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Full text of "An illustrated history of Sacramento County, California. Containing a history of Sacramento County from the earliest period of its ocupancy to the present time"

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Containing a History of Sacramento County from the Earliest Period 

of its Occupancy to the Present Time, together with Glimpses of 

its Prospective Future; with Profuse Illustrations of its 

Beautiful Scenery, Full-Page Portraits of Some of 

its most Eminent Men, and Biographical 

Mention of Many of its Pioneers and 

also of Prominent Citizens 

of To-dav. i ;,i. 



HON. Win. J. Dams. 


18 9 0. 








Topography, Soil, Climate, Etc.— 

Derivation of name " Sacramento " 1 

Latitude and Longitude J 

Height above Sealevel | 

Surface of tlie Land 1 

Water and Soil ~ 

Productions and Olimale *> 

Mines and Minerals 5 

Indians ° 


John A. Sutter and nis Fort 7, 806 

The Califorkia Revolution and the Bear-Flag 

Party 13 


Discovert of Gold— 

Discoveries Pr.or to 1818 15 

Marshall's Discovery H 

Sketch of Marshall 17 


P-UNDiNQ OF Sacramento City— 

The " Embarcadero " and Sutterville 18 

Hoboken 19 

George McDougal 19 

First Election 20 

Other •■ First " Things 20 

Prison Brig 31 


The Squatter Riots— 

Dr. Morse's History '23 

Sutter's Notice lo the Squatters 33 

Claims of the Squatters 'id 

Squatters' Association 24 

Judge Willis' Adverse Decision 25 

Squatters Declare Resistance 2.") 

Riotous Meeting 2<) 

The Shooting 28 

Letter Found in Dr. Robinson's Tent 2i> 

Subsequent Events, and Peace Restored 30 

Sketches of McCulloch and Caulfield 34 

Gen. A M. Winn 800 


County Government — 

First Attempt 3ft 

First Election 37 

Subsequent Elections, and List of Officers to 
Date 39-4S 

Sacramento County Legislators- 

Senators 43, 806 

Assemblymen 46, 806 


The Bench and the Bar^ 

The Bench 52 

The Atfornevs of the Past 54, 806 

The Present' Bar 59 



Early Ruffianism 61 

Lynching 61 

Sketches of Principal Cases .63-71,807 


Political — 

Double-headed Convention at the Baptist Church. 72 

" Spittoon " Convention .... 74 

Sketch of H. S. Foote 75 


The Military 76 


Sketch of all the Periodicals 80, 807 


Educational — 

City Schools 98 

Offlcersof the Board 99-104,807 

The High School 104 

The Country Schools 105 


Navigation — 

First Sailing on the Sacramento 107 

First Steamboat lOS 

Steamboat Explosions 110 


Uailroads — 

The Sacramento Valley Kailroad 113, 119 

Central Pacific 113 

Western Pacific 118 

California Central 110 

Freeport Railroad 120 

Railroad Shops at Sacramento liO 

Business Associations — 

Agricultural Society 133 

A Successful Experiment 133 

Sacramento Board of Trade 133 

The Improvement Association 120 

Chakitable Institutions — 

Distress During the Early G Id-Mining Period ... 127 

Cholera 139 

Early Hospitals 133 

The County Hospital 132 

Railroad Hospital 133 

Protestant Orphan Asylum 133 

Marguerite Home 134 

Water Cures .' . 135 

Sacramento City — 

Pioneer Business Men 138 

Flouring-Mills 1+2 

Other Enterprises 143 

Mills' Bank 807 

Museum and Art Gallery 146 

Business Colleges 147 

Public Libraries 159 

Municipal 151 

First Charter 152 

Consolidation with the County 154 

Present City Charter 1^4 

First Mayor Elected 154 

Mayors to Date 1 55 

Other Cily Officers • 156 

Fires and Fire Department .160 

Exempt Firemen's Association 1(>4 

Waterworks 164 

Gas Works 1«6 

Yolo Bridge .167 

Cemeteries 168 

Churches I'iS 

Societies 179 



Postoffices 200 

Other Points 300 

County Nomenclature 200 

Census 203 

Court-House 2U3 

State Capital 203 

Floods 204 

Levees 205 


The Townships — 

Alabama 207 

American 208 

Brighton 210 

Center 213 

Cosumnes 215 

Dry Creek 218 

Franklin 223 

Georgiana 235 

Granite 227 

Lee 234 

Mississippi 287 

Natoma 240 

San Joaquin 242 

Sutter 245 

Addenda 806 


Adams, C. E 4W3 

AddiDgton. A. M 487 

Aiken, E. F 579 

Alexander, D. E 798 

Alexander, John Kihg 799 

Allen, Robert 485 

Alltucker, Henry 488 

Al vord, Harvey 486 

Anderson, James 708 

Anderson, W. A 291 

Andrews, John N 526 

Armstrong, John W 274 

Armstrong, Mrs. Julia 537 

Aull, Challes 386 

Azevedo, M.J 769 

Bailey, J. D 461 

Bailey, Joseph 709 

Bailey, Joshua J . . .493 

Bainbridge, J C 269 

Barber, Manville 408 

Barnett, Robert 491 

Barry, John T 492 

Barton, H. E 770 

Bassett, L. F 755 

Bates, B. F 3!-3 

Bates, G. O 710 

Bauer, John J 312 

Bauquier, Joseph 313 

Baxter, M. A 735 

Beals, H.S 792 

Beans, B. F 458 

Beatty, H. 254 

Beatty, William H 571 

Beckley, Lucius R 422 

Beckley, P. R 422 

Bellmer, John 791 

Benedix, C. W. T. . . 309 

Bennett, Mrs. M 390 

Besagno, A 712 

Biewener, F 734 

Birch, Williiim A 493 

Hilcbell, James 538 

Black, John 510 

Blanch ard, George A 374 

Bloom, Andrew C 711 

Liohl, Peter 712 

Bonte, C. C 401 

Booth, Newion 287 

Bowers, VV. O 795 

Bowles, J. S 713 

Bradford, J. B 714 

Bradley, William H 714 

Branscombe, S. A 491 

Breeding. William 490 

Briggs, Alfred 716 

Briggs, William Ellery 367 

Brison, W. W 384 

Broder, Jacob 387 

Broder, Oswald 387 

Bronner, George F 768 

Brown, Alexander 488 

Brown, J. B 494 

Brundage. N. .1 410 [ 

Bruner, Eiwood 369 

Brusie, Jud. C 366 

Bivan, William E 5S0 | 

Bnaii, W. F 7l3 

liii.klHV. John J 294 

BiiHll, i)aniel 11 467 

Biillalo Brewing Company 773 

Buike, FT 773 

Buike, F. A 455 

Buruliam, James H 389 

Burns, A. B 691 

Burns, Peter 705 

Burr, A. E 413 

Butterfield, Kufus 708 

Caffaro, Louis 754 

Calderwood, J.F 7^8 

Calio, J. B 704 

Callahan, G.W 453 

Camp, J. E 584 

Campbell, Chas. M 765 

Campbell. Mrs. Polly 700 

Cantrell, D. H 800 

Caples, James 700 

Carle, Silas 702 

Carr, George T 529 

Carrington, S. E 83 

Carroll, Edgar B 144 

Carroll, H. W 80: 

Carroll, John H 801 

Carroll, William 719 

Caselli, Vincent 710 

Casey, Thomas G 391 

Caswell, W. A 3^5 

Castro, Manuel 306 

Callin, A. P 249 

Cave, J. B 316 

Chamberlain, W. E 4--'5 

Champlin, Nelson 406 

Chandler, L.C 361 

Chase, Hiram 718 

Cheslcy,G. W ■;33 

Chinnick, James T 484 

Chipman, H. C 353 

Chrislesen, Robert 601 

Church. W. S 376 

Clark, Howell 273 

Clark, J. Frank 367 

Clark, Palmer 548 

Clark, Robert C 799 

Clarke, George L 544 

Clarke, J. W 303 

Clayton, M. F, 135 

Clayton, Mrs. S. E 136 

Clow, G. B 576 

Cluness, W. R 475 

Coffraan, Alfred 469 

Cohn, Simon 690 

Colebaker, A 391 

Coleman, JO 464 

Coleman, W. P 569 

Colton, G.M 536 

Comslock, Elijah 687 

Corastock, W. D -'89 

Conner, George D 688 

Connor, F. E 468 

Cook, A, A 789 

Cook, Henry 690 

Cook, Thomas H 790 

Coons, David 392 

Core, A. F 474 

Cornelius, H. P 478 

Cosby, G. B 769 

Costello, J. H 718 

Cox, Frederick 575 

Cox, John H 699 

Coy, Zenas L 698 

Coy I e,James 696 

Crouch, H. R 697 

Crolev,E. J 703 

Cross; John F 696 

Cummings, C. H 255^ 

Cunningham, J. A 793" 

Cunningham, William 695" 

Curtis, William 424 

Dalton, DennJK 697 

Daly,Elisha 511 

Daniel, Bartiu 292 

Danis, Alexis J 728 

Darling. George W 694 

Dart, George 510 

Dart, Martin 693 

Davies, Owen T 694 

Davis. A. B 692 

Davis, D. L, 467 

Davis, L. R 420 

Davis, George G 553 

Davis, Win. J 95 

De Kay, Seely 630 

Denson, S. C 286 

Deterding, H. F. W 421 

Devin. A. R 6SH 

Dickey, Sanford 760 

Dickinson, Mrs. Mary 759 

Dickson, Charles 683 

Dierssen, D. & Co 726 

Dierssen, G. E. A 727 

Dingley, N 323 

Divine", J. B 785 

Dixon, G.M 405 

Dixon, William E 45s 

Dodgd, P. H 669 

Dolan, John.H- 315 

Dolson, John C 511 

Douglas, Philip 307 

Dray, F. R 254 

Drew, M. M 688 

Duden, George E 667 

Duffey, John 398 

Dunn, Chauncey H 290 

Dwyer, Thomas 663 

Eagle, Thomas B 699 

Eastman, W.E 509 

Eberhardt, William 337 

Ebner.F. X 744 

Eckhardt, Henry 340 

Ecklon,C. L 390 

Eckman, H. L 743 

Ehrhardt, Henry 412 

Ehrhaidt, John 419 

Eilers, D W 790 

Eldred, Sidney 331 

Ellis, William H 549 

Enos, James E 5-17 

Everson. Julius 674 

Ewing, G. V 494 

Ewing, Mjs. Elizabeth W 494 

Fassett,L.H 675 

Fay, Franklin G 258 

Fay, M 452 

Felch, W.C 407 

Feldhusen, C 308 

Fiel, Isaac 674 

Figg,E.P 363 

Fisher, George S 743 

Fisher, H. & Co 679 

Fitch, W.C 309 

Flaherty, Peter 347 

Fortman, Henry 729 

Foster, Albert 465 

Foster, E. W 673 

Fountain, Joshua 670 

Fountain, W. A 796 

Fraley, James M 513 

Frazer, Wm. F 681 

Freeman, Isaac F 637 

Frees, Jacob 748 

Freitas, John Soto 681 

Frey, Henry 6s0 

Fritsch, John 328 

Frost, A. L 545 

Frye, Wm. H 437 

Fuchs, Peter 325 

Gabrielli, P 748 

Galgaui, P. A 749 

Gardiner, P. H 523 

Gardner, Charles F 365 

Gardner, Zebulon 365 

Garfield, S. H 683 

Garrett, Samuel 682 

Gebert, Jacob 748 

Gehring, Fred 330 

Gerber, L 650 

Gerrish, Sam'l H 457 

Gett, W. A, Jr 609 

Gill, Noah B 540 

Gilmore. J. A 463 

Glann Family 653 

Glaun, Peter 655 

Glann, Daniel 655 

Glann, Vincent 655 

Goldberg, A • ■ • - 653 

Goodell, N. D 270 

Goodrich, O. 4--9 

Goslin.John 653 

Grace, Thos 6 9 

Graf, Markus 560 

Graf, Paul 7.59 

GiiitV. W. (' 758 

Gr;.li:ini .1 .\ 518 

Green.l l.ri. 664 

Green, E. H 756 

Green, MS 5s7 

Green, P. B 541 

Greene, Geo. B 617 

Greer, Erskin 480 

Gregory, A. () 771 

Gregory, Eugene J 433 

Gribble, Hiram 333 

Griesel, Jacob 337 

Griffltts, John T 580 

Grim, Otho Shaw 455 

Grimshaw, W. R 616 

Grimshaw, W. Robinson 616 

Grondona, Joseph 644 

Gruhler, Christian 793 

Gruhler, Elias 758 

Gruhler, Jacob 320 

Gruhler, John 567 

Gunler, A. M 643 

Gutenberger, Wm 415 

Haase, Peter 389 

Hack, Geo. W 376 

Hale Bros. & Co 781 

Hall, I. (T.- 651 



Hull, H. B 

HamiUon, E. R 

Hamilton, J. H 

HamiltoD, W. B 

JlamiUon, W. II 

Hammer, L. K 

Hancock, Geo. W 

Hanlon, Joseph 

Hanson, Peter •■ 

Harkins, James 

Harlow, G. W 

Hart, A 


i.arvey, C. W 

Harvey, Obed 

Harvie, N 

Hasman, Josepb 

HatcU, F. W 

Haub, John 


Hayion, George 

Healey, Edward 

Heard, John 

Heath, Geo. W 

Heath, John W 

Heinrich, Charles 

Henderson, J. M 

Henry, W. A 

Heringa, John 

Herrick, A. C 

Hertzel, A 

Herzos, Philip 

Hill, H. S 

Hinkson, Add. C 

Hite, J. G 

Hoev. Peter 

Hoiit, IiaU 

Holder, Thos 

Hollister, Dwight 

Holmes, Henry 

Hoover, S. M 

Hopkins, A. S 

Hopkins, E. C 

Hornlein Bros 

Howe, E. P ^30 

Hubbard.C.H 684 

Hubbard, I. M ^'|2 

Huber, Herman 4-» 

IIughson,W. A 2(,6 

Hull, C. A !.'80 

Hull, Joseph ■•1« 

Humbert, P. A «'J 

Hunt, D. K ■>^] 

Huntoon. J. L -bl 

Hyman, Jacob <>'» 


Irvine, W.J 

Jackson, H. J 

Jackson, M. C 

Jean, Adolph 

Jenkins, C. A. . . 

Johnson, A 

Johnson, (irove L. 
Johnson, G. A.... 

Johnston, I) 

Jolinston, Wm 

Jolly, C. H 

Jordan, James 

Joseph, Isaac. . . . 

Keefe, Michael 516 

Kellogg, f,\ 

Kelly, Edward ^•^4 

Kercheval. Reuben ■>'i 

Kerr, Geo. H ■^|; 

Kerr J H '''' 

Kertii, Wen'dalV.' 4U!) 

Kestler, Martin ^^» 

Kewen. Perrie 

Kilgore, J. W 

Kinross, W. H 

Klebitz, Edward 

Klenk, C 

Knauer, F. C 

Kreeger, S 

KruU, A. A 

Kunz, Frank 

Kunz, Peter 



Lages, Christopher.. 

Lages, Herman 

Laliue, H. M . . • 

Laul kolter, J. A . . 

Lnuiipe, Uoudalph. 

iwson, Powell S. . 


Mclntyre, Mary E 493 

McKee, E. H ^^? 

McKinslry, J. K 

McKune. J. H 

McLanahan, D 

McLaughlin, Wm.. .. 
McManus, Altred G. 
McMitchell, Wyman 
McMulIen, Geo. C. 
McNamee, Frank... 
McNeal, A 

McNeill, John.... 

Mealand.Ciiarles .. 

Meckfessel, Frank . 

Meierdierks, C. H. . 

Meisler, A 

Meister, Jacob 

Meister, John 

Melvin, H. G 


Mend is, Anton 




Kane, J. O 6*5 

Kane, Newell ^H 

Karcher, Matt ^S'^ 


Lawlon, John 

Lea, Charles 

Lea, Isaac 

Lee, Jlrs. Mary 

Lee, Timothy 

Leimbacli, H 

Leitch, EM 

Lemay, Victor 

Lewis, L. L 

Light, W. W 

Lincoln, L. M 

Lindley, T. M 

Little, George 

Liltlefield, Thomas 

Loch, Louis 

Lockelt, R. S 

Logan, A !^^.' 

Lolhharamer, Fred ''-l 

Lovdal,0. 0..._ ^ 

Lowell, Amo 

Luce, Israel *; ' 

Luckett, E. M 413 

Lufkin, D. T ';ii 

Lufkin, H.T <•'• 

Luther, W. 11 f'Jb 

Lyman, F.T <^'« 

Mahin, Mrs. Jane :]«<> 

Mahon, John *'} 

Manlove, W. S 4.J3 

Manogue, Patrick -51 

Maringo,A *^y 

Martin. E. M 367 

Maslin, E. W l'° 

Maxfield, Mrs. M. E f, 

Mayhew, H.A "jS? 

Mazzini Bros -^;> 

McAnally, Thomas ]bO 

McCleery, James 497 

McConnell, Thaddeus C 684 

McConnell, Thos ... . - ••jS^ 

McClatchy, James, and hons. . . .8-;-J 

McCraken, W. F ^^i! 

McCreary,W. P '4o 

McCueBros •>»" 

McDonell, G. A 49" 

McFarland, John '>'>^ 

McFarland, Thaddeus J _;|' 

McGuire, James B •>^'l 

. . .461 
. .618 
.. 789 
. . .735 
. . .734 

Menke, Anton 416 

Merwin, S. H 503 

Meyers. Frederick 500 

Middlemass, J. H 316 

Milgate, Wm 543 

Miller, A. D 618 

Miller, Jacob 5.4 

Miller, John ^40 

.'.■■.". '.;..' ."433 

Miller, John S 

Miller, P. A 

Miller, W. A 

Millikin, John M 

I\User, Mrs. Isabella W.. 

Mitchell, Wm 

Montague, Alex 

Morgan, Henry O 

Morse, G. W 

Mor.-e, ST 

Morton, EG 

Molt, F. N 

Munger, Carl O-f 

Murphy, R. J 6"; 

Myers, Henry W bl'-" 

Nagele.J.J 635 

Neal, Charles A 623 

Neal, John 623 

Neary, Fred 348 

Need, George 381 

Neely, Wm. F 469 

Nelson, Clarence N 3o8 

Nesche, George 547 

Nicholas, John 6^4 

Nichols, H. L 4.' 

Nichols, Mrs. M 50b 

Nichols, Wm H 631 

Nicolaus, Louis ■"it% 

Nielsen, Chris ]5^ 

Nielsen, H.B 334 

Nielsen, J. M '^4 

Neubourg & Lages 35» 

Neumann, Geo |>1° 

Newman, Peter 

.50 J 

Oakley, A. D 

Ochsner, John 

Odell, M. F 

O'Meara, Michael 

O'Neil, James 

Oppenheim, R 

Orton, H. H 

Osbain, David . . . 





Overmeyer, J. M 283 

Owen, Eben 541 

Painter, Levi 279 

Parker, Wm. F 325 

Parvin, E. R 456 

Patterson, A. D 486 

Pendery, B. P 406 

Perkins, T. C 438 

Peters, George 627 

Peterson, AV. F 751 

Petrie, W. M 253 

Pettit, K. H 737 

Phelps, P. F 378 

Pierson, J. C 358 

Pike, M. C 640 

Planalp, Peter 637 

Plummer, Oliver-. 435 

Pollock, Mrs. Priscilla 277 

Pond, J. H 785 

Popert, James 329 

Presbury, E. H 296 

Prouty, Simon 220 

Pugh, S. H 661 

Putnam, Geo. A 780 

Putney, H. S 379 

Pyburn, George 556 

Pyne, J. G . . . .,, 632 

Randolph, Alfred 631 

Rave, C. H 630 

Ray, Don 221 

Ray, Ephraim 632 

Raymond, A. F 536 

Reese, David 587 

Reese, U. M 442 

Reid, James 649 

Restaurant de France 772 

Rheil, Philip G ....573 

Rhoads,A.J 285 

Rhoads, J. P 641 

Rich, George T 439 

Richards, John 608 

Richmond, J. W 528 

Ritter, William 585 

Robinson, James 648 

Robinson, W. H 444 

Rodegerdts, August 754 

Roden, Daniel 649 

Rohr, John 531 

Rooney, John G45 

Ross, Andrew 584 

Ross, Mrs. Frances M 475 

Ross, H. C 722 

Routier, Joseph 705 

Roth, Simon 342 

Ruedy, John 747 

Ruhstaller, F 334 

Ruman, C. A 525 

Runyon, O. R 636 

Runyon, Solomon 437 

Russell, F. H 635 

Russell, Peyton 524 

Russell, R.'B 289 

Rutter, James .443 

Ryan, Frank D 321 

Ryan, John 783 

Sacramento Home School 475 

Sanders, Oliver ■. . . .278 

Sawyer, J. H 383 

Schaden, Arend 355 

Schaden, J. (' 741 

Schadt, N 355 

Schaper, Mrs. C. H 414 

Scheld, Phillip 350 

Schell, John 454 

ScUindler, C 740 

Schmitt, Charles 94 

Schmitt, Jacob 315 

Schneider, Josef 777 

Schreiner, Charles 610 

Schroth, George 568 

Schuch, Adolph 535 

Snbuler, Frank D 593 

Schultz, Jacob 534 

Schulze, William J 451 

Schwartz, Charles 319 

Scott, R.T 282 

Scott, William A 611 

Scroggs, A 763 

Senatz, A. J 351 

Sermonet, George 303 

Shaver, Nelson 397 

Shaw, IraG 407 

Sheldon, J. D 588 

Sheldon, W.C 588 

Sherwood„J. 398 

Shields, John 281 

Shirley, J. H 405 

Siebenthaler, P 747 

Siller, J. L. & L. G 787 

Silveisa, Manuel F 593 

Silva, Joe 591 

Simmons, G.L 268 

Simoni, August 329 

Simons, John A 531 

Sims, Joseph 601 

Skelton, John 349 

Slawson, S. S 599 

Slawson, W. H 600 

Slayback, C. M 388 

Small, H. J 460 

Smith, Brainard F 385 

Smith, Edwin F 611 

Smith, George." 731 

Smith, Halsey G 402 

Smith, L.E 782 

Smith, M. L 397 

Smith, A. P and Sidney 473 

Smith, S. Prentis 601 

Spooner, Alfred = .280 

Sprague, Moses 553 

Stafford, James 788 

Starr, Henry - 368 

Steffens Joseph 446 

Steinauer, Ben 330 

Stephens, R. D 557 

Stevens, Mrs. A. J 797 

Stevenson, A 448 

Stewart, J. H 459 

Stewart, Norman 1 458 

Still, J. F 606 

Stoddard, George A 551 

Stoll, JohnT 603 

Strong, W. R 564 

Stuart, A. W 762 

Studarus, John B 445 

Sturges, J. H 539 

Sullivan, J. H 554 

Suter, C 311 

Swanson, E. J 411 

Sweetser, A. C 566 

Tash, Joe 287 

Taverner, George 621 

Taverner, Thos. M 620 

Taylor, D.W 608 

Taylor, Ed. F 598 

Taylor, J. B 449 

Taylor, Leroy S 260 

Terry, W.E 345 

Thisby, George 480 

Thompson, T. J 613 

Tietjens, Peter 529 

Tomlinson, Joseph 597 

Tomlinson, Lewis 597 

Tooker, R. W 763 

Towle, Cyrus 479 

Townsend, E. B 388 

Trainor.H.C 482 

Trask, C. F 530 

Traver, Charles 720 

Treat, Sullivan 481 

Triechler, Henry 453 

Tryon, A. G 264 

Tryon, John 452 

Tryon,. Sylvester 263 

Upson, Lauren 304 

Upson, L. A 3'^5 

Uren, Stephen 307 

VanPleet, W. C 450 

Van Loben Sels, P. J 226 

VanMaren, N - 601 

Van Vorhies, A. A 767 

Vogel, Charles 732 

Von Herrlich, John F 545 

Von Tillow, Alma 418 

Wachhorst, H 775 

Wachtel, V 39.5 

Wackman, A. K •'593 

Wahl, Christ 733 

Wahl, Gustav 321 

Walsh, John 287 

Warnock, A. M '64 

Watermann, R. W 583 

Watson, Henry 504 

Watson, J. R 784 

Weber, F.H. L 594 

Weil, John 744 

Weinrich, Henry. 348 

Weinstock, Lubin & Co 581 

Weir, James 417 

Weisel, Chris "■''> 

Welch, James 595 

Welch, Benj 393 

Wells, Eli 595 

Welty, James B 507 

Werner, Fred 340 

West, C. M 295 

White, G. A 450 

White, Wm.W 7.^0 

Wickstrom, Chas. A 464 

Wilcox, Nelson 590 

Wild, John 591 

Wilke, Charles 725 

Williams, E. H 293 

Williams, John B 459 

Williamson, Geo. S 508 

Willis, E. B 84 

Wilson, George 50j 

Wise, Joseph 506 

Wise, M. L 55.) 

Withington, R. H 3o9 

Wolf, Philip 793 

Woodard, Abram 591 

Woodson, Joseph A 83 

Woodward, E. F 507 

Wright, Willis 380 

Wriston, S. E 377 

Young, J.D -95 


Zeh, Chria. M 803 

Zimmermiin, Cliiislian 804 

Zimmerman, Clias 804 

Zimmeinuin, Clias. W 803 

Zoller, Leopold 803 


Catlin, A. P 24!) 

Clark, Howell 272 

Clark, Mrs. Howell 273 

Foster, Albert 4G5 

Qett, W. A. Jr GOO 

Hancock, G. W 77(i 

Hollister, Dwight 489 

llnnt, D. a 5;i 

Jolinsou. G. A 297 

Keweu, E.J. C 369 

La Hue, H. M 577 

Lincoln, L M 441 

Mayhew, H. A 65(i 

Majliew, Mrs. H. A 657 

Koutier, .Joseph 705 

Terry, W. E 345 

Von Herrlich, J. F 545 

Weiir, James 417 

Welch, Benj 393 


Mount Shasta 1 

Sutler's Fort 6 

Marguerite Home 134 

Slate Printing Offlce 13t 

E. B. Crocker Art Gallery 14:> 

Cathedral of the Holy Sacrament..l69 

Capitol 204 

Residence of Howell Clark 274 


^ ^ 


^J^^^^^Ora^ fr^fn r'f S^C lfZ'd 

3pia f=ih=ir=JpiiJlli ^ 


fACRAMENTO COUNTY is named aiter 
the river upon which it is situated, and 
the latter was named by the Spanish 
Mexicans, Catholics, in honorof aChristian insti- 
tution. The word differs from its English cor- 
respondent only in the addition of one letter. 
It would have been a graceful compliment to 
General Sutter if his own name, or the name 
New Helvetia, which he had bestowed upon 
this locality, had been given to the city. Hel- 
vetia is the classic name of Switzerland, Sut- 
ter's native country. 

Sacramento City is 38° 35' north latitude and 
121° 30' west longitude from Greenwich. 

The depot at Sacramento is thirty-one feet 
above sea level. From the city the most promi- 
nent mountains and mountain ranges visible 

1. The Sierra Nevada, snow-capped during 
lialt' the year or a little more. The most visi- 
ble portion of this range, to whose snow-line 
the distance is about seventy-live miles, east- 
ward, is the head of the American River. The 
most conspicuous peaks there are: Pyramid, 
10,052 feet high; Alpine, 10,426; Round Top, 
9,624; Tell, 9,042; Ralston, 9,140; Robb's, 6,746. 

2. To the southwest fifty-three miles, rises 
Mt. Diablo, 3,856 feet high. 

3. Toward tlie west thirty or forty miles 
arises an eastern spur of the Coast Range, while 
toward the northwest about ninety miles, in the 
same range, are Mt. John's, 8,000 feet high, 
Mt. Snow and Sheet Iron Mount, on the west- 
ern border of Colusa County. 

4. The Marysville Buttes, forty to fifty miles 
north, are about 2,000 feet liigh and cover an 
area of fifty-five square miles. 


of the Sacramento Valley presents three dis- 
tinct features. As the mountains descend into 
the valley, they are fringed by a range of low 
foot-hills, which gradually disappear in a broad, 
level plain, which must have been at some time 
long past the bottom of a large body of water. 
Through the center of this plain runs the Sacra- 
mento River, fringed by the low bottom lands 
always found with such geological formations. 
Thus the foot-hills, the plain, and the bottoms 
present three distinct tracts of land, each with 
peculiarities fitting it for special use. It may 
be said in a general way, that on the foot-hills 
and the plain lands near them are the great 
fruit-raising districts, while the plain proper is 
most suitable for grains and grasses, and on the 


rich alluvial bottom lands any fruit or vegetable 
suitable for a temperate or semi-tropical climate 
will grow to full perfection. 

At the southern end of Sacramento Valley, in 
the very richest portion of the State, and very 
near its geographical center, lies Sacraniento 
County, with an area of 640,1)00 acres, 200,000 
of which are under the highest cultivation, 
while about 320,000 more are in use for stock- 
raising, pasturage, etc. It is watered its entire 
length from north to south by the Sacramento 
Rivtr, and by the American, Cosuinnes and 
Mokelumne from east to west. 

The surface of tlie county is generally level, 
a section along the eastern side rising into low 
hills and rolling prairies. Along the east side 
of the Sacramento Eiver extends a belt of tule 
land, which toward the southern boundary of the 
county expands to a width of fifteen miles. 
Parallel with the Cosumnes is Dry Creek, form- 
ing part of the county boundary. Sycamore 
and Cottonwood abound along the water-courses. 

JSear the center of Sacramento County, and 
on the east bank of the Sacramento River, at 
the point of its confluence with the American, 
is the city of Sacramento, the capital of the 
State, a thriving, wealthy and beautiful city. 
Here is the railroad center of the State. To 
the east, the Central Pacific stretches its iron 
arm across tlie continent. To the north, the 
California and Oregon reaches out to connect 
with the Northern Pacific, and so furnish 
another route to Eastern markets; to the west 
the California Pacific makes possible almost 
hourly communication with San Francisco and 
the commerce of the Pacific Ocean, while the 
Western Pacific connecting at Oakland with the 
Southern Pacific system opens up another roiite 
to seaports east and west. In addition numer- 
ous branch roads and feeders make this city the 
best connecting and distributing point fn the 


The average rain-fall has been 19.4 inches. 
This, with the moisture incident to the prox- 

imity of so many rivers and running streains, 
and the almost annual os'erflow of the bottom 
lands, renders the county so well watered that 
but little irrigation is necessary. Still there are 
some small sections lyings comparatively high, 
and away from the streams, where the natural 
water supply is insufllcient. They are, however, 
small, and in nearly all cases abundant water is 
obtained by sinking wells and raising the water 
by windmills or other power. A total failure 
of crops for want of water has never been known. 
Still, as an abundant supply of water renders 
many things possible which are not so without 
it, a company has been formed to offer an abun- 
dant supply of water to all who desire to irri- 
gate any of the plain lands, in raising crops 
that need more water than the usual rain-fall 
affords, or where the availability of water may 
insure against the danger of injury to valuable 
plants, which might be seriously affected by 
even an occasional year of unusual drought. An 
application has been made for 2,000 inches of 
water from the American River. 

All fruits do well without the aid of artificial 
watering, but in some of the high lying irriga- 
tion is said to increase the lusciousness of the 
fruit. Vegetables require irrigation, especially 
for the second and third crops. 

As stated, the soil of the county offers every 
variety requisite for a large and varied produc- 
tion. The foot-hills and their washings form a 
fringe, from five to eight miles wide, entirely 
around the Sacramento Valley. The soil here 
varies from a red, sandy loam to a cool, gravelly 
soil, all especially adapted to fruits. For many 
years the foot-hill lands were regarded as almost 
valueless, but experience has shown that their 
soil is perhaps better adapted to a full develop- 
ment of the best qualities of strength and flavor 
in fruit, especially in grapes, than the lower ly- 
ing lands, which are of more clay or alluvial 
character, and so warmer soils. And it is now 
claimed that the question of securing fine flavor 


for California grapes and wines, as well as abun- 
dant quantity, will find its best solution among 
the cool, gravelly soils of the foot-hills. The 
soil of the plain lands varies from red loam and 
a rich clay, to a rich allnviuni mixed with sand. 
This varies in localities, but affords such a vari- 
ety that the productions of this portion of the 
county cover a range from those of the cereals 
of the middle temperate climate to the fruits of 
the serai-tropical. They afford, however, mostly 
soil for grains and grasses. Wheat, oats, hay, 
alfalfa, barley, corn, hops, besides grapes and 
fruits ilonrish when planted in suitable loca- 
tions. But the richest lands are the bottom 
lands, which fringe the rivers and larger streams 
for a distance of from one to three miles. These 
are covered with a deep, rich alluvium, upon 
which may be raised any kind of vegetables, and 
temperate and semi-tropical fruits are reaching 
tull perfection in size, quantity and q uality. 
These lands are almost aimually overflown, and 
the deposit left by the receding waters is said 
almost to equal guano in its fertilizing effects. 
Many of these lands are now protected, so that 
the rising waters may be controlled and utilized 
with judgment. Upon such lands, so watered, 
and in such a climate, almost anything will 

Owing to the fact that the country is traversed 
by so many rivers, it contains an unusual amount 
of this exceedingly rich land, which is nearly 
all under the highest cultivation. 


The productions of Sacramento County cora- 
priisc all the grains, vegetables, fruits, trees and 
flowers grown in the temperate and serai-tropi- 
cal climates. Everything in the way of grain, 
bread-stuffs, vegetables, and fruits needed for 
man's comfort and support may be successfully 
cultivated here. The soil is rich and varied, 
water is abundant, and the climate is propitious. 
Here is no winter, in the common acceptation 
of the word, nor any rainy season as it is under- 
stood in the tropics. The winter months are 
called the "rainy season," not that it then rains 

incessantly or severely, but because the rainfall 
comes almost exclusively in those months. In 
the summer it rarely rains. The grain is sel- 
dom housed when harvested, but is left in the 
fields until ready for the market, the husband- 
man feeling little fear of trouble from the ele- 

Perhaps no feature of California has been 
more powerful in inducing immigration than its 
mild and equable climate. The north Atlantic 
States have their cold, damp east winds, which 
blow from the ocean at times for days in succes- 
sion, and whose power of penetration is such 
that neither woolen underwear nor rubber top- 
coats seem able to keep them from " searching 
the marrow of one's bones." The borders of 
the Great Lakes are visited with winds so cold 
and so charged with moisture, that they clothe 
all nature in coats of ice, and often jeopardize 
the lives of the domestic animals. On the 
northern shores of the lakes, the jingling sleigh- 
bells for fully Ave months in the year strive by 
their merry music to direct attention from the 
chill of death that lays over the land, and from 
these sections thousands longingly turn their 
faces from the cold and ice to the sunny land 
where each may sit in the shade of " his own 
vine and fig tree." 

In this regard Sacramento County ofi'ors 
temptations that are not exceeded in attractive- 
ness by those of any portion of the State. The 
following data, culled from the published re- 
ports of the United States Government observ- 
ers will give a fair idea of the charming climate, 
which has enabled the city of Sacramento to win 
for itself the delightfully suggestive sobriquet 
of the "City of Roses." 

During the ten years just passed, the highest 
temperature recorded is 105°, which was reached 
once, and the lowest is 21°, also reached but 
once. A better idea of the range of tempera- 
ture may be had from the fact that during the 
same period the average number of days in each 
year upon which the theraiometer reached 90°, 


was but thirty-six, wliile the average number 
upuii wliidi it sank below 32° w-as but eleven. 
W ith no severity in winter, the warmth of snin- 
iner is rendered enjoyable by the winds from the 
sea, which reach this region of the country 
modified and tempered, so that with scarcely an 
exception the warmth of a light blanket is de- 
sirable at niglil. Here the heat has never the 
offensive and enervating eflFect which renders 
summer so depressing in some sections. The 
atmosi)here is never over-charged with moisture, 
and never entirely dry, so the open air is always 
invigorating and the breezes refreshing. The 
lung, mild, summer day renders the cultivation 
of the lands easy and profitable, while the cool 
nights so refresh the workman that he is not 
enervated, but all mental and physical force is 
strengthened, and life is vigorous and enjoy- 
able. It is usual to compare such climates with 
that of Italy, so famous as the resort during 
past centuries for those seeking the relief and 
pleasure found beneath her skies. So it may 
not be out of place to simply state a comparison 
between Kome, the capital and center of Italy, 
and Sacramento, the capital and center of Cali- 
fornia. The statistics from official sources on 
either hand are stated below. Averages for 
past ten years: 

Spring. Suni'r 








60 7 

In the face of these facts, the claim must not 
longer be made for fair Italy alone, that it is a 
land where "perpetual summer exists, skies are 
blue, and the sun ever shines." 

As to the healthfulness of Sacramento, Judge 
J. W. Armstrong has ascertained that but one 
other city in the world shows a cleaner bill of 
health, and that is the capital of the Basque 
Province, in the northern part of Spain. 

How often such a remark is made as, This is 
the coldest, or warmest, month or season, we 

have had for years; or wettest or driest 

month or season we have ever had! etc. The 
following tables, kindly furnished us by Ser- 

geant James A. Barwick, Observer of the Sig- 
nal Corps of the United States Army and Mete- 
orologist to the State Board of Agriculture, will 
show how correct all such statements are. 
Although they are compiled from observations 
made at the Signal Station at Sacramento, they 
will practically serve as well for all other parts 
of the county, as the differences are too small 
to mention. 



g = 2 







60 3 


74 3 
70 3 

73'. 1 






62 5 
58 5 

'4V. 3 










1862 .... 




1865 . . . . 






































', Angus 
°, Augus 
% July. 
°, Augus 
\ July... 
°, Augus 
°, Augus 
\ July... 
°, June iS 
•, Augus 

K Sept 




1°, December. 

1°, December. 

1880 . . . 

)°, January. 
r, December. 


1883 , 

"', December. 


J°, Jan. & Feb. 


1°, January. 
B°, January. 
i°, November. 


1887 . . . 


J°, January. 





Averages . 


I 2.86 I 










































































































none i none 
sprin .03 
sprin .55 


























































1 -.-.I I'll 4.71 
























27 11 










34 78 
13 97 


In the early days of mining a great deal of 
gold dust was taken from the placers in this 
county — Mormon Island, Michigan Ear and 
several other localities having afforded good 
diggings of this kind. In the low hills on the 
east a considerable extent of shallow placers have 
also been worked, some of these until quite re- 

The most uf tlie gold now produced in Sacra- 
mento is taken out in the vicinity of Folsom, 
chiefly along Alder Gulch, by the Portuguese 
and Chinamen. The deep deposits are worked 
by shafts and drifting, the shallow by hutid 

sluicing in the dry season and ground sluicing 
in the wet, when there is free water. There are 
gold-bearing quartz veins in the east-lying hills, 
but they are mostly small, and have been but 
little worked. In these hills occurs a belt of 
serpentine containing chromic iron in small 
bunches and pockets. 


In the neighborhood of Folsom occurs an ex- 
tensive bed of excellent granite, which for many 
years has been largely worked. 

At the quarry of David Blower, two miles 
cast of Folsom, opened ten years ago, there is 
exposed a thirty-foot face, twenty feet above and 


ten below the surface. About fifteen tons of 
roughly dressed stone are shipped from this 
quarry' weekly, the most of it being used for 
cemetery work and street curbs. Thirteen men 
are employed here at wages ranging from $2.50 
to $4 per day. 

In the quarry on the State Prison grounds at 
Folsom, a large force of convicts are employed 
getting out stone for the dam being built by the 
State on the American River. 

Most of the cobblestones used for paving the 
streets of San Francisco were taken from the 
banks of the American River, in the vicinity of 

At Michigan Bar, on the Cosumnes River, 
occurs an extensive bed of potter's clay. Being 
a good article, and easily obtained, large quan- 
tities of this clay are taken out and shipped to 
the potteries at Sacramento, San Francisco, and 
elsewhere in the State. Great quantities of 
oricks are made from the more common clays 
found abundantly in this county. 

From Dr. M. F. Clayton we learn the follow- 
ing particulars concerning the Digger Indians 
of this region, in early day. 

They obtain their English name from the fact 
that they procured much of their food by dig- 
ging, in search of roots, reptiles, etc. Acorns, 
grasshoppers, fish and other animals were also 
comprised in their menu. Their habits were 
those of laziness and filth, and they scarcely had 
energy enough to steal. They were in stature 
low and stocky. The few attempts tiiat have 
been made to civilize (?) them have generally 
resulted in shortening their lives. They did not 

follow a tent life, but wandered about like tramps, 
occasionally, however, having SLrancheree, which 
was a rude hut constructed of bark, pieces of 
board, sticks and brush. After the discovery of 
gold they picked up a little of the shining metal 
occasionally, which they exchanged for a few 
articles luriiished by the whites only. Some- 
times, too, they would bring forth a few speci- 
mens of fnr and hides from wild animals, for 
barter with the whites. They were incessant 
and intolerable beggars. The squaws dia about 
all the menial labor. 

Their dances and funerals were often wit- 
nessed by the early immigrants. The former 
were performed within enclosures surrounded 
by a rude fence, made of bark, pieces of board, 
shakes, etc., where several tribes would gather, 
feast, dance, yell and make many hideous noises. 

They burned their dead. With bark or leath- 
ern thongs they would tie the arms and legs of 
the corpse up about the body so as to make as 
solid a ball as possible, tying also about it the 
blankets, clothing and other articles which the 
subject had possessed, and in a heap of dry bark, 
brush, etc., burn the corpse into a small charred 
mass. Meanwhile the men and women, bared 
to the waist, danced around the pile, yelling, 
moaning, sweating and violently exercising un- 
til nearly exhausted. Great drops of sweat, 
rolling down, made conspicuous streaks over 
the dirty surfaces of their bodies. The crema- 
tion completed, they would pulverize the charred 
mass upon a flat stone, mix gum or pitch with 
it and then daub the mixture upon their fore- 
heads, noses, chins, and in spots and streaks 
elsewhere upon their bodies. Whence they were 
often called "Tar-heads." 



SuiterJoTt ^ J 

— ) i Sfile in p 



The above cuts are kiiuUy fnrnislieil this work by the proprietors of "Themi 





CllAl'TEU II. 

fllE first penn;ineut settler within the 
limits of what is now Sacramento County, 
who is known to history, and who initiated 
European civilization, was Captain John A. 
Sutter. The following sketch of his life we con- 
dense from a lecture delivered in New York, 
April 6, 1866, by General Dunbar in Sutter's 
presence, and published in the Sacramento Union 
of May 10 following: 

Sutter was born of Swiss 


ts, in the 

Grand Duchy of Baden, February 28, 1803. 
Reared and educated in Baden, young Sutter 
entered the military service of France as Cap- 
tain under Charles X., and remained there until 
he was thirty years of age. At this period, 
yielding to liis pioneer impulses, he embarked 
for New York, and arrived there in July, 1834. 
His object in coming to the New World was to 
select a place and prepare the way for a colony of 
his countrymen in the West. He first located at 
St. Charles, Missouri; but the vessel containing 
his effects was sunk, his property lost, and he 
abandoned the place of his first choice. 

After sojourning in St. Louis for a time, he 
made a journey of e.xploration to New Mexico, 
where he met hunters and trappers, who had 
traversed Upper California, and they described 
to him the beautiful sunJit valleys, the verdure- 
covered hills and the magnificent mountains of 
that remarkable land. These accounts resolved 

him to make California the field of his future 

The only way of reaching the Pacific Coast at 
that time was to accompany trapping expe- 
ditions of the English and American fur com- 
panies. On the 1st of April, 1836, Sutter 
joined Captain Tripp, of the American Fur 
Company, and traveled with his party to their 
rendezvous in the Rocky Mountain region. 
Thence, witli six horsemen, he crossed the 
mountains, and after encountering many dangers, 
arrived at Fort Vancouver. Not finding it 
practicable to go south from Vancouver by land, 
he embarked on a vessel bound for the Sand- 
wich Islands, hoping to find an opportunity of 
sailing thence to the California coast. He sailed 
from the Islands in a vessel bound for Sitka, 
and from there down the coast. The vessel 
was driven by gales into the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco, on July 2, 1839. (The point at which 
San Francisco now stands was then called Yerba 
Buena.) The vessel was boarded by a Govern- 
mental officer, with an armed force, who ordered 
Sutter to leave, saying that Monterey, ninety 
miles southward, was the port of entry. Per- 
mission, however, was obtained to remain forty- 
eight hours for supplies. 

On reaching Monterey, Sutter told the Gov- 
ernor, General Alvarado, that he desired to 
occupy and colonize a section of country in 


Upper California, on the Sacramento River. 
Tlie Governor warmly approved liis plan, as he 
was desirous that the upper country should be 
subdued and settled. He informed Sutter that 
the Indians in that country were hostile, that 
they would not permit the whites to settle there, 
and that they had robbed the inhabitants of San 
Jose and the lower settlements of their cattle, 
etc; but he readily gave Sutter a passport with 
authority to explore and occupy any territory 
which he should consider profitable for his 
colony, and requested him to return in one year, 
when he should have his citizenshipacknowledged 
and receive a grant of such lands as he might 

Sutter returned to Yerba Buena, then con- 
taining scai'cely fifty inhabitants, engaged a 
schooner and several small boats, and with a 
company of ten whites started to ascend the 
river with no guide, as no one could be found in 
Yerba Buena who had ever ascended the Sacra- 
mento River. After eight days' search he found 
the mouth of the Sacramento. Reaching a point 
about ten miles below the present site of Sacra- 
mento City, he encountered a party of 200 Indian 
warriors, who exibited evei-y indication of hos- 
tility. Fortunately, two or three of the Indians 
understood Spanish, and Sutter soon soothed 
them by an assurance that there were no Span- 
iards in his party, — against whom the Indians 
were particularly hostile, — and explained to them 
that he caineonly to be a peaceable citizen. 

Guided by two Indians, who could speak 
Spanish, Sutter made his way up the Sacra- 
mento to the Feather River, and ascended the 
latter stream some distance; but, on account of 
the alarm of some of his men, returned down 
the Sacramento River to the mouth of the 
American, and on August 16, 1839, landed his 
effects upon the south bank of that stream, a 
little above the mouth and near where the city 
of Sacramento is now located. Here he informed 
the disappointed whites that they might leave 
'him if they wished, but that the Kanakas were 
willing to remain. Three of the whites left, 
with the schooner, for Yei'ba Rneiia. 

Three weeks later Sutter removed to where he 
built the fort which has since become famotis. 
But little did he think then that he was to be 
the most important instrumentality in the found- 
ing of a magnificent empire. His companions 
were six wandering whites of various nativities 
and eight Kanakas, who were ever faithful to 
him, and who constituted his "colony " and his 
army. By their aid he was to hold his ground, 
subdue and colonize a district of country en- 
tirely unknown, and inhabited only by wild and 
roving tribes of hostile Indians. This portion 
of Upper California, though fair to look upon, 
was peculiarly solitary and uninviting. It was 
isolated and remote from civilization. The 
nearest white settlement was a small one at 
Martinez. The Indians were of that class known 
as " Diggers." 

Born and reared in the atmosphere of royalty 
and the refined society of Europe, with a liberal 
military education, gentle and polished in man- 
ners, and of unbounded generosity of heart, we 
find Sutter successfully planting his little colony 
in the midst of the wild Digger Indians of the 
Sacramento country. At length a few pioneers 
came stealingover the border, then the solid tramp 
of masses was heard, and then came a human 
deluge, that overwhelmed our bold Swiss pio- 

The first tide of immigration was entirely 
from Oregon. In the fall of 1839 there was 
an accession of eight white men, and in August, 
1840, five of those who had crossed the Rocky 
Mountains with Sutter, and whom he had left 
in Oregon, joined him. During the fall of that 
year the Mokelumne Indians, with other tribes, 
became so troublesome that open war was made 
against them; and after a severe but short cam- 
paign they were sul)dued, and an enduring 
peace established. Other bands of Indians or- 
ganized secret expeditions to destroy the colony, 
but by force and strict vigilance their machi- 
nations were defeated, and Sutter conquered the 
entire Sacramento Valley, bringing willing 
subjection many of those wlio had been his 
fiercest enemies. In time he made them culti- 


vate the soil, build his fort, care for the stock, 
and make themselves generally useful. In the 
subsequent military history of California, Sutter 
and his Indians were a power. Traffic increased 
apace. He sent hides to San Francisco, furnished 
the trappers with supplies, and received in ex- 
change or by purchase their furs. The me- 
chanics and laborers who came he employed, or 
procured them work. 

In June, 1841, Sutter visited Montere}', then 
tiie capital of the country, was declared a Mexi- 
can citizen, and received froiri Governor Alva- 
rado a grant of the _land upon which he had 
located — eleven " leagues " — under the title of 
" New Helvetia." The Governor also gave him 
a commission. Returning to his colony, he was 
shortly afterward visited by Captain Ilinggold, 
of the United States Exploring Expedition, 
under Commodore Wilkes, with ofiicers and men. 
About the same time Alexander Kotchkoff, 
Governor of the Russian Possessions in Cali- 
fornia, visited Sutter and offered to sell him all 
the possessions of his Government known as 
Ross and Bodega. Accepting the bargain, Sut- 
ter came into possession of a vast extent of real 
estate, besides 2,000 cattle, 1,000 horses, fifty 
mules and 2,500 sheep, most of which were 
transferred to New Helvetia. 

In 1844 Sutter's improvements were exten- 
sive, and the amount of his stock was large. 
During that year he petitioned Governor Michel- 
torena for the grant or purchase of the surplus 
over the first eleven leagues of land within the 
bounds of the survey accompanying the Alva- 
rado grant, and this petition was granted Febru- 
ary 5, 1845, in consideration of Sutter's valuable 
services and his expenditure of $8,000 in the 
suppression of the Castro rebellion. 

About 1844 small bodies of emigrants began 
to find their way to California direct from the 
States, striking Sutter's Fort, the first settlement 
after crossing the mountains. Year by year 
these parties of immigrants increased in size, 
until after the gold discovery, when they could 
be counted by thousands and tens of thousands. 
It was then that the value of Sutter's settle- 

ment and the generous qualities of the man be- 
came strikingly apparent. No weary, destitute 
immigrant reached his fort who was not sup- 
plied with all that he needed and sent on his 
way rejoicing. Frequently he even sent sup- 
plies in advance to those coming through tlio 
Sierras. Year after year he did this, without 
thinking of any return. On one occasion a 
solitary immigrant was just able to reach the 
fort and reported that his companions were at 
some distance back dying of starvation. Sutter 
immediately caused seven mules to be packed 
with siipplies, and, attended by two Indian boys, 
started with the immigrant for the scene of dis- 
tress. On arriving, everything was seized by 
the crazed wretches and devoured. 

Other starving immigrants arriving, they 
killed the Sutter's seven mules and ate them. 
Then they killed the two Indian boys and ate 
them. Said Sutter, referring to the circumstance 
afterward with much feeling, " They ate my 
Indian boys all up." 

During the war between the United States 
and Mexico, Sutter was a Mexican citizen, and 
the representative of the Mexican Government 
on the frontier; but his sympathies were natu- 
rally with the United States. Whenever any 
party of American citizens, civil or military, 
visited him, his unbounded hospitalities were 
uniformly and cordially extended to them. 
When the country surrendered to the United 
States forces, with joy he raised the American 
flag, July 10, 1846, and fired a salute from the 
guns of his fort. In 1849 he was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention; at the first State 
election was a candidate for Governor, and was 
afterward a Brigadier-General in the State mi- 

But the day on which gold was discovered 
was an evil one for him. His mechanics and 
laborers deserted him, even the Kanakas and 
Indians. He could not hire laborers to plant or 
harvest his crops. Neither could he run his 
mills. For a time after the immense flood of 
immigration poured in, his rights were re- 
spected; but it was not for long. When men 


found that money could be made in other ways 
thau by mining, many forcibly entered upon his 
lands and cut his wood, under the plea that they 
were vacant and unappropriated lands of the 
United States. By the 1st of January, 1852, 
the settlers had occnpied his lands capable of 
settlement or appropriation, and others had 
stolen all his horses, mules, cattle, sheep and 
hogs, save a small portion used and sold by him- 
self. One party of five, during the high waters 
of 1849-'50, when his cattle were partly sur- 
rounded by water near the Sacramento lliver, 
killed and sold enough to amount to $60,000. 

Sutter, broken in purse, dislieartened, robbed 
and powerless to help himself, removed to Snt- 
ter County and took up his residence at Hock 
Farm, then a beautiful piece of property, but 
now a waste of sand and debris. For some 
years he led the quiet life of a farmer there, but 
afterward was a continual haunter of Congress 
at Washington, where he sought to obtain re- 
dress from the general Government for the bare- 
faced robberies that had been practiced upon 
him. In 1873 he removed to Litiz, Pennsylva- 
nia, and on the 18th day of June, 1880, died at 
Washington, District of Columbia. 

Sutter was a generous man. His manners 
were polished, and the impression he made on 
every one was favorable. In figure he was of 
medium height, rather stout but well made. 
His head was round, features regular, with 
smiling and agreeable expression, while his 
complexion was healthy and roseate. He wore 
his hair cut close, and his moustache trimmed 
short, a la miiitaire. He dressed very neatly 
in frock coat, pantaloons and cape of blue. 

Such was the man to whom California owes 
so much, and upon whom she bestowed so 

Captain John C. Fremont, the " Pathfinder," 
arrived in this country in March, 1844, and in 
his narrative thus describes the situation of Sut- 
ter and his fort: 

"Captain Sutter emigrated to this country 
from the western part of Missouri in 1838-'39, 
and formed the first settlement in the vallev, on 

a large grant of land which he obtained from 
the Mexican Government. He had at first some 
trouble with the Indians; but by the occasional 
exercise of well-timed authority, he has suc- 
ceeded in converting them into a peaceful and 
industrious people. The ditches around his ex- 
tensive wheat fields; the making of the sun- 
dried bricks of which his fort is constructed ; the 
plowing, harrowing and other agricultural oper- 
ations, are entirely the work of these Indians, 
for which they receive a very moderate com- 
pensation — principally in shirts, blankets and 
other articles of clothing. In the same manner, 
on application to the chief of a village, he read- 
ily obtains as many boys and girls as he has 
any use for. There were at this time a number 
of girls at the fort, in training for a future 
woolen factory; but they were now all busily 
engaged in constantly watering the gardens. 
Mr. Sutter was about making arrangements to 
irrigate his lands by means of the American 
River. He had this year sown, and altogether 
by Indian labor, 300 bushels of wheat. 

"A few years since, the neighboring Russian 
establishment of Ross, being about to withdraw 
from the country, sold to him a large number 
of stock, with agricultural and other stores, with 
a number of pieces of artillery and other muni- 
tions of war; for these, a regular yearly pay- 
ment is made in grain. 

" The fort is a quadrangular adobe structure, 
mounting twelve pieces of artillery (two of them 
brass), and capable of admitting a garrison of 
1,000 men; this at present consists of forty In- 
dians, in uniform — one of whom is always found 
on duty at the gate. As might be expected, 
the pieces are not in very good order. The 
whites in the employ of Captain Sutter, Ameri- 
can, French and German, number thirty men. 
The inner wall is formed into buildings com- 
prising the common quarters, with blacksmith 
and other work-shops, the dwelling-house with 
a large distillery house, and other buildings oc- 
cupying more the center of the area. 

" It is built upon a pond-like stream, at times 
a running creek, communicating with the 


American River, which enters the Sacramento 
about two miles below. The latter is here a 
noble river, about 300 yards broad, deep and 
tranquil, with several fathoms of water in the 
channel, and its banks continuouslj timbered. 
There were two vessels belonging to Captain 
Sutter at anchor near the landing — one a large 
two-masted lighter, and the other a schooner, 
which was shortly to proceed on a voyage to 
Fort Vancouver for a cargo of goods." 

Nothing now remains of the fort excepting 
the main two-story building, which is still un- 
protected against the ravages of the elements 
and the vandalism of reckless boys. The south- 
ern end was many years ago replaced with fire- 
burned brick, and a new roof of shingles has 
supplanted the primitive Mexican tiling. The 
property is owned by a gentleman in the 


^.||i The California I^evolution j^|;^ 

AND THE Bear Flag Party, 


T was evident in 1844-45 that hostilities could 
reasonably be expected between the United 
States and Mexico. Events which had oc- 
curred in Texas had aroused a feeling on the 
part of the Mexican people, and in the United 
States it was generally understood that the 
election of Polk in 1844 meant the annexation 
of Mexican territory. In California, about that 
time, feelings of animosity sprang up between 
the Mexican and American population. At first 
the settlement of Americans in this country had 
been encouraged by the local government; but 
in 1845 the American settlers apprehended that 
steps would be taken by the native population 
to drive them from the country, ^his was be- 
fore there had been any declaration of war be- 
tween the United States and Mexico. It was 
very evident, however, that both Governments 
were preparing for hostilities. Colonel Fremont 
reached California ostensibly on an exploring 
expedition. This was one of a series of expedi- 
tions led by him, for the exploration of the 
western portion of the continent. He had en- 
countered some little opposition from the exist- 
ing government in the lower portion of California, 
and proceeded on his way toward Oregon. 

In April or May, 1846, Lieutenant Gillespie, 
of the United States Army, arrived in California, 
and, after preparing himself for the journey, 
left Monterey in pursuit of Fremont's party, but 
he did not overtake them until the 9th of May. 
Fremont was then in Oregon. While the i)ur- 

port of Gillespie's dispatch to Fremont has 
never been made public, it has been reasonably 
surmised that it contained an intimation from 
the authorities at Washington that Fremont 
should return to California and be in readiness 
to assist in the conquest of this territory on the 
first intimation of the outbreak of war. Fre- 
mont immediately returned, and encamped at or 
near the site where Sacramento City is now lo- 
cated. At that time the population of Califor- 
nia was estimated at about 10,000, exclusive of 
Indians, and probably less than 2,000 of that 
number were foreigners. General Castro, the 
military conimandante of California, had issued 
several proclamations ordering the foreigners to 
leave the country, and the American settlers 
finally determined that the time had arrived 
that some decisive movement for defense 
should be made. The immediate occasion for 
this movement was an order from Castro to 
Lieutenant Francisco de Arce to proceed with 
fourteen men as a guard for some horses be- 
longing to the Government^ which were at the 
mission of San Eafael, and remove them to the 
mission of Santa (Jlara. The Lieutenant was 
under the necessity of passing up the Sacra- 
mento River as far as what was then called New 
Helvetia, — now the site of Sacramento City, — 
that being the first point at which the horses 
could swim across the river. The party of de 
Arce was observed by an Indian in their move- 
ment, who reported that he had seen two or three 


hundred armed and mounted men advancing up 
the Sacramento River; and from his information 
the settlers believed that Castro, at the head of 
a large party, was marching to attack Fremont. 
The news traveled by couriers among the 
Americans, and they hastily gathered for the 
defense at Sutter's Fort. At the meeting there 
held it was proposed that a sufficient company 
should follow Lieutenant de Arce and seize the 
horses. This settlers' party overtook the Lieu- 
tenant and his command on the morning of 
June 10, 18-46, and surprised de Arce's party 
near the Cosunines River, where they were en- 
camped, and, without resistance, their horses 
and anus were seized, and the captured men 
were dismissed, each one being given a horse. 

This was the first overt act on the part of the 
foreigners which led .to the revolution; and it 
opened a breach which made it necessary that 
all should take ground on one or the other side. 

This act was immediately followed by the 
taking of the town and mission of Sonoma, 
which occurred on the morning of June 14. 
The party of Americans had been augmented to 
thirty-three, and were under the command of a 
man named Merritt. They were known as the 
iamous "Bear Flag party." It was composed 
mostly of hunters, and of men who could leave 
their homes at the shortest notice. They had 
not time to dress, even if they had good clothes; 
and as they entered the town they appeared 
about as rough looking as could well be imag- 
ined. The seizure of the town and mission was 
made without bloodshed, and General M. G. 
A^allejo, Lieutenant-Colonel Prudon, Don Sal- 
vador Vallejo and other gentlemen cf promi- 
nence were captured and carried to Sutter's Fort, 
where they were kept prisoners for sixty days 
or more. 

A garrison of about eighteen men, under the 
command of William B. Ide, was left at Sonoma. 
In a few days it was increased to about forty ; 
and on the 18th day of June, 1846, Ide issued 
a proclamation declaring that himself and com- 
panions had been invited to the country, and 
had been promised protection by the Govern- 

ment; but that they had been subjected to op- 
pression l)y the military despotism; that threats 
had been made, by proclamation, of extermina- 
tion if they did not depart from the country; 
that it simply meant that they had either to be 
compelled to abandon their property and be 
driven through deserts inhabited by hostile In- 
dians, or must defend themselves; and that they 
had been forced to inaugurate a revolution, with 
a view of establishing and perpetuating a re- 
publican government. 

The party adopted what has been called the 
"Bear Flag," and there was a partial organiza- 
tion under the name of the "Republic of Cali- 
fornia." The flag was made of a piece of cotton 
cloth, with one red strip on the bottom, and on 
the white portion the figure of a grizzly bear, 
with a single star in front of him. It was 
painted, or rather stained, with lamp-black and 
poke-berries. On the top were the words, " Re- 
public of California." 

Inasmuch as there has been considerable dis- 
pute regarding the causes which led to the rev- 
olution in California, the capture of Sonoma, 
the issuance of the Ide proclamation, and the 
raising of the " Bear Flag" and its design, we 
rely upon the accounts which were published in 
the Calif or nian newspaper in August and Sep- 
tember, 1846, a few months after the occurrence 
of the events, and which were written by Rob- 
ert Semple, the editor, who was an active par- 
ticipant in some of the scenes which he de- 
scribed. In his articles he distinctly stated that 
he wrote them as a matter of history and for the 
benefit of future historians. 

On the 7th of July, 1846, Commodore John 
D. Sloat arrived at Monterey with a United 
States frigate. Monterey was then the Mexican 
capita! of California. The Commodore took pos- 
session of the town, and hoisted over it the 
American flag From that day dates the pro- 
prietorship of the United States to California. 
Sloat's frigate had been lying at Mazatlan, under 
instructions to seize California on the first inti- 
mation of hostilities between his government 
and Mexico. The first American flag was hoisted 


in the Sacramento Valley, where Sacramento 
City now stands. Colonel John C. Fremont was 
then encamped there, at the head of about 170 
men. On the evening of July 10, William 
Scott arrived in the camp with the news of the 
hoisting of tlie flag at Monterey by Commodore 
Sloat, and brought witli him an American flag 
sent by Captain John B. Montgomery, of the 
United States ship Portsmouth. Speaking of 
the receipt of the news at Sacramento, the Cali- 
fornian, the first newspaper published in Cali- 
fornia, said: 

" It (the news) was received with universal 
sliouts by the men, and our gallant leader, sur- 

rounded by a number of oflicers and soldiers, 
partook of a cup of good brandy and sang some 
national airs. The ' Star Spangled Banner' was 
responded to witli warmth." 

Of course the flag of the United States sup- 
planted the flag of the Bear. Several engage- 
ments occurred between the United States and 
Mexican forces in the southern portion of the 
territory, but early in 1847 the Mexicans capitu- 
lated, and hostilities ceased upon the soil of 

The above are all the events of importance 
that occurred in this section in connection with 
the confjuest of the country. 



fHE first mention of gold in California was 
made in Hakluyt's account of the voyage 
■Y- of Sir Francis Drake, who spent five or 
six weeks, in June and July, 1579, in a bay on 
the coast of California. It has always been a 
question and will remain a question, whether 
this bay was that of San Francisco or one further 
to the north. In the narrative of Hakluyt it is 
written: " There is no part of the earth here to 
be taken up wherein there is not a reasonable 
quantity of gold or silver." At this day we 
know that this statement must have been un- 
true, and was doubtless written for the purpose 
of attracting attention to the importance of the 
expedition of Sir I'^rancis Drake. California 
was then a comparatively unknown country. It 
had been visited only by early explorers, and its 
characteristics were merely conjectured. Wheti 
Hakluyt wrote there could hardly be a " hand- 
ful of soil taken up wherein there is not a rea- 
sonable quantity of gold or silver," in the light 
of the present the statement was absurd, for 
neither gold nor silver has ever been found in 
the vicinity of the point where Drake must 
have landed. 

Other early explorers stated that gold had 
been found long before the discovery by Mar- 
shall; and there is no doubt that a well-founded 
surmise prevailed that gold existed in California. 
The country had been explored at times since 
the sixteenth century, by Spanish, Russian and 
American parties. It was visited by Commo- 

dore Wilkes, who was in the service of the Uni- 
ted States on an extensive exploring expedition; 
and members of his party ascended the Sacra- 
mento River and visited Sutter at the fort, while 
others made explorations by land. 

James D. Dana, a celebrated author of several 
works on mineralogy, was the mineralogist of 
this expedition and passed by land through the 
upper portion of (California. In one of his 
works he says that gold rock and veins of quartz 
were observed by him in 1842 near the Umpqua 
River, in Southern Oregon; and again, that he 
found gold near the Sierra Nevada and on the 
Sacramento River; also, on the San Joaquin 
River and between those rivers. There is, in 
the reports of the Fremont exploring expedi- 
tion, an intitnation of the existence of gold. 

It has been said that in October and Novem- 
ber, 1845, a Mexican was shot at Yerba Buena 
(San Francisco) on account of having a bag of 
gold dust, and when dying pointed northward 
and said, " Legos! Legos!" (yonder), indicating 
where he had found the gold dust. 

It has been claimed, and with a considerable 
degree of probability, that the Mormons who 
arrived in San Francisco on the ship Brooklyn 
found gold before the famous discovery at Co- 
loma. The circumstances in connection with 
this discovery are somewhat romantic. The 
Mormon people had established themselves at 
Nauvoo, Illinois, a point where they believed 
themselves to be beyond the reach of perse- 


cutioii. However, the coniitry there became 
populated by tliose not of tlieir faitl), and the 
antagonism against the Mormons resulted finally 
in bloodshed, and the founder of the church, 
Joseph Smith, was shot by a mob and killed. 
The Mormons then determined to remove farther 
west, and into a section of country beyond the 
reach of the Government of the United States. 
They selected California as tiieir future home. 
Their land expedition started across the plains, 
and a ship named the Brooklyn carried from the 
eastern side of the continent a number of the 
believers. Samuel Brannan, who was prominent 
in the early history of Sacramento, San Fran- 
cisco and the State, was one of their leading 
men who came with the sea voyagers. When 
the Brooklyn emigrants landed at Yerba Bueiia 
(San Francisco) they found that the United 
States forces had taken possession of California, 
and that they had landed upon soil possessed by 
the nation from which they were endeavoring 
to tloe. Couriers were sent overland to inter- 
cept the land party, and it is said that they 
found them at the place where Salt Lake City 
is now located. The overland party determined 
to locate at that place, although it was then 
sterile and unpromising. Those who came on 
the P>r()oklyn dispersed in California, and some 
of them located at Mormon Island, in Sacra- 
mento County; and it is claimed that they found 
gold long before the discovery at Coloma, but 
that tliey kept their discovery a secret. How- 
ever that may be, it is a fact that mining was 
prosecuted by them about the time of Marshall's 

At a banquet of the Associated Pioneei's of 
the territorial days of California, held in the 
city of New York, on January 18, 1878, Colonel 
T. B. Thorpe, a veteran of the Mexican War, 
who had been on the staii' of General Zachary 
Taylor, stated that while he had been employed 
as a journalist in New Orleans, several years 
before the discovery of gold at Coloma, a Swede, 
evidently far gone into consumption, called upon 
him and represented that he was what in his 
country was called a "kiiio;'.< orphan;" that he 

had been educated at a governmental institution, 
on condition that after he had received his edu- 
cation he should travel in foreign lands, observe 
and record what he had seen, and deposit his 
records with the Government. He stated that 
he had visited California, remained several days 
at Sutter's Fort, enjoying the hospitality of 
Sutter; that while there he closely examined the 
surrounding country and became convinced that 
it abounded richly in gold. Colonel Thorpe 
stated that the Swede gave him this opinion in 
writing. At that banquet General Sutter was 
present, and Colonel Thorpe called upon him to 
say whether he had any recollection concerning 
the Swedish visitor. Sutter replied that he 
did recollect the visit, which had occurred about 
thirty-four j'eats before; and he also remem- 
bered that the Swede expressed himself regard- 
ing the presence of mineral wealth in the neigh- 
boring hills; " but," added the Genera!, " I was 
too much occupied at the time with other con- 
cerns to devote any time or attention to it. My 
crops were ripe, and it was imperative that they 
should be gathered as quickly as possible, but I 
do recollect the scientific Swedish gentleman." 
The report of the remarks delivered at that 
banquet were published, and in it is contained 
a copy of the manuscript to which Colonel 
Thorpe referred, in which the "king's orphan " 
wrote: " The Califo.niias are rich in minerals. 
Gold, silver, lead, o.xide of iron, manganese and 

re are all met with throughout the 
netals being the most 


country, the prei 


There is another account of an early gold dis- 
covery, which was published in the New Age, 
in San Francisco, the official organ of the Odd 
Fellows, in September, 1865. It purports to 
have been an extract written by the Paris cor- 
respondent of the London Star, who wrote that 
in the city of Paris he visited a private museum,, 
and that its owner exhibited to him a nugget of 
gold, and stated that twenty-eight years before 
a poor invalid had presented himself and took 
out of his tattered coat a block of quartz, and 
asked the proprietor of the museum if he would 


piu-cliase it, assuring iiiin that it full of 
gold. Tlio sti-angLM- said: " I have come to you 
to apply to the Govei'iinient to give me a vessel 
and a crew of 100 men, and I will promise to 
return with a cargo of gold." The proprietor 
of the museum presumed that the man was mad,, 
and gave him a napoleon as a matter of charity, 
but retained a piece of the quartz. Afterward 
the quartz was analyzed, and it was proved to 
contain pure gold. Fifteen years elapsed, and 
a parcel and a letter were left at his door. The 
parcel was wrapped in a handkerchief, and was 
heavy. The letter was worn and almost illegi- 
ble. On deciphering it, it proved to be the 
dying statement of the poor traveler, which, 
through the neglect of the lodging-house keeper 
where he had died after the interview referred to, 
had never been delivered. The package contained 
a block of quartz, and the letter was thus worded: 

"You alone listened to me; vou alone stretched 
out a helping hand to me. Alas! it was too 
late! I am dying. I bequeath my secret to 
you. The country from whence I brought this 
gold is called California.'" 

The credit, however, for the practical discovery 
of gold in California isdue to James W.Marshall. 
It is true that a gold mine had been worked 
in 1841 in the lower part of the State, and that 
gold from that mine had been sent to the Phila- 
delphia mint for coinage as early as July, 1843. 
Tlie mine, however, proved unprofitable and was 
abandoned. The story of the discovery by Mar- 
shall at Coloma, in January, 1848, is confused, 
and the precise date upon which it was made 
cr.n perhaps never be settled. Marshall was em- 
ployed by Captain Sutter, and was in charge of 
a party of men erecting a saw-mill at the pres- 
ent site of Coloma, in El Dorado County. A 

raceway was dug and the water turned in. In 
examining the race afterward, Marshall's atten- 
tion was attracted by a shining object. He 
picked it up. It was gold. Other particles of 
the metal were collected, and Marsiiall came 
with them to Sutter's Fort and exhibited them 
to his employer, Sutter. They were tested in a 
crude way, and Sutter became convinced that 
the metal was gold. Afterward specimens were 
sent to Monterey, then the capital of the Terri- 
tory, and exhibited to General R. B. Mason, the 
military governor, and fo W. T. Sherman, at 
that time an obscure officer in the United States 
Army, but who has since risen to national noto- 
riety. The integrity of the metal was estab- 
lished, the news of the discovery sent forth, the 
world was electrilied, and immigration, poured 
in from every civilized country. 

James W. Marshall was born in Hope Town- 
ship, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, October 
8, 1810. On arriving at man's estate he re- 
moved to Indiana, afterward to Illinois and 
Missouri, and arrived in California in 1844. In 
1845 he came to Sutter's Fort, and was employed 
by Captain Sutter. He took an active part in 
the California revolution of 1846. After his 
discovery of gold the Legislature of the State 
pensioned him for a time. Subsequently he 
settled on a small piece of land at Coloma, near 
where he had discovered the gold, and made his 
living by farming. About 5 o'clock on the 
morning of August 10, 1885, he was found dead 
in his cabin, and was buried near the spot where 
gold was first found by him. He was never 

A tine statue of Marshall has roooutly been 
erected by the State at the point where he made 
his famous discovery. 

^.•^..t..rS>t s 




fllE city of Sacramento is located on the 
east bank of the Sacramento River, im- 
mediately below the month of the Ameri- 
can River. The first settlement was made by 
John A. Sutter, in 1839, and long before there 
was any thought of establishing a city. The 
news of the gold discovery attracted to Sutter's 
Fort a large immigration from all portions of 
the civilized world, and this point, being prac- 
tically the head of inland navigation, became 
the first nucleus of a settlement. ■ At first a 
town of canvas tents was established, and after- 
ward the city was regularly laid out, the survey 
being made in December, 1848, by Captain 
William II. AVarner, of the United States Army, 
assisted by W. T. Sherman, now (reneral. 

In 1844, however, an efl'ort was made, under 
the patronage of Sutter and others, to lay out 
and build a town at a point three miles below 
the site of Sacramento City. A survey was 
made and a village commenced. The first house 
was erected by Sutter, the second by one Hadel, 
and the third by George Zins. The last men- 
tioned was a brick building, and the first of the 
kind erected in California. Zins afterward man- 
ufactured the bricks, in Sacramento, which were 
used in the first brick buildings erected in this 
city. He stamped each brick with his initials, 
and one of them is now preserved in the Crocker 
Art Gallery Museum of the city, and one in the 
Museum of the Pioneer Association. For a 

time, " Sutterville," as it was called, in honor of 
its projector, flourished; but after the gold dis- 
covery the population centered at Sacramento, 
or the " Embarcadero," the Spanish name. 

At the time or shortly after the discovery of 
gold, quite a number of stores were established 
at the fort, and indeed that was the practical 
business center in this portion of the Territory. 
The first store, an adobe building, was that of 
C. C. Smith &, Co., Samuel Erannan being the 
"Co." This was started two moatlis prior to 
the opening of the mines, and across its coutit- 
ers were made the first exchanges of American 
goods for California gold. Brannan subsequently 
became the sole proprietor. Hensley & Read- 
ing had a store afterward in the fort, and one of 
the clerks was James King of William, later 
editor of the San Francisco Bulletin^ who was 
killed by James P. Casey in the " Vigilance 
Committee" days of 1856. 

When the city of Sacramento was established 
Sutter owned its site. After the discovery o 
gold and the laying out of the city, Sutter con- 
veyed his entire interest in the plat to his son 
and on December 30, 1849, Sutter, Jr., em 
ployed Peter H. Burnett — afterward Governor — 
as his lawyer to manage his newly acquired in 
terests. Conveyances were made by Sutter and 
his son, which resulted in a confusion of titles 
that were not adjusted until after many years of 


After the establishment of Sacramento there 
was a steady improvement of the town. From 
a village of canvas tents it grew to be one of 
wood and brick structures, and the town of Sut- 
terville soon had an existence only on paper. 
After the flood of 1861-62, an ettbrt was made 
to revive the town of SiitterviUe, but it again 

During the time that Sacramento was flooded, 
in January, 1853, all communication with the 
raining counties was cut off", and some of the 
enterprising merchants sought higher ground 
for the city site, where freight could be landed 
from vessels without danger from floods. The 
site they selected was on the south bank of the 
Amei'ican River, nearly due north from the point 
now called Brighton, and they named the new 
town " Hoboken." At that day the American 
River was navigable to that point. A large 
town was laid out there, with wide streets and a 
steamboat landing. Within ten days a place 
sprang up which promised to be a rival to Sac- 
ramento. Three steamers made daily trips be- 
tween the two places. An express office was 
established at Hoboken, besides many other fa- 
cilities for commercial business. Trade there 
flourished. Many of the business Arms of Sac- 
ramento removed to the new town, and the 
newspapers of the city devoted a page to the 
interests of Hoboken. But Hoboken declined 
as rapidly as it had sprung up, and to-day its 
site constitutes a portion of a farm. 

The city of " Boston " was laid out at the con- 
fluence of the American and Sacramento rivers, 
north of Sacramento. It, however, never " ma- 
terialized," and existed only on maps. 

The population of Sacrimento, prior to Janu- 
ary, 1848, was comparatively insigniticant; but 
with the influx which followed the discovery of 
gold its augmentation had been perhaps unpre- 
cedented in the history of the world. Tlie first 
census taken in the State — in 1851 — during the 
administration of President Fillmore, was under 
the Buperintendency of J. Neely Johnson, as 
Census Agent of this district. He was after- 
ward Governor of the State. In that enumera- 

tion Sacramento was credited with 11,000 in- 
habitants. The population of the State as then 
returned was about 120,000. The Federal cen- 
sus of 1860 credits the city with 12,800; of 
1870, with 16,283; of 1880, with 21,420; and 
the present year, 1889, it has prohalily between 
30,000 and 40,000. 

George McDougal, brother of " I John," the 
second Governor, was a prominent character in 
the founding of Sacramento City. He came 
here from Indiana in 1848, joined Fremont's 
battalion, and was with it in the memorable 
campaign in Southern California. Returning 
to San Francisco, he became distinguished there; 
and when the mines were discovered joined the 
gold-seekers and had some exciting experiences 
in the mines. Shortly after the survey of Sac- 
ramento City was made, he procured a lease of 
a ferry privilege from Captain Sutter at a point 
below the entrance of Sutter Lake, and opened 
the tirst store in the place, bringing up a store 
ship and locating it near the foot of I street. 
His partner was Judge Blackburn, of Santa 
Cruz. The arrival of the son of Captain Sutter 
eflTected an important change in the destiny of 
the new city. He received the interest of his 
father in the city, and immediately a question 
arose between him and McDougal in respect to 
the prerogatives of his lease. The question be- 
ing decided in favor of Sutter, McDougal became 
so disaflPected with the place that he determined 
to "extinguish the prospects" of the new city, 
and move to Sutterville. Transporting all his 
goods to that point, and leaving his brother 
John in charge of them, he went East. Joini 
then issued immense placards, declaring that 
the firm over which he presided iiad determined 
to take the lead in competition, and accordingly 
would sell goods at "cost and freight," with a 
verbal assurance that if they could not obtain 
patronage at that rate they would sell at the 
primary cost of their merchandise. But the 
merchants at the fort combined and McDoucral 
& Co. soon had to break up. 

George wandered into Utali, New Mexico, 
and adjacent Territories, and meanwhile reports 


of his death were received on the coast. An 
Eastern brother administered on his estate. 
Trace of him was lost for years. Finally Cap- 
tain Eruv\ n, of the ram Stonewall, was going to 
Japan through the Straits of Magellan, when 
some Patagonian chiefs came aboard, among 
whom was a "hirsute, squalid, weather-tanned 
and very tattooed man," none other than " Colo- 
nel George McDougal!" He had journeyed 
through Central Aineiica and various South 
American countries, and was then prospecting 
at Sandy Point, a savage and solitary station in 
the straits. He was the chief of an Indian tribe! 
He was a giant in size, and so princely and 
handsome that he had been called " Lord George 
McDougal." Captain Brown says that after he 
had had him shaved, cleaned up and dressed in 
good clotlies, he was the handsomest and most 
distinguished looking man he had ever seen. 
McDougal sobbed and cried when told of his 
family; but all entreaty to keep him on board 
and get him back home was unavailing, as he 
had a valuable mine which lie was developing 
by aid of these Indians. However, he promised 
that as soon as possible he would proceed farther 
north and then make for home. Some time 
afterward Brown chanced to meet McDougal in 
Valparaiso, and succeeded in sending him home. 


Among the musty old papers on tile in the 
othce of the county clerk in San Francisco, is the 
original polling list of an election for magis- 
trate held in Sacramento District, Se])tember 
28, 1846, and wiiich it is thought was the first 
election in the district. Following is the copy 
of the list of voters, furnished Themis by As- 
sistant Adjutant-General Perrie Kewen: 

Daniel Sill, William Potter, Ed. J. Minier, 
T. J. Shadden, David Dutton, Peter Cadel, 
William Johnson, I. Fuller, James Smith, Jas. 
Tylee, James McDowell, William Northgrave, 
James Gregson, Ben. Sena, Martin Murphy, 
Heling Downing, Jared Sheldon, Perry McCoon, 
Gardner T. Wyman, J. A. Sutter, Silas Hitch- 
cock, Edmund Bray, Tobias Cadel, John Kunye. 

The candidates and the number of votes were: 
John Sinclair, 15; Jared Sheldon, 8; J. A. Sut- 
ter, 1. 

The subscriliers certify that the above is a 
correct register and poll of votes for the election 
of a magistrate of the Sacramento District, held 
at Fort New Helvetia, on the 28th day of Sep- 
tember, A. D. 1846. 

J. A. Sdtter, Judge. 

G. T. Wyman, 

J. Tylee. 

first mail to SACRAMENTO. 

The schooner John Dunlap, owned jointly by 
Simmons, Hutchins & Co. and E. S. Marsh, left 
San Francisco on her first trip to Sacramento, 
May 18, 1849. The first mail was brought on 
her second trip, when she sailed June 25 and 
arrived here in forty-eight hours. 

the first directory 

of the city of Sacramento was published in 1851, 
by J. Horace Culver, and was printed by the 
Transcript press, then on K street, between 
Second and Third. It has ninety-six pages, 
with a vast amount of interesting information, 
the names of the citizens occupying not quite 
half the space. A copy of it is pieserved in the 
State Library. 


The following is an old-time reminiscence 
from the memory of AV. M. Siddons, of Sacra- 

"In June, 1849, Hon. T. Butler King was 
sent out by the general Government to recon- 
noiter the Sacramento Valley, and report to 
Washington. He called on General P. F.Smith, 
who afterward was conspicuous in the army of 
the Rebellion, but who was then in command of 
the military of the Pacific; also upon Commo- 
dore Jones, in command of the navy, to whom 
he presented his credentials and orders, at Beni- 
cia. An expedition was made up at that point, 
consisting of two six-mule teams, one dingay 


cart, with supplies for the trip. A detachment 
of thirty dragoous was formed under command 
of Lieutenant Stonera an — afterward a famous war 
General, later Governor of California — to act as 

" The expeditioTi started on the 4th day of 
July, 1849, the writer being one of the party. 
AVe reached a point at the mouth of the Feather 
River, called Fremont, crossed over to Yer- 
non, and set out for Sacramento, where we ar- 
rived on July 7. Lieutenant Stoneman was left 
iu charge of the camp about five miles from the 
city. General Smith, Commodore Jones, T. 
Butler King and myself came to the city, and 
were met by General Sutter, Sam Bran nan, E. 
F. Gillespie, J. G. Hyer, P. E. Cornwall, Colo- 
nel J. B. Starr, W. R. Grimshaw, and a large 
number of citizens. After congratulatory re- 
marks, a banquet was given the visitors by the 
citizens. General Sutter had a considerable 
quantity of English ale, which was the principal 
beverage for the occasion. Considering the 
scarcity of the commodities that usually appear 
at banquets, this early effort in that line was a 
success. It must be remembered that Sacra- 
mento City was composed then only of a few 
buildings and tents. 

" During the stay we visited Sutter's Fort; 
where we received additional courtesies from 
General Sutter. After making a tourof Marj's- 
ville, through the Yubas, we crossed the Ameri- 
can, Feather and Stanislaus Rivers, and stopped 
at Stockton, about August 1. We had a good 
reception and an improvised banquet at that 
place, which was comprised of but few houses. 
AVe moved on to the foot of Mount Diablo, 
wliere we found Dr. Marsh, who o\vned a large 
ranch, and who also entertained us handsomely. 
Our circuit was made in one month and eleven 


in Sacramento is so eloquently described by Dr. 
Morse that we must quote his language: 

"About the 4th of July [1849], a grand ball 
was given at the City Hotel, which building was 
not yut completed. An immense and vigorous 

effort was made to get up a ball upon a mag- 
nificent scale. To do this, it was essentially im- 
portant that every Caucasian descendant of Eve 
in this section of the State should be present. 
Accordingly a respectable number of gallant 
young gentlemen were commissioned to explore 
the country, with specific instructions to visit 
every ranch, tent or wagon bed where there was 
any indication of feminine divinity, and, irre- 
spective of age, cultivation or grace, to bring 
one and all to this ' aristocratic' festal occasion. 
These orders were admirably attended to, and 
at the o[)ening of the dance the hungry, rather 
voracious optics of about 200plain-lookinggen- 
tlemen were greeted with the absolute presence 
of some eigiiteen ladies, not Amazons all, but 
replete with all the adornments that belong to 
bold and enterprising pioneers of a new country. 
Such a sight in California at that time was almost 
a miraculous exhibition, and filled men with 
such an ebullition of sentiment as to make it 
impossible to breathe without inhaling the dying 
cadences of the most devoted and tenderly ex- 
pressed politeness. 

"Tickets of admission to this ball were $32. 
The supper was most sumptuously prepared, 
and champagne circulated so freely that identity 
became jeopardized, and the very illumination 
of the room converted into a grand magnifying 
medium for the revels of fancy and delights of 


The first ship ever used in the State of Cali- 
fjrnia as a "prison brig" was the bark Straf- 
ford, which was moored in the Sacramento 
River opposite the foot of I street. It was 
brought here from New York in 1849. While 
lying at the foot of O street it was sold at auc- 
tion by J. B. Starr, and, though it had cost 
$50,000, it was knocked down to C. C. Hayden 
for $3,750! Immediately the latter sold three- 
quarters of his interest to Charles VIorrill, Cap- 
tain Isaac Derby and Mr. Wiiiting. In March, 
1850, they rented the vessel to the county for a 
" prison brig." May 25, 1850, the otiiers sold 
out their interests to Cliarles Morrill, who in- 


tended the bark for a trader between San Fran- 
cisco and Panama. It was loaded at the levee, 
bnt in so poor a manner that she nearly capsized 
on reaching the Uay of San Francisco. It was 
readjusted and taken on to the sea, but was 
never brought back. 

The county soon afterward purchased the La 
Grange, which had arrived in California from 
Salem, Massachusetts. It was moored about op- 
posite li street. When the first freshet of thehigh 
water of 1861-'62 came on, the vessel pulled 
heavily at its moorings, and the water came in 
through the open seams so rapidly tliat it was 
only by great exertions the prisoners were safely 

removed to the city jail. The bark filled and 
sank right there at the anchors. Sand and sedi- 
ment filled the hold and cabin and collected in 
great quantities all about it. Being sold at 
auction, it was purchased by T. Talbert, who, at 
considerable profit, disposed of it to a company 
of Chinese. The Celestials went actively to work 
pegging away at the carcass of the old bark, 
which had so many times braved storm and 
tempest; and if any of its remains were not 
carried ofi" by them, they are in the deep bosom 
of the sand-bank buried. 

Since then the Sacramento County jail has 
never been afloat. 



JN our sketch of tlie life of Sutter, in a pre 
vious chapter, allusion is made to the fact 
that some unprincipled immigrants entered 
upon his lands, cut timber, and stole his cattle, 
horses, etc. In 1849 others, more honorable 
in their intentions, questioned Sutter's title to 
certain tracts, including the site of the city of 
Sacramento. Their settling npou lands claimed 
by Sutter soon led to litigation and ultimately 
to riot and bloodshed. Our account of this very 
delicate affair is the one given by Dr. John F. 
Morse, who compiled a history of the city soon 
after that tragic period, from official and other 

Dr. Morse says: 

In the Placer Times of May 5, 1849, we find 
the following: 


" All persons are hereby cautioned not to 
settle, without my permission, on any land of 
mine in this Territory. Said land is bounded 
as follows: Commencing on the north, in lati- 
tude thirty-nine degrees, thirty-three minutes 
and forty-tive seconds, at a point on the east 
bank of the Sacramento River, running thence 
east three leagues beyond Feather River; thence 
south to latitude thirty-eight degrees, forty -one 
minutes and thirty-two seconds; thence west to 
said Sacramento River; thence up and along the 
course of said Sacramento River to its inter- 

section with Feather River; thence in a westerly 
direction up and along the course of the said 
Sacramento River to the place of beginning, 
excepting a certain tract, included in the above, 
lying on the east side of the said Sacramento 
River, bounded on the north by latitude thirty- 
nine degrees one minute and forty-tive seconds, 
and on the south by the American Fork, granted 
by the Republic of Mexico to one Elias Grimes. 
"John A. Suttee, Jk." 
On the 7th of December, following, H. A. 
Schoolcraft petitioned the City Council to re- 
move a house built by Charles Robinson upon 
property which he represented. Robinson, whose 
sketch appears in the chapter on the Legislators 
of this county, was among the first to contest 
Sutter's title. He settled upon and claimed a 
lot on the levee near I street and regarded by 
him as public ground. The city authorized the 
removal. The next day a suit was entered 
against the city because of the removal of the 
building, and it resulted in favor of the city. 

The claim that Sutter's title was no good, and 
that his grant was public land and subject to 
pre-emption, had been promulgated in the early 
part of the fall of 1849, but it was treated by 
the speculators in town lots and the owners of 
property with indifference. This treatment, 
while it suppressed for a short time the bold- 
ness of the squatters, did not extinguish their 
K]iirit. They intimated that they would receive 


a reinforcement, when tlie immigration arrived, 
to secure them in their possession of the prop- 
erty upon wiiich they had settled. This as- 
sumption was based on the arrival of immigrants 
across the plains. Worn out by a long journey, 
and without money or homes, they did not listen 
with indifference to the assurance that by the 
mere locating of their tents upon a city lot it be- 
came their property. Thus, in a very few weeks, 
the timid and esteemed insignificant sqnatterism, 
became a distinct party organization. Lots were 
staked off in many parts of the city, and the 
squatter title was boldly presented as a superior 
claim to that based upon conveyances and sub 
conveyances from Sutter. 

The latter claimed the land now embraced 
within theliraitsof thecity, through agrant from 
the Mexican Government and the guarantees 
of the treaty of the United States with Mexico. 
His claim was sustained by an actual settle- 
ment, by immense and most useful improve- 
ments, by the occupation of the present site of 
the city, and survey made by a person whom he 
supposed to be a competent engineer, and an 
accompanying map, both of which located him 
upon the land he claimed. Upon this claim, he 
conveyed the property to his son, John A. 
Sutter, Jr., from whoiTi it had been purchased 
and sold, and passed through the hands of thou- 
sands of individuals. 

Against this claim tlie squatters urged that 
the natural boundaries of the land claimed were 
not in keeping with the imaginary lines, or the 
boundaries by latitude and longitude given by 
the engineer; that Sutter had not complied with 
the requisitions of his grant, and especially that 
the site of the city could not be embraced 
within the land granted, as by the stipulations 
it would not be subjected to annual inundations, 
and that by the improvement of Hock Farm 
and New Helvetia he had overstepped the 
boundaries of his possessions under the grant, 
either to the north, or south; and as the engi- 
neer had given the soutliern boundary by lati- 
tudinal lines, and as those lines, when correctly 
taken, placed his southern limit considerably 

above this point, therefore this: the site of 
Sacramento was public land and subject to pre- 
emption by occupation and improvement. The 
first civil suit against the squatters was insti- 
tuted in November, 1849, by John A. Sutter 
et al. vs. George Chapman. A writ of restitu- 
tion was issued by Judge Thomas and served 
by Presley Dunlap of the sheriff's office. 

These were the leading issues that were first 
developed in the fall of 1849 between the 
squatters and the anti-squatters. The removals 
alluded to gave great umbrage to the squatters, 
and were not forgotten by them, although the 
incoming rainy season and the terrible flood 
gave a temporary buietus to the subject. 

During the summer of 1850, a Squatters' 
Association was formed in the city. The first 
meeting was called by John H. Keyser, at the 
house of Mr. Kelly, who kept a place of enter- 
tainment on Front street, above J. At this 
place meetings were frequently held prior to the 
flood. Sometimes these meetings would be very 
largely attended. The speakers at first were not 
only entirely uneducated, but also so poorly sus- 
tained by native talent as to incur the ridicule 
of all but their immediate associates. But very 
soon men of talent and tact succeeded them, and 
infused into their proceedings a degree of 
strength and popular pleading that made the 
purchasers of Sutter titles watch their move- 
ments with anxiety. This anxiety was produced 
by an attention to the speaking Squatters; for 
as a general thing their speeches were freighted 
with denunciations against "Grasping and de- 
signing men," "Speculators in lots and land 
monopolists." In the month of May the asso- 
ciation was ably sii stained by a most talented 
engineer. Colonel John Plum be, who was the 
regular surveyor and recorder of the organiza- 
tion. After the floods of January and March, 
a more thorough and complete organization of 
the party took place, and a deep feeling of hos- 
tility sprung up between the Squatters and the 
purchasers of the Sutter titles. The members 
of the association began to demonstrate their 
views by squatting upon lots in dift'erent parts 


of tbe city. Contests ensued and removals oc- 
casionally efiected. 

But on the lOth of May, the particular suit 
was commenced which resulted in the riots of 
August, 1850. John P. Rodgers and De Witt 
J. Burnett commenced action against John F. 
Madden, in the Recorder's Court, B. F. Wash- 
ington presiding, under the statute providing 
for "Unlawful entry and detainer.'" The lot 
settled upon and claimed by Madden was situ- 
ated on the southeast corner of N and Second 
streets. The case was sustained by E. J. C. 
Kewen and R. F. Morrison for the plaintiffs, 
and F. W. Thayer for the defendant. The lat- 
ter set forth the plea of no jurisdiction, and the 
plea was overruled. He then instituted the plea 
that the property was public land, the free hold 
of the Government, and therefore subject to a 
title by settlement and improvement; that about 
the 1st of March, 1850, he had peaceably en- 
tered upon the premises and made improve- 
ments thereon. A demurrer was interposed by 
plaintiffs upon the ground that the plea set 
Ibrth by defendant was insufficient in law. The 
plea was overruled. The defendant then filed 
an affidavit asking a change of venue upon the 
ground that the recorder was biased and that 
he could not have a fair trial in this city, the 
citizens also being prejudiced against him. The 
application was refused, and the case went to 
tiial. After argument, the recorder returned 
a judgment against defendant, fining him $300 
and costs, and ordered the issuance of a writ of 

The defendant appealed from this decision to 
the County Court, and on the 8th of August, 
1850, the case came up for hearing before Judge 
Willis, of that tribunal. At this trial the de- 
fendant was assisted by J. H. McKune, C. A 
Tweed and Lewis Aldrich. Defendants moved 
for a nonsuit, on the ground that the Recorder's 
Court had no jurisdiction, but finally by con- 
sent the ease was submitted upon its merits. 
The claim of title from Sutter being offered by 
plaintiffs, defendant objected, and the objection 
was overruled. The case was then argued, and 

the following day judgment was rendered sus- 
taining the decision of the Inferior Court. The 
defendant then asked to appeal to the Supreme 
Court, but there being no law to provide for 
such an appeal, the motion was overruled. Dur- 
ing the proceedings of this trial both parties 
became excited to the utmost degree, and the 
Squatters, as a body, declared against the resto- 
ration of the property pursuant to the judg- 
ments of the courts. Squatters and Anti-squat- 
ters held meetings almost every night, and the 
city was excited. 

Almost immediately after the decision of 
Judge Willis was pronounced, the Squatters 
issued the following poster: 


It is well known that a few individuals have 
seized upon nearly all the arable public lauds in 
this county, and the following are some of the 
means they have resorted to in order to retain 
the property thus taken: 

First, They have used brute force and torn 
down the buildings of the settlers and driven 
them from their homes by riotous mobs. 

Second, They have used threats of violence, 
even to the taking of life, if the occupant or 
settler persisted in defending his property, and 
thus extorted from the timid their rightful 

Third, they have passed or procured the pass- 
age of certain rules in the so-called Legislature 
of California, for the purpose, as their attorneys 
affirm, of protecting themselves and removing 
the settlers from the land they may occupy, 
whether right or wrong; thus settling the ques- 
tion of title in an assumed legislative body, 
which question can alone be settled by the Su- 
preme Government of the United States. 

Fourth, Under said legislative regulations, by 
them called laws, they have continually har- 
rassed the settler with suits, and in many in- 
stances" compelled him to abandon his home for 
want of the means to pay the costs of their 
courts. Many others have paid tiiese costs 
with the hope ol carrying their cause through 
these so-called courts to the proper tribunal for 
final decision, namely, the Supreme Court of 
the United States. 

But these hopes were vain; for Judge Willis, 
so-called, has decided that from bis decision 
there is no appeal. 


And now, inasmuch as the so-called Legisla- 
ture is not recognized by Congress, and their 
rules and regulations not approved, and are 
therefore of no binding force upon the citizens 
of the United States, but simply advisory; and 
inasmuch as tiie co-called law of "Forcible 
Entry and Detainer," if passed for the purpose 
affirmed by their counsel, namely, to drive off 
settlers, with or without title, is unconstitu- 
tional, and would be in any State, the people 
in this community called settlers, and others who 
are friends of justice and humanity, in consid- 
eration of the above, have determined to disre- 
gard all decisions of our courts in land cases, 
and all summonses or executions by the sheriff, 
constable or other officer of the present county 
or city touching this matter. They will regard 
the said officers as private citizens, as in the 
eyes of the constitution they are, and hold 
them accountable accordingly. And, moreover, 
if there is no otiier appeal from Judge "Willis, 
the settlers and others, on the first show of 
violence to their persons or property, either by 
the sheriff or other person, under color of any 
execution or writ of restitution, based on any 
judgment or decree of any court in this county, 
in an action to recover possession of land, have 
deliherately resolved to appeal to arms and 
protect their sacred rights, if need be, with 
their lives. 

Should such be rendered necessary by the 
acts of the sheriff or others, the settlers will be 
governed by martial law. All property, and 
the persons of such as do not engage in the 
contest, will be sacredly regarded and protected 
by tbem, whether land-holders or otherwise, but 
the property and lives of those who take the 
field against them will share the fate of war. 

This card of the Squatters increased the ex- 
citement in the community to such an intensity 
as to make collision and blood-shed an inevita- 
ble result. It was pronounced to be a declara- 
tion of civil war, and enlisted many people 
against the Squatters who had previously favored 
them by a sort of passive approbation. 

August 11, the Squatters held a meeting 
upon the levee, which we find thus reported in 
the Transcript of the following day: 

"The meeting of the Squatters, at the foot of 
J street, on Saturday evening was largely at- 
tended. The proceedings were characterized by 
great excitement, with a mixture of mirth and 

sparkling wit, which made the meeting decid- 
edly 'rich and racy.' When we arrived Dr. 
Kobinson, chairman of the meeting, was read- 
ing a series of resolutions declarative of the 
sentiments of the Squatters. Among others 
was a resolution to resist decisions made by 
Judge Willis, of the County Court. 

"A motion was adopted that the resolutions 
be taken up separately. At this stage of the 
proceedings loud calls were made for different 
speakers — McKune, Kewen, Brannan, Barton 
Lee, McClatchy, etc. 

"Mr. McKune appeared on the stand, and 
had proceeded about three-quarters of an hour, 
in an exposition of the Sutter title and defenses 
of the Squatters, when he was interrupted by 
loud cries for 'a new speaker,' 'Brannan,' 
'Kewen,' etc. 

"The chairman at length succeeded in re- 
storing order, assuring the audience that Mr. 
Brannan should be heard when Mr. McKune 
closed. During his speech McKune made a 
statement in regard to Mr. Sutter's place of 
residence, that if he had one any more than 
another it was at Hock Farm and not at the 
fort, which was promptly pronounced as 'false', 
by Mr. Brannan. This renewed the commotion, 
and amidst a goodly sprinkling of 'noise and 
confusion' Mr. McKune retired. 

" The cries for different speakers were both 
'loud and long.' Mr. Brannan and Judge 
Wilson took the stand. The latter stated he 
had just returned to the city with a complete 
translation of the Mexican laws in relation to 
land titles, and proceeded to show that the 
Squatters were vastly mistaken in regard to one 
or two of the arguments they used in support 
of their rights and adverse to the validity of 
Captain Sutter's title. 

"Disorder again reigned supreme, until Mr. 
Brannan had gotten fully under headway. Mr. 
Brannan proceeded to show that he was justifi- 
able in pronouncing the statement made by Mr. 
McKune as being 'false, untrue.' Mr. Bran- 
nan also adverted to his agency in removing a 
Squatter from his land, ' Land that had been 


paid for, with money lie had earned by hard 

"Colonel E. J. C. Kewen was loudly called 
for. After considerable tumult, that gentleman 
took the stand, and was proceeding, when he 
was interrupted by cries of ' "Who's the speaker?' 
' Give us your name! ' ' My name,' said Colo- 
nel Kewen, ' is Ed Kewen, a man who is not 
afraid to face any populace, or give expression 
to the honest convictions of his heart, at any 
time, or under any circumstances.' 'Are you 
a land holder?' 'Yes, I have a few acres of 
land, which I have honestly acquired — land 
which I bought and paid for.' Colonel Kewen 
remarked that many of those who were now 
here claiming land had been deluded by de- 
signing persons — that at heart they were hon- 
est men; and alluded to the general integrity of 
the Anglo Saxon race. Whilst indulging in 
this strain, he was interrupted with cries of 
' soft soap.' ' Yes,' replied the speaker, ' I be- 
lieve there is a little too much lie in it, and I 
will forbear.' Colonel Kewen referred to the 
decision of Judge Willis, and controverted the 
position assumed by Mr. McKune. His re- 
marks were received with plaudits on one side 
and disapprobation on the other. 

" Dr. Robinson, the chairman, asked leave to 
address the meeting; at the same time James 
Queen applied for a similar favor. Mr. Queen 
was denied the privilege, whereupon he turned 
to the assemblage and put the question for per- 
mission for the chair, which was also refused. 
(Roars of laughter.) 

" Here there was a perfect ' war of words' and 
bandying of set phrases, between the Squatters 
and others. The reading of the resolutions was 
loudly called for, when Dr. Robinson proceeded 
to read the first, and then delivered a speech of 
considerable length in defense of the resolutions. 
Dr. Robinson closed with the remark, that, as 
for himself, he meant to defend the property he 
had settled upon, at all hazards." 

Madden retained possession of his premises 
for some time, being defended by members of 
the association. The house itself became a sort 

of garrison for the Squatters. In it they kept 
a variety of muskets, pistols and some very an- 
tiquated sabres and swords. The sheriff, Mc- 
Kinney, in his endeavors to execute the writ of 
restitution, discovered a number of individuals, 
whom he knew, among the party resisting his 
authority, and reported the names of James Mc- 
Clatchy, Charles Robinson and others, and war- 
rants for their arrest were issued by Justice 
Charles C. Sackett. The excitement continued 
to increase, and hasty and unwarrantable acts 
were committed on both sides for several days. 
McClatchy had in the meantime delivered him- 
self up, and was confined in jail during the sub- 
sequent conflicts. Madden was finally dispos- 
sessed of his house, but recovered it on the 14th 
of August. On the morning and through the 
day of the 14th, a crisis arrived, M'hich can be 
best appreciated by a re-poblication of the inci- 
dents as then recorded by the journals: 

From the Daily Tirnes of the 15th we quote: 
"At two o'clock a body of Squatters, number- 
ing about forty, proceeded to the foot of I street; 
on the levee, and undertook to regain possession 
of a lot of ground, which had been lately in the 
occupation of one of their party. They were 
fully armed, and a general understanding pre- 
vailed that their object included the liberation 
of the two men committed the day before to the 
prison ship, upon the charge of being concerned 
in a riotous assemblage on the morning of the 
12tl), for the purpose of forcibly resisting the 
process of law. After the displacement of some 
of the lumber upon the ground, the party of 
Squatters were deterred from proceeding further 
in their intent. The Mayor, Hardin Biglow, 
had meantime requested all good citizens to aid 
in suppressing the threatened riot, and very 
large numbers had gathered about the spot — 
several citizens armed, proceeded also to the 
prison ship — but no demonstration was made in 
that direction. 

" The Squatters retreated in martial order, and 
passed up I street to Third, thence to J and up 
to Fourth followed by a crowd of persons. They 
were here met by the mayor, who ordered them 


tu deliver up their arras aud disperse. This 
they refused to do, and immediately several shots 
were lired at him, four of which took effect. He 
fell from his horse, and was carried to his resi- 
dence, dangerously if not mortally wounded. J. 
W. Woodland, who, unarmed, stood near the 
mayor at the time, received a shot in the groin 
which he survived but a few moments. A man, 
named Jesse Morgan, said to be from Millers- 
ville, Ohio, lately arrived, and who was seen to 
aim at the mayor, next fell dead, from the ef- 
fects of a ball which passed through his neck. 
James Harper was very severely but not danger- 
ously wounded, in supporting the sheriff. It 
is difhcult to give an exact detail of the terrible 
incidents which followed in such rapid succes- 
sion. It appeared, from an examination before 
the coroner, that the party of Squatters drew up 
in regular order, on arriving at the corner of 
Fourth street, and that the sheriff was several 
times fired upon before he displayed any weap- 
ons. Testimony was also given as to the per- 
son who was seen to fire upon Woodland. The 
mounted leader of the- Squatters, an Irishman 
by the name of Maloney, had his horse shot 
under him; he endeavored to escape, was pur- 
sued a short distance up an alley and shot 
througii the head, falling dead. Dr. Robinson, 
one of the armed party under his command, was 
wounded in the lower part of his body. Mr. 
Hale, of the firm of Crowell, Hale & Co., was 
slightly wounded in the leg, A young boy, 
son of Mr. Rogers, was also wounded. We 
have heard of several others, but are not assured 
of the correctness of the reports. Upon oath of 
several gentlemen, that they saw Dr. Robinson 
deliberately aim at the mayor, he was arrested 
and placed in confinement. An Irishman, named 
Henry A. Caulfield, accused of a similar act 
with regard to both the mayor and Woodland, 
was arrested late in the afternoon. [A sketch of 
Caulfield is given at the close of this chapter.] 
" After these terrible scenes, which occupied 
less time than we have employed to describe 
them, liad passed, a meeting of the council was 
held, the citizens gathered at the corner of 

Second and J streets, and other places through- 
out the city, and proceeded to organize in parties 
to prevent further outrage. A body of mounted 
men under the command of the sheriff, hearing 
the report that the Squatters were reinforcing 
at the fort, proceeded thither. The lawless mob 
was nowhere to be found; scouts were dispatched 
in all directions, but no trace of them could be 
discovered; meanwhile several other parties had 
formed into rank, and proceeded to different 
parts of the city, establishing rendezvous at 
various points. Brigadier-General A. M. Winn 
issued a proclamation, declaring the city under 
martial law, and ordering all law-abiding citizens 
to form themselves into volunteer companies, 
and report their organization at headquarters as 
soon as possible. At evening, quiet was fully 
restored throughout the city. Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor McDougal, who left upon the Senator, and 
expects to meet the Gold Hunter, will bring 
up this morning a detachment of troops from 
Benicia. An extraordinary police force of 500 
was summoned for duty during tlie night." 

By the minutes of the council, we find that 
B. F. Washington was appointed marshal, and 
Captain J. Sherwood, assistant, to whom all per- 
sons desirous of making arrests were requested 
to apply for authority and aid. 

From the Placer Times E.ttra of the loth of 
August, the following few paragraphs are taken, 
as also a copy of the letter found in Dr. Robin- 
son's te it: 

"The night passed without the least disturb- 
ance. The companies of Captain Sherwood and 
Major Snyder, and the artillery under Major 
Fowler, were constantly on duty; also a police 
force of about 200. The greatest vigilance was 
observed, but no farther arrests were made, and 
quiet seems to be fully restored throughout the 
city. The public mind is composed, but reso- 
lute and fairly determined that the work shall 
be well done now. The few persons who were 
heard to promulgate opinions opposed to the 
action which the authorities have pursued, have 
prudently desisted from their course, and but 
one sentiment is known at this time among the 


entire community. The Squatters have success- 
fully concealed themselves or fled. A proposi- 
tion is very generally supported to give notice 
to all occupying city property as Squatters to 
leave forthwith, and that their tenements be de- 
molished, and all vestiges of their presence be 
removed. An early action in this direction will 
probably ensue. The most important develop- 
ment of the day is the letter found in the tent 
of Dr. liobinson, which is in his own hand 
■writing, as can be fnlly proved. It is a damn- 
ing evidence of the plans and purposes whicb 
governed the proceedings of tlie lawless mob of 
the 13tli. We have no expression for the 
enormity of guilt which is thus brought home 
to them and all that abetted their cause. 

" Lieutenant-Governor McDougal returned 
from Benica on the Gold Hunter this morning, 
bringing fifty stand of arms and 1,500 cartiidges. 

•' The arrangements for the funeral of J. W. 
Woodland are completed. 

" A general expression of admiration is awarded 
to the conduct of the sheriff, Joseph McKinney. 
Under the most critical circumstances, bravery 
and discretion have united to commend his every 
action. He has been placed in positions de- 
manding the exercise of the most exalted cour- 
age, and in the midst of the most intense excite- 
ment which surrounded him his perfect coolness 
and composure did not desert him. To these 
attributes, as well as the fortune which favors 
the brave, is the preservation of his life owing; 
and our community may rejoice that such a 
well-tried public officer continues to hold au- 
thority among them. He was, during the 7nelee 
the mark of many shots, but his vigilance and 
a kind Providence protected him. 

" AVe would allude in the same connection 
to the intrepid valor of Recorder Washington, 
upon whom the highest civic powers of com- 
mand have devolved by the action of the 
council, with the enthusiastic and \inanimous 
approbation of the entire community. 

" Sheriff McKinney, on returning from the 
fort yesterday, entered the house of the sur- 
veyor of the Settlers' Association, and took 

possession of all records, documents, etc., found 

Following is a copy of the letter found in Dr. 
Robinson's tent: 

"August 12, 1850.— Although I have writ- 
ten one letter, yet, as I have been called upon 
by circumstances to remain in town, and as I 
have a little leisure, I will talk with you a little, 
my ever dear S. Since writing you, we have 
seen much and experienced much of a serious 
and important character, as well as much excite- 
ment. The county judge, before whom our cases 
were brought, decided against us, and on Satur- 
day morning declared that from his decisions 
there should be no appeal. The Squatters im 
mediately collected on the ground in dispute, and 
posted on large bills the following: ' Outrage! ! ! 
Shall Judge Willis be dictator? Squatters, and 
all other republicans, are invited to meet on 
the levee this evening, to hear the details.' It 
was responded to by both parties, and the 
speculators, as aforetime, attempted to talk 
against time, etc. On the passage of a series 
of resolutions presented by your humble servant, 
there w^ere about three ayes to one nay, although 
the Transcript said they were about equal. Sun- 
day morning I drew up a manifesto, carried it 
with me to thechurch, paid onedollarfor preach- 
ing, helped them sing, showed it to a lawyer, 
to see if my position was correct, legally, and pi'o- 
cured the printing of it in handbills and in the 
paper, after presenting it to a private meeting 
of citizens for their approval, which I addressed 
at some length. After a long talk for the pur- 
pose of consoling a gentleman just in from the 
plains, and who the day before had buried his 
wife whom he loved most tenderly, and a few days 
previous to that had lost his son, 1 threw my- 
self upon my blankets and ' seriously thought of 
the morrow.' 

" What will be the result? Shall I be borne 
out in my position? On whom can I depend? 
How many of those who are Squatters will come 
out if there is a prospect of a tight? Will 
the sheriff take possession, as he has jjromised, 
befoi-e 10 o'clock a. m? How many speculators 


will fight? Have I distinctly detined our posi- 
tion in the bill? AVill the world, the universe 
!ind God say it is just? — etc., etc., etc., Will 
you call me rash if I tell you that I took these 
steps to this point when I could get hut twenty- 
five itien to pledge themselves on paper to sus- 
tain me, and many of them, I felt, were timid? 
Such was tiie case. 

" Tills morning I was early on my feet, silently 
and quietly visiting my friends, collecting arms, 
etc. Our manifesto appeared in the paper and 
in bills early, and the wiiole town is aroused. 
Nothing is thought or talked of but war. About 
200 men assembled on the disputed territory, 
and most of them sympathized with us. A 
few, however, were spies. We chose our com- 
mander, and enrolled such as were willing to lay 
down their lives, if need be, in the cause. About 
fifty names could be obtained. I managed by 
speeches, business, etc., to keep the spectators 
and fightt'rs mingled in the mass, all unarmed, 
so as to let no one know but all were men of 
valor, and ready to fight. While thus engaged, 
the mayor appeared and addressed us from his 
saddle — -not ordering us to disperse, but advis- 
ing us to do so. 1 replied, most respectfully, 
that we were assembled to injure no one, and to 
assail no one who left us alone. We were on 
our own property, with no hostile intentions 
while unmolested. After he left I, with others, 
was appointed a committee to wait upon him at 
his office, and state distinctly our position, etc., 
so that there could be no possibility of mistake. 
He said he should use iiis influence, as an indi- 
vidual, to keep anyone from destroying our 
property, and told us the sheriff" had just told 
him that the executions from the court had been 
postponed. We returned, and after reporting, 
and making some fyrtiier arrangements for an- 
other meeting, if necessary, we adjourned. I 
told the mayor we should remain together if no 
attempt was to be made to execute their war- 
rants, but I told iiim if in the meantime a sheriff' 
or any other jierson molested a Squatter, we 
should hold him responsible according to our 
proclamation. From this position we could not 

be driven, althougii we knew it was in violation 
of the regulations of the State. We were pre- 
pared to abide the result. 

"It is said tliat a writ is madi^ out for my ar- 
rest, as a rebel, etc. If so, it will not probably 
be served at present." 

From the IJaUy Times of the Kith, the fol- 
lowing paragraphs are taken: 

"Another day of gloom arrives in the dread 
succession which we are compelled to record. 
Scarcely had the funeral rites been rendered to 
one victim, ere a second is immolated upon the 
sacred altar of duty. The sherift'of this county, 
Joseph McKinney, was killed last evening. Ho 
had proceeded to Brighton in company with a 
party of about twenty, to make arrests of per- 
sons whom he had been advised w-ere concerned 
in the riotous outrages of the 14th. On reach- 
ing Pavilion, and being assured that the parlies 
sought for were at the hotel of one Allen in the 
neighborhood, it was arranged tiiat Mr. J\Ic- 
Dowell, of Mormon Island, well known at the 
house, should proceed there, make observations 
and return. They did not wait for him, how- 
ever, but soon after rode up to the door, when 
the sheriff" demanded of Allen that he and the 
others should surrender themselves. They re- 
fused to do this, and immediately several shots 
were fired, mortally wounding Mr. McKinney. 
lie expired in a few nioinents. Meanwhile, 
several of those with him liiid entered the bar- 
room, where about a dozen Squatters were as- 
sembled. Three of the latter were killed on the 
spot. Allen escaped, though wounded. Three 
prisoners were taken and brought into town. 
We have heard that a f"ourth and a negro Squat- 
ter were also taken. 

" At the time the first report of these pro- 
ceedings reached the city, the council was in 
session. Messrs. Tweed and Spaulding were ap- 
pointed to unite with Captain Sherwood in 
taking measures to meet the emergency. Num- 
bers of the citizens left immediately for the 
scene of disturbance. The greatest commotion 
pervaded the city, and the most contradictory 
and exaii'irerated I'umors were circulated. It was 



feared that in the excitement tlie protection of 
the city would be neglected. In the course of 
a few hours the facts became known, and quiet 
was restored. Messengers continued to arrive 
throughout the night. A strict patrol was kept- 
in the vicinity of Brighton and of the city. A 
man was arrested by Captain Sherwood, being 
identified by two or three persons as implicated 
in the riot of the 14th. We are denied room 
for comment. But a few hours ago, we had the 
satisfaction to give a just tribute of appreciation 
to the gallant conduct of the otticer whose sac- 
rifice we now relate. Every member in our 
community feels in his own person the enormity 
of the crime which has been committed against 
all the social and political rights prized by our 
countrymen. A similar outrage is almost un- 
precedented in the history of the American peo- 
ple, and every interest of this community de- 
mands that the retribution should be summary 
and complete." 

The following is the dispatch sent to General 
A. M. "Winn, by Governor Burnett, when he 
heard of the troubles at Sacramento: 

San Jose, Aug. 15, 1850. 
To Brig. Gen. A. If. Wmn, Second Brigade, 
First Division, California Militia: 
Sir: It having been made to appear to me 
that there is a riotous and nnlawful assembly, 
with intent to commit a felony at Sacramento 
City, in Sacramento County, yo>i will forthwith 
order out the whole of your command, to appear 
at Sacramento City on the 16th day of August, 
1850, or as soon thereafter as practicable; and 
you will take command of the same, and give 
all the aid in your power lo the civil authorities, 
in suppressing violence and enforcing the laws. 
Should the force ordered out not be sufficient, 
you will forthwith iLform me accordingly. 
Your obedient servant, 

Peter II. Burnett, 
Governor of California and ComW-in-Chief. 

On the morning of the 16th, two military 
corapanies arrived by the steamer Senator, from 
San Francisco, under command of Captains 
Howard and McCormick, accompanied by Colo- 
nel J. W. Geary, Mayor of San Francisco, and 
afterward Governor of Pennsylvania, and they 

placed themselves under command of General 
Winn, who transmitted to the Common Council 
the following letter: 

Bku^ai.k Ili;,\iK,rAi;TEE9, Ang. 17,1850. 
To til, .\<-liinj Miii/nr ,ind CoriDiwib Council of 
I have the honor to inform you that the Sec- 
ond Brigade, First Division, California Militia, 
is now in readiness to give aid to the civil au- 
thorities in suppressing violence and enforcing 
law. Any orders emanating from your board 
shall be promptly attended to. 

With high respect, I subscribe myself your 
obedient servant, 

A. M. Winn, Bi'ig. Gen. 

By E. J. C. Kewen, 
Asst. Adj. Gen., Second Brig., First Div., 
Cat. Militia.. 

The Council then made the following I'cply : 
Council Chamukr, Sacramento City, 
August 17, 1850. 

Sir: Your communication of this ilaU^ is re- 
ceived, notifying me of the readiiirss i.if tlic Sec- 
ond Brigade, First Division, California Militia, 
under your command, to aid the civil authori- 
ties in suppressing violence and enforcing law, 
and stating that any orders emanating from this 
board shall be promptly attended to. In reply, 
I would state that immediately after the unex- 
pected riot of the 14th inst. a police force of 
500 men was authorized to be raised, and B. F. 
Washington, Es(j., appointed as marshal to take 
command, aided b}' Ca])tain J. Sherwood. Thus 
far this force has proven itself capable of sus- 
taining our laws and protecting the property of 
onr citizens without resort to military aid; and 
from all the information which we now possess 
there is no great probability of such aid being 
needed. Should any emergency arise requiring 
it, rest assured we shall avail ourselves of your 
kind offer. 

By order of the board, 

D. Strong, 
Pres. Common Council and Acting Mayor. 

Two days afterward the mayor issued the 
following proclamation: 

Fellow Citizens: Peace, order and (juiet- 
ness have re-assumed their sway. Scouts have 
returned, after scouring the neighborhood, and 
report the absence of any appearance of hostili- 
ties. A heavy guard is constantly maintained. 


and the city is safe from aii attack. Reliable 
information has been received from the mines, 
assuring us of the falsity of the rumors of as- 
semblages to resist the law. An observance of 
the ordinance against discharging fire-arms in 
the city is commanded. Especially is it neces- 
sary at this time, after nightfall. Officers on 
duty will attend to this. No farther disturb- 
ance is apprehended, but our vigilance must not 
be relaxed. 

D. Strong, 
Pres. Common Council and Aciing 31a yor. 
August 19, 1850. 

Under the heading " Restoring of quiet,'' the 
TTanscript of August 19 had the following: 

" AYe are happy to see at last the dawning of a 
calmer state of things in our midst. Under the 
circumstances, the excitement of the past few 
days was perhaps unavoidable. It is a terrible 
step for men to take, to rise in armed opposi- 
tion to the laws and constitution of the State 
in which they reside; but when such a step is 
taken, it must be promptly met. Our citizens 
have aroused with determination; they have 
rushed in multitudes to the side of law and 
authority. The blow has been struck. The 
armed opposition has been crushed. The riot- 
ers are scattered, and the authority of our Gov- 
ernment is still maintained. In addition two 
telling moral blows have been struck whose 
effect will last long in our community. We 
allude to the funerals of Mr. Woodland and of 
Mr. McKinney. It almost seemed as if the en- 
tire city rose to perform over them the last 
duties which were left to be performed. 

" At present all is quiet in our midst; and we 
trust that until there is need of further excite- 
ment, our fellow citizens will do what lies in 
their power to allay the turmoil which has jos- 
tled our city from its course of prosperity. The 
remote evils resulting from such an excitement 
as we have passed through are much to be de- 
plored, and should be avoided if it is within the 
range of possibility. The utter stagnation of all 
business, the cessation of works of public im- 
provement, the stop placed upon private works 
of enterprise, the forgetfulness of the thousand 
and one subjects which should demand the im- 

mediate attention of the public, — these all call 
upon us to allay the excitement no longer called 
for, and to resume our former condition of 

The death of Woodland was tlie result of an 
exposure that was prompted by one of the no- 
blest impulses of the human heart. He was 
walking up the street, and near the corner of 
Fourth and J, in company with a friend, when the 
Squatters ranged themselves diagonally across 
Fourth and J, with their guns presented toward 
the approaching mayor and his party. The 
moment he saw the menacing attitude of these 
men he exclaimed to his friend, "Oh! it's too 

bad for these men to take such a stand, for tl: 


will certainly be shot down; I will go up and 
advise them." In an attempt to execute this 
intention he went forward a couple of steps when 
he received a ball that killed him almost in- 

After Mayor Biglow had been disabled by 
his wounds received on the 14th, Demas Strong, 
now of New York City, became tlie acting 
mayor for the balance of the term. 

After the riot, Squatterism seetueJ for a time 
totally dead so far as concerned city property. 

A prominent citizen who lived here at the 
time of the riot furnishes the following ac- 
count of the death of Sheriff McKinney: 

"At the conclusion of the funeral ceremonies 
of Woodland, the sun hung low and red in the 
haze of the western horizon, and as the people 
were returning in irregular masses to the city, 
a squad of about forty mounted men, led by 
Sheriff* McKinney, were observed to tile out 
upon the plain, at a leisurely pace, in a north- 
easterly direction toward Brighton. To those 
who had the curiosity to inquire, it was whis- 
pered that the sheriff had intelligence of a 
meeting, in secret conclave that evening, of the 
band of Squatters who had been engaged in the 
fight the day before, in which Woodland had 
cost his life. 

"As the sheriff hoped to surprise his enemy, 
he proceeded slowly so as to time his arrival at 
the scene of action after dark. He reached the 


< Pavilion,' a large house of public resort on the 
main road about a mile short of the house 
where he supposed the party he sought would 
be congregated, and there rested to consult 
upon a plan of action and gain further intelli- 
gence. The sequel shows that his information 
was of a very uncertain sort. About a mile 
beyond the Pavilion was a small roadside inn, 
kept by one who was familiarly known as 'old 
man Allen,' and who was supposed to be one of 
the armed band, and this place was thought to 
be the rendezvous of the scattered Squatter 

" Among the sheriff's party was David Mc- 
Dowell, who had a trading post at McDowell 
Hill, a short distance above Mormon Island, 
and who was a frequent traveler on the road, 
and knew Allen and his house. McDowell 
volunteered to go up the road, make an appar- 
ently casual call at Allen's, reconnoitre the po- 
sition, and return in as short a time as possible. 
It was so arranged, and- it was understood that 
the sheriff should not leave the Pavilion until 
McDowell returned. The latter, taking with 
him Country McCloskey — at that time a well- 
known e.K-hero of the prize ring, but yet little per- 
sonally known in Sacramento — proceeded upon 
what his nervous companions thought a perilous 
undertaking. McDowell, however, had no fears; 
and if the agreement upon which he relied — 
that the sheriff should await his return — had 
been observed, the catastrophe which followed 
would have been avoided. McDowell and his 
companion tied their horses at Allen's door and 
entered the little bar-room of the house. They 
found Allen and two or three strangers there, 
bnt saw nothing unusual. A few guns stood in 
a corner. The strangers appeared like innocent 
travelers. A friendly conversation ensued, as 
well as a couple of drinks at the bar. The sub- 
ject of the Sacramento riot was not touched by 
either party. McDowell learned that Allen's 
wife was lying very ill of typhoid fever in an 
adjoining room. AVishing not to appear in too 
much haste nor to e.xcite Allen's suspicion as 
to the object of their call, the visitors, after 

some delay, were on the point of departing 
when the alert ear of McDowell caught the 
sound of rapidly approaching horses, and di- 
vined the truth. The impetuous and impa- 
tient young sheriff was thundering up the 
road. The minutes of McDowell's absence had 
seemed like hours, and he feared for the safety 
of his friend. McDowell and his companion 
hastened to their horses; and as the former was 
swinging into his saddle, and before his seat 
was secured, the sheriff, with five or six of 
his party (the others remaining behind at 
the Pavilion), came upon him in the dark, and 
with a cloud of dust which rendered every- 
thing invisible, with such sudden force as to 
overthrow him and his steed. It was but the 
work of an instant for the sheriff to dismount, 
announce himself at the door, and demand en- 
trance. At the same moment the lights in the 
bar-room were e.xtinguished, and Allen opened 
the door and discharged the contents of a rifle 
full in the bosom of the sheriff. Allen and 
others in the house continued firing, and several 
of the sherift''s party rushed in and fought an 
unknown enemy in the dark. 

"The result was terrible. McKinney was 
instantly killed ; another of the party was shot 
through the arm and fainted from loss of blood. 
Two men were killed in the bar-room; Allen 
was severely wounded and escaped in the dark- 
ness; Mrs. Allen died before morning. It is 
quite certain this lady's death was not caused 
or hastened by the sad events with which her 
last hours were attended; but it could not fail, 
under such circumstances, to be counted in the 
catalogue of that night's fearful tragedy. Dr. 
Wake Brierly, one of the sheriff's party, saw 
the patient as soon as lights were restored, and 
found her wholly unconscious and in the last 
hopeless condition of typhoid fever. 

"Thus perished the first executive officer of 
Sacramento County, in attempting to execute 
warrants placed in his hands for the arrest of 
Allen and others, charged with the violation of 
the law. He was only twenty-one years of 
age, and of quite youthful appearance. His 

i/isrour OF saorambnto county. 

ardor to discharge promptly his duty led liiin 
into an erior of judgment — an error into which 
the same causes might have led a cooler and 
more experienced man, and which was the im- 
mediate cause of a iatal issue. Tlie town had 
been terrorized by tlie 0]ien defiance of the 
Squatters, und the young sheriff probably felt 
tliat any over-cautions conduct, or any apparent 
reluctance on liis part, might be taken by the 
public as an indication of a want of courage. 

"Allen made his way to • Ilangtown,' as 
Placerville was then known, and there, among 
the miners, related the story of his wrongs 
witli such effect that it was feared, both in Sac- 
ramento and San Francisco, that there was 
danger that he would appear at the head of a 
sufficient force and take vengeance upon the 
people of Sacramento. The Squatters were en- 
couraged, and it was thought they were secretly 
organizing and expecting aid from the miners, 
whom the excited Sacramentans imagined would 
be led by Allen against them. The wildest rumors 
prevailed. The people armed and formed a mil- 
itary guard. The city of San Francisco sent 
Mayor Geary with two military companies, one 
in command of Captain W. D. M. Howard, and 
the other in the command of Captain McCor- 
niick, to aid in the defense of the city." 

Ben McCuIloch, the successor to the murdered 
McKinney, in the office of the sheriffalty, after- 
ward became a man of considerable note. He 
was born in Eutherford County, Tennessee, in 
1814; as he grew to manhood he evinced a great 
fondness for hunting and adventure, and desired 
to accompany exploring and trapping expedi- 
tions to the mountainous regions of the West; 
but, failing to find such an opportunity, he went 
with David Crockett to Texas, to take part in the 
Revolution. Sickness prevented him from par- 
ticipation in the earlier engagements, but in 
1836 he joined the Texan Army under General 
Sam Houston, and was assigned to the artillery. 
He served gallantly at the battle of San Ja- 
cinto, and afterward was employed on the front- 
ier, surveying and locating lands in Texas. 
Upon the breaking out of the Mexican War, he 

raised a company of Texan " Rangers," which 
was accepted by General Taylor, won great honor 
at the battles of Monterey and Buena Vista, 
and rendered gallant service in the taking of 
the city of Mexico. He was appointed United 
States Marshal of Texas by President Pierce. 
In 1857 he was appointed, in conjunction witli 
ex-Governor Powell, a commissioner to Utah. 
At the time of the inauguration of President 
Lincoln, he was in Washington, it was believed, 
making arrangements, at the head of a body of 
secessionists, to take possession of the city; but, 
owing to the precautions of General Scott, the 
idea was abandoned. He was subsequently 
made Brigadier-General in the Confederate 
Army and assigned the command of the Arkan- 
sas forces. In June, 1861, he issued a procla- 
mation to the people of that State to assemble 
at Fayetteville to defend the State against inva- 
sion from Missouri. He commanded at the bat- 
tle of Wilson's Creek, where General Nathaniel 
Lyon was killed; and, it was said, having some 
misunderstanding with General Sterling Price, 
he surrendered the command to him. At the 
battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, he led a corps 
of troops from that State and from Louisiana 
and Texas, and fell on the second day of the en- 
gagement, March 7, 1862. 

Henry A. Caulfield was born in Ireland, in 
1827, and early in life came to the United 
States. In 1844: he was a member of the Em- 
met Guards at Albany, New York, and during 
the anti-rent troubles in that State his company 
was ordered to Columbia County to assist the 
authorities in suppressing the anti-renters, who 
had committed various outrages, killing an un- 
der-sheriff, tarring and feathering several other 
officers, etc. 

He arrived in California in 1849, via Cape 
Horn, and settled in Sacramento, where for a 
time he was a carpenter and joiner, and was act- 
ive in Democratic politics. Fleeing with others 
at the time of the riot just described, he was 
arrested by John G. Cleal somewhere between 
this city and Brighton and brought back to the 
city strapped on the back of a horse and lodged 


on boarJ the prison brig. Tiie next Grand Jury 
indicted liini and several others for murder and 
conspiracy to murder. A nolle prosequi was 
subsequently entered, as Governor McDougal 
had declared that he would pardon them if con- 
victed. After his release Caulfield was active in 
the Squatter troubles that followed. 

About 1851 he settled on a farm on the mound 
north of the American River, about half a mile 
above its mouth, and lived there until the flood 
of 1852, when he sold the place to Patrick IJan- 
non, and removed to a ranch south of the II 
street levee, out of which arose most of his 
subsequent troubles. 

June 19, 1851, he had a disagreement with 
George Wilson, a justice of the peace and an 
associate judge of the Court of Sessions. Wil- 
son had made some oifensive remark about an 
attorney, and on the day mentioned the attorney 
came into the court-room and demanded that 
Wilson retract, which the latter declined to do. 
The attorney struck at him and the next instant 
received a stab from the sword which Wilson drew 
from his cane. Caulfield entjred the room at 
this juncture and with his revolver fired several 
sliots at Wilson, without hitting him. Wilson 
then seized Caulfield around the neck, with his 
head in front of him, presented a large revol- 
ver at his head, and was on the point of sending 
a bullet through his brain when R. P. Jacobs, 
a policeman, rushed in and saved Caulfield's lii'e. 

At another time Caulfield had a difiiculty 
with Thomas O. Shelby over land matters; and 
a? he was coming out of the hall of Reed's 
building at Third and J streets, Shelby shot 
him several times, wounding him dangerously; 
half of the bullets were not extracted. On that 
occasion Caulfield was unarmed, and the assault 

was unprovoked on his part. While he was 
lying at death's door a priest called to see him, 
saying, " I am told you have been a very bad 
man." "It's a doni lie, and you are no doi;tor; 
git out of here! " 

About 1856, Caulfield had a difficulty with a 
uuxn named Miller, about i)olitics and some 
mules. Being in Miller's house, on the second 
floor, at night he attempted to strike Miller 
with a flat-iron during a quarrel, when Miller 
seized a heavy cane and broke it in pieces by 
repeated blows upon Caulfield's head, Caul- 
field was forced partly out of the window, when 
Mrs. Miller interfered, and Miller let go, and 
Caulfield fell to the ground. Miller sent word 
to the coroner that he had killed Caulfield. The 
sherift" and coroner went out with the dead-wagon 
for the remains, which, however, they found 
had recovered sufficiently to walk to the county 

On another occasion, about 1856, he was 
stabbed severely by Frank Nolan on Front street. 
So severely was he hurt this time that for several 
days he breathed through the knife holes in his 
back! During the encounter, Caulfield caught 
the blade of the knife and wrenched the instru- 
ment from Nolan's grasp, which of course cut 
his hand fearfully. August 15, 1878, Caulfield 
shot William G. Englisli on a disputed lot south 
of R street, causing his death two days later. 
For this he was sent to State prison for six years. 

Besides the foregoing, Caulfield was involved 
in many other ugly scrapes, nearly killing some 
one or being killed himself; but finally, on July 
2, 1888, as the evening train from Folsom was 
approaching Fourth street, it struck him with a 
death blow. It seems that he did not notice 
the " familiar alarm " 'of the whistle. 



fR. JOHN F. MORSE, in liis "History of 
Sacrainento," published in 1853, makes 
this allusion to what was probably the tirst 
election held in Sacramento District: "In the 
fall of 1848 an election was held at the fort 
(Sutter's) for first and second alcaldes, and re- 
sulted in tiie selection of Frank Bates and John 
S. Fowler. Fowler resigned in the spring fol- 
lowing, and II. A. Schoolcraft was elected to 
fill the vacancy. In the spring of 1849, Bran- 
nan, Snyder, Slater, Ilensley, Iving, Cheever, 
McCarver, McDoiigall, Barton Lee, Slater, Br. 
Carpenter, Southard and Fowler were elected a 
Board of Commissioners to frame a code of laws 
for the district. I'ursiiant to the wish of this 
legislating committee, the people convened to- 
gether under a broad-spreading oak at, the foot 
of I street. The report, which was then otK- 
cially submitted and which was duly accepted by 
the sovereigns assembled, provided tlie following 
officers of a jurisdiction extending from the 
Coast Range to the Sierra Nevada, and through- 
out the length of the Sacramento Valley, to-wit: 
One alcalde and a sheriif. II. A. Schoolcraft 
was then elected alcalde and A'. M. Turner, 
sheriff. This constituted the judiciary of North- 
ern California up to the time that those changes 
took place in very rapid succession after the 
immigration of 1849 began to concentrate at 

In 1S71 a history of Sacramento was pub- 
lished in Crocker's Directory, written by D. J. 
Thomas, and we make the following extract 
from it, which in part relates to the same event 
that Morse alluded to: 

"The first attempt to establish a civil govern- 
ment under American ideas of government was 
made on April 30, 1849, when a mass meeting 
of the then residents of Sacramento City and 
other portions of Sacramento District was held 
at the Embarcadero to devise a means for the 
government of the city and district. At this 
meeting Henry A. Schoolcraft presided, Peter 
Slater was Vice-President and James King of 
William and E. J. Brooks, Secretaries. Samuel 
Brannan explained the object of the meeting, 
and it was resolved that a Legislature of eleven 
members should be elected, 'with full powers to 
enact laws for the government of the city and 
district.' It was also determined to hold the 
election forthwith, and Henry Bates, M. D., 
M. T. McClellan, Mark Stewart, Ed. II. Von 
Plister and Eugene F. Gillespie were appointed 
judges. The vote resulted in the election of 
John McDougall, Peter Slater, Barton Lee, John 
S. Fowler, j'. S. Robb, Wm. Pettit, Wm. M. 
Carpenter, M. D., Chas. G. Southard, M. M. 
McCarver, James King of William and Samuel 
Brannan, but upon the announcement of the re- 
sult Robl) declined to accept, and Henry Cheever 



was chosen to fill the vacancy. [Whether the 
list given by Morse or this one is correct we 
cannot decide.] The eleven were immediately 
sworn in, and some time afterward adopted a 
code that no laws were wanted and that all the 
officers necessary for ' the District of Sacra- 
mento, bounded on the north and west by the 
Sacramento River, on the east by the Sierra 
Nevadas, and on the south by the Cosiimnes 
Iliver, were one alcalde and one sheriff. They 
then submitted the code to the people for adop- 
tion or rejection, and asked them at the same 
time to vote for officers. The code was adopted. 

" Nothinu; further toward forming a local gov- 
ernment was attempted until after the proclama- 
tion of General Riley (the military Governor) 
was issued at Monterey on June 3. In fact 
nothing seemed nee 'ssary, if theft was, by com- 
mon consent, punished, as the Times says, ' by 
giving the offender thirty or forty rawhide lashes, 
and then ordering him ofl", not to return under 
penalty of death.' " 

General B. Riley, the military Governor of 
California, issued a proclamation for an election 
to be held August 1, 1849, to elect delegates to 
a general convention and for filling several nec- 
essary offices. On July 5, a meeting was held 
and a committee was appointed to organize the 
district into precincts, apportion the representa- 
tion, and nominate the candidates to be voted 
for. The committee consisted of P. B. Corn- 
wall, C. E. Pickett, Wm. M. Carpenter, Samuel 
Brannan, John McDougall, W. Blackburn, J. 
S. Robb, Samuel J. Hensley, Mark Stewart, M. 
M. McCarver, John S. Fowler and A. M. Winn. 
On the 14th the committee reported, recom- 
mending the places for polls, etc. At the elec- 
tion that followed the vote was as follows: For 
delegates to the Constitutional Convention: 
Jacob R. Snyder, 469; John A. Sutter, 468; 
John Bidwell, 462; W. E. Shannon, 458; L. 
W. Hastings, 450; W. S. Sherwood, 446; M. 
M. McCarver, 290; John S. B^owler, 289; John 
McDougall, 281; Chas. E. Pickett, 193; W. 
P,lackburn, 192; E. O. Crosby, 189; R. M. 
Jones, 179; W. Lacey, 123; James Queen, 130. 

For local offices — Wm. Stout, Henry E. Robin- 
son, P. B. Cornwall, Eugene F. Gillespie, T. L. 
Chapman, Berryman Jennings, John P. Rodg- 
ers, A. M. Winn and M. T. McClellan were 
elected a City Council without opposition, and 
by an average vote of 424. J as. S. Thomas was 
elected First Magistrate by 393 votes, against 
twenty-two for S. S. White, and live for J. S. 
Fowler. J. C. Zabriskie was elected Second 
Magistrate; H. A. Schoolcraft, Recorder; and 
D. B. Hanner, Sherifi". 

Under the call for the C-onstitutional Conven- 
tion, the district was entitled to but four dele- 
gates, and J. R. Snyder, W. E. Shannon, W. S. 
Sherwood and J. A. Sutter were the representa- 
tives, but afterward the representation was in- 
creased to fifteen, and in addition to the original 
four, the following were appointed: L. W. Hast- 
ings, John Bidwell, John 8. Fowler, M. M. Mc- 
Carver, John McDougall, E. O. Crosby, W. 
Blackburn, James Queen, R. M. Jones, W. Lacey 
and C. E. Pickett. 

In October the convention adjourned, and an 
election was called for Tuesday, November 18, 
1849, to vote on the constitution, for State offi- 
cers, and for representatives in the Legislature. 
At that election the vote of Sacramento District 
stood as follows: For the Constitution, 4,317; 
against it, 643. For Governor — P. II. Burnett, 
2,409; J. A. Sutter, 856; Thomas McDowell, 
87; W. S. Sherwood, 1,929; William M. Stew- 
art, 448. For State Senators — John Bidwell, 
3,474; Thomas J. Green, 2,516; Elisha O. 
Crosby, 2,610; Henry E. Robinson, 2,328; 
Murray Morrison, 2,171; Hardin Biglow, 1,407; 
Gilbert A. Grant, 1,687; Charles E. Pickett, 
905. The first four were elected. 

The county was formally organized when the 
Legislature passed " an act subdividing the State 
into counties and establishing the seats of jus- 
tice therein," February 18, 1850, and Section 
17 of it defined the boundaries of Sacramento 
County as follows: •' Beginning at a point ten 
miles due north of the mouth of the American 
River, and running thence in an easterly direc- 
tion to the junction of t!ie north and soutli forks 


of said river; thence up the middle of the prin 
cipal channel of the south fork to a point one 
mile above the head of Alonnon Island, so as to 
include said island in Sacramento County; thence 
in a southerly direction to a point on the Co- 
sumnes River eight miles above the house of 
William .Daylor; thence due south to Dry Creek; 
thence down the middle of said creek to its 
entrance into the Moquelumne Eiver, or into a 
large slough in the tule marsh; thence down 
the middle of said slough to its junction with 
the San Joaquin lliver; thence down the mid- 
dle of said river to the mouth of the Sacra- 
mento River, at the head of Suisun Bay; thence 
up the middle of the Sacramento to the mouth 
of Merritt's Slough; thence up the middle of 
said slough to its head; tlience up the middle 
of the Sacramento River to a point due west of 
the place of beginning, and tlience east to the 
place of beginning. The seat of justice shall 
be at Sacramento City. 

The first election law appointed tlie first 
Monday in October the day for holding the 
election for State oiiicers, and denominated that 
the general election. The first Monday in April 
was designated as the day for the election of 
county officers and was called the county elec- 
tion. The Legislature of 1851 repealed the 
clause relating to the county election and pro- 
vided that it should be held the same time with 
the State election, and the time for holding 
the general election was changed from the first 
Monday in October to the firs-t Wednesday in 
September, and it has since remained that way. 
The terms of the county officers commenced 
originally on the first Monday in May, 1850, but 
the Legislature of 1851 changed it so that the 
term commenced on the first Monday in Oc- 
tober following the election. In 1863 the 
Legislature changed the law again so that the 
official terms comtnenced on the first Monday 
in March following the election, and it remains 
so now. 

These were the first county officers, and they 
were elected April 1, 1850, to serve from April, 
1850, to April, 1852; County Judge, E. J. 

"Willis; SheriflP, Joseph McKinney; Clerk, Pres- 
ley Dunlap; Recorder, L. A. Birdsall; District 
Attorney, William C. Wallace; County Attor- 
ney, John H. McKune; Treasurer, Wm. Glas- 
kin; Assessor, David AV. Thorpe; Surveyor, J. 
G. Cleal; Coroner, P. F. Ewer. J. S. Thomas 
was elected District Judge by the Legislature 
of 1849-'50, and he resigned January 1, 1851. 
Tod Robinson, lately deceased, was appointed 
January 2, 1851, and served till the first part 
of August, when Ferris Forman, who was Sec- 
retary of State during the administration of 
John P. Weller, succeeded him on the 14th of 
August, 1851, and presided one month. On 
the 15th of September, 1851, Lewis Aldrich 
becanie District Judge. The sheriff, Joseph 
McKinney, was killed near Brighton on tlie 
evening of August 15, 1850, the day after the 
Squatter riot, and at a special election held the 
first Monday. in September, Ben McCullough 
was elected to fill the vacancy. The Legislature 
of 1851 abolished the office of county attorney, 
and assigned the duties of the office to the 
district attorney. In the meantime Wallace 
resigned, and Milton S. Latham, afterward Gov- 
ernor, succeeded to the office of district attor- 
ney, October 18, 1850. Wm. Glaskin resigned 
the office of treasurer August 22, 1850, and 
John W. Peyton was appointed to fill the va- 
cancy. Peyton resigned November. 29, 1850, 
and Charles 11. Swift was appointed treasurer 
and collector by the Court of Sessions, of whicli 
he was a member, to fill the vacancy. 

The court of criminal jurisdiction was termed 
the Court of Sessions, and it was composed of 
the county judge and two associates. These as- 
sociates were elected by a convention of justices 
of the peace, held the first Monday in October, 
in each year, except the first convention, which 
was held May 20, 1850, and then C. C. Sackett 
and Charles II. Swift were elected associates. 
This court filled vacancies in office in the county 
and attended to the financial affairs of the county 
in early times. When Swift was elected county 
treasurer, James Brown was elected associate in 
his stead, and assumed the duties of his office 


February 7, 1851. August 14, following, D. 
D. Bullock succeeded Brown. 

The following county officers were elected 
September 3, 1851, and served from October, 

1851, to October 5, 1853: County Judge, E. 
J. Willis; Sheriff, A. D. Patterson; Clerk, L. 
B. Harris; Recorder and Auditor, W. S. Long; 
District Attorney, Geo. H. Oartter; Treasurer, 
Cyrus Rowe; Assessor, "W. A. Selkirk; Sur- 
veyor, John G. Cleal; Coroner, S. J. May; Pub- 
lic Administrator, John Q. Brown; Associate 
Justices, George Wilson and James B. Gates. 

The Legislature of 1852 provided for a Board 
of Supervisors in the different counties to trans- 
act the financial business. On the 14th of June, 

1852, a special election was had, and John 
Noyes, Louis Z. Hagen, James S. Meredith, 
James Martin and E. M. Pitcher were elected. 
Meredith was elected chairman when the board 
organized. The last meeting of the Court of 
Sessions was held July 6, 1852. At the general 
election, held September, 1852, these members 
were elected : William McNulty, Luther Curtis, 
John A. Watson, H. H. Lewis and H. B. Wad- 
dilove. Watson was elected chairman, and the 
board did the county business till May 16, 1853, 
after which time the Court of Sessions assumed 
control of the civil affairs of the county. 

These county officers were elected September 
7, 1853, and served from October of that year 
to October, 1855: County Judge, John Heard; 
Sheriff, D. N. Hunt; Clerk, Abner C. Hunter; 
Recorder and Auditor, John L. Craig; District 
Attorney, James H. Hardy; Treasurer, G. Gris- 
wold; Assessor, H. J. Bidleman; Surveyor, W. 
L. DeWitt; Coroner, Ephriam Smith; Public 
Administrator, James B. Mitchel. 

In 1855 the Legislature passed another act 
relative to Boards of Supervisors, and as the Su- 
preme Court had decided that the constitution 
contemplated that the business concerns of the 
different counties should be managed by the 
boards, the Court of Sessions could not act, 
and the counties again elected Boards of Super- 
visors. The first election under the act of 
1885 was held A])ril 2, and the board then 

elected commenced its sessions early in May. 
J. L. Howard, L. P. Ormsby and F. S. Mum- 
ford constituted the board, and Howard was 
the chairman. In September, 1855, L. R. 
Beckley, Josiah Johnson and S. R. Caldwell 
were elected the hoard, and Joimsoii was chosen 

On the 5th of September, 1855, the following 
county officers were elected, and they served from 
October, 1855, to October 1, 1857 ; County Judge, 
John Heard; Sheriff, W. S.White; Clerk, C. H. 
Bradford ; Recorderand Auditor, John Q. Brown ; 
District Attorney, Frank Hereford; Treas- 
urer, David Maddux; Assessor, J. F. Turner; 
Surveyor,- E. A. Sherman; Coroner, R. Bell; 
Public Administrator, Gordon Backus; Super- 
intendent of Common Schools, F. W. Hatch. 
Hatch was the first school superintendent elected 
by the people. Previous to the time he went 
into office the county assessor performed the 
duties of that office. The Board of Supervisors 
of 1856 was composed of L. R. Beckley, A 
Spinks and Julius Wetzler, and Beckley was 
chairman. In 1857 the members were Jared 
Irwin, C. C. Harrington and Frank Hastings, 
and the latter was chairman. 

The following ounty officers were elected 
September 2, 1857, and served from October 
5, 1857, to October 5, 1859: County Judge, R. 
Robinson; Sheriff, W. S. Manlove; Clerk, J. B. 
Dayton; Recorder and Auditor, Jerome Madden; 
District Attorney, Robert F. Morrison; Treas- 
urer, Morgan Miller; Assessor, E. Black Ryan; 
Surveyor, John G. Cleal; Coroner, J. P. Counts; 
Public Administrator, L. R. Beckley; School 
Superintendent, N. Slater. The Legislature of 
1858 consolidated the government of the city and 
county and increased the Board of Supervisors 
five members, making the president of the board 
a separate office. In April a special election was 
held, when H. L. Nichols was elected Presi- 
dent, and Mark Hopkins, J. A. Carroll, S. C. 
Fogus, E. Stockton and W. K. Lindsey the new 
members. These, with the old members, met 
May 8, 1858. In September, 1858, at the general 
election, a board was elected consisting of the 



following: E. Granger, John Leavitt, Sylvester 
Marshall, H. T. Holmes, I. N. BaLcock, John 
B. Taylor, L. C. Goodman and W. K. Lindsey. 
The president was continued another year. Au- 
gust 4, 1859, B. H. Hereford was elected a mem- 
ber in place of Lindsey, resigned. These were 
the members of 1859: President, Wm. Shat- 
tuck; members, E. Granger, John Leavitt, K. 
L. Robertson, A. Henley, L N. Babcock, A. M. 
Green, L. C. Goodman and Larkin Lamb. S. 
Marshall served until October 11, when he was 
succeeded by Mr. Robertson. Thomas Letsoii 
was the Clerk, he being the first elected under 
the consolidation act. On the 12th of October, 
1859, Thomas Hunt was elected a nietnber, in 
place of Goodman, resigned. 

The following were the county officers that 
were elected September 7, 1859, and served from 
October, 1859, to October, 1861: County Judge, 
Robert Robinson; Sherilf, Sylvester Marshall; 
Clerk and Recorder, Jerome Madden; District 
Attorney, Cornelius Cole; Treasurer, C. L. Bird; 
Assessor, E. B. Ryan; Surveyor, J. G. Cleal; 
Coroner, D. Murray; Public Administrator, 
Jared Irwin; School Superintendent, F. W. 
Hatch; Clerk Board of Supervisors and Auditor, 
Thomas Letson. Len Harris was elected County 
Warden in 1861, but the office was abolished. 
The Board of Supervisors in 1860 was composed 
of E. Granger, Thomas Hausbrow, P. H. Russell, 

A. Henley, J. S. Woods, A. M. Green, S. 
Waterman and Larkin Lamb. The president, 
Shattuck, was continued. These were the mem- 
bers of the board in 1861: President, William 
Shattuck; E. Granger, Thomas Hansbrow, P. H. 
Russell, S. Hite, J. S. AVoods, Jacob Dickerson, 
S. Waterman, and John Hall. 

On the 4:th of September, 1861, an election 
was held for county officers, and the following 
were elected, who served from October 7, 1861, 
to March 7, 1864: County Judge, Robert C. 
Clark; Sheriff, Benjamin N. Bugbey; Clerk and 
Recorder, Jared Irwin; District Attorney, W. 
W. Upton; Treasurer, C. L. Bird; Assessor, E. 

B. Kyan ; Surveyor, G. W. Colby ; Coroner, J. W. 
Reeves; Public Administrator, F. McComber; 

School Superintendent, F. W. Hatch; Clerk 
Board of Supervisors and Auditor, Josiah 
Howell. Bird absconded and James C. McDon- 
ough was appointed Treasurer by the Board 
of Supervisors. The Board of Supervisors in 
1862 was composed bi E. Granger, N. L. Drew, 
Thomas Ross, S. Hite, J. L. Graves, Jacob 
Dickerson, D. L. Williams and J. Hall. Shat- 
tuck continued to be President. In 1863 the 
Legislature divided the city and county govern- 
ments and reduced the Board of Supervisors for 
the county to five members. In the spring the 
new organization was effected, and the board 
was composed of the following: A. C. Bidwell, 
Thomas Ross, Joseph Hull, H. A. Thompson and 
Dwight Hollister — Ross, Chairman. 

At the same election (September 2, 1863), the 
following county officers were elected, and they 
served from March, 1864, to March, 1866: 
County Judge, R. C. Clark; Sherifl", James Mc- 
Clatchy; Clerk and Recorder, A. C. Bidwell; 
District Attorney, M. M. Estee; Treasurer, F. 
S. Lardner; Assessor, P. R. Beckley; Surveyor, 
G. W. Colby; Coroner, J. W. Reeves; Public 
Administrator, J. E. Miller; School Superin- 
tendent, Sparrow Smith; Clerk of Board of Su- 
pervisors and Auditor, Josiah Howell At the 
general election in September, 1863, the follow- 
ing were elected members of the Board of Su- 
pervisors: D. W. Clark, Thomas Ross, Joseph 
Hull, II. A. Thompson and Dwight Hollister. 
Thompson failed to serve, and on the 16th of 
November Jesse Couch was elected in his place. 
These were elected for a term of two years, and 
they took their seats the first Monday in Octo- 
ber, 1863. 

An election was held September 6, 1865. The 
following were elected to fill the various county 
offices, and they served from March 5, 1866, to 
March, 1868: County Judge, Robert C. Clark ; 
Sheriff, James Lansing; Clerk and Recorder, E. 
D. Shirland; District Attorney, James C. Goods; 
Treasurer, Ezra Woolson; Assessor, E. Black 
Ryan; Surveyor, A. G. Winn; Coroner, Joseph 
A. Conboie; Public Administrator, Findley R. 
Dray; School Superintendent, F. W. Hatch; 


Clerk of Board of Supervisors and Auditor, "W. 
A. Anderson; members of the Board of Super- 
visors, D. W. Clark, M. McMaiius, Joseph 
Hull, Jesse Couch, William Beckman — Hull, 

On the 4th of September, 1867, an election 
was held, and the following were elected to the 
county offices, and they served from March, 1868, 
to March, 1870: Sheriff, Edward F. White 
(contested by Hugh M. Larue); Clerk, W. B. C. 
Brown; District Attorney, James C. Goods; 
Treasurer, A. Spinks; Assessor, F. li. Dray; 
Surveyor, John Doherty; Coroner, J. P. Counts; 
Public Administrator, William Shattuck; School 
Superintendent, Augustus Trafton; Clerk Board 
of Supervisors and ex-officio Auditor, W. A. 
McWilliams; Board of Supervisors, John Do- 
raingos, C. H. Ross, Benjamin Bailey, James S. 
Meredith, William Beckman. Meredith was 
President. These members were elected for two 
years, and under the provisions of the statute 
in force at the time of their election their term 
of office would expire in October, 1869, but the 
Legislature of 1867-'68 extended the term of 
the members from the Third, Fourth and Fifth 
districts — Bailey, Meredith, Beckman — to 1871, 
making the term four years. 

An election was held September 1, 1869, and 
the following were elected to the county offices, 
and served from March, 1870, to March, 1872: 
Sheriff, J. S. Wood; Clerk, W. B. C. Brown; 
Treasurer, Alfred Spinks; Recorder and ex- 
officio Auditor, W. A. McWilliams; Assessor, 
F. R. Dray; District Attornej', John Iv. Alex- 
ander; Surveyor, A. C Winn; Coroner, J. P. 
Counts; School Superintendent, Augustus Traf- 
ton; Public Administrator, William Shattuck; 
Board of Supervisors, John Domingos, James 
H. Groth, J^eujamin Bailey, James S. Meredith 
and William Beckman. 

At the general election held September 6, 
1871, the following were elected to fill the 
Cuunty offices from March, 1872, till March, 
1874: Sheriff, Mike Bryte; Clerk, Lauren Up- 
son; Treasurer, John Bellmer; Recorder and 
Auditor, Jesse A. Stewart; .\ssessor, F. R. Dray; 

District Attorney, Henry Starr; Surveyor, John 
Prentice; Coronei-, J.. W. Wilson; School Su- 
perintendent, S. H. Jackman; Public Adminis- 
trator, N. G. Feldheim; Board of Supervisors, 
John Domingos, James H. Groth, James S. 
Meredith, S. B. Moore and J. V. Sims. Sep- 
tember 3, 1873, there were elected Daniel 
Brown, J. J. Bauer, L. Elkus and H. O. Sey- 

At the same election the following were 
elected county officers: Sheriff", Hugh M. La 
Rue; Collector of Taxes, Joseph W. Houston; 
Clerk, Ham. C. Harrison; Treasurer, John Bell- 
mer; District Attorney, Charles T. Jones; Re- 
corder, Matthew darken; Auditor, Jesse A. 
Stewart; Public Administrator, H. S. Beals; 
Superintendent of Schools, G. R. Kelly; Sur- 
veyor, Ed. Murray; Coroner, J. P. Counts; Com- 
missioner of Highways, S. D. Johnson. The 
Supervisors serving in 1874-'75 were, James S. 
Meredith, S. B. Moore, Daniel Brown, J. V. 
Sims, H. O. Seymour, L. Elkus, J. A. Mason. 

The September election of 1875 resulted in 
the following list: Sheriff, M. M. Drew; Clerk, 
A. A. Wood; District Attorney, C. T. Jones; 
Assessor, James Lansing; Treasurer, D. E. 
Callahan; Auditor, R. C. Lowell; Public Ad- 
ministrator, G. F. Brenner; Surveyor, A. G. 
Winn; Coroner, R. K. Wick; Superintendent 
of Schools, F. L. Landes; Supervisors, S. B. 
Moore, Edward Christy, P. R. Beckley; those 
holding over were, L. Elkus, Daniel Brown, H. 
O. Seymour, J. A. Mason. A. S. Hopkins and 
F. R. Dray served to till the vacancies caused 
by the deaths of Seymour and Mason. 

In September, 1877, the officers elected were: 
Sheriff, M. M. Drew; Clerk, Thomas H. Berkey; 
Treasurer, D. E. Callahan; Auditor, William 
E. Gerber; District Attorney, George A. Blanch- 
ard; Superintendent of Schools, F. L. Landes; 
Public Administrator, Troy Dye; Surveyor, 
John Prentice; Coroner, A. J. Vermilya. The 
Supervisors serving during the year, October, 
1877, to October, 1878, were, S. B. Moore, J. 
W. Wilson, J. J. Bauer, P. R. Beckley, Samuel 
Blair, Daniel Brown, Edward Christy. In 


1878-'79 Benjamin Bailey served in the place 
of Mr. Moore. 

The county officers elected in September, 1879, 
were: Sheriff, Adolph Heilbron; Clerk, Thomas 
II. Berkley; Assessor, Joseph W. Houston; 
Auditor, William E. Gerber; Treasurer, Ezra 
Woolson; Public Administrator, George F. 
Bronner; District Attorney, Henry L. Buckley; 
Superintendent of Schools, Charles E. Bishop; 
Coroner, A. J. Vermilya; Surveyor, James C. 
Pearson; Supervisors, 1879-'80, J. W. Wil- 
son, Benjamin Bailey, P. R. Beckley, Edward 
Christy, S. W. Butler, Samuel Blair and John 
F. D re man. 

By an act of the Legislature of 1882, the 
time of election was changed to November, 
making the day correspond with that for the 
election of President of the United States. In 
November of that year, the following were 
chosen as county officers: Sheriff, A. H. Estill; 
Clerk, C. M. Coglan; Assessor, John T.Grifiitts; 
Treasurer, A. S. Greenlaw; District Attorney, 
John T. Carey; Auditor and Recorder, W. E. 
Gerber; Public Administrator, George F. Bron- 
ner; Coroner, J. Frank Clark; Surveyor, J. C. 
Pierson; Supervisors, J. F. Dreraan, J. W. 
Wilson, Samuel Blair, S. W. Butler, Edward 
Christy, P. R. Beckley, Benjaman Bailey. 

At the election held November 4, 1884, the 

following county officers were elected: Sheriff, 
J. W. Wilson; Clerk, W. B. Hamilton; Audi- 
tor and Recorder, J. Henry Miller; District At- 
torney, Henry L. Buckley; Treasurer, George 
E. Kuchler; Public Administrator, F. H. Rus- 
sel; Coroner, J. Frank Clark; Surveyor, J. C. 
Pierson; Supervisors, B. U. Steinman, George 
O. Bates, George C. McMuUen, S. J. Jackson, 
L. H. Fassett. 

November 2, 1886, the following were elected : 
Clerk, W. B. Hamilton; Sheriff, M. M. Drew; 
Assessor, A. L. Frost; Treasurer, John L. Hun- 
toon; District Attorney, Elwood Bruner; Audi- 
tor and Recorder, J. H. Miller; Superintendent 
of Schools, B. F. Howard; Public Administra- 
tor, S. B. Smith; Coroner, J. Frank Clark; Sur- 
veyor, J. C. Pierson; Supervisors, H. C. Ross 
and F. F. Tebbets. During the year. Miller 
resigned as Auditor and Recorder, and Frank 
T. Johnson was elected to succeed him. 

At the election held November 6, 1888, the 
following were chosen: Sheriff, George C. Mc- 
MuUen; Clerk, W. B. Hamilton; Auditor and 
Recorder, Frank T. Johnson ; District Attorney, 
Elwood Bruner; Treasurer, John L. Huntoon; 
Public Administrator, G. W. Harlow; Coroner, 
J. Frank Clark; Surveyor, J. C. Boyd; Super- 
visors, Andrew Black, George O. Bates, Erskine 
Greer. Ross and Tebbets held over. 



■E PRESENT below a list of the per- 
sons who have represented Sacramento 
County in the Legislature since the 
organization of the State Government, together 
with remarks as to their present residence, etc. 
At the first session the members represented 
Sacramento District, which included the entire 
northern portion of the State — there being at 
that time no county subdivisions. The consti- 
tution of 1849 provided tliat until the Legisla- 
ture should divide the State into counties, and 
into senatorial and assembly districts, the Dis- 
trict of Sacramento should be entitled to four 
senators and nine asseTublymen. It appears 
from the following list that the district had 
twelve assemblymen. This is accounted for by 
the fact that Cornwall resigned January 28, 
1850, and was succeeded on March 4 by Deal; 
White resigned February 9, 1850, and was suc- 
ceeded on March 15 by Henley, and Dicken- 
son's seat was declared vacant December 18, 
1849, and Bigler was seated in his place. The 
first Legislature, on April 4, 1850, made Sacra- 
mento County the Twelfth Senatorial District, 
and provided that it should be represented by 
one senator and three assemblymen. On May 
1, 1851, the county was constituted the Eleventh 
Senatorial District, to be represented by two 
senators and four assemblymen. On May 18, 
1861, in the reapportionment the county was 
made the Sixteenth Senatorial District, to be 
represented by two senators and five assembly- 

men. Tiiis apportionment was retained in the 
Political Code which was adopted March 2, 1872. 
On May 16, 1874, the county was made the 
Eighteenth Senatorial District, to be represented 
by two senators and three assemblymen. On 
March 8, 1883, in the present apportionment 
Sacramento County was constituted tiie Thir- 
teenth Senatorial District, to be represented by 
one senator; and by the act of March 13, 1883, 
the First and Third wards of the city were 
constituted the Eighteenth Assembly District; 
the Second 'and Fourth wards the Nineteenth 
District, and the balance of the county the 
Twentieth District, each of which is entitled to 
one assemblyman. The list is as follows: 


1849-'50— John Bidwell, Elisha O. Crosby, 
Thomas J. Green and Henry E. Robinson. Bid- 
well is one of the very earliest pioneers who 
came to this State, having arrived here in 1841. 
He came by the overland route, and the journey 
occupied six months. He had charge of Forts 
Bodega and Ross, and also of General Sutter's 
Feather River possessions. During the war 
with Mexico he entered the army and rose to 
the rank of Major. He was the first man to 
find gold on the Feather River, in 1848. He 
was elected from Sacramento District to the first 
Constitutional Convention, but did not serve; 
and was a delegate to the Charleston (Demo- 
cratic) National Convention in 1860. He was 


elected to Congress from tlie old Third District 
JMovember 8, 1864. He ran in the Republican 
Convention for the nomination for Governor in 
1867, but was defeated bj George C. Gorham, 
who was beaten at the election by Henry H. 
Haight. In 1875 Bid well was nominated for 
Governor on the Independent ticket, but was 
defeated by William Irwin, the Democratic 
nominee. General Bidwell now lives at Chico, 
where he is extensively engaged in agriculture. 
Crosby arrived in California in December, 1848. 
He was a member of the first Constitutional 
Convention, and has lived at Alameda for many 
years, where he now serves as justice of the 
peace. Green was elected a Major-General by 
the Legislature April 11, 1850. He left here 
in early days, and died in Warren County, North 
Carolina, December 13, 1863. Robinson was a 
lawyer by education, but followed merchandis- 
ing. He arrived in San Francisco in March, 
1849, in the California, the first steamer that 
ever entered that port. In his will he left some 
$40,000 to be used by the Board of Supervisors 
of San Francisco for the benefit of the poor of 
that city. He was a member of the first coun- 
cil of this city, and an early postmaster. For 
many years he resided in Alameda County, where 
he amassed a large fortune. He died in Nor- 
walk, Connecticut, January 9, 1880. 

1851— Henry E. Robinson. 

1852 — Henry E. Robinson and James II. 
Ralston. Ralston was for many years a leading 
lawyer in tiiis city. Ho went to Washoe at the 
breaking out of the mining excitement there, 
and afterward settled at Austin. When ram- 
bling over the county in search of mineral ledges 
in May, 1864, he lost his way, and after wander- 
ing many days and nights, succumbed to starva- 
tion. His body was discovered and buried by 
Indians, but was afterward disinterred and buried 
at Austin. 

1853 — James H. Ralston and A. P. Catlin. 
A biography of Judge Catlin appears in another 
department of this work. 

1854— A. P. Catlin and Gilbert W. Colby. 
Colby was a pioneer, and in early days ran a 

ferry across the Upper Sacramento at Colby's 
Landing. He was county surveyor liere from 
1862 to 1866. He lived at Nord for many 
years, and then located at Martinez, and becaine 
interested in banking. He died at San Fran- 
cisco, August 20, 1881. 

1855— Gilbert W. Colby and A. S. Gove. 
The latter, a merchant, returned to Vermont, 
and died there many years ago. He was a 
member of the City Council when he was elected 
to the Senate. 

1856— A. S. Gove and W. I. Ferguson. Fer- 
guson, a native of Illinois, was shot in a duel 
with George Pen Johnston, and died September 
14, 1858, at San Francisco, from the effects of 
his wound. He was a lawyer of ability, and an 
effective and popular speaker. He was nick- 
named "Ipse Doodle." He was a man of 
unusual courage, and it is said that when he 
received the wound that caused his death, he 
exclaimed, "I am a gone community," and fell. 
His remains are interred in the State plat of our 
city cemetery. George Pen Johnston died at 
San Francisco, March 4, 1884. 

1857 — W. I. Ferguson and Josiah Johnson. 
Johnson was at one time a supervisor, and sub- 
sequently city trustee. He died in this city, 
December 10, 1888. 

1858 — W. I. Ferguson and Josiah Johnson. 

1859— J. M. McDonald and Dr. Johnson 
Price. McDonald removed to San Francisco 
years ago, and is now one of the prominent 
capitalists and mining men of that city. I'rice, 
who was elected at a special election to fill the 
Ferguson vacancy, was a Kentuckian. He had 
been a member of the convention to revise the 
constitution of his native State, and an officer 
during the Mexican war. He came to this 
State in 1849, and practiced medicine in this 
city. On January 10, 1860, he was appointed 
Secretary of State by Governor Latham, and 
held that office until the expiration of the terra 
of Governor Downey. He afterward was a 
stock-broker in San Francisco, and died there of 
consumption on February 8, 1868. 

1860— J. M. McDonald and Robert C. Clark. 


Judge Clark was a son of James Clark, an early 
Congressman, Snpre'ine Judge and Governor of 
Kentucky. He arrived in California in 1853, 
and settled here to practice law. lu 1861 he 
was elected count}' judge, and was continuously 
re-elected to that office until it was abolished by 
the new constitution. In 1879 he was elected 
a superior judge of the county, and filled that 
office until the time of his death — January 27, 

1861— R. C. Clark and E. H. Heacock. The 
latter practiced law here for several years. He 
was city attorney from 1863 to 1867. He re- 
moved to Santa Cruz and was for many years 
county judge tiiere. He then located in Santa 
Barbara County, and on January 15, 1880, was 
appointed superior judge of that county by 
Governor Perkins, to succeed Eugene Faucett, 
deceased, who will be recollected as the judge 
who tried Sprague for the killing of More. 
Heacock at present represents the counties of 
San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara and Ventura in 
the State Senate. 

1862— E. H. Heacock and Dr. A. B. Nixon. 
The latter has practiced medicine in this city 
many years, and is now in charge of the Rail- 
road Hospital. He was among the first in this 
State who espoused the principles of the Re- 
publican party. Latterly the Doctor has been 
prominently identified with the Prohibition 
movement, and in the spring of 1884 ran 
against J. Q. Brown for mayor on the Prohibi- 
tion ticket. He also ran as a St. John elector 
in 1884. 

1863— Dr. A. B. Nixon and Newton Booth. 
A sketch of the latter will be found in the bio- 
graphical department of this volume. 

1863-'64— J. E. Benton and E. H. Heacock. 
Benton was at that time a minister at Folsom. 
It is related of him that on one occasion in 
Sacramento he was so shocked by some irrever- 
ent remark he overheard a young rough make, 
that he gave him a reprimand. The young 
man, after hearing the reproof, asked iiim 
rather pointedly who he was, when Benton re- 
plied, " 1 am a follower of the meuk and lowly 

Jesus." "Well," was the rejoinder, "if I was 
the meek and lowly, and a fellow looking like 
you was following me, I would hit him in the 
nose." Benton built the first church that was 
erected in Folsom. He was afterward post- 
master of Oakland, and died there, February 
18, 1888. 

1865-'66— J. E. Benton and E. II. Heacock. 

1867-'68— E. H. Heacock and N. Greene 
Curtis. Judge Curtis arrived in California in 
May, 1850, and was recorder or police judge of 
this city from 1853 to 1855. He has practiced 
law among us since the early days, and the 
reputation he has acquired as a criminal lawyer 
is second to that of no other practitioner in the 
State. Soon after his arrival in Sacramento he 
was appointed depnty postmaster, and shortly 
afterward his principal, Jonathan Tittle, went 
East on business, leaving Curtis in charge of 
the office. While Tittle was absent, Richard 
Eads came out with a notification that he had 
been appointed to that office. Curtis refused 
to give it up until Eads presented his commis- 
sion and filed his bond, and he retained the 
office until those necessary formalities were ar- 
ranged — some seven months. When Eads came 
in he retained Curtis until the latter was elected 
recorder. The Judge is a prominent Mason, 
and, although a Democrat, has been elected in 
this Republican county to the Legislature every 
time his party has been fortunate enough to in- 
duce him to run. 

1869-'70 — N. Greene Curtis and A. Comte, 
Jr. The latter is now a lawyer in Sau Fran- 
cisco, but graduated from the public schools of 
Sacramento and from Harvard College, and was 
admitted to the bar from our law offices. 

1871-'72 — A. Comte, Jr., and James A. 
Duffy. The latter resided in San Francisco for 
several years. For a long time he was chief 
clerk of the old California Steam Navigation 
Company here, and for a time was clerk in the 
office of the Secretary of State under Melone. 
He died in Lake County, in September, 1889. 

1873-'74— James A. Duffy and Henry Edger- 
ton. The latter is a native of Vermont, and a 


distingiiislied lawyer. He served for several 
terms as district attorney of Napa County, and 
as such conducted the prosecution of Edward 
McGowan for his connection with the killing of 
James King of William, the editor of the San 
Francisco Bulletin, out of which grew the 
vigilance committee of 1856. He was Senator 
from Napa County in 1800 and 1861; ran un- 
successfully for Congress in 1861 and 1882; 
was a member of the late Constitutional Con- 
vention; was the only Republican presidential 
elector elected in 1880, and was re-elected to 
that office in 1884. He died in San Francisco, 
November 4, 1887. 

1875-'76 — Henry Edgerton and Creed liay- 
mond. The latter has a national reputation as 
a lawyer. He arrived in California from Vir- 
ginia in 1852, and practiced in Plumas County 
for many years, then removed to this city, and 
was appointed one of the commissioners to draft 
a code of laws for the State. He was a dele- 
gate to the last three National Republican Con- 
ventions. He now holds a prominent position 
in the law department of the Central Pacific 
Railroad Company at San Francisco. 

1877-'78 — Creed Haymond and N. Greene 

1880 — Grove L. Johnson and William John- 
ston. Find Johnson's sketch elsewhere by the 
index. Johnston is a wealthy fruit-grower at 
Richland. He served for a time as a member 
of the State Board of Equalization, by appoint- 
ment from Governor Perkins, and was a dele- 
gate to the National Republican Convention of 
1880. In 1886 he was a prominent candidate 
for the Republican nomination for Lieutenant- 

1881 — Grove L. Johnson and William John- 

1883 — Frederick Cox and Joseph Routier. 
Cox is one of the most prominent land-owners 
and stock-raisers in the State, and has been for 
years a bank director. A sketch of Routier ap- 
pears elsewhere in this volume. 

1885 — Frederick Cox and Joseph Routier. 

18S7— Findley R. Dray. A full biogi-apliy 

of this gentleman may be found elsewhere by 
the index. 

1889-Findley R. Dray. 

1849-'50— H. C. Cardwell, P. B. Cornwall, 
Rev. W. Grove Deal, W. B. Dickenson, T. J. 
Henley, E. W. McKinstry, John Bigler, George 
B. Tingley, Madison Walthal, Dr. Thomas J. 
White, John T. Hughes and John F. Williams. 
Cardwell died at Los Angeles, July 4, 1859. 
Cornwall arrived in Sacramento in August, 
1848, was a member of the first City Council, 
and has been for several years and is now a 
prominent business man in San Francisco. 
Cornwall, with Sam Brannan, foreseeing that a 
great city would very soon spring up at the 
head of navigation on the Sacramento River, 
came up from San Francisco to purchase a suit- 
able site. They perceived that Sntterville was 
the most eligible spot on which to locate the 
place, but were unable to effect satisfactory ar- 
rangements with L. W. Hastings, the owner of 
the land there. They had passed two launches 
loaded with supplies for the mines, on the way 
up the river, and after their failure to make 
terms with Hastings, returned and met them, 
and induced them to land their cargoes at the 
Sutter Embarcadero— Sacramento. From this 
little circumstance a trading post was estab- 
lished here, and before many months a city 
had grown up. They arranged with Sutter for 
an interest in the land, and had the city laid 
out. Had Hastings arranged with then:, there 
is no doubt that the city would have been 
located on his land. 

Henley, the father of Congressman Barclay 
Henley, was a native of Indiana, where he was 
born in 1807 In that State he served several 
terms in the Assembly, and was once speaker. 
He was a Congressman from Indiana for three 
terms, serving with President Lincoln. In 1840 
he arrived in California, and engaged in bank- 
ing at Sacramento. He was elected presidential 
elector in 1852; chosen postmaster of San Fran- 
cisco in 1853; appointed Superintendent of 


Indian Aftairs in 1854, and defeated for presi- 
dential elector in 1868. He died on his farm 
at Round Valley, Mendocino County, on May 
1, 1875. McKinstry is a native of Michigan, 
and arrived in California in March, 1819. He 
was elected judge of the Seventh District, No- 
vember 2, 1852; re-elected September 1, 1858; 
elected judge of the Twelfth District (San Fran- 
cisco) October 20, 1869, but resigned in the 
latter part of 1873, having been elected a jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court on October 15,1873. 
He was re-elected supreme justice on Septem- 
ber 3, 1879, and resigned October 1, 1888. 
Bigler was a Pennsylvanian, and a journalist 
and lawyer. He arrived in Sacramento in 

1849, and employed himself as an auctioneer 
and a wood-chopper. He was for a time speaker 
of the first Assembly; was elected Governor 
September 3, 1851; re-elected September 7, 
1853; defeated for that office in 1855; served 
as United States Minister to Chili from 1857 to 
1861; defeated for Congress in 1863; served as 
a delegate to the National Democratic Conven- 
tions of 1864 and 1868; appointed Assessor of 
Internal Revenue for this district in 1866, and 
edited the State Capital Reporter from January, 
1868, until his death, November 29, 1871. His 
remains repose in the city cemetery. Tingley 
was a native of Ohio. He was a brilliant law- 
yer. He removed to Indiana, and there served 
in the Legislature with Vice-President-elect T. 
A. Hendricks and T. J. Henley. He served as 
an officer in the Alexican war; came across the 
plains to California in 1849 with Henley; was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the United States 
Senate; was defeated for Congress in 1851. 
He died at San Francisco, August 3, 1862. His 
daughter, Mrs. Lawrence (Ridinghood), is the 
talented lady correspondent to newspapers. 
White was speaker until February 6, when he 
resigned the office, and was succeeded by Bigler 
"White was once a city councilman, and died at 
Los Angeles in December, 1861. Deal was a 
Methodist minister, and was elected to succeed 
Cornwall, who resigned, and qualified March 4, 

1850. He is now living in the East. 

1851— John Bigler, D. J. Lisle and Dr. Chas. 
Robinson. Lisle built the Twelfth street bridge 
across the American River, and died in San 
Francisco, I'ebruary 8, 1855. He was elected 
at a special election on December 21, 1850, to 
fill a vacancy caused by the death of L. Dun- 
lap, who had been elected, but who died of 
cholera before the meeting of the Legislature. 
Robinson came here from Massachusetts, and 
was prominently identified with the Squatter 
element in this city in 1850. He was second 
in command of the forces of that party in the 
riot which occurred in August of that year, was 
wounded in the fight, and was arrested upon the 
oath of several citizens that he had been seen 
to deliberately aim at the mayor, who was shot 
four times in the melee. He was in confine- 
ment on the prison brig when he was elected to 
the Assembly. On October 30, 1850, the Set- 
lers' and Miners'' Trihxme, a daily new'spaper, 
was stationed here as the organ of the Squatters, 
and Robinson was the editor. The paper lived 
but a month. In 1854 he, with S. C. Pomeroy, 
led one of the many parties of Free State im- 
migrants into Kansas to offset similar coloniza- 
tion of pro-slavery men, and was prominently 
connected with the Free State party in the sub- 
sequent slavery agitation in that then proposed 
State. He was elected Governor of the Terri- 
tory by the Free State men under the Topeka 
Constitution on January 15, 1856. The troubles 
which then followed are familiar to every one. 
On May 5 the Grand Jury indicted Robinson 
and the other officers who had been elected, for 
high treason. Several of the parties so charged 
fled the Territory, but Robinson was arrested 
and imprisoned for four months. While he 
was in jail his residence was burned in the sack- 
ing of Lawrence. After a State Constitution 
was formally adopted he was, on December 6, 
1859, elected the first Governor of the State. 
He is now a resident of and large real-estate 
owner of Leavenworth. 

1852— Gilbert W. Colby, Alpheus Kip, G. N. 
McConaha and Dr. Joseph C. Tucker. Colby was 
also Senator at one time. McConaha, a lawyer, 


was drowned by the upsetting of a boat at Seat- 
tle, Washington Territory, May 4, 1854. Kip 
lived on the farm near Brighton, where Siieriff 
McKinney was killed by Allen, its then owner, 
in 1850. The place is now occupied by John 
liooney. Kip left here years ago. Tucker has 
resided in San Francisco for a long time. 

1853— J. W. Harrison, J. Neely Johnson, 
Robert Robinson and J. H. Estep. Robinson 
was afterward county judge, and was for many 
years connected with the law department of the 
Central Pacific Raiload Company. Estep re- 
moved hence and died at Lakeport on January 
11, 1876. Harrison left here years ago. John- 
son was elected Governor on the Know-Nothing 
ticket in 1855. He afterward removed to Ne- 
vada, where he served as a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention and as supreme justice. 
He died from the effects of a sunstroke at Salt 
Lake City, August 31, 1872. He was elected 
city attorney of Sacramento, April 1, 1850. 

1854— J. M. McBrayer, Dr. F. A. Park, T. 
R. Davidson and J. W. Park. F. A. Park was 
a dentist, and at one time deputy sherif}'. He 
died in San Francisco, November 13, 1870. 
McBrayer, Davidson and J. W. Park went away 
years ago. 

1855 — John G. Brewton, Philip L. Edwards, 
H. B. Meredith and James R. Vineyard. Ed- 
wards was a native of Kentucky. He visited 
San Francisco with a party of traders in July, 
1836, and afterward returned to the East. lie 
was then admitted to the bar, elected to the 
Missouri Legislature in 1843, chosen a delegate 
to the "Whig National Convention in 1844, re- 
moved to Sacramento in 1850, defeated as the 
Whig candidate for Congress in 1852, and ran 
unsuccessfully for United States Senator in 
1855. He died here May 1, 1869. Vineyard 
was a member of the City Council at the time 
of his election to the Assembly. He died at 
Los Angeles, August 30, 1863. Meredith is a 
brother of ex-Supervisor James H. Meredith, of 
Folsom. He left that town about 1864, and 
now lives in New York, where he is encracred 
as a broker. He practiced law while he lived 

at Folsom. Brewton now lives in San Fran- 

1850 — George H. Cartter, George Cone, Geo. 
W. Leiliy and Dr. J. W. Pugh. Cone was for 
many years justice of the peace in Center Town- 
ship, and a few years ago was the unsuccessful 
nominee for county treasurer on the Democratic 
ticket. He died at Red Bluff, November 12, 
1883. He was a brother of ex-Railroad Com- 
missioner Cone. Leihy was a farmer and miner. 
He was murdered byLidians in Arizona on No- 
vember 18, 1866. Cartter was district attorney 
in 1852 and 1853, and left this section of the 
country and located in Oregon many years ago, 
where he died. Pugh is living, but moved from 
the county years ago. 

1857— A. P. Catlin, Robert C. Clark, L. W. 
Ferris and John H. McKune. Catlin and Clark 
were also Senators. A sketch at length is given 
of Judge McKune elsewhere. Ferris has not 
lived here for a long time. He was in business 
here in early days. 

1858— R. D. Ferguson, Charles S. Howell, 
James E. Sheridan and Moses Stout. Ferguson 
for many years conducted a horse market in this 
city. He went to Nevada and was a member 
of the Legislature of that State in 1868. He 
then went to Arizona, and we believe died there 
a few years ago. Sheridan was a farmer near 
Georgetown, and died on his farm October 12, 
1872. Howell was a farmer, living this side of 
Walnut Grove, and was killed by the explosion 
of the steamboat J. A. McClelland near Knight's 
Landing, August 25, 1861. Stout died on his 
farm in this county December 20, 1879. 

1859— Dr. R. B. Ellis, A. R. Jackson, James 
E. Sheridan and Dr. Charles Duncombe. Jack- 
son was a prominent school teacher. He died 
at San Francisco, August 30, 1876. Ellis prac- 
ticed medicine here at that time. He removed 
to Nevada about 1861, and died at Carson about 
eleven years ago. His son, A. C. Ellis, who 
now resides at Carson, is second to no man in 
that State as a lawyer. He ran for Congress 
two times on the Democratic ticket, but was de- 
feated, the State being largely Republican. The 


mother of the younger Ellis is a sister of At- 
torney-General Marshall. Duncoinbe was once 
a member of the City Couneil. His election 
gave rise to a novel contest in the Assembly, 
and one Mhich is often cited in the Legislature 
in election cases. The Doctor was born in Con- 
necticut, and about 1817 removed to Canada. A 
couple of months afterward he was elected to 
the Colonial Parliament, and took an oath of 
allegiance to the then English Kinj;. He was 
afterward denounced as a rebel and fled to the 
United States in 1837, but was never natural- 
ized here. His seat in the Assembly was con- 
tested on the ground that he was not a citizen, 
and on January 22, 1859, the House declared 
the seat vacant. A special election was called, 
and on February 19 Dunconibe was again 
elected by a large majority. On the 14th he 
had been admitted to citizenship under the act 
of 1795. His seat was again contested on the 
ground that he had not been a citizen for the 
constitutional period at the time of his election, 
and on March 8 the House again declared the 
seat vacant. Sacramento County, therefore, had 
but a partial representation during the session. 
Duncombe died at Hicksville, October 1, 1867. 

I860— Dr. K. B. Ellis, L. C. Goodman, Henry 
Starr and D. W". Welty. Goodman was once 
Supervisor and afterward removed from here. 
Starr is still a practicing attorney here. See 
sketch in full in the biographical department. 
Welty removed to Nevada, then returned and 
practiced law at Sacramento, and now resides in 
Oregon . 

1861 — Amos Adams, Charles Crocker, N. 
Greene Curtis and Dr. Joseph Powell. Adams, 
then a farmer, afterward became prominently 
connected with the Granger Society, and is now 
a resident of San Francisco. Crocker, then a 
dry-goods merchant, afterward acquired a na- 
tional reputation as one of the builders of the 
Central Pacitic Railroad. He was at one time 
a cit}' councilman. His death occurred at Mon- 
terey, Angust 14, 1888. Powell then practiced 
medicine at Folsom. He died at that place 
November 27, 1869. 

1862— "W. H. Barton, John E. Benton, James 
B. Saul, James H. Warwick and li. D. Fergu- 
son. Barton has been president of the New 
Liverpool Salt Company in San Francisco for 
many years. It is one of the largest enterprises 
on the coast. Benton was also a Senator. Saul 
removed to Yolo County, where he managed a 
large fruit ranch, and died at Davisville, Octo- 
ber 30, 1881. Warwick, an actor of ability, 
and a brilliant orator, has not l)eeti here for 
many years. 

1863 — Amos Adams, W". H. Barton, Morris 
M. Estee, James H. Warwick and Dr. Charles 
Duncombe. Estee served here as district attor- 
ney in 1864-'65. He ran for Governor on the 
Republican ticket in 1882, and was defeated by 
Stoneman. He was chairman of the late Na 
tional Republican Cimveiition. He resides in 
Napa, and is engaged in grape-growing and the 
practice of law. 

1863-'64— Alexander Badlam, William B. 
Hunt, John P. Rhodes, Francis Tukey and J. 
R. Watson. Badlam, in connection with John 
Simpson, M. M. Estee, H. C. Bidwell and others, 
published a newspaper called the Ei^ening Star 
for about three months, from May 25, 1864. 
He afterward removed to San Francisco, and 
was there elected assessor. He was defeated for 
reelection on a "cold day" in 1882. Hunt 
kept the French Hotel on Second street for many 
years, and was chief engineer of our Fire De- 
partment. Was an Assemblymen from San 
Francisco in 1885. When he represented this 
county he was known as " the Sacramento States- 
man." Rhodes was a farmer on the Cosumnes, 
and died on his farm December 20, 1866. Tukey 
was marshal of Boston at the time of the cele- 
brated Webster-Parkman murder. He was city 
school superintendent in 1853, and died on his 
farm near this city November 23, 1867. Watson 
was for many years purchasing agent of the 
Central Pacitic Railroad Company, and super- 
intendent of the Railroad Hospital, and lives 

1865-'66— Thomas Ilansbrow, Dwight IIol- 
lister, Peter J. Hopper, William B. Hunt and 


J. B. Maholinb. Hansbrow was in business here 
for years; was at one time a supervisor, and 
died on August 31, 1868. Hollister is a farmer 
and fruit-grower near Courtland. lie was once 
supervisor. Hopper was a newspaper publisher 
and lawyer at Folsom, then moved here, where 
he died July 22, 1883. Maholmb was then a 
farmer on the Cosumnes, but now lives in San 

1867-'68— Marion Biggs, Pasclial Coggins, 
A. Conite, Jr., Bruce B. Lee and Charles Wol- 
leb. Biggs now lives in Butte County, at the 
town of Biggs, which was named after him. He 
was a member of the late Constitutional Con- 
vention, and is at present a member of Congress. 
Coggins was for many years local editor of the 
Union, and was a member of the City Board 
of Education, but drifted away from here, shot 
himself in the head in San Francisco, and died 
from the effects of the wound on November 18, 
1883. Comte was also a Senator. Lee is a son 
of Barton Lee, one of our prominent pioneer 
merchants. He was subsequently harbor com- 
missioner, and now lives in Tehama County, 
where he is engaged in the insurance business. 
Wolleb was secretary of the Germania Building 
and Loan Association for years. He died at 
Fruitvale, Alameda County, December 21, 1883. 
1869-'70— James A. Duffy, Isaac F. Free- 
man, M. S. Horan, John A. Odell and R. D. 
Stephens. Duffy was also a Senator. Freeman 
farms at Elk Grove. See his sketch elsewhere, 
found by the inde.x. Horan was afterward po- 
lice judge, and is now practicing law at San 
Francisco. Odell died at Folsom, May 29, 1881. 
Stephens is at present postmaster of this city, 
and was recently elected a trustee of the State 
Library by the Legislature. 

1871-'72— C. G. W. French, Dr. Obed Har- 
vey, Peter J. Hopper, "William Johnston and 
E. B. Mott, Jr. French practiced law at Folsom 
and here for many years. President Hayes ap- 
pointed him Chief Justice of Arizona, and he 
held that oifice until a short time ago. Harvey 
formerly lived in Kl Dorado, and at one time 
was a State Senator from that county. Ho has 

resided at Gait for many years. Johnston was 
also a Senator. Mott was for many years a 
member of the firm of Gillig, Mott & Co., doing 
business here and in Virginia City. Afterward 
he was connected with the Pticific Mutual Life 
Insurance Company, and died here April 4, 1882. 
1873-'74— James N. Barton, W. E. Bryan, 
Paschal Coggins, Reuben Kercheval and P. H. 
Russell. Barton removed to Humboldt County, 
and was a member of the last Constitutional Con- 
vention. Bryan is a farmer, still residing in 
this county. Kercheval owned a magnificent 
fruit ranch at the head of Grand Island, and 
there died on May 9, 1881. Russell for many 
years has been in the grocery business on J 
street, and at one time was a supervisor. 

1875-'76 — Marion Biggs, Jr., Thomas J. 
Clunie and A. D. Patterson. Biggs is a son of 
the former Assemblyman of the same iiame, and 
is now a prominent fanner in Butte County. 
Clunie is a member of Congress from San Fran- 
cisco. He also represented that city in the State 
Senate. He was a delegate to the Democratic 
National Convention of 1884. Patterson was 
sheriff in 1852 and 1853, aiid lived for many 
years at Patterson's Station, on the Sacramento 
Valley Railroad, where he died December 4, 

1877-'78 — Grove L. Johnson, Renljen Ker- 
cheval and Joseph Routier. Johnson and Ron- 
tier were also Senators. 

1880 — Elwood Bruner, Seymour Carr and 
John N. Young. Bruner and Young have both 
been members of the Board of Education. Bru- 
ner has been the State Grand Master of Odd 
Fellows, and is at present district attorney. 
Young is practicing law in San Francisco. Carr 
is a farmer near Clay Station. He has been a 
justice ot the peace. 

1881— Joiin E. Baker, W. C. Van Fleet and 

J. N. Young. Baker served as a soldier during 

the war, was a farmer down the river, and died 

in this city May 2, 1881. See sketch of Judge 

I Van Fleet elsewhere. 

I 1883— Gillis Doty, Hugh M. La Rue and 
i Frank D. Ryan. Doty is a farmer near Elk 


Grove. La Rue came here in 1850, ran for 
sheriff in 1867 and was defeated; was elected to 
that office in 1873; was a member of the last 
Constitutional Convention; was speaker of the 
Tvventy-lifth A-Ssemblj'; was a delegate to the 
National Democratic Convention of 1884, and 
has been for years a director of the State Agri- 
cultural Society. He is engaged in farming, 
but lives in the city. Ryan's sketch appears 

1885— Wintield J. Davis, Charles T. Jones 
and Dwight Hollister. Davis has been the 
official reporter of the courts of this county since 

1874. See the biographical department of this 
work for further particulars concerning his life. 
Jones served several terms as district attorney; 
was elected an alternate elector in 1888; and is 
now in law practice here. 

1887— H. AV. Carroll, L. S. Taylor, and Sey- 
mour Carr. Find Carroll's and Taylor's sketches 
by the index. 

1889— W. M. Petrie, E. C. Hart and L. H. 
Fassett. A biography of Petrie appears else- 
where. Hart has been city attorney; and Fas- 
sett has served as a member of the Board of 




fNDER Mexican rule the Government of 
California was conducted under the laws 
of March 20 and May 23, 1887, and those 
laws were observed, on the acquisition of the 
country hy the United States, until the organi- 
zation of the State Government. Those laws 
provided for the selection of alcaldes, whose 
duties were to care for good order and public 
tranquillity, to see that police regulations, laws 
and decrees were enforced, to provide for the ap- 
prehension of criminals, and in come cases to 
impose fines and imprisonment upon malefac- 
tors. There were also justices of the peace, who 
served as municipal and judicial officers. There 
was in the Territory a Superior Tribunal, con- 
sisting of four judges and an Attorney-General, 
which had the general reviewing of cases tried 
before inferior courts. There were also Courts 
of " First Instance," in which cases, both crim- 
inal and civil, were originally brought. 

The tirst Legislature of the State, by an act 
passed March 16, 1850, divided the State into 
nine judicial districts, and constituted the 
counties of Sacramento and El Dorado the 
Sixth Judicial District. Afterward the counties 
of Sacramento and Yolo composed that district, 
and it so existed until the taking effect of the 
constitution of 1879, whicli abolished that court. 
The same Legislature, by an act passed on 

the 13th, 1850, created a County Court in each 
county, and by an act approved on the 11th of 
that month, the Court of Sessions was created, 
to be composed of the county judge and two 
justices of the peace, who weie to serve as as- 
sociate justices. The latter were chosen by the 
justices of the peace of the county. That court 
had jurisdiction in cases of misdemeanor, and 
also exercised functions now performed by the 
Board of Supervisors, such as the supervision 
of claims against the county, the management 
of roads, etc. Subsequently the Court of Ses- 
sions was abolished, and its jurisdiction vested 
in the County Court. Its legislative and super- 
vision powers were transferred to the Board of 
Supervisors. The present State constitution 
abolished all these courts, and provided for the 
organization of a Superior Court in the county 
with two departments, and two judges, with 
civil and criminal jurisdiction. 

In the latter part of August, 1849, Genei-al 
B. liiley, Acting Military Governor of Cali- 
fornia, appointed James S. Thonuis judge of 
the Court of First Instance, with civil jurisdic- 
tion. He appointed W. E. Shannon judge of 
the Court of the First Instance, with criminal 
jurisdiction. On tiie 2d of September, 1849, 
Thomas entered upon the duties of iiis office. 
A suit was instituted for the recovery of money. 
A summons was made returnable the same day 


at 4 o'clock, at which time jadgnaeat was en- 
tered, and execution ordered. This gives some 
idea of the rapidity with which business, even 
of a judicial character, was transacted at that 
early period of Sacramento's history. On the 
3d of September, Judge Thomas appointed J. 
P. Rogers clerk of his court. The latter gen- 
tleman served in that capacity till the 19th of 
November following, whereupon James R. Law- 
rence was appointed. He continued to the 27th 
of December, at which time Presley Dunlap was 
appointed to the position. 

Judge Shannon opened his court for criminal 
business in September, 1849. R. A. Wilson 
was appointed clerk, and S. C. Hastings — after- 
ward Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
the State and subsequently Attorney-General — 
acted as prosecuting attorney. D. B. Hanner, 
wlio had been elected sheriif by the people in 
their primary capacity, attended both the civil 
and criminal courts. The first case before Judge 
Shannon was a prosecution against a party for 
stealing a cow from Samuel Norris. During 
the trial, defendant's counsel objected to the 
proceedings because they were not in conformity 
with the constitutional provision guaranteeing 
to every party accused of high crime, that be- 
fore he can be put upon trial he must have been 
indicted by a grand jury of his countrymen. 
The court held that inasmuch as the defendant 
had not raised the question in the beginning of 
the case he was deemed as waiving his right, 
and that the trial must proceed. The defendant 
was found guilty and lined $200 and costs, which 
amounted to §515 — rather costly beef. 

About December 1, 1849. R. A. Wilson suc- 
ceeded to the bench, vice Shannon deceased. On 
January 11, 1850, ho appointed A. J. McCall 
clerk of his court for Sacramento, and on Janu- 
ary 26 he appointed Stephen J. Field — now a 
justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States — clerk of his court, to reside at Marys- 
ville. During the time Sacramento was flooded 
that winter, Wilson held his court at Marys- 
ville. The two courts ulluded to did the judi- 
cial business of the district, both civil and crim- 

inal, until the organization of the Judiciary 
under the State constitution. May 20, 1850. 

The first district judges were elected by the 
Legislature March 30, 1850, and James S. 
Thomas was elected judge of the Sixth Ju- 
dicial District. He resigned November 9 fol- 
lowing. Tod Robinson was appointed by the 
Governor to succeed )iim on January 2, 1851, 
and assumed oflice on the 8tli. Ferris Forman 
succeeded Robinson by appointment on August 
13, 1851; and on September 15, the same year, 
Lewis Aldrich assumed the oflice. He resigned 
November 19, 1852, and A. C. Mouson was 
appointed by Governor Bigler on November 2(j, 

1852. He took office on the 1st of December 
of that year. Monson had been elected at the 
general election on November 2, 1852. He 
resigned August 17, 1857, and Governor John- 
son, on the 3d of September, appointed Charles 
T. Botts to succeed him. At the general elec- 
tion, held September 1, 1858, John H. McKune 
was elected, and was re-elected October 21, 

1853. On October 20, 1869, Lewis Ramage 
was elected, and October 20, 1875, Samuel C. 
Denson was elected. He served until the new 
constitution, abolishing the court, took effect. 

Thomas, after his resignation, returned to 
the East, and died at St. Louis in 1857 or 
1858. Robinson, who was a prominent mem- 
ber of the bar, and who belonged to a family 
of distinguished lawyers, died in San Mateo 
County, October 27, 1870. Forman was after- 
ward Secretary of State, and is now living in 
the East. Aldrich died at San Francisco, May 
19, 1885. Monson removed East, and is still 
living. Botts was a brother of John Minor 
Botts. He had been a member of the first 
Constitutional Convention of the State, and was 
afterward State printer. He died in San Fran- 
cisco, October 4, 1884. McKune is still in the 
law practice here. Ramage removed to Kansas 
City and died there February 14, 1879. Danson 
was afterward elected superior judge of the 
county, and resigned that office and is now in 
law practice in this city. A sketch of his life 
ajipears nii a subse(|uc'nt page. 


As we have stated, the Court of Sessions 
was composed of the county judge and two 
associates. The latter were elected by a con- 
vention of the justices of the peace, held on the 
first Monday of October of each year — except 
the first convention, which was held May 20, 
1850. C. C. Sackett and Charles PI. Swift were 
then elected associates. The associates held 
office for two years. On November 27, 1850, 
the county treasurer resigned, and Swift was 
appointed to fill the vacancy. James Brown 
was elected associate in his stead, and assumed 
the duties of iiis office February 7, 1851. On 
August 14 following, D. D. Bullock succeeded 
Brown. The last meeting of the Court of Ses- 
sions was lield July 6, 1862. 

The following is a list of the subsequent 
judges of the court from October, 1851, to 
October, 1862: 

E. J. Willis, Judge; George Wilson and 
James K Gates Associates. 

1852-'53— E. J. Willis, Judge; he resigned 
November 18, and John Heard was appointed. 
James li. Gates and J. T. Day were Associates. 

1853-'54— John Heard, Judge; Gilbert M. 
Cole and D. H. Taft, Associates. 

1854-'55— John Heard, Judge; H. Lock- 
wood and B. D. Fry, Associates. 

1855-'56— John Heard, Judge; S. N. Baker 
and C. C. Jenks, Associates. 

1856-'57— Same. 

1857-'58— Robert Robinson, Judge; C. A. 
Hill and Peter Bross, Associates. 

1858-'59 — Robert Robinson, Judge; James 
Coggins and W. B. Whitesides, Associates. 

1859-'60 — Robert Jiobinson, Judge; James 
Coggins and Hodgkins, Associates. 

1860-'61— Robert C. Clark, Judge; James 
Coggins and George Cone, Associates. 

1861-'62— Robert C. Clark, Judge, George 
Cone and W. W. Crouse, Associates. 

After the abolishment of the Court of Ses- 
sions, Judge Clark continued county judge, 
successively elected to that office and occui)ied 
it until the abolishment of the County Court 
by tlie operation of the new constitution. The 

County Court also exercised the functions of a 
Probate Court. 

Willis left here and returned to the East in 
early days. AVilson died in one of the north- 
ern counties of this State a number of years 
ago. Day died recently. Heard still lives here. 
Jenks removed to Oakland, and has held public 
offices there. Robinson is still a resident of 
Sacramento. Coggins died a number of years 
ago. Cone was afterward a member of the 
State Legislature from this county. Clark had 
been a Senator and Assemblyman, and after the 
abolishment of the County Court was elected, 
with Denson, a judge of the Superior Court, 
and held the office until the time of his death. 

At the first election under the new constitu- 
tion, September 3, 1879, Samuel C. Denson 
and Robert C. Clark were elected judges of the 
Superior Court. Judge Denson resigned De- 
cember 16, 1882. and on the 18th Governor 
Perkins appointed Thomas B. McFarland to fill 
the vai.'ancy. The latter was elected by the 
people to succeed himself at the general election 
held November 4, 1884; and at the general . 
election held November 2, 1886, McFarland 
was elected one of the justices of the State Su- 
preme Court. He resigned the office of supe- 
rior judge, and Governor Stoneman, on Decem- 
ber 81, 1886, appointed John W. Armstrong to 
the office. At the general election held in No- 
vember, 1888, Armstrong was elected to suc- 
ceed himself, and is now serving on the bench. 

Judge Clark died January 27, 1883, and 
Governor Stoneman appointed John W. Arm- 
strong to succeed him. At the general election 
lield November 4, 1884, AV. C. Van Fleet was 


elected for the full term, and he still oc( 
the bench. 


James C. Zabriskie was the first city attor- 
ney. He was a native of New Jersey, of Polish 
stock, was Colonel of a regiment of New Jersey 
militia, and with his regiment participated in 
the inaugural ceremonies of President Jackson, 
and was warmly entertained by that stern old 
veteran. He was an intimate friend of Coin- 


tnodore R. F. Stpckton, after whom the city of 
Stockton was named, and was selected as master 
of ceremonies on the occasion of the inspection 
by the great peacemaker, on board the Commo- 
dore's frigate, Princeton, on tlie Potomac River, 
in 1844. Tlie inspection was witnessed by Presi- 
dent Tyler, members of the cabinet, foreign 
ministers, members of courts and the represen- 
tatives of the beanty and fashion of the national 
capital. The guns had been lired twice, satis- 
factorily, and the guests were about to retire to 
the banquet, when one of the cabinet officers 
begged Stockton to fire just once more. The 
Commodore complied, and it proved to be "three 
times and out," for the immense piece exploded 
with terrific force and scattered death and deso- 
lation about the deck! The Secretary of State 
and of the Navy and several other distinguished 
persons were instantly killed, while Thomas H. 
Benton, Commodore Stockton and many others 
wei"e more or less injured. The life of the Presi- 
dent was saved as by a miracle. 

Zabriskie arrived in Sacramento in 1849 and 
established a law office in a little shanty under 
an oak tree which stood near the intersection of 
Second and K streets. His library consisted of 
a single volume, " The New Jersey Justice." 
He had, however, a good business, and in a few 
months was elected second alcalde. 

In early days he was a Democrat and a fol- 
lower of David C. Broderick, and published a 
paper, called the Sacramento Register, in favor 
of Broderick. Afterward he became a Repub- 
lican, being one of the first to espouse the cause 
of that party in this county. In 1861 he re- 
moved to San Francisco and continued in law 
practice there until his death July 10, 1883. 

M. D. Reed and B. F. Ankeny were in part- 
nership; the latter was deputy clerk. 

James H. Hardy was elected district attorney; 
afterward, January 28, 1859, was appointed 
judge of the Sixteenth Judicial District by Gov- 
ernor Weller, and later he was elected by the 
people to that office. During the war he was 
impeached by the Assembly for treasonable ut- 
terances, and his trial lieforc thi; bar of the Sen- 

ate resulted in liis removal from office, May 14, 
1862. He afterward removed to Virginia City 
and thence, in 1866, to San Francisco, where he 
died, June 11, 1874, at the age of forty-two 

Lewis Sanders, Jr., was city attoi-ney. 

Joseph W. Winans left New York City, his 
native place, with a party of young men who 
had formed a joint-stock company, and who had 
purchased and furnished a sailing vessel, and 
they came around by Cape Horn to this coast. 
Winans had no idea of making anything but a 
transient trip, and expected to pick up lumps of 
gold from the surface, enough to furnish a com- 
petence. He left his office practice in the care 
of a partner. The vessel arrived at San Fran- 
cisco, August 29, 1849, and was brought up the 
Sacramento River and anchored opposite Sutter- 
ville. At tliat point the members of the com- 
pany gathered their mining implements and 
started for the mountains, and Mr. Winans pur- 
chased from them a controlling interest in the 
bark. At the solicitation of R. N. Jessup — 
afterward a prominent citizen of California, he 
opened a law office in Sacramento and took 
charge of an important law case for Jessup. The 
profits from his law practice extended beyond 
his anticipations. In the great fire of 1852 his 
law library, one of the largest in the State, was 
destroyed, and the few books that were saved 
were deposited in an iron building for security; 
but that building also was burned. 

Mr. Winans went to San Francisco, purchased 
an extensive library and rented a primitive but 
high-priced office here, in which he did business 
during the day and slept at night; but the first 
great stormy winter demonstrated that the roof 
was decidedly " unseaworthy," and one uigiit 
his new library was ruined by the water which 
came in torrents tiirough the roof. In 1861 he 
removed to San Francisco and continued his 
practice until his death, Marcii 3, 1887. 

While in Sacramento he was prominently 
identified with the society of pioneers and the 
City Library Association, and was an early presi- 
dent of botii tliesc iiistitiilions. He was dele- 


gate at large to the last Coiiftitiitional Conven- 
tion, taking an active and important part in its 
proceedings, lie was also a writer of distinc- 
tion. Several of his poems have been exten- 
sively republished; and his prose writings in 
the Placar Times, the Sacramento Union and 
other journals have attracted wide attention. 
His private library was the best selected in the 
State. For several years lie was regent of the 
State University, and for a time was president 
of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, and also of the Society for the Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Children. 

J. (t. Ilyer was in partnership with Winans 
for a time. 

John C. Eurch practiced law here and was a 
member of Congress. Was in favor of the es- 
tablishment of the " Pacific Republic," and wrote 
the remarkable " Cactus " letter. 

Edmund Eandolph, a descendant of the cele- 
brated John Eandolph, " of Roanoke," was a 
prominent man in this State. 

A. T. AVard was one of the pioneer lawyers. 

Edward J. C. Kewen was boin in Mississippi 
in 1825, and was thrown upon his own resources 
at the age of thirteen years. He studied law, 
and at the early age of nineteen years he entered 
politics and became a prominent orator. He 
came overland to California with Dr. T. J. 
White and family, and married a daughter of 
the Doctor's in this city, December 10, 1849; 
this was probahly the first marriage in Sacra- 
mento. Colonel Kewen was elected the first 
Attorney-Guieral of the State, by the first Leg- 
islature, soon after his arrival. In 1851 he was 
a Whig candidate for Congress, but was de- 
feated by a small majority. He left Sacramento 
in 1852, and established himself in law practice 
in San Francisco. He was, however, of a rest- 
less and daring disposition. One of his brothers 
was second in command under William Walker 
in the fillibuster e.xpedition to Nicaragua, and 
was shot and killed there, in June, 1855. 

Colonel Kewen was an intimate friend of 
Walker, went to Nicaragua and was at once 
commissioned by AValker as the financial agent 

of the embryo republic, and also became a mem- 
ber of the judicial tribunal. He took an active 
part in the subsequent military movements there, 
and at tlie close of Walker's rule returned to 
San Francisco. In January, 1858, he became a 
citizen of Los Angeles, where be died Novem- 
ber 25, 1879. He was several times a member 
of the Legislature, and in 1868 ran for Presi- 
dential elector on the Democratic ticket. 

Philip L. Edwards; see Chapter VIII., " Leg- 

James L. English, who still resides here but 
is out of practice, served at one time as mayor 
of this city, and at another as State Treasurer. 

Horace Smith was a prominent lawyer and 
distinguished citizen, and died at Virginia City 
December 4, 1863. 

Murray Morrison was a brother of the late 
Chief Justice Robert F. Morrison, who in early 
days was district attorney of the county. He 
afterward served as district judge in the south- 
ern part of the State, and died at Los Angeles, 
December 18, 1871. 

Other men who have served as district attor- 
neys of Sacramento County have become mem- 
bers of the United States Senate; as, Milton S. 
Latham, who was first elected Governor, and a 
few days afterward United States Senator; Cor- 
nelius Cole; and Frank Hereford, who removed 
to the East and was elected from West Vir- 

W. H. McGrew's name appears in the Direct- 
ory of 1858 as a lawyer here. 

J. Neely Johnson was elected Governor by 
the Know-Nothing party in 1845, afterward re- 
moved to Nevada and served on the Supreme 
Bench there. He died at Salt Lake, August 
31, 1872. 

Ferris Forman was appointed Secretary of 
State by Governor'Weller, January 9, 1858, and 
served for a while as judge of the Ninth Judi- 
cial District. He now resides in the East. 

Thomas Sunderland was a lawyer here in the 
early '50s. 

Robert C. Clark, who was on the bench for 
many years as county and superior judge, was 


the son of Governoi- James Clark, of Kentucky. 
He died in this State, January 27, 1883. 

James W. Coffroth represented the county of 
Tuolumne in the Assembly and Senate several 
terms, and unsuccessfully ran lor Congress sev- 
eral times on the Democratic ticket. He died 
in Sacramento, October 9, 1872. 

E. B. Crocker was appointed a justice of the 
State Supreme Court to succeed Stephen J. 
Field, on May 21, 1863. Field had been ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln as associate jus- 
tice of the National Supreme Court. Later 
Judge Crocker made extended visits to Europe 
and made one of the finest art collections to be 
found in America, which is now public property 
in this city. He died in this city, June 24, 
1875, and his widow has distinguished herself 
in several magnificent gifts to the public. See 
sections on Crocker Art Gallery and Marguerite 
Home in this volume. 

W. R. Cantwell, a Western man, served one 
term as police judge and afterward moved to 
San Francisco, where he died. 

W. S. Long, a lawyer of note, practiced in 
this city twelve years; was police judge, and 
afterward represented Colusa County in the 
Legislature. Died at Shasta, February 21, 1871. 

Li partnership with Long for a time were 
Charles D. Judah and Presley Dunlap. Dunlap 
was born in Pennsylvania, in 1817; moved to 
Hlinois and then to Iowa, where, in 1842, he 
was elected clerk of Des Moines County, and 
was recorder of that county for two years. When 
a young man he was a warm and intimate friend 
of John C. Breckenridge. He arrived in Cali- 
fornia, August 16, 1849, and in October follow- 
ing was appointed deputy sheriff by the first 
sheriff of the district, there being then no State 
or county organization. In December, 1849, he 
was appointed clerk of the court, and at the 
first county election, in April, 1850, was elected 
county clerk. For a time he was surveyor, and 
afterward lawyer. In 1857 he was elected city 
police judge, and after that term expired he 
continued in the practice of law until his death 
in this city, September 23, 1883. In 1879 he 

represented this county in the Constitutional 

Tod Robinson was at one time the reporter of 
the State Supreme Coui't, and died in San Mateo 
County, October 27, 1870. 

Messrs. Botts and Sackett have already been 

George R. Moore died here June 22, 1868. 
His son practiced law in connection with Judge 
N. Greene Curtis, and died here several years 

D. W. Welty, a partner of Moore, is noticed 
in Chapter VIII., having been a "Legislator." 

John B. Harmon and R. H. Stanley were 
partners of Thomas Sunderland. 

I. S. Brown figured prominently as a crimi- 
nal lawyer, being engaged in many important 
cases. He died in the spring of 1889, while 
holding the office of justice of the peace in this 

George Cadwallader arrived in California in 
1849, engaged in merchandising, studied law, 
was admitted to the bar and rose to a position 
of prominence in his profession, having much 
to do with mining-debris litigation. He re- 
moved to San Francisco, where he died April 
28, 1884, never having held any j^ublic office. 

A. Comte, Jr., represented the county in the 
Assembly and Senate. He is now a merchant 
in San Francisco. 

Samuel Cross, who died here a few years ago, 
was a searcher of records as well as a lawyer. 

Thomas C. Edwards, son of Philip L., died 
many years ago. 

C. G. W. French practiced law many years 
in Folsom, then in Sacramento, and while here 
was appointed by President Hayes Chief Jus- 
tice of Arizona. 

A. C. Freeman, who is a distinguished com- 
piler and writer of standard law books, and 
editor of "American Decisions," is now residing 
in San Francisco. 

A. LI. Lynch, his former partner here, was at 
one time a justice of the peace, and came to be 
a journalist of some note. Died a number of 
years ago. 


L. H. Foote was a police judge. Is the 
author of a nuuiber of pucins and prose articles 
which have been published in magazines. He 
was for a time United States Consul at Corea. 

T. W. Gilmer served as police judge, and also 
as justice of the peace. Died a few years ago. 

James C. Goods was one of the most promi- 
nent criminal lawyers in the State; served several 
terms as district attorney, and was one of the 
leaders of the Democratic party. Died in this 
city November 23, 1877. 

Henry Hare Hartley occupied a foremost 
position in the bar of the State; was county 
judge of Yolo County, and in 1865 ran on the 
Democratic ticket for justice of the Supreme 
Court, but was defeated by Judge Sanderson. 
He died in this city March 12, 18G8. 

E. H. Heacock; see Chapter VIII. 

J. G. McCallum was once a State Senator 
from El Dorado County, and subsequently Regis- 
ter of the United States Land Office in Sacra- 

Daniel J. Thomas, besides being a lawyer, 
was most conspicuous here for having been con- 
nected with some of the railroad enterprises. 
Died here several years ago. 

Gregory Yale, a prominent member of the 
bar here, moved to San Francisco, where lie 
died June 16, 1871. 

Thomas Conger was police judge and justice 
of the peace. Died several years ago. 

Henry Edgerton was one of the most brilliant 
men who have figured in the political and legal 
history of the State. He was a matchless 
orator. Served as district attorney of Napa 
County, and prosecuted the celebrated case of 
Edward McGowan, which grew out of the acts 
of the vigilance committee of San Francisco in 
1856. He served in the State Senate from that 
county in the eleventh and twelfth sessions. 
He died at San Francisco, November 4, 1887. 

Thomas J. Clunie represented San Francisco 
in the State Senate during the twenty-fourth 
session, and November 6, 1888, was elected to 
Congress, which office he now holds. 

Jo Hamilton served two terms as Attorney- 

General of the State, and is now practicing law 
at Auburn. 

William C. Stratton was State Librarian. 

Creed Haymond and C. T. Jones; see Chap- 
ter YIII. 

J. T. Carey served one term as district attor- 
ney, and ran unsuccessfully for State Senator. 
He is now United States District Attorney, ap- 
pointed by President Cleveland. 

William Neely Johnson, brother of the 
former Governor, was at one time State Libra- 
rian. He afterward became blind, and tinally 
died in San Francisco in June, 1885. 

J. G. Severance was a prominent member of 
the bar of Amador County, as well as of tliis 
county at another time, and is now practicing 
in San Francisco. 

James E. Smith was a partner, at one time, of 
Henry Edgerton; has been dead several years. 

John K. Alexander was district attorney, 
and at present is superior judge of Monterey 

T. B. McFarland and R. C. Clark were 
judges; already noticed. 

Hamilton C. Harrison, a prominent Free- 
mason, was at one time county clerk, and is 
now deceased. 

Silas W. Sanderson represented El Dorado 
County in the Legislature, and in October, 
1863, was elected justice of the State Supreme 
Court; in October, 1865, was re-elected, but 
resigned January 4, 1870, and became attorney 
for the Central Pacific Railroad Company, 
which position he held until his death, in San 
Francisco, June 24, 1886. 

W. B. C. Brown served as county clerk, and 
F^ebruary 6, 1876, was appointed controller 
of State, to fill the term made vacant by the 
death of James W. Mandeville. He was a 
prominent candidate for the Democratic nomi- 
nation for Governor in 1882, but he died April 
12 of that year, in this city. 

Paschal H. Coggins was brought up in Sacra- 
mento, and served for a while as justice of the 
peace. He is now practicing law in Philadel- 


James L. English, once mayor, died at Sacra- 
mento, May 29, 1889. 

Twenty or thirty other lawyers, of less note 
than those mentioned, have practiced in Sacra- 


The last City Directory furnishes the follow- 
ing list of attorneys now practicing in Sacra- 
mento, extended sketches of some of whom 
appear in a subsequent portion of this work: 

D. E. Alexander, 
W. A. Anderson, 
C. W. Baker, 
JBeatty, Den son & Oat- 
William H. Beatty, 
George A. Blanchard, 
I. S. Brown, 
Jay R. Brown, 
Elwood Bruner, 
Jud C. Brusie, 
Alex. N. Buchanan, 
A. P. Catlin, 
Catlin & Blanchard, 
W. S. Church, 
Richard M. Clarkin, 
J. B. Counts, 
JM. Greene Curtis, 
George G. Davis, 
Robert T. Devlin, 
James B. Devine, 
Chauncey li. Dunn, 
Edward J. Dwyer, 
Wilber F. George, 
W. A. Gett, Jr., 
Gabriel Haines, 
George Haines, 
A. L. Hart, 
Elijah C. Hart, 
John Heard, 
William Henley, 
Wilson A. Henley, 

Add. C. Hinkson, 
Joseph W. Hughes, 
Albert M. Johnson, 
Grove L. Johnson, 
Matt. F. Johnson, 
Daniel Johnston, 
C. T. Jones, 
Isaac Joseph, 
Frank J. Lewis, 
W. S. Mesick, 
Ed. M. Martin, 
McKune & George, 
G. G. Pickett, 
Charles N. Post, 
John F. Ramage, 
Ed. I. Robinson, 
Frank D. Ryan, 
John Shannon, 
Peter J. Shields, 
Singer & Gardner, 
William Singer, Jr., 
Henry Starr, 
Horace Stevens, 
Taylor & Holl, 
Ed. F. Taylor, 
M. C. Tilden, 
John C. Tubbs, 
John West, Jr., 
Clinton L. White, 
Lincoln White, 
Young & Dunn. 


A remarkable case of mistaken identity was 
recently related by Attorney Paschal H. Coggins 
before the Medical Jurisprudence Society in 
Pliiladel])hia, as having come under his personal 
observation. Two men — John A. Mason, of 
Boston, and John A. Mason, of Hlinois — left 
their respective homes and went to California 

in search of liealth and wealth. They were 
both wagon-makers. One left a wife and two 
sons in Boston, and tlie other a wife and two 
daughters in Illinois. The Boston wife heard 
nothing of her husband after three years' ab- 
sence, and twenty years later heard of the death 
of John A. Mason, a wagon-maker. She 
brought suit for his property, his photogi-aph 
was identified by twenty witnesses, but at the 
last moment the Illinois wife turned up and 
]iroved that tlie man was her husband, and the 
later developments showed that the Boston 
pioneer died alone and friendless. — N. Y. 

Upon this Theviis comments as follows: 
''The Coggins referred to was a resident of this 
city, and at one time the law partner of Creed 
Haymond. He was also a justice of the peace 
here, married the daughter of one of our pio- 
neer citizens, and afterward removed with his 
family to Philadelphia, where he has since re- 
sided. He is a son of Paschal Coggins, at one 
time one of the editors of the Sacramento 
Union, and who represented this county two 
terms in the Assembly. Coggins, Sr., ran for 
Congress against H. F. Page in 1872, on the 
independent ticket. The case referred to was 
that of Supervisor John A. Mason, of this city. 
It was certainly one of the most remarkable 
cases that ever came up in court, but the state- 
ment in the Graphic is not strictly correct. 
The case was tried before the late Judge Clark. 
In the contest Hay ward & Coggins appeared 
for the lady contestant, and the late George 
Cadwalader and W. A. Anderson for the will. 
It was developed that there were two John A. 
Masons; that they followed the same trade — 
carriage-making; and that they came to Cali- 
fornia about the sairie time; one, however, by 
steamer, and the other overland. By a strange 
coincidence the Mr. Coggins referred to was a 
passenger on the same steamer with the Mason 
who came by sea, and he was referred to in the 
printed passenger list as an "infant." It fur- 
ther developed that the two Masons worked at 
their trades in the same block in Sacramento 
City — Third street between I and J. After the 
death of Supervisor Mason his sons, grown 


men, applied for letters on Lis estate; their 
issuance was contested by a lady and two 
grown daughters, who claimed to be the wife 
and offspring of Mason. There is no doubt 
that the contest was in good faith and that the 
lady believed that the deceased was her hus- 
band. The testimony, however, developed that 
there m.ust have been two John A. Masons, and 
that the husband of the lady contestant had. 

like many another of the California argonauts, 
disappeared long years ago. It was strange 
that photographs of Supervisor Mason were 
identified by his mother and other relatives in 
Massachusetts, and that the same pictures were 
identified by prominent citizens of Illinois as 
being the other Mason. Judge Clark held 
against the contestants, but said that there was 
no doubt of the good faith of their contest." 



N Sacramento there have been twenty- four 

executions of criminals, sixteen of which 

were according to the forms of law. We 

have space here for a brief account of the prin- 

In 1850 robbery and murder became so fre- 
quent, while the law's delays were so characteris- 
tically slow, that the people became exasperated 
and arose in self-defense. The lirst victim 
of their vengeance was Frederick J. Roe, a 
professional gambler. While quarreling at a 
monte table in the Mansion House, corner of 
Front and J streets, he engaged in a tight witii an 
unknown man. The bystanders separated them 
and stopped the row several times, but it was as 
often renewed. At length a peaceable and 
industrious citizen named Charles Humphrey 
Myers, an immigrant from Columbus, Ohio, and 
a partner in the blacksmithing establishment of 
Joseph Prader & Co., again parted them, when 
Roe shot him for interfering. The ball entered 
Myers's head, but did not kill him instantly. 
He was carried to the blacksmith shop, where 
the wound was examined by surgeons and pro- 
nounced to be necessarily fatal. The excite- 
ment of the large crowd which had gathered 
became intense. Dr. Mackenzie, a member of 
the City Council, mounted a wagon and made a 
violent address, stating tliat crime had run ramp- 
ant long enough: that the courts and officers 

seemed powerless to prevent it; but that it must 
be stopped somehow, or all respectable and 
honest people must leave the city; that the 
remedy was now in tJie people's o.wn hands, and 
that it was a duty each of them owed to society 
to aid in applying it. He was followed by 
David B. Milne and Ross and Taplin in the 
same strain. 

The addresses were eiiective. A meeting was 
organized, of which Ross was appointed presi- 
dent. In the meantime Roe had been taken 
into custody by the officers, and news was 
brought that he was in the station-house, corner 
of Second and J streets. The meeting promptly 
and unanimously resolved to bring him out, and 
a large crowd proceeded to the prison, where a 
still larger body had assembled. One Everard 
addressed them, stating that if ever they in- 
tended to rid the city of the scoundrels that 
infested it, now was the time. He advised the 
appointment of a committee who should deter- 
mine what justice was in the case, and James 
Queen followed to the same effect, urging the 
selection of a jury for the immediate trial of the 
prisoner. These speeches were continually inter- 
rupted by loud and long cheers, mingled with 
cries of "Hang him,'' etc. 

The city marshal, N. C. Cunningham, next 
followed, stating that he had the prisoner in 
custody and that he should not escape; but in 


tlie luime of God and Sacnimeuto let him be 
tried b}' the proper tribunal, the courts of the 
country. He was interrupted by cries of " No, 
no; they have proved useless to prevent crime 
and punish murder." lint he continued: " If 
he don't get justice in the courts, then I will 
help you get it; I pledge you my honor I'll re- 
sign my office and help you; but now I am a 
sworn officer and you cannot, you shall not, 
have him while I am such." fle attempted to 
continue further in the same strain, but his 
voice was drowned in cries of, " Let the peojile 
have a jury," etc. Queen tried it again. He 
was in favor of laws and of supporting them, 
but ours have proved inoperative; let us have 
a people's jury; let us imitate San Francisco." 

C. A. Tweed was then called to the chair, who 
said he believed the prisoner was a great scoun- 
drel and ought to be hanged, but he wanted 
the hanging to be done by law. He was con- 
sequently hustled out of the chair and Scranton 
forced in. Then Justice of the Peace Bullock 
attempted to speak in behalf of law and order, 
but his voice was immediately smothered be- 
neath tumultuous cries of "Jury! jury! appoint 
a jury." 

A jury was announced, all of whom accepted, 
except F. G. Ewer, who stated that he was a 
newspaper man, and that it was his duty to 
make an unbiased report of the proceedings, 
which he could not do if he participated in them. 
Dr. V. Spalding was appointed in his place. 
The jury retired to the Orleans, on Second street, 
and organized by appointing Levi Hermance 
foreman, and George G. Wright secretary. A 
committee was ap])ointed to guard the prisoner 
and see that the officers did not remove him. 
Some of the officers attempted at various times 
to address the assemblage, but were invariably 
shut off. The marshal again addressed the peo- 
ple, stating that the prisoner could not be taken 
from his custody until his own life had been 
taken; "If Roe escapes the courts you may 
have him; but now I call on all good citizens to 
aid me in his protection." Some four or live 
advanced, but the only notice the crowd took of 

the speech was to hoot those few, and to express, 
in most unmistakable terms, their nonconcur- 
rence with the marshal. 

The privilege of letting the prisoner have a 

lawyer was proposed and voted down. After a 
few further attempts at speech-making, and en- 
deavors by the marshal to preserve the prisoner, 
the deafening yells of 2,500 or more people 
goaded on the leaders to a determined effort to 
execute Lynch law. The jurj' was quite delib- 
erate, while the crowd was impatient. Com- 
mittees were sent to the jury to hurry them up. 
They reported that the jury were acting fairly, 
but needed the protection of the people to keep 
the lawyers out, as they (the jury) could elicit 
the testimony themselves. Simple facts did not 
require legal gloss. The lawyers were ordered 
out, and staid out. 

As Myers was not yet quite dead, Tweed un- 
dertook to make a point temporarily in the pris- 
oner's favor; but it was useless against the cries 
of, " But he will die, and you know it; the doc- 
tors say so, and so will the other man!" One 
stentorian voice, ringing above the rest, shouted, 
"Yes; the murder was deliberate and cold- 
blooded. The murderer has made a widow and 
four orphans. Blood for blood! He must die! 
Let those who are in favor of hanging him say 
Aye!" The whole street reverberated with the 
sound of the Ayes. 

Dr. Taylor hoped every man present was 
armed. If so, he wanted a picked body to go 
with him and take the prisoner; " if we have 
him in our custody we will know where he is." 
A large portion of the crowd stepped forward, 
but were stopped by a cry that the verdict had 
been rendered, which was read from the Orleans 
balcony at 8 p. m. amid perfect silence, as fol- 

We, the committee of investigation appointed 
by our fellow-citizens to investigate the circum- 
stances of the unfortunate occurrence that took 
place this afternoon, report that after a full and 
impartial examination of the evidence we find 
that at about 2 o'clock p. m. this day, Frederick 
J. Roe and some other person, whose name is 
unknown, were engaged in an altercation which 


oi-iginated in the Mansion House; and that after 
said parties had proceeded to the street, and 
where thej were lighting, Charles H. Myers, 
who was passing in the street, interfered with 
words reqiiesting tliem to desist lighting or 
show fair play ; and that immediately there- 
upon the said Koe called out, " What the devil 
have you to say?" and drew his pistol and with- 
out further provocation shot said Myers through 
the head. 

John II. Sceanton, John T. Bailey, 
W. F. Pekttyman, Edw. Ceonin, 
J. B. Staee, D. O. Mills, 

H. G. Langlet, F. B. Coenwall, 

Geoege G. Weight, A. M. AVinn, 
Haeeison Olmstead, L. Heemance. 

The above signers composed the entire jury, 
except Dr. Spalding, who, after participating 
for some time, withdrew in consequence of what 
he considered the undue influence of the people's 
committee sent to the jury. As soon as the 
verdict was read there was a general stampede 
for the station-house; and there Dr. Taylor, who 
had urged immediate action from the first, stated 
that he had visited the prisoner and found him 
penitent; and he thought the murder was with- 
out malice or deliberation and he hoped a com- 
mittee would be appointed to guard the prisoner 
until the next day, when a course of action 
might be determined. The Doctor was hooted 
and hissed off. A. D. Eightmire said the ver- 
dict had been rendered, and he now considered 
it the duty of all good citizens to see it carried 
out; he was ready, for his part; and he was 
thereupon appointed marshal, by acclamation. 

About 9 o'clock awning posts were pulled up 
and made into battering rams, with which the 
door of the station-house was assaulted, and 
under the blows from which it soon yielded. 
Deputy Sheriff Harris stood in the door-way, 
with a small posse in his rear, and held the 
place for some time, both by remonstrances and 
threats to fire; but the impatient multitude 
crowded those in front up against the door, and 
through it, against Harris and his aids, pushing 
them over and taking them prisoners. Roe was 
chained in an inner cell, and there was consid- 
erable difficulty in getting him unshackled; but 

as soon as that was accomplished he was in- 
formed that he was to be hanged forthwith, on 
one of the large oak trees that then stood on 
Sixth street, between K and L. A large por- 
tion of the crowd immediately rushed to the 
point, but a sufficient number remained to guard 
the escort of the prisoner. Arriving at the 
tragical spot, where a staging had been erected 
for the purpose, they placed the prisoner upon 
it, tied his hands and feet and sent for Rev. M. 
C. Briggs. Through this man, Roe said to the 
public that he committed the deed in a fit of 
passion, and had nothing more to say in self- 
defense; that he was an Englishman by birth, 
was twenty years of age, and had a mother and 
sister then living in the old country. After the 
minister had performed his duties, a rope con- 
taining a slip noose was placed around the pris- 
oner's neck, the other end thrown over one of 
the limbs of the tree, and this was seized by a 
multitude of strong hands, which launched the 
prisoner into eternity, in the presence of an 
estimated assemblage of 5,000 people. Myers, 
however, was not dead at the time the prisoner 
was executed. 

On July 9, 1851, William B. Robinson, James 
Gibson and John Thompson knocked down and 
robbed James Wilson on L street, between 
Fourth and Fifth, in broad daylight. They 
were seen and arrested, and before 4 o'clock 
p. M. more than 1.000 men surrounded the jail. 
Violent speeches were made, and a crowd organ- 
ized by electing a president and secretary. A 
jury was impaneled, but it could not agree; 
and it was decided that the parties should be 
indicted and tried on the following Monday, 
when a special term of court would meet. The 
court met at that time; but, to give the counsel 
for the defense time to prepare, it continued the 
case one week. The prisoners were tried se|)a- 
rately. On Tuesday Robinson was found guilty 
by the jury, and his punishment, death, was 
also designated by thein. On the 16th Gibson 
was likewise convicted, and on the 18th Thomp- 
son also. Under the first statutes of this State 
the crimes of robbery and grand larceny, as well 


as murder, were punishable by death, in the 
discretion of tiie jury. July 21st Judge Willis 
sentenced all three to be hanged August 22d; 
and accordingly Gibson and Thompson were ex- 
ecuted that day, on an old sycamore tree at 
Sixth and O streets; but Robinson was iirst re- 
prieved by the Governor and afterward hanged 
at the same place by the people. 

On the night of Sunday, February 20, 1853, 
John Carroll, alias " Bootjack," was murdered 
on the levee near Tenth and B streets. He was 
one of a gang of thieves, and was killed by 
his associates, who suspected that he was a 
traitor to them. One of the parties arrested 
for the murder, William Dunham, turned 
State's evidence, and Jack Thompson, Barney 
Ackerman and Charles Stewart were tried, con- 
victed, and sentenced to be hung. A gallows 
was erected about three or four hundred paces 
east of Sutter's Fort, on an open plain, where 
every person was afibrded an excellent oppor- 
tunity to witness the execution; and on the 29th 
of April, 1853, the men were hanged. Thomp- 
son was aged twenty-five, Stewart twenty, and 
Ackerman nineteen. 

Ah Chung, a Chinaman, was executed be- 
tween J and K streets, just below Sutter's Fort, 
May 9, 1856, for the murder of one of his 
country-women, named Ah Lei, February 8, 
1856. The execution was public and was wit- 
nessed by a large number. The culprit claimed 
the murdered woman to be his wife and ac- 
cused her of intidelity. 

Samuel L. Garrett was hung near Sutter's 
Fort, June 27, 1856, for the murder uf Amiel 
Brickell, at the Golden Eagle Hotel, April 26, 
1855. Brickell had had some difficulty with 
Garrett relative to the daughter of the former, 
whom the latter was accused of having seduced, 
and it ended in Garrett fatally shooting Brickell. 
On the 20th of November following he was 
tried for the murder before Judge Monson and 
convicted. He was sentenced to be executed 
January 9, 1856, but an appeal was taken to the 
Supreme Court, and May 5 the judgment of 
the court below was sustained and the convict 

was again sentenced to death, which sentence 
was executed. Garrett a native of Pennsylvania, 
born in 1833, was married to Miss Harriet L. 
Brickell, the daughter of the murdered man, by 
Justice C. C. Jenks on the prison brig the 
Sunday before the execution, in the presence of 
a large assembly. She attempted suicide by tak- 
ing poison a day or two before he was hanged. 

William S. Kelly was executed at the same 
moment, for the murder of Daniel C. Howe, at 
Lake Valley, El Dorado County. On the night 
of July 10, 1855, Mickey Free, George Wilson 
and this Kelly went into the cabin of Howe and 
Ruggles, traders, for the purpose of robbery. 
Free shot Howe dead, and Wilson shot Ruggles 
with a long rifle, but did not kill him. Rug- 
gles turned his side to them after receiving the 
wound and asked them to kill him, when Free 
said he would accommodate him and stabbed 
him several times with a bowie-knife. After 
Ruggles was dead Wilson declared that Kelly 
must have a hand in the murder also, and 
forced him to cut the throat of the murdered 
man. This is the version given by the crimi- 
nal himself. 

Free was executed October 26, 1855, at Co- 
loma, and in his confession substantiated Kelly's 
statement. Wilson was the principal witness 
against Kelly, and testified that Kelly cut Rug- 
gles's throat before the latter was dead. Kelly 
got a change of venue in November, 1855, to 
this county, and was tried and convicted before 
Judge Monson, December 20, 1855. The usual 
motions, in arrest of judgment, a new trial, 
etc., were made and overruled, and an appeal 
taken to the Supreme Court, but the judgment 
of the Lower Court was sustained and the orig- 
inal sentence was executed. 

Peter Lundberg, who murdered John Peter 
Ritz, was executed in the water-works building 
April 13, 1860. He was at work for a man 
named Palm, and. between his employer and 
Ritz there was an enmity, which grew out of a 
dispute concerning some money which the latter 
owed the former, and did not pay on account of 
failure iti business. Lundberg confessed that 


he was induced to commit tlie murder, and 
Mrs. Palm was arrested for the murder, but 
acquitted. One dark night Ritz walked out to 
call on a friend above the old gas-works, and 
when returning, about 9 o'clock, was shot 
dead. The ofticers suspected tliat Palm com- 
mitted the deed, and officer Burke went to 
Palm's house. Mrs. Palm was tiiere alone. 
Burke turned down the light and waited. In 
a short time Lundberg arrived, and the muddy 
appearance of his clotlies, etc., caused the officer 
to suspect him, and he was arrested. 

The case of William Wells, in 1860, was an 
extraordinarj' one. It seems that an old man 
named Matthias Wetzel had been murdered and 
robbed of a large amount of jewelry and pi'e- 
cious stones some time during that year. Wells 
had been arrested for this murder at Virginia 
City, Nevada, some of the spoils found in his 
possession, and was on his way frotn that place 
to Sacramento in charge of Deputy Sheriff 
Wliarton, of Sutter County, and George Arm- 
strong, a mountaineer of Virginia City. July 
25 tiiey left Marysville for this city. Tlie stage 
reached Nicolaus with all safe on board and 
was about to continue the trip when Wharton 
went to the driver, Whipple, and told him that 
the driver of the up-stage, Whitney, reported 
that the morning stage from Marysville had 
been met on Lisle's bridge by a posse of men 
who had the appearance of a rescuing mob. 
AVhipple drove into town withi)ut his passen- 
gers, and reported to the police officers the state 
of affairs, and that Wharton e.xpected assistance, 
and would wait until the othcers came. Officer 
Deal and Whipple returned to Nicolaus, where 
they learned that Wharton had engaged a wagon, 
and a man named W. C. Stoddard to attend 
them; and that they had left Nicolaus at 10 
r. M. by the river road, for the purpose of avoid- 
ing the supposed mob. At about 1:30 a. m. 
they arrived at a point about half a mile from 
Swift's bridge at the mouth of the American 
liiver. At this time Stoddard was driving, 
with Wharton sitting on the seat beside him. 
Beliind them, on the bottom of the wagon box. 

sat Wells; and stretched out on the bottom 
lay Armstrong fast asleep. Stoddard remarked 
to Wharton, "We are near to Sacramento; 
you had better wake Armstrong up." As 
Wharton turned to do so. Wells shot him in his 
right side, which had the effect of knocking 
him off the seat among the horses. The next 
instant Stoddard was shot and instantly killed; 
and a third discharge rendered Armstrong help- 
less. By this time Wharton had disengaged 
himself and fired on Wells, who was retreating 
and returned the iire, striking Wharton in the 

It appears that Wells felt entirely safe for a 
time, as he coolly started toward town, then 
went down to the river, took a row-boat and 
rowed back to the scene of the tragedy, where 
he robbed Armstrong of the money and jewelry 
stolen from Wetzel. Armstrong died that day, 
and Wharton the next. 

Wells evidently had taken the key to his 
handcuffs from Armstrong's pocket, and, after 
freeing his wrists, had snatched Armstrong's 
revolver from his belt and used it as above de- 
scribed. For several years lie was reported as 
having been seen, sometimes in one State, some- 
times in another. March 1, 1866, the officers 
brought a man whom they had arrested in 
Idaho, to Sacramento, under the impression 
that he was Wells; but it proved to be Donald 
McDonald, and he was released, and afterward 
presented with $600, by vote of the Legislature, 
to compensate him for loss of time and damage 
to reputation. The last we hear of Wells is in 
a letter received by the Union, from a man in 
Idaho, in which we are informed that Wells 
was killed in Washington Territory in 1864, by 
one of the party with whom he was traveling. 
But the theory generally accepted among the 
officers of Sacramento is that Wells did not dis- 
engage himself from the irons, and in attempt- 
ing to swim the Sicramento River was drowned. 
He had been known as a man of low character, 
frequently arrested for petty larceny, and as a 
lounger at Wetzel's saloon. 

Louis Kahl was executed at the old water- 


works building, November 29, 1861, for the 
murder of Catherine Gerkcn. On the night of 
January 4 preceding, the murdered woman was 
found at her residence on L street, near Second, 
at about midnight, strangled in her room. The 
deed had been committed evidently for the pur- 
pose of robbery. On the afternoon of the fol- 
lowing day, Officer Frank Hardy, with the aid 
of a convict called "Jimmy from Town," ar- 
rested Kahl at the Father Rhine house, on J 
street, opposite the Plaza. The watch of the 
murdered woman was found on his person, and 
he gave no very satisfactory account of it. He 
was tried, convicted and sentenced to be exe- 
cuted. His case was taken to the Supreme 
Court, and sent back to the District Court with 
directions to carry out tlie original sentence. 
He was a native of Germany, and twenty-three 
years of age. 

William Williams was hung May 20, 1864, 
for the murder of A. Blanchard. Williams was 
born in Wales in 1827, and came to California 
in 1854, settling in San Joaquin Township, this 
county, in partnership with Blanchard. They 
quarreled, had a lawsuit and dissolved partner- 
ship. Afterward they ranched as neighbors, 
but continually disagreed. They had a diffi- 
culty about the ownership of a horse, which was 
settled in Blanchard's favor. Williatns had in 
his employ a half-witted Englishman, named 
Joe Blake. On the night of August 3, 1860, 
Blanchard was returning home from Sacra- 
mento, when Williams and Blake lay in wait 
for him in a ditch. Williams had a pick- 
handle, and Blake a wagon-spoke. Next day 
Blanchard was found dead, with his head terri- 
bly mutilated. For this Williams was arrested, 
convicted, and hanged in the extreme outskirts 
of Washington, about a quarter of a mile from 
the river. 

George Nelson Symonds was hung in the old 
water-w'orks building, December 4, 1863, for the 
murder of B. F. Russell, on the night of July 
11, 1860, near Benson's Ferry. Symonds and 
Monroe Crozier were arrested for a robbery 
committed in Placer County, immediately after 

the murder, and before it was known that it 
had been committed. On the 12th of July 
they crossed the ferry with four horSes, saddled 
and bridled. Their clothing was wet and their 
appearance suspicious. When arrested for the 
robbery they had a valise containing bloody 
clothing, a stencil plate with the name of B. F. 
Russell on it, and other articles of the murdered 

In October, 1860, Symonds turned State's 
evidence in the robbery case. Crozier soon 
after escaped, and on the night of October — 
two bodies were found in the slough near the 
ferry, which had evidently been murdered 
several months previ(jus and sunk. They were 
discovered when the water in the slough dried 
up, and proved to be those of Russell and Seli- 
zer, who had early in the season started for the 
Coso mines. The trial of Symonds, who was 
brought down from Placer after the bodies were 
found, commenced March 9, 1861, before Judge 
McKune. He was convicted, and sentenced to 
be hung May 10. The Supreme Court granted 
him a new trial, and it commenced June 2, 
1862, and on the 6th he was again convicted, 
and sentenced to be hung July' 25. The case 
was again taken to the Supreme Court, and on 
September 18 the judgment of the District 
Court was affirmed, and he was sentenced ibr 
the third time. 

Frank Hudson, a Corporal in Company I, 
Second Cavalry, was executed at Camp Union 
(Agricultural Park), June 16, 1865, for the 
murder of Lieutenant Daniel Webster Lever- 
good, at Camp Bidwell, Butte County, on tiie 
14th of April. Levergood had ordered Hudson 
on a double quick in the afternoon, for drunken- 
ness, and at 9 o'clock in the evening the officer 
was shot, and died in two days. He was cer- 
tain that Hudson shot hiin, and as the latter at 
once deserted, the evidence was very strong. 
He was captured, tried by court-martial, brought 
here and hanged. 

On the evening of June 17, 1870, a man 


McLaughlin shot and killed 

Charles Lundholm, bar-keeper of the Railroad 



Exchange Saloon. Tlie alleged cause was that 
Lundholm had written some slanderous articles 
about a relative of McLaughlin's, which was 
published in a disreputable sheet called the 3fa- 
zeppa. McLaughlin was indicted. The regular 
venire of jurors was soon exhausted, and a second 
one drawn, which, singularly enough, was almost 
entirely composed of the prisoner's friends. 
The prosecution exhausted all of their peremp- 
tory challenges and were obliged to go to trial. 
As expected, the jury failed to agree, and after 
being out threj days were discharged, though 
defendant objected. Shortly afterward, defend- 
ant's counsel applied for bail, which was refused 
by Judge Ramage. A writ of habeas corpus 
was issued by the Supreme Court providing for 
bail, which was granted in the sum of $10,000, 
the court holding that the fact of a disagreement 
of the jury indicated grave doubt about the of- 
fense being murder in the first degree. The 
second trial was held in October, and the jury 
gave a verdict of murder in the first degree. 
Defendant's counsel gave notice of a motion for 
a new trial. The judge then adjourned court 
until 9 o'clock the next morning. McLaugh- 
lin was not given in charge of the sheriff, and 
walked, out of the court-house. During the 
evening he was seen at several places in town, 
but did not appear for sentence the next morn- 
ing, and was next heard of in South America, 
where he died a few years ago. Judge Ramage 
held that the order of the Supreme Court ad- 
mitting McLaughlin to bail and the bail bond 
provided for the appearance of the defendant 
for judgment and the execution thereof, and that 
by issuing an order to take McLaughlin into 
custody, he would be placed in contempt. The 
case became subject of much comment. 

Charles Mortimer, whose true name was 
Charles J. Fliiin, was executed in the Sacra- 
mento County jail-yard. May 15, 1873, for the 
murder of Mary Gibson. 

On the morning of September 20, 1872, the 
citizens were startled by the announcement that 
Mary Gibson had been brutally murdered at her 
saloon and residence on "Jib-boom" street — 

now extinct — or near the Station-house on Front 
street. Her body was found in a rear room with 
her face badly lacerated by a blow from a broken 
tumbler, and her throat cut with a knife. A 
glass of beer was found which bj' analysis was 
ascertained to contain strychnine. The house 
had been ransacked, and it was believed that 
several hundred dollars in coin had been stolen. 
The hand of the dead woman grasped a portion 
of a man's whiskers, evidently torn from the 
face of her murderer in the death struo-gle. 
Officers Harris and Dole, having seen Mortimer 
drunk the evening before, suspected thfit he 
might be the murderer. Carrie Spencer, a com- 
panion of Mortimer, was arrested on suspicion, 
and Mortimer himself was soon afterward ar- 
rested. An examination of their room revealed 
the fact that the suspected parties had posses- 
sion of several of Mrs. Gibson's dresses. In 
Mortimer's pocket was found a paper of strych- 
nine. Altogether, the clues of the identity of 
Mortimer were as definite as could be desired. 

During the progress of the trial it was found 
that he had killed one Caroline Prenel in San 
Francisco, in May previous. He was convicted 
of murder in the first degree, and afterward he 
prepared a confession at length, which he gave 
to S. C. Denson and Cameron H. King,, his at- 
torneys, as the only means within his power to 
conjpensate them for their legal services in his 
defense. In this confession the convicted man 
admitted having murdered both Mrs. Gibson 
and Caroline Prenel; but, as is natural, he im- 
plicated Carrie more than himself According 
to his seems that he was naturally 
a very selfish man, willing at any time to prac- 
tice deception in order to get more than his 

On the night of April 16 a remarkable at- 
tempt was made to rescue him from the county 
jail. The sheriff and deputies had been informed 
that such an attempt might possibly be made. 
At 1:30 o'clock the yard bell was rung, and 
Deputy Sheriff Cross, on going cautiously into 
the yard, encountered a man with his face 
masked, without his boots, with his coat turned 


wrong side out, and with a revolver in liishand. 
lie bad scaled the wall with a ladder. He at- 
tempted to enter the jail and Cross tired at him 
twice and killed him. It became evident from 
papers, etc., in his pockets that his name was 
William J. Flinn, and that he was a resident of 
Lynn, Masfacbusetts. Mortimer subsequently 
acknowledged that this was his brother, and that 
bis own name was Charles J. Flinn. He bad 
left home in 1858, since which time his family 
had known nothing of his career; but after bis 
arrest here be wrote to bis brothers, for tlie iirst 
time, soliciting their financial aid. 

An elaborate attempt was made to prove that 
Mortimer was insane during the past few weeks 
of bis confinement, but without avail. He 
feigned insanity by staring vacantly at the walls, 
refusing to speak, brushing away imaginary 
flies, etc. According to the sentence, the 
wretched convict was hanged at noon, Friday, 
May 15, 1873, in the presence of about 150 in- 
vited spectators. Many more were of course 
outside the wall desiring admission, among them 
a number of women. In the execution the fall 
was immediately fatal, not a quiver of muscle 
being noticeable. 

About midnight of April 7, 1874, the body 
of John Cruse, a German sailor, was found on 
Front, near N street. His death had evidently 
been caused by stabbing. Althongb there at 
first appeared to be literally no clue to the iden- 
tity of the murderers, yet the measures adopted 
by Chief Karcber and bis force were so ener- 
getic and conclusive that before dark of the day 
following the police had arrested the culprits 
and obtained the full particulars of their crime. 
A month afterward the Grand Jury presented 
indictments against Domingo Estrada and Filo- 
mena Cotta for murder in the first degree. May 
15 they were arraigned, and pleaded not guilty. 
I. S. Brown appeared as counsel for Estrada, 
and James C. Goods, Jo Hamilton and Paschal 
H. Coggins for Cotta. June 6 Estrada was 
convicted with the determination by the jury 
that the punishment should be death; and July 
9 Cotta was similarly convicted. Sentence 

upon both was pronounced July 28, and Sep- 
tember 18 was set for the day of execution. 
Appeal was taken to the Supreme Court, execu- 
tion stayed, and on final bearing the men were 
sentenced to be hanged February 19, 1875. 
Friends industriously circulated petitions to 
Governor Bootli for a commutation of sentence, 
but without avail, although they were signed by 
many prominent men. The sentence was ac- 
cordingly executed, in the presence of 200 in- 
vited citizens. For more than two hours previous 
to the moment fixed for the banging, the houses 
and trees in the vicinity of the jail yard were 
filled with men and boys hoping to witness the 
final scenes. Two days previously, Estrada's 
mother, on hearing that be was to be executed 
so soon, fainted, and raved all the succeeding 
night, being quieted only by the use of chloro- 
form; was in a comatose state all the next day, 
and subsequently had several fainting spells. 
Estrada's death seemed to be a painful one, as 
be had convulsive movements or an active pulse 
for twelve minutes after the fall; and Cotta's 
pulse continued fifteen minutes. 

On April 1, 1875, a horse-race was run near 
Itoseville. David Turley, a sheep- herder, was 
present as a spectator. He bad been drinking 
very freely, and was on horseback. "W. II. 
Shaw, a farm laborer, was also present, quite in- 
toxicated. He was on foot, and applied an 
epithet to Turley, who pulled a pistol and shot 
him dead. Turley rode to Roseville, surrendered 
himself, and was brought to the county jail in 
Sacramento; was tried for murder, and defended 
by Creed Haymond. The defense was made 
upon the ground that the accused was so intoxi- 
cated as to be irresponsible for his acts; and it 
was shown at the trial that he had drank an in- 
ordinate quantity of whisky. The law, however, 
provides that intoxication is no excuse for the 
commission of crime, but can be regarded only 
in mitigation of punishment. Turley was con- 
victed and suffered the penalty of death, Febru- 
ary 25, 1870. 

At about 8 o'clock on the evening of Decem- 
ber 7, 1878, a bright moonlight night, just back 


on Seventeenth street, between 1 and J, a pistol 
shot was heard; but no investigation was made, 
and the result was not known until the next 
morning, when the body of a policeman, Joseph 
Scott, was found lying upon the sidewalk. He 
had been shot through the heart, and from the 
blood marks it was ascertained that he had passed 
across the street after having received the wound. 
For many years the murder remained a mys- 
tery. The only clue was that a citizen in the 
block, on hearing the shot, looked from his 
window and saw four men running, one of whom 
wore a long, white coat. Several years after- 
ward a convict named James Ivey, in the San 
Quentin State Prison, informed the authorities 
that three men then confined in the prison were 
the persons who had committed the crime, and 
that he had overheard them detail the particu- 
lars of it. On the expiration of the terms of 
these three men, they were brought to Sacra- 
mento, whf-re two of them made a full con- 
fession. They had been in former years inmates 
of the State Prison, and on the night of the kill- 
ing of Scott had, in company with another ex- 
convict named Edwards, arrived in the city on a 
freight train from Marysville. The ride was 
stolen, and as the train slowed up about Twen- 
tieth street they jumped off and started through 
the city, with the understanding that they would 
rob the first person whom they met. There had 
been a fire at the Protestant Orphan Asylum, at 
Nineteenth and L streets, earlier on that even- 
ing, and Otiicer Scott had been detailed to watch 
the ruins. He was passing through Seventeenth 
street when these four men overtook him, and 
in an attempt to rob him he resisted and Ed- 
wards drew a revolver and shot him, as de- 
scribed. The men did not stop to search the 
body, but ran away from the city and continued 
on to Stockton, and finally three of them arrived 
in Sonoma County. There they burglarized the 
house of Judge W. C. "Wallace, wlio apprehended 
them, and they were sent to the State Prison. 
While serving this sentence the autiiorities re- 
ceived the information of their complicity in 
tlio murder of Scott. 

They were put upon trial at Sacramento, be- 
fore Judge A. Van R. Paterson, then a superior 
judge, but now a justice of the State. Supreme 
Court. Two of the accused, as we have stated, 
made full confessions, and were permitted to 
plead guilty of murder in tiie first degree, with 
the understanding that their punishment should 
be life imprisonment. The third one stoutly 
refused to confess, and exhibited feelings of in- 
dignation because the other two had. Finally 
the authorities proposed to him to plead guilty 
as the others had. He accepted it and received 
a life sentence. 

Edwards, who fired the fatal shot, is now in 
an Eastern penitentiary, and will be brought 
here for trial as soon as his term expires. 

The case of Troy Dye and Edward Anderson 
was one of the most remarkable in the annals of 

On the morning of August 2, 1878, A. M. 
TuUis, a wealthy fruit-raiser on Grand Island, 
in the lower part of the county, was found dead 
in his orchard, with a bullet-hole through his 
body. He was a bachelor, aged about fifty-five 
years, and had lived alone upon his ranch. 
There was apparently no motive for the murder, 
as no property had been taken, and for a time 
the officers were at sea to unravel the mystery. 
At length pieces of new redwood lumber were 
found in the tules on the opposite side of the 
river, a little lower down; and from the indica- 
tions they were portions of a duck-boat. Upon 
one of the pieces were figures used in calcula- 
tions of lumber measurement. These boards 
were secured by the officers, and tiie pieces con- 
taining figures were taken to the various lum- 
ber-yards in Sacramento, and a salesman at one 
of the yards identified them as having been 
made by himself. It was developed subse- 
quently that Anderson had purchased the lum- 
ber; that the salesman had figured the number 
of feet in the purchase upon the smooth side of 
a board; that Anderson's curiosity was aroused 
as to how the determination could be made in a 
manner so simple; tliat the salesman had re- 
peated the figuring upon one of the boards 


wliich Anderson liad jnircliased. The officers 
tlien found the drayman who had taken the 
lumber from the yard, and discovered that he 
had delivered it at the house of Dye. 

The information from the neighbors showed 
that a boat was made in the basement of that 
house, and the expressman was found who iiad 
taken the boat to the river. Parties along the 
river had observed an unpainted boat contain- 
ing two men passing down, and their descrip- 
tions were obtained. Upon tliis information a 
clue was based which resulted in the arrest of 
Dye and Anderson, the third party being then 
unknown. They were confined in separate jails, 
and they confessed fully concerning the crime. 

Dye had been elected to, and was then hold- 
ing, the office of public administrator. It was 
ascertained from their confessions that soon 
after his election he had entered into an arrange- 
ment with Anderson and Tom Lawton] to kill 
certain wealthy persons who had no relatives in 
the State, to enable Dye to administer upon 
their estate and receive the comuiissions. He, 
of course, was to divide the spoils with those 
who killed for him. Tullis was the first victim 
selected. Anderson and Lawton went to Tul- 
lis's ranch in the duck-boat, and met Tullis in 
his orchard. They had never met him before, 
but he had been fully described to them by 
Dye. While in conversation with him, Ander- 
son struck him with a sand-bag, and Lawton 
shot him. They then rowed to the opposite 
side of the river, and started up the road. By 
appointment Dye met them on the way up in a 
buL'gy, the signal of his approach being that he 
should whistle the tune "Sweet Bye and Bye." 
They returned to the city and took oysters, and 
Anderson on the same night rode up to Sutter 
County, where he had been employed on a 
threshing-machine, and resumed his work there. 
It was understood between them that in case 
there should be danger a letter should be 
written to him, signed by a fictitious name, 
and that the name should be underscored with 
one line or Uiore, to indicate the degree of 

On August 8, 1878, a letter was sent to An- 
derson from Sacramento, reading as follows: 

John A. Parker, Esq.: — Your child is very 
sick. You must come home at once. It would 
be well to come down in the night. It would 
be so mnch cooler for you. Call at the Doctor's 
new iionse. I will be there. 

Yours in haste, Chaklics Parker. 

The signature was doubly underscored. On 
the receipt of this note Anderson came down on 
horseback, and was arrested by officers who were 
watching his house. Lawton fled, and has never 
been captured. Dye was tried first, and An- 
derson next. Both were convicted of murder 
in the first degree, sentenced to be hanged, and 
were executed in the county jail-yard on March 
28, 1879. 

A fourth party, named Clark, was tried for 
complicity in the murder, but was acquitted. 

The defense of Ti}'& was made upon the ground 
that he had years before received an injury 
which caused a lesion of his brain, and conse- 
quent insanity. There was a division of opin- 
ion among medical witnesses on the subject. 
After his conviction a sheriflF's jury was called 
to determine the question of his insanity, and 
the verdict was against him. That question at- 
tracted considerable attention in the medical 
world, and was elaborately discussed in quite a 
number of pamphlets subsequently issued. 

About 4 o'clock on the afternoon of April 
10, 1882, a tragedy occurred in the city which 
created the wildest excitement. 

A Siberian named Simon Katan had some 
misunderstanding with a man which resulted in 
his being beaten. He applied for a warrant of 
arrest for the party, but was refused. He then 
procured a revolver, sought out the party and 
met him at the corner of Fourth and K streets. 
He shot at him, without effect, and ran away, 
pursued by a large number of people. Wliile 
passing through the alley between K and L and 
Third and Fourth streets, and as he reached the 
rear of the International Hotel, James Lansing, 
the proprietor, came out into the alley in front 
of Ratan and attempted to stop him. Ratan 


leveled his revolver at Lansing and shot him in 
the stomacli. 

Lansing had been a sheriff of the poiinty and 
also assessor; his standing in the community 
was high and liis friends many, and the news of 
his being shot spread over the city like wild- 
fire, and tiie city prison in which Ratan had 
been lodged was surrounded by a large number 
of people, who threatened summary vengeance 
upon Ratan. Lansing died that evening, in 
great agony, and several thousand people im- 
mediately surrounded the prison. It seemed 
that a riot was imminent. The mayor of the 
city addressed the crowd, urging them to return 
to their homes and allow the law to deal with 
the offender. His appeal was of no avail. The 
military were summoned and they drove the 
mob from the immediate vicinity of the prison, 
and established a guard line about it. A Gat- 
ling gun was placed in the prison door, fully 
prepared for service in an emergency. A dis- 
persal was effected. A month later Ratan was 
placed on trial for his life, the jury convicted 
him, and he was sentenced to be hung. 

About the same time Joseph Hurtado shot 
and killed a man named Estuardo, at Front and 
I streets. He was subsequently convicted and 
sentenced to be hung. The attorneys for Ratan 
and Hurtado appealed their cases to the Supreme 
Court of the State, without avail. Then their 
cases were appealed to the Supreme Court of the 
United States, upon the point that an informa- 
tion filed by a district attorney under the pro- 
visions of the State Constitution was void; and 
that no man could be put upon trial for a felony 
e.xcept after having been indicted by the grand 
jury. It was claimed that the State constitu- 
tion was repugnant to the United States con- 
stitution. The Federal Supreme Court, in an 
elaborate opinion, held that the point was not 
well taken, and the parties were re-sentenced to 
death. Subsequently doubts as to the sanity of 
Ratan were entertained, and the Governor com- 
muted his sentence to imprisonment for life. 

After confinement in the State Prison foratime, 
he proved to be insane, and is now in one of the 
asylums for the insane. 

Hurtado was consumptive, and he died of 
that disease in the county jail before the day ar- 
rived for his execution. He had been a hotel 
runner, but was a man of quarrelsome disposi- 
tion, although of sacriticingfidelity toliis friends. 
On one occasion he saved the life of a friend at 
the risk of his own. Some years ago he had a 
difficulty with a man named Denny, and the lat- 
ter was killed. He was put on trial for the mur- 
der of Denny, but was acquitted. The night 
before his trial he had married, and the defense 
for the killing of Estuardo was because of the 
infidelity of that wife. 

In March, 1888, John Lowell, a well-known 
rancher, left his home near Brighton to visit 
another ranch in El Dorado County, about seven 
miles from Folsom. He was missing for sev- 
eral weeks, and search was made for him, and 
on June 2 his remains were found buried in a 
cellar under his house. It was subsequently 
ascertained that three men, John Henry Myers, 
John Olsen and William Drager had borrowed a 
team at Sacramento, driven up to Lowell's ranch, 
ostensibly to engage in wood-cutting; and that 
while they were going out to look at the wood 
one of them shot and killed Lowell with a shot- 
gun, and disposed of his body as indicated. The 
motive for the crime was to steal a buggy and 
some horses and harnesses from Lowell. They 
returned with their plunder to Sacramento, and 
disposed of it openly. They were arrested, made 
full confession, taken to Piacerville, tried, con- 
victed and sentenced to death. Myers was exe- 
cuted November 30, 1888. The other two 
appealed their cases to the Supreme Court, and 
are (April, 1889), still awaiting the decision. 

Lowell, the murdered man, a few years before 
had a difficulty with some parties at Brighton, 
and he shot and killed Joseph Powers. He was 
placed upon trial for murder, and the jury ac- 
quitted him. 


- >tgg>^i?^';?a3f?7*inyi'?yi'yi->'^ 








IN 1S54, during the rapid decay of the old 
AVhig party and tlie uprising of the anti- 
, slavery party into prominence, and when the 
struggles in '-bleeding Kansas" constituted the 
most exciting topics of political discussion, a 
Democratic convention was held at the Fourth 
Street Baptist Church in Sacramento, at 3 o'clock 
i>. M., Tuesday, July 18. Some time before the 
hour for the meeting, the doors of the church 
were surrounded by a large assemblage of per- 
sons, many of whom were not delegates; and as 
soon as the doors were opened the church, which 
was estimated to afford accommodation for about 
400 persons, was filled to its utmost capacity. 

D. C. Broderick, the chairman of the State 
Committee, ascended the platform, and was re- 
ceived with loud and continued cheering. On 
his calling the convention to order, several dele- 
gates instantly sprang to the floor for the pur- 
pose of nominating candidates for temporary 
chairman. Broderick recognized T. L. Vermule 
as having the floor; but before the announce- 
ment was made, John O'Meara proposed ex- 
Governor John McDougal for chairman pro 
tern. Vermule nominated Edward McGowan 
for the position. Broderick stated that he could 
not recognize O'Meara's motion, and put the 
question on McGowan's election, and declared 
that it had carried. McGowan instantly mounted 
the stand, closely followed by McDougal, whose 
friends insisted that he had been selected al- 
tliouirh his name had not been submitted to the 

convention in regular form. The two chairmen 
took seats side by side, and a scene of inde- 
scribable confusion and tumult ensued. When 
something like order was restored, McDougal 
read the names Major G. W. Hook and John 
Bidwell as vice-presidents; and McGowan an- 
nounced J. T. Hall and A. T. Laird as his ap- 
pointees for those offices. Again a scene of 
extreme confusion occurred; but the gentlemen 
named seated themselves with their respective 
leaders. Two sets of secretaries and commit- 
tees were then appointed, and reports were made 
to each side recommending tiiat the temporary 
officers be declared permanently elected. Mo- 
tions were made to adopt the reports, and amid 
the greatest excitement they were declared car- 
ried . 

This double-headed convention sat until about 
9 o'clock in the night. No further business was 
transacted but each side tried to " sit " the other 
out. Two sickly candles, one in front of each 
president, lighted up the scene. The trustees 
of the church finally relieved both sides by stat- 
ing that they could not tolerate the riotous 
crowd longer in the building, and the delegates 
left without a formal adjournment. 

The session tliroughout waslike pandemonium 
let loose. Soon after the organization, a rush 
was made by the crowd to the stage. One of 
the officers was seized, and at that instant a 
pistol exploded in the densely crowded room. 
A mad rush was made for tiie doors, and a por- 


tion of the delegates made a precipitate retreat 
through the windows to the ground — a distance 
of some fifteen feet. Toward night Governor 
Bigler was called to the stand and he made a 
conciliatory speech, but without effect. 

On the 19th, the wing presided over by Mc- 
Dougal, and wliich represented the ''chivalry," 
or Southern element, of the party, met at Musical 
Hall; and the McGowan or Tammany branch, 
representing the Northern element, met in Car- 
penter's building. The officers of the chivalry 
wing resigned, and Major Hook was elected 
President, and H. P. Barber, William A. Man- 
nerly, A.W. Taliaferro and J. G. Downey, Vice- 
Presidents. A communication was received 
from the other convention asking that a com- 
mittee of conference be appointed, with a view^ 
of settling the disagreement; but the language 
of the communication was regarded as offensive, 
and it was withdrawn for the purpose of chang- 
ing the phraseology. Afterward a second note, 
almost similar to the first, was sent in; but it 
was flatly rejected. 

After nominating candidates for Congress and 
for clerk of the Supreme Court, and passing 
resolutions favoring the construction of the At- 
lantic & Pacific Railroad under the auspices of 
Congress and indorsing the Nebraska bill, etc., 
they levied an assessment of $5.00 per delegate 
to repair the damages to the church building. 
The convention also appointed a State Central 

The McGowan wing met at 9:30 a. m. on the 
19th, that gentleman continuing to act as the 
presiding officer. A committee of seven was 
appointed to invite the McDougal convention to 
attend, and the committee were empowered to 
arrange the difficulties. A recess was taken 
until 1 o'clock to give the committee time to 
act. On the re-assembling of the convention 
the committee reported that they had sent the 
following communication to the McDougal con- 
vention, and that the proposition therein con- 
tained had been rejected. 

"John McDodgal, Esq., Chairinan of Dem- 
ocratic Delefjates convened at Mtisleal Hall: 

Sir — The undersigned have been this morning 
constituted a committee, with full powers, by 
and on behalf of the Democratic State Conven- 
tion at Carpenter's Hall, for a conference with 
our fellow Democrats at Musical Hall, for the 
purpose of harmonizing and uniting the Democ- 
racy of California. You will be pleased to 
announce this to your body; and any commu- 
nication may be addressed to the chairman of 
this committee, at Jones's Hotel." 

The committee was dischai'ged, and the con- 
vention proceeded to nominate a ticket, different 
throughout from the one nominated by the other 
convention. They also adopted a series of reso- 
lutions alluding to the heterogeneous character 
of the Democratic party in this State and the 
subsequent differences of the convention in this 
city, and urged the people to adopt their ticket 
as the one most conciliatory. They also ap- 
pointed a State Central Committee. A collec- 
tion of $400 was taken up to I'epair the damages 
that had been, done to the Baptist church on the 
previous day, a committee having reported that 
the building had been injured to that extent. 

Directly after the adjournment of the conven- 
tions, several of the nominees withdrew from 
the ticket, and after the election the Tammany 
party ascribed tiieir defeat to the withdrawal of 
Milton S. Latham from the Congressional race. 

The first mass meeting of " Republicans " in 
California was held in Sacramento, April 19, 
1856. E. B. Crocker was the leader of the new- 
party in this county, and opened the meeting 
with a speech which was listened to attentively. 
George C. Bates was then introduced, but the 
general disturbance raised by the "Americans" 
and Democrats present prevented his voice from 
being heard. Henry S. Foote, previously Gov- 
ernor of Mississippi, then took the stand and 
begged the disturbers to desist and allow the 
meeting to proceed; but he was not heeded. 
The Republican speakers again attempted to 
talk, when suddenly a rush was made for the 
stand by the crowd, and it was overturned and 

the meeting broken 


On the 30th of that 

ith tlie first State 


Convention of the Republicans met in the Con- 
gregational cliurcli in Sacramento. E. B.Crocker 
was temporary chairman. Only thirteen counties 
were represented, and of the 125 delegates pres- 
ent sixty-six were from San Francisco and Sac- 
ramento. Resolutions were adopted opposing 
the further extension of slave territory and of 
slave power, welcoming honest and industrious 
immigrants, deprecating all attempts to preju- 
dice immigrants against our free institutions, 
favoring the speedy construction of a trans-con- 
tinental railroad by aid from Congress, favoring 
the speedy settlement of land titles in this State 
and the election only of bona-lide permanent 
settlers to office. 

Early in May that year a public discussion 
was announced to take place at Sacramento be- 
tween George C. Bates, Republican, and J. C. 
Zabriskie, Democrat; but when the appointed 
time arrived no location could be procured on 
account of the anticipated disturbance, and the 
meeting was postponed until the evening of the 
lOtli of that month. When the time arrived 
the discussion was commenced. Rotten eggs 
were thrown and tire-crackers burned to create 
a disturbance, but the police made several ar- 
rests and order was restored. After the meet- 
ing closed, outsiders took possession of the 
stand, and a resolution was adopted declaring 
"that the people of this city have been out- 
raged by the discussion of treasonable doctrines 
by a public felon; and that we will not submit 
to such an outrage in the future." 

A few days later the Sacramento Tribune 
(American), referring to the meeting, said: 
"The fact that a public discussion was per- 
mitted to take place in a public street in the 
heart of our city, in the presence of a large con- 
course of citizens, almost all of whom disap- 
prove the doctiine advocated by the speakers, 
and this too when it is the firm conviction of a 
large majority of the persons assembled that 
the agitation of the slavery question as the basis of 
political party organization is against the true in- 
terest of the State and the Nation, speaks volumes 
in favor of the public morals of Sacramento." 

In 1865 a dissension occurred in the Union 
party. On the 25th of July that year it cul- 
minated at a county convention held at. Sacra- 
mento. The Low and the anti-Low delegates 
were about equally divided in numbers. Gov- 
ernor Frederick F. Low was a candidate for the 
United States Senate, and was £up])orted by one 
wing of the party. There was, however, a strong 
opposition to him. The convention met in the 
Assembly chamber in the then State capitol, 
now the court-house. The desks which had 
ordinaril}' occupied the floor had been removed, 
and a sufficient number of chairs had been 
placed in their stead to accommodate the 106 
delegates who were expected to participate in 
the proceedings. As the room filled it was a 
noticeable fact that almost without exception 
the Low, or short-hair, delegates occupied the 
seats on the right of the speaker's chair, and the 
anti-Low, or long-hairs, those on the left. Ln- 
mediately after the convention was called to 
order, two persons were placed in nomination 
for temporary secretary, and voted for. The 
chairman of the county committee announced 
W. H. Barton, the long-hair candidate, elected 
to the position by a viva voce vote. The con- 
vention was at once thrown into confusion, and 
the Low delegates insisted on a count of the 
votes. Barton advanced from the left toward 
the secretary's table, when the delegates from 
the right made a general rush to the left side of 
the house. 

Then ensued an indescribable and a terrible 
scene, such as was never before witnessed in 
Sacramento at any political convention. Barton 
was intercepted before reaching the secretary's 
table, and told that he should not take his seat. 
The delegates on the left crowded up for the 
purjtose of supporting him, as those from the 
right forced a solid phalanx on the front to pre- 
vent him from advancing. In a moment the 
two parties were engaged in a hand-to-hand 
fight. Solid hickory canes, which appeared to 
be abundant on both sides, were plied with 
vigor. Spittoons flew from side to side like 
bomlj-shells on a battle-field. Ink-stands took 


the place of solid shot. Pistols were drawn 
and used as substitutes for clubs. The principal 
weapons, however, which were used by both 
sides, were the cane-bottomed arm-chairs, which 
were of couise within the reach of every one. 
These implements, though not very well adapted 
to purposes of warfare, were swung in the air 
by the dozen and broken over the heads of the 
contending parties. In some instances chairs 
were broken up for the purpose of procuring 
the legs to use as clubs. No fire-arms were 
discharged and no knives were used. The fight 
lasted probably five minutes. At the close the 
anti-Low men, or long-hairs, who had rallied to 
the support of Barton, were driven "from the 
field. Several jumped out through the win- 
dows; others who were badly hurt were assisted 
out of the building, while the greater portion 
passed into the ante-room and the main hall to 
find neutral ground. 

After the fight the long-hairs retired in a 
body and organized in another hall, while the 
short-hairs proceeded with business in the capi- 
tol. Each convention nominated a full local 
ticket, and elected a set of delegates to the State 
Convention. Newton Booth was nominated for 
State Senat-or by the long-hairs, and E. H. Hea- 
cock by the shorts. The shorts attributed the 
trouble to an alleged partial ruling by the chair- 
man of the committee in favor of Barton, and 
to the determination on the part of the longs to 
run the convention without regard to the rights 
or wishes of the opposition. The short-hair 
convention instructed its nominees for the Leg- 
islature to vote for Low for United States Sen- 
ator, but he afterward declined. His withdrawal, 
however, did not heal the breach in the Union 

party. The division continued until sometime 
in August, when the short-hairs generally trans- 
ferred their support to John B. Felton for United 
States Senator. 

The result of the election was that Cornelius 
Cole was elected to the United States Senate, 
December 16 following, as the agreed candidate 
of both parties. 

Ex-Governor H. S. Foote, referred to in this 
chapter, was born in Vii-ginia in 1800; graduated 
at Washington College in 1819; commenced the 
practice of law in 1822; edited a Democrati 

paper m 

xllabama in 1824:-'32, and then resided 

many years in Mississippi, by which State he 
was elected United States Senator. In 1852 he 
was elected Governor of that State, having re- 
signed his Senatorship. He came to California 
in 1854, joined the; Native American party, and 
was their candidate for United States Senator 
in 1856, being defeated by David C. Broderick. 
In 1858 he returned to Mississippi and took an 
active part in politics; represented Termessee in 
the Confederate Congress. One of his daugh- 
ters became the wife of William M. Stewart, 
United States Senator; the other two daughters 
married and reside in this State, and two of the 
sons are practicing lawyers on the Pacific Coast. 
During his life Foote became engaged in three 
duels, in two of which he was wounded. 

He possessed considerable literary ability. 
In 1866 he published "The War of the Rebell- 
ion" and "Scylla and Carybdis," and in 1871 
a volume of reminiscences. He was also the 
author of "Texas and the Texans," published in 

He died near Nashville, Tennessee, at his 
residence, May 20, 1880. 



N the following synopsis, necessarily brief, 
of the military organizations in this city, 
many familiar names will be found, and many 
a train of thought and recollection awakened. 
There is an ample mine of good things to be 
had by research in every one of these organi- 
zations of "auld lang syne." 

The Sutter Rifle Corps was organized June 
27, 1852, with B. D. Fry, Captain; M. D. 
Corse, First Lieutenant; John Q. Brown, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant; W. Bryerly, Third Lieutenant. 
This company was especially noted for its lib- 
erality on all public and private occasions. It 
paid $1,200 for choice of the first seat at Cath- 
erine Hayes's concert, in 1853, and presented 
the ticket to General Sutter. 

M. D. Corse, mentioned above, was afterward 
Captain of the company, and also held other 
offices in the city. He returned to the East in 
1857, and finally graced the list of Sheridan's 
prisoners in 1865 as "General Corse." 

When the Governor called on the militia for 
duty against the Vigilance Committee of San 
Francisco, in 1856, the Sutter Rifles met on 
the 4th of June and voted to respond to the 
Governor's call. E. E. Eyre was then Lieuten- 
ant Commanding; H. S. Foushee, Second Lieu- 
tenant; and John C. Keenan, Orderly Sergeant. 
Soon afterward the company disbanded, but re- 
organized in 1857, with E. E. Eyre, Captain; 

Charles J. Torbert, First Lieutenant; Joseph 
H. Vigo, Second Lieutenant; W. R. Covey, 
Brevet Second Lieutenant. The company had 
but little vigor, however, and soon died. 

Sacramento Guards, Light Infantry, were or- 
ganized August 11, 1855. Henry Meredith, 
Captain; D. S. Woodward, First Lieutenant; 
R. W. Wilcox, Second Lieutenant; John Arnold, 
Brevet Second Lieutenant; Josiah Howell, En- 
sign; L. L. Baker, Orderly Sergeant. On De- 
cember 17, 1855, Baker was elected Captain, 
and among the subsequent otfioers of the com- 
pany were D. A. McMerritt, L. Powers, Isaac 
Lohniau and C. H. Cummings. The company 
numbered forty-five. 

During the excitement over the actions of tiie 
Vigilance Committee, in 1856, the Governor 
issued a proclamation calling out the militia of 
the State to suppress the disturbance. The 
Sacramento Guards met June 4, 1856, and dis- 
banded, giving their arms into tlie custody of 
the Sutter Rifles. Tiiey at once reorganized as 
the "Independent City Guards," and were fully 
equipped by the end of the year. In 1858 
this was the only company in Sacramento. 

Young Men's Pioneer Guard. — Organized in 
1856, it was composed of the leading young 
men in the city. John Talbot was Captain; A. 
R. Simons, First Lieutenant; Samuel Richard- 
son, Second Lieutenant; Charles Sinclair, Tiiird 


Lieutenant; Oliver H. Worden, Ensign; John, 
Foley, First Sergeant. 

Tiie Sacramento Cadets were organized May 
17, 1856, with Edwin A. Sherman as Captain; C- 
II. Watson, First Lieutenant; George J. Pren- 
tice, Second Lieutenant. 

Independent (Sacramento) City Guard reor- 
ganized under the State law June 28, 1858. L. 
L. Baker, Captain; Josiah Howell, First Lieu- 
tenant; L. Powers, Second Lieutenant; I. Loh- 
man. Brevet Second Lieutenant. Among the 
subsequent officers were S. P. Ford, Benjamin 
Peart, Joseph I. Friend, Henry Starr, W. H. 
Ratenberry, C. L. Bird, I. B. Vanderburg. 
Among the privates were C. H. Cummings, H. 
S. Crocker, D. Giilis, P. J. Hopper and J. H. 
Lewis. During the llebellion this company 
furnished several officers and some thirty men 
tor the service of the United States. 

The Sacramento Hussars, a company of Ger- 
man cavalry, were organized August 4, 1859, and 
reorganized June 11, 1863, and attached to the 
State Militia. Tiiey were honorably discharged 
from the National Guard August 21, 1874 
since wiiicli time they have continued an inde- 
pendent organization. At first there were 
twenty-six members, and the officers were: Fred 
Werner, Captain; Charles Heinrich, First Lieu- 
tenant; F. X. Ebner, Senior Second Lieutenant; 
Josepii Martzen, Junior Second Lieutenant. 
Other early members were L. Steudaman, A. 
Heilbron, E. Kraus, Charles Sellinger, A. Neu- 
bauer, D. Weimann, M. Arentz, C. Iser, G. 
Uhl, S. Gerber, John Batcher, M. Wetzel, James 
II. Groth, George Schroth, J. Korn, Julius 
Gregory, A. Meuke, M. Miller, A. Dennery, 
Andrew Ross, John B. Kohl, deceased, and 
Jacob Meistcr. 

Granite Guard, at Folsom, was organized May 
27, 1861, with fifty-eight men; F. S. Mumford, 

The Washington Rifles were organized May 
27, 1861, with eighty-one men. This company 
was organized under the militia laws of tlie 
State, and immediately tendered their services 
to the Governor, were accepted and mustered 

into the service of the United States. Thomas 
I. Roberts was Captain; W. A. Thompson, 
First Lieutenant; J. S. Hunter, Second Lieu- 
tenant; W. L. Ustick, Brevet Second Lieuten- 
ant; and Henry Kline and Cornelius V. Kel- 
logg were also officers. 

Sacramento Rangers, cavalry, organized Au- 
gust 27, 1861, with sixty-two men, and were 
mustered into the service of the United States. 

D. A. McMerritt was Captain ; J. M. Ropes, First 
Lieutenant; A. W. Starr, Second Lieutenant; 
H. A. Burnett, First Sergeant; James Contell, 
Second Sergeant; J. B. Slocum, Third Sergeant; 
Frank Jones, Fourth Sergeant; W. I. Camp- 
bell, P'ifth Sergeant. 

Siiirland's Cavalry. — E. D. Shirland raised, 
and was Captain of, a cavalry company, which 
was recruited principally about Folsom. They 
were mustered into the service of the United 
States, and arrived at Sacramento by rail Sep- 
tember 5, 1861, seventy-five strong. Here they 
were joined by about forty recruits from this 
city, and left for San Francisco on the Steamer 
Antelope. In two hours the citizens of Folsom 
raised $513 for the use of the company. 

The National Guard was organized October 
7, 1862, with L. L. Baker as Captain; D. W. 
Welty, First Lieutenant; W. H. B. Morrill, 
Senior Second Lieutenant; Prescott Robinson, 
Junior Second Lieutenant. The Sergeants were 
John Talbot, John Foley, R. H. Daley, Paschal 
Coggins and M. L. Templeton. Among the 
privates were Newton Booth, M. M. Estee, Jus- 
tin Gates, S. S. HoU, James McClatchy, A. 
Badlam and S. Tryon. 

The Sacramento Sharp-Shooters organized 
June 6, 1863, with E. R. Hamilton as Captain; 
Thomas V. Cummings, First Lieutenant; W. 
M. Siddons, Senior Second Lieutenant. C. Wei- 
sel, J. A. Conboie and E. H. Heacock were 
Sergeants. Among the privates were L. Booth, 

E. M. Fry, A. Flolir, J. T. Glover, S. S. Holi, 
I. Luce, J. H. McKune, Robert Robinson, P. 
Stanton, O. H. Tubbs and G. K. Van Heusen. 
This company was mustered out in 1866. 

The Turner Rifles organized June 22, 1863, 


with forty-four men. Charles Wolleb was Cap- 
tain; A. Geisel, First Lieutenant; L. Lottham- 
mer, Senior Second Lieutenant; A. Nessell, 
Junior Second Lieutenant. Among the privates 
were Jolin Ballmer, A. Heilbron, Charles Pom- 
mer, C. Weil, C. Kleinsorge, L. B. Mohr and C. 

The Walnut Grove Union Guard was organ- 
ized at Walnut Grove in August, 1863, and 
continued for several years as a portion of the 
State Militia. 

The Baker Guard, organized September 15, 

1863, was composed of over iifty young men, 
generally under twenty-one years of age. W. 
T. Crowell was Captain; James Clunie, First 
Lieutenant; D. K. Zumwalt, Second Lieuten- 
ant; and Samuel Carlisle, Third Lieutenant. It 
was consolidated with Company D, JS'ational 
Guards, in June, 1866. 

The Sacramento Light Artillery, unattached, 
was organized September 24, 1864, with Edgar 
Mills as Captain; Wyman McMitchell, First 
Lieutenant; AV. M. Siddons, Senior Second 
Lieutenant; D. W. Earl, Junior Second Lieu- 
tenant; and A. J. Senatz was prominent in the 
organization. Among the subsequent Captains 
were S. S. Montague, Joseph Davis and J. L. 

The First Battalion, Light Artillery, was 
organized in September, 1866, with Edgar Mills 
as Major; L. E. Crane, First Lieutenant and 
Adjutant; Paul Morrill, First Lieutenant and 
Quartermaster; W. R. Cluness, Assistant Ser- 

The Emmet Guards organized March 19, 

1864, with John Foley as Captain; F. A. Mo- 
ran, First Lieutenant; John F. Sheehan, Senior 
Second Lieutenant; John S. Barrett, Junior 
Second Lieutenant. The other officers were T. 
W. Sheehan, Owen Farrell and M. McManus. 
This company was mustered out of the State 
service June 11, 1872. 

The Sacramento Zouaves were an independent 
colored company, which had an existence for 
several years. 

Company G (Sarstield Guards) was organized 

in 1870, with William H. Ashton, Jr., Captain; 
Charles Brady, First Lieutenant; arid Thomas 
Nolan, Second Lieutenant. 

On April 10, 1850, the first Legislature passed 
an act providing for the organization of the State 
Militia into four divisions and eight brigades. 
The First Division was composed of the coun- 
ties of Trinity, Shasta, Butte, Yuba, Sutter, El 
Dorado and Sacramento. The Legislature was 
to elect the Generals. On the next day that 
body met in joint convention and elected as 
Major-Geiierals, Thomas J. Green, John E. 
Brackett, David F. Douglass and Joshua H. 
Bean; and as Brigadiers, J. H. Eastland, A. M. 

"Winn, Robert Semple, McDonald, John 

E. Addison, D. P. Baldwin, Thomas H. Bowen 
and J. M. Covarrubias. On May 1, 1852, a law 
was passed organizing the militia into seven 
districts, and the Seventh District was composed 
of Sacramento, Sutter, Placer and El Dorado 

On April 25, 1855, a law was passed creating 
six divisions and twelve brigades. The Fourth 
Division comprised the counties of Amador, El 
Dorado, Sacramento, Placer, Nevada and Sierra. 
The First Brigade of that division comprised 
Amador, El Dorado and Sacramento. On May 
9, 1861, another military law was passed, but it 
did not change the brigade position of Sacra- 

On April 24, 1862, a law was passed organizing 
the militia into one division and six brigades. 
The Fourth Brigade was made to consist of the 
counties of Sacramento, Yolo, Sutter, El Dorado, 
Amador, Placer, Nevada, Yuba and Sierra. On 
April 12, 1866, Alpine was added to the Fourth 
Brigade, and since thennochange has been made. 

James Collins was appointed Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, commanding the Fourth Brigade, August 
1, 1862, commissioned August 30. General 
Collins died in Nevada City, July 18, 1864. 

Josiah Howell was then appointed, receiving 
his commission July 25, 1864, and resigned 
November 14, 1874. 

Wm. L. Campbell was appointed to the posi- 
tion December 1, 1874, received his commission 



01) the same day, and resigned I^ovember 19, 

Governor Pacheco appointed Wentworth T. 
Crowell to the position November 27, 1875. 
This appointment was not confirmed by the 
Democratic Senate, and General Crowell only 
held the office until his successor was appointed. 

J. G. Martine was appointed to the command 
April 4, 1876, and resigned April 8. This 
resignation was caused by severe attacks on the 
General by some of the newspapers in the dis- 
trict. Crowell continued in office till March 3, 
1877, when he resigned. 

M. S. Horan was appointed March 3, 1877, 
was commissioned on March 5, and resigned 
November 4, 1878. 

T. J. Clunie was appointed to fill the vacancy 
by Governor Irwin, December 30, 1878, but 
was not confirmed by tlie Republican Senate. 

John F. Sheehan was appointed January 15i 
1880, commissioned on the 17tli, and resigned 
May, 1882. 

Lewellyn Tozer was appointed May 19, 1882, 
but the subsequent Democratic Senate refused 
to confirm him. 

John T. Carey was commissioned February 
10, 1883. T. W. Sheehan is the present in- 

The Fourth Regiment of Infantry, N. G. C, 
was organized in 1864, with E. R. Hamilton as 
Colonel; B. Eilerman, Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
James Adams, Major. The regiment was re- 
organized in December, 1865, when L. L. Baker 
was elected Colonel, and the remaining officers 
continued the same. August 22, 1866, Ham- 

ilton was again elected Colonel; James Adams, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and John F. Sheehan, Ma- 
jor. The regiment was mustered out of service 
in pursuance of Special Order No. 44, dated 
July 8, 1868, and the companies were ordered 
to remain unattached until further orders. 

The Fourth Regiment was reorganized under 
Special Order No. 7, dated February 19, 1872. 
March 7 following, C. V. Kellogg was elected 
Colonel; B. Eilerman, Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
H. F. Page, Major. Kellogg and Eilerman re- 
signed in July, 1874, when W. T. Cromwell 
was elected Colonel, and H. W. Thain, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. This regiment was disbanded 
and mustered out of service March 31, 1877. 
It was immediately reorganized as the First Bat- 
talion of Infantry, and Thomas J. Clunie was 
elected the Commander. Creed Haymond sub- 
sequently succeeded him, and when he resigned 
T. "W. Sheehan assumed the command. Shee- 
han became Brigadier-General, and J. W. Guth- 
rie was commissioned Colonel. He is the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

A respectable company of colored men has 
also existed in Sacramento for some time. 

J. W. Guthrie, plumber and gas-fitter near 
the foot of J street, has been so active and effi- 
cient in military matters, as a member of the 
First Artillery Regiment, Fourth Brigade, Na- 
tional Guard of California, that he has been 
promoted from the position of private in 1869 
through diflferent grades to that of Colonel of 
the regiment, April 7, 1887. The superiority 
of his regiment is due to his efficiency. 



jOST of the following history is from an 
elaborate account published in the Rec- 
ord- Union hyiS. A. Woodson, the editor, 
in 1875. 

On the 28th of April, 1849, at Sutter's Fort, 
the first Sacramento newspaper, the Placer 
Times, was started - by E. C. Kemble & Co., as 
an oif-shoot of the AUa California, of Saii Fran- 
cisco. The merchants in the vicinity rallied 
about the pioneer publisher and subscribed lib- 
erally to secure him from loss. A lot of old 
type was picked up out of the AUa office, an old 
Eiimage press was repaired, a lot of Spanish 
foolscap secured in San Francisco, and the whole 
shipped to Sacramento on a vessel known as the 
Dice me Nana (says my mamma), the first craft 
to carry type and press to the interior of Cali- 
fornia, which trip she made in eight days. An 
office was built for the paper about 600 feet 
from the northeast corner of the bastion and 
near what is now the corner of Twenty-eighth 
and K streets. It was a strange mixture of 
adobe, wood and cotton cloth, but answered the 
purpose. The paper was 18x18 inches in size, 
with a title cut from wood with a pocket knife. 
All sorts of expedients were resorted to in cut- 
ting oflT and piecing out letters to make up a 
complement of " sorts " in the cases. The press 
had a wooden platen, which needed constant 
planing off to keep it level, and the rollers were 
anything but successes. 

The Times appeared on Saturdays until June, 
when chills and fever drove Mr. Kemble to 
" The Bay," and T. P. PerLee&Co. took charge. 
Per Lee ran the paper two weeks, but, being a 
tyro in the business, gave it up, and J. H. Giles 
took charge as agent for E. Gilbert & Co., own- 
ers of the AUa. In July the Times removed to 
Front street, where it flourished well for a time. 
Tiie subscription was $10 per annum. In No- 
vember, 1849, after a brief period of reduction 
in size, it resumed its old shape and was removed 
to Second street, between K and L. April 22, 
1850, it began to appear as a tri- weekly, and J. 
E. Lawrence made his editorial bow. June 5 
following, it appeared as a daily, and thus won 
the distinction of being the first daily paper of 
Sacramento. In July it was enlarged one-third. 
October 8, same year, it was purchased by 
Loring Pickering, J. E. Lawrence and L. Al- 
drich, the price paid being §16,000, which in- 
cluded the cost of the building and two lots. 
Aldrich soon sold out to the others. Tiie paper 
had been neutral, but in 1850 inclined toward 
Democracy. When the Squatter Riot excite- 
ment came on, it had been valiant in defense of 
the real-estate owners, but under its new man- 
agement was less partisan. Its last issue was 
dated June 15, 1851, during which month it 
was consolidated with its rival, the Sacramento 

The latter had been started April 1, 1850, as 


■A tri-weekly, aud the size of the Times. It was 
the first paper in interior California to be issued 
oftener than once a week. The proprietors were 
G. K. Fitch, S. C. Upham, J. M. Julian, H. S. 
Warner, Theodore Russell and F. C. Ewer. 
Mr. Ewer had been a prominent minister of the 
Congregational Church elsewhere. After he 
loft here he went to New York, where he again 
maintained his pre-eminence as a minister. 

The Transcript was a good paper and aimed 
at literary excellence. Fifth interests in the 
paper sold during the first summer as high as 
85,000. G. C. Weld bought the interest of 
U]5ham for $10,000 very shortly after the paper 
started. In July, that season, the paper was 
enlarged, and the rivalry between it and the 
Times became very warm. The Transcript was 
started as an independent sheet, but in Decem- 
ber, 1850, came out for the Democratic party 
and was thus the first interior Democratic paper. 

As before stated, the Times and Transcript 
were united June 16, 1851, and thus was the 
first double-headed paper printed in California. 
It was enlarged to a size slightly greater than 
the present Hecord- Union single sheet. G. K. 
Fitch had become State Printer, and L. Picker- 
ing had the city printing. These formed the 
basis of the fusion. Fitch retaining a half in- 
terest in the printing, aud Pickering & Law- 
rence holding the other half. The editors were 
Pickering, Fitch and Lawrence, The new pa- 
per found a rival in the State Jotirnal, and in 
June, 1852, the Times and Transcript left the 
field and went to San Francisco, where it was 
])ublished by the old firm, and subsequently by 
George Kerr & Co., composed of George Kerr, 
P>. F. Washington, J. E. Lawrence and J. C. 
Haswell. It passed from them to Edwin Bell, 
and next to Vincent E. Geiger & Co. Picker- 
ing, Fitch & Co. meanwhile had acquired the 
Alta California, and December 17, 1854, they 
bought back their old Times~and Transcript, 
and the Alta at once absorbed it. 

October 30, 1850, the Squatter Association 
started an organ, styling it the Settlers' and 
Miners' Tvlhune. Dr. Charles Robinson, the 

editor, was noted for the active part he took in 
the Squatter Riots. He sitbsequently became 
the Free State Governor of Kansas; James Mc- 
Ciatchy and L. M. Booth were associate editors. 
Sirus. Rowe brought tlie type from Maine. The 
paper was daily, except Sundays, for a month, 
when it declined to a weekly, aud after another 
month quietly gave up the ghost and was laid 
to rest in the journalistic boneyard. 

December 23, 1850, tiie first weekly paper, 
the Sacramento Index, was started by Lynch, 
Davidson & Rolfe, practical " typos," with J. 
W. Winans, since a prominent lawyer of San 
Francisco, as editor. II. B. Livingstone was 
associate. It was nearly the size of the Record- 
Union, typographically neat, and was issued 
from the Times oitice, and was the first evening 
paper in Sacramento. Taking ground against 
the act of a vigilanc3 committee in hanging a 
gambler, it lost ground, and died March 17, 
1851, after a life of three months. It was a 
paper of rare literary ability. 

The competition between the Times and tlie 
Transcript before their union became so warm 
that prices of advertising declined until they 
fell below the cost of composition. The print- 
ers in both offices rebelled, and the greater 
number quit. They held a meeting in a build- 
ing next to the T r'lnsurlpt office, which thereby 
acquired the name of "Sedition Half." They 
resolved to start a new paper and secured Dr. 
J. F. Morse as editor. They bought stock in 
San Francisco, and March 19, 1851, launched 
the Sacramento D^iily Union, at 21 J street, in 
rented rooms in Langloy's brick building. The 
proprietors were Alexander Clark, who subse- 
quently went to the Society Islands and has 
never been heard of since; W. J. Keating, who 
died a few years afterward in the insane asylum; 
Alexander C. C'ook; Joe Court, who was burned 
to death at the Western Hotel fire in this city, 
in the fall of 1874; E. G. Jeffries, Charles L. 
Hansicker, F. H. Harmon, AV. A. Davison and 
Samuel II. Dosh. The last named subsequently 
was editor of the Shasta Courier, and is now 


Nearly a year elapsed, however, before type 
could be had. A lot had been ordered, but 
failed to arrive; and J. W. Sirnonton, having 
made an appearance with a full printing office, 
intending to start a Whig paper, his stock was 
purchased by the Union men. Dr. John F. 
Morse, the editor, was later known throughout 
California as one of the chief leaders in Odd- 
fellowship; and his death iu 1874, in San 
Francisco, was the occasion of profound testi- 
monials of esteem being made at many places 
throughout the State. 

The size of the Union was 23x34 inches, 
with twenty-four columns, thirteen of which 
were tilled with advertisements. The daily edi- 
tion started with 500 copies, and rapidly in- 
creased. The paper was independent, outspoken 
and ably edited. ' Tlie issue for March 29, 1851, 
was entitled the Steamer Union, and was de- 
signed for reading in the Eastern States. April 
29, 1851, the Union hoisted the Whig flag, but 
declined to be ranked as a subservient partisan. 
S. H. Dosh sold out at this time for $600, and 
in June Harmon sold for a like sum. April 23 
the paper was enlarged about to the size it has 
since averaged, and appeared with the new type 
at tirst ordered. January, 1852, II. 13. Living- 
stone became associate editor, and Ilansecker 
sold out for $2,000, the firm now being E. G. 
Jetferis & Co. They ne.xt sold out to W. W. 
Kurtz for $2,100. January 10, 1852, the first 
WeeJdy Union was issued. February 13 Cook 
sold out to H. W. Larken,aiid April 3 Davidson 
to Paul Morrill. In May Dr. Morse retired a« 
editor, being succeeded by A. C. Russell, who 
remained until August, when Lauren Upson 
became editor, retiring for a time iu 1853; then 
John A. Collins filled the place. 

November 2, 1852, the Union was burned 
out in the great fire. A small press and a little 
type were saved, and the paper came out the 
second morning after the fire, foolscap size, and 
soon resumed its lormer dimensions. A brick 
building was erected for it on J street, near 
Second, the same now occupied by W. M. Lyon 

May 16, 1853, Jefiieris & Kurtz sold to the 
other partners and to James Anthony, wlio had 
been in the business department of the paper 
since November, 1851. The firm was now 
James Anthony & Co. June 15, 1853, Keating 
sold to Morrill, Anthony, Clark and Larken, 
and in December Clark's interest passed to the 

July 20, 1853, a steam engine was introduced 
to run the presses. 

May, 1858, Morrill sold his interest to J. 
Gray. Morrill went to New Hampshire and 
remained between one and two years, and re- 
turning, bought back Gray's interest. In Feb- 
ruary, 1875, the firm sold out to the Sacramento 
Publishing Company, which also purchased the 
Sacramento Daily and Weekly Record, and the 
two papers were issued under the joint title of 
the Sacramento Daily Record- Union. Besides 
the daily issue, the semi-weekly feature of the 
Record was retained, and this was issued on 
Wednesdays and Saturdays. Since then they 
have issued the daily on each day of the week 
(except Sundays nntil recently), with a double 
or eight-page sheet on Saturdays, besides a 
mammoth sheet on each New Year's day. 

Mr. Upson remained chief editor of the 
Union about twelve years. He was succeeded 
by H. C. Watson, who served until his death, 
in June, 18G7, and was succeeded by Samuel 
Seabongh, who served until the merging of the 
Union with the Record. Then George Fred- 
erick Parsons, Editor-in-chief of the Record, be- 
came editor-in-chief of the Record-Union, and 
continued as such until his removal to New 
York City in the winter of 1883. He was suc- 
ceeded by J. A. Woodson. The manager of the 
Record on its consolidation with the Union 
was William H. Mills, one of the proprietors of 
the Record, who remained in charge of the 
paper until January, 1883, when he removed to 
San Francisco, and C. E. Carrington was ap- 
pointed local managing editor, and T. W. Shee- 
han, business manager. Mr. Carrington retii'ed 
April 1, 1889, and E. B. Willis and T. W. Shee- 
han were appointed general managers of the 


paper, the former assuming the duties of man- 
aging editor, and the latter continuing in im- 
mediate charge of the business departtnent. 

On the 19th of May, 1889, the publication of 
the Sunday Union was commenced, and mailed 
to all subscribers to the Weehly Union, the 
]iublication of the senii-weekly having been dis- 

The fine three-story brick building which has 
for many years been occupied by this company 
is on the east side of Third street, between J 
and K streets, and was built for tlie Union in 

Joseph A. Woodson, Editor-in-chief of the 
Sacramento Daily Record- Union, was born in 
La Porte, Indiana, in 1837, and educated at the 
Wesleyan Seminary, Albion, Michigan. His 
parents early removed to Michigan City, Indi- 
ana, where his father was president of the State 
Bank of Indiana for many years. After two 
years' service as a clerk in mercantile business, 
Mr. Woodson, in 1858, came to California, set- 
tling at Santa Rosa, Sonoma County; i-ead law 
in the office of Jackson Temple, now one of the 
justices of the Supreme Court of the State; was 
admitted to the bar in 1860, before Judge Me- 
Kinstry, for the Seventii District Court, and 
moved to San Francisco in 1862, where he 
practiced law until 1872. In the meantime he 
founded, published and edited the Pacific Law 
Reporter, having for associate editors some of 
the first members of the San Francisco bar; 
also had charge of the law department of the 
Daily Spectator, San Francisco, for a portion of 
the time, and edited and published at different 
times society and philanthropic papers, and was 
a frequent contributor to the literary journals of 
that city. 

In July, 1872, lie became the San Francisco 
correspondent of the Sacramento Daily Record, 
and in November, tliat year, removed to this 
city, temporarily, and edited the first statistical 
number of the Daily Record. In January, 
1873, he represented that paper, as correspond- 
ent, at the Legislature of the State of Nevada. 
Ileturning in March to Sacramento, he accepted 

the position of law and literary editor of the 
Record. On the union of the Record and tiie 
Union, under the title of the Record-Union 
in February, 1875, he became the literary ed- 
itor of that paper and '• general utility assistant " 
upon all the departments of the journal. Act- 
ing in this multiform capacity, he went to Bea- 
ver, Utah, and reported the first trial of John 
D. Lee, notorious as connected with the Mount- 
ain Meadow Massacre. His letters from Bea- 
ver, published over the signature of " Thad- 
deus," attracted wide attention and rendered his 
further sojourn in Utah at least " uncomfort- 
able." Ileturning to Sacramento, he resumed 
his position upon the Record-Union. Early in 
January, 1883, he became the editor-in-chief 
of the Daily Rtcord-U nion, a position he still 

As to other positions, Mr. Woodson was 
deputy district attorney of Sonoma County 
for a time; was one of the founders of the Cali- 
fornia Museum Association, and for four con- 
secutive years a director; and by appointment 
is a member of the Board of Trustees of the 
State Mineral Cabinet. Mr. Woodson's chief 
function in the public welfare has been that of 
" an intellectual power behind the throne " rather 
than a mere figure-head in cons|>icuous positions. 
S. E. Caeeington was born in Ohio in 1840; 
received a public and Iligh-Sohool education, 
and engaged in the profession of teaching for a 
time, but joined the Union Array soon after 
commencement of the Rebellion of 1861-'65. 
Served in Army of Potomac until 1863, when 
he was transferred to the War Department and 
remained there until after close of the war. 
Studied law and graduated at the Law School at 
Columbia College, Washington, District of Co 
lumbia, in 1867. Entering the legal profession, 
he practiced before the departments at Washing- 
ton and in the courts of Ohio, until 1876, when 
from broken health he visited California, re- 
maining about a year, and again returned to the 
Golden State in the spring of 1879, with his 
family, and took up his permanent residence in 
Sacramento. In the fall of 1879 Mr. Carring- 


ton was employed upon the Eecord- Union and 
so continued until January 1, 1883, when he 
became managing editor of tlie paper, and which 
position he occupied until April 1, 1889, when 
he resigned. 

In his religious relations he is connected with 
the Congregational Church in Saci'amento, ot 
which he is trustee; and in his society connec- 
tions he is a member of both the Masonic and 
Odd Fellows orders. 

In 1865 Mr. Carrington was married to Miss 
Rilla, daughter of William B. Stone, of York, 
Ohio. Their children are Eelle and Alice. 

EvANDEE Beery Willis, Managing Editor of 
the Sacramento Daily Record- Union, was born 
at the residence of Commodore Evander Berry, at 
the United States Navy Yard, Brooklyn, New 
York, on August 19, 1847. Being well ad- 
vanced in his studies, at the age of thirteen he 
entered a printing office and learned the trade 
in all its branches. While working at his trade 
he mastered the art of stenography and soon had 
a position as official reporter in the Supreme 
Court circuit of New York. At the age of 
twenty he was editor and proprietor of the Mail, 
at Middletown, Orange County, New York. 
This field was too limited for him, and after 
publishing the paper for a little over a year he 
sold out and accepted a position on the New 
York Herald, l)eing sent for that paper all over 
the country. From this he acquired a roving 
disposition and subsequently held various edito- 
rial positions on leading newspapers in several 
States, among them the following: Assistant 
city editor New York Daily Democrat ("Brick" 
Pomeroy's paper); city editor Newburgh, New 
York, Daily Press; city editor Scranton, Penn- 
sylvania, Daily Democrat; telegraph editor 
Scranton Daily Republican; commercial editor 
San Francisco Chronicle; city editor Sacramento 
Daily Record; editor-in-chief of tlie Virginia 
City, Nevada, Chronicle; night city editor New 
York Daily Star, and others. 

Mr. Willis first came to California in August, 
1871. lie has made several trips to the East 
since that time, visiting Europe and traveling 

through the United Kingdom and over the con- 
tinent. He was the official stenographer of the 
Constitutional Convention which framed the 
present constitution of the State of California, 
and with his partner, the late P. K. Stockton, 
transcribed the debates and proceedings of that 
body for publication by the State. He has re- 
ported in the California Legislature for the 
Record-Union at every session but two since 
1871, and is consequently well known througii- 
out the State. Mr. Willis is a prominent mem- 
ber ot the Masonic order, being a member (Past 
Master) of Sacramento Lodge, No. 40, F. & 
A. M.; Sacramento Chapter, No. 3, Royal Arch 
Masons; Sacramento Council, No. 1, Royal and 
Select Masters, and Past Commander of Sacra- 
mento Cominandery, No. 2, Knights Templar. 
On April 1, 1889, E. B. Willis and General T. W. 
Sheehan were appointed general managers of the 
Sacramento Daily Record-Union and Sacra- 
mento Weekly Union, the former assuming the 
duties of managing editor, and tlie latter tliose 
of business manager. 

In the list of dead journals comes now the 
Democratic State Journvl. It was a morning 
paper of the size of the Record- Union, and ap- 
peared February 5, 1852. V. E. Geiger & Co. 
were the publishers, and Geiger and B. F. Wash- 
ington the editors. It was a valiant warrior for 
the Democratic party, supporting John Bigler 
in his political aspirations, while its contempo- 
rary, the Times and Transcript, was the advo- 
cate of AVilliam M. Gwin. AVashington, early 
in 1853, retired and went upon tlie Times and 
Transcript, and B. B. Redding, since land agent 
of the Central Pacific Railroad Company, be- 
came editor. The destruction of the office by 
the great fire of 1852 greatly retarded the paper, 
and finally in July, 1853, forced it into a coali- 
tion with the Californian, when a new firm was 
formed composed of B. B. Redding, P. C. John- 
son, S. J. May and James McClatchy. In April, 
1854, Johnson sold to Colonel Snowden, and in 
June, May sold to Redding and Snowden. Snow- 
den and May have been dead many years. 

In the fall of 1854 William Walker, afterward 


known as General Walker, of Nicaragua iillibus- 
ter fame, the " grey-eyed man of destiny," be- 
came editor. October, 1854, McClatcliy sold 
ont to D. J. Thomas. Walker retired in Feb- 
ruary, 1855, and McClatchy became editor, be- 
ing succeeded in a month by John White. In 
18^6 Snovvden sold out to Kedding and Thomas, 
n June, 1857, the party failing to give adequate 
support to the journal, it was sold, under attach- 
ment, and bought in by the printers in the 
office. After a suspension of four weeks it re- 
sumed, with Henry Shipley & Co. as publishers, 
the company being made up by most of the 
printers in the office. H. Shipley and R. Rust 
were editors. April 24, 1858, P. W. S. Rayle 
bought up nearly all the interests and announced 
S. W. Raveley as editor. It so continued to 
June 24, 1858, when it expired. At one time 
it ran a column in French, and was the first and 
only daily paper issued in Sacramento with a 
department for any foreign tongue. 

In August, 1852, T. Alter began to publish a 
weekly Baptist paper, with O. C. Wheeler and 
E. J. Willis as editors. It continued about one 
year, and had its office in the court-house. It 
lost $3,000 to the publisher, and breathed its 
last so quietly that the exact date of its taking 
off is unknown. 

November 17, 1852, E. Williamson & Co., 
with James McClatchy and D. J. Thomas as 
editors, started a settler Democratic paper. It 
was issued every morning, super-royal in size. 
April, 1853, S. J. May bought a one-fourth in- 
terest and became editor. It was burned out 
once, and started again in a deserted kitchen, 
brought from the country for the pui-pose. On 
the 80th of July it fused with the State Jour- 
nal, as stated above. 

The California Statesman, a morning paper 
edited by Henry Meredith and published by J. 
W. Gish &, Co., was begun November 13, 1854. 
It was Democratic and supported W. M. Gwin 
for United States Senator against Broderick. 
March 1, 1855, Gish & Woodward, the pub- 
lishers, sned Gwin & Ilardenbergh on a claim 
tiiat they had agreed to ])ay $2,500 for the sup- 

port of Gwin by the paper. They alleged that 
Gwin also agreed to give the paper the public 
printing. They laid their damages at $20,000, 
but ihey were ousted from court on the ground 
that the agreement was contrary to public policy. 
Ilardenbergh then sned for the possession, and 
so the Statesman died. 

Tha California Farmer and Journal of Use- 
ful Science began a publication in Sacramento 
in May, 1855, having already appeared in San 
Francisco a year before. The publisiiers were 
Warren & Son, and J. K. Philips & Co. Dr. 
J. F. Morse was the editor for one month. It 
was a weekly paper. July 18, 185G, it was 
moved back to San Francisco, where it still ap- 

In March, 1854, Dr. Morse and S. Col vi lie 
issued the first and only number of a monthly 
magazine entitled '■'■Illustrated Historical 
Sketches of California, with a minute history 
of Sacramento Valley." This number was a 
good one, but the business department was badly 
managed and a second number never appeared. 

The Pacific Recorder appeared July 15, 1854, 
edited by E. J. Willis, and was to be the organ 
of the Baptist Church. It was a neat semi- 
monthly; iu July, 1855, it became a weekly, 
but in March following it was discontinued. 

Jnne 8, 1855, a daily paper came to the sur- 
face called the State Tribune. It was edited 
and published by Parker H. French and S. J. 
May. It was the size of the other morning 
papers and professedly independent of politics, 
but inclined to the Democracy. In September 
French sold ont to May and left in the Nicara- 
gua expedition. August 1, J. M. Estill became 
editor of the Tribune and opposed John Bigler 
and the Democracy with such vigor as to draw 
it to the front rank of tiie opposition journals. 
French returning to the State bought into the 
paper again, but left some of the arrangements 
for payment so open that difHculty ensued. He 
sold to George W. 'rift, who had assigned to 
Monson and Valentine, who attached tiie paper. 
S. J. May and his three remaining partners set 
out these thinirs in a card and issued a new 


Irlhtne, so that on the IGtii of October, 1855, 
two Tribunes appeared, each claiming to be the 
genuine one. May & Co.'s issue was from the 
material of the defunct Stutesman. The other 
Tribune was publisiied by P'arwell & Co. Both 
papers were ardent American or Knovv-Nothing 
journals, and each was especially bitter on the 
other. The local war waged for two weeks, to 
the great amnsenient of the people. October 
30 the Farwell & Co. Tribune gave up, and 
ihe other paper was satisfied. The Tribune came 
out with James Allen & Co. as publishers, still 
advocating Know-Nothingism. It lived until 
June 1, 1856, when it died. 

A new paper sprang from the ashes of the 
Tribune the day after the death of that paper. 
It was christened the California American and 
was as radically Know-Nothiug as its predeces- 
sor. The proprietors were James Allen, J. R. 
Ridge and S. J. May, with Allen as chief writer, 
but in January, 1857, he was succeeded by J. 
R. Ridge. Allen was at the time State Printer, 
and it is said lost about $15,000 in the new pa- 
per in the first six months. It died in Febru- 
ary, 1857, and never was a success at any period 
of its existence. 

The Water Fount and Home Journal, a 
weekly paper nearly the size of the Record- 
Union, was brought from San Francisco and 
issued here December 15, 1855, by Alexander 
Montgomery & Co., with Montgomery as editor. 
It was a temperance paper, and the official or- 
gan of the Sons of Temperance, and made a 
good appearance. It lived nine months only. 

December 6, 1855, George H. Baker, now of 
San Francisco, a lithographer, and J. A. Mitch- 
ell, now deceased, began an independent even- 
ing paper entitled The Spirit of the Age. In 
June, 1856, it changed its name to The Sacra- 
mento Age, and enlarged, witii A. A. Appleton 
& Co. (Baker withdrawing) as publishers. J. 
S. Robb, dying, was succeeded by W. Wright. 
In the summer of 1856 the paper was sold to 
the Know-Nothing party and fought its battles 
till the election was over. Early in 1857 it 

December 24, 1855, A. Badlam & Co. started 
the Daily Evening Times, a gratuitous adver- 
tising sheet, 10x18 inches. It was worked on 
a wooden press made by the publishers. It ran 
up from 200 to 700 circulation, and in March, 
1856, breathed its last. For a time it was re- 
moved to the mountains to try the effect of 
change of air and diet, but it came back to Sac- 
ramento and died in good order. 

December 11, 1856, C. Babb and W. II. 
Harvey began a publication of a daily morning 
independent paper, of a small size, entitled the 
City Item. Paschal Coggins was the editor. It 
lived seven months. 

Cornelius Cole & Co., on the 15th of August, 
1856, commenced the publication of the Daily 
Times, a morning paper. Republican in politics. 
It was very lively in the canvass for Fremont, and 
was edited with ability. In November it be- 
came an evening paper, and issued a weekly, be- 
ing then run by a joint-stock company, with 
Mr. Cole, subsequently United States Senator, 
as editor. In size it was 24 x 36 inches. Janu- 
ary 24, 1857, it succumbed to the winter weather 
and went into the newspaper charnel-house. 

The Chinese JVews began in December, 1856. 
It was printed of respectable size, and in the 
Chinese language. Ze Too Yune, alias Hung 
Tai, was editor and publisher, and exhibited 
much skill in the business. It was at first a 
daily, then a tri- weekly, then a weekly, lastly a 
monthly, and after two years' lease of life it 
went to earth and was heard of no more. 

The Temperance -Mirror was a quarto- 
monthly, commenced January, 1857, by O. B. 
Turrell, with "W. B. Taylor as editor. It issued 
one number here, and then took itself off to San 
Francisco, where it died in March of tlie same 

The Daily Morning Bee began its life Feb- 
ruary 3, 1857. It was independent in politics, 
and was edited by J. R. Ridge and S. J. May. 
The proprietors were L. C. Chandler, L. P. 
Davis, John Church and W. H. Tobey. It was 
much smaller than the present Bee, embracing 
but five columns to the page. It became an 


evenino; paper April 6, 1857. In the siiiiuiier 
following, Ridge retired and James McClatcliy 
succeeded him. In 1858 the firm was Y. S. 
Thompson, L. P. Davis and W. H. Tobey. It 
was enlarged during the first year to seven 
coluoins to the page. On April 8, 1860, J. 
O'Leary purchased the interest of S. F. Thomp- 
son, and the firm name was changed to L. P. 
Davis & Co. December 28, 1863, G. H. Win- 
terburn bought out Tobey, and in turn sold to 
James McClatchy, February 12, 1866. 

June 26, 1872, McClatchy bought the inter- 
est of Davis, and the firm name became James 
McClatchy & Co., as at present. August 1, 
1872, J. F. Sheelian purchased one-third inter- 
est from Mr. McClatchy, since which time the 
paper has been still further enlarged and con- 
tinues to be one of the few profitable and pros- 
perous journals in Sacramento's history. 

November 1, 1879, James McClatchy ad- 
mitted his younger son, C. K., as a partner in 
the business, and the members of the firm were 
tiien J. F. Sheehan, James and C. K. Mc- 
Clatchy. October 23, 1883, James McClatchy 
died at Paraiso Springs, leaving all his title 
and interest in the Bee to his wife and two 
sons. January 29, 1884, the interest of J. F. 
Sheehan in the paper was purchased by the 
members of James McClatchy's family, the firm 
name remaining unchanged — James McClatchy 
& Co. Yrom that time to the present the paper 
has been conducted by the sons, C. K. as man- 
aging editor, and V. S. as business inanager. 

The Bee has steadily progressed in circula- 
tion, power and influence, and is now one of the 
two afternoon papers in California that receive 
the full Associated Press report. In the 'early 
part of 1888 the Bee put in a fast stereotyping 
press, it being the first afternoon paper on the 
Pacific Coast to do so. It has kept pace in 
other departments with the times, and is re- 
garded as one of the best pieces of newspaper 
property on the coast. 

James McClatchy, veteran and late editor of 
the Bee, was born near Lisburn, County An- 
trim, Ireland, in the year 1824, and died at 

Paraiso Springs, Monterey County, on Septem- 
ber 26, 1888, being then over fifty-nine years of 
age. He was but eighteen years of age when 
he left Ireland for the hospitable shores of the 
United States, his father and tnother having 
died previously. It was but a few years there- 
after when he sent for his sisters and brothers 
to come over and join him in this land of free- 
dom. He early formed the acquaintance of 
Horace Greeley in New York, and with him 
was a member of the Land Reform Association 
of that State, among whose members were many 
who afterward became nationally prominent. 

He departed for California in 1848, reaching 
Sacramento in the latter part of 1849. The 
ship on which a number had sailed from Pan- 
ama was wrecked near Mazatlan, and he and 
twenty-eight others walked to San Diego. He 
had orders from Horace Greeley to write as 
many letters to the Tribune as he desired at $5 
per letter, good pay for those days with such an 
unlimited carte Uanche. His letters to the 
Tribune did much to populate this State with 
an intelligent and progressive class of men and 
women. He was connected with tiie Sacramento 
Legislature, reported the proceedings of the first 
Legislature for the Placer Tvmen, and was sub- 
sequently connected with the Ifiners" Tribune 
and other early and short lived papers. He first 
joined the late B. B. Redding in the publication 
of the State Journal, but as he believed in the 
principles of the Republican party, he left that 
paper and started the Times, in conjunction 
with the afterward United States Senator, Cor- 
nelius Cole. 

With the defeat of Fremont that newspaper 
venture died, and he joined the staff of the Bee, 
which was started in 1857. He soon succeeded 
John R. Ridge as chief editor, a position he ably 
and brilliantly filled with few interruptions, and 
those of his own seeking, until his death. He 
was a stanch Unionist during the days of the 
Rebellion, and was president of the Lincoln 
League of Sacramento. 

He was elected by the Republican party to 
the ofiice of sheriff in 1863, and re-elected in 


18(55, but was counted out. Proof of the latter 
fact was subsequently foinul whcMi workmen 
were engaged in altering a chininey in the ottice 
of the Board of Supervisors, then in what is 
now known as the Masonic r>iiilding, on the 
southwest corner of Sixth and K streets. The 
destroyed ballot-; were found, and ample e\ i- 
dence furnished to James McClatchy. It was 
then too late to bnietit him any, antl lie paid no 
attention to it, i hough it was subsequently 
written up as a roniiiiiscenco, in the San Fi'an- 
cisco Chroiuclt'. 

In 1866 he purchased an interest in the Bee, 
but went to San Fraticisco to manage tiie San 
Francisco Times. He remained there but a 
very short tim(\ however, as his independent 
spirit could not brook the conflicting orders of 
seven owners, Xjach of whom wanted tiie paper 
conducted to suit his own views. So he re- 
turned to the Bee, and never left it until his 

He was collector of the port of Sacramento, 
a meniber of the Board of Education, president 
of the Pioneers' Association, president of the 
Union Building and Loan Association, a director 
of the Capital Savings Bank and historian of 
tlie day at the Centennial Celebration in Sacra- 

As a man, James JMcClatchy was a combina- 
tion of the stern and yet gentle qualities of 
the Scotch-Irish race. \n denunciation of a 
wrong he could be as severe a judge as any, but 
in the presence of sori'ow or grief he would be 
as gentle as a child. As an editor he was 
straightibrward and always to the ])oint. His 
one great and prominent trait was his manly in- 
dependence. He did not ask: "Is this thing 
politic?" but, " Is it right?" That question de- 
cided, he immediately proceeded to condemn or 
approve it in the simplest but most elegant 
English. He could get at the kernel of a ques- 
tion quicker and make a proposition plain to 
the readers more rapidly and in fewer words 
than any of his cotemporary journalists. He 
never "scattered," either in words or in reforms. 
When he had anything to say, he said it and 

stopped. He did not cloud the idea with a 
mass of verbiage. When he was battling for 
a principle, he paid his entire attention to that 
and that alone, lie was frequently asketl to 
strike good and heavy blows in this or in that 
cause. lie would say: "Gentlemen, one thing 
at a liiuu. You will have to slioot at one mark 
until you hit it, if yow want to succeed in this 
work. You can't be shooting at every tiling 
with any good prospects of success in anything." 
He was a leader in popular thought, not a fol- 
lower. He was brimful of new and good ideas; 
in fact, his originality was often very startling 
to the conservative mind. He was laughed at 
for his advocacy of a no-fence law, but suc^h a 
law is the law of the State to-day in many of 
the counties, and can be made so in all if the 
citizens properly petition and vote upon it. 

His anti-land monopoly principles were 
preached in season and out of season, in the 
face of sneers, but they are wonderfully popu- 
lar to-day. Henry George's " Progress and 
Poverty," which has made such a brilliant stir 
in the literary world, was the outcome ot the 
doctrines he had learned from James McClatchy, 
whose disciple he really was. In fact, George 
one day suggested that McClatchy should write 
a book embodying those principles, claiming 
that it would make a stir in tlie world. 

" JS'o," was the answer, " I am getting too old 
for the work, and have too much on hand. But 


don't vou do it? Y'ou have little, if a; 


thing, to do [George then had the easy position 
of inspector of gas meters], and you are just 
the man to do it." 

The result was that George commenced the 
work and submitted it, a few chapters at a time, 
to James McClatchy for suggestions and altera- 
tions, and continued so to do until the wonder- 
ful book was completed. 

Years before the people of the Sacramento 
Valley ever realized the danger menacing them 
from the destructive system of mining known 
as hydraulicking, James McClatchy began a 
crusade against it in the interest of the homes 
and cities of the valley, continuing it without 


iiiterniption up to the time of his death. He 
had the satisfaction of seeing tiie people of tiie 
valley come to the standard of their own self- 
interest and preservation, and to read decisions 
of the courts, the highest as well as the lowest, 
all in favor of the valley people — to find, in 
fact, the power of this giant aggregation of 
wealth engaged in hydraulic mining brolien, and 
the system itself declared a nuisance. 

Many otiier reforms were inaugurated and 
carried to a successful issue by this enterprising, 
plodding, original and conscientious journalist. 
Above all, he was ever loyal and true to Sacra- 
mento, and the universal grief expressed at his 
death betokened the respect and love in which he 
was held by the citizens of his adopted home. 

Mrs. James McClatchy, one of the proprie- 
tors of the Bee, widow of its former veteran 
editor and mother of its present managers, was 
born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, 
on April 21, 1830. She came to Sacramento 
the day after the big fire of 1852 to join her 
first husband. Captain Feeny. The latter died 
not long after, and some years thereafter she 
was married to James McClatchy, then a tall, 
young reporter, working haj-d for a livelihood. 
Four of their children are living: A^'alentine, 
Charles, P'anuy and Emily. The young men 
are managers of the Bee, while tlio young ladies 
are well known in Sacramento, where all four 
were born. Mrs. McClatchy is well known in 
charitable circles, and is a life member of the 
(jalifornia Museum Association. 

V. S. McClatchy was born in Sacramento 
in 1857; educated at Santa Clara College, where 
he graduated in 1877; for the ensuing five years 
he was employed in the Oakland fjank at Oak- 
land, this State, and during the next two years 
was a clerk in the Sub-Treasury in San Fran- 
cisco. After the death of his father he came to 
Sacramento to assume the business management 
of the Bee. Besides his connection with this 
paper, which has been a successful one, Mr. 
McClatchy has been active in a number of local 
enterprises, as a director of the Placer County 
Citrus Colony, Orangevalc Colonization Com- 

pany, etc. In 1882 Mr. McClatchy married Miss 
Ilanifan, of Oakland, and they have four children. 

C. K. McClatchy is also a native of Sacra- 
mento, born in 1858; attended Santa Clara 
College three years, and, returning to this city 
before he was eighteen years of age, has since 
been employed upon the Bee, as has already 
been mentioned. He is now the editorial man- 
ager. Besides, he is a director in the Union 
Building and Loan Association of this city. He 
married Miss Ella Kelly, of Sacramento, in 1885 ; 
they have one child. 

In July, 1857, the Star of the Faclfc, a re- 
ligious journal, was removed from Marysville to 
this city. It was a quarto monthly. Its editor 
and proprietor was Rev. A. C. Edmonds, a Uni- 
versalist clergyman. In December, 1857, it 
suspended, revived in May, 1858, and died in 
the fall of that year. 

The Daily State Sentinel, a Republican pa- 
per, was issued July 27, 1857, by J. R. Atkins 
& Co., as a morning paper. It was small size. 
In October C. D. Hossack & Co. took the paper, 
and C. A. Sumner became its editor. It was a 
vigorous paper and bid fair to succeed, but early 
in 1858 it breathed its last. 

C. A. Sumner began the publication of a pam- 
phlet sheet dubbed the Eye-Glass, August 22, 
1857. No other number ever appeared. It 
was peculiar and critical upon social matters. 

The Covenant and Odd Fellows' Magazine, 
a monthly of thirty-two pages, began August 
31, 1857; J. D. Tilson, Publisher; A. C. Ed- 
monds, Editor. It died with the tenth number, 
June, 1858. 

The Temperance Register, II. Davidson & 
Co., a monthly, began September, 1857, in quarto 
form. In October it was in small semi-monthly 
parts. December 12 it became a monthly again, 
and then expired. 

December 20, 1857, the Herald of the Morn- 
ing ■,\\:>^&&v&d as a Sunday paper, J. C. McDonald 
&Co., Publishers; Calvin B. McDonald, Literary 
Editor. It was a spiritualistic paper, and lived 
four weeks. 

The Pha'nix, aftei-ward the Uhicuitous, was 


a scurrilous sheet, fathered bj E. McGowan. It 
began as an occasional in the fall of 1857, issued 
as a weekly during the winter following, and 
died during the next summer. 

The Watch-Dog was started January 1, 1858; 
was similar in character to the last mentioned, 
and died in March following. 

During the same March began the Sacra- 
mento Visitor, by Brown, Ingham & Co.; J. 
Coggins, Editor. It was a daily evening paper 
of moderate size, independent in tone and lively 
in manner. It ceased to exist June 1, 1858. 

The Sacramento Mercury, a straight-out 
Democratic paper, was commenced March 28, 
1858, by II. S. Foushee, Publisher, and W. S. 
Long, Editor. It was about half the size of the 
Record- Union. In the summer A. Montgomery 
became its associate editor. It died October 
12, 185&. 

The California /Statesman, No. 2 of that 
name, took the place of the old journal in May, 
1858; S. W. Ravely, Publisher, and A. C. Rus- 
sell, Editor. It was a Democratic daih', and 
died June 24, same year. 

The Californian, No. 2 of that name, also 
was a neutral daily of small size, edited by D. 
J. Thomas. It was born July 9, 1858, and de- 
parted this life July 15 following, aged one week. 

The Baptist Circular was the -result of the 
third efibrt of the Baptists to start a paper here. 
It began August, 1858, under the editorial 
management of Rev. J. L. Shuck; but it was 
discontinued the next spring. 

In" 1858-'59, the Democracy being double- 
headed, and known as the Lecompton and anti- 
Lecompton wings, the contest between limbs of 
the common body became very warm, and the 
anti-Lecompton, half spurred thereto by the as- 
saults of Charles T. Botts, from the Lecompton 
side, started a paper called the Daily Register. 
It was about the size of the Bee, and issued 
every morning except Monday. The money 
chiefly was furnished by Dr. Houghton, and the 
style of the tirm was Harvey, Houghton & Co., 
the editors, J. C. Zabriskie and William Bans- 
man, since a iournalist in San Francisco, hold- 

ing small interests. The paper was vigorous, 
but too scholarly, and not lively enough for the 
times. Bausman early got out of it. Hough- 
ton sunk money in the concern like water, and 
the second day before the general election, in 
the fall of that year, it peacefully died, and left 
the doctor to ruminate upon his ducats gone for- 
ever. The office of the Register was located at 
the corner of Fifth and J streets, and the outfit 
and dress of the paper was good. 

The rival of the Register, and far the better 
paper in a purely journalistic point of view, was 
the Daily Democratic Standard. It saw the 
light February 26, 1859, and J. R. Hardenbergh 
was its publisher, with Charles T. Botts, Editor. 
It was a morning paper, and about the size of 
the Record- Union. In July, 1859, C. T. Botts 
became sole proprietor. It was the advocate of 
the Lecompton ring of the Democracy, and a 
vigorous one. Its office was on Third street, 
between I and J. On the 2d of June, 1860, 
it ceased its daily issues. The seeds of death 
were already sown in its body. For a few months 
it appeared as a weekly, but was only a faint 
semblance of its old self. M. G. Upton and 
Hon. C. Gorham were for a time editors, and 
many tales were told of the shrewd passes these 
two used to make to get news for the Standard. 
Soon after the fall election in 1860 the Stand- 
ard was lowered — into the grave of journalism, 
and the earth over its remains has never been 
disturbed to this day. The proprietors lost 
money by the paper, and in the farewell article 
they growled over it fearfully. It was the death 
rattle — nothing more. 

In June, 1860, Henry Bidleman & Co. started 
the Daily Democrat. It was issued from the 
Standard office; M. G. Upson was its editor. It 
was a six-column paper and made a lively cam- 
paign effort, but died with the fall election, 
having failed in its mission for the Democracy. 

June 24, 1860, F. R. Folger & Co. issued the 
Daily Morning JVews, Douglas Democratic pa- 
per. The Folgers were its first editors. Sub- 
sequently George C. Gorham and Albert S. 
Evans were editors. Evans subsequently wen ^ 


to Mexico with the Steward party and wrote it 
up and gained some notoriety with his pen. He 
died a few years ago in San Francisco. The 
News continued to exist about nine months. 

The Evening Post, published by E. W. 
Lewis & Co., began October, 1860, as an inde- 
pendent paper, but subsequently became Re- 
publican in politics. It was half the size of the 
Record- Union at first, but latterly enlarged one- 
third. After five months of life W. S. Johnson 
& Co. undertook its publication. It had vari- 
ous editors — writers who wrote for it as occa- 
sion demanded. It was discontinued Septem- 
ber. 1861. 

The Rescue, organ of the Independent Order 
of Good Templars, began in San Francisco as a 
monthly about February, 1862, and ran about 
two months when it was removed to Stockton, 
where it was published five months. Its first 
editor was Edwin H. Bishop, then the State 
Grand Secretary; he was followed by William 
II. Mills, of San Quentin, also Grand Secretary)- 
1864-'71; the next editor was Albert D. Wood, 
of Yallejo, who conducted the paper until 1876; 
then Rev. George Morris, of Dixon, had the 
charge of it i'or a time, when it was removed to 
San Francisco. In the fall of 1877 it was 
moved to Los Angeles, when Yarnell and Cay- 
stile became the editors and publishers. It was 
next returned to San Francisco, in the fall of 
1880, when Albert D. Wood again became the 
editor. He served until December 13, 1883, 
when Rev. E. F. Dinsmore, of San Francisco, 
became editor. In October, 1885, the paper was 
again removed back to this city, since which 
time George B. Katzenstein, the Grand Secre- 
tary, has been the editor. The editors of this 
organ are elected by the Grand Lodge of the 
Order, or its, executive committee. The paper 
has been enlarged from time to time; it now has 
eight to sixteen quarto pages. Office, 328 J street. 

The Evening Star was a daily started May 
25, 1864, by a company composed of J. J. Beebe, 
Alexander Badlam,G. I. Foster, J. Simpson, M. 
M. Estee and II. C. Bidwell. It was an inde- 
pendent journal and lived about three months 

and Slink under financial embarrassments. Bad- 
lam is now assessor of San Francisco; Estee 
was speaker of tiie last Assembly and practices 
law in San Francisco. Bidwell is dead, having 
committed suicide a tew years ago. He was 
once county clerk of Sacramento County. 

The Califorriian Repuhlican, a Democratic 
paper of the hard-shell stripe, appeared January 
4, 1863. The publishers were Conley Patrick 
& Co., and the editor was Beriah Brown, after- 
ward of the Democratic Press, San Francisco, 
which was destroyed by a mob in the spring of 
1865. Brown is still an editor, and resides in 
Oregon. The paper died in the fall of 1863. 

The Golden Gate, a spiritualistic weekly, was 
started by Ingham & McDonald in the spring 
of 1864, and lived but a few weeks. 

In the winter of 1860 Judd & McDonald 
started the Advertiser. It was a gratuitous 
sheet, and lived two or three months. 

The California Express was a Democratic 
journal, formerly published at Marysville under 
direction of Alexander Montgomery. He 
moved the paper to Sacramento and issued it 
December 23, 1866, expecting patronage from 
the then dominant party, but it did not come, 
and the paper died in July, 1867. It was issued 
as a morning paper. 

The Sacramento Daily Record first appeared 
as an independent evening paper, February 9, 
1867. It was published by. an association of 
printers, composed of J. J. Keegan, John L. 
Sickler, J. P. Dray and R. E. Draper. Draper 
was the first editor, and in about a month was 
succeeded by W. S. Johnsoti, who remained 
about one year, and was succeeded by J. B. Mc- 
Quillan, who remained a few months and was 
succeeded by R. A. Bird. Subsequently it was 
purchased by W. H. Mills and A. D. Wood. 
Mr. Wood was afterward manager of the Record- 
Union, and a portion of the then and subse- 
quent 7?eco>'6? editorial staff, as also a portion of 
the Sacramento Union then and subsequent 
editorial staff, afterward composed the Record- 
Union staff". The Record became a morning 
paper December 2, 1867. In the beginning it 


was a btiiall five-column sheet, but through suc- 
cessive enlargements soon grew to the present 
&\zQ o{ x\\e Record- Union. During the winter 
of 1871-'72 the Record distinguished itself by 
the fuJlest and most elaborate phonographic 
Legislative reports ever published in the United 
States, frequently printing morning after morn- 
ing nineteen columns of solid nonpareil of the 
proceedings of Senate and House. For several 
years the Sacramento Union had published an- 
nual or New Year statistical sheets. January 1, 
1873, the Record entered the same field and 
eclipsed its rival by issuing the fullest and 
largest holiday statistical sheet ever published 
in the United States, and each year since has 
issued a similar mammoth sheet. It was the 
first daily paper to maintain a semi-weekly edi- 
tion. The Record was a rival to the Union, 
and the contest for patronage and public favor 
between them was very warm for years. In 
February, 1875, the Record and Union were 
consolidated as above stated, and appear under 
the joint title of the Record- Union. 

The Expositor was published by C. D. Sem- 
ple, first appearing July 23, 1867. It was a 
daily, and old-line Democratic. It lived until 
the 9tli of September, and died. 

Richard Bowden, February 26, 1864, published 
a youth's paper, the Young Amei'ican, as weekly. 
It lived about eleven weeks, ceasing on the deatli 
of the publisher, who was accidentally killed. 

Along about this time were published weekly 
papers of a local character, viz. : My Paper, Pio- 
neer, Blusterer, The Anti-Office Seeker, a lot of 
State Fair papers, Sunday Times, Hesperian, 
Students'' Repository, and others. 

In the winter of 1864, Charles De Young, 
now of the San Francisco Chronicle, began the 
publication of the Dramatic Chronicle as a 
daily gratuitous advertising sheet of S!nall 
dimensions. In about nine months he removed 
it to San Francisco, enlarged it and published 
it until the Daily San Francisco Chronicle 
grew out of it, the old Dramatic Chronicle 
being swallowed by the Figaro of San Fran- 
cisco, pnbli.shed by J. P. Bogardus. 

The Traveler''s Guide, an advertising sheet, 
published weekly by L. Samuels and N.Torres, 
in 1865. In the same year T. "W. Stanwell 
began the monthly Railroad Gazetteer, which 
is still published by II. S. Crocker & Co. 

January 12, 1868, the State Capital Re- 
porter, a daily Democratic sheet, began with a 
glowing announcement of its plans. It nomi- 
nated II. H. Haight for President of the United 
States. By Legislative enactment it became 
the litigant paper, in which all summonses had 
to be published. This gave it a good income, 
but made it obnoxious to the entire press of the 
State, and brought it into disfavor with the 
people. The act of February 21, 1872, repealed 
the litigant law, and took away the Reporter's 
bread. It then ceased to issue as a daily, send- 
ing out its last effort in that line May 7, 1872, 
when the law took effect, and thereafter issued 
a half sheet once a week, to run out legal ad- 
vertisements on hand. July 30, 1872, without 
a last word, it died. The Reporter was pub- 
lished by a joint stock company, and lost money 
for everybody who touched it. It was at first 
controlled by John Bigler. Its first editor was 
Henry George, afterward of the San Francisco 
Post, and now of national notoriety as the 
author of "Progress and Poverty," and chief 
promulgator of the land theory that is known 
by his name. The paper was edited with abil- 
ity, and for a long time was a periodical of 
much vigor. Mr. George was succeeded by J. 
F. Linthicum, an old editor, who kept up the 
tone of the paper and edited ably. John Big- 
ler, ex-Governor of California, then just re- 
turned from Chili, to which country he went as 
Minister, became editor of the Reporter some 
months before it died. He was noted for his 
vigorous attacks, his laborious compilation of 
statistics, liis political thunderbolts, and his 
dignified manner in editorial columns. Gov- 
ernor Bigler died some three years ago in this 
city. O. T. Shuck was its last editor. 

The Sacramento Democrat was a small daily 
paper which began August 3, 1871, under a 
publishing company, with Cameron II. King as 


editor. Its ofKce was at the corner of Third and 
J streets. It lived until just after the election, 
dying September 5, 1871. 

The Locomotive was a good six-column weekly 
advertiser and local paper, which was begun by 
R. S. Lawrence in the early spring of 1873, 
with an office on J street, between Second and 
Third. It did a prosperous business for some 
months. T. F. Cane then bought a half inter- 
est, and subsequently the whole interest, selling 
half of it to Dr. A. P. Truesdell, who became 
editor, and the paper and the name were changed 
to that of the People's Champion. In the 
Slimmer of 1874 it went the way of the dead. 

With one exception, the only foreign paper 
ever published here prior to 1885 was the 
Semi- Weekly Sacramento Journal (German), 
published by K. F. Wiemeyer & Co., and edited 
by Mr. Wiemeyer. It was first issued June 6, 
1868, and has had a successful career to the 
present. Lately Wiemeyer & Co. established 
an office in Oakland, and the Journal now ap- 
pears simultaneously in both places. It is ably 
edited, is Republican in tone, liberal in senti- 
ment and fearless in utterance. It receives good 
business management and appears to have a 
legitimate field of journalism, which it fully 
occupies. The Sacramento office is now at 314 
J street. 

Early in 1873, H. B. Eddy, now deceased, 
started a small, neatly printed, critical paper, 
called the Valley World. It was issued weekly 
and aimed at literary excellence. Mr. Eddy dying 
in the fall, the Valley World was continued 
for a few weeks, Rev. J. H. C. Bonte editing it. 

The Evening News, a daily, Sundays ex- 
cepted, neutral, was started by B. F. Huntly & 
Co., March 26, 1869. Vincent Ryan, one of 
the firm, did most of the writing, with Frank 
Folger and W. S. Johnston in other departments. 
It lived three months. 

The Sunday Free Press was started by Beers 
& Co., in February, 1873, and appeared once. 
It was a lively number, particularly local and 
jolly, but its precoeiousness was too much for 
it, and it died a heavy loss to its proprietors. 

The Sacramento Valley Agriculturist began 
February, 1874, as a monthly, Davis & Stock- 
ton, Editors and Publishers. June, 1874, it 
changed to a weekly. July, 1874, it bought up 
the old Champion material, and enlarged con- 
siderably. April 15, 1875, Davis sold his in- 
terest to W. T. Crowell. It was devoted wholly 
to agricultural matters, with a city edition Sun- 
day mornings, with a few local references. 

The Occidental Star, devoted to the interest 
of the return of the Jews to Palestine — a weekly, 
four pages — began January, 1873, and ran about 
five months, with Mrs. L. I. L. Adams as pro- 

The Winning Way, edited and published by 
Mrs. Clark and Mrs. Potter, was a weekly paper 
devoted to the cause of woman and sociality. 
It began September, 1873, and lived till Febru- 
ary, 1874. 

Common Sense was begun by Dr. A. P. 
Truesdell as a weekly, four pages, January, 
1873, and died March, 1874. It was afterward 
revived in San Francisco. 

The Mercantile Globe, an advertising sheet 
published by Byron & Co., August, 1872, 
changed October 18 to Sacramsnto Globe, pub- 
lished weekly by Kelley & Farland. After run- 
ning some months, suspended, and was again 
revived by Raye & Ford, 'December 5, continu- 
ing weekly until April 17, 1875, and was after- 
ward published at irregular intervals by B. V. 
R. Raye. 

The California Teacher was started by tJie 
State Board of Education about 1877, being pur- 
chased from the San Francisco Teachers' Asso- 
ciation. It is a monthly, and is now issued at 
San Francisco. 

The State Fair Gazette, by H. S. Crocker & 
Co., has been published for some years on the 
recurrence of each State Fair and still continues. 
It is an advertising sheet, and is circulated gra- 

The Evening Herald was begun as a small 
evening paper, independent in character, March 
8, 1875, by Gardner, Larkin, Fellows and Major 
E. A. Rockwell, a journalist of long experience 


and sound judgment, the editor. He was for- 
merly of the Morning Call, San Francisco, and 
served a term in tlie Legislature with credit. 

The Enterprise, a Sunday morning paper, 
was begun by Orites, Davis & Alexander, Au- 
gust 29, 1875. It exhibited much vigor and was 
well conducted; but the proprietors, not find- 
ing a business manager to their mind, closed up 
the paper with the ninth issue, and in time to 
save themselves from loss. The paper was 
printed from the old Reporter type. 

The Seminary Budget was an "occasional," 
issued by the young ladies of the Sacramento 
Seminary for a few years. It was a literary 
paper, doing credit to its student editors. 

The Biisiness College Journal is an "occa- 
sional," issued by the proprietors of the Sacra- 
mento Business College. 

The Sunday Leader was started in October, 
1875, by J. N. Larkin, who is still the editor 
and proprietor. The office is at 305 J street. 
In 1884-'85 it was the official paper of the 
county. In politics it is straight Hepublican. 
The paper Is 28x42 inches in size and is neatly 
printed with large, clear type. 

The Daily Sun, organ of the Workingmen's 
party, was started immediately after the ad- 
journment of the Legislature of 1879, which 
provided for a State Constitutional Convention. 
This organ was established by a company of 
stockholders, with William H alley as manager. 
When the delegates to that convention were 
elected, and the editor of this paper was de- 
feated as a candidate for the same, he withdrew 
from its management, a new company was 
formed, and F. J. Clark was continued as editor 
for a few months, when it was discontinued. 

In 1883 the Sunday Capital was established 
by J. L. Robinette and C. C. Goode, a four- 
page folio, independent in politics and devoted 
to news and literature. It was run for about a 
year, when Robinette sold his interest to Will- 
iam Ellery, and six months afterward it was 
discontinued. The proprietors named were the 

The Sacramento, now Occid.ental, Medical 

Times, a large octavo monthly, was launched 
forth in March, 1887, in this city, by five physi- 
cians, and it continues to grow in patronage, 
amount and quality of reading matter, etc. It 
now has fifty-six pages besides advertisements. 
Office, 429^ J street. J. H. Parkinson is the 
editor in chief, and his assistants are: W. A. 
Briggs, William Ellery Briggs, W. R. Cluness, 
Thomas A. Huntington and G. L. Simmons, 
Jr., of Sacramento; J. F. Morse, W. H. Mays, 
Albert Abrams, W. Watt Kerr and D. W. 
Montgomery, of San Francisco; and J. W. Rob- 
ertson, of Napa. 

The Daily Eoening Journal was commenced 
July 4, 1888, by H. A. Weaver, and was run 
until October 1 following. It was 28x42 
inches in size, and devoted to general news and 

The Nord California Herold, a large Ger- 
man weekly paper, published on Saturdays in 
the Record-Union Building, was started Sep- 
tember 5, 1885, by Charles Schmitt, the present 
editor and proprietor. 

Charles Schmitt, Proprietor of the Nord 
California Herold, is a native of Kaiserslaut- 
ern, Rhenish Bavaria, born October 9, 1836, a 
son of Nicholas and Rosina (Stubenraucli) 
Schmitt. His father, a lawyer and an active 
Republican, was a member of the Parliament 
at Frankfort, where the Revolutionary troubles 
came on. Mr. Schmitt had been a leader in his 
party, and from the prominent pai-t he had 
taken was compelled to leave Germany. He 
went to Switzerland, and in 1849 came to Amer- 
ica on a sailing vessel. He landed at New 
York and from there went to Philadelphia, 
where he iiad relatives living. There he lived 
until his death, which occurred in 1860. 

Charles Schmitt, whose name heads this 
sketch, was br.t thirteen years of age when he 
accompanied his parents to America, though 
his education had been pretty well advanced 
previous to leaving his native country. While 
the family were residents of Philadelphia, his 
father had founded a newspaper, and in the office 
Charles Schmitt learned his trade. Before he 


bad reached his twentieth year he had deter- 
mined to come to California, and in September, 
1856, his name was enrolled on the list of pas- 
sengers of the steamer Illinois, New York to As- 
jiinwall. Crossing the Isthmus of Panama, he 
took passage on the steamer John L. Stephens, 
bound for San Francisco, which port he reached 
September 25, 1856. He received work in the 
office of Mr. Lefontaine, the first job printer of 
San Francisco, and remained in the city about 
two years. He then went to the mines. His 
first experience with the pick and shovel was at 
the Tuolumne mines near Columbia, but two or 
three montlis later the scene of his labors was 
transferred to San Gabriel mines, Los Angeles 
(bounty. He next went to the Arizona mines, 
where he remained about two years. In 1860 
he returned to San Francisco, where he became 
one of the founders of the Abend Post, the 
second German daily paper published in San 
Francisco. In May, 1868, he came to Sacra- 
mento and founded the Sacramento Journal, 
German, and followed its fortunes until 1881. 
On the 5th of September, 1885, he launched 
the Word Califurnia Ilerold, which has taken 
front rank among German papers. He also 
carries on, in connection with the newspaper 
publication, job printing to a considerable ex- 
tent, doing both German and English work, 
though principally the latter. His office en- 
joys a good reputation for the excellence of its 

M r. Schinitt is connected with Schiller Lodge, 
No. 5, I. O. O. F., and Sacramento Lodge, No. 
80, A. 0. U. W. Pie is Fast Chief of Sacra- 
mento Stamm, No. 124, I. O. R. M. ; has passed 
through all the chairs in Sacramento Lodge, 
No. 11, O. D H. S. ; also in Sacramento Ver- 
ein-Eintracht. He is a member of ' the Sacra- 
mento Tura-Verein, and is one of the-directors 
of the Germania Loan and Building Associa- 
tion. Mr. Schmitt was married in San Fran- 
cisco, January 22, 1862, to Miss Elizabeth 
Denger, a native of New York. They have 
had twelve children, of whom eleven are yet 
living. Mr. Schmitt is a man of superior in- 

telligence, and wields a ready pen, and his pa- 
per has a powerful influence in his chosen field. 
Themis, an eight-page quarto Sunday paper, 
devoted to the material interests of Sacramento, 
dramatic and governmental criticism and mis- 
cellany, printed with large type upon the finest 
kind of paper at A. J. Johnston & Co.'s, was 
started in February, 1889, by Win. J. Davis, W. 
A. Anderson and George A. Blanchard, and at 
this date is flourishing. 

A few lesser papers have been published in 
past years in this city, which have not been 
named herein, exclusive of sheets issued in the 
interests of insurance companies and business 
houses, but their origin and death have been too 
obscure to warrant the necessary loss of time in 
searching out their history. 

Total number of deceased periodicals, about 
seventy-five; of living, eight. 

Hon. Winfielu J. Davis, Official Court Re- 
porter and Editor of the historical portion of 
this volume, and Editor of Themis, is of pure 
Welsh descent, both his parents being natives 
of Wales. His father, William Davis, died in 
this city, August 21, 1885; and his mother, 
whose maiden name was Elinor Parry, is still 
living, in Sacramento. 

Mr. Davis was born in Utica, Oneida County, 
New York, December 5, 1851. In 1862 the 
family came thence to California, by way of the 
Isthmus, arriving here while the marks of the 
great flood of 1861-'62 were still plainly visi- 
ble, the waters having just subsided. After 
arriving here, Mr. William Davis purchased a 
ranch near Lincoln, Placer County, where he 
resided until 1869, when the family removed to 
Sacramento. Until this time, therefore, the 
subject of this sketch was inured to farm labor. 
In 1867; however, he began the study of short- 
hand, from a small book entitled -"The Young 
Reportei-," and worked at considerable disad- 
vantage, for want of the proper elementary 
text-books; but, as one would suppose from the 
power of his genius, he went right along with 
it and ultimately attained a success which not as 
many as one in a thousand attain who commence 


the study of this useful art. Entering the first 
grade of the grainiuar school of this city Sep- 
tember 19, 1869, in the midst of the school 
year, he graduated April 22, 1870, iu the first 
rank with ten others in a class of thirty-four. 
Among liis classmates were Ella Haskell, now 
Mrs. Cummins, the noted writer of juvenile lit- 
erature; P. E. Piatt, of the present firm of W. 
E. Strong & Co.; Colonel C. F. Crocker, now 
vice-president of the Southern Pacific Railroad 
Company; E. 13. Cushman, late sheriff of a 
county in Nevada; aiid Valentine S. McClatchy, 
now one of the proprietors of the Bee. After 
the graduation referred to, Mr. Davis entered 
the High School and remained there until Janu- 
ary, 1871. On the 2d of February, that win- 
ter, he went to the Bee ottice to learn the print- 
ing trade, and worked there until June, when 
he was employed in the oflice of the Daily Rec- 
ord, to set type and do short-hand reporting. 
In the line of reporting the first particular task 
he undertook was to report the proceedings of 
the llepublican State Convention, held in June, 

1871, which nominated Newton Booth for Gov- 
ernor. In 1871-'72 he reported the proceed- 
ings of the State Assembly for the Sacramento 

Union. At the close of the session, in April, 

1872, he was engaged as one of the local editors 
of that paper, under the direction of Captain J. 
D. Young, now State printer. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar of the Sixth District Court, 
April 7, 1879. On August 31, 1874, Mr. Davis 
was appointed, after a competitive examination, 
official short-hand reporter of the Sixth Dis- 
trict Court, by Judge Ramage. The district 
embraced the counties of Sacramento and Yolo. 
When Judge Denson succeeded Ramage Mr. 
Davis was retained in'the otiice, and he continued 
to hold until the abolition of the court by the 
new constitution. On the organization of the 
Supei'ior Court in its place, he was appointed 
official reporter of both departments of the Su- 
perior Court, and has held that office continu- 
ously since that time. In this capacity he has 
reported some of the most important cases tiiat 
have been tried in this State; for example, the 

prosecution against the proprietors of the San 
Francisco Chronicle Sit Placerville for libel upon 
United States Senator Sargent and Congress- 
man H. F. Page. The trial lasted about a month. 
Among the witnesses were many of the leading 
officials and politicians in the State. He also 
reported the trial of Troy Dye for the murder 
of Tullis, an account of which is given else- 
where in this volume; also the trials of Ciiarles 
Mortimer for the killing of Mrs. Gibson; of ex- 
State Senator J. H. Harlan, at Woodland, for the 
killing of E. L. CJraft; and the famous Gold Run 
Hydraulic Mining case, which occupied about 
two months. 

Mr. Davis has also had considerable political 
experience. For several years he was chairman 
of the Republican City Central Committee. 
During the Blaine campaign of 1884 and the 
Swift campaign of 1886 he was chairman of 
the Republican County Central Committee, 
having the general supervision of these cam- 
paigns throughout the county. In each cam- 
paign there was a loss to the Republicans of 
but one candidate on the city and county tickets. 
In 1884 the candidate lost was that for police 
judge, and in 1886 that for supervisor in one'of 
the country districts. 

On Saturday night, immediately before the 
Presidential election of 1884, it was discovered 
that the Hon. Frank D. Ryan, the Republican 
nominee for the State Assembly from the Eight- 
eenth District, was ineligible, by reason of the 
fact that he had not lived in that particular dis- 
trict for a year, although he had been born and 
raised in an adjoining district in the city. Mr. 
Ryan resigned his position on the ticket, and 
the nomination was tendered to Mr. Davis. 
The campaign was an extremely lively one. 
The result of the election, which was held No 
vember 4, was that Mr. Davis was chosen by a 
vote of 1,498, to 822 for Hon. II. M. La Rue, 
the Democratic candidate, who was a popular 
man, had filled important State positions, and at 
that time was speaker of the Assembly. During 
the ensuing session of the Legislature, Mr. 
Davis was chairman of the Committee on Pub. 


lie Buildings and Grounds, and a member of the 
Committee on Ways and Means, Claims, and 
Water Rights and Drainage. During that ses- 
sion large appropriations were secured for the 
improvement of public buildings and grounds 
in Sacramento County. It was in that Legisla- 
ture, also, that the exciting measures concerning 
irrigation were brought forward, to settle which 
two extra sessions were called. 

Mr. Davis has written extensively for the 
press, especially on historical and political sub- 
jects. For his connection with the various pe- 
riodicals he has aided in establishing see the 
chapter on the Press, under heads of Sacramento 
Valley Agriculturist, the Enterprise and The- 
mis. In the winter of 1888-'89 he compiled 
one-half of a large volume entitled '-The Gov- 
ernmental Koster of the State of California," of 
which 5,000 copies were issued by the Legisla- 
ture. In his library he has the largest collec- 
tion of books and documents relating to the 
history of California that can be found in the 
State outside of the State Library and a few in 
San Francisco. 

Mr. Davis is a member of the California His- 
torical Society, and historian of the Sacramento 
Society of California Pioneers; also an honorary 
member of the Sacramento Typographical Union, 
No. 46. He was commissioned Major and En- 
gineer Officer of the National Guard of Califor- 
nia, November 16, 1881, and served on the staff's 
of Brigadier-Generals John F. Sheehan, Llewel- 
lyn Tozer and John T. Carey. 

Mr. Davis has a half-brother, W. H. Turnor; 
also a brother named Elmer L., and a sister 
named Nellie L. 

There is one newspaper published in Folsoin, 
the Telegraph, which is issued every Saturday 
morning. It was established in the early part 
of 1856 by Dr. Bradley, and was at that time 
known as the Granite Journal, Granite then 
being the name of the present Folsom City. 
The paper was conducted by Dr. Bradley for 

several years, and was one of the most widely 
circulated papers in the State in that day of few 
newspapers. When the name of the town was 
changed from Granite to Folsom City the Jour- 
nal changed its name to the Folsoin Telegraph. 
About this time the paper also changed hands, 
Wm. Penry, now treasurer of Amador County, 
becoming the editor and proprietor, continuing 
as such for several years, when Wm. Aveling 
became his successor. At Mr. Aveling's death, 
which occurred shortly afterward, Mrs. Avelino- 
took charge of the establishment, but after a 
short time sold it to Peter J. Hopper, now de- 
ceased, but for many years a well-known lawyer 
of this county. John F. Howe purchased the 
paper from Mr. Hopper about 1872, and pub- 
lished it up to the time of his death, which 
occurred ten years later, after which Mrs. Howe 
published it until July 19, 1884, when it passed 
into the hands of Weston P. Truesdell, who 
published it until August 1, 1888, when I. Fiel 
became associated with him, the paper beinw 
conducted by the two gentlemen until March 
16, 1889, when Mr. Fiel purchased the entire 
paper, he in turn selling out to Thad. J. Mc- 
Farland, its present editor and proprietor. 

Thad. J. McFarland, the present editor of 
the Telegraph., was born in Benicia in 1854, 
and is a prominent member of the order of 
Native Sons of the Golden West. He was one 
of the founders of the Vallejo Daily Times, and 
also conducted the Biggs Recorder. For seven 
years he conducted the Wheatland Graphic, 
which ranks among the leading journals of 
Northern California. He is a practical printer, 
and a member of the Sacramento Typographical 
Union. Mr. McFarland's reputation as a news- 
paper man is such as to justify the prediction 
that the Telegraph will rank with the best, 
and Folsom be greatly benefited by his advent 

At Gait the Gazette is a sprightly journal, 
published by Meacham & Campbell. 



,^ , ^ , ^ .. , , ^^ ,. , . ^ , ^_,^^^^^_,^^^^^^^^^^^^;^P 


'^-^^^-^^^^^P^-:^fhT\-^^^^cif^^-:<f^^:::£^' •'j 


fACRAMENTO CITY has kept abreast 
with the times in the matter of education, 
and the conduct and success i)f her school 
system has always been a matter of pride. 

The first school established in the city was 
opened by C. T. H. Palmer, in August, 1849. 
Concerning the school, Rev. J. A. Benton, 
formerly pastor of the Congregational Church, 
wrote the following interesting account: "C. T. 
II. Palmer, formerly of Folsom, taught thefir^t 
school, so far as I know, ever taught in Sacra- 
mento. He taught during the month of August, 
1849, and tlien abandoned the business. I do 
not know how many pupils he had, but the 
number could not have exceeded ten. I pur- 
chased from him in September the benches and 
fnrniture he had used, and opened the school 
again October 15, 1849, at the same place in 
which he had kept it. The place was on I 
street, in a building owned by Prof. F. Shep- 
herd. The structure was a one-story house, 
about 14 X 28 feet, covered at the ends with 
rough clapboards, and the roof and sides were 
covered with old sails from some craft tied up 
at the bank of a river. Some 'shakes' and 
'pickets' were nailed over tlie places not cov- 
ered by the sails, near the ground. The door- 
way was covered by a piece of canvas fastened 
at the top and dropping before the opening. 
There was no floor but the ground, and that was 
by no means level. The school-house stood on 

the brink of the slough, or 'Lake Sutter,' near 
the northeast corner of Third and I streets. It 
was about sixty feet east of the east side of 
Third street, and the southern side of it en- 
croached a few feet upon 1 street. I street was 
not then passable for wagons. The remains of 
a coal-pit were in the middle of I street, a few 
yards eastward from the building. A small and 
crooked oak tree stood at the eastern end of the 
school-house, close to it and near the door. A 
sycamore tree and some shrubs of ash and alder 
grew out of the bank on the northern side and 
close to the building. The tilling up of I street 
and the advent of the Chinese now obliterate 
every trace of the building and its exact site. 
Mj school opened with four pupils, and in- 
creased soon to six, then to eight or nine. I do 
not think it ever exceeded twelve. By stress of 
weather aiid other circumstances I was com- 
pelled to close the school about the 1st of 
December, 1849. That was the end of my en- 
deavors in the way of school-teaching. It is 
my impression that Crowell opened a school in 
the spring of 1850, but it may have been during 
the following autumn. In the spring there were 
families enough to make school-teaching desira- 
ble, and the weather and otlier circumstances 
were such as to render it practicable. I know 
of no other schools in 1S49 than Palmer's and 

Previous to 1854 the public schools, of the 

nisTonr of sacuamento county. 

city were merged with those of the county, 
and were under the superintendence of the 
county assessor, by virtue of his office. The 
State school law of 1851 provided fur a super- 
vising school committee in each city, town and 
incorporated village. The attempt made here 
to establish a common school under that law 
failed, and in 1852 the Legislature repealed the 
act and passed a new one, which gave to cities 
and incorporated towns the control of the com- 
mon schools withiu their limits, with a pro- 
vision that if the municipal authorities did not 
exercise that power the county assessor should 
have charge of them and be ex officio county 
superintendent. The act was again amended 
April 26, 1853, and that year the county assessor, 
H. J. Bidleman, appointed under the amended 
law a Board of School Commissioners for the 
city," consisting of Dr. H. W. Ilarkness, 6. J. 
Phelan and George Wiggins. 

The commissioners appear tc have been very 
tardy in establishing schools, for the newspapers 
of the time frequently demanded them todo their 
duty and open a public school. The following 
advertisement appeared in February, 1854: 

'> Public School. — The citizens of Sacramento 
are hereby notified that the school commission- 
ers for this city will open a public school on the 
southeast corner of Fifth and K streets, on 
Monday morning, February 20, 1854, at 9 
o'clock. G. H. Peck will have charge of the 
male department, and Miss Griswold of tlie 
female department. By order of the Commis- 
sioners of Common Schools." 

On that day the school was opened. This 
was the first public school established in this 
city. Two rooms were occupied, one by the 
boys and one by the girls. The first day fifty 
boys and forty girls attended. Most of them 
were between seven and nine years of age, and 
tiie greater portion of them had never before 
attended school. Four days afterward there 
were ninety boys and seventy girls in attend- 
ance, and it was found tliat tliere was not suf- 
ficient room to accommodate all the scholars. 
Soon there were 200 altogether. As the buiid- 

ing was not large enough to accommodate so 
many, another schoul was opened in an old 
building known as the Indiana House, on I 
street, near Tenth, and A. R. Jackson was ap- 
pointed teacher. As this school also became too 
crowded, another building was leased, on the 
corner of Tenth and G streets, and to this place 
the girls of I slreet school were removed and 
placed in charge of M. E. Corby. June 19 a 
scliool for boys and girls was opened near tlie 
corner of Seventh and K streets, of which W. 
A. Murraj'had charge. Early in June, the first 
primary school was opened in the rear of the 
Fifth street schooJ, in a building formerly oc- 
cupied as a mechanic's shop. Miss A. E. Rob- 
erts was appointed teacher.. 

In July, 1854, it is said that there were 261 
pupils in the public schools and 250 in private 

October 2, 1854, an ordinance was passed by 
the City Council, which had been drafted b}"- 
N. A. H. Ball, providing for the election of a 
city superintendent of schools and a Board of 
Education. The board was to assume the con- 
trol of the city schools, which was at that time 
vested in the county assessor. The council 
elected Dr. H. W. Harkness, Superintendent, 
and N. A. H. Ball, George Wiggins and Dr. T. 
A. Thomas, Trustees, or members of the board, ■ 
which organized on the 1st of the following 
month. Harkness occupied the chair and Ball 
was secretary. At the first meeting they esti- 
mated tlie school income and expenses for the 
ensuing year at $22,000. December 7, after 
some controversy, County Superintendent Bidle- 
man and county commissioners surrendered 
to the City Board full control of the pub- 
lic schools established by them in the city, with 
all the property, on condition that the latter 
liquidate the outstanding- debts contracted for 
the schools. The indebtedness thus assumed 
amounted to $7,500. On the 11th the county 
superintendent and commissioners resigned 
their oflices, and the City Board assumed exclu- 
sive control of the schools of the city. 

The first common-school house in the city 


was erected on the corner of Tenth and H streets, 
upon a lot tendered rent free by John H. Gass, 
and was dedicated January 2, 1855. The build- 
ing was erected by A. B. Asper, who contracted 
to build it within fifteen days, for $1,487. 

February 5, 1855, a primary school was es- 
tablished at the corner of Eleventh and I streets, 
and Mrs. Eliza A. Wright was elected teacher. 

At a meeting of the board, held the 13th of 
that month, the number of scholars allowed to 
each school was fixed at fifty to sixty. When 
the complement of scholars was made up the 
teachers were to register the applicants. If a 
pupil absented himself for one week without a 
good excuse, the teachers were to notify the 
board and the scholar's parents, erase the name 
from the roll, and notify the first on the list of 
applicants of the vacancy. 

Dr. H. W. Harkness, the city sujicrintendent, 
submitted his first quarterly report February 
13, 1855. He reported six schools in success- 
ful operation, with accommodations for 4l4 
pupils, but 578 have made application to enter 
the schools during the term. Average attend- 
ance, 463. 

The board adjourned sine die Ajiril 10, 1S55, 
their term of ofiice having expired. In March 
the method of electing members of the Board of 
Education had lieen changed by special legisla- 
tive enactment, taking from the City Council 
tin aiitlioriiy to cieate the board and giving it 
to the people, who would elect such ofiicers upon 
the fir^t Moiiday in April of each year. The 
nuniber of commissioners was also increased to 

At the election in April, 1S55, Francis Tnkey 
was chosen Superintendent, and R. P. Johnson, 
H. Houghton, F. A. Hatch, J. F. Morse, Geo. 
W. Woolleyand George Wiggins, Commission- 
ers. The new board organized on the 11th of 
the month, and Woolley was elicted secretary. 
At this time tlie moiiilily salaries of the teach- 
ers amounted in the aggregate to $1,350, and the 
rent hills for school-hoii.~es to $300. On the 
15th, Lee & Marshall's circus gave a benefit for 
the schools, and the profits were $321. After- 

ward the same circus company gave other bene- 
fits to the schools. 

May 5 the board elected teachers. On the 
25th it adopted a set of by-laws and rules of 
order. The by-laws provided that the board 
should consist of six members and one superin- 
tendent; that it should hold regular monthly 
meetings on the last Saturday of each month; 
and that special meetings may be called at any 
time by the superintendent or a majority of the 
members. The board was divided into three 
supervisory committees, who were to preside 
over the schools in their respective wards, and 
have special superintendence over them. On the 
17th of June, Woolley resigned his position as 
secretary of the board and Dr. Hatch was 
elected to fill the vacancy. On the 19th a reso- 
lution was introduced that the Bible be adopted 
as a text book in the grammar schools, and that 
a portion of it be read by the teacher on open- 
ing each day. It was laid on the table, bat at 
a subsequent meeting it was taken up and passed, 
after striking out the part requiring its use as a 
text book. Se|)tember 8, 1855, a resolution was 
adopted abolishing corporal punishment in the 
schools, and providing that when a pupil shall 
prove incorrigible i;nder the ordinary modes of 
punishment the teacher should temporarily sus- 
pend him until a decision (jf the board should 
be obtained. 

February 12, 1850, A. R. Jackson, Principal 
of the Grammar School at the corner of Tenth 
and H streets, was dismissed from his position as 
a teacher, because he refused to collect an assess- 
ment from his scholars under the provision of 
the rate hill prescribed in the school law of 1855. 

In February, 1856, Tukey resigned his posi- 


itendent, and Dr. F. W. Hatch 

was elected in his stead. William E. Chamber- 
lain was elected a commissioner in .the place of 
Hatch, and chosen secretary, which office Hatch 
resigned when he was elected superintendent. 
From the annual report submitted by the latter 
March 18, 1856, we learn that there were 466 
scholars registered during the year; average at- 
tendance, 254. 


Early in 1856 W. H. Watson succeeded 
Woollej as a member of the board. In April 
a superintendent and board were elected, and on 
the 11th of that month the new board met for 
tlie first time. It was composed of Hatch, re- 
elected superii\tendent; Dr. C. Burrell, David 
Maddux, John F. Dreman, J. F. Thompson, A. 
Montgomery and C. H. Bradford; the latter 
served until May 5, when lie left the State, and 
on May 12 the board devoted the sum of $25 
per month to the support of the colored school, 
which was taught by J. B. Anderson. This was 
the first instance where they had received assist- 
ance from the city. In November, 1856, J. B. 
Harmon succeeded Burrell as a member of the 

On April 11, 1857, occurred the first meeting 
of a new board, consisting of J. G. Lawton, 
Superintendent, and Samuel Cross, R. A. Pearis, 
David Murray, H. J. Bidleman, P. W. S. Eayle 
and G. L. Simmons, Commissioners. The last 
mentioned was elected secretary. In the latter 
part of this year, the building of the Franklin 
Grammar School, at Sixth and L streets, was 
commenced. The corner-stone was laid Decem- 
ber 22, under the auspices of the Masons. The 
structure was completed the ensuing year, at a 
cost of §7,500. 

On May 4, 1858, the school directors, com- 
posed of the Board of Education appointed under 
the city and county " Consolidation Act," held 
their first meeting, ana elected Samuel Cross, 
President, and Dr. Simmons, Secretary. Daniel 
J. Thomas was appointed a director in place of 
Dr. R. A. Pearis, by the Board of Supervisors; 
but this appointment was declared illegal by the 
Board of School Directors. 

October 4, 1858, the Board of Education con- 
sisted of G. J. Phelan, A. G. Richardson, H. J. 
Bidleman, T. M. Morton, H. P. Osborne, G. I. 
N. Monell, John Hatch and G. L. Simmons. 
They elected Phelan, President, and Bidleman, 
Secretary. Hatch did not qualify and the Board 
of Supervisors elected David Meeker to fill the 
position. Simmons resigned in January, 1859, 
and C. A. Hill succeeded him. Early in 1859 

a school-building was erected at Thirteenth and 
G streets, at a cost of about $3,800. It was 
named the Washington School-house. On May 
9 Bidleman, the secretary of the board, was re- 
moved, and Monell elected to the office. 

October 3, 1859, a new board organized com- 
prised of Cyril Hawkins, 11. J. Bidleman, J. 
M. Frey, G. L. Simmons, J. J. Murphey, G. I. 
N. Monell, D. J. Thomas and Henry McCreary. 
They elected Dr. Frey, President, and Monell, 
Secretary. An attempt was made to establish 
a Normal School, to be taught two nights in the 
week, but the plan was not carried out. At the 
close of the year there were ten schools in the 
city, one High School, four grammar and the 
rest intermediate and primary. There were 
1,031 scholars enrolled, with an average attend- 
ance of 790. Fifteen teachers were employed. 
The board adopted the monitorial system, which 
they thought increased the teaching force with- 
out additional expense. 

December 3, 1860, the new board consisted 
of G. Taylor, J. F. Crawford, Henry Miller, J. 
M. Frey, J. M. MiUiken, A. C. Sweetser, S. M. 
Mouser and J. Bithell. Miller was chosen 
President, and Sweetser, Secretary. This board 
discharged all the teachers and monitors, graded 
the schools, fixed the salaries of the teachers, 
decided that male teachers should be employed 
as principals of the High School and of the first 
grade of the grammar school. J. AV". Anderson 
was elected principal of the Franklin Grammar 
School, and Miss Doyle was appointed his assist- 
ant. June 7, 1861, Anderson was elected prin- 
cipal of the High School. 

January 6, 1862, the board comprised J. F. 
Dreman, D. J. Thomas, W. Bidwell, H. Miller, 
W. H. Hill, J. M. MiUiken, S. M. Mouser 
and Edward Collins. Hill was elected presi- 
dent. G. Taylor, the city superintendent of 
schools, acted as secretary. When this board 
assumed control they found the school-houses 
considerably damaged by the flood, but they 
were put in order in a short time and the 
schools commenced. The question of maintain- 
ing a colored school came up at various times 


before the different boards, and it seemed that 
for many years tiiis school was not regarded in 
'tlie same light as the schools for the white chil- 
dren. Part of the time no support whatever 
was given to the education of colored children. 
IJut in March, 1862, Mrs. Folger was elected 
teacher of the colored school, and the lioard 
voted to pay her salary whenever the building 
and furniture should be furnished by the parents 
interested. March 3 the schools were opened 
for the lirst time after the flood. 

Mouser resigned as amember of theboard July 
28, and J. T. Peck was elected to till the vacancy. 

The school-house at Tenth and P streets was 
erected in the latter part of 1862, at a cost of 
about $2,500. 

A Board of Education, consisting of Edwin 
Collins, John J. Dreman, W. A. Hill, H. II. 
Hartley, Paul Morrill, D. J. Thomas, W. Bid- 
well and H. J. Bidleman, organized and elected 
Hill President in January, 1863. At the close 
of this year there were 1,093 names on the roll 
as pupils — thirty-two in the colored school. In 
the spring of this year a building for the colored 
school was erected at Fifth and O streets, but it 
was set on fire by an incendiary, and consumed 
with all its contents. During this year eleven 
schools were under the charge of the board. 
Total disbursements, $24,483.57. 

On January 4, 1864, the board was composed 
of W. Bidwell, M. C. Briggs, J. H. Carroll, J. 
F. Crawford, Henry H. Hartley, Paul Morrill, 
(). D. Lainbard and II. J. Bidleman. Briggs 
was president. At the close of this year tliere 
were thirteen public schools in the city. 

1865.— The board comprised M. C. Briggs, 
W. E. Chamberlain, O. D. Lambard, Eugene 
Soule, J. W. Avery, J. H. Carroll, J. F. Craw- 
ford and Paul Morrill; Briggs, President. The 
Union school-house at Seventh and G streets 
was completed January 27. At the annual 
election of teachers, April 27, J. L. Fogg was 
elected principal of the grammar school. De- 
cember 25, W. H. Hill, who had been chosen 
city superintendent, submitted his annual re- 
port, showing the statistics in detail. 

1866.— The board was composed of J. W. 
Avery, W. E. Chamberlain, Paschal Coggins, 
John F. Dreman, G. E. Moore, O. D. Lambard, 
Paul Morrill and Eugene Soule; Chamberlain, 
President. At the end of this year there were 
found ro be 1,524 children enrolled. E.xpenses, 

1867. — Same board as j-revious year; Mor- 
rill, President. The annual report shows the 
usual rate of increase, the usual branches pur- 
sued, etc. The proportion of native children 
becomes conspicuous, being 1,227 born in Cali- 
fornia to 457 elsewhere. In tlie early part of 
this year the Lincoln School Building, at Second 
and P streets, was erected at a cost of $8,049. 
In March $200 was set apart from the State 
apportionment for the purchase of a school 
library, as required by law. With this money 
about 250 volumes were purchased. Since then 
large additions have been made. Early in 1867 
Lambard resigned as a member of the board, 
and John F. Crawford was elected to till the 
vacancy. Soule resigned in April, and David 
S. Ross was elected to fill his place. 

1868.— The board consisted of Henry Miller, 
President; J. F. Crawford, Paschal Coggins, 
Joseph Davis, J. W. Avery, D. S. Ross, F. A. 
Gibbs and Horace Adams. 

1869.— The board consisted of Henry Miller, 
President; J. F. Crawford, J. W. Avery, B. B. 
Redding, David S. Ross, F. A. Gibbs, W. L. 
Campbell and Henry McCreary. School attend- 
ance increased from si.\ty-six to seventy-two per 
cent. A wooden addition was built to the school- 
house at Thirteenth and G streets, but both it 
and the main building were burned by an in- 
cendiary within a fortnight afterward. On the 
same site the present Washington School-house, 
two-story brick, was erected the same year; 
cost, $13,720. Also a frame addition was made 
to the Franklin School-house, at an expense of 
$278. In November a petition signed by over 
400 citizens was presented to the board, asking 
that German be added to the list of studies. 
During the month of January following Arnold 
Dulon was elected a teacher of German, and on 


the first day over 200 pupils began the study of 
that languajre. 

1870.— The board consisted of Henry Miller, 
President; John F. Dreinan, J. W. Avery, David 
S. Ross, F. A. Gibbs, Daniel Brown, Dr. J. F. 
Montgomery and B. B. Redding. In May two 
new departments were added to tlie grammar 
school. Early in the summer a contract was 
made for the erection of a two-story brick school- 
house on the corner of Sixteenth and N streets, 
at a cost of $9,000; but within a day or two 
after the completion of the building it was set 
on tire by an incendiary and destroyed; loss.^ 
$8,000. Immediately a second building, on the 
same plan, was erected. 

1871. — The board was composed of Dr. J. 
F. Montgomery, President; W. C. Stratton, J. 
W. Avery, E. T. Taylor, D. S. Ross, Henry 
Miller, Daniel Brown and Henry C. Kirk. These 
had the oversight of twenty schools. 

1872. — The board was composed of Henry 
Miller, President; Henry C. Kirk, W. C. Strat- 
ton, E. T. Taylor, E. I. Robinson, John F. Dre- 
raan, C. H. Cummings and H. K. Snow. In 
April Judge E. B. Crocker effected a trade with 
the city for the land on which a school-house 
was located at Second and P streets, and a build- 
ing was removed to Fourth and Q streets. In 
May and June the board made strong efforts to 
obtain possession of the public square between 
1 and J and Fifteenth and Sixteenth streets, and 
finally the city donated it to them, and on this 
they erected the present commodious brick 
Sacramento Grammar School-house. Stratton 
resigned and George Rowland was elected to 
fill the vacancy. Underwood resigned as prin- 
cipal of the grammar school, and A. H. Mc- 
Donald, the old teacher, was elected to the posi- 
tion. During this year also the night-school 
system was established. 

Since 1872 the boards have been constituted 
as follows: 

1873. — C. H. Cummings, John F. Dreman, 
H. C. Kirk, Henry Miller, E. I. Robinson, H. 
K. Snow, George Rowland, E. T. Taylor. 

1874. — John F. Dreman, George Rowland, 

George S. Wait, W. F. Knox, J. I. Felter, C. 
H. Cummings, Felix Tracy, D. W. AVelty. 

1875.— John F. Dreman, W. F. Knox, George 
S. Wait, C. II. Cummings, J. F. Montgomery, 
Albert Hart, T. M. Lindley, Felix Tracy. 

1876. — John F. Dreman, J. F. Montgomery, 
Albert Hart, T. M. Lindley, T. B. McFarland, 
Felix Tracy, J. F. Richardson, A. T. Nelson. 

1877.— John F. Dreman, H. H. Liunell, John 
Stevens, J. I. Felter, T. B. McFarland, J. N. 
Toung, J. F. Richardson, A. T. Nelson. Nel- 
son died during the year, and Mattliew Cooke 
was elected to fill the vacancy. 

1878.— H. H. Linnell, J. N. Young, J. F. 
Dreman, E. Greer, John Stevens, Matt. F. John- 
son, T. B. McFarland, J. I. Felter, President. 

1879.— Matt. F. Johnson, S. W. Butler, E. 
Greer, J. F. Dreman, John T. Griflitts, F. A. 
Hornblower, James McClatchy, T. B. McFar- 
land, President. 

1880.— John T. Griflitts, F. A. Hornblower, 
W. D. Stalker, James McClatchy, S. W. Butler, 
K. F. Wiemeyer, J. D. Lord, W. R. Knights. 
Knights resigned and Felix Tracy was appointed 
to succeed him. 

1881.— K. F. Wiemeyer, W. D. Stalker, J. 
D. Lord, L. K. Hammer, S. W. Butler, Felix 
Tracy, Philip Herzog, W. S. Mesick. The last 
named resigned during the year, and C. H. 
Stevens was elected to succeed liim. 

1882.— John F. Slater, Philip Herzog, C. H. 
Stevens, W. D. Stalker, S. W. Butler, Felix 
Tracy, Matthew Cooke, L. K. Hammer. G. W. 
Hancock was appointed to succeed Hammer, 

1883.— John F. Slater, C. II. Stevens, Mat- 
thew C. Cooke, W. D. Stalker, O. P. Goodhue^ 
Felix Tracy, George Hancock, S. AV. Butler. 
Goodiiue died and Elwood Bruner was elected 
as his successor. 

1884.— John F. Slater, C. H. Stevens, Matthew 

C. Cooke, J. L. Chadderdon, Richmond Davis, 

D. Johnson, Elwood Bruner, Frank Avery. 
1885.— W. M. Petrie, John F. Slater, A. 

Conklin, J. L. Cliadderdon, Richmond Davis, 
Frank Avery, C. II. Stevens, E. K. Alsip. 


1886.-^A. Conklin, C. H. Stevens, J. W. 
Todd, W. M. Petrie, Kiclimond Davis, O. W. 
Erlewine, Joliii F. Slater, E. K. Alsip. Stevens 
resigned and JJ. F. Howard was ajjpoiiited to 
succeed him. 

1887.— A. Conklin, AV. M. Petrie, J. W. 
Todd, Kiclunoiid Davis, John F. Slater, A. S. 
Hopkins, H. C. Ciiipinan, 0. W. Erlewine. 

1888.— Richmond Davis, W. M. Petrie, E. 
M. Martin, A. Conklin, J. W. Todd, A. S. Hop- 
kins, H. C. Chipnian, John Skelton. 

1889.— E. M. Martin, A. J. Senatz, J. W. 
Todd, Joseph Hopley, E. Davis, A. C. Tufts, 
H. C. Chipman, John Skelton. 

A Hot of the superintendents of city schools 
appears in the chapter on Municipal Govern- 


The inception of the iirst High School in 
Sacramento appears by the record to have been 
May 22, 1855, when Dr. Hatch proposed the 
studies of Willson's History, Astronomy, Book- 
keeping, Latin, French and Spanish. An order 
to add these studies to the course was then 
adopted, but was not executed until next year, 
when the classes pursuing these studies were 
taught in the school-house on M street, between 
Eighth and Ninth, by J. M. Howe. During 
the first year eighteen girls and twenty-one boys 
attended. The average attendance was remark- 
ably high, being 36.8 of the 39. 

May 8, 1857, Howe was succeeded by C. A. 
Hill, as the former declined to be examined in 
Greek. In August, 1857, Hill resigned and A- 
R. Jackson was chosen to succeed him. Early 
in 1858 the school was removed to Fifth and K 
streets, and J. P. Carleton elected teacher of 
French and Spanish. 

May 20, 1858, Charles A. Swift was elected 
principal, and his salary was fixed at .$200 a 
moi th. Professor Lefebre was employed to 
teach French and Spanish, in place of Carleton. 

ig was 

As soon as the Franklin School Buildi 

completed, the High School was moved into it. 
In June, 1859, Professor Lefebre left the State, 
and Professor Jofre was employed to succeed 

him. In November, 1859, the board added the 
natural sciences to the curriculum, electing A. 
R. Jackson the teacher. In October, 1800, 
Swift showed evidences of insanity, and his 
office was declared vacant, and Jackson was ap- 
pointed to succeed him. In April, 18G1, Jack- 
son refused to serve as principal any longer, 
because of insufficient salary, and J. W. Ander- 
son was appointed in his stead. September 18, 
1862, the latter was succeeded by R. K. Marri- 
ner, who resigned March 27, 1865, and was 
succeeded by J. L. Fogg. April 29 the same 
spring. Mile L. Templeton was elected princi- 
pal. July 25, 1865, the school was removed to 
Seventh and G streets. In November, Alex- 
ander Goddard was appointed teacher of French. 
In April, 1871, Jourdon W. Roper was ap- 
pointed principal. In January, 1872, he re- 
signed, and H. H. Howe was elected to fill his 
place. In August, 1872, Max Straube was elected 
teacher of German, in place of Uulon. Early 
this year, Edward P. Howe was appointed to 
take the place of his brother as principal. His 
successors to date have been Oliver M. Adams, 
who resigned in June, 1884; W. W. Anderson, 
from that date to the close of the school year in 
July, 1888, since which time James II. Pond 
has been principal. The present enrollment of 
pupils Is 143. December, 1888, the present 
High School Building, at the northeast corner 
of Ninth and M streets, was completed Septem- 
ber 2, 1876, and the school was opened January 
1, 1877. The building is 60x70 feet in size, 
consisting of two stories and basement, and cost 

Of the Franklin Grammar School at Sixth 
and L streets, H. II. Howe was the principal 
until January 20, 1870, when he resigned, and 
was succeeded by A. H. McDonald, 1870-'71; 
J. G. Underwood, six weeks in 1871; A. II. 
McDonald, 1871-'80. In 1872, while the lat- 
ter was principal, the Sacramento Grammar 
School Building, of fifteen rooms, was erected 
at Fifteenth and J streets, at a cost of $62,000, 
and the Franklin School was transferred to it in 
the year following. E. P. Rowell was principal 



here 1880 -'85; Madison Babcock,1885 to March 

I, 1888, since which time Mary J. Watson has 
been the principah Tiie enrollment of pupils 
in this school at present is about 650. 

During 1875 the Franklin Grammar School 
was re-organized at Sixth and L streets, with S. 

II. Jackman as principal. lie was succeeded in 
turn by F. L. Landes, Laura II. Wells and 
Joseph W. Johnson. Some years ago the prop- 
erty was sold, and a building of ten rooms was 
erected, at the corner of Tenth and Q streets; 
but the primary pupils so increased in number 
ihat another building was needed for them, and 
this was devoted to their use; and for the gram- 
mar school another structure, of ten rooms, was 
erected on the same block, at the corner of Tenth 
and P streets, in 1885, at a cost of $15,000, 
where Johnson continues as principal. The 
present eni-ollment is -124. This is termed the 
Capital Grammar School. 

At this writing the board is advertising for 
plans for another grammar-school building east 
of Twentieth street; also, for enlarging the 
High School Building and tlie school-house at 
Twenty-seventh and J streets. 

Tlie night school in the old Perry Seminary 
Building on I street, between Tenth and Elev- 
enth, is very successfully conducted, with about 
115 pupils. 

The following table gives the statistics of the 
present condition of the city scliools: 

Sobool-houses 16 

Grammar schools 24 

Primary schools 56 

Children of school age 6,193 

Primary grade pupils enrolled 2,193 

Grammar grade pupils enrolled 1,103 

High School pupils enrolled 175 

Male leachers 4 

Female teachers 76 

Total teachers' salaries ,f 65,406 

Total rents, repairs and contingent expenses 16,546 

Total valuation of school property 252,000 

The present statistics of the public schools of 

Sacramento County, not including the city, are 

exhibited in the following table: 

School-houses, including joint districts 69 

Grammar schools 43 

Primary schools 28 

New districts organized in 1887-'88 2 

Children of school age 2,411 

Per cent, of attendance on average number be- 
longing 92 

Grammar grade pupils enrolled 610 

Primary grade pupils enrolled 1,416 

Average daily attendance 1,291 

Male teachers 10 

Female leachers 61 

Teachers' rprlitirntps granted 188T-'8s* 37 

Appli( Mills i,,i siiiiic rejected* 40 

Total I.Mrli.Ms -:il:lM,-S $32,525 

Total reiils, r.'paiis .nid contingent expenses B,9.s7 

Cash paid for school libraries 1,490 

Cash paid for apparatus 1,051 

Total valuation of school property 97,034 


The most iujportant details concerning the 
schools in the county outside of the city appear 
iu the following table: 

Townships and 


American River , 


Alder Creek 




Buckeye .... 



Carson Creek 

CarsonCreek JoinI 




Pry Creek, Joint.. 

Elder Creek 

Elk Grove 








Grand Island 





Highland Park... 


Hutson, Joint 








Michigan Bar. . . . 



Natoma, Joint 

Jranitp, Natoma. 




San J., Franklin . . 
Lee,Cos., Gran. Nat, 
Cos., El Dor. Co. . . 



Dry Creek 

( enter, Placer Co.. 
.Sut. Bright, Frank. 

.San Joaquin 


Brighton, San J.... 
Brighton, San J. ... 

Franklin, San J 


Dry Creek 



Granite, Natoma.. . 

Dry Creek 

Dry Creek 


Sutter. Org. in 18S8, 
Granite, Brighton . 
Alabama, San J. Co. 




Bright'n, Lee.Gran. 


Alabama, Lee 

American, Center.. 
Sutler, Franklin. . . 



Granite, Lee 

Natoma, El Dor. Co. 



















' Total of city and > 








2 a 
5 s 








Oak Grove 


Pleasant Grove. .. 
Point Pleasant 

American, Center... 
Suiter, FranlUiu... 

San Joaquin 



San Joaquin 


3 200 

1 3:10 

Reese .. 




Georgiana, Solano. 

5 575 





San Joaquin 

San Joaquin 





Stone House 




Center, Miss 

San Joaquin, Lee.. 










■S o 


Jl. t 






2 a 
5 a 




San Joaquin 




1 930 

AValnut Grove.... 











West Union 

Sutter, Franklin... 





White Rock 







Lee, Cosumnes.... 





The County Board of Education at present 

consists of the following: Term E.xpires. 

J. W. Johnson, 1736 O street, Sacramento July 1, 1889 

J. E. Blanchard, Rocklin, Placer County July 1, 1891 

Miss Josie Regan, Third and M streets, Sac- 
ramento July 1, 1889 

Mrs. Jennie Kilgore, Mansion House, Sacra- 
mento July 1, 1891 

B. F. Howard, 1526 Third street, Sacramento, Superin- 
tendent and ex-offlcio Secretary. 



fllE uatiiral sequence of historical matter 
led us on uninterruptedly to the subject 
of education; now we can begin again 
with pioneer times on another series of topics, 
namely, those pertaining to material develop 

Doubtless the first navigation on the Sacra- 
mento River was conducted by the Russians 
from Sitka Island, who were located at Ross 
and Bodega on the coast, and engaged in trade 
in furs, hides, tallow, etc. They were in this 
region prior to 1840, carrying on trade with the 
interior up to the time of their selling out to 
Captain Sutter; but the hostility of the Spanish 
Government and the expense of maintaining 
their position finally caused tliem to abandon 
the field. At that time also there was in this 
part of the country an agency for the Hudson 
Ray (Company. In 1841 Sutter purchased the 
property of the Russians, including a small 
schooner of forty tons burden, with which they 
had made short voyages along the coast. The 
first record we have of its appearance up the 
Sacramento River was in August of that year, 
though probably it had been upon its waters 
previously. This may be considered the date of 
the commencement of American commerce upon 
this stream. According to the terms of Sutter's 
bargain with the Russians, lie was to furnish a 
given quantity of grain eacli year for their set- 

tlement on the coast, and the trans- 
portation of this product every fall t> the bay 
was a part of the regular trade upon which this 
vessel entered. She was manned and subse- 
quently commanded by Indians selected from 
Sutter's domesticated tribes, and for a long time 
was the only "regular packet" on the river. 
After performing a number of important offices 
during the war, she was taken down to San 
Francisco in the spring of 1848, to carry thither 
the tidings of the discovery of gold. She con- 
tinued to be the largest schooner on the river 
up to the period when the commerce with the 
mines began. 

The Brooklyn VIormons also owned a launch 
called the Comet, which made three trips to the 
settlement on the Stanislaus, and was the pio- 
neer at the San Joaquin. 

The voyage from San Francisco to New Hel- 
vetia, or Sutter's Fort, as this place was then 
called, and back to the city, occupied from two 
to four weeks. 

In the spring of 1848, when the rush for gold 
set in, the San Francisco Star (of May 20) thus 
ironically alludes to the first embarkations: 
" Fleet of launches left this place on Sunday and 
Monday last, bound 'up the Sacramento River,' 
closely stowed with human beings led by the 

I'C of filthy lucre to the pcrcnnial-yieldin 



rth, when 

man can lii 


upward of two ounces a day,' and ' two thousand 
men can find their liands full' — of hard work." 
May 27 the same editor said: "Launches have 
plied without cessation between this place and 
New Helvetia during this time (since the dis- 
covery of gold). The Sacramento, a first-class 
craft, left here on Thursday last, thronged with 
passengers for the gold mines — a motley assem- 
blage, composed of lawyers, merchants, grocers, 
carpenters, cartmen and cooks, all possessed with 
the desire of suddenly becoming rich." He also 
stated that at that time over 300 men were 
engaged in washing gold, and parties were con- 
tinually arriving from every part of the country. 
San Francisco was soon made to present a deso- 
late appearance on account of the sudden de- 
parture of her principal citizens for the gold 
field. During the first eight weeks a quarter of 
a million dollars' worlh of gold was taken to 
that city, and during the second eight weeks 
$600,000 worth. By this time (September) the 
number of persons in the diggings was esti- 
mated at 6,000. "An export at last!" was the 
exclamation of the San Franciscan editor; "and 
it is gold." 

The first vessel whose tonnage exceeded that 
of the "launches" was the schooner Providence, 
Hinckley, Master, which ascended the Sacra- 
mento in April, 1849. P'or several years pre- 
vious she had been engaged between Tahiti and 
the Sandwich Islands. Her burden was less 
than 100 pounds. In March that year Samuel 
Brannan purchased the Eliodora, a Chilian ves- 
sel, filled it with goods and started up the river 
in April. The Joven Guipuzcoana, a Peruvian 
vessel, and other large sailing vessels of first- 
class dimensions, soon followed. At the date of 
their arrival about twelve stores and tenements 
graced this locality. Meanwhile several vessels 
of considerable size also ascended the San Joa- 
quin to Stockton. 

On the success of the Joven Guipuzcoana 
were founded the plans of the first steam navi- 
gation companies. Her trip to this point dem- 
onstrated the practicability of navigation by 
such large vessels as the McKim and the Sena- 

tor, which soon folloM'ed. In the month of May 
the crowning exploit in the history of sailing 
vessels was performed. This was the trip of 
the Bark Whiton, Gelston, Master, to this place 
in seventy-two hours from San Francisco, and 
140 days from New York. She came up with 
her royal yards crossed, without meeting with a 
single detention, though she was a vessel of 241 
tons burden and drew nine and a half feet of 

The first steamboat that ever plowed the 
waters of either the bay or the rivers of this 
State arrived at the port of San Francisco, Octo- 
ber 14, 1847, owned by Captain Leidesdorff, a 
man of remarkable enterprise, who was the chief 
instrumentality in laying the corner-stone of San 
Francisco's prosperity. She was packed on 
board a Russian bark from Sitka. Leidesdorff 
had carried on a trade with the Russians at their 
American settlement for seven years previous; 
and, hearing that a small steamboat was in use 
upon their waters, he sent up and purchased it 
for his hide and tallow commerce on the small 
streams leading from the inland embarcaderos 
to the bay. The vessel, not exceeding forty tons 
burden, was put together under the leeoF Yerba 
Buena Island, was named '■ Little Sitka," and 
on the loth of November, 1847, steamed out 
under the management of a Russian engineer 
who had superintended her construction. From 
a swivel gun mounted upon her bow was occa- 
sionally fired a salutation. She successfully 
rounded the island and arrived in port, hailed 
by the cheers of a multitude. This boat was 
long, low, and what the sailors termed very 
" crank." The weight of a single person on 
her guards would throw one of her wheels out 
of order. 

Her first trip for business was made down to 
Santa Clara, with indifferent success. Her next 
trip was up to Sacramento, in the latter part of 
November, 1847, and safely arrived at this em- 
barcadero. Nearly a month elapsed, however, 
before her return; and in the meantime various 
were the jokes and jibes " launch "-ed at her 
and on the proprietor, who nevertheless per- 


sisted that he would yet " make the smoke fly 
on the bay," and hand the name of his first 
steamboat "down to dexterity," as he pro- 
nounced the word. 

On the 12th of February following (18i8) 
this little steamer was swamped by a norther 
while lying at anchor at San Francisco Bay. It 
was raised, the engine taken out, and the hull 
converted into a sailing vessel which served well 
for years. The engine, after having rusted on 
the sandy beach for a long time, was finally 
made to do duty in a small domestic manufac- 
tory in San Francisco. The little steamboat en- 
terprise just described was, however, more a 
freak of will than the demand of business. 

But to whom belongs the having first pro- 
jected the running of good steamboats for trafiic 
after the great tide of gold emigration had set 
in, it is difiicult to say. The first vessel pro- 
pelled by steam entering the Bay of San B'ran- 
cisco was the California, February 28, 1849. 
Tlie excursion of the steamship Oregon from 
San Francisco to Benicia and back, April 21 of 
the same year, was the first trip of a steam ves- 
sel of any magnitude into any of the interior 
waters adjacent to tiie main bay. It was indeed 
a successful and magnificent excursion. Prior 
to this, however, announcements had been made 
that steamboats were on their way from the East 
to California, to ply on the rivers here. The 
first of these announcements was issued from 
the office of the old Placer Times, when that 
journal was first started at Sutterville, in April, 
1849. It was printed in the form of a handbill, 
at the order of some of the proprietors of that 
place. May 19, the following advertisement 
appeared in the Times: " Ten thousand cords 
of wood. We wish to employ any number of 
men that may call, to cut wood at Sutterville 
for the use of the steamers. George McDougal 
6c Co., Sutterville, May 15, 1859." Of course 
the wood was never cut. 

During the summer of 1849 a number of 
steamboat enterprises were on foot, and the 
keels of several small vessels, brought by some 
of the ships chartered by the gold hunters, were 

laid at different points on the river and bay. 
The first of this series of which we liave any 
record was one of about fifty tons burden, put 
together at Benicia, the material having been 
brought from the East by way of tlie Horn on 
board the Edward Everett. She made her first 
trip to Sacramento, August 17, 1849. 

About this period also were established the 
first regular express lines in the State, two com- 
mencing business between here and San Fran- 
cisco, to take the business of the regular mail, 
which was at that time the subject of bitter 
complaint and unsparing ridicule. August 25, 
another small steamboat from Philadelphia be- 
gan to ply the river, accommodating some thirty 
passengers and " running about seven knots an 

About the first boat advertised for regular 
trips between this city and San Francisco ap- 
pears to have been the Sacramento, in Septem- 
ber, 1849, commanded by Captain John Van 
Pelt. She had two engines of sixteen horse- 
power, could carry about 100 passengers, besides 
freight. She was built about where Washing- 
ton now stands, opposite tiie northern portion 
of Sacramento City, and the captain, who be- 
came a sort of Pacific Vanderbilt, made suc- 
cessful and regular tripe with this vessel as far 
down as " New York of the Pacific," now where 
passengers and freight had to be transferred. 

About the same time a little steam dredge, 
brought out by the Yuba Company, was set up 
in a scow and started on a trip up the Feather 
River, carrying a quantity of bricks, at $1.00 
each for freight (!), and lumber at !gl50 per 
1,000 feet. Two months after iier arrival she 
was sold at auction for $40,000. 

The next boat was the Mint, also a small one, 
put up at San Francisco, which was really the 
first steamboat to make successful trips with 
passengers and freight all the way between that 
city and Sacramento, beginning in the middle 
of October, 1849. 

The propeller McKim was the first large ves- 
sel that ever navigatctl the Sacramento Iliver by 
steam. She had doubled Cape Horn a:id ai-rived 


at San Francisco, October 3, and was immediately 
put in order by her San Francisco agents, Sim- 
mons, Hutchinson & Co., for the Sacramento 
trade. She drew eight feet of water, and many 
doubted whether she could ascend the river to 
this point; but she arrived here on the 27th of 
that month, amid the cheers of an iininense 
crowd lining the shore. The- fine old steamer 
Senator became her rival November 6, 1849. 

During these times the fare from Sacramento 
to San Francisco was $30. 

The little steamer called tlie Washington was 
the first that ascended as far as Vernon, at the 
month of Feather River, to which point she 
made regular trips. In April, 1850, the iEtna, 
a very small steamer, ascended the American as 
far as " Norristown," the first and probably the 
last time that point had ever been reached by a 
steamboat. May 8, 1850, the Jack Hays reached 
the town of Redding at the head waters of the 
Sacramento River, within forty-five miles of the 
Trinity Diggings. Among those who first took 
their place on the route between this point and 
Yuba City, at the mouth of the Yuba River, 
the early rival of Marysville, was the little 
steamboat Linda, in the fall of 1849. 

The steamer N"ew World was built at New 
York City, purposely for a trip to California, in 
the fall of 1849 and spring of 1850. It was 
320 feet long, and of 530 tons burden. The 
proprietor, William H. Brown, becoming finan- 
cially embarrassed, had to take the sheriff' in as 
partner. The latter employed deputies to go 
and retnain on board during the launching, and 
to make assurance doubly sure he went upon 
board himself, but was unknown to the capt.ari, 
Ed. Wakeman. The vessel was held to the port 
of New York by law, and the launching was 
ostensibly for the only purpose of getting the 
boat ipto the watei-. Steam, however, was raised 
previous to the launching, and the sheriff, in- 
cognito, inquired what it meant. The reply 
was, " To wear the rust off the bearings and see 
that the engine worked well." But. the cap- 
tain, after steaming around the harbor awhile, 
put out to sea, against the protests of the siieriff. 

The captain and his crew, being more numer- 
ous than the sheriff" and his posse, put them 
ashore in row-boats, and came their way around 
Cape Horn to California! They made a fine 
voyage, and arrived at San Francisco, July 11, 

For a long time thereafter the New World 
and the Senator made alternate trips between 
Sacramento and Benicia. Afterward she was 
employed in the coasting and oceanic trade, and 
some years ago was overhauled at San Francisco 
and transformed into a magnificent ferry-boat, 
and as such is now employed on the bay. 

Captain Wakeman was, at last accounts, a 
resident of San Francisco, which he has made his 
home ever since coming to the coast. 

Many interesting particulars in addition to 
the foregoing concerning pioneer navigation are 
given in the biographies of Captains Foster and 
Dwyer in a subsequent portion of this work. 
Captain Fourat is another good historian of 
those items. 

stea:^iboat explosions. 

Steamboat explosions and other accidents on 
inland waters were very common in early days, 
previous to the many improvements that have 
iu our generation been made in engine machinery 
and the structure of vessels. During the firot 
several years after the gold discovery and the 
introduction of steam vessels in California, it 
was estimated that on San Francisco Bay alone, 
and its tributaries, there were no less than two 
or three accidents every week. Thus the}' were 
so common that t!ie newspapers did not detail 
the particulars of all of them, and our sources 
of information concerning many of them are 
correspondingly irieager. 

The first e.xplosion of which we have any ac- 
count was that of a steamer named the Fawn, 
occurring August 18, 1850. 

The Sagamore suffered a like accident Octo- 
ber 29, following. 

Major Tompkins, January 23, 1851. 

The steamer Jack Hays was overhauled and 
repaired during the earliest months of 1853, 
expressly for traffic between Sacramento and 


Marysville, in opposition to the Governor Dana, 
and renamed R. K. Page. She started on her 
first trip up the river March 22, the same day 
her opponent was going up. Coming along- 
side, the crew and passengers began cheering, 
each one hurrahing for his own boat without 
thinking of consequences. The engineer of the 
Page heaved in a barrel of oil, and as they weie 
passing Nicolaus the boiler exploded, being 
driven ahead. Daniel Moore, the former cap- 
tain of the boat, Thomas Kirbej' and Lieutenant 
Henry Moore were standing on the hurricane 
deck at the time, and nothing was ever seen of 
them afterward. 

The Jennie Lind, April 11, 1853, suffered a 
like disaster on her way to Alviso, in San Fran- 
cisco Bay, killing or badly scalding between 
forty and fifty passengers, most of whom were 
at dinner at the time of the accident. 

October 18, the same year, there were two 
similar catastrophes within the limits of the 
waters described. One was the explosion of the 
boiler of the American Eagle on the San Joaquin 
Eiver, at a point known as the Three Sloughs, 
twenty-five miles below Stockton, which shivered 
the vessel to pieces, killing one of the crew and 
three passengers; others were injured. Cause 
of explosion, defective iron. There were fifty- 
three passengers altogether. Ilardison was 

In the afternoon of the same day the steamer 
Stockton, while passing New York landing, 
burst a boiler, killing one person and severely 
scalding eight. One of the latter, Captain J. 
B. Sharp, died the following day. Cause of ac- 
cident unknown. 

January 8, 1854, the Ranger exploded on San 
Francisco Bay, with twelve persons on board, 
killing three and severely scalding five, and 
almost totally wrecking the vessel. The cause 
of this disaster was supposed to be the turning 
of cold water suddenly into a super-heated boiler. 
The engine was of the high-pressure style, of 
eighteen horse-power, and was carrying 120 
pounds of steam when the crown or arcii sheet 
of the boiler gave way, and the .•<team rushed 

down to the feet and recoiled with sufticient 
force to carry away the decks above. Tlie ves- 
sel was of thirty tons burden; John A. Bryan, 

On the 19th of the same month, the Helen 
Hensley exploded at San Francisco, just as she 
was about to leave for Benicia. Engine, high- 
pressure. Both ends of one of the four boilers 
were blown out, causing great destruction in 
the front portion of the boat. Cause, some de- 
fect in the flues or steam connections, or too 
much fire under one of the boilers. Two men 
were killed. One passenger was thrown upon a 
bed and with it quite over upon the wharf, when 
he quietly gathered himself up and coolly re- 
marked that he guessed he wouldn't go to Beni- 
cia that day! 

The Secretary, of whom the captain was E. 
W. Travis, exploded April 15, 1851, with about 
sixty persons on board, when between the islands 
called the " Brothers and Sisters " in San Fran- 
cisco Bay, and when engaged in a race with the 
Nevada. Sixteen persons were killed and thirty- 
one wounded. The Nevada picked up those 
who escaped death and returned to the city, 
leaving nothing in sight but the bow of the ill- 
fated Secretary. The engine was the same that 
had been used upon the exploded Sagamore. 
Cause of disaster, probably a defective boiler. 
Bessie, the engineer, was seen to lay an oar 
across the lever of the safety valve, and that was 
bending upward from the pressure of the steam 
just before the explosion took place. 

The Pearl, of the "Combination Line," burst 
a boiler just below the mouth of the American 
River, January 27. 1855, on her way from 
Marysville, and was racing against the Enter- 
prise, of the "Citizens' Line." Fifty-six per- 
sons were killed! There were ninety-three 
persons aboard, many of whom were China- 
men. Most of the passengers were on the for- 
ward part, as is usual when a boat approaches 
a landing. The captain, E. T. Davis, was killed. 
James Robinson would have been drowned had 
not a large blood-hound plunged in and saved 
him! Only four ladies were on board, and they 


were all saved without injury. The vessel was 
made a total wreck. The verdict of the coro- 
ner's jury was, cause unknown. The engineer 
was incompetent, but it was also known that 
the gauges were inaccurate. The Legislature, 
which was then in session, adjourned in conse- 
quence of 'he mournful event. 

February 5, 1856, the Belle, running from 
San Francisco to Marysville, exploded nine 
miles above Sacramento, probably from too 
high pressure or defective boiler. The captain, 
Charles II. Houston, was killed, and his remains 
now lie in the Sacramento Cemetery. The 
steamer tJeneral Reddington, coming down the 
rixer, i)icked up the survivors. The entire ves- 
ticl on which the disaster occurred, e.xcept the 
rear torty feet, immediately sank. There were 
probably about forty persons on board, of wiiom 
between twenty and thirty were killed. W. J. 
El rick was the chief engineer. 

The J. A. McClelland, C. Mills commanding, 
ran as an independent boat between Sacramento 
and lied 151 uff. August 25, 1861, when about six 
miles by water and two by land below Knight's 
Landing, with about thirty persona on board, it 
exploded a boiler, killing fifteen outright, fa- 
tally injuring several, and more or less injuring 
ail the rest except one! The action tore away 
the whole of the front portion of the decks, and 
fearfully scattered the freight. A large piece of 
boiler rolled up like a scroll of paper and was 
thrown across the river, a distance of 200 or 
300 yards. Sheldon S. Baldwin, the pilot, 
averred that he must have gone up fully 200 
feet (!) in the air, with the pilot-house and 
several companions, and that they came down 
directly into the place where the boiler had 
been, "not much hurt!" 

The cause of this disaster is undetermined, 
but it is said that the boilers had been much 
strained by previous racing. The hull, which 
sank in a few minutes after the accident, was 
subsequently raised, the vessel rebuilt, "chris- 
tened" the Rainbow, ran for a time as a strong 
opposition boat, and was finally bought olf by 
the Steam Navigation Company. 

The Washoe exploded September 5, 1864, 
thirty-five miles below Sacramento, or ten miles 
above Rio Vista, with about 175 persons on 
board, killing about half of them ani severely 
injuring more than half the remainder. Cap- 
tain Albert Foster, with the steamer Antelope, 
picked up the survivors and hurried on to Sacra- 
mento, but ran on a bar opposite R street, and 
was delayed several hours there. Before running 
aground the captain tolled the bell, in order to 
convey to the citizens the sad intelligence of the 
disaster, and the fire-bells of the city were rung 
in response. In a short time the levee was 
crowded with anxious spectators. The tedious 
delay bj' being aground rendered the ]iain and 
suspense of the citizens intolerable. 

The Yosemite, commanded by Captain Poole, 
exploded on the first revolution of the wheels 
on plying out of the port of Rio Vista, Octo- 
ber 12, 1805, with about 150 people on board. 
About 100 lives were lost, thirty-two being 
Chinese. Cause of explosion, defective iron, as 
during the war all the best iron had been kept 
in the East for military purposes. The bulk- 
heads were too strong to permit the steam to 
expand itself in the hull, where the boilers were, 
and it pushed up, making a great breach, into 
which the people fell. Captain Fourat, now of 
the Modoc, was pilot of the Yoseniite on that 
occasion. The Chrysopolis, on her upward trip, 
brought the dead and wounded to Sacramento. 

The Julia, in September, 1866, exploded in 
San Francisco Bay, nearly opposite Alcatraz 
Island, while rounding it on her return trip 
from Stockton. The total number of deaths 
resulting from the accident was thirteen. Cap- 
tain Fourat, being near with a boat, picked up 
some of the dead. Something was noticed to be 
wrong with the works before the accident oc- 
curred, but little heed was paid to it. The en- 
gineer, Mr. Long, was killed by the explosion. 

Many other accidents have of course occurred, 
but we believe we have named the principal 
ones. Everything pertaining to navigation has 
so improved that serious accidents nowadays 
seldom lia]>pen. 



*i,. ^RAILROADS.* 


fHE following account, with some correc- 
tions, is mostly taken from Thompson & 
West's History, of 1880. 
The project of building a railroad across the 
plains and mountains was agitated by Asa 
Whitney, in 1846, in Congress and out of it, 
till 1850, and he was supported in his movement 
by such men as Senator Breese, of Illinois, and 
IJenton, of Missouri, the latter of whom intro- 
duced a bill into the Senate of the United States, 
for a Pacilic Railroad, February 7. 1849. This 
bill was really the first tangible effort made in 
this direction. The first effort made in Califor- 
nia toward the building of an overland road 
was the formation of a company by citizens of 
Nevada, Placer and Sacramento counties. There 
were filed in the office of the Secretary of State, 
August 17, 1852, articles of incorporation of 
the Sacramento, Auburn & Nevada Railroad 
Company, containing the names of twenty-six 
subscribers of twenty-eight shares each, at a 
value of $100 per share, and tiie names of the 
followingdirectors: S.W. Lovell, PlacerCounty; 
T. O. Dunn, John R. Coryell, Charles Marsh, 
Isaac Williamson and William II. Lyons, of 
Nevada County; John A. Read, J. B. Haggin 
and Lloyd Tevis, of Sacramento County. A line 
was surveyed from Sacramento City, through 
Folsom, Auburn, and Grass Valley, to Nevada 
City. This line was sixty-eight miles long, and 
the estimated cost of construction was $2,000,- 
000. From Nevada City the survey was contin- 

ued through tiie Henness Pass. The enterprise 
was too gigantic for the means at the command 
of the incorporators, and they were compelled 
to abandon the project. 

During the month of March, 1853, Congress 
passed an act providing for a survey, by the 
topographical engineers of the army, of three 
routes for a transcontinental railway, the north- 
ern, southern and middle routes. These surveys 
were made, and reports submitted to Congress, 
and published, with elaborate engravings of the 
scenery along the routes, topographical maps, 
representations of the animals and plants dis- 
covered. These reports were, no doubt, im- 
mensely valuable, but they did not show that 
a route for a railway was practicable over the 
Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevadas. The 
demonstration of the fact that such a route 
did exist was left to be made by Theodore 
D. Judah, the chief engineer of the first rail- 
road ever built in California — the Sacramento 
Valley Railroad. It was while engaged in 
building this road, from 1854 to 1856, that Mr. 
Judah became convinced of the practicability of 
a railroad over the Sierra Nevadas, which was 
the only mountain range that had before been 
deemed impracticable. He made trial surveys, 
or, more properl}', recounoisances over several of 
tlie supposed passes over tiie Sierras, at his own 
expense. These were simply barometrical sur- 
veys, but were sufficiently accurate to convince 
Mr. Judah that a road could be built, and, armed 


with the data thus obtained, he lost no oppor- 
tunity in presenting liis views and aims when- 
ever and wherever it seemed toliim that it would 
advance the project of a Pacilic Railroad. lie 
succeeded, through a concurrent resolution of 
the California Legislature of 1858, in having a 
railroad convention called, to meet in San Fran- 
cisco, September 20, 1859. This convention 
was composed of many of the prominent men 
of California at that time; among them we note 
Hon. J. A. McDougall, lion. J. E. Crockett, 
Major John Bidwell, Hon. S. B. Axtell, Hon. 
James T. Farley, Sherman Day and others, of 
California, together with delegates from Oregon 
and adjoining Territories. 

Tiiey sent Mr. Judah to Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, to endeavor to procure legis- 
lation on the subject of the railroad. lie pro- 
ceeded thither in time to be at the opening of 
the Thirty-sixth Congress. Arrived at "Wash- 
ington, he lost Tio time in visiting the different 
departments, and collecting from each all the 
information they had that could in any way aid 
him in presenting plainly to Congress the im- 
portance and practicability of the enterprise. 
Unfortunately, this Congress was so entirely oc- 
cupied with j)olitical matters that little could be 
done in the way of procuring legislation, but 
great good was effected by the personal inter- 
views that Mr. Judah had with the different 
members and other prominent nien. His knowl- 
edge of the subject was so thorough that he 
rarely failed to convince any one, with whom he 
talked, of the entire feasibility of the project. 
A bill was drawn up by himself and Hon. John 
C. Burch, then a Member of Congress from 
California. It contained nearly all the provis- 
ions of the bill as finally passed in 1862. It 
was printed at private expense, and a copy sent 
to each Senator and Member of Congress. 

Mr. Judah returned to California in 1860, and 
set about making a more thorough survey of 
the Sierras for a pass and approach thereto. He 
was accompanied on this survey by Dr. D. W. 
Strong, of Dutch Flat, who contributed largely 
froufl his private means to pay the expenses of 

the trip, in addition to assisting very materially 
the progress of the work by his intimate knowl- 
edge of the mountains. Dr. Strong was one of 
the first directors of the Central Paciiic Rail- 
road Company when formed. 

After completing these surveys, which were 
made with a barometer, Mr. Judah went to San 
Francisco to lay his plan before the capitalists 
of that place, and induce them, if possible, to 
form a company to take hold of the work and 
push it forward. His ideas were received very 
coldly, and he failed to get any financial support 
in San Francisco. Returning to his hotel one 
evening, convinced of the futility of any fur- 
ther trials in San Francisco, Mr. Judah re- 
marked: "The capitalists of San Francisco have 
refused this night to make an investment, for 
which, in less than three years, they shall have 
ample cause to blame their want of foresight. 
I shall return to Sacramento to-morrow, to in- 
terest merchants and others of that place in 
this great work, and this shall be my only other 
effort on this side of the continent." 

Previously Mr. Judah had placed his plans 
and estimates before a friend, James Bailey, 
of Sacramento, who, struck by the force of 
these calculations, introduced Mr. Judah to 
Governor Stanford, Mark Hopkins and E. B. 
and Charles Crocker; C. P. Huntington he knew 

A meeting of the business men of Sacra- 
mento was called and the preliminary steps 
were taken to organize a company. This or- 
ganization was perfected and articles of incor- 
poration filed with the Secretary of State, June 
28, 1861. The company was named The Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad Company of California, 
and the following officers were elected: Leland 
Stanford, President; C. P. Huntington, Vice- 
President; Mark Hopkins, Treasurer; Theodore 
D. Judah, Chief Engineer; Leland Stanford, 
Charles , Crocker, James Bailey, Theodore D. 
Judah, L. A. Booth, C. P. Huntington, Mark 
Hopkins, D. W. Strong, of Dutch Flat, and 
Charles Marsh, of Nevada, Directors. 

All but the two last named were residents of 



Sacramento, showing conelnsively that to Sac- 
ramento and her citizens belongs tiie honor of 
inaugurating and carrying to a successful com- 
pletion the Pacific railroads; tor had not Judali 
spent his time and talents in proving that such 
an undertaking were possible, it is an open 
question if to-day the Pacific railroads would 
be in existence. His coadjutors, named in the 
foregoing list of officers, and some of whom 
are still the owners and officers of the road, de- 
serve full credit for their faith in the enter 
prise and the masterly manner in which they 
managed the financial difficulties encountered 
in the years that elapsed between the organiza- 
tion of the company and the completion of the 
road; but we cannot forget that for three or 
four years previous to the organization of the 
company Mr. Judah had spent all his time, 
money and energy in collecting data, without 
which no prudent man would be inclined to 
invest a dollar in the project which was so gen- 
erally believed to be chimerical. After the 
organization of the company, Mr. Judah was 
instructed to make a thorough instrumental 
survey of the route across the Sierras, which 
lie did. 

The previous surveys or reconuoisances had 
included three routes, one through E! Dorado 
County, via Georgetown, another via Illinois- 
town and Dutch Flat, and the third via Nevada 
and Henness Pass. The observations had proved 
the existence of a route across the Sierras by 
which the summit could be reached with max- 
imum grades of 105 feet per mile. The instru- 
mental survey developed a line with lighter 
grades, less distance and fewer obstacles than 
the previous observations had shown. The first 
report of the chief engineer to the officers of 
the company gave the following as the topo- 
graphical features of the Sierra Nevadas, which 
rendered them so formidable for railroad opera- 

1. "The great elevation to be overcome in 
crossiit^ its summit, and the want of uniformity 
in its western slope." The average length of 
the western slope of the Sierras is about seventy | 

miles, and in this distance the altitude increases 
7,000 feet, making it necessary to maintain an 
even grade on the ascent to avoid creating some 
sections with excessive grades. 

2. " From the impracticability of the river 
crossings." These rivers run through gorges 
in many places over 1,000 feet deep, with the 
banks of varying slopes from perpendicular to 
45°. A railroad line, therefore, must avoid 
crossing these canons. The line, as established 
by the surveys of 1861, pursued its course along 
an unbroken ridge from the base to the summit 
of the Sierras, the only river crossing in the 
mountains being that of Little Bear River, 
about three miles above Dutch Flat. Another 
prominent feature of the location is the fact 
that it entirely avoids the second summit of the 
Sierras. The estimated cost of the road from 
Sacramento to the State Line was $88,000 per 

October 9, 1861, the Board of Directors of 
the Central Pacific Railroad Conapany passed 
a resolution directing Mr. Judah, the chief en- 
gineer of the company, to immediately proceed 
to Washington on a steamer as their accredited 
agent, for the purpose of procuring appropria- 
tions of land and United States bonds from the 
Government, to aid in the construction of the 
road. Mr. Judah went East and this time ac- 
complished his purpose, as was evidenced by 
the bill which passed Congress in July, 1862. 
This bill granted to the roads a free right-of- 
way of 400 feet wide over all Government lands 
on their route. The Government also agreed 
to extinguish the Indian title to all the lands 
donated to the company, either for right-of-way 
or to the granted lands. The lands on either side 
of the route were to be withdrawn from settle- 
ment, by pre-emption or otherwise, for a dis- 
tance of fifteen miles, until the final location of 
the road should be made and the United States 
surveys had. determined the location of the 
section lines. This map of the route was made 
by Mr. Judah, filed in the office of the Secretary 
of the Interior, and the lands withdrawn in ac- 
cordance with the terms of the bill. 


This bill also provided for the issue to the 
coinpany of United States thirty- vear six per 
cent, bonds, to be issued to the coinpany as each 
forty-mile section of the road was coinpleted, at 
the rate of $16,000 per mile for the line west of 
the western base of the Sierra Nevadas, and at 
the rate of $48,000 per mile from the western 
base east to the eastern base of the Sierras, the 
latter subsidy to be paid on the completion of 
each twenty-mile section. To secure the Gov- 
ernment from loss, and insure the repayment of 
these bonds, they were made a first lien on the 
road. This was subsequently modiiied, by an 
act passed July, 1864, allowing the company to 
issue first-mortgage bonds, the United States 
assuming the position of second mortgagee. 
The land grant in the first bill was every alter- 
nate section for ten miles, each side of the track. 
This allowance was subsequently doubled, mak- 
ing twenty sections per mile. The State of 
California also donated $10,000 per mile to the 
road, by an act approved April 25, 1863. 

The engineering difSculties were great, and 
had been considered insurmountable, but the 
tiniUicial difKculties were also great, and un- 
doubtedly required more labor and thought than 
the engineering, though of a different kind. 
That these difficulties were surmounted, and the 
originators of the effort still retain the owner- 
ship and control of the road, and, in addition to 
the original line, have built thousands of miles 
of road in California and Arizona, proves the 
ability of the leaders in this movement. These 
men were merchants in what cannot be classed 
among the large cities, and consequently not 
largely known to the financial world; they had 
never been engaged in the railroad business, 
and were supposably ignorant of the immense 
undertaking in which they had embarked. Aside 
from the natural difficulty of the situation, they 
encountered opposition from the moneyed men 
of San Francisco and other places, who gave 
their enterprise the not very pleasant name of 
the " Dutch Flat Swindle." 

Mr. Huntington, Vice-President of the com- 
pany, was sent East, with full power of attorney 

to do any acts he might think best for the in- 
terest of the company. One of the main objects 
of this visit was to see that the bill which was 
then before Congress should not oblige the com- 
pany to pay interest on the bonds received of 
the Government for ten years, at least, from the 
date of their issue. After the passage of the 
bill, the books were opened for stock subscrip- 
tions, to the amount of $8,500,000, and for a 
long time the stock was disposed of very slowly. 
Huntington, on endeavoring to dispose of the 
bonds of the company in New York, was in- 
formed that they had no marketable value until 
some part of the road was built. Before he 
could dispose of them, he was obliged to give 
the personal guarantees of himself and four 
partners, Hopkins, Stanford, and the Crockers, 
for the money, until such time as they could be 
exchanged for United States bonds. The bonds 
so obtained, $1,500,000, bnilt thirty-one miles 
of the road. 

In 1862 the company was granted the right 
of way into the city of Sacramento, and also 
granted the Slough, or Sutter Lake. The first 
shovelful of dirt thrown in the construction of 
the Central Pacific Railroad was in Sacramento, 
January 8, 1863, by Governor Stanford, at the 
foot of K street, on the levee. 

The contract for building the road from this 
point to Grider's, on the California Central 
liailroad, was let to C. Crocker & Co., December 
22, 1862. C. Crocker & Co. sub-let the con- 
tract to difi'erent parties. Twenty miles of road 
each yeai' were completed in 1863, 1864 and 
1865, thirty miles in 1866, forty-six miles in 
1867, 364 miles in 1868, 190J miles in 1869; 
making 690^ miles from Sacramento to Prom- 
ontory, where the roads met, May 10, 1869. 

All of the materials, except the cross-ties, for 
constructing this road, including a large portion 
of the men employed, had to be brought from 
the East, via Cape Horn. Toward the latter 
end of the work several thousand Chinamen 
were employed. In addition to this, it w%s war 
times, and marine insurance was very high; 
iron and railroad materials of all kinds were 



held at enormous figures, and tlie price of the 
subsidy bonds was very low. AH of these facts 
tended to make the cost of the road large. 

The State of California ag'-eed to pay the in- 
terest on $1,500,000 of bonds for twenty years, 
in exchange for which tlie railroad company 
gave a vahiable stQne quarry. Several of the 
counties along the line of the road granted bonds 
of the counties in exchange for stock. Sacra- 
mento County gave her bonds to the amount of 
$300,000. These bonds were exchanged for 
money, and the work pushed forward. There 
was delay in obtaining the Government subsidy, 
and the money ran short. When Mr. Hunting- 
ton returned from New York he found the 
treasury almost depleted of coin, and the neces- 
sity of raising more means or stopping the work 
was evident. " Huntington and Hopkins can, 
out of their own means, pay 500 men during a 
year; how many can each of you keep on the 
line?" was tiie characteristic way in which this 
man met the emergency. Before the meeting 
adjourned these five men had resolved that they 
would maintain 800 men on the road during 
the year out of their own private fortunes. 

About this time (1863) Mr. Judaii had sold 
out his interest in the company and gone East. 
On the way he was stricken with the Panama 
fever, of which he died shortly after his arrival 
in New York, in 1863, at the age of only thirty- 
seven years. Dr. Strong, of Dutch Flat, though 
a sincere believer in the enterprise, was unable 
to furnish what was considered his share of the 
expenses necessary to be advanced, and retired 
from the Board of Directors. Bailey, Mr. Marsh 
and Mr. Booth we hear nothing of after the en- 
terprise was fairly under way, though we know 
they were all three earnest workers at the com- 

S. S. Montague succeeded Mr. Judah as chief 
engineer of the road, which position he still 
holds. The location surveys were made under 
Mr. Montague's directions. The road from 
Sacramento to Colfax, or Lower Illinoistown 
Gap, was located on the line run by Mr. Judah 
in 1861; from Colfax to Long Ravine the line 

was clianged materially; from Long Ravine to 
Alta the line rah on Judah's survey, and from 
Alta to the Summit on an entirely new line, 
located by Mr. L. M. Clement, engineer, in 
charge of second division from Colfax to the 
Summit. Tiiis final location gave a better grade 
line, and one more free from snow in the winter, 
two very desirable objects. Tiie value of these 
changes is plainly shown by the report of George 
E. Gray, formerly cldef engineer of the New 
York Central Railroad. Mr. Gray was requested 
by Leland Stanford, in a letter dated July 10, 
1865, to inspect the line of road and surveys 
then made, and report to the Board of Directors 
of the company his opinion as to the quality of 
the work, and the economical location of that 
portion not then built. Mr. Gray's report gave 
as his opinion that the road already constructed 
would compare favorably with any road in the 
United States. Of that portion not constructed 
he reported that Mr. Judah's line had been 
materially altered, causing a saving in distance 
of nearly 5,000 feet, and also reducing the 
aggregate length of the tunnels about 5,000 
feet, a saving in cost of construction of over 
$400,000 at least. The road progressed, as we 
have stated above, slowly at first, but more 
rapidly toward the close, until, on the 10th day 
of May, 1869, the last spike was driven, whicii 
completed the railroad connection between the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. A large party 
were gathered on Promontory Point to see this 
ceremony. Telegraph wires had been connected 
with the different large cities of the Union, so 
that the exact moment of driving the last spike 
could be known in all at the same time. The 
hour designated having arrived, Leland Stan- 
ford, President of the Central Pacific, and other 
officers of the company came forward. T. C. 
Durant, Vice-President of the Union Pacific, 
accompanied by General Dodge and others of 
the same company, met them at the end of the 
rail, where they paused, while Rev. Dr. Todd, 
of Massachusetts, gave a short prayer. The 
last tie, made of California laurel, with silver 
plates bearing suitable inscriptions, was put in 


place, and the last connecting rails were laid by 
parties fioin each company. The last spikes 
were made, one of gold from California, one of 
silver from Nevada, and one of gold and silver 
from Arizona. President Stanford then took 
the hammer of solid silver, to the handle of 
which, were attached the telegraph wires, hy 
which, at the lirst tap on the head of the gold 
spike, at 12 m., the news of the event was flashed 
over the American continent. 

A locomotive of the Cential Pacific Kailroad 
Company and another of the Union Pacilic Rail- 
road Company approached from each way, and 
rubbed their pilots together, while bottles of 
champagne were passed from one to the other. 

Dnriiig the building of this road the track- 
laying force of the Central Pacific laid ten miles 
and 200 feet of track in one day. This herculean 
feat was performed on the 20th of April, 1869, 
when only fourteen miles of track remained to 
be laid to connect with the Union Pacilic Rail- 
road, and was entirely finished by 7 r. m. 

By mutual agreement between the two roads 
Ogden was made the terminus of each. By this 
arrangement the Union Pacific sold fifty- three 
miles of road to the Central, making the length 
of road owned by the Central Pacific proper 
743^ miles, from Sacramento to Ogden. 

August 20, 1870, the. Western Pacific, San 
Joaquin Valley, ("alifornia & Oregon, and San 
Francisco, Oakland & Alameda railroads were 
all consolidated under the name of the Central 
Pacific Railroad. 

The "Western Pacific Railroad Company" 
was incorporated December 13, 1862, for the 
purpose of constructing a railway from San 
Jose, through the counties of Alameda and San 
Joaquin, to the city of Sacramento. Its capital 
stock was $5,400,000. The road was 137^ 
miles in length, and made the whole length of 
the Central Pacific 881 miles. This road was 
not completed until 1870. The franchise had, 
we believe, passed into the hands of the Central 
Pacific Railroad Company a year before the 
above date of consolidation. The San Joaquin 
Valley Railroad is now the projjerty of the 

Southern Pacific. The California & Oregon 
Railroad leaves the Central Pacific at Roseville, 
and runs from thence to Redding, California. 

The "California Pacific Railroad Comjjany" 
was for some time an active competitor for the 
carrying trade of the State, and at one time it 
WHS thought that the intention of its owners 
was to construct a line of railroad to connect 
with the Union Pacific. Tiiis company bought 
the boats and franchises of the California Steam 
Navigation Company, and for some time really 
controlled the rates of freight between Sacra 
mento and San Francisco. 

It was incorporated January 10, 1865, with a 
capital stock of $3,500,000. Work was begun 
in Vallejo in 1867, and the road was finished to 
Washington, Yolo County, November 11, 1868, 
and to Marysville in November, 1869. In June, 
1869, this company purchased the Napa Valley 
Railroad; the two railroads were consolidated in 
December, 1869, with a capital of $12,000,000. 

In 1869 and 1870 the Central Pacific and 
California Pacific railroads were at war with 
each other. The track of the Central Pacific 
being laid on the levee, it was impossible for 
the California Pacific road to cross the river, 
and secure depot and switch accommodations, 
without crossing this track. Various attempts 
were made to lay the track and form the cross- 
ing of the. two tracks, but these attempts were 
resisted; and at one time it appeared as if 
bloodshed would result. The crossing, however, 
was made, and passengers landed by the Cali- 
fornia Pacific in Sacramento, January 29, 1870. 
The train was received with a regular ovation; 
guns were fired, the fire department turned out, 
and intense enthusiasm was manifested on all 
sides. The war continued until August, 1871, 
during which time the rat^s of freight and travel 
were very low, and neither road could have made 
much profit. In August, however, these roads 
were consolidated, since which time, with the 
exception of competition by river for a short 
period, the Central Pacific Railroad Company 
has had a monopoly of the carrying trade from 


The California Pacific gave the "Yallejo 
route" to San Francisco. The trip was made 
to Vallejo by rail, and from thence to San Fran- 
cisco by boat. This was a very popular route, 
and monopolized the majority of the travel be- 
tween Sacramento and San Francisco. Decern 
ber 28, 1879, the new road via Beuicia was 
opened, and the trains have since been run 
through to Oakland, and the Vallejo route as a i 
line of travel to San Francisco was abandoned. 
The large ferry at Benicia will be superseded by 
a bridge in a few years. 

The " Sacramento Valley Railroad " was the 
first constructed in California. The company 
was organized August 4, 1852, when ten per 
cent, of the stock subscribed was paid in, amount- 
ing to $5,000. The company re-organized No- 
vember 9, 1854, and made immediate prejjara- 
tion for building the road. The first siiovelful 
of dirt was thrown in February', 1855, the first 
tie came in May, and the first vessel load of ma- 
terial and rolling stock arrived from Boston 
in June. The first work done on a railroad 
car in California was on this road, July 4, 1855. 
The first rail was laid August 9, 1855, and the 
first train was placed on the track August 14. 
The road had some little trouble with its finances, 
but was not impeded materially in its progress. 

November 13, 1855, an excursion train was 
run to Patterson's, ten miles from Sacramento, 
the round trip costing $1.00. By January 1, 
1856, the road was completed to Alder Creek, 
and on February 22 was finished to Folsom. 
The length of the road was twenty-two and one- 
half miles, and cost $1,568,500. The capital 
stock was $800,000— $792,000 of which were 
issued. The road was a very profitable one from 
the date of its completion. Its efl'ect was to 
move the terminus of the stage and freight lines 
running to the nortliern mines to Folsom, build- 
ing upquite a town at that point. At one time 
twenty one diiferent stage lines were centered 
at Folsom, all leaving shortly after the arrival 
of the trains from Sacramento. 

In August, 1865, the Central Pacific Com- 
pany purchased the Sacramento Valley road. 

The purchase was made by George F. Bragg, on 
behalf of himself and others, of the entire stock 
held by L. L. Robinson and Pioclie and Bayer- 
que. The price paid for this stock was $800,- 
000. Bragg, soon after coming into possession, 
transferred the stock to the owners of the Cen- 
tral Pacific. The latter coinp my was forced to 
do this in order ti) secure the whole of the Wa- 
shoe trade, which at this time was immense, 
amounting to several million dollars per annum. 
The short line of the Sacramento Valley road 
alone declared an annual profit of nearly half a 
million dollars the year previous to its purchase, 
most of which came from the freights going to 
the "Washoe and other mining districts. 

California Central Hailroad. — In the spring 
of 1857 a company was formed in Marysville, 
to build a railroad from that city to the ter- 
minus of the Sacramento Valley Railroad, at Fol- 
som. This company was entirely independent 
of the Sacramento Valley Compan3'. Colonel 
C. L. Wilson, who was one of the contractors 
on the Sacramento Valley road, was sent East 
to procure funds for building the road. This 
object he effected, and the construction com- 
menced forthwith. The road, however, never 
was finished to Marysville by the original com- 
pany. By 1861 the track was laid to Lincoln. 
The name was subsequently changed to the 
California & Oregon Railroad, atid is now 
known as the Oregon Division of the Central 
Pacific Railroad. Shortly after the completion 
of the Central Pacific Railroad to Roseville, the 
company purchased the California Central Rail- 
road; that portion of the road between Rose- 
ville and Folsom was abandoned; the bridge 
over the American River was condemned and 
sold in 1868. 

The Placerville c6 Sacramento Valley Rail- 
road commences at Folsom and runs to Shingle 
Springs, in El Dorado County, and is commonly 
known as the Shingle Springs road. It was 
constructed in 1864 or '65. 

The Amador Branch of the Central Pacific 
Railroad runs from Gait to lono, a distance of 
twenty-seven miles, and was built by the Central 


Pacific Company in 1876, to gain access to some 
coal mines at or near lone. 

Freeport Railroad. — This originated in a 
scheme to divert the northern trade from Sacra- 
mento by building wharves, etc., at Freeport, 
and a railroad from there to some point on the 
Sacramento Valley road. Tlie road-bed was 
graded for a distance of nine miles from Free- 
port, and the track laid; but before its comple- 
tion, tljc Sacramento Valley road became the 
property of the Central Pacific, and the value 
of the Freeport road, never very large, became 
still smaller, until its decease. 

In addition to these roads, whicli at some 
time had a real existence, there have been a num- 
ber of other companies incorporated, some part 
of whose lines would touch Sacramento County. 

There are now sixty miles of railroad in Sac- 
ramento County. 

The depot building, in tlie northwest corner 
of the city of Sacramento, is up with the times 
in capacity, convenience and beauty. A portion 
of the building is a liotel. 


Small shops were established at the time of 
the first construction of the road, but it has only 
been in late years that the growth of the con- 
struction works here has led to such enlarge- 
ment of the shops. At the present time, the 
works, or as they are generally called, " The 
Railroad Shops," with the track room and yard 
room necessarily included, occupy about fifteen 
acres of ground, and each year finds a larger 
area in use. They comprise at present about 
twenty large buildings, and scores of small ones. 
Most of the large ones are of brick with slate 
roofs, or are of wood and corrugated iron. A 
statement of the principal buildings, and tlie 
use to which they are devoted, will convey a 
good idea of how completely the work of car 
and engine construction is carried on. 

The main buildings are: 1, General Foundry; 
2, Wheel Foundry; 3, Brass Foundry; 4, Cop- 
per Shop; 5, Tin Shop; 6, Rolling-mill; 7, 

Boiler Shop; 8, Blacksmith Shop; 9, Round 
House; 10, Locomotive Machine Shop; 11, Car 
Machine Shop; 12, Car Repair Shop; 13, Car 
Erecting Shop; 14, Cabinet Shop; 15, Paint 
Shop; 16, Upholstery Shop; 17, Pattern Shop; 
18, Pattern Lofts. Besides these, there have 
recencly been erected an addition to the paint 
shop, 80x100 feet; a large brick addition, two 
stories high, to the car machine shop, and a 
large brick addition to the car erecting shop. 
The great increase in the clerical force necessary 
to the operation of the works demands more 
room than is now available, and the erection of 
a large brick building, solely for office use, is in 
contemplation. The works are under the direc- 
tion of Mr. H. J. Small, Superintendent M. P. 
M.; Benj. AVelch, Master Car Builder, and Wm. 
McKenzie, Assistant General Master Machinist. 

To the thoughtful observer, the tour through 
the works is most interesting, as in much of 
what is going on in the construction in wood, 
and iron, and brass, and otherwise there are 
suggestions of new lines of manufacture that 
might well be developed in the city, to the great 
profit of those who should first intelligently un- 
dertake the work. Only a very general idea 
can be given here of the character of the woi-k, 
or of its uuignitude. There are employed own 
an aggregate of about 2,600 men. Work in 
many departments is carried on day and night, 
by different shifts of men, and the aid of numer- 
ous large electric lights. The shop and shed 
room is totally inadequate to the work to be 

The shops are called upon to do work of this 
class for the whole road, from Ogden to San 
Francisco, San Francisco to Ashland, and from 
here to El Paso; while the road from Ashland 
to Portland will eventually demand the same, 
and work for that road is already rapidly coming 
into the shops. The company of course buys 
its rails from the rail-mills in Europe and the 
East, but the rail trimmings for these thousands 
of miles of track are made here. Did but one 
foimdry have the manufacture of these chairs^ 
fish-bars and bolts, etc., it would be a handsome 


addition to the industries of the city. But the 
company do more: they make their own car- 
wheels. They also make large quantities of 
bridge material of wood and iron, all used in 
fact, except in the case of iron bridges built by 
bridge-building companies of the East, who 
make and supply their own material. They en- 
tirely construct locomotives. The steel tires 
come mostly from Germany via New York, and 

the cast steel work is done in San Francisco, 
but otherwise the engine is entirely built here. 
So with cars; sleepers and fine passenger coaches 
are not generally built here, but in the great car 
shops of the East. But ordinary passenger, 
emigrant and freight cars are built throughout, 
as well as all the specially fine and elegant work, 
as Governor Stanford's private car, which was 
built in these shops. 




fHE first agricultural association in the 
State met here iu Sacramento, October 8, 
1852, in the American Theater. C. I. 
Hutchinson was president, and Dr. J. F. Morse 
delivered tlie address. A fair was held a week 
or two on that occasion, under the supervision 
of Warren & Co. The " State Agricultural 
Society " was organized early in 1854, and on 
May 18, that year, was incorporated by a special 
act of the Legislature. The first officers were 
named in the charter and were as follows: F. 
W. Macondray, of San Francisco, President; 
Vice-Presidents, E. L. Beard of Alameda, J. K. 
Eose of San Francisco, D. W. C. Thompson of 
Sonoma, H. C. Malone of Santa Clara, W. H. 
Thompson of San Francisco, and C. I. Hutchin- 
son of Sacramento; Corresponding Secretary, J. 
L. L. Warren, of San Francisco; Recording 
Secretary, C. V. Gillespie, of San Francisco; 
Treasurer, David Chambers, of San Francisco. 
The same act appropriated $5,000 per annum 
for the first four years, for premiums. 

Under the new charter, the first fair was held 
in San Francisco, in October following; the 
second in Sacramento, September, 1855, when 
the general exhibition was held in the State 
House and the cattle show at the Louisiana race- 
track; the third in San Jose, in October, 1856; 
the fourth in Stockton, in 1857; the fifth in 
Marysville, in 1858, since which time all the 
fairs have been held at Sacramento. When the 

society, in 1860, voted to hold the next fair at 
Sacramento, — being the third time in succession 
at the same place, — it angered the competing 
points in the State, opposition agricultural so- 
cieties were formed, and the receipts fell from 
$28,639 in 1860, to $18,584 in 1861. 

In 1859 the Pavilion at the corner of Sixth 
and M streets was erected. It was a fine build- 
ing for the times, constructed upon plans de- 
signed by M. F. Butler. To defray the expenses, 
one-fourth of one per cent, was levied upon the 
property of the county, and the title was there- 
fore vested in the county. 

In 1860 the Sacramento Park Association 
was formed, which donated the ground bounded 
by E, H, Twentieth and Twenty-second streets, 
which was cleared and equipped for a trotting 
park. The Legislature also appropriated $15,000 
for the improvements. A brick wall was built 
around the plat, stands, etc., erected, at a cost 
of $25,000. 

Early in 1862, a society styled the " Union 
Park Association," purchased the six blocks of 
land lying north of the society's cattle grounds, 
and thus enabled them to make an excellent 
mile track. These grounds are still used and 
kept in good condition. 

In 1863 the Legislature provided for the 
election of a " Board of Agriculture," to be en- 
trusted with the affairs of the State Agriculture 
Society. Under this arrangement the fairs were 
lield until the State Constitution of 1879 was 


adopted, which cut off all State assistance uuless 
the Board of Directors were appoiuted by State 
authority. The subsequent Legislature em- 
])0wered the Governor to appoint the members 
uf this board, and also divided the State into 
'■ agricultural districts " of several counties each, 
placing in the Third District the counties of 
Sacramento, Sutter, Yuba, Butte, Colusa, Te- 
hama and Yolo; but at present, probably on 
account of the direct presence of the State in- 
stitution, Sacramento is not taking an active 
part in the district organization. 

In 1884 the present raagniiicent Pavilion, east 
of the Capitol, was erected. It is, in general, 
about 400 . feet square, and cost, with furnish- 
ings, in tlie neighborhood of $115,000. It is 
the largest public building in the State. 

For some years the fairs have occupied about 
two weeks' time. At the last exhibition, Sep- 
ttinber 3 to 15, over $20,000 was awarded in 
premiums. The annual membership fee is $5, 
which entitles one to exhibit in the Pavilion 
and to compete for premiums, and also to a sea- 
son ticket of admission for himself, an accom- 
panying lady, and children under fifteen years of 

The preisdent of the board tiiis year is Chris- 
topher Green, of Sacramento; and the other 
resident members are: G. W. Hancock, Superin- 
tendent of the Park; H. M. La Rue, Superin- 
tendent of the Pavilion; and Frederick Cox. 
The secretary of the board is Edwin F. Smith, 
whose office is in the Pavilion. 

A SDCCP:ssruL experiment. 

In the year 1884, A. A. Krull, about two and 
a half miles northeast of Florin, executed a 
novel but brilliantly successful experiment in 
horticulture. Having several acres of " hard- 
pan " upon his place, he devised the plan of 
breaking it up with blasts of powder. Em- 
ploying an expert, he bored holes in the ground, 
one for each tree, put down in each a pound of 
Huckley's No. 2 Giant Powder, and exploded 
it, with the result of giving to each tree a mass 
of rich, loose, moist earth, not needing irriga- 

tion. It is now as good as the best land for 
raising fruit. The cost was $27 per 100 charges. 
Occasionally a spot required a second charge. 
Other horticulturists are taking lessons. It 
seems that in time all the hard-pan iu the 
country, now considered nearly worthless, may 
be made the best of land. 


"We are indebted to the kindness of Albert 
M. Johnson, Esq., Secretary of the board dur- 
ing the years 1885, 1886 and 1887, for the fol- 
lowing particulars: 

Although this city ever since the admission of 
California into the Union had been the second in 
the commonwealth in respect to commercial im- 
portance, no definite steps were taken until 1877 
toward the organization of a business men's 
association whose mission should be the im- 
provement of the city and the establishment of 
commercial intercourse between it and the sur- 
rounding country. At that time, however, the 
growth of the city seemed to render it impera- 
tively necessary to form such an organization. 
Accordingly, on the 24th of October, that year, 
a few of the leading merchants here held an in- 
formal meeting in the office of W. P. Coleman, 
one of the oldest business men of Sacramento, 
and discussed the advisability of uniting them- 
selves into a commercial organization whose aim 
should be to supply the pressing needs referred 
to. Albert Gallatin was chairman of that meet- 
ing, which comprised Joseph Steffens, A. S. 
Hopkins, W. P. Coleman, Sparrow Smith, John 
McNeill, C. H. Hubbard, C. T. Wheeler and 
others. Preliminary steps were then taken. On 
the 21st of the next month a constitution and 
by-laws were adopted, and the officers elected 
December 11, 1877, for the first year were: 
Albert Gallatin, President; W. P. Coleman, 
Vice-President; H. G. Smith, Treasurer; C. 
T. Wheeler, A. S. Hopkins, Joseph Steffens, 
Wm. M. Lyons and James I. Felter, Directors. 

Starting with a membership of about twenty, 
the board has constantly increased iu numerical 
strength, as follows: 1878, thirty-four; 1879, 


thirty-five; 1880, forty-four; 1881, forty-nine; 
1882,' fifty-seven; 1883, iifty-nine; Isk-'B?, 
sixty-two; 1888, sixty -five; 1889, about seventy. 
The only conditions of membership are signing 
the constitution and paying the monthly dues, 
it being the design of the founders to admit all 
persons and firms feeling an interest in the 
growth and welfare of tlie city. From the organ- 
ization to the present time the zeal and effi- 
ciency of the board have not flagged, and almost 
every improvement of the city and county 
owes its origin to their philanthropy and enter- 

In 1878 their exertions procured the estab- 
lishment of a branch State Prison near Folsom. 
About that time they also began to agitate the 
question of having a Government building in 
Sacramento, wherein should be the postoffice, 
revenue offices, the land office, etc. This was a 
difficult undertaking, but, despite the opposition 
of a few and the indifference of many, they con- 
tinued to memorialize their Senators and Rep- 
resentatives in Congress until they succeeded 
in having a bill passed making the necessary 
ap})ropriation for such a purpose. Sufficient 
ground has been purchased on the north-east 
corner of Seventh and K streets— a central lo- 
cation — and the building will probably be com- 
pleted within two years. 

By the year 1879 the interests of its members 
had so increased that the board began to pay 
special attention to the matter of business fail- 
ures, attachments, etc. In the absence of a 
State insolvent act, the repeal by Congress of 
the United States bankrupt law had entailed 
severe losses upon the merchants of both Sac- 
ramento and San Francisco. The Boards of Trade 
of these cities therefore united their efforts to 
procure the passage of a State insolvent law. 
They also agreed during that year that all fail- 
ures thereafteraffectingtheir membership should 
be managed in common, and that all the recov- 
eries therein effected through the instrumen- 
tality of either board should be divided pro rata 


all the members interested in both boards. 

This agreement has been in force ever since, 

and the operations of the two boards under it 
have been uniformly satisfactory. 

The Legislature of 1880 was cafled upon by 
the merchants throughout the State to pass the 
insolvent act prepared and recommended by the 
San Francisco and Sacramento Boards of Trade; 
and through the joint efforts of the two bodies 
the Legislature was prevailed upon to enact the 
law, which is yet upon the statute books and has 
since proved a great benefit, to debtors as well 
as creditors. 

In 1882, realizing the insufticiency of the 
accommodations afforded by the State Agricult- 
ural Society in the building then used as a 
pavilion during the annual State fairs, the Sacra- 
mento Board of Trade inaugurated a inovement 
for the procuring of a better building, to be 
erected by the State upon a part of the Capitol 
Park. The result was the erection of the State 
Exposition Building, the most beautiful and the 
largest public edifice in the State, described 
elsewhere under the head of "Agricultural In- 

About this time the State began to feel the 
influence of Eastern immigration that had been 
pouring in for a year or two, principally to 
Southern California, and measures began to be 
taken in the northern and central portions of 
the State to induce a part at least of that im- 
migration to "move up this way." In this 
enterprise the Sacramento Board of Trade took 
a leading part, and has ever since sustained that 
position. The movement has been efiectual. 
Land has risen in some parts of Northern Cali- 
fornia to several times its former value, while 
population has almost doubled. In December, 
1882, Hon. Joseph Steffens was elected presi- 
dent of the board, and filled the position so 
creditably, and gave such universal satisfaction, 
that he has ever since been re-elected without 
opposition to that ofBce. It was he who in- 
augurated, in pursuance of a long-forgotten by- 
law of the board, the custom of delivering an 
annual address which should not only give a 
summarized account of the work done by the 
association, but should also refer to many mat- 


ters of general interest in Sacramento and the 
surrounding territory. His addresses have been 
printed and widely circulated, and have aided 
very materially in attracting the attention of 
Eastern people to this community. 

It is also due to the untiring efforts of the 
Sacramento Board of Trade that appropriations 
were increased in 1885-'86 for the improvement 
of the rivers, and in the latter year the board 
saw that the numey was properly expended. In 
September, at the expense of the Board of Trade, 
the California Senators and Representatives in 
Congress, accompanied by representatives from 
the commercial organizations of San Francisco, 
as well as by a delegation from the Board of 
Trade and the city authorities, ascended the 
Sacramento River in a steamer chartered for the 
purpose by the board, to view for themselves 
the devastation caused by hydraulic mining. 
Since then more particular attention has been 
paid to the necessity of removing the obstruc- 
tions in the river and reclaiming the lands laid 
waste by mining debris. 

In 1884-'85 the board favored the proposed 
State poor law which has since been enacted. 

In 1885— '86 the approaching completion of 
the California & Oregon Railroad, connecting 
Sacramento directly by rail with Portland, Ore- 
gon, and the great Northwest, induced the board 
to memorialize Congress against the forfeiture 
of the land that had been granted in aid of the 
enterprise. Their efforts were not unsuccessful, 
and it may be said that to this movement, as 
much as to anything else, Sacramento owes her 
railroad connection with that rapidly developing 
portion of the Union. 

During this year the board began the investi 
gation of the much discussed city bond ques- 
tion, and by the appointment of committees and 
identifying itself generally with this compli- 
cated subject, has done as much perhaps as all 
other influences combined to put this vexed 
question in a fair way to a speedy and satisfac- 
tory settlement. 

In this year also the board took up the Ne- 
vada State law exacting a heavy license from 

representatives of California houses, which law 
had for years oppressed commercial travelers. 
Vigorous efforts had been made by wholesale 
merchants, both of Sacramento and San Fran- 
cisco, to have the law repealed; but not until 
the Sacramento Board of Trade took hold of the 
matter in earnest was any result accomplished. 
It co-operated with a few of the members of the 
San Francisco Board (that board, for some rea- 
son, having failed to lend its entire aid) in carry- 
ing up a case to test the constitutionality of the 
law, resulting in a complete victory for the 
wholesale merchants. California commercial 
travelers operating in Nevada are now free 
from the payment of unnecessary license fees. 

The members of the Sacramento Board of 
Trade were among the earliest to take measures 
for the holding of annual citrus fairs in the 
northern part of the State. The first fair of the 
kind was held in 1886, and since then they have 
been held regularly every year. 

In March, 1888, the long-talked-of railroad 
from Sacramento to Placerville was completed, 
thus adding greatly to the material welfare of 
the city, ae well as to that of Placerville and 
other points; and this enterprise was aided at 
all times by the influence of the Sacramento 
Board of Trade. 

These are but a few of the good works that 
owe their conception to the Sacramento Board 
of Trade. They suffice to show, however, that 
in all matters pertaining to the welfare of the 
city the members of its Board of Trade have 
been the foremost workers. 

This body meets annually in December, and 
at other times when called; but the details of 
the business arc attended to by the Board of 
Directors, whose meetings are held on the sec- 
ond Tuesday of every month. Place of meet- 
ing, in the secretary's office, over Wells, Fargo 
& Co.'s. 

The present officers of the board are: Hon. 
Joseph Steffens, President; P. E. Piatt, Vice- 
President; G. G. Pickett, Secretary; Edwin K. 
Alsip, Treasurer; Directors — Joseph Steffens, 
P. E. Piatt, Eugene J. Gregory, Herman Fisher, 


William Ingram, Jr., D. A. Lindlej, L. L. 
Lewis and A. S. Hopkins. 

A "Business Men's Club" has also been re- 
cently formed for the purpose of entertaining 
visitors contemplating settlement upon the 
coast, and showing them the advantages of lo- 
cating in this vicinity. 


of the city and county of Sacramento was or- 
ganized May 31, 1887, with about 200 members, 
for the purpose of advancing the interests of 
Sacramento and vicinity, and to prevent private 
jobbery with public funds. W. P. Coleman has 
the credit of being the foremost man in this or- 
ganization. At the preliminary meeting held May 
25 preceding, resolutions were passed protesting 
against large land holdings, and urging 

ments to be raised upon them. Committees were 
appointed upon every subject relating to the im- 
provement of tlie locality. Ordinances have been 
submitted by them, especially relating to the 
improvement of the streets and sidewalks. This 
association built and still maintains that beauti- 
ful permanent exposition building near the de- 
pot, for the exhibition of the products of North- 
ern and Central California, and J. C. Medley is 
employed to keep the hall open every day from 
7 A. M. to 6 p. M., for the accommodation of vis- 
itors. The building, designed by N. D. Good- 
ell, is an octagon in form and of very attractive 

The present officers are: Hon. W. H. Beatty, 
President; Hon. F. R. Dray, Vice-President; 
C. H. Cummings, Treasurer, and C. W. Baker, 
Secretary. ' 



tS introductory to this subject, it will be 
most convenient to notice here the epi- 
demics and indescribable suffering at the 
earliest period of the rush for gold, which led 
iirst to the establishment of private hospitals. 
Dr. Morse says: 

"At this time Sacramento was a nucleus of 
attraction to the world. It was the great start- 
ing point to the vast and glittering gold fields 
of California, with the tales of which the whole 
universe became astounded, and wiiich men of 
every clime and nation sought to reach without 
a moment's reflection upon the cost or hazard 
of such an adventure. The only consideration 
upon the part of a hundred thousand gold- 
seekers who were preparing for emigration to 
California, was dispatch. Time wasted on pru» 
dential outfits, upon the acquirement of means 
beyond the passage fee to San Francisco, and 
peradventure a little spending money to dissi- 
pate the impatience of delay, was as well wasted 
in any other way. What were a few dollars 
that required months to accumulate in the At- 
lantic States, to the gold-gleaming ounces that 
California gave weekly as compensation for the 
simplest labor? 

"All that men seemed to wish for was the 
means of setting foot upon California soil, and 
few were sufiiciently provident in their calcu- 
lations to provide anything beyond the mere 

landing at San Francisco. Out of the thou- 
sands who landed at the above place in the in- 
terval referred to, not one in a hundred arrived 
in the country with money enough to buy him 
a decent outfit for the mines. Such was the 
heedlessness with which people immigrated to 
this country during the incipient progress of 
the gold-seeking fever. In all parts of the 
world vessels of every size and condition were 
put up for the great El Dorado, and as soon as 
put up were filled to overflowing with men who 
had not the remotest conception of the terrible 
sufferings they were to encounter. Along the 
entire coast of the American continent, in every 
prominent port of Europe, in nearly every mari- 
time point of Asia, and in nearly all the islands 
of the world, were men struggling with reck- 
less determination for the means of coming to 
California. The earnings of years were in- 
stantly appropriated, goods and chattels sold at 
ruinous sacrifices, homesteads mortgaged for 
loans obtained upon destructive rates of interest, 
and jewelry, keepsakes and pension fees pledged 
for the reimbursement of a beggarly steerage 
passage for thousands of miles to the town of 
San Francisco. These are facts with which the 
world is now familiar; and this being the man- 
ner in which people embarked for the Eureka 
State, it can be easily imagined how those 
landed who survived the untcjld and unuttera- 


ble sufferings endured from port to port. From 
the 1st of August, 1849, the deluging tides of 
immigration began to roll into the city of San 
Francisco their hundreds and thousands daily; 
not men made robust and hearty by a pleasant 
and comfortable sea voyage, but poor, miserable 
beings, so famished and filthy, so saturated with 
scorbutic diseases, or so depressed in spirits as 
to make them an easy prey of disease and 
death, where they had expected naught but 
health and fortune. 

" Thus did mining adventurers pour into San 
Francisco, nine- tenths of whom for a few months 
immediately took passage to Sacramento. How- 
ever debilitated they might be, however penni- 
less and destitute, still this, tlie great focus of 
mining news, the nearest trading point for 
miners situated upon a navigable stream, was 
the only place that men could think of stopping 
for recuperative purposes. Hence, froA Cape 
Horn, from all the Isthmus routes, from Asi- 
atic seaports, and from the islands of the Pacific, 
men in the most impoverished health were con- 
verging at Sacramento. But these were not the 
only resources of difficulty to Sacramento in 
1849; for at the same time that the scurvy-rid- 
den subjects of the ocean began to concentrate 
among us, tiiere was another more terrible train 
of scorbutic sufferers coming in from the over- 
land roads, so exhausted in strength and so worn 
out with the calamities of the journey as to be 
but barely able to reach this, the Valley City. 

" From these sources, Sacramento became a 
perfect lazar house of disease, suffering and 
death, months before anything like an effective 
city government was organized. It must be 
recollected that in proportion as these scenes 
began to accumulate, men seemed to grow in- 
different to the appeals of suffering and to the 
dictates of benevolence. The more urgent and 
importunate the cries and beseeching miseries 
of the sick and destitute, the more obdurate, 
despotic and terrible became the reign of cupid- 
ity. Everything seemed vocal with the assur- 
ance that men came to California to make money, 
not to devote themselves to a useless waste of 

time in procuring bread and raiment for the de- 
pendent, in watching over and taking care of 
the sick, or in the burying of the dead. The 
common god (gold) of that day taught no such 
feminine virtues, and the king of the country, 
Cupidity, declared it worse than idle in his sub- 
jects to pay attention to the ties of consanguin- 
ity, or stultify their minds with any consider- 
ations of affection or appreciation of human 
sympathies. Fathers paid little attention to 
sons, and sons abandoned fathers when they re- 
quired a little troubles jme care. Brothers were 
fraternally bound to each other as long as each 
was equally independent of all assistance. But 
when sickness assailed and men became depend- 
ents upon men, then it was that the channels of 
benevolence were found to be dry, and the very 
fountains of human sympathy sealed by the 
most impenetrable selfishness. 

" Had this not been the condition, such scenes 
as were then witnessed could not have been ex- 
hibited. If men had not allowed themselves to 
become the temporary vassals of cupidity, an 
old gra3'-headed father, nearly famished by a 
tedious Cape Horn voyage, and landing upon 
our levee in the last stage of a disorganizing 
scurvy, could never have been abandoned by a 
son and other relatives who were dependent upon 
him for the means of coniing to the country. 
And yet such an old man was left alone upon 
the unfrequented banks of the slough, to await 
the coming of the only friends that could give 
him relief — death and the grave! The grave he 
was not sure of, but death was certa'n, and soon 

" In the month of July, 1849, these subjects 
of distress and the appeals of misery became so 
common that men could not escape them; and 
if there had been the utmost attention paid to 
the exercise of charity and protection, it would 
have been impossible to have met the demands 
of the destitute, sick and dying as a commen- 
surate sympathy would have dictated. Such 
was the difficulty with which facilities for the 
care of the sick could be procured, that even 
the few who had money could not purchase those 


coint'orts wliicli even the poorest in the Atlantic 
States can always enjoy. Dr. Craigan's hospi- 
tal at the Fort was the most comfortable place, 
but such were the necessary demands for board- 
ing and nursing that men could not avail them- 
selves of such care. Soon after the establish- 
ment of this hospital, Drs. Deal and Martin 
opened another hospital in one of the bastions 
of the old Fort. This led to a reduction of the 
cost of hospital board and attendance, but still 
it was too dear a comfort to be purchased by 
more than one in five of the accumulating in- 
valids of the town. The sick of the city were 
in consequence thrown upon the exclusive at- 
tention of a society which iiad become so mam- 
mon-ridden as to be almost insensible to the 
voice of want. Not only were the victims of 
scurvy evolving a general distress, but also those 
who supposed themselves acclimated were be- 

to feel the 


ing; miasmatic fevers 

which were peculiarly severe during this first 

"Under such circumstances that was true 
benevolence which attempted to respond to the 
requirements of humanity. And now let us 
see where the first grand response to these 
touching appeals came from. The record of so 
much credit should not perisli. The first or- 
ganized efforts to relieve this suffering were 
made by the fraternity of Odd Fellows. Al- 
though denied the privilege of a complete 
organization, they yet came together, bound 
themselves by an informal association, and like 
a band of pure Samaritans devoted themselves 
with untiring zeal to the wants of suffering 
humanity. General A. M. Winn was elected 
president of the association, than whom no man 
could have been more active in his charity; Mr. 
McLaren was elected secretary, and Captain 
Gallup, treasurer. And every member of this 
body became one of a visiting committee whose 
duty it was to keep the society constantly ad- 
vised of every dependent subject of distress 
coining to their knowledge. 

"From this association, the history of whicii 
would fill the heart of every lover of humanity, 

an immense amount of relief was dispensed. 
But this was not sufficient to dissipate the in- 
creasing calamity. Men still sickened and died 
without assistance; men were still buried in the 
filth of an unattended sickness, and frequently 
without the benefit of being sewed up in a 
blanket for interment. Rough pine coffins 
ranged from $60 to $150, and it was not to be 
expected that in the midst of such distress and 
poverty coffins could always be procured. The 
association of Odd Fellows spent thousands of 
doUai-s for coffins alone; and when General 
Winn became the executive officer of the 
city government, no man was refused a coffin 


The cholera made its first appearance in 
Sacramento on the 20th of October, 1850, when 
an immigrant by sea was found on the levee, in 
the collapsing stage of the disease. The infec- 
tion was brouglit to San Francisco on the same 
steamer which conveyed the intelligence of Cali- 
fornia's admission to the Union, and reached 
Sacramento before the city had recovered from 
tlie demoralizing effects of the Squatter RiotS; 
As usual in such cases, the local papers en- 
deavored to conceal the extent of mortality, and 
their files of that date give no adequate idea of 
the fearful scourge. On the 21st of October 
the city physician reported seven cases of cholera 
to the council, five of w^hich were fatal. Some 
of the doctors attempted to quiet public appre- 
hension by the opinion that the malady was 
only a violent form of the cholera morbus, and 
the Times "felt confident that there was very 
little danger, and had not heard of a single case 
where the patient had not been previously re- 
duced by diarrhea." On the 27th six cases 
were reported, and the Times "lioped that some 
precautionary measures would be taken," etc. 
On the 29th twelve cases appeared; on the 30th, 
nineteen, and it was no longer possible to con- 
ceal the presence of the ghastly destroyer. A 
Sacramento correspondent of the Alta, Novem- 
ber 4, says: "This city presents an aspect 
truly terrible. Three of the large gambling 


reeorts have been closed. The streets are de- 
serted, and frequented only by the hearse. 
Nearly all business is at a stand-still. There 
seems to be a deep sense of expectancy, mingled 
witli fear, pervading all classes. There is an 
expression of anxiety in every eye, and all sense 
of pecuniary loss is merged in a greater appre- 
hension of personal danger. The daily mortal- 
ity is about sixty. Many deaths are concealed, 
and many others are not reported. Deaths 
during the past week, so far as known, 188." 

On the 14th of November the daily mortality 
had decreased to twehe, and on the 17th the 
plague was reported as having entirely disap 

The precise number of deaths resulting from 
cholera can never be known, as many were re- 
turned as having died of dysentery, fevers, etc., 
for the purpose of quieting public apprehension, 
and no exact records of the event are accessible. 
The only reliable account extant was written by 
Dr. John F. Morse, ten years afterward, for 
Colville's Directory. Dr. Morse was one of the 
most active and humane physicians during the 
prevalence of the calamity, and pai'ts of his 
narrative are almost too shocking for transcrip- 
tion here; but no one who ever knew that good 
man will think of calling in question his credi- 
bility, now that he, too, has passed away. 
Having referred to the general rejoicing on the 
admission of ('alifornia to the Union, Dr. Morse 

"But, alas! the exuberance of spirit thus 
enkindled, the joyous and buoyant feeling thus 
excited, were but the illusive precedents of one 
of the most appalling calamities that had ever 
yet set its seal of distress upon the destiny of 
the Valley City.. 

"Every successive day brought intelligence 
from the bay that the newly arrived passengers 
were still dying with cholera. In the feverish 
state of mind that existed in the community, 
there was no hope of escape. This alone, with 
the direction then given to fears, was sufficient 
to coerce the disease into a terrific development. 
It scarcely required an imported case to estab- 

lish a panic more to be dreaded than its cause. 
But the first case that occurred was a steerage 
passenger of the steamer which lirought the dis- 
ease. Early in the morning of the 20th of Oc- 
tober, a person was found on the levee in the 
collapsing stage of the malady. Medical aid 
was administered, but the disease had taken too 
deep a hold of its victim. I saw him at sun- 
rise; he was then expiring from the efiects of 
the disease. The indications presented by his 
death were not calculated to abridge the de- 
pressing fear in the community. The cholera 
was now indeed in our city, and from mouth to 
mouth the story was communicated, so im- 
proved in all the features of a horrible descrip- 
tion as to darken the city with the very pall of 
death in a few hours. The next day several 
fatal cases were reported, and as duly circulated 
through the magnifying minds of thousands, 
whose fear of the disease made them the almost 
certain subjects of it. 

"In six days from the time of its inception 
it was making such progress that regular burials 
were but slightly attended to, and nursing and 
attention were not unfrequently entirely over- 
looked. Money could scarcely buy the offices 
of common kindness, and affections were so 
neutralized by the conflicting elements of selfish- 
ness, that but little could be done to arrest the 
course of the disease. 

"The victims of the malady did not seem to 
be confined so much to those of intemperate 
and irregular habits, as had been the case in 
almost all previous manifestations of the dis- 
ease. People of the most industrious, careful 
and regular habits seemed alike vulnerable to 
the dreadl'ul enemy. In a few days many of 
our most substantial citizens were numbered 
among the victims of the sweeping epidemic. 
It was reported that 150 cases occurred in a 
single day; but such was the confusion and 
positive delirium of the community that no 
proper records were made, nor can any accurate 
data now be found in respect to the epidemic of 
1850. As soon as the daily mortality became 
so great as to keep men constantly employed in 


carrying away the dead, tlie citizens began to 
leave the town in every direction, and in 
such numbers as to soon diminish the ]>opula- 
tion to not more tliau ono-iifth of its ordinary 

" In this pestilential reign of terror and dis- 
may, the most dreadful abandonments of rela- 
tives and friends took place. Those who were 
willing to forget self and become the visitants 
of mercy, constituted but a small and meagre 
proportion of the many, who, following the 
instincts of nature, sought only to preserve 
themselves. There were a few men, as there 
always will be, whose warm hearts throbbed 
with an uncontrollable anxiety to convey relief 
to the distressed and the dying, and who lin- 
gered around the death scenes of the epidemic, 
so spell-bound l)y sympathy, that they endured 
anything and everything as long as there re- 
mained a solitary hope of even palliating the 
agony of dissolving nature. These men are 
found by and are known to those who constitute 
the heroes of epidemics. They consisted of an 
occasional brother, whose inwrought feelings of 
fraternity were sustained by a maternal bias that 
made them as enduring as life. I will mention 
one name, my motive for which will be readily 
acknowledged more as the extortion of truth 
than the result of partisan partiality — that of 
John Bigler, the present Governor of California. 
This man, with strong impulses of sympathy! 
could be seen in every refuge of distress that 
concealed the miseries of the dying and the des- 
titute. With a lump of gum-camphor now in 
his pocket and anon at his nostrils, he braved 
every scene of danger that presented, and with 
his own hands administered relief to his suftor- 
ing and uncared-for fellow-beings. 

" The rapid spreading of the cpideinic gave 
to the physicians of the city no rest, day or 
night. As might be expected, they were falling 
like the foremost soldiers of a desperate charge, 
and ere the cholera had subsided, seventeen of 
their number were deposited in the ISandhill 
Cemetery of our city — a professional mortality 
never bcfoi-e known; an inroad of (hiath from 

which but a fraction more than two in three 
escaped with life, and not one in three from the 
disease! And yet, not a single educated phy- 
sician turned his back upon the city in its dis- 
tress and threatened destruction. 

" This awful calamity lasted in its malignant 
form only about twenty days; but, by the un- 
systematic records of the times, the number of 
deaths cannot be ascertained. Besides those who 
died in the city, many were overtaken by death 
in other places, and upon the road, in their des- 
perate efforts to escape by running from the 
enemy. In the latter part of the epidemic the- 
authorities procured the use of a large frame 
building on L street, where the destitute chcHera 
subjects' were taken and provided for. / The 
abatement of the disease was much longe/ than 
the period of its inception and increase, and 
commenced just as soon as the frequency of 
death had familiarized people with the frightful 
scenes around them, and rendered them loss 
defenseless from a paralyzing fear. By the time 
the disease had almost disappeared the city was 
nearly depopulated, and there were not a few 
who thought the Levee City was dead beyond 
the possibility of resurrection. 

" But those who supposed that Sacramento 
and Sacramentans could be so easily crushed had 
not learned their character. The very moment 
that mortality began an obvious retreat from 
the premises, that moment those who survived 
their flight returned. Those who abided by the 
city in its distress, reacted upon the calamities 
of the town with such an elastic and vigorous 
energy as to completely transform the appear- 
ance of the place in a few days. The conlidence 
of the people in the health of the city was almost 
immediately restored, and business communica- 
tions were reopened with the mines under the 
most encouraging circumstances. For a few 
weeks a good business was realized, and the 
broken and beautiful winter that followed im- 
parted a vitality to the town that could not have 
been anticipated by one who had contemplated 
its destiny through the gloomy scenes of Oc- 



In April, 1850, the Freemasons and Odd 
Fellows together established a hospital, the 
Board of Trustees being elected by both orders. 
A series of concerts was given for the benefit 
of the hospital, which were liberally patronized. 
The managers of the Tehama Theatre and Rowe's 
Olympic Circus also gave benefits for the same 

Dr. Dow liad a " Thompsoniaii Hospital and 
Botanic Medicine Store" on K street, between 
Second and Third. Price of admission per day, 
$5 to $25, "according to trouble and expense." 

Drs. T. J. White and C. D. Cleveland had an 
extensive liospital that would accommodate 100 
patients, on tlie corner of Ninth and L streets. 

Drs. James S. Martin and B. R. Carman con- 
ducted the " Sutter's Fort Hospital," inside the 
fort. Drs. Morse and Stillman also had a hos- 
pital at the corner of Third and K streets. 


Several physicians, first at Sutter's Fort and 
afterward in the city, received boarding pa- 
tients; but very few of the sick had the means 
to pay the prices asked. Very early, therefore, 
were the people led to establish a public hos- 
pital. The first was established aiiout 1851-'52, 
in the business part of the city, and among the 
early physicians to the institution were Drs. J. 

F. Montgomery, Johnson Price, Procter 

and George W. Williams. In the City Direc- 
tory of 1853 is the following entry: " Drs- 
Johnson Price and George W. Williams, Phy- 
sicians to the County Hospital, corner of I and 
Seventh streets." About the same time or 
shortly afterward. Price & Procter established 
a hospital on Second street, between I and J, 
with seventy-five or eighty beds. They entered 
into contract with the county for keeping the' 
poor, of whom they had about fifty, charging 
very high fees. Within three or fonr years the 
county endeavored to break the contract, in the 
meantime establishing a hospital on the corner 
of Tenth and L streets. Price & Procter sued 

the county and obtained judgment. This county 
building was on the northwest corner of the 
present Capitol Park, and was torn down and 
removed soon after it was vacated, some time 
after the war. 

In 1857 Dr. Montgomery was again the county 
physician; 1858- 59, Dr. G. L. Simmons; 1859- 
'60, Dr. Montgomery; 1861, from ISovember, 
Dr. J. G. Phelan; 1869, from September, Dr. 
Montgomery; 1870, Dr. A. C. Donaldson, with 
Dr. G. A. White as assistant. 

About this time the county purchased from 
James Lansing sixty acres of land on the upper 
Stockton road, about three miles southeast of 
the business center of the city, at a cost of about 
$11,000, and erected upon it a very fine build- 
ing, and moved into it the seventy-five patients 
that were in the old building. October 5, 1878, 
this new building was accidentally burned, and 
the patients were temporarily cared for in tlie 
" old Pavilion," at the corner of Sixth and M. 
streets, until the present structures were com- 
pleted, in the summer of 1879. The Board of 
Supervisors called for plans for a new building 
or buildings, and adopted those furnished by JSI. 
D. Goodell, of this city, which were offered in 
competition with a number of others. The de- 
sign is what is called the " pavilion plan," con- 
sisting of a central or main building, with four 
separated wings like the rays of a star, the set 
constituting a half circle. Thus arranged, a 
better protection against fire is provided for, as 
well as a greater abundance of air and light and 
a superior aspect of cheerfulness. These build- 
ings cost between $60,000 and $65,000. All 
the appointments in the various departments 
are superior in respect to convenience and neat- 
ness, and all the surrounding premises are at- 
tractive. The sewage system is that of Shone, 
which is operated upon the pneumatic principle, 
and the sewage is all utilized upon the grounds. 
Of these grounds there are four acres in vine- 
yard, five or six acres in garden, ten in pasture 
and the remainder in orchard, meadow and 
building site. There is now an average of 150 
to 160 inmates, each costing the county about 


$l'i.50 a month. Monthly reports of the insti- 
tution are published in the city papers. 

In the spring of 1879 the medical superin- 
tendence of the county iiospital fell into the 
hands of tlie homeopathists, and for the first 
three months of this year Dr. George Pybnrn 
was the county physician, and for the succeeding 
four Dr. George M. Dixon; and tiien Dr. J. R- 
Laine, regular, served out the unexpired term. 
AVith the exception of this period, Dr. G. A. 
"White has been the county physician ever since 
March, 1872. 


Between the years 1864 (when the first train 
was run on the road) and 1868 most of the em- 
ployes were strangers, and new arrivals in Cali- 
fornia, and as the road passed for the most part 
through a country very sparsely inhabited, where 
little or no accommodations could be furnished 
for those who, by the vicissitudes of climate, 
exposure or accident, became sick and helpless, 
much suffering to the men on the line was 
caused ; added to this, as a rule, very few of the 
employes had relatives or friends to care for 
them, or money to carry them through a period 
of sickness, which necessitated a call for dona- 
tions from their comrades and the company. 
These calls became so fre(j[uent and onerous that 
tlie company concluded the wisest and most hu- 
mane proceeding would be to build a hospital 
in Sacramento, where all the employes might 
be taken care of and restored to health as soon 
as practicable, whether the patient had means 
or not. Before building, however, an old resi- 
dence was leased and put to use. 

The Central Pacific Railroad Hospital was 
built by the company at Sacramento in 1869, at 
a cost of §64,000. It consists of a main build- 
ing 60 X 35 feet, four stories and basement, with 
a wide verandah at each story, two wings 35 x 52 
feet, and a kitchen twenty-four feet square, re- 
moved a few feet from the main building. The 
hospital has six wards, besides eight private 
rooms for patients, a library of some 1,500 vol- 
umes, well appointed executive and medical 

rooms, and will accommodate 125 patients. 
Every officer and employe of the company con- 
tributes mouthy 50 cents from his pay as 
"hospital dues," which constitutes a fund to 
pay the current expenses of the institution. The 
payment of this 50 cen''s, monthly, entitles 
the employe to free admission and medical at- 
tendance at the hospit d in case of sickness or 
injury while in the service of the company. 
Tlie fund from this source has been sufficient to 
defray the current expenses of the hospital and 
pay the interest on its cost. It is gratifying to 
know that the hospital is fully appreciated by 
the employes of the company, who, by casualty 
or sickness, have been inmates. No employe 
is entitled to medical treatment here whose sick- 
ness has been caused by any form of venerea! 
infection, intemperance, bad habits, vicious act 
or hereditary, constitutional or previous in- 
firmity. There are now (April, 1889) forty-two 
patients in the hospital — a lower number than 
they have had for a long time. 

Dr. S. P. Thomas was the first physician 
Dr. A. B. Nixon had the medical charge from 
February 1, 1870, wiien the new building was 
opened, until recently. The present officers are-. 
F. J. Huse, of San Francisco, Superintendent ; 
T. W. Huntington, Piiysician and Surgeon; G. 
B. Somers, Assistant Physician; R. Forbes, 
Dispenser and Steward; J. F. Daul, Clerk. 


An association for the care of orphans was 
organized as early as 1858, but it proved short- 
lived. In 1867 Mrs. Elvira Baldwin interested 
a number of citizens, including the Governor, in 
the care of a family of seven children left or- 
phans by the death of their mother, a poor 
woman; and this movement directly resulted in 
the organization of a society for the care of or- 
phans and destitute children throughout the 
county, and even the State. Mrs. I. E. Dwinell 
was the first president. The society immedi- 
ately rented and furnished a building on the 
corner of Seventh and D streets, where they 
])!aced fourteen or fifteen children in the care of 


Mrs. Cole, the first matron. The next year the 
association erected a building on the site of the 
present establishment on K street, between 
Eighteenth and Nineteenth streets. It was con- 
siderably damaged by fire December 7, 1878, 
but it was soon repaired, and another and a su- 
perior building added. Also, 1877, a neat 
school-house was built on the premises, where 
the school is made one of the " public schools " 
of the city, in the care of the City Board of 
Education. No child, however, but the proper 
inmates of the asylum, is admitted into this 

Anumg tl.e many noble women who have sac- 
rificed much of their time and money in sus- 
taining this institution, special mention may be 
made of Mrs. S. E. Clayton, who during the last 
fifteen years has traveled at least 4,500 miles, 
visited 110 children — some of them several 
times — and taken fifteen orphans and destitute 
children, who were afterward furnished homes 
under the management of the association. She 
was president of the society in 1887-'88. 

There are at present about 150 children cared 
for at the asylum. The officers of the associa- 
tion this year are: Mrs. N. D. Kideout, Presi- 
dent; Mrs. O. P. Goodhue, Vice-President; 
Mrs. C. E. Paine, Treasurer; Mrs. W. H. Hobby, 
Secretary. The remaining members of the 
Board of Management are: Mrs. T. B. McFar- 
land, Mrs. Edward Twitchell, Mrs. C. P. Massey, 
Jr., Kichard Irvine, E. A. Barr, A. C. Tufts, J. 
Frank Clark, T. D. Scriver. Mrs. A. E. Peck- 
ham is Matron; Mrs. Maggie "Warr, Assistant 
Matron, and Dr. W. A. Hughson, Physician. 


This home for aged women is situated upon 
the one-half block of land. Seventh and Eighth 
P and Q streets, in the City of Sacramento. The 
main building and handsome grounds had for- 
merly been the residence property of Captain 
William Whitney, and the addition of another 
equally well-constructed building alongside, 
36 X 78 feet in size, was made, in order to pro- 
cure twenty-eight large bed-rooms, with parlor. 

reception room, office, kitchen, laundry and 
dining room. The bed-rooms are all well lighted, 
perfectly ventilated and handsomely furnished, 
thus insuring the greatest possible comfort of 
the inmates. There is also a system of hot-air 
pipes throughout the house, and an abundance 
of ho.-e a, id hydrants for fire purposes. 

The pleasing and substantial character of the 
building and the spacious grounds, shaded by 
large trees and filled with choice shrubbery 
combine to make the place home-like and at- 

On February 25, 1884, the sixtieth anniver- 
sary of the birthday of the founder, the Mar- 
guerite Home was dedicated. The occasion was 
celebrated by a reception at the Home to the 
older citizens of the city. After the congratu- 
lations were over, Mrs. Margaret E. Crocker 
formally presented the institution to the Board 
of Trustees, with the following remarks: 
" Frank Miller, Albert Gallatin, John II. 

Carroll, Gustavus L. Simmons and Charles 


" Gentlemen — Herewith I deliver into your 
possession a deed in trust for certain money, 
real and personal property, by means of which 
I propose to establish a home for aged and in- 
digent women in Sacramento, to be known as 
the 'Marguerite Home.' I have the honor, 
gentlemen, to solicit your acceptance of this 
trust. The deed, expresses my intentions with- 
out placing restrictions upon your mode of 

" Knowing your intelligence and ability, and 
having full faith in your character and in your 
disposition to aid in all benevolent purposes, and 
believing you to be in full accord with my views 
in respect to the especial objects of my regard 
in this gift, I have left, as you will see upon a 
careful examination of the deed, to your discre- 
tion and superior knowledge and to your kind 
and earnest efforts, which I most heartily in- 
voke, the success of this trust." 

Appropriate responses were made by Dr. G. 
L. Simmons, Hon. Joseph Steffens and Hon. 
John Q. Brown, the mayor. 


M-\J.(.i I I III H()\lt, FOR AGED WOMEN 



In addition to the property purchased for the 
Home, the deed above referred to bequeaths 
also the sum of §50,000 as an endowment fund, 
and the furtlier sum of §12,000 as additional 

• While the income from Mrs. Crocker's large 
donation has already been apportioned for the 
support of the present inmates, thetrastees, anx- 
ious to give the benefits of the institution to such 
worthy and respectable aged women as may de- 
sire to enter, have arranged to take for life such 
as may be able to pay the expenses incident to 
their maintenance. At present there are twelve 
to fifteen women cared for at the Home. 

The Board of Trustees now consists of Dr. 
G. L. Simmons, Frank Miller, Charles Mc- 
Crear}', Liidwig Mebius and Cnarles F. Dill- 
man; and the Directresses are Mrs. Frank Mil- 
ler, Mrs. G.L.Simmons, Mrs. Charles McCreary, 
Mrs. Charles F. Dillman, Mrs. L. Mebius and 
Mrs. Frank L. Orcott. Mrs. Fanny Safford is 
matron and Wallace A. Briggs, M. D., the phy- 

A brief history of this beautiful home, a copy 
of the deed of trust, by-laws of the Board of 
Trustees, forms of application, contract, bequest, 
etc., are published in a magnificent pamphlet, 
which can be obtained of any of the officers 
above mentioned. 


Although private hospitals, strictly speaking 
are not charitable institutions, yet, as they are 
truly hospitals, it seems most appropriate to 
place our mention of them here. 

All " water-cures " and " health institutes " 
are hospitals; and it appears almost wonderful 
how soon all Eastern institutions were repre- 
sented here, though generally in a small way of 
course, after the first tide of immigration dur- 
ing the gold excitement. How early the first 
water-cure was established in Sacramento we 
have not been able to learn, but it was probably 
earlyjin the '50s. In 1857 Dr. T. P. Zander ad- 
vertised in glowing terms a hydropathic insti- 
tution on the southwest corner of Fifth and K 

streets, Sacramento. Afterward a Dr. Burns 

established a similar institution, which is now 


With SO much that is semi-tropical around it, 
Sacramento would not be complete unless fur- 
nished for all the luxury of the bath. The Pa. 
cific Water Cure and Eclectic Health Institute, 
on the northwest corner of Seventh and L streets, 
under the direction of Dr. M. F. Clayton, pro- 
vides all the requisites of the bath, and much 
more, in that it offers all the comforts and con- 
veniences of a well-equipped sanitarium. The 
building is large and commodious, centrally lo- 
cated, while yet somewhat removed from the 
noise and bustle of the crowded thoroughfares 
of the city; is surrounded by beautiful shade 
trees, and suggestive in every way of a pleasant 
and refined home. A portion of the building 
has recently been raised, and the departments 
entirely remodeled. There are luxurious par- 
lors, rich and elegant in all their appointments, 
for the exclusive use of the ladies patronizing 
this famous establishment. 

The institution is provided with all the neces- 
sary appliances for Turkish, Russian, electric or 
medicated water or vapor baths, which may be 
enjoyed at any time as a luxury or as a neces- 
sary means of medical treatment. On the second 
floor are comfortable, home-like rooms, full of 
sunshine, for the use of those who either require 
rest after bathing, or for patients coming from 
a distance in search of relief and cure. Even 
stables with horses and vehicles for their use 
are a part of the establishment. 

The whole is under the direction and super- 
vision of Dr. M. F. Clayton, a graduate of the 
Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
who has been in the present location thirteen 
years, and whose large experience as a prac- 
titioner for thirty-three years renders him es- 
pecially fitted for such a charge. 

M. F. Clayton, M. D., Proprietor of the 
" Pacific Water Cure and Home for the Sick," 
northwest corner of Seventh and L streets. 


Sacnimeiito, was horn in Knox County, Oliio, in 
1S2G, and hroiiglit up in (jrawtbrd County, that 
State. Cnuluating in medicine at the Eclectic 
Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Oliio, in 1855, he 
practiced his prolession in the northeastern por- 
tion of Indiana lour years, and then, in 1859, 
came overland to California, with ox and horse 
teams, being ti\e and a half months on the way. 
Practicing medicine im the route made the jour- 
ney more tedious, but multiplied his experiences 
in such a manner as apparently to till up a whole 
life-time, and furnisli matter for endless anec- 
dote. That magnificent painting at tlie head of 
the north stairway in the Capitol- -the most 
interesting in all the West to early immigrants 
to tliis coast — fitly represents many a scene 
through which the Doctor passed on that long 
and indescribable journey. He saw his last 
hor.>;e die 200 miles from human habitation! 
Arriving at Placerville, September 15, barefoot 
and almost trouserless, he rolled up his sleeves 
and went to work in caring for the sick. His 
tirst task was the care of a man who had been 
shot, and who, under the Doctor's management, 
fully recovered. After practicing in Plaeerville 
eight years. Dr. Clayton moved to Sacramento 
and opened an office on J street, between Fifth 
and Sixth, remaining there two years. About 
that time his family, consisting of a wife and 
four children, came and joined him. After hav- 
ing an office on K street, between Fifth and 
Sixth, a year yr so, the Doctor, in 1876, pur- 
chased his present institution, fully described 
under the head of Hospitals in this work. He 
also owns a tract of partly improved land about 
sixty-five miles east and a little north of Sacra- 
mento, and in El Dorado County. 

The Doctor is one of the organizers of the 
State Eclectic Medical Society, of which he was 
vice-president the first term and president two 
terms; also a member of the State Eclectic 
Board of Medical Examiners three years, and 
chairman two years. In politics he is a zealous 
Prohibitionist. During the campaign of 1888 
he was a member of the State Executive Com- 
mittee of the Prohibition party. He is an affa- 


ble gentleman, well calculated to insjii 

and a cheerful spirit in all his patients, and a 

jolly mood in all persons around him. 

Mrs. Sauah E. Clayton, Matron of the Pa- 
cific Water-Cure, was born in December, 182G, 
in Delaware. Iler father, Kev. John Davis, 
was of Welsh descent, and her mother's ances- 
tors were from England. The family emigrated 
from Maryland to Ohio in 1830, and after a 
brief stay at Mansfield and Plymouth, they set- 
tled in Pucyrus, Crawford County, Ohio, at 
which place Mrs. Clayton taught in the public 
schools from 184:6 to 1851. She then married 
Dr. M. F. Clayton. During the war of the Re- 
bellion they lived in Fostoria, that State; and 
while referring to that period we may mention 
that a brother of Mrs. Clayton, Dr. W. H. 
Davis, went out as Surgeon in one of the Iowa 
regiments, and died at Pittsburg Landing in 
1862". Mrs. Clayton Avas secretary of the Sani- 
tary Commission five years at Fostoria, and the 
work which she did during that period she con- 
siders the most important of her life. It was, 
indeed, as important a duty as any on the field 
of battle, to be performed either by a private 
soldier or a General commanding armies. She 
came to California in 1870 with four children, 
the eldest of whom died in London, England, 
in 1881. Iler husband had preceded her; to 
this State a number of years. On going to the 
county hospital, then at Tenth and L streets, to 
visit the sick men, she found that the inmates 
were poorly supplied with reading matter. She 
asked the citizens to donate such books as they 
did not need for their own use, to the patients 
for their entertainment, and her anticipations 
were more than realized, and they had a valua- 
ble library to put in the new building when that 
was completed. Among the books was an old 
relic, a Greek Bible 200 years old. But, alas! 
they had the privilege of using that library but 
a short time, when it, with the nice, new build- 
ing, was burned. 

Probably the next in imjiortance of the works 
of her life is the part which she has taken in 
behalf of the orphans of that State. She was 


elected oue of the managers of the Protestant 
Orphan Asylum of this city in 1873, where her 
first duty was to look after the interests of the 
children who had been sent out of the asylum 
on trial, to procure permanent homes. It proved 
to be a duty of embarrassing responsibility, and 
she had many difficulties to encounter until she 
had a thorough system established, so that when 
a family took a child she knew its interests 
would be looked after. She went before the 
Legislature and asked for a law by which the 

managers could be governed in placing children 
out for adoption in families who wished for 
them; and the law was adopted without a dis- 
senting voice. (See also our account of the 
Protestant Orphan Asylum, elsewhere in this 

The children of Dr. and Mrs. Clayton are: 
Hattie, wife of A. J. Gardner, residing in Sacra- 
mento; Mrs. Clara M. Byrne, residing with her 
parents; Frank W., in San Francisco, and Wil- 
lis M., deceased. 





N addition to the business men alluded to in 

our chapter on the foundinif of Sacramento, 

we mention the following who were here 

during the first three or four years after that 


History states that in May, 1849, there were 
about thirty buildings occupied by stores, and 
that on June 26 there were 100 houses in Sacra- 
mento. The following business and professional 
men are named about in the order in which we 
find their advertisements in the Placer Thnes: 

Whitloek & Gibson, auction and commission. 

Burnett & Rogers (Peter H. and John P.), 
exchange brokers and agents for the collection 
of debts. Burnett was afterward Governor of 
the State. 

Drs. L. P. & S. S. Crane, physicians and 

Dr. C. B. Zabriskie, physician. 

Orlando McKnight, proprietor of the Ameri- 
can House and Restaurant. 

Murray & Lappeus. 

Pickett & Co. 

Saget & Co. 

T. McDowell & Co., auction and commission. 

Gillespie, Gerald & Co., wholesale and retail 
grocers, provisions and mining goods. 

Brannan & Co. (Samuel Brannan, William 
Stout, and Melius, Howard & Co.), general mer- 

chandise. In August, 1849, Mr. Brannan was 
again alone. Brannan died May 5, 1889, at 
Escondido, San Diego County, California. 

Dr. B. Bryant, a graduate of the Botanico- 
Medical College of Memphis, established in Au- 
gust a hospital on L street; also sold medicines. 

Dr. W. H. PAnson, "late Surgeon of the 
United States Army," opened out in August, 
1849, "opposite Prof. Sheppard's store." 

John Codlin, butcher and provision merchant. 

H. P. Merrifield, auction and real estate. 

James C. Zabriskie, law, conveyancing and 

Morse, Dunning & Co. (Charles E. G. Morse, 
of St. Louis, Missouri, and John Dunning, of 
New York City), provisions. 

J. P. Rittenhouse & Co. (Thomas C. D. 01m- 
stead and W. E. Keyes). 

Peyton, Cornet & McCarver. 

Dr. F. M. Rodrigues, from New Orleans. 

B. E. Watson, groceries. 

Dr. M. B. Angle. 

Massett & Brewster (Stephen C. and Charles 
O.), auction and commission. 

Dring, store at the Fort. 

Thomas A. Warbass, real estate. 

Robertson & Co. (G. M. R., Theodore Van 
Cott and Thomas King), meat market. 

Dr. W. G. Deal. 

Dr. Robert Wilson. 


C. G. & U. G. Cornell, meat market. 

Drs. McKenzie & Ames (J. M. and F. AV.). 

James N. Harding, law and real estate. 

ElisLa W. McKinstry, law. 

Jones, Prettyman, Barroll & Co. (Dr. W. G. 
Deal), commission, real estate and drngs. After- 
ward Prettyman, Barroll &Gwynn. 

Charles Lindley, lawyer and commissioner of 

Bailey, Mori'isiin & Co., merchants. 

Pearson & Baker (James P. and W. A. B.), 
real estate. 

Plume, Truman & Co. 

Cardwell, Brown & Co. (II. C. C, E. L. 
Brown, John Harris and John S. Fowler), after- 
ward Harris, Brown &. Co. 

Drs. J. L. Wydown and T. J. White. 

J. B. Starr & Co. (H. L. Barney), auction. 

McNulty & Co. (A. G. Hedrick), hardware. 

Dr. Benjamin R. Carman bought Dr. Deal's 
interest in the Martin & Deal hospital at tlie 
Fort, in December, 1849. 

Dr. Hardenstein, homeopathic. 

Barney, Brewster & Co. (B. B. Barney, R. E. 
Brewstei", Fred Ogden, J. H. Blossom and J. P. 
Hurley), afterward Barney, Blossom & Co. 

Suydam, Fletcher & Co. (John Suydam, War- 
ren Fletcher and J. E. Galloway), then Suydam 
& Galloway, auction and commission. 

Drs. R. M. Stanbury and J. W. H. Stettinius 
and Mr. Charles E. Abbott bought the hospital 
of Dr. Craigan and Mr. Abell at the Fort, 
during the winter of 1849-'50. 

Dr. S. P. Thomas.. 

B. F. Hastings & Co., exchange brokers, bank- 
ers and commission merchants. 

James Tate & Co., general merchandise. 

C. F. McClure & Co. (P. P. Slater). 
Covilland, Fajard & Co., general merchandise. 
R. Gelston & Co. (Simmons, Hutchinson &, 

Co.), general merchandise. 

Meconnekin &Co. (E. Meconnekin, A. Hadley 
and James A. Myer), auction and commission. 

William Montgomery, auction and commis- 
sion, groceries, etc. 

Andrew J. Binney, civil engineerandsnrveyor. 

Fowter & Fry, proprietors of the City Hotel. 

E. M. Hayes, jeweler. 

Offutt, Wales & Co. (M. H. Oflutt, C. P. 
Wales, Jacob P. Dunn and George Dunn), auc- 
tion and commission. 

Ilensley & Redding (Samuel J. Hensley, Peir- 
son B. Redding and Jacob R. Snyder), general 
merchants. Dissolved partnership February 10, 

Middlebrook & Christy (Charles M. and John 
M. C). 

Steele & Grummun (Seymour G. S. and 
Caleb G.). 

William R. Prince & Co., sheet iron, zinc, 
miners' supplies, etc. 

Demas Strong, dry goods. Tliis inan is a 
brother of W. R. Strong, and 'is still living, in 
the East. 

M. G. Leonard & Co. (Sheldon, Kibbe & 
Almy), groceries and miners' supplies. 

Gillespie & Monson (Eugenio G. and Alonzo 
M.), laad agents. 

L. Bartlett, Jr., bank and real-estate. 

E. D. Byrne & Co., dry goods. 

G. M. Robertson, commission agent and real- 
estate broker. 

Henley McKnight &Co. (S. C. Hastings), bank. 

Dr. Bryarly, in partnership with Dr. Deal. 

Wetzlar & Co. (Gustavus W., Julius Wetz- 
lar, Benj. Fenner, Cornelius Schermerhorn and 
Francis Stratton). Some of these afterward sold 
out to John A. Sutter, Jr., and C. Brandes. 

A. P. Petit, contractor and builder. 

Dr. C. Morrill and Mr. C. T. Whittier, drugs. 

Joseph Clough, real estate. 

John H. Dickerson, civil engineer and sur- 

Moran & Clark. 

J. Neely Johnson, lawyer, and afterward Gov- 
ernor, elected by the American party. 

Bailey, Morrison & Co. (Major 1!., John C. 
and E. M. Hayes). 

Smith, Keith & Co. (J. E. S., Matthew K. and 
Henry M. Spotswood). 

Lewis & Bailey (John H. L. and John T. !!.), 
general commission and merchandise. 


Warbass & Co. (Tliomas A. W., WilUam S. 
Heyl and Jolin F. Morse), bankers and real 

Barton Lee, successor to Priest, Lee & Co. 

G. B. Stevens, wholesale auction and commis- 

Clienery & Hubbard, proprietors of the Globe 

Ferris Forman, law. 

Hoope & L'Amoureux, general merchants. 

G. H. Johnson, daguerrean artist. 

John H. Spies, notions. 

Burnell, Stout &. Co., wholesale auction and 

Spalding & McKinney (Volney S., M. D. and 
Joseph McK.), saloon. 

A. M. Winn, agent for Sutter. 

Dr. B. T. Kruse. 

J. D. B. Stillman, M. D. Left in 1862. 

L. A. Birdsall, M. D. 

J. A. Wadsworth, M. D., from Providence, 
Rhode Island, had the '< K Street Hospital." 

Boyd & Davis, real estate, now in San Fran- 
cisco, wealthy. 

Earl, McLitosh & Co , forwarding. Earl is 
now in San Francisco. 

John Hatch, jeweler, resided here in Sacra- 
mento until his death. 

Simmons, Hutchinson & Co., general mer- 
chandise. Simmons also dealt in real estate. 

J. L. F. Warren established the store now 
owned by Baker & Hamilton. For the last 
thirty years Warren has been conducting an ag- 
ricultural paper in San Francisco. 

D. O. Mills, dealer in gold dust and founder 
of the bank still known by his name. He is a 
resident of New York City. 

Brown, Henry & Co., wholesale clothing. 

James Lee kept the " Stinking Tent," the 
chief gaming establishment for a time. Z. Hub- 
bard soon started a large, neat gambling tent. 

Jacob Binninger built the first liotel in Sac- 

James King of William, various. 

Dr. Charles H. Craigan, from Washington 
City, established a hospital at the Fort in 1849; 

rates of board and treatment, $16 to $50 per 

H. Arents & Co., general merchandise. 

Burge & Ratclifie (Robert K. and Wm. M.), 
manufacturers of iron shutters and doors. 

M. T. McClellan, speculator in gold and sil- 
ver; " coin exchanged for dust, at $15 per 

Sagat & Southard (L. T. & Charles C), gen- 
eral merchandise and miners' supplies. 

Marshall & Santry, general merchandise. 

Von Ptister&Vaughan (Edward and William), 
general merchandise. 

H. A. Schoolcraft, real estate and magis- 

Drs. Wm. M. Carpenter and T. L. Chapman. 

Dr. T. M. Ames, at Sutterville. 

Nevett & Co., hardware. Youmans was the 

C. C. Sackett, notary public and conveyancer. 

R. Chenery, flour. 

George H. Pettibone, proprietor of the El 
Dorado House. 

Yates Ferguson, general store. 

Ilaines, Webster & Co., hotel. 

Richard Berry, auction. 

Barton & Grim, real estate. 

Watson & Bern, hardware. 

C. P. Huntington & Co., hardware. 

J. B. Blanchard & Co., hardware. 

Bowstead & Woods, iron and brass foundry. 

Wesley Merritt, Moran & Clark, H. E. Rob- 
inson & Co., George H. Johnson, Thompson & 
Taylor, Cochran, Peifer, Samuel Gregg, S. C. 
Bruce, Montgomery & Co., Captain Gallop, A. 
C. Latson, John Van Houghton, Ames & Mc- 
Kenzie, Jesse Haycock, Dearbower, Caswell, 
Ingalls & Co., Hanna, Jennings & Co., Captain 
Northam, Geise & Son, J. J. Burge, Harden- 
bergh & Co., Morrill & Hamlin, Coats & Rivett, 
Cheeks, Pinkard, Prince, Scranton & Smith, T. 
S. Mitchell & Co., ileynolds & Co., P. B. Corn- 
wall, Paul, White & Co., etc. 

There were also numerous express companies, 
stage lines, etc., too tedious to mention in all 
their chanses. 




The principal grocers in 1850 and following 
years were the following: 

The most extensive in operations were Pome- 
roy & Peebles, whose establishment was famil- 
iarly known as the " Missouri Store." Both 
those men are dead. 

Ilaynes & Co. were almost e.xchisively an 
importing house. 

Bullard, Figg & Co. did a large business. 
The former is deceased, and Mr. Figg is still 
living, in Sacramento. 

Cavert &, Hill also had a large trade, in a 
large frame building on Front street, where the 
McCreary flouring-mill now stands. 

Forshee, Booth & Co. enjoyed an extensive 
patronage. The members were John Forshee, 
Lucius A. Booth and Job F. Dye. Booth lives 
now at Pi.dniont, and Forshee is dead. Dye 
cauie to California as early as 1840. 

E. D. & W. T. Kennedy were Philadelphia 
men, who in the grocery trade accumulated a 
little fortune. The first mentioned resides in 
Philadelphia, and the other is deceased. 

J. W. Foard & Co. (George Cadwallader) are 
both dead. The latter became an eminent at- 
torney here. 

W. T. Grissim & Co. (Snyder) are also de- 

Curry & Co. and P. J. Brown ife Co. were 
burned out in the great tire of 1852, re-estab- 
lished themselves and finally went out of business 
in 1855. 

Tlie "Lady Adams Company," named after 
the ship that brought them to the coast, was 
one of the oldest firms in Sacramento, who 
brought a cargo of goods with them. Mebius 
& Co. are now their successors. 

Stanford Bros, (three brothers of Leiand Stan 
ford) were not burned out ia 1852, although 
their building was not so fire-proof as many 
others that were consumed. All other build- 
ings in their block were burned. 

llermance & Burton never resumed business 
after tlie fire of 1852. 

J. 11. Trowbridge & Co. and Carroll & Stearin 

soon after the fire succeeded the old house of 
Birdsall & Co., taking the name of Scudder, 
Carroll & Co. 

Taylor & Van Sickle were successful business 
men before the tire; after that event Van Sickle 
never resumed business. 

Louis Sloss had a successful trade here until 
about 1854; is now with the Alaska Fur Com- 
pany in San Francisco. 

Chamberlain & Patrick did business upon the 
Plaza. Chamberlain, now nearly ninety years 
of age, is still in active employment, in the 
banking house of D. O. Mills & Co. Dr. Pat- 
rick is deceased. 

Wilcoxson & Co. enjoyed a large trade up to 
1852, then closed. Jackson "Wilcoxson is dead; 
but Jefferson, his brother, is still living here, 
and is now a capitalist. 

Maddux & Co. were from Arkansas. They 
built the present Maddux Block, corner of 
Third and K streets. 

Mills & Co. (James and D. O. Mills) retired 
from the grocery business probably in 1851. 
The latter established the bank which is still 
known by his name, and now resides in New 
York City. 

Bushnell & Co.'s establishment was one of 
the very few hou^es that were not burned out 
in the tire of 1852. 

Sneath & Arnold established a business here 
about 1851. The former is now a resident of 
San Francisco, having a large dairy in the 
country, and Juhn Arnold died in Connecticut 
about 1864. Tlieir successors are Adams, Mc- 
Neill & Co. 

Fry, Iloopes &, Co. comprised J. D. Fry 
and Thomas Iloopes. Fry is in San Francisco 
and Iloopes is dead. Their successors are 
Lindley & Co. 

Hopkins & Miller. The former, Mark Hop- 
kins, died at Yuma, March 29, 1878, and the 
latter, Ed. Miller, is now connected with the 
Central Pacitic Railroad. 

W. K. McCaull & Co. ( Moore) did a 

large business. MoCauU is dead, and Moore is 
in Louisville, Kentucky. 



Smith & Booth, predecessors of the present 
lirra of Booth & Co. Charles Smith died in 
New York, and the other partner is ex-United 
States Senator Newton Booth, the senior mem- 
ber of the present firm. By the index, find in 
this vohime a biographical sketch of the latter. 

Hull & Lohman vvere also successful grocers. 
Hull is living in San Francisco, and Lohman 
died in that city five or six years ago. 

Lindley, Booth & Co. (T. M. Lindley, L. A. 
Booth) began in September, 1849. The next 
year Booth retired from the firm. After a time 
Lindley dropped that trade here and was in 
business elsewhere. February 1, 1853, he be- 
came a member of Fry, lioopes & Co., on the 
corner of Seventh and J streets; a year after- 
ward the name of the firm was Lindley & 
Hoopes, and in 1855 Mr. Lindley was alone. 
The firm is now Lindley & Co. (T. M. and D. 
A. Lindley), 214-218 K street. 

Other early grocery firms were: Birdsall & 
Co.; Ahrents & Tolger; Meeker & Co. (S. H. 
and David Meeker); Burton & McCarty; Wood 
& Kenyon; Kramer & Qui vey; Loveland &Co.; 
Kibbe, Almy &Co.; Thomas Bannister; Burton, 
Fibh & Culver; Peter Slater, etc. 

(From Old Directories.) 

1851— Ilensley & Merrill (Samuel J. and 
Robert D.), 47 Second street between J and K; 
Sacramento City Bank (Rhodes, Sturges & Co.), 
53 Second street, between J and K; B. F. Has- 
tings & Co., 51 J street, between Second and 

1853— Adams & Co., Granite Building, Sec- 
ond street between Orleans Hotel and J street; 
Grim & Rumler (A. K. and Fr.), 3 J street; 
D. O. Mills & Co., 58 J street; Francis W. 
Page, agent of Page, Bacon & Co., of St. Louis, 

1856— Wells, Fargo & Co.; John M. Rhodes, 
Second street between J and K. 

1868 — Sacramento Savings Bank, 89 J street. 

1871 — Capital Savings Bank, southwest cor- 
ner Fourth and J streets; Julius Wetzlar, Presi- 

dent; R. C. Woolworth, Secretary; Odd Fel- 
lows' Bank of Savings, St. George Building, 
Fourth and J streets. 


Lamhard Flouring Mills. — In 1853' these 
mills were established on the north side of I 
street, at the head of Second street, and for 
about two years were ran in connection with 
the Sacramento Iron Works. The original 
building was of brick, and only 20x40 feet in 
size. In 1856 it was enlarged, and a most 
substantial foundation placed under it, by James 
Kerr, a superior millwright from Boston. This 
man afterward lost his life on the ill-fated 
steamship Central America. Additions were 
made to the building, and the capacity increased 
to five run of stone. But this mill has long 
since been discontinued, and the building has 
for some years been used as a warehouse. 

Sacramento Flouring Mills. — In 1853 Dr. 
Carpenter, at that time a well-known and 
wealthy citizen of Sacramento, commenced tiie 
erection of the large brick building on Front 
street, between L and M, for the purpose of 
having it made the State Capitol. The latter 
"institution," however, was never located there. 
After its completion the first floor was occupied 
as grain stores, etc., by C. H. Swift, Campbell 
&, Sweeney, and others. In 1856-'57 it bore 
the dignity of being the county court-house. 
From Dr. Carpenter the property passed to C. 
K. Garrison, and in 1869 Charles and Byron 
McCreary bought tiie building and turned it 
into the Sacramento Flouring Mills. See sketch 
of these gentlemen in the biographical depart- 
ment of this work. 

Pioneer Flouring Mills. — R. D. Cary, in 
1854, transformed what is known as the Boston 
Ice House into the Pioneer Flour Mills, situ- 
ated on First street, between Sacramento and 
broad, that is, in the vicinity of what is now 
known as " Jib-Boom " street. Carey failed in 
business and the property passed into the hands 
of E. P. Figg. Carey, it was said, afterward 
went to Philadelphia and accumulated consider- 


able wealth. In 1858 Setli Gariield and Aleclc 
Dyer purchased the mill from >'igg and thor- 
oughly remodeled it. In October, 1863, the 
property was destroyed by lire, the proprietors 
losing about $10,000 above insurance Up to 
the time of the fire the mill was running day 
and night, turning out 200 barrels of flour a 
day, at a net profit of $75. 

Dyer left the city, and Garfield and A. C. 
Bidwell went into partnership, and within four 
months the present Pioneer Mills were erected 
and in running order. Three days after the re- 
newal of business, Bidwell sold out to H. G. 
Smith, who, together with Garfield, ran the 
mill till the close of 1864. Then J. H. Carroll 
came in as a third partner, and the capacity of 
the mill was increased to 500 barrels a day, 
the sum of $70,000 having been expended for 
tliat purpose. These three partners conducted 
the mill for five years, and then Carroll and 
Garfield sold out their interests to Smith and 
G. W. Mowe. The " Pioneer Milling Company" 
now comprises H. G. Smith, President; L. 
Williams, Vice-President: and F. B. Smith, 

For the Phwnix Mills, see sketch of George 
Schrodt, in the latter part of this work. 


The first lumber yard for the sale of Califor- 
nia mountain lumber was established in the 
early part of 1852, by C. C. Hayden, at the 
northeast corner of Fourth and L streets, where 
tlie Figg residence now stands, and occupying 
nearly half of the block south of the alley and 

tlie lot 



iber was obtained 

principally from Nevada County and Grass Val- 
ley, and hauled by teams. The cost of this 
transportation was from. $15 to $20 per thousand 
feet, the lumber selling at that time at the rate 
of $80 per thousand. The reason the freight 
charges were so low was the fact that the teams 
were principally engaged in hauling supplies to 
the mines, and the drivers would rather haul 
back lumber at those rates than return empty. 

For several months after the great fire of No- 
vember, 1852, this mountain lumber sold for 
$300 a thousand, the freight having advanced 
to $100. 

In the summer of 1858, while the Figg house 
was in process of construction, Hayden closed 
his lumber business and turned his attention to 
conveyancing. He was a native of Boston, 
Massachusetts, where he was a member of the 
firm of Hayden & Whipple, booksellers and 
publishers. He arrived in California in Sep- 
tember, 1849, on the brig Ilodolph. 

Pottery. — The first pottery ever made in 
Sacramento was by Jacob Knauth, of the Sutter 
Floral Gardens, who, being in need of flower- 
pots that he could not otherwise supply, made 
them so successfully himself that in 1853 he 
established a small pottery. In 1857 Clark & 
Mahoney started the Sacramento Pottery, then 
on the north side of J street, near Twenty-sixth. 
They made only Rockingham ware, the dark- 
brown glazed earthenware, and soon failed for 
want of patronage. After the war period two 
Swede brothers, John and Martin Bergman, ex- 
pert potters, bought the property, then on the 
east side of Thirtieth street, between M and N. 
They first wisely prospected for the best clay in 
this part of the State, and, after an expenditure 
of $7,000, found at Cook's and Michigan bars, 
in this county, beds of clay equal in quality to 
the best in the world, thus enaljling themselves 
to produce yellow ware and terra cotta of the 
best quality. 

The Sacramento Sm.elting Company was 
incorporated February 18, 1874, with a capital 
stock of $50,000. The stock was held by promi- 
nent capitalists here, and the works, located 
north of the north levee at Twelfth street, were 
immediately erected and put in operation. Tlie 
enterprise proved unprofitable at the end of 
about three years and operations suspended. 
The building remained idle, and w;is destroyed 
by fire January 21, 1879, at 7:15 .v. m 

The first officers were: Julius Wetzlar, 
President; Samuel Poorman, Secretary; \l. C. 
Woolworth, Treasurer; and G. N. Gerrish 


Superintendent. The principal building was 
60 X 200 feet. 

Capital Packing Company. — In the fall of 
1881 two practical men came here from San 
Francisco, for the purpose of looking up the 
establishment of the fruit-packing interests. 
They enlisted the sympathies of John II. Carroll, 
now deceased, and in the spring of 1882 matters 
had progressed so far that operations commenced 
in two small stores on Front street, between K 
and L. Mr. Carroll was an enterprising man, 
had just been president of the Pacific Mutual 
Insurance Company, and he saw that there might 
be a prosperous future to the fruit business 
here. In 1883 they secured two additional 
stores adjoining and enlarged their business, 
and continued thei-e until the fall of 1886. Thus 
far, however, it preved unprofitable; and it was 
seen also that more room was needed to carry 
on the business, and it was decided to move out 
of their present location on the corner of 
Eleventh and B streets. They established them- 
selves there that fall. The next year Mr. Car- 
roll died, and the business management was 
thrown upon Edgar B. Carroll. It is now on a 
profitable and solid basis, the season of 1888 
demonstrating that fact. A market for the prod- 
ucts is found all over the United States, Eng- 
land, Australia and China. When the cannery 
was started it was found that Sacramento was 
the best point in the State, and that fruit could 
be obtained by buying direct from the orchards. 
It was also learned later from experience that 
as San Francisco was a larger market, fruit 
drifted that way; and they found that they could 
buy in San Francisco and transport to this point 
cheaper than they could buy direct from the 
producers; hence the packers of San Francisco 
had the advantage, and, besides, the best fruits 
for their purpose are not grown in this vicinity. 
They have, however, now learned the localities 
where best to buy. They make a specialty of 
packing the best brands of fruit. Four hundred 
hands are employed during the busy season, 
when labor is scarce, too; and this fact in 1888 
prevented the filling of some orders. In addition 

to the buildings originally on the site, they 
erected one 60x160, and afterward two others 
50x160. They now occupy these buildings, 
with the adjacent. yard 160 feet square, and also 
a fire- proof warehouse 150 feet square. 

Edgae B. Carroll, the manager of this in- 
stitution, was born in Sacramento, September 
15, 1862, commenced his school education at 
the age of six years in private schools, continu- 
ing the next ten years at Perry's Seminary, and 
afterward the grammar department of the city 
schools and the High School, graduating in 1880. 
His father desired him to go to the University, 
but he felt that the experience in business which 
he had determined to follow would be of more 
benefit than university education, having de- 
cided at the same time to study, which he did 
for two years. In business he started out in the 
wholesale liquor business for James I. Felter & 
Co. At the end of three years he was at the 
head of the institution. In 1884 his father de- 
sired him to enter the fruit-packing business 
with him; but, having served an apprenticeship 
in a business entirely different, he knew what it 
would be to start in again where he would 
require considerable time to reach the higher 
positions. His father was urgent, and he finally 
consented. Thus, he left a position of $125 a 
month to accept a foremanship in his father's? 
establishment at $2 a day. He passed through 
the different departments, working six montiis 
in the can shop, ])erfecting the workings of the 
different departments as he went along; and in 
the spring of 1887 he became assistant manager 
of the institution. In the meantime, when he 
went into business they wished him to imme- 
diately enter the office; he refused, but it was 
fortunate that it came along at that time; for 
before his father's death business became un- 
profitable and all were discouraged. Great 
pecuniary losses hastened his father's deatn. 
Edgar, however, thought he foresaw a fortune 
in the fruit-canning business, and he concluded 
to give it another year's trial, which indeed 
proved a success. 

Mr. Carroll is a member of Concord Lodge, 


F & A. M., of the Sacramento Chapter, R. A. M. ; 
Sacramento Council, and Sacramento Comman- 
der}'; at present he is Senior Warden of Concord 
Lodge. He has been a member of Grand Lodge 
of the State, and refused the position of Master 
of that lodge on account of the pressure of busi- 
ness. He is also a member of Sunset Parlor, 
N. S. G. W., having held the different chairs in 
that boil y. In 1882 he was a private in. the 
State militia, and since then has been promoted 
through the different positions, until in 1884 
he was elected Junior Second Lieutenant of 
Company B, and afterward Senior First Lieuten- 
ant; but in 1888 his business was so pressing 
that he had to leave the service. In his political 
principles he is a Republican, and takes con- 
siderable interest in the questions of the day. 

The first street cars in this city were started 
in August, 1870. The cars, only two in num- 
ber, were built by the Kimball Manufacturing 
Company, of San Francisco. Electric motor 
(strong battery) was first applied to the running 
of street cars here in 1888, but was soon tem- 
porarily suspended. 


^. 0. Atkinsoii's Business College is a fully 
equipped institution in Hale's Block, corner of 
Ninth and K streets. It was founded in 1873, 
and has graduated many competent pupils. 

Bainlridge Business College and Nornial 
School. — If the test of worth is to be found in 
genuine success, then truly the college whose 
name stands at the head of this article is one of 
the best. Founded October 3, 1887, less than 
two years ago at date of writing, it has grown 
from a beginning of only five scholars to an 
average attendance of about 140, and whereas the 
principal. Prof. J. C. Bainbridge, with his wife, 
Mrs. Belle 0. Bainbridge, were the only teach- 
ers, now there are si.x regular teachers and 
several specialists. This is but the beginning, 
too, of still further extensions, as will be noted 
further along. The situation of the college is 
good, being located in a spacious building on 
J street, in tiic heart of the city, where the fit- 

tings and arrangements are made with special 
reference to the requirements of such an insti- 
tution. As we learn from the last catalogue, 
the courses of study are so arranged and graded 
as to forward the student at the greatest speed 
commensurate with good work, and are of the 
modern and practical nature that commend 
themselves to the business feelings of this age. 
In fact, after a careful examination of the meth- 
ods adopted by the Bainbridge Business College, 
we are led to conclude that it is one of the best 
representatives of that most popular modern in- 
stitution, the business or commercial college. 
It goes farther than most, however, in supply- 
ing to its pupils tlie branches ordinarily taught 
in a normal school, in such a simple and practi- 
cal manner as to make them most serviceable. 
From the catalogue already referred to we 
learn that the names of the faculty are as fol- 

Principal, J. C. Bainbridge, Teacher of Busi- 
ness Penmanship, Book-keeping, Commercial 
Law, Actual Business and General Superintend- 
ent of Courses of Study; G. E. Riley, Ph. D., 
Principal of Normal Department and Professor 
of Languages; M. N. Kimball, Assistant in 
Business and Normal Departments, and Teacher 
of Arithmetic and Business Penmanship; Mrs. 
Clara E. Bartholomew, Assistant in the Normal 
Department; Prof Christian Dahl (late Di- 
rector of St. Thomas Governmental College), 
Teacher of French, German, Spanish and the 
Ancient Languages; Miss Emma C. Ervin (late 
of Central College of Eclectic Short-Hand, Chi- 
cago), Teacher of Short-Hand, Type-writing 
and Correspondence; Mrs. J. C. Bainbridge, 
Teacher of Voice and Piano; Prof. Chas. Iley- 
wood, late of King's College, England, Vocal 
Music; F. O. Young, Expert Teacher of Plain 
and Ornamental Penmanship, Lettering and En- 
grossing; C. A. Neale, Teacher of Flute and 
Piccolo; Miss Louise Kaibel, Teacher of Violin, 
and Miss Mamie W. Bainbridge, Teacher of 

The Business Course includes book-keeping, 
commercial arithmetic, commercial law, busi- 



ness writing, grammar, letter writing, spell- 
ing and defining, thus conbining both theory 
and practice. Then there is a course in actual 
business, in which one is carried through all the 
details and formalities of actual business life, 
to facilitate which elegant offices are placed in 
the department, each being furnished with a 
complete and costly set of books. These include 
real estate and insurance office, transportation 
office, bank, etc. 

In the Normal Department there is a two- 
years' course in the English branches and also a 
teachers' review course, to aid teachers in the 
preparation for their examinations. The Short- 
Hand Department is very complete, the system 
adopted— namely, EcleL-tic short-hand — being 
considered the best. A Telegraphy Depart- 
ment, under a competent instructor, has been 
recently added. The Musical Department is 
one of peculiar excellence. It is under the di- 
rect management and control of Mrs. Bain- 
bridge, assisted in the culture of the voice by 
Frof. Chas. Hey wood, who is well known as one 
of the most distinguished vocalists and musi- 
cians on the continent. This department is about 
to develop, in the hands of Mrs. Bainbridge, 
into the Bainbridge Conservatory of Music, 
modeled somewhat after the type of the cele- 
brated Boston Conservatory of Music. 

To conclude, we may say that the rates of 
tuition are very reasonable, and all the arrange- 
ments are carefully made. 




Judge E. B. Crocker, who died in Sacramento, 
June, 1875, was one of the pioneers of Califor- 
nia; coming from the East in 1852, he located in 
Sacramento and entered upon tiie practice of 
the law. He became eminent in his profession, 
and was appointed to the chief justicesliip of 
the Supreme Bench, where he served with dis- 
tinction. There were born to him in Sacramento 
a large family of daughters. 

After his retiracy from the bencli he became 

attorney for the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany. On giving up active work in his profes- 
sion, he, witii his family, made a tour of Europe. 
Possessed of artistic tastes and intense love of 
the beautiful, he had not the opportunities in 
California, of course, to cultivate them b}' ob- 
servation of the best masters of the established 
schools of art. Having amassed a fortune, he 
resolved to expend a goodly portion of it in 
works of art. ?le therefore purchased, while in 
Europe, a large collection of paintings, mainly 
of the German schools. Some, however, were 
of the Italian, and some of great value because 
of their age and tiie eminence of the artists. 

On his return to California he also patronized 
local artists liberally — both landsca])e and por- 
trait painters. He then proceeded, at the corner 
of Second and O streets, adjoining his beautiful 
residence, to erect an art gallery, whicli was 
completed after several years' labor and the ex- 
penditure of a very large sum of money. Just 
what the building cost, no one knows; but the 
lowest estimates place the expenditure — by the 
Judge, and after his death by his widow — at not 
less than $200,000. The building is fire-proof, 
splendidly lighted, and finished in the best style 
of modern architecture and embellishment. It 
occupies spacious grounds, terraced and set with 
semi-tropical plants and rare shrubs and flowers. 
It is a massive building, 122 feet in length by 
sixty-two feet in width. It has three floors. 
The basement was originally intended as a rec- 
reation room and hall; the second floor for 
offices, museum and library; and the third for 
the art gallery. The second and third floors are 
finished in the highest style of architecture, and 
frescoed with an elaborateness not to be found 
anywhere else in the State. All the wood-work 
is heavy, richly carved and French polished, 
while the glass is all cut, and delicately etched 
in tine designs; and the floors are laid in Roman 
tiling. That of the museum his widow subse- 
quently laid in fancy woods in ornamental de- 
signs. The art gallery consists of a vestibule, a 
main hall, and the east, west and south halls. 
In these halls are hung the collection of virtu. 

k.i ^JiJ i 



consisting of over 700 oil pastel paintings, 
including in their number Thomas Hill's cele- 
brated landscape of Yosemite, the largest ever 
executed, and works from those of Tintoretto, 
Gnido, Vandyke, etc., down to the floral color- 
ing of Charles Nahl. In the library, on the 
second floor. Judge Crocker collected 3,000 
studies, from eminent artists in all parts of the 
world, and some of the finest examples of litho- 
graphic work and of the engraver's art. One 
great value of this gallery is its magnificent 
collection of portraits of men of California. 

By the death of Judge Crocker the property 
passed to his widow, Mrs. Margaret E. Crocker, 
who for many years held it as a sacred trust and 
a monument to his memory. It was the inten- 
tion of the Judge not to have seque.stered his 
valuable collection of paintings, which is esti- 
mated to be worth not less than $400,000, but 
to have made it a means of cultivating the art 
tastes of his fellow citizens. His widow con- 
ceived it to be her duty to promote the same 
object. It was alway.* open, therefore, at proper 
hours, to proper persons for inspection, and was 
very often thrown open to the general pulilic 
for charitable purposes. 

On December 5, 1884, a number of gentlemen 
met and formed an association of a scientific 
character, naming it " The California Museum 
Association," its purposes being to foster art, 
science, mechanics, literature, the development 
of the resources of the State and the encourage- 
ment of social intercourse among the patrons; 
also to establish a repository for the collection 
and exhibition of natural curiosities, scientific 
objects, antiquities, etc. The association was 
very modest in its beginning, having about 
twenty members and holding private meetings, 
at which papers were read for a few weeks. 

In January it had attained such courage and 
favor that it resolved to erect a hall for its own 
and public uses. To secure a fund as a nucleus, 
it proposed an art loan exhibition, and called a 
meeting of ladies to aid it to that end. Mrs. 
Margaret E. Crocker, the widow of Judge 
('rocker, learning of the association and of its 

endeavors, and being foremost in all good works 
and charities in Sacramento — known indeed as 
" Sacramento's Lady Bountiful," her money be- 
ing represented in nearly every church, charity 
and local good work of the city — sent word to 
the association that, if it pleased, the E. B. 
Crocker Art Gallery was at its disposal for the 
purpose of holding the said exhibition. The 
proffer was accepted, and in March, 1885, the 
immense building was filled with the strangest 
collection of curiosities of the pioneer era, of 
art, science, antiquity, discovery and of handi- 
work, contributed by the citizens of Sacramento 
and of San Francisco. From the latter place, 
contributions were made by the Alaska Fur 
Company, Mr. Irving M. Scott, Alexander Bad- 
lam, and many ladies of the city. The exhibi- 
tion continued for more than two weeks, and 
was, from the outset, a financial and social suc- 
cess, attracting attention from all parts of the 
State. In its midst Mrs. Crocker called the 
president of the association, David Lubin, and 
stated that it was her desire to present the gal- 
lery and all its collection of paintings, furniture, 
etc., to the association. When the announce- 
ment was made to the public, it was received 
with universal expressions of gratitude and love 
toward the donor. The association, however, 
deemed it wise to accept the property only upon 
the self-imposed condition that the citizens 
would raise a fund of $100,000 to be perma- 
nently invested for the maintenance of the gal- 
lery. While this fund was being gathered, it 
was found to be difficult to accumulate the entire 
amount in so small a community, on short notice. 
The society therefore proposed to Mrs. Crocker 
that if she would transfer the property to the 
City of Sacramento and make the association a 
co-tenant with the city, it would not be neces- 
sary to raise the $100,000. To this she kindly 
acceded. The pulse of the people was felt, and 
they were found willing to accept the trust. 
The association thereupon incorporated, March 
20, 1885, and Mrs. Crocker made a deed of the 
valuable property to the city, stipulating that it 
should be managed and controlled by a joint 


board of the city and the association — the mayor 
representing the city, and the Board of Directors 
representing the association, each corporation 
liaving hut one vote. It was provided, also, 
that the association might forever use the prop- 
erty for the purposes of its work as heretofore 

The mnniticence of this gift and its unselfish 
character, together with the previous establish- 
ment of an Old Ladies' Home and its generous 
endowment by Mrs. Crocker, and her acts of 
benevolence in the community, led the people 
as by spontaneity to proffer her a testimonial. 
It took the fortn of a grand Floral Festival, held 
in May, 1885, at which 3,000 school children 
made floral offerincrs to Mrs. Crocker, and the 
great Pavilion of the State Agricultural Society 
— the largest public building in the State of 
California — was almost filled upon its lower 
floor with magnificent floral tributes. These 
ranged from a modest bouquet to spacious 
churches and towers and enormous allegorical 
designs, constructed entirely of flowers. Some 
of these structures cost as high as $500. The 
floral offerings came from all parts of the State, 
as far south as Los Angeles, and as far north as 
Shasta. Rich and poor, all churches, fraterni- 
ties and societies, all classes of people and of all 
creeds, thronged the hall; and on the evening 
of the festival the lowest estimate placed the 
number present at 15,000 people, who witnessed 
the ceremony of delivering the keys of the gal- 
lery and of acceptance of the trust. To no other 
female citizen in American history has such a 
rich tribute ever been paid. 

On that evening, after the mayor had received 
the keys of the Art Gallery, the citizens of 
Sacramento presented to Mrs. Crocker a beauti- 
ful oaken casket, made from timber taken from 
that historical relic, Sutter's Fort. Within it 
were two volumes, one bound in velvet and 
gold, and one in silver and velvet. The first 
contained pages reciting the history of her 
benefactions, the gift of the art gallery and the 
floral festival, executed in the finest style of 
fanciful typographic art. Each page was illumi- 

nated by hand decoration in water colors by 
various artists and amateurs. The second volume 
contained a full account of all the matters lead- 
ing up to the event, with copies and extracts of 
press expression, from journals all the way from 
New York to San Francisco. 

The Museum Association immediately entered 
upon its work in the Art Gallery. Its first step 
was to organize the Sacramento School of De- 
sign, Messrs. Weinstock & Lubin contributing 
|1,000 for the purchase of the necessary casts 
and paraphernalia. The school was opened in 
January, 1886, and has ever since continued. 
It is at once the pride of the city and a means 
of cultivating art and festhetic taste, and of de- 
veloping art genius. In the three years of its 
existence it has taught over 200 pupils. Its 
sessions continue during eight months of the 
year, and it draws its pupils from Northern and 
Central California and from Oregon. Of course 
such an institution could not be expected at first 
to be put upon a paying basis. All such efforts 
grow to maturity and do not spring into ex- 
istence. The measure of success with which 
the School of Design has met has fully realized 

The Museum Association, during the Loan 
Exhibition referred to, secured in Sacramento a 
large number of life members. Subsequently 
in San Francisco it secured a still larger num- 
ber. The revenue derived from these two 
sources and from the dues of a small number of 
dues-paying members, and from admission fees 
to the gallery on those days when a fee is re- 
quired, and voluntary contributions by the gen- 
erous and public-spirited, constitute the means 
of its support; but they have been inadequate, 
simply because the jnirposes of the association 

are so varied and far-reachins:, and in its infai 


so much needed to be done. The most of its 
activity has been absorbed by the School of De- 
sign. It has, however, not neglected its other 
purposes. It has given to the people several 
lecture courses, art exhibitions and general en- 
tertainments. It has made the beginning of a 
collection in natural history, and has already a 


very valuable herbarium. Its present purpose 
is to actively push the scientitic and natural 
history branches of its work. It has received 
some very valuable gifts of minerals and natural 
curiosities from Californians and from citizens 
of other States. It has spent nearly $1,000 in 
support of its School of Design in excess of the 
income of the school, and has now advanced it 
to a paying basis. 

In connection with the Board of Trustees of 
the City of Sacramento, it applied to the Legis- 
lature of 1887 for the custody of the State's 
Mineral Cabinet, heretofore located in the State 
Capitol. The Legislature passed an act author- 
izing the Governor to appoint three trustees to 
take possession of said cabinet and locate it in 
the E. B. Crocker Art Gallery, without expense 
to the State, that it might be more readily 
viewed by the people. Governor Bartlett ap- 
pointed three directors of the Museum Associa- 
tion for that purpose. The cabinet, in 1887, 
was therefore removed to the lower floor of the 
gallery. The State Mineralogist, Mr. Irelan, 
consented to his assistant, Dr. Schneider, being 
detailed to re-classify the cabinet. When that 
was done, its trustees, through their secretary, 
Dr. George Pyburn, began its arrangement in 
the cases, and the work was completed December 
26, 1888, and thrown open to the public on 
Thursday, December 27. The State retains its 
property title in the cabinet, but its custody is 
as stated, and makes a valuable addition to the 
E. B. Crocker Art Gallery. The valuable col- 
lection of minerals and natural history exhibits 
and curiosities of an earlier association, known 
as the Agassiz Institute, has been given to the 
Museum Association, and is now in the Gallery. 

The School of Design occupies the middle 
floor of the building and the library room, and 
unquestionably its situation is the finest in the 
world devoted to such a purpose. The rooms 
are most richly embellished, and architecturally 
are a delight to the eye, while the outlook from 
the windows is upon beautiful foliage and flowers 
and grassy lawns and other pleasant views. The 
pupils also enjoy all the advantage of study and 

comparison afforded by tlie beautiful gallery 
above them. 

In September, 1888, the association was the 
happy recipient of five exquisite works in stat- 
uary purchased in Italy by Mr. David Lubin, 
and by him presented to tiie association. It 
will thus be seen that the society is gradually 
accumulating and progressing in the direction 
of its original purpose. 

The gallery is open to the public free on 
Wednesdays, Saturday afternoons and Sunday 
afternoons. On all other days an admission fee 
of ten cents is charged, but to the Mineral Cab- 
inet Department there is no admission fee. The 
city pays the cost of the necessary repairs, the 
watchman, the gardener and the custodian; but 
for the first two Mrs. Crocker, whose property 
adjoins, pays half the charge — another evidence 
of that lady's generosity. 

In October, 1888, the association conceived 
the idea — since it had never called upon the 
citizens of Sacramento to contribute to its aid, 
except in the exhibition of 1885 — of giving a 
second loan exhibition. The ladies of the city, 
prominent among whom were the wives and 
daughters of members of the association, re- 
solved to aid it. They therefore organized what 
is known as — 

The Ladies' Museum Association of Sacra- 
mento. — In two months' time the association, 
with Mrs. Mayor Gregory at its head, Mrs. 
William Ingram, Jr., Secretary, and Mrs. A. 
Bonheim as Treasurer, numbered 138 members, 
and offered to take hold of the enterprise for 
another loan exhibition, and this is now (Janu- 
ary, 1889,) under way. This auxiliary associa- 
tion is intended to be a permanent society, to 
interest the ladies in the work of the parent as- 
sociation, and also to foster social intercourse 
between the members and encourage such edu- 
cational work as comes within their scope. 

The officers of the California Museum Asso- 
ciation, at this writing (January, 1889), are: 
Hon. Christopher Green, President; J. A. 
Woodson, Vice-President; Fred E. Ray, Secre- 
tary; James I. Felter, Treasurer. Directors — 


Mrs. Margaret E. Crocker (life), Hon. Newton 
Booth, C. E. Grunskj, Dr. George Pjbiirn, 
Joseph Steffens, David Liibin, with tlie above- 
named officers. The Board of Joint Control 
consists of the above named and His Honor, 
Eugene J. Gregory, the mayor, representing the 
municipality of Sacramento. The Board of 
Trustees of the State's Mineral Cabinet referred 
to are: Mayor Gregory, Cliairman; Dr. George 
Pjburn, Secretary, and J. A. Woodson; these 
are appointed by the State. The former presi- 
dents of the association have been David 
Lubin and Hon. Newton Booth. The custodian 
of the gallery and the chief art instructor in 
the School of Design is W. F. Jackson. 


The lirst active step toward the formation of 
a State library was taken by the Legislature of 
1850, in directing that the scattered books be- 
longing to the State be collected and placed in 
the custody of the Secretary of State, who 
should also serve as State Librarian. No very 
considerable additions were made to this collec- 
tion until 1856, when 3,500 standard law books 
were purchased, at a cost of about $17,000; in 
1860 the library comprised 20,000 volumes; in 
1870, 25,000; in 1880, 50,000, and now there 
are about 70,000. 

The library consists of two departments, law 
and miscellaneous. The law library-room, 30x35 
feet and 20 leet high, is chock-full of books 
from floor to ceiling, and much more space is 
needed. Complete sets of law reports, and 
almost complete sets of the statutes of England, 
Ireland and Scotland, and nearly all the colonial 
possessions of Great Britain, and also of the 
States and Territories of our own country, cover- 
ing a period of si.x centuries, are in this collec- 
tion. Thevolumes in this department now num- 
ber about 20,000. 

The main room, for miscellaneous books, is 
circular in form, being about sixty feet in diam- 
eter and two stories high. Many magnificent 
paintings are to be seen in this department. It 
is almost completely surrounded by alcoves. 

There is here also a medical library of consider- 
able proportions. 

Although this is not a circulating library, 
books may be taken from it by the members of 
the Legislature during session, and by State 


officers at any time; and this pi 

Usually been e.\tended by the trustees also to the 

medical profession and the ch 


in th 

i city. 

The State library is supported from two 
sources: P''irst, a system of exchanges with 
other libraries; and, secondly, the fees paid to 
the Secretary of State, amounting to several 
hundred dollars per month. It is under the 
control of a board of five trustees, elected by the 
Legislature in joint convention, and holding 
their office for a term of four years, serving 
without pay. They appoint a librarian who 
serves at a salary of $3,000 per annum, and is 
ex officio secretary of the board. He in turn 
may appoint two deputies. The State Libra- 
rians have been: W. C. Stratton, R. 0. Cravens, 
twelve years, and Talbot H. "Wallis since 1882; 
and the present deputies are G. T. Clark and 
F. F. Freeman. 


As early as 1857 the Sacramento Libi-ary 
Association was organized, and under their 
auspices a good library was formed, which, not- 
withstanding losses by fire, increased in size. 
In 1872 a building on I street, between Seventh 
and Eighth, was erected and furnished at a total 
cost of about $17,500. Of this amount $11,- 
500 was raised by a gift enterprise, and $(),000 
borrowed on a mortgage. 

Notwithstanding the advantages ofl'ered by 
the association, its subsequent career was not as 
prosperous as was desirable, and in 1879 the 
directors ofl'ered the property to the city, to be 
maintained as a free library, the city assuming 
the debt. The question was submitted to the 
citizens at the March election, and was carried. 
As soon as possible the library was re-catalogued 
and arranged, and on June 15 following was 
opened as a free public library, with 6,067 vol- 
umes on its shelves. It now contains over 14,- 


000 volumes, including many valuable and costly 
works. On the tables of the reading-rooms are 
to be'lbund the leading papers of the State and of 
the Union, besides representative foreign jour- 
nals and periodicals, the whole number taken 
being over 200. 

Books may be drawn free for home use by 
any resident of the city, upon obtaining the re- 
"Huired permit. 

Since the library became the property of the 
city it has been supported by public tax, and 
been under the control of a Board of Trustees 
elected by the people. The following have 
served as Library Trustees: Judge S. C. Den- 
son, William H. Mills, William C. Fitch, Sam- 
uel Howard Gerrish, Add. C. Hinkson, Mrs. G. 
W. Hancock, MiiS Georgiana Brewster, Albert 
Dart, Kirke White Brier, Francis Le Noir, A. 
S. Hopkins and L. E. Smith. Mrs. Hancock 
and Mr. Brier died while holding the office, and 
Messrs. Mills, Dart and Le Noir resigned while 
serving. The present board is composed of 
William C. Fitch, President; Add. C. Hinkson, 
Vice-President; A. S. Hopkins, L. E. Smith 
and S. H. Gerrish, Secretaries. The last two 
mentioned have served continuously from the 
date of the establishment of the Free Library to 
the present time. The executive staff consists 
of the librarian and the assistant librarian, who 
at present are Miss Caroline G. Hancock and 
Mr. Lauren W. Ripley. 

THE ODD fellows' LIBRARY, 

in their temple at Ninth and K streets, now 
contains about 5,000 volumes. It is a circulating 
library for all members of the order in good 
standing and their families, and is open from 7 
to 9 o'clock every evening during the week, and 
from 2 to 4 p. m. every Sunday. On the ledger 
are enrolled 559 names, and an average of about 
500 books are taken out per month. The library 
is supported from the proceeds of picnics, espe- 
cially the annual picnic, and by donations from 
most of the lodges. 

The room and alcoves are conveniently ar- 
ranged, and the spare places are adorned with 

appropriate paintings and photographs of past 
ofHcers. Helen A. Benteen has been the libra- 
rian since September, 1883. 


During the month of July, 1849, the first 
movement was made toward the organization of 
a municipal governtnent for Sacramento. Of 
the movements in Territorial days looking to 
the formation of a city government, Dr. Morse, 
in his history of Sacramento — the first work of 
the kind written — gives the following account: 


" The population was rapidly increasing, and 
a desire for some more fixmiliar or Americanized 
government began to receive considerable favor. 
Accordingly, in tiie latter part of July, 1849, 
an election for town councilmen was held at the 
St. Louis Exchange, on Second street, between 
1 and J. The result was the election of John 
P. Rodgers, H. E. Robinson, P. B. Cornwall, 
William Stout, E. F. Gillespie, Thomas F. Chap- 
man, M. T. McClelland, A. M. Winn and B. 
Jennings. On the 2d day of August following, 
the first six gentlemen on the list met at the 
same place and organized by making William 
Stout, President, and J. H. Harper, Clerk. The 
first business coming before the council was the 
preparation of a constitution defining the duties 
of the council and for the general government 
of the city. On August 25, A. M. Winn was 
elected president of the body in place of Stout, 
who was absent. 

"On the 20th of September an election was 
held at the St. Louis Exchange, for the adoption 
or rejection of a city charter, which had been 
prepared by the forementioned council. Prior 
to the election of these councilmen, there was no 
law or government which was not merely nomi- 
nal in its character. The only tribunal was an 
alcalde's court, in which justice was dispensed 
with such dispatch and enormous costs that 
little attention was paid to litigation. Under 
this regime the people became eminently given 
to minding their own business and avoiding 


those legal collisions that are so geiierall)' un- 
satisfjing in their results. Consequently, when 
this movement was inade to organize a city 
goveniment, a i-pirit of o|)])(ii-ition began to 
nianiicst itself iuuong those who took a little 
leisure lo think of niatttrs that were notdirectly 
connected with ihcir hiii^intv^s^. The opjjosition 
principally emanated Ironi tiie votaries ol gam- 
ing. Hence, when the election came on, the 
result was much different from what was antici- 
pated by the officials of the city. Upon can- 
vassing the votes it was discovered that the 
charter had been defeated by a majority of 116 


■• To the president of the council, who took 
a deep and lively interest in the new dispen- 
sation of things, this defeat was both unexpected 
and mortifying. lie had exerted himself with 
a martyr's zeal to imbue the people with a proper 
conception of their wants and the prospective 
benetit of a city government, and while reposing 
upon a platform of conjectured success, he could 
not seem to understand the capricious and sin- 
gular phenomenon which this election evolved. 
In demonstration of this we invite the attention 
of our readers to the following proclamation, 
which, emanating from the president of the 
council, makes a most pathetic yet most com- 
promising appeal to the sovereign people as to 
'what they desire the council to do:' 

" Proclamation to the people of Sacramento City 
by order of the President and Council: 
" On the Ist day of August, 1849, we were 
elected councilmen of this city, and our powers 
or duties were not defined. On the 13th of 
September following we presented to you a 
charter for your consideration, which you have 
seen lit to reject by a majority of 146 votes. 
Since then we have been unable to determine 
what the good people of this city desire us to 
do, and l)eing Republicans in principle, and 
having every confidence in the ability of the 
people to govern tiiemselves, we again recpiest 
the residents of Saer:unontoCity tonieet at theSt. 
Louis I<Aili:inL;r, at 7:i30 o'ckick, on Wednesday 
evening, lU, 1S41I, then and there to 
declare what they wish the council to do. If 
you wish us to act under the Mexican laws now 

in force, however inapplicable they may be to 
our condition, then we must do the best we can; 
if you have objection to particular features of 
the charter, then strike out the objectionable 
features, and insert such as you desire. The 
health and safety of our city demand immediate 
action on your part, for in our primitive con- 
dition, iUid in the absence ot legislative authority, 
we can in fact be of no service to ymi without 
your confidence and consent. 

"Signed by A. M. Winn, President, and six 

This proclamation stirred up tiie peojile, and 
an organization in favor of a charter was ellccted. 
At a subsequent election the charter party won 
by 296 majority. The charter adopted was 
slightly different from the one originally sub- 
mitted, but still it was not altogether satisfac- 
tory. In December a public meeting was held 
at the horse-market, and a committee appointed 
to draft amendments. The amended charter 
was afterward adopted by the people, and, with 
slight changes, was jiassed into a law by the 
first Legislature. 

Till': e^HAIiTKK liV THI' 


On February 27, 1850, the first Legislature 
passed an act to incorporate Sacramento City, 
the boundaries of which were defined as follows: 

All that tract of land lying within the follow- 
ing boundaries: J5eginning at the junction of 
the American Fork with the Sacramento River; 
thence down said Sacrameitto River to Y street, 
as designated on the map or plan of Sacramento 
City on file in the Recorder's office in said city; 
t^ience along said Y street east to the point 
where said Y street intersects Thirty-first street 
as designated on said map; thence along the said 
Thirty-first street until the same intersects the 
American Fork; thence along the American 
Fork to the place of beginning, the eaid bound- 
aries extending to the middle of Sacruinentt) 
River imd American Fork. 

The act provided that for the government of 
the city there sliould be a mayor, a recorder and 
a council of nine members, one of whom should 
be elected president. It further provided that 



on the 30th day after the passage of the act a 
city election should be held for the selection of 
the first othcers, to wit: A mayor, recorder, nine 
coiuicilinen, city marshal, city attorney, assessor 
and treasurer. After the first election the offi- 
cers mentioned were to be elected on the first 
Monday in May in each year, and in case of a 
vacancy a special election should be ordered by 
the council to fill the same. The mayor was 
clothed with cciir)plete executive power; the re- 
corder performed the duties now incumbent on 
the police judge, and the marshal those now 
performed by the chief of police and city col- 
lector. The common council was given power 
to create the ofiices of city collector, harbor- 
master, and such other offices as might become 

On March 13, 1850, the same Legislature 
passed an amendatory act providing that, on the 
first Monday of April following, a city election 
should be held to fill the offices created by the 
charter, making it fall on the same day with the 
first county election. The officers then chosen 
were to hold until the first Monday of May, 
1851. This amendment did not affect any ex- 

cept the first election. 

On April 10, 1850, an 
act was passed providing for the appointment 
by the Governor of a port warden lor the port 
of Sacramento. 


The second Legislature passed a new charter 
for Sacramento City, and it became a law on 
March 26, 1851, by operation of the time, and 
without the approval of the Executive. 

Governor McDougal said of it: " The within 
bill is regarded as oppressive and extraordinary 
in many of its features, but not regarding it as 
infringing any particular principle of the con- 
stitution, and as it is the act of the representa- 
tives of Sacramento County, and presuming it 
to be the wish of the people of Sacramento City, 
I-permit it to become a law, by the operation of 
time, without approving or returning it to the 
body in which it originated." 

This act provided that the then existing gov- 

ernment should continue in office until the elec- 
tion of the officers provided for in the new 
charter. The council was to divide the city 
into three wards, from each of which three 
councilmen vi&tq to be elected. It provided, in 
addition to officers then existing, for the election 
by the people of a harbormaster. Vacancies 
were to be filled by special election, unless one 
should occur within sixty days of a regular an- 
nual election, when it was to 1)6 filled by the 
council. The first election under the act was 
to take place on the first Monday of May follow- 
ing, for officers to hold until the first Monday 
of April, 1852. All subsequent city elections 
were to be held on the first Monday of April in 
each year. The matter of salaries was leff with 
the council, Init they were not permitted to fix 
the salary of any officer over §3,000, except the 
mayor or recorder, where the limit was placed 
at 85,000. 

April 26, 1853, a law was passed providing 
for the levy of a special tax of one-fourth of one 
per cent., for the support of the free common 
schools, to be expended under the direction of a 
Board of Trustees, consisting of one from eacli 
ward, to be annually appointed by the council. 
On March 31, 1855, a law was passed striking 
the harbormaster from the list of elective offi- 
cers. The salaries were fixed as follows: Mayor, 
$2,000; recorder, $4,000; marshal, $3,000; dep- 
uty city marshal, $1,500; city attorney, $2,000; 
treasurer, $1,500; superintendent of tbe water- 
works, $2,000; assessor, $1,500; recorder's clerk, 
$1,500; each policeman, $125 per month. In 
case of death, sickness or absence of the re- 
corder, the mayor was to attend to the duties 
of that office also. It was provided that at 
the next subsequent election there should be 
chosen a superintendent of common schools, 
and two school commissioners from each ward, 
who, with the superintendent, should constitute 
the School Board. 

April 2, 1856, an act was passed to regulate 
the fire department. It provided for the elec- 
tion of officers and the regulation of the depart- 
ment generally. 



On April 24, 1858, a law was enacted to con- 
solidate the government of the city and county. 
The Hoard of Supervisors was given the power 
wiiich iiad been vested in the council. On the 
first Monday of May following live supervisors 
were to be elected, to hold office until October 
5, 1858. Tiiere was also, at the same time, to 
be elected a president of the board, to continue 
in office until the general election in 1859, the 
term of office to be thereafter two years. After 
the first Monday of October, 1858, the board 
was to consist of a president and eight members, 
and the members were to be elected at the gen- 
eral election in that year — four to hold office 
for two years and four for one year. After the 
first election the term was to be for two years. 
At the general election in 1859, and every two 
years thereafter, there were to be elected the 
(itiier officers, who were to perform duty both 
for the county and city. The president of the 
board was to be ex qficlo mayor of the city, and 
superintendent of the streets and water-works. 
The then county officers were required to per- 
form such city duties as might be imposed upon 
them by the board, and the board was empow- 
ered to create and fill by apj)ointment the minor 
city offices. Some changes were also made in the 
government of the fire and school departments. 


On April 25, 1863, the Consolidation Act was 
repealed, and a new city charter passed. It 
provided that the government should be vested 
in a board of three trustees. The first trustee 
was to be ex officio mayor; the second, street 
commissioner, and the third, superintendent of 
the water-works. There should also be an au- 
ditor, assessor, collector, police judge, and such 
other officers as might beappointed by the board. 
The term of office of the trustees was made 
three years,' and that of the other officers two 
years. It was provided that on the tenth day 
after the passage of the acta city election should 
be held, at which the offices above designated 

should be tilled; and that annually thereafter, 
on the second Tuesday in March, city elections 
should be held. At the election in 18G4 there 
should be elected a third trustee, in 18G5 a 
second trustee, assessor, collector, auditor and 
judge, and in 18G6 a first trustc, to hold for 
the term indicated. A vacancy in the board 
was to be filled by a special election, and a va- 
cancy in any other office was to bj filled i)y ap- 
pointment by the board. Provision was also 
made for the fire and school departments. 

With the exception of a slight change in the 
boundaries of the city, and as to the time of 
election of officers other than members of the 
board, no change has since been made in the 
city charter. In 1872 a bill was jjussed creat- 
ing a paid fire department; another to provide 
a new system of water- works, and a third to re- 
organize the police force. 


The first city election under the new State 
Government was held April 1, 1850. In the 
issue of the Placer Times of March 16, A. M. 
Winn announced himself as a candidate for 
mayor, but on the 30th he published his with- 
drawal. One Joseph Grant was a candidate for 
mayor on the "Rancho" ticket, the advertise- 
ment of which in the newspapers ran as follows: 

Rancheros, to the Rescue! The enemy is in 
the field. Our bills have been mutilated and, 
in some instances, destroyed; but let not your 
" angry passions rise " in consequence of the 
indignity. Imitate, as far as in your power 
lies, the e.Kample of your leader. Keep cool, 
work hard and vote early. Remember that 
abuses and curses, like young chickens, " come 
home to roost." When once the votes are in 
the ballot-bo.x, no appeal can be taken. 



Through by Daylight! 
[Then followed the city ticket.] 


'• All's Well that Ends Well." 
[Here followed the county ticket, on whicii 
Judge W. C. Wallace was elected District Attor- 
ney, and the late Presley Dunlap, County Clerk.] 


In speaking of the first city and county elec- 
tion, the Placer Times of April 6, 1850, said: 

>' Last Monday was a great day for Sacramento, 
so far as excitement and fun were concerned. 
Notwithstanding the conflicting interests and 
the multiplicity of candidates, there was little 
else manifested but good humor, and a disposi- 
tion to have a good time, whatever the result. 
Mr. Biglow was elected mayor by a handsome 
majority, considering the many organizations 
with which he had to contend. Without wish- 
ing to say anything detrimental to others, we 
must be allowed to express the opinion that Mr. 
B. will make an excellent officer. His interests 
are identified witli those of Sacramento, and to 
promote her advancement toward that impor- 
tance and greatness which she is destined to 
reach will be his constant aim. We should not 
speak so confidently did not our personal knowl- 
edge of the new mayor warrant us in so doing. 
The other city and county officers, we believe, 
are all good men, and we doubt not will attend 
to the duties of their respective offices with 
promptness and fidelity." 

The number of votes cast tor mayor was 2,576, 
of which Hardin Biglow had 1,521, Joseph 
Grant 432, Thomas J. Henley 511, P. K. Haight 
112, and forty-six scattering. On the 3d Grant 
filed a protest against the officers qualifying, 
upon the ground that fraud and irregularity had 
entered into the election, but it does not appear 
that any action was taken on his protest. Big- 
low immediately assumed office, and sent in an 
able message to the council. In the Squatter 
Riots of that year he was severely wounded, and 
before recovering was seized with cholera, and 
died at San Francisco, Kovember 27, 1850, at 
the age of forty-one. He was a native of Michi- 
gan, and was a man of exceeding courage and 
fine executive ability. After his death, the 
president of the council temporarily acted as 


A special election was held December 14 
1850, to choose a mayor. In the early part of 
the day of election there was no excitement, but 

as the day advanced, although the rain fell in 
torrents, the excitement became intense. Bands 
of music paraded the streets, and every effort 
was used by both parties to seciire the success 
of their candidate. Horace Smith (Whig) was 
elected by a vote of 933, to 805 for J. K. Ilar- 
denbergh (Democrat), 183 for James McCiatchy, 
25 for Wesley Merritt and 19 for Joseph Grant, 
independent candidates. 

On May 5, 1851, J. li. Hardenbergh (Demo- 
crat) was elected mayor by a vote of 1,264, to 
1,224 tor Joseph H. Xevett (Whig). On the 
day of election an extensive fire broke out 
in San Francisco, which destroyed §7,000,000 
worth of property. The excitement consequent 
on the reception of this intelligence somewhat 
dampened the ardor of the voters. 

On April 5, 1852, C. I. Hutchinson (Whig) 
defeated Hardenbergh (D.) by a vote of 1,450, 
to 1,234. This election was particularly excit- 
ing. Mass meetings were held at dift'erent points 
in the city, and there was no end to the mud- 

Hardenbergh was again successful, however, 
at the election on April 4, 1853, defeating his 
Whig opponent, W. H. McGrew, by a vote of 
2,046 to 1.382. On March 28 the Whig Con- 
vention had nominated Dr. Volney Spaulding 
for the office, but he declined, and on the 30th 
the nomination was given to McGrew. 

On April 3, 1854, R. P. Johnson (Whig) was 
elected by a vote of 1,798 over Colonel John P.. 
Hall (Dem.), who received 1,693. 

James L. English (American) was elected 
mayor on April 2, 1855, by a vote of 1,523, to 
504 for Hiram Arentz (Anti-American) and 78 
I for R. P. Johnson (Whig). The latter, a few 
days before the election, published a card of 

On April 7, 1856, B. B. Redding (Democrat) 
was chosen mayor by a vote of 1,743, to 1,654 
for L. B. Harris (American). 

J. P. Dyer (Democrat) was elected to the of- 
fice April 6, 1857, by a vote of 1,955, to 788 
for Dr. R. B. Ellis (People's Independent) and 
501 for George liowland (Republican). Dyer 


lield the office nntil tLe succession by the presi- 
dent of the Board of Supervisors, under tlie 
Consolidation Act. 

On May 3, 1858, Dr. H. L. Nichols (People's 
Independent) was elected president of the Board 
of Supervisors, by a vote of 3,584, to 1,877 for 
J. L. Craig (Democrat). 

William Shattuck (Lecompton Democrat) was 
elected president, September 7, 1859, by a vote 
of 3,233, to 2,802 for B. B. Redding (A. L- 
Democrat), and 5 for George Rowland (Repub- 

On September4, 1861, Shattuckwas re-elected 
on the Douglas Democratic and Settlers' tickets) 
by a vote of 3,633, to 3,258 for C. H. Grimm 
(Republican), 14 for E. P. Figg (Breckenridge 

Since the adoption of the present city charter, 
mayors have been elected as follows: 

May 5, 1863, Charles H. Swift (Union) by a 
vole of 1,640, over William Shattuck (Democrat), 
who received 742. 

March 13, 1866, Charles H. Swift (Union) by 
a vote of 1,321, to 915 for William F. Knox 

March 9, 1869, Charles II. Swift (Republi- 
can), by a vote of 1,232, to 749 for Archibald 
Heidey (Independent), and 71 for P. H. Russell 
(Democrat). The latter withdrew on the morn- 
ing of election in favor of Henley. 

March 12, 1872, Christopher Green (Repub- 
lican), by a vote of 1,629, to 1,245 for John Q. 
Brown (Democrat). 

March 9, 1875, Christopher Green (Republi- 
can), by a vote of 1,815, to 1,271 for John Q. 
Brown (Democrat and Independent). 

March 12, 1878, Jabez E. Turner (Working 
man), by a vote of 1,203, to 1,063 for James I. 
Felter (Republican), 1,056 for Hugh M. LaRue 
(Democrat), and 726 for Ezra Pearson (Work- 

March 8, 1881, John Q. Brown (Democrat), 
by a vote of 1,925, to 1,704 for Christopher 
Green (Republican). 

March 11, 1884, John Q. Brown (Democrat), 
by a vote of 1,912, to 1,871 for Joseph Steffens 

(Republican), and 344 for Dr. A. B. Nixon 

March 8, 1887, Eugene J. Gregory (Republi- 
can), by a vote of 3,202, to 1,283 for John Q. 
Brown (Democrat), and 39 for F. II. L. Weber 

The total number of votes cast in the city at 
elections where mayors have been chosen is as 
follows: 1850,2,576; 1850 (December special), 
2,032; 1851,2,488; 1852,2,684; 1853,3,428; 
1854, 3,549; 1855, 2,095; 1856, 3,397; 1857, 
3,242; 1858, 3,344; 1859, 3,702; 1861, 4,150; 
1863, 2,426; 1866, 2.240; 1869, 2,439; 1872, 
2,960; 1875, 3,138; 1878, 4,060; 1881, 3,695; 
1884, 4,147; 1887, 4,527. 


Most of the men who have tilled the office of 
chief magistrate of the city are dead. General 
Winn was prominently identified with the Odd 
Fellows, and afterward founded the Order of 
Native Sons of the Golden West. He died in 
Sonoma County, August 26, 1883. Biglow died 
of cholera, as stated above. Smith died at Vir- 
ginia City, Nevada, December 4, 1863. Hard- 
enbergh afterward removed to San Francisco, 
and filled several Federal offices. He died at 
East Oakland, May 30, 1885. Hutchinson was 
for many years a member of the insurance firm 
of Hutchinson & Mann, of San Francisco, and 
died there September 22, 1884. Johnson died 
at the Bay, May 1, 1886. Redding was after- 
ward Secretary of State, and for many years 
land agent of the railroad company. He died 
at San Francisco, August 21, 1882. Shattuck 
died at Newcastle, October 10, 1885. Swift 
was for years president of the Sacramento Bank, 
and died at San Francisco, July 15, 1885. With 
the exception of Dyer all of the balance are now 
residents of Sacramento. 


Following is a list of the officers of the city 
of Sacramento, from 1849 to 1881, inclusive: 

1849.— A. M. Winn, Mayor; the Alcalde, Re- 
corder; N. C. Cunningham, Marshal; William 


GlaBkin, City Clerk and Auditor; J. A. Tutt, 
Assessor; S. C. Hastings, Treasurer; B. Brown, 
Collector; Murray Morrison, City Attorney; 
R. J. Watson, Harbormaster. 

1850. — *Hardin Biglow, Mayor; -j-Horace 
Smith, Mayor; B. F. Washington, Recorder; 
N. C. Cunningham, Marshal; J. B. Mitchell, 
City Clerk and Auditor; J. W. Woodland, As- 
sessor; Barton Lee, Treasurer; E. B. Pratt, 
Collector; J. Neely Johnson, City Attorney; 
George W. Hammersley, Harbormaster. 

1851. — James R. Hardenbergh, Mayor; W. 
H. McGrew, Recorder; VV. S. White, Marshal; 
L. Curtis, Clerk and Auditor; Samuel McKee, 
Assessor; W. R. McCracken, Treasurer; W. S. 
White, Collector; J. Neely Johnson, City Attoi-- 
uey; John Requa, Harbormaster. 

1852.— C. I. Hutchinson, Mayor; W. H. Mc- 
Grew, Recorder; David McDowell, Marshal; 
Washington Meeks, City Clerk and Auditor; 
William Lewis, Assessor; R. Chenery, Treas- 
urer; D. McDowell, Collector; John G. Hyer, 
City Attorney; John Requa, Harbormaster; 
AV. A. Selkirk, Superintendent of Schools. 

1853. — J. R. Hardenbergh, Mayor; N.Greene 
Curtis, Recorder; W.S.White, Marshal; John 
A. Fowler, City Clerk and Auditor; Samuel T. 
Clymer, Assessor; C. J. Torbert, Treasurer; 
W. S. White, Collector; L. Landus, Jr., City 
Attorney; Gordon Backus, Harbormaster; LL 
J. Bidleman, Superintendent of Schools. 

1854. — R. P. Johnson, Mayor; N. Greene 
Curtis, Recorder; W. S. White, Marshal; T. A. 
Thomas, City Clerk and Auditor; E. C. Win- 
chfell, Assessdr; W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; 
N. A. H. Ball, Collector; W. Cyrus Wallace, 
City Attorney; Frank Harney, Harbormaster; 
H. W. Harkness, Superintendent of Schools. 

1855. — James L. English, Mayor; N. Greene 
Curtis, Recorder; James W. Haines, Marshal; 
W. E. Chamberlain, City Clerk and Auditor; 
Prescott Robinson, Assessor; John C. Barr, 
Treasurer; J. T. Knox, Collector; Horace Smith, 
City Attorney; James W. Haines, Harbormas- 

» Wounded in the Squatter Riots, and died of cholera before he re- 
covered from his injuries. 
t Elected to fill vacancy. 

ter; Frank Tukey (resigned), Superintendent of 
Schools; F. W. Hatch (to fill vacancy), Super- 
intendent of Schools. 

1856.— B. B. Redding, Mayor; W.W.Price, 
Recorder; Thomas McAl pin. Marshal; John F. 
Madden, City Clerk and Auditor; W. C. Felch, 
Assessor; W. M. Brainard, Treasurei ; JohnH. 
Houseman, Collector; Henry Starr, City Attor- 
ney; George C. Haswell, Harbormaster; F. W. 
Hatch, Superintendent of Schools. 

1857. — J. P. Dyer, Mayor; Presley Dunlap, 
Recorder; James Lansing, Marshal; John F. 
Madden, City Clerk and Auditor; Alex. Mont- 
gomery, Assessor; James H. Sullivan, Treas- 
urer; John H. Houseman, Collector; George R. 
Moore, City Attorney; George C. Haswell, Har- 
bormaster; J. G. Lawton, Superintendent of 

1858.— H. L. Nichols, President of the Board ; 
*Justice of the Peace, Police Judge ; J. P. Hardy, 
Marshal; J. B. Dayton, City Clerk and Auditor; 
E. B. Ryan, Assessor; Morg. Miller, Treasurer; 
W. S. Manlove, Collector; R. F. Morrison, City 
Attorney; Dan. H. Whepley, Harbormaster; G. 
L. Simmons, Superintendent of Schools. 

1859.— W. Shattuck, President of the Board; 
Justice of the Peace, Police Judge; J. J. Wat- 
son, Marshal; J. B. Dayton, City Clerk and 
Auditor; E. B. Ryan, Assessor; Morg. Miller, 
Treasurer; W. S. Manlove, Collector; R. F. 
Morrison, City Attorney; Dan. H. Whepley, 
Harbormaster; G. L. Simmons, Superintendent 
of Schools. 

I860.— W. Shattuck, President of the Board; 
Justice of the Peace, Police Judge; J. J. Wat- 
son, Marslial; Thomas Letson, City Clerk and 
Auditor; E. B. Ryan, Assessor; C. L. Bird, 
Treasurer; Sylvester Marshall, Collector; Cor- 
nelius Cole, City Attorney; Dan. H. Whepley, 
Harbormaster; F. W. Hatch, Superintendent of 

1861.— W. Shattuck, President of the Board; 
Justice of the Peace, Police Judge; J. J. Wat- 
son, Marshal; Thomas Letson, City Clerk and 

^"M^rom 1H58 to 186S the city and county wae coneolidnted, and man- 
agcd by ii Board of Supervisors, one of which was president of the 
board. During this period the three city justices of the peace were, 
iu rotation of a week each, police judge. 


Auditor; E. B. Ryan, Assessor; V. L. Bird, 
Treasurer; Sylvester Marshall, CdlKrtor; Cor- 
nelius Cole, City Attorney; (). W. Whitney, 
Harbormaster; U. Taylor, Superintendent of 

1862.— W. Shattnck, President of the Board; 
Thomas W. Gilmer, Police Judge; J. J. Wat- 
son, Marshal; Josiah Howell, City Clerk and 
Auditor; E. 13. liyan, Assessor; C. L. Bird, 
Treasurer; *James McDonald, Treasurer; B. 
N. Pugbey, Collector; *Samuel Smith, Collector; 
"W. W. Upton, City Attorney; G. W. Whitney, 
Harbormaster; (i. Taylor, Superintendent of 

1863.— C. II. Swift, First Trustee and Mayor; 
n. T. Holmes, Second Trustee; Josiah Johnson, 
Third Trustee; S. S. Holl, Police Judge; f J. T. 
Clark, Chief of Police; Benjamin Peart, City 
Auditor and Clerk; James E. Smith, Assessor; 
W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; James E.Smith, 
Collector; E. H. Heacock, City Attorney; N. A. 
Kidder, Harbormaster; G.Taylor, Superintend- 
ent of Schools. 

186-1:.— C. II. Swift, First Trustee and Mayor; 
H. T. Holmes, Second Trustee; Josiah Johnson, 
Third Trustee; S. S. Holl, Police Judge; F. T. 
Burke. Chief of Police; Benjamin Peart, City 
Auditor and Clerk; James E. Smith, Assessor; 
W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; James E. Smith, 
Collector; E. H. Heacock, City Attorney; N. 
A. Kidder, Harbormaster; W. II. Hill, Super- 
intendent of Schools. 

1865.— C. H. Swift, First Trustee and iMayor; 
S. D. Smith, Second Trustee; Josiah Johnson, 
Third Trustee; S. S. Holl, Police Judge; V. T. 
Burke, Chief of Police; C. C. Jenks, City Au- 
ditor and Clerk; John C. Halley, Assessor; Har- 
vey Caswell, Treasurer; D. A. De Merrit, Col- 
lector; E. H. Heacock, City Attorney; S. C. 
Hall, Harbormaster; W. H. Hill, Superintend- 
ent of Schools. 

NoTi- Till- ritr ;rin-ernmont was chanped on tho SOth of .\pril, 
l^i'f >' • ■ " 1 ir,i MU't and held their flret seesion on the let of 
M > vrr since being Rovornod by three trnetoes— the 

In-' in.sidentof the ooard and mayor; tho si-cond 

trii~i: . , -1. .1 . ,.]Minisyiouer; and tho tliird trustee, Huperiutendenl 

1866.— C. H. Swift, First Trustee and Mayor; 
S. D. Smith, Second Trustee; Josiah Johnson, 
Tliird Trustee; L. li. Foote, Police Judge; F. 
T. Burke, Chief of Police; C. C. Jenks, City 
Auditor and Clerk; John C. Halley, Assessor; 
Harvey Caswell, Treasurer; D. A. De Merrit, 
Collector; E. II. Heacock, City Attorney; N. 
A. Kidder, Harbormaster; W. H. Hill, Super- 
intendent of Schools. 

1867.— C.H.Swift, First Trustee and Mayor; 
S. D. Smith, Second Trustee; David Kendall, 
Thii-d Trustee; L. II. Foote, Police Judge; F. 
T. P.urke, Chief of Police; John McClintock, 
City Auditor and Clerk; E. R. Hamilton, As- 
sessor; W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; D. A. 
De Merrit, Collector; M. C. Tilden, City At- 
torney; N. A. Kidder, Harbormaster; W. II. 
Hill, Superintendent of Schools. 

1868.— C. II. Swift, First Trustee and Mayoi , 
John Rider, Second Trustee; David Kendall, 
Third Trustee; L. U. F'oote, Police Judge; B. 
W. Martz, Chief of Police; John McClintock, 
City Auditor and Clerk; E. R. Hamilton, As- 
sessor; W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; I). A. 
De Merrit, Collector; M. C. Tilden, City At- 
torney; William Young, Harbormaster; W. H. 
Hill, Superintendent of Schools. 

1869.— C. II. Swift, First Trustee and Mayor; 
John Rider, Second Trustee; *David Kendall, 
Third Trustee; L. II. Foote, Police Judge; B. 
AV^. Martz, Chief of Police; John McClintock, 
City Auditor and Clerk; W. T. Crowell, As- 
sessor; W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; A.Leon- 
ard, Collector; S. S. IIoll, City Attorney; 
William Young, Harbormaster; W. II. Hill, 
Superintendent of Schools. 

1870.— C. II. Swift, First Trustee and Mayor; 
John Rider, Second Trustee; James McCleery, 
Third Trustee; A. Henley, Police Judge; George 
Smith, Chief of Police; John McClintock, City 
Auditor and Clerk; W. T. Crowell, Assessor; 
W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; A. Leonard, 
Collector; J. K. Alexander, City Attorney; 
AVilliam Young, Harbormaster; W. II. Hill, 
Superintendent of Schools. 

•Died before the expiriition of his term. 


1871.— C. H. Swift, First Trustee and Mayor; 
John Rider, Second Trustee; James McCleery, 
Third Trustee; A. Henlej, Police Judge; George 
Smith, Chief of Police; John McClintock, City 
'Auditor and Clerk; S. S. Greenwood, Assessor; 
W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; H. Montfort, 
Collector; Charles T. Jones, City Attorney; 
William Youn^, Harbormaster; W. H. Bill, 
Superintendent of Schools. 

1872. — Christopher Grten, First Trustee and 
Mayor; John Rider, Second Trustee; James 
McCleery, Third Trustee; T.W.Gilmer, Police 
Judge; Matt Karcher, Chief of Police; E. M. 
Stevens, Captain of Police; John McClintock, 
City Auditor and Clerk; S. S. Greenwood, As- 
sessor; W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; H. Mont- 
fort, Collector; M. C. Tilden, City Attorney; 
William Young, Harbormaster; S. C. Denson, 
Superintendent of Schools. 

1873. — Christopher Green, First Trustee and 
Mayor; John Rider, Second Trustee; Horace 
Adams, Third Trustee; T. W. Gilmer, Police 
Judge; Matt Karcher, Chief of Police; E. M. 
Stevens, Captain of Police; John McClintock, 
City Auditor and Clerk; Fred. A. Shepherd, 
Assessor; W. T. Crowell, Collector; Samuel 
Poorman, Treasui'er; M. C. Tilden, City At- 
torney; William Young, Harbormaster; S. C. 
Denson, Superintendent of Schools. 

1874. — Ciiristopher Green, First Trustee and 
Mayor; W. F. Knox, Second Trustee; Horace 
Adams, Third Trustee; W. R. Cantwell, Police 
Judge; Matt Karcher, Chief of Police; E. M. 
Stevens, Captain of Police; John McClintock, 
City Auditor and Clerk; Fred. A. Shepherd, 
Assessor; W. T. Crowell, Collector; Samuel 
Poorman, Treasurer; W. R. Hinkson, City At- 
torney; William Young, Harbormaster and 
Health Officer; Add. C. Hinkson, Superintend- 
ent of Schools. 

1875. — Christopher Green, First Trustee and 
Mayor; W. F. Kno.x, Second Trustee; James 
McCleery, Third Trustee; M. S. Horan, Police 
Judge; E. M. Stevens, Chief of Police; P. L. 
Hickman, City Auditor and Clerk; Fred. A. 
Shepherd, Assessor; AV. T. Crowell, Collector; 

Samuel Poorman, Treasurer; W. A. Anderson, 
City Attorney; William Young, Harbormaster 
and Health Officer; A. C. Hinkson, Superin- 
tendent of Schools. 

1876. — Christopher Green, First Trustee and 
Mayor; W. F. Knox, Second Trustee; James 
McCleery, Third Trustee: M. S. Hdnm, Police 
Judge; E. M. Stevens, Chief uf Police; P. L. 
Hickman, City Auditor and Clerk; Fred. A. 
Shepherd, Assessor; W. T. Crowell, Collector; 
J. N. Porter, Treasurer; W. A. Anderson, City 
Attorney; A. Brewer, Harbormaster; A. C. 
Hinkson, Superintendent of Schools. 

1877. — Christopher Green, First Trustee and 
Mayor; W. F. Knox, Second Trustee; James 
McCleery, Third Trustee; Thomas Conger, Po- 
lice Judge; E. M. Stevens, Chief of Police; E. 
H. McKee, City Auditor and Clerk; Fred. A. 
Shepherd, Assessor; G. A. Putnam, Collector; 
J. N. Porter, Treasurer; W. A. Anderson, City 
Attorney; N. A. Kidder, Harbormaster; W. H. 
Baldwin, Health Officer; A. C. Hinkson, Super- 
intendent of Schools. 

1878.— Jabez Turner, First Trustee and 
Mayor; AV. F. Knox, Second Trustee; James 
McCleery, Third Trustee; Thomas Conger, Po- 
lice Judge; E. M. Stevens, Chfef of Police; E. 
H. McKee, City Auditor and Clerk; Fred. A. 
Shepherd, Assessor; G. A. Putnam, Collector; 
J. N. Porter, Treasurer; H. L. Buckley, City 
Attorney; N. A. Kidder, Harbormaster; A. C. 
Hinkson, Superintendent of Schools. 

1879.— Jabez Turner, First Trustee; W. F. 
Knox, Second Trustee; Josiah Johnson, Third 
Trustee; W. A. Henry, Police Judge; E. M. 
Stevens, Chief of Police; E. H. McKee, City 
Auditor and Clerk; Fred. A. Shepherd, Assessor; 
George A. Putnam, Collector: J. N. Porter, 
Treasurer; H. L. Buckley, City Attorney; N. 
A. Kidder, Harbormaster; William Young, 
Health OtHcer; F. L. Laiides, Superintendent 
of Schools. 

1880.— Jabez Turner, First Trustee and 
Mayor; Jerome C. Davis, Second Trustee; 
Josiah Johnson, Third Trustee; AV. A. Henry, 
Police Judge; Matt Kaicher, Chief of Police; 


E. H. McKee, City Auditor and Clerk; Fred. 
A. Siiepherd, Assessor; George A. Putnam, Col- 
lector; W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; W. A. 
Anderson, City Attorney; N. A. Kidder, Har- 
bormaster; F. T. Phillips, Health Officer; F. L. 
Landes, Superintendent of Schools. 

1881. — John Q. Brown, First Trustee and 
Mayor; *Jerome C. Davis, Second Trustee; Jo- 
siah Johnson, Third Trustee; W. A. Henry, Po- 
lice Judge; Matt Karcher, Chief of Police; E. 
H. McKee, City Auditor and Clerk; Fred. A. 
Shepherd, Assessor; George A. Putnam, Col- 
lector; W. E. Chamberlain, Treasurer; "W. A. 
Anderson, City Attorney; N. A. Kidder, Har- 
bormaster; George R. Martin, Health Officer; 

F. L. Landes, Superintendent of Schools. 
1882.— John Q. Brown, First Trustee and 

Mayor; John Ryan, Second Trustee; William 
Gutenberger, Third Trustee; W. A. Henry, Po- 
lice Judge; E. H. McKee, City Auditor and 
Clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, Assessor; George A. 
Putnam, Collector; W. A. Anderson, Attorney; 
J. R. Laine, Superintendent of Schools. 

1883. — John Q. Brown, First Trustee and 
Mayor; John Ryan, Second Trustee; William 
Gutenberger, Third Trustee; W. A. Henry, Po- 
lice Judge; E. H. McKee, City Auditor and 
Clerk; Fred A. Shepherd, Assessor; George A. 
Putnam, Collector; Matthew Karcher, Chief of 
Police; W. A. Anderson, Attorney; J. R. Laine, 
Superintendent of Schools. 

1884. — Same except that H. B. JSIeilson was 
Second Trustee and J. J. Buckley was Assessor. 

1885. — John Q. Brown, First Trustee and 
Mayor; Win. Gutenberger, Third Trustee; E. 
H. McKee, City Auditor and Clerk; J. J. Buck- 
ley, Assessor; George A. Putnam, Collector; W. 
A. Henry, Police Judge; O. C. Jackson, Chief 
of Police; W. A. Anderson, City Attorney; J. 
R. Laine, Superintendent of Schools. 

1886. — John Q. Brown, First Trustee and 
Mayor; H. B. Neilson, Second Trustee; W. R. 
Jones, Third Trustee; E. H. McKee, City Au- 
ditor and Clerk; J. J. Buckley, Assessor; Goo. 
A. Putnam, Collector; W. A. Henry, Police 

• Died October 5. H31, before expiratiou of term. 

Judge; O. C. Jackson, Chief of Police; E. C. 
Hart, City Attorney; M. R. Beard, Superin- 
tendent of Schools. 

1887. — Eugene J. Gregory, First Trustee and 
Mayor; John Ryan, Second Trustee; W. R. 
Jones, Third Trustee; E. H. McKee, Auditor 
and Clerk; J. J. Buckley, Assessor; George A. 
Putnam, Collector; Henry S. Buckley, Police 
Judge; H. F. Dillman, Chief of Police; E. C. 
Hart, Attorney; M. R. Beard, Superintendent 
of Schools. 

1888. — Eugene J. Gregory, First Trustee and 
Mayor; John Ryan, Second Trustee; H. C. Wolf, 
Third Trustee; E. H. McKee, City Auditor and 
Clerk; J. J. Buckley, Assessor; George A. Put- 
nam, Collector; Henry S. Buckley, Police Judge; 
Timothy Lee, Chief of Police; W. S. Church, 
City Attorney; M. R. Beard, Superintendent of 

1889. — Eugene J. Gregory, First Trustee and 
Mayor; William McLaughlin, Second Trustee; 
H. C. Wolf, Third Trustee; E. H. McKee, Au- 
ditor and Clerk; J. J. Buckley, Assessor; Geo. 
A. Putnam, Collector; Henry S. Buckley, Po- 
lice Judge; Timothy Lee, Chief of Police; M. 
R. Beard, Superintendent of Schools. 


The first fire of any considerable e.xtent oc- 
curring in the city of Sacramento was on the 
morning of April 4, 1850, on Front street, be- 
tween J and K streets, when eight or ten build 
ings were destroyed, with their contents, within 
the short space of thirty minutes. The loss was 
about $100,000. Immediately a fire depart- 
ment was organized. November 9, following, 
a fire destroyed the New York, Eagle, St. Fran- 
cis and the Galena hotels, Llomeof the Badger, 
Rowe's provision store and other buildings. 
The Tehama Theatre was burned August 18, 

On November 2, 1852, occurred the greatest 
fire that has ever afflicted this city, when fully 
seven-eighths of the place was destroyed and a 
good many lives were supposed to be lost. The 
total amount of loss was estimated at $10,000,- 


000. The Congregational Clmrchon Sixth street, 
although a frame structure, was the only one of 
many churches saved. Tliu fire did not e.xtend 
east of Ninth street or north of I street. A 
strong wind prevailing at the time of the out- 
break of the fire was doubtless tiie cause of the 
conflagration becoming so general. 

The second general conflagration in Sacra- 
mento's history took place on the afternoon of 
July 13, 1854, starting in a small frame build- 
ing in the rear of Newcomb's furniture store, 
near the center of the block bounded by J, K, 
Third and Fourth streets. It was caused by tlie 
upsetting of a spirit lamp used to warm a glue- 
pot. The flames almost immediately reached 
the Sacramento Hotel, and directly tiiere was an 
overawing blaze. Although the day was very 
hot, the tiiermometer being 100° in the coolest 
shade, the firemen turned out in force; but in 
spite of the most heroic efforts the terrible ele- 
ment proceeded to destroy the Oriental Hotel, 
American House, old Court-House, New Eng- 
land House, State House, Congregational Church, 
Sewanee House, Crescent City Hotel and No. 
■4's Engine House. The water- works had just 
got into operation, and were found very effi- 
cient, else the loss would have been much greater. 

When the fire threatened the State Capitol 
with destruction, Governor Bigler, who had been 
working from the beginning of the fire wherever 
an efficient hand was most needed, asked several 
by-standers to assist him in saving the furniture. 
They objected to this on the ground that private 
parties could not aftbrd to lose their property so 
well as tiie State. A full-length portrait of 
Washington was standing against the southern 
wall, and pointing to it Bigler said, "See! there 
is the portrait of the father of your country; 
will you permit it to be destroyed? " A general 
rush was made and the picture was saved. 

The Golden Eagle Hotel, a substantial brick 
structure, checked the fire until it was controlled. 
The Monumental Eugine Company of San Fran- 
cisco did their utmost to reach S:icramento in 
time, but could not arrive until the next morn- 
ing. The citizens thanked them C'trdially. 

The next fire of importance occurred July 3, 
1855, clearing the whole triangle between the 
levee, I and Sixth streets; but the buildings 
were generally' old rookeries, occupied mostly by 

During the following nineteen years several 
fires occurred, each occasioning the loss of $10,- 
000 to 820,000. 

September 15, 1874, about 5:30 o'clock a. m. 
the Capital Woolen Mills caught fire and were 
destroyed, the loss being between $75,000 and 
$100,000. Contracts were immediately let for 
a new building. 

On January 9, 1875, in the afternoon, a fire 
started in the lamp-room of the AVestern Hotel, 
and spread with fearful rapidity. The fire de- 
partment was promptly on hand and succeeded 
in confining the fire to the hotel building, which 
was totally destroyed. Three lives were lost; 
two of the ill-fated were compositors in the 
Union office. Money loss, about $90,000. 

Sacramento claims the honor of having or- 
ganized the first fire company in California. 
This was the Mutual Hookand Ladder Company, 
No. 1. The primary steps toward organizing 
were taken on February 5, 1850. The following 
officers were elected: Deinas Strong, Foreman; 
J. S. Fowler, First Assistant; M. D. Ejre, Sec- 
ond Assistant; T. A. Warbass, Treasurer; H. 
G. Langley, Secretary; J. O. Derby, Steward. 
This company turned out to the fire of April 4, 
1850, using the fire engine belonging to Lewis 
& Bailey. They continued in active existence 
until October 30, 1859, when they were dis- 
banded by mutual consent, and their apparatus 
was turned over to the fire department. Com- 
panies 1 and 2 were supplied with hooks and 
ladders in the early part of 1853. The Mutuals 
occupied the same building with Confidence 
Engine Company, No. 1, and had twenty-six 
members when they disbanded. 

The Alert Hook and Ladder Company, No. 2, 
was organized September 27, 1852, by electing 
Thomas W. Noyes, Foreman; Charles W. Cook, 
Assistant Foreman; Alexander C. Folger, Sec- 
retary; W. B. H. Dodson, Trustee; John L. 


Polheiniis and Joseph F. Cloutman, Delegates. 
The building of this company was located on 
Eighth street, between J and K, and was a two- 
story brick. Like the Mntnals, they received a 
new outfit of hooks and ladders in 1853. In 
1860 they had twenty-nine njembers, with M. 
McManus, Foreman. 

Confidence Engine Company, JMo. 1, was or- 
ganized March G, 1851, with these officers: W. 
H. Eakins, Foreman; William B. Hunt, First 
Assistant; John J. Balentine, Second Assistant; 
H. E. Urner, Secretary; and Leander Culver, 
Treasurer. Their l)uilding was erected on the 
east side of Third street, between I and J. It 
is two stories high. The company maintained 
its organization until the introduction of the 
paid fire department, when its membership was 

Protection Engine Company, No. 2, was or- 
ganized on March 22, 1851, by the election of 
the following officers: William Arents, Fore- 
man; Francis R. Folger, Assistant; and H. 
Burdick, Secretary. They had sixty-five mem- 
bers, and their house was located on the west 
side of Eighth street, between J and K, and the 
building is now the Exempt Firemen's Hall. 

Sacramento Engine Company, No. 3, was 
organized March 27, 1851, by the election of J. 
K. Beard, Foreman; II. J. Beams, Assistant 
Foreman; F. McGil very, Secretary; J. C. Free- 
man, Assistant Secretary. Two years subse- 
quently, a fine house was erected for this company 
on the west side of Second street, between K 
and L. In 1860 they had a membership of 

Eureka Engine Conijiany, No. 4, was organized 
August 15, 1853, with W. H. Jones, Foreman; 
John H. Burgess, Assistant; Jacob Greenebaum, 
Secretary; II. P. Osborn, Treasurer. Their 
building was also a two-story brick, on Fifth 
street, between J and K. In 1860 they were 
rated at sixty-five members. 

Knickerbocker Engine Company, No. 5, was 
organized July 21, 1854, by electing H. Policy, 
Foreman; James H. Calvyn, First Assistant; 

P. Holland, Second Assistant; John F. Hall, 
Secretary, and John C. Keenan, Treasurer. 
Their building, also a two-story brick, was on 
the east side of. Fourth street, between K and 
L. They numbered fifty-eight members. 

Young America, No. 6, organized by residents 
of the Third Ward, June 21, 1855, with Eobert 
Kobinson, Foreman; E.Kimball, First Assist- 
ant ; Sylvester Marshall, Second Assistant ; An- 
son Perry, Secretary; Charles S. White, Treas- 
urer. Their house, a two-story brick structure, 
located on the east side of Tenth street, between 
I and J, is now used by the paid fire depart- 

Tehama Hose Company, No. 1, the first iiose 
company in this city, was organized April 21, 
1853, but disbanded November 24, 1855. 

Neptune Hose Company, an independent or- 
ganization, was formed October 6, 1856, witli 
C. T. Ingham, President; P. Holland, Fore- 
man; Thomas Bartlett, Assistant Foreman; A. 
P. Norton, Treasurer; Alexander Badlam, Sec- 
retary. After considerable trouble, this com- 
pany was admitted into the department, and the 
city erected a building for it on the north side 
of I street, fronting Fourth street. Member- 
ship, twenty-five. 

Broderick Engine Company, No. 7, was or- 
ganized June 1, 1860, by electing Matthias 
Ault, Foreman; R. B. Bishop, First Assistant; 
Bernard Riley, Second Assistant; D. O. Brown, 
Secretary, and W. S. Iliggins, Treasurer. Mem- 
bership, sixty-five. This company, named after 
United States Senator Broderick, was a faithful 
company, attending all the fires; but it was not 
admitted into the department, and was disbanded 
immediately after the flood of 1861. Their 
house, a story-and-a-half building, was at the 
corner of Third and R streets, but it has since 
been removed to another place and converted 
into a dwelling. The engine, hose, etc., reverted 
to the department. 

Several other companies, of less note, were 
organized during the volunteer period. 

The following is a list of the chief engineers 


of the valantear tiro department, fr(jin its in- 
ception to the date of its dissolution: 

Hiram Arents from Jan. 25, 1851, to Oct. 1, 1851 

David McDowell.... " Nov. 5, 18.")1, " Aug. 2, 1853 

R. M.Folger " Aug. 2, 1853, " Aug. 1, 1853 

I.M.Hubbard " Aug. 1, 1853, " Aug. 7,1854 

.1, H. Houseman*.... " Aug. 7, 1854, " Nov. 1,1854 

J. B. Blauchardf " Nov. 1, 1854, " Dec. 15, 1854 

Henry Pulley " Dec. 15, 1854, '■ Aug. 7, 1855 

Hiram Arents " Aug. 7, 1855, " Aug. 4, 1857 

Joseph S. Friend...*. " Aug. 4, 1857, " Aug. 3, 1853 

Georsie H. Brickman " Aug. 3, 1858, " Aug. 7, 18()0 

R. J. Graham " Aug 6, 18G0, " Aug. 3, ]8«3 

Hugh Kelly* " Aug. 3, 1863, " Dec. 1,1863 

George Schraeiser... " Deo. 14, 1863, " Aug. 1, 1864 

David C. Wilson " Aug. 1, 1864, " Aug. 6, 1866 

John Donnellan " Aug. 6, 1866, " Aug. 5, 1867 

W. Gillan " Aug. 5, 1867, " Aug. .. 1868 

Frank Johnson " Aug. .. 1868, " Aug. .. 1H69 

A H Hapeman " Aug. .. 1869, " Aug. .. 1870 

William D. Farrell.. " Aug. .. 1870, " Aug. .. 1871 

George Schmeiser. . . " Aug. .. 1871, " Aug. .. 1873 

Many interesting incidents, both pleasant and 
unpleasant, we would relate had we space. 
Tournaments, races, presentations of banners, 
gossip, etc., were numerous enough to fill a 
large volume. As one amusing feature we 
refer to the time when a great complaint was 
made against the tire department for some 
years by the papers, called forth mainly by 
tiie rivalry of tlie companies. Some of their 
members were accused of laying plans for get- 
ting ahead of tlieir rivals by ringing a false 
alarm, having previously warned enough of 
their own company to secure their engine get- 
ting to the place of the tire first, and of course 
obtaining credit therefor tbe next morning in 
the papers! 

April 1, 1872, the Legislature created a paid 
tire department in Sacramento, consisting of a 
board of three tire commissioners, tlie lirst 
members to be appointed by the Governor and 
their successors to be elected by the people of 
the city, one each year at the regular city elec- 
tion. The city was authorized to issue bonds 
for §50,000, payable twenty years after date, 
with interest at eight per cent, per annum. 
The first commissioners were Sylvester Tryon, 
George Rowland and W. C. Felch, the latter of 
whom was elected president of the board. Un- 
der the provisions of this law there are at pres- 

• Resi|;ni>(l. t Firr^t assistant iictin<; ns chief during vacancy. 

etit three engine companies, and one hook and 
ladder company. 

Engine Company No. 1 was organized Sep- 
tember 15, 1872, with H. Burnham, Foreman, 
and O. Collier, Engineer, and twelve other men; 
but only the engineer, firemen and drivers were 
permanently employed. Their house is situated 
on Second street, between K and L, and their 
apparatus comprises a second-class steam fire- 
engine of the Amoskeag manufacture, one hose 
cart with 1,000 feet of carbonized hose, and one 
extra hose cart with 1,000 feet of hose. 

Engine Company No. 2 was organized at the 
same time as the preceding, with J. W.Thomp- 
son as Foreman and E. H. Williams as Engi- 
neer. Their house is on Tenth street, between I 
and J, and equipments about the same as those 
of No. 1. 

Engine Comjiany No. 3 was organized and 
placed in service April 1, 1888, at Nineteenth 
and L streets, with a new Clapp & Jones en- 
gine and a new hose cart. Hose Companj^ No. 
1, organized June 11, 1884, Jiad previously 
been located at tliat place and disbanded. 

Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 was organ - 
ized September 28, 1872, and at first employed 
four truckmen, who did duty only in case of 
fire. It now consists of a foreman, driver, 
steward and five extra men. The driver and 
steward are permanently employed. This com- 
pany occupies a new house, constructed for 
their purpose, on- Sixth street, between K and L. 

The present Board of Fire Commissioners 
comprises Messrs. W. D. Comstock, John Weil 
and J. F. Slater; and the officers of the fire 
department are: W. D. Comstock, President; 
H. I. Seymour, Secretary; M. O'Meara, Chief 
Engineer; H. A. Guthrie, Assistant Engineer. 
The chief engineers of the paid fire depart- 
ment since its organization have been: 

William B. Hunt lS72-'74. 

William H. H. Lee 1874-76. 

Harry Burnham 1876-'78. 

Wm.' H. H. Lee, four months 1878. 

Cornelius Sullivan 1878-'87. 

M. O'Meara, July, 1887, to the present. 



The first organization of this kind was effected 
on August 14, 1865. At a meeting held on 
that day, twenty-two members of the association 
being present, the following officers were chosen: 
George Rowland, President; J. H. Houseman, 
Vice-President; J. J. Smith, Secretary; J. F. 
Crawford, Treasurer. This association had only 
a membership of si.xty-five in 1871, in which 
year it was abolished. This society was a chari- 
table one, but its charities were neither sys- 
tematic nor compulsory. The fund was under 
the control of the " Board of Delegates," which 
had been incorporated June 10, 18G8, and had 
a treasury of about $38,000 in 1872, which it 
turntd over to the new association. 

The latter, which is the present society, was 
organized in accordance with an act of the 
Legislature, approved in April, 1872, the exact 
date of its institution being December 4, 1872. 
The first officers were: W. L. Ilerndon, Presi- 
dent; A. H. Cwmniings, First Vice-President; 
Joseph Davis, Second Vice-President; John F. 
Crawford, Secretary; George A. Putnam, Treas- 
urer, besides a board of general trustees and of 
trustees of the charitable fund. 

Although there were but si.xty-five members 
in the old association in 1871, the new organi- 
zation began in 1872 with 324 members, and 
many others joined afterward. The objects of 
this organization are social and fraternal aid and 
pecuniary benefit. Tlie sum of $8 per week, in 
case of sickness or disability, $10 a month to 
widows of deceased members in case they are 
in need of it, and $100 for funeral expenses, are 
the pecuniary benefits given; and all additional 
friendly aid that the fraternity can bestow in 
case of sickness or distress is also cheerfully 
given. No one can obtain these benefits, how- 
ever, if his distress is the result of gross dissi- 
pation. By deaths and removals the number of 
members is nuw reduced to 151 — less than half 
the original number. The present officers are: 
James R. Crone, President; N. L. Drew, P'irst 
Vice-President; C. 11. Xrebs, Second Vice- 

President; George A. Putnam, Treasurer; Will- 
iam Avery, Secretary; Frank Swift, Janitor. 

The act creating the paid fire department of 
Sacramento provided that the Exempt Firemen's 
Association should have the privilege of select- 
ing one of the engine houses of the old volunteer 
department for its use. Accordingly, the old 
engine house on the west side of Eighth street, 
between J and K, was selected, and the property 
put up at auction, it being necessary that it 
should be sold. Of course no one would bid 
against the " Exempts," and the property was 
purchased by them for the sum of $100. The 
building was remodeled with suitable halls and 
stores, which have been advantageously rented. 
This change cost about $7,000, and the build- 
ing was occupied for the first time July 12, 


The first institution in Sacramento that coula 
be called water-works was the five horse-power 
pile-driver engine of William P. Henry, which, 
near the foot of 1 street, pumped water by suc- 
tion up into a reservoir. From this carts were 
loaded and the water peddled out by the gallon. 
Soon after this was started, " Uncle Billy" An- 
derson began a similar enterprise at the junction 
of Second street with the slough. 

These parties in competition ran a profitable 
business until they formed a combination with 
A. A. Bennett, and erected more elaborate works 
just south of Henry's engine. Their tank was 
much higher and more carefully constructed. 

In the fall of 1852, George Gordon and the 
" Sacramento Water Company" each presented 
plans for a system of water-works, both of which, 
in December, were rejected by a popular vote; 
but at the same time the people voted a tax of 
three-fourths of one per cent, for works of some 
kind, to be thereafter determined. The City 
Council advertised for plans and specifications, 
and those adopted were presented by Mr. Kirk. 
The specifications called for a brick building, 
127x 50feetontheground,andthetopof the wall 
thirty-six and a half feet above the present grade 


of J and Front streets. The floor of the second 
story was to be sixteen feet above said grade of 
J and Front streets. Tlie reservoir was to be 
128x50 feet, and si.x and a half feet higii; the 
greatest depth of water, five feet. The pumping 
engine was to have a capacity of 20,000 gallons 
per hour. The price was to be §120,000, pay- 
able in city bonds, bearing ten per cent, interest 
per annum, payable in five, seven, ten and twelve 
years from January 1, 1854. Work commenced 
October 27, 1853; the building was completed, 
and the tank filled April 1, 1854. The occasion 
was celebrated by the citizens on the 6tb of 
April. This building is the same now known 
as the old water-works building. 

On August 12, 1853, the first bonds of the 
water loan were issued, the total issue under 
this loan being $284,495. The first superin- 
tendent of the new works was, appropriately 
enough, William P. Henry, the first man to 
introduce anything like pumping-works into 
the city. The first parties to take water from 
the new works were Adams & Co., who paid for 
fifteen days' supply at the rate of $12.22 per 
month. In April, 1854, there were seventy- 
eight customers; May, 155; June 260; and by 
November, 403. 

During the year 1855 there were laid two and 
one-fourth miles of water-pipes, which, with fifty 
hydrants and twenty-one stop-gates, cost $28,- 
600. The capacity of reservoirs was 200,000 
gallons; the pump capacity, 39,100 gallons per 
hour. The total length of pipe, March 1, 1856, 
was eight and one-fourth miles. A Worthing- 
ton pump was added to the works a few years 
later. As the system of pipes was extended, 
the pressure was decreased, until finally, during 
the summer season, the complaints from the citi- 
zens of the more remote portions of the city 
became both loud and deep of the scarcity of 
water. On April 6, 1870, the works suffered a 
bad break-down, shutting off for some time the 
supply of water. It now became evident that 
something must be done to better the condition 
of the works. On June 6, Superintendent Mc- 
Cleery presented to the Board of Trustees the 

plan of A. A. Bennett, architect, to raise the 
old buildings at a cost of §10,000. On June 22, 
1870, Turton & Knox commenced to raise tlie 
tanks fifteen feet; a new stand pipg was also put 
up at a cost of §250. Tue remedy was but 
temporary, though for a time it silenced the 
more clamorous of the complainants; but they 
soon recovered, and, finally, so much was said 
concerning the inadequacy of the olil works, 
that it became evident that nothing but a new 
set of works, or system, with greatly increased 
capacity, would satisfy their demands. 

From 1858 to 1872 several schemes were pro- 
posed and abandoned, among them the Holly 
system. Also, water from the various wells and 
the river was analyzed. An analysis of the Sac- 
ramento River water gave the following result : 
One hundred and twenty ounces of water taken 
from the April freshet of 1870, and evaporated to 
dryness, by James Bell, of San Francisco, left a 
residuum of 2.59 grains, composed as follows: 
Gypsum, 1.27 grains; epsom salts, 0.70; salt, 
0.21;silicateof potash, 0.13; silica, 0.25; iron, a 
suspicion only; loss, .03 grains. A special election 
was held July 20, 1872, by which it was decided to 
adopt one of the three plans offered by the Holly 
Company, namely, the one which would demand 
an outlay of $58,000. Then the west fifty feet 
of lot 4, between H and I streets, and First and 
Second streets, were purchased by the Capital 
Savings Bank and the National Gold Bank of 
D. O. Mills & Co., and the deed therefor pre- 
sented to the city. The trustees, on receiving 
this deed, passed a resolution to accept it, and 
to reserve from the bonds authorized to be issued 
$20,000, subject to such further legislation as 
might be had, for the purpose of paying said 
banks the money advanced by them, of which 
sum the Capital Savings Bank had advanced 
$8,000, and the National Gold Bank $7,000. 
Work on the n&vf building and works com- 
menced forthwith and was pushed with vigor, 
notwithstanding which the machinery was not 
in shape to receive its trial or test of capacity 
until July 17, 1873. The capacity was tested 
thoroughly, and proved to be fully up to the call 



of tlie specifications, and, on the 28th, the works 
were accepted by the trustees. 

The amount of bonds authorized by the act, 
approved March 30, 1872, for tlie purpose of 
erecting these wurics was $191,307,50. The 
amount actually issued, $189,993.15. 

Time showed that the Holly rotary punips 
were nearly, or quite, worthless, and about nine 
years ago were taken out. The gang pumps 
put in by the Holly Company, but not claimed 
by thetn to be original, have done good service 
so far, and during the winter months supply the 
town with water. Early in 1878 a pump was 
built at the machine shops of the Central Pacific 
Railroad Company, and put into the Water- 
Works Building, on the west side. Tiiis pump 
is a double-acting piston pump, with large air 
chamber thirty-six inches in diameter by twenty- 
nine feet high, and, like the other pum])S, con- 
nects directly with the main, or water pipe. 
The engine is a high pressure, condensing, steam 
cylinder thirty-six iuches in diameter, water 
cylinders twenty-four inches in diameter, each 
having a stroke of eighty inches. The capacity 
of this pump alone is estimated to be over 
0,000,000 gallons of water per twenty-four hours, 
and cost, completed, $30,004.48. This is now 
paid for, and the whole debt against the water- 
works was extinguished in August, 1880. Up 
to January 1, 1880, the water-works of Sacra- 
mento cost, exclusive of repairs and interest, 

Since 1880 there has been no material change 
made in the works, which are still of sufficient 
capacity for the city were there no waste of the 
water by citizens. 


Early in 1854 a Scotchman named William 
Glen obtained the franchise to establish and 
manage gas-works in the city of Sacramento, 
lie did not attempt to build the works, but sold 
his right to a joint-stock association, which or- 
ganized as the "Sacramento (ras Company," on 
the 18th of August, 1854, by the election of 
Angus Frierson, President, and N. W. Chit- 
tenden, Secretary. The capital stock of the 

company amounted to $500,000, and, by May, 
185G, $220,000 had been expended. The ini- 
tial step in the construction of the gas-works 
was taken by Mayor R. P.Johnson, who on the 
20th of October, 1854, turned the first soil for 
tlie excavation in which was to be placed the 
gasometer tank. The construction was prose- 
cuted with energy till the 7th of March, 1855, 
when they were necessarily abandoned because 
of the rise of the American River and the con- 
sequent submerging of that part of the city. 
Slater's Addition. On the 4th of August, 1855, 
work was resumed and prosecuted with vigor to 
a successful issue. The city was lighted with 
gas, for the first time, on the evening of De- 
cember 17 in the same year. At that time the 
officers of the company were: R. P. Johnson, 
President and Superintendent; R. B. Norman, 
Engineer; W. H. Watson, Secretary; D. O. 
Mills, Treasurer; James Murray, W. F. Bab- 
cock, L. McLean, Jr., R. P. Johnson and W. 
H. Watson, Directors. The retort-house was 
fifty-four feet long, fifty-one feet wide and 
twenty-one feet high to the eaves, being cov- 
ered by an iron roof. The purifying-house, 
which adjoined the retort-house, was thirty -five 
feet long, twenty-five feet wide and eighteen 
feet high, in the clear, with a water-tight cellar, 
built on an arch. The lime-house was in size 
25x14 feet and eighteen feet high. The meter, 
governor and offices occupied a building thirty- 
seven feet long, twenty-five feet wide and two 
stories higli, the lower story being fourteen and 
the upper twelve feet high, in the clear. The 
chimney was eighty-five feet high from the top 
of the foundation courses. 

In 1857 this company sold out, but most of 
the stock being bought by original stockholders, 
but few changes were made. In December, 
1867, high water washed away so much of the 
land west of the works that it was feared that 
the structure would be undermined. Quantities 
of cobbles were thrown into the river against 
the walls, and in that way was the invader efl'ect- 
ually checked. A special train engaged in 
bringing stone from Rocklin for the above pur- 


pose, while on its return trip, collided witli a 
wood-train near Antelope Station, severely iii- 
jiaring the engineer, Rodericli McRae, and 
Joseph Bryan, the collector of the Gas Com- 
pany. Tiiis accident claims tlie notoriety of 
having been the first collision on tiie Central 
Pacific Railroad. 

In 1872 tliere were filed the articles of incor- 
poration of the "Citizens Gas Light Company 
of Sacramento," with a capital stock of $200,- 
000. Tiie trustees were: Joseph W. Stow, H. 
B. Williams, W. H. Montague, C. T. Hopkins, 
E. B. Mott, Jr., G. W. Mowe, Julius Wetzlar, 
G. Cadwalader and J. F. Houghton. It was 
stated in the articles of incorporation that its 
term of existence was to be twenty-five years, 
but it does not appear to have existed that num- 
ber of days. 

Early in October, 1872, there was organized, 
in Sacramento, the "Pacific Pneumatic Gas 
Company," whose pnrpose was to manufacture 
gas from petroleum. For $5,000 this company 
purchased from the Johnston Brandy and Wine 
Manufacturing Company a lot of land, in what 
is called Brannan's Addition, just south of the 
south line of S street, running back to Front 
street, and having a wharfage privilege of 120 
feet. About the 10th of December last the 
property was sold to W. D. Knights. 

The articles of incorporation of the "Citizens 
Gas Light and Heat Company " were filed Jan- 
uary 8, 1872, the capital stock being $1,000,000, 
in shares of $50 each. Tiie trustees were: W. 
E. Brown, J. R. Watson, R. C. Terry, R. C. 
Clark, A. Gallatin, W. E. Perry, H. C. Kirk, C. 
H. Cutnmings, and James McClatchy. The 
first officers were: W. E. Brown, President; Rob- 
ert C. Clark, Vice-President; A. Galatin, Treas- 
nrer; and J. W. Pew, Secretary. 

On the 1st of January, 1875, the " Sacramento 
Gas Company" and the "Citizen's Gas Light 
Heat Company " consolidated, under the name 
of the "Capital Gas Company; " capital stock 
$2,000,000, in 40,000 shares of $50 each. The 
works of this company stand on that portion of 
Brannan's Addition which lies between T and 

U streets, and the river front and Front street, 
and is 500 feet deep by 2-40 wide. Lots Nos. 
1 to 4, in the block between S, T, Front and 
Second streets, also belong to this company. 
Their retort-house is of brick, in size 50x150 
feet. Each of the three gasometers will hold 
60,000 feet of gas. The ofiice is a brick struct- 
ure, forty feet square, having two stories and 
abasement. All tiie brick used in construction 
of these buildings are of first-class quality. 
The coal-shed is a substantial wooden structure, 
120 feet square, while the coke-shed, whicli is 
also of wood, is seventy feet long by forty wide. 
Tiie election of officers takes place in January 
of each year. 

In 1878 Smith & Co., of the Pioneer Mills, 
bought the retort-house of the Sacramento Gas 
Company, and made of it a warehouse, capable 
of holding 4,000 tons of grain. The railroad 
company bought the gasometer and the land on 
which it stood, and sold the former for old iron. 

The capital stock now consists of 10,000 
shares, at $50 a share, the stock being reduced 
when the present State Constitution was adopted. 
The present officers are: B. U. Stein man. Pres- 
ident; Oliver Eldridge, Vice-President; C. H. 
Cnmmings, Secretary and Treasurer; and J. C. 
Pierson, Superintendent. Directors : James 
Forbes, Frank Miller, B. U. Steinman, C. H. 
Cnmmings, of Sacramento, and Oliver Eldridge, 
John McKee and William Alvord, of San Fran- 


By an act approved April 3, 1857, the Sacra- 
mento and Yolo Bridge Company was incor- 
porated, composed of Johnson Price, V. E. 
Geiger and George P. Gillis. The company 
was granted a charter, to run for twenty years, 
to erect a toll-bridge across the Sacramento 
River from Broad street, in Sacramento County, 
to Ann street, in Washington, Yolo County. The 
draw was not to be less than sixty feet wide for 
of vessels, and the bridge must be com- 

in two years. 
At 12 M., September 18, 1857, the first pile 
was driven for this bridge. The original bridge 


was 800 feet long, built on five piers, supported 
by 600 piles, at least twelve inches in diameter, 
and driven thirty feet to solid river bed. The 
bridge was of Leonard's patent, four spans of 
135 feet eacli, the draw opening two spaces of 
seventv-tive feet each. Tlic bridge was com- 
pleted June 27, 1S58, at a cost of $00,000. 

October 2, 1869, the California Pacific com- 
menced a new structure on the Howe Truss 
pattern. The draw to this bridge was 200 feet 
long, making the opening on each side clear 
seventy-live feet. The steamer Belle ran as a 
ferryboat in the interim while the draw was be- 
ing built. The bridge was completed and the 
engine Sacramento, William Rowan, Engineer, 
ran across it January 15, 1870. This bridge 
was again rebuilt by the Central Pacific Rail- 
road Company in 1878. The draw was swung 
into place, December 5, 1878, and the bridge 
was open for travel the next day. The railroad 
company had purchased the bridge of the Sac- 
ramento and Yolo Bridge Company in June, 


The oldest burying-ground for Sacramento is 
the New Helvetia Cemetery, wliich lies directly 
south of and adjoining East Park, just east of 
the city limits, and embraces the original plat of 
Sutter's Fort. The first burial here was that of 
Major Cloud, a paymaster in the United States 
Army, who was killed in 1847 southeast of the 
Fort some distance, by being thrown from a 
horse; the second person whose remains were 
buried here was Miss Susanna Hitchcock, who 
died early in 1849 at the new diggings on the 
Stanislaus, and the third was James McDowell, 
who was shot in Washington, just across the 

Ten acres here were donated by Captain John 
A. Sutter to the city about the first of Decem- 
ber, 1849, for burial purposes. 

The present City Cemetery was located in 
1850, on the southern boundary of the city limits, 
on Tenth street, and comprises about twenty 
acres, beautifully ornamented with flowering 

hints, trees and shrubs. The Free Masons, Odd 

Fellows, Red Men, Firemen, Printers, Pioneers, 
Veterans of the Mexican War, and tlie State 
have plats within tiie enclosure. The cemetery 
is owned by the city, and controlled by a super- 
intendent elected by the Board of Trustees. 

Tiio Hebrew Cemetery is nnder the control of 
the Congregation B'nai Israel, but owned by the 
Hebrew Benevolent Society. A chapel has been 
erected on the grounds which are well enclosed. 
The New Helvetia Cemetery was established in 
1849 as a place for the interment of the dead, 
and was the first used for that purpose in Sac- 
ramento. It is situated near the Hebrew Ceme- 
tery, in the eastern part of the city, and is a 
private burial place. 

The St. Joseph's Cemetery belongs to the 
congregation of St. Rose's Church. It was con- 
secrated by Archbishop Alemany in 1865, and 
is located on Y and Twenty-first streets. 


St. Rose's Church [Catholic). — August 7, 
1850, Rev. Augustine P. Anderson, O. S. D., a 
native of New Jersey, and for several years on 
the missions in Ohio, arrived in this city and 
commenced the organization of the Catholics. 
A building was procured on L street, between 
Filth and Sixth, which answered as a temporary 
chapel until the church, corner of K and Seventh 
streets, was built. On October 28, 1850, a deed 
was executed by ex-Governor Peter H. Burnett 
to Anthony Lauglois, in trust for the use of the 
Roman Catholic Bishop of California, for lot 
8, between J and K, and Seventh and Eighth 
streets, and on August 17, 1867, Governor Bur- 
nett deeded lot 7 in the same block to Arch- 
bishop Alemany. During the memorable season 
of cholera. Father Anderson labored unceasingly. 
He visited the cholera hospital several times 
daily, sought out the poor and afflicted in their 
uncomfortable tents, administered all the con- 
solation and relief within his power, and pro- 
cured medical aid for such as had no one to care 
for them. Overcome and exhausted by excessive 
labors, he contracted typhoid fever and fell a 
victim to his self-sacrificing charity and zeal. 




He died November 26, 1850. At tiiis time the 
frame of the new church had been raised and 
the roof partially completed, but during a severe 
gale the building was blown down and many of 
the timbers broken into fragments. Rev. John 
Ingoldsby succeeded Rev. A. P. Anderson in 
the pastoral charge of Sacramento, and com- 
pleted the church, which was burnt in the great 
lire of November 2, 1852. This church was 
25 X 75 feet, and neatly lined and papered inside. 
After the fire, the frame building on the corner 
of Seventh street and Oak avenue was built and 
used as a place of worship, until the completion 
of the basement story of the brick church. Rev. 
John Quinn succeeded Rev. J. Ingoldsby in 
April, 1853. The corner-stone of the brick 
church was laid by Archbishop Alemany, Octo- 
ber 18, 1854, and service was performed in the 
basement, on the Christmas following. The 
dimensions were 60x100 feet; basement, nine 
and one-half feet in the clear, and cost $10,500. 
This building was completed in 1861, at a cost 
of nearly $50,000. The bell, weighing 2,079 
pounds, arrived July 13, 1859, and is now in 
the cathedral tower. 

During the pastorate of Rev. James S. Cotter, 
in 1866, who was assisted first l)y Rev. M. Mc- 
Grath and afterward (in 1868) by Rev. Patrick 
Scanlan, some improvements were made npon 
and in that building, to the extent of over 
$15,000. Cotter, who was a favorite among 
all classes, died in Sacramento, June 18, 1868. 
Rev. Thomas Crimmin, another priest over this 
charge, died also in this city, January 20, 1867, 
with paralysis, within a few honrs after the at- 

Rov. James Cassin was the pastor in 1861-'62, 
assisted by Rev. N. Gallagher. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Thomas Gibney, 1868-'70. From 
that time Rev. Patrick Scanlan was rector, as- 
sisted by Rev. J. McSweeny. Since July, 1881, 
Father Thomas Grace, from Marysville, Califor- 
nia, has been the pastor, assisted by Father 
William Walshe until 1886, and since that tin.e 
by Father Leonard Haupts. 

In Sacramento and vicinity there are about 

5,000 Catholics. The Sunday-school, which is 
conducted by the Sisters of Mercy and the 
Christian Brothers, numbers about 300 pupils. 

In 1887 the lot occupied by the church was 
sold to the Federal Government for a site for 
tlie new postothce building, the church torn 
down, and the congregation has since worshiped 
in a temporary building on Twelfth street, be- 
tween J and K, while the magnificent cathedral, 
now to be described, is in process of erection. 

This most commanding structure. Eleventh 
and K streets, was commenced in May, 1886, 
very shortly after the erection of Sacramento 
City into an episcopal see. It had formerly 
been in the arch-diocese of San Francisco, and 
in that year it was definitely united with the 
former diocese of Grass Valley, of which it be- 
came the ecclesiastical center. The Right-Rev. 
Bishop Manozue (see sketch of his life else- , 
where) proceeded to erect a church more suitable 
to the Capital City than the one then existing. 
The general form of the cathedral is that of a 
Latin cross, with an octagonal dome at the in- 
tersection of the arms. The vestibule in the 
front forms a solid mass extending beyond the 
sides nearly as much as the transepts, and thus 
changing somewhat the general shape of the 
cross. This is further modified by the aisles, 
which are carried with lower roofs from the 
vestibule to the transepts and beyond the latter 
to the end of the main building. On the front 
is a central tower twenty-six feet square at the 
bottom, and extended to a height of 220 feet. 
This is flanked by two masses of brick work 
three stories in height to the main cornice of 
the church. Two smaller towers, sixteen feet 
square and 130 feet high, stand beyond and 
complete the front, which has a total width of 
108 feet. The length of the building is 206 
feet; its width across the transepts 116 feet, 
and across the nave and aisles 100 feet. 

The interior dome is circular in plan, and 
lighted from the top by a skylight twenty-one 
feet in diameter, and filled with stained glass 112 
feet above the floor. Tlie walls are arcaded all 


The general stjle of the church is Italian. 
The material is brick, covered with stone imita- 
tion. Total cost, about $250,000. 

The lajing of the corner-stone was attended 
by imposing ceremonies, in the presence of many 
thousands of people, whose local pride was 
aroused to the highest pitch by enthusiastic ad- 
dresses from citizens, both Catholic and non- 
Catholic. It was dedicated June 30, 1889, in a 
most magnificent manner, in the presence of vis- 
itors from all parts of the surrounding country. 

There are two large Catholic schools in Sac- 

ramento, which may be mentioned in this con- 

At the " boys' school," or Sacramento' Insti- 
tute, corner of Twelfth and K streets, are 340 
pupils in attendance, under the supervision of 
Bro. Cianan. 

The " girls' school," of St. Joseph's Academy, 
Eighth and G streets, is conducted as a convent 
by tlie Sisters of Mercy. Mary Vincent, Superior. 
Here there are 300 pupils. The building is not 
yet complete, but is a large, commanding struc- 
ture. The ground comprises an entire square. 

St. PauVs Protestant Episcopal Church. — 
In order to gain a connected knowledge of the 
history of this church it will be necessary first 
to glance at that of Grace Protestant Episcopal 
Church, which preceded it and, in one sense, 
was the basis from which St. Paul's sprang. As 
already stated, Grace Church was the first church 
organization in Sacramento. The Rev. Flavel 
S. Mines, D. D., of San Francisco, visited Sac- 
ramento about the middle of August, 1849, and 
held the service of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States, for the first time 
in the city, the place of service being the black- 
smith shop on Third street, between J and K, 
which, from the fact of its connection with these 
earliest religious meetings, has acquired a his- 
torical reputation. 

On the following day, at the store of Eugene 
F. Gillespie, the parish was organized under the 
name of "Grace Church, Sacramento," by the 
election of the following officers: A. M. Winn 
(then mayor of the city, and who presided at 

the meeting). Senior Warden; F. W. Moore, 
Junior Warden; and Eugene F. Gillespie, 
Henry E. Robinson, E. J. Barreil, P. P.. Corn- 
wall, J. M. McKenzie, William Prettiman and 
J. F. Morse, Vestrymen. 

In the early part of September following, the 
Rev. R. F. Burnham,of New Jersey, visited the 
place and preached, and was called to the rec- 
torship of the parish. His healtii soon became 
delicate, and, after a lingering illness, he died 
in April, 1850. The parish was then placed un- 
der the charge of the Rev. Samuel P. More- 
house, who lield occasional services until about 
the middle of September, or the 1st of October, 

In October, 1850, the Rev. Orlando Ilarri- 
man, of New York, assumed the care of the 
parish, but as he had an attack of typhoid fever, 
and was left for some time in a debilitated con- 
dition, he was able to officiate on a few occasions 
only. During his disability, the Rev. Mr. Pin- 
iiell, a clergyman of the Church of England, 

and the Rev. Augustus , of New York, 

held services a few times. The Rev. Mr. Ilar- 
riman left in March, 1851, and returned to his 
former home in the East. From this on there 
was an interregnum lasting until the year 1854, 
the causes being, first, the terrible fire of 1852, 
in which the church records were destroyed, 
and later the flood that covered the city for 
many months. 

In February, 1854, Right- Rev. Bishop Will- 
iam Ingraham Kip paid his first visit to Sacra- 
mento and preached morning and evening in the 
house of worship of the Methodist Church, 

On the 29th day of July, 1854, the parish 
was legally incorporated under the name of 
" Grace Protestant Episcopal Ciiurch, of Sacra- 
mento." The following day the vestry resolved 
to call the Rev. H. L. E. Pratt, of Perth Am- 
boy. New Jersey, to the rectorship of the parish, 
at a salary of $250 a month, who, having ac- 
cepted the call, arrived in Sacramento, and held 
services for the first time on Monday, the 19th 
day of November, following. 


Ou the 24th of September, 1854, the bishop 
again preached morning and evening in the same 
Methodist Church and administered, at the morn- 
ing service, the Holy Communion to twenty-one 
communicants, it being the first time that sacra- 
ment had ever been administered in the city. 

There had been no church building erected 
at the time of Mr. Pratt's arrival, but just pre- 
vious thereto Hamilton Hall, on K street, be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth, was rented by the ves- 
try and conveniently furnished as a temporary 
place of worship. After holding service in that 
hall for about twelve months, the place of wor- 
ship was changed to Pioneer Hall, on. J street, 
between Front and Second. "While still occu- 
pying that place, in the spring of 1856, the 
rector resigned his rectorship, when the Rev. 
William H. Hill, then of Nevada City, Cali- 
fornia, was called to succeed him. Accepting 
the call, his connection with the parish began in 
May of that year, and continued tillJune 1,1870. 

During the summer of 185G, a brick edifice 
was built on the lot at the corner of I and 
Eighth streets, capable of seating 300 people, at 
a cost of about $15,000. The opening services 
in this house were held on September 7, 1856, 
the sermon for the occasion being preached by 
the Rev. Mr. Hill, Rector. 

In May, 1870, the Rev. J. H. C. Bonte was 
called to succeed Mr. Hill, whose resignation, 
previously tendered, was to take effect in June. 
Mr. Bonte, accepting the call, began iiis ser- 
vice as rector of the parish, June 15, 1870. 
After the first Sunday in March, 1871, the 
church edifice spoken of was abandoned on ac- 
count of the settling of the walls, and on April 
18, 1871, the corner-stone of the present build- 
ing was laid by Bishop Kip. 

At the timeof building the new Grace Church 
edifice, in 1871, which cost over .$26,000, ex- 
clusive of the lot, the property was mortgaged 
to the Odd Fellows' Bank of Savings for a loan 
of $10,000. The interest on that loan was regu- 
larly paid for several years, and $1,000 of the 
principal was discharged. But, in 1874, owing 
to the removal from the -city of some of the 

wealthiest parishioners, tlie virtual closure of 
the church for four or five months, on account 
of the absence of the rector, and the gradual 
lessening or falling off of the congregation, and 
the revenues of the church, without any corre- 
sponding lessening of the expenses, the debt 
began to increase, and had so far accumulated by 
1877 that the parish then became bankrupt, the 
mortgage was foreclosed, every species of its 
property was disposed of to satisfy creditors with- 
out fully accomplishing the purpose, and thus its 
name and organization became extinct. 

Seeing that such was the case, by means of a 
number of prominent laymen enough money 
was collected to buy in the church from the 
bank. As a result of this the new parish of St. 
Paul's was organized March 23, 1877, and May 
20, following, the Rev. E. H. Ward, then of 
Marysville, was called to take charge. On Jan- 
nary 1, 1882, Rev. Carroll M. Davis succeeded 
him, and in turn was followed, January 15, 1888, 
by the Rev. John F. von Herrlich, the present 
popular and successful young pastor. Under 
his charge the church has renewed its life and 
vigor, the membership has increased, and the 
church has been almost rebuilt. Already $1,300 
has been spent on improving and completely 
refitting and refinishing the basement, and the 
general painting in progress at time of writing 
will cost $900. The church is to be frescoed, 
at a cost of probably $1,500, from designs exe- 
cuted by the celebrated Moretti, of San Fran- 
cisco, and four stained-glass windows will be 
put in. One, the chancel window, is being made 
for Mrs. Charles Crocker, of San Francisco, as 
a memorial to Mrs. Colonel Fred. Crocker, and 
the large side window is being made for Colonel 
Creed Haymond. These will cost over $1,000 
apiece, and are being made by the Pacific Art 
Glass Works of San Francisco, and will perhaps 
exceed any stained-glass windows now in Cali- 
fornia in beauty of design and artistic taste. It 
is the intention of the present rector to have all 
the windows of the church of this character, 
having the promise of assistance in this direc- 
tion from wealthy friends. 


The present Vestrymen are: A. A. Van Voor- 
I'ies, Senior Warden; J. J. Brown, Junior War- 
den; George W. Railton, Treasurer; F. A. 
Crambbitt, Secretary; J. II. Parkinson, Fred. 
Cox, Harry W". Carroll, K. O. Cravens, A. A. 
Redington, C. C. Bonte, George A. Blanchard. 

F'irst Church of Christ in Sacramento [Con- 
gregational). — The first preliminary meeting was 
held September 16, 1849, in the original school- 
house, which stood near the northwest corner of 
Third and I streets. Rev. J. A. Benton was 
Ch^rraan, and liev. S. P. Blakeslee, Secretary. 
A number present being Presbyterians, the 
question of organizing a Presbyterian Church 
was raised, when the chairman announced that 
as he was not a Presbyterian he had no authority 
to organize such a churcii. They therefore 
organized the " First Church of Christ in Sacra- 
mento," purposely omitting the word " Con- 
gregational." Thus absorbing about all the 
Presbyterian element there was in the city, the 
latter did not organize separately until 1856. 
October 1, 1849, a confession of faith and a 
covenant were adopted, and temporary officers 
elected. Early the following year a manual was 
adopted and permanent officers chosen. May 5, 
that year, an " ecclesiastical society" was formed 
in connection with the church, when they be- 
came able to build a church on Sixth street, 
between J and K. Here, on the 6th of October 
following, a frame church building was dedi- 
cated. The laying of the corner-stone, Septem- 
ber 4, was said to be the first public cei'cmony 
of the kind in this State. But the great fire of 
July 13, 1854, swept the devoted structure 
away. The lot was sold for $1,300, and the 
present brick building was erected, directly 
across the street. The church and society were 
so popular that public sympathy aided them 
materially. Within the last few years about 
$3,000 have been expended upon the building 
in repairs. The church property is now esti- 
mated at about $20,000. 

It is remarkable that only three pastors have 
served this church from the organization until 
the present time, in continuous service — Revs. 

J. A. Benton, I. E. Dwinell and W. C. Mer- 
rill—the latter since 1884. 

The first officers of the church were: Rev. J. 
A. Benton, Pastor; James Gallup, J. W. Hinks, 
John McKee, Z. W. Davidson, A. C. Sweetser, 
Deacons; W. C. Waters, Treasurer; and J. C. 
Zabriskie, Clerk. The present officers are: A. 
C. Sweetser, Moderator and Treasurer; E. B. 
Hussey, Secretary; Trustees — Sparrow Smith, 
President, Llewellyn Williams, Frank Miller, S. 
E. Carrington, E. B. Hussey, J. M. Millikeu 
and William Geary. Mr. Carrington is also 
Superintendent of the Sunday-school, which 
numbers about 300 pupils. It was organized 
August 26, 1849, and thus was the first Sunday- 
school established in Sacramento. Charles 
Cooley superintends the Mission school, and 
Mrs. S. E. Carrington the Chinese school. The 
church membership at present is 275. 

First Baptist Church. — The first Baptist 
minister in Sacramento was Rev. J. Cook, who 
kept a boarding-house on I street and preached 
occasionally in the grove, in 1849. September 
9, 1850, Rev. O. C. Wheeler, of San Francisco, 
came and organized the First Baptist Church, 
assisted probably by Rev. Cook, at the resi- 
dence of Judge E. J. Willis, on H street, be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh. Judge Willis and 
John A. Wadsworth were elected Deacons; 
Madison Walthall, Treasurer; Leonard Loomis, 
Clerk; and Rev. J. W. Capen, Pastor. On the 
following day, the first public services were held 
in the court-house, on I street, between Fourth 
and Fifth. In tlie spring of 1851 a house of 
worship, costing $4,000, was erected on the cor- 
ner of L and Seventh streets. This building 
perished in the flames of November 2, 1852. 
In 1854, what was said to be the finest church 
building in the State was erected on Fourth 
street, between K and L, on the west side. The 
main building was 35x85 feet in area, with a 
vestry in tlie rear 15 x 32 feet. It was a mag- 
nificent structure for the price, $8,000. At the 
time of the great fire of July 13, 1854, it was 
only by the greatest exertions of the citizens that 
it was saved from destruction. In 1877 this 


strnuture was sold for the sum of $3,000, and 
was subsequently removed to the corner of 
Fourteenth and K streets, where it is now used 
by the United Brethren in Christ as a place of 

The present beautiful frame building, situated 
on Ninth street, between L and M, was erected 
in 1877-'78, at a total cost, including that of 
the lot, of $18,230.48. The opening services 
were held on March 10, 1878, the corner-stone 
having been laid with Masonic ceremonies, 
August 20, 1877. 

September 2, 1855, Ah Mooey, a Chinaman, 
was admitted into the church and afterward 
licensed to preach. This was during the min- 
istry of Eev. J. L. Shuck, who was an accredited 
missionary to the Chinese here, and Ah Mooej's 
baptism was supposed to be the first of that 
nationality in the State. Mr. Shuck died in 
1863, in South Carolina. 

The following is a list of the successive Pas- 
tors to date: J."W. Capen, 1850-'51; JB. Brierly, 
1851; O. C. Wheeler, 1852-'54; J. L. Shuck, 
1854-'60; Frederick Charlton, 1860-'72; Harry 
Taylor, 1872-'76; H. E. Foskett, 1876-'78; A. 
L.'Coie, 1878-'79; A. J. Frost, D. D.; J. E. 
Hopper, 1887 to the'present. The present Dea- 
cons are: F. H. L. Weber, Thomas Sayles, S. L. 
W. Conner, C. B. Conlej, John Minford; Clerk, 
John Kidder; Sunday-school Superintendent, 
Dr. C. Mealand. At present there are 250 
members, Jorty-nine of whom were received 
into the church by Rev. Hopper. 

Calvary Baptist Church, a Mission Sunday- 
school, was organized October 17, 1869, at the 
residence of K. H. Withiugton, by Rev. Fred- 
erick Charlton, Pastor of the First Church. 
This school was held at a school-house until the 
necessity arose of having a building of their 
own, which they soon erected on 1 street, be- 
tween Twelfth and Thirteenth, 40x160 feet, at 
a cost of $1,000. Another building, 38x65 
feet, costing §2,000, was erected in 1870. This 
led to organizing a new church for that part of 
the city, of members from the parent church. 
The first Deacons were: W. R. Strong, R. W. 

Megowan, A. J. Barnes, R. H. Withington; 
Clerk, A. A. Byron. 

The present officers are: Deacons — W. R. 
Strong, R. H. Withington and G. O. Haylbrd; 
President of the Board of Trustees, P. E. Piatt; 
Sunday-school Superintendent, John Boden. 
Present membershij), 230. 

The Pastors have been: Revs. J. P. Ludlow, 
R. F. Parshall, H. W. Read, * * * S. B. 
Gregory, J. Q. A. Henry, 1881-84; S. A. Mc- 
Kay, 1884; A. C. Herrick, from Missouri, De- 
cember, 1884, to the present. 

The Siloam Baptist Church (colored) existed 
from 1856 to a recent period. 

Westminster Presbyterian Church. — The 
Presbyterians were the first to introduce the 
gospel into Sacramento. Revs. J. W. Douglas, 
A. Williams and S. Woodbridge held religious 
meetings here as early as March and April, 
1849; but, as before stated, the first Presby- 
terian Church in this city was not organized 
until 1856, the members having previously 
affiliated with the Congregationalists. This 
organization was called the "First Presbyterian 
Church of Sacramento " In an effort to raise 
funds for the purchase of Philharmonic Hall 
for a place of worship (1860-'63) the church 
failed, and disbanded; but the Sunday-school 
was kept alive, under the zealous supervision of 
W. S. Hunt. January 21, 1866, the present 
church was organized, under the name given at 
the head of this paragraph. This church has 
grown until it has attained a membership of 
230, and they have a large Sunday-school, a 
Chinese mission school, a young people's 
society, mite society, etc. 

The present Elders are: A. Aitken, James H. 
Johnson and Thomas S. Knight. Deacons — A. 
Aitken, James Neilson and James H. Johnson. 
Cliarles M. Campbell, Sunday-school Superin- 

The Pastors have been: Rev.s. William E. 
Baker, P. V. Veeder, A. Fairbairn, N. B. Clink, 
Joshua Phelps, J. S. McDonald, 1866-'69; 
Frank L. Nash, 1869-'72; Charles Schelling, 
1872-'74; James S. McCay, 1874-75; Henry 


H. Rice, 1875-'86; J. E. Wheeler, D. D., from 
St. Louis, Missouri, 1886 to the present. The 
first five served during the first organization. 

The present house of worship, on the north- 
east corner of Sixth and L streets, was built in 
1860, at a cost of about $18,000. It was dedi- 
cated March 24, 1867, Ilev. Mr. Wadsworth, of 
San Francisco, preaching the sermon. 

Fourteenth Street Presbyterian Church. — 
The Sunday-school organized in July, 1868, by 
the Westminster Church, and maintained by it, 
under the name of the "Bethel Mission School," 
on Fourteenth street, between O and P, grew 
into a church in March, 1882, which now num- 
bers forty-eight members, and is self-sustaining 
and out of debt. It was instituted by Eev. Dr. 
Thomas Fraser, of San Francisco, assisted by 
Ilevs. H. H. Rice and Nelson Slater, and An- 
drew Aitken, of Sacramento. Ilev. A. II. 
Croco was pastor until July, 1883, when he re- 
signed, and Rev. George R. Bird, the present 
pastor, was called. The latter was serving the 
Hamilton Square Presbyterian Church in San 
Francisco, and before that had charge of the 
First Presbyterian Church in Seattle, Washing- 
ton Territory. His residence is at 1609 P 

The Elders are: Felix Tracy, William Ingram, 
Jr., Alexander Ingram and Scott Ingram; Dea- 
con, William Ingram, Sr. William Ingram, Jr., 
has been Superintendent of the Sunday-school 
for the past sixteen years. 

Sixth Street Methodist Episcopal Cliurch. — 
This was first organized under another local 
name, October 28, 1849, at Dr. Miller's store, 
by Rev. Isaac Owen, familiarly called "Father 
Owen." Seventy-two persons enrolled their 
names. Father Owen was the first missionary 
ajipointed by his church to California, and after 
suffering many hardships in crossing the plains 
with an ox team, was very nearly drowned by 
the carelessness of a drunken crew in capsizing 
a schooner in Suisun Ba}'. Escaping with only 
tlie clothes he wore, which were very rusty from 
constant use in crossing the plains, he came on 
to Sacramento, and preached October 23, 1849, 

under an oak near the corner of Third and L 
streets, and organized the church. 

Material for a house of worship, 24x36 feet 
in size, having been shipped from Baltimore, all 
the way round Cape Horn, by the Conference, 
it was promptly put up and the church finished 
for use. Although plain, it was the first church 
building in Sacramento and therefore seemed 
fairly elegant. It was situated upon a beautiful 
lot donated for the purpose by General Sutter, 
on the southeast corner of Seventh and L streets. 
As the building fronted the former, it was called 
the Seventh Street Methodist Church, and the 
society by the same name. Soon a comfortable 
parsonage was built by Mr. Owen. In the fall 
of 1850 he was succeeded in the pastorate by 
Rev. M. C. Briggs, who had the building en- 
larged, to accommodate the rapidly increasing 
congregation. In 1852 a neat brick structure 
52x80 feet, costing about $18,000, was erected. 
Directly after dedication, November 2, 1852, it 
was destroyed by the great fire. The society, 
however, pluckily hurried up a cheap structure, 
which they occupied until they could build a 
frame church, which they did on the site of the 
Baltimore House. In January, 1859, it was 
sold to the Jewish Congregation forabout $3,500, 
and then the society worshiped in a hall over 
the postoftice until they, within a few months, 
erected their present church, on Sixth street, 
between K and L. The name has since been 
the "Sixth Street Methodist Episcopal Church." 
This building is 52x100 feet in ground area, 
and originally cost from $23,000 to $26,000. It 
was not finished till 1874, when it was raised to 
a higher grade, and a tower and steeple built, at 
an additional cost of about $15,000. 

Pastors — Isaac Owen, 1849-'50;M.C. Briggs, 
1850-'51-, Royal B. Stratton, 1851-'53; Warren 
Oliver and R. Merchant, 1853-'55; N. P. Heath, 
1855; George S. Phillips, 1855-'57; J. W. Ross, 
1857-'59; J. D. Blain, 1859-'61; Jesse T. Peck, 
1861-'63; M. C. Briggs, 1863-65; J. W. Ross, 
1865-'68; J. II. Wytiie, 1868-'70; H. B. Hea- 
ock, 1870-'73; A. M. Hough, 1873-'75; M. C. 
Briggs, 1875-'78; R. Bentley,-1878-'81; T. S. 


Dunn, 1881-'84:; E. R. Dille, 1884-'87; Arnold 
T. JSeedhani, 1887 to the present time. 

Stewards — C. A. Maydwell, Secretary and 
Treasurer; P. Bobl, L. S. Taylor, J. L. Huntoon, 
L. C. Jordan, G. M. Hajton, L. Anderson, C. 
H. Dunn, B. N. Bugbey, J. W. Reeves, Joseph 
Ough and Thomas A. Lander. Trustees — J. L. 
Huntoon, President; Peter Bohl, Treasurer; S. 
M. Kiefer, E. M. Leitch, J. E. Camp. 

The present membership is 322; probationers, 
twenty. TheSunday-school,which was organized 
March 29, 1850, has an average attendance of 
175, under the superintendency of Chauncey H. 
Dunn. A recent donation of a lot on the rear 
of the church, by P. Bohl, has enabled the so- 
ciety to build an addition to the church in which 
will be an alcove for the new pipe organ, a 
study for the pastor, and iin infant-class room 
for the Sunday-school. 

Central Methodist Episcopal Church. — The 
society was organized with seven members as 
the H Street Methodist Episcopal Church, De- 
cember 9, 1855, by Kev. N. R. Peck, Rev. N. 
P. Heath, Presiding Elder. The first Official 
Board comprised Martin Grier, J. L. Thomp- 
son, A. Fowler, H. Cronkite, L. Pelton and 13. 
Ward. During the first year of its history a 
•church building was erected and paid for at a 
cost of $2,000, and dedicated June 29, 1856, by 
Bishop Kavanaugh, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. Rev. N. R. Peck continued 
pastor until 1857, reporting thirty-nine mem- 
bers, and was succeeded by Rev. Pavid Deal, 
who continued in charge two years and also 
afterward served the church a second term. 

During Rev. Deal's pastorate a parsonage 
was erected at a cost of §1,500, and a goodly 
degree of prosperity was enjoyed. Rev. H. 
Baker was the next pastor and was succeeded 
by Rev. W. ^S. Urmy. During Bro. Urmy's 
pastorate occurred the great flood or floods of 
1861-'62 — two inundations in the same winter; 
water rose in the church eighteen inches above 
the pews, and the pastor and his family were 
rescued from the parsonage in boats. No serv- 
ice was held for several weeks. From the busi- 

ness depression that followed the flood and the 
exodus of people from the city the church suf- 
fered severely. At the Conference in 1863, it 
was proposed to unite the two charges of the 
city, but disapproved, and Rev. N. R. Peck was 
returned as pastor. Mr. Peck had a good year 
and reported an increase of eighteen members. 
Rev. J. A. Bruner was next appointed and 
served for one year. During 1865 and 1866, 
H Street and Sixth Street were under a single 
pastorate. This arrangement nearly destroyed 
the identity of the church and sadly decimated 
its membership. In 1867 H Street received its 
separate pastor again. Rev. J. M. Hinman, a 
supply, being assigned to the work. This was 
a pastorate of some prosperity. In 1869 Rev. 
George Newton was appointed to the charge and 
served it three years. Radical changes occurred 
during this administration. A success realized 
early in the pastorate seeming at the time to 
justify the action, the old church lot on H street 
and the parsonage were sold and the old church 
building moved to the lot corner Eleventh and 
I streets, of which the present church site is a 
part. The building was cut in two and fitted 
up for dwellings, an old building situated upon 
the property was remodeled and improved for a 
parsonage, and plans were laid for the erection 
of a large church building, as a "Memorial 
Church" for Bishop Kingsley, who had died in 
that year in Beyrout, Syria. The plans included 
the erection of a chapel- first. This only was 
erected and called "Kingsley, Chapel." At the 
close of Mr. Newton's pastorate the property 
was found to be so much involved that further 
procedure was impossible; the debt was about 
$8,500. The years immediately following were 
years of varying success and depression. They 
are full of records of heroic endeavor and sacri- 
fice by the members to maintain the church and 
dispose of the indebtedness. Many times they 
faltered, but despite an increasing debt and a 
decreasing membership, and a decaying and 
dingy church building they persevered. Tiiere 
were some gleams of light. A revival under 
Mrs. Van Cott augmented the membership dur- 


ing the pastorate of liev. J. L. Trefren, but be- 
cause of the adverse conditions obtaining most of 
these afterward went out to join other churches. 
Revs. Wells, Wickesand Deal were successively 
pastors of the church during this period and 
have left precious records of devotion and sacri- 
fice for the church in its darker hours. In 1882 
Rev. JVIcKelvey was appointed to the charge. 
During his pastorate, by indomitable persever- 
ance and eftbrt, the burdening debt was wiped 
out, but by the loss of all the property except 
the church building and the lot upon which it 
stands; and the old building, now dingy and 
out of repair, was remodeled and improved at a 
cost of $3,500, most of which was raised by 
Rev. McKelvey outside of tlie membership. The 
name of the church was changed from Kingsley 
Chapel to Central. The re-opening by Bishop 
Fowler showed a neat attractive church build- 
ing, well appointed and without debt. Rev. 
McKelvey was removed by limitation before en- 
joying the fruit of his labor, and the present 
pastor appointed. 

There has been a steady and healthy growth 
in all lines in the present pastorate. During 
the last year a fine pipe organ has been pur- 
chased and paid for, completing the equipment 
of the church. 

The present Official Board comprises: Local 
Preacher, Loyal T. Smith; Sunday-school Su- 
perintendent, D. W. Hoffman; Trustees — M. 
K. Barrett, "W". F. Cronemiller, B. F. Pike; 
Stewards— L. P. Smith, Charles Cox, W. F. 
Cronemiller, Albert Jones, L. E. Smith, M. K. 
Barrett, D. W. Hoffman, S. E. Hesser, D. C. 
Smith, B. F. Pike, J. H. Hillhouse, R. F. 
Rooney; Class-leaders — B. F. Pike, L. T. Smith, 
Mrs. S. E. Hesser. Rev. Thomas Filben, the 
Pastor, is ex officio the Chairman of the Official 
Board, L. E. Smith is Secretary, M. K. Barrett, 
Treasurer, and Charles Co.k, Collector. 

A German Methodist Church was organized 
in Sacramento in 1856, but a debt finally, in 
1866-'67, caused it to be broken up. 

St. Andreio''s Church, African. Methodist 
Episcopal., was organized in the fall of 1850, by 

Rev. Isaac Owen, formerly mentioned, at the 
residence of "Uncle Daniel Blue," on I street, 
between Fourth and Fifth. A house of worship 
was soon erected, on the site of the present build- 
ing, on the east side of Seventh street, between 
G and H. The latter, of brick, is a large build- 
ing, erected in the fall of 1867. 

The first officers were Daniel Blue, P. Jones 
and John Wilson. The first Pastor was James 
Fitzgerald, who occupied tliat position in 1851 
-'52. The successive Pastors to date have been : 
George Fletcher, 1852-'53; Barney Fletcher, 
1853-'54; Darius Stokes, 1855-'56; T. M. D. 

Ward, 1857-'64:; John J.Jenifer, ■; James 

H. Hubbard, 1870-'71; J. C. Hamilton, 1873 
-'74; J. F. Jordan, 1874-'75; James R. Dor- 
sey, 1875-'78; L N. Triplett, 1878-'80; James 
R. Dorsey, 1880-'85; Jordan Allen, 1885-'87; 
O. Sumniers, from September, 1887, to the 
present. There are forty-six members. The 
Stewards are: A. Giles, Albert Buchanan, J. 
Crosby, Jesse Slaughter and Isaiah Dunlap; 
Mr. Giles is also the Class-Leader, and Mrs. J. 
R. Dorsey the Sunday-school Superintendent. 

Methodist Episcopal Ghxirch^ South, was 
organized in April, 1850, by Rev. W. D. Pol- 
lock, who also was the principal man in the 
building of a frame church directly afterward, 
on the site of the present large brick structure, 
on the east side of Seventh street, between J 
and K. The latter was dedicated by Bishop 
Pierce, July 10, 1859. Cost of building, $4,000. 
The first building was burned November 2, 
1852. During the last year, 1888, $500 has 
been expended in repairs and improvements; 
but since the advent of the present pastor. Rev. 
A. C. J^ane, October, 1888, the congregation 
has so increased that the church has decided to 
sell the building and erect a more commodious 

In the fall of 1850, Mr. Pollock, on account 
of ill-health, returned to Alabama, where he 
died in the following year. His successor, at 
Sacramento, was a Rev. Mr. Penman, who re- 
mained only a short time, when he abandoned 
the ministry and engaged in other pursuits. 


Since then tlie successive Pastors to date have 
been as follows: 

W. K. Gobcr, 1851-'52; Joliii Mattliews, of 
Tennessee, from August, 1852-April, 1853; 1!. 
F. Crouch, appointed by Bishop Soule, 1853- 
April, 1855; A. Graham, April, 1855-October, 
1856; W. R. Gober, October, 1856-October, 
1858; Morris Evans, 1858-'60; J. C. Simmons, 
1861-'62; S. Brown, 1862-63; George Sim, 
1863-'65; E. K. Miller, 1865-'66; T. H. B. 
Anderson, 1866-'68; George Sim, 1868-'69; 
W. R. Gober, 1869-'72; T. L. Moody, 1872-'73; 
C. Chamberlain, 1873-'75; B. F. Page, 1875, 
to fill out Mr. Chamberlain's time; R. Pratt, 
1875-'76; M. C. Fields, 1876-'78; C. Y. Ran- 
kin, 1878-'79; T. H. B. Anderson. 1879-'82; 
F. Walter Featherstone, 1882-'83; H. C. Chris- 
tian,' 1883-'87; George B. Winton, 1887-'88; 
A. C. Bane, October, 1888, to the present. 

The present membership is 168. The Stew- 
ards are: T. A. Snider, George Wait, P. H. 
Russell, George D. Irvine, U. C. Billingsly, J. 
11. Wolf and J. R. Martyr. Local Preachers, 
W. M. Armstrong and F. M. Odom. The spir- 
itual life of the churcli has been greatly quick- 
ened since Mr. Bane has become the pastor, and 
the membership increased by about fifty. 

Eheneser Church, Eoancjelieal Association 
[German). — This was organized in 1881, and 
has now thirty six members. The present 
church building, on Tenth street, between O 
and P, is about 86 x 60 feet in size, and was 
built in 1882. The old building, owned by the 
" Trinity Church," Evangelical Association, was 
sold in 1887. That society was disbanded a 
number of years ago. 

The Pastors of the present church have been 
Rev. F. W. Fischer, who has gone to Japan, 
and Rev. August Heinhaus, since June 1, 1886, 
who is from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He is also 
the Class-leader and the Sunday-school Super- 
intendent, being assisted in these relations by 
John Bachofen. A fine parsonage is on the lot 
adjoining that of the church. 

United Brethren in (Jhrifit. — The first steps 
toward tlie formation of a church of tliis denom- 

ination in Sacramento were taken by the Rev. 
Alexander Musselman, in the years 1875-'76. 
The result of his preliminary prospecting was a 
series of meetings lield in the Calvary Baptist 
Cliurch on I street, between Twelfth and Thir- 
teenth, by Reverends J. 11. Becker and Mr. 
Field,. This was sometime in 1876. In the 
fall of that year the present organization was 
effected, and the old church building belonging 
to the Baptists, and known as the Fourth Street 
Baptist Church, was purchased for $3,000. For 
some reason the matter was delayed, and posses- 
sion of the property was not obtained- until 
November, 1877. In September, 1878, the 
house was removed to the corner of Fourteenth 
and K streets, when it was raised six feet, re- 
paired, painted, ;ind furnished, at a cost of about 
$2,800. On the lot adjoining west a parsonage 
was erected in 1884, at a cost of $1,600. The 
membership this year (1889) is sixty, of whom 
Mrs. S. E. Thompson is Class-leader, and Mr. 
Hagenbaugh, Steward. M. Moyer is the Sun- 
day-school Superintendent. 

Pastors — Revs. H. J. Becker, September, 
1877, to September, 1878; D. D. Hart, 1878 to 
1881, when he died, in the pulpit; H. J. Becker, 
for different periods; Revs. Field, Demondrum 
to 1883; Francis Fisher, two years; T. J. Ban- 
der, to September, 1888, and J. W. Baumgard- 
ner to date. 

German Lutheran Church. — In 1865-'67 Rev. 
Mr. Buehler, of San Francisco, and Rev. Mr. 
Elbert ])reached here a few times and endeav- 
ored to establish a church, but without success. 
Then Rev. Matthias Goethe, formerly of Aus- 
tralia, began work in this city, organized the 
church January 19, 1868, and purchased the 
old German Methodist Church building on the 
corner of Ninth and K streets, for $2,400. F. 
Klotz, H. Winters, H. W. Schacht, F. Hopie 
and A. Grafmiller were elected Trustees. This 
building was afterward sold, and the present 
Irame structure, 160 feet square, on the corner 
of Twelfth and K streets, was erected, in 1872- 
'73, at a cost, including the three bells, of about 
$15,000. The congregation has fiourished un- 


til it has reached a membership of about 400. 
Attendance at Sunday-school, 200. In the pas- 
toral relation Mr. Goethe was succeeded by 
Kevs.T. Langehecker, Ur.C. Taubner, 1876-'87, 
and John Jatho, from Nebraska, since Novem- 
ber of the latter year. 

Christian Chvrch, or Disciples of Christ. — 
On the ISth of October, 1855, Elders J. N. 
Tendegast and Thomas Thompson conducted the 
iirst religious services of this denomination ever 
held in this city. The place of meeting was in 
the Methodist brick church, which still stands 
on the east side of Seventh street, between J 
and K streets. The officers then appointed 
were: John O. Garrett and li. B. Ellis, Elders; 
Kufns Rigdon and A. M. C. Depue, Deacons. 
The present neat chapel on Eighth street, be- 
tween N and O, was erected in 1S77, at an ex- 
pense of $4,500, including lot. For this en- 
terprise the church is mainly indebted to Elder 
J. N. Pendegast. The building has recently 
been greatly improved. There are now about 
150 members in the church fellowship. Tiie 
present Elders are T. P. Taylor and Jerry Bur- 
Ion; Deacons, W. Z. Clark, Hiram Garrett, J. O. 
March and Henry Garrett. Mr. March is also act- 
ing Clerk and the Sunday-school Superintendent. 

The Pastors have been: John G. Parrish, 

Stevenson (who published a paper here), J. N. 
Pendegast (editing the same paper), Peter Bur- 
nett, P. H. Cutter, Ale.\. Johnson, E. B. Ware 
(now in Oakland), R. L. McHatton (now at Eu- 
reka, California), and since July, 1888, L. N. 

Seventh-Daij At/ventid Chtirch.— Tins body 
was tirst organized in Sacramento, February 6, 
1885, with ten members, by Elder E. A. Briggs, 
at that time a resident of Oakland. In Octo- 
ber, 1887, the name was changed from Pleasant 
Grove to Sacramento, etc., it having first bisen 
organized at I'leasant Grove, Sutter County. 
E. Banta is Leader and Deacon ; Mrs. E. Banta is 
Church Clerk. Membership, twenty-seven. T. 
W. Clark, Superintendent of Sunday-school. 
Stated meetings are held at the United Brethren 
Church, and prayer-iuceting Wednesday even- 

ings at the residence of Mr. Clark. The mem- 
bers of this church keep Saturday as the Sabbath. 
In March, 1872, a "Second Advent Churcli," 
who kept Sunday as the Sabbath, was organized 
by Elder Miles Grant, had at one time as many 
as thirty members, but went down in about four 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ, of Lat- 
ter-Day Saints. — Tliis body (anti-polygamist) 
was organized in Sacramento in 1865; met for 
a time in the Chinese Chapel on Sixth street, 
between I and H, then in Graham's Hall, then 
in the lower hall of the Masonic Building, and 
finally, in 1884, built a neat frame church 34x44 
feet in dimensions, on the corner of Twenty- 
fourth and K streets, at an outlay of $2,100. 
The society, now comprising 180 members, is 
entirely out of debt. These people havebeen 
in a position to accomplish more toward the de- 
struction of polygamy than any other Christian 
body in proportion to their numbers, and have 
improved their opportunity. Victory is coming 
as fast as the laws of human nature will admit. 
The head of this church is Joseph Smith, Jr., 
now of Limoni, Iowa. 

The Elders who have served the society here 
in the pastoral relation have been : E. H. Webb, 
G. W. Harlow, J. H. Parr, since 1884, and per- 
haps others. The church is not yet lully organ- 
ized, but at present J. R. Cook is Traveling 
Elder; Owen Dinsdale, Local Elder; Mrs. Chris- 
tina Blair, Clerk. \ Sunday-school of about 
thirty pupils is maintained. Elder George W. 
Harlow, of Brighton, is President of this district. 
Preaching at 11 o'clock a. m. every Sunday. 

A small society of •' Brighamite" (polygamy) 
Mormons existed in Sacramento from 1872 lor 
a few years. 

Unitarian Church. — Rev. Brown, I'rom New 
England, preached the iirst Unitarian sermon 
in Sacramento, December 29, 1867, in the Met- 
ropolitan Theatre. The following spring the 
"First Unitarian Church of Sacramento" was 
formed, and increased to 100 members in a short 
time, but in 1873 went down. In 1887 it was 
reorganized, and it now has about tifty members. 


who worship in Pioneer Hall. A lot on Sixteenth 
street, between K and L, has been purchased 
whereon to erect a house of worship. Rev. C. 
P. Massey, the Pastor, preaches occasionally, and 
superintends the Sunday-sciiool, which is in a 
flourishing condition. J. M. Avery is Assistant 

Congregation B'' nai Israel. — Previous to the 
formation of the present society in 1852, there 
had been another organization, whose meetings 
were held at the residence of Mr. M. Ilyman, 
who kept a jewelry store on Front street. The 
officiating minister was Rev. Mr. Wolf. The 
first synagogue owned in this city was a small 
frame building which stood on Fifth street, be- 
tween N and O. It was alterward sold to the 
colored Baptists, and used by them as a house 
of worship until its destruction by fire in 1861. 
After this, the frame house on Seventh street, 
near L, was purchased of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church for $8,500, and converted into a 
synagogue. This, too, was destroyed by fire in 
1861, in October. In the early part of 1864, 
the congregation purchased their present build- 
ing on Sixth street, between J and K, previously 
occupied by the First Presbyterian Church, and 
since then greatly remodeled. Here they meet 
every Saturday and Sunday, maintain a school 
of children and religious services generally. Of 
the congregation, L. Elkus is President; Max 
Levy, Vice-President; S. Morris, Secretary; J. 
Ginsberg, Treasurer. They also own a neat 
buryingground. It is a strong society and in 
excellent financial condition. 

The Rabbis have been: Revs. Mr. Wolf; Z. 
Nenstadter, 1857-59; R. Rosenthal, 1859-'60; 
S. Peck, 1860-'61; R. M. Cohen, 1861-'62; M. 

Siiverstein, 1862-'65; Stamper, 1865-'68; 

II. P. Lowenthal, 1868--'79; S. Gerstman (who 
led in changing the society from "orthodox" to 
"reformed"), 1879-'81; J. Bloch, 1882-'83; 
G. Taubenhaus, 1884 to July, 1888. At this 
writing no one is engaged as rabbi. 
TUK sociKrrKS. 
All Masonic and Odd Fellows and Knights 
of societies meet in their respective 

halls mentioned in the following list, unless 
otherwise indicated, while the places of meeting 
of all the other societies are mentioned in the 
respective sketches. The following is a list of 
the principal halls: 

Masonic Temple, southwest corner of Sixth 
and K. 

Odd P'ellows' Temple, corner of Ninth and K. 
Red Men's Hall, in Masonic Temple. 
Grangers' Hall, corner of Tenth and K. 
Pioneer Hall, east of Seventh street, between 
J and K. 

Union Hall, corner of Twentieth and O streets. 
Firemen's Hall, west side of Eighth street, 
between J and K. 

Armory Hall, southwest corner of Sixth and 
L streets. 

Y. M. I. (Young Men's Institute) Hall, east 
side of Seventh street, between K and L. 

Knights of Pythias Temple, northwest corner 
of Ninth and I streets. 

Sacramento Commander ij. No. 2, K. T.- — 
The commandery was organized July 5, 1853, 
with the following charter members and first 
officers: Isaac Davis, Commander; Jesse Mer- 
rill, Generalissimo; T. A. Thomas, Captain 
General. Other charter members were: C. I. 
Hutchinson, A. B. Hoy, John L. Thompson, 
Charles Dnncombe, J. P. Goucli and James 
M. Stockley. The membership is now 190. 
Stated meetings, the first Saturday of each 
month. The officers are: William B. Davis, 
Eminent Commander; William D. Knight, 
Generalissimo; John E. T. Pike, Captain Gen- 
eral; John W. Rock, Prelate; Richard P. Burr, 
S. W., Joseph Davey, J. W.; A. A. Van Voor- 
hies. Treasurer; A. A. Redington, Recorder; 
William R. Jones, Standard-Bearer; -lames E. 
Mills, Sword-Bearer; V. Dresher, Warder; 
Richard Vaughn, Harry Ingham and Charles G. 
Woodburn, Captains of the Guard; George F. 
Bronner, Sentinel. 

Sacramento Chapter, No. 3, R. A. M., was 
instituted October 5, 1852, with the following 
charter members and first ofticers: Isaac Davis, 
H. P.; J. II. i^.ullanl, K.; Joel Noah, S.; T. A. 


Thomas, C. of II.; Charles Diineombe, P. S.; J. 
Ball, K. A. C; J. P. Gouch, M. 3d Vice; G. 
Haines, M. 2d Vice; J. Wilcoxsen, M. 1st Vice. 
Others who were charier members: A. B. Hoy, 
T. W. Thayer, John L. Thompson, Jesse Mor- 
rill, "William Eeynolds, I. N. Bricelaiid, A. 
Hnllnb, Cyrus Eowe. The chapter has at 
present 274 members. Present officers: Kufns 
B. Harmon, H. P.; John W. Kock, King; 
Richard P. Bnrr, Scribe; Edward Lyon, Treasu- 
rer; "William B. Davis, Secretary; Jacob Hyman, 
Jr., Captain of the Host; William E. Oughton, 
Prin. Soj.; Lewis B. Littlefield, II. A. C; John 
Hurley, M. 3d V.; Preston L. Lykins, M. 2d 
v.; James E. Mills, M. 1st V.; George F. 
Bronner, Guard. Meet the first Tuesday of the 

St. John Chapter, B. A.M. (colored), was or- 
ganized in 1875, and at present numbers twenty 
members. R. J. Fletcher, H. P.; I. Dunlap, 
King; Frank Butler, Scribe; Rev. J. R. Dor- 
sey, Secretary: "William S. Lee, Treasurer. This 
chapter meets the second Monday of each month, 
over Armory Hall. 

Sacramento Council, No. 1., R. cfc S. 31., 
was organized April 10, 1858, with the follow- 
ing lirst officers and charter members: Isaac 
Davis, T. L M.; John A. Tutt, D. L M.; Geo. 
I. N. Monell, P. C. of "W.; G. E. Montgomery, 
Recorder; N. Greene Curtis, Treasurer. Others 
who were also charter members: Jesse Morrill, 
T. A. Thomas, G. Haines, H. H. Hartley, O. H. 
Dibble, A. G. Richardson and J. "Wilcoxsen, 
none of whom are now active members. There 
are at present 207 members, who meet the last 
Monday of each month. Officers: John Hur- 
ley, Thrice Illustrious Master; "William H. 
Davis, Deputy Illustrious Master; Valentine 
Dresher, Principal Conductor of the "Work; 
"William R.Miller, Treasurer; "William B.Davis, 
Recorder; Harry Ingham, Captain of the Guard, 
William E. Oughton, Conductor; Richard 
Vaughan, Steward; George F. Bronner, Sentinel. 

Palestine Lodge of Perfection, No. 2, Scot- 
tish-Rite 3lasonrij. — This system of Masonry 
was first introduced in Sacramento in 1869, but 

not in a proper manner, and the lodge was per- 
mitted to go down about 1873. The present 
lodge was organized February 9, 1884, and now 
has about eighty members in good standing. 
The society includes the Council of Princes of 
Jerusalem, Chapter of Rose Croix and Council 
of the Knights of Kadosh, all of which confer 
certain degrees, numbering twenty-nine in all; 
that is, commencing with the third degree, that 
of Master Mason, they confer twenty-nine more, 
making a total of thirty-two. The officers are: 
C. LI. Denton, Thrice Potent; C. "W. "Wallace, 
Senior "Warden; A. F. Robinson, Junior "War- 
den, and Alexander Dunn, Secretary. Of the 
Council of Princes, H. A. Burnett is S. P. G. 
M.; of the Chapter of Rose Croix, Joseph 
Davey is M. "W.; and of the Council of Kadosh, 
Powell S. Lawson is Illustrious Commander. 
The meetings are held in Red Men's Hall. 

Tehama Lodge, No. 3, P". cfc A. M., was first 
opened under the name of Connecticut Lodge, 
No. 75, January 8, 1850, by Caleb Fenner, un- 
der the authority of the Connecticut Grand 
Lodge. In April following the Grand Lodge 
of California was organized, and the Sacramento 
blue lodge was given its present name; and it 
might have been numbered 1 with as much pro- 
priety as the first San Francisco lodge was so 
numbered. In November the Past Masters and 
Masters were numbered twenty-nine. This lodge 
being 'the oldest in Sacramento, if not in the 
State, has had a long and interesting history, 
which we would like to give did spate permit. 
The present membership is 102, and the officers 
are: Clarence M. Nelson, Worshipful Master; 
Theodore G. Filers, Senior Warden ; John E. T. 
Pike, Junior Warden; Alonzo Conklin, Treas- 
urer; William B. Davis, Secretary; William H. 
Davis, S. D.; William A. Gett, Jr., J. D.; 
George M. Woodburn and Charles G. Wood- 
burn, Stewards; Peter Durno, Marshal; and 
George F. Bronner, Tiler. 

The lodge meets the first Monday of each 

Washington Lodge, No. 20, P". c& A. II., was 
chartered May 5, 1852, the first preliminary 


meeting having been held February 19 preced- 
ing. Under the dispensation granted February 
21, 1852, tlie following were elected officers, on 
the 26th. Charles Duncombe, Worshipful Mas- 
ter; Jes^e Morrill, Senior Warden; J. L. Thomp- 
son, Junior Warden; George I. N. Morrill, 
Treasui-er; John R. Atkins, Secretary; James 
A. Bullard, S. D.; Joel Ball, J. D.; G. Haines 
and N. Greene Curtis, Stewards; IT. Thiol, 
Tiler. In May Mr. Curtis was elected Worship- 
ful Master. 

To-day there are si.xty-three members of this 
lodge, who meet the first Thursday of the month. 
Officers: W. A. Potter, Worshipful Master; C. 

E. Burnham, Senior Warden; R. U. Gay, Junior 
Warden; W. C. Felch, Treasurer; E. Glover, 
Secretary; C. E. Flye, S. D.; F. T. Johnson, J. 
D.; W. W. Marvin, Jr., Marshal; C. E. Wright, 
and C. R. Hayford, Stewards; E. Roth, Tiler. 

Sacramento Lodge, No. Ifi, F & A. M. — A 
dispensation was granted July 20, 1853; the 
lodge was organized July 26, 1853, and the 
charter granted May 6, 1854. The first officers 
and other charter members were: James L. 
English, W. M.; John A. Tutt, S. W.; John 
H. Goss, J. W.; John Q. Brown, S.; J. Wil- 
coxsen, T.; D. St. C. Stevens, S. D.; O. D. 
Chaffee, J. D.; A. F. Rodgers, B. F. Crouch, 
Jr., P. Edwards, R. B. Ellis, J. F. Montgomery, 
A. Asher, Isaac Davis, James H. Bullard, John 
Heard, W. W. Stovall, Jacob Kohlmanu, John 

F. Morse, O. C. Wheeler, James Anthony, W. 
P. Henry and H. Greenbaum. The present 
officers are: Jay R. Brown, W. M.; Rufus B. 
Harmon, S. W.; William F. George, J. W.; 
William M. Petrie, Treas.; Frank E. Lambert, 
Sec; Marshall Hale, Jr., S. D.; L. P. Scott, J. 
D.; Charles H. Denton, Marshal; J. W. Reeves 
and Adam Andrews, Stewards. The lodge 
meets the first Friday of each month. It com- 
prises 146 members. 

Union Lodge, No. 58, F. cfe A. Jf.— The 
organization was effected May 4, 1854, and the 
charter granted May 15, 1855. The charter 
members and officers were: J. H. Ralston, W. 
M.; G. Haines, S. W.; A. Waters, J. W.; A. 

Andrews, T.; E. Block, Jr., S.; S. Kohlmann, 
S. D.; L. Keller, J. D. ; H. G. Tiiiel, Tiler; 
William Agar, George Chorpening, F. Dattelz- 
weig, M. Einstein, John Fitz Patrick, M. Gold- 
stein, D. S. Graham, Joseph Harris, Thomas 
Hutchinson, Marcus Kohn, Morris Kohn, S. 
Kyburg, L. Lehmann, L. Lewis, Julius Lyon, 
A. Mayer, P. Mayerby, F. Mandlebauin, M. 
Marks, L. Openheim, S. Openheim, J. Wal- 
doner, Ed. AVise and E. J. Willis. None of 
these are now active members of this lodge. 
There are at present 153 members, and their 
time of meeting is the first Wednesday of each 
month. Lodge prosperous and enjoying, the 
best of feeling fraternally. Officers at present: 
W. H. Baldwin, W. M.; James Edgar Mills, S. 
W.; B. W. Flye, J. W.; A. Meister, Treas.; 
John McArthur, Sec; Harry Ingham, S. D.; 

A. W. Edwards, J. D.; John R. Watson, Mar- 
shal; Alphonse Dennery and Aaron Garlick, 
Stewards; J. O. Wilder, Tiler. 

Concord Lodge, No. 117, F. db A. M., was 
organized May 15, 1857, with the following 
charter members and first officers: J. L. Thomp- 
son, W. M.; J. L. Polhemus, S. W.; Levi 
Hermance, J. W.; J. B'riederichs, T. ; William 
Sinclair, S.; David Deal, C; L. H. Frazelle, S. 
D.; W. H. Baxter, J. D.; E. Jacobs and John 
Reny, Stewards; N. A. Kidder, Tiler. Other 
charter members: C. S. White, S. Friederichs, 
J. P. Thompson, P. L. Buddivent. The officers 
last January were: Joseph Davey, W. M. ; E. 

B. Carroll, S. W.; J. W. Guthrie, J. W.; John 
Gruhler, Treas.; W. H. Hevener, Sec; L. C. 
Schindler, S. D.; Richard Watkins, J. D.; M. 
Stine and H. Longton, Stewards; H. A. Heil- 
bron. Marshal; N. A. Kidder, Tiler. Stated 
meetings, the second Tuesday of each month. 
Seventy-seven members. 

Jennings Lodge, No. 4, and Sutter Lodge, 
No. 6, F. & A. M., organized in 1849-'50, sur- 
rendered their charters in 1853. 

Philomathean Lodge, No. 2, F. & A. M. 
(colored), working under a charter obtained from 
England, was organized November 6, 1853, has 
at present about thirty members, and meets the 


lirst and third Mondays of every month, over 
Armory Hall. The officers at this time are: 

Isaiah Dm 


Carter Jackson, S. W.; 

Ilev. J. R. Dorsey, Sec; F. M. Itay, Treas. 

Naomi C'Ii.apter\ No. 36, 0. E. S., was in- 
stituted May 3, 1879, with the following charter 
members and officers: Mrs. E. M. Froot, W. 
M.; J. N. Young, W. P.; Mrs. M. J. Cravens, 
A. M.; E. C. Atkinson, Sec; "W. H. Hevener^ 
T. ; Mrs. A.J. Atkinson, Chap.; Miss H. A. 
Palmer, C; Miss M. A. Stanton, A. C; Mrs. 
A. Coglan, Adah; Mrs. G. Van Voorhies, Ruth; 
Mrs. M. E. Parsons, Esther; Mrs. E. M. Hart- 
ley, Martha; Mrs. C. P. Huntoon, Electra; 
Mrs.'M. F. McLaughlin, W.; J. T. Griffitts, 
Sentinel. Within a few weeks there were forty 
members, but there are now 110 members, 
working in harmony and with satisfactory re- 
sults. The lodge meets the second and fourth 
Wednesdays of each month, in Masonic Hall. 
The officers are: Mrs. Hannah Wright, Worthy 
Matron; William B. Miller, Worthy Patron; 
Mrs. Ella Hatch, Associate Matron ; Mrs. M.J. 
Craven, Sec; Mrs. Kacliel Adams, Treasurer; 
Mrs. Sal lie White, Cond.; Mrs. Minnie Kolli- 
ker. Associate Conductress; Mrs. Mattie Hunt, 
AVarden; Mrs. Hannah Harper, Sentinel. 

Ada Chapter, No. 2, 0. E. S. (colored), was 
established in 1871, with twenty-nine members; 
now there are thirty-five, who meet the first and 
third Tuesdays of each month, over Armory 
Hall. The officers are: Mrs. Lillie Peck, W. 
M.; Rev. J. R. Dorsey, W. P.; Mrs. R. T. 
Johnson, A. M.; Mrs. Ella Dorsey, Sec; Mrs. 
H. Sioall, Treas.; Mrs. Jennie Lee, C; Mrs. E. 
Jackson, A. C; Mrs. A. Jackson, Warder; Mrs. 
C. Jackson, Sentinel; of the Central Star, Miss 
S. M. Jones is Ada; Mrs. E. Penney, Ruth; 
Mrs. Jennie Emory, Queen Esther; Mrs. Jen- 
kins, Martha; Mrs. H. G. Murrals, Electra. 

In this connection it may be mentioned that 
Dr. R. J. Fletcher, who has been the founder 
and chief spirit of Freemasonry among the 
colored people of SacramentQ, and founder of 
the order on the Pacific Coast, was instrumental 
in the establishment of the Grand Chapter, O. 

E. S. (colored), which was organized December 

27, 1882. Many of the details of its history 
must be omitted here, for want of space. The 
present officers residing in Sacramento are: 
Peter Powers, 1st G. P.; Mrs. -Virginia John- 
son, G. M.; Mrs. Lillie Peck, G. T.; Mrs. Rachel 
Johnson, G. S. 

The Chinese have a sign out at the street door 
on Second street, near I, in English letters, 
"Freemasons;" but as we did not understand 
Chinese, nor they Volapiik, we were unable to 
learn anything concerning their institution here. 
It is rumored that they have a few things in 
common with the secret service of occidental 

Masonic Hall Assooiation. — To accommodate 
the many lodges in Sacramento with a good and 
well-furnished hall, steps were taken as early as 
1864 to erect au appropriate building. Sep- 
tember 17, that year, an association for the 
purpose was formally incorporated, with a capi- 
tal stock of $30,000. The building was com- 
pleted within a year, on the southwest corner of 
Sixth and K streets. It is 60x90 feet in di- 
mensions, having a basement and three stories. 
An addition was subsequently made to this, and 
the present structure is a substantial and im- 
posing one. These are the present officers: 
Trustees— William B. Davis, S. W. Butler, C. 
N. Snell, J. R. Watson, William R. Jones, 
William M. Petrie, William E. Oughton, Will- 
iam B. Miller, John W. Rock. The board 
organized by the election of J. R. Watson, Pres- 
ident; C. N. Snell, Vice-President; William B. 
Davis, Secretary, and William M. Petrie, Treas- 
urer. The association is now free of debt. 
Regular meetings the second Monday of every 

Sacramento Lodge, No. 2, I. 0. 0. F. — Gen- 
eral A. M. Winn has the credit of introducing 
Oddfellowship in Sacramento as early as Au- 
gust, 1849; but the complete organization of 
the first lodge was not eft'ected until January 

28, 1851, when the following became the char- 
ter members: Horatio E. Roberts, George H. 
Peterson, George G. Wright, Lucius A. Booth, 


Samuel Deal, M. Kaliski, Robert Robinson, N. 
C. Cuniiingliam, M. C. Collins and William 
Childs. The following were installed as offi- 
cers: Horatio E. Roberts, N. G.; G. H. Peter- 
son, V. G.; Georgo G. Wright, Secretary; Lu- 
cius A. Booth, Treasurer. Meetings were at 
first held in the lodge-room of the Freemasons. 

Of this, the oldest lodge, there are now 235 
members, and the officers are: J. G. Cox, N.G.; 
M. C. Doherty, Y. G.; N. W. Robbins, R. S.; 

E. Hadix, P. S.; Joseph Bories, Treasurer; P. 

F. Herenger, J. F. G. 

The lodge meets every Saturday evening. 

Exireka Lodge., No. i, I. 0. 0. F. — On Janu- 
ary 7, 1852. Eureka Lodge, No. 4, was organ- 
ized, with the following charter members and 
first officers: George I. N. Monell, N. G.; 
Thomas Sunderland, V. G. ; A. P. Andrews, 
R. S. ; William H. Watson, Treasurer; John 
Turner, R. S. N. G.; R. Porter, L. S. N. G.; 
W. H. Tilley, R. S. V. G.; W. H. Hall, L. S. 
V. G.; Thomas M. Davis, Warden; A. J. 
Lucas, Conductor; also David Hall and Jesse 
Morrill. At present the membership is 153, 
and the principal officers are: B. C. Brier, N. 
G.; W. L. Gifford, V. G.; E. Glover, Secretary; 
M. Miller, Treasurer. Meetings every Wednes- 
day evening. 

El Dorado Lodge, No. 8, L. 0. 0. F., was 
organized September 24, 1852, with the follow- 
ing charter members and officers: J. F. Clout- 
man, N. G.; J. L. Polhemus, V. G.; L. D. 
Kelly, R. S. ; George W. Chedic, Treasurer; A. 
B. Armstrong, L. Korn, James Levi, Thomas 
B. Moore, Joseph S. Korn, James S. Scott and 
W. Prosser, in all eleven. There are now 190 
members, with the following officers: Andrew 
Carlaw, J. P. G.; James McCaw, N. G.; George 
P. Boyne, V. G.; B. Shields, Recording Secre- 
tary; L. Salomon, Permanent Secretary; M. A. 
Howard, Treasurer. Stated meetings every 
Monday evening. 

Schiller Lodge, No. 105, I. 0. 0. F.—On 
June 26, 1862, this lodge was organized with 
the following officers and charter members: S. 
J. Nathan, N.G.; Joseph Schawb, V.G.; Charles 

Schwartz, Secretary ; Charles Djhn, P. S.; L. C 
Mendelson, Treasurer; Lewis Korn, H. Thiel- 
bahrt, Anton Wagner, A. Meier, George Ochs, 
F. Gotthold, Jacob Klippell, Louis Greenebaum, 
Peter Kunz and George Guth. There are now 
172 members. Present officers: Charles G. 
Noack, N. G.; John Rolir, V. G.; P. Peikert, 
Recording Secretary; Emil Schmitt, Permanent 
Secretary; F. Mackfessel, Treasurer. The meet- 
ings are Thursday evenings. 

Capitol Lodge, No. 87, I. o'. 0. F., has 
elected officers for the ensuing term as follows: 
O. A. Lovdal, N. G.; E. G. Messner, V. G.; 
W. A. Stephenson, Recording Secretary; L. B. 
Yan Denberg, Permanent Secretary; R. Davis, 
Treasurer; W. D. Stalker, Trustee. 

Industrial Lodge, No. 157, 1. 0. 0. i^.— This 
lodge was organized April 24, 1869. The fol- 
lowing were the first officers and charter mem- 
bers: G. W. Carroll, N. G.; J. M. Ripley, Y. 
G.; J. A. Seaman, Recording Secretary; G. A. 
Stoddard, Permanent Secretary; John Rippon, 
Treasurer. The charter members were: G. B. 
Dean, T. P. Ford, I. C. Shaw, Charles Noyes, 
C. C. Ault, H. C. Wolf, J. M. Anderson, M. 
Phelan, B. F. Huntley, S. H. Gerrish, Royal 
Preston, W. F. Emmerson, R. McRae, J. L. 
Gerrish. P. Bolger, G. F. Pattisou, W. D. Ham- 
mond, J. S. Phillbrick, George Landon, M. 
Favero, E. E. Masters, W. C. Gent, John 
Thomas, Add. Crandall, J. C. Carroll and F. 
Woodward. Twelve of these are still active 
members. At the present time the lodge has 
just celebrated its twentieth anniversary, and 
the active members number 240. The value of 
property and funds of the lodge is $12,000. 
For the year ending December 31, 1888, $976 
was paid for benefits; $480 to widows, $129.20 
for charity; total amount of disbursements for 
the year, $2,500. The average age of members 
is thirty-four years. 

The lodge meets on Saturday evenings in Fra- 
ternity Hall, I. O. O. F. Temple, Ninth and K 
streets. It has a fine degree staff, and the evi- 
dence of its prosperity is indicated in the inter- 
est manifested by the members of this team. 


The officers of the first term of the year 1889 
are: C. M. ILuiison, N. G.; A. Felt, V.G.; J. 
L. Robinette, Recording Secretary; J. II. Fer- 
guson, Perinaiieiit Secretary; James Stewart, 

Pacific Eiicaiiipment, No. 2, I. 0. 0. F., 
was organized July 29, 1853, with eight char- 
ter members. These were: Matthew Parden, P. 
C. P.; 0. C. Hayden, P. C. P.; Thomas W. 
Davis, P. H. P.; W. H. Watson, P. H. P; John 
F. Morse, P. 'Robinson, A. J. Lucas and Walter 
Prosser. The chief officers this year are: P. S. 
Watson, C. P.; II. G. Hays, H. P.; A. Carlaw, 
S. W.; E. Glover, Scribe; S. B. Smith, Treas- 
urer. The members now number 116, and their 
times of meeting the first and tiiird Tuesdays 
of the month. 

Occidental Encampment., No. 1^2, 1. 0. 0. F., 
was instituted November 14, 1871. S. S. Nixon, 
P. L. Hickman, J. F. Clark, F. H. McCormick, 
R. Davis, Nelson Wilcox and W. M. Reese 
were the charter members. Death has removed 
one of the number; the remaining six are still 
members. Encampment numbers 100 members 
and its assets amount to $3,500. Nights of 
meeting, second and fourth Tuesdays in each 
mouth. Present elective officers are: H. F. G. 
Wultf, C. P.; W. W. Wright, H. P.; J. H. Fer- 
guson, S. AV.; E. B. Hussey, Scribe; Nelson 
Wilcox, Treasurer; and W. L. Brunson, J. W. 

Capital Lodge, No. 87, I. O. 0. i^'.— This 
was instituted June 10, 1859, by D. D. G. M. 
Samuel Cross, with the following first officers 
and charter members: E. F. White, N. G.; C. 
M. Mason, V. G. ; John McClintock, S.; Amos 
Woods, T. Other charter members: E. M. 
Ileiiston, G. A. Basler, C. B. Steane, Lewis 
Shuck, Thomas B. Byrne, James Bowstead, M. 
M. Estee and F. K. Ivrauth. C. B. Steaue and 
E. F. White are still active members 

The earlier records having been lost, we are 
indebted to the published notices of the lodge 
in the newspapers of that time for these facts 
and names concerning its institution. The pres- 
ent number of members is 306. The value of 
the property of the lodge at the present time is 

estimated to be about $20,000. About $3,500 
are expended annually for charitable purposes 
and in benefits, and since it was organized it 
has paid out over $100,000. Four grand mas- 
ters have been elected from Capital Lodge. 

As for its standing and intellect it is classed 
one oi the leading lodges of the State. Its repre- 
sentatives to the Grand and Sovereign Grand 
lodges have always been men well versed with 
the laws of the order and outside world. 

The officers for the first term, 1889, are: O. 
A. Lordal, N. G.; E. G. Meesner, Y. G.; Wm. 
A. Stephenson, Recording Secretary; L. B. Van 
Denberg, Permanent Secretary; Richmond Da- 
vis, Treasurer. Trustees: W. D. Stalker, Daniel 
Flint and P. E. Piatt. 

Grand Canton Sacramsnto, No. 1, Patri- 
archs Militant, I. 0. 0. _^.— June 14, 1875, 
fifty Odd Fellows organized Sacramento Battal- 
ion, Company A, nearly all of whou) are still con- 
nected with the organization. The first officers 
were: A. H. Powers, Commander; H. A. Bur- 
nett, First Lieutenant; A. Menke, Second Lieu- 
tenant; J. A. Hutch ings. Secretary; G. M. Mott, 
Treasurer; F. Hogeboom, First Sergeant; Jas. 
S. Scott, Second Sergeant; J. H. Miller, Stand- 
ard Bearer; P. E. Piatt and J. li. Stebbins, 
Color Bearers. 

At a regular session, the So\'ereiga Grand 
Lodge, in September, 1882, made a provision for 
the uniformed bodies of Odd Fellows and inau- 
gurated laws and regulations for the same to be 
■known as Degree Camp of Uniformed Patri- 
archs. On January 30, 1883, Sacramento De- 
gree Camp, No. 1, Uniformed Patriarchs, was 
organized with forty-three members and elected 
the following officers for the first term: Ed. M. 
Martin, Commander; Frank Hogaboom, Vice- 
Commander; Wm. A. Stephenson, Secretary; 
Nelson Wilco.K, Treasurer; II. A. Burnett, Offi- 
cer of the Guard; W. E. Piatt, Picket; F. P. 
Lowell, Banner; Charles Cooley, Guard of Tent. 

The first two initiates in the State were W. 
F. Norcross and J. Carlaw. 

In September, 1885, the Sovereign Grand 
Lodge, I. O. O. F., re-organized the military 


branch and changed its name to "Cantons of 
Patriarchs Militant, I. O. O. F.," and also 
adopted a complete set of organic laws, with a 
complete set of military othcers, to be under the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge. 

On March 8, 1886, Grand Canton Sacramento, 
No. 1, Patriarchs Militant, I. O. O. F., was 
organized by General C. W. Breyfogle, with 
eighty charter members, and organized by elect- 
ing the following ottlcers: W. N. Sherbnrnj 
Commander; Elwood Bruner, Lieutenant; S. A- 
Wolfe, Ensign for Canton No. 1; O. W. Erie- 
wine, Captain; Charles Cooley, Lieutenant; and 
C. T. Noyes, Ensign for Canton No. 18, both 
cantons to compose Grand Canton No. 1, who 
elected W. A. Stephenson, Clerk; Nelson Wil- 
cox, Accountant. 

The canton is now in a prosperous condition, 
and with money in its treasury. It can also 
boast of representative members, men of good 
standing in the society. 

Rising Star Lodge, No. 8, Rubekah Degree, 
1. 0. 0. F., was organized December 22, 1871, 
with seventy-one charter members. The first 
officers were: P. G. William S. Hunt, N. G. ; 
Mrs. Ellen Gilman, Y. G.; Mar. ha A. Hunt, R. 
S.; Mrs. W. Eoth, P. S.; Julia Patterson, T. 
Of the charter members, four have died, namely, 
William Patterson, P. G.; Theodore Mass, P. 
G.; T C. Benteen, P. G.; and Peter Zacharias. 
There are now 190 members, with the following 
officers: Mrs. Delia D. Pettit, N. G.; Mrs. 
Emma Dodge, V. G.; George T. Boyd, Record- 
ing Secretary; Mrs. Julia Patterson, Treasurer. 
Meetings the first Tuesday of the month. 

Germania Lodge, No. 31, Eebekah Degree, 
I. 0. 0. F. — The organization of this lodge was 
effected April 27, 1876. It meets every third 
Tuesday in each month, in Temple Hall, Odd 
Fellows' Temple, corner of Ninth and K streets. 
The charter officers were: A. Ileilbron (P. G.), 
N. G.; Mrs. Anna C.Griesel, V. G.; Mrs. Julie 
Fisher, R. S.; Mrs. Fredericke Neuman, F. S. ; 
Mrs. Amilie Meckfe8sel,T.; also, C. E.G. Salle, 
I'. G.; F. Fisher, S. Morris, P. G.; Mrs. Dora 
Morris, Jolni Bolze, P. G. The membership 

has increased from forty-nine to ninety. The 
officers now are: Mrs. Kate Futterar, N. G.; 
Mrs. Elisabeth Kromer, V. G. ; Oscar Ilartig, 
Recording Secretary; Mrs. Emilia Johnson, Per- 
manent Secretary; Mrs. Philippina Schmidt, 

Union Degree Lodge, No. S, 1. 0. 0. F., 
was organized October 7, 1853, with a respecta- 
ble number of members, but it was discontinued 
a few years ago. 

The Veteran Odd Fellows' Association of 
Sacramento was organized in 1833, by a call of 
several veteran Odd Fellows in the city. To 
be eligible to membership in this organization, 
one must have been an Odd Fellow for twenty 
years, and be at the time a member of good 
standing in some subordinate lodge. An organi- 
zation of about forty signed the roll; the present 
membership is about 150. They hold annually 
a l)anquet, when they enjoy a hearty reunion 
and present to the retiring president a gilt 
badge, making liim a " Past President," The 
Past Presidents are: AV, B. Davis, Ezra Pearson, 
S. B. Smith, T. C. Jones, II. B. Neilson and A. 
S. Hopkins. The present officers are: W. B. 
Stalker, President; George B. Dean, Vice-Pres- 
ident; E. J. Clark, Secretary; John AVeil, 

Odd Fellows' General Relief Committee, con- 
sisting of three members from each lodge, 
attends to th'e wants of transient members of the 
order who may be in need. They meet every 
alternate Sunday morning, at 10 o'clock, in Odd 
Fellows' Temple. C. W. Baker, President; 
Benjamin Wilson, Secretary; H. B. Neilson, 
Treasurer. There are now twenty-two regular 
and twenty-five honorary members, comprising 
three from each lodge and the encampment. 
During the past year they have disbursed about 
$3,000. The fund is kept up by contributiotis 
from the lodges and encampment. 

Odd Fellows' Temple Association. — This was 
preceded by the " Hall Association," which was 
incorporated June 25, 1862, with a capital stock 
of $40,000— raised afterward to $80,000— and 
purchased the St. George Hotel building on 


the corner of Fourth and J streets, fitting up 
and keeping it for a number of" years as an Odd 
Fellows lodge and business block. July 26, 
1869, the trustees of the several lodges and 
encampment of the order in the city met and 
resolved to organize the present temple associa- 
tion, who should purchase a lot and erect a fine 
building. This structure, on the northeast 
corner of Ninth and K streets, was completed 
September 23, 1870, and dedicated May 10, 
1871. It has four floors. During the season 
of 1888, a $10,000 addition was made to the 

This association is composed of eleven direct- 
ors, elected annually by the trustees of the 
several lodges holding stock' in the enterprise. 
These directors elect their own ofiicers, who this 
year are: W. D. Stalker, President; S. B. Smith, 
Secretary and Agent; H. B. Neilson, Treasurer. 
The board meets monthly. The stock, $100,000, 
is divided into 1,000 shares, and is held as fol- 

Sacramento Lodge, No. 2 300 

Eureka » " 4 90 

El Dorado " " S 170 

Capital " " 87 200 

Schiller " "105 75 

Industrial " "157 60 

Pacific Encampment, " 2 100 

Occidental " " 42 5 

The association also owns a large plat in a 
fine section of the City Cemetery. 

Sacramento Lodge, No. 2,189, 0. U. 0. ofO. 
F. (colored), was organized July 14, 1881, with 
thirty-one members. The first officers were: 
F. T. Bowers, P N. F.; E. Brown, N. F.; D. A. 
Johnson, P. N. G.; B. A. Johnson, N. G.; R. 
J. Fletcher, Y. G.; H. H. Williams, E. S.; R. 
II. Small, P. S.; W. H. Guinn, W. T.; R. C. 
Ferguson, W. C. There are now twenty-three 
members, of whom the officers are: E. A. Small, 
N. F.; I. T. Sanks, P. N. G.; F. Butler, N. G.; 
Rev. J. R. Dorsey, Y. G.; B. A. Johnson, P. 
S.; W. H. Guinn, W.T. 

This lodge meets the second and fourth Thurs- 
days of every month, in Pioneer Hall. The 
executive authority of this order proceed from 

the national body, under a sub-committee of 
management located at Philadelphia, and acting 
in harmony with the order in England. 

Sacramento Division, No. 7, Uniform Rank, 
K. of P., was instituted in October, 1882, with 
fifty-four charter members, and the following 
officers: James A. Davis, Commander; John 
W. Guthrie, Lieutenant-Commander; Theodore 
Schumacher, Herald; George II. Smith, Treas- 
urer; Frank H. Kiefer, Recorder; George B. 
Katzenstein, Sentinel; Joseph T.Keepers,Guard; 
Charles E. Leonard, Standard Bearer. There 
are now forty-seven members, and these officers: 
T. W. Stevens, Captain; J. J. Thackham, Lieu- 
tenant Captain; J. F. Deitrich, Herald; W. B. 
Oldfield, Recorder; Samuel Katzenstein, Treas- 
urer; A. B. Syme, Guard; Max Hornlein, Sen- 
tinel. The staff officers are: A. B. Cheney, 
Colonel; J. M. Wallace, Adjutant; Ira Ells- 
worth, Sergeant; Theodore Schumacher, Major; 
Samuel Katzenstein, Surgeon, with the rank of 
Major. The division meets the second and 
fourth Wednesdays of each month. 

The Knights have just erected a fine build- 
ing on the northwest corner of Ninth and I 
streets, which was dedicated on the 4th of July. 
It is 40 X 90 feet in ground area, four stories 
high in front and three in the rear portion. The 
first story is the drill and band room ; tiie second, 
concert and lecture room; the third comprises 
the lodge, reception and ante rooms; and the 
fourtii the banquet hall. It is an elegant build- 
ing, located in a neat, quiet locality, at the 
northwest corner of the beautiful Plaza. 

Sacramento Lodge, No. 11, Lv. of P., was 
organized December 2, 1869, with a large num- 
ber of charter members, the followitig being the 
ofiicers: G. W. Wallace; C. C; J. H. Sullivan, 
Y. C; S. Pearl, Prelate; Frank W. Marvin, K. 
of R. and S.; R. W. Jackson, M. of F.; J. E. 
Goods, M. of E. This has always been a very 
strong society, the membership being now 250. 
Present officers: F. T. Garrett, P. C. C; W. 
H. Weeks, C. C; J. Wilson, Y. C; E.G. 
Glick, Prelate; A. E. Coppin, K. of R. and S.; 
C. Wilke, M. at A. 


Cohimhla Lodge, No. ^3, K. of 1\ — This 
lodge was organized April 2i, 1S77, with J.W. 
Guthrie, P. C; A. J. Vermilya, C. C; P. J. 
Spacher, V. C; S. A. Wolfe, P.; John McFet- 
rish, K. of R. and S.; O. H. P. Sheets, Jr., M. 
of F.; Robert Pettit, M. of E.; W. E. Lugg, 
i; G.; and W. E. Ougliton, O. G.; also J. 
Stubbe, M. Udell, J. Goddard, William Neid- 
hart, and W. Kay. The present officers are: L. 
M. Schwoerer, P. C: H. A. Stober, C. C; M. 
Q. Meehan, V. C; John Lyman, Prelate; C. 

E. Kleinsorge, K. of R. and S.; A. Wulff, M. 
of E.; T. H. Waterland, M. of F.; A. J. Lloyd, 
M. at A. There are 118 members. Time of 
meeting, Friday night. 

Confidence Lodge, No. 7S, II. of /'., was 
instituted August 18, 1882, with the following 
officers: J. F. Lucas, P. C; J. A. Baker, G.C. ; 
A. V. Boyne, V. C.; F. H. Kiefer, Prelate; A. 
J. Plant, M. at A.; W. B. Rogers, K. of R. and 
S.; J. H. Smith, M. of E. Present officers: G. 
H. Tenbrook, P. C.; W. H. Hamilton, C. 0.; 

F. A. Reeves. V. C.; J. A. Haynie, Prelate ;-G. 

G. Bertschi, M. at A.; W. H. Greenlaw, K. of 
R. and S.; Isaac Christie, M. of E.; W. I). 
Powers, M. of F.; F. Eisenninger, I. G.; L. E. 
Vandercook, 0. G. There are now 137 members. 
Time of meeting, Tuesday jiight. 

Union Lodge, No. 21, A. 0. U. TF.— This 
lodge was instituted February 9, 1878. There 
were eighty-eight charter members. The first 
officers were: M. T. Brewer, P. M. W.; C. B. 
Kellogg, M. W.; T. W. Shelian, F.; George T. 
Bush, O.; E. J. Gregory, R.; Felix Tracy, 
Receiver; John F. Farnswortli, Fin.; Robert 
Frazee, Guard. There are at present 304 mem- 
bers, and the officers are: H. Bennett, P. M. 
W.; H. M. Burnett, -M. W.; W. J. Bryson, 
Foreman; E. F. Ash worth, Overseer; 0. W. 
Baker, Recorder; H. J. Norton, Financier; J. 
G. Davis, Receiver; S. J. von Ilirsch, Guide; 
W. B. Yan Gilder, L W.; Denis Hickey, O. W.; 
W. A. Briggs, M. D., Med. Ex. 

Sacramento Lodge, No. 80, A. 0. U. W., was 
instituted February 8, 1879. Tiiere was a large 
list of charter members. The first officers were: 

John F. Farnswortli, P. M.W.; James M. Hen- 
derson, M. W. ; Edward I. Robinson, O.; Geo. 
B. Katzenstein, R.; M. R. Beard, Fin.; C. H. 
Stevens, Rec'v. ; John W. Guthrie, G. ; W. H. 
H. Willey, L W.; AV. 1. Wallace, O. W. The 
lodge has a membership of 180. The officers 
installed January 4, 1889. are as follows: T. W. 
McAlpine, P. M. W.; L. M. Landsborough, M. 
W.; P. Genis, F.; J. H. Shorrock, O.; George 
B. Katzenstein, Rec; M. R. Beard, Fin.; O. F. 
Washburn, Rec'v.; W. A. Briggs, M. D., Med. 
Ex. The lodge meets every Tuesday evening, 
at Grangers' Hall. 

Lily of the Valley Lodge, No. 11, Degree of 
ILonor, A. 0. U. W., was organized in 1882, 
with thirty-three charter members; there are 
now sixty-nine, and the officers are: Miss Lizzie 
Smiddy, Past Chief of Honor; Mrs. John Brad- 
ley, Chief of Honor; Mrs. Mary Scroggs, Lady 
of Honor; Mrs. Jordan, Chief of Ceremonies; 
Miss O'Donnal, Usher; Mrs. George Guthrie, 
Recorder; Mr. Goethe, Financier; Mr. Roth, 
Receiver; Mr. Walker, Watchman. Meets the 
first Saturday of each month, at Grangers' Hall. 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen was 
organized for the purpose of paying $2,000 to 
the heirs or legatees of each member at death. 
In the State of California the order numbers 
18,000, and in Sacramento 500. Over $2,000,- 
000 has thus been paid in the State, and over 
$100,000 in tills city. 

Pioneer Assembly, No. 855, Iv. of L., the 
first in the State, was organized in this city ten 
years ago, and is still in existence. 

Sacramento Typographical Onio7i, No ^6, 
■was organized in June, 1880, with only thirteen 
members, and already there are ninety-five mem- 
bers. The Union is respected by all the print- 
ing offices in the city. The present officers are: 
E. L Woodman, Pres.; E. R. Tiel, V. P.; J. L. 
Robinette, Sec. (address 1520, Ninth street) ;C. 
A. Dorsey, Treas. ; H. P. Reece, Sergeant-at- 
Arms; Ex. Com. — W. H. Davis, J. D. Laing, 
P. T. January, Union meets last Sunday in 
the month, at 2 v. si., in Fireman's Hall, Eighth 
street, between J and K. 


Walhalla Grove, No. 6, U. A. 0. J)., was or- 
ganized August 10, 1866, and incorporated June 
13, 1874. The charter members and officers 
were: Anton Menke, N. A.; C. H. Krebs, V. 
A.; Theodore Even, Sec; Jacob Keeber, Treas. ; 
C. C. Hayden, M. Kestier and J. Acker. The 
olficers at tliis writing are: J. L. Gomez, N. 
A.; N. McArtimr, V. A.; M. Wetzel, Treas.; 
I]. Meyer, Sec; M. Wilson, Cond.; A. Gonnet, 
1. G. ; J. Lewis, O. G. There are seventy-five 
members, and the finances of the grove are 
an- pie. 

Union Grove, No. 61, U. A. 0. D., organ- 
ized in 1885, has about sixty to sixty-five mem- 
bers, and is very prosperous. It meets every 
Monday, in Union Hall, corner of Twentieth 
and O streets. George Lemkee, Past Arch; 
W. L. Benuing, N. A.; M. S. Neves, Treas.; 
N. Harvie, Sec; Gus. Peterson, Cond.; D. G. 
Mannix, I. G.; M. Meshado, O. G. 

Capital City Grove, No. 66, U. A. 0. D., 
was organized April 14, 1887, with thirty-six 
in membership. Present otticers: S. F. Gou- 
lert, Noble Arch; Charles Sears, Vice Arch; 
William Schaller, Sec; J. J. JSTagele, Treas.; 
John II. Measure, Cond.; Antoine Patralie, I. 
G.; Sam Versacko, O. G. The other Past 
Arches are James McCaw, John Svelnich, J. J. 
Buckley and Harvey Moore. The Grove meets 
every Thursday night in Red Men's Hall. 

Fidelity Grove, No. 31, U. A. O. I)., organ- 
ized in 1878, was consolidated with Walhalla 
Grove, May 1, 1888. 

Sacramento Druidic Circle, No. 1, was a so- 
ciety for women, instituted April 7, 1872, but 
was soon permitted to dissolve. 

Cosumnes Tribe, No. H, I. 0. R. M., was 
organized October 19, 1867. The present mem- 
bership is 103, and the ofiicers are: A. M. Gault, 
Sachem; J. P. Counts, Sen. Sag.; C. F. Leigh- 
ton, Jun. Sag.; L. Faure, Prophet; E. H. 
Rivett, C. of R.; George Boyne, F. C; H. 
Winters, K. of W. The tribe meets every 
Thursday evening, in the Masonic Building. 

Red Jacket Tribe, No. 28, I. O. R. M., was 
organized October 7, 1869, with the following 

officers: S. Pearl, Sachem; M. T. Brewer, S. 
Sag.; F. Gushing, J. Sag.; W. T. Crowell, C. of 
R. ; George A. Putnam, K. of W. There were 
altogether nearly 100 charter members. At the 
present time there are 170 members. Place and 
time of meeting. Red Men's Hall, every Friday 
evening. Official Board: Martin White, Sachem; 
E. C. Roeder, Sen. Sag.; W. A. Eizler, Jun. 
Sag.; Jacob Mnrbach, Prophet; A. Dunbar, C. 
of R. ; James McCaw, F. C; J. J. Nagele, 
Keeper of Wampum; James McKay, IstSanap; 
Fred Myrick, 2d Sanap; F. F. Briggs, 1st War- 
rior; George Nichols, 2d Warrior; R. P. Car- 
rington, 3d Warrior; J. Haberkorn, 4th War- 
rior; E. G. Palmer, 1st Brave; S. Napper, 2d 
Brave; J. C. Sutherland, G. of W.; J. Wilson, 
G. of F. 

Owosso Tribe, No. 39, I. 0. R. M., was or- 
ganized March 25, 1871, with sixty-six charter 
members. The first officers were: Matthew E. 
Johnson, Sachem; Ed. M. Martin, Sju. Sag.; 
A. C. Freeman, Jun. Sag.; Will J. Beatty, C. 
of R.; Daniel E. Alexander, K. of W. ; George 
W. Yount, Fin. C; George A. White, Prophet. 
There are ninety-eight members at present, and 
the officers for the present term are: L. G. 
Nixon, Sachem; George W. Nichols, Sen. Sag.; 
Stephen J. FitzgeraJd, Jun. Sag.; Benj. F. 
Howard, Fin. Chief; John J. Buckley, C. of R.; 
J. Henry Runckel, K. of W.; A. C. Klenk, 
Prophet. The tribe meets every evening, at 
Red Men's Hall, in Masonic Building. 

Red Cloud Tribe, No. 1^1, I. 0. R. M., was 
instituted November 13 and 18, 1871, with over 
seventy names on the charter list. The officers 
were: Thomas Sullivan, Sachem; R. A. Ren- 
wick, Sen. Sag.; W. Harper, Jun. Sag.; J. J. 
Carter, C. of R.; William Huller, K. of W.; W. 
A. McNaughton, F. C. There are now about 
eighty members, who meet every Tuesday even- 
ing. The finances of their treasury are in good 
condition. At present, L. W. Grothen is the 
Sachem; George W. Whitlock, Sen. Sag. ; James 
Fletcher, Jun. Sag.; Thomas J. Eames, K. of 
R.; B. F. Johnson, K. of W. 

Wetionah Council, No. 3, Degree of Poca- 


hontas, I. 0. R. M., was organized in October, 
1887, with forty-one members. There are now 
sixty-five members, and the following are the 
officeis: Mrs. Nora Klenk, Pocahontas; Mrs. 
Minnie Spencer, Wenonah; Mrs. G. H. Smith, 
Prophetess; Mrs. Charles Kedinan, K. of R. ; 
L. W. Grothen, Powhattan; Mrs. L. W. Gro- 
then, Iv. of W. 

Juniata Coiincil, No. 5, Daughters of Poca- 
hontas, I. 0. R. J/., was organized July 9, 1888, 
with twenty-nine members, and is at this time 

Sacramento Stamm, No. l^Jf, U. 0. R. IL, 
was organized October 18, 1868, with the fol- 
lowing charter members and officers: K. ¥. 
Wiemeyer, O. Ch.; F. Engelhardt, U. Ch.; C. 
Schmitt, B.Ch.; R.Nobel, Secretary; J. Suver- 
krup. Treasurer; George W. Dermann, A. Hil- 
lebrandt, W. Kuhnle, Charles Sold, George 
Sehmeiser, Charles Boettcher, W. Branu. Tliis 
year (1889) tiie membership is about eighty- 
eight, and flnancially the society is in excellent 
condition. The ofl:icers now are: August Wall, 
Over-Chief; G. Beathing, Under-Chief; F. 

Glueck, J!. C; D. Wilkens, Secretary; J. 

Gruhler, Secretary; J. Griesel, Treasurer. 

California Lodge, No. 1,580, K. of H., was 
organized by Harmon Gregg, April 28, 1879, 
with forty charter members, of whom the fol- 
lowing were elected officers for the first term: 
Grove L. Johnson, P. D.; Edward F. Aiken, D.; 
Norman S. Nichols, Y. D.; John N.Larkin, A. 
D.; Israel Luce, C; James M. Henderson, G.; 
P. L. Hickman, R.; Harrison Bennett, F. R.; 
George W. Callahan, T.; P. F. Dolan, Guard- 
ian; Frank Swift, Sentinel; Dr. George M. 
Dixon, Medical Examiner. At the present time 
there are 160 members, and the oflicers are: C. 
li. Stephenson, Past Dictator; L. A. Kidder, 
Dictator; Joseph Davey, Vice- Dictator; J. C. 
Carroll, Assistant Dictator; L. Bell, Ciiaplain; 
Carl Strobel, Guide; J. F. Carter, Financial 
Reporter; J. C. Medley, Reporter; F. W. Dunne, 
Guardian; Frank Swift, Sentinel; C.E.Adams, 
Treasurer; Dr. W. A. Hughson, Medical Ex- 
aminer; C. E. Adams, Representative to Grand 

Lodge. The lodge meets the firot and third 
Mondays of the month. 

Unity Lodge, No. 2,088, K. of 11., was insti- 
tuted March 1, 1880, with thirty-nine charter 
members, and the following officers: W. C. Van 
Fleet, P. D.; A. H. Powers, D.; D. O. Cook, V. 
D.; G. F. Lyon, A. D.; Frank Avery, R.; S. A. 
Palmer, F. S.; J. T. Carey, T.; E. M. Martin, C; 
J.F.Stephenson, Guide; A. F. Turner, Guard- 
ian; N. J. Toll, S. Tlie present officers are: C. 
Tietjen, Past Dictator; E. S. Rego, Dictator; C. 
H. Oester, Vice-Dictator; Charles Lenoir, As- 
sistant Dictator; W. D. Crowe, Reporter; T. A. 
Atwood, Financial Reporter; L. B. Sutliff, 
Treasurer; J. H. Humphrey, Guide; J. L. Orr, 
Chaplain; P. Brannon, Guardian; W. Woods, 
Sentinel; C. Mealand, Medical Examiner. The 
society meets at Grangers' Hall the second and 
fourth Mondays of each month. Present num- 
ber of members, 101. 

ILarmony Lodge, No. 399, K. c6 L. of //., 
has tliirty-eight members, who meet the second 
and fourth Fridays of each month, at Grangers' 
Hall. Officers: Mrs. J. C. Brown, Past Pro- 
tector; Mrs. C. May, Protector; Mrs. M. E. 
Grant, Vice-Protector; P. S. Lawson, Chaplain; 
Mrs. M. L. Jones, Secretary; Mrs. M. Keller, 
Fin.; J. C. Pierson, Treasurer; John Barrett, 
Guide; Frank Swift, Guardian; E. L. Greene, 

Equity Lodge, No. 1,219, K. cfe L. of //., 
has 115 members, whose place and time of 
stated meetings are Grangers' Hall, every 
Wednesday. Officers: O. W. Erlewine, P. P.; 
J. P. Counts, P.; Mrs. L. W. Grothen, V. P.; 
Mrs. Ida M. Russell, Sec; J. C. Medley, Fin. 
Sec; T. A. Lauder, Ti-eas.; Mrs. E. Y. Aiken, 
Chaplain; Mrs. L. A. Kidder, Guide; Mrs. T. 
A. Lauder, Inside Guard; Miss Lizzie B. Aiken, 
Outside Guard. 

Olive Branch Lodge, K.tbL. of LI. — Present 
officers: Mrs. A. Sturmer, Pres.; Mrs. M. Wil- 
son, V. P.; Mrs. Flora Knox, Rec. Sec; Miss 
Berck, Financier; Mrs. Annie Gill, Treasurer. 

Pioneer Council, No. 5^,, American Legion 
of Honor, was instituted December 18, 1879, 



with thirty-eight charter members, the iirst 
council instituted in the State. The first oiJi- 
cers were: J. M. Henderson, Commander; Mrs. 
N. S. Biittertieid, Vice-Commander; D. E. Al- 
exander, Orator; M. R. Beard, Sec; P. L. Hick- 
man, Collector; F. Y. Williams, Treas.; W. E. 
Strong, Chap.; E. F. Woodward, Guide; J. C. 
Tiibbs, Warden; W. T. Crowell, Sentry; and 
AV. M. Haynie, P. Commander. The present 
membership is fifty-four, and the ofiicers are: 

C. PI. Wattles, Commander; Wm. B. Miller, 
Vice Com.; M. R. Beard, Sec; J. C. Tubbs, 
Collector; W. R. Strong, Treas.; F. H. L. 
Weber, Chap.; N. Harvie, Guide; H. Fisher, 
Warden; J. F. Cooper, Sentinel. 

Court Capital, No. 6,7^'2, A. 0. F., was or- 
ganized Januaryl7, 1881, with forty-three mem- 
bers, and the following officers: Henry Long- 
ton, C. R.; R. B. Harmon, S. C. R.; O. N. 
Cronkite, Rec. Sec; Arnold Schulze, Fin. Sec; 
Thomas Bromley, Treas.;. J. Lyman, S. W.; J. 
Baekrath, J. W.; F. H. Joy, S. B.; M. Lamb, 
J. B. ; Dr. A. E. Brune, Physician. There are 
now 125 members, and the following officers: 

D. M. Cronkite, P. C. R.; Ed. Morris, C. R.; 
W. M. Thomas, S. C. R.; G. G. Ogg, Treas.; 
H. W. M. Ogg, Fin. Sec; G. C. Campbell, Rec 
Sec; Schrader, S. W.; J. J. Vance, J. W,; 

E. O. Walker, S. B.; A. Hubert, J. B. The 
court meets every Monday evening in the Odd 
Fellows' Building. 

Court Sacramento, No. 6.861, A. 0. F., was 
organized June 30, 1882, and has at present 
about 190 members, with the following as offi- 
cers: L. W. Nickell, P. C. R.; B. F. Parsons, 
C. R.; L. W. Smith, S. C. R.; C. 1!. Strong, 
Treas.; F. W. Geiger, Fin. Sec; John Morris, 
Rec. Sec; C. B. Hall, S. W.; L. A. Siujmons, 
J. W.; Walter Shiells, S. B.; W. H. Stone, J. 
B.; F. G. Fay, Physician. This court meets 
every Thursday evening in Odd Fellows' Hall. 

Court Sutter, No. 7,^1^6, A. 0. F., has forty- 
three members and the following officers: Fred 
Colgrove, Jr., Past Chief Ranger; W. S. Church, 
Chief Ranger; B. F. Nutting, Substitute Ciiief 
Ranger; M. L. Perkins, Treas.; O. A. Iloitt, 

Rec. and Fin. Sec; W. J. Terry, Senior Wood- 
ward; W. W. Robinson, Junior Woodward; J. 
Dolierty, Senior Beadle; E. S. Wilkerson, Junior 
Beadle; F. G. Fay, Physician. 

Friendship Council, No. 65, 0. C. F., was 
organized February 21, 1882, with about twenty- 
five members and the following as officers: 
Julius Asher, Councilor; F. H. Keifer, Sec; 
Theodore Schumacher, Treas. There are now 
about 100 members, and the following consti- 
tute the Official Board: C. C. Olney, Councilor; 
Mrs. S. E. Glover, Vice-Councilor; F. H. Kie- 
fer. Sec; John Watt, Treas.; Mrs. L. D. Olney, 
Prelate; Mrs. F. H. Kiefer, Marshal; Mrs. A. 
M. Tiel, Warden; F. H. Schardin, Guard; Miss 
G. D. Jurgens, Sentry; Dr. G. B. Clow, Med. 
Ex. The council meets every Thursday even- 
ing at Firemen's Hall. 

Sacramento Council, No. 96, 0. C. F., was 
instituted September 4, 1882, with about fifty 
members; there are now 165. Present officers: 
Charles H. Denton, P. C; AVilliam Longton, 
W. C; Mrs. George Howard, V. C; George 
D. Irvine, Sec; J. E. Parker, Treas.; Mrs. Le- 
land Howe, Prel.; Mrs. Irene Marsh, M.; Ed. 
G. Ostendorf, W.; Mrs. Annie Servoss, G.; S. 
B. Lnsk, Sentry; Drs. Brune and Clow, Med. 
Ex'rs. The Past Chief Councilors are Jacob 
Griswold, Fred W. Day, A. Sanborn, M. A. 
Howard, George A. Stuart, George Howard, 
William Longton and J. E. Parker, all of whom 
are still members of this council. Stated meet- 
ings every Wednesday evening, at Firemen's 

Division No. 1, Ancient Order of Hiheriiians, 
comprises fifty-five members, with the following 
as officers: John Miller, Pres.; J. P. McGin- 
nis, V. P.; S. Dwyer, Treas.; W. J. Hamm, 
Sec The division meets once a month, in Pio- 
neer Hall. It was first organized January 31, 
1870, and reorganized. The officers for 1870 
were: P. A. Murphy, Pres.; P. F. Mohun, V. 
P.; D. C. Nealon, Rec. Sec; Matthew Bannon, 
Cor. Sec; James McGuire, Treas.; G. G. Mor- 
gan, Piiysician, and Charles Brady, Sergeant-at- 


Division No. 2 of this order was organized a 
few years ago, but was discontinued. 

The Sacramento Turnverein established it- 
self June 2, 1854, with Theodore Steudenian, 
Pres.; George Meyer, V. P.; J. W. Lehmann, 
Sec; Phil. Kitz, Treas.; II. Lux, 1st Turn 
Leader; J. Knauth, 2d Turn Leader; R. Nobel, 
Steward, and twenty-three other members. In 
1859 the society erected a brick building on the 
south side of K street, between Ninth and 
Tenth, 52 x 112 feet, at a cost of $14,000. This 
is called Turner Hall, aud is so planned and 
furnished as to afford accommodations for 
socials, gymnastic exhibitions, etc. The follow- 
ing are the present ofKcers: Fred. Biewener, 
Pres.; August Mayer, Rec. Sec; F. Brensting, 
Cor. Sec; J. Lang, Treas.; C. Iser, Collector; 
H. Fisher, 1st Turnmaster; E. Belger, 2d Turn- 
master; R. Mangold, Property Man; P. Fischer, 
Librarian; Charles Schmidt, Trustee; Oscar 
Hartig, Turnwath. 

Benho'w Lodge, No. 2^29, Sons of St. George, 
was organized in March, 1887, to take the place 
of the old "British Mutual Benefit and Social 
Society," that went down about six months pre- 
viously, aud which had been organized in 1877. 
This society admits into its membership English- 
men and the sons and grandsons of English- 
men. The present membership is eighty three, 
and is steadily increasing. They have about 
8600 in their treasury. Officers: T. W. L. Ce- 
cil, P. P.; W. H. Wright, P.; Thomas Harris, 
V. P.; Rupert Miller, Sec; R. S. Foizey, Treas.; 
J. 11. Stocker, Mess.; William Blackburn, A. S.; 
R. P. Webber, A. M.; John Skeltou, Chap.; Ed. 
Griffitts, LS.; Thomas Swift, O. S.; Trustees- 
James Knowles, N. J. Nathan, James Parsons. 

Victoria Lodge, No. 1, Daughters of St. 
George, is flourishing. Maggie Wilson, I'res. ; 
Annie Barrett, Sec. 

The Caledonian Association of Sacramento 
was incorporated in November, 1888, as the 
successor of the " Robert Burns Scottish Be- 
nevolent Association," which had been organized 
in November, 1871, for the purpose of assisting 
natives of Scotland who may he in need. There 

are now nearly ninety members. Stated meet- 
ings the third Tuesday of each month, at Pio- 
neer Hall. The present society admits to its 
care native Scotchmen and the sons and grand- 
sons of Scotchmen. The officers are: Dr. A. 
M. McColhim, Chief; W. A. Gett, Jr., 1st 
Chieftain; James Stewart, 2d Chieftain; Will- 
iam Wardlaw, 3d Chieftain; J. D. Warrack, 4th 
Chieftain; Directors — Tom Scott, John Morri- 
son, Peter Durno, James A. Stewart and W. E. 

Independent Order of Good Templars. — A 
multitude of organizations have attempted, at 
various times, to unite all the virtues of society 
as a barrier against the spread of the evils of in- 
temperance. Many of these, after a short period 
of success, have failed through some defect in 
their organization. Still, mankind felt the need 
of a stronger power to cope with the evil, and 
in 1851 the order of Good Templars arose in 
Central New York. Profiting by the errors of 
the past, and crystallizing the best features of 
former organizations, it was welcomed for its 
systematic effort and thorough discipline, and 
thousands fell rapidly into its ranks. It now 
exists in every State and Territory of the Union, 
and has crossed the seas and floats its banners 
throughout Europe. Its membership exceeds a 
half million. 

The order found its way to California by the 
organization of a lodge at Santa Cruz on the 
22d of February, 1855, which was known as 
Pacific Lodge, No. 1. The next lodge organized 
was Siloam, No. 2, which was instituted Sep- 
tember 16, 1856, in the city of Sacramento, 
where it has met weekly and uninterruptedly 
since the date mentioned. 

In 1860 a sufficient number of lodges were 
in existence (ten) to permit the formation of a 
Grand Lodge. A convention was called to 
assemble fur that purpose, in the city of Sacra- 
mento. May 29, 1860, the meeting was held 
and the Grand Lodge of California was then 
and there formally instituted. 

From the organization of tlie (4raiul Lodge 
the order in this State grew apace. The central 


office and headquarters of the order were estab- 
lished at Sacramento, and have remained here 
ever since. Tlie succeeding ten annual sessions 
of the Grand Lodge were also held in Sacra- 
mento. The official organ of the order, the 
Rescue, is also published in Sacramento, George 
B. Katzenstein, Editor, and is now in the twenty- 
tirst year of publication. 

The twonty-ninth annual session of the Grand 
Lodge, L O. G. T., was held October 2-5, 1888, 
at Santa Rosa, when the membership was re- 
ported to be, in this State, 11,480, contained in 
230 subordinate lodges. The officers chosen 
were: O. C. Wheeler, D. D., LL. L)., P. G. C. 
T., No. 1653 Grove street, Oakland; Hon. J. 
M. Walling, G. C. T., Nevada City; Rev. L. C. 
Renfro, G. Counselor, Modesto; Miss J. S. 
Naismith, G. V. T., Oakland; George B. Kat- 
zenstein, Grand Secretary, No. 328 J street, 
Sacramento; Dr. Isaac S. Halsej, G. Treasurer, 
Vallejo; Julius Lyons, G. A. S., Los Angeles; 
E. Wood Culver, G. Messenger, Newcastle; By- 
ron Seeber, G. Marsiial, Oakdale; Mrs. Susie 
Fowler, G. D. M., Merced; Rev. E. B. Hatch, 
G. Chaplain, Salinas; Mrs. S. J. B. Richardson, 
G. Guard, AVoodland; J. C. Smith, G. Sentinel, 
Kingsburg; Mrs. M. E. Richardson, General Su- 
perintendent Juvenile Work, East Oakland. 

Tiie order in 1869 erected an orphanage 
known as the (Jood Templars' Home fur Or- 
phans, which stands upon an eminence, sur- 
rounded by twenty acres of land, near the city 
of Vallejo. Over $100,000 has been expended 
in the erection and support of this institution, 
which has sheltered and cared for upward of 
500 children in its ten years of history, ranging 
from infancy to the age of fourteen years. The 
title of the institution is not meant to convey 
any idea of e.xclusiveness, but, on the contrary, 
its portals are open to all orphan children. 

There are two subordinate lodges of the order 
in the city of Sacramento, and eight in the 
county of Sacramento. 

Siloam Lodge No. 2. 1. <). G. r.— This lodge 
meets every Monday evening in Unity Hall, 
Odd Fellows' Temple, Ninth street, corner of 

K. It was organized September 16, 1856, and 
has held uninterrupted weekly meetings since 
that date. 

The charter members were: Edwin II. 
Bishop, J. D. Carlton, A. C. Manning, Philo 
L. H. Dnston, F. King, E.G. Maguire, George 
W. Bohner, George Waterson, S. B. Elwell, 
George Wiseman, Robert Phillips, S. Rippon, 
W. H. Robinson, Mrs. Elvira Baldwin, Lizzie 
J. Walton, Esther A. Walton, Sa.-ah C. Walton, 
Anna C. Fountain, Anna E. Roberts, Caroline 
Robinson, L. C. Guinand and Sarah Sidgreaves. 
The only surviving and remaining charter mem- 
ber is Mrs. Elvira Baldwin, who still continues 
in active membership. 

The present officers of the lodge, installed 
November 1, 1888, are: Fred. U. Swift, P. C. 
T.; D. O. Parmeter, C.T.; Kate H. Russell, V. 
T. ; D. A. Davis, Recording Secretary; L. E. 
Vandercook, Financial Secretary; George B. 
Katzenstein, Treasurer; Rev. H. A. Mayliew, 
Chaplain; 11. A. Parmeter, M.; Mrs. Ida M. 
Katzenstein, D. M.; Mrs. Estella Rawles, Guard; 
Albert AY. Katzenstein. Sentinel; Mrs. M. J. 
Mayhew, L. D. 

Though not a beneticial institution, it has 
always cared for its sick and indigent members, 
and its charitable contributions aggregate thou- 
sands of dollars. 

Siloam Lodge is now the pioneer and oldest 
lodge of the I. O. G. T. upon the Pacific Coast, 
and, indeed, having been organized early in the 
history of the order, it may be said there are 
few older lodges of the order in existence any- 

Capital Lodge, JSTo. 51, I. 0. G. T.—On De- 
cember 12, 1861, D. S. Cutter organized a lodge 
of Good Templars, which was called Capital 
Lodge, No. 51, with the following charter mem- 
bers: W. V. Frazier, D. B. Stewart, T. A. Stew 
art, G. W. Brentner, Isaac Bradvvell, William 
H. Sharp, S. S. Nichols, C. G. Erwin, C. 1). 
Smith and Thomas Fallen; Mesdames E. W. 
Frazier, ,1. 11. Stewart, A. M. Pierce, H. C. 
Nichols and J. M. Erwin, also Misses L. Pierce 
and A. Coombs. 


This lodge became extinct in 1876, and, on 
April 2, 1879, an entire new organization, with 
a new charter and different ineiiihers, was 
funned, wliicii, iiowever, assumed tlie same name 
and number. 

The present officers are: A. M. Aul)ertus, C. 
T.; Mrs. M. Brown, V. T.; Charles E. Brown, 
Secretary; Delia Sullivan, Financial Secretary; 
C. B. Huntoon, Treasurer; Mrs. L. Howe, Chap- 
lain; Mrs. C. P. Huntoon, L. D. 

/. 0. G. T. Bands of jFIoj}e. —Besides the 
foregoing, there are juvenile organizations under 
the fostering care and patronage of the I. O. G. 
T., which are known as " Bands of Hope." Of 
tliese there are in the State over 250 branches 
or bands, with an enrolled membership of over 
17,000, Mrs. M. E. Richardson, No. 1035 Ches- 
ter street, Oakland, being General Superintend- 
ent cf all. In Sacramento City there are three 
bands — Sacramento, No. 56, Mrs. F. E. Stinson, 
No. 902 N street. Superintendent; Capital, No. 
91, Mrs. H. M. Smith, No. 1317 Seventh street. 
Superintendent; and California, No. 163, M. W. 
Sullivan, No. 1330 F street. Superintendent. 

Several divisions of the Sons of Temperance 
and a Father Mathew Total Abstinence and 
Benevolent Society flourished here for a number 
of years, but they have been absorbed by other 
temperance organizations. 

Sumner Post, JVo. 3, G. A. R., was organized 
May 26, 1867, with the following first officers 
and charter members: W. L. Campbell, C; W. 
C. Guirey, J. V. C; and J. F. Sheehan, Adju- 
tant. Other charter members: D. A. DeMerrett, 
E. Ingram, E. S. Granger, T. J. Blakeney, W. 
L. Ustick, S. H. Robinson, George Lyons, 
Thomas Anderson, J. J. Cropping, J. Y. Gil- 
bert, George Gillpatrick, R. II. Harris, W. E. 
Chesley. A. D. Ilawley, W. H. (Jardner, E. D. 
Shirland, Porter Ilayden, S. T. Witham, II. L. 
Street and Horace AVelch. The present officers 
are: J. W. Reeves, P. C; C. H. Stephenson, S. 
V. C; G. W. Railton, J. V. C; J. R. Laine, 
Surg.; H. Bennett, Q. M.; A. T. Needham, 
Chap.; J. 0. Medley, O. D.; R. S. Frazee, O. 
G.; W. W. Coons, Adj. Council of Adminis- 

tration — C. II. Stephenson, G. "W. Railton, J. 
C. Medley. Stated meetings, the first and third 
Thursdays of each month, at Grangers' Hall. 
The memijership now numbers 130 in good 

Wa7ren Post, No. 5^., O. A. R., has about 
twenty-three members in good standing, and 
financially is strong. It meets the second and 
fourth Thursdays of every month, at Grangers' 
Hall. Officers: L. W. Groghan, P. C; John 
W. Jackson, S. V. C; Francis Ritchie, J. Y. 
C; William Madden, Surgeon; George W. Herr, 
Q. M.; S. O. Hulbert, O. D.; E. D. Miller, O. 
G.; John Williams, Chap. 

Veterans of the Mexican War. — This society 
was organized at the Orleans House, in Sacra- 
mento City, on June 5, 1876. A committee 
on by-laws was appointed, and, on the 13th of 
the same month, the by-laws were reported and 
adopted. On the same evening the association 
elected as officers, for one year, John Domingos, 
Pres.; P>ed. Chamberlin, Y. P.; Peter Mc- 
Graw, Treas.; Joseph Sims, Sec. The present 
officers and members are: E. I). Shirland, Pres.; 
J. S. Cook, Y. P.; John Domingos, Sec. and 
Treas.; Peter McGraw, Marshal; G. J. Cross, 
Color Bearer; A. R. Abbott, W. L. Crane, J. 
N. Fuller, John Maguire, J. W. S. Hamilton, 
It. B. Hall, N. Hawk, F. Holzhauer, J. Hanson, 
John Jacobs, J. Kelley, Charles Miller, Antoin 
Mink, L. Preston, Wm. M. Siddons, Y. Siiane, 
H. Wittenbrock, A. Whitaker, C. A. Parson 
and P. Keongh. 

Fair Oahs Post, No. 120, G. A. R, was or- 
ganized in May, 1886. There are at present 
thirty-one members, and the officers are: H. P. 
Winchell, P. C; J. Handlin, S. Y. C; J. II. 
Cooley, J. Y. C; J. McMurray, Chap.; J. J. 
Trarbach, Treas.; W. H. Ennis, Adj.; W. II. 
Richards, O. I).; George G. Yoglegesang, O. 
G. Stated meeting.s, the second and fourtli 
Tuesdays of each month, at Y. M. I. Hall. 

Sumner Relief Corps. No. 11, organized in 
Marcii, 1884, meets the first and third Thurs- 
day evenings, also the second and fourth Thurs- 
day afternoons, of each month, at Grangers' 


Hall. The present officers are: M. Alice Ste- 
phenson. Pres.; Lncretia Olnej', S. Y. P.; Jennie 
Bell J. Y. P.; Miss Carrie G. Hancock, Sec; 
Rxchel Adams. Cor. Sec; Margaret Keller, 
Treas.; Mary Flemniing, Cond.; Louise Gonot, 
Ass'tCond.; Kate Mills, Guard; Maria Hussey, 
Ass't Guard. There are eighty-four members. 
Fair Oals Eelief Corj\% J'c. Jo, was estab- 
lished in May. 1884. and has about 125 mem- 
bers, who meet every Tuesday in Grangers' 
Hall. Officers: Mrs. Florence Miller. Pres.; 
Mrs. Inez Picks, S. Y. P.; Mrs. Cunningham, 
J. A''. P.; i[rs. Yoglegesaiig. Chap.; Mrs. Emma 
Bidwell, Sec; Miss Manning, Treas.; Miss 
Ella Tnbbs. Cond.: Mr. Teal, Ass't Cond.; 
Mrs. Burns, Guard. 

Clara Barton Cireh\ To. 11, Ladies of the 
G. A. B., was organized May 26, 1886, with 
about twenty-three members; there are thirty- 
three at present. Officers: Mrs. C. E. Shirland. 

Pres.; Mrs. , S. Y. P.; Mrs. Hannah 

Lindler, J. V. P.; Mrs. Caroline Yaughan, 
Treas.; Mrs. Belle Herr, Sec; Mrs. Leland 
Howe. Cond.; Mrs. Anna Paulk, Chap.; Mrs. 
Eliza Grothen, Guard. Regular meetings, the 
second and fourth Thursdays of the month, at 
Grangers' Hall. 

Crovernor Leland StanJ'o?'d Canij', JVo. 11, S. 
of v., was organized July 11, 1887, with eight- 
een members; at present there are thirty-eight 
members. Among the first officers, P. H. Dodge 
was Captain; Wm. Kellogg, 1st Lieut; and 
"Wm. H. Larkin, 2d Lieut. The present otticers, 
elected December 10, ISSS, are: "\Vm. H. Larkin, 
Capt.; Fred. Yan Horn, 1st Lieut.; George 
Burnett, 2d Lieut.; P. H. Dodge, J. L. Robi- 
uette and Wm. Matlock, Camp Council. The 
members are uniformed. Regular meetings, the 
second and fourth Mondays of each month, in 
Exempt Firemen's Hall. 

Satire Sons of the Gohlen ^Vest. — This order 
was originated in San Francisco, in 1875, by 
General A. M. Winn, who had thought, while 
acting as marshal of a procession on the -tth of 
July, 1869, that it would be an interesting part 
of the procession to have au e.xhibition of young 

Californians. The idea was what the times de- 
manded, as the rajiid growth of the order proved 
soon after its establishment. It soon became 
an important fraternal and beneficial society. 
The name "parlor" for each local organization 
indicates its social and refined character. They 
celebrate the anniversary of the admission of 
California into the Union. General Winn was 
the first mayor of Sacramento, and his remains 
were buried in the Sacramento City Cemetery, 
where on Thanksgiving Day, 1887, a niununioiit 
to his memory was unveiled. 

Sacramento Parlor So. 3, X. S. G. W., was 
organized March 22, 1878, with the following 
first officers and charter members: Benjamin 
O'Niel, Pres.; John C. Luce, 1st. Y. P.; Ed- 
ward B. Carson, 2d V. P.; James P. McGinnis, 
3d Y. P.; Edward R. Kno.x, R. S.; William Ri- 
der, F. S.; Clarence E. Parker, Treas.; David 
M. Maddux, Marshal; Henry Steinmiller, 
Thomas W. O'Niel and Martin Cofl'e^-, Executive 
Committee. Other charter members: H. C. 
Chipman, Joseph Maddux, George Steinmiller, 
Thomas O'Brien. William O'Brien, Joseph J. 
Maguire, Fred. Kidder, George Adams and John 
Feeney. There are now 120 members, and the 
officers are: W. A. Gett, P. Pres ; Charles A. 
Root, Pres.; Charles Meir, 1st Y. P.: J. M. 
Henderson, Jr., 2d A". P.; ,Ianus P. Leonard, 
3d Y. P.; Ed. II. Kraus, Fin. Sec; John F. 
Bronner, Rec. Sec; Henry ^'ichoiaus, Jr., 
Marshal; T. G. Eilers, Treas.; W. A. Briggs, 
Surgeon; W. B. Kurz, O. S.; J. B. Grammell, 
I. S. The parlor meets every Friday evening, 
at Grangers' Hall. 

Sunset Parlor, So. ~6, S. S. G. IF., was in- 
stituted January 24, 1884, with forty members. 
The membership is now eighty-one, and the 
officers are: C. E. Grunsky, Past President; A. 
G. Folger, Pres. ; J. Brenner, Jr., 1st Y. P. ; W. 
C. ReiUi, 2d Y. P.; F. A. Cramblitt, 3d Y. P.; 
J. A. Rutherford, Rec. Sec; George B. Cosby, 
Jr., Fin. Sec; F. E. Ray, Treas.; Yictor Hart- 
ley, Marshall; W. W. Marvin, C. H. Oatman, 
W. W. Cassett, Trustees. Meetings, every Sat- 
urday, at Pioneer Hall. 


California Parlor, No. 22, N. D. G. W., was 
organized in November, 1887, with 109 mem- 
bers; there are now (January, 1889,) al)Oiit 100 
members. Following are the officers: Mrs. 
Mattie K. Grunsky, Past President; Mrs. Mary 
Breckenfeldt, Pres. ; Mrs. Frankie Greer, 1st V. 
P.; Miss Regina Hassett, 2d V. P.; Miss Mc- 
Cleary, 3d V. P.; Miss Nettie K. Leake, Fin. 
Sec; Miss Mollie B. Johnson, Rec. Sec; Miss 
Mana Drake, Marshal. 

Etham Lodge, No. 37, J. O. B. B., was in- 
stituted June 23, 1859, by R. W. Grand Lodge 
Deputy Jacob Vogelsdorff, with the following 
otKeers: Joseph Davis, Pres.; J. Greenbaum, 
V. P.; M. Waterman, S. ; Louis Gerstle, F. S. ; 
M. Marks, T.; Z. Newstadt, M.; A. Ilamber- 
ger, A. M.; S. A. Levy, W.; C. Klapstock, G. 
The first organization of the " Hebrew Benevo- 
lent Association " was in December, 1851, which 
was incorporated February 10, 1854. There 
are at present 122 members. Stated meetings, 
every Thursday, at Unity Hall, in the Odd Fel- 
lows' Building. Officers this year: R. Stein- 
man, Pres.; S. Sinay, V. P.; S. Dombrower, 
Rec. Sec; L. Salomon, Fin. Sec; L. B. Buck, 
Treas.; B. Wilson, Monitor; M. Hirsch, Assist- 
ant Monitor; L Lesser, Inside Guard; M. Wil- 
son, Outside Guard. In treasury, §8,000. 

Sacramento Grange, No. 12, P. of II., was 
organized December 4, 1867, with the following 
charter members and officers: W. S. Maiilove, 
Worthy Master; I. N. Hoag, W. Overseer; E. 

F. Aiken, W. Lecturer; J. Holland, Steward; 

G. F. Rich, A. Steward; R. Williamson, Chap.; 
A. S. Greenlaw, Treas.; Wm. Haynie, Sec; R. 
S. Lockett, G. K.;,Mrs. W. S. Maulove, Ceres; 
Mrs. I. N. Hoag, Pomona; Mrs. E. F. Aiken, , 
Flora; Mrs. J. Holland, Lady Assisti 1 1 Stew 
ard. Other charter members: Amos Adams 
and wife, T. K. Stewart, William Kendall and 
A. P. Smith. There are at present 148 mem- 
bers, and the officers are: Joseph Sims, Mas- 
ter; M. L. Rich, Overseer; M. McMullen, Lect- 
urer; M. Sprague, Steward; W. W. Greer, 
Ass't Steward; W. Davenport, Chaplain; John 
Reith, Treas.; Alice Greenlaw, Sec; II. M. 

Sims, Lady Ass't Steward; Mrs. Joseph Sims, 
Ceres; Sophie Christman, Pomona; Kate Aiken, 
Flora; Lulu Rich, Organist. Regular meet- 
ings, the second and fourth Saturdays of each 
motith, at Grangers' Hall. 

Howard Benevolent Association of Sacra- 
mento. — Of all the organizations formed in Sac- 
ramento for benevolent or charitable purposes, 
none has been more purely unselfish, more really 
effectual, or more worthy of commendation and 
public patronage than the Howard Benevolent 
Association. Its history, covering, as it does, 
some thirty-two or three years, would fill a vol- 
ume with the record of noble deeds done in the 
name of humanity, and for no other recompense 
than the consciousness of having alleviated pain 
and given succor to the unfortunate. The first 
meeting lookii.g toward this organization was 
held as early as December 21, 1857, when N. 
A. H. Ball led off in this purely philanthropic 
enterprise. The officers elected for the first 
year were: George W. Mowe, Pres.; L. A. 
Booth, James P. Robinson, John McNiell, R. 
A. Pearls, James E. Perkins and N. A. H. Ball 
were elected Directors; James M. Kennedy, 
Sec; and John S. Bien, Treas. The income of 
the society is derived from membership fees, 
voluntary contributions, donations by the Leg- 
islature, and miscellaneous sources. No officer 
of the association, of course, receives any sal- 
ary, except the Steward, who has to be the prac- 
tical disburser at the depot, from 10 a. m. to 2 
p. M. every Tuesday and Friday. The depot is 
on the east side of Seventh street, first door 
north of L. They average a distriljution of 
about §4,000 per year, relieving about 130 in- 
dividuals per month. The Board of Directors, 
elected by the thirty active members, meet once 
a month and canvass the applications for relief. 
The officers this year are: Richard Dale, Pres.; 
A. Abbott, Treas.; A. S. Hopkins, Sec; John 
C. Medley, Steward; John McNiell. P. II. Rus- 
sell, G. W. Chjsley, P. E. Piatt, AY. H. B^atty 
and C. H. Hubbard, Directors. 

Catholic Li lies'' Relief Society, No. 1. — 
Emma Hughes, Pres.; Louise J. Conrad, Sec. 


Sacramento Society fur Medical Improve- 
ment.- — Tliis society was organized March 17, 
1868, and incorporated June 29, 1878. The 
first ofiicers and members were: F. W. Hatch, 
M. D., Pres.; G. L. Simmons, M. D., Sec; 
Drs. W. E. Cluness. I. E. Oatman, J. M. Frey, 
H. W. Harkness, T. M. Logan, J. F. Mont- 
gomery, A. B. Nixon, G. J. Phelaii, G. G. Tyr- 
rell, Hofi'maii and H. L. Nichols. The ob- 
ject of the society, as its name indicates, is "the 
promotion of medical science and of good feeling 
among practitioners of medicine and surgery." 

The present officers are: Dr. J. K. Laine, Pres.; 
Dr. F. L. Atkinson, Sec. and Treas. Meetings 
are held at the offices of the city members, alter- 
nately, on the third Tuesday of each month. 

The number of members at present is twenty- 
two, namely: F. L. Atkinson, AV. II. Baldwin, 
W. Ellery Briggs, W. A. Briggs, A. E. Brnne, 
W. 11. Cluness, T. W. Huntington, J. K. Laine, 
M. J. Magill, Z. T. Magill, James H. Parkinson, 
G. C. Simmons, G. L. Simmons, F. B. Sutlifl", 
T. A. Snider, 0. B. Nichols, H. L. Nichols, G. 
G. Tyrrell, W. F. Wiard, G. A. White, J. A. 
McKee, H. Voeller. 

The past members who have died, moved 
away or withdrawn are: Thomas M. Logan, 
Joseph T. Montgomery, F. W. Hatch, A. B. 
Ni.\on, Gregory J. Phelan, Edward R. Taylor, 
Joseph M. Frey, II. W. Harkness, Samuel W. 
Blackwood, Augustus Trofton, Charles S. Has- 
well, S. P. Thomas, E. L. Poorman, W. T. 
Wythe, Joseph H. Wythe, H. W. Nelson, Alvis 
Graeltinger, J. II. Urieh, F. M. Curtis, Na- 
thaniel Williams, J. W. B. Reynolds, E. B. 
Harris, C. H. Fisher, Lucius McGuire, F. W. 
Hatch, Jr., S. A. Deuel, M. Gardner, G. W. 
Davis, S. D. Howard, A. II. Snider, E. R. Mer- 
rill, W. F. Finnie, A. B. McKee, Thomas 01m- 
stead, Ira E. Oatman. 

Although not composing a society, we may 
make a brief mention of the physicians of the 
" schools," as they are some times termed. 

The present homeopathic practitioners are 
George Pyburn, Charles E. Pinkham, W. A. 
Hughson, George M. Di.xon, Elliot D. Curtis, 

George Dart, H. C. Jessen and Charles H. 
Powers. Of these, Dr. Hnghson has been in 
Sacramento since 1873, thus being a resident 
here a greater length of time than any of the 
others. His predecessor was H. H. Ingerson, 
who practiced here 1862-'73, and located in 
San Francisco, where he died about 1881. J. 
K. Clark was here for a time, and also removed 
to San Francisco, where he died. Drs. Pyburn 
and Dixon have been county physicians, and 
when Jabcz Turner was mayor the homeopa- 
thists constituted the controlling element in the 
City Board of Health. 

The eclectic physicians now practicing in 
Sacramento City (none in the county outside of 
the city) are: M. F. Clayton (ever since 1858), B. 
F. Pendery, C. Mealand and F. G. Fay. N. S. 
Pendery came here with his brother, just men- 
tioned, about 1874, but after a time returned 
East and has since died. Dr. Summers prac- 
ticed in Sacramento for a while, removed to 
Walnut Grove and was killed there. C. P. V. 
Watson, here for a period, is now practicing in 
the southern part of'tlie State. Dr. Huntsinger, 
here in 1870-71, returned to Michigan. Dr. 
Wheeler was still another physician of this 
school who was located here for a time; and 
there have been several others. 

Dr. Joshua A. Burns, hydropathist, conducted 
for a number of years the Water Cure now 
owned by Dr. Clayton, sold it to him, and in 
1876 removed to Sonoma County. 

A numl)er of other independent or "irregu- 
lar" physicians are practicing the profession in 
Sacramento. Those not mentioned in the fore- 
going lists are : G. B. Clow, George Dart, G.V. and 
Elizabeth Ewing, J. C. Ford, Kelsay &Swanson, 
Mrs. A. F. Lower, J. H. Shirley and T. A. Snider. 
Yoking Men's Christian Association. — This 
association was organized October 3, 1866, by 
the election of the following officers: N. N. 
Denton, Pres.; H. B. Eddy, Sec, and M. L. 
Templeton. Treas. Twenty-six names were en- 
rolled at that time, and S212 contributed. 

At a subsequent meeting, held in the Con- 
gregational Church, October 22, 1866, the per- 


inanent organization was completed. Besides 
the officers named abovo (who retained their 
positions), the following gentlemen were elected: 
Sparrow Smith, Cor. Sec; George Wick, Libra- 
rian; H. W. Earl, Registrar; G. W. Briiff, Seth 
Babson, A. Aitken, J. M. Ripley, G. W. Bonner, 
Board of Managers; and the following were 
made Vice-Presidents: Frank Miller (Congre- 
gational Church), G. R. Forshee (Sixth Street 
Methodist Episcopal Chnrch), A. Aitken (Pres- 
byterian Church), C. Emery (Baptist Church), 
and Henry Garrett (Christian Church). 

The association died in 1877 or 1878, and 
shortly afterward revived. It is now a very 
strong and influential society, having on an 
average about 200 members. They have occu- 
pied their present neat and commodious rooms 
on the first floor, west side of Si.xth street, be- 
tween K and L, near the Si.xth Street Methodist 
Episcopal Church, since January, 1885. Previ- 
ous to that date they were in the St. George 
Building two years, and prior to that at 309 J 
street; but they have recently purchased a fine 
business lot, 526 K street, for $10,000, which is 
only two-thirds its real value, whereon they are 
erecting this year a splendid business block, and 
in this most convenient place they will hereafter 
liave their headquarters. The estimated cost of 
this building is $35,000, and the furnishing 
will cost $5,000. 

The present officers are: Directors — C. M. 
Campbell, C. A. Maydwell, W. S. Bassett, 
George O. Hayford, Chauncey H. Dunn, C. A. 
Beasley, W. C. McNeely, Benjamin L. Edwards, 
Walter Wylie and Alexander Ingram; C. M. 
Campbell, Pres.; W. S. Bassett, V. P.; Walter 
Wylie, Clerk; C. A. Maydwell, Treas.; C. H. 
Dunn, Auditor; A. C. Lovekin, Gen. Sec. The 
other Presidents have been: R. H. Hart and C. 
E. Parker. The first paid Secretary was S. D. 
Fuller, then Moore Hesketh, F. Z. Wilcox, A. 
C. Lovekin. 

Bath-room, gymnastic apparatus, books, news- 
papers, magazines, appliances for parlor plays, 
lectures, etc., are furnished by this philanthropic 

Young Men's Institute, Branch No. 11, was 
one of the first institutes to organize in the 
State, and that event occurred on the evening of 
August 8, 1885, in old St. Rose's Hall, which 
has since been torn down to make way tor the 
new Government building. There were fifty 
charter members, and it was not long before the 

membership incn 

to 100. The Institute 

present numbers 145, and is still increasing. 
Much money has been expended in benefits to 
sick and disabled members. 

The first officers were: D. J. Long, Pres.; 
R. E. Murray, 1st V. P.; Joseph McGuire, 2d 
V. P.; T. T. A^^isemau, Rec. Sec; M. J. O'Reilly, 
Cor. Sec; Benjamin Neary, Fin. Sec; James 
O'Reilly, Treas.; J.Genshlea, Marshal; Execu- 
tive Committee — J. McBride, A. E. Coolot, J. 
J. IlefFernan, C. Trainor and J. McGinnis. The 
present officers are: M. J. Burke, Past Pres.; 
J. G. Genshlea, Pres.; M. JSTelis, Ist V. P.; 
James Longshore, Jr., 2d Y. P.; D. McLaugh- 
lin, Rec Sec; W. F. Gormley, Fin. Sec; T. J. 
Pennish, Treas.; W. E. Kent, Marshal. 

This society is organized for intellectual im- 
provement, social enjoyment and the main- 
tenance of a beneficiary fund, giving $7 a week 
in cases of sickness, and $500 to the legatee in 
case of death. Regular meetings are held at 
the Y. M. I. Hall, east side of Seventh street, 
between K and L, the first and third Thursdays 
of each month. 

Branch No. 27, Y M. I., was organized in 
the Y. M. I. Hall, on Sunday, May 7, 1886. 
Thirty-one charter members were enrolled. To- 
day the membership numbers 115, and is stead- 
ily increasing. It prides itself, as Branch No. 
11 does, in having as members some of the best 
and most prominent young men in the city. 
The first officers were as follows: T. W. O'Neil, 
Pres.; J. F. Doody, 1st V. P.; E. P. Byrne, 
2d V. P.; A. S. Cohen, Rec. Sec; R. E Mont- 
gomery, Fin. Sec; J. L. Ryan, Cor. Sec; J. 
Miller, Treas. ; F. F. Martin, Marshal; Execu- 
tive Committee— James C. Kelly, J. T. McNiflf, 
W. Scanlan, Charles Farran, J. Fitzgerald. The 
present officers are: J. F. Doody, Pres.; J. F. 


McQueeney, 1st V. P.; Adolpli Kaufman, 2d 
V. P.; W. E. Connolly, Kec. Sec; E. Kraus, 
Fin. Sec; Thomas Carolan, Cor. Sec; John 
Miller, Trcas.; Frank Gall! gan, Marshal. Tiie 
Institute meets every Tuesday evening at Fire- 
men's Hall. 

Young Lad Iff)'' Institute, No. 17, lias the fol- 
lowing otHcers: Josie J. Regan, Pres.; Mrs. J. 
W. Willem, 1st V. P.; Miss Lizzie O'Brien, 2d 
y. P.; Miss M.mie Whyte, Fin. Sec; Mrs. M. 
A. Nagle, Cor. Sec ; Miss JMellie Boylan, Treas. ; 
Miss Mollie Brown, Marshal; Miss Ida Des- 
mond, Sentinel; James Parkinson, Physician. 

Pro Culto Literary and Social Cluh, limited 
to a membership of fifty, has at present forty- 
five members, who meet on alternate Fridays at 
Y. M. I. Hall. Officers: Warren Floberg, 
Pres.; William Kellogg, 1st V. P.; Ralph 
Lowry, 2d V. P.; George Clark, Sec; William 
Larkin, Fin. Sec; Charles Richardson, Marshal. 
The club was organized April 26, 1887. 

Vincent Circle, C. L. S. C, was started 
about si.K or eight years ago, and grew to such 
an extent that in 1884 a division was made, as 
noticed below. Ofdcers this year: M. K. Bar- 
rett, Pres.; George Hesser, Y. P.; Miss Mollie 
Johnson, Sec; Miss Anderson, Treas. There 
are now about fifteen pursuing the course. 
Many have graduated. 

Westminster Circle, C. L. 8. C, was organ- 
ized in 1884, by members from the older society 
just noticed, and have at present a membership 
of about thirty-five. S. G. Smith, Pres.; Mrs. 
C. N. Post, Sec; Mrs. J. L. Chadderdon, Treas. 

The Sacramento Scientific Association and 
the Ladies'' Museum Association are connected 
with the Crocker Art Gallery. 

The Sacramento Society of California Pio- 
neers. — In pursuance of a previous notice, about 
seventy persons met at Jones's Hotel, on J street, 
between Front atid Second streets, on Wednes- 
day evening, January 25, 1854, for the purpose 
of organizing a Pioneer Association in Sacra- 
mento. Jos. W. Winans was Chairman, and 
Samuel Colville, Secretary of the meeting. A 
committee, consisting of R. P. Johnson, Samuel 

Colville, J. W. Winans, and R. M. Folger, was 
selected, who, on the 27th of the same montli, 
reported a constitution, which was adopted, and, 
with some alterations, is the one by which the 
association is now governed. On the 31st of 
the same month it was decided that all who 
came to the State prior to 1852 should be eligi- 
ble to membership, and, having signed the con- 
stitution, should have the right to assist in the 
election of officers. The oiiginal intention was 
to limit tlie membershi]) to those who had come 
to California previous to 1850. On the 3d of 
February, 1854, the association met for the 
election of officei's, to serve until September 9, 
1854. The following persons were elected: 
Joseph W. Winans, Pres.; J. B. Starr, J. N. 
Nevett, D. J. Lisle, Richard Rust, J. B. Mitch- 
ell and William M. Carpenter, Y. P's.; Samuel 
Colville, Rec Sec; N. A. H. Ball, Cor. Sec; 
B. F. Hastings, Treas.; H. E. Robinson, Yolney 
Spalding, C. C. Sackett, R. P. Johnson, W. C. 
Waters, James Ilaworth, and George Rowland, 

Tlie following is a complete list of the Presi- 
dents of the society and dates of their terras of 
service, respectively: Joseph W. Winans, 1854 
-'56; A. C. Monson, 1856-'57; John F. Morse, 
1857-'58-'59; James Queen, 1859-'60; A. C. 
Monson, 1860-'61; John II. Carroll, 1861-'62; 
N. L. Drew, 1862-'63; Gregory J. Phelan, 
1863-'64; R. H. McDonald, 1864-'65; Justin 
Gates, 1865-'66; William F. Knox, 1866-67; 
Isaac N. Hoag, 1867-'68; James McClatchy, 
1868-'69-'70 ; Charles N. Ross, 1870-'71 ; 
Isaac Lohman, 1871-'72; Albert Leonard, 1872 
-'73; Edward F.Aiken, 1873-'74; Asa P. An- 
drews, 1874-'75; G. K. Yan Heusen, 1875-'76; 
ISr. D. Goodell, 1876-'77; George A. Putnam, 
1877 -'78; John S. Miller, 1878-'79; W. C. 
Felch, 1880; James McGuire, 1881-'82; A. H. 
Powers, 1882-'83; J. H. McKune, 1883-'84; 
George W. Chesley, 1884-'87; Powell S. Law- 
son, 1887 to the present. 

The officers at present are: P. S. Lawson, 
Pres.; John S. Miller, Sec; A. C. Sweetser, 
Treas.; S. Callisch, Janitor. At the first the 


members were over 200 in number; there are 
now 126, besides fourteen honorary members. 
The association meets the last Saturday of each 
montli, in Pioneer Hall. This hall is in a build- 
ing erected by the association in 1868, on the 
east side of Seventh street, between J and K. 
Recently a building adjoining on the south has 
been purchased and neatly fitted up, — the first 
floor for a banquet hall, and the second for a 
parlor. The museum, although yet small, is a 
collection of rare merit. 

Capital Lodge, No. 5 J^, of the United Endow- 
ment Associates, a mutual benevolent associa- 
tion, was instituted November 9, 1888, with 
nineteen charter members, by D. D. G. C. Mrs. 
J. H. Struckmeyer. The officers are: Dr. E. 
A. Brune, P. 0.; Louis M. Schwoerer, C; Mrs. 
E. Bryan, V. C; Mrs. Yuhre, A. C; Mrs. C. 
G. Aukener, R. S.; Mrs. E. Schwoerer, F. S.; 
Mrs. I. Hillebrand, F.; Mrs. A. Labhard, G.; 
J. F. C. Knauer, Jr., I. G. ; Charles Schneider, 
S. ; Dr. E. A. Brune, Examining Physician. 
Stated meetings, alternate Thursdays, at Ein- 
tracht Hall. 

Pilgrim, Lodge Wo. 6, Independent Order of 
Good Samaritans and Daughters of Samaria 
(colored), was organized October 10, 1887, with 
twenty-eight members; the number is now in- 
creased to forty. E. A. Clark, Past Chief; Mrs. 
E. A. Fletcher, Past Presiding Daughter; A. 
L. Cady, Vice Chief; Mrs. Elizabeth Jackson, 
Daughter of Fount; R. D. Reid, Rec. Sec; 
Mrs. C. Williams, Fin. Sec; Rev. J. R. Dorsey, 
Chap. Regular meetings, the first Wednesday 
of each month, over Armory Hall. 

There is a " Degree Lodge " of the above, of 
which R. J. Fletcher is Grand Master; Mrs. 
Ella Dorsey, Sec; Rev. J. R. Dorsey, Treas. Of 
this there are eighteen graduates or members. 

The " Champions of the Red Cross," " Kes- 
lier shel Barsel," "Caucasians," "Janissaries 
of Light," and many other influential societies 
of former times have been discontinued. 

Company No. 3, Italian SlMi'pskooters'' So- 
ciety of Mutual Aid, was founded in Sacra- 
mento, October 30, 1887. A. Mazzini, Pres.; 

A. Simoni and G. Delucchi, V. P.; P. Gabrielli, 
Treas.; D. Malatesta, Sec; G. C. Simmons, 
Phys. The membership is about 105 at pres- 
ent, and is constantly increasing. The present 
oflScers are: Pier Antonio Galgani, Pres.; V. 
Caselli and A. Simoni, V. Pres.; P. Gabrielli, 
Treas.; J. Morelli, Sec; G. C. Simmons, Phys. 
The society meets the first Sunday of every 
month, in Y. M. I. Hall, on Seventh street, be- 
tween K and L. 

The Forester Gun Cluh, named after " Frank 
Forester," one of theearliest sportsmen in Amer- 
ica and the celebrated author, was organized in 
1879, with some twenty members, for the pur- 
pose of encouraging field sports, protecting 
game, and renting lakes for shooting grounds. 
During the season in which game is protected, 
the club has a series of trap shoots. At pres- 
ent they have leased Gourley's and Clark's 
Lakes, about twelve miles below Sacramento. 
They change the scene of their play from time 
to time, and of course will have other lakes and 
resorts hereafter. The first officers were: Hora- 
tio Hurd, now deceased, Pres.; Captain J. D. 
Young, now Superintendent of State Printing, 
V. P.; John Hotz, since deceased, Sec; and 
Henry Gerber, Cap. Since that time one other 
member of the club has also died. The present 
officers are: Edward C. Chapman, Pres.; Dr. 
F. F. Tebbets, V. P.; H. J. Kilgarif, Sec; and 
H. Eckhardt, Treas. The stated meetings of 
the club occur the first Monday of every month. 
Present number of members, about twenty-five. 

The Pacific Sportsmen^s Cluh was organized 
April 1, 1881, with twenty members, and the 
following officers: T. D. Hopper, Pres.; Frank 
Kunz, V. P.; and Charles Flohr, Sec and Treas. 
The club now numbers thirty-eight members, 
and the officers are: J. M. Morrison, Pres.; 
Grank Kunz, V. P.; Fred George, Sec; Adam 
Damm, Treas.; Charles Flohr, Capt. ; George 
Chapman, Asst. Capt. At present the club has 
the use of Miller's Lake, below Freeport, for 
the winter, and during the warmer portion of 
the year they have regular monthly shoots. 



Directiou and Distaucfi from Sacramento. 


S. E. 

S. E. 


S. E. 
S. E. 




S. E. 
S. E. 















Elk Grove 


Folsom City 









Michigan Bar 







Rentier Station 



State Prison 



Unien House 


Walnut Grove 


WalsU Station 



Aider Creek Station, three miles below Folsom. 

Arcade, five miles northeast of Sacramento. 

Ashland, opposite Folsom. 

Brighton, fonr miles southeast of Sacramento. 

Buckeye, nine and a half miles southeast of 

Emmaton, fifty miles below Sacramento, on 
the river. 

Live Oak, five miles south of east of Cosumnes. 

McConiiell's, three and a half miles southeast 
of Elk Grove. 

Onisbo, one mile below Courtland. 

Salisbury, fifteen miles east of Sacramento. 

Sheldon, four miles northeast of Elk Grove. 

Sebastopol, four miles southeast of Cosumnes. 

Sutterville, three miles below Sacramento, on 
the river. 

White Rock, six miles soutiieast of Folsom. 

Wilson's, near Cosumnes. 

(See chapter on Nomenclature.) 


ThereportofGeneral Vallejo, made to the first 
Legislature — and an accepted authority on the 
subject of the derivation and definition of the 
names of the counties created by that Legisla- 
ttire — gives the following with regard to Sacra- 

" Sacramento signifies Sacrament, or Lord's 
Supper. The streams known as Feather and 
Sacramento rivers were first respectively named 
by Lieutenant Moraga ' Sacramento ' and Jesus 
Maria; but the latter now assumes the name of 
Sacramento, whilst the former is called Feather. 
Sacramento is the principal river in all that sec- 
tion of country, and gives the name to the 
county. Several towns are springing up, but 
the chief one of the county is Sacramento City, 
situated on the eastern bank of the Sacramento. 


Tliis rapidly growing and flourisliing town, con- 
taining a permanent population of 12,000 in- 
liabitants, has sprung np in the short space of a 
year. It contains, besides, multitudes of tran- 
sient residents, constantly going to and coining 
from the 'placers;' steamboats and vessels of 
light and heavy draught are safely moored im- 
mediately abreast of the town." 

The name of Gait was suggested for that 
town, when it was laid out, by John McFarland, 
a pioneer resident of that locality, to the late 
E. E. Crocker, the land on which it is located 
then belonging to the railroad company. Mc- 
Farland, when quite a young man, lived in the 
town of Gait, in Upper Canada, and there served 
his apprenticeship as a joiner. The Canadian 
Gait was named after a man by that name. 

Folsom was named after Joseph L. Folsom, 
who in early days was a prominent man in the 
State, and who had large landed interests about 
the town which bears his name. He died at the 
Mission San Jose, Alameda County, oti July 
19, 1855. Folsom was for many years from 
1855 the terminus of the Sacramento Valley 
Ilailroad, extending from Sacramento up, and 
the ])ioneer railroad of the State. As most of 
the supplies for and travel to and from the mines 
passed over that road, the town was very flour- 
ishing. Afterward, when the Central Pacific 
was built, followed a time of great depression, 
and many of the large buildings fell into disuse 
and decay. Of late years, however, somewhat 
of a boom has been e.xperienced, and prosperity 
again reigns. 

Mormon Island was so named from the fact 
that a party of Mormons, who came to this 
country in the ship Brooklyn, in 1846, under 
the leadership of Samuel Braunan, settled there 
afterward, and engaged in mining. It has been 
claimed — and with some show of plausibility — 
that the discovery of gold was made there l>y 
the Mormons before the Marshall discovery. In 
1854 George M. Evans published an article in 
the Portland (Oregon) Tiines, in which he said: 

" When the Mormon battalion was disbanded 
in 1847, a number of Mormons came to San 

Francisco, and among them was one Hender- 
son Cox and one Beardsley, who boarded in the 
same house with me. They, having worked in 
the Georgia mines, told me, in conversation, 
that as they were about prospecting for a road 
(since called the Mormon Pass) for the Mor- 
mons to return to Salt Lake, in so doing, they 
would prospect the streams in their route (this 
was in the end of September or first of August, 
1847). In the following January, I returned 
to San Francisco, when I received an invitation 
to go to Mormon Island, so named afterward by 
Henderson Cox. On the 19th of January, 1848, 
I went there, and with the bounty they gave me, 
and what I worked out myself, I had §19,000 
on the 8th day of February, 1848. * * * 
The Mormons, wishing to keep their discoveries 
a secret from people not Mormons, worked out 
the gold and said nothing more." 

Natoma is an Indian word, meaning "clear 
water," and was the aboriginal name for that 
section of the country. A. P. Catlin first gave 
the name to a mining and water company. 
Afterward, in 1850, an agent of the PostotSce 
Department visited Mormon Island for the pur- 
pose of establishing a postoffice there, and he 
requested Mr. Catlin to furnish a name for the 
office, and the name "Natoma" was adopted on 
his suggestion. xVfterward the township took 
the name also. 

American Kiver was so named from the fact 
that a company of Western trappers lived on its 
banks for several years between 1822 and 1830. 

The Mokelumne River derives its name from 
a numerous tribe of Indians, the Mo-kel-kos, 
who formerly inhabited its lower banks and the 
adjacent country. The Spaniards spelled the 
word variously. Cosumne is also an Indian 

Hicksville was named from William Hicks, a 
pioneer resident, who died there June 29, 1884; 
and Howell's from Sid Howell, who still lives 

Sutterville was named from General John A. 
Sutter, who, with others, in 1844, made an ef- 
fort to build a town there. A survey was made 


and a village commenced. The first house was 
erected by Sutter, the second by one Hiadel, and 
the third by the late George Zins. The last was 
a brick building, and is said to have been tlie 
first that was put up in Calitbriiia. The new 
town lagged, and in 1853 a party of capitalists 
endeavored to boom it up, and many costly 
buildings were erected, but the effect was but 
temporary, and the town died down. 

The name Florin was given to the locality 
about 18(34 by the late Judge E. B. Crocker, 
owing to the great number of wild flowers which 
grew in the vicinity, and in 1875 the name was 
given to the town when it was commenced. 

In 1850 James Hall and a family opened the 
Elk Grove Hotel on the original site of Old Elk 
Grove, and gave it that designation on account 
of having found elk horns in the grove near by. 
Mr. Hall was from Galena, HIinois, and died in 
Vallejo in 1876. The original Old Elk Grove 
Hotel burned down in 1857. 

The original name of Ashland was Big Gulch. 
In 1857 it was changed to Russville, in honor o* 
Colonel Russ. It was also sometimes called' 
Bowlesville, from an old resident named Bowles 
who claimed title to the land. In 1860 it was 
christened Ashland. 

In 1852 a company was formed, known as 
the Alabama Bar Mining Company, composed of 
twelve men. They located the bar which took 
that name, from the fact that most of the com- 
pany were from the State of Alabama. 

Andrus Island was named from George An- 
drus, who settled there in 1852. 

Onisbo was the name of a chief of the Dig- 
ger Indians. 

Georgetown was settled in 1856 by Andrew 
George, who opened a hotel there called the 
Franklin House. The place goes by both the 
names of Georgetown and Franklin. 

Sebastopol, a mining camp, was established 
in 1854, and the name was chosen by a vote of 
the miners, the Crimean War being then in prog- 

Cook's Bar was named after Dennis Cook, 
who settled there in 1849. 

Michigan Bar was so named from the fact 
that the first settlers were two men from Michi- 
gan, who made the first discovery of gold there 
in 1849. 

Walsh's Station was named after J. M.Walsh, 
who opened a store there in 1873, and Routier's 
is called in honor of Senator Joseph Routier. 
who settled there in June, 1853. 

Rancho del Paso signifies Ranch of the Pass, 
Its other name — Norris Grant — is from Samuel 
Norris, who at one time owned it. 

1850. 1860. 1870. 1880. 

City * 12,800 16,283 21,420 

County. 9.087 24,142 26,830 84,390 
State... 91,635 323,127 499,424 864,694 


The first court-house that was erected at 
Seventh and I streets in Sacramento City, and 
in which the sessions of 1852 and 1854 were 
held, was commenced in June, 1850, and com- 
pleted on December 24, 1851. It was destroyed 
in the great fire of July 13, 1854, which con- 
sumed a large portion of the business part of 
the city. 

Immediately after the fire a contract was en- 
tered into between Joseph Nougus and the 
county officers for the erection of the present 
court house. As originally arranged the build- 
inganswered the following description: Extreme 
height, sixty-one feet ; dimensions, 80 x 120 
feet; with a portico supported by ten pillars, 
three feet six inches in diameter by thirty-one 
feet six inches in height. The ground floor 
was devuted to a county prison. On the same 
floor were two separate offices containing fire- 
proof vaults and occupied by the State Control- 
ler and State Treasurer. The second floor was 
devoted to a Senate Chamber, 37 x 30 feet, and 
an Assembly room, 72.8x41.4 feet, together 
with nine rooms for clerks and officers of the 
Legislature. The style of architecture is Ionic. 
The original contract price was $100,600, and 

♦April 1, 1849, less than 150; October 1 following, 1,300 votes. 


the subsequent contracts made the total cost of 
the building to the county $240,000. The cor- 
ner-stone was laid September 27, 1854, with 
Masonic honors, and the brick work was com- 
pleted November 9 following. The entire build- 
ing was finished January 1, 1855. It was rented 
to the State tor Capitol purposes at an aimnal 
rent of $12,000, and was used for that purpose 
from 1855 until the completion of the present 
Capitol. In Ajiril, 1870, the building was 
raised to the high grade, 400 jackscrews being 
used in the job. The original corner-stone was 
opened on the 22d and its contents transferred 
by the Boai-d of Supervisors into a new box. 
On that day the stone was relaid without public 


The first State Constitutional Convention met 
at Monterey, September 1, 1849, and during 
the session fixed the seat of the State Govern- 
ment at San Jose. December 15 following the 
first Legislature accordingly met at that place, 
but, finding the accommodations too limited, 
resolved to accept a proposition from General 
M. G. Vallejo, removing the capital to his 
place. Meeting there January 5, 1852, they 
fared even worse than they had at San Jose as 
the General had undertaken to do more than he 
could, and was far behind with his contract. 
The Sacramentans then stirred themselves, and 
indorsed the Court of Sessions in ofi"ering the 
use of the new court-house to the Legislature, 
which body accepted the offer January 12, 1852, 
and the very next day arrived here, on the 
steamer Empire. The citizens welcomed the 
members by a grand ball, tickets to which were 
sold at $20. During this session the contest 
between the rival points contending for the lo- 
cation of the capital naturally grew hotter, and 
all sorts of legal technicalities were brought to 
bear in favor and against the competing places. 
During all this time the State records were at 
San Jose, and doubts were entertained as to the 
legality of T amoving them to Vallejo, where 
there was no safe place for keeping them, or to 

Sacramento, which was not yet made the seat of 

Ajjril 30, 1852, the Legislature passed a bill 
declaring Vallejo to be the seat of Government, 
and ordering the Governor to remove the State 
records to that place. Next, General Vallejo 
procured a cancellation of his contract; then 
the following Legislature, meeting in January, 
1853, in Vallejo, soon adjourned to meet at 
Benicia, declaring it to be the capital. January 
2, 1854, the Legislature again met there. Gov- 
ernor Bigler submitted to them a communication 
from the mayor and council of Sacramento, 
tendering the free use of the court-house, with 
safes, vaults, etc., lo the State, together with a 
deed to the block of land between I and J and 
Ninth and Tenth streets. On the 9th of Feb- 
ruary, A. P. Catlin introduced a bill in the 
Senate, fixing the permanent seat of govern- 
ment at Sacramento and accepting the block of 
land. The Legislature then adjourned to this 
city. The members and State officers were re- 
ceived with a great demonstration. 

March 1, 1854, the Legislature met in the 
new court-house. On the 24th of this month 
they passed a law compelling the Supreme Court 
to hold its sessions here; but that body an- 
nounced their opinion that San Jose was the 
constitutional and legal cipital. Subsequently, 
however, by a change of judges of the Supreme 
Court, Sacramento was decided to be the legal 
capital. Accordiugly, with the exception of the 
flood year, 1862, all sessions of the Legislature 
since 1854 have been held in Sacramento. 

April 18, 1856, the Legislature provided for 
the issue of bonds to the amount of $300,000 
for the erection of a State House where is now 
the beautiful Plaza. The Board of Commission- 
ers, appointed to superintend the building, 
approved the plans of Reuben Clark for the 
structure, let the contract to Joseph Nougues, 
for $200,000, and broke ground for building 
December 4. But on the 15th of that month 
the commissioners refused to issue the bonds, 
because the Supreme Court had decided that 
the State had no authority to contract a debt so 


large. The contractor brought suit to compel 
the issuance of the bonds, but was beaten, and 
work was stopped and never resumed on that 
buildincr. The land was deeded back to the 
city and has been made a beautiful park. 

The building of a Capitol did not again re- 
ceive much attention until ISBO, when the 
supervisors deeded to the State the tract of 
land bounded by L and N and Tenth and 
Twelfth streets, and the Legislature appropri- 
ated $500,000 for the building. The plans of 
M. F. Butler were adopted, and Michael Fen- 
nell, of San Francisco, obtained the contract for 
furnishing the material and building the base- 
ment for $80,000. The corner-stone was laid 
May 15, 1861. Fennell, however, had dropped 
the contract April 1, and it was afterward let to 
G. W. Blake and P. E. Conner, who in turn 
dropped the task, having suffered severe losses 
in the great flood. The work was then placed 
in the hands of the commissioners, who had to 
" plod their weary way " along for several years, 
while the various Legislatures could not agree 
upon the amount of appropriations to be made. 
Indeed, the question of the location of the Cap- 
itol was mooted until 1867, when it was decided 
to discontinue the use of granite, and hurr}' the 
building on to completion, with l)rick. Thus 
the basement story only is built of granite. 
The brick, however, is of good quality, and the 
Capitol Building, whicli is modeled somewhat 
after the pattern of the national Capitol at 
Washington, is substantially constructed, and 
is modestly beautiful in its exterior. Cost, 
about $1,447,000; with grounds (ten blocks), 
$2,590,460.19. Height, from first floor to the 
lantern, 240 feet. From this point can be seen 
a magnificent city and rural landscape, bounded 
by mountains fifty to a hundred miles distant. 
See topographical chapter for a "description of 
the objects visible. At the center of the first 
floor is a large piece of statuary, cut from Italian 
marble by Larkin G. Meade, and representing 
Columbus before Isabella. It was purchased 
by D. O. Mills, at an expense of $30,000, and 
by him presented to the State. 

The completion of the Capitol in the fall of 
1869 was celebrated by a grand ball given by 
the citizens of Sacramento, and the rooms, as 
they were finished, were occupied during the 
months of November and December. The 
present constitution provides that the seat of 
the State Government shall not be removed 
without a popular vote. 

Like the Lower Mississippi, the lower portion 
of Sacramento River is, when the waters are 
high, above the level of the adjoining country. 
Hence floods, inundating many thousand acres 
of good land, sometimes occurred, until the 
levee was completed. The principal ones have 
occurred on the following dates: 

1805. — The inundation was so great this year 
that the Indians still reckon from it as an epoch. 

1825 -'26. — This was a very wet winter 
tlirou<;hout the State, and some of the oldest 
inhabitants still remember it. 

1846-'47.— High waters, but as yet there 
were scarcely any settlers here witli property to 
be destroyed. 

1850. — By this time Sacramento was a lively 
little town, and the flood well nigh carried it 
away. The people continued to hope that the 
water had about reached its highest point until 
it was too late to save their property. They 
were unprepared when the rush came upon 
them, and some were even drowned in- their 
beds! Women, children and feeble persons 
were found floating about upon loose material, 
and crying for help. The inmates of the city 
hospital, twelve to twen'y in number, narrowly 
escaped drowning. Only two of them ulti- 
mately recovered! It was during this flood 
that a Dutchman, employed to take corpses out 
in boats for burial, met with an accident, and 
on endeavoring to swim ashore with $2,000 in 
gold in his pocket, sank several times and was 
drowned. Many of the rougher class of men 
became horribly reckless, drinking, laughing, 
hurrahing and carousing generally, without 
turning a hand to save life or property. Of the 


300 or more men who were doing business in 
Sacramento, not more than a half dozen had 
sec-ond stori28 to their buildings, in which goods 
might l;e stored, or persons saved. 

After this flood subsided the weather was 
line and exhilarating for several weeks, and the 
people almost forgot that they had met with 
losses, when in March another fresliet arrived, 
and would have swept them away had it not 
l>een for the determined efforts of Hardin Big- 
low in leveeing the city, despite the scoffing of 
the multitude. 

1852.— March 7, at 1 a. m., there came a mad 
rush of waters from the American River, break- 
ing through the levee. The mayor summoned 
the citizens to the rescue, but in vain; it was 
too late to cast up levees. By daylight nothing 
could be seen upon the surrounding landscape 
but Sutter's Fort and the Ridge. The head of 
I street, near the Plaza, being the highest 
ground in the city, was densely covered with 
human beings. This terrible distress continued 
four days. 

1853.— January 1, the city was again com- 
pletely flooded, the water rising two feet higher 
than in 1850; but the water retired so rapidly 
that but little damage was done, and even the 
improvised boats and other craft were, many of 
them, left upon the ground. 

1861.— March 28, there was a sudden dash 
from the American River, inundating the city, 
but the subsidence was so rapid that compara- 
tively little damage was done; but December 9 
following occurred tiie most destructive flood of 
all. The first alarm was given at 8 a. m., and 
within one hour many persons living east of 
Eleventh street were surrounded, in imminent 
danger of their lives, and appealing for help 
with the most heart-rending cries. Many were 
indeed drowned during this siege, and many a 
harrowing story is told of pitiful cries for help 
whicli were unheeded by passing boatmen who 
could have rescued the suflferers, but would not 
because money to the extent of §10 to §75 was 
not forthcoming! 

By the 11th the waters had so far subsided 

that traffic was resumed. On the 23d the city 
was again partially inundated. 

1802. — January 9-13 occurred a destructive 
deluge, carrying away all or fiearly all the prop- 
erty of many farmers, as well as drowning some 
persons and destroying much property in the 
city. The Legislature was in session, and upon 
the third day of the flood the Senate adopted a 
re.=olution for the adjournment of the Legisla- 
ture to San Francisco for the remainder of the 
session. The House, however, did not concur 
until the 23d day of the month, and the next 
day they all embarked for San Francisco. 

1878.— February 1 came tlie last destructive 
freshet, as since then the levees have been 
strong enough to confine the waters to the chan- 
nel; but the loss of property was not so great 
as in 1862. 


The history of the levees around Sacramento 
is one of great interest, involving, as it does, 
not only the psist but the present and future 
safety of the city. Previous to the flood of 
January, 1850, nothing had been attempted in 
the matter of protection from flood or high 
water. True, the subject had been discussed 
j/ro and con, one party holding that something 
should be done, and the other tiiat nothing 
could be done that would be of any real value, 
for, they argued, "suppose we do build a bank 
around the town, how long will the water stay 
outside? Granting that it cannot run over the 
top or break through the levee, it will, in a 
short time, find its level by percolating through 
the soil." This latter class, however, were 
suddenly converted by the flood of 1850, and 
became as ardent supporters of the levee move- 
ment as any of their former opponents. 

The waters had scarcely begun to recede from 
the city, when surveyors were employed to sur- 
vey lines for and make a location of the pro- 
posed levee. On the morning of January 29, 
1850, a meeting of citizens was held in the 
oflice of Priest, Lee & Co., for the purpose of 
providing means to protect the city from floods. 
Recommendations were made to the city coun- 


cil, which, through committees, arranged for 
building a levee around the city. For this pur- 
pose they proposed a tax of $250,000, which 
was accepted by a popular vote of 543 against 
15. Accordingly, a levee was built that year, 
but not sufficient to withstand extraordinary 
floods; for the very next freshet, that of 1852, 
broke over it in several places and inundated 
the city. 

Under the supervision of the city council, a 
levee was then built on I street to Sixth, and 

thence to the " Eidge." This 


n was found 

adequate, as the subsequent winter, 1852-'53, 

proved. The next year, at an expense of $50,- 
000, borrowed on scrip, the levee was widened 
and made higher, so tiiat it extended up twenty- 
two and a half feet above low-water mark. 

With occasional repairs of breaches and 
strengthening weak places, this levee has since 
stood, while that portion bounding the east and 
south sides of the city has been superseded by 
the river levee generally, built by the respective 
reclamation districts. The Y street levee, a 
comparatively new one, is a public drive-way for 
most of its extent. 

^,._ _--jife«„ 



fOR the school statistics of each, see table 
at the close of Chapter XIV. 


This township was established October 20, 
1856, and includes township 6 north, ranges 7 
and 8 east, and those portions of township 5 
north, ranges 7 and 8 east, which lie north of 
Dry Creek, and also a strip from the west side 
of townships 5 and 6 north, range 9 east, nearly 
a mile wide, in Sacramento County. It is 
bounded on the north by Lee and Cosumnes 
townships, on the west by Dry Creek Township, 
and ou the south and east by the county line, 
and was originally a part of Cosumnes Town- 

The early settlers in this township were: John 
Southerland, who came into the township in 

1850, and was largely engaged in stock-raising. 
Hoberts & Chaplin settled on a ranch near the 
Southerland place in 1850. They were the first 
men who raised barley in this township, and 
were engaged principally in raising grain. 
Joshua and William Heweld, on an adjoining 
ranch to Roberts & Chaplin's, raised barley and 
hay. Captain Ed. Thompson, an old sea cap- 
tain, settled with his family in the township in 

1851, and sold a year or two later to the Good- 
win Brothers. Soon after selling his farm, he 
had a dispute with a laborer, and afterward 
called him out of the house and shot him, kill- 

ing him instantly. Thompson left the country 
and was never found. Dr. George Elliott set- 
tled, some time in 1851, at the crossing of the 
Stockton Road and Dry Creek. He kept the 
stage station and hotel, and also owned the stage 
line, which he leased to a man named Kelley. 
This place was known as Elliott's Station. A 
postofKce was established here in 1852, Elliott 
being appointed postmaster. "When ho sold out, 
in 1858, Mr. Mitchell was appointed, who served 
until the stage route was changed and olHce dis- 
continued. Martin Scott purchased Elliott's 
establishment and moved the hotel across the 
creek into San Joaquin County. James M. Short 
settled in the township in July, 1852. W. Lords 
moved into the township in the spring of 1852, 
and bought aranch on the Laguna. S. B. Lemon, 
a bachelor, settled on the Laguna, near the cen- 
ter of the township, in 1853. In 1854 he 
opened a hotel and bar, which he sold in 1858 to 
James Crocker, who, in 1859, sold to Thomas 
H. Fowler. Mr. Fowler closed the hotel in 
1861-'62. He did not keep a bar. E. H. Pres- 
bury settled on Dry Creek in 1854. Goodman 
Brothers, of whom there were three, farmed 
quite extensively for about si.x years. L. C. 
Goodman died about 1860, and the other broth- 
ers sold out and returned to Te.xas. William 
Mitchell, a large sheep-raiser, Richard White, 
William H. Young, William Gallon, John 
Bowen and Joshua Bailey are among the settlers 

Hisrour OF i<acramento county. 

prior to 1855. In 1858 Thomas Steele settled 
at the place now known as Clay Station, on the 
lone and Amador Branch of the Central Pacilic 
Railroad. A postoftice was established at this 
point Jnly 26, 1878, Mr. Steele being appointed 
postmaster. lie also started a store in October, 
1878, and a blacksmith shop in 1879. 

The soil of the bottom lands is a black loam; 
the upland is gravelly, with some adobe, and 
considerable red loam and sandy soil. There is 
very little timber in the township, a few scat- 
tering oaks, a small patch of black oak in a ra- 
vine near Dry Creek, and willow, oak, with an 
occasional asii tree, on the Dry Creek bottom. 
The mining debris seriously attected the value 
of the bottom lands. 

The chief industry in this township was 
stock-raising until the passage of the no-fence 
law, since whicli time the farmers have found 
it morb profitable to cultivate the land than to 
use it for grazing. In the spring of 1853 several 
herds of cattle were brought the township 
by Thompson & James. They continued in tlie 
business until 1860. Mr. Hicks, of Ilicksville, 
also had a large number of cattle here. In 1858 
sheep-raising began in the township, and grad- 
ually increased until it became the largest in- 
terest in the township. Until 1877 barley and 
hay were the principal crops, it having been 
supposed that wheat could not be grown with 
success; this has been proved to be a mistake, 
and it now forms one of the principal crops. 
Very little fruit is raised in the township, the 
prevailing high winds and the necessity for con- 
stant irrigation making it unprofitablf. The 
Central Pacific Railroad formerly i)wned large 
tracts of land in this township, which they have 

The first settlers established themselves on the 
water courses, which are the Laguna, dry in the 
summer, and Dry Creek, on the south bonudary 
of the township, which also has little or no water 
in it during the summer mouths. During the 
rainy season the Laguna rises and falls very 
rapidly, in some places spreading nearly half a 
mile wide. In 1862 the waters from the Anni- 

dor hills caused considerable damage, sweeping 
away fences and stock, but compared with the 
major portion of the county, Alabama Town- 
ship suti'ered very little from the great Hood. 
During the rainy season the Laguna furnishes 
ample water for stock; in the summer the farm- 
ers depend on wells, which furnish water at 
depths varying from twenty-five to eighty feet, 
according to the locality. 

The Sacramento and Stockton stages ran 
through this township, station and hotel on Dry 
Creek kept by Dr. George Elliott. The For- 
rest Line Stage Company began running in June, 
18G9, and was taken oft" in 1876. George IJrusie 
kept station and public liou^e. This line ran 
from Gait to Mokelumuj Hill, in Calaveras 

In addition to the two hotels mentioned above 
there were two others; one opened in 1854, by 
S. V>. Lemon, near center of township; closed in 
1861 or 1862. The other opened in 1863, by 
Calvin Bates, on what was then known as the 
Michigan Bar or Laguna road; closed in 1866. 

The first school held in the township was in 
1857, a private school, kept by George II. String- 
field, and only lasted one term. In 1858 the 
first public school building was erected by pri- 
vate parties; the lirst teacher was Miss Mary 


The first division of Sacramento County into 
minor political divisions was made by the Court 
of Sessions, on the 24:th day of February, 1851. 
There were eight townships established, known 
as Sacramento, Sutter, San Joaquin, Cosumnes, 
Brighton, Center, Mississippi and Natoma. On 
July 30, of the same year, the Court of Sessions 
cut oft" from Sacramento Township all that por- 
tion north of the American River, creating the 
latter into an independent division, by the name 
of American Township. The north and west 
boundaries were the county line and the Sacra- 
mento River, south the American River, and 
east the roads to Auburn, as far as its junction 
with the road to Muldrow's Ferry, to Nevada 
City, and the latter road to the county line. On 


the 20tli day of October, 1856, the Board of 
Supervisors of Sacramento County established 
tiie boundary line of the difl'erent townships in 
the county as they now exist. The eastern line 
of American Township was established on the 
center line of townships 9 and 10 north, range 
5 east of Mount Diablo liase and meridian, from 
the intersection of said line with the north line 
of the county to the American River. In 1874 
tlie boundaries of Sacramento City were chanj^ed 
as follows: Commencing on the line of Thirty- 
first street at the intersection of the extension 
of A street; thence westerly alonj^ tiie north 
line of A street to the east line of Twenty- 
second street; thence along the east line of 
Twenty-second street to the north line of B 
street north; thence westerly along' tiie north 
line of 1) street north, to the center of the bed 
or channel of the American River. The land 
ilirown out of Sacramento Township by this act 
was attached to American Township. This town- 
ship is nearly all swamp and overflowed land, 
comprised in Old Swamp Land District, No. 1. 
The Central Pacific Railroad touches the south- 
east corner of the township, with a station at 
Arcade, nearly on the line between American 
and Center townships. 

The Six-Mile House was on the old load to 
Marysville, about six miles from Sacramento. 
It was built by Mr. Holmes in 1852 or 1853. 
He mortgaged his place, including 160 acres of 
land, to Mr. Hughes, who was obliged to fore- 
close the mortgage in 1857. At this sale it was 
bought by H. C. Harvey. It had not been used 
as a hotel for some time previous to this. Har- 
vey, who was at this time interested in a stage 
line from Sacramento to Marysville, kept it as a 
hotel and farm-house. The Star House was on 
the Nevada road, on the Morris grant. It was 
the favorite stopping place for teamsters. It 
was owned by a Mr. Pitcher in 1857. The 
Twelve-Mils House was a stage station on the 
Nevada road. The Arcade House was about 
two miles from the bridge. 

The land in the township is very rich, being 
for the most part deposit from the rivers. Dry 

Creek runs through the township. Tiiis has 
been filled with mining sediment, so that now 
it has no channel, but spreads all over the low 
grounds. There is no reclaimed land in tiie 
township, and a large portion of it is exposed 
to inundation each year of high water. When 
the land is safe it is very valuable, being held 
as high as $100 per acre, and renting at $15 to 
$25 per acre. The indications in this township 
are that at some previous time the water has 
been much higher than at any time since the 
American occupation. The flood of 1862 nearly 
ruined allof tiie farms that were overflowed, carry- 
ing away barns, houses, tools, and covering all 
up with sediment from two inches to two feet 

On Thursday, March 'J, 1854, the community 
of Sacramento was more tlian ordinarily excited 
by reason of a report that a duel was on the 
tapis, and would take place on the afternoon of 
that day. Such an affair did really occur, and 
under the following circumstances: Philip W. 
Thomas, District Attorney of Placer County, 
had made some remarks concerning and deroga- 
tory to the character of J. P. Rutland, a clerk 
in the office of Dr. S. A. McMeans, State Treas- 
urer, which led Rutland to send Thomas a chal- 
lenge, which the latter refused to accept, alleging 
as a reason that he did not recognize the chal- 
lenger as a gentleman. Dr. Dickson, one of the 
physicians of the State Marine Hospital at San 
Francisco, appropriating the insult to himself, 
repeated *the challenge in his own proper name 
and person, which was accepted by Thomas, and 
a hostile meeting was appointed for 4 p. m. on 
the day above mentioned. The ptirties left the 
city at 2:30 i'. .m., and had gained a point two 
miles beyond Lisle's bridge, on their way to Oak 
Grove, when they found tiiemselves pursued by 
a deputy sheriff of the county. When that 
officer was discovered, it was arranged between 
the friends of the parties that a mock duel 
should be fought to mislead suspicion. Ac- 
cordingly, H. O. Ryerson and Hamilton Bowie 
took positions and exchanged shots. Ryerson 
was immediately arrested by the deputy sheriff" 


and brouglit back to the city, where he gave 
bonds for liis appearance. 

The real combatants then proceeded on their 
way to the appointed place of meeting, which 
was in American Township, not more than 200 
yards from the residence of H. M. La Rue. 
Hamilton Bowie acted as the second of Thomas, 
and Judge McGowan otKciated in like character 
for Dickson, who had the choice of the ground 
and the word. The distance originally fixed 
upon was ten paces, but by subsequent arrange- 
ments it was increased to fifteen, in the hope of 
saving the lives of the parties. The weapons 
used were dueling pistols. At the .vord given 
by McGowan both tired promptly, but Thomas 
an instant ahead. Dickson's hesitation for an 
instant, in all probability, saved Thomas' life, as 
his opponent's ball was in line, and went into 
the ground at the feet of his adversary. At the 
first fire Dickson fell, and was then brought to 
the city. The bearing of Thomas was that of 
one cool and collected, while his adversary be- 
trayed some excitement. The surgeons, Drs. 
Ogden and Williams, expressedthe opinion that 
the patient would die, having found that the 
ball had entered two inches anterior to the angle 
of the fifth rib of the right side, passing forward 
of the spinal column, and resting immediately 
under the skin and over the angle of the sixth 
rib on the lei't side. That night, at twenty 
minutes past midnight. Dr. Dickson died, being 
perfectly conscious of his approaching end. He 
was a native of Tennessee, thirty years of age, 
and had been in California about four years. On 
the 10th of Marcli, the day after tlie duel, the 
funeral of the unfortunate and lamented Dr. 
Dickson took place, at 4 o'clock, from Jones's 
Hotel (now Treraont), on J street, between Front 
and Second. A very large number of persons 
attended, including members of the Masonic 
fraternity, members of the Senate and Assembly, 
State officers, and many personal friends. A 
band of music headed the procession; the pall- 
bearers were J. W. Coifroth, Charles A. Leake, 
Charles S. Fairfax, B. F. Myers, A. C. Bradford 

and Captain Nye; and the body was laid to rest 
in the City Cemetery. 

The remaining participants were indicted. 
James H. Hardy was then district attorney, but 
through the exertions of Colonel P. L. Edwards, 
counsel for thedefendanta, the indictments were 
qua.shed. After the duel Thomas was twice re- 
elected district attorney of Placer, and in 1860 
he was elected to the State Senate, which posi- 
tion he resigned before the expiration of his 
term. He made an unfortunate marriage, be- 
came dissipated, and died in Auburn about 
1874 or 1875. 


This township as originally established by the 
Court of Sessions, February 24, 1851, was de- 
scribed as follows: Beginning at the southeast 
corner of Sacramento Township; thence along 
the eastern line of said township to the county 
line of Sutter County; thence easterly along 
said line three miles; thence in a southeasterly 
direction to Murray's Ranch and including the 
same; thence in the same direction to the in- 
tersection of San Joaquin, Sutter and Cosumnes 
townships; thence along the northern line of 
Sutter Township to beginning. This includes 
a part of what is now known as Center Town- 
ship. The Board of Supervisors, October 20, 
1856, established the lines of the township as 
follows: Beginning at the northeastern corner 
of Sutter Township; thence south along the 
eastern boundary ot said Sutter Townsiiip, be- 
ing also the center line of township 8 north, 
range 5 east, of Mt. Diablo base and meridian, 
to the township line between townships 7 and 
8 north, range 5 east; thence east along said 
township line to the range line between ranges 
6 and 7 east; thence north along said range line 
to the American River; thence southerly and 
westerly along said American liiver to the point 
of begiiming. 

The town of Brighton was started in 1849 by 
a party of Sacramento speculators; the town 
plat was made, lots staked oif, a race track, and 
the Pavilion Hotel, built by the originators of 



the enterprise. It was located on tlie soutli 
bank of the American River, nearly one mile 
north of the location of the present point called 
Brighton. During the years 184:9-'51 the vil- 
lage was a lively place. In 1851 the Pavilion 
Hotel burned down; another hotel was started, 
known as the Five-Mile House, John and 
George Berry being proprietors; this house was 
closed in 1856. There wei-e two stores and 
several dwellings in the town. In 1852 the 
town was abandoned, on account of land trouble, 
defective title, etc. 

The present Brighton is located on sections 10 
and 15, township 8 north, of range, 5 east, at 
the crossing of the Sacramento Valley and the 
Central Pacific railroads. The "town" was 
commenced in 1861, but now there is not even 
a postofRce directly at that point. T. C. Perkins 
kept the first store, which opened in 1861 and 
closed in 1866; and was also the first postmas- 
ter, a postoffice having been established herein 

The "Washington Hotel, Mr. Pugh, proprie- 
tor, was built in 1874. S. II. Pugh started the 
first blacksmith shop in the village the same 

The Brighton Distillery Conipany, originally 
owned by Marcus Lowell, was established in 
1875. It was subsequently purchased by the 
above-named company. There are probably 
twenty shareholders. R. S. Lockett is Presi- 
dent and T. C. Perkins, Secretary and Treas 
ni'er. They n)anufactnre brandy })rincipally, 
turning out about 10,000 gallons annually. 
They expect to increase tliis amount next year. 
The grapes are purchased mostly from the farm- 
ers of Brighton Township, though some are 
bought from the vicinity of Elk Grove. 

Hoboken, or Norristown, was laid 

Samuel Norris, in February, 1850. (See chapter 
on the founding of Sacramento.) It was situ- 
ated on the south bank of the American River, 
about live miles from Sacramento, and the ad- 
vertisement in the Placer Times of that date 
states that the location cannot be surpassed for 
health or business. A map of the town was 

left in the office of H. A. Schoolcraft, of Sacra- 

There seems to have been very little done to 
or heard of the town from this time until the 
high water of 1852, when, all teaming commu- 
nication having been practically cut off between 
Sacramento and the mining districts, the mer- 
chants of Sacramento were forced to tempo- 
rarily establish branches of their business on high 
ground so that their customers could get to them. 
This high ground was found at or near the site 
of Norristown, which was re-christened Hobo- 
ken. Previous to this time there was only one 
house there — a roadside I'nn, known as the Four- 
Mile Honse. On January 10, 1853, there were 
from thirty to fifty houses and tents of business, 
with a populaticjn of several hundred, including 
among their number nearly all the prominent 
business houses of Sacramento. January 15, 
1858, the first election was held for city officers. 
The candidates for mayor were. Judge E. L. 
Brown, J. B. Starr and Samuel Norris. 

The newspaper reports of the election state 
that the candidates, especially for mayor, were, 
early in the field, and " the sovereigns w-ere 
treated to the best of cheer." The vote for 
Mayor was: E. L. Brown, 613; Samuel Norris, 
546; J. B. Starr, 598. Mayor Brown made an 
inaugural address to the citizens of Hoboken 
through the medium of " the very common 
council," in which several suggestions were 
made as to necessary improvements, and prom- 
ising to execute the law faithfully "provided I 
am paid for it." On the subsidence of the 
waters, later on in the season, Hoboken was de- 
serted, and has since been used as farm land. 

Routier postoffice is situated on the Placer- 
ville Railroad, a trifle more than ten miles dis- 
tant from the Sacramento postoffice. The name 
was given to it in honor of Joseph Routier, 
who, with his family, settled on the place as the 
agent of Captain Folsom, in June, 1853, occu- 
pying the adobe house built by Leidesdorff in 
1846. On the death of Captain Folsom, in 1855, 
the executors of his estate retained Mr. Routier, 
and when the land was sold, in 1863, he pur- 


chased 100 acres, and has planted it in fruit- 
trees and grape-vines. After spending much 
time and money experimenting on wine, Mr. 
Tvontier succeeded in miiking a wine, which, 
among connoiseurs, is considered superior. 

The first railroad station in this vicinity was 
at the American Forlv House, or Patterson's. A 
few years hiter the station was moved nearer 
town, and called Mayhew Station, from the 
agent's name. In 1866 Mr. Ron tier's fruit 
business had appreciated so much that the rail- 
road company built a platform for him. In 
1871 Patterson lost his new house by fire, and 
was induced to rebuifd and make a station at 
lloutier's, which proved to be a good invest- 
ment. In 1872 Mrs. Mayhew, then postmis- 
tress at Mayhew, resigned, and, on petition of 
the farmers in that vicinity, the office was re 
moved to Eoutier's, and called Routier postof- 
fice; A. D. Patterson was appointed postmaster. 

AValsh Station is situated on the Jackson road, 
near the center of the township. The postoffice 
was established in 1873, J. Walsh, Postmaster; 
he also opened a store the same year. A black- 
smith shop and the Enterprise Grange Hall were 
also started the same year; the latter was l)uilt 
by the business association, composed of mem- 
bers of the Enterprise Grange. 

Of the earlest settlers we have the following 

A. D. Patterson came to the township in 

1849, and started what is known as the Ameri- 
can Fork or Ten^Mile House, on the Coloma 
road, where he remained until 1871. N. J. 
Stevens settled near Patterson's place April 1, 

1850, with his family. He died about 1873. 
Charles Malby settled liere in 1849, and kept 
the Nine-Mile House on the Coloma road, next 
to Stevens's. James T. Day came in 1849. James 
Bowles settled in tlie township with his family 
in 1849 on the place adjoining Stevens's on the 
west. He died many years ago. Israel Luce 
came in the spring of 1850;. was in partner- 
ship with CharlesMalby. Mr. Luce now lives in 
Sacramento. James Allen settled with his 
family on the American River. He was driven 

out during the Squatter riots, an adopted son 
of his being killed during the riot. Allen after- 
ward returned and took possession of the land, 
sold out and moved away about 1861. W. P. 
Whitesides settled in the township in January, 
1850, joining ranches with Kippand Petit. He 
died in 1864. A. B. Hawkins settled here in 
1849; moved away many years ago. Mr. 
Crytes came in 1850, and moved away. A. 
Kipp and Charles Petit settled on the Allen 
place in 1851. When Allen returned, they gave 
possession. John Rooney settled in 1851, in an 
old adobe house, formerly a sheep ranch. lie 
is now living at Whitesides' place. Dr. Kel- 
logg settled in 1849 on the place north of Bo wies's ; 
sold out in 1853 to James Riley, who died in 
1869. W. S. Manlove settled in 1849 about 
one mile and one-half south of Day's ranch, 
where he still resides. Mr. Rush opened the 
Fourteen-Mile House on the Coloma road in 
1850. It was quite a large building. In 1854 
he sold to John Taylor, who has since carried on 
farming on the place. 

The Amei ican Fork House was established in 
December, 1849, by A. D. Patterson. The house 
was constructed principally of cloth, and was 
situated about ten miles from the city. The 
house soon became popular, and so fiourished 
that in 1850 a wooden house was built, costing, 
it is said, $40,000, owing to its being the cholera 
season. On Christmas eve, 1850, a ball was 
given at the house, the receipts amounting to 
$1,500, $250 of which Patterson paid to Lo- 
thian's Band for furnishing the music. 

lu 1853 the celebrated " Plank Road," built 
on the continuation of J street, reached Patter- 
son's Hotel, which was its eastern terminus, and 
the house immediately became a great place of 
resort. Patterson sold the property in 1872. 

The Magnolia, sometimes known as the Five- 
Mile House, was originally built in 1849. It 
was situated on the old Placerville and Jackson 
stage road, and vvas a place of considerable note 
in its day. The building was burned twice in 
1863, and vvas rebuilt the second time. The 
Twelve-Mile House was built in 1853 by a man 


named Cadwell, and called at that time the An- 
telope Ranch. 

The Fourteen-Mile House, situated on the 
Coloma road, was built in. 1850, and sold to 
John Taylor in 1854. 

Enterprise Grange, No. 1^9, was organized 
December 12, 1873. The charter members 
were: J. M. Bell, Master; A. A. Nordyke, Over- 
seer; S. W. Haynie, Steward; George Wilson, 
Lecturer; H, A. Parker, Treasurer; M. Toomy, 
Secretary; R. S. Jamison, Assistant Steward; 
J. Campbell, Gate Keeper; G. I. Martin, Chap- 
lain; J. R. Gilliland, J. D. Rennett; R. J. Brown, 
A. M. Gunter, T. L. Williams, J. D. Morrison, 
Nelson Shaver, Al. Root, Ada M. Shaver, May 
M. Gunter, Mrs. Mary G. Nordyke, Ceres; 
Eti'unia Bell, Margaret A. Haynie, Lady Assist- 
ant Steward; Sarah Martin, Flora; Mrs. M. 
Parker, Pomona; and Mary M. Brown. 

This grange has iiad as many as 100 members. 

The original boundaries of Center Township, 
as established by the Court of Sessions, Febru- 
ary 24, 1851, contained, as near as we can ascer- 
tain, the eastern half of the present Center 
Townsiiip, and portions of the present townships 
of Brighton, Granite, and possibly Lee. On 
March 1, 1853, the Board of Supervisors changed 
the boundaries of Brighton and Center town- 
ships, forming one township out of the portions 
of both lying north of the American River, this 
township to be called Center Township. The 
eastern line of the township ran a southeasterly 
course, striking the American River east of 
Folsom; this included the westerly four-fifths of- 
the present Mississippi Township. 

October 20, 1856, the Board of Supervisors 
established tlie present boundaries of Center 
Township as follows: beginning at tiie north- 
east corner of American Township, and run 
thence easterly along the northern boundary 
line of the county of Sacramento, to the range 
line between ranges 6 and 7, east of Mount 
Diablo meridian; thence south along said range 
line to the American River; thence southerly 

and westerly along said American River to the 
eastern boundary line of American Township; 
thence north along said eastern line of Ameri- 
can Township to the beginning. 

Center Township is mostly all occupied by 
Spanish grants. The Rancho del Paso, com- 
monly known as the Norris grant, is mostly in 
this township, or about 30,000 acres of it. The 
Rancho San Juan has about 8,000 acres in 
Center Township. The latter ranch is, how- 
ever, now being sold in small parcels, and, for 
the benefit of the township, it is to be hoped the 
Norris grant may soon do likewise. 

The character of the land is essentially agri- 
cultural, and, where opporftuiity has been had 
to try its fertility, it has proved of good quality. 
The land lying around the edge of the Norris 
grant is nearly all under cultivation, or consti- 
tutes part of improved farms. 

The proprietors of the Norris grant have made 
three separate attempts to reach artesian water, 
or to find a flowing well, without, however, 
meeting with any success. The depth of the 
wells were, respectively, 900 feet, 640 feet, and 
2,147 feet. The last well was abandoned in 

The Auburn road ran diagonally through the 
township, as it now is, from southwest to north- 
east, and along this road, at short intervals, were 
located houses for the refreshment of man and 
beast. The most prominent of these houses was 
the Oak Grove House, located on the Auburn 
road, about seven miles from the city of Sacra- 
mento. This house was quite a resort at one 
time — notably in 1851-'52, its situation being 
about the right distance from Sacramento to 
make the drive and return a pleasant trip. The 
house was kept by D. B. Groat in early times. 
This house is also noted for being the one in 
which the parties to the Denver-Gilbert duel 
took breakfast, the duel itself having taken place 
but a few yards from the house. This house 
has long since disappeared. There were several 
other houses along the road, none of which ap- 
pear to have been of any particular note. Most 
of tlie public houses were built in 1850, and 


were abandoned soon after the completion of 
the Sacramento Valley Railroad to Folsom in 

Antelope is a small settlement, located on the 
Central Facitic Railroad, near the center of sec- 
tion 21, township 10 north, of range 6 east- 
The town was regnlarly surveyed in 1878. In 
1876 a large brick warehouse, 40 x 100 feet in 
size, was built by J. F. Cross at a cost of $3,000. 
This was the first building erected. The first 
store was started in May, 1877, by the Antelope 
Business Association, an incorporated company. 
The association sold out in the fall of 1878 to 
John Berry. The second store was started in 
1879, in the hotel bidding, by R. Astile. The 
postoffice of Antelope was established in 1877; 
Joel Gardiner, Postmaster. In 1878 he was 
succeeded by John Berry. This is the only 
postofiice in the township. Antelope is the 
shipping point for large quantities of grain, 
both to Sacramento and the mountains. 

Arcade is a flag station on the Central Pacific 
Railroad, situated nearly on the dividing line of 
American and Center townships. There are no 
buildings here or settlement; simply a section- 
house, owned by the railroad company. 

The floods of 1861-'62 brought down a large 
number of pine trees, stumps and roots and de- 
posited them on the banks of the river on the 
"grant," and the following summer five or six 
men did a profitable business by extracting the 
tar and resin from these trees and supplying 
the Sacramento market. This, so far as we 
know, has been the only work of the kind done 
in any part of Sacramento County. 

The Gilbert-Denver duel was one of the most 
noted that has ever occurred in the State. It 
originated primarily in a newspa[)er controversy. 
At this time, 1852, Denver was in charge of 
the supplies for overland immigration, and Gil- 
bert in his capacity as editor saw fit to comment 
very severely on the conduct of the expedition, 
accused members of the party of dishonesty, and 
finally' sent Denver a challenge to fight, which 
was promptly accepted by the latter. Denver, 
being the challenged party, chose rifles; the 

distance was thirty paces. On the evening pre- 
ceding the duel Mr. Gilbert dined at the resi- 
dence of R. N. Berry, in Sacramento. At 
sunrise on the following morning, August 2, 
1852, the parties were promptly on the ground, 
which was a few yards above the Oak Grove 
House, on the Auburn road, in Center Town- 
ship, some seven or eight miles from Sacramento. 
Both parties appeared calm and collected when 
on the ground. Gilbert wore a small green 
surtout coat, buttoned tightly across his chest. 
Denver had on a large cloak, which he threw 
off" before taking his position. In the choice of 
positions Denver secured the toss and placed 
his back to tlie rising sun. Ex-Mayor Tesche- 
macher was the second for Gilbert and V. E. 
Geiger acted for Denver. Dr. Wake Briarly 
was surgeon for both combatants. Just as the 
sun was rising the word "fire " vras given. Gil- 
bert fired at the word "two" and Denver at the 
word "three." The ball from Gilbert's weapon 
plowed the ground in an almost direct line with 
the body of his antagonist. The same remark 
will apply to Denver's shot. Before the next 
attempt was made Gilbert called a friend to him 
and told him if he was killed at the next shot to 
ask his partner, Keinble, to write to his mother, 
informing her of the circumstances of his death. 
Immediately after the firing of the second shot, 
Gilbert dropped into the arms of bis friends 
and expired almost without a struggle. He was 
shot through the bowels. The body was at once 
taken in a wagon to the Oak Grove House, where 
the party breakfasted. 

Edward Gilbert was born in Troy, New York; 
he was emphatically a self-made man, ard 
worked himself up from the printer's case to a 
seat in Congress. He came to California with 
Stevenson's regiment in 1847. , Before coming 
to California he was associate editor of the Al- 
bany Argus, though at the time of his death he 
was only thirty years of age. Gilbert early 
in 1849 combined the California Star and the 
old Californian, from which sprung the Alta 
California. He was regularly elected delegate 
to the convention to form a constitution for v 


State of California, and was the first man to 
take a seat in Congress from the Pacitic Coast. 
The body of Mr. Gilbert was conveyed from the 
dueling ground to the residence of J. H. Nev- 
ett, of Sacramento. Impressive funeral services 
were lield by the Rev. O. C. Wheeler at the 
Baptist Church. The procession was headed by 
a battalion of cavalry, commanded by Captain 
Fry. • The body was taken to San Francisco, 
where the final ceremonies were held at Rev. T. 
Dwight Hunt's church; every newspaper editor 
and reporter in town attended the ceremonies. 


Cosumnes Township, as established by the 
Court of Sessions, February 24, 1851, included 
all of Alabama Township, and parts of Lee, 
Dry Creek and San Joaquin townships The 
present boundaries were established October 20, 
1856, by the Board of Supervisors, and are as 
follows: Beginning at the southwest corner of 
Natoma Township; thence east along the south- 
ern boundary of said Natoma Township to the 
ea-tern boundar}' of the county; thence south- 
erly along the eastern boundary line of the 
county to the township line between townships 
6 and 7 north, range 9 east; thence west and 
along said township line to the southeast corner 
of Lee Township; thence north along the said 
eastern boundary to the beginning; embraced 
within the present limits of Cosumnes Town- 
ship are Michigan Bar, Sebastopol, Live Oak 
and Buckeye. 

Michigan Bar is so named from the fact that 
the first settlers were from Michigan. Gold was 
discovered here in the latter part of 1849; this 
is, at least, the first discovery that was made 
public. The founders of Michigan Bar were two 
men from Michigan, who probably made the 
first discovery of gold there. In the following 
spring some of their friends and acquaintances, 
formerly from Michigan, who had been mining 
at Placerville, and others direct from that State, 
joined them,aud commenced mining on the bar, 
and in the vicinity, and the town began to grow. 
This was the largest mining camp in tiie town- 

ship. The first claims were small, each man 
being allowed only sixteen feet; they were en- 
larged, by -several men uniting their claims, 
and wlien hydraulic mining began, the rule was 
changed, the miners here, as elsewhere, making 
their own laws on the subject of claims. 

In the autumn of 1851 the miners commenced 
working the gulches, hauling the dirt in carts 
to the river. This was the first dry miningdone in 
this locality. In the summer the mining was 
nearly all on the river and bars; in the winter 
the miners worked in the gulches with sluices, 
running from six to eight inches to a sluice. 
The Knightsomer Ditch was the first ditch 
built, in 1851; the Davidson Ditch, built in 
1854, both on north side of river. A small 
ditch was builton south side of river, by O'Brien, 
Dayton and others, in 1853. Hydraulic min- 
ing began in 1858; the gulch mining gradually 
decreased until, in 1862, it was practically aban- 
doned. This district was originally one of the 
best for placer-mining in California. Some 200 
or 300 acres have often been denuded to a depth 
of over twenty feet. 

Michigan Bar at one time had from 1,000 to 
1,500 population, and by some it is estimated 
that there were over 2,000. In the '50's it 
polled over 500 votes; there are now only ahout 
fifty voters in the precinct. 

The new iron bridge, 362 feet in length, 
costing $3,300, was finished April 9, 1887. A 
toll bridge, built by Samuel Putnam, existed 
here from 1853 to 1879 or 1880, when it was 
bought by the county and made free. Arkan- 
sas Creek, rising in Amador County, runs for 
about four miles through Cosumnes Township, 
emptying into the Cosumnes River at Flint & 
Raymond's. The old Amador & Sacramento 
Canal extends about sixteen miles from its 
source in the Cosumnes to Michigan Bar. 

The Michigan Bar Pottery was built in 1859 
iiy J. W. Orr and moved to a point about two and 
a half miles southeast of the village in 1862, 
where Mr. Orr discovered a bank of potter's 
clay supposed to be the best in the State for 
stoneware, and still known as Orr's bank. At 


present the San Francisco Sewer Pipe Associa- 
tion leases the sewer- pipe department. A. M. 
Addington owned it from 1865 to 1884, and J. 
M. Williams, wlio had leased it in 1881, from 
1884 to the present time. lie has discovered a 
deposit of " croll " (fire-sand) in the adjoining 
land of N. B. Gill, and has purchased forty-five 
acres of him. A measure of silicious sand also 
exists in it. In the autumn of 1888 he sent 
specimens of this sand to England, where the 
chemists pronounced it the best known for the 
purpose. Twenty-five acres of the new pur- 
chase has this sand on the surface. English 
capitalists are making overtures to Mr. Orr for 
a purchase. This material is specially well 
adapted to the manufacture of stoneware, tire- 
brick, sewer-pipes and white and yellow ware. 

Among the early settlers of Michigan Bar 
were the following: A man by the name of 
Prothro was the tirst settler, who brought his 
family with him. The family consisted of four 
sons and two daughters. Prothro afterward 
moved to Mendocino County. Larkin Lamb 
and wife settled at Michigan Bar in January, 

Gold was discovered at Cook's Bar almost 
simultaneously with Michigan Bar. It received 
its name from Dennis Cook, who settled here in 
the latter part of 1849. He remained here until 
1855 or '56. He kept a trading-post, and also 
followed mining. Cook's Bar was located about 
a mile and three-fourths below Michigan Bar, 
on the Cosumnes Itiver. Quite a town was 
built up here at one time, having a large hotel, 
stores, saloons, and about 500 inhabitants. The 
town, as such, ceased to exist about the year 1860. 

Sebastopol, a raining camp, established in 
1854, is located on the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 16, township 7 north, range 8 east. The name 
" Sebastopol " was chosen by a vote of the 
miners, the Crimean War being then in prog- 
ress, and its famous namesake being very prom- 
inent in the daily papers of that date. From 
1854 to 1858 the camp thrived and the popula- 
tion and buildings increased. Mining, iiowever, 
being the main industry, with its decline the 

town gradually became deserted, till at the 
present time there are but four houses standing. 
During the lively times, from three to four hun- 
dred ounces of gold dust were sold weekly at 
this place. Since 1859 there have been no 
white men at work mining here. Some China- 
men, however, worked until 1876. 

At one time Sebastopol containtd one hotel, 
one general merchandise store, one dry-goods 
store, one saloon and bowling alley, one cigar 
store, butcher shop, blacksmith shop, shoe store, 
and dwelling-houses and minei's' cabins contain- 
ing about 200 inhabitants. 

Among some of the early settlers were 

Michael Davis, McEntire, T. P. Horn, Dr. 

Bowman, Lyon, McCabeand Francis 

Mitchell. The latter came when the town was 
established. There is some good agricultural 
land in the vicinity.. 

Katesvillk was a mining camp. The limits 
of the district were defined in 1855, and ex- 
tended three miles south of Arkansas Creek and 
three miles east and west from tlie foot of Big 
Ravine; it also embraced the strip of Mr. Dar- 
med's ground, between Arkansas Creek and 
Cook's Bar District; was established in 1854, 
though there was some mining done as early as 
1852. This place was never incoi'porated as a 
town, and in 1862 was deserted. At one time 
there was a hotel, boarding-house, store, black- 
smith shop, and several saloons and dwelling- 

Live Cak is located on section 10, in town- 
ship 7 north, range 8 east; was established in 
1854, though there had been some little mining 
done in the vicinity previous to that time. 
Times were quite lively here for a few years, 
gold dust to the amount of $2,000 or $3,000 
per week being sold for several years. Wells, 
Fargo & Co. had an office here from 1858 to 
1861. The Hamilton Line of stages ran through 
Live Oak on the route from Sacramento to 
Michigan Bar. At one time there were three 
stores, two hotels, one livery stable, a blacksmith 
shop, butcher shop and four saloons in the town. 
The place went down in 1861. Among the 


early settlers were B. E. Robinson, Plenry Lan- 
caster, W. S. Crayton, Thomas Olive, J. C. 
Dunn, Patrick Gaffney, John Gafi'ney, George 
Freeman, R. D. Reed, Alfred Ball and Y. Perry. 

The early mining was entirely placer and 
gulch diggings, on the river and bars in sum- 
mer time and in gulches during tlie rainy sea- 
son. Tlie tirst water ditch constructed in Co- 
sumnes Township was the Knightsomer Ditch, 
about 1851, and was the oldest water right on 
the Cosumnes River. Tlie miners used to cart 
the dirt to the river and use the waters of the 
ditch to work the "Toms." This ditch was 
abandoned in 1862, owing to the flood filling it 
up. It was located on the north side of the 
river. Of the new irrigating ditch, about eight 
miles are in tliis township. The cost of "four 
inches " of water is 5 cents a day per acre, which 
would be $4.50 for a season of ninety days. 

George McKinstry caine to the State in 1847; 
opened a store and trading-post on the Co- 
sumnes River in 1849. He owned part of what 
was called the Sacayac grant (now called Pratt 
grant) on the Cosumnes River. He sold in 
1850 ranch and store to Emanuel Pratt, who 
ran the store until 1855, when he closed out 
the business. Pratt died in 1870. 

J. O. Sherwood settled on the south side of 
Cosumnes River in 1851. 

Jacob A. Hutchinson, Sr., crossed tiie plains 
with his family in 1846; settled in Cosumnes 
Township in 1849, on the Cosumnes River. He 
soon after started on a prospecting trip to the 
northern mines, and lias never been iieard of 

James Pollock came to the State with his 
family in 1846, and settled in Cosumnes Town- 
ship in 1853, on the river. 

Jared Sheldon, tiie owner of what is com- 
monly known as the Sheldon grant, bought a 
piece of land about one-half mile above the 
present site of McCabe's bridge, in 1851, and 
proceeded to erect a costly dam and dig a race 
about three-fourths of a mile long. The dam 
was built of square timbers, tied together with 
oak ties and filled in with rock; the height was 

about sixteen feet. The miners, learning of his 
intention, sent him a written protest against 
the construction of the dam, stating that great 
damage would be done to them by the overflow 
of their claims. Sheldon disregarded this pro- 
test and completed the dam. When the water 
began to reach the mining claims several meet- 
ings were held, botii sides being represented. 
Sheldon built a fort on a point of rocks which 
commanded the dam, and placed a cannon in it; 
he then employed a large number of men to 
protect the works at all hazards. On July 12, 
1851, the sentries were surprised and the fort 
taken, Sheldon at the time being absent. • He 
was sent for to come and let the water oflF, being 
told that he could do it with as little injury as 
possible to the dam. He arrived soon after 
with about a dozen men, and refused to let the 
water off. An ineffectual attempt was made to 
blow up the dam with gunpowder. On the 
failure becoming evident, one of the miners, of 
whom there were about 150 present, seized an 
a.\, and, calling on the others to protect him, 
walked out on the edge of the structure and be- 
gan chopping. Our informants diflPer as to 
which party flred the first shot, one account 
stating that Sheldon ordered one of his men to 
shoot the axman; the man and one other of his 
party immediately obeyed, whereupon the min- 
ers tired on them, instantly killing Sheldon and 
the two men, Johnson and Cody, who had tired. 
From the fact that the only miner who was in- 
jured, out ot the whole number present, was the 
one on the dam, he being slightly wounded, it 
is very probable that this account is the correct 
one. The dam was opened enough to let the 
water off, and entii'ely swept away by the high 
water of 1851-'52. 

Jordan H. Lowry settled at Michigan Bar in 
1854, where he still resides. 

This township seems to have been well sup- 
plied with hotels from 1850 to 1862. The 
Public House, built in 1849, on the Dry Town 
and Sacramento road, at Coats's Ferry, on the 
soutli side of the river, Lewis & Travers, pro- 
prietors, closed in 1858. There was another 


hotel on the north side of the river, at the same 
place, started by Coats. He rented the house 
to Harvey Alvord. Both house and ferry were 
discontinued in 1857. 

The Hamilton House, started by Orville Ham- 
ilton in 1850, on the Sacramento and Dry Town 
road, near the river, on the land now owned by 
Oliver Flummer. It was destroyed by fire iu 
1853 and i.ever rebuilt. 

The Gold Spring House, on the Dry Town 
road, on the Gold Spring Ranch, built in 1849 
by Boyle and Page, afterward sold to J. O. 
Sherwood and J. A. Tread way, closed as a pub- 
lic house in June, 1853. 

The Mountain House, twenty-eight miles 
from Sacramento, on the Dry Town road, was 
started in 1850 by James Gordon, who sold out 
to Johnson, Warner and Dake in 1852. Gor- 
don's wife gave birth to twin boys in 1850; 
these were probably the first white children 
born in Cosumnes Township. 

The AVilbur Hotel, built by Y. S. Wilbur in 
1850. Wilbur sold to Larkin Lamb in 1851, 
who closed the house in 1858; located on the 
Dry Town road. 

The Ohio House, built by a company from 
Ohio in 1855. Dr. Woodford had the manage- 
ment; sold in 1856 or 1857 to James Cum- 
mings, who changed the name to Cummings' 
Hotel. It burned down in 1864, and was not 
rebuilt; located at Sebastopol. 

The Hamilton Hotel, at Sebastopol, opened 
in 1867 by J. H. Hamilton. 

The Prairie Cottage, situated about one and 
one-half miles above Sebastopol, on the Sacra 
mento and lone road, was built in 1851, closed 
in 1864. 

The Blue Tent House, on what is now known 
as the Buckeye Ranch, built in 1849 by Sage & 
Co., from Ohio; it was closed as a hotel in 

Niagara House, opened in 1849, located on 
Willow Springs Creek, near the Amador County 
line, was built by Moore and Ball; closed as a 
hotel in 1856. 

Cook's Bar House, opened by Chenault and 

Hall in 1854, at Cook's Bar. They did a good 
business for several years; business was discon- 
tinued aljout 1870. 

There is very little agricultural land in Co- 
sumnes Townsiiip. Along the Cosumnes River 
the greater portion of tiie township can be 
classed among tiie mineral lands, most, if not 
all, being gold-bearing gravel hills. 

The first school in this township was organ- 
ized in May, 1853, the district including the 
whole township as then located. 


Dry Creek Township was originally included 
in San Joaquin Township, and was set off as an 
independent township in August, 1853, by the 
Court of Sessions, the order reading that "All 
that part of San Joaquin lying southeast of the 
Cosumnes River be erected into a township, to 
be called Dry Creek." The Board ot Super- 
visors modified the boundaries, October 20, 
1856, giving it the lines as they now stand, 
which are as follows: Commencing at the junc- 
tion of the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers, 
thence northeasterly, following the course of the 
Cosumnes River to its intersection witli the 
range line between ranges .6 and 7 east. United 
States Government survey; thence south and 
along said range line to its intersection with 
Dry Creek; thence westerly along said Dry 
Creek and the Mokelumne River to the be- 

This township is mostly included within the 
original lines of the San Jon de los Moque- 
lumnes, or Chabolla grant. 

Dr. W. L. Mclntyre came to the county in 
1849, with his family, and settled in Dry Creek 
Township in January, 1851. Mclntyre built 
the first frame building in the township, in 
April, 1851, near Gait. Mrs. Rosanna Mcln- 
tyre died at Gait, at the residence of Ephraim 
Ray, February 20, 1889, in her seventy-ninth 

Calvin T. Briggs, an old mountaineer, and 
Jolin Burroughs were engaged in the stock- 
raising business as early as 1850; they had 


large herds of cattle on both sides of the river; 
they dissolved partnership in 1857, Burroughs 
returning East. Briggs built the second frame 
house in the township, in 1851; previous to 
this time the familj' and Burroughs had lived 
in an adobe hut. 

Kev. N. Slater and family moved into the 
township in 1851, engaged in the stock and 
dairy business. He removed to Sacramento in 
1867; sold his ranch, an undivided 500 acres of 
the Chabolla grant, in 1869. 

Grant I. Taggart and the Kinggold brothers 
took np a claim about one-half mile west of 
Mclntyre, in 1852; they remained only a few 
months. Taggart was subsequently clerk of 
the Supreme Court of the State of California. 

Willis Wright purchased part of their claim 
in 1853. 

Thomas Armstrong, a widower with two 
daughters, came into possession of a part of the 
Einggdld place in the fall of 1852, and engaged 
in the dairy business; removed to San Francisco 
some years later, and his son-in-law carried on 
the dairy business. 

Dr. Russell came to the township in 1850; 
owned a ranch about four miles west from Gait; 
was engaged in the cattle business, until his 
death in 1861. 

William H. Young and family were among 
the earliest settlers in the vicinity of Gait; he 
is a large land-owner in the township now. 

S. Fugitt and family settled on Dry Creek in 
1852; he built the fourth house in the town- 
ship. He kept a hotel for some years; was also 
engaged in stock business. 

Hiram Chase came to the township in 1852; 
returned to the East in 1856, coming back to 
Dry Creek Township in 1869. 

George M. Gray settled in the township in 
1850, James Short in 1853, Andrew Whitaker 
in 1852, and John McFarland in 1851. 

Evan Evans settled in Dry Creek Township 
in 1851, in that portion near Dry Creek known 
as the pocket; he bought out parties by the 
natne of Donaldson, and William and L. Mc- 

Henry D. Cantrell came to the township in 
1853, Thomas McConnell in 1855, Thomas 
Loriu in 1851, George Need in 1852, Peter 
Planet in 1852, H. Putney in 1853, Peter 
Williamson in 1852, and David Davis in 1853. 

P. Green and wife came to the township in 
1852 or 1853; Green died about 1859, and his 
wife returned to the East. Peter Riley came 
to the township in 1852; he died about three 
years ago; his children now live in the town- 
ship. Samuel Wriston settled in the township 
in 1852. Ephi-aim Ray came to California in 
1852; settled in Dry Creek Township in 1854, 
where he now resides, engaged in farming. 

The first death that occurred among the early 
settlers in the township was that of Mrs. Jack- 
son, who with her husband had been visiting at 
Dr. Russell's house. This death occurred Feb- 
ruary 14, 1851. The funeral took place next 
day. There was only one white woman present 
at the funeral, Mrs. Mclntyre; most of the 
people who attended were Indians. In the 
procession Mr. Jackson followed the coffin, lead- 
ing by the hand a little son, who had a white 
handkerchief tied round his head; he was fol- 
lowed by his thi-ee other children, his wife's 
brother, a cousin, Mrs. Mclntyre and two In- 
dian women, wives of white men, a few white 
men and the rest a number of Indians of both 
sexes. At the grave the Indians squatted 
around on the gronnd in different places, making 
a strange picture, that can be better imagined 
than described. 

In 1853 a Fourth of July celebration was 
held at Mclntyre's place. Men were dispatched 
to notify the settlers through the county, and 
people came from all parts of the county, and 
also from San Joaquin County. The celebra- 
tion was a success and passed otf in good style. 
A flag was made for the occasion by four of the 
ladies; it was composed of such material as 
they conlc^ obtain, the stripes being manufact- 
ured from red window curtains, and the center 
of a blue shawl formed the Union Jack. A Mr. 
Jewell read the Declaration of Independence, 
several national songs were sung by the choir, 


composed of Dr. Russell, Hiram Chase, Mrs. 
Green, Mrs. Mitchell and Mrs. Slater. The 
dinner was furnished by the people, bringing 
their food in basket-picnic style. This was 
probably the lirst Fourth of July celebration 
held in the county outside of Sacramento. 

In the early history of the township, stoci<- 
raising and dairying were the principal, if not 
the only, industries; these interests gradually 
decreased until at present tliere is very little 
doing with either. The township is all agri- 
cultural, there being no mineral land. The 
principal grain grown is wheat; the amount of 
acreage sown each year is increasing very 

Galt. — The town of Gait was laid out by 
Obed Harvey and the Western Pacific Kailroad 
Company, in 1869, on the southeast quarter of 
section 27, on what is known as the Troy place. 

The Gait House was opened in 1869, George 
Bubaker, proprietor. The building was an old 
one, built by S. Fugitt, and used as a hotel, and 
was moved to Gait when the place was started. 
This house changed hands several times, until 
it was discontinued, in 1872. 

The principal hotel of Gait is the Devins' 
E.\change, kept by Prouty & Devins. It is a 
large, substantial frame building, situated on 
Front street, opposite the depot, and of easy ac- 
cess for the traveling public. Tlie commercial 
trade of Gait is of considerable importance, 
situated as it is in the heart of a large and pro- 
lific grain-growing country, and on the line 
of the Central Pacific overland route running 
north and south, which makes it one of the 
principal local points on the line of the railroad. 
Here the weary traveler and pleasure-seeker can 
find a comfortable place to stop, tiie Exchange 
being run in a first-class maimer and under the 
personal care of tiie proprietors, who are social 
and accommodating gentlemen. The house is 
sup|)]ied with good sleeping apartments, which 
are kept cosy and clean, while the table is sup- 
plied with the best that the market attbrds, 
much of this material being shipped here from 
the larger cities. A good bar is run in connection 

with the house, while quiet and well regu- 
lated order prevails everywhere. 

The history of the hotel is quite a varied 
one, it being first built at Old Liberty, by C. C. 
Fugitt, in 1859, the contractor and builder be- 
ing J. H. Sawyer, now a prominent resident of 
Gait. After the town of Liberty went down 
and Gait was established, in the spring of 1869, 
the building was moved to its present location. 
It was there owned by Calvin Briggs, and was 
leased to John L. Fifield for about one year, 
after which other parties ran it for awhile. 
Among them was Thomas Briggs, the son of 
Calvin Briggs, who carried on the business and 
finally sold the property to C. W. Harvey. This 
latter gentleman was proprietor of the house for 
eleven years and did much toward improving it, 
he, in turn, selling out to Patton & Prouty. 

Patton's interest was then sold to William B. 
Devin, and the firm became Prouty & Devin, 
as it now stands. 

Simon Pkouty, a prominent business man of 
Gait, was born in Knox County, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 9, 1834. His father, Anson Prouty, was a 
native of New York State, and his wife, nee 
Elizabeth Helms, was a native of Pennsylvania. 
The family resided in Ohio until the fall of 
1846, when they moved to Jasper County, Iowa, 
and lived there until the spring of 1852. An- 
son Prouty and his son Simon received a sub- 
contract for carrying the first United States mail 
from Iowa City to Fort Des Moines, a distance 
of 120 miles, which they did on horseback, 
taking just a week to make a round trip. In 
the spring of 1852 the family started overland 
with ox teams for California. May 9 they 
crossed the Missouri River where Omaha now 
is. On reaching the Sweetwater, June 19, 
1852, Mr. Prouty was attacked with Asiatic 
cholera, which was so bad that year in certain 
districts. He was driving a team up to about 
10 o'clock in the morning, and at 4 he was a 
corpse! His death occurred near Independence 
Rock, at the base of the Rocky Mountains. Tne 
next day after he was buried five in one trtlin 
ahead of them died of that scourge; many also 


died in trains corning after; but in this train 
the death just mentioned was the only one. 
The family then consisted of the mother, two 
daughters and five sons, wiio landed in Volcano, 
August 24:, 1852, and for a year afterward were 
located near lone, AmadorCounty. Mrs. Prouty 
remained there until her death. May 6, 1878, at 
the age of seventy- nine years. Mr. Simon Prouty, 
whose name heads this article, has remained 
there and been actively identified with the 
progress of that section. All the family had 
possession of land upon a Spanish grant, and 
afterward were compelled to leave it, not know- 
ing it was upon a grant. The men of the grant 
had the State order troops there to drive off the 
settlers. The soldiers, 300 in number, came 
and surrounded the place, and politely began 
ejecting them and their household goods. This 
of course made the settlers very angry, as they 
had bought the land and paid money for it, be- 
lieving that the purchase was a bona fide one; 
and then to be turned out and driven ofi' at the 
point of the musket was something that many 
of them resisted. Mr. Prouty has been a suc- 
cessful business man, having always exhibited 
good judgment in his financial dealings. He 
has speculated considerably in land and cattle; 
also has followed agricultural pursuits most of 
the time. For about fifteen years he was a 
resident of San Joaquin County, and came to 
Gait in June, 1884, when he purchased the 
hotel which he now owns, l^esides this prop- 
erty he has about 300 acres in Amador, San 
Joaquin and Sacramento counties. He was 
married in 1852 to Louisa J. JN'ewton, a native 
of Indiana, who died October 16, 1888, at the 
age of fifty-three years. She was the mother of 
four children: Hattie, wife of A. Whitaker, of 
Gait; William H., residing at Truckee; Josie, 
wife of George Connor, of Tulare City; and 
E. M. is on the ranch in San Joaquin County. 
Mr. Prouty is a member of the Masonic order 
at lone, and of the Golden Shore and the 
Knights of Pythias at Gait. 

■ Whitaker & Ray, general merchants at 
Gait, have been conducting their business here 

ever since 1869. Andrew Whitaker and Don 
Eay started in business in a small frame build- 
ing on Front street, which was one of the first, 
if not the very first, building erected in the 
town. It was located where Mr. Brewster's 
store now is, it being removed by him when he 
rebuilt. In 1871 the firm erected their present 
building, of brick, on the corner of Front and 
C streets. It cost over $20,000, and is the best 
building in town. They have a large assort- 
ment of goods for a general store, and plenty of 
capital to run it. Don Ray was born Septem- 
ber 2, 1848, in Marion County, Kentucky, son 
of F. G. and Elizabeth Ray, both natives also 
of that State. In 1851 they came to California. 
About 1862 they moved to the little place called 
Mokelumne City, at the head of navigation of 
the Mokelumne River. During the flood of 
that year their little house was completely 
washed away, never afterward being seen. They 
then moved up to Liberty, a little town in San 
Joaquin County, a mile and a half south of 
Gait. Here the senior Ray practiced medicine, 
and Don in 1865 obtained a position as clerk in 
the general store of William Allport, which he 
retained for nearly three years. In 1868 he 
married and spent about half a year in Nevada, 
first going to Utah with a surveying party under 
John F. Kidder, driving stakes in the survey of 
tho Virginia City & Truckee Railroad. Kid- 
der's division started for Reno, toward Empire 
City, through Carson City and AVashoe. At 
Empire City they met the other division. It 
required about three months to accomplish the 
task. Kidder then took Mr. Ray to a Mr. Yer- 
rington, nowone of the proprietors of the Glen- 
brook House, a fashionable resort on the east 
side of Lake Tahoe, and he employed him 
about three months at the bar. He resigned 
because he received news of his mother's death, 
and he came to Liberty. At this beautiful place 
he shortly afterward started a saloon and drug- 
store, the railroad being in process of construc- 
tion at that time. Nine months afterward he 
associated himself with Andrew Whitaker and 
started their little business in the store already 


spoken of, which was built by John F. McFar- 
land.- A sketch of what should follow here has 
already been given at the head of this article. 
Mr. Ray had no capital when he first came 
here, but by his business and land investments 
he has made a great deal of money, lie and 
Mr. Whitaker now have over 8,000 acres of 
land, and their trade extends to a distance of 
Hfteen 7iiiles in every direction. They also do 
a large business in wheat, buying, selling and 
storage, having a warehouse with a capacity of 
300 tons. Mr. Ray is the postmaster at Gait, 
having received his appointment in 1873. Mrs. 
Ray's maiden name was Alice Fugitt. She is 
a native of Iowa, and was brought to California 
when a child by her parents. There are four 
children in this f;nnily: Clyde, Charles, Kittie 
and Whitaker. 

The " Railroad House" ran in 1870^'73. A 
school-house was built in 1869, but the growth 
of the town demanded a larger structure in a 
few years, and in 1878 it was erected at a cost of 
$3,000. Whitaker & Ray opened the first store, 
in a liiiilding belonging to John McFarlnnd, 
some time in 1869. The next yeir tliey built 
a brick store, on Front street, where they are 
still conducting a substantial trade. The other 
principal business establishments are the general 
store and grain warehouse of Brewster & Co., 
the general store of Wright, Need & Co., the 
grocery of Brewster & Smith, the Gait Lumber 
Company (a branch of the Friend & Terry Lum- 
ber Company of Sacramento), under the man- 
agement of S. W. Falin, the real-estate office of 
I. M. Smith & Co., and the livery stable of J. 
K. McKinstry. 

The postoffice was established liei-e in ISfiO, 
with the starting of the town, and John Brew- 
ster was the first postmaster. 

The First Congregational Church of Gait, 
California, was organized October 13, 1877. 
The first services were held in the old public 
school-house, Rev. William C. Stewart, Pastor, 
some time in June of 1877. The first officers 
were James Ferguson and E. C. Morse. Pre- 
vious to the organization of this church, religious 

services had been held in the school-house, at 
irregular intervals, by different denominations, 
from 1869. In 1884 they erected a handsome 
frame church building, under the energetic 
auspices of Dr. Harvey and John McFarland. 

The Methodists, in 1879, took a school-house, 
built in 1872, and converted it into a church. 

The Christian Church, organized about a year 
ago, hold their services in Brewster's Hall; they 
intend building soon. Brewster's building, 
erected in 1881, has for its second story a very 
fine hall. 

The Catholics laid the corner-stone for their 
church October 12, 1885, that day being the 
393d anniversary of the discovery of America 
by Columbus, and the congregation is corre- 
spondingly named St. Christopher's Church. 
On the above occasion the officiating minister 
was Rev. P. W. Riordan, Archbishop of San 

Phn(vix Lodge, JSfo. S39, I. 0. O'.F., was or- 
ganized December 29, 1875, with the following 
officers and members: W. O. Holmes, P. G.; S. 

D. Johnson, N. G.; G. Norton, V. G.; O. J. 
Atchinson, Sec; D. Ray, Treas. ; T. H. Fowler, 
A. S. Hamilton, P. Miller, A. Clough, J. McFar- 
land and H. Chase. This order is the strongest 
of airin Gait, the membership being now about 
ninety. Gait E ncampment. No. 65,1. 0. 0. F., 
was organized May 13, 1881. Rei liehekah, 
No. 132, was organized March 29, 1888. These 
lodges all meet in a hall of their own, in Whita- 
ker & Ray's Block. 

Tiie Freemasons established a lodge here in 
the fall of 1882, and meet in Brewster's Hall. 

The Knights of Pythias, meeting in the same 
hall, were organized February 12, 1883. 

Gait Lodge, No. 113, A. 0. U W., was or- 
ganized June 21, 1879. Charter members and 
first officers were: J. H. Sawyer, P. M. W.; 
John Brewster, M. W. ; G. W. Noble, Foreman; 
A. E. Brewster, O.; C. C. Clements, R'd'r; 
James Ferguson, Fin'r; J. C. Sawyer, Rec'r; N. 

E. Freeman, Guide; George Rhodes, I. W.; I. 
M. Smith, O. W.; Oliver Bartlett. Tiie lodge 
now meets in Brewster's Hall. 


The Order of Clioseii Friends organized liere 
May 22, 1882. 

The Golden Shore Lodge, in May, 1889, and 
meet in Brewster's Hall. 

The Grand Army Post, July 12, 1888. 

The "Order of the Iron Hall" established a 
society here last year, is a flourishing lodge and 
meets in Odd Fellows Hall. Tiiis new order is 
an incorporated fraternity, first organized March 
28, 1881, to pay to its members $5 to $25 a 
week in case of sickness, and $100 to $500 in 
case of total disability. 

HicKSviLi.E, another village in Dry Creek 
Township, was named after William Hicks, one 
of the oldest settlers in the township. He came 
in 1847, and engaged iu stock-raising. In 1854 
a postofflce was established at his place, and was 
removed to the present site of Hicksville in 
1857. There is a Presbyterian Church building 
here and a good school. The town was started 
in 1863 by Patterson & Smith, who built a 
store in the same year; this store changed hands 
several times, and was finally closed in 1877. 
A hotel was opened iu 1864 by Patterson & 


Franklin Township was formed out of the 
original Sutter Township, by order of the Board 
of Supervisors, of October 20, 1856. The 
boundaries are as follows: Beginning at the 
southeast corner of Sutter Township, miming 
thence south through the centers of townships 
7 and 6 north, range 5 east of Mount Diablo 
base and meridian, to the township line between 
townships 5 and 6 north; thence east to the 
Cosumnes Kiver; thence south, following the 
course of said river, to its junction with the 
Mokelumne Kiver; thence in a westerly direc- 
tion along said river to the range line between 
ranges 4 and 5 east; thence north to the center 
line of township 5 north, range 4 east; thence 
west on said line to Merritt's Slough; thence 
northerly along said slough to the Sacramento 
River; thence along said Sacramento Iliver to 
the southern boundary of Sutter Township; 

thence east along said southern boundary of 
Sutter Township to the beginning. 

The lands of Franklin Township are all agri- 
cultural or marsh lands 

There are large quantities of wheat raised in 
the township; also of fruit, of all sorts. The 
fruit is grown principally along the river, and 
consists of apples, pears, peaches, plums, cher- 
ries, and all sorts of small fruits. There are 
also a few small vineyards in the township. 

The titles are derived from the United States, 
tiiere being no Spanish or Mexican grants in 
the township. 

The largest business enterprise in Franklin 
Township is the brick manufactory of Davis & 
Roberts, near the river. 

Joseph Sims came to the State in 1847, with 
Stevenson's regiment; settled in Franklin Town- 
ship in 1849; J. B. Green, in 1849; J. C. Beach, 
in 1850; Wm. H. Fry, in 1852; Joseph Green, 
in 1851; Truman N. Farsett. in 1852; George 
W. Heck, in 1855; R. Kercheval, in 1850; David 
T. Luflvin, in 1850; Jacob Miller, in 1853; 
John Reith, in 1855; Solomon Kunyon, in 1850; 
Myron Smith, in 1853; Adam Warner, in 1853. 

Union House was established in 1852, by 
Amos Butler. The house has changed hands 
several times; is now owned by Jacob Korn. 
There is a postoffice at this place, known as 
Union House. 

The Six-Mile House is the tirst house in 
Franklin Township from Sacramento; was com- 
menced by one Prewitt, iu 1853-'54. 

The Twelve-Mile House was built about 1850, 
by McHesser; it was located on the lower Stock- 
ton road, and until Georgetown was established 
was a favorite stopping place. The building 
was torn down many years ago. 

Feeeport is a point eight miles south of Sac- 
ramento, on the bank of the river, at a good 

The Freeport Railroad Company was formed 
in 1862 or '63, for the purpose of building a 
road from Freeport, connecting with the Sacra- 
mento Valley Railroad at a point midway be- 
tween Sacramento and Folsom, the idea being 


to divert the northern trade around Sacramento. 
Nine miles of this road were constructed in 1863. 
Freeport was hiid out, lots staked out and sold, 
and the town began growing rapid I3'. At the 
end of the first year there were 300 or 400 
people in the place. Most of the railroad em- 
ployes lived here. For three or more years the 
place was quite a shipping point. Goods for 
the mines and other localities were landed here, 
and produce was shipped from the point. The 
first store was opened by A. J. Bump, in 1863, 
changed hands several times, and is now owned 
by P. G. Eiehl. The first hotel was started by 
E. Grier, also in 1863. He sold to Thomas 
O'Toole, but the establishment was closed many 
years ago. The railroad was bought by the 
Central Pacific Railroad Company and discon- 
tinued, and Freeport rapidly decreased to its 
present proportions. 

Freeport Lodge, No. 2G1, I. 0. G. T., was 
instituted in January, 1884, under the leader- 
ship of J. W. Lee, since deceased, J. H. Beach, 
Thomas Kirtlan, Mrs. E. F. Fitch, Joseph Gos- 
ling, Mrs. Gosling and others, struggling against 
a formidable opposition. The order erected a 
two-story building, which with the grounds is 
valued at $1,200 or ^1,500. Only those who 
were friendly to the temperance cause were 
allowed to contribute. The first fioor is devoted 
to miscellaneous gatherings, while the upper 
story is the lodge-room. The society meets 
every Saturday evening. There arj now about 
thirty members, and the officers are: J. T. Black, 
C. T.; Nellie Bayles, V. C. T.; F. L. Baum- 
gartle, P. C. T. ; J. H. Beach, Deputy and Rec. 
Sec. ; Miss Nellie Beach, Fiu. Sec; P'rank 
Kirtlan, Treas. ; Fred. Kirtlan, Marshal; Mrs. 
E. F. Fitch, Guard; E. Greer, Sentinel. 

The Methodists have preaching at Freepart 
every two weeks. 

Franklin, formerly Georgetown, is situated 
on the lower Stockton road, fifteen miles from 
Sacramento. It was settled in 1856 by Andrew 
George, who the same year opened a hotel at 
the place, called the Franklin House. It was 
torn down in 1879. 

A school building was erected here in 1876, 
at a cost of $3,500, for the maintenance of a 
High School, and was kept np as such for two 
years; it was then abandoned, as too expensive. 
Most of the stock was signed over to the dis- 
trict, and the building has since been used by 
the district. 

Franklin Grange, P. of H., was organized 
January 9, 1874, with the following charter 
members; Amos Adams, Master; P. R. Beck- 
ley, Secretary; J. F. Freeman, William Johns- 
ton, J. M. Stephenson, J. W. Moore, Troy Dye, 
Thomas Anderson, Eben Owen, George W. 
Morse; Ladies — Mrs. W. Johnston, Mrs. Troy 
DyQ and Mrs. Miller. The present membership 
is thirty-four. They meet on the second Satur- 
day of each month. 

Franklin Council, No. 71, Order of Chosen 
Friends, has twenty-six members. 

Bryan's LANOiNa is a point on the river 
which each year is quite busy during the season 
for shipping produce. There never has been a 
town here. 

Richland, established in 1860 as a landing, 
comprises a large warehouse, a school-house and 
a few residences. The Richland Methodist 
Episcopal Church is a short distance above this 
point. Rev. Mr. Crowe is the present pastor. 

CoDRTLAND is situated on the lower end of 
Randall " Island," and is a landing place for all 
steamers. It was established in 1870, by James 
V. Sims. There are now a postofiice, telegraph 
ofiice, a Wells-Fargo express office and a store 
in the town. The wharf was built by Captain 
Albert Foster; it is now owned by Louis "Win- 
ters. December 24, 1879, a fire broke out in 
that portion of Conrtland known as Chinatown, 
and temporarily destroyed the whole settlement. 

Onisbo was first settled by A. Runyou in 
1849. A postoffice was established here in 
1853, which was moved to Courtland in 1857. 
A good school-house, costing, with the Masonic 
Hall over the school-room, $2,200, was erected 
here in 1860. The town was named after a 
chief of the Digger Indians, named Onisbo. 

Franklin Lodge, No. U3, F. c& A. M., was 

uisroiir OF sacramentu county 

organized in February, 18G1, with the following 
officers and charter members: George A. Blaices- 
lee, Master; Stephen T. Morse, S. W.; Reuben 
Kercheval. J. W.; J. Runyon, Treas.; Simon 
L. Reed, Sec; A. H. Hustler, Senior Deacon; 
Malachi Kanady, Tyler. The lodge meets in 
their hall, referred to in the preceding para- 
graph, on the Saturday on or before eacli full 


Georgiana Township was originally a jmrt of 
Sutter Township, as lirst established. On Au- 
gust 14, 1854, tlie Court of Sessions ordered that, 
" So much of Sutter Township as lies south of 
a line commencing at a point about opposite the 
head of Steamboat Slough, on the line dividing 
the ranches of Messrs. Robb & Runyon, and 
running thence due east to the eastern line of 
Sutter Township, be, and the same is hereby 
organized into a luw towiisliip, by the name of 

October 20, 1856, the Board of Supervisors 
establisiied the present boundaries, which areas 
follows: Beginning on the Sacramento River, at 
the southwestern corner of Frantlin Township 
(the notes of Franklin Township call for the 
soutliwest corner to be on Merritt's Slough); 
thence east, and along the southern boundary of 
Franklin Township, to the range line between 
ranges 4 and 5 east of Mount Diablo meridan; 
thence south, and along said range line to the 
southern boundary of Sacramento County; 
thence southerly and northerly, along the south, 
ern and western lines of said county to the be- 

Georgiana Township is almost entirely com- 
posed of what are commonly spoken of as the 
Sacramento Islands, and includes the southern 
portion of Suiter Island, almost all of Grand 
Island, all of Andrns, Tyler, Twitchell, Bran- 
nan, Sherman and Wood islands. There are 
about 110 miles of levee in the township. A 
considerable portion of the bank land is now in 
a high state of cultivation. The present levee 
improvements, which are being rapidly pushed 
forward, will make Grand Island one of the gar- 

den spots of the earth. It is the home of fruits 
and vegetables, and lies bat-ween two great home 
markets and shipping pjrts, Sacramento anJ 
San Francisco, accessible to each by a good water 
route. Fruit raisers combine and furnish their 
own steamboats. Good water for domestic use 
is obtained by boring down 125 feet. The river 
abounds in salmon, codfish, sturgeon, etc. 

There are about 8,000 acres on Brannan Isl- 
and, nearly all under cultivation. The levees 
are in good condition. The island was all settled 
in 1852. The ranciies vary in size from 100 to 
1,000 acres, the average being about 200 acres. 
There is a wharf o.i this island. Sherman Isl- 
and isthe southern most pointof Sacramen to 
County. It was first settled by Robert E.Beas- 
ley about 1855. The island was all reclaimed in 
1873, and for some years the real estate was 
very liigh. The crofw were good each year, and 
everything seemed prosperous. The high waters 
of 1878 dispelled the golden dreams of the in- 
habitants by overtopping and destroying tiie 
levees, thereby swamping the whple island. 
Since that time some efforts have been made to 
rebuild the levees. There are two wharves on 
the island. Emmaton is the name of a small 
place about the middle of the Sacramento River 
side of the island. Twitchell Island is in a 
thoroughly demoralized condition, the levees be- 
ing destroyed and the island practically unre- 
claimed land. In 1869 it was purchased by the 
Tide Land Reclamation Company, and re- 
claimed by them in 1870. Andrns Island was 
named after George Andrus, who settled on the 
upper end of the island in 1852. The island 
contains about 7,000 acres, all of which is re- 

IsLETON, on this island, is forty-one miles 
from Sacramento and seventy from San Fran- 
cisco. The town was established by Josiaii 
Pool in 1874, and is now a thriving place, with 
better prospects for the future. The wharf was 
built in 1875. The principal local industry 
here for a time was the manufacture of beet su- 
gar, but it was discontinued about live years 
ago. It may be revived again. 


A lodge of Good Templars and one of the 
Patrons of Husbandry formerly flourished here, 
but at present are dormant. 

Tylkr Island is situated east of Andrus Isl- 
and and was settled in 1852. The upper end 
only is leveed, the lower end being unreclaimed 
land. There are only a few cultivatea ranches 
on this island. Sutter Island is in process of 
reclamation, and some of it is now under culti- 

Walnut Grove was first settled by John W. 
Sharp, in the fall of 1851. There has been a 
postoffice here for about thirty-three years. 
Walnut Grove is situated on the main land, at 
the junction of the Sacramento River and Geor- 
giana Slough, and is the shipping point for a 
large extent of country. There is a wharf, at 
which the steamers stop going each way, a 
school-house, a small hall, and a hotel. 


Of the famous thirty-five miles of orchard 
along the left banks of the Sacramento Iliver, 
extending from a point a few miles below P>ee- 
port to six miles below Isleton, there is no 
part that has attracted more attention than the 
stretch of nine miles from the Hollister to the 
Eastman ranch. It has been the subject of fre- 
quent favorable comment by the press and the 
people. But few, however, are aware how much 
of its beauty and productive value and conse- 
quent fame is due to a remarkable work of 
reclamation quietly done. The irregular curve 
in front is subtended at an average distance of 
about three and a half miles, by an immense 
levee about nine miles long, twenty-three feet 
high and twelve feet wide at the top, enclosing 
with the levee in front about 9,000 acres of land, 
including the orchards in front, which seldom 
exceed half a mile in depth. In 1878, the old 
levee, which was obviously inadequate, but 
which had been weakly relied upon, gave way 
before the rush of waters which soon turned the 
back land into an inland lake and seriously dam- 
aeed the fruit ranches in front. Through the 

financial disaster ensuing, the San Francisco 
Savings Union soon became owners of about 
4,000 acres of these overflowed lands. 

With a courage unusual in moneyed institu- 
tions, inspired perhaps by the far-seeing judg- 
ment of some sapient director, and carried to a 
successful issue by the management of Mr. P. 
J. Van Loben Sels, the Union proceeded to re- 
claim the land by the construction of the levee 
just described. The cost Las been about 
$180,000, of which nearly one-half fell on the 
Union for its comparatively worthless back 
lands. But they builded wiser than they knew, 
as every acre has been made available for culti- 
vation, and some small portions bring an annual 
rental of $14 an acre, and highly favored spots 
as much as $20. The erection of the levee was 
a, necessary beginning, which was quickly fol- 
lowed by an outlay of $130,000 for pumping 
works, with a capacity of 120,000 gallons a 
minute, and a system of drainage twenty-four 
miles in length. The central low-lying dis- 
trict, which in winter is a shallow lake, becomes 
in June a field of beans, yielding forty sacks to 
the acre in September. In 1887 Mr. Alexander 
Brown, of WaHiut Grove, the lessee of the whole 
3,830 acres now remaining in the ownership of 
the Union, raised two crops of barley on part of 
this land which but a few years since was a mere 
waste of waters. Probably two-thirds of the 
Pearson District is capable of producing two 
crops. Eleven thousand five hundred ;uid 
eighty sacks of potatoes have been raised 
on a thirty-two and a quarter acre piece of 
this no longer dismal swamp. Fifty-two 
sacks of barley, 300 sacks of onions and one 
and a half tons of beans are normal products of 
this new land of Goshen. There are three or- 
chards already planted, one of ninety acres and 
two smaller ones. Very neat, substantial im- 
provements in the way of barns and residences 
for workmen and sub-tenants are being put up 
by the Union, and the Pearson District is an 
excellent example of what may be done for the 
overflowed lands of Sacramento County, by in- 
telligent and efiicient reclamation. 


Granite Townsliip was created by the Board 
of Supsrvisors on October 20, 1856, and for- 
merly was included in the boundaries of Missis- 
sippi Township. The boundary line runs as 
follows: Beginning at the southwestern corner 
of Mississippi Township, and running thence 
eastwardly and northwardly along the southern 

and eastern side of Mi 




line is the American River, to the intersection 
with the range line between ranges 7 and 8 east, 
in township 10 north of Mount Diablo base; 
thence south and along said range line to the 
township line between townships 8 and 9 north; 
thence west and along said townsliip line to the 
range line between ranges 6 and 7 east; thence 
north and along said range line to the begin- 

The land in Gi-anite Township is partly agri- 
cultural and partly mineral, being probably two* 
thirds mineral and one-third agricultural. The 
Natoma Water and Mining Company owns a 
large amount of land in the township, wiiich 
they are working according to the quality of the 
land, the mineral claims being leased, the com- 
pany furnishing the water. They also have ex- 
tensive orchards and vineyards, and manufacture 

Nearly all of the laud in this township is in- 
cluded in the Leidesdorff grant. The grant was 
given to Leidesdortf by Micheltorena in 1844. 
James L. Folsoni bought the interest of the 
heirs of Leidesdorif, and by his e.xecutors secured 
its confirmation in 1855. This grant runs 
from the Sutter grant up the American River, 
which forms its northern boundary; the southern 
boundary is nearly parallel to the river and dis- 
tant therefrom four to live miles, and includes 
Folsoni. The land was pretty well taken up by 
squatters, who were compelled to buy the title 
to their possession or vacate. 

The history of Folsoni properly includes that 
of Negro Bar, which was the pioneer of the 
former place, and it is more than probable that 

had it not been for the fact that there was a 
mining camp of large proportions at Negro Bar, 
Folsom would have been located farther down 
the American Fork. Negro Bar received its name 
from the circumstance of negroes being the 
first men to do any mining at that point. This 
was in 1849. The Bar commences at Folsom, 
on the same side of the river, and runs nine- 
tenths of a mile down stream. Miners came 
flocking from all quarters, and in 1851 there 
were 700 ]ie()ple here. In the summer of 1850 
the Virginia Mining Company was formed for 
draining the river at this point; this company 
was composed of 240 members, with John Mc- 
Cormick for president. It took them two years 
to build the canal, which was intended to leave 
the old river-bed clear fur mining. The com- 
pany did not pay very well, but the canal was 
used for mining the Bar, by using " Long Toms." 
The Long Island Company was composed of 
thirty-eight men, Rjbert Reeves, President. 
The Tennessee Company, thirty members, Will- 
iam Gwaltney, -President. The Bar was splendid 
mining ground, and large quantities of gold 
have been taken out; there is still some mining 
going on here now. The product now is about 
$17,000 per month. 

J. S. Meredith opened the tirst hotel and 
store at Negro Bar, both being in the same 
building, in April, 1850. William A. Davidson 
opened the second store, but was shortly after 
bought out by A. A. Durfee & Brother. A few 
months later Rowley & Richardson opened a 
third store. These were the principal bnsiness 
houses until Folsoni was started. 

Among some of the ph3'sicians living at the 
Bar at that time were Dr. S. Lyon, now living 
in Folsom; Dr. Caldwell, who returned to Ten- 
nessee, and died ; Dr. Palmer, still a resident of 
the State; A. A. Durfee & Brother, both of 
whom have gone East, and Dr. Cline. 

Folsom was laid out by Theodore D. Judah, 
Richmond Chenery and Samuel C. Bruce, for 
Captain J. L. Folsom, in 1855. The lots were 
then sold on the 17th of January, 1856, at public 
auction, in the city of Sacramento, Colonel J. B. 


Starr, auctioneer. The lots were all sold at this 
sale. Purchasers cotiimenced buildinu;, and the 
town grew rapidly. On the 22d day of Febru- 
ary following, the Sacramento Valley Railroad 
was finished to Folsuin, and opened with free ex- 
cursion trains and a grand jubilee. This was the 
first railroad operated in the State. One of the 
operatives who assisted in taking out the first 
train is still in charge of the station at Foisoni. 
Mr. Joe Kinney, the station master, has been 
continuously in the employ of the railroad com- 
pany for twenty-seven years. At first he sold 
tickets under trees here. Then large brick 
, buildings were put up, machine shops opened, 
and 800 men at one time at work in them. The 
shops were afterward closed, and the work is 
now done at Sacramento. The company has 
just completed a small frame station house, neat 
and convenient, and supplying a want ielt for 
some time. 

In 1857 a road was projected to run from 
Folsom to Marysville, by a company called the 
California Central, of which Colonel Charles L. 
Wilson, now of Nord, was tlie principal mem- 
ber. In 1861 trains ran from Folsom to Lin- 
coln. Afterward the road was absorbed by the 
Central Pacific Company, and the track be- 
tween Folsom and Roseville was taken up. 
That portion of the road from Roseville to 
Lincoln is now a part of the California & Ore- 
gon Railroad. 

The Sacramento Valley Railroad built its car 
and machine shops at Folsom in 1861. The 
buildings consisted of a brick machine shop, 
60 X 110 feet; a car shop, also built of brick, 
40x80 feet, and a foundry — in all, employing 
about 1,500 men. The shops were closed and 
the machinery moved to Sacramento, December 
26, 18G9. 

In early mining days, and especially during 
the Washoe excitement, Folsom was a busy 
place; then it was almost stationary for a num- 
ber of years; but now it has entered upon an 
era of substantial prosperity. The population 
is about 1,000. 
Colonel Folsom, the projector of the town, 

died at the mission of San Jose, in Alameda 
County, July 10, 1855. 

Patterson & Waters' Hotel, afterward the 
Patterson House, was built in 1856. Patterson 
& Waters ran the house for about ten years; 
they were succeeded by Charles Watts; he, in 
turn, by Mrs. H. B. Waddilove, and the last 
managei' was M. Doll, who was in charge at the 
time of the fire of 1871. 

The Olive Branch was built in 1856 by Mr. 
Heaton, who kept the house until it was burned 

The Mansion House was built in 1857. J. 
Holmes was the proprietor; lie was succeeded 
by L. M. Dennison, who kept the house until 
the tire, in May, 1864. 

The Tremont House was built in 1860 by 
Mrs. Lucinda Smart; she sold to Ira Sanders, 
who managed the business until 1868, when 
the house was destroyed by fire. 

The Granite Hotel was built in 1858 by Cap- 
tain Hughes; he was succeeded by Martin 
Wetzlar. The house was burned in 1866. 

The Central Hotel was built by George Well- 
ington in 1859. This house changed hands 
several times, until, in the spring of 1879, Mr. 
Rand assumed the management. In the tire of 
August 13, 1886, it was burned down, and a 
better building replaced it. 

The American Exchange Hotel was first 
erected Ity Mr. Dresser, and used as a livery 
stable; next it was converted into two store- 
rooms. David Woldenberg, the first merchant 
in this building, returned to Gei-many, his na- 
tive land. The store was next conducted by 
Hyman & Alexander. In 1877 the biiildinif 
was purchased by W. C. Crosett and converted 
into a botel. Up to that date the bnilding was 
a one-story concrete structure; then a frame 
second story was added. The proprietors have 
been Mrs. Kate Hatnilton six or seven years, 
Mrs. Jane Williamson three years, and since 
then James A. Graham, who holds a ten-year 
lease. The property still belongs to the heir 


of Mr. Crosett, Mrs. W. C. Caples, who intends 
to build an addition 39. \ 40 feet and two-stories 
high, on account of the increasing patronage of 
the house. 

The business of the New Western Hotel was 
started in 1875, by Charles Zimmerman, who 
has ev^er since been the proprietor. He pur- 
chased the property of Dr. B. F. Bates. It 
consisted of two buildings, one for a hotel and 
one for a shoe shop, at the corner of Sutter and 
Wood streets. Mr. Zimmerman added about 
$800 in improvements; but the fire of August 
13, 1886, utterly consumed it. The insurance 
was $2,800. Mr. Zimmerman immediately re- 
built what is now known as the " New Western 
Hotel," having a frontage of ninety-five feet, 
and costing $7,000, including furniture and 
fixtures. The main building is 40 x 60 feet and 
two and tjjree-quarter stories high. 


This company, the largest owner of water 
rights in the county, was organized in 1851, and 
was originated by A. P. Catlin, now living in 
Sacramento, and still the attorney of the com- 
pany. A. T. Arrowsmith, a civil engineer now 
residing at Oakland, was associated with him. 
Dr. John H. Veatch, long since deceased, was 
the first secretary; T. L. Craig, treasurer. The 
main canal was commenced in 1851, taking its 
water from the south fork of the American, two 
miles above Salmon Falls. The length of this 
canal is sixteen miles. For many years the 
water was used to a great extent for mining 
purposes, but it is all now used to render a tract 
of 8,454 acres, otherwise neirly valueless, as 
good as any in the county. There are now 300 
acres in orchard, and about 2,000 in vines. 

In the superintendency of the company's in- 
terests here Henry Shusler has recently been 
succeeded by Horatio Livermore, of San Fran- 

The company purpose the division of the 
large tract into smaller tracts of ten or fifteen 
acres each, to be disposed of to actual settlers. 
The land is fertile, water is abundant, much is 

already producing, railroad communication with 
market is complete and effective. Under such 
circumstances the small tracts present induce- 
ments offered by little property now upon the 
market. There are no problems to solve by ex- 
periment as to the productiveness of the land, 
and upon the erection of a house the home is 
complete, and an immediate income secured. 
Its settlement by a number of small farmers 
would raise its value very high, and improve 
the wjiole surrounding country, towns and all. 


No enterprise in the State is at present at- 
tracting more public attention than the effort to 
utilize the water-power of the American River 
at Folsom. The scheme is not a new one, having 
been broached about twenty-two years ago by 
Mr. H. (j. Livermore, then president of the 
Natoma Water and Mining Company. Con- 
siderable work in building the necessary dam 
and canal has been done by both the Natoma 
Water and Mining Company and the Folsom 
Water-Power Company. Two contracts were 
made between the first company and the State, 
looking to the performance of the necessary 
work by convict labor, in return for land deeded 
to the State, and for a part of the water-power, 
and some work was done under these contracts. 
Serious disagreements arose as to the tenor of 
the contracts, and much litigation followed, re- 
sulting in a practical abandonment of the under- 
taking by the Natoma Water and Mining 
Company, without power on the part of the 
State to compel its completion. 

The property and water rights were there- 
after transferred to the Folsom Water Power 
Company (a corporation of $600,000 capital, 
divided into 6,000 shares of $100 each), which 
now owns the land on both banks of the Ameri- 
can River, and the mining patent covering the 
bed of the stream, for the whole distance to be 
traversed by the canal and for some distance 
above the dam. 

The first work toward the construction of the 
dam was doiu; in the fall of 1866, but it was 


discontinued when the dam had been completed 
lip to low-water mark of the river. The results 
at the beginning of this year, 1888, had been 
the acquirement by the State of 483 acres of 
land, comprising the tract now used by the State 
Prison, upon one edge of which, close by the 
river bank, the prison l)uildings stand (upon 
which the State had only paid 11,000 days' 
labor of convicts), and the laying of a part of 
the necessary foundation of a dam, upon which 
aboiit $42,000 in money had been expended by 
the companies, and about 11,000 days' work of 
convict labor used, whicl) was furnished by the 
State as part of the consideration mentioned in 
the deeds for the land comprising the prison 

About $100,000 was also expended in the 
work upon the canal and otherwise necessary to 
the enterprise, but not directly upon the dam. 
Such was the condition of affairs when Captain 
Charles Aull, the present warden at the Folsom 
prison, took charge in January, 1888. But 


of the conditions had changed. 

Under the management of General McComb, 
the preceding warden, the buildings and grounds 
had been so nearly completed that it was no 
longer necessary to use the whole force upon 
them; and the number of prisoners being 
larger, the amount of labor available for such 
work as the dam and canal required was much 
greater than before. 

Captain Aull was perfectly familiar witii the 
events incident to the location of the prison at 
its present site, and of its selection because a 
water-power could be constructed there. He 
was acquainted with all the efforts to render it 
available, their failure, and the various questions 
which had arisen in connection therewith, and 
fully appreciated how valuable it would be to 
the State and to the community when fully de- 
veloped. These facts were submitted to Gov- 
ernor Waterman, who immediately gave the 
matter earnest and serious attention. 

In company with Secretary of State Hen- 
dricks, and Mr. Joseph Steffens, President of 
the Sacramento Board of Tiade, he visited Fol- 

som in April last, for the special purpose of 
investigating the practicability of at last ac- 
complishing the plans of those wiio had studied 
the question of the American River water-power 
for thirty years back. 

The advantages that would accrue to the State 
were pointed out, and the present agreement is 
that the State is to furnish all the labor to com- 
plete the dam, and the canal as far as the Rob- 
bers' Ravine Mud Sink, about 2,000 yards below 
the dam, and the company is to furnish all the 
free labor necessary, such as engineers, foreman, 
etc., and all the material and machinery. The 
work is already nearly completed. The dam is 
forty-five feet high, and forty-five feet thick at 
the bottom and twenty-five feet at the top. 
Tiiere are upward of 3,000 cubic yards of 
m Jsonry, of the heaviest kind, hiid in the best 
Portland cement. During the progress of the 
work the river is turned by a temporary wooden 
flume. The work is under the direction of P. 
A. Humbert, civil engineer. See a sketch of 
his life's career elsewhere in this volume. 


Coners' Flouring Mill was built in 18G6, on 
the corner of Wool street and the railroad; the 
mill was operated about two years, when it was 
closed. The building, a three-story brick, was 
purchased by B. N. Bugby, and used by him as 
a wine cellar, the third floor being rented as a 
hall to the societies at Folsom. The building 
was burned about 1871. 

Natoma Mills were built by Edward Stock- 
ton, in June, 1866, using the three-story brick 
building formerly occupied by the Wheeler 
House. The power was taken from the Natoma 
ditch, and using two runs o^" stone. Discon- 

The first brewery in Folsom was built by 
Chris. Heiler in 1857, and was run for several 
years by Raber & Heiler. Tliis was destroyed 
by fire in 1868. 

In 1872 Peter Yager erected a brewery on 
the foundation of a large store which was de- 
stroyed in the destructive fire of 1870. The 

iiisronr of hacramento couhty. 

building was a substantial brick structure, had 
a daily capacity of about ten barrels, and the 
sales amounted to about 450 barrels. This 
brewery was burned in the conflagration of 1886. 

The railroad bridge across the American 
Kiver was commenced on May 31, 1858. This 
bridge was on the line of the California Central 
Railroad, was ninety-two feet above the water, 
with a span of 216 feet, cost $100,000, and 
was the only bridge left on the American River 
by the flood of 1862, caused by the elevation 
being tifty feet greater than the suspension 
bridge. The bridge was condemned in 1866, it 
having sunk in the center and been considered 
unsafe for sometime. It was subsequently sold 
and taken down some time after 1868. 

In 1854 a wooden bridge was built across the 
American River at Folsom. It was washed away 
by high water a few years later. 

Thompson & Kinsey then obtained a charter 
for building a bridge across the American River 
at Folsom in 1861. This was a wire suspension 
bridge. The flood of 1862 carried this bridge 
away on January 10. On March 7, 1862, the 
work of rebuilding commenced. This is the 
present structure; it connects Folsom with Ash- 
land, a little town across the river, and is called 
"The Folsom and Ashland Suspension Bridge;" 
is of the Halliday patent; length of span, 350 
feet between towers; has two cables, 800 feet 
long, and four towers; weight of bridge, seventy- 
live tons. Kinseyife Whitely were the builders. 
C. L. Ecklow purchased the bridge and franchise 
in 1871. 

Folsom has suflered heavily by fires at difi'er- 
ent times. May 8, 1866, a fire burned "Whisky 
Row," und a number of buildings on Sutter and 
Decatur streets, including the oflice of the Fol- 
som Telegraph. August 31, 1866, the Hotel 
de France and a number of contiguous buildings 
were burned. 

The Folsom Theatre was destroyed by fire, 
June 27, 1871. In 1871 a fire destroyed all of 
Chinatown, Fatterson's Hotel, and part of Ad- 
dison's lumber yard. May 6, 1872, a fire broke 
out in Smith, Campi)ell & Jolly's store, and de- 

stroyed all the buildings in the block, with the 
exception of the office of the Folsom Telegraph. 
Among these buildings were Meredith's drug 
store and Farmer's blacksmith shop. The loss 
was about $130,000. 

August 13, 1886, at 3 p. m., occurred a fire 
occasioning a loss of about $150,000. Of the 
business property only three buildings were left 
standing! In Chinatown they say that fires 
happen on an average about every two years. 

Young Ainerica, Ho. 7, was a fire company, 
organized in September, 1861. The company 
bought a hand engine, costing $1,800, and dis- 
played some activity for a year or so, but the en- 
thusiasm dying out, it was disbanded in 1863. 

The Folsom Hook and Ladder Company was 
organized March 3, 1857. The first oflicers 
were: H. B. Waddilove, Foreman: Charles 
Plannett, First Assistant; Frank Wheeler, Sec- 
ond Assistant; J. M. Arbuckle, Secretary; H. 
D. Rowley, Treasurer. The company owns the 
building known as Firemen's Hall, which was 
built in 1870, located on Sutter street. The 
average membership has been about thirty-five. 
Their hall is used for all public meetings and 
theatrical performances. 

In all Sacramento County there is probably no 
institution to the examination of which a day 
could be devoted with more pleasure and profit 
than the State Prison, two miles from Folsom. 

The first act of the Legislature concerning a 
branch prison was passed in 1858, and author- 
ized the Board of Prison Directors to select a 
site for the Branch State Prison. Much discus- 
sion was had, but nothing done until 1868, when 
an act of the Legislature was passed requiring 
the Board of Prison Directors to determine be- 
tween a proposed site at Rocklin and the pres- 
ent one of Folsom, before the 1st of July of that 
year. The present site was selected chiefly on 
account of the available water power, the value 
of which was even then fully recognized. In 
1868 the State secured 350 acres of land, and 
in 1874 obtained 153 acres more, together com- 
prising the present prison tract. In 1874 the 
State appropriated $175,000 for the construction 

histout of sagramento county. 

ofa prison, and in the fall of tliat year tiie work 
began. In 1878 a i'nrther siitn was ajipropriated, 
and in 1880 it was readj for occupancy. During 
all this time the key-note of all operations was 
the utilization of the water-power, though the 
schemes directed to that end all failed. Tiie 
present contracts and agreements between the 
State and the Folsoin Water-Power Company 
will doubtless accomplish the long-sought re- 

The prison is in many respects a model one. 
The prison building is exceedingly well lightetl 
anil ventilated, though the cells are not quite so 
large as should be to conform to the sanitary 
laws regarding cubic feet of air per person en- 
closed. Tliere is cell-room enough now for 650 
prisoners. Tlie drainage and sewerage is per- 
fect, and all the cells are perfectly dry. Every 
spot about the prison building is most scrupu- 
lously clean. Thus in clean, dry cells, with 
good light and ventilation, and the air of the 
building kept pure by good sewerage and the 
tree play of the sunlight all the day long, are 
found the inain elements of health well pro- 
viikd for. Tlie Ef.cord representatives saw 
three meals prepared for the prisoners, going 
into every department of the kitchen, bakery 
and refectory. 

A sketch of the Folsom Telegraph is given 
in our chapter on the Press of the county. 

The lirst public school in Folsom was estab- 
lished in 1857, the tirst teacher being I. M.Sib- 
ley. The tirst trustees were: E. P. Willard, 
Dr. S. Palmer and J. S. Mereditli. A school, 
however, had been previously taught at Prairie 
City. The Folsom Institute was a fine private 
school which flourished from 1857 to 1869. 

Granite Lodge, No. 62, I. 0. 0. F., was or- 
ganized September 19, 1856, at the residence of 
Eli Nichols, by David Kendall, D. D. G. M., 
assisted by Brothers C. C. Ilayden, Samuel 
Cross, W. B. II. Dodson, (leorge I. N. Monell, 
G. K. Van Ileusen and George Nelson. The 
first officers were: J. E. Clark, N. G.; A. 
Hears, Y. G.; W. A. McClure, Rec. Sec; II. 
A. Hill, Treas. The charter members, in addi- 

tion to the above, were S. F. Manjuis, A. W. 
lieals, P. Kozminsky, L. Sampson, J. Crumber- 
ger, G. B. Hornish and E. A. Turner. 

Folsom Encampment, No. ^If., I. O. <>. F., 
was formed June 28, 1864, with A. C. Davis, 
Edward Christy, S. Zekind, S. M. Seely, John 
Eofl", John II. Seymour and E. O. Dana as 
charter members. 

Natovia Lodge, No. GJ,, F. tf; A.M., was 
organized in October, 1854, at Mormon Island, 
with M. Wallace, A. Spinks, A. O. Carr, L. 
Bates, G. W. Corey, S. Logan, H. A. Ilolcomb, 
D. McCall, B. II. Gmroy, J. II. Berry, W. 
Sheldon, C. S. Bogar, W. K. SpeiJicer, D. M. K. 
Campbell, J. Clark and M. Ilat-h as charter 
members. The first officers were: M. Wallace, 
W. M.; L. Bates, S. W.; A. O. Carr. J. W. It 
was chartered in 1855, and the ne.xt year trans- 
ferred to Folsom. The records of the lodge 
were destroyed by the fire in 1871. 

Fxcelsior Council, O. C. F., No. GJf, was in- 
stituted February 20, 1882. 

Folsom Lodge, No. 109, A. 0. U. W., was 
established June 6, 1879. 

Granite Parlor, No. 83, N S. G. W., was 
established April 9, 1886. 

Social L.odge, No. 5^, Order of the Golden 
Shore, was organized February 18, 1889. 

The Young Men's Lnstitute, No. 69, was 
organized in January, 1888. 

The first church services were held in the 
Hook and Ladder Company's hall in 1856 by 
the Rev. Dr. Hatch, an Episcopal divine, of 
Sacramento. About this time Father Quinn, 
of the Catholic Church, held services at the 
house of P. J. O'Neil, about two miles from 

St. John's Church {Catholic) was organized 
in 1856. The church edifice was erected in 
1857; in the meantime the society held its 
meetings in the darken College, Rev. Father 
Quinn, pastor. The original cost of the build- 
ing was $1,600. It was enlarged in 1859 at 
an additional outlay of $900. The earlier pas- 
tors have been the Revs. John Quinn (now de- 
ceased), James Gallagher, Neal Gallagher 

nisTonr of sacramento county. 

(deceased), Francis Kelley (deceased), and John 

Trinity Church [Episcopal) was organized 
July 18, 1862; the church building was erected 
the same year, at a cost of about §4,000, and 
is a line frame structure. The first officers were: 
Vestrymen, William Timson, H. B. Waddilove, 
J. S. Meredith, Dr. A. C. Donaldson and George 
Bromley; Senior Warden, Dr. A. C. Donald- 
son; Junior Warden, William Moore; Clerk of 
the Parish, J. S. Meredith. 

The Congregational Church was organized 
in 1860; a church building of brick, 36x60 
feet in size, was erected the same year. J. E. 
Benton was the first pastor. The church ceased 
to exist many years ago. 

Prairie City is located two miles south of 
Folsom, in Granite Township, on the hills on or 
near Alder Creek. Mining commenced here in 
1853, on the completion of the Natoma Water 
and Mining Company's ditch to this point. 
The water reached Illiodes' Diggings, about one 
mile farther up the creek, early in June, 1853. 
The miners came flocking in from all directions, 
and Prairie City began to assume the impor- 
tance of a city in fact as well as in name. This 
was the business town for several mining camps, 
Rhodes' Diggings, Willow Spring Hill Dig- 
gings and Alder Creak. Rhodes' Diggings 
laid some pretensions to having a town of its 
own; John H. G ass and Colonel Z. llagan built 
a steam quartz mill in 1855, and a French 
company built a large quartz mill in 1857, 
costing §50,000; this mill paid wonderfully 
well for a time, and the stock could not be pur- 
chased for any reasonable price; this, however, 
did not last long; the stock ceased to pay divi- 
dends, went down, and finally became worthless. 

At Prairie City, in 1853, Jesse Dresser, E. 

A. Piatt, Eisner J. Chapman, Rosenthal and 

Meers kept stores; Dr. Rutherford, a drug 

store; Dr. White; "Marble Hall Hotel," kept 
by Michael Conothy. In 1854 J. & J. Spru- 
ance opened a store here, the largest in town. 
Elisha Waterman, carpenter and builder, erected 
most of the buildings. In July, 1853, the 

town contained about 100 buildings, fifteen 
stores, ten boarding houses and hotels, and 
about thirty families; emigrants arriving daily; 
two lines of stages running daily. 

Early in 1854 the inhabitants numbered over 
1,000, and the miners were reported as doing 
well, making from $5 to $20 per diem in one 
case, three men are reported to have taken out 
eighty-five ounces in one day. The town began 
to die out in 1860, and finally became entirely 
noil est. 

Thk Willow Si-rings Uill Diooixfis were on 
the hill or ridge between Alder and Willow 
creeks; this hill was about a mile long. Mining 
commenced along Willow Creek as early as 
1851. When the gulches were worked back to 
the ridge it was found that the dirt still con- 
tinued good pay, and claims were continued on 
the hill. Most of the mining was done on the 
north side of the ridge, there being a better flow 
of water there; by this time, 1853, the Natoma 
Ditch was furnishing water at this point. In 
the palmy days of this region there were twelve 
coin])anies or claims, employing sixty men. It 
is not known what amount of gold has been 
taken out of this region, comprising about 2,000 
acres, but it is estimated to have been millions 
of dollars, the eastern end of Willow Springs 
Hill being extraordinarily rich. 

Texas Hill was a mining camp just below 
Negro Bar, on the American River, and exten- 
sive operations were carried on there until 1855, 
under the superintendence of John A. Watson, 
afterward purchasing agent of the railroad coni- 
j Pany- 

! Beam's Bar, named after Jerry Beam, is half 
] a mile below Alabama Bar, on the south side of 
the American River. It was at first exceed- 
ingly rich, but all attempts to work it since 
1857 have proved unremunerative. In 1863 
Alfred Spinks, with a force of Chinamen, went 
to bed-rock, sixty feet down, but found no 

In the summer of 1879 a man leased from the 
I Natoma Company all the land lying between 
I P'olsom and Alder Creek north of the railroad. 


The old miners liad dug down to what they con- 
sidered bed-rock and then stopped. This party 
bored through this crust, and found good pay- 
ing gravel underneath. The crust was composed 
of what appeared to have been black slime or 
deposit at the bottom of a lake, solidified ; it was 
full of shells. 


Lee Township was formed b^' the Board of 
Supervisors, October 20, 1856, and contains 
townships 7 and 8 north, range 7 east of Mount 
Diablo base and meridian, both townships be- 
ing full, and is bounded on the north by Granite 
Township, on the east by Natoma and Co- 
sumnes, south by Alabama, west by San Joaquin 
and Brighton townships. Of the original town- 
ships it contains part of what was San Joaquin 
Township, a large portion of the original Co- 
snmnes Township. The soil is what is known 
as red plains, agricultural land. All that por- 
tion south of the Cosumnes River is included 
witliin what is known as the Hartnell grant. 
North of the Cosumnes and to a line parallel 
with the general course of the same, distant 
therefrom about two and one half miles, lies the 
Sheldon grant. In the northern portion of the 
township the Leidesdorff grant occupies about 
3,800 acres. There were about 18,000 acres of 
Government land in the township, all of which 
is now owned by private parties. These grants 
are all sub-divided into small farms, most of 
which are under a high state of cultivation. 
Away from the Cosumnes River the soil is not 
so good for agricultural purposes, and is prin- 
cipally used for grazing, probably about twenty- 
tive to thirty per cent, of the whole area being 
under cultivation. 


One summer evening, in 1840, William Bay- 
lor, then in the employ of Captain John A. 
Sutter, while on a cattle hunt, rode to the bluff, 
or high hill, which overlooks tlie valley of the 
Cosumnes River, at a point near which now 
stands the residence of Digory Ilobbs. The 
valley at that time was thickly jjopulatcd with 

Indians, and Daylor not being desirous of making 
any closer acquaintance at that time, did not 
descend into the valley, but rode back to Sut- 
ter's Fort. He reported his discovery to his 
friend Jared Sheldon, who was at that time em- 
ployed by Sutter as a carpenter. Sheldon was 
a naturalized citizen of Mexico, and had certain 
claims against the Mexican Government for 
services in building a custom house at Mon- 
terey. He made an arrangement with Daylor, 
by which he (Sheldon), through his friend W. 
E. P. Hartnell (then Secretary of State and 
Government Interpreter for California under 
the Mexican Government), should obtain a 
grant of the recently discovered valley in liqui- 
dation of his unsettled claim. Daylor, with 
two or three companions, was t ) settle on the 
land, while Sheldon was to provide a number 
of cattle to stock the rancho, and the two were 
to become equal partners in the land and cattle. 
Sheldon, after taking the preliminary steps to 
secure the grant, purchased 300 head of cattle 
from Dr. Marsh, of Marsh's Landing, now An- 
tiocli, for which he was to pay in carpenter 
work, upon which he at once entered, sending 
the cattle through the then unknown country 
lying between the residence of Dr. Marsh and 
the Cosumnes Valley. These cattle reached 
their destination in du^ time, and the drovers 
found a corral for the cattle and a tent for the 
men, which improvements had been xiade by 
Daylor, assisted by Ned Robinson and a force 
of Indians. These latter were found to be as 
gentle and docile as the aborigines who wel- 
comed Columbus to the shores of Guanahani 
and Hayti. They were always ready, and even 
anxious, t5 perform any labor, considering a 
yard of "manta" (unbleached cotton cloth), 
with the game, deer, elk and antelope which 
the new-comers provided, as full payment for a 
week's work. By the aid of these Indians, a 
field of 100 acres was inclosed with a ditch and 
sown with wheat, the seed being obtained from 
Captain Sutter. For the first year, the diet of 
the new settlers consisted solely of venison. 
After the first crop of wheat was harvested, 


boiled wheat was added to the bill of fare. This 
was the unvarying me7iu nntil 1847. 

The new proprietors had found a fine mill 
site on the river, near where McCraken's bridge 
now stands, and in 1847 they constructed a dam 
and built a grist-mill, which continued in suc- 
cessful operation until the stampede of 1848 
that caused every industry of the kind to be 
temporarily abandoned. 

After the discovery of gold in 1848, Sheldon, 
Daylor and McCoon, taking a number of In- 
dians, established a mining camp at a point 
where the road to Placerville now crosses the 
Weber Creek, and remained there nntil the 
autumn rains set in, the result of their sum- 
mer's work being $20,000 for each partner. 

Daylor married in the autumn of 1846; Shel- 
don married in the spring of 1847, their wives 
being daughters of Thomas Rhoads, of San 
Joaquin County. Sheldon, not satisfied with 
the fine mill site on his land, which aff'orded 
him every needed facility for irrigation, bought 
a piece of land about four miles higher up the 
river, where he became involved in a quarrel 
with the miners along the river, and lost his 
life. An account of the circumstances will be 
found in the history of Cosumnes Township. 

William Daylor, a native of London, England 
came to Sutter's Fort in 1840. He died of 
cholera at Daylor's Ranch, Octol)er 30, 1850. 

Jared Sheldon, a native of Underbill, Ver- 
mont, came to the State overland from New 
Mexico in 1832. He was killed in a fight with 
miners in Cosumnes Township, July 10, 1851. 

Sebastian Kayser, a native of the Austrian 
Tyrol, for many years of his life a Rocky Mount- 
ain trapper, was iialf owner of the Johnson 
grant, at Johnson's crossing of Bear Creek. He 
was drowned in the Cosumnes River, January, 

Perry MeCooii, a native of England, came to 
California about the year 1843. He was killed 
by falling from a horse near Cook's l>ar, in 
January, 1851. 

W. R. Grimshaw, a native of Xew Vork (Mty, 
a seafaring man, arrived at Monterey in June, 

1848, sailed in a coasting vessel, and came to 
Sutter's Fort in October, 1848. He opened a 
store and Indian trading post in partnership 
with W. M. Daylor, at Daylor's Ranch, No- 
vember 15, 1849. He now resides at Daylor's 

W. D. Wilson came to California in 1848, and 
settled on the Cosumnes River, opposite Day- 
lor's Ranch; he died in Santa Clara County, in 

John R. T. Mahone was a soldier in Doni- 
phan's regiment during the Mexican War. He 
married the widow of Jared Sheldon, and set- 
tled at the Slough House in 1852; is now 


Wilson's Exchange was built on the south 
side of the Cosumnes River, in 1850, by W. D. 
Wilson. In 1851 Wilson built a bridge across 
the Cosumnes at the same point. This bridge 
was swept away by the high water of 1852 ; it 
was rebuilt in the same year, was again washed 
away in 1862, and has nut been rebuilt. 

The Slough House was built by Jared Shel- 
don in the spring of 1850, and occujijed as a 
residence by himself and family until his death. 

The Slough House bridge was built by John- 
Mahone, in 1850, across Deer Creek; this bridge 
was washed away in 1862, and rebuilt. 

In 1862 J. C. Austin built a wire bridge 
across the Cosumnes River, located on the lower 
half of Division Thirteen of the Hartnell 
grant. In 1868 Austin sold to James D. Mc- 
Craken, ex-Governor Booth and Colonel James. 
The bridge is generally known as the wire 


In the spring of 1850 the justiceof the peace 
at the Daylor Ranch was an old fellow that 
■ went by the name of " Uncle Ben." His judi- 
cial career terminated very abruptly, in the 
following manner: 

A half-witted Hoosier had l)een caught in the 
act of driving oflf .some tame American oxen, 


and was brought before the justice for trial. 
The accused was all but paralyzed with fear, and 
loudly declared his innocence of any wrongful 
intent, stating that he had been employed to 
drive the cattle to Sacramento. When the trial 
was ready to begin the prisoner was missing, 
and a party of men sallied out in search of him. 
He was found about 200 yards from the house, 
up to his neck in water, with his head under a 
projecting bush. He was brought hack to the 
house, if possible worse frightened than before. 
On being interrogated as to how he got away, 
he stated that he had given the justice his purse, 
with what gold dust it contained, who had 
allowed him to slip out of the hout^e the back 
way. This statement the justice strenuously 
denied. The accused then described his purse 
and the contents thereof, and, on searching the 
judge, a purse answering to the description, 
with contents as stated, was found on hip per- 
son. The purse and contents were returned to 
the original owner, and he was allowed to go 
on his way rejoicing. The judge was then 
triced up to the columns that supported the 
roof of the portico, and given twenty-five 
lashes 9a his bare back with a lasso, the substi- 
tute for a "cat-o-nine tails," an Indian officiat- 
ing as '' Bo'sen's Mate." He was then taken 
down and ordered to leave the place at once. 
He left. 

In 1850-'51 the inhabitants of Cosumnes and 
San Joaquin townships, which included Lee 
Township, were harrassed by horse and cattle 
thieves to such an extent that they proceeded in 
several cases to take the law into their own 
hands and execute justice, as it was then consid- 
ered, very summarily. 

In the early part of 1851 one Orville Ham- 
ilton was accused of being an accessory in 
several cases of horse-stealing. A number of 
citizens assembled at Hamilton's place, took 
him into custody, organized a court, and pro-- 
ceeded to try him on the charge. Among the 
members of the court were: Jared Sheldon, 
William Hicks, Charles Lewis, W. D. Wilson, 
S. P. Gage, Atvvood, Tryce and AUiuond. The 

defendant was found guilty, sentenced to be 
hung, and a committee appointed to execute the 
sentence. The committee proceeded to the 
room where the prisoner had been confined, but 
found the bird had flown. 

This fact being comhiunicated to the crowd 
caused great excitement, which was in no wise 
allayed on the discovery of a man wearing the 
defendant's hat. This man proved to be one 
Sage, a merchant of Sacramento and an inti- 
mate friend and former schoolmate of Hamilton 
in the State of Connecticut. It was immedi- 
ately proposed that Sage be hung as a substi- 
tute for Hamilton. This was voted down, after 
a heated discussion, and the punishment com- 
muted to a whipping, and he was ordered to be 
tied up. No one appeared to be willing to tie 
him, until Sheldon, exclaiming, " Some one has 
got to see to this thing," tied Sage to a tree, 
and an Indian administered several lashes on 
his hare back with a lasso. Sage returned to 
Sacramento and employed C. A. Tweed to com- 
mence suit against Sheldon, Hicks and others, 
but was nonsuited. By the time all of the above 
proceedings had been had it was some time 
after dark, and the crowd dispersed to return to 
their homes. 

Gage and Allmond occupied a cabin a mile 
and a half beli)W the Daylor Ranch, on the south 
side of the river, where they were engaged in 
herding horses. On their return home the 
night in question, they were informed by a 
teamster, who had stopped at their cabin, that 
two men were endeavoring to drive a herd of 
horses across the i-iver at the ford one-quarter of 
a mile below the cabin. This being an unusual 
proceeding at that hour of the night, the three 
men went to the bank overlof)king the ford and 
discovered the horses to be their own band, 
which two thieves were trying to drive oif in 
the absence of the owners. This attempt would 
undoubtedly have been successful if the horses 
had not been unwilling to leave their range in 
the night. Gage, Allmond and the teamster 
jumped down the bank and pulling the thieves 
from their horses, disarmed them and compelled 


them to return to tlie cabin, where they were 
provided witli supper. The band of horses, as 
soon at they fonnd tlieinselves at liberty, ran 
into the corral at the cabin. After supper. Gage, 
leavino; his companions to guard the prisoners, 
started out to sunitnon certain of the neighbors 
to assemble and give the prisoners a trial on the 
ensuing day. Ilicks, Sheldon and Grimshaw, 
at the Daylor Tlaiicli, had gone to bed when Gage 
came with his summons. Gage rode on, and 
the three men, after consulting a few inoment.s, 
thought it would be well to attend to the mat- 
ter that night. About the time their horses 
were saddled, Gage returned, accompanied by 
some of the neighbors, who had reached the 
same conclusion as the Daylor Ranch men. 
When this party arrived at the cabin, they found 
awaiting them Jolin T. Rlioads, William B. 

Klioads, John Farker and Ford. It was 

proposed to organize a court at once and pro- 
ceed to trial. Jared Sheldon was appointed 
judge, when it was discovered that there were 
not men enough present to form the jury. Here 
was a quandary. At length one of the party 
arose, and after a short speech on the utter 
futility of regular trials to stop the fearful evil 
of horse-stealing, offered to be one of a crowd 
to take the prisoners out and hang them forth- 
with. This was at once assented to by those 
present. Candles were lighted, and the horses 
in the corral closely examined to avoid the pos- 
sibility of making any mistake. The prisoners 
were led nnder a tree, lassoes placed around 
their necks and over a limb of the tree, and the 
men informed that they had one-half hour to 
live, and, when the time expired, they were 
drawn up and left hanging all night. 

In the morning, one of the party, with two 
Indians, went to the tree and dug a grave. 
Some money which was found in their pockets 
was given to the Indians, and their bodies 
lowered into the grave. This action of the citi- 
zens put an effectual stop to horse and cattle 
stealing along the banks of the Cosumnes 

In this township occurred the mob execution 

of William Lomax, May 14, 1855. He was 
hanged for the murder of Frederick Bohle, who 
was killed on the 7th of that month. It seems 
that Bohle was a stock-raiser and occupied a 
cabin about a mile above the old Daylor Ranch. 
Some parties, who desired to buy cattle, sought 
Bohle and found him dead. He had been cut 
with a knife and cliopped with an ax, and the 
indications were that he had made a desperate 
struggle for life. They gave the alarm at 
Grimshaw's house. W. R. Grimshaw and Oli- 
ver Sanders went out and secured the body. 
LoTnax had been seen about the premises, and 
suspicion fastened upon him. He was arrested 
in the city of Sacramento and taken to the scene 
of the murder. A popular court was organized 
in front of the old Daylor house, and Lomax put 
upon trial. He asked for time to produce a man 
named Van Trees, with whom he said he had 
passed the night before the murder, at a ranch 
on the American River. Time was granted, 
hut the people of Michigan Bar and Cook's Bar 
took the accused, fearing that he might escape. 
They promised to brino him back when Van 
Trees would be produced. They fulfilled their 
promise. On the resumption of the triSl Van 
Trees stated that Lomax had been with him at 
his place, but that when he left he had stolen a 
mule. Lomax w..s convicted and hanged on a 
tree in front of Grimshaw's i)lace. This tree 
was cut down about three or four years ago. 
This was one of the earliest mob executions in 
the county outside of Sacramento City. 


Mississippi Township, as originally estab- 
lished by the Court of Sessions, on the 24th of 
February, 1851, included nearly the whole of 
the present township of tiiat name, and also all 
of what is now Granite Township. There were 
very few changes made until the present lines 
were established, except in the south line, which 
was subsecjuently made to be the Coloina road. 
I October 20, 1856, tiie Board of Supervisors 
' established the present boundaries, as follows: 
I Beginning at the northeast corner of Center 


Township, running thence easterly along the 
northern boundary of the county to the Ameri- 
can River; thence soutlierly and westerly along 
the said American liiver to the eastern bound- 
ary of Center Township; thence north along 

the said eastern bounda 

of C( 

Tow I 

ship to the beginning. 

The greater portion of the land is mineral, 
though the people are now turning tiieir atten- 
tion to agriculture, the better part of tlie min- 
eral lauds having been pretty well worked oiit. 
The soil is not well adapted for the growth of 
wheat, but for grapes and other small fruits it 
is as good as any other portion of the county. 
The North Fork Company's ditch, running 
through the entire length of the township, aftbrds 
facilities for irrigation during the whole year. 

The San Juan grant includes the greater por- 
tion of this township, there being but about 
5,000 acres outside of its lines. The lands in 
the grant are being sold off, thus affording an 
opportunity for settlers. The largest laud- 
owners are Clark & Cox, and S. C. Ilastings. 

Ciold was discovered in Mississippi Town- 
ship, along the banks of the American River, 
in 1849, about the same tin)e as at Mormon 
Island and Negro Bar. Mining along the river 
was vigorously prosecuted for several years, 
and abandoned only on account of the bars 
being worked out. Gold having been found in 
paying quantities on the higher benches, a 
company was formed to build a ditch to bring 
the water from the north fork of the Auierican 
River, from a point nearly opposite the town of 
Auburn, Placer County. Tliis company brought 
water into the township in 1855, the ditch 
being twenty miles long. From this time to 
the present there has been more or less mining 
going on, but the most vigor was shown be- 
tween the years 1855 and 1870. At the present 
time there are very few people making any at- 
tempt at mining, those that are being mostly 
Portuguese and Chinese. 

The Alabama Bar was situated in the northeast 
corner of the township, in the middleof the Amer- 
ican River. It was originally located in 1850. 

In 1852 a company was formed known as the 
Alabama Bar Mining Company, composed of 
twelve men, with John Smith as president, and 
Alfred Spinks, superintendent. The name was 
given on account of the fact that most of the 
company were from the State of Alabama. 
They located the bar and proceeded to work it, 
but were shortly after apprised of the fact of 
the previous location; they, however, retained 
the possession, and bought out the adverse 
claimants, where thej' could be found. The 
gold gave out in 1856, and the bar was aban- 
doned. This company employed about sixty 
men c'uring the summers, and it is estimated 
took out about §75,000 altogether. 

The Slate Bar was located just below the 
present site of the Branch State Prison, on the 
opposite side of the river. This was never a 
large camp. The mining, being of the variety 
called "crevice mining," did not offer the in- 
ducement that other bars did. 

The American liiver Ditch Company was 
incorporated November 27, 1854. The first 
trustees were: A. P. Catlin, A. T. Arrowsmith, 
A. G. Kinsey, Lucien B. iirooks, S. Palmer, 
John L. Craig and Eleazer Rulison. Work com- 
menced on the ditch September 18, 1854; it 
was completed to Big Gulch, the end of the 
niain ditch, January 1, 1857. The ditch is six 
feet wide on the bottom and four feet deep. 
The first dam was built to Tamaroo Bar, from 
which point to Big Gulch is tweuty-four miles. 
The portion of the canal extending from Big 
Gulch to Mississippi Bar runs through a 
country known as Orange Vale. 

The first dam was taken out by flood in March, 
1855; the second dam, costing §5,000, was 
washed out in 1857; thethird dam cost $11,000, 
and was destroyed by flood, 1862; the cost of 
rebuilding the dam and repairing the ditch was 
§29.000. This dam was taken out in 1871 or 
1872; was rebuilt and washed out the following 
winter. The present dam was completed Janu- 
ary, 1876. The water is used both for mining 
and irrigation, mostly the latter. 

The Orange Vale Colonization Company has 


3,200 acresof good land, well fenced and provided 
with water, one mile from Fulsom and on the 
north side of the river. A number of neat cot- 
tages have been l)iiilt. i\. village is started, 
named Orange Vale. Ten-acre tracts, with eight 
acres of trees or vines, are offered to actual set- 
tlers on easy terms. 

The California Central Railroad Company 
built a road through this township, running 
from Folsom to Lincoln. A second road was 
commenced, with Auburn as its northern ter- 
minus. This road never was finished farther 
than Wildwood Station, a distance of ten miles. 
Eoth of these roads coming into possession of the 
Central Pacific Company the tracks were taken 
up and the road abandoned. 

Ashland. — The original name of Ashland was 
Big Gulch. This was changed to Russville in 
1857, in honor of Colonel Russ. It was also 
sometimes called Bowlesville, from an old resi- 
dent named Howies, who had, or claimed to 
have, a title to the land. It was christened Ash 
land in 1800. There are now about a dozen 
houses in the town. In early times there were 
a large number of cabins and a few saloons, but 
no hotels. 

In connection with the history of Ashland, a 
sketch of Colonel Russ may prove interesting, 
he having been for a time the central figure 
around which all others in Ashland appeared to 
revolve. We insert the following extract from 
the Folsom Telegraj>h of August 12, 1864: 

" In 1857 or 1858 the name of the village 
was changed from Big Gulch to Russville, in 
honor of Colonel Russ, whose advent was an 
era in the history of this quiet place. The Colo- 
nel was a man of remarkable traits in more re- 
spects than one. Being a speculative genius, 
he induced a number of San Francisco capital- 
ists to form a company for the jHirpose of min- 
ing the quartz rock for the gold it never had 
contained, and granite for building, and lor these 
purposes a splendid mill was erected. For some 
time the Colonel endeavored to plane granite, 
but his machine failed to reduce the obdurate 
rock to the necessary form and shape, and it was 

cast aside. Then tons of quartz were crushed, 
but, unfortunately for the Colonel and the stock- 
holders, the mill failed to produce the 'color,' 
for the very good reason that the color was not 
it) the quartz. During this period the Colonel 
erected a neat cottage on the summit of the 
highest hill in the neighborhood, which was 
crowned with a flag staf}". 

"The Colonel turning his attention to poli- 
tics, was elected justice of the peace of Missis- 
sippi Township. Whenever a case was to be 
tried, up went the ' Stai-s and Stripes ' on the 
flag staff, and the Colonel mounted the seat of 
justice, which was elevated about six feet. 

"There the Colonel sat, invested himself with 
the majesty of the law, and dispensed justice ac- 
cording to a code of his own; the statutes were 
of no use to him. From his court there was no 
appeal, and any one mentioning an appeal in 
that court was liable to be immediately fined 
for contempt. The Colonel's term expired, the 
quartz company exploded, the granite would not 
work, the Colonel's cash ran out, and he de- 
parted from Russville. Shortly after, the vil- 
lage was christened Ashland, and the only 
monument now remaining near Ashland of the 
Colonel's genius and enterprise, is a mining 
j shaft 250 feet deep, sunk lo find the bed-rock, 
I which some of those interested in the company 
succeeded in doing, though not in the shaft." 

Granite Mills. — The first mill run by water- 
power in the county of Sacramento was built 
by James Sinith, a native of Denmark; this was 
a saw-mill, erected in 1851. In 1852 Smith 
built a small grist-mill, being his own carpenter 
and millwright, and on the completion of the 
mill became his own miller. In 1854 Edward 
Stockton, of Sacramento, observing the great 
possibilities of this water-power, purchased a half 
interestin the mill and power. Themill was then 
enlarged to tiiree run of stone, with a capacity 
of 100 barrels a day. A flourishing business 
was established, and in 1861 the mill, then 
owned by Coover & Stockton, was enlarged to 
nine run of stone, the tail race being 500 feet 
long, equal in efl'ect to 4,000 horse-power. The 


December floods of 1861 damaged tlie mill and 
power to the extent of $12,000. The third 
flood, January 10, 1862, carried away the three 
buildings composing the mill, causing their to- 
tal destruction. Mr. Stockton soon afterward 
formed a partnership with Carroll & Moore, of 
Sacramento, and they erected a mill which was 
fifteen feet higher and 250 feet farther from the 
river. The new building was 60x80 on the 
ground and four stories high, and contained nine 
run of stone, with a capacity of 700 barrels of 
flour per day. It was built of granite, and cost 
$140,000. In 1869 Stockton built a switch 
track to the mills. January 26, 1867, the build- 
ing was destroyed by tire, and has not since been 
rebuilt, Tliis uiagniflcent water-power is now 
lying idle. 

Granite quarries, of a very superior quality, 
have been in successful operation since 1856. 
The pioneer in this business was Griffith Grif- 
fiths. Prior to 1860, Colonel Russ erected a 
mill, at large cost, importing the machinery 
from the East fordressing tlie granite, the power 
being furnished by water from the North Fork 
Company's ditch; but his enterprise proved a 
failure. The blue granite for the eirlier build- 
ings in Sacramento was obtained from tlia quar- 
ries above Folsom, whore the State Prison now 
is, while the light-colored granite is from Rocklin. 

James Smith started the first store at Slate 
Bar, in 1850. Since then there have been sev- 
eral small stores there. 


This was one of the nine original townships 
established by the Court of Sessions, February 
24, 1851, and included nearly all of the present 
township, and a portion of the present townsliip 
of Cosumnes. 

In August, 1853, the Court of Sessions di- 
vided the township into two parts, all that portion 
south of the Coloma road being called Prairie 
Township. The present boundaries were estab- 
lished by the Board of Supervisors, October 20, 
1856, and are as follows: Beginning at the south- 
east corner of Granite Township; thence running 

north along the eastern line of said Granite 
Township to the northern boundary of Sacra- 
mento County; thence easterly and s^iutherly 
along the northern and eastern boundaries of 
the county to the center line of township 8 
north, of range 8 east of Mount Diablo base 
and meridian; thence west on the said center 
line of said township to the eastern boundary of 
Lee Township; thence north and aloiig said line 
to the beginning. 

The township is principally devoted to agri- 
culture and dairying, though there are still some 
few mining claims which are being worked. 

It was thought in early times that a farmer 
had a poor prospect of making a living, the soil 
not being considered productive. This idea 
has proved erroneons, the farmers generally 
having been fairly prosperous in their business. 

The southern portion of the township is de- 
voted to dairying and grain-growing, wheat and 
barley being the principal grains; the northern 
part of the township, hay and grain. 

The first prominent settlement, aside from 
Mormon Island, began in 1852. Previous to 
this time, the only settlers were located along 
the public roads, and kept public houses. 
A.mong ihe first to commence farming in the 
township were Jacob Broder, who came in 
1852; Oswald Broder, brother to Jacob, still a 
resident; Samuel Rieker and family, now living 
in the Eastern States; Charles Sliead, John Mc- 
Comber, Charles Bishop and George Peacock; 
all settled in the same year within a few miles 
of Mormon Island. William Jarvis and family 
opened the Valley House in the fall of 1852, on 
the Coloma and Sacramento road. Peter Hous- 
ton settled on a ranch on the Coloma road in 
1852, where he was joined by his brother in 
1854. The former returned to the East in 1857. 

E. B. Townsend settled near Mormon Island 
in 1852, engaged in the dairy and butcher busi- 
ness, and is still living there. R. K. Berry 
settled in the northwestern portion of the town- 
ship in the summer of 1852; he died in 1859. 
Dr. Morse settled on the ranch now owned by 
Charles W. Porter, in 1852. 


H. E. Barton and brother came about the 
same time. Joseph Woodward settled in the 
township in 1853 on what was known as the 
Illinois ranch, now known as the Gould farm. 
Jonn Wielde settled near Mormon Island in 
1851. W. H. Williams settled on section 5, in 
1852; the place was formerly owned by Walter 
Wall, who subsequently located Wall's Dig- 
gings. Wall settled in the township in 1850. 
Joseph Wilson came to the township in 1853; 

his ranch joined south of Van Triece. In- 

gersoll, Van Triece, J. Caples, J. F. Duval, 

W. J. Milgate, G. K. Nye, William Sales, 
Charles Sanl, A. W. Topper, A. H. Thomassen 
and Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson were all early set- 
tiers. George Lester settled in the southern 
portion of the township in 1852. His brother, 
A. J. Lester, came in 1850. 

Mormon Island. — In the spring of 1848 two 
Mormons, one of whom was Wilfbrd Woodruff, 
being on tlieir wa}' from Sutter's Mill, now Co- 
loma, to the Fort, found themselves near sunset, 
at the spot now known as Willow Springs, in 
Sacramento County. Concluding to go no far- 
ther that niglit, they shot a deer and made their 
way to tlie nearest point on the South Fork of 
the American River, where they could procure 
water for themselves and their horses. They 
descended the bluff bank of the river to a flat 
covered witii underbrush, and then cooked and 
ate their supper. After this was accomplished, 
it being still light, one of the men remarked: 
" They are taking out gold above us on tlie river. 
Let us see if we can find some at this place." 
They scraped off the top soil, took a tin pan 
which the}' carried with them for cooking pur- 
poses, panned out some dirt and obtained a 
" fine prospect." Being satisfied that gold 
abounded in tiiis vicinity, they went to the Fort 
the next day and communicated the news to 
Samuel Biannan, then of the firm of C. C. Smith 
& Co., proprietors of a small trading-post, where 
goods were bartered for hides, tallow and wheat. 
Brannan at that time was spiritual guide and 
director for the Mormon population of the New 
Helvetia and other districts of California. He 

proceeded to the spot indicated by Woodruff and 
his companion, set up a pre-emption claim and 
demanded a royalty of thirty-three and one-third 
per cent, on all the gold taken out on the Bar. 
So long as the Mormons were largely in tiie 
majority of those engaged in mining on the Bar, 
this royalty was rigidly exacted. In course of 
time, however, unbelievers flocked into the 
mines and refused to pay tribute to the pretended 
owner of the land, who was compelled to give 
up the collection. In the meantime, however, 
Brannan had accumulated several thousand dol- 
lars, with which he formed a partnership witli 
Melius, Howard & Co., of San Francisco, under 
the name of S. Brannan & Co.; and this laid the 
foundation of the large fortune acquired by him 
subsequently. This was the origin of Mormon 
Island. The extent of the village proper is now 
about eighty acres. As the news of the gold 
discoveries spread through the State, miners 
came flocking in from all quarters, till, in 1853, 
the town had a population of about 2,500 peo- 
ple, 900 of whom were voters. 

The first hotel, called the Blue Tent, kept by 
S. R. Caldwell, was opened soon after the Island 
began to be populated ; .was moved to another 
part of the town and name changed to Caldwell 
Hotel, in 1852, andentirelydiscontinuedinl854. 
Samuel Brannan opened the first store in 1818. 
He sold to James Queen, one of Sacramento's 
pioneers; he, in turn, sold to Captain Pool, and 
he to Dewitt C. Stanford, a brother of ex-Gov- 
ernor Stanford, who died in Australia while there 
on business; the business is now in the hands of 
Thomas Stephenson. J. P. Markham opened a 
hotel and store in 1850; hotel closed in 1854. 

There were two stage lines running to Mor- 
mon Island, established in 1850; one of the lines 
ran from Sacramento to Coloma, passing through 
Mormon Island; the other ran from Sacramento 
to the Island and return. These lines were both 
taken off ill 1856; during the same j-ear a line 
was started running from Folsom to Coloma, 
passing through Mormon Island. The postoffice 
was established in 1851; J. W. Shaw was ])roba- 
bly the first postmaster. 


The Miners' Hotel was opened in 1851, by 
Dallis & Kneass; the building was burned in 
1856, and was never rebuilt. The Mansion 
House was kept by Thomas Stephenson from 
1853 to 1856, when it was closed. The lire of 
1856 destroyed the southwest portion of the 
village, which has never been rebuilt. At one 
time there were four hotels, three dry-goods and 
live general merchandise stores, two blacksmith 
shops, Adams & Co.'s Express Office, carpenter 
shop, butcher shop, bakery, a livery stable and 
seven saloons in Mormon Island. Tlie total 
population at the present time is about 100. 
The decadence of Mormon Island began with 
the completion of the railroad to Folsom. A 
school was opened here in 1851; there is now a 
good school building at the place. 

Among the earlier settlers of Mormon Island 
not already noted were A. G. Kinsey, wlio 
came in 1849; A. P. Catlin, who came in 184:9, 
resided there until 1856; he removed to Fol- 
som, and tinally to Sacramento, where he is now 
practicing law. 

The principal bridge in the township is known 
as the Mormon Island Bridge. The Hrst struc- 
ture was built in 1851, by J. W. Shaw; this 
was a wooden bridge, which was washed away 
by high water in 1854. A new bridge was 
built the following summer by the same party. 
Tliis was a wire suspension bridge, and was 
also washed away by the flood of 1862, and 
au-ain rebuilt by Shaw; this bridge is still stand- 

The first ball in Sacramento County was 
given at Mormon Island in the "jolly old days 
of 1849." A very long and humorous descrip- 
tion of it was published in the Record- Union 
of June 21, 1873. 

A large number of public houses existed in 
early years along the main-traveled roads. It 
has been impossible to get full accounts of all of 
them, though they would undoubtedly prove of 
interest, more especially to those who were tlie 
early pioneers of tiie county. 

The Smith Exchange, located on the Sacra- 
mento and Coloina road, near Mormon Island, 

was built by a man named Smith, in the sum- 
mer of 1853. This was the largest public house 
in the township at the time. Smith sold out in 
the fall of 1855 to Cox & Hamilton. Tliey sold 
to William Jarvis in 1858. Jarvis afterward 
sold to a man by the name of Lee. The hotel 
business was discontinued for one year, wiien 
Freeman McComber became the proprietor. 
He retitted tlie house and conducted the business 
until 1864, when the house was finally closed. 

The Union Tavern was probably started as 
early as 1850 by Mr. Turle. The house was 
closed in 1855. 

The Half- Way House was built by Briggs & 
Hoffman in 1852. They kept the house about 
one year and then sold to a man named Martin, 
who in turn sold to John E. Butler. Tiiis house 
is located on the Placerville road. 


San Joaquin was one of the original town- 
ships, and included Dry Creek and parts of 
Alabama, Franklin, Brighton and Lee town- 
ships. Dry Creek Township was set off in 
1853, and October 20, 1856, the Board of Su- 
pervisors established the boundaries as they at 
present exist. They are as follows: Commenc- 
ing at the soutiiwest corner of Brighton Town- 
ship, and running thence east along the southern 
boundary of said Brighton Township to the 
range line between ranges 6 and 7 east of Mount 
Diablo meridian; thence south along said range 
line to the Cosumnes Iliver; thence southerly 
and westerly along the Cosumnes River to the 
township line between townships 5 and 6 north, 
range 5 east of Mount Diablo base and meridian; 
thence west along said line to the eastern boun- 
dary of Franklin Township, being a line drawn 
througli the middle of range 5; thence north 
along said eastern boundary of Franklin Town- 
ship to the beginning. 

The land in this township is entirely agri- 
cultural. The titles, with the exception of that 
portion in the southern part of the township 
included in the Hartnell grant, amounting to 
about 10,000 acres, come from the United 


States. At the tirst settlement of this township 
there was considerable timber growing. This 
has been gradnally cut off, till now there is but 
little left, the largest grove being on the Graham 


Martin Murphy, Jr., and wife settled on tiie 
Cosumnes River in 1844; the place was called 
the Murphy grant; Thomas McConnell now 
owns the farm, and his house is within a few 
rods of where Murphy lived. Murphy died in 
1854, and his wife returned to Ireland. Ed- 
ward Perrin and family settled on part of the 
present MeConnell place in 1849. 

The W^ilder Brothers, Asa, Benjamin and 
John, came to the township in 1849, and were 
largely engaged in stock-raising. Asa and John 
died many years ago. Benjamin Wilder mar- 
ried one of the Donner girls. T. Keno, one of 
the Donner relief party, came to the State about 
1846, and took up a claim subsequently on the 
Cosumnes River, in San Joaquin Township. 
He subsequently removed to Stockton. 

Gabriel Gunn settled on the place since owned 
by A. Woodward, on the Cosumnes River, in 
1850; he died several years ago. 

John Whittick settled in the township in 
1850. David P. Crook settled on the Cosumnes 
River in 1851; he moved to Nevada some years 
ago. P. Hull and family settled on the Co- 
sumnes in the fall of 1851; they moved to Ne- 
vada in 1866 or '67. Enoch Madder settled 
about three miles northwest of Elk Grove, on 
the Wilder Ranch. Jacob Marshall and family 
came to the township in 1852, and located on 
the river; they moved to Latrobe some years 
later, where he died. Jacob Swigert and family 
settled on land adjoining that of Marshall, in 
1853, and died some years ago. Albion Clark 
settled on the upper Stockton road, near Old 
Elk Grove, in 1850; he was one of the first men 
to raise grain in San Joaquin Township, and 
was also engaged in .stock-raising, principally 
horses and hogs. In 1857 he sold out and 
moved to Mendocino County, where he died 
shortly after. Johnson Little came to the town- 

ship in 1852, and settled near Old Elk Grove; 
he returned to Pennsylvania in 1855. Robert 
Parrot opened a hotel, in 1852, on a farm ad- 
joining Old Elk Grove; he continued in the 
business five or six years, and then returned to 
the mines; he died twenty years ago. Norman 
i. Stewart came to the State in 1852, and set- 
tled on his present place in 1854, near Old Elk 
Grove. G. Harvey Kerr, a well-known fruit- 
grower and wine-manufacturer, settled in the 
township, near Elk Grove Station, in January, 
1854. He reports but a small portion of the 
land under cultivation at that time, and this 
was mostly all bottom lands along the Cosumnes 
River. In San Joaquin, as in other parts of 
the county, it was supposed that wheat could 
not be successfully grown; that this was an 
error is shown by the fact that at one time the 
yield of wheat averaged twenty-five to thirty 
I bushels per acre, the barley crop at the same 
time amounting to thirty or forty bushels per 
acre. Along the river-bottoms used to grow a 
fine quality of grass, which made good hay; this 
has all disappeared, killed by the mining debris. 

Old Elk Gkove. — The place of this name 
was originally located on the Graham ranch, 
being subsequently moved to Bucknei"'s ranch, 
the two locations being about one mile apart. 

James Hall and family came to California in 
1850, and opened a hotel on the original site of 
Old Elk Grove. He gave it its name, on ac- 
count of having lived in Missouri in a town of 
the same name. Mr. Hall died in Vallejo in 
1876. Major James B. Buckner built a hotel 
in 1850, called the Buckner Hotel. He sold to 
Phineas Woodward; he ran the business for a 
time, and sold to Mrs. J. Erwin, widow of 
Jared Erwin; she kept the house three years, 
and sold to Nicholas Christophel. The original 
Old Elk Grove Hotel burned down in 1857. 
Buckner and Woodward both returned East. 
This was the first postoffice established in San 
Joaquin Township, James Buckner, Postmaster. 
James Hall was the first justice of the peace. 

Elk Gkove. — ^This is a live town of about 
400 inhabitants, on the line of the Central Pa- 


cific Railroad, sixteen miles from Sacramento. 
In 187G J. Everson, a practical farmer, came to 
the conclusion that there was a large business 
which had heretofore gone elsewhere, that could 
be stopped at Elk Grove. Not being possessed 
of sufficient capital to establish such a business 
as he thought the place would support, he 
agitated the idea of forming a building associa- 
tion. The company was incorporated in Janu- 
ary, 1876, under the name of the Elk Grove 
P;7i!ili[i>rr'i>nii>Miiy,a"<l iinmeiliately commenced 
Work Oil the first l)nilding, which was thirty feet 
in front by sixty feet deep. In August of the 
same year it was occupied by Chittenden & 
Everson, who opened with a large stock of 
general merchandise, and in the lirst sixteen 
months reported their sales as amounting to 
over §52,000. 

There are two hotels at Elk Grove, the Rail- 
road House, built by M. H. Davis in 1876, 
William Hicks the present proprietor, and the 
Elk Grove Hotel, built by the Building Com- 
pany in 1876, bought subsequently by J. W. 
Martin, the present proprietor. 

The Elk Grove Elouring Mills were built in 
1876, by H. S. Hill. It has three run of stone, 
with a capacity of eighty barrels of flour per 
day. It is I'un by steam-power, and is now 
leased to Beaty & Leslie, of Sacratnento. There 
are two general merchandise stores, one of which 
we have already mentioned; the second is in 
the depot building, J. N. Andrews, proprietor. 
Mr. Andrews is also agent for the Central Pa- 
cific Railroad Company, Wells, Fargo & Co.'s 
Express and the Telegraph Company; one 
hardware and tin store, opened in 1877, A. J. 
Longenecker, proprietor; one meat market, J. 
W. Martin, proprietor; one furniture matiu- 
factory, D. J. Nelson, proprietor; two drug 
stores. Dr. C. S. Bradford and A. W. Vance the 
respective proprietors; one harness shop, Clar- 
ence Parker, proprietor; one variety store, W. 
II. Talmadge, proprietor; one warehouse, a 
frame building, 80x100 feet, fitted to receive 
grain and hay, built by Lewis Bower in 1877, 
at a cost of $5,500; it has a storage capacity 

of 2,000 tons of grain and 600 tons of hay; 
one dress-making establishment, Mrs. A. J. 
Longenecker, proprietress; two millinery stores, 
Mrs. F. M. Jones and Mrs. Marr respectively, 
proprietors; one boot and shoe store; one 
carriage and wagon manufactory, John D. Hill, 
proprietor; one blacksmith shop, James T. Chin- 
nick, proprietor. 

Elk Grove District Methodist Episcopal 
Church. — This church was organized by A. M. 
Hurlburt, in 1858 or 1859. The church build- 
ing and parsonage were erected in 1876, at a 
cost of $3,000. This society is still in a flour- 
ishing condition. 

Elk Grove Presbyterian Church. — This 
church was organized February 12, 1876. The 
first services were held as early as 1856, in the 
Old Elk Grove school-house, on the Sacramento 
road, by the Rev. J. C. Herron, and in the 
present Elk Grove school-house, by the Rev. J. 
S. McDonald, during 1875 and 1876. The 
church building was erected in 1876, at a cost 
of $2,700. George H. Kerr was elected ruling 
elder at the time the church was organized, and 
now holds tiie office. The first pastor was Rev. 
William II. Talmadge, who supplied the pulpit 
from 1871 to April, 1879. The church is still 

Elk Grove Lodge, No. 173, F. & A. M., was 
organized at Old Elk Grove, August 6, 1864, 
the first meetings being held at the house of O. 
S. Freeman. The charter members were: A. S. 
Ferris, James B. Hogle, A. J. Painter, O. S. 
Freeman, G. W. Chaplin, Thomas MeConnell, 
B. F. Weathers and W. B. Sullivan. 

Elk Grove Lodge, Wo. 27^, I. 0. 0. F., was 
organized May 2, 1878, with the following 
charter members: John Wittich, Henry Hill, 
J. D. Hill, E. W. Walton, W. E. Everson, W. 
T. Wilson, A. Cofi"man, I. Higgins and N. W. 
Rollins, all of whom are now active members. 
The first officers were: Henry Hill, N. G.; John 
Wittich, V. G.; W. E. Everson, Sec; A. Cofl"- 
man, Treas.; J. D. Hill, Warden; E. W. Wal- 
ton, Con.; N. W. Rollins, I. G ; I. Higgins, 
O. G. 


Elk Grove Lodge, JSTo. 110, A. 0. U. W., was 
organized June 16, 1879, with W. E. Eversoii, J. 
Everson, L.Foiter, N. W. Rollins, J. C. Tnrley, 
K. J. Ferguson, W E. Ulman, A. Ross,C. S. Brad- 
ford, C. P. Bartholomew, F. M. Shultz, as char- 
ter members. Tlie first officers were: AV. E 
Everson, M. W.; C. S. Bradford, G. F.; Alex- 
ander Ross, O.; R. J. Ferguson, G.; F. M. 
Shultz, Rec; J. C. Turley, Financier; N. W. 
Rollins, Recorder; AV. E. Ulman, I. \V.; L. 
Foster, O. W.; J. Everson, F. M. W. This so- 
ciety has been discontinued. 

Elk Grove Lodge, No. U9, I- 0. G. T., was 
organized November 9, 1872, W. E. Carothers, 
M. A. Sherwood, G. W. Fox, H. B. Ulman, 
Lizzie Babcock, J. H. Kent, L. H.Green, G.L. 
Babcock, Susie Fox, W. S. Corwiii, L. Ilowland, 
St B. Green, Ed. Corwin, M. A. Kent and Miss 
L. C. Nelmes being the charter members. The 
first officers were: W. E. Carothers, W. C. T. ; 
M. A. Sherwood, Y. C. T.; W. S. Corwin, W. 
Chaj)lain; G. W. Fox, AV. S. ; Lizzie Babcock, 
AV. O. S.; H. B. Ulnran, AV. F. S.; J. H. Kent, 
AV. Treas.; G. H. Green, AV. M.; E. A. Corwin, 
AV. D. M.; Lizzie Fox, AV. I. G.; G. S. Babcock, 
AV. O. G.; Lizzie C. Nelmes, AV. R. H. S.;S.B. 
Thompson, AV. L. H. S.; R. S. Greer, P. AV. C. 
T. This lodge has been suffered to go down. 

Florin. — This is a small town on the Central 
Pacific Railroad, about eight miles from tiie 
Sacramento postoffice, and on the dividing line 
between Brighton and San Joaquin townships. 
The name of Florin was given to the locality 
about 1864, by Judge E. B. Crocker, owing to 
the great number of wild flowers which grew in 
the vicinity, and the name was given to the vil- 
lage in 1875, when it was commenced. The 
railroad station was established in 1875; a post 
office was also established the same year, F. Sug- 
den. Postmaster. Johnson & Sugden opened 
the first store, general merchandise, in 1875; 
Fred Sugden, successor, in October, 1879. A 
school-house was built here in 1877. The only 
hotel in Florin was opetied by Leonard Goddard 
in 1875. 

The soil in and around Florin, for about four 

miles wide and ten miles long, lies upon a for- 
mation of hard pan, averaging from four to five 
feet in depth. It is well adapted for the raising of 
small fruits, but it is necessary to irrigate them. 

Florin Grange, No. 130, P. of II.-^TWi^ 
grange was organized Deceniher 17, 1874, with 
the following officers and charter member.s: 
Caleb Arnold, M.; J. J. Bates, O.; AV. A.Smith, 
L.; David Reese, S.; Charles Lee, A. S.; AV. 
H. Starr, C; L Lea, T.; AV. Scholefield, Sec; 
G. H. Jones, G. K.; Mrs. M. J. Castle, Ceres; 
C. A. Taylor, Pomona; T. A. Buell, Flora; C. 
A. Starr, L. A. T.; Mrs. E. Reese, D. H. Buell, 
Daniel Buell, Mrs. P. Arnold, Charles Jackson, 
C. A. Phillips and E. J. Taylor. This grange 
still flourishes. 

Elk Grove Parlor, No. ^1, N. S. G. W., was 
organized in September, 1884. The following 
are the officers: P. Williams, Past P.; AV. J. 
Elder, Pres.; C. C. Bass, 1st V. P.; Frank 
AVardrobe, 2d V. P.; George McConnell, 3d V. 
P.; P. AVilliams, Treas.; AVilliam Sims, Sec; 
L. Freeman, Marshal; Charles Kelly, I. S.; C. 
Bandy, O. S. ; Dr. Charles Powers, Surgeon. 

" SuELDO.M," as a town, never existed; a black- 
smith shop, the inevitable saloon, and two or 
three houses were the extent of its being in its 
most palmy days. It is now deserted. 

McConnell's is a station on the Central Pa- 
cific Railroad. At the present time there is 
nothing there but a station house. 

The first school district in San Joaquin Town- 
ship includes nearly all of Dry Creek Township, 
as well as San Joaquin, it all being known at 
that time as San Joaquin Township. The school 
was established in 1853. The first teacher for 
the term of 1853 and 1854 was a Mr. Sullivan; 
the second term, 1854 and 1855, was taught by 
Harvey Kerr. But the first school in Sacra- 
mento County was taught Ijy Mr. O'Brien, at 
the house of Martin Murphy. 


The original boundaries of this townsiiip, as 
established in 1851, were as follows: Beginning 

at the soiitliwost ciiriicr of Sacrami'uto (}ity,and 

jntiTOKi' OF l>AVliAMh:ATO VOUNTi: 

thence running east Jiloug the southern line of 
said city to the southeast corner thereof; thence 
easterly- to tiie road from l>rightou to Dayior's 
luuu'h; thence along said road in a southeast- 
erly direction three miles; thence in a t^outherly 
and southwesterly direction to the intersection 
of Cosumnes and San Joaquin rivers, excluding 
all ranches and settlements on the banks of the 
Cosumnes lliver; thence down tlie San Joaquin 
IJiver to its junction with the Sacramento 
IJiver; thence along said river or western 
boundary of the county to the beginning. 

On August 14, 1854, (icorgiana Township 
was set otf from the southern portion, and Oc- 
tober 20, 185(1. tlie Board of Supervisors estab- 
lislied the present boundaries, as follows: Be- 
ginning on the Sacramento Kiver, at the south- 
western corner of Sacramento City; thence 
southerly along the Sacramento lliver to the 
line between townships 7 and S north; thence 
east and along said township line to the south- 
east corner of section 33 and southwest corner 
of section 34, township 8 north, range 5 east of 
Mount Diablo base and meridian; thence north j 
and through the center of said township 8 north, 
range 5 east, to the American Kiver; thence north- ; 
erly and westerly along the American liiver to 
the northeastern corner of Sacramento Town- 
ship; thence southerly and westerly along tiie 
eastern and southern boundaries of said Sacra- 
mento Township to the beginning. 

Sutter Township is situated so directly around 
Sacramento that it is ditficult to separate their 
histories. The township is almost ail under | 
cultivation, having many. tine places and farms. \ 
There are many vineyards, some of them of 
good size, and the number is increasing yearly. 
Growing bops is also a source of revenue to the 
inhabitants of Sutter Township. 

For an account of Sutterville. see chapter on 
the Founding of Sacramento. 

Smitu's Ct.\kdkxs. — A. P. Smith, in December, 
184i>. purchased from John A. Suttertifty acresof ; 
land on the south bank of American Kiver, about I 
three miles from Saci-amento. and iininediatelv 


ded to iin 


At thi 

the location the ground was considered high, and 
was open, the only timber being a few oaks and 
cottonwoods on the banks of the American. 

Smith commenced by raising vegetables, 
planting at the same time such fruit trees and 
seeds as he could procure. As fast as possible 
lie imported other and choice varieties of fruit 
and shade trees, ornamental plants and tlowers 
of all kinds. The grounds were laid out with 
about two miles of walk, the entire length be- 
ing tilled in with shell brought from San Fran- 
cisco. This shell walk can now be found by 
digging down from one to three feet. 

Four acres were laid out into a flower garden, 
which were soon tilled with rare plants. 

The rest of the ground was planted with fruit 
trees of ail sorts. It is said that there were 
nearly 1,000 varieties growing at onetime. Tl^/B 
approadi to the residence was reached by a 
winding avenue, nearly a mile in lengtli and 
shaded by trees on each side. There was also 
a drive through and about the grounds. 

Mr. Smith discovered very early that irriga- 
tion would be necessary, and imported a "Worth - 
ington steam pump, throwing about 300 gallons 
per minute and capable of irrigating 150 acres. 
Pipes were laid down and hydrants put in at 
such intervals that the whole garden co\ild be 
irrigated with hose. 

The tlood of 18l)l-"l)2 spread devastation over 
this beautiful place; the An>erican Kiver cut in 
i>n its southern bank, encroached 500 feet on 
the gardens, swept away the family residence, 
and left a deposit of sediment over the whole 
grounds of from one to six feet in depth. The 
proprietor estimated his loss by that tlood at 
$100,0(^0. In 18t)2, when the new levee system 
was adopted, Smith made strenuous endeavors to 
have his place included, but failed. High water 
has visiteii the place several times since then, and 
though the gardens are still there, they are 
only the wi-eck of their former magniticence. 


The Tivoli House is situated about where the 
railroad turns to tlie north to cross the .Vmericna 


River. The Tivoli is a pioneer institution, 
where the meetings of the Swiss Rifle Club, the 
Turners, Sharpshooters, etc., were held in early 
years. The place is still frequented, though not 
the resort it was in former years. 

East Park is a suburban place of resort, situ- 
ated just outside of the city limits, having its 
frontage on the east line of Thirty-first street, 
the whole park containing thirty acres. The 
land was purchased in the fall of 1871, and has 
been improved with 'buildings and drives, trees 
and shrubbery, and is a popular place of resort 
for picnics and pleasure parties generally. The 
street railroad cars run to the gates, thus afford- 
ing cheap and easy transit to and from the 

Riverside is situated on the east side of the 

Sacramento River below the city, distant by 
water seven or eight miles from the landing, and 
by the turnpike about five miles from the court- 
house. It was formerly known as Hooker's 
Ranch, and was a favorite place of resort for 
boating parties in early times. The tract of 
eighty-five acres was purchased in 1872 by the 
Riverside Hotel and Turnpike Company. The 
company had an act passed by the Legislature 
in 1872, authorizing it to establish a toll-road, 
the rates of toll to be regulated by the Board of 
Supervisors of Sacramento County. Grading 
began in April, 1872. There are along the line 
of road five tanks, holding about 4,000 gallons 
each, used for furnishing a supply of water, 
with which the road is sprinkled during the 
summer months. 



tP. (JATLIN.— Since tlie pioneer days of 
Sacramento County no iiaine has been 
® more closely identified with its history 
than that with which this sketch C'imniences; 
thus it is, that supplementary to the chapter on 
the bench and bar of the county, this article, 
giving a brief outline of his life and labors, be- 
came necessary. He was born on the Livings- 
ton Manor, Dutchess County, New York, at 
Tivoli, then known as Red Hook, January 25, 
1823. Tiie founder of the family in America, 
Thomas Catlin, came from Kent, England, in 
1643, and located at Hartford, Connecticut; 
Litchfield, in the same State, finally became the 
family seat, and five generations of the family 
were born there, down to and including the 
father of the subject. His grandfather, David, 
was a captain in the Connecticut militia during 
the Revolutionary War, and was at Dan bury 
when General Wooster lost his life resisting the 
attack of the British General Tryon. He lived 
to pass his ninety-third birthday. The parents 
of the subject were Pierce and Annie (Wine- 
gar) Catlin. The father was in early life a 
school-taacher, afterward a wagon-maker, and 
finally a farmer. In 1826 the family removed 
to Kingston, New York, where A. P. Catlin 
grew up, and attended the Kingston Academy, 
where he was graduated. He had also attended 

school for a time at Litciifield, Connecticut, 
making his home during that time with his 
grandfather. Captain Catlin. When in his 
eighteenth year he entered the ottice of the law 
firm composed of Judges Jamies C. Forsyth and 
James O. Lindern)an, both of whom were in 
the front rank of the legal profession of eastern 
New York. On the 12th of January, 1844, he 
was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court 
of New York, at Albany, and four days later to 
the Court of Chancery. He )>racticed law four 
years in Ulster County, frequently meeting in 
forensic battle such antagonists as John Currey, 
afterward Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; 
William Fullerton, the Judge Fullerton after- 
ward distinguished as counsel in the Beecher 
trial; t.nd T. R. Westbrook, later one of the 
judges of the Supreme Court of New York. 
While practicing in Ulster County, he success- 
fully conducted an important litigation in which 
he had for his client the Spanish Consul, resi- 
dent at New York. He pleaded the consular 
privilege of answering only in a federal court, a 
privilege which was vigorously disputed, but he 
succeeded in ousting the State court of juris- 
diction. In 1848 he removed to New York 
city, and formed a partnership with his cousin, 
George Catlin, with office at No. 14 Pine street. 
On the 8th of January, 1849, he sailed in the 


brig David Heiisliaw for San Francisco, arriving 
at tliat port on tlie 8th of the following July. 
Ife had brought with him a costly outfit of 
mining machinery, and after a month at San 
Francisco, proceeded to Mormon Island, where 
lie was soon engaged in mining. He passed the 
winter at that occupation, also practicing law 
before the alcalde of that district. In May, 
1850, he formed a law. partnership with John 
Currey and opened an office in Sacramento. 
They w"ere iAociated but a short time, Mr. 
Currey being compelled to retire to San Fran- 
cisco on account of his health. Mr. Catlin was 
a witness to the squatter riots, and took a deep 
interest in tlie matters then in controversy. In 
the fall of 1850 he closed his Sacramento office 
and went again to Mormon Island to attend to his 
own mining interests, and to settle up the afl'airs 
of the Connecticut Mining and Trading Com- 
pany, successors to Samuel Brannan. While 
there, "William L. Goggin, agent of the post- 
office department for the coast, visited Mormon 
Island for the purpose of establishing a post- 
office, and Mr. Catlin was requested by him to 
furnish a name. He suggested Natoma. the 
name he liad already given to the mining com- 
pany he had organized and signifying " clear 
water." Goggin adopted the name and that 
section of Sacramento County was officially 
named " Natoma Township." In 1851 he was 
nominated by the "Whigs for the Assembly, but 
was, with the whole ticket, defeated. In the 
following year he was nominated for State Sen- 
ator, and was elected on the ticket when General 
Scott was a candidate for President. He served 
in that capacity for two years, in the sessions at 
Valiejo, Benicia, and Sacramento. He was the 
author of the homestead bill, the same as that 
afterward adopted, but defeated at the time by 
the casting vote of the lieutenant-governor. The 
location of the seat of government at Sacra- 
mento was accomplished by Mr. Catlin, after 
that result had been given up by all others, by 
a remarkable piece of parliamentary strategy, 
invented by himself and referred to more fully 
in the proper chapter of this work. During the 

session of 1853 he rendered important service 
to the city of San Francisco, in contributing 
largely to the defeat of the scheme toe.Ktend the 
water-front of that city GOO feet further into 
the bay. He wrote the report of the select 
committee having the matter in charge in such 
a forcible manner as to virtually kill all chance 
of the project. This powerful argument is to 
be found in the published journals of the fourth 
session of the Legislature. He had meantime 
continued his mining operations, and on Christ- 
mas day, 1851, located a mining canal, starting 
two and a half miles above Salmon Falls, and 
carrying the water of the south fork of the 
American River to Mormon Island and Folsom. 
This undertaking was completed early in 1853. 
It was then a very important work, as indeed 
it is now, though used for a diflferent purpose — 
that o*" irrigation. He continued mining until 
1865, when he permanently moved to Sacra- 
mento. During the interim, however, he had 
taken an important part in other affairs than 
those of mining. In 1854 he was tendered the 
nomination for Congress on the Whig ticket, 
but declined. During the height of the success 
of the Know-Nothing movement, in 1855-'56, 
he was practically retired from politics. In the 
Slimmer of 1856 he and Robert C. Clark (after- 
ward county judge and later superior judge) 
were nominated by a convention of some forty 
persons, composed of old-line Whigs and e.\- 
Know-Nothings, as candidates for the Legisla- 
ture, and having been prevailed upon to run 
against apparently strong odds, both were elected. 
John H. McKune was also elected at the same 
time on the Democratic ticket. That session of 
the Legislature, which commenced .January 1, 
1857, was a very important one. During this 
session Henry Bates, State Treasurer, was im- 
peached, and it was through Mr. Catlin that 
this result was brought about, and the gigantic 
raids upon the treasury of the State were brought 
to light. In March, 1872, Mr. Catlin was ap- 
pointed one of three members of the State 
Board of Equalization, and served as such until 
April. 1876. The effective powers con- 


lerrcd on the board by the Legislature were, 
after a long contest, declared unconstitutional 
by three of the five judges of the Supreme 
Court, and this led to the abolition of the board. 
In 1875 he was brought forward as a candidate 
for Governor before the Independent State Con- 
vention, but was defeated by the combined 
votes of the supporters of John Bidwell and 
M. M. Estee, which on the final ballot were cast 
for General Bidwell. In 1878 he was nomi- 
nated by the joint convention of the liepublicans 
and Democrats of Sacramento as delegate to 
the constitutional convention, but declined. In 
1879 he was one of the nominees of the Repub- 
lican party for one of the seven judgeships of 
the re-organized Supreme Court, but was de- 
feated with all but one on his ticket. Mr. Cat- 
lin has had an extensive and varied practice in 
the United States Circuit and District Courts in 
this State, in the courts of San Francisco, in 
Sacramento and other counties, and in the Su- 
preme Court of California. He was also, in 
times past, for considerable periods, at intervals, 
editor of the old Sacramento Union. He was 
thus employed from September, 1864, at the 
commencement of Lincoln's second campaign, 
until April, 1865. His political articles were 
generally recognized as fair by the opponents of 
the war, against whom they were aimed. His 
editorial on the execution of Maximilian, headed 
" The End of a Tyrant," attracted wide atten- 
tion and was copied in Spanish in the leading 
Mexican papers. During ten years he success- 
fully defended the Union in eight different ac- 
tions for libel. His successful prosecution of 
the celebrated Leidesdorff ranch case, was one 
of his most brilliant legal victories. When the 
Government eventually appealed the case to the 
highest legal tribunal in the land, and it came 
up for argument before the United States Su- 
preme Court, in December, 1863, Mr. Catlin 
proceeded to Washington and was admitted to 
the Supreme Court on motion of Judge Jere. 
Black. He was heard for the greater part of 
two days, and his argument won six of the nine 
judges, and carried the case. His further con 

nection with events in Sacramento County is 
omitted here to avoid repetition of matters else- 
where mentioned in this volume. His partners 
in law practice since John Currey, have been: — 
Judge T. B. McFarland, David A. Hamburger, 
Lincoln White and his present associate. Judge 
George A. Blanchard. Mr. Catlin was married 
May 1, 1860, to Miss Ruth A. C. Donaldson, a 
I native of Iowa. She died in February, 1878, 
leaving four children, viz: Alexander Donald- 
son, John C, Ruth B., and Harry C. Mr. Cat- 
lin is a member of the Sacramento Society of 
California Pioneers, of the San Francisco His- 
torical Society, and of the Bar Association of 
San Francisco. No man who has figured in the 
history of Sacramento has a more honorable 
record than has Mr. Catlin. 

f^ of the Diocese of Sacramento, Catholic. 
^^ The great spiritual see over which this 
gentleman presides embraces the twenty-five 
northern and central counties of California and 

the whole of the western and most 


portion of the State of Nevada, and was practi- 
cally created for him in the year 1886, as will 
be more fully seen later on. For the laborious 
duties entailed upon the Bishop of a field so 
extensive and including the wild mining regions 
of the Sierra Nevadas, probably no one could 
be better fitted than the affable Bishop Manogue, 
on account of his life and training and his sin- 
gularly clear judgment of human nature. He 
was born in the County of Kilkenny, Ireland, 
in 1831. At the city of Callan, Kilkenny, he 
pursued his early studies, and there resided 
until in 1849 he came to America. After a few 
years spent in the Eastern States, he continued 
his studies at the University of St. Mary's of 
the Lake at Chicago. During the cholera sea- 
son of 1854 in that city he wore out his health 
in the arduous labors of the time, and for the 
purpose of recuperating he for fourteen months 
lived the hard life of a miner in Nevada County, 


California, learning by actual experience the 
privations and hardy pleasures of this rouglier 
but sturdy phase of human life. In his own 
words, copying a report of an address delivered 
by him at the time of the laying of the corner- 
stone of the grand Cathedral of the Holy Sac- 
rament in this city, he -'held a drill when at 
every stroke of the hammer the lire flew from 
the flinty quartz. Whenever hard work was to 
be done he referred to his associates (who had 
been his partners in the mines) to prove that he 
was ready to take a hand in its performance." 
But those were the days when the thrift, the 
brawn of the State, was in the mountains. In 
all, he lived for three years at the mines, and 
then proceeded to Paris, where at the grand 
Seminary of St. Sulpice he completed his studies 
by a course extending over four years, and in 
1861 was ordained as a priest by Cardinal Mor- 
lot, especially for work in the archdiocese here. 
Passing through Virginia City, Nevada, on his 
way to this State, he was appointed to his first 
mission there, and for twenty years occupied 
that field. For fifteen years previously to his 
being appointed Coadjutor Bishop of the dio- 
cese, he was Vicar-geiieral of the whole diocese. 
Sharon, Mackay and Fair were personal friends, 
who left monuments there which will not equal 
those left by the Bishop. He had erected the 
first Gothic building in Virginia City, costing 
$80,000. During his priesthood at Virginia 
City, he built three churches, a convent, and a 
hospital, at a total cost of about $300,000, all 
of which large sum was collected by himself, 
and paid for. His residence there is remem- 
bered with the veneration, love and alFeetion of 
every one in that section irrespective of church, 
the kindness of heart and ready hand of Father 
Manogue aiding multitudes through seasons of 
distress. In 1880 he was appointed Coadjutor 
to Bishop O'Connell, of the Grass Valley Dio- 
cese. In 1884 he was appointed to succeed 
Bishop O'Connell, who, by reason of advancing 
years and long labor in the vineyard of the 
Church, was permitted to retire. In 1886, ow- 
ing to Bishop Mauogne's representations of the 

decadence of Grass Valley in its importance as 
a center, due to the slackening of mining mat- 
ters, and the growing consequence of Sacra- 
mento as the political liead of the State and a 
distributing point for trade. Pope Leo XIII de- 
creed that hereafter what had before been known 
and recognized as the Catholic Diocese of Grass 
Valley should be styled and acknowledged as 
the Diocese of Sacramento, with the seat of the 
episcopate in Sacramento city. At once he set 
personally at work, utilizing to the fullest that 
rare combination of business qualifications and 
theological attainments by which Bishop Man- 
ogue is characterized, to better the state of the 
diocese. Recognizing the necessity for a more 
representative house of worship than then ex- 
isted, he bent his energies to the task of another 
edifice. The result is the grand " Cathedral of 
the Holy Sacrament," located at the corner of K 
and Eleventh streets, completed and dedicated 
in the summer of 1889. On another page is 
presented an engraving of tliis splendid struct- 
ure, which is fully described elsewhere. For 
grandeur, architectural magnificence, and ar- 
tistic finish, it has no equal in the West, and is 
a noble addition to the attractions uf California 
from a scenic standpoint. Further, it should 
be stated that under the vigorous hand of Bishop 
Manogue_ new life has been infused into the 
veins of what has been heretofore the somewhat 
sluggish city of Sacramento. Yet not alone in 
a business and material sense has the episcopate 
of Bishop Manogue aroused life and activity. 
Every branch of faith has likewise stirred at 
sight of the vigor of the Church. Other church 
edifices are projected, the cause of charity meets 
a ready response, and cognate organizations are 
moving with renewed effort. Such in brief and 
imperfect form is a sketch of one of whom (to 
copy from a local paper) " little can be said that 
is not known wide and well the broad Pacific 
Coast over, throughout its hills and valleys, its 
mountains and plains, wherever pioneer Chris- 
tian labor was to be performed. Nor has an 
abiding love and veneration for him found lodg- 
ment alone in the Catholic heart; for if current 


history be reliable he niinibers among his most 
ardent admirers and dearest friends men of all 
creeds and countries, — Protestant, Jew, Gentile, 
pagan and heathen; moneyed men and traveling 
tramps alike revering the Bishop for his quali- 
ties of head and heart." 

lieen a res^ident in this city for over thirty 
years. He was born at Warren, Herki- 
mer County, New York, November 24, 1833. 
In 1845 the family removed to Illinois, where 
his father located upon a farm in Lake County 
not far from Waukegan and no very great dis- 
tance froni Chicago, which was then but a 
petty village. Mr. Petrie gained a thorough 
fundamental education in all the brandies taught 
in the common schools of his neighborhood, but 
had early to push for himself and make his own 
way. When fourteen years of age he became a 
clerk in a dry-goods store in Waukegan. This 
was in 1849. He continued it steadily for ten 
years, or until the spring of 1859, when he 
came with his wife to California, reaching Sac- 
ramento, September 7. The journey was made 
via Salt Lake City, and that far in safety. 
Upon starting out in the morning, they had 
barely rounded the point when they met a band 
of Indians iiastily driving stock before them 
and carrying plunder. They pushed out to 
" City of Rocks," where they were met by other 
emigrants and learned that the Indians they 
had seen iiad robbed a train of emigrants in a 
deep ravine in Sublette's cut-oif to the north, 
and made their way for safety into the timber 
west of Salt Lake. This train was from Mis- 
souri, and its fate was one of the sad incidents in 
the history of the Indian troubles on the plains. 
This circumstance caused the trains on tiie 
road to join together, and when they tlnally 
crossed the dangerous portions of the way they 
formed a train no less than six miles long. The 
tragic incidents of these times were rehited to 
tiie writer by Mr. Petrie in a most vivid manner 

and showed strikingly the dangers of those early 
days. Upon reaching Sacramento, Mr. Petrie 
shortly entered into business for himself, open- 
ing a clothing and furnishing store. In this 
business he has remained almost constantly ever 
since, the last ten years having been at his well- 
known stand, No. 622 J street. He is the 
owner of the property, which presents upon 
the lower floor an unusally well stocked and 
furnished store, and on the upper