol Military 
Institute. Steamboats ply daily to Philadelphia, and cars leave for New 
York, via Trenton. 



94 STATE OF DELAWARE. 

WESTCHESTER, 33 miles from Philadelphia, is surrounded by a beauti- 
ful undulating country, and the place and vicinity is remarkable for its 
salubrity. It is connected with the Columbia railroad, by a branch nine 
miles long ; and the village contains a court-house, a bank, 6 churches, 
an academy, 4 seminaries, a public library, an atheneum, a cabinet of 
natural science, and 2,500 inhabitants. Cars leave twice daily for 
Philadelphia. 

CHESTER, 14 miles from Philadelphia, on the right bank of the Dela- 
ware river, is the most ancient town in the state. It has a court-house, 3 
churches, a bank, and 1,000 inhabitants. Cars pass through it twice 
daily from Philadelphia and from Baltimore. 





DELAWARE lies between 38 2^ and 39 47' N. 
lat., and between 74 56' and 75 40* W. Ion. It is 
92 miles long, and 23 broad, containing 2,120 square 
miles. Population in 1840, 78,085. 

The lower part of the state is very level. The 
i northern part is moderately hilly and rough. An ele- 
I vated table-land, towards its western border, passes 
_ L through the state, dividing the waters which fall into 
the Chesapeake from those which fall into Delaware bay ; it contains a 
chain of swamps, from which the principal streams take their rise. In the 
vicinity of Delaware river the soil is productive, but becomes less so 
towards the swamps in the west. Its southern part affords some fine 
grazing-land. The rivers are small. Brandywine creek, 40 miles long, 
uniting with Christiana creek, forms the harbor of Wilmington. Duck 
creek, Mispillion creek, and Indian river flow into the Delaware. 

The present constitution was adopted in 1831. The governor is chosen 
for four years, and is ever after ineligible. The senate consists of three 
members from each county, chosen for four years. The representatives 
are seven from each county, chosen once in two years. The legislature 
meets once in two years, on the first Tuesday of January. Every male 
citizen over twenty-two years of age, who has resided one year in the 
state, and the last month in the county in which he votes and paid a tax, 
has the right of suffrage ; and if he be between 21 and 22 years, and 
otherwise qualified, he may vote without payment of a tax. The'judicial 
power is exercised by 4 common-law judges and a chancellor. There 
must be one associate judge in each county. 

There is but one college in the state, viz., Delaware College, at Newark 
and there are twenty academies, and 152 common schools. 

Delaware was first settled by Swedes and Fins, in 1630. In con- 
vention it adopted the constitution of the United States, Dec. 3d, 1787, by 
a unanimous vote. 



STATE OF DELAWARE. 95 

DOVER, the capital of the state, is situated on the south side of Jones 
creek, 10 miles from its entrance into Delaware bay. Its streets cross at 
right angles, and at the centre of the town is a spacious public square, on 
which the state-house is erected, and around which other public buildings 
are ranged. It contains 3 churches, a bank, an academy, and about 700 
inhabitants. Here is a splendid monument, erected by the state, to the 
memory of Col. John Haslett, who fell at the battle of Princeton. Stages 
leave daily for Wilmington, and 3 times a week for Snow Hill, Md. 

WILMINGTON is situated between Brandywine river and Christiana 
creek, one mile from their confluence, and 27 miles southwest from Phila- 
delphia. It is the largest place in the state, and its streets are broad and 
regularly laid out. It contains a city-hall, two market-houses, 3 banks, 
an almshouse, an arsenal, a Friends' boarding school for young ladies, a 
public library, 16 churches, 9 academies, and 10,000 inhabitants. In the 
city and vicinity are many extensive manufactories and flouring-mills. 
The Brandywine Springs, about 5 miles from Wilmington, are much 
resorted to in the summer season for health and pleasure. Cars leave 
twice daily for Philadelphia, (fare 50 cts.,) and for Baltimore. Steam- 
boats ply daily to Philadelphia. Stages leave daily for Milford, via 
Newcastle and Dover. 

NEWARK, on Christiana creek,12 miles from Wilmington and 1 mile from the 
depot, contains the buildings 
of Delaware College, three 
churches, an academy, and 
800 inhabitants. Delaware 
College was founded in 1833, 
and endowed by t he state with 
a fund of $100,000. It has 
a president, 4 professors, a < 
tutor, and 50 students. The 
commencement is on the 4th 
Wednesday in September. 

NEWCASTLE, 5 miles south from Wilmington, on the right bank of 
Delaware river, was once the capital of the state. It was the site of the 
Dutch fort, Casimir, and the village of Niew Amstel. It contains a court- 
house, a town-house, an arsenal, 5 churches, an academy, a public 
library of 4,000 volumes, and 1,200 inhabitants. Steamboats leave daily 
for Philadelphia, and cars, in connection with steamboats, for Baltimore. 

SMYRNA, 35 miles from Wilmington, is on Duck creek, and contains 
& church, and about 600 inhabitants. 

DELAWARE CITY is situated on the west side of Delaware bay, at the 
entrance of the Chesapeake and Delaware canal. It contains about 50 
dwellings. In front of it, on Peapatch Island, is Fort Delaware. 

MILFORD, situated on Mispillion creek, 68 miles from Wilmington, con- 
tains 3 churches, 2 academies, and about 600 inhabitants. 

GEORGETOWN, 88 miles from Wilmington, situated near the head waters 
of Indian river, has a court-house, an academy, a bank, and about 300 
inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week for Wilmington. 




STATE OF MARYLAND. 




AC ft. 

MARYLAND lies between 38 and 39 44' N. lat., 
and between 75 a 10' and 79 20' W. Ion. It is 196 
miles long, and 120 broad, containing 13,959 square 
miles. Population in 1840, 469,232. Eastern Mary- 
land, or that part of the state east of the Chesapeake 
bay, is mostly level. The country on the west shore to 
the head of tides, is similar to the eastern shore ; the 
soil of this portion is generally fertile, producing wheat, 
Indian corn, tobacco, &c. Above the flow of the 
tides, the surface rises into hills, and the western part attains an elevated 
region, being crossed by the Alleghany Mountains. The western part 
contains much fine land, adapted both to grain and grazing. Extensive 
beds of coal and of iron ore exist. 

The Potomac river, which divides this state from Virginia, is 550 miles 
long, and navigable about 300 miles to Washington city. It is ?i miles 
wide at its mouth. The great falls are 59 miles above Washington ; the 
perpendicular descent is 76 feet, and the rapids extend for several miles up 
the river, and form a very picturesque view. The Susquehanna is a 
large river, which enters into the head of the Chesapeake bay in this 
state. It is li miles wide at its mouth, but is navigable only five miles, 
being, above that, much obstructed by falls and rapids. The Patapsco 
is a small river, navigable, however, 14 miles to Baltimore for ships. The 
Patuxent is 110 miles long, and is navigable for 50 miles for vessels of 250 
tons. The other rivers are Elk, Sassafras, Chester, Choptank, Nanticoke, 
and Pocomoke. The Chesapeake bay is 270 miles long, and from 
seven to twenty wide ; and, by its numerous inlets, furnishes many fine 
harbors; and in season, abounds with the choicest water- fowl, fish, &c. 

The constitution of the state was formed in 1776, but has been frequently 
amended since that time. The state is divided into 3 districts, viz : the 
eastern, the southern, and the northwestern. The governor is elected fof 
three years, by the people from the districts alternately : so that each dis- 
trict is represented in the gubernatorial chair, for one term, in each period^ 
of nine years. The candidate for governor must have resided in the district 
which he represents, for three years next preceding the election. The 
senate consists of 21 members, elected for six years, one-third of the num- 
ber being elected every two years ; and the senators must have resided in 
the county for which they are chosen, for one year next preceding the elec- 
tion. The House of Delegates consists of 79 members, elected by the peo- 
ple ; and must have resided in the county for which they are chosen, for 
one year next preceding their election. The judges are appointed by the 
governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, and hold their offices 
during good behavior. Every white male citizen, 21 years of age, who has 
resided in the state one year next preceding nn c-I< rtion, and for six months 
in the county where he offers his vote, enjoys the right of suffrage. 



STATE OF MARYLAND. 



97 



The colleges, &c., in this state are as follows, viz. : St. John's College, at 
Annapolis, founded in 1784 ; St. Mary's College, at Baltimore ; Mount St. 
Mary's College, near Emmettsburg ; Medical School University, at Balti- 
more, and Washington Medical College, do. Besides these, there are 130 
academies and about 575 primary and common schools. 

The original charter of Maryland was granted to Lord Baltimore, in 
1632. It was first settled by Catholics in 1634, at St. Mary's. In 
convention, April 28th, 1788, it adopted the constitution of the United 
States yeas 63, nays 12. 




BALTIMORE the thii 
tent, population, and commerce, in the 
United States, is situated on the north 
side of Patapsco river, 14 miles from its entrance into Chesapeake bay, 
and 200 miles from the ocean by ship channel, in 39 17' 23" N. lat., and 
76 37' 30" W. Ion. It is 40 miles from Washington, 97 from Philadel- 
phia, 185 from New York, 590 from Pittsburg. Population in 1840. 
102,313. The harbor, which is a very fine one, consists of three parts. 
The entrance to it, between Fort McHenry and the Lazaretto, is about 600 
yards wide, and has twenty-two feet depth of water. Above Fell's 
Point is the second harbor, with 15 feet water ; the third or inner harbor, 
has a depth of ten to twelve feet, and penetrates to near the centre of the 
city. It is the most extensive market for tobacco in the United States, and the 
greatest flour market in the world. Within 20 miles of the city, there are 70 
or more flouring-mills. The city affords many commanding sites for build- 
ings. The part compactly built extends about 2 miles in length from E. to 
W., and a mile and a half from north to south. The streets generally cross 
each other at right angles. The north end of the town is the fashionable 
quarter, in the vicinity of Washington Monument; and the principal 
promenade is Baltimore-street, which is two miles in length, extending 
through the centre of the city. The public buildings are, the City-hall, 
on Hollidays-street, occupied by the city council and public officers; the 
Court-house, corner of Washington and Monument streets ; the State 
Penitentiary, 7 markets, 11 banks, a savings institution, eight insurance 
companies, two theatres, a circus, a museum, several extensive hotels, 
&c., &c. There are upwards of 100 churches, many of which are 
elegant structures. 

The University of Maryland was incorporated in 1812. It has a faculty 
of Arts and Science, of Physic, of Theology, and of Law. The first 1ms 
7 professors that of physic has 7, of theology 3, and that of law 4. It 
is well supplied with materials for anatomical studies, and has a good 
chemical laboratory. Lectures commence on the last Monday in October. 
Washington Medical University, which has 7 professors, has an annual 
session of four months, beginning on the last Monday in October. Balti 
more College, which constitutes the collegiate department of the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, is under the general supervision of the regents of the 
University, and the particular direction and management of a president, 
ttistusttd by different professors and teachers. St. Mary's College and 



98 



STATE OF MARYLAND. 



Seminary has 14 professors or other instructors. The Maryland College 
of Pharmacy, incorporated January, 1841, has a president, two vice- 
presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and a board of three examiners. The 
Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, has a president and 5 professors. 
The Mercantile Library Association, founded in 1839, has a library of 
5,000 volumes. The Maryland Historical Society is located in Baltimore. 
Maryland Hospital, on Hampsted hill, in the eastern extremity of the city, 
is under the management of a board of visitors appointed by the state. 
Mount Hope Hospital, in the northern part of the city, is under the 
management of the Sisters of Charity ; it will contain 100 patients. The 
Baltimore Infirmary, connected with the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, is under the direction of the faculty of physic. 

Washington Monument stands on elevated ground, 150 feet above 

t tide-water, at the intersection of Charles and Monu- 

ment streets, and is the most imposing structure in the 
city. It is a Doric column, rising from a base 50 feet 
square and 20 feet high. The shaft is 160 feet high and 
* twenty feet in diameter. A winding stairway leads to 
the top, where is a statue of WASHINGTON, by Causici, 
thirteen feet high. The whole is constructed of white 
marble. From its top is a fine view of the city and its 
^^ environs. The Battle Monument, at the corner of 
Fayette and Calvert streets, was erected in 1815, in 
; memory of those who fell, defending the city when at-' 
: tacked by the British in 1814. It is constructed of white 
f marble, is 52 feet high, and surmounted by a figure 
4 emblematic of the city of Baltimore. The city is sup- 
* plied with water for the extinguishment of fires, from 
Jones Jt mis ; me water being raised by steam-power into two reservoirs hold- 
ing about seven millions of gallons, and distributed in iron pipes. The 
public springs or fountains, of which there are four, are tastefully orna- 
mented, and furnish a copious supply of pure water. Green Mount 
Cemetery is situated near the north bounds of the city. It has mostly a 
high undulating surface, and is handsomely laid out, and adorned with 
shrubbery, sculptured tombs, &c. Baltimore was laid out as a town in 
1729. In 1765 it contained only 50 houses. It was chartered in 1797. 
Cars leave twice daily for Philadelphia, (fare $3 ;) for Washington 3 
times daily, (fare 1.60 ;) for Cumberland daily, (fare $7 ;) for Columbia^ 
Pa,., (fare $2.63 ;) and for Annapolis daily. Stages leave daily in sum- 
mer for York Sulphur Springs, 3 times a week for Gettysburg, Pa. t 
Emmettsburg, be. Fare to New York, $7 ; to Richmond, Fa., $6.60 ; 
to Wilmington, N. G, $16.60; to Charleston, $21; to Mobile, $57.50; 
to New Orleans, $62.50 ,to Wheeling, $10; to Pittsburg, $11. Steam- 
boats leave daily for Norfolk, Va., via Old Point Comfort, Jlnnapolis t 
&c. ; and also for Philadelphia via French Town, New Castle, Sec. 

ANNAPOLIS, the capital of the state, is situated on the Chesapeake bay. 
at the entrance of Severn river. The streets radiate from three centres, 
which are the sites of the three principal buildings, viz. : the State House, 
St. John's College, and St. Anne's Church ; besides these, there are a 
government-house, a Methodist and a Roman Catholic Chapel, a semi- 
nary, and a bank. The city contains 2,800 inhabitants. The State House 
is remarkable as the building in which the American Congress, during the 
Revolutionary war, held some of its sessions. The Senate Chamber, 
which witnessed the last scene of the great drama of the Revolution. 





. STATE OF MARYLAND. 99 

Washington's resignation of his commission to the Congress, has been 

preserved unaltered. St. John's College was founded in 1784, as the 

Western-shore branch of the 

University of Maryland, now 

extinct. In 1823 and 1832, 

the Assembly restored a large ^== 

portion of the funds which j " 

had been withheld since! 

1806. It now has a Presi-jL 

dent, five professors, 1,240||L 

nlumni, 75 students, and ^^j^t^sSf^iSJ&s&^&L 

4,000 volumes in its libraries. . 

The commencement is on the 22d of February. The United States Naval 
Academy, at Fort Severn, has 7 professors, and 70 midshipmen as students. 
Cars leave daily for Washington and for Baltimore. 

HAVRE DE GRACE is on the west side of Susquehanna river, at its en- 
trance into Chesapeake bay, 60 miles from Philadelphia. The Susque- 
hanna canal terminates here, connecting the Chesapeake witfLthe Pennsyl- 
vania cnnals. A steam -ferry crosses the river. The town nas a church 
and 1 ,500 inhabitants. In 1813, the British under Admiral Cockburn burned 
the place. Cars leave twice daily for Philadelphia and for Baltimore. 

ELKTON is situated at the junction of the two main branches of Elk 
river, at the head of tide-water, 45 miles from Philadelphia. The village 
is half a mile south of the railroad depot. It contains a court-house, a 
bank, a Methodist church, and about 150 dwellings. Cars leave twice 
daily for Philadelphia, and for Baltimore. Stages leave 3 times a week 
for Cambridge via Chestertown, Easton, &c. 

CHESTKRTOVVN, situated on Chester river, 30 miles from Chesapeake 
bay, contains two churches, a branch of the University of Maryland, an 
academy, and about 1 ,000 inhabitants. 

EASTON, on Tread Haven bay, 13 miles from its entrance into Chesa- 
peake bay and from Elkton, has a court-house, 3 churches, an academy, 
and 1,000 inhabitants. 

CAMBRIDGE, situated on Choptank river, twelve miles from its entrance 
into the Chesapeake bay, has a court-house, two churches, an academy, 
and 800 inhabitants. Stages leave three times a week for Elkton, and 
twice fur Snow Hill. 

SNOW HILL, situated on the east side of Pocomoke river, contains a 
court-house, an academy, 5 churches, and about 800 inhabitants. Stages 
leave three times a week for Wilmington, Del., and for J^comac and East- 
villc, Va. Barren Creek Mineral Spring is 23 miles from Cambridge. 
The waters contain oxide of iron, soda, and magnesia combined with 
muriatic acid ; they are tonic and diuretic, and have been found serviceable 
in bilious complaints. 

WESTMINISTER is situated on the head waters of the Patap.co river, 
and contains a court-house, 3 churches, an academy, and 500 inhabitants. 

EMMETTSBURG, situated on the Monacacy river, in a pretty rural country, 
has four churches, an academy, and 800 inhabitants. Two miles distant 
is Mount St. Mary's College, under the direction of the Roman Catholics, 
founded in J830; it has a president and 11 instructors, 130 students, and 
4,000 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is in the last week in 
June. Stages leave three times a week for Frederick. 

FREDERICK, the second place of importance in the state, is situated on 
a branch of Monacacy creek, 61 miles from Baltimore, and is surrounded 



100 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



by a picturesque and highly fertile country. Its streets are wide, and 
regularly laid out. The city contains an elegant court-house, county 
othces, several banks, a market-house, twelve churches, several scientific 
and literary institutions, and 5,200 inhabitants. Cars leave daily for 
Baltimore. Stages leave 3 times a week for Gettysburg. Pa. 

HAGERSTOWN, 70 miles from Baltimore, is pleasantly situated on the 
Antictam creek. It contains a court-house, 2 banks, 2 academies, a town- 
hall, 9 churches, and 3,800 inhabitants. Stages leave daily for Frederick. 

HANCOCK, situated on the left bank of the Potomac river, has 2 churches, 
an academy, and 400 inhabitants. 

CUMBERLAND is situated on the left bank of Potomac river, at the en- 
trance of Wills creek, 178 miles from Baltimore. It contains a court- 
house, a market-house, a bank, five churches, and about 1,000 inhabitants. 
It occupies the site of Fort Cumberland, and the mountain scenery in the 
vicinity is picturesque, varied, and beautiful. Extensive beds of coal 
exist in the surrounding hills and mountains. Cars leave daily for Bnlti- 
nwre, (fare $7.) Stages leave far Wheeling, Va., (fare $4 ;) and stages 
m connection with steamboats at Brownsville, Pa.,forPittsburg t (fare $3.} 



THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA occup.es a space 
of 60 square miles, and is situated on the left bank of 
|jthe Potomac r. 120 miles from its entrance into Chesa- 
i peake bay. The territory was formerly 10 miles square, 
^and was ceded by the states of Maryland and Vir- 
1 ginia, for the purpose of becoming the seat of the 
i. government of the Republic. The portion west of the 
] Potomac was retroceded to Virginia in 1846. The 
District, which is under the immediate jurisdiction of 
Congress, contains the cities of Washington and Georgetown. Pop. 35,000. 
WASHINGTON, the capital of the United States, is situated on the left 
bank of the Potomac, at its confluence with the Anacostia, in N. lat. 
38 U 52' 45", and W. Ion. 76 55' 30" from Greenwich. It is 205 miles 
from the ocean by the course of the river, 38 from Baltimore, and 225 
from New York. It contained, in 1840, 23,364 inhabitants. The city is 
encompassed by a fine range of hills, and covered in part with trees and 
/hrubbery, presenting verdant and cultivated slopes. The ground on 
which it is built has a general elevation of about forty feet above the 
river. In planning the city, the most advantageous ground was ap- 
propriated for the different edifices, and for several squares, commanding 
extensive prospects, and susceptible of such improvements as use or 
ornament might require. Avenues of direct communication have been 
made, connecting distant objects with the principal ones. North and south 
lines, crossed by others running east and west, divide the city into street* 
mid squares. The avenues are named after the respective states, and the 




DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 101 

Capitol is the point from which the streets are named, those north being 
called A North, &c., and those south, A South, &c. ; those east and west, 
1st East, &c., and 1st West, &c., respectively. The avenues are from 120 
to 160 feet wide ; Pennsylvania avenue, leading from the Capitol to the 
President's house, has a sidewalk twenty-six feet wide, paved, and planted 
with trees, the carriage-way being macadamized. 

The Capitol is a large and massy^building of the Corinthian order of 
architecture, and is built 
of freestone. It is situated ~ 
in the centre of the square, 1 
on an eminence 78 feet 3 
above the tide, and is com- 1 
posed of a central edifice | 
with two wings, with 
projection on the west side. | 
It covers H acres and 1,8-20 1 
square feet, exclusive off 
the circular enclosure for | 
fuel, forming an elegant \ 

area and glacier on the I .^,,.,^^, WI , 1I1 

west front. The length of the Iront is '&&t feet, including the wings ; the 
depth of the wings is 121 feet. The projection on the east or main front, 
including the steps, is 65 feet wide, and another on the west front 83 feet 
wide. On the east front there is a splendid portico of 22 columns 38 feet 
high ; and on the west front is a portico of ten columns. The height of 
the building to the top of the dome is 120 feet. Under the dome, in the 
middle of the building, is the Rotunda, 95 feet in diameter, and of the 
same height, and adorned with sculpture, in stone panels in bold relief: 
the subjects of these are Smith delivered by the interposition of Pocahon- 
tas the Landing of the Pilgrims the conflict of Boone with the Indians 
and Penn treating with the Indians; and the four celebrated paintings by 
Trumbull, representing the presentation of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence to Congress the surrender of Burgoyne to Gates the surrender 
of Cornwallis at Yorktown and Washington resigning his commission 
to Congress at Annapolis ; also the baptism of Pocahontas, by Chapman ; 
and the Embarkation of the Pilgrims, by Weir. The east front has also, 
in two niches, colossal figures in marble, of Peace and of War, and a 
fine marble statue of COLUMBUS, by Persico, has just been added to this 
entrance. The colossal statue of WASHINGTON, by Greenough, has 
been placed in the East Park, in a neat temple erected for the purpose. 
To the west of the Rotunda is the library room of Congress, 92 by 34 
feet, and 36 feet in height, containing 30,000 volumes. In the second 
story of the south wing is the Hall of the House of Representatives, of a 
semicircular form, 96 feet long and 60 feet high, with a dome supported 
by 24 columns of native variegated marble, and with capitals of Italian 
marble. This room is ornamented by some fine statuary and paintings. 
The Senate Chamber is in the second story of the north wing, and is 
gemicircular, like that of the Representatives, but smaller, being 78 feet 
long and 45 feet high. Below the Senate Chamber, and nearly of the 
same form and dimensions, though much less elegant, is the room of the 
Supreme Court of the United States ; and there are in the building 70 
rooms for the accommodation of committees and officers of Congress. 
Around the Capitol are 22 acres of park, highly ornamented with trees of 
many varieties, shrubbery, fountains, &c. 




102 .DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

The President's House is an elegant edifice of freestone, two stories 

high, at the intersection of 
I Pennsylvania, Virginia, New 
| York, Connecticut, and Ver- 
|mont avenues, and stands 
jnear the centre of a park of 
1 20 acres, at an elevation of 
^ 44 feet above the river. The 

5 front entrance faces north 

6 upon La Fayette Square, and 
fe the southern front, towards 

the garden, presents a fine view of the city, of the Potomac river, and 
the shores of Maryland and Virginia. The building is 170 feet front and 
86 feet deep. The north front is ornamented with a fine Ionic portico of 
four lofty columns, projecting with three columns. The outer inter 
columniation is for carriages to drive into, to place the company under 
shelter. The middle space is the entrance for visitors who come on foot ; 
the steps from both lead to a broad platform in front of the door of en- 
trance. The interior is elegantly constructed and richly furnished. 

On the east of the President's House are two large buildings ; there are 
also two others on the west, for the accommodation of the Departments 
of State, of the Treasury, of War, and of the Navy. The General Post- 
office, and the Patent-office, are also extensive buildings. The new 
Treasury building has a splendid colonnade 457 feet in length. The 
General Post-office is of the Corinthian order. The Pn tent-office, in ad- 
dition to other spacious apartments, has one room in the upper story 275 
feet long and 65 feet wide, and when completed by wings, will be up- 
wards of 400 feet in length. The portico of this building is of the same 
extent as that of the Parthenon at Athens. 

The Navy Yard is on the eastern branch, about three- fourths of a mfle 
southeast of the Capitol, and contains 27 acres. It has houses for officers, 
shops, and warehouses, two large ship-houses, an armory, &c. The city 
contains 30 places of worship, two orphan asylums, three banks, a city- 
hall, an hospital, a penitentiary, a theatre, 12 academies, &c. 

Columbian College was incorporated in 1821. It is pleasantly situated 
on elevated ground north of the President's house. It has a medical 
department attached. In the several departments are a president. 10 
professors, and 104 students. It has 4,200 volumes in its libraries. The 
commencement is on the first Wednesday of October. The National 
Institution for the Promotion of Science, was organized in 1840. It meets 
monthly. Its collections are in the* grand hall of the Patent-office. The 
United States Exploring Expedition has added largely to its collection. 
The Union Literary Society holds a weekly discussion at the lecture-room 
of the Medical College. The City Library contains 6,000 volumes, 

The Congressional Cemetery, a mile east of the Capitol, is handsomely 
laid out, and contains many sculptured tombs, monuments, &c. It is 
tastefully adorned with trees and shrubbery. 

The seat of the Federal government was removed to Washington city 
in 1800. The north wing of the Capitol was commenced September 
16th, 1793; the President, George Washington, laid the corner-stone: 
the architect was Pierre C. L'Enfant. Cars leave Washington daily for 
Boston, via Baltimore, Philadelphia, and JV*. York. Steamboat for Norfolk. 
-Stages for St. Louis, Cincinnati, Detroit, &c. Steamboat, railroad, and staff t 
line forN. O. via Richmond, WUmington, Charleston, Mobile, See routes 




DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 103 

' No traveller should leave Washington without making a pilgrimage to 
Mount Vernon. It is on the bank of the Potomac, fifteen miles from the 
city. A recent traveller thus describes the spot and his visit. " After a 
few miles of riding through the forest, with occasional openings and culti- 
vated spots, my friend pointed out a stone sunk in the ground by the road- 
side, which, he suid, marked the beginning of the Mount Vernon estate. 
Still we rode on for a couple of miles, before the gate and porter's lodge 
came in sight. After passing the gate, we had still a distance of half a 
mile before us, and the simple carriage-path led us over a surface much 
diversified, while the trees were most grand and forest-like. We crossed 
a brook, passed through a ravine, and felt ourselves so completely in the 
midst of aboriginal, untouched nature, that the sight of the house and the 
cluster of surrounding buildings,_came like a surprise upon me. The 
approach to the , 
house is towards j 
the west front. | 
The door fromf 
the piazza open- 
ed directly into| 
a large room,*; 
which we enter- f 
ed. It was no| 

mere habit that" _^^_^. . 

lifted the hat from my head, and~i stepped lightly, as though upon 
hallowed ground. . . . The rooms of the house are spacious, and 
there is something of elegance in their arrangement; yet the whole is 
marked by great simplicity. All the regard one could wish, seems to 
have been shown to the sacredness of these public relics, and all things 
have been kept very nearly as Washington left them. Let every Ameri- 
can, and especially every young American, visit this place, and catch 
something of its spirit. It will make an impression on him which 

may endure through life At a short distance from the house, in a 

retired spot, stands the new family tomb, a plain structure of brick, with 
a barred iron gate, through which are seen two sarcophagi of white 
marble, side by side, containing the remains of Washington and his 
consort. The old family tomb, in which he was first placed, is in a more 
picturesque situation, upon a knoll, in full view of the river; but the 
present one is more retired, which was reason enough to determine the 
wishes of a modest man." 

GEORGETOWN, on the left bank of the Potomac river, is two miles west of 
Washington, from which it is separated by Rock creek, over which are 
two bridges. The situation is pleasant, commanding a fine view of the 
Potomac river, the city of Washington, and of the adjacent country ; and 
it contains many elegant buildings and country-seats. It has four banks, 
a market-house, 7 churches, 6 academies, a college, and 7,312 in- 
habitants. Georgetown College, founded in 1791, under the direction of 
the Roman Catholics, has two spacious brick edifices, finely situated. 
It has a president and 14 professors, or other instructors, 90 alumni, 140 
students, and 25,000 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is 
near the last of July. It was authorized by Congress, in 1815, to confer 
degrees. There is also a nunnery, called the Convent of Visitation, 
founded in 1798, which contains from 50 to 70 nuns, attached to which is 
a large female academy, which generally contains 100 young ladies, in- 
structed by the nuns. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal commences at 



104 



STATE OF VIRGINIA. 



this place, which is designed to be extended to the Ohio river, nnd 
which has heen recently continued to Alexandria. Omnibuses arrive from 
and depart for Washington every 15 minutes. 

ALEXANDRIA, seven miles below Washington, is finely situated on the 
right bank of the Potomac, which has a depth of water here sufficient for 
vessels of the largest class. The city is considerably elevated, ascending 
gradually from the river; the streets cross each other at right angles. It 
contains a court-house, 10 churches, two banks, two insurance com- 
panies, a museum, 8 academies, and 8,500 inhabitants. The Museum is 
well worth attention. It. contains more personal relics of Gen. Washing- 
Ion than can be found elsewhere, and also a large and curious collection 
of specimens in natural history. The city has considerable shipping, and 
exports wheat, Indian corn, and tobacco. The Chesapeake and Ohio 
canal extends to this place. Steamboats ply hourly to and from Washington. 



VIRGINIA lies between 36 33' and 40 43' N. 
lat., and between 75 25' and 83 40' W. Ion. It is 
370 miles long and 200 broad at its greatest width, con- 
taining 64,000 square miles. Population in 1840, 
1,239,797. 

f As regards surface and soil, this state mny be di- 
/ vided into four sections. The eastern includes a tract 
of about 100 or 120 miles in width, and is generally 
low and level, and in some places marshy ; it has a 
j light sandy soil, mostly covered with pines. West of 
the line of the head of tide-water the country becomes 
" undulating and hilly, until it attains one continuous 
I mountain elevation, known as the Blue Ridge, cross- 
ing uio enure width of the state. The alluvial lands in this tract are for 
the most part very fertile, those of James river especially being un- 
usually productive. The third section includes the valley between the 
JBlue Ridge and the Alleghany mountains. This tract, though in parts 
broken by mountains, is generally the most fertile and healthy part of the 
state. The fourth section includes the country between the Alleghany 
chain and the Ohio ; this portion, though in many places wild and broken, 
has a great deal of fine fertile land, with vast deposites of coal, iron, 
salt, &c. 

The Potomac river separates Virginia from Maryland. James river is 
the largest which belongs to this state. It is 500 miles in length, and flows 
from the mountains in the interior, behind the Blue Ridge, through which 
it passes. It is navigable for sloops 120 miles, and for boats much further, 
and flows into Chesapeake bay. The Appamattox is 130 miles long, and 



STATE OF VIRGINIA. 105 

enters James river 100 miles above Hampton Roads, and is navigable 12 
miles to Petersburg. The Rappahannock, 130 miles long, and navigable 
110 miles for sloops, rises in the Blue Ridge, and flows into the Chesa- 
peake. York river enters the Chesapeake 30 miles below the Rappahan- 
nock, and is navigable 40 miles for ships. The Shenandoah enters the 
Potomac just before its passage through the Blue Ridge. Of the rivers 
west of the mountains, the Great Kanawha rises in North Carolina, 
passes through this state, and enters the Ohio. The Little Kanawha also 
flows into the Ohio. The Monongahela rises in this state, though it 
runs chiefly in Pennsylvania. The lower part of Chesapeake bay lies 
wholly in this state, is 15 miles wide at its mouth, and enters the Atlantic 
between Cape Charles and Cape Henry. 

The executive power is vested in a governor, elected by the joint vote of 
the two houses of the General Assembly. He is chosen for three years, 
and is ineligible for the next three. There is a council of state, elected 
in like manner for three years, the seat of one being vacated every year. 
The senior councillor is lieutenant-governor. The senators can never be 
more than 36, and the delegates than 150; and both are apportioned 
anew among the counties every ten years. The senators are elected for 
four years, and the seats of one-fourth of them are vacated every year. 
The delegates are chosen annually. All appointments to any office of 
trust, honor, or profit, by the legislature, are made openly, or viva voce, 
and not by ballot. The judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals, and of 
the superior courts, are elected by the joint vote of both houses of the 
General Assembly, and hold their offices during good behavior, or until 
removed by a joint vote of two-thirds of the legislature. 

The right of suffrage is extended to every resident white male citizen 
21 years of age, entitled to vote by the former constitution ; or who 
owns a freehold valued at $25, or a joint interest in a freehold to that 
amount; or who has a life estate, or a reversionary title to land valued at 
$50, having been so possessed for six months ; or who shall own, or be in 
occupation of a leasehold estate having been recorded two months, for a 
term not less than five years, of the annual value or rent of $200; or who 
for 12 months shall have been a housekeeper and head of a family, and 
paid the taxes assessed by the commonwealth. 

The literary institutions in this state are William and Mary College, at 
Williamsburg ; Hampden Sidney College, in Prince Edward county, 
with a medical department in Richmond ; Washington College, at Lex- 
ington; Randolph Macon College, at Boydton ; the University of Vir- 
ginia, at Charlottesville ; St. Vincent's College, at Richmond ; and Rich- 
mond College, do. There are theological schools at Richmond and in 
Fairfax county. There are about 400 academies and 2,000 common schools. 

Virginia is sometimes called the Ancient Dominion, having been 
settled in April, 1607, at Jamestown, on James river, which was the 
first white settlement in the United States. In convention, June 25th, 1788, 
the constitution of the United States was adopted yeas 89, nays 79. 

Jamestown, the first settlement in British America, was commenced by 
Capt. John Smith and his companions, May 13th, 1607. The site is a 
point of land projecting into James river, seven miles distant from Wil- 
liamsburg. Of this interesting spot, little now remains but a church- 
yard, and the tower of an ancient church a venerable memento of an- 
tiquity, carrying back the mind of the traveller, as he hurries by in a 
passing steamer, to scenes long since vanished " down time's lengthening 
Jvay." 

5* 



106 



STATE OF VIRGINIA. 




RICHMOND, the capital of the state, is beautifully situated on the 

left bunk of James river, 
at the lower falls, and ]50 
miles above it* entrance into 
Chesapeake bay. It is 117 
miles from Washington, and 
343 from New York. Popu- 
lation in 1H40, ;JO,1 53. The 
city is well situated for com- 
merce, being at the head 
of tide-water, on the river; 
vessers drawing ten feet of water come to Rockets, a mile below the 
centre of the city, and those drawing 15 feet to Warwick, 3 miles below. 
There are locks around the falls in James river, and above them it is 
navigable for boats 220 miles. A canal extends to Lynchburg, a distance 
of 116 miles. Manchester is directly opposite to the city, and is con- 
nected with it by two bridges. The situation of Richmond is healthy and 
highly picturesque. The streets cross each other at right angles, and the 
houses are well built. Shockoe and Richmond hills are opposite to each 
other, Shockoe ;reek passing between them : the city is spread over these 
hills and along the margin of the creek. Shockoe Hill, which is a 
favorite place of residence, is an elevated plain ; and near its brow is 
Capitol Square, a beautiful public ground. In the centre of this ground 
stands the Capitol, in a conspicuous and commanding situation, having a 
portico in front, with an entablature supported by lofty Ionic columns. 
Within the building, in an open hall, stands a marble statue of Washing" 
ton, by Hodoun. The City-hall, fronting the Capitol Square, is an ele- 
gant building of the Grecian order of architecture. There are in the city 
23 churches, 3 banks, two insurance companies, an armory, a theatre, 
a female asylum, a penitentiary, 13 academies, and a free Lancasteriati 
school. The city is supplied with water which is elevated by hydraulic 
power into three reservoirs containing a million of gallons each, from 
which it is distributed in pipes throughout the city. The Medical de- 
partment of Hampden Sidney College has a fine building of the Egyptian 
order of architecture ; it has a dean and five members of the faculty. St. 
Vincent's College, under the control of the Roman Catholics, is about 
one mile east of the city. It has a president and about 50 students. 
Richmond College, under the direction of the Baptists, is one mile 
west of the city. It has a president, 5 professors, and 100 students. 

Richmond was founded in 1742, and was made the capital of the state 
in 1780. Steamboats leave daily for Hampton Roads, Norfolk, Arc. Cars 
arrive from, and depart daily for Washington, (fare $5 ;) for Wilming- 
ton, JV. C., (fare $10.50;) 'for Gordonsville, (fare $3.25;) ami for 
Raleigh, JV. C. Stages leave 3 times a week f<n- Stauntvn, for IV kite 
Sulphur Springs via JLynchburff ; for Milton, JV. C. ; and for Old Point 
Comfort ; and twice a week for Rapjiahannock. 

NORFOLK is on the right bank of Elizabeth river, eight miles above its 
entrance into Hampton Roads, and 106 miles from Richmond. The situa- 
tion is low, and the streets are crooked and irregular. It contains a 
custom-house, a court-house, a market-house, a theatre, four banks, eight 
churches, an academy, a Lancasterian school, an orphan asylum, an 
atheneum, and 12,000 inhabitants. PORTSMOUTH is on the left bank of 
the river, and immediately opposite to Norfolk. It contains a court- 
house, six churches, a bank, and about 7.000 inhabitants. The United 



.STATE OF VIRGINIA. 



107 



States Navy Yard is situated in the part of the town known as Gosport, 
where has been constructed a large and costly drydock, and extensive 
buildings, workshops, &c., used in the construction of naval architecture. 
The Virginia Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy, established ill 
1840, has 40 pupils. The United States Naval Hospital is a short dis- 
tance from the Navy Yard. The harbor of Norfolk and Portsmouth, the 
entrance to which is through Hampton Roads, is one of the best on tho 
Atlantic coast. Steamboats leave daily for Richmond, for Washington, 
and fur Baltimore. Cars leave daily for Wilmington, JV. C., via 
Gareys. Stages leave for Petersburg ; and for Eden ton,, JV. C. 

HAMPTON, on the left bank of James river, contains a court-house, four 
churches, and about 1,200 inhabitants. Hampton Roads is a safe and 
capacious harbor, sufficiently deep for the largest ships of war, and is 
amply defended by forts Monroe and Calhoun. The channel leading in 
from the Capes of Virginia to Hampton Roads, is reduced at Old Point 







Ckrmfort to a very narrow width. The shoal water, under the action of 
the sea and the reaction of the bar, is kept in an unremitting ripple ; 
which circumstance has given to this place the name of the Rip Raps. 
Fort Monroe is an immense fortress, and will mount 335 guns, 130 of 
which are under bomb-proof covers ; Fort Calhoun, or the Castle of the 
Rip Raps, is directly opposite to Fort Monroe, at a distance of 1,900 
yards, and will mount 265 guns, most of which will be under cover. The 
beach at Old Point Comfort affords excellent bathing-ground ; this, with a 
fine hotel, and other attractions, cause the place to be much resorted to 
In the summer months. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for 
Baltimore; for Washington; for Richmond, and for Norfolk. 

PETERSBURG is situated on the right bank of Appomattox river, twelve 
rnileg above its entrance into James river, and 22 miles from Richmond. 
Vessels of light draught come up to its docks. The falls of the river here 



use, Masonic-hall, two 



afford extensive water-power. It 

banks, nine churches, eight ^.g 

academies, extensive manu- 

factories, mills, &c. f and | 

about 12,000 inhabitants. Ii '_ 

exports largely flour and to- \ 

bacco. Blinford Church, in '- 

the vicinity, is one of the most ] 

picturesque ruins in the coun- 

try. Cars arrive from, and M 

depart daily for Wilmington, * ____ __ _______ 

JV. C. ; for Raleigh ; and for Washington via Richmond. Steamboats 
leave daily for Norfolk. Stages leave 3 times a week for TVJiite. Sulphur 
Springs via. Jsjinchbnrg, and for Norfolk. 

WILLIAMS BURG, the oldest incorporated town in the state, and once 
the capital, is finely situated on a level plain, between York and James 
rivers. It is 58 miles from Richmond, 68 from Norfolk, and contains 3 







108 STATE OF VIRGINIA. 

churches, the magazine, the buildings of William and Mary Colleges, the 
Easton Lunatic Asylum, two seminaries, and 1,600 inhabitants. In the 
square, fronting the College, stands the statue of Lord Bottetourt, one of 
the colonial governors. It is much mutilated, though still presenting a 

specimen of elegant sculpture. 
William and Mary College, 
excepting Harvard Universi- 
ty, is the oldest literary in- 
stitution in the Union. It is 
\ distinguished for the very 
I large portion of its gradu- 
\ ates who have risen to emi- 
^? nence ; some of whom have 
=r~ held the hig'hpst stations In 
the Republic. It was founded in 1692, i the reign of William and Mary, 
who granted it a donation of 20,000 acres of land. It has a president and 
five professors, 100 students, and 4,000 volumes in its libraries. The com- 
mencement is on the fourth of July. There is a law department in this 
institution. (See route 285.) 

YORKTOWN, on the right bank of York river, 70 miles from Richmond, 
was founded in 1705, and was once a flourishing village ; it has now about 
40 dwellings, many of which are dilapidated and fast going to decay. It 
. is memorable as the place where Lord Cornwallis surrendered his forces to 
the combined armies of America and France. 

FREDERICKSBTJRG, situated on the rij;ht bank of Rappahannock river, 
56 miles from Washington, is regularly laid out, and presents a beautiful 
appearance from the heights by which it is surrounded. The falls of the 
river afford good water-power : vessels of 140 tons come up to the foot of 
the falls. It contains a court-house, two banks, an orphan asylum, five 
churches, five academies, and about 4,000 inhabitants. Cars arrive from, 
and depart daily for Washington, and for Richmond. Stages leave 3 
times a week for Stauntonvia Chariottesville ; twice a week for Winchester, 
and for Yorktown. 

WARRENTON is a beautiful village 56 miles from Washington. It con- 
tains a court-house, three churches, two academies, and 1,400 inhabitants, 
The Fauquier White Sulphur Springs are six miles southwest from 
Warrenton. The improvements are very extensive, and the grounds 
beautifully adorned with shrubbery. The waters are in much repute. 
Stages arrive from, and depart 3 times a week (daily in summer) for 
Washington, and for Fredericksburg. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE is beautifully situated in a fertile valley on the right 
bank of Rivanna river, 83 miles from Richmond. It is handsomely built, 
and contains four churches, an academy, a female seminary, and about 
2,000 inhabitants. It is the seat of the University of Virginia, which was 
planned by Mr. Jefferson. The buildings are arranged on three sides of a 
grassy parallelogram, at the upper end of which stands a large rotunda 
containing the library and lecture-rooms. It has a fine philosophical and 
chemical apparatus, a cabinet, an anatomical museum, and an astronomical 
observatory. The buildings include ten pavilions for the professors, and 

109 dormitories and six hotels for the accommodation of the students. 
The institution went into operation hi 1825, and has nine professors, 1,236 
alumni, 200 students, and 16,000 volumes in its libraries. The com- 
mencement is on the fourth of July. .MonticeUn, formerly the scat df 
Thomas Jefferson, is three miles southeast from Charkrttesville. Stages 



STATE OF VIRGINIA. 109 

*n connection with railroad cars leave daily for Richmond ; stages daily 
for Washington, and for White Sulphur Springs ; and 3 times a week for 
Fredericks burg and for Lynchburg. 

LYNCHBURG is situated on the right bank of James river, 116 miles from 
Richmond, on a steep declivity, and is surrounded by bold and beautiful 
scenery. It contains two banks, three savings banks, eight churches, 15 
classical schools, a library, 30 tobacco manufactories, several extensive 
flouring-mills, and about 7,000 inhabitants. It is a great tobacco mart, 
and has an extensive mercantile trade. The town is supplied with water 
from the James river, raised by hydraulic power into a reservoir capable 
of containing 400,000 gallons, elevated 253 feet above the river, from 
whence the water is distributed in iron pipes. The James river canal 
extends to Richmond, a distance of 147 miles. Stages leave three times a, 
week for Ouyandotte via White Sulphur Springs ; for Abingdon ; for 
Salisbury, JV*. C., via Danville; and for Richmond and Petersburg. 

FARMVILLE, situated on the right bank of the Appomattox river, 75 
miles from Richmond, contains three churches, a bank, ten tobacco 
factories, and about 1,400 inhabitants. Ten miles southwest is Hampden 
Sydney College, founded in 1774, and chartered as a college in 1783. It has 
a president, five professors, 70 students, and 8,000 volumes in its libraries. 
The commencement is on the fourth Wednesday in September. In the 
vicinity of the college is the Union Theological Seminary, founded in 
1824. It has three professors, 20 students, 175 graduates, and 4,000 
volumes in its libraries. Stages leave Farmville 3 times a week for Rich- 
mond; for Charlottesville ; for Lynchburg ; and for Petersburg. 

MARTINSBURG, on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, is 20 
miles from Harper's Ferry. It contains a court-house, 6 churches, two 
academies, and about 1,700 inhabitants. Berkeley Springs, twenty-five 
miles from Martinsburg, are much frequented, and are in high repute. 
The waters are but slightly impregnated with mineral ingredients. 

HARPER'S FERRY is at the junction of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers, 
81 miles from Baltimore and 63 from Washington. The scenery here is 
perhaps the most singularly picturesque in America. To attain the ele- 
vation from which the view is taken heading our description of the state 
of Virginia, (see page 104,) it is necessary to climb the Blue Ridge by a 
narrow winding path immediately above the bank of the Potomac. The 
junction of the two rivers is immediately beneath the spectator's feet ; and 
his delighted eye, resting, first upon the beautiful village of Harper's 
Ferry, wanders over the wide and woody plains extending to the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. (For a particular and masterly description, see Jeffer- 
son's Notes on Virginia.) The village contains a national arsenal and 
armory, four churches, an academy, and about 3,000 inhabitants. In the 
armory are employed about 250 persons, manufacturing 9,000 stand of 
arms annually ; and in the arsenal are stored from 80 to 90,000 stand 
of arms. Cars leave daily for Baltimore, for Cumberland, and for 
Winchester. 

CHARLESTOWN, 8 miles 
from Harper's Ferry, con- 1 
tains a court-house, a bank, i 
an academy, 3 churches, | 
and 1 ,500 inhabitants. The | 
Shannondale Springs are| 
five miles distant from 
Charlestown, from which stages run daily. The Springs are upon the 




110 STATE OF VIRGINIA. 

Shannondale rirer, near the Blue Ridge. The water? contain sulphate 
of lime, carbonate of lime, sulphate of magnesia, muriate of magnesia, 
muriate of soda, sulphate of iron, carbonate of iron, sulphureted hydrogen, 
and carbonic acid. They closely resemble the celebrated Bedford waters 
in composition, operation, and efficacy. The scenery in the vicinity of 
these springs is varied and picturesque. Cars arrive at Charlestown in 7 
hours from Baltimore. 

WINCHESTER is situated in a fertile valley, 113 miles from Baltimore and 
146 from Richmond. The streets are regularly laid out and the houses hand- 
somely built. It has a court-house, lyceum, Masonic-hall, 12 churches, 
two banks, a savings institution, an academy, and 3 ; 500 inhabitants. The 
place is supplied with water brought from a spring through iron pipes. 
Jordan's White Sulphur Springs, 6 miles north from Winchester, have 
lately come into notice. The waters are said to resemble the White 
Sulphur Springs of Greenbrier. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for 
Baltimore. Stages leave 3 times a week for Washington, for the White 
Sulphur Springs, and also for Parker sburg. 

WOODSTOCK, 62 miles from Harper's Fery, on the north branch of the 
Shenandooh river, contains a court-house, an academy, a Masonic-hall, 3 
churches, and 1,000 inhabitants. The Orkney or Yellow Springs are 
about 18 miles from Woodstock. There are several lively springs, the 
waters of which are strongly chalybeate, and have been found beneficial 
for several complaints. (See route 268.) 

STAUNTON, 207 miles from Baltimore, 162 from Washington, and 120 
from Richmond, is on the head waters of the Shenandoah river. It con- 
tains a court-house, the Western Lunatic Asylum, the Virginia Institu- 
tion for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, two academies, two seminaries, 
4 churches, and 2,200 inhabitants. The Augusta Springs are twelve 
miles NW. of Staunton. The water is strongly impregnated with 
eulphureted hydrogen, and is said to equal the celebrated Harrowgato 
waters, England. The accommodations for visitors are ample, and tho 
situation is extremely picturesque. The Cyclopean towers, near these 
springs, are among the most wonderful curiosities of Virginia. Weir's 
Cave is 17 miles NW. of Staunton, in a hill a short distance west of tho 
Blue Ridge. "Its dimensions, by the most direct course, are more than 
1,600 feet ; and by more winding paths, twice that length ; and its objects 
are remarkable for their variety, formation, and beauty. In both respects 
it will, I think, compare, without injury to itself, with the celebrated 
Grotto of Antiparos." Stages arrive and depart 3 times a week for Bal- 
timore via Harper's Ferry; for Washington via CharlottesvUle, and 
Fredericksburg : for Richmond, for the White Sulphur Springs, and for 
Knoxvifle, via Fincastle, jJbingdon, &rc. (See route 281.) 

THE WARM SPRINGS, 57 miles from Staunton, are delightfully situated, 
in a narrow and fertile valley, between two mountain ranges. Besides 
the county buildings and the elegant hotels, there are but few dwellings. 
The waters of the Warm Springs afford the most luxurious bathing in 
the world ; they contain neutral salts, and various gases, which act as a 
gentle aperient, diuretic and sudorific, and give tone and vigor to the 
system. The Hot Springs are five miles from the Warm, in the same 
beautiful valley with the latter. The waters of the Hot Springs contain 
nitrogen and carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, sulphate of lime, sulphate 
of soda, sulphate of magnesia, muriate of soda, silica, and a trace of 
oxide of iron. (See route 281.) 



STATE OF VIRGINIA. 



Ill 




THE WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS, the most celebrated watering-place of 
Virginia, are situated 229 miles from Richmond, on the western declivity of 
the Alleghany mountains, in an extensive valley, as picturesque as fancy ever 
sketched upon the lap of nature. The spring discharges 18 gallons of 
water per minute, at a uniform temperature of 60 of Fahrenheit. It con- 
tains sulphate of lime, sulphate of soda, carbonate of magnesia, chloride 
of calcium, sulpho-hydrate of sodium, carbonate of lime, chloride of 
sodium, per-oxide of iron, organic matter, iodine, sulphate of magnesia, 
phosphate of lime, and precipitated sulphur, with the following gases 
carbonic acid, sulphureted hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. It is very 
efficacious in dyspepsia, liver complaints, jaundice, gout, rheumatism, 
diseases of the skin, and various other complaints. The accommodations 
for visitors are elegant, and sufficiently extensive for 1,500 persons ; while 
the fountain, walks, and grounds are tastefully arranged. The Blue Sulphur 
Springs are twenty-two miles west, in a valley surrounded on three sides by 
mountains, presenting wild and picturesque scenery. The buildings are 
of brick, and sufficient to entertain commodiously 400 persons. The 
water is similar to the White Sulphur, and the supply abundant. The 
Sweet Springs are situated in a wide and beautiful valley, 18 miles from 
the White Sulphur and 29 from Fincastle. The waters contain sulphate 
of magnesia, muriate of soda, muriate of lime, sulphate of lime, carbon- 
ate of magnesia, carbonate of lime, and silicious earth. About a mile 
north of the Sweet Springs is the Red Spring of Alleghany. Tho 
waters are said to be peculiarly efficacious in rheumatic complaints. The 
Salt Sulphur Springs are twenty-five miles from the White Sulphur, and 
three from the village of Union, on Indian Valley creek. There are three 
springs viz., the Sweet, the Salt Sulphur, and the New Spring. The 
lust contains a large portion of iodine, and is highly beneficial for scrofula, 
and those affections for which iodine is given. The two first are some- 
what alike in their properties. The Salt Sulphur contains sulphate of 
lime, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of soda, carbonate of lime, carbon- 
ate of magnesia, chloride of sodium, chloride of magnesium, chloride 
of calcium, iodine, (probably combined with sodium,) sulpho-hydrate of so- 
dium and magnesium, sulphur, mingled with a peculiar organic matter, 
per-oxide of iron derived from proto-sulphate, sulphureted hydrogen, 
nitrogen, oxygen, and carbonic acid. The temperature is 50 Fahren- 
heit. The Red Sulphur Springs are situated on Indian creek, 40 miles 
from the White Sulphur, 16 miles from the Salt Sulphur. The water is 
clear and cool its temperature being 54 Fahrenheit is strongly charged 
with sulphureted hydrogen gas, and contains portions of several neutral 
salts. Stages leave the White Sulphur Springs three times a week for 
Washington via Charlottesville ; for Baltimore via Winchester ; for 
Richmond via Lynchburg ; for Guyandotte ; and for Knoxville, Tenn. 

LEXINGTON is situated on on elevated bank on the west side of North 



112 STATE OF VIRGINIA. 

river, a branch of James river, 146 miles from Richmond, and 32 from 
Staunton. It contains a neat court-house, 4 churches, the buildings of 
Washington College, and the Military Institution, a classical school, the 
Ann Smith Female Academy, and 1,200 inhabitants. Washington Col- 
lege, endowed in 1796 by the immortal Washington, and founded in 1812, 
has a president and five professors, or other instructors, 126 alumni, 136 
students, and 2,700 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is on 
the last Thursday in June. The Virginia Military Institute, on the plan 
of the school at West Point, has 3 professors and 60 cadets. Fourteen 
miles southeasterly from Lexington is the NATURAL BRIDGE, a curiosity 
of surpassing grandeur. The mean height of the bridge from the stream 
to its upper surface is 215 ft ; its average width is 80 ft., its length 93 ft. 
thickness of the arch 55 ft span of the arch 90 ft. (See route 299.) 

FINCASTLE, pleasantly situated on the southeast declivity of Catawba 
valley, 175 miles from Richmond, contains a court-house, two academies, 
4 churches, and 700 inhabitants. The Bottetourt Springs, twelve miles 
from Fincastle, are much frequented, and the improvements are sufficient 
to accommodate a large number of visitors. The waters contain sulphur, 
magnesia, carbonic acid gas, &c. Daggers' 1 Springs are 18 miles from 
Fincastle. The most active mineral ingredients in the water are carbona- 
ted alkalies. There are good accommodations for visitors, and the neigh- 
borhood abounds in picturesque scenery. Stages leave Fincastle 3 times 
weekly for Lynctiburg ; for Winchester ; for Guyandotte via White Sul- 
phur Springs ; and for Union via Sweet Springs. 

WYTHEVILLE, 252 miles from Richmond, contains four churches and 
about 700 inhabitants. Grayson Sulphur Springs, 20 miles from Wythe- 
ville, are situated on the bank of New river, surrounded by scenery of a 
remarkably wild and picturesque character. The waters contain carbon- 
ate of soda, carbonate of magnesia, carbonate of lime, sulphate of lime, 
sulphate of magnesia, chloride of sodium, chloride of calcium, chloride 
of magnesium, sulphate of soda, &c. (See route 303.) 

ABINGDON, situated between the forks of Holston river, 8 miles north 
of the Tennessee line, is the most considerable and flourishing town in 
SW. Virginia. Here are a court-house, two academies, four churches, 
several manufacturing establishments, and about 1,200 inhabitants. 
Emory and Henry College, founded in 1838, by the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, is ten miles from the village It has a president, two professors, 
one tutor, 125 students, and 2,800 volumes in its libraries. The com- 
mencement is on the last Wednesday in June. The Chilhowee Sulphur 
Springs are within 18 miles of Abingdon. Stages leave Abingdon 
3 times a week for Lynchburg,for Winchester, and for Knoxville, Tenn. 

ESTILLVILLE, situated near the Clinch river, is a small village oi 
about 60 dwellings, one church, and a court-house. Four miles from it 
are the Holston Springs, the waters of which possess highly medicinal 
properties, and are very similar to the White Sulphur. The uniform 
temperature of the water is 68, which renders it a natural medicated 
bath of the most agreeable degree of heat. The Natural Tunnel is twelve 
miles west from the village. The passage through the mountain is about 
450 feet in length. A stream of water passes through it and a stage-road 
over it. The entrance on the upper side of the ridge is in a high degree 
imposing and picturesque ; but on the lower side the grandeur of the 
scene is greatly heightened by the superior magnitude of the cliffs, which 
rise perpendicularly more than 300 feet. Stages leave 3 times a week for 
the White Sulphur Springs, and for Cumberland Gap, Tenn. 



STATE OF VIRGINIA. 



113 



WELLSBURO, on the left bank of the Ohio river, 87 miles from Pitta- 
burg, contains a court-house, 5 churches, 2 academies, a bank, several 
extensive factories, and '2,000 inhabitants. Bethany is eight miles east 
from Wellsburg. It has a few dwellings and the buildings of Bethany 
College. This institution has a president, 4 professors, and 100 students. 




WHEELING is situated on the left bank of Ohio river, at the mouth of 
Wheeling creek, 104 miles below Pittsburg by the river, and is surrounded 
by bold and precipitous hills, containing vast quantities of bituminous 
coal. It contains a handsome court-house, two academies, two banks 
and a savings institution, 12 churches, a theatre, the Wheeling Institute, 
a Masonic-hall, a large number of mills and factories, and 8,000 inhabi- 
tants. The city is well supplied with water, raised from the Ohio river. 
Steamboats leave daily for Cincinnati, frc. (See route 620.) Stages in 
connection with railroad cars leave daily for Baltimore, (fare $11,) 
Stages arrive from, and depart datfs for Pittsbiirg ; for Cincinnati ; for 
Maysville, Ky, ; and also for St ^uis, via Columbus, Ohio, Indianapo 
Us, la., and Terre- Haute; three times a week for Jlshtabula ; for Cleve- 
land ; for Sandusky ; and twice a week for Marietta, Ohio. 

ELIZABETH, 12 miles below Wheeling, on the left bank of the Ohio 
river, contains a court-house and a few dwellings. Here, scattered over 
a large plain, are very extensive ancient tumuli, consisting of one main 
mound 116 feet high and 400 yards in circumference, surrounded by a 
ditch, and encompassed by other similar but smaller mounds. 

PARKKRSBURO is situated on the north side of Little Kanawha river, nt 
its junction with Ohio river, 209 miles, by the river, below Pittsburg. It 
has" a court-house, a bank, 4 churches, and about 1,200 inhabitants, and is 
a flourishing village. Two miles beJow, in the Ohio, is Blannerhassefg 
Island, a beautifully wooded spot, celebrated as the residence of Mr. 
Blannerhasset. Stages leave 3 times a week for Baltimore, via Winchester. 

POINT PLEASANT is situated on the left bank of the Ohio river, at the 
mouth of Great Kanawha river, 296 miles below Pittsburg by the course 
of the river. It is on the site of one of the bloodiest battles ever fought 
with the Indians in Virginia, which took place Oct. 10th, 1774. The 
village contains a court-house, two churches, and about 500 inhabitants. 
Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for Pittsburg and for Cin- 
cinnati. Stages three times a week for the White Sulphur Springs, Src. 

GUYANDOTTE lies on the left bank of the Ohio river, at the entrance of 
Guyandotte river, 337 miles below Pittsburg. It is the most important 
point of steamboat embarkation and debarkation in Western Virginia, 
with the exception of Wheeling, and is rapidly growing in importance in 
this respect. It contains a church and about 800 inhabitants. Stages 
lea.ve 3 times a week for Richmond, for Washington, and for Baltimore 
via the White Sulphur Springs. 



114 



STATE OF OHIO. 




OHIO lies between lat. 38 30' N. and 42 N., and 
between 80 35' and 84 47' W. Ion. It is 210 miles 
long from north to south, and 200 miles broad; con- 
taining 40,000 square miles. The population in 1840, 
was 1,519,467, making it the third in population in the 
United Slates. 

The land in the interior of the state, and bordering 
on Lake Erie, is generally level, and in some places 
marshy. From one-quarter to one-third of the state, 
comprehending the eastern and southeastern parts, bordering on the Ohio 
river, is generally hilly and broken, but in no part mountainous. On the 
margin of the Ohio river, and several of its tributaries, are alluvial lands 
of great fertility. The valleys of the Scioto and the Great and Little 
Miami, are the most extensive sections of level, rich, and fertile lands in 
the state. At the head of the Muskingum river are prairies of considera- 
ble extent, some of which are wet, though generally dry and fertile. The 
height of land which divides the waters which fall into the Ohio from 
those which fall into Lake Erie, is the most marshy of any in the state; 
while the land on the margin of the rivers is generally dry. Wheat may 
be regarded as the staple production of the state, though Indian corn and 
other grains are largely cultivated. 

The Ohio river, which gives name to the state, washes its entire southern 
border. This river is 1,004 miles long, from Pittsburg to its mouth, 
by its various windings, though it is only 614 in a direct line. Its cur- 
rent is gentle, with no falls excepting at Louisville, Kentucky, where 
there is a descent of 22 i feet in two miles, (which is obviated by a canal.) 
For about half the year it is navigable for steamboats of a large class 
through its whole course. The Muskingum, the largest river which flows 
entirely in this state, is formed by the junction of the Tuscarawas and 
Wai bonding rivers, and enters the Ohio at Marietta. It is navigable for 
boats 100 miles. The Scioto, the second river in magnitude, flowing en- 
tirely within the state, is about 200 miles long, and enters the Ohio at 
Portsmouth. Its largest branch is the Whetstone, or Olentangy, which 
joins it immediately above Columbus ; it is navigable for boats 130 miles. 
The Great Miami, a rapid river in the western part of the state, is 100 
miles long, and enters the Ohio in the SW. corner of the state. The 
Little Miami has a course of 70 miles, and enters the Ohio seven miles 
above Cincinnati. The Maumee, 100 miles long, rises in Indiana, runs 
through the northwest part of the state, and enters Lake Erie at Maumee 
bay. It is navigable for steamboats to Perrysburg, 18 miles from the lake, 
and above the rapids is beatable for a considerable distance. The San- 
dusky rises in the northern part of the state, and after a course of about 
80 miles, enters Sandusky bay, and thence into Lake Erie. The Cuyahoga 



STATE OF OHIO. 115 

rises in the north part of the state, and, after a curved course of 60 miles, 
enters Lake Erie at Cleveland. It has a number of falls which furnish 
valuable mill-seats. Besides these, there are Huron, Vermilion, Black, 
Grand, and Ashtabula rivers, which fall into Lake Erie. 

The governor is elected by the people for two years. The senators are 
chosen biennially, and are apportioned according to the number of 
male white inhabitants over 21 years of age. The number can never 
be less than one-third, nor more than one-half the number of the repre- 
sentatives. The representatives are apportioned among the counties 
according to the number of inhabitants over 21 years of age, and there 
can never be more than 72 nor less than 36. The judges of the Supreme 
Court and other courts are elected by the joint-ballot of the legislature, 
for the term of seven years. The right of suffrage is enjoyed by 11 white 
male citizens over 21 years of age, who have resided in the state one 
year next preceding the election, and who have paid or been assessed 
with a state or county tax. 

Literary Institutions : The University of Ohio, at Athens ; the Miami 
University, at Oxford ; Franklin College, at New Athens ; the Western 
Reserve College, at Hudson; Granville College, at Granville; Oberlin 
Collegiate Institute, at Oberlin ; Cincinnati College, at Cincinnati ; Kenyon 
College, at Gambler ; Marietta College, at Marietta ; Willoughly Uni- 
versity, at Willoughly ; Lane Theological Seminary, at Cincinnati. 
There are also theological departments in Kenyon, Western Reserve, 
and Granville colleges, and in the Oberlin Institute ; a Lutheran Theologi- 
cal School at Columbus ; two medical and one law school at Cincinnati. 
There are in the state 75 academies and 5,200 common schools. 

The first permanent settlement in Ohio was made in 1788, at Marietta. 
In 1802 Ohio was admitted into the Union. 




CINCIN 



nkof 



state, is situated on the right 

the Ohio river, 455 miles below Pittsburg, and 1,548 above New Orleans. 

It is the largest city of the west, north of New Orleans, and the sixth 

in population in the United States. Population in 1840, 46,338; in 

1845, 

The city is near the eastern extremity of a valley of about 12 miles in 
circumference, surrounded by beautiful hills which rise to the height of 
300 feet by gentle slopes, which are mostly covered by trees. It is built on two 
table-lands, the one from 40 to 60 feet higher than the other. The upper 
plain of Cincinnati is 25 feet below the level of Lake Erie. The shore at 
the landing-place is paved to low-water mark, and supplied with floating 
wharves adapted to the great rise and fall of water in the river. The 
central part of the city is compactly and finely built with spacious ware- 
houses, stores, and dwellings, generally of brick. Many of the streets are 
well paved and extensively planted with shade -trees. The climate is 
variable, but is considered healthy. 

Cincinnati contains many literary and charitable institutions. The 



116 STATE OF OHIO. 

Cincinnati College, founded in 1819, has fine grounds and a valuable 
building in the centre of the city. It has a president, 7 professors or 
other instructors, and 160 students. The commencement is on the last 
Monday in June. Woodward College has a president, five professors or 
other instructors, 20 students, and 800 volumes in its libraries. St. Xavier 
College, founded in 1840, under the direction of the Roman Catholics, 
has a president and other instructors, about 100 students, and from 4 to 
5,000 volumes in its libraries. Lane Seminary, a Presbyterian Theological 
Institution, opened in 1833, and located at Walnut Hills, two miles from 
the city, has 3 professors, 62 students, and 10,300 volumes in its libraries. 
Its anniversary is on the second Wednesday in June. The Medical Col- 
lege of Ohio, chartered and placed under a board of trustees in 1825, has 
large and commodious buildings, with lecture-rooms, &c. It has seven 
professors, and over 2,000 volumes in its libraries. Its apparatus in 
anatomy, comparative anatomy, surgery, chemistry, and materia medica, 
is very complete. The lectures commence on the first Monday in Novem- 
ber, annually. Its students, who number 130, have access to the Com- 
mercial Hospital to witness operations and the treatment of patients by 
the faculty. The Cincinnati Law-school is connected with the Cincinnati 
College, and has 3 professors and 25 students. The Mechanics' Institute 
was chartered in 1828 for the Instruction of Mechanics, by lectures, &c., 
in the Arts and Sciences. It has a valuable philosophical and chemical 
apparatus, a library, and a reading-room. The Hall of the Institute is 
situated on Third-street, and contains an ample number of rooms, one of 
which is devoted to the Western Academy of Natural Sciences. An 
annual fair for encouraging Arts and Manufactures is held in another of 
the rooms, commencing on the third Monday in June. The common or 
free schools are of a high order ; nine of them have buildings three stories 
high, with various apparatus, 60 teachers, and about 4,000 scholars. A 
college of teachers was established in 1821, for advancing the interests of 
schools in the Mississippi valley. The Young Men's Mercantile Library 
Association has a library of 1,400 volumes and a reading-room. The 
Apprentices' Library, founded in 1821, contains 2,200 volumes. 

The charitable institutions of the city are highly respectable. There 
are two Roman Catholic asylums, and the Cincinnati Orphan Asylum. 
The Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Ohio, incorporated in 
3821, has accommodations for 250 persons ; a part of the establishment is 
appropriated as a poorhouse. 

There are 40 churches, a court-house, 4 markets, a United States Land- 
office, a theatre, and a museum. The city is supplied with water raised 
from the Ohio river by steam-power. A large water-power is obtained 
by the surplus water of the Miami canal, and manufacturing is carried on 
extensively. By means of canals, railroads, and macadamized turnpikes, 
Cincinnati enjoys great facilities for internal communication. The Miami 
;anal extends to, and unites with the Wabnsh and Erie canal. The 
iVhitewater canal extends to Cambridge, 70 miles. 
Cincinnati was founded in 1789, and chartered as a city in 1819. 
Steamboats leave daily for Pittsburg ; for St. Louis ; for New Orleans, 
and the intermediate places. Cars leave daily for Springfield, connecting 
with lines of stages for Columbus, Zanesville, Wheeling ; for Cleveland, 
ind for Sandusky city. Stages leave daily for Dayton ; for Si. Louis 
via Indianapolis ; 3 times a week for Chillicothe, and for Lancaster . 
twice a week for Nashville via Lexington; and also for Knozm'.le 
Tcnn. Fare to New Orleans, from $12 to 20. (See route 620.) 



STATE OF OHIO. 117 

COLUMBUS, the capital of the state, is situated on the left bank of 
Scioto river, immediately below the junction of Olentangy or Whetstone 
river, 142 miles from Cleveland, and 127 from Cincinnati. It is regularly 
laid out, with streets crossing each other at right angles. In the centre of 
the city is a public square of 10 acres, handsomely enclosed. A bridge 
across Scioto river connects it with Franklinton. 

Upon the southwest corner of the public square stands the State House. 
fronting the west, a brick edifice with two elevated stories, 75 feet long 
by 50 wide, with a handsome cupola, the top of the spire of which is ele- 
vated 106 feet above the ground, and from the balcony of which a beauti- 
ful view is presented of the city, the winding Scioto, and of the surround- 
ing country. It contains a Representatives' Hall on the lower floor, and 
a Senate-chamber immediately above. Near it stands a building for the 
public officers of the state. The State Penitentiary is an elegant and sub- 
stantial edifice, half a mile north of Broad-street. The Asylum for the 
Deaf and Dumb stands half a mile east of the State-house. The Stato 
Lunatic Asylum is on Broad-street, east of the State-house. The Institu- 
tion for the Blind is situated near the asylums. The Theological Semi- 
nary of the German Lutherans is on elevated ground, three-fourths of a 
mile south of the State-house. 

Columbus has 12 churches, many of which are very elegant buildings. 
A canal eleven miles long connects it with the Ohio canal at Lockbourne. 
Columbus was incorporated as a city in 1834. Stages leave daily for 
Wheeling, Va. ; for Cincinnati, and for Portsmouth ; three times a week 
for Cleveland; and for Sandusky City. 

ZANESVILLE is beautifully situated on the left bank of Muskingum 
river, opposite the mouth of Licking river, 73 miles from Wheeling. 
The National road runs through it, and crosses the Muskingum by a fine 
bridge. The village contains an elegant court-house, a market- house, two 
academies, an atheneum with a reading-room, a cabinet of minerals, and 
a library of 9,000 volumes, a juvenile lyceum with a reading-room and 
library, a bank, 9 churches, several extensive flouring-mills and iron works, 
and 4,766 inhabitants including the suburbs, 7,000. From this place the 
Muskingum, by dams and locks, has been made navigable to its mouth 
on the Ohio. The site of the town wxs granted to Ebenezer Zane, by 
Congress, as a reward for opening a bridle track from Wheeling to Mays- 
ville. The village was laid out and the first cabin built in 1799. Stages 
leave daily for Maysville, Ky. ; for Cincinnati, and for Wheeling ; three . 
times a week for Marietta, and for Cleveland, via Massillon. , 

CAMBRIDGE is situated on the east side of Wills creek, a branch of the 
Muskingum river, over which is a fine bridge. It contains a court-house, 
an academy, 4 churches, and 2,000 inhabitants. (See route 275.) 

ST. CLAIRSVILLE occupies an elevated situation on the National road, 
lltt miles from Cincinnati, and 11 from Wheeling, and contains six 
churches, a court-house, a bank, an academy, and 2,000 inhabitants. 
Staff cs pass daily from Wheeling and from Columbus. 

MARIETTA, named in honor of the unfortunate Maria Antoinette, is 
pleasantly situated on the Muskingum river, at its entrance into Ohio 
river, 196 miles below Pittsburg. Population 875. It is neatly built and 
contains a court-house, a United States Land-office, 5 churches, a bank, a 
lyceum, a female academy, a public library, and the Marietta Collegiato 
Institute, founded in 1832. The Institute has 7 professors or other in- 
structors, 50 students, and 3,500 volumes in its libraries. Manual labor is 
connected with it. The commencement is on the last Wednesday in 




118 STATE OF OHIO. 

July. Steamboats pass daily from Pittsburg, Cincinnati, <$<;., <-c. 
Stages leave three times a week for Zancsville, and twice a week for 
Wheeling, Va. 

ATHENS is prettily situated on the left bank of the Hocking river, 73 

miles from Columbus, and 

1 : ~ ipfc '__ contains a court-house, 3 

g_ churches, the buildings of 
It the Ohio University, an acad- 
|emy, and 800 inhabitants. 
\The Ohio University was 
^founded in 1819, and en- 
owed with two townships 
_ 'of land. It has 8 professors, 
r !49 alumni, 166 students, 
and 2,500 volumes in. its libraries. The commencement is on the first 
Wednesday in August. Stages leave 3 times a week for Columbus via 
Lancaster. 

GALLIPOLIS has a plensant situation on the right bank of Ohio river, 
on elevated ground, 300 miles, by river, from Pittsburg. It contains a 
court-house, two churches, a bank, an academy, and about 600 inhabi- 
tants. An ancient mound lies near the village. Steamboats pass daily 
from Pittsburg and Cincinnati. 

CIRCLEVILLE lies on the left bank of Scioto river, 97 miles from Cin- 
.cinnati. The village contains an elegant court-house, 6 public offices, 5 
churches, a bank, an academy, and about 2,000 inhabitants. The Ohio 
canal passes through the place, and crosses the river in a fine aqueduct, 
and there is here an extensive water-power. Within the limits of the 
town are two mounds or tumuli, one of which is square, and the other 
of a circular form ; from the latter the place derives its name. 

CHILLICOTHE, once the capital of the state, is handsomely situated on 
the right bank of Scioto river, 98 miles from Cincinnati. The village is 
built between Paint creek on the south and the Scioto on the north, the 
streams being three-fourths of a mile apart. It has a court-house, two 
markets, a United States Land-office, a bank, 4 churches, two academies, 
and 4,000 inhabitants. The Ohio canal passes through it. Near the 
village is a hill from which a fine view is obtained. In the vicinity, on 
Paint creek, and even on what is now occupied by the town, formerly 
stood several ancient tumuli, or mounds. Stages pass through daily 
for Zanesville ; for Columbus ; for Portsmouth ; and for Maysville, Ky. 

PORTSMOUTH is situated on the right bank of the Ohio river, at the en- 
trance of the Scioto river, 105 miles above Cincinnati. The Ohio canal, 
which connects Lake Erie with the Ohio river, terminates at this place. 
The village contains a court-house, 5 churches, a bank, and about 2,000 
inhabitants. Here are a number of mills and manufactories. Iron ore 
and coal abound in the vicinity. The town is supplied with water from 
the Ohio river, raised by steam-power. Steamboats pass daily for Wheel- 
ing, Pittsburg, Sec., and for Cincinnati. Stages leave daily for Columbus. 

STEUBENVILLE is situated on the west bank of the Ohio river, 80 miles 
below Pittsburg, by the river, and is regularly laid out. It contains a 
court-house, an elegant town-house, a bank, two academies, 6 churches, 
several extensive manufacturing establishments, and 3.500 inhabitants. 
Stages leave daily for Pittsburg ; three times a week for Washington, 
Pa. ; for Cambridge ; and for Canton ; and twice a week for Dover 
<3ee route 620.) 




STATE OF OHIO. 119 

NEW LISBON, situated on a branch of Little Beaver river, 59 miles from 
Pittsburg, contains a court-house, a bank, 6 churches, several manufac- 
tories, and about 2,000 inhabitants. 

PAINESVILLE is situated on elevated ground, on the left bank of Grand 
river, three miles from Lake Erie and 29 from Cleveland. It has a court- 
house, 4 churches, an academy, a bank, and 1,500 inhabitants. Fairport, 
two miles north, is near the mouth of Grand river where there is a good 
harbor. WILLOUGHBY, 11 miles southwest from Painesville, contains the 
Willoughby Medical College, two churches, and 700 inhabitants. Tlio 
College, chartered in 1834, has 9 professors and 126 students. The 
lectures commence on the last Monday in October. Stages leave Paines- 
ville daily for Buffalo via Erie ; and for Cleveland. 

CLEVELAND is situated on an elevated plain at the entrance of Cuyahoga 
river into Lake Erie, 
195 miles from Buf- 
falo. Its harbor is ? 
one of the best on i 
the lake, spacious | 
and safe. The city f 
is regularly laid out, | 
and near its centre ^ 
is a large public - 
square. The bluff on which it is built is 80 feet above the level of the 
lake, from which an extensive and beautiful view is obtained, overlook- 
ing the meanderings of the Cuyahoga, the shipping in the harbor, and the 
passing vessels on the lake. The city contains a court-house, a bank, a 
lyceum, a reading-room, five academies, twelve churches, and about 
9,000 inhabitants. The Ohio canal terminates here. The Medical De- 
partment of the Western Reserve College, founded in 1844, has seven 
professors and 11 1 students. The lectures commence on the first Wednes- 
day in November. The Western Reserve College is at Hudson, 24 miles 
southeast from Cleveland. The village contains several churches and 
about 1,000 inhabitants. The College, founded in 1826, has a president, 
5 professors, 82 alumni, 62 students, 6,500 volumes in its libraries, and an 
extensive philosophical apparatus. The commencement is on the second 
Wednesday in August. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for 
Buffalo ; and for Detroit, fyc. Stages leave daily for Buffalo via Erie, 
Pa. ; for Toledo via Sandusky ; and for Pittsburg, Pa. ; three times 
a week for Zancsville via Akron, Massillon, &c. Canal boats leave daily 
for Portsmouth and the intermediate places. (For route see canals in Ohio. ) 

AKRON is situated on the Ohio canal, 38 miles from Cleveland. The 
canal, by a succession of locks, rises to the Portage summit. From the 
waste water of the canal, and from the Little Cuyahoga, an immense 
water power has been created. The village contains a court-house, five 
churches, an academy, several extensive manufacturing establishments, 
and 2,000 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week for Cleveland. 

CUYAHOGA FALLS is on the Cuyahoga river, five miles from Akron. 
The river here passes through a deep channel in the rocks, and by succes. 
give cascades falls in a short distance 240 feet, causin? an immense water- 
power, which has been made extensively available. The village has four 
churches, a lyceum, an academy, and about. 1,000 inhabitants. 

MAssit.r.oN. situated on the left bank of the Tuscarawas river, and 
on tiie Ohio canal, contains a bank, three chutches, and about 1,500 
inhabitants. 




120 STATE OF OHIO. 

COSHOCTON is situated on the left bank of the Muskingum river, and 
contains 3 churches, a court-house, and about 500 inhabitants. 

NEWARK, 39 miles from Columbus, is on the Ohio canal. It has a 
court-house, two academies, 9 churches, and about 3,000 inhabitants. 
Granville, 7 miles from Newark, contains 5 churches, 3 seminaries, and 
about 1,000 inhabitants. Granville College, one mile east of the village, 
was founded in 1832, and has a president, 4 professors, 25 students, and 
3,000 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is on the 2d Wednesday 
in August. Stages leave for Zanesville via Newark 3 times a week. 

MT. VERNON, situated on Owl creek, a branch of Muskingum river, 51 

miles from Columbus, con- 
tains a court-house, ten 
; churches, several manu- 
facturing establishments, 
t and two thousand rive hun- 
' dred inhabitants. Gam- 
l bier, five miles from Mt. 

_| Vernon, is the seat of 

JKenyon College, founded in 1826, (under the direction of the Episco- 
palians,) which has a president, 7 professors, 115 alumni, 57 students, 
and 8,750 volumes in its libraries. The village contains 2 churches, an 
academy, and 300 inhabitants. Stages leave Mt. Vernon 3 times a week 
for Cleveland ; and also for Columbus. 

WOOSTER, situated on Killbuck creek, 93 miles from Columbus, con. 
tains a court-house, a United States Land-office, 7 churches, a bank, an 
academy, and 2,000 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week for Pitts- 
burg, Pa. ; for Cleveland ; for Sandusfcy City ; for Cincinnati via Colum* 
bus; and for Zanesville. 

ELYRIA, 116 miles north from Columbus, and 24 west from Cleveland, is 
pleasantly situated on a plain between the two branches of Black river, 
which unite half a mile below the village, and each of which has a 
perpendicular fall of about 40 feet on opposite sides of the village, af- 
fording extensive water-power. It contains a court-house, two churches, 
an academy, several manufactories, and 1,000 inhabitants. Stages leave 
daily for Cleveland, and for Toledo. 

Oberlin, 8 miles from Elyria, is the seat of Oberlin Collegiate Institute, 
which embraces a male and female department, both on the manual- 
labor system. It was founded in 1834, and has a president, 9 professors 
or other instructors, and 70 students. Stages arrive from, and depart for 
Elyria daily. 

MANSFIELD is 63 miles from Columbus and 69 from Sandusky. It is 
prettily situated on elevated ground, and has a court-house, 6 churches, an 
academy, and 1,800 inhabitants. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for 
Sandusky. Stages leave 3 times a week for Columbus; for Wooster; 
and for Bucyrus. 

SANDUSKY CITY is situated on the south side of Sandusky bay, 3 miles 
distant from Lake Erie, and 57 miles from Cleveland. During the sum- 
mer months it is enlivened by the commerce and travel of the lakes, giving 
it a bustling appearance. It is a rapidly improving town, and contains five 
fine churches, an academy, and about 2,000 inhabitants. Immense 
quantities of superior building-stone are quarried here. Cars leave daily 
for Cincinnati via Springfield, <-c. ; and also for Mansfield. Stages 
leave for Cleveland and for Toledo; 3 times a week for Wooster. 

TOLEDO is situated on the left bank of Maumee river, near its entrance 



STATE OF OHIO. 121 

into Maumee bay, 130 miles from Cleveland. The village contains be- 
tween two and three thousand inhabitants, and since the completion of 
the Wabash and Erie canal, it is rapidly growing into importance. A 
great number of steamboats, canal boats, and vessels on the lake are 
constantly arriving here and departing. Cars arrive from, and de- 
part daily for Hillsdale, Mich., via Adrian. Stages leave for Cleveland, 
and canal packets for La Fayette, la. ; and also for Cincinnati. 

MAUMKE CITY, on the left bank of Maumee river, contains a court- 
house, 5 churches, and 1,200 inhabitants. The water-power is inexhausti- 
ble, and already gives motion to several mills and manufactories. Perry s- 
burg, nearly opposite to Maumee City, contains a court-house, five 
churches, and about 1,000 inhabitants. (See route 307.) 

BKLLEFONTAINE (named from the fine springs of limestone water with 
which it is supplied) is 118 miles north of Cincinnati. It has a court- 
house, several churches, an academy, and 800 inhabitants. Stages leave 
daily for Cincinnati; and for Sandusky City. 

SPRINGFIELD, situated on the left bank of Mad river, 85 miles from 
Cincinnati, has a court-house, several churches, two academies, several 
extensive mills and manufactories, and 2,500 inhabitants. Cars arrive 
from, and depart daily for Cincinnati : stages doily for Wheeling, Va. ; 
for Cleveland ; for Sandusky City ; and for Indianapolis. 

YELLOW SPRINGS is 9 miles S. from Springfield. It is much resorted to 
as a watering-place, having a commodious hotel and numerous cottages, 
spread over green lawns and amidst delightful groves. The waters are 
strongly impregnated with sulphur, and possess valuable medicinal prop- 
erties. 

XENIA is pleasantly situated on a branch of Little Miami river, and 
contains a court-house, 8 churches, and about 1,400 inhabitants. Cars 
arrive from, and depart daily for Cincinnati ; stages for Columbus ; and 
also for Sandusky City ; three times a week for the Yellow Springs. 

SIDNEY is situated on the west branch of the Great Miami river, 106 
miles from Cincinnati, and contains a court-house, 6 churches, an 
academy, and 1,000 inhabitants. Stages leave daily for Cincinnati. 

DAYTON is situated on the left bank of Great Miami river, just below 
its junction with Mad river, 52 miles from Cincinnati. It is regularly laid 
out, with spacious streets. The city contains a court-house and county 
offices, a banking-house, a market-house, two academies, a female semi- 
nary, 12 churches, and about 9,000 inhabitants. There are a number of 
extensive mills and factories. The Miami canal passes through the 
place. Stages leave daily for Cincinnati, for Columbus, for Indianapolis, 
la., and for Sydney. 

HAMILTON, situated on the left bank of Great Miami river, 23 miles 
from Cincinnati, has a court-house, 5 churches, a bank, a female seminary, 
and 1,800 inhabitants. Stages leave daily for Cincinnati and for 
Dayton. 

OXFORD, 12 miles from Hamilton, is situated on a branch of Great 
Miami river. The village contains the building of Miami University, 
several churches, an academy, and about 800 inhabitants. The University 
was founded in 1809, and endowed by the Congress of the United States 
with 3G square miles of land ; it now yields an annual income of $4,500, 
and is constantly increasing. This institution has a president, 5 pro- 
fessors, 309 alumni, 105 students, and 4,500 volumes in ite libraries. Stages 
leave 3 times a week for Cincinnati; and for Indianapolis. 
6 



RAILROAD, STAGE, AND STEAMBOAT ROUTES, 

THROUGH 

THE CENTRAL STATES. 



(206) F'M N.YORK TO 



PHILADELPHIA, 
Via Newark <$- Tren 

ton, JV. J. 
Steamboat. 
To Jersey City . . . 
JV. Jersey RR. 

NEWARK 

Elizabethtown . . . 

Rahway 

Metuchin 

NEW BRUNSWICK! 
Trenton JV. Bruns-\ 
trick Railroad. 

Kingston 14145 

Princeton depot.. 4 49 

TRENTON 10| 59 

Philadelphia $ Trenton 
Railroad. 



Morris ($- Essex 



Railroad. 

Orange 

Chatham 

Madison 

MORRISTOUX 

tStase. 

Suckasunny 

Stanhope 

14 Andover 

19 Newton 

27 Augusta 

31, Branchville 

s-l Sandystown 

i MILFORD 



I'ljebanon 

Clinton 

13 Terry ville 

24 iBIoomsbury 



4? 



2 2<-: F.ASTON.. 

(210i)F*M NEWARK TO 



DOVER. 
ToBloomrield.... 



?i \V. Bloomtield... 



,', Ca Id well 

: Pine Brook 

?: Pnrsippany 

A.1 DOVER 



Morrisville, Pa. ..! II .. 

Bristol... 9 69 Mendham 

Steamboat. [Chester 

PHILADELPHIA...^! 88 Schooley's Mi 



F'VL N. YORK TO ', 
EASTON, Pa. 
i Newark, JV. J. 

To Morristown I I 
(see No. 208)... I (31 



(211) F'M NEW BRUNS- 
WICK TO L'o BRANCH. 
To South River ..I I 5 

'Spotswood 5 10 

Middietown Point 9 19 

Middletown 5 24 

Leedsville 5 29 

Red Bank 3 33 



a -S. 
dentotcn, 



- JSor- 



* r -, . rj txeu IJHIIK o aa 

^sMo^Y Shrewsbury | 34 

u - n * g 1 49 i LONG BRANCH... 51 39 

wfiSd^ roVe *" 7 S C212) F'MXKwBRUNS- 



JV. J. 



,New Village 

i EASTON 



Eli/uUethport 

Amboy 

S. Amboy 

Camden b rfmboy RR. 

Spots wood ]10 

Hightstown 

Sand Hills 

Bordentown 

BURLINGTON ... 

Camden 

Steamboat. 
PHILADELPHIA... 1 90 

C208) F'M N. YORKTO 

MILFORD, Pa. 
ria Newark, N. J. 
To Jersey City ...I 



WICK TO EASTON, Pa. 

Via Somerville. 
|;To Bound Brook. 



(210) F'M N. YORKTO JSOMERVILLE 



City ...I I 1 
RR. 
'8 9 



EASTON, Pa. 

Via Elizabethtown and \ 
Somervilte, JV. J. 

JVeio Jersey RR. 



4 10 



KASTON 
(see No. 2wv . . . 100, 10 

(213) F'M TRENTON TO 
LONG BRANCH. 



To Newark I j 9 To Yard ville . . . 

Elizabethtown ...I 51 14 u| jjS w ^" 

FJ-itabfthport <$ Somer-' ( Cranberry...* 

ville Railroad. ^, 1ir ] ishtowii . . . . 

\Vesttield ! 7 21 Freehold 



Plainrield 



....... 

s .... 3 24 Colt's Neok .... 

3 27 Batootown ..... 

3 30 LONG BRANCH 



Stage. 

North Branch.. 
Whilehouse.... 



MANSFIELD. 
4 41 To Pennington...! 
a 46.. \Voodsville 1 1 



ROUTES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



123 






6 
6 
12 

5 
5 

^D 

VO 

11 

17 

12 

H 
5 

S.D 
IB 

6 
9 
10 
19 
14 
7 

IE 
D, 

I. 

9 
3 

I 

9 
23 

IE 
I> 
{. 

Ill 

8 


10 
25 
37 
42 
47 

JL- 
N. 
1 

12 

29 
41 
49 
54 

GL- 
E. 

7 
16 
26 
45 
59 
66 

L'A 

1 

10 
13 

18 
f.3 
62 

85 
L'A 

1 

try 

9 


Camden <$ Woodbury 
Railroad. 
Woodbury 8 Q 


READING | 


8 
10 
6 

4 

7 
4 
5 

13 
12 
5 
12 
1 

IE 

V 

m 

\ 

12 
4 

10 
10 
4 
Im 

15 

' 

tin 

5 

5 

8 

7 

9 

IK 

u 
r. 
ac 

3 

5 

2 
3 
H 

1 

5 
3 
2 

f 


5rt 

6t> 
72 

76 
83 

87 
92 

1(15 
117 
122 
134 
135 

L'A 

]h- 

tl- 

135 
147 
151 
161 
171 
175 
ira 

190 

206 
215 
irff 

233 

240 
213 

2oo 

L'A 

. 

4 
11 
14 

19 

21 

24 
30 
34 
36 
41 
46 
49 

i 

54 


f,l ** " " * 




Clinton... 


Hamburg 
Tunnel.... 1500 ft. 
!*ort Clinton 
,andringsville ... 
Schuylkill Haven 
POTTSVILLE 

StdffC. 

Fountain Spring.. 
Bear Gap 


Sfarksville 
ANSFIELD 

(215) FR'M PHILJ 
PHIA TO TUCKER 
ToCamden,N. J. 
Evesham 


Stage. 
Clarksboro' 
Swedesboro* 
Sharpstown 


1 

I 

ID 
11; 

ilh 

2 
5 
2 

3 

8 
3 
6 
3 
4 
6 
4 
8 
3 

8 

12 
H 
10 
1 
4 
9 
6 

I 

11 
4 
4 

7 
12 


13 
19 

26 
35 

EL- 

LM- 

cs- 
4 

if 

13 
16 

1 

40 
46 
50 
58 
61 
65 
72 
80 
92 
RK) 
110 
111 
115 
124 
130 

149 
153 
157 
164 
176 
183 
190 

L'A 
i>i 
ad- 

iff, 

6 
8 
14 
17 


(220) FR'M PHILJ 

PHIA TO BlNG 
TON, N. Y., 

Via Easton $ W 
barre. 
To Rising Sun ... 
Miles tow 11 


Sooy's Inn 
Bass River Hotel. 
TUCKERTON 

(216) FR'M PHILJ 
PHLATO ABSECOJ 
To Camden. N.J. 
Haddonrield 
Long-a-Coming.. 
Winslow 
May's Landing .. 
Burgaintown 


Shamokiii 
Sunbtiry 


NORTHUMBERL'D 

(222) F'M PHILAI 
TO CORNING, N. 
Via Reading, J\ 
umbertand, anc 
liamsport. 
To Northumber- 
land 
Milton 


\ l>i iijzton 


Willow Grove... 
Horsham 


Doylestown 
Danboro' 
Ottsville 


Absecombe 

(217) F'M PHILAI 
TO CAPE ISLAJ 
Via Tuckaho 

To Camden, N. J. 
Chew's Landing . 
Good Intent 
Cross Keys 


Monroe 
Raubsville 
EASTON . 


McEwensville 
Muncy 
Montouresville ... 

WlLHAMSPORT.. 

Williamsp't <S- E 
Railroad. 
Trout Run 
Staee. 
fe^erty 


Nazareth 


.liu'obsburg. . . 


Wind Gap 


Sbafer's 
Mt. Pocono 
Stoddartsville 


Tuckahoe 
Dennis' Creek 
CAPE ISLAND 
(see No. 217)... 

(218) F'M PHILA 
TO CAPE ISLAI* 
Via Bridgeto 
To Camden, N. J. 
Camden $ Woo 
Railroad* 
Woodbury . 


WlLKESBARRE .. 

Kingston 


BLOSSBURG 

Corning <$* Bios 
Railroad. 
Covington 
Mansfield 
Tioga 


Wyoming 


Exeter 
North Moreland.. 


TUNKHANNOCK . . 

Lynn 


Lawrenceville 
Lindleytown 
Erwin Centre 
CORNING 


Springville 
Diinock 


MONTROSE 

Lawsville Centre. 
Conklin 


(223) F'M PHILAI 
TO HARRISBUJ 
Via JLancaste 
Columbia Ratlrc 
To Head of In- 
clined Plane.... 
Whitehall 


Stan. 

Carpenter s Land- 
ing 


3 
5 
9 
8 
H 
1! 
6 
5 

4 
4 

12 
3 

JE 
1 


13 
17 

26 
34 
40 

% 

t!2 
69 
73 
77 

8!' 
92 

L'A 

1 


BlNGHAMTON 7 

(221) F'M PHILADE 
TO NORTHUMBERL 
Via Norristowni Re 
ing, <$' Pottsville 
Philadelphia, Rcadi 
<& Pottsville RR 


Mullico Hill 
Pitt's Grove 


BRIDGETON 


Morgan's Corner. 
Reeseville 


Port Elizabeth.... 
Leesburg 


WestchesterTurn- 
out 


Dennis' Creek 


Falls 


2 

6 

3 


Whiteland 


Cape May 


Manayunk 
Conshohocken ... 
NORRISTOWN 


DOWNINGTOWN.. 

Gallighersville.... 
CoatsvUto 


Cold Spring 
CAPE ISLAND 

(219) F'M PHILA 
TO SALEM. 
To Camden, N. J. 


Valley Forge 
Phenixville 
Pottstown 
Douglassville 
Baumstown 


6 
4 

12 

B 


23 
27 
3!) 
43 

48 


Parksburg... 
Penningtonville .. 
Noblesville 
The Gap 
Belleview . . . 



124 



ROUTES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



Iceman's 


3 
1 
1 
8 


5!) 

t;o 

61 
H1 


Farmer's 


9 
5 
4 
10 
8 
11 

8 
6 
8 
(j 
11 
9 
8 
9 
1! 
8 

3 
9 

10 

6 

b 
4 

8 
5 

IE 
J> 
< 

" 

all 

5 
3 
10 
12 
10 

6 

4 
50 

3E 

7?fc 

ill 

5 
4 
7 
4 
i) 
2 
26 
15 
(i 
l.i 
22 
14 


105 
110 
114 
12-1 
lk 

n-: 

!,( 
156 
164 
172 
17s 
1 
l!h 

m 

215 

2:11 
242 
24: i 
2.')2 

271 

277 

283 
287 
29? 
300 

L'A 
ind 

106 
ey 

111 
III 
121 
136 
146 
152 

lot; 

306 
L'A 

lie- 

. 

163 
!(> 
172 
179 
IK! 
192 
194 
220 

241 

2:)4 

27ti 


Shippenville 
Cranberry 
Franklin 


4 
K) 

8 

12 
12 
12 
10 
14 

)E 
NK 

. 

I 

3 
2 
6 
4 

H 
3 
3 
6 
8 
8 
10 
5 
I 
4 

HI 

3 
4 
6 
10 
1 


3 

3 
3 

2 
3 
4 
3 

4 

7 
10 

3E 

N 
1 


2: is 

317 
320 
332 

344 
356 

;>:; 
380 

L'A 

10 
13 
15 
21 
25 
31 
34 
37 
43 
51 
58 
69 
74 
77 
81 

NK 

8 
11 
15 

21 
31 

32 

!;; A 

2 

6 
9 

12 
15 

18 
21 

25 

27 
30 

41 

48 
58 

L ^ 

6 
11 


Paradise 


Abbottstown .... 
New Oxford 
GETTYSBURG .... 




iterprise 


Sugar Creek 
MEADVILLE 
Rockdale. 


^.NCASTKR 

Harrisburg fr Lc 
ter Railroad 
Mt Joy 


tie 

'; 

t> 
9 

)E 
i, 
C 

T- 

8 
7 
15 
6 
6 
3 
12 
5 
6 
5 
9 
5 
6 
2 
6 
5 
5 
3 
2 
< 
5 
4 
1!) 
14 
10 
8 
7 
11 
8 

DE 
J, 

3u 

lai 

\ 

sv 

6 
H 


71 

as- 

83 
90 
91 
97 
106 

[/A 

nd 

lot; 

114 

121 
136 

142 
148 

1 ! 

it;:; 

1(18 
171 
17!) 

|SS 

m 

199 

201 
207 
212 
217 
230 

231 

25!) 

2:;i 
2.<:i 
2:tl 

298 

317 
L'A 
im- 

l, 

n 

72 

i 

Me 

90 
96 


Cashtown 
Kay ettev rile 
CHAMBERSBURG. 
St. Thomas 


Wnterford 


ERIE 


Elizabethtown . . . 
Tunnel 


London 
M'Connellsburg .. 
Harrisonville 
Ray's Hill 


(227) F'M PHILAI 
TO MAUCH CHU 
Via AllentowH 

To Rising Sun... 
Germantown 
ChesnutHill 
White Marsh 
Upper Dublin 
Montgomeryville . 
Line Lexington .. 
Seller's Tavern... 
Bunker Hill 
Q,uakertown 
Coopersburg 
ALLENTOWN 
North Whitehall . 
Lehigh Gap 
Parrysville 
Lehighton 
MAUCH CHUNK* . 

* FR'M MAUCH C 
TO BERWICK 
To Lausanne 
Beaver Meadows. 
Hazleton 
Conyngham 
Nescopeck 


Middletown 
HARRISBURG 

(224) F'M PHILAI 

TO PlTTSBUR< 

Via Harrisburg 
Hotlidaysbur 
To HARRISBURG 
(see No. 223)... 
Dauphin 
Benvenue 
Millerstown 
Thompsontown .. 
Mexico 
Miifiintown 
LEWIS-TOWN 
Strode's Mills .... 
McVeytown 
Atkinson's Mills.. 
Mill Creek 


Bloody Run 
Bedford 


Schellsburg 
Stoyestown 


Laurel Hill... 


Laughlintown 
Ligomer 


Youngstown 
Greensburg 
Adamsburg 
Stewartsville 
Turtle Creek 
E. Liberty 

PlTTSBURG 

(225i) F'M PHILAI 

TO PlTTSBUR 

Via Harrisburg 
Chambersburg 
To HARRISBURG 
(see No. 223) ... 
Cumberland V 
Railroad. 
Shiremantown ... 
Mechanicsburg. . . 
CARLISLE 


H UNTINGDON 

Alexandria. . . . 


Water Street 
Yellow Springs .. 
Canoe Creek 
Frankstown 

HOLLIDAYSBITRG. 

Duncansville 
Summit 


BERWICK 

(228) F'M PHILAI 
TOP'RTDEPOSFI 
Kingsessing 


Munster 
EBENSBURG 
Armagh 


Shippensburg 
Green Village 

CHAMBERSBURGf. 

Stage. 

PlTTSBURG 

(see No. 225)...] 

(226) F'wPHiLAi 
TO ERIE, 
Via Harrisburg, 
fonte, &r Meadv 
To Lewistown 
(see No. 224)... 
Brown's Mills 
Valley 


Blairsville 


New Alexandria . 
Salem M Roads .. 
Murraysville 
Wilkinshurg 

PlTTSBURG 

(225) F'MPHILA] 
TO PlTTSBUR 

no. Columbia & ( 
bersburg. 
Columbia Railr 
To LANCASTER 
(see No. 223)... 
Dillerviile 


Gibbons' Tavern . 
Nether Provi- 
dence. . . 


Lima. . . . 


Ivy Mills . .. 


Concordville 
Chadd'sFord .... 
Hamorton . ... 


Kennett's Square. 
A vondale 


Westgrove 
New London X 
Roads 


Potter's Mill 
Old Fort 


BELLEFONTE 
Milesburg 


Brick Meeting- 
house, Md 
PORT DEPOSIT. . . 

(229) F'M PHILAI 

TOSOMERVILLE, 

To Milestown.... 
Abington 


Mountville .., 


Wrightsville 
York # Wright 
Railroad. 
Hoover's 
YORK... 


Clearfield 
Curwinsville 
Luthersburg 
Brookville 
Strattonsville 



ROUTES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



125 



Willow Grove ... 
Jjatboro' 


2 
2 
4 
9 
6 
1 
6 
6 

b 

IK 

E s 

m. 

ni 
R 

7 
4 

2 
8 
4 
2 
6 
6 

\ 

5 

1 
P 

J'j 

E. 

\ 

13 

"6'7 

16 

! 

3 

DE 

1 


13 
15 
19 

28 
34 

; J 5 

41 
47 

54 
63 

L'A 

ig- 


3 
10 
14 
17 

19 
27 

99 

45 
51 
54 
ft 

61! 
t>5 

4 

^ 


97 

IIA 

8 

% 
35 

ck- 
51 

67 
90 
103 
112 
115 

L'A 

19 


Trenton & JV. B 
wick RR. 
Princeton 
Kingston 
New Brunswick.. 
JVeto Jersey R 
Metuchin 
Rahway 
Elizabethtowu ... 
Newark 


ru 

'J 

14 
R 

8 
5 
6 

8 


ns- 

n 

4:j 
57 

61 

69 
74 
79 

8; 


New Albany 
Monroetown 
TOWANDA 

(235) FROM Wi 

BARRE TO H 
DALE. 

To Plainsville.... 
Pittston Ferry 
Lackawanna 
Hyde Park 


6 

\ 

LK 
JN 

4 

4 

3 
3 
6 
6 
& 

ra 

NK 

5 

ST 

4 

8 
4 
5 

it 

ST 

"N 

5 

4 

u 
4 

7 
4 

10 

ST 

OS 

I 

3 
3 
5 

BU 

5 


113 
121 
125 

ES- 
K.S- 

j 

17 

20 
23 

35 
44 

LE 

2 
8 
17 
22 

30 

ER 

1 

16 
20 

1 

ER 

7 
12 
19 

1 

32 
39 
43 

53 

ER 
IT, 

1 

:? 

20 
24 
27 
30 
35 

RG 

9 
14 


Hartsyille 
Buckingham 
NEW HOPE 
Lambertsville, J\J 


Flemington 
Centreville 

SOMERVILLE 

(230) F'jvrPmLA] 
TO BALTIMOR 
Via Wilmingtt 
Philadelphia, Wil\ 
ton, $ Baltimore 
To Gray's Ferry.. 
Lazaretto 


Jersey City 




Steamboat. 
NEW YORK 
BOSTON 
(see No. 122)... 5 

(232) FR'MEAST< 

MlLFORD. 

To Martin's Creek 
Rich mond 


1 
14 

)N 

5 
2 
2 
2 
5 
6 
4 
4 
6 


88 
302 

TO 

8 
13 
15 

19 
24 
30 

44 


Blakeley 


CARBONDALE 
Waymart 


llo.NKSDALE 

(236) F'M POTTS 
TO MAUCH CHU 
To Port Carbon .. 
Middleport 


Chester 


Marcus' Hook 
Nnaman's Creek. 
WILMINGTON.... 
Newport 


Stone Church 
Mt. Bethel 
Dill's Ferry 


Tamaqua 
Summit Hill ..... 
MAUCH CHUNK . . 

(237) F'M LANCA 
TO READING 
To Neffsville 
Litiz 


Newark 
Elkton 


Dutotsburg 
Craig's Meadow . 
Coolbaugh's 
Bushkill 


Northeast 


Charlestown 
Cecil 


Delaware 


Havre de Grace . . 
Hall's X Roads... 
Ferryman's 
Gunpowder 
Harewood 
Chase's 


Dingman's Ferry. 

MlLFORD.. 

(233) FR'MEA.ST 
CARBONDALE 
To Bel fast... 


6 
6 

)N 

10 
6 
5 
7 
10 
8 
5 
7 
6 


50 

56 

TO 

6 

16 

22 
27 
34 
44 

52 
57 

(-.4 

70 


Ephratah 
Reamstown 
Adamstown 
READING 

(238) F'M LANCA 

TO NORRISTOW 

To Leacock 
New Holland 
Churchtown 
Morgantown 
Marsh 
E. Nantmeal 
Chester Springs . . 
Phcenixville 


Stemmer's Run . . 
Clinton. . 


Wind Gap 
Snydersville 
Bartonsville 
Stanhope 


BALTIMORE 

FROM PHILADE 
TO BALTIMOR 
Steamboat. 
ToFortMifflin... 


Denton .. 


Sterling 
Hamilton 


Waymart 


Marcus' Hook 
New Castle 

JV*eto Castle $ F 
town RR. 
Frenchtown 
Steamboat. 
Turkey Point 
Pool's Island 
NorthPoint 
Fort McHenry 
BALTIMORE 

(231) F'MPHILA 
TO BOSTON. 
Steamboat. 
To Bristol 


CARBONDALE 6 

(234) FR'M EASTON 
TOWANDA, 
Via Mauch Chunk t 
Berwick. 
To Bath 


'/6 
TO 

ind 

10 
19 
24 
32 
3*i 
44 
47 
51 
57 
64 
67 
68 
78 

s<; 

107 


Railroad. 
NORRISTOWN 

(239) F'M LANCA 
TO PORT DEP 
Md. 
To Willow Street 
Smithville 
Buck 


Cherry ville 


9 
5 

8 

8 
3 
4 
6 
7 
3 

lit 
8 
21 


Lehigh Gap 
Lehighton 
MAUOH CHUNK.. 
Lausanne 


Chesnut Level.... 
Greene . . . 


Pleasant Grove... 
Rock Springs, Md 
Rowlandsville.... 
PORT DEPOSIT... 

(240) F'M HARRIS 
TO EASTON, 
Via Reading 
ToHummellstown 
Palmyra.. .. 


Beaver Meadows. 
Hazleton 


Conyngham.t 
Zeisersville 
gescopeck 


Phila. <Sr Trenton RR. 
M orris ville 191 28 
Trenton 1 29 


Fishing Creek.... 
Fairmount Spr'gs 
Cherry 



126 



ROUTES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



Annville 

LEBANON 

Myerstown 

Stuuchburg 

Wolrnelsdorf 

Sinking Spring... 

READING 

Maiden Creek 

Kutztown 

Rodrocksville 

Trexlertown 

ALLENTOWN 

Bethlehem ....... 

Butztown 

EASTON 



9106 

(241) F'M HARRISBURG 

TO MONTROSE, 

Via, Northumberland & 

Wilkesbarre. 

To Dauphin I 



Benvenue 7 

New Buffalo I 4 

Montgomery's 



Ferry... . 
Liverpool . 

foo'e P 



__cKee's Half 
Falls 

Chapman 

Selin's Grove 

Shamokin Dam . 

SUNBURY 

NORTHUMBER- 
LAND 

Danville 

Catuwissa, 



8130 
54184 



Bloomsburg 

Espy 

Berwick 

Beech Grove 

Shickshinny 

Nanticoke 

WILKESBARRE .. 
MONTROSE 
(see No. 220)... 

(242) FR'M NORTHUM- 
BERLAND TO BELLE- 
FONTE 

Via Williamsport and 
Lock Haven. 

To Milton 

McEwensville.... 

Muncy 

Montouresville . . . 
WILLIAMSPORT . 

Newberry 

Jersey Shore 

Dunnsburg 

LOCK HAVEN 

Mill Hall 

Lamar 

Nittany 

BfiLLEFONTE .... 



(243) FR'M NORTHUM- 
BERLAND TO LEWIS- 
TOWN. 

To New Berlin.. 

Middleburg 

Beavertown 8 

Middle Creek 

LEWISTOWN.... 

(244) FR'M NORTHUM- 
BERLAND TO ELMIRA, 
N. Y. 

To Williamsport I 1 

(see No. 242) ... I I 40 
Williamsp't & Elmira 



Railroad. 



Trout Run., 

Ralston 

Stage. 

Canton 

Alba 

Tr<>y 



15 



20 

5 

5 

4 
10109 

7116 

2118 



(245) FR'M NORTHUM- 
BERLAND TO HOLLI- 
DAYSBURG. 



South Creek 

Southport, N.Y.. 



To Lewisburg 

Mifflinburg 

Hartleton 

Aaronsburg 

Millheim 

Spring Mills 

Old Fort 

Bolesburg 

Pine Grove Mills . 

Baileyyille 

" ilerain Forge, 



5 
5 
14 

1 

5 
5 43 
" 50 

M 
M 
70 
76 



Water Street ..... 

HOLLIDAYSBURG. 



(246) F'M HARRISBURG 

TO HAGERSTOWN,Md. 

Via Carlisle <$r Ckam- 
bersburg. 

Cumberland Valley 

Railroad. 
To Shiremantown] 
Mechanicsburg. .. 

CARLISLE 

Newville 



Shippensburg 

Green Village.... 
CHAMBERSBURG. 
Franklin Railroad. 

Marion 

Green Castle 

State Line 



76 

80 

88||ilAGERSTOWN ... 



(247) F'M HARRISBURG 
TO BALTIMORE, 

Via York. 
To New Cumber-] 

land 

York Haven 



Manchester 

YORK 



Baltimore & Maryland 

Line RR. 
Tunnel... 

Smyser's . 

Heathcote 

Strasburg 



41 

I 44 



Baltimore < Susque- 
tiannah RR. 



Summit 

Whitehall 

Westerrnan's 

Clarksville 

Washington Fac. 

Melvale 

BALTIMORE 

(248) FR'M PITTS: 

TO ERIE. 
To Alleghany .... 

Bakerstown 

Glade Mills 

Butler 

Brownington 

Slippery Rock 

North Liberty.... 

MERCER 

Culbertson's 

Meadville 

Woodcock 

Rockdale 

Waterford 

ERIE 



4106 
10116 
14130 



(249) FR'M PITTSBURO 
TO JAMESTOWN, N. 
York, 

Via Mercer., Franklin, 
< Warren. 

To Mercer 

Henderson 

FRANKLIN 

Cornplanter 

Perry 

Deerfield 

Irvine 

WARREN 



Russellburj 
Carroll, N. 
JAMESTOWN 



Iburg 

,N.Y 



7117 
12129 



136 
7143 
8151 

6157 



(250) FR'M PITTSBURG 
TO CLEVELAND, O. 

Via Beaver. 
To Alleghany.... I I 1 
Sewickly Bottom. 1131 14 



ROUTES IN DELAWARE. 



127 



Economy 


3 

7 
3 
14 
II 
4 
5 
3 
6 
6 
6 
5 
5 
6 
6 
4 
6 

7 
6 
6 

HI 

Vt 

8 

10 
7 

10 
or 

IL 

9 
4 

5 

4 

3 
ur 

L). 

7 
9 

12 

5 
3 
4 


17 

24 
3? 
41 
51 
55 

t;o 

ti3 

til! 

75 
81 
M 
!>1 
97 
103 
107 
11:; 
11- 
125 
131 
137 

RG 

L. 

10 

18 
25 
35 
42 
46 
56 

RG 

LE, 

13 

22 

m 

31 

35 

38 

RG 

27 
34 
43 

45 
47 
59 
64 
67 
71 


(253) F'M ERIE TC 

FALO, N. Y. 

To Westleyville. . 
Harbor Creek 


B 

4 
E 

ji 

S 

7 
8 
4 
3 

8 
4 

12 

E 

in 

17 
3 
4 

9 
6 
8 
2 
8 
7 
6 
5 
6 
3 
9 

Bl 

K 

at 
t/t 

8 
7 
10 
6 
5 
8 
1 
10 
11 
10 
3 


UF- 

4 

8 
13 
17 

~>(l 

28 

36 
38 
45 
53 
57 
60 
68 
72 

79 
91 

TO 

d 

12 
29 

32 
36 
45 
51 
59 
61 
6!) 
"6 
82 
^7 
93 
96 
105 

RG 

r. 

es- 
',. 

10 
18 

I 

41 

4i ; 

54 
55 
65 
76 
86 
89 
Mti 


(256) FR'M PITTSBURO 
TO BALTIMORE, Md. 
Via Brownsville, Cum- 
berland, $ Harper's 
Ferry. 
Steamboat. 
To BROWNSVILLE 40 
Uniontown 12 52 




BEAVER 




Petersburg, O. . . . 
New Middletown. 


Northville 


Boardman 
Canfield 


Ripley, N.Y 
Westfield 


Ellsworth 
Frederick 


Salem X Roads... 
Fredonia 


Somerfield 
Addison 
Little Crossing 


21 
4 

13 
13 
10 
* 
8 
13 
4 
12 
9 
9 
5 
7 

1 

5 
8 
11 
30 
47 
14 

lv 

4 

9 
5 
19 

111 

7 

13 
6 

Gl 

Vt 
Si 

7 

12 
12 
3 
5 
5 
8 
12 
8 



73 

77 
90 
103 
113 
IR. 
121 
134 
138 
150 
159 
168 
173 

184 
186 
191 
1!H) 
210 

291 

RG 

a. 

40 

44 
53 

58 
77 
87 
94 
101 
114 
120 

ON 

. 

ow 

,1 

16 
23 

a5 

1 

68 

% 

9ti 


Edinburg 
RAVENNA 
Franklin Mills.... 
Stow 


Sheridan 
Silver Creek 
Irving 


Frostburg 
CUMBERLAND 
Baltimore & Ohio 
Patterson's Creek. 
Little Cacapon... 
Pawpaw Tunnel . 
DoeGulleyTun'l. 
Great Cacapon... 
Hancock . 


Evans 


Hudson 
Twinsburg 
Bedford 


Hamburg (on the 
Lake) 


Newburg 
CLEVELAND 

(251) FR'M PITTS 
TO WHEELING, 
To Herriottsville . 
Cannonsburg 
Washington 
Claysville 
W. Alexander . . . 
Triadelphia, Va.. 
WHEELING 

(251f) F'M PITTS 
TO STEUBENV 
Ohio. 
To Fayetteville . . 
Bavington 


BUFFALO 1 

(254) FROM ERI 
CLEVELAND 

Via rfshtabula 
Painesville. 

To Fairview 
Coneaut, Ohio ... 
Amboy. . 


Walnut Bend .... 
BackCr'k Bridge. 
Hedgesville Depot 
Hedgesville Road. 
Martmsburg 
Kerneysville 
HARPER'S FERRY 
Frederick 


Kingsville 


ASHTABULA 

Say brook 
(Jnionville 


Ellicott's Mills... 
BALTIMORE 

(257) FR'M PITTS 
TO CLARKSBURG 
Steamboat. 
To Brownsville. . . 
Stage. 
Merrittstown 
Masontown 
New Geneva 
Morgantown, Va. 
Whiteday 




Perry 
PAINESVILLE 
Mentor 
Willoughby 
E Euclid 




Paris . 


Euclid 


Hollidays Cove, 
Va 


CLEVELAND 

(255) FR'M PITTS 
TO MAYSVILLE, 
Via. Wheeling, Z 
ville, <<r Clullico 

To Herriottsville . 
Cannonsburg 
Washington 
Claysville 
W. Alexander 
Tridelpiiia, Va. .. 
WHEELING 
Bridgeport, O. ... 
St. Clairsville.... 
Morristown 
Fairview 


STEUBENVILLE, 
Ohio 


(252; FR'M PITTS 
TO WOOSTER, 
Via Masillon 
To Beaver 
Industry. . .... 


PalntineHill 
Boothsville 
Bridgeport 
CLARKSBURG.... 

(258) F'M WlLMIN 

TO EASTVILLE, 
Via Dover and 
Hill, Md. 

To Newcastle 
Red Lion 


Ohioville 
Little Beaver 
Bridge 


Calcutta 


NEW LISBON 
Buck's 


New Garden 
New Alexander . . 


St. George's 
Cantwell's Bridge 


New Franklin.... 
Paris 


6 
4 

6 

6 
4 

5 

8 


77 
81 
87 
92 
100 
106 
IK) 
115 

m 


Middlebourn 
Washington 


Dover .... 


Osnaburg 


Cambridge 
New Concord 
Norwich . .... 


8 
9 
3 
3 
8 

50 


KM 
113 
116 
119 
127 

277 


Camden 
Canterbury 


MASILLON 
East Greenville. . . 
Dalton 
East Union 
WOOSTER ... 


Frederica 


Bridgeville 
ZANESVILLE 
MAYSVILLE 
(see No. 322)...] 


Milford 
Milton 


GEORGETOWN... 
Millsboro' . . . 



128 



ROUTES IN MARYLAND. 



Dagsboro' 1 


5 
10 

8 
10 
8 
9 
7 
7 
9 
10 
8 
4 
6 
6 
12 

IN 

5 

5 

16 
6 
9 
8 
14 
9 

14 
4 

5 
11 

20 

E 
I 

1 

MC 
Pi 
R 

2 

1 

3 
2J 

i 

6 
2 
/ 

2 
3 
5 
4 

7 


101 
111 
119 
129 

137 
146 
UJ 
160 
169 
179 
187 
191 
197 
203 
215 

TO 

17 

22 

27 
43 
49 

58 
66 
80 

811 
in; 

IIU 
114 
119 
130 

151! 
TO 

ind 

398 

RE 

R. 
4 

6 

7 
9 

!i j 

15 
17 

20 

22* 
26 
28 
34 
36 
iiii 

138 
41 
46 
50 
57 


Wrightsmlle < York 
Railroad. 
Hoover's I 71 64 
Wrightsville 6 70 
COLUMBIA 1 l| 71 


Kerneysville 
Drake's 


21 92 
4 %' 
21 98 
2100 
2102 
1J103 
2105 

1106 
1107 

2109 

2m 

2113 

3116 
2118 
5123 
5128 
4132 
7139 
2141 

9150 
3153 
4157 
7164 
6170 
8178 

0188 
:i -Jol 
3214 
4218 

l :.':): 
2251 
6267 
3260 
3263 
7L^i 
0290 
7297 
4301 
0311 

ORE 

Ha- 

RR. 

61 

69 
77 
85 
87 
98 
105 
113 

ORE 
RG. 

187 

r> 92 


St.TVIartin's, Md.. 


Flagg's Mill 
MARTINSBURG... 
Warm Spring R'd 


JNewark 


SNOW HILL 
Sandy Hill 
Horntown, Va. .. 
Accoman 


(261) F'M BALTIMO 
TO HARRISBURO. 

Railroad. 
To YORK 


RE 

57 

63 
67 

7S 
82 

RE 

nd 

16 

ft 

3 

42 
5ii 

22S 

RK 

ry, 
sli- 

8 

q 
12 

2< 


2-] 
28 
ol 
34 
37 

4 ; 

K 

57 

56 
61 

6.-, 
\\'. 

I 

S 

*1 

8;-] 

,St 
87 
90 


Hedgesville Road. 
Myer'sWater Sta- 


Modestown . 


Accomac C. H. . . 
Onancock 
Pungoteague 
Bellhaveri 


Hedgesville Depot 
N. Mountain Wa- 
ter Station 
Back Cr'k Bridge 
Runner's Ferry 
Road 
Licking Water 
Station 


Stage. 


6 
4 
11 
4 

vto 
*, 

a 

S 
12 

7 
7 
10 

76 

MC 

J>> 

b 

Va 
R 

3 

2 
6 
3 
1 
4 
3 
3 
3 
6 
6 

4 
1 

3 
4 
4 

1 
4 

a 

i 

2 
2 
3 
1 

3 


Franktown 
EASTVILLE 

(259) FR'M ELKT 
SNOW HILL. 
To Warwick 
Head of Sassafras 
Georgetown t*1 
Roads 


York Haven 
New Cumberland. 
HARRISBURO 

(262) F'M BALTI 

TO PlTTSBURi 

Via Gettysburg 
Chambersburg 
To Pikesville 
Reistertown 
Westminster 
Union Mills 
Littlestown, Pa. . 
Gettysburg 
PITT s BUR G 
(seeNo.22o)...: 

(263) F'M BALTI 
TO WHEKLIN 
Via Harper's J 
Cumberland, $ \ 
ington, Pa. 

Bolt. <$r Ohio E 
To Relay House. . 


Walnut Bend .... 
HANCOCK 


St. John's Run... 
Great Cacapon... 
Rockwell's Run.. 
Doe Gulley Tun' . 
No. 12 Water Sta- 
tion 


Chestertown 
Church Hill 
Centreville 


Wye Mills 


Pawpaw Tunnel.. 
Little Cacapon... 
Green Spring Run 
Patterson's Creek. 
CUMBERLAND 
Stage. 
Frostbnrg ] 


Easton . 


Trappe 


CAMBRIDGE 
Big Mills 


Vienna 




Salisbury 


Little Crossing ... 
Addison, Pa ] 
Somerfield 


SNOW HILL 

FROM BALTIMOR 
BOSTON, 

Via Philadelphic 
New York. 
(See No. 278) 

(260) F'M BALTI 
TO COLUMBIA, 
Bait. & StisQue'h 
To Melvale 
Washington Fac. 
Relay House 
Ryder's Lane 
Timonium 


Uniontown 5 
Brownsville : 
E.Bethlehem .... 
Beallsville . 


Hillsboro' 


Ilchester 


Washington ] 


Ellicott's Mills ... 
Elysville . 


W. Alexander 
Triadelphia,Va.. 
WHEELING ; 

(264) F'M BALTIC 
TO HANCOCK, 
Via Frederick ana 
gerstown. 
Baltimore $ Ohio 
To Frederick.... 
Stage. 
Middletown I 
Boonsboro' ! 
Funkstown 8 
Hagerstown ! 
Clear Spring 1 
Park Head 1-, 
HANCOCK ll 


Putney's Bridge.. 
Woodstock 
Marriotts ville 
Sykesville 


Hood's Mills 
Woodbine 
Mt. Airy 


Clarksville 


Monrovia 


Cockeysville 
Westerman's 


Uams ville 
Reel's Mill ... 


Monocacy 
FREDERICK 
Doup's Switch... 
Point of Rocks ... 
Catoctin Switch . 
Berlin 


Monkton Mills . . . 
Whitehall 


Parkton 
Freeland's 
Summit 
York & Maryland, 
Railroad. 
Strasburg. . 


Knoxville 


Weverton 
HARPER'S FERRY 
Peacher'sMili.... 
Hall Town Road. 
Duffielu's 
Leetown Road . . . 


(265) F'M BALTIN 
TO CHAMBERSBU 
To Hagerstown | 
(see No. 264) ... 
State Line 


Heathcote's 
Smyser's . . 


Tunnel . 


YORK... 



ROUTES FROM WASHINGTON. 



129 



(266) F'M BALTIMORE 

TO WASHINGTON, DC. 

Bait. Sf Ohio RR. 

To Relay House.. I I 8 
Washington Br. RR. 

Elkridge Landing 



Junction ........ 

Laurel Factory.. 
Beltsville ........ 

Bladensburg ..... 

WASHINGTON 



(267) F'M BALTIMORE 
TO ANNAPOLIS. 

Railroad. 

ToElkridge Land-] 

ing ............. 

Junction ......... 

Putuxent Forge . . 
Brotherton ....... 

ANNAPOLIS ....... 



(268) F'M BALTIMORE 
TO WHITE SULPHUR 
SPRINGS, Va., 

Via Harper's Ferry, 
Winchester, &f Statin- 
ton. 
Bolt. $ Ohio RR. 

To Harper's Fer- 
ry, Va. 
(see No. 263)... 



Winchester & Potomac 



Halltowi' 



Railroad. 



Charlestown , 

Cameron's. 

Thompson 

Stephenson's . 

WINCHESTER... 

Stage. 
Newtown Ste- 

phensburg 

Middletown 

Strasburg 

Tom's Brook.... 

Woodstock 

Stony Creek 



85 

^7 

91 

. 94 

Jti" 

' 11; 



Mt. Jackson 

Newmarket .... 

Spartapolis 

Harrisonburg... 
Mt. Crawford... 

Mt. Sidney 

STAUNTON 

Jennings' Gap.. 
Deerrield 



8121 
5 1-Jii 

- 



6143 

5148 
4152 



8171 
11 182 



151235 



Cloverdale Hotel. 

Green Valley 

3ath C.H 

-lot Springs 

Columbia Inn 

I!allaghan's 

WHITE SULPHUR 



13 282 



14305 



269) F'M BALTIMORE 
TO WILMINGTON, NC. 

Via, Norfolk Sf Oareys- 

burg. 
Steamboat. 

To Fort McHenry 

NorthPoint 

Stony Point 

Sandy Point 

Thomas's Point .. 

Herring Bay 

Sharp's Island 

Core Point 

Cedar Point 

Pt. Lookout (m'th 
of Potomac riv.) 17 106 



10 13 
8 21 



Smith's Point 

NORFOLK 

Portsmouth 

Portsmouth # Roanoke 



81 . 
1199 



Railroad. 



Suffolk. 

Carrsville 

Franklin Depot.. 

Newson's 

Margnretsville, 

N.C 

Stage. 

Gareysburg 

Weldon 



17 216 

13229 
5234 
13247 

14261 

12273 
5278 
Wilmington & Raleigh 

Railroad. 

WILMINGTON I I 
(seeNo.273)..|l62|44< 

(270) F'MWASHINGTON 

TO ANNAPOLIS. 

Railroad. 
To Bladensburg.. 

Beltsville . 

Laurel Factory... 6 

Junction | 2 

Annapolis , 

(271) F'MWASHINGTON 

TO RIDGE, 
Via Port Tobacco. 

To Palmer's Tav- 
ern, Md 

Piscatawa 

Pleasant H 

Port Tobacco . 



away. . . . 
ntHill.. 



6* 



Allen's Fresh 

Newport 

Chaptico 

St. Clement's Bay 

Leonardtown 

Great Mills 

St. Inegoes' 

RIDGE 



87 
(272) F'MWASHINGTON 



TO FREDERICK. 



14 1 16 



To Georgetown .. 
Kcckviile, Md. .. 

Urbanna 

FREDERICK 



(273) F'MWASHINGTON 

TO WILMINGTON, NC. 

Via Fredericksburff, 
Richmond, <$ Peters- 
burg. 

Steamboat. 



To Alexandria ... 

Mt. Vent on 

Aetuia Cr'k Land- 
ing, Va.. 

Richmond, Fredericks' 

burg, & Potomac RR. 
Brooks's Water 

Station 

FREDERICKSB'G, 

Guiney's 

Milford Depot... 

RutherGlen 

Junction . 



Taylorsville 

Hungary Water 

Station 

RICHMOND 



13110 
8118 
Richmond ^-Petersburg 

Railroad. 

Manchester I 2J120 

Proctor's Creek... 11131 
PETERSBURG....! 9|l40 
Petersburg <$ Roanoke 

Railroad. 
Stony Cr'k Ware- 



31 161 
9170 

11 M 
3)84 
7191 
9200 
5205 



Jarrett's 

BelHeld 

Junction 

Pleasant H ill, NC. 



WELDON 

Wilmington <$r Raleigh 
Railroad. 

Halifax 

Enfield 

Battles 

Rocky Mount . 
Joiners 



130 



ROUTES FROM WASHINGTON. 



Nahunta 7 
Goldsboro' 11 
Dudley's 9 


271 

282 
291 
303 
311 
319 
328 
337 
344 
352 
366i 

JTON 
10, 

and 

2 
12 
9 21 

8 29 
5 34 
6 40 
4 44 
8 52 
6 58 
4 62 
2 74 
3 87 
9 96 
7103 
3116 
i) i-ji; 
5131 
6137 
:j lt;<i 
6166 
4 191) 
7197 
8205 
0215 
6 221 
42:35 
6251 

0303 

BT'N 
R, 

4 21 

6 27 
4 31 
5 36 
6 42 
5 47 
4 51 
4 55 


Via Cumbered, I 
ing, Zanesvillt 
Columbus. 
Stage. 
lo Georgetown .. 
Rock ville, Aid.... 
Urbana 


Vh 
t 

14 
12 

15 
1 

4 
4 

2 

4 

1 
2 

2 
3 
1 

4 
2 
2 

2 

2 
1 

a 


eel- 
i nd 

2 

Hi 

28 

43 

IK. 

47 
51 
53 

57 
GO 
61 
63 

;;> 
68 

6<i 

72 
74 

78 
80 
82 
84 
85 
8/ 

88 
89 

PI 


Bridgeport, O. ... 
St. Clairsville.... 
: Alorristown 
IFairview 
Middlehourn 
i Washington 
Cambridge 
!New Concord 


1 
10 

11 

10 
:j 
7 
E 
8 
S 
3 
8 
8 

2 
5 
4 
4 
2 
S 
5 

i? 

9 
5 
H 
1(1 
10 
10 
9 
th 
7 
3 
4 
6 

5 
5 
5 
6 
4 

a 

9 
5 

QT 

98t 

0. 

1 

5 
6 

3 
6 
12 
3 
3 
5 
10 
3 
5 
3 


m 

304 
31S 

325 
328 
335 
343 
352 

366 
374 
378 
380 
385 
389 

l!J 

472 

481 

488 
491 
495 
501 
504 
509 
514 
}19 

i29 

jsa 

541 

546 

ON 

er 
293 

m 

299 
{05 

308 
314 

;2r; 

m 

J:;2 
i37 
347 
i)0 
355 
^58 


Faison's . . 12 


Warsaw 8 


Strickland 8 
Teachy's 9 
S. Washington. 9 
Bergaw 7 


Frederick 


Rocky Mount . . 8 
Wilmington.... 14 

(274) F'MWASHINC 

TO PARKERSBUI 

Via Winchester 
Clarksburg. 

To Georgetown . . 
Prospect Hill, Va. 1 
Dranesville 


Baltimore <$- Ohio 
Doup's Switch . .. 
Point of Rocks... 
Catoctin Switch.. 
Berlin 


Bridgeville . . . 


ZANESVILLE 
Hopewell 


Gratiot .... 


Brownsville 
Lin ville 


Knoxville 
Weverton 


Jacksontown 


HARPER'S FERRY 

Peacher's Mill.... 
Hall Town Road. 
Duffield's 


Luray 


Kirkersville 
Etna 


Belmont 
Leesburg 


Leetown Road . . . 
Kerneysville 


COLUMBUS 

Alton 


Purcell's Store. . . . 
Snickersville 
Snicker's Ferry . . 
Barry ville 


Drake's 
Flagg's Alill 
Martmsburg 
Warm Spring R'ti 
Tabbs* 


West Jefferson ... 
Ltifavetta 
Brighton Centre.. 
SPRINGFIELD 
Yellow Springs .. 
Xenia 


WINCHESTER ... 1 
Back Cr'k Valley. ] 
Capon Bridge.... 
Hanging Rock ... 

ROMNEY 1 


Hedgesville Road. 
Myer's Water Sta- 
tion 


Little Miama 1 
Spring Valley 
Claysville 


Hedgesville Depot 
N. Mountain Wa- 
ter Station 


Burlington 1 
Ridgeville 


Corwin. . . 


Back Cr'k Bridge. 
Runner's Ferry 
Road 
Licking Water 
Station 
Walnut Bend.... 
Hancock 
St. John's Run... 
Great Cacapon... 
Rockwell's Run.. 
Doe Gully Tunnel 
No. 12 Water Sta- 
tion 


2 
2 

3 
2 
5 
5 
4 
7 
2 

9 
3 
4 

B 

8 

10 


93 
95 

98 
100 
105 
110 
114 
121 
123 

132 
135 

I3!l 
146 

m 

160 
170 




Claysville 


Lockport 
Morrow . 


Glade Valley i 
German Settlem't 


Deerrield 


Three Forks 
Pruntytown 
Bridgeport 


Polktown 


Indian Ripple 
Milford 


CLARKSBURG 


Columbia 


Lewisport 1 


CINCINNATI 

(276) F'MWASHIN 
TO DETROIT 

ViaWheelm ff ,Wo 
Ohio, Sr Toled 

To Wheeling 
(see No. 275) . . . 
Martin's Ferry, O 
Colerain 


Pennsboro' 
PARKKRSBURG... * 

(274i)F'MWASHIN 
TO WlNCHESTE 

Via Alexandria 

To ALEXANDRIA. 
Fairfax. Va 1 


Pawpaw Tunnel . 
Little Cacapon... 
Great Spring Run 
Patterson's Creek. 
CUMBERLAND 
National Road. 
Frostburg 


Chantilly 
Pleasant Valley . . 
Arcola . . . 


Little Crossing... 
Addison, Pa 
Sornerfield 
Uniontown 
BROWNSVILLE .. 
E. Bethlehem .... 
Beallsville 


13 
13 

a 4 

12 

6 

3 
8 

IT 


183 
196 
.'00 
221 
233 
239 
242 
245 


Harrisville . . . 


Short Creek 
Cadiz 


Aldie 


Stocktownship... 
Tappan 
Whitehall 


Middleburg 
Rector's X Roads. 
Upperville 


East port 




4 59 
5 64 
2 66 
2 78 


Hillsboro' 


New Philadelphia 
Dover 


Berry ville 


Washington 


Millwood 
WINCHESTER.... 1 


Claysville . . . 


1ft 


272 
279 


Strasburg. . . . 


W.Alexander.... 


1 


Deardoff's Mills.. 



ROUTES FROM WASHINGTON. 



131 



Frease's Store 
Mt. Eaton 


4362 

i 33 
9375 
5 :M 
1 1391 
38ft 
QUO 
7411 
54 It 
4 42( 
542. 

IH 

4411 

!; ""' 

'^ 4> 


(278) F'MWASHING 

TO BOSTON. 
Washington Bran 
Railroad. 

To Bladensburg.. 


PON 
ch 

b 
12 
18 

21 
30 

to 

\ 40 

"I 

43 

gi 

77 
78 
83 

HH 
104 

iot; 

110 
118 

120 

m 

134 
137 

438 

ON 

7 
15 
20 
32 

42 

52 

'- 

108 

IN 
119 
140 
147 
153 
Hi2 
171 

% 


(280) F'MWASHIN 

TO STAUNTON 
Via Warrenton Si 
& Charlottesvil 
To Alexandria . . . 
Fairfax 


GJTON 

ir'ffS 
te. 
7 
14 21 

7 28 

V$ 

3 45 

6 51 
5 56 
5 61 
6 67 
9 76 
4 80 
8 88 
8 96 
0106 
5121 
6127 
8135 
8143 
4147 
7154 
0164 

JTON 
HUR 

urg, 
and 

8 15 

7 42 

cks- 

4 56 

66 
5 71 

5 76 

B 82 

a 94 

5104 
3119 
3125 
3133 
3141 
1145 

llbl 

n/5 

)190 
>199 
>205 
1219 
>224 
237 
>246 

fl*) 


Apple Creek 
WOOSTER 
New Pittsburg ... 1 
Row's 


Savannah 


Laurel Factory... 
Junction ... 
Elkridge Landing 

Baltimore and 
Railroad. 
BALTIMORE 

Philadelphia, Wil 
ton, $- Baltimore 


( 

i 
1C 

Oh 

110 

mi 
R 

7 
54 
I, 

1 

1 
5 
3 

3 

; 

2 
4 

8 
2 

4 

7 

3 

01 

"a 1 

5 
12 

10 

10 

8 
7 

19 

10 
(i 
5 
Jl 

/; 

<l 
!_' 
10 
IK 


Centreville 
Groveton 
Buc k la nd 


Ruggles... 
Greenwich 
Fitchville 


New Baltimore... 
Warrenton 
Warrenton Spr'gs 
Jeriersonton 
Rixeyville 


N. Fitchville 
Bronson.. 


Norwalk 
Monroeville 
Lyme 


t/ulpepper C. H. . 
3olv ill's Tavern.. 
Locustdale 


Bellevue 
Lower Sandusky. 1 
Black Swamp 
Woodville 


Stemmer's Run . . 
Chase's 


Orange C. H 
jordonsville 
Kverittsville J 
JHARLOTTESVI'E 
Sardins' Tavern.. 
Yancey's Mills... 
Brookville 


Perrysburg ] 
Maumee City 
TOLEDO 1 
Manhattan 
Erie, Mich 
LaSalle 


6 4! 

i -,oo 

1511 

rM 

-, y: 


Harewood 
Gunpowder 
Barry man's 
all's X Roads... 
Havre de Grace . . 
Cecil 


bVay nesborough. . 
STAUNTON 1 

(281) F'MWASHINC 

TO WHITE SULP 
SPRINGS, 
Via Fredericksb 
Charlottes oille, 
Staunton. 
Steamboat. 
To Alexandria ... 
Mt. Vent on 
Aquia Cr'k Land- 
ing, Va. 2 


Monroe 
Brest . 


; )32 

5 537 

3350 
; 556 
1557 
3570 

TON 

S. 

42 

56 
118 
140 
205 
366 

524 

661 

792 

899 

98fi 


Uharlestown 
Northeast ... . 


Brownstown 1 
Gibraltar . 


Elkton 
Newark 


Truago 


Staunton . 


DETROIT 1 

(277) F'MWASHING 

TO NEW ORLEA> 
Steamboat. 
Aquia Cr'k L'g, 
Railroad. 
Fredericksburg, 
Va . . . 14 


Newport 
WILMINGTON 
Vuaman's Creek. 
Vlarcus Hook 
Chester 


L.a za retto 
Cray's Ferry 
PHILADELPHIA... 
BOSTON 
(see No. 231)... 

(279) F'MWASHIN 

TO NORFOLK, ^ 
Steamboat. 
To Alexandria ... 
Mt. Vernon 
Crane Island 
Sandy Point, Md. 
Aquia Cr'k Land- 
ing Va 


Richmond &rFreder 
burg RR. 
^redericksburg... 1 
Stage. 
}hancellorsville.. 1 
Vilderness 
jocust Grove 
/erdiesville 
Orange C. H 1 
Gordonsville 1 
Everittsville 1 
CHARLOTTESVI'E 
Hardins' Tavern . 
Yancey's Mills ... 
Brookville 
Wayneshorough 
STAUNTON 1 
Jennings' Gap... 1 
Deerfield 1 
Cloverdale Hotel , 
Green Valley ( 
Bath 1< 
Hot Springs ; 
Columbia Inn 1 
Callaghan's ! 
WHITE SULPHUR 
SPRINGS l<j 


RICHMOND 62 
Petersburg 22 
Weldon.N. C. . 65 
Wilmington.... 161 
Steamboat. 
CHARLESTON, 
S. C 158 


Railroad. 
Augusta, Ga. ..1137 
Covington, Ga.. 131 
Stage. 
West Point, Ga. 1107 
Railroad. 
Montgomery, 1 
Ala.* 87 


Boyd'sHo'le 
Matthias' Point .. 
>dar Point, Md.. 
Jlackstone's I.. .. 
'iney Point 
J oint Lookout ... 
loger Point, Va.. 
Smith's Point ..,. 
Windmill Point., 
iwynn's Island .. 
'oint-no-Point ... 
\ew Pt. Comfort. 
Jack River Point. 
Old Pt. Comfort. . 
NORFOLK ... 


Stage. 
MOBILE, Ala... 1209 1195 
Steamboat. 
NEW ORLEANS 117511370 

* From Montgomery to 
Mobile, by the river, 
is 338 miles. 



132 



ROUTES IN VIRGINIA. 



(282) F'MWASHINGTON 

TO LYNCHBURG, 
Via Charlottesville. 

To Charlottesville 
(see No. 277)... 

Garland's 

(Jovesville 



Lovingston 

Rose Mills 

New Glasgow 

LYNCHBURG 



127 
14141 

7148 



15163 
9172 
5 177 

20197 



) F'M RICHMOND TO 
WASHINGTON. 
Richmond, Fredericks- 
burg, $ Potomac RR. 
To Hungary Sta-l 

tion 

Taylors ville 

Junction 

HutherGlen 

Milford 



(283) F'M FREDERICKS- 
BURG TO WINCHES- 
TER. 

SoFalmouth 
artwood 

Spottedyille 

Somerville 

Warrenton 

Salem Fauquier.. 

Oak Hill 

Paris 

Millwood 

WINCHESTER ... 

(284) F'M FREDERICKS 
BURG TO TAPPAHAN 
NOCK. 

ToRappahannock 

Port Royal 

Loretto.., 

Lloyd's 

TAPPAHANNOCK. . 



(285) F'M RICHMOND TO 
OLD PT. COMFORT. 

To Frasier's Tav- 
ern 

New Kent 

Barhamsville 

Burnt Ordinary.. 



Williamsburg 

YORKTOWN 

alfway House . . 



HAMPTON 

Old PL Comfort 

(286) F'M RICHMOND TG 

NORFOLK. 

Steamboat. 
To Warwick's . . . 

City Point 

Windmill Point.. 

Jamestown I 

Burwell'sBay ... 
Newport News. . . 
NORFOLK 

(287) F'M RICHMOND TO 
TAPPAHANNOCK 

To Old Church... 

Aylett's li 

FleetwoodAcad.. ! 
Miller's Tavern .. 
TAPPAHANNOCK. . U 



34 .. 
12 52 
24 7f 
12 88 
1510c 
15 11 



27102 
8110 



umey s ......... 

FREDERICKSB'G. 
Aquiu Cr'k Land- 

ing, Va ......... 

Steamboat. 
Mt. Vernon ---- /. 

Alexandria ....... 

WASHINGTON. . . . 

(2880 FR'M RICHMOND 

TO GORDONSVILLE. 

Railroad. 

To Junction I 

(see No. 288) ...I 

Louisa RR. 

Beaver Dam ...... 

Frederick's Hall. . 
Tolersville ........ 

Louisa C. H ...... 

Gordonsville ...... 

(289) FROM RICHMOND 

TO STAUNTON. 
To Powell's Tav- 
ern ............. 

Dover Mills ...... 

Beaver Dam ...... 

Goochland ....... 

Cedar Point ...... 

Fife's ............. 

Columbia ........ 

Palmyra 



.......... 

Union Mills ...... 

Everittsville ...... 

Charlottesville ---- 

STAUNTON ....... 



37120 



)) FROM RICHMOND 
TO LYNCHBURG. 
To Manchester...] 

Coal Mines 

Hallsboro' 

Pint Rock 

Scottsville 

Macon 

Bullsville 

Cumberland C. H. 
Langhorn's Tav- 
ern 

Raine's 

FARMVILLE 

Walker's Church. 



Spou 
Cone 



it Spring 

Concord 

LYNCHBURG 



;2C1) FROM RICHMOND 
TO MILTON, N. C., 

Via Farmville. 
ToFarmville 



Prince Edward CH 

Midway Inn 

ttoanoke Bridge.. 
Charlotte C.H..., 

Vlt. Laurel 

Halifax 

Bloomsburg 

'Junninghum's 

Store, N. C.... 
MILTON 



12J32 
13145 

13158 
10168 

(292) FROM RICHMOND 

TO RALEIGH, N.C. 
Richmond fr Petersburg 

Railroad. 
To Petersburg.... 
StonyCreekWare- 

house 

Jarrett's 

Belfield 

Greenville fr Roanoke 

Railroad. 

Ryland's Jill 74 

Guston ilOl 84 

Raleigh & Gas ton RR. 



21 43 
111 63 



Littleton 

Macon 

Ridge way 

Henderson 

Staunton 

Franklin 

Forrestville 

Huntsville 

RALEIGH 



9 
11104 
10114 
13127 

7134 
11145 
11156 

6162 

9171 



(293) F'M PETERSBURG 
TO LYNCHBURG. 

To Fork Inn 

Mt. Level 

Morgansville 

Nottoway C. H... 

iurksville 

rille 



LYNCHBURG 



48124 



(294) F'M PETERSBURG 
TO NORFOLK. 

Railroad. 
To City Point....] 113 

Steamboat. 
NORFOLK 
(see No. 286) ...1781 90 

(295) F'M PETERSBURG 
TO NORFOLK. 

To Prince George. I I 7 

Garysville 10 17 

Cabin Point 9 2t> 

SurryC. H 112! 38 



ROUTES IN VIRGINIA. 



133 



Bacon Castle g 
Burwell's Bay 6 


Cloverda-le 
52! Salem i 


3 78|| Liberty.... 
I 92 Lisbon 


8 28 

12 51 

5 56 
25 81 
12 93 
7100 

n in 

18 129 


Smithfield b 
Chuckatuck 10 
Suffolk.... 10 


58 LaFayette 1 
68 i CHRISTIANSB'RG 1. 
78 KNOXVILLE 
oke (see No. 303)... 231 
.. (300) F'M LYNCHB 
9o TO GUYANDOTTE 
og Via White Sulph 
Springs. 
T0 To New London . 
Otter Bridge 
Liberty 

Blue Ridge...;;;; i 

^'incastle . 14 


1103 Butbrd's 

) 117 Big Lick ; 


Portsmouth <$ Roan 
Railroad. 
Portsmouth... 17 


348 CHRISTIANBURG 
- .1 Angle's Ferry .... 
3 Newbern 
i Draper's Valley. 
ur Wytheville 
Rural Retreat... 
\\ Pleasant Hill.... 
18 Marion.... 


Steamboat. 
NORFOLK 1 


(296) F'M NORFOLK 
HAMPTON. 

Steamboat. 
To Old Pt. Com- 
fort 


9138 
7145 
11156 
6 162 
11173 
5178 
7185 
3198 
9207 
9216 
6222 
9231 
7^238 
3:241 

Li 

9279 
4293 
9 : 302 
0312 

URO 

.C. 

12 
5 17 
6 23 
B 29 
3 42 
5 47 
7 54 
J 73 

1 90 
) 99 
103 
112 
125 
136 

;ii 

158 
175 

RD 

10 
19 
22 
29 
38 
46 
52 
58 


2(j Seven. rniie Ford 
43 Glade Spring 
57 :Cedarvilie 


HAMPTON 5 

FROM NORFOLK 
EASTVILLE, 
By Steamboat....! 

(297) F'M NORFOLK 
RALEIGH. 
To Portsmouth ... 1 I 
Portsmouth $ Roano 
Railroad. 
Suffolk 17 


&\ Sweet Springs.... 15 
WHITE SULPHUR 
TO SPRINGS 17 
jewisburg 9 


89 Sapling Grove.... 
BLOUNTSVILLE . . 
106 Lden's Ridge 
115 Kmgsport 


,-Q Blue Sul. Springs. 13 
Se well's Mountain 16 
jpcust Lane 10 
ro Mountain Cove .. 9 
Gauley Bridge ... 15 
1 Mt. Juliet.. 25 
, Kanawha Saline . 5 
Ke KANAWHA C. H. . 6 
'oalsmouth 12 
18 Mt. Salem 9 
Long Level b' 
* Barboursville 12 
49 GUYANDOTTE 7 

63 (301) FROM KANAW 
C. H. TO PT. PLEJ 

75 ANT. 

$ To Mouth of Poc- 
> ataligo 


128 -^ew Cniit(jn 

54 -Y elJow Store.'.'.*; 
($ Rogersyille 

193 Rocky Spring .' . .' 
?08 Bean's Station ... 
JJ llutledge 
? ' Blair'* *j Roads.. 
35 Acaderrna 
4 j ,KNOXVILLE .1] 

jjjj (304) F' M LYNCHB 
TO SALISBURY, JN 
HA Via Danville. 
s - i To Campbell CH. 
[Yellow Branch... 
Castle Craig ... 
16 Ward's Bridge. " 
20 Chalk Level?. 1 
24 Robertson's Store. 
34 Pittsylvania 


Carrsville. 


Franklin 5 
Newson's Depot.. 13 
Margaretsville, 
N. C 14 


Stage. 
Gareysburg.. 12 


Littleton'. ;;;;;;;;" 201 


Gaston <$ Raleigh Rl 
RALEIGH 17811 

(298) F'M NORFOLK i 
LDENTON, N. C. 
To Deep Creek... 
Lake Drummond. 9 J 
South Mills, N.C. 13 I 
Aew Lebanon 5 - 
Elizabeth Cfty.... 12 
Wood vi lie 10 
Hertford 11 <j 


?. Walnut Grove ... 4 
-o Redhouse Shoals. 4 
Buffalo 10 


n rbuckle 14 


PT. PLEASANT... 7 

41 (302) F'M LYNCHBUE 
53 TO WHITE SULPHI 
6 j SPRINGS, Va., 
1 Via Natural Bridge 
3 oWaugh's Fer'y 
4 alcony Falls 13 


55 Rawlingsburg, 

$S^ : &i\ 

. GREENSBORO' ;;." 1J 
8 Jamestown i; 
si lirmnniell's " 1C 


EDENTON 12 t 


yi Natural Bridge Q < 


m Rich Fork... 


(299) F'M STAUNTON T 
KNOXVILLE, Tenn. 
To Greenville 
Steele's Tavern..; 6 1 
Fairfield 6 2 


Rebecca Furnace. 15 , 
I Clifton Forge 11 ( 
Covington.. 14 I 


>5 Lexington 6 

6 (SALISBURY I 7 

? 1(305) FR'MHICKSFC 

TO ROXBORO', N.( 

e| T " St'>ny Mount. 


q Callaghan's 5 j 
5 WHITE SULPHUR 
j SPRINGS 14 ^ 


Lexington 11 3 
Fancy Hill .' g 4 
Natural Bridge . 7 4 
Pattensburg 10 5 
r incastle. 12 6* 


2| (303) F'M LYNCHBUR 
[ TO KNOXVILLE, Tenn 
Via Blountsville. 
)i To New London . 1 
l ter Bridge 7 1 


a IJ^awrenceville 3 
i Diamond Grove. 7 
: Tanner's Store... 9 
Lombard? Grove. 8 
1 j Union Level 6 
8 Boydton 


Amsterdam 61 7J 



134 



ROUTES IN OHIO. 



Clarksville 12 


"0 OLUMBUS 

78 Alton 
$ W T . Jefferson 


1142 

9151 
5'15U 


jinville ' 
irownsville 
Gratiot t 


! w 

40 
42 
46 

54 
62 

i 85 
92 
\ 95 
)105 
116 
)126 
11127 

BU8 

I 11 

|8 
!i 
ig 

5 40 
2 42 
4 46 
8 54 
4 58 
3 61 
3 64 
9 73 
5 78 

4 90 
4 94 
3107 
7114 
124 

!!P 

O liS 

4136 
5141 
4145 

9154 
13167 

rtBUS 

. 

11 
3 14 
7 21 
4 25 
11 36 
5 41 
10 51 
8 59 
14 73 
11 84 
9 M 
13NW 


Whitehouse 8 
ROXBORO' 20 


(306) FR'M CLEVELAI, 
TO BUFFALO, N.Y. 


,a Fayette 


8164 
5 ! ]Ktt 


[opewell ' 

^j\.NESVILLE i 


righton Centre.. 
9 SPRINGFIELD 
12 Yellow Springs... 


51 

10:1 

9 
9;: 
R 

r. 

71 

IK 

1 
11 

LA 

Pa 

6 

7 
5 
6 

4 
ti 
4 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
3 

4 

b 
4 

]- 

i. 

ii 

i 

:'v 

44 

ii 

45 

m 

V 

1 

! 

4 


K| 

93 

02 

V.i 

n; 

>:,( 
K> 
MO 
M( 
JJ3 
*>2 
ii< 

ND 

( 

1L 
]i 

2- 

:,( 

y-j 

4- 
4! 
54 

(X 
Ijt 

7^ 
^l 
h 
!) 
! 
10 
111 
11 
11 

13 
13 

1 

,! 

II! 

or 
a. 

2: 
2 

sr 

31 


iridgeville 1 


Norwich '< 


To Euclid n 
E. Euclid 3 


Mew Concord ; 


Willoughby 6 


18 Xenia 
23 j^ittle Miama h 
U pring Valley.... 
44 jCorwm 
T7. lorrow 
? ! Deerfield 
M Foster's Crossings. 
Si Polktown 
liltbrd 


Vnshington ! 
liddlebourn r 
Fairview 


Painesvil'le 6 


Perry^ 7 


Vlorristown H 
St. Clairsville 1 
Iridgepurt ....... 1 

WHEELINGjVa. . 

312) FROM COLUM 

TO PlTTSBURG 

Via Steubenvillt 

LV) Reynoldsburg. 
Etna 


Unionville 2 
Saybrook 8 


ASHTABULA 6 

Kingsville 9 


Amboy | 


$ Columbia 
gtj CINCINNATI 

(309) FR'MCLEVE 
96 1 TO PITTSBURGH 
[*o Newburg 
^ Bedford 


Fairview, Pa 17 
ERIK 12 1 


B K7253)...911 

(307) FR'M CLEVELA 
TO TOLEDO. 
ToRockport I 


Cirkersville 
fj"ray 


Twinsburg 
8 ludson 


Hebron 
lacksontown 
Linville 


Dover 5 
N. Ridgeville .... 7 
Elyria 4 


20 Franklin Mills.... 
24 i Ravenna 


Brownsville 
iratiot 
Hopewell 


Amherst 8 
Henrietta 3 
Birmingham o 
Florence o 
Beriinville 4 


32 Edioburg 
35 Palmyra 
38 '[Frederick 


ZANESVILLE 
fridgeville 


41 i Ellsworth 
45 Canfield 


Mew Concord 
Cambridge 


tilan o 
orwalk 4 
onroeville 4 
Lyme jj 


5 Poland 
61 New Middletown. 
67 Petersburg 
70 Enon Vnlley, Pa. 
88 Darlington 


V/inchester 
Antrim 
Londonderry 
Smyrna 
Moretield 


Lower Sandusky. IS 
Black Swamp.... 8 
Woodville 7 
Perrysburg 16 
MaumeeCity .... 1 
TOLEDO H 


Cadiz 1 


103 Freedom 


Greene 
Wintersville I 
STEUBENVILLE .. 
Holliday's Cove.. 

p,, r j s 


120 Sewickly Bottom. 
130 Allegheny 

PlTTSBURG 
ND 

(310) FR'MCLEVI 
i TO BUFFALO, N 
7 Steamboat. 
i To Ashtabula . . . 
07 I ERIE, Pa 
sU Portland, N.Y. . 
49 Dunkirk 


(308) FR'M CLEVELA 
TO CINCINNATI. 
To Brooklyn 




Bavington 
Fayette . . . 


PlTTSBURO 

(313) FROM COLUI 
TO CLEVELANI 

To Blendon 
Westerville 




ft inrwick 6 




Guilford 9 
Wooster 13 


Big Prairie 9 
Loudonville 11 


oo (311) FROM COLI 
91 TO WHEELING, 
101 To Reynoldsburg 
106 Etna 
117 Kirkersville 
121 Luray 
128 Hebron 


Galena 
Sonbury 
Centreburg 


Mt. Vernon 
Mt. Liberty 10 
Centreburg a 


Mt. Liberty 
Mt. Vernon 
Democracy 
Loudonville 
i Big Prairie 
WOOSTER 
1 Guilford 


Galena 4 
Westerville 7 


Blendon : 







ROUTES IN OHIO. 



135 



Brunswick 


8123 

K 12: 
H135 


] Jackson ... 


15! 68 

8 7b 
J3I 99 

*S TO 

n. 

45 
13 58 
11 69 
5 74 
10 84 
6 90 
6 96 

u nc; 

7123 
1124 

IBUS 

17 

3 20 
8 28 
7 35 
45 

2 57 
8 65 
5 70 

[BUS 

54 

1 65 
6 81 

8 W 
1 lul 
9110 
2122 

LLE 

29 
7 36 
4 40 
4 44 

8 70 

i ffi 

< W 

^ 

;ii2 
ni5 

4119 

LLE 

>y. 

J 9 
) 19 

i 27 
4 36 
i 52 


CHILLICOTHE 
To MAYSVILLE 
(see No. 318)... 

(323) F'M ZANESI 
TO WHEELING, 
ToBridgeville.... 
Norwich 
New Concord 
Cambridge 


,o|n 

79150 

^r 

3,f 

iM 

8 31 
7 38 
3 41 
10 51 
11 62 
10 72 
ll 73 

TTHE 
3, 

199 

NATI 
N. 

2 

6 8 
6 14 
10 24 
7 31 
5 36 
3 39 
8 47 
7 54 
7 61 
9 70 

NATI 
E. 

2 

7 9 
5 14 
4 18 

8 26 
5 31 

o 56 
66 

8 74 

i a*> 

3 98 

SATI 

:, 

3 
5 8 
5 13 

7 20 
4 24 

7 31 

7 38 
48 


Strongville 
Parma 


iRockyHill 
1 GALLIPOLIS 


Brooklyn 
CLEVELAND 

(314) FROM COLU 
TO SANDUSKY 
To Worthington . 
Williamsville 
Delaware 


:j IS 
4142 

tfBUS 

9 6 | 
10 34 
10 44 
18 2 
11 73 
7 80 
6 8b 
4 90 
6 % 
L4110 

IBUS 

,la. 

5 \\ 

8 22 
32 
< 42 
7 49 
7 56 
1 67 
7 74 

3 8; 

.; us 
0103 

>; iu.' 

6115 

(> 12.', 
2 127 

>- \:>;> 
6 141 
8149 
51;4 
" 1-2 
I 167 
i 172 
0182 

BUS 
J. 

9 26 

9 45 
5 61) 
4 64 
4 78 
2 90 

BUS 

9! 26 

9] 4. 


(318) F'MCOLUMBl 

MAYSVILLE, K< 
To Chillicothe 
(see No. 317) . . . 
Bourneville 


Cynthiana 
Sinking Spring... 
Locust Grove 


Washington 
Middlebourne 
Fairview 
Morristown 


Norton 


Marion 
Bucyrus 
Chattield 
Attica 


West Union 
Aberdeen 
MAYSVILLE 

(319) FROM COLUJ 
TO ATHENS. 
ToLithopolis.,.. 
Courtwright 
Lancaster 


St. Clairsville.... 
Bridgeport 
WHEELING i 

(324) F'M CHILLIC 
TO GALLIPOLI 

(See No. 317) 1 

(325) FR'M CINCIN 
TO WEST UNIO 


Reedtown 


Sherman 


Beilevue.. 


SANDUSKY 


(315) FROM COLD? 
TO INDIANAPOLIS 
Via. Dayton. 
To Alton 


Sugar Grove 
Logan 1 


W. Jefferson 
La Fayette 




To Fulton 1 
Vewtown 
Mt. Carmel 
Batavia 


Brighton Centre. . : 


ATHENS 1 

(330) FROM COLUH 
TO MARIETTA 
To ZANESVILLE, 
(see No. 312) . . . 
Blue Rock 1 


Enon 


Williamsburg 
Bethel 


Dayton 1 
Liberty 
W. Alexandria. . . 1 


Hamersville 
Georgetown 
Kussellville 


McConnellsville.. J 
Beverly 1 
Watertbrd 


Decatur 


New Westville... 1 
Richmond, Ind. .. 
Centreville 
Cambridge 1 


WEST UNION.... 

(326) FR'M CINCIN 
TO CHILLICOTH 
To Fulton 
Plainville 
Milford 
Perrin's Mills 
Gordonville 
Fayetteville 
Dodsonville ' 
Rainsboro' ] 
Bainbridge 


Lowell 


Dublin ... 


(321) F'M ZANESV 
TO CLEVELAND 
To Coshocton 
Keene's 


Lewisville.... 
Ogden 
Knightstown..... 
Charlottesville 
Greenfield . . . 


Mill Creek 


Philadelphia 
Cumberland 
INDIANAPOLIS 1 

(316) FROM COLUM 
TO PORTSMOUTJ 
To S. Bloomfield . 


Clark's 
Millersburg 

WOOSTKR 1 

Guiltord 1 
Medina... 


Bourneville ] 
CHILLICOTHE 1 

(327) FR'M CINCIN 
TO ZANESVILLI 

Via Circleville 

To Walnut Hills. 
Pleasant Ridge... 
Montgomery 
Twenty. mile 
Stand 
Hopkinsville 
Rochester 
Clarksville 
Wilmington I] 


Brunswick 
Strongville .... 


Parma 


Chillicnthe 1 


Brooklyn 


Waverly 1 


CLEVELAND 

(322) F'M ZANESVI 
TO MAYSVILLE, H 
To Putnam 
Fultonham 
Somerset N 
Rushville 
L'incnster 
Tarlton ...1 


Piketon... 


Lucasville 1 


PORTSMOUTH 1 

(317) FROM COLUM 
TO GALLIPOLIS 
ToS. Bloomfield. 1 
Circleville 
Chillicothe ll 



136 



ROUTES IN OHIO. 



Snbina 
Washington 
New Holland 
Williarnsport 
Circleville 
Amanda 


10 
12 

w s 
9 
12 

SI 
9 

8 
Id 
8 
1 

gj 
Vi 

,h 

Lc 

IE 

4 

5 
2 
1 
4 
2 
4 
5 
5 
5 
3 
H 


58 

70 

80 ; 
88 

!7 
109 : 

us; 

127 
135 
145 
153 
154 

LTI 

I. 

ra- 

5 

9 
14 

16 

1 

i 

32 
37 
42 
45 
nl 


(330) FR'M CINCW 
TO SIDNEY, 
Via Dayton. 
To Carthage 
Springdale 


N, 

7 
10 

18 
6 
6 
4 
8 
10 
11 
7 
13 

*N 

IS. 

4 
4 
4 

ijj 

4 
6 
12 
10 


^TI 

6 
13 
23 
41 
47 
53 
57 
65 
75 

8,; 

93 
106 

VTI 

4 

8 
12 

16 
22 
32 
3B 
43 
4<) 
61 
71 


Campbellsville . . . 
Greensburg 


12 
12 
11 

! 

1 

2-1 

T N, 

18 

13 

5 

!! 

11 
22 

36 
5 
18 
33 
10 
19 

15 

i 

6 
25 
37 
8 
6 
11 
7 
23 
10 
12 
15 
33 
ro 
14 
1; 

N'X 

M 
C< 

10 
4 
7 
10 
IT 

:' 

3 

r 
12 

21 


161 
173 
184 
190 

194 

p 

241 

2:a 

ITI 

. 

291 
:;i)4 
309 
3-J1 
333 
344 

a% 
m 

407 
425 
log 

IKS 

487 
502 

as 

537 
543 
588 
tjOa 

613 
619 

630 

*;:;- 
i;t;o 

670 
6S2 
697 
730 
i<i. 

^ 


Monroe 


Three Springs 
Blue Spring Grove 
GLASGOW 


Rushville 


Middletown ... 
Franklin 


State Line 


Fultonham 
Putnam 


Miamisburg 
Alexandersville. . . 
DAYTON. . 


NASHVILLE 

(335) FR'M CiNcn 
TO NATCHEZ, IV: 

To NASHVILLE 
(see No. 334) . . . 
Good Spring 
Franklin 


ZANESVILLE 

(328) FR'M CINCIIV 
TO WHEELING, 

Via SprinffJield,C 
bus, <$ Zanesvi 

Little Miama 1 
To Columbia 
Plainville 


W. Charleston . . . 
Troy 


Piqua . 


SIDNEY 


(331) FR'M CINCH 
TO INDIAN APOL 
ToCheviott 
Dry Ridge 
Cleves 
Elizabethtown ... 
Lawrenceburg,Ia. 


Springhill 


Columbia 
Mt. Pleasant 
Lawrenceburg ... 
FLORENCE 
Tuscumbia 


Milford 


Germany 


Indian Ripple 
Polktown 


Laugherty 


iRussellville 
To 11 sate 


Delaware 
Napoleon .... 


Pikeville 


Deertield 


Greerisburg 
St. Omar 


Border Spring, 
Miss. .. 


Lockport 
Freeport 


Shelby ville 
Brandy wine 
Pleasant View 


11 

6 
12 
11 

8 

S'N 

, 

is 
37 

S'N 

K 

o 

11 

11 

:r 

8 
SN 

L"e 

12 

i: 


82 
88 
1(10 
IN 
122 

VTI 

122 

359 

ATI 
P. 

1 

10 
26 
37 
72 
76 
S4 

\TI 

in. 

84 

'.'6 
1CS 


COLUMBUS 
Shoco 

Choctaw Agency. 
Louisville 




r*l iu" 


4 

3 
7 
10 
10 
10 
10 
8 
5 
! 
11 

t; 

5 

g 

2 
4 
4 

5 

\ 

8 

73 

VN 

D, 

a' 
42 


55 
58 
65 
75 
85 
95 
105 
113 
118 
12 J 
138 
M4 
14!) 
152 
151 
158 
162 
167 
169 
173 
181 

254 

VTI 

id 

127 

269 


Bethel 


{Spring Valley 
Xenia . 
Yellow Springs .. 

fPRINGFIELD 
righton Centre.. 
La Fayette 


INDIANAPOLIS 

(332) FR'M CINCI 
TO ST. Louis 
Via fndianapol 
To Indianapolis 
(see No. 331)... 
St. Louis 
(see No. 500)... 2 

(333) FR'M CINCI 
TO LEXINGTON, 
Steamboat. 
To Covington 
Stage. 


Hopahka 
Ofuhoma 
Springfield 
Sharon .... 


Canton. . . 


JACKSON .. 


West Jefferson . . . 
Alton 


Newtown 


Line Store 




Gallatin 


Reynoldsburg 
Etna 


Malcolm . 


Mississippi Rail 
Washington 
NATCHEZ 


Kirkersville 
Luray 


Hebron 
Jacksontown 
Linnville 


(336) FR'M CINCH 
TO BALTIMORE, 
Via Wheeling fr 
berland. 
To WHEELING, 

(see No. 328)... 
Triadelphia,Va. . 
W.Alexander.... 
Claysville 
Washington 
Hillsboro' 


1 TI 

tm- 

254 
264 
%8 
J75 
285 
: J 02 
305 
308 
314 
B26 
347 


Brownsville 
Gratiot 


Crittenden 
Williamstown 
Georgetown 
Delphi 


Hopewell 
ZANESVILLE 
WHEELING 
(see No. 323)... 

(329) FR'M CINCI 
TO CLEVELAI* 
Via, Columbus 
W ouster. 

To Columbus 
(see No. 328) . . . 
Cleveland 
(see No. 313)...] 


LEXINGTON 

(334) FR'M CINCI 
TO NASHVILLE,"] 
To Lexington 
(see No. 333) ... 
Nicholasville 
Shawnee Run 


Bealsville 


HARRODSBURG .. 
Perry ville 
Lebanon 
Newmarket .... 


K' 
18 
b 


115 
125 
143 
149 


E. Bethlehem .... 
BROWNSVILLE .. 
Uniontovvn 
Somerfield..., 



ROUTES IN OHIO. 



137 



Little Crossing".'.! 
Frostburg 


13364 
13377 

10387 
RR. 
8'395 
13408 
4<412 
12424 
3433 
91442 
5447 
7454 
4 ! 4o8 
7465 
8473 
11484 
20504 
47 551 
14163 
4NAT1 
3. 

254 

s-j<;-j 
5267 

97Q 


Milford 
Germany 


1 
4 
6 
5 


14 

16 
17 
21 
27 


Peru !... 

Steuben 


16 32 

6 38 
5 43 

5' 48 
8 56 
13 69 

r. TO 

10 
20 30 
27 57 
60117 
44161 
30191 
16207 
45252 

r TO 

75 
72147 
75222 
75297 
80377 
65442 
103545 
150 695 
25720 
13733 
571790 


CUMBERLAND.... 

Baltimore <$ Ohii 
Patterson's Creek. 
Little Carapon. . . 
Pawpaw Tunnel.. 
Doe Gulley Tun'l. 
Great Cacapon... 
HANCOCK 


Indian Ripple 
Polktown 
Foster's . . 


New Haven 
Plymouth 
Shelby 


Deern'eld 


MANSFIELD 


Morrow 


5 37 
5 42 
3 45 
6 51 
4 55 
3 58 
7 '65 

101 75 
10 85 
14 99 
11110 
8118 
6124 
7131 
11142 
R. 
231165 
16181 
9190 
13203 
16219 

f TO 
?. 

1 1 16 


FROM SANDUSK 11 
BUFFALO, N. 1 

Steamboat. 
To Huron 


Lockport. 


Freeport 


Corwin. . . . 


Walnut Bend .... 
BackCr'k Bridge. 
Hedgesville 
MARTINSBURG... 
Kerneysville 
HARPER'S FERRY 
Frederick 
Ellicott's Mills 


Claysville 


Spring Valley.... 


Stage. 
Yellow Springs .. 
SPRINGFIELD 


Black River 
CLEVELAND 
Ashtabula 
ERIE, Pa 
Portland, N.Y. .. 


BALTIMORE 
(337) FR'M CINCH 

TO PlTTSBUR 

To WHEELING 
(see No. 328)... 
Triadelphia,Va.. 
W.Alexander, Pa. 


W. Liberty 
Beilefontame 
Cherokee 


Dunkirk 
BUFFALO 


FROM SANDUSIO 
CHICAGO, 11 

Steamboat. 
To DETROIT 
Ft. Gratiot 
Point au Barques 
Thunder Bay Isl. 
Presque Isle 
MACKINAC 
Manitou Islands. 
Milwaukie, Wis. 
Racine . . 


Howell's . 


KENTON 


Mad River R 
Carey 


Tiffin 


Washington 10283 
Cannonsburg 7290 
Harriottsville 8298 
PITTSBURG 10308 

(338) FR'M CINCINNATI 
TO SANDUSKY CITY. 
JMtleMiamaRR. 
To Columbia 5 


Republic 


Beflevue . 


SANDUSKY 


FROM SANDUSK^ 
MANSFIELD 
Mansfield Ri 
To Monroeville. . . 


Snuthport 
CHICAGO, 111. ... 



DESCRIPTION OP THE SOUTHERN STATES, 



THE PRINCIPAL CITIES, TOWNS, WATERING- 
PLACES, &c 




_ ^BLA CK MTS. 

NORTH CAROLINA lies between 33 50' and 
36 30' N. lat., and between 75 45' and 84 q W. Ion. 
i from Greenwich ; and between 6 a 20' W., and 1 33' 
j E. Ion. from Washington. Population in 1840, 
f 753,419. 

Along the entire coast of this state there is a ridge 
of sand, separated from the main land in some places 
by narrow, and in other places by broad sounds and 
1 bays. The passages or inlets through it are shallow 
and dangerous, Ocracoke inlet being the only one through which vessels 
pass. Capes Hatteras and Lookout are projecting points in this belt, and 
off them, particularly the former, is the most dangerous navigation on the 
coast of the United States. Cape Fear is on an island off the mouth of 
Cape Fear river. For 60 or 80 miles from the shore, the country is level ; 
the streams are sluggish, and there are many swamps and marshes. The 
soil is sandy and poor, excepting on the margins of the streams, where it 
is frequently very fertile. The natural growth of this region is mostly the 
pitch-pine. This tree affords tar, pitch, turpentine, and lumber, which 
constitute an important part of the exports of the state. In the swamps 
rice of a fine quality is raised. Back of the flat country, and extending 
to the lower falls of the rivers, is a belt of land about 40 miles wide, of 
a moderately uneven surface, a sandy soil, and of which the pitch-pine is 
the prevailing natural growth. Above the falls the country is hilly, the 
'streams have a more rapid current, and the country is more fertile, pro- 
ducing wheat, rye, flax, oats, and barley. The western part of the state 
is an elevated table-land, about 1,800 feet above the level of the sea, 
with some high ranges and very elevated summits. Black Mountain, in 
Yancy county, 6,476 feet high, is the highest land in the United States 
east of the Rocky Mountains. Roan Mountain is 6,038 feet, and Grand- 
father Mountain is 5,556 feet high. Throughout the state Indian corn is 
raised, and in some parts considerable cotton. In the low country, grapes, 
plums, blackberries, and strawberries grow spontaneously; and on the 
intervals canes grow luxuriantly, the leaves of which, continuing green 
during winter, furnish food for cattle. In the elevated country, oak. 
walnut, lime, and cherry trees, of a large growth, abound. 



STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 139 

The principal rivers are the Chowan. 400 miles long, navigable for 
small vessels 30 miles ; Roanoke ; Pamlico, navigable for 30 miles ; Tar ; 
Neuse ; Cape Fear, the largest river in the state, 280 miles long, with 
eleven feet of water to Wilmington ; the Yadkin, which forms a part 
of the Great Pedee in South Carolina. 

The constitution of this state was adopted in December, 1776, and re- 
vised in 1835. The senate and house of commons are elected biennially 
by the people. The senate consists of 50 members, and the house of com- 
mons of 120, The senate is chosen by districts, the number being 
apportioned by the amount of state taxes paid. The members of the 
hou.se of commons are apportioned among the counties according to their 
population. The governor is chosen for two years by the qualified voters, 
and is eligible only four years in six. There is an executive council of 7 
members, chosen biennially by a joint vote of both houses. In case 
of the death of the governor, his duties devolve upon the speaker of the 
Senate. The judges of the Supreme Court are chosen by a joint-ballot 
of both houses of the legislature, and hold their office during good 
behavior. The attorney-general is appointed by the legislature for 
4 years. The right of suffrage extends to all free white persons 21 years 
of age, who have been inhabitants of the state for twelve months previous 
to the election ; but in order to vote for a senator, a freeman must possess 
a freehold of 50 acres of land. The legislature meets biennially at 
Raleigh, on the second Monday of November, and the governor is chosen 
in August preceding. 

There are three colleges in the state, viz. : The University of North 
Carolina, at Chapel Hill ; Davidson College, in Mecklenburg county ; 
and Wake Forest College, at Forestville. There are 145 academies and 
637 common schools. 

The first permanent settlement in this state was on the eastern bank of 
the Chowan river, about 1660, by emigrants who, in consequence of 
religious persecution, fled from Nansemond, Virginia. The constitu- 
tion of the United States was adopted in convention, Nov. 27th, 1789 
yeas 193, nays 75. 

RALEIGH, the capital of the state, is pleasantly situated, a few miles 
west of Neuse river, 27 NW. Smithfield, the nearest ordinary point of 
navigation, 164 SSW. Richmond, Va., 288 from Washington. Popula- 
tion 2,500. In the centre of the city is Union Square, containing ten 
acres, from which extend four streets, dividing it into four quarters. In 
the centres of these quarters are four other squares, of four acres each. 
The four largest streets are 99 feet wide, and the others 66. The State- 
house is a superb granite edifice, built after the model of the Parthenon at 
Athens. It is 166 feet long, 90 feet wide, and surrounded by massive 
granite columns, 5 feet in diameter, and 30 feet high. Besides the above, 
the city contains a court-house, governors house, a theatre, two banks, 
4 academies, five churches, and 400 dwellings. The North Carolina 
Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy has 3 professors and about 50 
students. The former state-house, containing a beautiful marble statue 
of Washington, by Canova, was burned in 1831. Wake Forest College 
is at Forestville, 15 miles from Raleigh. It was founded in 1838, and 
has a president, 3 professors, 25 students, and 4,700 volumes in its 
libraries. The commencement is on the third Thursday in June. Cars 
arrive from, and depart daily for Richmond, Va., via Gaston and 
Petersburg. Stages leave daily for Columbia, S. C.. via FayettemUc ; 
tftree times a week for Greensboro ; for Salisbury ; and for Goldsboro. 



140 STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

WELDON is situated on the right bank of Roanoke river, at the Great 
falls, at the head of navigation, and 95 miles from Raleigh. It contains. 
two churches, an academy, and about 300 inhabitants. Halifax, seven 
miles below the falls, on the Roanoke, contains a court-house, a bank, two 
churches, an academy, and 500 inhabitants. Cars arrive from, and de- 
part daily for Wilmington ; for Richmond, Va. ; and for Norfolk. 

EDENTON is situated near the mouth of Chowan river, on Edenton 
bay, which set* up from Albemarle Sound, eighty-six miles by land 
from Norfolk. It contains an elegant court-house, a bank, an academy, 
two churches, and about 1,600 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week 
for Norfolk, Va. ; and for Ncwbern via Plymouth. 

ELIZABETH CITY, situated on the right bank of Pascotank river, 
contains a court-house, an academy, 2 churches, and 2,000 inhabitants. 

TARBORO, situated on the right bank of Tar river, at the head ot 
steamboat navigation, has a court-house, a bank, two churches, an 
academy, and about 600 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week fur 
Raleigh and for Washington. 

WASHINGTON, situated on the left bank of Tar river, at the head ot 
ship navigation, has a court-house, a church, an academy, and 1,200 
inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week for Raleigh ; and for Newbern. 

NEWBERN, situated on Neuse river at the junction of Trent river, 
126 miles from Raleigh, was formerly the capital of the state. It is 
more healthy than most other places in the state so near the seaboard. 
It contains a court-house, a theatre, a Masonic-hallj two banks, three 
churches, four academies, and 4,000 inhabitants. Stages leave three 
times a week for Raleigh ; for Tarboro ; for Plymouth ; and for Beaufort. 

BEAUFORT, situated on North river, eleven miles from Cape Lookout, 
and 170 from Raleigh, has a good harbor for vessels drawing not more than 
14 feet water. It contains a court-house, a Masonic-hall, a female seminary, 
a male seminary, a church, and 1,200 inhabitants. The harbor ie defended 
by Fort Macon, on Bogue Point. Stages leave 3 times a week for Raleigh. 

WILMINGTON lies on the left bank of Cape Fear river, at the head of 
ship navigation, 35 miles from the ocean, and 136 from Raleigh. It is 
the most commercial and populous town in the state. It has a court- 
house, two banks, an academy, 2 churches, and about 5.000 inhabitants. 
Cars arrive from, and depart daily fur Richmond, Va., and Washington ; 
and also for Norfolk, Va,. (See routes 351 and 352.) Steamboats daily to 
and from Charleston, S. C. 

FAYETTEVILLE is situated on the right bank of Cape Fear river, 88 
miles from Wilmington. It is regularly laid out, and contains a court- 
house, two banks, 3 churches, 4 academies, a United States arsenal of 
construction, several extensive cotton factories and mills, and 4,500 in- 
habitants. It has several times suffered severely by tire. The river is 
navigable for steamboats to this place ; and it commands an extensive 
trade with the interior. Stages leave daily for Raleigh, and for Cheraw, 
S. C. ; 3 times a week for Warsaw ; and twice a week for Salisbury. 

WARRENTON is situated on a branch of Tar river, 62 miles northeast 
from Raleigh. It has a court-house, a church, an academy, and 700 in- 
habitants. The Shocco White Sulphur Springs are twelve miles from 
Warrenton. The waters contain sulphureted hydrogen gas, carbonic 
acid gas, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of lime, oxide of iron, muriate 
of soda, and carbonate of lime : they have been found beneficial in cases 
of dyspepsia, liver complaint, and diseases of the skin, Stages leave the 
If'arrcnton depot daily Jot the Spi-iugs. (See route 341.) 



STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 




CHAPKL HILL is situated 28 miles from Raleigh, between the branches 
of New Hope river. It is the seat of the University of North Carolina, 
founded in 1789. Its edifices, five in number, are built of brick, and con- 
tain, besides the libraries, a chemical apparatus and mineralogical cabinet. 
It has a president,, 7 professors, 2 tutors, 777 alumni, 156 students, and 12,000 
volumes in its libraries, j The commencement is on the 1 first Thursday in 
June. The village has about 300 inhabitants. 

GREENSBORO' is situated on a branch of Haw river, 82 miles from 
Raleigh. It contains a court-house, a church, the Caldwell Institute, an 
academy, and about 700 inhabitants. Rockingham. Springs, 24 miles 
from Greensboro', are on one of the north branches of Haw river. The 
waters are in much repute. Stages leave Greensboro 1 3 times a week for 
Raleigh;- -for Milton; for Danville, VOL.; for Wythemlle, Va. ; for 
Knoxville, Term.; and for Salisbury. 

SALEM, on a branch of Yadkin river, is a pretty village extending for a 
mile and a half mostly on one street, shaded with trees. It has a church, 
a Moravian academy, a bank, and about 1,000 inhabitants. Twenty-four 
miles NW. from Salem is the Pilot Mountain, a regular cone, rising to 
the height of 1,750 feet above the surrounding plain, and terminating in a 
liuge rock called the Pinnacle. (See route 344.) 

SALISBURY is situated on a branch of Yadkin river, 115 miles from 
Raleigh, at the great central point of travel in the western part of the state. 
The village has a church, a court-house, an academy, and 700 inhabitants. 
Here is an ancient stone wall, laid in cement, from 12 to 14 feet high and 22 
inches thick, which reaches to within a foot of the surface ; and the length 
of what has been discovered is about 300 feet. The object, time, and 
purpose of its construction are uncertain. Stages leave 3 times a week 
for Raleigh ; for Danville, Va. ; for Knoxville, Tenn. ; for Columbia, 
S. C. ; for C/ieraw ; and for Fayetteville. 

CHARLOTTE is situated a few miles east from the Catawba river, and 
158 from Raleigh. It contains a court-house, a branch of the United 
States Mint, 4 churches, and 1.000 inhabitants. East of the village are a 
number of very productive gold mines. About twenty miles from Charlotte 
is Davidson College, founded in 1838. It has a president, two profes- 
sors, 31 alumni, 49 students, and 1,200 volumes in its libraries. The 
commencement is on the last Thursday in June. Stages leave three times 
a week for Salisbury; and for Columbia, S. C. 

LINCOLNTON, beautifully situated on the left bank of the Little Catawba 
river, 172 miles from Raleigh, has a court-house, three churches, two 
academies, and 900 inhabitants. There are in the vicinity several ex- 
tensive mills and manufactories of cotton, iron, and paper. The Catawba 
Springs are 14 miles east from Lincolnton. The waters contain sulphate 
of magnesia and lime. The scenery in this part of the state is truly 
beautiful. Twenty miles west from Lincolnton ure the Shelby Sulphur 



142 STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Sprinffs, the waters of which are very similar to the Sulphur springs *>f 
Virginia. Stages leave Lincolnton 3 times a week for Salisbury ; and fur 
Jlshville ; and twice a week for Camden, S. C. 

ASHVILLE is situated on the right bank of French Broad river, 250 
miles from Raleigh. It is in a healthy and beautiful mountain region, and 
lias a court-house, an academy, two churches, and 700 inhabitants. A 
few miles southwest from the village is a sulphur spring much frequented. 
The Warm Springs are situated on the left bank of French Broad river, 
34 miles from AshvilJe. The temperature of the Springs is from 96 t.> 
100 Fahrenheit, and the waters contain the muriates and sulphates of 
lime and magnesia, are limpid, and emit nitrogen gas. Chronic rheuma- 
tism and paralysis have been cured by drinking the water, and by fre- 
quent outward applications. Stages leave Jlshville 3 times a week for 
Raleigh via Salisbury , for Columbia, S. C. ; and for Nashville via 
Knoxville. 





r* SOUTH CAROLINA is situated between 32 2 
^ and 35 10' N. lat., and between 78 24' and 83 30' 
^ VV. Ion. It is 200 miles long and 125 broad, con- 
\ taining about 25,000 square miles. Population in 1840, 
I 594,398. 

The seacoast is bordered with a chain of islands, 
between which and the shore there is a very convenient 
> navigation. The main land is naturally divided into 
* the Lower and Upper country. The low country ex 
tends from 80 to 100 miles from the seacoast, and is covered with ex- 
tensive forests of pitch-pine, called pine barrens, interspersed with marshes 
and swamps of a rich soil. The banks of the large rivers, and the creeks 
of this region, are bordered with a belt of excellent land, producing cotton 
and Indian corn in abundance. The marshes and swamps in this district 
make fine rice plantations. After leaving the low country, in proceeding 
into the interior, you first pass through a region of little sand-hills, which 
have been compared to the arrested waves of the sea in a storm. This 
curious country, sorr-etimes denominated the Middle Country, continues 
for 50 or 60 miles, till you arrive at the Ridge or Upper country, the 
ascent to which, proceeding from the Atlantic, is sudden and somewhat 
precipitous. The lower falls of the rivers are found along this ridge. The 
low grounds between the sand-hills are suitable for agriculture and 
pasturage; but with these exceptions, the country below the ridge is bar- 
ren, and scarcely worth cultivation. Beyond the ridge commences a beau 
tiful and healthy country of hills and dales, with fine flowing streams ol 
pure water. This whole region may he regarded as an elevated table- 
land, and is generally fertile. In the distance of 220 miles NVV. from 



STATE OF SOUTH CAROLIXA. 143 

Charleston, the land is 800 feet above the level of the sea. From this 
the country rises gradually to a mountainous region to the west, where 
the great Alleghany range pusses through the state, in several ridges, 
some of which have high peaks. Tahle Mountain, one of the most 
conspicuous of these, is 4,000 feet above the level of the sea. The 
staple productions of the state are cotton and rice, great quantities 
of which are exported. Rice is extensively cultivated where the land 
can be irrigated by the tide or the overflowing of the rivers. The sea- 
island cotton, produced in the islands along the shores, is of a superior 
quality, and is in great demand. 

The Great Pedee river, 450 miles long, rises in North Carolina, and 
runs through the eastern part of the state. It is navigable for sloops 
130 miles. The Santee, formed by the junction of the Wateree and 
the Congaree, rises in North Carolina, and has a sloop navigation for 
about 130 miles. The Saluda is a branch of the Congaree. The Edisto 
in navigable for large boats 100 miles. The Savannah washes the whole 
southwest border of the state, and is a noble stream. There are several 
smaller rivers, among which are Cooper, Ashley, and Combahee. 

The literary institutions in this state are the College of South Carolina, 
at Columbia ; Charleston College, at Charleston ; the Medical School, at 
Charleston ; and three theological institutions. There are about 120 
academies or grammar schools, and 600 common schools. 

The constitution was formed in 1775, and reconstructed in 1790. The 
governor is elected for two years by a joint vote of both houses of the as- 
sembly. After having served one term, he is ineligible for the next four 
years. A lieutenant-governor is chosen in the same manner and for the 
same period. The Senate consists of 45 members, elected by districts for 
four years. The House of Representatives consists of 124 members, np- 
portioned among the several districts according to the number of white 
inhabitants and taxation, and are elected for two years. The representa- 
tives and one half the senators are chosen every second year, in October. 
The legislature meets annually in Columbia, on the fourth Monday in 
November. The chancellor and judges of the Supreme Court are chosen 
by the joint ballot of both houses of the Assembly, and hold their offices 
during good behavior. Every free white male citizen 21 years of age, 
who has resided in the state two years immediately preceding the 
election, and who is possessed of a freehold of 50 acres of land or a town- 
lot, six months before the election ; or not possessing this freehold, who 
shall have resided in the election district in which he offers to vote, 
six months before the election, and have paid a tax of three shillings 
sterling to the support of the government, has the right of suffrage. 

The first settlement of this state was made at Port Royal, in 1670. 
The constitution of the United States was adopted in convention, May 
23d, 1788 yeas 149, nays 73. 

COLUMBIA, the capital of the state, is situated on the left bank of the 
Congaree river, immediately below the junction of Broad and Saluda 
rivers, 130 miles from Charleston. From the river there is a gradual 
ascent for one mile, reaching to a height of 200 feet, where it spreads out 
into a plain of two or three miles in extent, descending on every side. 
On this plain the city is built. It is regularly laid out into wide and 
handsome streets, and extensively planted with trees. It has a state- 
house 170 feet long, 60 wide, and two stories high; a court-house, town- 
hall, mnrket-house, two banks, a theatre, an academy, a female seminary, 
an asylum, 6 churches, and 4,400 inhabitants. Columbia is also the 



144 STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

seat of South Carolina College, founded in 1804, which has a president 
and 6 professors or other instructors, 150 students, and 15,000 volumes in 
its libraries. The commencement is on the first Monday in December. 
Its buildings are commodious, and contain a philosophical apparatus and 
an observatory. The Southern Theological Seminary, founded in 1831, 
has two professors, 16 students, and 4,000 volumes in its libraries. A 
bridge here crosses the Congaree river. Steamboats ply between this place 
and Charleston. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for Charleston. 
Stages leave daily for Raleigh via Cheraw ; 3 times a week for Augusta, 
Ga. ; for Greenville ; forYorkville : twice a week for Rutherfordton, JV*. C. 




CHAKI/ESTON, the metropolis, is situated in 32 46' 33" N. lat., and 79 
57' 27" W. Ion., 580 miles from Baltimore, and 765 from New York. 
Population in 1840, 29,261 ; to which may properly be added the in- 
habitants of the " Neck" north of the city, but lying without its chartered 
limits, which contains 11,876; these added to the city population make a 
total of 41,137 inhabitants. Charleston is on a peninsula formed by the 
confluence of Ashley and Cooper rivers, which unite immediately below 
the city, and form a spacious and convenient harbor, communicating with 
the ocean at Sullivan's Island, seven miles southeast of the city. The 
city is defended by Fort Pinckney, two miles below, and Fort Johnson, 4 
miles, and by Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island. The ground on which 
the city is built is elevated eight or nine feet above the level of the harbor 
at high tide. The streets generally run parallel to each other from east to 
west, extending from river to river, and these are crossed by others, nearly 
at right angles. The houses are neatly built, many of them of brick, and 
some of wood neatly painted, having piazzas extending to the roof, beau- 
tifully ornamented with vines. The houses in the suburbs have fine 
gardens abounding in orange, peach, and other ornamental or useful trees, 
and a profusion of vines and shrubbery. 

The public buildings are a city-hall, an exchange, a court-house, jail, 
custom-house, a state citadel, a guard-house, two arsenals, a college, a 
medical college, an almshouse, an orphan asylum, a theatre, 7 banks, 26 
churches, 16 academies, and 2 high schools. 

The Charleston College, founded in 1795, has a president and four pro- 
fessors or other instructors, 67 alumni, 50 students, and 3,000 volumes in 
its libraries. The commencement is on the Tuesday after the fourth 
Monday in March. It has a fine edifice. The Medical College of the 
State of South Carolina, founded in 1833, has 8 professors, and 158 
students. The lectures commence on the second Monday in November. 
It is a highly respectable institution. The Guard-house is a fine edifice, 
occupied by a military company of about 100 persons, some of them 
mounted, who patrol the streets during the night. The Citadel, formerly 
used for this purpose, is now a military school, under the patronage of 



STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 145 

the state. The Orphan Asylum accommodates 250 orphans and des- 
titute children. The Literary and Philosophical Society has a fine col- 
lection of objects in natural history. The Apprentices' Library contains 
10,000 volumes, and sustains annually a course of scientific lectures. 
The City Library contains about 18,000 volumes. Sullivan's Island, 7 
miles below the city, and at the entrance of the harbor, was the scene of 
important military events during the war of the Revolution. The city 
was founded in 1680, and chartered in 1783. Steamboats arrive from, 
and depart daily for Wilmington, JV. C. ; and there are lines to Savan- 
nah, Ga., and to St. Augustine, Fl. Cars arrive from, and depart daily 
for Columbia ; for Mobile, via Augusta, Ga. ; Atlanta ; West Point ; 
and Montgomery, Ala. ; and for Memphis, Tenn., via Gunter's Landing, 
and Florence. Stages leave for Georgetown, forCamden, and for Savannah. 

The Eutaw Springs, 50 miles from Charleston, are more celebrated as 
the scene of a fierce Revolutionary battle than for their medicinal prop- 
erties. The water rises through a small opening in the earth, a few 
inches in diameter, and immediately forms a basin a few feet deep and 
about 300 feet around ; thence it percolates through a ridge of porous lime- 
stone, and at a short distance bubbles up and forms the head of Eutaw creek. 

GEORGETOWN is situated on the right bank of the Great Pedee river, at 
its entrance into Winyaw bay, 9 miles from the ocean and 152 from 
Columbia. It contains a court-house, a bank, an academy, 4 churches, a 
public library, and about 2,000 inhabitants. The neighborhood is the 
scene of many of Marion's achievements ; and on North Island, the sum- 
mer retreat of the city people, La Fayette landed on his first visit to this 
country. Steamboats ply to Wilmington, JV. C., and to Charleston. 
Stages leave for Chernw, and for Charleston. 

CHERAW is beautifully situated on the right bank of the Great Pedee, 
on a plain elevated 100 feet above the river, 03 miles from Columbia. 
The river is navigable to this place for steamboats. It contains a town- 
hall, a bank, 2 academies, 5 churches, and 1,000 inhabitants. Steamboats 
ply to Georgetown. Stages leave daily for Columbus, and for Raleigh. 

CAMDEN is handsomely situated on a plain, one mile from the east 
bank of Wateree river, and 33 miles from Columbia. The river is 
navigable for boats of 70 tons to the town. Camden contains an elegant 
court-house, a city-hall, an academy, four 
churches, a bank, a Masonic-hall, a public 
library, and about 2,300 inhabitants. A bat- 
tle was fought here Aug. 16, 1780, between 
the armies under Gen. Gates and Lord Corn- , 
wallis; and another April 23d, 1781, between ' 
Gen. Greene and Lord Rawdon. On De 
Kalb-street, opposite the Presbyterian Church, 
is an elegant monument erected to the memory 

of Baron De Kalb, the corner-stone of which ~ f ^^ f ^ r ^^,^ J ^- 

was laid by La Fayette in 1825. Two miles west from Camden is a large 
Indian mound, supposed to mark the site of an ancient town of the 
Catawhas. Stages leave daily for Columbia ; for Cheraw ; and for 
Salisbury, JV. C. ; and twice a week for Charleston. 

CHESTERVILLE is situated 57 miles from Columbia, on a lofty and 
beautiful elevation, between Catawba and Broad rivers. It contains a 
court-house, an academy, and 500 inhabitants. From its commanding and 
secure position, the town has been likened to a fortress of the baronial 
days. Stages leave 3 times a week for Columbia ; and for Charlotte, JV C. 
7 




146 



STATE OF GEORGIA. 



SPARTANBURGH is situated on a branch of Brond river, and contains a 
court-house, several churches, an academy, and 1,000 inhabitants, Glenn 
Sulphur Springs, twelve miles southeast from Spartanburgh, have a 
high reputation for the cure of cutaneous affections, and are much fre- 
quented. The waters of Cedar Spring are famous for their medicinal, 
qualities, particularly in rheumatism, ulcers, and even in fever and ague. 
The Pacolet Springs are also much resorted to, as are the Jjimestone 
Springs, all of which are in Spartanburgh district ; and al-so the famous 
battle ground of Cowpens. Stages leave 3 times a week for Columbia ; 
for Greenville ; and for JAncolnton, .W. C. 

GREENVILLE is beautifully situated on a gently undulating plain, 107 
miles from Columbia. Reedy river runs beside it, and forms near it 
several beautiful cascades. The village is regularly laid out, and is re- 
markably healthy. It has a handsome brick court-house, a library, sev- 
eral houses of public worship, a male and female academy, and 1,500 in- 
habitants. In the north part of the district are numerous picturesque 
spurs of the Blue Ridge, cataracts, &c. Stages leave 3 times a week fur 
Columbia; for Jtngustn, Ga. ; for Knoxville, Tenn., via Jlshville, JV. 
C. : and twice a icevkftrr Spartanburgh. 

BEAUFORT is situated at the head of Port Royal river, 75 miles from 
Charleston. Its harbor is spacious and one of the best in the state ; it 
has 3 churches, an academy, a library, and 1,600 inhabitants. Steamboats 
ply to Charleston, and to Savannah, Ga. 





GEORGIA lies between 30 30' and 35" N. lat., and 
3j between 80 50' and86 u 6'W. Ion. from Greenwich, and 
S between 3 U 52' and 8 47' W. Ion. from Washington. 
It is 300 miles long from north to south, and 240 broad, 
containing 58,000 square miles. Its population in 1840 
wa* 091,392; in 1845, 774,325. 

From the ocean for a distance of seven miles, there 
is a chain of islands intersected by rivers, creeks, and 
inlets, communicating with each other, and forming an 
inland navigation for vessels of 100 tons burden, along the whole const. 
These islands consist of salt marsh, and kind of a gray rich soil, winch 
produces sea-island cotton of a superior quality. The coast on the mam 
land for four or five miles is a salt marsh. Back of this there is a narrow 
margin of land, nearly resembling that of the islands ; these are partially 
or wholly overflowed at the return of the tide, and constitute the rice 
plantations. Then commence the pine-barrens, which reach from 60 to 90 
miles from the coast. Beyond this is the country of sand hills, 30 or 40 
miles wide, interspersed with fertile tracts, and extending to the lower 
falls of the rivers. The part of the state above the falls of the rivers is 



STATE OF GEORGIA. 



147 



called the Upper Country, and has generally n strong and fertile soil, often 
inclining to a red color, and further inland it is mixed with a deep black 
mould, producing cotton, tobacco, Indian corn, wheat, and other kinds of 
grain. Black walnut and mulberry trees grow abundantly in this soil 
The forests produce oak, pine, hickory, and cedar. 

The rivers are the Savannah, b'OO miles long, bounding the state 
on the JXE., navigable for ships 17 miles to Savannah, and a part of the 
year for steamboats, 250 miles to Augusta; the Altamaha, which is 
navigable for large vessels 12 miles to Uarien, is formed by the junction 
of the Gconee and theOcmulgee, and is navigable for sloops of 30 tons, 
by the former, to Dublin, 300 miles from the ocean; the Ogeechee, 200 
miles long, and navigable for sloops 40 miles; Fliat river, which rises 
in the NW. part of the state, and after a course of more than 200 miles 
joins the Chattahoochee, forming the Apalachicola ; the Chattahoochee 
on the west border of the state, which is navigable 300 miles by steamboat 
to Columbus ; the St Mary's river, in the southwest part of the state. 

The first constitution of Georgia was formed in 1777 ; a second in 1785' 
and the present in 1798, and amended in 1839. The governor is elected by 
the people, and holds his office two years. The senate consists of 47 mem- 
bers, I for each district composed of two counties, except the county con- 
taining the largest population, which elects 1 member. The House of 
Representatives is composed of 130 members : the 37 counties having the 
largest number of inhabitants are entitled to 2 members each, and the re- 
mainder 1 each. The legislature meets biennially on the 1st Monday in No- 
vember (odd years) at Milledgeville. All the free white male inhabitants, 
who shall have resided within the county in which they vote, six months 
preceding the election, and shall have paid taxes in the state for the 
year previous, have the right of suffrage. The judges of the Superior 
Court are elected for 3 years by the legislature, and the judges of the in- 
ferior courts and justices of the peace are elected annually by the people. 

The colleges in this state are the University of Georgia, at Athens; 
Oglethorpe College, at Midway; Emory College, at Oxford ; the Georgia 
Female College, at Macon ; Mercer College, at Penfield ; Christ College, 
at Montpelier; Brownwood University, near La Grange; Collinworth 
Institute, near Talbotton ; and there are 180 academies and 630 schools. 

The hrst settlement in the state was made at Savannah, in 1733. In 
convention, Georgia adopted the constitution of the United States, Jan. 
2cl, 1798, by a unanimous vote. 

SAVANNAH, the metropolis and the largest ci'y in the state, is in 32 4' 
50" N. Int., and 81 & 18" W. Ion., 90 miles from Charleston, 120 from 
Augusta, and 158 from Milledgeville. Population in 1840, 11,214. It 
is situated on the right bank of Savannah river, 17 miles fV<-.m its entrance 
into the Atlantic. Owing to the safety of the channel pi 
entering the harbor, it is rendered one of the finest in fig 
the southern states. Vessels requiring 13 feet of w" 
load at the wharves of the city. The plain on which! 
the city is built is elevated forty feet above the river, a 
and is almost a perfect level, and the streets cross f 
each other regularly at right angles. Eighteen public 
squares nre laid out, and are bordered with trees, par J 
ticularly the pride of India, which add much to thf [ 
beauty of the place. The houses are many of them fine I 
buildings. The Pulaski Monument, a beautiful Doric obelisk, standing 
in the centre of one of the public squares, was erected in 1825, to the 




148 STATE OF GEORGIA. 

memories of GREENE and PULASKI. It is built of white marble, and ia 
53 feet in height. 

The city contains a court-house, an exchange, an arsenal, a guard-house, 
the United States barracks, a theatre, an asylum, a widows' asylum, 13 
churches, a market-house, an hospital, several fine banking-houses, 3 acad- 
emies, a public library, an historical eociety, several charitable societies, and 
a number of extensive mills and manufactories. It is a great cotton mart. 
The city was founded in 1733, and incorporated in 1761. Steamboats ply 
to Charleston, and St. Augustine. Cars arrive from., and depart daily 
for Atlanta via J\Iacon, from whence a daily line of stages leaves for 
Columbus ; and for Augusta, taking stages at Brinsonville depot. 
Stages leave twice a week for St. Augustine, Ft., via Darien ; and for 
Charleston, S. C. 

MILLEDGEVILLE, the capital of the state, is situated on the right bank of 
Oconee river, at the head of steamboat navigation, 158 miles from Sa- 
vannah. Population 2,100. The city is built on uneven ground, with 
streets running parallel with the river, and crossed by others at right 
angles. Tiie State-house stands on an eminence in a public square, three- 
fourths of a mile from the river; it is a tasteful edifice of the Gothic 
order of architecture. The Representatives Hall is 60 by 54 feet, and con- 
tains full-length portraits of La Fayette and Gen. Oglethorpe ; the Senate- 
chamber has portraits of Washington and Jefferson. The other public 
buildings are, a governor's house, 3 churches, 3 banks, an academy, a 

> market-house, an arsenal, 
j and a magazine. Ogle- 
1 thorpe College, founded in 
1 1836, is situated in Med- 
I way village, near the city. 
I It has a president, 5 pro- 
fessors or other instructors, 
j 125 students, and 2,000 
I volumes in its libraries. 
The commencement is on the Wednesday after the second Monday in No- 
vember. Stages leave MUledgeville daily for Columbus via Macon ; 
for Augusta via fVarrenton ; and, for Savannah, (from Emmet de- 
pot by railroad ;) three times a week for Madison ; and also for Haw- 
kinvvillc. 

AUGUSTA is situated on the right bank of Savannah river, at the head 
of steamboat navigation, 127 miles from Savannah. The city is regularly 
laid out and handsomely built, chiefly with brick, the streets being orna- 
mented with trees, and many of the houses are spacious and elegant. It con- 
tains a city-hall, court-house, a theatre, an hospital, a medical college, 
a female asylum, an arsenal, 7 churches, 3 academies, and 6,500 in- 
habitants. The Medical College of Georgia, founded in 1830, has seven 
professors, 115 students, and 124 graduates. The lectures commence on 
the second Monday in November. Cars arrive from, and depart daily 
for Atlanta ; from thence by stage and railroad to Montgomery, Ala. ; 
(see route 387;) for Memphis, Tenn., via Atlanta, Giinter's Landing, 
Ala. , and Tuscumbia. Stages leave daily for Savannah via Brinsonville ; 
from thence in railroad cars to Savannah. 

ATHENS situated on the right bank of Oconee river, 75 miles from 
Milledgeville, contains 4 churches and about 3,000 inhabitants. It is the 
seat of the Georgia University, founded in 1785, which has a president, 
6 professors, 515 alumni, 77 students, 19,000 volumes ia its libraries, and 




STATE OF GEORGIA. 149 

R very complete philosophical apparatus. The commencement is on the 
first Wednesday in August. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for 
Jluff-usta. Stages leave 3 times a week for Covington ; for Gainesville ; 
and fur Clarkesville via Madison Springs. 

The Madison Springs are twenty-five miles from Athens, on a branch 
of Broad river. The waters are strongly impregnated with iron, and have 
been found efficacious in many complaints. There is here a spacious 
hotel with good accommodations. 

CLARKESVILLE, on the head waters of the Chattahoochee river, has a 
court-house, two churches, an academy, and about 300 inhabitants. The 
Tallulah Falls, a beautiful cascade, are within twelve miles of Clarkes- 
ville ; and the surrounding scenery is exceedingly picturesque. Stages 
leave 3 times a week for Athens via Madison Springs ; for Madtsonville, 
Tenn. ; and for rfshville, JV. C. 

DAHLONEGA is in a very picturesque situation between the Chestatee 
and Etowah rivers. It has a court-house, a branch of the Mint of the 
United States, and 300 inhabitants. Stages leave twice a week for Athens 
via Gainesville. 

ROME is beautifully situated on the point formed by the junction of the 
Etowah and Oostanaula rivers. It has a court-house, two churches, an 
academy, and 400 inhabitants. In the vicinity of Rome are many arti- 
ficial mounds and excavations, of which there is no authentic history or 
tradition. Stages leave 3 times a week for Gainesville ; for Columbus ; 
for Montgomery, Ma. ; and for Huntsville. 

M ACON lies at the head of steam navigation, on Ocmulgee river, built on both 
sides of the stream, but chiefly on the right bank, the parts being connected 
by a bridge 389 feet long. The streets are regularly laid out and very wide. 
It has a large and handsome court-house, a market-house, two banks, five 
churches, a college, 3 academies, and 4,000 inhabitants. A great amount 
of cotton is shipped from this place. In 1822 there was but a single house 
standing where the city is now built. The Georgia Female College, 
chartered in 1836, opened on the 7th of Jan., 1839, has a president, four 
professors, and several other teachers, and over 100 students. The term 
commences on the first Monday in October, and continues ten months. 
Cars arrive from, and depart daily for Savannah ; for Memphis via 
Atlanta, Gunter's Landing, Ma., and Tuscumbia. Stages leave daily for 
Jlugvsta via Milledgeville ; and for Columbus ; three times a week 
for Madison ; and for Pensacola, Fl. , via Albany, Bainbridge, and Chat- 
tahoochee, Fl. 

The Indian Springs, the most fashionable watering-place in Georgia, 
are situated on a small branch of Ocmulgee river, 52 miles from Milledge- 
ville. The waters are sulphurous, and have been found efficacious in 
rheumatic and cutaneous complaints. There are here ample accommoda- 
tions for visitors. Stages leave daily for Madison; and for Columbus. 
(See route 388.) 

COLUMBUS is situated on the left bank of Chattahoochee river, at the 
head of steamboat navigation, 284 miles from Savannah. The city is 
built on ground 60 feet above the ordinary height of the river, and 
immediately below the falls, which are a succession of rapids, descending 
111 feet within a few miles. Here are a court-house, 4 banks, a market- 
house, 5 churches, an academy, five schools, a number of mills and cotton 
factories, and 4,000 inhabitants. Many of the public buildings are in a 
style of superior elegance, and the prosperity and growth of the city aro 
remarkable. In the year 1827, it was the council-town of the Cowetas, an 



150 



STATE OF FLORIDA. 



Indian tribe. It has an extensive cotton trade, employing a large number 
of steamboats. Stages arrive from, and depart daily for Savannah, 
taking cars at Macon ; for Augusta via Indian Springs, and Madison ; 
and for Montgomery, Ala., taking railroad cars at Chehnw. 

LA GRANGE is situated six miles east of the Chattahoochee rivwr 
on a small stream, and 121 miles from Milledgeville. The village 
has a court-house, three churches, an academy, and 1,000 inhabitants. 
Several lines of stages pass through daily for Atlanta ; and for Mont 
g ornery, Ma. 

The White Sulphur Springs are nine miles from Greenville, and 35 from 
Columbus. These springs are situated in a very picturesque region, and 
their waters are various, " the white sulphur, the strong and mild chuly 
beate," &c. Stages arrive from, and depart for Columbus three times 
a week ; and also for Greenville. 




FLORIDA lies between 25 and 31 C N. lat., and be- 
i tween 80" and 87 35' W T . Ion. It is 385 miles long, 
and from 50 to 250 wide, containing 56,000 square 
miles. Population in 1840, 54,477. 

The face of the country is uneven ; but nowhere ele- 
vated over 300 feet above the sea. The whole extent 
of the coast is indented with bays and lagoons. A 
^ large portion of the country is covered with pine 
*-** forests, the trees of which, standing at n considerable 
distance from each other, without brush or underwood, afford an oppor- 
tunity for the grass and flowers to spread with luxuriance over the surface 
of the earth during the whole year. The borders of the streams are 
usually skirted by hammocks of hard timber, entangled with grape and 
other vines. A large portion of Florida consists of what are usually 
denominated " pine-barrens," and much of it is sterile, though there 
are extensive tracts of table-land, hammock, and swamp, of the richest 
soil, and well adapted to the cultivation of sugar, rice, cotton, Indian 
corn, tobacco, and fruits. A considerable quantity of the pine-land 
is equally rich, and even the barrens afford extensive ranges of graz- 
ing-land, usually intersected with streams of pure water. Many parts 
of the state abound in yellow-pine and live-oak timber. The seacoast 
is generally healthy, and in many parts remarkably so ; and the in- 
terior is equally healthy, unless it be in the neighborhood of extensive 
marshes. 

The peninsula, which is the southern portion of the state, presents a 
singular alternation of savannahs, hammocks, lagoons, &c., called col- 



STATE OF FLORIDA. 151 

ectively the Everglades, which extend into the heart of the country for 
200 miles north of Cape Sable. They are drained on the north by the St. 
John's river, and on the west by Macaco, or Charlotte river. 

There are many bays on the western side of the peninsula, some of 
which form good harbors. They are Perdido, Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, 
St. Andrews, St. Joseph, Apalachicola, Appalachee, Tampa, Carlos, and 
Gallivain's. On the east coast of the peninsula, the inlets afford harbors 
for coasting vessels. The St. John's is the principal river on the eastern 
coast. It often spreads from three to five miles in width, and at other 
places it is not more than one-fourth of a mile wide. It is exceedingly 
winding, and flows through a beautiful and healthy country. St. Mary's 
river rises in Okefinokee Swamp, Georgia, and enters the Atlantic be- 
tween Cumberland and Amelia Islands. Of the rivers which enter the 
Gulf of Mexico, the Apalachicola is the principal. It is formed by the 
junction of Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, about 100 miles from the Gulf 
of Mexico. The Chattahoochee branch of this river is navigable for 
steamboats 280 miles to Columbus, Georgia. The other principal rivers 
are, Escambia, Suwanee, Withlacoochee, Oscilla, Ocklockony, and Choc- 
tawhatchee. Perdido river forms the western boundary between Florida 
and Alabama. It is navigable about seven miles above the bay, is a fine 
mill-stream, and its banks are covered with superior yellow-pine timber. 
There are in this state several streams of limpid water which sink into the 
earth and disappear ; and several which rise suddenly from the earth ; 
one in particular (the Wakulla) is navigable from its very source. There is 
no college in this state. It has 20 academies, and 60 common schools. 

By the constitution of the state, adopted in 1838, the governor is elected 
for four years, and is ineligible for the succeeding four years. In case of 
vacancy, the president of the senate, or after him the speaker of the house, 
acts as governor. The General Assembly is chosen on the first Monday 
of October, and meets on the first Monday in November of each year. 
Senators are chosen for two years, and representatives for one year. 
Judges of the Supreme Court and circuit courts are appointed by the 
General Assembly, at first for five years, and after that term, during good 
behavior. The right of suffrage belongs to every free white male aged 
21 years or upwards, who has resided in the state for two years, and in the 
county for six months, and who shall be enrolled in the militia, or be 
by law exempted from serving therein. The state provides for a regis- 
tration of qualified voters. No minister of the gospel, and no officer in a 
banking company, while he serves in the bank, nor for twelve months 
afterwards, can be eligible for governor, senator, or representative. 

Florida was discovered by Sebastian Cabot, sailing under the English 
flag, in 1497 ; but he did not land to examine the interior of the country. 
Ponce deLeon, a Spanish adventurer from Hispaniola, to some extent ex- 
plored the country in 1512, and a second time in 1516. In 1539 Hernando 
de Soto, who had greatly distinguished himself under Pizarro in the con- 
quest of Peru, sailed from Cuba and landed at Tampa bay, in Florida, 
with an armed force, with which he overran the country, though his 
followers were mostly cut off, and himself died. In 1562 the French at- 
tempted to establish a colony in Florida, which occasioned contests be- 
tween them and the Spaniards, in which the latter were finally victorious. 
In 1763, Florida was ceded to Great Britain by Spain. The Spaniards re- 
conquered it in 178J, and it was confirmed to them at the peace of 1783. 
In 1819, Spain ceded it to the United States, and it was admitted into the 
Union as a state in 1845. 



152 STATE OF FLORIDA. 

TALLAHASSEE, the capital of the state, is situated on a commanding 
eminence, 210 miles from St. Augustine. A fine mill-stream, flowing from 
several springs, runs along the east border of the town, and falls sixteen 
feet into a pool scooped out by its action ; and thence, after a short course, 
it sinks into a cleft of limestone rock. The city contains a state-house, a 
court-house, a market-house, a United States land-office, an academy, 
Masonic-hall, three churches, and 1,800 inhabitants. It is regularly laid 
out and has several public squares. Stages leave 3 times a week for St. 
Jlugustine ; and for Pensacola. 

ST. AUGUSTINE is situated on a peninsula, two miles from the ocean. 
The ground on which the city is built is but twelve feet higher than the 
sea. The houses are mostly embosomed in orange groves. The climate 
is delightful; many winters pass without any frost, and the air maybe 
said to equal that of Italy or the south of France. In summer it is 
tempered daily by the sea breezes, and the land breezes render the even- 
ings cool and pleasant ; hence it is a favorite resort of invalids from the 
north. The city is in the form of a parallelogram, one mile long and 
three-fourths of a mile wide, though not more than half of this extent is 
compactly built. Matanzas Sound lies in front of it on the east, and, 
sheltered by Anastasia Island, forms a capacious and safe harbor. St. 
Augustine is the oldest city in the United States, having been first settled 
by the Spaniards in 1564. Many of the streets are narrow and very 
crooked. The old houses are generally two stories high, and mostly built 
of shell-stone. A fine square opens from Mntanzas river, and around it 

Imve been erected a neat 
court-house, two churches, 
I and several elegant resi- 
dences. In the centre of the 
| .square stands a monument, 
~ dedicated to the constitution 
of the Spanish Cortex. The 
I !;arbor has nine feet of water 
<>ver the bar at its mouth, 
and is completely guarded 
by Fort Marion opposite its 
entrance. The fort is bomb-proof, and intended to contain 1,000 men 
and 70 pieces of cannon, but is at present only used as an arsenal and 
prison. The city contains 4 churches, a United States land-office, ex- 
tensive barracks, and 2,500 inhabitants. The citizens are composed of 
Americans, Spaniards, French, &c. Steamboats ply to Savannah and 
Charleston. Stages leave 3 times a week for Tallahassee. 

JACKSONVILLE is beautifully situated on the left of St. John's river, 
30 miles from the ocean, and 38 miles from St. Augustine. It has a court- 
house, a church, a bank, an academy, and about 800 inhabitants. Stages 
leave twice a week for Darien, Ga., via St. Jllary's ; for St. Jlugustine ; 
and for Tallahassee. 

The White Sulphur Spring is 80 miles from Jacksonville and 120 from 
Tallahassee. This spring, which is a great curiosity, risen in a basin 
10 feet deep and 30 in diameter, discharges a great quantity of water, and 
after a course of 100 feet enters the Suwanee river. It is so strongly im- 
pregnated with sulphur that its waters may be distinguished for a con- 
siderable distance from its entrance into the river. The waters have been 
found highly beneficial in cases of consumption, rheumatism, dyspepsia, 
liver complaints, &c. There are here a large hotel, several boarding- 




STATE OF ALABAMA. 



153 



houses, and a fine bathing-house. Stages leave 3 times a week for 
TaUaJiussee, and for Jacksonville. 

PENSAOOLA is situated on Pensacola bay, ten miles from the sea, on a 
sandy plain 40 feet above the water. It is regularly hud out, and has two 
public squares, two churches, a court-house, market-house, a custom- 
house, and 2,000 inhabitants. Eight miles below the city is the United 
States Navy Yard, covering 80 acres of ground, and enclosed by a high 
brick wall. It contains houses for the officers, a naval store, and 
other buildings for naval purposes. Stages leave three times a week for 
Mobile, Ma.; for Tallahassee; and for Bainbridge, Ga. 

APALACHICOLA is on the right bank of the Apalachicola river, at its en 
trance into the Gulf of Mexico. It is a great cotton mart, and has u 
court-house, two banks, several churches, and about 1,500 inhabitants. 
Steamboats ply on tlte river to Columbus, Ga., and also to New Orleans. 




ALABAMA lies between 3() u ICX and 35 W N. Jat., 
and between 8 and 11 30' W. Ion. from Washing- 
', ton. It is 317 miles long from north to south, and 
174 broad, and contains 46,000 square miles. Popu- 
jj Jation in 1840, 590,756. 

The southern part of this state, which borders on 
]T ~ the Gulf of Mexico for the space of 50 or 60 miles, is 
"^- low and level, and mostly covered with pines. In 
the middle it is hilly, and interspersed with prairies ; 
in the north it is broken, and somewhat mountainous. The soil in the 
southern part of the state is generally sandy and barren, but throughout a 
large part it is excellent. In the northern and middle sections the 
natural growth is post, black and white oak, hickory, poplar, cedar, ches- 
nut, pine, mulberry, &c. The Alleghany Mountains terminate in the 
northeast section of this state, sinking here to elevated hills. The climate 
in the southern part, and in the vicinity of the bottom-lands on the 
rivers, and near the Muscle Shoals in the Tennessee river, is unhealthy; 
but in the more elevated portions it is salubrious. The winters are mild, 
the streams being rarely frozen, und the heat of summer is tempered by 
refreshing breezes from the Gulf of Mexico. 

Mobile river is the principal stream in the state. It is formed by the 
union of the Tombigbee and the Alabama, 40 miles above the city of 
Mobile. The Alabama is a large river, and is navigable for vessels draw- 
ing six feet of water to Claiborne, 60 miles above its junction ; 150 miles 
further to the mouth of the Cahawba, it has 4 or 5 feet of water ; and to 
the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa, of which it is formed, it has in 
shallowest places three feet of water. The Tombigbee is navigable for 
7* 



154 



STATE OF ALABAMA. 



schooners 120 miles to St. Stephens, and for steamboats to Columbus 
Miss. It is 450 miles long, and boatable for the greater part of its course. 
The Black Warrior forms a large branch of it, and is navigable to Tusca- 
loosa. The Chattahoochee forms a part of the eastern boundary of the 
state, and the Tennessee runs through the northern part. Alabama has 
only 60 miles of seacoast. But this includes Mobile bay, which is 30 
miles long and from 3 to 18 broad. 

The constitution of this state was formed in 1819. The governor is 
elected by the people for two years, but is eligible only four years in six. 
The senators are elected for three years, and one-third are chosen every 
year. Their number cannot be more than one-third nor less than a fourth 
of the number of the representatives. The representatives are elected 
annually, and are apportioned among the counties in proportion to their 
white population. They cannot be more than 100 nor less than 60 in 
number. The representatives and one-third of the senators are elected 
annually, on the first Monday in August, and the day following ; and the 
governor is elected biennially, at the same time. The legislature meets 
annually at Tuscaloosa, on the fourth Monday in October. The judiciary 
consists of a supreme court, a circuit court, and such inferior courts as 
the General Assembly may, from time to time, direct and establish. The 
judges are elected every six years by the joint vote of both houses of 
the General Assembly. The right of suffrage is possessed by every free 
white male citizen 21 years of age, who has resided within the state one 
year next preceding an election, and the last three months within the 
county, city, or town in which he offers his vote. 

There are three colleges in this state, viz. : The University of Alabama, 
at Tuscaloosa ; La Grange College, at La Grange ; and Spring Hill 
College, at Spring Hill. There are in the state 120 academies and gram- 
mar schools, and 650 common or primary schools. 

Alabama was admitted into the Union as an independent state in 1820. 




MOBILE, situated on the right bank of Mobile river, at its entrance into 
Mobile bny, 30 miles from the sea, and 164 from New Orleans, is pleasantly 
seated on an extended plain, 15 feet above the highest tides, and has a 
beautiful prospect of the bny, from which it receives refreshing breezes. 
It contains a court-house, a United States Naval Hospital, city hospital, 3 
banks, a theatre. Burton Academy, 7 churches, and about 13,000 in- 
habitants. The city is supplied with excellent water brought in iron pipes 
from Spring Hill, two miles distant, and distributed through the city. 
Next to New Orleans, it is the largest cotton market in the Union. It is 
defended by Fort Morgan, situated on a low sandy point at the mouth of 
the bay, opposite to Dauphin Island, and the harbor has a light-house. 
Mobile was ceded by Spain to the United States in 1813. Spring Hill 
College, at Spring Hill, two miles from the city, was incorporated in 1830 



STATE OF ALABAMA. 



155 



It has a president and three professors, 70 students, and 4,000 volumes 
in its libraries. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for New 
Orleans, (fare $5 ;) for Montgomery ; and for Columbus, Miss. 

MONTGOMERY, the capital of the state, is built on a high bluff, on the 
left bank and at the head of steamboat navigation, on Alabama river, 338 
miles from Mobile by the course of the river. It contains a court-house, 
7 churches, two academies, and 2,250 inhabitants. The cotton shipped 
from this place amounts to 40,000 bales annually. This place has very 
recently been made the capital of the state, and preparations are already 
in progress for building an elegant state-house. Cars arrive from, and 
depart daily for Charleston, S. C., via Jltigusta and Atlanta. Steam- 
boats arrive from, and depart daily for Mobile. Stages leave 3 times 
a week for Columbus, Ga. ; for Rome, Ga. ; for Gunter's Landing ; 
and for Tuscaloosa. 

WETUMPKA, situated on the left bank of Coosa river, 15 miles from 
Montgomery, contains 4 churches, an academy, the state prison, and 
2,600 inhabitants. The Harrowgate Springs, in the south border of 
the city, are much resorted to during the summer months. The waters 
contain valuable mineral properties. (See route 423.) 

EUFAULA is situated on the right bank of Chattahoochee river, 97 
miles from Montgomery. It contains 2 churches, several extensive ware- 
houses, and about 600 inhabitants. Steamboats ply to Columbus, Ga. ; 
and also to dpalachicola. 

TUSCALOOSA is situated on the southeast side of Black Warrior river, at 
the lower falls, on an elevated plain at the head of steamboat navigation, 
217 miles from Mobile. It was recently the capital of the state, and con- 
tains a handsome state-house, a court-house, a United States Land-office, 
4 churches, a Masonic-hall, an academy, an antheneum for young ladies, 
a lyceum, the Alabama Institute, and 2,000 inhabitants. The streets are 
spacious, regularly laid out, and neatly built. The halls of the University 
of Alabama are a 
mile fromthecity 
This institution, 
founded in 1828, j 
has a president, 7 < 
professors or other ' 
instructors, sixty- 
three alumni, 60 | 
students.and 6,000 ] 
volumes in its li- ^ 
braries. The commencement takes place on the Wednesday after the 
first Monday in December. Stages leave three times a week for Mo- 
bile ; for Montgomery ; for Huntsville ; for Tuscumbia ; and for Co- 
lumfiu*, Miss. 

GAINESVILLE is situated on the right bank of Tombigbee river, 283 
miles from Mobile by the course of the river. It is a great cotton mart, 
and has three churches, three academies, and about 200 inhabitants. 
Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for Columbus, Miss., and for 
Mobile. Stages leave three times a week for Columbus, Miss. ; for Jack- 
nun, Miss.; and for Mobile. 

DEMOPOLIS is on the left bank of the Tombigbee river, immediately be- 
low the entrance of the Black Warrior, and 220 miles from Mobile. It 
<-Mht;iins a United States Land-office, three churches, two academies, and 
1,000 inhabitants. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for Co- 




156 STATE OF ALABAMA. 

lumbus, Miss., and for Mobile. Stages leave three times a week for 
Tuscalcosa, and for Mobile. 

ST. STEPHENS is on the right bank of Tombigbee river, 100 miles above 
Mobile. It is, next to Mobile, the oldest town in the state, and has a United 
States Land-office, two churches, an academy, and 1,000 inhabitants. 
Stages leave 3 times a week for Mobile, and for Tuscaloosa. 

CAHAWBA is situated on the right bank of the Alabama river, 240 miles 
by water from Mobile. It was formerly the capital of the state. It now 
contains a court-house, two churches, an academy, and 800 inhabitants. 
Steamboats pass daily for Mobile and for Montgomery. Stages leave 3 
times a week for Mobile; for Tuscaloosa ; and for Huntsville. 

SELMA, sixteen miles above Cahawba, and on the same side of the 
river, has three churches, two academies, and about 1,000 inhabitants. 
Stages leave 3 times a week for Montgomery ; for Tuscaloosa ; and for 
Columbus, Miss. 

HUNTSVILLE is situated 144 miles from Tuscaloosa, and 10 miles north 
of Tennessee river. A copious spring comes out at the foot of a large 
rock with a force sufficient to move a forcing pump, which raises water 
for supplying the village with pure cool water. The village contains a 
court-house of Grecian architecture, a bank, of hewn stone, with an [onic 
portico of costly and elegant workmanship, a neat market-house, a United 
States Land-office, 5 churches, an academy, a seminary, and 2,500 in- 
habitants. The houses are neat and tasteful, and many of them elegant. 
Stages leave 3 times a week for Knoxville, Tenn. ; for Nashville ; for 
Florence; for Tuscaloosa; and for Montgomery. 

FLORENCE is situated on the right bank of Tennessee river, imme- 
diately below the Muscle Shoals. When the water is not low, steam- 
boats ascend to this place, and it has great advantages for trade. It was 
laid out in 1818, on an elevated plain 100 feet above the river: the streets 
are wide and handsome. It contains a court-house, a United States 
Surveyor-general's office, 3 churches, two academies, and about 2,000 
inhabitants. 

TUSCUMBIA is on the left bank of Tennessee river, four miles below 
Florence, and 346 miles north from Mobile. It contains 3 churches, 4 
seminaries, several manufacturing establishments, and 2,000 inhabitants. 
A most extraordinary spring here flows from a large fissure in a limestone 
rock, which discharges 20,000 cubic feet of water per minute. The in- 
habitants are supplied with water from the spring. Steamboat, stage, and 
railroad line to Charleston, S. C. ; three times a week via Gunter'g 
Landing, Atlanta, Go.., and Augusta; and stages for Memphis. 
Stages arrive from, and depart daily for Maysville, Ky., via Nashville, 
Tenn. ; and for Vicksburg, Miss., via Columbus and Jackson. 

La Grange College is sixteen miles southeast from Tuscumbia. This 
institution was founded in 1831, and is under the direction of the Metho- 
dists : it has a president, 3 professors, 50 alumni, 106 students, and 2,200 
volumes in its libraries. 

ATHENS is situated on a small branch of Tennessee river, 25 miles west 
from Huntsville, and has a court house, 2 churches, an academy, and 500 
inhabitants. There are white sulphur and chalybeate springs 7 miles 
north of the village, which are much frequented. Stages leave 3 times a 
week for Huntsville and for Tuscumbia. 



BTATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 157 





MISSISSIPPI is situated between 30 1(X nnd 
35 N. lat., and between 80 30' and 81 35' W. Ion. 
It is 339 miles long from north to south, and .150 
broad. Population in 1840, 375,651. 

The southern part of the state for about 100 miles 
from the Gulf of Mexico is mostly a sandy, level 
pine forest, interspersed with cypress swamps, open 
prairies, and inundated marshes, and a few hills of a 
_ moderate elevation. This region is generally healthy, 

and by cultivation produces cotton, Indian corn, sugar, indigo, &c. As 
you proceed further north, the country becomes more elevated and agreeably 
diversified, and the soil is a deep rich mould, producing abundantly cot- 
ton, Indian corn, sweet potatoes, indigo, peaches, melons, and grapes. 
The natural growth of timber consists of poplar, hickory, black-walnut, 
sugar-maple, cotton-wood, magnolia, lime, and sassafras. The country 
in the north part of the state is healthy and productive ; and the lands 
watered by the Yazoo, through its whole course in the northwest, are 
very fertile. The Mississippi river, with its various windings, forms the 
entire western boundary of the state ; and its margin consists of inunda- 
ted swamps covered with a large growth of timber. Back of this, the 
surface suddenly rises into what are called bluffs ; and behind them the 
country is a moderately elevated table-land with a diversified surface. 
Cotton is the principal production of this state. The Yazoo is the 
largest river that has its whole course in the state. It rises in the NW. 
part, and after a course of 250 miles enters the Mississippi. The Pas- 
cagoula river, after a course of 250 miles, enters the Gulf of Mexico. 
At its mouth it widens into a bay. It is navigable for a considerable dis- 
tance for small vessels. The Big Black river, after a course of 200 
miles, enters the Mississippi just above Grand Gulf. It has a boat naviga- 
tion of 50 miles. Pearl river rises in the central part of the state, and 
passing through it to the south, forming in its lower part the boundary 
between this state and Louisiana, enters Lake Borgne. Its navigation ia 
much impeded by sand-bars and obstructions of timber. Tr\e Homochitto 
is a considerable river which enters the Mississippi. Besides these, there 
are a few other small rivers and creeks. A chain of low sandy islands, 6 
or 7 miles from the shore, enclose several bays or sounds, the largest of 
which are Pascagoula Sound and Lake Borgne. 

The original constitution of this state was formed in 1817, and the 
present in 1832. The governor is elected by the people for a term of two 
years, and cannot hold the office more than four years out of six; and in 
case of his death, resignation, or other inability, it is provided that the 
president of the senate shall perform the duties of governor, until another 
shall be duly qualified. The senators are elected for four years, one-half 



158 STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 

of the number being chosen biennially. They cannot be less thnn one 
fourth, nor more than one-third of the whole number of the representa 
lives. The representatives are elected biennially, on the first Monday anrf 
day following in November, and each county is entitled to one member. 
The legislature meets biennially at Jackson, on the third Monday in No- 
vember, ijvery free white male citizen of the United States, 21 years of 
age, and who has resided in the state one year next preceding the election, 
and four months in the county, city, or town in which he offers his vote, is 
deemed a qualified voter. 

The High Court of Errors and Appeals consists of three judges, elected 
for a term of six years, one of whom is chosen biennially. 

There are four colleges in this state, viz. : Jefferson College, at Wash- 
ington ; Centenary College, at Jackson ; Oakland College, near Rodney ; 
and Mississippi College, at Clinton. There are 80 academies and 400 
schools. 

In 1716 the French formed a settlement where the city of Natchez 
now stands. This colony was afterwards destroyed by the Indians 
in the vicinity. In 1763 the territory was ceded to Great Britain. In 
1817 it was admitted into the Union as an independent state. 
JACKSON, the capital of the state, is situated on the left bank of Pearl 
river, which is navigable to this place for small craft. It is built on a 
plain, a quarter of a mile from the river, is regularly laid out, and con- 
tains an elegant state-house, the governor's house, the state peniten- 
tiary, a United States Land-office, two churches, the buildings of Cen- 
tenary College, and 2,500 inhabitants. Centenary College, founded in 
1841, has a president, 5 professors, and 170 students. Cars arrive from, 
and depart daily for Vicksburg. Stages leave for Nashville, Tenn., via 
Columbus and Florence, Ala.', and for Gainesville; and 3 times a week 
for Natchez. 

NATCHEZ is situated on the left bank of the Mississippi river, 301 miles 
from New Orleans by the course of the river. A part of the city is built 
on the margin of the river, but mostly on a bluff elevated 150 feet above 
the water. The ground is somewhat uneven, but the streets are regularly 
laid out. The houses are- mostly of wood, many of them elegant, and 
surrounded with gardens stored with fruit and finely ornamented with shrub- 
bery. It has a court-house, four churches, three bunks, an academy, a 
female seminary, a theatre, Masonic-hall, an hospital, orphan asylum, and 
5,000 inhabitants. The country around contains fine cotton-lands, and the 
place is a great cotton mart, with an extensive and increasing trade. 
Three miles from the city is a race-course. Natchez was formerly the 
residence of the Great Sun, or principal chief of the Natchffi, with whose 
permission the French built Fort Rosalie here in 1716. The Indians sur- 
prised and murdered the garrison, and nearly all the persons in the village, 
in the year 1729. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for New 
Orleans, Cincinnati, St. Louis, &rc. Stages leave three times a week 
for Jackson and for St. Francisville, La. (See route 620.) 

GRAND GULF is situated on the left bank of the Mississippi river, 
352 miles above New Orleans by the course of the river. It is on 
a remarkable bend of the river, locally known as the Grand Gulf, and 
has a town-hall, hospital, a theatre, two churches, a cotton press, and 
1,000 inhabitants. Steamboats arrive from , and depart daily for New 
Orleans, &rc. (See route 620.) 

WASHINGTON, six miles east from Natchez, is pleasantly situated on a 
moderately elevated site, and consists chiefly of some 30 or 40 detached 




STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 159 

private residences, embosomed in the rich evergreen shrubbery of the 
south. It contains two neat churches and the buildings of Washington 
College, established here in 
3802, and endowed by Con- 
gress with a grant of land. 
The college buildings, which 
are of brick, contain a 
brary of 1,000 volumes, a 
chemical apparatus, a 
logical cabinet, and a collec- 
tion of Indian antiquities, to- ^ 
gether with the fossil remains " 
of a mastodon, and other curious relics found in this state. Attached to 
the college are about fifty acres of ground, one-half of which remains in 
its original forest state. The location is healthy, and the vicinity has 
many fine springs of water, one of which, called Ellicott's Spring, is 
within the college grounds. 

PORT GIBSON is prettily situated on Bayou Pierre, 25 miles by the 
course of the stream from the Mississippi, and only eight from it at 
Grand Gulf. It contains a court-house, 3 churches, an academy, and 500 
inhabitants. 

VICKSBURG is on the left bank of the Mississippi r., 513 miles from New 
Orleans by the river. Though of recent origin, it has become a large and 
flourishing place. It contains a court-house, 5 churches, 3 academies, a 
theatre, and 4,000 inhabitants. The town is situated on the shelving de- 
clivity of high hills, and the houses are scattered in groups on the terraces. 
The Walnut Hills are just above the town. The country around is very 
fertile. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for New Orleans, St. 
Louis, Cincinnati, &c. (See routes 620 and 621.) Cars in connection 
with stages run to Maysville, Ky. t via Jackson, Columbus, Tuscumbia. 
Ma., Nashville, Tenn., and Lexington, Ky. 

YAZOO CITY, situated on the left bank of Yazoo river, 493 miles from 
New Orleans, has several extensive warehouses and 700 inhabitants. 
Steamboats ply to New Orleans. Stages leave 3 times a week for Holly 
Springs. 

HOLLY SPRINGS is situated on a high ridge at the head sources of 
Yazoo river, and is surrounded by a delightful and fertile region. The 
village contains a court-house, an academy, 3 churches, and about 1,500 
inhabitants. Stages leave daily for Memphis, Tenn. ; 3 times a week for 
La Grange ,*for Tuscumbia, Ma. ; for Columbus ; for Jackson ; for 
Yazoo City ; and for Commerce. 

COLUMBUS is situated on the left bank of theTombigbee, 120 feet above 
the river, at the head of ordinary steam navigation, 141 miles from Jack- 
son. It contains a court-house, two banks, an academy, a female semi, 
nary, a theatre, a United States Land-office, a market-house, 5 churches, 
and 4,000 inhabitants. A fine bridge here crosses theTombigbee. Steam- 
boats ply to Mobile. Stages leave daily for Vicksburg via Jackson ; for 
Nashville, Tenn., via Tuscumbia ; and 3 times a week for Memphis via 
Pontotoc and Holly Springs. 



160 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 




LOUISIANA lies between 29 and 32 N. lat. 
It is 240 miles long from north to south and 210 
broad, containing 45,350 square miles. Population ki 
1840,352,411. 

Below the mouth of Red river, the Mississippi di- 
vides into several branches or outlets, which, diverging 
f from each other, slowly wend their way to the Gulf 
| of Mexico, and divide the southwestern part of the 
state into a number of large islands. The western of 
these outlets is the Atchafalnya, which leaves the main stream at the 
mouth of Red river, and inclining eastward, flows into Atclmfalayn bay 
in the Gulf of Mexico. About 128 miles below the Atchafalaya is the 
outlet of Plaquemine, the main stream of which unites with the Atcha- 
falaya ; but other portions of it intersect the country in different directions. 
Thirty-one miles below the Plaquemine, and 82 above New Orleans, is the 
outlet of La Fourche, which communicates with the Gulf of Mexico by 
two mouths. Below the La Fourche numerous other small streams 
branch off from the river at various points. On the east side of the 
Mississippi the principal outlet is the Iberville, which communicates with 
the Gulf of Mexico through lakes Maurepas, Pontchartrain, and Borgne. 
The whole territory between the Atchafalaya on the west, and the Iber- 
ville, &c., on the east, is called the Delta of the Mississippi, from its 
resemblance in shape to the Greek letter of that name. A large extent ot 
country in this state is annually overflowed. 

The alluvial margin along the Mississippi lias a breadth of from one to 
two miles, and is of great fertility. To prevent the river from inundating 
the valuable tracts in the rear, an artificial embankment has been raised 
on the margin of the river, called the Levee. On the east side of the 
river this embankment commences about forty miles below New Orleans, 
and extends up the river for a distance of 180 miles. On the west side it 
continues with little interruption to the Arkansas line. Along this portion 
of the river there are many beautiful and finely cultivated plantations, 
and a continued succession of pleasant residences. The southwestern 
part of the state consists of sea marsh, on the margin of the Gulf, but 
farther inland, of extensive and fertile prairies, which contain many flourish- 
ing settlements. This country is elevated from ten to fifty feet above high 
tide. The country between the Mississippi, Iberville, and Pearl rivers, in 
its southern pnrts, is generally level, and highly productive in cotton, 
eugar, corn, rice, and indigo. The northern part has an undulating sur- 
face, and a heavy natural growth of white, red, and yellow oak, hickory, 
black-walnut, sassafras, magnolia, and poplar. In the northwestern part, 
the Red river, after entering the state by a single channel, and flowing 
about thirty miles, spreads out into a number of channels, forming many 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 161 

lakes, islands, and swamps, over a space of 50 miles long and 6 broad. 
The bottoms on the river are from one to ten miles wide, and very fertile. 
The timber on these is willow, cotton-wood, honey-locust, paw paw, and 
buckeye; on the rich uplands, elm, ash, hickory, mulberry, black-walnut, 
with a profusion of grape-vines. On the less fertile and sundy uplands 
of the state are white, pitch, and yellow- pines, and various kinds of oak. 

The Mississippi river forms the boundary of the state for a considerable 
distance, and in its lower part runs wholly in this state, where it enters the 
Gulf of Mexico by several passes. It is navigable for vessels of the 
largest size. Red river enters the state near the northwest corner, and 
passes through in a southeast direction, discharging a vast amount of 
water into the Mississippi, 236 miles above New Orleans-. The Washita 
runs in a south direction in the north part of the state, and enters Red 
river a little above its entrance into the 1 Mississippi. Bayou La Fourche 
and Atchafalaya are large outlets of the Mississippi. The other rivers 
are the Black, Tensaw, Subine, Calcasieu, Mermanteau.Vermilion, Teche, 
Pearl, Amite, Iberville, &c. 

The country was first explored by the French, and received its name in 
1682 from La Salle, in honor of Louis XIV. A settlement was attempted 
in 1684, but failed. In 1699, a more successful attempt was made by M. 
Iberville, who entered the Mississippi and founded a colony. His efforts 
were followed up by M. Crozat, a man of wealth, who held the exclusive 
trade of the country for a number of years. About the year 1717, he 
transferred his interest in the province to a chartered company, at the head 
of which was the notorious John Law, whose national bank and Mis- 
sissippi speculation involved the ruin of half of the French nobility. In 
1731 the company resigned the concern to the crown, who in 1762 ceded 
the whole of Louisiana to Spain. In 1800 Spain reconveyed the province 
to the French, of whom it was purchased by the United States in 1803. 

The governor and lieutenant-governor are elected for 4 years. Represen- 
tatives are chosen for 2 years, and senators for 4 years, one-half being 
chosen biennially. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, dis- 
trict courts, and in justices of the peace. Judges of the Supreme Court 
are appointed by the governor, and hold their offices for 8 years. The 
legislature meets biennially. Every free white male, who has been two 
years a citizen of the United States, and attained the age of 21 years, and 
has resided in the state two years next preceding the election, and the last 
year in the parish in which he offers his vote, has the right of suffrage. 

The literary institutions in this state are the Louisiana College; Jeffer- 
son College; St. Charles College; Baton Rouge College; Franklin Col- 
lege ; Mandeville College ; and the University of Louisiana. There are 
60 academies and 200 common schools. 

BATON ROUGE, the capital of the state, is on the left bank of the 
Mississippi, 140 miles above New Orleans. It is mostly built on a plain 
from 25 to 30 feet above high water, the business portion being on the 
street along the river at the foot of the bluff. The town contains a court- 
house, three banks, the State Penitentiary, United States Land-office, 
four churches, a college, an academy, and 2,500 inhabitants. Baton 
Rouge College, founded in 1838, has a president, four professors, and 
45 students, and 1,000 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is in 
December. The United States Barracks are on the river bank just above 
the town, and are surrounded by highly ornamented grounds. Steamboats 
leave daily for New Orleans, Vicksburg, <$-c. Ji line of stages runs to 
JVfew Orleans, and also to St. Francisville. 



162 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 




NEW ORLEANS is situated on the left bank of the Mississippi river, 105 
miles from its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico, in latitude 29 57' 30" 
N., and 90 8' W. Ion. from Greenwich. Population in 1840, 102,193. 
The city is built on ground descending gently from the river towards Lake 
Pontchartrain in the rear ; so that when the Mississippi is full, the streets 
are three or four feet below the surface of the river. To prevent inunda- 
tion, an embankment four feet high and fifteen feet wide has been con- 
structed, called the Levee, extending from Fort Plaquemine, 43 milea 
below the city, to Baton Rouge, 120 miles above it. The position of New 
Orleans as a commercial emporium is unrivalled ; the Mississippi and its 
numerous tributaries, embracing in their course at the south the region 
yielding sugar, cotton, and tropical productions, and northwardly the 
great agricultural and mineral riches of the vast Mississippi valley, bring 
to it, with their fleets of steamboats, an immense trade in these great staples. 
The city proper is a parallelogram, extending 1,320 yards on the river; 
but its whole length, including the incorporated fauxbourgs, is not less 
than five miles parallel with the river ; and it extends in breadth from one- 
fourth to three-fourths of a mile, and to the Bayou St. John, two miles. 
The houses are mostly of brick, and many of the residences in the 
suburbs are ornamented with orange-trees and gardens. The view of the 
city from the river is beautiful. On entering the central or lower part of 
it, the stranger finds it difficult to believe it an American city. The popu- 
lation is nearly equally made up of Americans, French, Creoles, and 
Spaniards. In the business season, from November to July, the river in 
front of the Levee, in its whole extent, is crowded with vessels of all 
sizes, and from all quarters of the world ; with hundreds of large and 
splendid steamboats, barges, flat-boats, &c. 

The public buildings are : the State-house a plain structure, formerly 
the Charity Hospital the Court-house, the City Hall, and the United 
States Branch Mint, which is an edifice of the Ionic order of architecture, 
282 feet long and 168 deep, Merchants' Exchange, Commercial Ex- 
change, City Exchange, 14 churches, some of which are elegant build- 
ings, four orphan asylums, 6 charitable associations, a charity hospital, a 
Maison de Sante, two infirmaries, two reading-rooms, three theatres, a 
circus, an armory, several extensive cotton presses, 7 banks, 3 convents, 
and several large and elegant hotels. 

By authority of the state, the University of Louisiana is to be estab- 
lished in New Orleans, and to consist of four faculties, viz., law, med 
icine, the natural sciences, and belles-lettres; the Medical College of 
Louisiana, as now organized, is to constitute the faculty of medicine. 
This institution was founded in 1835, and has a fine building on the corner 
of Common and Philippa streets ; it has seven professors and 30 students. 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 163 

Lectures commence on the third Monday in November. Mandeville Col- 
f lege is on the north side of Lake Pontchartrain, 35 miles from the city. 
It has a president and 6 professors. The National Gallery of Painting.-* 
has some fine pictures. The United States Marine Hospital is at 
McDonough, on the opposite side of the river. The Cypress Grove.Cem- 
etery, four miles from the centre of the city, is tastefully laid out: there 
arc 3 others, '2 Roman Catholic and one Protestant. 

New Orleans, from its shape, is often called the Crescent City, as those 
streets which follow the river make a curve somewhat in the form of a 
crescent. The vicinity affords the traveller many objects of interest. 
The road to Carrollton, six miles distant, is through delightful scenery ; 
and the Shell Road affords an agreeable ride to Lake Pontchartrain, 
distant six miles; there is also a railroad to the lake. There are several 
other points of interest, and among them the battle-ground, six miles be- 
low the city, where the American army under Gen. Jackson gained a signal 
victory over a force of 8,000 British, killing in little more than un 
hour 2,000 of the enemy, with the loss of only 7 killed and 6 wounded. 

Fares from New Orleans on steamboat routes : To Natchez, $4 to 6 
cabin, and $1 to 2 deck ; to Vicksburg, $7 to 10 $2 to 3 deck; to Mem- 
phis, $8 to 10 $2 to 3 deck ; to Louisville or Cincinnati, $12 to 20 $2 to 
3 deck ; to Pittsburg, $12 to 20 $2 to 3 deck. To St. Louis, $12 to 15 
$2 to 3 deck. To Nashville, $15-$3 deck. To Little Rock, $12 $3 
deck. To Alexandria, $4 to 6 $1 to 2 deck ; to Natchitoches, $7 to 10 
$2 to 3 deck; to Shrevesport, $8 to 12 $2 to 3 deck : from Shrevesport, 
to Fort Towson, $15. From New Orleans, to Plaguemine, $2 ; to St. 
Martin smile, (175 miles,') $6 to 8; to Opelousas, (217 miles,) $6. 
To Mobile, $5 to 8. To Galveston, $15 cabin, $8 steerage, and $4 deck. 

JACKSON is situated on Thompson's creek, 12 miles from St. Francis- 
ville. It is the seat of Louisiana College, founded in 1825, which has a 
president, eight professors or other instructors, 109 students, and about 
2,000 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is on the first Wednes- 
day in June. The village has 2 churches, 3 academies, and 1,000 inhabitants. 

ST. FRANCISVILLE is on the left bank of the Mississippi river, 176 
miles from New Orleans. It contains a court-house, a church, an acad- 
emy, several extensive warehouses, and 1,000 inhabitants. It is a great 
cotton mart. Cars leave daily for Woodville stages from thence to 
Natchez ; also 3 times a week for Liberty, Miss., via Jackson and Clinton. 

DONALDSONVILLE. formerly the capital of the state, is situated on the 
right bank of the Mississippi river, just below the outlet of La Fourche. 
It has a court-house, an arsenal, a church, 4 academies, a United States 
Land-office, and 1,000 inhabitants. 

OPELOUSAS is near the head of Vermilion river, 217 miles from New 
Orleans, and is surrounded by a level and pleasant country. Franklin 
College, founded in 1839, and located here, bus a president, 3 professors 
<ir other instructors, and 70 students ; the commencement is on the first of 
November, The village contains a court-house, a United States Land- 
office, two banks, two churches, and about 2,000 inhabitants. Steam- 
boats ply to New Orleans. The lower route to Houston, Texas, via 
Balliew Ferry, on the Sabine, is from this place. 

GRAND COTKAU is pleasantly situated in the midst of small elevated 
prairies, seven miles from Opelousas, and has a Catholic chapel and some 
20 or 30 dwellings. Here is St Charles College, under the direction of 
the Jesuits, which has a president, ten professors, and 70 students. The 
Convent or " Academy of the Sacred Heart," is near the village. 



164 



STATE OF TEXAS. 



ALEXANDRIA lies on Red river, a little below the lower rapids, 320 
miles by the course of the river from New Orleans. It contains a 
court-house, two churches, and about 500 inhabitants. Steamboats ply to 
JVezc Orleans. 

NATCHITOCHES is situated on the left bnnk of Red river, 414 miles from 
New Orleans by steamboat, and 178 miles from the junction with the 
Mississippi river. The village stands at the foot of a bluff, and contains 
a court-house, a United States Land-office, 3 churches, 3 academies, and 
about 2,000 inhabitants. It has considerable trade. It was first settled by 
the French in 1717, and half of its inhabitants are of French descent. 
Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for JVewj Orleans. The upper 
route through Texas to the Rio Grande is from this place, via Games 
Ferry, St. Jlugustine, Tex., Nacogdoches, Robbins Ferry, Bastrop, and 
San Antonio. 

SHREVKPORT, on the left bank of Red river, 500 miles from New 
Orleans, contains a court-house, a church, and about 500 inhabitants. 
Steamboats ply to New Orleans^ to Fulton, Fort Towson, and to Fort 
Washita, (450 miles.) 



TEXAS, the southernmost state in the Union, is 
v situated between 26 and 40 N. lat., and hetween 94 
J and 107 W. Ion. from Greenwich, and contains 324,018 
square miles, and 200,000 inhabitants. 

The general aspect of the country is that of a vast 
inclined plane, gradually sloping from the mountains 
eastward to the sea, and traversed by numerous rivers, 
all having a southeast direction. It may be naturally 
divided into three regions: The first, which is level, 
extends along the coast with a breadth varying from 
100 to 30 miles, being narrowest at the southwest. The soil of this region 
is principally a rich alluvion, with scarcely a stone, and singularly free 
from stagnant swamps. Broad woodlands fringe the banks of the rivers, 
between which are extensive and rich pasture-lands. The second di- 
vision, the largest of the three, is the undulating prairie region, which ex. 
tends for 150 or 200 miles further inland, its wide grassy tracts alternating 
with others that are thickly timbered. Limestone and sandstone form 
the common substrata of this section. The third, or mountainous region, 
situated principally on the west and southwest, forming part of the Sierra 
Madre, or Mexican Alps, is but little explored. At its remote extremity, 
it consists of an elevated table-land, resembling the vast steppes of Asia, 
except in their superior fertility. The mountain sides are clothed with 
forests, and there are few if any districts of country of the same extent as 
Texas with so little unproductive land. 



STATE OF TEXAS. 165 

The principal rivers in the state are the Sabine, Neches, Trinidad, Brazos 
de Dies, Colorado, Guadaloupe, San Antonio, Nueces, and the Rio 
Grande. The Neches is navigable for small steamboats for more than 100 
miles, Trinidad river for three or four hundred miles, and the Brazos for 
half that distance. The Rio Colorado is obstructed by a raft ten miles 
from its mouth ; it will, when removed, be navigable for steamboats 200 
miles to Austin City. The San Antonio and Nueces are navigable for 
only short distances ; but the Rio Grande del Norte, a noble stream, having 
a course of 1,800 miles, will most probably, though in parts broken by 
rapids, become hereafter an important commercial channel. Galveston 
bay, into which the Trinidad flows, is about 35 miles in length, and from 
12 to 18 miles wide. The Gulf of Mexico bounds its southeastern border, 
on which are many bays and some good harbors. 

The Texan year is divided into a wet and dry season. The former lasts 
from December to March ; and the latter from March to December. Snow 
is seldom seen, except on the mountains. The country is in most parts 
covered with a luxuriant native grass, and it is amply supplied with 
timber, among which are the live-oak, white, black, and post oak, 
hickory, walnut, sycamore, caoutchouc, &c., and on the high lands pine 
and cedar. The " Cross Timbers" are two lines of continuous forests of 
great extent. Cotton and the sugar-cane are the great agricultural staples, 
both of which attain to the greatest perfection. The grains chiefly culti- 
vated are Indian corn and wheat. Peaches, melons, figs, oranges, lemons, 
pine-apples, dates, olives, grapes, &c., grow abundantly. Great numbers 
of cattle and horses are reared, and vast herds of buffaloes and wild horses 
wander over the prairies, while deer and game are abundant. Among its 
minerals are coal of a superior quality, iron ore, limestone, granite, slate, 
gypsum, &c. Silver mines have been wrought in the mountains, and 
bitumen and salt are abundant. 

The principal literary institutions of the state are the University of San 
Augustine, at St. Augustine ; Wesleyan College, do. ; Rutersville College, 
at Rutersville ; University of Nacogdoches, at Nacogdoches ; University 
of Matagorda ; University of Galveston ; University of De Kalb ; Trinity 
College ; Guadaloupe College, at Gonzales ; and a college at Marshall. 
Only the first four have gone into operation. 

The governor is elected by the people for two years, but is eligible only 
four years in six. He must be 32 years of age, and have resided in the 
state three years previous to his election. The lieutenant-governor is 
chosen in like manner and for the same time, and must possess the like 
qualifications. He is president of the senate, and in case of the death, 
absence, or inability of the governor, exercises the duties of that office. 
The judicial power of the state is vested in one supreme court, district 
courts, and such inferior courts as the legislature shall appoint. Judges 
of the Supreme Court are appointed by the governor, with the advice of 
the senate, and hold office for six years. The senators are chosen by 
the people, and act for four years, one-half being elected biennially. 
They must be 32 years of age, and have resided in the state three years 
next preceding the election. The representatives are chosen for two 
years by the people. They must be 21 years of age, and have resided in 
the state two years preceding their election. The legislature meets once in 
two years. Every free male person 21 years of age and a citizen of the 
United States, or who was at the time of the adoption of the constitution 
of the state of Texas by the Congress of the United States, or a citizen 
of the Republic of Texas, and who shall have resided in this state one 



166 



STATE OF TEXAS. 



year next preceding an election, and the last six months within the county 
in which he offers his vote, (Indians not taxed, Africans, and descendants 
of Africans excepted,) has the right of suffrage ; but no soldier, seaman, 
or marine in the army or navy of the United States, shall be entitled 
to vote. 

In 1821 the colonization of Texas was commenced by citizens of the 
United States. After three years of struggle with the government of 
Mexico, it finally became independent, April 21st, 1830, and was admitted 
into the Union as an independent state in 1845. 

AUSTIN, the capital of the state, is situated on the left bank of the 
Colorado, 200 miles from the mouth of the river, and 255 miles northwest 
from Galveston. It is built on a plain, elevated some thirty or forty feet 
above the level of the river. The Capitol is situated on a hill, and from it 
a very commanding view of the surrounding country may be obtained. 
The governor's house is upon another eminence, about three hundred 
yards from the Capitol. Austin contains two churches, and about 1,000 
inhabitants. (See routes in Texas.} 




GALVESTON, 255 miles from Austin, and 350 west by north of the 
southwest Pass of the Mississippi river, is situated on the east end of Gal- 
veston Island, and is the great commercial emporium of Texas. It was 
settled in 1837, and has forty to fifty stores and commission houses, three 
cotton presses, two high schools, one university, shortly to be put in 
operation, five churches, and 5,000 inhabitants. It has a fine harbor, with 
twelve feet of water over the bar at low tide, and is the most thriving 
town upon the seacoast, and rapidly increasing in commercial importance. 
There are regularly plying weekly between this place and .ATezo Orleans 
2 steam packets, a daily line to Houston ; also regular boats, running to 
the Brazos, Trinity, and Sabine rivers. 

HOUSTON is situated at the head of tide-water on Buffalo bayou, 188 
miles from Austin and 85 from Galveston. It is surrounded by a beautiful 
prairie, and contains a court-house, four churches, several extensive 
manufacturing establishments, and 4,000 inhabitants. It is an exten- 
sive cotton mart. Steamboats ply to Galveston. Stages run to Wash- 
ington. 

WASHINGTON is situated on the right bank of Brazos river, at the 
head of steamboat navigHtion, except at seasons of high floods ; and is 
133 miles from Austin. It contains 2 churches, an academy, and 1,200 
inhabitants. Stages run to Houston. 

MATAGORDA, 198 miles southeast from Austin, is situated on a plain 
north of Matagorda bay, and on the right bank of Colorado river, 35 miles 
from the Caballo Pass. It contains a court-house, a custom-house, cham- 
ber of commerce, 2 churches, an academy, and 700 inhabitants. Steam- 
boats ply to Galveston and New Orleans. 



STATE OF TEXAS. 167 

BRAZORIA is situated on the right bank of the Brazos river, 30 miles 
from the Gulf, and 60 miles from Galveston. It has a court-house and 500 
inhabitants. 

SAN FELIPE DE AUSTIN is on the right bank of the Brazos river, 120 
miles from Austin. It contained, prior to the revolution, about 600 in- 
habitants ; it was burnt by the retreating Texan army ; since that time it 
has been rebuilt, and now contains a court-house and 1,000 inhabitants 

SAN AUGUSTINE is situated on the Ayish Bayou, a. branch of the 
.Neches river, 360 miles ENE. from Austin, and 27 from Gaines' Ferry on 
the Sabine. It contains a court-house, two churches, and 1,500 in- 
habitants; it is very healthy, being built on the high rolling lands, and is 
one of the most beautiful towns in Texas. The University of San 
Augustine, incorporated in 1837, has a president, two professors or 
other instructors in the male department, and three instructors in the 
female department. The session commences on the third Monday in> 
June. The Wesley an College, with a male and female department, 
has a president and four instructors. The session commences on the 
first Monday in March. Stages leave for Natchitoches, and for Nacog- 
doches. 

NACOGDOCHES is 250 miles from Austin, and 60 west from the Sabine- 
river, and is situated at the head of several small streams which enter, 
after a course of six miles, into. the R. Angelina. It was formerly oc- 
cupied as a military post by the Spaniards and Mexicans. It contains a 
court-house, a Roman Catholic Church, ten stores, and about 1,000 in- 
habitants. The University of Nacogdoches was incorporated in 1845, 
and donated with four leagues of land. It has a president and two 
professors. 

RUTERSVILLE, 78 miles from Austin, and five from the Colorado 
river, is on elevated ground, and the country in its vicinity affords many 
views of picturesque scenery. It contains about 200 inhabitants. It is 
the seat of Rutersville College, established in 1840, and donated with four 
leagues of land. The college, which is under the direction of the Metho- 
dists, has 2 professors, and a preceptress. There are terms of 21 week* 
each: the first commences on the third Monday in January, and the 
second on the third Monday in July. A new college building has 
been completed, which furnishes ample accommodation for a large number 
of students. 

SAN ANTONIO DE BEXAR, 90 miles south by west from Austin, is situ- 
ated near the head sources and on both sides of the San Antonio river, 
and is one of the most ancient towns in North America. The houses, 
which are one story high, with terraced roofs, are built mostly of stone. 
It contained, previous to the revolution, a population of some 8,000 ; its 
population at the present time is estimated at 1,500. In its vicinity stand 
the ruins of the Alamo. This was an oblong enclosure, with walls about ten 
feet high and 3 feet thick, covering an acre of ground ; it has been styled 
the Thermopyla? of Texas, in commemoration of the heroic defence of 
TRAVIS and his brave comrades. 

CORPUS CHRISTI, at the head of a bay of the same name, 250 miles 
south from Austin, has a court-house, several stores, and about 700 
inhabitants. Steamboats ply to Galveston and to New Orleans. 

BASTROP, situated on the left bank of the Colorado river, at the 
crossing of the Great San Antonio road, is surrounded by a highly fer- 
tile prairie region. It has a court-house, several stores, and about 500 
inhabitants. 



168 STATE OF ARKANSAS. 

SANTA FK is situated at the base of a spur of the Rocky Mountains, 12 
miles east from the Rio Grande del Norte, on a small branch of that 
noble stream. It is in lat. 35 41' and 106 W. Ion. from Greenwich, and 
is elevated about 7,000 feet above the sea. It is the nominal capital of 
the province of Santa Fe, or New Mexico, although, according to the 
claims of the late Republic of Texas, it is within the bounds of that 
state. It is 1,400 miles distant from the entrance of the Rio Grande into 
the Gulf of Mexico, and 1,067 miles by the great caravan route from St. 
Louis, Mo. The number of inhabitants in the town does not probably 
exceed 3,000, but including the several surrounding villages embraced 
within its incorporation, they amount to about 6,000. The city is very 
irregularly laid out, and most of the streets are little better than common 
highways. The buildings around the public square are the Governors 
house, the custom-house, the barracks, the consistorial of the Alcaldes, 
the military chape!, several private residences, and most of the shops of 
the American traders ; these buildings are the only ones which have any 
pretensions to architectural regularity, the fronts of which are shaded 
with portales of the rudest, description. The mountains about ten miles to 
the northeast of the town are supposed to attain an elevation of 12,000 
feet above the sea, and their summits are covered with perpetual snows. 
The silver mines are among the mountains to the southeast, where are pro- 
cured washings to a large amount annually. 



a& 



ARKANSAS lies between 33 and 36 30' N. lat., 
I and between 89 9 30' and 94 Q 30' W. Ion. It is 240 
I miles long and 228 wide, containing 54,500 square 
I miles. Population in 1840, 97,574. 

In the eastern part of the state, bordering on the 
; Mississippi, and the large rivers which empty into it, 
: the country is low and swampy, with a heavy growth 
' of timber, and is frequently overflowed. In the cen- 
tral part, it is undulating and broken ; and in the 
northwestern parts, the Ozark Mountains, rising sometimes to the height 
of 1,500 feet, extend across the state. The Washita Hills, north of the 
Washita- river, have considerable elevation. The soil is of every variety, 
from the most productive to the most sterile. On the margins of the 
rivcrs.it is exceedingly fertile ; but back of this the land is generally 
sterile. Prairies are abundant, and of immense extent. In many parts 
there is a scarcity of water. Cotton and Indian corn are the staple pro-- 
ductions ; but the country is well calculated for raising cattle. Wild* 
animals and fowls, as the buffalo, deer, elk, otter, beaver, rabbit, racoon, 
fcc., wild-geese, turkeys, and quails, are abundant. Near the centre of 
the state there are numerous hot-springs, the temperature of which 
limes rises nearly to the boiling point. 



STATE OF ARKANSAS. 169 

The Arkansas, the principal river, rises in the Rocky Mountains, and 
flows through the state in a southeast direction. It is navigable for steam- 
boats 300 miles to Little Rock ; and in time of high water, 350 miles 
farther to Fort Gibson, in the Indian Territory. The St. Francis, the 
White, and the Washita, are other important rivers. 

The constitution of the state was formed in 1836. The governor is 
chosen by the people for four years, but cannot hold the office more thun 
eight years in twelve. The members of the senate are elected by the 
people for four years, and the representatives for two years. The elections 
are viva voce. The senate can never consist of less than 17 nor more than 
33 members ; the house of representatives of less than 54, nor more than 
100 members. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for eight 
years, and those of the Circuit Court for four years. These judges are 
chosen by the legislature. The judges of the county courts are chosen 
by justices of the peace. The legislature meets once in two years. Every 
white male citizen of the United States, who has resided in the state six 
months, is entitled to vote. 

There is no college in this stale. It has ten academies and 150 com- 
mon schools. 

Arkansas was a part of the Louisiana purchase. It was made a terri- 
tory in 1819, and admitted into the Union in 1836. 

LITTLE ROCK, the capital of the state, is situated 1 on the right bank of 
Arkansas river, 905 miles from New Orleans by the course of the rivers. 
It is built on a high rocky bluff, 150 feet above the water of the river, and 
is the first place where rocks occur west of the Mississippi. The city has 
a state-house, a court-house, five churches, two banks, a theatre, an 
academy, the State Penitentiary, a United States arsenal, a United States 
Land-office, and 1,500 inhabitants. Steamboats ply to New Orleans, and 
up the river to Fort Gibson. (See route 441.) Stages leave three times 
a week for Washington ; for Van Buren; for SI. Louis via Bates- 
vilfe and lYederickstown, Mo. ; and twice a week for Rock Roe ; thence in 
steamboats to New Orleans. 

ARKANSAS POST, situated on the left bank of Arkansas river, 685 miles 
from New Orleans, is on a high bluff, and contains a court-house and 
200 inhabitants. Steamboats ply to New Orleans, Little Rock, frc. 

HELENA, situated on the right bank of the Mississippi river, con- 
tains a court-house, a United States Land-office, and 500 inhabitants. 
Steamboats arrive from, and depart for New Orleans, St. Louis, Cin- 
cinnati, and Pittsburg, and the intermediate places. 

HOT SPRINGS is situated six miles north of the Washita river, and 
sixty from Little Rock. It contains a court-house and about 100 in- 
habitants. The Springs from which the village derives its name are about 
fifty in number ; the waters rise from the west base of a mountain and 
flow into a small stream, which after a course of six miles enters the 
Washita river. The temperature of the springs differs, ranging from 
110 to 150 of Fahrenheit. The waters have been found efficacious in 
chronic rheumatism, gout, scrofula, and cutaneous affections. There are 
here ample accommodations for visitors. Three miles northeast are the 
Chalybeate Springs, the waters of which are cold, and held in much re- 
pute by invalids. Thirty miles northwest are the Sulphur Springs, but 
recently discovered. Stages arrive from, and depart for Little Rock 
three limes a week. 



STATE OF TENNESSEE. 




TENNESSEE lies between 35" and 36 e 30' N. lat., 
I nod 81 W 30' and 90 10' W. Ion. Its mean length is 
'J 00 miles, and its mean breadth 114 miles, containing 
45,600 square miles. Population in 1840, 829,210. 

The Cumberland Mountains extend through the mid- 
die of the state, in a southwest direction, dividing it 
into two parts, denominated East Tennessee and West 
Tennessee. The western part of Tennessee is level, or 
gently undulating ; in the middle it is hilly. East 
Tennessee abounds in mountains, many of them elevated, presenting much 
grand and picturesque scenery. Of the mountains, Cumberland, or Great 
Laurel Ridge, is the most remarkable. It nowhere has an elevation of 
more than 1,000 feet. Stone, Yellow, Iron, Ball, Smoky, and Unika 
mountains, form a chain in the SE., and constitute the eastern boundary of 
the state. Northwest of these are Bay's Mountain, Copper Ridge, Clinch 
Mountain, Powell's Mountain, and Willing's Ridge, with valleys between 
them from 5 to 10 miles wide. Caves of great depth and extent are found 
in the eastern part of the state. 

The soil is various, but generally fertile. The western part has a black, 
rich soil ; in the middle are great quantities of excellent land ; in the 
eastern part the mountains are mostly sterile, but the valleys are very fer- 
tile. The country has a great profusion of native timber, poplar, hickory, 
walnut, oak, beach, sycamore, locust, cherry, sugar-maple, &c. There 
are many medicinal plants. The soil produces abundantly cotton and 
tobacco, the staple commodities of the state ; also grain, grass, and fruit. 

The Tennessee river has its chief course in this state. It is 1,200 miles 
long, and is navigable for steamboats to Florence in Alabama, 276 miles 
above its entrance into the Ohio ; and from the head of the Muscle 
Shoals, for boats 250 miles further. Cumberland river, which, rising in 
Kentucky, runs mainly in Tennessee, is navigable for steamboats 198 
miles to Nashville, and for boats 300 miles further. It enters the Ohio 
river in Kentucky, 60 miles from Mississippi river. The Holston, Clinch, 
French Broad, and Hiwassee are branches of the Tennessee. Obion, 
Forked Deer, and Wolf rivers, in the western part of the state, flow into 
the Mississippi, and are navigable for boats. 

The constitution of this state was formed in 1796, at Knoxville, and re- 
vised in 1833. The governor is elected by the people for two years, but 
is not eligible more than six years in eight. The representatives, who are 
apportioned among the different counties according to the number of 
qualified voters, are chosen biennially, and their number cannot exceed 75 
until the population is 500,000, and can never afterwards exceed 99. 
The senators are chosen and appointed in like manner, and can never ex- 
coed one-third the number of representatives. The legislature meeib 



STATE OF TENNESSEE. 171 

biennially, at Nashville, in October following the election. It can be 
called together by the governor at other times, if necessary. The judges 
of the Supreme Court are appointed by the joint-ballot of both houses of 
the legislature, and hold their office for twelve years. Every white 
person over 21 years of age, who is a freeholder in the county where he 
offers his vote, or who has resided in the county six months immediately 
preceding the election, enjoys the right of suffrage. 

The literary institutions are : Greenville College, at Greenville; Wash- 
ington College, near Jonesboro ; the University of Nashville, at Nash- 
ville ; East Tennessee College, at Knoxvilie ; Cumberland College, at 
Lebanon ; Jackson College, near Columbia ; Franklin College, near Nash- 
ville ; and the Southwestern Theological Seminary, at Marysville. There 
are in the state J60 academies and 1,000 common schools. 

Tennessee was admitted into the Union as an independent state in 1796. 
NASHVILLE, the capital of the state, is situated on t!ie loft bunk of 
Cumberland river, 
at the head of steam- 
boat navigation, 120 
miles from its June- 
tion with Ohio riv- 
er. Its site is un- 
duluting, and is ele- _^ 
vated from fifty to lfi| 
375 feet above Uw|l 
river. It contain* gs 
an elegant state- ~ 
house, a court-house, market-house, a lunatic hospital, the State Peni- 
tentiary, three banks, ten churches, the halls of Nashville University, a 
seminary, several other schools of a high order, and 10,000 inhabitants. 
The Lunatic Hospital is a large and commodious building, and will ac 
commodate 100 patients. The University, founded in 1806, has a presi- 
dent, four professors and two tutors, 291 alumni, 100 students, and 10,000 
volumes in its libraries. The main edifice is 200 feet long, 50 wide, and 
three stories high. The commencement is on the first Wednesday in 
October. Stages leave daily for May smile, Ky., via Lexington ; for 
Vicksburg, Miss., via Tuscumbia and Jackson; three times a week 
for Knoxvilie ; for Augusta via Atlanta ; for Huntsville, Jlla. ; for 
Memphis via Huntingdon and Bolivar ; for Columbus, Ky. ; and for 
Smit/dand. Steamboats leave for New Orlmns, &c., via Smithland. 

MEMPHIS is situated on a bluff, on the left bank of the Mississippi 
river, immediately below the mouth of Wolf or Loosahatchie river, 
798 miles above New Orleans. It is regularly laid out, and contains six 
churches, an academy, and 10,000 inhabitants. Memphis is the depot for 
West Tennessee, and its commerce is extensive, more than 120,000 bales 
of cotton being shipped from this place every season. A United States 
Navy Yard has lately been established here, and the necessary buildings 
are in course of erection. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for 
New Orleans ; for Cincinnati ; for St. Louis, &c. Stages in con- 
nection with steamboats and railroad cars leave for Charleston, 
S. C., via Tuscumbia, Ma., Gunter's Landing, Atlanta, Ga., and 
Augusta. Stages leave 3 times a wrek for Nashville ; for Jackson, 
Mists., via Holly Springs ; and also for Columbus. 

COLUMBIA., 42 miles from Nashville, is situated on the left bank of 
Duck river, and contains a court-house, three churches, a bank, an 




172 



STATE OF TENNESSEE. 



academy, and about 2,000 inhabitants. Jackson College, in the vicinity, 
founded in 1830, has a president and four professors, 100 students, and 
1,250 volumes in its libraries. Stages leave daily for Nashville. 

CLARKSVILLE, situated on the right bank of Cumberland river, 65 
miles from Nashville by the course of the river, contains a court-house, 
three churches, an academy, two banks, and 2,000 inhabitants. It has an 
extensive trade in cotton and tobacco. Steamboats leave for Nash- 
ville and for New Orleans. Stages leave 3 times a week for Nashville 
and for Smithland. 

FRANKLIN is eighteen miles from Nashville, on the left bank of 
Big Harpeth river, and has a court-house, four churches, five acad- 
emies, and about 1,500 inhabitants. In the vicinity is Franklin Col- 
lege, founded in 1844, which has a president, six professors, and 90 
students. Stages leave 3 times a week for Nashville. 

MURFREKSBORO', once the capital of tlie state, is situated on a small 
branch of Cumberland river, and contains a court-house, three churches, 
an academy, and 1,500 inhabitants. Stages leave three times a week 
for Nashville ; for Knoxmlle; and for Hantsville, Ala. 

KINGSTON, situated on the right bank of the Tennessee river, at the 
junction of the Clinch river, contains a court-house, two churches, aa 
academy, and 700 inhabitants. 

KNOXVILLE is on the right bank of Holston river, four miles below the 
^f^-"~ " 7^^IL^^^=^~=L Junction of French Broad 
j| river, and at the head of 
gL steamboat navigation. It 
Si" contains a fine court-house, 
3 churches, two academies, 
^_ a male and a female semi- 
ITnary, and 1,500 inhabitants. 
3& The buildings of East Ten- 
cssee University are located 
n a beautiful eminence of 
considerable elevation, on the north bank of the Holston, half a mile west 
of the city. They consist of a large central edifice, two commodious 
halls, three stories Jiigh, for study and lodging rooms, three professors' 
houses, &c. The University has a president, four professors, 100 alumni, 
120 students, 3,800 volumes in its libraries, and an extensive chemical and 
philosophical apparatus, mi^ralogical cabinet, &c. The commencement 
is on the first Wednesday in%.ugust. Stages leave three tines a week for 
Washington, D. C., ma Abingdon, Va., and Statin ton ; for Raleigh, N. 
C. ; for Charleston, S. C., via Warm Springs, Greenville, &c. ; for 
\ Charleston via Atlanta, Ga., and Augusta ; for Savannah via Atlanta ; 
for Nashville; and for I^cxington, Kit., via Cumberland Gap. 

JONESBORO' is on a small branch, and ten miles south of Holston river. 
It has a court-house, three churches, two academies, and 1,000 inhabi 
tants. Washington College, in the vicinity, founded in 1794, has a presi- 
dent, three professors, 110 alumni, 45 students, and 1,000 volumes in ita 
libraries. Stages leave Jonesboro 1 3 times a week for Knoxmlle ; for 
Abingdon, Va.; and for Raleigh, N. C. 

MA.RYSVILLE, 18 miles from Knoxville, is situated on a branch of Holston 
river, and contains a court-house, a church, and about 500 inhabitants. 
It is the seat of the Southwestern Theological Seminary, under the direction 
of the Presbyterians, founded in 1821, which has two professors, 30 stu- 
dents, and 6,000 volumes in its libraries. 




RAILROAD, STAGE, AND STEAMBOAT ROUTES, 

THROUGH 

THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



1339) F'M RALEIGH TO 
BEAUFORT, 
Via Goldsboro ' and 
Newbern. 
To Bus bee's Store 1 9 
Smithfield 181 27 


Petersburg $ Roai 
Railroad. 
Jarret's Depot. . 11 
Stony Creek 9 
PETERSBURG.. 21 
Proctor's Creek 11 
RICHMOND 114 
WASHINGTON, 
(see No. 288) . 117 

(342) F'M RALEIGI 
NORFOLK, Va. 
Via Gareysburg 

Raleigh <Sr Gaston 
To Littleton 
(see No. 341) ... 

Gareysburg .. 


loke 

119 

128 
149 
160 
1714 

2884 

I TO 

RR. 

78 

D 98 
3103 
2115 
noke 

4129 

d 142 
5147 

; 100 

7177 
1178 

[ TO 

i. 
RR. 

9 
6 15 
25 
9 34 
8 42 

5 57 
7 74 
84 
94 

1 I(N) 

9137 
7144 


Chalk Level 
Ward's Bridge ... 
Castle Craig 
Yellow Branch... 
Campbell C. H. .. 
LYNCHBURG 

(344) F'M RALEIG 
WYTHEVILLE 
Via Greensboro* 
Salem. 
To Moringsville. . 
Chapel Hill 
Hillsboro' 


13 
6 
6 
5 
12 

H 

ai 

8 
12 

9 

3 
4 

6 
13 
6 
3 
7 
11 
t> 
3 
S 

11 
22 

9 
13 

H 

MH 
^7 

16 

:; 
18 
% 
13 

12 
14 
9 


149 

162 
168 
174 
179 
191 

TO 

id 

20 

28 
40 
49 
56 
59 
63 
69 

88 
91 
98 
109 

11:') 

118 
127 
U9 
150 
172 
180 
189 
202 

TO 
1. 
71., 

109 
125 
128 
146 
172 
185 
202 
214 
228 

m 


Boonhill 


10 
15 
26 

12 
8 
16 

28 

H 
W. 

8 
12 
12 
12 

20 
8 
7 
10 

13 
35 

H 
J, 

VL 
I 

6 
11 
11 

13 

10 
11 
n 


37 
52 
78 
106 
118 
126 
142 
170 

TO 

12 

20 
32 
44 
56 
76 
84 
91 
11)1 
113 

12ri 

161 

TO 
Z. 

IR. 

9 
15 

26 
37 
44 

57 
67 

78 
87 

97 

108 




Kingston 


Trenton 


Pollocksville 
NEWBERN 
Cravenville 
BEAUFORT 

(340) F'M RALEIG 
PLYMOUTH, 
Via Washingtc 
To Eagle Rock... 
Wakerield 


Mason's Hall 
Trollinger's B'dge 
Haw River. 
Albright's 


Alletnance .. 


GREENSBORO' ... 
New Garden 
Friendship 
Kernersville 
SALEM ... 


Margaretsville 1 
Portsmouth <$ Roa 
Railroad. 
Newson's, Va 1 
Franklin 1 
Carrsville 


Nasliville. .... 


Rocky Mount 
Tarboro' 


Oldtown 
Bethma 
Little Yadkin.... 


Sparta 
Faulkland 


Pactolas 
Washington 
PLYMOUTH 

(341) F'M RALEIC 
WASHINGTON 
Via Richmond, 
Raleigh $ Gastor 
To Huntsville 
Forrestville 
Franklin 


Suffolk 1 
Portsmouth 1 
NORFOLK 


Tom's Creek 
Mt. Airy 
New Grayson.Va. 


(343) F'M RALEIGI 
LYNCHBURG, Vi 

Raleigh & Gaston 
To Huntsville.... 
Forestville 
Newlight 1 


Austinville 


(345) F'M RALEIG 
KNOXVILLE, T< 
Via Jonesboro, 1 
& Greenville 
To SALEM 
(see No. 344) ... 
Panther Creek ... 
Huntsville 
Hamptonville 

WlLKESBORO'... 

Reddy's River 
Jefferson 
North Fork 
Tylorsville,Tenn 
Moore's Iron W'ks 


Wilton 


Staunton 


Granville 
Stage. 
Oxford 1 
Berea v . . 1 
Roxboro' 1 
Leasburg 1 


Henderson 
Ridgewny 


Macon Depot 
Littleton ^ 


Greenville RR. 
Ruland's,Va. ...110 

Belriekl Ill 


Milton 1 

DANVILLE.Va I 

Pittsylvania C. H. 1 
Robertson's Store. 



174 



ROUTES IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



Dugger's Ferry. . . 
Elizabethtown ... 

JONESBORO' 

Leesburg 
Sheatown 


9 
13 

18 

li) 

4 

b 
13 
14 
6 

5 
8 

9 
16 

H 

111 

Va 

7 

id 

4 
12 

It; 
ii 

10 
6 
11 
9 
5 
10 
LO 

A. 
5 
10 
12 
12 
1! 
10 
16 
21 
10 
8 
11 

15 
5 

,H 

C. 

23 

2- 


24(5 
259 

277 

282 
21)2 

2 ( K; 

302 
315 
32!) 
335 
340 
318 
352 
361 
37 / 

TO 

. 

rm 

20 ' 
27 
34 
46 
56 
til) 
72 

Lib 

12.; 
131 
142 
151 
156 
166 
176 

21 1 
216 
226 

238 
250 
261 
2; 1 
287 
:il4 
324 
332 
343 
358 
363 

TO 

in tl 

12 
36 

no 
73 


CHER AW, S.C. ..13 
Tiller's Ferry \i 


31132 

5il67 
, 11(2 
31225 

I TO 

52 
eigh 

61 
73 

81 
89 
98 
107 
114 
122. 

URG 

Veio- 

10 

fi HH 


(352) F'M WlLMIN 

TO WASHINGTON, 
Via Richmond 
Wilmington $ Ra 
Railroad. 
To Rocky Mount. 
Bergaw 


3TON 

D.C. 

I 
leigh 

*$ 

7 30 

9 39 
9 48 
8 56 

12 76 
9 85 
11 96 
7103 
6109 
7116 
9125 
8133 
11 144 
11155 
7 162 
5167 
mrg, 

)'l77 
0187 
1198 
9207 
1218 
4229J 
1 240* 
1 26U 
8 269i 
0279* 

i mi 

2 302i 
7358i 

GTON 
LK. 

15 31 

18 49 

17 66 
22l 88 

GTON 

S.C. 

30 
30160 

TTE- 
JRY. 

la 

9 23 


COLUMBIA l3 

(348) F'M RALEIGI 
WILMINGTON. 

To Goldsboro' 
(see No. 338) ... 

Wilmington & Ral 
Railroad. 
Dudley's . . 9 


enderson's Mills 
Greenville 


Gustavus 

Cheek's X Roads. 
Morristown... 


S. Washington... 
Teachy's 
Strickland 


& Hither Springs., 
ossy Creek 
Newmarket 
Strawberry Plains 
KNOXVILLE 

(346) F'M RALEIG 
KNOXVILLE, Tt 
Via Salisbury &r } 
Springs. 


Warsaw 




Dudley's ... 
Goldsboro' 


Faison's 12 


Warsaw 8 
Strickland 8 
Teachy's 9 
S. Washington. 9 


Nahunt.a 
Burden's 
Tossnott 




Ltocky Mount 
Battles' 


Rocky Mount . . 8| 
WILMINGTON.. 14J 

(349) F'M GAREYSB 
TO BEAUFORT 

Via Plymouth &r J 
bern. 

To Jackson 
Rich Square 1 


Eniield 


Hackriey'sXR'ds 
Pittsboro' 


Halifax 


WELDON 


St. Lawrence 
Marley's Mills.... 


Gareysburg 
Richmond^ Peters 
&r Potomac Rl 
Pleasant Hill.... 1 
Belfield I 


Ashboro' 


Spencer 


Cotton Grove 
SALISBURY 
Woodgrove 
Covvansville 
Statesville 
Poplar Grove 
Hokesville 


Jarrett's. I 


Britton's Store 


7 33 
6 59 


Stony Cieek 


Plymouth 1 
Washington 3 
Swift Creek B'dge ! 


6 75 
110 
s 12* 
7145 

tildl 

fcl84 


Proctor's Creek. 11 
RICHMOND 1 
Tuylorsville i 
RutherGlen 
Milford 1 


Eavesville 
Drowning Creek . 

MORGANTOWN... 

Locust Grove 
Pleasant Garden . 


Cravensville 1 


(350) F'M EDENTO 
NORFOLK, Va 

To Hertford 
Wood vi lie 1 


NTO 

12 

1 23 
33 
2 45 

5 50 

9 72 
4 86 

rTON 

a. 

167 
noke 

2179 

1 !!)3 
3 206 
5:21 1 
3224 
7241 
1 242 


FREDERICKSB'G 1 
Aquia C'k Land- 
ing, Va 1 


Swannano 


Steamboat. 
Mt. Vernon 2 
Alexandria 
WASHINGTON... 

(353) F'M WlLMIN 

TO FAYETTEVIL 
To Robinson's.... 
Westbrook 
Elizabethtown ... 
Prospect Hall .... 
FAYETTEVILLE . . 

(354) F'M WlLMIN 

TO CHARLESTON 
Steamboat. 
ToSmithville....! 
CHARLESTON 1 

(355) FROM FAYI 
VILLE TO SALISB 
To Murchison's 
Mills 


ASHVILLE 


French Broad 
Lapland. ......... 


Elizabeth City.... 1 
New Lebanon 1 
South Mills... . 


Warm Springs.. 
Newport 
Oak Grove 
DANDRIDGE 
Tuckahoe 


Lake Drummond. 1 
Deep Creek, Va... 
NORFOLK 1 


(351) F'M WlLMINf 

TO NORFOLK, V 

To Gareysburg 
(see No. 352)... 

Portsmouth & Roa 
Railroad. 
Margaretsville ] 
Newson's.Va. ... 1 
Franklin 1 


Mechlenburg 
KNOXVILLE 

(347) F'M RALEK 
COLUMBIA, S. 
Via Fayetteoille 
Cher a to, S. C 
To Middle Creek. 
Averysboro' 
FAYETTEVILLE . . 
Davis' Springs . . . 


Carrsville. 


Randallsville 
Montpelier 
Laurel Hill.... 


12 
6 

8 


85 

MM 


Suffolk... 1 


Portsmouth 1 
NORFOLK . . . 


Johnsonville.. .. 



&OUTES IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 



175 





16 39 

18 57 
6 63 


Blairville 


10 

'. 
I 

5 

7 
h 
i 


81 
90 

93 
! 
105 
111 
117 


Wadesboro' 


6 
1C 

14 

15 
15 
13 
5 
12 
11 
19 
21 

BL 
JN 

e. 

8 
8 
15 
6 
\B 
it; 

9 
11 
22 

if 
15 
llj 

S'l 

V T N 

SI 
{, 

Ch 

30 
38 

:>7 
40 



A 
U 

im 

9 
9 
6 
5 

8 

12 

8 
5 
6 


57 

67 

1 
too 

115 
198 
133 

Ii5 
156 
175 
196 

RY 

18 
26 
34 

49 

89 
98 
112 
134 
151 
169 
184 
200 

ON 

' 00 

ON 

ar- 

99 
129 
167 
204 
244 

ON 

1). 
sft- 

I. 

62 
bio, 

71 

80 
86 
91 
99 
111 
119 
124 
1HO 


Caledonia 


Pinckneyville ... 
Mt. Tabor. . 


Sugg's Bridge.... 


Sneedsboro' 
CHERAW, S. C... 
Society Hill 
Darlington 
Mar's Bluff 


Hill^s Store 


15 78 
8 86 
8 94 
18112 

BURY 

^a. 
16 
11 21 

16 43 
12 55 
4 59 
lii 69 
12 81 
7 88 
7 95 
20115 

7SJ293 

IYTO 

a. 
1 52 

YJ lul 
731177 


Decatur 
UNIONVILLE 
Cedar Grove 
Cross Keys 


Mt. Lebanon 
Healing Springs.. 
SALISBURY 


f33S) FROM SALTS 
TO NORFOLK, ^ 
To Cotton Grove. 
Spencer 


Huntington.. . 


* 
12 
11 

7 
1 
9 

HT 
3 

12 
11 

5 

5 
9 
20 

BT 

S 

a 

8 

8 
10 
11 
6 
3 
1^ 

i.: 

15 
20 
16 
13 
17 
KJ 
33 

BT 

,s 

10 

12 
5 
6 


123 

l.T; 

!^; : 

15V 
159 
168 

RY 

71 

78 
81 
9;] 
104 
109 
116 
121 
130 
150 

RY 
C. 
llll- 

40 

48 

55 
59 

67 

77 
88 

a 

IS 

145 

It;;, 

181 
194 
21 i 
I. 
244 

RY 
.C. 

15 

25 

28 

I 

51 


Jarirey's Creek... 
Flintville 
Lynch's Creek 
China Grove 
GEORGETOWN... 

(365) FROM SALIS 

TO WlLMINGT( 

Via Fayettevill 
To Healing Sp'gs. 
Mt. Lebanon 
Hill's Store 


Laurensville 
Waterloo 
Stony Point 
Deadfall 
Smithville 
ABBEVILLE 

(362) FROM SALIS 
TO COLUMBIA, S 
Via Yorkvilh 
To Yorkville 
(see No. 361) ... 
Guthriesville 
Brattonsville 


Ashboro' 
Lanesville 


Parley's Mills.... 
St. Lawrence 
Pittsboro' 


Hackney's X R'ds 
Grove 


RALEIGH 
NORFOLK 
(see No. 342)...! 

(357)F'MSALISBUI 

LYNCHBURG, V 
To Greensboro' . . 
Danville, Va 


Snugg's Bridge .. 
Caledonia 


Carthage 


Blackstock's 
Yonguesville 
Albion 


Johnsonville 
Murchinson's M'ls 
FAYETTEVILLE.. 
Prospect Hall 
Elizabethtown ... 
Westbrook- 


Winnsboro' 
Cookham 


(358) FROM SALIS 
TO WYTHEVILI 
To Lexington . . . . 1 
Salem 


SURY 

-K. 

1 17 

20 37 

931130 

BURY 

Ga. 

27 

11344 

* 164 
'201 
225 
248 

IYTO 
.C. 

I 52 
J9 H 
33114 
311145 

IYTO 

C. 

York. 

10 
11 21 

12 33 
7 40 
8 48 
8 56 
15 71 


COLUMBIA 

(363) FROM SALIS 
TO CHARLESTON 
Via Charlotte 
den, S. C. 
To CHARLOTTE, 
(see No. 361) . . . 
Mt. Seer 


Robinson's . . . 


WILMINGTON 

(366) F'M CHARLE 
TO GEORGETOV 
By Stage . . 


WYTHEVILLE 

(see No. 344)...! 

(359) FROM SALIS 


(367) F'M CHARLE 
TO SALISBURY 
Via Camden <$r 
lotte. 
To Sumpterville 
(s-eNo. 363)... 
CAMDEN 
Lancaster 


ToStatesville.. 
Morguntown ... 4? 
Ashv'iUe 59 
Wnynesville... 29 
Franklin 37 


Pleasant Valley, 
S C. .. 


Bel Air 


Cureton's Store. . . 
Lancaster 


Pleasant Hill 


L ARKS VirTLE.. 123 
(360)F'MSALISBUI 

GREENVILLE, S 
To Lincolnton 
Erwinville 


Flat Rock 


Charlotte, N. C... 


CAMDEN 
Bradford Springs. 
Sumpterville 
Privateer 


(368) F'M CHARLE 

TOKNOXVILLEjl 

Via Columbia <$ 
ville, JV. C. 

South Carolina ., 
ToBranchville... 

BranchvillebCoh 
Railroad. 
Rowe's Pump 
Orangeburg 
Semerson's 
Lewimlle 
Fort Motte 
Gadsden 
Hopkins 


Vance's Ferry 
Roadsville 
Inabret's . 


Spartansburg 
GREENVILLE 

(361)F'MSALISBUI 

ABBEVILLE, S. 
Via. Charlotte < 
mile. 
To China Grove.. 
Concord 


SoutJi Carolina j 
CHARLESTON .... 

(364) FROM SALIS 
TO GEORGETOWN 
Via Cheraw 

To Rockville 
Kendall's Store... 
iAlbemarle 
Norwood. 


Harrisburg 
CHARLOTTE 
Whitehall 


Ranalesburg 
YORKVILLE, S.C. 


i Cedar Hill 


Woodlands 
COLUMBIA.... 


1 Beverly.... 



176 



ROUTES IN GEORGIA. 



Oakville 

Pomariu 

Newberry 

Pagesville 

Huntsvilie 

Holland's 

LAURENSVILLE .. 

Greenwood 

Fountain Inn 

plains ;;; 

GREENVILLE 

Traveller's Rest .. 
Merrittsville... 

Flat Rock 

Henderson ville ... 

Mud Creek 

Limestone 

Ashville 

French Broad 

Lapland.... 

Warm Springs.. 

Newport 

Oak Grove 

Dandridge 

Tuckahoe 

Mechlenburg. ... 
KNOXVILLE 



3 43 

:: 56 
4170 

9 1 
J84 

> S: 

9 iyg 

11 209 
821. 
6223 

12235 

10 24a 



10 297 
11308 



8 379 
1 39t 



371) F'M CHARLESTON 
TO SAVANNAH, 

By Steamboat....! 1110 

372) F'M COLUMBIA TO 
RALEIGH, N. C. 

r ia Ca.rn.dtti <$- Cher aw. 

To CAMDEN ' 

Tiller's Ferry 

CHERAW 

Laurel Hill, N. C. 

Montpelier 

iandallsville 

")avis' Spring 

^AYETTEVILLE . . 

Averysboro' 

Vliddle Creek 

&ALEIGH 



(369) F'M CHARLESTON 
TO AUGUSTA, Ga. 

South Carolina RR 
To Mile Pump ... 

Sneath's 

Woodstock 

Ladson's , 

Somerville 

ijawrence's 
jnibret's 

Ross's 

St. George's 

Reeve's 

BRANCHVILLE .. 
Edisto Turn-out. 

Midway 

Loury's 

Graham's 

Black ville 

Williston 

White Pond 

Windsor 

Johnson's 

Aiken 

Clark's 

Marshes 

Hamburg 

AUGUSTA, Ga. . 



4 . 

5 8 

M ;' 

410 
410 
811 
512 
41& 
4 12 
813 
113 



(370) F'M CHARLESTO 
TO SAVANNAH, Ga. 

To Jacksonboro'. 

Blue House 

Pocotaligo. 14 6 

Grahamsville If, 7 

SAVANNAH, Ga...J33lll 



58 

35 93 
33126 
8134 
6140 
12 \>- 
lo l 
25190 

1222! 



;373) F'M COLUMBIA TO 
SALISBURY, 
Via Yorkville. 
To Cookham 



Clarksville, Ga. ..fflOl 79 

Nacoochee 13 92 

DAHLONEGA 1211113 

377) FR'M ABBEVILLE 
TO UNION POINT, Ga. 
To Calhoun's M'ls 
'etersburg, Ga. . . 

Danbury 

rVashington 

Tyrone 

J ublic Square 

UNION POINT 



61 
70 

$78) FROM SAVANNAH 
TO AUGUSTA. 

Central Railroad. 
To Brinsonsville 
(see No. 379)... 
Stage. 

Waynesboro' 

Richmond Fact'y 
AUGUSTA 



WinsboroV 

Albion 

Yonguesville 

Blackstock's 

Chester 

Brattonsville 

Guthriesville 

YORKVILLE 

Ranalesburg, NC. 

Whitehall 

CHARLOTTE 

Harrisburg 

Concord 

China Grove 

SALISBURY 



9 
5 34 



7 
13 

H KL 
111 
11 

12 12S 
11 141 
10150 



(374) F'M COLUMBIA TO 
RUTHERFORDT'N, 

To Maybintown .1 



. 
Goshen Hill ...... | 8 

'" 



Unionvi le ........ 

Glenn's Springs .. 
Spartansburg ..... 

HUTHERFORUT'N 



37113 



(375) F'M COLUMBIA TC 

AUGUSTA, Ga. 
To Lexington 
Leesville ......... 

Ridge ............ 

fcklgefield C. H. . . 
Hamburg ......... 

AUGUSTA ........ 



(376) F'M GREENVILLI 

TO DAHLONEGA, Ga. 

To Pickensville.. fl 

PickensC.II ..... 18 3 



. ..... 

West Union ...... 110 4 

Davis' Ferry ..... JlSi 5 



80 

15|ll7 
10J127 

(379) FROM SAVANNAH 

TO MACON. 
Central Railroad. 
To Eden Depot. . . 
Reform. . 
Armenia 



Halcyondale , 

Depot 

Scarboro' 

Brinson ville 

Mid ville 

Holcomb 

Depot ..., 

visbo 



. 50 
10 60 
10 70 



12112 
10122 
13135 
13148 



mvuDoro 

Pennille 

Oconee (Jm 

Emmett 5152 

Kingston 8160 

Gordon 10170 

Larkville 10180 

MACON 10190 



(380) F'M SAVANNAH TO 
MONTGOMERY, Ala. 

Via Macon & Colum- 
M bus. 

To E. Macon 
(see No. 379).. 

Macon 



190 
1 191 
Macon & Western RR. 



Prattsville 

Forsyth , 

Depot 

BARNESVILLE.. 

Union Hill , 

Thomaston 

Pleasant Hill..., 
Bellevue. 



BlutfSprings.... 
WaverlyHall... 

Ellerslie 

COLUMBUS 



16207 
8215 
8223 
8231 
6237 

10247 

11258 
5263 
7270 
7(277 
8j285 

16301 



ROUTES IN GEORGIA. 



177 



Crawford, Ala . . 
Society Hill ..... 

gee ........ 

Keys ...... 



Tuske 
Cross 
Cabahatchie ---- 

Mt. Meigs ....... 

MONTGOMERY .. 



12313 Noah's Fork.... 

15328 Millersburg 

15343 Murrreeibero'... 



101513 Stone Mountain 



14527 Decatur 

lOlfi5W ATT tv-T 



186) F'M AUGUSTA TO 
NASHVILLE, Term. 



10|537 ATLANTA 

10^3 NASHVILLE 34571 

jjil^JI (383) F'M AUGUSTA TO 
13|383i CHARLESTON, S. C. || Oeorif ia Railroad. 

i To Hamburg.... I I 1 To Atlanta 
(381) F'MSAVANNAHTO e ., rnv . n i^. n pp 
ST. AUGUSTINE, Fa. il W* Carolina RR. 

To Old C. H.... 



. . 

Riceboro' 

S. Newport 

DARIE.N 

Bethel 



17 'M-j , 
34 Clark's 



joiAiken 

i Johnson's 



, i Windsor 

q? I White Pond.. 



Wayuesville 

Langsbury 

Jeffersonton 

St. Mary's 

Jacksonville, Fa. 
ST. AUGUSTINE. 

(382) F'MSAVANNAHTO ! Reeve's . 

NASHVILLE, Tenn. I St. George" 



23140 Graham's 



, BRANCHVILLE .. 



To E. Macon 
(see No. 379).. 



190 



Ross 3 



Inabret's 

MacoV.::: '.'.: : : :i i m &"&'*. 

Macon ^ Western RR. - 

Prattsville 

Forsyth... 

gepot 
ARNESVILLE . 

Miluer 

Griffin 

Depot.... 

Fosterville 

Jonesboro' 7271 

Poolsvillo 10281 

ATLANTA I 11292 



161207 'Woodstock 

8215 jSneath's 

8223 Eight-mile Pump 
8'231 CHARLESTON... 

7.1 



5. 22 



(se'e'No. 385)..| 1 171 
9 ! West'n $- Atlantic RR. 
13 To Chattanooga. 



(see No. 382).. 
Stage. 



148.319 
141|460 

(387) F'M AUGUSTA TO 
MONTGOMERY, Ala. 



30 ; NASHVILLE 



56 1 To ATLANTA 



100 



4104 
5109 
6 115 
41119 





Jonesboro' 

Fosterville 

GRIFFIN.. 



Stage. 



5129 

8il37 



11 loin (384) F'M AUGUSTA TO 

8 257 ! ATHENS. 

7 264 iTo Union P'nt I 

(se* No. 385)... I I 76 
At/tens Branch RR. 



West'n fr Atlantic RR. 
Chattahoochee R 

Marietta 

Acworth 

Allatoona 

Etowah River. .. 

KINGSTON 

Williams' 

Oothkaloga 

Oostanaula 

Connasaiiga 

CROSS PLAINS.. 

Tunnel 

Dogwood 

Tennessee Line. . 
Chickamiiuga R. 
CHATTANOOGA.. 

Stage.. 
Lookout Valley. 

Jasper 

Buttle Creek.... 

Pelhain 

Hilhsboro' 

Mauciiester 



(see No. 38 
Macon Sr Western RR. 
11182 
10192 

7199 

15:214 

10246 
10 256 

8264 
10274 

5279 
14293 

7300 
11311 
10321 



Zebulon ________ 

Flat Shoals ..... , 

" 



sjaJ Mo'untViiie ::;::, 

-' La Grange , 

Long Cane , 

WEST POINT.., 



Woodville 

Salmonville 



ATHENS . 



(385) F'M AUGUSTA TO 
ATLANTA. 

Georgia Railroad. 
To Belttir.. 



}\ 326 

6332 

7339 
13352 

10372 

5377 jBerzeiiaY.""!!!!. 

8385; Dearing 

7392 Thompson 

7399^ " 
7406 
7413 
6419 
11430 

6436 
21 457 

4461 
25486 

9 495 

8503 



9115 



ville .. 



Camak., 

imming 

rawfords .. 
UNION POINT.., 
Greensboro 1 _____ 

Buckhead ...... 

Madison.. 



Rutledge 

Social Circle... 

Covington 

Conyers 

Lithonia . 



Cusseta ......... , 

Mt. Jefferson 
Auburn ......... , 

Chehaw ......... 



Montgomery and West 
Point RR. 

Uphawpee 

Fort Decatur 

Magruders 



Creyons 



10 1 345 
111356 



MONTGOMERY ..I 10 1 366 
(388) F'M AUGUSTA TO 

MONTGOMERY, Ala. 

Via Indian Springs. 



$ 



To Madison 

Shadydale 

Monticello 

Planter's 

INDIAN SPRINGS. 

iUnionville 

IBarnesville 

Union Hill... 
Thorr 



imaston 

., , Pleasant Hill... 

7il03 Bel lev ne.: 

9 ilia Bluff Springs... 
7 1119 Waverly Hall.. 

11 130 Ellerslie 

10 140 .COLUMBUS 



104 
14 118 
8126 
7133 
10143 
11154 
17171 
6177 
10187 
11198 
5203 
7210 
7217 
8 ! 225 
16241 
..i 82,323 



178 



ROUTES IN GEORGIA. 



(389) F'MAUGUSI 
MONTGOMERY 
Via Milledseville 
con, &r Colu.rn.bi 

To Camac 
(see No. 385) ... 


'A 
C, 

,J 

IS. 

? 

12 
8 
15 
13 

25 
6 
7 
12 
\->, 


TO 

\Ia- 

47* 
51 
60 
72 
80 
95 
108 
125 
150 
156 
163 
175 
187 


Anderson C. H. 
Steele's 


5 

8 
7 
8 
8 
13 

75 

vs 
'ei 

e. 

6 
8 
12 
9 
18 
17 
96 

S'S 

9 

14 
6 
12 
4 
5 

ss 
ila 
itt 

20 
9 
10 
10 
19 
17 
12 
Itj 
9 
18 
18 

5 
13 
22 

:P 

VR 

11 

21 


90 
96 
105 
113 
121 
134 

309 

TO 

n. 

10 
16 
24 

36 
45 
153 
80 
176 

TO 

20 
29 

43 

49 
61 
65 
70 

TO 

r's 

43 

H3 
72 

XI 

92 
111 

128 

140 
156 
1H5 
183 
201 

206 
219 
241 

GE- 
KS- 

16 

26 
46 


ATHENS 
Grove Hill 
Diinielsville 
Madison Springs 
Carnesville 
Poinsett 


7 
10 
6 
8 
12 
9 
18 

:D< 

KN 

3 
15 

6 
9 

20 
27 
10 
9 

9 
15 

18 
44 
10 

:ix 

BU 

17 
23 
6 
7 
12 
12 
16 
16 

IN 

13 
15 

8 
12 

9 
3* 
ad 

741 

IN 

nn 

9 
6 

S 

5 
10 
20 
5 
15 
15 


73 

83 
89 
97 
109 
118 
136 

JE- 

22 
25 
40 
46 
55 
75 
102 
112 
121 
144 
153 
168 
186 
230 
240 

JE- 

S. 

13 

30 

68 
80 
92 
108 
124 

TO 

17 

30 
45 

53 
65 

74 

77i 

125 

TO 

201 

210 
216 

239 
J50 

305 
320 


Pendleton 


Double Branches. 
Pickensville 
GREENVILLE 
KNOXVILLE 

(see No. 368)...! 

(392) FR'M ATHE 
MADISONVILLE,'! 
Via Clarksvill 

To Grove Hill.... 
Danielsville 
Madison Springs 


CLARKSVILLE.... 

(396) FROM MILLI 
VILLE TO DARI 
To Emmett 


Mayfield 


Sparta 


Devereaux's Store 

MlLLEDGEVILLE. 

Wallace 


Rains' Store 


MACON 


Knoxville 
Frnncisville 
Union 


Tarversville 
HAWKINSVILLE.. 


Daviston 
Talbotton 


Poinsett 
CLARKSVILLE 


Temperance 
Jacksonville 
Lumber City 
Box ville 


Elierslie 


16 
16 

82 

I'A 

Dr. 
nc 
in 
an 

17 
12 

8 
3 
17 

17 

18 
7 
5 
20 
'10 


203 

219 

301 

TO 

on, 
sta- 
ge, 

125 
142 
154 
162 
165 
182 
199 
JIT 
224 
22! 
219 

w 


Nacoochee. . . . 




MADISONVILLE... 

(393) FR'M ATHE 
DAHLONEGA. 
To Jefferson 
Cunningham's 
Store 
Gainesville 
Lucksville 


MONTGOMERY 
(see No. 380) ... 

(390) F'M AUGUS' 
PENSACOLA, Fl 
Via Warrenton,^ 
Bainbridge, C 
hoochee, Q-JLaGr 
Fior. 
To Macon 
(see No. 379) ... 
Busheeville 
Perry 


Perry's Mills 
Surrency 
Fort Barrington . . 
DARIEN 

(397) FROM MILLI 
VILLE TOCOLUM 
To Wallace 
MACON 


New Bridge 
Auraria 


Knoxville 


DAHLONEGA 

(394) FR'M ATHE 
HUNTSVILLE, A 
Via Rome & Gu- 
Landing' 
To Gainesville 
(see No. 393) ... 
Cummings' 
High Tower 
Orange . 


Francisville 
Union 
Daviston 
Talbotton 


Limestone 
Murshallville 
Traveller's Rest . . 
Americus 
Starkville 
Palmyra 


Elierslie 
COLUMBUS . . 


(398) FROM MAC 
AUGUSTA. 
To Wallace 

MlLLEDGEVILLE. 

Devereaux' Store. 


Albany ... 


Newton 


BAINBRIDGE 


Canton 


Chattahoochee, 


41 
25 
It, 

1* 

25 

90 
FA 

311 

.C 

c. 

i: 
! 
i 
5 
9 
E 
10 
10 


330 

371 
389 
414 

504 

TO 
1. 

'.& 

24 
33 
42 
47 

5(i 
65 
75 

ai 


Cassville 


Mayfield 


Marianna 
Oak Hill ... 


MissionaryStation 
Ballplay, Ala.... 
Gaylesville 
Van Buren 
Marshall 
Clays ville, (oppo- 
site Gunter's 
Landing) 
Newhope 


Warrenton 
Camac 
Georgia Railro 
AUGUSTA 14 

(399) FROM MAC 
KNOXVILLE, Te 
To CROSS PLAINS 
(see No. 382)... 
Stage. 
Spring Place 
Pleasant Valley.. 
Cleveland, Tenn. 
Calhoun 


Holmes' Valley .. 


Steamboat. 
PENSACOLA 

(391) F'M AUGUST 
KNOXVILLE, T< 
Via Greenville, -S 
Askville, JV. 
To Hamburg, S.C. 
Edgefield 
Duntonsville 
Longmire's Store. 
Winter Sent 
Fraziersville 
ABBEVILLE 
Temple of Health 
Varennes 


HUNTSVILLE 

(395) FROM MILLI 
VILLE TO CL 

VILLE, 

Via Athens 
To Cloptonsville . 
Eatonton 


Mantua . 


Athens 
Philadelphia 
Blain's Ferry..,. 


Salem 


l( 
10 


56 
>66 


Campbell's Sta'n 
KNOXVILLK 


Watkinsville.... 



ROUTES IN FLORIDA. 



179 



TO CHARLESTO 
Via Macon Sr AIL 
ToEllerslie 
Waverly Hall... 
Bluff Springs.... 
Bellevue 


N. 

CUS 

8 

7 
5 
11 
11 

6 
i R 

18 
43 
ona 

171 
Rl 

137 

UMI 
II . 

n / 

8 
8 
8 
16 
1 
jad 
10 
10 
10 

I 

12 
13 
10 
12 

15 

10 
10 
10 

!* 



I'M I 
N. 

'. 8 
. 7 
. 7 
. 5 
. 11 


ta. 
1 
24 
31 
38 
43 
54 
65 
71 
R. 
s<i 
132 
1 

303 

440 

JUS 

71 
IR. 
79 
87 
95 
111 
112 

122 

142 
150 
155 
167 
180 

IHII 

302 

207 

232 
242 

252 

3i d 

JUS 

16 
2-1 
31 

38 

a 

54 


Barnesville 
Union ville 
INDIAN SPRINGS.. 
Planter's . 


t 

17 
11 

10 

7 
8 
14 

M 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2> 
13 
10 

Ml 
L.I 

11 

21 

11 

18 
25 

13 
15 

28 

J 

% 

22 
:D 

VII 

e. 

17 

17 
12 
8 
3 


70 
87 
96 

!OH 
115 
12 i 
137 

3US 

14 

21 

35 
47 

;2 
r:i 

7h 
84 
89 
101 
103 
133 
146 
156 

JUS 

12 

23 
44 

55 
73 

IN 
12S 
ill 
150 
184 
1% 
_>!:; 
238 
25* 
2*0 

JE- 

AS- 

13 

30 
47 

59 
67 
71) 


VILLE TO COLU 

S. C. 

Via Augusta 
To Devereaux' 

Store . . . 


Ml 

. 

8 
12 

i 

!! 
9 

4 

10 

l 

20 
9 

7 
M 
18 
12 

JO 

VH 

48 
35 
2(1 
1.; 

12 

27 

6 

16 

VH 

OJ 

\H 

)!,. 

2! 

:'- 
12 

11 
42 

38 

15 

CO 

ia. 
14 

,E 

15 


IA, 

15 
23 

35 

4 

)6i 
b'5i 

~t 

95 
96 

116 

125 
112 
142 

160 
172 

us- 

AS- 

24 
72 
107 
127 
142 
154 
181 
187 
194 
210 

\s- 
I. 

26 

\s- 
L. 
21 
42 
67 
79 
33 
135 
173 
180 
195 

LA 
fiO 

74 

TO 

g 


Monticello 
Shadydale 


Sparta. . . . 


Pleasant Hill.... 
Thomaston 
Union Hill 
Barnesville 
Jlfaconfy Wester 


(403) FROM COLTJ 
TO ROME. 
To Cataula 
Hamilton 
Carlisle 


Mayfield 


Warrenton 
Camac 
Oeorgia Railro 
Thompson. .. 


Dearing 


ATLANTA 


LA GRANGE 

Corinth 


Bell Air 1 


Georgia Raid 
AUGUSTA. 


Watson's 
Newnan 


Ferry. 
Hamburg, S. C. .. 
Stage. 
Edgefield C. H. . . 
Lott's 
Ridge 


(see No. 385).. 
South Carolina 
CHARLESTON... 

(see No. 383).. 

(401) FROM COL 
TO SAVANNA 
To BARNESV'LE 

(see No. 400).. 

JWaeon < Westei 
Depot ,... 


Lodi. 


Rotherwood 
Carrolltori 
Hickory Level 
Van Wert 


Leesville 


ROME 


Lexington 
COLUMBIA 
(407) FR'M ST. A 
TINE TO TALL 

SEE. 

ToWhitesville (or 
Garey's Ferry) . 
Newnansville 
Lancaster 


(404) FROM COLU 
TO APALACHICC 
Steamboat. 
To Ft. Mitchell .. 
OrwicheeBend... 
M 'Cloud's Ferry . 


Forsyth 
tattsville 


ACON 


EUFAULA 
Ft. Gaines 
Columbia 


Mineral Spring . 
Columbus 




Central Railr 
Larksville 
Gordon. . . 


Madison 


Brown's Ferry ... 
CHAT'AHOOCHEE 
Ochessee 
Prison Bluff 
loin 


Lipona 
Lake Laura 
TALLAHASSEE ... 

(408) FROM TALL. 
SEE TO PORT LB 
By Railroad 

(409) FROM TALL 
SEE TO PENSAC( 
To Q,uincy... 


Kingston 
Emmet 


Oconee 


Davisboro' 
Depot 


Ft. Gadsden 
Apalachicola 

(405) FROMMlLLI 

VILLE TO TALL, 
SEE, Flor. 
Via Bainbrida, 
To Wallace 
MACON 
Busbay ville 
Pe rry 


Holcomb 
Midville.. 
Brinsonville 
Scarboro' 


Chattahoochee . . . 
MariamiR 


Depot 


Halcyondale 
Armenia 


Webbville 


Campbellton 
Almirante 
Milton 


Reform 
Eden Depot 
SAVANNAH 

(402) FROM COL 
TO MADISO 
ToEllerslie 
Waverly Hall... 
Bluff Springs-;,.. 
Bellevue 
Pleasant Hill 
Thomaston 


Limestone 
Marshnllville 


Floridatown 


Traveller's Rest.. 
Americns 


17 87 
17 KM 
IX 1_- 
7:129 
5134 
2(1154 
40194 
25219 
10,229 
11240 


(410) FROM PENSA 
TO MOBILE, A 
ToBlakely 
MOBILE 

(411) FROM MOBIJ 
CHARLESTON 
ToBlakely 
Stockton 


Stark ville...,.:... 
Palmyra 
Albany 

Newton . ' 


BAINBRIDGE 
!Q,uincy, Flor 
Salubrity 
i TALLAHASSEE .. 



180 



ROUTEb IN ALABAMA. 



Mt. Pleasant 

Claiborne 

Burnt Corn 

Greenville , 

Kirkville 

Sandy Ridge . . . 
Hickory Grove . 

PintLala 

MONTGOMERY . 

West Point 

Atlanta 

Augusta 

CHARLESTON .. 



361 65 
18 83 
25108 
57 Ilifi 
11176 
5181 
5 isi; 
1019(5 
13209 
87 '296 
. 10S.404 
. 171 575 
. 137ibl2 



(414) FROM MOBILE TO 
COLUMBUS, Miss. 

Steamboat. 
To Ft. St. Philip . 



(412) FR'M MOBILE TO 
MONTGOMERY. 

Steamboat. 
To Ft. St. Philip.) 
Ft. Stodder 18 



.'ombigbee River.l 5 
English's Landing' 9 
bait's Landing... 25 



James' Landing-. 
French's Lauding 
Oliver's Ferry ... 

Gosport w 

Turkey Shoals ... 



9107 
8115 
13128 



Bell's Landing ... 15143 



Lower Peach-tree. 



Black Bluff L'd'g 11 163 



[Jpper Peach-tree. 

Prairie Bluff'. 

Canton 

Bridgeport 

Bor --".'" 

Por 



ogue Chitto 



Portland 

Centreport 

King's Landing.. 

CAHAWBA 

Senna 

Frederick's Land. 
Beuton 



Miller's Ferry 

Vernon 

Lowndesport 

Washington 

MONTGOMERY ... 



9 Iti 



13176 
11187 
10197 
3200 
12 212 
5217 
3220 



16256 

9265 



10317 
9326 
12,338 




Ft. Stodder 

Alabama River .. 
Mclntosh Bluff... 
Crawford's Land- 



18' 39 
5! 44 
13 57 



Sunflower Bend.. 
McMillan's Bluff. 

Shield's Ferry 

St. Stephen's 

Stark's Landing . 



7 85 
7 92 
8100 
12112 

* L'O 
13 133 



Shelbyville | 71208 

Fosterville |13 221 

Murfreesboro'. . . . (12 233 



COFFEEVILLE... 

Turner's Shoals.., . 
Wood's Bluff....! 7140 
Cades Landing... 10150 
Nanaf'alia Bluff.. 21 171 
Turkey Shoals ... I4l8o 

Moscow 21206 

DEMOPOLIS 14 2-0 

Tusca lot. sa River. 1 2222 
Buzznrdroust Bl'ff 28 20 

Jones' Bluff. 14264 

Trussell's Land's. .12276 

GAINESVILLE 7283 

.lamestown 12295 

Vieurra 10305 

Fairfield 15320 

Ringo's Bluff....i 9329 

Pickensville 

Young's Bluff, 

Miss 8346 

COLUMBUS 23,369 

(415) FROM MOBILE TO 
NEW ORLEANS, 

By Steamboat....! 1164 

(416) FROM MOBILE TO 
PENSACOLA. 

ToBlakely 1 14 

PENSACOLA 601 74 

(417) F'M TUSCALOOSA 
TO NASHVILLE, 
Via Huntsville. 

To Bucksville.. 

Jonesboro' 

Ely ton 

Mt. Pinson 

Village Springs .. _ 

Blountsville !19 __ 

Martin's Stand.... 110105 

Oleander 1 14 119 1 

Lacy's Springs... jll 130' 

Whitesburg 4134! 

HUNTSVILLE..... !10 144 

Meridianville 8152; 

Hazel Green ! 6il58i 

Fayettevilie,Tenn 16 174 

Lynrhhnrg 15I18U; 

FlatCieek ItfiHi; 



Stuartsboro' 

Buchanansville... 
NASHVILLE 



14 247 
82.35 
12267 



(418) F'M TUSCALOOSA 

TO CORTLAND. 
To Northport .... 



Jew Lexington . . 
Idridge.., 

Thorn Hill 

Camp Spring 

Moulton 

CORTLAND 



23 24 
28 52 
22 74 
19 ! 93 
10103 
16119 



(419) F'M TUSCALOOSA 
TO COLUMBUS, Miss. 

ToCarrolltou ....! [42 

Pickeusville Ill 53 

Nashville, Miss... 10 63 
COLUMBUS 16 79 

(420) F'M TUSCALOOSA 
TO MOBILE. 

To Demopolis I 
(see No. 413) ...| 

St. Stephen's 85 149 

MOBILE 168217 

(421) F'M TUSCALOOSA 
TO MONTGOMERY. 

To Mars 

Scottsville 

Centreville 



....... 

Randolph ... ..... 



... ..... _. 

Maplesville ....... 10 

Kingston ......... 24 .. 

Coosada .......... 20106 

Wetumpka ....... | 4110 

MONTGOMERY ... 115 125 

(422) F'M MONTGOM'RY 

TO AUGUSTA, Ga. 

Via West Point. 

Montgomery and West 

Point RR. 
ToCreyon's ...... 



eyon's ...... 

ider's ....... 



Uphaupee 

Chehaw 

Stage. 

Auburn 

Mt. Jefferson.. 

Cusseta 

West Point !! 

AUGUSTA 
(see No. 387)... 279 366 



(423) FRQM MONTGOM 

ERY TO ROME, Ga. 
j To Wetumpka. ..I I 1& 
[Eockfotd b! 38 



ROUTES IN ALABAMA. 



181 



Sylacauga.. 

Weewokaville ... 

Mardisville 

Talladega , 

Kelly's Springs.., 

Fife's , 

Alexandria 

JACKSONVILLE.., 

Ladiga 

BtateLine, Ga. ., 

Cave Spring , 

Vann's Valley..., 
ROME 



18114 
10 124 
13137 

!.> 1/2 
4 156 
5161 
12173 



(424) FROM MONTGOM- 
ERY TO HUNTSVILLE. 

To Jacksonville I I 
(see Nb. 423) ...I 124 

Cove Creek 13137 

Bennettsville |15 152 

Aurora 10162 

Marshall 17179 

Claysville ! 5 184 

HUNTSVILLE 35219 

(425) F'w MONTG'MERY 
TO COLUMBUS, Miss. 

Via Selma. 

To Washington..! I 10 

Vernon 10 20 

Mulberry 13! 33 

SELMA 18; 51 

Valley Creek I 3i 54 

Hamburg 15 69 



Marion . 



.1 7 



Greensboro' ...... 118 94 

Erie .............. 13107 

Eutaw ........... 12119 



Sp 
Cli 



712.4 
1130 



._ r >ringfield 

Clinton 

Pleasant Ridge... 

Vienna 

Pickensville 

Nashville, Miss... 
COLUMBUS 



(426) FROM MONTGOM- 
ERY TOTUSCALOOSA. 

To Wetumpka... , 

4| 19 



Coosada. . 
Kingston 



Map 
Ran 



plesville 24 63 

10 ! 73 
14: 87 
8 9') 
6101 
TUSCALOOSA 24 125 

(427) FROM MONTGOM- 
ERY TO MOBILE. 
JToPintLala 



andolph 

Centreville 

Scottsville 

Mars . 





Hickory Grove... 

Sandy Ridge 

Kirkville 

Greenville 



28 

33 
11 44 



Burnt Corn 57J01 

Claiborne 25 12ti 

Mt. Pleasant 18 144 

Stockton 36il80 

Blakely 15 19=) 

MOBILE 141209 

FR'M MONTGOMERY TO 
MOBILE. 
Steamboat. 
To Mobile 
(see No. 412) ...I 1338 

(428) F'M MONTG'MERY 

TO COLUMBUS, Ga. 
ToMt. Meigs. 
Cababachie ... 
Cross Keys .... 

Tuskegee 

Society Hill... 

Crawford 

Gerard 

COLUMBUS ... 



1 82 



(429) FROM SELMA TO 

HUNTSVILLE. 
To Wood lawn... 

L'lantersville 

Maplesville 

Montevallo 

Shelbyville 

Elylon 

HUNTSVILLK 
(see No. 427) ... 



90177 



(430) FROM SELMA TO 
GREENVILLE. 

To Cahawba 

Barnes 

Pleasant Hill 

Farmersville 

Bragg's 

Manningham 

GREENVILLE 

(431) FROM SELMA TO 
TUSCALOOSA. 

To Valley C reek. |, 

Hamburg 

Marion 

Greensboro' 

Havanna 

Carthage , _ 

TUSCALOOSA 17i 83 

(432) F'M HUNTSVILLE 
TO KNOXVILLE, Tenn. 

To Newmarket, 

Ala 

Salem 

Winchester 

Hillsboro' 

Hickory Creek... 

McMinnville 

Rock Island 



SPARTA 

Bonair. 



Railroad Plains .. 

Crossville 

Bellville 

I'ost-oak Springs . 
Kingston 



Wood's Hill 

Campbell's Stat'n 
KNOXVILLE 



61116 
61123 
6128 
20148 
5 153 
7160 



i!79 
185 



(433) F'M HUNTSVILLE 
TO NASHVILLE, Tenn. 



To Meridianville.l 

Hazel Green I . 

Fayetteville,Teun 16 
Mulberry.. 

Lynchburg 

Flat Creek 12 

Shelby ville | 7 



Fosterville 13 

Murfreesboro' 12 _ 

Stuartsboro' 14 103 

uchanansville...i 8 111 

ASHVILLE 12123 

(434) F'M HUNTSVILLK 
TO FLORENCE. 

To Shoal Ford ... 

Athens 

Rogersville 

Mason ville 14 __ 

FLORENCE I 9 71 

(435) F'M HUNTSVILLK 
TO FLORENCE. 

To Decatur I ! 31 

Tuscumbia <$r Decatur 

Railroad. 
Hillsboro' ., 
Cortland . . . 



12(43 

8 51 

13 64 



10 74 
4 ! 78 



Leightc.. 

Tuscumbia 

FLORENCE 



(436) FROM FLORENCE 

TO AUGUSTA, Ga. 
ToMasonvil!e....l I 9 

Rogersville 12 21 

Athens 23 44 

Shoal Ford 12| 56 

HUNTSVILLE "" 

Cobb's Store 

Newhope 

Cottonville 

(Claysville ( 



ffl 

81 
10 91 

7 98 



d'g). 



Gunter'sL 
Marshall.... 
Van Buren . 
Galesville.. 

Ballplay 

Missionary Stat'n, . 

Ga Ifi!l70 

ROME 12182 

Kingston 18200 



6104 
5,109 
18127 
18145 

91154 



182 



ROUTES IN LOUISIANA. 



Allatoona 

Ac worth 

Marietta 

Atlantn 

Georgia RR. 

AUGUSTA 

(see No. 385).. 



201220 



20260 



171 451 



C437) F'M FLORENCE TO 

NASHVILLE, Tenu. 
To Lnwrenceburg I 36 



Mt. Pleasant ..... 

Colunil)ia ........ 151 

Spring Hill ....... 1-' Hi 

Franklin ......... 12 93 

- : "- "> ^ 



Good S f : 

NASHVILLE 113.111 

(438) FROM FLORENCE 

TO MEMPHIS, Tetm. 
To Young's 



Roads . . 



15 

48 

Combs' Store 

Adamsville 

Purdy .. 

Rose Creek 10 75 

.,:... ^2 97 

7104 

.''11190 
. 5125 
. 5130 
4134 
8142 

,, , 6148 

Raleigh | 7 155 

MEMPHIS 101165 

(439) F'M FLORENCE TO 

COLUMBUS, Mi 
ToTuscumbia... 

Russellville 

Tollgate 

Pikeville 

Moscow 

Border Spring, 

Miss 

COLUMBUS 



Bolivar 

Middleburg. 
New Castle. 

Whitehall.*.'.'.'.' 

Oakland 

Birch Pond.... 

Morning Sun 

Green Bottom 



100 



17117 



(439J) FR'M FLORENCE 

TO PADUCAH, 
(Moutii of Tennessee 

River.) 
Steamboat. 
To Savannah, 
Tenn ......... 

Perrysville... .... . 

Reynoldsburg 



PADUCAH, Ken.. 10ol276 

DCf* For distances on 
the Mississippi, Ohio, 
and Missouri R : " 



(4i0) F'M N. ORLEANS iCamden.. 



TO NATCHEZ. !| Ft. Co u pee L'd'g. 
To La Fayette . . . J I 2 Lit. Missouri Riv. 

Bonnet Carre 36 38 Hallasport 

Hrinjrier's 20 58 Manchester 



Donadsonville ... 15 73 

New River 10, 83 

Iberville 9: 92 



221 70S 
I0 ! 715 
26741 



Manchac 



. 10 102 



Haton Rouge 10112 



ARCHIDELPHIA .. 

(443) F'M N. ORLEANS 
TO SHREVEPORT. 

Steamboat . | 

-' 236 



Port Hudson: ". ". '.'.'. 34 Mti To Red River L'g 

St. Francisville...; 2 148, j Alexandria 84320 



West Fdiciana RR. 
Lmirel Hill 17 



SHRVVKPORT 86ij 

165' 



Co!d Spring 15 

iNATCHKZ .20.all 

(441) F'M N. ORLEANS 
TO FT. GIBSON, Ind. 
Ter. 

Steamboat. 



Wood vi lie.'.'.'. '.'.'. 11 176 (444) F'M N. ORLEANS 
TO GALVESTOS, Tex. 
By Steamboat.'...! 1450 

(445) F'M N. ORLEANS 

TO MOBILE. 
Steam ho<it. 
To Pass Christian. 



To 



'o Napoleon, I 

(m. of Arkan-! 

sas River) ! , 

M'tgomery's Pt. 20 640 
Post of Arkansas 451 685 

D:.. t>i. .A" ion! onr 



I 620 



Pine Bluff 



120 805 



LITTLE ROCK . 10( 
Lewisburg .... 651 970 
Dardanelte ..... 4511015 
Spadra Bluff...! 301045 
' Bluff 61051 



15 10H6 
10 1076 
601136 



Me Lai n a s Bott. 

Ozark 

Van Buren 

FORT SMITH... I 91145 

Fort Coffee ! 201165 

Webber's Falls. 60 1225 
FORT GIBSON. . I 40 1265 

(4410 F'M N. ORLEANS 



TO OPELOUSAS. 
Steamboat. 



100217 



To Plaquemine. . 
OPELOUSAS 



(442) F'M N. ORLEANS 
TO ARCHIDELPHIA, 
Ark. 

Steamboat. 

To Mouth of Red 
River 

Trinity (Washita 



River) 

Harrisonburg 

Columbia 

MONROE . 



Burk's Landing, 

Ark 

Benson's Land. . 
,,.,Ciiampagnole ... 

ii Beach Hills 



Mississippi City .. 
Pascaguuia. . 



14' '^ 
30109 



MOBILE (55164 

(446) F'M N. ORLEANS 
TO LOCOPOLIS, Miss. 

Steamboat. \ \ 
To Month of Yo- 

zoo River |420 

Satartia 52472 

YxzooCiTY 21493 

'IVhula '57550 

Marion 33583 

LOCOPOLIS 177.660 

(447) F'M N. ORLEANS 
TO HOUSTON, Texas. 

To OPELOUSAS I I 

(see No. 44H) . . | |217 
Buchanan's Ferry 90307 



Billion's Ferry 

Pattillos, Texas.. 

Beaumont 

Liberty 

HOUSTON 



3,340 
12352 
50;402 
501452 



(448) F'MN. ORLEANS 

TO AUSTIN, Texas, 

Via Natchitoches . 

Steamboat. 

To NATCHITO- 



CHES 

(see No. 443)... 



414 



.,-.,. Fort Jessup 25 439 

22 380 I >owe's Ferry .... 29 468 
6-1444 SM bine Town 



79 523 



m r;:>3 



8,073 
10,683! 



Texas ' 2 470 



Milan 15 



485 



San Augustine... 15500 
NACOGDOCHES... 351535 

Douglass 15550 

lt. Airy 10,560 



ROUTES IN TEXAS AND ARKANSAS. 



183 



Crockett 37597 

Cincinnati 30bJ< 

Huntsville 15 W2 

Montgomery 25 66^ 

Husk 

Funthorp' 



! 12 679 
5684 



WASHINGTON 18 702 

Independence 11 713 

Mt. Vernoii 10723 

Shelby's 15738 

Rutersville 19 

La Grange 5 - 

Plum Grove 9771 

Mt. Pleasant 20791 

Bastrop 11802 

Webber's Prairie. 15 817 
AUSTIN 18.835 

(449) FR'M GALVESTON 

TO WASHINGTON, 

Via. Houston. 

To Houston I I 80 

Myrtle Turf 30110 



ASHINGTON.. 



>|i45 



(450) FR'M GALVESTON 

TO MATAGORDA. 
To San Louis....! J 28 





Cedar Grove .. 
MATAGORDA . . 



.25! 90 



(451) F'M VELASCO TO 
WASHINGTON. 

To Brazoria ...... 

Columbia 



! 18 

II '>U 



Qrozimba 

Sig Creek ........ 
.ichmond ........ 

San Felipe de 
Austin .......... 

Burleigh ......... 

Travis ............ 

Cedar Creek ...... 

WASHINGTON 



(452) F'M MATAGORDA 
TO AUSTIN. 

To Preston 

Peach Creek 

Kpypt 

Columbus 

La Grange 

\USTI! 



(454) FR'M GALVESTON 
TO CORPUS CHRISTI. 



ToMatngorda.... 
Tex turn. 
Victoria 
Goiiad 



CORPUS CHRISTI 



d90 
130 
154 
:-M 188 
4j 233 



(455) F'M SAN AUGUS- 
TINE TO BoNHAM. 

JS 

>' 08 

36 74 

23 97 

20 !:' 
20 152 

n im 

\ I IS.'! 

n; i!:i 

15214 
15229 

222:- 
22 2J 3 
142*7 

18305 



To Shelby viile ... 

Hillyar's 

Klysian Fields 

Marshall 

Smithland 

Hughes 

Dai.igerfield 

Weaver's 



UeKalb.. 
Savmmah . 



Blossom Prairie.. 



Honey Grove. ... 
BONHAM 



(456) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO ST. Louis, Mo. 



ToSearcyC. H... 

Batesville 

Reed's Creek 

Smithville 

Jackson 

Fourche De'Mas . 

Hicks' Ferry 

Cane Creek, Mo.. 

Greenville 

Fredericktown ... 
Mine La Motte... 

Fiirmington 

35 98 Caledonia 

9107 Porofi 



(see No. 448) .,, 



I 40 
8 48 

l-j' t;u 
!KJ 

35J125 

73198 



453) F'M LA GRANGE 
TO SAN ANTONIO DE 
BEXAR. 

ToGonznleg... I 50 



Old Mines ........ 

Glenfinlas ........ 

Hillsboro' 



I 55 
40 95 
20115 
5120 
15 ia"> 
16151 
H 'f? 

23215 
35250 

4254 
4258 
22280 



9308 
10318 



Clifton 15. 

-volt's Suip/iur I 

Springs ' 4337 

Jetlersoi i Barracks 11 1348 

Carondelet 5353 

ST. Louis ! 6,359 

(457) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO FORT GIBSON. 



To Lewisburg 

Pt. Remove 

Dwight 

Scotia 

Pittoburg 

Clarksville 



j... ......... 

SAN ANTONIO DE Pleasant Hill 

BKXAR l&lliJOllVan Buren 



I 45 
6 51 
56 77 
H 83 
8 91 
8 99 
12111 
:, i-ji; 
12 188 
231161 



FORT SMITH 15166 

Kedron 128194 

Mnckey's Salt I I 

Works 18,212 

FORT GIBSON.... 20 232 

(458) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO FORT TOWSON. 

To Collegeville. .. 

Renton 

Rockport 

" ymond . 



Washington .... 



47122 





Ultima Thule.... 

Eagletown 

FORT TOWSON .. 



(459) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO NAPOLEON. 

To Pine Bluff.... I 150 

Richland ......... 20 70 

Arkansas Post.... 47 117 

Wellington ....... 16133 

White River ..... I 6139 

NAPOLEON ....... 9148 

(460) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO HELENA. 



To Clarendon ....I 
Lawrence vi lie ---- 15 
Big Creek ........ 28 



........ 

HELENA .......... 19122 

(461) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO MOUTH OF WHITK 
RIVER. 

To Rock Roe.... 

Stcaniliont. 
Mouth of White 
River .......... (140203 

(462) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO MEMPHIS, Tenn. 

ToCache ........ | I 60 

MEMPHIS ........ |98!158 

(463) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO SHREVEPORT, La. 

To WASHINGTON' 1122 
Spring FHII ....... 25147 

Lewisville ........ 26173 

Belleview, La. ...|52225 

SHREVEPORT 118 243 

(464) F'M LITTLE ROCK 
TO BOSTON, Texas. 

To WASHINGTON! 1122 
Fulton ............ 15137 

BOSTON .......... 551192 



184 



ROUTES IN MISSISSIPPI. 



(465) FR'M VAN BUREN 
TO JEFFERSON CITY, 
Mo. 

To Fayetteville. . 



Montgomery 

<>anklin 



Bentonville 

Springfield, Mo.. 
JE 



20 70 
100170 



IEFFERSON CITY! 401210 

(466) F'M NATCHEZ TO 

CINCINNATI, O. 
Via Columbus, Wash- 

ville, (V* Lexington. 
Mississippi Railroad. 



To Washington . 
Malcolm ... 
Stage. 

Gallatin 

Line Store 

Newtown 

JACKSON j 10100 

Canton j 23J123 

11141 

6147 
H l.u 

"192 
217 
.223 

18241 

117 358 



Sharon 

Springfield 

Ot'ahotna 

Hopahka 

Louisville 

Choctaw Agency 

Shoco 

COLUMBUS 

FLORENCE 

(see No. 4 ) .. 
NASHVILLE 

(see No. 437) ..111469 
CINCINNATI 

(see No. 478) .. 1291760 

(467) F'M NATCHEZ TO 

MAYSVILLE, Ky. 
To LEXINGTON 1 
(see Nos. 466 & 



478) 

Moretand., 
Paris . 



i 



676 
8684 



8699 
6.05 
S713 



733 





Millershurg 

Forest Retreat 

Lower Blue Lick. 

"day's Lick 

yVasnington 

MAYSVILLE 



(468) F'M NATCHEZ TO 
LOUISVILLE, Ky. 

To NASHVILLE 

(see No. 466) .. 469 
LOUISVILLE 

(see No. 481) ..181650 

(469) F'M NATCHEZ TO 

MEMPHIS, 
Via Jackson, Lexing- 
ton, &r Holly Springs. 

To JACKSON I 

(see No. 466)... llOO 
Canton 23123 



^exington 

Jlackllawk.... 

^arrollton 

Grenada 

Oakachickuma. . . 
Coffeeville 

lagsdale's Stand 

Oxford 

College Hill 

Wyatt.. 
Waterford 

Jolly Springs ... 
\. Mt. Pleasant . 

Jolliersville 

jrerrnantown .... 
MEMPHIS 



20143 
12 l.V. 

7162 
15 177 
r> i!i2 
21213 
131226 

41230 
141244 
I6i260 

6266 

8274 
10284 

9293 
15308 
15323 
! 9332 
14346 



;470) FR'MVICKSBURG 
TO JACKSON. 

To Bovina 

Edwards' Depot.. 

Bolton's 

(Jlinton 

JACKSON 



FACKSON 

NATCHEZ 
(see No. 473) .. 



13 
lit 
, 27 
8 1 35 
9i 44 

(471) F'M JACKSON TO 
GAINESVILLE, Ala. 



Po Brandon 

Uentennary Coll.. 

Hillsboro' 

County Line 



475) FROM COLUMBUS 

TO M E M PHI s , Ten n . 

Via Pontotoc $ Holly 

Springs. 
To Waverly.... 

Colbert 

Hamilton 

Aberdeen 

Jotton-gin Port 

PONTOTOC 

Cypress Creek.. 



Herbert 11 _ 

DeKalb 20106 

GAINESVILLE .... 32 138 

472) F'M JACKSON TO 

VICKSBURG. 

Vicksburg and Clinton 

Railroad. 

To Clinton 

Bolton's 

Ed ward's Depot.. 

Bovina 

VICKSBURG 

(473) F'M JACKSON TO 

NATCHEZ. 

To Newton I I 10 

Line Store 12; 22 

Gallatin 15 37 

Malcolm 331 70 

Mississippi Railroad. 

Washington 114! 84 

NATCHEZ 1161100 

(474) FROM COLUMBUS 
TO NATCHEZ. 

To Choctaw Ag'yl I 24 

Louisville 25i 4 

Hopahka 371 86 

Springfield 14100 

Canton Il8118 



23:141 

iooW 



Cypress C 
rlilton... 



Waterford 

HOLLY SPRINGS.. 
MEMPHIS . 



25104 
16120 
5125 
9134 
53,187 

(476) FR'M NASHVILLE 
TO WASHINGTON,D.C. 

Via Knoxville. 
To Green Hill 
Cedar Grove.. 

Lebanon 

Three Forks.. 
Alexandria... 
Liberty... 
Smithville 





Allen's Ferry 

Sparta. 



. 

10 6*7 
6 73 



Bonair Springs.. 
Railroad Plains.. 



Cross vi 

Belle ville '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Post Oak Springs. 

Kingston 

Wood's Hill 

Campbell's Stat'n 

KNOXVILLE 

Academia 

Blain'sX Roads.. 
Rutledge... 
Bean's Station ... 
Rocky Spring 
Red Brid 






89 



6|107 
20127 

5132 

7139 
19158 

6164 
15179 
10189 

9198 
14 212 

9221 

4225 



ige 

Rogersville 

Yellow Store... 
Lyon's Store ... 
New Canton . .. 

Kingsport 

Eden's Ridge... 
BLOUNTSVILLE 
Saplin Grove... 
ABINGDON, Va. 

Cedarville 

Glade Spring I 5318 

Seven-mileFord.. 11329 

Marion i 6335 

Pleasant Hill 11346 

Rural Retreat.... | 7353 
WYTHEVILLE 9362 
Draper's Valley.. 18380 

Newbern 11 391 

Ingle's Ferry i 7398 



10242 
8250 
32>3 
7260 
9269 
6275 
9284 
9293 

13306 
7313 



ROUTES IN TENNESSEE. 



185 



Christiansburg . . . 

La Fayette 

Salem 

Eig Lick 
isbon 

Liberty 

Otter Bridge 

New London 



12410 



1U ]:;:,, 
440 



8472 
479 



. 11 490 
70 560 



LYNCHBURG 

CHARLOTTES- 
VILLE ........... ---- 

FREDEKICKSB'RG 85 (545 
AquiaCr'k L'd'gl4659 

Sttamboat. 
Alexandria ....... 57 

WASHINGTON 7i723 

(477) FROM NASHVILLE 
TO MAYSVILLE, Ky. 

To Glasgow 
(see No. 478)... 

Harrodsburg ..... . 



..... .. _.. 

Lexington ........ 31J20; 

MAYSVILLK ...... I6H26S 

(478) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO CINCINNATI. 
To Pleasant Hill.. 



Hendersonville ... 

Gallatin 

State Line 

Icottsville, Ky. . . 



_. - 

13! 72 

12 84 

|13 97 



Lewis ............ 

GLASGOW ........ 

Blue Spi ing Grove| 
Three Springs-..- 4101 
Monroe ........... I 6 107 

Greensburg ....... |11 118 

Campbel!sville...il2130 
Newmarket ...... 12142 

Lebanon ......... 6 148 

Perry ville ......... i 18 166 

HARRODSBURG . . 10 176 
Shawnee Run....! 7183 

Nicbolasville ..... Il2 195 

LEXINGTON ...... 112207 



8215 
4219 



Delphton 

Georgetown 

Williamstown....35254 

Crittenden 11265 

Florence 16281 

Covington 92-40 

CINCINNATI 1291 

(479) FROM NASHVILLE 
TO MAYSVILLE, Ky. 

To Lexington 
(see No. 478) . . . 

Moreland 

Paris 

Millersbnrg 

Forest Retreat.... 



Lower Blue Lick 

May's Lick 

Washington 

MAYSVILLE 



8244 
12256 



4268 



(480) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO SMITHLAND, Ky. 

Steamboat. 



16: 

12 77 
30107 
12 11B 

16135 

28163 



roClarksville.... 

I'almyra 

Dover 

I'obaccoport 

Danton, Ky 

Eddy ville 

SMITHLAND, (at 
the mouth of 
CumberrdRiv.)35198 

(481) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO LOUISVILLE, Ky. 
To Pleasant Hill.. I i 7 
Mansker's Creek.! 6 13 
Pyree Springs.... 7. 20 
Mitchell ville 14 34 



Franklin 

BOWLING GREEN 
Dripping Spring.. 14 

Three Forks 8 

Woodson ville 11 

" .10 



MumrordsvUe .- 

..eesville 8116 

.Volen -"'" 

ttlizabethtown .. 

West Point 22160 

Saliim 10170 

LOUISVILLE 11 181 

(482) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO SMITHLAND, Ky. 
To Mt. Henry... 
Fredonia 5 



Clarksville 11 

Oak Grove 12 



Hopkinsville 14j 72 

Cemlian Spring.. 16 8 

Princeton 10 98 

Fredonia 14112 

Salem 10122 

SMITHLAND ! 15 137 

(483) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO COLUMBUS, Ky. 
To Chesnut Grove 

Charlotte 

Batson's 

Waverly - 

REYNOLDSBURG 



Sandy Hill 

Paris 

Barren Hill 

Boydsville 



19 88 
12100 
7107 
13120 



oydsvil _. 

Feliciana 16136 

Clinton 11147 

COLUMBUS 12 159 

(484) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO MEMPHIS. 
To REYNOLDSB'G I 

(see No. 483)... 69 
Camden loj 79 



Sandy Ridge 

HUNTINGDON 

Reullara 

S. Carroll 

Spring Creek 



7105 
9114 
7121 
131134 



Jackson +. 

Medon 121146 

BOLIVAR 16 Ifc2 

Middleburg I 7169 

xNewcastle I 5174 

SOMERVILLE 11185 



Whitehall 

Oakland 

Birch Pond 

Morning Sun 

Green Bottom 

Raleigh 



5190 
i 195 
4 199 
8207 
6213 
7 220 
MEMPHIS ........ 10 230 

(485) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO NATCHEZ, 
Via Columbus < Jack- 
son. 
To Good Spring.. 

Franklin 

Spring Hill.... 

Columbia 

Mt. Pleasant . . 
Lawrenceburg 
FLORENCE, Alt 

Tuscumbia 

Russellville.... 

Tollgate 

Pikevilie '10J177 

Moscow 19196 

Border Spr'g, Miss 15211 
COLUMBUS 17 



.36111 
.! 5116 
. 18134 
. 3:1167 



Choctaw Agency. 



24252 



25 277 
37314 
8322 
6328 
11339 
7346 



Loirsville 

Hopahka 

Ofahoma 

Springfield 

Sharon 

Canton _ 

"ACKSON 23369 

NATCHEZ ' 
(see No. 473)... 100 469 

(486) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO MOBILE, 
Via F/orence, Ma. t $- 

Columbus, Miss. 
To Florence 

(see No. 485).. 
Columbus 



(see No. 485).. 

Steamboat. 

MOBILE 



117228 
369597 

(487) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO MOBILE, Ala. 
Via Hunts-Gill e $ Tus- 

caloosa. 

To Mur frees boro*. I j 34 
Fosterville 1121 46 



186 



ROUTES IN TENNESSEE. 



helbyville [13] 59 

lynchburg 19j 78 

ayetteville 15 93 



azel Green ...... 

eridianville ..... 

NTSVILLE ..... 

hitesburg ...... 

Lacy's Springs... 
Oleander 



Mer 

HU 

Wh 



16109 



10133 
4137 

11 148 
Marti 'n r s Stand ". ". i I 14 162 

Blountsville 1 10 172 

Village Springs.. 19191 

Mt. Pinson 8 199 

Elyton 14213 

Jonesboro' 11224 

Bucksville 11235 

TUSCALOOSA 

MOBIL; 



'So. 



(see No. 420)... 217 484 

(488) FROM NASHVILLE 

TO CHARLESTON, S.C. 

Via Augusta, Ga. 

To Murfreesboro'. 

Millersburg 10 

Beach Grove 11 

Manchester 13 

Hillsboro' i " 

Pelham I - __ 

Battle Creek 25 110 

Jasper I 4114 

Lookout Valley.. 21 135 
CHATTANOOGA...] 6(141 
West'n d'- Atlantic RR. 
Cross Plains, Ga. 

Oostanaula 

Kingston 

Marietta 

ATLANTA 

Georgia Railroad . \ 
AUGUSTA 11711462 

South Carolina RR. \ 
CHARLESTON ...I 



(489) FROM NASHVILLE 
TO CHARLESTON, S.C. 



Newport 18228] 

Warm Springs, 

N. C ..27255! 

ASHVILLE 37292 

"IH 

CoTuMBiA ."'. .^. .1051459 

Branchville & Columbia 

Railroad. 

Branchville 1681527 

South Carolina RR. 
CHARLESTON ....1621589 

(490) FR'M KNOXVILLE 

TO RALEIGH. 
To Strawberry 
Plains . 



12 37 



Newmarket 

Panther Springs.. _ 
Cheek's * Roads. 11 48 

GREENVILLE 27; 75 

Rheutown 110 85 

10,85 

18118 



Elizabethtown ... 



Moore's 
Works 



Iron 



TAYLORSVILLE... 



9149 



Jefferson, N. C. ..26! 175 

Wilkesboro' 130:205 

Hamptonville 

Hunts ville , 

Salem 

GREENSBORO' ... 
Haw River 



17 206' Cliapei "Hill. '. '.'.'. 
0=0011 



boro' . 



. . .... 

RALEIGH ......... 



26231 
18249 

19268 
27295 
23318 
19337 
12349 
28377 



(491) FR'M KNOXVILLE 
TO CINCINNATI, O. 



Via Knoxville. 



13 45 

5 50 

7 

Ki 



To Lebanon 

Three Forks 

Alexandria 

Liberty 

Smithville 

SPARTA 

Bonair Springs... 6 9o 

Crossville 12107 

Belleville 120127 

5132 
7139 



Postoak Springs. . 



Wi 
1 



ood'sHill 19158 



Rutledge... 

Beans' Station . . . 

Tazewell 

Cumberland Gap 
Cumberland Ford;l5 _. 

Barboursville jl6| 97 

Lynn Camp 12109 

London 13122 

Mt. Vernon 19141 

Stanford 23 164 

8172 
8180 
12 192 
12204 

84'288 



Lancaster 

Burnt Tavern... 
;Nicholasville... 

LEXINGTON 

CINCINNATI 
(see No. 478) . 



) FR'M KNOXVILLE 
TO MEMPHIS, 
Via Nashville. 



Campbell's Stat'n I 6164 To Cnmpbell' 
KNOXVILLE ...... jlojl/9 II Stati 

Dandridge ........ ISl'SlO, I Wood' 



Kingston ........ 

J ostoak Springs. 

Belleville 

Jrossyille 

EJonair Springs.. 

SPARTA 

Smithville 

Liberty 

Alexandria 

Phree Forks 

V ASHVILLE 

MEMPHIS 
(see No. 483)... 



(493) FR'M KNOXVILLE 
TO HUNTSVILLE, Ala. 
To Campbell's I 

Station |, 

Kingston . 



Cnmpbell's I I 
ation ......... 15 

od's Hill ...... i 6 21 



191 40 
7 47 
5 52 
! 20 72 
12 84 
. 6! 90 
.22112 
. 10 122 
.! 71129 
.18147 
.32179 



Postoak Springs.. 

Belleville 

Urossyille 

Bonair Springs... 



Rock Island 

McMinnville 

[lillsboro' 

Winchester 

Salem 



Newmarket, Ala. 
HUNTSVILLE 



90 

103 

116 

138 

Jl56 

10166 
17183 
171200 



(494) FR'M KNOXVILLE 
TO SAVANNAH, Ga. 

To Campbell's 
Station 

Blains' Ferry 

Philadelphia 

Athens _. 

Mantua 10 



104 



Calhoun.. 
Cleveland ....... jll 

Pleasant Valley, 

Ga 

Spring Place | 6110 

CROSS PLAINS... I 91119 
West' nfr Atlantic RR. 
Connasauga 7 126 
Oostanaula 8134 



Oothkaloga 

William's 

KINGSTON 

Etowah river 

Allatoona 

Acworth 

Marietta 



5139 
10il49 
10159 
13172 
7179 
6185 
14 199 

Chattahoochee RJ 12211 
ATLANTA | 81219 

Macon &r Western RR. 

MACON 1101320 

E. Macon I 1321 

Central Railroad. 
Savannah 11901511 



ROUTES IN TENNESSEE. 



187 



(495) FROM KNOXVILLE 
TO CHARLESTON, S. C. 

T \^&:\ U 
j&S.%ZBb 

South, Carolina R-R- 
Charleston 11371527 

(496) F'M MEMPHIS TO 
NASHVILLE. 

To Raleigh !Q 

Morning Sun.... la 

Oakland 12 

Whitehall 

SOMERVILLE 

Newcastle 

Middleburg 

BOLIVAR 

Jackson 

S. Carroll 

HUNTINGTON 

Camden 

REYNOLDSBURG. 

Waverly 

Charlotte 

NASHVILLE 



lose Creek 

Purdy.... 

Adamsville 

bombs' Store... . 
Savannah 



40 
45 
56 
63 

. 68 
28 96 
20116 
16132 
19 151 
10 161 
9170 
5 1!IL 
38230 



(497) F'M MEMPHIS TO 

COLUMBUS, Miss. 
To Germantown.l 

Colliersville f 

HOLLY SPHINGS, 

Miss 

Waterfbrd 

Milton 

Cypress Creek.... 



i 

16 
25108 



PONTOTOC 

Cotton-gin Port.,1 

Aberdeen j 

COLUMBUS I 28 18 

(498) F'M MEMPHIS 
FLORENCE, Ala. 

To BOLIVAR I 

(see No. 496).. I 



__ 90 i 
10100! 



Western fr Atlantic 
Railroad. 



9109 Etowah river.... 

4113 Allatoona 

Acworth 



Young's* Roads 33|150 Marietta". 

FLORENCE I loiloo Chattahoochee R 



499) F'M MEMPHIS TO: 
CHARLESTON, S. C. 

Via Tuscumbia, Ala., 
Gunter's Land's, At- 



lanta, Geo., and Au- 



gusta. 
To Germantown. 

Jolliersville 

N. Ml. Pleasant, 

Miss 

Holly Springs.... 

Salem 

Ripley 



latchy Turnpike, 



__ienzi. 

Jacinto 

Cartersville 

Buzzard's Roost, 



12129 

15 144 

TUSCUMBIA 20 164 

Tuscumbia fy Decatur 



Ala. 



14 



131377 

7384 
6390 
14404 
12416 



ATLANTA.. 

Georgia Railroad. 

Decatur 

Stone Mountain. 

Lithonia., 

Conyers 



I Covington 



Railroad. 
Leighton. 



Courtland 

Hillsboro' 

Decatur 

Steamboat. 

Triana 

Whitesville 

*Gunter's Land'g 
Stage. 

Van Buren 

Gaylesville 

Geo. State Line.. 
Missionary St'n.. 
ROME. 



10174 



8195 
12207 



18225 




23318 



Social Circle 
Rutledge, 

Madison L 

Buckhead 

Greensboro'.... 
UNION POINT.. 
Crawfordsville. 

Cumming 

Camak 

Thompson 

Dearing 

Berzelia 

Belain 

AuGUSTi 

Hamburg, S. C.. 
South. Carolina R. R. 
CHARLESTON I 

(see No. 383.). 136 732 

*From Gunfer's Landing 
to Rome, Geo. 
Via Coosa R. 

Stage. 
To Double Sp'gs 

Steamboat. 
Cedar Bluff... 
i Missionary St'n, 



35 



Memphis Branch R. R.\\ Thence by Railroad to 
Kingston I 18I364H Charleston, as in No.499. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE WESTERN STATES, 



THE PRINCIPAL CITIES, TOWNS, WATERING- 
PLACES, &c. 




KENTUCKY is situated between 36 30' and 39 
: JO' N. lat.,.and between 81 50' and 89 20' W. Ion. 
'j Its length is about 400 miles and its breadth 170 miles, 
/containing 40,500 square miles. The population in 
j 1840, was 779,828. 

A tract from five to twenty miles wide, along the 
^ Ohio river, through the whole length of the state, is 
hilly and broken, but has a fertile soil. The margin of 
' the Ohio, for about a mile in width, consists of bot- 
.om lands, which are overflowed when the river is high. Between this 
tract of hilly country, the more mountainous eastern counties, and Green 
river, is a fertile tract, frequently denominated the garden of the state. 
It is about 150 miles long, and from 50 to 100 wide. The soil is excellent, 
the surface is gently undulating, and the forest growth black-walnut, 
black-cherry, buckeye, paw-paw, sugar-maple, mulberry, elrn, ash, cot- 
ton-wood, white thorn, and an abundance of grupe-vines. The country in 
the southwest part of the state, between Green and Cumberland rivers, is 
called the "barrens." In 1800, the legislature of the state made a 
gratuitous grant of this tract to actual settlers, under the impression that 
it was of little value ; but it proves to be excellent grain land, and also 
adapted to the raising of cattle and swine. The whole state below the 
mountains has at the usual depth of eight feet a bed of limestone, which 
has frequent apertures through which the waters of the rivers sink into the 
earth, causing some of them to disappear for a time, and others to be 
greatly diminished in the summer season. The rivers have generally worn 
deep channels in the calcareous rocks over which they flow. The preci- 
pices formed by the Kentucky are in many places stupendous, presenting 
perpendicular banks of solid limestone 300 feet high, above which is a 
steep and difficult ascent several times as high. In the southwest part of 
the state, between Green and Cumberland rivers, are several remarkable 
caves. One called the Mammoth Cave, 130 miles from Lexington, on 
the road to Nashville, has been explored for a distance of eight or ten 
miles. 

Ohio river, by its various windings, borders this state on the north for 
637 miles. Cumberland and Tennessee rivers pass through its western 



STATE OF KENTUCKY. 189 

part as they approach their entrance into the Ohio. Cumberland river 
ri&es in the eastern part of this state. The Big Sandy is 250 miles long, 
and, for a considerable distance, forms the boundary between this state 
and Virginia. It is navigable fifty miles for boats. The Kentucky river 
rises in the Cumberland Mountains, and after a course generally through 
a deep rocky bed, falls into the Ohio, seventy-seven miles above Louis- 
ville. It is navigable for steamboats 60 miles to Frankfort. Licking, 
Green, and Salt, are other considerable rivers. The Mississippi runs on 
the western border of the state. 

The first constitution was formed in 1790, and the present one in 1799. 
The governor is elected for four years by the people, and is ineligible for 
the next seven. A lieutenant-governor is chosen at the same time, who ia 
president of the senate, and who, in case of the death or absence of the 
governor, succeeds to his duties. The senators are elected for four years, 
one-quarter of them being chosen annually. Their number cannot ex- 
ceed 38, nor can they be less than 24. The representatives are chosen 
annually, and apportioned every four years among the counties according 
to the number of electors. Every free white male citizen, who ia 
twenty-one years of age, and has resided two years in the state, 
or in the counsy in which he offers his vote, one year preceding the 
election, has the right of suffrage. Votes are given openly, or viva vocc, 
and not by ballot. The judges of the several courts hold their offices 
during good behavior. 

The colleges are as follows : Transylvania University, at Lexington ; 
Centre College, at Danville ; St. Joseph's College, at Bardstown ; Au- 
gusta College, at Augusta ; Cumberland College, at Lebanon ; Georgetown 
College, at Georgetown ; Bacon College, at Harrodsburg ; and St. Mary's 
College, in Marion county. There is a flourishing medical department 
connected with Transylvania University, and a medical institution at 
Louisville. There are in the state 120 academies and 1,000 common schools. 

Kentucky was first explored by Daniel Boone, an enterprising hunter, in 
1770. The first white family settled near Lexington, in 1775. The state 
was admitted into the Union in 1792. 

FRANKFORT, the capital of the state, is 22 miles WNW. Lexington, 51 
E. Louisville, 102 SSW. Cincinnati, and situated on the right bank of 
Kentucky river, 60 miles above its entrance into Ohio river, on a semi- 
circular alluvial plain, from 150 to 200 feet lower than the table-land in 
the rear. The river is here about 80 yards wide, and after heavy rains 
frequently rises 60 feet. The city contains a state-house, with a hand- 
some Grecian Ionic portico in front, a court-house, the state penitentiary, 
a bank, an academy, a market-house, a theatre, five churches, various 
manufacturing establishments, and 2,000 inhabitants. The streets are 
regular, and the houses are neat, and many of them elegant. Steamboats 
of 300 tons come up to this place when the water is high. The banks of 
the river here are high, and a chain bridge crosses it to the flourishing 
village of South Frankfort, which may be regarded as on appendage. 
Cars leave daily for Lexington ; stages daily for Louisville; 3 times a 
week for Harrodsburg ; and for Madison, la. 

LEXINGTON is situated on a branch of Elkhorn river, 84 miles from Cin- 
cinnati. It is the oldest town in the state, and was formerly the capita], 
and is one of the neatest and best built places in the western states, is 
regularly laid out, and many of the streets are bordered with fine shade- 
trees, and its environs are ornamented with gardens and elegant resi- 
dences. There is a public square near the centre of the place, surrounded 




190 STATE OF KENTUCKY. 

by fine brick buildings. The city contains a court-house, a Masonic-hnll, 
one of the finest buildings in the !-tale, the Siate Lunatic Asylum, ten 
churches, two academies, 
the Halls of Transylvania ; 
University, and 8,000 in- ! 
habitants. Transylvania = 
University was founded in j 
1798, and has a classical, \ 
medical, and law depart- 
ment. It has a president \ 
and 18 professors or other - 
instructors, and 513 stu. 
dents. The classical department Ims 295 students, the law 78. and the 
medical 260 ; in all 513. The libraries contain 12,242 volumes. The com- 
mencement is on the third Wednesday in August. The city is more 
celebrated for its intelligent and polished society, and as an elegant, place 
of residence, than for the bustle of business. The country around the 
city is one of the most fertile districts in the Union. Cars leave daily for 
Louisville via Frankfort. Stages leave daily for Wheeling, Va., via 
Maysville, and Zanesville, O. ; 3 times a week for Cincinnati ; for Knox- 
ville, Tenn., via Cumberland Gap; and for Nashville, Tenn., via Har- 
rodsburg and Bowling Green. 

COVINGTON is situated on the left bank of the Ohio, opposite to the 
city of Cincinnati, with which it is connected by a steamboat ferry. 
Jt has a city-hall, 7 churches, 4 academies, a bank, 26 tobacco manu- 
factories, and 4,000 inhabitants. The Western Baptist Theological Insti- 
tute is located here. Steamboats ply hourly to Cincinnati ; stages leave 
3 times a week for Lexington. 

NEWPORT is at the junction of the Ohio and Licking rivers, and opposite 
the city of Cincinnati. It contains a court-house, an academy, two 
churches, a United States Arsenal, and 1,000 inhabitants. The Mag- 
nesian Springs are on the borders of the village, where there is a fine hotel, 
and they are much frequented by the citizens of Cincinnati. 

MAYSVILLK is situated on the left bank of the Ohio river, on a narrow 
bottom, which lies between the shore and hills in its rear, 441 miles below 
Pittsbur^, and 55 above Cincinnati by the river. It is regularly laid out, 
and contains 3 churches, one academy, and 2,741 inhabitants. It has a 
good harbor for boats and enjoys an extensive trade. Steamboats arrive 
from, and depart drily for Pittsburgh Wheeling, frc. ; and for Cincinnati, 
Louisville, frc. (See route 620.) Stages leave daily for Lexington via 
Blue Lick Springs; and for Zanesville, O. ; 3 times a week for Lexing- 
ton via Flemingsburg and Mount Sterling. 

AUGUSTA, on the left bank of the Ohio, 17 miles below Maysville, has 
a court house, two churches, and 800 inhabitants. Augusta College, 
under the direction of the Methodists, was chartered in 1822; it has a presi- 
dent, 4 professors or other instructors, 75 students, and 2,500 volumes in its 
libraries. (See route 620.) 

The Blue Lick Springs are on the Licking river, 37 miles from Lexing- 
ton and 24 from Maysville. These waters have obtained a just celebrity, 
and the locality of the fountains is much frequented, not only for the 
benefit produced by the use of the waters, but for the enjoyment of the 
Bcenery of this beautiful region. Stages leave daily for Lexington and for 
Maysville. 
., GEORGETOWN is situated on the left bank of the Elkhorn river, 12 miles 



STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



191 



from Lexington. It contains a court-house, a bank, two churches, an 
academy, and 1,600 inhabitants. Georgetown College, under the direction 
of the Baptists, was founded in 1829; it has a president, five professors, 132 
students, and 3,200 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is on the 
last Thursday in June. 

Great Crossings is 3 miles from Georgetown, where is the Choctaw 
Academy, under the patronage of the government. It has a principal 
and several teachers, and 70 Indian students. There is an excellent white 
sulphur spring near the academy. Stages leave Georgetown three times a 
week for Cincinnati ; and for Lexington. 

HARRODSBURO is situated eight miles south of Kentucky river, on a 
small branch of Salt river, thirty-one miles south of Frankfort. It was 
one of the earliest settlements in the state. It contains a Presbyterian 
and a Methodist church, a bank, an academy, and 1,500 inhabitants. 
Here is located Bacon College, founded in 1836, which has a president 
and seven professors or other instructors, 203 students, and 1,200 volumes 
in its libraries. The commencement is on the last Friday in September. 
The Harrodsburg Springs are much frequented ; the waters possess 
highly medicinal properties, and the Hccornmodations for visitors are 
ample. The grounds in the vicinity, and especially the drives through the 
primitive forest, are exceedingly picturesque. Stages leave daily in the 
watering season for Cincinnati via Lexington. 

DANVILLE, situated on a small branch of Kentucky river, 41 miles 
from Frankfort, contains a court-house, four churches, the Kentucky 
Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, the buildings of Centre College, two 
academies, and 1,500 inhabitants. Centre College, founded in 1822, has 
a president, 4 professors, 185 students, and 4,000 volumes in its libraries. 
The commencement is on the Thursday after the third Wednesday in 
September. Stages leave 3 times a week fur Lexington. 

BARDSTOWN is situated on a branch of Salt river, 40 miles southwest 
from Frankfort. It has a court-house, 2 churches, 1 academy, and 1,500 
inhabitants. St. Joseph's College, in the vicinity, was founded in 1819. 
It has a president, ten professors, 69 students, and 7,000 volumes in ita 
libraries. Stages leave 3 times a week for Lexington ; for Frankfort ; 
and for 




LOUISVILLE is situated on the left bank of the Ohio river, at the head 
of the rapids, 633 miles below Pittsburg and 1 ,41 1 above New Orleans. 
It is built on a gentle acclivity, 75 feet above low-water mark, and regu- 
larly laid out, the streets crossing each other at right angles. It con- 
tains a city-hall, court-house, a marine hospital, a medical institute, city 
prison, an hospital, 2 orphan asylums, a Magdalen asylum, 26 churches, 
three banks, two savings banks, four insurance companies, four markets, 
a school for the blind, 18 public schools, 50 select schools, and 30,000 in- 
habitants. Water-works are in course of construction to supply whole- 
some water, and the city is lighted with gas. This city is the seat of 
most of the commercial and manufacturing business of the state and con- 



192 STATE OF KENTUCKY. 

tiguous territory. There are 300 steamboats constantly engaged in trans- 
porting to and from the city, besides numerous flat and keel boats. The 
Louisville Medical Institute, founded in 1837, has six professors and 242 
students. The lectures commence on the first Monday in November. 
The Kentucky Historical Society has a large collection of manuscripts 
and books. The Mercantile Library has a library of 3,500 volumes, and 
an Agricultural and Horticultural Society is established. The rapids at 
this place are caused by a bed of limestone extending across the bed of the 
river, over which the waters pass in tortuous channels for a distance ot 
two miles, descending 24 feet ; to obviate this bar to navigation, a canal 
has been constructed sufficiently capacious to admit the passage of the 
largest boats. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for Pittsburg via, 
Cincinnati, Maysville, Guyandotte, Va., and Wheeling ; for St. Louis, 
Mo. ; and for New Orleans via Smithland, Memphis, Tenn., Vicksburg, 
&c. (See route 620.) Stages leo.vc daily for Maysville via Frankfort 
and Lexington ; for Cincinnati, O. ; for St. Louis via New Albany, la., 
Vincennes, &c. ; and for Nashville, Tenn., <Scc. 

The Drennon Lick Springs are about 25 miles north from Frankfort, 
and one mile from Kentucky river. The waters of the several springs 
differ in their properties, and have been found highly beneficial to persons 
using them. The accommodations are ample. Steamboats arrive from, 
and depart daily for Cincinnati, Louisville, and Frankfort. 

CLOVERPORT is situated on the left bank of the Ohio river, 114 miles 
below Louisville. It has two churches, an academy, and 400 inhabitants. 
Four miles distant from Cloverport are the Sulphur and Tar Spring*. 
There are here two commodious hotels and a number of cottages. The 
sulphur waters are said to equal the White Sulphur of Virginia in their 
medicinal properties, and the Tar water has been found most salutary in 
pulmonary complaints. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for 
Cincinnati and Louisville. 

GLASGOW is pleasantly situated 123 miles southwest from Frankfort, 
on a small branch of Green river. It contains a court-house, 3 churches, 
an academy, and about 500 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week for 
Lexington, and for Nashville, Tenn. 

BOWLING GREEN is situated on a branch of Green river, and at the 
head of steamboat navigation, 144 miles southwest from Frankfort. It 
contains a court-house, an academy, a female seminary, 5 churches, and 
1,500 inhabitants. Tobacco is largely exported. Stages leave for Mays- 
ville ; for Cincinnati ; for Louisville ; for Smithland ; for Columbus ; 
for Hickman; and for Nashville, Tenn. 

SMITHLAND is situated on the Ohio river, immediately below the mouth 
of Cumberland river, 447 miles by water below Cincinnati, and contains a 
court-house, 3 churches, an hospital, and about 1,000 inhabitants. Steam- 
boats arrive from, and depart daily for Cincinnati, Wheeling, &c. ; and 
for New Orleans, St. Louis, <-c. (See route 620.) Steamboats leave for 
Nashville ; stages 3 times a week for Maysville via BowlingGreen and Lex- 
ington; and also for Nashville, Tenn. 

COLUMBUS is situated on the left bank of the Mississippi river, 18 miles 
below the entrance of the Ohio river, and has several extensive ware- 
houses, and about 800 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week for Lex- 
ington via Bowling Green, and for Nashville. 

HICKMAN is on the left bank of the Mississippi river, 15 miles below 
Columbus, and contains a court-house, 2 churches, and about 500 inhabi 
tants. Stages leave 3 times a week for Nashville. 



STATE OF INDIANA. 





INDIANA lies between 37 45' and 41 52' N. lat. 
and between 84 42' and 87 49' W. Ion. It has a 
mean length of 260, and a mean breadth of 140 miles, 
containing 36,000 square miles. The population in 
1840, was 685,866. 

There are no mountains in this state, but the country 
bordering on the Ohio is hilly. A range of hills runs 
parallel with the Ohio, from the mouth of the Great 
Miami, to Blue river, alternately approaching to 
within a few rods, and receding to the distance of two miles. Below 
Blue river the hills cease, and there is an immense tract of level land, 
covered with a heavy growth of timber. Bordering on all the principal 
streams, except the Ohio, are strips of bottom and prairie land, from 
three to six miles in width. Remote from the rivers the country is broken, 
and the soil light. Between the Wabash and Lake Michigan, the country 
is generally level, interspersed with woodlands, prairies, lakes, and swamps. 
On the shore of Lake Michigan are sand-hills 210 feet high, back of 
which are sandy hillocks, with a growth of pine. The prairies bordering 
on the Wabash have a soil from two to five feet in depth. 

The Ohio river washes the entire southern border of this state, and 
furnishes great facilities for trade. The Wabash is the largest river in the 
etate, being 500 miles in length. It rises in Ohio, and passes westwardly 
and eouthwestwardly through the state, forming its western boundary for 
a distance of 120 miles. It is navigable for steamboats to La Fayette, 
300 miles, a part of the year. White river, 200 miles long, is its largest 
branch, and is navigable on its west fork for steamboats to Indianapolis, 
in seasons of floods. It consists of an east fork and a west fork, which 
unite about 30 miles above its junction with the Wabash. The White 
Water river runs in the eastern part of the state, and enters the Great 
Miami. Lake Michigan touches this state on the northwest. 

The governor is elected by the people for three years, and may be once 
re-elected. At every election of governor, a lieutenant-governor is elected, 
who is president of the senate, and discharges the duties of the governor, 
in case of his death, resignation, or removal. The senators and represen- 
tatives are apportioned among the counties according to the number of 
White male inhabitants over 21 years of age. There can never be fewer 
than 36 nor over 100 representatives : and the number of senators can 
never be less than one-third, nor more than one-half the number of the repre- 
sentatives. The representatives, and one-third of the senators, are elected 
annually by the people. The legislature meets annually in December, at 
Indianapolis. The judges of the supreme and circuit courts are appointed 
for the term of seven yenrs. The judges of the Supreme Court are ap- 
pointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate ; the chief justices 




194 STATE OF INDIANA. 

of the circuit courts by the legislature ; and the associate judges by th 
people. The right of suffrage. is enjoyed by all male citizens over 21 years 
of age, who have resided in the state the year preceding the election. 

The literary institutions are : Indiana University, at Bloomington ; 
Hanover College, at South Hanover; Wabash College, at Craw ford s- 
ville; the Indiana Ashbury University; the University of Notre-dame-du- 
Lic, at South Bend ; Franklin College, at Franklin ; and St. Gabriel 
College. Tnere are 60 academies and 1,600 common schools in the state. 

Indiana 'w.as admitted into the Union as an independent state in 1816. 

INDIANAPOLIS, the capital of the state, is situated on the left bank of 
the west fork of White river, at the head of steamboat navigation, and 122 
miles from Cincinnati. An elegant bridge crosses the river at this place. 
It was selected for the capital of the state while it was covered by a dense 
forest, and laid out in 1821. On a circular area, from which spacious 
streets diverge, stands the governor's house on a rise of ground in the 
centre. It is a handsome edifice. The State 
[ House is one of the most splendid buildings 
i the west. It is 180 feet long by 80 feet 
\ wide and 45 high, with an appropriate dome. 
j It is built after the model of the Parthenon 
j at Athens, with a portico on each front, 
1 having ten Doric columns, and has elegant 
1 halls for the two houses of the legislature, a 
1 court- room, and rotunda. The city con- 
! tains a court-house, the state prison, deaf 
and dumb asylum, lunatic asylum, ten churches, a female institute, a 
seminary, and 8,000 inhabitants. Stages in connection with railroad 
cars leave daily for Madison. Stapes leave daily for Cincinnati ; for 
Wheeling, Va., via Dayton, O., Columbus, and Zanescille; and for St. 
Jjouis via Tcrre Haute; 3 times a week for Cincinnati via Lawrence- 
bur g ; 'fur Vevay ; for New Albany ; for Fredonia ; for Comneton ; 
for I. a Fayette ; for South Bend via Logansport ; and for Fort Wayne 
via Muncie and Winchester. 

LAWRENCEBURG is beautifully situated on the right bank of the Ohio 
river, one mile below the entrance of the Great Miami river. It contains a 
court-house, 4 churches, a seminary, and 1,500 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 
times a week for Cincinnati, O. ; for Madison ; and for Indianapolis. 

MADISON is situated on the north bank of Ohio river, 89 miles below 
Cincinnati, by the river. The village is built on ground above the reach 
of the highest floods. The streets are regularly laid out, and several of 
them paved ; and it has a wharf for the landing of steamboats. It is 
handsomely built, mostly of brick, and has a court-house, market-house, 
ten churches, a bank, with a neat edifice, a savings bank, and about 
4,000 inhabitants. In the rear of the village are hills 250 feet high, 
which afford a delightful prospect. Steamboats arrive from, and depart 
daily for Pittsburgand the intermediate places, and also for JVezc Orleans. 
Cars arrive from, and depart daily for Indianapolis ; stages leave three 
times a week for Frankfort, Ky. ; for Cincinnati; and for Louisville. 

NEW ALBANY is situated on the right bank of the Ohio river, two milea 
below the foot of the falls, and 140 below Cincinnati. It Is the largest 
place in the state, and contains a court-house, a bank, nine churches, a 
male and a female seminary, a lyceum, a theological college, 4 schools, 
and 4,500 inhabitants. The streets are regularly laid out, and are froir 
70 to 100 feet wide. Here are extensive ship-yards, where are built an- 




STATE OF INDIANA. 195 

nuaily from ten to fifteen steamboats, besides sloops and schooners. 
Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for the ports on the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers. (See route 620.) Stages leave daily for St. Louis 
via Vincennes ; 3 times a week for Indianapolis ; and for Madison. 

EVANSVILLE is situated on the right bank of Ohio river, at the great 
northern bend, 323 miles below Cincinnati by the river. It has an elevated 
situation, and contains a brick court-house, a bank^ ten churches, an 
academy, several extensive manu- H 
factories, and 2,500 inhabitants. | 
The Pigeon Springs are one mile | 
west from Evansville. The waters I 
contain muriate of soda, bicarbon- [ 

ate of iron, bicarbonate of mag- ! 

nesia, carbonic acid gas, carbureted hydrogen gas, and nitrogen pas. 
They are aperient, alterative, diaphoretic, and diuretic. The accommoda- 
tions are ample, and the vicinity affords much sport in fowling and fishing. 
Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily for all the principal places 
on the Ohio river. Stages leave 3 times a week for Vincennes. 

BLOOMINGTON is situated at the head of a small branch of White river, 
49 miles from Indianapolis. It contains a court-house, five churches, 
Jie buildings of the Indiana University, an academy, and 1,700 inhabi- 
tants. The Indiana University has a president, five professors, 174 stu- 
Jents, and 2,000 volumes in its libraries. The commencement is on the 
last Wednesday in September Stages leave 3 times a week for In- 
dianapolis ; for New Albany ; for Terre Haute ; and for Crawfordsville. 

VINCENNES lies on the left bank of Wabasn river, 197 miles from its 
entrance into the Ohio. It has a fertile prairie of several thousand acres 
on the north, east, and south. It is the oldest town in the state, having 
been established as a trading post by the French in 1730. It contains a 
brick court-house, a bank, a seminary, a female school, conducted by the 
Sisters of Charity, 6 churches, a public library of 1,600 volumes, and 
2,000 inhabitants, one fifth of whom are of French descent. St. Gabriel's 
College was established in 1841 , and has a president, five professors, and 
75 students. Steamboats ply on the river. Stages leave daily for JV. Jttban y ; 
and for St. Louis, Mo. ; 3 times a week to Terre Haute and to Evansville. 

TERRE HAUTE is situated on beautiful high ground, on the left 
bank of the Wabash, 73 miles west from Indianapolis. The National 
road here crosses the river on a fine bridge. The town contains a brick court- 
house, six churches, a bank, a market-house, a seminary, and 2,000 in- 
habitants. It is a flourishing place, and commands the trade of an ex- 
tensive and fertile country. Stages leave daily for Indianapolis ; for 
St. Louis ; for Shawneetown ; and for Danville, III. 

CRAWFORDSVILLE is situated on the left bank of Rock rivpr. 45 mileg 
from Indianapolis. It contains 
a court-house, 7 churches, the ? 
buildings of Wabash College, 
seminary, and about 2,000 in- 
habitants. Wabash College wai 
founded in 1835, and has a presi- .1 
dent, four professors, 128 stu 
dents, and 4,500 volumes in its - 3 
libraries. Stages leave 3 times \ 
a week for Indianapolis ; and 
for Peoria ; twice a week for La, Fay ette andforVincenncs. (See route 524.) 




196 



STATE OF MICHIGAN. 



LA FAYETTE lies on the left bank of the Wabash river, at the head of 
steamboat navigation, 310 miles from its mouth by the river. It contains 
a court-house, a bank, an academy, 7 churches, and 2,000 inhabitants. 
The Wabash and Erie canal connects this place with Lake Erie. Stages 
leave 3 times a week for Indianapolis ; and for Logansport. 

LOGANSPORT is situated on Wabash river, at the junction of Eel river, 
72 miles from Indianapolis. It contains a court-house, an academy, seven 
churches, and about 2,000 inhabitants. A fine bridge here crosses the 
Wabash, and another Eel river. The Wabash and Erie canal passes 
through it, and it is well situated for manufacturing purposes, possessing 
a fine water-power. Stages leave 3 times a week for Indianapolis ; three 
times for Niles via South Bend; and for Lafayette. 

FORT WAYNE is beautifully situated on the south side of Maumee river. 
ft is incorporated as a city, and contains a court-house, five churches, 
four academies, and about 2,000 inhabitants. The Wabash canal con- 
nects it with Lake Erie, and it is surrounded by a rich and fertile country. 
Stages leave twice a week for Indianapolis and for South Bend. 

SOUTH BEND is pleasantly situated on a high bluff, on the south side of 
St. Joseph river, and has a great water-power. It is 137 miles north 
of Indianapolis, and contains a brick court house, four churches, and 
1,000 inhabitants. The University of Notre-dame-du-lac was established 
here in 1844, under the direction of the Roman Catholics. It has a 
president, several professors, and 65 students. Stages leave three times 
a week for Indianapolis ; for Detroit, Mich., and for Michigan City. 

MICHIGAN CITY is situated on the south shore of Lake Michigan, at 
the mouth of Trail creek, and was laid out in 1835. It is the only Jake 
harbor in the state, and the location is well adapted for trade. It contains 
a bank, three churches, and about 700 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a 
week for Niles, Mick. ; for South Bend; and for Chicago, III. 



MICHIGAN consists 'of two peninsulas, and con- 
| tains about 66,000 square miles. Its population in 1840 
| was 212,267 ; in 1845, 304,285. 

The surface of the lower or southern peninsula ia 
generally level, having few elevations which may be 
denominated hills. The interior is gently undulating, 
rising gradually from the lakes to the centre of the 
peninsula- This central region may be regarded as a 
table-land, elevated about 300 feet above the level of 
the lakes, covered with fine forests of timber, oak plains, and beautiful 
prairies. Along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, are sand-hills 
thrown up by the winds into fantastic forms, generally quite barren and 
naked. The part lying between Lake Huron and Saginaw bay ia low 




STATE OF MICHIGAN. 197 

and swampy. No part of the United States is better supplied with fish, 
aquatic fowl, and game. 

Of the northern peninsula, Mr. Schoolcraft says " Portions of it are 
the mere development of sublime scenery, which pertains to that com- 
paratively elevated portion of the continent. Mountains and lakes, plains, 
rivers, and forests, spread over it with a boldness of outline which may be 
said to constitute almost a peculiar type of North American geography. This 
division embraces the mineral region. It is of little value for the uses of 
agriculture. The interior abounds in small lakes. On the shore of Lake 
Superior are several large bays and good harbors. Recent explorations 
here, have discovered immense deposites of rich copper ore. On the 
southern shore of Lake Superior is a series of lofty bluffs, and isolated 
rocks, having the appearance of ruins, 4 
tottering walls, and caverns. La Chapelle,* 
or the Arched Rock, is a beautiful speci-^ 
men of this character, as are the Pictured , 
Rocks, &c. There are also several pic ^ 
turesque cascades. 

The southern peninsula of Michigan is! 
dfained by several large rivers, and numer-f 
ous smaller streams, which, rising in the? 
interior, pass off in easterly, westerly, and** 
northerly directions into the lakes. Raisin and Huron rivers flow into 
Lake Erie ; Rouge river, into Detroit strait ; Clinton and Black rivers, 
into the strait of St. Clair. Saginaw river, formed by the junction of 
Titibawassee, Hare, Shiawassee, Flint, and Cass rivers, enters Saginaw 
bay. Thunder Bay and Cheboigan rivers, and some smaller streams, fall 
into Lake Huron. St. Joseph, Grand, Kalamazoo, and Maskegon rivers flow 
into Lake Michigan. Many small lakes of pure water, stocked with fish 
of fine quality, are found in the interior. Michigan lake is the largest 
wholly within the United States, being 360 miles long and 60 broad. 

The governor and lieutenant-governor are chosen at the same time, for 
two years, by the people. The senators are chosen for two years, one- 
half of them annually, and their number must be one third that of the 
representatives. The representatives are chosen annually, and their 
number cannot be less than 48, nor more than 100, and are, with the 
senators, apportioned among the counties according to the number of 
white inhabitants. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by 
the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, for the term of 
eeven years. Judges of inferior courts are elected by the people for four 
years. Every white male citizen over 21 years of age, who has resided 
six months next preceding an election in the town where his vote is offered, 
has the right of suffrage. The legislature meets annually at Detroit. 

The Michigan University, at Ann Arbor, has departments of literature, 
science, law, and medicine ; and has several academic branches situated 
in most of the principal towns in the state. St. Philip's College, near 
Detroit, is a Catholic institution. There are 25 academies and 1,000 com- 
mon schools. 

The French built a fort and made a settlement at Sault St. Marie in 
1647, and subsequently at Mackinaw. By the treaty of peace between 
Great Britain and France in 1763, this country came into the possession 
of the English. The post at Detroit was resigned to the United States 
by the English in 1796. In 1805 this state was ejected into a distinct 
territory and in 1836 admitted into the Union. 



198 STATE OF MICHIGAN. 




orr 

DETROIT, the capital of the state, is pleasantly situated on the right 
bank of the Detroit strait, seven miles below Lake St. Clair and 18 
above the west end of Lake Erie, and, by steamboat route, 327 miles 
from Buffalo. The site is a plain 30 feet above the river, sloping gently 
to the water, and the city extends for the distance of a mile along the 
stream and three fourths of a mile back. The streets are regularly laid 
out, though not all crossing at right angles, a part of them diverging from 
a large area, and forming noble avenues 200 feet wide. There are several 
public squares, of which Campus Martius is the principal. The city con- 
tains the State-house, from the dome of which a fine view is obtained of 
the city and vicinity, the City-hall, a market-house, 11 churches, four 
banks, a United States Land-office, 3 markets, a theatre, a museum, a 
public garden, government magazine, Masonic-hall, two orphan asylums, 
several literary and scientific societies, three female institutes of a high 
order, and also several for boys, and 10,000 inhabitants. Detroit is among 
the earlier settlements of North America, having been founded by the 
French from Canada, in 1683. It is admirably situated for trade, and is 
becoming a great commercial emporium. The first steamboat arrived at 
Detroit in August, 1818 ; now, numbers arrive and depart daily during 
eight months of the year. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for 
Kalamazoo via Ann Arbor, Jackson, and Marshall ; thence stages to St. 
Joseph's ; and also for Pontiac ; thence stages to Saginaw. Stages leave 
daily for Toledo, O. ; three times a week for Port Huron, and to Howell ; 
thence to Grand Rapids via Lyons. Steamboats for Buffalo, JV*. Y., via 
Sandusky, O., Cleveland and Erie, Pa. ; for Chicago, III., via Mack- 
inaw, Milwaukee, frc. (See routes 547 and 548.) 

MONROE is situated on the right bank of the Raisin river, two alid a 
half miles from its entrance into Lake Erie, and 37 miles from Detroit. 
It contains a court-house, two banks, a United States Land-office, seven 
churches, a branch of the University of Michigan, two academies, a 
reading-room, and library of 1,500 volumes, several manufacturing es- 
tablishments, and 2,000 inhabitants. Cars leave daily for Hillsdale 
via Adrian, thence stages to Niles ; stages daily for Toledo, O., and for 
Detroit. 

ANN ARBOR lies forty miles west from Detroit, on both sides of Huron 
river, which divides it into the upper and lower towns. It is regularly 
laid out on elevated ground, and contains a court-house, bank, 6 churches, 
several mills, factories, &c., and 2,500 inhabitants. The University of 
Michigan, founded in 1837, has 3 professors, 75 students, 5,000 volumes in 
its libraries, and a choice museum, embracing the collections of the state 
geologists, &c. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for Detroit, and for 
Kalamazoo, &c. Stages leave 3 times a week for Howell. 

YPSILANTI is situated on both sides of Huron river, and contains 
four churches, an 'academy, several mills and factories, and about 
1,500 inhabitants. The river here affords good water power. Cars 



STATE OF MICHIGAN. 199 

arrive from, and depart daily for Detroit, and for Kalamazoo. Stages 
leave daily for Adrian. 

ADRIAN is prettily situated on the right bank of the Raisin river, 
67 miles from Detroit. It has a court-house, four churches, an acad- 
emy, several manufacturing establishments, and 2,500 inhabitants. Cars 
arrive from, and depart daily for Toledo, O. ; for Monroe, and for 
Hillsdale thence stages to Niles. Stages leave daily for Detroit via 
Ypsilanti. 

JACKSON is situated 79 miles west from Detroit, on the right bank of 
Grand river. The village contains a court-house, four churches, the 
state penitentiary, a branch of Michigan University, a seminary, and 
about 2,000 inhabitants. There is a fall of eight feet in the river 
here, affording' an extensive water-power, already employed in mills, 
factories, &c. Cars arrive from, and depart daily for Detroit, and 
for Kalamazoo. Stages leave three times a week for Adrian and for 
Centreville. 

MARSHALL is pleasantly situated on the right bank of Kalamazoo 
river, at the confluence of Rice creek, 113 miles west from Detroit. It 
contains a court-house, four churches, a bank, an academy, several mills 
and factories, and 2,000 inhabitants. Car* arrive from, and depart 
daily for Detroit, and for Kalamazoo. Stages leave 3 times a week for 
Centreville. 

KALAMAZOO is situated on the left bank of Kalamazoo river, 146 miles 
west from Detroit, and contains a court-house, a bank, a United States 
Land-office, three churches, a branch of the University of Michigan, 
the Huron Literary Institute, and about 1,500 inhabitants. Cars arrive 
from, and depart daily for Detroit. Stages leave daily for St. Joseph's ; 
three times a week for Niles ; for Mottville ; and for Mlegan. 

ST. JOSEPH is situated on the left bank of St. Joseph's river, at its en- 
trance into Lake Michigan, 200 miles west from Detroit. It is one of the 
most important places on the west side of the state, has a good harbor, 
and commands a pleasant view of the lake. It contains a court-house, 3 
churches, a bank, and 700 inhabitants. Steamboats arrive from, and 
depart daily for Chicago. Stages leave daily in connection with railroad 
cars for Detroit. Stages leave daily for Chicago via Michigan City ; 
and three times a week for Niles. 

MACKINAO is situated on the southeast extremity of an island of the 
game name, and contains a court-house, two churches, a school of the 
American Board of Foreign Missions, a Roman Catholic missionary 
school, a branch of the University of Michigan, and 500 inhabitants. Fort 
Mackinac stands on a rocky eminence, 150 feet immediately above the 
village, which it commands. The harbor is safe and spacious, capable of 
accommodating 150 vessels. Over 3,000 barrels of trout and white-fish 
are annually exported, and it is the seat of an extensive fur-trade. (See 
route 203.) 

GRAND HAVEN is situated on the left bank of Grand river, at its en 
trance into Lake Michigan. It is one of the best harbors on the eas> 
shore of the lake, and contains a court-house, two churches, an academy 
and about 700 inhabitants. (See route 548.) 

SAULT DK ST. MARIE is situated on a pleasant elevation on the right 
bank of St. Mary's strait, at the foot of the rapids, and contains a court- 
house, 3 churches, Fort Brady, the trading house of the American Fur 
Company, and about 1,000 inhabitants. Vessels come up to the foot of 
the rapids. 



200 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



ILLINOIS lies between 3?^ and 4-2 30' N. lat., 
\ and between 87 17' and 91 5(X W. Ion. It is 350 
miles long and 180 broud, containing 50,000 square 
' miles. Population in 1840, 476,183. 

The surface of the state is generally level. It has 
no mountains, though the northern and southern 
parts are hilly and broken. The portion of the state 
south of a line from the mouth of the Wabash to the 
mouth of the Kaskaskia, is generally covered with 
timber, but north of this the prairie country predominates. The eye 
sometimes wanders over immense plains covered with grass, with no 
other boundary of its vision but the distant horizon, though the view is 
often broken by occasional woodlands. The dry prairies are generally 
from 30 to 100 feet higher than the bottom-lands on the rivers, and very 
fertile. A range of bluffs commences on the margin of the Mississippi, a 
short distance above the mouth of the Ohio, and extends north beyond 
the Des Moines rapids, sometimes rising abruptly from the water's edge, 
but generally a few miles distant from it, leaving between the bluffs and 
the river a strip of alluvial formation of inexhaustible fertility. The 
banks of the Illinois and Kaskaskia, in some places, present sublime and 
picturesque scenery. 

The Illinois is the largest river in the stale. Fox and Des Flames 
rivers, its two largest branches from the north, rise in Wisconsin, and, 
with Kankakee river from Indiana, form the Illinois, which, after a course 
of 400 miles, enters the Mississippi, twenty miles above the Missouri. It 
is navigable a distance of about 250 miles. Rock river rises in Wisconsin, 
and after a course of 300 miles, mostly in Illinois, empties into the Mis- 
sissippi. The Kaskaskia rises near the middle of the state, and after a 
southwesterly course of 250 miles, enters the Mississippi 63 miles below 
the Missouri. It is navigable for boats 150 miles. The Wabash forms a 
part of the east boundary. The Little Wabash, after a course of 130 
miles, enters the Wabash a little above its junction with the Ohio. 
Peoria lake, through which the Illinois river flows, about 150 milea 
from its mouth, is a beautiful sheet of water twenty miles long and two 
broad. 

The governor is elected by the people for four years, but is eligible only 
four years in eight. A lieutenant-governor is elected at the same time, 
who is president of the senate, and in case of the death, resignation, 
or absence of the governor, discharges his duties. The senators are 
elected for four, and the representatives for two years. The repre- 
sentatives can never be less than 27, nor more than 36, until the in- 
habitants exceed 100,000. The number of senators can never be Jess 
than one-third, nor more than one-half the number of representatives. 
The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the joint-ballot of both 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



201 



houses of the legislature, and hold their offices during good behavior. 
The right of suffrage is universal. All white male inhabitants, 21 years of 
age, who have resided within the state six months preceding an election, 
have the right to vote. 

Ths literary institutions are : Illinois College, at Jacksonville, founded 
in 18-29 ; Shurtleff College, (Baptist,) in Upper Alton, in 1835 ; McKen- 
dree College, (Methodist,) in Lebanon, in 1834; McDonough College, at 
Macomb, in 1837. There are in the state 50 academies and 1,300 common 
schools. 

Illinois was admitted into the Union as an independent state in 1818. 

SPRINGFIELD, the capital of the state, is situated 95 miles from St. 
Louis, and near the centre of the state. It lies four miles south of 
Sangamon river, on the border of a rich and beautiful prairie. It was 
laid out in 1822, and in 1823 contained but 30 families, living in log cabins. 
It now contains a state-house an elegant edifice a court-house, a 
market-house, a bank, a United States Land-office, eight churches, three 
high schools, several extensive manufactories, and 4,005 inhabitants. 
Cars leave daily for Meredosia thence, in stages to Quincy. Stages 
leave daily for St. Louis, and for Chicago via Peoria and Ottawa ; three 
times a week for La Fayette, la. ; for Terre Haute ; for Shawneetown 
via Vandalin. and Salem ; for Burlington, Io., via Rushville ; for Lewis- 
town ; and for Bloomington. 

JACKSONVILLE is situated on elevated ground, in the midst of a delight, 
fill prairie, which is fertile and well cultivated, 33 miles from Springfield. 
It contains a spacious court-house, a market-house, a lyceum, a Me- 
chanics' Association, two academies, seven churches, several manufac- 
tories, and 2,500 
inhabitants. It is 
the seat of Illinois 
College, founded 
in 1829, which has 
a president, and, 
in its academica^ 
and medical de- 
partments, 8 pro- 
fessors and 96 stu- 
dents. There are 2,500 volumes in its libraries, and it has a very com- 
plete philosophical and chemical apparatus. The commencement is on 
the last Thursday in June. Cars leave daily for Springfield and for 
Meredosia. 

ALTON is situated on the left bank of Mississippi river, two miles above 
the mouth of Missouri river, 21 miles below the mouth of Illinois river, 
and twenty miles from St. Louis. It is regularly and handsomely laid 
out, and contains a bank, a lyceum, a Mechanics' Association, six 
churches, a number of schools, and about 2,000 inhabitants. As a com- 
mercial city its advantages are very great. It has the best landing for 
steamboats on the east bank of the Mississippi. A flat rock, level with 
the surface of the ground, forms an excellent natural wharf. Timber, 
freestone, limestone, and bituminous coal exist in great abundance near 
the town. Steamboats ply to St. Louis and to all the principal ports 
on the Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri rivers. (See routes 
JVos. 594. 620, 621, and 622.) Stages leave for Vincennes via Carlylc ; 
and for Jacksonville. 

KASKASKIA is situated on the right bank of Kaskaskia river, 142 miles 
9* 




202 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



from Springfield, and seven from ita junction with the Mississippi. It hat 
a court-house, a United States Land- office, a church, a nunnery and 
female boarding-school, and 1,000 inhabitants. It was settled by the 
French about Itj83, and its inhabitants are now mostly of French descent. 
(See route 621.) Stages leave fur St. Louis, Mo., and. fur Vincennes, 
la., via Salem. 

SHAWNEKTOWN is situated on the right bank of Ohio river, ten miles 
below the mouth of the Wabnsh river, and 195 from Springfield. The 
bank of the river haa a gradual ascent, hut not sufficient to prevent inun- 
dation in extreme high floods. The town haa a bank, a United States Land- 
office, two churches, and 1,000 inhabitants. It wa? laid out in 1814. and 
is one of the most commercial places in southern Illinois. Stages leave 3 
times a week for fincennes, la. ; for Springfield via Salem ; for St. 
Louis, Mo. ; and for Cape Oirardeau. 

VANDALIA, formerly the capital of the state, is situated on the right 
bank of Kaskaskia river. It is regularly laid out, with streets crossing 
each other at right angles. It contains a court-house, a United States 
Land-office, two churches, several manufacturing establishments, and 
800 inhabitants. The national road extends to this place. Stages lenne 
d lily for St. Louis, Mo., and for Terre Haute, la. ; 3 times a week fur 
Sprinpfield ; and also for Shawneetown. 

PKORIA is beautifully situated on the right bank of Illinois river, at the 
outlet of Peoria lake, and 70 miles from Springfield. The first bank of 
the river gradually rises from six to twelve feet above high-water mark, 
and extends back a quarter of a mile from the river to the second bank, 
where it rises five or six feet, forming a terrace extending back to the 
bluffs, which are from 60 to 100 feet high, by a steep ascent, and present 
from their summit an extensive and beautiful prospect. The town con- 
tains a court-house, an academy, six churches, several factories, and 
1,500 inhabitants. Stages leave daily for Chicago via Ottawa ; and also 
for St. Louis via Springfield ; three times a week for Burlington, la. ; 
for Galena via Dixon ; for Madison, tVis. ; and for Indianapolis* 
Steamboats on the Illinois river. (See route 594.) 




CHICAGO is situated on the SW. shore of Lake Michigan, at the head 
of lake navigation. The city is built on a level prairie, handsomely ele- 
vated above the water, and lies on both sides of Chicago river, between 
the junction of the north and south branches, and three-fourths of a mile 
from its entrance into the lake. By the construction of piers, an 
artificial harbor has been made at the mouth of the river. The city con- 
tains the county buildings, a United States Land-office, eight churches, 
an academy, and 11,000 inhabitants. Back of the town, for three or four 
miles, is a fine, elevated, and fertile prairie, and to the north, along the 
lake shore, are extensive bodies of fine timber. Numerous steamboats 
and vessels ply between this place and Buffalo, and the intermediate 



STATE OF MISSOURI* 



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204 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 



and Missouri rivers, is a tract of country very fertile and agreeably diver- 
sified with woodland and prairie, and abounding with coal, salt, &c. 
The country north of the Missouri is emphatically "the garden of the 
West." There is no part of the world where a greater extent of country 
can be traversed more easily, when in its natural state. The surface is 
for the most part delightfully undulating, and variegated, sometimes 
rising into picturesque hills, then stretching away into a sea of prairie, oc- 
casionally interspersed with shady groves and shining streams. 

The Mississippi winds along the entire eastern boundary of the state, for 
a distance of 400 miles, and receives in its course the waters of the Great 
Missouri, which, indeed, deserves to be regarded as the main stream. 
Through the central and richest part of the state, the Missouri rolls its im- 
mense volume of water, being navigable four or five months of the year 
for steamboats, 1,800 miles from its entrance into the Mississippi. The 
La Mine, Osage, and Gasconade on the south, and the Grand and 
Chariton on the north side, are navigable tributaries of the Missouri. 
Maramec river runs through the mineral district s is a navigable stream, 
and enters the Mississippi eighteen miles below St. Louis. Salt river, 
which is also navigable, enters the Mississippi 85 miles above the Mis- 
souri. The White and St. Francis drain the southeast, and the tributaries 
of Neosho, the southwest part of the state. 

The constitution of the state was formed in 1820. The governor 
is elected by the people for four years, but is ineligible for the next suc- 
ceeding four years. A lieutenant-governor is chosen at the same time, 
and for the same term, who is president of the senate. Every county is 
entitled to send one representative, but the whole number can never 
exceed 100. The senators are elected every four years, one-half retiring 
every second year ; and their number can never be less than 14, nor more 
than 33, chosen by districts, and apportioned according to the number of 
free white inhabitants. The elections for senators and representatives are 
held biennially in August. The legislature meets once'in two years in the 
month of November, at Jefferson City. Every white male citizen over 
21 years of age, who has resided one year in the state, and three months 
in the county in which he offers his vote, has the right of suffrage. The 
judges of the Supreme Court and the chancellor are appointed by the gov- 
enor, with the consent of the senate, and hold their offices during good 
behavior, or until 65 years of age. 

The literary institutions are as follows : The University of St. Louis, at 
St. Louis ; St. Mary's College, at Cape Girardeau ; Kemper College, near 
St. Louis ; Masonic College, near Palmyra ; Missouri University, at Co* 
lumbia ; St. Charles College, at St. Charles ; and Fayette College, at 
Fayette. There are in the state 50 academies and 650 schools. 

Missouri was originally a part of Louisiana, which was purchased from 
France in 1803. It was admitted into the Union as an independent 
state in 1821. 

JEFFERSON CITY, the capital of the state, is situated on the right bank 
of Missouri river, on elevated and uneven ground, 128 miles from St. 
Louis. It contains a state-house, a governor's house, which is large arid 
elegant, a state penitentiary, an academy, 250 dwellings, and about 1,500 
inhabitants. Stages leave daily for St. Louis : three times a week for 
Caledonia ; for Springfield via Warsaw ; for Independence via Booneville, 
I,exington, $-c. (For steamboat routes, see 620.) 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 



205 




ST. Louis is situated on the right 
tank of the Mississippi, 18 miles below 
the junction of the Missouri. It is in 38" 37' 28" N. lat., and 90 15' 39" 
W. Ion. Population in 1845, 35,000. Its situation is pleasant and 
healthy ; standing on a limestone bluff. The ground rises gradually from 
the first to the second bank of the river ; and on the second bank, which 
is about forty feet higher than the first, the city is chiefly built. Viewed 
from the opposite shore, or as it is approached from the river, it presents 
a beautiful nppearance. The compact part of the city extends about one 
and a half miles along the river, with suburbs to the north and east, 
making its whole extent five miles. It is elegantly built, the more recent 
houses being constructed of brick, others of stone, and some have 
spacious and beautiful gardens attached to them. 

Among the public buildings, the City-hall and the Catholic Cathe- 
dral are the most noticeable. The Cathedral is one hundred and 
thirty-six feet long and eighty-four wide, with walls forty feet high. The 
front is 58 feet high, and rising above this is a tower with a spire terminating 
in a gilt cross. The steeple contains a peal of six bells, the largest of 
2,600 pounds weight. There are also in the city a United States Land- 
office, an elegant theatre, a concert-hall, a bank, six insurance com- 
panies, and a United States Arsenal. 

There are several literary and benevolent institutions in the city 
The St. Louis University, 
under the direction of the 
Roman Catholics, has 15 
instructors, 130 students, and ^ 
7,900 volumes in its libraries, i 
It has a spacious building in 
ilic city. The commence- ] 
ment is on the 15th of July. * 
Keniper College, which is "i 
under the direction of the 
Episcopalians, is five miles distant from the city, on a beautiful eminence ; 
the buildings are of brick. The principal edifice is a building 70 feet long 
and four stories high, with wings of equal length, three stories high. It 
has nine professors or other instructors, and about 4,000 volumes in its 
libraries. The commencement is on the last Thursday of July. It has a 
medical department, and a building within the city where lectures are 
delivered during the winter. There are two medical schools, the one 
attached to the St. Louis University, the other to the State University; 
the former has 56, the latter 80 pupils. Lectures in both these schools 
commence on the first Monday of November and terminate on the last of 
February. They have spacious buildings for lecture-rooms, laboratories, 
&c. The Western Academy of Sciences has an extensive museum of 




206 STATE OF MISSOURI. 

natural history and mineralogy. There is also a museum of Indian 
curiosities, antiquities, fossil remains, &c. The Convent of the Sucred 
Heart is an institution of nuns, for conducting female education. The 
Protestant ladies conduct an orphan asylum, and there are three orphan 
asylums conducted by Roman Catholics. A female asylum is attached 
to the Convent of the Sucred Heart. The Jefferson Barracks are eleven 
miles below the city. In the north part of the city there are two tumuli, 
or mounds, on the lower of which the city has constructed a reservoir, 
into which water is raised by steam-power from the river, and conveyed 
through iron pipes, affording a supply to the citizens. 

The city was first settled in 1664, by a company of merchant traders. 
It is most favorably situated for commerce, and is destined to be one of 
the principal cities of the west. Steamboats arrive from, and depart daily 
for Louisville, Cincinnati, Wheeling \ Pittsburg, &cc., on the Ohio river ; 
New Orleans and the intermediate places on the Lower Mississippi ; Fort 
Snellivg and the intermediate places on the Upper Mississippi; and 
also the principal places on the Missouri river. (See routes 620622.) 
Stages arrive from, and depart daily for Cincinnati via Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis, &rc. ; for Louisville via Vincennes, New Albany, $-c. ; 
for Chicago via Springfield, Peoria, Ottowa, &c. ; for Fort Leaven- 
worth via St.. Charles, Columbia, Glasgow, and Liberty ; 3 times a week 
for Shawneetown, III.; for Little Rock, Ark., via Caledonia, &c. ; for 
New Madrid via Cape Oirardeau ; for Independence via Jefferson City, 
Booneville, Lexington, &rc.; for Burlington, Io., via St. Charles, 
Bowling Green, Palmyra, &rc. ; for Van Buren, Ark., via Caledonia, 
Steeleville, Springfield, and Fayetteville, Ark. 

ST. CHARLES lies twenty miles northwest from St. Louis. It is built 
on an elevated and handsome situation on the left bank of Missouri river. 
The shore is here rocky, the alluvial land commencing at the lower end 
of the town. The town extends one and a hulf miles along the river, and 
contains a court-house, a brick market-house, two churches, a nunnery, 
and about 1,500 inhabitants. St. Charles College, under the direction of 
the Methodists, is located here. It was founded in 1839, and has a presi- 
dent, three professors, and about 104 students. The Missouri river is 
here crossed by a ferry. Stages leave daily for St. Louis and for 
Jefferson City ; three times a week for Burlington, Io. t via New London, 
Palmyra, $-c. 

PALMYRA lies eight miles from Missouri river, and 129 miles from St. 
Louis. It contains a court-house, three handsome brick churches, a 
United States Land-office, and above 800 inhabitants. Masonic College, 
twelve miles from Palmyra, was founded in 1831. It has a president, four 
professors, and 45 students. The commencement is on the last Thursday 
in September. Stages leave three times a week for St. Louis, and for 
Burlington, Io. 

FULTON is situated on Riviere au Vases, 12 miles north of Missouri 
river, and twenty-two miles northeast from Jefferson City. It contains 
a court-house, two churches, two academies, and 500 inhabitants. Stages 
leave daily for St. Louis ; for Fort Leavenworth ; and for Jefferson City. 

COLUMBIA, situated on a tributary of Missouri river, contains a court- 
house and about 1,000 inhabitants. It is the seat of Missouri University, 
founded in 1840, which has a president, 3 professors, and 45 students. 
Stages leave daily for St. Louis. 

BOONEVILLE is situated on the right bank of Missouri river, 173 miles 
from St. Louis. Its foundation is limestone rock. It has a hand* 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 207 

Bomo court-house, three churches, two academies, and 1,200 inhabitants. 
Considerable trade is carried on here in cattle and provisions. (See steam- 
boat route 622.) Stages leave 3 times a week for Jefferson City ; for In* 
dependence ; and for Columbia. 

GLASGOW, situated on the left bank of the Missouri river, 172 mile* 
from St. Louis, has two churches, several extensive warehouses, and 800 
inhabitants. Stages leave daily for St. Louis ; and for Fort Leaven- 
worth ; 3 times a week for Hannibal. (See route 622.) 

INDEPENDENCE, six miles south of Missouri river and 292 from 
St. Louis, is a flourishing place, and the starting point for the Santa 
Fe traders, who obtain here many of their supplies. It has a court- 
house and about 500 inhabitants. Stages leave three times a week for 
St. Louis via Booneville, Jefferson City, &t-c. (See routes 618 and 622.) 

LIBERTY is situated three miles from the left bank of the Missouri river, 
and 276 from St. Louis. It contains a court-house, five churches, 
two academies, and 1 ,500 inhabitants. Stages leave daily for St. Louis 
via Glasgow, Columbia, Fulton, &rc. ; and for Fort Leavenworth ; three 
times a week for St. Joseph. (See steamboat route 622.) 

ST. JOSEPH, situated on the left bank of the Missouri river, 478 miles 
from St. Louis, has several extensive warehouses and about 1,000 inhabi- 
tants. (See steamboat route 622.) Stages leave three times a week 
for Liberty. 

SPRINGFIELD is situated on the head branches of James' fork of Whito 
river, 258 miles from St. Louis. It contains a court-house, a United 
States Land-office, 2 churches, and 500 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times 
a week for Jefferson City ; for St. Louis via Caledonia ; and for Van 
Uurcn, Ark. 

CAPE GIRARDEAU is situated on the right bank of the Mississippi river. 
132 miles by the river below St. Louis. It contains about 500 inhabitants. 
It is the seat of St. Mary's College, founded in 1830, which has a 
president, five professors or other instructors, and 2,500 volumes in its 
library. The commencement is on the last Thursday in August. Stages 
leave 3 times a week for Jefferson City via Fredericktown, Caledonia, and 
Sleeleville ; and for New Madrid. (See route 621.) 

NEW MADRID is situated on the right bank of the Mississippi river, 247 
miles below St. Louis. The river here makes a bend, and its bank in 
somewhat elevated, but is being undermined by the current. It contains 
a court-house, a church, and 500 inhabitants. (See steamboat route 
620.) Stages leave three times a week for Cape Girardeau. 

HANNIBAL, 116 miles north from St. Louis, is situated on the right bank 
of the Mississippi river. It contains a church, several extensive ware, 
houses and manufacturing establishments, and 800 inhabitants. Stages 
leave three times a week for St. Louis ; for Burlington, lo. ; and for 
Glasgow. (See route 621.) 

POTOSI, 67 miles from St. Louis, is situated in the centre of one of the 
richest mineral regions in the United States, abounding with lead, iron, 
and copper ores. It has a court-house, an academy, 4 churches, and 700 
inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week for St. Louis ; for Jefferson 
City; and for Cape Girardeau. 

LEXINGTON is situated on the right bank of the Missouri river, 124 miles 
from Jefferson City. It contains a court-house, a United States Land- 
office, 3 churches, an academy, and 1,000 inhabitants. Stages leave three 
times a week for St. Louis via Jefferson City; and als9 for /nek. 
pendence. 



208 



WISCONSIN* 



WISCONSIN lies between 42 30' and 49 30' N. 
' lat., and between 86 50' and 96 W. Ion., being 600 
liles long and 150 broad. It contains about 90,01)0 
, square miles. Its population in 1840 was 30,945 ; in 1845, 
[ 150,000. 

The surveyed part, south of Green bay, Fox, and 
j Wisconsin rivers, is composed of timbered and prairie- 
! lands, with some swamps and wet prairies, having a 
vegetable soil from one to ten feet deep. North of the 
Wisconsin river commences a hilly region, swelling as it proceeds north 
into a mountainous country, with a rugged and broken surface, creating 
many rapids and falls in the streams, and affording many wild and 
picturesque views. Near the sources of the Mississippi is an elevated 
table-land abounding with lakes and swamps ; in the former of which fish 
are abundant, while wild rice grows in the latter. Bordering on the Mis- 
sissippi and Wisconsin rivers, the soil is rich and the land generally 
heavily timbered. The principal rivers are the Mississippi, washing its 
western border ; the Wisconsin, 500 miles long, a large tributary of the 
Mississippi ; the Chippeway, which enters the Mississippi further north- 
west, and is a large river ; Rock river, which rises and runs partly in this 
state ; Neenah or Fox river, which runs so near the Wisconsin, that at 
times of high water the country between them is often overflowed and can 
be passed in boats. The Neenah passes through Lake Winnebago, and 
enters Green bay ; though obstructed by rapids, it is navigable for boats 180 
miles. 

Wisconsin was organized as a territorial government in 1836. The 
governor is appointed by the president of the United States, with the ad. 
vice and consent of the senate, and is ex-officio superintendent of Indian 
affairs. The Legislative Assembly consists of a council of 13 members, 
elected for four years, and a house of representatives of 26 members, 
elected for two years. 

No college has been established in this territory. It has several acad- 
emies and 100 common schools. 

MADISON, the capital, is 159 miles from Chicago, and beautifully situa. 
ted on a peninsula between two lakes, on a gentle swell of ground from 
which there is a regular descent each way to the water. It is regularly 
laid out, with a large central square, in the centre of which is the State 
House, a spacious stone edifice with a handsome dome The town has 
several places of worship and 500 inhabitants. Stages leave three timts a 
week for Milwaukee ; for Rockford t III. ; for Galena ; and for Fbrt 
Winnebago. 

MILWAUKEE is situated on both sides of Milwaukee river, near its on. 
trance into Lake Michigan, 97 miles from Chicago. It contains a 



STATE OF IOWA. 



209 



court house, a United States Land-office, eight churches, and 7,500 in- 
habitants. It is a flourishing place, has an extensive water-power, and 
is rapidly growing into commercial importance. Steamboats ply con- 
stantly beticten it and Chicago, Buffalo, and the intermediate places. 
(See route 548.) Stages leave 3 times a week for Chicago, III., and for 
Madison. 

PRAIRIK DU CHIEN is situated on the east hank of Mississippi river, 
four miles above the mouth of Wisconsin river and 248 miles below 
the falls of St. Anthony. The prairie is ten miles long and three wide. 
The village contains a court-house, three churches, an academy, and 
about 2,000 inhabitants. Numerous mounds of all sizes and shapes are 
to be found in the vicinity. Fort Crawford, a United States military post, 
is situated a little south of the village. (For steamboat route see 621.) 
Stages leave 3 times a week for Galena. 




IOWA is situated between 41T 30' and 4.r JO' i\. lat., 
and between 90 20* and 96" 50' W. Ion. It is about 
256 miles long, and its mean breadth 198 miles con- 
I mining 50,600 square miles. Population in 1844, 
78,819. 

The face of the country is moderately uneven, with- 

Jout any mountains or high hills. There is a tract of 
elevated table-land, which extends through a con- 
siderable part of the territory, dividing the waters 
which fall into the Mississippi, from those which fall into the Missouri. 
The margins of the rivers and creeks, extending back from one to ten 
miles, are generally covered with timber, while beyond this the country ia 
an open prairie without trees : by the frequent alternations of these two 
descriptions of land, the country is greatly diversified. The prairies 
cover nearly three-fourths of the surface of the territory, and, although 
they are destitute of trees, present a great variety of aspect. Some have 
a level and others a rolling surface ; some^ire covered with a rich coat of 
grass, well suited for grazing ; in others this is interspersed with hazel 
thickets, and sassafras shrubs, and in season superbly decorated with 
flowers. The soil, both on the bottom and prairie land, is generally good, 
consisting of a deep black mould, intermingled, in the prairies, with sandy 
loam, and sometimes with red clay and gravel. 

The Mississippi borders this territory for its whole length on the east, 
and is navigable in time of high water for steamboats to the mouth of the 
St. Peter's. The Des Moines river runs in the southern part of the territory, 
and, forming a part of the southwest boundary, enters the Mississippi. 
In high water it is navigable for steamboats 100 miles, and for keel.boutx 



210 STATE OF IOWA. 

at all times. Checauque or Skunk river, after a course of 150 miles, enters 
the Mississippi. Iowa river is 300 miles long, and is navigable for steam- 
boats 12 miles from its entrance into the Mississippi, and for keel-boats to 
Iowa city. Red Cedar river, the main branch of Iowa, is navigable for 
keel-boats, in high water, 100 miles above its junction. The Wapsipinecon 
has a winding and rapid course 200 miles, to its entrance into the Mis- 
sissippi. The Makoqueta bounds the mineral region on the south, and 
enters the Mississippi, furnishing in its course the best water-power in the 
territory. Turkey river, after a course of 150 miles, enters the Mis- 
eissippi. It is not navigable. Sioux river enters the Missouri, and forma 
part of the west boundary. 

The governor is elected for four years. He must be a citizen of the 
United States and have resided for two years next preceding his election 
within the state, and have attained the age of 30 years. The legislative 
authority is vested in a senate and house of representatives which meet 
biennially on the first Monday in January. Representatives are chosen for 2 
years ; they must be free white citizens of theUnited States, and have attained 
the age of 21 years, have resided within the state one year next preceding 
the election, and thirty days within the county or district for which they 
may be elected. Senators are chosen for four years, at the same time 
of electing representatives. They must be 25 years of age, and possess 
the qualifications of representatives. The judicial power is vested in a 
supreme court, district courts, and such other inferior courts as the 
legislature may establish. Judges of the Supreme Court are elected by 
the legislature, and hold their office for six years. Every white male 
citizen of the United States, 21 years of age, who shall have resided 
within the state six months next preceding the election, and 20 days in the 
county in which he claims to vote, enjoys the right of suffrage. 

The University of Iowa, at Mount Pleasant, in Henry county, has been 
chartered. Seven academies have been incorporated, and there are about 
100 common schools. 

IOWA CITY, the capital of the state, is situated thirty-one miles from 
Bloomington, on the left bank of Iowa river, which is navigable to 
this place. The situation is dry and pleasant. It contains a state-house, 
court-house, several churches, and about 1,000 inhabitants. The Capitol 
is of the Grecian Doric order of architecture, and has a dome supported 
by 22 Corinthian columns. Stages leave 3 times a week for Burlington ; 
and for Rock Island, III. 

BURLINGTON is handsomely situated on the right bank of the Mis- 
sissippi river, 222 miles above St. Louis. It is surrounded by hills, to 
which the ground rises by a gentle acclivity. It is regularly laid out, and 
has a court-house, several commodious churches, a United States Land- 
office, and about 2,000 inhabitants. Stages leave 3 times a week for St. 
Louis ; and for Dubuque via Bloomington. Steamboats ply to all the 
principal places on the Mississippi river. (See route 621.) 

DOBUQUE is situated on the right bank of Mississippi river, 426 
miles above St. Louis, and 306 below the Falls of St. Anthony. It 
is built on a table area, or terrace, which extends along the river for 
several miles. It contains a United States Land-office, five churches, 
a bank, an academy, a lyceum, and 1,500 inhabitants. Lead ore is 
found in abundance here, and for miles around on every side. Steam- 
boats ply to all the principal places on the Mississippi. (See route 621.) 
Stages leave 3 times a week for Galena ; and for Burlington via Daven- 
port and Bloomington. 



RAILROAD, STAGE, AND STEAMBOAT ROUTES, 

THROUGH 

THE WESTERN STATES. 



TO KNOXVILLE 
To Nicholasville 
Burnt '" 



t Tavern 
Lancaster 
Stanford 
Mt. Vernon 



12 Crittenden 
04 Florence. . 



own 
istown ... 
en 


4' 

3:. 

II 


12 

47 
56 


Mt. Zion 


SHAWNEETOWN, 




1C, 

I 


74 

83 

84 


(506) FR'M LEXIN 
TO SMITHLAN] 


on 

fATI 



an. v union 6ooo tf ~ m , v , T To Nicholasville . 

London 19 1 82 ^(J6) rR M .LEXINGTON ohawnee Run 

Lynn Camp '.'.'.'.'.'. 13i 95 ! To M ADISON, la. j Harrodsburg 

sr . K. -~u__ m -T >. , , jo Perryville 



Barboursville 12107 To Versailles , , ^ T -.- 

Cumberland Ford 16 123 Frankfort 12 24 Lebanon. 

Cumberland Gap 15 138 Laputa 10 34 ewm . nr . ket ..-, 

Tazewell 12 150 Newcastle 15 49 Campbellsyi 

Beai 



......... ........ 

ns' Station ...12162 Campbellsburg... 



... ... ___ ... 

Rutledge ......... \ 9171 Bedford .......... 10 65 1 , onr ( , e -r- ..... 

Blam'sX Roads.. 14185 Milton ............ 11 76 Blue Spring Grove 

KNOXVILLE ...... i!9204 [MADISON ......... I 11 77 S^ ASG < )W . ........ 



.Three Forks .'.'.'.'.'. 
(501) FR'M LEXINGTON (504) FR'M LEXINGTON' ^grippmg Spring.. 



TO WHEELING, Va. 

To Moreland , 

7 15 



Millersburg 

Forest Retreat.... 
Lower Blue Lick. 

May's Lick 

Washington 

MAYSVILLE 

Aberdeen 

West Union..... 

Dunbarton 

Locust Grove . . . 
Sinking Spring.. 

Cynthiana 

Bainbridee 

Bourneville 

Chillicothe 

Kingston 

Tarlton. 



8 23 'To Versailles 

6 29 Frankfort 

8 37 Bridgeport 

12 49 'Hardinsville 

8 57| Clay Village 

4 61 Shelby ville 

1 62 Simpson ville 

17 79 I Long Run 



TO LOUISVILLE, 
1 Via Frankfort. 



10 89 iMiddletown ...... 

6 95! LOUISVILLE ...... 

6101! 



! Bowling Green... 

8. Union 

iRussellville 



41250 
71257 



12 
12 24 

7 31 
41 



12 Elkton 15 

24 Hopkins ville 20 

~ Cerulean Spring.. If 



17112 

"124 

134 



14156 



14184 



33 Princeton.. 



11)2 



41 Fredonia 14 259 

47 Salem 10269 

55 ; SMITHLAND 15284 

66 (507) FR'M LEXINGTON 
78 I TO COLUMBUS, Ky. 



(505) FR'M LEXINGTON 



TO SHAWNEETOWN. 



To Louisville 



10111 

5116 

11127 , 

13140 (see No. 504) ... 
10150 Salina 

9159 ! West Point 

16175 IGarnettsville 

9184 Brandenburg 

8192 Hardinsburg 

10202 |Cloverport 



| To Hopkinsville 



10212 



Lancaster 

Rushville 

Somerset 

Fultonham 

ZANESVILLE 

WHEELING 

(see No. 323)... 
(502) FR'M LEXINGTON 

TO CINCINNATI, O. _ o 1M 1I10 

To D jlphton I I 8 iMorganfield 



Hawsville 

Yelvington 

Owensboro' 
Richland . 



Henderson .'.'_. ^ 

Smith's Mills 12234 Glasgow 



(Bellevue . 

Cadiz 

78 Canton 

89 Aurora 

Wadesboro' 



8107 Mayfield 

11118 Milburn 

24142 COLUMBUS 

11 153 



219 
10229 
12241 



20290 
21311 

"1319 



9162 !(508) FR'M LEXINGTON 
21183 I TO NASHVILLE, Tenn. 
10 193 To Harrodsburg I 
12205! (see No. 06)... 31 
Three Springs.... 75106 
17123 
25148 



12246,iScottsville.. 



212 



ROUTES IN KENTUCKY. 



Gallatin .......... 331181'j Woodsonville .... 10 



.......... .... 

NASHVILLE ...... 201207 j! Three Forks ...... 11 96 

j! Dripping Spring.. 8104 

(509) FR'M LEXINGTON BOWLING GREEN 14 118 
TO KNOXVILLE. (Franklin ......... 22140 



85 



Lancaster 8 32 

Stanford ' 8 40 

Mt. Vernon 23, 63 

London 19< 82 

Lynn Camp 13^95 



Mansker's Creek . 

Pleasant Hill 

NASHVILLE 

NATCHEZ 



7183 



(see No. 485)... 469 652; 



arboursville . 12107 (513) FR'M LOUISVILLE' 
n Ford 1 123 



TO MAYSVILLE. 



. 

Cumberland Ford 16 123 j 
Cumberland Crap lo loo i *-,,, . 
Tazeweil ......... 121-50 j T Middletown . 



: \ 14 1&5 ? 



a 



TO NATCHEZ , M iss. 1 i Ver^ailfes R r . ! '. '. '. '. 12 66 

Via Lexington, Nash- LEXINGTON 12 78 

vilLe, &cc. I MAYSVILLE | ' 

4 (see No. 501) ... 61 139 

*! 



To Washington . . 
May's Lick ...... 

Lower Blue Lick. 
Forest Retreat ____ 



Millersburg ....... 



Paris 
Moreiand 
LEXINGTON 
Nicholasville 
Shiwnee Run 

Ul.rr, rl-hnrtr 



,! J2 '(513) FR'M LOUISVILLE 
'*: ^ j TO COLUMBUS, Ky. 
6| 38 |To Bowling Green 



(515) FR'M LOUISVILLE 
TO ST. JOSEPH'S, 
Mich. 

To Paoli 
(see No. 514).. 

Orleans. 



Spring MilU '.'.'..'. 
Sinking Spring.. 

Bedford 

Marysville , 

BLOOMINGTON ... 14 -_ 

Martinsville 21110 

INDIANAPOLIS ilo 125 
ST. JOSEPH 

(see No. 522 Jc ! 

523) 174299 

(516) FR'M LOUISVILLE 
TO MEMPHIS, Tenn. 

To NASHVILLE 

(see No. 511) . . . 
MEMPHIS 

(see No. 484)... 230 413 

(517) FR'M SMITHLAND 
TO MAYS 



183 



LEBANON , 

Newmarket 1 6126 

Campbellsviile... 12;i3S 
Greensburg 12150 



(see No. 511) . 

S. Union 

Russellville 

... 12 73 ;Elkton 

12i 85 HOPKINSVILLE. 
"i 7i M-2 i COLUMBUS 
:'.J10;102 (see No. 506)... 11 



.YSVILLE, Ky. 

To Salem | 15 

i Fredonia 10 25 

Princeton. 14 39 

Cerulean Spring . 10 49 
118 HOPKINSVILLE... 16 65 

14132 Elkton 20 85 

14 146 ! Russellville 15 100 

15161 IS. Union 14114 



Monroe 11161 

Three Springs.... 6 167 i To New Albany.. 

Blue Spring Grove 4 171 Greenville 

GLASGOW 13184 Palmyra 

Lewis 12196 Fredericksburg. 

Srottsville 13209 Hardinsburg ... 

State Line 9218 jPaoli 

Gallatin 24242 Columbiaville.. 

. 10252 Mt. Pleasant ... 



)|l81 ! BOWLING GRKEN14128 
Dripping Spring.. 14142 
Three Forks... ... 8150 

.jGlasgow 10160 

(514) FR'M LOUISVILLE Blue Spring Grove 13 173 
TO ST. Louis, i Three Springs.... 4177 
Via New Albany, la. & Monroe, 





Greensowrg IJL 

'' 



Henderson ville . 
Pleasant Hill.... 

NASHVILLE 

NATCHEZ 



I Greensburg 

4 ! ! Campbellsviile ... 



i Newmarket 

Lebani 



' ( a ee No. 485)... 469^737 

(511) FR'M LOUISVILLE 
TO NATCHEZ, 
Via Nashville. 

ToSalina 

West Point 

Elt7.abethtown...l22 43 

Nolen 

Leesville 

Mumtbrdsville ... 875 



7,268 Berry ville [7,96 

VINCENNES 



Perry ville 

34 HARRODSBURG . 
4^5 Shawnee Run... 

(M ! Nicholasville 

74 i LEXINGTON 

OQ I MAYSVILLE 
1 (see No. 501) . . 



. :18|242 
. 10 252 
. 7259 
. 121271 
.112283 

.I61344 



Olney 

Maysville 25 



140 X" 
165 To Salem . 



Cato 18 183 i Fredonia 

SALEM 18 201 Princeton 

Carlyle '26 227 Cerulean Spring 

Shoal Creek 92&5 i HOPKINSVILLE.. 

Aviston i 6242 Oak Grove 

Lebanon Ill 253 Clarksville 

Rock Spring ' 4 257 Fredonia 



82r,|Mt. Henry'.'.'. 



I 15 

.0 25 

A> OQ 



79 

12 91 
11102 
5107 



ST Lons ....... 142/9 NASHVILLE ! 30137 



ROUTES IN INDIANA. 



213 



f5I9) FROM COLUMBUS 
TO NASHVILLE. 

ToClinton I | 12 

Feliciana 11 23 

Boydsville. 16 



Barren Hill 113 



PARts.. 17 

Sandy Hill 112 

Reynoldsburg |19 

Waverly ! 9 - 

Btitson's 12111 

Charlotte 10 121 

Chesn ut Grove... 18139 
NASHVILLE 20159 

FROM HICKMAN TO 
NASHVILLE. 

To Totten Wells . 

Gardnersville 

Dresden 



Irvin's Store 



. 24 

12 36 



Mt. Holyoke 

PARIS 

NASHVILLE 
(see No. 519)... 100 160 

(520) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO COLUMBUS, O. 



To Cumberland.. 

Philadelphia 

Greenfield 

Charlottesville 

Knightstown ....'. 

Ogden 

Lewisville 

Dublin 

Cambridge , _ 

CENTREVILLE ... 10 
Richmond.. 



New Westville,O. 6 79 

EATON 10 89 

W. Alexander... 6 95 

Liberty 13jl08 

DAYTON 7i115 

Fairrield 

Enon 

SPRINGFIELD ... 



.... 
Brighton Centre.. 

La Fuyette 

W. Jefferson 

Alton 

COLUMBUS 



7133 
7140 



10150 
10160 
8168 
5173 
9182 



(521) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO GREENVILLE, O. 

ToNoblesville... 

Strawtown 

Andersontown ... 

Mill Creek 

Yorktown 

Muncie 

Smithfield... 

Windsor 

Macksville 



Winchester 

Randolph 

GREENVILLE 



7 
14102 



522) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO MICHIGAN CITY. 



To Augusta 

Eagle Village.... 
Northfield 



'sX Roads... 
Michigantown ... 

Middle Fork 

Burlington 

arroll 



6 48 

5 53 

6 59 



LOGANSPORT .... 13 72 

Metea 12 84 

Rochester Ill 

_~ , icy 110 105 

Plymouth 8113 

Laporte 30J143 

MICHIGAN CITY.. I 6149 

(523) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO ST. JOSEPH'S, 
Mich. 

To Plymouth I | 
'see No. 522)... 113 

./hitehall 14127 

I 10 SOUTH BEND .... 10137 

Niles, Mich |12149 

Berrian Springs . . [10 159 

_ Royalton 12171 

33 ST. JOSEPH'S ....! 3174 



(524) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO LA FAYETTE. 



To Clermont 

Brownsburg 

Jamestown 

New Ross 

Crawfordsville . . . 

Wea 

LA FAYETTE 



15 60 
13 73 



(525) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO PEORIA, 111. 



To Crawfordsv 
(see No. 524) 
Waynetown .. 
Hillsboro' 
Cole's Creek 
Covington.. 
Danville 
Union 
Urban a 
Mahomet 
Santa Anna.. . 
Leroy 

Bloomington .. 
Wilkesboro' 
Mackinaw 
Trernont 
PEORIA 



iJle 



. . 20 106 
..14120 
...13133 
...14H47 
...10157 
...1151172 
...10182 
... 101192 
...I 7ll99 
...13212 



(526) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO SPRINGFIELD, 111. 

Via Terre Haute. 



To Bridgeport 

Plainrield 

Belleville 

Stilesville 

Mt. Meridian 

Putnamville 

Manhattan 

Harmony 

Van Buren 

TERRE HAUTE .. 

Elbndge 

Paris 

Embarrass Point. . 

Oakland 

Hermitage 

Livingston 

Decatur 

Mt. Auburn 

Rochester 



ejif 

5 20. 



43 

4 46 
8 54 

7i 61 

12: 73 

111 84 

10 103 
7110 

18128 
16!144 

20164 
18182 

SPRINGFIELD 110204 



(527) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO ST. Louis, Mo. 

TOTERRE HAUTE 

(see No. 526) ... 



Livingston, 111.... 
Marshall 



13 86 

4 1 90 



Martinsville 12102 

Casey 6108 

Greenup 10118 

Wood bury 

Ewington 

Freemanton 

Howard's Point.. 

Cumberland .. 

VANDALIA 

Mulberry Grove .. 

Greenville 

Hickory Grove... 

Collinsville < 

ST. Louis.. 



125 
18143 

5148 
9157 
7:164 
6170 
9179 
8187 
9196 
25221 
116237 



(528) F'M INDIANAPOLIS 
TO LOUISVILLE, Ky. 

Via New Albany. 

To Martinsville ..1 

Bloomington 21 

Marysville 14 



Bedford 

Sinking Spring.. 

Spring Mill 

Orleans 

PAOLI 

Hardinsburg .... 
Fredericksburg. . 

Palmyra 

Greenville 

New Albany .... 
LOUISVILLE.... 



101 
8109 
12 121 
4125 



214 



ROUTES IN INDIANA. 



(529) F'M INDIANAF 
TO FREDONIA. 

To Paoli 
(see No. 528) . . . 
Valerie ] 


OLIS 

79 
89 
5 94 
3107 

OLIS 

10 
20 
30 
LI 41 
pulis 

!}U 

7 55 


533) F'M INDIANA? 
TO VEVAY. 

'o Napoleon 
(see No. 531) . . . 
Versailles 1 


3LIS 
73 

81 
93; 
4 97 
8 105 
3108 

* TO 

volis 

12 

8 20i 
8 28 
7 35 

W 
4 42 

1 53 

63 
73 
LO 83 

ILLE 

r, 

^erre 
te,Sr 

\ 10 
20 30 
4 34 
8 42 
12 54 
15 69 
8 77 
12 89 
9 98 
8106 
7113 
7120 
9129 
6135 
10145 

^ 
518 

8180 
6186 
21*8 
5193 
8201 
11212 
7219 
422: 
7230 
6236 
3239 
5244 
7251 


(536) F'M EVANSV 
TO CHICAGO, I 
To Covington 
(see No. 535)... 
DANVILLE, III '] 
North Fork 


r , 

172 

2184 

12222 
12234 
28262 
6268 
102- 8 
20298 
53W 
8311 
4315 
61321 
4J325 
131338 

H OF 
IVER 

1 29 
19 48 
32 80 
10 90 
2 92 
15107 
18125 
111136 
24 160 
16176 
11187 
24 211 
5216 
11227 
10237 
10 247 

16284 
13297 
13310 

IIGAN 
ATI, 

is. 

30 36 
8: 44 
10 54 
11 65 
12 77 
13 90 
6 96 
5ilOl 
6:107 
10117 
12129 
5134 
6140 
9149 

105254 


Proctorsville 
FRKDONIA .3 

(530) F'M INDIANA! 
TO MADISON. 

To Greenwood... 
Franklin 


Jross Plains 1 


Miltord \ 


It. Sterling 
VEVAY 

534) F'M MADISOI 
INDIANAPOLIS. 
Madison fr Indian a 
Railroad. 
\> Dupont 
Vernon 


Iroquois 


Julbonus Grove.. 
Rockville .: 


Wilmington 


Lockport. . . . 


Edinburg 




Ues Plains ... 


Madison fr Indiana 
Railroad. 


^lag Creek , 


Clifty 1 
Eliznbethtown ... 
gcinio 


Scipio 
Slizabethtown ... 
Clifty. . . 4 


537) FROM Moui 
THE WABASH R 
TO LA FAYETTE 

Steamboat. 
To Grand Chain. 
Slew Harmony ... 
Coffee Isl. Rapids 
Mt Carmel. . . 


Vernon....; 8 1 62 






8 ! 71 
12 83 

POLIS 
1, 

14 Z 
12 34 

6 40 
11 51 
10 61 
12 73 
6 79 


Edinbuf^* 1 




(531) F'M INDIANA 

TO ClNCINNAT 

Via Napoleon 
To Bethel 


Franklin 1 


Jreenwood 
ND1ANAPOLIS ] 

(535) F'M EVANSV 

TO LOGANSPOR 

Via Vincennes, '. 
Haute, La Fayei 
Delphi. 
To Sandersville .. 
Princeton 
Patoka 


Grand Rauids... 
St. Francisville. .. 
VINCENNES 
Russellville 


Pleasant View 
Brandy wine 
Shelby ville 
St Omar 


Merom . . 


York 


Greensburg 
NAPOLEON 


TERRE HAUTE... 
Harrison 


Laugherty 


4 83 

7 90 


Dicksburg 
VINCENNES 


Montezuma 
Westporl 
Perry ville 
Covington 
WILLIAM SPORT.. 
La Grunge 


Lawrenceburg ... 
Elizabethtown.O. 
Cleves 


10100 
610b 
4110 
4114 
4118 
4122 

POLIS 
I, 

e. 

lo 

11 2b 
14 4 

7 4 
4 5 
6 5 

5i b* 
7 tt 
7 7 
5 8 
6 8 


W. Union 
Carlisle 
Merorn 


Dry Ridge 


Furmim's Creek.. 
Prairie Creek ! 
I'rairieton 
TERRE HAUTE... 
Otter Creek 
Clinton 


CINCINNATI 
(532) F'M INDIANA 

TO ClNCINNAT 

Via Brookvili 

To Sugar Creek.. 
Morristown 


LA FAYETTE 

(538) FROM MICI 
CITY TO CINCINJ 
Via Indianapot 
To Laporte 


Highland 


Newport 


Perry ville 

CoVINOTON 
Portland 


Sidney 


Rochester 
Metea 


gushville 
ew Salem, 


Wllliamsport 
Attica 
Slmwnee Prairie.. 
West Point 


LOGANSPORT 
Carroll 
Burlington 


Andersonville 
laurel 
Metamora .... 


Middle Fork 
Michigantown ... 
Kirk'sX Roads.. 
Northlield 
Eagle Village.... 
Augusta 


BROOKVILLE 
Cedar Grove 
New Trenton 
Harrison O 


LA FAYETTE 
Battle Ground 
Americus 
DELPHI . . 


Clark's Store 
Miami 


4 9 
4 9o 


Tiptonport 
Ijockport. 


INDIANAPOLIS 
CINCINNATI 
(see No. 532)... 


Cbeviot 


610 
410 


Amsterdam 

LOGANSI'ORT .... 


CINCINNATI 



ROUTES IN MICHIGAN. 



215 



(539) F'M DETROIT 
PORT HUKON. 
ToRoseville ! 
Mt. Clemenos 1 
New Haven 
Columbus il 


TO| 

L 18 
1 25 
2 ! 37 
L 48 

L! 59 

1 TO 

RR. 
14 

5 19 

6 25 

7 32 
5 37 
7 44 
5 49 
4 53 
8 61 
4 65 
7 72 
3 85 
12 97 

r TO 

13 

3 16 
4 20 
5 25 

4 29 
6 35 

iJ 

3 51 

8 59 
12 71 
15 86 
25111 
7118 
10128 
7ia5 
10145 
10155 
7162 
2518? 
12199 

T TO 

rfctf, 

id. 

\ 10 
5 15 
8 23 
7 30 
101 4f 
6 4f 


Dexter 


6 52] 
7 59i 


Calumet, 111 I241267 
CHICAGO 11212/9 




-v T nkp 


8 67 
4 71 

8 79 
6 851 
7 92 
5 971 
3100 
8108 
5113 
7120 
5 12.-, 
8133 
4137; 
5142 
4146 

18164 
8172 

8180 
10 190 
10200, 

IT TO 

30 
5 35 
5 40 
5 45 
7 52 
5 57 
9 66 
7 73 
6 79 
9 88 
4 92 
5 97 
7104 
6110 
3113 
4117 
4121 
5126 
5131 
4135 
5140 
8148 
6154 
6160 
7167 
51172 
3175 
i 7il82 

)IT TO 

182 
.141% 
. 5201 
13214 
. 12 22t 
. 17 243 


(545) F'M DETROIT 
TOLEDO. 

To Truago 


P TO 

13 

8 21 
4 25 

3 38 
5 43 

5i 48 
5 53 
9 62 
3 65 

r TO 

f a 

5 57 

LO! 67 

r TO 

75 

10 85 
20105 
27132 
30162 
#192 
14206 
30236 
30266 
16282 
15 327 

T TO 

72 
75 147 

7f. 2'Jii 

80302 
6r 367 
034D 
?,(! 620 
2 , 645 
136/8 
57715 

)E TO 

ad. 

112 
6 18 
4 22 
12 34 
7 41 
10 51 
6 57 
5 62 
6 68 


I eoni 


T rK;oN 


Barry 


St. Clair 1 
PORT HURON.... 1 

(540) F'M DETROII 
SAGINAW. 
Detroit $ Pontiac 
To Royal Oak.... 
Birmingham 


Albion 
Waterburg 


Brownstown 
Bre^t 1 


Vlurengo 
MARSHALL 


MONROE 


LaSalle 


Battle Creek 
Charleston 


Manhattan, O....; 


Galesburg 
Comstock 
KALAMAZOO 
Stage. 
Pawpnw 
Kendall 
Keelersville .. . 


(546) F'M DETROU 
ADRIAN. 

To Clinton 

(see No. 543) ... 


Staff e. 
Watertbrd 
Springfield 
Grovel and 


Grand Blanc 


Bainbridpe 
ST. JOSEPH'S .... 

(543) F'M DETRO 

NlLES. 

To Ypsilanti 
(see No. 542)... 
Pittsrield 
Saline 
Benton 
Clinton 


ADRIAN 1 

547) F'M DETROI 
BUFFALO. 

Steamboat. 
To Sandusky, O.. 


Genesee 


Thettbrd . 


Bridgeport 


SAGINAW 1 


(541) F'M DKTROI 
GRAND HAVEN 
Via Ionia. 
ToRedford I 


Black River 
JLEVELAND 
Grand River 

Ashtabula 


Livonia 
Farmington 
Novi 
Hicksville 
Kensington 


Cambridge 
Woodstock 
Somerset 
Moscow 


Jonneuut 
ERIE, Pa 
Portland, N.Y. .. 
Dunkirk 
BUFFALO 


Brighton 
Genoa 

HOVVELL 

Cedar 
Phelnstown 


Sylvanus 
Quincy 
(COLD WATER ... 
Brunch 


(548) F'M DETROI 
CHICAGO. 

To Ft. Gratiot. . . 
Point au Barques 
Thunder Bay Is . 
Presque Iste 


DeWitt 
Lyons 


1 Batavia 
Bronson's Prairie. 
Prairie River .... 
! Freedom 


IONIA 

Boston 


Flat River 
Ada 


Sherman 
W. Sherman 
White Pigeon... 

MOTTSVILLE 


Manitou Islands. ] 
Milwaukie, Wis. 1 
Racine 


GRAND RAPIDS . . 


South port 


Port Sheldon 
GRAND HAVKN... 

(542) F'M DETRO 
ST. JOSEPH'S 
Via Jackson,Mar 
& Kaiamazoo 

Central Railro 
To Dearbornville. 
S. Nankin 
S. Plymouth 
Ypsilanti 


Adamsville. . . 


CHICAGO, 111. ... 
(549) FR'M MONRC 

NlLES. 

Southern Railrc 
To Ida 


Edwardsburg. ... 
Dover 


NlLES 


(544) F'M DETRC 
CHICAGO. 

To Niles- 
(see No. 543) . . 
Terre Coupee, la 
Hudson 
Laporte 
MICHIGAN CITY. 
! City W T est 


Somerfield . .. 


Deerfield ......... 


ADRIAN ..;...;... 
Dover 


Hudson 
Pittsford 
Florida 

HlLLSDALE 


ANN ARBOR 
Scio.... 



1216 

Stage. 

Sylyanus 

duincy 

Cold Water 



ROUTES IN ILLINOIS. 



8 76 

71 :: 

6i 89 



(550) F'M TOLEDO, O., 

TO NlLES. 

Erie <Sr Kalamazoo RR. 
To Whiteford.... 



.... 

Blissford, Mich... 
almyra 



ADRIAN 

NlLES 



_. 
61 33 

I 



(see No. 549)... 127 160 

(551) FROM ADRIAN TO 

JACKSON. 
To Tecumseh .... 

v Clinton 

Manchester 

Elba 

Napoleon 



Michigan Centre. 
JACKSON 



i FROM MARSHALL 
i MICHIGAN CITY, 



To Cedar Lake... 

Newton 

Athens 



Sherwood ........ 

Port Pleasant ..... 

Nottaway ........ 

CENTREVILLE ... 
Mottville ......... 

Bristol, la ........ 

Elkhart 



MUhawaka ...... 

South Bend ...... 

Big Springs. ..... 

MICHIGAN CITY.. 



a 

R 42 



30117 
12U29 



(553) F'M KALAMAZOC 
TO GRAND KAPIDS. 



ToRichland 

Fulton 

Yankee Springs.. 

Middleville 

Ada , 

GRAND RAPIDS... HO' 



(554) F'M KALAMAZO 
TO GRAND HAVEN. 

To Plainville 

Otsego .....' 

Allegan 

Richmond 

Saugatuck 

Port Sheldon 

GRAND HAVEN... 12 



555) FROM SHAWNEE- 

TOWN TO VlNCENNES. 

'o New Haven . . 



Concord 



'hillipstown 

iraysville 



rtt. Carmel 

Lrmstrong 

"iNCENNES 



8 31 



IS 1 66 
10! 76 
19: 95 



SALEM 

Jatc 

Vlaysville 

Jlney 

'ittwrenceville 

'INCENNES 



556) FROM SHAWNEE 
TOWN TO SPRING 

FIELD. 

oDuncanton ... | 23 

ScLeanshoro'.... 16 39 
oore's Prairie... 13 52 

tit. Vernon , 

ordon's Prairie. 
ALEM 

f ANDALIA 

lurricane 

Hillsboro' 

.anesville 

SPRINGFIELD ... 



.561) FR'M KASKASKIA 

TO ST. Louis. 
To Prairie de 

Rocher 

Waterloo 

Columbia 

Jahokia 

ST. Louis 



14 66 
8 74 
14 88 
25113 
12125 
15140 
26,166 
38204 



557) FROM SHAWNEE 
TOWN TO ST. Louis. 



To Cy press v ilk. . . 
Equality 



lallatin 

Jrankfbrt 

Vlt. Hawkins 

Vashville 

Peasant Grove... 

Vlascoutah 

Belleville 



ST. Louis 



151125 
10I3T 
15150 



[558) FROM GOLCONDA 
TO ST. Louis. 

To Sarahville 

Marion C. H 

Frankfort 

ST. Louis 
(see No. 557)... 



II Il5t 

559) FROM SHAWNEE 
TOWN TO CAPE Gi 

RARDEAU, Mo. 

T9 Mt. Airy | li 

Vienna 

Mt. Pleasiint 

Jonesboro' 

Clear Creek L'd'gj 18! 8 

CAPEGlRARDEAUl 61 9 

(560) FR'M KASKASKL 

TO VlNCENNES. 

To Sparta 

Elkhorn 

Nashville 

Walnut Hill, 



Hi ;> 
12 &- 



11! 70 

18 88 
18106 
25131 
22 153 
9162 



21 35 
8 43 
9, 52 

3 55 



) FROM ALTON TO 
JACKSONVILLE. 

To Brighton I I 12 

Delaware 12 24 



Payette 

Greenfield 

Athensville 

Williamsburg 

JACKSONVILLE... 



10 63 



(563) F'M SPRINGFIELD 
TO CHICAGO, 
Via Peoria. 

ToMiddletown.. I 20 
Delevan 25 45 

4; 57 



70 
85 



14;102 



Dillon 

Tremont 

Pekin 

PEORIA 

Rome 

Chillicothe 

Lacon ,--,. 

Hennepin 17119 

LASALLE 15134 

Ottawa !lol49 

Lisbon 21 170 

Ausable 9 179 

JOLIET..., 113192 

5 197 
8 205 
4 I'd:- 

4219 



I^ockport 

Keopateau . . . 
Des Plaines... 
Flagg Creek.. 
Summit 



CHICAGO 13 2& 

(564) F'M SPRINGFIELD 
TO GALENA, 
Via. Peoria. 
To Peoria 

(see No. 563) 
N. Hampton . . 
Providence... . 

Scottsville 

Dixon's Ferry 



TO 

_. 90 
124 114 
35U49 
112161 



Buftalo Grove.... 12173 
Cherry Grove ....H7J190 

Apple River 25215 

GALENA 15123') 



ROUTES IN ILLINOIS. 



217 



(565) F'M SPRING* 
TO LEWISTOW 
To Salisbury 
Petersburg 
Sand Ridge 
Havanna. 


IELD 

N. 

'1C 
11 21 

6 27 
18 45 
5 50 
5 55 

IELD 
14 

9 32 
2 45 
8 53 

5 58 
4 72 
2 84 
2 % 
5111 

[ELD 

lo. 

and 

33 

7 40 
8 48 
9 57 
2 69 
1 80 
H J4H 
2108 
5113 
7120 
7127 
8135 

ELD 

lo. 

69 
2 81 
8 89, 
'-> 94 
2 % 
HOI 
1115 
1133 
3141 
2143 

ELD 

i!5 
39 
59 
67 

J\ 74 
L 951 


i|(570) F'M SPRING 
TO SHAWNEETO 
To Zanesville... 
Hillsboro' 


FIELE 
WN. 



26 64 

15 78 
12 91 

:.V) lit 
14130 
8jl38 
141 152 
Ib|l65 
16 181 
23204 

^ELD 
I, 

is. 
10 
16 26 
34 60 
12 72 
9 81 
7 88 


(574) FROM PEOR 
CHICAGO, 
(See No. 563) 

(575) FROM PEOR 
GALENA. 
ToN. Hampton..] 
Providence... 


A TO 

1162 

[A TO 

20 
24 44 

ti 79 
12 91 
12 103 
17120 
35145 
15 160 

A TO 
14 

7 21 
6 27 
8 35 
45 
5 50 
60 
6 66 
8 84 
94 

SL TO 

5,1 
4 17 
8 25 
5 50 
70 

5165 

) TO 

is. 

12 
1 16 
5 21 

7 28 
i 32 

7 39 
3 47 

7 54 
7 61 
I 72 
i 87 
) 97 

)TO 

85 
98 
102 
106 
118 
139 
159 


Hurricane 
VANDALIA 


Waterford. 


Salem 


LEWISTOWN 
(566) F'w SPRINOF 

TO Q.UINCY. 

Railroad. 
To Berlin 


Jordan's Prairie.. 
Mt. Vernon 
Moore's Prairie... 
McLeansboro' ... 
Duncanton . . . 


jScottsville i 
Dixons ville 
! Buffalo Grove.... 
Cherry Grove 
Apple River 
GALENA I 


SHAWNEETOWN . 
(571) F'M SPRING] 

TO ClNCINNAT 

Via Tndianapol 
To Rochester 
Taylorsville 
Shelby ville 


Jacksonville 
Bethel 


MEREDOSIA 
Stage. 
Versailles. 


(576) FROM PEORI 
BURLINGTON. 
To Robin's Nest.. 
Charleston 
'French Creek .... 
Trenton 


Mt. Sterling 
Clayton 1 
Columbus 


Q.UINCY 

(567) F'M SPRINOF 
TO BURLINGTON, 
Via Jacksonville 
Beardstown. 
Railroad. 
To Jacksonville .. 
Stage. 
Arcadia . 


Paradise 
Bethsaida 


KNOXC. II , ] 
iGalesburg 


Charleston 
Hitesville 


8 96 
12108 
6114 
10124 
9133 
11144 
12156 
7163 
8171 
4175 

li IW1 

S IS!) 

8197 

5202 

6208 
9 ( 217 

)5'322 

IELD 

la. 

15 

5 40 
a K5 
2 87 
4101 
0121 
5,136 

0176 

SON- 
IS. 

10 

20 

* 2* 

;> 

8 46 
5 51 
7 58 
3 71 
4 95 


Cold Brook ] 

MONMOUTH 

Oquawka '. 
i BURLINGTON, lo.l] 

'(577) FROM PEORL 
ST. Louis. 
ToPekin 


i Grand view 
Paris 


Elbridsre.. . I 


TERRE HAUTE ..' 
VanBuren 
Harmony.... 

i Manhattan 


Bath 


Beardstown 
Rushville 1 
Doddsville 1 


:putnamsvitle ... 
Mt. Meridian 
Stilesville 


Dillon 
Delevan 


Middletown i 


Macomb ] 


Belleville 


Muddy Lane ] 
Bedford 


Plainfield... 


ST. Louis 
(see No. 569) ...9 

(578) F'M CmcAGf 
MILWAUKEE, W 
To Dutchman's 
Point 
Wheeling 




Honey Creek 
Shokokan 


INDIANAPOLIS 
CINCINNATI 
(see No. 532)... 1( 

(572) F'M SPRINGF 
TO LAFAYETTE, 

To Mechanicsb'rg 
Decatur $ 
Monticello 5 


BURLINGTON 

(568) F'M SPRINGFI 
TO F'T MADISON, 
Via. Nauvoo. 
To Rushville 
(see No. 567)... 
Camden.. 1 


Halfday.... 


Liberty ville 


Urbana i 
Union 1 


Little Fort 
Otsego 


Huntsville.. . 


Pulaski... 


Danville 2 
Covington, la. ... ! 
LA FAYETTE 
(see No. 535) ...A 

(573) FROM JACK 
VILLE TO ST. LOT. 
To Wil'iamsburg. 
Manchester 1 
Whitehall 


Salona, Wis 
South port 
Racine 1 


Augusta 
Plymouth. 


Carthage . 1 


Onk Creek ... >], 


Nauvoo 1 


MILWAUKEE il( 

(579) FR'M CHICAG< 
MADISON, Wis. 

To Rockford 
(see No. 580)... 
Roscoe K 
Pecatonica - 
Beloit 


Appanoos 


FORT MADISON.. 

(569) F'M SPRINGFI 
TO ST. Louis. 
To Auburn 
Carlinville 2 
Lincoln 2< 


Carrollton 1 
Kane 


Jersey ville. . 


Paddock's Grove. 
Edwardsville 
ST. Louis 2 


Delhi 
Alton.. . 1 


Janesville 1! 


ST. Louis 
10 


MADISON 2t 







218 



ROUTES IN ILLINOIS. 



(580) F'M CHICAGO T 
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN, 
Via Galena. 
ToCazenovia....] 1 
floomingdale..Jl2 5 
ft" 121 


o ome 3|14 


7 OLDWATER.....I 

2 Q,uincy ( 


J169 
J175 

7183 
)187 
i!91 
?200 
J206 


PEORIA 1516 


Pekin 817 
Tremont 517 
i Dillon . 4 1/ 


)| Sylvanus 
j Scipio 
9 Moscow 


? Delevan 818 
b Middletown 2521 


7 Somerset 
2 Woodstock 


Hampshire 8 < 


1 Springfield [202; 
" ST. Louis 
g (see No. 569)... 195 32 

If (583) F'M CHICAGO T 
l SHAWNEETOVVN. 
K To Summit 1 


2 Cambridge 


"213 
J222 1 
5227 
7234 
3239 
5244 
5249 
i. 

)J279 

A TO 
15 

8 33 
3 46 
6 52 
9 61 
2 73 
7 80 
7 87 
7 94 
5 99 
4103 
6109 
8117 
61123 
2133 
2147 
L1I158 

A TO 

9 

l ?l 

12! 40 
81 48 
9! 57 
10 67 
251 92 

fATO 

EN. 

18 
8 26 
18 44 
12 56 
15 71 


Coral 6 


7 Clinton 6 




rj . 


Amesville 5 
Belvidere 


o Saline 

Pittsfield 


Cleveland 

ROCKFORD 


3 YPSIL.ANTI 


Vanceburg 1 
Silver Creek 1 
Freeport 61 


fa Des Plaines 6 5 
VS Keeoateau 4 5 
2- jockport 8 { 


7 Central Railroai 
S. Plymouth 
^ S. Nankin 


Apple River 18,1 
GALENA '15)1 


fo OLIET 5 ' 

s Wilmington 20 
Rockville 10 
4 Bulbonus Grove..) 6 


J DETROIT 1 

'% (585) FR'M GALEN 
, CHICAGO, 
16 Via Rockford. 
$ To Elizabeth, (or 
34 Apple River)... 
>4 Burr-oak Grove . . -1 
7; Freeport 1 


Jamestown .. . 18 : 1 


Paris 81 


Cassville 182 
Patch Grove 122 

PRAIRIEDUCHIEN 15 2 

(581) F'M CHICAGO r 
ROCK ISLAND, 
Via. Dixon. 

To Brush Hill.... 
Downer's Grove.. 4 
Napierville 6 


02 M X7 11 


SI North Fork 122 1 
)ANVILLE 161 
Georgetown 10 1 
ro Bloomfield 115 1 


Paris l 1 


^2 Silver Creek 
1 yanceburg 
lo ROCKFORD 1 


Marshall 162 


J8 fork '$ 2 


J Hutsonsville.. ..52 
Palestine | 82 


32 Belvidere 
40 Amesville 


Sugar Grove 6 
Acasta 7 


J iussellville 11? 2 

S VlNCENNES 1102 


2? Vlarengo 
Coral.... 


Little Rock 3 


^ Mt. Carmel 102 


Hampshire 
"' Udina 


Pawpaw Grove . . 17 
Inlet 16 


JS Grays ville 183 
f&\ Philipstown 93 
&: Carmi , ..83 


J2 Elgin.. 
^* Bloomingdale.... 


DIXON 14 
Sterling 5 


vj Concord *>e 
11 New Haven 65 
Ug SHAWNEETOWN .17|c 

5? (584) F'M CHICAGO - 
i*J DETROIT. 
To Calumet ] 
TO City West, In 24 
MICHIGAN CITY.. 17 
Laporte 12 


^ CHICAGO 

ti (586) FR'M GALEN 
MADISON. 
To Hazel Green.. 
19 H'lk Grove 


Rock River Rap- 
ids 7 




Craudall's Ferry.. 11 
ROCK ISLAND 33 

(582) F'M CHICAGO 
ST. Louis, 
Via Peoria fy Sprir 
field. 
To Summit 1 


o^ BHrnont 


KQ Mineral Point.... 
S? Dodgeville 
ro Ridgeway 


Terre Coupee 5 
13 Niles 14 


oy Beaumont 
g-? MADISON 


Flag Creek 4 
Des Plaines ... 6 


' Edwardsburg 10 
2< Adamsville 5 
27 Union 7 


OJ (587) FR'M GALE* 
|^ PRAIRIE DU CHI 
25 To Jamestown . . . 
131 Paris 




Lockport 8 
JOLIET 5 


i MOTTSVILLE 6 

40 White Pigeon.... 6 


Au Sable 13 
Lisbon 9 


53 W. Sherman 8 
62 Sherman 5 


144 Patch Grove 
148 PRAIRIEDUCHIEN 


Ottawa 21 




La Salle 15 


1 Prairie River 5 
113 Bronson's Prairie. 5 
130 Batavia 4 


}?I (588) FR'M GALENA TO 

[jjj DUBUQUE. 

Ibb By Stage & Ferryl I 16 


Ilennepin 15 




Chillicothe 14 


144lBranch 4 



ROUTES IN WISCONSIN AND IOWA. 



219 



(589) FR'M GALEN 
ROCK ISLAND 
To Hanover 
Savannah 


A TO 

1 15 

14 29 
16 45 
10: 55 


(593) F'M MILWAU 
TO CHICAGO. 

To Oak Creek....] 


KEE 

10 
a 25 
1 36 
7 43 


(598) F'M MADISON 
GALENA. 

To Beaumont 


TO 

25 
35 
44 
52 
64 
71 
83 


Fulton 


^ ji * V -, 


Dodgevilie 


Albany 


Salona 


Mineral Point.... 8 


Port Byron 
Hampton 


6 

10 

M 

16 

li 
12 

9 

8 

95 

LA 
11 

12 
E 


HI 
94 

ND 

42 

76 

103 

115 
124 

139 
234 

ND 

33 
44 

K 


3tsego, 111 
Little Fort 


7 50 
3 53 
7 60 
4 64 
7 71 
5 76 
4 80 
2 92 

I OF 
TO 

45 

8 63 
7 70 
5 85 
0115 
0145 
9154 
3167 
2179 
3197 


Belmont !12 
Klk Grove I 7 




Hazel Green 12 
GALENA 9 


ROCK ISLAND 

(590) F'M ROCK Is 
TO ST. Louis 
To Monmouth ... 


jibertyville 
Halfdu y 


(599) F'M DUBUQUE TO 
DAVENPORT. 
To Andrew I 128 


vv heeling 


3utchman's Point 
CHICAGO, 111 1 

(594) FROM MOUTI 
ILLINOIS RIVER 
LASALLE. 

Steamboat. 
To Montezuma... 
Naples 1 


Doddsville 
Rushville 
Beardstown 
Bath 


De Witt 28 
DAVENPORT 118 

(600) F'M DAVENPO 
TO IOWA CITY. 

To Rockingham.. 
Montpelier 12 


RT 

if 

22 
29 
40 

RT 

29 
40 
43 
52 

59 

83 

31 
40 
43 

85 

'ON 
11 

22 

84 

45 
51 

61 
76 
82 
91 
109 
122 


Arcadia 


Jacksonville 
ST. Loui 
(see No. 573) ... 

(591) F'M ROCK Is 
TO CHICAGO. 
To Crandall's Fer- 


VlEREDOSIA 

Beardstown j] 
Havanna 3 


Wyoming . 5 


Bloomington 7 
Overman's Ferry. 11 
W. Liberty . . 8 
IOWA CITY 12 


Pekin 3 
PEORIA 
Rome ... ] 


Lyndon 
Rock River Rap- 


Hennepin 1 
LA SALLE 1 


(601) F'M DAVENPO 
TO BURLINGTON. 

To Bloomington.. 


Sterling 


(595) F'M MILWAUKEE 


Dixon ... 


Inlet.. 


14 

II 

17 
h 
3 
7 
6 
S 
1 
4 
18 

1,1 

6 

! 

11 
U 

13 

( 

l: 

rj 

lL 


115 
121 
124 
131 

137 
14', 
152 
156 
174 

LND 

S3 
94 
110 

{.;: 

127 
131 

143 
155 
167 


TO ROCK is LAN 

To Greenfield....! 
New Berlin 
Vernon 


ft. 

4 10 
6 16 
51 21 
2 33 
8 41 
2 53 
2 65 
2 77 
4 81 
4 85 
3 98 
6114 
1125 
9134 
6140 
8208 

;KEE 

15 
5 30 
>0 50 
9 59 
fl, W) 




Pawpaw Grove .. 
Somonauk 


Wappello 9 


Florence 7 


Little Rock 


Yellow Springs... 9 
BURLINGTON 15 

(602) F'M BURLINGI 
TO IOWA CITY. 

To Yellow Springs' 
Florence 9 
Wnppello 7 


Sugar Grove 


Mukwanago 
Troy 1 


Napierville 


Sugar Creek 


Downer's Grove.. 
Brush Hill 
CHICAGO 


Janesville 1 
Beloit ] 
Pecatomca 


(592) F'M ROCK Is 

TO MlLWAUKK 

To Dixon 
(see No. 591)... 
Grand Detour .... 
Oregon City 
Byron 


Roscoe 
Rockibrd 1 
Byron ] 

Oregon City 1 
Grand Detour 


Grand view 9 
Muscatine 3 
Bloomington 11 
W. Liberty 19 
IOWA CITY i!2 


ROCK ISLAND ( 

(596) F'M MILWAI 
TO MADISON. 

To Prairie Village 
Summit ; 


(603) F'M BURLING-] 
TO ST. Louis. 
To Augusta 
FORT MADISON . . 11 
Montrose 12 
St. Francisville, 
Mo 11 


Rorkfnrd 




p ' j. 


Janesville 
Johnstown 


Sugar Creek 


Cottage Grove ... 


Waterloo. . . ' 6 


Winchester 10 


Mukwanago 
Vernon 


12187 
5192 

6198 
4 ! 202 
6208 


(597) F'M MADISON TO 
FORT WINNEBAGO, 

By Stage.... ,...1 40 


Montice.lo 15 


Davis's Prairie ... t 
La Grange 9 
PALMYRA 18 


New Berlin 
Greenfield 
MILWAUKEE 


Hannibal ...13 



220 



ROUTES IN MISSOURI. 



NEW LONDON... 110 132 

Frankfort ! 8 140 

BOWLING GREEN 14 154 

Auburn 20174 

Troy 12186 

Flint Hill 110196 

St. Peter's ;14210 

ST. CHARLES 
Owen's (Station... 

Walton ham 

ST. Louis 



(604) F'M BURLINGTON 

TO PEORIA. 
ToOquawka 

Monmouth 

Cold Brook 

Galesbu 



alesburg 

noxC. H 



French Creek 

Charleston 

Robin's Nest 



(605) F'M BURLINGTON 
TO Q-UINCY. 

To Augusta 

Fort Madison 

Appanoos, 111. ... 

Nauvoo 

l)es Moines 

Warsaw, 



Green Plains 

Lima 

Ursa 

Q.UINCY .. 



. 10 



(606) FROM ST. Louis 

TO CHICAGO, 

Via Springfield, III., 

and Peoria. 



To Edwardsville . 
Paddock's Grove. 

Lincoln 

Carlinville 

Auburn 



pringrield 



(607) FROM ST. Louis 
TO GALENA, 

Via Spring f d, Peoria, 

$ Dixonsville. 
To Springfield I 

(see No. 606) ... 
GALENA 

(see No. 564)... 23C 

(608) FROM ST. Louis 
TO BURLINGTON, 10. 
Via Jacksonville, III. 

To Alton I 24 

Delhi |13 37 



Jersey ville 

Kane 

Currollton 

Whitehall 

Manchester 

Williamsburg 

Jacksonville 

BURLINGTON 
(see No. 567)...] 



9) FROM ST. Louis 
TO IOWA CITY. 

To Walton ham . . 
Owen's Station .. 
ST. CHARLES 

St. Peter's ! 81 '6 

Flint Hill 14 42 

Troy 10! 52 

Auburn 12| 64 

Bowling Green... 201 84 

Frankfort 14! 98 

New London ! 8 106 

Hannibal 10.116 

PALMYRA 13129 

La Grange 18147 

Davis's Prairie . . . i 9 156 

Monticello I 6162 

Winchester 15177 

Waterloo 10:187 

St. Francisville...! 6193 

Montrose ll;204 

FORT MADISON . . 12;216 

Augusta 11227 

BURLINGTON 11 238 

IOWA CITY | 
(see No. 602)... ,85 323 

(610) FROM ST. Louis 
TO FT. LEAVENW'TH, 

Via St.Cliarles, Fulton, 
" Chariton. 

To VValtonham . . 
Owen's Station... 

St. Charles 

Stockland 



Pond Fort". '. '. '. '. ". '. ". ' 3 
Hickory Grove ...)13 

Warrenton 10 uu 

High Hill 9 67 

rJl..;ii !i7 g4 



Williamsburg 

Jones's Tanya rd.. 



(612) FROM ST. Louis 

TO INDEPENDENCE. 
To Manchester . . . 



Richmond 

Elkhorn 

Fredericksburg... 



5263 



Liberty 13276 

Parry ! 10 286 
lutt City 13299 

FORT LEAVEN- I 
WORTH I 8307 

(611) FROM ST. Louis 
TO JEFFERSON CITY. 

To Fulton 
(see No. 610) . . . 



New Bloomfield... 

Hibernia 

JEFFERSON CITY. 



22131 
10 141 
1142 



Fox Creek 

J oint Labadie 



Gasconade 

Lucy's Creek 
Lisle, 



. 
JEFFERSON CITY. 



_ ........ 

Clark's Fork ..... 

BOONVILLE ...... 

La Mine 



ARROW ROCK .. 



34 
43 
55 

92 

14I106 
12118 
10128 
15143 
5148 
15163 
10173 
10183 
12 195 
15210 
16226 



48 



10 94 

7101 
81109 



FULTON >->:*" 

Millersburg 12121 

Columbia 12133 

Decatnr 18151 

Fayette ! 9160 

Glasgow 12172 

Chariton | 2174 

Keytesville 15|189 

Brunswick 11200 

Pleasant Park.... 9209 

Manlins 6215 

Carroll ton I 7222 

Round Grove 1 13 235 



Grand Pass 

Mt. Hope 8&J4 

Dover ! 7241 

LEXINGTON 11 252 

Wellington 12264 

Fort Osage 16280 

INDEPENDENCE .. 12292 

(613) FROM ST. Louis 
TO FT. SMITH, Ark. 
Via Caledonia and 

Springfield. 
To Carondolet 
Jefferson Barracks 
Knott', Sulphur 

Springs 

Clifton 

Hillsboro' 

Glenfinlas , 

Old Mines... 9 60 

Potosi 7 67 

CALEDONIA 12 79 

Harmony 15 94 

Osnge 15109 

Steel ville 12121 

MaramecC. H. ..12133 
Little Pruirie... 
Little Piney 



I 6 

511 

111 22 
4 26 
5' 41 

10 51 



10143 
20163 



e ney ...... 

Pine Bluff ........ i S171 

Waynesville ...... 112183 

.Belleibnte ........ 11'194 



ROUTES IN MISSOURI. 



221 



Oakland 

Cave Spring 

Woodbury 

Pleasant Prairie . . 
-Walnut Forest... 
SPRINGFIELD 
Cane Creek ...... 

Cussville 

Bentonville. Ark. 

Fnyetteville 

Sweet Home 

Cane Hill 

Evansville 

Van Buren 

FORT SMITH 



13207 
8215 

10225 

!J:i.J7 
13250 

8258 

221361 

10371 
ti 377 
10387 
30417 
5422 



(614) F'M ST. Louis TO 
LITTLE ROCK, Ark. 

Via, Caledonia, Freder- 
icl&town, and Hicks' 
Ferry, Ark. 

To Caledonia I I 
(see. No. 613) .. 

Farmington 

Mine La Motte.. 



Fredericktown 



79 

22 ! 101 
4I105 



Greenville 351144 

Cane Creek 23167 

Hick's Ferry, Ark 27194 
Fourche Du Mas. 14208 

Jackson 16224 

Smithville 15239 

Reed's Creek 15'254 

Batesville 20274 

Searcy C. H 40i314 

LITTLE ROCK ... 501364 

(615) F'M ST. Louis TO 

NEW MADRID. 
To Fredericktown 
(see No. 614) ... 
Jack: 



1109 
38147 



10183 



Cape Girardeau.. 

Spring Hill 

Benton 

Pleasant Plains... 

Ogden ! 8191 

NEW MADRID. ... 23 214 

(616) F'M ST. Louis TO 

LOUISVILLE, Ky. 

Via Vincennes. 

To Belleville, 111.. 

Rock Spring 

Lebanon 

Aviston 

Shoal Creek 

Carlisle 

SALEM 

Cato 

Maysville 

Olney 

Lawrenceville 

VINCENNES, la... 



ir, i, 



9170 



Berryyille 

Washington 

Mt. Pleasant 

Columbiaville 

Paoli 

Hardinsburg 

Fredencksburg. . . 

Palmyra 

Greenville 

New Albany 

LOUISVILLE 



(617) F'M ST. Louis TO 

INDIANAPOLIS, 

Via Vandalia, lit., # 

Terre Haute, la. 

ToCollinsville... 



... 
Hickory Grove... 

Greenville 

Mulberry Grove.. 

VANDALIA 

Cumberland 

Howard's Point .. 

Freemanton 

Ewington 

Woodbury 



! 16 



9 50 



Pawnee Fork .... 

Coon Creek 

Caches 

Ford of Arkansas. 

Sand Creek 

Cimarron River .. 



36664 
20!684 
50:734 

8742 
36 778 
26804 
18822 

5827 



Middle Spring 

Willow Bar 

Upper Spring.... 

Cold Spring 

McNee's Creek. . . . 

Rabbk.ear Creek. 20 872 
Round Mound ... 8880 

Rock Creek 8888 

Point of Rocks ... 19 907 



Lio Colorado 

"'cate 



Santa Clara 



Spring 
_ ,__io Mori. 

8 58 1 1 Rio Gall in as 

9 67! Ojo de Bernal 



21954 
22976 



6 73 

7 80 
9 89| 
o M 

18112 



Greenup ..I 7119 

Casey 10129 



Martinsville 

Marshall 



TERRE HAUTE .. 

Van Buren 

Harmony 

Manhattan 

Putnamsville 

Mt. Meridian 



6135 
12147 

4151 
131164 
12176 

?;i83 

8191 

4 ]'.; 

6201 



8217 



Stilesville 
Belleville, 

Plainfield 

Bridgeport 

INDIANAPOLIS . . . . ' 9i237 



Spring. 

San Miguel 

Pecos Village ... 
SANTA FE 



171013 

.1019 
231042 
251067 



(619) F'M ST. Louis TO 
ASTORIA, OREGON. 

Steamboat. 
To Knnsas L'd'g,! f 
(m. of KansnsR.) 
(see page 227;... J 1381 

Emigrant Route. 
Kansas River i I 

nng 751 456 



fi'ono Crowing to\ too 

IfK Platte River., ..220' 626 



Forks of Platte 



!5SKi| River 115 791 

8*3 Chimney Rock! 155 946 



(618) F'M ST. Louis TO 
SANTA FE. 

Stage. 

To INDEPEND'CE, 
(see No. 612) . . . 
Caravan Route. 

Westport 

Round Grove 

Narrows 

110 Mile Creek ... 

Jig John r Spring! ! '40 440 ' ! Forffi* nis'g! '.'...'. 



23327 



Scott's Bluff.... 
Fort Larimie... 

RedButtes 

Rock Independ- 
ence 

SOUTH PASS... 

Green River 

Beer Springs... 

Fort Hall 

American Falls. 



Le< 



snmg Jb 
wis R. 



mg . 



Cross- 



Council Gr 



.... . 
2442 Burnt River.... 



.... .... 

Diamond Spring ,'la457 Grande Ronde.. 
Lost Spring ...... 15j472i Ft. Wallawnlla. 

Cotton wood Cr'k. 12484; [Jmatillah Riv.. 
Turkey Creek.... |25 o09j John Day's R.. 



Little Arkansas ..17 



Co w Creek 20 546 1 i Dalles 



Arkansas River .. 16 



526 Falls River 



562|iCascai 



Walnut Creek.... 8570] Fort Va.., 
Ash Creek 19 58911 ASTORIA 





.des 45237 

Vancouver 55243 
RIA 1001253 



601028 



501233 
10 1343 
70 1413 
1901603 
501653 
22 1675 
1251800 

401840 
130 1970 
702040 
68 2108 
902198 
252223 
702294 



202333 
452378 
552433 



STEAMBOAT ROUTES 

ON 

THE OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI RIVERS. 

(ROUTE 620) 



NAMES OF PLACES. 


P 

K 

c s 

PH 

Q 

12 
18 

10 
16 
3 
5 
21 

8 
9 
1 
12 
lo 
22 
8 
17 
17 


Pittsburg, Penn. 


o 

6 
=._' 

it 

c 
B 

'C 
liw 

481 
4/1 
461 
44.) 
4-42 
43, 
416 
40! l 
40] 

m 

3'.tl 

37 

364 
943 

334 
31 / 

3(;0 


g 

W 

V> 

J 
633 

Iiii8 
598 

:>^ 
u79 

5 -? 

^'1; 

5^ 
i>16 
501 
479 
4T1 
4,)4 
437 


From 
Mth. of Ohio Riv. 
From 
Memphis, Tenn. 


J 


From 
New Orleans. 
From 
Mth. Mississippi R. 


o 

^ 


PITTSBTJRG Pa . 


10041246 17432044 2149 L176 
9921234 1731 2032 213/ v 1164 
9/91221 1718^0192(24 1151 
969 1211 1708 2009 2114] 1141 
953'1195 1692 1993 2098 1125 
950 1192 1689 1990 2095 1 1122 
9451 18 / 1684198520901117 
9241166166319642069 1096 
917115916561957 2062 1089 
9091151 Ib48 1949 2054 1081 
9001142 1639 1940 2045 10/2 
899ll^li6381939.2044'107i 
88 Ml 29 1626 1927 2032 1059 
8/2 1114 16J1 1912 2017 1044 
850 1092158.J 1890 1995 1022 
842 IIW41581 1882 1987 1014 
825 1067 1564 1865 1970 997 
808 10^)U547J1848 1953 980 


tiddletown, " 


oiiomy, '* .. 


ijiver " 


Georgetown, " 


Ijiverpool Ohio 


Wellsville, " 


Steubenville " . 


Wellsville, Va 


Warren, O 


WHEELING, Va 


Bridgeport O ... 


Klizubethtowi) Va 


Lanesville, " 


Sistersville " ... 


Grand View, Ohio 


Newport, '* 


MARIETTA, " 


Muskingum River 

Vienna Va . 


6 

7 


BOB 

908 


2M4 

287 


431 

424 


8021044 
795 1037 


1541 
1534 


1842 1947 
1835 1940 


974 

967 


Little Kanawha River 
Blannerhassett's Island. . . , 


2 
10 
5 
38 
15 
17 


21! 
221 
22i 
264 
27! 
296 


BBS 

2-5 
270 
Si:i'J 
217 

200 


422 
412 
407 
33! 
354 
1387 


793 1035 

783 1025 
7781020 
740 982 
7251 967 
708 950 


153218331938 
1522 1823 1928 
15171818 1923 
147917801885 
1464 1765 1870 
1447 1748 1853 


965 
955 
950 
912 
897 
880 


Troy, O .. 


Belleville, Va 


Jjetart's Rapids* 


Pomeroy, O 


Point Pleasant, Va 


Oreat Kanawha River 
GALLIPOLIS, Ohio... 


4 
6 

9 

22 

8 
3 

14 


300 
30b 
315 
337 


196 
190 
181 
159 


333 

327 
318 
29b 


704 946 
698 940 
689 931 
667 909 


144317441849 
1437 1738 1843 
142*1729 1834 
1406 1707 1812 


876 
870 

861 
839 




Newcastle, '* 


GUYANDOTTE, Va 


f rnyandotte River 
Burlington, O 


34o| 151 


288 


659 901 


1398 


1699 


1804 


831 


JSig Sandy River, Va. & Ky. 
Catletsburg, Ky 


349 147 
363 133 


284 
271 


655 897 
6411 883 


1394 

L38J 


1H95 
J681 


1800 
1786 


827 
813 


Hanging Rock, O 



STEAMBOAT ROUTES OHIO RIVER. 



223 



NAMES OF PLACES. 


So; 
&'* 

1 

PH 


From 
Pittsburg, Penn. 


From 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 


l= r 

&H'> 

1 


From 
Mth. of Ohio Riv. 


From 
Memphis, Tenn. 


From 
Natchez, Miss. 


From 
New Orleans. 


From 
Mth. Mississippi R.| 


g l 
1 

r i. 


Green upsburg, Ky 


.1 

22 
16 
6 

8 

12 


369 


127 


264 


635 


877 


13741675 


1780 


807 

785 

769 
765 
759 

^ 

735 


lAttle Sandy River 
PORTSMOUTH, O 


391 


105 


242 


613 


855 


1352 


1653 


1758 


Scioto River 

Rockville O 


407 
411 
417 
421 
42 
441 


89 
85 
79 
75 
67 
55 


22. ; 

222 

2it; 

212 
904 
W 


597 
593 
587 
583 
575 


839 
833 
829 

825 
817 
805 


1336 1637 1742 
1332 1633 1738 
1326 1627 1732 
1322 1623 1728 
131416151720 
13021603 1708 


Vaneeburg, Ky. .. 


Rome O 


Snncord, Ky 


anchester O 


MAYSVILLE, Ky 


Aberdeen, (opposite,) O 
Ripley, O 


8 
8 


449 

45f 


47 
41 


184 
V ( > 


555 797 
549 791 
546 788 
538 780 
534 776 
527 769 
518 760 
513 755 
510 752 
508 750 


1294 1595 1700 
1288 1589 1694 
1285 1586 1691 
1277 15781683 
1273 1574 1679 
1266156716:2 
125715581663 
1252 1553 1658 
1249 1550 1655 
1247 1548 1653 


727 
721 
718 
710 

706 
699 
690 

H80 


Higginsport, (_) 


Augusta, Ky 
Neville, Ohio 


8 
9 
| 


4tjl 
47< 



491 

4! '4 

491 




2b 
19 
10 
5 
2 



167 
163 
i5 

147 
142 
W 
137 


Moscow, " 


New Richmond, " ... 




Columbia, Ohio.. 


Fulton, " 


CINCINNATI, " 


Covington, (opposite,) Ky. ... 
North Bend, O ... 


16 
7 
4 
9 
13 
9 
1 
9 

6 
15 


512 
519 
523 

545 
554 

;;. 

5H4 
570 

585 


16 

8 

36 
49 

68 
74 
89 


121 
114 
110 

101 

88 
79 

?! 

63 

I 


193 
483 
489 

472 
459 

4^0 
449 
440 

m 

419 


W, 

m 

701 

692 
691 
682 

676 
661 


il231 
1220 
1211 
1198 
1189 
1188 
H79 

1173 

1158 


15321637 

1525 lb'30 
1521 1626 
15121617 
1499 1604 
1490 1595 
14^9 1594 
14801585 

1474 157 4 9 
14591564 


1? 

653 
644 
631 
622 
621 
612 

606 
591 


Lawrenceburg, la 


Aurora, " ... 


Rising Sun, " 


Patriot, " 


WarsH w, Ky 


New York, la. .... 


Vevay, " 

(ihent, (opposite,) Ky 


Carrollton, " 
Muuth of Kentucky River . . . 
MADISON, [a 


Milton, (opposite,) Ky 
New .London, la. . 


9 
8 
7 

7 
9 
7 

J 

1 


594 
602 
808 
61K 
6% 
632 
683 
685 
686 


98 
106 
113 

120 

129 
i:->; 
135 
186 

140 


39 
3J 
24 
17 
8 
1 

2 
3 


410 
402 
395 
388 
378 
372 
371 
369 
368 


652 
644 
637 
630 
621 
p4 
(ilb 
611 
610 


1149 
1141 

112. 
Hlg 

1111 

1110 
1108 
1107 


1450 
1442 
143; 
1428 
141! J 
1412 
1111 
1409 
1408 


1555 

1524 
1617 

1516 
1514 
1513 


582 
574 
567 
560 
551 
544 
543 
541 
540 


JRethlehem, " . 


Westport, Ky 


Charleston, la 


Ulica, " . 


Jeffersonville, " . 


LOUISVILLE, Ky 


Shippingsport, " .. 


Portland, 


NEW ALBANY, (opposite,) la. 
Salt River, Ky 


20 
17 
17 

a 

?? 

18 


656 


160 


23 


348 


590 


1087 


1388 


1493 520 


West Point, " 
Brandenburg, " .. 


673 

671 
691 
694 

7 K (< 

747 


177 
178 
lit:, 
198 

2.;:-! 

251 


40 
41 

58 
61 
96 

114 


331 

330 
313 

310 
275 

257 


573 
578 

i 
w 

4.99 


1070 
1069 
1033 

1049 
1014 


1371 
1353 
1315 

1297 


1476 503 
1475 502 

1458 485 
1455 482 
1420 447 

1402 429 


Mauksport, la 


I je ven worth, " 


Fredonia, " 


Rome, '* 


Stevensport, Ky .. 


Cloverport, " 



224 ROUTES ON THE OHIO & MISSISSIPPI RIVERS. 



NAMES OF PLACES. 


Distance from 
Place to Place. 


From 
Pittsburg, Penn. 


c 

\ 

11 
z 

2 


;I 

"^'F 
1 


> 

3 

c 

l! 

^^ 
5 


From 
Memphis, Tenn. 


Z 

^ 

tz 

I 

1 


si 

:~ 

o 
I 


From 
Mth. Mississippi R. 


S,I/^ m Mo. 1 


Hnwesville Kv 


9 
3 
16 
g 

*l 

10 

25 

14 


M 

75! 
775 
784 
813 

81! 
82! 
8& 


2.;o 
263 
279 
2SS 
315 
323 
335 
35S 
'-,-> 
;j;h 
88^ 
;;x^ 
40! 
4!7 
4l>! 

447 


123 

12*) 

142 

151 
178 
186 
U*i 
221 
235 
241 
247 
2ul 
2;2 
280 
21 '2 
310 


24 

24: 
22! 
221 
1!I3 
IS, 
17,: 
l',( 
131 

ia 

124 
120 
EK 
91 
79 
6] 


4HO 
187 
47] 

4t;2 

435 

427 
417 
392 
378 
372 
366 
362 
341 
333 
321 
BOB 


987112881393 
984 1285 1390 
968 1-26911374 
95912601365 
932123311338 
924 122511330 
914 1215il320 
88911901295 
875 1176 1281 
869 1170 1275 
863 1164 1269 
859:11601265 
838,11391244 
83011311236 
8181119 1224 
800 1101 1206 


420 
417 

401 

392 
365 
357 
347 
322 

296 
292 
271 
263 
251 
233 


Troy, la 


Rockport " . . ... 




Green River 


KVANSVILLE Ift 


Henderson ville, Ky 


Mt Vernoh la 


Carthage, Ky 


HiS 


W abash. River 
Raleigh, Ky 


6 
4 

21 
8 

12 

18 

!? 


881 

8ft 
90i 

Bi; 
B2 

IM: 


SHAWNEETOVVN III 


Cave-in Rock " . . 


.Klizabethtown, ** 


CJolconda " .. 


Cumberland River, Ky 


SMITHLAND, ' 
Tennessee River 


<b 


4(2 


325 


4t 


2S8 


785 


1086 


1191 


218 


Fort Massuc, III 


32 
10 

5 
18 

15 
42 
10 
20 
39 

A 

12 
10 

10 

33 
34 

10 
1(5 
21 
10 
14 

10 
10 
20 
46 
1 
5 
34 

12 

10 

it; 


BBC 

MX* 

1004 
]00: 

1025 
!(;;>/ 
107! 
108! 
HO! 
1138 
114* 
[158 
1168 
U7 
117!' 

I24i 

1247 

1294 
L304 
1318 


4U4 
501 
^ 
61c 
59! 
541 
58 
59! 
(!1H 
64J 
65< 
B6S 
(J7L 
tig 
681 
711 

B 



7 
80f 

Sv L 


357 
367 
371 

37: ; 

liS:) 

404 

446 
456 
47t; 
505 
513 
525 
535 
545 
54H 
579 
618 
;M 

ti24 
H40 
661 
671 

t;s5 


1 

( 

i 

ffi 

75 
85 
105 

134 

112 
154 
164 
174 

175 

3 

242 

253 
26G 

39C 
80( 

314 


25(i 
246 

242 

2;i7 
224 
2l)i) 

Jt;7 
157 

137 
108 

100 

ss 
78 

<;8 

67 
34 

1 
11 
27 
48 
58 
72 


753 
74:; 
739 
7::4 
721 
706 
ti,.4 
654 
634 
605 
597 
585 
575 
565 
564 
53] 
497 
498 
486 
47(1 
449 
439 
425 


1054 
1044 
1040 
1035 

\m 

965 
955 
935 
906 

898 
686 

876 

866 
86-5 
839 

7!H 
797 
787 
771 
750 
740 
726 


1159 
114; 
11 4- T 
1141 

1127 
1112 

I07( 

too 

I04< 

1011 
1003 
9!U 
963 
971 
971 
937 
903 

m 

893 

876 
8.55 
845 
831 


186 

176 
172 
177 

ISO 
205 
247 
257 
277 
306 
314 
326 
336 
346 
347 
380 
414 
415 
425 
441 
462 
472 
486 

496 
506 
526 
572 
573 
578 
592 

604 
614 
630 


Trinity, ' " 


CAIRO, (at Mouth of Ohio R.) 
Norfolk, Mo 


COLUMBUS Ky .. .... 


Hickman, " 


NEW MADRID Mo 


Riddle's Point " 


Little Prairie, " 


Obion River, Tenn 


Ashport, " 


Osceola, Ark . 




JJatchie River 


Randolph Tenn 


Greenock, Ark 


MEMPHIS, Tenn 


Fort Pickering, " 


Norfolk, Miss 




Walnut Be'nd, " 


Peyton, " 


f\. Francis River 


erling, Ark 

ELENA ** . 


iaae 

1388 
1358 
1404 
1405 
1410 
142) 


832 
84S 

8t5 
90 

;*u: 

H14 
928 


6H5 
706 

725 
771 
772 
777 
791 


324 
334 
35/1 
40C 
401 
406 
420 


82 
92 
112 
158 
159 
164 
178 


415 

405 

885 
339 
338 

333 
319 


716 

701 ; 
686 

640 
839 
634 

620 


821 
81) 
791 
745 

744 

7:;:< 
725 


Delta, Miss.... 


Old Town Ark 


Victoria, Miss 


Montgomery's Point, Miss. ... 
White River Ark 




NAPOLEON, Ark 
Bolivar Miss 


1436 
144(i 
1462 


R40 
95( 
96) 


803 
813 

829 


432 190' 307 
442 200 297 
458' 216 281 


608 
598 
582 


713 
703 


Cypress Bend, Miss ... . 


Yellow Bend, " 



ROUTES ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 225 



NAMES OF PLACES. 


II 



5 
20 
5 
12 
3 
29 
15 
26 
20 
12 
10 
9 
36 
1 
10 
10 
31 


J 


.2 

5 

n 


i 


5 

_o 


I/ 


3 ^ 


A 


rom 
lississippi R. 


d 



662 
682 
687 
699 
702 
731 

2$ 

31 

814 

823 
859 
860 
870 
880 
911 


1489 
194 
[514 

1519 

534 

m 

16-24 
[646 

[692 
L702 
1712 
1743 


'5 

6 

998 
1018 

K>> 

L082 
1108 

1140 
H50 

1196 

1216 
1247 


1 

8.56 

m 

881 

901 
930 
945 
971 
991 

1013 

I05g 
1056 

1110 


48-5 
490 
510 
515 

530 

574 
600 
620 
632 
642 
651 
687 

698 
708 

739 


E 
213 

272 
286 
288 
317 
332 
35S 
378 
39J 

t'l 

4-56 
466 
497 


1 

2,34 
249 
22! 
224 
212 
209 
180 
165 

107 

97 
88 
52 
51 

11 




i 

555 

550 
530 
525 
513 
510 
481 
466 
440 
420 
408 
398 
389 

33^ 
301 


"wio 

655 

630 
618 
615 
586 
571 

525 
513 

494 
458 
457 
447 
437 
406 


Columbia Ark 






Egg's Point Miss 


Grand Lake Landing, Ark.... 
.Princeton Miss 




T" kin's'Rpnd " 


Milligan's Bend, " 




"VirKSBURG, " 


\Viirrenton " .... 




Big Black River t Miss 
GRAND GULF, ' 
Bruinsburg, ' 
Rodney, ' 

J\ T ATCHEZ, ' 

Vidalia, (opposite,) La 
JJunwcfiitto River, Miss 
P'ort Adams, ' .... 
Red River, La 


44 
10 
11 
3 

27 


1787 1291 1154 
[797 11301 1164 
[808 1312 1175 
1841H3451208 
1868 1372 1235 


783 
793 
804 

837 
864 


541 

551 
562 
595 

622 


44 

54 
65 
98 
125 


2o7 
247 
231 


362 
359 

341 

281 


955 
965 
976 
1009 
1036 


Tunica Bend Miss 


&T. FRANCISVILLE, La 
Point Coupee, (opposite) 
Port Hudson 


11 

8 
17 

8 
10 
12 
12 

12 

24 
16 

20 

2 
4 
13 

10 


1879 

isHT 

1910 

1927 
1937 

1978 
3002 

2018 

.:<)> 

3048 

214! 

10* 


1883 
1391 

1408 
1414 

144] 
U : >3 

1465 

148L 
15IH 
1525 
1542 
1,54* 
154P 
1552 

1641 

1653 


1246 
127] 
1281 

1311 

u& 

138! 
140; 

140P 
1411 
14K 
1428 
1484 
150e 
151t 


R06 

915 
923 
933 
945 
957 
958 
970 
974 
998 

1014 

L034 
103? 

1040 
[04 

1057 

1113 

ii;:r 

1145 


633 
641 

g 

675 

681 
691 

715 

71 (j 
7g 

732 
756 
772 
792 

A 9 - 
SOL 
815 

m 


136 
144 
161 
167 
17b 
184 
I* 
20t 
218 
81! 
$1 

25i 

29J 

29( 
301 
30T 
31 

37-J 
^ 


16f 

157 
141 

12= 

1 

83 

82 
70 
6( 
42 
2< 
b 
2 
( 

K 

73 
95 
105 


270 

2i>2 
245 

22* 
21:.' 
201 

ISO 

187 
175 

,171 

147 
131 
111 

107 
105 
101 
8S 
32 
1C 
( 


1047 
1055 
1072 
1078 
1087 
1095 
1105 
1117 
1129 
1130 
11142 
1146 
11170 
1186 
1206 
1210 
1212 
1216 
1229 
1285 
1307 
1317 


Thomas' Point 


BATON ROUGE 


Bruly Landing 


luerville Bayou .. .... 


PlaQuemirie 


St Gabriel Church 


Louisiana Institute 


Buyou Lafourche . 


1)ONALDSONVILLE 


Convent du Sacrament 


Jettersori College . . 


Bonnet Quarre Church 


Red Church 


Carroilton . 


Lu Fayette 


.NEW ORLEANS ... . 


Battle Ground 


Fort St. Leon 


Fort St. Philip 


Southeast Puss 


BALIZE 





226 



ROUTES ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



(ROUTE 621) 
NAMES OF PLACES. 


Distance 
From Place to Place. 


From 
^ : fe& 1 The Gulf of Mexico. 


From 
New Orleans. 
From 
Natchez, Miss. 


Jfrom 
Memphis, Tenn. 


rrorn 
The Mth. of Ohio Riv. 


-t c 

H 

m 


m 

i 

^ 

!| 

c" 



c: 




i 

|g 

N5 


g 

(X 


| 
B< 

* 

"o 
J2 

2 


Falls of St Anthony 




1 

(56 


1944 1643 1146 
1937 1636 1139 

1871 1570 1073 


904 

899 

831 


732 510 
725 503 

659 437 


24^ 
241 

175 


i 

73 


FORT SNKLLING 


St Peter's River 




Lake Pepin 
PRAIRIK DU CHIKN 


175 

4 

21 

8 
17 

7 
19 

& 

2 

7 


1801 1696 1395 
1797 1692 1391 
1772 1667 1366 
1751 i 1646 1345 
1743 1638 1337 
1726 1621 1320 
1719 1614 1313 
1700 1595 1294 
1698 1593 1292 
1683 1578 1277 
168115761275 
1674 1569 1268 


MIS 
8: '4 
H69 
848 
840 
883 
816 

$ 

^ 

771 


656 

ee& 

6ft 

x 

7> 
581 
574 
555 
553 
53J 
5::. 

m 


484 
4HO 
455 
434 
426 
408 
402 
383 

364 

357 


262 
25* 
23 

212 
204 
187 
ISO 
Hil 
16f 
144 
142 
135 



4 

a 

50 

1 
18 

103 
\li 

120 
127 


248 
252 
277 
298 
306 
323 
330 
349 
351 
366 
368 
375 

427 
428 




Cassville. Wis. .. 


Peru " 




Fever River, 111 




Savannah, 111 


Charleston " . . 




New York, " 


Albany, tc 


ROCK ISLAND 
Rock Island City . 


52 


1622 
1621 


1517 1216 
1516,1215 


719 

7j8 


477 
476 


305 
304 


83 
8 


179 
180 


ock River, III 


nvenport, (opposite,) Iowa., 
loomington, " .... 
New Boston, 111 


27 
23 
19 
13 
SB 
9 


1594 1489 1188 
157 1 '1466 1165 
155214471146 
1539 1434| 11 33 
1517114121111 
1508 1403 1102 


(191 
668 
648 
686 

r,i4 
G05 


449 
<& 
4 
394 

m 


277 
254 
235 

m 

200 
191 


55 

a 
a 

31 


207 
231 

2h2 
284 

is 


455 
478 
497 
510 
532 
541 


Oquawka, *' .. 






Montrose, ** 


Keokuk, Iowa 


12 


1496 


1391 1090 


593 


B51 


179 


43 


305 


553 


Des Moines River 
Warsaw, III .. 


34 
13 
90 
11 
15 
41 
2 
19 
2 

1 

19 
2 

25 


1495 
145* 

141 
I 12: 
1M 
138 
L35? 

1 o; 1 " 
L33f 
131" 
13K 
128! 
128 
128! 
125? 


1387 108b 
13531052 
13401039 
1320 1019 
13091008 
I1294 1 993 
1253; 952 
1251J 950 
1232! 931 
1230 929 
1212, 911 
12031 902 
1184| 883 
1182i 881 
1178! 877 
1153| 852 


589 
BSE 
5fi 

m 

511 
491 
455 
453 
434 
48! 
414 
40J 
381 
8ft 
;M 

355 


347 
313 
301 
281 

269 
254 
213 
211 
191. 
1!H) 
17i 
1 
144 
14'. 

ia 

IK- 


175 
111 
128 

106 

97 
82 
41 
39 
21 
M 


B 

3U 
34 
59 


i 

i 

94 

il- 


309 557 
343 591 
356 604 
376 ! 624 
3871 635 
402 650 
443 691 
445 693 
464 712 
466 714 
484 732 
493 741 
512 760 
514 762 
518 766 
543 791 




Hannibal, Mo 




Clarksville', " 


ia 

H( 

i- 

IK 
202 

20 
22! 
231 
251 
25! 
251 
281 


Hamburg III . 




Oration, 111 


ALTON "' 




ST Louis, Mo ... . ... 




Harrisonville, HI. .' 


Herculaneum Mo . ... 


Selma " 


St. Genevieve, " 


Kashas Ida River, III 


16 
45 

12 
12 

28 


1242 11371 836 
11971092 791 
11851080; 779 
11731068 767 
1145 1040 1 739 


33! 
2H4 
889 

27( 


97 
52 
41 

a 

i 


75 29" 
120, 34$ 
132; 354 
144 36t 
1 172 3& 


559i 807 
604J 852 
616 864 
628 876 
! 656| 904 


13ainnridge, Mo . ... 


Cape Ginirdeau " . 


Commerce, " 


CAIRO, (at Mouth of Ohio R.) 



DISTANCES ON TEE MISSOURI RIVER, 

FROM Bancroft Libxuj 

COUNCIL BLUFFS TO THE GULF OF MEXICO 



(ROUTE 62-2) 



NAMES OF PLACES. 





COUNCIL BLUFFS 

IJellview Trading-house 

Ptatte River 

Five-barrel Island 

Upper Oven Island 

Lower Oven Island 

Fair Sun Island 

Little JVemakaw River 

JVisftnebotna River 

Grand Nema/iaw River 

Wolf River 

Mouth of Nodaway River 

St. Joseph 

Weston 

FORT LEVEN WORTH 

Little Platte River 

Kansas River Landing 

INDEPENDENCE, Mo 

Liberty Landing 

Sibley 

Camden 

LEXINGTON..... 

Or and River 

Chariton 

BOONVILLE 

Franklin, (opposite) 

Ryckoort 

Ml. V ernon 

Marion 

JEFFERSON CITY 

Osage River 

Pinckney 

Griswold, (opposite) 

Newport 

ST. CHARLES 

Mouth of Missouri River . . . 






02002189715961099 
40 1962 1857 1556 1059 
52 19501845 1544 1047 
t!7 11*35 183015291 1032 
79 1923 1818 J 5 17! 1020 
831919l8141ol:j id],; 
106 ! 189617911490 " 



. 



832 590 



122188017751474 
134186817631462 
159184317381437 
177 l*2o 1720 1419 
193180917041403 
207179516901389 

i It;:j(ii329 

274 17281623 }:J22 825 

:.'i M 1 70s u;o:j 13021 805 

304169815931292 795 

lf ; K! 1280 783 

31916831578 )277| 780 

34016621557l2f>t; 7;V. 

359 I64315^!l237 7401 

377 1623152012191 722; 

427 157514701169 672J 

447.1555 1450 1149 652i 

477 1 -,25 14201119 622 



857 685111751671 

817 645111351631 

805 633:11231619 

790! 618 1108 1604 

778J 6061096' 1592 

774 ! 602 1092 1588 

751 57910691565 

" 5631053 1549 



892 050 



418 
583 411 

563J 391 
553 381 
541 369 
538 366 



551104111537 
52610161512 

6081 998 1494 
4921 982|l478 
478| 968:1464 



9C81404 
9011397 
88111377 



8591355 
856 1352 



487151514101109 

497150514001099 
514 : 1488! 1383 1 1082 
630147213671066 
540 1462 ia571056 
591 1411 13061005 



59914031298 

6471355"" 

Cfc!7il335 



t;i2 



517 345! 835 1331 

498 326| 816 1312 

480 308 798; 1294 

430 258 7481244 

410 238 728 1224 

380 208 6981194 



500 258 
452 
432i 190 



198 6881184 
1881 678 ! 1174 



155 



H611157 
6451141 
6,351131 
584,1080 



86 5761072 
38 5281024 
181 50&1004 



CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



MAINE. 

CUMBERLAND AND OXFORD 

CANAL. 
From Portland I 

ToSebugoPond __. 

Long Pond [9|I80 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

BOW CANAL. 

Around Bow Falls, Merri- 
mac River 3-4 m. 1. 

CANAL ar'd Hookset Fulls.. 1-8 " 
" Amoskeag " ..1 
" Union " .. 9 tc 
" Seawell's " ..1-4 " 

VERMONT. 

BELLOWS FALLS CANAL 1-2 m. 1. 
There are two others, designed to 
overcome obstructions in the Con- 
necticut River. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

MIDDLESEX CANAL. 

Boston to Lowell 27 m. 1. 

HAMPSHIRE & HAMPDEN CANAL. 
Connecticut Line to North- 
ampton 22 m. 1. 

BLACKSTONE CANAL. 

Providence to Worcester 45 m. 1. 

MONTAGUE CANAL. 
Around Falls in Connecticut 

River 3 m. 1. 

SOUTH HADLEY CANAL. 
Around Falls nt S. Hadley, 
Connecticut River 2 m. 1. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

BLACKSTONE CANAL. 
Providence to Worcester 45 m. 1. 

CONNECTICUT. 

FARMINGTON CANAL. 
From New Hnven to the n'th 

line of the Stute 56 m. 1. 

See Hampshire and Hampderi Ca- 
nal, Mass. 

ENFIELD CANAL. 
Connecticut River 5i m. 1. 



NEW YORK. 

ERIE CANAL. 
From ALBANY 
ToPortSchuyler ... 

West Troy 1 

Junction Champlain Canal. 2 

Cohnes 1 

Lower Aqueduct, 
Willow Springs.. 
Upper Aqueduct. 

SCHENECTADY 4 

Rotterdam 9 

Philip's Locks ' 

Amsterdam 

Schoharie Creek 

fmithtown 
ultonville 

Big Nose 

Spraker's Basin 

CANAJOHARIE 

Fort Plain 

St. Johnsville 

East Canada Creek 

Indian Cnstle 

LITTLE FALLS 

Herkimer 

Frankfort 



U| 47 317 
5 52 312 
2| 54 310 
57 307 
64300 
6K 298 

3 69295 

11 77287 

4 81 283 
2- 8:1 281 

5 88 276 
7! 9. 269 
6101263 

Whrtesb'oro"V.r."7.""".Tr.T.''l 4 114 250 
Rome, (June. Black R. C.) 11 12 239 
Wood Creek Aqueduct ... ,| 212 237 

Hawley's Basin 2129235 

3,132 232 

4136228 
5141223 
5146218 
4150214 
3 153|211 
5158206 



1364 

em 

7357 
91355 
10354 
13351 
19 345 
26338 
30334 
39325 
44320 



UTICA, (Jun. ChenangoC.), 

\A7V\\tCHihnrn 



liggins, (Junction Oneida 
Luke Canal) 



Oneida Creek 
Canastota... 
New Boston 
Chittenango 
Kirkville... 

SYRACUSE, (June. Oswego 
Canal) 

Geddes 

Camillus 

Canton 

Jordan 

Weeds port 

Port Byron 

MONTEZUMA, (June. Ca- 
yuga and Seneca Canal). 

Clyde 

Lock Berlin 

LYONS 

Lockville 

Port Gibson 

PALMYRA 



9 171 193 
2 173 191 
6.179 185 
5 184 180 

6 190 174 
6 196 168 

3 199 165 

6 205 159 
11 216 148 

5 221 143 

4 225 139 

6 231 ! 133 
42351129 
5240124 

Wayneport ."."." ."."."." ,".".".".'.'.^1 72471117 



. CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES* 



229 



Fafrport 

Pittsford 

ROCHESTER, (June. Gen- 

esee Valley Canal) 

Brockway's 

Adams' Basin 

BROCKPORT 

Holley 

Hulberton 



ALBION 

Eagle Harbor 

Knowlesville 

Medina 

Middleport 

Gosport 

LoCKPORT 

Pendleton , 

Tonawanda , 

BLACK ROCK , 

Buffalo ... 



5252112! 



[0269 

10279 
5284 
5289 

,'.J:M 

-1 296 

3i307 
4811 
4315 



12 352 
9361 
3364 



New Bridge 

Phoenix ... 
Fulton .... 



Braddor.k's Rapid 

OSWEQO 

CHEJ1UNG CANAL. 
From Seneca Lake 
To Havana 



b'OlMillport 



FAIRPORT . 

Elmira 

Corning 



7333 31 [ | ^AIRPORT . 
7340 24i! 



Feeder-, (Chemung Canal.) 



12 i I Head of Feeder. 



CHAMPLAIN CANAL. 





From Albany 
To WEST TROY., 



Junction 

WATERFORD 

Mechanicsville 

Stillwater Village.. 





Fort Edward 

Glenn's Falls Feeder 



Comstock's Landing 

WHITEHALL 

CHENANGO CANAL. 
From Utica 

To Clinton 

Deansville 

Oriskany Falls 

Boucksville 

HAMILTON 

Sherburne 

North Norwich 

Norwich 

OXFORD 

-Hayne's Mill 

Green 

Forks 

Port Crane 

BlNGH AMTON 



CAYUGA AND SENECA CANAL. 



From Montezuma 
To Seneca River. . . . 

Seneca Falls , 

Waterloo 

GENEVA 

Lateral Canal to E. Cayuga 
Village. 



OSWEGO CANAL. 

From SYRACUSE 
To SALINA. . 



Liverpool I 31 



Corning 



CROOKED LAKE CANAL. 

2! 2! 



From Dresden 
To Perm Yan .... 



Crooked Lake . 



GENESEE VALLEY CANAL. 



From Rochester 

To Scottsville 

Suckett's Basin 

MT. MORRIS 

Shaker Settlement . 
DANSVILLE 



15! 37 
4 41 
11 52 



DELAWARE AND HUDSON CANAL. 
From Eddy ville I 0| 108 

ToGreenkill 0, 1107 

Horn beck's Bridge 1 2 106 

Head of Pond ! 1 3105 

Hardenburgh's Basin \u 4104 

Rosedale 2 6102 

Marble Quarries 2,' 8100 

Mechanicsville 1 9 

Hnsbrouk's Basin ! l| 10 

Allegerville ; 3, 13 

Stony kill Aqueduct 3 16 

Port Jackson 1 "" 

Middleport 4 __ 

Port Benjamin I 3, 24 

Ellenville I 4| 

Penny's Basin ! 4j 



Brownvill 
Tunnel H 



Neversink Aqueduct ' 5 

Port Jarvis ' 

Bolton . 

Tucker's Aqueduct :.. 7 

Craigsville 4 

Barryville j 4 

Delaware Dam i 4 

Pennsylvania Section. 

Mouth of Lackawaxen 1 

Rowlnndville | 5 

Blue Eddy , 1 

Punch Camp ' 4 



24 



?6 12 



230 



CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES, 



Jones' Rift 


4|100| 8 

1101 7 
3104 4 
411081 

0102 
10 92 


[ifflintown 


I 75 

1 89 
4HJ3 

7132 
7139 

7146 
J -h 
1159 

3172 
1183 

C 


m 

33 
168 

97 
80 

173 
66 

164 
153 
43 
146 

129 
117 
114 

104 

98 

88 
83 

1 

47 
37 

19 


tin. 
lar- 
i in- 
to 
itu- 

to 

ling 

, 80 

thp 


Beach Flat 


Vaynesburg 
Aughwick Falls 


NEW JERSEY, 

MORRIS CANAL. 
From Jersey City- 


Uintingdon 




Vater Street 




'mifkstown ^ 


H TTA VSRTTRii 




8 


17 


85 

77 


Jllltghany <S* Portage RR. 








Little Falls 


6 


30 72 






6 
6 


I 

42 

48 


66 

60 
54 

HI 




Montville 




0208 
6214 
? 22 c 
B237 

i 27i 
3278 
228 
29! 
30i 
r 312 

n 

atD 
ve 1 
orth 

m 
land 
thet 

on 
rland 
reac 
ion. 

iston 

for 


Boon ton, (Jersey Iron- w'ks) 


Western Division. 
Laurel Hill Gap 


Dover lWa ^ * ' ' 




T\ kpsvillp 


7 
! 

I 

4 




69 

62 

M 

HI; 
6.1 
7:; 
80 
83 


4:: 
40 
38 
36 

83 
22 


fhesnut Hill 


Feeder, (Hopatcong Lake). 


Blairsville . 


Saltzbur " 


O1H A H ' rpr 




Sa r n 's Falls' * 




*H -kptt t iv n 


All -\ n ' AmiPfiurt 


A leisonfown* ' 


Freeoort 


Port Golden 






~ 


85 

92 


17 

10 










f 
( 

1 

T C 



5 

2 
2 
3 
11 

fa 
IP 

. r j 

LW 


98 
98 4 
100 1 
102 

ANAL. 

01 43 
7 36 
12 31 
19 24 
2l! 22 
23' 20 
26 17 
! 37 6 
43 
feeder, 
Prenton 
are riv. 


Susquehanna Divisic 
)iverges from the main line 
can s Island, 15 miles abo 
risburg, and extends to ^ 
berland, 40 miles. 

West Branch Divisii 
Extends from Northumbe 
Farrandsville, 75 miles, to 
minous coal region. 
North Branch Divisi 
Extends from Northumbe 
Lackawanna, 73 miles, 
into the anthracite coal reg 
Delaware Division 
Extends from Bristol to E 


f ' ' Pnnrl 


Delaware River 




DELAWARE AND RARITA3> 
From NEW BRUNSWICK 


Millstone... 




Rocky Hill 










This Canal has a navignb 
23 miles long, extending fror 
to Saxtonsviile, on the Dele 



PENNSYLVANI 

PENNSYLVANIA CAM 
Central Division. 
From Columbia 
To Marietta 


A. 

^L 




6 

4 

4 
8 
6 
5 
3 
7 
10 
8 
5 



3 

r 

13 

20 
26 
31 
34 
41 
51 
59 
64 
71 


812 
10 

K) 
29 
29 
29 
28 
28 
21 
21 
26 
25 
24 
24)1 






Middletown 


High Spire T 




i?| A \i t in Pnn 


T) bin 


Duncan's Island 


M illerstown 


Mexico 



transportation of coal. 

The Beaver Division, Erie Exten* 

sion, &rc., 

Continue the line of Canal from Pittg. 
burg to Erie, a distance of 136 m. 

SCHUYLKILL NAVIGATION COM- 
PANY. 

Canals and Locks, producing slack 



ng s 
Phil? 



water navigation from Philadel- 
phia to Port Carbon, 108 miles. 

LEHIGH NAVIGATION COMPANY. 
Like the Schuylkill Navigation Co., 
is used for a descending navigation, 
from the Great Falls to Easton 
distance, 84 miles. 



CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



231 



UNION CANAL 

Extends from Reading to Middle, 
town, on the Susquehanna river ; 
distance, 82 miles. 

SUSQUEHANNA CANAL 

Extends from Wrightsville, opposite 

Columbia, Susquehanna river, to 

Havre de Grace, Aid. ; distance, 45 

miles. 

DELAWARE. 

CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE 

CANAL. 

From Delaware City to Back Creek, 
Md. ; distance, 14 miles. 

MARYLAND. 

CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO CANAL. 

Completed from Georgetown, D. C., 
to Hancock, 136 miles. At the 
south end it has been extended to 
Alexandria, a distance of 7i miles. 

VIRGINIA. 

JAMES RIVER CANAL 

Extends along the river from Rich- 
mond to Lynchburg ; distance, 146 
miles. 

DISMAL SWAMP CANAL 
Extends from Deep Creek to Joice's 
Creek, a branch of Pascotank riv- 
er, entering Albemarle sound, N.C. 
23 miles long. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

WELDON CANAL 

Extends around the falls of the Roan- 
oke, from Weldon to Blakely, 
length, 12 miles. 

CLUBFOOT AND HARLAW CANAL, 
Near Beaufort U m. 1. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

SANTEE CANAL 

Extends from Charleston to Santee 
river, 22 miles. 

WINYAW CANAL, 
From Winyaw hay to a branch of 
Santee river, 7 miles. 

The navigation of the Catawba 
river has been improved hy 5 short 
canals, having an aggregate length of 
Hi miles. 



GEORGIA. 

BRUNSWICK CANAL 
Extends from Brunswick to the Ala- 
tamaha river, 12 miles. 

ALABAMA. 

MUSCLE SHOALS CANAL 
Is designed to overcome an obstruc- 
tion in the Tennessee river length, 
35f miles.* 

HUNTSVILLE CANAL. 
From Huntsville to Triania, on Ten 
nessee river, length, 16 miles. 

LOUISIANA. 

BARATARIA CANAL. 

[t extends from New Orleans to Bayou 

Terre Bonne, 21 miles of canal, 

and 'J5 of lake and stream naviga. 

tion. 

LAKE VERRET CANAL 
Extends from La Fourche Bayou to 
Lake Verret, 9 miles. 

ORLEANS BANK CANAL 

Extends from New Orleans to Lake 
Pontchartrain, a distance of 6 miles. 

KENTUCKY. 

LOUISVILLE & PORTLAND CANAL. 

[t is 2i miles long, and sufficiently 
capacious for the passage of the 
largest steamboats, which cannot 
pass the Rapids, except in the sea- 
sons of high floods. 

Kentucky River Navigation* 
Licking River Navigation, and 
Green River Navigation, 
Are improvements in the above riv- 
ers, by means of locks and dams. 

OHIO. 

OHIO CANAL. 

From Cleveland 01309 

To Rathbun's Lock fl ' 

Mill Creek 

Tinker's Creek 4 

Mnery Feeder 4 

Boston 4 

"^eninsula 3 

Niles 6 

31d Portage 2 

S T orth Akron 5 

South Akron 1 

yew Portage 6 

Wolf Creek Lock 3 



232 



CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Clinton 

Fulton 

Wellman's Mills 

Massillon 

Navarre and Bethlehem 

Bolivar 

Zoar 

Jennings' Bridge 

Dover 

Lockport 

Newcastle 

Trenton 

Gnadenhutten 

Port Washington 

Newcomerstown 

Evansburg 

Lewisville 

Roscoe...... 

Adams Mill 

Webbsport 

Hartford's 

Fra/ersburg 

Nashport 

Licking Dam 

Lickingtown 

Newark 

Granville Feeder 

Hebron 

Licking Summit , 

Millersport 

Baltimore 

Havensport , 

Carroll , 

Lockville 

Waterloo , 

Rayneysport 

Lockbourne. 

Holmes' Landing 

Millport and Bloomfield.... 

Circleville 

Westfall 

Yellowbud 

Deer Creek 

Andersonville 

Clinton Mills 

Chillicothe 

Tomlinson's 

Stony Creek 

Head of Big Bottom 

Sharonville 

Waverly 

Trimble's Bridge 

Jasper 

Howard's Lock 

Cutter's Station 

Brush Creek 

PORTSMOUTH 



10 132 177 
3J135 174 

I0ll45 164 
4! 149 160 
3,152 157 
3! 155 154 
61161 148 
5166143 
4170139 
6 176 133 



51181128 
41185.124 

41189120 
2191H8 
5196113 
tj 202 107 
2204105 
2 206 103 
3209100 
5214 95 
7 221 88 
3224; 85 
4228 81 



5 241 1 68 
5246 63 
4250 59 
2252 57 
4256 53 



. , 51 

6264 ! 45 
3267) 42 
2269 40 
7276 33 
4280 "" 
3283 
3286 
5291 
3234 
7301 



WALHONDING CANAL. 




4 

2 



From Roscoe 

To Crooked Run Bridge .. 

Walhonding Dam 

Warsa 



Darling's Bridge 

Butler's Lower C . . . 

Butler's Upper Crossing. . . . 



rossing . 



Walhonding (town) 

Cumrnings' Bridge 

Mohican Dam 

ROCHESTER 



HOCKING CANAL. 
From Carroll 

To Lancaster .'. 

Reams' Mills 

Rush Creek 

Green's Mill 

Hocking Falls 

Logan 



Puttonsville 

Seven-mile Run. 
\elsonville. , 



Jonday Creek . 

Chauncey 

ATHENS 



MIAMI CANAL. 
From Cincinnati 

To Lockland 

Hamilton Side-cut 

Middletown 

Frankli 



Miamisburg 

Carrollton 

Alexandria 

DAYTON 

In and out of Hamilton 
Basin 



6 

_ 36 

5 ! 41 

3; 44 

5: '- 

7l 56 



16 28 
13 41 



MIAMI CANAL EXTENSION. 



From Dayton 
To Tippecanoe ... 

Troy 

Piqua 

Loramie's Feeder . 
Lockport.. 



3 36 79 
12 48 67 
5 53' 62 
3 56 59 
3 V =*> 
<5 ( -'o, 50 
j T 1 48 
131 do! 35 
3511151 
* See Wabash and Erie Canal, la. 

WARREN COUNTY CANAL. 
From Lebanon 
To Whitehall's Mills 



Newport . 

Berlin 

Minster 

Bremen 

St. Mary's Feeder.. 

St. Mary's 

Deep Cut 

JUNCTION* 



0115 
14101 
21 94 



9 30 

" 33 



Union Village Landing 

Middletown., 



19, 



SIDNEY FEEDER. 
From Lockport I 0! 

To Sidney 

PORT JEFFERSON I 51 

ST. MARY'S FEEDER. 



From St. Mary's Feeder 
To Enst Bank. 



Montezuma 

CELINA 



CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



233 



Windsor . , 
Luke's Chi 



Lowell . 
Devoll's 



To Toledo, 
Port Miami 
Maumee C 
Water ville 
Otsego 
Providence. 
Damascus, 
Napoleon 
Florida ., 
Jndepend* 
DEFIANCI 
Junction^ 
Reservoir, 
. Antwerp 
State Line 
Indim 
State Lint 
Indiana C 
Fair port. 
Lewiston 
FORT W. 

Aboite 

Huntington 



INGTJM IMPROVEIV 
esden 
I's Creek 




10 

10 

] ? 

10 
5 
in 
11 
7 
5 

N 


8 
1 
5 
7 
5 
6 
8 
8 
5 
4 
.M 
11 
Q 



6 
16 

2ti 
3H 
43 
38 
ffi 
68 
79 
86 
91 

VL. 


4 
12 
13 
1* 

i 
p 

3; 

-14 
69 

-)7 
61 
70 
81 
fc i 


M 

80 
75 

65 
55 

4H 

;is 

33 
23 
12 
5 



88 
H4 
76 
75 
70 
68 
^ 
62 
44 
86 
31 
27 
18 

4 


La Gros 


Wabash 
Peru 


ille and Duncan's 


Lewisburg 

LOOANSPORT 


ind Eagleport 
jllsville and Malta. 


Lock port ... 


Carrollton 
DELPHI 


hure. 
ind Waterford .... 


Americus 
LAFAYETTE 


:::::::::::: 


WHITEWATER CAN; 
From Lawrenceburg 
To Hardingsburg 


IA and HARMAR . . 
INDIANA. 

VSH AND ERIE C/ 
inhattan, Ohio 
lo 


Elizabethtown . 


Harrison 


New Trenton 


BROOKVILLK 


Laurel City 
Conners ville. 


City 
] e . 


CAMBRIDGE 
ILLINOIS. 

ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN 
From CHICAGO 




ce. 


is 


i 






Summit 


E 


Des Plaines 






r. . . .... .... 


Lockport . .... 






ne . . 


4 



2 
3 
12 
12 
16 


88 

I 

20 

1 




] 
140 
138 
135 
123 
111 
95 


Dti page River. .. 


ina Division, 
fte 


Dresden 


Morrisiana 


City la ... 


Clarkson 




MH rseilles 




Ottawa. . . 


. 

AYNE 


JJtica 






ton ... 


Peru..., 



9 57 

5J ._ 

6i 68 

15 83 

91 



onoo 

4 96 

12j 88 
22 [ 78 
27! 73 



85 15 

94 6 

98 2 

100 



234 



THE RATES AT WHICH 

FOREIGN MONEY OR CURRENCY 

IS TAKEN AT THE CUSTOM-HOUSE, NEW YORK. 



Franc of France and Belgi- 
um $0.18-6. 

Florin of Netherlands.. 0.40 l 
do. of Southern States 
of Germany. 0.40 

Guilder of Netherlands. .0.40 

Livre Tournois of France 0.18 

Lira of the Lombardo Ve- 
netian Kingdom 0.16 

Lira of Sardinia O-^ro 

do. of Tuscany 0.16 

Milrea of Portugal 1.12 

do. of Azores 0.83J 

Marc Banco of Hamburg 0.35 

Pound Sterling of Great 
Britain 4.84 

Pound Sterling of the Brit- 
ish Provinces of Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, 



Newfoundland, and Can- 
ada $4.00 

Pagoda of India 1 .84 

Real Vellon of Spain 0.05 

do. Plate of Spain 0.10 

Rupee of British India 0.44.J 

Specie Dollar of Denmark 1.05" 
Rix Dollar or Thaler of 
Prussia and the Northern 

States of Germany 0.69 

Rix Dollar of Bremen 0.78$ 

Rouble, silver, of Russia. . 0.75 
Specie Dollar of Sweden 

arid Norway 1.06 

Florin of Austria 0.48 

Ducat of Naples 0.80 

Ounce of Sicily 2.40 

Tale of China 1.48 

Leghorn Livres 0.16 



CURRENCIES BY USAGE, 

When a Consular Certificate of the real value or Rate of Exchange is 
not attached to the Invoice. 



Current Marc $0.28 

Crown of Tuscany 1.05 

Florin of Prussia 0.22J 

do. of Basle 0.41 

Florence Livre 0.15 

Geneva Livre 0.21 

Jamaica Pound 5.00 

Leghorn Dollar - 0.90 

Livre of Catalonia 0.53J 



Livre of Neufchatel $0.26 

Paper Rouble varies from 4 
roubles 65 copecks to 4 rou- 
bles 84 copecks to the dollar. 

Rix Dollar of Saxony 0.69 

do. Rhenish 0.60| 

Swiss Livre 0.27 

Scuda of Malta 0.40 

Turkish Piastre 0.05 



VALUE OF FOREIGN GOLD COINS IN UNITED STATES CURRENCY* 



Sovereigns of Gr. Britain $4.83 

Doubloons, Spanish 16.00 

do. Patriot 15.60 



Napoleons $3.83 

10 Thalers 7.82 

10 Guilders .4,00 



VALUE OF AMERICAN COIN IN FOREIGN CURRENCY. 



Engli. 


s& Sterling. 


FT 


ench. 


German. 






s. d. 


1 




fr. sous. 


1 


fin 


\ld 


. stiv. 


One dollar 


___ 


4 6 1-2 


One dollar 


__ 


5 7 


1 One dollar 




2 


12 


Half a dollar 


__ 


2 31-41 


Half a dollar 


_ 


2 13 


1 Half a dollar 


_ 


1 


6 


25 cent piece 


__ 


1 1 5-8 1 


25 cent piece 


= 


I 63-4 


1 25 cent piece 


= 





12 


10 cent piece 
5 cent piece 


= 


51-2 
23-4] 


110 cent piece 
5 cent piece 


z 


10 6-8 
53-8 


10 cent piece 
1 5 cent piece 


A 






47-8 
23-8