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^\'. H. LEVER, Publisher 


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astor. lenox and 
;n foundations. 




The Brave Men and Devoted Women 



'•'•Tct )fcvcr a doubts nay, never a fear 
Of old y or uozv, knciv tJic pioneer ^ 


Hoiv /etv the years since first they saiv^ 

Close planted by thy ivave^ 
The luHl-ivheel ivit/i its iv/iiriiiit: saw 

Whose fchoes ivoke the glade. 
The wild cascades that rushed to greet 

Coin miliars calt/ier streajn 
Then swept along %vith freer feet 

\Weath endless hoitghs of green. 
The Indian fished or made his camp 

Each babbling brook beside. 
And -when the bright stars lit their lamp 

Wooed there his willing bride. 
Now ail is changed. The engine flies 

Like lightning o^er the rail. 
Tall marts of trade and steeples rise 

Where only sighed the gale. 
*■* .Spokane the wonderfuT' sits throned 

Beside the fettered stream. 
Where once the savage freely roamed 

Her lighted factories gleam. 
A diamond fair ^mid emeralds set 

She shines, the valley's gem. 
Turning the tide her mill wheels wet 

To use of brainy men . 

— Brewerton. 


"Hurrah for the men, and women, and all 
Who came to make the forests fall; 
Hurrah for every pioneer 
Who l)iiilt his humble cabin here; 
Hurrah for the men of lirawn and brain 
Who brouicht fair progress here to reign." 

J. Mll.l.lCR. 

"The pioneers, who liave so lonf» occupied ihe vatif^iiard of civilization and who 
have been, all the time, on the skirmish or picket line in this march of progress, have 
completed their work as far as this continent is concerned." 

The past, present and future are inseparable. The present is the fruit of the past 
and the seed of the future. It is an evidence of nuignanimit}' of character to appreciate 
what past generations have bequeathed to us. To fail to acknowledge our obligation to 
the brave souls who lived to make the world better, and into whose labors we ha\c 
entered, is gross ingratitude. 

Among our most .^acred duties is the endeavor to present in historical form the dar- 
ing deeds, mighty struggles, heroic efforts and untold sacrifices of the pioneers of our 
country. \\'e all owe a debt of gratitude to the noble pioneers of Spokane county. They 
came with hearts prepared for perils and privations. They saw the country in its virgin 
state, and the stupendous works of nature as they came from the hands of God. To 
conquer the wilderness and the Indian, whom they found in almost all his native wild- 
ness, and make for themselves homes, and prepare the way for others, was the great task 
they undertook to do. "They came, they saw, they conquered." The study of the 
records of the past prompts us to say "There were giants in those days," and as we con- 
template upon their heroic deeds they excite our profound admiration. We would deem 
it a sin to fail to accord due recognition to the women, in whose unrecorded deeds we find 
the strongest evidences of courageous souls, n:)bility of character, an 1 unfailing devotion 
to God and duty. Without their courage, patience and fortitude, the Washington state 
and Spokane county of to-day would be impossible. The traveler of to-day, enjoying the 
luxuries of a palace car and speeding across the continent in four days, can hardly realize 
what it meant when it took six months, amid discomforts untold, to cover the same 

As we observe the waving grain, the trees laden with delicious fruit, and as we hear 
the hum of factories, the roar of blasting causing great upheavals, and as we view the 
busy market places, we can hardly imagine the conditions three decades ago. l'>ut we 
should bear in mind that the faithful ox team blazed the way for the palace car. and the 
axe of the frontiersman that felled the first trees to build the first log cabin prepared the 
way for the present palatial homes. The pioneers laid the foundations for the present 


They prepared the way for the thousands that have followed. Through their daring 
and enterprise there was ushered in a new era, which has brought joy and prosperity to 
many. It is our duty to call them blessed, and strive to perpetuate their memories by 
transmitting to future generations a record of their heroic deeds. This is what we desire 
and aim to do through this volume, wherein, according to our means and opportunity, we 
present the important events in the history of the county, — the beginning, development, 
and present condition of things. We have conscientiously avoided indulging in eulogistic 
references, especially to the living, because we do not believe that to be the province of 
the historian. We have endeavored to be thoroughly impartial in the amount of space 
given. The inequality in this respect is to be ascribed to the willingness or unwillingness 
of people to give the necessary information. Some people act as if they had a patent on 
their knowledge, on which they put a high price. To those who have cheerfully aided 
us by giving, orally or by letters, facts and information of importance, we desire to 
express our sincere gratitude. They are too numerous to mention by name. We have 
taken great pains to examine all the papers available. The perusal of the files of the 
Spokane Times, and the Northwest Tribune, through the courtesy of F. H. Cook and G. 
F. Schorr, was of great value to us. We desire also to acknowledge our special indebt- 
edness to the managers of the Spokesman-Review and the Chronicle, for access to their 
flies, without which this compilation would be impossible. In the specials of those papers 
we have found a great amount of historical material. Indeed, they contain quite a com- 
plete record of events and of the progress of the county and city. We have also found 
the city directories especially useful, and have availed ourselves of the result of the investi- 
gations made by their compilers. The literature prepared by the Chamber of Commerce 
and that compiled by the city clerk, Colonel L. F. Boyd, have been utilized. We are 
under special obligation to the officers and committee of the Spokane Society of Pioneers. 
The committee listened patiently for many hours, on seven different evenings, to the 
reading of the manuscript and gave many suggestions that have added greatly to the value 
of the book. 

To write a record of even three decades of the past is not as easy a task as the unin- 
itiated would suppose it to be, especially when it is to be remembered that much of the 
early records has been consumed by fire. When it comes to facts, dates, and initials, 
the memories of ordinary men and women are surprisingly deficient. For these and other 
reasons, such a work, entering so largely into the details connected with the beginning of 
things, can hardly be as accurate and full as the compiler would wish it to be. 


We, the undersigned, after listening for several evenings to the reading of a large 
proportion of the manuscript containing the "History of Spokane Count}-," written l)y 
Jonathan Edwards, bear testimony that it gives evidence of extensive reading and con- 
scientious research, and presents — to our best knowledge — an accurate, comprehensive 
and impartial record of events, and as such we endorse and commend it. 

Albert E. Keats. 

I. C. LiBBY. 

J. M. Grimmer. 

[ Coinmittee of 

( Pi oncer Assoi-iation. 



Early History of Washington, or the Oregon Question. 

The Struggle for Possession— Hudson's Bay Company— Statesmen's Ideas— Joint Occupancy Treaty- 
British vs. American Claims— Treaty of 1840— Contention and Arbitration— Decision for United States 1 


Pioneer Missionaries. 

Their Part in the Settlement of the Northwest — Visit of Nez Perce Indians to St. Louis— Indian's Farewell 
Speech — Rev. Jason Lee— Rev. Samuel Parker, the First Explorer: his Life, his Travels and Geo- 
logical Reports — Description of the Country ." 4 


Other Explorers and Writers. 

Journals of Lewis and Clark — .Alexander Ross — Galiriel Franchere— Ross Cox — First Post on Spokane 

River 8 


Whitman Mission at Wai-il-at-pu. 

Marcus Whitman— Sketch of Life— Journey to Oregon — Women in Company— Whitman's Ride— Whit- 
man Massacre — Monument College 10 


The Spokanes. 

Natural Conflict Between White Man and Indian— Bancroft's " Native Races "—Ross Cox's Description- 
Parker's Testimony— Native Races, Vol. I— Characteristics and Habits— Indian Honor and Honesty- 
Loyalty to Missionaries 1'2 


First Missionaries to the Spokanes. 

Revs. Eells and Walker— Arrival at Tshim-a-ka-m— Labor for Ten Years— Walker's Prairie— Sketch of 

Walker's Life— First Boy Child Bnrn in Eastern Washington— Sketch of Eells' Life— Tributes IT 

Missionary Work Among the Spokanes. 
Beginnings at Walker's Prairie— Occupations— Services— Attendance at Worship— School— Quotations 
from Father Eells— Severe Winter— Departure After Whitman Massacre— Work of Rev. Spalding— 
Rev. H. T. Cowley— Indian Preachers— Work of Miss Clark— Revs. Gow and Al'en— Present Con- 
dition—Sketch of Chief Lot— Biography of Rev. H. H. Siialding 20 





The Genesis of A.merican History in W.^shington. 
First American Settler North of Columbia River-Michael T. Simons-Settlement at Budd's Inlet - 
Building at Fort Steilacoom-First City. Alki Pomt-Seattle Established-Division of Territory- 
Convention in its Favor -Convention at Monticello- Divided and Named Washington-Stevens 
Appointed Governor— Other Officers 

Settlement of E.istern Wa.shington. 
First Settler in Eastern Washington-Others in Walla Walla Valley-Walla Walla County Organised- 
Salmon River Gold Discovery— Great Rush of Population to Eastern Washington— Lewiston, Idaho, 
Laid Out— Stevens County Created— Idaho Organized 


Indian Wars. 

Apprehension of Indians as Whites Increased-Cayuse War— Execution of Five Indians-Indians 
Return— Animosity Toward Whites— Council Held by Governor Stevens— War Breaks Out- Colonel 
Steptoe's Expedition— Fight at Steptoe Butte— Retreat of Soldiers— General Clark's Conference- 
Colonel Wright's Expedition to Spokane Country— Fort Taylor— Battle of Four Lakes— Description 
by Lieutenant Kip— Retreat of Indians— Troops Advance to Spokane— Battle of Spokane Plains- 
Chief Gearry— Defeat of Indians '^^ 


The Inland Empire. 

Inland Empire— Its Extent, Surface, Beauty— " Paradise of Sportsmen "—Resources— Mining Districts— 
Cceur d' Alenes— Kootenai— Slocan— Grand Forks— Okanogan and Others— Spokane, the Center- 
Mines in All Directions 


Spokane Country. 

How to Spell Spokane— The Spokane Section— The Spokane River— Investigations of Lieut. T. H. 
Sy mons ^ ' 


Spokane Covnty. 

Organization of County — Description of Boundaries — Officers Elected — County Seat at .Spokane Falls — 

Description of County, Extent, Beauty, Resources, Fruitfulness, Climate 44 


Spokane City — From First White Settlers to 1880. 

Natural Congregating in Cities — .Situation of Spokane — First White Settlers — First Orchard — Pioneers- 
Beginnings of Buildings — School District — School Building — Havermale's Visit — First Grist Mill^ 
Nez Perce Outbreak — Sherman's Visit — First Hotel— First Paper — First Bank— County Created — 
County Seat at Spokane Falls 47 


Spokane City, Continued— 1880 to 1893. 

County Seat Contest — Cheney — Completion of Northern Pacific Railroad — Second Paper, the Chronicle — 
Church Buildings— First Brick Block — Catholic Buildings — Incorporation of City- Election of Officers — 
Second Flour Mill — Second Election — First Fire — Review Founded — Placer Discovery in Coeur d' 
Alenes — First Newspaper Write-up — Daily Paper — Water System — First Branch Railroad — Minmg 
Developments— First County Fair— Growth— Great Fire— Loss— After the Fire .5.5 




SpoK-iVNE City, Continued — 1890 to 1900. 

Year Following the Fire— Building Year— Railroads — Car Lines— Statehood — Marvelous Growth— North- 
western Industrial Exposition —Steady Growth —Monroe Street Bridge — Other Improvements — Great 
Northern Railroad Completed— Busmess Depression— City Hall— Court House — Northern Pacific 
Shops — First Paved Street — Washington \'olunteers — Spokane of To-day 64 


City Govern.ment. 

Incorporation — Amendment — Present Charter — Elections and Officers — Departments; Police, Water, Fire, 

Board of Health — Spokane's Climatic Features 77 


Spokane as a Commercial Center. 

Manvf art urea, Wholesale and Jobbing, llnilrodds. — Union Iron Works — National Iron Works — Spokane 
Iron Works — Spokane Foundry — Spokane Marble Works — Washington Monumental Works — 
Northern Pacific Shops — Water Power — Edison Electric Illuminating Co. — Washington Water 
Power Co. Factories and MilU. — King Sash, Door & Lumber Co.; Holland-Horr Mill Co.; Ashenfelter 
Mill Co.; Spokane & Idaho Lumber Co.; Northwestern Manufacturing Co.; Central Planing Mill; Saw- 
Mill Phcenix; Childs Lumber & Manufacturing Co.; J. F. -Sexton & Co.; Star Shingle Co. ; Central 
Shmgle Co.; Spokane Coffin Factory; Spokane Broom Factory; G. Meese & Co.; Washington Broom 
Co.; Centennial Mills; C. & C. Mills; The Echo; Campbell Candy Co.; Spokane Mattress Co.; Spokane 
Soap Works; Simpson & Co. Soap Works; Galland-Burke Brewing Co.; New York Brewery; New 
York Bottling Works; Washington Cracker Co.; Washington Brick, Lime & Manufacturing Co.; 
Washington Carriage Works; Diamond Carriage Works; Spokane Ice Company; Inland Telephone 
Co.; Telegraph Co.; Gas Company; Street Railway. Lmindries. — Spokane, Cascade, Washington and 
Model. Brirk Iu^y/.v.— City Street Improvement Co.; Alcatraz Asphalt Paving Co. MailroadK Center 
in Spiikane. — Surveying for Transcontinental Railroad by Governor Stevens; Incorporate Northern 
Pacific Company; Charter; Failure of Jay Cook; First Overland Train; Northern Pacific the Pioneer 
Road of Spokane; Five Transcontinental Roads; Branch Railroads; Mullan Road. Wluilenale and 
Jobbing.— H. J. Shinn & Co.; Charles Uhden; Hammond Packing Co.; H. J. Stimmel & Co.; Swift & 
Co.; Julius Lund & Co.; Boothe-Powell Co.; J. R. Clifford Co.; Ryan & Newton Co ; The Emporium; 
The Palace; Spokane Dry Goods Co.; Whitehouse Co.; Nor hwestern Improvement Co.; D. Holzman 
& Co.; Spokane Drug Co.; M. Seller & Co.; J. W. Graham & Co.; Shaw & Borden Co.; Holley. .Mason, 
Marks & Co. Agrieultiirnl Imjilementu and Mur/iinery.—MachaU, Lewis & Staver Co.; Union Warehouse; 
J. I. Case Threshing Machine Co. Important 7'V/-/«.v.— Griffith Heating & Plumbing Co.; .■\rnold, Evans 
& Co.; Spokane Hardware Co.; Jensen-King-Byrd Co.; McCowan Bros.; McCabe, Johnson Co.; Tull & 
Gibbs; H. M. Herrin & Co.; Spokane Paper Co.; Baum & Co. Booh and Job Printer.,.— The W. D. 
Knight Co.; The Wright-Greenburg Co.; Union Printing Co.; J. R. Lambly; Winship Quick Print. 
Banks. — Po.-<t (IJiee. — Board of Trade. — Chamber of Commerce 98 


Spokane County Public Schools. 

Educational Progress— First School District— Report of County Superintendent of Schools of Stevens 
County— First Spokane County School Superintendent— J. J. Browne— Successive Superintendents- 
Maggie M. Windsor— Early Experiences, A. J. Stevens, A. J Warren, Lizzie (Haleman) Foraker, .Mrs. 
W. C. (McMahon) Jones, I. C. Libby— Spokane County Teachers' Association— VV. B. Turner— Z. 
Stewart— School Officers' Convention— Y. H. Hopson— Elmer Drake - Inland Empire Teachers' Asso- 
ciation — Present Districts — Annual Report 1I8 


The Public Schools of Spokane. 

Organization of District— First School— First Public Building— Second Public School Building— Earliest 
Records and Teachers— Principals Prather, Turner, Heaton— Superintendent Wolverton— Rapid 
Growth— Corruption and Turmoil— Superintendent Bemiss— Reorganization — New Buildings— The 




The Genesis of American History in \V.\shington. 
First American Settler North of Columbia River-Michael T. Simons-Settlement at Budd's Inlet- 
Building at Fort Steilacoom-First City, Alki Pomt-Seattle of Territory- 
Convention in its Favor-Convention at Monticello-Divided and Named Washington-Stevens 
Appointed Governor — Other Officers 

Settlement of Eastern Washington. 
First Settler in Eastern Washington-Others in Walla Walla Valley-Walla Walla County Organized- 
Salmon River Gold Discovery— Great Rush of Population to Eastern Washington-Lewiston, Idaho, 
Laid Out— Stevens County Created— Idaho Organized 

Indian Wars. 
Apprehension of Indians as Whites Increased-Cayuse War— Execution of Five Indians-Indians 
Return— Animosity Toward Whites— Council Held by Governor Stevens— War Breaks Out- Colonel 
Steptoe's Expedition— Fight at Steptoe Butte— Retreat of Soldiers-General Clark's Conference - 
Colonel Wright's Expeduion to Spokane Country— Fort Taylor— Battle of Four Lakes-Description 
by Lieutenant Kip— Retreat of Indians— Troops Advance to Spokane— Battle of Spokane Plains- 
Chief Gearry— Defeat of Indians '^' 


The Inland Empire. 

Inland Empire— Its Extent, Surface, Beauty— " Paradise of Sportsmen "—Resources— jMining Districts— 
CcEur d' Alenes— Kootenai— Slocan— Grand Forks— Okanogan and Others— Spokane, the Center- 
Mines in All Directions 



Spokane Country. 
How to Spell Spokane— The Spokane Section— The Spokane River— Investigations of Lieut. T. H. 


Spokane County. 

Organization of County— Description of Boundaries— Officers Elected— County Seat at Spokane Falls- 
Description of County, Extent, Beauty, Resources, Fruitfulness, Climate 44 


Spokane City- From First White Settlers to 1880. 

Natural Congregating in Cities— Situation of Spokane— First White Settlers— First Orchard— Pioneers- 
Beginnings of Buildings — School District — School Building— Havermale's Visit — First Grist Mill — 
Nez Perce Outbreak — Sherman's Visit— First Hotel— First Paper— First Bank— County Created — 
County Seat at Spokane Falls 47 


Spokane City, Continued— 1880 to 1893. 

County Seat Contest — Cheney — Completion of Northern Pacific Railroad — Second Paper, the Chronicle — 
Church Buildings— First Brick Block — Catholic Buildings — Incorporation of City— Election of Officers — 
Second Flour Mill — Second Election — First Fire — Review Founded — Placer Discovery in Coeur d' 
Alenes — First Newspaper Write-up — Daily Paper — Water System — First Branch Railroad — Mining 
Developments — First County Fair — Growth — Great Fire — Loss — After the Fire h!) 



Spokane City, Continued — 1890 to 1900. 

Year Following the Fire— Building Year — Railroads — Car Lines— Statehood— Marvelous Growth— North- 
western Industrial Exposition —Steady Growth —Monroe Street Bridge — Other Improvements — Great 
Northern Railroad Completed— Busmess Depression— City Hall — Court House— Northern Pacific 
Shops — First Paved Street — Washington \'olunteers — Spokane of To-day 64 


City Government. 

Incorporation— Amendment— Present Charter— Elections and Officers— Departments: Police, Water, Fire, 

Board of Health — Spokane's Clmiatic Features 77 


Spokane as a Com.mekcial Center. 

Manvfaeluren, Wholemle ami .Tubbing, liailrondn.— Union Iron Works— National Iron Works— Spokane 
Iron Works — Spokane Foundry — Spokane Marble Works — Washington Monumental Works — 
Northern Pacific Shops — Water Power — Edison Electric Illuminating Co. — Washington Water 
Power Co. Factories and Millt. — King Sash, Door iS; Lumber Co.; Holland-Horr Mill Co.; Ashenfelter 
Mill Co.; Spokane & Idaho Lumber Co.; Northwestern Manufacturing Co.; Central Planing Mill; Saw- 
Mill Phtenix; Childs Lumber & Manufacturing Co.; J. F. Sexton & Co.; Star Shingle Co.; Central 
Shmgle Co.; Spokane Coffin Factory; Spokane Broom Factory; G. Meese & Co.; Washington Broom 
Co.; Centennial Mills; C. & C. Mills; The Echo; Campbell Candy Co.; Spokane Mattress Co.; Spokane 
Soap Works; Simpson & Co. Soap Works; Galland-Burke Brewing Co.; New York Brewery; New 
York Bottling Works; Washington Cracker Co.; Washington Brick, Lime & Manufacturing Co.; 
Washington Carriage Works; Diamond Carnage Works; Spokane Ice Company; Inland Telephone 
Co.; Telegraph Co.; Gas Company; Street Railway. Ldundrics. — Spokane, Cascade, Washington and 
Model. Brick YunU. — City Street Improvement Co.; Alcatraz Asphalt Paving Co. liailruadu Center 
in Spdliiine. — Surveying for Transcontinental Railroad by Governor Stevens; Incorporate Northern 
Pacific Company; Charter; Failure of Jay Cook; First Overland Train; Northern Pacific the Pioneer 
Road of Spokane; Five Transcontinental Roads; Branch Railroads; MuUan Road. M'fiolcxule and 
Jobbing. — H. J. Shinn & Co.; Charles Uhden; Hammond Packing Co.; H. J. Stimmel & Co.; Swift & 
Co.; Julius Lund & Co.; Boothe-Powell Co.; J. R. Clifford Co.; Ryan & Newton Co ; The Emporium; 
The Palace; Spokane Dry Goods Co.; Whitehouse Co.; Nor hwestern Improvement Co.; D. Holzman 
& Co.; Spokane Drug Co.; M. Seller & Co.; J. W. Graham & Co.; Shaw & Borden Co.; Holley, .Mason, 
Marks & Co. Agricultural Implements and Macliinery. — Mitchell, Lewis & .Staver Co.; Union Warehouse; 
J. I. Case Threshing MachineCo. Important Firmx. — Griffith Heating & Plumbing Co.; Arnold. Evans 
& Co.; Spokane Hardware Co.; Jensen-King-Byrd Co.; McCowan Bros.; McCabe, Johnson Co.; Tull & 
Gibbs; H. M. Herrin & Co.; Spokane Paper Co.; Baum & Co. Book and .hh Printcr.'<.— The W . D. 
Knight Co.; The Wright-Greenburg Co.; Union Prmting Co.; J. R. Lambly; Winship (2uick Print. 
Banks. — Po-ft Office. — Board of Trade. — Chamber of Commerce 98 


Spokane County Public Schools. 

Educational Progress— First School District— Report of County Supermtendent of Schools of Stevens 
County— First Spokane County School Superintendent— J. J. Browne— Successive Superintendents- 
Maggie M. Windsor— Early Experiences, A. J. Stevens, A. J Warren, Lizzie (Haleman) Foraker, .Mrs. 
W. C. (McMahon) Jones, I. C. Libby— Spokane County Teachers' Association— W. B. Turner— Z. 
Stewart— School Officers' Convention— V. H. Hopson— Elmer Drake - Inland Empire Teachers' Asso- 
ciation — Present Districts — ,\nnual Report 113 


The Public Schools of Spokane. 

Organization of District— First School— First Public Building— Second Public School Building— Earliest 
Records and Teachers— Principals Prather, Turner, Heaton— Superintendent Wolverton— Rapid 
Growth— Corruption and Turmoil— Superintendent Bemiss— Reorganization — New Buildings— The 



High School-Conchology-Manual Training— Scientific Society-Comparative Statistics— Normal 
Training School— Kindergarten— School Libraries— Superintendent Savior 


History of the Catholic Church. 

Introductory.— .V ■«(■»)/.« of the Catholic Churrh in America. 

Part \.— The Catholie Church in Ttx Spiritind Wurk. 

Rev. F. N. Blanche!, Rev. Modest Demers, Early Missio-aries in this Country— The Story of the Indian 

and White in the Northwest, by Rev. L. B. Palladino— Father DeSmet's Journey to the Flatheads— 

His Labors Among the Western Indians— The Old Mission at Cceurd' Alene- Description of Indians— 

The ColviUe Mission— Father Ravalli, Father DeVoes and St. Paul .Mission— Rev. J. M. Cataldo 

Appointed Missionary to the Spokanes— The First Catholic Chapel in Spokane County— Father 

Joseph Bandini— Beginning of Catholic Work in Spokane City— Laying the Foundation for Gonzaga 

College— Father Ruellan, First Resident Priest for Spokane Falls— Rev. Emile Kanten— Father 

Rebmann— Father Jaquet— First Building. 

Part 2. — The Catholic Church in Ilcr Educational Work. 

History of Gonzaga College— Rev. J. Rebmann— St. Ignatius School— The School and Academy of the 
Sisters of the Holy Names— Building Erected— Sacred Heart School— Father Held. 

Part 3. — Chnrititlle In.'ititutions. 

Sacred Heart Hospital, Its History and Work— Training Girls for Nurses— St. Joseph's Orphanage, Its 
Origin and History— Sisters of St. Francis -Erecting a Building— The Orphanage Formally Blessed- 
Illustrations of Work of Relief— The N'ew Building 135 


History of the Protestjvnt Churches is Spokane County. 

Adventist— Baptist — Christian —Congregational — Evangelical .•\ssociation — Methodist Episcopal — 
Methodist Episcopal, South— Methodist Episcopal, African— Lutheran— Presbyterian— Protestant 
Episcopal — Unitarian— United Brethren— United Presbyterian— Universalist— Christian Science 155 


Other Religious and Moral Organizations of the County. 

Young Men's Christian Association — Bible Society— Good Templars— Home Finding Association— Salva- 
tion Army — Sunday Schools — Preachers' Association — \'olunteers of America — Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union — Anti-Saloon League 182 

Women's Organizations. 

Ladies' Matinee Musicale — Daughters of the Revolution — Wednesday Afternoon Literary Club — Ross 
Park Twentieth Century Club — National Society of the Daughters of the Revolution — Sorosis— Cultus 
Club — Floral Association — Amethyst Club — Spokane Kindergarten Association — Red Cross — Art 
League — Crocker Kindergarten 191 


The Spokane Press. 

Influence of the Press — Spokane Times, First Paper — The Review, Daily — The Spokesman— Spokane 
Globe — Daily Tribune — List of Papers Published, but Discontinued — Northwest Tribune — Present 
Publications — Freeman Labor Journal — New W'est Trade— Washington Spokane Post — The Out- 
burst—Spokane Facts — Sunday Morning Call — Mining — Western Home Journal— Pastor's Visit — 
Spokane Deaconess — Home Finder-Spokesman Review Quarterly — Northern Newspaper L'nion — 
City Directory 201 




Fraternal Organizations. 

Masons— Odd Fellows— Elks— Knights of Pythias— Independent Order of Foresters— Sedgwick Post 

Pioneer Relief Corps— J. L. Reno Relief Corps— Sedgwick Relief Corps— Sons of Veterans, John A. 
Logan Camp— Daughters of Veterans- Knights of the Maccabees— Ladies of the Maccabees— Im- 
proved Order of Red Men: Spokane Tribe: League— Woodtnen of the World— Modern Woodmen of 
America, Excelsior Camp; Good Will Camp— Fraternal Order of Eagles— Royal Arcanum— Sons of 
Herman— Daughters of Herman— Ancient C)rder of Hibernians— United Coumiercial Travelers- 
Home Forum— Order of Pendo: Spokane Council; Cascade Council — Order of Chosen Friends — 
National Union— United Order of the Golden Cross— Fraternal Union of America— Imperial Knights - 
Knights and Ladies of Security— Grand United Order of Odd Fellows— Knights of Khorassan 208 


Trades Unions and Labor Organizations. 

Trades Council— The Building Laborers' L'nion- Building Trades Council— Plasterers' Union— Barbers' 
Union— Bricklayers" Union — Printers' Union — Carpenters' Union— Retail Clerks' Association- 
Plumbers' Union — Teamsters' Union — Cigarmakers' LInion — Lathers and Shinglers' Union — Elec- 
trical Workers' Union — Brotherhoods of Locomotive Engineers, Firemen, Trainmen— Order of Jour- 
neymen Builders— Cooks and Waiters' Union— Journeymen Stone-Cutters' Association— Journeymen 
Tailors' Protective Union — Knights of Labor — Order of Railroad Conductors — Painters and Paper- 
hangers' Association — Business Men's Protective Association 240 


Philanthropic and Other Organizations. 

Ladies' Benevolent Society — Woman's Exchange — Rescue Home — Salvation Army Home — Horticultural 
Society — Humane Society — Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Society — Lidgerwood Ladies' Aid — St. V'incent 
de Paul Society — Spokane Horticultural Society — Social Societies and Clubs— Gonzaga Athletic Asso- 
ciation — Gonzaga Dramatic Association— Northern Pacific Club — Spokane Amateur Athletic Associa- 
tion—Spokane Chess and Checker Club— Spokane Country Club — Spokane Press Club — Spokane Rod 
and Gun Club 244 

Miscellaneous Organizations and Institutions. 

City Library— Society of Pioneers — Musical Institutions— Spokane Conservatory of Music— Northwestern 
Conservatory— Spokane Musical College— Spokane County Medical Society— Spokane Homeopathic 
Society— The Legal Profession— Spokane Opera and Theater— Army Post— Government Offices— The 
Molusca of Spokane— Agricultural Societies— The Fair or Industrial Exposition— City Parks— Institu- 
tions of Learning— Universities— Classical and Business Colleges— Cemeteries— Woman Suffrage 24T 

Towns and Settlements. 
Medical Lake— Cheney -Rockford— Fairfield— Latah— Deer Park— Marshall — Hillyard— Mead —Deep 
Creek— Chattaroy— Milan— Wayside and Wild Rose— Darts Mill, or Dartford— Trent— Orchard 
Prairie -Pleasant Prairie— Spangle— Waveriy— Plaza— Stevens— Mica 26S 

Political History of Spokane County. 

First County Election— Contest for County Seat— Majority for Cheney— County Officers in 1880; in 1882— 
Election of 1884, and Officers— Officers for 1886— Change of County Seat to Spokane Falls— County 
Officers, 1887-8-Constitutional Convention— Spokane Members— County Officers, 1889, 1890, 1892, 
1893, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1900-First Recorded Marriage License 289 


Pioneer Reminiscences. 

Pioneer Life— The Conquering Editor— An Embarassed Ofificial— The Glorious Fourth of 1879— Election 
Joke— Field Day— A Disappointment— Pioneer Merchants— Autobiography of Rev. H. J. Stratton — 
When Spokane was a Lonely Little Village— Roller Skating at Cheney— Editor Dallam— Hank 
Vaughn in Town— loy's Opera House— .A Pioneer Sketch— 'Squire Jones— Convinced— Original 
Names of Lakes ^''" 



Map of Spokane County Frontispiece. 

Indian Presbyterian Church, Spokane Reserv.ition 12 

Indian School at Spokane Reservation 1- 

The Oldest Spokane Indians on Spokane Reservation in 1S98 I'i 

Spokanes 1- 

Indian Home on Spokane Reservation 1- 

Tshmakain Mission Ground -'J 

Oldest Apple Tree in Spokane County 41 

La Prey Bridge ot To-iiay 41 

Frontier Ranch in Spokane County 41 

Prairie School House in Spokane County 41 

County Court House, Spokane 44 

Traders' Bank Corner, Spokane, in Early Days 50 

Spokane Falls 54 

City Hall, Spokane 64 

Above the Falls, .Spokane River 76 

Views of Medical Lake 268 

State Normal School, Cheney 274 

View of Farm of Herman Linke 636 




Abel, J. F. C 488 

Adams, H. H 636 


Baker, N. M 488 

Bentley, M. S 360 

Bertrand, Eugene 488 

Boehrig, C. F 600 

Boyd, G. W 552 

Boyd, L. F .568 

Bracht, Frank '248 

Bradley, A. L 264 

Brischle, Benedict 6l6 

Brischle. Mrs. Benedict 616 

Brooke, G. S 120 

Brown, A. T 456 

Browne, J.J 88 


Campbell, J. P 568 

Canfield, A. E 600 

Cannon, A. M 80 

Chief Joseph 17 

Christensen, M. H 424 

Clarke, R. E 568 

Comstock,J. M 152 

Connolly, William 344 

Coplen, A. D 360 

Cowgill, R. P 616 

Cowgill, Mrs. R. P 616 

Crisler, J. A 584 

Crisler, Mrs. J. A 584 

Cunningham, J. C 456 


Daily, Elkanah 712 

Davidson, A. E 568 

Davie, J. T 464 

Davis, CM 648 

Dempsey, C. C 724 

Desgranges, Peter 584 

Doak, F 64H 

Dunning, C. B 456 


Edwards, Jonathan 248 

Eickmeyer, Andrew 648 

Erickson, Peter 464 


Faulkner, J. D 488 

French, Henry 520 

Fritter, W. C 44« 

Galbraith, E. P ,520 

Gemmill, L. C 496 

Gemmrig, Richard .520 

Gilbert, Phineas 5,52 

Glover, J N y28 

Goodner, J. B 600 

Griffith, J. H 456 

Grimmer, J. M 232 

Linke, Herman (view of farm), 

Linke, Walter 

Lmke, Mrs. Walter 

Lov, C. A 



Haase, Ferdinand 724 

H ahn, F. C 680 

Hartson, M. T 2i6 

Havermale, S. G 104 

Havermale, Mrs. S. G 104 

Hays, James 844 

~ 360 

Heise, C. J. T. 
Henry, W. A 

Herman, Axel 724 

Hill, C. E 320 

Holley, J. B 472 

HoUis, J. T 344 

Hopper, A. D 296 

Hosford, A. A .552 

Howell, Gideon 488 

Hughes, G. H 456 

Hughes, J. H .504 

Hutchinson, R. A 406 


I M 

i M 

acl.rod, A. F 

anier, R. H 

arks. J. H 

arston, E. G 

arston, Mrs. E. G 

ason, Darius 

asterson, J. R 

ayer, John 

cCoy. .VI. O 

cGee, L. E 

cKernan, W. H 

cN'eill, X. E 

elville, J. I 

erriam. C. H 

erriani, C. K 

erriam, L. B 

erriman, A. M 

erriman, Mrs. J. A. C. 

orris(jn. F. 

orton, E. F 

vers, A. H 





N'a^el, Christian . 

Nagel, Frederick. 
1 Xicholls, W. A... 
i Ni.xon, Michael. . 



Johnson, Frank. 



Keenan, J. M 712 

Kennan, H. L 568 

Labrie, J. D 712 

Lee, L. F .360 

Lefevre, Andrew 712 

Lewis, W. A 184 

Libby, G. W 312, 

Oliver, D. K 

Olmsted, E. D... 

Olson, Peter 

O'Neill, F. P 

O'N'eill, Mrs. F. P. 
Osborne, J. W 







Patterson. R. B 616 

Piper. J. J 648 

Prather, L H 1-36 

Pratt, W. G 
Pratt, Mrs. W. G. 

Prescott, U. -S 

Prescott. F. L 

Preusse, H 





Raub, Andrew 4rifi Thaver, A.D 

Rensch, Adolph oW ; Thompson, C. H. . 

Richardson, W. E \^>* , Thompson, E. C . . 

Rien,G. E 
Rosselow, Augustus, 


Scott, R. B y76 

Smith, A. A 264 

Sondgerath, Peter 448 

Spath, J. L 496 

Stauffer, W. E 620 

Stocker, G. W 668 

Stutz.J. C 448 

Tormey, J. E. 


Westfall. L. L 466 

Wetzel, John 248 

844 U heartv, Richard 648 

448 Wheartv, Mrs. Richard 648 

668 Whcatley, J. W 400 

724 Wieser, Adam 662 

Williams, Robert 264 

Worthington, Irving 44S 

Valentine, W. D 2^0, 

\'ess, D. M 584 I 


Yount, R. M. 

Webster. E. J 488 

Wells, S. A S32 Zittel, J. A. 





Abel, J. F. C 412 

Abernethy, Robert 623 

Acuff.W. H. 422 

Adams, H. H 341 

Alexander, S. L 668 

Allen, Albert 709 

Allen, Allison 628 

Allen, J. S 323 

Allison, G.S 391 

AUyn, M.S 604 

Andersen, Christian 429 

Anderson, A. E 606 

Anderson, Andrew 497 

Anderson, C. N 676 

Anderson, John 310 

Anderson, Lewis 602 

Anderson, Nils 497 

Anderson, W. H 688 

Ansell.A.G 417 

Armour, Stuart 637 

Armstrong, J. M 460 

Arthur, S. T 363 


Backus, C.F 580 

Bacon, W. T 368 

Bailey, A. B 711 

Bailey, M. E 508 

Baker, N. M 716 

Baldwin, Alexander 619 

Ballinger, I. J 334 

Bankson, Cyrus 347 

Barker, J. E 63n 

Barker, Jesse 6'29 

Barnes, A. E 634 

Barney, M. G 66'2 

Barnum, P. S 670 

Earth, C. F 447 

Bartholomew, W. R 684 

Bartelt, John 596 

Beard, J. M 618 

Beard, T.J 679 

Bell, H. C 366 

Bell, H. D 544 

Belt, H. N 383 

Bemiss, David 682 

Bennett, W.J 368 

Benson, W. D 439 

Bentley, M. S 379 

Berg, F. O 586 

Berridge, James 496 

Bertonneau, L. L 425 

Bertrand, Eugene 679 

Bessev.J. W 608 

Betz, j. H 369 

Bigham, John 424 

Binkley, [. W 387 

Bishop, C. H 465 

Bishop, W. A 606 

Blake, R. B 448 

Blakley.John 663 

Blalock, J. B 466 

Bloomer, Charles 721 

Bocion, Paul 638 

Boehrig, C. F 716 

Bogardus, R. L 613 

Boston, Henry 669 

Botham, Thomas 6.'j4 

Bower, E. J 591 

Boyd, G. W 484 

Boyd, J. H 314 

Bovd.J.W 319 

Boyd, L. F 420 

Boyd,W. L 461 

Bracht, Frank 400 

Bradley, A. L 667 

Braman, Albert 673 

Brandt, A. M 666 

Breed, C. H 662 

Brischle, Benedict 603 

Brockman, B. D 722 

Brockman, G. H 462 


Brockman, H. H 'MO 

Brockman, J. H 663 

Brooke, G. S 667 

Brooks, Howard 616 

Brosnahan, J. D 669 

Brown, Abel 542 

Brown, A. T 423 

Brown. B. J 643 

Brown, G. W 514 

Brown, G. M 408 

Brown, Henry 6;^ 

Brown, H.T 668 

Brown, 1. H 320 

Brown, J.J 431 

Brown, R. C 681 

Brown, Thomas bW 

Brown, W. R .... 437 

Browne, J.J 613 

Bryan, George 666 

Buchanan, J. D 399 

Buchholz. J. S 664 

Buchholz. Paul 458 

Buck, Norman 415 

Bugbee, A. H *60 

Bunn, J. M 6.58 

Burbank, H. H :ibS 

Burbank, |. E 545 

Burch.G. W 318 

Burchett, Henry 460 

Burk, D. J 626 

Burrows. Elbert 657 

Burton, E. E 482 

Butler, James 356 

Butler, J. N 578 

Butler, Julian .660 

Butler, J. W 689 

Butler, W. H 650 

Byington, W. W 480 


Campbell, A. B 639 

Campoell, A. D. 461 




Campbell, A. M 480 I 

Campbell.]. F 332 

Campbell, J. P 4U4 

Canrteld, A. E 4'.'t( 

Carey, A. S 47(5 

Carpenter, G. S (it>t> 

Carson, C. W 377 

Carson, E. W 453 

Carter, S. B 521 

Catterson, T. L 705 

Caudle, W. M 5.W 

Chamherlin, C. P 464 

Charlton, J. W 641 

Childs, E. R ..: 410 

Christensen, M. H 312 

Clark, A. K 656 

Clarke, C. W 364 

Clarke, R. E 362 

Clarke, K. L 3H0 

Clough, C. F 368 

Cockrell, H.N 482 

Coey.C. P 65.=) 

Cogswell, Morton 673 

Cole, C. A 406 

Coleman, T. B. S 544 

Collin, G. H 4H6 

Comstock, J. M 462 

Congleton, J. F 619 

Conlan, T. F 483 

Connolly, William 607 

Connor, E. 684 

Cook, F. H 493 

Cook, H.J 360 

Coplen, A. D 719 

Coplen, B. F 335 

Corley, Henry 543 

Corntliwait, I. M 617 

Cory, W. A 587 

Coverly, James 473 

Covert, Augustus 332 

Covington, [. M 342 

Cowgill, I. C 529 

C'.wgill, K. P 525 

Cowley, M. M 390 

Crane, G. T 644 

Crewdson. J. T 589 

Crisler, J. A 694 

Cntzer, William 518 

Crow, Samuel 424 

Crowder, A. S 611 

Culver, A. R 546 

Cunningham. J. C 469 

Curry, A. P 366 


Daily, Elkanah 533 

Ualey, J. J 620 

Uallam, K.W 464 

Daniels, J. E 386 

Darby, G. E 311 

Darknell, G. W 6.59 

Darknell, W. H 576 

Darling, D. A 434 

Dart.G. P 4.54 

Dart, H. W 516 

l)ashiell,B. F 552 

Dashiell, F. A 593 

Davenport, J. C 689 

Davenport, L. M 440 

Davidson, A. E 417 

Davie,J.T 624 


Davies, .^. W 461 

Davies, William 654 

Davis, C .M 521 

Day, O. E 3.60 

Day, W. M .505 

Dcmert, L. G 4.68 

Dem])sey, C. C 437 

Dempsie, Ephraim 470 

Denman, Monroe 600 

Dennen,0. H 327 

Dennis, G. B. 487 

Denny, P. D 702 

Desgranges, George 345 

Desgranges, H. W 405 

Desgranges, Peter 657 

Dimmick,J.\V 433 

Dimmick, Samuel 434 

Dinges, Samuel 627 

Dishman, Chanson 622 

Doak, F 495 

Doerr, Rudolph 703 

Donaldson, W E 6ul 

Doughten, C. H 471 

Doust, W. J .585 

Drain, J. A 402 

Drake, E. E 664 

Drake, Elmer 396 

Dufresne, Edmond 393 

Dunlop, J. A 671 

Dunlop. \V. F 6.60 

Dunn, D. B 468 

Dunning, C. B 725 

Dunning, I. W 633 

Durgin, D. C 627 

Dwight, D. H 646 

Dwver, W. J 322 

Dyer, J. G 702 


Eakin, D. F 316 

Edes, W. H 456 

Edwards, A. C 378 

Edwards. Jonathan 409 

E ckmeyer. Andrew 510 

Ellinger, John 661 

Elliott, J. R 524 

Ellis, A. E 675 

Ellsworth, F. M 432 

Ellsworth, W. H 522 

Engiebart, H. D 478 

Enloe, Eugene 605 

Ensley, G. W 549 

Erickson, Peter 623 

Ervine, D. H 516 

Erwin, Isaac 521 

Erwin, Joseph 636 

Esch, Jacob 499 

Eslick, S. A 640 

Espe. Ole 496 

Everson, G. T 547 

E wart, Robert 700 


Farnsworth, D. C •''>46 

Farnsworth, G. W 352 

Fassett, CM 426 

Faulkner, ]. D 636 

Feighan,j:W 490 

Fel lowes, F . 1 3 1 2 

Fellows, F. P 328 

Fellows, G. A 540 


Fender, H. S .509 

Fennen, Henry .505 

Findley, C. T .543 

Fisher, John 592 

Fitzpatnck, J. M 411 

Flaig, F.J 338 

Foster, J. W 4.55 

Fotheringham, D. B 599 

France, Walter 413 

Franzen, Jens 667 

French, Henry 310 

Frick, C. W 660 

Friedman, S. H 686 

Friedlein, Adolph 647 

Fritter, W. C 631 

Frodsham, John 3l3 


Galbraith, E. P 401 

Gallaher.J. .M 346 

Gandy, |. E 366 

Gardner, I.S 504 

Gardner, T. E 705 

Gardner. William 561 

Garner, John 570 

Gemmill, L. C 364 

Gemmrig, Richard 664 

Gerlach, J. J 493 

Germond, H. A 721 

Gilbert, J. B 347 

Gilbert, Phineas 436 

Gilman, J. A 621 

Gimble, C.A 638 

Gimble, E. E 651 

Glasgow, Alexander 340 

Glasgow, James 720 

Glasgow, Samuel 382 

Gleeson, J. M 630 

Glover, G. W 526 

Glover, J N 360 

Glover, J. W 707 

Goddard, N. A 4.59 

Goodner, J. B 502 

Gookin, Brower 7l2 

Gordon, B. L 622 

Goss, T. C 600 

Graham, B. 408 

Graham, C.V 361 

Graham, V. Y 334 

Graves, E.F 680 

Grave , F. H 442 

Graves, J. P 442 

Green, Samuel 711 

Greenberg, H. W 382 

Greenlee, David 672 

Gregg, A. H "05 

Greiner, J. H 365 

Grier. Thomas 547 

Griffith, I. H 428 

Griffith, W. K 544 

Grimmer, J. .M ^^O 

Grove, C. E 722 

Grover, J. K 645 

Grubbe, W. P 689 

Guenther, Theodore 627 

Guyer, \V. T 507 


Haase, Ferdinand 388 

Hahn, F. C 565 



Hair, X. C 694 

Hale, A. F 457 

Hall, D. L 584 

Hall, W. L 648 

HannKind, J. W 554 

Hand, E. W 582 

Hannah, \V. P 494 

Hanson, Jacob .554 

Hardman, .Montgomery .58(5 

Harijrove, James 719 

Hartow, J. L 6'20 

Harper, Isaac .524 

Harrington, F. \V 614 

Harris, S. M 329 

Harris, J. A 621 

Harrison, E. P 6:j2 

Harrison, F. L 589 

Hartson, M. T 391 

Hashasjen, Henry 720 

Havermale, .S. G 392 

Hays, James 343 

Hayward, H. C 313 

Heale, R. J 5.52 

Hearn, John 695 

Heath, Sylvester 378 

Heaton, Jonathan 478 

Hecht, C. F 6.59 

Heise, C. J. T 468 

Held, Albert 631 

Hencoe, Theodore 317 

Henley, D. W 472 

Henry, Albert 675 

Henry, \V. A 702 

Herman, Axel 428 

Herron, Joshua 330 

Heyburn, E. M 480 

Heyburn, W. B 670 

Heyer, Hugo 690 

Hicks, D. W 509 

Hicks, O. C 481 

Higgins, T. B 614 

Hilby, Edward 680 

Hilbv,L.H 580 

Hill,'C. E 345 

Hill, Henry 645 

Hill, J. W 667 

Hobbs, \V. M 338 

Holdger, James 474 

Hole,L. P 605 

Holley, J. B 4.55 

Hollingberv, William 438 

Hollis, J. t 659 

Holmes, Samuel 523 

Holmes, W. K 419 

Hone, C. F 483 

Hooper. A. E 569 

Hoover, Jacob 324 

Hopkins, E. D 666 

Hoppe, F. E 639 

Hopper, A. D 315 

Horr, W. T 695 

Hosford, A. A 715 

Hotchkiss, H. B 608 

Houck. L. H 541 

Howell, F. M 485 

Howell, Gideon 477 

Howell, Jesse .509 

Hoxsey, J. H 566 

Hoyt, H. M 671 

Hubbard, H. H 403 

Hubbard, W. P 328 

H uff man, John 672 

Hughes. G. H . 430 

Hughes, J. H 703 

Hughes, John 534 

Hull, N.R 578 

Humes. J. E 696 

Hum])hrev, Harrv 6U0 

Hunter, W. H .'. 466 

Hurliman, Frank 709 

Hutchins, William 511 

Hutchinson, R. A 384 

Hyde. E. B 361 

Hyde, E. J 616 

Hyde, R.C 474 

Hyde.S.C 489 


lanson, A. J 341 

Ide, C. W 492 

Inbody, J. J 691 


Jackson, Andrew ; 3.55 

Jacobs, B. S 323 

Jamieson, E. H 407 

Jamieson, J. M 638 

Jarren, Amandus 717 

Jarrett, W. E 677 

Jenkins, U. P 392 

Jensen, O. C 660 

Johnson, A. L .'J.53 

Johnson, Frank 444 

Johnson, J. G 49« 

Jomsland, A. O 494 

Jones, H. N .359 

Jones, J. J 518 

Jordan, E. S 571 


Langan, James 594 

Larson, Andrew 687 

! LaShaw, Alexus 5.58 

I Latham, .Mary A 394 

Latimer, G. A .532 

Laughon, A. ] ;«9 

Lavigne, F. C 380 

: Lee,'^L. F .5:?2 

Lefevre, Andrew .582 

Lehman, David 503 

Leigh, Nathan 319 

Leigh, W. E 627 

Leonard, G. H 386 

Lesher, A. K 545 

Lewis, L. L 606 

Lewis, W. A 367 

Libby, G. W 415 

Libby, I.C 447 

Lincoln, D. H 501 

Lindsley, J. B 613 

Link , Herman 636 

Linke, Walter 698 

Lipschuetz, 1 485 

Lockhart, J. T 4.57 

Loe. J. O .5.50 

Loe, O. H .5.50 

Loertcher, Jacob 317 

Long, }. A 385 

Long, J. B .525 

Loomis, A. I ,595 

Lottman, W'. B 651 

Low, J. R 647 

Loy, C. A 339 

Lov. S. .A ;i54 

i Loyd.T. W 676 

'. Lucas, E. E .573 

'Lucas. W. P .573 

Ludden. W. H 397 

Luhn, H. B .586 

Lyons, E. W 612 

Kalh, C. S 715 

Kaufman, I. S 393 

Keenan, J. M .5% 

Keglev,R. K 595 

Kellam, A. G 470 

Kellinger, M. R 630 

Kelly, A. A 688 

Kelso, J. B ;{42 

Kennan, H. L 403 

Kenworthy, Joseph 485 

Kiesling, Rudolph f)'.ii 

Kimball, Horace 463 

Know, J. W .548 , 

Knox, C. L 441 i 

Koons, G 620 '' 

Koontz, W. H 340 

Kords, C. J 387 I 

Korte, Frank .541 i 

Kramer, W. H 703 ! 

Krienbuhl, J. B .597 ; 

Kronquist, J. A 497 1 

Kulp, Myron 726 

Labrie, J. D 604 

Ladd. J. P 630 

Lafrenz, G . F 618 

Lambert, Edward 724 

Lambert. W. H 344 

Landes, W. H 707 


MacCamy, H. E 411 

Mackenzie, R 710 

Mackie, George 610 

MacLean, J. D 602 

.MacLeod, A. F 713 

.Magie, .Austin 325 

.Malbon, J. E 625 

Malmgren, K. G 635 

Malonev, W. H 484 

.Manier.'R. H 328 

Manning, Alonzo 708 

Marks, J. H 6*2 

Marston, E. G 498 

Martin, F. N 4;i8 

Martin, H.J 4;i5 

Martin, J. W :«1 

Martin, Nelson 402 

Martin, Reinhard 712 

Mason, Uarius 714 

Mason, F. H 407 

Masterson, J. R 515 

Mayer, C. P 643 

Mayer, John 642 

Maver, N. J 454 

McBride, I. R 486 

McClellan, E. A 564 

McColough, W. H 674 

McCov, M. 34.5 

McCrea, W. S 389 



McCullou£;h, John 481 

McDonald, D. K (514 

McKall, \V. B 559 

McFeron, T. J 541 

McGee, L. E "04 

Mclsaac, J. M 713 Nolan, W. M . . 

.McKenzie, Ans^us 572 j Norman, \V. S 

McKernan, W. H 4til 

McKinney, \V. J o56 Nuzum, N. E 

McMorran, A. W *9 

McNeill. N. E 317 

McVav, \V. H 618 

Meade, F. S 365 

Melendv, E.J 540 

Melville, J. I 562 


Nestos, O. R 6.50 

Neuman, M. R 723 

.N'ewlon, Thomas 682 

Newman, D. C 685 

Nicholls, W.A 650 



Nosier, C. E 




O'Brien, Martin 

OdelKT. \V 547 

Oliver, D. K 383 

Merriam, C. H 7^ , Olmsted, Clara S 479 

Merriam, C. K 491 I Olmsted, E. D 467 

Merriam, L. B 699 ' Ois.^n. Peter 320 

Merriman, A. M 474 O'Neil, B. F 336 

Metcalf, Alfred 592 O'Neiil, F. P 607 

Mevers. J. B 701 O'Neill, James 444 ; 

Meideking, H 4;M Osborne, J. W 610 

MiUer.E.C 611 0\ erman, T. J 711 

Miller, Eugene 409 j 

Miller, Fred 692 i P. 

Miller, M. P 72.3 

Miller, Rilev 454 Palmer, Oren 724 

Miller, Samuel 579 Pangburn. B. F 435 

Milliken, W. T 3:34 ■ Parker, J. B 383 

Millman, Richard 3.57 l Parker. W. T 46 

Miner, A. J 705 | Parks, W. D 

Minnick, J. W 542 Parks, \V. R 

Mitchem, W. F 313 Parmeter, S. S .... 

Mohr, C. \V 4.53 ' Paterson, R. B 

Mohundro, C. E .574 i Patterson, R. B 

Moir, William 596 Peachey, Job o20 

Monaghan, James 311 Peacock, J. A 430 

Moore, J. M. 517 Peel, J. J. L 396 

Moran, John 575 Pendleton, C. N o28 

Morehouse, C. H 556 Pendleton, H.J 693 

Moreland, John 568; Pent^eld, C. S 361 

Morgan, C. F 684 ; Penn, T. H 

Morris, Jacob 562 Percival, D. F . . . 

Morris, James 433 Perkins, E. L 



Morris, N. S 594 

Morrison, E. ... 456 

Morrison, E. H 550 

Morrow, T. .A 535 

Morter, William 580 

Morton, E. T 501 

Perkins, \V. T ~p_ 

Permain, A. E 628 

Peterson, J. A 5-24 

Peterson, John 497 

Peterson, R. C 54(2 

Pettet, William 677 

Mouat, G. C 514 Peyton, C. E <'23 

Mount, J. S 567 Phillips, H. A o'23 

Mueller, George 724 Phillips, G. W o43 

Mulcahy, G. P 4(55 Pierce, \V. E 601 

Mulouin, Maxime 698 Pike, F 

Mumbrue, George 5(J6 Pike. M. E 

Murphey, C. W 681 Piper, J.J 

Murray, John 500 i Pittam, William. . . 

Muzzy, F. N 501 ' Pittwood, Edward 

Muzzy, James 512 , Plants, W. U 

Myers, A. H 388 

Myrtle, J. C 377 


Nagel, Christian.. 
Nagel, Frederick.. 
Narup, Mrs. J. A. . 
Nash, L. B. 

.. 4.S2 

. . 627 

.. 719 

. . 486 

Nauman, E. P 525 Prest, Thomas 














Prescottj D. S 418 

Prescott, F. L 419 

Pomerov, F. A. 
Porter,]. M.... 
Power, J. B. . . . 
Prather. L. H . . 
Pratt, M. H.... 
Pratt, W. G . . , 
Prescott, C. H . 

Neill, R. K (;41 

Nelson, Christian 687 

Preusse, H ^76 

Pringle, William 499 


Pugh, F. A ,577 

Pugh, F. K 404 

Pugh, F. M 414 

Pynn, T. W 479 


Ratcliffe, C. A .563 

Raub, Andrew 312 

Rawls, Luke 332 

Rensch, .Adolph 6(j9 

Re\ nolds, F. .\1 493 

Richards, H. M 610 

Richardson, W. E 399 

Rieley, James .593 

Rien, G. E .533 

Rieper, Henry 511 

Riley, Edward 512 

Rinear, C. E 691 

Rinear, E. D ;S86 

Rinear, J. W ol7 

Roberts, Thomas ,567 

Robertson, F. C 693 

Robbins, J. D 'Sbb 

Roe, Mrs. James 462 

Roger?, F. A .598 

Rose, Arthur 44(1 

Rose, J. .M 423 

Ross, A.J 371 

Ross, J. B 476 

Rosselow, .Augustus 473 

Rothgeb, Daniel 5.52 

Rothrock, Hiram 681 

Rubeck, A. C 687 

Rumpf, Peter 449 

Rush, S. H 490 

Rushmeier, F. H 546 

Rusk, Susan 316 

Russell, C. E 628 

Russell, Robert 598 

Rutherford, James 601 


Sanders, E. D 398 

Sanders, H. M 624 

Sanders, T. J 662 

Sanders, W. S 566 

Sands, H. E 683 

Sargent, J. B 367 

Sarginson, John 609 

Saunders, A. E 619 

Saunders, G. D 591 

Saunders, W. W 631 

Sawyer, B. F 545 

Saylor, J. F 649 

Schoenberg, Michael 505 

Scott, R.B. 374 

Scott, W.D 605 

Scribner, I. J 326 

Seaman, J. NV 439 

Seehorn, W. E 359 

Semple, J. M 390 

Sengfelder, John 380 

I Service, John 549 

i Severson, Thomas 644 

Shannon, William 398 

Shaw, A.J 418 

Shaw, L. W 696 

Sheehv. E 518 

Sherwood, F. P 446 

Sherwood, J. D 445 




Shine, P. C 637 

Short, J. H 375 

Shrlmpf, C. G 678 

Siegenthaler, Emil 708 

Simpson, John 500 

Sims, B. F 5% 

Sivyer.W. C 414 

Skattum, O. M 597 

Slater, L. R 643 

Smiley, C. F 427 

Smith, A. A 333 

Smith, F. J 648 

Smith, F. W 316 

Smith, J. 13 348 

Smith, J. L 530 

Smith, Joseph 505 

Smith, V. M 4'Jl 

Snore, H. J , 668 

Snyder, L. H 655 

Sondgerath, Peter 651 

Southard, Freeman 574 

Spalding, VV. A 640 

Spangle, G. W 663 

Spangle, William 560 

Spath, J. L 338 

Speck, K. D 463 

Spence, VV. H 548 

Sprague, Henry 676 

Squier, D. U 449 

Squier, ). N 448 

Stafford, J. R 690 

Stafford, Wilson 577 

Stahlberg, August 718 

Staley, F'reeman 520 

Staley, Thomas 523 

Stanton, E. H 429 

Stark, W. A 352 

Starr, M. L 561 

Starr, W. A 570 

Stauffer, W. E 655 

Stayt, W. C 629 

Stearns, H. R 319 

Steel, Thomas 565 

Steenstra, Thomas 033 

Steffer, F. W. 710 

Stein, A. R 708 

Stimmel, H. G 012 

Stocker, G. W 097 

Stockwell, O. R 431 

Stokes, C. F 083 

Stoneman, W. H 508 

Stout, C 661 

Stout, J. K 362 

Stowers, Henry 548 

Strathern, H. M 025 

Stratton, A. R 534 

Stringham, A. C 563 

Strong, W. E 478 

Stumpf, C. H 075 

Sturman, S. C 530 

Stutler, Lawrence 077 

Stutz, J. C 023 

Sullivan, Jerry 594 

Sutherland, fames 091 

Swartz, W. \V 088 

Sweet, W. R 097 

Syphert, C. B 361 

Tarbert, Joseph 510 

Tarry, Albert 704 

Tate, John 003 

Taylor, F. M 32',: 

Taylor, J. R 313 

Taylor, W. H 427 

Taylor, W. H 336 

Tefft, S N 669 

Temple, G. W 646 

Thatcher, O. B 440 

Thayer, A. 1) 061 

Thierman, J. H 717 

Thomas, C. P 645 

Thompson, C. H 583 

Thompson, D. M 362 

Thompson, E. C 405 

Thompson, E. H 670 

Thomsen, J. P 527 

Thornton, W. W 015 

Thorp, A. L 615 

Thorsland, Samuel 410 

Thurston, M. D 080 

Tifft, W. T 690 

Tonnet, Henry 535 

Torm«"y, ]. E 570 

Traian, Daniel 511 

Treede. Henry 575 

Tripp, F.J '718 

Tueting, F. W (iOO 

Turner, George 4I(i 

Turner, Richard 441 

Turner, R . ,M 692 

Turner, Samuel ti44 

Turner, \V. B 320 

Utz, B. E 626 


Valentine, W. I) 321 

VanBrunt, lohn 568 

VanOsdel, E. B 420 

Vanwart, J. H 344 

Varnev, G. R 0.35 

Vess, 1). M 059 

Voorhees. C. S 3u9 


Walker, J. C .506 

Walls, R. T 848 

Walter, H. J 515 

Waltman, Abram :j49 

Waltman, E. A ."i.iS 

Waltman, (XL 0.53 

Waltman, W. W .',71 

Walton, Charles 047 

Walton, James ,529 

Walton, Leo 626 

Warren, E. P H24 

Warren, J. F ;S09 

Waterhouse, L. P 017 


Watson, William 437 

Watt, Alex 325 

Watt, J. W 357 

Webb, W. B 664 

Webb, W. Q 618 

Weber, J. A 633 

Webster, E.J 381 

Weeks, C. H 581 

Wegner, F. C 330 

Weir, Donald 520 

Wells, H. A 542 

Wells, -S. A 395 

Wentworth, J. W 674 

West, J. E 656 

Westfall, L. L .573 

Wetzel, John 406 

Weymouth. F. P 421 

Wheartv, Richard 504 

Wheatlev, J. W 665 

Wheeler; J. W 502 

White, C.F 621 

White, J. J •. 413 

Whiting, B. M 422 

Whitten, L. B 381 

Wichmann, Henry 688 

Wieser, Adam 715 

Wilkinson, .\L A 327 

Williams, A. P 394 

Williams, John aSl 

Williams, L. F 492 

Williams, Robert 351 

Williamson, R. G 588 

Willson, J. S 363 

Wilson, J. A 4.58 

Wilson, J. A 425 

Wilson, J. L 460 

Wilson, R. A .572 

Wilson, W.J 471 

Wimpv, C. X 576 

Wimpv, R. H 337 

Windsor, W. R 667 

Wiscombe, W. H 370 

Withersi>oon, W. W 312 

Wittenberg, Samuel .598 

Witter. F. P ,553 

Wol verton, A. P 379 

Wood, A. E 585 

Wood, J. E 3S5 

Woodard, H. R 698 

Woodard, J. S 706 

Woodard, S. T 697 

Worley, C. E 673 

Worthington, Irving 637 

Wright, W. A 616 

Wright, W. H .591 


Yale, Lewis 664 

Yeager, H. F 622 

Yount, R. M a36 


Ziegler, W. H 443 

Zittel, J. A 619 

HISTOHy (IF SI'ilSE (Wiy. 




" Lost by adventurous Britishman, 
Won by bold American." 

A brief .sketch or resume of tlie "Oregon 
question" seems appropriate in a history of any 
section of the territory included in that dis- 
cussion. Dr. Barrows calls it the "struggle for 
possession." Xo c|uestion has ever arisen, per- 
haps, that came so near precipitating a war be- 
tween Great Britain and the United States 
without the actual conflict of arms. It was a 
question that included all points of interna- 
tional diplomacy and negotiation between the 
United States and Great Britain regarding title 
to the Northwest country, and pertained espe- 
cially to the territory now included in the state 
of Washington, for the country north of the 
Columbia river was what Great Britain espe- 
cially coveted. 

Prior to 1818 the Hudson's Bay Company, 
a powerful corporation, chartered by the British 
crown. Charles II, in 1670, invaded the Oregon 
territory, including what are now the states of 
Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana, 
with traders, hunters and trap])ers. Their pos- 
sessions were fortified with commercial and 

militarv estalilishments. Meanwhile a few per- 

sons from the United States found their way 
into the territory, which led to the discussion as 
to the ownership of the country. Our great 
statesmen had very inadequate conceptions of 
the \-alue and importance of the territory in- 
vohed in the discussion. This is e\'idenced 
in their expressions. 

The National Intelligencer in the early- 
forties published these words : "Of all the- 
countries upon the face of the earth Ore- 
gon is one of the least favored by heaven.. 
It is almost as barren as Sahara, and quite 
as unhealthy as the Campagna of Italy," 
And Senator Dayton, of New Jersey, pro- 
ceeded to say, "God forbid that the time slKnikl 
ever coiue when a state on the shores of the. 
Pacific, with its interests and tendencies of 
trade all looking toward the Asiatic nations- 
of the East, shall add its jarring claims to our 
already distracted and overburdened confeder- 
acy." Evidently the continental idea had not 
yet reached the senate of these United States. 

Daniel Webster said: "What do we 
want with this vast worthless area, this 
region of savages and wild beasts, of des- 
erts, of shifting sands and whirlwinds of 
dust, of cactus and prairie dogs? To what 
use could we ever hope to put these great des- 


erts or these great mountain ranges, impene- 
trable and covered to their base with eternal 
snow ? 

■ "What can we ever hope to do with the 
-western coast, a coast of three thousand miles, 
rock-bound, cheerless and uninviting, and nr)t 
a harbor on it? What use have we for 
such a country? Mr. President, I will never 
vote one cent from the public treasury to place 
the Pacific C(^ast one inch nearer Boston than 
it is now." 

Senator Benton said in 1825: 

"The ridge of the Rocky mountains may 
be named as a convenient, natural and e\'er- 
lasting boundary. Along this ridge the western 
limit of the Republic should be drawn, and the 
statue of the fabled god sliould be 
erected on its highest peak. ne\er to l)e tlirown 

These expressions are not to l;e wondered 
at when we realize that nearly all information 
pertaining to the country had been received 
through representatives of the Hud.son's Bay 
Company or through persons influenced by 
them. They had advisedly, for selfish purposes, 
described it as a "miasmatic wilderness, unin- 
habitable except l)y savage beasts and more sav- 
iige men." This was done in order to prevent 
the settlement of white people in the country, 
ndiich they knew would ultimately interfere 
with their lucrative fur traffic with the ab- 
origines of the land. 


Both Great Britain and the United States 
lieing apparently unprepared for definite action, 
in 181S, a treaty of joint occupation was en- 
tered into iiy which "The northwest coast of 
America \vestward of the Stony Mountains 
shall be o]5en to the subjects of the two con- 
tracting powers, not to be construed to the prej- 
udice of any claim which either of the high 
contracting parties may have to any part of 
said country." This treaty was extended in- 
definitely in 1827, with the provision that after 

1838 either party could abrogate it by giving' 
the other one year's notice. Under this treaty 
the Hudson's Bay Company's shrewd repre- 
sentatives exercised every strategy conceivable 
to prevent immigration from the United States 
and succeeded to a great extent for some time. 
But increasing knowledge of the value of the 
country stimulated the indomitaljle frontiers- 
n\en to move westward. Despite the despicable 
efforts of the Hudson's Bay Company to ar- 
rest wagons, break plowshares, freeze out set- 
tlers, and l)y a system of overland forts and 
seaport surveillance i)re\ent every step that 
tended toward the actual occupancy of tlie 
country, a sufficient number of Americans had 
settled before 1844 to force upon the United 
States the question of title. In the year men- 
tioned Mr. Calhoun, then secretary of sute, 
demanded of the British government a specific 
statement of its claims to the Oregon territory. 
Great Britain replied by renewing a claim al- 
ready matlc in 1824, namely, "That the bound- 
ary line between the possessions of the two 
ccnmtries should be the forty-ninth parallel of 
north latitude to w here it intersects the north- 
eastern branch of the Columbia river, then 
down the middle channel of that river to the 
.'-ea. " This claim, if allowed, would have given 
Great Britain not only British Columbia but 
also the greater part of the state of Washing- 
ton. Great Britain based its claim upon the ex- 
ploration of the Columbia by \'ancouver after 
Gray hatl discovered it, and upon the occu- 
pancy of the country by the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany for traffic in furs. The United States 
vested its claim on Captain Gray's discovery 
of the Columbia river, on the Louisiana i)ur- 
chase, on the e.xplorations of Lewis and Clarke, 
tracing the Columbia from its source to its 
mouth, on the settlement of Astoria, on the 
treaty with Spain in 1818 and on the treaty 
with Mexico in 1S28. ^h. Calhoun rejected 
th.e claim of Great Britain and proposed the 
forty-ninth parallel from the Rockies to the sea 
as the division between the two countries. The 


Democratic convention of 1844 declared for 
the annexation of Texas and also "that our 
title to the Oregon territory was clear and un- 
questionable, and that no part of the same 
should be ceded to Great Britain." The "shib- 
boleth" of the Democratic party during that 
•campaign, relative to the Oregon question, was 
"fiftv-four forty, or fight." An effort was 
made to abrogate the treaty of 1S27 and it 
seemed for a time that war between Great 
Britain and the United States was inevitable. 
The proposal of the British minister. Mr. Pack- 
enham, to submit the question in dispute to ar- 
bitration was respectfully declined, and the final 
result of negotiations was the treaty of 
1S46. whereby the forty-ninth parallel orig- 
inallv proposed by Mr. Calhinm was accepted 
l:y Great Britain as the boundary between the 
two countries. Pr(jvision was made in this 
treaty that when the boundary reached the 
waters of the Pacific coast it should run down 
the middle of the channel which separates the 
continent from \'ancouver island, and thence 
southerly through the same channel and Fuca 
straits to the sea. Xo map or chart being at- 
tached to the treaty, according to which the line 
could be drawn, a vexatious cnntmversy amse 
which came very near involving the two coun- 
tries in war. The contention related to the 
location of the middle of the channel which 
sei)arates the continent from \'ancouver island. 
Great Britain insisted that it was in the Rosaria 
straits or channel, while the United States con- 
tended that it was in the Canal de Haro. Each 
party adhered to its position through a pro- 
tracted and vehement correspondence upon the 
subject. Between these channels was an area 
of about four hundred s(|Uftre miles, including 

st\eral i)r(.)minent islands com]5rising land area 
of about one hundred and seventy scjuare miles 
which was the bone of contention on the part 
of l)oth parties. After a prolonged debate of 
tJie question, each parly determincil to have its 
own way: by the treaty of Washington in 1871 
it was agreed that Emperor Williaiu of Ger- 
n'iany, as arbitrator, should decide which of 
tlie two claims was most in accordance with the 
treaty of 1846. He decided in favor of our 
claim, thus giving the United States an undis- 
l'uta1)le claim to the island of San Juan and 
the other islands around it. Although the Hud- 
sou's Bay Company took possession of all the 
country west of the Rocky mountains and on 
both sides of the Columbia ri\'er. yet Great 
Britain did not assert posse.-^sion of that part of 
I the country now constituting the state of Ore- 
gon. But it is evident that if the title was good 
iiorth. it was et[ually good south of the river. 
Furthermore, if the title of the United States 
was good as to what is now Oregon and Wash- 
ington, why not equally good for all the terri- 
ti iry, including British Columbia ? Careful and 
candid students of the situation have con- 
tended that the proposition of Calhoun in 1844 
to surrender to Great Britain all the territory 
north of the forty-ninth parallel of north lati- 
tude was made in the interest of sla\-ery. The 
less there was of this territory, the number of 
free states to be admitted into the Union would 
be less. If he had not committed our govern- 
ment to such unfortunate, and wdiat some have 
designated as "disgraceful" ofTer. it is quite 
probable that British Columbia would be to-day, 
what manv would deem desirable in view of 
its growing importance, a part of the United 



The liistorv of the pioneer missionaries of 
the Pacific Northwest is a romance. By their 
exertions and sacrifices they have accomphshed 
a work that entitles them the honor and admi- 
ration of snccessive generations. They were 
the fonnders of a new empire and the ushers 
of civihzation to the land of the setting sun. 
Bancroft says in his history of Oregon; "It 
is in the missionary, rather than in the c^:lm- 
mercial or agricultural elements, that 1 find 
that romance which underlies all human en- 
deax'or before it becomes of sufficient interest 
for permanent preservation in the memory of 
mankind. I believe the time will come, if it be 
not already, when to the descendants of these 
hardy empire-builders this enrollment will be 
recognized as eciuixalent tu a patent of nobil- 
ity." Few men ha\e in equal measure exhib- 
ited tlie heroic and self-denying spirit of the 
Apostles as these pioneer missionaries did. 
Seldom have been given to men such an op- 
portunity to exert a far-reaching and enduring 
influence upon future generatinns. It was 
their privilege to la}" deep, strong and broad 
founilations, upon which their successors have, 
and will, erect grand and permanent super- 
structures. Though dead they yet speak, and 
we enter into their labors. A sense of our ob- 
ligation to them should incite us to honor 
their memories and perpetuate their names. 

The events leading to the establishment of 
the earliest mission stations in this region are 
full of interest. They have a political as well 
as a religious significance antl deserve a prom- 
inent place in the history of any and e\ery por- 
tion of the countrv. 

All reliable historians cheerfully admit that 
as Xew England was settled Iiy people who 
came there to enjoy religious freedom which 
they could not find in the Old World and 
founded our empire of civil and religious lib- 
erly. so also — "American ascendancy on the 
Pacific coast north of California and west of 
the R(jcky mountains is largely due to tlie 
eftorts of Courageous men and women to 
Christianize the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
country. When the missionaries of the At- 
lantic states commenced coming to Oregon ter- 
ritory, all the white iieople here, with possibly 
a few exceptions, were subjects of the British 
crown, and though the i)bjects of the mission- 
aries was to the Indians, their presence 
here was a standing ntJtice to Great Britain that 
the United States claimed the riglit to occupy 
the territory. Some criticisms have been 
passed upon the missionaries because they were 
not more successful in their missionary work, 
aild because they gave too much time and at- 
tention to other jnirsuits, but whate\er may be 
true as to these matters, their defiant struggle 
with the dangers and difficulties of pioneer life 
is worthy of the highest praise." (Judge Will- 

In 1832 five Flathead or Xez Perce Indians 
arrived at St. Louis in search of the White 
Man's God and book. They were feeling 
j after the true inn\ if haply they might find 
; Him. Two thousand miles they traveled. 
climl)ing precipitous rocks and over high and 
rugged mountains. They pressed their way 
through almost impenetrable forests, crossing; 
wide prairies and dismal vallevs. and fording: 


rushing streams and deep rivers, all in order to 
find out more regarding the hook that told 
all about the Great Spirit, the hunting ground 
of the blessed and the trail thereto. Who can 
conceive the hardships they endured ere they 
reached their j(_)urney's end? It is not known 
how long it took them to make the journey. 
But they reached St. Louis, and for a time they 
moved silently around in moccasin and Ijlanket, 
attracting but little notice among the few 
ihousaud inhabitants. Among them were two 
old chiefs noted for wisdom and prudence. 
The nther three were y(_)ung bra\'es selected lie- 
cause of their endurance and daring in any 
perils. It was not easy for them to make 
knciwn their errand. They found many things 
to interest them, but not that one thing which 
they felt they needed more than all else. They 
were kindly treated, entertained, blanketed and 
ornamented. They were led to the cathedral 
and shnwn the altar and the pictures of saints. 
But withal they were not satisfied. Why? 
Because they had faced the perils and endured 
the hardships of a long journey, in order that 
they might have better ideas of the (jreat 
Spirit of the white man and the book of the 
white man which shows the long trail lead- 
ing to the Eternal Camping Cround. But this 
they had not found and doubtless thought their 
journey was in vain. As the three surviving 
braves were about starting on their return jour- 
ney, sad at heart and disappointed, the farewell 
address of one of them deli\-ered in the office of 
General Clark, is full of genuine pathos and 
deserves a place among the world's literary 


'T came to you o\'er a trail of many ukkots 
from the setting sun. Vou were the friend of 
my fathers who have gone the long way. I 
came with one eye partly opened, for more 
light fur my peojile who sit in darkness. How 
can I go back with both e}-es closed ? How can 
I go back blind to my blind people? I made my 

way to you with strong arms, through many 
enemies and strange lands that I might carry 
back much to them. I go back with both arms 
lirolcen and emjjty. The two fathers who 
came with us — the braves of many winters and 
wars — we leave asleep by your great water and 
wigwams. 'I hey were tired in many moons 
and their moccasins wore out. My ])e(jple sent 
me t(i get the white man's Ixxik df Heaven. 
\ on took me where _\'ou allow your women to 
dance, as we do not ours, and the b(jok was not 
there; you showed me the images of good spir- 
its and pictures of the good land beyond, but 
the book was not among them to tell us the 
way. I am going back the long, sad trail to 
my people of the dark land. 

"You make my feet heavy with burdens of 
gifts, and my moccasins will grow old in car- 
rying them, but the b(jok was not among them. 
\\ hen I tell my poor blind people, after one 
more snow in the big council, that I did not 
bring the Ijook, no word will be spoken l)y our 
old men or by our young braves. One by one 
they will rise up and go out in silence. My 
people will die in darkness, and they will go on 
the long jjath to the other hunting grounds, 
No white man will go with them and no white 
man's b(_)ok to make the way plain. I have no 
more words." 

It was the p(_)tenc_\- of this plaintive appeal 
from the wilderness which started a spontane- 
ous movement to establish an Oregon mission 
to the Indians, and thence came all those sub- 
se(juent and consequent e\'ents which, by weld- 
ed liks of steel. ha\e bound into thi> union of 
states the whole brilliant galaxy of the Pacific 

In response to the earnest appeal of the In- 
tlians the first missionary to be appointed for 
Oregon was Rev. Jason Lee. in 1833. He 
established a mission in the Willamette \'al- 
lev. in the vicinity of Salem, under the aus- 
pices of the Methodist Episcopal church in 
1834. He was a great man and accomplished 
a marvelous work. He deserves all the rec- 


ognition and praise rendered liim in the ex- 
cellent work entitled. "Oregon Missions," by 
Rev. H. K. Mines. D. D. But as his labors 
were confined to the present Oregon, but did 
not particularly affect this region, it does not 
seem to come within the province of this work 
to enter into particulars regarding his life- 
work. But we improve this opportunity to 
heartily commend the work above mentioned. 
In this work we shall be compelled to con- 
fine ourselves to those whose careers have ex- 
erted an influence, by exploration, missionary 
labors or otherwise, in the settlement and de- 
velopment of the country known as the "In- 
land Empire," and have thus became directly 
or indirectly identified with the history of this 

A chn.inulogical treatment of the history 
will give the first place t(_) Rev. Samuel Parker. 
As early as April, 1833, he offered himself 
to the A. B. C. F. 'M. as a missionary to Oregon. 
He had enlisteil the interest of his own peo- 
ple and hoped to be promptly sent upon his per- 
ilous enterprise. But the Board hesitated, 
fearing, distrusting, delaying, yet they could 
not trust the inspiration of this man whom God 
had touched, and he pressed his suit, offering 
to raise all needed funds and find suitable as- 

In 1834 Parker went as far as St. Louis, 
but he was too late for the fur cara\-an. and 
returned to New York. While waiting for 
the passing" of winter he was not idle, but 
raised money and made missionary addresses. 
As Mr. Parker is the first explorer of Spo- 
kane coimty. whose work attracted the atten- 
tion of eminent geologists. I think a sketch of 
his life is fitting in this work. 

Re\-. Samuel Parker was born at Ashfield. 
Massachusetts, April 23. 1779. He was of 
Puritan ancestry, noted for their piety and posi- 
tive character. His grandfather landed at 
Charleston. Massachusetts, soon after the set- 
tlement of Plymouth. ^Massachusetts. He en- 
tered Williams College, in 1803. was admitted to 

Sophomore standing and graduated in 1806. 
His fidelity antl studiousness gave him a good 
standing am()ng his classmates. Following his 
graduation he spent one year teaching at Brat- 
tleboro. \'ermont. After this he pursued theo- 
logical studies under the supervision of Rev. 
Theophilus Packard, D. D., and was licensed 
to preach in 1808 liy the North Congregational 
Association of Hampshire county. He was 
soon sent as a missionary to New York state 
where he did arduous work in the then wild 
regions of Geneva and Wayne counties for 
nearlv a vcar. His theological studies were re- 
sumed in the fall of 1809 at Andover Theologi- 
cal Seminary, graduating with the first class 
of that institution. On December 23. 181 2, he 
as ordained and installed at Danby. New York, 
bv a Congregational council. After a pastor- 
ate of fifteen years at Danby. New York, he be- 
came financial agent of Auburn Theological 
Seminary in New England. In 1833 he ofifered 
himself to the .\. B. C. F. M. as a missionary 
to OregtJU but was not accepted. In January, 
1834, at the annual Fast and PVayer day. he 
offered to go in the employ of the First Presby- 
terian church of Ithaca, New York, with the 
sanction of the American Board. In the spring 
of 1834 he and Rev. John Dunbar and Mr. 
Samuel Allice. teacher, started for Oregon. But 
after starting they were falsely persuaded that 
they were too late for the caravan of the Fur 
Company. consec|uently Messrs. Dunbar and 
Allice went to the Pawnee Indians and Mr. 
Parker returned to the east. 

While traveling in southern New York 
conducting missionary conferences Mr. Parker 
met at Wheeler. Marcus Whitman. M. D. In 
the spring of 1835 Parker and \Miitman start- 
ed for Oregon. They went together as far as 
the Green ri\er rendezvous, whence Dr. \\ hit- 
man returned for recruits. Rev. Parker con- 
tinued his journey westward and spent 1835- 
36-37 in making his exploring tour beyond 
the Rocky Mountains under the auspices of the 
A, B. C. F. 'SI. He is the first real explorer of 


the country nurtli of tlie Snake river. After liis 
return hewrotehis book entitled "Jounial of an 
Exploring Tour Bcyi'ud the Rocky Mountains 
under Direction of the A. B. C. F. M." J. C. 
Derby & Co., Publishers, jth Edition, 1S46. 
0^■er twenty thousand copies \vere sold and 
it was commended for its geological value by 
Professors Edward Hitchcock, Benjamin Sill- 
man, and other eminent geologists. Mr. Park- 
er lectured through New York. Pennsylvania, 
Illiniiis, Indiana, ^^lissiiuri. Kentucky, sixteen 
hundred tmies in all, whicli. with the distribu- 
tion of his book, did much in creating public 
sentiment in fa\-or of Oregon, resulting in the 
present boundary line. "He was a bold, decid- 
ed man, full of energy and resolution, doing 
with his might, wiselw whatever he undertook 
to do, daunted by no dangers." After a long 
life of arduous toil and many j-ears of physical 
inhrmity, Mr. Parker passed away from earth 
in his eighty-se\-enth year. He died in peace 
fully trusting in God's promises, and his phys- 
ical remains were interred in the Ithaca, New 
"^'ork, cemetery near Cornell University.* 

p.\rker's explor.\tioxs. 

No early explorer or missionary received a 
more heartv welcome from the Indians than 
Rev. Samuel Parker. Thev fullowed him by 
the hundreds and ga\-e him e\-ery aid within 
their ability as he traveled over the mountains. 
Their joy seemed to be unbounded in view of 
his mission among them. In the fall oi 1835 
Mr. Parker reached Fort \'anc(iuver and spent 
the winter there and was employed as a teach- 
er l)y the Hudson's Bay Company. In the 
spring of 1836. he went up the Ci:ilunil)ia ri\"er 
til the mouth of the Snake river. He then 
traveled east and north, making careful obser- 
'.■ations of rocks and soil. He describes quite ac- 
curately the fertile Palouse country and pre- 
dicts its present fame as a wheat region. In 
liis journal he describes himself coming to the 

*lndebted to Dr. S. J. Parker, Ithaca, N. Y., for facts 
regarding his father, Rev. .Samuel Parker. 

Spokane woods, then to the Spokane river 
where there was a ferry. Of the valley he says, 
"This is a \ery jileasant, open valley, though 
not extensively \vide. The Northwest Com- 
pany had a trading post here, one bastion of 
which is still standing, .\fter the river we 
crfis.'^ed a valley of level, alluvial soil, where it 
is about a mile and a quarter wide and the east 
side is especially fertile. Here the village of 
the Spokeins is located, and one of their num- 
ber has comiuenced the cultivation of a small 
field or garden, which he has ])lanted with p(j- 
tatoes, peas, and beans, and some other vegeta- 
liles. all of which were fl mrishing and were the 
first I had seen springmg up under Indian in- 
dustry west of the mountains." Page 288. ".As 
we wound our way up the mountains in several 
places I found granite. When we came to the 
summit of the mountains, we came to a sandy 
plain several tuiles wide and covered with yel- 
low pine. Over parts of this plain were scat- 
tered \-olcanic eruptions of singular formation. 
Himdreds of regular cones of various magni- 
tudes from those of a few feet in diameter and 
height to those of a hundred feet in diameter 
and sixty feet high. They all had the same ap- 
pearance, dififering only in magnitude and were 
composed of broken granite in angular pieces, 
from those that were very small, to those six 
or eight inches in diameter, and on the outside 
were nearly black, as if colored with rising 
smoke. They had more the appearance of be- 
ing broken liy manual lalior, and ])i1e<i U]) for 
future use in constructing roads and wharves 
than having been the result of internal fires, 
and vet no other cause but the latter can be as- 
signed. The sandy plain around them was im- 
distiu-bed and large pine trees were growing 
about theiu as in other places. After passing 
the ])lain we descended and came again to the 
Spokane river which makes a bend around to 
the northeast. In this place the valley is less 
extensive and the mountains are more precipi- 
tous. We again descended the mountain, upon 
which granite and mica slate prevail without 


any volcanic api^earances. Fn>m this we de- 
scended into a ricli \alley whicli was covered 
with a kixuriant growth of grass though Init 
justspringingup. Thisxalley has the appearance 
of liaving been a lake filled up with mountain 
deposits. In the center is a small lake from 
which proceeds a rivulet passing i)Ut at the 
southwest. Leaving this ])lace we wound 
around a mountain in a northerly tlirection 
down a \alley less fertile but more extensive. 
Came to a stream of water in the afternoon at 
four o'clock. Came to encampment. Spokein 
and Nez Perce Indians brought a good inter- 
preter, a }'>nmg man of their nation, who had 
been in school at Red River settlement. Win- 
nipeg, and had obtained a very good knowl- 

edge of English. 

Page 289. "These benighted 
Indians manifested the same solicitude to hear 
the gospel that others had done before them. 
And as an affecting proof that the impressions 
made on their minds were not momentarv. thev I 

went home and erected in their village a church 
constructed of rude materials, surely, l)ut de- 
signed, as they said, so that when the ne.xt mis- 
sionary arri\'ed. they should ha\'e a place of 
worship. The morning of the 28th of May, 
1836, was cloudy and some rain fell. After 
traveling a few miles in an easterly direction 
we came to a \cry fertile \alley well adapted to 
cu!ti\-ation. extending north and south for at 
least fifty miles, and of various extent in width. 
from one-half mile to two miles. The vallev 
is open prairie \vell supplied with grass, and at 
c\en this high latitude of 48 degrees cattle 
would do well through the year without the 
labor of cutting hay. Came to village of In- 
dians. Near their principal village we came 
to Mill ri\er. Wherever 1 have met with the 
natixes of this distant region, they have invari- 
al>ly with earnestness and importunity asked 
the gift of the Gospel from the hand of Christ." 



Though we have referred to Rev. Samuel 
Parker's work as one which attracted the spec- 
ial attentirm of geologists, nevertheless we do 
not mean to slight in any degree previous ex- 
plorers or undervalue their service. In a 
work like this we can do but little more than 
refer to them, and we deem it ath'isable to 
confine ourselves to those who actuallv visited 
the Spokane country, and came in contact with 
the Spokanes. The journals of Lewis & 
Clarke give us evidence that they tra\eled 
through the country of the Spokanes. But 
they refer to the Spokan woods, which is prob- 
ably the first time for the word Spokan to b; 
recorded in history. Alexander Ross, in his 

book entitled, ".Vdventures of the First Set- 
tlers on the Oregon or Columbia River, being 
a narrati\e of the expedition fitted out by John 
Jacob Astor to establish the Pacific Fur Co.," 
refers to Mr. Clarke of said company, establish- 
ing a post among the Spc^kanes. ( Page 212.) 
The second is (jabriel Franchere in his work 
entitled, "Narrative of a \'oyage to the North- 
west of America in the years 181 1, 1812, 
1813, 1814, or The first American Settlement 
on the Pacific." These two gentlemen were 
on the first vessels fitted out by the Pacific Fur 
Company or John Jacob Astor. It was the 
Tonquin which sailed from New York in the 
autumn of 181 1. having on board four part- 


ners, nine clerks, with .sume mechanics, and an 
assorted cargo for the In(han and Ciiinese 
trade. Mr. Ross was born at Nairnshire, 
Scotland, in 1783. He came to Canada when 
twenty-two years old, and taught school until 
he joined the Astor expedition. He continued 
a fiu'-trader until 1824, the most of the time 
in the serxice of the Htidson's Bay Ctjuipany. 
About 1825 he removed to the Red River set- 
tlement anil was sheriff of the settlement for 
several years. Died in Winnipeg. ^Manitoba, 
October 26. 1856. 

yiv. Franchere was born No\eml)er 3, 
1786, at Montreal, and spent his early years in 
school and behind the counter of his father's 
mercantile establishment. When he entered 
the employ of tlie Pacific Fur Company he 
agreed to serve the company for fi\-e years as 
a clerk. On April 12th the party were landed 
on the south side of the Columljia, ten miles 
from its mouth, and the company's principal 
port, called Astoria, was founded. Franchere 
exhibited a wonderful talent for acquiring the 
Indian languages of the country. He made 
several excursions up the Columbia and other 
directions. After the abandonment of the Pa- 
cific Fur Company, he was for some time in 
the employ of the Northwest Company, Init 
he impro\-ed the first opportimity to return to 
Montreal by the Canadian overland route, up 
the Columbia, and across the Rocky moun- 
tains. He pleasantly surprised his parents by 
arri\-ing home September i, 1814. He died 
at St. Paul, at the age of seventy. In his book 
he refers to a post of the Northwest Company 
on a river which they called Spokan. ( Page 
119). He refers to the transference of the 
Pacific Fur Company's post on the Spokan to 
the Northwest company. He also refers to 
the arrival from the post at Spokan of 
Messrs. J. Stuart and Clark while encamping 
at Kettle falls. (Page 200). Another work 
is that of Ross Cox. entitled, "Adventures on 
the Columbia Ri\'er. including an account of a 
Si.x Years Residence on the Western Side of 

the Rockies." Mr. Cox was on the second ves- 
sel, the Beaver, fitted up by Astor, and engaged 
himself as a clerk for the Pacific Fur Company. 
The Beaver sailed from New York in 181 1. 
His book gives account of experiences while 
serving the Pacific Fur Company and North- 
west Company, a period of five years, also his 
joiu'ney across the continent. In his work aie 
found many facts relative to the Indians, which 
have l)een extensi\cl_\' copied by later writers. 
He spent a season among the Spokane Indians. 
In chapter 9, page 99, he refers to the arrival 
of the party at Spokan. In describing the 
location of a post, l)y the Pacific I"ur Company, 
he says, "The spot selected for forming our 
establishment was a handsome point of land, 
formed b}" the junction of the Spokan and 
Ponited Heart rivers, the Little Spokan thinly 
covered with pine and other trees, and close to'a 
trading post of the Northwest Company.'' 
"In February we took immense quantities of 
carj) in Spokan ri\er." "The Spokanes we 
found to be a* cjuiet, honest, inoffensive tribe, 
and although we liad fortified our establish- 
ment, we seldom closed the gates at night." 
"Their country did ncjt abound in furs, and 
they were rather indolent in hunting. Their 
chief, lllinspokanee, or the Son of the Sun, 
was a harmless old man. who spent a great 
portion of his time between us and 'Mr. ^SlcMil- 
lian." Irving, in his Astoria, refers to the 
Spokan posts. "The place on which he 
(Clark) fixed for a trading post, was a fine 
point of land at the junction of the Pointed 
Heart and Spokan rivers. His establishment 
was intended to compete with a trading post 
of the Nortlrwest Company, situated at no 
great distance, and to rival it in the trade with 
the Spokan Indians, as well as with the Coo- 
toonas and Flatheads." It was the Northwest 
Company of Canada that established the first 
post on Spokane river, near the mouth of the 
Little Spokane. The Pacific Fur Company 
followed, and, as already intimated, was trans- 
ferred to the former com])any. 



A history of any portion of the "Inland 
Empire" cannot 'be complete that fails to give 
a prominent place to the heroic and martyred 
IMissionary, Marcus Whitman. He estalj- 
lished the first missionary station in eastern 
\\'ashington, six miles from Walla Walla. 
From his station, Wai-il-at-pu. came the first | 
missionaries t(.> the Spokane Indians. Rev. , 
Samuel Parker was instrumental in leading 
Dr. Whitman to become a missionary to Ore- 
gon, and Whitman led Rev. H. H. Spalding. 

]\larcns Whitman was born at Rushville, 
Yates county, Xew York, September 4, 1802, | 
and descended from a Xew England stock I 
characterized by a proportionate blending of 
the intellectual and moral, and I'emarkable for 
longevity. He was reared amid the environ- 
ments of a pioneer home, and was made famil- 
iar with the prixations incident to such life, 
which, other things being equal, tend generally 
to promote true manliness. His father dying 
when he was but eight years old, necessitated 
on his part the early exertion of physical and 
intellectual powers, resulting in a well devel- 
oiied jjodv, and a wholesome degree of self- 
reliance, independence, determination and pur- 
pose in life. 

He was a man of medium height. S(juarely 
built, of nughty endurance and iron ner\e: in- 
domitable pluck, inflexible resolution, great ' 
practical sagacity and genuine religious devo- 

"He was as silent as Grant, as resolute as 
Thomas, as prophetic as Wendell Phillips, as 
daring as Custer: he entered life quietly and 
took up first the task which lay nearest to 
his hand, that of a physician. His earnest 
desire was the ministrv, but the wav did nut 

>cem to open. Later in his leisure hours, he 
built a sawmill and gained the knowledge of 
tools. He worked and waited, ileveloping 
himself for whatever call his country or the 
world might have for him." The call came to 
go to the unknown regions of the west. Start- 
ing in the spring of 1836, we find Marcus 
Whitman, M. 1)., and wife. Rev. H. H. Spalding 
and wife, of whom we shall have more to rec- 
ord, and Mr. W. H. Gray ready to start on 
their long journey to the far away Oregon. 
It was a scene that would liave deliglited the 
heart of angelic beings. Five brave hearts 
with the power of the Holy Spirit upon them, 
undertaking a task that seemed to need super- 
human courage. In the name of the Most 
High God. and relying upon His grace, they 
are determined to face obstacles and perils in- 
describable, and enter upon a great and glori- 
ous mission, nothing less than the civilizing and 
christianizing of the wild savages of the far 
west. For though three had preceded them 
as missionaries, yet they were the ones that in- 
troduced Cliristian civilization among the na- 
tives of the I'acific Northwest. They were 
the primary agencies in destroying the mon- 
strous monopoly of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, which for a century and a half utilized 
the northern portion of this continent for fur 
and pel fry. They were the John the Baptist 
preparing the way for the coming multitudes, 
and the heralds of the great coming immigra- 
tion of fanfily life. At St. Louis they found 
the American Fur Company preparing for its 
annual expedition to the mountains. At 
Council Bluft's they joined the great caravan 
with dbout two hundred persons in all and six 
hundred animals. They had lieen repeatedly 



warned on tlie way of the presumpticjn uf at- 
tempting to take their wives across the plains 
and o\er the mountains. The officials of the 
American Fur Company remonstrated against 
assuming the responsibility of protecting them, 
and only yielded because of the service ren- 
dered them by Dr. Whitman during their trip 
the previous season. 

On they went, day by day, the monoti.Miv 
of the jdurney being bmken In' interruptions of 
various kinds and scenes of perpetual varia- 
tions. Who can conceive of the obstacles they 
had to encounter as they moved along the vast 
prairies where the antelopes and bufTalos roved, 
thruugh the dense forests, across swamps and 
wide and deep rivers overflowing their banks. 
But the courage of the \V(jmen never failed 
them. Mr. Spalding, on account of the fre- 
quent misfortunes and the feebleness of his 
wife, was sometimes ready to give up in de- 
spair, but Mrs. Spaldiiig would invarialjlv ex- 
press the determmation to press on towards 
their destination or die in the attempt. She 
ga\'e ex'idence of phenomenal endurance. 
Being feeble when they started she suffered 
much un the way. At one time she failed to 
keej) uj) with the company and it was thought 
that she c<nild not H\e, but she rallied again 
and was spared to do a great work among the 
Indians, especially in translating portions of 
the Scriptures and some hymns into the Nez 
Perce language. The mountain men acted 
especially gallant towards these women. 

The true nobility of the women seemed 
to impress them. They felt honored in liaving 
them m the country. .\ mountain man is re- 
ported to liave said, pointing to them : "There 
is something the Honorable Hudson's Bay 
Company can not e.xpel from the country." 
How true these words pr(j\ed to be, for the 
advent of these women was the Ijeginning of a 
new era in the history of the I'acitic Xorthwest. 
In this company we truly find the elements or 
germs of Christian civilization. .Something j 
that cannot be expelled or suppressed. Willi i 

them we find a quart of wheat, the Bible, and 
two wives. This meant the tilling of the soil, 
cultivated farms, harvest fields. Hour mills,, 
pure morality, light of the Gospel, family life., 
the Christian home and nurture. 

The journey lasted from March to Sep- 
tember, 1836, marked not only by the presence 
of the women but also by the successful effort 
of Dr. Whitman to take with them, on its 
wheels, the first wagon iiUo lliis country. 

By these two events was the scale turned to- 
wards the civilization of this then far-off coun- 

Dr. Whitman established a mission nn the 
Walla Walla river. This is no place to give 
particulars as to this mission or enter into au\- 
contro\ersial points, but to deal with facts, for 
despite the cavil and slur and doubts of some 
historians, it is a fact as "clear as the noon-day 
Sim" that Dr. Whitman, moved by patriotic 
motives, make the l(_>ng ride from Oregon 
to \\ ashington. D. C, in the winter of 1843 
and 1843. T'le praise of that famous ride de- 
ser\es to l>e sung in all languages. It was 
certainh' one of the most remarkable feats of 
history and many ha\'e declared it as unparal- 
leled, and the results of it are still operativ'e 
and will continue through the progress of his- 
tory. .Vs already mentioned, the first mis- 
sionaries to the Spokanes first came to the 
Whitman mission, became a part of it, and 
continued connected with it in some respects. 
They were members of the church at \\'ai-il- 
at-pu while laboring at Tshimakain. Walker's 
Prairie, and in many ways received aid, coun- 
sel and encourageiuent. 

Dr. \\hitman"s name is more widely known 
probalily to-day than any person ajnnected with 
the Pacific .Xorthwest. and he has been instru- 
mental in a(l\ertising the country to a greater 
extent than any other person or agency. 

The facts connected with the massacre of 
Dr. Whitman, his noljle wife and nine others 
on November 29, 1S47, ^''^ ^^'^" known. I^ir 
manv veju's the grave of the martyred mis- 



sionaries was neglected, but November 29 and 
30, 1897, on the fiftieth anniversary of the mas- 
sacre, a monument was dedicated near the 
grave at W'ai-il-at-pu. The ceremony was 
conducted under the auspices of the Oregon 
Pioneer Association. 

The monument is made of Barre granite 
and cost over two thousand dollars. It is 
jjlaced on the highest knoll in the vicinity of 
the Whitman mission, over five hundred feet 
.above the valley, and about h\-e hundred feet 
distant from and two hundred h;gher than 
the original graxe. A mausoleum of brick, 
encased in X' marl)le. and sur- 
mounted by a slab of polished marble, eleven 
feet by fi\e and one-half feet, by four inches, 
on which is carved the names of the martyred 
band, is placed on the spnt where the remains 
.were until the monument was erected. This 
is enclosetl by a neat iron rail four feet high. 

The mi'uument is placed (ju a foundation 
.of concrete, eight feet square and eight feet 
deep. The first base is six feet square by one 
ioot, eight inches ; the second, four feet, ten 

inches s(|uare, one foot, four inclies deep; the 
third, three feet, ten inches square by one foot, 
two inches, all rough faced and having a mar- 
ginal draft. On the third base in raised let- 
ters is the name \\ hitman, Rishig from the 
third base is a die of polished marble three feet 
scjuare by three feet, three inches deep. This 
is surmounted by a cap three feet, ten inches 
square by one ftjot, six inches, which is also 
rockfaced and has marginal draft : then tower- 
ing for eighteen feet above is the polished 
marlile shaft, a square two feet thick and 
slightly tapering towards the apex. The mon- 
ument in position weighs eighteen tons, one of 
the bases, the lower, weighs seven tons. 

But the college bearing his name, founded 
Ijy the Apostolic Gushing Eeils, D. D., is the 
iiUrepid missionary's most wortliy and per- 
manent memorial. It is making wholesome 
progress under the presidency of Rev. S. B. 
L. Penrose, and is rapirlly asserting its place 
as the most prominent institution of learning 
in the great Inland Empire of the upper Col- 
umbia countrv. 



There is a tendency to judge the Indians 
by their conduct in time of war. And on ac- 
count of cruelties and i-evengeful tendencies ex- 
hibited at such times, the almost unanimous 
verdict is that ascribed to a certain general, 
"The only good Indian is a dead Indian." 
Pioneers necessarily become engaged in con- 
flicts with the natives, which bring to the sur- 
face the latter's savage nature. Such circum- 
stances are not favorable to form a right esti- 
Jiiate of the Indian character. It might be said 

tiiat there has existed a mutual misunderstand- 
ing between the pioneer and the Indian, the 
ffjrmer coming to the conclusion that all In- 
dians are bloodthir.sty and unworthy of anv 
rights or existence, while the latter come to 
tlie conclusion that all the whites are robbers 
and interlopers. As the natives are slowly 
passing away and their myths and legends to 
a large degree obliterated, it tends to increase 
t'le interest of the student of ethnology in their 
character, habits, customs and traditions. It 

Indian Presbyterian Clinroh, Spokane Reservation- 
Built by Themselves About 1880 

Indian Schoul .a .Spuk.uie iv^-^,^•l vaiiun 

The Oldest Spokane Indians on Spokane 
Reservation in 1898 


Indian Home on Spokane Reservation 

l^ffT^n^EW Y0R5 




seems to me that the most thorough student 
should l)e satisfied witli the ela1)orate treatment 
found in tliese Hues from Bancroft's five vol- 
umes on tlie "Native Races." To said \-ol- 
umes the student is referred. Among all the 
Indians of the Pacific coast or Northwest terri- 
tory the inland natives, those dwelling between 
tlie Rockies and the Cascades, have been almost 
unaninidusly pronounced by explorers, and mis- 
sionaries, and historians, in character, morals, 
physique and nobility, as far superior to the 
dwellers on the coast. And judging from the 
testimonies of the most reliable authorities, we 
come to the conclusion that the Spokanes com- 
pare favorably with the rest ni the inland na- 
tives. "The Spokans are an honest, friendly 
tril)e. They are good hunters, but somewhat 
indolent, fond of gambling, despotic hus- 
bands and indulgent fathers. Their women 
are great slaves and most submissive to 
marital authority. They did not exhibit 
the same indifYerence to the comforts of 
the white mans wife as that displayed 
by the Flathead women, and some of them 
consequently became partners of the voyag- 
eurs. They made excellent wives and in gen- 
eral conducted themselves with pro])riety. Al- 
though the Spokane men are extreiuely jealous 
and punisli severely any infiilelit}' on the part 
of their wives, they are themseKes not over 
scrupulous in their own conduct. W'e learned 
from the wi\es of the voyageurs that female 
violation is by no means uncommon among 
them. The frequent journeys that the women 
in the execution of their laborious duties are 
obliged to make alone in the woods in search of 
fuel, roots, etc., afford great facility to the 
commission of this offence, antl the ravisher 
depends on impunity from the well-known fear 
of the woman to tell her husband, who might 
either abandon her, or, by taking the offender's 
life, enbroil their respective families in a san- 
guinary contest." — Ross Cox. page 231. 

"The Spokans are far superior to the In- 
dians of the coast in cleanliness, but by no 

means equal in this to the Flatheads. The 
women are good wives and most affectionate 
mothers ; the old, cheerful and complete slaves- 
to their family: the young, lively and confid- 
ing, and whether married f)r single free from 
the vice of incontinence. Their village was 
situated on the point formed by the junction of 
the two rivers. Some houses were oblong, 
others conical, and were covered with mats or 
skins according to the wealth of the proprietor. 
Their chief riches are their horses, which they 
generally obtain by barter with the Nez Perces, 
in return f(;r the goods which they receive from 
us for furs ; each man, therefore, is the founder 
of his own fortune and their riches and poverty- 
are generally proportionate to their activity or 
indolence. The \'ice, hcjwever. of gambling is 
prevalent among them and some are such slaves 
to it that they frec|uently lose all their horses. 
The spot where 'The rude forefathers of the 
hamlet sleep' is al)out half way between the 
village and the fort and has quite a picturesque 
appearance at a distance. When a man dies- 
several horses are killed and the skins are at- 
tached to the ends (jf long poles, which are 
planted in the graves ; the number of horses- 
sacrificed is proportioned to the wealth of the 
indixidual. Besitles the horse-skins, buffalo and 
deer robes, shirts of leather, blankets. ]jro- 
\'isions, warlike weapons, pieces of blue, green 
and scarlet cloth, strips of calico, moccasins, 
etc., are placed in and about the cemetery; all 
of which they believe will be more or less nec- 
essary for the deceased in the land of spirits.'' 
— Ross Cox, page 105. 

The expressions and estimates of the au- 
thorities referred to may be somewhat con- 
tradictory, but on the whole they agree. .\c- 
cording to tradition the Sjjokanes were once 
among the most powerful and numerous tribes 
west of the Rocky mountains. Balch, "Bridge 
of the Gods." 

The Rev. S. Parker says, "The Spokane 
Indians denominated themselves the 'children 
of the sun,' which in their language is Spoke- 



in." Ross Cox also says that the chief of the 
region was named lllum-Spokanee, which 
means "Son of the Sun." Further treatment 
is found in other chapters. Mr. Bancroft has 
collected an array of facts relative to the Spo- 
kanes from the works of Lewis and Clarke. 
Rtjss Cox, Alexander Ross. Rev. S. Parker 
and government reports. They are found in 
\'olume I, "Native Races." We .shall give the 
result of his investigations without wearying 
the reader with all the references to original 
sources. "The Spokanes live on the Spokane 
river and plateau, along the banks of the Co- 
lumbia from below Kettle falls nearly to the 
Okanogan." "The Spokihnish. or Spokanes, 
lie south of the Schroolyelpi and chiefly upon 
or near the Spokane river." "The name given 
to a number of small bands is that given l)y the 
Cceur d'Alenes to the one living at the forks." 
"They are also called Sinkoman by the Koo- 
tonies." "Tliese bands are eight in number. 
The three i jn the Columbia all speak a different 
lansfuaee frrmi the rest." — Stevens. "This 
tribe claim as their territory the country com- 
mencing on the large plain at tlie head of the 
Slawntehus, the stream entering the Columbia 
-at Fort Colville, thence down the Spokane to 
the Columliia and down the Ci)lumbia halfway 
to Fort Okinakane, and up the Spokane and 
Couer d' Alene to some point between the falls 
and the lake on the latter." "Inhabit the coun- 
try on the Spokane river from its mouth to the 
boundary of Idaho." — Paige. "At times on 
the Sp<:>kane. at times on the Spokane plains." 
— Mullan. Spokanes differ very little from the 
Indians at Colville either in language, habits 
or appearance. 


Mr. Ross Cox in the bonk referred to in 
-another chapter deals more with the Indian life 
than any author we know of. He gives valu- 
at)le information regarding the Spokanes as 
he found them from 1811 to 1816, having spent 

consideraljle time among them during those 
years. Wilkes says, "There is no regularly 
recognized chief among the Spokanes. but an 
intelligent and rich man often controls the tribe 
by his influence." Bancroft in treating of 
courtship among the Indians says, "Courtship 
in some nations includes certain visits to the 
bride before marriage, and the Spokane suitor 
must consult 1)0th the chief and the young lady 
as well as Jier parents; indeed the latter may 
lierself propose if she wishes." Runaway 
matches are not unknown ; they take place oc- 
casionally these days. Among the Spokanes 
a man marrying out of his own tribe joins that 
of his wife, because she can work better in a 
country to whicli she is accustomed, and in the 
same nation all the household goods were con- 
sidered the wives' property. In latter times the 
so-called chiefs could with propriety be called 
leaders, finding their places as such not from 
inheritance as much as on account of intel- 
lectual ability or strength of character. As one 
who has livetl among the Indians many years 
said, "Talent counts with the Indians as much 
as auKJUg the whites." 


As to these qualities in the Indian, opin- 
ions differ greatly, with evident tendencies on 
both sides to entertain extreme views. Among 
the Indians, like other nations, are both good 
and bad, noble and ignoble. "Worthless as 
some h.'ive been disposed to regard the Ameri- 
can savage, he has some traits which com])are 
with the best of v.hat we call our superior civ- 
ization. It is well established that the Indian 
is not necessarily by nature treacherous and 
l)loodlhirsty. These are {jualities which ad- 
verse circumstances have entailed upon him. 
The struggle for existence has developed feroc- 
ity among all nations." — H. T. Cowley in 
Spokesman Review. We ha\e evidence of no- 
bility of character among the Spokanes. those 
who ha\e proved themselves thoroughly trust- 
worthy. Ross Cox tells that the Spokanes were 


so honest that there was no need of closing 
the gates at the pnst. Rev. Gushing Eells testi- 
fied that (hiring a fire at Walker's Prairie 
not an article was lost, .\rticles that could 
have easily heen taken were returned to 
the missionaries. Rev. S. Parker was particu- 
larlv impressed with the hfinor of a Spokane In- 
dian. The missionary had lust his way in the 
Palouse country and finally found a Spokane 
Indian who was hired as a guide, .\fter reach- 
ing a lake the Indian said that the trail was (jn 
the east side i.if it. But Mr. Parker was some- 
what nervous and offered (juite a price for fur- 
ther guidance, but the Indian could not 
be persuaded to do so, arguing that 
it would be wrong fi)r him to take 
pav for doing that which was not neces- 
sarv. Rev. Parker says in his book that 
his horses and nearly all his worldly goods in 
charge of Indians, to meet him at Fort Walla 
Walla. He went in a boat on the Ci)luml)ia 
with two Indians. In due time the Indians in 
charge of the horses and goods arri\-ed at the 
fort bringing every thing with them in good 
order. On the other hand Re\'. E. Walker, 
who may have pessimistic tendencies, wrote: 
"During the five years that 1 ha\e been among 
this, people, I never yet have found one who, in 
the strict sense of the term, could be called hon- 
est. Xor have I found one whose word could 
lie depended upon, when his interest was con- 
cerned." He pronounced them "extremely sel- 
fish and apparently without principle." "It 
seems to me a fi.xed opinion among them 
that if you give once yott are under 
obligations t(j continue giving and to double 
the amount every time." See Missionary 
Herald, 1844, page t,^(>. Xot withstanding 
these representations the Spokanes ])ro\ed 
themselves thoroughly loyal to their teach- 
ers after the Whitman massacre. "When 
the terrible news came by runner to the Spo- 
kanes in November. 1847, t'^^'t the Cayuses 
had killed Dr. Whitman and family, and that 
a party was coming to cut off the family at 

Tshimakain, the head chief at once came to 
Messrs. Walker and Eells and said 'Do not 
fear, we will jimtect you." He collected his 
warriors, who, all armed and mounted, on 
some signs of the danger, rode to their house, 
surrounded their dwellings and became a body- 
guard to them and their households during 
that long winter until a company of volunteer 
cavalry under Major ]\Iagone, came to rescue 
and escort them to the Willamette valley in 
the early summer of 1S48. Such was the way 
in which they cherished their teachers, e\'en 
claiming their children as in some sort belong- 
ing to their country and tribe. They have Ijeen 
true to bible lessons in luanv respects ever 
since. W'itnesses to their honesty and faith- 
fulness, and desire to improve themselves and 
their children, come from various sources. Rev. 
Mr. Cowley, who has charge of a church of 
Spokanes, testifies to their superior Christian 
character." Dr. G. H. Atkinson's funeral ser- 
mon after the death of Rev. E. Walker, 1877. 
Re\-. Myron Eells, D. D.. in his biography 
of his father. Rev. Gushing Eells, D. D., gives 
abundant evidence of the disposition of the 
Spokanes to defend the missionaries. When 
the Spokane chief thought that some of the 
Cayuses had gone to Tshimakain, when he and 
some of his people were twenty-five miles 
awav, he immediately gave orders: "Young 
men, catch }-our horses ; hasten to Tshi- 
makain and see how it is with our teachers." 
"Twenty-one did so, and with the few weap- 
ons at hand ccjmmenced the ride of twenty-five 
miles. They rushed down the steep hill south 
of Spokane so rapidly that they left hoof-marks 
lilainly to be seen several days afterward. After 
crossing the ri\cr they watched closely expect- 
ing to see some woman or child in Hight. Whe;, 
within about two miles of the station they be- 
came satisfie<l that no one had been killed, al- 
though they believed that hostile Cayuses were 
in the region. Those in the van waited for farther Ijchind, when they shouted with 
jov that their teachers were safe, and at the 



same time let the enemy know if tliey were 
lurking around that they must let these teach- 
ers alone. .\.s they suspected that s])ies were 
near the mission, horses were placed in a pen 
and locked up. fires were kept burning and a 
watch during the night. One of these Indians, 
named Charles, was more intelligent and less 
e.xcitable than many. When asked what they 
would have done had they met the Cayuses with 
e\-il intent at Tshimakain, he replied, A\'e 
would ha\'e fought theiu." Such acts and such 
statements, with others like them, showed evi- 
dence of sincere regard by those Indians for 
their teachers." Life of Father Eells. page 134. 
It is a matter of history that the chief known 
as ^^'illiam Three Mountains, who when a boy 
li\ed ^vith I\e\'. E. Walker, at Tshimakain, ex- 
ercised a mighty influence to allay the war spir- 
it among the ujjper Spokanes during the 
A\'right campaign, and verv few if anv nf that 
band were among the Indian warriors. Air. 
Cowley, "hci knew him well, describes him as a 
man of ■'sterling i)rinciple, firm will and in- 
domitable energv." 

This chief led the Indians in their devo- 
tional exercises in the absence of missionaries 
and did much to lead them to a higher life. 
While attempting to pacify a drunken half- 
breed by the name nf Jackson, and pres'eut him 
from doing injury to others, he was killed near 
this city in the year 1885. See further treat- 
ment of Christian Indians in chapter on Mis- 
sionary Wnrk. 

Twenty years ago the Spokanes were di- 
vided into three bands, upper. lower anti midille 

Spokanes. The first, which occupieil the Spo- 
kane valley and south of it, were under Chief 
Lot. the third, occupying the country around 
Deep Creek, under Chief W'illiam Three Moun- 
tains, and the second, occupying the present 
Little Spokane reservation under Chief Lot. 
The upper Spokanes are adherents of the Rom- 
an Catholic church and nearly all have gone to 
the Cceur d' .Mene reservation : the two others 
are Protestants and have united under Chief 
Lot and reside mostly on the Little Spokane 
reservation. Major Gwydir. in writing of the 
Indian ])r()bleni, said : "Too much discrimina- 
tion is made between Indians who do not fight 
and those wiio take the warpath. The latter, 
when overpowered by the government, are pet- 
ted and have e\erything given to them, while 
the friendless, who liave behaved themselves, 
stand by wondering why the "Great Father" is 
good to the fighting Indians, and leaves them, 
will) ha\e obeyed the laws, to starve: they can- 
not unilerstand it. The present policy is all 
wrong. Chief Joseph's band t>f Nez Perces are 
the only ones on that reservation that get ra- 
tions. The others get nothing and the blood- 
thirsty gang of Nez Perces. wiio only a few- 
years ago caused so much trouble antl blood- 
shed, taunt the friendly Indians with cowardice 
and tell them that the white peojjle hate them 
because they are afraid to fight ; that they are 
fools: that if they would start in to fight the 
whites the government would feed them too. 
and after that they would not have to work 
any more." 

(■()p\ itmiriEii in it. k s^uir. 

Ittl'ltliniTKI) U\ I'KltMlSSlON. 





Revs. Gushing Eells and Elkanali \Yalker 
v.-ere appointed missionaries to Oregon by the 
American Board in 1838. They started on their 
journey in the spring of that year. In a letter 
to the writer about a year before his death, 
\vhich took place in 1893, the Rev. Dr. Eells 
wrote tlius : ■■Arri\ed at W'ai-il-at-pu August 
28, 1838. Rev. Elkanah \\'alker and myself 
were appointed to seek a new station among 
the Spolvane Indians. September loth we 
started antl Xoveiuber 15th encamped at Tshe- 
we-lah and conducted services in the Indian 
language. On the 17th we rotle to Fort Col- 
ville on the Columbia ri\-er. a short chstance 
above Kettle falls, were kindly entertained un- 
til Thursday, when we returned to Tshe-\ve- 
lah. We spent Lord's day at Pend-or-illa. On 
Tuesday, the 25th, we arrived at Tshim-a- 
kain. .\t that date there was not a spark of 
civilization at the place. We sent to Colville 
for food and for the loan of two axes. With 
the aid of the Indians, trees twelve inches in 
diameter were felled and cut into pieces four- 
teen feet long and carried to the place of build- 
ing by the Indians. The four walls of each two 
Vmildings were jmt uj). designed for human 
dwellings. We returned to W'ai-il-at-pu by 
Lapwai, the station of Rev. H. H. Spalding. 
According to agreement some eight or more 
Spokane Indians appeared at Wai-i-lat-pu about 
the last of February, 1839. They came to as- 
sist their teachers to move to their country. 
On the 5th of March, 1839, riders were 
mounted, packs placed upon the backs of horses 
or mules, and on the 20th of the same month 
we arrived at the two log pens at Tshiniakain, 
or Walker's prairie." In answer to the ques- 
tion as to method of instruction and apparent 

results, he wrote: "Gospel truth was imparted 
whenever a congregation could he collected. 
They earlv learned to ])ray. Morning and 
c\'ening, sang and prayed in their lodges, the 
most important male jierson conducting the 
ser\-ice. If the men were all absent the women 
did not hesitate to be heard." The Revs. Wal- 
ker and Eells labored faithfully for nearly ten 
_\ears among the Spokanes. They devoted 
themsehes entirely to the task of enlightening, 
civilizing and christianizing the natives. Their 
methods and temperaments were not such as to» 
tibtain speedy and apparent results, Init the sub- 
se(|uent history of the Spokanes bears testimony 
to the thoroughness of their ministry and toi 
the truth of that promise, "Your labors are; 

not in vain in the Lord." Walker's Prairie 

taking its name from Mr. Walker, who, onr 
account of his great height, si.K feet, six inches,., 
was called chief by the Indians — is situated aVc 
the northwest corner of Spokane county. The- 
south end of the i)rairie reaches within a few.-- 
miles of the north line. It is a delightful and' 
fertile little \-alley about four miles long and! 
varying from one to three miles in width. The.- 
Tshimakain creek flows through it and is the- 
eastern line of the Little Spokane reservation.. 
We shall have more to record al)0ut the res> 
ervation and the Spokanes as they are to-day 
in another chapter. Much could be written con- 
cerning the work of the first missionaries 
among the Spokane Indians. The Missionary- 
Herald, the organ of the .\merican Board un- 
der which they labored, contains considerable- 
correspondence from Messrs. Walker and Eells 
froiu 1838 to 1848. It does not seem to be 
within the province of this work to enter into 
details concerning their labors, yet it seems. 



most fitting to present here a brief sketch of 
their lives as the ones who sowed the first seed 
■of civilization in this region. 


Mr. Walker was born at Xorth YarniDiUh, 
Maine. August 7, 1805. He was educated at 
Kimball Union Academy, Aleridan.New Hamp- 
pshire, and Bangor Theological Seminary in 
the same class as Dr. Cyrus Hamlin, the emi- 
nent missionary to Turkey. Mr. Walker and 
Mr. Eells were booked for Zululand, South 
Africa, the field of the present war. A tribal 
war in that cnuntry prevented their going and 
the cry fmni beyond the Rocky mountains was 
heard. 'Sir. Walker, then waiting to sail for 
Africa, and readv for any \'(iice (jf I'roN-idencc, 
his mind filled with thoughts of the heathen, his 
heart 1)eating with a desire to do them good, was 
willing to gi) to any other region at the bidding 
of the Master. As above stated, they settled 
among the Spokane Indians. The late Dr. G. 
H. Atkinson, Portland, Oregon, in a memorial 
discourse said, "Four thousand miles from their 
home on the .\tlantic they built their log-house 
.among the Flatheail or Spokane Indians, sel- 
dom, or never, perhaps, expecting to return or 
see the faces of friends again, or e\'en of man\- 
white people. Their mission was to unfold the 
teachings of Christ to those dark-minded men 
and women and children. First, it must be by 
the example of their own Christian home. 
Their humble dwelling at Tshimakain re- 
sounded morning and evening with prayer and 
praise. Christ was their hidden life. On the 
promises of Gotl they rested and were at peace." 
Mr. Walker printed with his own hand on the 
mission press at Lapwai in 1841 a small primer 
in the Spokane language. The Indians learned 
to respect him as a man of true courage — a 
■quality which they always tested — and to es- 
teem him as a friend and to trust him as an 
honest man. His example was a lesson. His 
■words abide in their nfinds and bind them to 

many truths whicfr he taught. One of them, 
a yt)ung man, lived with him a year. His prog- 
ress was such, in new llunights. that an old 
chief, jealous of his influence with the tribe, 
persuaded him away antl In- a kind of plagiar- 
ism obtained his new views and gave them to 
the tribe as his own and thus retained his own 
influence and jdace. That young man has be- 
come a Christian and a chief, and the war fever 
that was rising high this summer* he did much 
to allay, and keep his tribe true to the whites, 
I's Re\'. Mr. Cowley testifies, who was among 
them at the time." Air. Walker and associate 
left Tshimakain under military escort soon 
after the Whitman massacre, although the Spo- 
kane Indians earnestly desired that the\' sh<juld 
remain. During the Cayuse war the military 
authorities commanded all whites to leave east- 
ern Washington. Mr. Walker went to the Wil- 
lamette \alley and bought a claim on which 
Forest (irove has partly grown. There the 
necessities of a large family made early and 
late toil imperative. alth(nigh he continued to 
])reach the gospel as opi)ortunity offereil itself. 
"The old fire kindled and glowed on occasions 
in his heart," says Dr. Atkinson, and he longed 
to give himself wholly to the work and to win 
souls to Christ. He was one of the founders of 
Pacific University and for years a trustee. He 
was valued as a wise counsellor in its affairs 
and a liberal contributor toward its support 
considering his circumstances. He died at For- 
est Grove, Xovember 21, 1877. at the age of 
seventy-three. His wife, a woman of like cour- 
age and spirit with himself, died at Forest 
Grove a few \ears ago. Their son, a mission- 
ary in China, was the first white boy child 
born in eastern Washington. 


The associates of Rev. E. Walker and wife, 
a.; missionaries among the Spokane Indians, 
were Rev. Gushing Eells and wife. Not only 
during over nine years of missionary work at 

*Preached NuVL-inl)cr, 1877. 



Isiiimakain, Walker's prairie, has liis name 
l)een identified with tliis county, l)ut for years 
afterward, as a self-supporting home mission- 
ary. He is favorably known l)y all the pioneers 
from Walla Walla to Colville and familiarly 
known as "Father Eells." His life and labors 
have been recorded in a book by his son. Rev. 
Myron Eells, D. D., and published by the C. 
S. S. and P. Society, Boston, and is a work 
Viorthy of careful study. Dr. Eells was born 
at Blandford, Massachusetts, February 16, 
1810. His father's name was Joseph and his 
mother's Elizabeth (Warner), who were godly 
people. His mother died when he was twelve 
3-ears of age, and he often referred to his old- 
est sister as one who did much for him while 
pursuing his courses of study. At fifteen he 
was converted and soon united with the Con- 
gregational church at Bland fortl, under the 
ministry of the late Rev. Dorus Clarke, D. D. 
( Dr. Eells traveled from New York to Bos'.on 
in the winter of 1885 — while in the east solicit- 
ing funds for Whitman College — to attend the 
funeral of his old pastor.) He graduated at 
Williams College in 1836, working his way 
through by hard labor and self-denial. He 
was accustomed to walk home, a distance of 
forty miles. I have heard him say that he 
deemed it providential that he resolved while 
in college to drink nothing but cold water, for 
it fitted him more easily to endure some of the 
])rivations of his subsequent life, for he enjoyed 
many meals beside the silvery streams or cool- 
ing springs. After completing his theological 
course at the Theological Institute, now the 
Hartford Theological Seminary, he was or- 
dained at Blandford October 25, 1837, as a 
missionary to the heathen. On the 5th of 
i\larch, 1838, he and INIiss Myra Fairbank, of 
Holden, Massachusetts, were united in the 
bonds of matrimony and a few days later they 
started on their long wedding tour to far-away 
Oregon. The writer once asked him, "What 
led you to bec(.)me a missionary?" His answer 
was characteristic, "Tlie Word and the Spirit 

of God." As before stated, he contemi)lated 
going to South Africa, but Providence led him 
to Oregon. Father Eells was universally re- 
garded by those who knew him as one of the 
most sincere, devoted, self-denying and apos- 
tolic missionaries that ever lived. His whole life 
was on the side of righteousness, and a con- 
stant testimony and unanswerable argument in 
favor of the efficacy of prayer and the i)ower 
of the religion of Jesus Christ. AH classes of 
men with whom he came in contact, Jews, Ro- 
man Catholics and infidels, as well as Protest- 
ants, acknowledged his incorruptible integrity 
and unfeigned loyalty to the principles which 
he confessed. He left this country at the same 
time as Mr. Walker in obedience to military 
command. For eleven years he resided in and 
around Forest Grove, Oregon, aiding in laying 
the foundations of Tualatin Academy and Pa- 
cific University and doing much preaching and 
leaching. As soon as this country, eastern Ore- 
gon and Washington, was declared open he 
started for the Whitman mission. As a repre- 
sentative of the American Board he took pos- 
session of the Whitman mission claim, and paid 
for it to the said Board, and dedicated half of 
it for a Christian school in memory of the 
martyred missionary. That school has become 
Whitman College, endowed and equipped for 
great service and known all over the country. 
As soon as this upper country began to be set- 
tled he entered upon his periodical missionary 
tours from Walla Walla to Colville. He was 
identified with the organization of several Con- 
gregati<:inal churches in this country, first Spo- 
kane, Cheney, Medical Lake and aided in the 
erection of their first buildings and gave each 
a bell. He did much home missionary work 
in the country, preaching at Marshall, Deep 
Creek. Half Moon, Pleasant Prairie and other 
places. Dr. Eells was an active missionary for 
fifty-two \-ears. He was a remarkable man in 
manv respects and a wonderful illustration of 
the possibilities of life under adverse circum- 
stances, with industrv. economy and noble pur- 



poses. He was always careful and systematic 
in all his doings, utilizing every moment of 
time, retiring and rising early, a man of mighty 
faith and strong in prayer. .-Vmid discourage- 
ments and disappointments, he was accustomed 
to wrestle with God in prayer. "Taking hold 
of God." was a favorite expression of his. How 
much he Inxed to preach the gospel, and he 
would ha\'e greatly enjoyed the settled pastor- 
ate. He prepared his discourses with care and 
his expressions were concise and comprehen- 
sive. Under different circumstances he would 
have made an extraordinary sermoniser. He 
had an intense zeal for the faith once delivered 
to the saints. He abhored sham and sensation- 
alism and especially sectarian rivalry. What a 
grand life ! It can truly be said of him "he did 
what he could." \\'ordly excitement, the rush 
after money so prevalent in this country had no 
charm to him. His supreme desire was to walk 
the earth doing good. He has made for him- 

self an imperishable monument, and while the 
names of selfish worldlings who iiave lived to- 
hoard money will soon perisli and be forgotten,, 
his name will be lovingly remembered by suc- 
cessive generations. "Blessed are they that die 
in the Lord, for their works do follow them." 
Prof. \\'. D. Lyman, of \\'hitman College, who 
knew him from childhood, said of him, "If I 
were to select one thing more conspicuous than 
another in the character of Gushing Eells, it 
would be the abiding consciousness of his re- 
sponsibility to God and man, and his clear per- 
ception of the bearing which his deeds would 
have on the conditions of others." After a 
sickness of four days with pneumonia, the Rev. 
Gushing Eells departed this life at the home 
of his son, Edwin, Indian agent at Tacoma, 
Washington, on Thursday morning February 
1 6, 1893. His remains were buried in the Ta- 
coma cemetery. 



As already stated, the first missionaries 
among the Spokanes were Revs. Elkanah Walk- 
er and Gushing Eells and their wives. We shall 
endeavor to avoid repeating facts, but rather to 
follow the development of missionary labors 
from the beginning up to the present time. 
These missionaries pitched their tents at Tshi- 
makain. Walker's Prairie. March 20, 1839. They 
had begun to stud_\- the language during the 
winter at the Whitman mission, but their prog- 
ress was slow, and their knowledge of it very 
imperfect. The Spokane language has been 
pronounced "harsh and gutteral." One person on 
hearing it said, "It makes me think of persons 

husking corn." "In this respect," says ■ Dr. 
M. Eells, "it is very unlike the adjoining Xez 
Perce language, which is soft and musical." 
The missionaries established a school at Tshi- 
makain in which the Indians for a time were 
especially interested. .\ large amount of time 
had to be de\oted to mainial labor. A garden 
had to be cultivated with the roughest kind 
of a home-made plow. They planted wheat. 
potatoes and corn the first year, but the latter 
was frost killed on August i8th. Religious 
instruction was imparted through an interpre- 
ter. One of the brightest Indians would be se- 
lected to whom the lesson would be explained 



■^'^ ^J>- 

The Tshmakain Mission Ground on Walker's Prairie 

The Revs Gushing Eels and Elkanah Walker began Mission Wcrk here in 1838 
Thirty Miles Northwest of Spokane 



in advance and he wonld reliearse what tlie 
missionary would say in pu1)hc wurship. Dr. 
Eells gives account of their work in the Mis- 
sionary Herald. 1840, page 437. 

"Taking this place as the center of a circle 
Avhose radius shall not exceed sixty miles, it will 
include a population of nearly two thousand 
souls, nine-tenths of whom rarelw if ever, leave 
the ahove specified ground fur any length of 
time unless it be for two or three weeks in the 
sjiring. There are five or six bands, each of 
which has certain lands which they claim as 
theirs, and where they pass a portion of each 
year. So far as I can learn they are somewhat 
regular in their removings. In this respect, 
let last year be a fair specimen. We shall have 
no great difficulty at alnmst any time, in know- 
ing where to find a good collection. In April 
a large number gathered on one plain to gather 
a root called popo. 

■'In ;\Iav they returned U< this place and 
after remaining about three weeks rem(j\-ed ti_> a 
large camass plain about ten miles from us. 
The camass is their most substantial root. It 
remains good from May to the following 
March. In June salmon beghi to g(j up the 
Spokane river, which passes within six miles of 
our house. At first a barrier was constructed 
near some falls, ten miles from this place and 
])erhaps fifteen miles from the camass grounds. 
.\t that place salmon were taken only during 
liigh water, and then not in large (|uantities. as 
the barrier extended only part way across the 
river. While the men and boys were employed 
at the salmon, the women were digging and 
preparing camass, and daily, horses passed be- 
tween the two places loaded b(ith ways, so that 
all could share in both kinds of food. As the 
water fell another liarrier was Iniilt farther 
down, extending across the entire river: and 
whencomi)leted men. women and children made 
m general move to the place. If I judge correctly 
I saw there at one time near two thousand per- 
;sons. and the number was rapidly increasing. 
From four to eieht hundred salmon were taken 

in a day. weighing \ariouslv from ten to forty 
pounds apiece. When they ceased to take the 
salmon, about tlie first of August, they returned 
to the camass ground, where they remained 
till October, and then began to make prepara- 
tifins to take the jjoor salmon as they went 
down the river. During this month they were 
very much scattered, though not very remc^te 
from each other. In November they went to 
their wintering j)laces. 

"From March to November our congrega- 
tions varied from thirty to one hundred, not 
more than one-half of them usually remained 
with us (luring the week. They often came 
ten. fifteen and somtiiues thirty miles on Sat- 
urday and returned on Monday. Since No- 
\eml)er nearly two hundred have remained 
with us almost constantly. In addition to these 
just mentioned there ha\-e been frequent visit- 
ors from neighlioring trilies, coming in \'ari- 
ous numbers from three or four to sixty at a 
time. They usually spend one or two weeks 
and then return. 

"We ha\-e habitually conducted worship 
with them morning and evening, when we read 
a portion of Scripture, and, so far as we are 
able, explain it, sing, and pray. On the Sab- 
liath we have three services. While the weath- 
er continues warm, the place for worship was 
under some pine-trees: but as it became cold, 
a house was i)repared entirely by the people, 
expressly for worship. It resembles somewhat 
in form the roof of a house in New England, 
making the angle at the top much smaller than 
that of most modern houses. The frame is 
made of poles four or five inches in diameter, 
and covered with rush mats. of the In- 
dian houses here are in the same way. 

"For want of a thorough accpiaintance with 
the language much of the instruction com- 
municated has related to Scripture history, 
though I think we have not failed to give them 
some correct ideas respecting the character of 
God. the fallen state of man. the doctrine of 
the atonement and regeneration, and the ne- 


cessity of repentance and faith in Christ to 
secure salvation. It is strictly true that they 
must have 'Hne for hue' ; every new idea 
must lie repeated many times. The nearer 
our teaciiing approaches to Sabbath-school 
instruction, appropriate for small children, the 
better it is understood. This people are slow 
to believe that the religion we teach is to ex- 
tend farther than the external conduct. They 
wish to believe that to abstain from gross sin 
and to attend to a form of worship is all that 
is necessary to fit them for heaven. 

"There has usually been good attention 
during- the time of worship. At first the ap- 
pearance seemed to indicate a desire to hear 
something new. Of late I ha\e perceived what 
I thought to be a little change, approximating 
toward a disposition to listen as to an import- 
ant truth, though I am oljliged to say as yet 
the word seems to fall powerless, producing 
no deep or permanent effect upon the inward 
man. I have not been able to learn that thev 
ha\-e any realizing sense of the t)dious nature 
of sin, or of moral obligation. During the 
last week in November a school was opened. 
At first it was composed of little more than 
thirty members, but has been gradually increas- 
ing so that it now numbers more than eighty. 
The attendance is very regular. The school- 
house and house for worship are the same. 
Progress in teaching must necessarily be slow 
till a better knowledge of the language shall ' 
be obtained and books prepared. As yet all the 
printing has been done with the pen."'* 

Next year Dr. Eells writes: "During 
the past winter nearly two hundred and 
fifty Indians have been encamped by us. As 
lias been usual since we first came here, so 

*" Respecting the Indian character I will only say 
that I think a minister on his tirst acquaintance' with 
them will be inclined to judge quite too favorably, and 
give an extravagant account of their readiness to receive 
the gospel. That error has been committed in this re- 
spect is very evident, but it should not be thought 
strange; for so great is the danger of being deceived 
that I am almost afraid to say anything on this point, 
even after being among them for over a year."— Pn 94- 
98, Father F.ell's Life. 

now there is good external attention to relig- 
ious worship. If we judge correctly there has 
been a marked increase in the knowledge of 
divine truth. This is especially true of the 
chief mentioned in the Herald b_\' the name of 
Big Head. It has been a rather general im- 
pression among the i)est informed Indians that 
thieves, gamblers. Sabbath-breakers, and such 
like will go to a place of misery when they die, 
but that such as are not guilty of open vices, 
and attend to a form of worship will go above. 
\\'e have labored much to correct this and kin- 
dred errors, and unless we greatly mistake, 
our la1)or has not been in vain. The language 
of the chief is: "I formerly thought my heart 
was good. I)ut I n(jw see it is not." Resjiecting 
the wickedness of the heart his expressions 
are at times forcible. He says to his people: 
■\\'e are full of all manner of wickedness — 
are covered up in our sins. They hold us like 
strong chords. One thing must be done. Our 
hearts must be changed or we shall go below 
wlien we die." Some are respectful and atten- 
tive to our instructions, evidently with the hope 
of obtaining from us some pecuniary reward. 
"The school has been taugiit fourteen 
weeks. It commenced the last of November. 
The whole number of pupils who have at- 
tended has not \aried much from seventy, 
though the average number. I think, has Ijeen 
about fifty. As was expected, novelty liad its. 
influence in causing some to attend for a time 
who ha\e since fallen off. A few of the older 
members have been necessarily absent so much 
that they have fallen behind those much 
_\-ounger than themselves, and, as I suppose on 
account of shame, have ceased to attend. The 
manifest interest in the school, both among the 
parents and children, is as great as can rea- 
sonaljly be expected. Instruction has been 
given in reading, spelling, arithmetic, and 
music. The proficiency generally made by the 
schotjl has been quite satisfactory to the teach- 
ers. I have been agreeably surprised at the 
readiness with which correct answers have 



been given to questions relating to numbers. 
They are passionately fcmd of music." 

During the first year Air. Eells traveled 
about sixteen hundred miles on horseback in 
the prosecution (.>t his missionary labors. 
During the second year the number attending 
the school reduced materially. 1 he winter of 
1846-47 was a very severe one. Mrs. Eells 
writes. "The past winter has been the most se- 
vere in the memory of the oldest Indians. The 
snow began t(j fall about the middle of No- 
vember ; about the middle of December it was 
not far from two feet deep and it cnntinued to 
increase to the first of March. For more than 
five months the earth was clothed in a robe of 
white ; for more than three mcjnths we were 
literal]}' buried in snow ; all the west side of 
our house was banked to the roof and would 
have been dark only that the snow was shov- 
eled from the windows. 

"Our meeting house was not opened from 
the 17th of January till the last Sabbath in 
March, and then Mr. Eells went on snow- 
shoes. Several Indians went tn wurship on 
the first Sabbath of April, but Mr. Eells went 
on horseback ; sometimes it was so cold that 
the air cut like a knife and about the first of 
March we could not keep ourselves cnmfnrta- 
ble. From the middle of December until 
some time in April, men, women and children 
traveled on snow shoes outside of the every 
day beaten path. The extent of Mr. Eell's and 
Mr. Walker's traveling was to the Indian 
lodges and about a quarter of a mile to feed 
the horses and cattle ; it was only by unwearied 
labor and greatest ecimomy in feeding that 
enough of our cattle and horses were saved 
for present use. Only one horse has died, 
but we ha\e lost tweh'e cattle. We have, 
however, had an abundance of the necessaries 
of life, and more of its lu.xuries than has some- 
times fallen ti) our lot." During this winter 
nearly all the horses and cattle both of the In- 
dians and Hudson's Bay Company died, the lat- 
ter saving but three out of two hundred and 

seventy horses. We have already referred to 
the departure of these missionaries after the 
Whitman massacre. Messrs. Walker and Eells' 
desire and purpose to return was so strong 
that they did not formally sever their connec- 
tion with the American Board for fi\-e years. 
Some of the Spokane Indians came to Oregon 
City in 185 1, to olitain teachers. The mission 
had not been a great success as far as visible 
results were concerned, but faithful work had 
been done, accompanied by sincere praver for 
God's blessing. The conservativeness of the 
missionaries was probably one reason why a 
church had not been organized and some of the 
Indians made members of the visible church. 
Subsequent evidences show that there were 
some among them who were reall_\- converted. 
After the departure of the nussionaries. some 
of them assumed leadership as religious teach- 
ers, and Sabbath worship and daily worship 
were conducted in their lodges. Travelers 
going through the country after the discovery 
of the Colville mines, testify that they found 
[jraying men among the Sjiokanes. Major P. 
Lugenbeel, who had command of United 
States fort Cohille, and acted as Indian agent, 
said in 1861 to Mr. Eells, "Those Indians of 
yours are the best Indians I ever saw. I wish 
you would go ijack and resume missionary op- 
erations among them." Mr. Eells came to 
Walla Walla in i860. He improx'ed the first 
opportunity to \-isit Tshimakain. which was in 
1862. He spent a Sabljath on the old mission 
ground antl a large number came from many 
miles to see and hear him. He was gratified 
bv finding evidence that his work had not been 
in vain and that many of the Indians had ex- 
jieiienced the saving power of the truth and 
power of God. To follow the development 
of Protestant missionary operations among 
the Spokane Indians brings the name of Rev. 
Henry Harmon Spalding prominent. His 
work and that of Rev. H. T. Cowley seems to 
be the connecting link between foreign and 
home missionarv work in this country. 



The labors of tlie Catlmlic Fathers is treat- 
ed separately. 

Mr. Spalding and his wife, as already stat- 
ed, crossed the mountains the same time as Dr. 
and Mrs. Whitman. The journey is justly 
ce'ebratetl in history as the first ever made by 
white women across the Rocky mountains. 
"This alone was sufficient to make the name 
of Mrs. \Vhitman and Mrs. Spalding historic." 
Himes. Mv. Cowley, in an article in the 
Spokesman Review, says : 

"In the midst of the wildest rumors, a dele- 
o-ation of three Sixikanes made a visit in the 
spring of 1873 to the Lapwai agency and en- 
treated Rev. H. H. Spalding, the veteran Nez 
Perce missionary, to make a preaching tour in 
the Spokane country, as the natives were again 
hungering fur instruction. Although old and 
feeble, and surroun'ded with many perplexities 
in his own field, he complied, and the month he 
sj-ent in the Indian camps ;it the root grounds 
and fisheries distinctly allayed the excitement 
and reassured the scattered settlers. This re- 
sponse of Mr. Spalding's to the entreaties of 
the Spokanes was only a half loaf, measured 
by their eager desires for intelligence, but it 
produced a lasting impression ui)on their sus- 
ceptible minds. He returned to Lai>wai in the 
beat of the July sun, in great bodily exhaustion, 
promising to make them a visit the following 
season. But he had made his last effort for 
the welfare of the red man. and in the summer 
of 1874 he passed to his final rest." 

Dr. Eells testifies that Mr. Spalding bap- 
tized two hundred and fifty-three Spokanes at 
this time. Rev. H. T. Cowley came as an in- 
dependent missionary among the S])okanes in 
October, 1874. He did some teaching and 
preacliing near his present home in a log biuld- 
Lng erected by the Indians on Enoch's land and 
a few rods south of the N. P. depot. But the 
principal Indian nfission was estalilished near 
Deep Creek, where the Indians erectetl a log 
building 20x30 feet, but not a very comfiirtable 
place to spend the winter. Mr. Cowley contin- 

ued his labors until the spring of 187S. The 
Indians had no special care from this time to 
1S82. On July 23, 1882, Rev. Dcffenbaugh, 
missionary of the Presbyterian Board among 
the Nez Perces. \isite(l tlie Spokane Indians. 
.-\t Chief Lot's camp fMi the Little Spokane res- 
ervation, about fifty miles northeast of Spo- 
kane, he reorganized the Indian church. There 
were foimd to be sixty-four members of the 
Deep Creek church. During a series of meet- 
ings, the records state that thirty-five backslid- 
ers were reclaimed. • At this time a licentiate 
was left in charge, an Indian educated by Miss 
Maclieth. Nez Perce mission, named Enoch 
Pond. He was succeeded by an Indian named 
S. H. Whitman. The Indians built a ciiurch 
of logs, covering it with weatherboards. 25x40 
feet. Chief Lot put into the buildings twenty 
dollars and twenty-seven cayuses out of his in- 
come of ninety-six dollars a year. After a 
few vears of experience with Indian preachers 
the chief re<|uesled that a white preacher be 
sent them. On October 25, 1894, a lady found 
her way alone to the Indians. She was Miss 
I'dlen W. Clark a native of Kensington, Que- 
bec. .Vfter teaching for several years and jnir- 
suing a special course of study at the Moody 
school. Northfield. Massachusetts, she decided 
to devote her life to labor among tlie Indians. 
Hearing of the Spokanes as neglected and de- 
siring a teacher, slie found her way to them and 
started at first an independent school at Chief 
Lot's camp which was soon adople'l l)y the 
Woman's National Indian Association. Being 
an energetic and capable woman she did effect- 
ive work. The enrollment at the school reached 
as high as eighty. Miss Clark left this field last 
summer and went to the Neah Bay reserva- 
tion. There are two Indian churches and l)uild- 
ings, one at Lot's camp known as W'ellpennit, 
the other at the river near the agency. They 
are connected with the Spokane agency. The 
writer agrees with some others who have writ- 
ten on the suljject that these upper Spokanes 
have not been treated by the go\ernment as 



well as they deserve. There are now about 
fi\'e hundred oi them on the Little Spokane res- 
ervation. Rev. Robert Gow, a late missionary 
among them, testified thus, "The Indians here 
morally are superior .to those of other tribes 
tliat I ha\e seen. Compared with the white 
people their morality in some respects is also 
superior. They are. I should say. so far as 
their knowledge goes as moral as any of us. 
There is not much drunkenness, they do not 
steal, they keep the Sabbath as well as they 
know how. If you were here some Sabbath 
(lav, either \\hen celebrating the Lord's Supper, 
or upon any ordinary Sabbath, and see the in- 
terest manifested, the order and decency of the 
meeting, and hear the prayers, and see the tears 
as one after another rises and tells of sins com- 
mitted and sorrows of heart, you would not ask 
for further evidence whether missionary work 
had been in vain." Some of these Indians prove 
themselves genuine Christians. They have the 
gift of public prayer to a remarkable degree. 
Miss Clark testified to the writer that .she be- 
lieved Chief Lot and Enoch and Abraham as 
good Christians as she ever knew. Thomas 
Geary, the interpreter, one of Mr. Cowley's 
scholars, is spoken of as a man of real Chris- 
tian character. 

Re\-. D. D. Allen and wife are at present^ 
the Presbyterian missionaries on the Little 
Spokane reservation, and in a letter from W'ell- 
])innit mission, dated January 0, 1900, writes: 
".After the \Vellpinnit church had been or- 
ganized, a log church building was erected, 
about 1 7x20 feet. It was afterwards extended 
to 34 feet. The congregations increased until 
this was not sufficient. .Xccordingly work was 
commenced on a new church building 30x40 
feet, during the past summer. The Indians 
became very much interested in the new build- 
ing, and subscribed nearly six hundred dollars 
for the work, besides doing all the hauling, 
and ])erhaps nearly one hundred dollars worth 
of work on the building. The Indians have 
been nearlv all settled on farms which they cul- 

tix-ate, and ha\-e liecomc almost entirely self- 
supjiorting. They are a peacable. industrious 
class of Indians. The church work is in quite 
a prosperous conditirjn. The new church is 
filled nearly e\ery Sabbath. The church was 
beautifully decorated on Christmas, and a very 
pleasant entertainment was given that night, 
unfler the management of ]\Irs. D. D. .\llen. 
The young men ;ui(l women took great delight 
in being able to carry all the parts in the songs. 
Communion ser\'ices were held on Sabbath, 


The services commenced on 

Friday morning and closed on Monday night 
with a young people's meeting. The church 
was packed at almost every ser\'ice. The In- 
ilian ushers went aliout their work with as deft 
a hand as could be done in any white church. 
The Spirit of the Lord was truly present. Dur- 
ing the i)rogress of the meetings fifty-seven 
persons came Ijefore the session — some to learn 
whether the offenses which they had committ- 
ed would debar them from the Lord's Supper, 
which they regard as a great privilege. There 
were twenty-four accessions to the church. 

"Chief Lot said, he spent the first twelve 
years of his life without any clothing. When 
a treaty was entered into l)etween the govern- 
ment and the Indians, Chief Lot chose, instead 
of an annuity, churches and schools. He wants 
his people to be educated that they may be all 
the same as the white people." 


"Lot, chief of the Spokanes. was so named 
by Rev. Eells, who established a Protestant 
mission church at what is now known as 
Walker's Prairie, forty miles north of Spo- 
kane. Lot is by far the most respected of 
any of the chiefs amongst all the trbes of In- 
dians in the Northwest. During the Indian 
troubles, he took the Rev. Mr. Eells from 
Walker's Prairie to Walla Walla with a trusted 
band of Indians, traveling by night and sleep- 
ing by day for fear of meeting hostiles. Lot 



was one of the band of chiefs wlio went to 
Washington, composed of Moses. Tomasket, 
and himself, to make a treaty for the cession 
of part of the lands from the Indians to the 
public domain. Fred Sherwood acted as in- 
terpreter. Aloses, as the great war-chief, was 
first interviewed. He asked for a thousand 
dollars a year annuity ( which he still receives), 
and annuities for his tribe. Tomasket asked 
for a school house and mills for his people, but 
Lot asked for a church and a schoolhouse tiiat 
his young people might be taught the ways of 
the whites and the Christian religion as taught 
by ^lissionary Eells. 

"There are several interesting reminis- 
cences about Lot while I was agent of the 
Colville reservation. Tlie first Indian court 
was appointed Ijy me. consisting of Whistle 
Poosom (Lot), Sharchjiickin (Cornelus), and 
Red Bones, as judges. I will say that no 
court ever administered justice more impar- 
tially than that court. One day at the agency 
an Indian policeman came in with a prisoner 
who was the chief's son. 

"I asked the young man what was the 
tniuble and he said he had been accused of 
stealing another's wife, but that the accusation 
was false. He said his fatlier was coming 
down the following day to try him. I told the 
policeman to turn the young man loose, when 
the prisoner said. no. his father had ordered 
him to be put in jail, and his father's orders 
must be obeyed and he wanted t<j go to jail. 
I told the policeman to put him in jail, where 
iie remained till the next day. when his father, 
with two hundred of the tribe, came down to 
the trial. 

"Upon hearing t he evidence the court 
found the prisoner not guilty, the accusation 
having been brought about by idle talk. Lot. 
on that occasion, after his son was declared 
not guilty, macle the following address to his 
peiiple : "I am the chief : you are my people, 
you are my children. When you do wrong, 
it makes my heart sick ; when you do good it 

makes my heart glad. But this boy is closer 
to me than all of you. He is my blood, my 
flesh, my child. When he does ba^l. my lieart 
is very sad. when he does good my heart is 
glad. But Washington (the Government) 
placed me here as judge, and I forget tliat 1 am 
a father, 1 forget that he is my blood ; all that 
I want to do is to do right and see that justice 
is carried out and the guilty punished.' " 

We are indebted for this interesting 
sketch to the courtesy of Major R. D. Gwydir, 
ex-Indian agent of Colville reservation, who- 
has given us the privilege of the perusal of his 
unpublisiied manuscripts. 

The extraordinary work which Rev. II. H. 
Spalding did among the Spokane Indians 
makes it fitting to give a sketch of his eventful 
life in this history. His life has been pub- 
lished tiuring the last year in tlie Whitman 
College Quarterly, written by Rev. Myron 
Eells. 1). L).. the Indian missionary at Skoko- 
mish. We deem it advisable to give more 
space to deceased prominent persons than to 
those living. 

Rev. H. li. Spalding was born on No- 
vember 2(>. 1803, at Prattsb'.irg, New York. 
Being left an orphan in infancy, he was reared 
in a stranger's house, but was treated with ten- 
der care. His educational advantages till 
early manhood must have been meagre, for he 
was of age when he entered Franklin Acad- 
emy in his nati\e town, where he became a 
member of the Presbyterian church. He 
worked his way through the academy and col- 
lege. His collegiate studies were pursued at 
Hamilton College. New York, and Western 
Reserve College. Hudson, Ohio, graduating in 
1833. In October, of the same year, he united 
in marriage with Miss Elizahetli Hart, a native 
of Berlin. Connecticut, a bright and conse- 
crated woman. They removed to Cincin- 
nati, where Mr. Spalding continued his studies- 
in Lane Theological Seminary. They were 
appointed by the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions as- missionaries 



to the Osage Indians. After they had started 
in a sleigh over the deep snows of western 
New York, they were overtaken l\v Dr. Whit- 
man. The result was a change of plans and 
a decision on their part to go to Oregon. 

Airs. Spalding's health was such as to make 
the journey a great hardship. But her pluck 
and patience, fortitude and faith proved to be 
phenomenal and with her subsequent life of 
missionary labors, though l^rief. give her a place 
among the world's heroines. They reached 
their destination in due time. Before the end 
of the year 1836 they had established a mission 
at Lapwai. In August, 1837, Mr. Spalding 
made a trip to Fort Colville and preached near- 
Iv every night on his way. He came in con- 
tact with the Spokane Indians and preached 
to them on this journey. His mission during 
the first year was a wonderful success. In the 
latter part of 1838 there was an exciting revival 
among the Indians. In May, 1839, was 
brought to this region the first printing press 
with some type and paper. It was brought 
from Honolulu by Mr. E. O. Hall. On this 
press was done the first printing on the Pacific 
coast, which was an eight-page pamphlet in 
the Xez Perce language. .-\s early as 1845 
Mr. Spalding had begun the translation of 
Genesis. In the same year a sawnnll began 
operations. The work was continued at Lap- 
wai under fluctuating circumstances of en- 
couragement and discouragement until the 
Whitman massacre brought it to a .sudden close. 
Like the other missionaries, he had to leave his 

Held and go to the Willamette valley. He made 
his home at Calapooya, near ihe present 
Browns\ille, until he returned to his work 
among the Indians. Mrs. Spalding died in 
Oregon in 1 851. It was found that about one- 
third of the three thousand Nez Perce Indians 
continued the practice of family or public wor- 
ship during his absence. Mr. Spalding was 
not able to resume his work until 1866 and not 
permanently till 1871. His last years of labor 
among the Nez Perces were fruitful ones. 
There was a great revival of religion among 
them. "He baptized six hundred and ninety- 
four Nez Perces and two hundred and fifty- 
three Spokanes. A chief of the Umatillas vis- 
ited Mr. Spalding to receive baptism on his 
deathbed." — Fells. "Very peacefully and 
quietly without one struggle or moan he fell 
asleep in Jesus August 3, 1871, at the age of 
nearly seventy-one, and was buried at the mis- 
sif>n cemetery at Lapwai." 

Savs the Oregonian of .\ugust 22. 1874, 
in regard to Air. Spalding: "He has been a 
noble, self-sacrificing laborer for the elevation 
of the Indians. Perhaps it is to his influence 
more than to any other single cause, that the 
Nez Perces are indebted for the distinction 
they enjoy of being regarded as the most in- 
telligent and least savage of all our Indian 
tribes. Amid the grateful remembrance of 
those who came in after him to enjoy the 
blessings his sacrifices purchased, he rests from 
his labors, and his works do follow him." 



The first American to settle north of the 
Cohimbia river, or in any of the territory now 
comprising tlie state of Washington — outside 
of missionaries — was Michael T. Simons. He 
immigrated to Oregon in 1844. and spent the 
first winter at Fort \'anconver. He is de- 
scribed as a stalwart Kentuckian. of splendid 
physique, great endurance, resolute mind, pos- 
sessing all the qualificati<ins of a successful 
pioneer. His stay at the fort enabled him to 
understand the disposition uf the officials of 
tlie Hudson's Bay Company relati\-e to Ameri- 
can occupation of the northern country. He 
was douljtless convinced that it was iheir pur- 
pose to prevent, if possible, American settle- 
ment in that region. The desire to e.xclude 
American settlement was an evidence of the 
value of the country. This, with his patriotic 
sjjirit, priMiiptctl Air. Simons to a determina- 
tion to find out all that he could about it. An 
attempt to explore the dense wilderness l)e- 
tween the Columbia ri\er and Puget Soimd 
v>as made by him and a few of his companions 
during the winter. In the summer of 1845 ^I''- 
Simons made an extensive exploration of 
Puget Sound, and was impressed with the 
commercial value of the country. He selected 
a site for his future home at the head of Budd's 
Inlet, which is the most southern extension at 
the falls of Des Chutes river. In the fall he 
and others, se\'en in all, located on that spot, be- 
ginningthehistory of the permanent settlement 
of Washington by .\mericans. It was an heroic 
attempt, an'l they were brave men who did it. 
They were among savages who gave no 
special evidence of hospitality, and separated 
liv one hundred and fifty miles of dense forests 
irom the nearest white settlers. But few were 

added to their number during the first year. 
Within two years a sawmill was built at the 
falls of the Des Chute. In 1848 a few immi- 
grants settled along the Cowlitz river. Thomas 
W. (Glasgow explored the Puget Sound as far 
north as Whitby Island, where he took a 
claim, being soon joined by several families. 
I'.ut the unfriendly disposition of the Indians 
necessitated the abandonment of their claims. 
Se\eral things retarded the progress of the 
occupation of this region, among them its iso- 
lation, the discovery of gold in California, and 
the brutal massacre of Dr. Whitman and others 
.It Wai-il-at-pn. The scattered families spent 
sc\eral years amid great perils which, could 
not have been endured by people of lesh bravery. 
They found the Indians as a rule hostile, and 
e\en threatening their extermination, but they 
met the Indian insolence with heroic defiance. 
This, wrth the timely and decisive measures of 
Governor Lance, the building of Fort Steila- 
coom, with the aid of some friendly Indians, 
saved them during these critical years and 
made American occupation permanent. 

About the year 1850 many who had left for 
California at the outset of the gold excitement 
returned. Mr. Simons had been in San Fran- 
cisco and had brought with him a cargo of mer- 
chandise and opened a store at Olympia, which 

' was the beginning of the first town in Wash- 
ington. Settlements began to extend, and 

i Steilacoom came into existence, and soon Port. 
Town.scnd. In 1851 a company of resolute 
pioneers, after much exploration, selected 
claims on Elliot Bay. Among these hardy men 
were some who exerted a potent influence dur- 
ing the formative periods of territory and state 
— Terry, Dennv and others. 



The first attempt to establisli a city on El- 
liot Ba}" was on Alki Point. The amliition and 
expectation of tlie founders is indicated in the 
name which they gave to their city, \-iz : New 
York. Some of tliem soon removed to the east 
side of the ha)', and the informatii>n whicli thev 
received from the Indians regarthng the coun- 
try, especially relative to the accessibility of the 
region east of the Cascades, led them to estab- 
lish a rival city. They gave it the sonorous 
name of the chief, Seattle. Thus the naiue of 
an honoral)le. true and dignified Indian chief- 
tain has been perpetuated. 

After this settlements extended with in- 
creased rajjidit}'. Many peojjle of extranrdin- 
ary intelligence and enter|M-ise and sterling 
(jualities came into the cnuntrv. 

We soon find milling and coal mining op- 
erations beginning, antl in a few years the for- 
mer develops to immense proportions. At the 
.same tiiue the cnuntry tn the s<iuth is develop- 
ing; the lower Chehalis valley, Cowlitz and 
Barker's bay. and down as far as the Columbia 
river. Attempts were made to establish great 
cities. So, at the close of 1852, we find in what 
was then known as northern Oregon, settle- 
ments from the Columbia ri\'er to British Co- 
lumbia and from the Cascade mountains to the 
Pacific coast. In this territorv we find the tnwns 
of Oiympia, \'ancouver, Steilacoom, Seattle 
and Port Townsend, with an aggregate popu- 
lation of three thousand. 

A rcsiiiiic of historical facts will lead us to 
consider briefly the circumstances and es"ents 
leading to and connected with the 


Some of the earliest settlers nr)rth of the 
Columbia, probably cherished the laudable 
ambition of being the founders of a state. 
They were men of vision, and planned great 
things. We find that active measures looking 
toward separate political existence from Ore- 
gon were inaugurated as early as the 4th of 
July, 185 I. In(le])endence day was celebrated 

at Olymjjia by those w}w had settled around 
the head of Puget Sound. Mr. J. B. Cha])man. 
who was tlie orator of the day, took for his 
theme "The Future State of Columbia," and 
treated it in an elof|uent and stirring manner. 
The orator struck a sympathetic chord in the 
hearts of his hearers, and the appeal for prompt 
action had a ready response. During the day 
a committee on resolutions was appointed, who, 
iri its report, recommended that representatives 
of all the districts north of the Columbia river 
meet in convention at Cowlitz Landing, for the 
purpose, as expressed, "of taking into careful 
consideration the peculiar position of the north- 
ern portion of the Territory, its wants, the best 
method of supplying those wants, and the pro- 
priety- of an early appeal to Congress for a divi- 
sion of the Territory." 

The recommendation being in accordance 
with the will of the people, the various districts 
responded, and a conxention was held on the 
day api)o'inted, with twenty-six delegates pres- 
ent. As a result of the deliberations of said 
con\ention, a memorial to Congress on the 
suljject of division was adopted. The Oregon 
delegate to the United States Congress was in- 
structed to act in accordance with memorial,, 
and Congress was petitioned to construct cer- 
tain roads necessary for the i)ulilic good, also 
to extend to the new Territory the benefits of 
the Oregon land law. For some reason Con- 
gress took no action on the memorials, conse- 
cjuently the enthusiasm for territorial division 
lost its ardor for a season. But the agitation 
did not cease, for a paper was established at 
Oiympia which had that for its primary object. 

Under the lead of this paper, called The 
C(jluiubian. another convention was planned 
and held October 2^. 1852, at Monticello. 
There were present forty- four representative 
citizens, and the action was in harmony with 
the ])revious convention. Cogent reasons were 
pre|)ared and submitted to (ieneral Lane, the 
delegate to Congress, for the organization of a 
new territorv. TheOregon Legi'^lature. meeting 



a few days afterward, exhibited an unusually 
magnanimous spirit by acting in harmony with 
the desires of the convention. General Lane 
acted without delay in introducing the measure 
to Congress, and it passed by a vote of one hun- 
dred and twenty-eight to twenty-nine, Febru- 
ary 10, 1S53, but substituting the name \^'ash- 
ington for Columbia. It passed the Senate on 
the second day of March. At that time the 
population was somewhat less than four thou- 
imd. The southern boundary of the new ter- 
ritory was the Columbia river to where the 
fourth parallel crossed it, then along said par- 
.allel to the Rocky moiintains. President Pierce 
appointed Isaac Ingall Stevens, of Massachu- 
setts, as governor. He was a man eminently 
fitted for the position. C. H. Mason, Rhode 
Island, secretary; Edward Lander, Indiana, 
chief justice; John R. Miller, Ohio, and Victor 
Monroe, Kentucky, associate justices, and J. S. 

Ciendenin, Louisiana, U. S. district attorney. 
About the last of November Governor Stevens 
arrived and issued a proclamation organizing 
the government of the Territory, and designat- 
ing the 30th of January for election of delegate 
to Congress and members of the Territorial 
Legislature, and February for the convening of 
the same. Good material for the offices was not 
wanting, nor a sufficient number ambititnjs to 
fill them. Columbia Lancaster, of Clarke coun- 
t}-, was elected delegate to Congress. Although 
awoith\-man in many respects, he did not [jrove 
1(1 ])e <|ualified for the position at such a critical 
time. Men of fair abilities were elected as leg- 
islators and accomplished their mission credit- 
ably. The material progress of the Territory 
was slow for several years. The Cascade 
mountains were a great barrier to the extension 
of settlements eastward. 



As already implied, the country east of the 
Cascade mountains, in area the larger portion 
of the territory of Washington, had been with- 
out any white settlers, excepting a few here and 
there, since the Whitman masacre. There- 
fore it had no part in the initiatory steps to- 
ward territorial organization. Up to the 'six- 
ties it had hardly any history except that con- 
nected with early explorations, the labors of 
early missionaries, the Indians and Indian 
Avars. The first settler in eastern Washington 
after the missionaries was H. M. Chase. He 
entered W'alla Walla \alley in 1851. He was 
soon followed by Lloyd Brooke, and two men 
named Bam ford and Noble, the latter for a 

time occu])ying the Whitman mission. Some 
of them had to lea\e between 1855 and 1858. 
After the Indians had been thoroughly sub- 
jugated through the vigorous campaign of Col. 
George Wright, the interdict of Major-General 
Wool against the occupancy of eastern Wash- 
ington by white people, was rescinded by his 
successor in command. Gen. N. S. Clarke. Ac- 
cordingly, the whole country was thrown open 
to settlement. Soon we find a considerable 
number of families, farmers and stockmen in 
the Walla Walla valley, and also along and 
adjacent to the streams flowing from the Blue 
mountains, and the development of the Inland 
Empire became assured. January. 1859. the 



Territorial Legislature organized the county 
of Walla Walla. A small village began to grow 
around Mill Creek about five miles from the 
\\liitman mission. Its first name was Step- 
toeville. then \\'ai-il-at-pu. It was selected a^^ 
the countv seat, and when the commissioners 
came together, they gave it the name of Walla 
AX'alla. In i860 the Salmon river gold discov- 
ery gave a wonderful impetus to immigration 
and settlement north of the Snake ri\'er. By 
the opening of 1861 the Salmon river mining 
excitement was at its height. Adventurous 
mining prospectors flowed in from all direc- 
tions. It was a veritable rush after gold, but 
the misfortunes were more numerous than the 
fortunes. The winter of 1861-62 was a very 
severe one, and the gold-seekers on their way 
to the Salmon river and the settlers of eastern 
\\'ashington suffered great hardships. But 
the influx of population was stopped but for a 
short time. In the spring of 1862 the people 
rushed in like a mighty tide of ocean, twenty 
thousand strong. With all the misfortunes 

connected with this almost unparailekd gold 
excitement it was used of God in usliering a 
new civilization for it initiated the marvellous 
development which has taken place in the upper 
Columbia country. Lewiston. on the conflu- 
ence of the Snake ri\er and the Clearwater, 
was laid out early in 1S62. The Territorial 
Legislature of 1859 created Spokane county, 
lying north of Snake river to the British line. 
Its first county seat was Pinkney city, but the 
name was soon changed to Colville. March 3, 
1863. Congress passed an act organizing the 
territory of Idaho out of the eastern jjart of 
Washington, including nearly all the mining 
region. There were at that time in eastern 
Washington the counties of Walla Walla. Spo- 
kane and Klickitat. The increase of population 
north of the Snake river during the next decade 
was slow. This region had but few scattered set- 
tlers, not counting the U. S. soldiers. The 
real history of Spokane county does not be- 
gfin until the early seventies. 



The original Territory of Washington was 
the home, or camping and hunting ground 
of the most powerful and warlike Indian 
tribes of the Pacific Northwest. The Black- 
foot, Nez Perce, Palouse, Pend d' Oreille, 
Yakima and Spokane triljes were the most 
numerous, supposed to be aljle to bring to 
the field of battle ten thousand warriors. The 
tribes mentioned were all east of the Cascades, 
and when Washington was constituted a Ter- 
ritory they were foes to be dreaded. 

We make no attempt at a tletailed account 

of the wars in which these tribes were en- 
eaeed only such as is necessary to show that 
incident to the settlement and development 
of the country have been desperate struggles. 
The Nez Perce war and the pursuits of Chief 
Joseph are matters of history. Nearly every 
part of the country, including the plains of 
Spokane and western portion of this county, 
were scenes of battles. The ingathering of 
the white people to this region, as elsewhere, 
excited the apiirehension of the Indians. 
Thev instincti\-ely prophesied the ultimate re- 



suit. They knew that tlie wliite man came 
ne\'er to lea\'e. 

Before his ax tlie fnrest ihsappearetl the 
liunting ground was turned to grain fields and 
fenced, his ride annihilated the game and his 
superiority humiliated the proud native. It 
is only natural that such anticipations should 
arouse the Indians to do their utmost to avert 
such a disaster by keceping out of their coun- 
try the dangerous invader. ■ Accordingly 
wars were inevital)le. The Cayuse war — 
which we cannot describe — followed imme- 
diately the Whitman ma.ssacre. On the 
29th day of Xoveml)er, i<S47, Dr. Marcus 
Whitman and his noble wife, and twelve 
others connected with the mission were bru- 
tal! v murdered by tlie savage Cayuse Indians 
at \\'ai-il-at-pu. Snon a regiment of Oregon 
Volunteers came to eastern Washington, and 
after some fighting the Cayuses abandoned 
their country, which practically ended the 

In a few months the Indians returned, and 
fi\e of them were executed at Oregon City 
for the murder of Dr. Whitman and others. 
For a few }-ears after this there were no hos- 
tilities or general outljreak but it was a time 
of dis(|uiet and apprehension. Xo treaty 
existeil lietween the Indians east of the Cas- 
cades and the Cnited States. Go\'ernor 
Ste\ens made repeated efforts to ha\e a 
treaty concluded, but to no avail. The In- 
dians pro\ed vacillating if not treacherous, 
often violating their promises. The discover- 
ies of gold in the Upper Columliia country re- 
sulted in the usual rush of miners. Some of 
the chiefs declared that no American could 
pass through their country, consequently we 
soon find the whole country permeated with 
the spirit of war which continued for some 
years. We shall confine ourselves to those 
wherewith the Spokanes were either directly 
or indirectly connected, (iovernor Stevens 
came in contact with the Spokanes in his ef- 
fort to pacify and make a treaty with the 

tribes of eastern Washington. He Iield a 
council, when the Pen d'Oreilles. Colville and 
Spokane Indians came together. The council 
was held somewhere about the southeast cor- 
ner of this county at the place of a half-breed 
called Anonite Plante. It lasted for three 
days, and as rciiortecl by Governor Stevens, 
and Father Josel. who was present, was a 
very storm v one. War broke out soon after 
this which sjjread all over Washingtcw. and 
continued for nearly two years, costing nearly 
six million dollars and many lives. The cam- 
l)aigns of Colonels Steptoe and Wright will 
cover the part taken by the Spokanes. there- 
fore we shall confine ourselves to them. In 
1857 Colonel Steptoe was in command at Fort 
Walla Walla, which had been recently estab- 
lislied. near the present city of that name. 
The hostility of the Colville Indians and some 
depredations of the Palouses led Colonel Step- 
toe to plan an expedition north of the Snake 
river with the intention of going as far as 
Colville. Failing to rightly estimate the 
power and disposition of the Indians through 
whose country he intended to travel, he did 
not deem a strong force necessary. On May 
6th he left Walla Walla with one hundred and 
thirlv dragoons. The march toward the 
Snake river, across it. and for some distance 
north of it was made without any interrup- 
tion. On the 1 6th they were approaching 
the Spokane country, when to their surprise 
and consternation they found themselves con- 
fronted by hundreds of Indian warriors, esti- 
mated from six hundred to one thousand, 
Palouses. Coeur d' Alenes. Yakimas and 
Spokanes. Steptoe soon apprehended his per- 
ilous situation and actetl both cautiously and 
prudently. He found reasoning of no avail, 
for the Indians seemed elated over their op- 
portunity and determined tliat the soldiers 
should not make any further progress through 
their country. There was nothing for the 
.soldiers to do but to retreat. This was done, 
but thev were followed closelv bv the Indians 



and insulted as far as abusive language could 
do it. Colonel Steptoe was determined that 
the Indians should make the attack. The 
Palouses were the first to fire. On the iStli 
a desperate battle took place, with the Indians 
at least five times as numerous as the United 
States soldiers. During the first attack, 
Avhich was a savage one. Captain Oliver H. P. 
Tavlir and Lieutenant \\'illiam Gastrm were 
killed. Colonel Steptoe exercised extraor- 
dinary militar_y skill to save his men. The 
soldiers asseml)led on an ele\'ation from 
which they could see the surrounding hills 
swarming with savages thirsting for Ijlood. 
The hfjrses, sadtlled and l)ri(lled. were picJ<- 
eted. while the men laid flat on the gmund, 
which was the most advantageous way to pre- 
vent charges. The consciousness of danger 
and a]5parent helplessness made it difficult to 
imbue courage iutn the suldiers. The dark- 
ness of the night proved a bessing in the 
emergency. When the shadows had co\-ered 
the hills and ravines, after burying as many 
of their fallen comrades as they ci.nikl find, 
when silent midnight was drawing nigh, and 
most of the Indians had fallen asleep, the sol- 
diers found a way of escape and hurriedly 
moved along, crossing the Snake rixer and 
reaching Walla Walla in safety. But they 
left six dead on the battlefield, among them 
two gallant officers, and eleven liad Iieen 
wounded. This memorable battle took place 
at what is known to-day as Steptoe Butte, 
about fourteen miles north of Colfax, .^n 
observatory with a strong telescojie was placed 
on the highest elevation a few years ago. 
through which the whole country for sc<ires 
of miles can be seen on a clear day. It is in 
the \-ery heart of the richest portion of the 
Palouse country. The effect of this \-ictiiry 
on the Indians was to make them bnld and 
defiant and eager f(ir a conflict with the whites. 
The i)rinci])al tribes leagued together, and de- 
termined to prevent the Americans from com- 
ing into their country. Realizing the .serious- 

ness of the situation, General Clarke suon had 
a consultation of officers at Vancou\-er. Col- 
onels Steptoe and \\'right were i)resent. An 
expedition to the Spokane country was 
planned with care and wisdom. Colonel 
Wright was put in command, wlm in daring 
and determination, as well as military genius, ' 
was well fitted. Three comjianies of artillery 
were called from San b'rancisco. The troops 
concentrated at Walla Walla and ])reparation 
and drills were thorough. Before leaving 
Walla Walla, Colonel Wright had a council 
with the Nez Perces and secured their friend- 
ship and assistance. On the 7th oi August 
Ca])tain Keyes started and reached the Snake 
ri\er in a few (kn's. Here a temporary fort 
was built called I-'ort Ta\'lor in honur of Cap- 
tain Taylur. On the 18th Colonel Wright 
arrived. There were altogether six hundred 
and eighty soldiers; dragoon — one hundred 
and ninetv; artillerv^four hundred: infan- 
trv — ninetv. They moved along leisurel3r 
(lav bv day with no special happenings ta 
break the mcinotmiy until the end of the month. 
.Vbout this time the Nez Perce scouts, who 
had been uniformed, brought the news that 
the Spokanes were near. After they had. 
marched abijut seventy miles north of the- 
Snake river, and within twenty miles of the- 
Spokane river, they fnund theniselves on the 
first of September in the midst of the Spokane 
warriors, and on that date the battle of the 
Four Lakes took pace. The Indians had been 
waiting and were prepared, but had no idea 
what was awaiting them. They were de- 
feated, muted and many killed. The battle 
took place near the beautiful and far-famed 
town of Medical Lake. 

Lieutenant Kip gives a graphic descrip- 
tinn of the scene: "On the plain below us 
we saw the enemy. Every spot seemed alive 
with the wild wariors we had omie sn far to 
meet. They were in the pines at the edge 
of the lakes, in the ravines and gullies, on the 
oppposite hillsides and swarming over the 



plain. They seemed tn cover the cDuntry for 
two miles. ^Mounted on their lleet. hardy 
horses, the crowd swayed back and forth. 
brandishing their weapons, shouting their 
war-cries, and keeping up a song of defiance. 
Most of them were armed with Hudson's Bay 
muskets, while others had bows and arrows 
and long lances. Thev were in all the bravery 
of their war array, gaudily jiainted and dec- 
orated with their wild trappings. Their 
plumes fluttered abo\'e them, while lieneath, 
skins and trinkets and all kinds of fantastic 
embelishments flaunted in the sunshine. 
Their horses, too, were arrayed in the most 
gorgeous finery. Some of them were even 
painted with colors to form the greatest con- 
trast, the white being smeared with crimson 
in fantastic figures, and the dark-colored 
streaked with white clay. Beads and fringes 
of gaud}- colurs were hanging from their 
bridles, while the pluiues of eagle's feathers, 
interwoxen with the mane and tail, fluttered 
as the lireeze floated over them and completed 
their wild and fantastic api)earance. 

' By Heavens! it was a glorious sight to sec 
The gay array of their wild chivalry.' 

"As ordered, the trijops mo\-ed down the 
hill toward the plain. As the line of advance 
came within range of the minie rifles, now 
for the first time used in Indian warfare, the 
firing liegan. The firing grew hea\ier as the 
line adxanced, and astonished at the range 
and effecti\eness of the fire, the entire array 
of dusky warriors broke and fled toward 
the plain. The dragoons were now ordered 
to. charge and rode through the company in- 
tervals to the front, and then dashed down 
upon the foe with heatUong speetl. Taylor's 
and Gaston's companies were there, and soon 
thev reaped a red rex-enge for their slain he- 
roes. The flying warriors streamed (_)Ut of the 
glens antl ra\"ines antl o\er the open plains 
until they could find a refuge from the flash- 
ing salires of the dragoons. When they had 
f(;und the refuge of the wooded hills, the line 

of f(iot once more jjassed the dragoons and 
renewed the fire, dri\Mng the Indians o\-er the 
hills for about two miles, where a halt was 
called as the troops were nearly exhausted. 
The Indians had almost all disappeared, only 
a small group remaining, ai)parently to \vatch 
the whites. .\ shell sent from a howitzer, 
bursting over their heads,' sent them also to 
the shelter of the ra\ines. Thus the battle 
ended." The Indian loss was considerable, 
probal;)ly not less than fifty or sixty killed 
"and wounded, while, strange to say. not a 
soldier was injured. This was owing to the 
use, now for the first lime, of the long-range 
rifle by the sold.iers. The Indians were panic- 
stricken at the effect of their fire at such great 
distances. Among the Indians . killed was a 
brother and brother-in-law of Gearry, head 
chief of the Spokanes, .After a three days' 
rest. Colonel Wright and his troops resumed 
their march toward the Spokanes coming 
u])on them in about five miles. As the column 
ad sauced, the Indians set fire to tlie grass and 
under co\er of the smoke spread themselves 
out in front and on both sides of tlie troops. 
The men charged through the flames, driv- 
ing the enemy before them and following them 
for many miles until they reached Spokane 
river where the troops encamped. This is 
known in history as the Battle of the Spokane 
Plains, and t]\e hundred Indians were en- 
gaged, a number of which were killed, and 
Kaniiakin, the war-chief of the ^'akimas. was 
wounded. It took place Septemlier 3. 1857. 
After resting a day the forces UKneil up the 
river and encamped abo\e the falls. Chief 
Gearry crossed the river and had a talk with 
Colonel Wright, [jrofessing to be against the 
war. Cjearry was in many respects a bright 
Indian. He had receixed some education 
while young in the Episcopal school at the 
Red River settlement. After making .some 
efforts to have the Indians adopt civilized 
methods he retrograded back to the ways of 
the natives. There are tliose who came 



in close contact with him who do not 
beHeve tliat he possessed the nobihty and 
integrity that characterized some of the 
leading Spokane Indians. And there is 
good reason to dou1)t the sincerity of 
his representations to Colonel Wright. The 
Colonel talked plainly to him. saying that if 
he and other Indians wanted peace, they 
conld have it Ijy complete surrender, which was 
promised. The march was resumed on the 
8th, and about ten miles east of the city the 
Indians were seen driving their horses to the 
mountains. But the horses were captured and 
shot, except one hundred and thirty picked 
ones that were kept for the use of the troops. 
The defeat in battles, the destruction of their 
liorses, and the hanging of several that had 
participated in the murder of the whites, com- 
pletely humiliated the Indians. 

Colonel Wright held a council at the Cceur 
d' Alene mission on the 17th and with the 
Spokanes on the 23d, when it was found that 
the Indians were prepared to enter into a 
treaty nf entire submission to the whites. 
This ended the era of Indian wars in eastern 

In the "History of Walla Walla County,"' 
by Frank T. Gilbert,published in the year 1882, 
we have probably as trustworthy an account 
of Colonel Steptoe's campaign as can be found 
anywhere. He had an opportunity to hear 
the story of Steptoe's defeat from those who 
had been in the conflict, especially Sergeant 
^Michael Kenny, who had charge of six men 
in the extreme rear and the last to leave camp 
during the retreat. He states that after one 
hundred mules had been loaded with the 
camping outfit "there Zi'as no room remained 
for the iimmunition." 

With only such ammunition as each soldier 
chanced to have with him, they entered the 
country of unfriendly Indians. The proba- 
bility is that the officer in command was not 
aware of the lack of ammunition when he 
started. But he has not been whollv exon- 

eratefl for not knowing whether his forces 
were in conditiun to fight. 

After describing the hand to hand struggle 
in the rear and left where gallant Lieutenant 
Gaston, and Captain Taylor, "The bravest of 
the brave," fell, wlien to continue the retreat 
would probably have resulted so disastrous 
as to leave few, if any, to tell the tale of the 
expeditinn, he says: "Steptoe went into camp 
at this [jlace, as he could do nothing else, 
threw out a picket line and buried such dead 
as had not been left on the way. At a council 
of war it was decided to Iniry their howitzer, 
and leave the balance of their stores and pack 
train for the Indians. It was hoped that the 
abandijned proi)erty would cause the savages 
to spend time in examining and dividing it 
among them, which might give the soldiers 
an opportunity to get heyond pursuit, could 
they steal through their lines. The Indians, 
camped in plain sight in the bottom, left the 
soldiers comparatively unmolested, supposing 
that with the morrow they had but to make 
an onslaught and end the matter with a general 
massacre. The white camp was surrounded 
by Indian sentinels who were guarding every 
avenue of escape save one. This was a diffi- 
cult pass and it was not supposed that the 
soldiers knew about it, or could traverse the 
route if they did. This was the only hope 
left the command, and here is where the Xez 
Perce chief, Timothy, and his two living as- 
sociates became the salvation of the whole 
party. But for him probably not one of the 
partv would have escaped. The night was 
cheerless and dark, and when all had become 
comparatively still, the entire force mounted 
and followed this chief in single file as silently 
as possible out through the unguarded pass. 
Lieutenant Gregg was in command of the 
rear guard. Sergeant ^lichael Kenny, now a 
policeman in U'alla Walla city, had charge 
of six men in the extreme rear and was the 
last to leave camp. From him and from 
Thomas Beall, of Idaho, who was also there, 



we learned the sad detail of wliat fol- 

"The wounded of each company were 
taken care of by some of their comrades de- 
tailed for that purpose, and several were so 
badly hurt as to lie helpless, who were tied 
upon pack animals to be carrieil along with 
the retreating force. Among the latter was 
a soldier named McCrossen. whose back was 
l)roken, and Sergeant Williams, who was sliot 
through the hip. The latter begged for 
poison of the doctor and to be left behind, 
preferring death to the terrible ride before 
him. He tried to borrow a [listol with which 
to shoot himself, from Lieutenant Gregg, and 
failed. He was then placed upon and lashed 
to a horse, with his bn_)ken hi[), when a com- 
rade led the animal away on the trail. The 
torture of this rough motion driving him to 
a frenzy, he soon threw himself from this liv- 
ing rack and slipped down the animal's side. 
His comrades then loosened the thongs bind- 
ing him to the horse's side, and riding away 
into the darkness, left him there, calling upon 
them in the name of God to gi\-e him some- 
thing with which to take his life. Poor Mc- 
Crossen, with his broken spine, was tied upon 
a pack-saddle that turned on the animal's 
back and he was precipitated between the ani- 
nial's legs, when a soldier named Frank Poisle 
cut the lashing, and he was left, too, by the 
trail calling to his comrades, 'Give nie some- 
thing for God's sake to kill myself with.' 

■■Through that long dark night they fol- 
lowed at a trot, or gallop march, the faithful 
chief upon whose judgment .and fidelitv their 
lives all depended. The wounded, excejit 
those who could take care of themselves, were 
soon left for the scalping knife of the savage, 
and with seemingly but one impulse, the long 
shadowy line of fugitives passed over the 
plains and hills tinvards the Snake ri\er and 
safety. Twenty-four hours later they had 
ridden seventy miles and had reached that 
stream about four miles down it from where 

the Indian guide lived, at the mouth of Al- 
powa creek. Going up the river to near Tim- 
othy's village, that chief placed his own people 
out as guards, and set the women of his tribe 
to ferrying the exhausted soldiers and their 
effects across the stream. This was not com- 
pleted until near daylight of the next day and 
on the joth Steptoe's party met Captain Dent 
with supplies and reinforcements, on the 
Pataha creek where the road from Dayton 
to Pomeroy now crosses it. Here the worn- 
out fugitives went into camp to rest, and while 
here were overtaken by Chief Lawyer of the 
Nez Perces at the head of a formidable war- 
party, who wished for the soldiers to go back 
with him and try it over again with the north- 
ern Indians. But they had no desire to fol- 
low tlie advice of this friendly chief, and con- 
tiiuied their way to Walla Walla." 

■'The number of killed and wounded we 
have been unable to ascertain. Mr. John 
Singleton, of Walla ^\'alla, a participant, states 
that two officers and ten men were killed be- 
fore the halt at Cache creek, and'si.x menlater." 

"On tlie way. Chief Gearry came in to ask 
that i)eace might be granted the Spokanes, and 
Colonel \\'riglit replied to him : 'I have met 
you in two battles, and you have been badly 
whipped : you have had several chiefs and many 
warriors killed and woiuided : I have not lost 
a man or animal. I have a large force, and 
you. Spokanes, Cceur d' Alenes, Palouses, 
and Pend d' Oreilles may unite, and I can de- 
feat you as badly as before. I did not come 
into the country to ask you to make peace : I 
came here to fight. Now. when you are tired 
of war and ask for peace I will tell you what 
you must do. You must come to me with 
\our arms, xour women and children, and 
everything you have and lay them at my feet. 
\ ou must ]nit your faith in me and trust to 
my mercy. If you will do this. I will then 
gi\e you the terms upon which I will give 
you peace. If you do not do this, war will 
be made upon you this year and the next, and 



until your nations shall be exterminated.' 
To tlie Indians Coloiiel Wright and liis sol- 
diers were a devastating scourge, and a comet 
apjjearing in the Iieaven at tliis time, lent its 
terrifying, nightly presence to quench the last 
spark (.)t resistant patriotism among them ! 
They were crushed indeed when they saw that 
the Great Spirit had sent his Haming sword 
to hang over them in the heavens." 

Reaching the mission. Colonel Wright 
found the Indians so terrified as to he afraid 
to come in. They wanted peace. l)ut they 
were afraid to come near the soldiers who 
handled them so roughly. With the assist- 
ance of the priests this \\as finally accom- 
plished ; and the inter\-iew which followed we 
give as a sam])le of se\'eral others held later 
with the tribes that had been hostile. 

"I have committed a great crime. I am 
deeply conscious of it anrl am deeply sorry 
for it. I and all my peo])le are deeply rejoiced 
that you are willing to forgi\'e us for it. I 
have done." 

Colonel Wright: ".\s yiiur chief has said, 
you have ci.nimitted a great crime. It has 
angered your great father and I have been 
sent to ]uinish you. You attacked Colonel 
Steptoe when he was passing peaceably 
through viiur cnuntry and ynu ha\-e killed 
some of his men. But you ha\'e asked for 
peace and you shall ha\-e it on certain condi- 

"You see that you fight against us hope- 
lessly. I ha\e a great many soldiers. I have 
a great many men at Walla Walla and I 
ha\-e a large body coming frcmi Salt Lake 
Citv. What can vou dn against us? I can 

place my soldiers on ynur plains, by your fish- 
ing grounds, and in the mountains where you 
catch game, and yiiur helpless families can 
not run awav. 

"^'nu shall have peace on the fullowing 
conditions: You must deliver to me to take 
to the Ceneral, the men who struck the first 
Ijknv in the affair. \'()u must allow all troops 
and other white men to jiass unmolested 
through your country. \'ou must not allow 
any hostile Indians to come into your country, 
and not engage in any hostilities against any 
white man. I promise you. that if you will com- 
jily with all my rer|uirements, none of yrmr 
people shall be harmed, but 1 shall withdraw 
from your country." 

Colonel George Wright, whose exjjedi- 
tion to this upper country w.'is so successful, 
and who dealt such effective blows, having 
hardly a parallel in Indian warfare, was a 
bra\-e and efficient soldier. He was a native 
of Vermont, a graduate of West Point in 1822, 
ser\-ed in iMexico, and was made colonel 
March 3, 1855, for gallant conduct. In 1S55 
he was gi\'en command of the Ninth In- 
fantry, wherewith .he came to the Pacific 
coast and served with distinction in the Indian 
wars of Washington Territory. In 1861 he 
was made general of volunteers and placed 
in command of the Pacific Coast Department, 
which he held until relieved by General ^Ic- 
Dowell. He and his wife and meml)crs of 
his staff were on board the steamer Brother 
Jojiathan that went down off Crescent City, 
Oregon, the 30th of July. i^(>^. where all 
were lost. 



Spokane county is tlie center, and the city 
of Spokane is recognized as the metropohs of 
an immense territory fittingly designated the 
•'Inland Empire." It is the vast and marvel- 
lous region of country between the Rockies 
and the Cascade range of mountains, com- 
prising all of eastern \\'ashington, northern 
Idaho, western ^^lontana, northeastern Ore- 
gon, and southern portions of British Colum- 
bia. It has an area of over one hundred and 
twenty thousand square miles, three times as 
large as the great Empire state, with a i)opu- 
lation approximating half a million people and 
rapidly increasing. It is a region with 
hardly a ri\al in enchanting scenery and pic- 
turesque sublimity and variable forii " of 
beauty. In it are found all the inspiring phe- 
nomena that any aspiring lover of nature can 
desire. He can find broad and rolling prairies 
stretching in all directions, verdure-clad plat- 
eaus, bordered by hills crowned with sturdy 
pines; 'and in the distance lofty and rugged 
mountains rising higher and higher, pile on 
pile, the towering majestic peaks wrapped in 
eternal show. He can witness with wonder- 
ing awe the results oi the awfvd upheavals of 
primeval days when the earth was twisted and 
tossed into a shapeless mass. He can look 
into the pawning abysmal canyons and deep 
gorges worn out by rushing and foaming and 
ceaseless torrents for ages unknown ; or upon 
the massive glaciers whose origin history fails 
to recL'rd. The lover of nature can revel in the 
enjoyment of an ever changing landscape 
amid scenes which the Almighty alone could 
design and frame. It is beyond the possi- 
bility of human hands to paint them and words 
fail to descrilie their dazzling beautv. It is a 

region of plains and prairies, of fertile val- 
leys and of thick forests. The grandeur of it 
is accentuated by wide contrasts. There are 
lakes and streams in great variety. Portions 
of it have been designated as the "paradise of 
the sportsman."' In the streams and lakes the 
fish are sufficiently plentiful to gratify the lover 
of the rod and line, and the expert shot can 
hardly fail to drop a curlew or chicken on the 
prairie, a grouse in the woods, a duck or 
goose on the lakes, and a deer or a bear in the 
distant ra\ines or isolated valleys. This re- 
gion is not only wonderful on account of its 
untold stores of the rare and beautiful, where 
nature has spread her "banquets of health and 
l)eauty," but is also one hardly paralleled 
in di\erse resources, which are almost limit- 
less and sufficient to maintain a population of 
many millions. There are rich agricultural 
sections, millions of acres in extent, such as 
the far-famed Palouse, and almost boundless 
Big Bend, already producing millions of bush- 
els of wheat annually. The prospector has 
already unearthed hidden mineral wealth and 
treasures priceless to science and the uses of 
man. Wonderful di.scoveries have been made 
and are being made, and those to be made are 
inconceivable in the human mind. 

It is not within the province of this work 
to describe the mining districts within the 
"Inland Empire"' and tributary to the city of 
Spokane. They are almost too numerous to 
mention and it would fill a \olume to ade- 
(juately describe them. The Coeur d"Alenes 
is acknowledged as the greatest lead-produc- 
ing district in the world and also rich in other 
precious metals. The Kootenai district, with 
its world famous Le Roi, the noted wealth- 



maker, and other di\-idend-paying mines, witli 
its ■■golden city of magic growth," and the 
silvery Slocan district, are still inviting fields 
to the prospector and capitalists. The Grand 
Fork and Kettle River coimtry, the Okano- 
gan, the Reser\-ation, with the wonderful dis- 
coveries at Republic, and Pend d'Oreille lake 
and man}- others are beyond description. Even 
the names of mines and prospects of the ■■In- 
land Empire" would fill many pages. It is 
putting it mildly to say that many of them are 
attracting far and wide attention. ^Vonder- 
ful transformations have already taken place. 
The wild and unsubdued paradise of the red 
man, who occupied it as a hunting ground, 
and sometimes gazed upon its nati\'e wildness, 
is now the objective point toward which thou- 
sands are directing their steps seeking new 
fields of wealth. The Inland Empire is doubt- 
less a mining region unexcelled for wealth in 
all the world. Taking Spokane as the center 
one finds mineral wealth in all directions. 

■'The mines are not at our doors. Yet the 
city is the center of a mineral region which 
is unsurpassed in all the world for wealth of 
precious metals. East, west, south, north — 
no matter which way the seeker for mines may 
turn — he finds untold riches e\-erywhere. 


■■Within a few hours' ride of the city to 
the east the world famous Gjeur d' Alene 
region is entered, where forty per cent, of the 
lead produced in the countr\' is turned out, 
with the product growing larger and more 
profitable every year. Here, too, are placer 
diggings which yielded millions in the days 
when the stampede to the district rivalled the 
recent Klondike excitement. ^Vith all the 
wealth of the product of the early days this 
gold belt is yet scarcely scratched and waits 
for capital to undertake the more expensive but 
equally profitalile task of sinking to bed rock 
and washing the older deposits of gold from 
their ancient hiding places. 

■'Farther south in Idaho are the free mill- 
mg gold quartz di.stricts around Florence, 
Dixie and Pierce City. l\-unous in early days 
for placer production, these districts still yield 
the yellow gold to the miner who patiently 
washes the sand, but are yielding more abund- 
antly to the miner who delves with pick and 
drill in the rich ledges from whence came the 
gold in the streams. Lacking transportation, 
this region has been developing slowly, but is 
lately attracting capital. The recent stampede 
to the Buffalo Hump discoveries has been 
the means of attracting much attention to the 
possibilities of the great undeveloped coun- 
try lying between the Clearwater and the Sal- 
mon rivers. 


■'If one turn north .from Spokane he finds 
a diversified mineral zone before him. Within 
the confines of our own state and within 
a hundred miles of the city is the richest gold 
mines in the west, the Republic, where within 
a 3-ear an ore chute carrying two million 
dollars at least, above the three-hundred-foot 
level, has been opened up, with greater wealth 
yet to be encountered. \Vithin the confines of 
the Coh'ille reservation, every part of which 
is now open to the prospector, will he found 
the richest gold ledges in the country, beside 
\-eins carrying silver ore of enormous richness 
from the \ery surface, lead prospects which 
shows ores of the same character as those of 
the Creur d" .\lenes, placer diggings which 
promise to yield rich returns, and copper ores 
more than doul>le the richness of those which 
have made Butte the greatest mining camp 
on earth. This region is all new. The pros- 
pector has not yet finished his work within its 
borders and ca])ital is yet to de\-elop some of 
the great mines of the West in that rich 

Stevens county, immediately north of Spo- 
kane, and co\ering part of the reservation, 
shows a like diversitv of mineral wealth. On 



the Pend d'Oreille i-i\er, in the northeastern 
portion, are placers, gold-ljearing quartz and 
galena. Coal deposits, which will he valuable 
when transportation reaches them, are also 
found there. Gold, silver and lead are the 
profitable minerals around Northport, Boss- 
burg, Chewelah and Myers Falls. Near \'al- 
ley are great deposits of onyx, marble, alabas- 
ter and slate, which are being opened for ship- 


"Still further north lie the mining districts 
of the Kooteneys. Although these are under 
the British flag, the l)order line loses its sig- 
nificance between Spokane ami the mining 
camps of British Columbia. It was the pros- 
pector from this side of the line who explored 
and developed the cnuntry, largely. U was 
the hardy American miner who blazed the 
trails, dug the prospect holes and made it easy 
for the men of means to come along and buy 
fortunes in the mines which the prospector hatl 
discovered. To a large degree all the north 
country is still tributary to Spokane. 


"West of Spokane are the Okanogan 
count V mines, fahious ledges of gold-bearing 
ores, rich copper veins and valualile silver- 
lead propositions. Here again lack of rail- 
roads retards development of mines probably 
as rich as any in all the northwest. A great 
enterprise which will ])ni\e the worth of 
Okanogan veins at depth is the long tunnel 
which is being driven into Palmer mountain 
near Loomis to cut the \eins of many claims 
which promise well on the surface. 

"Farther west are copper-gold claims on 
the Methow and around Lake Chelan. While 
still bevond are the wonderful rich mines of 
Slate creek and the Cascade mountain dis- 

tricts. Spokane men are interested and work- 
ing in all of them. 


"To the south are the gold mines of east- 
ern Oregon, some of which have been paying 
dividends for many years and all of which 
carry gold in abundance. Baker City is the 
central camp and Spokane capital is finding its 
wav into many a promising claim in the dis- 
tricts around that town. 

"To enter into a detailed description of 
the mining districts around Spokane with- 
in the confines of the Inland Empire is a task 
too great to be undertaken in an edition the 
size of this i)ai)er. X'olumes might l)e written 
and still much of interest would be left unsaid. 
.\ country covering hundreds of scjuare miles 
with mineral everywhere can not be adequately 
descril)ed within the circumscribed columns 
of even a large edition devoted especially to 
the purpose. It is the intention here to tell 
.something of all the leading camps of the In- 
land Junpire and where mines are being de- 
velo])ed to describe the work being done upon 
some of them. It should be understood, how- 
e\er. that not every camp is mentioned here. 
Some are new and small and not yet promi- 
nent in the public eye. They maj* become 
famous within antnher year. Republic camp 
was obscure a year ago and it has not been long 
since Rossland was unknown. The edition 
will be found, however, to tell much that is 
interesting concerning mines and prospects. 
The one thing which the reader should bear in 
mind is tliat the facts told here are but a hint 
of what might be written if time and space and 
opportunity were gi\-en for mentioning every 
property under development in all this region 
and to describe the hopes and prospects of 
every hustling little mining camp." — Spokes- 
man Review Twice a Week, September 29, 

The Oldest Apple Tree in Spokane County, 
near La Prey Bridge 

La Prey Bridge of To-day, 

where the Indians had a canoe in early days, and 

■where one of the first bridges was built 

across the Spokane River. 

A Frontitr Ka'ich in Spok.uie Cou!ity 

Frairie School House in Spokane County 




In his "Report of an examination of the 
Upper CoUinibia river, and the territory in its 
vicinity." September and October, 1881, Lieut. 
Thomas \V. Symons, Corps of Engineers, U. S. 
Army, chief engineer of the Department of the 
Columbia, has treated the subject ciuite fully. 


"Whether to put the final 'e' on this word 
has been a much-discussed (|uesti()n, and has 
divided the people of the Spukane region into 
two parties. A majority, however, seem to 
desire the 'e.' and so it will fmally be adopted, 
in all probability, and go down to futurity. 
There seems to be about as much authority for 
spelling it one way as another. The only clew 
that I have been able to obtain to the meaning 
of the word is in the book of Ross Cox, where 
he speaks of the chief of the Indians of the re- 
gion as Tllim-Spokanee,' which means the 
'Son of the Sun.' From this, and from the 
nature of the country in w hich they lived, it is 
fair to infer that their tribal name meant some- 
thing like "Children of the Sun.' They lived 
princi|)ally on the great sunny plains of the 
Spokane, while many of the neighboring 
tribes lived in the woody, mountainous regions 
of Cceur d' Alene, Pend d' Oreille, Koolenay, 
and Colville rivers. 

"1 have been told by men long resident in 
the country that the original word was pro- 
nounced with a slight vowel syllable 'e' at the 
end — Spokan-e. This vowel syllable, indis- 
tinct at best, was soon droppetl by the busy 
whites, who love not long names. 

'"In an official Congre.ssional report submit- 

ted January 19, 18.22, and in one submitted 
May 15, 1826, the post at Spokane is called 
Lantou and Lanton. This is probably the same 
word as Lah-too, mentioned by Mullan as the 
Indian name for Hangman's creek. 

"In speaking of the Astorian trading estab- 
lishments these reports say : One of these sub- 
ordinate establishments appears to have been at 
the mouth of the Lewis river (Fort Ncz 
I'erce or Walla W^alla, wdiere Wallula now 
stands); one at Lantou (.Spokane House, 
near the junction of the Sjxikane and Little 
Spokane ri\ers) ; a third on the Columbia, si.\ 
hundred miles from the ocean, at the confluence 
of the Wautaua river ( b'ort Okinakane); a 
fourth on the Ivast Fork of Lewis ri\er (1 
beliex'c this was on the Clearwater at the mouth 
of Lapwai creek, where the Indian agency now 
is, but I am not certain) ; and the fifth on the 
Multnoma (Willamette). 

"The following are the methods of spelling 
the word .Spokane, as adopted by different 
writers : 

.Spokan Official transfer papers, Pacific FurConi- 

])any to Northwest Fur Company. 

.Spokan Koss Cox. 

Spokane War Department map, 1838. 

Spokane, Commodore Wilkes. 

Sjiokein Rev. S. Parker. This writer, who visited 

the country in 183(5, says: " The name of 
this nation is generally written Spokan, 
sometimes Spokane. I called them Spo- 
kans, but they corrected my pronuncia- 
tion and said ' Sjiokein," and this they 
repeated several times, until I was con- 
vinced that to give their name a correct 
pronunciation, it should be written .Spo- 

Spokan C.rcfenhow. 

Spokain McVickar. 

Spokan Nath. J. Wyeth's report, 1839. 



Spokane Robertson. 

Spokane Thornton. 

Spokane A. Ross. 

Spokan Franchere. 

Spokan Irving. 

Spokan National Railroad Memoir. 

Spokan Armstrong 

Spokan St. John. 

Spokane Pacific Railroad Report. 

Spokane Mullan. 

Spoken Robertson and Crawford," 

Lieut. Symons. 

He describes also what he designates 


"This section is more varied than any of 
the others. In its southeastern part is Coeur 
d'Alene lake and the fine timber-covered coun- 
try surrounding it. In its northeastern and 
eastern part are the gravelly SiX)kane i)lains 
and the fertile prairies embedded in the north- 
ern woods. Its western portion comprises 
some of the finest farming lands in the Terri- 
tory, among which are those known as the 
Deep Creek, Four Lakes, Upper Crab Creek, 
Hawk Creek and Cottonwood Spring coun- 
tries, Gordon Prairie, etc. The Spokane river 
runs through this section, giving water trans- 
portation for the timber from the great forests 
about its headwaters, and furnishing one of the 
finest water-powers in the world. The main 
line of the Northern Pacific Railroad runs 
diagonally through the section. Along the 
Spokane river, below the falls and upon its 
small trilnitarics, tliere is a great tleal of tim- 
ber, which will furnish the inhabitants and set- 
tlers with wocid and lumber for a number of 
years, initil more railroads are built and the 
commerce in grain, fuel and lumber becomes 

"Due west from Spokane Falls and extend- 
ing in a westerly direction is the divide, be- 
tween the streams which flow north into the 
Spokane and south into Crab creek. This di- 
vide is no higher in appearance than the coun- 
try to the north and south ; it abounds in 
springs and swales, where the waters collect and 

then flow away as rivulets and brooks through 
the gentle-rolling hills at first, finally becoming 
more deeply encanoned as they near their des- 
tination at the greater river or creek. Of course 
those flowing north into the Spokane cut more 
deeply than those flowing south. This divide 
is of importance in the economy of the coun- 
try, as it furnishes an e.xcellent route for a rail- 
road, which will pass through an extremely 
fertile and desirable country, and be easily ac- 
cessible from both sides throughout its entire 
length. This railroad is one which in the near 
future must certainly be built. Its starting- 
point must be at the falls of the Spokane, from 
where it will stretch away westward to the 
Okinakane and vicinity of the Wenatchee, 
bearing in one direction its loads of grain to be 
groiuid into flour for shipment to the great 
world, and in the other direction the fuel, lum- 
ber and merchandise recjuired by the inhabi- 
tants of the country through which it passes. 

"Among the singular features of this coun- 
try are the Spokane plains. Lying along the 
banks of the Upper Six)kane and extending 
ofi' towards Pend d'Oreille lake there is a sys- 
tem of nearly level plains rising one alx)ve the 
other into terraces towards the north. These 
plains are composed chiefly of gravel and bowl- 
ders, and the vegetation on them is slight, and 
they are not well adapted to farming pur- 
poses. The higher terraces seem to be much 
better than the lower ones as there is more 
good rich soil intermixed with the gravel on 

"It would be a mistake, however, to sup- 
pose that these plains are valueless. They are 
well adapted to grazing purposes, and through- 
out there are large patches and strips where 
the rich soil has collected in suffiicient quantity • 
and depth to give most e.xcellent farming lands. 
Some of the garden farms on these fertile 
patches are already famous for the quality and 
quantity of their products." 

Being both beautiful and scientific, we here- 
with present his description of 




"The Spokane river at its mouth is about 
two hundred feet wide, and flows through a 
canon very similar to that of the Cohiml)ia, 
and alxHit two thousand feet l)elow tlie general 
level of the plains to the sciuth. It is broken 
by many rapids and falls and is entirely un- 
navigable. From its nmuth up to Si)nkane 
Falls, about seventy miles, this canon is very 
deep and difficult to cross or traverse. This 
river, with that portion of the Columljia from 
its mouth to the Okinakane, forms the boun- 
dary line between the rich and treeless great 
Columbian Plain on the south, and the more 
rocky, timbered and mountainous country to 
the north. 

"The Spokane river, by its situation and 
characteristics, is bound to play an imp(irtant 
part in the settlement and ultimate well-being 
of the whole country within a great distance 
of it. 

"At Spokane Falls is a magniliccnt water- 
power, one of the hnesl in the woi'ld, and sit- 
uated as it is in the miilst of a si)lcndid agri- 
cultural country, most of which, however, is 
treeless, there seems no room to d<iubt that it 
will become a great manufacturing and com- 
mercial center. 

"By means of the river and C(eur d"Alcne 
lake, and the tributary streams of the latter, a 
magnificent and widely-extended area of tim- 
l^erland living along the Cccur d'Alene and Bit- 
ter Root mountains can be made to yield its 
forest covering for transportation by water to 
Sjiokane Falls, there to be manufactured into 
lumber and distributed throughout the agri- 
cultural lands, to the .south and west. In return 
for this lumber and fuel, these lands will send 
their wheat to the falls to be manufactured 
into flour, and sent from there to the seaboard 
to be shipped to the markets of the world. 

"Large portions of the country are better 
.suited for pastoral purposes than for agricul- 
tural, and it i.s reasonable to expect that here 

at these falls will be erected great woolen man- 
ufactories, to \\(irk up the raw produce of the 
country into cloths and blankets required by 
the inhabitants thereof. 

"Large f|uantities of brown hematite iron 
ore ha\'e been l"ound near the .Sjiokane river 
below the falls, and it is known that other iron 
deposits lie to the north. 

"Quantities of flax have been grown in the 
past few years in the country to the south of 
Spokane Falls, and it must also l)e brought to 
this great water-jiower to be manufactured in- 
to threail. cloth, etc., and the seed into oil. 

"The number of manufacturing enterprises 
fijr which this place seems adapted seems very 
great. I may enumerate, besides those men- 
tioned a1)o\'e. the manufacture of all kinds of 
wooden ware, of agricultural and farming 
implements, wagons, carriages, furniture, 
leather, harness, boots and shoes. ])ork. beer, 
and iron and metal works in great variety. 
Large luinibers of emigrants ha\'e 1)een and 
are coming into tliis .S])okane country, lured 
hither 1)\- the line agricultural prospects, by 
the al)und;ince of reinunerati\e laljor. the pros- 
pects of large manufacturing establishments, 
and the bright mining outlook. This influx of 
emigrants will be largely increased as soon as 
the railroads reach the country and render it 
cheaper and easier for them to come. 

"The Si)okane in the upper part of its 
course presents the estimable peculiarity — 
especially valuable in view of its use as a water- 
power — of ne\-er freezing. 

"It seems to be fed by many springs be- 
tween the falls and the Cienr d'Alene Lake, 
which ha\e the elTect, in the coldest weather, 
of keeping the teinpev.-itnre above the treeznig 

])< lint. 

"Immediateb- aliout the falls the .soil is not 
ad.-ipled to farnnng on a large scale, as it is 
more or less rocky and gravelly. It is, how- 
ever, on this account, particularly well litted 
for building 

"The total fall of the river is about one bun- 



(Ired and thirty feet, divided into several 
plunges and rapids, and broken by islands and 
rocks, and so situated that its entire force can 
be controlled and brought into use. 

"It would seem as if nature could not have 
done more to make this a great manufacturing 
and ominiercial center, and a beautiful, 
healthy and attractive place." 



The Territorial Legislature of 1858-9 
passed an act creating Spokane county, lying 
ncirth (if Snake river. Pinkney City, the name 
lieing soon changed to Colville, was made the 
county seat. January 20, 1863. the county of 
Stevens was organized for "ci\'il and military 
purposes, to be attached to the county of Spo- 
l.-ane for judicial purposes." January 19, 1864, 
an act passed annexing the county of Spokane 
to Ste\'ens. the county officers of Spokane to 
be county officers of Stevens until the expira- 
tion of their term, and said Stevens county to 
be entitled to representati\'es and councilmen 
of the two counties formerly existing. Thus 
the original Spokane county was absorl)ed in 
Stevens county, which succeeded it. 


The present Spokane county was orgar.ized 
October 30, 1879, out of part of Stevens coun- 
ty. The bill was drawn by Hon. J. J. Browne, 
of this city, who went to Olympia to urge its 
passage. PTon. D. V. Perci\'al. of Cheney, then 
a member of the Legislature from StCN-ens 
county, presented it. Hon. Francis H. Cook, 
who was a memljer of tlie Legislature or Coun- 
cil from Pierce county, but resided in Spokane 
Falls an<l pulilished the Si)okane Times, op- 
posed the bill Ijecause of the superfluous "e" 
in Spokane. But it passed and the description 
of Spo]<ane county was thus, "Commencing at 
a i)oint where the section line between sections 
21 and _><S iu township 14. r.inge 27, Willa- 

mette meridian, Washington territory, strikes 
the main body of the Columbia river on tlie 
west side of the island ; thence west to the mid- 
channel of the Columl)ia river; thence up the 
mid-channel of the Columbia river to the Spo- 
kane river; thence up the mid-channel of the 
Spokane river to the Little Spokane river; 
thence north to tlie township line beween town- 
.ships 29 and 30; thence east to the Ixnmdaryline 
between Washington and Idaho territories; 
thence .south on the said boundary line to the 
fifth standard parallel ; thence west on said 
parallel to the Columljia guide meridian ; thence 
south on said meridian to the fourtli standard 
]iarallel ; thence west on fourth standard parallel 
to the range line 1)etween ranges 27 and 28; 
tiience south on said range line to the section 
line lietween sections Xos. 24 and 25 in town- 
ship 14 north, range 27 east, Willamette meridi- 
ian : thence west to the place of beginning." 
W. C. Cray, John H. W^ells and Andrew La- 
fevre were appointed a Iward of commissioners 
to call a special election for tlie election of coun- 
ty officers and to ajipoint the necessary judges 
and ins]:)ectors therefor. The officers to be 
elected were one auditor, one treasurer, one 
sheriff to act as cx-officio assessor, one pro- 
bate judge, one superintendent of common 
schools one coroner and three county commis- 
sioners. The county seat was temporarily lo- 
cate<l at the town of Spf)kane Falls, to remain 
until located elsewhere by a majority vote of 
the legal electors of said county. Originally the 
county included i\\^ present counties of Lincoln 



.Si'iiKANE CorNTV Court House. 

roMMISSIoNUKS, is:ii. c immissijni^ks. ISOj. 
Kkkii a PiisliKii A. I.. TnMliP. 

VV« CoN.Vdl.l.V. IlENKV TliKKllB. 

II. T Jo.vE.S. b'UKI) A FESDKlt. 

.l(i:IN KlIKXAN, P K. Uatks. 



1). 1!. FOTlIEIil-N'iaiAM. CoXTKAl T4ilt. 




and Douglas. At present the county consists of 
forty-eight full tciwnships and two fractions. 
It is fifty-four miles in length, north and south, 
by thirty-si.x in width, and has an area of about 
seventeen hundred square miles and one mi.- 
lion, one Iiundred and thirty-five thousand, 
three hundred and sixty acres. It borders with 
the state of Idaho on the east, and is therefore 
the eastern doorway of the state, and is situate- 1 
about midway between the north and sout'.: 
line. Stevens county is north, Whitman 
county south and Lincoln county west of it 
It is a county of scenic beauty and picturesque 
variety. Within its borders are found fertil<i 
prairies, delightful vales, rugged hills, a mas 
sive mountain, crystal streams and rivers 
mighty cataracts, enchanting lakes, thick for- 
ests of fur, tamarack and pine and a broad,long 
and superb valley. Though the lakes are not 
large, they are numerous. Saltese and Liberty 
lakes to the southeast, Newman lake, northeast, 
Clear, Silver, Medical, Little Medical and 
Granite lakes, west and about midway between 
the north and south line. Rock creek and 
Chapman are small lakes near southwest cor- 
ner. Newman and Clear lakes are the largest 
about four miles by two miles. The southern 
portion of the county is a part of the Palous 
country with similar characteristics of rollint' 
hills following one another without order. This 
is first-class wheat land. The elc\-ation wil 
average two thousand feet above sea level 
Moving northward we enter a timber countr} 
known in early history as Spokane woods. Il 
is spotted with small but fertile j)rairics. such as 
Moran prairie and Fruitland, and some of the 
woodland has been transformed to orchards. 
Leaving the woods we enter the grand Spo- 
kane valley, which is on a lower elevation. 
Even one who has encircled the globe has seen 
but few s]X)ts equal in magnificence. Nature 
has been !a\'ish in its endowment of splendor 
upon this favored spot. It is nearly thirty miles 
in length and from five to ten miles in width. 
The surface is undulating just enough to afford 

fine drainage. There are seasons of the year 
when a \-iew of the valley from an elevation 
is indescribably resplendant; when it is ablaze 
with green grass and a great variety of flowers. 
In parts the grain can be seen waving grace- 
fully in the breeze, and orchards with trees la- 
den with delicious fruit. The Spokane river 
winds its way through, rushing as if in haste to 
reach the series of falls and make the last plunge 
under the Monroe street bridge to the chasm 
below, and from thence to wind its way between 
hills and canyons to join the great Columbia 
on its way to the sea. The Spgkane valley is 
encircled with pine-clad hills picturestiuely 
broken up with cliffs of rugged granite and 
basaltic rocks, with the towering Mt. Carleton, 
familiarly known as "Old Baldy." away in the 

The soil of Spokane valley is a mixture of 
loam and gravel and much of it is lieing suc- 
cessfully cultivated, especially along the river 
banks. The gravel causes it to dry out quickly 
when the heat of summer comes. The possi- 
bilities of the A-alley when under irrigation, 
which can be easily accomplished by the use of 
water from the ri\-er and Cceur d' Alene lake. 
is hardly conceivable. 

North • of the Spokane valley is found a 
country gorgeous in beauty and sublime in 
scenery. On the small prairie are found farm- 
ers as prosperous probably as any in the Unit- 
ed States. Orchard and Pleasant ])rairics are 
what their names indicate. They are gems of 
beauty, and those who have been fortunate 
enough to find homes in them can with proprie- 
ty say, "our lines have fallen in ])leasant 
places." The fot)thills towards "Old Baldy." 
as well as the ravines and valleys, are being 
transfiirmed to fertile fields and fruitful orch- 
ards. In the vicinity of Newman lake are 
some profitable hay farms. .\t considerable 
expense, those who live around the south end 
of the lake, where the water originally over- 
flowed, have added many acres to their hay 
land. Mr. Wendler's fruit farm has attracted 



wide attention on account of the exhibit at the 
Spokane Fruit Fair and Industrial Exposition. 
The region around Mt. Carleton can only be 
appreciated by those who have climbed to the 
top of this old sentinel of nature and viewed 
the scene therefrom. Peone prairie is especi- 
allv productive in grain. When we reach the 
Little Spokane river there is a deep depression. 
This river, known in history as Pointed Heart, 
flows through some wild country and romantic 
scenes, although great changes have l)een ef- 
fected during recent years as the result of the 
rapid development of the northeastern portion 
of this county. Its waters turn the wheels of 
many mills and will doubtless turn many more 
in the near future. Spots of beauty are found 
here and there along the stream, especially west 
of Dart's mill. North of the Little Spokane 
the country is mostly timbered with the excep- 
tion of Half Moon prairie, near Wayside, and 
Wild Rose, which are e(|ual in fertility with 
anything in the country. Five Mile prairie, 
about that distance from the centre of the city, 
is unsurpassed for grain, cereals and orchards, 
as evidenceil by exhil)its at Spokane fair. White 
Bluff prairie is a vast one. It is considerably 
spotted with scab, nevertheless large i)ortions 
of it are tillable land and capable of 'high culti- 
vation, as evidenced by the waving grain fields 
that can be seen. In the Medical Lake and 
Cheney districts are found land unsurpassed in 
richness and fertility. In the prairie districts 
the soil is deep, loose and dark of color. It 
contains a considerable amount of volcanic ash, 
which gives it its forcible character as well as 
its great durability. Of all the prairie land, 
authorities have testified "The soil is rich in all 
constituent elements of cereals and vegetables 
and produces the finest quality." Frost some- 
time interferes with the maturity of the ten- 
derer vegetables and fruits. 


The climate of Sixikane county is bracing 
and vigorous. The pinecovered hills and dis- 

tant snow-capped mountains give purity to the 
atmosphere. As a rule residents of the Atlantic 
coast have a wrong conception of the climate 
of this region. This is quite natural when they 
learn that Spokane is situated between the for- 
ty-seventh and forty-eighth parallels, farther 
north than the highest point of Maine. This 
led them to decide that a Canadian climate pre- 
vailed here. But their conclusion is an erron- 
eous one, because they fail to take into account 
the warm Japan current beating upon the Pa- 
cific coast and the gentle Chinook winds that 
sweep across the state modifying the extremes 
of both winter and summer. Take it all in all, 
it is difficult to find a climate more desirable 
than that of Spokane county. The Puget 
Sound district is famous throughout America 
for the mildness of its climate; but for all prac- 
tical purposes and for enjoyment of life, the cli- 
mate of eastern Washington is greatly to be 
preferred, with twice as much sunshine and 
conijjaratively small difference in temperature. 

W'e cannot write with authority on the ge- 
ology of the county. The results of govern- 
ment surveys and explorations have not yet 
been jjublished. The mica found on Mica 
peaks has been declare*! as sufficient to supply 
the whole country, and of excellent quality. 
The marble and granite deposits within and 
adjacent to the county have been pronounced 
by experts as rich and fine in quality. The 
granite has come into extensive use. The 
Medical Lake granite has gained quite a repu- 
tation abroad. The Little Spokane granite 
is regarded as excellent in quality. 

Some years ago Mr. George J. Ward well, 
an expert of high standing, made an examina- 
tion of some of the marble and granite in the 
Spokane cmuitry and testified thus: "I found 
extensive de])osits of marble exposed to view 
at different i)laces on the face of the bluffs and 
flanks of ridges. At these places the marble 
was badly broken up, as might be expected, due 
to exposure for untold ages to atmospheric 
actions. A thin chip knocked from the cor- 



ner or from tlie face of any of these detached 
masses, exposed a quahty of marl)le of fine 
texture, bright and sparkHng, with markings 
varying from Hght to dark bkie, mottled with 
clean white, with light and dark cloud, to 
sharp black with man}' and sinuous lines, 
associated with lines of white and bluish w'hite, 
characteristics that would produce a great va- 
riety of figures and markings when sawed into 
slabs, monument stock, or iov Ijuilding or dec- 
orative purposes. I have also seen specimens 
of this marble that were polished, sand rubbed 
and tooled, which were all that could be de- 
sired in a first-class marble. I believe the 
density and texture will warrant me in saying 
that this marble will resist or sustain a crush- 
ing weight equal to the best building granite. 
say from eighteen thousand to twenty thousand 
pounds per square inch. After examining the 
outcroppings at the various points along the 
line of strike for a distance of from fifteen hun- 
dred to two thousand feet, and for nearly one 
thousand feet in width, I found the general 
characteristics the same as regards markings, 

color, te.xture, etc. The position of the de- 
posit, as far as it could be determined by color 
markings, was nearly \ertical, a \cry desirable 
position for quarrying. I could discover no 
indication of distinct veins or beds, it being 
massive and free from stratification and iron 
or other mineral stains or defects. From what 
observation I have been able to make the mar- 
ble is as fine in texture and beautiful in color- 
ing and figures as any of the Eastern marbles 
of similar character." 


It is naturally heterogeneous. I'ut as a 
whole the people are industrious, sober, law- 
abiding, patriotic, progressive and prosper- 
ous. In intelligence they will compare well 
with any portion of the country. A large pro- 
portion are American born. The Germans 
are estimated as six thousand strong, and the 
Scandinaxian nati\'es are represented probably 
by a larger number. .\ more cosmopolitan city 
than Spokane would l)e diflicult to find, and yet 
its thorough Americanism is undisputed. 



"There is but one Spokane." 
"In earlier ages population gathered chiefly 
in cities, but for reasons which were tem])or- 
ary. Men sought the protection from ma- 
rauders which was affordlcd by the walled 
towns. They went to their fields in the morn- 
ing and returned at night. But with the es- 
tablishment of social order, the men who tilled 
the soil began to live upon it. The growth of 
the modern city is due to causes which are per- 
manent. The phenomenal growth of the mod- 
ern city is due to a redistribution of the jiopu- 
lation." — Dr. Josiah .Strong, in "The Twen- 
tieth Century City." 

"Upon this gravel plain, just above where 
Hangman's Creek joins the Spokane, is situ- 
ated the city of .Spokane Falls, and it certainly 
is not excelled in the \\hole world as a town- 
site." — Lieutenant Synions. 

This is an age of concentration wiiich leads 
to the congregating of [jeople in cities. Truly 
it has been said that in nearly every state one 
city beconus the type and representation of the 
whole state itself — Chicago, in Illinois: San 
Francisco, in California: Portland in Oregon. 
The same statement can be applied to counties. 
Spokane city is Spokane county. Being tiiat 



Spokane is the oldest town as well as the 
largest city in this county, it is but fair that 
it should ha^■e the first and most prominent 
place in this histor}'. 

Spokane lies in latitude forty-seven degrees 
forty minutes north ; longitude one hundred 
and seventeen degrees twenty-five minutes 
west, and at an altitude of nearly two thousand 
feet above sea level. It is the eastern gateway 
to the vast northwest, the largest city from 
the Mississippi river to the Puget Sound. It 
is situated about eighteen miles from the Idaho 
line, and about midway between the northern 
and southern boundaries of the state. It is 
four hundred miles distant from Helena to the 
east, and nearly an etpial distance from Port- 
land, Seattle and Tacoma to the west, and 
farther from Salt Lake City. Utah, the nearest 
city of any considerable size to the south, and 
there is no city of commercial importance to 
the north of it. Thus it is a city most happily 
and commandingly situated in the center of 
a territory with no prospects of a rival that 
can obtain a like foothold. The literature of 
Spokane is quite extensive, and some of it 
even brilliant. Some attempts at prophecy 
have pro\ed the authors deficient in the neces- 
sary gifts. But on the whole the history of 
the city as presented in current literature has 
been reliable and full of interest, and has done 
much to make known its advantages. To all 
the early and late chroniclers of the events 
connected with the formative period and de- 
velopment of the city and county, the writer 
is under great obligation and cheerfully makes 
this -acknowledgment. Great cities are often 
located beside great waters. It is evident that 
the hand of destiny or Providence marked the 
region around the falls as a populous citv. Xo 
wonder that the groves around the falls were 
the camping grounds of the aboriginal Spo- 
kanes for ages unkni)wn, fur a more delightful 
spot Wduld be difficult to find when in its nat- 
ural state. And a more advantageous site fur 
a great city one may travel long to find. The 

early explorer was naturally attracted here by 
the great waterfall of the Spokane river. It 
is not only beautiful and picturesque, but 
easily utilized as a motive power. The Spokane 
river flows througli the heart of the city with 
an average volume of one hundred and twenty 
thousand cubic feet per minute. It flows 
through channels of basaltic rock and within 
a mile and a half it falls one hundred and 
fifty feet. The river has it source in the Coeur 
d'.Mene lake, a great mountain reservoir thirty 
miles long and from three to six miles in width 
and of great depth. The lake is thirty miles 
east of the city. Dr. Hines says : "Beautiful 
for situation, the joy of the whole earth is this 
Spokane." "The city is located in the very 
heart of the most ])erfect scenic poem. Form 
and color and motion have their most perfect 
blending. Woodlands, lawns and waters 
mingle green softness, gray soberness and sil- 
\er brightness in one long and broad picture 
such as no hand but that of the Infinite Artist 
could ever touch. Just where the Spokane 
ri\er, which has come wandering down 
through the plains from the northeast for 
many miles, breaks into laughing ripples, then 
speeds a*vay through the various channels for 
a half-mile race of flashing and jeweled beauty, 
and then leaps and rushes out of sight into the 
deep balsatic chasms of its lower flow, the city 
crosses plain and river, and rises up the hill- 
slopes that echo back the soft and incompar- 
able music of the cascade. 

"The divine marvel of its jeweled setting 
is matched by the human marvel of its own 
growth and beauty. Only twenty years ago 
a pioneer explorer, searching for a way through 
an uninhabited wild, accompanied only by his 
wife a pioneer like himself, found himself so 
bewildered in the unpathed intricacies of pine 
forests and basaltic precipices at the nightfall 
of a long June day of weary travel, that he was 
compelled to stop and halt and camp for the 
night under a pine tree's protection without 
fond for supper or breakfast. The morning 
\\t>ke them with the tremulous music of near 



^vatel•fall filling the air. They found that they 
had camped where the spray of Spokane falls 
almost moistened their brow. Against the gray 
breast of a distant hill a few blue wreaths of 
smoke from some Indian wigwam was all that 
told of humanity near. Then the writer first 
saw this spot ; but he did not dream that night 
of all that he would see here only twenty years 
later." — History of Washington. 

It is difficult for us to follow or even con- 
ceive the rapid transformation which has re- 
sulted in the scenes now faiuiliar to us. Many 
of us can hardly imagine the conditions as they 
were less than three decades ago, before any 
changes had resulted from human labor and in- 
genuity. There was naught then but a wide 
prairie surrounded with hills and pine trees. 
Here and there Indian tepees might be seen 
with white smoke rising from the centre and 
around them some socalled braves loafing 

What was then the wild man's hunting 
ground has become the fertile fields or been 
transformed to the great metropolis with all 
the comforts of modern civilization. When 
Messrs. J. J. Downing and L. R. Scranton, 
the first white men to attempt to estaljlish a 
home near Spokane falls, came here in 1872, 
there were but few white men in the upper Spo- 
kane country. As far as we can trace, there 
were less than a dozen families within the con- 
fines and adjacent to the present county of Spo- 
ils kane. Mr. James Monaghan took charge of a 
ferry and subsequently built a bridge on the 
Spokane river about twenty miles Ix-low the city 
of Spokane at what is known as La Pray Ijridge 
in the early 'sixties. It is on the nnrtlnvestern 
corner of the county. At this place Mr. Mona- 
ghan planted the first orchard in tlic county, 
which is no\v in good bearing condition. Mr. 
Guy Haines settled at Walker's prairie on the 
original mission ground in 1862. Pie had been 
a quartermaster at Fort Vancouver and passed 
through the prairie on his way to Colville with 
General ?'.IcClellan a few years before this and 

had Ix'en impressed with the beauty of this spot. 
Mr. Haines lived on it till recently, and owns it 
still, but resides in Spokane. Mr. Haines tes- 
tifies that when he passed through the Spokane 
valley from Walker's Prairie to Rathdrum in 
1862-3 that a French Canadian by the name of 
Caniile lived about twelve miles east of the val- 
ley on the north (if Spokane, about where the 
Myfers place is now, two or three miles east of 

Pie had been in the employ of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, and had an Indian wife. A son 
of his is now a sub-chief of the Coeur d' Alenes. 
There was also a French Canadian who had 
been in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
panv, liv the name of Ant(.iyne Phcnit. living on 
the south side of the river about twelve miles 
from the falls. He had an Indian wife, and 
reared a family, some of which are now livmg 
on the Flathead reserx'ation. 

William Newman came to this country as 
early as i860 as an escort to the boundary sur- 
veyors. He was in the United States army, 
and had come this way from Fort Simcoe. He 
settled near the lake bearing his name, prob- 
ably as early as 1865. 

Mr. Stephen Lilierty came from Canada 
to Fort Benton, IMontana, in 1866. He was at 
Rathdrum in 1869. Soon after this he visited 
the lake now bearing his name. Liberty, fifteen 
miles east of the city. It seemed to him a ver- 
itable parailise for stock. He settled on the 
shores of the lake in 1871, and planted an or- 
chard which is n(jw the McKenzie place. 

Mr. Toseph jMoran settled south of the city 
on the prairie bearing his name. He was killed 
by a bull in 1890. 

Mr. Le Fevre and Mr. Labrie were the ear- 
liest settlers in the Medical lake country. They 
\\ere engaged in sheep-herding. Mr. il. M. 
Cowley settled .seventeen miles east of the city 
and started a general merchandise store in 1872 
and continued in l)usincss at that point for some 
years until he removed to Spokane, where he 
has been identified with the Traders' National 



Bank and other interests for over a dozen 

We are now prepared to enter directly 
upon the history of Spokane, which conies in 
the regitlar order with that of the county. 

The persons ahx'a<!y referred to, Messrs. 
L. R. Scranton and J. J. Downing, botli coming 
from the east, and a Mr. Benjamin, treated 
with the Indians in order to have their good 
will, and built a sawmill on the smith hank of 
the river near where the Phoenix mill is now 
located. Soon a lawyer by the name of L. S. 
Swift was on the scene. Lawyers are always 
si^'lft to see and be where there are prospects of 
jj-ood thing's. ;\lr. Swift went to California. 
Little has been recorded of these pioneers, or 
forerunners. It might be said with propriety 
that the real history of Spokane begins in the 
spring of 1S73. .\t that time Hon. James 
N. Glover arrived on the s])ot where now is 
the magic citv of the west and looked in wonder 
and delight on the rushing, plunging, foaming 
waters of Spokane ri\-er. leaping o\-er the falls 
into the canvnn lielnw. Mr. (llnser had re- 
sided at Salem. Oregon. He was led to this 
country primarily by two considerations — one 
was the health of himself and wife; the other 
a desire to find a grazing country or a sheep 
range. Early in ^lay. 1873, he left Portland, 
Oregon, and traveled by boat as far as Lewis- 
ton. He and his companion. Mr. J. X. Math- 
eney, traveled northward on horseback. They 
moved along day In- day, surveying the coun- 
try and pitching their tent wherever they hap- 
pened to be at night. After leaving Colfax set- 
tlers were few and far between. When they 
reached near where Latah is toilay they found 
Major Wimpy just settling on a ranch. On 
the way the}' met a man by the name of Har- 
vey Brown, who was carrying mail on horse- 
back from Lewiston to Pond d'Oreille by way 
of Kendall bridge, afterwards known as Cow- 
ley bridge. They were told by Mr. Brown that 
Mr. Kendall desired to sell his interest in the 
I'ridge and his store, so they traveled in that 

direction, and reached the bridge on the day of 
Mr. Kendall's funeral. Seeing nothing to suit 
them at the bridge, they moved on toward the 
little settlement by the falls, arriving on the 
] 2th of ]May. It was. on Sunday afternoon, 
and the weather was delightful, and after look- 
ing around and crossing the river in a pine log 
niiide into a canoe, about where the Division 
street Ijridge is, and taking in the lay of the 
land, they became infatuated with the place 
and its surroundings. Mr. Downing had sold 
his half interest to Mr. Benjamin for a consid- 
eration of two thousand dollars, but only t\nir 
hundred had been paid, with no prospects that 
more could be paid. Mr. Glover decided to buy 
Mr. llenjamin's interest and pay Mr. Downing 
the difTerence between four hundred dollars and 
t\\ o thousand dollars. Leaving Mr. Matheney 
on the ground, he went back to Salem for ma- 
chinery and returned in August, coming over- 
land by team from Wallula. He found things 
in such a condition as to make it advisable for 
him to purchase the other half interest in the 
mill and town site. The bargain was made, al- 
though the pai)ers had to be signed under the 
cover of darkness, the other ])arty being a fugi- 
tive from justice, charged with cattle and horse 
stealing. The .s(]uatter"s rights, the mill, the 
improvements and good will were purchased 
for four thousand dollars. At this time Walla 
Walla and Lewiston were the only towns in 
the region known as the Columbia valley. It 
w as very evident that there was to be a town of 
consideraljle impcjrtance in the near future 
somewhere in the "'upper country," and what 
sjjot so fitting as that beside the beautiful and 
mighty falls of Spokane? 

The white settlers north of the Snake river 
w ere few in numl)er. of which the majority re- 
sided in the Colville valley, and had been em- 
ployees of the Hudson's Bay Company. A 
fair estimate of the white population between 
the Snake ri\er rmd the British line, not count- 
ing the soldiers at Fort Colville. hardly exceed- 
ed three hundred. Nevertheless that the coun- 

Traders' Bank Corner, Spokane, in Early Days 

I r'jui-i^ L-- 





try would soon be occupied by white people, 
.and that a great transformation was near at 
hand, was evident to foresighted men. Indeed 
the roar of the iron horse could almost be heard 
in the distance, and to a man of vision the 
Indian tepees were soon to disappear, and tow- 
ering bricks to take their places. 

Messrs. Glover and I\Iatheney were soon 
joined by Mr. C. F. Yeaton, of Portland, Ore- 
gon. ]Mr. Yeaton and wife are natives of Mas- 
.sachusetts, and now live near Seattle. Mrs. 
Mary Garrison, of Hopewell, Oregon, a sister 
of ]\Ir. Jasper X. ^latheney, kindly sent us 
a sketch of his life. He was born in Schuyler 
.county, Illinois, in 1834. and came to Orcgcjn 
with his parents when nine years old — 1843. 
Ahftv marrying, he settled in Salem and bought 
the ferry boat on the Willamette ri\er. He was 
sheriff of Marion county for four years, after 
which he came to Spokane. The Black Hills 
mining excitement led him to that country. 
From there he moved to California and then to 
Mexico. While on his way to the World's Ex- 
position he died of dropsy of the liver in San 
Francisco and was buried in the Masonic cem- 
etery. His youngest son, Guy, lives in ]\lex- 
ico. A niece, Mrs. Barrett, an artist, li\'es in 
this city, and has her studio in the Granite 
block. " 

Tliey entered into partnership to operate 
the sawmill and do a merchandise business. 
This was the initiatory step which led to the 
making of this city the commercial centre of a 
vast empire. It was the day of small things as 
compared with the present, yet a great under- 
taking under the circumstances. Mr. Glover 
purchased wdiat seemed then a good stock of 
merchandise, and also some new' machinery for 
the mill. A lively business was done by the mill 
during the summer. ab(jut one hundred thou- 
sand feet of lumber being cut. 

A store room and dwelling were erected. 
A few more settled in this region, mostly stock- 
men, but a few farmers. At the close of 1873 
there might b.ave been one hundred souls in 

what now constitutes Spokane county. In ad- 
dition to those already mentioned, there were 
Fliram Still, of the California ranch; William 
Spangle, proprietor of the tow'n of Spangle; 
Henry Kaiser, who led an eventful life, wdio 
lived on the Ellis place near Union Park; Max- 
ime and Peter Muhmine, Daniel Courchaine. 
Frederick Post at Rathdrum. A mail route 
had been established from Levvistown via Col- 
fax, I\Iaji)r R. H. Wimpy's on Upper Hang- 
man Creek, the California ranch, Spokane 
Bridge, and Spokane Falls. Mr. Scranton was 
appointed the first postmaster, but the active 
one was Mrs. Swift. It was kept at her resi- 
dence in a log cabin at the lower end of Post 
street. After Mr. Scranton's ignominious de- 
parture Mr. Yeaton was appointed and filled 
the position for three years. The prospect of 
the speedy coming of the Northern Pacific 
Railway gave reason for encouragement to the 
few courageous settlers, and stimulated their 
expectations. But these prospects were blighted 
in a great measure by the failure of the rail- 
road magnate. Jay Cooke. In the midst of all 
these there came rumors of Indian outbreaks, 
and these were greatly magnified by the Port- 
land and other papers. The people were filled 
with terror, which nearly resulted in a panic. 
Conditions appeared so serious and dangerous 
that some families living in the surrounding 
country went to Walla Walla. But the winter 
of 1873-4 passed without an Indian outbreak, 
or anything else of a serious nature beyond 
apprehensions. Among the most unpleasant 
experiences of the early settlers were the peri- 
odical rumors of Indian outbreaks, all of which 
proved groundless excepting the Nez Perce and 
Bannock outbreak of 1877-8. It is worthy of 
mention that probably the visit of Rev. H. H. 
Spalding among the Spokanes had something 
to do with influencing them to conduct them- 
selves as they did. In October, 1874, Rev. H. 
T. Cowley and family arrived, which was quite 
an acquisition to the population. Mr. Cowley 
came as a missionarv to the Indians at the re- 



quest of Rev. Spalding, wlio had added to his 
charge the Spokanes at the request of the Pres- 
byterian board. Mr. Pool and family arrived 
the day following the Cowleys, augmenting 
the population of Spokane Falls to fifteen 

In the fall the Spokane district in Stevens 
county was organized. It was one of great 
proportions, one hundred and fifty by one hun- 
dred miles, reaching from the Idaho line to the 
Columbia ri\er and from Spangle to Chewe- 
lah. The school had an attendance of four 
(luring the first term and j\Ir. H. T. Cowley 
was the teacher. In the organization of the 
district it necessitated the using of all the citi- 
zens to fill the offices. 

During this year General Jeff. C. Uavis 
went through the place on his way to Fort 
Colville and the Indians honored him with a 
pow-wow in front of Glover's store. Christ- 
mas and New Year were made memorable. 
The preparations were elaborate. Wagons 
were sent to Lewiston and Walla \\"alla for 
Christmas presents and delicacies for the New 
Year dinner. The presents on the Christmas 
tree made the children happy, but hardly more 
so than the privilege of speaking their pieces. 
Both events were a great success. In 1875 
Hon. Robert H. Wimpy was elected the first 
member of the Legislature for Stevens county, 
which then embraced Spokane. Lincoln, 
Douglas and Okanogan ; D. F. Percixal and 
L. W. Myers were elected countv commis- 
sioners; James N. Gltjver. justice of the peace; 
G. N. Hofstetter, sherift'. Colville was the 
county seat. 

In May of this year Rev. S. G. Havermale 
visited the little settlement of the falls on his 
way to Colville on a preaching tour as presiding 
elder of tlie Methodist Episcopal church. He 
had met My. Cowley at Lewiston a }-ear be- 
fore this. Mr. Havermale says : 'T made mv 
first visit to Spokane in ]\Iay, 1875. 'f came 
to pass in this way. Mr. A\'. Park Winans. 
who had been residing at Col\-ille as Indian 

agent, met me at Walla Walla and urged me 
to make a trij) to the Colville country. He 
informed me that some of the people were very 
anxious to have a Protestant preacher visit 
them. One day he said to me, 'I will give 
you twenty dollars to help pay your expenses 
to the upper country.' That settlecl it. A 
young man there, not a professed Christian, 
showingsomuchinterestgreatly impressed me." 
I\Ir. \\'inans is to-day one of the most prom- 
inent and respected citizens of Walla \\'alia 
and one of the most earnest and generous 
members of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
clun-cii. — [Editor.] Mr. Havermale, continu- 
ing his narrative, says, "I started witii a young 
man with me. There were only Indian trails 
then. We camped one night near where Spangle 
now is. Tiie next day, after travelling about 
ten miles, we met a man somewhere about 
where Cheney is located and intjuired the way 
to tiie lower bridge — the La Pray bridge. 
But he directed us to tlie upper bridge, in- 
forming us that he had made the journey to 
Colville and back that way in one day, making 
about two hundred and forty miles." Mr. 
Havermale says in his jovial manner. "He 
must have a wonderful horse. But by being 
misdirected we came to the falls of Spokane. 
We met Messrs. Glover and Yeaton, who kept 
a small store about where the Windsor Block' 
is to-day, across the street from the City Hall. 
When we told them that we were on our way 
to Colville. and had been directed to go by 
way of the upper bridge, they pronounced it 
impossible. On describing our informant 
they laughted, saying that he had never told 
the truth Init once in his life, and had gone 
se\enty-fi\e miles on horseback to take it 

"How did things appear to you then, Mr. 
Havermale?" "The scenes and location 
ch;u-nicd me. The falls were magnificent, 
the water lieing quite high at that time of the 
year. You can have no idea to-day how it 
looked then. The open beautiful prairie was 



delightful to look upon, covered with thick 
grass and wild flowers. The grass was up 
,to my knees where the hig Ijlocks n()W are. 
I fell in love with the place and ahout de- 
cided to settle here there and then. I preaclied 
here and then we moved on toward Colville 
hy way of the lower bridge, and preached at 
Colville and Chewelah. and in due time re- 
turned to Walla Walla. In November of the 
same year I removed my family here and set- 
tled on a quarter-section of land. We built 
our first log house, 18x26. near the banks of 
the river, about the corner of Front avenue 
and Bernard street." This was the second 
quarter-section entered upon in what now 
constitutes the city of S]X)kane. The south- 
east corner of the quarter-section is now cor- 
ner of Sprague a\'cnue and L)i\'ision street, 
northeast, across the street, fn >m the S. F. 
& N. depot, southwest corner at the city hall, 
reaching riorth half a mile. Mr. Ha\ermale"s 
claim included nearly all tlie water power 
excepting the big falls. It tonk in all the 
Big Island, now Havermale Island, which Mr. 
Havermale describes as especially picturesque 
in its natral state, co\-ered with trees and 
thick grass. The city council named the three 
islands, the largest, Havermale : the second 
in size, on which the Echo mill is. Glover, and 
the third, or smallest, near the Centennial mill. 
Cannon. The summer was \-ery dull, with- 
out the increase of jiopulation that was ex- 
pecterl, antl the winter was a severe one. 

Early in 1876, ]Mr. Frederick Post and 
family removed from Rathdrum westwanl 
here. His name will always be associaicl 
with this city as the one who built and opci- 
ated the first grist mill. Mr. Post is now en- 
joying vigorous old age at Post Falls, Idaho, 
showing the same enterprising spirit as in days 
gone l)y. In view of the ad\antages expected 
to accrue from the mill, Mr. Post recei\-ed 
forty acres of the one hundreil and twenty 
acres town site, with water pnwer and use of 
the saw-mill to manufacture the necessary 

lumber. Little was done on the grist mill 
that year. Mr. (ilover erected a new store 
building with .second story adapted for a hall. 
It was ready for the 4th of July celebration, 
which has found its place in history as a 
"grand affair," and attended by people from 
the Snake ri\cr tn British Columljia. In the 
fall three new families were welcomed. 

The spring of 1877 indicated but faint 
prospects of an im|>roved condition. The 
town firm did not find their business suffi- 
ciently profitable to continue in partnership, 
therefore a dissolution took place, Mr. (ilover 
buying out the others. 

This was the year of the Xez Perces out- 
break. The whole population of the upper 
country was terrified by the massacre of the 
Salmon Ri\-er settlers. The settlers around 
Walla Walla and Colfax flocked to these 
towns for refuge. S(jme removed from this 
region to the towns mentioned. .-\t Colfax 
a Company nf minute men was organized. A 
state of terror reigned here from June 27th 
to _\ugust lotli. The town people and settlers 
aroimd assembled together and after deliber- 
ation retired to the Big Island and there 
erected a hasty fort for defense. But they 
onlv remained aljout a week on the island, 
the demeanor of the Spokanes being such as to 
almost insure safety, .\ugust lOth brought 
jov ti~^ every heart, for (leneral Wheaton with 
fi\-e hundred soldiers arrived. It was a \ 
tion of General O. O. Howard's army, the 
other portion Ijeing engaged in pursuing the 
Indians across the Bitter Root mountains. 
Tb.e United States troops under General 
AMieaton encamped between Riverside avenue 
and the river. Mr. Edward Knipe, 304 
Mansfield avenue, was one of them and a non- 
commissioned officer. A grand council of all 
the Indians of eastern Washington and north- 
erii Iilaho was called. There was a response 
on the i)art of every tribe except the Moses 
band. Tliough it cannot be said that the 
council accomplished anything directly, never- 



theless it practically fulfilled its purpose. The 
sight of the trodps encouraged the settlers 
and exerted a restraining influence over the 
Indians. In Septemlier (General W. T. Sher- 
man passed through with an escort of fifty 
men. Those who came in contact with him 
did not haye reason to l)elieve that he was fa- 
yorably impressed with this Incation. At 
least he did not manifest any enthusiasm. 
But it is said that when he reached Cieur d' 
Alene lake his delight was unlxmnded. It was 
there that he located the furt that bore liis 
name until it was aljandoned. After travel- 
ling southward and taking in the lay of the 
country, the General ordered two comjianies 
(.)f infantry to l)e stationed at Spokane, in- 
stead of at T'alouse Cit}'. as at first intended. 
In October the troops were in temporary 
(|uarters and their presence appreciatc<l. The\' 
contributed considerably in making a marked 
contrast in appearance as compared with the 
pre\-ious winter. During the fall a number 
of new families arri\ed — Percixals. Herbert 
Myron, Majors, Rima and Masterson. And 
in the meantime Mr. Post had com])leted his 
mill and was making tlour, and thus the peo- 
])le were supplied with the "st.'iff of life." 
The spring of 1878 witnessed the departure 
of the troops to their permanent (|uarters at 
Fort Sherman, near Coeur d" .Vlene City, 
which greatly depleted the p()i)ulation, but 
that was balanced by quite an inflowing of new 
settlers. Among the new arri\-als were Cap- 
tain J. M. Nosier, W. C. Cray, Dr. L. P. 
^Vaterhouse, A. E. Ellis, A. M. Cannon and 
J. J. Brown. The two persons last men- 
tioned. Cannon and Brown. i)urchased a joint 
interest in the town site and became conspicu- 
ous and potent agencies in the development 
of it. It may be said that Spokane Falls en. 
tered upon a new era at this time. Cannon. 
Warner & Co. opened a store with an ex- 
tensi\'e stock of goods, being the successors 
of GIo\-er & Co. W. C. Gray erected a 
.small frame hotel which was called the Cali- 

fornia House. It was for years considered 
the only first-class hotel in the city and was 
enlarged and improved to keep pace with other 
developments. It was located on the site (if 
the City Hall and was known before the great 
fire as the Windsor Hotel. The California 
House was opened on Thanksgiving night 
with a "grand" ball which was generously 
patronized for the proceeds were applied to 
pay for the school building then in course of 
construction near the corner of Post street 
and First a\-enue. 

The _\'ear 1879 brought with it new hopes 
and sanguine expectations. This was caused 
1)\ the resurvey of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road with prospects of speedy construction 
tliis way. The realization of long-expected 
prosperity seemed near at hand. The new 
town had attracted the attention of an enter- 
prising \oung newspaper man. Hon. Francis 
H. Cook, then member of the Territorial 
Legislature from Pierce county, started the 
first paper, the Spokane Times. We have 
l)een told that Mr. Cook made it a matter of 
conscience to omit the "e" from Spokane. 
The paper was published in a building on 
southeast corner Howard and Riverside 

The town was now beginning to assume 
the shape of a city, with Howard street as the 
center of business. The stores were becom- 
ing quite numerous. On Howard were F. A. 
Moore & Co., J. F. Graham, Friedenrich & 
Bey, .\rthur & .Shaner. J. N. Squires. McCam- 
mon & Whitman, R. W. Forest. N. P. Hotel. 
The were (|uite modest as com- 
pared with to-day. Some only one story high 
and none over two stories. L'. Ziegler, Clark 
& Richards and Percival & Corbaley had stores 
on Main street, and Dawn & Comelious on 
Front street. 

The first liank north of the Snake river was 
opened in June of this year by A. M. Cannon. 
joining the store building, corner Front and 
Howard streets facing Howard. This win- 






ter tlie Legislature authorized the creation of 
Spokane county and fixed the county seat at 
Spokane Falls. sul.)ject ti:> confirmation hy the 
ballots of the people the following year. 

On the 3rd of June of this year Colonel 
D. P. Jenkins arrived. He was the first set- 
tler on the north side in what is now included 
in the city. He entered upi:in what is now 
Jenkins' addition, first as preemption, after- 
wards changing it to a homestead and taking 
advantage of the time he served in the army. 
The first temporary building was erected i:)n 
the banks of the river. almost directly south 
of the college buildings. He also built the 
first real house on the north side in 1S81, a 
part of which still stands on Mallon a\-enue 
near Lincoln street.. It was originally lo- 
cated a few rods northeast of wliere it now is. 
on a spot where previously a temporary Iniild- 
ing had been erected, Ijut had been removed. 

Mr. S. Heath arrived in the city early this 
year, l.nit did not settle on his land until the 
following year. The Spokan Times for De- 
cember, 1879, says • 

"For the first time in the history of Spo- 

kan Falls, it has been decided to have a public 
Christmas tree and entertainment on next 
Christmas e\'e. The management will l>e in 
the hands <jf the officers and friends of the 
Sabbath schciol. 'j'he following committees 
ha\e been ap])oinlcil and accepted l.iy the 
school : 

■'Executive Committee — Mr. Cook, Mrs. 
Nosier and ]Miss Peet. 

"Finance — ]\Ir. Clark. Miss Ida Ellis, Miss 
Rilla Masterson, Miss Ama W'atcrhousc and 
Mrs. Mollie Wood. 

"Music — Dr. Candy, Mrs. Cook and Oily 

"Decoration — Mrs. Warner, ^liss Post 
and Curtis Dart. 

"Tree ;uid E\ergreens — Lafayette Dart, 
'SW. Rue and Herl)ert Percival. 

"Room — Messrs. Lewis, Whitten and 

"Presents — The teachers. 

"Cornucopias — The two Bible classes, 
with Mrs. Shannon as chairman. 

"Popcorn — Mr. Rima, Miss Muzzy and 
Miss Edith Cowley." 



The year 1880 was not especially lively 
from a business standpoint, but was made so by 
the great contest over the i)ermanent location 
of the county seat. In fact there was quite a 
lull in the little town, the people waiting pa- 
tiently the coming of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
way, which was being rapidly constructed east- 
\^•ard from Ainsworth this way. Ainsworth 
was once a flourishing town on the junction of 
the Snake and Columbia rivers. But there is 
nothing to be seen today but sage-brush. Before 

the railroad reached here a syndicate of specu- 
lators, railroad men and some others, laid out 
a new townsite sixteen miles west of here and 
ga\-e it the name of a Boston capitalist, Cheney. 
The new town grew rapidly, and many had 
strong faith in its future, because it was the 
railroad town. Some doubtless risked their 
fortunes on it, believing that a town that had a 
oreat railroad corporation behind it would 
surelv become the metropolis of eastern Wash- 



With the co-operation of the settlers of the 
adjacent country, especially the four lakes re- 
gion, ]\Iedical Lake, the new town of Cheney, 
captured the county seat by a small and what 
some have dared to claim, doubtful, majority. 
This gave a great advantage for a while, and 
it seemed as if the ambitions of its prime orig- 
inators were going to be realized. 

The railroad reached Spokane Falls in 1881, 
and resulted in renewed activity, but not up to 
reasonable expectations. The influence of men 
in high jjlaces, the jiractical managers of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad. ga\'e the ri\-al town 
of Cheney the cream of the business for two 
or three years. But the enterprising Ijusiness 
men made the best of the situation and made 
a lirave fight against adverse circumstances, 
though they had corporation magnates to con- 
tend with. In July the secimd paper, the 
Chronicle, was started, and the Times issued 
a daily for several months. 

Two church buildings were started this 
year, the Congregational and the Methodist 
Episcopal, the former on the southwest corner 
of Sprague and Bernard, and the latter on the 
southvicst corner of Sprague and Washington. 
During this month the first brick block was 
erected. It was built by the Wolverton Bros, 
on the niirtheast corner of Riverside and Mill, 
where the Wolverton block stands now. The 
first building was 30x50. It marked a new era 
in building and was a ])rophecy of the inii)osing 
Ijrick blncks of today. This year was charac- 
terized ]_)y the inauguration of an educational 
movement of great moment. Father Cataldo, 
S. J., purchased half a section of land on the 
north side of the river, on part of which the 
magnificent Gonzaga College was completed 
last year. The whole half section is l)eing rap- 
idly filled with elegant homes and has already 
become one of the most desirable and conven- 
ient resident portions of the city. On the east- 
ern part is located the Academy of the Holy 
Names and the Orphanage, two elegantly 
ecjuipped Inn'ldings. Fuller treatment of R(.)- 

man Catholic institutions "is found in another 
chapter. The Methodists established a college 
on the north side, west of Monroe, on land do- 
nated bv Col. D. P. Jenkins. This also we leave 
for further treatment in another chajiter. 

This vear (1881). with a population of 
aljout one thousand, the city of Spokane Falls 
was incorporated. The late Hon. Rol)ert \V. 
Forrest, a native of Pennsylvania, a worthy 
man, ^vas apj^ointed mayor. 'In the roll of 
honor of the first city council we find S. G. 
Havermale, A. M. Cannon, Dr. L. H. White- 
house, L. \\". Rima. F. R. Moore, George A. 
Davis, W. C. Gray. Four have gone to the 
great majority — Forrest, Cannon, Rima, who 
surveyed the original town site, and Moore 
died in the city. Dr. Whitehouse lives in Oak- 
land. California. George .A. Davis resides at 
Snohomish .and W. C. Gray on his fine hay 
and fruit ranch in Stevens county. 

It was late in June when the Northern Pa- 
cit}- i\ailroad was built in and through this city. 
It is neeilless to say that it was a time of great 
rejoicing. It dispelled the feeling of isolation 
from the rest of the world. It brought a pleas- 
aiU consciousness of oneness with east and west 
of this grand and \'ast countrj'. It dissipated 
distance, for it made communication with 
friends and relatives a matter of days instead 
of weeks ;md months. On the Fourth of July 
there was a grand celebration with an excursion 
to Cheney. It was the first ride in railway cars 
for some of the younger generation. Mr. 
James .\. i\eid. now a fruit grower of Ken- 
drick, Idaho, who was the Northern Pacific 
train despatcher here when tlie first train en- 
tered the town, in an interview reported iu 
the Chronicle, said : 

"That was nearly eighteen years ago. Spo- 
kane was a stupid little village of about five 
hundred peo[)le. We used to wonder whether 
it would ever amount to anything — didn't be- 
lieve it would. But it has fooled us on that guess. 

"What did we do when the first train came 
in? \\'c]\, niaylje you think everybody wasn't 



liappy. Fireworks? No, we didn't have any 
fireworks to send off if we had wanted to; but 
somebody did load a big lot of giant powder 
into the rocks where the Pacific hotel stands, 
and when the train came in he touched off the 
fuse. Did the rocks scatter ? Well ! 

"And after that? To tell the truth, after 
the train came in pretty nearly every man in 
town felt thirsty and proceeded to take a 
drink; and they kept on taking them the rest of 
that day. Everybody drunk? No, I guess 
there were a few sober men left that night, but 
they were pretty scarce." 

Before the close of this year the sawmill 
passed into the hands of A. M. Cannon. It had 
never proved a very profitable investment and 
did not until E. J. Brickell became part owner 
and practical manager. Early in iSSi the con- 
struction of the second Hour mill was begun by 
S. G. Havermale and George A. Davis. It was 
looked upon by those not interested as a doubt- 
ful enterprise. It was built where the Echo 
mill is now. It took two years to have it in 
operation with a capacity of a hundred barrels 
a day. Air. Cannon erected what \\as consid- 
ered then cjuite an imposing three-story build- 
ing on the corner of Riverside and Mill where 
the Marble Bank building and part of the 
Crescent store stand today. 

A new hotel on modern plans was built by 
Air. Keyser on the corner of Post street and 
Railroad avenue. The First National Bank 
was organized with P. R. Moore as president, 
J. N. Glover, vice-president, and M. M. Cutter, 
cashier. The place of business was the south- 
west corner of Howard and Front, where a 
four-story brick building has been recently 
erected by Mr. Jerome Drumheller. Mr. Zeig- 
ler removed his store of hardware to where the 
Zeigler block now is. 


It was an interesting event. Air. Forrest 
was re-elected mayor. The city government 
Avas brought into better working order. Air. 

E. B. Hyde was the first unpaid city marshal, 
who discharged his duties with a fidelity ecjual 
to a high-salaried officer. During the year 
1882 Air. S. J. Arthur built a hotel on the cor- 
ner of Alain and Howard, where the Bennett 
lilock is. After conducting it for about a year 
he sold it to Air. J. AI. (jrimmer, the well- 
kno\\'n truckman of today. 


January 19, 18S3, was the coldest night of 
an unusually cold winter — twenty-six degrees 
l.ielow zero. Early in the morning the people 
were awakened from their peaceful slumbers 
by the cry of Fire! Fire! Soon nearly all the 
male population was on the street ready to 
fight the ravaging flames. In the absence of a 
fire department there was nothing to do but 
organize bucket brigades. This was done, and 
they made an heroic fight to arrest the progress 
of the flames. The fire started in the store of 
I'. R. Aloore & Co., corner of Howard and 
Front, and it consumed the northern half of 
that block. It was a heavy loss, for they were 
not well protected by insurance, and it needed 
pluck and courage to overcome it, which were 
not wanting. Brick buildings were erected on 
the burned district by Forrest, Hyde, Gandy, 
French and Rima. Also on other parts of 
Howard, by Glover and Aloore and Porter. 
\Vilson, Jamieson and Brown erected blocks on 

The Echo Alill was completed and making 
flour, with plenty demand for it, making it a 
paying investment from the outset. 

The Review was f.iunded liy Hon. F. AI. 
Dallam, a brilliant newspaper man who came 
from California. He was an indefatigable 
worker, and did much through his paper to pro- 
mote the interests of the city. He continued 
till 1888. He has been since a registrar of the 
United States land office at W'aterville, Doug- 
las county, and is now publishing and editing 
the Lincoln Times at Davenport. During this 
vear the Chronicle became the property of Air. 



H. T. Cowley, who continued its publisher and 
editor, doing substantial work for several 

Late this year the discovery of placer mines 
in the Coeur d"Alene country attracted special 
attention to that country, resulting in a great 
influx of people this way. This, with the com- 
pletion of the Northern Pacific Railway, gave 
Spokane Falls a great impetus. During the 
winter it was the rendezvous of a large number 
of adventurous prospectors and otliers that fol- 
low in their train, giving a lively aspect to the 
young but ambitious city. When the season 
opened, or was supposed to be. there was a 
perfect stampede to the mountains of nurthern 
Idaho. The impetus given the city gave place 
to the organization of the board of trade. Tran- 
sportation was facilitated by running a stage 
line to Cceur d'Alene City to connect with boats 
on the lake. The expectations were such that 
a railroad in Ca-ur d'.Mene was ])rojected. 
which proved premature. The rush tn the 
Ccjeur d'Alene was. altogether too early, the 
winter having been a severe one. The ])lacer 
mines did not "pan out" as expected, and dis- 
appointment awaited a large majnrity of the 
miners, who retreated almost as fast as they 
went in. To their impatience and lack of care- 
ful and intelligent ]:)rospecting is doubtless to 
be attributed their failure to discover the pos- 
sibilities of a country which has subsequently 
proved so profitable. The sudden sulisidence of 
the Cceur d' .\lene excitement in relation to 
which expectations had risen so high, had a 
depressing effect upon this city. But this was 
counteracted in a great degree by mineral tlis- 
coveries in other directions, in the Colville val- 
ley and in the region of the Pend o' Oreille 
lake, giving this city a start as a mining center. 
So depression was soon followed by renewed 
courage on the part of the people. 

During this season more brick blocks were 
erected. It was also marked liy a fire which 
consumed many of the frame buildings. Among 
tlie most important additions to the mercantile 

firms were Loewenberg Bros, and Great East- 
ern Company. The first newspaper write-up 
of Sp(A-ane Falls we find in a supplement of the 
Chronicle dated October ii, 1883. It is inter- 
esting and it gives us a glimpse of Spokane as- 
it was sixteen years ago. It begins with a. de- 
scription of the "Spokane country" in its broad- 
est sense. Then the primary features of the 
immediate neighborhood of Spokane Falls are 
presented. The localities familiarly known as 
Saltesc l,ake and California Ranch districts 
to the east, Moran prairie to the south. White 
Bluff prairie to the west, and Five ^^lile. Wild 
Rose, Peone, and Pleasant prairies to the north. 
Spokane Falls is set forth as the oldest town in 
Spokane county, with a population of one 
thousand five hundred and the natural me- 
trt)pi)tis of eastern Washington. In it we find 
that there were six religious denominations- 
rejjresented here, five having houses of wor- 
ship. "The business interests comprise two 
b;inks. three wholesale and retail general mer- 
chandise stores, three drug stores, three grocery 
and provision stores, one commission store, 
two millinery stores, two watchmakers and 
jewelers, three gents' furnishing stores, four 
hardware stores, two furniture stores, three 
agricultural imjjlement stores, three harness 
stores, three li\ery and exjjress staliles. three 
blacksmith shops, one machine shop, one car- 
riage manufactory, two flouring mills, one saw,. 
shingle and planing mill, one sash and door 
factory, four fruit and confectionery stores,, 
two meat markets, one bakery, one soda water 
factory, one fruit nursery, oiie shoe store, two 
shoemaker sho])s, one photograph gallery, two 
])aint shops, four contractors and builders, one- 
hide and fur depot, one gun and locksmith,, 
three barljer shojis, two breweries, one whole- 
sale lic|uor store, eight saloon's, five hotels and' 
tliree restaurants. The carrying business is 
represented by one railroad, two express com- 
panies, tliree stage lines and two telegraphs. 
This is the distributing point for upcountry 
mails, which is a verv heavv business. The 



United States land office lias just I)een located 
liere and will add much to the business pros- 
],'erit}'. Of ])rofessional men there are six law 
firms, six real estate and insurance agencies, 
eight physicians, one dentist, one college presi- 
dent, six teachers and two newspaper editors." 
The various blocks are described. The public 
school building, nearly completed, is referred 
to with pride for its architectural beauty and 
convenience "as an ornament to the town to be 
]>ointe(l out to strangers with just pride." The 
building was a wooden structure, 40.\68 and 
two stories in height, with four school rooms, 
two on each floor. It can be seen to-dav in a 
lather dilapidated condition on the corner of 
Fifth avenue and Bernard street. The only 
sash and door factory in town, owned 1)V lohn- 
son. Burns & Wiscombe, is described. So also 
the water power, with special reference to the 
ease wherewith it could he utilized. It con- 
cludes with words that are both eulogistic and 
hortat(>ry : "This fall has already witnessed an 
acceleration in all branches of business which 
lully ef|uals the expectations of the most san- 
guine. The completion of the Northern Pa- 
cific to the east has increased immigration and 
the discovery of gold in the Creur fl" .Alene 
mountains has brought miners to this region 
who are getting their outfits here, and the lib- 
eral cash market for grain and produce of all 
kinds is making money plentiful. This is a 
good place for all active and wide-awake lousi- 
ness and professional men, for skillful me- 
chanics, for capable housekeepers and for in- 
dustrious, courageous, intelligent farmers and 
laborers. It is no lazv mrui's paradise. If you 
want lands, health, laI)or, business, wealth and 
to grow up with most fa\-ored conditions in the 
country come to Spokane." 

Among the significant impro\enients of the 
year 1884 was the issuing of a daily Evening 
Review, which began in .Mav. It continued 
an evening paper till the fall of i88r). The 
difficulties have been nianv .ind the struggles 
intense incident to limitations, catastrophes and 

emergencies, but despite all the paper has made 
its regular appearance, carrying light and 
kn(jwledge to many homes. 

A local company started to put in a Holly 
water system, but lack of funds brought the 
enterprise to a stand-still. In the emergency 
an association of thirty men was started which 
guaranteed one thousand dollars each and the 
system was completed. The Kcho mill supplied 
the water power. During the following spring 
the city bought the plant and reimbursed the 
enterprising citizens who had so liberally sub- 
scrilied towards its completion. It is with con- 
siderable pride that we mention the fact that 
municipal ownership of the water-supply system 
lias l)een a fact in Spokane ever since, and is 
is giving increased satisfaction, which is an 
unansweralile argument in fa\'or of that prin- 

The season of 1885 was a trying one on 
business men and some of them collapsed. The 
ijuilding of the Canadian Pacific Railway over 
the Rocky mountains proved of considerable 
advantage during this year. 

Mr. H. McCartney had a contract to supply 
the railway constructors with prox'isions and 
other necessities, which was done from this 
city. The licjuor business became a lively and 
lucrati\-e one. Poor whiskey sold in Spokane 
at four dollars a gallon, was smuggled o\er the 
line, it is said, and sold for from ten to twenty 
dollars a gallon. 

The discovery of the Old Domini(^n mines 
near Colville by Mr. E. E. Alexander and A. 
E. Benoist of this city, which proved very rich, 
renewed interest in the Cfeur d' Alene nunes, 
which were now 1)ecoming a magnet of attrac- 
tion as a (|uartz instead of a placer mining 
camp, and marked a new epoch in the city's 
historv. This year the donzaga college and 
church buildings were completed, both brick. 
The C. & C. mill was built and began opera- 
lions. Late in the year the Traders' National 
Bank was organized, with E. J. Brickell as pres- 
ident and Tacob Hoover as cashier. Two man- 



ufacturing plants were established, also an elec- 
tric plant. The Legislature passed, to submit 
to the people to vote upon, the relocation of the 
county seat. The north side of the river had 
begun to be settled with residences. The loca- 
tion of the Methodist College in Jenkins' addi- 
tion created considerable expectation in that 
direction. Some good houses for the time were 
erected. Jenkins. Rue, Percival, Bisbee, Muz- 
zy. A few had built homes in Heath's addi- 
tion : among tlie first was ex-councilman J. A. 
Long on Augusta and Pearl. 

At the opening of the year 1886 there was a 
lull in business and no demand for real estate, 
especially in tlie suburbs, but it witnessed a new 
era in prosperity. People of all classes and oc- 
cupations began to flock in from all directions, 
and many of them with capital. The agricult- 
ural region of the Palouse and Big Bend as the 
result of extensive advertising, primarily by the 
railroad company and citizens of Spokane, at- 
tracted multitudes of people this way in search 
of land. Many of these were so impressed by 
this city and its prospects as to invest and make 
their homes here. This year is n(.!ted as the 
one in which the first firanch railroad was built 
from here. The Spokane cS: Palouse was con- 
structed, leaving the main line of the Northern 
Pacific Railroad at ^Marshall and completed as 
far as Belmont. The terminus was in this city 
and it contributed materially to its prosperity. 
!Mr. Paul F. ^lohr. an accom])lished civil en- 
gineer, who came here from New York City, 
.and Hon. A. il. Cannon were prominent factors 
in this important enterprise. 

The mining developments were such and 
prospects assumed such significance in the south 
fork of the Ca'ur d'Alene river, as to lead the 
intrepid and successful railroader, D. C. Corbin, 
Esq., to construct the Spokane & Idaho Rail- 
"^vay, leaving the main Northern Pacific line 
about nineteen miles east of the city. At Coeur 
d' Alene city it connected with steamers and 
with a narrow gauge line frrmi tlie mission to 
the mines. The enterprise proved profitable 

and stimulated mining developments in the 
Ca-ur d 'Alenes. 

During this year some mineral discoveries 
were made in the Okanogan country in which 
Spokane men became interested. It also wit- 
nessed the incipiency of the street railway sys- 
tem w hich has already developed to great pro- 
portions. The Spokane Electric Light & Power 
Comjjany was organized, wdiich absorbed the 
original one. Its progress from that time to 
this has been i)henomenal. 

That year the Sacred Heart hospital was 
built, a fine brick structure three stories in 
height, facing Front avenue between Brown 
and Bernard streets. Its doors were opened 
on the 30th day of April. 

The Washington & Idaho Association was 
organized and the first Spokane County Fair 
was held that fall. The Review became a 
morning paper and began to take associated 
press reports. In the summer the Chronicle 
became ;ui evening daily. Major E. A. Routhe, 
an accomplished journalist, became associated 
with Mr. 11. T. Cowley in editorial work. Mr. 
W. 1). Plants launched out in the wholesale 
grocery business exclusively. Several three- 
story blocks were erected, the Keats, Hyde, 
Wolvcrton and Moore blocks. The Arlington, 
the first four-story building, went up. The 
First Presbyterian church built a neat and cozy 
building of brick-veneer on the present site of 
the towering Review building. This year the 
city entered on a new industrial epoch, in the 
organization of the Spokane Mill Company, 
with Mr. E. J. Brickell, a man of executive 
genius, as manager, A factory and mill were 
put in motion in connection with it. The county 
seat question was settled forever in favor of 
Spokane, It had now become the principal 
city of eastern Washington, at least of the upper 

If we take a retrospective view of things 
for four or fi\e years, we find that a village of 
five hundred people has become a city of four 
thousand people. A city in some respects as- 



suming metropolitan proportions, enjoying 
many of the conveniences and facilities of east- 
ern cities. The limits have been extended, 
water power utilized, two daily papers started, 
a bridge spanning the river, three flour mills 
and two banks, and several saw'mills and fac- 
tories, two branch railways, and wonderful 
progress in all the various lines necessary to 
make it a commercial center. The year 1S77 
was a prosperous one. The improvements too 
numerous to mention in detail. Wholesome 
developments in all directions. A great influx 
of people, many of them to take up land in the 
adjacent country. Railroads were projected, 
lime kilns built, mining prospects discovered, 
all contributing to the increase of faith in Spo- 
kane as the Queen City of the Inland Empire. 
In June of this year the population was esti- 
mated at seven thousand. It continued to aug- 
ment rapidly. Many business houses going up 
in the centre and homes in the residence por- 
tion. Signs of life everywhere, real estate value 
enhancing so that some were making a fortune 
in a day. The Spokane oatmeal mills were built 
and began operations. They were at first man- 
aged by a stock company, but were soon sold to 
W'adhams & OIney, the products lieing rolled 
oats, rye-flour, buckwheat flour, corn-meal 
ami hominy. The mills were biH'ued and never 

So the city grew during 1S87 and 1888, 
making an enviable reputation for pluck and 
progress. To record the material and other de- 
velopments in detail would fill many pages. 
The same rate of progress continued during 
the early part of 1889. The population trebled 
in less than three years. Si)okane Falls was 
known all over the land as one of the most 
progressive cities in the Northwest, and its citi- 
zens as unsurpassed in energy and enterprise. 
In appearance it would compare favorably with 
many of the older cities of the east, and new 
comers were both astonished and delighted 
with the beauty of the location, the progress- 
iveness of the people and magnitude and pros- 

pects of the city. Thirty squares were filled 
with substantial business houses. 

The year 1889 was one pregnant with im- 
portant events. But there is one that stands 
out conspicuous among all the others. It was 
the year of the 


All the business portion of the city was con- 
sumed by the devouring flames. It was a scene 
never to be forgotten by those who witnessed 
it. Sunday, .\ugust 4, was a warm day. Many 
of the people were rusticating by the lakes and 
streams, consequently it was rather (|uiet even 
for the Sabbath day. But verily before night- 
fall excitement and confusion reigned. We 
feel justified in presenting the principal facts 
connected with the great fire, as they appeared 
in the S])okane Falls Review, the second morn- 
ing after it occurred, August 6, 1889. 

"The m(_>st devastating fire that ever oc- 
curred in the history of the world, according 
to population, swept over the business portion 
of this city .Sunday night. 

"It originated at 6:15 P. M. in the roof of 
a lodging house on Railroad avenue, the third 
door west of Post street. A dead calm pre- 
\-ailed at the time, and sjjectators supposed the 
firemen woukl speedily bring the flames under 
control. This could have been done if jjroper 
precautions had lieen taken. But the superin- 
tendent of the water works was out of the city, 
and for some reason the men in charge failed to 
respond to the call for more pressure. 

"Th.e heat created a current of air, and in 
less tiian. half an hour the entire block of frame 
shacks were enveloped in flames, and burning 
sliingles and other debris filled the air, ignit- 
ing several adjacent blocks at tlie same time. 

"Opposite the block in which the fire orig- 
inated stood the Pacific hotel, one of the hand- 
somest structures in the Northwest. It was 
soon abl.-ize. and by that time a high wind pre- 
vailed from the .southwest, and it was evident 
that the entire business portion of the city was 



in danger. ]\Ia}-m- Furth ordered that 
buildings l)e Itldwn up with giant powder to 
check the spread of the fire. This order was 
speedily put into execution, and the explosives 
added to the reign of terror. The picture was 
weird, grand and awful, as block after block 
yielded to the (lemon of destruction. The sky 
was overcast with lilack clouds, and a strong 
wind sprang up from the northeast, fanning 
the flames furiously, while an upper current 
continued to carry the burning timbers in an 

•opposite direction. 

"The Grand hotel, the Frankfurt block, the 
^^'indsor hotel, the Washington block, tb.e 
Eagle block, the TuU block, the new Ciranite 
block, the Gushing liuilding, the Falls Gity 
opera-house, the Hyde block, all the banks, and 
in fact every house between railroad avenue 
north to the river, from Lincoln street east to 
Washington street, with the exception of a few 
buildings in the northeast corner, were totally 

"Meanwhile, a sudden change in the di- 
rection of the wind carried the fire southward 
across Kailroad a\'enue, and destroyed the 
Northern Pacific passenger and freight depots 
and several cars. The freight depot was a 

mammoth structure, and was filled to the roof 
with valuable merchandise. \'ery little of which 
was saved. 

"The terrifying shrieks of a dozen loco- 
tives, commingled with the mar of the flames, 
the bursting cif cartridges, the booming of 

■•g'iant pr)wder, the hoarse shouts of men* and 
the piteous shrieks of women and children. 
Looking upward a broad and mighty river of 
flame seemed lined against the jet black sk\'. 
Occasionally the two opposing currents of 
Avind would meet, creating a roaring whirl- 
Avind of fire that seemed to penetrate the clouds 
as a ])onderous screw, while lesser whirlwinds 
danced about its base. i)erf(irming all sorts of 
fantastic gyrations. In this manner the ap- 
palling monster held high carnival until about 

.10 o'clock, when with a mightv crash the 

Howard street bridge o\er.the Spokane river 
went down. A boom of logs took fire and 
shimmered for hours on the crystal surface of 
the ri\er, and many times flying pillars of 
fire crossed the river, igniting the mammoth 
lumber and flouring mills that line its banks: 
Init by heroic efforts its career was checked on 
the south side of the stream. But looking 
back, the beholder witnessed a scene of desola- 
tion that was fearful to contemplate. Frag- 
mentary portions of the naked walls of what 
were four hours before magnificent structures 
of brick and granite stood like grim sentinels 
abo\c the surface of a burning sea, and all was 
devastation and ruin. 

"The burned district embraces thirty blocks 
besifles the depots. The only brick business 
houses left standiiig are the Crescent block 
and the American theater. 


".\t about a (juarter jjast six fire was 
(liscosered in the lodging house over Wolfe's 
lunch counter. Ofticers Smith and McKernan 
were promptly on hand and one ran to give the 
alarm while the other went to the scene of ac- 
tion. The ofticer. Smith, states that if a few 
pails of water could have been obtained the 
whole fire could have been stopped at once. In 
a few minutes, however, flames broke out in 
the next house adjoining and shortly the whole 
l)lock was a seething mass of flames. People 
began hurrying out of the houses surround- 
ing, and household goods were hastily brought 
out on the streets, only to be consumed in a 
short time. 


"The firemen bad been working manfully 
and well, but could do nothing, and giant pow- 
der was resorted to, and e\ery minute or so 
there would be a loud report, and a great mass 
of cinders and refuse would be seen going up 
in the air and falling jiromiscuously in all di- 
rections. The crowds at the reports would start 



and run back and dodge the missiles that were 
hurled down on them from above. The scene 
on Ri\'erside avenue at this time was inde- 
scribable. Merchants were running around 
offering large sums to draymen for their ser- 
vices, and in some cases endeavoring to make 
them stop by main force. The people were 
continually dodging the .teams that were driv- 
ing through the streets at l)reak-neck speed. 
All along Post street were goods being burned 
that the owners had struggled to get out of 
their houses and places of business. It was 
now apparent to all that the city was doomed 
and all were seeking a place of safety. 

■'Xever has a fire consumed so many l)uild- 
ines and wrought so much devastation in srj 
short a time as the one that has levelled the 
business portion of Spokane Falls to the 

"The accompanying diagram shows the 
boundaries of the burnt district, together with 
the locations of the most prominent buildings 
that were destroyed : 

North. RIVER. North. 












12 11: 

18 1!1 



'.) 10 11 17 
2S 1 

20 21 

































1 — Origin of lire. 

2 — Northeru Pacilic pjissenyer 

3 — Northern Pucilie freight 

■1 — Pacitio hotel. 

5— Falls City opera house. 

ti~Browne block. 

7 — Van Dorn A Bentley. 

8— Cannon's block. 

'.l-Hyde block. 
10 — Moore block. 
1 1 — Keats" block. 
12— Wolyertun block. 
Vi — C<_eur d'Alene block. 

n -Grand hotel. 

Ij— l-'rankturt block. 

in — first National bank. 

IT- Spokane National l>ank. 

H — Wasliington building. 

!'.<— Ea«le block. 

2U-Tull block. 

21 — Postollice block. 

22 — (ireat Eastern block. 

23 — .\rlington block. 

21— Union block. 

2.") — Windsor hotel. 

2(1 — Synions block. 

27- Lamona block. 

28— W'ltherspoon block. 

A list of the sufferers from the fire cover 
over three columns of the Review, comprising 
two hundred and fifty-three persons and firms. 
The estimated loss was about five million dol- 
lars, with abdut fifty per cent, covered with 
insurance. A meeting of the city council was 
held the morning after the fire and an earnest 
effort was made at the outset to jirevent the 
erection of wooden Iniildings in the burned 
district. A relief committee was appointed, 
consisting of Messrs. F. .\. Bettis and Peter 
Dueber, on behalf of the council, and Messrs. 
A. M. Cannon and J. X. Glover. W. T. Tay- 
lor, R. W. Forrest, Cyrus Burns ami H. L. 
Wilson, on behalf of the citizens. The reso- 
lution was passed that any person oft'ered em- 
ployment and refusing to work should be noti- 
fied to lea\e the city. Also that all keepers of 
hotels, lodging houses, restaurants, and deal- 
ers in supplies who achance prices on this occa- 
sion shall forfeit their license. On the after- 
noon of the same day a citizens" meeting was 
held at the American Resort, which was called 
to order by Majtjr Furth. Hon. .\. ^I. Can- 
non presided and J. M. Adams was made sec- 
retarv. Some ringing speeches were made 
and a resolution passed prohibiting the erec- 
tii,)n of wooden l)uil(lings within the fire limits. 
Telegrams CNpressing sympath}' with offers 
of substantial assistance came in from all di- 
rections and tents, bedding and provisions 
soon began tn pour in. It is worthy of spec- 
ial attention that Medical Lake offered to ac- 
commodate one thousand sufferers. System- 
atic and effective efforts were made to provide 
for the needy. 


The subject of one of the editorials in the 



Review was, "Will Rise Again." "When we 
consider the magnitude of the disaster that has 
befallen our city the fortitude displayed on all 
hands is remarkable and indicative of our fu- 
ture. Although our losses are appalling, ex- 
ceeding any that has heretofore afflicted an 
American city, yet our resources — our natural 
resources — remained unimpaired. Spokane 
Falls, amid the desolation of smoldering em- 
bers and fallen walls, is to-day what she was 
yesterday, the city of magnificent water power, 
the converging center of a vast network of 
railroails, the supi)ly depot of the grea.t C(eur 
d'Alene mines, the distributing point for an 
empire of agricultural wealth. But above all 
her other resources, Spokane Falls counts most 
confidently upon the energy and progressix-e 
spirit of those whose past loyalty to her inter- 
ests has gi\-en her a national reputation. W'c 

ha\'e lost much, Ijut there are those among us 
who can rememljer a time when we had less 
is now left us. We believe those now here 
will in a comparatively short time see a more 
beautiful and substantial city than was yester- 
day swept away. Let courage — courage, al- 
ways courage — continue to be our watchword." 
Despite the terrible blow, the people were 
not daunted. There was no time lost. Some 
tt)ok the first train to the east to obtain new 
material or goods to resume business. Tliere 
were others who ordered by telegram. For a 
season we had a city of tents while th.e build- 
ings of Ijrick were being erected. A more l)usy 
city it would be impossible to find in the whole 
American continent. At the expense of being 
a little previous we will say here that the city 
was rebuilt with much greater proi)ortions. 



The year following the fire might l)e per- 
tinently designated the building year, in which 
time one hundred business Ijlocks, costing from 
thirty thousand dollars to two hundred anil 
fifty thousand dollars, were erected. i\ls(j (jne 
thousand residences, the aggregate value of all 
being estimated at fi\e million dollars. Take 
it all in all tliis year was proliably the n";f'Si 
memurajjlc and e\'entful one in the history of 
tne city. 

It was a year of mar\-elous devclo])ment 
and prosperity, hardly paralleled in the history 
of the cotmtry. There was a remarkable ex- 
pansion of Inisiness interests in all directions. 
The business houses increased durmg the year 
from fiiur hundred and eighty-nme to one thou- 
sand. 'Ilie volume of business done bv the 

rolling mills amounted to two million dollars, 
and that of the flour mills nearly a million. 
The railroads did a business in freight amount- 
ing to nearly two million dollars. Real estate 
sales aggregated seventeen million dollars, 
and the assessment of real and personal prop- 
erty in city and county reached the enormous 
sum of fifteen million dollars. The business 
more than doubled, and the increase of com- 
merce was fully equal and the population 
augmented fifty per cent. The year was 
marked by the completion of the O. R. & N. 
Railroad into the city, giving advantage of 
two transcontinental railrcads as well as an en- 
trance into the rich Cccur d' Alene country 
and the fertile Palouse. In addition to this, 
the Spokane Falls & Northern Railroad was 




'-'■ A.;v 

' ■0>.n:j:, 



constructed from the city as far as Colville 
and making rapid progress toward the Cokim- 
bia. A corporation had been organizetl the 
year before with A. A. Newberry as president, 
and some surveying was made. They fortu- 
nately succeeded in interesting Mr. D. C. Cor- 
bin in the enterprise, through whose energetic 
management tiie road was constructed. It 
made a fertile and rich country tributary to 
Spokane. IMuch was expected and the most 
sanguine expectations liave been reahzed. 

The expenditure on the road during this 
year was about one and a c^uarter million dol- 
lars, and more than the one hundred thousand 
dollars bonus received from the citizens of 
Spokane were applied to improvements within 
the city. This year the Seattle, Lake Shore 
& Eastern Railroad was constructed as far as 
Davenport. During this year there were 
altogether two hundred and seventy-five luiles 
of railroad built from Spokane. Nearly half 
a million dollars were subscribed in subsidies. 
This year the Ross Park Car line was Iniilt at 
an expense of one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand dollars, also the cable road to Nata- 
torium Park. The Washington \\'ater Power 
& Electric Light Companies extended their 
plants, the former taking possession of the C. 
£; C. Mills ; the city water works were greatly 
increased at an expense of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and ten miles of street grading 
was done with twenty-two more established. 
During this year five bridges spanned the Spo- 
kane river and it was estimated that no less 
than fifty thousand people landed at our sta- 
tions. This year the garb of statehood was 
donned, adding dignity to all around. It 
passed Congress January i8th, the Senate, 
February 12th, and had President Cleveland's 
signature February 22d. On July 4th, del- 
egates met at Olympia to form a state consti- 
tution, which was ratified at a general election 
held October ist, by a vote of 40,152 against 
11,789. The year 1890 was one in which 

there was risen a new city on the ruins of the 

old. Magnificent brick blocks were built in 
place of the city of tents. 

Among the liea<lings of the I\e\'!ew for 
January i, 1891, we find, "SiJokane Leads tlie 
World," "A Stupendous Record." The list 
of l)uiUlings erected in 1890 covered over 
twenty columns of the Review. One thou- 
sand homes were built. Business in almost 
all lines doubled. Ten thousand added to the 
population, bringing it up to twenty-six thou- 
sand. ^Manufacturing firms doubled. Post- 
office receipts the same. Real estate transfers 
amounting to nearly eighteen million dollars. 
\ olume of wholesale trade reaching eight mill- 
ions of dollars and total of sales to over twenty- 
one nullion dollars. The freights of the seven 
railroads ax'eraged about three hundred thou- 
sand dollars per month. Four ward school- 
houses, eight rooms each, were erected. Also 
tiie magnificent high school building, at the ag- 
gregate expense of two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars. Frc>m October ist to November 
]st, the Northwestern Industrial Exposition 
was held in this city. A large building was 
erected on Sprague avenue near Sherman 
street, since burned, toward which and other 
expenses the citizens contributed one hundred 
thousand dolars. It attracted large crowds to 
the city day after day, and was in all respects 
credital.ile to its managers and promoters. Mr. 
F. Lewis Clarke was the president, and Mr. C. 
W. Robinson, manager. In connection with 
the exposition there was published an expensive 
and artistic souvenir. The inside title was, 
••The City of Spokane Falls, and its Tributary 
resources, issued by the Northwestern Indus- 
trial Exposition." It contained valuable ar- 
ticles on Spokane Falls, its scenery, natural ad- 
vantages, wonderful growth, tributary re- 
sources, by ]Major E. A. Routhe, John R. 
Reavis and others. It also contained portraits, 
of many citizens. It was finely illustrated all 
through and doubtless the most complete 
"write up" of the city and its tributaries up to. 
that time. The year 189 1 was one of steady 



growth. Although not compared witli the pre- 
vious rear, which was phenomenal in number 
of buildings erected, many substantial business 
houses went up and many residences. It was 
a year noted for public inprovements. Xine 
miles of street grading was done and two nides 
of sewers at a cost of two hundred and twenty- 
five thousand dollars. More merchandise was 
•carried in and out of the city than any previous 
year. ]\Iany of the (jld firms were enlarged 
and new ones added, such as (Jalland-Burke 
Co. and Washington Cracker Co. The job- 
bing trade was enlarged and postottice business 
greatly increased. The construction of the 
marvelous steel bridge across ilonroe street 
was completed. The Spokane Fair & Agri- 
tural Association was organized with .\. M. 
Cannon as president: H. G. Stnnmel. secretary; 
J. A. Todd, general manager. The fair was 
held at the old grounds in Forest Park, com- 
mencing October 5th and continuing ten days. 
The new year 1892 found the people buoyant 
with hope. Important public imi)rovements, 
costing nearly threee hundred thmisand ilnllars, 
were made. 1 he Howard and Division street 
iDridges were built. Sewers were put in sev- 
eral streets and others were graded. One mil- 
lion dollars were expended on lirick blocks and 
residences. There was a great increase in the 
jobbing trade and the railroad carried more 
merchandise than e\'er Ijefore. The most im- 
portant event of the year was, perhaps, the com- 
pletion of the Great Northern Railroad from 
St. Paul to the Pacific coast. The construction 
of this road through the city occasioned pecu- 
liar satisfaction to the people. It opened a vast 
and promising area of country and made it 
tributary to this city. It added another trans- 
continental railroad and it was expected to re- 
sult in the cessation of freight discrimina- 
tion, consequently reducing materially the rates 
to and from eastern and western terminals. 
Cceur d'Alene park was laid out and decorated 
at considerable expense, which is to-day the 
pride of the city. Three of the largest plants 

were lost by fire, the Echo mill, owned by 
Bra\-inder & Keats, with a capacity of two 
hundred and fifty barrels a day, the saw-mill 
and factory of the Spokane ilill Company, 
which employed three hundred men. and the 
Spokane Oatmeal ^lills, the largest' on the Pa- 
cific Despite discrimination in freight 
rates, inroads were made into new territories 
resulting in an increase in the jobbing trade. 
This year the Marble Bank building was built, 
which is now occupied by the Old National 
Bank. During this year important discover- 
ies were made, with some actixe development 
in the mineral empire to the nortii and the ac- 
quisition by the Spokane capitalists of rich 
promising mining properties wliich have con- 
tributed largely to the prosperity of Spokane. 
The years 1893-4 were not full of events of 
special interest t(j the public. With the rest 
of the country the city suffered from the panic. 
But it was by no means on a standstill. It is 
true that real estate depreciated and business 
was dull — followed l>y results incident to such 
circumstances. Despite all, several hundred 
houses were erected with other evidences of 
prosperity. The cit_\' hall was completetl in 
the sununer of 1894, at a total cost for build- 
ing and land of one hundred and twenty-si.x 
thousand and sixty-five dollars. It occupies 
the nt)rtheast corner of Front and Howard, the 
anne.x extending to the river. All the general 
city offices, the public library, the municipal 
court, and headquarters of the fire department 
are located here. During the year 1895 the 
jobbing trade increased, so also, the retail. 
Alany costly and handsome structures were 
erected with an exj)enditure of six hundred 
thousand dollars. This year is noted as the 
one which saw the county court house com- 
pleted, probably the largest and best e(|uipped 
in the northwest. All the people of Spokane 
county are proud of the court house, built at an 
expenditure of three hundred ar.d forty thou- 
sand dclla'rs. Mr. W. .\. Ritchie is the archi- 
tect who planned tlie symmetrical structure. 



and D. B. Fotlieringhani the cuntractur under 
whijse supervision it was constructed. The 
beautiful white bricks of the walls were made 
by the Washington Brick & Lime Company of 
Clayton. It is admirably arranged, the offices 
and Court rooms being spacious and comforta- 
ble. It wdl meet the needs of the county for 
many years to come. Though not built for 
show it is beautiful and magnificent to behold. 
From the lofty tower is obtainable an enchant- 
ing view of one of the most superlj landscapes 
in America. The Northwest Power & Mill- 
ing Cijmpany was organized and the I'h(_ienix 
mill and factory and flour mill was erected. 
'I he postoffice was promoted to the first ranks, 
and the public school enrollment reached the 
fi\'e thijusand mark, and the pi>pulati(jn passed 
the thirty thousand point. 'Tn the year 1895, 
while the rest of the world was debating 
whether to return tn prosperity or not, Spo- 
kane spent from six hundred thousand dollars 
to six lumdred and twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars in the erection anil improvements of 
buildings alone, to say nothing of such other 
.extensi\'e construction work as w^as performed 
tluring tlie year." Despite the general de- 
pression incident to the Presidential election, 
Spokane enjoyed a wholesome degree of pros- 
perity during the year 1896. Tiie population 
increased considerably. Well nigh on a mil- 
lion dollars were expended on new buildings. 
Tlie jobbing trade increased over forty per cent, 
and the retail trade thirty per cent. It estab- 
lished itself both as a railroad and mining cen- 
ter. The industries increased rapidly, which 
will l)e treated in their proper place. This year 
tiie Northern Pacific Company erected their 
new and extensive shops at a cost of two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars, and removed 
hither frcmi Sprague. They include large 
machine shops, blacksmith shops, round house 
and other necessary buildings, adding one thou- 
sand dollars a day to the pay roll and one thou- 
sand people to the population of the city. The 
postoffice was removed from the Granite block. 

on the Cdrner of Riverside avenue and Wash- 
mgton street, in the corner of Riverside and 
Lincoln, the increase of business necessitating 
larger quarters. 

There was a large influx of people during 
the summer and the volume of business far ex- 
ceeded that of the previous year. Over eight 
hundred thousand dollars were expended in 
structures. Among the specially favorable in- 
dications we note the erection of a large num- 
ber of residences for rent, more than twenty 
by the Jesuit fathers in the vicinity of the Gon- 
zaga College. It is suftkient to say to a\-oid 
repetition, that it was a prosperous year and 
closed with most promising hopes for the future. 

The development during the year 1897 
was gratifying. Many public and business 
buildings and a large luuuber of dw'ellings 
were erected at an ultimate cost of 
no less than a million dollars. There was an 
increase of population of over two thousand, 
bringing it up close to forty thousand. Every 
line of business enjoyed a gratifying degree 
of prosperity. The activity in real estate was 
greatly in excess of that of the preceding year. 
Among the encouraging features of the year 
was the passing of a great deal of property 
from mortgage companies to investors with in- 
dications of much surplus wealth in the city. 
The year was distinguished as the one in which 
the first street was pa\ed. Howard street was 
paved from Riverside to Front with \-itrified 
brick on a six-inch concrete foundation, at a 
cost of thirty-three thousand dollars. 

The year 1898 was an advance on the pre- 
vious one in every respect. The fortunes 
made in the country tributary to Spokane were 
to a great extent invested in city property, 
thereby showing their faith in its- future. Al- 
though not to be compared with the booming 
days, the real estate transactions reached the 
millions. It was estimated that half a million 
dollars were expemled in building homes. It 
was a very prosperous year, and closed with 
\-ery bright prospects. 




The increase of deposits in tlie banks was 
over a million dollars, and there was a fifty 
per cent atlvance in postoffice business. 

Three new school were erected at 
a cost of eighty-three thousand, five hundred 
snd fifty-three dollars, the Hawthorne. Gar^ 
field and Whittier, and additions were made to 
the Logan and Bryant buildings. Some im- 
portant public improvements were made, such 
as the completion of the army post, the build- 
ing of sewers, grading of streets, repairing of 
bridges and work on the new park east of the 
city. There was marked development in the 
jobbing trade. The field was greatly widened 
so as to nearly cover all the country lietween 
the Rocky and Cascade mountains, and from 
south of the Oregon line far into British Co- 
lumbia, giving employment tii fifty commer- 
cial travelers. 

Early in the vear ominous war clouds 
began to gather, and day by day it became 
more evident that a serious conflict be- 
tween this country and Spain was inevitable. 
In April war was declared and a call 
for one hundred thousand volunteers. The 
quota of this state was one thousand, one hun- 
dred and seventy-eight, the first time for it to 
be called to furnish troops for the defense of 
the country. April 21st and 30th were days to 
be remembered. On the former date there was 
a demonstration hardly paralleled in the his- 
tory of the city, when fi\-e hundred soldiers 
marched down Ri\-erside a\'enue on their way 
to Chickamauga amid a great outburst of 
patriotic enthusiasm. Acting Mayor Comstock 
presented the regiment with a beautiful flag in 
behalf of the citizens. 

The later date, April 30th, was the day of 
the departure of the volunteers. The local 
companies had responded to the call with full 
ranks. On the 29th orders had come from the 
Governor for two companies to be ready to 
start for the rendezvous at Tacoma. They were 
ready. An editorial in the Spokesman-Review 

said: 'Tf the city of Spokane grew patriotic 
when the Sixteenth Regiment went to the 
front fr(-)m here, it grew more so yes- 
terday. Beneath all the loud cheering, the 
joy and the brilliancy always attendant 
upon a military parade, and the outburst of 
patriotic applause, there was a tone of sorrow 
in the murmurings of the crowd." It was a 
marvellous demonstration. Patriotism reached 
the pitch of the days of the civil war. There 
was a oneness of sentiment among the peo- 
l)le regarding the war, l)elieving it to be an un- 
selfish and hol\- one. As the soldierly appear- 
ing volunteers marched on Riverside avenue 
amid a profusion of national colors and decora- 
tions, looking buoyant and happy, thousands of 
people that lined the sidewalks did everything 
they could to express their good wishes and 
God-speed, -\fter reaching to the front of 
the Northern Pacific depot, where a platform 
had been erected, speeches were made by Dr. 
E. D. Olmstead, mayor of the city, and Mr. J. 
M. Comstock, president of the city council, and 
flags were presented to each company. Cap- 
tains Otis and Gilbert made brief responses. 
llicy left amid applause and tears, and their 
journey from here to Tacoma was almost a 
constant ovation. 



The increasing public business of the coun- 
ty is illustrated by a few figures and compari- 
sons taken from the books of the county audi- 
tor at the close of the year. In the auditor's 
office o\er ten thousand instruments were filed 
for record during 1899 com])ared with six 
thousand, six hundred in 1898. During the 
year the auditor issued six hundred and twen- 
ty-four licenses to wed against five hundred 
and fifty the previous year. 

The building record of the city was one 
that can hardly be equalled by any city of the- 
size. The Chronicle puts it thus : 

"In order to reach the actual amount of 



building started in Spokane last year as ac- 
curately as possible, tlie architects of the city 
ha\'e furnished statements of the amounts 
which ha\-e been done in each of their offices. 
These reach a total of one million dollars. Al- 
lowing two hundred thousand dollars as a 
moderate estimate for building work that did 
not go through the local architects" (jffices. we 
have a grand total of one million, two hun- 
dred thiiusand dollars as the best estimate of 
work started in Spokane in 1899." 

The buildings erected have added mate- 
riallv to the appearance of the city. The resi- 
dence portion has been much improved. The 
demands have taxed to their utmost capacity 
the mills and brickyards and the supply of red 
repressed brick was thoroughly exhausted. 
Some tine homes were liuilt in Browne's addi- 
tion and the hill and hundreds all over the city 
costing from one thousand to fi\'e thousand 

According to the city directory, recently 
published, the estimated population has reached 
forty-seven thousand and forty-seven, and 
counting transients it can fairly be counted 
fifty thousand. The Directory says: 

"The state of general trade was good and 
everybody appeared prosperous. There was no 
complaint (if hard times, and all wlm wished 
work and business activity found plenty tn dn. 
Merchants, manufacturers, professional men, 
real estate owners, mine owners and operators, 
laborers, mechanics — in short, everybody, in 
e\ery field of activity, was employed and satisfied. 

"The improvement of business cijnditions 
is nowhere better exemplified than in the bank 
-statements. The year 1899 has shown a steady 
and constant increase in the banking business, 
both in deposits and clearances. The following 
is a com])aratiye statement of the deposits and 
clearances fcr the past three years: 


Decemljer i, 1897 $2,937,000 

December i, 1898 4,501,000 

Decem))er i, 1899 6,000,000 


^'ear 1897 ^1,2 91 1,000 

Year 1898 45,800,000 

Year 1899 64,000,000 

"The government receipts in the post office 
and the internal re\-enue departments show 
large increases, which are commensurate with 
the increase in other affairs of the city. 

"Last year was distinctly marked over any 
preceding year in the last decade by the large 
iiperations in re:d estate. The total value of 
real estate transfers amounted to $8,772,074. 
This included not only a few pieces of business 
l)r<iperty, but also a large number of pieces of 
residence property, which were bought princi- 
pally fi-.r homes." 

According to the statement prepared by 
City Comptroller Smith, the city shows an in- 
crease of assets over liabilities: 

Liabilities $2,367,985.64 

-Assets 3,61 1,444.54 

Excess of assets $1,243,458.90 

Regarding the semi-public improvements 
the Directory says: "The year 1899 showed 
a marked increase in the improvements made 
by the .senii-pulilic corporations. ^ ..^ railroad 
companies, the street railway companies, the 
electric light company, the telephone company, 
the telegraph companies, have all bettered their 
plants, in order to meet the growing demands 
of their business. This is especially true of 
the telephone company, in its new building and 
e(|uipment; and of the street railway company 
in its e.Ktension of new lines ; and of the Great 
Niu-thern Railway, which has begun its con- 
struction (if a new railroad through the city, 
together with new depots and bridges, which 
will cost at least one million dollars." 

And of the mining interests: "The year 
1899 showed a marked increase also in the 
mineral output and mineral production in the 
country tributary to Spokane. It is estimated 
that the yearly mineral output of this territory 
is twenty niilliim dollars. Certain it is that. 



in every direction from Spokane, tliere has been 
a constant development of properties, with the 
result of additional dividend-paying mines. 
It is true that speculation has been a prominent 
feature during the year in mining operations, 
and the year closed dull and unpromising so far 
as speculative stocks are concerned. At the 
same time in substantial development and in 
increased production of the precious metals, it 
can be truthfully said that the year 1899 was a 
memorable year for Spokane. Indeed, Spo- 
kane has become a second Denver in mining op- 
erations and in mining results, as is eminently 
exemplified in the ownership of city property, 
both business and residence, as well as banks 
and other enterprises requiring capital and busi- 
ness energy." 


It will doubtless be admitted by all that the 
events which excited the most profound and 
universal interest and enthusiasm during the 
years 1898 and 1899, in this city as well as the 
whole state, was the muster-in and embarkation 
of the Washington Volunteers to the Philippine 
islands, their bravery and gallmitry on the 
field of battle, their victories and triumphant 
return home to be crowned with honor. The 
history has been so fully and worthily recorded 
by the daily press that we deem it expeilient to 
make copious extracts. The Spokesman-Re- 
view for November 6. 1899, contains a com- 
prehensive history of the companies : "Com- 
pany A. of Spokane, was mustered into 
the ser\-ice of the United States at Camp 
Rogers May 7, 1898. The officers were Capt. 
A. H. Otis, First Lieut. E. K. Erwin and Sec- 
ond Lieut. W. I. Hinckly. The company lett 
San Francisco about eighty strong. Its service 
in the Philippines has been as arduous as it was 
honorable. The first quarters of the company 
was the "tobacco factory' as part of the First 
Battalion. Some weeks before the outbreak it 
was transferred to the Third Battalion and 
given iiuarters on the Caile Real Paco, from 

which point, less than a quarter of a mile, it 
•doubled" to the front on Saturday night, Feb- 
ruary 4, to take up the most exposed position 
in the whole line, holding it steadily through- 
out the whole of that terrible night and morn- 
ing, and until the charge, which it accompan- 
ied, swept the Held and resulted in the capture 
of the insurgent stronghold. Santa .\na. Dur- 
ing the few hours of that night it suffered more 
casualties than any other regiment of the corps 
excejit the I'ourteenth United States Infantry, 
losing twenty officers and men killed and 
wounded. .\l the close of the engagement on 
Sunda}-, February 5, it was accorded the honor 
of escorting to the walled city the three hundred 
and fifty of the enemy captured in Santa .\na. 
Returning to its old quarters that niglit, it was 
employed as provost guard in Paco and Panda- 
can, a duty extremely difficult and successfully 
carried out. 

"March 21 the company rejoined the regi- 
ment at Pasig. forming, on the morning of the 
26th, a portion of the command under Fortsoti 
when that officer was killed. Several weeks of 
duty there was succeeded by transfer to out- 
post and observation duty on the hills across 
the river: then to Pasig again. Later to 
Pateros. whence they were transferred to 
Taguig. participating in all the later skirmishes 
at that point. It formed part of the force en- 
gaged against Tay-tay and Morong and later 
that against Calamba. It was particularly for- 
tunate in the matter of casualties after Santa 
Ana, only two or three men sustaining insig- 
nificant scratches in the various engagements. 

"To fill vacancies as they occurred, First 
Sergeants M. C. Corey and W. L. McCallum 
were successively appointed second lieutenants. 
Private T. W. Lemon was promoted to ser- 
geant major and Trumpeter W. E. Nickerson 
promoted to principal musician. Only one man 
died from disease. Private Freeman, at San 
Francisco. November 2. 

"Company L. of Spokane, was mustered in 
as part of the Second Battalion, accompanying 



it to San Francisco and Angel island, and later 
to Manila, where its cjuarters were in the 
bishop's palace. During the engagement of 
February 5 it was stationed in reserve until day- 
light, when it deployed and advanced on the 
right flank, being the hrst company to move that 
morning. After Santa Ana it went to the 
trenches about San Pedro, participating wdth 
several other companies of the regiment in the 
movement satirically known in the army as 
'Smith's Run,' so called from a colonel of that 
ilk who was commanding. Thereafter until 
March 13, when it moved out with Wheaton's 
provisional brigade, it held a portion of the 
San Pedro entrenchment. It took station at 
Pasig on the 17th. Soon afterward the com- 
pany removed to Pateros. From there it went 
to outpost duty on the Guadeloupe hills, thence 
back to Pateros, again to the hills, and finally 
to Pasig again. It participated in the engage- 
ment at Taguig on April 2y, and also in the 
Morong expedition. Detachments from the 
company helped make up the Calamba and 
Santa Cruz expeditions. The company has had 
as officers during nearly the whole of its serv- 
ice. Captain J. M. Moore, First Lieutenant 
J. E. Ballaine, Second Lieutenant C. E. Nosier. 
It has lost but one man killed." 


On Monday morning, November 6, 1899, 
the city was wild with enthusiasm and anxious 
to see and welcome the l^rave boys from Manila. 
As the Evening Chronicle reported it, "Amid 
the shrieking of whistles, the ringing of bells 
and cheers from thousands of human throats, 
the train bringing home the returning Spokane 
heroes rolled into the Northern Pacific depot 
at 9 :o5 this morning. 

"From every car window the boys were 
hanging out their heads eager to catch the first 
glimpse of the loved relatives and friends wdio 
were lined up along the platform to welcome 

"Many was the hearty hand shake and lov- 

ing kiss that was exchanged before the train 
finally came to a full stop and the boys began 
to climb off to be embraced Ijv the mothers, sis- 
ters and sweethearts who were there to greet 

"As the train pulled into the depot the first 
thing to be seen ])y the expectant crow'd which 
had asseml)led to meet it was 'Old Glory" wav- 
ing at the head. Armed with the colors. Cor- 
poral Milton Rhoads and Private Walter Has- 
kiiis had taken their place on the cowcatcher at 
Marshall and road it into the city. 

"At the depot to welcome the boys was one 
of the largest crowds that has ever assembled 
in this city. 

"Such a h(.ime-coming as it was. 

"As fast as the boys stepped from the train 
they were surrounded by their friends, and 
many afi^ecting scenes were witnessed. Boys 
who had left home in the best of health, some 
of them showed the effects of the hardships 
which they had endured, and were hardly rec- 
ognizable except to the loving mothers and sis- 
ters who had gathered to meet them. But 
everyone seemed happy, and none of the boys 
were overlooked. Those who did not have 
mothers to welcome them were welcomed by 
some one else's mother and all came in for a 
share of the joy and hajipiness that seemed to 
affect e\'erybody. 

"The march to the hall was led by a pla- 
toon of police, followed by a delegation from 
the fire department, and Pynn's Military band. 
Next came the mounted escort, consisting of 
Chaplain Bateman of Fort Wright, Lieutenant 
Erwin of Company A, and Captain E. Marti- 
son of Company B of Idaho. Following them 
were the two companies of returning volunteers 
and the home militia companies. At the head 
of Company .\, which was in the lead, marched 
Captain Otis of that company and Sergeant 
H. K. Harrison of Company L, while at the 
head of Company A was Captain Joe Moore 
of that company and Sergeant James Butler of 
Company .\, this arrangement indicating that 


tlie bovs were all on an equal footing now that 
thev had been mustered out. 

"On arriving at the hall no time was lost in 
preliminaries, but the boys were at once seated 
at the tables which had been provided for them 
by the ladies of the Red Cross. Only the re- 
turning volunteers, their wives, the Spokane 
boys who formerly returned home and the of- 
ficers of the home companies were admitted to 
the breakfast, their friends waiting for them 
on the outside. The tables were loaded with all 
the delicacies of the season, and the boys did 
justice to the excellent repast. 

"Before the serving of the breakfast, Chap- 
lain Bateman gave a short invocation, in which 
he asked the divine blessing upon the brave boys 
wdio had fought so nobly for their country, 
and expressed thanks that so many of them had 
been spared to return to their homes and 

"An incident of the breakfast was the ar- 
rival of a mother in search of her boy. She 
had missed him at the depot and had come to 
the hall to find him there. He had, however, 
been in such a hurry to see his dear mother 
that when he missed her at the depot he had 
rushed off to her home, only to find that she 
had been looking for him. He arrived at the 
hall just as the boys were finishing their repast 
and they were clasped in a loving embrace. 
He had missed his breakfast with the others, 
but he and his mother were seated at a table 
by the ladies and none of the boys enjoyed their 
meal more than he. 

"As the meal was about completed. Chap- 
lain Bateman asked for attention and an- 
nounced that it was desired that none of the 
boys lea\-e the hall till they have been served 
with a piece of cake which had been specially 
baked for the occasion by ]Mrs. yiavy Tatro, 
wdio had a son among the boys. The cake was 
a masterpiece of pastry. It had been made in 
one hundred and eighty pieces or small sr^uares, 
there being one for each of the boys. This cake, 
handsomely decorated, was on exhibition on 

the platform during the earlier part of the 

".\mong the ones at the breakfast table who 
attracted special attention were Lieutenant and 
Mrs. Nosier. Mrs. Nosier had ' accompanied 
her husband through tiie campaign, and dressed 
in a natty uniform she looked ever}^ inch a 
.soldier. .Attached to Lieutenant Nosler's fam- 
ily were also two Filipinos whom he had 
Ijrought back with him. The oldest is a young 
man of twenty named Ramondo Polma, and he 
seemed thorouglily able to look after himself. 
The other, a lad of seven, named Geronimo 
(le la Croi.x, which means Geronimo of the 
Cross, was seated at the table with Lieutenant 
and Mrs. Nosier and seemed rather shy. When 
a reporter asked his name, he threatened to 
cry and said he did not want his name in the 
paper. Lieutenant Nosier says that he expects 
■ to look after the two Filipinos and give them 
an education. 

'"A special feature of the breakfast this 
morning was the decorations at the hall. The 
' national colors were in great profusion, and 
\ery prominent among them were the emblems 
of the Red Cross society. There were many 
handsome floral designs scattered over the 
tables, and the hall never presented a neater or 
more tasty appearance. 

"The feelings that had been pent up for 
weeks and months burst forth in one grand, 
rousing cheer for our boys who had fought 
and now returned, the heroes of their home 
and the nation. 

"Not until the noble fellows in A and L 
marched down Riverside did the people have a 
general opportunity to cheer altogether with a 
tiger. From the time the head of the line was 
joined by the boys from the war, the magnifi- 
cent assemblage, which crowded every available 
space on pavement and in windows, kept up a 
prolonged wave of patriotic cheering. The 
hearts of every man, woman and child over- 
flowed with the joy of the greeting. Cheers 
could not express what they felt. Names were 


called out, flowers thrown and hats went flying 
wildly in the air. 

"Old soldiers, veterans of former struggles, 
remembered how they had been received in the 
'sixties, and waved their hats and canes and 
shouted out of the fullness of their hearts as 
thev now saw their sons returning from similar 
fields of duty. 

"School boys had been dismissed to learn 
what might some day be expected of them. 
They shouted their yells with a spirit that in- 
dicated how cjuick they would be to step into 
the ranks in defense of the stripes and stars. 

"Elks, Odd Fellows, Woodmen, Foresters, 
clerks, athletes, employers and employed joined 
in the jubilee. It was a stirring sight, indeed, 
to see the union of all in the welcome extended 
to the Spokane defenders of the flag. 

"Prominent m all the festivities of the day 
and most cheered outside the volunteers, were 
the ladies of the Red Cross, who had made 
possible this splendid reception. For weeks 
they had been preparing for to-day's home- 
coming of the boys in blue. They had planned 
well and the generous hospitality of the citi- 
zens of Spokane was directed and made ef- 
fective through their management and untir- 
ing energy. These were the ladies whom the 
volunteers on the countermarch cheered to the 
echo with their rousing marching cry of the 
Philippines, ending in the prolonged roll of 
sound like the noise of a whirlwind. 

"The parade itself contained many interest- 
ing figures. At the head rode Lieutenant E. 
K. Erwin, grand marshal of the procession, 
accompanied by his personal aides. Sent back 
wounded from ]\Ianila. the Lieutenant had 
reached home before his comrades and it was 
most fitting that he should to-day marshal the 
hosts for the public reception to his fellows of 
the First. 

"Few companies of volunteers can boast .a 
lady warrior as Company L does. No figure 
in the parade attracted more attention than this 
ladv on horseback, the wife of Lieutenant C. 

E. Nosier. Mounted on a spirited black horse, 
she was the most unique personage in the long 
procession, the only heroine who returned to- 
day from Manila. INIrs. Nosier was dressed in 
a neat khaki uniform and wore a soldier's soft 
hat. She seemed at home with the soldier's 
life and was frequently greeted by a cheer as 
she rode in front of the company. Sergeanr 
W'ill Campbell walked at the head of the horse 
and held the bridle in order to see that nothing 
befell their champion. 

"Riding alone in an open carriage provided 
by the Red Cros's was the only member of the 
two companies who returned on the sick list. 
It was O. Sowards, who has not fully recovered 
from his illness. Not quite able to march again 
with his company, the Red Cross saw to it that 
he recei\-ed a share of the welcome to-day. 

"It was after ii o'clock before the parade 
l)egan to move. As they reached the corner of 
Howard and Riverside, the line halted until the 
\'oIunteers were escorted to their place of honor. 
It then proceeded down to the end of the River- 
side paveiuent on the east and countermarched 
the entire length of the avenue. It was a 
n.iammoth procession and so long that it was 
again able to double at the west end of River- 
side before the column had drawn out to a 
single line nearly a mile away at the otlier end 
of the avenue. 

"Chief Witherspoon with a double squad of 
his most military officers of the police force 
headed the parade. The policemen were fol- 
lowed by a squad of firemen under command of 
Assistant Chief Phillips. Then came the mar- 
shal of the parade, Lieutenant Erwin. and his 
staff, all mounted. . The aides included C!ia-p- 
lain C. C. Bateman, Captain E. Martinson of 
Companv B, Idaho \'r)lunteers. L'eutenart Joe 
Smith and IIosi)ital Steward Howard Mc- 
Bride, all of whom have seen service. 

"The Grand Army of the Republic had 
been granted the place of honor as escort for 
the volunteers. They were headed by Pynn's 
band. Sedgwick Post, No. 8, came first with 



over a hundred men in line. It was in com- 
mand of Mayor Comstock as officer of the day. 
Reno Post, No. 47, had ahnost as many veter- 
ans of the civil conflict in line. It was led by 
E. Morrison, acting commander. The rejoic- 
ing of these old soldiers was one of the pleas- 
antest features to be noted in the welcome pre- 
pared. The bystanders contrasted the i)resent 
reception with the past and felt how thankful 
the country might be to the new veterans and 
the old. 

"Next in line came the heroes of the hour. 
The day was theirs, the parade was theirs and 
the friends and relatives eagerly scanned the 
faces in Companies A and L to be sure that 
their loved ones had returned. Not all the boys 
marched, a few feeling indisposed after their 
journey. Those wlm were in line showed the 
results of their campaigning, and yet they 
looked as if there was plenty of patriotism left 
to fight other campaigns if their commanders 
needed them. 

"Companies A and E of the militia marched 
next carrying their guns. The volunteers were 
without their rifles and wore the blue uniforms 
in which most of them had left S])okane scj con- 
fidently a year and a half ago. 

"A long line of carriages followed. In 
them were the ladies of the Red Cross. 

"The second division was composed of the 
Ijoys' brigade, kjys of the public schools and 
the students of Gonzaga College. These school 
boys formed one of the most interesting fea- 
tures of the parade, as each school was kept 
separate and bore aloft a banner inscribed with 
some patriotic sentence. 

"Sheriff Cole and his, deputies, in a car- 
riage, rode at the head of the third division, 
which was composed of local fraternal societies, 
the Retail Clerks" Association and the .\thletic 

"After the itarade had been finished the 
boys were taken to the Auditorium, where a 
fine program had been prepared f(jr them. 

"The house was filled long before the rise 

of the curtain and hundreds were turned away. 
Cheering began as soon as the curtain was 
seen to move. .At the time no soldier had made 
his ajjpearancc. Init the people knew when they 
saw the moving curtain he was there. From 
that time on there was a contintious roar, e.x- 
cejit w hen the speakers were on the floor. As 
soon as the mayor would rise to introduce a 
new speaker then the audience would turn 
loose. It did not take many words to raise 
the people from their seats ; all had been worked 
up to such a pitch by the parade that they were 
glad to have something to yell at. 

"On the stage the soldiers were in the front 
rows witii the G. A. R. in the rear, and as the 
cm^tain rose the building and all seemed to rise 
in the air. It took all the power of Mayor 
Comstock to finally get them quiet enough to 
proceed with tiie exercises. 

"Mayor Comstock acted as chairman and 
first introtluced the children's chorus. They 
sang the 'Soldiers' Chorus." and they sang it 
as if their very lives depended on it. When 
they had taken their seats they were cheered to 
the echo, not alone by the audience, hut the 
soldiers liked it and gave expression to their 
thoughts by continuous applause. 

"Mayor Comstock then took the platform 
and gave the b(^ys a welcome which they will 
not forget for a long time. Many times he 
was interrupted and especially when the ex- 
])ansion (juestion was brought in. It seemed 
to a])peal to the whole house and for a time it 
Icjoked like the roof would come down. 

"The mayor then stepped to the front to 
introduce Mrs. Hayward. He said: 'Com- 
rades, I know \()u all lived long enough to know 
what the Red Cross is,' and that was as far as 
he got. for just then one of the boys called out, 
'(iod bless them;' that is what started the racket 
and there was no use to try to think, for they 
would not let you. Finally he went on : 'It 
gives me great pleasure to introduce to you 
^Irs. \'irginia K. Hayward.' Then they started 
ag-ain. one of them called otit. "Three cheers 



for Mrs. Hayward,' which were given with a 
will by the boys of both companies and fol- 
lowed up with two tigers. 

"Then one of the officers stood up and 
called three cheers for the Red Cross and again 
they started. This time they all jumped to their 
feet, and the cheers this time were followed 
by three tigers. After that they decided to 
let Airs. Hayward talk, and she made a little 
talk that was cheered as wildly as any speech 
ever was in the halls of congress. 

"Senator George Turner was then intro- 
duced, and his reception was nothing behind 
that accorded to tlie others. He delivered a 
n:asterly speech in which he spoke in behalf of 
the citizens of Spokane and the citizens of the 

"Senator John L. Wilson was then intro- 
ducefl and made a remarkable talk in which he 
brought out many fine figures of speech. 

"No such gala day has ever been before 
witnessed in Spokane. The weather was per- 
fect, and the beautiful, clear, blue sky was 
spread as a triumphant arch for the returning 
heroes to march under. All along the line of 
march were spread streamers and flags and ban- 
ners and bunting, proclaiming the heartfelt 
welcome of a proud and grateful people. On 
back and side streets, and far out into the res- 
idence portion of the city, waved hundreds of 
flags and banners, displayed in honor of the oc- 
casion. Everywhere one turned there Old 
Glory flung her graceful folds out upon the 
gentle breeze and whispered 'Welcome home, 
our boys." 

"The following are the names of those who 
returned : 

"Company A — Captain A. H. Otis, First 
Lieutenant William T. Hinckley, Second Lieu- 
tenant Walter L. AlcCallum, First Sergeant 
PVed L. Titsworth, Quartermaster Sergeant 
James Timewell, Sergeants Herman I"". Hasler, 
William H. Harrison, Walter A. Graves and 
Kendall Fellowes, Corporals Ernest Hillings- 
worth, George DeGraff, Charlie Delano, John 

F. Mitchell, Robert M. Betts, Fred \\'. Schan- 
der, Edd Fox, Thomas B. Rickhart, \\'alter 
Nichols and Ancil Rayburn, Cook Ernest 
Wieman, Artihccr Charles E. Black, Wagoner 
Walter M. Hicks, Musician Arno L. Marsh. 
Privates Arthur E. Anderson, Loyal Bentliff, 
Fred Chapman, John .\. Coughlin, Leo M. 
Dornberg, Stephen A. Dunn, Oliver P. Eslick. 
William R. Fait, Dennis C. Feeney, Edward D. 
Furman, Elmer E. Gordon, Loren D. Grin- 
stead, John L. Harrington, Robert A. Harris, 
Otto H. Hoppe, Clement C. Hubbard, Albert 

D. Hughes, William A. Long, William F. Mc- 
Neil, William E. Nickerson, John M. Pike, 
George C. Primley, Clyde Secrist, Oscar Sow- 
ards, Harry Stenson and M. E. Thompson. 

"Company L — Captain Joseph M. Aloore, 
First Lieutenant John E. Ballaine, Second 
Lieutenant Charles E. Nosier, First Sergeant 
Leroy L. Childs, Quartermaster Sergeant 
Howard Woodward, Sergeants Thomas 
Doody, Reno D. Hoppe and James J. Butler, 
Corporals James B. Raub, Frank L. Merriam, 
Otis L. Higby, Robert D. Dow, ^^'alter A. 
Dixon, William H. Egbert, Charles O. Miller, 
/\lfretl C. Sanders, William Jensent, J. Grant 
H inkle, Will G. Campbell and Marshal W. 
Pullen, Artificer George E. Hedger, Musicians 
David H. Durgen and Morton G. Smith, Pri- 
vates Hector W. .Mien, Charles G. Anderson, 
Robert E. Bowman, William Briggs, George 
Eurgrabe, Joseph Buckley, Ellsworth Button^ 
Charles A. Christie, Robert H. Diehl, Ernest 

E. Drake, William Eklind, Edward R. Ennis, 
Carson E. Ellis, William P. Fleming, Charles 
Hedger, Walter Haskin, Stanley Jodrey, 
Charles A. Janes, Fred King, John B. McChes- 
nev, Alfred .M.Alumby, George Marks. Charles 
H. .Merriam, John Perry, Milton R. 
Rhoades, Arthur Rose, Clarence \'. Roberts, 
Charles W. Schmidt, Charles J. Shidler, Rob- 
ert J. Sly, Henry J. Sievers, Orphus W. Tatro, 
Olando P. Vaughn, Lee G. \\'arren and John 
\\'. Wells. 

"Those other men than the two companies 



who were on the train were Lieutenant George 
Dreher. wln.i A\ent a\\ay as first sergeant of 
Company A, but returns first heutenant of 
Company :\I ; ]\Irs. Charles E. Nosier, Mrs. 
John E. Ballaine, ]\Irs. Charles A. Christie, 
Robert L. Clark of the hospital corps, who went 
away as private in Company A, John H. Jones 
and William R. Tucker of K, whose homes are 
in Wilbur: ^Melville Arant, Godfrey Lundberg, 
Edd Smith, Hugh Cusick, and W. E. Nicker- 
.son, of the regimental band, and Roy Porter, 
of Company L, who mustered out at Manila." 

At six o'clock in the evening the soldiers 
were banqueted again at the First Methodist 
Episcopal church by the G. A. R. Relief Corps 
and Sons and Daughters of Veterans. The 
Avives of the volunteers particii)ated in 
.the supper. At 8 o'clock there was a 
puljlic meeting. A well trained chorus 
sang under the leadership of Dr. H. A. 
Heritage. The "Star Spangled Banner" was 
sung by ]\Irs. Leon Jones, and "Our He- 
rtzes Welcome Home," by ^liss Pearl Kellar. 
Mayor Comstock delivered a speech in b>.'half 
of the city: Hon. S. C. Hyde for the Cii'and 
Army: Rev. I'. A. Cool. 1). 1).. for the church, 
and }ilrs. Hay ward for the Red Cross. Brief 
responses were made l;y Ca])tains Otis and 
]\[oore. T!ie da}- wherein the W.ashington vol- 
unteers returned home, and the demonstrations 
connected therewith will be memorable in the 
history of Spokane. 


The Spokane of to-day is the glory of the 
Inland Empire. \\ ell can its citizens Ije proud 
of the record made during the last quarter cen- 
tury. The advancements of the past are but a 
prophecy of the achievements of the future. It 
is a cit}' hardl}- surpassed in attractiveness. 

When its age is considered and the obstacles 
it had to overcome it is a marvel of pluck and 
enterprise. It has adapted itself marvellously 
to ])resent conditions. The enduring character 
of the buildings and public institutions is an 
evidence of the energy and enterprise of its 
citizens. Spokane has more railroads than any 
city west of Denver. It is the distributing cen- 
ter for the Inland Empire. It is equipped with 
all the features of a great metropolis, with 
large and massive buildings and business 
l)locks, paved streets, extensive municipal water 
and sewer system, electric arc ligiits, gas, street 
railways, public parks, schools, churches, com- 
mercial colleges and theaters. The most im- 
])ortant improvement going on at this time is 
the grading and laying of tracks through the 
center of the city, and the building of bridges 
by the Great Northern Railroad Company. 


O, beautiful river, sweep into the west, 
With the shadow of hemlock and fir on thy breast; 
With the ghnt of the green in thy cool, crystal wave, 
Thou has stolen from hills that thy swift waters lave. 

In the lake hill-encircled, thy ru,shing rills meet, 
Down, down from the heights come their hurrying feet. 
From the heart of the mountains thy bright torrent drains 
Thy sources are deep in the dim Cttur d' Alenes. 

Convulsions volcanic thy stern bed have made. 
In basalt and granite thy couch has been laid: 
'TIs vemed with the onyx and broidered with gold, 
And into its gorges thy liquid life rolled. 

High over thy head croons the sentinel pine: 
Deep into thy bosom the watchful stars shine: 
The tamaracks gaze on thy foam-covered face. 
And shivering, stand in the breath of thy race. 

Columbia thunders; its echoes invite 
Deep answers to deep in the cataract's might. 
Speed on to thy nuptials, exulting in pride, 
And the peerless Spokane is Columbia's bride. 

Bv Mrs.\ F. .Xuciier 





The city of Spokane Falls was incorporated 
by an act of the Legislative Assembly of the 
Territory of Washington during the session of 
1 88 1 and approved November 29, 1881. 


Article I. — Section i. Be it enacted by 
the Legislative Assemlilv of the Territorv of 
Washington. That the city of Spokan Falls 
shall be bounded as follows, to-wit : Commenc- 
ing at the northwest corner of section 19, town- 
ship 23 north, range 43 east: thence west 160 
rods, to quarter p(.)st ; thence south 160 rods 
to center of section 25, township 25 north, 
range 42 east : thence east 480 rods, to i^outh- 
east corner of the north half of section 19. 
township 25 mirth, range 43 east: thence east 
80 rods: thence north 160 rods; thence east 80 
rods, to southeast corner of southwest Cjuarter 
of section 17; thence north to and across Spo- 
kane ri\er. to a point 200 feet from high water 
mark, on said river: thence meandering said 
river in a westerly direction 200 feet from high 
water mark to the west line of section 18; 
thence south along said line to the jilace of 

Sec. 2. The inhal)itants of the city of 
Spokan Falls, within the limits above de- 
scribed, shall be and they are hereby constituted 
a body politic and corporate in fact and in 
law by the name and style of the city of Spo- 
kan Falls, and by that name and style they and 
their successors shall be known in law, ha\'e 
perpetual succession, sue and be sued, plead 
and be impleaded, defend and be defended in 
all courts of law and ecjuity and in 
all suits and actions whatsoever, may pur- 

cliase, acquire, receive and hold property,, 
real, personal and mixed, for the use of tiie 
city, may lease, sell and dispose of the 
same for the lienefit of the city may purchase, 
acquire, recei\-e and hold jjroperty, beyond the 
limits of the city to be used for burial pur])Oses, 
also for the establishment of hospitals for the 
reception of persons affected with contagious 
diseases, also for work-houses or houses of cor- 
rection, also for the erection of water-works to 
supply the city with water, and may sell, lease 
or dispose of the same, for the benefit of the 
city, and they shall have and use a common seal 
and may alter and amend the same and make a 
new. one at pleasure. 

Article IL — Section i. The government 
of said city shall be \-ested in a nia\-(ir and com- 
mon council consisting of se\'en members who 
shall be elected by the (lualified \'oters of said 
city, and shall hokl their office until ten days 
after the next annual election and until their 
successors shall be elected and qualified. 

See. 2. There shall be a city treasurer, 
city marshal and city clerk to be elected by the 
city council, with the approval of the mayor 
(the city treasurer may be one of the council) 
and who shall hold their offices during the 
pleasure of the council, and the council may 
appoint and dismiss at its pleasure such other 
officer and agents as may be deemed necessary. 
Provided, There shall be no officer appointed, 
under this section except those herein named, 
unless the office is established by ordinance. 

Article III. — Of the Duties of Officers — 
Section I. It shall be the duty of the 
mayor to communicate to the council at least 
once a year and oftener if he shall deem it ad- 
visable, a general statement of the condition 



of the cit}', as to its finance, government and 
property, and to recommend the adoption of 
such means as he may think ad\isaljle to pro- 
mote its interest and advance its prosperity; 
to lie vigilant and active in causing the laws 
and ordinances of the city to be enforced, to 
exercise a constant supervision over the con- 
duct of all subordinate officers ; to receive and 
examine intoi all complaints which may be 
made or preferred u[)on oath against any of 
them for a violation or neglect of duty, and 
certify the same to the common council, who 
shall act upon the same; and if they find the 
complaint to lie true, and the cause sufficient, 
shall have the p(_)wer to declare the office of 
the person so complained against vacant, and 
the same shall be filled as hereinafter jiro- 
\'ided. The ma\'or shall generally perform all 
such duties as may be prescribed to him by the 
city charter and city ordinances and laws of 
the United States and this Territory. 

5"c't-. 2. The common council shall appoint 
one of the justices of the peace in said city of 
Spokan Falls, whose duty shall be as follows : 
He shall ha\-e jurisdiction over all \-iolations 
of cit}- ordinances; hold to bail, confine or 
commit i^ersons found guilty of any xdolations 
thereof; he shall, as ex-(.)fficio assessor, within 
such time as shall be by orilinance provided, 
make out a*nd return to the common council 
a correct list of all the taxable property within 
the city limits, with the \aluation thereof, and 
in the name of the person liable to be taxed 
tiierefor. The mode of making out such list, 
.ascertaining the value of the property and col- 
lecting the taxes shall, as nearly as may be 
practicable, be the same as that prescribed by 
law for assessing and collecting Territorial 
and count}' taxes, and he shall as such assessor 
discharge such other duties as may by ordi- 
nance be prescribed. He shall attend the 
meetings of the common council and shall keep 
a correct journal of all proceedings thereof, 
.and shall generally do and perform such duties 
as may by ordinance be provided. 

Sec. 3. The marshal shall attend upon 
the meetings of the city council, upon the jus- 
tices' court, and execute and, return all mesne 
and final processes issued from the justices. 
He shall arrest all persons guilty of a breach 
of the peace and quiet of the city. He shall 
also discharge such other duties as may be by 
ordinance prescribed. He shall collect city 
taxes, lie may appoint as many deputies as 
he shall see lit, each appointment to be approved 
by the mayor. 

Sec. 4. The city treasurer shall receise 
and carefully keep all moneys belonging to the 
city, and shall pay out the same only on war- 
rants tluly authorized under the laws and or- 
dinances of the city. He shall keep full and 
correct accounts of his receipts and disburse- 
ments, showing the source from which the 
money came, and the persons to whom it was 
l)aid, with reference to voucher upon which it 
was paid out, which vouchers he shall pre- 
serve. His accounts shall at all times be open 
to the inspection of the mayor and common 
C(juncil, or a committee thereof, who may also 
examine his books and vouchers and money. 
He shall, at the end of the fiscal year, and as 
much oftener as the council shall require, 
make out and present to the council a 
full and correct statement of the expenditures 
and receipts of the preceding year. He shall, 
also, perform such other duties as may by ordi- 
nance be prescribed. 

Sec. 5. H' any person elected to, or hold- 
ing, any city office shall without leave of the 
cinmcil, absent himself from the city for more 
than thirty days, or if he shall remove from the 
city, or shall fail to qualify within ten days 
after he shall have been elected, his ofifice shall 
be deemed \acant, and a resolution of the 
council declaring such ofifice vacant shall be 
final and conclusive. 

Sec. 6. The conmion council shall, by or- 
dinance, define the duties of all officers not 
herein provided. 

Article IV. — Of the Election of Officers 



and Filling of Vacancies. — Section i. A gen- 
eral election for all officers of this corporation, 
required by this act to be elected, shall be held 
on the first ^Monday in April in each year. 

Sec. 2. All elections shall be by ballot, at 
such places as shall be designated by ordi- 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the com- 
mon council to order all subsequent elections, 
to designate the place or places of holding the 
same, to give at least ten days' notice thereof, 
and to appoint inspectors of elections arid 
clerks. The elections shall be conducted in 
the same manner that general elections are 
conducted in the Territory. If any inspector 
or clerk shall fail to attend, the electors pres- 
ent may choose another in his stead. The re- 
turns of all elections shall be made to the city 
clerk, who shall present them to the common 
council, at its regular meeting, after elections, 
which meeting shall be held on the second 
^londay in April, when the vote shall be pub- 
licly examined, and the board of trustees shall 
declare the result, the city clerk shall there- 
upon give a certificate of election to the per- 
sons having a plurality of votes. In case of a 
tie between two persons, candidates for the 
same office, the choice shall be declared by the 
council by ^•ote. 

Sec. 4. All vacancies shall be filled by the 
common council, by appointment. In case of 
a vacancy in the CDuncil, the member or mem- 
bers remaining, whether a qunrum or not, may 
fill the vacancy. 

See. 5. Elections U)V city officers shall 
continue but one day and the polls shall be 
open frcm nine o'clock in the morning until 
four o'clock in the e\-ening. The polls may 
be closed at twehe until one o'clock at the 
option of the judges. 

Article V. — Of Qualifications of Mayor 
and Councilmen and Organization of Council. 
Section 1. The mayor and common council, 
justice and marshal and all (jther officers 
•elected or appointed luider this act. shall be 

qualified within ten days after election or ap- 
pointment, and shall enter upon the discharge 
of their duties. The term of offices of the 
mayor, recorder, marshal and councilmen to 
commence ten days after the election. 

Sec. 2. The members of the common 
council elected under this act shall assemble 
ten days after their election and choose one of 
their number for a presiding officer. In case 
of the absence of the president they may elect 
a president pro tempore, who shall have the 
power and transact the duties of the president. 
They shall fix the time and place of holding 
their stated meetings and ma\- be convened by 
the mayor at any time. A majority of the 
members shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business, but a smaller number 
may adjourn from time to time and compel 
the attendance of absent members in such 
manner and under such penalty as the coun- 
cil may have previously provided. They 
shall judge of the qualifications, elections and 
returns of their own members, and other offi- 
cers elected or appointed under this act, and 
determine contested elections. They shall 
establish rules for their own proceedings, pun- 
ish any member, or any other person, for dis- 
orderly conduct in their presence at any meet- 
ing of the council, and with two-thirds con- 
currence of all the members elect may, for 
good cause, expel a member. They shall keep 
a journal of their proceedings, and at the 
desire of any member shall cause the yeas and 
nays to be taken on any question anil entered 
on the journal, and all their proceedings shall 
be i)ublic. 

Article M. — Of the General Power of 
the Mayor and Commcju Council. — Section 1. 
The mayc^r and common council shall have 
power within the cit\' : 

1. To make by-laws and ordinances not 
repugnant to the laws of the United States or 
this Territory. 

2. To levy and collect taxes not exceeding 
one-half of one per cent, per annum upon all 



property made taxable by law for county and 
Territorial purposes. Provided, that if any 
persons at any time after the annual assess- 
ment shall commence the sale or barter of any 
wares or merchandise within said city such 
person shall be assessed and pay a tax mi saiil 
goods, wares and merchandise for the balance 
of the year after he shall so commence, propor- 
tioned to the amount levied or assessed for 
city purposes for the year. AntI, further pri)- 
vided. That no tax shall be levied on the value 
of articles, the growth and produce of the Ter- 
ritor\-, which are brought in such cit_\' and 

3. To make regulations and restrictions 
to pre\'ent the introduction of contagious and 
other iliseases into the city. 

4. To estal)lish hospitals anil make regu- 
lations for the government of t!ie same, and 
to secure the general health of the inhabitants. 

5. To prevent and renio\e nuisances. 

C). To erect water-works either within or 
be_\dn(l the city limits of the city, and to pro- 
vide the city with water for extinguishing of 
hre anil the use of the inhabitants. 

7. To license, tax antl regulate auction- 
eers, ta\erns. restaurants, hawkers, peddlers, 
brokers, pawn-brokers, saloons or places 
for retailing spirituous, malt or fer- 
mented liquors, liarro(;ms or billiard tables, 
theatrical or other exh.ibitions, shows and 
amusements, runners for hotels or vessels, por- 
ters, teamsters, hackmen, draymen, truckmen, 
and fix the rate of porterage, hacks, carriages, 
wagons, carts, drays, trucks and omniliuses, 
snd to fix the rate of charges for the carriage 
of persons or propertv. 

8. To pre\ent hogs or any other live 
stock from running at large within the citv 

9. To i)rovide for the prevention and ex- 
tinguishing of fires, and to organize a fire de- 

10. To appoint fire wardens and prescriiie 
their duties, ar.d to compel any person or per- 

sons present to aid in the extinguishing of fire 
or in the preservation of property exposed to 
danger in time of fire, and by ordinance to 
provide whatever other regulations may be 
necessary on such occasions. 

] 1. To establish and regulate a police. 

12. To impose a fine, penalty or forfeit- 
ure for the breach of any ordinance: Pro- 
\ided. no line shall exceed one hundred dollars 
and no term of imprisonment shall e.xceed 
thirty days; Provided, Further: That in case 
of inability or refusal to pay a fine, one day's 
imi)risoninent ma_\- be im|)osed for each two 
dollars of the fine and costs: And, Provided 
further, That prisoners may be required to 
labor under such regulations and restrictions 
as ma)' by ordinance be prescribed. 

13. To erect a work-house or house of 
correction and provide f(^r the government and 
regulation thereof. 

14. To remove all obstructions from the 
streets, alleys, side and cross-walks, and to 
provide for the construction, repairing and 
cleaning of the same, as well as sewers, gut- 
ters, water-courses and underground drainage, 
and to require parties owning or occupying 
premises to remove obstructions from streets, 
alleys, side and cross walks, adjoining their 
property or premises occupied by them, and to 
levy a discriminating tax on persons or prop- 
erty particularly benefited by the construction 
or repair of streets, side and cross walks, 
sewers, gutters and drains, either with or 
without a general tax for general benefit of 
such work. 

15. To provide for the lighting of the 
streets of the city with gas or otherwise. 

16. To establish and regulate a night- 
watch and patrol, and to provide a city jail. 

17. To appro])riate and provide for any 
item of city expenditure, and for the payment 
of the tiebts of the city: Provided: That 
when the city's indebtedness amounts to $1,500 
no further debts shall he created except for 
the ortlinary current expenses of the city, and 

A. M. CANNON (deceased) 


PUtLlC L'^: A. .7 



debts created in violation of this provision 
shall be void. 

18. To regulate the storage of gunpow- 
der, saltpetre, pitch, tar, . resin, petroleum, 
kerosene and all other combustible material ; 
and the use of candles, lamps, fire or other 
lights in shops, stables or other dangerous 
places; to regulate, prevent, or remove, or 
secure, any fireplace, stovepipe, chimney, de- 
fective flue, oven, boiler or any other appar- 
atus which may 1)6 dangerous in causing fire. 

19. To prescribe the manner of building 
party walls or fences. 

20. To pre\ent or restrain any riot, dis- 
turbance or disorderly assemblage, ov any in- 
decent conduct in any street, house or place in 
the cit}'. 

21. To provide for the collection and re- 
ceix'ing, bv said city, of all road piill tax and 
all road property tax, whether payable in labor 
or cash, and the expending and using the 
same upon the roads and streets of the city, 
and for this purpose the city shall cmistitute 
one road district. 

22. All moneys received for licenses or 
fines shall be paid into the city treasury and 
constitute a general municipal fund, including 
two-thirds of all county license for liquor, 
assessed or collected within the corporate 
limits of the said city of Spokan Falls. 

23. The max'or and common council shall 
also haxe power by ordinance to license, regu- 
late or prohibit bawdy or whore houses in the 
city, and shall have power to pass ordinances 
for the punishment of persons guilty of pul> 
licly using obscene language within the city. 

SiX. 2. Any ordinance which shall have 
been passed by the common council shall, be- 
fore it becomes valid, be presented to the mayor 
for his appro\-al. If he ai)proves it he shall 
sign it, if not he shall return it with his oli- 
jection in writing to the council. wli<i shall 
cause the same to be entered on their journal. 
They shall then consider the same. If, on 
.such reconsideration, four members of the 


council shall vote for the same, it shall become 
an ordinance. In all such cases the yeas and 
nays shall be taken and entered on the journal. 
If the mav'or shall fail to return an ordinance 
within se\en days after it has been presented 
to him for his ajiprov-al, it shall become 
effective as if the had signed it. 

.St'c". 3. All demands against the city shall 
be audited by the council and shall Ije paid l;)y 
the treasurer on the warrant of the president 
of the coiuicil. countersigned by the ma\'or. 

Sec. 4. 1 he president of the council shall 
e.xercise the duties of the mayor whenever said 
oftice shall lie vacant, or the mayor be absent 
frcnn the city, or for any cause unable to at- 
tend to the duties of his office. 

Sec. 5. The style of the city ortlinance 
shall be as follows: "The people of the city 
of Spokane Falls do ordain as follows." 

Article \TI. — Of Salaries of Officers.— 
Section 1. Neither the mayor or members 
of the council shall receive any salary 
for their services. The justice shall receive 
the same fees for his services as are pre- 
scribed by law for similar services, but no 
part of the same shall he paid by the city. 

Sec. 2. All other officers provided for in 
this act. or to be created, shall receive such 
compensation as shall be provided for by or- 

Article \'III. — ]\Iiscellaneous Provis- 
ions. — Section 1. Upon the passage of all 
ordinances the yeas and nays shall be called 
and entered on the journal. 

Sec. 2. All resolutions or ordinances call- 
ing for appropriations of any money shall lie 
over for seven days. 

Sec. 3. The mayor may at any time call 
a special session of the common council by 
proclamation or special notice to the coun- 
cilmen. and he shall state to them, when they 
are asseml)led, the cause for which they are 

Sec. 4. Xi_i member of the council shaj] 
(luring the period for which he has been 



selected, he interested in any contract, the ex- 
penses to which to be paid from the city treas- 


The fiscal vear of the citv shall 

•enfl (^n the last day of February of each year, 
and the city council shall, at least one week 
before the annual election, cause to be pub- 
lished a full and complete detailed statement 
of all money received and expended by the cor- 
poration during the [jreceding" _\x'ar. and t)n 
what acomnt expended, classifying each re- 
iceipt antl expenditure under its appropriate 

Article IX. — Section i. To carry into 
t'tfect the provisions of this act until officers 
can be duly elected at the first election day 
herein provided for, the following named per- 
sons are hereby appointed to the following 
named offices, namely : Mayor, R. W. For- 
rest: Common Councilmen, S. G. Havermale, 
A. ;\1. Cannon, L. H. Whitehouse, F. R. 
JMoore, W. C. Gray. L. W. Rima, (i. A. Davis. 

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect and be 
in force fmm antl after its passage and ap- 
■pro\-al by the gox'ernment. 

Approved Xovember jcj, 1881. 

The Legislature of 1883 passed "An Act 
til amend an Act to incorporate the city of 
Spokane Falls." This act extended to the city 
limits, making it two miles square and divid- 
ing it into four wards. All east of Howard 
.street and south of Riversitle was in the first 
ward: all north of Riverside avenue anil east 
of Howard in second ward : all west of How- 
ard and north iif Rix'erside in the third ward, 
and all west of Howard and south of Ri\erside 
in fourth ward. The time of election was 
changed fri)m the first Monday in April to the 
first Tuesday in April, treasurer, attorney, 
marshal and clerk to be elected by vote of the 
people. The mayor was made the presiding 
officer of the council, functions and duties of 
city officials defined more in detail. The 
charter of 1883 was amended by the Legis- 
lature of 1886. As all the important features 

of this charter are incorporated in the new one, 
we do not deem it necessary to present it 


The present ciiarter was framed and sub- 
mitted by the board of fifteen freeholders, 
elected September 2^, 1890, in pursuance of 
the provisions of Section 10, Article 11, of the 
Constitution of the State of Washington, the 
acts of the Legislature and an ordinance num- 
bered 493, passed and approved September 8, 
1890, was approved by tlie people at an elec- 
tion held March 24, 1891, and was attested 
and went into effect April 4, 1891. It has 
been amended from time to time. 


The charter, with amendments, describes 
the limits as follows : 

The city of Spokane shall include within 
its limits the following lands and territories : 

The corporate limits of the city of Spokane 
shall be bounded as follows : Commencing at 
the northeast corner of the southeast cjuarter 
of section 3, township 25 north, range 43 east, 
W. M. ; thence west to the northwest corner 
of the s(nitheast (juarter of section 2, township 
25 north, range 42 ; thence south to the south- 
west corner of the southeast quarter of .section 
26, township 25 north, range 42 ; thence east 
to the southeast corner of section 28, township 
25 north, range 43 : thence north to the place 
of beginning: and shall include within its cor- 
porate limits the following described lands and 
territory: South half section 4, south half 
section 5, south lialf section 6, sections 7, 8, 9, 
16. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. 28, 29 and 30, in town- 
ship 25 north of range 43 east, W. AL, and 
south half section i, southeast quarter section 
2, east half section 11, section 12, section 13, 
east half section 14, east half section 23, east 
half section 26, section 24, section 25, in town- 
ship 25 north, range 42 east, W. ^L, together 
uith such other territory, if any. heretofore or 



hereafter taken from or added to said city in 
pursuance of law. 

The city of Spokane is dis'ided into tive 
wards, bounded and designated as follows : 

First Ward — The first ward shall include 
all that part of the city within the following 
boundaries: Commencing at the southeast 
corner of the corporate limits of the city ; 
thence north along the east line of the city 
limits to the north bank of the Spokane river ; 
thence west along the north bank <if the Spo- 
kane river to the center line of Division street; 
thence south along the center line of Division 
street to the south line of the city limits; thence 
east along the south line of the city limits to 
the place of beginning. 

Second Ward — 1 he second ward shall in- 
clude all that part of the city within the fol- 
lowing boundaries : Commencing at the cen- 
ter line of Division street, on the north bank 
of the Spokane river ; thence west along the 
n(jrth l)ank iif the Spokane rix'er to the center 
line of ]\Ionroe street; thence south along the 
center line of Monroe street to the center line 
of Nintb avenue ; thence west on the center 
line of Ninth avenue to the center line of Madi- 
son street ; thence south cjn the center line of 
Madison street to the south line of the city 
limits; thence east on the south line of the city 
linnts t'j the center line of L)i\ision street; 
thence north along the center line of Division 
street to point of beginning. 

Third Ward — The third ward shall include 
iill that part of the city within the following 
boundaries : Commencing at the center line 
of j\h:)nroe street, on the north bank of the 
Spokane ri\-er; thence westerly along the 
northern laank of the Spokane river to the cen- 
ter line of section 14, township 25, range 42; 
thence west on the said section line to the cen- 
ter of said section 14, being the west limit of 
said city ; thence south along said west line of 
said city limits to the southwest corner of said 
city limits ; thence east along the south line of 
said city limits to the center of Madison street: 

thence north along the center line of Madison 
street to the center line of Ninth avenue; thence 
east of the center line of Ninth avenue to the 
center line of Monroe street; thence north on 
the center line of Alonroe street to the point of 

Fourth Ward — The fourth ward shall in- 
clude all that part of the city within the fol- 
lowing boundaries : Commencing at the north- 
west corner of the city limits; thence east 
along the north line of the city limits to the 
center of Mill street projected; thence along 
the center of Mill street projected and Mill 
street to the north bank of the Spokane ri\er: 
thence westerly al(jng the north bank of the 
Spokane rixxr to the center line of section 14. 
township 25, range 42; thence west to the 
center of section 14; thence north to the point 
of 'beginning. 

Fifth Ward — The fifth ward shall include 
all the territory embraced within the city 
limits ]\-ing north of the north l)ank of the 
Spokane river and east of the center of Mill 
street and Mill street projected. 


The wards are dix'ided into election pre- 
cincts as follows : 

First Ward : Adams Precinct — Commen- 
cing at north bank of Spokane river, at easterly 
city limits, thence south to Third avenue, thence 
on Third avenue to Hatch, thence north on 
Hatch to north bank of Spokane river, thence 
along the north bank of the river to the place 
of beginning. 

Allen Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of Third avenue, and easterly city limits, 
thence south to the southeast corner of section 
2S, township 25 north, range 43 east, W. M., 
tlience west along southern city limits to its in- 
tersection with Hatch, thence north on Hatch 
to its intersection with Third avenue, thence 
east on Third to place of beginning. 

Arthur Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of Hatch and Third avenue, thence south 



on Hatch to tht south city limits, thence west 
on south city Hmits to its intersection with 
Division, thence north on Division to Third 
avenue, thence east on Third avenue to place of 

Alki Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of Third avenue and Hatch, thence north 
on Hatch to north bank of Spokane river, 
thence westerly along bank of river to Divi- 
sion, thence south on Division to Third ave- 
nue, thence east on Third avenue to place of 

Second JVard: Brickell Precinct — Com- 
mencing at intersection of Front avenue and 
Division street, thence north on Division to 
north bank of Spokane river, thence westerly 
on bank of Spokane river to iMonroe street, 
thence south on Monroe to the intersection of 
Front avenue, thence east on Front avenue to 
place of beginning. 

Burke Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of Front avenue and Division, thence south 
on Division to main line of the Northern Pa- 
cific Railway, thence westerly on the line of 
said road to the intersection of Washington 
street, thence north on Washington to Front 
avenue, thence east on Front avenue to place- 
of beginning. 

Browne Precinct — Commencing at inter- 
section of Front avenue and Wasliington, 
thence south on Washington to the main line 
of the Northern Pacific Railway, thence west- 
erly on said line to its intersection with ISIill, 
thence north on Mill to Front avenue, thence 
east on Front avenue to place of beginning. 

Butler Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of Front avenue and Mill, thence south on 
Mill to main line of Northern Pacific Railway, 
thence west on said line to Monroe, thence 
north on Monroe to Front avenue, thence east 
on Front aveiuie to place of beginning. 

Bernard Precinct — Commencing at inter- 
section of Division street and Main line of. 
Northern Pacific Railway, thence south on Di- 
vision to Third avenue, thence west on Third 

avenue to Monroe, thence north on IMonroe to 
Northern Pacific Railway, thence easterly on 
said railroad to place of beginning. 

Beacon Precinct — Commencing at inter- 
section of center line of Mill and center line of 
Riverside avenue, thence south along the center 
line of Mill to the main track of the Northern 
Pacific Railway, thence west along the main 
track of Northern Pacific Railway to center line 
of Monroe, thence north along the center line 
of Monroe to the center line of Riverside ave- 
nue; thence east along the center line of Riv- 
erside avenue to the place of beginning. 

Blake Precinct — Commencing at the inter- 
section of the center line of Riverside avenue 
and the center line of Stevens, thence south 
along the center line of Stevens to main track 
of Northern Pacific Railway, thence west along 
i.nain track of said railway to center line of 
Mill, thence north along center line of Alill ta 
center line of Riverside avenue, thence east 
a'ong center line of Riverside avenue to place 
of beginning. 

Blaine Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of Third a\enue and Division, thence south 
on Division to Fifth avenue, thence west on 
Fifth avenue to Monroe, thence north on Mon- 
roe to Third avenue, thence east on Third ave- 
nue to place of beginning. 

Belmont Precinct — Commencing at inter- 
section of Fifth avenue and Division, thence 
south on Division to south city limits, thence 
west on soutli city limits to Madison, thence 
north on Madison to Ninth avenue, thence east 
on Ninth avenue to Monroe, thence north on 
Monroe to Fifth avenue, thence east on Fifth 
avenue to place of beginning. 

Third Ward: Cleveland Precinct — Com- 
mencing at intersection of Fifth avenue and 
]Monroe, thence south on Monroe to Ninth 
aveinie. thence west on Ninth avenue to 
iNIadison, thence south on Madison to south 
city limits, thence west on south city limits to 
^ypi^d UJ311JJOX JO 3ui[ UI12UI JO uoijoasjajui 
Railway, thence northerly along said railroad 



to Fit til avenue, thence east on Fifth avenue to 
place of Ijeginning. 

Cannon Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of Fifth avenue and ]\h)nroe, tlience west 
on Fifth avenue to Chestnut, thence north on 
Chestnut to Pacific avenue, thence east on Pa- 
cific avenue and main line of Northern Pacific 
Railway to ]\Ionroe, thence south on Alonroe to 
place of beginning. 

Carlton Precinct — Commencing at inter- 
section of Monroe and main line of Northern 
Pacific Railway, thence west on said main line 
and Pacific avenue to Chestnut, thence north on 
Chestnut to north bank of Spokane ri\-er, thence 
easterly on north bank of river to Monroe, 
thence south on Monroe to place of beginning. 

Cass Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of Chestnut and north bank of Spokane 
river, thence south on Chestnut to Fifth ave- 
nue, thence east on Fifth avenue to main line 
of Northern Pacific Railway, thence southerly 
on said main line to south city limits, thence 
west on S'luth city limits to southwest corner 
of the southeast quarter of section 26, townsiiip 
25 north, range 42 east, \Y. M., thence north 
on west city limits to northeast corner on south- 
east quarter (.)f section 14. township 25 north, 
range 43 east, W. AI., thence east on said half 
section line to north bank of Spokane river, 
thence easterly to place of beginning. 

Carlisle Precinct — Commencing at intersec- 
tion of the center line of Pacific avenue and 
^laple, thence south along the center line of 
Maple to center line of Fifth avenue, thence 
west along the center line of Fifth avenue to 
main track of Northern Pacific Railway, thence 
southerly along said main track to the east and 
west half section line of section 24, township 
25, range 42, thence west on said line to the 
extended center line of Cceur d'Alene, thence 
northerly along the extended center line of the 
Cceur d'Alene, and the center of Geur dWlene 
to the center line of Pacific avenue, thence easf 
along the center line of Pacific avenue to place 
of beginning. 

Clay Precinct — Commencing on the center 
line of Ab.)nroe at the north bank of Spokane 
river, thence along the center line of Monroe 
to center line of Riverside avenue, thence 
westerly along center line of Riverside avenue 
to where the said center line of Riverside 
avenue intersects the section line between 
sections 13 and 24. township 2^. range 43 
east, thence west along said section line to 
city limits, thence north on said city limits 
to half section line of section 14, townshi]) 
25 north, range 42 east, thence east on said 
half section line to north bank of Sjjokane 
river, thence southerly and easterly on north 
bank of Spokane ri\-er to place of beginning. 

foi'rth. Ward: Douglas Precinct — Com- 
mencing at intersection of Cedar and north 
bank of Spokane river, thence north on Cedar 
to Boone avenue, thence west on Boone 
avenue to abandoned track of Spokane Cable 
Railway, thence along said track to west city 
limits, thence south on west city limits to the 
half section line of section 14, townshiij 25 
north, range 42 east, W. M., thence east on 
said half section line to north bank of Spokane 
river, thence easterly to place of beginning. 

Damon Precinct — Commencing at inter- 
section of Cedar and north bank of Spokane 
river, thence north on Cedar to Sharp avenue, 
thence east on Sharj) avenue to Mill, thence 
south on Mill to north bank of Spokane river. 
thence westerly to place of beginning. 

Delaware Precinct — Commencing at' inter- 
section on Mill and Sharp avenue, thence 
north on Mill to north city limits, thence west 
on north city limits to west city limits, thence 
south on west city limits to intersection of 
abandoned track of Spokane Cable Railway, 
thence southeasterly on said track to inter- 
section with Boone avenue, thence east on 
Boone avenue to Cedar, thence north on 
Cedar ti> Boone avenue, thence east on Sharp 
avenue to place of beginning. 

fifth Ward: Eldorado Precinct — Com- 
mencing at intersection of Mill and north 



bank of Spokane ri\'er. thence north on Mill 
to north city limits, thence east on north city 
limits to west line of section 4. township J5 
north, range 43 east. W. M., thence sonth on 
said line to south line of section 5, township 
25 north, range 43, thence west on said line 
to its intersection with Division, thence south 
on Division to north bank of Spokane river, 
thence west along north bank of river to place 
of beginning". 

Eureka Precinct — Commencing at inter- 
section of Division and north bank of Spokane 
river, thence north on Division to south line of 
section 5. township 25 north, range 43 east. W. 
]N[.. thence east on said line to north and south 
line between sections 4 and 5, then n<jrth 
on said line to north city limits, thence east 
on north city limits to east city limits, thence 
south on east city limits to north l)ank of 
Spokane river, thence in a westerly direction 
along said north bank to place of beginning. 

The charter provides that the officers to 
be elected at large shall be the mayor, treas- 
urer and comptroller, to hdld office for two 

Two councilmen shall be elected in each 
ward. The corporation counsel, the city 
commissioners and such other officers now 
existing and such other officers as may be 
necessary to fill any office hereafter created, 
to carry out the provisions of this charter, shall 
be appointed b\- the mayor, subject to con- 
firmation by the city council 

The city clerk shall l>e elected by the city 

The appointment of all other officers not 
herein specified shall lie made by the mayor 
subject to confirmation by the city council. 
The corporation counsel shall hold office for 
the term of two years. 

The municipal election shall be held on 
the first Tuesday in INIay in the year 1897, 
and on the first Tuesday in ]\Iay of every al- 
ternate vear thereafter. Sjiecial elections 
shall be held at such time and for such purpose 

as the city council may by ordinance prescribe. 
At least fifteen days' notice shall be given of 
the time, place and purpose 'of any special 
election in such manner as shall be prescribed 
bv the ordinance ordering the same. 

The mayor shall be the chief executive 
officer of the city, but shall not be entitled to 
\ote nor to participate in the deliberations of 
the city council. 

.\11 legislative powers of the city are \-ested 
in the mayor and city council. 

The city council shall consist of ten mem- 
bers. No person shall be eligible to the office 
of councilman unless he is an elector of the 
ward in which he is elected and a freeholder 
in the city, and shall have been such freeholder 
at least one vear next preceding his election, 
and shall ha\e Iieen a resident of the territory 
comprising the city for two years next pre- 
ceding his election. 

.\s amended by amendment No. 29. ap- 
proved and adopted l)y the peoi)le at an elec- 
tion held May 7, 1H95. 

The five councilmen elected at the annual 
election held in the year 1895. shall each hold 
his office for the term of two years, beginning 
on the loth day after the first Tuesday in 
May, .\. D. 1896. and thereafter at each bi- 
ennial election two councilmen shall be elected 
in each ward, five of said councilmen, one 
from each ward, shall take their seats ten 
days after said election, and five of said coun- 
cilmen. one from each ward, shall take their 
seats ten days after the first Tuesday in May 
of the year following their election, and the 
ballots shall designate the term for which each 
councilman is electetl, and the time that each 
councilman so elected shall take his seat. 

As amended I)y amendment No. 30, ap- 
proved and ado])ted by the people at an elec- 
tion held May- 7, 1895. 

The city council shall elect one of its mem- 
bers president thereof, who shall perform the 
duties usual to a presiding officer and shall 
b.ave the same right to vote and participate 



in the arguments and deliberations as other 
members of the city council. 

The law department of the city of Spokane 
shall consist of a corporation counsel, who 
shall be appointed by the mayor and con- 
firmed by the city council, and shall hold office 
for the term of one year, and until his suc- 
cessor is duly elected and qualified. 

There shall be appointed by the mayor 
and confirmed by three-fifths of all the mem- 
bers of the council, three freeholders and 
electors of the city, who shall be designated 
as the "city commissioners." Said commis- 
sioners shall constitute and act as a board of 
public works, as a board of police and as a 
board of fire commissioners, and as such shall 
have the authority and perform the duties pre- 
scribed and imposed in this charter upon the 
respective boards, public works, police, fire 
commissioners, secretary and building in- 

The charter provides for a police depart- 
ment, fire department, a board of health and 
department of parks. 


The following named officers shall receive 
a.9 full compensation for all services of every 
kind, rendered by them, the following salaries, 
payable in city warrants at the end of each 
calendar month : 

The mayor fifteen hundred dollars ($1,- 
500) per annum. 

Each councilman six hundred dollars 
($600) per annum, provided, that ten dollars 
($10.00) shall be deducted from the salary 
of any member for each failure to attend a 
regular meeting of the council, unless excused 
from such attendance. 

The city comptroller fifteen hundred dol- 
lars ($1,500) per annum. 

The city treasurer fifteen hundred dollars 
($1,500) per annum; 

The corporation counsel two thousand dol- 
lars ($2,000) per annum, pro\'ided, that all 

appearance fees collected by the corporation 
counsel, in any case wherein an appearance fee 
is taxed and al-lowed to the city, shall be paid 
into the city treasury for the use of the city. 

Each city commissioner twcKc hundred 
dollars ($1,200) per annum. 

The city clerk twelve hundred dollars-' 
($1,200) per annum. 

The chief of police and chief of fire de- 
partment shall each receive such salary as the 
city council may, by ordinance, fix. 

All other officers of the city, except as pro- 
vided in this charter, shall receive as compensa- 
tion for all services rendered by them, of every 
kind, such amounts as may be fixed by ordin- 

The following were the fifteen freeholders 
elected on the 27th day of September, 1890, 
to prepare the city charter: Albert Allen, 
F. A. Bettis, A. M. Cannon, Janies Glispin.. 
J. N. Glover, H. E. Houghton, D. P. Jenkins, 
I. S. Kaufman. G. H. Leonard, R. Russell,, 
C. R. Burns, E. J. Webster, :\. Munter. James- 
Monaghan and F. H. Mason. 

The special election for the submission of 
the charter to the (lualified electors was held 
March 24. 1801. and the result of said election 
was found to Ije as follows: For said pro- 
posed charter, 2.045 votes; against said pro- 
posed charter. 312 votes; majority for said' 
proposed charter. 1.733 votes. The vote on 
the separate article to change the name from 
Spokane Falls to Spokane was as follows: 
for, 1. 1 29 votes; against, 513 votes; majority 
for Spokane, 616 votes. 


The year iSSi, the following persons were- 
appointed by the Legislature to fill the several 
citv offices until officers could be duly elected 
at the time api>ointed: Mayor. R. W. IA)rrest ; 
common councilmen. S. G. Havermale. .\. M. 
Cannon, L. H. Whitehouse. F. R. Moore. W. 
C. Gray. L. W. Rima. G. A. Davis. S. G. 
Havermale was the president of the first coun- 


cil ; A. M. Cannon, treasurer : J. S. Gray, 
clerk. At the first election, on the first Mon- 
day in .\pril. 1882. the persons above men- 
tioned were elected to the same oflices, with 
the exception of A. M. Cannon. S. T. Arthur 
was elected hut soon moved to Missoula, and 
Mr. Cannon was appointed to fill his place. 

At the election of 1883 J. N. Glover was 
elected mayor; councilmen, A. M. Cannon. R. 
W. Forrest, F. R. Moore, J. F. Lockhart, J. 
M. Grimmer, L. H. W'hitehouse, L. W. Rima. 
City attorney, J. Kennedy Stout. 

The records of the council of Spokane 
Falls as found in the city clerk's office begin 
April 7, 1884. Mayor, J. N. Gk)ver; council- 
men, 1st ward, R. W. Forrest, S. G. Haver- 
male: Jud ward, Peter Dueber, W. L. Turner; 
3rd ward, Simon Berg, John N. S(|uiers : 4th 
ward, George T. Crane, A. M. Cannon ; city 
attorney, Millard T. Hartson ; city clerk, 
Charles E. Crettin. 

During the year ]\Ir. Crane resigned and 
George M. Forster was elected his successor 
at a special election. The Ijonds were fi.xed 
as follows for city officers: treasurer, $7,500; 
marshal. $2,000; mayor. $3,000. 

Ordinances submitted : An ordinance 
drafted b_\- the city attorney to jirovide a po- 
lice fiirce, gi\'ing the mayor authority to ap- 
])oint twc:i p(ilicemen at a salary of $65 per 
month. Carried. 

.\ ciiniinittee was a])pointed to confer with 
the board of trade about occupying their room 
for council meetings. They were held in 
Glover' building on Howard and Front. 

At the election, April 8, 1885, the follow- 
ing were elected: Mayor. A. M. Camion; 
clerk, J. C. Haiina: marshal, James Glispin; 
treasurer, W. A. Kinney: attorney, H. K. 
Houghton, .\ldermen : First ward, Henry 
Brook: Second ward, E. B. Hyde; Third 
ward, B. R. \\'estfall, Sam Wilson; Fourth 
ward, J. N. Bishop. 

Councilman B. R. \\'estfall, father of L. 
L. \\'estfall, introduced a resolution to pur- 

chase the controlling interest in the water 
power 1)y bonding the city for two hundred 
thousand dollars, remarking in his sjieech that 
if they did so they could build a city reaching 
from Cooks hill to the south to "Old Baldy," 
Mr. W'estfall resided then on Monroe street 
near Mallon a\eniie. He soon moved east 
and died, but his prophecy is being verified. 

.Kt the same election 795 voted for the con- 
struction, erection and maintenance of water- 
works. At a special election on October 5. 
Jacob Hoover was elected as alderman from 
the First ward. Mr. J. C. Hanna met his 
death through an accident that occurred to 
the steamship Spokane on the Coeur d' Alene 
river. John F. Figgot filled the unexpired 
term as city clerk. In March, 1886, Wen- 
dell Hall was made city surveyor. In .\pril, 
1886, G. B. Dennis and C. F. Clough were 
elected councilmen. 

The election April 5, 1887, resulted as UA- 
lows: Mayor, W. H. Taj'Ior; treasurer, E. 
Bertrand ; assessor. E. J. Fellowes; chief of 
police, Joel F. \\'arren ; attorney. P. D. 
Michael; councilmen: First ward. W. C. 
Johnson; Second ward. Samuel T. .\rthur: 
Third ward. L S. Kaufman; Fourth ward. 
B. C. Van Houten; appointments: M. M. 
Swingler. state commissioner; R. A. Jones, 
inspector of engines and superintendent of 
waterworks; John I. Booge. police justice; W. 
F. Edwards, clerk. 

The election, .\pril 3, 1888, resulted as 
follows: Mayor, Jacob Hoover; treasurer, E. 
Bertrand: assessor, D. M. Thompson; attor- 
ney, 11. 1". Houghton; chief of police. J. F. 
Warren ; councilmen. First ward. P. M. Tull ; 
Second ward. S. S. Bailey; Third w'ard, S. D. 
Waters; Fourth ward. William Kenlhauff. 
D. B. Fotheringham ; city clerk. J. C. White. 

Before the close of the year Mayor Hoover 
moved outside of the city limits and I. S. 
Kaufman became acting mayor during the 
unexpired term. 

-\t the election of 1889 the following ofTi- 

THE I. -K 




cers were elected : Mayor, Fred Fiirth ; attor- 
ney, S. G. Allen ; chief of police, J. F. War- 
ren : treasurer, J. S. \\' atson : assessor, F. M. 
Spain; councilmen : First ward, F. .\. Bettis; 
Second ward, Peter Dueber: Third ward, 
A. E. Davidson: Fourth ward, Wendell Hall; 
appointments Ijy election of council superin- 
tendent of streets. M. AI. Swingler; health 
officer. Dr. Van Zandt; engineer, R. A. Jones. 
Before the close of the year H. F. Xotbohm 
was elected to fill a vacancy in the council. 

The election of 1S90 resulted as follows: 
Mayor, Charles F. Clough ; chief of police, M. 
T. Harbord; attorney, P. F. Ouinn; assessor, 
J. R. Xestor : treasurer, J. S. Watson ; coun- 
cilmen : First ward, E. C. Corev ; Second 
ward. E. J. Fellowes : Third ward E. H. 
Bartlett; Fourth ward. A. Traut. Elected by 
council; Clerk. C. O. Downing; engineer, 
Oscar Huber; ]:)olice judge. C. B. Dunning: 
superintendent of streets. M. I\I. Swingler ; 
nuisance inspector, J. S. Greiner; fire chief. 
F. B. Weinberger; superintendent of water- 
works. F. P. Weymouth ; collector and reg- 
istrer of waterworks. J. J. L. Peel. 

The election of i8gi. the first election 
after the hew charter was adopted, resulted 
as follows ; Mayor, D. B. Fotheringham ; 
comptroller, Theodore Reed ; councilmen ; F. 
P. Cook. J. F. Spiger. G. G. Ambe. F. Bald- 
win, P. Graham. H. ^\'. Greenberg, J. F. 
Lockhart. P. J. Stobach. J. D. MacLean, W. 
O. Nettleton. M. Tliompson. P. J- Stobach 
was elected by the CDuncil its first i)resident. 
Clerk, C. O. Downing: corporation counsel, 
H. E. Houghton; commissioner of police, one 
year. ^\'. H. \Viscombe; commissioner of fire, 
two years, James ^Slonaghan : commissioner of 
public works, three years. G. G. Smith. 

Rose yi. Denny was made stenographer for 
the cit}- clerk and has continued to the present 
time. Before the close of the year W. W. D. 
Turner succeeded H. E. Hough.tnn as corpora- 
tion counsel. 

The election of 1892 resulted as follows: 

Mayor. D. M. Drumheller; comptroller, W. H. 
Tyler ; councilmen : H. F. Xotbohm. E. M. 
Lownes. L. Carter. P. Steep. P. Graham. D. 
H. Dwight. A. Traut. J. T. Davie. J. A. Cur- 
rie. P. A. Patterson. C. D. Harn, M. O. Shea, 
Arthur D. Jones. C. K. Knox. F. E. Baldwin. 
F. E. Baldwin was elected president of the 
council; J. R. Rasmisson. clerk: P. 1". Ouinn. 
attorney; commissioners. J. ^[. Buckley. W. 
W. Witherspoon. James ]\h)naghan. 

At the election. May, 1893, the following 
officers were chosen : Mayor, E. E. Powell ; 
comptroller. H. W. Tyler; treasurer. J. H. 
Eardley ; assessor. L. K. Boisenault ; council- 
men : J. F. Spiger, Eugene Bertrand. J. C. 
Byrcl. O. G. Cooper, \\'alter France. D. H. 
Dwight was elected president; William Morse, 
clerk ; Mrs. Rose M. Denny, stenographer. 
Appointments; commissioner. Frank Kizer: 
engineer. J. W. Strack; corporation counsel, 
Frank T. Post; judge of municipal court. E. 
J. Fellowes ; chief of police. Peter Mertz ; chief 
of fire department, F. B. Winebrenner; super- 
intendent of streets, John Kitto ; superintend- 
ent of waterworks. F. P. Weymouth ; engin- 
eer. J. W. Strack; health officer. (]. T. Doo- 

Afayor for 1894. 1895. 1896, H. X. Belt. 

The officers for 1895 were as follows; 
Mayor. H. X. Belt; comptroller. George A. 
Liebes ; treasurer, A. G. Ansell ; corporation 
counsel. James Dawson ; judge municipal 
court. Eugene Miller ; clerk municipal court. 
E. J. Fellowes; chief of police, P. Mertz: chief 
of the fire department. F. B. Winebrenner; 
citv clerTx. William ]Morse: stenographer, Mrs. 
Rose M. Denny; city engineer. U. B. Hough; 
superintendent of streets. W. R. Marvin : su- 
perintendent of water works, W. \\'. Wither- 
spoon: board of health. A. F. iSlacLeod, M. 
D.. H. G. :\rauzey. M. D.. D. Mason. M. D. : 
health officer. W. \\'. Potter. M. D. Chy 
commissioners : President board of pubhc 
works, W. W. Witherspoon; president board 
of police commissioners. W. R. Marvin: pres- 



ident board of fire commissioners, Frank Kizer. 
Councilmen : President of the council, J. F. 
Spig'er; First ward. Lewis 'rhom])siin. J. F. 
Spiger; Second ward. R. S. Oakley: E. Ber- 
trand ; Third ward, J. M. Conistock : J. C. 
Byrd; Fourth ward, (). II. Anger. (). (i. 
Cooper: Fifth ward, J. A. Long. Walter 

The officers for 1896 were as follows: 
Mayor. H. N. Belt; comptroller. C.eorge A. 
Liebes ; treasurer, A. G. Ansel!; corporation 
counsel, W. H. Plummer; judge municipal 
court, Eugene Miller; clerk municipal court, 
E. J. Fellowes; chief of police. William Havv- 
tliorne; chief of fire department. I". B. Wine- 
hrenner; city clerk. L. P'rank Boyd; stenog- 
rapher, Mrs. Rose M. Denny; city engineer. 
Otto A. Weile; superintendcnl of slreels, 
W. H. Wiscombe; superintentlenl of water 
works, Frank Kizer; board of health, .\. 1'". 
:\IacLeod, M. D.. E. D. Olmstead, M. D.. D. 
Mason, M. D. ; health ofiicer. W. W. Potter, 
M. D. City commissioners : President board 
of inil)lic works. Frank Kizer; president b(jar(l 
of police commissioners. W. 11. Wiscombe; 
president board of fire commissit)ners, A. F. 
Gill. Councilmen : President f)f the council, 
J. ;M. Comstock; First ward, Lewis Thompson, 
C. H. Bungay; Second ward, R. S. Oakley, I). 
K. Oliver; Third ward. J. M. Comstock. J. 
A. Schiller; Fourth ward, O. H. Anger, W. 
PI. Acuff; Fifth ward, J. A. Long, C. B. 

The following were the officers for 1897: 
Mayor, E. D. Olmstead ; comptri>ller, George 
A, Liebes ; treasurer, W. S. McCrea ; corpora- 
tion counsel, A. G. .\very ; judge municipal 
court, Eugene Miller; clerk municipal court, 
A. .S. Dibble ; chief of police, Joel !•". Warren ; 
chief of fire department, A. H. Myers; city 
clerk. L. Frank Boyd ; official stenogra])her. 
Mrs. Rose M. Denny; city engineer. Otto .\. 
^^'eile : superintendent of streets. C. R. Brown; 
superintendent of water wurks. F. P. Wev- 
mouth; board of health. C. S. Penfield, M. D., 

(;. W. Libby. :\1. D., E. L. Kimball. M. D. ; 
health officer. W. W. Potter. M. D. : city libra- 
rian. Miss lunnia Driscnll: City commis- 
sioners: 1 'resident board of public works, 
!•". P. Weymouth: president of board of i)olice. 
C. R. Burns; president of the board of fire 
commissioners. J. T. MacLean. Councilmen: 
President of the council, J. !M. Comstock; 
First ward, C. S. Rutter, C. H. Bungay; Sec- 
ond ward, J. N. Glover, D. K. Oliver; Third 
ward, J. M. Comstock, J. A. Schiller; Fourth 
ward, J. D. Plinkle, W. H. Acuff; Fifth ward, 
J. S. Phillips, C. B. Dunning. 

The following are the city officials for 
1899-1900: Mayor, J. M. Comstock: comp- 
troller, Victor M. Smith ; treasurer, J. J. 
j White ; city clerk, L. F. Boyd ; official stenog- 
rapher, Mrs. Rose ^L Denny; corporation 
counsel, A. G. Avery; police justice. H. L. 
Kennan; chief of police, W. W. Witherspoon; 
chief of fire de])artment, .\. II. Myers: city en- 
gineer, Otto .\. Weile; health officer. Dr. W. 
W. Potter. City Commissioners : President 
board of commissioners. W. K. Holmes; pres- 
ident board of public works and superintendent 
of uater works I-". P. Weymouth; president 
board of police commissicjners. street commis- 
sioner and building inspector, W .K. Holmes;, 
president board of fire commissioners, purchas- 
ing agent and secretary of commissioners, 
Robert E. Clark. Weymouth will serve one 
year from May, 1899; Holmes two years, and 
Clark three years. Deputies and assistants;. 
Deputy comptroller. R. B. Glass ; deputy treas- 
urer, Thomas H. Jones, Jr.; deputy city clerk, 
Mrs. Rose .\1. Denn\-; assistant corporation 
counsel. V. M. Dudley; assistant corporation 
counsel, T. D. Rockwell ; assistant corporation 
comisel (stenographer). James O. Cull; as- 
sistant city engineer. E. L. Gerrish ; registrar 
water office. Iv J. I'ellowes; assistant regis- 
tnir water office. II. C. Lynde: cliief engineer 
water works. R. E. Melline; engineer city hall 
and boiler inspector. Charles J. Vedder; clerk 
of police court, Fred S. Kom; stent)grapher 



city commissioners, ^Mrs. Kathryn Brown: 
janitor city hall, I. A. Oien ; janitor city hall. 
J. C. Krowell. 


During the early history of the city the duty 
ol preserving" peace and order was thrown 
upon the marshal. Mr. E. B. Hyde proved 
himself an efticient officer in that capacity. 

The amended charter provided for a chief 
of police, to he elected hy the people, and the 
first elected one was Joel F. Warren. He was 
followed hy JM. (j. Harhord. Under the new 
charter the office of chief of police became an 
appointive one, and the first one to fill it under 
the new regime \\'as Peter Mertz. 

An ordinance passed Feliruarv 4. 1896, 
says : 

Tlie City of Spokane does ordain as fol- 
lows : 

The police force of the City of Spokane 
shall consist of a chief of police, a captain of 
police and twenty men. 

Two of said policemen shall act as jailers, 
one dinging the night and one during the day, 
and shall he required to he on duty twelve 
hours, and in addition to their duties as jailers 
shall also perform the duties now done by ser- 
geants of police : the chief of police and cap- 
tain of police shall be ref|uired to work twelve 
liours as a day's work, and must render to the 
jailers such assistance as may be needed to en- 
able said jailers to discharge their duties; the 
chief of police shall also perform tlie duties 
now performed by the license inspector; pro- 
vided, the board of police shall have power to 
appoint three regular specials to take the ])lace 
of policemen who may be absent and to act in 
cases when it is necessary to have an extra po- 
liceman, said regular specials to be paid only 
for actual time employed. 

As amended fiy ordinance No. A646, passed 
May 12, 1896. 

In cases of emergency the mayor may ap- 
point such special policemen as he may deem 

necessary, which appointment must be in writ- 
ing and filed in the office of the city clerk. 

Chief Mertz was succeeded by William 
Hawthorne, and he by J. F. Warren. 

The present officers of the police depart- 
nicni. with headquarters at cUy hall, are: 
Chief, W. W. Witherspoon; Captain, James 
Coverly; Desk Sergeant, George H. Hollway; 
Patrol Sergeant, John T. Sullivan. The Chief 
of Police is also license inspector. Day Jailor, 
William C. Smith, 3. Night Jailor, B. D. 
Brockman, i. Detectives, D. D. McPhee, 8; 
Alexander McDonald, 15; E. J. Caffrey, 24. 
Drivers patrol wagon, ^V. H. Lewis, W. D. 
Freeman. Patrolmen. Regular, J. B. Dunn. 2 ; 
li. C. Roft, 4 ; William Shannon, 5 ; D. J. Shee- 
han, 6; R. A. Wilson, 7; D. J. McMillan, 9: W. 
D. Nelson, 10; T. M. Lothroy, i i : J. F. Mc- 
Dermott. u: William Weir. 13; T. D. Hern- 
don, 14; J. D. Brusch, 16. Patrolmen, Regu- 
lar Special. R. T. Briley. 19: .\. L. Smith, 20: 
J. W. Willis, 21 ; James C. Stuart. 22: William 
L. Camp, 2^ ; Paul L, Buchholz, 2^ ; .V. H. Fos- 
ter, 26; P. C. J. Peterson. 2j : Martin J. Burns. 
28: II. W., 29: G. G. Miles. 30; .Alex- 
ander Mclnnis, 31; T. H. Casey, 7i2: H. .\. 
Slotko, 33 ; W. R. Fairfield. 34; C. D. Harmon. 
T,-:,: J. R. Stoddard, 36; C. F. \\'alker. J. M. 
Pike. H. R. Woodard. Bicycle Patrolman, 
loel .S. Plindman. Dog Catcher. Louis Cole- 
man. Stock P(jliceman, Walter Lawson. 
There are forty men on the police force now. 


.\s earlv as 1884 a local company under- 
took to put in a Holly water system. But lack 
of funds brought the enterprise to a standstill 
after the pipes were on the ground. In the 
emergency a number of enterprising and gen- 
erous citizens came to the rescue and guaran- 
teed the necessary means to complete the work, 
which was done. The Echo Mill supplied the 
power. In the following spring the plant was 
purchased by the city, and those who had ad- 
vanced money to complete the system were re- 



imbiirsed. The Echo Mill continued to supply 
the power until the "great fire." After that 
the pumping house on Cannon Island was built 
and continued to supply the power until the 
present water system came into operation. 

A city ordinance dated Oct. 4, 1899, says: 
The City of Spokane Falls does ordain as 
follows : 

Section I. That a department is hereby 
created for the purpose of the management of 
the water works of the city, and all matters 
appertaining thereto, to be called the Water De- 
partment of the City of Spokane Falls. 

Sec. 2. The officers and employees of said 
department shall consist of a superintendent of 
the water department, an engineer, and two as- 
sistant engineers of the water works, a register 
.and collector of water rates, and such other 
employees as may be necessary for the efficient 
working of the said department; which said 
employees shall be provided for as the neces- 
sity therefor may arise, by a resolution or ord- 
inance of the city council. 

Sec. 3. The superintendent of the water 
-department shall ha\-e full charge, subject to 
the orders of the city council, of the entire con- 
.structed water system of the city, and shall have 
control and direction of the ofiicers and em- 
ployees herein provided for. 

Spokane can boast of a first-class water ' 
system of its own, which has cost nearly a mil- 
lion dollars. The supply is taken from the 
Spokane river at a point three miles above the 
city. The source of the ri\-er is Lake Coeur 
d'Alene, which is fed liy melting snow on the 
mountains and innumerable springs. The 
water is clear, pure and almost free from lime. 
The macliinery and puiups are operated by 
water ptiwer of large capacity. In order to 
secure a sufficient head of water, a dam with 
massive abutments of granite was constructed. 
The power created is four thousand eight hun- 
dred horse-jjower. F(.iur high pressure punijjs 
are used with, a capacity of fourteen and a 
lialf million gallons per day. There are fiftv 

miles of water mains laid, the largest being 
twenty-four inches, and the smallest six inches. 
The hvdrants number four hundred and forty, 
and are of the most improved pattern. The 
present system was completed March i, 1896, 
and has been constantly extended from that 
time til the present with corresponding increase 
of receipts. In 1899 an additional twenty-four- 
iuch force main was laid from the pumping 
station to a connection with the distributing 
system on the nortii side of the river, with such 
arrangement of cross connection and valves at 
pumi)ing station that all the pumps can be dis- 
charged into either main providing a break 
siiould occur, practically duplicating the sys- 
tem. Mr. V. P. Weymouth is the president of 
the board of iniblic works, which makes him 
superintendent of water works. He has filled 
the position since 1889. e.xcepting the years 
1895-6. There are three men in charge of the 
pumjMng station, three in the office and one 
outside called lineman. 

\\'e submit herewith the superintendent's 
last year report : 

The total cash receipts of the city water 
system for the year 1899 amounted to $101,- 


The ordinary operating expenses of the 
plant during the year were as follows : 

Pay roll $6,742. 14 

Material 839.56 

Total $7,581.70 

The ordinary repairs during the year 
amounted to the following figures: 

Pay roll $1,791.41 

Material 522.66 

Total $2,314.07 

Against the revenues of the system, 
amounting to more than $100,000, there is 
charged less than $10,000 for operating ex- 
penses and repairs. 

In addition to the receipts, amounting to 
$101,915.85, the city has had free of cost all 



the water that is needed for municipal purposes 
and in the pubHc school buildings. 

"Reckoned on the price charged at Port- 
land, or what the city would have to pay if the 
plant were owned hy private parties, the water 
used for municipal purposes would cost the city 
$25,000,'" said Mr. Weymouth. 

The cost of raising the water pipe on How- 
ard street and putting the street into proper 
condition for paving was $1,674.88. 

A large part of the revenue from the water 
department has been used in extending the 
water system about the city. All of the money 
thus expended will result in increased revenues 
each year. More than nine miles of new pipe 
were laid during 1899 at a cost of $83,445.14. 
The size of the pipe laid was as follows : 

24-inch (from the pumjiing station to 

the city) 20,362 

12-incli 2,278 

lo-inch 1,540 

8-inch 7,119 

6-inch 16,108 

4-iii'--li 793 

Total 48,200 

The tdtal amount of water consumed !)}• the 
people of Spokane during the year 1899 was 
2,427,132,391 gallons. 

The numljer of gallons pumped into the city 
system each month of last year was as follows: 

January 169.365,900 

February 167,131,625 

March 163,126,315 

April 760,895,900 

May 208,797,644 

June 177,408,089 

July 284,457,613 

August 260,593,872 

September 237,901,763 

October 213,002,350 

November 191,703,380 

December 192,747,940 

Total 2,427,132,391 

The interest paid by the city for the year 
1899 on the $350,000 issue of water works 
bonds amounted to $20,250. And in addition, 
a $9,000 ]:)ayment was made on the principal. 
Each year the payment on the principal will be 
ir.creased $1,000 and the interest will be de- 
creased in the same proportion, $10,000 having 
been paid within the last two (jr three weeks as 
the January payment. The principal has now 
been reduced to $323,000. 

The cost of the pumping station up the 
river was placed at $888,000 in the inventory 
last June. The plant is not mortgaged except 
in an indirect way. The city has pledged the 
revenues to be derived therefrom to pay the 
interest and principal on the $350,000 "Frost"' 
issue of warrants, agreeing not to reduce the 
gross receipts from that department until all 
the principal and interest shall have been fully 

On the two earlier water bonrl issues, ag- 
gregating $570,000, the interest is being met 
annually by general taxation and is paid from 
the "interest on bonds" fund. The principal 
of the $70,000 issue will have to be met in 
1908. The principal of the $500,000 issue will 
have to be met in 191 1. Provision will be 
made in two or three years for a sinking fund 
to meet the principal of these and other gen- 
eral bond issues. 

Superintendent, F. P. Weymouth; regis- 
trar, E. J. Felluwes; assistant registrar, H. 
C. Lvnde : chief engineer, R. E. ]vleline : line- 
man, A. C. Raymond; assistant lineman., 
James List(in. 


The first one was voluntary and unpaid. 
As early as July, 1884. a meeting was called for 
the purpose of devising some m.eans whereby 
fire apparatus could be obtained for the city. 
A committee was appointed to ascertain the 
number of hydrants required in the city. The 
committee was also requested to inquire re- 
o-arding terms for furnishing hose, fire-plugs. 



and hose carts. On October i, 1884, took place 
the first reading of an ordinance amending an 
ordinance creating a fire department for the 
City of Spokane Falls. Rescue Hose No. i 
and Spokane Hose No. 2 were accepted and 
made a part of the fire department of the City 
of Spokane Falls. On June 10, 1885, F. M. 
Dallam was appointed by the mayor chief en- 
gineer of the Spokane Falls fire department, 
and was confirmed by the council. 

The city council passed an ordinance Au- 
.gust 22. 1893, as follows: 

A department of the city government is 
herel)v created and esta1)lished, to he known as 
"The Fire Department of the City of Spokane." 

Section 2. The officers of said department 
shall consist of one chief of the fire department 
and one assistant chief of the fire department, 
who may be selected from among the eiuployecs 
of the department, and in such case he shall 
remain on duty the same as an employee of the 
department. The department shall have such 
other officers as may from time to time be pro- 
vided by ordinance. The chief of the fire de- 
partment shall be the executi\-c officer of the 
fire department. He shall devote his exclusive 
attention to its interests and sliall engage in no 
■ other business. 

Scctiiiii 3. The eiu]>loyees of said depart- 
ment shall consist of one chief of the fire de- 
partment, one assistant chief of the fire depart- 
ment, four captains five foremen, three engin- 
eers, three stokers, tweh'e drivers, ten hose- 
wen. five truckmen and one electrician, who 
shall remain on duty at all times both day and 
night, suljject to the orders of the chief of tlie 
fire department, and who shall sleep at the en- 
gine and hose houses (;f the department. 
Other and further employees may be provided 
for from time to time by ordinance. 

Section 4. It shall be the duty of the board 
of fire coiuniissioners to assign the eni])lovecs 
to duty with tlie \'arious engines, hose carts 
and hook and ladder trucks belonging to the 
city, and he shall keep a book in which shall be 

entered the name of each officer and employee, 
the date and character of his employment, his 
nationality, age at the time of his employment, 
whether married or unmarried, and in case of 
his discharge or discontinuance in service, date 
and cause thereof. He shall also keep an entry 
in said book of the duty to which each employee 
is assigned. 

The department at present is well equipped 
and thoroughly efficient and growing more 
and" more so year by year. It operates a tele- 
grai)h and telephone fire alarm system from 
forty-two boxes. It has twelve thousand feet 
of hose, twenty-nine horses and harnesses. 

Rolling stock. — One second-class Silsby 
steam fire engine; two third-class Silsby steam 
fire engines ; one service truck ; one Prescott 
-Aerial turntable truck, .seventy-five feet ; one 
double eighty-gallon Champion chemical en- 
gine; one doul)le fifty-gallon Holloway chemi- 
cal engine; three four-gallon combination 
chemical and hose ; two hose wagons ; two 
chief buggies ; one sujjply wagon ; one old hose 
in reserve. 

The personnel of the fire department is as 
follows: Head(|uarters, Annex City Hall, 
northeast corner Howard and Front avenue. 
A. H. Myers, chief; John L. Phillips, assistant 
chief; .Albert F. Thielman, electrician; J. A. 
I'hillips, secretary. 

Station No. i — 418 First avenue, H. J. 
Alartin, captain ; William R. Brown, foreman ; 
A[. \V. Jones, driver; L. G. Alecks, F. H. 
Alarsh, C. A. DeSpain. T. E. Shannon, E. AI. 
Hooper, truckmen. 

Station No. 2 — Corner Indiana avenue and 
Standard, John F. Lindsey, captain ; II. A. 
Traugber, foreman ; Carl Partridge, J. E. 
Moriarity, drivers; E. F. Demmons, F. 
Thompson, J. R. Demerchant. D. W. Travis, 

Station Xo. 3 — Monroe, southwest corner 
Sharp a\cnue, W. FI. Jovce. ca])tain : William 

Boyle, engineer: J. Goodwin, stoker: 

Peter, driver of engine; H.C. Gillette, dri\er 



of hose wagon; Jolm Lynch and R. M. IMac- 
Lean, pipemen. 

Station No. 4 — First a\-enue, nortliwest 
corner Adams, J. R. Yingst. captain; John 
Crowley, Walter A. Chisholm, drivers; J. C. 
Bennett, engineer; B. F. Tilsley, stoker; J. F. 
Grant. J. Trezona, J. F. Downey, W. C. Rus- 
sell, pipemen. 

Station No. 5 — Annex City Hall, Howard, 
northeast corner Front avenue, M. Dolan, cap- 
tain ; H. A, ]\Ier(), foreman hook and ladder 
company: D. C. Collins, foreman hose com- 
pany; J. M. Sulivan, R. M, Waller, A. L. 
Weeks, H. K. Taylor, J. W. Fitzgerald, E. 
W. Puckett. truckmen : W. R. Brown, engin- 
eer; G. T. Sanders, stoker; J. N. Chisholm, 
T. McMahon, A. J. Cartwright. H. Keenan, 
J. H. Burton, drivers; H. N. Farr, M. F. 
Ryan, J. [NI. Edmison, H. F, Snamiska. Will- 
iam Schulenberg, pipemen. 

In the selection of firemen an effort is made 
to ha\-e \'arious trades represented. There are 
on the force at present harness makers, wag- 
onmakers, carpenters, blacksmiths, plumbers, 
painters, wheelwrights and engineers who are 
utilized as far as practicable. There are six- 
ty-three men on the force. The cost of repairs 
for 1899 was $20,199.35. The charter provides 
for a "relief fund" connected with the depart- 
ment w herel>y the members contribute one dol- 
lar per month, to be held by the city treasurer. 
In case of sickness one dollar a day is paid 
with expenses of nurse and medicines; in ac- 
cident, two dollars a day and cost of nurse and 
medicines, and at death, se\'enty-fi\-e dollars. 
All fines go into this fund and it has accumu- 
lated to o\er three thousand dollars. 


The following report of the citv engineer 
shows the area of the city, and extent of public 

Total area of city in square miles 20.2.5 

Area of parks in acres 30.27 

Length of sewers in miles 11.10 

Miles of sewers added during past year .74 

Miles of sewers reconstructed .10 

Miles of sewers under construction .27 

Capacity of water supply by direct pressure, 

in gallons, per day 14,000,000.00 

Miles of water mains in city 47.97 

Miles of water mains added during jiast 

year 6.45 

Miles of water mains relaid ,2H 

Number of fire hydrants 406 

Number of tire hydrants added during the 

past year 25 

Length of river front suitable for manufactur- 
ing purposes, in miles 4.,50 

Fall of river in a distance of 1.2.J miles 

through the city, in feet 1.50.00 

Volume of water in Spokane at lowest stage, 

in cubic feet, per minute 120,000.00 

Length of gas mains, in miles 15.00 

Street railway, electrical, in miles 43.76 

Electrical power conductors for street rail- 
way feeders, in miles ... 9.00 

Electric light, arc conductors, in miles 99.00 

Electric light, incandescent conductors, in 

miles 22.00 

Alternating, Edison 7.00 

Capacity of electric station, in horse power. . 2,700.00 

Elevation of city above sea level 1,900.00 

Brick pavement on cement concrete 5,280 sq yds 

Asphalt pavement on cement concrete 33,600 sq yds 

Asphalt pavement on asphalt concrete 374 sq yds 

Otto A. Weile, 

City Engineer. 


The city charter says: "The city council 
shall select and aiipoint a medical health officer, 
who shall be a legally (|ualified physician, pos- 
sessed of the requisite knowledge of sanitary 
science, aufl of preventati\e medicine, to look 
after and superintend all matters pertaining to 
the health of the city, and who shall be known 
and styled the health officer, and shall have 
and exercise such power and ])erform such 
duties as shall l.)e prescril)ed b_\' the ordinances 
of the city." 

The first health officer was Dr. A. S. 
Camijl^ell. who died in this city over a decade 
ago. Subse(|uenlly the jjosition was filled 
successively by Drs. Van Zandt, C. M. Raw- 
lins. J. D. McLean. G. T. Doolittle. The 
present incumbent, being in office since 1893, 
is Dr. \\^ W. Potter. The department has 



improved in efficiency from year to year. 
The board consists of the following officers : 
Thomas -L. Catterson, IM. D., president: 
Charles S. Kalb. ^I. D.. Benjamin R. Free- 
man. i\I. D., Wallace W. Potter. Isl. D.. sec- 
retary; health officer. Wallace W. Potter; 
sanitary police. George H. Heberling, Edwin 
B. Hopkinson ; pluml)ing inspector, Edward 
Riley; bacteriologist, Harry S. Martin, M. 
D. ; chemist, Edgar B. Van Osdel. A. M. 

The last report was the seventh annual 
one printed, presenting the actual mortality, 
with enumeration of causes, annual rate per 
one thousand, sanitary inspection, report of 
plumbing inspector. 

In the report of the board of health for the 
year 1897. '^'"'^ following \-alual)le meteorolog- 
ical report was incorporated ; 

Spokane's climatic featukes. 

Considering that Spokane is situated 
within a short distance of the Canadian line 
(latitude forty-seven degrees, forty minutes 
north) at an ele\'ation of one thousand nine 
hundred and furty-three feet, and near the 
great Rockies, it has indeed a pleasant climate. 
To look at the annexed tallies giving tempera- 
ture extremes one would think it a cold and 
disagreeable climate to live in. Not so. It 
is, on the other hand, a climate which has the 
seasons pretty well defined, where the extremes 
of both summer and wiiUer are endured wiih 
less incon\-enience antl suffering than climates 
where the temperature extremes are not so 
widely separated. The mean annual tem])era- 
ture of Spokane is forty-eight degrees. In 
tracing the isotherm of forty-eight degrees 
across the continent it passes through the fol- 
lowing places; from Spokane south through 
Boise City. Idaho ; Montrose. Colorado 
■Springs and Denver. Colorado; through 
North Platte. Nebraska ; Des Moines. Iowa ; 
Chicago, Ilinois'; Kalamazoo and Detroit. 
Michigan; Ashtabula. Ohio, and on to the 
Atlantic, passing through Boston. Thus it 

will be seen that our annual mean tempera- 
ture is the same as these cities so much south 
of us. 

The winter temperatures in Spokane have, 
with the e.xception of the winter of 1895-96, 
gone below zero. During a great cold wave 
that passed o\er the Pacific northwest in Jan- 
uary, 1888. the thermometer registered thirty 
degrees below zero. This was a phenomenal 
storm. Low temperature registered every- 
where within range of the storm, as it swept 
all past records before it. In California the 
observers reporteil it the coldest in the memory 
of tile oldest settlers. There is a dryness of 
the atmosphere whicli robs the low tempera- 
tures of their horrors. When the thermome- 
ter sinks below the freezing point it is no- 
ticed how cris]) ami pleasant the air is. In 
summer the temjierature seldom reaches the 
hundred mark, but there are three years in 
which it has registered one hundred and two 
degrees, and but five years out of the sixteen 
since the weather bureau was established when 
it reached one hundred. With an altitude 
such as Spokane has. this temperature cannot 
amount to much, and even if the thermometer 
should register one hundred degrees, being a 
dry atmosphere, the heat is not felt. The 
temperature that is felt is that called by the 
weather bureau "sensible temperature." i. e., 
the temperature of the wet thermometer, or a 
thermometer which has the bulb covered with 
muslin, and having been wetted, is allowed 
to cool as much as possible by evaporation. 
On some of the hottest days, when the tem- 
jierature reaches the hundred mark, the sen- 
sible temperature would only be sixty to sev- 
enty-two degrees. Following these warm 
waves the nights are cool, and refreshing 
sleep, something unknown under eastern skies, 
is possible under a blanket, .\nother feature 
of the climate is the absence of sudden ami 
decided falls in temperature. The variability 
of temperature — that is, the average difference 
in mean temjierature from one dav to an- 



otlier covering a long periocl — is a1x)ut three 
and seven-tenths degrees, proving that the 
changes are wrought moderately. 

The evenness of the winter temperature 
is noteworthy. In Decemher and January 
the mean daily average ( axerage tlifference 
between the highest and lowest) is hut ten 
degrees, while for long periods, say for a 
week or ten days, there is scarcely enough 
difference to give decided maximum or mini- 
mum for the day. An instance of this was 
noted recently, when ivnm Decemher 14 to 
20 the greatest difference was only nine de- 
grees, while the greatest difference for the 
first twenty-one days of the UKinth was eight- 
een degrees. These are winter figures, when 
persons subject to rheumatism, pneunnjuia. 
etc., would be seriously affected by sudden 
or marked changes. 

The march of the seasons is well defineil. 
When spring comes winter can be bade adieu ; 
from spring to summer is a mild step, and 
from thence on to autumn and winter the 
change is moderate and ])ermanent — n(jt a 
cold wax'e to-day and a hot one to-morrow. 

The most noticeable change in temperature 
is characteristic of this entire region, that of 
the "Chinook" wind: and fortunately it is 
always a change for warmer weather coming 
in the winter .season. In the coldest winter 
months, when the ground is covered with 
deep snow in jjlaces. a "Chinook" visits us. 
and before we realize it, all the snow has melted 
and gone. The strangest feature of the Chinook 
is the comparative absence of water from the 
melting snow. This peculiar wind seems to 
h.ave the i)ower of carrying the water as it goes. 

The pre\ailing winds in this section are 
those from the southwest <|uadrant. bringing 
to us as the}' do the modifying air from the 
ocean which tempers the rigors of winter and 
the heat of summer. There is an absolute 
al)sence of cyclones and tornadoes. With a 
record extending back to the winter of 1880- 
81. there has never been a wind of greater 
velocity in Spokane than f(jrty-eight miles jjcr 
hour, or what might be called a "fresh gale."' 
There are few points in the United States 
with a similar altitude and si_) low maximum 
wind \elocity as S])okane. Days and weeks 
frequently pass with a velocity of not o\er five 
or six miles per hour, and the average hourly 
velocit}' for the past sixteen years is only four 
and nine-tenths miles. 

The most valual)le feature of Spokane cli- 
mate is the equal distribution of preci])itation 
throughout the year. There is an entire ab- 
sence of "wet seasons" and "dry seasons" in 
this section. The greater portion of the ])re- 
ci])itation falls, of course, in the winter months. 
.And there is but one month in the past six- 
teen \'ears when rain has not fallen in .Sjxi- 

This distribution of moisture throughout 
the is extremelv \alualjle. irrigation be- 
ing unnecessarv : no "wet" ov "dry" seas(.)n to 
contend with, or consider when looking for- 
ward to a season's yield. In wmter snow falls 
in varving de])ths. .\t times there is \-ery little 
or none on the ground. During December 
there was no snow in sight, except on the far 
dkstant mountain summit, a "Chinook" hav-- 
ing carried it away. 




Spokane possesses sucli unusual facilities 
in all lines of manufacture that it makes it nal- 
•urally the industrial center of the great "In- 
land Empire." The almost unparalleled water- 
power, with seven railroads, are advantageous 
features that especially invite those desirous 
'of establishing industrial enterprises. Al- 
ready such institutions are numerous. 

"Sp(jkane has mer three hundred manu- 
facturing and industrial cnncerns. The lead- 
ing industries are Hour, lumber, lirick, tiling 
and putterv, beer, paint, snap, brooms, crack- 
ers, meat packing, cigars and iron castings. 
Among the minor industries are artificial liml) 
manufacturers, awning and tent manufacturers, 
.book binderies, box maunfactmx'rs, cider and 
vinegar manufacturers, cottin manufacturers, 
■electric lights, electrotypers, hat makers, jew- 
elry manufacturers, mattress mantifacturers, 
marble works, cabinet manufacturers, candy 
manufacturers, car[)et weavers, l)ook and job 
printers, shingle mills, sawmills, sash and door 
factories, trunk factories, .\ddetl to these are 
blacksmith shops, harness shops, taxidermists, 
laundries, sheet metal workers, artificial stone 
makers, merchant tailors and shoemakers." 

A full descrijjtive treatment of all wnuld 
fill a \\)lume, therefore condensation is impera- 

Union Inm Works. — It is gratifying to the 
eye and business sense to note the thoroughly 
complete and well appointed foundry and ma- 
chine shops of the Union Iron Works, which 
occupv about two acres of gnjund in Heath's 
addition, having their i_iwn side tracks on the 
jnain line of the S. F. & X. Railway. 

Established in 1889, the concern kept pace 

with the local conditions of this section, and 
built up a prosperous trade, notwithstanding 
the loss of the entire plant by fire in 1894. 
The present showing, however, dates from 
September, 1898. when some of the leading 
capitalists. seeing an opportunity offered for in- 
vestment, bought a control, re-organized the 
company witii increased capital, and at the 
same time purciiased the plant and good will of 
the Reid Machine Company. The present 
commodious fire-proof buildings were erected 
and stocked with tiie newest machinery and 
modern equipment, as well as large supplies of 
raw material tiirect from the mills and fur- 
naces for manufacture. 

A good ixjrtion of the trade of the great 
mining country adjacent, whicii hitherto was 
forced to go elsewhere, is now iiandled satis- 
factorily here, and some idea of tiie magnitude 
of the business can l)e gathered from the fact 
that the average number of men employed in 
1899, per month, were seventy Iiands, and the 
running expenses about two hundred and fifty 
dollars per day. a mighty factor to the credit 
of Spokane's numerous enterprises. 

1 he concern since their estal)lishnient can 
point tt) many ornaments of their handiwork, 
having furnished the iron and steel used in the 
erection of many of the prominent buildings, 
not alone in Spokane, but in Walla Walla. Col- 
fax, Lewiston, Moscow, Wallace, Wardner, 
Xelson, Rossland and many of the outer pros- 
perous towns in Washington, Idalio, Mon- 
tana and British Columbia ; and it is a matter 
of local ])ride that some of the huge, as well as 
delicate, machinery, including condensers, 
osmogenes. strainers, mi.xers. beet wheels, gas 
washers, etc., for tiie Washington State Sugar 




Refinery, at \\"a\-erly. \\ere made here, in com- 
petition witli eastern and foreign manufacturers. 

The firm is making a specialty of mining 
maciiinery. and builds engines, boilers, ore 
crushers, hoists, horse whims, hand hoists, 
pulleys, sawmill and smelter supplies, etc., and 
the stock of standard patterns, which have 
been accumulating, and which were gathered 
at a great cost, enable them to distance all 
competitors, and scarcely anyone cares to enter 
the field against them. 

The officers of the company are : E. J. 
Roberts, president: .\ustin Corl.iin. second vice- 
president : J. M. Fitzpatrick, secretary and 
treasurer ; C. H. Prescott, superintendent ; 
H. E. AlcCamy, assistant superintendent; 
and their di)\vn town office is located at 301 
Hyde Building. 

National Iron Works — This is one of the 
oldest and most important industries of its 
kind in the "Inland Empire." It was organ- 
ized in 1887 and began operation at its pres- 
ent location, Havermale Island, or 501 How- 
ard street. J. H. Boyd is president and man- 
ager, and is thoroughly ecpiipped for his busi- 
ness. The pluck and energy of the manager 
was evidenced something like a }ear ago in 
the speedy rebuilding of the plant. They 
manufacture gasoline and steam engines, boil- 
ers, elevators, architectural iron works, quartz 
mills and crushers, concentrators, ore cars, 
buckets and general and mining machniery. 
They are also engaged in general repairing of 
.every description. 

The location is most central and the water- 
power is all that could be asked for. The 
National Iron Works are favorably known iKjt 
only in this city, but all through the surround- 
ing country to Idaho, Montana and British 

There are thirty-five men employed at the 
present time, and the moving machinery and 
the activity on all hands indicate prosperity. 

Spokane Iron Works, Engineers, Found- 
ers and Machinists, Builders, Mining, Milling 

and Smelting Machinery — This industry was 
started the first of September, 1899, '^y Messrs. 
George M. Hull and Charles Walton, in the 
building formerly occupied by the Reid Ma- 
chine Company, on the Big, or Havermale Is- 
land. The premises occupied consist of a 
building 8o.x8o, supplied with modern ma- 
chines and appliances, with water motive 
power, and ten men are emiiloyed. 

Sp<ikane Foundry — This industry was 
started at its present location, E. 1402 Sprague 
avenue, over two years ago. The proprietors 
are H. A. Klein and C. Frahm. and they manu- 
facture chilled plow-shares, furnaces, portable 
French and family ranges, stove supplies, 
dutch ovens, kettles, boxes and collars, sled- 
sh(jes, couplings and flanges, grates and wash- 
ers, sash-weights, lintels and plates. They 
employ six men and find abundant market in 
the city. The foundry will soon be removed 
from its present location, which is leased 
ground, a few blocks south on Third avenue 
on land owned by the company. 

Northern Pacific Shops — This is the larg- 
est industry in Spokane. Until 1896 the 
Northern Pacific shops for this division were 
at Sprague. During that \ear the plant was 
burnetl. which was the occasion for the re- 
moval of the same to Spokane. During the 
year above mentioned extensive stone shops 
were erected. The machine shop, carpenter 
shop and round house are large ami airy. The 
supply house, where the offices are, is also large 
and con\'enient. The Northern Pacific Com- 
pany employs in this city about three hundred 
men, and the payroll amounts to over one 
thousand dollars a day. Frederick \\\ Gil- 
bert is the division superintendent, and Wil- 
liam Moir the master mechanic. 

Water Power — An eminent engineer who 
made a careful study of Spokane water power 
had this to say : "Tiie city of Spokane is sit- 
uated <jn the eastern margin of the broad 
Washington prairie. This prairie has an an- 
nual rainfall of abount twenty inches, but the 



water shed of the river above the falls is 
chiefly a mountainous area sloping toward the 
west. These mountain slopes condense more 
moisture borne by the prevailing westerly 
winds from the Pacific ocean than the plain. 
The depth of the annual rain upon the water- 
shed of the river may safely be estimated as 
averaging twenty-four inches for the whide 
year. This water-shed embraces part of 
Washington, part of Idaho and a small area 
of Montana, and measures about four hundred 
and fifty square miles. The beautiful Coeur 
d'Alene lake in Idaho receives the greater part 
of this drainage from the St. Mary's. St. Jos- 
eph's and Coeur d' Alene rivers, and it acts as 
a vast storage reservoir to equalize the flow of 
tlie river during the entire year, stirring up 
the vast volume of water brought down by 
the melting snow in the spring to feed the 
flow of the river during the succeeding months 
when the rainfall on the lower part of tiie 
water-shed is very light. This lake has an 
area of about sixty-nine square miles, accord- 
ing to the survey of Lieutenant Hayden, of 
the United States Army, and this natural stor- 
age is a very important factor in determining 
the value of the water power of the Spokane 
river. Should the time come when the de- 
mand for power exhausts that which now can 
be supplied by the present low-water flow of 
the river, a dam placed across the mouth of 
the lake would greatly increase its storage 
capacity and add tcj the low-water fl(nv of the 
river, increasing its volume very materially. 
The water-power (_)f Spokane has natural di- 
visions made by the several islands occurring 
in the stream, thus making the developing of 
the water power a \ery easy proposition, and 
also distributing to [jower sites (jver a large 
area of territory, giving ample space for the 
construction of mills and factories which use 
the power." 

At present the minimum flow of water, 
low water, furnishes thirty thousand horse- 
power, yet the testimony of t!ie e.xpert re- 

ferred to shows that it can be douliled. whicii 
means much. 

Tlie horse-power which has made Minne- 
apolis famous as a manufacturing city, grow- 
ing two hundred thousand inhabitants, 
is only about twenty thousand. The adapta- 
tion of the Spokane river to utilization tlie year 
round is remarkable. The falls are divided 
into three sections. The first falls fourteen 
feet in a run of four hundred feet. Then the 
river is dividetl into two almost equal size 
channels by Havermale island, but the opera- 
tions of the Great Northern Railroad seem to 
narrow tlie south channel. At the lower end 
of the said island, which is about a quarter of 
a mile in length, are three other small islands 
which divide the river into five channels. To 
the foot of Havermale Island the river falls 
about sixty-five feet, and below the smaller 
islands the river becomes one channel again, 
and rushes on, and in a few hundred feet takes 
its final plunge of over seventy feet. Water 
power already developed is about ten thousand 
horse power. Careful estimates have been 
made showing that the cost of the develop- 
ment of one thousand horse power would be 
eighty-one thousand, fixe hundred (k)llars. and 
the interest on this investment with annual ex- 
pense of maintaining and operating the same 
would be eighteen dollars and fifty-three cents 
per horse power per year. 

The cost of developing five thousand horse 
power on a fall of seventy feet would be one 
hundred and sixty-se\en thousand dollars, the 
annual interest included would be ten dollars 
antl fifty cents per h(jrse power. For twenty 
thousand hcirse power the cost of operating 
would be ten di illars per horse power per year. 
Compare this with the average cost of steam, 
which is not less than fifty dollars per horse 
power annually. 

Edison Electric Illuminating Company — 

This is the largest patron of the water power. 

The station is located at the foot of the lower 

, falls and is a massive building alive with in- 



tricate machinery. This is one of the great- 
est water power stations for the generation of 
electric currents in the country. In 1885 a 
few local capitalists built a small plant on the 
north side of the river running l:)y one water 
wheel. It generated enough electricity for 
twelve arc lights and three hundred incan- 
descent lights. In 1888 the Edison Electric 
Illuminating Company of Spokane Falls was 
incorporated and absorbed the old company and 
plant. They moved to the rear of the C. & C. 
mill, in the old Post mill Iniilding. and soon 
equipped eighty arc lights and twelve hundre<l 
incandescent. At the time of the great fire it 
had one hundred and thirty-fi\e arc lights and 
eighteen hundred incandescent. The loss of 
the company in the fire was great — all the 
poles being burned. The present building is 
sixty-five by one hundred and twenty feet, with 
an addition of thirty b_\' furty. The f(junda- 
tion is of heavy granite laid in Portland 
cement. It is designed to have uninterrupted 
power day and night all the year round. 
Plans and designs were prepared Ijy H. A. 
Herrick. and it was constructed under the 
superintendency of Cul. J. T. Fanney. The 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company have 
the entire lighting of the city and also furnish 
power to many of our largest plants. 

Washington Water Power Company — 
This company controls the Edison Electric Il- 
luminating Company, Spokane Street Rail- 
way Company. Spokane Electric & Ross Park 
Street Railway Company, and are the owners 
of the C. & C. Ilouring mills. It employs 
two hundred men. The ofticers of the com- 
pany are: President, H. M. Richards: first 
\'ice-president, V. Lewis Clark; second \ice- 
president, J. D. Sherwood : secretary and gen- 
eral manager, W. S. Norman: treasurer, D. 
L. Huntington : and these gentlemen crMupose 
the directorate together vrith Messrs. J. L. 
Prickett. J. W. Chapman and C. C Reeder. 

Spokane Marble Works, S. G. Frost. Pro- 
prietor, Wholesale and Retail Marble and 

Granite Dealer — This inchrstry was started 
eleven years ago by Mr. My rick. Mr. Frost 
purchased it ten years ago. It is located at 
0827 Monroe street. H. Matzke is the man- 
ager, and fi\-e men are employed. 

Washington ^Monumental and Cut Stone 
W orks — The office and works are located at 
1508 to 1530 Second avenue. The owners 
?re H. P, Sched and F, Swanson. This indus- 
try was established in 1897 at the corner or 
Howard street and Third a\-enue. They have 
quarries on Little Spokane river and on Latah 
creek, and manufacture and deal in granue 
and marble cemetery and all lines of cut 
stone work. The number of men employed 
varies from five to twenty, according to the 


King, Sash, Door & Lumber Company. — 
This company was incorporated in 1897. and 
are manufacturers of windows, doors, mould- 
ings, fixtures and all kinds of finish. The cap- 
ital is fi\e thousand dollars and factory and 
office are located at North Washington street, 
near tlie Cnion depot. The company consists 
of T. I. King, president and treasurer; Isaac 
Baum. \-ice-presi(lent; George Kienzle, .secre- 
tary. Twenty-fi\e men are employed, and the 
principal market in the city, although some 
shipping is done to other states. 

Holland-Horr M'M Comi)any, Wholesale 
and Retail Dealers in Lumber, Lath, Shingles, 
Doors. Windows, Mouldings and Mill Work. — 
The factory and lumlier yard are located on the 
corner of Gardner and ]Madison, on Boone 
street car line. The business was established 
in 1892. The members of the firm are W. T. 
Horr. ]3resident and treasurer; John Heran, 
secretary, with T. H. Holland. E. H. Horr, 
R. [. Horr and above ofticers as trustees. At 
the sawmill, located at Clayton, managed by 
Mr. Holland, twenty-five men are employed, 
and at the factory and yards, forty men. The 



company has a capital of twenty thousand dol- 
lars (paid up). Their market is Spokane ami 
vicinit)', Idaho and British Columbia. 

Washington ]\Iill Company. — They are the 
leading manufacturers of lumber, sash and 
doors, fruit boxes, and interior finish in the 
city or county. The company was incorpn- 
rated in 1892, and its present capital is seventy- 
hve thousand dollars. W. H. Acuff, president 
of the city council, is the president; G. j\I. Bar- 
line, secretary; J. C. Barline, treasurer: J. W. 
Cook, superintendent. D. Dahline is 'the fac- 
tory foreman, and George \V. Hoag yard fore- 
man. The office and factory are located on the 
corner of Cedar street and Great Northern 
Railway, and tlie sawmill at Milan, and the ag- 
gregate number employed are one hundred and 
seventy-five. The business has increased from 
year to year so that at present it is more than 
double what it was in its early history. They 
have a market all over eastern Washington — 
north, south, east and west; also in Idaho, 
Montana and British Columbia. The manu- 
facture and sale of fruit bo.xes have grown 
to great proportions, being sent in large (juan- 
tities to the Snake river country, Walla Walla, 
Portlach, Culumltia riser region and Dther 
places where fruits are handled. 

Ashenfelter Mill Comiiany. — This company 
was organized in 1S91 by H. C. Ashenfelter, 
The present owner is W. C. Ashenfelter, 
with A. Burns as superintendent. Tw-enty men 
are employed at the factory, on Pacific avenue 
and Walnut street, and nearly the same num- 
ber at the sawmill at Alilan, under the manage- 
ment of C. yi. Davis. They depend almost 
v.'holly upon home market. 

Spokane and Idaho Lumber Company, 
Dealers m and Manufacturers of Lumber, 
Lath, Shingles, Sash and Doors, Office and 
YardS.iuth 159 Adams Street. — This company 
was incorporated in 1893, and was the suc- 
cessor of Paterson & Company, which was the 
successor of the Spokane Lumber & ^lanufac- 
turing Company, (jrganized fourteen years ago 

and operating for a time on the corner of Mill 
and Railroad, until it combined with the Spo- 
kane Mill Company. .The present officers are: 
H. M. Strathern, president ; Morris Williams, 
vice-])resident : C. M. Patterson, secretary and 
treasurer. The sawmill and principal factory 
is at I'ost Falls, superintended by Mr. Strath- 
ern, where fifty persons are employed. The 
extended yards in the city, and the factory for 
finish work put in last year, which is now being 
enlarged, and number of men employed, one 
hundred in all, are indications of increasing 

Northwestern Manufacturing Company, 
Manufacturers of Bank Fixtures, Bar Fi.\- 
tures. I'uruiture, Show Cases, Grills, Stair 
Work. — This company was incori)orated and 
began to do business in 1899, with office and 
factory Madison and Northern Pacific Rail- 
road. The ])resent officers are W. M. Mc- 
\'ay, president; O. J. Jones, secretary: Will- 
iam Chilberg, superintendent, and they employ 
twenty persons and send their goods all over 
the "Inland Empire." 

The Saw-Mill PlKcnix. — This is located on 
the site and operated by the same water power 
as the old Spokane Mill Company, the history 
of which goes back to the very beginning oi 
the town. References to ft are made in other 
parts of this work. For many years while 
under the management of the late E. J. Brickel 
and others, it was the most important manu- 
facturing industry in the city. While the 
present concern is not in fact related to the 
company referred to, yet historically it is its 
successor. The present company began op- 
eration early last year and at present em- 
ploys fifty-five men. E. T. Cartier van Dissel 
is the manager. 

Central Planing Mill. — This representa- 
tive Inisiness was established seven years ago 
by Mr. Charles Russell, the jjresent propri- 
etor. The mill is situated at Bernard and 
Ferry streets and is 50x100 feet in area and 
four stories high. They manufacture doors. 



windows, sasli. Ijlinds. mnuldings, and all 
kinds of mill work. The lumher comes from 
Gray's sawmill, near Chattaroy. About one 
hundred men are employed in all and they find 
them.<^elves unable to meet the demand of the 
city trade. 

Childs Liunl>er and ^lanufacturing Com- 
pany. — The mill and lunilier yard are located 
in Heath's third addition, blocks 36 and 2,7- 
on Ermina avenue. The company was or- 
ganized December 20, 189S, and have been 
doing a lively business from the lieginning. 
They get their lumber from the sawmills on 
the Spokane Falls and Northern Railway. 
E. R. Childs is the manager. 

J. F. Se.xton & Company. — This firm was 
established under the name of Se.xton & Mer- 
ry weather in 1888. In 1 89 1 Mr. Sexton be- 
coming sole owner, the present name was 
adopted. The offices and warehouses are on 
Railroad avenue, between Mill and Post 
streets, wdiile large yards are operated on 
Pacific avenue and Maple street. The yards 
front four hundred feet on the Nortliern Pa- 
cific tracks, affording the very best transpor- 
tation facilities. ^Nlr. Sexton deals in lumber 
of all kinds, shingles, nn adding, white pine 
and cedar doors and window's, and has built 
up a good lousiness which is constantly extend- 
ing over tlie adjacent county. 

Star Shingle Company. — The mill is lo- 
cated on Oak street and Great Northern track 
and is owned by S. N. Tefft. From seven to 
ten men are employed and the wood comes 
from different points in Idaho, .\bout half 
the shingles manufactured are sold in the city, 
and the other half is shipped in car load lots 
to outside towns. 

Central Shingle Company. — Tliis mill is lo- 
cated on Havermale island, in the rear of the 
National Iron Works, and the pro])rietors are 
J. F., J. E. & J. L. Farmer — the latter being 
foreman. They began business in 1894, and 
manufacture shingles of all grades, and deal 
in shavings, firewood and sawdust. Ten men 

are employed and abundant market is fnund 
within the city. 

Spokane Collin I'actory Companv. .Manu- 
facturers of Wood and Clntb Burial Cases, 
Linings and Robes, and Jobbers of Metallics 
and Undertaker's Supplies. — The company con- 
sists of S. M., E. L. and C. E. Smith, and 
the factory is located at 914 and 916 Second 
avenue, where nine men are employed. It 
was organized in May, 1896, and the business 
has l)een extending from year to yea-r so that 
at the present time tlieir goods find a market 
all r)ver eastern Washington, Oregon, Idalu), 
Montana and British Columbia. 

G. ]\Ieese & Company. — The enterprise 
was estalilished in 1893 liy ^Messrs. INIeese and 
Colder, the present name being adopted when 
Mr. Meese became sole proprietor last Octo- 
Ijer. The premises occupied for the business 
ccmsist of tine fiom" and a basement, each of 
which is 40.x 1 00 feet in area, affording large 
acc(immodatii:)n for the immense stock of 
goods that is alwavs carried. The \\ ashing- 
ton broom factory, owned by the same firm 
and operated in the same building, is now 
making their own broom handles from timber 
raised in this section of the country, thereby 
leaving thousands of dollars at home which 
would otherwise go to the east and also giving 
employment to several men. The capacity of 
the factory is twenty xlozen of brooms per 
dav. The business is wholesale in character 
and is wide in extent, the trade covering all 
the territiirv within a radius of two hundred 
miles' of Spokane. Mr. G. Meese is sole pro- 
prietor of the business. 

The Spokane Broom Factory. — This fac- 
tory was established October 15, 1894. The 
factory is at 324 Washington street. It is 
splendidly e(|uipped with all the machinery 
necessary for the successful prosecution of the 
busiiiess. .Ml kinds of I)rooms and broom work 
are manufactured, and the productions of the 
house have now a splendid reputation and an 
immense trade, owing to their general excel- 



lence. The business extends tlirougliout east- 
ern Wasliington and Idaho. Tlie proprietors 
of this business are Messrs. Fritz Theihnan. F. 
I'". Xeitzel, A. C. Xeitzel and Joe Xeitzel. They 
employ five men, and deal with wholesale deal- 
ers in town. 

As a manufacturer of flour we now hold 
the first ])Iace west of the Rocky mountains. 
We have no rival from Alaska to Me.xico, nor 
in fact anywhere west of !Minneai)olis. As a 
flour manufacturing point we will in a few 
years go beyond every city in .\merica unless 
it may be the city just named. While it is less 
than t\vent\- years since the first flour was man- 
ufactured at this point, yet so ra])id has been 
the growth of this industry that there are now 
only seven cities in America that have a larger 
output of flour than Spokane. 

Centennial ^ililling GMii])any. — Among the 
enterprises that ha\e made Spokane famous as 
a milling centre is the abo\-e company. The 
nfills and offices are located on the corner of 
Howard street and Mallon a\-enue. Thi.s com- 
])riny was incori)orated in 1890 under the laws 
i>r W'ashingtrm. with a paid u])-capital of one 
hundred thcusand <li)llars. and fn>ni the verv 
outset has enjoyed e.\ce])tional ])ros])eritv. 
Each year has seen the Imld upon ])ublic con- 
hdence grow firmer, until to-day the patronage 
c<.nies fn>m all ])arts of Washington Idaho. 
Aiiintana and the northwest in general, and is 
still rapidly expanding. The flour mill is a 
Ine-story structure. 60x40 feet in area; the 
cereal mill is 70.X40 feet in area, five stories 
high, and the massive brick storehouse is loox 
100 feet in dimensions. .Ml modern machinery 
and appliances are sujiplied. The number of 
workmen regularly emiiloyed is thirty-fi\-e. not 
counting the extra help fre<pientlv needed. 
They manufacture the celebrated "Crjld Drop" 
l>atent and other favorite brands of llour, 
"Wheat ]\Ianna" and a host of other cereals, 
and are shijipers of grain, tlour, feed and nfil! 
stuft'. The outi)Ut of flour is se\en hundred 
barrels a da\'. and of cereals one hundred bar- 

rels a day. Islr. Moritz Thomscn is the pres- 
ident: Col. I. X. Peyton is the vice-president; 
Mr. Samuel Glasgow is secretary and treas- 
urer, and with the ])resident manages the busi- 
ness. The company has a large plant at Seattle, 
the mill having a capacity of two thousand 
barrels a day. and the flour is ship]ied to many 
foreign countries — China. Japan. Russia, Si- 
b.eria and others. 

C. & C. Mills — On this site was built the 
first flouring mill in Sjiokane, by Frederick 
Post, referred to in another chapter. Clark and 
Curtis built the C. & C. mills in 1884. but it is 
now owneil l)y the \\'ashingtoii Water Power 
Company. The Portland Flouring Mills Com- 
pany, which has nine flouring mills in all. has 
leased it for a series of years. Mr. George 
Shiel is the Spokane agent. The capacity of 
the mills is from six hundred to six hundred 
and fifty barrels a day, making one hundred and 
fifty thousand barrels this season. The brands 
manufactured are the "Plansifter." "Sui)erl)," 
"Spokane" and "C. & C." Though having an 
extended home market, the ex])ort business is 
the most im])ortant. The Post building, 
with its timl)er. is yet in good condition, 
and much of it is used for oflice ])uri)oses. Xo 
Ijetter evidence of the excellency and comjilete- 
ness of the machinery could be presented than 
the fact that the mills have been running with- 
out a sto]) for eleven months. The wheat is 
conveyed from the railroad cars to the mills in 
electric cars and emptied without handling. 
The power is perfect, and ne\er fails. Thirty 
men are employed. 

The Echo Mills. — These were the second 
flouring mills built in Spokane. The first 
building was erected by Havermale and Davis. 
It came into the possession of Benthen B. Bra- 
vinder and Albert E. Keats in 1887. The first 
building was destroyed by fire, and the present 
brick structure, costing about fifty thousand 
dollars, exclusive of machinery, was erected in 
1892. The ef|ui])ments are effual to anything 
in the Pacific northwest, and the brands of 












flour manufactured were equally popular at 
home and abroad. About two years ago com- 
plications arose that resulted in cessation of 
operation. The mills are still idle. 

Cami)bell Candy Company. Manufacturers 
of Fine Confectionery and Dealers in Nuts. 
Confectionery and Bakers' Supplies, Propri- 
etors of SpiDkane Spice Mills. Grinders of 
Pure Spices and ^Manufacturers of Celelirated 
Butterfly Baking Powder. — The proprietnrs 
are J. W. and \\ S. Campbell and they liave 
operated it fc^r six }-ears with success. The 
factory and salesroom are on Post street, be- 
tween Main and Front avenues and tlieir 
market is the city and surrounding country. 

Spokane Mattress & Upholstering Com- 
pany. — In the fall of i88g this business was 
established and from the outset has enioved 
a most libei'al patronage until to-d;i\- the trade 
comes frijin all parts of east Washington and 
neighboring states. The company manufac- 
tures mattresses, cots and wire springs, lounges 
and couches, and are jobbers of iron beds. 
Ivlr. S. L. Wood is the proprietor and the fac- 
tory is on Havermale island and supplied with 
modern machinery. Twenty men are em- 

Spokane Soaji Works. — This establishment 
is Ifjcated on Oak street and Great Northern 
track. After lieing in operati<in for sex'eral 
years it was jiurchased three years ago by B. 
L. Gordon & Company. It manufactures the 
celebrated "Smilax" soa]) and other brands. 
The capacity is twn hundred thousand pounds 
per month ;uid four men and two ladies are 
constantly employed. The gootls ha\-e a 
ready market in Washington, Idaho, Mon- 
tana an<l P.ritish Columbia. 

Sini])son & Company. — This company is 
located on the corner of First a\-enue and .\sh 
street and is engaged m the manufactiu-e of 
L'unidr}- and toilet soaps and sal soda. This 
industry started in 1894 with a capital of 
live thousand dollars. J. M. Simpson is the 
p.roprietcM" and employs three persons 'to as- 

sist him in the factory and two men on the 
road on commission. 

Gallantl-Burkc I'rewing and Malting Com- 
pany. — This company is capitalized for one 
hundred thousand dollars and has an immense 
and thoroughly equipped establishment, em- 
]iloying twenty-five persons, on Broadway 
avenue, between Post and Lincoln streets, 
overlooking the falls. It was organized in 
1S91, and the officers are: Julius Galland. 
president: Theodore Galland. secretary: 
.\dol])h Galland, treasiuTr: S;nnuel Galland. 
superintendent. The business has extended 
year by year proportionate to increase of pop- 
ulation and the i)roducts are sent at present 
not only all over Washington, but also to 
Oregon, Idaho, ^lontana and British Colum- 

.New York Brewery. — This establishmep. 
was built nearly fourteen years ago ky the 
late Rudolph Gorkow. It is located on Front 
a\-enue and Washington street and owned by 
the estate of Rudolph Gorkow. W. J. C. Wake- 
field, administrator. T\vent\' men are em- 

New York Bottling Works. — The projiri- 
etor is Adam Wicser and the location is 220 
Main a\'enue. This enterjjrise started eight 
years ago and the list of productions includes 
lieer. sarsaparill;u ginger ale. a])])le and or- 
ange cider, champagne, lemonade, cral) cider 
iind all carb-onated beverages. Fi\'e men are 

Washington Cracker Com])ar.y. — This 
company was organized in i8yi. but wa.s suc- 
ceeded by the Pacific Biscuit Company in 1899. 
The offices and factory are at the corner of 
Bernard street and I'acific avenue. Tiie build- 
ing is three stories in height and 30x122 feet. 
with a basement. The first and second floors 
are used for the manufacture of crackers, 
fancv biscuits, etc. The third lloor is used 
for candy, which is the most complete of its 
kind in tlie northwest, where all kinds of plain 
and fancv candies are manufactured, a spe- 



cialty being made of the celebrated C. C. cough 
drops. From forty to fifty people are employed. 
The quaHty of their productions is unsur- 
passed anywhere. The trade is wholesale and 
extends as far south as Boise City and north 
into British Columbia. 

Y. H. Seltenreich. — Successor to T. H. 
Palladio and Albert Harper & .Son. makers 
and repairers of high grade violins, mandolins, 
guitars, basses, etc. The business was estab- 
lished fi\e years ago at 173 South Stevens 
street, the present location. 

^^'ashington Brick, Lime & Manufactur- 
ing Company. — To this company we are in- 
debted for the beautiful Ijrick of which the 
new court house is built and also the fireproof- 
ing of its Walls and partitions. The clay 
works of the company are located at Clayton 
on the .Spokane Falls & Northern railway. 
There the comjiany not only manufactures 
beautiftd dry pressed brick but other \-ari- 
eties including red. Imff. UKitlled, etc. They 
are also the only maufacturers of a superior 
quality of fire brick which has been tested 
at the Butte smelters and highly endorsed. .\ 
few miles north nf this plant, on the Spokane 
Falls & Northern, is located the extensive lime 
plant of this company, where they manufac- 
ture the well-known "Valley Brook White 
Lime," which is marketed in eastern Wasli- 
ington, Idaho and western Montana. The 
high quality of the products of this firm is 
recognized throughout the northwest, their 
brick ha\ing been selected for the State univer- 
sity at Seattle, and several buildings in Port- 
land, Butte, .Vnac(nida and other cities. The 
offices and warehouses of this company are on 
Stevens street and the Northern Pacific track, 
where they carry a stock not only of their own 
products, l)ut of other building materials, such 
as plaster, hair, cement, etc. 

Washington Carriage Works. — This busi- 
ness, located at 414 Sprague avenue, was es- 
tablished five years ago by Mr. J. G. Hartert. 
Carriages are built and repaired and archi- 

tectural work is made a specialty. Several 
exjjert workers are employed. 

Trapschuh & Fassett, carriage makers and 
blacksmiths, corner of First and Stevens 
streets, founded their business se\en years ago. 
They do all kinds of repairing. 

The Diamond Carriage Shop, a successful 
Spokane enterprise of whicii Messrs. Luther 
Jacques and J. C. ^lountain are the progres- 
sive proprietors. — Seven years ago this Inisi- 
ness was established and it has been success- 
ful. The sliop at 822 First avenue, is 25X- 
100 feet in area. Five skilled assistants are 
employed. Blacksmitliing, horseslioeing, car- 
riage and wagon manufacturing business are 
attended to. 

Cascade Steam Laundry. — .\mong the rep- 
resentative enterprises of this kind here is the 
Cascade Steam Laundry, 911 Bridge avenue. 
Tliis business was establishetl seven years ago, 
and tlirough efficiency has liecome most pop- 
ular. The premises occupied compose a three- 
story building, 25x80 feet in area. Tliis is 
perfectly equipped, being provided with the 
kitest improved apparatus known to the in- 
dustry. Twenty-seven people are given con- 
stant employment. The proprietors are Messrs. 
.\. J. Keise, P. E. I-'isher, S. H. Freidman. 

Spokane Steam Laundry. — 'I'his business 
was established nine years ago, and is the suc- 
cessor of tlie oldest estal)lishment of the kind 
in the city. The laundry is at 401 Howard 
street Ijridge, and comprises a two-story 
building, 30x100 feet in area. The equip- 
ment is most perfect, including all the steam 
machinery and otiier improved appliances 
kncnvn. The Spokane laundry has made an en- 
\iable reputation for the general excellence of 
its work and has secured a very large patron- 
age. The proprietors are Messrs. H. M. 
^klosely and F. G. Meeks 

The Washington Steam laundry, conducted 
by ^Messrs. A. A. Hosford and James Tyra, 
was established eight years ago and by its su- 
perior work has de\eloped an immense busi- 



ness, wiiicli amounts to Ijetween two hundred 
and three hundred dollars per week. The 
laundry is at 503 Alain avenue. It is pro- 
vided with the latest improved machinery 
and appliances. 

JModel Laundry, located at 404 W. Wash- 
ington street, Henry A. Schmidt, proprietor. 
The liusiness was established in 1S99 and now 
employes four persons. 


Tlie first attempt to manufacture bricks 
ii- this city was east of j\lr. H. T. Cow- 
ley's place near Hillyard street and Sixth 
a\-enue. But the nldest brickyard miw in 
operation is that of J. T. Davie & Company, 
locatetl about three mdes southwest of Howard 
street m: the Medical Lake road. Mr. J. T. 
Davie started this brickyard twenty years ago. 
It employs during the working season about 
forty men. Very near is the brickyard of 
Triplet ^i Wallace, which started in 1886, and 
employs during the season from twenty-tive to 
tlnrty-Hve men. Both yards manufacture 
first class brick and find a ready market Utv it 
in the city. '1 he J. T. Davie Cumpany ex- 
pects to employ a larger number of men this 
coming season than at any other time before. 


The street railway system of Spokane is 
to-day doulitless etjual to that of any city (.)f its 
size in the country. It began with a horse-car 
line established l)y A. J. Ross in 18S6. Messrs. 
Holmes and Moore established the Sp(_)kane 
Caljle Com])any, which ran from Sec >nd ave- 
nue and Monroe street to Twickenham park 
in 1887. 

The first electric line to be built was liy the 
Ross Park Electric Street Railway Company, 
which was organized April 17, 1888. Tlr.s 
road was open to Ross Park in November, 
1889, wiien nearly five thousand jieople im- 
proved the opportunity to take a ride. The 
prime movers were Cyrus Bradley, G. B. Den 
nis, A. J. Ross, and I. S. Kaufman. 

The Spokane Electric Railway was estal)- 
li.shed in 1891, the road beginning at Whiting's 
addition and running south on Monroe street,, 
then along the track of the Spokane street 
Railway to Howard, and thence to Liberty 

'1 he Montrose Park Aloter Line was built 
fri:.m Ri\-erside a\-enue and Washington street,, 
to the Heights, by Francis II. Cook, in 1889. 
The line is about two miles kjng. For three 
years it was operated by a steam motor. It 
came into the possession of the ProvidentTrust 
Company in 1893 and was changed into an 
electric road. 

The City Park Transit Company, Alessrs. 
Da\id and Chester Glass, managers, built a 
hue from corner of Sprague avenue and Mon- 
roe street, half a mile beyond the northern lim- 
its of the city, in !8i)i. Early this }-ear it came 
into the possession of the Spcjkane Street Rail- 
way Company. The Arlingt(jn Heights line 
was built in 1889, and for about three years 
was operated by steam power, when it was 
aljsorbed by the Spokane Street Railway Com- 
pany, which extended the road to Hillyard. In 
1890 there were four systems in operation, 
with sixteen and a half miles of road. At 
present there are but two systems, Init the total 
mileage of railway in operation is about forty. 
.\11 lines of the Spokane Street Railway center 
at the corner of Riverside avenue and Howard 
street. New machine and car shops have been 
recently built on Boone avenue, near Jefferson 

Citv Street Improvement Company, incor- 
porated, asphalt and cement sidewalks, floors, 
drives, etc.. contractors for all kinds of street 
work, bridges and railway construction, 
whar\-es, jetties and sea walls: J. W. McDon- 
a'd, Jr.. Manager: J. S. Jackson. Superintend- 
ent. — This Company was organized in Califor- 
nia ten years ago. It Iiegan to o])erate in this 
city three years ago, and has already done con- 
considerable asphalt paving, and has a great 
deal under contract at this time. It employs 



from one hundred and fifty to two hundred 

Alcatraz Asphalt Paving Company. — This 
company organized at Los .Vngeles. Cahfornia, established in this city this year. Their 
plant is situated across the street from the N. 
P. R. R. It is now engaged in paving Stevens 
street, and has other contracts for city 

Spokane Ice Company. — About si.xteen years 
ago a man b_\' the name of Jones started 
.the ice business and hauled the commodity 
around in a wheelbarrow. Since then it has 
de\eloped to great proportions and the 
supply of ice is becoming a problem difficult to 
solve. The Spokane Ice Company began to do 
business nearly twelve years ago. and lias con- 
tinued with increasing capacitv from year ti> 
3-ear. Mr. I. B. Merrill is secretary and treas- 
urer, and Mr. J. I. Stone, general manager. 

Crystal Ice Company began to c>perate in 
the ice business eleven years ago. Messrs. E. 
J. Bowers, and J. Kiston are the prt)prietors. 
It was afterwards organized into a stock com- 
pany with Mr. F. W. Branson as president and 
manager. These two companies employ ten 
men each. The Loon Lake Ice Company oper- 
ates on a small scale, insteat! of the wheelbar- 
rowful a day that supplied the Spokane market 
it now calls for at least ten thousand ti,)ns a 

Inland Telephone and Telegraph Company. 
— In 1SS7 ]Mr. Chas. B. Hopkins came to this 
■city and inaugurated the Tele])hone E.Kchange, 
Avhich was soon sold to W. S. Norman. But 
in 1889. -^[''- Hopkins Ijccanie a permanent 
resident of Spokane and .organized the Inland 
Telephone Company and became its general 
manager, which position he continues to iiold. 
The development of the telephone system c^f 
the city is a mar\el; o\er six hundred tele- 
phones were placed in lousiness houses and 
homes last year and the}- are ""put in" at the 
rate of three and four a <lay. The number of 
telephones in the city at present are no less than 

three thousand. There are sixty-two local op- 
erators and fifteen long-distance operators em- 
ployed. The company employs about one hun- 
dred ])ersons in all. 

Telegraph Companies. — The Western 
L'nion Telegraph and Cable Compan\- was es- 
tablished in Spokane in 1884. Albert D. Camp- 
bell has been the manager for many years and 
during his administration the business has 
greatly increased. There are a dozen persons 
employed at present. The Postal Telegraph 
and Ca!)le Company was established a few years 
ago. D. Fletcher is the manager. 

Gas Light Company. — The gas light sys- 
tem was introduced and the plant now located 
on Stevens street, south of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad track, established by Mr. H. C. 
Thompson fourteen years ago. The present 
general manager and treasurer. Mr. .\lbert D. 
Hopper, became associated with the enterprise 
in 1887. and from that time to the jiresent it 
has developed from year to year. Originally 
the capacity was but ten thousand cubic feet 
per day : at present it is five hundred thousand 
cubic feet per day. The number of retorts have 
increased from five to thirty-five. The original 
capital was eighty thousand dollars stock and 
thirty thousand dollars bonds, which has in- 
creased to two hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars stock and one hundred thousand dollars 
bonds. There are one hundred thousand dol- 
lars in the treasury for improvements and the 
system is extending rapidly. The company 
gives stead)' employment to no less than twenty 

The smaller manufacturers are too numer- 
ous to mention, cigar makers, art glass, arti- 
ficial limbs, artificial stone, awnings and tents, 
bed springs and blank book makers, blue prints, 
brick manufacturers, cabinet makers, carpet 
weavers, vinegar and cider manufacturers, cor- 

I nice manufacturers, the numerous dairies, en- 
gravers, manufacturing jewelers, many laim- 
tlries (32), white and Chinese, medicine manu- 

■ fiicturers, paint manufacturers, platers, polish- 



ers, shirt manufacturers, stamp wurks an<l 
stencil manufacturers, wig makers, wood en- 

gravers, etc. 


As in preliistoric days, according to tradi- 
tion, all Indian trails led to the great falls, .so 
to-dav the city by the falls is the railroad cen- 
ter of the great "Inland Empire." The mis- 
sionary explorer, Samuel Parker, expressed the 
opinion upon his return to New York in 1836 
that no real obstacle prevented the construction 
of a railroad across the continent, and prophe- 
sied the building of such a road in the near 
future, and that o\-er it tourists would journey 
as they at that time did to Niagara. The build- 
ing of a transcontinental railway was agitated 
for half a century. Congress appropriated one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars for surveys 
in 1853. In April, 1853, Isaac I. Stevens, gov- 
ernor of the territory of Washington, was se- 
lected to "explore and survey a route from the 
sources of the Mississippi river to Puget 
Sound." George B. McClellan, then brevet 
captain of engineers. United States army, 
explored the Cascade range of mountains and 
eastward until he met the main ])arty under 
Governor Stevens. "The decisive points de- 
termined were the practicability of the Rocky 
mountains and Cascade range, and the eligi- 
bility of the approaches. Governor Stevens rec- 
ommended that from the vicinity of the mouth 
of Snake river there should be two branches, 
(•nc to Puget Sound across the Cascade moun- 
tains and the other down the Columbia river 
on the northern side." In his message, ad- 
dresses and every other Icgitiiuate way, suj)- 
jjorted by legislative memorial and the press. 
Governor Stevens "kept alive the agitation of 
the Northern route." 

January, 1857, the Legislature of the Terri- 
tory passed "An act to incorporate the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company." The incorporators 
named were Governor Stexens and numerous 
citizens of Washington, Oregon, Minnesota, 

Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, California, Maine 
and New York. The lines prescribed by the 
act were nearly identical with the present 
Northern Pacific Railroad system. The char- 
ter of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company 
was granted by Congress on July 2, 1864, with 
Josiah Perham, of pjoston, as president. The 
charter is thus tlefined : "An act granting lands 
to aid in the construction of a railroad and tele- 
graph line from Lake Superior to Puget Sound 
on the Pacific coast -by the northern route." 
The building of the road commenced in Febru- 
ary, 1870, at Duluth. and during that year it 
reached Branard. one hundred and fourteen 
miles. In January, 1873, (General John \V. 
Sprague and (_iovernor John N. Goodwin, 
agents for the Northern P'acific Railroad Com- 
pany, formally announced the selection of the 
city (.)f Olympia as the terminus on Puget 
Sound. .V few months later the company at 
New ^'ork declared its western terminus at 
Tacoma. The failure of Jay Cooke & Com- 
pany, in 1873, greatly embarrassed operations, 
i)ut it was reorganized on different financial 
basis with Charles B. Wright as president. 
iM-ederick Billings became president in 1880, 
and after careful instrumental survey a line was 
located by way of the Naches Pass. The North- 
ern Pacific atlvanced uniler the management of 
President Billings in 1880 and 1881, stimulat- 
ing a hope for the immediate Iniilding of the 
Cascade division, which was not realized. The 
first overland train direct from Duluth to Ta- 
ci'Uia arrived on .Sunday, July 5, 1887. But the 
overland railroad communication was fully con- 
summated ■:7(i' Portland and the road connecting 
it with Tac(.ima in 1883. On September 7, 1883, 
was driven the "golden spike," sixty miles west 
of Helena, which fastened the last rail of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad, practically joining 
the Pacific and .Ktlantic oceans. Then Spokane 
was made a station on a transcontinental rail- 
road. Marvellous has l)een the development 
since then. The Northern I'acific was the pio- 
neer road, but to-day eight railroads radiate 

1 lO 


from Spokane. It can be reached over five 
trancontinental roads, viz. : Northern Pacific, 
Great Northern, Chicago, BurHngton & Ouincy, 
reaching here under leased arrangement with 
the Northern Pacific; the Union Pacific, which 
enters on the Oregon Railway & Navigation 
road, and tlie Canadian Pacific, which makes 
connection by rail and water with the Spokane 
PaUs & Northern. The Union Pacific reached 
tlie city in 1889 and the Great Northern in 
1892. The branches of _ the three great rail- 
roads are numerous, reacliing in all directions. 
The Spokane & Palouse Railway was built as 
far as Belmont (sixty miles) in the fall of 1886. 
During the following summer it was extended 
to Genesee, Idaho. Then a year ago it was built 
to Lewiston. The Central Washington was 
completed to Davenport in July, 1889. By No- 
vember it reached as far as Coulee City, where 
stages connect for Waterville and points in the 
Okanogan mining districts. 

Probably the most important of these branch 
roads is the Spokane Falls & Northern Railway, 
now owned and operated by the Great North- 
ern. It Avas commenced by D. C. Corbin in 
March, 1889, and completed that year to the 
Little Dalles. This line runs from Spokane 
north through Stevens county to the town of 
Northport on the Columbia river, a distance of 
one hundred and fifteen miles. At that point 
the line splits and under the name of the Colum- 
bia & Red Mountain road it runs to the great 
mining camp of Rossland in British Columbia. 
The other line runs to Nelson under the name 
of the Nelson & Fort Sheppard road. Nelson 
is at the foot of the Kootenay lake and steamers 
connect here with the trains for all points on 
the lake as far north as Kaslo. Connections 
are also made at Nelson with the Columbia & 
Kootenay Railroad, a branch of the Canadian 
Pacific, which in turn connects with steamers 
in Arrow lake, which go nortli to Revelstoke, 
where connections are made with the Canadian 
Pacific. The Spokane & Idaho was built by 
D. C. Corbin in 1887, and the Northern Pacific 

secured control of it in 1889. It runs east from 
Spokane on the main track to Houser Junction, 
then branches off to Lake Cteur d' .\lene where 
connections are made with steamers for Harri- 
son, the jMission and other points on the lake. 
The Washington & Idaho runs through the 
eastern portion of the Palouse country to Te- 
koa, where it branches off to the Coeur d' 
Alene mining camps. About eighteen or 
twenty passenger trains arrive and depart daily 
from Spokane. The freight traffic of these 
roads is something enormous. 


In 1862 Lieutenant John Mullan construct- 
ed a government wagon road from Fort Ben- 
ton to Walla Walla that received his name. 
The old settlers often refer to the "Old Mul- 
lan road." The building of that road to the 
Spokane valley stimulated immigration to this 
country. It was followed by the establishment 
of mail routes and post offices. It reached al- 
most to this city on the south side of the river 
and turned south through Moran prairie and 
crossing Latat creek (Hayman's) about sev- 
en miles south. Some traces of the road can 
be seen to-day. 


The wholesale and jobbing business of Spo- 
kane have grown to great proportions. The 
increase during the last four or five years has 
I^een from forty to fifty per cent. This is due 
to the large crop of wheat three years ago, the 
opening of the Colville reservation and mining 
develojmients therein, and also in the Cceur 
d'.Mene country and British Columbia, and the 
general revival of business. 

H. J. Shinn & Company. — This company, 
which is agent for the Snake river fruit farms, 
Yakima. \\'enatchee. Walla Walla, Pal;,u?e. 
Potlatch and home grown products, was or- 
ganized in 1889 under the name Snake River 
Fruit Company. Mr. H. J. Shinn becoming 
proprietor, it soon assumed its present name. 


1 1 1 

They handle green and dried fruits of every 
description, inchiding dehcious fruits, both for- 
eign and domestic, also produce, butter, eggs, 
etc. The premises occupied are on Post street 
along the line of the Nortiiern Pacific Rail- 
road, thus affording admirable transportation 
facilities. The building is brick and is one 
story high, and contains a basement. There is 
55x100 feet of floor space. The business ex- 
tends in all directions. Si.x ])ersons are required 
to do the work at the warehouse and two trav- 
eling men are constantly on the road. 

Charles Uhden, wholesale commission and 
brokerage : agent for Hill's strictly pure maple 
sugar and syrups ; Acme Mills and Ralston 
health cereals, Ritzville flour, grass, clover and 
garden seeds. — Mr. Uhden came to this city 
eleven years ago and was associated with Hun. 
O. B. Nelson in the grocery business for 
nearly four years, where he began the c<')m- 
mission business at 923 Railroad avenue, where 
he still continues. He empli)ys five assist- 

Iknham & Griffith. — This firm of whole- 
sale grocers and tobacconists, consists of Lu- 
cnis T. Benham and Thomas S. Griffith, the 
latter being manager. It started in business 
in 1888 and now employs about ten men in its 
warehouse at 813-819 Railroad avenue. 

Hammond Packing Company. — This com- 
pany, which has its general office at South 
Omaha, established a branch office here a few 
years ago with G. C. Howe as manager. They 
deal in beef and pork products, smoked meats, 
canned meats, lard, etc. Their commission 
house is on the Northern Pacific track, between 
Mill and Post. 

H. (i. Stimmel & Co., jobbers of fruits and 
produce, located at 917-921 Railroad avenue, 
between Lincoln and Monroe streets. U. H. 
Anderson and FI. Louis Schermerhorn are as- 
sociated with Mr. Stimmel in the Inisiness. 
which is extensive. 

Swift tS:Companv. wholesale packers, branch 
of Soutli Omaha house, established at S27 

Railroad avenue two }-ears ago; F. T. Powles. 

Julius Lund & Company, manufacturers' 
agents, representing Licore iM'icke & Com- 
pany, tea and coffee, San Francisco, and other 
standard manufacturers of canned goods, can- 
dy, liiscuits. cheese, oil, cigars, etc. He has 
been in the Inisiness eight years and has three 
men on the road. 

Boothe- Powell Company. — These wholesale 
grocers are the successors of E. L. Powell 
Company, which was organized in 1894 and 
began to do business at 914-916 Riverside av- 
enue. The present name was assumed three 
years ago and the place of business is Post and 
Ivailroad. The present officers are L. F. 
Biiothe. president; H. C. Wilson, secretary; H. 
D. Trunkey, treasurer ; L. F. Boothe, R. O. 
McClintock and H. D. Trunkey, trustees. Sev- 
enteen ]iersons are emplo3'ed. 

J. R. Clifford & Company, 823 and 825 
Railroad avenue, brokerage and commission 
merchants, wholesale dealers in butter, cheese 
and eggs ; also flour, hay and grain. The sen- 
ior member has been in Spokane for a dozen 
years. He was in the insurance and real es- 
tate business for several years, and launched 
out in the wholesale business five years ago, 
which has extended from year to year to the 
present time. 

Ryan & Newton Company. — The company 
has a capital and surplus of fifty thousand dol- 
lars, and the officers are T. F. Ryan, president : 
L. M. Davenport, vice president : J. Newton, 
secretary and treasurer. They are wholesalers 
in fruit and produce, butter, eggs and cheese. 
and manufacturers of Gold Leaf butter. They 
organized in 1898 and have an extensi\-e plant 
on the corner of Post and Railroad avenue, 
with a storage capacity of seventy-five cars, 
with eleven compartments. Twenty-five per- 
sons are employed and their trade reaches to 
Alaska, and even to foreign countries. 

The Emporium. — This is one of the leading 
wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods, no- 

1 12 


tions. men's and hoys' cluthing. gents" turnisli- 
ings, cloaks, suits ami wrappers, ladies" fur- 
nishings, hats and caps. The proprietors are 
R. Weir, A. Bremmer and D. McLeod, and 
their place of business is 824-828 Riverside, 
corner Lincoln. They startetl in business .seven 
years ago and the increase of patronage is an 
evidence that they are gaining in fa\-or with the 
people. The company has a branch store at 
Cascade City. British Columbia. 

The Palace Department Store. — Mr. R. 
Weil, the proprietor of this store, liegan to do 
business on a small scale on Railroad avenue 
and Howard street in March, 1890. The busi- 
ness increased so that the following year larger 
quarters were occupied in Temple court, Ri\er- 
side avenue. In another year tlie increasing 
business still demanded more extendeil accom- 
modations and two lloors were occupied at 520 
Riverside avenue for several years. At present 
the Buckley building, corner Riverside avenue 
and Post street, witii its four large floors (for- 
ty-eight thousand S(|uare feet) is tilled with 
goods of all descriptions. The numlier of em- 
ployees reach one hundred and forty, witii a 
yearly pay-roll of $50,000. The mail orders 
during year reached nearly forty thousand 
dollars, and the aggregate receipts nearly one- 
lialf million dollars. 

Spok.'uie Dry {"i<)o(ls Company. — Twelve 
years ago Comstock and I'atterson started in 
the retail dry giiods business in the Crescent 
block. The original name was "The Cres- 
cent. " and still cnutinues as designating the re- 
tail department. In j.uutary. 1S95. the estab- 
lishment removed t<) the Lindelle block on Ri\'- 
erside, Washington and Sprague, when the 
"Dry (ioods Company." jobbers was organ- 
ized. The present Iniilding. e.xtensixe ami ad- 
mirably e(]uii)ped. on Riverside avenue, near 
Mill street, owned by the company, has been 
occn])ied since March. 1899. '^ '^ ** three stnrv 
building and every p<irtion is (illed with goods. 
Over a dozen departments are conducted. The 
oOicers are R. B. F'atterson. president; J. M. 

Comstock. \ice president: C. H. Weeks, secre- 
tary and treasurer. There are ninety-six per- 
.sons emjjloyed ami their territory extends ab 
over the vast "Inland Empire." 

Whitebouse Company (Incorporated), im- 
porters and retailers in dry goods, cloaks, car- 
pets and millinery. — The first WHiitehouse store 
was opened in 186 — by Messrs. C. Monteith 
and S. Seitenl)ach. The present company was 
organized in 1897 — President. O. L. Rankin; 
secretary, P. F. I'arker. It has a large and 
choice stock of goods and is in a most central 
location on Riverside and Howard. The C(jm- 
pany employs fifty persons and the business is 
constantly increasing. 

Northwestern lmi)ro\ement Company. — 
This is the successi)r of the N. P. Coal Com- 
pany. estal)lished in this city over a dozen years 
ago. The present general agent is De.xter 
Shoudy. and the company deals in Roslyn coal, 
lump coals, anthracite, blacksmith coal and 
foundry coke, and block and split wood. Office 
and yard. 120 South Monroe street. 

D. Holzman & Comi)any, wholesale wines, 
liquors and cigars. — The business was estab- 
lished by Mr. Holzman in June. 1884, the 
present firm name being ailopted in Janu- 
ary. 1891, when Mr. j. \. Reubens l)ecame a 
partner. The ])remises occupied consist of an 
entire two-story and basement building. 50X 
125 feet in area. In the basement a bottlmg 
department, with imi)roved machinery, is fitted 
up where all kinds of carbonated beverages and 
beer are bottled. The office and salesroom is 
on the first floor and the second floor is used for 
storage. Seven- persons are employed and the 
business extends throughout Washington. Ida- 
ho. Montana and British Columbia. Mr. David 
Holz)nan came here from the Black Hills. 
South Dakota, where he was formerly engaged 
in the clothing business. Mr. J. A. Reubens 
hails from the same place and was at one time 
in the wholesale btisiness there. Both gentle- 
men represent their bouse on the road, and 
the local management is in the hand? of Mr. ]. 



A. Schiller, who also came from the Black 
Hills, and who has had charge since the in- 
ception of the business. 

Spokane Drug Company. — It started as the 
Avenue drug store in i8S8. In iSgo it re- 
moved to Sprague and Howard, doing both 
retail and wholesale business, until it rennnetl 
to its present location on Howard near Alain. 
Its business at present is exclusi\'ely wholesale 
and twenty-fiN'e men are employed, with three 
men traveling outside and three in the city. 
The officers are Valentine Peyton, president: 
I. N. Peyton, vice president ; A. \V. Dalland, 
secretary and treasurer. 

M. Sellers «& Company (Incorporated), di- 
rect importers and jobbers in crockery, glass- 
ware, cutlery, plated ware, white and decor- 
ated china, tinware, granite iron ware, house 
furnishings, stoves, ranges, wooden and willow 
ware, wrapping paper, paper bags, etc. — This 
company began business in this city ten years 
ago and it has extended from year to year. Mr. 
Freidlein is the local manager and ten persons 
are employed in the st(3re. The goods are sent 
not only all over eastern Washington, but also 
to the adjoining states. 

J. \V. Graham & Company. — This is recog- 
nized as a leading Inisiness lunise of Spokane, 
and their business as wholesale and retail deal- 
ers in books, paper, stationery, wall paper, office 
supplies, fancy goods and photographic sup- 
plies has developed to great proportions. Their 
business was established in August, 1889, first 
as a retail stationery and news stand in a small 
tent about twelve feet square. This enterpris- 
ing firm has kejit fully abreast with the rapid 
growth of Spokane, and as the city built up 
and jobbing houses were established, John \V. 
Graham & Company moved int(T the Great 
Eastern block (now Peyton), corner River- 
side a\'enue and Post street, in 1890. The 
business has been managed from its incipiency 
by John W. Graham and his brother. James ].. 
the meiubers of the firm, and the business has 

been extending from vear to year. There are 
8 ■ 

forty-three persons employed in the estal)lish- 
ment at the present time. They occupy two 
storerooms in the Peyton block, with rooms 
on the third floor as their salesrooms. In ad- 
dition to this, the entire basement of the l)lock 
is occupied by their wholesale stock of station- 
ery and shipping rooms. Their wall pajier de- 
partment occupies a part of the once Hogan, 
but now Peyton, building in the rear, but con- 
nected with the main salesrooms by an arch- 
way. Their principal stock is carried in their 
ware house recently built on the Northern Pa- 
cific railroad tr^tck between Lincoln and Mon- 
roe streets, consisting of the first floor and base- 
ment, 50x80 feet. The territory covered by 
this firm as jobbers embraces all that part of 
the state of Washington lying east of the Cas- 
cade mountains, northern Idaho, western 'Slon- 
tana, and into British Columbia. For this ter- 
ritory they have the exclusive sale of the Rem- 
ington Standard typewriter and Edison mime- 
iigrai)h. They are publishers" depository in 
Washington east of the Cascade mountains for 
the recently adopted school books, and every 
schoool book is kept in stock. 

Shaw & Bortlen Company, wholesale and 
retail stationers, printers and bookbintlers, 
cameras and photographic supplies, 609 River- 
side avenue. Hyde block. The officers are John 
H. Shaw, president: J. D. Estep. vice-presi- 
dent: Jos. A. Borden, treasurer: Walter M. 
Burns, secretary. — This company started in 
business on a small scale in 1890. and has 
grown from year to year until it has become 
one of the most popular and important in the 
city. The business is increasing rapidly so that 
three floors are now occupied and forty persons 

Holly. Mason, Marks «S: Co. — This exten- 
sive and flourishing establishment, one of the 
largest of its kind in the entire west, was orig- 
inally established thirteen years ago under the 
stvle of Newport & Holley, and was thus con- 
ducted until 1886, when the name was changed 
to Holly, Mason & Company. In January, 



1889, a corporation was formed and the pres- 
ent style adopted. Tlie company is incorporat- 
ed nnder tlie laws of Washington, with large 
paid up capital, and the present officers are : 
President, Frederick H. Mason : secretary and 
treasurer, Howell W. Peel. They are johhers 
of heavy, shelf and hiiilders" hardware, wagon- 
makers and blacksmiths' supplies, etc. The im- 
mense stock carried represents the finest ])rod- 
iicts of the home and foreign factories. It in- 
cludes hardware of all kinds, wagonmakers' 
and blacksmiths' supplies, plumbers' supplies, 
mining machinery, stoves, furnaces, tinware of 
all kinds and general house furnishing goods. 
The offices and salesrooms are at 118-IJ4 
Howard street, an e.xtensive six-story and 
basement brick building. 80x120 feet in area. 
Thev are agents for the Sterling and Crescent 
bicycles. Seventy-five men are employed and 
their goods are sent all o\er eastern Washing- 
ton, northern Idaho, west Montana and Brit- 
ish Columbia. 


The principal dealers in agricultural i:iiple- 
ments and machinery are Mitchell. Lewis & 
Staver Company, established fifteen years ago; 
The Union Warehouse & Machine Company; 
J. I. Case Threshing Machine Company, deal- 
ers in engines, horse power, .self feeders, stack- 
ers, belting, oils; W. W. Redhead, dealer in 
Studebaker wagons anti carriages, plows, etc. 
Spokane Machinery Su])ply Company make a 
specialty of mining machinery. 


Griffith Heating & Plumbing Supply Com- 
pany, also Arnold, Evans & Co.. in the same 
line; Jones & Dillingham, paints, oils and 
■color-grinders, painters' supplies and glass, 
wholesale and retail. 


Spokane Hardware Company. Thomas F. 
Conlan, proprietor; Jensen-King-Byrd Com- 

])any, O. C. Jensen, president and manager, 
J. C. Byrd. \ice-president ; Charies L. King, 
secretary and treasurer; McGowan Brothers, 
F. W. & M. B. : McCabe Johnson Com])any. 
J. H. McCabe, president; Millard Johnson, 
secretary and treasurer. 

Tull & Gibbs. — This fimi started nine years 
ago under the name of Tull & Dice. Two 
years ago the present com[)any was incorpor- 
ated. The business has lieeii extending from 
year to year until it extends over a vast ter- 
titory. In addition to the five stories filled 
with goods at Sprague and ilill, they have 
an immense warehouse on Railroad avenue. 
The pro]irietors are P. T. Tull and F. D. Gibbs. 

H. M. Herrin & Company, wholesale 
fruits antl produce, butter, eggs, cheese, 
lemons, etc. One of the oldest firms in this 
line and enjoying an extensive business. 

Spokane Paper Company and Gray Ewing 
Company, wholesale dealers in pa|)er-bags and 
baskets, etc. Established in i8yo. 

Baum & Company, wholesale and retail 
dealers in oils, paints, wall-paper, etc. Estab- 
lished cle\en years ago. 


The W. D. Knight Company, printing, 
book-binding and paper boxes. Established 
in 1878. 

The \\'right-Greenburg Com[)any, ])rint- 
ers, binders, publishers, and successors of H. 
W. Greenburg & Company. Established ten 
years ago. 

Union Printing Company, established by 
the Alexander Brothers eleven years ago, now 
owned by W. H. Ryer. 

J. R. Lambly is one of the oldest printers 
in the city. 

Winship Quick Print is the successor of 
Wilcox & Snow, beginning business twelve 
years ago. 

Every line of business is represented in the 
metropolis of the "Inland Empire." and a full 
description of all would fill a volume. Sev- 



eral houses engaged in musical instruments, 
art goods, millinery, carpets and drapery, 
glassware, mens' clothing, harness and sad- 
dlery, drugs; bakeries and confectioners, bicy- 
cle dealers, green houses, hotels (the Spokane, 
the Pacific, the Grand and Cadilac being the 
most prominent). The boarding houses are 
numerous. The city is well supplied with 
architects and assayers of a high order, and 
there is a small army of agents of all descrip- 
tion. The mining, brokerage, real estate and 
insurance businesses have grown to great im- 


The first to do banking business was the 
Bank of Spokane Falls, opened in June, 1879, 
by A. M. Cannon. 

The First National Bank was organized 
on December 5, 1882, with a capital of $30,000. 
F. R. Moore, president : J N. Glover, vice presi- 
dent; H. L. Cutter, cashier. 

Traders National Bank was organized De- 
cember 20, 1885, with $75,000 capital. E. J. 
Brickell. president; J. Hoiiver. vice president. 
Present officers: M. M. Cowley, president; 
D. M. Drumheller, vice president; Charles S. 
Elting, cashier; J. E. West, assistant cashier; 
capital and surplus, $300,000. 

The Spokane National Bank was organized 
February, 1888, with $60,000 capital. W. H. 
Taylor, president; Warren Hussey, cashier. 

Spokane Loan & Trust Compay, afterwards 
Washington Savings Bank, was organized July, 
1888. Capital, $50,000. H. L. Tilton, presi- 
dent; A. M. Cannon, vice president; Donald, manager; K. J. L. Ross, cashier. 

Citizens National Bank was organized 
April 22, 1889. with a capital of $90,000. B. 
C. Van Houten, president ; John L. Wilson, 
vice president ; J. F. McEwen. cashier. 

Browne National Bank was organized 
March 22, 1889, with $60,000 capital. J. J. 
Browne, president ; F. Heine, vice president ; 
Theodore Reed, cashier. 

Exchange National Bank was organized 
June 17, 1889, with a capital of $65,000. J. 
Hoover, president; A. J. Ross, vice president; 
E. J. Dyer, cashier. Present capital and sur- 
plus, $394,000. Present officers, E. J. Dyer, 
president; F. Lewis Clark, vice-president; C. 
E. McBroom, cashier; W. M. Shaw, assistant 

Washington National Bank was organized 
in 1889. Capital, $100,000. H. L. Tilton, 
president; A. M. Cannon, vice-president; F. E. 
Goodall, cashier. 

Spokane & Eastern Trust Company was or- 
ganized July 24, 1890. Capital, $100,000. J. 
P. M. Richards, president; Isaac M. Foster, 
secretary. Present capital, $100,000. Present 
officers, J. P. M. Richards, president; H. M. 
Richards, vice-president; R. L. Rutter, secre- 

Old National Bank, successor to Pacific 
Bank, commenced business January 4, 1892. 
Authorized capital, $500,000; capital paid in, 
$250,000. Present officers: S. S. Glidden, 
president; W. D. Vincent, cashier. 

Washington Safe Deposit & Trust Com- 
pany, established in May, 1890. McCrea & 
Merry weather, managers. 


The first issue of the Spokane Times, April 
24, 1879, contained the following item: "We 
enjoy simply a semi-weekly service. Small 
favors from Uncle Sam are thankfully received, 
larger ones in proportion. This section of 
country is certainly entitled to a tri-weekly 
mail, at least, inasmuch as there are two im- 
portant military posts north of us and a rapidly 
increasing settlement all over the country." 
The first postmaster of Spokane Falls, ap- 
pointed in 1874, was.C. F. Yeaton, and Mrs. 
L. S. Swift was the active one. J. N. Glover 
was the second postmaster, and continued until 
1880. The first postoffice was located near the 
southwest corner of Howard and Front. On 
Octolier 14, 1880, Sylvester Heath became 



postmaster, and continued until April 17, 1886. 
During his term the postoffice was located the 
most of the time on the southwest corner of 
Riverside and Mil!. Mr. Heath was succeeded 
by J. J. L. Peel. During his term of office the 
location was changed to south side Riverside 
avenue between Stevens and Washington. The 
carrier system was also introduced, six carriers 
being engaged. The directory of 1889 gives a 
brief report of the postoffice business : "The 
wonderful growth of the city may be judged 
by the increase of postoffice business. The 
quarter ending June 30. 1889, shows 6.776 
pounds of newspapers sent out of the county, 
1. 715 inside the county. Registered letters and 
packages sent, 2,060; received, 3.025. Letters 
sent to other offices, 19,169. Receipts for 
stamps and l)oxes, $7,468.25. Free delivery 
was established January i, and during June the 
five carriers delivered 44,516 letters. 3,494 pos- 
tal cards, 29,506 papers and circulars. They 
collected 3,679 local letters, 28,859 mail let- 
ters, over 4,000 postal cards and 2,000 news- 
papers." In 1891 Arthur J. Shaw was ap- 
pointed postmaster, and carriers increased to 
fourteen, and the business correspondingly. 
Charles E. Munson was assistant postmaster. 
Mr. Shaw was succeeded in 1S94 by Howard 
T. Mallon, Fred E. Baldwin, assistant. Before 
the close of his term the postoffice was removed 
to the corner of Riverside and Lincoln. 

The force at present is as follows : George 
W. Temple, postmaster: Byron Dieffenbach, 
assistant postmaster; John R. Fullinwider, 
money order clerk; Charles Riddiford, registry 
clerk; H. E. Brown, assistant registry clerk, 
W. H. Overend, superintendent of carriers; 
Miss Edith G. Grimmer, stamp clerk; Richard 
R. Dunn and John Syler, general delivery 
clerks; Miss L. B. Xelson, box clerk; P. M. 
Gauvreau and John Talbott, mailing clerks; 
Fred Z. Alexander, assistant money order 
clerk; Samuel R. Kelly, stamper; Edgar :\Ic- 
Call, Frank J. Stitz, directory clerks; Orla C. 
Bacon, A. J. Connel, John P. Pond, distribu- 

tors. Carriers — T.' R. Jones, S. S. Berven, 
M. G. Williams, Z. A. p'file, R. L. Hanson, P. 
T. Weeks, Charles E. Xelson, James D. Smith, 
George Dewey, John H. Hoxie, Delano Dav- 
enport, Otis Davenport, John Wilkstrand. Fritz 
Thorild, James T. Rubicam, Bert E. Davis, 
X'athan K. Buck, William X. Alexander, A. E. 
Helbig, Harry H. Smith. Sub-Carriers — Fred 
Boyd, A. G. Lepper. 

The postoffice removed irom the corner of 
Riverside and Lincoln to its present quarters 
in 1898. There are now forty-three persons 
employed. It will be interesting to compare 
the report at the beginning of this year, as 
printetl in the Chronicle, with that of twenty 
years and ten years ago : 

The total receipts for last year, ending De- 
cember 31, 1899, amounting to $90,226.43, and 
for the quarter ending December 31, 1899, they 
reached $24,980.90. 

According to Postmaster Temple's state- 
ment, the records for the Spokane postoffice 
for the last four years are as follows : 

For the year 1895 — 

Quarter ending March 31 $10,871.10 

Quarter ending June 30 9o37-90 

Quarter ending September 30.. 9,806.03 
Quarter ending December 31... 12,062.77 

Total $42,277.80 

For the year 1896 — 

Quarter ending March 31 $1 1,686.91 

Quarter ending June 30 12,866.38 

Quarter ending September 30. . , 12,454.19 
Quarter ending December 30... 15,336.77 

Total $5^,344-45 

For the year 1897 — 

Quarter ending March 31 $15,003.88 

Quarter ending June 30 15,426.28 

Quarter ending September 30.. 16,120.51 
Quarter ending December 31 ... . 18,211.24 

Total $64,761.91 



For the year 1898 — 

Quarter ending JNIarch 31 $17,644.20 

Quarter ending June 30 17,683.47 

Quarter ending September 30. . . 17,630.85 
Ouarter ending December 31 . . ■ ■ 22,085.03 

Total $75-043-55 

For the year 1899 — 

Quarter ending March 31 $21,480.79 

Quarter ending June 30 22.156.16 

Quarter ending Septemlier 30. . . 21,608.58 
Ouarter ending December 3 1 • . ■ ■ 24,980.90 

Total $90,226.43 

Business in the registry .department for in- 
ternational exchange alone has increased 160 
per cent, in the last three years, while for the 
last year there has been an advance of 76 per 
cent. In registered letters for distribution in. 
the city there has been an increase of 49 per 

The tables for the amount of registered mail 
for the last two years, according to the figures 
of Chief Registry Clerk Riddiford, are as 
follows : 

1899 1898 

Rec'd for registration I7-385 ^4,-57 

Registers delivered in city. . . 35.189 29,784 

Registers handled in transit. . 1 10,726 96,783 

Registers exch'd with B. C. . . 12,319 8,229 

Totals 176,119149.053 

In 1897 there were 14448 letters received 
for registration; in 1896 only 11,988, and m 
the preceding year 10,142. 

In 1897 just 28,323 registered letters were 
delivered in the city, and ^^.j;^/ in 1896. 

In 1897 just 8,342 registers were exchanged 
with British Columbia, and in 1896 only 4750- 

In speaking of the increase, Charles Riddi- 
ford, chief clerk of the registry department, 
said : 

'•A study of the above figures will give 
some idea of the enormous amount of registered 

mail handled by the Spokane office. In fact, 
it is safe to say that there is no office of its size 
in the United States that h;uidles nearly so 
large a number of registered i)ieces as this one 

"The causes of this will be readily seen 
when we take into consideration the numljer 
of railroads that center in the city and tlie vast 
territory for which this is the distributing 
point. For example, all registered mail coming 
from points east of St. Paul for points in north- 
ern Idaho and even western Montana, also for 
the n(^rtheastern part of Oregon, besides a vast 
part in ^Yashington are first sent to Spokane, 
then distributed to the different lines leading 
to their destination. 

"A registered letter mailed in New York _ 
and addressed to Kalispell, Montana, Lewiston, 
Idaho, or W'enatchee, Washington, would, in 
either case, be pouched to Spokane and then 
be billed to the office addressed. It will thus be 
seen that the purely local business done, that 
is the registers received and delivered in the 
city, is but a small part of the work done by the 
registry department. 

"Spokane is the international registry ex- 
change office between the United Slates and 
British Columbia, All registers exchanged be- 
tween the western part of the United States 
and the towns north of us in British Columbia 
must pass through this oftice. The increase in 
this branch of the business alone has been verj' 
large, being 160 per cent, greater in 1899 than 
in 1896. The increase in the numljer of letters 
received for registration in 1899 over 1896 is 
76 per cent, and in the number of letters re- 
ceived for distribution in Spokane 49 per cent. 
It will be seen that 176. 119 registers were 
handled in the office during 1899, which, 
though the figures for i)re\-ious years are not 
complete, will be a total increase over 1896 
of about 75 per cent. Can you wonder that the 
clerks are rushed?" 

The number of postoffices in the county is 





Tliere was a board of trade organized in 
Spokane Falls as early as 1884. Then we find 
one organized in 1886, and reorganized in 1890, 
with a twenty-thousand-dollar capital stock 
and seventy members. W. H. Taylor, presi- 
dent; W. S. Norman, secretary; H. L. Cutter, 


The first one was incorporated in 1891 with 
a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars. 
A. A. Newberry, president; J. P. Graves, treas- 
urer; J. R. Reavis, secretary. In 1893 Cyrus 
R. Burns was president and Alonzo M. Mur- 
phey, treasurer. 

The bureau of immigration took the place 
of the chamber of commerce for some time, 
but in 1898 it was organized again. It is an 
organization of Spokane business men which 
has for its object the advancement of the com- 

mercial and manufacturing interests of this 
city. It serves as an immigration bureau and 
annually sends out large quantities of printed 
matter relating to the agricultural and mining 
interests. It has doubtless been instrumental 
in attracting the attention of people in all parts 
(if the United States to the superior advantages 
offered by Spokane and the tributary country 
to the intending settler, be he business man, 
manufacturer, capitalist, farmer or miner. All 
inquiries are promptly answered and all desired 
information is furnished. Its business is in the 
hands of an efficient secretary and all letters ad- 
dressed to secretary of the Chamber of Com- 
merce will receive prompt attention. Present 
oflicers: Dr. E. D." Olmsted, president; C. M. 
Fassett, first vice-president; Henry M. Rich- 
ards, second vice-president; W. E. Hawley, 
secretary; Chas. E. Virden, treasurer; trustees: 
jos. A. Borden, Samuel Glasgow, O. L. Rankin, 
J. Goldstein, B. Gard Ewing. 



"God has created you susceptible of education. 
Therefore it is your duty to educate yourselves as far as 
lies in your power, and it is your right that the society to 
which you belong shall not impede your education, but 
assist you in it, and supply you with the means thereof 
when you have them not."— Joseph Mazzini. 

Though the educational development of 
Spokane county is but in its infancy, it rivals 
in efllciency some of the older settlements of 
the east. The liberal donations of public lands. 
the generous disposition of the citizens, with 
push, pluck and enterprise, have contributed 
toward this end. Wholesome advantage has 
been taken of the experience of older states 
and the disposition has been to adopt the best 

methods and systems from all parts of the 
coiuitry. The schools have made gratifying 
])rogress from year to year, the course of study 
having been enlarged and improved, new meth- 
ods and discipline having been adopted as con- 
ditions demanded. There has been a constant 
growth and improvement in system of super- 
vision and organization. Also in the matters of 
full reports, length of terms, average attend- 
ance and efficiency of teaching corps. There 
has been a marked advance in the standard of 
teachers. A uinform course of study has been 
adopted. There has been inaugurated a system 
of examination for the eighth grade, and when 



said grade is completed a diploma is granted if 
the required percentage has been obtained, 
which gives entrance into any high school in 
the state. In buildings and equipments the 
schools will compare favorably with much old- 
er settled parts of the country. For such re- 
sults much credit is due the school boards for 
intelligence and broad-mindedness which have 
prompted them to enthusiastic efforts to pro- 
mote educational interests. Also to superin- 
tendents and teachers who as a rule have been 
devoted and efficient men and women, and also 
to the people who have generally been ready 
to give hearty support to every movement tend- 
ing to make the pulilic schools equal tn all de- 
mands. The first Spokane school district was 
organized in 1874. although the date is not 
found in the Stevens county recoril. James 
Monaghan was the superintendent of schools 
of Stevens county at the time. It is school 
district number eiglit and described as follows : 
"Commencing at the moutli of Hangman creek, 
following up the creek to the Idaho line, 
thence north along said line to Spokane 
river, thence to place of beginning." The 
first report on record is by C. F. Yea- 
ton, clerk, dated November, 1875; num- 
ber of children of legal age, 1 1 ; average 
attendance, 4; months taught, 3; amount 
paid teacher, sixty-seven dollars. Books prin- 
cipally used, Pacific Reader and Speller. Cur- 
nell'sGeography, Davis" Primer and .Arithmetic 
and Greene's Grammar. Report of C. F. 
Yeaton for year 1876: Number of children 
over 4 and under 21, 47; no school taught. 
Report of S. G. Havermale, clerk, for year 
1877: Number of children over 4 and under 
21, ^/ ; school in session. Apportionment: 
July, 1876, $11.00; January, 1877, $88.37; 
July, 1877, $30.80; Januar\% 1878, $53.34. 
Those were the tiays of small things. To slmw 
what progress has been made educationally 
during the last quarter of a century in the reg- 
ion north of the Snake ri\-er and east of the 
Columbia river, we will present here the 



VE.\R ENDING DEC. 3T. 1875. 

"Number of scholars, 319; number of 
schoolhouses, 5 ; number of schools kept, 7 ; 
number of scholars attending, 105; amount of 
fund apportioned, $850.57; amount raised by 
subscription, $94.49 ; amount paid teachers, 
$945. The principal books used are Sanders' 
series and Davis' geography. Branches taught 
are reading, writing, spelling, grammar, geog- 
raphy, arithmetic and history. Some of the 
districts are so thinly settled and the school 
fund so small that it is difficult to give all the 
children the advantage of the public schools, 
hence the small attendance of scholars. But the 
desire to promote the cause of education is 
steadily growing stronger amongst the people 
of this county, and there appears to be a dis- 
position at present to increase the school fund 
by private contributions and special taxes, es- 
pecially in the sparsely settled districts, that will 
if persevered in give better facilities for all the 
children to attend school than at present exist. 
I have prepared a school map of the county 
with district bountaries plainly defined in ^he 
altering of boundaries and establishing new dis- 
tricts. I have to the best of my ability ar- 
ranged the lines for the benefit of all the schol- 
ars residing in the county. I would respect- 
fully call your attention to section 7, page 424, 
school law 1873, requiring county sui>erintend- 
ents to visit all the schools in the county once 
a year, and state that there is no provision re- 
quiring clerks or directors to notify the super- 
intendent during the time the schools are going 
on. In a county like this having a large terri- 
tory and very little mail facilities, it is ditffcult 
to know when a school in a remote district is 
in active operation. I have the honor to be 
very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 
J. MoN.^GHAN, Superintendent." 

When the county was organized, in 1879, 
Mr. J. J. Browne, who was prominently iden- 



tified with educational interests for many years, 
was appointed superintendent of public schools 
until the election. The first one to be elected 
to the office of county Superintendent was ]\Irs. 
Maggie M. (Windsor) Halsell, iSSo. It 
needed a courageous woman to undertake such 
a task, for. as she says, the county embraced 
a vast territory then. She was privileged to 
conduct the first teachers' institute in the coun- 
tv. It was lield in the ])ul)lic scliool building of 
Spokane Falls November 5, 1880. We will 
submit herewith the program for comparison 
with the elaborate and rich one of last year. 
Program: Paper on eilucation, Superintend- 
ent Maggie M. Windsor. Explanation of some 
of the most difficult probleius in the ])revious 
arithmetic examinations. l)y the teachers. A 
discussion mi the theory and practice of teach- 
ing, by all. A paper on grammar, by Miss 
Belle Spangle. The state superintendent and 
ex-county superintendent Browne were ex- 
jiected to be present, l)ut were prevented, which 
was a great disappointment. Mrs. Halsell read 
a paper of rare interest at a teachers' county 
institute in this city in 189J, which was i)ub- 
lished in the Review. It contained reminis- 
censes of her experience as county .superintend- 
ent in early days. She says, "Many were the 
times the war-songs were heard at dead of 
night, bringing the thought of liorror and 
despair to the unprotected pioneers. Spokane 
county at that time was about three times its 
present size. This frontier country then, un- 
like the present, was sparsely settled with civ- 
ilization. The broad prairies abounded with 
wild animals and savages. There were no 
towns, cities or railroads, few roads and only 
two or three villages within the limits of Spo- 
kane county. Most of my work was in the 
field. Filled with vigor and enthusiasm when I 
accepted the county school superintendency, I 
did not realize ( although dismayed by parental 
opposition) the dangers abroad to l)e any 
greater than those at home. Being surrounded 
with painted Indians, armed with bows and 

arrows, singing their war-songs, was a living 
horror to lie endured by the pioneers. Spokane 
county's first surveyor, while on duty in the 
Coulee country, was severely wounded and left 
for dead by the Indians, who mounted his 
horse and disappeared in the woods. On the 
same day, while returning from visiting a 
school then within four miles of home, I was 
startled by two drunken Indians, one of whom 
clutclied the bridle rein of my horse, which, 
taking fright, reared frantically, loosening the 
hold of the fiendish captor. No time was lost 
in making good my escape. With fear and cau- 
tion many miles were traveled across the broad 
prairies only to find myself at the door of a 
little log cabin called a schoolhouse. in which 
the teacher had from four to twelve urchins 
seated on iiewed slabs which were laid upon 
sawed cuts of logs. On one occasion while 
\isiting a school 1 was surprised to find two 
teachers partly employed in teaching seven chil- 
dren. I decided that the teachers (an elderly 
man and his wife) also boarded and lodged in 
the same department in which they taught.. 
Although it was small, they seemed to find 
room for all. seating them on trunks, boxes and 
the lied. Nothing had the appearance of order. 
The children were accustomed to talk aloud 
and it did not seem to be any part of their pro- 
gram to devote their time to study. One of 
the recitations was conducted after this man- 
ner: Teacher — A\'liat do j'ou think. Nellie, 
about this lesson in addition?' 'Well, I don't 
know much about it,' replied Nellie. Teacher — 
"Harry, have you thought anything about it?' 
'No-o-o-o-o-o' responded Harry. I asked the 
'])rofessor' if he or his wife had a certificate. 
He replied, "Why, no, I didn't s'pose in a little 
school like this that we needed any surtificut.' " 
Mrs. Halsell in the paper referred to suggests 
that the office reports were meager, for she had 
to spend most of her time traveling. It is very 
evident that for the first decade the superintend- 
ents did not magnify their office work. They 
were kept on the wing visiting distant schools. 





The teachers' institutes were held annually with 
increased attendance and interest. We find 
evidence of progress and efficiency from year 
to year. The second county superintendent of 
schools was A. J. Stevens, who started a private 
school at Medical Lake and was also principal 
of the Cheney school. 

Mr. Ste\-ens conducted a teachers' institute 
at Cheney. September 27th, and 28th, 1881. 
There were fifteen teachers in attendance. 
Miss Nellie IMuzzy. of Spokane Falls, was 
made secretary. Committee of arranements, 
]\Iisses Waterhouse and Nash, of Spokane 
Falls, and Miss Gilkey. of Medical Lake. 
Subjects of jiapers and discussicins : "Organ- 
ization of Schools," by all; "Primary Arith- 
metic," Miss Gilkey: "Teaching Notation." 
Mr. Thrall : "Numeration," Misses Water- 
house and Nash: "School Government." Su- 
perintendent Stevens: "Language." Rev. Gush- 
ing Eells: "Reading," Mr. Dc'olittle and Mrs. 
Bently. It was reported an enthusiastic and 
profitable institute. 

Among the superintendents of this time we 
find, after the ones mentioned, A. J. Warren, 
who was one of the early teachers (if Sp'ikane 
Falls, anil died here a few years ago : Mrs. Liz- 
zie (Halderman) Foraker, now of East Pe<>ne 
and Mrs. W. C. (INIcMahon) Jones, now the 
wife of Ex-Congressman \\'. C. Jones, residing 
in Spokane. They proved themselves devoted 
and efficient officers. Prompted li)- a desire to 
promote educational interests, a voluntary or- 
ganization was partially effected at the close of 
the teachers' institute held in th.e Methodist 
Episcopal church tabernacle October 3, 1890. 
Prof. I. C. Lil)by, county superintendent, now 
teaching Latin at the high school, was elected 
president: Zach Stuart Spangle, vice president: 
C. M. Fitzgerald, Cheney, secretary and treas- 
urer. The first meeting with a program was 
heKl at Spokane. November 28. i8()o, when a 
constitution was adopted as follows: 


"For mutual improvement, protection and 

social intercourse, we, the teachers of Spokane 
county form ourselves into an association and 
adopt the following constitution : 

"Name — The Spokane County Teacher's 
AsS(iciation. The Ass(.»ciation shall meet first 
on the 28th day of November and every three 
months thereafter at call of president. 

"Officers — County superintendent , presi- 
dent ex-officio, vice president, secretary and 
treasurer, with usual duties of such offices. 

"Membershi]) — Any teacher or any other 
person interested in education liy signing con- 
stitution and paying a membership fee of twen- 
ty-fi\'e cents, provided that after the first meet- 
ing of the Association no members shall be 
admitted (without) a favorable vote of a ma- 
jority of the .\ssociation in session." 

At this meeting A. K. Jaquith was elected 
treasurer, and the following motion was adopt- 
ed. "We, your committee appointed to formu- 
late an expression concerning teachers' wages, 
do report the following preamble and resolu- 
tions : Whereas. It has been proven by actual 
experience that a decrease of teachers' wages 
lowers the standard of the profession by the 
forcing of the most capal)le to other and more 
lucrati\-e employments, and, \\'hereas. The 
rights of the teacher's profession demand a fair 
compensation for training undergone and labor 
performed, and. Whereas, The dignity of the 
profession sometimes suffers from unfair com- 
]ietition, be it resolved, l)y the Spokane County 
Teachers' Association, That we pledge our- 
selves not to accept employment in any school 
paying less than fifty dollars per month. Re- 
solved, That we consider it unprofessional con- 
duct for anv teacher to accept employment for 
less than these figures, or to knowingly under- 
bid any other teacher in striving for a situa- 
tion. Resolved. That these resolutions be 
printed in a circular form and sent to every 
teacher in the county not present at this meet- 
ing with a request to sign and return to the 
executive committee." The meetings were held 
quite regularly until 1895. ^1'^ county superin- 

I 22 


tendents presiding. Some meetings were held 
in subsequent years up to 1898, some of which 
have not been recorded. Vahiable papers have 
been read and important and practical subjects 
discussed in the meetings of the Teachers' As- 
sociation. Prof. W. B. Turner, who succeeded 
Prof. I. C. Libby as county superintendent — 
filling the office for two terms — inaugurated a 
movement that tended to excite the ambition of 
both teachers and scholars of the country 
schools to aim for higher ideals. He presentetl 
a banner to the school making the best record 
in attendance and scholarship. It doubtless 
proved a wholesome stimulus in the right 
direction for several years and was instru- 
mental in revealing the qualifications of teach- 
ers. During the administration of Prof. Tur- 
ner's successor, Sujit. Z. Stewart, a school of- 
ficers' convention was called, the largest as- 
sembly of the kind ever held in the state. It 
was held at the court house and sixty-two dis- 
tricts were represented. The purpose as out- 
lined by Superintendent Stewart was to bring- 
about greater uniformity in the management 
of the schools. R. S. Clason, Warsaw district, 
was made chairman, F. Z. Alexander, Hill- 
yard, secretary. A committee on permanent 
organization presented the following resolu- 
tions : 

"j. That we endorse the effort of Super- 
intendent Stewart in calling this convention of 
school officers to get an expression on school 

"2. That we recommend to this body that 
this organization be made permanent, to meet 
annually, the date of said meetings to be set 
by the superintendent. 

"3. That it is the duty of the directors of 
the several county districts to see that the teach- 
ers put forth their best efforts while in the 
school room for the education and ad\-ancement 
of the pupils under their charge. 

"4. That we recommend the holding of at 
least si.x months' term during each school 

"5. That we recommend that the school 
boards of the several districts w'ork in harmony 
with the teachers of the. several districts, for 
the proiuotion of the educational welfare of the 

"6. That a committee of teachers be ap- 
pointed for the purpose of selecting a list of 
school room supplies and that school boards 
buy nothing in that line except such as is 
commended by said committee. That we 
recommend the adoption of a uniform system 
■ of record books for the use of the school 
district boards and free text books by the 

Prof. V. H. Hopson succeeded Prof. Z. 
Stewart as county superintendent. The present 
incumbent is Prof. Elmer Drake, wJio is thor- 
oughly devoted to the educational interests of 
the county. On December 20, 1897, at this city, 
the Inland Empire Teachers' Association was 
organized. Committees on organization were 
appointed as follows : Constitution and by- 
laws. Prof. J. C. Muerman, Moscow, Idaho, 
Prof. C.S.Bond, Walla Walla; Alice Neal, Lin- 
coln county, I'rof. W. J. Spillman, Pullman, 
Mrs. Archer, Spokane; on officers, Profs. 
Stack, J. W. Smith and Watson ; on time and 
place. Profs. Kingston, Johnston and Denman. 
Officers elected : Prof. W. J. Spillman, Pull- 
man, Washington, president ; Prof. J. A. 
Mitchell, Spokane, vice-president ; Prof. Muer- 
man, Moscow, secretary. The second annual 
meeting of the association was held at Walla 
Walla March 23-4-5, 1899. An elaborate pro- 
gram was carried out, when many of the most 
prt)minent educators in the Northwest partici- 
pated. The next meeting is to be held at 
Pendleton, Oregon. The County Teachers' In- 
stitute has been held annually with increased 
interest and profit, as evidenced in the pro- 
gram of the session held in the high scIkkjI 
building, Spokane, October 30-31 and Novem- 
ber 1-2-3, 1899, Elmer Drake, county superin- 
tendent. It will be interesting to compare it 
with the program of the first institute. 





9:00 to 9;45 Opening Exercises 


Invocation Rev. G. William Giboney 

Pastor First Presbyterian Church. 


Remarks County Superintendent E. Drake 

9:45 to 12;00. Section Work. 


1;30. General Assembly. 

Music Dr. R. A. Heritage 

2:00. Imagination W. G. Beach 


Attention State Superintendent F. J. Browne 


9:00 to 9:45 Opening Exercises 

Music, Vocal Solo Miss Pauline Pansy Graves 

Invocation. ...Dr. O. W.Van Osdel, Pastor First 

Baptist Church. 
Talk on Child Study J. F. Saylor 

9:45 to 12:00. Section Work. 


1 :30. General Assembly. 

Self-Control G. W. Beach 

2:10. Music Dr. R. A. Heritage 

2:45. Normal Training W. B. Turner 

The Crisis in Belgium. A Lesson in Civil Govern- 
ment Frank P. Graves 


9:00 to 9:45 Opening Exercises 


Invocation Dr. J. M. Allen, Christian Church 

Music Dr. R. A. Heritage 

9:45 to 12:00. Section Work. 


1:30. General Assembly. 

Music, Vocal Solo Mrs. F.W.Harrington 

Lessons of American History C. S. Kingston 


The Teacher's Office Frank P. Graves 

Imagination Frank J. Browne 


9:00 to 9:45 Opening Exercises 


Invocation Rev. F. V. Stevens, Pastor West- 
minster Congregational Church. 


Child Study J- F. .Sa>lir 

9:45 to 12:00. Section Work. 


1:30. General Assembly. 

Teaching an Art W. E. Wilson 

2:00. Music Dr. R. A. Heritage 

2:40. History E. A. Bryan 


9:00 to 9:45 Opening Exercises 


Invocation Dr. W. K. Beans, Pastor Vincent 

M. E. Church. 

Music Dr. R. A. Heritage 

9:45 to 12:00. Section Work. 


1:30. General Assembly. 

Address, Character Through Thought Dr. W. 

K. Beans. 

Text Books and Course of Study F. J. Browne 

Music, Vocal Solo Miss Pauline Pansy Graves 

History E.A.Bryan 

Evening Lectures, Etc. 

At ViDcent M. E. Church at 7:30 o'clock. 


" Philosophy of History"— W. B. Turner. 


" Education and Society "— W. G. Beach. 


Music— Duet, " I Feel Thy Angel Spirit " (G. Hoff- 
man), Miss Laura Mueller and Dr. R. A. Heritage. 
Lecture — Frank Pierrepont Graves. 


Social under direction of the Social Committee. 


Music— Vocal Solo, Mrs. F. W. Harrington. 

Paper— Mrs. Sara F. Archer. 


Lecture— E. A. Bryan. 


Music— Vocal Solo, "The Bird That Came in 
Spring" (Benedict), Miss Laura Mueller. 

Lecture — " Educational Forces," Frank B. Bab- 


Lecture—" The Fundamental Arts in the School," 
W. E. Wilson. 

Ill no way can the progres.s be made more 
impressive than comparing the figures of to- 
day with those of a (|uarter of a century ago. 
when the nunil)er of districts was one, the num- 



ber of children of legal age eleven, and the ap- 
portionment eleven dollars. To-day the school 
districts are one hundred and forty as follows : 
I. Bell; 2, Alpha; 3. Fairview ; 4, Spring 
Valley ; 5, Glenora ; 6, Buckeye ; 7. Lance Hills ; 
8. Fair\ie\v; 9, Prairie \'ie\v ; 10, Waverly; 
II, Curlew; 12, Butte; 13. CVeur d'Alene; 14, 
Rattler Run; 15, Liberty; 16, Fellows; 17, 
Wright; 18, Grier; 19, Tyler; 20, Cheney; 21. 
Spangle ; 22. I\It. Hope ; 2^1. Ri)ckford ; 24, 
Union; 25. Mica; 26, Excelsior; 2~. Richland; 
28, Paradise Prairie; 29, Grand \'iew ; 30, 
Granite Lake; 31, Malloy Prairie; 2,2. Tucker 
Prairie; 33, Fancher; 34, Medical Lake; 35. 
Meadow Lake ; 36, Marshall ; 37. IVloran 
Prairie ; 38, Glenwood ; 39, Saltese Lake ; 40, 
South Trent; 41, Little Spokane; 42, Garden 
Springs; 43, White Bluff Prairie; 44. Sargent 
Gulch; 45. Deep Creek Falls; 46. Mason; 47, 
Mead; 48, Crescent; 49, Baldwin; 50, Five 
Mile; 51, Peone Prairie; 52, Pleasant Prairie; 
53, Half Moon Prairie; 54, Wild Rose Prairie; 
55, Four Mound Prairie; 56. Harmony; ^j. 
Bonser ; 58, Rock Lake ; 59. Shilo ; 60. Latah ; 
61, East Spokane; 62, Diamond Grove; 63. 
East Trent; 64. Lloyd; 65, Monfort; 66. Four 
Corners; 67, Warsaw; 68, \'alley Prairie; 69, 
Mica Peak; 70, Greenwood; 71, Chester; 72. 
Beaver Creek; 73. Mountain \'iew ; 74. West 
Deep Creek; 75, Indian Prairie; 76, Spokane 
Bridge; yy. Burroughs; 78, Liberty Lake; 79, 
Deer Creek; 80, Summervale ; 81. Citv of Spo- 
kane; 82, Alpine; 83, Bear Creek; 84. Plaza; 
85, River Front; 86, Cannondale; 87. ?^Iica 
Creek; 88, Chattaroy; 89, Little Deep Creek; 
90, Fairfield; 91. Jamieson; 92. Windsor; 93, 
Canyon; 94, Summit; 95. Graham Flats; 96, 
Harp; 97, Kegley; 98. Sylvan; 99, Foothill; 
100, Avoca; loi. Green Bluff'; 102, Deer Park; 
103, Adams; 104, Normandy; 105, Spring 
Creek; 106, Elk; 107, Mt. Carlton; 108. 
Graves; 109, Platonic; no, Pine Grove; in, 
Coulee Center; 112, Alclntosh; 114. Cotton- 
wood Creek; 115, North Pine; 116, East 
Peone ; 117, Sunnyside ; 1 18, Trent ; 1 19, Drag- 

oon ; 120, Newman Lake; 121, Forreston; 122, 
Hillyard ; 123, Orchard Prairie; 124, Logan; 
125, Great Northern; 126, Fruitlands; 127, 
Green Mt. ; 128. Bailey; 129. Pleasant View; 
130, Williams; 131, Holcomb; 132, Joint Dist. ; 
133, Lake \'iew ; 134, Abbott; 135. Milan; 
136, Dry Creek; 137, Otter Creek; 138, Pleas- 
ant Valley; 139, Whitman; 140, Switzer. 

Since 1890 the county superintendent, in 
compliance with state re(iuirements, has ]ire- 
sented annual reports to the superintendent of 
public instruction, with complete details of cash 
receipts and disbursements, mmiber of census 
children in districts, numl)er enrolled and in 
daily attendance, teachers employed, enroll- 
ment of years or courses, niunber graduating 
from eighth grade and receiving diploma. We 
present herewith the last report : 

coL'XTV superintexdext's .\xxu.\l report, 

AL'GCST, 1899. 


Number of children between 5 and 21 years 
of age residing in the county Junel: Male, 
6,209; female. 6,241; total 12,450 

Number of children enrolled in public schools; 

Male, 5,:i64; female. -5,346; total 10,710 

Average daily attendance: Male, 3,338; female, 
3,.516; total 6,854 

Average number of months school was main- 
tained in county during year by rooms 7-4 

Average number of months school was main- 
tained in county during year by districts 6-2 

Average number of days school was main- 
tained during year by rooms 147-4 

Average number of days school was maintained 

during year by districts 120 

Total days actual attendance, 1,087,591; total 
days accredited, 51,672 1,139,263 

Number of departments (rooms or schools) main- 
tained in county during year 268 

Whole number of teachers employed during 

year: Male, 79; female, 282; total 361 

Average monthly salary paid male teachers dur- 
ing year — divide total amount paid by total 
number months taught $ 59.05 

Average monthly salary paid female teachers 
during year— divide total amount paid by total 
number months taught S -53-55 

Number of children over 6 years of age not 
enrolled in any school during year: Male, 
83:3; female, 754; total 1,587 



Number of children between the ages of 8 and 
15 years attending school less than three 
months during the year: Male, 410; female, 2'JT; 

total "07 

Number of pupils in first year course 2,166 

Number of pupils in second year course 1,557 

Number of pupils in third year course 1,516 

Number of pupils in fourth year course 1,488 

Number of pupils in fifth year course 1,151 

Number of pupils in sixth year course 950 

Number of pupds in seventh year course 8'23 

Number of pupils in eighth year course 584 

Number of pupils in advanced grades 475 

Number of pupils graduated from common 
schools during the year: Male, 49; female, 50; 

total ^ 99 

Average number of recitations daily 19 

Number of private schools taught in county dur- 
ing the year 11 

Average number of months private schools were 

taught 9 

Number of teachers employed in private schools 

during year 74 

Number of resident pupils attending private 

school (in their district) during the year 636 

Number of school houses built during the year: 
Frame, 3; brick, 4; total 7 

Number of school houses now in county; Log, 
9; frame, 123; brick, 22, total 154 

Total seating capacity of all school houses in 
county 1-.410 

Estimated value of school houses, including 
grounds S 737,817 

Estimated value of school furniture 8 50,882 

Estimated value of apparatus, including maps, 
charts, etc S 9,669 

Estimated value of libraries, including all 
books S 14,062 

Total value of school property 8 812,430 

Amount of insurance on school house, furniture, 
etc •• S291.860 

Number of school districts supplied with ('0 
libraries, 10; {(i) free text-books 34 

Number of school districts in the county sup- 
plied with unabridged dictionary 107 

Number of districts organized during year, 7; 
whole number of school districts in the 
county 140 

Whole number of school districts making an- 
nual report this year 1'59 

Number of districts maintaining school at least 
three months during the year l-:'*? 

Number of graded schools in the county employ- 
ing more than one teacher in the same build- 
ing (9 districts), buildings -1 

Number of districts in county not supplied with 
school houses (new districts) 4 

Whole number of districts in county having 
bonded indebtedness 40 

Number of schools visited by County Superin- 
tendent during the year since January 9, 1899 75 

Whole number of visits made by County Super- 
intendent during year, since January 9,1899.. 105 

Number of defective youth in the county (clerk's 
report, p. 4) 19 

Number of teachers re(|uired to conduct all 
schools in county 271 

Number of temporary certificates issued during 
the year: Male, 20; female, 52; total 72 

Number of teachers employed during the year 
holding state or territorial certificates or di- 
plomas (Clerk's report, p. 2): Male, 6; female, 
34; total 40 

Number of teachers employed during year hold- 
ing first grade certificates (Clerk's report, p. 2): 
Male, 28; female, 81; total 109 

Numberof teachers employed during year hold- 
ing second grade certificates (Clerk's report, 
p. 2): Male, 39; female, 112; total 151 

Number of teachers employed during year hold- 
ing third grade certificates (Clerk's report, p. 
2); Male, 10; female, 51 ; total 61 


Balance in handsof county treasurer beginning 
of year, July 1, 1^98, to credit of school dis- 
tricts $ 79,853 98 

Amount apportioned to districts by county 

superintendents — state funds 70,771 59 

Amount apportioned to districts by county 

superintendent — county funds 1,030 50 

Amount received from special levy, 111,708 54 

Amount received from sale of bonds 5,659 74 

Amount received from all other sources 9,601 65 

Total S-278,627 99 


Amount paid during year for teachers' wages.S 

Amount paid during year for rents, repairs, 
fuel and other incidentals 

Amount paid during year for sites, buildings, 
furniture, apparatus and libraries 

Amount paid during year for interest on bonds. 

Amount paid during year for interest on war- 

Amount paid during year for redemption of 

Amount transferred to other districts 

78,627 89 

40,808 77 

48,098 54 
33,052 35 

5,998 01 

6,675 70 
1,927 83 

Total amount paid out during year S215,189 09 

Balance on hand end of year, June 30, 1899. . 63,439 90 


Assessed valuation of district. . 
Amount of bonds outstanding 

as shown by bond register 

Average rate of interest on bonds 


826,182,850 00 

395,425 00 
8}i per cent 



Amount of registered warrants 

outstanding at beginning of 

year, July 1, 1898 5106,534 29 

Amount of warrants registered 

during the year ended June 

30, 1899— 

For teachers' wages S 96,170 86 

For rents, repairs, fuel and 

other incidentals 44,266 33 

For sites, buildings, furniture, 

apparatus and library 36,844 36 

Total 177,281 55 

Amount of registered warrants 
outstanding at the close of 
the year, July 1, 1899— 

For teachers' wages $111,371 89 

For rents repairs, fuel and other 
other incidentals 37,137 00 

For sites, buildings, furniture, 

apparatus and library 58,431 00 


Increase of warrant debts dur- 
ing the year 

8186,939 99 
80.405 70 



"To prepare us for complete living is the function 
which education has to discharge; and the only rational 
mode of judging of an educational force is to find in what 
degree it discharges these functions." — Herbert Spencer. 

The citizens of Spokane have always e.xhib- 
ited a genuine interest in the pubHc schools. This 
is evidenced today in the magnificent school 
buildings and their complete equipment. From 
her infancy Spokane has not failed to see that 
the educational institutions should keep pace 
with its material growth. So far back as 1874, 
when all the white population within the pres- 
ent limits of Spokane county did not number 
but few, if any, over one hundred, the first 
school district between Spangle and Chewelah 
was organized here. During the summer of that 
year. Rev. H. T. Cowley had arrived as a mis- 
sionary to the Indians. The first school was 
held in what was the mission house and dwell- 
ing of the Cowley family. In the fall of the 
year mentioned the first public school opened 
with four pupils. C. F. Yeaton, H. T. Cow- 
ley and Mr. Poole were the directors, and law- 
}er L. S. Swift, clerk. Mr. Cowley was the 
teacher. The growth was not rapid for the 
first few years. It w'as the summer of 1878 be- 
fore it was found necessary to build a real pub- 

lic school house. The location of the first 
building to be used exclusively for school pur- 
poses and the first public building in Spokane 
is on the Northern Pacific Railroad right of 
way close to Lincoln street, about where the 
O. K. stable is now. It was a very ordinary 
frame building about twenty l)y thirty feet. 
The building was removed from its first loca- 
tion to near the corner of Post and Sprague, 
and after the new site for school purposes was 
secured, is was occupied by F. M. Dallam, and 
in it the Review was first published. The Spo- 
kane Times for April, 1879, has this item. 
"Miss \Miitehouse is the teacher and has twen- 
ty-two scholars." The issue dated September 
1 8th. the same year, has the following: 

"School was opened last Monday by Cap- 
t.-iin Tobias, who speaks very flatteringly of his 
pupils. We are pleased to learn that the Cap- 
tain is favorably impressed with his school. 
He is the right man in the right place. He has 
had fifteen years' exfjerience in the school room." 
Honor roll of the Spokane public school 
for the first two months ending November 7, 
1879: Marie Clark. ■/-y2; Alice Post, 763/2; 
Willie Smiley, 76 ; Julia Post, 54^^ ; Nettie 
Piper. 81 '.<^ :Gracie Gray. 43; Charley Smiley, 



$jy2 ; Edie Nesler, yj\ John Masterson, 65^ ; 
Katie Clark, 62 ; George Clark, 63 ; Gertie 
Goodlier, 43 : George Glover, 74 ; Hattie War- 
ner, 61; Fred Lowery, 54; Sarah McGourin, 
65. Whole number of days, 1,080; average 
daily attendance, 2~\ whole number of girls, 17 ; 
whole numljer of boys, 18; total number of 
pupils, 35. 

In 1880-81 Rev. W. H. Stratton and Prof. 
A. J. Warren were the teachers. Mr. Stratton 
says, "I secured the pi^sition of teacher of the 
higher grade of pupils in this Spokane school 
at forty dollars a month. I had about forty- 
five young men and women in my room, which 
was about si.xteen by twenty-two. We were 
so crowded that there was hardly room to seat 
the class reciting at the time. Prof. A. J- War- 
ren, Airs. Lamona's Iirother, taught the lower 
grades in a somewhat larger room. Among 
my pupils were the Ellis girls, Ida, now Mrs. 
S. Heath, Ollie, who married A. E. Keats, 
since dead. Perry Lamcina and Winnie, she 
who is now Mrs. Fruit, Belle Dawson and her 
sister Eva, Ed. Whinery, Frank Waterhouse, 
JMinnie Morgan, now Mrs. Josie Clark, Mrs. 
Cannon's daughter. Judge Nash's son, Frank, 
E. Hyde, Julia A. Post, Alice P. Wagner and 
her sisters, Eva and Edith, James Stafford, Ed. 
Robinson, Louella, Zillah and Lue Parker. As 
a wh(ile, I think the school was a success and I 
have a very warm interest in everyone who was 
my pupil. The school continued to grow so 
that in the fall of 1883 there was an enrollment 
of two hundred scholars, necessitating four 

The second public school building was 
erected in 1883 on the present site of the high 
school building, which has been referred to in 
another place. The first reliable records availa- 
ble are those of Principal Mattie Hyde, now 
Mrs. J. B. Blalock. residing near Medical Lake, 
who is referred to by early settlers as an ex- 
cellent teacher. Teachers during fall and win- 
ter term, 1882-83, B grammar class, ist, 2nd, 
3rd intermediate, Hattie Hyde; ist, 2nd and 

3rd primary, Ella E. Davenport. School ended 
April 5, 1883. We have the private record of 
\\'. W. Johnson, principal, for the schor)l open- 
ing October 22, 1883. It opened with one hun- 
dred and seventy-four pupils and eight grades 
of study in the new four-room building on the 
present site of the high school. W. A\'. John- 
son, principal ; teacher fourth department. Mat- 
tie Hyde; teacher third department, S. A. Mar- 
iner; teacher second department, Lizzie Hal- 

Prof. L. H. Prather, now judge of the su- 
perior court, succeeded W. W. Johnson as prin- 
cipal and continued until 1886. The Judge 
took up a ranch six miles east of the city and 
often walked both ways from his place to the 
schoolhouse. During his principalship an ad- 
dition was Iniilt to the school house, making it 
a si.x-room building. During the last year it 
became necessary to hire a separate room for 
the primary department. Miss Rose Rice, now 
Mrs. W. B. Turner, one of the Cheney Normal 
School faculty, taught the primary grades a 
part of the time in the Congregational church, 
on Sprague and Bernard, and also in a frame 
building on Post street near Second avenue. 
During the last year of Judge Prather's admin- 
istration the ninth grade of study was pursued. 
.-\mong the early school directors after the 
ones already mentioned we find J. J. Browne, 
who served for about a decade, I. S. Kauffman 
and E. J. Webster. 

In the fall of 1886 Prof. W. B. Turner, 
now principal of Cheney Normal School, be- 
came principal. At the close of the fall term 
there was an enrollment of five hundred and 
twenty-three pupils with seven teachers. In 
the following April the enrollment reached six 
hundred and forty-eight. L'nder Prof. Turner 
was inaugurated a monthly teachers' meeting 
for mutual consultation. At first it was in- 
formal, but gradually developed so that a pro- 
gram was carried mit. the teachers submitting 
papers on school subjects, followed by discus- 
sions. Prof. Jonathan Heaton, now residing in 



this city and in the employ of tlie Hypothee!': 
bank, succeeded Turner as principal in the fall 
of 1887. At the opening there was an enroll- 
ment of seven hundred and fifteen with thirteen 
teachers. The first teachers' meeting under 
Prof. Heaton was held November 8, 1S87. 
The record says, "All teachers present. The 
time was spent in arranging for relief in the 
crowded rooms." The population was increas- 
ing rapidly. The district was dix'ided. A 
school was opened on the north side and several 
churches were used. In the fall of 1888 Prof. 
Bruce Wolverton was elected superintendent 
of schools. The high school system having 
been fully inaugurated, Prof. Heaton was made 
principal thereof, with Miss Kate North as 
assistant. The number of scholars increased 
rapidl}', passing the (jne thousand mark before 
the close of the fall term. ]lut as one of the 
dailies put it, "But with the growth came 
trouble. Politics, selfishness and jjoorly con- 
cealed corruption crept into the pul)lic schools 
in those booming years of 1888 and 1889. 
Quarrels, plots, counterplots and startling 
charges cuhuinated at last in the open charge 
of bribery — the ])lain statement that teachers 
had bought their places and secured iiigh sal- 
aries by playing a commission to certain trustees. 
It was the first cry of "boodle," the beginning of 
that disgraceful era when extravagance, care- 
lessness, fraud, theft and bribery ran riot in the 
public oflices of Spokane. The whole town 
was in ferment. Sides were taken. Charges 
and counter charges were made. Old pupils 
withdrew from the schools in disgust and new 
ones declined to enter till peace should be re- 
stored. The "system of study' went to pieces: 
the pupils lost interest ; the teachers were angry 
and discouraged ; the high school was so near- 
ly deserted that soiue thought it might as well 
be abandoned as a needless expense." 

We are compelled to confess that it took 
about a decade before the people began to ex- 
hibit genuine interest in educational -matters 
on school election day. As an illustration of 

this, we find that at the election on November 
5, 1887, for one director for a term of three 
\'ears. and a clerk for a term of one year, twen- 
ty-eight votes were cast for director and ninety- 
nine for clerk. P. D. Michael was elected di- 
rector and W. F. Edwards, clerk. But the fol- 
low ing year there w'as a revival of interest and 
the election was a lively one. A number of 
conveyances were employed in carrying citi- 
zens to the polling place at the central school, 
\\here the high school is now located. The 
women availed themselves of their voting pre- 
rogative and turned out in large numliers, so 
that five hundred and eighty-one ballots were 
cast. F. M. Spain was elected director and 
Richard Miles, clerk. It resulted in a war with 
Spain, which has not been recorded in general 

Spokane lost some of the best teachers it 
ever had at this time. It was well said that 
Spokane diil not need the great fire of 1889 
to demoralize its public schools. Fortunately 
an experienced educator passed through this 
; city, wiio was known to some of the teachers. 
F(e was called to the position of superintendent 
and accepted it. In the fall of 1889 Prof. D. 
Bemiss took charge of the schools Then was 
ushered in a period of reorganization, harmony 
and progress. There were many difficulties to 
Ix- faced and great obstacles to be surmounted. 
There were nearly two thousand pupils, with 
a seating capacity for about six hundred. The 
superintendent took hold of the work with com- 
mendable courage. The studies were systema- 
tized and made more thorough, and the corps 
of teachers increased. The needs increased 
with the population. Major E. A. Routhe, 
president of the board of education, in his 1890 
report states the needs to be four large w^ard 
school houses and a large central building for 
the high school. It was found that two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars over the tax 
le\y was needed to provide the necessary ac- 
commodations. The people voted to issue bonds 
for that amount. The central building for the 



high school, costing ninety thousand dollars, 
and six ward buildings, costing twenty-nine 
thousand dnllars each, were erected. They 
were all given historical names, the first ward, 
"Lincoln." second ward, "Franklin" antl "Lo- 
gun," third ward. "Bryant" and "Bancroft." 
fciurth ward. "Ir\-ing." Scliool houses subse- 
(juently erected have been given the names of 
prominent American citizens, namely : Edi- 
son, Emerson. Longfellow. W'hittier, (irant. 
Lowell. W'ashington. Hawthorne, and (l;ir- 


The high school building is one of the 
handsomest in the state. The location is ad- 
mirable and the architecture in accordance with 
the most modern and approved ideas. It is well 
lighted and ventilated, heated with steam and 
thijroughly furnished and equipped. There is 
a large auditorium in the third story and also 
a spacious room filled with the hand-work of 
the pupils in drawing, coloring, woodwork, 
botanical and conchological collections, etc. 
Among all the treasures found in this room the 
most highly prized, i)erhaps, are three great 
medals l)earing the name of Spokane public 
schools and the seal of the great Columbian 
exposition; and with them is this letter — the 
greatest treasure "f all: 

United States. 

Department L. — Lilieral Arts, 16,095. 
Exhibit : School work. 
Exhibitor. — Spokane public schools. Ad- 
dress, Spokane, Washington. 
Group 149. — Class 150. 


First. — ^General excellence in all branches 
and great amount of meritorious primary and 
elaborate slate work. 

Second. — Special excellence and thorough 
work of the kindergartens : 

I bird. — Original designs in oil cloths and 
wall i)aper: sujierior carving from native 
wood: superior relief maps and maps in black 
and white; and two superior pieces of work 
representing the high school building and the 
ship "Santa Maria." Mrs. E. P. Farr, 

Individual Judge. 
Approved : K. Buenz, 

Pres. l^epartment Com. 
Appro\ed : Jmix Boyd Tii.-vciier, 

Chmn. Executive Com. on Awards. 
Dated June 25. 1894. 


All school buildings, seventeen in number, 
have been erected within the last thirteen years. 
They would be considered an ornament to any 
metroplis and can hardly be paralleled in any 
other city of the size in the land. Nearly five 
years ago the superintendent, directors and 
teachers inaugurated a movement to ])rovi(le 
libraries for the different school buildings. 
Since that time some thousands of books have 
been gathered, nearly all the schools having a 
collection of standard works which prove es- 
pecially profitable to the scholars. In the year 
1898 the free text-book system was adopted, 
which gives, we believe, universal .satisfaction. 
It is gratifying to be alile to record that the 
people of this city as a whole have been in 
favor of everything that tends to promote edu- 
cational interests. Accordingly, the superin- 
tendent, directors and teachers have had the 
heartv support of the people in doing their ut- 
most in order that the schools may keej) pace 
with the progress of the city, in facilities, build- 
ings and courses of study. The natural re- 
sult has been that the methods of instruction 
and discii)line have been constantly improving. 
Spokane is recognized to-day as having superior 
educational advantages. The rising generation 
can commence their education in the kinder- 
garten, which was iiUroduced three years ago. 
and recei\e thorough preparations for college the public school system. 




The Spokane higli school is not to be com- 
pared with those of smaher towns. It is no 
exaggeration to say that it will compare favor- 
ably with those of the larger cities, such as Salt 
Lake, Seattle and Portland. This is the testi- 
mony of President Penrose, of Whitman Col- 
lege, and President Graves, of State University, 
and others who have made careful investiga- 
tion. The graduates are granted admission 
without examination into the best colleges and 
universities. Some of them have taken high 
l^laces in Whitman College, Pullman Agricult- 
ural College and School of Sciences, Leland 
Stanford, ^Minnesota and Harvard Universi- 
ties. It is to-day, with its five hundred students 
and faculty of fourteen well selected teachers, 
a great institution whereof the citizens can 
justly be proud. 

Although the primary object of the school 
is never lost sight of. the discipline and 
training of the mind, nevertheless the teachers 
are not unmindful of the importance of healthy 
and \igorous bodies. The athletic tendency is 
encouraged. Physical culture is promoted 
by a system of calisthenics. The spirit of pa- 
triotism is promoted by the floating of the 
United States flag from the tower of every 
school house. The Chronicle well said : 
"Neither energy nor time is wasted on useless 
and foolish experiments ; nor is there any hes- 
itation to adopt an improved idea or method 
simply because it is new. The same wise judg- 
ment has been exhibited in the selection of the 
corps of teachers. While no needless changes 
are made and many of the present instructors 
have been engaged in Spokane's public schools 
for five, six and seven years, the standard of 
excellence is constantly advancing, and all are 
required, by hard work and constant study, to 
keep fully abreast of the times. There is no 
difficulty in securing the best of talent. Hun- 
dretls of applications for positions are received 
each year, coming from all portions of the land 
— sometimes twenty ormore for every vacancy." 

During the superintendency of Prof. Be- 
miss the teachers pursued a course of profes- 
sional study under his direction covering nearly 
the full course of pedagogy. 

Under the superintendency of Prof. Bemiss 
genuine harmony existed in the board of edu- 
cation, and his efforts to improve conditions 
were heartily approved. Robert Abernethy, 
as president of the board, in his report for 1892, 
says: "We have reason to feel proud of the 
schools of our city, and what they are accom- 
plishing. Our corps of teachers are doing good 
work, and cannot be excelled by a like number 
aiiyw here. Superintendent Bemiss is up with 
the times, and has placed our educational 
course in the front rank where it keeps pace 
with all modern improvements in the line of 
education." It is also pleasant to note that 
the superintendent was always ready to give 
due credit to the teachers, as in the 1892 report : 

"Theteachershavebeen faithful to the trusts 
assumed, and have worked with a will to se- 
cure the best results possible. 

"The improved tone of the school room, the 
increase in attendance on the number enrolled, 
and the higher grade of scholarship secured 
attest the efficiency of their work. 

"The ability to interest and instruct, to fur- 
nish the right kind of aid at the proper time, to 
lead the pupil to master his own difficulties, 
to awaken a desire for better and higher attain- 
ments, is the mark of the competent workman. 

"That a good degree of success in the above 
lines has Ijeen attained, is evidenced by the char- 
acter of the work developed and placed on exhi- 
bition in the different school buildings, and by 
the increased interest manifested by the pa- 
trons of the school." 

We believe the following, in the report of 
1892, is worthy of insertion: 

"Conchology. — Mrs. Mary P. Olney, re- 
siding on Ninth a\enue, has arranged and gen- 
erously donated to the high school, five hun- 
dred specimens of mollusca. This fine gift 
has been placed in the exhibit room of the high 



school building. Mrs. Olney is an expert con- 
chologist herself, having been formerly con- 
nected with the Rochester Society of Natural 
Sciences, and a corresponding member of all 
the leading eastern academies of science, in- 
cluding the Smithsonian Institute. Under her 
leadership and instruction, a number of the 
teacliers of Spokane schools have formed 
themselves into a class for the study of shells." 
Mrs. Olney is not able to do as much now 
as in past years on account of advanced age, 
but her interest is as genuine as ever it was. 

During 1893-94 manual training was in- 
troduced and developed in quite a satisfactory 
nianner under Prof. E. J. Faust. In his re- 
port he says : "I take pardonable pride in re- 
porting on the work done in this department 
during the year past. At the beginning of the 
year, the large spacious apartment in the base- 
ment of the high school building was fitted up 
into a wood-working shop, a section of which 
was utilized for a draughting department. 
Working benches have been put up to accom- 
modate sixteen boys at a time, while a number 
of girls enlisted themselves for a course in 
wood-carving. The board of education de- 
serves much praise in showing itself so liberal 
in the cause of manual training, for the gener- 
ous provisions it has given to its furtherance. 
The shop has been amply equipped with the best 
of tools, to which subsequently has been added 
a combination lathe with circular saw and 
scroll-saw. All the pupils supplied themselves 
with drawing boards, set-squares and draught- 
ing instruments, and the work was beguii. In- 
struction in mechanical drawing, shop instruc- 
tion, and work at the bench alternated through- 
out the year. The work at the bench consisted 
in light carpentry and joinery. Lessons were 
given on the structure of wood, the principles 
of the different tools and their action, lining 
and measuring, the framing-square and its 
uses, all of which was practiced in graded ex- 
ercises and in preparing wood for use. In 
mechanical drawing the pupils were taught the 

principles of working-drawings, their techni- 
calities and conventionalities until they could 
readily read and execute working-sketches 
and working-drawings. The time spent by the 
boys in the work shop was devoted by the girls' 
class to wood-carving. The pupils first went 
through a series of graded exercises, and after 
acquiring a knowledge of the handling of the 
tools, passed on to the carving of frames and 
panels in oak and walnut, and articles of use — 
designs being taken either from plaster casts 
or cuts, or originating their own. So great 
has been the love for work, that it was almost 
? daily occurrence to find them busy long after 
hours." It is to be regretted that lack of funds 
has necessitated the discontinuance of this 
important department of work for some time. 
But it is well known that the superintendent 
and directors are hearty believers in its utility, 
and that it will be resumed as soon as the treas- 
ury will justify it. 


The superintendent's report for 1894 re- 
fers to the organization of the "Spokane Sci- 
entific Society," for the purpose of prosecuting 
the study of the sciences. Though not a part 
of the school work the membership is largely 
made up of the teachers of the public schools. 
The society was organized primarily through 
the efforts of Mrs. Mary P. Olney, the conchol- 
ogist. The following were the first officers 
and leaders : D. Bemiss, president ; Miss Eli- 
zabeth Hawley, vice-president; Roy H. Clarke, 
secretary; Mrs. E. L. Hard, treasurer; Mrs. 
Mary P. Olney, custodian. Leaders of sub- 
sections are : Conchology, Mrs. Mary P. Ol- 
ney; botany, Miss Kate B. Reed; physics, J. B. 
Walker ; entomology. Miss Maggie C. Brown ; 
geologv, Roy H. Clarke. The members of the 
sub-sections meet for study and investigation 
and the entire body holds monthly sessions, 
when lectures are delivered on scientific sub- 
jects. This society has not been as active dur- 
ing recent years as it once was. This is attrib- 



iitable in i)art to the fact that the (hities of 
teachers become more and more exacting. 

Tlie report of Superintendent D. Bemiss. at 
the close of the scliool year in 1898, is so much 
in the nature of a reveiw of the progress of the 
city schools during his administration of nine 
years, that we deem it advisable to submit 
herewith copious extracts therefrom. He saj^s: 

"The past year has been the most prosper- 
ous one in tlie history of our schools smce my 
connection with them as superintendent, now 
in my tenth year of service. 

"Nine years ago a six-room frame building 
and a four-room brick building were the only 
school houses within the then city limits. A 
church basement and two or three rented store 

rooms completed the school accommodations. 
Fifteen teachers were sufficient to instruct the 
youth of the city. 

"Today there are ten brick and three frame 
school houses with a seating capacity for four 
thousand five hundred children. A corps of 
one hundred and four teachers is employed 
to give instruction, and more will be needed 
in the immediate future. 

"The completeness of our school equip- 
ment and the character of the school work are 
matters of surprise to our eastern friends." 

The rapid development of our school sys- 
tem is best exhibited by the following table of 
comparative statistics covering a period of nine 
vears. from 1880 to June, i8q8: 










Population of city 










School census between live 

and twenty-one years 










Whole number enrolled... 










Number received by transfer 










Numb'rreceived less transfer 










Whole number boys enrolled 










Whole numbergirls enrolled 










Total number days attend- 

ance by all the children. . 










Average number belonging. 










Average daily attendance.. 










Per cent of attendance on 

number belonging 





95 62 





Number days of school. . . . 










No. visitors exclusive of those 

attending special exercises 

of the school 










Number of suspensions. . . . 










Average number of days by 

each child on enrollment. 






i;i5 38 




Total number of teachers. . . 










During the previous year there had been a 
change in the principalship of the high school. 
Prof. J. W. Walker, a teacher of good parts, 
after seven years of efficient service, was stic- 
ceeded by Prof. C. S. Kingston. The superin- 
tendent refers to the new principal in the fol- 
lowing commendable terms: "Prof. Kingston 
and his corps of assistants have ably dis- 
charged the duties assigned each, and unitedly 
liave made for our high school department the 
past year, an enviable record." 

He refers to the Normal Training School 
as follows: "Inorder to afford opportunities for 
professional work, and to open the way for the 
employment of more of our graduates, as well 
as to secure experienced workmen, the training 
school was established at the beginning of the 
l)resent school year. We must either shut 
our doors altogether against the employment 
of our graduates, or take them without pro- 
fessional training and develop them at the e.x- 
pense of the pupils, or afford the means through 



the training school for their proper equipment. 
The board chose the last plan, and we believe 
wisely. A two years' course of study and 
practice has been established for this school. 
The first year the graduate, or junior cadet, 
observes the work of other teachers, takes 
charge of occasional classes, and is assigned 
such other practical duties as may from time 
to time arise. In addition to this practice 
work, the junior cadet receives special instruc- 
tion from the training teacher in metlinils, and 
in school management, also work along the 
lines of music, drawing, and other special 
studies. The junior cadet receives no compen- 
sation. After the graduate has served one 
year as junior cadet, or if a graduate of a nor- 
mal school, without other experience, he is 
ranked as senior cadet, and is placed in charge 
of a room on half salary. Advanced instruc- 
tion in methods and school management con- 
tinues. The history of education and other 
pedagogical studies are required. A training 
teacher is given in charge of six cadets, a junior 
and senior cadet being placed in each scho(jl 

Another forward mo\-ement is referred to. 
\iz. : the Kindergarten : '"The present year 
has marked another onward step in the educa- 
tional progress of our schools. The board, at 
the solicitation of the ladies of the kindergar- 
ten associations, and other patrons, voted to 
adopt the kindergarten as part of the school 
system of the city. Tv.-o schools were opened. 
It was somewhat in the nature of an experiment 
— the future development of the plan depending 
on the degree of success attained by the initial 
schools." Later reports will show that the 
movement met an urgent need. 

In his report of 1892 Superintendent Bemiss 
urged the importance of providing school li- 
braries at the earliest possible time. Here are 
some of his wholesome expressions: "If you 
can direct the reading of the rising generation 
you control in a large measure their future. 
One of the most powerful forces exerted 

through the schools, when they are properly- 
equipped with books, is that exerted through the 
selection of elevating and inspiring literature." 
In his report for 1898 he is able to say: "This 
year Spokane has made an effective beginning 
in the matter of securing libraries for nearly all 
of our school buildings. Prof. J. Heaton, chair- 
man of the library committee, and member of 
the board of directors, secured the passage of 
a resolution by the board early in the school 
year offering to duplicate any and all sums of 
money raised by any school in the city for the 
purchase of books for a library. Stimulated 
by this offer, the dift'erent schools arranged 
various plans for raising funds. The result 
has been that all our larger schools and two of 
the small ones have a nucleus of a library al- 
ready collected in their resjiective buildings. 
The teachers in each building made out a list 
of desirable books and sent said list to the com- 
mittee on library appointed by the board. 

"This committee went over these lists care- 
fully in revision and ordered selections from 
them for the dift'erent schools. Commodious 
book cases have been placed in each building 
for the proper preservation of the books. A 
librarian was chosen by the teachers for each 
school and a system of drawing similar to that 
used in the city library was adopted, and the 
books put in circulation." The total number 
of books in all the school libraries at that time 
\\ere 2.075. The number at present, as esti- 
mated by Secretary Thomas, is 3,500. 

After a decade of efficient ministration 
Prof. Bemiss resigned the superintendency of 
the city public schools in the spring of the year 
1899. The board was especially fortunate in 
being alile to secure as his successor a man of 
broad culture, extensive experience and high 
ideals, in the person of Prof. J. F. Saylor, of 
Lincoln. Nebraska. He has already exhibited 
a tact and wisdom that has elicited general sat- 
isfaction. In one of his latest reports he says: 
'T fintl that the i)rincipals are growing more 
careful in the direction of close supervision. 



They are rendering the superintendent greater 
aid by being able to inform him on more definite 
points of information wliicli he asks continually, 
touching the work of various rooms. The plea 
that I made last fall when I asked for larger 
time for supervision by the principals was that, 
being in the building they could get closer up 
the work of each teacher, and be more helpful 
to the teacher, and at the same time more help- 
ful to the superintendent than if he had an as- 
sistant in the office. I have been pleased with 
the work so far done, and the willingness of the 
principals to assume responsibility, and I feel 
sure I shall be able to report growing efficiency 
in these directions in the future as experience 
comes to them. Generally speaking, the in- 
structional work of the teachers is good, and 
the work of discipline satisfactory." 

General Report of Secret.^ry. July 1, IMiO. 

General expenses 8 17,2(!4 64 

Buildings and grounds 62,615 76 

Salaries of teachers 80,544 03 

Total 8160,424 43 

RESOURCES, July 1, 1899. 

Buildines and grounds $613,451 52 

Furniture 28,962 41 

Apparatus 2,593 66 

Library and text books 11.522 02 

Uncollected taxes 75,328 71 

Cash on hand — treasurer 33,077 39 

Cash on hand— secretary 98 25 

Total 5764,902 96 


Bonds outstanding §300,000 00 

Accrued interest on bonds 1,250 UO 

Warrants outstanding 129,8^7 99 

Interest estimated 3.600 00 

Total S-1;M,737 99 

Excess resources over liabilities 330,164 97 

CENSUS report— 1899. 

Male 3,065 

F emale 3,223 

Total 6,288 

Total enrollment 5.401 

Average attendance 3,773 

Cost per pupil, average attendance S.33.16 

Cost per [lupil, total enrollment 23.16 


Enrollment, of which 509 in high school 5,881 

In kindergarten department 840 

Total 6,721 

Number of teachers— high school, 14; other grades, 

llS; kindergarten, 13; total 145 

Numl)er of school buildmgs 16 


1891 — Officers: Robert Abernethy, presi- 
dent; J. J. Browne, vice-president; Geo. E. 
Cole, treasurer; L. B. Cornell, secretary; D. 
Bemiss. superintendent. Members : E. H. 
Bartlett, Robert Abernethy, J. E. Everhart, 
J. J. Browne, Mark F. Mendenhall. 

1893 — Officers: J- J- Browne, president; 
Mark F. Mendenhall, vice-president; D. S. 
Prescott, treasurer; J. B. Sargent, secretary; 
D. Bemiss, superintendent. Members : J. J- 
Browne, Mark F. Mendenhall, C. A. Grier, C. 
L. Knapp. G. H. Whittle. 

1897 — Officers: W. M. Shaw, president; 
F. L. Daggett, vice-president ; George Mudgett, 
treasurer; E. A. Thomas, secretary; D. Bemiss, 
superintendent. Members : W. M. Shaw, J. 
Heaton, J. D. Hinkle, W. W. Waltman, F. L. 

1900 — Officers: J. D. Hinkle, president; 
F. L. Daggett, vice-president; C. M. Fassett, 
W. C. Sivyer, J. M. Raught; E. A. Thomas, 
secretary. J. F. Saylor, B. S., superintendent; 
office, high school building. 

TEACHERS, 1900. 

High School. — C. S. Kingston, Kate B. 
Reed, Olive B. Jones, Francis E. R. Linfield, 
Etta L. Reed, Mattie E. Libby, Margaret C. 
Brown, I. C. Libby, W. C. Stone, S. P. Car- 
michael. J. A. Mitchell, J. L. Dunn, Helen 
Dow, J. E. Buchanan. 

Bancroft School. — Ida M. W'hitson, Lida 
Shipley, Edith Jackson, Mary Armitstead, Au- 
gusta Robbins, Nora Cusick, Ella L. Stewart, 
Alida C. W'oolsey, Fannie Thayer, Bertha 
Maynadier. Winifred Walbridge. 



Bryant School. — Florence N. Kent, Jessie 
Borden, Hester C. Sonles, Bertha Archer, Mol- 
he Thuneman, Carrie Brakefield, Kate Grant, 
Edith L. Boyd, Margaret Percival, Sadie Blair, 
Edna L. Harris, Edith Spees, Alma Wiese, 
Fannie Scott, Harriette E. Gunn, Mary David- 

'Franklin School. — Caroline Mackay, Mag- 
gie I. Blair, Ida Maguire, Mattie Dobbins, May 
Mailer, Zella Bisbee, Rosa Grace Cusick, Fan- 
nie B. Day, Jessie Wolcott, Lunetta Baker, 
Mary E. Ganahl. 

Edison School. — Sarah S. Otis, Meb B. 
Tower, Maud Miller, Flora Schroeder, C. A. 
Perkins, Anna Johnston, Maud Merriman, 
Ethel J. Case, Theda M. Tower, Lillie Rogers. 

Emerson School. — Lida Putnam, Grace 

Garfield School. — Z. Stewart, Lillian Sieg- 
ler, Elva D. Smith, Florence Langtry, Mabel 
Gundlach, Lena E. Witt, Mary L. Spencer, 
Mattie Moore, Mae Evans, Harriett Fellows. 

Grant School. — Emily L. Hard, Nettie Rea, 
Myrtle Nosier, Minnie Maloney. 

Haivthorne School. — Anne E. Jackson, 
Kate P. Thatcher, Josie M. McHugh, Ellen M. 

Evers, Lizzie Gutzler, Eleanor M. Shaw, Josie 
H. Bush, Emma Patton, Ida Abbott, Robina 
Megannon, Bessie Startsnian, Mary L. Burns, 
Pauline P. Graves, Lulu E. Dunn, Estelle Pur- 
inton, Sophia Kiesling, Virginia K. Hayward, 
Aurelia Mann, Henrietta Flournoy. 

Irving School. — H. T. Coleman, Margaret 
Sampson, Cassie Cothron, Bertha M. Coleman, 
Helen Samson, Grace E. Bell, Julia E. Dolman, 
Mattie K. Burns, Data Rothrock. 

Lincoln School. — Mary A. Monroe. Elean- 
or McClincy, Blanche B. Howell, May I. Mor- 
rison, Lucy F. Dean, Florence Poole, Emma 
Boyer, Meta Gerboth, Maggie Jiloore. 

Longfellow School. — Letha Putnam, Emily 
B. Percival. 

Lozi'ell School. — F. J. Hollingworth, Mar- 
garet McDouall. 

Washington School. — F. V. Yeager, Sara 
F. Archer, Alice Lockhart, Charlotte Stewart, 
Alice M. Adams, Emma G. Clagett, Clara 
Mader, Charlotte Beckwith, Louise Fisher, 
May Boydston, Irene Selfridge. 

Preparatory. — Ida A. Smith, ]\Iartha E. 

U'hittier School. — Anna Foristal. 



[This chapter was written under the super- 
intendency of the Verv Rev. Leopold Van 
Gorp, S. J., general superior of Indian Mis- 
sions, Gonzaga College.] 

That the Catholic church is no enemy to 
true progress and civilization, nay rather, that 
she begets and fosters them, is a fact patent to 
every unprejudiced reader of truthful history. 
While this is true of all times and countries. 

still it is more strikingly manifested in the his- 
tory of our own glorious country, a circum- 
stance that may be accounted for by the fact 
that that history is better known to us. No 
sooner had the new world been discovered 
than Catholic missionaries hastened to join 
each new expedition, in order to gain to Christ 
and t(i civilization the benighted .savages that 
roamed tln-<iugh the vast extent of America. 



While they accompanied the explorers to our 
coasts, they did not return with them to Eu- 
rope ; for they came not to amass treasures, not 
to achieve the conquest of a new world, hut 
they came to win to Christ the souls of the 
aborigines ; they came to make them Christian, 
aye, and ci\'ilized Christians. 

The reduction of Paraguay, perhaps tlie 
nearest approach to the realization of Moore's 
Utopia that history has e\-er recorded, is a 
proof of what the Catholic church, through 
her missionaries, can and did effect when un- 
hampered by blighting influences. That we 
have not had the pleasure of seeing the same 
marvelous results in North America is due to 
the odds against which the missionaries in our 
parts have ever had to contend. Yet the re- 
sults liave in many cases Ijcen must gratifying, 
as will be inciilentally shown in the course of 
this article. 

I have premised these remarks merelv by 
way of introduction, for I well know that the 
jjcople of the great Northwest have seen too 
much of the civilizing and i)rogressive spirit 
of the Catholic church to ])e decei\ed bv any 
specious sophistry. They know that the mis- 
sionaries worked side by side with the hardy 
pioneers who built up the city of which we are 
so justly proud. For, as a writer in the Exposi- 
tion Journal, published here in 1890, for the 
Northwest Exposition, has written, "the great 
men whi> built up Spokane bear testimony that 
the Catholic priest is no enemy t<_) ci\'ilizalii)n 
or true progress." 

To come then to m_\- task of narrating the 
history of the Catholic church in Spiikane cmm- 
ty, I will divide my sketch into three parts, cor- 
responding to the three different fields of labor 
which the Catholic church at all times aims to 
cultivate. In the first of these I will treat of the 
work of the church proper, that is, of its evan- 
gelical work : secondly, I will treat of what 
it has done for etlucation : antl finallv of the 
charitable institutions which it has estab- 


To obtain anything like a complete history 
of the Catholic church in S])okane count\-. I 
must, like the topographer, that would map out 
the course of a ri\er, go back to its very source 
where perhai)s it is but a bubbling spring; then 
tracing it along its windings, narrow at first, 
but ever and anon swelled by some new rivulet, 
adding its waters with it, till at last we find it 
a river deep antl wide. I do this all the more 
readily, as besides giving completeness to my 
article, it is the express wisli of the members 
of the Pioneer Association, under whose aus- 
pices this work is being gotten up, tiiat ample 
justice be done to those pioneer missionaries 
who shared with them all tiie trials which fall 
to the lot of the first settlers, nay, who even 
prepared the way for them and by their infiu- 
ence over tiie red men made it possible for the 
whites to li\e without undue alarm amid the 
aborigines. It is a tribute of gratitude and a 
del)t of justice we owe these first evangelists 
of the great Northwest; for death has called 
many of them to the reward of tiieir labors, 
the rapid march of progress has left their first 
mission-stations mere land marks; and our 
children born and bred amid the blessings pur- 
chased l)y the toilsome labors of our pioneers, 
might, deceived by prejudiced minds, belie fhe 
men and belittle the work of those whom their 
fathers respected and revered. 

Fn)m what source then did the Catholic 
church in Spokane county take its rise? To 
ans\ver this question correctly it must be noted 
that Catholicity found its way into this part of 
the Northwest from two different directions. 

As we well know, from \ery early days 
traders and trappers, principally in the employ 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, were in the 
habit of coming to hunt or rather to barter with 
the Rocky Mountain Indians. As time went 
on, not a few of these men made homes iox 
themselves in these then western wilds, gener- 
ally feirming a little settlement, protected by a 





rude fort erected by the company ; others inter- 
married with the Indians, while others, stiU, 
brouglit wife and family to share their rugged 
life. JNIost of these men were French Canadians 
and Catholics. As their numbers increased they 
repeatedly asked the ecclesiastical authorities 
in Canatla to send them a priest to minister to 
their spiritual wants, and it was in reply to their 
reiterated requests that late in the fall of 183S, 
F. N. Blanchet and Rev. ]\Iodest Demers come 
in by way of Coh"ille, having come on one of 
the Hudson's Bay Company's boats. They at 
once began the work for which they were sent, 
and in the same year bai)tized some and mar- 
ried others. 1 he\- did not remain long at Fort 
Coh-ille, but pushed on into what is now the 
state of Oregon. Father Blanchet's labors were 
chiefly in Oregon, of which he became the first 

. However in the following year, 1839, Fa- 
ther Demers again visited Colville on his way 
to New Caledonia, and beside his ministra- 
tions to the French Canadians he instructed 
and baptized a few Indians. But the rise of 
the Catholic church in Spokane county, is not 
to be traced to this source. I have before me 
an account which appeared in a Spokane paper 
a few years ago stating that the above men- 
tioned Fathers "baptized the first Indian con- 
verts to the faith in this territory with the wa- 
ter of the Spokane river." To these last words 
I take exception, as I ha\-e the most reliable 
manuscript and find nothing to corroborate this 
statement : at least if these Fathers ever baptized 
with the waters of the Spokane it must have 
been near its outlet into the Columbia, as their 
labors in these parts were always in that vi- 

Hence we must trace the rise of Catholic- 
ity in what is now Spokane county, to another 
source, namely to the Jesuit missionaries who 
worked their way westward from St. Louis. 

When Fathers Jogues, Brebouf, and Lalle- 
ment. all of the Society of Jesus, were mar- 
tvred in cantons of the fierce clans which 

formed the Five Nations of New York state, 
little did they know,' as they fell beneath the 
blows of their cruel torturers, how truly would 
be verified in their case the Christian adage 
"the blood of martyrs is the seed of the church." 
But it is to them, as to the welling spring from 
which a river takes its rise, that we must re- 
trace our steps if we would find the real source 
of the Catholic church in Spokane. 

The story is too well known and has been 
so accurately and completely told by Rev. L. 
B. Palladino in his "Indian and White in the 
Northwest," that' it suftices here to say that 
a few converted Iroquois found their way to 
the Flatheads of Montana, into which tribe 
they were admitted. Here they used daily to 
pray the prayers taught them in their distant 
homes near the Great Lakes, and no doubt often 
when gathered round the campfire did they tell 
the Flatheads of the Black Gowns, of those who 
had been sacrificed by the mad fury of their 
sires, and of those who, ihidaunted by the fate 
of their predecessors, came to continue the 
good work and to reap the harvest that had 
been sown and watered with blood. So eagerly 
did they listen to these recitals, and so greatly 
did the desire of having the Black Gowns come 
and live in their midst take possession of the 
Flatheads that they sent a deputation of four 
to St. Lijuis, in the spring of 1831. All ar- 
rived safely, but Duly after indescribable suf- 
ferings, sufferings even too great for human 
endurance, two of the party dying shortly after 
their arriwil. The)' were buried at St. Louis, 
but not before being baptized. The after fate 
of the other two is unknown. This deputa- 
tion was f(jlIowed in 1835, '^>' ^'""^ ^'i^'t to St. 
Louis of one of the Iroquois, frinn among the 
Flatheads, accompanied by his two sons. But 
beyond the fact that the two boys were bap- 
tized and all reached the Flathead country 
again in safety, no permanent results followed. 
Undismayed by the failure of their first depu- 
tation, another party set out in 1837. for St. 
Louis, to iiear the petition of the Flatheads to 



the Black Gowns, but the whole party perished 
at the hands of savage foes. After long 
waiting for their noble five to return, the Flat- 
heads easily surmised what had been their fate 
when the weeks lengthened into months and 
the months into years, and yet they came not. 
But with a courage and determination, never 
sufficiently to be praised, two more oif'ered 
themselves in 1839 to undertake the perilous 
journey. These were Pierre Gaucher and 
young Ignace, both of Iroquois blood. This 
expedition was, as we know, crowned with 
success, as it was in company with young Ig- 
nace on his return to the west, that Rev. Peter 
De Smet set out, the other Indian having pre- 
ceded him to apprise the Flatheads of their 
coming. Of Father De Smet's journey, safe 
arrival and warm reception among the Fiat- 
heads, who had come many miles eastward to 
meet him, it does not pertain to me to speak. 

Having now found the true source from 
which the Catholic church in Spokane sprung, 
I will confine myself to following its course as 
best I can through the dense, wild forest 
glades through which it wound its course, until, 
gradually widening and deepening, I find it 
running smoothly and majestically in its pres- 
ent well defined course. 

It would oblige me to desert this my plan to 
follow Father De Smet in his journey from the 
Flathead country eastward to St. Louis, where 
he went to obtain men to aid iiim in his work. 
It suffices for our purpose to note that on this 
first trip to the Rockies Father De Smet heard 
that he had been preceded in the Northwest by 
I'athers Blanchet and Demers and he man- 
aged to communicate with them by letter. 

In 1 84 1, after Father De Smet had laid the 
foundation of St. Mary's mission, ^Montana, 
he set out for Fort Colville, Washington, going 
there to obtain seed for the first farm land 
ever broken in IMontana. This trip is of interest 
and bears directly on my article, for here it is 
that some have been led into error by believing 
that Father De Smet visited Spokane on this 

trip. But there is nothing to substantiate such 
a conclusion. It is true that he profited by the 
trip to visit the Kalispels, Pend d' Oreilles and 
Cctur d" Alene Indians, baptizing in all one 
hundred and ninety. But neither Father De 
Smet in his letters, nor any of the early Fa- 
thers who ha\e written in brief the history of 
this time, make mention of the Spokanes. Be- 
side, the purpose of the Father's trip required 
Ir.m to l)e expeditious and not tarry too long on 
the road for the peed he went for was needed for 
the coming spring, as the Fathers wanted to 
liave sometiiing to subsist upon and not have to 
depend on the Indians or provisions brought 
from a distance for their maintenance. Besides, 
it was of paramount importance to instruct the 
Indians in farming and thus make them give 
uj) their nomadic life, for apart from its civiliz- 
ing influence, it would be almost impossible to 
instruct the Indians in the sublime truths of 
Christianity, if they could only be gathered to- 
gether now and then. Moreover their minds 
would be in no condition for instruction if 
continually dissipated by the chase. Father 
De Smet returned from Colville with a few 
bushels of oats, wheat and potatoes. When 
spring time came the Indians marveled to see 
the Father tearing up the bosom of the earth, 
as they would say, spoiling the grass, which 
was good for their ponies, and putting in the 
ground to rot what was good to eat. The whole 
process of plowing, sowing and planting was 
strange to them, but they watched it all with 
curiosity. But when they were told the seed 
just planted would, after rotting in the ground, 
germinate and reproduce itself, they smiled and 
gave expression to their disbelief by significant 
aspirations. Still, anxious to see what would 
l:appen, they used to come and perch on the 
fence awaiting developments ; happily the crop 
succeeded \-ery well and they were made par- 
takers of it, much to their delight. This was the 
first attempt at agriculture in Montana, and 
by this practical lesson the Indians were taught 
the advantages of tilling the soil. 



That same spring, 1842, Father De Sn\et 
again turned his face westward and set out to 
visit Very Rev. F. N. Blanchet and Father 
Demers, both of whom he met for the first time 
at St. Paul on the Willamette. The murdered 
Archbishop Segers has left in his writings a 
touching account of this meeting of the Catholic 
Triumvirate of the Northwest, an account he 
received from Father Demers himself. These 
three heroic men, who had left home and kin, 
and come into these then western wilds, in order 
to be able to minister to the spiritual wants of 
the earliest white settlers and especially to win 
over to God the numerous Indian tribes, ar- 
ranged at their first meeting a plan of work 
and then, like the holy Apostles, they separated 
to carry it out. 

Again the cpiestion can be asked, did Father 
De Smet pass through what is now Spokane 
on this trip? If so he was undoubtedly the first 
Catholic priest who ever visited Spokane. As 
this is a point of real historic interest, I have 
been careful to make it the subject of diligent 
research, and while I find it time and again 
stated in accounts of more recent date that 
Father De Smet came to Spokane in 1842, yet 
in the manuscript of the early missionaries, 
whicli I have at hand, I cannot find this ex- 
pHcitly stated. Still I am inclined to follow 
other recent writers and give Father De Smet 
the honor of being the pioneer priest of Spo- 
kane and to date his first visit as to have been 
in 1842, and I am led to this decision by the 
following reasons : Because one of the oldest 
missionaries yet living, in reply to the question, 
who was the first priest who came to Spokane, 
said, "Father De Smet is supposed to have been 
the first priest that came to Spokane in 1842, 
when on his way to visit Very Rev. F. N. 
Blanchet and Rev. Modest Demers at Will- 
amette- Oregon, f(jr then all the country round 
about Spokane formed the Spokane district of 
Oregon Territory. But he merely passed 
through, as did Fathers Devos, Vercruysse and 
Ravalli a few years afterward on the way to 

Colville." Besides it must be remembered that 
apart from having Willamette as his objective 
point, Father De Smet was trying to get a 
good idea of the field of labor before him, and 
consequently tried to see as many tribes as pos- 
sible. Moreover I have a detailed account of 
a trip made by a missionary several years later, 
going from Colville to the old Cccur d' .\lene 
mission, and in it he speaks distinctly of stop- 
ping at Spokane. This leads me to believe that 
probably this was the common road traveled 
and that Father De Smet also came this way. 
This is the conclusion I have arrived at and the 
motives leading to it, and I doubt if ever any- 
thing more explicit can be said, unless per- 
chance a stray manuscript or letter puts this 
question beyond a doubt. 

In this trip, both going and returning. Fa- 
ther De Smet met the Cieur dWlene tribe, who 
earnestly entreated him to remain among them. 
Unable to accede to their request, he promised 
to send them another Black Gown in the near 

However, seeing the good disposition of 
these Indians and knowing, moreover, that the 
best laid plans oft go amiss, he determined 
to remain three days in their midst and give 
them what instruction he could in so brief a 
space of time. The method he adopted was a 
novel one, and shows how deft he was in 
adapting himself to the exigencies of the case. 
Gathering around him a large circle of the 
young people, especially those who seemed to 
have quick parts, he translated, by means of an 
interpreter, the Lord's Prayer, the Ave, the 
Commandments and several other prayers. To 
each of those who surrounded him he gave one 
sentence of a prayer, or one of the Command- 
ments to commit to memory, which they did 
readilv. These, by dint of repetition, he fastened 
in their minds, so that, keeping the order of 
places and reciting each his or her sentence, the 
entire prayer could be repeated. Thus was the 
zealous missionary enabled, during his short 
stav, to make them acquainted with something 



of the Christian rehgioii at the same time giv- 
ing them a means of keeping np this knowl- 
edge till such a time as a priest could l)e sent to 

Father De Smet was much impressed dur- 
ing his short stay with the good disposition of 
these poor people and also at what seemed 
to him a favorable location of the place for 
founding a permanent settlement, for the 
C'jeur d' Alenes were encamped along the St. 
]oe in the Creur d" Alene valley, which was 
then clothed in all its natural loveliness. 

Father De Smet got back to St. :Mary"s, in 
the Bitter Root valley, Montana, early in July, 
and on the 29th of the same month set out for 
St. Louis, but not before leaving orders that 
Father Nicholas Point, who was then with the 
Flatheads on their buffalo hunt, should on his 
return set out for the Cceur d" Alenes. The 
order was faithfully obeyed, and accompanied 
hy Brother Huet, he arrived in the Cteur d' 
Alene country on the first l'"ri(lay of November, 
1842, and then started the mission of the Sa- 
cred Heart. From a reliable source I learn that 
this Father Point was the first Catholic priest 
who exercised the sacred ministry in what is 
now Spokane county, but just when it was and 
wdiat he did is not stated. 

As the first Citur d' .\lenc mission, or, as 
it is commonly called, the "Old mission," and 
the Colville mission were the two points from 
which Spokane was first attended, it will be 
projier here to give a more detailed account of 
each of these, beginning w ilh that of the "Old 

Coeur d' Alene has become a very common 
name among the people of Spokane, yet how 
few could give the origin of the name. Cer- 
tainly it is not the tribal name of those Indians, 
who now are designated liy it, and from whom 
the lake and the mining district derived the 
same name. Coeur d'Alene, like many other 
names now given liy us to Indian tribes, and 
the part of the countrx' where they will or did 
dwell, is a mere aijpellation or nickname gi\en 

b\- the Canadians of the Hudson's Bay Company. 
These men, in order to designate the different 
trilDes with wliom they came in contact, made 
uj) a name from some peculiarity of the tribe. 
In some cases these names are not at all char- 
acteristic. But probably the few of the tribe 
first met with had such a peculiarity and some 
witty fellow invented the name, which has 
stuck to them ever since. However, the appel- 
lation Cceur d' Alene, meaning awl-like or 
pointed heart, seems to have been somewhat 
aptly bestowed, as in the early days this 
lri!)e was noted for cruelty, was hard to handle, 
and hail a marked aversion for the whites. 
.\s proof of this, it is enough to state that it 
was the only tribe in which the missionaries 
found no half-breeds. The real tril)al name, 
w hich at first was but the name of a band or 
camj). is Schizue, and might be translated into 
English "foundling." 

As I have already stated. Rev. Nicholas 
Point, accompanied by Brother Huet, arrived 
in November, 1842, to start a mission among 
the Cceur d'Alenes on the St. Joe river. But 
the yearly spring inundations soon convinced 
the Fathers that their mission site had not been 
well chosen. So, in 1846, thej' removed to what 
is known as the "Old mission." A rude log 
cabin w as erected to serve as residence, and be- 
sides it a church, if such it could be called, 
was built of cedar bark. Taught by reason 
arid the experience they had had at St. Mary's, 
Montana, the Fathers directed their attention 
to starting a farm, both to have means of sub- 
sistence and to be able to get the Indians more 
concentrated in one part, as well as to restrain 
their wanderings and initiate them in farming. 

The boys were gi\en a home and employed 
on the farm, where they soon became of great 
assistance and took fairly well to this, to them, 
novel kind of life. When the first crop had 
been garnered they were in need of a mill to 
grind their wheat, the coffee-mill which had 
served all such purposes heretofore being in- 
sufficient. So the Brother, bv dint of labor. 



worked two stones into shape, and after taxing 
his ingenuity, started the first grist mill in 
Idaho, which did service for thirty }'ears. Now 
that they had flour, hread, such as it was, soon 
made its appearance, and at once became very 
popular, so much so that the Indians, in order 
to get the little ones t ) behave well, would 
promise to take them to the mission to eat 
"sinkolpo," this being their word for bread. 

In 1S53 the church, which is now a land- 
mark, was begun. Father Ra\alli, who was 
one of those talented men who have the happy 
faculty of succeeding at most anything, de- 
signed the church, which is ninety feet long, 
forty feet wide and twenty-five feet from floor 
to ceiling. Just pause a moment and reflect on 
what an undertaking this was. For workmen 
there were, besides the Father and a Brother, 
only ignorant savages who had never handled 
a tool and never seen a house greater than a 
log-cbin. The materials were in the moun- 
tains, the rocks and the trees. Out of these 
latter had to be fashioned by hand, with the 
rudest kind of tools, twenty-four posts, twenty- 
five feet long by two and a half feet in width 
and the same in thickness; twenty thousand 
feet of boarding, fifty thousand shingles. Then 
there were needed three thousand cubic feet of 
stones for the foundations. All this had to be 
dragged to its place on the hill where the church 
stands, the stones often from a distance of half 
a mile, and some of the timber a whole mile. 
To facilitate transportation rough trucks were 
constructed, and owing to the scarcity of horses 
tliese had often to be dragged by the men. 
Ropes were woA'en by the women out of tall 
grass. But perhaps it will occur to some of 
my readers to ask, how were so many work- 
men paid, especially as the Father was little bet- 
ter off than his neophytes? I imagine I see 
my reader smile when he learns that mush was 
the currency in vogue. At stated hours all who 
were engaged on the building came with their 
bark-platters to receive their portion of good 
thick mush, and went away contented. No 

other complaint was e\-er heard except that now 
and then someone would find fault because too 
much of the mush adhered to the big wooden 
spoon, which served both as ladle and measure. 
At worktime the place presented the ap- 
pearance of a bee-hive, writes the missionary 
from whose manuscrij)! I am taking these de- 
tails. All were at work, children gathering 
long grass, women plaiting the grass into 
ropes, the men at work hewing trees, shajiing 
uprights or boards, or mixing clay to be used 
for plaster. How they ever got the huge, heavy 
uprights into place is more than I can tell. But 
the fact remains. This work was not done 
continuously, as the farm had to be attended 
to and the Indians had to go at stated seasons 
on their hunting and fishing trips. Thus was 
reared the first Catholic church, worthy of the 
name, in our part of the northwest ; and it re- 
mains to-day, though somewhat the worse for 
wear and tear of nearly half a century, as a 
monument to the fervor of this noble tribe and 
the energy of the pioneer missionaries. Apart 
from the religious advantages which resulted 
from having a structure, so grand in Indian 
eyes, erected as a house of prayer to God, the 
erection of this church was far-reaching in its 
results. For it induced the Indians to restrain 
in great part their roving propensities. For 
beside erecting the church the Fathers induced 
the Indians to build some twenty log cabins for 
themselves ; so that the mission began to put on 
the semblance of a village. The Indians began 
to realize what they could do, and the Fathers 
fostered in every way their efforts towards 
self-improvement. They obtained farm im- 
plements, tools and blankets with which they 
paid the labor of the more industrious and 
promising. Thus the Indians had a i)lace to 
which to return after a hunting trip, a place 
that might be called home. The religious fes- 
tivals and the instructions brought them all 
together; and even when they went on their 
hunts they generally left the women and chil- 
dren behind to l)e instructed, and the men 



themselves would not be long absent. And so, 
gently but surely, they were influenced to adopt 
a more civilized manner of life. The young 
men especially were looked to, and several of 
these were given a home at the mission itslf, 
where they were employed principally on the 
farm and in such work as would fit them to 
manage a farm of their own in the near future. 
Thus the building of the church served greatly 
to attain two great results : to destroy the habit 
of roving from place to place, and to induce 
the whole tribe to labor, and this without any 
diminution in their numbers, but rather with a 
slow but constant increase of population. For 
this tribe, which in 1805 was put down by 
Lewis and Clark at two thousand, had been so 
decimated by the frightful ravages of small- 
pox, that at the advent of the missionaries they 
numbered but three hundred and twenty all 
told. They now number four hundred and 

These Indians were in the early days scat- 
tered over a stretch of country having a radius 
of fifty miles. Most of them lived near the 
mission in the log cabins which the Fathers 
had induced them to erect for themselves, some 
were scattered along the Saint Joe river, while 
there was a camp at Spokane bridge. The idea 
of makhig them a united people, of getting 
them well settled on good farm land before 
others would come and take up all the best 
claims — a thing to be expected as soon as the 
railroad would be completed — and the disad- 
vantages of the "Old mission" site, led the 
Fathers to attempt to get the whole tribe to 
settle on Hangman creek, where they now are. 
An account of the difficulties attending this pro- 
ject, first in getting the Indians to consent to 
move, and, harder still, to get them actually 
to move when they had consented to do so, 
as well as the happy results which ensued from 
this change, while they would be of interest, 
still would lead me beyond the limits of this 
present article. With the removal of the 
Fathers from the "Old Mission," the Cceur d' 

Alene mission ceases to be connected with the 
history of the church in Spokane county. 

The other missions whose history is inti- 
mately connected with that of the church in 
Spokane county is the Colville mission. As I 
have already mentioned earlier in this sketch 
the first priests to labor among the Colville In- 
dians were Fathers Blanchet and Demers; and 
more especially the latter, as the former devoted 
himself with untiring zeal to work in what is 
now the state of Oregon and to the archbish- 
opric of which diocese he was deservedly 

I ha\e recorded Father De Smet's first visit 
to Fort Colville. in the early fall of 1842, to 
obtain some supplies for his first foundations 
in Montana. But no permanent station was 
founded until 1844. On July 31st, of that year, 
leather Dc Smet, accompanied by Fathers John 
Nobilli, Michael Accolti, Anthony Ravalli, 
Louis Vercruysee and a lay brother, entered the 
mouth of the Columbia, having set sail from 
Flushing, Holland, December 12, 1843, ^""J 
come by way of Cape Horn. On August 17, 
1844, the party reached St. Paul in the Wil- 
lamette valley. With the approval of Very 
Rev. F. N. Blanchet, the Jesuit Fathers deter- 
mined to establish a sort of central house or 
source of supplies at that place, and according- 
ly a building was erected. It was here, too, 
that for about five years, si.x Sisters of the or- 
der of Notre Dame who had come from Eu- 
rope, persevered under many difficulties in their 
endeavor to establish themselves for the good 
of the Indians, but they finally moved to Cali- 
fornia, where with the discovery of the famous 
mines a larger field was opened for their zeal. 

The residence, established at St. Paul on the 
Willamette, was known as the residence of St. 
Francis Xavier. Here Father De Smet fell 
ill, but soon recovermg, started for the mis- 
sions in Montana, leaving the other Fathers to 
continue the work of building up this station. 
However the experience of a few years proved 
that this site was ill chosen, as it was too far 



from the other mission stations and in other 
ways found to be unsatisfactory. Hence, in 
1853. it was abandoned. 

The Colville Indians, after meeting with the 
missionaries, were accustomed to frequently 
visit tliem at their place among the Kalispels. 
But at the earnest solicitation of their chief. 
Martin Ilemuxsolix, Father Anthony Ravalli 
went to visit them in 1845, and built the first 
chapel in their midst, on the hill between the 
fishery and the Hudson's Bay Company fort, 
on the banks of the Columbia, near Kettle Falls. 

It may perhaps serve to relieve my dull 
narrative to insert here a little incident, which 
happened to Father Ravalli while among the 
Colvilles. "News was brought to him one 
day that an Indian woman had quarreled with 
her husband, and, driven to desperation by 
jealousy, had just hanged herself with a lariat 
to a tree. Father Ravalli hastened to the spot 
and cutting asunder the lariat, quickly freed 
the woman's neck, which upon examination, 
he found not broken. Although the body was 
still warm, pulsation at the wrists, as well as the 
heart, had entirely ceased, and to all appear- 
ances life was extinct. Father Ravilli 
stretched, what everybody supposed her to be, 
the dead woman upon the ground, and com- 
menced now to breath into her mouth, now 
to move her arms up and down, so as to impart 
artificially to her lungs the movement of natural 
respiration, and thus quicken again into action 
the spark of vitality still there, perhaps, and 
only latent and dormant. He kept working in 
this manner for about three quarters of an 
hour, when all at once a slight change of color 
appeared on the lips and face of the woman. 
Encouraged by the sign, he continued, and 
soon after clearer indications of returning life 
became noticeable. A little while yet, and the 
woman, to the astonishment of all, commenced 
to breathe, first faintly and at broken intervals, 
then more freely and more regularly. A 
while later she opened her eyes, and from a 
seeming corpse, she was soon after up and 

moving around, living to be an old woman. 
This unusual, and yet simple occurrence, won 
to Father Ravalli with all the Indians the name 
of the great medicine man. 

But in 1845 Father Ravalli did no more 
than erect a little chapel, neither did he remain 
here for any length of time. Other mission- 
aries, however, frequently visited the chapel 
and held services for the Indians. 

In 1847 Father Devos opened a mission 
here, retaining the name of St. Paul, already 
given to the chapel. He spent several years 
among these Indians, and while he had to 
labor hard and endure many hardships, still 
his work was lightened by the great success 
that attended it, as he converted not only the 
greater part of the Colville Indians, but many 
of the Sinatchsti tribe as well. However, in 
1 85 1, broken in health from his great exer- 
tions among the Colville Indians, he was 
obliged to go to the residence on the Willa- 
mette to recuperate. 

Another station, that of the Immalculate 
Conception, was established at Fort Colville, 
about two miles from the present town of Col- 
ville. It was established for the whites and 
half-breeds in and around the fort. At times 
this station, like that of the fishery, had a resi- 
dent priest, while at other times both places 
were atteniled by Fathers from the other mis- 

Some years later both these places were 
abandoned, as the fort was no logner used and 
the fishery had lost its importance, as the In- 
dians no longer gathered here to fish., owing 
to the fact that large fisheries had been estab- 
lished by the whites at the mouth of the Co- 
lumbia, preventing the salmon from making 
their way up the river. 

The missionaries then established them- 
selves in the Colville valley, about seven and 
a half miles from the town of Colville. Here 
they opened the residence of St. Francis Regis, 
which has since grown into the flourishing 
mission of the same name. To-day it has its 



school for boys, taught by tlie Jesuits, and a 
school for girls, taught by the Sisters of Prov- 
idence. It can boast of a splendid farm, of a 
mill and many other modern improvements. 
The mission is now outside the reservation, 
though it continues to be the center to which 
the 'adjoining Indian tribes come, especially 
for the great feasts. Besides there are quite 
a number of whites and half-breeds who come 
to the mission for their religious duties. 

Having traced the history of the Catholic 
church in Spcjkane county to its sources and 
followed its various windings, we at last draw 
near to wliere it begins to flow in a marked 
channel and to widen out till it reaches its pres- 
ent proportions. 

As already said, it seems probable tliat 
Father De Smet was the first priest to visit 
Spokane, but even if this be so. he did but pass 
through it and most probably Father Nicholas 
P'oint was the first who e\-er administered the 
sacraments here. Several other Fathers of 
the Society of Jesus passed through Jiere on 
their way to and from Colville mission, notalily 
Fathers Joset, Giorda and Gazzoli, who used 
to visit the Spokane Indians during the fishing 
season. In October. 1862, Father Joseph 
Camana accompanied Father Giorda, tlieii 
superior of the missions, and the former bap- j 
tized seventeen Indian children and five adults 
at the large Indian camp, situated near the site 
now occupied by the Northern Pacific railroad 

, In 1864 Father De Smet passed through 
•Spokane on his way to St. Louis via Portland 
and California. This was his last visit to the 

Father Camana. who at the time was re- 
siding at the "Old mission." used to visit Peon 
Prairie, pitching his tent and remaining two 
or three weeks at a time. It was here in 1864 
tliat he baptized Baptist Peon, chief of the 
camp located at Peon Prairie, together with his 
wife and children and a few others of his 

During the winter of 1866-67 Rev. J. M. 
Cathaldo was appointed to missionary work 
among the Spokanes. At his arrival he found 
shelter under the roof of Chief Peon's cabin, 
l)ut his first care was to have a cabin put up 
for himself. This served as church and resi- 
dence, and it may be called the first Catholic 
chapel in Spokane county. It was very primi- 
tive in style, being nothing more than a rude 
log cabin, without other floor than the bare 
ground, cold and damp as it must liave been. 

Still it was not without difficulty that this 
shanty could be reared, as the head chief, who 
was known to be ill-disposed to the new re- 
ligion, was absent and the petty chiefs feared 
to incur his displeasure by allowing it to be 
put up. But Father Cathaldo was not to be 
deterred seeing that so many were eager to be 
instructed, and accordingly got permission to 
put up the cabin until the chief's return, which 
would be in three months, agreeing that if 
after that time they wished him to do so, he 
would destroy the building. But long before 
the time had expired the little camp determined 
to brave all opposition and keep both the cabin 
and the priest. By that time all the members 
of the camp were baptized. 

Owing to a mistake the orders calling an- 
other Father to St. Ignatius mission came to 
Father Cathaldo, who, in May, 1867, left for 
that mission. Father Joseph Bandini. who 
died here in Spokane in 1898 and who is 
buried at old St. Michael's mission, succeeded 
l-"ather Cathaldo. 'but made no considerable 
stay. The same may be said of Father Tosi. 
who succeeded Father Bandini. and who died 
Init a few years ago in Alaska. 

For the ne.xt few years the Spokane In- 
dians had no resident missionary, but were 
visited from time to time from either the old 
Coeur d' Alene misson or from Colville. 

In 1875 Fatliers Giorda. Tosi, Cathaldo 
and one other Father were sent to give a mis- 
sion, which had the happy efifect of reviving 
and increasing the fervor of the Catholic 



Spokanes. But it liecame more and more ap- 
parent that no lasting good could be done un- 
less a priest would be permanently stationed 
here. Still this could not be accomplished 
until 1878, when Father Cathaldo returned and 
put up the little chapel which is still standing, 
about eight miles from town. At that time 
the Spokane Indians numbered about six hun- 
dred, about one-half being Catholics. 

For a few years past white settlers had be- 
gun to gather around the Falls, awaiting the 
coming of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Yet 
they were few in number. But in 1878 Spo- 
kane and its vicinity became somewhat promi- 
nent, thniugh the exertions of a few energetic 
settlers, some of whom, as J. J. Browne and 
J N. Glover, are still alive. Among the early 
settlers there were of course Catholics to be 
found, who hearing that there was a priest 
among the Spokane Indians, soon availed 
themselves of the opportunity to visit them. 
But St. Michael's was cjuite out of the way, 
and yielding to the reiterated i)etition of the 
white Catholics, Father Cathaldo, then su- 
perior of the Rocky Mountain mission, in the 
fall of 1881 purchased the lot and small build- 
ing, 15x22 feet, on the corner of Main and 
Bernard streets. This building, which is still 
standing, was used temporarily for church 
purposes. At the Christmas mass in 1881 
there were but twelve persons present. Rev. 
-Moysius Jaquet, who arrived in Spokane April 
12, 1882, and said mass in this little chapel 
the following Sundav. had a congregation of 
fourteen persons, five of whom I believe were 
Protestants. This Father, who resided at St. 
Michael's, was given charge of the outlying 
districts and visited, besides Spokane, Cheney. 
Sprague, the Big Bend country. Forts Spo- 
kane and Sherman and the Coeur d" Alene 

During the winter of 1881-82 a temporary 
building was erected just at about the present 
crossing of the Spokane & Northern and Union 

Pacific tracks, on the propertv purchased fmm 

the Northern Pacific railroad. This building 
served as residence for the Fathers until Gon- 
zaga College was completed in 1886. Beside 
attending to the little parish in town, the 
Fathers continued their work at St. Michael's 
mission, where Father Joset had a congregation 
nf between one hundred and one hundred and 
fifty Indians. 

On April 9 1884, Father Kuellan arrive.l 
at St. Michael's mission, and, after spending 
Holy Week there, came into Spokane with 
father Cathaldo, who appointed him resident 
priest for Spokane Falls. He began work 
among the whites with great zeal and his ef- 
forts met with good success, for .soon the little 
chapel was wholly inadequate for his ever-in- 
creasing congregation. The want of a churcii 
able to accommodate the congregation was- 
keenly felt, and to meet this want Father 
Ruellan opened a subscription list for a new 
brick church. But in December, 1884, he 
was appointed superior of the Colville mission 
and went there on the 21st of December, but 
he died a few days after arriving. 

He was succeeded at Spokane Falls by 
Kev. Aloysius Ja(|uet, who at once exerted 
himself to gather the money necessary for the 
new church. This was no easy task, as the 
Catholics were few and just starting in life. 
Howe\'er they ilid what they could. '!"he 
Father moreover found great generosity on the' 
part of non-Catholics : in fact everybody was- 
vvilling to contribute to the erection of the new 
church, which they looked upon as destined 
to be an ornament to the rising town as well 
as a house ior divine worshij). At last the- 
money re(|uired was gathered and before long 
the church of Our Lady of Lourdes. which 
stands on Main street, between Washington 
and Bernard, was completed. On Sunday, 
July 4, 1886. the church was dedicated by the 
late Bishop Junger. A few days afterwards 
Father Jaquet was sent to DeSmet mission to 
replace Father Tosi, who was setting out for 
.\laska, and Father Kebmann, who was al- 



ready in charge of Gonzaga College, assumed 
the charge of the church and parish also. 
' On October 6, 1887, the Catholics of Spo- 
kane had the pleasure of paying their respects 
to Cardinal Gibbons. Hearing that he was to 
pass through the city, they sent a committee 
to meet him at Rathdrum, and when the train 
arrived at the S])okane depot, ([uile a crowd, 
not merely of Catholics. Init of other citizens 
as well, greeteil the Cardinal, who was ac- 
companied by Archbishop (iross. Bishop 
Bundel of Helena. Montana, and Dr. Chaijpel 
of Washington, I^istrict of Columbia. 

In reply to an address of welcome on the 
part of the Catholics of Spokane, delivered by 
Rev. J. Rebmann, the Cardinal in a short, pithy 
address thanked the people for the reception, 
and in conclusion said : "Ffity years hence 
when yon have a population of forty thousand 
or fifty thousand, you will look back with 
thoughts of re\erence for the pioneers of your 
civilization and invoke God"s blessing ujion 
them." Yet e\en the sagacity of this typical 
American could not forsee the rapid growth 
of our noble citw which in thirteen years has 
achiexed what the Cardinal ga\e us iialf a 
century to accomplish. 

It was during the pastorshi]) of Father 
Rebmami that the Sisters of Providence came 
to found the hospital, which has been such a 
blessing to Spokane, and where many a sufferer 
has f(~iund more than a mother's care when 
stricken down by an accident or by disease. 
But of this I will speak in the third i)art of my 
article, when 1 will treat of the charitable in- 
stitutions which the Catholics are conducting 
in Spokane. 

In March. 1887, Father Jaquet was recalled 
to Spokane to raise money to put up the pa- 
rochial school which stands next to the Jvlain 
street church. Work was begun soon after 
and the building was opened in 1888, with the 
Sisters of the Holy Names in charge. 

August 4, 1889, is a day that will long be 
remembered, especially by those who saw 

themselves l)urnetl out of house and home by 
the great conflagration whicli swept away al- 
most all the business portion of Spokane Falls. 
Happily, fire did not destroy any of the build- 
ings that the Catholics had erected at the cost 
ot so much labor. 

The Catholic population had so much in- 
creased that even the church of Our Lady of 
i.ourdes was not sufficient, so during the pas- 
torship of Re\-. Charles Mackin the church of 
St. Joseph, situated on Dean avenue, was built 
b\- the Jesuit Fathers and was dedicated by 
Bishop Junger May 15, 1890. Father E. 
Kanten attended it together with the Main 
street church for about a year and a half, when 
its present pastor, Rev. J. De Kanter took 

In 1S90, Rev. J. M. Cathaldo, then superior 
of the Jesuits of tlie Rocky Mountains, turned 
over both the church of Our Lady of Lourdes 
and that of St. Joseph's to the secular clergy. 
Kev. Emile Kanten was on May i, 1890, as- 
signed by the bishop as pastor of the Church 
of Our Lady of Lourdes, where he has re- 
mained ever since, endearing himself to his 
flock by his untiring zeal. 

Rev. J. De Kanter came in Januar\% 1891, 
as assistant to leather Kanten and, as has just 
been said, later on assumed charge of St. 
Joseph's church, where he is at present, de- 
voting himself to the welfare of his people. 

On October 4, 1891, an event of great in- 
terest in the history of the Catholic church in 
the Northwest was celebrated at Gonzaga Col- 
lege, the golden jubilee of the founding of the 
Rocky Mountain missions. What a change 
has come over the country since the 4th of 
October, 1841. when Father De Smet began 
his great work at St. Mary's mission, in the 
Bitter Root valley, Montana. 

On November 16, 1891. another Catholic 
church, that of the Sacred Heart, situated on 
Fifth avenue, was dedicated by Rev. Father 
Joeren of Uniontown, who was delegated by 
Bishop Junger to act in his stead, as the Bishop 



lay sick at the time at the Sisters" Hospital in 
this city. This church was bought and re- 
moved to its present site by Rev. Barnabas 
Held, O. S. B., who had come to Spokane 
August 17, 1890, as an assistant to Father 
Kanten. The site upon which this church 
and the parochial school house attached to it 
are located, was bought by the Jesuit Fathers 
and donated to the diocese for church purposes. 
At present Rev. L. Kusters is in charge of this 
church and school. 

After turning over the two churches to 
the secular clergy the Jesuits confined them- 
selves to their new parish and college work; 
and as quite a few Catholic families lived near 
the college, the college chapel was opened to 
them as a place of worship. But the num- 
ber of students as well as the immber of 
Catholics on the North Side increasing, it 
was deemed necessary to build a church on the 
college grounds, especially as the Bishop had 
lately erected the new parish of St. Aloysius, 
with the college chapel as its church. 

Accordingly work was begun in the sum- 
mer of 1892 l)y Rev. J. B. Rene, now vicar- 
apostolic of Alaska, on a new church and on 
November 20, 1892, it was dedicated by our 
late Bishop Aegidius Junger, D. D., and 
named St. Aloysius church. Last fall it was 
removed to its present site, corner of Boone 
avenue and Astor, and at present writing is 
being enlarged to more than twice its capacity. 

When, in 1893, the Great Northern Rail- 
road established its yards at Hillyard, the 
Jesuit Fathers bought ground and erected 
thereon a small church at their own expense; 
and ot: its being completed it was blessed, as 
had been the other Catholic churches of Spo- 
kane, by Bishop Junger under the title of St. 
Patrick's church. It has since then been at- 
tended by Fathers stationed at Gonzaga 

I can draw this first i)art of my sketch to 
a close by stating that a new stone church is 
soon to be erected in Spokane, by the congre- 

gation of Our Lady of Lourdes. Land has 
already been purchased, but as the plans have 
not yet been accepted. I can only state that it 
will be a church that will be an honor to the 
Catholics of Spokane, an ornament to our city, 
and one more proof that the Catholic churcl; 
is ever alix'e to the great work its divine 
founder gave it to do. 


Having rapidly traced, in the first part of 
tins article, the history of the Catholic church 
in Spokane county in its spiritual work of 
ministering to the souls of men, I will now 
sketch briefly the history of her work of edu- 

It has ever been the practice of the Catholic 
church to rear, beside the church wherein she 
offers her daily sacrifices and prayers to God, 
a school for the education of her children, and 
this sight of church and school rising simul- 
taneously, side by side, represents the Catholic 
idea of education ; which believes that, while 
training the mind in the precepts of human 
wisdom, the heart too must be trained in the 
precepts of God, that is in its duties to God. to 
country and to its fellow beings. The little cliild 
learning with difficulty the letters of the al- 
phabet has imprinted in its young, impression- 
able heart a sense of its duties to God, to par- 
ents and to its companions ; and while the 
mind expands with years and advances stej) 
by step along the rugged path of kno\\ledge, 
the heart is all the while being impressed witli 
the sacred duties of religion ; so that when 
school days come to a close, and the child now 
advancing to manhood, leaves school to take 
his i)lace in society, he is not only trained in 
the several branches of business knowledge, 
but he goes forth with a deep sense of the 
sacred obligations which bind him to be faith- 
ful to God, loyal to his country, just and up- 
right in his dealings with his fellow man. 
That the Catholics of Spokane have not been 



backward in educational work will be shown 
b}- a short sketch of their educational estab- 

Goii::aga College. — As stated in the first part 
of this article the Jesuit Fathers bought land 
from the Northern Pacific Railroad Company 
on the north side of the river, intending it for 
school purposes. But is was not until 1884 
that work was begun on what was to be Gon- 
zaga College. Work progressed ver\' slowly, 
the bricks being made on the spot in a very 
primitive manner. In consequence the rest 
of the work was correspondingly delayed, so 
that it was not until 1886 that the building was 
completed. It was first (>i)ened to students in 
the fall of 1887 under the presidency of Rev. 
J. Rebmann. Its Ijeginning was f|uite modest, 
only eighteen students appearing on its roll 
for the first scholastic year and these were 
mostly small boys in the lower classe,-. The 
following year, however, the number of stu- 
dents was doubled and the course of studies 
advanced from that time until the scholastic 
year of 1892-93. when the college had one 
himdred students; its progress was steady not 
only in increase of students, but in a continual 
raising of the standard of studies. 

The following scholastic vear, 1893-4, 
Gonzaga College, in common with all otJier in- 
stitutions of its kind, suffered from the busi- 
ness depression and failures which marked that 
year and the numl)er of students dropped to 
sixty-nine. But it was only a temporary set- 
back, and that, too, merely in numbers, as the 
high sandard of the classes was kept up. On 
April 22, 1894, this college was incorporated 
and empowered to confer such degrees and 
literary honors as are usually conferred by 
similar institutions of learning, and on June 
28, of this same year, the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts was conferred on two students, who 
had completed the prescribed course. From 
that time on the success of Gonzaga College 
Avas assured. It soon became apparent that a 
new building was necessary and on July 29, 

1897, ground was broken for the new Gonzaga 
College building, situated on the beautiful site 
overlooking the baj' and facing Boone avenue, 
near the old college building, which it now has 
re])laced. The new building, which is one of 
the ornaments of our city, is one hundred and 
eighty-nine feet in length, with a depth of 
ninety-five feet in the two wings. However, 
the complete plan contemplates a front exten- 
sion right and left, with a church at one end 
and a college hall at the other. Every atten- 
tion has been paid in its construction to make 
it not only a solid and handsome structure, 
but one in every way fitted for the uses for 
which it was built. .Besides the commodious 
building the students have extensive grounds 
for athletic sports, in which they have been 
remarkably successful in the past. 

Now that the faculty find themselves no 
longer cramped for room and in a position to 
carry out their plans, they iiUend leaving 
nothing undone to keep the college apace with 
the best institutions of learning in the country, 
by following out that course of studies which 
has rendered the Jesuit order world-famous as 

Gonzaga College has already sent forth 
some fine young men who have reflected honor 
on their Alma Mater, among them Ensign 
Robert J. Monaghan, that young hero who 
gave up his life in the distant Samoan Islands 
while defending a fallen brother officer and 
whom Spokane proudly claims as her hero. 

To render my article complete it will be 
well for me to append to this brief account of 
Gonzaga College, a few words on St. Ignatius 
School, since it was under the same manage- 
ment as the college during its short term of use- 

St. Igiuitiiis School. — In 1889 Rev. Charles 
Mackin, S. J., then President of Gonzaga Col- 
lege, turned the little frame building, situated 
on Main street, near the Catholic church, into 
a day school, under the direction of the college 
authorities. It was intended to prepare chil- 



ciren residing in the city for the higlier classes 
of tlie collegiate course, and was started prin- 
cipally to meet the want of a school for those 
Catholic boys who were too large to remain 
longer in the mixed school of the Sisters. 
This school in 1889-90 had forty boys on the 
roll and was taught by ]\Ir. Thomas Purcell, 
now a priest in charge of Cceur d' Alene City 
and surrounding missions. He was succeeded 
in his charge by Professor W. Orndoff, who 
conducted the school until the close of June, 
1892, which date marks the quiet end of this 
school, both Professor and most of the pupils 
entering Gonzaga College the following Sep- 

School and Academy of the Sisters of the 
Holy Names. — What the Jesuits ha\-e been do- 
ing for the education of young men and boys, 
the Sisters of the Holy Names have been doing 
for the young ladies and girls. 

These excellent teachers are conducting 
two educational establishments in our city, the 
parochial school, attached to the church o£ Our 
Lady of Lourdes, and the Academy of the 
Holy Names, situated on Superior street in 
Sinto addition. Of both of these schools 
something must here be said. 

In March, 1887, Rev. Aloysius Jacquet, 
who had collected the greater part of the money 
for the erection of the church of Our Lady of* 
Lourdes, was recalled to Spokane and given 
the task of collecting money for the parochial 
school, which stands on Main street between 
Washington and Bernard, to the west of the 
church. Work was commenced soon after 
this Father's arrival, and the building was fin- 
ished in 1888. 

Rev. Mother Baptist, general superi<jr of 
the Sisters of the Holy Names, who was then 
visiting the different houses of her order, had 
in the meantime been invited to visit Spokane, 
with a view of accejjting the school, which 
was then being built. The Rev. Mother saw 
at once the great amount of good that could 
be done, and gladly accepted the proffered 

school. On July 2^. 1S8S. when the three 
Sisters arrived to take charge of the new ; chool. 
they were agreeably surprised to find a large 
three-story brick building which had cost about 
thirteen thousand dollars. 

The building was blessed on August 28, 
1888, by Rev. J. Rebmann, and on Septenilier 
3rd classes were organized, and it was not long 
before the energetic superioress. Sister Michael 
of the Saints, had the school properly graded 
and in excellent running order. It was opened 
as a school for girls and small boys, and aimed 
at implanting that thorough educational train- 
ing for which the Sisters of the Holy Names 
are noted. Besides the ordinary English 
branches, there were classes in \-ocal and in- 
strumental music, drawine and sewing. It 
was not long before the increased number of 
pupils rendered necessary the addition of new 
class rooms, and the assistance of additional 
teachers, the number of pupils increasing from 
one hundred and ninet3'-five to three hundred. 

On March 3, 1889, Sister Michael, who 
had put the school on such an excellent foot- 
ing and was conducting it so successfully, was 
called to Canada, and was succeeded by Sister 
]Mary of the Assumption, wIkt ably carried on 
the work so well begun by her predecessor. 

In less than two }'ears after the opening of 
the Convent of the Hi:)ly Names on Main 
street, it was found that the building would 
no longer accommodate the many pupils who 
applied for admission. Besides the Sisters 
felt the need of an academy for more advanced 
pupils, of classes for young ladies desirous of 
enjoying all the advantages of a complete 
course such as the Sisters are well capable of 
imparting. A beautiful site on Sinto addition, 
near the river, was donated by the Jesuit 
Fathers, and on September 14, 1890. th.e cor- 
ner stone was laid of what has since i)roved 
to be one of the finest educational institutions 
in the state. 

The building is of brick, three stories high 
with a mansard roof, has a frontage of one 



hundred feet and a deptli of fifty-four feet 
throughout : it is supplied witli all modern im- 
provements in heating, lighting, as well as 
those of a sanitary nature. 

In July. 1891. the Sisters moved into their 
new academy, and had everything in readiness 
for the reception of pupils at the opening of 
the school year. 

The Sisters while conducting this new 
acatlemy ha\'e not abandoned the parochial 
school, but still continue to conduct it with 
marked success. 

On August 31, 1 89 1, classes were formed 
at the new academy, but only tweh'e pupils 
presented themsch'es, six being boarders anil 
the other half-dozen day-scholars. It was 
rather a disheartening opening, but was not 
wholly unexpected. It was a new scliool, as 
yet unknown outside the city, besides too far 
for most of the children living in tow-n. for 
then it was on the suburbs. Moreover, it was 
at a time when money was scarce, on account 
of the state of business. But the old adage, 
''small beginnings are good omens of future 
success" has been singularly verified in the 
case of the academy, for to-day there are over 
two hundred pupils in attendance. 

The object of the academy, like all similar 
institutions conducted by the Sisters of the 
Holy Names, is to impart to girls a Christian 
education, at once solid, useful, and cultured; 
in a word to impart to them all that forms the 
curricuhmi of the most approved academies. 

The nuisic and art departments are under 
able management and meet the demands of 
the most exacting. By its charter the academy 
enjoys all the rights and privileges granted to 
first-class institutions. Gold medals and di- 
plomas are conferred on those who satisfac- 
torily complete the course of studies in the 
scientific course. Owing to the increase of 
pupils, especially boarders, more room is needed 
and plans for an addition, to be one hundred 
and twenty feet long and seventy-four feet 
deep, are now in the hands of the architect. 

When completed the Academy of the Holy 
Names will be one of the best equipped schools 
for young ladies in the Northwest. 

The present superior of the academy, Sister 
M. Geraldine, has occupied that position since 
1894, when she succeeded Sister Mary of the 

Sacred Heart School. — This school, situated 
on Fifth avenue, near Bernard, was opened by 
Rev. Barnabas Held, O. S. B., in 1891, being 
blessed November 21, 1891. The school build- 
ing, which had formerly been a district school, 
was bought and removed to its present loca- 
tion. The Benedictine Sisters came to teach 
the girls, while secular teachers taught the 
boys" department. This is the parochial school 
for German Catholics, and aims at imparting 
a thorough grammar-school education. 


The third field of labor w-hich the Cath- 
olic church has cultivated with marked success, 
to the great benefit of humanity as well as 
religion, is that of succoring the needy and 
afflicted by means of charitable institutions. 

Taught by her divine founder to insepara- 
bly unite love of the neighbor to love of God, 
the Catholic church has ever made it her earn- 
est endeavor to relieve the wants of those on 
whom the hand of affliction lays heavily. It 
is well nigh incredible how many orders of 
men and women have been instituted in the 
Catholic church for works of charity. There 
is hardly a class of sufferers, hardly a common 
source of misery for whose relief some order 
of religious men or some sisterhood has not 
been instituted. For the special care of the 
aged, the poor, the insane, consumptives, 
lepers, both physical and moral, orphans, and 
for all other classes of sufferers, orders have 
been instituted, the sole aim of whose mem- 
bers is to render to God the service of their 
chaste lives and to alleviate that particular 
class of sufferings which is the special aim of 
their charity. For this work young men and 



young ladies, often of rank, marked talent and 
wealth, offer their lives ; for this work they 
are specially trained, and to this work they 
devote themselves untiringly, seeking no 
earthly recompense, awaiting their reward 
when death shall find them worn out by lives 
spent in alleviating the sufferings of others, 
at the hands of Him who has said ; "W hat- 
soever you do to the least of these you do to 

While in this country and particularly in 
the Northwest we have not that multiplicity 
of orders which is to be founil in certain coun- 
tries of Europe, notably in France, still the 
orders we have are so comprehensive in their 
aims that they reach the most needy. Here in 
Spokane we have two great institutions of 
charity; the Sacred Heart Hospital and St. 
St. Joseph's Orphanage, meeting the two great 
needs of every community — the sick, who are 
helpless by reason of their infirmities; and the 
orphans, who are helpless by reason of age and 
condition. I will give a brief account of both 
of these institutions, thus bringing to a close 
my article on the Catholic church in Spokane 

But before speaking of either of these in- 
stitutions I must at least mention two societies 
connected with the church of Our Lady of 
Lourdes : the St. Vincent de Paul Society, 
composed of gentlemen, and the Catholic 
Ladies' Benevolent Society, both of which 
were started at about tlie time the church was 
completed, and which are somewhat similar 
in aim, namely, to help the poor. The mem- 
bers of these societies, in a simple and un- 
pretentious way, lend a helping hand to the 
more needy, distributing the alms contributed 
by the members of the society and collected in 
the church for the poor. But as both these 
societies aim at giving charity without the 
hand that gives being seen, I do not feel at 
liberty to do more than mention these excel- 
lent organizations of charity. 

Sacred Heart Hospital.— One of the needs 

most keenly felt in the early days of Spokane 
was a place wiiere the sick and maimed could 
find the care their condition required. For 
many of those who first came here were men 
who had left their families in more settled 
cities and came west to better their own con- 
dition, while others were among those who 
had not yet settled down in life, so that when 
men of either class became seriously ill, or the 
victim of some accident, there was no place 
where they could receive the attention they 
needed. To meet this pressing want, the Sis- 
ters of Providence were invited to come here 
and erect an hospital, and in reply to this in- 
vitation, on August 30, 1886, Sister Joseph of 
the Sacred Heart and Sister Joseph of Chri- 
mathea left Vancouver, Washington, for Spo- 
kane, where a site was secured. The former 
supervised the work of constructing the hos- 
pital ; the latter became its first superioress. 

They put up for awhile at the California 
Hotel while a rough shanty was being built 
as a temporary residence near the ground pur- 
chased for the hospital. This was quite a 
rude structure, so much so that the Sisters 
had to cover themselves with oil-cloth when 
retiring to rest in rainy weather. Contracts 
for the new hospital were given out and work 
commenced. But in the meantime, nay, al- 
most from the day the Sisters set foot in Spo- 
kane, they began their mission of charity by 
visiting the sick and affording what relief they 

The corner-stone of the new hospital was 
laid by the late Bishop Junger, assisted by the 
Catholic clergy of the town. While the build- 
ing .was going up two more Sisters came to 
Spokane, and shortly after two of the four 
then here visited the Creur d'Alene miners to 
beg some alms for the completion of the work. 
The miners received the Sisters kindly and 
gave them liberal alms, for they are the men 
who appreciate the great work of the Sisters. 

Before speaking further of the work on 
the hospital itself, it will be well to state here 



that the Sisters of Providence, whom Spo- 
kane had invited to minister to the sick of the 
city, are the pioneers in liospital work in the 
Pacific Northwest. They estalMished their 
first mission at Vancouver. Washington, in 
1856. Since then they have Intih hospitals 
and also schools in the leading cities of 
\\'ashington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana and 
British Columbia. The number of large hos- 
pitals established by them is se\enteen. wliile 
the order itself has grown in this part of the 
country from the five Sisters who landed in 
Vancouver in 1856 to three hundred Sisters 
employed in hospital work alone. 

To return to our hospital. \\'ork went on 
nicelv, but none too quickly for the pressing- 
needs. In fact, the first patient was admitted 
while the carpenters were still at work. He 
was a young man found sick and alone in a 
shed. The Sisters took him in antl cared for 
him, l)ut all they could do was to smooth the 
pillow of death, for he expired in four days. 

On January 27, 1887, the Sisters took pos- 
session of the new building, and at once re- 
ceived seven patients, some irom the county 
and others who had been patiently awaiting 
the opening of the hospital. 

Mr. Maurice O'Donnell, an old Grand 
Army man, was really the second patient to 
enter, and has made the hospital his home ever 
since, and hopes yet to occupy a room in a 
new and still larger hospital, which e\ery- 
thing is tending to make a necessity of the 
near future. 

The Sisters had hardly entered their new 
building than Sister Joseph of the Sacred 
Heart met with a serious accident by falling 
into the cellar and breaking several ribs, and 
had herself to receive the attention she came 
to bestow upon others. 

On the first Friday of February. 1887, 
mass was said for the first time in the chapel 
of the hospital. The good work had now 
begun in earnest, and at tlie end of the first 
year, as a summary of the vear's work, the 

Sisters could point to one hundred and twen- 
ty-two patients attended to in the hospital and 
one thousand and forty visits to the poor and 
sick outside. During each 



the number of patients has almost doubled 
that of the year previous, so that the first 
building soon became inadequate and a new 
wing was added. The Sisters have been im- 
proving the hospital all along, so that it stands 
to-day a model institution of its kind. There 
are seven wards, twenty-seven private rooms, 
two modern operating rooms and a well-equip- 
ped room for dressing patients in the surgical 
department. Besides, there are the offices, re- 
ception rooms, drug store, chapel, dormitory, 
community rooms for the Sisters, employees' 
quarters, dining and culinary departments. In 
all there are accommodations for over one 
hundred patients. 

The corps of the hospital is composed of 
seventeen Sisters and fifteen nurses, beside 
other necessary help. The number of patients 
treated was, up to a few days ago, 12,799. 

The Sisters have of late started in con- 
nection with the hospital a training school for 
nurses, which embraces a two years' course, 
during which the ladies attend lectures on the 
various subjects belonging to their work, 
given by different physicians, and receive be- 
side instruction from a Sister in charge of the 
school, as also from the several Sisters in 
charge of the different departments of the 
hospital. They have all the advantage of 
daily practice under trained eyes and are at 
the end of their course very efficient. 

It is well nigh impossible for us to rightly 
estimate the amount of good these Sisters have 
done and are doing in our midst. Those can 
tell best who have had to claim the tender 
care of these devoted women. But that their 
work is appreciated is manifested by the gen- 
erosity with which any appeal for aid in their 
behalf is met, and that it is really worthy of 
appreciation is best seen from the fact that the 
medical profession place the greatest confi- 





/tgTOt, teNOX AND 



dence in the skill and prndence of those who 
have charge of the institntion. 

St. Joseph's Orphanage. — Only the order 
which I had laid down for myself in this arti- 
cle has obliged me to speak of St. Joseph's 
Orphanage last, for it is one of the most bene- 
ficial institutions e\'er erected in our city. 

Once Spokane emerged from being little 
more than a hamlet and with rapid strides be- 
gan to add hundreds yearly to its population, 
it could only be expected that the numljer of 
poor, abandoned or orphan children woidd in- 
crease, as in fact it did. 

Re\'. Charles Mackin, for some years pres- 
itlent of Gonzaga College and pastor of the 
then only Catholic church in Spokane, was a 
man keenly sensible to the wants of such as 
these ; and it was due in great measure to his 
exertions, backed by the charity of some of 
our most respected citizens, that an orphan- 
age became more than a possibility. Rev. 
Joseph Cathaldo donated land in Sinto addition 
near the Spokane river, and the united offer- 
ings of certain of our citizens had a simple 
frame building put u[). which forms one part 
of the building now in use. 

It was the general desire that the Fran- 
ciscan Sisters should be called to take charge 
of the institution, as they had met with so 
much success not only in the East, but in the 
houses which they had already estal)lished in 
the West. 

The mother house of the Sisters of St. 
Francis is in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 
was founded April 9, 1855. The object of 
the community is principally the elevation and 
renovation of family life, especiallly in the 
lower classes of society. For this purpose 
several houses have been established, so that 
the order has houses in almost every state. 
Besides orphanages and hospitals, these Sis- 
ters conduct parochial and industrial schools, 
as well as academies. Their houses, which 
now number seventy-four, are open to all re- 
gardless of color, ]x:)siti<)n or religion. The 

first house of this Sisterliood established in the 
West was St. Francis Academy, Baker City, 
Oregon. Twehe others have since been ad- 
ded, including houses in Indian Territory and 
\\'y(jming, seven of these being devoted cx- 
clu.sively to the civilization and Christian edu- 
cation of the Indians. 

The invitation extended by Spokane to 
these Sisters to come and found an orphanage 
in our midst was cheerfully accepted. And 
Sister Barbara, as superioress, and three other 
Sisters, all from Philadelphia, reached Spo- 
kane in September, 1890, to commence the 
noble work of protecting and instructing the 
orphan and homeless. 

The building was not quite finished when 
the Sisters arrived, but Mrs. James M(jna- 
ghan cared for them till their own building 
was habitable. They opened this' same month 
with only four children, but it was not long 
liefore the orphanage became known, and in 
1 89 1 the number of children had already run 
up to seventy. In 1893 "'"is hundred and fif- 
teen children found shelter here, this being the 
highest number }-et attained. But the good 
Sisters found that the smallness of their build- 
ing w(.)uld not allow them to take so many. At 
present they average an attendance of ninety- 

■ The orphanage had only been in existence 
a year wdien the first building put up was 
found wholly inadequate for the ever increas- 
ing number of children brought to these good 
Sisters to be cared for. Charitable friends 
aided the Sisters to have an addition made to 
their house, and this was finished in August, 
1 89 1, and no sooner finished than it was filled. 
But it was not until November 2. 1891, that 
the orphanage was formally blessed by the 
Rev. President of Gonzaga College, in the 
presence of a numerous company of friends 
and benefactors of the orphans. 

While we all keenly appreciate the work 
done in our midst by the Sisters of St. F"ran- 
cis in their own ([uiet, unobtrusive way. I 



think it only a debt of justice to liring this 
point out somewhat more strikingly by means 
of a few examples. 

Many a sad tale could be told by those in 
charge of the orphanage. Once the Sister, 
opening the door early one winter's morning, 
found a poor little babe wrapped up in rags 
and left there in a basket. Where it came 
from there w;is no means of knowing, but it 
was recei\ed with the tenderest care. Xo lov- 
ing solicitude, however, could undo the work 
of exposure to the cold winter's blast ; it died 
in two days. But if nothing could be done 
for the body, the soul received the grace of 
baptism, and was soon enjoying the vision of 
Him who made it. How often similar things 
liave happened I cannot tell, for the Sisters 
speak little of their work, yet no mother ever 
watched with more loving solicitude over her 
only child than do these Sisters over the poor 
waifs entrusted to their care. Tlie children 
cared for range from foundlings a few days 
old to girls in their teens. Yet the utmost 
harmon)' prevails among them ; the influence 
of the Sisters soon being apparent. These 
children, apart from being given a home, are 
carefully instructed in the branches of a com- 
mon school education. Besides, thev receive 
a splendid moral training under the mild yet 
ever vigilant eye of the Sisters. When I re- 
flect on the fact that these poor outcasts are 
housed, fed. clothed, instructed and cared for 
with no ordinary care. 1 cannot help invoking 
a blessing on the good Sisters' self-sacrificing 
lives. For besides giving sunshine to the 
, lives of these little ones, whom ad\-erse for- 
tune or crime has cast out on a cold, jjitiless 
world, they turn out upright men and pure 
women, whii (.itherwise might have been 
criminals and castaways. 

Despite the fact that these Sisters receive 
but little pecuniary reward, nay, often deprive 
themselves of the necessaries of life for the 
sake of their charges, they have often found 
themselves hampered in their work by lack of 

means of accommodation for the numerous 
applicants for admission. This latter diffi- 
culty, thanks to the generous charity of 
frientls, will be done away with as soon as the. 
new buikling, which is now well under way, 
will be completed. Still the first tlifficully will 
remain, nay, rather will be augmented, both 
by the debt which will remain on the new 
building and by the increased expense con- 
sequent on the increased number of children 
which will be admitted. The small allowance 
granted by the county and the mere pittance 
received from guardians of certain of the or- 
phans are wholly insufficient for the needs of 
the institution, and the Sisters will be depend- 
ent in the future, as in the past, on the charity 
of friends, of whom I sincerely trust they will 
always have a host. 

I will bring this account of St. Joseph's 
Orphanage to a close, with a sketch of the 
new building, which was begun in .\pril, 1899, 
and. will, it is calculated, be finished in Octo- 
ber, 1900. 

The new building is of red pressed brick, 
with granite trimmings, slate roof with gal- 
vanized iron Cornices. .Vo woodwork will be 
exposed with the exception of the window 
sashes. The building faces the west an<l has 
a frontage of one hundred and seventy-four 
feet on Superior street. The depth is one 
hundred and two feet in the wings ; the main 
part being forty feet wide. It is eighty-three 
feet from the ground to the cross that will 
surmount the dome. There are three wings 
running back from the main part of the build- 
ing, the middle one, which is twenty-eight by 
sixty-eight, and twenty-five feet high, being 
the chapel, and which will have a seating 
capacity of about two hundred. The Gothic 
style of architecture has been adopted in mak- 
ing the plan of the chapel, three arches being 
included in the slant of the ceiling. 

The building is four stories in height. In 
the basement there will be the furnaces, boil- 
ers, fuel rooms, bakery, kitchen, pantries and 



refectories. On the first floor the main part 
will be nsed as parlors and Sisters' apart- 
ments, while the right and left wings will be 
school rooms for the boys and girls. On the 
second floor are the infirmary, the gallery of 
the chapel and the dormitories. The top 

floor will be devoted to various uses. There 
will be three stairways inside, and fire escapes 
outside, leading out on the porches, whicli will 
run around the sides and back of the building. 
The cost of the building when finished is esti- 
mated at sixty thousand dollars. 




"Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to 
political prosperity, religion and morality are indispen- 
sable props. In vain would that man claim the tribute of 
patriotism who should labor to subvert these pillars of 
human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of 
men and citizens." — George Washington. 

In the midst of the intense activity, in- 
evitable in the period of rapid material devel- 
opment of a new country, the people of this 
city and cimnty have not been -unmindful of 
the moral and religious influences which are 
necessary to promote the highest welfare. 
From the time of the earliest white settlers 
there has lieen extraordinary religious activ- 
ity by representatives of the various relig- 
ious organizations. Much of the early eft'orts 
and sacrifices of the pioneer home mission- 
aries are unrecorded and unrecordable. They 
were generally brave and blameless prophets 
of the Alost High, and theii' record is in 
heaven. They prepared and laid foiuidation 
for others to build up<in, and we ha\e "en- 
tered into their labor." 

Religious work in a newly settled ciiuntry 
has its peculiar difficulties and disci airaging 
features. The struggles incident to the estab- 
lishment of new homes and the accumulation 
of wealth are not always promotive of the 
highest morality or conducive to religious 

prosperity. The sturdy "pathfinders" who are 
ever pushing towards the frontier, while hav- 
ing sterling qualities that excite our admira- 
tion, are not always religiously disposed. 
They leave behind them homes, families, rela- 
tives and the restraining influences of old set- 
tled and religious communities, with one object 
dominating in their minds, the pursuit of 
wealth. The society into which they are 
thrown is liable to be positively immoral and 
skeptical, and they find it difiicult to live up 
to their best convictions amid such environ- 
ments. Such circumstances need brave, con- 
secrated and thoroughly equipped ministers, 
and consistent and devoted church members, 
and they have rhst been wanting in Spokane 
county. There are many, doubtless, who do 
not know the value of religious denominations 
in a new country, from a commercial stand- 
point. The various Protestant missionary 
societies have expended during the last twen- 
ty-five years for religious work within this 
county no less than two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars exclusive of the contributions 
of the people residing here. 

We shall now give a history of all the 
churches of the various denominations given 
as far as possible by competent representa- 




This church was organized in 1890. in the 
house now occupied as the parsonage at 168 
South Stevens street, by Rev. Augustus, 
who had been sent here by tlie CaHfornia 
conference. It began with ten ineml)ers. The 
following persons have served as pastors : 
Rev. G. W. White, Rev. J. M. Brakton. Rev. 
A. M. Taylor, Re\-. G. C. Clark, Re\-. J. Allen 
Viney, Rev. W. M. \'iney, Rev. .\. W. Whal- 
ley, and the present pastor, Re\. S. J. Collins, 
who came here from Seattle two \-ears ago. 
The membership has increased to thirty. The 
place of worship is 516 Second avenue, 
'i hrough much self sacrifice and tlie indefati- 
gable etTort of the pastor a lot has been se- 
cured on Sherman street, near I'ifth avenue, 
where they expect to erect a house of worship 
in the near future. This church has been and 
is doing a commendable work among tiie col- 
ored population of the city. 


Elder H. W. Decker was the lirst mis- 
sionary of the denomination to i)reach in Spo- 
kane county. In the winter of 1887 he held 
meetings in a tent about where the lumber 
yard of the Spokane & Idaho Lumber Com- 
pany now is. The tirst pastor came the same 
year in the person of L. W. Scoles. The 
first regular meetings were held in the Pres- 
byterian church building, where the S[)okane- 
Review buildmg now stands. In the year 
1888 the church was organized, and they 
mo\ed to the north side in Heath's addition, 
and worshiped in a chapel erected by the 
Evangelical Association church and the peo- 
ple, on East Ermina avenue, near Pearl 
street. A lot was purchased of Mr. S. Heath 
on the corner of Nora a\enue and Astor 
street in 1889, on which a building about 
thirty by forty-five was erected the following 
year, being dedicated in 1891, Elders H. W. 
Decker and D. F. Fero officiating. Services 
were held at this church for several vears. 

Desiring the advantages of a more central loca- 
tion, the church property was sold, and a build- 
ing on Washington street, between Third and 
Fourth avenues, was rented and has since 
been used as a place of worship for over five 
years. The church has made substantial 
growth, having at present a membershi]) of 
one hundred and forty. Elders Scoles, Stew- 
art, Oliver and Davis have served as pastors 
before the [present one, who is Elder .\. G. 
Christensen. This church has inaugurated 
and is conducting successfully a philanthropic 
or social movement. Three years ago four 
ycnmg men, moved by a desire to help their 
fellow men, opened on the corner of Main 
avenue and Brown street a "WOrkingman's 
Home." They were Warren Latham, L. L. 
Dye, E. W, Gould and Mr. Warnell. They 
provided lodging for ten cents a night and 
meals for the lowest possible sum. In No- 
vember, 1898. it came under the auspices of 
the Upper Columbia Conference of the Seventh 
Day Adventists, taking the name "Helping 
Hand Mission." The present manager is L. 
R. Foos; assistant, W. M. Fee; secretary, I. C. 
Colcord. Its mission, as expressed by the 
manager, is to "help lift up the fallen, help 
the needy regardless of race, nationality and 
color, and the end is to preach the gospel to 
the people." Beds are still but ten cents a 
night and one cent dishes are served. There 
are one hundred and six beds, which are full 
nearly every night, and as high as thirty-three 
thousand dishes have been served in a month. 
1 here is a reading-room connected with it and 
also a chapel with preaching every night ex- 
cept Saturday. The church has also rented 
the I'rancis H. Cook mansion on the hill to be 
used as a sanitarium on the plan of the Battle 
Creek, Michigan, sanitarium. It was but re- 
cently opened and has eight patients, but will 
dtnibtless grow in favor and have increased 
patrgnage. A church of this faith was or- 
ganized a few months ago at Medical Lake 
with promise of growth. 





So far as we can learn the first Baptist 
work in Spokane county was in the winter of 
1879 and "80, when Rev. S. E. Stearnes, of 
pioneer fame both in Idaho and in Washing- 
ton, better known as '"Father Stearnes," came 
from Colfax up to Spangle, sought out the 
scattered Baptists there and began regular 
preaching. On the 13th of March, 1880, he 
organized the First Baptist Church of Span- 
gle, whose twentieth anniversary was cele- 
brated by appropriate services Sunday, March 
II, 1900. 

A movement for the erection of a house 
of worship was subsequently inaugurated and 
in the fall of 1885 the church dedicated the 
first meeting house built in the tuwn. The 
cost of the building was abuut three thousand 
dollars. The house was well built and was 
well cared fur. It is a neat, suljstantial build- 
ing still. The church has had some reverses, 
and seldom having a pastor for more than half 
time has been of slow and unsteady growth. 
It now has a membership of about fifty, and 
sustains a good Sunday-school. One of its 
early pastors, Rev. George Campbell, has been 
for many years an honored and successful 
missionary in China. 

Besides Mr. Campbell, its pastors have 
been Rev. S. E. Stearnes, W. H. Carmichael, 
G. N. Ames, E. G. O. Groat. A. H. Hause 
and E. C. Scott, the twu latter being urdained 
upon the field. 

Cheney Baptist Church. — The second Bap- 
tist Church constituted in the county was at 
Cheney. This church was organized through 
the efforts of Rev. D. W. C. Britt, in May, 
1 88 1, with seven charter members. The 
church erected a house of worship, main- 
tained a good Sunday-school, and had an en- 
couraging growth for several years. But busi- 
ness reverses caused by the removal of the 
county seat, and the partial destruction of the 

town by fire led to discouragement from 
which the church has never recovered, and for 
several years its efforts have been spasmodic 
and of little permanent value. Just now 
there is hope that a brighter day is dawning 
for our cause there. Our pastors have been 
Rev. D. W. C. Britt, W. H. Carmichael. J. 11. 
Teal, E. W. Lloyd. T. L. Lewis. E. G. O. 
Groat, E. F. Jerard and W. E. Sawyer. 

First Baptist Church. .Spulcaiic. — The third 
church which ajjpeared was gathered at the 
small but picturesque village of Spokane. 
The first efforts toward a church seem to have 
been made by Rev. D. J. Pierce and Rev. S. E. 
Stearnes, who selected and purchased a lot 
for the future Baptist church, and is said to 
have paid for it out of his scanty salary of 
three hundred ilollars. The church was ur- 
anized by D. W. C. Britt. with seven members, 
December 8, 1881. 

A house of worship , the first Baptist 
meeting house in the county, was erected soon 
after at a cost of nearly two thousand dol- 
lars. The growth of the church kept pace 
with that of the city until its membership 
soon outnumbered that of any <jther Baptist 
church in eastern Washington. In 1889, 
soon after the great fire, w hich practically de- 
stroyed the business part of the city, the 
church property was sold for about twenty- 
five thousand dollars. But instead of erect- 
ing another meeting house, the money was 
invested in other properties with a view to in- 
creasing it, and was lost, with hundreds of dol- 
lars more paid out in the hope of getting some- 
thing out of those investments. These losses 
greatly discouraged the church and retarded 
its progress for several years, when under 
other conditions its growth would have been 
the most rapid in its history. 

However, the church has emerged from 
these shadows, and has entered upon a season 
of substantial prosperity. It is now erecting 
a building which, when completed, will be by 
far the finest meeting house in the state, and 



fully equal to any in the Northwest. The 
chapel or Sunday-school department is now 
practically finished. This will soon be dedi- 
.cated and used for regular church purposes 
until the main auditorium is built. This 
much desired and greatly needed building has 
been begun and is being carried on largely 
through the heroic efforts and inspiring lead- 
ership of the present pastor, Dr. O. W. Van 
Osdel, who is both architect and manager. 
Along with the pastor too much credit cannot 
be given to the noble brethren who compose 
the building committee, and to Brother Clark, 
the leading mechanic. Except for the hearty 
support and co-operation of these brethren, 
who stood right by the work, spending time, 
thought and money to the extent of their 
ability, such a building could not have been 
erected at this time. The building, when 
completed, will have cost, even at the very low 
rates at which the committee is getting ma- 
terial and work, not less than sixty thousand 
dollars, and will be well worth seventy-five 
thousand dollars. The chapel with its fur- 
nishings has cost about twenty thousand dol- 
lars. The present church membership is about 
three hundred and twenty-five. It maintains 
a prosperous Sunday-school under the wise 
management of Mr. Walter E. Leigh. Its en- 
rollment is about two hundred and twenty-five. 
The church also owns a chapel on Pine street, 
and sustains a mission Sunday-school known 
as Pine Street mission. This school is under 
the management of Mr. Joseph R. Roberson, 
and has a total membership of one hundred 
and twenty-five. The present property of 
this church is valued at about thirty thousand 

After iSIr. Britt, Rev. J. F. Baker was the 
next pastor, beginning Augvist i, 1883. He 
was a young man of good ability and great 
consecration. In his zeal for Christ and the 
church he virtually laid down his life, his death 
resulting from overwork August 9, 1887. The 
third pastor was Mrs. Mary C. Jones, who was 

quite successful as an evangelist. She re- 
signed in the fall of 1891, having served the 
church over one year as supply and four years 
as pastor. 

Rev. J. H. Beaven was next called to the 
pastoral care of the church, beginning his 
labors January i, 1892. He found the church 
in sad need of just such executive ability as 
he brought to the work. With remarkable 
skill he piloted the church through four years 
of its most trying experiences. He was a man 
of ability, consecration and unswerving in- 
tegrity. With grateful love the church will 
ever cherish the remembrance of his wise and 
faithful services. 

Rev. O. W. Van Osdel, D. D., was called 
to the field in the fall of 1896. The history 
of his work is likely to be the record of many 
heroic deeds. 

The Grace Baptist Cliiinii, Spohanc (For- 
merly Nortliside. — In the fall of 1889 several 
members of the First Baptist Church, being dis- 
satisfied with a woman for a pastor, and believ- 
ing the time had come when in the providence 
of God, a Baptist church should be established 
on the north side of the river, they resolved to 
bring about such a result. After due consider- 
ation, eighteen of these decided to ask for let- 
ters, and leave the mother church in order to 
form the new body, and accordingly, on the 
second day of January, 1890, by the advice of 
a council called for the purpose, "The North- 
side Baptist church" was organized and recog- 
nized. The new church went to work with a 
will. A house and two lots were purchased as 
a church site, a commodious chapel was built 
and the house enlarged and fitted up as a 
parsonage, all at a total cost of thirteen 
thousand dollars. The parsonage was after- 
wards disposed of. Brother H. L. Boardman, 
of Colfax, was employed as a temporary sup- 
ply, pending the selection of a pastor. 

Rev. N. C. Fetter becae the first pastor, 
beginning his work March i, 1890. He served 
the church faithfully for four years. On hts 



leaving, the cliurch was supplied for a time by 
Rev. Charles Carroll. In the fall of 1895 Rev. 
J. Lewis Smith became pastor, and served the 
church with such perfect acceptance that his 
leaving at the end of three years was regarded 
as little less than a calamity. 

But trusting Him who is able to supply all 
our needs, the church soon found the right man 
to take up the work. Re\'. George R. Varney, 
a young man of fine ability and culture, was 
called to the pastorate, anil is serving the 
church with remarkable skill and success. This 
church has never had a real revi\-al, but it has 
had a steady, substantial growth from the first. 
It nriw has a membership of a little over two 
hundred, and sustains two good Sunday 
schools under the superintendence of J. C. Bar- 
hne and Smith Ely. The two schools have a 
total enrollment of three hundred. 

The church has recently purchased two lots 
on Broadway, and expects in the near future 
to erect upon them a modern house of worship 
to cost twenty thousand dollars or more. 

Medical Lake Baf'tist Church. — The Bap- 
tist church at Medical Lake was organized in 
1883, with eight members, by Rev. J. H. Teale, 
wlio became its first pastor, and under whose 
labors the church erected a house of worship 
and received about thirty members. The 
church was some time without a pastor, and be- 
came greatly reduced in numbers and discour- 
aged in spirit. Rev. E. G. O. Groat and E. F. 
Jerard were its last pastors. But the church 
did not regain its former strength, and is now 
practically extinct. 

Rockford Baptist Cluirch. — A small Baptist 
organization was formed at Rockford by Rev. 
S. W. Beaven in 1884, which soon grew to 
twenty members. But having no pastor, the 
little church was short lived. 

In the winter of 1895 ^.ev. Walter L. 
Wood began work at this place and in the 
spring of that year, assisted by General Mis- 
sionary A. M. Allyn, he organized a Baptist 
church, which, though weak, is still in exist- 

ence. We hope before long to have a meeting 
house for this church. Rev. W. L. Wood and 
Artliur Royse were the only pastors of this 

Spokane Calfary Baptist Church. — This 
church was constituted in 1890 by the efiforts 
of Rev. J. P. Brown, who became its first pas- 
tor, remaining with the church for some four 
or five years. Rev. P. B. Barrow afterwards 
took charge of the church. In 1897 the church 
purchased a house and lot on Third avenue and 
fitted up a very neat and commodious chapel at 
a cost of two thousand four hundred dollars. 
This is being paid for in regular installments. 
To pay this large sum is requiring many sacri- 
fices on the part of the little band comprising 
the membership of the church, but they are 
a heroic, Christ-loving people, and will succeed. 
The church has been of slow growth, having 
now about thirty members. 

Rev. J. B. Beckham, a cultured young man 
from the South, was recently called to the pas- 
torate, and is doing good work. 

Spokane Sn'cdish Baptist Church. — The 
Swedish Baptist church of Spokane was con- 
stituted in the spring of 1894 through the faith- 
ful efforts of Miss M. Malmburg, a Swedish 
missionary of great zeal and ability. Rev. A. 
Olsen became its first pastor, and did excellent 
work. In the fall of 1898 the present pastor, 
Rev. C. A. Boberg, took charge of the work. 
He is an able, Godly man, and the church is 
prospering under his care. 

The church now has a membership of about 
seventy-five, and sustains two Sunday schools, 
with a total enrollment of about one hundred 
and thirty. The church is about to purchase 
lots, and hopes to erect a good house of worship 
during the coming summer. 

First Baptist Church of Latah. — The Bap- 
tist church of Latah was organized in the fall 
of 1893, through the efforts of General Mis- 
sionary Allyn, with ten charter members. A 
good church property was at once purchased. 
Rev. E. W. Lloyd was the first pastor, who in 



less than eighteen months received into the 
church over one hundred new members. After 
Mr. Lloyd gave up tiie wurk, the church was 
for some time without a pastor. Rev. F. A. 
Houston served the church as pastor for half 
time for over one year, after which Rev. Arthur 
Royse became pastor. The church is now being 
supplied by Bro. George Reed, of Spangle. A 
Sfood Sundav school is sustained. 

Lockii'ood Baptist Church. — This church 
was gathered through the self-sacrificing labors 
of Rev. Thomas Theall, or "Fatlier Theall," as 
he was called, who, tliough o\er seventy years 
old. during the first year of his ministerial ef- 
forts at that place, supported himself by chop- 
ping cord wood at one dollar a cord, while he 
preached every Sunday and some of the time 
every night, winning about fifty souls to Christ. 
In the organization of the church, which tonk 
place in April, 1894. and in the baptisms which 
followed. Father Theall was assisted by General 
Missionary A. M. Allyn. 

After Father Theall became too feeble to 
serve the church. Rev. W. L. Wood became 
pastor, and his health failing, Bro. L. L. Wing. 
who still has charge of the church, was called 
to the pastorate. 

Riclilaiid. or Enoii. Baptist Church. — A 
Baptist church called the Richland Prairie 
church was organized at this place with thir- 
teen members in 1891, by Rev. E. G. O. Groat, 
of Spangle. But being soon left without a pas- 
tor, the church became extinct after two years. 
In the spring of 1895 ^^^'- ^^'- -L- N\'ood settled 
in the community, re-established Baptist ser- 
vices and organized a Baptist church which is 
now called the Enon Baptist church. Bro. Wood 
was in poor health, but was a man of great 
ability and consecration. This was his last 
work. After four years of faithful service he 
went to his reward, leaving a host of friends, 
many of whom are preparing to follow him. 
As a monument to his faith and service, we 
have a good church of twenty-five or thirty 
members, with a large Sunday school. This 

church is now under the pastoral charge of 
Bro. L. L. Wing. 


The first church bearing the distinctive 
name "Christian Church" was organized in the 
town of Spangle, April 4, 1880, by Elder C. J. 
Wright. It was organized in a small school 
building with a charter membership of twenty- 
eight. Public services were held in this until 
a larger and more satisfactory house of wor- 
ship could be secured. 

When the Baptists in Spangle were erecting 
their house of worship, the members of the 
Christian church contributed to aid in the 
work on condition that they be granted the use 
of the house one Lord's Day in the month, and 
at such other times as might not conflict with 
the services of the Baptist church. Under this 
arrangement the work of the two churches was 
satisfactory and harmonious. 

In the year 1888 or 1889 the Christian 
church began the erection of a church building, 
the Baptists contributing to aid in the work. 

This was completed, and services first held 
in it in the year 1892. 

In securing this church property, including 
lot, house of worship and church furnishings, 
no aid was received from any missionary soci- 
ety or church extension fund. The citizens of 
Spangle and community, whether church mem- 
bers or not, contributed to share the cost. It is 
a neat, well-constructed church building, situ- 
ated on a beautiful elevation, east of the rail- 
road, and not far from the business part of the 
town. It has a seating capacity of two hundred 
and fifty or three hundred. It has been recently 
repainted, and is kept in good repair. The 
church has a good Sunday school and an act- 
ive Christian Endeavor Society, also an ener- 
getic Ladies' Aid Society. This society has re- 
cently re-carpeted the rostrum and aisles and 
furnished new chairs for the rostrum. There 
are preaching services morning and evening 
two Sundays in the month, conducted by Dr. 



J. W. Allen, of Spokane, and Bible lectnre and 
lesson the preceding Saturday evenings. The 
Baptist church and the Christian church in 
Spangle co-operate heartily and harmnniously 
in their work, and are mutually helpful. 

The clnu'ch at Latah was organized at the 
Alpha school house, some two miles from the 
present town of Latah, l>y Elder C. T. Wright 
in March, 1883, with a charter membership of 
twenty-three. Regular ser\'ices were continued 
for a time in the school house. Afterwards, 
when the town of Latah was started, a neat, 
comfortable house of worship, with a seating- 
capacity of two hundred, was erected in the 
town. This building, as the one in Spangle, 
was secured, furnished, and all fully paid for 
independent of gifts fn)m any missionary soci- 
ety or building fund ass(_)ciatiiin. This church 
has a Sunday school, meeting every Lord's 
Day, but not regular preaching services. Most 
of the members live in the country. The church 
has ne\er been strt)ng in membership or money, 
and for this reason regular preaching services 
have not been maintained, and the church has 
made- slow growth since its organization. 

No preacher of the Christian church de- 
serves more credit for wise and efficient work 
done in the establishment of this church in Spo- 
kane county than Evangelist A. W. Dean. 

In the latter part of the year 1885 Mrs. J. 
A. C. Merriman, an intelligent and active mem- 
ber of the church, and then a teaclier in an 
academy at Cheney, wrote to Robert Moffett, 
corresponding secretary of the Home Mission- 
ary Society of the Christian church, with ref- 
erence to more active and aggressive work in 
the interests of this church in Spokane county, 
Washington, and soliciting aid in the prosecu- 
tion of this work. Secretary Mnffett replied 
favorably, and put her in correspondence with 
Evangelist A. W. Dean, then preaching at Col- 
fax, Illinois. This correspondence resulted in 
tlie moving of Evangelist Dean, with his fam- 
ily, to Cheney early in the year 1866. He and 

his wife had both been educated at the North- 

western Christian University (now Butler Uni- 
versity). Indianapolis, Indiana, and they came 
t<./ this new field endorsed and well recom- 
mended by the Mission iJoard. h",\angclist i^ean 
soon proved himself worth}- of the reconnnen- 
dation given him and in every way well fitted 
for the work to which he had been callc<l. In 
social life he was genial, gentle, unassuming, 
considerate of the rights of others : a Christian 
gentleman : as an evangelist he employed nO' 
silly, sensational methods to draw audierices. 
In his preaching he was scriptural, persuasive,. 
not afraid nor ashamed to preach the truth, but 
preaching it, not in the spirit of controversy, 
but in the love of it; ever looking to the Gos- 
pel, not as his own power, but as the power of 
God to the salvation of the lost. In all his 
work he had the cordial sympathy and co- 
operation of his faithful, self-sacrificing. Chris- 
tian wife. 

During the spring of 1886 Evangelist Dean- 
held revival services and organized churches in 
Cheney, Medical Lake, Deep Creek and Spo-- 
kane (then Spokane Falls). For the meeting 
in Cheney the Baptists generously tendered the 
use of their church buildings. This meeting 
resulted in several conversions, and at its close 
a church was organized with a charter mem- 
bership of al)out twenty-two. The Baptist 
house of worship was secured for regulac- 
))reaching services once a month, and at sucin 
other times as would not inconvenience the 
Baptists in their own .services. Some tinie later 
on the Christian church secured a lot and' 
erected a church building in which .services have 
been held more or less regularly until the pres- 
ent time. From removals of its members and 
other, this church has made but slow, if 
any permanent growth, and, while there have 
been several protracted meetings and a good 
many conversions in the church since it was or- 
ganized, it is perhaps no stronger than at the 
time of its organization. 

The revival services held in a school house 
at Deep Creek resulted in a number of conver- 



sions, and the organization of a church at tliat 
place. This church never erected a church 
building-, after a time discontinued regular 
church services, and has ceased to exist as an 

At Medical Lake also, as at Cheney, the 
Baptists cheerfully granted the use of their 
■ church building for the revival services held by 
Evangelist Dean in the spring of 1886. This 
jneeting resulted in the organization of the 
Christian church in that place, and the use of 
the Baptist church building was granted for 
regular preaching services one Lord's Day 
every month uiUil the Cliristian church should 
be in condition to erect a house of worship. 
The charter membership of this church was 
about twenty. Regular preaching has l)een 
maintained most of the time since the organi- 
zation of the church. When without a regular 
pastor. Dr. .\. W. Green, a brother-in-law of 
Evangelist Dean, has preached for the congre- 
gation when not too closely occupied with his 
duties as physician and druggist. Mrs. Green. 
also an intelligent and a very consecrated Chris- 
tian woman, has always been very active and 
efticient in the C. W. B. I\L and Sunday scliool 
work in this church, and in other ways tending 
to the growth ;md ])rosperity of the Christian 
church in Medical Lake. The church, never 
financially or numerically strong, has had a 
hard struggle to maintain its existence, and 
has been able to do so only by continued self- 
sacrifice on the part of its membership. Within 
the last three or four years the_\' have erected, 
furnished, and almost entirely paid for an ex- 
cellent church building large enough to seat an 
audience of three hundred or more. The only 
aid from abroad they had in this was a four per 
cent, five-year loan of two hundred dollars or 
three hundred dollars from the church exten- 
sion fund, and most of this loan has been paid 
off. Elder George Barrows, of Moscow, has 
been recently called to the pastorate of the 

The chief strength of the Christian church 

in Spokane county is in the city of Spokane, 
the membership here being larger than the ag- 
gregate membership in the county outside of 
the city. 

The Central Christian Church was organ- 
ized .April I, 188C), by E\angelist A. W. Dean, 
in the old Congregational church building at 
the corner of Bernard and Sprague streets. 
Rev. Jonathan Edwards was at this time pastor 
of the Congregational church. Their house of 
worship was courteously tendered by Pastor 
Edwards and his church for the series of re- 
vival ser\ices held by Evangelist Dean at that 
time and for the organization of the new 
church. Rev. Edwards attended the services 
throughout and assisted and encouraged in the 
services and in the work of organizing the 
church, both pastor and membership of the 
Congregational church manifesting a most fra- 
ternal Christian feeling. Twenty-one mem- 
bers constituted the Central Christian church 
at this time, among whom were Dr. J. Al. 
Major, A. P. Wolverton, Mrs. S. J. Pynor, 
Mr. Gum and wife, Airs. Lizzie Wright, Major 
R. H. Wimpey and wife, William Hix; Mrs. 
Fristo, Mrs. .Archer, W. H. Brocknian and 
wife, and others whose names are not recalled. 
Regular weekly services were held for a time 
in the Congregational church building, after- 
wards in a hall over the First National bank, 
corner of F"ront and Howard streets ; then for a 
time in the Y. M. C. A. hall, and afterwards 
in the W. C. T. U. hall. From the time of its 
(Organization public services, with or without 
preaching, were held e\ery Lord's day. Evan- 
gelist Dean divided his time among the 
churches he had organized at Cheney, Deep 
Creek, Aledical Lake and Spokane until some 
time in the summer of 1888, when, prostrated 
from disease and overwork, he was compelled 
to cease his labors. He died at Medical Lake in 
the fall of 1888, remembered with great af- 
fection by all for whose salvation and happi- 
ness he had so farth fully labored and suffered. 

The first regular pastor of the Central 



Christian cliurch was S. B. Letson. who began 
I'lis work in January, 1888. At this time the 
membership was forty-four. During this year 
a lot was purchased at the corner of Post and 
Third streets, and a neat and commodious 
house of worship erected. This was dedicated 
tlie second Lord's day in September. 1888. El- 
der F.Waldon preaching the dedication sermon. 
IXiring the last five or six years the Central 
Christian church of Spokane has had rapid 
growth, and is now, with a membership of four 
hundred and fifty or five lunnlred. one of the 
leading and most influential churches in the city. 
It has a flourishing Sunday school, Endeavor 
societies, Senior and Junior, and maintains a 
prosperous mission at Union Park, a suburb of 
the city. Having outgrown, in its actual mem- 
bership, the seating capacity of its present house 
of worship, it was decided about a year ago to 
build a new and larger house, and in a more de- 
sirable location. A very choice lot, one hun- 
dred feet square, was secured at the corner of 
Third and Stevens streets, on which it is the 
purpose of the congregation to erect, in the 
near future, a house of worship commensurate 
with its needs, worthy of its membership, and 
in harmony with its surroundings in this beau- 
tiful and rapidly growing city. 

The pastors of the Christian church in Spo- 
kane have been S. R. Letson, January, 1888, to 
1890; G. W. Ross, 1890, to March i, 1892; 
Dr. J. M. Allen, June, 1892, to November, 
1897. The present pastor, B. E. Utz, began 
his pastorate November, 1897, immediately 
succeeding Dr. Allen, and under his faithful 
and energetic ministration the congregation is 
looking forward hopefully to still larger 
achievements in the future. The membership 
of the Christian church in Spokane county, in- 
cluding the city of Spokane, is not large — less, 
perhaps, than seven hundred, but whatever 
success it may have had has been due almost 
wholly to the labors and liberality of the mem- 
bership living within the boundaries of the 
county. It has received very little aid from any 

missionary society or cliurch extension fund — 
in the aggregate not more than one thousand or 
one thousand five hundred dollars — since the 
first church was organized in the county, 
twenty years ago. It has supported its own 
preachers and evangelists, and erected and fur- 
nished its own church buildings. It has con- 
tributed more to missions, home and foreign, 
more to the church extension fund, to aid in 
building houses of worship elsewhere, than it 
has ever received. The Christian church in 
Spokane county has no complaint to make of 
the treatment it has received at the hands of 
other religious organizations in the county. 
This, almost without exception, has been kind 
and fraternal. 



In September, 1838, two Congregational 
ministers, with their wives, came from New 
England, passing almost within sight and sound 
of our far-famed falls on their way to the Col- 
ville country. These early missionaries were 
Rev. Elkanah Walker and Rev. Cushing Eells 
and wives. All the members of this brave com- 
pany have now gone to their reward. It took 
tliese devoted men and women seven months to 
reach their distination, and they were the first 
missionaries to work among the Spokane In- 
dians. They established their station on 
Walker's Prairie, thirty miles northwest of 
Spokane. They labored here for nearly ten 
years, which is treated in another chapter. 
"Father Eells," as he was familiarly called by 
his friends, in after years preached around the 
Spokane and Colville counties. While having 
charge of the churches at Colfax and Medical 
Lake, he took occasional trips to Colville to 
preach to the Indians and whites. Many 
churches received substantial aid by means of 
his self-sacrificing life, and sweet-toned bells 
ring from a number of Spokane county 



churches as tlie result of his thoughtfuhiess and 

First Cdiigrcgatioiial Church nf Sf^olcaiic. — 
Tlie first Congregational cliurch organized in 
tlie county was the First church of Spokane. 
It was organized May 22, 1879, in the home of 
Rev. H. T. Cowley by Rev. G. H. Atkinson, 
D. D., who was superintendent of home mis- 
sions in Washington and Oregon. Mr. Cowley 
was elected acting pastor, and R. G. William- 
son deacon. For two years religious services 
were held in the town school house, located 
near the corner of Railroad avenue and Post 
street. In the spring of 1881 Rev. F. T. Clark 
arrived and became the first pastor, and on De- 
cember 20 a church buikling was dedicated on 
the corner of Sprague and Bernard streets 
near where the Northern Pacific depot now 
stands. The dedicatory services were partic- 
ipated in by Rev. G. H. Atkinson, D. D., and 
Rev. Gushing Fells. D. D., and the pastor. After 
two years Mr. Clark resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. B. Renshaw, who now re- 
sides at Pleasant Prairie. ]\lr. Renshaw served 
the church for two years, during which time the 
building was furnished more comfortably. In 
the spring of 1886 Rev. Jonathan Edwards 
came from Scranton, Pennsylvania, at the in- 
vitation of the church, and served as its pastor 
for nearly five years. During the second year 
of his pastorate a parsonage was built in the 
rear of the church on Sprague street. The 
changes made by the great fire of 1889, and the 
spreading of the business part, made it advis- 
able to move further back. So the first site 
was sold in September, 1889, and property se- 
cured on the corner of Fourth and Washing- 
ton streets. Plans for the substantial granite 
structure were made, and the work on it begun. 
Meanwhile services were held in the temporary 
temple on Washington street near Third, now 
occupied by the Seventh Day Adventists. The 
first church building can be seen on South Ber- 
nard street just as it looked originally. The 
parsonage was sold to private parties, and was 

moved to Fifth avenue, near Shearman street. 
The corner-stone of the new structure on the 
curner (if Fourth avenue and Washington 
street was laid September jt,, 1890. with a]j- 
propriate services, the grand officers of the 
Ma.sons particijjating in the exercises. In 1891 
the building was completed, and is the finest 
church edifice in Spokane, and probably the 
most e.xpensive in eastern Washington at the 
])resent time. It is of Spokane white granite, 
and cost fifty thousand dollars. It has a large 
auditorium and a Sunday school room on the 
ground lioor, and parlors upstairs. The inte- 
rior is well furnished, and nine memorial win- 
dows add beauty to it. The year the new build- 
ing was completed (1891) the church was 
served by Rev. R. A. Beard, D. D., formerly 
state superintendent of the C. II. 'M. S., now 
of Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was followed 
by Rev. M. Willett, D. D., now of Iowa, who 
came from California. Rev. F. B. Cherring- 
ton, D. D., became pastor in the fall of 1894, 
and filled the pastorate for over three years. 
(Preceding this pastorate this church and the 
Westminster Presl)yterian church consolidated, 
and the name Westminster Congregational 
was assumed. Rev. H. W. Cornett, formerly 
pastor of the Westminster Presbyterian, was 
acting pastor for several months.) Rev. Dr. 
Cherrington went to San Francisco in January, 
1898. For a time the church was pastorless, 
and was supplied by Rev. S. M. Freeland. 
Rev. V. y. .Stevens came in September, 1898. 
and served the church until December, 1899. 
The present pastor is Rev. G. K Wallace. D. 
D., recently from Chicago. The church now 
has a memljership of about four hundred. 
The Sunday school is in a flourishing condition. 
The Christian Endeavor Society was the first 
to be organized in the city. The Ladies' Aid 
and Ladies' Missionary Society, the King's 
Daughters and Loyalty Club, among the young 
peo])le, and the Junior Christian Endeavor, 
among the children, are active forces in the 
vvork. It is worthy of mention that the sweet- 



toned bell given by Father Eells. and used as a 
fire-bell when the city was without one, still 
rings from the stone belfry. 

Second Congrcgiifiomil Cluirch. — As the 
city grew, and the population spread itself, the 
north side of the river became a favorite res- 
idence portion. A number of Congregational 
families made their homes in the locality of 
the court house, and a Sunday school was 
started in 1889. Early in 1890 a church was 
organized, the larger number of members with- 
drawing from the First church for that pur- 
pose. The Second Congregational church, as 
it was named, met for a while in a hall on Mon- 
roe street, but later built the convenient brick 
structure on the corner of Mallon and Adams 
streets, in which it now worships, the land being 
donated by Col. D. P. Jenkins. Rev. William 
Davies, a member of the ""Yale Washington 
Band," was called as first pastor, and still serves 
in that capacity, his being the oldest continu- 
ous pastorate in Spokane. The Second church 
has a membership of over two hundred, a Sun- 
day school too large for the rooms, and flour- 
ishing Christian Endeavor, Ladies' Aid, and 
Missionary and Dorcas societies. 

Pilgrim Congregational Church. — In the 
summer of 1890 the Pilgrim church was or- 
ganized on the North Side, east of Di\"ision 
street. For nearly twi) years it wtjrshipped 
in chapels belonging to the Evangelical and 
Ad\-entist churches and was ministered to by 
Rev. F. V. Hoyt. In 1803 Rev. J. Edwards 
was called to its pastorate and assumed charge, 
caring also for Pleasant Prairie and Trent. 
In 1895 ^ lot was bought on Indiana avenue 
and in the spring of 1896 a modest frame 
structure was dedicated. The church now has 
a membership of eighty and a Sunday school 
of two hundred. This part of the town has 
grown so rapidly during the last few years 
tliat a larger building is needed mnv. 

West Side Congregational Church. — In 
1892 a church was organized in West Spokane, 
across Hangman creek fmm the city. .N. 

Sunday schocil had been conducted there for 
three years before by J. G. H<n-t, a memlier 
of the First church residing in that vicinity. 
The new church was called the West Side 
Congregational church and met in the district 
school house and was cared for by Rev. F. V. 
Hoyt, and then by Rev. Rosine M. Edwards 
in connection with work in llillyard. and later 
by Professor W. S. Davis. In October, 1898. 
a neat and convenient building, costing about 
eight hundred dollars, was dedicated. It is 
situated on a sightly spot overlooking the valley 
C'f Spokane. Re\'. ^ilark Basker\-i!le is its 
present pastor. .\ Sunday school and Chris- 
tian Endea\cir Society are well sustained, and n 
Ladies' Missionary Society cares for the for- 
eign interests of the church. 

When the Great Northern Railroad was 
completed to the coast and the shops established 
at a point six miles northeast of Spokane a 
little town began to spring up there and was 
called Hillyard. A school district was soon 
formed and the Congregational Sunday school 
missionary located at Spokane. Rev. E. J. 
Singer, immediately took steps to organize a 
Sunday school. It met in the rough building 
used as a school room and about fifty children 
gathered there with the school-teacher as su- 
perintendent. Preaching services were held 
rcgularlv by the neighboring j^astor. Rev. J. 
E-dwards, of Pilgrim church, Spokane. But 
a building was sadly needed, and when, in 
1894, Dr, Kingsbury and wife, of Bradford. 
Massachusetts, \-isited the field and were much 
impressefl with it as a place for good work, 
and promised aid, the church seemed possil)le. 
In August 1894. a church was organized. 
Lots were bought and a building started. 
In iSIay. 1895, a church, as conveniently 
equipped as any church of its size in the west 
was dedicated to God's service. Generous aid 
from the Church Building Society and the 
church in Bradford, Massachusetts, and self- 
sacrifice on the part of the members and friends 
made possible the substantial building and 



well-equipped interior. Through the instru- 
mentality of a "Chime Club" of young ladies 
a five-hundreil-pound bell was obtained. The 
church was cared for by Rev. J. Edwards, 
•who added to it the three he already served, 
aided one year by his eldest daughter. In April, 
1897, Miss Rosine M. Edwards accepted a call 
and came from Pacific Theological Seminary, 
Oakland, California, to take charge. During 
her two years pastorate tlie side room was fin- 
ished and the library increased. In the 
spring of 1899 Miss Edwards resigned and 
Rev. F. C. Krause, of Fitchburg, California, 
accepted a call to become their pastor. .\ neat 
and convenient parsonage has been erected. 
All the organizations of the church are in a 
flourishing condition. As early as 1888, a 
school was organized and a chapel erected in 
Union Park, near Fourth avenue and Napi 
streets. The Sunday school has been sus- 
tained ever since, with occasional preaching. 

Nine miles from Spokane, on a plateau of 
beauty and fertility, is Pleasant Prairie. Con- 
gregational work there began early, the church 
being organized in 1885. It was cared for by 
neighboring pastors and General Missionary 
T. W. Walters. Rev. J. B. Renshaw was 
called to the pastorate in 1889. He was fol- 
lowed by Rev. J. Edwards, who had charge of 
this work for six years in connection with 
Pilgrim church in SjKikane. The church wor- 
shipped for several years in the Methodist 
church, and then in the school house, but in 
1897 the present substantial frame structure 
was dedicated. The church has a membership 
ct seventy, and an efficient Christian Endeavor 
Society which conducts the evening service. 
Kev. F. C. Krause preaches here in connection 
with Flillyard. both churches being united in 
building a parsonage in the latter place. 

At Trent, nine miles from Spokane, and 
the first station on the Northern Pacific rail- 
road east of Spokane, is a church organiza- 
tion since 1889. A Sunday school has been 
sustained under the leadership of Deacon S. 

Esch. and the continual thoughtfulness of the 
family of J. A. Stegner. Preaching once a 
month has been given by the pastor at Pilgrim 
church. Spokane. At present the pressure of 
work on neighboring pastors has been such 
that it made it impossible to care for this field, 
but something better is hoped for soon. 

At Cheney, the seat of the normal school, 
a church was tjrganized in 1881 and cared for 
the first year by the pastor of the First church, 
Spokane. In 1882 Rev. F. V. Hoyt came 
from Yale Seminary to become pastor at 
Cheney, where he was ordained and labored 
for four years. Mr. Hoyt is now the oldest 
resident Congregational pastor in the county. 

At Cheney Mr. Hoyt organized the first 
Christian Endeavor Society in the county and 
probably in the state. The work has fluctuated 
considerably with the changes of the town, 
but it is now on a substantial basis. There 
are now sixty-four members under the pastor- 
ate of Rev. F. B. Doane and a large number 
oi young people participate in the church serv- 
ices and work during the school year. 

Medical Lake was one of the churches min- 
istered to by Father Eells in early days and 
was organized by him in 1883. His portrait 
is among the interior decorations of the church. 
.Among many marks of his thoughtful gener- 
osity is the sweet-toned bell that sounds out its 
inviting notes over the lake each Sunday. 
1 he Medical Lake church has flourished from 
the first and with its thirty-three members is 
now the third Congregational church in the 
count}'. In its early history it was cared for 
in connection with Cheney, but for several 
years it has supported a pastor on the field. 
Rev. J. D. Jones has ministered to it very ac- 
ceptably for six years. The church building 
is a very convenient structure on a prominent 
corner of the village and a pretty cottage is 
by its side for the use of the pastor's family. 
The church is the center of the social interests 
of the place and is an efficient factor for good 
in the community. 



In the heart of tlie pine woods, where the 
sound of the axe and saw are common sounds, 
and the Inisy mill turns out piles of lumber 
tor the neighboring city, nestles the village of 
Deer Park. One of the first buildings to at- 
tract one's attention as he enters the place is 
the church whose welcome is voiced by its 
name, the "Open Door Congregational 
Church." One of the noblemen of the world, 
a mill-owner who cares for the spiritual needs 
of'his workmen, is Mr. \V. H. Short, the presi- 
dent of the Standard Lumber Company. Ably 
seconded in all his efforts by his family, he 
early began to plan for religious services in 
the place, holding them at first in the dining 
room of the boarding house, and later in the 
h.all until the present pretty church was dedi- 
cated to God's worship. For a number of 
years this church has been ministered to by 
Rev. Frank JMcConoughy, and a loyal mem- 
bership of forty has gathered about him. The 
Christian Endeavor Society has been especially 
noted for its missionary efforts, contributing 
regularly for the support of a missionary in 

Chattaroy, like many other fields, was 
cared for at first by the Sunday school mis- 
sionary, a Sunday school being organized and 
])reaching services held regularly. In 1896 
the church organization was perfected and the 
pastorate joined with Deer Park. In common 
with Trent, Chattaroy has no building, which 
is always a hindrance to the progress of the 
work, but it moves on Ijravely in spite of this 

Since 1888, the Swedish peojjle of Spo- 
kane have been carrying on the "Swedish 
mission," and doing it nobly, too. A large 
frame structure, with parsonage underneath, 
was erected in the eastern part of the city, and 
regular Sunday school and preaching services 
carried on. When the church was pastorless, 
one of the members after working hard all 
week talked to the people on Sunday. In 1898, 
recognizing the close resemblance between their 

faith and that of the Congregational churches, 
the Spokane mission, in common with many 
others in the country, ai)])lied to the Congre- 
gational churches for fellowship. It was 
gladly admitted to the Eastern Washington 
Association, Rev. J. Hulien, graduate of the 
Swedish department of Chicago Theological 
Seminary, accepted a call to the ])astorate and 
the work prospers greatly uniler his pastoral 
care. A membership of sixty and a large con- 
gregation resjjonds to his work among them. 
One of the members writes this: "The mission 
friends were the first to start missionary work 
smong the Scandinavians in Spokane. The sum- 
mer of 1887 a few Christian young men came 
from the east to Spokane, who gathered the 
people together in prayer-meetings in the house 
svhich they occupied. John Hagstrom. who traveling in the west in the interest of the 
Swedish mission covenant, was the first to 
preach the word of God to them. The 28th 
of October. 1888. the church was organized 
under the name of the Swedish Christian Mis- 
sion church. Its membership was thirteen, 
ten men and three women. The 29th of 
March, 1890. Rev. N. Lindquist. of Oakland, 
California, became pastor of the church and 
stayed until November. 1892. On account of 
hard times the church could not call a pastor 
after Lindquist left. But the church was 
blessed in having a man among them who could 
preach. He is Mr. John G. Johnson and he 
works for the Spokane Street Railway Com- 
pany as blacksmith in their power station. 
Mr. Johnson preached until Rev. O. Frank, 
from Sweden, came on a journey through 
America, who stayed as pastor of this church 
for three months, and Mr. Johnson preached 
again until October, 1895. Rev. A. Lidman 
was pastor for a very short time, leaving in 
April. 1896. After him came Rev. M. E. 
Anderson from Whitehall, Michigan. An- 
derson left May i. 1897. Mr. Johnson again 
had to fill the pupit. December i, 1898. Rev. 
John I. Hulien, from Chicago, arrived and 



is at present minister of the church. The 
Sunday school started its work tlie 7th day of 
May. 1889, and now counts eighty-five chil- 
dren. The church has for many years sus- 
tained its own missionary in China. April 12, 
1898, the church was recognized hy the Eastern 
Washington Congregational Association and 
the C. C. B. Society has granted one thousand 
■dollars to pay the indebtedness on the build- 
ing. The church takes in only such as recog- 
nize the saving power of the Lord Jesus Christ 
and abide in him. The object of this church 
is to work for the keeping of God's children 
in his fa\or, and in peace among themselves 
.and also to win Scandinavian sinners for 

The Congregational Sunday School and 
Publishing Society has had representatives in 
the field since 1885, visiting districts which 
have no religious services, organizing Sunday 
schools and caring for them. Deacon G. R. 
Andrus, now of Tacoma, was the first Sunday 
school superintendent, residing at Cheney and 
traveling all over eastern Washington. After 
four years of faithful service he was succeeded 
by Rev. E. J. Singer, who made Spokane his 
home and traveled far and wide in the pursu- 
ance of his work. Many Sunday schools 
started by these workers ha\e grown into 
flourishing churches. Mr. Singer resigned 
in 1898 to take charge of Sunday school work 
m northern California and the work in Spo- 
kane county is now in the efficient care of Mr. 
J. T. Percival. of Spokane. There are eight 
Congregational Sunday schools not connected 
with churches in the county, viz. ; Newman 
Lake, North Pine, Marshall, Harmony. ]Milan, 
Little Deep Creek. Orchard Peairie. South 
Chattaroy, having an aggregate membership 
of three hundred. 

Christian Endeavor Societies have flour- 
ished in the county since the first was organized 
at Cheney by Rev. F. V. Huyt. The first 
Christian Endeavor Society in Spokane, organ- 
ized in the First Congregational church in 

1888 by Rev. J. Edwards, it is interesting to 
note, was the five thousand and eighth in the 
United States, Mr. Edwards having organized 
the eighth at Scranton, Pennsylvania, six 
years before. Nearly all the Congregational 
churches in the county have Christian lui- 
deavor Societies connected with them. Other 
work among the Congregational children and 
young people in the county is done by the 
Junior Christian Endeavor Societies. King's 
Daughters Circles, and other organizations, 
while scarcely a church is without its Ladies' 
Aid or Ladies' Missionary Society. Of the 
twelve Congregational churches in the county, 
ten have church buildings, and one Sunday 
school has a chapel. There are parsonages in 
five places, making the total value of church 
property about Sro 1,000. 

In 1895 The S/^okaiie Congregational Club 
was organized with its object "to pro- 
mote the general interests of Congregational- 
i.<m and to encourage a more intimate acquaint- 
ance, and concert of action among the work- 
ing forces of our churches." The first meet- 
ing of the club was held in Westminster 
church on Forefathers' day, with an oration 
by Rev. William Davies. Spokane, and toasts 
by other members of the club. The club holds 
its annual meeting on or near Forefathers' 
day of each year, being entertained in turn by 
the Westminster. Second and Pilgrim churches 
of Spokane. The oflficers of the club are Rev. 
H. P. James, of Colfax, president; Mr. Fred 
Kiesling, of Spokane, secretary; Mr. W. H. 
Short, of Deer Park, treasurer: executive com- 
mittee. Revs. F. C. Krause, F. B. Doane, Will- 
iam Davies. 

In this western land, where many have 
come in search of homes and prosperity, Con- 
gregationalism is thoroughly at home. The 
many sects and denominations represented 
often find that they can agree on the Congre- 
gational basis and so unite under one banner 
in small places where one church is sufficient 
and all that could be supported. 



•. F0U.>DATI0NS. 




The Evangelical Association commenced its 
operation in Spi:)kane county in 1885. Rev. 
J. Bowersox, presiding elder of the Oregon 
conference, in tlie montli of January. 1885. 
\-isited most of our famihes who had moved 
into Spokane county. Init were without a pastor. 
He succeeded in organizing a class at Spokane 
with eight members, at Rockford. with seven 
members, and at Wild Rose Prairie, with six 
members. April 4. 1885. Rev. H. Schuknecht. 
of Xaslnille. ^lichigan. was appointed b}- the 
Board of Missions as missionary of Washing- 
ton Territory. He with his family arrived 
May 14, to take up the work in eastern Wash- 
ington. From this time on new mission fields 
were organized and supplied with missionaries 
according to the arrangements of the Associa- 
tion, until to-day there are five missions, served 
by four missionaries. Spokane mission. Rev. 
G. Seeberger; Wild Rose mission, Rev. J. W. 
Rinear; ^ledical Lake mission. Rev. W. D. 
Earnhart ; Rockford mission. Rev. J. E. White- 
stien; Mica mission. Rev. J. E. Whitestien. 
There are four churches and three parsonages. 

In 1896 the work in eastern Washington 
was detached from the Oregon conference and 
placed under the Board of Missions who ap- 
pointed Rev. H. Schuknecht as superintendent 
of Washington mission. The churches sustain 
missionary societies. Young Peoples" Alliances, 
\\ omen's societies, Sunday schools, all in a 
prosperous condition. 


The first Swedes settled in Spokane in 
1886 and 1887. The church was organized 
the 25th of June, 1888. Rev. P. Carlson, at 
the time traveling missionary of the denomi- 
nation in Washington. Oregon and Idaho, and 
pioneer of Swedish Lutheranism west of the 
Rockies, had visited S])okane about once a 
month the past year and on the above date 

was able to organize with nineteen members. 
Rev. Carlson visited the church three times 
more that year. First part of 1889 a theo- 
logical student. S. G. Youngert. took charge 
of the work. Many Swedes came to Spokane. 
The congregation grew rapidly. A lot had 
been secured on the corner of Broadway and 
Walnut, free of debt, and a church building 
was erected for about four tiiousand dollars. 
Mv. Youngert served the church a year and a 
half. He was succeeded by Rev. C. P. Ryd- 
holm, who served as supply about a year and 
was then elected as the first ordained pastor of 
the church. As such he served only about 
three months. Then the church again had a 
supply. Student C. R. Chindblnm. about a 
}ear and a half. He served very acceptably. 
In 1893 the present pastor. Rev. G. .A.. Ander- 
son, succeeded to the pastorate. The remark- 
able fact about this mission is that with the 
exception of the services of the founder and 
one hundred dollars from the Mission Board, 
three years later, it has been self supporting 
from the first. Still its members are by no 
means wealthy, nearly all being wage-earners. 
It now numbers about one hundred and forty 
communicant members and has a very fair 
church property with only about four hundred 
dollars debt. 


The German Lutherans began work in this 
city twelve years ago, the first missionary 
preaching on Sunday afternoon in the Congre- 
gational church. The present church building 
on Third avenue was erected about ten years 
ago. Rev. P. Groschupf has been pastor for 
several years. 


The ^vork began thirteen years ago.and the 
church on Washington and Sinto was erected 
in 1890. They have not been able to have a 
pastor all the time and the v.ork has not made 



rapid j^rogress. The present pastor is Rev. 
C. J. Olson. 


BY P. A. COOL, 1>. I). 

The history of Spokane Methodism cannot 
all be committed to paper. Like the clnnxh of 
God in all ages, it has an nnwritten history 
of hearts touched, souls inspired, intluences 
started and propelled, that eternity alone can 
reveal. Particularly is this true as the foun- 
dations are put down upon which are now in 
rapid building the civil and religious institu- 
tions of the great Inland Empire. 

Spokane lies in one of the richest centers 
of mountain ranges and valleys known on the 
continent, if not in the wlmle world. The 
picturesque scenery of the Rockies, the Cucur 
d'Alenes, the Cascades, including the valleys, 
lakes, rivers and falls, is all that the renowned 
Switzerland can furnish, and only awaits the 
pencil of the artist and the pen of the poet to 
tell it Ui the world. The forests, the fruits, 
the fields, the fisheries and the mines are here 
enveloped with the most salubrious climate 

Methodism came early into this paradise 
of beauty and plenty. The Columbia river 
conference was organized by Bishop Merrill, 
of Chicago, July 30. 1874, at Walla Walla, 
Washington, with Rev. Dr. H. K. Hines as 
secretary. There were six elders and one 
deacon, the bishop remarking that "the con- 
ference was inconveniently small." Rev. S. 
G. Havermale was appointed presiding elder of 
the territory that included Spokane. 

In May. 1875, "^ company with G. W. 
Grannis, he made his first visit to this section 
of the state. When he arrived, he found "the 
falls" here and two white families where Spo- 
kane now stands — Mr. and ]\Irs. J. N. Glover, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Yeatun and their child. Mr. 
H. T. Cowley lived in the neighborhood east 
of what was then called Spokane. Religious 
services had been held for the Indians, but 

Brother Havermale preached the first sermon 
to a white congregation, November 14, 1875, 
in a bo.\ house used for a residence just west 
of where the city hall now stands. Mrs. Yea- 
ton, who had brought an organ from her home 
in the East, played the organ and led the sing- 

first Mcthoilist E/yiscof^al CItiircli. — Mrs. 
S. (]. Havermale came to Spokane in the win- 
ter of 1876-7, and was the fourth white 
woman to make her permanent home where 
tliis prosperous city of more than forty thou- 
sand jjeople now stands. Brother and Sister 
Ha\ermale still live in Spokane, and occupy 
their beautiful home in the north part of the 
city, where they cordially welcome their great 
circle of friends. They are still faithful mem- 
bers' of the old First Church. Rev. J. H. 
Leard organized the first Methodist society, 
still known as the First Methodist Episcopal 
church of Spokane. The charter members ap- 
pear to have been : Rev. S. G. Havermale, 
Mrs. S. G. Havermale, Rev. J. H. Leard, Mrs. 
J. H. Leard, A. E. Ellis, Mrs. A. E. Ellis, 
Miss Ollie Ellis and Miss Ida Ellis. Brother 
Ellis was ai)pointed class leader; this was in 
1879. Brother Leard was in poor health, and 
in September, 1880, passed to his reward; 
Sister Leard still lives in Spokane and belongs 
to the First church. 

1 he second pastor was Rev. M. S. Ander- 
son, who was appointed August 15, 1880. The 
list of preaching places outside of Spokane in- 
cluded Cheney, Crescent, Egypt (which was 
twehe miles north of what is now Daven- 
ix)rt), Mondova, Saltese Lake and Moran 
Prairie. The roads were long, the field was 
wide, and the workers few. The coming of 
Brother and .Sister P^arks and Sister Shannon 
at this time gave the pastor great encourage- 
ment. A lot was secured on the corner of 
Sprague and Washington streets, and the first 
church building erected. Brother Anderson's 
pastorate of two years marked great pros- 
perity in the history of the society. 



During this time the Spokane ^iletliodist 
College was started, Professor I. C. L.ibby 
coming from the East to take charge of it. He 
was also appointed pastor of the church Au- 
gust 15, 1882, and for one year ser\eci as 
Ijresident of the college and pastor of the 

From December. 1883, to July 20, 1885, 
Rev. R. E. Bisby was pastor. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. S. W. Richards, who gave up 
the charge in April, 1886. Rev. R. E. Bisby, 
who was president of Spokane College, was 
again in charge until September of the same 

In October, 1886, Rev. W. C. Gray took 
charge of affairs. Soon after this the prop- 
erty on Sprague street was disposed of and 
a new brick building erected on Bernard street. 
It was now thought the congregation had 
found a permanent church home. .\t that 
time not even the most sanguine boomers of 
a western town could foresee the future of 
Spokane, fiie unusual increase of the popu- 
lation and business interests of the city soon 
attracted the attention of capital and home- 
seekers throughout the entire country. The 
church building became too small. The center 
of business and jjopulation in the city was 
rapidly shifting. The trustees and members 
of the church felt that the permanent interests 
of Methodism in the city demanded a more 
central location, and one better adapted to 
meet the demands already jjressing upon them. 

Notwithstanding the hea\y burden of a 
recent new building, always heavy on the offi- 
cers of a church, these hertjic brethren deter- 
mined to lose no opportunity to ad\'ance the 
interests of the kingdom of God in Spokane. 

Brother Gray was succeeded by Rev. A. 
G. Wilson, October 20, 1888. The records 
show the following action of the board of 
trustees: "September 4. 1889. — On motion 
of Brother Brooks, the trustees were given an 
order to negotiate the sale of the church prop- 
erty." At a meeting of the bi.iard of trus- 

tees the ne.xt day, September 5, the record 
shows : "On motion, J. B. Sargent, S. Shinn 
and A. E. Ellis were appointed a building 
committee for the erection of a Methodist 
tabernacle." Xo time was lost in securing 
what was then thought to be the most eligi- 
ble site in the city for the location of a great 
central church building. History has demon- 
strated the wisdom of the choice. The loca- 
tion of the present church property is by com- 
mon consent considered the best possible for 
the accommodation of the churcii-going popu- 

About this time the conservative and 
thoughtful members of the congregation 
could see that their pastor. A. G. Wilson, was 
losing his anchorage from the great truths of 
evangelical Christianity; that his intellectual 
trend was downward from the broad platform 
of biblical orthodo.xy toward the narrow and 
illiberal views of rationalistic Unitarianism. 
The records show that on Sunday, December 
10, 1890, the officers of the church being in 
council and the bishop in the chair, the 
question, "whether the board desired to ha\e 
Brother Wilson remain his full year," was put 
to a vote, with the following result : 1 wo 
for and fifteen against his remaining. He 
was released from further duties as pastor in 
the Methodist Episcopal church. 

The pulpit was supplied from January i, 
1 89 1, to the last of February of the same year 
by Rev. W. H. Selleck, who had been serving 
as assistant pastor. Rev. W. A. Shanklin was 
now appointed; during the twenty months of 
his stay in Spokane the church enjoyed pros- 
perity, and his many friends regretted that his 
health made it necessary for him to give up 
the work in September, 1892. Rev. Henry 
Rasmus, now Dr. Rasmus, of Chicago, who 
had served as presiding elder for two years, 
was appointed to the church. Dr. Rasmus 
was succeeded by Rev. D. N. Mclnturff, who 
was transferred from Eugene. Oregon. The 
church had enjoyed several years of prosper- 



ity, and the new past')!' found a strong and 
united society. The tabernacle, erected in 
1889-90. was found to be too small to accom- 
modate the congregation. About the time the 
present large building was projected a storm 
struck the church — not a wind storm, Ijut a 
moral cyclone. The resolution to build was 
not supported by the entire quarterly confer- 
ence. When the test came the \-ote stood 
eighteen for and six against building; the 
minority withdrew, and about ninety mem- 
bers of the church proceeded to organize what 
is now known as the \'incent Methodist Epis- 
copal church. For those who remained to 
proceed with the building enterprise was a 
great undertaking, but with a faith in God 
that knows no defeat, and the spirit of sacri- 
fice that amounted to real heroism, the church 
was built, and so far completed as to be ready 
for use. 

About a }ear afterward the methods of 
pastor, D. N. Mclnturff. in his administration 
of the affairs of the church, were such as to 
convince the highest authorities of Methodism 
that the future peace, harmony and prosperity 
of the society could only be assured by an 
immediate change of jjastors. The deposed 
pastor then \\illidrew. but refused to surren- 
der his parchments, according to the law of 
the church. A number of Jiis friends with- 
drew from the church and united with him in 
the organization of an independent society. 

Rev. H. D. Stauft'er. of Lima. Ohio, was 
the next pastor. He found the church organ- 
ization demoralized, with unpaid bills amount- 
ing to several thousand dollars, but he also 
found a company of Christian men and women 
true to God and loyal to Methodism. About 
this time a small fortune came inti> the hands 
of one of the few who remained true to the old 
church ; he went about the city and gathered 
up about three thousand dollars of bills against 
the church and paid them oft". Other brethren 
rallied to the rescue and poured into the Lord's 
treasury every dollar they could devote to His 

cause. Thus, by the blessing of God and the 
sacrifice of his people, thepropertyof thechurch 
was sa\ed. Dr. Stauffer did much hard and 
faithful work; the society was strengthened, 
over four thousand dollars of debts paid, and 
the church again started on an era of pros- 
perity. At the end of ten months he asked 
to be relieved and transferred to another cli- 
mate on account of his wife's failing health. 
He has since united with the Episcopal church. 
The present pastorate commenced May i, 
1897; during the last two years the church has 
aroused again to its old-time vigor. .^ splendid 
new parsonage, costing three thousand five 
hundred dollars, has been built and paid for; 
floating debts aggregating five thousand dol- 
lars have been paid. A loan has been secured 
from the Church Extension Board; the inter- 
est has thus been reduced from ten per cent, 
and twelve per cent, to si.x per cent. The 
meml)ership has more than doubled ; the rec- 
ords show a list of members and probationers 
of about one thousand. Extensive improve- 
ments in the church property have been made. 
The Spokane Drug Company put two coats of 
paint on the outside of the church building. 
The parsonage has been repainted. The inter- 
ior of the church has been dcorated with a 
rich fresco, and the entire woodwork re-var- 
nishe<l, under the direction of Messrs. McCul- 
loch and Tutting, of this city. The Epworth 
hall has been enlarged, papered and painted. 
.\ new reading room and ladies' parlor opens 
with folding doors into Epworth hall. An in- 
termediate hall, cadet hall, and banner class- 
rooms have been completed. The floor space 
of Epworth and connecting halls is three thou- 
sand seven hundred and forty square feet; in 
fact, the basement story of the church has been 
eritirely remodeled ; the front entrance changed 
and greatly improved. The capacity of the 
auditorium of this great church may be esti- 
mated when it is kpown that the floor space 
is ten thousand four hundred square feet. The 
recent improvements cost over two thousand 



dollars. Great credit is due to Mr. John Sar- 
genson, chairman of the improvement com- 
mittee, and Dr. George Libby, president oi the 
board of trustees. 

But the history of ^Methodism in Spokane 
is not confined to the history of the First 
church alone. 

The Sf^okauc Methodist College— In 1882- 
S;^ an effort was made to organize a college; 
thousands of dollars were spent, the school 
prospered, students attending from all parts 
of the country; but the financial reverses that 
carried down so many of Spokane's early en- 
terprises swept this away also. 

Jefferson Street Cliiireli. — The Jefferson 
Street ^lethodist church was organized in the 
chapel of the Spokane College October 9, 1887. 
There were present on the day of organization 
Rev. N. E. Parsons, presiding elder; Rev. R. 
E. Bisby, preacher in charge of North Spokane, 
and sixteen charter members. Previous to this 
time a Sabbath school had been carried on for 
about six months in the college chapel by I. S. 
Kaufman, oneofthetrusteesof the First church. 

Soon after, a church was erected, com- 
pleted and furnished, dedicated on the 25th of 
the following December, free from debt, the 
total cost being three thousand five hundred 
dollars. The chief promoters of this enterprise 
were H. N. Muzzy and I. S. Kaufman, acting 
prior to the conference of 1887, under the ad- 
vice of Rev. W. C. Gray. A parsonage was 
soon after erected, some distance from the 
church. This involved both the church and 
parsonage property in debt; the parsonage was 
lost, and the church heavily mortgaged, but 
during the fall of 1896, under the heroic efforts 
of the present pastor. Rev. C. E. Todd, the 
debt of the church was reduced to five hun- 
dred dollars, and a new parsonage built at a 
cost of one thousand dollars and paid for. They 
now have a neat church and parsonage on the 
same lot. the outlook for the church was never 
better, and a larger house of worship will soon 
be necessary. 

The list of pastors who have served the 
Jefferson Street church is as follows : Rev. 
R. E. Bisby, Rev. S. Driver, Rev. C. E. Evers. 
Rev. Henry Brown. ]\tv. V. A. La Violette, 
Rev. W. T. Euster, and the present pastor, 
Rev. C. E. Todd. 

During the last six months of the pastorate 
of Dr. Henry Brown he also served as editor of 
the Columbia Christian Advocate, a paper 
started in the interests of Spokane Methodism, 
the chief promoters being Revs. Lee, A. 
Johnson, G. AL Booth, H. Rasmus and W. W. 
Van Dusen. 

Union Park Chnreli. — The L'nion I'ark 
J^lethodist Episcopal church was organized in 
-August, 1 89 1, Rev. Perry Chandler, pastor, 
and Frank Tombs, class leader, with thirteen 
charter members. The church is well located 
in the eastern part of the city on Third avenue. 
This society supported a pastor for two years, 
but at their own request this church has been 
placed under the care of the pastor of the Jef- 
ferson Street Methodist Episcopal church. 
They have an excellent Sunday school, a good 
congregation, that meets every Sunday after- 
noon, and the S(jciety is increasing in member- 
ship and influence. 

I'ineent Cluireh. — This church was organ- 
ized in January, 1895, with about ninety mem- 
bers. The first place of worship was Elks' 
hall, in Symons block, and Rev. M. H. Marvin 
was the first pastor. A house of worship was 
erected on leased land on corner of Mill street 
and First avenue during the first year of its ex- 
istence. ]Mr. Marvin was succeeded as pastor 
by Rev. J. B. Hollingshead, who served for 
over one year. The present pastor. Rev. W. 
K. Bean, D. D., has served the church accept- 
ably for three years, and the membership has 
been augmented to two hundred and twenty- 
five. A lot has been purchased in a central lo- 
cation, corner of Lincoln and Main ave- 
nues, on which a church building, to cost about 
ten thousand dollars, will be erected in the near 



German Church. — Fourteen years ago the 
first German preachers of the Methodist church 
were sent to eastern Washington. They were 
Rev. Adam Buehler, Rev. WilHam EssHnger, 
and Rev. F. W. Buchholz. Four years later 
the church at Spokane Falls was organized, and 
Rev. F. \\'. Buchholz was appointed pastor. 
The society secured property at the corner of 
P'ourth avenue and Stevens street, and erected 
a church on this fortunately selected lot. While 
the building was in progress the great fire came, 
and the cost of the edifice was consequently 
much higher than had been planned for; thus 
a heavy debt remained on the church property, 
which at times became very embarrassing, but 
with true German pluck they held out in hope 
of better times. A loan of eight thousand dol- 
lars was secured from the Church Extension 
Society, through the efforts of Rev. A. L. 
Keoneke, pastor. On this loan the regular 
payments are made of fifty dollars per month. 
Nearly all the floating indebtedness is paid, and 
the principal of the loan greatly reduced. The 
society now numbers one huntlred and thirty 
loyal members, ever readv to support the church 
to their utmost ability. It is worth mentioning 
that the society paid to the missionary fund 
an average of one dollar and twenty-five cents 
per member last year ; one thousand dollars on 
the debt; and during the entire year the aver- 
age ainount paid per member was twenty-six 
dollars. Rev. J. W. Beckley is the present pas- 
tor. The church is greatly prospered, and the 
outlook encouraging. 

A'orK'cgiaii and Danish Church. — This 
church was organized in April, 1889, by Rev. 
C. J. Larsen, with thirteen charter members. 
I'hey have a good church and parsonage prop- 
erty at 217 South Stevens street. The great 
Spokane fire occurred the same year the church 
was built. Many of the members suffered loss 
of property, and were unable to pay all their 
subscriptions. This made it necessary to let 
a heavy debt remain on the property, but the 
membership has increased and the work greatly 

encouraged. This struggling society is true to 
the benevolences of the church, and in one year 
gave one hundred and fifty dollars. The pres- 
ent pastor, Bro. V. L. Hansen, is meeting with 
splendid success. It is one of the missions of 

S7<.'cdish Church. — The work among the 
Swedish people of Spokane was commenced by 
the Rev. Bernt Howe in July, 1894. Services 
were held in the German Methodist Episcopal 
church. Rev. K. O. Berglund was appointed 
pastor that year, and organized a class of nine 
members. He was succeeded in December, 
1896, by Rev. Joseph Esterborg, who became 
discouraged and abandoned the work in June, 
1898. After this no services were held until 
the appointment of the present pastor. Rev. 
Emanuel Johnston. The work has been com- 
pletely re-organized and started on an era of 
prosperity. The membership numbers twenty- 
one including probationers. This also is one 
of the missions of the church. 

The presiding elders who have managed 
the district are : Rev. S. G. Havermale, Rev. 
D. G. Strong, Rev. W. S. Turner, Rev. M. S. 
-Anderson, Rev. N. E. Parsons, Rev. Henry 
Rasmus, D. D., Rev. W. W. Van Dusen, D. 
D., and the present incumbent. Rev. Henry 
Brown, D. D. 

The Epworth League and Sunday schools 
of Spokane are in a prosperous condition. 

Deaconess Home and Hospital. — The Dea- 
coness Home and Hospital of Spokane was 
founded by Bro. and Sister F. P. Oneal, the 
coq)orate name being the Maria Beard Deacon- 
ess Home and Hospital. The name is in the 
affectionate memory of Sister Oneal's mother. 
It is a splendid structure, situated on Fourth 
street between Howard and Mill. The plan 
provides that one-half the building shall be de- 
voted to hospital work, the rest for the Home. 
The various rooms have been furnished by indi- 
viduals, charitable societies and churches. It 
is managed by a local board of control, with 
Miss Clara Brown, deaconess, as superintend- 



ent, and is affiliated with tlie deaconess move- 
ment of Chicago.. Any regular physician is 
admitted to practice in the hospital, the patients 
having their own choice. Patients who are able 
to pay for board and care do so, but charity 
patients are not denied admission, and many 
people contribute supplies and moneyto the sup- 
port of this important work. (The Old Peo- 
ple's Home, opened a few months ago, is an im- 
portant adjunct to the hospital.) 

Spokane Methodism, like the church in all 
cities and towns, has been supplemented and 
strengthened by the churches in the rural dis- 
tricts. Parents leave the farm and move to 
the city to secure better educational advantages 
for their children ; young men and women from 
the Christian homes in the country come seek- 
ing their fortune in change of vocation. There 
are seven charges and eleven churches with 
other preaching stations in the county outside 
of the city of Spokane and six preachers in 


Rev. J. W. Compti^n. wlio was appointed to 
what is now the Spokane district, first preached 
in Spokane Falls in June, 1880, in the public 
school house. Rev. E. P. Warren, a local 
preacher, also preached a few times in the 
town of Spokane Falls, but Rev. Reg. B. 
Swift was the first regular pastor. He was 
appointed to the charge in 1887, and organized 
the first society of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. South, in Spokane Falls, February 12, 
1 888, in Morris hall with twenty-one members 
and began preaching in the above named hall 
February 5, 1888. In the fall of 1887 Bishop 
R. K. Hargrove selected the present site of the 
church on Sprague avenue, near Adams street, 
on which the present church, a neat brick edi- 
fice, was erected in the summer of 1888, and 
was dedicated by Bishop Hargrove in Sei>- 
tember of that year. Rev. R. B. Swift was 
continued pastor until 1890, assisted by P. M. 
Bell during the last vear. Being made pre- 

siding elder of the district, R. G. Isbell was 
appointed in charge of the church and contin- 
ued one year. Rev. W. H. Hodges, of South 
Carolina, was tiien transferred to the charge 
and after one year J. \\^ Craig was appointed 
to the church and was pastor two years to 
September, 1894. Rev. G. H. Gil:)bs was ap- 
pointed to the charge by Bishop Fitzgerald 
and was continued in the pastorate for three 
years to August, 1897. Rev. J. B. Christian 
•\vas transferred from Georgia, ])Ut in charge 
of the church until August, 1898, when 1ie. 
was succeeded by Rev. M. V. Howard, the 
l)resent pastor of the church. During the past 
year the Forest Park chapel has been built 
on North Monroe street, which is not yet com- 
pleted. The present membership of the church 
is a little over one hundred. The Sunday 
school and Epworth League in the church are 
doing a good work. There is also a flourish- 
ing Sunday school organized in the Forest 
Park mission chapel, all under the care of the 
pastor. The church also owns a six-room 
parsonage on North Monroe street ; all the 
property is free from debt, except the parson- 
age property, which owes three hundred dol- 
lars. This charge is perhaps the extreme 
northern limit of the organization of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The 
pastor is partially supported by mission money, 
but hopes in the near future to become self- 
supporting. In fellowship with other Evan- 
gelical Protestant churches, the Ivlethodist 
Episcopal Church, South, is endeavoring to 
give the city of Spokane a pure Gospel, that 
saves all that accept it. With this mission 
before her, she expects to bide, and "stand in 
her lot, to the end of her days, and as a bride 
adorned for her husband meet her Lord at his 
coming." — M. V. Howard. 


The First Presbyterian Church of Spokane 
was organized June 10, 1883, by a committee 
consisting of Revs. T. M. Boyd and Cieorge 



L. Deffenbaugh from the presbytery of Idaho. 
Preaching services had been held a month 
previous to this time by Rev. T. G. Watson 
and he was present and assisted in tlie organi- 
zation of the new church. Five trustees were 
elected : Messrs. E. H. Jamieson. J. S. Alli- 
son, James Gibson, A. M. Cannon and R. ^l. 
Forrest. The following elders were installed 
on the Sabbath succeeding the organization: 
E. H. Jamieson. J. S. Allison. G. W. Burch 
and F. H. Conk. The first place of worship 
was in an upper room in Cannon's block, cor- 
ner Riverside and Mill. In the spring of 1884 
the congregation moved into the Van Dom 
Opera House, Riverside and Post. In the fall 
of 1884 the church worshipped in Glover's hall, 
Howard and Frank, and after two or three 
other moves finally occupied their new church 
building on the corner where the Review build- 
ing now stands. This i^roperty was sold by 
the church in February. 1889, and after wor- 
ship])iug for a time in Concordia hall on Sec- 
ond a\-enue, finally, in 1890. occu])ied the build- 
ins' now used at the corner of Second and Jef- 
ferson. This church has had a steady growth 
and although suffering somewhat from finan- 
cial depressions and the dismissal of members 
to form the Centenary and Westminster 
churches, yet she has always had a strong and 
loyal membership. This church has had but 
three pastors. Rev. T. G. Watson served the 
cluu-ch from June, 1883, to June, 1891, and was 
mstalleil as permanent pastor November 3. 
1889. Rev. F. J. Mundy began his work Jan- 
uary I. 189.2. antl continued until October 1, 
1894; was installed pastor June 4, 189J. Rev. 
G. William Giboney, the present pastor, was 
installed December 8. 1895, although beginning 
his work November 8, 1894. The present en- 
rollment of members is five hundred and seven- 

Bethel Presbyterian Church, Spokane, was 
organized November 7, 1897, and has from 
that time been supplied by Rev. W. Chalmers 

The Rockford Presbyterian Church, Rock- 
ford, was organized March 27, 1884, with five 
members. Messrs. D. F. Eakin and William 
O. Murphy were elected ruling elders. The 
present church building, worth one thousand 
live hundred dollars, was erected in the sum- 
mer of 1887. The following pastors have 
served the church: D. D. Allen, 1885-1889; 
Isaac Wheelis, 1890-1891 ; W. C. Beebe, 1891- 
1892; Isaac Wheelis, 1892-1893; Monroe 
Drew, 1893-1894; L. E. Jesseph, 1895-1898; 
J. A. McArthur, 1898-1900. 

Fairfield Presbyterian Church, Fairfield, 
was organized with eight members October 2^, 
1892, by Rev. T. M. Gunn and Rev. I. Wheelis. 
The pastors serving have Ijeen as follows: 
Isaac Wheelis, 1892; Monroe Drew, 1893; 
Charles Godsman, 1S94; L. E. Joseph, 1895- 
1898; J. A. McArthur, 1898- 1900. 

Centenary Presbyterian Church was organ- 
ized February 3, 1888, with twelve members. 
Rev. T. G. Watson, pastor of the First church, 
and Rev. H. W. Stratton were actively inter- 
ested in gathering the new church. The pur- 
pose and spirit of the organization is well set 
forth in the words of the committee appointed 
to look over the field previous to organization, 
viz : "It was found that nearly thirty persons, 
either members of Presbyterian churches or 
connected with Presbyterian families, were liv- 
ing on the north side of the river and that a 
goodly number of these desired to unite in or- 
ganizing a church which should not only be 
convenient of access, but which should, with 
the Lord's blessing, enter heartily into mission 
work upon the_ field." The work of erecting a 
building was at once undertaken on lots do- 
nated for that purpose by Rev. H. W. Strat- 
ton, who also gave liberally of time and 
money for the completion of the building 
and sustaining the work of the church. Sub- 
stantial aid was at this time given by the First 
church. The basement of the building was 
first used October 7, 1888, and the audience 
room was completed and dedicated in Septem- 



ber, 1890. After the organization of the churcli 
there was a considerable period of uncertainty 
as to tiie settlement of a pastor. Record is 
found of the f(jl!o\ving ministers who filled the 
pulpit as stated supply : Rev. H. G. Dennison, 
1888-1889: Rev. D. S. Banks, June, 1889, to 
October, 1889; Rev. P. S. Janiieson, Novem- 
ber, 1889, to June, 1890; Rev. T. J. Lamont, 
D. D., June, 1890, to November, 1890: Rev. 
S. T. Davis, February, 1891, to September, 
1891. Rev. A. E. Street, September, 1891, to 
January, 1892. Rev. T. C. Armstrong, D. D., 
was installed pastor early in 1892, and remained 
o\'er four years. Rev. W. L. V'anNuys was in- 
stalled in April. 1897, and resigned in April, 
1900, to go to La Grande, Oregon. 

The church has at present a membership of 
over line hundred, and seems to be entering 
a wider sphere of activity and influence than it 
has heretofore known. 


The first ser\ice of the Episcopal church in 
Spokane county was held liy the Re\'. R. D. 
Nevius, D. D., about 1880, and a little church 
was built on the corner of Riverside anil Lin- 
coln, and a jjarish schno! fur Imys was held in 
the same Iniikling. which was afterwards 
moved to the present site of the cathedral and 
later burned down. The Rev. Dr. r)urnett suc- 
ceeded Dr. Nevius as missionarx'. and the Rev. 
Charles B. Crawford succeeded him and was 
the first rector of All Saints' parish. About 
18S9 St. Mary's hall was Iniilt in Cook's addi- 
ticin, and a girls' school carried nn. first under 
j\Irs. Summerville, and then under Mr. James 
Lyon. It was during Mr. Crawt\)rd's rector- 
ship that the present Church of All Saints was 
built and was intcndefl to be used ultimately as 
a parish house wlien the permanent structure 
should be erected. While he was rector. St. 
David's chapel at Lidgerwood also was built. 

In 1891 Re\. William L. Lane succeeded Mr. 

Crawford as rector. In 1892 eastern Washing- 
ton became a separate diocese under the name 
of the Missionary district of S])okane, and the 
Rt. Rev. Lemuel 11. Wells, 1). 1).. became its 
first bishop, with his residence at Spokane as 
his see city, and took .Ml Saints church as bis 
cathedral. Soon after this the rectory and the 
old church, then used as a chapel, and the chan- 
cel end of the present churcii, with a laishop's 
house partly built, and other buildings adjoin- 
ing, were burne<l. Later St. Mary's hall was 
burned and the bishop secured a new site and 
Iniilding for the school on the corner of Pa- 
cific avenue and Hemlock, au<l Mrs. Hen- 
reitta B. Wells and ]\ Julia P. Bailey became 
the principals. Since then it has been twice en- 
larged and is very flourishing. About 1895 
Mr. Lane was succeeded by the Rev. Dean 
Richmond Babl)itt, LL. D., and after a short 
interval the Rev. Robert Ferine became dean 
of the cathedral and is the present incumljent 
While Dr. Babbitt was dean the St. Stephens 
School for Boys was started and still occupies 
the parish house in connection with the cathed- 
lal. Mr. T. E. Morton being the head master. 
Aliciut 189O Trinity church was erected, and 
alter several temporary arrangements the Rev. 
J. Neilson Barry took charge in 1899. A mis- 
sion was at one time started at Liberty Park 
under the name of St. Peters, and after a year 
or two was discontinued. It has now been re- 
vived with ba])pier aus])ices under the charge 
of the Rew W alter B. Clark. There are no 
other Episcopal churches in Spokane county 
outside of the city, but the church services are 
being held in \arious jjlaces, in buildings either 
rented or loaned, in July, 1897, a Protestant 
hospital was orgainzed under the auspices of 
theEpisc(i])alchurch in a building on the corner 
of S]irague and .Madison streets, loaned by 
tliein. The hospital is doing good work and is 
generally full to o\-erflowing. cr)rdially sup- 
ported by the Protestant community. Miss 
Edith Duke is the superintemlent and head 




The United Presbyterian Church is one 
of a number of denominations belonging to 
the great Presbyterian body. Its history ex- 
tends back to and beyond the times of the per- 
secutions in Scotland when men gave their 
lives rather tlian give up their rehgious con- 

Its iiistory in America liegins. as a distinct 
denomination, in 1857, having its origin in the 
union of two Presbj-terian bodies, tlie Asso- 
ciate and tlie Assixiate-Reformed cliurclies. 
Each of these denominations, however, liad an 
American history running far liack into the 
eighteenth century. Indeed it is claimed that 
the first theological seminary l)uiiding erected 
on American soil was built by the .Associate 
church, in Beaver county, Pennsylvania, and 
to-day pieces frcm the oak logs of the old build- 
ing are found in many United Presbyterian 
families in the form of canes and curios and 
are regarded as heir-looms of a church ancestry. 

The United Presbyterian church is one of 
the smaller denominations of the country, hav- 
ing, according to report of 1899, 893 ministers 
and 114.635 members in America, and two 
prosperous missions, one in Egypt and the other 
in India, with an aggregate of 73 ministers 
and 12,148 members. 

The church established its work in Spokane 
county in 1890, in which year Rev. \\'. A. 
Spalding was sent out by the Home Mission- 
ary Board to organize a congregation in the 
city of Spokane. He arrived on the field Au- 
gust 8. 1890. On Sabbath, August 10, he 
preached, so far as is known, the first United 
Presbyterian sermon that was ever preached 
in the count}-, in the Congregational tabernacle, 
•on Washington street, between Third and 
Fourth avenues, and by favor of that congre- 
gation used their building for a first meeting 
of United Presbyterians that same evening. 

A number of persons were present, willing 
and anxious to aid in this church organization. 

During the week a store room at No. 421 Sec- 
ond a\enue was rented as temporary quarters, 
and later, about November i, the work was 
moved to the Phoenix Block, Second avenue 
and Jefferson street, where the organization 
was formed on November 7, 1890, with the fol- 
lowing named twenty-eight persons as charter 
members : John Anderson, Mrs. Maggie 
Anderson. W. H. McCoy, Mrs. Ella McCoy, 
Isaac ^IcCracken. Mrs. Isabel McCracken, 
W". E. Reed, Mrs. Millie Reed, H. C. Blair, 

D. E. Blair, Miss Sarah E. Blair, Miss Agnes 
L. Thompson, \V. C. McMillan. J. M. McMil- 
lan, Miss Emma Patton, Miss Mary A. Tag- 
gart, W. H. Shields, J. G. McCracken, John 

E. Reed, Mrs. Maggie Reed. Miss Lena Mc- 
Coy, Thomas H. Brewer, Mrs. Margaret B. 
Spalding. ^Irs. Sophia Cannon, Mrs. Matie 
Sliields, J. F. Carnahan, Mrs. Tallie Carnahan. 
Of these, John Anderson, W. H. McCoy and 
Isaac McCracken were elected ruling elders, 
and W. C. McMillan. John E. Reed and W.H. 
McCoy, trustees, and so completed the organi- 

The Boards of Home Missions and Church 
Extension rendered valuable assistance from 
the beginning. The latter purchased a lot, 
the present church site, corner Third avenue 
and Adams street, on which the congregation 
built a chai)el in 1891, as part of the future per- 
manent building. In this they worshiped, and 
grew in lunnbers and strength until 1898, 
when the main auditorium, as it now stands, 
was completed, the total cost of the property 
being about eighteen thousand dollars. The 
Rev. Dr. Spalding has continued from the first 
to be the pastor of the congregation, v.hich has 
now ( 1900) a membership of one hundred and 
fifty. Besides taking care of their woVk and 
keeping themselves free from debt, the congre- 
gation has organized and maintained a mis- 
sion Sabbath school at Glendale, in the south- 
west part of the city. Here they have a school 
of from seventy-five to a hundred, and a good 
property that is open to use by all evangelical 



denominations. This is the only congrega- 
tion of the United Presbyterian denomination 
in the county of Spokane. The denomination 
is reckoned to be conservative in its theology. 
Its published creed is the confession that is 
common to all Presbyterian bodies, but it places 
back of all, the word of God, accepting it as 
the "infallible and only rule of faith and prac- 
tice." As a church it stands stoutly upon the 
platform of Jesus Christ the Divine Son of God 
being "The head over all things to his church." 
It calls upon its members, by the power of an 
inward and spiritual impulse, to separate them- 
selves from the world, and not be "unequally 
yoked together with unbelie\"ers;" and con- 
sequently it seeks to keep its members from all 
associations and societies where close and 
sworn fellowship must be had with men of 
every belief and practice. The exclusive use 
of "God's songs" or the Psalms in its praise 
service is a distinguishing feature that may 
have helped to keep the church pure in doc- 
trine, on the principle of the noted saying, 
"Let me make a nation's songs and I care not 
who makes her laws." 

As is to be rightly expected, the United 
Presbyterian church has always been identi- 
fied with the moral growth, and better devel- 
opment of the city's and county's interests. 


The Universalist society of Spokane was 
organized ]March 16, 1892, by the Rev. Q. H. 
Shinn, D. D., Universalist missionary, with a 
charter membership of ten. A parish was or- 
ganized January 29, 1893, by O. H. Shinn, D. 
D., of Boston, Massachusetts, general mission- 
ary of the Universalist church for the United 
States. There were forty-five names enrolled. 
The officers of the parish are a president, clerk, 
treasurer and four trustees. This parish ac- 
knowledges the ecclesiastical authority of the 
Universalist general convention, and contrib- 
utes each year according to its ability to the 
funds of the general con\-ention in conformity 

with their laws. The parish is the business 
branch of the church, and transacts all busi- 
ness pertaining to the church. Soon after the 
organization of the parish, a Sunday school 
was organized, and has held regular sessions 
every Sunday at 12 M. 

A church organization was effected Au- 
gust 2"/, 1893, '^y I^^v. A. C. Grier, now of 
Racine, Wisconsin. Twenty-eight members 
were received into the church, some by letter 
and others by baptism. Officers of the churcli 
are a moderator, a clerk and three deacons. 
The Rev. A. C. Grier was engaged to preach 
at this time for two months, during his vaca- 
tion from his regular charge in the east. Dur- 
ing his stay Mr. Grier organized a Young Peo- 
ple's Christian Union, an auxiliary to the 
church. After Rev. Mr. Grier left, lay serv- 
ices were held regularly in Oliver hall, some 
member of the church or parish reading a ser- 
mon each Sunday, no regular preaching serv- 
ices being held until the summer of 1896, when 
the Rev. Asa M. Bradley, then of Oakland, 
California, and Pacific coast missionary, was 
sent to this church by the Woman's Centenary 
Association, an auxiliary to the Universalist 
general convention. Rev. Mr. Bradley re- 
mained eight months and while here was instru- 
mental in -purchasing a lot for church pur- 
poses, on which a church building is now in 
contemplation. When Mr. Bradley was called 
to other fields for missionary work, lay ser\-- 
ices were again resumed and have been regu- 
larlv held, except when an occasional sermon 
was preached by general missionary Rev. O. 
H. Shinn, D. D. From time to time acces- 
sions were made to the church until at one time 
the membership reached fifty-two, but on ac- 
count of removals from the city the number has 
been reduced to about forty. 

The church has been greatly hampered on 
account of lack of finances, but arrangements 
are now making whereby the general conven- 
tion will lend its aid. which will enable the so- 
cietv to employ a settled pastor in the near fu- 



tnre, and hopes are entertained of soon having 
a bnilding on the chnrcli Int. in which to meet, 
instead of having to rent a hall as now. 

The determintion of this society to i)e rec- 
ognized as one of the nianv in this city which 
are laboring for Christ ami the go(.)d of human- 
ity, will be apparent when it is considered that 
for seven years it has held regular ser\ices in 
Oliver hall, and during the majority of that 
time without a minister. 

The Cniversalist profession of faith is as 
follows : 

1. We believe that the Holy Scriptures of 
the Old and New Testaments contain a revela- 
tion of the character of God. and of the duty, 
interest and final destmatuni of mankmd. 

2. We believe that there is one Cod. whose 
nature is love, revealed in one Lord Jesus 
ChTist by one Holy Spirit of Grace, wlio will 
finally restore the whole family of mankind to 
holiness anil happiness. 

3. We believe that holiness and true happi- 
ness are inseparably connected, and that be- 
lievers ought to be careful to maintain order 
and practice good works: fur these things are 
good and profitable unto men. 

Declaration of principles : 

1. The universal Fatherhood of God. 

2. The spiritual authority and leadership 
of Jesus Christ. 

3. The certainty of just retribution. 

4. The trustwiirthincss nf the liible as con- 
taining a rexelation from Cod. 

5. The final harmony of all souls with God. 


The First Unitarian ciiurch o{ Spokane was 
organized in the spring of 1887 at a meeting 
held in the office of Hon. George M. Forster. 
At this meeting there were present and took 
part in the organization Mr. and Mrs. George 
M. Forster. ^Ir. and Mrs. .\. J. Ross. Mr. and 
Mrs. F. H. Graves. Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Clarke, 
Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Davis. Mr. and Mrs. H. W. 
Greenberg, Mrs. J. F. Sloane, Mr. and 'Sirs. 

C. W. Burrage, W. G. Willis and others. The 
records of this meeting, as well as the records 
of subsequent meetings and of the early life of 
the church, were ilestroyed in the disastrous fire 
of 1889. There was also present at this meet- 
ing, or he came to Spokane very soon after- 
ward. Rev. Edwin M. Wheelock, A. M., LL. 
B.. the organizer and first pastor of the church. 
An enthusiastic visitor about this same time 
was Rev. Chas. W. Wendte, of Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, through whose efforts and inspiration 
the first active movement toward the organiza- 
tion of a church was made, and who has con- 
tinued to be a father to the society and to main- 
tain an affectionate interest in its welfare and 
progress. Rev. C. W. Wendte remembers that 
at a previous visit to Spokane Falls there came 
a courier with news of an Indian uprising on 
Wild Rose prairie, near to Spokane, and of 
the speedy drafting of men to repel the attack, 
though nothing came of it, the little army of 
fifty men returning the ne.xt day after a night 
spent under the stars. This incident of pioneer 
life will serve to show the primitive character- 
istics of the town at this time. Previous to this 
meeting for organization Unitarian services 
had been hekl by Rev. C. W. Wendte, and by 
Rev. H. K. (Jillette, who was probably the 
first Unitarian minister to visit Spokane. The 
first pastor of the new society was Rev. E. S[. 
Wheelock. Under his pastorate the small circle 
of worshipers was enlarged and organized 
into a strong church society; a Sunday school 
was brought together under the efficient su- 
perintendency of Prof. W. B. Turner, now prin- 
cipal of the Slate Normal School; a Ladies" 
.\id Society was organized and the founda- 
tions for the future usefulness of the church 
were well laid. L'nder his pastorate also the 
present comfortable and attractive church edi- 
fice, on the northwest corner of Sjirague avenue 
and Jefferson street, was built during the 
autumn and e;irly winter of 1888. The church 
edifice is of the cottage style of architecture. 
j is commodiously arranged and has a seating 



capacity of two hundred and se\'enty-five. It 
cost sixty-five hundred dollars. Rev. E. M. 
Wheelock severed his connection as pastor of 
the church in December, 1889, on account of 
the condition of his wife's health re(|uiring- a 
southern climate. The pulpit for the remainder 
of the year until the summer vacation was in 
charge of Mr. John H. Long, at that time un- 
ordained, and in the fall of 1890 Rev. Alfred 
G. \\'ilson succeeded to the pastorate, after 
having left a prominent orthodox pulpit of 
Spokane because he could no longer preach the 
doctrines required. His ministry lasted for 
two years and in the fall of 1892 Rev. Joseph 
W. Stocks, a recent graduate of Harvard Uni- 
versity, entered upon the work as minister with 
enthusiasm and with every promise of a bril- 
liant career, when his sad and untimely death 
came as a great shock t(_) the society. Mr. 
Stocks died in February, 1893, and Rev. A. 
G. Wilson was again called ti.i the pastorate 
and filled out the year to the summer vacation. 
Rev. Edwin M. Fairchild was called to the 
pastorate in September, 1894, but remained 
only three months, and Rev. A. G. Wilson was 
again prevailed upon to accept the pastorate. 
He was succeeded, January 6, 1896. by Rev. 
Oliver Jay Fairfield, A. M., S. T. B., the pres- 
ent pastor, under whose ministry the society 
is growing in strength and influence, and is 
striving to occupy that high place of service 
to the community that the Unitarian body, 
though numerically weak, has filled in the life 
of the nation during the nineteenth century. 
Oliver Jav Fairfield. 

united brethren in christ. 

The earliest missionary of this church on 
the Pacific coast was one known as Father 
Conoyer, who did some pi(ineer work in east- 
ern Washington. The thirty-fifth annual ses- 
sion of the Columbia River conference, embrac- 
ing the upper Columljia cixintry, was held at 
Huntsville last June. Prior to 1S89 some 
preaching had been done by Rev. J. S. Rhodes, 

now of \\'eston, Oregon, and others in the 
southern part of the county. But in June of 
said year Rev. C. C. Bell was sent from Port- 
land, Oregon, to Spokane to organize and de- 
velop the work. On .\])ril 10, 1890, a class 
was instituted, but the incorijoration of the 
church did not take place until the 14th of May 
of the following year. Soon after this a build- 
ing was erected on land donated by Mr. S. 
Heath, and the church was named "Heath 
Memorial," in commemoration of Mr. Heath's 
father. The church is 35x60. with a Sunday 
.school room 25x18 feet, and built of brick and 
tastily finished inside, costing, with the parson- 
age adjoining, about five thousand dollars. The 
church started out under fa\'oral)le auspices and 
promise of rapid growth, but the financial de- 
pression which followed soon after obstructed 
its progress. The following have acted as pas- 
tors succeeding Rev. Bell : Rew P. O. Bone- 
brake, now president of Philomath College, 
Oregon; Rev. G. W. Sickafoose, now of El- 
berton ; Rev. J. M. Tressenriter, now of Ore- 
g(.)n, and the present pastor. Rev. G. N. Needy, 
who has had charge since October, 1897. Un- 
der his ministry considerable progress has been 
made in all departments of church work. The 
church has a membership of seventy and a Sun- 
day school of one hundred scholars, with flour- 
ishing Senior and Junior Endeavor Societies. 
Some improvements luue recently been made 
in and around the church edifice. The church 
at Rockford has a convenient building and a 
membership of sixty-si.\ and about one hundred 
scholars in the Sunday school. Rev. O. O. 
Otis is pastor. 

The \\'a\-erly church is comfortabh' boused 
and has a membership of fifty-seven, with about 
an equal number in Sunday school and it is 
ser\ed liy Rev. R. N. Lewis. 


The Christian Science tenets were intro- 
duced to Spokane in the year 1890, and the 
meetings were held in the Granite block. 

I 82 


Among the prime movers were Mr. and Mrs. 
F. E. Goodall and Mr. Robinson, the latter 
being a student of Mrs. Eddy. -The church 
was organized four years ago, and the present 
membership is eighty, with a congregation of 
about one hundred and fifty. Meetings are 
held on Sunday morning in the Jewish Temple 
on Second avenue, and a testimony meeting 
is held every Wednesday evening. A reading 
room was established seven years ago and has 
been sustained ever since. At present it is lo- 
cated on the con"ier of Sprague avenue and 
Howard street. It is a free reading room, 
where all the Christian Science literature of 
Mrs. Eddy can be found, or all the Christian 
Science literature of the Boston publishing 

"i. As adherents of truth, we take the 
Scriptures for our guide to eternal life. 

"2. We acknowledge and adore one su- 
preme infinite God. We acknowledge one 
Christ, the Holy Ghost, and man as the divine 
image and likeness. 

"3. God's forgiveness of sin, in the de- 
struction of sin, and the understanding that 
sin and suffering are not eternal. 

"4. The atonement as the efficacy, and evi- 
dence of divine love, of man's unity with God, 
and the great merits of Jesus, the Way-shower. 

"5. Universal salvation as demonstrated 
by Jesus, the Galilean prophet, in the power 
of truth over all error, sin, sickness and death ; 
and the resurrection of human faith and under- 

standing to seize the great possibilities and liv- 
ing energies of the divine life. 

"6. We solemnly promise to strive, watch 
and pray for that mind to be in us which was 
also in Christ Jesus, to love one another, and to 
be meek, merciful, just and pure." 

Mary Baker G. Eddy. 

peoplk's uxited church. 

This church was organized May 21, 1896, 
tlie majority of the members, with the pastor, 
coming out of the First Methodist Episcopal 
church. Rev. D. N. Mclnturff, D. D., has been 
the pastor from the beginning. The church is 
aggressive in its method and emphasizes the 
faith healing doctrine. 

christian alliance. 

This is an interdenominational alliance, 
holding regular services at present in the Vin- 
cent Methodist Episcopal church. It empha- 
sizes conversion, sanctification, healing and the 
second coming of Christ. The Fourfold Gospel 
Union advocates the same doctrines. Rev. B. 
F. Morse is the pastor. 


Hebrew services were held first in this city 
eleven years ago in the First Congregational 
church building. The Temple was erected in 
1 89 1. Several rabbis have served the Congre- 
gation Emanu-El, but at present they are with- 
out a rabbi. 



Few men suspect, perhaps no man comprehends, the 
extent of the support given by religion to the virtues of 
ordinary life. — Channing. 


This organization is one of the most benefi- 
cent agencies in the physical, intellectual and 

moral development of young men in the city. 
The object of the Young Glen's Christian Asso- 
ciation is to save and develop young men. Since 
man is a compound being made up of physical 
and spiritual elements, he needs a sj^mmetrical 
development of the different parts of his nature 



in their mutual relations. The association is 
working more and more intelligently every year 
in this direction. The Young Alen's Christian 
Association originated a meeting for prayer 
and bible study. For a time the agencies em- 
ployed were directly religious, and the conver- 
sion of young men, together with their growth 
in christian character, were the only things 
the society sought to accomplish. Although 
the organization almost immediately undertook 
other lines of work for young men and has 
since broadened its work until it embraces the 
development of the whole man, yet its ultimate 
aim has always been the evangelization and 
christian culture of young men. The platform 
is laid down on the following basis: "The 
Y''oung Men's Christian Association seeks to 
unite those young men, who, regarding Jesus 
Christ as their God and Savior according to the 
Holy Scriptures, desire to be his disciples in 
their doctrine and in their life, and to associate 
their efforts for the extension of His kingdom 
among young men." In every association the 
religious work is considered t(j be the important 
and crowning feature towards which all the 
departments lead up. A large proportion of the 
time and thought of the best workers is given 
to it. It is not a substitute for the church or 
a rival of the church, or an organization outside 
of the church. It is the church at work inter- 
denominationally and through its layman by 
and for young men. It has. more than any 
other agency, brought about a fraternal union 
of Christian young men. and through it thou- 
sands of young men have been led into the 
church membership. The greater part of the 
expense of the association is borne by subscrip- 
tions from the business men and those inter- 
ested in the welfare of the young man. One of 
the movements to meet the social and economic 
conditions of the times is the enlargement of 
the work of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation till it touches all the interests of a young 
man's life. In the ])rocess of tliis enlargement 
the Spokane association has taken an advanced 

position, and is providing under moral en- 
vironment amusements in the form of liigh 
class concerts, entertainments, popular lectures, 
exhibitions and contests. 

The first Young Men's Christian .\ssocia- 
tion of this city was organized November 4, 
1884. The gentlemen who were interested in 
this movement and who were the first four offi- 
cers were M. H. W'hitehouse, president; Prof. 
C. E. Reeves, vice president; W'ihiam Mark- 
ham, secretary, and W. G. F. Pratt, treasurer. 
All except Prof. Reeves reside in the city to- 
day. The persons mentioned exhiljited a com- 
mendable loyalty to the organization during 
the first years of its history. The meetings w'ere 
held during the first three years in the differ- 
ent churches. Early in 1886 a room was en- 
gaged on the corner of Mill and Sprague and a 
small librarv collected. The furniture consisted 
of a small center table covered with a few 
papers and fewer magazines. Th.e room was 
kept in order by the faithful ones. In 1-887 the 
association was organized on a broader basis 
and occupied rooms in the Brickell building, ad- 
joining the original one to the north, on Mill 
street over the postoffice. The rooms were 
made attractive with many additional books 
and magazines and papers and bathing facili- 
ties. In October of this year the directors 
opened correspondence with the international 
committee of the Y. M. C. .\. in New York 
City with a view of engaging a general secre- 
tary. The committee recommended Mr. Fill- 
more Tanner, who was the general secretary of 
the Y. M. C. A. at Ogdensburg, New York, 
as a suitable jierson for the position. Corres- 
pondence with him resulted in his engagement 
and he took up the work in December of tiie 
same year. Under Mr. Tanner's management 
the association made rapid development for a 
tune. In the fire of 1889 the possessions of 
the association were nearly all consumed. Im- 
mediately following the fire the meetings were 
held in the old Baptist church on Sprague av- 
enue, near Monroe. That building was tem- 



poraril}' fitted up and occupied fiir several 
months, the Baptist church liaving sold it. Be- 
fore tliis a lot had ]ieen procured in a central 
location, southwest corner of Post and ^lain. 
It was thought desirable not to erect a build- 
ing on this land until the association was able 
to put up such a one as would meet the needs of 
the future. Accordingly a brick building was 
erected; on Sprague avenue, near Washington 
street, at a cost of fourteen thousand dollars. 
It was fairly furnished and equipped for its 
purposes and good work was done until some 
complications arose and which resulted in the 
suspension of the associatiim. For seven years 
Spokane was without a Young Men's Christian 
Association, a condition of things which 
seemed both mysterious and humiliating to 
some. Finally those who had the welfare of 
the young men at heart bestirred themselves 
and determined to undertake the opening of 
the work. A temporary board was elected. 
representing the different churches of tlie city, 
who then proceeded to raise the sum of two 
thousantl, five hundred dollars, from the busi- 
ness men. J. .\. Dummett, the tra\eling secre- 
tary for the Pacific Northwest, was called into 
the field to assist in this work. The thought 
was to secure the names of one hundred men 
who would underwrite the association twenty- 
five dollars each. Sixty were secured and then 
the work apparently stopped. At this juncture 
it was thought advisable to olitain an associa- 
tion man to push the work to comjiletion. The 
man called was S. N. Ward, who was then act- 
ing as assistant secretary of the Y. M. C. A. in 
Portland, Oregon. He arrived in Sjjokane Oc- 
tober 20, 1898, and secured a small office room 
in the Symons block. The desk and chair 
formerly belonging to the old association were 
found and the work was prosecuted with such 
vigor and attendetl with such success that the 
admirably furnished and suitably equipped 
rooms now occupied in the Blake block were 
opened on May i. 1899. At this writing the 
officers of the association are as follows : E. M. 

Heyburn. president: Cyrus Bradley, vice-presi- 
dent: J. C. Barline. recording secretary: and 
W. Gootlspeed. treasurer, with the following 
directors: George S. Brooks, \\\ H. Shields, 
James A. Williams. H. S. Martin, C. W. 
Weeks. W. S. McCrea. F. E. Elmendorf, J. 
drier Long, Henry Hill, H. T. Coleman, and 
Fred Phair. S. H. Ward continuing to act as 
general secretary, with A. J. Carroll in charge 
of the physical department. The association in 
all its departments is in an excellent condition, 
with bright prospects for the future. Since the 
opening there have been raised and expended 
eight tiiousand dollars, and the membership 
has passed fi\e hundred and is constantly in- 

There are already indications that the near 
future will necessitate larger quarters. The as- 
sociation is duly incorporated and the board of 
directors have control of all the business con- 
nected with it. 

The Work of the Association. — Bible 
school, historical Bible studies, devotional 
Bible studies, workers' training class, boys' 
biographical study, international S. S. les- 
.son. Young Men's Meetings: Held Sun- 
day afternoon at 4:00. Social events: 
Receptions. concerts, socials, class nights. Night 
College: Algebra, arithmetic (elementary) 
arithmetic (advanced), architectural draw-" 
ing. bookkeeping, English. grammar, me- 
chanical drawing, penmanshii), ])liysiology 
(hygiene), spelling, stenography, typewriting, 
vocal music (elementary), vocal music (ad- 
vanced). Reading Rooms, supplied with one 
hundred and twenty-five publications. Baths, 
tub and shower. (j}-mnasium: New appara- 
tus, physical and medical examination, anthrop- 
ometric chart, exhiliitions, contests, indoor 
games, prescriptive exercises. Lockers, fitted 
with one hundred new anti-dial combination 
locks. Special I'eatures : Checkers and chess, 
information bureau, boarding house register, 
employment department. Membership: Any 
man of good moral character may become a 



:i£ rJEW YORK 


ri, r.FN FL)U.-.DAT10r.S. 



member In- paying tlie fee. Full membership, 
ten dollars a year: junior membership, five dol- 
lars a year: dues payable two dollars and fifty 
cents a month, until paid. 


When Rev. P. C. Hetzler, the representa- 
ti\e of the American Bible Society, came to 
Spokane Falls in Novemlier, 1878, there was 
not a church in a finished condition in the place. 
The Bible Society was organized at that time 
in an upper room of a building on corner of 
Howard street and Front avenue. The first 
officers were Rev. S. G. Ha\ermale, president : 
Rev. W.T.Conley, secretary, and Deacon G. R. 
.\ndrus, treasurer. There has been a Bible 
au.xdiary in the city ever since, and at differ- 
ent times Bible distriliuters ha\e l)een engaged 
for short seasons. 


The Independent Order of Good Templars 
can be counted among the early organizations 
of Spokane. The first lodge, " Northern 
Light," came into existence in 1884, the prime 
movers being Mr. and Mrs. Robert Abernethy, 
M. H. W'hitehouse, Ree\'er brothers and others. 
Meetings were held at first in the Methodist 
Episcopal church, comer of Sprague avenue 
and Washington street. It soon became a 
nourishing society and among its members 
were a considerable number of bright young 
men and women, some of them today promi- 
nent citizens of this and other cities. The 
second place of meeting was the old Peel build- 
ing, now Major block, corner of Sprague and 
Post. The i)lace of meeting in 1886 was the 
Brown block, where the Palace store is now. 
During this year the membershi]i increased 
rapidly. Prof. E. E. Martin says, "In a year 
or so it (the hall) had become small for our 
numbers and we felt rich eudugh tn hire the 
best hall in town, 'Odd Fellows.' in the third 
story of the Keats block, where the Traders 
now stands. With this removal candidates 
came bv the score. H. P. Ree\'es was in the 

chair at the time. Next followed Bro. M. 1). 
Bobsoin's reign of two or more quarters, un- 
tler whose gavel we reached our fiood tide. 
Another important stimulus to growth was the 
prize gavel offered by the grand lodge for tlie 
largest number of initiations, which we, of 
course wiju. initiating fifty-one members in the 
thirteen meetings." The membership was 
largely decreased after this and the lodge moved 
from place to place. "Shortly after came the 
great fire which reduced all our furniture, 
even our complete records, our all, to a smould- 
ering heap of ashes, and for a time prevented 
meetings, but in the fall a number of the 'True 
Blue" got together and we went to the Central 
Christian church, on Third avenue, where 
many came to us, and se\eral ])leasant and 
profitable 'opens" were held. In my ramifies 
over the state. I ha\-e hardly found or met with 
a lodge where some of our members in the 
])ast are not working like beavers. Several 
new 'Homes' have been the result of a single 
member planted on new soil. \\'e have rea- 
son alnmdant reason, to be proutl of our rec- 
orfl of a tenth of a century. We have l.ieen to 
some extent a moulding force in our city, and 
could have done, and let us hope will do, much 
more in the days to come, for humanity's uplift 
and betterment." Spokane No. 115 was at one 
time a flourishing lodge. A district lodge was 
organizeil, through which efficient work was 
done through the county. Though Good 
Templar}' was not in a flourishing condition in 
the city and county for some years, ne\'erthe- 
less the efforts of early years were not in \-ain. 
There has been a revival of interest lately. .\ 
new lodge has been organized under favorable 
conditions with promise of wholesome growth 
and extensive influence. 

Island Lodge No. 238 of the Independent 
Order of Good Templars has moved into its 
new lodge rooms at No. 809 Second a\-enue. 
The templars have rented rooms of the North- 
western business college and will make this 
their permanent meeting place. 

1 86 


Island lodge, although only a month old, 
has now a membership of seventy-five and new- 
members are coming in at a very rapid rate. 

It is expected that there will be a member- 
ship of one hundred and fifty by the time of the 
next visit of the grand chief templar on the ist 
of May next. 


The Northwestern Home Finding Associ- 
ation was organized at Spokane, Washington, 
August 21, 1899, to provide carefully selected 
family homes for homeless children and adults. 
Children under the care of the association are 
placed on ninety days' trial, or a sufiicient 
length of time to secure satisfaction, at the end 
of which time they can either be adopted or 
taken on a contract whereby they are given 
Christian training and educational privileges. 
The association also provides home life for a 
muther with her children who is without home 
and in need of such care ; employment and home 
protection for graduates of industrial reform 
schools, paroled and released prisoners. J. \\ . 
Williams, general superintendent of the asso- 
ciation, has previously been associated with 
the Children's Home Society, which is doing 
a similar wurk e.xcejjt that it provides for chil- 
dren only, and when the broader work was or- 
ganized he was chosen and accepted the posi- 
tion of general superintendent. Tlie associa- 
tion places children and otlier homeless ones 
only with such persons as it shall deem of 
good moral character ; they must not be op- 
posed to Christianity nor use intoxicating 
drinks. Adult persons or graduates of indus- 
trial schools must be able to give satisfactory 
recommendations of their character to the man- 
agement of the association. The association is 
incorporated under the laws of the state of 
Washington, and will confine its work to Wash- 
ington, Oregon and Idaho. It co-operates 
with all churches, religious bodies, societies 
of institutions working in harmony with its 
objects, and depends upon the public for its 

support. Ofticers oi the association are Rev. 
P. A. Cool, D. D., pastor First Methodist Epis- 
copal churcli of Spokane, president; Re\-. O. 
W. \'an Osdel, D. D., pastor First Baptist 
church of Spokane, vice president; Rev. B. E. 
Utz, pastc/T Central Christian church, Spo- 
kane, secretary; Prof. H. C. Blair, principal 
Blair Business College, Spokane, treasurer; J. 
W. Cool, counselor, and Air. and Mrs. J. W. 
Williams, general superintendents; additional 
members. Rev. \\'. A. Spaulding, D. D., pas- 
tor United Presbyterian church of Spokane, 
executive officer; Rev. Geo. D. Needy, pastor 
United Brethren cliurch of Spokane, Thos. H. 
Brewer, treasurer, Washington State Charities 
Endeavor Society, and J. W. Syler, of Spo- 
kane. The association publishes a monthly 
paper, the "Home Finder," which assists in 
opening homes and keeping the public informed 
as to 'the progress of its work. 


While the Sunday school work has not kept 
a pace commensurate with the growth of the 
county, there has never been a time since its 
inception but what were found loyal devoted 
workers, who have given time, strength, mon- 
ey and zeal in training the young people of our 
county in a thorough, systematic study of the 
Holy Scriptures. Washington said, "The sta 
bility of our government and the prosi)erity of 
our nation depend upon the moral and' religious 
instruction of our youth." 

The first regularly organized Sunday school 
of the county was held in what is now the city 
of Spokane on the southeast corner of Howard 
and Main streets in the year 1875. The Rev. 
S. G. Havermale was superintendent. Among 
the early pioneer workers we find the names of 
H. W. Stratton, A. E. Ellis. H. T. Cowley and 
G. R. Andrus. 

The first meeting of the Spokane County 

Sunday School Association was held at Cheney 

nine years later, October 21 and 22 ,1884. The 

; Rev. George Campbell, Baptist, of Spangle, 



was the first president, and Rev. J. B. Renshaw, 
of Spokane, the secretary. Nine schools report- 
ed at this time. At the second annual meeting, 
twenty-three schools reported, the majority be- 
ing union schools. The association of the year 
18S9 was made memorable by the visit of Dr. 
A. E. Dunning, of Boston, a member of the In- 
ternational Sunday school committee. The sev- 
enth annual meeting, held in i8go, was the last 
one held for several years. 

After a lapse of five years, the eightli annual 
meeting was called in the First Presbyterian 
church of Spokane, July. 1895, with George H. 
Whittle, president, and W. S. McCrea as sec- 
retary. Ujjon the program we find the old time 
workers. Rev. J. Edwards and Dr. J. IM. Allen. 
In 1896 the ninth annual meeting took place, 
for which a very full statistiqal report was com- 
piled. At time seventy-fi\'e schcils of the 
comity reported, showing a membership of five 
thousand pupils. There has been a growing in- 
terest taken in this most important work since 
the Washington State Sunday school .Associa- 
tion has sustained a field secretary, the Rev. 
W. C. IMerritt. of Tacoma. The Spokane 
Countv Sunday School Association gains much 
in its annual meeting by his cheery presence, 
deep interest and wise council. Under the ad- 
ministrationof Rev. Edwards, who has been act- 
ively associated with the work since 1886, the 
twelfth annual meeting has just been conclud- 
ed, February. 1900. Normal training work, 
special primary work and especially the home 
department and house to house visitation were 
discussed and urgently pressed upon the Sun- 
day school workers of this county, would they 
keep abreast of the thnes. Mrs. W. H. Short 
has been secretary since 1895. 

Statistics : Numlier of Sunday schools re- 
ported, 51: total members, 4986; Probable 
numljer of schools not re])orted, 25 : probable 
number of scholars not reported, 1,014; esti- 
mate enrollment in Protestant Sunday schools, 

Spokane County Sunday School .Assccia- 

tion officers for 1900 are: President, R. .\. 
Heritage; secretary, Mrs. W. H. Short; treas- 
urer, John Anderson. Vice-presidents: Deer 
Park district. Miss Cora Chadbourne ; Hillyard 
district, Mrs. Libbie ]Marsdon : Medical Lake 
district, Mrs. Jennie L. Green ; Cheney district, 
W. L. Fulton; Rockford district, Mrs. Mol- 
lie Farnsworth ; Spangle district, E. C. Scott; 
Latah district, John Melvin; Spokane, Wal- 
ter E. Leigh. Rev. George Needy. George 
McCrea, H. L. Weister, E.xecutive com- 
mittee: Rev. William Davies, Congregation- 
al; Henry Hill, Aiethodist Epi.scopal; George 
Dyer, Methodist Episcopal South ; Dr. J. 
M. Allen, Christian; Rev. G. Sieberger, 
Evangelical ; Rev. Anderson, Swedish Luther- 
an ; Rev. Blakman, German Methodist Episco- 
pal ; Rev. W. C. Gunn, R. L. Edmiston, Pres- 
byterian ; Smith Ely, Baptist. 

S.-\LV.\TI0X .\RMY. 

The Army started work in this city ten 
vears ago. From the beginning it has been 
vigorous and effective in its methods and com- 
mended itself to the public. The officers have 
been abundant in good work and self denying 
in their efi^orts to lift up the fallen. They have 
had their barracks in various places, first on 
Riverside, near Lincoln ; then on Howard 
street. A leased building is now occupied where 
rousing meetings are held e\-ery night. The 
"Haven," on Front avenue, has been and is a 
boon to the city. It is a labor bureau, and a 
shelter and connected with it is a wood 3-ard. 
The Rescue Home is a most beneficent institu- 
tion. It is located on Fourth avenue and I\IilI 
street and words cannot express its value to 
society. The Army and its au.xiliary institu- 
tions were never as flourishing as today in this 


There has always existed a feeling of har- 
mony and good fellowship among the preachers 



oi Spokane. The first attempt at erecting a 
ministerial organization was as early as Sep- 
tember, 1886. The first meeting- was held in 
a store building on the corner of Riverside ave- 
nue and Post street, occupied at the time as a 
place of worship by the First Presbyterian 
church. The meetings at first were informal 
and for some specific purpose. After a while 
a constitution and by-laws were adopted and the 
name of the organization was Ministerial Asso- 
ciation of Spokane Falls. Rev. T. G. Watson, 
Presbyterian, was the first president. Rev. J. 
Edwards, Congregational, .secretary, and Rev. 
W. C. Gray, Methodist, treasurer. The mem- 
bership included all the active Protestant min- 
isters residing in this city, who, in addition 
to the ones mentioned, were Revs. J. F. Baker, 
Baptist, deceased, and H. Shucknecht, Evan- 
gelical, who is now missionary su])erintendent 
of the Evangelical Association denominations 
in this district. In the fall of 1887 the meet- 
ings began to be held at the Y. M. C. .\. rooms 
on Mill street, between Riverside and Sprague 
avenues. Untler the auspices of the first min- 
isterial organization several unicn revival 
meetings were held, conducted by Rev. E. P. 
Hammond, Dwight L. Moody and others, and 
also weekly teachers" meetings were conducted 
for some time. The second organization was 
known as the Spokane Ministerial Union, wliich 
came into existence in 1891. Its object, as 
expressed in the constitution, was "to promote 
the cause of Christian fellowship among the 
Christian ministers and churches of the city, 
to advance the moral tone of the city by and 
through united effort of those of all profes- 
sions and creeds who l)elie\e in obedience to 
law, human as well as divine. ;md desire a hisfh 
state of morality for the city and community. 
To mutually discuss all (juestions that anv mem- 
ber may introduce except f|uestions pertaining 
to the peculiar doctrinal tenets of any denomin- 
ation re])resented in the Union. Membershijxipen 
to any minister in regular standing in any Chris- 
tian denomination that recognizes the trinity 

of the Divine Godhead." On March 15, 1897, 
the constitution and by-laws were revised and 
the name changed to Spokane Ministerial Asso- 
ciation. In September, of the same year, this 
organization was disbanded and the present 
Spokane Preachers' Meeting was organized. 
Its purjjose is expressed as follows: 

■■Constitution of the Spok.\ne Pre.xch- 
ER.s' Meeting: We, the undersigned pastors 
of exangelical churches in Spokane, Washing- 
ton, for the purpose of advancing Christian 
brotherliness among ourselves and our people, 
and promoting our intellectual and spiritual 
growth do hereby form ourselves into an asso- 
ciation and ordain and establish the following 
constitution : 

"Article I, .Willie. — This Association shall 
be called the Spokane Preachers' Meeting. 

".Art. 2. Ofhecrs. — The officers of the 
Preachers' Meeting shall be a president, vice- 
president, secretary and treasurer, with duties 
customary to such offices. 

"Art. T,, Committees. — The standing com- 
mittees shall be: i. The executive committee, 
consisting of the officers, to which shall be re- 
ferred all general matters pertaining to the 
society's management. 2. The program com- 
mittee, which shall be responsible for the pro- 
gram of each and every meeting. 3. The 
membership committee, whose duty it shall be 
to invite persons to membership when so 
authorized ; and to introduce to the meeting 
such as accept ; and to promote faithfulness 
among the members : and to purge the roll as 
necessity may require. 

".■\rt. ./, Elections. — The officers and three 
members each for the program and member- 
ship committees shall be elected the first Mon- 
day in October, and shall serve for one year, 
0-: until their successors are elected. .All the 
officers and standing committees shall be chosen 
by ballot from and by the active members. 

"Art. 5. Membership. — The members of the 
Spokane Preachers' Meeting shall be of two 
classes, active and honorarv. The active mem- 



bers sliall be selected only from the regular 
and acting pastors of the city of Spokane and 
commnnity, wIkj accept the di\-inity of Christ 
and the trinity of the divine Godhead. Other 
resident pastors of the Gospel may be received 
as honorary members and may enjoy all the 
privileges of the meeting except they will have 
no voice in its management and will not be 
eligible to office. No person can be admitted 
to either class except his name has been pre- 
sented for membership and voted upon by bal- 
lot, and whereupon two-thirds of all the votes 
cast by the active members present being favor- 
able, a written invitation shall be sent by the 
membership committee. And upon its accept- 
ance by the candidate he shall be declared a 
member and his name entered on the member- 
ship roll. 

"Art. 6, Fees. — No initiation fee shall be 
charged, but monthly dues of ten cents a month 
shall be charged against each active member 
from the first of the mimth nearest the date of 
his admission to membership. Honorary mem- 
bers shall pay an annual admission fee of twen- 
ty-five cents. 

"By-Laws. — i. All regular meetings shall 
be opened and closed with devotional exercises. 

"2. After the opening exercises the presi- 
dent sliall appoint a critic for the meeting from 
either the active or honorary members, who 
for tiiat time shall have full liberty of courteous 

"3. The regular program prepared by the 
committee shall always take jjrecedence, unless 
otherwise ordered by unanimous vote of the 
meeting. Afterward miscellaneous business 
may be introduced. 

"4. The regular meeting shall be held 
every Monday, except during the months of 
July and August, convening at 10:30 A. M. 
and adjourning by limitation at 12 M. The 
time may be extended only by two-thirds vote. 

"5. The president shall strictly call to 
order any person wlio may iiitro<hicc words cal- 
culated to gi\e offense to any hnithcr ni-^mlier. 

"6. A public utterance made by any mein- 
ber of the Spokane Preachers" Meeting that is 
calculated to bring ridicule upon a sister de- 
nomination because of its distinctive principles, 
or that is derogatory to the ministerial standing 
of brother ministers shall be deemed sufficient 
cause for expulsion from the 'Meeting.' 

"7. The constitution or by-laws may be 
amendetl by a two-thirds vote of the members 
present at any regular meeting, notice of such 
amendment, containing the exact text, having 
been given in writing at least one week ])rc- 

The meetings are devoted to the reailing of 
papers on subjects of interest to ministers and 
others, followed by discussions. When neces- 
sary subjects of practical importance pertaining 
to municipal welfare are considered. 


The Volunteers began work in this city in 
1896. For a time the work was in charge of 
local officers and the meetings held in a building 
on the corner of Howard and Front streets. 
The first one to be sent here to take charge 
of the work was Captain Himmall, and his suc- 
cessors have been Captain Thompson, Colonel 
W. Duncan, Adjutant Markell and Captain J. 
G. ^McClelland, who has been in charge since 
May, 1899. Under the present management 
two new movements have been inaugurated, 
which have proved signally successful. One is 
the opening of the meeting place for a reading 
room with accommodations for writing. The 
other is the opening of the Door of Hope in 
the new state building on Mallon avenue. 

Captain McClelland opened the Door of 
Hope in December, 1889, and it has been kept 
open ever since. Every needy one finds a 
shelter for the asking and more than thirty- 
three hundred have found it a haven of rest 
already. The expenses amount to one hundred 
and fiftv (k)llars a month, which have been met 
by the voluntary offerings of re-established in- 
mates. The institution has proved a great 



blessing and has been heartily commended by 
the city officials. 

woman's christi.\n temperance union. 

In early years vigorous temperance work 
was done in Spokane county. Some of the most 
eminent temperance orators lectured in Spokane 
Falls in the early 'eighties. Mr. Dow, a cousin 
to General Xeal Dow, lectured in Spokane Falls 
as early as 1880 and pledged some people to a 
blue ribbon club. But under the auspices of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union the 
most aggressive work was done. As early as 
the winter of 1 880-1 Mrs. Lucy A. Messer, 
now Mrs. Switzer, of Cheney, came to Spokane 
Falls by invitation of ]\Iiss H. Maria Peet, and 
Miss Nellie Muzzy, the teacher, for the purpose 
of giving instruction regarding the nature and 
effects of alcoholic liquors to the children. As 
a result a Band of Hope was organized, the 
first distinctively temperance society in the 
county. ^Mrs. H. T. Cowley was the superin- 
tendent. The first Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union in the county was organized at 
Cheney by Mrs. Lucy A. Switzer November 
30, 1881. It started with fifteen members, and 
was officered as follows: Mrs. L. A. Switzer, 
president ; Mrs. Sallie G. Strong, corresponding 
secretary; Mrs. A. J. Abernethy, treasurer; 
lilrs. Mary Meachen, vice-president. 

The first Woman's Christian Temperance 
L'nion of Spokane Falls (Leavett Union) was 
organized by Mrs. Switzer, who was then vice- 
president of the National Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union for Washington Territory, 
on March 28, 1883, with thirty members. Mrs. 
L. A. Cowley was made president; Miss H. 
Maria Peet, corresponding secretary ; Mrs. Ad- 
die Belknap, recording secretary; Mrs. I. C. 
Libby, treasurer. 

A union with fifteen members was organ- 
ized at Medical Lake in August, 1884, and one 
the same month at Spangle. At Rockford, in 
April, 1885, one was instituted, all by Mrs. 
Switzer, who was devoting her time almost 

wholly to the work. On September 17, 1886, 
a union was organized at Deep Creek by Mrs. 
J. A. C. Merriman. In October, 1887, a second 
union was organized in Spokane and given the 
name Crystal Union, in honor of Mrs. A. P. 
Crystal, who was its first president, and one 
of the most devoted christian women. Mrs. 
Emma J. Rue was the corresponding secretary ; 
Mrs. C. O. Kauffman, recording secretary, and 
Mrs. Charlotte Hamblen, treasurer. It grew 
to a membership of thirty-two. 

These Spokane Unions did good work for 
years and vigorously opposed the progress of 
the rum power. The present one is of later date 
and is composed of women of like heroic spirit 
as the early workers. 

Spokane County Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union was organized at Cheney on 
April 19, 1 886. The following were elected 
as officers : Mrs. Julia C. Merriman, president ; 
Mrs. M. Abernethy, vice-president; Mrs. Delia 
L. Dean, corresponding secretary. Mrs. A. P. 
Crystal succeeded Mrs. Merriman as president, 
and the office was filled successively by Miss 
H. M. Peet, Mrs. C. B. Schorr and Mrs. Jennie 

The first eastern Washington territorial 
convention was held at Cheney July 20-21, 
1883. Miss Frances E. \\'illard and Miss Anna 
A. Gordon were present at this convention. 
There were people who drove long distances 
to hear Miss Willard at this time. On the 
23d of July she spoke at Spokane Falls to a 
large audience. The first Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union of Spokane aided the 
Young Men's Christian Association and Inde- 
pendent Order of Good Templars in establish- 
ing the first reading room. Among the early 
workers with the ones already mentioned were 
Mrs. Stella W. Traver, Mrs. \\'illiam Griffin, 
Mrs. E. A. Jobes and others. The members 
of the unions were stanch advocates of woman 
suffrage. !Mrs. Traver, Mrs. Cowley and Miss 
Peet served on boards of election. In 1884-5 
several women in Cheney, ^Irs. Mount, Mrs. 



Range and Mrs. Svvitzer, served on petit juries 
in the district court and a Mrs. Scott acted as 


The first anti-saloon league was organized 
in Ohio about five years ago. Since that time 
it has become national. The state league was 
organized early this year with headquarters at 

Seattle, and ex-governor Knapp was president 
and O. R. Whitmore, state superintendent. 
The Spokane league was organized in March of 
this year with one hundred and fifty members. 
Ex-councilman W. H. Acuff is president; Rev. 
W. A. Spaulding, vice-president; J. J. Pugh, 
secretary; M. H. Whitehouse, treasurer. The 
purpose of the league is opposition to the saloon 
by agitation, legislation and education. 



The variety of clubs and societies organized 
and sustained by the women of Spokane, and 
their purposes as expressed in constitutions, 
and what has already been accomplished by and 
through them, are evidences of their intelli- 
gence, public spirit and philanthropy. The his- 
tories have been prepared in a large measure 
by representatives of the organizations, to 
whom grateful acknowledgments are hereby 
made, and especiallv to Mrs. E. A. Jobes, one 
of Spokane's noblest women, for her part in 
gathering material. 


To the Ladies' Matinee Musicale belongs 
the honor of being tlie first woman's club or- 
ganized in Spokane, and the added distinction 
of being the second organization of that nature 
in the state of Washington. It was in the 
spring of 1889 that a little group of women, 
who were musicians and music lovers, met at 
the home of Mrs. J. P. AI. Richards, to consider 
the forming of a woman's musical club in Spo- 
kane. The meeting resulted in the organizing 
of the Matinee Musicale, with Mrs. Charles S. 
Voorhees as president. 

For a time the meetings were held in the 

homes of the different members, but as the 
membership and interest increased it was found 
necessary to rent a small hall for the recitals. 
In 1893 Miss Jennie M. Patterson was elected 
president and under her administration the club 
increased still more in influence and popularity. 
The true club spirit took root in its members, 
and more and more the desire grew to become 
helpful, inspiring musical influence in the city. 
Ever since its organization the Musicale has 
maintained it's position as one of the leading 
clubs of the city, and has ever sought to 
uphold and encourage the better class of 

The present president, Mrs. Arthur J. 
Shaw, was elected in the year 1897. During 
her administration great interest has been 
aroused in the club, by the formation of a prom- 
ising chorus class, which has greatly enlarged 
the usefulness and scope of the club's work. 

The recitals are held the third Saturday of 
each month in the \'incent Methodist Episcopal 
church, and are open to the public upon the pay- 
ment of a small admission fee. Under the 
club's auspices such distinguished artists as 
Madame Bloomfield-Zeisler. Ri\arde, Madame 
(ienevra Ji)hnston-Bishc>p. and Eniil Sauer 



have been lirought to Spokane, thereljy elevat- 
ing the musical standard of the city. The 
purpose of the Matinee Musicale is to encour- 
age talent where it is known to exist, stimulate 
it where it is latent, and to become a power for 

Following is the executive committee : 
President, Mrs. Arthur J. Shaw; vice-presi- 
dent, Mrs. Robert Glen: secretary, Mrs. \V. D. 
Vincent; corresponding secretary. Miss Annie 
C. Turner ; treasurer, Mrs. L. F. \\'illiams ; 
Mrs. John L. Wilson and Mrs. J. A. Schiller. 
At present the club has something over one 
hundred members, which are classified as act- 
ive, associate and student. 


A chapter of the Daughters of tlie Revo- 
lution was organized in Spokane, in February, 
1899, which was reorganized as a state society, 
on April 3d of the same year, with Mrs. S. K. 
(ireen as regent: Mrs. T. W. W'hitehouse, vice- 
regent: Mrs. L. F. Boothe. recording secre- 
tary ; Airs. J. D. Chickering, corresponding 
secretary, and Mrs. Charles Dixon, treasurer. 
At this time a handsome, hand-illuminated state 
charter, authorizing the organization of local 
chajjters within the state, was presented to tiie 
society by the bnard iif managers of the general 

Miinthly meetings are held at the homes 
of the members, which are made very attractive 
and interesting, both intellectually and socially. 
At present, the society is pursuing a course of 
study in American history, commencing with 
the early discoveries, and noting especially, the 
events which led up to the Revolution. In No- 
vember, i<S9g, it liecame a charter member of 
the George Washington Memorial .\ssnciati(.)n. 

Tlie oljjects and re(|uirements fi>r mem- 
bership can best be slated by ijuoting from the 
constitution of the general society: "Tl:e ob- 
jects of this society shall be to perpetuate the 
patriotic spirit of the men and women who 
achieved .American independence ; to collect, 

publish and preserve the rolls, records, and his- 
toric documents relating to that ]ieriod : to en- 
courage the study of the country's history; to 
promote sentiments of friendship and common 
interest among the members of the society, 
and to i)ro\'ide a home for and furnish assist- 
ance to such Daughters of the Revolution as 
may be impoverisheil, when it is in its power 
to do so." * * !i! * 

".\ny woman shall be eligible to member- 
ship in the Daughters of the Revolution who is 
above the age of eighteen years, of good charac- 
ter and a lineal descendant of an ancestor who 

" ( I ) Was a signer of the Declaration of In- 
tlependence, member of the continental Con- 
gress, or a member of the Congress. Legisla- 
ture, or General Court of any of the Colonies 
01 states ; or 

■■{ j) Rendereil civil, military, or naval ser- 
vice under the authority of any of the thirteen 
colonies or of the Continental Congress; or 

■■(3) By service rendered tluring the war of 
the Re\-olution became liable to the penalty of 
treason against the government of Great Brit- 
ain ; provided that such ancestor always re- 
niaine<l loyal to the cause of American inde- 

.Applications should be accompanied by a 
certificate from the state archives, or federal 
pension bureau, showing good proof of ances- 
tor's service. 

It will I)e seen 1)\- the requirements men- 
tioned that to be a Daughter, one must have 
had a grandfather in some degree in Revolu- 
tionary service, and that when she becomes a 
Daughter of the Rexolution, there can never be 
any (piestion al)out her status as a lineal de- 
scendant of the same. 

The i)er\ading spirit of the Daughters of 
the l\e\olution is purely democratic. This is 
sliown most conclusively in the matter of in- 
signia. There is but one badge for all, recog- 
nizable as such throughout our country. No 
jewels and no bars are permitted to show differ- 
ence in wealth or lineage. 




This club was organized November i, 1899. 
Object : Intellectual and social edification of its 
members. The following members were 
elected officers: Mrs. E. P. Galbraith, presi- 
dent; Airs. S. D. Ware, vice president: Mrs. 
W. A. Porter, recording secretary : Mrs. W. P. 
Russell, treasurer: Airs. Geo. Belt, correspond- 
ing secretary. The motto of the club is Per 
aspcra ad astro (through rough ways to the 
stars). Since organizing, the club has devoted 
a few meetings to the study of Alaska and is at 
present taking up the study of France. It is 
the intention to have the year's wurk laid out 
in advance in a short time. 


On the 15th uf January. 1898. a few latlies 
met at the home of Airs. A. J. Ross to discuss 
plans for organizing a literary club for the 
ladies of Ross Park; and un the 20th of the same 
month, at the same place, the organization 
of the Ross Park Twentieth Century Club was 
completed. The membership is limited by the 
constitution to the number of twenty-five, and 
the district north of the river and east of Divi- 
sion street. The meetings are held at the 
homes of the members every Thursday morn- 
ing, excepting once a month, when a social 
evening meeting is held, and the husbands of 
the ladies are invited to share the pleasures of 
the club. The first ofticers of the club were 
Mrs. Ross, president : Airs. Z. A. Pfile, vice 
president; Airs. Jennie F. White secretary: 
Mrs. C. J. Aloore, treasurer, and Airs. J. S. 
Thomas, Mrs. R. E. Porterfield and Airs. 
Stockton as an executive committee. The 
present officers of the club are president. Airs. 
L. F. AViiliams; vice president. Airs. C. F. 
Davis; recording secretary. Airs. L. S. Roberts; 
corresponding secretary. Airs. Jos. S. Thomas: 
treasurer, Airs. W. De F. Hyde, and executive 
committee. Airs. L. H. Prather, Airs. J. H. 
Hudgin, and Airs. L. J. Birdseye. The first 


year and a half of its existence the club made 
a stud)- of France, with an occasional "author's 
day" interspersed. The year of 1900 is i)cing 
devoted to a study of India, and it has proved 
a most instructive and fascinating topic. The 
ladies thnik, as expressed by Alark Twain, 
"There is only one India! It is the only country 
that has a monopoly of grand and im])osing 
specialties." At present the club membership 
\ is full, and the attendance and interest hi club 
meetings is all that could be desired. 

Cora B. Roberts, Secretary. 


This society was incorporated under the 
laws of Congress applicable to the District of 
Columbia, June 8, 1891, and by such incor- 
poration die headquarters, or chief office, was 
fixed in the city of Washington. Its national 
charter was granted by the Congress of the 
United States, February 20, 1896. 

The objects of this society are: i. To- 
perpetuate the memory of the spirit of the men 
and women who achieved American independ- 
ence, by the acquisition and protection of his- 
torical sj^ots, and the erection of monuments;, 
by the encouragement of historical research in 
relation to the Revolution and the publication 
of its results ; by the preservation of documents 
and relics, and of the records of the individual 
services of Revolutionary soldiers and patriots, 
and by the promotion of celebrations of all pa- 
triotic anniversaries. 

2. To carry out the injunction of Washing- 
ton in his farewell address to the American 
people, "to pn.tmote. as an object of primary 
importance, institutions for the general diff- 
usion of knowledge," thus developing an en- 
lightened public opinion, and affording tO' 
voung and old such advantages as shall tle- 
velop in them the largest capacity for per- 
forming the duties of .American citizens. 

:;. To cherish, maintain, and extend the in- 
stitutions of American freedom, to foster true- 



patriotism and love of country, and to aid in 
securing for mankind all the blessings of lib- 

Eligibility and admission : i. Any woman 
may be eligible for membership who is of the 
age of eighteen years, and who is descended 
from a man or woman who, with unfailing 
loyalty, rendered material aid to the cause of 
independence: from a recognized patriot, a 
soldier or sailor or civil officer, in one of the 
several colonies or states, or of the united col- 
onies or states; provided that the applicant be 
acceptable to the society. 

2. Every applicant for membership must 
be endorsed by at least one member of the Na- 
tional Society, and her application shall then be 
submitted to the register general, who shall re- 
port on the question of eligibility to the gen- 
eral board of management, when the question 
of admission shall be voted on by the board by 
ballot, and i-f a majority of said board approves 
such application, the applicant, after payment 
of initiation fee, shall be enrolled as a member 
of the National Society. 

All persons duly qualified are members of 
the National Society, but for matters of conve- 
nience they may be organized into local chap- 
ters. A state regent is in charge of the D. A. 
R. work in her state or territory, and chapter 
regents are appointed I)y her, subject to the 
approval of the National Society. The initia- 
ation fee to the National Society is one dol- 
lar, and the annual dues, two dollars, one dol- 
lar being retained by the chapter, the other dol- 
lar being forwarded through the chapter to the 
National Society. Each member is entitled 
to a certificate of membership, duly attested 
by national officers, the seal of the society 
affixed and a national number given. The in- 
signia of the society consists of a badge in the 
form of a spinning wheel and distafif. The 
motto, "Home and Country." 

Twenty-five thousand women, representing 
every section of our country, are now ienrolled 
as members. In Tacoma and Seattle are 

active D. A. R. chapters. Airs. Chauncy W. 
Griggs, of Tacoma, is state regent for Wash- 
ington. Airs. Augusta Plummer Foster, of 
Spokane, has been appointed by the National 
Society as regent to form a D. A. R. chapter in 
that city. 


■■-\n aggregation" is the meaning of Soro- 
sis, and the clul) which bears this name in Spo- 
kane was organized in 1891, became a member 
of the General Federation in 1892, and the 
Washington State Federation in 1896. The 
strength and force of this unit of womanhood 
has been manifest not only in the culture and 
entertainment of its members, but in effort and 
gifts to advance public interests in its own city 
and to assist in the organization of clubs in 
neighboring towns. Some noteworthy books 
have been compiled by Sorosis, such as an Au- 
thor's Album, containing pictures and auto- 
graph letters from noted writers in Europe and 
.America. This contains also early history of 
the club and papers which have been published. 
It was on exhibition at the Columbian Exposi- 
tion, also at Atlanta, Georgia. Some of its 
members have filled offices in other club or- 
ganizations. Mrs. Esther Allen Jobes has been 
amemberof the board of directors in the Gener- 
al Federation, and Mrs. Lida M. Ashenfelter, 
second vice-president of the Washington State 
Federation of Women's Clubs. The feder- 
ated clubs, including Sorosis, Cultus, Ross 
Park, Twentieth Century Club, Floral Asso- 
ciation. Froebel Club, Ladies Matinee Musicale, 
entertained the State Federation in 1897, in 
Spokane. The work of this club has included lit-, 
erature, science, art, music, parliamentary law 
and practice, education and current events. 
"Author Days" are specialized, as are music 
and art. Art day for May. 1900, is one of ed- 
ucational work for the public school children. 
Prizes of pictures to be hung in the schools 
have been offered by the committee in charge, 
of which Mrs. T. D. Gamble is chairman, for 
the best essavs on art. These are to be selected 



from all the schools of the city, two from each, 
and read before the club. 

The present membership of Sorosis is fifty 
active and three honorary members. The 
members of the board for 1 900-1 901, are : pres- 
ident, Mrs. Lida M. Ashenfelter ; vice presi- 
dent, Mrs. Mary Franklin Hill ; recording sec- 
retarv. Miss Eh-a Libby ; corresponding sec- 
retary, Mrs. J. R. Schiller ; treasurer, Mrs. 
Josephine Dunning. Directors : Mrs. L. F. 
Boothe, Mrs. Minnie Porter Babcock, Mrs. 
Mary A. Dow, Mrs. W. H. Wright. 


This club was organized February 9, 1892, 
with seven charter members : Mrs. A. J. Ross, 
Mrs. J. J. Browne, Mrs. E. J. Fellowes, Mrs. 
E. P. Galbraith, Mrs. S. R. Flynn, Mrs. G. T. 
Penn and Mrs. Jennie F. White. 

The purpose of the club, as stated in the 
constitution. is "social and intellectual improve- 
ment," and while the literary work is of course 
the tnain object the social feature is made much 
of. The club is a "parlor club," the member- 
ship being limited to thirty, and is delightfully 
entertained at the homes of the members, each 
liostess vying with the others to make her day 
an especially enjoyable time. 

The regular literary meetings of the club 
are held on the second and fourth Tuesdays 
of the months from September to May, in- 
clusive, but there are a number of special days 
on the calendar. The first Tuesday in Septem- 
ber is a social reunion after the summer vaca- 
tion. February 9 is celebrated as charter mem- 
ber day by a social meeting where the charter 
members are guests of honor. Once a year an 
entertainment is given for the friends of the 
club, which the past two years has taken the 
form of an art lecture with stereopticon \-iews 
of famous pictures. One nnisicale is given each 
year. The line of study pursued has been mis- 
cellaneous. History, literature, biography, 
science, art and domestic economy have all been 

dwelt upon. Current events and the books of 
the day have been freely discussed. For the 
present year a new plan was adopted — to spend 
the entire year on one topic, and the study of 
England was chosen, her history, literature, art, 
music and her famous men and women. The 
work has been so successful that it is probable 
the same plan will be followed in the future. 

The name of the club is always a matter of 
interest to outsiders and explanations are fre- 
quently in demand. The word "cultus" in the 
Chinook language signifies worthless, or to 
no purpose. The appropriateness of the name 
to the members of the club, or to its work, is 
rather to be questioned, and the reason for its 
adoption is not wholly clear even to the mem- 
bers themselves. But to them all the name 
stands only for what is pleasantest in remem- 
brance and anticipation. The club as an organ- 
ization takes no part in outside affairs, but 
many of the members are active in other lines 
of work, such as the Art League, the Woman's 
E.xchange and the Kindergartens, as well as 
in the many charitable and benevolent societies 
of the city. 

The Cultus Club became a member of the 
General Federation of Women's Clubs in 1893 
and was one of the first to take steps for the 
organization of a state federation in 1896. At 
the time of the organization of the club Mrs. 
A. J. Ross was chosen president. After being 
twice re-elected Mrs. Ross was made honorary 
president, an office with no duties and no emol- 
uments, created by the club to show its appre- 
ciation of the services of one who had been its 
leader so long. Other presidents have been : 
Mrs. J. J. Browne, Mrs. H. D. Crow and Mrs. 
J. B. Blalock. The officers for 1899-1900 are; 
President, Mrs. E. L. Powell: vice-presidents, 
Mrs. C. E. Grove and Mrs. C. H. Weeks; re- 
cording secretary, Mrs. T. P. Lindsay; corres- 
ponding secretary, Mrs. W. H. Mariner ; treas- 
urer, Mrs. J. Hoover. Mrs. W. W. Tolman, 
Mrs. W. M. Byers and Dr. H. W. Andrews 
constitute the executive committee. The club 



flower is the wild rose and the colors pink and 


To have flowers at the Fruit Fair was the 
original idea. The suhject was mentioned to 
the manager of the Fruit Fair Association and 
he gave it his most hearty approval. Mrs. 
Brinkerhoff, with whom the idea originated, 
consulted a number of public-spirited ladies and 
several informal meetings were held. After 
due consideration it was thought advisable to 
form an organization, the sole object being to 
furnish a floral exhibit as an auxiliary of the 
Fruit Fair. This was effected in Oliver hall 
March 20, 1896. It was named The Spokane 
Floral Association, with Mrs. Josephine Brin- 
kerhofif as president. The following October 
it made its first exhibit, which was a pronounced 
success. During the summer the need of arous- 
ing more interest in floral culture became so 
apparent it was deemed advisable to make it 
an independent organization in order to widen 
its field of usefulness. The study of dendrol- 
ogy and flora culture was enthusiastically 
taken up by the members, and a correspondence 
with eminent specialists along these lines con- 
ilucted, and much practical and helpful informa- 
tion gathered. The necessity for free distribu- 
tion of seeds and plants among those of limited 
means was found to be imperative. Donations 
were solicited, but the response was not very 
gratifying. Upon request the government fur- 
nished a few seeds, but notwithstanding all 
their efiforts less than a hundred packages of 
seeds and about half the number of plants were 
collected. These were distributed according 
to the best judgment of the committee ap- 
pointed for the work. The marvelous results 
from this small beginning may be judged from 
the statement that two years later over three 
thousand packages of seeils and a correspond- 
ing proportion of trees and plants were dis- 
tributed. From this naturally developed the 
flower mission, and to the hospital and other 

charitable institutions, the prisoner, the in- 
digent sick, the homeless worker, went these 
messengers of love, cheering the lonely heart, 
and iM-ightening the humble home, not unfre- 
quently opening the way to more material aid. 
Not only flowers and shrubs, but strawberries 
and other small fruits, and even trees have been 
included in this gratuitous distribution. Cut 
flowers by the wagon load have been given 
wherever they might cheer or beautify, and so 
great has been the awakening that every inch 
of space around our fire stations and other 
jniblic buildings is utilized for some growinig 
beauty. A plat in one of the public parks was 
early given (n-er to the care of the association 
and this has been made a thing of beauty with 
rare trees and blossoming plants. Other lines 
of work, such as parks, street improvements, 
etc., have been given due consideration, but in 
accordance with its avowed object, its special 
work is among the lowly, and here it has been 
most effective. With beautiful surroundings 
the careworn toiler may rise above the sordid 
grind of daily toil, and in the cultivation of 
his strawberry bed may forget for a time the 
endless struggle, and so to the humble home 
the tlowers go on their blessed mission. The 
association has made the aster its special flower, 
and its aster show is now an annual feature 
of its work, and those already given have been 

Special inducements in the way of prizes 
were offered the school children, and the evi- 
dences of their awakened interest were most 
gratifying. The association is in a flourishing 
condition, new members being taken in at near- 
ly every meeting. The ladies meet the second 
Tuesday of every month and after the business 
session an interesting paper is read by some 
member, afterwhich a discussion follows, then 
dainty refreshments are served. 

The program committee have been work- 
ing for some time on subjects for the year, also 
a year book, which will be published soon. At 
the last meeting nearly all the officers of last 



year were re-elected : Mrs. Ida Pfile, presi- 
dent; Mrs. R. A. Davis, vice-president; Mrs. 
K. B. Madison, secretary; Mrs. A. G. Kellam, 
corresponding secretary; Mrs. Dunlop. treas- 
urer; Mrs. Mayie, S. Heath and Hoxis. di- 


Altliougli still in its infancy, the .\niethyst 
Club is following a course of study which to 
its iueml)ers is proving of great benefit and 
interest. Organized with a view to sociability 
as well as literary progress, the bi-monthly 
meetings are looked forward to with genuine 
pleasure. As the nv mth > )f February was the 
month in which this club was organized, its 
members appropriately chose the stone of this 
month, the amethyst, as their symbol and name. 
The violet was selected as the club flower, 
whose meaning, modesty, coupled with that of 
the amethyst, sincerity, forms the club motto. 
The membership is limited to twenty-five ladies. 
The meetings are held and the ladies delight- 
fullyentertained byeach of the members at their 
respective homes. The course i:)r study em- 
braces a general study of England, with timely 
current topics. The officers of the Amethyst 
Club are: President, Mrs. C. K. Wintler; 
vice-president, Mrs. J. J. King ; treasurer, Mrs. 
Stony Buck; secretary, Mrs. Byrd; program 
committee, Mrs. Domer, Mrs. Dolson, Mrs. 


A meeting of ladies was called at Hotel 
Spokane on March 21, 1894, for the purpose of 
considering the feasability of establishing a sys- 
tem of free kindergartens in the city of Spo- 
kane. The call was responded to by less than 
a score of ladies, but resulted in the organiza- 
tion of the Spokane Kindergarten Association, 
whose object was "to establish and maintain 
a system of kindergartens for the benefit of chil- 
dren from three to si.x years of age." 

The efforts of this organization were pros- 
pered beyond the expectations of the m )st san- 
guine and as the work progressed a 1)roader 
field for labor opened up before the earnest 
workers. Many destitute children were pro- 
\-ided with food and cli)thing by this organiza- 
tion, in addition tn being enabled to receive 
the instruction so nuich needed by them. There 
are to-day hundreds of children in the higher 
classes of the public schools who may well credit 
the Ixindergarten AssDciatiiin for a "right start 
in life." 

During the fourth year of its existence 
this organization, assisted by kindred societies 
of Seattle and Tacoiua, succeeded in having a 
law passed by the state Legislature allowing 
the kindergarten system to become a portion of 
the pu])lic school education in cities of more 
than ten thousand population. Then came a 
long and earnest effort with the board of edu- 
cation before they could be inade to see the 
benefits to be derived liy making use of the new 
law. In the fall of 1898 they, liowever, con- 
sented "as an experiment" to open two kinder- 
gartens, which proved so successful that to- 
day we have a kindergarten department in all 
of our public schools. As this result was 
reached in a gradual manner the duties of the 
association were correspondingly lessened un- 
til the first workers in the cause were relieved. 
At the time the board of education adopted the 
system for our public schools the association 
had eight kindergartens under its jurisdiction. 
These schools were supported by pri\-ate sub- 
scriptions and donations from citizens and busi- 
ness men. To Spokane belongs the credit 
of opening the first free kindergarten in the 
state of Washington. And to the Spokane 
Kindergarten Association is largely due the 
credit of its system being made a portion of 
the public school education. 

The first officers of the organization were: 
Mrs. .\. T. Ri'ss. i)resident; Mrs. Walter 
Hughson, vice-president; Mrs. Warren ^^'. Tol- 
man, recording secretary; Mrs. George H. 



Leonard, corresponding secretary ; Mrs. Ly- 
man Williams, treasurer. 

The work closed in the winter of 1898 un- 
der the management of Mrs. Ross, president; 
Mrs. C. H. Weeks, secretary; Mrs. L. F. Will- 
iams, treasurer. 


This organization was incorporated in 
1895 with C. L. Kno.x. J. Edwards and Mrs. 
C. G. Bettz as trustees. The first school was 
opened the previous year on Ermina avenue 
and Pearl street. Heath's addition, Miss Bettz, 
trainer. The school was afterward held in 
Pilgrim Congregational church, Indiana ave- 
nue, and continued until the kindergarten sys- 
tem was incorporated intu the jjuIjUc schools. 
Excellent work was done by this association, 
the trainer being one of the most competent 
in the city. Mrs. Smith was president and 
Mrs. M. E. Logan, secretary. 


When the dreaded signal was flashed over 
our country that "the dogs of war were to be 
loosed," that strife, sorrow and sufifering were 
to succeed peace and quietness: when the arm of 
our government was roused into action, result- 
ing in the order that our country be placed upon 
a war footing; when the iron-clad monsters 
were made ready for sea, when all equipments 
needed for mortal combat were quadrupled in 
number and efficiency; when our brave volun- 
teers quickly responded to the call of the Presi- 
dent, leaving aching, breaking hearts in the 
homes of the land, — this was all quickly fol- 
lowed by the thought and eager question. What 
can we women, who ha\e been left behind with 
anxious sorrow as our companion, accomplish 
for the men at the front? Over the broad land, 
as if by magic, sprang into existence the Red 
Cross societies; united, systematic effort was 
begun and the watchword of sisterhood was ce- 
mented, as competent brains, busy hands, began 
the work of the great preparation. On July 13, 

1898, twelve women gathered together in Spo- 
kane for the purpose of forming a Red Cross 
branch, Mrs. A. W. Doland in the chair, Mrs. 
J. A. Schiller, as secretary. Mrs. \'irginia K. 
Hayward was elected president, who issued a 
call for a meeting on July 15, when the local 
constitution and by-laws of San Francisco were 
adopted. Later the society became allied with 
the state organization. The self-imposed task 
was greater and more varied than was at first 
expected, and withal they "builded better than 
they knew." While it was not granted them to 
stand by and render actual aid to our soldiers, 
they began at once to work for their needs and 
comfort ; their object being to begin where the 
suddenly overtaxed government left off. Ad- 
ditional clothing to preserve health and to re- 
store it when shattered, delicacies for the sick, 
literature to while away the weary hours, and, 
when needed, ready money, were the objects 
aimed for and attained. 

The Spokesman-Review opened its columns 
to receive public subscriptions, and so generous 
was the response received from the citizens of 
Spokane, the Red Cross has never from lack of 
funds been obliged to curtail its work or its 
generosity. When a sudden call was made 
in the morning issue of the Review that jellies 
and preserved fruits were needed to send on 
that afternoon to San Francisco for the use of 
Company L, while on the transport bound for 
the Philippines, five hundred pounds were re- 
ceived, Ixjxed and shipped by three o'clock. 
Generous response and rapid work surely. A 
goodly portion was carried to Manila for hos- 
pital needs. The White House Dry Goods 
Company, also the Boston Store, gave a liberal 
per cent, of their sales at a stated period, and 
private acts of accommodation and assistance 
were frequent. Christmas packages were sent 
to every man in Companies A and L, carrying 
into tropic heat and discomfort the substantial 
memory of e\ergreen and holly. At the An- 
nual Fruit Fair, 1898 and 1899, a Red Cross 
booth was kindly donated by the management 



of the fair and presided over by members of the 
society; on both occasions substantial returns 
resuUed. As the time drew near for the re- 
turn of our volunteers to their native land, prep- 
arations were made for their reception. Abreak- 
fast was served at the Northern Pacific station 
to four hundred South Dakota men. A few 
days later a substantial morning meal was pre- 
pared at short notice for one thousand and thir- 
ty-two Minnesota men at the exposition tent ; 
while the day following food was prepared for 
seven hundred and fifty North Dakota troops. 
To use the words of Mrs. Hayward, our presi- 
dent, "We have met every emergency that has 
come whether local or from the state. The 
home-coming of Companies A and L was fitting 
the occasion and the welcome accordetl them 
did credit to all. The Spokane Red Cross aux- 
iliary has the honor of being the only society 
in the state to entirely pay for the transporta- 
tion of two companies from San Francisco to 
their homes. And the breakfast prepared and 
served to them, in the elaborately decorated 
Elks hall, with its attendant music and ad- 
dresses and its royal cheers of welcome, must 
long, long remain as a hallowed memory. Then 
followed the care of the sick and those disabled 
for active life, in many cases only temporarily. 
But again it has been our painfully sad duty to 
watch till the end the passing of brave lives, 
which were as truly given for their country^ as 
if they had fallen pierced by the bullets of the 
enemy on the battle field. We have followed 
tliem to their last resting place, wrapped in the 
Hag they fought to uphold, on which rested a 
Red Cross pillow, and listened till the vollejs 
were fired and taps sounded over their open 
soldier's grave. 

"We have given hospital treatment when 
necessary, or cared for the ailing ones in their 
homes and provided medicines. In this we have 
been assisted by many resident physicians, who 
have gladly given medical treatment free. We 
have found work for those in strength, and in 
some cases have sent the disabled soldiers to 

their far away Eastern homes. We have cared 
for the dead who have been brought home by 
the government, till they were claimed by fam- 
ily or friends. The constant duty has been to 
extend needed assistance and care, in all cases 
brought to our attention, not forgetting the 
families left at home." 

The annual election of officers was deferred 
by \'ote till November, 1899, immediately after 
the return of the Spokane companies, when 
Mrs. Frances F. Emery, who had long been an 
active worker in the society, was elected presi- 
dent ; Mrs. J. A. Schiller, first vice-president; 
Mrs. A. J. Shaw, second vice-president; Mrs. W. 
S. Bickham, recording secretary ; Mrs. Mrginia 
K. Hayward, corresponding secretary; Mrs. N. 
W. Durham, treasurer ; directors, Mrs. E. A. 
Jobes, Miss Victoria Fellows, Mrs. J. R. Stone, 
Mrs. William Nettleton, Mrs. S. K. Green, 
Mrs. Louise Stratton, Mrs. L. J. Birdseye, Mrs. 
J. W. Chapman, Miss Susie Bell, ]\lrs.. A.. P. Fos- 
ter, Mrs. Charles Stewart, Mrs. M. M. Cowley. 

The report of the treasurer, Mrs. A. E. 
Durham, showed a sound financial condition 
and careful management. Total receipts of the 
society since its organization, July 11, 1898, 
$5,055.39; disbursements, $4,400.98; leaving 
a balance in the bank November 20, 1899, 

The state convention of the Red Cross so- 
cieties will be held in Spokane on May 22, 2^ 
and 24, 1900. The need of the work still con- 
tinues and not until the last volunteer has re- 
turned to his home and all disease and destitu- 
tion resulting from their active service is ended, 
will the work of the Red Cross, which was 
called into existence by the war with Spain, be 
finished. It is then expected, that following the 
advice of Clara Barton, the national president, 
the society will remain intact, ready to perform 
such relief work as etuergencies may demand. 


BV MISS V. T. FKI.1.(»\VES. 

On the 27111 of May, 1892, a meeting was 



held in the mining exhibit room. Hotel Spo- 
kane building, presided over by Mrs. Alice 
Hougiiton and Mrs. Samuel Slaughter, ap- 
pointed from the state of Washington as com- 
missioners, to have charge of the woman's 
building at the Columbian Exposition. The 
object of this meeting was for the purpose of 
assisting the state board in the Washington 
Art Exhibition in the World's Columbian Ex- 
position, and to collect material for a complete 
exhibit for said exposition in 1893. soliciting 
the painting of panels to be used in the main 
room in the woman's building and selecting a 
state flower. 

In Mrs. Houghton's explanation to the 
ladies, she had suggested making this a World's 
Fair Club, but Mrs. Slaughter, president of the 
Tacoma Art League, a lover of art, spoke with 
great enthusiasm, and urged the ladies to form 
an art league, its object the advancement of art 
in all branches. The suggestion was adopted, 
a constitution was formed and the name of 
Spokane Art League given to the new club. 
Many meetings were held to further the work 
for the exposition, but those interested in the 
history of art, suggested meetings for the pur- 
pose of writing papers and discussing artists 
and their work. With this object alone in 
view the league kept up fortnightly studies un- 
til March. 1893. Wishing to broaden its field 
of usefulness and encourage the study of art, 
the league purposed carrying on a school of art 
under the name of the Spokane Art League 
School, the officers and directors to give time, 
labor and influence for the worthy cause. A 
room was rented, local teachers engaged, and 
lessons given at a very low price. Then began 
the struggle to make enough mone)- to pay rent, 
buy casts, tables, chairs, and other necessary 
articles for teaching. Entertainments were 
given at intervals to help defray the expenses 
of the school, for pupils were few. The first 
room used for school purposes was at the Fern- 
well, a move was made to the Symons block, 
then to the Review building, where Mr. Can- 

non and subsequently Mr. Cowles helped the 
league in its work, by charging a nominal rent 
for three large rooms. Obliged to move, and 
not ha\ing the means to pay much rent, the 
league petitioned the council to allow the art 
school to continue its work in the unoccupied 
rooms on the fourth floor of the city hall, 
where it is now located. 

To keep life in the Art League School has 
required untiring zeal and courage on the part 
of the officers, directors and teachers. Mrs. J. 
D. Herman. Mrs. C. G. Brown and Mrs. J. An- 
thony Smith were at their post continually, 
doing everything in the way of precept and 
example to awaken the enthusiasm and draw 
out the love of art that dwells within us all. 
with very little hope of financial reward. The 
winter of 1897 the school was fortunate in se- 
curing the service of Prof. Eugen Lingen- 
felder. of Munich. He was in Spokane on a 
visit to his brother and consented while here to 
take charge of the classes. L'nder his able in- 
struction the school flourished. The following 
year. Miss Anna L. Thorne, of the New York 
Art Student League, was instructress, and this 
year Mrs. M. \'on Gilsa, from the Chicago Art 
Institute, a most gifted and talented lady. 
Classes in drawing, oil, water color, pen and 
ink. sketching from life, are under her super- 
vision. Pyrography or the art of etching 
on leather or wood has lately been added. 
China painting is also taught and fine work is 
produced under the tuition of Mrs. Harry A. 
Burt, a pupil of Bischof. The wood carving 
is taught by Mr. A. Ostergren. a graduate of 
the School of Arts at Stockholm, and many 
useful and beautiful articles have been turned 
out from this tlepartment. Among the pupils 
who received their first instruction at the Spo- 
kane Art School, one was admitted to the de- 
partment at Heidleberg without previous prep- 
aration, another entered the Chicago Art In- 
stitute with words of praise for his first in- 
structor, and another passed three very suc- 
cessful examinations to enter the School of 






Painting and Designing in Rocliester, New 
York. The work of the Art League is not 
confined only to doing good to those who liave 
means, but to all who wish to study, and many 
in Spokane have profited by the league's gener- 
osity. Three very fine exhibitions of WLirk by 
Eastern artists have been held under the aus- 
pices of the Art League, one large exhiliition 
of school work fr(jm the Art Institute of Chi- 
cago, and last _\-ear an exhibition of designs 
from the Boston School of Decorative Designs, 
The league has for officers : President, Miss V. 
T. Fellowes ; first vice president, Mrs. M. E. 
Ganahl ; second \ice president, Mr. C. A. 
Clarke : third \-ice president, Mrs. E. L. Kim- 
ball ; secretary. Miss M. McBride; treasurer, 
Mrs. E. J. Fellowes, and fifteen directors. Sev- 
enty-five acti\'e members and associate mem- 
bers, and ten annual subscribers. The league 
needs a building where exhibitions could be 
held, and lectures given, and it is to be hoped 
that the liberal and enterprising citizens of 
Spokane will lend a helping hand to this strug- 
gling league and put up a structure useful and 
ornamental, "'The Spokane School of .\rt.'" 

A literary club has also Ijeen formed, com- 
posed almost entirely of Art League scholars, 
for the purpose of studying the history of art. 

and using the fees for buying books. Tiie 
name of the club is "The Art League Literary 
Club." The officers at present are: President, 
]\Irs. Charles \\'. Clarke: first vice-president, 
Mrs. \\'m. Byer; recording secretary, Mrs. F. 
S. Merrill, treasurer ; Mrs. E. L. Kimball. 
jMrs. B. F. Buck and Mrs. Win. Byer ha\'e 
charge of the literary program. 

[^Hss Fellowes has characteristically avoided 
making any reference to herself and the part 
she has taken in the wurk of the Art League. 
l)ut those who have been most closely related 
with her in this work, cheerfully recognize her 
aspreeminentl}'the most important factor in the 
organization. Her indefatigable labors and 
self-denying devotion to the interests of the 
league have excited the profound admiration 
of those especially interested. To her more 
than to any other one person is to be attributed 
the honor for the results already attained, and 
it is to be earnestly hoped that her labors (and 
that of (Others), will be speedily crowned with 
success in a greater measure, and that her 
heart's desire will be gratified in the permanent 
establishment of an art school, and an art gal- 
lery and building that will be a credit to Spo- 
kane.— I. E.l 



"The United States is the Paradise of newspapers, if 
a rank and rapid growth indicates a paradise. A daily 
newspaper has become a necessity ot life to every city 
and every extemporized village on the e.^ctreme frontier 
of civilization. As a medium for learnmg and telling 
news and for the manufacture and the retail of gossip, 
the newspaper has taken the place of the fountain and 
the market|)lace of olden times; and in times more recent, 
of the town pump, the grocery, and the exchange; as 
well as of the court-house and the cross-roads of a more 
scattered population."— Dr. Noah Porter. 

The infiuence of the press or newspapers 
in the development of a new country can hardly 
be overestimated. To the pioneer journalists — 
often consuming their energies for inadequate 
remuneration — is due much credit for the rapid 
march of civilization. Among modern benefac- 
tors there are none, perhaps, that fail to receive 



rewards commensurate with their services, to 
a greater degree than the pioneer newspaper 
men in the frontier towns. Often in the same 
person is found the compositor, pressman, re- 
porter, editor, business manager, and collector, 
who is inevitably burdened with multiplicity of 
duties. The labor and cost to patience and 
brains in the publication of a paper in a fron- 
tier town, with limited material and means, 
is beyond the comprehension of those who 
know naught about it by experience. It is a 
work that demands great resources to draw 
from. Newspapers, more than all other agen- 
cies, advertise a new country; through their 
instrumentality immigration is stimulated. To 
them is given an enviable opportunity to exert 
a salutary influence upon the community. They 
are in a great measure the guardians of a coun- 
try's reputation. To the editor is given the 
coveted privilege of making and elevating the 
moral sentiment of the people. The newspaijer 
becomes more and more the educator of the 
public. The press of Spokane has been, on the 
whole, a credit to the city. Publishers and ed- 
itors have been and continue to be, enterpris- 
ing, intelligent, aggressive and thoroughly de- 
voted to the interests of the ccnmtry. 

The earlier toilers who did the preparatory 
work amid trying conditions, have been dis- 
placed by others, but the results of their labors 
continue, and the present workers have entered 
into their labors. 


The history of the first newspaper published 
in Spokane is pregnant with interest. As 
early as February, 1S78. Hon. Francis H.' 
Cook, then publisher and editor of the Tacoma 
Herald, made a tour of inspection of eastern 
Washington territory. He "was spying out 
the land." Coming by water as far as "The 
Dalles." Oregon, he there purchased a cayuse 
oil which he rode through Yakima, Kittitas, 
Walla Walla and Whitman counties to Spo- 

kane Falls. It was his purpose to study the 
topography of the new country, with a view 
to decide for himself the most practical route 
lor the Northern Pacific Railroad. He pub- 
lished in his paper the results of his investiga- 
tions, which was the first "systematic descrip- 
tion of eastern Washington in its entirety" 
put in print. Being favorably impressed with 
the prospects of Spokane Falls, in the spring 
of 1879 he decided to establish a newspaper in 
the little village. 

He had two laudable objects in view, viz : 
to assist in the development of the new coun- 
try, and also to exercise his influence as much 
as possible in preventing the "meddling of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad with our politics." 
Mr. Cook brought with him a Washington 
liand-press and a job press. The outfit was 
brought up the Columbia and Snake rivers as 
far as Almota, thence by wagon to Colfax. 
As an evidence of the isolation of Spokane in 
those days and the difficulties incident to the 
publishing of a newspaper, it is worthy of no- 
tice that the first two issues had to be printed 
at Colfax. The wagon roads from that place 
to Spokane were impassable. 

After starting, it took six days of strug- 
gling with muddy roads to bring the printing 
material to its destination, and costing one 
hundred dollars a ton from Colfax. The town 
proprietors presented Mr. Cook with half a lot 
on which to erect a small office. It was on the 
corner of Riverside avenue and Howard street. 

The first issue of the Spokan Times, the 
pioneer newspaper, was dated April 24, 1879, 
and was a thirty-two-column paper. It was 
a creditable paper in ever\' respect. 

It was two weeks later before it was actu- 
ally printed on the ground. Mr. Cook esti- 
mated the population of the town at that time 
at one hundred and fifty people. In view of 
the fact that the paper was to meet the de- 
mands of a large territory, it was independent 
in politics. After the weekly had been pub- 
lished about two years and the population had 



reached about six hundred, a daily issue, with 
telegrapliic news, was started, and continued 
for several months. Finally the plant was sold 
to a Mr. Herron. This was early in 1882, and 
the name of the paper was changed to the In- 
dependent. Mr. Cook now resides on the Lit- 
tle Spokane river, a short distance east of Dart- 

A description of the first issue of the Times 
willbeof interest. Under the heading, The Spo- 
kan Times, are the words : "Devoted particular- 
ly to the best interests of those who dwell 
in this new and beautiful country." On the 
left it stated that the paper was published at 
Spokan Falls, in the wonderful Spokan coun- 
try. "Devoted to the best interests of its read- 
ers, its patrons, and northeastern Washing- 
ton." On the right, "The Spokan Times is the 
only newspaper published in the great Spokan 
country. Its circulation promises to be very 
large, among a wide-awake, progressive, read- 
ing people. It is a most excellent paper in 
which to advertise your profession or business. 
Subscription, $3.00 per year in advance." 
Among the items we find: "Dam Washed Out. 
■ — Recent high waters washed the dam away 
which was used in connection with the saw and 
grist mills at this place. In the short space of 
one minute, the result of many days of hard 
labor and an outlay of a thousand dollars was 
v/ashed away." "Colfax has-the advantage of 
a daily mail. We enjoy simply a semi-weekly 
service. Small favors from Uncle Sam are 
thankfully received, larger ones in proportion." 
"Oats are worth three cents a pound at this 
place ; wheat is scarce ; hay is valued at thirty- 
five dollars per ton. Who wouldn't be a far- 
mer in this rich and productive country?" 
"Spokan Falls has one piano and five organs." 
"Mr. J. J. Browne has just erected a very neat 
dwelling house which is situated in one of the 
pleasant suburbs of the city." "Our day-school, 
with Miss Waterhouse as teacher, and an at- 
tendance of twenty-two scholars, has been run- 
ning over two weeks." 


In the spring of 1881. when there were 
clear indications of rapitl progress and great 
increase of population, in \iew of the coming 
of the Northern Pacific Railroad into the city, 
and other reasons, J. J. Browne, A. M. Can- 
non and J. N. Glover decided that a new paper 
was needed. They planned and worked to 
meet the need, and in the month of June an 
outfit was purchased. A little frame building 
was procured and fitted up nicely for those 
days, on the corner of Riverside and Howard. 
About the first of July the Spokane Chronicle 
appeared with the name of C. B. Carlyle as ed- 
itor and manager. Mr. Carlyle was a bright 
and capable newspaper man. After managing 
the Chronicle creditably for less than a year, he 
left for Portland, Oregon, and became editor 
of the Standard. He was subsequently the sec- 
retary of the board of trade. After going to 
California, he pursued theological studies and 
became a Congregational minister, serving 
churches at Phcenix, Arizona ; Reno, Nevada, 
and more recently at Winthrop, Iowa. 

In May, 1882, the late Hon. H. E. Allen, 
then a young man just from college, purchased 
the plant and did good work for a short time, 
when he sold to Arthur K. Woodbury. Early 
in 1883 the plant came into the possession of 
Rev. H. T. Cowley, who had learned the print- 
er's trade in youth. Under him the paper and 
plant were developed. The printing house for 
some tune was located where the Crescent store 
now is. H. W. Greenburg was the foreman 
for several years. 

In September, 1886, the daily evening 
Chronicle began to be issued. Major E. A. 
Routhe becoming associated with Mr. Cowley 
in editorial work. In the autumn the paper 
and plant were leased to Messrs. W. D. Knight 
and Dickenson, and a year later purchased by 
them. In February, 1890, J. J. Browne became 
the sole owner of the paper and plant, and also 
editor, with 5. R. Flynn as manager. 



The following year the Spokane Chronicle 
Publishing Company \vas organized, with a 
capital of one hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars. J. J. Browne, president: W. J. Collins, 
vice-president: Thomas Hooker, secretary and 
business manager. In early years the paper 
was designated as independent, but with Re- 
publican proclivities. At this time it was a 
pronounced Democratic paper. The place of 
publication was Post street, lictween iviverside 
and Main avenues. In 1894 it went into the 
spacious quarters in the Auditorium building, 
now occupied by the postoffice. 

Since September, 1^97. the business offices 
and editorial rooms are in the Review building, 
where the meclianical work is also done. The 
publishers are the Spokane Chronicle Pub- 
lishing Company, the officers of which are: J. 
J. Browne, president: H. .\. Rising, vice-pres- 
ident : Thomas Hooker, secretary and manager. 
Published daily and weekly. 


The third paper established in Spokane was 
The Review, l)y Frank M. Dallam. In the 
fall of 1882 Mr. Dallam resided at H;iy\\ards, 
California. The weekly Journal, which he had 
been publishing in that place for about five 
years, had been recently disposed of by him. 
As he was debating as to which way to turn in 
search for a new location to publish a paper, 
a friend of his returned to Haywards from a 
trip in eastern Washington Territory. He 
brought good news of the country and its pros- 
pects. He was enthusiastic in his opinion that 
both Spokane and Cheney would become ex- 
cellent points for any line of business as soon 
as the Northern Pacific Railroad would be 
completed. Mr. Dallam decided to take a trip 
north with the gentleman referred to, and they 
reached Walla Walla in December, 1882. They 
drove from Walla Walla across the country to 
Cheney. Though Cheney was the more bustling 
place of the two. Mr. Dallam was from the first 
more impressed with the possibilities of Spo- 

kane Falls. He prophesied for it a great fu- 
ture. He was encouraged by Mr. Keiser, pro- 
prietor of the Sprague House, and the late A. 
M. Cannon to establish a Republican paper, 
which he desired to do. Mr. Dallam made an 
effort to purchase the Chronicle from Mr. 
Woodbury, who declined to set a price on it, 
though be sold it to another party in a few 
months. Without perfecting any arrangement, 
Mr. Dallam returned to California, and came 
very near locating at Los Angeles. In April, 
1883, he telegraphed to Mr. Keiser inquiring 
if the field was still open for a paper at Spo- 
kane Falls. The answer being satisfactory, he 
was on his way north with the original Review 
plant within three days. 

In due time he was on the ground. Build- 
ings being scarce, he could only secure the old 
school house, a mere shell of a structure, sit- 
uated nearly opposite where the Pacific Hotel 
now stands. After interviewing the business 
men, by whom he was informed of several 
newspaper ventures which had been failures, 
and with strong inference that his attempt 
would meet the same sad fate, especially if he 
could not get out a good paper, he did not feel 
much better than depressed at heart. 

Although Mr. Dallam is generally recog- 
nized as having extraordinary qualifications 
in certain lines of newspaper work, especially 
as a ready and vigorous writer, he has always 
deemed himself somewhat deficient as a solic- 
itor. And this part of the work proved quite 
a drudgery to him during the incipient state of 
the Review. He experienced peculiar trials in 
publishing the first issue, some of which were 
caused by the loss of a part of the hand-press 
on the way. The fact is the form of the first 
issue had tf) be taken to Cheney and worked 
off on the press of the Sentinel. Much pains 
were taken in getting out a neatly printed pa- 
per, and both its appearance and contents com- 
mended it to the people. The first issue was 
dated May i, 1883. It was a success from the 
beginning. Mr. Dallam was greatly encour- 



aged the morning after the paper had been 
distributed, when Dr. J. M. Morgan walked 
into the office and, throwing two dollars on 
the imposing stone, said that the Re\iew had 
touchetl the popular chord. The lullowing 
year, after the Union block had been built at 
the sotitheast corner of Howard and Front 
streets, the Review moved into the second 
story, where it was published for several years. 

In the summer of 1884 was begun the pub- 
lication of an evening edition of the Review, 
which was changed to a morning paper in a 
few months. Mr. Dallam was the sole owner 
and publisher of the Review until the summer 
of 1887, when he sold an interest to H. T. 
Brown and H. W. Greenburg. The partner- 
ship continued for a year, when 'Sir. Dallam 
retired from the paper. .\s early as 1886 Asso- 
ciated Press despatches were secured. 

In October, 1888, the Review was pur- 
chased by P. H. Winston, James Monaghan, 
C. B. King and Willis Street. F. C. Goodin 
became business manager, and P. H. Winston, 
editor. The late J. M. Adams, who was re- 
gistrar in the United States land office, became 
editor early in the year 1889, and continued 
until October of the same year, when the pres- 
ent editor, N. W. Durham, assumed the posi- 
tion. In April of this year it removed to its 
present location, southeast corner of Riverside 
avenue and Monroe street, the company having 
purchased the property of the First Presbyter- 
ian church. The present magnificent Review 
building was completed in 1891. Daily, Sun- 
day and semi-weekly editions are published by 
the Review Publishing Company, W. H. 
Cowles, manager. Since July i, 1894, the 
name Spokesman-Review has been used. 


The first number of the daily Spokesman 
appeared March 9, 1890, with H. T. Brown as 
business manager, Joseph French Johnson, for- 
merly connected with the Chicago Tribune and 
the Springfield Republican, as managing edi- 

tor. In May the paper became the property of 
a stock company consisting of J. F. Johnson, 
L. A. Agnew, W. H. Cowles and J. Howard 
^Vatson, the latter succeeding Mr. Brown as 
business manager. The paper had brilliant 
features and was independent and courageous 
ill .spirit, and gained rapidly in public favor. 
Its publication ceased in July, 1893. 


This daily was established in March, 1890, 
l>y Frank J. McGuire and Theodore Reed. It 
started out as a Democratic paper, but was 
soon sold to a syndicate of Repul)licans, and H. 
A. Herrick became managing editor, and L. 
P'. Williams, editor. It ceased publication in 
less than a year. 


A Populist paper published in 1894 at 911 
South Post street. C. L. MacKensie was man- 
ager. Its publication continued for about a 

The Chronicle some time ago had an in- 
teresting article on "Men of Brains and 
Others," or, ".Xewspapers. Journals and Mag- 
azines That Ila\-e Filled Long- Felt Wants in 
Spokane."' It stated that it would he almost 
impossible to furnish a list of all the papers 
that have been started in Spokane, .\mong the 
roll of editors would be found "the brightest 
men who ever gazed upon the falls, practical 
hustlers, sleepy dreamers, clamoring egotists, 
chumps of ponderous stupidity, successful pol- 
iticians, grav-hairecl business men. kids who 
should have been chasing vaccination certifi- 
cates — all these have scribbled, clipped and 
pasted, and have seen l)right visions of a new 
Pulitzer's bank account and a new Horace 
Greeley's fame. And the visions have passed, 
and the men who saw them have drifted out 
into new employments and have become the 
millionaires, paupers, bank examiners, mine 
jiromoterSjtelephone managers,professors, con- 



victs, politicians, bankers, preachers, soldiers, 
fruit fair hustlers, South African boomers, 
poker players, commercial secretaries, insane 
asylum superintendents, drunkards and divi- 
dend spenders of the world." 

The publications as published in the city 
directory for 1890 are as follows: 

Spokane Globe, daily, evening; Republi- 
can; H. A. Herrick, editor and proprietor; L. 
F. Williams, associate editor. 

Spokesman, daily, morning; politics inde- 
pendent; Spokesman Publishing Company, 
proprietors and publishers; J. F. Johnson, 
managing editor ; J. H. Watson, business man- 

Spokane Daily Mining Exchange Journal; 
Fred Puhler, editor and proprietor. 

Industrial World, weekly, trades union; 
World Publishing Company; C. C. Rowell, 
manager, E. J. Jeffries, editor. 

New State News, weekly; C. L. Gowell, 
editor and proprietor. 

Northwest Tribune, issued Friday; Schorr 
Bros., publishers and proprietors; G. F. Schorr, 

Spokane Falls Echo, weekly; Scandina- 
vian; politics independent; Echo Publishing 

Spokane Weekly Globe; Republican; H. 
A. Herrick editor and proprietor ; L. F. Will- 
iams, associate editor. 

The West Shore; illustrated magazine; 
weekly; L. Samuel, proprietor. 

Der Hausbesucher ; monthly; interest of 
German Methodist Episcopal church; Rev. F. 
W. Buchholz, editor. 

College Journal; monthly; Union Printing 
Company, publishers. 

The Frontier; monthly; issued in the in- 
terest of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion; Filmore Tanner, editor; A. G. Ansell, 

Spokane Investors' Journal; monthly; H. 
Bolster & Co., publishers; John R. Reavis, ed- 

In the directory of 1893 the following are 
found : 

Daily Hotel Reporter; Penrose & Hutch- 
inson, proprietors. 

Columbia Christian Advocate; weekly; 
in the interest of the Methodist Episcopal 
church ; Spokane Printing Company, publish- 

Sunday Sun ; Chester Edwards, managing 
editor; Bert M. Tanner, city editor; I. Frank 
Holedger, business manager; A. C. Lindsey, 
city circulator; Sun Publishing Company. 

Washington Populist ; official organ of the 
I'eople's party; weekly. 

Vestens Scandinav; weekly; politics inde- 
pendent ; Scandinavian Publishing Company. 

Parish jNIessenger; monthly; official paper 
of the Episcopal church ; Rev. W. M. Lane, ed- 

Spokane Miner; monthly; F. J. Zeehande- 
laer, editor and proprietor; W. B. Wilcox, busi- 
ness manager. 

Northwest Mining Review; semi-monthly; 
L. K. Armstrong, editor; W. D. Knight, pub- 
lisher; N. G. Snow, advertising manager. 

The list for 1895 is more recent, and 
some of the names on this list are still house- 
hold words: 

Daily Times; morning; Republican; J. G. 
H inkle, business manager. 

Daily Tribune; evening: Populist; Daily 
Tribune Company; C. L. MacKenzie, man- 

American Pope; weekly; A. P. A.; John 
J. Brile, editor and proprietor. 

Hillyard Independent; weekly: H. M. 
Brainard, editor and publisher. 

The Social Life; weekly; William S. Lair, 
editor and manager. 

Spokane Churchman ; Episcopal ; Rev. Wil- 
liam C. Shaw, editor. 

Weekly Tribune; Populist; Tribune Com- 
pany, publishers; C. L. MacKenzie, manager. 

The directory for 1896 contains such re- 
minders as these : 



Spokane Independent; weekly; E. C. Bis- 
sell, editor and proprietor. 

Westlicher Volksfreund; German; inde- 
pendent; F. W. Buchholz, editor and proprie- 

Union Leader; weekly; issued by Spokane 
Ministerial Association; Leland E. Spencer, 

The Church World; Episcopal; illustrated; 
Rev. Dean Richmond Babbitt. LL. D., editor; 

Others mentioned as late as 1897 and 1898 
are : Spokane Davil, issued Saturdays by Scur- 
lock & Mitcliell ; Spokane Stocks, daily ; daily 
and weekly Mail, by Eber S. Smith; Washing- 
ton Endeavor, but now published at Seattle; 
Pacific Skandinav; Spokane Tidende; The 
Pathfinder; West Posten; New Northwest; 
Spokane Democrat ; Westlicher- Volksfreund ; 
Galvani published his Northern Light as early 
as 1888, living on nuts and fruit while doing it. 


This paper deserves special mention be- 
cause it was the pioneer newspaper of the up- 
per country. It was established at Colfax in 
June, 1878. It removed to Cheney in 1880, 
and in a few years became the property of the 
Schorr Bros. Removed to Spokane in 1886, 
where it was published for more than a decade, 
its editor, G. F. Schorr, advocating heroically 
every moral and social reform, irrespective of 
consequences. Mr. Schorr resides in the city 
still, and is interested in the Pioneer Flour Mill, 
located on the school section. 


The following papers and magazines are 
published in Spokane in addition to those al- 
ready mentioned. 

Freeman Labor Journal, established in 
1894, and published in the interest _ of labor 
unions and social reforms every Friday by the 
Journal Publishing Company. A fearless ad- 

vocate of government ownership of public util- 
ities. W. J. Walker, manager. 

Nezv Ji'esl Trade. — This paper, a weekly, 
is what its name indicates, and is independent 
in politics and strong in its special line. Orno 
Strong, publisher. 

JVashington Spokane Post, established by 
A. M. Armand in February, 1889. The only 
German newspaper published in Spokane and 
eastern Washington. Issued every Friday, and 
independent in politics. A. M. Armand sold 
his interest to Mr. Otto Juckeland a few 
months ago, who has been cnnnectod with the 
paper f(^r years, and is now both editor and 
publisher. This paper has a large circulation 
among the German population. 

The Outburst. — This eight-page, four-col- 
umn weekly paper was established July 4, 1892. 
The publishers are the Outburst Publishing 
Company. Mr. Alonzo M. Murphy was ed- 
itor for some years, and gave it a reputation 
for brilliancy. Gordon C. Corbaley is president 
and manager. 

Spokane Facts. — This weekly began to be 
published early in 1899, with J. R. Heckert as 
editor. It developed radical tendencies, and 
ceased publication in April, 1900. 

The Sunday Morning Call. — This weekly 
paper began publication late in 1899, with Day- 
ton H. Stewart, formerly of the Cheney Senti- 
nel, as president, and Frederick E. Marvin as 

Mining.— This is the journal of the North- 
west Mining Association. It is an expert in 
its line, and L. K. Armstrong is the editor. 

JVcstern Home Journal and Inter-Moun- 
tain Poultrv Journal. — This monthly maga- 
zine has entered upon its fifth year, and is pub- 
lished at suite F, Exchange National Bank 
building, by Alexander & Company. It was 
started by Lew N. Benson. Growing in 

Pastor's Visit. — This is a church paper 
published by Rev. B. E. Utz in the interest of 
the Central Christian church and its mission. 



Spokane Deaconess, published in the inter- 
est of the Deaconess Home. 

Home Finder's Magazine, pubhshed by J. 
W. Williams in the interest of the Homefind- 
ing Society. 

Spokesman Reiiexc Quarterly, established 
July, 1889, and published by the Review Pub- 
lishing Company. 


It is now owned by the American Foun- 
ders Company, which deals in type, machinery 
and ink. The location is 8 and 10 Monroe 
street, and A. D. Alexander is resident man- 
ager. This- establishment, started six years 
ago, by H. T. Brown, has developed to great 
proportions. It supplies the inside matter for 
nearly all the weekly papers throughout the 
"Inland Empire." Its facilities to do work in 
its special line are almost equal to that of the 
great cities of the east and west. Both news 
and miscellaneous matter is prepared, and can 
be supplied on short notice. The work done 
by this establishment, with that of the daily 

papers, makes Spokane the center from which 
radiates the light of information over a large 


The first Directory of Spokane Falls w-as 
issued in 1885 by The Chronicle. In this work 
liie population was estimated at "nearly three 
thousand." Another was issued in 1887 by 
Charles E. Reeves, professor in Spokane Col- 
lege, in which the population was estimated at 
se\en thousand. In an edition issueil by the 
same publisher in 1888 the figures were placed 
at twelve thousand. 

R. L. Polk & Company published its first 
city directory in 1889, wherein the population 
is estimated at seventeen thousand, three hun- 
dred and forty. The last directory is the elev- 
enth by the same publishers, being fully double 
the size of the first one, and in amount and 
value of information proportionately increased. 
The estimate of population in the last volume 
— including the floating element — is fifty 



'"Spokane is pre-eminently a city of frater- 
nal organizations. That is the one great fad of 
her people, and they have it worse than they 
ever had whooping cough or the Trilby mania. 
The Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, 
and a long list of other orders, more or less 
prominent, are all represented by flourishing 
lodges, new ones in every order being contin- 
ually formed, until it w^ould seem as if every 
man in the city must belong to at least two or 
three lodges." 


Masonic hall is located on the southwest 
corner of Sprague avenue and Lincoln. It is 
tiie place of meeting of all Masonic bodies. 

Masonic Board of Control. — E. D. Olm- 
sted, president; H. L. Kennan, secretary and 
treasurer. H. L. Kennan, Spokane Lodge, No. 
34; E. D. Olmsted, Oriental Lodge, No. 74; 
\V. W. \\'ithersj)oon, Spokane Chapter, No. 
2; S. Harry Rush, Cataract Commandery, No. 



3; C. E. Grove. Oriental Consistory, Xo. 2; J. 
H. Shaw, El Katif Temple. 

Spokane Lodge. Xo. 34. F. & A. M.. was 
organized under dispensation January 8, 1880. 
Its charter is dated June 4, 1880, and is signed 
by Bro. Louis Sohns, grand master, and Bro. 
T. M. Reed, grand secretary. It was chartered 
under the name of Spokan Lodge, Xo. 34. The 
first master was Bro. Louis Zeigler ; Elijah Z. 
Smith, senior warden, and John H. Curtis, 
junior warden. 

In the general conflagration in the city in 
1889 this lodge lost all of its records, some of 
which have been supplied, but many are miss- 
ing. The following brethren have served as 
masters : Brothers Louis Zeigler, Stephen G. 
Whitman, William R. Marvin, William W. 
Witherspoon, Pliny A. Daggett, S. Harry 
Rush, William A. Lothrop. Henry L. Kennan, 
Robert Russell, Albert S. Johnson, Joseph A. 
Borden, and the present master (^1899), David 
S. Prescott. 

Its membership shows a gradual increase, 
being in 1882, 46; 1885, 51; 1888, 75; 1891, 
140; 1892, 194; 1895, 235; 1896, 254; 1897. 
233, after having dropped for non-payment of 
dues, according to the new Grand Lodge reg- 
ulation, for the first time in force, 35 mem- 
bers; 1898, 236; 1899, 261. At the close of 
1899 the membership is 299. 

In the year 1891 Oriental Lodge, Xo. 74, 
was formed, taking several members from 
Spokane Lodge, No. 34, and in 1896, Tyrian 
Lodge, No. 96, was formed, taking from this 
lodge 25 members. 

The present officers are: Worshipful mas- 
ter, David S. Prescott; senior warden, Frank 
F". Weymouth; junior warden, Harry E. Bro- 
kaw; treasurer, W. R. Marvin: secretary, 
Floyd L. Daggett : senior deacon, E. F. Wag- 
goner; junior deacon, E. O. Connor: senior' 
steward, J. Linn Edsall; junior steward, John 
J. Quilliam: chaplain. Rev. William Pelan; 
marshal, John Gray; tyler, M. R. Bump. 

The year 1891 shows the largest increase in 


membership, and 1899 the largest number of 
degrees conferred. 

Oriental Lodge, No. 74, F. & A. U., Spo- 
kane. Washington, was established in 1890. A 
dispensation was issued by the Most Worship- 
ful Grand Lodge of the state of Washington, 
September 8, 1890, emiiowering the lodge to 
do work, and naming as its officers, while 
working under dispensation, Nathan B. Run- 
die, worshipful master; John H. Stone, senior 
warden; Otis F. Hall, junior warden. The 
first communication of the lodge was held at 
the Temple September 22, 1890, the member- 
ship of the lodge at this time being its charter 
members, composed of the following Master 
Masons : Nathan B. Rundle, worshipful mas- 
ter: John H. Stone, senior warden; Otis F. 
Hall, junior warden; Louis Zeigler, C. S. 
Scott, E. D. Olmsted, Fred Furth, J. S. Will- 
son, J. B. Blalock, E. B. Hyde, S. D. Merritt, 
Jesse Arthur, Warren Hussey, Joseph Kellner, 
\\\ S. Rogers, M. D. Smith, W. H. Zeigler, 
L. L. Lang, L. L. Rand, Nathan Toklas, Jo- 
seph E. Boss, George W. Ross, C. H. Arm- 
strong, twenty-four. 

The warrant of constitution of Oriental 
Lodge was granted by the Most Worshipful 
Grand Lodge of the state of Washington in 
June. 1 89 1. 

July 15. 1 89 1, the Most Worshipful Grand' 
Lodge of the State of Washington met in 
special Cdmmunication in the city of Spokane, 
\\'ashington. when Most Worshipful Thomas 
M. Reed, acting as grand master, assisted by 
Most Worshipful Louis Zeigler, acting as dep- 
uty grand master, assisted by other members of 
the Grand Lodge, instituted Oriental Lodge 
and installed the ofticers of the lodge. 

C)fficers of the Lodge for 1892: Nathan B. 
Rundle. worshipful master; H. T. Fairlamb. 
senior warden: M. Oppenheimer, junior war- 
den: W. H. Zeigler, treasurer; Fred Furth, 

1893 — Nathan B. Rundle, worshipful mas- 
ter: L. L. Rand, senior warden; C. R. Fenton, 



junior warden ; W. H. Zeigler. treasurer : W. 

F. Hazlett, secretary. 

1894 — E. D. Olmsted, worshipful master; 
L. L. Rand, senit)r warden; \V. A. Wright, 
junior warden: John H. Shaw, secretary; W. 
H. Zeigler, treasurer. 

1895 — E. D. Olmsted, worshipful master; 
C S. Hubhell, senior warilen ; W. A. Wright, 
junior warden; George T. Crane, treasurer; 
John H. Shaw, secretary. 

1896 — C. S. Hubbell. worshipful master; 
C. E. Grove, senior warden: T. L. Catterson, 
junior warden: George T. Crane, treasurer; 
C P. Parsons, secretary. 

1897 — C. E. Grove, worshipful master; 
T. L. Catterson, senior warden; C. R. Burns, 
junior warden; Louis Reubens, treasurer; C. 
P. Parsons, secretar3\ 

1898 — T. L. Catterson, worshipful master; 
C. R. Burns, senior warden; J. M. Fitzpatrick, 
junior warden; Louis Reubens, treasurer; C. 
P. Parsons, secretary. 

1899 — C. R. Burns, worshipful master; 
J. M. Fitzpatrick, senior warden; John H. 
Shaw, junior warden; Louis Reubens, treas- 
urer; C. P. Parsons, secretary. Total mem- 
bership 1899, 122. 

1900 — E. D. Olmsted, worshipful master; 
J. H. Shaw, senior warden ; W. E. Goodspeed, 
junior warden: Louis Reubens, treasurer; C. 
P. Parsons, secretary. 

Sf^ohauc Chapter, No. 2, R. A. M., re- 
ceived its charter from the General Grand 
Chapter, R. A. M., and on October 2, 1884, 
there having been formed in the meantime a 
grand chapter of Washington, a new charter 
was issued by the above-named authority in lieu 
of the one granted by the General Grand Chap- 
ter of the United States. At the time the Grand 
chapter was formed it had a membership of 
thirty-two. Since its organization the follow- 
ing high priests have ruled over its destinies : 
Companions Louis Zeigler, Ford Furth, H. 

G. Stimmel, H. W. Tyler, S. H. Rush, P. A. 
Daggett, H. L. Kennan, J. A. Borden, J. M. 

Fitzpatrick. John H. Show, J. D. Hinkle, 
Ezra E. Reid. It has a membership at the pres- 
ent time of one hundred and sixty-nine. 

Cataract Couuiiaiidcry. Xo. 3. A". 7., re- 
ceived its charter from the Grand Encamp- 
ment of the L'nited States on October 26, 
1886, and was constituted by Eminent Sir 
Charles M. Patterson, as representing the 
grand master. Most Eminent Charles Room, 
at which time the. following officers were in- 
stalled : Eminent Sir F. A. Bettis as eminent 
Commander ; Sir E. F. Chamberlain as gen- 
eralissimo: Sir W. .\. Kinney as captain gen- 
eral, with a membership of thirteen. On Au- 
gust 4, 1889, its charter was destroyed by 
fire, and on June 16, 1890, a duplicate charter 
was granted them by the Grand Commandery 
ot Washington, under which authority it is 
now working. The following officers have 
served as eminent commander since its organi- 
zatit)n : Eminent Sirs F. A. Bettis, B. C. Van 
Houten, J. L. Wilson, S. Harry Rush, H. W. 
Tyler, F. W. Churchouse, E. Dempsie, F. P. 
Weymouth, John H. Show, W. W. Wither- 
spoon, P. A. Daggett, J. D. Hinkle, H. L. 
Schermerhorn. It has at this date a mem- 
bership of one hundred and seventy-three. 

Spokane Council, No. 4, R. & S. M. — 
This Masonic body of the York rite was char- 
tered .August 21. 1894, by the General Grand 
Council of the L'nited States and numbers 
among its members the Rev. William Pilan, 
grand chaplain of all the Grand Masonic bodies 
of the state and revered by all Masons who 
have the honor of his acquaintance. It has 
had for its presiding officers since its organi- 
zatitm : Illu.strious Henry L. Kennan, S. Harry 
Rush, P. A. Daggett, William H. Acuff, Joe 
A. Borden, F. P. Weymouth. W. C. Stone. 
-At its first preliminary meeting there were 
three present. From this little band of Royal 
and Select Masters it has grown to a member- 
ship of seventy-si.x. 

Tyrian Lodge. Xo. 96, F. A. M., was or- 
ganized 1898. Stated communications on the 



first and third Mondays of each month. E. 
A. Winchester, worshipful master ; E. E. Reid, 
senior warden; J. S. Phihps, junior warden; 
J. H. Pugh, secretary; J. D. Hini<le, treasurer; 
W. L. Hall, senior deacon ; T. H. Denter, 
junior deacon; J. P. Pond, senior steward; j. 
C. Neffler, junior steward ; J. Driscoll, tyler. 

Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. — 
The bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scot- 
tish Rite of Freemasonry, S. J., represented 
in Spokane, include the following : Albert G. 
Mackay, Lodge of Perfection, No. 8, four- 
teenth degree ; Cascade Chapter, Rose Croix, 
No. 7., eighteenth degree; Occidental Coun- 
cil of Kodosh, No. 3, thirteenth degree; Ori- 
ental Consistory, No. 2, S. P. R. S., thirty- 
second degree, who owe allegiance to the Su- 
preme Council, thirty-third degree, for the 
Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, 
whose see is at Charleston, Suuth Carolina, 
and whose present official headquarters are at 
Washington, D. C, where is located the House 
of the Temple. 

The Supreme Council, thirty-third degree, 
S. J., was organized at Charleston, South 
Carolina, May 31, 1801, and is recognized as 
the mother council of the rite in the world. 
Its principles are based on liberty, charity and 
freedom of conscience; and it aims to ennoble 
and elevate humanity and succor the feeble, 
the needy, and the oppressed ; the broadest 
and grandest principles known to mankind. 

Early in 1890 a movement was made to 
institute the bodies of the rite in Spokane, and, 
the charter being obtained, on the lOth of May, 
1890, above forty of Spokane's respected citi- 
zens were initiated as charter members. At 
the present time the membership is about one 
hundred and twenty-five for each of the co- 
ordinate lodges, not so large a growth for the 
years intervening; but cjuality, rather than 
quantity, is the imperative qualification to 
membership, and is considered the touchstone 
of Masonic success. 

Thomas Hubbard Caswell, thirtv-lhird de- 

gree, of California, is sovereign grand com- 
mander, and Frederick Webber, thirty-third 
degree, of Washington, D. C, secretary gen- 
eral of the rite for the southern jurisdiction. 
The local bodies are officered by S. H. Rush, 
thirty-third degree, venerable master; W. H. 
Acuft', thirty-second degree, K. C. C. H., Alse. 
M ; John H. Shaw, thirty-second degree, K. 
C. C. H., commander, and E. D. Olmstead, 
thirty-third degree, commander-in-chief. J. 
M. Fitzpatrick, thirty-second degree. K. C. C. 
PL, is the secretary and registrar. 

The bodies meet at Masonic hall, on the 
fourth Thursday of each month, and the work 
of the rite is exemplified twice annually, at the 
spring and fall convocations. 

El-Katif Temple. Ancient Arabic Order 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, was instituted 
on July 31, 1890, by Illustrious Noble George 
W. Miller, assisted by a special excursion of 
Nobles from Mecca (the Parent) and Algeria 
Temple, and other visiting Nobles from Al 
Kader, Afifi, etc., Algeria Temple taking 
charge of the work. The petitioners for this 
dispensation were Clarence S. Scott, thirty- 
second degree, of Saladin Temple, Grand 
Rapids, Michigan ; Nathan B. Rundle, thirty- 
second degree, Tripoli Temple, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin ; James M. Buckley, thirty-second 
degree, Afifi Temple, Tacoma, Washington; 
Horace W. Tyler, thirty-second degree, Tripoli 
Temple, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Eugene A. 
Sherwin, thirty-second degree, Tripoli Temple 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin ; Daniel McGuane, thir- 
ty-second tlegree, Osman Temple, St. Paul, 
Minnesota; John F. McEwen, Al Koran 
Temple, Cleveland, Ohio; George D. Sher- 
man, Medina Temple, Chicago, Illinois. 

The first ceremonial session was held (ju 
the same date, during which a class of forty- 
three were introduced and initiated. 

The first illustrious potentate was Noble 
Clarence S. Scott, who was duly installed. on 
July 31, 1890, and he appointed and in- 
stalled on October 20, 1890, the first divan 



being as follows : Natlian B. Rundle, chief 
rabban ; F. E. Snodgrass. assistant rabban ; 
H. W. Tyler, H. P. & P. : E. M. Bloomer, 
O. Guide; J- F. McEwen. treasurer: Fred 
Furth, recorder. 

On June :g, 1891. the imperial potentate. 
Samuel Briggs, over the seal of the Imperial 
Council, issued to El Katiff a regular charter. 
From its institution to date, January i, 1900. 
three hundred and twenty-one Nobles have 
subscribed their names as members of El Katif 
Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. 

Illustrious Potentate Clarence S. Scott re- 
tiring in 1 89 1, the illustrious potentates suc- 
ceeding him have been : Horace W. Tyler, for 
the year 1892; Nathan B. Rundle, for 1893- 
1894; Frank W. Churchouse, 1895; Henry L. 
Kennan, 1896: Ephraim Dempsie. 1897; J. 
M. Fitzpatrick, 1898: H. L. Schermerhorn, 
1899; S. Harry Rush, 1900, still reigning. 


HV A. G. A»EI.L. 

The introduction of Odd Fellowship into 
Spokane county began with the institution of 
Spokane Lodge, Xo. 17. Hon. John M. 
Swan was the first grand master of this juris- 
diction. In his report to the secoijd session of 
the Grand Lodge of Washington held at \^an- 
couver, May 11. 1880, he gives the report of 
the special deputy, Mr. A. J. Banta, of Colfax, 
as follows : 

Colfax, Wash., April 30, 1880 
To John M. Sivan, Grand Master: 

Dear Sir and Brother : — Pursuant to the 
authority in me vested by the special com- 
mission issued by you, under date March 12, 
1880, I proceeded to institute a lodge in the 
town of Spokane Falls, in the county of 
Stevens, and assisted by a sufficient number 
of known, approved and duly (jualified 
brothers, on the 26th day of April, 1880, in- 
stituted Spokane Lodge, No. 17, and installed 
the following officers, who were duly elected, 

to-wit : Charles W. Cornelius, noble grand ; 
James N. Glo\er, \ice grand ; W. P. W^ilber, 
secretary; B, F, Shaner, treasurer; W. J. 
Gilbert, warden, and J. W. Stephens, con- 

Yours fraternally. 

A. J. Banta, 

Special Deputy Grand Master, 

The act of the grand master in instituting 
the Spokane lodge was approved by the Grand 
Lodge and a charter was issued to the lodge 
in due form. Spokane Falls, as it was then 
known, was a small \illage in those days and 
suitable accommodations for lodge meetings 
were very meager. The lodge was instituted 
in a small hall then used by the Masonic lodge. 
It was located on the second floor of a small 
wooden building which stood on the south side 
of Front avenue, Ijetween Howard and Stevens 
streets. The first initiate into the new lodge 
was Samuel T. .\rthur. a pioneer hotel keeper 
of Spokane, who has been a member continu- 
ously e\er since and who still resides in Spo- 

Spokane Lodge soon changed its place of 
meeting to a hall on the north side of Riverside 
avenue, between Howard and Mill streets, and 
still later to a building owned by J. B. Krien- 
buhl on the east side of Howard street, just 
north of Ri\erside avenue. 

The condition of things in this section was 
well ])ictured by T. N. Ford, grand secretary, 
in his report to the Grand Lodge of Washing- 
ton, in May, 1880, in these words: "From ac- 
counts heretofore received, I am led to be- 
lieve that there is abundant good material in 
the above mentioned place (Spokane Falls) 
for a first-class lodge. This will make seven- 
teen lodges in the jurisdiction, with a reason- 
able prospect for three or four new applications 
soon to follow. Eastern Washington is 
1 rapidly filling up with permanent residents, 
and thriving towns are springing into existence 
, where but a few short months ago not a sign 



of a house or a vestige of ci\Mlization could 
he seen. Many of the new settlers are Odd 
Fellows and will soon be organizing and 
knocking at our doors for admission." 

Organized on the anni\'ersary of Ameri- 
can Odd Fellowship. Spc^kane Lodge had a 
prosperous and encouraging growth for several 
years. The large influ.x of permanent resi- 
dents spoken of by tlie grand secretary brought 
with it a number of Odd Fellows who cast 
their lot with the then struggling village of 
Spokane Falls and joined No. 17. For a few 
years everything in this new region was pros- 
perous. The coming of the railroad' in 1882 
and the discovery of gold in the Cceur d' 
Alenes in 1883 caused a \ery rapid increase 
in the population and business of this region. 
Then came the reaction and depression of 
1884 and subsequent years. The new lodge 
shared in these periods of prosperity and de- 
pression. Spokane Lodge. No. 17, C(5ntinued 
as the only lodge in this community until 
Samaritan Lodge, No. 52, was instituted in 
January, 1888. Spokane Lodge at that time 
had about fifty members. The instituti<in of 
another lodge, instead of being an injury tii 
the pioneer lodge, had a stimulating influence 
on it. That period was the beginning of 
prosperous, progressive Odd Fellowship in 
Spokane. The brothers of Samaritan entered 
upon the work with zest and enthusiasm which 
soon banished the lethargic spirit which for 
a while seemed to have settled upon No. 17, 
and though Samaritan Lodge marched ahead 
with rapid strides, Spokane Lodge always 
maintained a ^afe lead in membership. Both 
Icidges were constantly doing degree work 
and the interest in Odd Fellowship had a 
steady growth. In 1890 came the institution 
of the third lodge in Spokane. Mt. Carleton, 
No. 103. The city was then growing rapidly 
and the new lodge was gladly welcnnied by 
the two older ones, and a spirit nf harmony 
prevailed among them all. Spokane Lodge 
throughout this period held tenaciously to its 

position of leadership in influence and member- 

In the early part of 1893 nearly twenty 
members of Spokane Lodge withdrew from its 
ranks to organize Imperial Lodge, No. 134, 
which was instituted, a giant at its birth, with 
nearly two hundred members. This dropped 
the membership of Spokane Lodge behind that 
of both Samaritan and Mt. Carleton. and 
seemed to rolj the lodge of much of its ag- 
gressive spirit. Through the next five years 
they had no incidents to distinguish them from 
the ordinary lodge. In 1898 they had a mem- 
bership of ninety. At that time a condition 
arose in the lodge, a solution of which has at- 
tracted attention among Odd Fellows through- 
out this entire country. Three members of 
the lodge engaged in saloon business in vio- 
lation of section 5. of article XVI. of the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge constitution. Charges 
were preferred against them and attempts 
made to firing them to trial. The accused 
rallied a number of their friends and sympa- 
thizers and prevented the case from coming 
to trial. The grand master then expelled the 
lodge for not enforcing the law and took up 
the charter October 5, 1898. Unwilling to 
see the entire lodge thus blotted out of exist- 
ence, the loyal members petitioned the grand 
n;aster to restore to them the charter. The 
grand master barkened to their appeal and on 
C'Ctober 26, 1898, the charter was restored 
to the loyal members and the lodge resumed 
work. The disloyal element was left out. the 
grand master announcing to the lodges in 
the jurisdiction that they stood expelled from 
the order subject to the approval of the Grand 
Lodge. The Clrand Lodge of \\'ashington 
in its session in June, 1 899, approved the action 
of the grand master. 

An appeal from the action of the Grand 
Lodge was taken to the Sovereign (Irand 
Lodge and came up for a hearing before that 
august tribunal at its recent se.ssion in De 
troit, Michigan. After a complete hearing of 



the case before the committee on appeals, the 
committee unanimously affirmed the decision 
of the Grand Lodge of Washington, and the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge adopted the report of 
the committee without a dissenting voice. Thus 
the great senate of Odd Fellowship, in pass- 
ing upon a case which originated in Spokane 
Lodge, No. 17, have enacted into law the 
principle that our grand officers and grand 
lodges are vested with authority to enforce the 
laws against all offenders. The brothers of 
the lodge that pressed this matter to a final 
conclusion deserve the thanks of the entire 
brotherhood. In thus expelling the disloyal 
element, the lodge lost twenty-one members. 

About this time a proposition came from 
the members of No. 17 to consolidate with 
Samaritan, No. 52. Permission to consoli- 
date was granted by the Grand Lodge of 
Washington at its 1899 session, and the con- 
solidation was effected on the evening of July 
3. 1899, by Hon. Wallace Mount, past grand 
master, acting as special deputy grand master. 
Thus, after an existence of nearly twenty 
years, Spokane Lodge lost its identity in 
Samaritan Lodge, No. 52. .As the pioneer 
lodge. No. 17 made a splendid history and 
those instituted later owe it a debt of gratitude 
for keeping alive the principles of the order 
in this community during the trying experi- 
ences through which it passed. 

Saiiiaritan Lodge, Xo. 52. — The fourth 
lodge instituteil in Spokane county, and the 
second in the city of Spokane, was Samaritan 
Lodge, No. 52. This lodge was instituted on 
the evening of January 9, 1888, in what was 
known as the Keats hall, in a building then 
standing on the southwest corner of River- 
side a\-enue and Howard street, and owned by 
Albert F. Keats. That corner is now occupied 
by the Traders' National Bank building. 
Samaritan Lodge began its life with twenty 
charter members, all of the Odd Fellows hold- 
ing either live or expired cards. Their names 
were H. C. Long, W. C. Gray, A. C. Edwards, 

F. ]\I. Spain, E. M. Shaner, William Cook, E. 
J. Brickell, J. C. Jannot, Alex MacFee, W. F. 
McKay, B. D. Brockman, W, J. Shaner, F. 
M. Dallam, P. Ouinn, A. Gibson, A. G. An- 
sell, J. C. Bennett. H. 13. James, J. Cameron, 
J Douglas. 

The lodge was instituted by Hon. J. W. 
Binkley, acting as special deputy grand master, 
assisted by a number of the brothers of Spo- 
kane Lodge, No. 17. No initiates were re- 
ceived or degree work done on the night of 
institution. It was intended by the Samari- 
tans that the evening should be one of enjoy- 
ment and pleasure, and not of work, and that 
program they very successfully carried out. 

The first officers of the new lodge were, 
A. C. Edwards, noble grand ; F. M. Spain, 
vice grand ; H. C. Long, recording secretary ; 
J. C. Bennett, financial secretary; and W. J. 
Shaner, treasurer. When the services of in- 
stituting the lodge and installing the officers 
was over and the lodge declared to be in per- 
fect working order, an adjournment was taken 
to the Grand Hotel, the leading hostlery of 
Spokane, where a very large assemblage of 
Odd Fellows enjoyed a banquet. The banquet 
was followed by a very profitable and enoy- 
able season of toasts and responses over which 
the newly installed noble grand presided with 
the ease and grace of a veteran. 

Samaritan Lodge had its good time on the 
night of its institution. That evening it dedi- 
cated to unalloyed enjoyments. On its first 
regular meeting thereafter it began to preach 
and to practice the gospel work. Candidates 
for admission knocked at its doors from its 
birth, and thereafter, for very many months, 
the lodge never held a meeting without having 
degree work on its program. On the 21st 
of December. 1889. the lodge reported a mem- 
bership of fifty-eight. 

On the .4th of August, 1889, came the ter- 
rible conflagration which destroyed the busi- 
ness portion of the city of Spokane. In this ca- 
lamitv Samaritan Lodge suffered the loss of its 



entire outfit of regalia aiul parapliernalia. which 
had heen selected with great care and in which 
had been invested alninst the entire receipts 
of the lodge up ti^ the time. Feeling secure 
against such a calamity in a building con- 
sidered almost fireproof antl situated in the 
business centre of the city, the trustees neg- 
lected to insure the property of the lodge and 
everything, including the l)ooks and records, 
was a total loss. With very little mmiey in the 
treasury, great losses to repair, many nf the 
members having suffered liea\'y personal losses, 
and an entire new outfit to purchase for the 
lodge, several members proposed that permis- 
sion be asked of the grand master to appeal 
to the other lodges in the jurisdiction for aid. 
This proposition was rejected by a large ma- 
jority of the lodge, they pFuckily deciding t() 
bear their own burdens, begin again at tlie 
bottom and build up through their own 

During this period the lodge held its meet- 
ings under difticulties. Its hall had been de- 
stroyed in the big fire and no suitable place 
could be found in the city to hold its session. 
A small room used for a reading room by the 
employees of the Spokane Mill Company was 
found in the triangular Imilding situated at 
the confluence of Mill and Post streets, near 
the Spokane river. Afterwards they met in 
the Ridpath building on Howard street, near 
First avenue. Soon after a more suitable 
hall was found in the Frankfurt block, on 
Howard street. Here the lodge remained 
until they removed into the building erected 
by Spokane Lodge, No. 17, on First a\-enue, 
where its meetings are still held. 

In membership Samaritan Lodge has had 
a steady and continuous growth. During the 
past few years its affairs have been directed 
almost entirely by others than those whose 
names api)ear on its charter roll, yet the same 
spirit of aggression seems to possess all who 
come within the fold and the work has never 
been permitted to lag. No period of depres- 

sion has o\-ertaken this lodge. It has a record 
of uninterrupted growth. 

While nearly all the lodges in this state 
were suffering heavy losses from the hard 
times, Samaritan has been constantly report- 
ing a steady increase. They could not ])re- 
vent heavy losses from non-payment of dues, 
and the lodge resolved early in its history not 
to pad its rolls by carrying from year to year 
those who could not or were not even likely to 
pay. but the brothers caught the spirit of bal- 
ancing and e\en overbalancing these losses by 
accessions from without. .-Vlmost constantly 
the doors of the lodge were being opened to 
admit new members. Thus did Samaritan 

steadilv maintain its record as a live 


lodge and its membership at the same time. 

A very prcmiinent feature in the history of 
tliis lodge is the pleasant spirit of unity which 
has ever been manifested among its members. 
The lodge has been a genuine brotherhood. 
The acrimony of anger and ill feeling has 
ne\'er found a place in its discussions. Dif- 
ferences of opinion have disappeared when the 
edict of the majority has pronounced a con- 
clusion. Not one of its trusted servants has 
betrayed its trust or robbed the lodge of its 
funds. Its members have without exception 
maintained upright character ; they are recog- 
nized as men of integrity in the community 
and many of them have been honored by being 
called upon by their fellow citizens to fill ])o- 
sitions of trust and responsibility. 

Early in 1 899 a proposition came to Samari- 
tan from Spokane Lodge. No. 17, to consoli- 
date the two lodges. This was desired for 
the i)urpose of securing and saving to the 
order the valuable real estate then held in the 
name of Spokane Lodge. This consisted 
chiefly of the Odd Fellows' Temple, on First 
avenue, near Post street. Si)okane Lodge 
had been reduced in membership to about 
sixty and they feared that the indebtedness 
on the building was too heavy for them to 
carry alone. A joint committee was ap- 



pointed by the two lodges and tlie terms of 
consolidation were agreed npon. These terms 
were afterwards ratified by the lodges. By 
tliis agreement Spokane Lodge was to sur- 
render its charter and be merged into Samari- 
tan Lodge. The terms of consolidation were 
ratified by the Grand Lodge of Washington, 
and by the authority of the grand master, the 
two lodges were consolidated by Brother Wal- 
lace Mount, past grand master; on the evening 
of July 3, 1899. The consolidation gave 
Samaritan a membership of one hundred and 
ninety-seven. An arrangement was then 
made with the holder of the mortgage on the 
Odd Fellows' Temple by which Samaritan 
Lodge paid all liens, interest and ta.xes against 
the building, except eleven thousand dollars, 
which Avas renewed on a five-A'ear loan at five 
per cent interest. This places the lodge as the 
owner of a fine building worth twenty-five 
tliousand dollars, the indebtedness on which 
iL^ in such shape that they can easily meet it 
when due. The lodge also owns cemetery 
property worth probably three thousand dol- 
lars and has several thousand dullars in cash 
and securities in its treasury. It is one of the 
largest and richest lodges in the state of Wash- 

Samaritan Lodge has among its members 
many prominent and influential Odd Fellows. 
It has received generous recognition in the 
grand councils of the tirder of the state. One 
of its members. Brother J. B. Krienbuhl, is 
grand treasurer of the Grand Lodge of Wash- 
ington, and is also grand treasurer of the 
Grand Encampment of Washington. Brother 
Krienbuhl is one of the oldest and most worthy 
Odd Fellows in this state. He has been a 
member continuously for forty years. Brother 
G. W. Stocker is now grand scribe of the 
Grand Encampment of Washington. Brother 
A. J. Ansell, also a Samaritan, has passed the 
chairs in the Grand Lodge of \\'ashington, 
and has now entered on his fourth year as 
grand representative from that body to the 

S(jvereign Grand Lodge. Brother A. C. Ed- 
wards, the first noble grand, was appointed 
by President Cle\eland as United States Com- 
missioner to Alaska, which position he abl)'- 
filled for nearly four years, when he resigned 
to engage in other Ijusiness. Brother E. L. 
Powell was the third grand master of this 
jurisdiction, and served in the Washington 
state Legislature and as mayor of the city of 
Spokane. I'.rcitlier Norman Buck was for a 
number of years United States district judge 
for the northern district of Idaho and served 
for four years as judge of the superior court 
of Spokane county. Brother J. J. ^\'hite. the 
present noble grand of this lodge, was for 
three years cit\' clerk of the city of Spokane. 
served four years as deputy city treasurer and 
in May, 1899, was elected city treasurer for a 
term of two years. 

The present officers of Samaritan Lodge 
are: J. J. White, noble grand; R. A. Chambers, 
vice grand; C. Burch. recording secretary; G. 
W. Stocker, financial secretary; Charles E. 
Matson, treasurer; and John May, G. W. 
Stocker and .\. G. .\nsel!, trustees. 

Mount Civlcton Lodge, No. 103. — The 
third lodge instituted in the city of Spokane 
was Mount Carleton Lodge, No. 103, whicii 
was instituted in the Odd Fellows' hall in the 
Frankfort building, on the west side of How- 
ard .street, between Riverside and Main ave- 
nues, on the evening of August 4, 1891. by J. 
B. Krienbuhl, acting as special deputy grand 
master by appointment of Charles A. Has- 
brouck, grand master. 

Moinit Carleton Lodge took its name from 
the mountain peak of that name which stands 
about thirty miles from Spokane, a little east 
or north and which is the highest mountain 
in this region. The institution of this lodge 
was a very important event in the history of 
Odd Fellowship in Spokane. The deputy 
grand master was assisted in the work of or- 
ganizing the lodge by several of the members 
of Nos. 17 and 52 and the occasion was one 





which called together a large number of the 
members of the fraternity in this section, both 
residents and visitors. 

The charter members of the new lodge 
were James P. Boyd. W. P. Harris. J. W. 
Wilson. M. E. ciibbs, H. A. Traughler, C. 
F. Leeson. J. Stinsman. J. M. Ellis, P. G.. J. 
E. Hughes. A. Anderson. W. Cook, P. G., 
A. J. Bertrand. Robert Muhs, R. L. Sewell. 
L. C. Bailey, E. Sturgeon and H. F. Jones. 
There were se\'enteen ajjplications ior mem- 
bership in the new lodge balloted on and elected 
that evening Tliese were all given the ini- 
tiatory and three degrees that night, the tle- 
gree work being done b}' the degree staff of 
Stanley Lodge. No. 70. of Medical Lake, who 
were present fur that purpose b)' special invita- 
tion. Tliis was the beginning of degree staff 
work in Spokane. The projectors of this lodge 
early recognized the \alue of degree team 
work, anfl as this had not at that time been 
taken u\) by either of the lodges in Spokane, 
they called to their assistance the well drilled 
team of Stanley Lodge, their exemplification 
of the degrees lieing very complete and inter- 
esting. From the beginning ]\b)unt Carleton 
Lodge has magnified the importance of the 
degree staff work and its members have always 
bent their energies toward perfection in that 
line. No lodge in the state of Washington 
has given more assiduous attention to this fea- 
ture of work and it is perfectly safe to say that 
no l(jdge in this state has ever been, or is now, 
the ecjual of Mount Carleton in the beauty, 
thoroughness and adaptability of its floor 

During the evening on which the lodge 
was instituted, a very elab(.irate banquet was 
spread for the members and guests in the 
Cceur d'Alene restaurant. All did justice to 
this feast and many were the expressions of 
go'od will made by those who enjf)yed the hos- 
pitality'of this newcomer into the lodge family. 
The officers elected and installed for the first 
term were: J. E. Hughes, noble graml : L. C. 

Bailey, vice grand: J M. Ellis, recording sec- 
retary; A. J. Bertrand. treasurer. 

Mount Carleton Lodge was organized 
with a membership conip<jsed almost entirely 
of young men. Their accessions have been 
from the ranks of young men of the com- 
munity. This safe conservative policy has been 
of \-ast lienefit to the lodge treasury. The 
lodge has not been called upon to pay heavily 
for sick benefits and in not a single instance 
during nearly nine years of its history has the 
lodge been called upon to hold its service 
o\-er the grave of one of its members, or to 
pay funeral benefits. This very striking ex- 
perience in the history of this lodge has fully 
demonstrated the wisdom of its founders' de- 
termination to look carefully after the quali- 
fications of those who sought membership. 

The lodge has had a \'ery prosperous 
growth from the time of its institution. It 
numbers among its members some of the most 
faithful and zealous Odd Fellows in the state. 
On December 31. 1899. it reported a con- 
tributing membership of one hundred and 
seventeen, and its finances are in splendid con- 
dition, the lodge having a handsome balance 
to its credit. 

The officers for the term beginning Jan- 
uary I. 1900. are as follows: Robert G. Fra- 
zier. noble grand: Rufus G. Horr. vice grand; 
C. T. Bogart, recording secretary ; Ewing Mc- 
Closkey, financial secretary; John Hearn, 

Imperial Lodge. No. 134. — The most im- 
portant single event that has ever occurred in 
Odd Fellow circles in Spokane county was the 
organization of Imperial Lodge. No. 134, on 
the 9th of March, 1893. For several years 
IM'ior to the institution of Imperial Lodge the 
population of Spokane had been very rapidly 
increasing. Many who were already members 
of the order in this city believed that the real 
interests of Odd Fellowship would best be pro- 
moted by the organization of a new lodge which 
would be composed largely of the business and 



professional men of the community. On the 
evening of January 23, 1893. a meeting of those 
who favored the idea of starting the new 
lodge was held in the office of Charles L. Knox. 
The idea was thoroughly considered in all its 
bearings : the influence of such a movement on 
tlie work of the order in the community as well 
as on individuals. The character of this meet- 
ing mav be judged from its personnel. Those 
in attendance were: Samuel Glasgow, past 
grand, E. N. Cory, past grand, J. C. Davis, 
past grand. Nelson Martin, past grand. Frank 
P Robinson, past grand, C.L. Knox, past grand, 
P. D.Tull, past grand, E. P. Gillette, past grand. 
E. C. Covey, past grand, A. W. Strong, G. 
Rushing. W. deLaguna, G. H. HoUoway, past 
grand, and E. D. Omans. J. G. Davis was 
chosen chairman of that meeting and Nelson 
Martin, secretary. The jiroposition to organize 
a new lodge met with unanimous ajjproval 
from all present. It was decided at that meet- 
ing that true character ami moral worth should 
be the supreme test of membership in the new 
lodge. Having decided to organize and out- 
lined the plan on wliich the new lodge would 
be founded, the necessary committees were ap- 
pointed and an active canvass for members was 
at once entered upon in which each one who 
participated in the ineliminary meeting con- 
sidered himself a special committee of one for 
active and aggressive work. The consent of 
each of the other three loilges for the establish- 
ment of a new lodge was obtained without ol)- 
jection, and a dispensation was then obtainetl 
from the grand master. 

The intention of the brothers from the out- 
set was to start with a lodge of about fifty 
members. The \igorous work inaugurated by 
those interested soon swelled the lists of ap- 
plicants far abo\e that number and the limit 
was pushed ahead to one hundred. This sup- 
posed impossible mark was soon reached and 
passed, the timid became courageous and the 
stakes were pushed ahead to one hundred and 
fiftv and later to two hundred. When it be- 

came known among the brethren in the com- 
munity that the new lodge was such a Co- 
lossus at its l)irth an unusual interest was 
aroused. \'ery little else was thought of or 
talked about by the brethren at the lodge 
meetings. The coming event was awaited 
with glad enthusiasm by other lodges. All 
welcomed the newcomer as an important era 
in lodge history, and as marking the begin- 
ning of a new era in the establishment and 
progressive up-building of Odd Fellowship in 

Finally the date for the institution was 
fixed. At that time Dr. W. G. Alban, of 
Walla Walla, was grand master, and Le F. 
A. Shaw, of the same city, grand secretary of 
the Grand Lodge of \\'ashington. These gen- 
tlemen were invited to be present and insti- 
tute the new lodge. The invitation was ac- 
ce])ted. Grand Master Alban and Brother 
Shaw, assisted liy local brethren, instituted 
Imperial Lodge, No. 134. in the hall in the 
Symons block, on the afternoon of March 
9, 1893. with the following charter members: 
P. D. Tull. past grand. E. J. Dyer, C. A. 
Squibb, F. M. Marmaduke. A. W. Strong, 
E. N. Corey, past grand, G. Rushing, J. W. 
Hiatt. S. Glasgow, past grand, W. DeLaguna, 
J. W. Binkley, past grand, G. K. Reed, past 
grand, G. H, Holloway, past grand, J. E. 
Whitfield, C. L. Knox, past grand. J. G. Davis, 
past grand, E. C. Covey, E. D. Omans, J. N. 
Boyd, past grand. U. B. Hough, J. J. L. Peel, 
A. J. Smth. past grand, G. Trapsehuh. P. 
Mertz, G. W. Belt, past grand, W. W. Elmer, 
August Shultz. past grand, N. 11. Ives, E. 
P. Gillette, past grand, J. E. Brickell, F. B. 
Grinnell, J. E. Foster, W. H. Maloney, Gavin 
Johnston, E. T. Graves, C. E. Reeves, J. F. 
McGw. N. Martin, M. E. Davis. H. M. Her- 
rin. W. Zollars. T. W. Pynn, S. N. Teftt, A. 
G. Lowe, W. B. Richardson and E. J. Bower. 
After the institution of the lodge the follow- 
ing officers were duly elected and installed by 
the lodge ; E. C. Covey, noble grand : A. W. 



Strong, vice-grand : \V. deLaguna, recording 
secretary ; E. N. Corey, treasurer, with J. G. 
Davis, sitting past grand. Tliese exercises 
being over, the lodge was adjourned till even- 
ing, when it recon\"ene(l at ]Music hall in the 
Tull block, now tlie Marion block, on the 
southeast corner of Riverside avenue and 
Stevens street. This was done in order to 
secure a hall large enough to accommodate 
the large crowd and to properly perform the 
degree work. At this meeting one hundred 
and three ajjplicants presented themselves for 
initiation and the three degrees. The degree 
work was done by the degree staff of Samari- 
tan Lodge, No. ~,2. and of Mount Carleton 
Lodge, No. 103. there being a very large con- 
course of brothers, members of the city lodges, 
visitors from surrounding lodges and si:>- 
journers from different parts of the country. 
The conferring of these degrees occupied the 
entire night. At midnight an elegant ban- 
quet was served at the Hotel Gillette, now 
the Hotel Pedicord, on East Riverside avenue. 
In addition to the forty-seven charter mem- 
bers and the one hundred and eleven initiates, 
there were sixteen members admitted Ijy card 
the first evening, making a total of one hun- 
dred and seventy-four at the night of institu- 
tion. On the night of the first regular meet- 
ing after the institution of the lodge, there 
were ten new applicants for admission, and in 
a few weeks the rolls carried over two hun- 
dred members and Imperial took rank as the 
largest lodge in the state of W'ashington. 

The first session of the Grand Lodge of 
Washington, after the institution of Imperial 
Lodge, convened in the city of Olympia, May 
9, 1893. .\t that session Imperial Lodge was 
represented by Hon. G. W. Belt, J. (]. Davis, 
N. Martin and G. H. Holloway, a delegation 
which immediately took rank with the leading 
representati\-es in that body. 

Soon after the institution of Imperial 
Lodge came the terrible depression and hard 
times which made such inroads into the mem- 

bership of the order all over the country. 
This lodge suffered with others in that respect. 
Though a very liberal policy was adopted to- 
ward delinquents, the continuation of that 
period of depression drove many from the city 
to seek employment elsewhere, prevented many 
others from keeping in standing, and a large 
number of members were subsecjuently dropped 
for non-payment of dues. On December 31, 
1893, the lodge reported a membership of two 
lumdred and ele\en ; three years later, Decem- 
ber 31-, 1896, a membership of but one hun- 
dred and seventy-si.x was reported. 

The removal of the machine shops and di- 
vision headquarters of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad from Sprague tij Spokane brought 
to this city nearly the entire membership of 
Sprague Lodge. No. 24. Not enough of the 
members were left behind to retain the charter. 
After due c<jnsideration it was decidetl to con- 
solidate No. 24 with Imperial Lodge. Terms 
of consolidation were readily agreed upon and 
the consolidation of the two lodges occurred 
on the evening of January 21. 1897. Sprague 
Lodge surrendered its charter to the Grand 
Lodge and became a part of Imperial. In its 
interesting and pleasing feature this event was 
scarcely less in its importance than the insti- 
tution of Imperial Lodge. The ceremonies of 
consolidation were performed by Hon. C. F. 
Williams, grand master, in the lodge hall in 
the Symons block. December 31, 1897. the 
lodge reported a membership of two hundred 
and eleven. The last report sent to the grand 
secretary showed the membership December 
31, 1899, to be one hundred and eighty-six. 

The officers of the lodge elected and in- 
stalled for the first half of the year 1900 are: 
C. W. Hunt, noble grand; Ben F. Davis, vice- 
grand ; T. F. Young, recording secretary : A. 
G. Kamm, financial secretary; Alex Green, 

Cheney Lodge, N'o. 21. — The second lodge 
of Odd Fellows established in Spokane county 
was in the town of Cheney, and was designated 



as Cheney Lodge, No. 21. This lodge was in- 
stituted October 11. 1881. The fourth an- 
nual session of tlie Grand Lodge of Washing- 
ton was held in the city of Walla Walla, com- 
mencing on Tuesday, May 9, 1882, Hon. E. 
L. Powell, now a resident of Spokane, then 
living at Waitsburg, was grand master. In 
his annual report for the previous year. Grand 
Master Powell said : "On September 26, 
1881, I issued a warrant to Brother H. C. 
Long and others, of Cheney, to institute a 
lodge in that city, to be known as Cheney 
Lodge. No. 21, and commissioned Dr. J. J. 
Piper to institute the same, which commission 
he performed on October 11, 1881. and the 
lodge bids fair to be one of our best lodges. 
I attached this lodge to District No. 13." Dis- 
trict No. 13 was then cniuposcd of Spokane 
Lodge, No. 17. of which Dr. Piper was the dis- 
trict deputy grand master. 

The charter members of Cheney Lodge, 
No. 21, were Henry C. Long, Paul Bocion, 
Jacob Bettinger, W. W. (Iriswold and L. M. 
Kellogg. Brother Henry C. Long was the 
first noble grand. Cheney was prosperous in 
those days and for several )-ears thereafter 
and Cheney Lodge at once entered upon a pros- 
perous career. This prosperity has been 
much impeded during later years, yet the lodge 
has constantly held true to its mission, pre- 
served its organization and held regular meet- 
ings. It has done a vast amount of benevo- 
lent work in that ci immunity. It has always 
extended a hearty welcome to visiting breth- 
ren, and the hand of relief is always gener- 
ously extended to the unfortunate. At the 
close of the year 1899 Cheney lodge had a 
membership of thirty-one. 

Brother Piper, who instituted Cheney 
Lodge, is now living on his farm on Peone 
prairie, and though advanced in years, is still 
an ardent Odd Fellow, He is a member of 
Samaritan Lodge, No, 52. Brother Henry 
C, Long, the first noble grand of Cheney 
Lodge, is now a resident of Spokane. 

Fairviczi' Lodge, Xo. 40. — The town of 
Rockford claimed the honor of giving to Spo- 
kane county its third lodge of Odd Fellows. 
Inspired by the landscape beauty of the val- 
ley in which Rockford is situated, the breth- 
ren selected the name Fairview for their 
lodge. Fairview Lodge, No. 40, was insti- 
tuted on the evening of the 20th of February. 
1886. The petition for this lodge \\a~- 
granted by Grand Master George D. Hill, of 
Seattle. J. 11. Krienbuhl was appointed as 
special deputy by the grand master to institute 
the lodge. Several of the brethren from Spo- 
kane accompanied him and assisted in t'.^e 
ceremonies. A few other visitors were pres- 

Fairview Lodge was instituted with nine- 
teen charter members, nine card members and 
ten initiates. The lodge has grown steadily 
and its members have always taken a li\e interT 
est in its welfare At the close of the last 
term, December 31, 1899, Fairview Lodge re- 
ported a membership of thirty-seven. The 
year 1900 promises to witness greater growth 
for this lodge than it has ever before en- 

Spangle Lodge, Xo. 50. — Spangle Lodge, 
No. 50, was instituted in the town of Span- 
gle on December 6, 1887. Hon. J. V. 
Meeker, of Puyallup, was grand master. He 
appointed Brother J. \V. Binkley, of Six^kane, 
as his special deputy to institute the lodge. 
Brother Binkley secured the assistance of sev- 
eral brothers from Spokane and Cheney and 
the lodge was instituted under very favorable 
conditions. There were thirteen charter 
meml)ers. Spangle Lodge has had a constant 
and encouraging growth, and at the close of 
the year 1899 reported forty-two members. 
The lodge owns its own hall, which is fully 
paid for. and has a handsome cash balance in 
its treasury. 

Stanley Lodge, Xo. ~o. — This was the 
si.xth lodge instituted in Spokane county. 
Petition for a lodge in the town of Medical 



Lake was presented to Grand blaster Thomas 
J. Thompson, of Tacoma. He granted the 
petition and commissioned Hon. J. W. Bink- 
ley, of Spokane, to institute the new lodge. 
Brother Binkley secured a large number of 
brothers in Spokane to accompan_\- him, and 
the lodge was instituted on the evening of the 
20th day of July, 1889. The first officers 
were : J. A. Stewart, noble grand ; C. F. 
Westfall, vice-grand; Frank C. Payne, record- 
ing secretary ; Fred W. Rowley, financial sec- 
retary; Thomas Hulton, treasurer. In addi- 
tion to the six charter members there were 
twenty-seven initiates who were elected and 
upon whom the four degrees of the subordi- 
nate lodge were conferred that evening by 
the brethren who went out from Spokane. 
Grand Master Thompson, in his report to the 
Grand Lodge in Ellensburg, in May, 1890, 
alluded to the encouraging manner in which 
this lodge began its career and said : "So 
may they keep prospering, and peace, happi- 
ness and joy ever be within then- walls." 

Stanley Lodge soon became known as one 
of the most active organizations of its char- 
acter in this part of the state. The mem- 
bers organized a degree staff, tiie first in the 
county, and a spirit of entiiusiasm was soon 
aroused which added much to the interest and 
profit of the lodge sessions. Brother Stew- 
art, the first noble grand, represented this 
lodge in the Grand Lodge at Ellensburg in 
1890, and at once took rank among the lead- 
ing members of that body. At this time the 
town of Medical Lake was in a \ery prosper- 
ous condition. The financial depression and 
consequent dullness of 1893-6 had a very tie- 
pressing influence on this community and a 
majority of the lodge members removed else- 
where to better their condition. The lodge 
was very severely crippled, but nut destroyed. 
The remaining members have held on loyally 
and the prospects now are that the lodge will 
again approach its former size, spirit and 
influence. The lodge reported a member- 

ship of fourteen on the 31st of Deceml)er, 

Altruist Lodge, No. J^. — One of the very 
best and most productive agricultural sections 
of Spokane county is found surrounding the 
town of Waverly, in the Latah valley, about 
thirty miles south of the city of Spokane. This 
section has always been famous for its grains, 
its grasses, its fruits, its fine stock and fine 
farms; and later for its beet sugar industry. 
Naturally such a region is populated with a 
thrifty, intelligent people, and though having 
no towns of considerable size to draw upon, 
they concluded to establish a fraternal order 
in the village and depend principally upon the 
farmers for its support and membership. 
After careful consideration it was decided that 
the pioneer fraternal organization should be a 
lodge of Odd Fellows. Grand Master Thomp- 
son barkened to the petition of these lirothers 
and designated Brother W. H. Reetor, of 
Fairview Lodge, No. 40, of Rockford, to in- 
stitute the lodge. A number of brothers 
from Rockford, Spangle and Spokane were 
present, and the occasion was a joyous one for 
all. Altruism seemed to animate the brothers 
who moved for the establishment of this lodge, 
and the name Altruist was selected to designate 
it. The first officers were U. E. Lemon, noble 
grand; R. W. Black, vice-grand; Dr. G. W. 
Ensley, secretary; H. Juniper, treasurer. Six 
members were elected and received all the de- 
grees that evening, making the number of 
charter members fourteen. 

The extension of the O. R. & N. Railrcjad 
from Colfa.x to Spokane passed througli this 
section about four miles east of Waverly and 
resulted in establishing the town of Fairfield, 
which soon became the business center of that 
country. This called for the moving of the 
lodge. A petition to tliat effect was presented 
to Grand Master Alban, and on July 6, 1892, 
he granted a dispensation for the removal of 
the lodge to Fairfield, where it was established 
in a new hall which was appropriately dedi- 



cated July 15, 1892. On August 22. 1893. 
the lodge suffered the loss of their hall, char- 
ter and effects by fire. This calamity was 
hard to bear, but the members promptly ral- 
lied. Graud Master Mitchell granted them 
a dispensation to continue working witlu)ut a 
charter and the business of the lodge went for- 
ward. At the session of the Grand Lodge, 
held in Spokane in 1894, a duplicate charter 
was granted to Altruist Lodge without cost. 
This lodge reported thirty-nine members at the 
close of the year, December 31, 1899. 

Latah Lodge, No. 76. — The town of Latah 
is one of the oldest in Spokane county, and the 
wonder is that Odd Fellowship was not es- 
tablished there much earlier than it was. La- 
tah Lodge was the seventy-sixth for which a 
dispensation was granted in this state, and 
the seventh lodge to be established in Spokane 
county. The date of the institution of this 
lodge was only two days later than that of 
Altruist, No. J^, being brought into existence 
on the 22d day of February, 1890. George 

B. Young, of Colfax, at that time deputy 
grand master of the Grand Lodge of Wash- 
ington, was the instituting officer. The cliar- 
ter members of Latah Lodge were: W. J. 
Thompson, L. H. Thayer, B. S. Thompson, 

C. W. Haynes anil John Melvin. The offi- 
cers elected and installed at the institution of 
the lodge were: W. J. Thompson, noble 
grand ; L. H. Thayer, vice-grand ; Charles 
James, recording secretary; C. W . Haynes, 
financial secretary; John Melvin, treasurer. 
W. H. Roberts was admitted and received the 
degrees on the night of institution; and 
Charles James, W. S. Walker, R. Simpson, 
M. Piemen and E. L. Spencer were atlmitted 
on cards or dismissal certificates. This gave 
the lodge eleven members at the date of its 
birth. It reported a membership of thirty- 
three on the 31st of December, 1899, and was 
reported in good working condition. 

Morning Star Lodge, No. 142. — About 
eighteen miles north of Spokane, situated be- 

tween Crescent and Wild Rose prairies, is 
Wayside. At this point for several years 
there has been a small neighborhood store and 
about ten years ago the Methodist people 
erected a neat chapel on one of the four cor- 
ners. Otherwise the surroundings were thor- 
oughly rural. The entire surrounding coun- 
try for several miles was occupied by a pro- 
gressive, intelligent class of farmers, several 
of whom were Odd Fellows. The starting 
of a lodge in this farming community was 
spoken of and seemed to meet with universal 
fa\-or. .\ canvass was made and it was found 
that a large class of initiates could be ob- 
tained. Petition was made for a dispensa- 
tion to organize a lodge. Grand Master J. 

C. Mitchell granted the petition and appointed 
J. M. ElJis, of Spokane, who instituted the 
lodge with six charter members and twenty- 
seven initiates. In the performance of this 
duty Brother Ellis was accompanied and as- 
sisted by a large number of brothers from the 
Spokane lodges. The occasion was a most 
memorable one. The ceremonies of institu- 
ting the new lodge, electing and installing the 
officers and electing and conferring the four 
degrees on the large of candidates occu- 
pied the entire night. The wives of the mem- 
bers came from their farms with large quanti- 
ties of provisions, three separate meals being 
served during the ceremonies, and everyone 
agreed that the occasion was one of the most 
pleasant they ever attended. The lodge was 
instituted in the Methodist Chapel, which was 
afterward used for the regular meetings until 
the lodge building was erected. 

The charter members of Morning Star 
Lodge were : D. J. Burk, Allison Allen, J. 
W. Price, A. B. Owens, E. C. McLeod, G. J. 
Jones and J. T. Grove. The first officers were : 

D. J. Burk, noble grand ; A. B. Owens, vice- 
grand; E. C. McLeod, recording secretary; 
J. T. Grove, financial secretary ; Allison Al- 
len, treasurer. This lodge has enjoyed a very 
prosperous growth from the date of its insti- 



tution, which was January 11, 1894. It be- 
gan hfe witli a good membership, and at the 
close of the year 1894 had thirty-nine mem- 
bers in good standing. Soon after tlie institu- 
tion of the lodge a movement was started for 
the erection of a suitable building for the uses 
of the order. The lodge had a healthy treas- 
ury, building materials and labor were easily 
obtained at reasonable cost and the funds lack- 
ing were subscribed by the members. A large 
and handsome two-story frame building was 
erected during the year. This building was 
planned and constructed with special reference 
to the needs of the lodge, the hall being on 
the second floor and the first floor being ar- 
ranged for banqtiet and social purposes. This 
building was fully completed and furnished, 
and on the first anniversary of the lodge, Janu- 
ary II, 1895. it was appropriately dedicated 
to the principles and purposes of Odd Fellow- 
ship by Grand Master A. G. Ansell, of Spo- 
kane, in the presence of an audience which 
taxed the capacity of of the building to the 
utmost. The lodge has repaid to the mem- 
bers nearly all the mcjney advanced for the 
erection of the building, and has a handsome 
property which will fully meet its requirements 
for many years. On the 31st of December, 
1899, the lodge reported a membership of 

Mead Lodge, No. 146. — The establish- 
ment of Morning Star Lodge at \\'ayside 
aroused quite an interest in Odd Fellowship 
in the northern part of Spokane county. In 
a short time a proposition came for a lodge 
at Chattaroy, a few miles east of Wayside. A 
petition with the requisite names was sent to 
Grand Master Mitchell and he appointed J. 
M. Ellis, of Spokane, to institute the lodge. 
Brother Ellis secured the assistance of a num- 
ber of brothers in Spokane and several from 
Morning Star Lodge and instituted Chattaroy 
Lodge, No. 146, on the evening of April 21, 
1894. The lodge had twenty-one charter mem- 
bers and began life with flattering prospects. 

In a few months the members of Chattaroy 
L(jdge realized that the location of the lodge 
might be improved by its removal to the town 
of Mead, a few miles south of Chattaroy. A 
neat two-story frame building was erected at 
Mead by George Bryan and William Gushing 
and placed at the disposal of the lodge. Per- 
mission to move the lodge from Chattaroy to 
Mead was gi\en by A. G. Ansell, grand mas- 
ter, and their new hall at Mead was dedicated 
by him on the evening of September 15, 1894, 
in the presence of a large number of the mem- 
bers of the order and friends. 

At the session of the Grand Lodge of 
Washington, held in the city of Seattle, Chat- 
taroy Lodge, through its representative, C. E. 
Peyton, presented a petition tcj ha\e its name 
changed to Mead Lodge, No. 146. This peti- 
tion was granted and a new charter was fur- 
nished bearing the new name. Mead Lodge 
has always enjoyed a \ery flattering growth 
and is known as one of the best country lodges 
in the state. Its records show a membership 
of forty-nine on the 31st day of December, 

Marshall Lodge, A^o. 163. — This lodge was 
instituted in the town of Marshall, eight miles 
southwest of Spokane, on July 20, 1899. J. 
M. Ellis, of Spokane, was special deputy 
grand master, and in the institution of the 
lodge he was assisted by F. P. Robinson, G. 
W. Stocker, F. W. Felch, J. J. White and sev- 
eral other brothers from Spokane. The dis- 
pensation authorizing the institution of this 
lodge was granted by Grand Master J. H. 
Davis, of Tacoma. 

The charter members of Marshall Lodge 
were : W. R. Parks, Hamilton Watkins, 
August Latzie, F. A. Brown, Albert Adding- 
ton, L. M. Peters, Alex. Simpson and Frank 
Stowell. As soon as the lodge was instituted 
the following officers were duly elected and in- 
stalled : Hamilton Watkins, noble grand; 
Frank Stowell, vice-grand : F. A. Brown, re- 
cording secretary; L. M. Peters, financial sec- 



retary; M. R. Parks, treasurer. These cere- 
monies being completed and the lodge ready 
for business, fourteen applicants for member- 
ship presented themselves. These were all 
elected and given the four degrees of Odd Fel- 
lowship during the night, and the lodge started 
off with a membership of twenty-two. The 
officers for the term ending June 30, 1900, 
are : ?*I. R. Parks, noble grand : F. M. Muzzy, 
vice-grand ; George Saunders, recording sec- 
retary; Alex. Simpson, financial secretary; 
John Hall treasurer. On March 30, 1900, the 
lodge membership had increased to thirty-six. 
Marshall promises to become and remain one 
of the most active lodges in Spokane county. 

Pleasant Prairie Lodge, No. 166. — Theone 
hundred and sixty-sixth lodge of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows to be estab- 
lished in the state of Washington and the 
fourteenth in Spokane county was Pleasant 
Prairie Lodge. No. 166. This lodge is loca- 
ted on the prairie of that name, about ten miles 
northeast of the city of Spokane. This is an 
ideal fruit and farming region, thickly jnipu- 
lated, and the new lodge has a splendid con- 
stituency from which to draw members. 

Pleasant Prairie Lodge was instituted De- 
cember 15. 1899. by J. M. Ellis, of Spokane, 
acting as special deputy by appointment from 
Grand Master J. H. Davis, of Tacoma. 
Brother Ellis was accompanied from Spokane 
by twenty-une members of the order. They 
were niet at the end of the street-car line at 
Hillvard by several of the members from the 
prairie and taken the remainder of the distance 
in sleighs. Brothers R. M. Waters, W. T. 
Horr, R. G. Eraser, G. W. Stocker and J. B. 
Krienbuhl assisted Brother Ellis in the insti- 
tution of the lodge and installing the officers. 

The charter members of this lodge were : 
George H. Collin, Charles E. Peyton, J. H. 
Abbott, Lewis Mickelson, John Hudgins, H. 
B. Doak. A. J. Kronquist and H. H. Hogan- 
son. The officers were: George H. Collin, 
noble grand; H. B. Doak, vice-grand; G. O. 

Dart, secretary, and Charles E. Peyton, treas- 
urer. There were thirteen candidates for in- 
itiation the first evening, who were taken 
through all the degrees that evening. The 
lodge was instituted and all the degree work 
done in the school house, where meetings were 
held until a suitable hall could be erected. 
About midnight an adjournment was taken 
to the home of Brother Charles E. Peyton, 
where an elaborate banquet was served. After 
this the brothers again repaired to the school 
house, where the work of conferring the de- 
grees was fully completed. The lodge started 
with a membership of twenty-one. Col. L N. 
Peyton generously donated the new lodge an 
acre of land on the corner near the church 
and school house, and work was at once begun 
on a new hall, 28s.^2. and two stories high. 
This hall is owned among the members and is 
nearly paid for. Its cost was something over 
one thousand dollars. Pleasant Prairie Lodge 
is, at this writing, the youngest in the family 
of lodges in Spokane county. It was estab- 
lished under favorable auspices and promises 
to be one of the live, progressive lodges of the 

Morning Star Rebckah Lodge, \o. 24. — 
The Rebekah branch of Odd Fellowship was 
first established in Spokane county by the in- 
stitution of Morning Star Rebekah Lodge, 
No. 24. This lodge was instituted in the city 
of Cheney on February 15, 1890. Brother 
E. L. Hall acted as the special deputy for the 
grand master, and, under his direction, the 
ser\ices were made quite interesting. The 
charter members were: Brothers E. L. Hall, 
J. W. Edwards, O. S. Phillips, T. J. Beard, 
W. H. Rich and J. H. Wise, and Sisters Mary 
J. Edwards, Mrs. W. H. Rich. Mcjllie Mc- 
Neilly, Maggie Beard, Mary Beard and Flor- 
ence Beard. 

Being the pioneer in this part of the state, 
Morning Star Lodge had a very interesting 
experience during its early life and was fre- 
quently visited by members of this degree from 


22 C 

all over the country, all of whom were received 
with open-handed hospitality. The lodge has 
held regular meetings and, at this time, is in 
a prosperous condition. It has always exerted 
a good influence in the community. It has a 
membership of about forty. 

Hope Rcbckah Lodge, No. 38.— This lodge 
was organized in Spokane, February 18, 189.2. 
It was instituted by Zell M. Beebe, of Colfax, 
who had been commissioned as special deputy 
grand master for that purpose. The lodge 
was instituted in Odd Fellows Hall, in the Odd 
Fellows Temple on First avenue. This was 
an important occasion for Odd Fellowship in 
Spokane. Since that time the helpful influ- 
ence of woman has aided very materially in 
building up and extending the influence of the 
order in this city. The charter members of 
Hope Lodge were Brothers J. B. Krienbuhl, 
W. O. Fowler, E. L. Tubbs, G. W. Stocker 
and John M. Ellis, and Sisters Tillie C. Blakes- 
lee, Ida L. Downing, Jennie Shirley, Clara 
Ellis and Carrie L. Bringgold. Brother Ste- 
phen J. Adams, of Des Moines, Iowa, and Sis- 
ter Orpha E. Bowers, past noble grand, then 
a member of ]\Iorning Star Lodge, No. 24, of 
Cheney, were present as visitors and assisted 
in the services of instituting the lodge. Sis- 
ter Bowers soon after joined Hope Lodge and 
has ever since been one of its most active, 
faithful and efficient members. In 1894 she 
was elected secretary of the Rebekah Assem- 
bly of Washington, vice-president in 1895, 
and president in 1896. 

Besides the ten charter members, there 
were forty-five applications for membership 
received on the night the lodge was instituted, 
giving the lodge a membership of fifty-five at 
its birth. Its first officers were : J. B. Krien- 
buhl, noble grand ; Carrie L. Bringgold, vice- 
grand; Ida L. Downing, secretary; Jennie 
Shirley, treasurer. 

Hope Lodge grew with phenomenal rapid- 
ity. Its popularity increased at every meet- 
ing and candidates for membership constantly 

blocked its doors. This hive of ■ "associated 
industry" soon became so full that a swarming 
occurred and in less than a year and a half sev- 
eral withdrew to form Imperial Rebekah 
Lodge. Since its institution Hope Lodge has 
admitted uver two hundred to membership 
by initiation and twenty-five by cartl. It now 
has over one hundred and fifty memljers in 
good standing on its rolls. 

Imperial Rcbckah Lodge, No. 58. — Soon 
after the institution of Imperial Lodge, No. 
134, a number of its members urged the for- 
mation of a Rebekah Lodge of the same name. 
It was believed by many Odd Fellows that a 
second Rebekah lodge in the city would add 
interest to that branch of the order, and the 
proposition met with much favor. Imperial 
Rebekah Lodge, No. 58, was instituted by 
Sister Emma E. Shaw, past president of the 
Rebekah Assembly of Washington, assisted 
by LeF. A. Shaw, grand secretary of the 
Grand Lodge of Washington, on the afternoon 
and evening of June 2y, 1893. The meet- 
ings were held in the hall of Imperial Lodge in 
the Symons block. The charter members of 
Imperial Rebekah were : Brothers A. J. 
Smith, E. D. Sanders, F. P. Robinson, E. L. 
Powell and A. W. Strong, and Sisters Lizzie 
A. Gregory, Maggie E. Sanders, Dora E. 
Powell, Maggie I. Blair, Mary L. Strong and 
Mary E. Smith. 

On the night the lodge was instituted one 
hundred applications for membership were re- 
ceived, over fifty of whom were initiated that 
evening, the degree work being done by the 
degree staff of Hope Lodge, No. 38, who gen- 
erously tendered their services for this occa- 
sion. The exemplification of the work was 
very beautiful and a hearty vote of thanks was 
voted the members and degree staff of Hope 
Lodge for their kindness. The first officers 
of Imperial Lodge were: Lizzie A. Gregory, 
noble grand; Mary L. Strong, vice-grand; 
Maggie I. Blair, recording secretary; Dora E. 
Powell, financial secretary; Maggie E. San- 




ders, treasurer, and Mary E. Smith, sitting- 
past noble grand and captain of degree team. 
Imperial Lodge, from its first meeting, 
took an active interest in degree work. They 
procured an elaborate paraphernalia at a cost 
of nearly eight hundred dollars and \vere soon 
able to render the floor work and the ritual- 
istic work with systematic precision. At the 
session of the Grand Lodge of Washington, 
held in Spokane not cpiite a year after this 
lodge was instituted, the degree team of Im- 
perial put on the work before that grand Ixxly, 
in competition with the well-drilled .stafif of 
Hope Lodge, and divided the honors with 

Imperial Rebekah Lodge liegan the year 
1900 with one hundred and twenty-eight 
members in good standing, and with the fol- 
lowing officers : Phoebe A. Burchett, noble 
grand : Emma Reinhart, vice-grand ; ^Lary 
Lund, recording secretary; Mary E. Smith, 
financial secretary ; Xora Seehorn, treasurer. 

IVaysidc Rcbckah Lodge, No. 86. — .V dis- 
pensation for the institution of a Rebekah 
Lodge at Wayside was granted by (irand Mas- 
ter Jerry Fortain in January, 1896, but vari- 
ous matters delayed the organization of the 
lodge for about three montiis. and. in the 
meantime, several other Rebekah lodges liad 
been established in the county. Sister Orplia 
E. Bowers, at that time vice-president of tiie 
Rebekah Assembly of Washington, was ci»m- 
missioned to institute this lodge. She was 
accompanied by the tlegree stafif of Hope 
Lodge, and a number of other sisters and 
brothers from Spokane. 

The charter members of Wayside Lodge 
were : Jessie Chaney, L. K. Monfort, A. W. 
Vroman, Charles Long. R. F. Knight, Mollie 
Mayer. M. Wilson, Belle Huston, John Jones 
and Z. Lane. Twenty-five candidates were 
instructed in the mysteries of the Rebekah de- 
gree and admitted to membership in the lodge. 
The degree was conferred by the degree staff 
of Hope Lodge, in full paraphernalia. The 

lodge was instituted in the splendid new hall of 
Morning Star Lodge and an elaborate lunch- 
eon was served in the lower room by the ladies 
of the new lodge. 

Wayside Lodge was organized with the 
following officers: Mrs. M. Wilson, noble 
grand; Mollie Mayer, vice-grand; Lillian Gill, 
recording secretary : Libbie Eichmeyer, finan- 
cial secretary; Tillie Jones, treasurer. The 
lodge now has a membership of nearly fifty 
and its affairs are in a prosperous condition. 

Beacon Rcbckah Lodge, No. 91. — During 
the montii of March, 1896, Grand Master For- 
tain visited the subordinate lodges in this part 
of the state and instituted Rebekah Lodges in 
many localities where none had before e.xisted. 
Brother Fortain was an enthusiastic believer 
in the helpfulness of the influence of the Re- 
bekah lodge in the beneficent work of Odd 
Fellowship, and urged the organization of Re- 
bekah lodges where\er the subordinate lodge 
had been established. 

On the occasion of the visit of Brother 
Fortain to Mead Lodge, No. 146, on the even- 
ing of March 17, 1896, a number of ladieswere 
present to serve a lunch to the grand master 
and the large number of visiting brothers who 
were present from Sixi/kane and elsewhere. 
The proix)sition of organizing a Rebekah 
lodge was advocated, and before morning 
dawned Beacon Rebekah Lodge, No. 91, was 
fully instituted antl in working order. The 
charter members were : William G. Gushing, 
Ollie Gushing, George Brv'an, Alice A. De- 
weese, M. Austin. Blanche Klingersmith, 
William Deweese, Cora Lloyd. H. C. Clark, 
Mary E. Klingersmith, J. J. Piper, Eliza A. 
Bessey, F. E. Lloyd, Mrs. A. A. Kingston, 
J. W. Bessey, Anita Piper, A. A. Kingston, 
Bertha Johnson, J. C. Cowgill, Ruth Wells, 
G. F. Johnson, Kittie Doust, A. O. Jomes- 
land, Blanche Purvis, William J. Doust. Mrs. 
W. J. Albright. C. W. Lewis. Susan Tay- 
lor, W. J. Albright, Ida Cofifman, William 
Seaton. William H. Coffman. R. \\'. Harding, 



George Taylor, D. B. Roby, Uriam Deweese. 
The first elective officers of the lodge were: 
Ollie Gushing, noble grand; Eliva A. Bessey, 
vice grand ; Blanche Klingersmith, secretary ; 
Gora Lloyd, treasurer. 

The success of this lodge has been remark- 
able. It started with a membership of thirty- 
six. Every member seemed specially inter- 
ested in its welfare and its growth has been 
steady and rapid. At the present writing the 
membership is above eighty. It is an example 
for all the other Rebekah lodges in the county. 

Siloam Rcbckah Lodge, No. 93. — This 
lodge was organized by Grand Master Fortain 
on the occasion of his visit to Medical Lake, 
March 21,1 896. The charter members were : 
Gharles Maxon, Mary J. Maxon, Mae Maxon, 
James Glasgow, Ada E. Glasgow, Nellie Gray, 
Charles E. Ford, Ernest Stockbridge, Emma 
Graham, Minnie Vaughn, Mrs. J. C. Vaughn, 
Mrs. C. B. Goldback, Peter Bickelhaupt, Otto 
Busch, Mrs. Otto Busch, G. W. Maurice, Mrs. 
G. W. Maurice, Mary Lund, Ed. H. Maxon. 
The first officers elected and installed were: 
Miss Mae Maxon, noble grand ; Mary Lund, 
vice-grand ; Emma Graham, secretary ; Min- 
nie Vaughn, treasurer. 

Siloam Lodge took its name from the lake 
on which the town is built, and whose waters 
possess such remarkable curative properties 
that it is known as "The Modern Pool of Si- 
loam." Soon after the institution of this lodge 
very many of the most active members moved 
away and the interest began to languish. This 
depressing state of affairs continued until 
finally a quorum could not be secured and for 
more than a year no meetings were held. De- 
spairing of reviving the lodge, the few remain- 
ing members packed the charter, rituals and 
effects of the lodge to be surrendered to the 
Grand Master. 

Such was the condition of affairs in March, 
1900, when Grand Master J. H. Davis visited 
Medical Lake. After considering the situa- 
tion he decided there was an opportunity here 

for a good Rebekah lodge. Assisted by some 
of the brothers, he began work, and soon had 
a number of applications for membership. He 
arranged with the degree staff of Hope Re- 
bekah Lodge of Spokane to confer the degree 
on those candidates and such others as migfht 
be secured. In accordance with this plan 
nearly thirty Odd Fellows and Rebekahs from 
Spokane, including the degree staff from Hope 
Lodge, drove out to Medical Lake on Satur- 
day evening April 14, 1900, to revive Siloam 
Lodge. Several brothers and sisters from 
Morning Star Lodge, at Cheney, were also in 
attendance. Two members of Siloam who 
had been dropped were reinstated and twelve 
applicants were initiated. This gives the lodge 
again a good working membership and 
puts it in a position to do good work. It gives 
splendid promise of a prosperous and useful 

Primrose Rebekah Lodge, No. 94.— This 
lodge was instituted in Spangle by Jerry For- 
tain, grand master, March 24, 1896, on the 
occasion of his visit to Spangle Lodge, No. 
50. The charter members of Primrose Lodge 
were : Dr. J. H. Hoxsey, William Heaton, 
Mary F. Heaton, D. A. Jones, D. A. Har- 
ness, R. W. Butler, Hattie Butler, R. C. Stan- 
field, Lessie Stanfield, W. Nelson, Georgia 
Parker, Eliza Harness, O. Gildea, J. H. 
Brooks, Mrs. J. H. Brooks, C. Hoffman, W. 
T. Milliken and D. U. Gildea. The follow- 
ing officers were elected and installed by the 
grand master that ex'ening: Hattie Butler, 
noble grand ; Mary Heaton, vice-grand ; Lessie 
Stanfield, secretary, and Georgia Parker, 

Primrose Lodge has had a very encoura- 
ging history. It has had the active support of 
the entire membership of the subordinate lodge 
and has enjoyed a steady and satisfactory 
growth. At its institution it had but eighteen 
members. It began the year 1900 with an en- 
rollment of fifty. 

Pansy Rebekah Lodge, No. 95. — Pansy 



Rebekah Lodge was instituted at Rockford, 
March 25, 1896, by Grand Master Jerry For- 
tain, with twelve cliarter members, as follows : 
R. T. Walls, Maude Walls, S. R. Brockman, 
Ruby C. Brockman, A. H. Bugbee, Frances 
Burk, Bertha Burrows, Sophia Erickson. Fred 
Erickson, J. A. Vess, Cecil T. Thompson and 
Dora E. Thompson. The lodge was organ- 
ized with the fcdlowing officers: Ruby C. 
Brockman, noble grand; Bertha Burrows, 
vice-grand; Sopliia Erickson, secretary, and 
Maude Walls, treasurer. 

Pansy Lodge started with a small mem- 
bership and its early growth was not rapid. 
The "faithful few" held firmly to their pur- 
pose, in spite of discouraging circumstances, 
and kept up the regular meetings of the lodge. 
During the year 1899 systematic efforts were 
made to revive and arouse an interest in the 
Rebekah work, and these efforts produced very 
flattering results. New members began to 
come in and Pansy Lodge took on new life. 
The degree staff of Hope Lodge, Spokane, 
were invited and came down to confer the 
degree on a class of candidates securetl for the 
occasion. This e.xemplihcation of the degree 
work and the most approved methods of floor 
work gave an impetus to the lodge such as it 
had never before received. Since that it has 
had constant prosperity, and is now in better 
condition than ever before. Pansy Lodge is 
one of the live lodges of Spokane county with 
a splendid roll of fifty members. 

Constant Rcbckali Lodge, No. 96. — The 
last lodge instituted by Grand Master Fortain, 
on his trip to Spokane county, was Constant 
Rebekah Lodge, No. 96, at Latah, on the even- 
ing of March 27, 1896. On his visit to Latah 
Lodge that evening, his suggestion that a Re- 
bekah lodge be organized met with a prompt 
and hearty response. Twenty- four charter 
members for the new lodge were secured in a 
short time. Their names were ; S. W. Da- 
vidson, Elizabeth Davidson, E. C. Thompson, 
Elizabeth Thompson, John Anderson, Vir- 

ginia Anderson, Monroe Hanshaw, Amanda 
E. Hanshaw, John Bozarth, Caroline Bozarth, 
John Havlick, Nellie Havlick, Charles 
James, Rhoda Anderson, Charles Campbell, 
May Harvey, J. W. Jameson, Nora E. W'at- 
son, L. H. Thayer, F. L. Tomlinson, Joseph 
Corwin, Thomas Link, W. M. Poteet and 
Mahlon Poor. 

On the institution of the lodge, the follow- 
ing officers were elected and installed : Eliza- 
beth Thompson, noble grand ; Elizabeth Da- 
vidson, vice-grand ; Nora Emma Watson, sec- 
retary, and Rhotla .Vnderson, treasurer. 

This lodge was established under what 
seemed to be very flattering conditions. It 
had a splendid membership and seemed to pos- 
sess an aggressive spirit. Important results 
were hoped for, but, for some unknown rea- 
son, its affairs have been allowed to languish. 
The lodge closed the year 1899 with but nine- 
teen members. A revival is being talked of, 
and before the year 1900 closes it is expected 
that Constant Rebekah Lodge will have taken 
(Ml new life and energy. 

The Patriarchs Militant, Canton Spokane, 
No. 2. — The Patriarchs Militant branch of 
Odd Fellowship was introduced into Spokane 
by the institution of Canton Spokane on the 
evening of April 22, 1890. This was the sec- 
ond canton organized in the state of Wash- 
ington, Walla Walla, No. 1, having been in- 
stituted but a short time previous, but Canton 
Spokane was the first body of Odd Fellows 
in the state to secure their military suits and 
to appear in the regulation uniform. 

The Royal Purple Patriarchs who peti- 
tioned for the right to be chartered as a canton 
and who composed the charter members of 
Canton Spokane, No. 2, were: William A. 
Woodruft', R. N. McLean, J. F. C. Abel, E. L. 
Wilson, Harry F. Baer, George T. Jameson, 
William J. Shaner, Benjamin Scheeliiie, An- 
drew P. Orr, William D. \'alentine, A. C. Ed- 
wards, Lynden A. Robinson, J. B. Krienbuhl, 
Ole R. Nestos, E. P. Gillette, F. P. Robinson, 



A. G. Ansell and J. Landis Miller. The can- 
ton was instituted in a hall then used by the 
Knights of Pythias in the Daniel block, on the 
corner of Howard street and Main avenue. 
The instituting officer was Hon. C. S. Scott, 
past grand patriarch, then holding the posi- 
tion of lieutenant-colonel on the staff of Lieu- 
tenant-General John C. Underwood, then the 
commander-in-chief of the Patriarchs Mili- 
tant. Col. Scott was very proficient in the 
work of this branch of the order and made 
these services most impressive. There were 
eighteen who received the degree on the night 
of institution and several others joined soon 
after. Nearly all of them ordered a hand- 
some uniform and the canton made a very 
striking and beautiful appearance whenever 
called out on public parade. 

The first officers were: Andrew P. Orr, 
captain; Harry F. Baer, lieutenant: O. R. 
Nestos. ensign: E. P. Gillette, clerk; William 
D. Valentine, accountant: William A. Wood- 
ruff, standard bearer; E. L. Wilson, guard; 
R. N. McLean, picket; and F. P. Robinson, 

Canton Spokane had a very prosperous ex- 
istence until the coming of the financial depres- 
sion when so many suffered such severe finan- 
cial reverses. All branches of the order suf- 
fered during this period, but the Cantons most 
of all. This feature of the order was regarded 
as largely ornamental and was usually dr(_ipped 
first. The faithful few of Canton No. 2, who 
had learned the true lesson of patriotism and 
universal justice, taught in this degree, held 
firmly to the organization and to them is due 
the credit of keeping it alive and perpetuating 
Patriarchs Militant Odd Fellowship in Spo- 
kane. A large number of members from time 
to time ceased to answer to their names at roll 
call, but earnest work secured enough others 
to keep the Canton alive. 

Soon after its institution Canton Spokane 
purchased a \ery handsome banner, one of the 
most beautiful ever exhibited liy any order in 

this state. All the other equipments of the 
Canton are in keeping with this beautiful Can- 
ton badge. Since 1897 Canton No. 2 has taken 
on new life. A large number of new members 
were secured, old ones were reinstated and the 
meetings grew more interesting and were bet- 
ter attended. Major Roliert A. Muhs, the de- 
partment commander of Washington, is a 
member of this canton. Major Muhs ob- 
tained his first military experience as a mem- 
ber of Col. Joseph Bobletter's crack company 
of the Minnesota National Guard at New Ulm, 
Later he served nearly three years as a member 
of Company B, Second Regiment, Washing- 
ton National Guard, of Spokane, being hon- 
orably discharged when the regiment was 
ordered into the volunteer service of the Uni- 
ted States at the beginning of the Spanish- 
American war. 

In 1896 a second canton was organized in 
Spokane, in the hope that fraternal rivalry- 
might be an incentive to more rapid growth i.i 
this branch of the order. It soon became ap- 
parent that the desired results could not be 
reached in that way. So small a percentage 
of Odd Fellows join the canton that it would 
lie difficult to maintain two separate military 
companies in Spokane with sufficient members 
in each to make a creditable appearance when 
on parade. Consolidation of the two cantons 
was proposed and finally agreed upon by unan- 
imous vote in each body. By the terms of this 
agreement Canton Fiirtuna surrendered its 
charter, name and number, and became a part 
of Canton Spokane. The consolidation oc- 
curred on the evenmg of February 23. 1900. 
The services were in charge of Major R. A. 
Muhs, department commander of Washington. 
A large number of canton members were pres- 
ent and the evening was one of the most en- 
joyable ever spent in the circles of Odd Fellow- 
ship in Spokane. For the interests of the order, 
the consolidation of Cantons Spokane and For- 
tuna was one of the luost important events 
that has ever occurred in this county. The 



military rank, being the highest in tlie order, is 
regarded as the most representative, and to the 
extent in which it shows strength and vigor 
will its influence be felt. This consolidation 
gave Canton Spokane a membership in excess 
of eighty, and placed it among the strongest 
organizations of that character in the west. 

At this writing, the officers of Canton Spo- 
kane are : Ben F. Davis, captain : W. T. Horr, 
lieutenant; T. J. Rubican, ensign; W'm. F. 
Conners, clerk; G. A. Kline, accountant. 

The Encampment Branch — North Star En- 
campment, No. 6. — The encampment branch 
of Odd Fellowship was established in Spokane 
by the institution of North Star Encampment, 
No. 6. on October 28, 1883. This encampment 
was instituted by H. E. Holmes, grand repre- 
sentative, on a dispensation granted by the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge and signed by Eric 
J. Leech, grand sire. The charter members 
were: J. B. Kreinbuhl, J. F. C. Abel and G. 
Palmtag, all members of the Royal Purple de- 
gree, who joined by card, and James A. Baird, 
J. E. Sipe, Charles Wilson, J. J. Piper, Robert 
Doty, Frank Zeigler and J- Landis Miller, the 
last seven being members of the Scarlet degree 
who were given the three encampment degrees 
that evening, in order to join in the petition 
for an encampment and to become charter 
members thereof. These proceedings were 
had under a special dispensation granted by 
Grand Sire Leech, as authorized by the Sov- 
ereign Grand Lodge held in Providence, 
Rhode Island, in September, 1883. Grand 
Representative Holmes had taken with him to 
that session the petition and application for an 
encampment in Spokane, and, through his ef- 
forts, the petition was granted, and he was 
commissioned special deputy grand sire to in- 
stitute the encampment. Bro. Holmes commu- 
nicated with the brethren in Spokane, appris- 
ing them of his success, and arranged to stop 
ofT in Spokane on his return from Sovereign 
Grand Lodge and organize this encampment, 
which plan was carried out. 

North Star Encampment was organized in 
a hall in the upper story of a frame building 
on the east side of Howard street and just 
north of Riverside avenue, where the Tell 
block now .stands. After the work of putting 
the new encampment in working order had 
been accomplished, a splendid banquet was 
served by Bro. \V. S. Mack, who then con- 
ducted Mack's restaurant in the Zeigler block, 
near the lodge room. The first officers of the 
new encampment were : J. B. Krienbuhl, chief 
patriarch ; Frank Zeigler, high priest ; J. F. C. 
Abel, senior warden; Charles Wilson, scribe; 
G. Palmtag, treasurer; J. E. Sipe, junior war- 

The organization of North Star Encamp- 
ment was gladly welcomed by the other five in 
the state, as it gave assurance of a Grand En- 
campment, which was organized in W'alla 
Walla May 14, 1884. Odd Fellowship was 
not strong in Spokane in those early days, and 
Nortii Star Encampment had but a limited 
growth for several years. Being the first en- 
campment organized north of the Snake river, 
it drew a few members from lodges outside of 
Spokane, but these were not able to attend its 
meetings regularly and were of but little ben- 
efit in building up the interests of the encamp- 
ment. Of the home members, many were called 
away to other fields, owing to the then tran- 
sitory character of the population of this sec- 
tion, and North Star had a struggle for its ex- 
istence. Spokane Lodge, No. 17, treated the 
new society with much leniency in remitting 
rents and giving it all possible hall privileges. 
Four or five years after the institution of this 
encampment, interest in Odd Fellowship in 
Spokane began to awaken, and North Star 
shared in the prevailing prosperity. Its mem- 
bership roll began to grow, and the regular 
meetings were full of interest and work. It 
was a period of growth and prosperity which 
placed the encampment on a substantial basis. 
In 1893 ^ number of Odd Fellows in Spo- 
kane thought it would be to the interests of the 



order to establish a second eiiGampment, and 
Unique Encampment, No. 32, was organized. 
The two encampments worked along together 
for nearly six years, when it became evident to 
a large majority of the members that the wel- 
fare of the order was not being best served by 
having their energies divided in this branch of 
the work. A joint committee was appointed 
fi-om the two encampments, and their deliber- 
ations took form in an agreement for consoli- 
dation. This agreement was ratified, and 
North Star surrendered its charter and was 
merged into and became a part of Unique, No. 
2,2, on March 17, 1899. 

Unique Encampincnt, No. t,2. — This en- 
campment was instituted on the afternoon and 
evening of June 16, 1893, in Odd Fellows' 
hall, in the temple of Spokane Lodge, No. 17, 
on First avenue. A dispensation for the or- 
ganization of this encampment was granted by 
the grand patriarch, A. F. Hoska, of Tacoma, 
who commissioned J. B. Kreinbuhl as special 
deputy grand patriarch for this occasion. A 
large number of the members of North Star 
assisted in the institution and conferred the 
three degrees on the twenty-nine candidates 
who presented themselves that evening. The 
charter members of Unique were : J. H. Cot- 
ter, P. C. P.; W. P. Harris, Benjamin M. 
Howe, C. M. Poor, G. W. Stocker, E. L. Pow- 
ell and D. W. Montgomery, who were patri- 
archs of the Royal Purple degree. A large 
number of encampment members were pres- 
ent, an elegant banquet was spread, and 
Unique began life under the most favorable 
conditions. Though started in the midst of 
the most depressing business conditions, the 
encampment grew and prospered from its in- 
itial meeting. Its promoters were active and 
aggressive, and were possessed of the most 
abiding faith in the new encampment. They 
made a specialty of putting on the degree work 
ii< an attractive manner. In exemplifying the 
])rinciples and teachings of the Patriarchal 
degrees, the members of Unique Encampment 

always succeeded in convincing the candidate 
that he had received full value for the money 
expended. In a short time Unique had out- 
stripped North Star in membership, and when 
the proposition to consolidate came, being the 
stronger encampment, Unique claimed, and 
was concedeil, the right to retain its name and 

The consolidation of North Star and 
Unique Encampments was consummated (jii 
the evening of March 17, 1899. The e.xercises 
were conducted by Hon. Lewis F. Hart, grand 
patriarch of the Grand Encampment of Wash- 
ington, who made the journey from Republic 
to Spokane for that purpose. By this consoli- 
dation Unique Encampment added to its mem- 
bership forty-five patriarchs, replenished its 
treasury by the addition of several hundred 
dollars, and secured a handsome outfit of re- 
galia and paraphernalia. This consolidation 
did much to unify the members of this branch 
of the order, and was immediately followed 
by the most rapid increase in membership ever 
known in Spokane. During the six months 
ending December 31, 1899, the names of 
twenty-nine new members were added to the 
rolls of Unique Encampment. The ambition 
of the patriarchs in Spokane is to make this 
one of the largest and best working encamp- 
ments in the west. Its regular meetings are 
held on the evenings of the first and third Fri- 
days of each month. 

Three of the members of Unique Encamp- 
ment, at the present writing, hold ofiice in the 
Grand Encampment of Washington. Frank 
P. Robinson is grand patriarch, J. B. Krien- 
buhl is grand treasurer, and George W. 
Stocker, who was the first to be made a past 
chief by Unique, is grand scribe. 

The present officers of L'nique Encamp- 
ment are : J. J. White, chief patriarch ; Walter 
O. Webb, high priest; J. T. Rubican, senior 
warden; W. F. Parker, junior warden; John 
Hearn, scribe; Frank P. Ri)binsiin. financial 
scrilse, and J. H. Cotter, treasurer. This is 



the largest encampment in the state of Wash- 
ington, its memhership being (April, 1900) 
one hnndred and eighty-four. 


A profound mystery confronts the his- 
torian who attempts to explain the amazing 
growth that has resulted from so small a be- 
ginning as that of the Benevolent and Protec- 
tive Order of Elks. 

Some thirty-two years ago a little band of 
theatrical and musical people, with bohemian 
tendencies, used to gather in various places — 
presumably restaurants and dressing rooms — 
around the city of New York, their principal 
object being to have a good time. That they 
should have founded an organization which to- 
day presents in numbers, in wealth, in pu1)lic 
esteem and popularity so marked a distinction 
from nearly every other order in this country, 
is certainly wonderful and grand. To trace its 
progress step by step is Ijut a short and simple 

Fifteen comprised the original list of those 
who at first, under the name of "J()lly Corks," 
formed the nucleus of what has now reached 
nearly sixty thousand in over five hundred 
cities of this great country. 

The prime mover in the formation of this 
little society was Charles Algernon Sidney 
Vivian, the son of an English clergyman, who 
had but a short time previous landed in New 
York, and who was at the time singing in the 
old American theater on Broadway, and whose 
memory is now honored and revered by the 
thousands of Elks throughout the land, as the 
founder of the order. 

So popular did the "Corks" become among 
the members of the profession, and soj-apidly 
did the society increase both in numerical and 
financial strength, that it soon became evident 
that it should be placed on a firmer basis and 
given a more dignified name. \'ivian, as "Im- 
perial Cork" of the organization, was chair- 
man of a committee appointed for that pur- 

pose, and suggested the name of "Buffaloes," 
the title of a social organization of which he 
had been a member in England: but the ma- 
jority were desirous of a name that was purely 
American in its suggestions, and at a meeting 
on February 16, 1868, the name of "Elks" 
was adopted by the close vote of eight to seven, 
antl that date has since been regarded and ob- 
served as the natal day of the Order of Elks. 
.\t this time there were two degrees of the 
order, the chief officer in the first degree being 
known as the right honorable primo, and in the 
second degree as exalted ruler. These titles 
v.ere used uiuil the adoption of the ritual of 
1883. when all the titles of the first degree 
were abolished, and those of the second degree 
retained throughout the entire work. 

Constitution and by-laws were adopted in 
March, 1868. The constitution contained fif- 
teen articles, and there were twenty-one rules 
and regulations. The committee which pre- 
pared the document was composed of Messrs. 
Geo. F. McDonald, W'm. Sheppard, Charles 
\'ivian, E. N. Piatt and Thos. G. Riggs. The 
able manner in which these gentlemen per- 
formed the duties assigned to them will be 
best realized when it is remembered that, al- 
tliough the growth of the order has rendered 
necessary a number of additions and some 
changes, the constitution as adopted thirty-one 
years ago is substantially the basis of Elk 
jurisi)rudence to-day. 

Mr. \'ivian, as right honorable primo, pre- 
sided at the first session of the newly reorgan- 
ized order, but on his leaving New York and 
Philadelphia he was succeeded by Richard R. 
Steirly. New members were enrolled at each 
succeeding meeting, and more suitable quarters 
w ere soon obtained on the upper floor of Mili- 
tary hall at No. 193 Bowery. On April 16, 
1868. the first ball of the order was given at 
Farraro's assembly rooms, at the corner of 
Broadway and Twenty-eighth street, on the 
site of the present Fifth Avenue theatre. The 
first annual benefit was helil at the Academy of 



the: r.F.w yo'^k 




Music on June 8th, and in the announcements 
there was an apparent effort to give to the order 
an exclusively theatrical feature; the original 
notices announcing the first annual benefit of 
■ the "Performers' Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks." 

In April, 1870, arrangements were made 
for the occupancy of Masonic, now Clarendon 
hall, on Thirteenth street, and the initiation 
fee which had been raised by small amounts 
to ten dollars, was now increased to twenty 
dollars in consequence of the great additional 
expense to be borne. ' At about the same time a 
pass-word, to be changed semi-annually, was 
adopted, and at the meeting of May 24, 1870, 
the word "integrity" was appropriately se- 
lected as pass-word for the ensuing six months. 
On November 27th it was determined that the 
lodge set apart an evening for the purpose of 
inviting "Our mothers, wives, sisters and fe- 
male friends to our social session, and that 
no male friends be ailmitted on that evening." 
Chi Christmas day the first ladies' social was 
held, and reports, still in existence, indicate 
that it was a great success. 

It was not long before the fame of the 
3'oung organization began to spread and create 
a desire for the propagation of its principles, 
which had also broadened, upon other soil. 
In order to accomplish this it Ijecame neces- 
sary for New York Lodge, which had become 
an incorporated body, to surrender its control 
of affairs to a Grand Lodge, which was done 
in February, 1871, the Grand Lodge being 
composed of the fifteen original founders of 
the order and all the past and then present 
officers of New York Lodge. On March 10, 
1 87 1, the Grand Lodge was given a charter 
by the state of New York, with power to issue 
charters to subordinate lodges throughout the 
country. On the same day New York Lodge, 
No. I, was chartered by the Grand Lodge, and 
two days later a charter was issued to Phila- 
delphia Lodge, No 2. 

Ever since the organization of the Grand 

Lodge the annual conventions of the order had 
been held in the city of New York, but as the 
order grew larger year after year, a strong- 
sentiment developed in favor of making the 
annual conventions migratory. For several 
years New York Lodge was able to sustain 
her contentiiin that the Grand Lodge should 
meet in that city, but was finally forced to suc- 
cumb to superior odds, and the annual meet- 
ing of 1886 was held in the city of Cincinnati. 
Twenty new lodges were chartered during that 
year, and the total membership increased from 
thirty-nine hundred to fifty-five hundred. That 
settled the question, and since 1886 the conven- 
tions have not been held successively in the 
same city, excepting 1894-95 during the split 
of the order, when one faction of the dual 
Grand Lodge met in Atlantic City in 1894, 
and the reunited elements again met there the 
following year. 

The Elks are a decidedly unique organiza- 
tion in the sisterhood of fraternities. There 
can be but one lodge of the order in any city, 
nc matter how large, and lodges can not be 
instituted in places of less that five thousand 

The Order of Elks has relieved suffering 
with open-handed generosity, but without over- 
whelming the recipients of its charity with an 
exaggerated sense of thanks due. It has es- 
tablished a feeling of brotherhood between resi- 
dents of the east and west, and in the north and 
south. Sectionalism is unknown in its ranks 
and the order has been as cordially welcomed 
in the sunny south as in the extreme north. 
There is probably no order in existence more 
strictly national in its character, or which has 
done more with less parade of success or self- 
gratification or which has before it a greater 
certainty of prolonged and vastly increased 

The Spokane Lodge, organized in 1891, 
is now the largest in the state. The home lodge 
(iwed its conception and formation to a number 
of resident Elks from other lodges who were 



in Spokane during the winter of 1891 and 
1892. The records show that on the apphca- 
tion of John E. Khne, Charles P. Chamberlain, 
Charles Ross, Fred Gottlieb, Alva Titus and 
John S. Barnes, a disi)ensation and charter 
were granted February 2, 1892, by Edwin 
Barrett Hay, then grand exalted ruler. On 
February 13th, Judge Reed, with members of 
the Tacoma lodge, came over and instituted 
the lodge in the Daniels hall, now occupied 
by the Eagles. Among other features, Brotlier 
Chapman brought along a billy goat, who acted 
well his part in the initiation ceremonies. Sen- 
ator Turner had the honor of making the first 
trip over the range and w-as aided in his 
passage by Brother Fred Gottleib, who was 
said to be an expert in hurrying up matters of 
that kind. The following were the charter 
members who went in that day, and there were 
quite a few who were down to pass through 
who were unable to be present : Geo. M. Fors- 
ter, W. McConnell, J. N. Beggs, N. E. Nuzum, 
F. W. Smith, W. W. D. Turner, V. M. Mas- 
sey, Jacob Goetz, Ed. Little, S. G. Allen, T. 

B. Ware, W. J. Gregory, Nelson Alartin, H. 
A. Ganke, Louis F. Baer, Will J. Ross, Alex. 
H. Tarbet, Robt. ^L Woods, Ralph Clark, 

C. W. Corringe, W. D. Knight, B. H. Bennett, 
Eugene Fellowes, Frank O'Connor, W. H. 
Adams, F. H. Greene, Dr. D. J. Russell, Chas. 
H. Wolf, W. J. C. Wakefield, A. H. .Myers, 
C. S. Scott, H. W. Greenberg, George Turner, 
O. V. Davis, C. B. Hopkins, Dan McGuan, 
T. C. Griffitts, F. A. Wills, Dr. R. S. Harvey, 
Homer R. Sililey, A. P. Curry, R. W. Nuzum, 
H. C. Hayward. 

The ceremonies wound up with a great 
bancjuet at the old Cceur d' .\lene restaurant 
in the evening, which was embellished with 
some good speeches by many of the brothers. 

The lodge continued to occupy these (juar- 
ters for a year and a half, when it mo\-ed to 
its present home. Shortly after its organiza- 
tion it was called upon to assist at the birth ot 
a baby lodge in Moscow, and the story of the 

trip would fill a volume. Dave Fotheringhanx 
gave the lodge a goat and "Dutch Jake" took 
along his old St. Bernard "Judge," and there 
was a parade in which the goat was supposed 
to be kept concealed, but Jake had a way of 
exposing him occasionally and then making 
frantic efforts to hide him. Among the spec- 
tators was Judge Piper, lately deceasetl, a can- 
didate for the order, but when he got sight of 
Billy he said: "Not for me, boys." and he 
backed out. He afterward persistently refused 
to join. The goat is roaming now at Morn- 
son's ranch, in Fairfield, as his services are no 
longer required in the new order of things. 
Tiie following is the roster of the lodge 
up to date: Exalted ruler, E. Dempsie; ex- 
alted leading knight, N. E. Nuzum ; exalted 
loyal knight, Wm. F. Connor; exalted lecture 
knight, F. Wallace King; secretary, E. L. Kim- 
ball ; treasurer, N. J. Sweeny; tyler, Jas. W. 
"S oung; esquire, E. Fitzgerald ; chaplain, James 
Alexander; inner guard, J. T. Roberts; trus- 
tees, E. L. Tate, H. F. Baer, F. W. Smith; 
relief committee, Dave O'Neil, H. Brown, C. 
C. Dempsie; finance committee, .\. H. Myers, 
B. M. Whiting, James Maxwell; past exalted 
rulers, Geo. Turner, W. J. C. Wakefield, B. H. 
Bennett, W. W. D. Turner, E. L. Kimball, 
L. R. Notbohm. — Sunday Morning Call. 


U'asliiiigtun Diz'isioii. — Headquarters, Se- 
attle, Washington. Charles E. Plimpton, Se- 
attle, commander ; B. E. York, Walla Walla, 
senior vice-commander ; F. E. Pells, Ballard, 
junior vice-commander; S. A. Locke, Tacoma, 
.\. P. Smith, Spokane, C. W. Baremore, Mon- 
tesano, division council ; H. H. Hubbard, 
Cheney, delegate at large ; L. G. Hooker, Walla 
Walla, delegate. 

John A. Logan Camp, No. 2. — Headquar- 
ters, K. of P. hall, Spokane. Organized 1886. 
Membership, thirty. Regular meetings, sec- 
ond and fourth Mondays of each month. John 



F. Hoyt, captain; A. P. Smith, tirst lieutenant; 
C. C. Cooper, second lieutenant. 


Mary A. Logan Tent, No. i. — Organized 
March, 1891. Membership, twenty-two. 
Meets in K. of P. hall second and fourth Mon- 
days of each month. ]\Irs. Ida Jackman, pres- 
ident ; Mrs. Ida Hoyt, senior vice-president ; 
Mrs. Minnie McCrane, secretary; Mrs. O'Neil, 


Tent Spokane, No. 15, K. 0. T. M.— 
Meets every Friday at 8 P. M., in Oliver hall. 
Commander, A. Bellingham; lieutenant com- 
mander, S. B. Johnson ; record keeper, George 
J. Walbridge; finance keeper, A. S. De Reimer; 
chaplain, L. S. Murphy ; sergeant, C. J. Cole- 
man ; master at arms, J. F. Thellman ; first 
master of guards, C. E. Monroe; second master 
of guards, D. .\. Britton; sentinel, F. \V. Rich; 
picket, J. A. Orchard. 


Spokane Hive, No. 13. — Meets first and 
third Tuesdays of each month, 8 P. M., at Odd 
Fellows hall. Mrs. Delia Streyfeller, com- 
mander; Mrs. Anna Davis, lieutenant comman- 
der; Miss Maud Pitcher, record keeper; Miss' 
Ella Lynch, finance keeper ; Mrs. Rebecca 
Johnson, chaplain; Mrs. Mary E. [McDonald, 
sergeant ; Mrs. Genevieve M. Murray, master 
at arms; Miss Ethel Bond, sentinel; Miss Win- 
nifred Darrah, picket. 

Falls City Hive, No. ^;^. — Meets second 
and fourth Wednesdays of each month, 8 P. 
M., in OliA-er hall. Mrs. Orilla Bertrantl, L. 
C. ; Mrs. A. Onstine, P. C. L. ; Mrs. C. E 
Mitchell, lieutenant commander; Mrs. Alice 
Lindsay, R. K. ; Miss Rachael Lee, F. K. ; Dr. 
Jean C. Chandler, Med. Ex. ; Mrs. Phillis 
Carleton, chaplain ; Mrs. ,\lice Merritt, sergt. ; 
Mrs. Addie Harcleroad, M. at A. ; Mrs. Mar- 

ietta Harrison, sentinel : Mrs. E. J. Kelley, 


Great Couneil of Washington. — Meets at 
Spokane May 8 to 10, 1900. E. O. Connor, 
great sachem, Spokane ; John M. Hill, great 
senior sagamore, Walla Walla; L. E. Wolfe, 
great junior sagamore. Seattle; J. L. McMur- 
ray, great prophet, Tacoma; J. P. Cass, great 
chief of rec, Tacoma; John Siebenhaum, great 
keeper of wampum. Port Townsend. 

Spokane Tribe, No 9. — Meets every Fri- 
day, 8 P. M., in Symon's block, corner Howard 
and Sprague avenue. Dr. N. A. Goddard. 
sachem ; Del Cary Smith, senior sagamore ; 
James Smythe, junior sagamore; H. J. Martin, 
prophet ; L. G. Meeks, chief or rec. ; C. C. Tra- 
vers, collector of wampum; N. H. Christensen, 
keeper of wampum. 

Spokane Red Men's League, No. 2. — Meets 
Friday evening, in Symons block. L. G. Meeks, 
cai)tain ; J. D. Finn, first lieutenant ; D. A. 
Darling, second lieutenant; M. H. Christensen, 


Spokane Camp, No. 99. — Chartered Feb- 
ruary, 1892. Meets in K. of P. hall every 
Wednesday evening at 8 o'clock. B. F. Shields, 
council conmiander ; George B. Koontz, ad- 
visory lieutenant; Charles Hoyt, banker; E. 
Bertrand, clerk. 

Camp No. 467. — Meets first and third Mon- 
day nights of the month, in K. of P. hall. David 
Herman, council commander ; Charles W. 
Wallace, advisory lieutenant ; L. L. Westfall, 
clerk ; P. E. Hunsucker, banker. 


E.veelsior Camp, No. 5124. — Meets every 
Tuesday at 8 P. M., in I. 6. O. F. hall, 718^^ 
First avenue. L. G. Bevis, venerable consul; 
D. J. Fenton, worthy advisor; H. R. Mann, 
banker; E. W. Hand, clerk; J. S. Schoen, es- 



cort; W. E. Terry, watchman; A. Nelson, sen- 
try; Drs. W. D. Valentine, C. E. Grove, phy- 

Goodzi'ill Camp, No. 5923.— Meets every 
Thursday, at 8 P. M., at Eddy hall, 0606 Mon- 
roe. N. E. McNeill, venerable consul ; Edward 
Evans, worthy advisor; C. J. Millgard, banker; 
J. T. Manning, clerk; H. Chisholm, escort; 
H. F. Nather, M. A. Bliss. W. J. Isbister, man- 
agers; D. C. Newman, W'm. Chapman, phy- 


This order is strong in this city, the two 
lodges having a membership of about three 

Spokane Lodge, No. no. — Meets every 
Monday, 8 P. M.. Castle hall, 816 Riverside 
avenue. C. C. Mann, chancellor commander; 
Charles Clarke, vice-chancellor; John Deville, 
Jr., prelate; M. L. Bevis, master at arms; 
Charles Haugh, master of work; GnstavMeese, 
keeper of records and seal: .M. H. Eggleston. 
master of finances; M. Vi. Martindale. master 
of exchequer. 

Red Cross Lodge, No. 28. — Organized 
May, 1887. Meets every Friday 8 P. M., at 
Castle hall, 816 Riverside avenue. B. W. 
Walker, chancellor commander ; Eugene Miller, 
vice-chancellor ; ii. A. Owens, prelate : Jona- 
than Heaton. keeper of records and seal ; 
George E. Clark, master of exchequer; G. W. 
M. Chant, master of finances ; .\. Beamer. mas- 
ter of work; A. .\. Hosford. master at arms; 
C. A. Moore, inner guard ; W'm. Kuist, outer 
guard ; S. P. Doner, district deputy grand 

U'esteni Star rkusioii. No. 7, U. R., was 
organized May 20. 1899. L. W. Perkins, cap- 
tain ; George E. Clark, first lieutenant ; C. O. 
Hague, second lieutenant; G. Meese, recorder; 
M. G. Martindale, treasurer. 

The cardinal principles of the Knights of 
Pythias are friendship, charity and benevo- 

lence. May 15, 1900, the Grand Lodge met 
in Spokane, and the display was resplendent. 


High Court of Washington. — James Gregg, 
Seattle, high chief ranger; John A. Forsyth, 
Tacoma. past high chief ranger; L. N. Han- 
sen, Tacoma, high secretary; A. M. Hawkins, 
Seattle, high treasurer; A. R. Heilig, Tacoma, 
high counsellor; G. T. Penn. Spokane, high 
physician; R. B. Scott, Spokane, past deputy 
supreme chief ranger; J. A. Wolfe. Tacoma, 
and H. L. Klein, Seattle, high auditors. 

Court Klamath, No. 1946. — Meets first 
and third Thursdays of each month in K. of P. 
hall. Isaac Marlow. chief ranger : William 
McKinzie. vice chief ranger; R. B. Laing, 
financial secretary ; W. H. Hill, recording sec- 
retarv ; .\. T. MacLeod, physician ; R. B. 
Scott, T. J Washburn, trustees. 

Court Silver. — Meets second and fourth 
Thursdays in each month, in Oliver hall. Dr. 
George T. Penn, chief ranger; C. G. Bennett, 
financial secretary; A. O. Sweeney, recording 


Companion Court Washington, No. 122. — 
Meets first and third Fridays of each month 
in K. of P. hall. Adelle A. Scott, court 
deputy supreme chief ranger; Lizzie Sweeney, 
chief ranger; Frankie Rhodes, past chief 
ranger ; Lizzie Bishop, vice-chief ranger ; Eliza 
Davis, orator; Clara Field, recording secre- 
tary; Cassie Bronson, financial secretary; 
Eliza Mclnroe. treasurer; Mary King, S. W. ; 
:\lartha Phillips. J. W. ; Mary Tyra, S. B. ; 
Orfie Lewis, J. B. Auxiliary to Independent 
Order of Foresters. 


Grand Court. — August Mueller, Spokane, 
G. C. R.; U. L. Collins, Snohomish, G. S. C. 
R. ; G. M. Stewart, Seattle, grand treasurer; 
F. D. Fawcett, Tacoma, grand financial secre- 



tarv ; T. D. Andrews, Seattle, grand recording 
secretary : J. W. Cookerly, Walla Walla, G. S. 
W. ; T. S. Davis. Black Diamond. G. J. W.; 

E. M. Coryell, Kalama. G. S. B. ; Otto Holm, 
Hoquaim, G. J. B. ; P. E. Paulson, Ballard. W. 
Walker, Stanwood, W. G. Alatthews, Port 
Elakeley, trustees. ;Meets May, 1900, in Spo- 

Court Royal, No. 19. — fleets every ^Nlon- 
day at 8 P. M., in Elks hall, Symons block. 
Charles Kitts. C. R. ; T. F. Rafter. S. C. R. ; 
W. A. Lewis, P. C. R. ; Ed O. Fournier. finan- 
cial secretary; C. E. Richards, recording secre- 
tary : R. J. Cooney, S. W. ; John Oud, J. W. ; 
A. R. Ewing, D. G. C. R. 


Scilgz^nck Post, No. 8. — J. K. Grover, com- 
mander ; T. H. .Steenstra, senior vice com- 
mander; D. L. Crossen, junior vice command- 
er; E. P. Gailbraith, adjutant; Charles J. 
Moore, quartermaster; Dr. J. B. :\IcDonald, 
surgeon; J. N. Koontz, chaplain; J. M. Com- 
stock, O. of D. ; W. J. Evers, O. of G. ; H. C. 
Human, sergeant major; F. Hosford, quarter- 
master sergeant. Meets alternate Tuesdays. 8 

F. M., I. O. O. F. hall. 

woman's relief corps. 

Department of Washington and Alaska. — 
Anna Webster, Seattle, president: Emily 
Chambers, North Yakima, senior vice-presi- 
dent ; Mary Koontz. Toledo, junior vice-presi- 
dent ; Mary B. Gardner. Seattle, treasurer ; Je- 
rusha P. Blackburn. Vashon, chaplain; Lizzie 
R. Herrick, Seattle, secretary; Nettie Dumdie, 
Colfax, inspector; Lizzie Crow, Walla Walla, 
instituting and installing officer; Adelle A. 
Scott, Spokane, patriotic instructor; Prudie 
Terrell, Tacoma, press correspondent. Annual 
encampment for 1900, at Ellensburg. 

/. L. Reno Relief Corps. — :\Ieets alternate 
Mondays of each month, 2:30 P. M., in Oli- 
ver Hall. Mrs. Alice Graves, president; Mrs. 
Liez Price, senior vice-president ; Mrs. Hannah 

Bassett, junior vice-president; Mrs. Mary E. 
Brown, secretary; Mrs. Mary E. Jordan, treas- 
urer; Mrs. Elizabeth Maxwell, chaplain; Mrs. 
Lizzie Smith, conductor; IMrs. Zadie Stewart, 
guard ; Mrs. Rebeca Johnson, assistant con- 
ductor; Mrs. Cornelia Dorsey, assistant guard; 
Mrs. Ada Murphey, Mrs. Alice Morgan, Mrs. 
Margaret Freeman, Mrs. Jennie Kipp, color 
bearers; Mrs. Ada McDonald, organist. 

Sedgz^'iek Relief Corps, No. 4. — Meets al- 
ternate Tuesdays, 2 P. AL, at L O. O. F. hall. 
Mrs. H. A. Davenpeck, president; Mrs. Kate 
Burnham. senior vice-president; ^Irs. Maggie 
Beard, junior vice-president;. !Mrs. Phillis 
Carleton, secretary ; Mrs. Sarah Franklin, 
treasurer; Mrs. Martin, chaplain; Mrs. Susan 
Mero, conductor; Mrs. Lizzie Butterworth, 
guard ; Mrs. Frances Peck, assistant conduct- 
or; Mrs. ]\Iary France, assistant guard; Mrs. 
Belle Curry, Mrs. Addie Cole, Mrs. Elnore 
Hoyt, Mrs. Taylor, color bearers; Mrs. Cur- 
rier, organist. 

fraternal order of eagles. 

Spokane Eyrie, No. 2. — Meets every Sun- 
day, 8 P. M., 5i6>4 Riverside avenue. John 
A. Pierce, past president; Del Carey Smith, 
president ; C. E. Richards, vice-president ; 
Charles Hellenbrandt, secretary; Henry G. 
Brown, treasurer; W. H. Robinson, chaplain. 

ROYAL arcanum. 

Spokane Couneil, No. 1371. — Meets at Oli- 
ver Hall. 334 Riverside avenue, first and third 
Tuesdays of each month at 8 P. M. J. T. Mc- 
Wenie, regent; S. B. Crandall, vice-regent; 
J. T. White, past regent; W. W. Tolman, 
orator; A. H. Kenyon. secretary; H. L. Wies- 
ter, collector; W. L. Root, treasurer. 


Spokane Lodge, No. 9, under the jurisdic- 
tion of Grand Lodge of Washington. Meets in 
Odd Fellows' hall every Wednesday, 8 P. M. 
Membership one hundred and twelve. E. 



Mely, president; John Huntz, vice-president; 
George Mumm, recording secretary; John 
Windmueller, financial secretary; Louis Ad- 
ams, treasurer. 


Gliicck auf Lodge, No. 3.— Meets second 
and fourth Sundays, 3 P. M.. in Odd Fellows' 
hall. Mrs. G. Boston, president; Mrs. Minnie 
J. Hoefer, treasurer. 


Meets first and third Thursdays of each 
month at hall. over 409 Sprague avenue. C. 
E. Crowley, president; J. J. Barry, vice-presi- 
dent; James Liston. secretary: John Fahey, 


Spokane Council, No. 92. — Meets first and 
third Saturdays of each month, 8 P. M., at K. 
of P. hall. Riverside avenue. T. F. Spencer, 
senior councilor; J. H. Somers, junior coun- 
cilor; C. M. Smith, past councilor; R. M. 
Waters, secretary and treasurer; A. A. Brown, 
conductor; W. \\'. Leghorn, page; J. L. Ford, 


Spokane Lodge, No. 1542. — Meets second 
and fourth Wednesdays of each month, 8 P. 
M., at 117 Germond block. Wm. Pattie, presi- 
dent; C. F. Fullerton, vice-president; W^m. 
J. May, recorder; George B. Weaver, financier 
and treasurer. 


Spokane Council, No. 149, organized May 
17, 1899.— E. C. Galbraith, P. C. ; John W. 
Gibson, councilor ; N. C. Nycum, V. C. ; R. 
M. Wells, secretary; Mrs. E. Bertrand, treas- 
urer; Mrs. W'ilson, chaplain; Mrs. George El- 
ler, guide; George E. Filer, warden; H. A. 
Terwilliger, sentinel. Meets second and fourth 

Thursdays of each month, 8 P. M., at Van 
Houten hall. Riverside avenue. 

Cascade Council, No. 95. — Dr. Jean C. 
Chandler, P. C. ; Charles Dixon, councilor; 
]\Iary Jamison, V. C. ; Mrs. Phillis Carleton, 
secretary ; Maud Pitcher, treasurer ; Ida Davis, 
chaplain; Ada Harcleroad, guard; Carl Davis, 
warden ; W. E. Maxwell, sentinel. 


Organized July 2, 1892. Meets the second 
and fourth Tuesday evenings of each month 
at Oliver hall. John T. Percival, past grand 
counselor; Mrs. Ida May Keating, counselor; 
W. R. Kelsey, vice-counselor; E. A. Thomas, 
instructor; James Keating, secretary; Mrs. E. 
M. Percival. treasurer; W. L. Root, prelate; 
John Jordan, marshal. 


National Union of Spokane.— Metts every 
first and third Thursdays of each month at 
Odd Fellows' hall. G. H. Hughes, president; 
Julius Zittel, secretary; G. H. Whittle, treas- 


Meets first and third Saturdays of each 
month in Oliver hall, 334 Riverside avenue. 
Samuel B. Johnson, M. A.; Mrs. Peterson, 
superintendent; Mary E. Peach, secretary. 


JVashington Lodge, No. 83. — Meets second 
and fourth Tuesdays, 209 Hyde block. S. 
W. Foster, chancellor ; D. Lewis Hunt, record- 
er ; Wm. H. McCrea, orator ; Calvin E. Newell, 
regent ; Geo. B. Weaver, financial secretary and 


JVestern Star Commandery, No. 421. — 
}ileets e\ery second and fourth Fridays of each 
month. C. E. Bisbee, N. C. : Mrs. Lizzie M. 
Ford. \'. N. C: Mrs. A. A. Hopkinson. N. 



K. of R. ; Mrs. E. J. Muzzy, F. K. of R. ; E. 

B. Hopkinson, treasurer; Mrs. Luetta D. Bis- 
bee, prelate: W. R. Parks, P. N. C. ; Robert 
McKenzie, herald. 


Mf. Carlton Lodge, No. 294. — Meets every 
Tuesday, 8 P. M., at Eddy hall. H. E. Peck, 
fraternal master; Irene Stuart, justice; J. W. 
Schofield, protector; A. A. Bigham, guide; 
Susie Armstrong, truth; Cora Sherwood, 
mercy; Mattie W. Reynolds, secretary; H. A. 
Shaw, treasurer; J. A. Hargrove, guard; 
Clarke Armstrong, sentinel; August Use, E. E. 
Sherwood, stewards. 


Spokane Couunandcry, No. 7. — Meets in 
K. of P. Hall, first and third Wednesdays of 
each month. E. H. Hutchinson, commander; 

C. A. Bailor, past commander; W. C. Rhodes, 
vice-commander; J. H. Ketchum, chaplain; 
John Hoyt, counselor; A. C. Klein, secretary; 
J. H. Spear, treasurer; Charles Freese, mar- 
shal; Q. E. Doane, collector; W. T. Johnson, 
sentinel: W. Belden, A. W. McCallum, N. 
M. Baker, trustees. 


Spokane Council, No. 502. — Meets second 
and fourth Fridays of each month, 8 P. M., 
at K. of P. hall. A. J. Carey, president : J. 
Strandberg, first vice-president ; S. Wealy, sec- 
ond vice-president; J. Corbett, prelate: E. J. 
Euster. conductor ; G. B. Koontz, financial sec- 
retary: Mrs. A. Klaus, corresponding secre- 
tary; C. H. Klaus, treasurer. 


The first fraternal and bene\-i)lent order of 
colored men to be established in the city was 
organized at Oliver hall Monday evening, 
March 20, 1900, when Spokane Lodge, No. 
4794, Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, 
■closed its charter and announced itself ready 
for business. The organization of the new 

lodge was the result of a movement which 
had been on foot for the previous year to es- 
tablish such an order, Rev. S. J. Collins having 
been very acti\e in the matter. The new lodge 
started off with a membership of nineteen, in- 
ckuling some of the most prominent colored 
citizens of the city. 

The following officers were elected for the 
first term : S. J. Collins, N. G. ; William Hop- 
kins, V. G. : A. J. Smith, N. F. ; Joseph Shelly, 
P. and F. ; J. A. Williams, P. S. ; Frank Will- 
son, E. S. ; H. B. Smith, chaplain ; Louis Fer- 
rell, warden; George Anderson, treasurer; 
Joseph Hazelwood, I. G. ; Frank Willson, R. 
S. to N. G.; Robert Fuller, L. S. to N. G.; 
Ed Winlock, R. S. to V. G. ; William Rum- 
fort, L. S. to V. G. 

The regular meetings will be held twice a 
month in Oliver hall. 


The Dramatic Order of the Knights of 
Khorassan was organized in Spokane a few 
months ago, and February, 1900, officers elect- 
ed to serve for the following year. The new- 
lodge is a side order of the Knights of Pythias 
and only members in good standing in the latter 
lodge will be eligible to membership in the new 
organization. The lodge is organized purely 
for social purposes and the new Knights are 
looking forward to a great time during the 
grand session, which is to be held here in May. 
The order is Arabian in character and 
bears the same relation to the Knights of Pyth- 
ias as does the Mystic Shrine to the Masons. 

The Knights of Khorassan start off with 
a charter membership of seventy-five and at 
their meeting in February they elected the fol- 
lowing officers: J. W. Merritt, venerable 
sheik: L. W. Perkins, royal vizier; Charles 
Clark, grand emir; Dr. C. C. Mann, niahdi; 
Gusta\- ]\Ieese, secretary; G. W. Chant, menial; 
J. W. McArthur, treasurer; William Beeler, 
sahib: G. L. Ide. joe, and Orno Strong, mo- 



We are especially indebted for the facts 
presented in this chapter to the Labor Day 
edition, 1899, of the Freemen's Labor Journal. 

The Trade's Council was organized by the 
federation of the Typographical L^nion, the 
Bricklayers, the Knights of Labor, the Car- 
penters, the Stone Masons and the Plasterers' 
unions at a meeting held on November i, 1889. 

Since that time the council has met weekly 
ever since. It has affiliated with it all unions 
of the city save four, and these four are among 
those that make up the Building Trades Coun- 
cil. Each organization affiliated is allowed four 
delegates. It is a conservative body and rep- 
resents the cream of unionism in Spokane, and 
is the voice of organized labor taken collective- 
ly. Consequently through its affiliated unions 
it represents over eighteen hundred men. A. 
Johnson, president; G. H. Miers, secretary; 
F. A. Foss, treasurer. 

The Building Laborers' Uiiion. — The year 
1889 was a most important one to organized 
labor, and from that year many of our best 
and strongest labor unions date their organ- 

The first meeting of the Building Laborers' 
Union was held on the first Saturday in ]\Iarch, 
in 1889. Officers were elected and an organ- 
ization perfected with a membership of twenty- 
five. It increased rapidly in strength, influence 
and membership. Its first scale of wages was 
two dollars and a half for a day of nine hours. 

They applied for a charter from the Build- 
ing Laborers' International L'nion and became 
affiliate<l in October, 1889, with a membership 
of three hundred. In the year 1890 their scale 
of wages was increased. 

The union is good, strong, well organized 

and one of the best and most active in the city 
of Spokane. 

Their present scale of wages is thirty-five 
cents per hour for a day of eight hours. The 
union is one of the most conservative in action. 
They are particularly fortunate in being free 
from strikes, etc. E. S. Potts, president ; \Vm. 
Ausbach, vice-president ; E. S. Smith, secre- 
tary ; John Olson, treasurer. 

The Plasterers organized eleven years ago 
and are working under an international charter. 
They now have a membership of fifty and have 
succeeded in establishing a wage scale of five 
dollars per day of eight hours. They are a 
live, energetic lot of fellows, and their trade 
is well organized and but few non-union mem- 
bers of the craft are available in the city, all 
of whom are unskilled mechanics, and even 
they do not number but about four. The 
Plasterers are affiliated with the Building 
Trades Council. 

The Building Trades Council was organ- 
ized in the spring of 1899 in order to closer af- 
filiate the building trades of the city. The fol- 
lowing unions are represented in it : The car- 
penters, plumbers, building laborers, plasterers, 
painters and paperhangers, shinglers and lath- 
ers. All of the building trades with the excep- 
tion of the bricklayers and masons and team- 
sters, which, especially the former two, refuse 
to affiiliate on account of a difference of view 
as to its advisability and the way it should 
be organized. The painters, plumbers and 
building laborers' unions are also affiliated 
with the Trades Council. I. M. Deni])sey 
president; James Bannon, vice-president; E. 
Phair, recording secretary ; George Rowl, treas- 
urer; X. A. Meservey. financial secretary. 



The Barbers' Union lias been organized by 
the organization committee of the Trades 
Council. It has a membership of forty and has 
taken out a charter of the International. It is 
organized on conservative lines and does not 
attempt to control hours or wages, but simply 
to unionize the shops in the town. The benefit 
of such a course is readily seen, even by the 
most casual observer. Ground once gained 
can be held and by slow progress the unioniz- 
ing of the barber shops is accomplished without 
strikes, boycotts or loss of work. The barbers 
ask the moral support of organized labor in 
that they talk to their barber regarding the 
union card and that they give the union card 
support and hearty encouragement. 

The first attempt to organize the barbers 
was in 1890, when an organization was par- 
tially perfected, but for various reasons became 
disrupted. In the fall again the trade was or- 
ganized, but on account (.'f lack of support it 
soon disbanded. In 1892 a third effort was 
made to organize the craft, but it soon followed 
the fate of its predecessors. Things then 
drifted along in an indifferent fashion until 
1897, when another organization was estab- 
lished, which showed considerable vigor and 
energy, though it soon slid down the estab- 
lished route to oblivion laid out by the former 
organizations. In the spring of 1899 an or- 
ganization was formed for the purpose of se- 
curing legislation in the shape of a barbers' 
license law. In June, 1899, an organization 
was perfected on conservative lines under a 
charter of the Journeymen's International 
Union of America. This organization now 
inckules nearly all, if not all, of the shops in 
llie city, there being only two or three shops 
that have not complied with the requirements 
of the union. 

The Printers' Union. — Away back in 1886, 
August 19th, to be accurate, the printers of 
Spokane Falls decided to organize a local 
branch of the International Typographical 
Union. It was not brought to a successful 


conclusion without some misgivings on the 
part of the boys, for in those days the country 
was new, the town had not yet taken on metro- 
politan airs, and organized labor in Spokane 
Falls was somewhat of a myth. However, the 
cliarter in due time came from headquarters 
and it now adorns the union hall, with Geo. A. 
Epperson, R. B. Dawson, D. W. C. Britt, 
Harry Howe, H. Robinson, Henry W. Green- 
berg, F. A. Graves and James M. Edwards as 
charter members. H. A. Bronson, president; 
L. \V. Perkins, vice-president; W. J. Honey, 
secretary-treasurer ; A. W. Swenson, recording 
secretary; W. L. Wright, sergeant-at-arms ; 
Arthur Brock, reading clerk; L. W. Perkins, 
H. C. Root, Charles Lamphere, Percy Camp- 
bell, W. S. Leslie, executive committee. There 
is also a Pressmen's Union and Assistant Press- 
men and Press Feeders' Union. 

The Bricklayers. — The Bricklayers' Union, 
No. I, of Spokane, was organized in the sum- 
mer of 1889. In December, 1889, the local 
union applied for a charter from the Brick- 
layers and Masons International Union of 
America, becoming No. 3, of Washington.. 
Two unions, one at Tacoma and one at Seattle, 
had previously been installed. The installation 
took place the ist of January, 1890, and was 
performed by Thomas R. Lawlor, lately de- 
ceased, then the nearest deputy of the Inter- 
national Union. 

The following officers were then installed 
as the first officers of the union under the new 
charter: W. S. Wraight, president; J. J. Sees, 
vice-president; William Ryan, recording sec- 
retary ; Dan Steele, financial secretary ; William 
Drysdale, treasurer ; James Ryan, George Las- 
lett and Thomas Lawlor as board of trustees. 

The membership of the union was about 
two hundred. The history ever since its or- 
ganization is the brightest that any union could 
wish for, the relations between the union and 
the contractors having been the most friendly. 
No difficulties have been encountered, hence no 
strike has been suffered. 



The success of tlie bricklayers is due in a 
great measure to the conservatism of action 
and the cool judgment and clear-headed actions 
of its members. In many ways it is the strong- 
est organization in Spokane, as there is more 
cohesion and unity among the members and 
no factional or personal divisions among tiie 
members. F. A. Foss, president; Thomas 
Gillard, vice-president ; Herman Schueneman, 
recordmg secretary; John Skillnum. Imancia' 
secretary; ^^'m. Archer, treasurer; G. Peterson, 

The Carpenters' Union. — The Carpenters' 
Unitm, Xo. 98, is one of the strongest and 
most prosperous unions in the city. It has a 
membership of over three hundred, and less 
than five of them are unemployetl. Xinety- 
five per cent, of the carpenters of the city be- 
long to the union, including all the skilled me- 
chanics. Leailing members of the Carpenters' 
Union say that owing to the Ijuilding boom of 
the last few years their members average over 
nine months" employment per annum. Thus, 
owing to the fair standard of wages paid, in 
spite of the high prices of commodities, car- 
penters are able to make a comfortable living 
for themselves and families. They work eight 
hours per day, tlie same as the other members 
of the building trades. The minimum wages 
paid is forty cents per hour. Ernest Phair, 
president; Robert Graliam, vice-president; A. 
Smart, secretary; X. A. Meservey, treasurer. 

The Retail Clerks' Association is one of the 
less aggressive unions of Spokane. It has no 
wage scale and directs its whole efforts to keep 
the present closing hours, that work so bene- 
ficially for the best interests of not only the 
clerks, but the merchants as well. Charles 
Haugh, president; W. C. Drury, \ice-presi- 
dent; H. C. Burnett, secretary; \\'alter Schultz, 

The Plumbers' Union is one of the strong- 
est in Spokane. It has a membership of forty- 
two and the members are all employed regu- 
larly. The scale of wages is four dollars per 

day of eight hours. George Witherspoon, 
president; J. O. Xeff, vice-president; H. Chis- 
iiohn, secretary ; W'm. Strum, treasurer. Meets 
e\ery first and third Wednesdays of the month. 

The Teamsters and Team Ozi'ners ot Spo- 
kane were organized this spring by the organ- 
ization committee of the Trades Council to 
wliich body the)' are affiliated. They have 
aljout three hundred members. Their princi- 
\>:i\ achievement was to raise the scale of wages 
from three dollars to four dollars, which, con- 
sidering the high. ])rice of horse feed and of 
living is a very conservative wage scale for 
nme hours' work. Although a comparative 
new union they have been to a degree success- 
ful in harmonizing the conflicting interests of 
the trade. The wages of teamsters are two dol- 
lars per day. C. T. Thompson, president ; A. 
Hannnond \ice-president ; E. Hardy, secre- 
tary ; A. Oglestrom, treasurer. 

Tlie Cigannalcers' Union. — The Cigarma- 
kers organized their union (Local No. 325) 
on the 2 1st day of February, 1896, under 
the International. It consisted at first of 
a small but aggressive band of workers who 
carried on a persistent agitation until now they 
have a strong organization that Spokane can 
well be proud of, controlling the bulk of the 
trade in the city. President, E. C. Miller; 
vice-president, H. J. Cunningham; correspond- 
ing and financial secretary, F. J. Heister; re- 
cording secretary, Bernaril Cunningham; 
treasurer, C. W. Schneider. 

The Lathers and Shiiiglers are two unions 
afiiliated with the Building Trades Council 
that, though young, are well organized, and 
have full control of their trade in the city. 
They have a large membership and strongly 
organized on the most conservative lines. 

The Electrical Workers are a steady lot of 
mechanics, and whom organized