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ILLUSTRATED 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES 

OF CALiFORNIA. 



XKCLCDIXO 



GENERAL REFERENCES TO ITS DISCOVERY, EARLY 

MISSIONS, REVOLUTIONS, AND SETTLEMENT 

BY THE UNITED STATES ; 



TOGKTUBR VITH A MORB A.MPLB 



HISTORY OF SACRAMENTO VALLEY AND CITY, 



AND 



BIOGRAPHICAL REFEREJ^CES TO PROMINENT INDIVIDUALS. 



^ »• ♦ •> »i 



BT 



DR. JOHN F. MORSE. 



ASSISTED BT 



MR.. SAMUEL COLVILLE, 

PUBLISHER. 



SACRAMENTO: 
PRINTED FOR THfi PUBLI8QER AT THE DEMOCRATIC STATE JOURNAL OFFICB. 

1854. 

.. . iz^* . ■ 



^7^. if 



• « 
« 



• •• 



• • • • • 

• » • • •. • 

- . • •• « 

• • - • 



» • • • 



4 • 



TO TUfl CALIITORXIA ADVENTURERS OF 

FORTY-NINE, 
THE FOLLOWING fflSTORlCAL SKETCHES ARE RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED. 



To you, GentlemoD, wo feel that nothing can fail in interest which related to 
the memorable tear that identified joar names with thin country. The electric ciiau- 
ges to which that period gare rise, the rostlcsa spirit of adventure that swept thrungli 
every community, the shifting scenes of enterprise and the deathless attachments niui 
friendship that were formed, make it a matter of importance, as well as of thrilling 
Interest, to rescue the current history of those times from fading memory, and put it 
Into aome enduring and acceptable form for future contemplation. However imperfect 
our record may prove, yet a poition of it, we believe and hope, will be recognized 
aa exact truth, and cherished iks an agreeable medium of recollection. 

And as far as it may respond to tl^je approbation oT these, oar old associates, 
■o far do w« desire it to be ascribed to the 

PlOKBlKS OF '40. 

JOHN F. MORSE, 
SAMUEL COLVILLE. 



344259 






■..(./.■>^' \ 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, by Samuel Colville, in the Clerk's 
Office, of the District Court, of the Northern District of the Stat^ of California. • 



INTRODiJCTION. 



In our ejfforts to collect the necessary data for writing a history of 
Sacramento Valley and City, we have obtained so much interesting 
information respecting the early Missions of California, that we have 
determined upon making them the subject of a few introductory chap- 
ters to our work. To the moral and political philosopher nothing could 
afford more agreeable contemplation than cursory glances at the estab- 
lishment of these Missions. They present such a significant contrast 
between religious and secular colonizations, such a jdemonstration of the 
anti-progressive character of the Papal Church under Spanish rule, that 
they Are both interesting and instructive. 

The object of these Missions was, doubtless, the propagation of Papal 
doctrines and extension of the Spanish Crown ; and, in the attainment 
of this end, there could have been but httle difficulty, whilst there was 
everything to encourage enterprise and conciliate attachments to the 
country. Everything that mildness and beauty of climate could offer ; 
every attraction that could spring from topographical relations ; from 
rich and incomparable valleys of farming land ; from luxurious verdure 
and gorgeous flowers ; from exhaustless streams of soft and delicious wa- 
ter, there was an infinite variety of interests presented to the exploring 
ga«e of those who commenced the establishment of these Missions. All 
that the most favorable combinations of natural fiicilities could offer, as an 
inducement to^ settle, open and develope the country, was found by the 
early Missionaries of California. They had to meet none, or but very few. 



A 



IV. 



INTRODUCTION. 



of those appalling difficulties which contended against the colonists of 
"Jamestown" and "Plymoutli." They had to encounter fewer obsta- 
cles with greater patronage, less resistance with greater means of de- 
fence. In the Aborigines of the country they met tribes of Indians 
who occupied the lowest scale of savage organizations, and who, with a 
leading characteristie of physifcal weakness, blended a docility of mind 
easily influenced by simple expressions of kindness, and the gUtter of 
gross and almost, valueless ornaments. Under such circumstances did 
the Jesuit and Frannscan Misaonaries commence their operations m 
California, These Mssions were within the four military divisions ef 
the State, which were called P^sidences or Presidios. 

In our descriptions of them^ and in our view of the causes that led' 
to their establi^ment, we have availed oursel^e^ of extensive assistance 
from Alexander Forbes' History of California, from Colton, and from 
Messrs. Ten Brook and P*ord — to all of which sources of information 
we return our grateful aeknowledgemento. 



*• ' 






*• 



* « « 



MISSIONS OF california;% 



• , • 



CHAPTERJ. • 

THE MISSION OF SAN DIEGO ^PRESIDIO OF SAN DIEGO. 

As early as the year 1769, the Rev. Junipero Serra founded the first 
Mission. This Mission was situated near the Town of San Biego, and its 
success paved the way for the many others that were afterwards estab- 
lished throughout the Territory. It was at this interesting Mission 
where the untutored and ahnost uncivilized Indians of California were 
first taught the worship of God through the attractive and expressive 
symbols of the Established Church. It was here where the first wild 
horses of the country were tamed, and the wild cattle that grazed upon 
the hills were first driven into the temporary imprisonment of a Spanish 
Corall. Where the first sheep was sheared, the first vine or fruit tree 
was planted, and where cultivated flowers, for the first time, imparted 
their fragrance to the atmosphere of a new and beautiful country, 

MISSION OF SAN CARMEL — PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, 

In 1770 this mission was founded a few miles from the Town of 
Monterey. The lands surrounding it were fertilized by an exhaustless 
stream of pure water, and considerable attention was paid to the culti- 
vation of vegetables. It was on the land of this Mission where the first 
California potatoes were raised in 1826. This vegetable, it appears, 
was not in particular fevor with the presiding Padre, and, in conse- 
quence, the natives had the privilege of .cultivating it extended to 
them. This privilege they improved, and Monterey being a place at 
which, whalers occasionally stopped, the potatoes became quite an article 
of commerce, affording the poor Indians a glorious opportunity to 
secure in exchange red blankets and glittering trinkets. 

In 1825, it is reported, that this Mission was in the possesion of the 
following property, namely: 90,000 head of cattle, 60,000 sheep, 2000 






< 






THE mSSIp^^.pF CALIFOKNIA. 



horses, 2000 calves, djS) yokfes of oxen, $50,000 in merchandize, and 
$40,()00 in silver. ; \\ , > 

In 1835 this**^isSion was converted into secular uses, from its 
previous i&gnaslftr relations. 

,T^$«.klSSION OP SAN LOUIS OBISPO PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY. 

., TMis Mission was founded on the 1st of September, 1772, by the 
ReV. Fathers, Junipero Serra and Jose Cavalier. This Mission was 
situated about fourteen leagues from San Migual, which we will pre- 
sently describe, and was sustained by a rich and fertile valley. The 
name of "Bear's Glen*' was given to the place by the troops of Monte- 
rey, who, while quartering at that point, had killed a large number of 
bears, the meat of which after being dried aJBTorded them an agreeable 
subsistence. This Mission was regarded as the richest in California, 
and, under the management of Louis Martinez, who was presiding 
Priest, exerted a powerful influence in the country. By his ceaseless 
energies the valley was kept in a perfect state of irrigation, a launch 
communication waa established with Santa Barbara, shade trees were 
planted, olives and other fruits were cultivated, the Indians in and about 
the Mission were taught how to hunt for and kill the otter, the skins of 
which became an immense source of profit. The apartments of the 
Missionary were said to be furnished with an almost regal magnificence. 
He had adobe houses of some two hundred feet in length, well filled 
with grain, and, after living in luxurious comfort for a number of years, 
returned to Spain with some $100,000 as the result of his Missionary 
enterprise. 

Mr. Colton gives the following estimate of the wealth of the Mission 
in 1827, namely: 87,000 head of grown cattle, 2000 tame horses, 
3500 mares, 3700 mules, eight sheep farms, averaging 9000 each ; 
and, as an illustration of the fertility of the soil, the major domo of the 
place is reported to have scattered upon unploughed ground 120 bush- 
els of wheat, which, when scratched into the soil by a California harrow, 
yielded 7000 bushels of grain. 

MISSION OP SAN JUAN CAPISTRANO PRESIDIO OF SAN DIEGp. 

This Mission was founded .in 1776, and is located eighteen leagues 
south of San Gabriel. It embraced a vast area of land, including a 
long line of sea coast, and extending back to the mountains. In 1812 
an earthquake destroyed the ecclesiastic edifice. 




MISSION OF SANTA CLARA PRESIDIO OP SAN FRANCISCO. 

January 12th, 1777, this Mission was founded. It is situated in the 
centre of a magnificent valley of the same name, about three miles from 
the present Town of San Jose. In topography and fertility of soil no 
land can be more rich and beautiful than those which surrounded this 
Mission. In the lands claimed by this Mission there was an abundance 
of cinnabar. In 1823 the following property belonged to the settle- 
ment, namely: 74,280 head of full grown cattle, (and as the increase of 
one year there were branded 22,400 calves,) 407 yokes of working oxen, 
82,540 sheep, 1890 trained horses, 4236 mares, 726 mules, 1000 hogs, 
and $120,000 in goods.- The Mission contained an In(^an population of 
two thousand. • 

Some of the buildings were imposing in size and ornament, and the 
church was at one time embellished with beautiful paintings and massive 
silver work of great rarity and value. 

In 1834 the property of the church was secularized by order of Gen. 
Figuaro, affording the people of the Pueblo de San Jose an opportunity 
to revel in the enjoyment of the sacred spoils. Many of the buildings, 
the orchards and vine yards, are still remaining as the monuments of 
the wealth that once environed them. 

MISSION OF SAN JUAN BAUTISTA PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY. 

This Mission was founded in 1794,«about 30 miles from Monterey. 
In 1820 its property consisted of 1360 tame horses, 4870 mares,- colts, 
etc ; 43,870 head of cattle, 325 yokes of working oxen, 70,000 sheep, 
$75,000 in goods, and $20,000 in specie. In 1834, it was also secu- 
larized, after which its cattle were slaughtered for their hides and 
tallow, the sheep turned over to wild beasts, and the Indians almost 
forced back into their primitive condition. 

MISSION OF SAN JOSE PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Mission was founded in 1797, fifteen miles from the town of that 
name, and the northern extremity of what is known as the San Jose 
Valley. This Mission was located upon some of the most productive 
and beautiful farming lands that can be exhibited to the human eye. 
Whether viewed in relation to fertility, to extent and beauty of surfiice, 
to health, to proximity to a splendid bay and harbor, it is in either par- 
ticular grand and valuable. In the history of the place it is recorded 
that from 80 bushels of wheat, properly sown, 8600 bushels were har- 



8 THE MISSIONS OF CALIFORNIA. 



c 



vested the first year, and from the volunteer crop the next year 5200 
bushels were gathered. Colton says that the presiding priest told him 
that Julius Cassar deposited in the Temple of Ceres 362 kemals of 
wheat, as the largest yield of any one kemal in the Roman Empire ; 
and that he had gathered and counted from one kemal sown at this 
Mission, oo5 — ^beating Rome in three kemals. 

This Mission supplied the Russian Company with their stores by 
annual shipments to their northem settlements. 

In 1825 report gives the Mission 60,000 head of cattle, 35,000 
sheep, 800 team horses, 1200 mares, 400 nmles and 400 yokes of 
oxen, and an Indian population of 3308. In 1834 it became secular- 
ized. Splendid and thrifty vineyards, and magnificent orchards of 
pears, together with many of the old edifices, still remain as tlie relics 
of an exploded system of enterprise and development. 

MISSION OP SAN FERNANDO — ^PRESIDIO OF SANTA BARBARA. 

This Mission was located about fifteen leagues south of San Buena- 
ventura, and was founded in 1797. It is surrounded by a beautiful 
valley, and in the neighborhood of hills from which, report says, that 
$30,000 worth of gold- dust was mined and exported three years prior 
to the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mills. At this Mission a somewhat 
extensive distillation of brandy was carried on, in addition to the manu- 
&cture of wines, which was common to all the Missions in which vine- 
yards were cultivated. 

In 1826 it had 50,000 head of cattle, 3500 horses, 300 yokes of 
oxen, 60,000 sheep, 200 mules, 2500 swine, about $40,000 in mer- 
chandize and $100,000 in specie. 

MISSION OP SAN LOUIS REY — PRESIDIO OP SAN DIEGO. 

This Mission was founded by Padre Peyri in 1798, and is situated 
about twelve leagues south of San Juan. Reputation gave to the 
founder an enviable character for industry and great excellence of heart. 
He was peculiarly humane, and exerted a potent influence over the 
civilizing process by which the Indians were reduced to a condition of 
obedience and useftilness. At one time his Indian population amounted 
to 3000.# He entered quite extensively into the manufacture of blank- 
ets, and clothing suited to the wants of the country at that time ; and to 
supply himself with material, paid great attention to the raising of 



THE MISSIONS OF CALIFORNIA. 



sheep. At one time he had over 70,000 of these animals* which were 
carefully protected, solely on account of their wool. 

The huildings of the liGssion were extenave, capacious and comforta- 
ble ; surrounded by excellent orchards an(^ thrifty vineyards, which, in 
the season of fruits, imparted to the place and inhabitants such charms 
of beauty and luxuriousness as to dissipate the impatience of seclusion 
or the weariness of exile. Even up to the present time, a friend in- 
forms us that the long and capacious coridors, the immense arches that 
supported the building, vine arbors and lattice-works, that mark the 
buildings and grounds, give to the place such an air of beauty and mag- 
nificence as to enamor all who visit it. But the character of this 
Mission, its claims upon beauty, healthfulness and preference, can be 
best appreciated when it is known that it has been selected as the site 
of the contemplated University of CaUfomia. Our State Legislature, 
in 1853, appointed Messrs. Ten Brook and Brush as commissioners to 
secure a location most suitable for such a purpose. These gentlemen, 
afler visiting many places adopted the foregoing Mission, and the lands 
necessary to the Institution have been devoted to the State. As a cen- 
tral location it is, -of course, not so desirable as many that might have 
been sejected, but to coimteract this is a magnificence of topography, a 
fertility of soil, and bailminess of climate that cannot be surpassed, if 
equalled, by any sectioli of the earth. There is, probably, no kind of 
fruit or flower, which is indigenous to a tropical or temperate zone, that 
cannot be cultivated with perfect success in the lands belonging to this 
Mission. Oranges, limes, lemons, and the fig, olives, pomegranates and 
the grape, if not by nativity, the inhabitants of the soil, have been 
already ajQ&liated to the place, and, if possible, improved by the transfer. 

MISSION OF SAN GABRIEL PRESIDIO OF SAN DIEGO. 

This Mission was founded m 1771, upon one of the most fertile and 
beautiftil valleys of Alta California. Fruits were cultivated in the 
greatest abundance yielding the most encouraging revenues, and delicious 
wine, in great quantities, was manufactured from the extensive vine- 
yards of the Mission grounds. The principal business of the Mission 
was the distillation of brandy and wine, of which about a thousand 
barrels were annually made. 

In 1829 it had 75,000 head of cattle, 4000 horses, 350 mules, 150 
yokes of oxen, 54,000 sheep, and a few swine. In this Mission was 
located the celebrated rancho of Santa Anita. 



10 • THE mSSIONS OF CALIFOKNIA. 

• 

MISSION OP SAN ANTONIO DE PADUA PRESIDIO OP MONTEREY. 

This Mission was founded in 1771, was very prosperous in its career, 
and in 1802 its total population amounted to 1052: 

MISSION OP DOLORES PRESIDIO OP SAN PRANCISCO. 

This Mission was founded in 1779, and is situated on the south side 
of the Bay of San Francisco, and about two and a half miles from the 
city. Its lands, which were less alluvial and fertile in the aggregate, 
embraced forty leagues in circumference. 

In 1825 its stock consisted, as estimated, of $28,000 in merchandize, 
60,000 head of cattle, 1000 tame horses, 1500 breeding mares, 85 stal- 
lions, 700 mules, 100,000 sheeep, 1000 hogs, 400 yokes of oxen, 30,000 
bushels of wheat and barley, and 19,000 in specie. 

By order of Gen. Figuaro, it was secularized in 1834, and despoiled 
of its wealth, beauty and influence. 

MISSION OP SAN BUENAVENTURA — ^PRESIDIO OP SANTX BARBARA. 

This was situated about nine leagues south of Santa Barbara near the 
sea board, and was foimded in 1782. It covered an area of land, of over 
1400 square miles, and it is said that but two hundred of it were tilla- 
ble. It had two vine-yards and a good orchard. In 1825 it had 86 
head of cattle, 3000 horses, about 200 oxen, 400 mules, 25,000 sheep, 
a large number of goats and hogs ; in merchandize, $30,000 ; in specie, 
$30,000, and in church ornaments and other valuables, $50,000. 

It was secularized in 1835, and, like the other Missionaries, has fallen 
into a rapid decay. 

MISSION OP SANTA BARBARA PRESIDIO OP SANTA- BARBARA. 

This Mission is located twelve leagues south of Santa Inez, and was 
founded in 1786. It is a delightful climate, and in soil land topography 
is well adapted to the cultivation of the grape and other fruits. 

The main building in this Mission is reported to have been uncom- 
monly elegant and elaborate in style and finisL Between this and the 
sea coast is a pecipitous mountaia range over which, it is said, no vehi- 
cle ever passed, except a field-piece belonging to a battalion of Col. Fre- 
mont. The lands of the Mission were very extensive, and in 1828 the 
following property was recognized, namely : 40,000 head of cattle, 
3000 horses, 6000 mules, 22,000 sheep, and 90 yokes of oxen. 



THE MISSIONS OF CALIFORNIA. 11 



MISSION OF SOLEDAD PRESIDIO OP MONTEREY. 

This Mission, which was founded in 1791, is situated about thirty- 
three miles south of Monterey. The presiding Padre is reported as 
having been the greatest agriculturist of any of his cotemporaries. He 
is said to have irrigated an immense tract of land belonging to the Mis- 
sion, by means of an aqueduct extending some fifteen miles, which was 
constructed by his Indians. The Mission became almost overrun with 
horses, and to preserve a sufficient pasturage for other stock they 
resorted to giving them away to parties who would remove them from 
the premises. Fruits were extensively cultivated. 3,500 bushels of 
wheat were harvested from 40 bushels sown, in 1820. 

In 1826 it owned 34,000 head of cattle, 75,000 sheep, and 250 yokes 
of oxen,, besides its almost innumerable horses. 

MISSION OF LA PURISSIMO CONCEPTION PRESIDIO OP SANTA BARBARA. 

This Mission was founded in 1787, and is reported as having con- 
tained thirteen hundred square miles. It abounded with wild cattle to 
so great a degree as to induce the Priest to give general permission to 
the people of the country to kill them for their hides and tallow. The 
horses upon this Mission were particularly celebrated for their fleetness, 
and also for' their astonishing feats under the saddle. 

In 1830, the Mission was reported as having 45,000 head of cattle, 
380 yokes of oxen, 7000 horses, 30,000 sheep and a very large number 
of hogs. 

MISSION OF SANTA CRUZ — ^PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Mission is situated on the coast, north of Monterey, and was foun- 
ded in 1794. It was specially distinguished for its agricultural resour- 
ces, harvested immense crops of grain, and became a Mission of great 
jrealth and power. Its Church is said to have been highly embellished 
with silver ornaments, the silver plate pertaining to it, bearing an esti- 
mate of $25,000. 

MISSION OF SAN MIGUAL — PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY. 

This Mission was founded in 1707. It was an inland location, and 
situated about sixteen leagues south of San Antonia. The site was an 
elevated one, and probably more barren than any other Mission des- 
cribed ; yet it had a circumference of 55 leagues, and enough good land 
to sustain an immense stock. In 1822 this Mission is reported as hav- 



12 THE MISSIONS OF CALIFORNIA. 



ing 95,000 head of cattle, 4,200 head of horses, 2000 yokes of oxen, 
Und about 50,000 sheep. The unusual number of mules on this Mis- 
sion springs from the necessity of doing a great deal of packing to and 
from the market. 

MISSION OF SANTA INEZ PRESIDIO OF SANTA BARBARA. 

This Mission was situated between Santa Barbara and La Purissimo. 
The land belonging to it was more circumscribed, yet it had ample 
means of sustaining a large stock. Its horses were held in great repute, 
and its property, in 1823, was estimated at $700,000. 

MISSION OP SAN ANTONIO PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY. 

This Mission was situated about 35 miles south of Soledad, upon a 
stream, bearing the name of the Mission. The buildings were 6nplosed 
by adobe walls a thousand feet long, composing a square. Its lands 
were forty leagues- in circumference, and consisted of seven farms ; to 
each of which was devoted a Chapel and houses. The lands were finely 
irrigated by means of canals, conducted from mountiiin streams, for a 
distance of twenty miles. In 1820, this Mission was in passession of 
50,000 head of cattle, 5,000 horses, 550 mules, 400 yokes of oxen, 
51,000 sheep and 100 hogs. Its seccularization, as in all other instan- 
ces, waa rapidly followed by ruin and decay. 



CHAPTER n. 

THE CAUSES THAT LED TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FOREGOING 

MISSIONS. 

Thus have we given a partial description of tlie early Missions of Cali- 
fornia. That they constitute a source of thrilling interest, must be ad^ 
mitted, after a glance at their number and extent, and the influence 
they exerted over the native population. But in order to appreciate in 
the highest degree, the interest.they afford, something should be known 
of the previous efforts to settle and subjugate the country, and although 
we did not sit down to write a history of Cahfomia, yet we will precede 
our deductioiffs upon the Missions, with. a reference to the causes that 
brought the territory into s^ibjection, through the Reverend Fathers of 
the Roman Catholic Church. 

The discovery of California in 1534, by Grizalva, under Cortez, gave 



EXPEDITIONS TO CALIFORNIA. 13 



rifle to a strong feeling of anxiety on the part of Cortez himself, to vis- 
it and explore the country. He accordingly fitted out three vessels at 
a plaee called Tehauntepec, where he joined them by an overland march 
through Mexico, accompanied by Pi^iests, soldiers settlers and skves. 
On one of these vessels he embarked, and with the other two soon, ar- 
rived at Santa Cruz. After spending some time in explorations of the 
country, and ascertaining but little that could be turned to profit, he 
was compelled to return as far as Acapulco, on account of the opera- 
tions at his rivals in Mexico. But although Cortez was interrupted in 
his attempt to visit and examine the country, yet he continued to pro- 
secute investigations through his officers, whom he furnished with ships, 
provisions, etc., from his own means. • 

To a principal officer by the name of *' Francisco de Ullua," he en- 
trusted three ships, which were engaged for a space of two years, in ex- 
ploring California, nearly the entire length of the sea coast, from the 
Gulf of California to its northern boundary. And yet this highly com- 
plimented explorer of 1537, with ample support for a two year's cruise, 
returned from the expedition with the following results, to wit : a con- 
firmation of the " extreme barrenness of California, and the rudeness 
and poverty of the natives, who were found quite nalced ; together 
with a discovery of the indigenous goats of the territory, and some- ves- 
sels of clay, in the possessign of the Indians. 

Many subsequent attempts to explore and settle Califomia, says Mr. 
Forbes, in his history, were made by the Viceroys of New Spain, and 
also by priyate adventurers, but with little or no results of con^quence, 
for nearly a century. In 1562-3, Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo succeeded 
in making an extensive survey of the western coast of the Penvisula, 
and in 1596, Don Sebastian Viscayno was given command of an expe- 
dition to the Gulf, and made an effi^rt to permanently settle the country 
by establishing a garrison at Santa Cruz, which had been several times 
visited. Ffom this point he is said to have examined the country one 
hundred leagues north. In the northern section he found the Indians 
less peaceful, having some of his men killed by them. But again the 
extreme barrenness of the country obliged him to abandon the expedi- 
tion and return to New Spain at the end of the year. Buf in 1602 this 
gentleman made a somewhat more successful effort at discovery, having 
reached the harbor of San Francisco, after successively discovering the 
harbors of San Diego and Monterey. 

Some twenty-four years prior to thisr Sir Franeis Drake- entered the 



14 IMPRESSIONS OF EXPLORERS. 

harbor of San Francisco, where he remained some time, extending his 
explorations into the interior, and not knowing of the previous discovery 
of the country, he took possession of it for England and named it ** New 
Albion." 

3ut although an immense amount of money had been expended in 
the sixty years' effort to ascertain the true character and condition of 
California by Spanish natives and individuals, and although the resSlt 
was little more than the establishment of a forbidding barrenness of 
country, yet there was a lingering fancy in the mind of Cortoz, that 
California would prove to be the special and glorious El Dorado of the 
world. Indeed, the Spaniards generally, entertained a conviction that 
this country abounded in gold and silver, pearls and precious stones. 
And it is not wonderful that Cortez, -who had extorted from the Aztec 
Chiefs of Mexico, such enormous exhibitions of gold — ^that a man whose 
vision had been filled with the brilliance of national plunder, and whose 
heart had become imbued with an insatiable thirst for dominion and 
wealth, that such a man should make persevering and determined efforts 
to ascertain what California really was. A knowledge of his character 
makes* it an easy matter to understand the reluctance with which he 
gave up tlie exploration of such a country as he believed California to 
be. 

But it was not alone Cortez who indulged in dreams of golden and 
exhaustless wealth through discoveries and possessions in this land of 
Ophir. The Spaniards, generally, who were connected witii Cortez in 
Mexico, ^(i become imbued with an idea that California was a vast 
storehouse of wealth, outvieing in its fdbbly retained possessions the 
plundered resources of Montezuma, or the almost incredible treasures of 
the outraged and murdered Peruvians. Hence with such a conviction 
entertained by this great conqueror of Mexico, Cortez, and concurred in 
by all the survivors' who had been associated with him in his explora- 
tions of that country, it would have "been more singular had there been 
an indifference to the opening of California, than it was to see them so 
long attempting to discover and possess its hidden treasures. 

As yet, however, their exertions were almost entirely fruitless, ex- 
cepting in tlie general conviction which had fastened itself upon the 
minds of the explorers, that California was, to all intents and purposes, 
a barren country. This impression, which was so generally received, 
shows conclusively that very little daring and enterprise entered into 
die exi)lorations made. And in as much a^ these successive reports of 



EXPEpiTIONS TO CIVILIZE CALIFORNIA. 15 



a forbidding and barren country did not dissipate tlje Spanish ardor to 
know still \nore of California, it is reasonable to suppose that gold, 
pearls and precious stones, constituted the real source of attraction 
among the Spaniards. This, indeed, was an all powerful magnet, and to 
the minds of the soldiers of Cortez it gave inspiration to greater exer- 
tions, and to a greater submission to hardships, than any other motive 
could have induced. The fondly treasured idea of untold and immea- 
surable riches m the heart of California, caused continual efforts to be 
made to discover their location. Expedition after expedition was fitted 
out by public and private enterprise, but, strange to say, with little 
additional results during another century. 

Many of these expeditions, Mr. Forbes says, were fitted out for the 
purpose of civilizing and christianizing the natives of the country, but 
the success of the attempts was almost too limited to justify one in be- 
lieving that the religious motive was* of an unmixed and disinterested 
character. 

In 1615, a Capt. Juan Iterrbi prepared an expedition to the country 
upon his own individual resources, and it resulted in the procurement of 
a fine collection of pearls, among which was one pearl valued at $13000. 
This gave a new impulse to the previous conceptions of California 
wealth, and in 1632, '33 and '34, Capt. Francisco de Ortega made 
three successive efforts to visit the same ports. In 1648 another gov- 
ernmental effort was made to settle, civilize and improve the CQuntry. 
But, like his timid predecessors, the commander had the misfortune to 
have been beaten back again, profitless and unglorified from the insupera- 
ble barrenness of th^ territory. Among many other trials of individuals 
and the government, made, at a subsequent date, none seem at all distin- 
guished, at any rate until the expedition under Admiral Otondo, in 
1683. This man visited and remained in the country longer than his pre- 
decessors generally, and had his operations more particularly signahzed 
by the Missionary efforts of Father Kuhn, to christianize the aborigines 
through the mf^dium of religious instructions and baptisms. But the 
success of this experiment was so very limited that a determination to 
return waa quickly matured by the Admiral, no one, probably, feeling 
any regret at the intention except the good old Father Kuhn. This old 
man had relinquished a professorship in a popular German university to 
engage in the philanthropic task of humanizing the Indians of America, 
and he was not at all convinced of the impracticability of the project. But 
his return with the expedition fumii^ed him with new opportunities to 



16 MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE. , 

advocate his benevolent designs. He found that the Grovemment of 
Mexico had come to the conclusion, in their absence, that the settlement 
of California was impracticable, but, at the same time, the authorities 
had very warmly recommended the Society of Jesuits to attempt what 
they had &iled in accomplishing, and as an encouragement offered them 
a fixed amount of money from the King's Treasury. This proposition, 
upon the part of the government, was most cordially accepted by the 
forementioned Society, and old Father Kuhn (who was called Kino in 
Spanish,) and his previous associates were thus given a glorious oppor- 
tunity to stimulate and strengthen the now unmixed determination to 
settle and improve the country through religious influences. 

" In contemplating what was thus effected, it is no wonder," says 
Forbes, '* that the historian of Califomia, himself a member of this holy 
order, should regard the cause as hallowed and the agents as under the 
• protection of Heaven." 

" The great conqueror, Hernando Cortez, (this historian remarks,) 
several times employed in the conquest of Califomia, the whole force 
he could raise. His example stimulated many private persons : even 
Governors, Admirals and Viceroys, made the attempt. At last the 
Kings of Spain themselves, took the scheme into their own hands, yet 
the result of all such vast expenses, such powerful efforts, was, that the 
reduction of California was given over as impracticable." 

And so indeed it was; by the means made use of by men, but not by 

■ 

those which -God had chosen. Aims and power were the means on 
which man relied for the success of his enterprise, but it was the will 
of Heaven that this triumph should be owing to the meekness and cour- 
tesy of his ministers, to the humiliation of the Cross, and the power of 
his Word. God seemed only to wait till human natur« acknowledged 
its weakness, to display the strength of his almighty arm, confounding 
the pride of the world, by means of the weakest instruments. 

In this laudable Missionary enterprise, guided and controlled by such 
a man as Father Kino had progren himself to be, there was legitimate 
promise of improvement in the system of exploring Califomia. This 
excellent man made the matter so really disinterested, that he acquired 
a moral and social magnetism, infinitely more effective in the concilia- 
tion and subjugation of the aborigines of Califomia, than all the dis- 
plays of power and militiury resources with which the governments had 
expected to make a conquest of the country. 

Father Kino was most happily qualified for the noble and exalted 



MISSIONARY ENTERPEIZE. 17 

fanctlon which he was to perfonn in this great Missionary effort to 
colonize California, and subdue and civilize the miserable Indians by 
which it was peopled. And in addition to this, he was ably sustained 
by Fathers Salvatierra, Ugarte and Piccolo. These distinguished 
divines united with him in a design which was not only novel in its 
political relations, but which was, in a Christian point of view, grand 
and sublime, and, in respect to the previous ineffectual governmental 
efforts to settle and subdue the country, it was emulative and glorious. 
Such an opportunity to test the comparative civilizing power of Divine 
Trudi and military might, had, perhaps, never been realized before. 
Therefore, taking all these motives into account, and reconsidering the 
natural effect of those inducements which operated upon the feelings of 
the foregoing Religious Order, we cannot wonder that in following up 
their history we should find such evidences of success as those that fi- 
nally resulted from Missionary labors in Califomia. Enterprise and de- 
termination could not be easily given a stronger impulse. For if these 
Reli^ous Colonisers of Califomia had an exalted faith in the power 
of Divine Truth to encompass a new coimtry and subdue its savage 
inhabitants, they were now given a liberty and patronage which, when 
combined with a strong and deep spirit of emulation, made it almost 
certain that their fidth must be confirmed by success. And then, on 
the other hand, if they, too, were turning their eyes into the more car- 
nal channels of gold, of pearls and precious stones, there was no reason 
why their expectancy and spirit of exploration should not certainly equal, 
if not excel, that of their predecessors. They had the results of pre- 
vious efforts to guide them, and though these did not amount to much, 
yet they evolved an advantage. But we cannot affect an indecision of 
mind in regard to the. real motives that influenced the forementioned 
Missionaries in their approaching experiments in colonizing Califomia. 
Probably no man ever engaged in Missionary labors with purer designs, 
or with more exalted, more noble and daring purposes than old Father 
Kuhn. And, as we have before said, he was most ably sustained in the 
services of Salvatierra, Ugarte and Piccolo. Father Kino had pre- 
viously established his devoted interest in the cause of civilizing and 
reducing to Christianity the Indians of Califomia, and as an e\4dence 
of his confidence in Father Salvatierra, he gave him a principal posi- 
tion in the expedition to this country. While Kino himself remained 
on the oppoate coast of Cinaloa, and Ugarte in Mexico — both actively 

B 



18 MISSIONARY ENTERPEIZE. 

engaged as Missionaries of the Cross — ^Father Salvatierra was dispatch- 
ed to the conjectured El Dorado of Cortez. 

In the organization of this extensive Missionary enterprise, a vast 
amount of interest and enthusiasm had been enkindled. The govern- 
ment had appropriated to the Jesuits the fullest powers to manage eve- 
rything pertaining to the Missions as their judgments and wishes dicta- 
ted — reserving to itself the right of claiming the territory explored by 
them as Spanish posseiBions, And, although this was the demand of a 
government which essentially refused pecuniary aid, yet it was conced- 
ed, and did not at all dampen the ardor and enthusiasm which the Rev. 
Fathers had already excited. On the contrary, as the scheme of the 
Missionaries advanced to maturity, the interest in preparation became 
greater and greater, and exhibited itself in most substantial contribu- 
tions from the rich among the laity, and from the different religious 
associations of New Spain. 

Thus have we seen how the effective exploration of California was 
diverted from the hands of the government and placed in the then more 
energetic hands of Catholic clergymen ; how the Spanish expeditions, 
sustained by immense national patronage, had continually failed, and in 
consequence of said failures how an appeal had been made to the power 
of Divine Truth to accomplish what might and money could not 
achieve. There is something so interesting in this concession to the 
Christian Faith, something so pleasing in the resulting compliment to a 
conciliating grace, to the wooing and subduing kindness that mark the 
exercise of Clffistian virtues, to something so reliable in conjecture as 
the sequel proves, that we can scarcely refrain from an indulgence in a 
chapter of reflections upon its moral bearings. 

But having traced up the influences that converted the Jesuitical 
Order of Mexico into an immense and powerful Missionary organization 
for exploring new countries, for conciliating the friendships of savages, 
and for humanizing and Christianizing them — ^we can afford to delay 
the reader with a chapter upon the first experiments made by the Rev. 
Fathers mentioned. And in doing this we shall introduce a feithful 
transcript of Mr. Forbes and Father Venegas, feeling assured that the 
interest of the narrative will richly compensate any one for the time 
occupied in reading it. 



FIRST EXPEROIENTS OF THE MSSIONARIES. 19 



CHAPTER ni. 

FIRST EXPERIMENTS OF THE MISSIONARIES. 

" On the lOtk October, 1697, Father Salvatierra sailed from the 
Port of Yaqui, on the eastern side of the Gulf, with his small band of 
five sioldiers only and their commander, and on the third day reached Cali- 
fornia. For some days they were employed in looking out for a conve- 
nient station, and at length fixed on the Bay of San Dionisio, ten 
leagues north of San Bruno, where Admiral Otondo had pitched his 
camp. There, on the 19th October, they landed, and finding a conve- 
nient spot near a spring of water, about a league and a half from the 
shore, they pitched their tents and transported from the ships their 
stores of cattle and provisions, the good Father being the most active 
laborer of the party. Here (says Father Venegas) the barracks of the 
little garrison was built, and a line of circumvaliation thrown up. In 
^ the centre a tent was .pitched for a temporary chapel ; before it was 
erected a crucifix with a garland of flowers, and everything being dis- 
posed in the best manner possible, the image of our Lady of Loreto, 
the Patroness of the Conquest, was brought in procession from the ship 
and placed with proper solemnity. On the 25th, formal possession was 
taken of the country in the name of the King of Spain and the Indies. 

" Before proceeding further with the history of these true soldiers of 
the Cross, and the minute but not uninteresting warfare which they 
maintained for so many years against the rude natives of California and 
its ruder soil, until at length they triumphed effectually over the former 
and as much over the latter as was possible, it may be well to notice 
briefly the nature and extent of the obstacles they had to contend 
against. 

*' In all the numerous attempts that had been made to make a settle- 
ment in this peninsula, it was invariably to the rugged and unproduc- 
tive nature of the country, not to the opposition of the natives that the 
fikilures were attributable. Like all the aboriginal tribes encountered 
by the Spaniards in America, the Califomians are a feeble and weak 
hearted people ; and although when irritated or oppressed they not sel- 
dom turned on their tyrants, and when revenge could be safely indulg- 
ed, did not hesitate to cut off' openly or by stratagem such as fell into 
their power; still they never offered any effectual resistance to the 
invaders, hundreds or even thousands of them being often kept in awe 
by a mere handful of armed Eurepeans. These poor people had good 
rea^n both to fear and hate the Spaniards, as they were often greatly 



20 CHAKACTEKISTICS OF THE NATIVES. 

maltreated by the military and commercial adventurers, who yisited 
their country before the Jesuits, and more eq[>ecially by the traffickers 
for pearls, by whom the Indians were frequently kidnapped and forcibly 
compelled to act as divers. Yet it was remarkable that from the be- 
ginning they showed little unwillingness to be present at or even to 
share in the ceremonies of tiie Catholic religion, (which were seldom 
lost sight of by the adventurers of those days, however stained with 
crime,) or to benefit from the. supplies of food which they derived from 
their visiters. At the period of the landing of the Jesuits, the natives 
seem to have been in precisely the same c(mdition as to civilisation, as 
when first visited by Grijalva one hundred and sixty years before. 
They were little advanced from the rudest state of barbarism. Properly 
speaking, they had neither houses nor clothes, although they made use 
of temporary huts formed of boughs of trees and covered with reeds, and 
the women wore girdles or imperfect petticoats, fermed also of reeds ; 
the men were entirely naked, except that they wore ornaments for the 
head composed of feathers, shells or reed. They lived by hunting and 
fishing, and on the spontaneous produce of the soil. They cultivated no 
species of grain or esculent vegetable, and they seemed to possess no 
other arts than what were UQoessary fer the manu&ctnre of nets and 
bows and arrows, for catching prey by sea and 'land, and for the con- 
struction of their imperfect clothing and ornaments. Some of the tribes 
had a few vessels of clay, but their chief articles fofr ccmtaining both 
solids and liquids, were constructed of reeds. Even their means of 
transport on the water, were rude rafts formed of bulrushes, no boats or 
canoes of wood or ludes being feund among them. They seem scarcely 
to have had any fixed forms of government or religion ; although the 
different villages and tribes submitted, on important occasions, to the 
direction and rule of some one or more who were distinguished by their 
age, strength; or other natural gifts; and there was, also, a class of per- 
sons among them, w;ho were the ministers of some superstitious observ- 
ances, and the pretenders to preternatural powers in the prodiction or 
production of future events, and in the infliction or cure of dis- 
eases. 

At the time Califemia was visited by the Jesuits, the whole of the 
country explored by them from Cape San Lucas as fiur north as the 
28th degree of north latitude, was Uiinly and irregularly peq>led by 
numerous tribes more or less stationary in their rude villages or en- 
campm^ts, differing very little in their general habits and condition, 



DISINTERESTEDNESS OF THE MISSIONARIES. 21 



jet sufficientlj marked to be distinguished by fixed names, and speak- 
ing different languages or different dialects of the same. 

" The shores of California abound in the greatest variety of excellent 
fish, although from ignorance or stupidity the natives derived much 
less benefit from this exhaustless storehouse than it was capable of 
affi>iding. In one respect, indeed, this storehouse was too productive 
for their happiness, since it was the fame of its pearls which, ever since 
its first discovery, had attracted so many adventurers to its shores, bent 
on enriching themselves and altogether regardless of the wel&re or even 
lives of the natives. Great numbers (says Father Yenegas) resort to 
this fishery from the continent of New Spain, New Galicia, Culiacan, 
Ginaloa and Sonora ; and the many violences committed by the adven- 
turers to satiate, if possible, their covetous temper, have occasioned re- 
ciprocal complaints; nor will they ever cease (adds the good Father) 
while that desire of riches, that bane of society, predominates in the 
human breast. And nothing can show more strongly the pure and dis- 
interested motives of the Jesuits than the law which they obtained, after 
much trouble, from the Mexican government, viz : that all the inhabit- 
ants of Calrfomia, including the soldiers, sailors, and others under their 
command, should be prohibited not only from diving for pearls but from 
trafficking in them This law was the cause of great and frequent dis- 
content among the military servants of the Fathers, and even threatened 
the loss of their conquest; but it was, nevertheless, rigidly enforced by 
them during the whole period of their rule. Fishing for pearls was 
not, indeed, prohibited in the Gulf, and along the shores of California, 
but it was carried on by divers brought from the opposite shores by the 
adventurers engaged in it. 

" Before returning to the history of Father Salvatierra and his little 
band, I must be permitted to make one remark. K the reader should 
be disposed to smile at the minuteness with which now, or hereafter, 
we may dwell upon the humble proceedings of the Fathers and their 
children, the Indians, or may detail the puny wars of their Lilliputian 
armies, we can only offer the same excuse preferred by the good Father 
Yenegas in similar circumstances. ' These particulars (he says) may 
pofl»bly appear trifles not worth mentioning ; but let me entreat the 
reader to try their value in the balance of reason. Let him reflect 
what an agreeable sight it must be, even in the eyes of the Divine Being 
himself, to see men who might have acquired a large fortune by secular 
employments, or lived in quiet and esteem within the Order they had 



22 MISSIONARY FATHERS. 

chosen, voluntarily banish themselves from their country and relations, to 
visit America ; and when there, resign employments and leave a tran- 
quil life, for disappointments and &tigues; t6 live among savages, 
amidst distress and continual danger of death, without any other motive 
than the conversion of the Indians. At least let every one ask himself 
whether any worldly interest whatever could induce him to employ 
himself in such low and obscure actions, and amid such privations and 
dangers, and he will be convinced of the importance and dignity which 
actions, contemptible in the eyes of men, receive from the sublimity of 
the motives which inspire them.* " 

The Rev. Fathers cannot appeal in vain for consideration and esteem, 
when they afford such evidence of earnestness and sincerity in doing 
good. A man may affect philanthropy, and talk for a long time with 
emphasis upon his desire to labor for the general improvement of man- 
kind. But if his humanity be allowed to evaporate in those fire-side 
paroxisms of kindness and piety which a luxurious home can alone de- 
velope and sustain, he can hardly be expected to be canonized aa a 
bene&ctor. Such was not the evidence that these good men can pro- 
duce, by the record of acts which they have left behind them. Leav- 
ing positions of honor, security and profits, at home, they embarked in 
an enterprize of certain dangers, of discomforts, toils and abuse, fr^ni 
which they could expect but little requitement, except that which the 
Christian feels when conscious of having discharged a sacred and sub- 
lime duty. 

These men had engaged in a work in which they felt a higher inte- 
rest than that which can be excited by gold. They had but little 
sympathy with that class of explorers which had preceded them, and, 
consequently, were prepared to ** labor and to wait." Their first ob- 
ject was to acquire a knowledge of the Indian tongue, that they might 
the better convince the subjects of their Missionary labors what they 
had settled among them for, and how they designed to improve their 
condition. This itself was^ no small task, and when one adds to this 
labor the severe toils, the absolute hardships which they were compelled 
to endure, then can he better and more truthfuUy appreciate the hal- 
lowed motive that projected and sustained the enterprize. 

They had left relations in which comforts and luxuries could be con- 
stantly enjoyed, to meet hunger and toil in the gloomiest of all exile. 
They were determined to learn the Indians around them habits of in- 
dustry, not by precept, but through the un&iling medium of example. 






They dug up clay, mixed it with water, moulded it and converted it 
into adobes. Then built houses of shelter and defense. Laid out 
farms, prepared the ground for crops of grain and vagetables, — dug 
trenches, set out fruit trees and relaxed themselves from these severe 
toils by patiently teaching the natives the nature of their relations to 
the Great Spirit who oversaw all their works, and held them responsible 
for every thought and act. 

It could not be expected that a handful of men, with limited &cili- 
ties, could make very rapid progress in completely revolutionizing all 
the habits, instincts and education * of the Indians surroimding them. 
They could not expect to civilize such characters as the Aborigines of 
California without bringing to their assistance ev6ry stratagem that tact 
or illusion could furnish, nor could they reasonably expect that they 
would not be frequently called upon to defend themselves by force 
against the occasionally roused passions of the natives. 

The very first effort of the Missionaries was to conciliate the Indians 
to an interest in the reading of prayers. To do this they apportioned to 
each one a daily ration of boiled maize, of which they were very fond, 
so fond that they soon began to manifest more interest for the maize 
without the prayers, which were religiously associated with their meals, 
than with them. 

Thus sprung up the first difficulty between the good old Fathers and 
their irreligious subjects. Rather than to have the prayers they came 
to the conclusion that they might peril a fight for the provender, which 
they could more easily appreciate. Accordingly they marshalled their 
forces, and wiA an army of 500 warriors made an attack upon the lit- 
tle Missionary garrison of ten men all told. Their superior numbers 
gave them an excellent start in this their first combat with the Span- 
iards, but they soon ascertained that there was something in gunpowder 
too terrible and destructive to be prudently contended against ; and, 
after losing in dead and wounded a few of their number, they were 
willing to capitulate and accept a peace which required them to season 
their meals of com with the same prayers against which their carnal 
natures had so indiscreetly rebelled. This little divergance from the 
general plan of reliance upon the power of Christian Truth and kind- 
ness, gained for the Missionaries an advantage which no theological 
form of sulphur could have achieved. It was a kind of preaching which 
even savages could appreciate through the medium of two important 
senses — Shearing and feeling. 



24 MISSIONARY POLICY. 



Afler harin^ made a yqtj gratifying progross at this point of opera- 
tion, Fadier Salvatierra was joined, in the course of two or three years, 
by Father Francisco Mario Piccolo and Father T^garte. In tlie month 
of August of 1670, it was said that these Missionaries had subdued the 
Indians for a space of fifty leagues, founded four towns, with above 600 
Christians and 2000 aduk Catechumens. They had established differ- 
ent missions, at one of which Father Ugarte became the presiding priest. 
A great difficulty had before existed in the Missions, {^ringing from a 
lingering reliance for support upon external assistance, and to avoid this 
Father Ugarte determined to make the Missions self-sustaining corpora- 
tions. To do this he adopted a system of training the Indians, enrii- 
nently successful, though trying and difficult to carry out. But as this 
can be better appreciated from the pen of Father Yenegas, we will 
quote his description of the plan. 

" In the morning, after saying mass, and at which he obliged the In- 
dians to attend with order and respect, he gave a breakfast of (pozoli) 
or maize to those who were to work, set them about building the 
church and houses for himself and his Indians, clearing the ground for 
cultivation, making trenches for the conveyance of water, holes for 
planting trees, or digging and preparing the ground for sowing. In 
the building part Father Ugarte was master, overseer, carpenter, brick- 
layer and laborer. For the Indians, though animated by his example, 
could neither by gifts or kind speeches be prevailed upon to sliake off 
their innate sloth, and were sure to sbicken if they did not see the Fa- 
ther work harder than any of them : so that he was the first in fetching 
stones, kneading the clay, mixing the sand, cutting, carrwig and bark- 
ing the timber, removing the earth and fixing materials. He was 
equally laborious in the other tasks, sometimes felling trees with his 
axe, sometimes with his spade in his hand digging up the earth, some- 
times with an iron crow splitting rocks, sometimes disposing water 
trenches, sometimes leading the beasts and cattle which he had procured 
for his Mission to pasture and water ; thus, by his own example, teach- 
ing the several kinds of labor. The Indians, whose narrow ideas and 
dullness could not at first enter into the utility of these fatigues, which, 
at the same time, deprived them of their customary freedom of roving 
among the forests, on a thousand occasions, sufficiently tried his pa- 
tience ; coming late, not caring to stir, running away, jeering him, and 
mmetimes even forming combinations and threatening death and dis- 
traction : all this was to be borne with unwearied patience, he having 




no other resource than afimbilitj tnd kindnegg, sometimes intermixed 
with gravity to strike respect ; also, taking care not to tire them, and 
suit himself to their Weakness. 

In the evening, the Father led them a second time to their devotions, 
in which the rosary was prayed over and the Catechism exphuned ; and 
the service was followed by the distribution of some provisions. At 
first they were very troublesome alt the time of the sermon, jesting and 
jeering at what he said. This the Father bore for a while, and then 
proceeded to reprove them ; but finding they were not to be kept in 
order, he made a very dangerous experiment of what could be done by 
fear. Near him stood an Indian in high repute for strength, and who, 
presuming on this advantage — the only quality esteemed among them — 
took upon himself to be more rude than the others. Father Ugarte, 
who was a large man and of uncommon strength, observing the Indian 
to be in the height of his laughter, and making signs of mockery to the 
others, seized him by the hair and lifting him up swung him to and fro; 
at this the rest ran away in the utmost terror ; they soon returned, one 
after another, and the Father so far succeeded to intimidate them, that 
they behaved more regularly for the future." 

These extraordinary labors of Father Ugarte were blest to a wonder- 
ful degree, and in a few days he found himself surrounded with the 
most encouraging indications of improvements, associated with comforta- 
ble houses, store rooms, fine &rms, excellent gardens, fruit trees, wine 
presses, horses, sheep, etc., were the many Christian Indians who had 
1;)ecome completely transformed in character, habits and appearance. 
"His sheep,'* says Forbes, "brought originaUy from the coast, being 
sufEiciently increased, that his Indians might make the best of their wool, 
he determined to teach them the best method of preparing, spinning 
and weaving for clothes. Accordingly he himself made the distaffis, 
spinning wheels, and looms. Though to forward and improve so bene- 
ficial a scheme he sent Topic for one Antonio Moran, a master weaver^ 
and allowed him a salary of five hundred dollars. Moran staid several 
years in California, till he had sufEiciently instructed the Indians in Hieir 
trade and some other handicrafts. By these new manufiictures, he sav- 
ed the vast expense of ffdl doth and baize, a measure both political and 

pious." 

Thus did these noble men toil m their benevolent enterprizes with 
ever varying success until 1710. At which time most important events 
transpired, among which one of a most discouraging character took 



mimtm 



26 SMALL POX EPIDEMIC. 

place in the appearance of epidemic small pox among the domesticated 
Indians. This gave the disaffected sorcerers whose offices and influence 
had been superceded by the Missionaries, an opportunity of begetting a 
general discontent, by charging this destructive evil to the intercourse 
of the Spaniards with them. Besides the troubles to which the epidemic 
gave rise, and the mortality which is ever induced by the civilization of 
American Indians, was the severe affliction which was incurred this 
year in the death of the great originator of the scheme. Father Kino. 
This event alone was a severe' and calamitous injury to the Jesuitical 
Missionary scheme of Lower Califomia. He had been the lite and soul 
of the enterprize, and in every relation he sustained, there was such a 
display of energy, such an exhibition of zeal and kindness, that he in- 
spired every body with love and admiration. But still the cause had by 
no means been bereft of all its supporters. In Fathers Ugarte and Sal- 
vatierra there was an embodiment of an almost equal degree of earnest 
devotion to the great cause, and a kind of moral and social character 
nearly as concilliating and attractive as that which irradiated the charac- 
ter of the noble old Missionary, whom death had removed from such a 
field of usefulness. These men sought still to expand their sphere of 
operations, and made every effort to sustain and improve the works 
which had been so well performed prior to the death of Kino. They 
obtained a modification of the laws by which the Missions were go- 
verned, which made the general management more perfect, and which 
' laws prevailed to a great .degree tlirough all the subsequent mission* 
ary movements. 

In the history of these Missions a record is made of a violent hurricane 
which took place in 1717. It is reported as having not only destroyed 
houses, churches, and all signs of improvements which art contributes to 
man's comfort, but it is said that such was the violence and irresistable 
fury of the storm that it uprooted trees and accumulated maddening 
torrents that swept all the soil from the earth, leaving nothing in the 
line of their destruction but rocks and stones. In commenting upon 
this source of destruction "Venegas" remarks " that if, in former ages, 
these hurricanes were frequent in Califomia, it is not surprising that all 
its mould should have been swept away, its bare rocks alone remaining, 
and its plains and valleys covered with heaps of stones." 

" In 1730 the Mission of San Josef, close to Cape San Lucas, was 
founded, and, soon after that, of Santa Kosa, near the same extremity of 
the peninsula ; and although they seemed to be attended at first with 



^ 



OUTBREAK OF THE NATIVES. 27 

usual snccesS) this was shortly put an end to by a general rising of all 
the natives in this district. There being only two or three soldiers 
among all the Missions, no effectual resistance could be offered to the 
" rebels/' as the Fathers termed them, and accordingly they soon had 
everything their own way. In 1734, the two Fathers Carranco and 
Tamaral, were murdered, as well as one of the soldiers ; the other Fa- 
thers and the soldiers fled, and the ^hole of the Southern Missions were 
lost. Apprehensive of similar disasters in other parts, the Fathers trere 
recalled from the Northern Missions, and at one time, in the following 
year, not a Spaniard remained in the country except Loreto. In this 
disastrous state of affairs they were relieved by a reinforcement of troops 
from Cinaloa, headed by the Governor, who attacked the Indians in dif- 
ferent places, and finally reduced the country to tranquility. After 
some time the Missions were gradually restored, and the Fathers pro- 
ceeded in their works of conversion and civilization. Accordingly we 
find from an of&cial report, drawn up by the Missionaries, 1745, that 
not only all the old stations were reoccupied but several new ones plant- 
ed. They amounted in all to fourteen, besides two then in progress, 
viz : 

1. Loreto. 

2. San Zazier. 

8. De los Dolores del Sur. 

4. San Louis Gonzaga. 

5. San Josef de Commander. 

6. Santa Eosalia de Mulege. 

7. La Conception. ♦: 

8. Guadalupe. 

9. San Ignocia. 

10. De los Doles del Norte. 

11. San lago del Sur. 

12. La Paz. 

13. San Josef del Cabo de San Lucas. 

14. Santa Eosa. 

"No very great progress, however, could be made in so unpromising a 
field, from which the whole race of Missionaries had been removed in 
1767, on the general expulsion of the Jesuits frt^m the Spanish domi- 
nions. At this time the number of Missions were sixteen. The exiled 
&ther8 were superceded in their Missions by a body of Franciscans 



28 RATIONAL DEDUCTIONS. 



from Mexico ; bat they were soon displaced by the Dominican monks, 
who still keep possession of the country. 

"In 1786, as Perouse informs us, the Missions were fifteen in number ; 
ten of them being still possessed by the Franciscans, the others by the 
Dominicans. The whole number of converted Indians at that time was 
estimated at about four thousand. The garrison of Loreto consisted of 
fifty-four soldiers, and this, and a few soldiers furnished to the other 
Missions, was the whole military force of the country." 



CHAPTER IV. 

RATIONiiL DEDUCTIONS. 

Tuus have we given a sufficiently complete idcetch of the Missionary 
movements in Southern California, to enable our readers to appreciate 
more correctly the historical references to Miadons which we made at 
the beginning. But for the almost superhuman exertions of these good 
men of the Order of Jesuits, but for their disinterested devotion to the 
cause of civilizing and enlightening the naked and miserable aborigines 
of California, there would have been less efiected by their successors 
who subsequently founded the more successful Missions of the North. 
Between the Franciscans and Dominicans, who established these Mis- 
sions, and their Jesuitical predecessors, there was, perhaps, no very 
great moral distinction, but the field of operation opened to them was 
infinitely more prepossessing in topography and fertility of soil. They 
displayed throughout an untyring desire to increase and improve their 
Missionary establishments, and made most urgent and importunate ap- 
peals to the government of Mexico, to assist them in their efforts to 
more thoroughly open and develope the country. But the governmen- 
tal responses to these appeals were comparatively feeble and ineffectual, 
and the immense resources of the oountiy continued to languish in dor- 
mancy and concealment, except as they were brought into view by the 
industry of the foregoing Missionaries, The wealth of these Missions 
rapidly accumulated and the unrestrained reports of their success, 
which were sent back to the Mexican government, ought to have excited 
a national and popular effort to develope and protect the country; but it 



J 



------ ~- - 



RATIONAL DEDUCTIONS. ^ 



had little effect upon a people who have had greater opportunities ifor 
national adv'ancenients, with less result, than almost any nation or class 
of persons in the world. Their t^irit of adventuve and discovery had 
been enkindled by a love of gold, and where the glittering element of 
attraction had not been accumulated by other hands, less tenacious of its 
grasp, or weaker in the defence of it, they did not develope a decent 
degree of enterprize in the exploration, development or improvement 
of new countries. 

Here was a territory aboundmg with the most beautiful, most exten- 
sive and fertile valleys in the universe, with magnificent and almost 
exhaustless forests, an immense country, margined by the grandest 
ocean in the world, watered by beautiful rivers, and adorned by capa- 
cious harbors that are now becoming the very homesteads of Commerce; 
and yet, though contiguous to and regarded as a part of the Mexican 
possesions, it was, nevertheless, insufficient to excite the Mexican gov- 
ernment or people with an amount of enterprize necessary to its settle- 
ment or appreciation. A few earnest votaries of religion, who had ded- 
icated themselves to the office of benefitting untutored savages, were the 
only individuals of the nation who had the moral courage to undertake 
a real settlement of California. Cortez, and many associates in authori- 
ty, manifested a considerable interest in exploring the territory, until they 
were pretty well convinced that it had no Ineas to plunder by viDiany, 
nor Montezumas to crush by stratagems. The mere fact of its appearing as 
a rich, productive and salubrious country, requiring nothing but indus- 
try to make it bud and blossom as a rose, was of small moment, to that 
then powerful nation, which was revelling in the usurped possessions 
and comforts t)f a class of beings more advanced in the habits of civiliz- 
ation than the CaUfomia Indians. 

But the Spanish governments, interested in the settlement and deve- 
lopment of this territory, were not the only sources of obstruction to the 
complete occupancy and improvement of the country. There was some- 
thing in the education of these Missionaries themselves, to whom Mexi- 
co was almost exclusively indebted for establishing its claim upon these 
important possessions, that militated against the national, commercial 
and political relations of California. < They were educated in Cloisters, 
cultivated and confirmed in habits of seclusion from the secular and po- 
litical connexions of State, almost insusceptible of interest in any thing 
that was not specifically related to their religious hobby of civilizing the 
miserable natives of the country, and elevating them in the scale of ra- 



80 RATIONAL DEDUCTIONS. 



tional and acoottniable beings. Their object was not to open new terri- 
tory for the purpose of increaaing the commercial or ^litical power of 
the nation ihej represented, nor to achieve to themselves riches for con- 
templated enjoyments at any ftiture day, nor, indeed, that kind of im- 
mortality which is preceded by the flattering praises of mankind. They 
had become almost fenatically imbued with a determination to Chris- 
tianise the aborigines of California, and thereby demonstrate the power 
of Divine Truth and human kindness to accomplish that which the 
military power and avaricious grasp of a strong nation had proven to be 
" impracticable.'' To settle among, remodel and transform the hab- 
its of a race of beings who were but barely elevated above the organiza- 
tion of monkeys, to accustom these animals, so to speak, to traits of 
industry, to rational ideas of comfort, and above all to effect in their 
minds a conception of moral re^nsibility, were the leading and, we 
may say, absorbing ojbjects of these Missionary settlers of California. 
They were therefore, politically unfit to develop and reveal to the parent 
government, and the world, the inherent wealth of the country they oc- 
cupied. And, that we might the better sustain these opinion in the 
minds of our readers, we were careful to present in the beginning of 
our work a succinct view of the general wealth of the missionary sta- 
tions, resulting from the labors of these excellent men. In these 
sketches there are indications of wealth which must arrest and surprise 
the mind of any one who peruses them. And whilst their details 
might have been overlooked if they had been given a different position, 
they have now in all probibility not only imparted a greater interest to 
the subsequent historical account of their rise and progress, but we 
tru^,they have been so read and reflected upon as to insure a harmony 
of thoughts in regard to their national, political aud moral relations. 
But in order tJiat the reader may be refreshed in respect to the resour- 
ces of these Missions, we will present a tabulated recapitulation of the 
amount of property in their possession, so far as we have been enabled 
to obtain reliable estimates : — 



RECAPITULATION. 



31 






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I 



82 RATIONAL DEDUCTIONS. 

Such were the immense resources in the possession of these Mission* 
aries ; such were the national, missionary and individual facilities for 
revealing the claims of California to the world. And yet, with this 
means of opening commerce, of conciliating immigration and settle- 
ments in the territory, we find that there was not a sufficient degree of 
enterprize and policy, either upon the part of the Government or Mis- 
sions themselves, to arrest a tide of retrogression and decay, which has 
finally forced the nation. Missionaries and all, into an ahandonment of 
their possessions, or into a life-giving affiliation with their successors, 
the descendants of Jamestown and Plymouth. 

. In 1534 Grijalva, commanding a squadron fitted out by Cortez, dis- 
covered and took possession of California. From that period continual 
efibrts were made to extend the discovery by the same authorities, and 
in the year 1596, under the patronage of one of the viceroys of New 
Spain, Don Sebastian Viscayno made an effi)rt to permanently settle 
California. He made an extensive survey of the coast, and regularly 
established a garrison at Santa Cruz. Three hundred and twenty years 
ago, the country was discovered under the patronage of a man with 
almost unlimited resources, and by a people who were under the impres- 
sion that it was the greatest storehouse of gold, of pearls and precious 
stones, that could be found in the universe. Discovered, not by a peo- 
ple who had no previously established political and commercial rela- 
tions with the country, but by a Spanish nation, whose neighborhood 
contact and convenient sea ports, evolved an almost political necessity 
that it should be occupied, improved and retained by them. And when, 
in addition to this, we contemplate the fact, that the country was so very 
accessable, that there were so few losses sustained from maritime disas- 
ter during all the cffi)rts made to explore the coast and territory, that 
the climate was so much more favorable than that characterized by the 
severe winters of the Atlantic borders, that the natives were compara* 
tively harmless, then we would not be regarded as unreasonable or il- 
liberal, in supposing that 320 years was time sufficient to present Cali- 
fornia as an improved and populous possession of Mexico, or some other 
Spanish Government. But we have ample reason for behoving, that* 
neither the famous Cortez, the ambitious viceroys of New or Old Spain, 
that neither the Jesuitical Fraternity of Mexico, the Franciscan Friars, 
nor the Dominican Monks, were the agencies through which a country 
like Cahfornia was to be speedily or adequately developed. The evi^^ 
dence for a deduction unfavorable to the Spanish authorities, who made 



-tw^4m 



RATIONAL DEDUCTIONS. 33 



BO many efforts to settle and improve the country, is to be found in the 
previously narrated results of 320 years struggle. And although we 
have given but a sketch of the most important goven^mental and indivi- 
dual attempts, yet enough has been presented to sustain a conclusion 
most unfavorable to the national or commercial enterprize of the people 
who discovered and strove to settle one of the richest countries in the 
world. 

Suppose we were to institute a comparison between the efforts of the 
Spaniards to settle^ subjugate and improve California, and the English 
who attempted the occupancy and development of the United States. 
In 1607, eleven years after the attempted settlement of Santa Cruz, the 
English Government made its first permanent effort to colonize America 
by settling Jamestown in Virginia. The vast continent of America 
was then almost completely in the hands of, or claimed by Spanish au- 
thorities. England had no contiguous possessions, no particular pre- 
text for the immense territory she was almost grasping ; she had less 
encouragement from climate, and much more troublesome and almost 
invincible aborigines to contend against. 

And yet only look at the comparative results of the two settlements ; 
of Santa Cruz, under Spanish patronage, and Jamestown, by EngKsh 
enterprize. In 258 years the one has led to an accumulation of old 
adobe walls, and the bleached bones of a few thousands of domesticated 
Indians, as the only remaining indications of the success attained for a 
season, and as the signs of a national lethargy that has slept away its 
own possessions. Sp much for the Spaniards and Santa Cruz. In 247 
years the English settlement of Jamestown has grown into one of the 
mightiest nations that figures in the history of the world. From a little 
village of adventurers it has expanded itself into a confederation of 
THiRTY-oNK States, each one of which would sustain a respectable na» 
tionality among the kingdoms and empires of Europe. From this little 
nucleus of settlers has sprung up a population of 24,000,000 of people, 
whose moral habits, whose social and intellectual claims, whose physical 
endurance and political reputation is unsurpassed ; whose enterprize has 
overridden all obstacles in its progress, and whose territorial possessions 
are nearly ten times as large a.s Great Britain and France combined ; 
three times as large as the whole of France, Britain, Austria, Prussia, 
Spain. Portugal, Belgium, Holland and Denmark, together. 

Such are the rebults of the two national efforts referred to : the Santa 
Crux and Jamestown settlements. The one sustained by an immense 



34 



RATIONAL DEDUCTIONS. 



patronage, by geographical contiguity, by climatic advantages and tke 
feeblest savage resistance. The other, supported by limited resouirees, 
by an inextinguishable energy and fearlessness, and antagonized by re- 
moteness from the source of patronage, by the most inhospitable win-* 
ters, and by powerful and treacherous tribes of Indians. The one dead 
and decaying in its own birthplace ; the other, in comparative exile, 
rearing monuments of vitality, enterprize and glory, over its grave. 

Such a system of comparison, which is just in £icts and figures, 
affords the easiest and most convincing method of reflection and infer- . 
ence, that can be adopted in the consideration of history. It holds up 
the irrefragable signs of the past ; and whether they appear as the de- 
fJAced and disfigured gravestones of perverted and futile enterprises, 
whether as the crumbling and dingy walls of an abandoned and depo- 
pulated country, whether as the historic record of a blighted nation, or 
circumscribed and finally ruined Missionary schemes, or whether they 
loom up as cherished and towering symbols of national prosperity and 
grandeur, and as the &deles8 annals of a moral and political superiority, 
still do they afford the only perfect key to the interpretation of national 
or individual character. 

And this is the light of interpretation with which wc would translate 
the efforts of Mexican authorities and Spanish individuals, to explore, 
settle and civilize gne of the richest and most valuable territories in the 
world — Northern and Southern California. And whilst we regret the 
necessity, yet we cannot avoid the conclusion, that Mexico, with great 
natural advantages and extensive political resources, was totally and 
almost contemptably incompetent to achieve a permanent or even im- 
portant settlement in the country. That the noble, and almost divinely 
animated Missionaries, who resolutely battled their way through accu- 
mulative difficulties to a glorious, yet limited success, that these, too, 
lacked the elements of an enlarged, an expanding, a general, elevating 
and enduring progress which lights up the pathway of Anglo Saxon 
energy and volitionr 



I 




HISTORY OF SACRAMENTO VALLEY. 



CHAPTEK V. 

Having presented our readers with a somewhat cursory glance at the 
Missions of California, we now invite their attention to a more specific 
consideration of Sacramento Valley, as a subject of history, and a pro- 
per medium of interesting biographical references. 

We do not intend to conduct the mind back to any remote period of 
exploration, in which traditional assistance and imaginary results are to 
be chiefly relied upon, to attest visitation and discovery. It will suit 
our purpose, ifi when we commence our description of the Valley, we 
are sustained by living witnesses, and the unmistakeable indices of ab- 
solute investigation, and permanent settlement. Hence we shall incor- 
porate our reminiscenes with the nineteenth century, and date our re- 
cord on the 1st day of April, 1838, not as the absolute period of explo- 
ration, by the party to whom we shall refer, but as the time at which 
that individual left his home in a distant State, with the intention of 
settling in Sacramento Valley. 

On the day above mentioned. Captain John A. Sutter left Missouri, 
where he had resided for many years, with the purpose of visiting, and 
permanently locating his interests in California. And he being the per- 
son to whom we have already alluded, the man whom destiny had re- 
served for the effective exploration of the Sacramento river, whose en- 
terprise was to be the channel through which the great gold discovery 
was to be made, we shall take the liberty of introducing a few of the 
prominent incidents of his expedition, as he narrates them to us. 

Capt. Sutter had sought with great interest, for all kinds of informa- 
tion respecting the Pacific Coast, and especially for any direct intelli- 
gence of California and Oregon ; the former country having become a 
great source of attraction to him, on account of its geographical rela- 



^ 



38 HISTORY OP SACRAMENTO VALLEY. 

tions, and the general reputation it bore for mildness of climate and 
productiveness of soil. He became convinced that no country could 
offer finer inducements for settlement, to an individual that would ap- 
propriate himself to the inconveniences and dangers of a pioneer life. 
Hence his resolution, and first step towards emigration, on the 1st of 
April, '38. He left Missouri in company with a party of men, under 
the charge of Capt. Tripps, of the American Fur Company, and con- 
tinued with them to their rendezvous, "Wind River Valley," in the 
Rocky Mountains. From this point he joined a party of six men, with 
the intention of going directly to California, but falling in with infor- 
mation, that the contemplated route would be crowded with dangers, he 
determined to alter his course, and first visit Oregon. He passed the 
different trading poste of the Hudson's Bay Company, gathering from 
the Trappers in his line of travel, a vast amount of information that 
tended to confirm his previous convictions of the eountry which he 
had selected as his future home. After having encountered aggrava- 
ting delays, at the rendezvous of the American Company referred to, 
through the difficulty of inducing men to accompany him, and after 
having changed his course from a California to an Oregon trail, he 
moved on without interruption, and arrived in good time and health, at 
the Dallston Missdon,' on the Pacific side of the Sierra Nevada. 

From this point he passed on with great rapidity, making the dis- 
tance from thence, to the Willamet Valley, in seven days, the same be- 
ing ten days less than the average time for making the trip, and that 
too without a guide. Here his men deserted him, but without afiecting 
his determinations in respect to California. 

At Fort Van Couver, he was treated with the warmest hospitality, 
and urged to spend the winter with the gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay 
Company. He had, however, started with a determination to reach 
California as soon as possible, and he could not think of perpetrating 
so great a delay. And as a vessel, belonging to the Company, was 
about sailing for the Sandwich Islands, he immediately concluded to 
embark upon her, hoping that from thence he would meet a quicker 
opportunity to sail for California. But in this he was greviously dis- 
appointed. He succeeded in getting to the Islands, and in organizing 
a new company of colonists, but he did not find any vessel sailing for 
California, direct, and after a tedious and horrible delay an^ impatience, 
he took passage in a vessel, destined to the Russian American Colonies, 
located at Sitka, on the north-west coast. At this place ho was detained. 




JOHN A. SUTTER. 39 



one month, during which time he assisted in discharging the cargo of 
the brig Clementine, which vessel was put in his charge for a coast 
voyage to San Francisco. During the passage down the coast he sus- 
tained various injuries ifrom the severe gales prevailing at the time. On 
the 2d of July, 1839, the brig made its entry into the port of San 
Francisco. Immediately upon their arrival, an officer accompa- 
nied with fifteen soldiers came on board, and ordered him to leave 
the place, informing him that Monterey was the port of entry. — 
Upon the Captain's assurance, however, that they were in a state of 
distress, and only required a little time for repairs and to procure sup- 
plies, he had forty-eight hours granted him for such purposes. At the 
expiration of the allotted time, they set sail again for Monterey, at 
which port the vessel was entered according to Custom House require- 
ments, and the Captain given a full and unrestrained opportunity to 
submit his plans and wishes to Gov. Alvarado. He told the Governor 
that he had come to California, with the full determination of making 
it his future home ; that he had for many years heard, with great in- 
terest, the somewhat indefinite accounts .of the country, and that he had 
after many discouraging delays, finally reached the land of his selection, 
more strongly confirmed in his previously cherished impressions of the 
opportunity which California afforded to settlers. This assurance was 
most abundantly sustained, by the attendant presence of five white men, 
i^iree of whom were mechanics, and eight Kanakas, two of which were 
married. He also added that his desire was to proceed to the Valley of 
the Sacramento Eiver, on the banks of which he wished to select a site 
for his fiiture resi4ence. This unexpected visit, the purposes assigned, 
and the means of accomplishing the objects stated, were well calculated 
to secure him a warm and liberal welcome from Gov. Alvarado. , Of all 
surprises, perhaps none could have been more delightful and unexpect- 
ed than this arrival of Capt. Sutter and his men. The more especial- 
ly, as he disclosed his desire to locate somewhere in the Sacramento 
Valley. The Indians in this neighborhood were not only generally hos- 
tile to all white men, but they had a particular aversion to the Span- 
iards^ and would not allow them to make settlements among them. — 
Hence the readiness of Gov. Alvarado, to welcome the new immigrants, 
and to encourage the carrjdng out of their design to locate in the fore- 
mentioned Valley. He gave them the fullest permission to explore the 
rirer and its tributaries, and whenever and wherever the old Captain 
fimnd a loeation to please him, to enter upon and take possession of it, 
D 



«BMM 



40 JOHN A. SUTTER. 



with the assurance that at the expiration of one year after he com- 
menced his settlement, he should be given a citizenship and title to the 
lands he had selected. 

With such encouragement, he proceeded with the brig to Yerba Bu- 
ana, or San Francisco again, and after discharging her sent her to the 
Sandwich Islands. This having been done, he made a purchase of sev- 
eral small boats, and chartered the schooner Isabella to assist him in a 
general exploration of the Sacramento River and its contributing bran- 
ches. When emWked on board the schooner and launches, the expe- 
dition made quite an imposing start across the Bay, and in search of 
the entrance to the river in question. There was no delay encountered 
until he got to the point at which he expected to meet with the Mouth 
of the Sacramento, and yet it was eight days before he succeeded to 
find the outlet, or entrance to the stream. This was not a strange event, 
as it required a similar effort on the part of a number of U. S. Naval 
Officers, who subsequently attempted an ascent of the river without the * 
services of a pilot. Aft;er making the entrance of the river, he sailed 
on without any difficulty or in^pediment, until he got within about ten 
miles of the present site of the City of Sacramento. At this juncture, 
he was arrested in his progress, by the sudden appearance of about two 
hundred Indians, who, being all armed and horribly painted, could very 
well afford to assume a hostDe attitude, which they did not hesitate to do. 
Fortunately, however, the benevolent and conciliating &cc of the old 
Captain secured him an opportunity of manifesting his peaceful de- 
signs, in doing which he discovered that two of the Indians had a slight 
knowledge of the Spanish language. This gave him an advantage 
which he improved so well as to effect an agreeable treaty with them, 
and the two speaking a little Spanish accompanied the expedition up 
the river. From these two Indians he got much valuable in£)miation 
in respect to the &ce of the country, extent of valley, and the character 
of the Indians generally. He continued up the Sacramento until he 
arrived at the mouth of the Feather. The Indians above the point at 
which the treaty had been made, seemed afraid of the explorers, and 
generally hid in the bushes whenever approached by them. Whil» 
prosecuting his survey up the Feather River in small boats, he saw a 
number of Indians, but they uniformly ran away when they saw the 
expeditionists. 

After having gone up this river for some distance, the Captun again 
returned to the large crafts which weie anchored in the main stream, 



and there found a condition of things existing among his men, which 
he had not anticipated, and which compelled him, most reluctant- 
ly, to abandon any further attempt at exploration up these streams. 
His men had become tired of a scheme which entailed upon them so 
much delay, and evinced their disaffection in a manner that he was 
compelled to respect. They demanded at once to know " how much 
longer he intended to drag them along into such a useless and miserable 
wilderness?" Assuring him that they had decided upon a course 
which would put an end to what they regarded as a humbug, they left 
him but a small margin for compromise. Not being willing to jeopar- 
dize the entire objects of colonizing in the valley at some point, and 
being unwilling to trust his self-control under such a pressure of excite- 
ment amd indignation as this mutinizing spirit had enkindled, he simply 
told them that he would give them a decisive answer in the morning, 
and retired for reflection into the cabin of the schooner. 

The next morning the old Captain met his men with an assumed air 
of cheerfulness, and instead of entering into any conference with them, 
he gave orders to prepare for descending the Sacramento again. This 
order was most congenial to the wishes of his men, and, of course, 
quickly responded to. 

He descended tfiis river until he came to the mouth of the American 
which he entered on the 12th of August, 1839. He ascended this 
branch of the Sacramento a few miles, and ordered the men to moor 
the boats alongside the banks, and to discharge the cargoes. This 
being done, he ordered the tents to be pitched and the three cannons 
mounted as a means of defence and intimidation, should the Indians 
show any disposition to molest them. 

This being done according to his request, he then felt an independ- 
ence which enabled him to settle with the spirit of rebellion that had 
interrupted his explorations of Feather River. Calling the white men 
to him, he told them that now he would give them an opportunity of 
deciding a very important question ; — ^to determine at once, and empha- 
tically, whether they intended to remain with him agreeable to contract, 
or to leave him ; assuring them that he asked no man to remain who 
could not do so cheerfully, and that those who were not contented to 
stay with him and his Kanakas, he would settle with at once, and 
allow them to return the next morning in the Isabella. 

This was a terrible crisis in the early adventure of tho old Pioneer. 
In the midst of numerous tribes of Indians who he knew were hostile 



42 JOHN A. SUTTER. 



and warlike, who were bitterly prejudiced against the approaches of 
white men ; remote from any settlement that would afford him refuge 
in an emergency ; with somewhat limited supplies, and no persons to 
rely upon but these six men and his Kanakas, he had a right to regard 
the moment of decision referred to as of perilous importance. His im- 
patience with grumbling faces and capricious spirits made him loathe a 
companionship that was not at once open, manly and resolute. He had, 
of course, relied upon his contract with them, and, in consequence^ had 
placed himself in a situation in which it was more than probable that his 
life would be forfeited, yet he would not have men about him who, un- 
der such circumstances, could evince a feeling of disaffection or treach- 
ery. If they abandoned him at such a time they would not, nor could 
not, drive him from the purpose which he had pledged himself to Grov. 
Alvarado to carry out. He came to California to settle in and develope 
the valley of the Sacramento, and no principle of abandonment, no feel- 
ing of loneliness, nor consideration of danger could paralyze or stagger 
his determination for a single moment. In this state of mind he waited 
the verdict of a jury of six discontented and imreasonable men. 

The verdict was announced, and it was so much better than he had 
anticipated that he felt an unutterable thrill of pleasure light up his 
whole moral frame work. Three had determined inflexibly to abide 
by their old guide and protector, and three of the number concluded 
to return in the Isabella. Three such men he could afford to lose, and 
accordingly settled with them, paid them their dues, and gave them a 
passage to San Francisco. 

The next morning the chartered schooner was got in readiness for her 
final return, and, with the faint-hearted trio of adventurers, set sail for 
" Yerba Buena." Thus were the first real Settlers of Sacramento 
Valley left alone, amidst the dangers of an almost unparalleled exile, in 
the centre of an inhospitable desert, which was infested with wild beasts 
and savage Indians. Thus were they called upon to meet a ciisis in 
which companions faltered and returned, and in which they could see 
and feel that in the receding form of the "Isabella" they were losing 
every chance of safety, save in their own mutual and unchangeable re- 
gard and integrity. With an involuntary loathing they turned from 
watching the departure of their three unfiiithful and unabiding associ- 
ates, to a calm yet cheerful contemplation of the great experiment they 
were about to commence. They had tents, farming implements, provi- 
sions and mechanical appliances ; powder, guns and three cannons, 



JOHN A. SUTTER. 43 



which, though in limited number and quantity, were, nevertheless, a 
source of infinite reliance and comfort to them in this the most trying 
juncture of a noble yet perilous adventure. That the scene, however, 
must have been a dismal one, to anything but an inflexible and brave 
mind, can be easily imagined, especially by parties who have witnessed 
the barren and dried up appearance of these plains at such a season of 
the year, and before they had been subjected to cultivation. But the 
circumstances by which they were now surrounded, the almost impossi- 
bility of retreat, if assailed and dislodged by the savages, the absolute 
requirement to labor for support, and to exercise vigilance for protec- 
tion, gave inspiration to a heroism, energy and mutual fidelity that in- 
sured them success. The immense plains, which, by the promise of the 
Grov^or, became theirs through possession, they looked upon as an 
adequate prospective reward for the dangers they had voluntarily in- 
curred. The only doubt that crossed their minds in reference to their 
ultimate success in subduing and improving the country, arose £rom the 
many Indians around them who manifq^d anything but a friendly and 
honest intention. There was something peculiarly attractive to the 
Indians in the personal property 5f the colonists, and as they could not 
appreciate reasoning which assigned it by a mere moral right of owner- 
ship to the new comers, they commenced almost immediately to make it 
the subject of plunder. The colonists were, therefore, put to the neces- 
sity at once of placing themselves in an attitude of opposition to the 
natives. The Indians, finding themselves out-witted in their cunning, 
became sufficiently emboldened to try a forcible appropriation of the 
coveted property. But a few experiments in gunpowder and the 
three cannons, convinced them that however much superior they might 
be numerically, that yet in any form of open warfere, the colonists had 
a &tal and mysterious advantage — ^which they might better conciliate 
than oppose. Acting in response to such a conclusion they assumed a 
much more friendly appearance, and seemed disposed to be regarded 
and treated as friends. Their intercourse was at once distinguished by 
acts of kindness, by freedom of communications, and even by manifest- 
ing an interest in sharing some of the toUs and hardships of the colo- 
nists. By this conduct they acquired the confidence of the Captain and 
his associates, and lulled them into a conviction of security which came 
near fixing their fate forever. Indeed nothing rescued them from a 
wily and malignant plot of assassination, but the superior instinct and 
vigilance of an immense bull dog belonging to the Captain, and whose 



44 JOHN A. SUTTER 



claims as an integral and fortunate portion of the colony have been 
almost criminally overlooked. 

A fgw of the most daring Indians had determined as soon as they 
discovered a sofficient'lack of caution on the part of the whites, to steal 
upon them in the night with such a force as to enable them to murder 
the entire company at a single blow. In the day time they were around 
the camp exhibiting a kindness, a familiarity, and a general friendli- 
ness, whidi was rapidly conciliating the good will of the colonists, and, 
for the time being, overruled the suspicions of the &ithfnl bull dog. So 
WicU did they pefform their part in the maturing conspiracy that the 
Captain and his friends began to welcome night and sleep without the 
disagreeable necessity of a constant sentinelship. This was recognized 
with a sort of savage congeniality by the villainous conspirators, ^hey 
watched its progress with the eagerness of fiends, and yet were never sur- 
prised into a betrayal of theur own feelings. One precaution after another 
was abandoned, until little show of suspicion was evinced, and then the 
Indians prepared for the contemplated slaughter. Furnishing them- 
selves with hunting knives, procured from the southern tribes in trade, 
they sallied out one night at an houf when all was silent and quiet in 
the camp of the colonists, and stealthfully"! crawled up towards the 
tents. All this fiir was most promising^to their appetite for vengeance 
and plunder. Every one of the tired colonists were buried in sleepi 
while their approaching murderers had stolen, in perfect security, to 
within a few feet of the intended victims ; and the ringleader, in ad- 
vance of the rest, was^ about crawling into the mouth of the old Cap- 
tain's tent. Fortunately for the unsuspecting adventurers, who were 
upon the very verge of an awful slaughter, there was a friendly senti- 
nelship about them that never slept, whose instinct was the watchword 
of fidelity, and whose sense of danger could be aroused where stillness 
reigned. Thus was it with the noble old bull dog referred to. Close 
to his master's tent, concealed from view by the darkness of the night, 
he watched the movements ef the murderous wretches, until he could 
stand their impudence no longer, and then selecting the boldest one, he 
pounced upon him without a bark or growl, and sinking his teeth into a 
protuberant angle of his body, he put the speediest possible end to the 
conspiracy. The air was instantly filled with the piteous yells of the 
ringleader, whose misery and torment, and the cause thereof, the ac- 
complices did not stop to investigate. The camp was, of course, arous- 
ed, and whoever has obse^^-ed, or experienced the power of a bull dog's 



JOHN A. SUTTER 46 



grip, can appreciate the difficulty of the Indian attempting his escape. 
Instinct which in this case was a sort of Aposteriori argument, induced 
the yillian to throw away his intended instrument of destruction and as- 
suming a less criminal intent, get some of the Captain's men to choke off 
the dog. In this he succeeded so well as to escape the punishment due 
him, and twice afterwards were similar stratagems concocted and each 
time defeated through the sagacity of this noble animal. The nature of 
the conspiracies were revealed to the Captain subsequently by his civ- 
ilized and educated Indians. 

Before Captain Sutter came up the river he purchased a number of 
horses and cattle from the Bancho of Senor Martinez. But it .was with 
great difficulty that he succeeded in getting his stock up to his station. 
The Indians were so troublesome that he had to detail almost the whole 
of his force from the camp, and then they could but barely accomplish 
the undertaking. They did, however, finally get to their new home 
about five hundred head of cattle, fifty horses, and a ''manada'' of 
twenty-five mares. 

Prior to the arrival of the stock they subsisted principally upon 
game, elk, deer, bears, etc., which existed in great abundance, and 
which probably constituted the principal subsistence of Captain Joseph 
Walker in the year 1833.* 

After the Captain had got his stock together, and after he had suc- 
ceeded in getting the natives to render him some assistance, he began 
to lay out different and more substantial plans for the future. The site 
fiirst selected he did not feel satisfied with, and accordingly changed his 
location from the bank of the American up to the present location of 
the Old Fort. With the Indians and his own, men he soon made 
enough adobes to build one good sized house and two small ones within 
the grounds afterwards enclosed by the walls of the Fort. His Kana- 
kas built themselves three grass houses, such as they were in the habit 
of living in at the Sandwich Islands. These houses, which were sub- 
sequently burned, afforded them very comfortable quarters during their 
first rainy season, or winter. 



* In the year 1881 Capt Joseph Walker, with a company of trappers, left 
St. Louis, and after trafficking and trapping for nearly two years along the 
way, succeeded in crossing the Sierra Nevada mountains, in 1833, and win- 
tered in the Sacramento Valley. The pass now known as "Walker's Pass" 
is the one then discovered by the Captain and his party. 



At the same time that he was prosecuting these important and Tery 
commendable improvements at the Fort, he was also employing a num- 
ber of his friendly Indians in opening a road direct to the Sacramento, 
where it was intersected by the American. After completing this road 
of communication, which required a vast deal of labor on account of the 
almost impenetrable chapparel through which the road had to be cut, 
he named his landing place upon the main river, his "Embarcadora,'' 
now the City of Sacramento. 

As yet the Captain had no opportunity of knowing anything about 
the soil of the valley, except from the account given by trappers and 
Indians, and from its appearance when freshly turned with the spade 
or shovel. Yet he was fiilly convinced of its richness and adaptation 
to the raising of grains and vegetables, and consequently made the best 
possiblg^ arrangements for opening the ground in the coming spring. 
His Indians were becoming very useful, and with the setting in of the 
spring season he commenced to break ground for a crop of wheat, and 
also to prepare a garden for the cultivation of vegetables. The old 
Captain assures us that no man ever felt a greater glow of pleasure than 
he experienced, when, for the first time, he commenced to break up tiie 
greennsward of Sacramento Valley as a practical farmer. To him it 
seemed almost a dream. Contempleting his situation in the midst of a 
vast wilderness ; in a territory as yet almost unknown in' its real char- 
acter, surrounded by Indians whom he had succeeded in a few months 
to transform into the most usefril laborers, establishing a nucleus of what 
his prophetic vision represented as an immense centre oi wealth, we 
wonder not that his benovolent heart vibrated with the intensest emotions 
of pleasure and satisfaction. Bather should we be surprised were he to 
affirm the contrary. But this was only the beginning of an infinite 
source of incidents, of an interminable series of events through which, 
by his kindness, we will hereafter conduct those of our readers who will 
honor and oblige us with their company. 



3 •• 






TO OUR PATR03?r&:;. 

- ' / •. 

/ : • . 

In presenting the first number of our work to the public^ Wfe desire to 
say, that we have been induced to undertake the task ]fipom ^liigher 
motive than mere pecuniary requitement. We have observed <hat,^j5n 
a few years can do much towards effacing the record of those exqitipg^ 
and quickly-passing events that followed the gold digging developniehi^ .* 
of our country. Already a vast amount of history has been concocted , 
and labelled California, which, to the people of the State can only be' 
rcM-rded as the products of hearsay testimony. 

For example we will quote a description of Sacramento from "Frost's 
Pictorial History of California." 

" Where the City of Sacramento now stand^f, at the time of the gold 
discovery, there stood, solitary and alone, a small fort. This formed 
the nucleus, about which, at die commencement of the rush of emigra- 
tion, the town soon sprang into existence. Its increase has been almost as 
rapid as that of San Francisco. During the rainy season of the early part 
of 1850, the population numbered somewhere between twenty and thirty 
thousand people." Again, in speaking of " Sutterville," he says that 
** It is situated on the highest and healthiest ground on the river." 
and that it has a thriving business population. But to cap the 
climax of error, on the page opposite the quotation from Sacra- 
mento, is a pictorial representation of the Town of Sacrtimento, two 
miles from the small fort! exhibiting some fifty buildings, and 
yet advancing the age of the town nearly to the period of its containing 
between 20,000 and 30,000 inhabitants, by the introduction of a large 
sidewheel steamboat, probably the " Senator," which did not arrive 
until October, *49. 

Such errors, even in the geography of the country, can only be cor- 
rected by those who, knowing to the contrary, will take some pains to 
counteract the inaccuracies. 

In the history of Sacramento Valley and the City of Sacramento, wc 
feel confident we can collate and present a great deal that will not only 
be true and interesting, but of great service in the more general and 
comprehensive history of California. 

By publishing the work in numbers we can pay better attention to 
the mechanical execution^ of it, and associate it with a general sum- 
mary which can be very conveniently detached from the work when the 
whole is complete and ready for binding. 

We have received promises of data from many sources, and have the 

Pleasure of acknowledging the kindest assistance from Capt. John A. 
iiitt^r, Mr. Ford, Samuel Brannan, Judge Burnet, Alta California, 
Placer Times and Transcript, Joseph Winans, Esq^ Mr. Myzner, Eo- 
land Gelston, Col. Zabriskie, P. B. Cornwall, W. JR. Grimshaw, and 
C, S. Pickett. Ere we commence upon our sketch of the City we hope 
we shall receive still more from the same and other parties. 









reCELLANEOUS REFLECTIONS. 






\ 



A^Hioralist would not be driven into an inactivity in California, simply 
^be<Jwise'liis reflections are often pained with disagreeable and depraved 
;^ fe^lirbitions of moral character. California is not altogether barren of 
tnSral and social progress. There are, indeed, most pleasing signs of 
' 'improvement, which, though not so obtrusive and turbulent in their in- 
ception, are nevertheless powerful in their influence. Truth and virtue 
are elements of divinity, that operate with such silent and modest grace, 
as to sometimes almost escape observation. 

The great mass of human beings seldom recognize the true condition 
of moral and social advancement, until some great demonstrative result 
or striving aggregate of improvement arrests their attention. A few 
there are, whose elevated tastes and honorable habits lead them, not 
merely to watch in detail the onward progress of moral and social im- 
provement, but who are ever zealously and gloriously employed in en- 
deavours to increase the tone and fervor of the spirit of reformation and 
refinement. They think and act, preach and practice ; and they can 
be recognized as the moving spirits or active agencies of a great variety 
of moral and social organizations. Now they are engaged in forming 
religious associations, and in a very short time in California, they are 
observed in the act of rearing upon these, their first efibrts, a splendid 
and effective system of church organizations. And then there is anoth- 
er redeeming nucleus of men, who are imbued with such prominent 
elements of benevolence, whose feelings are so freighted with fraternal 
sympathies, that they are also actively, and we might almost say con- 
stantly engaged in organizing charitable associations, and vitalizing them 
with potent activity in the divine science of doing good. 

And when we contemplate such men and theiir noble works, we can 
rejoice that even in California there are encouraging signs of moral and 
social improvements. In the organization of churches, their increasing 
number and influence, in the rapid multiplication of benevolent institu- 
tions, in the formation of temperance societies, and in the obvious ex- 
purgation of impurities in social life, there is enough to justify congratu- 
lation upon the past, and to encourage a pleasurable degree of expecta- 
tion for the future. 

But, as there is no country in the world, in which vice does not ex- 
ist, we in California, can only expect to become notorious from either 
an excess or a deficiency of it, and from present appearance there can 
be little doubt as to which source of distinction we will be compelled to 
choose. For, notwithstanding the indications of improvement to which 
we have referred, there perhaps never was a time when vice in Califor- 
nia was so ably sustained by art and science as at the present day. 

First and miserably wrong, is the science of legislation, (if that can 

f 



be called a science, which is so iriade up of art,) pandering to the de- 
velopment of vice, by unwise laws, such for example as a loosely con- 
structed law of divorcement. A law which is inundating Cahfornia 
with a species of harlotanism and masculine depravity, worse and more 
despicable than an unmasked form of prostitution. A law which is 
crowding the court rooms of our country with men and women, making 
or endeavoring to make a virtue of some painfully recorded category 
of domestic rows ; in which, peradventure, some little children have 
been knocked down or kicked against a wall, (if from extraordinary 
causes such a delay of application for divorce has made room for the 
household elements alluded to,) or, perchance scratched faces have been 
recognized, or hair pulled out instead of being cut off. In short, a 
thousand disgusting manifestations of human weakness, which, if occur- 
ring in any individual worthy of the right of matrimony, would be as 
faithfully concealed as if life itself depended upon keeping the world 
ignorant of their existence. 

But then, even with the leeway which such a law affords, in the 
hands of a just coui*t, it need not be a source of -sdce. It is but a 
short time since we read a decision of our own District Judge, who, in 
one of many of the applications being made^ declined to grant the 
prayer of the parties, upon grounds that were probably stronger than 
many in which bills in other counties have been secured- This shows 
that the law may be bad, and yet in the hands of a just and reasonable 
man, it may be made harmless. 

But then again, in cases in which legislation is perhaps perfect, there 
may be, aye there is, something unutterably wrong in the execution of 
the law. As an illustration of this, we will refer very briefly to the re- 
cent trial of the 

"PEOPLE vs. GATES."— In the sentence of the Judge, which is clear, 
succinct, and, from necessity severe, we find the following: — "iiefore the 
law, however, all are equal, and I must not permit or suffer my jn-evious ac- 
quaintance, or your previous position, to innuence me in the judgment I am 
now called upon to declare. That you were not convicted of the higher 
crime, that of murder, I attribute ciiieflt to the children who testified in 
jovLV favor upon the trial, — there was so much apparent truth in theii* state- 
ments, their cross-examinations was so consistent with their examination in 
chief, that it gave great weight to what they swore to. There was one fact, 
however, the most important fact of all, that little Laura swore to, which, 
at the time, I was unable to explain or reconcile, nor have I been able to do 
so since. I presume it escaped the attention of the jury, as their attention 
was not directly called to it. Laura testified that.when me quarrel between 
you and her father(the deceased) commenced, she and her raother(Mrs. Har- 
rold) left the kitchen, Mrs.Harrold going into an adjoining room, and Laura 
going out into the yard, to look after her little brother John, and wh*Mi about 
80 or 50 yards fro:u the house (for John testified he was about 40 or oO yards 




by the little girl out in the open air, distant some 30 or 50 yanis 3, 
from the house, and yet Mrs. Hurrold, who was in an adjoining room, with- 
but a thin partition intervening, and who, upon tlie trial, siiowkd no reluc- 
tance to testify in your favor, never heard one word of it." In connection 
with this we will quote from the teatimony*of Mr. James Heushaw, whom 



Mr. Gates firBt called upon to assist him after the man was killed. He says in 
the middle of his testimony, which referred to a uei^hhoring house, '*Gates 
then Jeft, and' I went to the house ; no light there when I went in ; got in ; 
took hold of the left hand of the deceased and said '*John, can you speak ;" 
but there was no breath in him ; can't say how long I was in there ; Gates 
tirst came in ; I was looking at victuals in the mouth of deceased ; Gates 
took the candle, blew out the light and said, ** we must put him to bed ; I 
don't want Mrs. H. to see him ;" I answered that he must remain where he 
was until some one came from the city to see him ; this was repeated ; he 
then stooped to get hold of his right arm ; I resisted the third time ; he said 
"yes» get him to bed ;" Mrs. H. was outside and said, "let him remain there;" 
Gates took hold of him as if to drag him ; I assisted to draw him on a mat- 
trass ; noticed a wound on right side of his head ; a chair was standing at 
and a cup and saucer on the table; deceased fell sideways on the floor, with 
his legs crooked around the front of the chair; his mouth was open and 
FULL of victuals UNHASTicATED. In the cross-examination he answers : ** when 
he (Gates) spoke to me about putting deceased to bed, he spoke sharply, in 
a doggish manner, twitched the candle out of my hands ana blew it out 

Nor all the material points of the testimony of Henshaw, were not 
only abundantly sustained by the irreconcilable testimony to which 
the Judge alluded, and the general character of the witness, but had 
the prosecution pleased, they could have brought forth the positive tes- 
timony of two unimpeachable medical gentlemen, who were employed 
by the State to examine the body, after it had been exhumed, and must 
have established the truthfalness of the statement, in regard to the un- 
masticated food in the mouth of the man killed. Not only this, the 
physicians, subsequent to the autopsey, said that the food consisted of a 
piece of unchewed beef-steak, not of the size which could be convenient- 
ly turned to one side for the distinct articulation of ** Q — d d — ^n you, 
you have got to die to-night," but near, or about the size of an EngHsh 
walnut. Nor was it beef-steak once swallowed and rejected by a con- 
vulsive act of the stomach. As it was taken into the mouth in a state of 
health, so was it found there in indestructablc attestation of an unex- 
pected and instant death, which resulted from a ball entering a little 
from the centre of the back of the head, piercing the skull and tearing 
its way through the anterio-posterior diameter of the brain, and lodging 
upon the orbital ridge of the left eye. Now, we care not whether a 
conclusion be asked from the general circumstances, associated with the 
conflicting statement worrying the mind of the Judge, or associated 
with the single fact of the unmasticated food in the mouth of deceased, 
or with the single feet of the ball entering the back of the head, or with 
the single fact of his falling upon his side, with his " legs crooked 
around the front of a chair," which chair stood at the table; still in 
either case, the inference is almost irresistibly on the side of a deliber- 
ate and premeditated murder ; and when all the testimony is embraced 
in the consideration, it is, we believe, one of the strongest cases of guOt 
that ever went upon a criminal calendar. But he has been tried by a 
jury of his countrymen, and returned as guilty of manslaughter, with 
a recommendation to the mercy of the court. The puni^ment pre^ 
scribed by law in the premises, is two years' imprisonment aad a fine 
of $100. The punishment pf a divine law will be a quiet mind, if 




popular opinion be wrong or a tortarcd coBWicncc if ita coniechires or 
rather ita fiicd eon lu3 one be correct and |uat Such in illuitration 
sustains iba positnn wh ch led to il If such be the manner of a imin 
istering the laws of CaJilornia tliPU tl i. mere tact of having good kw^ 
is no probable guarantj of mor 1 honestj or personal BecnntN 

But, to change the lul^ect and introduce a more agreeable tne let 
U9 rejoice in the presence of our new (all!) and welcomed gueat tlie 
Capital. Well who would have thought a tew montha ago that the 




people of Sacramento, including Whiga anJ Bolters, (ceuslns by contin- 
gency,) would be found ao eager to open the doors of their special hos- 
pitality to "Crov. John Bigler and his immense &mi!y of partisan cor- 
morants, who had not only plunged the State into irretrievable bank- 
ruptcy, but who had absolutely eat«n, digested, assimilated and been 
made strong by "water lot extension," "stomp act statutes," State prin- 
ting obligations," and worse than all "State's prison contracts." " O, 
tempora, 0, mores.' How to reconcile it we know not, except by an- 
other quite reasonable maxim " qitantiim mittatus ah ilia" how 
changed from what he onee was; or per chance "Omnia vincit amor," 
LOVE conquers all things. 

But we started with a fehcitating eiprcsaion in respect to the fact of 
the Capital being now at Sacramento, and we regret a digression that 
has Nomewhat disturbed our specific gravity. It ia philosophically, 
morally, socially, and, by all natiirat and artificial considcmtionH, where 
the Capital of the State ought to be, and if ita permanent adjustment 



requires that Mr. Broderick should be sent to the U. S. Senate in view 
of a regular bargain having been made to that effect, why then, with 
due respect to Mr. Park, and our own proper dignity, we would ex- 
claim, in the classic sentiment of the day, "pitch in ;'' or else, in ihe 
language of a defunct aphorism, do, for gracious sake, "dry up." 



MONTHLY SUMMARY OF EVENTS. 



Feb. 1st. — Celebrated by the Fire Department of Sacramento, it 
being the occasion of Protection Engine Co. No. 2 receiving a new 
engine ; attended the Sacramento Theatre in the evening. 

Feb. 2d^ — ^Steamer Brother Jonathan arrived, bringing intelligence 
that the interest on the 7 per cent, bonds, in New York, falling due on 
the 1st January, were not paid ; also of the purchase, by the United 
States, of Lower California and Sonora, for $50,000,000 ; Prussia had 
declared war against Turkey; Madame Anna Bishop and the celebrated 
Bochsa arrived. 

Feb. 3d. — A Lyceum was established at Grass Valley ; Patrick Fer- 
ris killed at Sacramento by William Peters, who stands indicted for 
murder. 

Feb. 4th. — Extensive deposits of gold discovered near Forman's 
Ranch, on the South Calaveras. 

Feb. 6th. — Oregon arrived, announcing Lord Palmerston's restoration 
to the ministry ; Passage from Sacramento to San Francisco, 50 cents. 

Feb. 7th. — Democratic members of the Senate and Assembly met 
in Caucus, to decide upon the election of a U. S. Sent or this session; 
great diversity of opinion on the subject. 

Feb. 8th. — The following persons enipannelled as Grand Jurors of 
Sacramento County, February Term: Benj. Southwick, Jefferson Wil- 
coxson, J. W. McDonald, John S. Fowler, T. Wand, Chas. H. Shaw, 
Saml. Colville, Jesse S. Ilambleton, Geo. B. Bidleman, R. D. Denton, 
Wm. A. McWilliams, W. B. Crawford, Daniel Quivey, D. Murray, W. 
Jordon, John Woods, J. E. Perkins, G. W. Holstead, S. B. Freeland, 
J. R. Gould, Josiah Johnson, Mathew Purden, E. M. Vancleck ; clipper 
ship San Francisco wrecked — loss estimated at §400,000. 

Feb. 9. — Thomas Francis Meagher lectured at Grass Valley. 

Feb. 10. — A company of three men (Short & Co.) at Algerine Camp, 
near Sonora, took out 95 ounces of gold. 

Feb. 11. — The miners of El Dorado Co. held a mass meeting at 
Diamond Springs, at which measures were adopted tor the promotion 
of their general interest. 

Feb. 13. — The citizens of Sacramento gave Mr. Joseph Proctor and 
lady a complimentary benefit prior to their departure to the East. 



Feb. 14. — ^From the overflow of the Calaveras the road between Sa- 
cramento and Stockton was made impassable. 

Feb. 15. — Gen. John E. Wool, U.S.A., and Hon. H. S. Foote, 
arrived by the steamer John L. Stephens. 

Feb. 16. — The California Conference of the M. E. Church convened 
at Sacramento, Bishop Simpson presiding ; the steamers California and 
Brother Jonathan sailed from San Francisco, taking in treasure 
$2,087,452. 

Feb. 17. — The Senate passed Mr. Catlin's bill for removing the 
scat of Govemfnent to Sacramento. 

Feb. 18 — The San Francisco Herald reports an increase of 1743 
persons to the population of California, by two days arrivals at the Bay. 

Feb. 20. — School Commissioners established the first Free School in 
Sacramento. 

Feb. 21. — New diggings discovered in the region of Bear River. 

Feb. 22. — The Fire Department of San Francisco received a benefit 
at the Metropolitan Theatre, when Mr. J. E. Murdoch, Mrs. Sinclair, 
Madam Thillon, Mr. Hudson, etc., volunteered their services gratui- 
tously — proceeds, $4,565. 

Feb. 23. — Sacramento R street Levee completed. 

Feb. 24.— Stage communication between Sacramento and Grass 
Valley interrupted, on account of prevailing storms. 

Feb. 25. — The Mayor of Sacramento authorized to issue additional 
bonds to the amount of $105,000 ; the Governor signed the bill for the 
removal of the seat of Government. 

Feb. 27. — A mining party above the Main Bridge, says the Colum" 
hia Gazette, struck a vein, and were taking out twenty ounces per day. 

Feb. 28. — State Officers arrived at Sacramento ; Marysville decided 
by election to subscribe for $800,000 of stock in the Marysville and 
Benicia Railroad. 

Mar. 1. — The Senate and Assembly organized in the Court House 
at Sacramento ; at this place the Temperance Society have nominated 
a ticket to be supported at the ensuing city election ; steamers Sierra 
Nevada and John L. Stephens sailed from San Francisco, taking trea- 
sure to the amount of $1,540,547. 

Mar. 2. — A specimen was talcen from the Bed Rock Tunnel at 
Smith's Diggings, weighing about four hundred pounds, and valued at 
from twelve to eighteen thousand dollars. 

March 3 — ^Report states that snow is twelve feet deep in Orion Val- 
ley, Sierra County. 

March 4th. — Hebrew Benevolent Society of Sacramento reorgan- 
ized. 

jMarch 6th. — Senatorial question postponed in the Senate and As- 
sembly, until the 17th inst. 



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tt^ We propose hereafter deTOting a space in each issue of our 
work, to a review of the passing events on that " mimic world " the 
stage, also for the puhlication of original poetry, and in these depart- 
ments have solicited the aid of acknowledged talent. Their oonfcribn- 
tions to this number are unavoidably crowded out for lack of cfpace. 



CORRECTION. 



We desire in this number of our work to correct an error which was 
committed in our sketches of the City, previously published. In the 
account given us of the primary lot speculators in the City of Sacra- 
mento, the name of Gov. Burnett was included as one of the parties 
obtaining a large number of lots from John A. Sutter, Jr., as an in- 
ducement to settle in and develope the town. The relation of the gen- 
tleman to Mr. Sutter at the time, would have made the speculation one 
of great impropriety as well as morally and legally wrong; a condi- 
tion which in our haste was overlooked, and the effect of which we sin- 
cerely regret. The Governor has exhibited us a statement of the mat- 
ter, which exhonorates him from any participation in the arrangement 
and which we shall use when we come to that part of our own work to 
which the subject refers. 



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