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Western Historical Publishing Company 











ije=3jj N offering this volume to the public, its publishers can hardly hope that it will in all respects meet 
H H the approval of those whose golden opinions are so ardently desired. The accuracy and com- 
Efela pleteness of such a work depend not alone on the conscientiousness and care of the compilers, 

but more especially upon the amount and quality of the materials which happen to have been pre- 
served. For months the editorial force of the company has been searching with zeal and avidity for 
everything which could possibly throw light upon the past and present of Nez Perces, Idaho, Latah, 
Kootenai and Shoshone counties. Their search has not been as successful as they could wish, but they 
have done the best they could under the circumstances. It is thought that practically all printed matter 
which directly or indirectly related to the subject has been examined. Where no contemporaneous 
printed accounts could be found, the editors have been compelled to rely upon the testimony of pioneer 
settlers who took part in the events which they relate. In such cases they have, when possible, verified 
the statements of one man by those of another, knowing how treacherous and deceptive the memory 
frequently proves. But, with all vigilance, we can not feel sure that erroneous statements have not crept 
into the volume, and we feel constrained to invoke the kind charity of the reader to the faults he may 

The special histories of Latah and Kootenai counties were prepared by John M. Henderson alone; 
the general chapters on North Idaho and the special histories of Nez Perces, Idaho and Shoshone coun- 
ties by William S. Shiach, assisted by Harry B. Averill. 

The compilers have almost invariably been received with courtesy by those whom they have had 
occasion to approach, and to all who have in any way assisted, their sincere gratitude is hereby cordially 
extended. To make specific acknowledgements to everyone to whom they are due is impossible, but we 
must in a special way bear testimony to the kindly assistance rendered by the committees who have 
perused the manuscript histories of the different counties, giving us the benefit of their ripe knowledge 
and experience. 

Special acknowledgements are due the Lewiston Teller, the Lewiston Tribune, the Nez Perce 
News, the Idaho County Free Press, the Grangeville Standard, the Spokesman-Review, of Spokane, the 
Coeur d'Alene Sun, the Wallace Press, the North Idaho Star, the Moscow Mirror, the Rathdrum Tribune, 
and to the various other newspapers whose names are to be found in the chapter on the press, for the use 
of valuable files, without which a work of this character would be impossible. The congressional re- 
ports have given us valuable assistance, as have also the works of the various geologists who, under the 
direction of the department of the interior, have made geological and topographical surveys of various 
portions of north Idaho. Works in the Lewiston, Spokesman-Review and Wallace libraries have been 
pressed into service, and to the librarians of these libraries the thanks of the publishers is extended. 
They are also grateful to various state and county officials for courtesies cheerfully accorded in directing 
the compilers to sources of official information and in some instances making investigations for them. 


We, the undersigned, pioneer citizens of Nez Perces County, Idaho, hereby certify that we have read the manuscript his- 
tory of said county to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company with histories of the other counties of north 
Idaho; that we have called the attention of its author to such errors and oversights as our knowledge of events, gained by personal 
participation, has enabled us to detect, and that we have found it an accurate, impartial and comprehensive history, evidently the 
result of careful and extended research. 

Signed— James W. Poe, 

John P. Vollmer, 
Charles G. Kress. 
Lewiston, Idaho, June 1, 1903. 

We, the undersigned, pioneer citizens of Idaho County, hereby certify that we have read the manuscript history of said 
county to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company, together with histories of the other counties of north 
Idaho, and that we have called the attention of its author to such slight errors as our knowledge of events has enabled us to 
detect. We bear testimony that the said history gives evidence of being the result of extensive and careful research. We have 
found it an authentic, impartial and comprehensive treatise upon the subject and as such we accord it our unreserved com- 

Signed — James Witt, 

Charles P. Cone, 
A. F. Parker. 
Grangeville, Idaho, May 4, 1903. 

The undersigned, pioneer settlers of Shoshone County, Idaho, hereby certify that they have read the history of said county 
to be published with that of other counties of north Idaho by the Western Historical Publishing Company and have called atten- 
tion of its compilers to such slight errors as they noticed. They cheerfully testify that the work is, to the best of their knowledge 
accurate and comprehensive and that it is free from partiality and sectional or class bias. 

Signed— Edward H. Moffitt, 
Charles Manley, 
A. D. McKinlay, 

For the Coeur d'Alenes. 
I. B. Cowen (County Commissioner), 
For southern Shoshone County. 
Wallace, Idaho, July 25, 1903. 

We, the undersigned, pioneer citizens of Kootenai County, Idaho, have read the manuscript history of said county, to be 
published by the Western Historical Publishing Company. Long residence in the county, deep interest in its progress and active 
participation in many of the events which constitute the record of its development, enable us to judge fairly the merits of the work. 
From a literary standpoint, it is a most interesting narrative; in our judgment, also, it is accurate, impartial, and reliable, and 
as a standard history of the county we give it our unqualified endorsement. 

Signed— M. D. Wright, 
J. G. Brophy, 
A. W. Post. 
Rathdrum, Idaho, June 2, 1903. 

We, the undersigned, citizens of Latah County, Idaho, having been selected as a committee to pass judgment on the merits 
of the history of said county to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company do hereby certify as follows: 

We are pioneer residents of the county, have always taken especial interest in its development, and have been active par- 
ticipants in all events, the record of which constitutes its history. We have read the manuscript narrative of these events and it 
has our unqualified endorsement as a literary work of real merit. In the treatment of the subject it is impartial, accurate and re- 
liable, and is a standard history of Latah County from the date of its settlement to the present time. 

Signed— J. L. Naylor, 

Robert H. Barton, 
Samuel J. Langdon. 
Moscow, Idaho, July 27, 1903. 



Retrospective— Sixteenth Century Explorations in the Northwest— Eighteenth Century Discoveries— Early Commercial En- 
terprises — Astoria a British Possession— Repossessed by the United States— Superlative Absolutism of the Hudson Bay 
Company — Advent of Methodist Missionaries in the Northwest — The Oregon Controversy— Joint Occupancy Treaty Con- 
tinued — " Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" — Sacrifices of United States for Sake of Peace — Imminent Danger of War with 
Great Britain — Emperor William of Germany Arbitrates the Dispute 1 



Period of Placer Mining. 

Intangible Reeords of Early Gold Discoveries— Indian Legends Concerning Mysterious Treasure— Colonel E. D. Price Finds 

Gold on Clearwater River — Indian Opposition Prevents His Prosecution of Mining— Deluge of Humanity into Nez 

Perces Country— Indians Unwillingly Sign a Treaty— Steamboat Explorations in 1861 — Opening of Oro Fino and Oro 

Grande Mining Regions — Average Earnings of Placer Miners — Description of Salmon River Mines — Stampede to 

Pioneer Gulch — Indians Save Life of G. A. Noble — The Dalles Subjected to Mob Rule — The Two Mining Camps of 

Washington and Richmond — Social Conditions— Lawlessness Punished by Judge Lynch 


Political Organization and Passing Events. 
Portion of Nez Perce Reservation Laid Out as a Townsite in 1861— Rapid Settlement of the Country Brings Miners' Laws to 
the Front — Territorial Government of Washington Organizes Shoshone County— Political Agitation for New Territorial 
Boundaries— Lewiston the First Capitol of Idaho — Details of an Historic Crime— Desperado Lower Demolishes a Camera 
— Prompt and Effectual Action of Courts Disbands Vigilance Committees — Unpopularity of Union Sentiment in Southern 
Idaho — First Territorial Legislature of Idaho Convenes at Lewiston December 7, 1863 — Legality Denied and Case taken 
to the Supreme Court of the United States— Stampede from Southern Idaho to the Coeur d'Alenes— Early Railroad 
History — Earthquakes 

Nez Perce Indian War. 
Savages Face to Face with Law of the Survival of the Fittest— Scare in Indian Valley— Council of August 14, 1872— De- 
partment of Interior Prohibits White Settlement by Order Dated April 30, 1873— Local Effects of the Order— Dilemma 
of the Interior Department— Letter of Governor Grover— The Wallowa Reopened to Settlement— General O. O. How- 
ard's Order— Cattle King Crooks Sounds an Alarm— The Norton Massacre— The Salmon River Murders— Interviews with 
Those Who Had Lived in the Storm Center of the War— Indians Rout Perry's Cavalry— Death of Lieutenant Theller— 
Last Stand of Lieutenant Theller— Forty Per Cent of Perry's Command Left Dead on the Field— Lewiston Calls for Aid 
—Massacre on Camas Prairie— Criticism on Generalship Displayed in the Nez Perce War— Chief Joseph Complimented 
on His Leadership— Looking Glass and Chief Joseph Plan a New Campaign— Captain Perry Given Chief Command at 
Cottonwood — Trend of the War Decidedly in Favor of the Indians — Joseph Finally Driven Toward the Buffalo Country 
—General Gibbon Leaves Helena for the Front — Engages the Indians and Is Wounded— Discovery of Treachery on 
the Part of the Bannocks— General Miles Ordered to Pursue Joseph Toward Bear Paw Mountain— Surrender of Chief 


Annexation — Statehood — Railroad Projects. 

Growth and Development of Social Order— Idaho Legislature Memorializes Congress — Efforts to Annex Northern Idaho to 
Washington Territory— Stout Opposition of Residents of the Southern Portion of the Territory— Pailure of Congress in 
1886 to Admit Idaho to the Union — Annexation Movement on the Wane — Passage of the Omnibus Bill — Draft of New 
Constitution Prohibits Bigamy and Polygamy — Mormons Claim That Test Oath Is in Violation of United States Consti- 
tution — Question Taken to Federal Supreme Court — Transportation Problem — Construction of Northern Pacific Rail- 
way — Activity of the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company — Mysterious Pass in the Bitter Root Range of Mountains 
— Exploitations of the Oregon Short Line — Union Pacific Railroad Company in the Field — Clearwater Controversy — The 
LewistonRiparia Road 



Current History. 
Boundaries of the County — Tax Payers of the Early 'Seventies— Hard Times and Lack of Markets — Presence of Troops In- 
spires Feeling of Confidence— Year of 1879 One of Progress and Prosperity — Development of the County Under Trying 
Conditions — Summary of the Year 1881 — Murder of Chinamen in 1882 — General Miles Expresses Faith in the Nez Perce 
Indians— Efforts to Secure Removal of County Seat from Lewiston to Moscow — Establishment of State Normal School 
at Lewiston — Opening of the Nez Perce Indian Reservation— Explosion of the Steamer Annie Faxon — Memorable Mur- 
der Trial— Increase of Over Four Thousand in Population — Northern Pacific Railroad Company Extends Spokane and 
Palouse Branch to Lewiston — Nez Perces County Sends Troops to the Philippines — Gold Excitement of 1877— Roster of 
Pioneer Association — New County Destroyed Through a Clerical Error— Segregation .• 83 

Organic Act Creating Nez Perces County— Illegal Appointment of County Officials— Magruder Murder Trial— Democrats 
Capture All the Offices But One in 1868— Clash Between Parties on Question of Annexation— Vote on State Constitution 
—Republicans Memorialize Congress— Official Canvass of the Vote in 1888— Advent of Statehood— National Policies the 
Issue in Campaign of 1890— Organization of the People's Party in 1892— Brilliant Campaign in 1896— State Carried by 
the Fusionists— Official Vote 97 

Lities and Towns. 

Lewiston— Blossoms From a Canvas Town— Once a Portion of the Nez Perce Reservation— Incorporators are Hampered in 
Their Efforts— Indian Situation in 1877— High Water— Real Estate Rapidly Changes Hands— Irrigation Projects Com- 
municate an Impetus to Growth and Development— Sale of Street Improvement Bonds— Educational Facilities— Nez 
Perce— Morrow— Lenore— Fletcher— Mohler— Ho— Culdesac— Kamiah— Other Towns 107 


The Nez Perce Indians. 

Traditional and Shadowy History— Indians Secure Horses from New Mexico and California — Expedition of Lewis and Clark 
— Story of Wat-ku-ese — Advent of Fur Traders into the Northwest — Civilizing Force of the American Missionary- 
Adoption of Laws for Government of Indians in 1842— Schools and Religious Congregations— Moral Character of the 
People— Disregard for the Rights of White Men — Commanding Influence of Head Chief Halhaltlossot — Nez Perce In- 
dians Swindled by Representatives of the Government — Fort Lapwai Indian Training School — A Word Concerning the 
Later Missions 122 



Topography— Picturesque Scenes Which Greet the Eye — Nez Perce Uplands Especially Adapted to Agriculture — Net Profits 
from One Acre Exceed $700 — Rev. H. H. Spalding Plants the Vine and Fig Tree of Civilization — The Lapwai Basin — 
Culdesac — Craig's Mountain — Nez Perce Prairie — Statistics — Shipments of Vegetables Amount to Thousands of Pack- 
ages — Undeveloped Resources— Considered a Fruit Section — Grape Culture — The Idaho Pear — Climate — Stock Rais- 
ing—Educational Advantages 130 



Current History, i86i — 1879. 

Placer Mining — Captain Francois, Pioneer of Camas Prairie — Exploitations of Seth Jones — Early Experiments in Agricul- 
ture and High Prices Realized for Products — Inception of the Cattle Industry— First Location of County Seat at Flor- 
ence — People Administer Summary Punishment to Shumway Jim — Lynching of Peter Walters — Decline of Output of 
Placer Mining — Rise of the Patrons of Husbandry — Territorial Legislature Awards Camas Prairie to Idaho County — 
Mount Idaho Chosen as the County Seat— Beneficent Influence of Charity Grange — Inauguration of the Nez Perce Indian 
War— Roster of Idaho County Volunteers — The Sheep-Eaters' Country — Murder of Peter Dorsey — Lieutenant Catley 
Proceeds Against the Sheep-Eaters — Ignominious Retreat — Death of Lieutenant Rains — End of the Sheep-Eater War.... 387 

Current History, 1879 — 1903. 

Local Money Stringency— Raid on Cattle Thieves— Citizens Protest Against Return of Chief Joseph to Nez Perce Reserva- 
tion — Legislature Prescribes New County Boundaries — First Legal Execution in Idaho County — Mining Conditions — 
Year of 1887 a Prosperous One for Farmer and Stock Raiser — Great Depression Among the White and Chinese Miners 
in 1889— Organization of Company C, First Idaho National Guards — Heavy Snowfall in 1891 — Boundaries of the County 
Again Changed by the Legislature — County Seat Contest in 1892 — Abundant Harvest Ruined by Heavy Rains — Hard 
Times of 1893 Strike Camas Prairie— High, Hot Winds in 1894— Capture, Trial and Sentence of Highwaymen in 1897 
—Idaho County Sends Troops to the Spanish War— Discovery of the Buffalo Hump Mines in 1898— General Prosperity 
in 1901 398 


Earlier Records Lost in Scramble for Gold— Unconcern of Miners in Upbuilding a Stable Government— First District Court 
Opened in Florence in 1862— Earliest Claims for Water Rights— Official Vote of 1872— Campaign of 1878— Annexation 
Question Comes to the Front in 1888- County Seat Contest Enlivens Campaign of 1892— Populists Enter the Field the 
Same Year— Free Silver Platform Adopted by All Three Parties— Strenuous Campaign in 1896— Grangeville Chosen as 
the County Seat — Idaho a Doubtful County 410 

Cities and Towns. 

Grangeville— Origin and Organization— Early Educational Matters— Conflagration in 1895— Industrial Development— Pres- 
ent Status of Business— Cottonwood— Stites— Kooskia— Harpster— Whitebird— Mount Idaho— Elk City— Clearwater- 
Dixie— Forest— Keuterville— West Lake and Slate Creek— Other Towns 418 




Ideal Field for the Geologist — The Seven Devils — The Bitter Root Forest Reserve — Extensive Bodies of Agricultural Land 
in Idaho County — The Beautiful Camas Prairie — Scenery in the Salmon River Canyon— Indian Outbreak of 1877 — 
Explorations in the Black Canyon— The Mining District — Lindgren's Geological Report — The Goodenough Vein — 
Marshall Lake District — Perpetual Snow on Summit of Lake Creek Divide— Many Slightly Developed 
Claims — Thunder Mountain Region — Description of the Mineralization of This Section — The Bars of 
Salmon River — Copper Properties— Quartz Mining in the Elk District — Ancient Mining Section of Dixie — The 
Evergreen Group — The Buffalo Hump Syndicate— Stock Raising, Agriculture and Lumber Industries— Fruit Growing — 
Idaho County Possibilities for Manufacturing 




Formation of Territorial Government in 1863— Pioneer Settlements — Difficulties in Crossing the Clearwater — Early Remin- 
iscences of Hon. Willis Sweet — Danger from the Coeur d'Alene Indians— Bannock Indian War of 1878— Rapid Settle- 
ment of the Palouse Country— Fourth Session of the Territorial Legislature— O. R. & N. Railroad Reaches Moscow — 
Grand Celebration on Arrival of First Train — Quest of the Argonauts for Golden Treasure— The Hoodoo Mines — At- 
tempt to Remove County Seat — Question of Annexation — Scheme to Elect Two Sets of County Officials 581 

Organization and Subsequent Events. 

Latah County Organized by Congress— The Only Instance on Record — Text of the Act — Appointment of County Officers — 
Official Report of Initial Election— Population in 1890 — Political Campaign of That Year — Pioneers of Latah County — 
People's Party Enters the Political Arena — Financial Troubles — Changes for the Better— Political Campaign of 1894 — 
Educational Matters— Latah County in the National Campaign of 1896 — Patriotism of Latah County in the Spanish War 
—Prohibition Party Enters the Field in 1898— Tragedy of August 4, 1901— Prosperous Conditions 587 

Cities and Towns. 

Moscow — The Pioneer of the Valley — Energy of Man Overcomes Obstacles— Paradise Valley — Indian Troubles of 1877 — 
State University — Annexation Excitement Responsible for its Location — Curriculum — Faculty of the Institution — Ken- 
drick — Foundation of the Town -Conflagration of 1893 — Present Business Development — Genesee — Conditions Which 
Have Brought It From a Small Village to a Thriving Town — Troy — Serious Fire of 1893 — Juliaetta 606 


The Hills of the Palouse— Soil and Climate— Character of the Country— Seasons Conducive to Good Health— Principal 
Agricultural Industry— The "Big Red Apple of the Palouse" — Moscow Country — Wheat Industry — Abundant Yield of 
Vegetables — Tramways of the Potlatch Country — The Genesee Valley— Productiveness of Soil — Cattle Raising — "The 
Great American Hog" — Hay — Cereals 622 





Early Events. 

County Records— No Old Settlers' Organization— First Voyageurs— Aboriginal Tribes— Jesuit Missionaries— Father De Smet 
and Associates— Site of First Mission— Old Mission— The CoeurdAlene Indians— De Smet Mission— Expedition of Isaac 
I. Stevens — Survey of International Boundary — The Old Mullan Road — Old Trails and Ferries — Pioneers of the Early 
'Sixties— Old Mail Routes— Fort CoeurdAlene 753 


As a Political Division of the Territory. 

Early Political Affiliations— Creative Act of 1884 — Amendment of 1867 — County Organization and First Officers — Election of 
1882 — Financial Conditions — Northern Pacific Railroad— Discovery of Coeur d'Alene Mines — Early Courts — Early 
Steamers — Election 1884 — County Seat Contest 1885 — Erection of Court House — Short Crops — Property Valuation — U. 
S. Land Office— Annexation— Coeur d'Alene Branch N. P. R. R — Election 1886— Winter 1886-7— Population— Schools 
and Newspapers— Accident on Coeur d'Alene River 1887— Election 1888 768 

As a Political Division of the State. 

General Prosperity — Census of County — Great Northern Railroad — O. R. & N. R. R. — Lumber Industry — Political Campaign 
of 1892— Financial Panic 1893— High Water 1894— Election 1894— Valuation of Property— Populism— Priest River For- 
est Reserve — Spirit of Loyalty Displayed, 1898 — Company B, Idaho Volunteers — Clash Between Idaho and Washington 
Authorities — Total Assessment — Campaign 1898 — Kootenai Valley Railroad — Collection of Custom Duties at Porthill 
and Bonners Ferry — Salaries of County Officers — Discovery of Tyson Mines — Bonded Indebtedness— Census by Pre- 
cincts — Campaign 1900 — Construction of Bridges— Corporations — Assassination of Judge John C. Brady — Political Cam- 
paign 1902 — The Alberta and British Columbia Reclamation Company — Property Valuation 1902 — Miles of Railroad in 
County — Progress and Prospects — The Pioneers 771 


Rathdrum— Coeur d'Alene — Sandpoint— Harrison — Bonner's Ferry — Priest River — Post Falls — St. Maries— St. Joe — FerreJl — 
Hope — Clark's Fork — Porthill — Lakeview — Athol— Hauser— Camas Cove — Tyson — Santa — Fernwood— Emida — Clarkia — 
Granite— Ramsey— Cocolalla— Algoma— Sagle^ Panhandle— Kootenai— Oden— Pack River— Black Tail— Thornton- 
Cabinet — Leonia— Katka — Crossport— Moravia — Naples — Elmira — Colburn — Urencoe — LaClede — Albany Falls — New- . 
port — Coeland — Cataldo — Mission — Dudley — Lane — Medimont — Anderson — Lacon — Watts — Steamboat Landing — 
Squaw Bay — Idlewild — Weber — Mica — Len Landing — Bellgrove — Williams — Seneaquoteen 780 



Value of Education— Mission School in 1842— Pioneer Schools and Teachers of the County— But Few Log School Houses- 
County at First Contained But Two Districts— Sandpoint No. 3— Early Superintendents— Offices of Probate Judge and 
School Superintendent at First Combined, Later Separated— First Teachers" Association— First Institute— Early School 
Records— Statistics 1893— Effects of the Financial Panic— Independent Districts, Seven— Six Districts in the County 
—Statistics 1902— Districts Benefited by Railroads— Institute of 1902— Higher Education— Schools a Credit to the 
County 815 



Area — The Boundary Line — Elevations — Idaho-Montana Boundary — International Boundary — Geological Facts — Kootenai 
County Once On the Shores of the Sea— The Paths of Glaciers— Helps and Hindrances to Settlement and Development 
—Agriculture— Soil— Climate— Pioneer Farmers— Prices, 1880— Values— Live Stock— Patented Lands— Grain Output, 


1902— Horticulture— Orchards— Market Fair at Coeur d'Alene, 1895— Dairying— Flour Mills— Irrigation of Rathdrum 
Prairie— Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation— Indian Population— Agriculture and Stock Raising on the Reservation- 
Government Mills-Recommendation of U. S. Agent, Albert M. Anderson-Lumber Industry— Timbered Areas— Saw 
Mills and Lumber Companies— First Discovery of Gold— Letter from Captain John Mullan— Mining Sections of Koot- 
enai County-Railroad Mileage— New Roads-Scenic Superiority— Water Courses and Lakes-The St. Joe River— St. 
Maries— Coeur d'Aiene— Lake Coeur d'Alene— Spokane River— Rathdrum Prairie— Central Lake Region— Fish Lake 
Tsemini or Spirit Lake— Heyden Lake-Sullivan Lake-Hoodoo Lake— Cocalalla Lake— Mud Lake— Clark's Fork— 
Pend Oreille Lake and River— Kootenai River— Priest River Forest Reserve— Priest Lake and River— Sportsman's 
Paradise— Rare Opportunities for Investors and Home Builders 818 




Current History, i860— 1886. 

First County in Mineral Wealth— Discovery of Gold in Vicinity of Pierce City— The Moose Creek Mines— People of South- 
ern Shoshone County Disturbed by Indian Troubles— Home of Francis Carle is Fortified— Talk of County Disorganiza- 
tion in 1881— Letter of Lieutenant John Mullan— Who Discovered Gold on the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene?— Let- 
ter from John P. Vollmer— Spontaneous Growth of Eagle City— Stampede to Canyon Creek and Nine Mile Gulches- 
Rich Silver Lead Properties— Location of Many Groups on Canyon Creek— A Pierce City Tragedy 

Current History, 1886 — 1892. 

First Fatal Snowstorm and Avalanche in the Region — Railroad Projects — Construction of Telephone Lines — Increased 
Mining Activity — Tragedy in Government Gulch— Large Sums Expended in Construction of Roads — Important Sales of 
Mining Property — Phenomenal Growth of Wardner — Progress and Prosperity in 1889 — Railroad Right of Way Becomes 
Disputed Territory — Agitation for Removal of County Seat from Murray — Fatal Disaster at the Custer Mine Boarding 
House — Jail Delivery at Murray— Organization of the Mine Owners' Protective Association — Four Men Killed in the 
Black Bear Mine— Express Messenger Held Up and Robbed— Differences Between Miners and Mine Owners Over a 
Hospital 995 

Current History, 1892— 1903. 

Two Official Statements Concerning Troubles Between Mine Owners and Miners — Proposition Rejected by Unions — Armed 
Detectives Appear on the Scene — Mines Closed Down or Run Short-Handed — Encounter On June 11, 1892, Between 
Union Men and Guards of the Frisco Mill— Strikers Withdraw— Trouble Spreads to the Gem Mine— Miners Go to Ward- 
ner and Attempt to Blow Up a Concentrator — Martial Law Declared — Those Active in Uprising Compelled to Flee the 
Country — Cases Go to Federal Court — Hard Times and Panics of 1893 — Industrial Conditions Improve — More Fatal 
Snowslides — Canyon Creek Mines Resume Operations — Low Price of Lead and Silver in 1895 — Labor TrouDles on the 
Horizon— High Water at Murray— Agitation for a Division of the County — Masked Men Appropriate Rifles Belonging 
to the Local Militia Company of Mullan— Murder of Foreman Fred D. Whitney— Gold Belt Not Behind in the March of 
Progress — The Year 1898 One of Uninterrupted Prosperity — Outbreak of Spanish War Awakens Patriotism of Shoshone 
County People — Generous Offer of Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mine Owners — Roster of Company F — Demand of Miners' 
Union for Higher Wages— Destruction, in 1899, of the Bunker Hill & Sullivan Concentrator— Martial Law Declared and 
General Merriam Appears On the Scene— Paul Corcoran Convicted of Murder in the Second Degree— Issuing of Per- 
mits to Work— Extracts From Report of Congressional Committee— Political Interest Centers in Southern Portion of the 
County — Murder of Eugene Klein — Highway Robbery on Murray Road— President Roosevelt Visits Wallace 1001 



Organization of County Government — First Board of County Commissioners — Creation of Florence Precinct — Many Office 
Holders Resign and go to the Mines in 1862— Election of 1864— Decrease of County's Voting Strength in 1874 — Election 
of 1880— Discovery of Coeur d'Alene Mines Transfers Political Power to North Shoshone County — Creation of Three 
New Precincts in 1884 — Mormon Question the Issue of 1886 — County Seat Contest in 1888 — Triumph of People's Party 
in 1894— Republican Party Goes to Pieces in Shoshone County in 1896 — Close Vote Between Republicans and Demo- 
crats in 1900— Republicans Carry Shoshone County 1016 


Cities and Towns. 

"Placer Center" the First Name of Wallace— Colonel W. R.Wallace the Founder of the City That Bears His Name— Suffers 
Defeat in the Office of the Department of the Interior — His Statement Concerning the Matter — Lot Jumping — Report 
of Governor Stevenson — Alexander D. McKinlay the Earliest Pioneer of Wallace — History of the County Seat — De- 
struction of Wallace by Fire — Banking History — County Seat Contest — Sketch of Wardner — Discovery of the Bunker 
Hill & Sullivan Mines — Rapid Growth of the Town — Present Status — Story of Pierce City— Orofino— Mullan— Murray 
— Kellogg — Burke — Gem— Kingston — Weippe— Delta — Thiard — Greer — Ahsahka — Lenore 1026 


Boundaries of Shoshone County — General Contour — Climatic Conditions — Conditions and Possibilities of the Coeur d'Alenes 
—List of Minerals Found in the County— " Tailings " or "Concretes"— Geological Formation— The North Fork Region 
—Beautiful Weippe Prairie— Discovery of the Pierce City Mines— Outlook for Lumbering— Eastern Canyon of the Clear- 
water — Mines and Mining— Testimony of W. H. Ross — Output of Coeur d'Alene Silver-Lead Mines — Original Discov- 
ery of Mineral— Wonderful Canyon Creek District— Nine Mile District— Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mine— Senator Hey- 
burn Explodes a Myth — The Tiger-Poorman Mine — Mines of Mullan — Copper Properties — The Paragon Group — The 
Standard — Mammoth Mining Company — The Empire State — Hecla and Hercules — Pierce City Mining District — 
Crescent and Santiago Properties— Oro Fino, Oro Grande and French Creek — The Murray Gold Belt — Eagle City — Dis- 
covery of the Mother Lode— How They Watched the Golden Slab— The Golden Chest— All Along Prichard and Beaver 
Creeks — Advent of Gold Dredges — Educational Interests of Shoshone County 104S 



The Press of North Idaho. 

Pioneer Journalism— The Golden Age— Editor Favourite Establishes the Radiator— Alonzo B. Leland— The Idaho Signal— 
Lewiston Teller— Destroyed by Fire— Nez Perce News— Aaron F. Parker— Lewiston Tribune— Idaho Free Press— The 
Camas Prairie Chronicle— The Grangeville Standard— Newspaper Changes — "Dead Papers" — Cceur d'Alene Nugget — 
Editor Adam Aulbach, the Veteran Journalist of the Cceur d'Alenes— Wallace Free Press— The Dunn Brothers— 
The Wallace Democrat— Editor J, R. Sovereign and the Idaho State Tribune— Cceur d'Alene Mining Record— Orofino 
Papers— Pierce City Miner and Wardner News— Mullan Tribune— Journalism in Kootenai County— Latah County Press 
—Moscow Mirror— North Idaho Star— Times-Democrat— Other Papers L205 


A North Idaho Indian Massacre— Early Days of Florence— Reminiscent— 1877— Mooney's Adventure— Death of "Stumpy 
Wicks"— A Shoshone County Bear Story— Pioneer Baby of Florence— Early Days In Idaho— A Touching Incident— 
Cceur d'Alene's Pioneer Children — Indian Eloquence— Pioneer Yuletide — "Nigger Prairie" — Expensive Terpsichorean 
Sport— Robinson's Lost Mines — Moonlight on Lake Cceur d'Alene— A Christmas Carol — The Magic of Placer Gold — 
Salmon River — Idaho— Pioneer Bar of the Cceur d'Alenes — Early Days in Moscow 1220 


A Glimpse of the Kootenai near Bonners Ferry 392 

A Portion of Lake Pend Oreille 427 

A View of Lake Coeur dAlene 796 

Benedict Ranch at the mouth of Whitebird, the scene of Indian atrocities in 1877 107 

Buildings of the Idaho University at Moscow 610 

Catholic church built on Coeur dAllene river at Old Mission in 1853 by the Indians and 

Jeusit Missionaries. Wooden pegs were used instead of nails to put it together. . . 64 

Chief Joseph 70 

East View of Clearwater Battle Ground, where thirteen United States soldiers and twenty- 
three Indians were killed on July 11, 1877 754 

Farm of David R. Davis 720 

Foster Monument commemorating a scene in the Nez Pesces war of 1877 64 

Hieroglyphics on the shores of lake Pend Oreille. Scientists have not yet deciphered their 

meaning . . . , 754 

International Boundary Stone near Porthill. David McLaughlin, one of the first settlers 
in the valley, and son of Dr. John M. McLaughlin, governor of the Hudson's Bay 

Company 796 

Luna House of Lewiston. Taken about 1868 107 

Original cabin of Richard Divine, the first victim of the Indians, killed June 13, 1877 48 

Residence of Homer A. Thomas 700 

Residence of Washington Wolheter 696 

Soldiers' Lookouts overlooking Whitebird canyon in the war of 1877 392 

The buildings used as Governor's headquarters and Capitol of the territory of Idaho in 

1863, still standing in Lewiston 33 

The ranch where H. Elfers, Henry Beckroge and R. S. Bland were killed by the Indians, 

June 13, 1877 52 

Too-Lah, the friendly Nez Perces squaw, who rode to Florence from the Salmon river, 
warned the whites of the hostile outbreak of the Indians, and brought twenty-six 

miners to the rescue 60 

Mew on the Snake near Lewiston 33 

Whitebird Battle Ground where thirty-six United States soldiers were killed on June 17, 

1877 427 




Abel, William H 156 

Adams, Milo H 208 

Adams, Schuyler J 157 

Addington, Oscar 195 

Altmillar, Jacob 359 

Anderson, Edward F 324 

A.ytch, Benjamin F 307 

Babcock, Ross S 153 

Bacon, Charles A 260 

Baird, Fzra 261 

Baker, Andrew 164 

Baker, Daniel 329 

Banks, Absalom B 302 

Banks, James W ■ 154 

Bashor, Benjamin F 261 

Bashor, George W 345 

Beall, Thomas B 382 

Bean, Esli W 297 

Beeman, Ruf us H 256 

Beloit, George W 361 

Benson, Charles D 305 

Berry, John C 163 

Berry, Lowry L 258 

Berry, Thomas H 256 

Bielby, John 251 

Billow, Isaac S 234 

Billups, John W 160 

Black, David 348 

Black, Henry F 352 

Black, John H 251 

Blackinton, William M 337 

Blair, William M 373 

Blewett, John L 184 

Bliesner, Charles 223 

Blume, Jacob 162 

Bofferding, Renny J 378 

Bollinger, William 246 

Book, Peter 187 

Bounds, James L 142 

Bowlby, Wilson 233 

Bowman, James D 151 

Boyd, James W 185 

Boyer, Alva 180 

Boyer, Calvin 237 

Bradbury, Aaron 357 

Brammer, George W 216 

Brammer, John Henry 374 

Brammer, William 369 

Brasch, John 334 

Briggs, Edson D 153 

Brocke, Charles H 308 

Broncho, Frank 141 


Brooks. Seneber S 307 

Brower, Len L 190 

Buechler, Mathias 154 

Bunnell, Charles C 282 

Buove, William 146 

Burns, Thomas J 381 

Butler, Thomas M 283 

Butler, William C 177 

Caldwell. William A 140 

Chambers, Ulvssis S 215 

Chandler, Frank 205 

Chapman, Charles E 304 

Chapman, Clyde D 281 

Chapman, David L 215 

Chapman, E. Clay 221 

Chapman, George A 170 

Chase ; Elgee C 245 

Chasteen, James M 207 

Chesley, Oscar B 270 

Christenson, Andrew 167 

Church, David B 149 

Church. Hiram E 148 

Clark, Louis 200 

Clark, Philander H 362 

Clayton, William S 364 

Cleveland, Ben D 349 

Cleveland, Presley P 362 

Cleveland. Robert M 358 

Click, Orie W 320 

Clugston, Warren 375 

Colby, Cassius W 217 

Cole, Benjamin L 278 

Cole. Cassius M 305 

Cooley, Henry D 301 

Cordiner, Arthur S 289 

Craig, Joseph L 160 

Crawford, Jervis R 319 

Crawford, Samuel M . 155 

Crews, Bryant M 309 

Crow, William 194 

Crumpacker, William E 335 

Cunningham, William 147 

Curry, ' Theodore 369 

Curtis, Julius E 23S 

Daggett, Frank S 163 

Daggett, Walter E 340 

Dale, Charles H 166 

Dale, George P 166 

Daniels. Edward 212 

Davis, Granville 290 

Davis. John B 190 


Davison, William 11 278 

Day, Joseph H 201 

Decker, Frank J 291 

Delsol, Louis 203 

De Moude, Martin D 330 

Dennis, James 175 

Deschamps, William 318 

Devlin. Owen 254 

Dickinson, Joackiam L 194 

Dickinson, Oren L 224 

Dieterle, Fred 347 

Dill, Benjamin 154 

Dill, George W 292 

Dill, John 154 

Dixon. William R I9S 

Doggett, Sidney J 295 

Dowd, Charles 221 

Dowd, Douglas V 210 

Dowd. Matthew 221 

Dunwell, Dennis W. C 144 

Durette, Frank 217 

Easter, Levi C 179 

Eastman, William A 231 

Eby, Samuel M 293 

Edwards, Toseph F 276 

Ellis, Pitts 342 

Erickson, Andrew J 320 

Frickson. Erick 320 

Evans, Tames II 338 

Evans, Orin 34S 

Evans, William M 272 

Everts, Charles W 202 

Fairley, Earl E 247 

Fairley, Oliver L 3°° 

Fanning, Sherman W 252 

Fansler, Jesse H 273 

Farmer, Alanson 3!° 

Faunce, Charles E 330 

Ferrall, Garret H 13S 

Ferry, Charles E 310 

Fike; Christian J 294 

Fish, David 355 

Flaig. Christian 298 

Ford. William 3S0 

Fountain, Henry K 241 

Freeburn, Jacob E 301 

Fritz, James A 210 

Frost, Electus M 171 

Frye, Charles M 206 

Gage, William H 3<>5 



Garner, William P 237 

Gaylord, A. C -44 

Gertie, Henry J 197 

Gertje, Tohn H 385 

Gibbs. William R 168 

Gifford, Seth 363 

Gifford, Wilfred L 340 

Giles, Charles 335 

Gil'and. George 174 

Gillmore, Simeon J 269 

Gilmore, George W 164 

Glass', Thomas C 235 

Goffinet, Eugene F 373 

Goldsmith, Martin L 192 

Graham, John D 324 

Granz, John C 164 

Green, Charles W T«5 

Green, William J 156 

Gregory, Austin D 3&7 

Grinstead, Charles W 302 

Gritman, Fred 254 

Grostein, Louis 255 

Gwin, Jacob N 274 

Hadford. Gust 376 

Hadford, John 242 

Hadford, Louis 220 

Haeberle, Jacob 187 

Hall, George S.. - . 198 

Hamilton, Charles L 144 

Hanlon, Thomas 352 

Hardman, Albert C 370 

Hardwick, William D 336 

Harr, Joseph 355 

Harrington. Jason M 145 

Harris, Frank E 170 

Harris Edison E 245 

Hawthorn, John W 371 

Haynes, Loren L 206 

Heberly, Charles W 205 

Hegel, Edward S 297 

Heitfeld, Anton 151 

Helt, John W 381 

. Henderson, George M 367 

Hendren. Jefferson D 204 

Hendrickson, Erick 323 

Henry, Noble 1S2 

Herres, Louie J 241 

Hilton. Frank W 226 

Hobart, James L 146 

Hobson, John W 188 

Hoffman. Charles 165 

Hogue, J. Shannon 189 

Holliday, George T 216 

Holliday, William P 327 

Holt. Samuel 2/9 

Hosley, Herbert T 302 

Huber. Andrew 209 

Huckabav, Robert E. L 19S 

Hunt, Warren P 37° 

Inghram, John F 240 

Inghram, Robert L -. 240 

Ingle, Charles S 156 

Ingle, William A 171 

Isaman, Samuel G 353 

Jacks. Benjamin F 264 

Jacks, James S 350 

Jackson, John C 315 

Jacques, Stephen 140 

Jarbo, Godfrey 326 

John, David E 151 

Johnson, Adams G 2X7 

Johnson, Andrew C 238 


Johnson. Andrew M 149 

1, Henry 341 

Johnson, Miles S 266 

Johnson, Oliver : 143 

Johnson. Philip 241 

Johnson, Silas 225 

Johnson, Stephen 332 

Johnson, William F 161 

Johnson, Wyley T 259 

Johnson, Zephaniah A 224 

Johnston. Thomas G 231 

Julian. Frank W 196 

June, Peter 306 

Kachelmeir, Alois .225 

Kammers, Adam 286 

Keenev. Elijah X 1S4 

Keith, Hollis W 372 

Keller. Frank 198 

Kelly, M. A 204 

Kemper, Frank A 298 

Kern, Willie E 141 

Killinger, John W 255 

King, Thomas D 143 

King, William H 349 

Kinsman, Harrv D 230 

Kirby Philip R 183 

Kn-liN . Thomas 344 

Knowlton, Lafayette 197 

Kouni, Michael 383 

Kroutinger, Alfred W 271 

Lacey, Pearl C 359 

LaDow, Thomas H 298 

Lambert, James 239 

Larkee, John C 158 

Larson, August 223 

Larson, Charles 295 

Leach, Eli A 318 

Leachman, John F 21S 

LeBaron, William 337 

Lee, Harold L 303 

Leeper, Charles A 257 

Leeper, Clarence E 354 

Leggett. Oaky W 374 

Lenz, John G 325 

Lewis. Tohn H 259 

Little. Charles W 363 

I.ivengood, John 169 

Lockridge, Samuel 149 

Lough, Isaac N 343 

Lough, John T 355 

Lowary, Samuel E 361 

Lowry, David FI 292 

Lucas, Ezekiel 213 

Lucas, Lee 236 

Lydon, James R 269 

Mabbott, Ernest C wo 

Mabbott, Thomas J. S 288 

Mael, Amos .' 351 

Malmoe, Martin B 234 

Manning, Fred M 214 

Manning. George A 262 

Markwell, Charles A 291 

Mathison, Chris 159 

Marker, James 243 

Markham, Samuel J 339 

Marshall, Abraham J 331 

Marshall. Samuel W 2J3 

Martin, Joel D 191 

Martin. William B 193 

Maynard, Frank, Jr 342 

Maynard, Thaddeus T 177 

Mays, Lee 253 

PA' . E 

McCarty, Alva T 220 

McCoy, Mason S 196 

McCutehen, Alexander 316 

McFadden, James W 276 

McGee, John M 383 

Mclntyre, Thomas C 180 

McKenna, Tohn 17S 

McWillis, Lonzo 226 

Meek, Courtney W 322 

Meek, Joseph L 168 

Meek, Joseph L., Jr 155 

Menges, Charles A 242 

Merritt. Dexter D ' 357 

Mervvn, William T 161 

Miles. Charles C 283 

Miller, Alexander 293 

Miller, Alfred E 201 

Miller, Christopher C 315 

Miller. Curtis 320 

Miller, Norton B 330 

Miller. Perry E 317 

Miller. Rufus B 277 

Miller. Samuel K 179 

Mills, Arthur J 176 

M inert, Frederick M 37S 

Misner, Arthur E 214 

Mockler, Thomas M 233 

Morgan Henry A 167 

Morris, Charles E 173 

Morris, John B 257 

Morris, Mason l8r 

Morse, Samuel S 303 

Moser, Robert E 35S 

Mote. Charles W 299 

Mounce, Eben 265 

Mounce, Jasper N 346 

Mounce, J. Smith 152 

Mowry, Jacob H 290 

Moxley, Thomas C 207 

Mucken, George 172 

Mustoe, Albert 3S3 

Mustoe, Henry 385 

Mustoe, Lewis W 281 

Mustoe, William 189 

Nellsen, John 150 

Nellsen, Simon 155 

Nelson, Commodore B 267 

Nelson, Frank 222 

Nelson, Horace W 265 

Nelsi 'ii. John M 347 

Nelson. Oscar 378 

Newdiard, Charles C 159 

Newhard, Charles C Jr 162 

Nichols, Elmer D 209 

Northeutt, Edward J 176 

Norton; Cyrus 157 

Nosbisch, Jacob 358 

Nugent, Owen 376 

Nye, Michael N 307 

Oderkirk. Albert 2ir 

Olsen, Ole 343 

Olson, Erlan 210 

Orbison, J. Telford 213 

Pahl, George 235 

Palmer, Benoni 386 

Parker. Ernest L 218 

Patterson. Samuel 139 

Peden. William M 27S 

Pelton, Oscar 211 

Pennell. Robert L 247 

Peterson, I. C 147 

Philipi, John J 252 



Phinney, Samuel 332 

Picart, Alexis 380 

Pliter. George W 227 

Pollock, Alaxander 319 

Pomeroy, Francis F 325 

Pomeroy, John F 327 

Pool, Solomon J 370 

Porter, Hugh 341 

Porter, Samuel 364 

Potter, David W 260 

Potter, Lattin L 178 

Powell, John H 312 

Powers, John F 271 

Preisinger, Ferdinand B 235 

Pribhle, G. E 279 

Princ, F. B 169 

Puntenney, Charles S 322 

Rainville, Joseph 229 

Ramev. William J 285 

Ratcliffe, I. N 147 

Ratcliffe, William E 250 

Rawnsley, Joseph 310 

Reese, William B 275 

Reeves, Enoch S 365 

Renshaw, Robert H 326 

Reynold, Thomas F 386 

Richardson, Aaron J 222 

Richardson, Amos K 158 

Richardson, Caleb W 219 

Richardson, George L 223 

Riggers, Henry 373 

Riley, William J 166 

Robbins, Andrew E 169 

Roberts, George A 367 

Robnett, Jennie INI 262 

Rogers, Alvah T > 359 

Rogers, Frederic S 179 

Rogers, Henry J 306 

Rogers, Reuben 384 

Root. Emerson T 199 

Rosse, Theophilus F 204 

Rowe, Lee J 334 

Ruchert, Fred 274 

Ruddell, George H 230 

Ruddell, William L 228 

Rupe, Smith 377 

Sampson, Charles C 330 

Sanders, Lewis 263 

Sanford, John L 317 

Saunders, Charles C 202 

Schaefer, Jacob 244 

Schattner, Louis D 270 

Schildman, Henry H 141 

Schluetcr, Theodore 17^ 

Schnebly, William E 268 

Schultz, Joseph A 232 

Schwartz, Charles 158 

Scott, Tsaac 215 

Scott, James R 190 

Sears, Fred B 249 

Setlow, Andrew 3S2 

Shaffer, Joseph E 313 

Sharp, Manley 1 186 

Shaw, James 188 

Shawley, William F 313 

Shelburrt, Hardy W 252 

Sheppard, Charles J 329 

Shortlidge, Allen J 375 

Simmons, John B 310 

Simmons, Joseph S 300 

Simmons, Lewis A 314 

Simmons, William H 369 

Skelton, Arthur 275 

Skinner, William II 266 

Skow, Nels P : 282 

Small, Ira [89 

Smith, George A 200 

Smith, Hilbert B 2S0 

Smith, Phillip S 139 

Smith. Robert Til- 
Smith, William A [86 

Snyder, Mi irtimer A 263 

South wick, Stephen R 227 

Spekker, Staas 379 

Soensley, Victor 281 

Spivy, Elra L 181 

Spivy, Minor 182 

Springston, John T 219 

Squier, Hazen 368 

Stach, Joseph 300 

Stacy, Arthur S 243 

Staley, Abraham L 328 

Stanley, Horace 269 

Starcher, Lafayette 331 

Starner, Daniel S 333 

Stearns, Clay M 311 

Steel, Wesley 308 

Steele, Major J 3S0 

Steele, Robert H 360 

Stellmon, Charles F 332 

Stellmon, George W 191 

Stellmon, John F 237 

Stellmon, Melvin S 218 

Stephenson, Thomas 230 

Stevens, DeWitt 321 

Stevens, George G 321 

Stevens, George W 339 

Stevens, John D 341 

Stevens, Lewis D 296 

Stevenson, William 250 

Stoddard, William E 174 

Stoneburner, Joseph W 172 

Stranahan, Clinton T 142 

Strouse, Jay W 344 

Sullivan, Thomas 234 

Summers, Henry T 206 

Swenson, Swen 1 3§4 

Taber, James M 377 

Tannahill. George W 246 

Tatko, George E 303 

Tavis, William 148 

Tefft. Bertram W 273 

Tellier, Isaac 287 

Testerman, William A 248 

Thain, John 183 

Thatcher, William 368 

Thomas, Charles D 294 

Thomas, John W 370 

Thompson, Clara J 346 

Thompson, Joseph A 229 

Thompson, S. Leslie...: 152 

Thompson, Thomas H 304 

Thompson, William L 172 

Thomson, David 146 

Thornton, Leon M 338 

Thornton, Orville G 239 

Tiede, Charles R 366 

Tiede, Herman L 372 

Timberlake, William E 267 

Timmons, William 177 

Trimble, Hank 25S 


Triplett, Jefferson D 2S4 

Tumelson, Albert E 350 

Tumelson, Jesse E 351 

Tumelson, William O : . . 34S 

Turner. James 326 

Tyler, James S 32S 

Underwood, George W 249 

Unzicker, John S 190 

Utt, John H 234 

Utt, Rufus W 354 

Vadney, Emanuel 197 

Vaver, Alexander H 2 no 

Vollmer, John P 137 

Waide, William C 27r 

Walker, Charles 1 2 S6 

Waim. Charles A 371 

Wann, James H ' 272 

Warlick, Lawson W ;66 

Warren, Felix I50 

Waters, Eddv H 19, 

Watts, Edward F. 3S g 

Wayne, George \Y 1 59 

Webber, Jerry K s r 

Weeks, Elmer , 2 , 

W •:!!■- Richard ~S 

Whaley, Albert D 351 

Wheat, Tames M 202 

Whitcomb, Tames W 248 

White, George W. S ui 

White, J,,hn W xSa 

White. William «? 

Whitson, William N 186 

\\ [ggin, Edward L 202 

Wtldenthaler, Seraphin 26S 

Wilks, John V 299 

Williams, Albert 204 

Williams, Charles E 314 

Williams, David S 345 

Williams, Edward G 277 

Williams, resse I' 173 

Willis. Frank B 247 

Willows, James F -. 162 

Wilson, Beniamin E 14=; 

Wilson, Edward B 2S9 

Wilson, Nathaniel 323 

Wilson, William J 309 

Wimpy. Thomas J 212 

Wing. Daniel M 196 

Wisner, Albert (i 288 

Wissink. John 231 

Wolfe, John R 253 

Wood, Joseph P 228 

Woodin, Frank W 356 

Wortman, Charles B 203 

Wright, Charles W 273 

Wright, Davis S 296 

Wright, John G 236 

Wright, Nahaniel T 333 

Wright. Robert M 284 

Wright, William A 166 

Wright, William T 165 

Wright, William W 175 

Wyman, George II 285 

Wyman, Philip 194 

Yager, Walter E 379 

York. Daniel W 295 

Young. William H 2S0 

Ziver, Joseph 309 



Beeman, Rufus II 256 

Benson, Charles D 304 

Benson, Mrs. Charles D 304 

Bielby, Tohn 248 

Billups, "John W 160 

Billups, Mrs. Tohn W 160 

Black, Henry F 352 

Black, Mrs. Henry F 352 

Black, John H 248 

Blewett, John L 184 

Blewett, Mrs. Lily M 184 

Bowlby, Wilson 2V 

Boyd, James W 184 

Chapman, Charles E 304 

Chapman, Mrs. Charles E 304 

Clark, Louis 200 

Click, Orie W 3^0 

Dunwell, Dennis W. C 144 

Erickson, Andrew J 320 

Ericksoti. Erick 320 

Evans. William M 272 

Evans. Mrs. William M 272 

Fansler, Jesse H 272 

Faunce, Chales E 336 

Gage, William II 304 

Gage, Mrs William H 304 

Goldsmith, .Martin L 191 

Goldsmith, Mrs. Martin L 191 


Green, Charles W 184 

Green, Mrs. Charles W 184 

Hanlon, Thomas 35-2 

Hendrickson, Erick 320 

Holhdav, George T 216 

Hunt, Warren P 3/6 

Inghram, John F 240 

Inghram, Robert L 240 

Isaman, S. G 35- 

Jacks, Benjamin F 264 

Johnson, William F 160 

Johnson, Mrs. William F 160 

Johnson, Zephaniah A 224 

Jutte, Peter 3°4 

Keeney. Elijah N 184 

Keeney, Mrs. Elijah X 184 

Leeper, Charles A 257 

Malmoe, Martin B 232 

Martin, Joel D 191 

Martin, William B 791 

Meek, Courtney W 320 

Meek, Joseph L 168 

Mockler, Thomas M 232 

Mounce, J. Smith 152 

Mounce, Mrs. J. Smith 152 

Xorthcutt, Edward J 176 


Powell, John LI 312 

Puntenney, Charles S 320 

Ratcliffe, William E 24S 

Schultz, Joseph A 232 

Sears, Fred B 248 

Squier, Hazen 368 

Stellmon, George W 191 

Stevens, DeWitt 320 

Stevens, George G 320 

Stevenson, William 24S 

Tefft, Bertram W 272 

Tefft, Mrs. Bertram W 272 

Testerman, William A 248 

Thompson, Thomas H 304 

Underwood, George W 248 

Vollmer, John P 137 

Wann. James H 272 

Wells. Richard 208 

Wells. Mrs. Richard 208 

Whitcomb, James W 248 

Whitcomb, Mrs. James W 248 

White, John W 184 

Wisner, Albert G 288 

Wright, Charles W 272 

Wright. Mrs. Charles W 272 

Young. William II 2S0 


Adkison, John R 507 

Adsley, Elijah 557 

Ailshe, James F 550 

Alkire, George S 538 

Aram, Tames H . 483 

Arbogast, H. S 539 

Aschenbrenner. Peter 505 

Austin, Jesse G 468 

Bales, Thomas XV 494 

Hartley, A. D 455 

Beede, John E 536 

Bentley. Orren 518 

Bernthal, Frederic 503 

Bernthal, John M 503 

Bibb, Robert M 544 

Bishop, Alfred II 570 

Bowman, William W 529 

Brackett, Charles D 466 

Brady, Hugh 501 

Briggs, Phcenix R 571 

Brockenour, Peter 538 

Brown, Benjamin P 463 

Brown, Charles F 563 

Brown, Charles F 504 

Brown, Frank 579 

Brown, Loval P S74 

Brown, Rollin C 560 

Brown, Walter L 4/5 


Brown, William G .• 543 

Bruner, Lewis A 531 

Buchannon, James si/ 

Burgdorf, Fred C 575 

Butcher, Eben W 540 

Calder, Henry R 472 

Campbell. Charles M 464 

Canfield, Oscar F 486 

Carlson, Andrew J 525 

Carothers, Thomas II 556 

Carver, Amos 552 

Casady, William H 516 

CastL. Levi 560 

Chadwick, Lawrence C 489 

Chamberlain, J. B 542 

Chase, Edwin 1 507 

Clarke. Wellington M 477 

Clay, Hershel H 554 

Cone, Charles P 549 

Conklin, George N 457 

Coon, Abram ;;_' 

Cooper, Richard P 546 

Coram, William 493 

Corbett, Paul F 481 

Cowgill. George A 49S 

Craig, Stonewall J 470 

Cramiilit, John T 466 

Cramer, Silas M 487 

Crea, John W 497 

Crosby, Burt L 5^0 

Curtis, A. Fred 5^> 

Dallas, Green W 462 

Davis, Fred A 323 

Davis. Theodore E. . . . : 470 

Deardorff, Everett G 470 

Deasy, John 535 

DeHaven, James 502 

DePartee, Roy 55S 

Dillinger, Samson 550 

Dixon, Jesse M 488 

Doss, John C 490 

Doumecq, John 524 

Duncan. George W 466 

Dunham. Charles W 480 

Dunn, Joseph W 545 

Durant, Magnus J 497 

Eckert, Tacob L 552 

Eckland. Telon E 518 

Lifers, Henry J 451 

Filers, Henry J., Jr 535 

Eller, Joseph M 482 

Evans, Oscar M 461 

Farmer. Jesse 530 

Fenn, Frank A 457 



Ferree, James E 490 

Fitzgerald, Edmond 547 

Flynn, Charles 471 

Fockler, Joshua S 527 

Forsmann, John B 531 

Foster, Albert D 579 

Gage, Marcus E 555 

Callaway, Albert 469 

Callaway, George M 510 

Gallaway, Sherman S 47 2 

Gal la way, Thomas B 544 

Garber, Jacob C 510 

Gee, Everett 509 

Getty, George R 541 

Gill, Toseph G 515 

Girton, T. W 509 

Goldstone, Samuel 52S 

Gould, Norman 478 

Gregory, Charles S 516 

Greving, Henry A 484 

Guseman, James S 464 

Hadorn, John 560 

Hale, John T 486 

Hall, John C 579 

Hall, William A 511 

Hansen, Andrew 571 

Hanson, John A 519 

Harris William H 532 

Hartman, Richard H 57G 

Hattabaugh, Isaac C 525 

Hawk, Frank M 451 

Hawley, George V 483 

Haydiii, Patrick E 485 

Henley, Richard B 475 

Hickerson, Walter 504 

Himmelspak, Joseph 453 

Hoffman, Loran D 468 

Hogan, Frank 526 

Hogan, William 562 

1 [olbrook, Jacob E 467 

HolJenbeak, John T 559 

Holt, Charles E 553 

Howe, Mark 508 

Irwin. Isaac M 546 

Irwin, Richard L 554 

Jarrett, Mark V 544 

Johnson, Ed 496 

Johnson, Hannibal F 566 

Johnson, John T 548 

Jones, Robert H 494 

Jones, Seth 546 

Keefer, Christopher F 501 

Keith. John W 453 

Kiiicaul, Alvis A 577 

King, Amandus P 489 

King, Peter 510 

Knorr, Benjamin D 54S 

Lamb, Ellsworth D 537 

Lamore, Gilbert N 472 

Lanningham, Albert C 495 

Large, Sam 574 

Leach, Patrick H 541 

Lee, Cyrus M 514 

Levander, Edgar W 569 

Levander, John 567 

Libbey, Samuel R 48r 

Lynn, Ivan D 568 


Lyon, John 454 

Mackie, John 57S 

Magee, Levi 506 

Mahuriri, Stephen K 469 

Markham, Harry V 500 

Martin, Morgan L 534 

Martin, Mortimer S 508 

Mattox, William W 471 

McConnell, James R 517 

McDermid, Hugh M 510 

McFadden. Henry J 452 

McGuire, P"erry A 473 

McKinney, Joseph A 477 

McKinzie, Caswell T 511 

McMillen, Francis E 580 

McNamee, Clay 532 

McNutt, William C 521 

Mever, Henrv 492 

Miller, James L 487 

Mills, David T 539 

Moberg, Olof P 5-22 

Moore, Andrew W 578 

Morns. Manuel C 459 

Morrison, Joseph T 49 1 

Morton, Lucius L 549 

Moughmer, George W 484 

Kevin, John '. . 573 

Nickel. Thomas W 534 

Nugent, Robert 476 

Nurss, Albert F 5°9 

Odle, George R 573 

Oliver, Erastus W 537 

Oliver, James N 563 

Olson, John 481 

Ott, Lawrence 5 T 3 

Overman, Cyrus 551 

Overman, John 1 553 

Parker, Aaron F 562 

Paul!. William 536 

Pearson; Frank R 514 

Pearson, William C 478 

Pell. Richard E 577 

Perkins, James E 563 

Person. Nils 483 

Persson, Andrew 456 

Peterson. Swen J 482 

Pettibone, Nathaniel B 565 

Pfeufer, Joseph 565 

Phillips. Lincoln- L 565 

Poe, George C 462 

Powers, Frank M 456 

Poyneer, Harrv D 554 

Price, Edson G 532 

Prichard, Philip S 548 

Pulse. John J 557 

Putnam, George E 470 

Ready, Peter H 564 

Remington. James J 479 

Reynolds. Wintield S 576 

Rhett, Walter S 573 

Rhoades, Alonzo Z 49? 

Rhoades, Jay 567 

Rice, Charles L 476 

Rice, John B 462 

Rice, John N 528 

Rice, Moses H 495 

Rice, Riley ^ ? 5 

Rice. Russell II 558 

Richardson. Foster 484 

Richards, William H. V 577 


Riggins, Richard L 569 

Riggle, Allen L 558 

Robie, Edward W 464 

Robbins, Hiram 523 

Rogers, Barney R 465 

Rossiter, _ George 468 

Schneider, David 501 

Sewell, Addison D 547 

Sharp, Levi 543 

Sheer, George 527 

Shervvin, Perry E 515 

Shissler, Franklin 461 

Shissler, John M 456 

Short. William H 568 

Simpson, Lewis M 538 

Slayton, George W 541 

Smith, Edward C 469 

Smith, George D 499 

Smith, Henry T 500 

Smith, Peter 575 

Sorrow, Joseph 535 

Southard, Harry 542 

Springer, Francis D 486 

Stevenson. Hiram W 540 

Stewart, Charles W 516 

Stites, Jacob 455 

Stockton, George S 524 

Stokes, Murat W 559 

Stuart, James 459 

Surridge. James 480 

Surridge, Thomas 474 

Swanson, Nels 522 

Swarts, John A 502 

Swarts, Theodore D 474 

Sweet, Edward S 572 

Tautfest, Fred 503 

Taylor, Andrew J 512 

Taylor, Frank L 575 

Taylor, Frank Z 520 

Taylor, John 467 

Telcher, Didriech H 507 

Ternan, Henry 533 

Thompson, James F 473 

Thompson, Jessv B 500 

Truitt,' Russell 526 

Truscott, Matthew H 545 

Turmes, Lucien 467 

Turner, Franklin P 460 

Turner, John W 496 

VanBuren, D. C 561 

Vandeburgh, Edwin C 460 

Vansise, Frank D 505 

Vicory, Joseph H 561 

Vincent, Joseph K 570 

Vincent, Joseph S 492 

Vineyard, Lycurgus 55S 

von Bargen, Herman 494 

von Bargen. John H 493 

Von Berge, William 566" 

Wagner, Martin 550 

Walker, Robert X 499 

Wassem, George F 556 

\\ n "ii. Alexander 1 454 

Watson, Robert 524 

Webber, Albert 495 

Weber, Alexander A 555 

Weber, Jacob 1 521 

Weddle, David 474 

Whiting. Silas 572 

Wickam, Holsey 498 


Williams, Andrew J 458 

Williams, William S M 49' 

Wilson, Samuel A 400 

Wilson, William 4^3 

Wilson, William J 47 I 

Wiltse, Bion C 5-'-' 


Witt, James 5'3 

Wolbert, Joseph M 488 

Wolfe, George M 528 

Wood, John A 519 

Wooden, John D 555 

Woodward, James 53° 


Yates, David 4S5 

Young, Almon L 405 

Young, John C 551 

Zehner, Benjamin F 504. 

Zehner, Isaac 564 


Beede. John E 536 

Benedict, Samuel 464 

Bibb, Robert M 544 

Bibb, Mrs. Robert M 544 

Carothers, Thomas H 556 

Cleary, Mrs. Catherine M. Elfers. . 451 

Davis, Theodore E 4/S 

Dunn. Joseph W 544 

Eckert, Jacob L 552 

Elfers, Henry J 45 I 

Galloway, Thomas B 544 

Goldstone, Samuel 528 

Gould, Norman 47§ 


Gould, Mrs. Norman 478 

Hadorn, John 560 

Irwin, Isaac M 544 

Jarrett, Mark V 544 

Jarrett, Mrs. Mark V 544 

King, Peter 512 

Lyon, Ivan D 568 

Ott, Lawrence 512 

Pettibone, Nathaniel B 564 

Pfeufer, Joseph 564 


Pulse, John J 556 

■Ready, Peter H 564 

Remington, James J 478 

Robie, Edward W ' (64 

Robie, Isabella 464 

Sweet, Edward S 572 

Taylor, Andrew J 5 1 2 

Triiscott, Matthew H 5+4 

Turner, John W 496 

Wassem, George F 556 

Wassem, Mrs. George F 556 

Witt, James 512 

Zehner, Isaac 564. 



Aldrich, Benjamin F 701 

Anderson. Almarine A 7'4 

Anderson, George W 699 

Anderson, John A 694 

Anderson, John 1 7 11 

Anderson, Martin 682 

Anderson, Thorn 676 

Atchison, Edward P 72S 

Barton, Robert H 636 

Bartroft". William 708 

Bean, Walter W 653 

Beardslev, O 747 

Beardsley. Orton W 639 

Beasley, Richard 654 

Bechtel, Martin 662 

Beckman. August 710 

Bell, Robert J 640 

Belvail, William R 690 

Berry, Franklin M 70S 

Berry, James D 686 

Biddison, Anion K 7°i 

Biram, William L 657 

Booth, George M 744 

Bottjer, John 724 

Bowers, Stephen A 7*5 

Bowles, Rufus M 7^3 

Bowman, Charles E 672 

Brillhart, George H 7 ! 6 

Broemmling, Barnev 708 

Buchanan, William A 737 

Bundy, Harvev T 633 

Burdic, Fredric F 680 

Burger, Christ 735 

Burke, Edward L 746 

Burr, I Tomer E 735 

Byrns, Bayard T 746 

Callison, Samuel P 714 

Cameron, Daniel 633 

Cameron, Murdock 650 

Campbell, Frank 709 

Canfield, Homer W 675 

Carter. William 639 

Chambers, Samuel T 671 

Chandler, Charles 700 

Chanev, Livev J 700 

1 Chapman, David 742 

Charles, Alexander II 667 

I Christie, Thomas H 665 

Clark, James W 654 

Clark, Theodore 638 

Clyde, Peter 695 

Cobbs, Hartzell 669 

1 Colburn, Alfred 696 

Cole, Ezra L 734 

, Collins, James H 034 

I Collins, Joseph R 648 

Comer, William A 660 

Cone, Benjamin F 690 

Copeland, Lloyd D 684 

Crocker, John S 730 

! Crooks, Birt 706 

Crowley, Thomas 744 

Dailey, James E 668 

Dale, William P 653 

Danielson, Gustav 687 

Davidson, Joseph 710 

Davis David R 720 

Davis. William W 670 - 

DePartee. Joseph C 727 

Dobson, Arthur A 732 

Doughartv, George H 723 

Driskel, Daniel W 737 

Dygert, Albert 637 

Ebel, Charley 740 

Ely, Wellington L 034 

Emerson, James M 719 

Erichson, Henry 645 

E^te<. Archie B 644 

Evits, Michael 724 

Flomer, Henry 733 

Frazier, William M 713 

Freeze, John 714 

Freeze, John P 692 

Freeze, Michael C 693 

Gale, George W 641 

Gamble, Daniel 742 

Geiger, Joseph 666- 

Gilbert, Horace E 712 

Gower, Charles H . . .' 642 

Grant, James 697 

Green, Albert J 643 

Green, Joseph M 657 

Griner, George W 666 

Griner, John E 651 

Gummere, Currency A 726- 

Hadley, George W 737 

Hafer, John J 691 

1 [alliday, Andrew E 643. 


Halverson, John 703 

Hanson, Christian 698 

Hanson, Henry 691 

Haon. John B 676 

Harreld, John H 700 

Harrison. Jacob L 658 

Hart, Nelson 729 

Hasfurdher, J. Nicholas 657 

Hawkins, Herbert L 677 

Hawley, N. iM 728 

Headington, William M 656 

Heick, John J 647 

Heinrich. Xavier 659 

Hill, George W. P 733 

Hjelm, John 692 

Hobart, Charles 738 

Holbrook, Noyes B 702 

Holt. Charles B .' 748 

Hopkins. Liles A 715 

Horton, John H 704 

Howell, Albert 698 

Howell, Henry 649 

Hunt. Daniel 725 

Hutchison, James 664 

Hutchison, John H 665 

Irvine, Landon C 638 

Johann, Peter 065 

Johns, hi, August 695 

Johnson, Casper 682 

Johnson, Eli M 687 

Johnston. John D 733 

Johnston, Joseph C 732 

Jones, Benjamin J 649 

Jones, Fred W 674 

Kambitch, Jacob 731 

Kincaid, James M 717 

Kinm in. Cyrus L 673 

Klu--. Theodor 664 

Knowles, Oliver W 686 

Kresselt, Frederick P 660 

Kunes, James D 651 

Lackner. Daniel 670 

. Lang-don, George 6^7 

Langdon, Samuel J 751 

Larson, Oscar 649 

Lauder, William C 746 

Lazelle. Isaac W 699 

Lazelle, Sumner C 718 

Leasure. William H 64.S 

Leonard, Frank L 646 

Lestoe, Hans J 634 

Lieuallen, Almon A 635 

Long. Napoleon B 668 

Lynd, Andrew 678 

Madison, Canud 739 

Madsen, Niels ." 740 

Maguire, William S...... 726 

Mallery, I lerman W 734 

Man waring, John 654 

May, Frank 709 

McBane, Gillis J 681 

McCann, Charles W 641 

McClellan, Joseph L 722 

McCown, L"in, B 683 

McCoy,' Hamlin 677 

McKen i . \ igus 688 

McKenzie. Donald 740 

Michael. George W 085 

Michelson, Lewis 711 

Miller, Isaac S 663 

Miller, Jacob H 688 

Miller, James L 647 

Miller. John C 672 

Mochel, Benjamin F 662 

Mochel, George L 659 

Moore, Charles 750 

Morey, Oscar V 698 

Muncey, Marion F 658 

Munson, Charles J 713 

\'.i\ li H-. John L 75r 

Nelson, August 702 

Nelson, Christian 702 

Normoyle, Michael C 731 

Notman, David, Jr 694 

Oderlin, Charles II 721 

Olson, Nicholas 678 

Olson, Olof 671 

Otness, Ole 691 

Owen, John J 741 

Palmer, Charles W 74S 

Palmer, Elmer P 722 

Pauls, Peter 705 

Paulson, Jennie 646 

Persen, Nils P 68} 

Peterson, Oliver S 686 

Pickering, Rees 655 

Pierce. George W 7^2 

Piatt. Edward T 669 

Pledger, John W 679 

Poindexter, Thomas S 635 

Randall. Virgil 721 

Randolph. Tohn S 745 

Ray. Charles E 730 

Ravburn. Frank 740 

Ream. Tohn 684 

Rekdahl, Benedick B 681 

Richardson, Richard F 694 

Rielly, Joseph 743 

Rietman, Ulrich C 661 

Riley, Theadore ,. . 697 

Roberts, A. Henry 707 

Roberts, John 730 

Rogers, Henry M 655 

Ross, James W 679 

Rudd, Bryant M 718 

Sardam, Porter D 705 

Sawyer, George H 703 

Scharbach, Paul 707 


Scharnhorst, Charley J 712 

Scbarnhorst, Christian 720 

Scharnhorst, Fred 717 

Schuh, Louis P 747 

Sharp, Jasper P 704 

Shields, Charles W 642 

Shields, M. J 652 

Sievers, George 734 

Sievert, Goswin 6S2 

Silvey, Samuel T ~2^ 

Sisk, Lewis 710 

Smith, Andrew J 688 

Smith, Charles F 674 

Smith, Henry C 652 

Smith, Hezekiah M 701 

Smith. Marques L 650 

Smith, Thomas A 738 

Sprenger, Joseph 725 

Stanford, Norman A 645 

Starner, John A 693 

Stinson, Thomas 671 

Strong, James R 648 

Sullivan, John 719- 

Sullivan, John S 680 

Swenson, Engel C 675 

Tharp, William W 689 

Tegland, George 659 

Thomas, Homer A 700 

Thomas, Martin V 711 

Thompson, William N 667 

Tierney, Thomas 727 

Towne, Charles B 651 

Tucker, George W 743 

Tuckey, Elias 741 

Tritt, Samuel H 739 

Tweedt, Hans C. J 663 

Urquhart, David 749 

Vandevanter, Moses 736 

Vandewalker, C. V 744 

Vassar, James R 676 

Visby, Niels J 640 

Wahl, Christian 673 

Walker, George W 736 

Wi ber, Gottfried 750 

Webster, Frank W 6S9 

Welch, William M 656 

Whetstine. Robert S 70S 

Willcox, David J 716 

Williams, Andrew D 685 

Wilson, James T 647 

Wolfe, George W 749 

Wolfenberger, James A 736 

Wolheter. Washington 696 

Woodworth, Ray 745 

Varbrough, John B 661 

Yi ickey, Charles W 641 

Voung. George E 729 

Young, William W 64+ 





Headington, William M 

Horton, John H 

Hutchison, James 

Hutchison, John H 

Johnson, Casper 

Jones, Benjamin J 

Kluss, Theodore and family. . . 

Larson, Oscar 

McBane. Gillis J 

McKenzie, Angus 

Miller, John C 

. . . 6 5 6 
... 704 
... 664 
... 664 

... 648 


... 648 

... 680 

... 688 

... 672 

Miller, Mrs John C 

Munson, Charles J 

... 6 7 2 

.... 712 


Cameron, Daniel 

Collins, Joseph R 









Rekdahl, Martha B 

.... 680 

Davis, David R 

Frazier, William M 

Freeze, John 

Fry, Elmina E 

Gilbert, Horace E 

Hawley, N. M 

Headington, Mrs. Mattie 


Strong, James R 

Sullivan, John S 

Visby, Niels J and family.... 

Wolheter, Washington 

Wolheter, Mrs. Washington.... 

. ... 648 
. ... 680 

. . . . 64O 

.... 696 
.... 696 



Allbaugh, William F 978 

Allen, Albert B *. 967 

Amerman, Louis 855 

Anderson, Joseph 844 

Andrews, George E 839 

Andrus, William H 879 

Antelope, Morris 972 

Arrapa, Stanislaus 973 

Baeck, Carl 921 

Baldwin, Harry L 932 

Baldwin, Mrs. James T 854 

Barnes, Joseph 1 849 

Barza. Beer 972 

Baslington, William 874 

Batters. George 922 

Bauer, Joseph A : 875 

Beck, Simon 869 

Bennett, Percy J 865 

Bentley, Delbert H 926 

Bentley, Edmond J 927 

Benton, Thomas 834 

Bigelow, David E 832 

Bjornson, Edward 925 

Blessing, Titus 957 

Borthvvick. Robert C 870 

Bowman, John C 966 

Boyer, Alfred 873 

Boyker, Louis E 859 

Bradley, James M 892 

Bragaw, Robert S 862 

Brant, Irven J 932 

Brengman, John P 884 

Brophy, Joseph G 881 

Brophv, Thomas 899 

Brown, David 952 

Brown, William H 855 

Bruce, Malcolm 913 

Bunting, Arthur E 838 

Bunting, Robert 842 

Burke, Richard W 848 

Burnham. H. E 976 

Cubic-, William H 900 

Caldwell. John 839 

Camell, Barney 973 

Campbell. Thomas S 939 


Carr, Carey 936 

Carroll, John D 909 

Carter. Willis 907 

Case, Albert R 928 

Casey, James P 937 

Causton, Isaiah 858 

Chambard, Louis . : 836 

Chambers, Clarence 965 

Chisholm, Donald H 846 

Christensen, Rasmos 857 

Christenson, Andrew 938 

Cisco, William E 916 

Cleland, William H 866 

Coleman, George E 890 

Cole, William S 969 

Colman, Brice 886 

Colman, Tames A 884 

Cook, Willis H 951 

Cooper, George 902 

Cooper, Jasper 901 

Corzine, Lorenzo D 830 

Crandall, Elisha A 931 

Crenshaw, John 867 

Crow, Levi 964 

Culp, Charles W 977 

Curtis, Abner 927 

Dahlgren, Frank 937 

Danner, Tohn H 837 

Darknell, Arthur A 885 

Davis, Frank A 854 

Davis, Walker R 952 

Dawson, William 964 

Deitrick, Isaac N 930 

I lenison, Jesse 883 

Desgranges, Peter, Jr 963 

Dighton. Edward 968 

Dingman, Ross 886 

Dittemore, Louis T. 881 

Dobson. Tohn H 853 

Dolan, James E 859 

Doust, Edwin 8=;6 

Draves, Rudolph 843 

Dugan, Joseph T 961 

Duncan, John H 902 

Dunlap, Tohn 876 

Dunn, John P 847 

Dwyer, William P 954 

East. Hughes 964 

Eaton, Albert D 928 

Eaton, William 910 

Eckert, James R 845 

Edwards, Henry R 841 

Egbers, Robert C 946 

Ege, George L 903 

Ehlert. William 873 

Eilert, Louis E 868 

Elderton, William 916 

Elsasser, John T 861 

Elsasser, William R 86 r 

Emerson, R. King 958 

Erlenwein, Barbara 844 

Erlenwein. Louis W 84; 

Esch, Daniel 877 

Esch, Levi 898 

P'eely, Charles W 976 

Feely, Clarence H 977 

Feely, Irvan E 977 

Feely, James J 893 

Feely, Thomas N 837 

Fenn, Thomas H 965 

Ferbrache, James G 851 

Ferbrache, Peter A 850 

Ferguson. James C 950 

Fenian, John 866 

Ferrell, William W 920 

Finnev, David F 877 

Finney. Ezekiel M S78 

Fischer, Ernest F 927 

Fisher, Fred G 974 

Fisher, James A 895 

Fisher. Joseph 970 

Flemming. George W 947 

Frederic, John W 896 

Frost, Arthur E 955 

Fry, George 855 

Fry, Richard A 860 

Geek, Henry 949 

Gerrard, William 904 

Gertum, Charles 942 

Gillis, Malcolm 840 





Girard, Peter 


Martin, Emory B 


Richmond. Jerry 


Mashburn, Pink C 

Masterson, O. B.... 

McCarter. William M 






Rilev, John W 

Grace, Benjamin F 

Rinehart. William D 




McCarthy, Timothy 

McCune, Tohn 



Ritchey, Samuel B 

Graham, James A 

Robacher, William H 




McDonald, Tames 

McGuire, Annie 



Graves, H L 

Rochat, Henri 



Graves, Rufus r! 


Mcllhargev, Tohn 


Ross, Branson M 

Greaves, Tohn W 


McKenzie, Duncan S 


Roth, Victor W 

Green, Alphonzo A 


McKinnon, Norman 


Russell, Frank 



McLean, John 

McLellan, Robert 

McLennan, Louis 

Melder, Henry 






Rvan, William . 

Griftus, Henry R 


Gunn, Francis M 


Merritt, Andrew A 


Sage, Anthony A 

Guthrie, Chancey E 


Merritt, Donald 


Sage, Reuben J 



Merritt, Tav K 

Miller, Adolph 



Guthrie, Marion 

Sanburn, Jay R 








Miller, Gustav 



Sander, V. W 

Hager, John 

Schroeder, John F 

. S91 

.Mills, Thomas W 

Moc-Til-Ma, Peter 

Montgomery, Thomas E 

Montgomery, Zachariah 

Murray, Robert 







Hawthorne, Adam 

Scott, Thomas H 


Settle, Tohn W 

Henry, Samuel E 

Herring, Hiram 

Sharai, Wellington F. . . . 


Hickev. Michael A 


Nelson, Christ 

Nelson, James 

Nelson, John 




Sharplev, Richard 


Hoar, William R 


Shear, Edward A 








Holm, Thomas — 


Nelson, Nels 


Sinclair. Tanet R 

Holton, George 


Newcomb, George 


Sisson. William E 

Hooker- Gabe H 


Nicolai, Gustave W 


Skelton. Tohn W 

Horn. Charles 


Nilson, Carl 


Slayter, Tames W 


Noble, Albert H 


Sloop, Tacob A 

Sluyter, Westol H 

Howes, Stephen B 


... 883 

Oakland, August 

O'Brien, John J 

O'Callaghan, Charles 

Ohogge, John 





...... 936 



Tackson, Charles 

Smith, Joseph 


Jeannot, Joseph M 


Olds, Charles 


Smith, Samuel L. . . . 


Jensen, Christen 


O'Neal, William 


Smith, Ulvssis G 


Johnson, Peter G 




Osier, Gilbert F 

Owen, Calvin 

Owen, Frederick M...T 



..... 930 


Tones, Mahlon P 

Stockwell, Benjamin F 


Jones, Thomas J 


Owen, Payton \\ 


Stone. Tames M 

Jorgensen, Hans L 


Stone, William T 




Palmer, Aaron W 

Parent, Joseph C 

Pearce, Daniel W 




Kamlin, Charles E 


Kenedy, James H 

Sullivan. Weslev 

Kent, Andrew J 


Pearson, Jonas P 

Swofford, Harvey J 

Keyser. Henry 


Peterson, B. Nels . : 


King, Clement E 

Peterson, Tonas G 


1 ank, Henry 


Knudson, Herman 


Peterson, Martin 


1 autenhahn, Richard 

Kramer Kreszenz 


Phifer, David 


Therleen, John 

Piatt, Abram M 


Thompson, Ruth A 


Pagers. James T 


Piatt, Martin L 


Thompson, Robert C 

Lancaster, William S 

. . . 880 

Plonske, August 


Thorp, Elbridge W 


Larson, John 


Plonske, William F 


Titus, George S 


LaVergne, Louis 


Poirier, Joseph 


Towle, Walter R 


Leaf, Andrew 


Post, Frederick 


Travis, Albert E 


LeHuquet, John 


Price. William C. T 


Triplet:, William L 


Lemly, William H 


Provost, Joseph 


Tyson, Tames 


Lemon, Thomas J 


Tyson, John Q 


Libbv, William E 


Quarles, Jesse P 


Lindstrom, Peter 


Quirie, Alexander 


Ulbnght, Amel 


Lyon, I.everitt V 


Quinn, Frank H 


Ulbnght, Ernest P 


Lyon. William H 



Ramev, Svlvester 


Van Cleve, Ernest 

Ray, Edward C 


Vaughan, Mead 


Macha. Bona 


Reinhart, Ernest E 


VanOrsdal, Amos D 


Manning. Harlan P 


Reinhart, William E 


Vesscr, Samuel 


Mark-ham, Francis M 


Reiniger, Henry 


V iebrock, Henry 


Markham, Lvman F 




Martin, Alfred 


Rhodes, Samuel F 

Waggoner, Charles 



Waggoner, Francis M 913 

Wandel, Henry 842 

Ware, James L 918 

Warner, Orson 935 

Warren, Otis F 975 

Washburn. Volney W S44 

Watkins, Samuel H 945 

Whalen, Patrick J 955 

White, A. K 832 

Whitney, Eugene L 914 


Whitney, George B 839 

Wicks, Alexander 933 

Wicks, Charles G 934 

Wike. Flovd V 885 

Williams, Harry 918 

Williamson, Charles B 840 

Williamson, Thomas F 840 

Willis. John W 907 

Wilson, Flisha J 060 

Wilson, Robert 918 


Wood, Charles W. . .' 869 

Woolery, John S 863 

Worley, Charles 974 

Wright, Marcus D 862 

Wright, Mary A 882 

Yates, Hirem 917 

Y others. Levi 899 

Young, Ira L 945 

Zimmerman, Paul L 958 



Baldwin, Mrs. J. T 854 

Barnes, Joseph 1 848 

Bennett, Percy J 864 

Bennett, Mrs. Percy J 864 

Boyer, Alfred 872 

Boyer, Mrs. Alfred 872 

Bradley, James M 892 

Brcngman, John P 884 

Brophy, Thomas 896 

Carroll, John D 90S 

Casey. James P. 936 

Chambard, Louis 836 

Chambard, Mrs. Louis 836 

Dahlgren, Frank 936 

Danner, John H 836 

Darknell, Arthur A 884 

Eaton, William 908 

Ehlert, William 872 

Ehlert, Mrs. William 872 

Esch, Levi 896 

Feelev, Thomas N 836 

Feely, Mrs. Thomas N 836 

Fernan, John 864 

Ferrell, William W 920 

Frederic, John vv S96 


Fry, Richard A S60 

Green, Alphonzo A 872 

Hager, John 896 

Hawthorne Adam 876 

Henry, Samuel E 960 

Horn, Charles 908 

Kenedy, James H 896 

Kenedy, Mrs. James H 896 

Lancaster, William S 880 

Larson, John 864 

Larson, Mrs. John 864 

LeHuquet, John S4S 

Lemon, Thomas J 872 

Lyon, William H 908 

Lyons, William 884 

Markham, Francis M 908 

Markham, Lyman F 868 

McCarter, William M 904 

Montgomery, Zachariah 912 

Oakland, August 908 

O'Brien, John J 928 

Phifer, David 908 

Pc st, Frederick 829 


Ray, Edward C 956 

Reinhart, Ernest E 836 

Reinhart, William E 836 

Ross, Branson M 864 

Ross, Mrs. Branson M 864 

Russell, James E 896 

Sharai, Wellington F 888 

Sloop, Jacob A 848 

Sluyter, Westol H 872 

Smith, Charles 936 

Smith, David K 856 

Smith, Samuel L 836 

Smith, Mrs. Samuel L 836 

Sorensen, Peter C 944 

Thompson, Mrs. Ruth A 848 

T< iwle, Walter R .' 872 

'Tyson, James 900 

Vesser, Samuel 864 

Washburn, Volney W 844 

White, A. K S32 

Wike, Flovd V 884 

\\ illiamson, Charles B 840 

Williamson, Thomas 1'" 840 

Yothers, Levi 896 



Addle, James M 1202 

Amonson. Carl 1 152 

Andersen, Christen 1 105 

Anderson, Ole A 1128 

Auld. John 1 171 

Aulbach, Adam 1 133 

Bacon, Richard P 1140 

Balch, Albert S 10S3 

Ball, George F 1182 

Barnard, Thomas N 1068 

Barrow, George C 1 124 

Bauman, Phillip 1 160 

Bayne. John L 1091 

Beams, Eugene P 1192 

Bechtel, Louis F 1 192 

Beck, Joseph E 1 1 12 

Bellmer, Charles H 1106 

Belville, Martin 1093 

Bennett, Charles E 1114 


Billberg, Henry 1 123 

Bitner, George F 1160 

Blake, Edwin W 1102 

Bole, Henry II 1169 

Bond, James 1 106 

Book waiter, Albert E 1 109 

Boyce, Eleanor 1086 

Boyden, Chester B 1 107 

Brady, J. A 1072 

Braham, Charles O 11 57 

Brand, William J 1069 

Brass, Julius 1087 

Brown, Emil E 1177 

Brown, Homer G 1 104 

Brown, John C T071 

Brown, Theodore 1 162 

Bryant, Hiram 1 191 

Campbell, Joseph A. R 1 189 

Canman, Sim 1 167 


Cardoner, Damian 1 136 

Carlson, August 1124 

Carlson. John 1083 

Chandler, William M mo 

( laget, W- H 1066 

Clark, John W 1148 

Cleek, Isaac D 116S 

Cogswell, Arthur C 1082 

Cole, Cyrus J ioqt 

< 1 Jeman, George W 1184 

Coller, Harry 1 102 

Coumerilh, William 1 144 

Cowen, Israel B 1065 

Crawford. Al C lo6g 

Darenport, Joel 1195 

Davis, Warren N 1196 

1 'axon. Richard 1201 

[lav, Ilenrv L 1080 

I lav. Harry L 1189 



Dickinson, Charles F 1140 

Donnelly, Thomas H 1132 

Drew, John T 1 175 

Dnlmage, E Howard 1130 

Dunavan. Chastine 1 1S4 

Eby, Charles L 1121, John W 1 119 

Eccles, Joseph G 1 162 

Eddy, John C 1200 

Edmonson, Frank M 1 1 13 

Edwards, Frank J 1138 

F.hrenberg, Charles 1084 

Ehrenberg, Gus 10S1 

Ehrenberg, J. Walter 1085 

Elben, Samuel 1148 

Elliott, Tohn M 1164 

Ellis, Marion A 1138 

Erb, George E 1132 

Evirs, John W 1075 

Fairweather, Stanley P 1155 

Falconer, William M 1171 

Farrar, William H 1118 

Farrell, William H 1072 

Featherstone, Albert H 1070 

Feehan, John C 1148 

Ferguson, Columbus B 1154 

P'inlayson, Donald A 1182 

Flaig, B 1193 

Flink, John W 1113 

Ford. Barnet 11 15 

Foreman, Frank L 1 167 

Fort, Charles E 11 10 

Portia Joseph E 1196 

Foss, John H 1143 

Foster, Milton P 1154 

Frazer, William F 1070 

Freeman, Jesse 1065 

1 reeman, Otto 1080 

1' ridstrand, Charles 10S7 

friend, Eugene S 1 155 

Fuller, Clifford C 11 10 

Fuller. Steward 1 129 

Fuller, William D 1186 

Furst, John C 1121 

Gaffney, Bridget 1146 

Gaffney, Frank 1098 

Gaffney, John T 1098 

Gaffney, William 1171 

Gay, Lodowick W 1 176 

1 leorge, Milo L 1150 

Gilbert, Henrv T 1180 

Filbert. Thomas 1181 

( iillice, Francis E 1110 

Gilpatrick, George E 1134 

Gisel, Jacob 1164 

(do we, John A 11 39 

Goddard. William F 1197 

Goodman, David F 1150 

Gray, Horatio 1 1099 

Greenwald, Fred C 1109 

Greer, John : 1096 

Griffith, Thbmas 1078 

Groves, Henry 1 103 

Hale, Ellis L 1076 

Hales, William T 1126 

1 lammitt, Benjamin C 1 174 

1 lammond. Edward 1097 

Hansen, John H 1 1 14 

Harbin, Daniel E 1181 

Mare, Maurice H iroi 

Harris, George W 1194 

I [arris, George W 1197 


Hartman, Charles W 1143 

Hartmus, Edwin M 11 18 

Heard. R. P 1103 

Heller, Eliza 1 120 

Herrick, William H, Jr 1172 

Heyburn, Weldon B 1094 

Hill, Josiah 1 190 

Holmberg, Axel E 1116 

Hoover, William H 1074 

Horn, Robert T 1147 

Horst, Elias E 1120 

Horton, Abraham P 1202 

Hovey, George E 1069 

H uckelberry, Charles 1 149 

Hunt, Robert W 1163 

Hunt, Charles D 1166 

Hunt, Thomas W 1 166 

Ihrig, Henry C 1131 

Jacobs, Jerome F 1075 

Jameson, Ralph R 1122 

Jameson, Theodore F 1202 

Jenkins, Benjamin E 1177 

Johnson, Charles M 1 127 

Johnson, Frank F 1201 

Johnson, John B 1089 

Jones, Charles H 1 105 

Jones, Christian D 1100 

Jones, Henry A 1 199 

Jones, O. D 1082 

Jones, Walter A 1077 

Keane, Patrick t 1 35 

Kelly. Fred. H 1068 

Fell}-, Robert S ' 1193 

Kendall, Joseph P. 1172 

Kingsbury, Roy U 10S4 

Lafavre, Charles A 1159 

Landes. Clarence C 1 135 

Landon, Wellington 1126 

Larson, Joseph N 1 127 

Lehman. Abraham L 10S4 

Leonard. James 7 104 

Lesher, George S 1144 

Lmn.OleH „,] 

Linn. Samuel H 1169 

Lockman, Jacob 10S6 

Lyle, James 1 1 17 

Maher, Michael 10S6 

Maitland, George A 1153 

Mallon, Carl II 1071 

Mauley, Charles n 53 

Markwell, Frank P 1090 

Markwell, J. Fred 1090 

Markwell, Sylvester 10X9 

Marshall, Angus D 1071 

Massing, E. Albert 1 129 

Matchette. Franklin P 1194 

Matthew, Edward R 115S 

Mays, C. W 1199 

McDougall, William 1185 

McEachern, Daniel 1168 

McG.llivray. Ally H13 

McKinnis, George 1178 

McKissick, David C 10S7 

McLeod. Roderick J 1100 

Melrov. Charles 1137 

Metz, John F !I0 s 

Miller. William R 1076 

Moe, William K 1090 

Moftitt. Edward FI 1093 

Molloy, John T 1151 


A loore. F. Cushing jogs 

Morgan, Benjamin F 1151 

Moritz, Jacob nog 

Myers, William H 1 168 

Newbury, John H U45 

Mistier, Ludwig 117 1 

VT1, H,„ : , R .„£ 

Noonan, Martin 1176 

Nordquist, John Fi 1073 

Norman, Samuel 1067 

Northrup, William P 1134 

Noyes, Louis A 1139 

Nuckols, Anderson W 1122 

Nuss, Calvin n88 

Oliii, John S 1131 

Olson, Edward 1079 

Neil. Laurence nw 

1 >sburn, Stephen V mi 

Otto, Albert II47 

Page, Alfred 1131 

I'annebaker, Joshua 1104 

Parker, Clyde S 1187 

Pascoe, Richard H 1121 

Paulsen, August 1098 

Peeples, Drew W 1195 

Pelkes, John 1 : 8o 

Penney, Norton R 1 108 

Perkins, Clinton E 1123 

Perrin, Charles S 1 170 

Peterson, Gus 1 1 1 4 

Peterson, Peter E 1 144 

Porter. David A 1085 

Porter, Frederick P i no 

Pott, Burd P r. I4I 

Potter, Grant S 1091 

Price, Daniel W 1 i,s 5 

Prichard, Floyd M 1123 

Read, Flarold J 10S9 

Reed, Thomas B 1 146 

Reeves, Charles H 108S 

Rennick, Miles 1189 

Richardson, Harry X m 5 

Riddie, Thad C 1149 

Riggs, William M ,i 77 

Roberts, Andrew M 1179 

Roberts, Louis C.....' 1165 

Robirts, Josiah J 119^ 

Robirts, Merrel R 1198 

Roby, Elbert C 1 158 

Rogers, Heenen J 1200 

Roof, Oliver S 11 17 

Roos, Ferd, Jr 1 163 

Rose, Francis M 1 129 

Rossi, Herman J 1092 

Rothrock, Frank M 1094 

Safford, James L 1186 

Saling, Francis M 1072 

Samuels, Henry F 1079 

Savage, Jeremiah M 1 178 

Schill, Charles 1 152 

Schlesinger, Louis A 1145 

Schmidt. Anna n 57 

Sehue, Feter nu 

Shamberger, William D 1172 

Sheehv, William I 1,7, 

Shuster, Thomas' 1179 

Simmonds, Thomas H n86 

Simmons, Moses S 1142 

Skonnord, Bernt O 1 152 

Small, Ellis 1105 

Smith, Abraham L 1157 

Smith, Andrew T 115° 

Smith, Clarence P H/6 

Smith, Edwin 1156 

Smith, Frank 1165 

Smith, Frank S "64 

Smith, Paul F 1083 

Smith, William H 1076 

Snyder, Samson, Jr 1161 

Squance, Annie 1099 

Stedman, Louie W 1 160 

Stenzel, Charles H33 

Stevens, Fred A 1 173 

Stevens, Joseph F 1 190 

St. Germain, Israel 1 1 16 

St. Jean, Joseph E 1092 

St. Jean, Leopold J 1095 

Stonebreaker, Edward G 1163 

Stringam, Benjamin F 1077 

Strode, Amos M 1136 

Stuart, Robert C 1069 

Swails, Ethelbert W 114^ 

Swan, Axel 1073 

Sweet, Lewis L 1067 

Swicegood, William R 1075 

Swinerton, William P 1 1 73 


Tabor, Jesse W 1203 

Talbot, Charles H 1140 

Taylor, James H 1081 

Taylor, Marshall M 1077 

Teats. Mrs. Mary E 1195 

Thomas, Thomas C 1166 

Thomas, James O 1 185 

Thorkelson, Gilbert 1 1 17 

Thvne, John 1183 

libbals, Frank M 1154 

Tilsiey, John H - 1 120 

Toner, John J 1 199 

Toner, Richard T 1200 

Tucker, Leroy 1163 

1 upper. Howard T 1 142 

Turk, Engelbert 1093 

Turner, William R 1100 

Van Allen. John F 11SS 

Vance, Charles W 1183 

Van Der werken, Emmet L 1 1 70 

Wadsworth, William B 1161 

Walton. Fred W 1095 

Ward. Andrew B 1 175 


Ward, Harry P 1074 

Warren, Aaron S 1 1S0 

Watkins, Amos 1 135 

Weber, Philip P 1198 

Wentz, Charles II 1 165 

White, John P 1175 

White. Michael 1 156 

Wilkinson, William P 1158 

Wilkinson, Winfield S 1159 

Williams, Charles H 1125 

Wilmot, Andrew 1078 

Wilson. Thomas 1128 

Wilson, William P 1125 

Wimer, John W 1080 

Wittner, Nathan 1074 

Wood, George A 1 1 77 

Wood, John C 1108 

Wood, Lyman 1 107 

Wright, Edward H 1101 

Wright, Jesse T 1096 

Wright, Thomas 1 188 

Young, Peter 1 1 24 

Zeitfuchs, Emil 1088 


Amonson, Carl 1152 

Anderson, Ole A 1128 

Bennett. Charles E III2 

Brady. J. A 1072 

Cardoner, Daniian 1 136 

Cowen, Israel B 1065 

Day, Henry L 1080 

Edmonson, Frank M 1112 

Flink. John W u 12 

burst, John C 1120 

Gaffney, Frank 

Gaffney, John J. . . . 
Greer, John 

Hammond, Edward 
1 lansen, lohn H. . . 
Heller. Mrs. Eliza.. 
Horst, Elias E 

Leonard. James.... 
Linn, Ole II 

McGillivray. Ally . . 
Maitland, George A 
.Myers, William H.. 

Xordquist, John H 1072 

Pascoe, Richard H 1 120 

Peterson, Gus 1 1 12 

Reed, Thomas B 1 146 

Reeves, Charles H 1088 

Richardson, Harry M 1 1 12 

Saling, Francis M 1072 

Saling, Mrs. Francis M 1072 

Schill, Charles 1152 

Schue, Peter 1 1 12 

Skonnord, Bernt O 1152 

Steadman. Louie W 1 160 

Til-ley, John H 1 120 


The opening of a new century is a fitting time to 
cast a backward glance in our local history, reconstruct 
to the eye of the present the interesting and heroic 
events of the past and by comparison between past and 
present forecast something of the future. 

Hardly could our task be accomplished without 
some reference, even though it must be brief and frag- 
mentary, to the old Oregon territory, of which the 
counties of northern Idaho were once parts. It had a 
strange history. It was the ignis fatuus of successive 
generations of explorers, luring thern on with that in- 
describable fascination which seemed always to drawn 
men to the ever receding circle of the "westmost 
west." and yet for years and years veiling itself in the 
mists of uncertainty and misapprehension. 

We do not usually realize how soon after the time 
of Columbus there began to be attempts to reach the 
western ocean and solve the mystery of the various 
passages, northwest, southwest, and west, which were 
supposed to lead through the Americas to Asia. The 
old navigators had little conception of the breadth of 
this continent. They thought it to be but a few 
leagues across, and took for granted that some of the 
many arms of the sea would lead them through to 
another ocean that would wash the Asiatic shores. 

In 1500, only eight years after Columbus, Gasper 
Cortereal.the Portuguese, conceived the idea of entering 
what afterward became known as Hudson's Bay and 
proceeding thence westward through what he called 
the strait of Anian. 

That mythical strait of Anian seems to have had a 
strange charm for the old navigators. One of them, 
Maldonado, a good many years later, gave a very con- 
nected and apparently veracious account of his journey 
through that strait, averring that through it he reached 
another ocean in latitude seventy-five degrees. But by 
means of Magellan's straits and the doubling of stormy 
Cape Horn, a connection between the two oceans was 
actually discovered in 15 19. 

In 1543 Ferrelo.a Spaniard, coasted along the shores 
of California, and was doubtless the first white man to 
gaze on the coast of Oregon, probably somewhere in 
the vicinity of the mouth of the Umpqua river. 

In 1577 that boldest and most picturesque of all 
English sailors and freebooters, Francis Drake, started 

on the marvelous voyage by which he plundered the 
treasures of the Spanish main, cut the golden girdle of 
Manila, Queen of the treasures of the Spanish orient, 
skirted the coast of California and Oregon, and at last 
circumnavigated the globe. 

But in 1592, just one hundred years after Colum- 
bus, comes the most picturesque of all these misty 
stories which enwrap the early history of Oregon. This 
is the story of Jaun de Fuca, whose name is now pre- 
served in our northwest boundary strait. According 
to this romantic tale of the seas, Jaun de Fuca was a 
Greek of Cephalonia, whose real name was Apostolos 
Yalerianos, and under commission of the king of Spain 
he sailed to find the strait of Anian, whose entrance 
the Spaniards wanted to fortify and guard so as to pre- 
vent ingress or egress by the English freebooters who 
were preying upon their commerce. According to the 
account given by Michael Lo*k, "he followed his 
course, in that voyage, west and northwest in the South 
sea, all along the coast of Nova Spania and California 
and the Indies, now called North America (all of which 
voyage he signified to me in a great map, and a sea- 
card of my own, which I laid before him), until he 
came to the latitude of forty-seven degrees ; and that 
there finding that the land trended north and north- 
west, with a broad inlet of sea, between forty-seven and 
fortv-eight degrees of latitude, he entered thereinto, 
sailing more than twenty days, and found that land 
still trending northwest, and northeast and north, and 
also east and southeastward, and very much broader 
sea than it was at the said entrance, and that he passed 
by divers islands in that sailing : and that, at the en- 
trance of the said strait, there is, on the northwest coast 
thereof, a great headland or island, with an exceeding 
high pinnacle of spired rock, like a pillar, thereupon. 
Also he said that he went on land in divers places, 
and that he saw some people on the land clad in beasts' 
skins ; and that the land was very fruitful and rich of 
gold, silver and pearls and other things, like Nova 
Spania. Also he said that he being entered thus far 
into the said strait, and being come into the North sea 
already, and finding the sea wide enough everywhere, 
and to be about thirty or forty leagues wide in the 
mouth of the straits where he entered, he thought he 
had now well discharged his office : and that not being 


armed to resist the force of savage people that might 
happen, lie therefore set sail and turned homeward 
again toward Nova Spania, where he arrived in Aca- 
pulco, anno 1 592. hoping to be rewarded by the viceroy 
for this service done in the said voyage." 

This curious bit of past record has been interpreted 
by some as pure myth, and by others as veritable his- 
tory. It is at any rate a generally accurate outline de- 
scriptive of the straits of Fuca, the gulf of Georgia and 
the shores of Vancouver Island and the mainland ad- 
joining. And whether or not the old Greek pilot did 
actually exist and first look on our "Mediterranean of 
the Pacific," it is pleasant to imagine that he did and 
that his name fittingly preserves the memory of the 
grand old myth of Anian and the northwest pasage. 

There is one other more obviously mythical tale 
concerning our frontier coast. It is said that in the 
year 1640 Admiral Pedro de Fonte, of the Spanish ma- 
rine, made the journey from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and return through a system of rivers and straits, en- 
tering the coast at about latitude fifty-three degrees. 
Coming from Callao in April. 1640, and after having 
sailed for a long distance through an archipelago, he 
entered the mouth of a vast river, which he named Rio 
de Los Reyes. Ascending this for a long distance north- 
easterly he reached an immense lake, on whose shores 
he found a wealthy civilized nation, who had a capital 
city of great splendor called Conasset, and who wel- 
comed the strangers with lavish hospitality. From this 
lake flowed another river easterly, and down this Fonte 
descended until he reached another great lake, from 
which a narrow strait led into the Atlantic ocean. 

There is one curious thing about these legendary 
voyages and that is the general accuracy of their de- 
scription of the oast. Although these accounts are 
unquestionably mythical, it is not impossible that their 
authors had actually visited the coast or had seen those 
■who had, and thus gathered the material from which 
they fabricated, with such an appearance of plausi- 
bility, their Munchausen tales. 

We are briefly referring to these fascinating old 
legends, not for the purpose of discussing them here 
at anv length, but rather to remind the reader of the 
long period of romance and myth which enveloped the 
early history of the northwest of which out state forms 
a part. Many years passed after the age of myth be- 
fore there were authentic voages. During the seven- 
teenth century practically nothing was done i|t the way 
of Pacific coast exploration. But in the eighteenth, as 
1>\ common consent, all the nations of Europe became 
suddenly infatuate.! again with the thought that on the 
western shores of America might be found the gold and 
silver and gems and furs and precious woods for which 
thev had been striving so desperately upon the eastern 
coast. English, French. Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch. 
Russian and Americans entered their bold and hardy 
sailors into the race for the possession of the land of 
the Occident. The Russians were the first in the field. 
That gigantic power which the genius of Peter the 
Great, like one of the fabled genii, had suddenly trans- 
formed from the proportions of a grain of sand to a 
figure overtopping the whole earth, had stretched its 

arm? from the Baltic to the Aleutian archepelago, and 
had iooked southward acress the frozen seas of Siberia 
to the open Pacific as offering them another opportunity 
of expansion. Many years passed, however, before 
Peter's designs could be executed. It was 1728 when 
Vitus Behring entered upon his marvelous life of ex- 
ploration. Not until 1741, however, did he thread the 
thousand islands of Alaska and gaze upon the glaciated 
summit of Mt. Elias. And it was not until thirty years 
later that it was known that the Bay of Avatscha in 
Siberia was connected by open sea with China. In 
1 77 1 the first cargo of furs was taken directly from 
Avatscha, the chief port of eastern Siberia, to Canton. 
Then first Europe realized the vastness of the Pacific 
ocean. Then it understood that the same waters which 
frowned against the frozen bulwarks of Kamtchatka 
washed the tropic islands of the South seas and foamed 
against the storm-swept rocks of Cape Horn. 

Meantime, while Russia was thus becoming estab- 
lished upon the shores of Alaska, Spain was getting 
entire pi issessii m of California. These two great nations 
began to overlap each other. Russians became estab- 
lished near San Francisco. To offset this movement of 
Russia, a group of Spanish explorers, Perez,. Mar- 
tinez. Heceta, Bodega and Maurella, swarmed up the 
coast beyond the present site of Sitka. 

England, in alarm at the progress made by Spain 
and Russia, sent out the Columbus of the eighteenth 
century, in the person of Captain James Cook, and he 
sailed up and down the coast of Alaska and of Wash- 
ington, but failed to discover either the Columbia river 
or the straits of Fuca. His labors, however, did more 
to establish true geographical notions than had the 
combined efforts of all the Spanish navigators who had 
preceded him. His voyages materially strengthened 
England's claim to Oregon, and added greatly to the 
luster of her name. The great captain, while tempo- 
rarily on shore, was killed bylndians, in 1778, and the 
command devolved upon Captain Clark, who sailed 
northward, passing through Behring strait to the Arctic 
ocean. The new commander died before the expedition 
had proceeded far on its return journey; Lieutenant 
Gore, a Virginian, assumed control and sailed to Canton, 
China, ariving late in the year. 

The main purposes of this expedition had been the 
discovery of a northern waterway between the two 
oceans and the extending of British territory, but, as is 
so often the case in human affairs, one of the most 
important results of the voyage was entirely unsus- 
pected by the navigators and practically the outcome of 
an accident. It so happened that the two vessels of the 
expedition, the Revolution and the Discovery, took 
with them to China a small collection of furs from the 
northwest coast of America. These were purchased by 
the Chinese with great avidity, the people exhibiting 
a willingness to barter commodities of much value for 
them and endeavoring to secure them at almost any 
sacrifice. The sailors were not backward in communi- 
cating their discovery of a new and promising market 
for peltries, and the impetus imparted to the fur trade 
was almost immeasurable in its ultimate effects. An 
entirely new regime was inaugurated in Chinese and 


East India commerce. The northwest coast of Amer- 
ica assumed a new importance in the eyes of Europeans, 
and especially of the British. The "struggle for pos- 
session" soon began to be foreshadowed. 

One of the pmicipal harbors resorted to by the 
fur-trading vessels was Xootka, used as a rendezvous 
and principal port of departure. This port became the 
scene of a clash between Spanish authorities and cer- 
tain British vessels which greatly strained the friendly 
relations existing between the two governments repre- 
sented. In 1779 the viceroy of Mexico sent two ships, 
the Princess and San Carlos, to convey Martinez and 
De Haro to the vicinity for the purpose of anticipating 
and preventing the occupancy of Xootka sound by fur 
traders of other nations and that the Spanish title to 
the territorv might be maintained and confirmed. Mar- 
tinez was to base his claim upon the discovery by 
Perez in 1774. Courtesy was to be extended to foreign 
vessels, but the establishment of any claim prejudicial 
to the right of the Spanish crown was to be vigorously 

Upon the arrival of Martinez in the harbor, it was 
discovered that the American vessel Columbia, and the 
Iphigenia, a British vessel, under a Portuguese flag, 
were lying in the harbor. Martinez at once demanded 
the papers of both vessels and an explanation of their 
piesence, vigorously asserting the claim of Spain that 
the port and contiguous territory were hers. The Cap- 
tain of the Iphigenia pleaded stress of weather. On 
finding that the vessel's papers commanded the cap- 
ture, under certain conditions, of Russian, Spanish or 
English vessels. Martinez seized the ship, but on being 
advised that the orders relating to captures were in- 
tended only to applv to the defense of the vessel, the 
Spaniard released the Iphigenia and her cargo. The 
Northwest America, another vessel of the same expedi- 
tion, was, however, seized by Martinez a little later. 

It should be remembered that these British vessels 
had in the inception of the enterprise divested them- 
selves of their true national character and donned the 
insignia of Portugal, their reasons being: First, to de- 
fratid the Chinese government, which made special 
harbor rates to the Portuguese, and, second, to defraud 
tin- East India Company, to whom had been granted 
the right of trading in furs in Northwest America to 
the exclusion of all other British subjects, except such 
as should obtain the permission of the company. To 
maintain their Portuguese nationality thev had placed 
the expedition nominally under the control of Jaun 
Cavalho, a Portuguese trader. Prior to the time of the 
trouble in Nootka. however, Cavalho had become a 
bankrupt and new arrangements had become necessary. 
The English traders were compelled to unite their in- 
terests with those of King George's Sound Company, 
a mercantile association operating under license from 
the South Sea and East India Companies, the Portu- 
guese colors had been laid aside and the true national 
character of the expedition assumed. Captain Colnutt 
was placed in command of the enterprise as constituted 
under the new regime, with instructions, among other 
things, "to establish a factory to be called Fort Pitt, for 
the purpose of permanent settlement, and as a center of 

trade around which other stations may be established." 

One vessel of the expedition, the Princess Royal, 
entered Nootka harbor without molestation, but when 
the Argonaut, under command of Captain Colnutt, ar- 
rived, it was thought best by the master not to attempt 
an entrance to the bay lest his vessel should meet the 
same fate which had befallen the Iphigenia and the 
Northwest America. Later Colnutt called on Mar- 
tinez and informed the Spanish governor of his inten- 
tion to take possession of the country in the name of 
Great Britain ami to erect a fort. The governor re- 
plied that possession had already been taken in the 
name of his Catholic Majesty and that such acts as he 
(Colnutt) contemplated could not be allowed. An 
altercation followed and tin- next day the Argonaut 
was seized and her captain and crew placed under ar- 
rest. The Princess Royal was also seized, though the 
American vessels in the harbor were in no way mo- 

After an extended and at times heated controversy 
between Spain and Great Britain touching these seiz- 
ures, the former government consented to make repar- 
ation and offered a suitable apology for the indignity 
to the honor of the flag. The feature of this corres- 
pondence of greatest import in the future history of 
the territory affected is that throughout the entire con- 
troversy in all the messages and debates of parliament, 
no w ird was spoken asserting a claim of Great Britain 
to any territorial rights or denying the claim of sov- 
ereignty so positively and persistently avowed by Spain, 
neither was Spanish sovereignty denied or in any way 
alienated by the treaty which followed. Certain real 
property was restored to British subjects, but a trans- 
fer of realty is not a transfer of sovereignty. 

We pass over the voyage of the illustrious French 
navigator, La Perouse. as of more importance from a 
scientific than a political standpoint; neither can we 
dwell upon the explorations of Captain Berkley, to 
whom belongs the honor of having ascertained the 
existence of the strait afterward denominated Jaun de 
Fuca. ( >i somewhat greater moment in the later history 
of the northwest are the voyages of Meares. who entered 
and described the above mentioned strait, and win 1, in 
1788, explored the coast at the point where the great 
Columbia mingles its crystal current with the waters of 
the sea. In the diplomatic battle of later days it was 
even claimed by some that he was the discover of that 
great "River of the West." Howbeit, nothing can be 
surer than that the existence of such a river was 
utterly unknown to him at the time. Indeed his con- 
viction of its non-existence was thus stated in his own 
account of the voyage : "We can now with safety assert 
that there is no such river as the St. Roc (of the Span- 
iard. Heceta 1 exists, as laid down in the Spanish 
charts," and he gave a further unequivocal expression 
of his opinion by naming the bay in that vicinity De- 
ception Bay and the promontory north of it Cape Dis- 
appointment. "Disappointed and deceived," remarks 
Evans facetiously, "he continued his cruise southward 
to latitude forty-five degrees north." 

It is not without sentiments of patriotic pride that 
we now turn our attention to a period of discovery in 


which the vessels of our own nation played a prominent 
part. The northern mystery, which had been partially 
resolved by the Spanish, English, French and Portu- 
guese explorations, was now to be completely robbed of 
its mystic charm, speculation and myth must now give 
place to exact knowledge, the game of discovery must 
hereafter be played principally between the two 
branches of the Anglo-Saxon race, and Anglo-Saxon 
energy, thoroughness and zeal are henceforth to char- 
acterize operations on the shores of the Pacific north- 
west. The United States had but recently won their 
independence from the British crown and their ener- 
gies were finding a fit field of activity in the titanic 
task of national organization. Before the constitution 
had become the supreme law of the land, however, the 
alert mind of the American had begun projecting voy- 
ages of discovery and trade to the northwest, and 
in September, 1788, two vessels with the stars and 
stripes at their mastheads arrived at Nootka sound. 
Their presence in the harbor while the events cul- 
minating in the Nootka treaty were transpiring 
has already been alluded to. The vessels were the 
ship Columbia, Captain John Kendrick, and the 
sloop Washington. Captain Robert Gray, and the 
honor of having sent them to our shores belongs 
to one Joseph Barrel, a prominent merchant of 
Boston, and a man of high social standing and great 
influence. While one of the impelling motives of his 
enterprise had been the desire of commercial profit, the 
element of patriotism was not wholly lacking, and the 
vessels were instructed to make what explorations and 
discoveries they might. 

After remaining a time on the coast, Captain Ken- 
drick transferred his ship's property to the Washing- 
ton, with the intention of taking a cruise in that vessel. 
He placed Captain Gray in command of the Columbia 
with instructions to return to Boston by way of the 
Sandwich Islands and China. This commission was 
successfully carried out. The vessel arrived in Boston 
in September, 1790, was received with great eclat, re- 
fitted by her owners and again dispatched to the shores 
of the Pacific with Captain Gray in command. In 
July, 1 79 1, the Columbia, from Boston, and the Wash- 
ington, from China, met not far from the spot where 
they had separated nearly two years before. They 
were not ft < remain long in company, however, for Cap- 
tain Gray soon started on a cruise southward. On April 
29, 1792, Gray met Vancouver just below Cape Flat- 
tery and an interesting colloquy took place. Van- 
couver communicated to the American skipper the 
fact that he had not vet made any important discover- 
eries, and Gray, with equal frankness, gave the emi- 
nent British explorer an account of his past discover- 
ies, "including," says Bancroft, "the fact that he had 
not sailed through Fuca straight in the Lady Washing- 
ton, as had been supposed from Meares' narrative and 
map." He also informed Captain Vancouver that he 
had been "off the mouth of a river in latitude forty- 
six degrees, ten minutes, where the outset, or reflux, 
was so strong as to prevent his entering for nine days." 

The important information conveyed by Gray seems 
to have greatly disturbed the equipoise of Vancouver's 

mind. The enteries in his log show that he did not en- 
tirely credit the statement of the American, but that 
he was considerably perturbed is evinced by the fact 
that he tries to convince himself by argument that 
Gray's statement could not have been correct. The 
latitude assigned by the American was that of Cape 
Disappointment, and the existence of a river mouth 
there, although affirmed by Heceta, had been denied 
by Meares ; Captain Cook also had failed to find it ; be- 
sides, had he not himself passed that point two days be- 
fore and had he not observed that "if any inlet or river 
should be found it must be a very intricate one, and 
inaccessible to vessels of our burden, owing to the reefs 
and broken water which then appeared in its neighbor- 
hood." With such reasoning, he dismissed the matter 
from his mind for the time being. He continued his 
journey northward, passed through the straight of 
Fuca. and engaged in a thorough and minute explora- 
tion of that mighty inland sea, to a portion of which he 
gave the name Puget Sound. 

Meanwhile Gray was proceeding southward "in 
the track of destiny and glory." On May 7th he en- 
tered the harbor which now bears his name and four 
days later passed through the breakers over the bar, 
and his vessel's prow plowed the waters of that fa- 
mous "River of the West." whose existence had been 
so long suspected. The storied "Oregon" for the first 
time heard other sound than "its own dashing." 

Shortly afterward Vancouver came to Cape Disap- 
pointment to explore the Columbia, of which he had 
heard indirectly from Captain Gray. Lieutenant 
Broughton, of Vancouver's expedition, sailed over the 
bar, ascended the river a distance of more than one 
hundred miles to the site of the present Vancouver, and 
with a modesty truly remarkable, "takes possession of 
the river and the country in its vicinity in his Britannic 
Majesty's name, having every reason to believe that 
the subjects of no other civilized nation or state had 
ever entered it before." This, too, though he had re- 
ceived a salute of one gun from an American vessel, 
the Jennie, on his entrance to the bay. The lieutenant's 
claim was not to remain forever unchallenged , as will 
appear presently. 

With the exploration of Puget sound and the dis- 
covery of the Columbia, history-making maritime ad- 
venture practically ceased. But as the fabled straic 
of Anian had drawn explorers to the Pacific shores in 
quest of the mythical passage to the treasurers of Ind, 
so likewise did the fairy tales of La Hontan and others 
stimulate inland exploration. Furthermore, the mys- 
tic charm possessed by a terra incognita was becoming 
irresistible to adventurous spirits, and the possibilities 
of discovering untold wealth in the vaults of its "shin- 
ing mountains" and in the sands of its crystal rivers 
were exceedingly fascinating to the lover of gain. 

The honor of pioneership in overland exploration 
belongs to one Verendrye. who, under authority of the 
governor-general of New France, in 1773 set out on an 
expedition to the Rocky mountains from Canada. This 
explorer and his brother and sons made many im- 
portant explorations, but as they failed to find a pass 
through the Rocky mountains by which thev could 


come to the Pacific side, their adventures do not fall 
within the purview of our volume. They are said to 
have reached the vicinity of the present city of Helena. 

If, as seems highly probable, the events chronicled 
by La Page in his charming "Histoire de la Louisi- 
ane," published in 1758, should be taken as authentic. 
the first man to scale the Rocky mountains from the 
east and to make his way overland to the shores of the 
Pacific was a Yazoo Indian, Moncacht-ape or Mont- 
cachabe by name. But "the first traveler to lead a 
partv of civilized men through the territory of the 
Stony mountains to the South sea" was Alexander 
Mackenzie, who, in 1793. reached the coast at fifty- 
two degrees, twenty-four minutes, forty-eight sec- 
onds north, leaving as a memorial of his visit, inscribed 
on a rock with vermillion and grease the words "Alex- 
andar .Mackenzie, from Canada by land, July 22, 1793." 

But western exploration by land had elicited the in- 
terest of one whose energy and force were sufficient to 
bring to a successful issue almost any undertaking 
worth the effort. While the other statesmen and leg- 
islators of his time were fully engaged with the prob- 
lems of the moment, the great mind of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, endowed as it was with a wider range of vision 
and more comprehensive grasp of the true situation 
was projecting exploring expeditions into the north- 
west. In 1786, while serving as minister to Paris, he 
had fallen in with the ardent Ledyard, who was on 
fire with the idea of opening a large and profitable 
fur trade in the north Pacific region. To this young 
man he had suggested the idea of journeying to Kam- 
tchatka, then in a Russian vessel to Nootka sound, 
from which, as a starting point, he should make an 
exploring expedition easterly to the United States. 
Ledyard acted on the suggestion, but was arrested as 
a spy in the spring of 1787 by Russian officials and so 
severely treated as to cause a failure of his health and 
a consequent failure of his enterprise. 

The next effort of Jefferson was made in 1792, 
when he proposed to the American Philosophical Soci- 
ety that it should engage a competent scientist "to ex- 
plore northwest America from the eastward by ascend- 
ing the Missouri, crossing the Rocky mountains and de- 
scending the nearest river to the Pacific ocean." The 
idea was favorably received. Captain Meriwether 
Lewis, who afterward distinguished himself as one of 
the leaders of the Lewis and Clark expedition, of- 
fered his services, but for some reason Andre Mich- 
aux, a French botanist, was given the preference. Mich- 
aux proceeded as far as Kentucky, but there received 
an order from the French minister, to whom, it seems, 
he also owed obedience, that he should relinquish 
his appointment and engage upon the duties of another 

It was not until after the opening of the new cen- 
tury that another opportunity for furthering his fa- 
vorite project presented itself to Jefferson. An act of 
congress, under which trading nouses had been es- 
tablished for facilitating commerce with the Indians, 
was about to expire by limitation, and President Jef- 
ferson, in recommending its continuance, seized the 
opportunity to urge upon congress the advisability of 

fitting out an expedition, the object of which should 
be "to explore the Missouri river and such principal 
streams of it as, by its course of communication with 
the waters of the Pacific ocean, whether the Columbia, 
Oregon, Colorado or any other river, may offer the 
most direct and practical water communication across 
the continent, for the purpose of commerce." 

Congress voted an appropriation for the purpose, 
and the expedition was placed in charge of Captains 
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. President Jef- 
ferson gave the explorers minute and particular in- 
structions as to investigations to be made by them. 
They were to inform themselves, should they reach 
the Pacific ocean, "of the circumstances which' may 
decide whether the furs of those parts may be col- 
lected as advantageously at the head of the Missouri 
(convenient as is supposed to the Colorado and Ore- 
gon or Columbia) as at Nootka sound or any other 
part of the coast ; and the trade be constantly con- 
ducted through the Missouri and United States more 
beneficially than by the circumnavigation now prac- 
ticed." In addition to the instructions already quoted, 
these explorers were directed to ascertain if possible 
on arriving at the seaboard if there were any ports 
within their reach frequented by the sea vessels of any 
nation, and to send, if practicable, two of their most 
trusted people back by sea with copies of their notes. 
They were also, if they deemed a return by the way 
they had come imminently hazardous, to ship the en- 
tire party and return via Good Hope or Cape Horn, 
as they might be able. 

A few days before the initial steps were taken in 
discharge of the instructions of President Jefferson, 
news reached the seat of government of a transaction 
which added materially to the significance of the en- 
terprise. Negotiations had been successfully consum- 
mated for the purchase of Louisiana on April 30, 1803, 
but the authorities a'. Washington did not hear of the 
important transfer until the 1st of July. Of such trans- 
cendant import to the future of our country was this 
transaction and of such vital moment to the 
section with which our volume is primarily 
concerned, that we must here interrupt the trend 
of our narrative to give the reader an idea 
of the extent of territory involved and, if pos- 
sible, to enable him to appreciate the influence of the 
purchase. France, by her land explorations and the 
establishment of trading posts and forts, first acquired 
title to the territory west of the Mississippi and east of 
the Rocky mountains, though Great Britain claimed 
the territory in accordance with her doctrine of con- 
tinuity and contiguity, most of her colonial grants 
extending in express terms to the Pacific ocean. Spain 
also claimed the country by grant of Pope Alexander 
VI. A constant warfare had been waged between 
France and Great Britain for supremacy in America. 
The latter was the winner in the contest, and in 1762, 
France, apparently discouraged, ceded to Spain the 
province of Louisiana. By the treaty of February 10, 
1763, which gave Great Britain the Canadas, it was 
agreed that the western boundary between English and 
Spanish possessions in America should be the Missis- 


sippi river, Great Britain renouncing all claim to the 
territory west of that boundary. In 1800 Spain retro- 
ceded Louisiana to France "with the same extent it 
has now in the hands of Spain, and which it had when 
France possessed it. and such as it should be according 
to the treaties subsequently made betwen Spain and 
other states." 

The order for the formal delivery of the province 
to France was issued by the Spanish king on October 
15, 1802, and, as above stated, the United States suc- 
ceeded to the title by treaty of April 30, 1803. 

Of the long, weary land marches which brought 
the daughtv explorers, Captains Meriwether Lewis and 
William Clark, to the pure currents of the Clearwater, 
space forbids narration. It is pleasant to record that 
the travel-worn expedition received hospitable treat- 
ment upon reaching the spot where Lewiston now 
stands. The Nez Perces were friendly, gave the ex- 
plorers what information they could about the remain- 
der of their journey and readily traded them such food 
supplies as they were able. While details of this his- 
tory-making expedition to the mouth of the Columbia 
and back again to the eastern states must be sought 
elsewhere, we shall here quote a summary of the jour- 
ney given by Captain Lewis himself, which will convey 
some idea of the momentous task successfully accom- 
plished by these giants of the wilderness : 

"The road by which we went out by the way of the 
Missouri to its head is 3,096 miles ; thence by land by 
way of Lewis river over to Clark's river and down 
that to the entrance of Traverse's Rest creek, where 
all the roads from different routes meet ; thence across 
the rugged part of the Rocky mountains to the naviga- 
ble waters of the Columbia, 398 miles ; thence down 
the river 640 miles to the Pacific ocean — making a 
total distance of 4.134 miles. On our return in 1806 
we came from Traveler's Rest directly to the falls of 
the Missouri river, which shortens the distance about 
579 miles and is a much better route, reducing the 
distance from the Mississippi to the Pacific ocean to 
3,555 miles. Of this journey 2,575 miles is up the 
Missouri to the falls of that river; thence passing 
through the plains and across the Rocky mountains 
to the navigable waters of the Kooskooskia river, a 
branch of the Columbia, 340 miles, two hundred of 
which is good road, 140 over a tremendous mountain, 
steep and broken, 60 miles of which is covered several 
feet deep with snow, on which we passed on the last 
of June; from the navigable part of the Kooskooskia 
we descended that rapid river 73 miles to its enterance 
into Lewis river, and down that river 154 miles to the 
Columbia, and thence 413 miles to its entrance into 
the Pacific ocean. About 180 miles of this distance 
is tide water. We passed several bad rapids and nar- 
rows and one considerable fall, 268 miles above the 
entrance of this river. 37 feet, eight inches ; the total 
distance descending the Columbia waters, 640 miles, 
making a total of 3.555 miles, on the most direct route 
from the Mississippi at the mouth of the Missouri to 
the Pacific ocean." 

The safe return of the explorers to their homes in 
the United States naturally created a sensation through- 

out that country and the world. Leaders and men 
were suitably rewarded, and the fame of the former 
will live while the rivers to which their names have 
been given, continue to pour their waters into the sea. 
President Jefferson, the great patron of the expedition, 
paying a tribute to Captain Lewis in 1813, said : "Nev- 
er did a similar event create more joy throughout the 
Unite'd States. The humblest of its citizens have taken 
a lively interest in the issue of this journey, and looked 
with impatience for the information it would furnish. 
Nothing short of the official journals of this extraor- 
dinary and interesting journey will exhibit the import- 
ance of the service, the courage, devotion, zeal and per- 
severance under circumstances calculated to discourage, 
which animated this little band of heroes, throughout 
the long, dangerous and tedious travel." 

The knowledge of the Columbia basin, resulting 
from the extensive exploration of Lewis and Clark, 
soon bore fruit in a number of commercial enterprises, 
the first of which was the Astor expedition. It was so 
called from John Jacob Astor, a native of Heidelburg, 
who had come to America poor and had amassed a 
large fortune in commercial transactions. In 1800 
there was conceived in the brain of this great captain 
of industry a scheme which for magnitude of design 
and careful arrangement of detail was truly master- 
ful. It contemplated the prosecution of the fur trade 
in every unsettled territory of America claimed by the 
United States, the trade with China and the supply of 
the Russian settlements with trading stock and pro- 
visions, the s:oods to be paid for in peltry. A vessel 
was to be dispatched at regular intervals from New 
York, bearing supplies and goods to be traded to the 
Indians. This was to discharge her cargo at a depot 
of trade to be established at the mouth oAhe Columbia 
river, then trade along the coast with Indians and at 
the Russian settlements until another cargo had been 
in part secured, return to the mouth of the river, com- 
plete her lading there, sail thence to China, receive a 
return cargo of Canton silks, nankeen and tea, and 
back to New York. Two years would pass in com- 
pleting this vast "commercial rounding-up." An im- 
portant part of this plan was the supply of the Russian 
posts at New Archangel, the object being two fold, — 
first to secure the profits accruing therefrom, and sec- 
ondly, to shut off competition in Mr. Astor's own ter- 
ritory, through the semi-partnership with the Russians 
in furnishing them supplies. Careful arrangements 
had been made with the Russian government to pre- 
vent any possible clash between the vessels of the two 
companies which should be engaged in the coast trade. 
"It was," says Brewerton, "a collossal scheme, and 
deserved to succeed: had it done so it would have ad- 
vanced American settlement and actual occupancy on 
the Northwest coast by at least a quarter of a century, 
giving employment to thousands, and transferred the 
enormous profits of the Hudson's Bay and Northwest 
British fur companies from English to American cof- 

Notwithstanding the opposition of the Northwest 
Fur Company, a powerful British corporation. As- 
tor's sea expedition reached the mouth of the Columbia 


before the territory had been pre-empted by any other 
fur traders. His overland company arrived later, after 
having suffered terrible hardships, being well nigh 
overcome by the fatigues of their journey, the rigors 
of the inhospitable mountain ranges and lack of food. 
Astoria was founded and named. The little colony 
of traders set vigorously about the task of carrying 
into execution Astor's comprehensive plan. There 
were many difficulties to be overcome and one serious 
disaster, the massacre of the Tonquin's crew and the 
subsequent destruction of that vessel, had its decidedly 
depressing effect. Nevertheless, the Astor expedi- 
tion would have doubtless proved a success were it not 
for two unfortunate circumstances. In the choice of his 
partners in the Pacific Fur Company, Mr. Astor had 
made a serious mistake. Broad minded and liberal 
himself, he did not appreciate the danger of entrusting 
his undertaking to the hands of men whose national 
prejudices were bitterly anti-American and whose pre- 
vious connection with a rival company might affect 
their loyalty to this one. He associated with himself 
as partners in the enterprise Donald Mackenzie, Alex- 
ander Mackay, who had accompanied Alexandar Mac- 
kenzie on his voyage of discovery, hence possessed in- 
valuable experience, and Duncan Macdougal, all late 
of the Northwest Company, and though men of great 
skill and experience, schooled in the prejudices of the 
association with which they had so long maintained 
connection, and able to see only through British eyes. 
To the partners already enumerated were subsequently 
added Wilson P. Hunt and Robert Maclellan, Ameri- 
cans, John Clarke, a Canadian, David and Robert Stu- 
art and Ramsey Crooks, Scotchmen, and others. 

The second unfortunate circumstance and the one 
which gave perfidity a chance to perform its perfect 
work was the outbreak of the war of 1812. The dan- 
ger that Astoria might be captured by the British (for 
the United States had neglected to furnish suitable 
protection to this most remote outpost of its domin- 
ion) gave the traitorous Macdougal a colorable ex- 
cuse to betray into the hands of the Northwest Com- 
pany Mr. Astor's interests on the Pacific coast. The 
denouement of the plot was in this wise. On the 8th 
of October, 1813, Macdougal, by way of preparation 
for his final coupe, read a letter announcing the sailing 
of two British armed vessels, the Phoebe "and the Is- 
aac Todd, with orders "to take and destroy everything 
American on the Northwest coast." 

"This dramatic scene," says Evans, "was followed 
by a proposition of MacTavish (of the Northwest Fur 
Company) to purchase the interests, stocks, establish- 
ments, etc. of the Pacific Fur Company. Macdougal 
then assumed sole control and agency because of the 
non-arrival of Hunt, and after repeated conference with 
MacTavish in which the presence of the other part- 
ners was ignored, the sale was concluded at certain 
rates. A few davs later J. Stuart arrived with the re- 
mainder of the Northwest party. He objected to Mac- 
Tavish's prices and lowered the rates materially. Mr. 
Stuart's offer was accepted by Macdougal and the 
agreement of transfer was signed October 16th. By it 
Duncan Macdougal, for and on behalf of himself, Don- 

ald .Mackenzie, David Stuart and John Clarke, part- 
ners of the Pacific Fur Company, dissolved July 1st, 
pretended to sell to his British conferes and co-con- 
spirators of the Xorthwest Company 'the whole of the 
establishments, furs and present stock on hand, of 
the Columbia and Thompson's rivers.' " 

It is needless to add that on the arrival of the Brit- 
ish vessels Astoria became a British possession. The 
formal change of sovereignty and raising of the Union 
Jack took place on December 12th, and as if to oblit- 
erate all trace of Mr. Astor's operations, the name of 
Astoria was changed to Fort George. The arrival of 
Isaac Todd the following spring with a cargo of trad- 
ing goods and supplies enabled the Northwest Com- 
pany to enter vigorously into the prosecution of their 
trade in the territory of their wronged and outraged 
rival. "Thus disgracefully failed," says Evans, "a 
magnificent enterprise, which merited success fi r sa- 
gacity displayed in its conception, its details, its ob- 
jects; for the liberality and munificence of its projec- 
tor in furnishing means adequate for its thorough exe- 
cution; for the results it had aimed to produce. It was 
inaugurated purely for commercial purposes. Had it 
not been transferred to its enemies, it would have pi' n- 
eered the colonization of the northwest coast by citi- 
zens of the United States; it would have furnished the 
natural and peaceful solution of the question of the 
right to the territory drained by the Columbia and its 

"The scheme was grand in its aim, magnificent in 
its breadth of purpose and area of operation. Its re- 
sults were naturally feasible, not over-anticipated. 
They were but the logical and necessary sequences of 
the pursuit of the plan. Mr. Astor made no miscal- 
culation, no omission ; neither did he permit a sanguine 
hope to lead him into any wild or imaginary venture. 
He was practical, generous, broad. He executed what 
Sir Alexander Mackenzie urged should be adopted as 
the policy of British capital and enterprise. That one 
American citizen should have individually undertaken 
what two mammoth British companies had not the 
courage to try was but an additional cause which had 
intensified national prejudice into embittered jealousy 
on the part of the British rivals, the Northwest Com- 

By the first article of the treaty of Ghent entered 
into between Great Britain and the United States. De- 
cember 14, 1814, it was agreed "that all territory, 
places and possessions whatsoever taken by either 
party from the other, during or after the war, should 
be restored." Astoria, therefore, again became the 
possession of the United States, and in September, 
1 817, the government sent the sloop-of-war Ontario 
"to assert the claim of the United States to the sover- 
eignty of the adjacent country, and especially to re- 
occupy Astoria or Fort George." The formal surren- 
der of the fort is dated October 6, 1818. 

Mr. Astor had urged the United States to repos- 
sess Astoria, and intended fully to resume operations 
in the basin of the Columbia, but the Pacific Fur Com- 
pany was never reorganized, and never again did the 


great captain of industry engage in trade on the shores 
of the Pacific. 

Brief and general though this introductory sketch 
must be we cannot omit mention of the two British fur 
companies who played such a prominent part in the 
early history of the section to which the five northern 
counties of Idaho belong. Although organized in 1774, 
the Northwest Company, successor in interest of the 
Pacific Fur Company, did not attain to high prestige 
until the dawn of the nineteenth century. Then, how- 
ever, it seemed to take on new life, and before the first 
half decade was passed it had become the successful 
rival of the Hudson's Bay Company for the fur trade 
of the interior of North America. The Hudson's Bay 
Company when originally chartered in 1670 was 
granted in a general way the right to traffic in Hud- 
son's Bay and the territory contiguous thereto, and the 
Northwest Company began to insist that the grant 
should be more strictly construed. The boundaries of 
Prince Rupert's land, as the Hudson's Bay territory 
was named, had never been definitely determined and 
there had long been contention in those regions which 
were claimed by that company but denied to it by the 
other fur traders. Beyond the recognized area of the 
Hudson's Bay territory, the old Northwest Company ( a 
French company which had fallen, at the time of the 
fall of Canada into the possession of the British) had 
been a competitor of the Hudson's Bay Company. When 
this French association went out of existence the con- 
test was kept up by private merchants, but without 
lasting success. The new Northwest Company, of 
Montreal, united and cemented into one organization 
all these individuals for the better discharge of the 
common purpose. It is interesting to note the theory 
of trade of this association as contrasted with that of 
the Hudson's Bay Company. 

From established posts as centers of operations, 
the Montreal association dispatched parties in all di- 
rections to visit the villages and haunts of the natives 
and secure furs from every source possible. It went 
to the natives for their goods, while the rival company 
so arranged its posts that these were convenient to the 
whole Indian population, then depended upon the abor- 
igines to bring in their peltries and exchange the same 
for such articles as might supply their wants or gratify 
their fancies. Consequently the one company required 
many employees, the other comparatively few. The 
clerks or traders of the Montreal association were re- 
quired to serve an apprenticeship of seven years at 
small wages. That term successfully completed, the 
stipend was doubled. Skill and special aptitude in trad- 
ing brought speedy promotions, and the chance to be- 
come a partner in the business was an unfailing incent- 
ive to strenuous effort. The Hudson's Bay Company, 
on the other hand, had established fixed grades of com- 
pensation. Promotion was slow, coming periodically 
rather than as a reward for specially meritorious serv- 
ice, and though faithfulness to duty was required, no 
incentive was offered for special endeavor. The Hud- 
son's Bay Company based its territorial title upon a 
specific grant from the crown, while the rival associa- 
tion sought no other title than such as priority of oc- 

cupancy and pre-emption afforded. It claimed as its 
field of operation all unoccupied territory wherever lo- 

The Northwest Company showed also its animus 
to confirm and strengthen British title to all territories 
adversely claimed, and wherever a post was estab- 
lished the territory contiguous thereto was ceremoni- 
ously taken possession of "in the name of the king of 
Great Britain, for the Northwest Company." Its es- 
tablishments and possessions afterward constituted 
the substantial basis of Great Britain's claim to the 

Rivalry between these two companies was carried 
to such an extent that both were brought to the 
verge of bankruptcy. British interests were being en- 
dangered through this trade war and something had to 
be done. The governor general of Canada appointed 
a commission to investigate conditions, and that com- 
mission recommended a union of the two companies. 
Nothing, however, of material benefit resulted. Event- 
ually, in the winter of 1819-20, Lord Bathurst, Brit- 
ish secretary of state for the colonies, took up the 
matter and through his meditation a union was finally 
effected. On March 20, 1821, it was mutually agreed 
that both companies should operate under the charter 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, furnishing equal 
amounts of capital and sharing equally the profits, the 
arrangement to continue in force for twenty-one years. 

By 1824 all the rights and interests of the stock- 
holders late of the Northwest Company had passed into 
the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company. The absorb- 
tion of the one corporation by the other was com- 
plete. The treacherous and perfidious treatment of Mr. 
Astor and the demoralization of his partners availed 
the greedy Northwesters but little, for they were soon 
after conquered and subdued and forever deprived of 
their identity as a company by their powerful rival and 

The Hudson's Bay Company now became the sole 
owner and proprietor of the trade west of the Rocky 
mountains, and of all the rights accruing under the 
license of trade issued to it and the Northwest Com- 
pany by the British parliament. An "imperium in im- 
perio" Evans characterized this company and such it 
was for it was in possession of well-nigh absolute 
power over its employes and the native races with 
whom it traded. It was constituted "The true and ab- 
solute lords and proprietors of the territories, limits 
and places, save always the faith, allegiance and sov- 
ereign dominion due to us (the crown), our heirs and 
successors, for the same, to hold as tenants in fee and 
common socage, and not bv knight's service, reserving 
as a yearly rent, two elks and two black beavers." 
Power was granted, should occasion arise, to "send 
ships of war, men or ammunition to any fort, post or 
place for defense thereof; to raise military companies 
and to appoint their officers ; to make war or conclude 
peace with any people (not Christian), in any of their 
territories," also "to seize the goods, estates or people 
of those countries for damage to the company's inter- 
est, or for the interruption of trade; to erect and build 
forts, garrisons, towns, villages ; to establish colonies 


and to support such establishments by expeditions fit- 
ted out in Great Britain ; to seize all British subjects 
not connected with the company, or employed by them, 
or in such territory by their license, and send them 
to England." Should one of its factors, traders or 
other employees "contemn or disobey an order, he was 
liable to be punished by the president or council, who 
were authorized to prescribe the manner and measure 
of punishment. The offender had the right to appeal 
to the company in England, or he might be turned over 
for trial by the courts. For the better discovery of 
abuses and injuries by the servants, the governor and 
company, and their respective president, chief agent 
or governor in any of the territories,- were authorized 
to examine on oath all factors, masters, pursers, super- 
cargoes, commanders of castles, forts, fortifications, 
plantations, or colonies, or other persons, touching or 
concerning any matter or thing sought to be investi- 
gated.'* To further strengthen the hands of the com- 
pany, the charter concludes with a royal mandate to 
all "admirals, vice-admirals, justices, mayors, sheriffs, 
constables, bailiffs, and all and singular other our of- 
ficers, ministers, liegemen, subjects whatsoever, to aid, 
favor, help and assist the said governor and company 
to enjoy, as weli on land as on the seas, all the prem- 
ises in said charter contained, whensoever required." 
Something of the modus operandi of the company 
must now be given. The chief factors and chief trad- 
ers were paid no salaries, but in lieu thereof were given 
forty per cent, of the profits, divided among them on 
some basis deemed equitable by the company. The 
clerks received salaries varying from twenty to one 
hundred pounds per annum. Below these again were 
the servants, whose term of enlistment (for such in 
effect it was) was for five years, and whose pay was 
seventeen pounds per annum without clothing. The 
servant was bound by indentures to devote his whole 
time and labor to the company's interests ; to yield obe- 
dience to sprerior officers ;to defend the company's 
property ; to faithfully obey the laws, orders, 
etc ; to defend officers and agents of the com- 
pany to the extent of his ability ; to serve 
in the capacity of a soldier whenever called upon 
so to do : to attend military drill ; and never to engage 
or be interested in any trade or occupation except in 
accordance with the company's orders and for its bene- 
fit. In addition to the pittance paid him, the servant 
was entitled, should he desire to remain in the country 
after the expiration of his term of enlistment, to fifty 
acres of land, for which he was to render twenty-eight 
days' service per annum for seven years. If dismissed 
before the expiration of his term, the servant, it was 
agreed, should be transported to his European home 
free of charge. Desertion or neglect might be punished 
by the forfeiture of even the wretched pittance he was 
to receive. It was, furthermore, the policv of the com- 
pany to encourage marriage with the Indian women, 
their purpose being to create family ties which should 
bind the poor slave to the soil. By the time the serv- 
ant's term of enlistment had expired, there was, there- 
fore, usually no choice left him but to re-enlist or ac- 
cept the grant of land. "In times of peace, laborers 

and operatives were ever on hand at mere nominal 
wages ; in times of outbreak they were at once trans- 
formed into soldiers amenable to military usage and 

The system was certainly a fine one, viewed from 
the standpoint of the company, but while it may com- 
mand admiration for its ingenuity, it is certainly not 
to be commended for magnanimity. Its design and 
purpose was to turn the wealth of the country into the 
coffers of the English noblemen who owned Hudson's 
Bay stock, even though this should be done at the ex- 
pense of the manhood, the self-respect and the inde- 
pendence of the poor sons of toil who foolishly or from 
necessity bound themselves to its service. 

The Indian policv of the company was no less politic 
than its treatment of its employees, but it had much 
more in it that was truly commendable. Its purpose 
did not bring its employees into conflict with the Indian, 
nor require his expulsion, neither was there danger of 
the lands of the savages being appropriated or the 
graves of their people disturbed. The sale of intoxi- 
cants was positively and successfully prohibited. Con- 
ciliation was the wisest policy for the company, and it 
governed itself accordingly ; but when punishment was 
merited, it was administered with promptness and se- 
verity. When depreciations were committed the tribe 
to which the malefactor belonged was pursued by an 
armed force and compelled to deliver up the guilty 
to his fate. A certain amount of civilization was in- 
troduced, and with it came an increase of wants, which 
wants could only be supplied at the company's forts. 
Indians were sent on hunting and trapping expedi- 
tions in all directions, so that concentration of tribes 
became difficult, and if attempted, easily perceived in 
time to circumvent it and prevent trouble. Thus the 
company secured an influence over the savage and a 
place in his affections, from which it could not easily 
be dislodged. 

In its treatment of missionaries, civil and military 
officers and others from the United States, the com- 
pany's factors and agents were uniformly courteous 
and kind. Their hospitality was in the highest degree 
commendable, meriting the gratitude of the earliest 
visitors and settlers. The poor and unfortunate never 
asked assistance in vain. But woe to the American who 
attempted to trade with the Indian, to trap, hunt or do 
anything which brought him into competition with the 
British corporation. All the resources of a company 
supplied with an abundance of cheap labor, supported 
by the friendship and affection of the aboriginal peo- 
ples, backed by an almost unlimited capital, and forti- 
fied by the favor of one of the wealthiest and most 
powerful nations of the earth, were at once turned to 
c-ush him. Counter establishments were formed in 
his vicinity, and he was hampered in every way possible 
and pursued with the relentlessness of an evil fate until 
compelled to retire from the field. 

Such being the condition, there was not much en- 
couragement for American enterprise in the basin of 
the Columbia. It is not, however, in the American 
character to yield a promising prospect without a strug- 
gle and many times efforts were made at competition in 


the Oregon territory. William H. Ashley. Jedediah S. 
Smith, Captain Nathaniel J. Wyeth and others tried 
their hands but all were compelled to give up in de- 

More important perhaps than the loss of profits 
which might accrue to America from the successful 
prosecution of the fur trade was the weakening of 
America's title to the country, through the establish- 
ment of British trading posts, the colonization of re- 
tired officers and servants as cultivators of the public 
domain, etc. It is true that the joint occupancy con- 
ventions of 1818 and 1827, by which British and Ameri- 
cans alike were allowed to occupy the country, ex- 
pressly stipulated that no advantage should inure to 
either of the high contracting parties by virtue of any 
acts performed subsequent to the date of the first con- 
vention. However clear and explicit the language 
of the treaty, no observer could fail to note that the 
establishment of trading enterprises was giving Great 
Britain a decided advantage in the struggle for title 
to the Oregon country. The Hundson's Bay Company 
had a political mission and was piaying a prominent 
part in inter-national affairs. This it openly avowed 
in 1S37 in its application to the home government for a 
new license granting enlarged privileges. It pointed 
boastfully to its efficient services in successfully crush- 
ing out American enterprise, and in strengthening the 
British title to the territory, contrary to the spirit and 
letter of the joint occupancy treaties. 

In presenting the petition, the company's chief rep- 
resentative in England, Sir John Henry Pelly, called 
the attention of the lords to the service rendered in 
securing to the mother country a branch of trade, 
wrested from subjects of Russia and the United States 
of America; to the six permanent establishments it had 
on the coast, and the sixteen in the interior, besides 
the migratory and hunting parties ; to its marine of six 
armed vessels; to its large pasture and grain farms, 
affording every species of agricultural produce and 
maintaining large herds of stock. He further averred 
that it was the intention of the company to still further 
extend and increase its farms, and to establish an ex- 
port trade in wool, hides, tallow and other produce of 
the herd and the cultivated field, also to encourage the 
settlement of its retired servants and other emigrants 
under its protection. Referring to the soil, climate and 
other circumstances of the country, he said they were 
such as to make it "as much adapted to agricultural 
pursuits as any other spot in America; and," said he, 
"with care and protection the British dominion may 
not only be preserved in this country, which it has been 
so much the wish of Russia and America to occupy to 
the exclusion of British subjects, but British interest 
and British influence may be maintained as paramount 
in this interesting part of the coast of the Pacific." 

Sir George Simpson, who was in charge of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company's affairs in America, in making 
his plea for the renewal of the license, referred to the 
international import of the company's operations in this 
language : "The possession of that country to Great 
Britain may be an object of very great importance ; 
and we are strengthening that claim to it (independent 

of the claims of prior discovery and occupation for the 
purpose of Indian trade) by forming the nucleus of a 
colony through the establishment of farms, and the set- 
tlement of some of our retired officers and servants as 

One might almost expect that Great Britain would 
offer some word of reproof to a company which could 
have the audacity to boast of violating her treaty com- 
pacts with a friendly power. Not so, however. She 
was a party to the breach of faith. Instead of admin- 
istering reproof, she rewards the wrong-doers by the 
promptly issuing of a new license to extend and be in 
force for a period of twenty-one years. This renewed 
license, the date of which is May 31, 1838, granted to 
the company "the exclusive privilege of trading with 
the Indians in all such parts of North America, to the 
northward and westward of the islands and territories 
belonging to the United States of America, as shall not 
form part of any of our (British) provinces in North 
America, or of any lands or territories belonging to the 
said United States of America, or to any European 
government, state, or power. Without rent for the first 
five vears. and afterward the yearly rent of five shill- 
ings, payable on the 1st of June." The company was 
again required to furnish a bond conditioned on then- 
executing by their authority over the persons in their 
employ, "all civil and criminal process by the officers or 
persons legally empowered to execute such process 
within all territories included in the grant, and for the 
producing or delivering into custody, for the purpose 
of trial, all persons in their employ or acting under their 
authority within the said territories, who shall be 
charged with any criminal offenses." The license, how- 
ever, prohibited the company "from claiming or exer- 
cising any trade with the Indians on the "northwest 
coast of America westward of the Rocky mountains to 
the prejudice or exclusion of any of the "subjects of any 
foreign state, who, under or by any force of any con- 
vention for the time being between Great Britain and 
such foreign states, may be entitled to and shall be en- 
gaged in such trade." But no provision could be 
framed, nor was it the wish of the grantors to frame- 
any, which should prevent the Hudson's Bay Company 
from driving out by harassing tactics and fierce compe- 
tition, anv American who might enter the Oregon ter- 
ritory as a trader. 

Though the citizens of the United States failed to 
compete with the powerful British company for the 
profits of the fur trade, neither they nor their govern- 
ment viewed the aggressiveness of the British with any- 
thing like apathy. The value of the countrv earlv be- 
came appreciated by a determined little band in' con- 
gress. The debates in that body, as well as the numer- 
ous publications sent out among the people, stimulated 
a few daring spirits to brave the dangers of Rocky 
mountain travel and to see for themselves the truth 
with regard to Oregon. Reports from these reacted 
upon congress, enabling it to reason and judge from 
premises more nearly in accordance with fact. Grad- 
ually interest in Oregon became intensified, and the 
determination to hold it for. the United States deep- 
ened. While the country never receded from its con- 


viction of the existence of an absolute right of sover- 
eignty in itself, the people resolved to establish a title 
which even the British could not question, to win 
Oregon from Great Britain even in accordonce with 
the tenets of her own theory. They determined to 
settle and Americanize the territory. In 1834 an ele- 
ment of civilization was introduced of a vastly higher 
nature than any which accompanied the inroad of the 
Hudson's Bay Company's employees and of trappers 
and traders ; an element more potent also in its politi- 
cal effect as the event proved. We refer to the en- 
trance into the country of a party of Methodist mis- 
sionaries, which accompanied Wyeth's overland expe- 
dition. The party consisted of Rev. Jason Lee and 
his nephew. Rev. Daniel Lee, Cyrus Shepherd, Court- 
ney M. Walker and P. L. Edwards. These settled 
near the site of the present city of Salem, forming the 
nucleus of a thrifty American colony, for the party 
was perforce increased by the marriage of some of its 
members and by additions to its numbers as the neces- 
sities 01 the mission and the progress of its work de- 
manded. Not only that but the adventurous Rocky 
mountain men and other whites who became weary 
of their nomadic habits when they determined to set- 
tle down naturally sought its vicinity for the sake of 
its helpful society and influence. 

Two years later came another missionary party, 
sent out bv the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, an organization then supported by 
the Congregational, Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed 
churches. The members of this party were Dr. Mar- 
cus Whitman and wife, Rev. H. H. Spalding and 
wife and W. H. Gray. We must pass over for the 
present the work of these men and those who later 
became their associates, but their political influence 
was not less potent than that of the Methodist mis- 
sionaries and it is certain that Whitman's famous mid- 
winter ride overland to the east had for one of its 
momentous results the stimulating of immigration into 
Oregon. Undoubtedly a large proportion of the near- 
ly nine hundred who were piloted over the Rockies 
by Whitman in 1843, were induced to come through 
the representations and efforts of that great mission- 
ary patriot. 

But besides the missions, several other forces were 
at work to populate the Northwest with an American 
people which must be passed over here. The inde- 
pendent population of the country in 1S41 was per- 
haps 253 ; in 1842 came an immigration of 1 1 1 per- 
sons : in 1843 came the immigration of 875 persons 
referred to above; the next year brought 800 more; 
1846 added another thousand according to estimate, 
and so the population continued to grow by annual 
accretions. America had determined to oppose her 
citizens, as settlers and home builders, against the 
British fur traders, thus introducing into the Oregon 
question a feature, the vital force and import of which 
could not be denied by the adverse claimant. 

But the transcendant importance of this great con- 
troversy demands that we trace briefly the history of 
diplomatic negotiations by which was effected a peace- 
ful adjustment of international interests so diametri- 

cally opposed to each other as to twice all but occa- 
sion actual conflict of arms. 

We need not attempt to trace all the conflicting 
claims which were at any time set up by different na- 
tions to parts or the whole of the old Oregon territory, 
nor to go into the controversy in all its multiform 
complications, but will confine our inquiry mainly to 
the negotiations after Great Britain and the United 
States became the sole claimants. France early estab- 
lished some right to what denominated "the western 
part of Louisiana," which, in 1762, she conveved to 
Spain. This was retroceded to France some thirty- 
eight years later, and in 1803 was by that nation con- 
veyed with the rest of Louisiana to the United States. 
So France was left out of the contest. In 1819, by 
the treaty of Florida, Spain ceded to the United States 
all right and title whatsoever which she might have to 
the territory on the Pacific, north of the forty-second 

What then were the claims of the United States to 
this vast domain? Naturally they were of a three-fold 
character. Our government claimed first in its own 
right. The Columbia river was discovered by a citi- 
zen of the United States and named by him. The river 
had been subsequently explored from its sources to its 
mouth by a government expedition under Lewis and 
Clark. This had been followed and its effect strength- 
ened by American settlements upon the banks of the 
river. While Astoria, the American settlement, had 
been captured in the war of 1812-15, it: lla d been re- 
stored in accordance with the treaty of Ghent, one pro- 
vision of which was that "all territory, places and pos- 
sessions whatsoever, taken by either party from the 
other during the war, or which may be taken after the 
signing of this treaty, shall be restored without de- 

It was a well established and universally recog- 
nized principle of international law that the discovery 
of a river, followed within a reasonable time by acts 
of occupancy, conveyed the right to the territory 
drained by the river and its tributary streams. This, 
it was contended, would make the territory between 
forty-two degrees and fifty-one degrees north latitude 
the rightful possession of the United States. 

The Americans claimed secondly as the successors 
of France. By the treaty of Utrecht, the date whereof 
was 1713, the north line of the Louisiana territory was 
established as a dividing line between the Hudson's 
Bay territory and the French provinces in Canada. 
For centuries it had been a well recognized principle 

of international law that "continuity" w 

as a strong 

element of territorial claim. All European powers 
when colonizing the Atlantic seaboard, construed their 
colonial grants to extend, whether expressly so stated 
or otherwise, entirely across the continent to the Pa- 
cific ocean, and most of these grants conveyed in ex- 
press terms a strip of territory bounded north and 
south by stated parallels of latitude and east and west 
by the oceans. Great Britain herself had stoutlv main- 
tained this principle, even going so far as to wage 
with France for its integrity, the war which was ended 
by the treaty of 1763. By that England acquired 


Canada and renounced to France all territory west of 
the Mississippi river. It was therefore contended on 
the part of the United States that England's claim by 
continuity passed to France and from France by as- 
signment to this nation. This claim, of course, was 
subject to any rights which might prove to belong to 

Thirdly, the United States claimed as the succes- 
sor of Spain, all the rights that nation might have ac- 
quired by prior discoverv or otherwise having accrued 
to the United States by the treaty of Florida. 

In the negotiations between Great Britain and the 
United States, which terminated in the Joint-Occu- 
pancy treaty of 1818, the latter nation pressed the 
former for a final quit claim of all territory west of the 
Rocky mountains. In so doing it asserted its inten- 
tion "to be without reference or prejudice to the 
claims of any other power," but it was contended on 
the part of the American negotiations, Gallitin and 
Rush, that the discovery of the Columbia by Gray, 
its exploration by Lewis and Clark, and the American 
settlement at Astoria rendered the claim of the United 
States "at least good against Great Britain to the 
country through which such river flowed, though they 
did not assert that the United States had a perfect right 
to the country." 

When, however, the United States succeeded to 
Spain, it was thought that all clouds upon its title 
were completely dispelled, and thereafter it was the 
contention of this government that its right to sole 
occupancy was perfect and indisputable. Great Brit- 
ain, however, did not claim that her title amounted to 
one of sovereign or exclusive possession, but simply 
that it was at least as good as any other. Her theory 
was that she had a right to occupancy in conjunction 
with other claimants, which by settlement and other- 
wise might be so strengthened in a part or the whole 
of the territory as to ultimately secure for her the 
right to be clothed with sovereignty. 

In the discussion of the issue, the earliest explora- 
tions had to be largely left out of the case, as they 
were attended by too much vagueness and uncertainty 
to bear any great weight. The second epoch of ex- 
ploration was, therefore, lifted to a position of promin- 
ence it could not otherwise have enjoyed. Perez and 
Heceta, for the Spainards, the former in 1774, and the 
latter a year later, had explored the northwest coast 
to the fifty-fifth parallel and beyond, Heceta dis- 
covering the mouth of the Columbia river. To offset 
whatever rights might accrue from these explorations, 
England had only the more thorough but less exten- 
sive survey of Captain James Cook, made in 1778. 
The advantage in point of prior discovery would, 
therefore, seem to be with the United States as assignee 
of Spain. 

After the Joint-Occupancy treaty of 1818 had been 
signed, negotiations on the subject were not re- 
opened until 1824. In that year, obedient to the mas- 
terly instructions addressed to him on July 22, 1823, 
by John Quincy Adams, secretary of state, Richard 
Rush, minister to England, entered into negotiations 
with the British ministers Canning and Huskisson 

for the adjustment of the boundary. Mr. Rush was 
instructed to offer the forty-ninth parallel to the sea, 
"should it be earnestly insisted upon by Great Britain." 
He endeavored with great persistency to fulfill his mis- 
sion, but his propositions were rejected. The British 
negotiators offered the forty-ninth parallel to the Co- 
lumbia, then the middle of that river to the sea, with 
perpetual rights to both nations of navigating the har- 
bor at the mouth of the river. This proposal Mr. Rush 
rejected, so nothing was accomplished. By treaty 
concluded in February, 1825, an agreement was en- 
tered into between Great Britain and Russia, whereby 
the line of fifty-four degrees, forty minutes, was fixed 
as the boundary between the territorial claims of the 
two nations, a fact which explains the cry of "Fifty- 
four, forty or fight" that in later days became the 
slogan of the Democratic party. 

In 1826-7 another attempt was made to settle the 
question at issue between Great Britain and the United 
States. Albert Gallatin then represented this country, 
receiving his instructions from Henry Clay, secretary 
of state, who said : "It is not thought necessary to 
add much to the argument advanced on this point in 
the instructions given to Mr. Rush, and that which was 
employed by him in the course of the negotiations to 
support our title as derived from prior discovery and 
settlement at the mouth of the Columbia river, and 
from the treaty which Spain concluded on the 22d of 
February, 1819. That argument is believed to have 
conclusively established our title on both grounds. 
Nor is it conceived that Great Britain has or can make 
out even a colorless title to any portion of the north- 
ern coast." Referring to the offer of the forty-ninth 
parallel in a dispatch dated February 24, 1827, Mr. 
Clay said : "It is conceived in a genuine spirit of con- 
cession and concilliation, and it is our ultimatum 
and you may so announce it." In order to 
save the case of his country from being 
prejudiced in future negotiations by the liberality 
of offers made and rejected. Mr. Clay instructed Galla- 
tin to declare : "That the American government does 
not hold itself bound hereafter, in consequence of any 
proposal which it has heretofore made, to agree to a 
line which has been so proposed and rejected, but will 
consider itself at liberty to contend for the full measure 
of our just claims: which declaration you must have 
recorded in the protocol of one of your conferences; 
and to give it more weight, have it stated that it has 
been done by the express direction of the president." 
Mr. Gallatin sustained the claim of the United 
States in this negotiation so powerfully that the Brit- 
ish plenipotentiaries, Huskisson, Grant and Adding- 
ton, were forced to the position that Great Britian did 
not assert any title to the country. They contented 
themselves with the contention that her claim was 
sufficiently well founded as to give her the right to 
occupy the country in common with other nations, 
such concessions having been made to her by the 
Nootka treaty. The British negotiators complained 
of the recommendation of President Monroe in his 
message of December 7, 1824, to establish a military 
post at the mouth of Columbia river and of the passage 


of the bill in the House providing for the occupancy of 
the Oregon river. To this the Americans replied by call- 
ing attention to the act of the British parliament of 
182 1, entitled "An act for regulating the fur trade and 
establishing a criminal and civil jurisdiction in cer- 
tain parts of North America." He contended with 
great ability and force that the recommendation and 
bill complained of did not interfere with the treaty of 
1818, and that neither a territorial government nor a 
fort at the mouth of the river could rightly be com- 
plained of by a government which had granted such 
wide privileges and comprehensive powers to the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. 

Before the conclusion of these negotiations, Mr. 
Gallatin had offered not alone the forty-ninth parallel 
but that "the navigation of the Columbia river shall 
be perpetually free to subjects of Great Britain in com- 
mon with citizens of the United States, provided that 
the said line should strike the northeastermost or any 
other branch of that river at a point at which it was 
navigable for boats." The British, on their part, again 
offered the Columbia river, together with a large tract 
of land between Admiralty Inlet and the coast, protest- 
ing that this concession was made in the spirit of sacri- 
fice for conciliation and not as one of right. The 
proposition was rejected and the negotiations ended in 
the treaty of August 6, 1827, which continued the 
Joint-Occupancy treaty of 1818 indefinitely, with the 
proviso that it might be abrogated by either party 
on giving the other a year's notice. 

"There can be no doubt," says Evans, "that, during 
the continuance of these two treaties, British foothold 
was strengthened and the difficulty of the adjustment 
of boundaries materially enhanced. Xor does this re- 
flect in the slighest degree upon those great publicists 
who managed the claim of the United States in those 
negotiations. Matchless ability and earnest patriot- 
ism, firm defense of the United States' claim, and 
withal a disposition to compromise to avoid rupture 
with any other nation, mark these negotiations in every 
line. The language and intention of these treaties are 
clear and unmistakable. Neither government was to 
attempt any act in the derogation of the other's claim ; 
nor could any advantage inure to either ; during their 
continuance the territory should be free and open to 
citizens and subjects of both nations. Such is their 
plain purport ; such the only construction which their 
language will warrant. Yet it cannot be controverted 
that the United States had thereby precluded itself 
from the sole enjoyment of the territory which it 
claimed in sovereignty; nor that Great Britain ac- 
quired a peaceable, recognized and uninterrupted ten- 
ancy-in-common in regions where her title was so im- 
perfect that she herself admitted that she could not 
successfully maintain, nor did she even assert it. She 
could well afford to wait. Hers was indeed the policy 
later in the controversy styled masterly inactivity : 
'Leave the title in abeyance, the settlement of the coun- 
try will ultimately settle the sovereignty.' In no event 
could her colorless title lose color ; while an immediate 
adjustment of the boundary would have abridged the 
area of territory in which, through her subjects, she 

already exercised exclusive possession, and had se- 
cured the entire enjoyment of its wealth and resources. 
The Hudson's Bay Company, by virtue of its license 
of trade excluding all other British subjects from the 
territory, was Great Britain's trustee in possession — 
an empire company, omnipotent to supplant enterprises 
projected by citizens of the United States. Indeed, 
the territory had been appropriated by a wealthy, all- 
powerful monopoly, with whom it was runious to at- 
tempt to compete. Such is a true exhibit of the then 
condition of Oregon, produced by causes extrinsic to 
the treaty, which the United States government could 
neither counteract nor avoid. The L^nited States had 
saved the right for its citizens to enter the territory, 
had protested likewise that no act or omission on the 
part of the government or its citizens, or any act of 
commission or omission by the British government or 
her subjects during such joint-occupancy treaties, 
should affect in any way the United States' claim to 
the territory. 

"The treaties of 1818 and 1827 have passed into his- 
tory as conventions for joint occupancy. Practically 
they operated as grants of possession to Great Britain, 
or rather to her representative, the Hudson's Bay 
Company, who, after the merger with the Northwest 
Company, had become sole occupant of the territory. 
The situation may be briefly summed up : The United 
States claimed title to the territory. Great Britain, 
through its empire-trading company, occupied it, — en- 
joyed all the wealth and resources derivable from it." 
But while joint occupancy was in realty non-oc- 
cupation by any but the British, it must not be sup- 
posed that the case of the United States was allowed to 
go entirely by default during the regime of so-called 
joint occupancy. In congress the advisability of occu- 
pying Oregon was frequently and vehemently dis- 
cussed. Ignorance and misconception with regard to 
the real nature of Oregon, its climate, soil, products, 
and healthfulness, were being dispelled. The repre- 
sentations of the Hudson's Bay Company that it was 
a "miasmatic wilderness, uninhabitable except by wild 
beasts and more savage men," were found to be false. 
In 1821 Dr. John Floyd, a representative in congress 
from Virginia, and Senator Thomas H. Benton, of 
Missouri, had interviews at Washington with Ramsey 
Crooks and Russel Farnham, who had belonged to 
Astor's party. From these gentlemen they learned 
something of the value of Oregon, its features of in- 
terest, and its commercial and strategic importance. 
This information Dr. Floyd made public in 1822, in a 
speech in support of a bill "to authorize the occupa- 
tion of the Columbia river, and to regulate trade and 
intercourse with the Indians thereon." On December 
29, 1823, a committee was appointed to inquire as to 
the wisdom of occupying the mouth of the Columbia 
and the committee's report, submitted on April 15th 
of the following year, embodied a communication from 
General Thomas S. Jesup, which asserted that the mili- 
tary occupancy of the Columbia was a necessity for 



protecting trade and securing the frontier. It recom- 
mended : 'the dispatch of a force of two hundred men 
across the continent to establish a fort at the mouth of 
the Columbia river ; that at the same time two vessels, 
with arms, ordnance and supplies, be sent thither by 
sea. He further proposed the establishment of a line 
of posts across the continent to afford protection to 
our traders; and on the expiration of the privilege 
granted to British subjects to trade on the waters of 
the Columbia, to enable us to remove them from our 
territory, and secure the whole to our citizens. Those 
posts could also secure the preservation of peace among 
the Indians in the event of a foreign war and command 
their neutrality or assistance as we might think most 
advisable." The 'letter exposed Great Britian's rea- 
sons for her policy of masterly inactivity, and urged 
that some action be taken by the United States to off- 
set the accretion of British title and for preserving 
and perfecting its own. "History," says Evans, "will 
generously award credit to the sagacious Jesup for 
indicating' in 1823 the unerring way to preserve the 
American title to Oregon territory. Nor will it fail 
to command the earnest devotion of that little Oregon 
party in congress for placing on record why the gov- 
ernment should assert exclusive jurisdiction within its 
own territory." In the next congress the subject was 
again discussed with energy and ability. In 183 1 for- 
mal negotiations with Great Britain were resumed. 

All this discussion had a tendency to dispel the 
idea, promulgated, as we have seen, by the Hudson's 
Bay Company, that the territory was worthless and 
uninhabitable," also to excite interest in the mystic re- 
gion bevond the mountains. 

The United States claimed theoretically that it was 
the possessor of a vested right to absolute sovereignty 
over the entire Oregon territory, and in all the nego- 
tiations, after the signing of the treaty of Florida, its 
ambassadors claimed that the title of their country was 
clearlv established. The fact, however, that joint occu- 
pancv was agreed to at all after 1828 could hardly be 
construed in any other light than as a confession of 
weakness in our' title, notwithstanding the unequivocal 
stipulations that neither party should attempt anything 
in derogation of the other's claims, and that the con- 
troversy should be determined on its merits as they 
existed" prior to 1818. If the United States came into 
possession of an absolute title in 18 19, why should it 
afterward permit occupation by British subjects and 
the enforcement of British law in its domain ? 

The United States' title, as before stated, rested 
upon three foundation stones, — its own discoveries 
and explorations, the discoveries and explorations of 
the Spaniards, and the purchase of Louisiana. While 
it was not contended that any one of these conveyed 
exclusive right, the position of our country was that 
each supplemented the other ; that, though while vested 
in different nations they were antagonistic when held 
by the same nation, they, taken together, amounted to 
a' complete title. The title was, therefore, cumulative 
in its nature and had in it the weakness which is in- 
herent under such conditions. It was impossible to 
determine with definiteness how many partial titles, 

the value of each being a matter of uncertainty, would 
cumulatively amount to one complete title. And, how- 
ever clear the right of the United States might seem 
to its own statesmen, it is evident that conviction must 
be produced in the minds of the British also if war was 
to be avoided. 

In 1831 when Martin Van Buren was our minister 
at London he received instructions relative to the con- 
troversy from Edward Livingston, secretary of state, 
the tenor of which indicated that the United States 
was not averse to the presence of the British in the 
territory. While they asserted confidence in the 
American title to the entire Oregon territory, they 
said: "This subject, then, is open for discussion, and 
until the rights of the parties can be settled by nego- 
tiations, ours can suffer nothing by delay." Under 
these rather lukewarm instructions, naturally nothing 
was accomplished. 

In 1842 efforts to adjust the boundary west of the 
Rocky mountains were again resumed, this time on 
motion of Great Britain. That power requested on 
October x8th of the year mentioned that the United 
States minister at London should be furnished with 
instructions and authority to renew negotiations, giv- 
ing assurance of its willingness to proceed to the con- 
sideration of the boundary subject "in a perfect spirit 
of fairness, and to adjust it on a basis of equitable 
compromise." On November 25th, Daniel Webster, 
then secretary of state, replied: "That the president 
concurred entirely in the expediency of making the 
qiiestion respecting the Oregon territory a subject of 
immediate attention and negotiation between the two 
governments. He had already formed the purpose of 
expressing this opinion in his message to congress, 
and at no distant day, a communication will be made to 
the minister of the United States in London." 

Negotiations were nut, however, renewed until Oc- 
tober, 1843. when Secretary Upshur sent instructions 
to Edward Everett, American minister to London, 
again offering the forty-ninth parallel, together with 
the right of navigating the Columbia river upon equit- 
able terms. In February of the ensuing year, Hon. 
Richard Packenham, British plenipotentiary, came to 
the American capital with instructions to negotiate 
concerning the Oregon territory. No sooner had dis- 
cussion fairly begun than a melancholy event hap- 
pened, Secretary Upshur being killed on the United 
States vessel Princeton by the explosion of a gun. A 
few months later his successor, John C. Calhoun, con- 
tinued the negotiations. The arguments were in a 
large measure a repetition of these already advanced 
but a greater aggressiveness on the part of the British 
ami persistency in denying the claims of the United 
States were noticeable. As in former negotiations, the 
privileges accorded by the Nootka convention were 
Q-reatly relied upon by Great Britain as proving that 
no absolute title was retained by Spain after the sign- 
ing of that treaty, hence none could be assigned. One 
striking statement in Lord Packenham's correspond- 
ence was to the effect that "he did not feel authorized 
to enter into discussion respecting the territory north 
of the forty-ninth parallel of latitude, which was under- 


.stood by the British government to form the basis of 
negotiations on the side of the United States, as the 
line of the Columbia formed that of Great Britain." 
Me thus showed all too plainly the animus of his gov- 
ernment to take advantage of the spirit of compromise 
which prompted the offer of that line and to construe 
such offer as the abandonment of the United States, 
claim to an absolute title to all the Oregon territory. It 
is hard to harmonize her action in this matter with the 
"perfect spirit of fairness" professed in the note of 
Lord Aberdeen to Mr. Webster asking for a renewal of 
negotiations. No agreement was reached. 

During the sessions of congress of 1843-4 memor- 
ials, resolutions and petitions from all parts of the 
union came in a perfect flood. The people were thor- 
oughly aroused. In the presidential election which oc- 
curred at that time the Oregon question was a leading 
issue. "Fifty-four Forty or Fight" became the rally- 
ing cry of the Democratic party. The platform 
framed in the Democratic national convention de- 
clared : "Our title to the whole of Oregon is clear 
and unquestionable. No portion of the same ought 
to be ceded to England or any other power ; and by 
the reoccupation of Oregon at the earliest practical 
period is a great American measure." The position 
of the Whig- party was milder and less arrogant, but 
equally emphatic in its assertion of belief in the valid- 
ity of the United States' title. The fact that the Demo- 
crats carried in the election, despite the warlike tone 
of their platform and campaign, is conclusive evidence 
that the people were determined to hold their terri- 
tory on the Pacific regardless of cost. "Never was a 
government more signally advised by the voice of a 
united people. The popular pulse had been felt, and 
it beat strongly in favor of prompt and decisive meas- 
uies to secure the immediate reoccupation of Oregon. 
It equally proclaimed that 'no portion thereof ought 
to be ceded to Great Britain.' " In January, 1845, Sir 
Richard Packenham, the British minister, proposed 
that the matter in dispute be left to arbitration, which 
proposal was respectfully declined. So the adminis- 
tration of President Tyler terminated without adjust- 
ment of the Oregon difficulty. 

Notwithstanding the unequivocal voice of the peo- 
ple in demand of the whole of Oregon, James Buch- 
anan, secretary of state under President Polk, in a 
communication to Sir Richard Packenham, dated July 
12, 1845, again offered the forty-ninth parallel, explain- 
ing at the same time that he could not have consented 
to do so had he not found himself embarassed if not 
committed by the acts of his predecessors. Packen- 
ham rejected the offer. Buchanan informed him that 
he was "instructed by the president to say that he owes 
it to his country, and a just appreciation of her title to 
the Oregon territory, to withdraw the proposition to 
the British government which has been made under 
his direction ; and it is hereby accordingly withdrawn." 
This formal withdrawal of previous offers of com- 
promise on the forty-ninth parallel, justified as it was 
In- Great Britain's repeated rejections, left the Polk 
administration free and untrammeled. Appearances 
indicated that it was now ready to give execution to 

the popular verdict of 1844. The message of the presi- 
dent recommended that the year's notice, required by 
the treaty of 1827, be immediately given, that measures 
be adopted for maintaining the rights of the United 
States to the whole of Oregon, and that such legisla- 
tion be enacted as would afford security and protection 
to American settlers. 

In harmony with these recommendations, a resolu- 
tion was adopted April 27, 1846, authorizing the presi- 
dent "at his discretion to give to the government of 
Great Britain the notice required by the second article 
of the said convention of the sixth of August, eighteen 
hundred and twenty-seven, for the abrogation of the 

Acting in accordance with the resolution. Presi- 
dent Polk the next day sent notice of the determination 
of the United States "that, at the end of twelve months 
from and after the deliver\- of these presents by the 
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of 
the United States at London, to her Britannic Ma- 
jesty, or to her majesty's principal secretary of state for 
foreign affairs, the said convention shall be entirely 
annulled and abrogated." 

On the 27th of December, 1845, Sir Richard Pack- 
enham had submitted another proposal to arbitrate the 
matter at issue between the two governments. The 
proposal was declined on the ground that to submit the 
proposition in the form stated would preclude the 
United States from making a claim to the whole of the 
territory. On January 17th of the following year, a 
modified proposal was made to refer "the question of 
title in either government to the whole territory to be 
decided ; and if neither were found to possess a com- 
plete title to the whole, it was to be divided between 
them according to a just appreciation of the claims of 
each." The answer of Mr. Buchanan was clear and 
its language calculated to preclude any more arbitra- 
tion proposals. He said : "if the governments should 
consent to an arbitration upon such terms, this would 
he construed into an intimation, of not a direct invita- 
tion to the arbitrator to divide the territory between 
the two parties. Were it possible for this government, 
under any circumstances, to refer the question to arbi- 
tration, the title and the title alone, detached from every 
other consideration, ought to be the only question sub- 
mitted. The title of the United States, which the 
president regards clear and unquestionable, can never 
be placed in jeopardy by referring it to the decision of 
any individual, whether sovereign, citizen or subject. 
Nor does he believe the territorial rights of this nation 
are a proper subject of arbitration." 

But the British government seems now to have be- 
come determined that the question should be settled 
without further delay. The rejected arbitration pro- 
posal was followed on the 6th of June, 1846, by a draft 
of the proposed treaty submitted by Sir Richard Pack- 
enham to Secretary of .State Buchanan. The provision 
of this were to the effect that the boundary should be 
continued along the forty-ninth parallel "to the middle 
of the channel which separates the continent from 
Vancouver Island: and thence southerly through the 
middle of said channel and of Fuca's strait to the 


Pacific ocean." It stipulated that the navigation of 
the Columbia river should remain free and open to the 
Hudson's Bay Company and to all British subjects 
trading with the same ; that the possessory right of 
that company and of all British subjects south of the 
forty-ninth parallel should be respected, and that "the 
farms, lands and other property of every description 
belonging to the Puget Sound Agricultural Company 
shall be confirmed to said company. In case, however, 
the situation of these farms and lands should be con- 
sidered by the United States to be of public import- 
ance, and the United States government should signify 
a desire to obtain possession of the whole, or any part 
thereof, the property so required shall be transferred 
to the said government at a proper valuation, to be 
agreed between the parties." 

Upon the receipt of the important communication 
embodying this draft, the president asked in advance 
the advice of the senate, a very unusual, though not 
unprecedented procedure. Though the request of the 
president was dated June ioth and the consideration 
of the resolution to accept the British proposal was not 
begun until June 12th, on June 13th it was "resolved 
(two-thirds of the senators present consenting), that 
the president of the United States be, and he is hereby, 
advised to accept the proposal of the British govern- 
ment, accompanying his message to the senate, dated 
June io, 1846, for a convention to settle the boundar- 
ies, etc., between the United States and Great Britain, 
west of the Rocky or Stony mountains." The advice 
was, however, "given under the conviction that, by the 
true construction of the second article of the project, 
the right of the Hudson's Bay Company to navigate 
the Columbia would expire with the termination of 
their present license of trade with the Indians, etc., on 
the northwest coast of America, on the 30th of May, 

The wonderful alacrity with which this advice was 
given and with which five degrees and forty minutes 
of territory were surrendered to Great Britain, is ac- 
counted for by some historians (and no doubt they 
are correct) by supposing that the "cession" was made 
in the interests of slavery. The friends of that insti- 
tution were unwilling to risk a war with Great Brit- 
ain which would interfere with the war with Mexico 
and the annexation of Texas. Their plan was to ac- 
quire as much territory from which slave states could 
be formed as possible, and they were not over scrupu- 
lous about sacrificing territory which must ultimately 
develop into free states. But for unfortunate diplo- 
macy, "it is quite probable that British Columbia would 
be to-day, what many would deem desirable in view of 
its growing importance, a part of the United States." 

Notwithstanding the great sacrifice made by the 
United States for the sake of peace, it was not long 
until war clouds were again darkening our national 
skies. The determining of the line after it reached the 
Pacific ocean soon became a matter of dispute. Hard- 
ly had the ratifications been exchanged when Captain 
Prevost, for the British government, set up the claim 
that Rosario was the channel intended by the treaty. 

The claim was, of course, denied by Mr. Campbell, 
who was representing the United States in making the 
survey line. It was contended by him that the Canal 
de Haro was the channel mentioned in the treaty. Lord 
Russell, conscious, no doubt, of the weakness of his 
case, proposed as a compromise President's channel, 
between Rosario and de Haro straits. The generosity 
of this proposal is obvious when we remember that San 
Juan island, the principal bone of contention, would 
be on the British side of the line. Indeed Lord Lyons, 
the British diplomatic representative in the United 
States, was expressly instructed that no line would be 
accepted which did not give San Juan to the British. 
The position of the United States was stated by Secre- 
tary of State Lewis Cass, with equal clearness and de- 
cisiveness. Efforts to settle the matter geographically 
proved unavailing and diplomacy again had to undergo, 
a severe test. 

For a number of years the matter remained in 
abeyance. Then the pioneer resolved to try the plan, 
he had before resorted to in the settlement of the main 
question. He pushed into the country with wife and 
family. The Hudson's Bay Company's representa- 
tives were already there and the danger of a clash of 
arms between the subjects of the queen and the citizens 
of the United States, resident in the disputed terri- 
tory, soon became imminent. Such a collision would 
undoubtedly involve the two countries in war. 

In the session of the Oregon territorial legislature 
of 1852-53, the archipelago to which San Juan island 
belongs was organized into a county. Taxes were in 
due time imposed on Hudson's Bay Company prop- 
erty, and when payment was refused, the sheriff 
promptly sold sheep enough to satisfy the levy. Gen- 
eral Harney, commander of the Department of the Pa- 
cific, inaugurated somewhat ' summary proceedings. 
He landed over four hundred and fifty troops on the 
island, and instructed Captain Pickett to protect Amer- 
ican citizens there at all costs. English naval forces 
of considerable power gathered about the island. Their 
commander protested against military occupancy. 
Pickett replied that he could not, under his orders, per- 
mit any joint occupancy. General Harney, however,, 
had acted without instructions from the seat of govern- 
ment, and the president did not approve his measures 
officially, though it was plainly evident that the admin- 
istration was not averse to having the matter forced 
to an issue. 

At this juncture, the noted General Scott was sent 
to the scene of the difficulty, under instructions to per- 
mit joint occupancy until the matter in dispute could 
be settled. Harney was withdrawn from command en- 
tirely. Finally an agreement was reached between 
General Scott and the British governor at Vancouver 
that each party should police the territory with one 
hundred armed men. 

Diplomacy was again tried. Great Britain pro- 
posed that the question at issue be submitted to arbi- 
tration and she suggested as arbiter the president of 
the Swiss council or the King of Sweden and Norway 
or the King of the Netherlands. The proposition was 


declined by the United States. For ten years the dis- 
pute remained unsettled. Eventually on May 8, 187 1, 
it was mutually agreed to submit the question, without 
appeal, to the arbitrament of Emperor William of 
Germany. George Bancroft, the well-known historian, 
was chosen to present the case of the United States, 
and it is said that "his memorial of one hundred and 
twenty octavo pages is one of the most finished and un- 
answerable diplomatic arguments ever produced." The 
British also presented a memorial. These were inter- 
changed and replies were prepared by each contestant. 
The emperor gave the matter careful and deliberate at- 
tention, calling to his assistance three eminent jurists. 
His award was as follows : "Most in accordance with 
the true interpretation of the treaty concluded on the 
15th of June, 1846, between the governments of her 
Britanic Majesty and the United States of America, is 
the claim of the Government of the United States 
that the boundry line between the territories 
of her Britannic Majesty and the United States 
should be drawn through the Haro channel. Authen- 
ticated bv our autograph signature and the impression 
of the Imperial Great Seal. Given at Berlin, October 
21, 1872." This brief and unequivocal decree ended 
forever the vexatious controversy which for so many 
years had disturbed friendly feelings and endangered 
the peace of the two great Anglo-Saxon peoples. No 

shot was fired ; no blood was shed ; diplomacy had 

In this cursory review of early Northwest history, 
the events transpiring between the signing of the treaty 
of 1846 and the organization of Idaho territory can- 
not be incorporated in any fulness. Another struggle 
for possession followed hard upon that with ( ireat 
Britain, the final struggle in the great race war as a 
result of which our national domain was wrested from 
the hands of its aboriginal inhabitants. This struggle 
could have but one termination. The inferior race 
must yield to the superior. The Cayuse war, growing 
out of the Whitman massacre at Waiilatpu in 1847, 
and the Indian wars of the 'fifties resulted favorably 
to the whites and though the red man was a power in 
the land for many years, he could not withstand the 
steady oncoming tide of thrifty gold hunters and 
homeseekers. The Northwest pioneers being lovers 
of law and order, governments were instituted as a 
matter of course, first, the provisional government for 
the I (regon territory; then territorial government un- 
der the laws of congress, then separate territorial gov- 
ernment for the country north of the Columbia river 
and eventually on March 3, 1863, separate territorial 
government for Idaho, with the northern counties of 
which our history must concern itself in future chap- 





Just when the existence of gold in the country north 
and east of the big bend in the Snake river became 
known it is impossible to state with any certainty. 
Bancroft says that in 1854 a man named Robbins, a 
resident of Portland, had purchased some gold of the 
Spokane Indians, and that the Catholic missionary, 
De Smet. had known of its existence in what is now 
north Idaho even prior to that date. E. D. Pierce is 
also credited with an early knowledge of the aurifer- 
ous character of the country, and the reason given for 
his not having prospected it long before he did is the 
hostility of the Indian tribes. The reason is indeed a 
plausible one, for it is difficult to see how any man or 
set of men could carry on such operations during the 
era of Indian wars. 

Many writers have assigned a different reason for 
Pierce's manifest interest in the prospecting of the 
Nez Perce country. They state that some time in the 
earlv 'fifties an Indian of one of the northern tribes 
visited the locality in California where Pierce was then 
mining ; that the Indian told a strange story of an ap- 
parition seen by himself and two traveling companions 
in the rugged cliffs of his Idaho home ; that the ap- 
parition was in the shape of a great, blazing ball of 
light which the superstitious red men believed to be 
the eye of the Great Spirit. The Indians were too awe- 
striken and fearful to venture any explorations until 
daylight, when diligent search revealed a large, glitter- 
ing ball that resembled glass, embedded in the country 
rock. Believing their discovery to be "great medicine." 
they endeavored with all their might and skill to dis- 
lodge and appropriate the treasure but were unable to 
do so, and the great ball was still in situ. This story, 
says the writers referred to, so fired the imagination 

of the visionary Pierce that he at once formed the de- 
sign of going in search of the wonderful ball, believ- 
ing it to be a huge diamond. 

Whether the story is veritable fact or pure myth or 
partly the former and partly the latter, the writer is 
unable to state. George W. Pierce who knew E. D. 
Pierce in Siskiyou countv and mined with him there 
says there is no truth in the legend. It sounds very 
much as though it might be one of the fictions so cur- 
rent among mining men and prospectors of the early 
days, which, however, generally take the form of lost 
cabins, lost diggings, fabulous wealth discovered by 
lost miners and hunters, etc. But whatever may have 
fired the enthusiasm of Col. E. D. Pierce, certain it 
is that the Nez Perce country had a gren.t fascination 
for him and that his assiduity and zeal have had a 
marvelous ultimate effect upon the history and de- 
velopment of the country. 

In 1858 Pierce made a visit to the land of the Nez 
Perces, but does not seem to have found any oppor- 
tunity for prospecting, owing to the unsettled condi- 
tion of Indian affairs and the opposition to his pro- 
jects of the conservative red men. Undaunted, how- 
ever, he renewed his efforts at the first opportunity and 
his zeal was rewarded in the spring of i860 by a dis- 
covery of gold on the Clearwater river. An account 
of this important find gained currency in Walla Walla 
during April and some mention is made of it in the 
Oregon Argus of the 30th of that month, but the state- 
ments of Pierce seem to have been doubted by many 
and no special excitement was created. Pierce's im- 
mediate return to his discovery was prevented by In- 
dian opposition and that of the military authorities, for 
those whose dutv it was to conserve for the Indians 


their rights under the treaty of 1855 foresaw the trouble 
which a discovery of gold and consequent rush would 
cause them. In August, however, Pierce and ten 
others, of whom William Bassett was one, made an- 
other trip into the Clearwater country and examined 
the region with considerable thoroughness. Returning 
in November, they freely communicated the result of 
their investigations. Mr. Bassett sent a letter to the 
Portland Times, then edited by Alonzo Leland, in 
which he gave a brief account of the trip and the pros- 
pects found by members of the party. His representa- 
tions then and in interviews at a later date had the 
effect of thoroughly converting Mr. Leland to a belief 
in the great importance as a field for the prospector 
of the entire region between the Snake and the Bitter 
Roots. Throughout the winter of 1860-61, the news- 
paper man kept on publishing articles in his paper, the 
Daily Times, his authority being Mr. Bassett's account. 
So great was his enthusiasm that he did not escape 
the charge of fanaticism and the graver one of being 
in the pay of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, 
doing this writing and publishing for the purpose of 
building up their business. 

Immediately upon his return to Walla Walla, 
Pierce began organizing a party to return with him and 
spend the winter in the Oro Fino basin. Some diffi- 
culty was encountered in making up this company, 
owing to the fear of trouble with the Indians and the 
efforts of those who dreaded another Indian war. but 
at last he succeeded in enlisting the interests of thirty- 
three stout-hearted men. An effort was made to pre- 
vent by military force this party from carrying out its 
designs. A detachment of dragoons was sent after the 
men. and pursued them as far as the Snake river, but 
failed to overtake them. The men had hardly reached 
Pierce's old camp before they received a visit from 
the Nez Perce Indian agent, A. J. Cain, who, however, 
did not attempt to interfere with their operations but 
on the contrary expressed his satisfaction with their 
good behavior. 

All winter long the party wrought diligently build- 
ing cabins, whipsawing lumber for sluice boxes, pros- 
pecting and the like. The result of the prospecting was 
very satisfactory, though Pierce himself does not seem 
to have been unduly sanguine, being fully aware of the 
difficulties. He believed the discovered gold district 
was on the outskirts of a mining country of great rich- 
ness and large extent. 

The first intelligence received by the outside world 
concerning the welfare and doings of these men came 
in March.. 1861, when four of the miners arrived in 
Walla Walla. After a tramp on snow shoes to the 
mouth of Oro Fino creek, they had reached, in a half 
starved condition, an Indian camp, whence they pro- 
ceeded with more expedition and better fortunes, 
bringing to Walla Walla a considerable sum of money 
in gold dust. The news was sent by special express to 
the Portland Daily Times. It was especially pleasing 
to the editor of that paper, whose sentiments and pre- 
dictions were thereby confirmed, and naturally the news 
was given due prominence. The effect among the 
business men. merchants, and in fact all classes was 

magical. Newspapers sent special reporters into the 
country and the result was an inception of interest in 
the wild, weird terra incognita of eastern Washington. 
It needed now but some confirmation of these accounts 
to stimulate a stampede into the country, of a magni- 
tude unprecedented in the northwest. 

No one foresaw the coming deluge of humanity 
into the Nez Perce countrv with greater clearness than 
the officers of the government, civil and military, whose 
duty it was to protect the rights of the Indians. 
Though the Nez Perces had offered no resistence to 
Pierce and his men. they strenuously objected to fur- 
ther encroachments upon their reservation privileges. 
Nothing was more certain than that the whites would 
violate without scruple these rights when once the 
passion for gold had fired their imaginations and when 
the hope of securing it began producing its pleasant in- 
toxication. What was to be done to prevent trouble? 

In the hope of finding a satisfactory solution of 
this problem. Superintendent E. R. Geary held a con- 
cultation with Colonel Wright and the result of their 
deliberations was that the former repaired forthwith 
to the Indian countn . called a council of the tribe, and 
succeeded in negotiating a treaty permitting the white 
men to enter the country for mining purposes on the 
promise of military protection and the enforcement of 
United States laws. The consent of the Indians was 
given wholly against their will, but they saw no way 
by which they could defend themselves against the in- 
coming tide, and being of a pacific disposition, thought 
it better to surrender gracefully than to do so under 
compulsion. They had abundant proof that the deluge 
of whites was coming for. for weeks before the treaty 
could be negotiated, merchants had been taking goods 
to Pierce City from Walla Walla and the van of the 
advancing army of miners was already arriving from 
that city and Portland. Bancroft says that at the time 
of the signing of the treaty there were three hundred 
men in the Oro Fino district and that a month later 
there were one thousand. 

Fortunately the Oregon Steam Navigation Com- 
pany was enabled to do something for the accommo- 
dation of the incoming hordes daily arriving from 
various points in the northwest, California and else- 
where during the spring of 1861. Previously that, 
company had sent Ephraim Eaughman ( who at pres- 
ent commands the Steamer Lewiston, plying between 
Lewiston and Riparia, in company with Captain Leo- 
nard White, to Colville on the upper Columbia with 
instructions to build a small boat there and explore the 
river down to The Dalles. Their object was to deter- 
mine whether or not navigation was practicable. They 
set out sometime in March, made the exploration, and 
were hack in Portland in the early part of May. 

Meanwhile the events were happening in the Nez 
Perce country which have just been narrated. The 
company was as anxious to get as much patronage out 
of the rush as possible, so it ordered White, as cap- 
tain, and Baughman, as mate and pilot, to take the 
Steamer Colonel Wright up the Columbia to Snake 
river, thence up that river as far toward the newly dis- 
covered mines as possible. The Colonel Wright was 


a vessel of some fifty tons burden, about 125 feet in 
length, fitted up with good machinery and well 
supplied with necessary equipments. Her engineer 
on this first trip on Snake river waters was John 
Gurty, her purser, Frank Coe, and besides she was 
manned by two fireman, a steward and assistant, an 
assistant engineer, a cook and six deck hands. Sev- 
eral business men came as passengers and one, Seth 
S. Slater, was so confident of the success of the enter- 
prise that he brought with him between ten and fifteen 
tons of freight, expecting to get with it to some point 
within easy reach of the mines. 

"We cleared," says Captain Baughman, '"about the 
1 oth of May. With all of us it was a voyage of dis- 
covery after we steamed into the broad mouth of the 
Snake river as none of us had ever before ridden upon 
its swift, turbid waters. As pilot, I directed that we 
travel very slowly and only during the day time, for 
rocky reefs and shoals were numerous and the waters 
were not deep. Each stream which we thought had 
not theretofore been named, we took it upon ourselves 
to christen ; likewise every other natural feature, and 
even to-day many of the landmarks and creeks bear 
the names which we gave them. In due time, we 
swept around the big bend in the Snake just below 
where Lewiston now stands and were met by the rush- 
ing waters of a stream clear as crystal and broad 
enough to be classed as a river. Before us spread out 
a beautiful bunchgrass valley, or rather a series of 
plateaus, reaching away to a high prairie to the south- 
ward : This Indian paradise was occupied here and 
there by a tepee. Several Nez Perce Indians loitered 
about and a few bands of ponies grazed contentedly 
upon the luxuriant grass. The picture was indeed a 
pretty one. 

"The sound of the steam whistle and the pounding 
of the engines naturally attracted the attention of the 
Indians, who flocked to the water's edge to gaze on 
the wonderful fire boat. 

"I turned the vessel's prow into the water of 
this new river. Slowly the little steamer propelled 
itself onward in the direction of the Oro Fino mines. 
We had to line the vessel over the Lawyer and several 
other rapids and about thirty miles up the Clearwater 
we found an obstruction which we could not pass. This 
was what has since come to be named Big Eddy. 
Throughout our entire journey on the Clearwater thus 
far we were accompanied by Indians riding along the 
shore on horseback. By many little acts and signs did 
these children of nature manifest their friendliness, no 
one of their number, so far as I can now remember, 
giving the slightest evidence of other than kindly 

"At the Big Eddy we were forced to land as the 
little . steamer could not make headway in the rapids. 
Twice we lined her and moved slowly up stream, but 
the vessel did not have power enough to keep herself 
in the channel, so finally we gave it up for the time 
being, came on shore and began making explorations. 
The result was not favorable. There was therefore 
nothing to do but to unload the freight. Slater 
thought the site a good one as it was the apparent head 

of navigation so he and a few others remained there 
establishing Slaterville." 

The Colonel Wright went back to Celilo at once. 
On the return trip she stopped at the mouth of Lapwai 
creek and most of her crew went to visit Chief Lawyer, 
whose home was on a tract of bench land overlooking 
the Clearwater. "From the river," says Captain 
Baughman, "we could see his tepee and before it a tall 
pole from whose top the Stars and Stripes floated in 
the breeze. This display of patriotism by the brave 
and friendly old chief touched a responsive chord in 
our hearts and we never forgot it. Lawyer, who had 
been educated in the east and could talk good Eng- 
lish, received us most cordially and we chatted with 
him a long time. His hospitality was especially praise- 
worthy when it is remembered that we were invading 
his territory and opening the way for thousands to 
follow. The Indians may have protested mildly 
against the establishment of a settlement at the mouth 
of the Clearwater, but their remonstrances were never 
very strong, and finding these unavailing they ac- 
quiesced with remarkable grace." 

Having loaded again with a few passengers and 
some freight, the Colonel Wright made a second trip 
to the mouth of the Clearwater. Here she was met 
by a messenger from Slater requesting her to proceed 
up the river and get his outfit as he had decided to es- 
tablish his store at the confluence of the Snake and 
Clearwater that he might be on the trails leading in- 
land. The vessel steamed up to the eddy, got Slater 
and his goods, and brought them safely to the shores 
of the Snake, where Slater again pitched his tent. 
Soon he had opened near the confluence of the rivers 
the first store in what is now Lewiston and perhaps 
the first in the Clearwater country. 

Immediately after the second trip of the Colonel 
Wright, the company placed another new steamer in 
service, the Okanogan, which was much larger and 
better equipped than the former. Captain White was 
placed in command, and the Colonel Wright was en- 
trusted to the care of Captain Baughman. A month 
later, the Tenino, still larger than the Okanogan, was 
placed in service and to the command of this vessel 
Captain Baughman was transferred. Steamboat ser- 
vice was discontinued entirely in July, owing to the 
lowness of the water. 

In July of the following year, Levi Ankeny. Dor- 
sey S. Baker, Captain Baughman and several others 
placed an opposition boat, the Spray, upon the river, 
between Celilo and Lewiston. The Spray was a small 
vessel, built especially for shallow water, so it was 
able to continue its trips uninterruptedly until No- 
vember. During the following winter it was sold to 
the O. S. N. Company for nearly double its cost. 

In the spring of 1863 the People's Trasportation 
Company was organized in Portland for the purpose 
of establishing an opposition line of steamers to Lewis- 
ton. The E. D. Baker was placed on the Columbia 
between Portland and the Cascades, the Iris between 
that and the Dalles and the Cayuse Chief, under Cap- 
tain Leonard White, between Celilo and Lewiston. 
After a successful career of six or seven vears' dura- 


tion, this company sold out to the O. S. N. Company, 
leaving that corporation again the autocrat of the 
Columbia and its tributaries. 

But to return to the history of the mines — rapidly 
the Oro Fino district was populated with gold seekers. 
Discovered in the fall of i860, it was occupied that 
autumn and winter by Pierce's party. In February 
merchants and miners from Walla Walla began to 
work their way in, so that by April the population was 
perhaps 300. A month later it was more than three 
times that many and when Judge James W. Poe en- 
tered in July he found the creeks and gulches swarm- 
ing with people. He estimates their number at 2,000. 
Some claims were yielding fabulous returns and wages 
ranged from five to eight dollars a day, the common 
stipend being a half ounce of dust. 

Oro Fino gold was very fine, as one familiar with 
the Spanish language would have surmised from the 
name of the diggings, which signifies fine gold. Sub- 
sequently coarse gold was discovered by William F. 
Bassett across the divide to the eastward of Oro Fino 
creek, and from the character of the metal the dig- 
gings were named Oro Grande. It is related that 
Mr. Bassett saw the country in which this discovery 
was made from the top of a tree on the divide be- 
tween Oro Fino and Rhodes creeks. The general ap- 
pearance of the country induced him to prospect it 
with the result above stated. The tree was ever after- 
wards known as Bassett's tree. The Oro Grande dis- 
trict never proved especially rich. 

The richest claims in the Oro Fino district were 
on Rhodes and Canal gulches, though there were many 
claims of merit on Barclay, Blacksmith, French and 
Moore's gulches as well as on Oro Fino creek itself. 
Early in the history of the camp a miners' meeting had 
been held and the California mining laws adopted, by 
which code three kinds of claims were recognized, 
namely, creek and gulch claims, extending two hundred 
feet along the creek or gulch and of the width of one 
hundred and fifty feet ; also hill claims which were last 
extended from the rim rock to the summit of the hills, 
with two hundred feet frontage. The miners were in 
the habit of holding a meeting on Sunday, whenever 
there was any occasion for such, and at these popular 
assemblages the laws were amended to suit new con- 
ditions as they might arise, disputes about claims were 
settled and plans for the promotion of the general wel- 
fare of the camp were weighed and discussed. For- 
tunately there was little lawlessness during the earliest 
days of the Oro Fino diggings. 

Two towns sprang up in the district about the 
same time, namely, Oro Fino and Pierce City. The 
former was built on placer ground, a fact which fur- 
nishes the probable reason for its short life. At any 
rate, its business men moved to its sister town in 
course of a few years, making permanent the com- 
munity bearing trie name of him who pioneered the 
way for the mining population, while the old Oro Fino 
City gradually decayed and eventually became a 
memory. It is a rather strange fact that, though the 
two towns were very near together, there never was the 
bitter rivalrv between them which has usually char- 

acterized communities so situated. Pierce City later 
became the county seat of Shoshone county, retaining 
the dignity and prestige incident thereto until the dis- 
covery of the Coeur d'Alene mines. In June a road 
was built along the Clearwater from the mouth of that 
river to Pierce City and by July so many merchants 
had endeavored to better their fortunes by furnishing 
the new district with goods that the market was over- 
supplied, notwithstanding the thousands of men who 
were seeking gold in all the neighboring gulches and 
on all the surrounding hills. Two saw-mills were in 
process of erection to supply the miners with lumber 
for sluice boxes, etc. But little household furniture 
was needed as there were only three families in the 

In an article in the Portland Oregonian of August 
31, 1 86 1, G. C. Robbins made the statement that dur- 
ing that month twenty-five hundred practical miners 
were at work on Rhodes creek, Oro Fino creek, Canal 
gulch, and French creek and that four or five thousand 
men were making a living in other ways. His report 
on the earnings of the miners was as follows : Jarvis 
& Company,, four men, $10 per diem to the man; 
James & Company, 5 men, $10; McCarty & Company, 
4 men, Sio ; Vesay & Company, 8 men, $7 to $8 ; Hook 
& Company, 6 men, $10 to $12; Jones & Company, 4 
men, $10 to $12 ; Dunbar & Asar, $10 to $12 ; Shaffer 
& Company, 14 men, $60; Paine & Company, 20 men, 
$70 ; Mortimer &■ Company, 24 men, $70 to $80 ; Hatch 
& Company, 5 men, $16 to $20; Thomas & Campany, 
14 men, $18 to $20; Rillery & Company, 17 men, $16 
to $20; Smalley & Company, 10 men, $16; Boone & 
Company, 8 men, $16; California Company, 9 men, 
$16: Xewland & Company, 6 men, $16; Hickox & 
Company, 5 men. $16 to $20; Let 'Er Rip Company, 
11 men, S16 to $20; Hoyt & Company, 8 men, $12; 
Felton & Company, $16; Sparks & Company, $15; 
Rossi & Company, $15; Rhodes & Company, 11 men, 
300 ounces per diem to the company. On French 
creek. Antoine Pillir, T. Lapoint, M. Guinon, John 
Lesot, and Harkum & Quick were making $10 to $12 
a day to the man. 

It is not in the nature of mining men that they 
should confine themselves to one mining district, how- 
ever rich. Pierce himself was of the opinion that his 
discovery was on the outer edge of an extensive gold- 
bearing country and there were plenty of others who 
held like views and were willing to give time and effort 
to the testing of their theory. In May, 1861, a com- 
pany of fifty-two such men set out from Oro Fino 
to explore and prospect the south fork of the Clear- 
water and tributary streams. The locality was almost 
as little known as any on the American continent or 
in the heart of darkest Africa. Remote from the or- 
dinary routes of travel, it was also distant from the 
trails of the fur hunter so that probably no white foot 
had ever before pressed its soil. The gold seekers fol- 
lowed the north side of their stream for several miles, 
then crossed over to the south side, proceeding thence 
to the mouth of the south fork, up which branch they 
traveled until they reached the Indian village of Chief 
Coolcoolsneenee. Here their progress was stayed for a 



time by the strenuous opposition of the chieftain, who 
emphatically informed them that they were violating 
the treaty in carrying on their operations south of the 
Clearwater. Persuasion and argument proving of no 
avail in pacifying the chief, more than half the party 
turned back. The remainder crossed to the north side 
of the stream and continued on east by one of the Nez 
Perce trails to the point where the three branches of 
the south fork, American and Red rivers and Elk 
creek, form a junction. Prospecting in this vicinity re- 
sulted in the discovery of earths yielding from twelve 
to twenty-five cents to the pan. The first gold is said 
to have been found at the bottom of Ternan hill at the 
mouth of Glass gulch, close to the present bridge over 
the American river on the road to Dixie. 

Prominent members of this party of discovery 
were Captain L. B. Monson, Moses Milner, Charles B. 
Hand and Charles Painter. The return of a third of 
the men to Oro Fino for supplies caused the news of 
the find to become spread abroad, precipitating a rush. 
We are informed that three days after the first dis- 
covery Philip S. Pritchard, with Samuel Warfield and 
his son, William, Charles Bogart, Horace Myrtle, Will- 
iam Kay, John Gamboel and Felix G. Berger, reaching 
the spot, staked out two claims above Buffalo gulch 
and eight below it on the American river. They be- 
gan working together forthwith. 

A mining recorder's office was established at once, 
with Captain L. B. Monson as the first recorder. The 
first record was dated June 14, 1861, and described 
placer ground on the American river to be worked by 
the following men : Moses Wright, Charles Silver- 
man, Charles Gwin, John Gordon, George Robertson, 
Mat. Craft, N. Harris, John McKray. G. N. Stubbs 
and Frank Presley. 

Shortly after the discovery two brothers, James and 
William Galbraith, started an express. Inside of ten 
days more than three hundred people were en route to 
or already at the South Fork diggings, but the popu- 
lation of the new eldorado was kept down considerably 
by the righteous opposition of the Indians to the 
presence of white men in their reserved territory. 
Good reports, however, continued to come in and the 
passion for gold soon overcame any scruples about 
trespassing, so that by fall a town became a necessity. 
Elk City was accordingly laid out, its location being 
between Elk and American rivers, about a mile from 
the lower end of a small prairie, perhaps five or six 
miles long by a mile wide. 

"On every side of this locality," says Bancroft, 
rose ledges of pale red or rose quartz. Between the 
mountains were intervals of beautiful, grassv prairies ; 
on the mountains heavy forests of pine. Game 
abounded, the principal being elk, of which there were 
large bands. The country was, in fact, very different 
from the California miners' preconceived notion of a 
gold country: but experience had proved that gold 
might exist under barren sands, rich alluvium, or the 
the frozen mosses of a caribou. The objection to the 
country was that the mining season, so far up in the 
mountains, must be comparatively short, and in order 
to make up for the expense of a long idle winter, it 

was important to secure a considerable sum during the 
summer. It was also necessary to lay in a stock of 
provisions to last while the heavy snows suspended 

Joe! D. Martin tells us that when he came to the 
town in the early summer of 1862, he found mercan- 
tile establishments belonging to Clindinning, Magruder 
& Wickersham. Straven & Company, Creighton & 
Company, a man named Claflin and others, besides 
five saloons and two principal hotels, Ralph's and the 
Marsten house. The camp's prosperity was at its 
height during the mining season of 1862, for that fall 
discoveries in what is now Montana made wholesale 
drafts upon the population of this and other mining 
communities in north Idaho. But the years 1864 and 
1865 nevertheless witnessed a greater production of 
gold, as hydraulics were placed in operation during the 
former twelvemonth, displacing the primeval rocker. 

The Elk City mining district was distinguished 
above all others by the extent of its ditch contraction. 
The largest of these acqueducts was the American 
river ditch, which took its waters out of the stream of' 
that name at a point about nine miles above the camp. 
Mr. Martin tells us that it was dug with pick and 
shovel at a cost of between thirty thousand and forty 
thousand dollars and that between two hundred thou- 
sand and three hundred thousand feet of lumber were 
used in the construction of its flumes. For the pro- 
duction of this lumber a saw-mill was built, operated 
bv a turbine water wheel. The originators of the 
scheme were E. W., W. P. and Doctor Bell and Ross- 
well Hewett. Its construction was commenced in 1863 
and during the mining season following it was pouring 
its water upon the placer grounds of American hill. 

Xext in size was the Elk creek ditch, the waters of 
which were used in the Buffalo hill mines, valuable 
placer deposits taken up in 186 1-2 by Jake Hoffman, S. 
S. Shaun, Joseph Nelson, Chatham W. Ewing, John 
and Abe Champion, Horatio Phinney, Mon- 
tague and others, and first worked by a ditch from Buf- 
falo creek, three miles from the hill. The Elk creek 
ditch was ten and a half miles long, three feet wide on 
the bottom and thirty inches deep. The company or- 
ganized for its construction was capitalized at eleven 
thousand dollars, but it soon became so embarrassed by 
lack of funds that its project was all but abandoned. 
At this juncture Caleb Witt came to the rescue, fur- 
nishing enough money to start the ball rolling again 
and to establish confidence and credit. The company 
was by this means enabled to push the ditch to com- 
pletion, and by the spring of 1863 it was available for 
use. For many years Buffalo hill was very profitably 
worked and thousands of dollars' worth of dust have 
been taken out of it. In 1872 the Witts secured con- 
trol of both ditches and claims, retaining them until 
1880, when they were transferred by lease to China- 

Besides these was the Little Elk creek ditch with 
a capacitv of three hundred or four hundred inches, 
promoted by Dan Waldo and Bart Whittier ; also a 
short ditch of three hundred inches capacity, the water 
of which was taken out of Kirk's fork of the American 


river and carried upon Nez Perce hill, there to be 
used in operating the Hairland mine. This property 
had been discovered by the man whose name it bore 
in 1861 and purchased in 1862 by Magruder, Martin 
and Kirkpatrick. by which triumvirate the ditch was 

The same causes that impelled the discoverers of 
the Elk City placer deposits to their successful quest 
were operative to keep other parties scouring the coun- 
try in all directions throughout the whole of the sum- 
mer of 1861. The theory that the Clearwater mines 
were on the outskirts of some auriferous region, the 
center of which would be found wonderfully rich, 
seems to have taken firm hold on the minds of the 
prospectors and man}- were the attemps to verify it. 
One of the parties engaged in this task succeeded in 
discovering a gold deposit which far surpassed in 
richness all former finds, and caused a rush the fol- 
lowing spring of unprecedented magnitude. One 
story of this discovery was told in the Oregonian, of 
October 26, 1861, by a correspondent who signed him- 
self "T. H. M." Though the account is discredited 
in some of its deatils by men having good opportunity 
to know the truth, it is thought advisable to repro- 
duce it here : 

MlLLERSBURG, W. T., Oct. 5, l86l. 

Editor Oregonian: — 

The Salmon River mines, which are now attracting the 
the attention of miners, traders, and business men generally 
in this upper country, are located on some small streams 
and gulches, coming out of a western spur of the Bitter Root 
mountains, and running into the main stream, distant from 
fifteen to twenty miles. They are about seventy-five miles 
from Lewiston, in a southeastern course about one hundred 
and twenty-five miles south from Oro Fino, and nearly 
seventy-five miles from Elk City. 

The discovery of those mines was first made by a pros- 
pecting party of twenty-three men, who left Oro Fino in the 
early p:irt of July last, for a tour up Salmon river. They 
prospected on the bars of this river for a distance of perhaps 
one hundred miles, with flattering results. When satisfied 
that good paying mines had been found, they followed the 
river down, and when opposite this, they were determined 
on finding a near route to Elk City, for the purpose of ob- 
taining provisions, which by this time had become a scarce 
article with them. When they reached this place, the party 
separated, nine of them remaining behind to hunt and to 
find an easy route through the almost impassible masses of 
dead timber, which lay in the way. Two of the company, 
while lying in camp, made a wager between them that the 
'color' could not be 'raised' in the miserable looking country. 
The wager was won by the prospector obtaining from a pan 
of dirt, taken from beneath the roots of an upturned tree, the 
sum of five cents. The party then prospected several creeks 
and gluches in the immediate vicinity, obtaining five, ten, 
twenty-five and even seventy-five cents to the pan of dirt. 
Satisfied even better with this than with the diggings on the 
main river, they followed the other party out. After re- 
cruiting a short time, they purchased a supply of tools, pro- 
visions, etc , necessary for four weeks' stay, and returned 
closely followed by some six or seven others to this land 
of golden promise. 

After their return, prospecting was resumed in real 
earnest, and all here are now satisfied that these will prove 
the richest and most extensive mines yet found north of 
California. All claim that the center of the vast gold field 
has at last been found, and this it is, while the Oro Fino and 
South Fork diggings are on the outer edge. 

Only a radius of about four miles has yet been pros- 
pected, yet all the gulches, ravines and creeks inside of this 

will pay well for working. Miller's creek is perhaps the 
richest. From the first pan of dirt taken out of the first 
hole sunk in this creek, twenty-five dollars was obtained. 
Miller washed out with the pan that afternoon $100. Claims 
were immediately staked off on this creek and the party went 
to work. Each claim has since averaged with the rocker 
from seventy-five dollars to one hundred dollars to the hand. 
Babboon gulch i- next in richness. I have seen seventy-five 
dollars washed out in ten hours by one man using the pan 
alone. Nasan's gulch pays well. Five men have just cleaned 
up seven hundred dollars, the result of ten hours work with 
the rocker in this gulch. Hall's gulch, Smith's gulch, Pio- 
neer gulch and Healey's creek will pay each at least three 
ounces to the hand. 

There are at the present time about fifty men here. Pro- 
visions are not to be had at any price. Parties are now fitting 
up pack trains and sending out for such articles as are needed. 
It will require about three hundred weight of flour for each 
man this winter. The route here is good over fifty miles of 
an Indian trail ; the remaining portion of the trail is now be- 
ing made. Pack trains can get in here until the 20th of No- 
vember easily. 

We expect a large acceleration to our numbers from 
Elk City and Oro Fino soon. A town has been laid out the 
name of which heads this letter. 

To find the truth concerning this famous discovery 
and be sure one has it is not an easy task. The differ- 
ent stories are so hopelessly at variance that they can 
never be harmonized, but one apparently worthy of 
credence was published in the Free Press of July 5, 
1889, on the authority of Nathan Smith, who claimed 
to have led the party which made the discovery. 

"Mr. Smith and a partner named Jack Reynolds," 
savs the paper referred to, "Left Oro Fino on a pros- 
pecting trip towards the little north fork of the Clear- 
water and found prospects, but as the water was too 
high for them to continue farther thev returned to 
Pierce City for supplies, intending to return to their 
prospects later. Arriving at Pierce City they found 
a company organizing for an extended exploring and 
prospecting trip toward the Salmon river country, and 
as they were afraid of the Indians who had driven 
back several small parties, they were waiting for re- 
inforcements, and Mr. Smith was considered such an 
admirable recruit that he was elected to command the 
expedition. They pulled out of Pierce City, twenty- 
three in number, crossed the Clearwater at the mouth 1 if 
the Lolo and went on across Camas prairie to the Sal- 
mon. They continued up the Salmon to the mouth of 
Slate cieek, where Mr. Smith found a good prospect 
of shot gold, but as it was intolerably hot in the can- 
yon he decided on taking the party into the mountains 
and prospecting for gold on the headwaters of Slate 
creek. Here dissensions arose, as the majority of the 
company wanted to keep to the river and prospect for 
bar claims. The outfit hung together, however, and 
continued up the Salmon to the mouth of Meadow 
creek, and there thev climbed the ridge to the summit, 
pretty much as the Warren trail runs today, and made 
their first camp on Sand creek, then a marsh. The 
next morning the majority of the party under the lead 
of a Frenchman had decided to return to the river, de- 
claring there was no gold in the basin. This was 
August 20th and they were going to break camp and 
take the back track at noon. Smith and a few others 
decided to remain and prospect further. That same 


morning Joe Richardson got a four-bit prospect on 
Pioneer gulch and Smith also panned out six bits in 
another gulch. Upon returning to camp at noon the 
other party were speedily convinced that there was 
gold in the basin, and that same afternoon, George 
Grigsby, the biggest kicker in the outfit, saw some 
fine looking gravel at the roots of a fallen tree in 
Bashaw gulch from which he washed four bits to the 
pan, and on the strength thereof has claimed for him- 
self the title of the discoverer of Florence, which 
rightfully belongs to Mr. Smith. Enough was now 
known to convince them that they had struck it big 
and after staking claims enough to go around they 
started for Elk City for supplies." 

loshua Fockler, who was one of the earliest set- 
tlers in Florence, discredits both these accounts. He 
says he remembers distinctly the story told him by 
several reliable men shortly after the find and that it 
was to this effect : Florence was discovered in August, 
1 86 1, by a party of five persons, three of whom were 
John Healey, James Avers and a man named Grigsby. 
They were a detachment of a party of nineteen which 
started from Elk City and the Clearwater to prospect 
the Salmon river country, traveling via Camas prairie 
and White Bird creek. When they reached a point 
six miles above the mouth of Little Salmon river 
where August Berg now lives they undertook to cut 
across and reach Elk City again. They found the 
country too rough, so returned to the Salmon, which 
they ascended to Kelley's creek, going thence up that 
stream. On Little Slate creek the party disagreed 
and divided. The five referred to above continued to 
prospect the region. When they reached what after- 
ward became known as Pioneer gulch, John Healey 
saw a tree that had been uprooted by the wind. He 
noticed that the gravel exposed showed good indica- 
tions, so he tried a panful and found it very rich. 
After testing the ground in numerous places, the party 
started back to Elk City. At what is now known as 
Buffalo Hump they fell in with the fourteen who had 
separated from them and told these of their good for- 
tune. All went to Elk together, agreeing among them- 
selves to tell nobody of the discovery until spring, 
when they would return and locate the best ground 
for themselves. But none of them lived up to this 
agreement and soon all started back with their friends. 
In September of the same year Nathan Smith, Miller, 
Graham and others from Oro Fino made a discovery 
on Miller's creek, in the Florence country, but they 
were a month later than the Pioneer gulch dis- 

The news is said to have reached Oro Fino in 
September. Soon that town and Elk City were almost 
deserted. By the ist of November, the creeks and 
gulches of the new district were swarming with men. 
The merchants, in accordance with the usual custom, 
had begun hurrying in supplies, but the impossibility 
of getting enough into camp to feed the multitudes 
before the snowfall had stopped the passage of trains 
was plainly apparent, and by the middle of November 
many perceived the necessity of returning to Oro Fino 
to winter. The snow was even then two feet deep 

and the cold so severe that travelers were frequently 
frostbitten seriously. 

Soon after the inception of the camp a miners' 
meeting was held at which it was decided to lay out a 
town on Summit flat at the head of Babboon gulch. 
Among those present was Dr. Ferber, one of the oldest 
men and first arrivals in the camp, and he was called 
upon to suggest a name for the town to be. He sug- 
gested Florence, the name of his adopted daughter, 
then in California. The word seemed to have a pleas- 
ing sound to the ears of the miners. It was adopted 
forthwith and from the richness of the ground around 
it soon became a household word in Washington, 
Oregon, California and many parts of the east. John 
Creighton, Ralph Bledsoe, and S. S. or Three-Fingered 
Smith were among the earliest merchants in the camp. 

The number coming into camp was far in excess 
of those departing, far in excess of the number that 
could be well fed, and the result was great suffering 
and hardship. The prices prevailing for all kinds of 
provisions were enormous. Mr. Pierce says the prices 
of commodities were $75 for a fifty-pound sack of 
flour: gum boots, $50; camp kettles, $30; bacon, $3 
a pound ; ordinary tin cups, $3 each ; frying pans, $10 
to $12; sugar, $3 a pound; beans, $3 a pound, and all 
other provisions and supplies in proportion. Vegetables 
were not to be obtained at any price. Many were with- 
out other means of support than the gold obtained 
from their mines, so that notwithstanding ten feet of 
snow, they must dig down to pay dirt and wash out 
enough of the precious metal to purchase at enormous 
prices the means of subsistance. Sometimes boiling 
water was used to soften the frozen earth, as has been 
done in Alaska during recent years. The exposure 
and hardship resulted in rheumatism, throat, bronchial 
and lung diseases, which caused a high mortality 
There was a large representation of the ruffian ele- 
ment in Florence during the winter. Plummer, Stand- 
ifer, Mat Bledsoe, Cherokee Bob and others of like 
character were there, demeaning themselves accord- 
ing to the dictations of their own unrestrained wills. 
The sufferings were enough to drive even good men 
to acts of desperation and it was stated that the store- 
houses of the merchants were more than once in danger 
of mob violence. 

By great effort men forced their way into Florence 
until February ; then the trails became so badly oblit- 
erated or blocked with snow that the feat of reach- 
ing the mines was no longer possible and the Florence 
community was completely isolated from the rest of 
the world. But long before this the entrance of pack 
trains was all but an impossibility. It is related that 
G. A. Noble started late in December on a trip from 
Oro Fino to Florence with a small pack train. For 
ten days he toiled through snow drifts before reaching 
his destination, being indebted for his life to assistance 
rendered by the Indians. 

Even before communication was completely barred, 
the only article of food that could be purchased was 
flour at $2 a pound, and as time proved there was no 
hope of a change in conditions until May. By the 
first of that month, however, pack trains managed to 


force their way to within ten miles or so of Florence, 
and the starving miners were glad to transport the 
goods the rest of the way on snow shoes for the price 
offered, forty cents a pound. 

But no tales of hardship could deter the hosts of 
eager wealth seekers in all parts of the Northwest 
and in California and Nevada from flocking by the 
thousands to this new land of gold. Little they thought 
of the harships endured already by men in the Flor- 
ence basin, or of those which they themselves might 
be called upon to endure in the pursuit of mammon. 
Their imaginations were fired by the stories of for- 
tunes made in a day. And indeed the success achieved 
by miners was such as might well appeal to the avarice 
of men. A correspondent of the Portland Times 
stated through the columns of that paper that while he 
was at the Salmon river mines in October, 1861, he 
had known of his own knowledge that some claims 
yielded thirty to eighty dollars to the pan. It was 
stated that a man named Weiser, after whom the town 
of Weiser in Washington county was named, took out 
one thousand eighteen hundred dollars from his claim 
in three hours, with a rocker, two men operating it ; also 
that a single panful of dirt from Babboon gulch was 
found to contain one hundred and fifty-one dollars and 
fifty cents. George W. Pierce told the writer that Three- 
Fingered Smith, who owned about the richest claim in 
the camp, kept three rockers at work all winter and 
that each of the rockers averaged a thousand dollars 
a day. "It was no uncommon thing," says Bancroft, 
"to see, on entering a miner's cabin, a gold washing 
pan measuring eight quarts, full to the brim or half 
filled with gold dust washed out in one or two weeks. 
All manner of vessels, such as oyster cans and yeast 
powder boxes or pickle bottles, were in demand in 
which to store the precious dust. A claim was held in 
small esteem that yielded only twelve dollars per day, 
as some claims did. while hundreds of others yielded 
from one to four ounces for a day's labor." Many 
of the stories which gained currency at the time seemed 
like veritable fairy tales, but men who were in Flor- 
ence during the fall and winter seem to have no hesi- 
tancy in fully crediting them. The gold deposits were 
so very rich that the would-be boomer, if any such 
there was, was outdone by the simple truth itself. 

With such stories on the lips of miners returned 
to spend the winter in Walla Walla or Portland and 
such accounts in the columns of the newspaper, what 
wonder that the fortune hunting public could not 
brook a wait until spring, before starting to the land 
of gold ! In vain did the newspapers endeavor to per- 
suade the people into a reasonable state of mind ; in 
vain did they protest that roads in the upper country 
were impassable; in vain did the Portland Advertiser 
call attention to the fact that snow at The Dalles was 
still (on March 14th) two feet deep and from one to 
four between that and Lewiston, with proportionately 
greater depths in the mountains; that provisions along 
the whole distance were exhausted : that riding or pack 
animals fit for service could not be obtained as all 
such were either dead or so reduced in strength and 
flesh bv the severe winter as to be useless ; and that a 

supply of fuel could not be obtained along the road 
except at long intervals. Men crowded into the in- 
terior as far as they could get notwithstanding these 
warnings, and it is said that so many men unable to 
pay the high prices of living crowded into The Dalles 
that that town was at one time temporarily subjected 
to the rule of a mob, the members of which proceeded 
to help themselves to such things as they needed. In- 
deed the severity of the winter in one way augmented 
the rush, as it made many Oregon farmers who had 
suffered severe losses by the floods of December es- 
pecially anxious to retrieve their fortunes. Merchants 
were in haste to be first in with their goods. Miners, 
who had left their claims in the fall, were anxious to 
return to them, lest they should be taken possession of 
by others. 

Regular communication between The Dalles and 
Walla Walla had ceased in January after a disastrous 
trip of the stage, in which Johnson Mulkey, father-in- 
law of Senator Dolph. and a prominent Lewiston mer- 
chant named Jaggers had lost their lives. But about 
the middle of Alarch a saddle train, with passengers, 
arrived from Walla Walla and that was the signal for 
a forward movement on the part of many who had 
crowded into The Dalles. A sudden thaw on the 22A 
made the roads almost impassable and swelled the 
streams so that fording was out of the question, but 
at this juncture the steamboat Colonel Wright suc- 
ceeded in making a trip from Celilo to Wallula, en- 
abling those who had not already started to secure 
easy transportation that far on their journey. But 
more than a month mustyet elapse before the anxious 
fortune hunters could force their way to the land of 
promise. As before related, the first pack trains to 
arrive failed to get nearer Florence than ten or twelve 
miles and the goods were packed the rest of the way on 
the backs of starving men. 

Though the richness of the discoveries already 
made was quite widely known, the extent of the au- 
riferous sands was a matter of uncertainty. The late- 
ness in the season of the discovery and the opposition 
of Indians had prevented thorough prospecting that 
fall, the severity of the cold and depth of snow made 
it impossible during the winter and early spring, so it 
was not until June that much could be done. The 
general appearance of the country for many miles 
around was similar to that in which the gold was being 
obtained, an encouraging, but, as it afterwards proved, 
delusive circumstance. The Florence country con- 
sists of an extensive basin surrounded by lofty moun- 
tains. Extended around its outer edge and snug up 
against the base of its rugged natural wall is a deep 
canyon, while in the center are numerous pine and 
tamarack-clad elevations. Evidences of fire were 
visible in many places and there were other extensive 
areas in which the trees were dead, but did not bear 
any marks of fire. Judge Poe thinks that the most 
probably theory to account for these dead forests is 
that at some time a season of unusual severity had 
killed the tree roots. 

It was in the gulches between these elevations that 
the gold was found. On the surface was a turf of six 



inches to a foot in thickness, beneath which was a 
loam varying in depth from one to six feet. Beneath 
this again was a bed of gravel, then another layer of 
earth and then a red gravel, said to be peculiar to the 
Florence and Warren regions, bearing gold. The sand 
possessed no magnetic qualities and resembled gold 
dust so closely that it might easily be mistaken therefor. 
Humorous stories are told of its being passed upon un- 
suspecting tenderfeet for the much-prized, much- 
sought yellow metal. The sand was, however, of a 
greatly lower specific gravity, hence could be separated 
from the gold by blowing. The bedrock is granite. 

Some of the gulches were dry, but water could 
generally be secured by digging and the method em- 
ployed by those not so fortunate as to possess streams 
or ditches was to make an excavation, allow it to fill 
with water, use this over and over again in the rockers 
until it became too thick, then dip the well dry and 
wait for it to fill again from the water-soaked gravels 

Such was the country to be prospected during the 
summer of 1862 by the motley crowds that had flocked 
to it. Thousands explored it in all directions, testing 
every creek and guich. This thorough exploration 
proved that outside of an area perhaps five miles square 
no pay dirt could be found, and the number of disap- 
pointments may be imagined. A relatively small number 
found the wealth thev had come so far to seek, but the 
vast majority learned that the sacrifices of their toil- 
some journey in the spring of 1862 would remain for- 
ever unrewarded. The hunger and fatigue, the cold 
and exposure, the dreary journevings over muddy 
roads, through flood-swollen streams and by snow- 
filled, mountain trails were to win no smile from fickle 
Fortuna, who bestows her favors with an arbitrary, 
whimsical hand. Some cursed their ill luck ; some gave 
away to despondency ; some with apparent jollity and 
abandon laughed the laugh which told too plainly de- 
spite its apparent meriment, that penury had always 
been their lot ; that nothing better was expected in the 
future and that they had determined to defy evil fate 
by seeming indifference to its persistent lashings. 

Prospecting parties did not confine their operations, 
during 1862, to the Florence basin, although that was 
the principal scene of operations. Many small com- 
panies scoured the hills and mountains in all directions 
and one of these made a discovery, which, had not its 
importance been magnified many diameters by false 
reports, would have long since been forgotten. The 
discovery in question was made in the vicinity of Buf- 
falo Hump, a mountain some twenty miles northeast 
of Florence. It was not of sufficient importance to hold 
people enough to found a new camp, but a rush was 
occasioned of no small magnitude. Rumor said that 
the miners there were taking out dust by the teacupful 
and that even gum boots were being called into requi- 
sition as receptacles in which to store the dust. Ex- 
citement ran high. Rich claims in Florence were tem- 
porarily abandoned by men anxious to join the stam- 
pede. The falsity of the report was, however, soon 
discovered, though not until some of the merchants 

had pofited by it, as the circulators of the false re- 
ports doubtless intended they should. 

But one new discovery of real merit was made dur- 
ing the year. In July, 1862, James Warren, Matt 
Bledsoe and a few others set out on an exploring and 
prospecting tour of the Salmon river country. War- 
ren, the leader, was a college man, generally liked, but 
like most men of the region, he had drifted into bad 
habits and bad company. After prospecting all along 
Salmon river, the party at length decided to try the 
high mountain country to the southward. Crossing 
Salmon river at a point nearly due south of Florence 
they continued their journey to a small stream, which 
coursed seven or eight miles through a beautiful 
meadow, perhaps a mile wide in places. Near the head 
of this little mountain torrent the party camped and, 
according to the usual custom, some of their number 
busied themselves with the gold pan. Better prospects 
were discovered than had before rewarded their efforts 
on the trip and a number of claims were staked out. 
The credit of this find was given to Warren, after 
whom the entire camp was subsequently named. The 
gold was fine and did not exist in such large quanti- 
ties as in the other camps, though Judge Poe tells us 
that as high as sixty ounces per diem to the rocker were 
taken out. The rich find at the head of the creek led 
to the settlement of the district, but it was subsequent 
discoveries that gave the camp permanence. 

Of course the usual rush followed as soon as the 
facts became known. The news reached Florence 
first, causing a commotion in that camp. Judge J. W. 
Poe, who at the time was engaged in the mercantile 
business in Florence with Joseph Haines and S. S. 
Smith, under the firm name of Smith & Company, told 
the writer the story of the early days of Warren as 
follows : 

"The news reached me early. Smith was in Oregon. 
Haines was then at Lewiston and just preparing to 
start for Fleronce with a pack train of forty animals. 
I immediately sent a mesenger to him, telling him of 
the new discovery across the Salmon and asking him 
to come at once as I was unable to leave the store. 
Meanwhile the rush to the new district began and thou- 
sands deserted Florence in search of a fortune in the 
new mines. The trail led from Florence down the 
Salmon river, across this stream and several miles up 
a mountain, past Marshall lake and over a divide onto 
Warren creek. The Indian trails usually followed the 
summits of mountain ranges, that the red men might 
be the better able to keep their bearings, and it was on 
this account that mineral deposits happened to be dis- 
covered in such elevated places. 

"Among the first who went to Warren was my 
partner, Joseph Haines, who had returned in haste from 
Lewiston on receipt of my message. He and a man 
named White met the returning crowds at Salmon 
river, and heard their discouraging reports, but never- 
theless, determined to push on. They camped near the 
mouth of a little stream afterward called Slaughter 
creek because the cattle brought into camp were killed 
there, a stream which empties into Warren's creek, 


two or three miles above the canyon. In this locality 
they noticed a deep washout, left by the flood of spring- 
time, and repairing thither, they quickly washed from 
a pan of the dirt about one dollar and seventy-five 
cents in gold. The party staked out claims for them- 
selves and one each for Smith and myself and one dis- 
covery claim, thus inaugurating the real Warren camp. 
Others took claims along the creek bed and soon sev- 
eral hundred men were at work. Returning to Flor- 
ence for his packtrain, Haines took it through to the 
new camp, gaining the distinction of being the first 
to enter with a mercantile train. The date of his sec- 
ond arrival was September 8, 1862. The miners as- 
sisted in building a rude house and before night the 
first store in the new district was standing at the mouth 
of Slaughter creek. The settlement which sprang up 
around it was named Richmond, after the confederate 
capital, a circumstance which soon gave it a rival, for 
the Unionists, not to be outdone, established another 
settlement a mile below, to which they gave the name 
Washington. Richmond did not long survive the con- 
federate cause, for by 1866 it was abandoned by nearly 
all its inhabitants. The reason of its decay was not 
political, however, but rather that it had the misfor- 
tune to be built on rich placer ground, which in time 
had to be surrendered to claim owners. Washington's 
site was just off the pay streak, and its growth was 
augmented by the decline of its rival. It became the 
county seat of Idaho county in 1869, succeeding Flor- 
ence in the enjoyment of that distinction. 

"Early in the fall of 1862 a miners' meting was held 
at Richmond at which I was elected by acclamation to 
the office of district recorder. For recording a claim 
I received a fee of one dollar and fifty cents, and some- 
times I recorded as many as one hundred a day. When 
the law reduced this fee to one dollar. I resigned, not 
caring to bother with such work, and believing that I 
could make more in the mines." 

The rush to the Warren mines never seems to have 
gained the magnitude of that incited by the Florence 
discovery, probably because the former deposits were 
not anything like as rich as the latter; that is, they 
never yielded such enormous per diem returns, though 
they proved of much greater permanence. The num- 
ber who joined the stampede to the new diggings is 
perhaps impossible to estimate, but the population of 
the camp simmered down to about a thousand during 
the lalK including those at Summit, Richmond and 
Washington. By 1863 the population had increased to 
fully fifteen hundred and the population four years 
later was not less than twelve hundred. The discovery 
of quartz in 1868 brought in a few more men, though 
no great influx resulted from this cause owing to the 
fact that gold bearing quartz so far inland cannot be 
profitably worked. As the placers began to show signs 
of exhaustion they were turned over to Chinamen, 
several hundred of whom found employment in the 
abandoned placers for many years. In 1872 the white 
population of the camp had declined to between three 
and four hundred. 

As before stated, the original trail to Warren led 
over an exceeding high mountain, necessitating a climb 

of some twelve miles. The difficulties and rigors of 
this road led to efforts for another and better one, and 
eventually a new trail was made crossing Salmon river 
ten miles below the original crossing. This road as- 
cended Elk crek four miles, then turned southeasterly 
across the summit of the divide and proceeded to Lake 
creek, which it pursued for twelve miles or until the 
Warm Springs were reached. From this point it fol- 
lowed Secesh creek ten miles, then crossed the divide 
to Steamboat creek, then down that to Warren creek 
and up the last named stream to the camp. It was ten 
miles longer than the former route of travel, but on 
account of its easier grade it nevertheless soon became 
the principal thoroughfare to the mines. 

One peculiarity of the Warren district was that 
though the man credited with its discovery was of loose 
morals, showing a decided predilection for the com- 
pany of the rougher classes of society, and though at 
least one of the men with him at the time of the dis- 
covery was an out and out desperado, yet the camp 
never became the prey of ruffians, never was placed 
under the necessity of organizing a vigilance committee 
for its own defense and never witnessed a popular 

"The most serious difficulty which I remember." 
says Judge Poe. "grew out of a robbery which took 
place during the winter following the opening of the 
mines. While Mike Reynolds, one of the miners, 
was at work near the creek, someone went into his 
cabin and carried off $400 or $500 worth of gold 
dust. Two men whose names I cannot now recall, 
were suspected and arrested. I was appointed to 
defend one and Charles McKay the other. The 
trial was set for the next day. 

"That evening while I was sleeping Three- 
Fingered Smith, my partner, came to the room and 
aroused me, telling me that the miners' meeting, in 
which I should be interested, was in progress across 
the street in a saloon. I hurriedly dressed and hastened 
to the place indicated. I found it crowded with men, 
eagerly discussing the question of hanging my client. 
Strangely enough, McKay was one of the ardent sup- 
porters of this extreme measure. His client was not 
present, nor was there any talk of punishing him, 
but when I arrived preparations had already begun 
for the summary execution of my man. I straightway 
mounted a counter and began an impassioned plea 
for the poor fellow's life, the result of which was that 
either on my own personal account or through com- 
passion for the accused, incited by my words, the rope 
was laid aside and the man held for civil trial. He 
was afterwards convicted and sentenced to a short 
term in the penitentiary." 

In this manner was averted an unfortunate event 
which came near staining the fair name of the War- 
ren mining district. That a resort to extreme meas- 
ures was never here necessary is due to the fact that 
the discovery of mines in what is now Montana had 
drawn away the rough element before the importance 
of the Warren district had been established. 

Having now outlined in a general way the events 
culminating in the discovery and first development of 



the early mining camps, we must essay to give some 
insight into the social conditions of the times. The 
task is a difficult one and adaquately to discharge it 
is impossible under the limitations imposed by the 
plan of this volume, but from the testimony of those 
who were in north Idaho during the earliest days, 
we may. perhaps, be able to draw an outline picture. 
The summer months are utilized by the miner to the 
best possible advantage in separating, by the different 
processes known to practical mineralogy, the precious 
yellow metal from the sand and gravel in which it 
lies. There is enough of excitement about the search to 
keep every man doing his utmost during the long 
hours of labor, and by the time the miner has repaired 
in the evening to his rude cabin, cooked and eaten 
his supper of bread, pork and beans and coffee, and 
enjoyed his evening smoke, he is ready to retire, for 
he must be at his task again at an early hour. When 
Sunday comes it does not always bring repose or even 
a change of task, but generally the pick and shovel 
are laid aside and the miner busies himself in washing 
his soiled shirts, darning his socks, mending clothes, 
chopping firewood for the week, baking bread and the 
like. There is little time for drinking, gambling or 
dissipation, though the miner may occasionally in- 
dulge in the pleasures of the appetite, even during 
this busy season. His main pleasure is, however, 
the gratification of his master passion, the pursuit 
of wealth. The reputation of the mining town for 
immorality and vice must be kept up during the 
summer months, if it is maintained at all, by the 
gambling and carousing class, the enemy of all 
morality, canker worms on the body politic. 

But when winter's snows and surly blasts put an 
end to the pursuit of gold, then it is that the man- 
hood of the miner is severely tested. Nothing but 
gold can induce him to overcome the gregarious in- 
stincts of his nature. When that pursuit is no longer 
possible he must repair to the town, there to run the 
gauntlet of ten thousand dangers ; to avoid the traps 
and pitfalls set to capture his money and his man- 
hood, or falling into them, to part with both. The 
conflict which rages within his breast is nine times 
out of ten an unequal one. The kindly influences of 
home and church and pure, enobling society are all 
wanting. External restraints upon him there are none. 
Pure amusements, refined society he cannot have. 
Fortunate indeed is lie, if his morality and his prin- 
ciples are so firmly set in the unyielding granite of 
his nature, that he can pass the several months of 
enforced idleness without a lapse or a plunge into 
impurity, licentiousness and debauchery. 

If it were possible for the miner to keep busy dur- 
ing the winter, he could easily withstand the blandish- 
ments of vice. But the ennui of protracted idleness, 
who can indure? To pass the time pleasantly, all 
the books and papers of the camp are read and re- 
read. The social card game is restored to. It is kept 
up until all interest in it cloys. The passion for 
novelty and excitement becomes well nigh uncontroll- 
able. It drives its poor victim at first to the more 
nearly respectable places of resort. Ah, now he is 

treading on the dangerous ground ! The convivial in- 
stincts of his own nature, the examples of men still 
held in high esteem in this frontier community, with 
its lowered social standards, the allurements of 
abandoned Delilahs, the persuasions of some fallen 
men, the ridicule of others, all tend to lead or to drive 
him deeper into the mirey slough of dissipation. The 
punishment swift, and condign which in an older 
community would be visited upon the man who openly 
takes his first plunge into license is not here meted 
out and the poor victim does not always realize that 
nature has provided her own punishment for the 
violation of her moral and physical laws ; a punish- 
ment which though slower in its visitations is sure 
never to miscarry as that of society often does. 
Without uplifting influences, without the usual re- 
straints, without danger of social ostracism, without 
even civil law, with the higher cravings of nature 
unsatisfied, in the midst of all the temptations which 
a society composed largely of gamblers, vagabonds, 
fallen women and even thieves, desperadoes and 
murderers can furnish, is it to be wondered that so 
many well meaning men fell by the wayside? Yet 
out of this heterogeneous society have come unseared 
many of the noblest and brightest of the leaders and 
builders of our western institutions. 

When the miners first invaded north Idaho there 
was practically no law for their government. The 
region was a part of the territory of Washington, 
but from the nature of the case it could not be 
efficiently governed from Olympia. There were no 
county organizations ; no local officers of the law ; 
no courts. In fact the country was a veritable haven 
for escaped convicts, desperadoes, thugs and thieves 
and abandoned characters of every variety. Let the 
reader picture in his imagination a society so con- 
stituted, made up so largely of a desperate criminal 
class, without restraint of any kind, and he will have 
a picture of north Idaho as it was in 1861 and 1862. 
In forming this mental picture he should give due 
weight also to the fact that the Civil war was then 
in progress, that it drove to the west many from both 
north and south who were unwilling to bear the re- 
sponsibilities it imposed upon them ; that these brought 
with them all the bitterness and prejudice engendered 
by that strife, and that the violent expression of this 
prejudice was the occasion of many a personal en- 
counter. Truly the conditions obtaining were such 
as can never again exist upon the American conti- 

As might be expected the catalogue of crime was 
a long one. The insecurity of life and property upon 
the highways may easily be imagined. The well dis- 
posed citizens were so greatly in the minority that they 
dared not offer resistance to the reign of crime, and red 
handed, blazen eyed murder stalked unmasked at mid- 
day through the streets of the towns. A full history 
of this carnival of crime cannot here be attempted ; 
would not add to the value of the work if presented 
in detail, but as affording some idea of this modern 
reign of terror we quote the following from Ban- 
croft's summary, gleaned from the journals of the 


times : "Robert Upcreek, shot at Oro Fino by a 
Frenchman in September, 1861 ; Hypolite, owner of 
a large packtrain and $500 in gold, murdered on the 
road in October, 1861 : Ned Meany, killed in a quarrel 
at Jackson's ferry, near Lewiston, November, 1861 ; 
two masked men entered a house in Lewiston in 
December and in spite of resistance carried off $500, 
shooting fatallv one of the inmates ; Matt. Bledsoe 
killed James H. Harmon at Slate creek, Salmon river, 
in a quarrel over cards. December, 1861 ; four 
murders were committed in two weeks at Lewiston 
in the fall of 1861 : three in March, 1862, at Florence; 
William Kirbv killed John Maples in July, 1863: 
William H. Tower, while threatening others, was shot 
and killed at Florence, February 23, 1863 ; Morrissy, 
a desperado, was killed at Elk City about the same 
time : George Reed was shot by Isaac Warwick in a 
quarrel about a claim in April, 1863; Frank Gallag- 
her was murdered by one Berryman, with whom he 
was traveling ; at a ball at Florence on New Year's 
eve, a cvprian was ejected from the dancing room, 
whereupon Henry J. Talbotte (better known as Chero- 
kee Bob) and William Willoughby armed them- 
selves and prepared for vengance ; later they were 
both killed in an attempt to get it; one Bull, living 
near Elk City, kindly entertained over night two men 
who asked for shelter, in the morning the men and 
five horses were missing. Bull followed them for 
twenty days, coming up with them at a camp on 
Gold creek, 265 miles from home, on seeing him one 
of the men sprang on a horse and fled, the other, 
William Afnett, was shot; a party pursuing the flee- 
ing robber brought him back and hanged him. Enoch 
Fruit was a chief of road agents ; James Robinson, a 
mere boy, was one of his assistants ; in the autumn of 
1862 they were prominent among the knights of the 
road between Florence and Lewiston ; both met 
violent deaths; James Crow, Michael Mulkie and Jack 
McCoy robbed three travelers between Oro Fino and 
Lewiston : William Rowland and George Law were 
a couple of horse thieves operating on Camas Prairie ; 
George A. Xoble of Oregon City, was robbed of 100 
pounds ot gold dust between Florence and Oro Fino 
in December, 1862 ; two horsethieves, for stealing from 
a government train, were shot dead." Besides the 
homocides and robberies above noted and scores of 
others which came to the knowledge of the people 
at the time, there were perhaps hundreds of which 
nothing was ever known: at least it was judged so 
from the number of inquiries which kept coming in 
for years afterward from persons in the east, whose 
relatives were lost track of. 

Early in the history of the north Idaho mining 
region, there seems to have been formed organizations 
of thugs for the systematic prosecution of their 
nefarious vocation. The most notorious of these, it 
is said, had two strongholds or points of rendezvous, 
known in the vernacular of the times as "shebangs." 
The leadership of this band is accredited by some to 
Henry Plummer, though there are many in Lewiston 
who. having known this man in no other capacity 
than that of a gambler, are doubtful of his having 

had anything to do with greater crimes while here. 
But if the pictures of Plummer's character, furnished 
by those who professed to know his record quite 
intimately, are not colored to his disadvantage, he 
was hypocritical enough to keep the baser side of his 
nature in the background when it suited him, by his 
urbanity, polish and personal magnetism, winning 
the confidence of such as he wished to impress favor- 
ably. From the previous record accorded to Plummer 
in California and his subsequent career in Montana 
it is not hard to believe him guilty of having acted 
a double part in Lewiston. 

However this may be the robbers of the country 
became organized during his stay there and by means 
of intelligent co-operation were enabled to defy law, 
moral and civil, commit the coldest blooded murders 
with impunity, and approuriate to themselves the 
valuables of travelers, packers, miners returning from 
a successful summer's work, anybody who might be 
caught unprotected with gold on his person. 

Patiently for many months the good people bore 
these multiplied wrongs. If any inquiry was made into 
the question of who was responsible for a given crime, 
such inquiry was turned into a farce, for the friends 
of law and order were in the minority and dared not 
assert themselves. The few who defied the roughs 
and openly opposed them were marked for early 
slaughter. The customary method of disposal of all 
such was to embroil them in a quarrel and under 
color of self-defense to inflict a death wound with the 
ever ready pistol or bowie knife. 

But this rule of the roughs could not last always. 
Justice may be outraged for a time, but like Truth, 
when crushed to earth it will rise again. Villainy 
soon over-reached itself and brought destruction up- 
on its own head. The first determined resistance to 
crime on the part of a united people, of which we have 
any knowledge, was made at Elk City in the summer 
of 1862. An account of it was kindly furnished us 
by Joel D. Martin and James Witt, both of whom 
were eye witnesses. From their statements, it ap- 
pears that early in the spring James Maguire and 
one Finnigan became entangled in a quarrel which 
led to blows. After fighting several rounds they finally 
agreed to settle their difficulties amicably and let by- 
gones be bygones. As was customary in those days, 
the bargain was sealed over the bar. Between drinks 
protestations of friendship were made again and again, 
but one party to the compact of amity was a traitor. 
In keeping with the unenviable reputation for treach- 
ery he sustained in California, the detestable Maguire 
broke in upon the expressions of good will, by 
stealthily seizing the handle of Finnigan's knife and 
unsheathing the weapon with intent to bury its blade 
in its owner's bosom. But the bystanders saw the 
movement, threw themselves upon the aggressor and 
prevented the consummation of the atrocious deed. 
Later the two men again met. Finnigan fired five 
shots, wounding Maguire in the leg and in the neck. 
Friends carried the injured man to a room over 
Maltby's saloon and there left him, expecting to re- 
turn in the morning. During the night Finnigan re- 



turned and slipping up stairs, killed his foe in a most 
atrocious manner, leaving the cruel bowie knife in 
Maguire's throat. Had Finnigan occasioned Ma- 
guire's death in a fair fight, the spirit of the times 
would have condoned him ; but cowardice and treach- 
ery were unpardonable. Finnigan was arrested and 
put on trial before a popular tribunal. He admitted 
the crime but claimed in extenuation, what was no 
doubt true, that he had to kill Maguire in order to 
save his own life. A newly elected justice of the 
peace presided as judge, and one Colonel Johnson, 
a lawyer recently from California but originally from 
the Middle West, acted as defendant's council. The 
testimony elicited some expressions of sympathy for 
the prisoner, but the jury nevertheless rendered a ver- 
dict of guilty. The following afternoon, a man named 
Powers, who was acting as sheriff, led Finnigan to 
the gallows. Brackett, a shoemaker, tied the hang- 
man's knot and when all was ready the Irishman was 
launched into space. Then occurred one of those 
incidents which are said to have taken place not in- 
frequently in the hasty popular executions of early- 
days and to have resulted occasionally in the saving 
of a life. The knot, having probably been tampered 
with by the sympathetic sheriff, failed to hold, and 
Finnigan fell to terra firma. He soon recovered from 
the shock, gained his feet and, accompanied by Moses 
Hart and Joseph Ritchie, two of his friends, started 
to run away from the scene. The crowd was so 
dumbfounded that for a short time not a man moved. 
Then Josh. Phipps started in pursuit and soon over- 
taking the fugitives, instantly covered them with his 
rule and demanded that they halt. Phipps expected 
that others would come to his assistance but none 
came, so he lowered his gun and told Finnigan to 
go, a command which the latter was quick to obey. 
It is said that he was later seen in San Francisco by 
one who knew him in Idaho and that the tell tale 
mark of the rope was still on his neck. 

The next assumption of judicial functions on the 
part of the populace was in Lewiston in the fall of 
1862. The occasion was the robbery of the Berry 
brothers, while 011 their way from Florence to Lewis- 
ton with a pack train. When near what is known as 
Rocky canyon, each of the men was confronted by 
a masked highwayman armed with a shot gun and 
ordered to throw up his hands. Compliance under 
such circumstances was a matter of necessity and the 
men were relieved of between $1,100 and $1,400 in 
gold dust. They were then commanded to camp at 
Rocky canyon under pain of death, but when the 
dangerous looking shot gun was no longer pointed their 
way, they did not choose to render further obedience 
to the commands of the robbers. No sooner had the 
highwaymen passed out of sight than William Berry 
mounted the best mule in the train and started in 
pursuit. The robbers were riding the best running 
horses, and in the race easily outstripped the big man 
on the mule. 

When Berry arrived in Lewiston he found that 
the robbers had gone on to Walla Walla. Then 
commenced the pursuit. The Berrys had one ad- 

vantage in that they recognized the voices of the two 
men, Bill Peoples and Dave English, who held them 
up (for both were well known to them personally.) 
They later ascertained that one Charley Scott was also 
in the infamous plot. 

In company with Gus Meamber, a Frenchman, 
and others who joined him at Lewiston, the outraged 
merchant proceeded post haste to Walla Walla, travel- 
ing with a four horse team and breaking the record 
for fast time. They arrived just behind the highway- 
men. Berry met Peoples in a saloon, disarmed him, 
and took him into custody. Meamber found and 
arrested Scott. Dave English had not stopped in 
Walla Walla but had gone on to Wallula. His arrest 
was effected by Sheriff James Buckley, his deputy and 
a saloon keeper named Vancise. It is said that an at- 
tempt was made to secure for the prisoner a civil trial 
in the Walla Walla courts, which failed ; also that the 
roughs of that city attempted the rescue of their 
captured confreres. But the capturers escaped with 
their prisoners to Lewiston. Here the outlaws were 
confined in a little log building. Had they known of 
the doom awaiting them, they would doubtless have 
made a more determined effort to escape, but they 
trusted to the rough element for their rescue, and 
were not greatly alarmed. 

The people of Lewiston were more thoroughly 
aroused over this crime than they had been over any 
other. The victims of the robbery were well known 
and well liked ; furthermore there was a general feel- 
ing that the time had arrived when the rule of the 
roughs must be brought to its termination, and accord- 
ingly efficient means were provided for the safe guard- 
ing of the prisoners. The men were confined in a 
little building situated on the point formed by the 
confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers. Two 
men, thoroughly armed, guarded them day and night 
and these were to bring to their assistance the entire 
populace in case of an attempted rescue, by ringing a 
large triangle near at hand. It is said that the roughs 
from other parts did begin gathering with intent to 
rally to the support of their doomed comrades. One 
plot for their release was led by an uncle of Peoples 
named Marshall, but the raid was defeated by Jonas 
Whaley. of the guard, a shot from whose Kentucky 
squirrel rifle served the double purpose of temporarily 
disabling Marshall and alarming the populace. 

Eventually a trial was given the accused men in 
George H. Sandv's store, at the corner of D and 
Second streets, which trial ended in their conviction. 
That night the guards were notified that their services 
were no longer needed. The next morning those who 
went over to the jail to see about the prisoners found 
the earthly remains of the three men hanging by their 
necks from the rafters, and their cold rigid bodies, 
drawn, bloodless faces and glassy eyes told that life 
had been extinct for several hours. The date of this 
summary execution, according to a notation in the old 
Luna hotel register, now in the possession of Charles 
F. Leland, was November 9, 1862. It marked the 
decline of lawlessness in the vicinity of Clearwater, 
for the villainous element departed one by one and 


in small squads to points in the interior and in Mon- 
tana, where most of them ended their careers as such 
men usually do, either at the hands of their kind dur- 
ing quarrels or by the merciless ropes of vigilance 
committees. Among those to depart this life by the 
latter route was Henry Plummer himself, the reputed 
leader of the largest band, and the known author of 
many murders, homicides and robberies. 

Lewiston first, then Oro Fino and finally Florence 
had been centers of operation for these bands of 
criminals. In the last mentioned town a species of 
vigilance committee had been formed. Its members 
met after the death of Cherokee Bob and Willonghby 
and instructed their executive committee to warn all 
suspicious characters to leave the town forthwith. 

The most notorious characters had, however, taken 
refuge in flight, fearing lest a more condign punish- 
ment should be meted out to them at the hands of 
the thoroughly aroused people, and the committee 
had no other task to perform than the expulsion of a 
minor criminal 

But the most terrible deed in the history of north 
Idaho was committed after the reign of the desperadoes 
in the towns was practically over, though there was 
yet a considerable element of these villains in this 
mining region and their supremacy in what is now 
Montana was still maintained. We refer to the murder 
of Lloyd Magruder and companions in the Bitter 
Root mountains, an account of which will be presented 
in its proper chronological place. 



Naturally the influx of miners and fortune-hunters 
into north Idaho had many results incidental to the 
great purpose. The country was settled and developed 
during the first two or three years in a way that it could 
hardly have been in as many decades had its sands been 
without gold or had their wealth remained hidden. 
While there was some complaint on the part of the nar- 
rower-visioned Willamette valley papers that the Idaho 
mines had caused a costly drain upon the resources of 
that section, others saw that in their ultimate and even 
in man)- of their promixate results they were a blessing. 
In speaking of the effect upon the metropolis of Ore- 
gon. Judge Deady in his manuscript history said: "The 
Colville and Oro Fino mines helped Portland greatly, 
and in 1861 built up the Oregon Steam Navigation 
Company. Loaded drays used to stand in lines half a 
mile long, unloading at night freight to go in the morn- 
ing that involved a fortune." The more liberal newspa- 
pers also stated that, contrary to preconceived opinions 
of what was possible, persons who had engaged in ag- 
riculture on the route between The Dalles and Lewis- 
ton were raising excellent crops, a statement going to 
show that the agricultural possibilities of the east side 
were even then beginning to be surmised. The discov- 
ery of the Idaho mines was certainly a boon t<> Walla 
Walla. It was the direct cause of the unearthing of 
vast mineral wealth in the John Day country and in 
the Boise basin, which discoveries, with that of the 
Auburn mines in Baker county, encouraged the agri- 
cultural development of eastern Oregon. From this 
source Portland has drawn millions of dollars and con- 

tinues to draw millions, yet its citizens for many years 
seemed to fail to realize that its chief hope of greatness 
lay in the development of its whole tributary country. 
They used every means to encourage immigration from 
the east to continue on through to the Willamette val- 
ley, and not a few efforts were made to decry the inland 
empire in the columns of the public press. Such a pol- 
icy seems indeep a narrow one when viewed in retro- 

Mention has been previously made of the settlement 
of Seth S. Slater and others at the confluence of the 
Snake and Clearwater rivers in May, 1861. The land 
upon which these men pitched their tents was then a 
part of the Nez Perce reservation, but necessity knew 
no law, and in June the merchants and miners deter- 
mined that a town must be laid out, notwithstanding 
the opposition of the Indians and United States author- 
ities. Nevertheless the town builders were notified by 
the latter that they must not erect any permanent build- 
ings. Partly as a result of this prohibition, but more 
especially from the haste with which the town was 
called into existence, it was at first a very frail little 
city. Almost all its buildings, business places and resi- 
dences alike consisted of a light framework of wood, 
covered with canvas, roof and sides. From the dis- 
tant hill tops the town in the day time had the appear- 
ance of having been built of marble, and at night, when 
lights were burning within the canvas walls, it had a 
decidedly holiday look. From its very inception it was 
an important business point. Being most favorably sit- 
uated at the head, of navigation on the Snake river, it 

The Buildings used as Governor's Headquarters and Capitol of the Territory 
of Idaho in 1863, still standing in Lewiston. 




was the natural outfitting place for parties going into 
the mines of the interior, and long, heavily loaded trains 
left it daily. 

The causes which necessitated the building of the 
temparary town, despite the fact that it was a violation 
of treaty rights, were seen to be permanent in their 
nature. Remonstrances from Indians or military men 
were unavailing, when the exigencies of the case were 
impelling the steamboat company and the miners to 
oppose their wishes, and in October, 1861, the town- 
site of Lewiston was laid off. To pacify Lawyer and 
other head men of his tribe some compensation was 
given them for the privilege. The Nez Perces were 
not very determined in their opposition to white occu- 
pancy, and danger of a general war was never a deter- 
rent force in the settlement and development of the 

The erection of permanent buildings was not ac- 
complished in time to prevent great suffering from cold 
in Lewiston. During the severe winter of 1861-2 its 
inhabitants were almost solelv dependent for shelter 
upon the canvas walls and roofs put up during the first 
rush, and the suffering was further augmented by the 
scarcity of fuel. To add to the people's multiplied dis- 
comfitures the rivers rose during the spring of 1862 
to an unwonted height, inundating their town, as well 
as The Dalles and part of Portland. But all these 
drawbacks were as impotent to stay the progress of 
Lewiston as to quiet the mining excitement which 
called it into being. Its growth was exceedingly rapid 
the first few years, and only after the removal of the 
superfluous mining population tributray to it and the 
consequent loss of its political honors did it cease to 
march forward at a double quick. 

The rapid settlement of the countrv was not with- 
out its political effects, though, as before related, it 
out ran the forms of government and made it necces- 
sary that the miners should become a law unto them- 
selves, not alone in civil matters, but in criminal pro- 
cedure as well. That it was possible for communities 
of frontiersmen, brought together and animated by a 
thirst for gold, to calmly frame and adopt laws for 
their own government, to enforce compliance with 
these laws among their own number and in general to 
discharge all necessary functions, legislative, judicial 
and executive, is a favorable portent for the future of 
the civil institutions of America. The pioneers of 
north Idaho were also surprisingly temperate and self- 
contained in their popular criminal proceedings. No 
such thing as a vigilance committee was organized un- 
til patience had ceased to be a virtue, and then due care 
was taken that none but the guilty should suffer. But 
a regularly constituted government is alwavs welcomed 
by order-loving and law-abiding Americans, and the 
establishment of such in what is now north Idaho was 
eagerly sought for from the first. 

The territorial government of Washington had or- 
ganized Shoshone county in January, 1858, comprising 
all of the country north of the Snake river and be- 
tween the Columbia river and the Rocky mountains, 
with the county seat on the land claim of Angus Mc- 

Donald. In 1861 it established the official boundaries 
of this political entity as follows : 

'"Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the legislative assembly of the 
territory of Washington. That the boundaries of Shoshone 
county shall be as follows, to- wit : Beginning at the mouth 
of the South Fork of the Clearwater ; thence south with said 
river to the Lolo Fork of the same ; thence east with said 
Lolo stream in an easterly direction to the summit of the 
Bitter Root mountains : thence north to the main divide be- 
tween the Palouse river and the North Fork of the Clear- 
water ; thence in a westerly direction with said main divide 
to a point from which running due south would strike the 
mouth of the South Fork of the Clearwater to the place of 
beginning. Passed December 21, 1S61. 

James Leo Furguson, 
Speaker, House of Representatives. 
A. R. Bukbank, President of the Council." 

The day previous another act had been passed creating 
and organizing the county of Nez Perce, the language of 
which was as follows : 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislative assembly of 
the Territory of Washington. That all that part of Washing- 
ton Territory lying within the following boundaries, be or- 
ganized into a county called Nez Perce, to-wit: Beginning 
at the mouth of the Clearwater; thence up same to the South 
Fork of the Clea-water ; thence with the South Fork to the 
Lolo creek; thence with the southern boundary of Shoshone 
county to the summit of the Bitter Root mountains : thence 
south to the main divide between the waters of the Salmon 
River and the South Fork of the Clearwater to the Snake 
River ; thence with the Snake River west to the mouth of the 
Clearwater to the place of beginning. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That J. M. Van Valsah 
be appointed county auditor; A Creacy, Whitfield Kirtly and 

be appointed county commissioners ; Sanford Owens, 

sheriff; and Justice of the Peace for said county until 

the next general election. 

"Passed December 20, 1861. 

James Leo Furguson, 
Speaker, House of Representatives. 
A. R. Burbank. President of the Council." 

On this day, too, an act was passed creating and organ- 
izing Idaho county, the language of which, title omitted, is 
as follows : 

"Section I. Be it enacted by the legislative assembly of 
the Territory of Washington, That all that part of Wash- 
ington Territory south of Nez Perce county and east of Snake 
river, be organized into a county called Idaho. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That L. Lindsey be and 
is hereby, appointed county auditor ; Robert Gray, Robert 
Burns, and Sanburn be appointed county commission- 
ers ; Joseph Standifer, sheriff ; Parker, Justice of the 

Peace for said county until the next general election. 

"Passed December 20, 1861. 

James Leo Furgusox. 
Speaker. House of Representatives. 
A. R. Burrank. President of the Council." 

The formation of these political divisions gave the 
people some kind of a home government other than a 
strictly popular one without sanction of law, but the 
judicial function, except in probate and minor matters, 
was with the three federal judges. The hands of these 
had been full enough when thev had no duties outside 
of the coast counties, and now that the population east 
of the Cascades was sufficiently large to more than 
double their work, a problem was presented not easy 
to solve. Certainly a country into which vagabonds, 
desperadoes and abandoned characters had flocked from 



all parts of the west was very badly in need of courts, 
if the peace and dignity of the territory was to be main- 
tained there at all. The solution finally adopted was 
the passage of acts authorizing the holding of district 
courts at" different county seats having concurrent 
jurisdiction with the regular federal district courts, 
except in cases where the United States was a party, 
with right of appeal to the supreme court of federal 
judges. The expenses of each special district court 
were to be paid by the county in which it was held. 

No more eloquent commentary upon the rapid rate 
at which the country now constituting north Idaho 
developed during 1861-2 need be sought than the notice 
it demanded from the Washington Legislature, by 
which, as compiled from the statute books by Bancroft, 
the right to keep ferries was granted as follows : "To 
D. W. Lichtenthaler and John C. Smith, across Snake 
river opposite Powder river ; to Green White and C. R. 
Driggs, across Snake river at mouth of Grande Ronde 
river; to John Messenger and Walter H. Manly, across 
Salmon river on the Xez Perce trail to Fort Boise; 
to Gilmore Hays, across Snake river within one mile 
from the junction of the Clearwater; to E. H. Lewis 
and Egbert French, across the Columbia, near The 
Dalles; to J. T. Hicklin. across the Yakima between 
the mouths "of the Ahtanaham and Xachess: to W. D. 
Bigelow, across Snake river on the territorial road from 
Walla Walla to Colville : to Lyman Shaffer and W. F. 
Bassett, across the south branch of the Clearwater on 
the main wagon road from Lewiston to Oro Fino ; to 
Orrington Cashman on the same stream at or near the 
camp of Lawyer ; to W. W. DeLacy and Jared S. Hurd. 
on Snake river at some point between Grande Ronde 
and Powder rivers, to be selected by them ; W. W. I >e- 
Lacv and associates on Salmon river; to George A. 
Tyk'el, to grade a bluff of Snake river in constructing 
a wagon road and establishing a ferry over the same 
near "the mouth ot Powder river: to Richard Holmes 
and lames Clinton, across Salmon river on the Indian 
trail from Lapwai to Grande Ronde valley; to John 
Drumhaller, on the main Clearwater, two miles above 
Lewiston; to W. Greenville, at or near the mouth of 
Slat- creek on Salmon river: to Sanford Owens, to 
build a bridge across the south branch of the Clear- 
water on the road from Lewiston to Elk City. The 
rates for foot passengers on these ferries were gener- 
allv so cents: loose cattle, 50 cents; two-horse wagon, 
$2^56: four-horse wagon. $4.50; horse and buggy, 
$2.25 : pack animal, 75 cents." 

The men who had wrought this development, being 
ambitions to become the founder? and builders of a 
new state, carlv began to point out the inconvenience to 
themselves of'Olympia as a capital, the diversity of 
interest between them and the Puget Sound people and 
the adaptability of their region to autonomy. They in- 
structed their representatives in the territorial legis- 
lature to advocate the sending of a memorial to Con- 
gress asking that the eastern portion of the territory be 
set off and organized into a new territory. However, 
the legislators in general thought that the interior had 
need of the sound as a seaboard, and that no benefit 
could result to it from political segregation ; on the 

other hand such would prove a decided detriment to the 
sound. The memorial, therefore, was not sanctioned 
by the majority, and the movement failed. Neverthe- 
less discontent still continued, and on March 3, 1863, 
the territory of Idaho was organized by act of Congress. 
The origin of the euphonious name aoplied to the new 
political entity is a matter of dispute, but it is generally 
supposed to be a corruption of an Indian word signify- 
ing gem or diadem of the mountains, referring to the 
lustrous rim of the crests of the north Idaho uplands 
at sunrise on a fair day. The name was applied to one 
of the counties organized by the Washington legisla- 
ture in 1861, which county formed part of the new 
territory. But whatever the origin of the word or its 
exact English signification, the people of this rich and 
prosperous state have reason to be highly pleased with 
the poetic name chosen for it by the United States 

The creating act was exceedingly liberal in the 
extent of territory it bestowed upon the new political 
entity, the official boundaries of which were described 
as follows : 

"All that part of the territory of the United States 
included within the following limits, to-wit : Begin- 
ning at a point in the middle channel of the Snake river, 
where the north boundary of Oregon intersects the 
same ; then following down the said channel of Snake 
river to a point opposite the mouth of the Kooskoospier 
( Kooskooskie) or Clearwater river, thence due north 
to the fiirty-ninth parallel of latitude, thence east along 
said parallel to the twenty-seventh degree of longitude 
west of Washington ; thence south along said degree of 
longitude to the northern boundary of Colorado terri- 
tory ; thence west along said boundary to the thirty- 
third degree of longitude west of Washington, thence 
north along said degree to the forty-second parallel 
of latitude : thence west along said parallel to 
the eastern boundary of the state of Oregon." 
From this it will be seen that the original 
original Idaho extended over thirteen degrees of longi- 
tude and seven of latitude. Its area was given as 
326,373 square miles, which was greater than that pos- 
sessed by any other state or territorv in the Union. "It 
was not,'' says Bancroft, "regarded with favor by any 
class of men, not even the most earth-hungry. Over 
its arid plains and among its fantastic upheavals of 
volcanic rocks roamed savage tribes. Of the climate 
little was known, and that little was unfavorable, from 
the circumstance that the fur companies, who spent 
the winters in certain localities in the mountains, re- 
garded all others as inhospitable, and the immigrants 
judged of it by the heat and drought of midsummer." 
The initial winter spent by miners in the northern part 
was one of great severity, the temperature being un- 
comfortably low, the snows deep and the floods de- 
structive. Even the scenery was so wild, weird and 
rugged as to seem unattractive to persons habituated 
to more delicate environs, and the conditions on the 
whole were such as to create an unpleasant impression 
in the public mind. 

Of this vast country, imperial in its extent, gigantic 
in its mold and possessed of a wealth of undeveloped 




resources but dimly surmised at the time, Lewiston was 
made the capital To this infant town of two years, 
a town of canvas walls and rude primitive structures, 
of dens of unbridled vice and iniquity, a town which 
just before had had to resort to a vigilance committee 
in order to cow the rough element, to such a town was 
given the honor of posing as the seat of government of 
a region more than twice as large as California and 
seven times the size of the Empire state, and, "taken 
altogether, the most grand, wonderful, romantic and 
mysterious part of the domain enclosed within the 
Federal Union." 

More than six months elapsed between the passage 
of the organic act and the issuance of the proclamation 
carrying its provisions into effect. But on September 
22, 1863, William H. Wallace, who had been appointed 
governor of the territory by President Lincoln, formally 
organized the new government by proclamation. Pre- 
viously, however, political conventions had been called, 
resulting in the nomination of Governor Wallace for 
delegate to Congress on the Republican ticket, and 
J. M. Cannady on the Democratic. Wallace received 
in the election ensuing a majority of about 500 votes, a 
result which caused the promotion of Secretary of State 
W. B. Daniels, of Yamhill county. Oregon, to the post 
of acting governor. 

The first session of the Idaho territorial legislature 
was not distinguished for brilliance. The laws enacted 
by it were of the regular routine kind, not specially 
original in character, but such as any newly organized 
territory must adopt to set the machinery of govern- 
ment in motion. A movement for the sequestration of 
the territory east of the mountains into a separate or- 
ganization was begun, likewise one to move the capital 
to some point more nearly central to the west side resi- 
dents. The new territory was created in 1864. and an 
act was passed late that same year removing the capital 
to Boise. But of this latter, more anon. 

According to the usual custom the territory was, 
granted three federal judges, each presiding over a dis- 
trict. Idaho, Nez Perces and Shoshone counties con- 
' stituted district No. 1, of which Justice A. C. Smith was 
in charge. One of the first acts the court was called 
upon to perform was to try for their lives three men ac- 
cused of a foul and desperately wicked crime, which 
on account of its historic interest must now be described 
in some detail. 

From the mystery and heroism of the discovery of 
the crime and the pursuit and capture of its perpe- 
trators and from the fiendish atrocity which character- 
ized the enactment of the tragedy, this Magruder mur- 
der forms at once the strangest and darkest chapter 
in north Idaho's criminal annals. On these accounts, 
doubtless, and from the fact that the principal victim 
of the awful outrage was a man of such prominence in 
northwest history, the affair is well remembered by all 
old pioneers, its details having impressed themselves 
so deeply upon their minds that the lapse of nearly 
four decades has not sufficed to erase them. The horri- 
ble deed and its sequel bring into bold relief the dark 
depths into which abandoned humanity sometimes falls, 
and the courage, tenacity and ingenuity of the best de- 

veloped representatives of the pioneer, when, animated 
by pure motives, he sets out to accomplish a desperate 
object. All the leading characters in this tragedy were 
men of unusual prominence in their way. Lloyd Ma- 
gruder, the victim, was credited by practically all the 
early miners with the honor of having been the first 
trail-maker into Canyon creek and the leader of the 
part)- which discovered the immensely rich John Day 
mines. Coming to north Idaho in the spring of 1862, 
he became a merchant of prominence and a packer of 
intrepedity. To the perpetrators of the crime, the 
devils of the tragedy, no one will deny the right to a 
bad eminence among those of their character. Hill 
Beachy, the avenger of the terrible deed, proved himself 
not only a man endowed with all the noblest qualities 
of manhood, but one with a mysterious development of 
the intuitive faculties and a rare genius for detective 
work. The ingenuity and courage displayed in bring- 
ing the Magruder murderers to justice shows that had 
circumstances led him into the secret service he might 
have performed feats rivaling those attributed to the 
heroes of romance. 

In the summer of 1863 Magruder set out for the 
Bannock mines with a pack train of fifty animals laden 
with miner's supplies. A long, hard journey brought 
him safely to his destination, but disappointment met 
him there. True to their nomadic habits, the miners 
had gone to the latest center of interest, the Alder 
gulch placers at Yirginia Citv, almost completely de- 
serting Bannock. Thither Magruder followed them. 
He found a prosperous camp of several thousand in- 
habitants, ready to purchase his wares as soon as these 
were exposed for sale. Soon he found himself in pos- 
session of several thousand dollars in gold dust and 
about seventy-five mules. When ready to start upon 
the home journey he was joined by Charles Allen, 
William Phillips and two young men, who were after- 
ward referred to in the indictment as unknown, but 
who proved to be Horace and Robert Chalmers, recent 
arrivals from Booneville, Missouri. Besides those men- 
tioned there were in rhe company Daniel Howard, 
familiarly known as "Doc." whose real name was 
Renton, Christopher Lower (or Lowry), James Ro- 
maine and William Page. Page had met Magruder at 
Bannock about the middle of September, and five or 
six days later at Virginia City, where he had assisted 
the merchant in stocking his store. His testimony is 
the only account we have of the awful tragedy en- 
acted in the Bitter Root mountains and the events lead- 
ing up to it. The story told by him was complete and 
circumstantial, bearing the stamp of truthfulness upon 
its face, and proving its narrator a man of remarkable 
memory. The transcript of it. taken in court, is. how- 
ever, very brief and not at all clear on some points. 
Page states that Renton. Lower and Romaine were 
in Virginia Citv during the latter part of the summer, 
and that they stayed around Magruder's store at least 
a portion of the time. There is reason to believe that 
they left Lewiston with no other intent than to murder 
Magruder and take his money. Their presence about 
his store was probably due to their desire to ingratiate 
themselves into his confidence that they might the bet- 



ter accomplish their designs. If this was their object 
they certainly succeeded well, for Magruder seems to 
have never suspected them in the slightest, though it 
is said that he was warned by a man named Baker 
against traveling with them, as they were tough men. 
Magruder heard that Page was going to Lewiston, 
and employed him to assist in driving through the 
horses and mules. 

There was nothing untoward in their start for home 
and friends nor hint of approaching tragedy in the face 
of laughing nature as they set out from Virginia City 
on that bright autumn morning. No intuitive sense 
of danger, no dark forebodings of any kind disturbed 
the equipoise of Magruder's mind. The exhilaration 
of the crisp air and bright sunshine was no doubt felt 
bv him and his companions, though there were those 
among the latter into the blackness of whose dark souls 
no beams of light could ever penetrate. 

Those who started with Magruder on October 3d 
were Page, Renton, Romaine, William Phillips and 
the two brothers. At Beaverhead, where they camped 
the first night, they were joined by Charles Allen, and 
the next day at Rattlesnake they met Christopher 
Lower. The party proceeded that day to the vicinity 
of Bannock, where they remained two or three days 
while Magruder was buying mules and attending to 
other business. About the 8th they resumed their jour- 
ney. "There were nine of us," said Page, "Lower, 
Renton, Romaine, Phillips, Allen, Magruder, the two 
brothers and myself." For three days they traveled 
without casualty, meeting travelers and conversing 
with them occasionally. During the fourth Lower 
asked Page to drop behind, as Renton and Romaine 
wished to speak to him. Page did so, and was greatly 
startled by the nature of their communications. Ren- 
ton stated that Magruder had a great deal of money, 
that they purposed to have it, and that he wished 
Page to sleep with Phillips. He admonished his 
auditor not to be frightened, as he, Lower and Ro- 
maine would do all the "dirty work." told him that he 
must take no notice of any noise he might hear in the 
night, but if it became necessarv he was to shoot 
Phillips in the abdomen. Several times during the 
day the conspirators told Page not to be frightened. 
That night, however, nothing unusual transpired. Next 
day the conspirators again declared their determina- 
tion to have Magruder's money and renewed their ad- 
monitions to Page against being frightened. After a 
journey of about thirty miles they camped in a lonely 
spot in the Bitter Root mountains within a short dis- 
tance of the point where a view of the north Idaho 
country first greets the eye of the traveler. This spot 
has been rendered memorable by the commission upon 
it of a deed seldom equaled or surpassed for cold- 
blooded atrocitv. 

The transcript of Page's testimony is so incoherent, 
indefinite and confused that it is impossible to gain 
from it a clear and detailed idea of what transpired 
during that dreadful night. It appears, however, that 
it was the turn of Magruder and Lower to guard the 
animals throughout the first watch. Page said he saw 
the two start up the hill. Lower ahead with an axe. 

The latter had given as an excuse for taking the 
weapon along that he wished to fence the trail so as 
to prevent the escape of the mules and to build a fire. 
The other travelers went to bed as usual. About mid- 
night, as he thought, Page heard somebody coming 
down the hill, and on investigation found that it was 
Renton and Lower. Renton lay down upon the blan- 
kets with Romaine, but soon both got up and passed 
by Page with axes in their hands. They went in the 
direction of the two brothers, and forthwith Page 
heard blows and mournful groans. After a few mo- 
ments they returned and lay down upon Page's bed. 
They arose again shortly. Renton shot Allen and Ro- 
maine struck Phillips with an axe. Allen seems to 
have been killed instantly. Phillips, however, made 
an outcry of murder after being hit, but the repeated 
blows of the heartless assassin speedily silenced him. 
Page says that as Romaine struck the first blow he 

said to his victim: "You fool, I told you at 

Virginia City not to come. You had no business to 
come. I wish that Jim Rhodes had come, for I have 
wanted to kill him a long time." 

The assassins then directed Page, who had arisen 
and dressed, to get ready such things as they wished 
to take along with them. When this was done he 
was next sent up the hill to look after the animals. 
Lower told him that if he would go a long way up he 
would see a fire to the right hand of the trail, but that 
this marked the spot where Magruder was killed. On 
his return they asked him if he had seen the fire. He 
replied : "Yes ; it had got to running about among 
the leaves and dry logs, and I put it out." "That's 
where the job was done for Magruder," said Lower. 
"I kicked it about to burn the blood up." The assas- 
sins told Page they had searched the bodies during his 
absence and had failed to find as much money as they 
expected. They had tied Phillips and Allen up in a 
tent cloth with picket ropes. "I helped," said Page, 
"to tie the two brothers up — helped Lower and Ro- 
maine. They carried them on a stick — I had hold of 
the stick — to a large, fiat rock, whence they were to be 
rolled down the hill." 

Throughout a great part of the night the four men 
busied themselves in destroying evidences of their 
crime. All the equipage not needed was burned and 
the ashes searched for rings and buckles, which, with 
the excess tinware and other incombustibles, were put 
into a sack, taken down the hill and hidden behind a 
log. Renton and Lower disposed of Magruder's body, 
while Romaine and Page rolled the other bodies down 
the canyon. "I rolled Phillips and Allen down," said 
Page, "Romaine, the two brothers." As we were going 
to roll them down he gave me a pair of moccasins to 
put on, so that if anybody saw traces they would think 
it the work of Indians." 

At last these grewsome tasks were all successfully 
accomplished. Lower and Renton returned from dis- 
posing cf Magruder's remains, bringing some of the 
mules. About twelve or fourteen were missing, one 
in particular that they wanted, and they spent some 
time in an unsuccessful search for him. Soon after 
they started they began shooting the mules, which 



were following the big sorrel lead horse that Page 
was riding. Several were killed before they got up 
the Clearwater hill and the remainder were led onto a 
little prairie to one side of the trail, where all were 
despatched except eight and one horse. The things 
were overhauled thoroughly on this prairie and the 
money estimated. It amounted to eleven or twelve 
thousand dollars, Page understood. Here also the 
handle was burned out of Lower's axe and a new. one 
put in. 

The miscreants went straight to Lewiston, travel- 
ing with about average speed and consuming several 
days in making the trip from the scene of the murder. 
It was nine o'clock when they came into town. Renton 
and Romaine looked for a boat in which to go down 
the Snake river but failed to find any. Page busied 
himself in hunting for a farmer named Goodman (or 
Goodrich), wishing to leave the animals with him. He 
eventually found the ranchman and bargained for the 
keep of the mules and horse until spring. Everything 
was left in Goodman's care, saddles and blankets, 
bridles, shot gun. leggings, spurs, etc. All four slept 
at the Hotel de France that night, and the following 
morning took the stage for Walla Walla. One of their 
number had secured the seats the evening previous, 
having himself and his companions waybilled under 
assumed names. The escape from the dangerous town 
of Lewiston, where they were well known and their 
presence was likely to excite suspicion, was successfully 
effected. They were now to enjoy in peace, as they 
supposed, the fruits of their dastardly deed. 

How sadly were these miscreants to be undeceived. 
Their presence in Lewiston had become known, and 
the avenger was already on their track. Hill Beachy 
was in the stage office when the murderer stalked in 
with an assumed swagger, walked up to the clerk's 
desk, threw down three twenties and asked that he and 
his companions be waybilled to Walla Walla. Beachy 
scrutinized him carefully from behind the stove and 
recognized him. He examined the waybill as soon 
as the man had departed. He then proceeded to the 
Luna house stables, which were in charge of Chester 
P. Coburn, from whom we obtained this part of our 
story. "Coburn," said Beachv, "you must persuade 
your friends (for he had some intending to take the 
stage) not to go on the stage in the morning." 

"Why?" asked the man addressed with eager inter- 

"Because there is danger in the air." Beachy then 
communicated his discoveries and suspicions. The 
two men together visited the other stables of the town, 
but no trace of the animals the men had ridden could 
be found. Neither had the ferryman brought them 
across the river. 

"Well," said Beachv finally, "trv to keen your 
friends here until the next stage. Have thev any 
money ?" 

"Yes, one of them has $2,500 I know of and the 
other may have some ; but they won't stav, because the 
boat leaves Portland for 'Frisco only every two weeks, 
and if they miss this stage they will have to lay over." 

"Well, then, tell them our suspicions and warn 

them to be sure to take the back seat and keep their 
guns handy; also let the others get in the coach first. 
Tell them to keep a close watch all the time." 

So, when Mr. Coburn awoke his friends the next 
morning a little after one o'clock, he communicated to 
them his fears. They got into the stage at the stables, 
taking the back seat. Beachv and Coburn rode the 
brake blocks to the hotel. There the four strangers, 
closely muffled, took their places, the horses were given 
the reins and the sextette and driver were speedily 
borne out into the night. As the coach rolled away 
Beachy remarked to his companion that he thought 
there was no danger'of a robbery, as the men seemed 
to have considerable gold with them. But Beachy felt 
instinctively that something was wrong, and very soon 
a suspicion took hold of him that cither Magruder or 
Ankeny was murdered and that these men were the 
murderers. All night he and Mr. Coburn continued 
their investigations. At daybreak Mose Druilard was 
despatched over the trail to seek tidings of Captain 
Ankeny, an Oro Fino merchant, and another messen- 
ger, named Schull, was sent toward Elk City in search 
of news about Magruder. 

Later in the day in which the suspicious characters 
left by stage the continued investigation of Beachy 
and Coburn resulted in the discovery that the men had 
left their horses in charge of Mr. Goodman and that 
Goodman had just moved the animals and trappings 
out to his place in Tammany hollow, a short distance 
south of Lewiston. The horses and accoutrements 
were soon brought into town, where one of the animals 
was identied as having been Magruder's property. A 
saddle also was thought to be his. This. was enough for 
Beachy. He swore out warrants for the four men, 
obtained requisition papers from Governor Wallace at 
the Capitol and set out in pursuit, determined to fol- 
low the quartette until he" had effected their arrest. 
He was accompanied as far as Portland by Thomas 
Pike. By everv possible means he accelerated his 
speed. At The Dalles he arrived just in time to miss 
the steamer, though he learned that his men had passed 
that way and knew that he was on the right track. 
When he reached Portland he found on inquiry that 
the miscreants had left on the steamer, which had de- 
parted for San Francisco just two hours before his 
arrival. Meanwhile he had been joined bv Captain 
A. P. Ankenv. who had reached Lewiston in safety 
the day of Beachy's departure, and together they con- 
sulted hastily and decided upon a plan of action. It 
was determined that Captain Ankeny should attempt 
in a tug boat to intercept the ocean steamer at the bar 
in case adverse winds had detained her, while Beachy 
made preparations for the overland trip to San Fran- 
cisco in case of Ankeny's failure. Ankeny 's tug arrived 
too late, as the steamer had gone out to sea without de- 
lay. Accordingly Beachy started. There was no tele- 
graph nearer than Yreka, California, and consequently 
no rest for the grim pursuer until that point was 
reached. Arrived at last, he wired descriptions of the 
men to the San Francisco police. The telegrams did 
not arrive until after the boat had landed, but the de- 
scriptions were such as to enable the police to identify 



their men with ease, and soon the culprits were behind 
prison bars. Beachy got custody of the men after some 
delay and started back to Lewiston with them. At 
Walla Walla an escort of soldiers was furnished him. 
The party reached Lewiston during the early days of 
December and was met by the vigilantes of that town, 
but Beachy stoutly defended his prisoners, telling the 
people he had promised the men a regular trial. The 
vigilantes eventually decided to withdraw and trust 
the courts to administer justice. The prisoners were 
confined in upstairs rooms of the Luna house, Page by 
himself. The last mentioned turned state's evidence, 
and it was essential that no opportunity be allowed his 
partners in guilt to intimidate him, as he was the main 
reliance of the prosecution. Renton, Lower and Ro- 
maine maintained an attitude of sullen indifference 
throughout their incarceration, declining to affirm or 
deny the grave charges against them. Romaine was a 
schoolmate of Mrs. Beachy and hoped for some clem- 
ency on this account. 

The following incident is related as throwing light 
on the character of Lower. The officers had one day 
conceived the idea of securing photographs of the pris- 
oners. The subject was broached to the men, who 
listened intently and then announced that they would 
not consent to give the photographer a sitting. Several 
efforts were made to secure their acquiescense, but 
each failed, until finally one day Lower said he would 
sit, so word was sent to the photographer at Walla 
Walla, who arrived in a short time with his outfit. 
Lower was sent to a tent near the Luna house. The 
photographer set up his machine and prepared to take 
the picture. Lower posed willingly. When all was 
in readiness the artist stepped into the dark room to 
fill the plate-holder. Suddenly Lower jumped from 
his chair, rushed over to the camera, and, picking it 
up, dashed it to pieces. 

The sheriff and the photographer rushed over to 
the man, and the former inquired : "Why did you do 
that, Lower?" With a demoniacal grin Lower replied: 
"I thought it was loaded." No further attempts were 
made to photograph the murderer or his comrades. 

In due course the case against the three accused 
men came on for adjudication. The grand jury had 
no difficulty in returning an indictment, as the evidence 
of Page was direct and satisfactory. In the trial fol- 
lowing Samuel C. Parks, the judge of the Second 
judicial district, presided in place of A. C. Smith, of 
the First district, who was absent. J. W. Anderson 
and W. W. Thayer appeared as attorneys. for the de- 
fendants — Renton, alias Howard, Lower and Romaine. 
Prosecutor Gray was assisted by Attorneys Rheems 
and Kelly. The jury finally selected to try the case 
was composed of George H. Sandy, foreman; Henry 
Hershell. Francis Gabe, Joseph Wagner, Michael 
Leitch, Samuel Ramsey, Nathan W. Earl, J. P. Shock- 
ly, John Mooney. Ezekiel Beam, Henry Myers and W. 
B. Holbrook. On the evening of January 23d the case 
was given to the jury, which, after a short absence from 
the trial room, returned a verdict of "guilty of murder 
in the first degree, as charged in the indictment, and 
that the punishment therefor shall be death." Three 

days later the convicted men were sentenced to be 
hanged on the 4th of the following March, on which 
date they were led to a scaffold erected near the spot 
on which Judge Poe's residence now stands, on ground 
now owned by John P. Vollmer. Several hundred citi- 
zens had gathered to witness the vindication of justice 
and a company of soldiers from Fort Lapwai was pres- 
ent, also a number of Indians from the reservation.. 
Before the trap was sprung the condemned men were 
asked if they had anything to saw Lower with charac- 
teristic bravado replied : "Launch your old boat ; it's 
nothing but an old mud scow anyhow." This mis- 
creant also left a letter to be opened after his death, 
which was found to be extremely obscene and insult- 
ing in its language. Page, who escaped the scaffold by 
betraying his companions in guilt, was foully mur- 
dered by a man named Albert Igo, with whom he 
had quarreled previously, and such was the prejudice 
against the murdered man that no very energetic ef- 
forts were made to apprehend his slaver, notwithstand- 
ing the cowardlv manner in which the crime had been, 
committed. The vigilance committee, seeing by the 
result of the trial of Magruder's murderers that the 
courts were disposed to mete out justice, disbanded 
soon after the execution, and though there have been 
lynchings since, the days of popular tribunals in north 
Idaho were over. 

The following May Sheriff James H. Fisk and Hill 
Beachy took Page to the scene of the tragedy. The 
remains of the victims were found in the places indi- 
cated by the testimony. The entire locality tallied with 
Page's descriptions ; the sack of rings, buckles and tin- 
ware was discovered under the log as he had said ; in 
fact the story was corroborated in every detail by mute 
but truthful witnesses. It was by a notebook found on 
the person of one of the Chalmers brothers that the 
identity of these unfortunate young men was estab- 

It is pleasing to add that the efficient services of the 
brave Beachy did not go unrewarded. Five weeks of 
unremitting effort had been expended by him. as well 
as considerable sums of money, in the capture of the 
murderous quartette. For his reimbursement and com- 
pensation there was appropriated out of the territorial 
treasury, by an act approved February 2, 1864, $6,244. 

The population of southern Idaho, induced thither 
in flocks by the discovery and development of the 
mines of Boise basin and other districts, was greatly 
swelled during the early part of 1864 by immense im- 
migrations from the southern states. The results of 
this infusion of secession sentiment may be easily im- 
agined. The political complexion of the entire state 
was changed and a disturbing element introduced into 
society in general, making good government for the 
time an impossibility. It is stated that in southern 
Idaho it was all a man's life was worth to exoress 
Union sentiments in a demonstrative way, and the 
number of homicides in Boise county alone during 1864 
is said by Bancroft to have exceeded twenty, "with 
assaults and robberies a long list." To combat this dis- 
loyal sentiment as much as lay in its power the district 
court held in that county exacted of persons applying 


to practice in it as attorneys that they subscribe to the 
following oath : "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that 
I will support and defend the constitution and govern- 
ment of the United States against all enemies, whether 
domestic or foreign ; that I will bear true faith, alle- 
giance and loyalty to the same, any ordinance, resolu- 
tion or law of any state or convention or legislature 
to the contrary notwithstanding; and further that I 
do this with a full determination, pledge and purpose, 
without any mental reservation or evasion whatever; 
and further, that I will well and truly perform all du- 
ties which may be required of me by law, so help me 

But no oath could be required which would deprive 
the citizens, however disloyal or unworthy, of political 
rights. Just one Union man was elected to the legis- 
lative assembly in the election of 1864. Soon the gov- 
erning body of Idaho, being composed largely of men 
at variance with the general government, and careless 
of the responsibilities of their positions, entered upon 
a career of infamy comparable only to the carpet-bag 
governments which shortly afterward came into power 
in the south. "The third session." a writer is quoted 
as having said, "was by all good men, irrespective of 
party, pronounced infamous, but this one (the fourth) 
is satanic." The governors, acting under federal ap- 
pointment, were, of course, loyal men, thoueh some of 
them had nothing else to their credit. They could 
and did veto bills at open variance with the constitu- 
tion, the organic act or the plain interests of the people. 
These were in general passed without the governor's 
signature, but fortunately ran up against an insur- 
mountable barrier in the United States Congress, which 
had the power to nullify such acts of territorial legisla- 
tures as failed to meet its approval. 

Happily north Idaho was not distracted and torn 
in any such manner by the inroads of an army of dis- 
loyal people. That part of the territory had had its 
era of bloodshed and anarchy. Now, however, the 
ruffian elements had gone to the Boise basin, Montana 
and elsewhere, stable local governments were being es- 
tablished, the miners were busily engaged in garnering 
the wealth of their claims and the entire community 
was settling down to an era of quiet progress and the 
evolution of a law-abiding, social esprit de corps. But 
north Idaho was far from pleased with the doings of 
its legislature. The act which most deeply incensed 
the people of this section was that depriving Lewiston 
of its proud prestige as the seat of government, which 
act, approved December 7, 1864, title omitted, was 
indited thus : 

Be it enacted by the legislative assembly of 
the territory of Idaho, as follows : That the capitol 
of the territory of Idaho be and the same is hereby 
permanently located at Boise City, in the county of 
Boise and said territory of Idaho. 

"Section 2. The capitol buildings are hereby lo- 
cated on the grounds known in and described on the 
plot of said Boise City, as the Capitol Square, and the 
Honorables Caleb Lyon, C. B. White and J. M. Ken- 
edy are hereby appointed as commissioners to receive 
a deed to said Capitol Square, and such other grounds 

as may be deemed necessary to hold in trust for the 
Territory, for the purpose of erecting the capitol build- 
ings aforesaid. 

"Section 3. The Secretary of said Territory is 
hereby authorized to immediately draw a warrant upon 
the treasurer of the territory for such sum, not exceed- 
ing the sum of two thousand dollars, as shall be neces- 
sary to remove the papers, books, documents and other 
property belonging to his office to said Boise City. 

"Section 4. This Act shall take effect from and 
after the twenty-fourth clay of December, A. D., 1864." 

Naturally the measure above quoted was received 
with great disfavor by the citizens of north Idaho in 
general and those of Lewiston in particular. As is 
customary in such cases the parties aggrieved by the 
act of the legislature resorted to the courts, hoping 
thereby to win their point. Referring to this litiga- 
tion some years later, Alonzo Leland, through the col- 
umns of his paper, The Teller, reviewed the case as 
follows : 

"The last part of the nth section of the organic 
act of Idaho reads thus: 'And no expenditure shall 
be made by said legislative assembly for objects in it 
specially authorized by the acts of congress making the 
appropriations nor beyond the sums thus appropriated 
for such objects'. The whole of said section makes 
provision for the expenses of our territorial govern- 
ment, including the governor, secretary, judges, leg- 
islative members, clerks and other officers, and all con- 
tingent expenses including rents of buildings for the 
meeting of the legislature and offices for other officers 
of the United States, and these appropriations are 
made upon estimates made by the secretary of the 
treasury annually, and the legislative assembly cannot, 
in the language of the act, expend money 'for objects 
not speciallv authorized by acts of congress nor can 
that body go beyond the sums thus appropriated for 
such objects.' 

"The organic act says that 'the legislative assembly 
of the territory shall hold its first session at such time 
and place in said territory as the governor shall ap- 
point and direct.' Governor Wallace, by proclamation, 
duly ordered that the first legislature convene at Lew- 
iston, on the 7th day of December, 1863. They so con- 
vened and held their session 60 days, and passed an act 
providing that their next legislature should convene 
on the second Monday in November, 1864. The or- 
ganic act further savs 'and at said first session or as 
soon thereafter as they deem expedient, the governor 
and legislative assembly shall proceed to locate and es- 
tablish the seat of government for said territory at 
such place as they may deem eligible: provided, that 
the seat of government fixed by the governor and leg- 
islative assembly shall not he at any time changed ex- 
cept by an act of the said assembly duly passed, and 
which shall be approved after due notice, at the first 
general election thereafter, by a majority of the legal 
votes cast on that question.' 

"At the first session an attempt was made to pass 
an act to remove the seat of government, but the at- 
tempt failed and the second legislature met at Lewis- 
ton in November, 1864. During that session they es- 



saved to pass an act permanently locating the capi- 
tol of Idaho Territory at Boise City, and the governor 
signed the bill, without making any provision for 
submitting the question to the people for ratification, 
and attempted to move the seal and archives, where- 
upon a suit to enjoin the removal was brought on the 
part of the people of the United States to restrain 
them, and was heard in the district court, at the April 
term of the court in 1865. 

"Following is the bill of complaint filed in the 
court : 

The people of the United States of the Territory of 
Idaho, per T. M. Pomeroy, relator, plaintiff, vs Caleb Lyon, 
of Lyonsdale, governor of Idaho Territory, and S. D. Coch- 
ran, acting secretary of Idaho Territory, or any person acting 
in said capacity, defendants. 

. In the District Court of the First Judicial District. Terri- 
tory of Idaho, county of Nez Perce, A. C. Smith, presiding. 
Complaint for injunction. Thomas M. Pomeroy. district at- 
torney for the First Judicial District, of the Territory of 
Idaho, having been duly sworn, in behalf of the people of said 
territory, would respectfully show to the court: 

That on the third day of March, A. D., 1863, the Con- 
gress of the United States passed an act creating the terri- 
tory of Idaho; subsequent to which creation said territory 
was duly organized by the appointment of a governor, secre- 
tary and other officers and on or about the 10th day of July, 
A. D., 1863, said governor and secretary' arrived at Lewis- 
ton in Raid territory and there temporarily located the seat 
of government cf said territory, from which place the said 
governor issued his proclamation for an election of members 
of the Council and House of Representatives to convene at 
said Lewiston on the 7th day of December, A. D., 1863, and 
qualify and organize as the Legislative Assembly of said 

In pursuance of said proclamation said election was held 
and said legislators convened at Lewiston on the 7th day of 
December aforesaid, and qualified as members of said as- 
sembly and proceeded to the business of legislation for the 
people of said territory. By the provisions of said act creat- 
ing said territory of Idaho, the term of service of each mem- 
ber of the legislative council was to continue two years, and 
the term of service of each member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives was to continue one year. 

The said legislative assembly at said first session passed 
an act in conformity with said organic act, creating sundry 
offices for said territory among which were the offices of 
councilmen and members of the House of Representatives 
and limiting their term of service respectively to two and one 
years. Said assembly further passed an act relative to elec- 
tions providing lor the election of councilmen and members 
of the House or Representatives on the first Monday in Sep- 
tember annually, which act provides as follows: 

"The term ot office of all officers elected shall begin on 
the first Monday in January next ensuing, unless some other 
express provision is made by law," Said assembly also passed 
an act providing, as follows : "Hereafter the legislative as- 
sembly of the territory shall convene on the second Monday 
of November 01 each year, at the territorial capital, at the 
hour of twelve o'clock M." 

Congress during its session in 1863-64, passed an act 
amendatory to the organic act creating Idaho territory, which 
deferred the time of the annual election for the year 1864, 
from the first Monday in September to the second Monday in 
Octobei, without chancing the time at which the officers 
elected should begin their term of office. 

On said second Monday in November, the time fixed 
for the meeting of the legislative assembly, sundry persons 
claiming to have been elected as members of the House of 
Representatives at the October election aforesaid, assembled 
at Lewiston, aforesaid, and assumed to proceed to organize 
as a House of Representatives for the territory of Idaho, 

contrary to law and the statutes, and also to the rights of the 
people of said territory. 

Said House of Representatives further assumed to enact 
laws to be in force and to govern the people of said terri- 
tory, among which was an act purporting to permanently 
locate and establish the seat of government at Boise City and 
to appoint Caleb Lyon, a federal officer, a commissioner for 
receiving and holding of deeds to grounds upon which the 
capitol buildings are to be erected; authorizing the secretary 
of the territory to draw a warrant upon the territorial treas- 
urer for moneys to defray the expenses of the removal of the 
territorial archives from Lewiston, aforesaid, to said Boise 
City. Ail of which provisions are contrary to law and against 
the rights and interests of the people of said territory. 

This affiant is informed that the bill for said act of re- 
moval has passed this illegal House of Representatives and 
also the legislative council, and received the signature of 
Caleb Lyon, of Lyonsdale, who claimed to act as the governor 
of said territory. 

This affiant is not informed that said Caleb Lyon, of 
Lyonsdale, has ever filed his official oath in manner provided 
by law, and further believes that no such oath has ever been 
legally filed 01 recorded, so as to duly qualify him to approve 
acts passed by the legislative assembly of said territory. This 
affiant is informed and verily believes that Silas D. Cochran, 
the acting secretary of said territory, or some person acting 
in said capacity in conjunction with the said Caleb Lyon of 
Lyonsdale, acting as governor, are about to remove the seal, 
laws and archives of said territory; from Lewiston, the legal 
place for their deposit, to said Boise City, contrary to law 
and greatly to the damage of the people of said territory, and 
this affiant further believes that said governor and secretary 
will proceed to cause a great expenditure of the money of 
the people of the territory of Idaho, consequent upon such 
removal and location at Boise City, and the erection of capitol 
buildings, greatly to the damage of said people, if not re- 
strained by the interference of the courts. 

This affiant is apprised of no other relief for the people 
than to petition the court to issue a writ to restrain them, 
the said governor and secretary, from the performance of 
these illegal acts. .Therefore this affiant prays the court to 
issue such writ forthwith and as in duty bound will ever 

Thomas M. Pomeroy, 
District Attorney 1st Judicial District, I. T. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 22d day of De- 
cember, A. D., 1864. 

John G. Berry. 
Probate Judge. 

"Upon the above complaint the court issued a tem- 
porary injunction which was served upon Lyon and 
Cochran, December 29, 1864. The defendants filed 
what they claimed to be an answer, denying merely the 
legal conclusions of the complaint without denying 
any of the facts, except that which charged that the 
governor assumed to exercise the functions of the 
governor in singing the capital bill without having 
taken and filed his oath as required by law. Mean- 
time the governor fled from this part of the territory 
in a small boat down the Snake river, under the pre- 
tense of going duck hunting, and never since then has 
he made his appearance in northern Idaho. Soon af- 
terwards a new secretary was appointed from Wash- 
ington and came to Lewiston. named C. DeWitt Smith, 
upon whom the order of injunction was duly served. 
He remained here some davs and after a while it be- 
came known that he contemplated a violation of the 
injunction, and upon affidavit showing these facts, 
the court issued an order direct to the officer, command- 
ing him to summon such force of citizens as he deemed 


necessary to assist him in enforcing the order. Mean- 
time, Smith, unbeknown to the officer, had proceeded 
to the military garrison at Lapwai, and procured a de- 
tachment of U. S. troops, armed under command of 
Lieutenant S. R. Hammer, and with them approached 
the town stealthily, via a dry slough of the river, and 
not via the public road to the ferry, and when the civil 
officer and his men approached to prevent Smith from 
removing the seal, this military force with arms rushed 
forward and prevented the civil officer from executing 
the order and Smith, with the seal, laws and archives, 
went upon the ferry boat, under the escort of this mil- 
itary force, who continued their escort until they had 
preceded into Washington Territory beyond the juris- 
diction of the civil officer and thus Smith escaped. 
The civil officer's return on the order was in the fol- 
lowing language • 

"Not served on account of defendants being es- 
corted by an armed body of soldiers, commanded by 
Lieutenant S. R. Hammer, who resisted the service. 
J. K. Vincent. 
Special Deputy U. S. Marshall.' 

"It was afterwards teamed that Smith made his 
appearance at Boise City with the seal, laws and arc- 
hives of the territory, and there the territorial property 
has remained ever since. At the April term of the 
court, 1865, the case was heard at Lewiston, able coun- 
sel appearing on both sides, and on the 17th of April 
the temporary order of injunction was made perpetual. 

"Judgment was entered as follows : 

Lewiston, Monday, April 17, 1865. 

"Court convened at 10 a. m., pursuant to adjourn- 
ment. Present, Hon. A. C. Smith, presiding and E. 
C. Mayhew, clerk ; proceedings of the previous day 
read and approved. 

"People of the United States of Territory of Idaho. 
T. M. Pomeroy, relator, plaintiff, vs. Caleb Lyon and 
S. D. Cochran, defendants. An action to restrain the 
defendants from removing the seal and archives of the 

"T. M. Pomeroy, assisted by Anderson, Trayer and 
Leland of counsel for the plaintiff, and T. M. Reed, 
assisted by Samuel E. Darnes of counsel for defend- 

"It is the decision of the court that the act perma- 
nently locating the capitol of Idaho Territory at Boise 
City is invalid, having been passed by an illegal and 
unauthorized body. Therefore let judgment be entered 
in accordance with the prayer of the complaint. 
Alleck C. Smith, 
Judge 1st Judicial District, Idaho Territory.' 

"A similar judgment was entered against the ter- 
ritorial treasurer from moving his office to Boise City, 
and there both of these judgments stand on the rec- 
ords to this day, unreversed by the supreme court of 
the territory nor any other court having jurisdiction. In 
defiance of this they moved the seal and archives by a 
military fprce away from this part of the territory, 
beyond the reach of the people of Lewiston and north 


"From this decision the defendants filed a notice 

of appeal on the 20th day of April to the supreme court 
of the territory. That appeal was never heard and 
determined in the supreme court, and we do not know 
that the appeal was ever perfected, although we were 
an attorney for the plaintiff in the case. We find no 
report of the case in the supreme court reports. Where 
is the capital by law ? Surely not at Boise City." 

But whether the territorial capital was legally re- 
moved to Boise City or not, the case has now been put 
at rest forever by provision of the Enabling Act by 
which the territory became a state. However, the 
breach caused by this act of the legislature was many 
years in healing, if, indeed, it has ever been fully healed. 
It and the fact that natural barriers cut the territory into 
two distinct divisions having little of common inter- 
est to bind them together have resulted in the north 
Idaho people's having striven for a full quarter of a 
century with singular unanimity for political segrega- 
tion from Idaho and union to Washington. The strug- 
gle toward that end, taken up shortly after the removal 
of the capital from Lewiston, was not given up until 
Washington Territory's admission to statehood made 
success hopeless and further effort useless. 

The establishment of routes of travel incident to 
the discovery of the mines continued almost without 
abatement, judging by the number of licenses granted 
during the legislative session of 1864. Charles W. 
Frush and associates were licensed to establish a ferry 
across the Pend Oreille or Clark's fork of the Co- 
lumbia river at or near the point where the military 
commission road crosses said river, but as far as we 
know nothing was done under this franchise. John 
Silcott was granted the right to establish a ferry across 
the St. Joseph river, at or near the point where the 
direct or main trail leading to the Coeur d'Alene mis- 
sion crosses said river. S. A. Woodward and L. P. 
Brown were licensed to construct and maintain a toll 
road from Brown's Mountain House (where Mt. Idaho 
now stands) in Nez Perces county, along the most di- 
rect and practicable route to Florence, in Idaho county, 
for a period of ten years. Charles Addis was granted 
a ferry right across the Coeur d'Alene river at or near 
the point where the trail to Coeur d'Alene mission 
crossed said river. Thomas Kirkpatrick, George 
Sears, A. P. Ankney, Alonzo Leland, James Tufts, S. 
S. Slater, John Creighton, and George Zeigle were 
granted the exclusive right and privilege of establish- 
ing and maintaining a toll road from Elk City, Nez 
Perces countv. along the most practicable route east- 
ward to the western line of Montana Territory, the 
grant to extend twenty years on certain fixed condi- 
tions. This road never was anything but a trail. T. 
B. Roberts, A. E. Ridles and J. T. Galbraith were li- 
censed to operate a ferry on Kootenai river at a point 
fifteen miles below Linklighter's station. Charles H. 
Canfield was granted the right to operate a ferry across 
the Pend Oreille or Clarke's Fork of the Columbia, 
at a point about twelve miles above where military or 
boundary commission road crossed said river. John 
W. Hillin was licensed to operate a ferry across the 
Spokane river at or near Indian crossing, and both 
former and subsequent ligislatures were many times 



called upon for similar franchises and privileges, show- 
ing the rapidity with which the country was becoming 
networked with routes of commerce and general trans- 

Much of this, however, was stimulated by the dis- 
covery in 1863 and 1864 of mines in the Kootenai 
country of British Columbia, which drew away from 
the mining districts of north Idaho a considerable por- 
tion of this population. Indeed the miners were in 
great readiness for some new excitment, for even then 
some of the richest placer fields, especially in the Flor- 
ence district, were giving premonitions of coming ex- 
haustion. The mining rules prohibiting persons of 
the Mongolian race from operating in the different 
districts were beginnine to be but laxly enforced and 
gradually the less valuable claims passed into the 
hands of Chinamen. These conservative, patient op- 
eratives were eventually, by an act of the legislature 
approved January 11. 1866. permitted to work the 
mines on payment of a license of five dollars per month 
for the entire time they remained in the territory. Later 
still other licenses were exacted. 

The interest and excitment of the earliest mining 
days were temporarily reviewed late in the summer of 
1865 by the circulation in Lewiston and Walla Walla 
of a rather strange report. It was stated that a man 
named Wilson had discovered a new gold district in 
northern Idaho, which promised to rival the cele- 
brated Florence and Boise discoveries. While on a 
wandering prospecting tour, so Dame Rumor stated, 
he had stumbled into three auriferous basins in the 
Coeur d'Alene region, each one equaling the Boise 
district in extent. A stampede ensued forthwith. 
Thousands hurried to the scene. Charles G. Kress, of 
Lewiston, estimates that the number from Boise that 
passed through that town must have aggregated be- 
tween three and four thousand and that perhaps as 
many more went into the region by other routes. 

The gold seeking hordes made the Coeur d'Alene 
mission their objective point, expecting to be led with- 
out delay to the discovery. Wilson was hunted up. 
He proved reticent at first and finally claimed that he 
had forgotten the location of the diggings and was un- 
able to find them. The disappointment and consterna- 
tion of the expectant miners may well be imagined. 
Chagrin soon gave place to anger, and Wilson's life was 
threatened. He was eventually compelled to appeal to 
the priest at the mission for protection and it was 
through the intercession of the clergyman that he es- 
caped lynching. 

Meanwhile prospecting parties threaded the valleys 
and canvons and climbed the impending hills, hoping 
to find some return for their outlay and trouble. They 
spread out widely over northern Idaho and into west- 
ern Montana, in the latter of which regions rich dig- 
gings were eventually struck. This induced much 
travel through Lewiston, causing a decided improve- 
ment in financial conditions for a time. The boom 
lasted all that fall. Mr. Kress tells us incidentally of 
a train of six camels which passed through town during 
the excitement, enroute for Montana, certainly a novel 
trading outfit in this part of terra firma. 

During all these early years no attempt was made 
at agriculture in the mining sections and no domestic 
animals disputed with the elk and the deer for the 
pasturage upon a thousand hills, except the herds of 
Indian ponies on the reservation, the pack mules of 
the trader and the few head of horses and mules need- 
ful to the miner, the prospector and the primitive saw- 
mill man. Occasionally, too, a herd of mutton sheep 
or a band of beef cattle might be driven into the mines 
on foot, designed for immediate slaughter upon arrival, 
and these of course found sustenance while enroute on 
the gratutious bounties of generous nature. In 1865 
however, the Rice Brothers brought in a band of stock 
sheep, and about the same time C. P. Coburn imported 
one hundred and fifty head of cattle into northern Nez 
Perces county. These he took out southeast of Lewis- 
ton to what is known as the Junction House ranch. 
A little later Captain Ankeny and his sons brought 
in 500 neat cattle from Oregon. 

About this time, also, Thomas Moore took up what 
is now known as the Dowd ranch in Tammany hol- 
low, but for years he used it to pasture horses, with- 
out any attempt at cultivation. Another horse ranch 
was taken possession of probably as early as 1865 by 
Schissler & Siers, from whose brand the place came 
to be named the "21" ranch. At the numerous sta- 
tions along the route to the Kootenai mines there were 
small settlements and portions of the land adjacent 
were cultivated to furnish garden supplies. There 
were doubtless other small attempts at agriculture 
in different parts of north Idaho, but the industry was 
slow in becoming established and when it was at last 
found that farm products could be successfully raised, 
progress was still slow for a time owing to the lack 
of transportation, the danger of trouble with Indians 
and other causes. Mr. Coburn thinks that Caldwell 
& Hall, who took a farm at the top of the high Clear- 
water bluff above Lewiston about, the year 1869, were 
probablv the earliest wheat farmers in the Idaho part 
of that great stretch of country now so famous for its 
production of cereals. 

But throughout the first decade at least the main 
industry of the country was mining. After the richest 
product of the placers had been exhausted with rocker 
and sluice box. the hydraulic was brought into opera- 
tion wherever possible, thus keeping up the annual out- 
put to nearly its old proportions, though with a smaller 
population and less excitement. No statistics of output 
are vailable for the counties of northern Idaho, but the 
estimates for the entire territory show an annual in- 
crease until 1865, when the mines yielded nearly $13,- 
000,000, then a decrease till 1869, which year is 
credited with a production of $1,600,000. Thereafter 
the mineral output increased slowly, reaching $3,600,- 
000 in 1873. It dropped to about two millions in 1875, 
then increased and decreased alternately until 1881, 
when it jumped to nearly $5,000,000. The existence 
of gold-bearing quartz in north Idaho was known to 
the earliest miners and prospectors, but they paid no 
attention to it, being without means to purchase ma- 
chinery for its reduction or ways of transporting it to 
the mines if thev had it. In 1868, however. Rescue 


4 3 

ledge on Warren creek and another just above it on 
Slaughter creek were discovered. Judge Poe, Alonzo. 
Leland and others became interested in the former 
property. They built a small mill on it, while an east- 
ern mining expert named Isenbeck, in company with 
Godfrey Gamble, erected one on the Slaughter creek 
ledge. Litigation soon took the Rescue property tem- 
porarily out of the hands of its owners, and while thus 
alienated it yielded considerable gold. Upon its re- 
ei ivery by Poe, Leland and their partners, these men 
succeeded in interesting eastern capital by which 
means they were enabled to take the initial steps to- 
ward installing a large stamp mill. Some of the ma- 
chinery reached Mount Idaho, where it still remains 
as a relic of an abandoned enterprise and a monument 
to the inaccessibility of the Warren region. 

The Isenbeck-Gamble Company eventually removed 
its stamp mill to what was known as the W. B. Knott 
mine, on Steamboat creek, but the mine failing to 
yield as expected, the company was forced into bank- 
ruptcy. Leland and Starr also had a small mill on a 
branch of Steamboat creek, at the Hie Jacket mine, 
which, however, never proved a property of any great 
merit. The mill was afterward operated on the Res- 
cue ledge. Another unsuccessful quartz mill was 
erected on the Charity mine, four miles south of the 
W. B. Knott ledge. But the richest quartz mine in the 
Warren district was the Little Giant, on Smith's gulch, 
about a mile from the town of Washington. It be- 
longed to a man named George Riebold, who erected 
a ten stamp mill on it, the product of which is supposed 
to have aggregated fully $500,000. Quartz ledges 
were known to exist also in almost all the old placer 
camps, but their development was never undertaken 
with energy until comparatively recent years. 

Comparison between a census of Idaho Territory 
taken in 1864 and the United States census of 1870 
shows that the population of north Idaho counties 
neither increased nor diminished materially during 
the six years. The population of north Idaho accord- 
ing to the former census was 2,634, but the enumera- 
tion was no doubt very carelessly made. 

"In 1870," says C. P. Coburn, who took the census 
of Nez Perces county that year, "there were at Pal- 
ouse bridge, about three miles east of the state line, 
Frank and William Points, John Buchanan, and one 
or two others. They had in a small crop when I passed 
through. At the California ranch, east of Spokane, 
and at the Spokane bridge, on the state line, I found 
a few settlers farming in a small way. There were 
probably a dozen men at the bridge settlement. On 
Camas prairie were perhaps twenty-five or thirty set- 
tlers besides those in Mount Idaho, which then con- 
sisted of the hotel of Loyal P. Brown, Rudolph's gen- 
eral store, a blacksmith shop and a few houses. It had 
been founded by one Moses Milner, who in 1862, when 
the Florence rush was at its height, conceived the 
idea of establishing a station at the foot of the moun- 
tain. Accordingly he cut a trail through from this 
point to Florence, built a cabin and began advertis- 
ing the route." 

The year 1871 may be considered as the date of the 

first decided advance in the agricultural development 
of north Idaho. During the fall of that year the coun- 
try around Moscow, the Paradise valley region, re- 
ceived its first influx of settlers, and the remarkable 
success which attended their efforts in all forms of ag- 
riculture was a stimulus to further settlement. Almost 
incredible are the stories told of the enormous size 
of vegetable products and the yields per acre. Another 
stimulus in the same direction was the rapid decline 
of the placer output and still another the hope of rail- 
road transportation for products in the near future, as 
the Northern Pacific was known to be pushing west- 
ward to the coast and was supposed to be about ready 
to build across Idaho The northern counties in com- 
mon with other parts of the great inland empire were 
passing through a transition period, the middle ages of 
the country, during which mining as the main pur- 
suit was gjving place to agriculture. The period was 
not without its manifold discouragements. Agricul- 
tural products could not be packed out on the" backs 
of mules, as was the gold dust of the 'sixties, and ade- 
quate means of transportation were not at hand, neither 
were they to arrive as soon as expected, for the slow- 
ness of the Northern Pacific became proverbial. • 

At this time it was fully believed by the residents 
of north Idaho that the Northern Pacific Company 
would build through the Lolo pass and down the Clear- 
water to Lewiston, thence into the territory of Wash- 
ington and beyond. It was pointed out by the news- 
papers that the route was many miles shorter than that 
via Pend Oreille lake and in the absence of surveys, 
the pass was supposed to be lower than the alternative 
pass, the Coeur d'Alene. Doubtless many people set- 
tled in Nez Perces and Idaho counties in full confi- 
dence that they would soon have a railroad, but in this 
they were doomed to disappointment, for the road, 
when at last it did come, chose the Pend Oreille 

An incident of the year 1872. well remembered by 
old settlers throughout the entire inland empire, was 
the earthquake shock of December 14th. The seismic 
disturbance was very general, being felt at least over 
all of eastern Oregon and Washington as well as in 
north Idaho. The story of the shock as experienced 
in Lewiston and vicinity was described by the Signal 
as follows : 

"On Saturday evening last, at twenty minutes past 
ten o'clock, this region of country was visited by a 
series of earthquake shocks. The first oscillation ap- 
peared to be from west to east and was of about eight 
seconds' duration. The first shock was followed by 
a second, ten minutes later, but of much less force. 
The violence of the first shock created considerable 
alarm among those who had never experienced such a 
thing before. Persons who were up at the time ran 
into the streets, while those who had retired supposed 
that a fierce and sudden gust of wind caused their 
buildings to swav and rock. Clocks were stopped and 
crockery and glassware caused to jingle. Frightened 
chickens flew about as though possessed of the devil. 
Dogs howled, cattle lowed, and all nature, animate and 
inanimate, was much disturbed. From all we can 


learn the greatest force of the shock followed the 
streams, as those residing on the uplands felt it but 
slightly. To the westward from here the vibration 
seems to have been more severe than east of Camas 
prairie. To the east of here, as far as Elk City, it was 
felt very plainly — at Camas prairie more particularly 
than elsewhere except at Reed's ferry, northeast of the 
latter place, where the shock lasted two minutes and was 
followed by two others of less duration and violence. 
North of here, in the vicinity of Paradise valley, the 
shock was so severe as to make everything fairly dance. 
In this place and the immediate vicinity the force of 
the shock was greater along the margins of the streams 
than elsewhere. Along the water front of the town on 
the Clearwater it was more severe than back near the 

Among the improvements of the year 1872 were 
several in the mail service which had developed by 
this time so as to be fairly adequate to the country's 
needs. A daily mail was established between Lewiston 
and Walla Walla and a contract was let to C. C. Huntly 
to carry mail from the former town to Spokane Bridge. 
Mail was also carried by the O. S. N. steamers be- 
tween Lewiston and Snake river points. The Baird 
Brothers were operating between Lewiston and Elk 
City and the Capps Brothers ran a stage, express and 
mail line from the former point to Pierce. The post- 
offices established in Nez Perces, Idaho and Shoshone 
counties at this time, with postmasters so far as known 
were: In Nez Perces county — Lewiston, C. A. 
Thatcher: Fort Lapwai, D. C. Kelly; Mount Idaho, 
L. P. Brown ; Elk City, C. Collins ; in Idaho county — 
White, Bird, ; Slate Creek (Freedom post of- 
fice), Barman; John Day creek, ; Florence, 

W. H. Rhett ; Washington, C. A. Sears ; in Shoshone 
county ; Pierce City, I. B. Cowen. 

The vear 1873 was a rather unpropitious one in 
north Idaho as elsewhere in the northwest. This, it 
will be remembered, was a year of panic and distress 
the United States over and besides the general causes 

of stringency there were special causes in this portion 
of Idaho Territory. The decline of the mines had de- 
prived the country not alone of its abundant supply of 
money but of its excellent local market for farm pro- 
ducts ; the means of transportation at hand were in- 
adequate and unbearably expensive, and the' excellent 
crops harvested in the fall of 1872, the normal increase 
of cattle, sheep and horses and the many other favor- 
able conditions were unavailing when a market for 
produce was not to be had. Nevertheless the acreage 
cultivated during this year was estimated as being six 
times as great as that of the preceding twelvemonth. 
The number of bushels garnered from each acre was 
prodigious, and the singular anomaly was presented of 
the occurrence together of abundant harvests and hard 

The year 1874 brought no amelioration of condi- 
tions, but rather an augmentation of the distress, and 
during the following twelvemonth affairs in north 
Idaho reached a very low ebb. In 1876, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that the Northern Pacific railroad was 
still many miles away and the transportation problem 
was in statu quo, there was some improvement in the 
outlook. Three small mining camps came into exis- 
tence during the year, all of which were very prosper- 
.ous and thriving when winter came. Two of these 
were on the north fork of the Clearwater and the third 
at Marshall lake. Crops still continued abundant, and 
the enormous yield of wheat and other grains proved 
what the country might become if it were only sup- 
plied with means of transportating its products to the 
markets of the world. 

The winter of 1874-5 was so severe that thousands 
of head of cattle perished, bankrupting several 

Hardly had the sky begun to clear of financial 
clouds than it was suddenly overcast with the shad- 
ows of approaching conflict, and before north Idaho 
was to emerge from the darkness of its medieval days, 
it was fated to be baptized with a baptism of fire. 



When the indomitable Anglo-Saxon race began 
following the course of destiny to the westward the 
doom of the thriftless aboriginal peoples was sealed. 
The time had arrived in the progress of the world 
when the dusky, nomadic savage had become a cum- 
berer of the soil. The day of a grander development 
for this vast, prodigious west, teeming with the crude 
elements of wealth production, had at last dawned. 

The night of savagery was over. The red man must 
himself become a factor in pushing forward the car 
of progress or be crushed beneath its wheels. Poor 
child of the darkness and the night! Without know- 
ing it he was face to face with the harshest, most in- 
excrable law of life, the law of the survival of the fif- 
test. No longer could he worship the Great Spirit in 
his own blind way; no longer could he roam at will 



over the bosom of his much loved mother earth; he 
must lay aside at once his ancestral habits and adopt 
those of another and superior race or he must perish 
and perish miserably. 

Had the Indians tried the plan of adopting the 
white man's customs hardly would it have been pos- 
sible for them to effect with sufficient alacrity a change 
so radical, to measure up to the required standard in 
time to save themselves from destruction in accord- 
ance with the mandates of natural law, but they did 
not try. They chose rather to set themselves in oppo- 
sition to manifest destiny and the result is that their 
race is hopelessly doomed. This contest with fate 
furnishes many of the saddest chapters in the history 
of our country. It could have but one issue. Even 
the Indian could hardly fail to foresee its outcome, 
but it is not in human nature to yield the field with- 
out a struggle. The red men fought valiantly and long. 
They fought with a bitterness almost amounting to 
frenzy, and with the courage of despair, but they 
fought in a hopeless conflict and the heel of the con- 
queror is upon their necks. 

It is the purpose of this chapter to chronicle one of 
the last, fierce struggles in that long continued race 
war by which the soil of the new world was wrested 
from the hands of its aboriginal possessors. The ani- 
mosities growing out of former contests furnished the 
venom with which to poison the shaft of both whites 
and reds, but the causes of the war of 1877 have their 
roots deep in the incapacity of our government officials 
to understand Indian character and to deal with it in 
a sensible business like manner. When in 1855 Gov- 
ernor I. I. Stevens for Washington and Joel Palmer 
for Oregon negotiated their treaty with the Indians 
by which the latter disposed of a vast area of land to 
the United States, making certain reservations as 
homes for themselves, old Chief Joseph insisted that 
Wallowa valley should form a part of the reservation 
for the Nez Perces tribe. This beautiful valley had been 
used by him and his followers for years as a species of 
summer resort. On account of its beauty, grass, fish, 
game, various roots, camas, etc., or for some other 
causes, it occupied a warm place in the savage heart 
of this old veteran brave and had not the white nego- 
tiators agreed that it should form a part of the reserve 
their efforts to treat with the Indians would undoubt- 
edly have ended in failure and the great benefits ac- 
cruing to the whites from the treaty would have been 
lost, at least for the time being. As a matter of fact, 
Joseph, Three-Feathers, White Bird, Big Thunder, 
Looking Glass and others of the Nez Perces chiefs 
signed the treaty without being fully aware just what 
lands they were resigning their claim to, so the Indians 
aver, and when it was found that the Wallowa country 
was included in these lands an outbreak was imminent 
forthwith. However, the Indians were pacified by 
Stevens and Palmer, who promised that the Wallowa 
country should be reserved and the matter was set- 
tled for the time being. 

While the Wallowa valley was, therefore, through 
the importunity of Joseph, made a part of the Nez 
Perces reservation and consequently the property of the 

whole tribe, it was understood both by the Indians and 
the white representatives of the government to belong 
especially to Joseph and his band. Legally the Wal- 
lowa was undoubtedly the property of the Nez Perces ; 
equitably it was Joseph's. Herein lay the cause of the 
whole difficulty. 

In 1863 an amendatory treaty was negotiated with 
the Nez Perces by which the Wallowa valley, with 
other territory, was surrendered to the United States 
government. Joseph was present at the council in 
which this action was taken, but he positively refused 
to sign the treaty and never acknowledged its valid- 
ity. He continued his annual visits to the Wallowa 
until his death, impressing upon the mind of his sons 
and his followers that the valley was theirs and that they 
should hold it at all costs as a home for themselves and 
their children. The grave of old Joseph is in this val- 
ley, a circumstance which renders the spot hallowed in 
the minds of those allied to him by kinship or other 
ties. Meanwhile the United States government con- 
firmed the treaty negotiated by its commissioners and 
naturally assumed that the valley was a part of the 
public domain. The seeds of trouble were sown but 
they did not bear fruit until some years later. 

In due time the Wallowa valley was thrown open 
to settlement. In 1871 James Tulley entered it in 
search of range for stock. The next year he and his 
brother drove in a herd of three hundred head. James 
A. Masterson came also, and these three pioneers 
formed the entering wedge of white occupancy of the 
Wallowa. They saw Indians occasionally during the 
summer, but beyond making signs of displeasure at the 
presence of the whites, the Indians offered no resist- 
ance to their operations. Early that fall, however, the 
red men unequivocally expressed their displeasure at 
the encroachment of the whites in a council between 
themselves, numbering forty or fifty, and as many 
settlers. The council convened August 14th pursuant 
to a written call emanating from Indian sources. It 
seems to have been conducted in a friendlv spirit, 
nevertheless the Indians were imperative in their as- 
sertions of right to the Wallowa valley and the whites 
were equally positive in refusing to withdraw from 
lands on which they had settled by permission of their 
government. The council broke up with nothing defi- 
nite accomplished save that the whites sent two men 
to consult the Tndian agent at Lapwai regarding the 
matter, who were to report at a future council. 

In the spring of 1875 the ' residents, not alone of 
the Wallowa country but of the Grande Ronde valley 
and of eastern Oregon generally, were greatly incensed 
by an order of the department of the interior looking 
toward the removal of the whites from the disputed 
territory and the establishment of the Indians therein. 
The substance of this obnoxious order is contained in 
a letter to superintendent Odeneal, which we reproduce 
as follows : 

Department of the Interior, 
Office Indian Affairs, 

April 30. 1873. 
Sir : — Your communication of the 7th inst., and the re- 
port dated the 4th inst. of yourself and Agent Monteith re- 



lative to the band of Indians in the Wallowa valley, Oregon, 
were submitted to the Honorable Secretary of the Interior 
on the 25th inst. 

Under date of the 28th inst, the Honorable Secretary 
returned the same and adopted without modification the sug- 
gestions and recommendation? of this office, viz : 

"That the band of Indians referred to be permitted to 
remain in said valley and occupy it during the summer and 
autumn or for such time as the weather is suitable according 
to a previous custom and that assurance be given them that 
it is not the intention of the department to disturb them so 
long as they remain quiet and permit no depredations upon 
white settlers." 

The Hon. Secretary therefore directs that a proper des- 
scription 01 the said valley be obtained for the purpose of an 
executive order setting apart this valley for the use of the 
said Indians and that white settlers be advised that they are 
prohibited from entering or settling in said valley. 

He also authorizes an appraisement to be made of the 
value of the improvements of said settlers in the Wallowa 
valley in ordci that Congress may be asked at its session for 
an appropriation sufficient to pay for said improvements at 
their appraised value in order that the claims of the settlers 
may be extinguished. 

You will therefore proceed to carry out the instructions 
of the Hon. Secretary of the Interior as above indicated, and 
for this purpose you will cause an appraisement of the im- 
provements referred to to be made by two or more disinter- 
ested and competent persons, whose report shall be prepared 
in tabular form and submitted to you through this office. 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

H. R. Clum, Act. Comm. 
To T. B. Odeneal, 

Sup't Indian Affairs, 
Salem, Oregon. 

To further enforce the order, letters were sent out 
to the surveyor general and to the register and receiver 
of the United States land office at La Grande. 

Some of the comments upon this action of the inte- 
rior department were revolutionary in the extreme, and 
go to prove that the sentiment of patriotism is not so 
deeplv seated in most men's minds but that it may be 
quickly crushed out when the power of the government 
seems to have been turned against their individual inter- 
est. There was much excuse for chagrin and disap- 
pointment among the pioneer settlers of the Wallowa 
valley. Many of them had made considerable sacrifices 
in locating within its borders, not supposing that there 
would be any danger incurred in so doing, as they were 
under the protection of a wise and just government. 
They felt that to be compelled to sell their homes for a 
sum fixed by appraisers, relinquish their prospects of 
future gain, pull up stakes and set out again in search 
of the natural means of winning a livelihood, all for the 
sake of a few shiftless, nomadic Indians, was an almost 
unendurable wrong. Some of them boldly declared that 
they would defend their rights in the Wallowa ^valley 
"against the savages or any other corrupt power." 

The interior department was clearly in a dilemma. 
It could not denv the justice of Joseph's contention, for 
his right to the Wallowa certainly had never been ex- 
tinguished in fairness and equity, though it had legally 
passed to the United States. On the other hand the de- 
partment could not return the land to the Indians with- 
out doing a palpable injustice to white settlers who had 
invaded the valley and built homes there, planting the 
seed of civilization and progress, and all by invitation 

of the government. The horn which it chose at first is 
indicated by the department instructions in the letter 
above quoted. 

The immediate settlers in the Wallowa valley and 
even their neighbors in other parts of eastern Oregon 
were not the only ones who took an interest in the \\ al- 
lowa matter. The people of western Oregon watched 
its development with interest, and the governor of the 
state went so far as to address a letter to the secretary 
of the interior, which is so clear an exposition of the 
whole subject from the settlers' standpoint that we feel 
constrained to quote it. It reads : 

State of Oregon, Executive Office, 
Salem. July 21, 1873- 
Hon. Columbus Delano, 

Secretary of the Interior. 

Sir : — I beg leave to call your attention to a very grave 
and important question now pending before your department 
touching the subject of vacating the Wallowa valley in Union 
county, Oregon, for the purpose of securing the same to 
Joseph's band of Nez Perces Indians and to submit the follow- 
ing views thereon for your consideration : 

On and prior to the nth day of June 1855, the Nez Ferces 
tribe of Indians occupied lands lying partly in Oregon and 
partly in Washington territory between the Cascade and Bit- 
ter Root mountains. On said nth day of June. 1855, the said 
tribe by their chief, head men and delegates, numbering fifty- 
eight officials, made and concluded a treaty of peace and 
boundaries with the United States. Isaac 1. Stevens acting 
on behalf of the United States for Washington territory and 
Joel Palmer for Oregon. By said treaty the Nez Perces 
ceded and relinquished to the United States all their rights, 
title and interest in and to all territory before that time 
claimed and occupied by them except a certain tract de- 
scribed therein, specifically reserved from the ceded lands, 
as a general reservation, for the use and occupancy of said 
tribe, and for friendly tribes and bands of Indians in Wash- 
ington territory. 1 his general reservation embraced lands 
lying in part in Oregon, including Wallowa (Woll-low-how) 

On the qth day of June. 1863, a supplementary and 
amendatory treaty was concluded between the said Nez 
Perces tribe and the United States, the former being repre- 
sented by fifty-one chiefs, head men and delegates, and the 
latter by Calvin H. Hale. Charles Hutcbins and S. D. Howe 
as commissioners specifically delegated. 

By the latter treaty the Nez Perces tribe agreed to re- 
linquish and did relinquish to the United States all the lands 
reserved by the treaty of 1855 excepting a certain specified; 
tract designated as a "home and for the sole use and occu- 
pancy of said tribe." By this amendatory treaty the Nez 
Perces tribe relinquished to the United States all the territory 
embraced in the reservation created by the treaty of 1855, 
which iay within the boundaries of the state of Oregon, in- 
cluding the said Wallowa valley; so that on and after said 
9th of June, 1863, the Nez Perces* tribe did not lawfully hold or 
occupy any land within the state of Oregon. Joseph's band of 
Nez Perces Indians were in the treaty council of 1855 and 
Joseph signed the treaty. Their action recognized the tribal 
resolutions of their band and bound all the persons and terri- 
tory described therein. The reservation named became the 
common property of the whole tribe. Joseph and his band 
acknowledged these conclusions also by accepting the benefits 
of the treaty of 1855. But Joseph refused to acknowledge the 
treaty of 186^ while a large majority of the chiefs and head 
men of the Nez Perce* tribe signed the same Joseph died 
in 1871 and In- sons claim the land which was relinquished 
to the United States mi 1863. including Wallowa valley. This 
claim is based on the idea tint the band which they represent 
were not bound by the treaty of 1863. 

The United States had established the policy of treating 
with the Indians as tribes and nations. This policy was 



based on the necessary' fact that organized action by the tribe 
or nation binds the whole body .mil all of its members. The 
treaty of 186.5 is the organized action of the Nez Perce tribe, 
in relation to land in which the whol; tribe had a common 

interest. If the government 
out of more than fifty joined 
signature or absenting himsi 
treaty, the policy of making 
but few treaties would be hi 

ill adm 


fusing his 

defeat the operation of the 
:ies would be valueless and 
g. For there exists hardly 
a treaty with Indians west of the Rocky mountains 111 which 
all of the sub-chiefs and head men joined, and against which 
they have not positively protested. If we draw our con- 
clusions from the former practice of the government or from 
assimilated cases of foreign treaties, it must be admitted that 
the treaty of 1863 bound all the Nez Perces and extinguished 
the Indian title to all lands previously occupied by that tribe 
lying within the state of Oregon. 

Acting upon this conclusion by order of the general land 
office, bearing date May 28. 1867, the public lands in Wallowa 
valley and vicinity were directed to be surveyed and opened 
for settlement. The surveys mad- under this order amounted 
to eleven townships, which were approved May 9, 1868. From 
time to time since that period, citizens of this state have be- 
come settlers upon these lands to such an extent, as I am 
informed, 'hat eighty-seven farms have been located and pre- 
emption and homestead claims have been filed thereto in the 
United States land office at La Grande. 

Upon this statement of facts, I urge that the Indian title 
to the land occupied by these settlers has been doubly ex- 
tinguished: first by treaty and second by force of law. As 
the Indians have only a right of occupancy and the United 
States have the legal title, subject to occupancy, and an abso- 
lute and exclusive right to extinguish the Indian title of 
occupancy, either by purchase, conquest, or by legal enact- 
ment, it would follow that it the treaty of 1863 did not com- 
pletely extinguish the Indian title to the lands in question the 
acts of the government in surveying the Wallowa valley and 
opening the same for settlement and the consequent occu- 
pancy of the same by settlers under the provisions of the 
several acts of congress affecting such lands, and the recogni- 
tion of these claims by the local land office of the United 
States, would work a complete extinguishment of the Indian 
title by operation of law. as far as the occupied lands are con- 

There are other chiefs and head men of the Nez Perces 
who did not sign the treaty of 186,3 and who have refused 
and still do refuse to acknowledge its binding force.. If the 
government shall in this instance accede to the demand of 
Joseph's band and create a new reservation for them, or 
shall admit in their favor the nullity of the treaty of 1863, 
as far as they are concerned, a score of like demands from 
other discontented bands connected with other neighboring 
tribes raider treaties negotiated in a similar way,, will be 
immediately pressed upon the attention of the Indian bureau. 
I am thoroughly persuaded that if the proposed surrender 
of the Wallowa valley and the adjacent region to these In- 
dians be now consummated as now demanded, the measure, 
if it works as a special pacification in this instance, will 
cause a general dissatisfaction, not only with the Nez Perces, 
but with all neighboring tribes living under treaty relations, 
and this character of work will have to be entered upon and 
carried out as to all. 

The declaration as made by congress March 3, 1871, that 
"hereafter no Indian nation or tribe within the territory of 
the United States shall be acknowdedged or recognized as 
an independent nation, tribe, or power, with whom the United 
States may contract by treaty," appears to me to relieve the 
department from entangling itself with an effort to reform 
past treaties, as such, and to leave the Indian office unembar- 
rassed to adopt such policy as will subserve the best interests 
of both whites and Indians, without submitting its judgment 
to the caprices of untutored savages. 

In addition to wdiat I have urged against re-establishing 
any part of the Nez Perces Indians in Oregon on grounds 
growing out of this particular case, I would respectfully press 
upon vonr consideration the general policy of the govern- 

ment heretofore steadily pursued, of removing, as expedi- 
tiously as circumstances would permit of, all Indians from 
the confiines of the new states in order to give them the 
opportunity of early settlement and development and to make 
way for civilization. This state has already much of its best 
soil withheld from being occupied by an industrial population 
in favor of Indians. 

The region of country in eastern Oregon not now settled, 
and to which the Wallowa valley is the key, is greater in area 
than the state of Massachusetts. If this section of our state, 
which is now occupied by enterprising white families, should 
be remanded to its aboriginal character, and the families 
should be removed to make roaming ground for nomadic 
savages, a very serious check will have been given to the 
growth of our frontier settlements, and to the spirit of our 
frontier people in their effort to redeem the wilderness and 
make it fruitful of civilized life. 

There is abundant room for Joseph's band on the present 
Nez Perces reservation and the tribe desires to have this band 
observe the treaty of 1863. I learn that young Joseph does 
not object to going on the reservation at this time, but that 
certain leading spirits of his band do object, for the reason 
that by so doing they would have to abandon some of their 
nomadic habits and haunts. The very objection which they 
make is a strong reason why they should be required to do 
so; for no beneficial influence can be exerted by agents and 
missionaries among the Indians while thev maintain their 
aboriginal habits. JOSEPH'S BAND DO" NOT DESIRE 
FOR A HOME. 1 understand that they will not accept it 
on condition that they shall occupy it as such. The reason 
of this is obvious: they can have better land and a more con- 
genial climate at a location winch ha- been tendered them 
upon the Nez Perces reservation Ibis small band wish the 
possession of this large section of Oregon simply for room 
to gratify a wild, roaming disposition and not for a home. 

There are but seventy-two warriors in this band. The 
wdiite settlers in the Wallowa country number eighty-seven. 
There are also in the Wallowa valley two incorporated com- 
panies, the Wallowa Road and Bridge Company and the 
Prairie Creek Ditch Company. The improvements of these 
settlers and companies have been assessed, as I am informed, 
by commissioners appointed under direction of your depart- 
ment, to amount to sixty-seven thousand, eight hundred and 
sixty dollars. 

Considering that the demand of Joseph's band was made 
during the period of the apparently successful resistance of 
the Modoc outlaws against the treaty stipulation with the 
Klamaths, and that now the Modocs are subdued, it will 
doubtless be much less expensive to the government, and 
much more consistent with its general Indian policy, to in- 
duce Joseph's band by peaceful means to make their homes 
on the Nez Perces reservation, than to purchase the right of 
white citizens now in the Wallowa valley. The people of this 
state have uniformly recognized the boundaries of legally 
defined Indian reservations, and have abstained from attempt- 
ing f o establish settlements thereon. In all instances of 
various difficulties between settlers and Indians on our 
frontier since the reservation system has been extended to 
Oregon, hostilities have resulted rather from the Indians re- 
fusing to confine themselves to their treaty limits than from 
any attempt of the settlers to encroach upon reservations. 
This was the case with the Yakimas in 1855. who killed three 
miners outside of their treaty limits, and then murdered 
Indian Agent Bolon, who visited them to remonstrate against 
their perfidy. This was the case last autumn with the Modocs 
and is now the case with Joseph's band in the light in which 
the treaty of 1863 has heretofore been held by the general 
government and by the people of Oregon. 

I believe that facts will sustain me in saying that at all 
times and under all circumstances our frontier settlers have 
been as well disposed toward the Indians, and as moderate 
and forbearing as those of any other frontier and as much 
so as the people of any other state would have been under 
the circumstances. 

Urgently pressing upon your careful consideration the 

4 S 


peculiar features of this subject and on behalf of the interests 
of this state and of the settlers in the Wallowa valley and 
the vicinity asking that the preliminary steps taken for the 
vacation of said valley for the purpose of creating a reser- 
vation for Indians may be rescinded, I have the honor to be 
Your obedient servant, 

L. F. Grover, 
Governor of Oregon. 

The reasoning of Governor Grover in the above 
communication is certainly sound in everything ex- 
cept that it seems to overlook what we believe to be 
a fact of history that, in the treaty of 1855 the Wallowa 
valley was understood by both Indians and whites to 
be reserved especially for the use of old Joseph and 
his band. Joseph's assent to the treaty was certainly 
given with that understanding, and while technically 
and as a matter of strict legal construction, the Wal- 
lowa was, under the treaty of 1855, the property of 
the whole Nez Perces tribe, the other chiefs of the 
Nez Perces seem to have taken no real interest in it. 
When the opportunity presented itself to sell to the 
United States what had never really been claimed by 
them why should they not embrace it? They would 
have given it up without protest in 1855 anyway. 
Why not sell Joseph's property when they had a 
chance to do so and receive a full portion of the price 
to themselves? Even white men are not always above 
taking advantage of their legal rights and privileges, 
though the letter of the law may chance to give them 
what equity and abstract justice would deny. From 
Joseph's point of view the chiefs sold to the United 
States what was his and not theirs, and we can hardly 
blame him if his untutored mind failed to grasp all 
the legal aspects of the case, and he saw only through 
the eye of his innate sense of right. 

It should be emphasized, however, that the pioneer 
settlers of the Wallowa were in no wise to blame in 
this matter. Attempts on the part of United States 
officers to make them responsible in any measure for 
the troubles which arose are utterly indefensible, as 
were also those made at a later date to throw the 
blame for the outbreak of the Nez Perces war upon 
certain citizens of north Idaho. When lands were 
surveyed and offered for homestead and preemption 
location, the would-be settler is not supposed to go 
back to history in order to determine whether the 
government has a right to do as it has done. He 
should and does trust to the integrity and honor of his 
country for that. The first settlers of the Wallowa de- 
serve the same credit which is usually accorded to 
those who in spite of danger and hardships carry the 
seeds of civilization into the heart of the wilderness, 
there to plant and nurture them until they grow to 
full maturity. 

Influenced no doubt by some such consideration as 
those we have been alluding to, the department of the 
interior made an abortive attempt to secure the vacation 
of the Wallowa on the part of the whites and the re- 
instating of Joseph. It was a serious blunder. If a 
wrong was done to Joseph in the negotiations of 1863 
it could not be remedied without an equally great, per- 
haps a greater, wrong to the white settlers, in 1873. 

The attempt to do so was fortunately not carried to 

In the spring of 1874 the Indian bureau determined 
to abandon its plan of attempting to establish an 
Indian reservation in northeastern Oregon. The 
letter which conveyed definite information of this 
change of policy to the people of the west was indited 
as follows : 

U. S. Senate Chamber, 
Washington, May iS, 1874. 
Hon. James H. Slater. 

Dear Sir : I have recently received letters from our cit- 
izens of Union county inquiring what the Indian department 
was going to do in regard to the reservation of the Wallowa 
valley for Joseph's band of Nez Perces Indians ; and whether 
the sums of money awarded to settlers in that valley for 
their improvements there would be paid. I have answered 
these letters, but as the subject is one of general interest to 
the whole people of eastern Oregon, I deem it proper to write 
you, so that you may give publicity to the views of the In- 
dian department on the subject. 

Some time ago I had a conversation with lion. E. P. 
Smith, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, on this matter 
and urged upon him the propriety of rescinding his order 
setting apart Wallowa valley as an Indian reservation for 
Joseph's band of Nez Perces. He then said that probably this 
would be done, and the matter might remain there until 
further notice. On Saturday last I again had an interview 
and explained how important it was for those in the valley 
and others who intended going there that it be determined 
at once either to rescind the order establishing this reserva- 
tion or make it known that it would be adhered to, so that 
that the settlers might govern their movements accordingly. 
The commissioner then assured me that nothing more would' 
be done toward establishing a reservation there, and that 
the settlers in the Wallowa valley would not be molested in 
any way by the Indian department. Of course the whole 
valley is now open to settlement by the whole people. In the 
conversation referred to, the commissioner said that having 
come to the conclusion to amend the order establishing the 
leservation. he would not ask Congress to make an appro- 
priation to pay the sums of money awarded to the settlers 
some two years ago for their improvements made on lands 
within the 'boundaries of the intended reservation. 

I congratulate the people of Union county on the settle- 
ment of this perplexing controversy and hope no disturbance 
will hereafter take place with the roving bands of Indians 
who caused all the trouble and annoyance which have taken 
place in regard to that vallev. 

Very truly yours, 

James K. Kelly. 

Important as this determination of the matter was 
to the whites, it wrought no radical change in the 
attitude of the Indians. Indeed, as General Howard 
unequivocally states, the real contention of Joseph and 
other malcontents, the prime cause of all the difficulty, 
was rebellion against submission to the United States 
government or any of its officers. It was summed up 
laconically in Toohulhulsote's insolent query, "Who 
gave Washington rule over me ?" Denying as they did 
the jurisdiction of the United States, the Indians were 
not likely to pay any great heed to the order opening 
again to settlement the Wallawo valley. They con- 
tinued their summer wanderings over its broad acres 
and exercised freely the prerogative claimed by them 
of going when and where they pleased. But aside 
from bickerings and threat and pow wows, creating 


Original Cabin of Richard Divine, the First Victim of the Indians, Killed June 13, 1877. 



uncertainty and dread in the minds of all white resi- 
dents in and contiguous to Wallowa valley, no hostile 
movements were made by the Indians until the sum- 
mer of 1876. The immediate cause of this disturbance 
was a personal conflict between two white men, A. 
B. Findley and Wells McNall, on the one side, and 
non-treaty Indians on the other. The white men were 
hunting some lost horses which they believed the 
Indians had stolen. Locating an Indian camp they 
proceeded to search the vicinity for the horses. The 
Indians became angered ; an altercation arose, and one 
Indian engaged in a hand-to-hand encounter with Mc- 
Nall, attempting to take his gun from him. McNall 
called to Findlev to shoot the Indian, which was done, 
the redskin being killed instantly. Both white men 
submitted to trial at Union and were acquitted, but 
the Indians were not satisfied and demanded their sur- 
render that they might be tried by Indian law. This 
was denied of course and Joseph ordered the whites 
to leave the valley within a specified time, upon pain 
of being driven out in case they failed to go peacefully. 
The whites appealed to their neighbors for help. 
Citizens of Union and other towns responded promptly 
and arrived at the McNall ranch in middle Wallowa 
vallev at three o'clock in the afternoon of the day 
preceding that upon which Joseph was to begin 
operations in case the valley should not be vacated by 
the whites. 

Inasmuch .as the volunteers numbered only about 
forty it was determined to make no attack upon the 
Indians, but simply to prepare for defense. Lieu- 
tenant Henry Rinehart was, however, ordered to 
march with fifteen men to the upper valley fur the 
purpose of assisting the settlers there in case of attack. 
Rinehart and his command, escorting a number of set- 
tlers and their families returned about twelve o'clock 
that night and about two o'clock next morning. Lieu- 
tenant Forse from Walla Walla arrived with forty- 
eight regulars, having made a forced march to reach 
the scene in time to avert or participate in the expected 
hostilities. Next day the soldiers and volunteers were 
marched to the upper valley. Forse found the Indians 
on the summit of a hill near the Wallowa lake, all of 
them divested of superfluous clothing, decked in war 
paint, well armed and mounted, drawn up in battle 
array and prepared generally for warfare. Forse 
made certain demands upon them, chiefly to the effect 
that they should remain on the opposite side of Hurri- 
cane creek from the whites and abstain from depre- 
dations. Joseph yielded a ready compliance ; his fol- 
lowers washed off their paint and sweet peace con- 
tinued to reign in the beautiful Wallowa valley. 

In November, 1876. in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of General Howard, a commision was sent 
to Lapwai for the purpose of endeavoring to adjust 
matters with Joseph, his brother Ollicut, and all other 
disaffected non-treaty Indians. The arguments of the 
commissioners in their endeavor to induce the Indians 
to settle permanently upon some reservation were met 
by the old superstitious doctrines of the Dreamers, who 
taught "that the earth being created by God complete, 
should not be disturbed by man, and that any culti- 

vation of the soil, or other improvements, to interfere 
with its natural production, — any improvements in the 
way of schools, churches, etc. — are crimes from which 
they shrink." 

"This fanaticism," continued Howard, "is kept up 
by the superstition of these 'dreamers', who industri- 
ously teach that if they continue steadfast in their 
present belief a leader will be raised up in the east 
who will restore all the dead Indians to life, who will 
unite with them in expelling the whites from their 
country, when they will again enter upon and repossess 
the lands of their ancestors. 

"Influenced by such a belief, Joseph and his band 
firmly declined to enter into any negotiations, or make 
any arrangements that looked to a final settlement of 
the questions pending between them and the govern- 
ment. While the commission gave all due respect to 
the precedents and authorities in the government deal- 
ings with the Indians, and to the decisions of the 
supreme court of the United States, which recognizes 
an undefined right of occupancy by Indians to large 
sections of the country, yet in view of the fact that these 
Indians do not claim simply this, but set up an absolute 
title to the land, an absolute and independent sover- 
eignty, and refuse even to be limited in their claim 
and control, necessity, humanity and good sense con- 
strain the government to set metes and bound'-, and 
give regulations to these non-treaty Indians. * 
And if the principle usually applied by the govern- 
ment, of holding that the Indians with whom they have 
treaties are bound by the majority, is here applied, 
Joseph should be required to live within the limits of 
the present reservation. * * * 

"If these Indians overrun lands belonging to the 
whites, and commit depredations on their property, 
disturb the peace by threats or otherwise, or commit 
any other overt acts of hostility, we recommend the 
employment of sufficient force to bring them into sub- 
jection, and to place them upon the Nez Perces reser- 
vation. The Indian agent at Lapwai should be fully 
instructed to carry into execution these suggestions, 
relying at all times upon the department commander 
for aid when necessary." 

With unusual promptness the government early in 
January, 1877, issued orders to Indian Agent J. B. 
Monteith to carry out the recommendations of the 
commission. Howard was directed to occupy the 
Wallowa valley and co-operate with the agent. That 
officer was sending friendly Nez Perces to Joseph, 
striving vainly to induce him to do what he had plainly 
told the commission he would not do, come upon the 
Xez Perce reservation. Joseph was interpreting all 
his friendly overtures as signs of weakness, and 
seemingly was becoming more and more established 
in his determination to yield no whit of his freedom 
but strengthening his own hands by effecting under- 
standings with other disaffected Indians. 

In a conference with General Howard at Walla 
Walla, April 20, 1877, Ollicut arranged a council to 
meet at Lapwai in twelve days, in which the demands 
of the government and the position of the Indians were 
to be fullv set forth. Howard was there per appoint- 



merit. On the 3d of May the first talk was held at 
Fort Lapwai, Agent Monteith, P. B. Whitman, official 
interpreter, Joseph, Ollicut and about fifty of Joseph's 
band being present. Two days of council, during 
which the demand of the government that the Indians 
go upon some reservation was unequivocally and em- 
phatically made, then a recess until May 7th. Mean- 
while there are many accessions to the numbers of the 
red men from all directions. On the 7th a somewhat 
stormy council is held in which Toohulhulsote be- 
comes insolent, refuses to go upon the reservation and 
is arrested by Howard. "My conduct," says the gen- 
eral, "was summary, it is true, but I knew it was 
hopeless to get the Indians to agree to anything so 
long as they could keep this old dreamer on the lead 
and defy the agents of the government, and I believe 
that the Modoc massacre would very soon be repeated 
if I gave time for concert of action. In fact, in deal- 
ing with Indians, my conviction is strong that the 
true policy is to demand obedience to the requirements 
of the government of the United States. The crisis 
had come, when either this demand must be made, or 
these wild Indians be allowed all the latitude and 
leisure that their hearts desired." 

When Toohulhulsote's evil influence was gone the 
Indians readily agreed to go next day to examine the 
Lapwai valley, and later the Clearwater country to 
see how they would like them for homes. They did so, 
giving all the time evidences of benevolent intentions. 
Soon word came that they had determined to go upon 
the reserve, they even designating what parts each band 
desired. On May 14th all came together again at Lap- 
wai for a final conference. At this it was agreed that 
the Indians should be upon the reservation in one 
month, or by June 14th. except Hushhushcute, who was 
given thirty-five days: the object of the council seemed 
to have been satisfactorily accomplished and there was 
rejoicing in consequence. 

All the traditions and history of the Nez Perces tribe 
favi red the assumption that the non-treaties would do 
just as they agreed and that there would be no more 
trouble. The agents of the government occupied the 
intervening thirty days in gathering in other bands to 
the Yakima reservation, so as to weaken the power of 
Joseph in case he should meditate treachery, though 
this was considered a very remote possibility. To one 
looking backward it would seem that the wiser course 
would have been to put in practice the European max- 
im, "In time of peace prepare for war." Had a suffi- 
cient force been concentrated in the storm center, it 
it 1 in ibable that the malcontent Indians would have gone 
on the reserve without resistance, but in endeavoring 
to win the Indians bv smiles, rather than subdue them 
by a show of force, che agents of the government were 
acting in consistency with the general peace policy of 
the government, — the policy which has resulted in 
much unnecessary bloodshed. That policy has been 
fostered by many eastern would-be philanthropists, 
whose knowledge of Indian character comes from the 
imaginings of the romance writer, and to whose super- 
fine sensibilities a vigorous demand of the government 
that the Indians obev its laws as white men have to, 

:t determined purpose to compel them to do so at what- 
ever cost, is an unthinkable cruelty. But the conduct 
of the various malcontent bands during the thirty days 
of grace certainly looked much like peace ; the gather- 
ing of Indians on the borders of the Nez Perces reserva- 
tion was naturally interpreted as a step in compliance 
with their agreement of May 14, and the burst of war 
came, therefore, as a thunderbolt out of a clear sky. 
Even the settlers in the immediate vicinity of the reserve 
were deceived, though there were some signs of the ap- 
proaching storm had they been interpreted aright. 

There were four distinct bands of non-treaty In- 
dians . Joseph's, who made their home in the Wallowa 
and Imnaha valleys j White Bird's, or the Salmon river 
Indians; Looking Glass's, whose home was on Clear 
creek, a branch of the Middle Fork of the Clearwater: 
and a small band under Toohulhulsote, the "Dreamer." 
who remained on the Snake river most of the year. 
( )f the friendly chiefs who were in close proximity to 
Camas prairie we may mention Kooskoos-Xela, Cap- 
tain John, Eagle-of-the-Light and Blacktail. ( If course 
there was more or less intercourse continually among 
these Indians and between the Indians and the settlers 
around them. For years the whites on Camas prairie 
and their dark skinned neighbors had lived at peace 
with each other, save that now and then some alter- 
cation of minor importance might occur. They had 
traded together, herded stock together and been very 
neighborly. Xo serious animosities existed between 

Down on the Salmon, however, the feeling between 
the two races was not as fraternal as it should have 
been. There, many serious quarrels had arisen over 
the possession of land and over other important mat- 
ters. Many of the whites had settled upon choice 
tracts of land, which, although not included in the 
reservation, the Indians considered as still theirs by 
reason of the fact that they had never relinquished their 
title to it to the United States. The case was parallel 
to that existing in the Wallowa valley. The whites 
considered that the land was public domain and acted 
accordingly without consulting the desires of the In- 
dians. Then, too, two or three traders on the Salmon 
frequently supplied the redskins with liquor and in one 
instance this practice led to an open fight between the 
proprietor of the establishment and the Indians, in 
the course of which one of the Indians was seriously 
wounded. This white, too, w-as remembered by the 
revengeful hostiles and when war broke out he lost 
his life among the very first. Some of the settlers here 
considered these and all other Indians as wholly bad 
and treated them accordingly, all of which fostered the 
enmity slowly rising. The. remainder of the settlers, 
those who were on friendly terms with the Indians, 
were generally well treated by the latter until hostili- 
ties had commenced when the universal Indian trait 
of indiscrimination asserted itself. 

This was the status of affairs when, a short time 
before the council, a petition was circulated among the 
residents of Idaho county praying the government to 
remove the non-treaty Indians onto the reservation. 
Some signed the petition ; some refused, in the belief 


that ili-:' Indians could be more easily handled by 
not confining them too closely. This latter class were 
also wise enough to see that the enforcement of this 
order would lead to immediate trouble, which they 
wished to avoid as long as possible. The crisis came 
as soon as the government attempted to carry out the 
wish of these petitioners and it is worth noting that the 
blow fell most heavily on those whom the Indians 
found had signed the document. 

Sometime in April, 1877, friendly Salmon River 
Indians came to the house of Charles Cone on the Sal- 
mon and told him that the Indians were surely going to 
fight ; that they would never go on the reservation; 
and that the Indians expected to settle some old scores, 
naming their intended victims. They warned the set- 
tlers of what was coming, but few believed that the 
Indians were really in earnest. The Cones, Woods, 
and Joshua Fockler, however, organized for protection, 
preparing their weapons and replenishing their supply 
of ammunition and for one night, stood guard. 

On Camas prairie the Indians were slowly gather- 
ing all through the month of May and preparing for 
the conflict. From time to time they warned their 
white friends that trouble was coming and to them 
they reiterated their intention of refusing to go upon 
the reservation. The redskins visited Grangeville and 
Mount Idaho in large numbers and purchased all the 
ammunition and weapons they could secure, conceal- 
ing their hostile motives of course. They gathered 
their hundreds of ponies, bought cattle or obtained 
them by trade, purchased and by other means secured 
al! the provisions and supplies possible, and in differ- 
ent ways prepared for the coming conflict. From out- 
side appearances they might have been preparing to 
go on the reservation and in fact this was the inter- 
pretation placed upon their actions by a majority of 
the settlers on the prairie. 

The Indians' rendezvous was at the head of Rocky 
canyon, one of the eastern arms of the Salmon river 
canyon, lying eight miles west of Grangeville. The 
smaller canyon derives its name from its rocky appear- 
ance. It cuts a furrow hundreds of feet deep and four 
miles in length through basalt, forming a region un- 
excelled for the Indians' purposes. Here they herded 
their stock, killed beef cattle and "jerked'' the meat, 
stored their supplies in a wonderful cave, and pre- 
pared to sell their lives as dearly as possible in defense 
of their liberty. At the head of the south fork of this 
canyon were two beautiful, crystal lakes whose waters 
came from the timbered mountain a few miles south- 
ward and filially found their way through the narrow 
canyon to the rushing river hundreds of feet below. 
Around these lakes the Indians erected their tepees. 
During the early days of June the non-treaties, with 
the exception of Looking-glass's band, assembled in 
larger numbers than ever at this delightful camping 
ground, holding councils and drills during the day 
time and dances at night. Regular picket lines were 
established wdfich apprised the plotting redskins of 
the approach of whites and in some cases warned them 
off the grounds. Here they argued for and against 
war, a large number protesting against such a radical 

step. Subsequently it was learned that the Indians 
were about evenly divided on the question of submit- 
ting peaceably to the inevitable or going to war. 

Hon. Frank A. Fenn says that word was sent to 
the commander at Fort Lapwai by L. P. Brown nearly 
ten days previous to the outbreak, notifying that officer 
of the alarming condition of affairs on the prairie and 
suggesting that it would be well to watch them closely. 
On the 13th, Mr. Fenn says Tucallacasena, a brother 
of Looking-glass, notified Ad. Chapman and M. H. 
Rice that the Indians were practically on the war path 
and warned the whites that they 'must be on their 

General Howard says that the first slight inkling 
of something wrong came to Fort Lapwai in the shape 
of a letter, bearing date of June 14th, from L. P. 
Brown, of Mount Idaho, stating that Mr. Overman 
from the head of Rocky canyon had come in with his 
friend-, very much alarmed at the actions of the In- 
dians, who, they said, were insolent, taciturn in their 
communications with the whites, and hostile in their 
general demeanor. "Yesterday," continues the letter, 
"they had a grand parade. About a hundred were 
mounted, and well armed and went through the man- 
euvers of a fight — were thus engaged for about two 
hours. They say, openly, that they are going to fight 
the soldiers when they come to put them on the reser- 
vation, and I understand that they expect them up on 
Friday next. A good many were in town today, 
and were trying to obtain powder and other 
ammunition. * ;;; * I do not feel any alarm, but 
thought it well to inform you of what was going on 
among them. ::: ; - I believe it would be well fur 

you to send up, as soon as you can, a sufficient force to 
handle them without gloves, should they be disposed to 
resist. Sharp and prompt action will bring them to 
understand that they must comply with the orders of 
the government. We trust such action will be taken by 
you, so as to remove them from the neighborhood and 
quiet the feelings of the people." 

This was followed up next day by two communi- 
cations of a much more startling nature which follow : 

Mount Idaho, 7A. M.. Friday, June 15, '77. 
Commanding Officer Fort Lapwai. 

Last night we started a messenger to you, who reached 
Cottonwood House, where he was wounded and driven back 
by the Indians. The people of Cottonwood undertook to 
come here during the night ; were interrupted, all wounded 
or killed. Parties this morning found some of them on the 
prairie. The wounded will be here shortly, when we will 
get full particulars. The whites are engaged, about forty of 
them, in getting in the wounded. One thing is certain ; we 
are in the midst of an Indian war. Every family is here, and 
we have taken all the precautions we can. but are poorly 
armed. We want arms and ammunition and help at once. 
Don't delay a moment. We have a report that some whites 
were killed yesterday on the Salmon river. No later word 
from them; fear that the people are all killed, as a party of 
Indians were seen going that way last night. Send to Lewis- 
ton, and hasten up. You cannot imagine the people in a 
wor.e condition than they are here. Mr. West has volun- 
teered to go to Lapwai ; rely on his statements. 
Yours truly, 

L. P. Brown. 



Mount Idaho, 8 A. M., June 15/77. 
Commanding Officer Fort Lapwai. 

I have just sent a dispatch by Mr. West, half-breed. Since 
that was written the wounded have come in— Mr. Day, mor- 
tally; Mrs. Norton with both legs broken; Moore shot 
through the hip; Norton killed and left in the road, six 
miles "from here. Teams were attacked on the road and 
abandoned. The Indians have possession of the prairie, and 
threaten Mount Idaho. All the people are here, and we will 
do the best we can. Lose no time in getting up with a force. 
Stop the stage and all "through travelers." Give us relief, 
arms and ammunition. Chapman has got this Indian, Look- 
ing-glass's brother, (Tucullacasena) hoping he may get 
through 1 feai the people on Salmon have all been killed, 
as a party was seen going that way last night. We had a 
report last night that seven whites had been killed on Sal- 
mon. Notify the people of Lewiston. Hurry up ; hurry ! 
Rely on this Indian's statements; I have known him for a 
long time; he is with us. L. P. Brown. 

P. S.— Send a despatch to town for the express not to 
start up unless heavily escorted. Give the bearer a fresh 
horse, and send him back. Chapman. 

Howard sent a brief reply to Mr. Brown, announc- 
ing the despatch of two companies of cavalry and en- 
joining upon him to "cheer the people." Meanwhile 
all was bustle at Fort Lapwai. Colonel Perry was 
despatched forthwith to the scene of the trouble with 
ninety men, all that could be spared from the fort. 
Captain Wilkinson and Lieutenant Bomus were sent 
post haste to Walla Walla with messages for more 
troops from Wallowa, Walla Walla and Portland, with 
a request for supplies from the last named point, also 
for twenty-five scouts from General McDowell at San 

But before proceeding further in the account of the 
military operations, we must turn back to the evening 
of June 13th in order to find out more definitely the 
cause of all this bustle and excitement. During the day 
several Indians came down from the prairie to the 
Manuel ranch on White Bird creek, where they utilized 
Mr. Manuel's grindstone in sharpening their knives 
and other edged weapons. They acted very friendly 
and aroused no suspicions in the minds of the doomed 
family who watched the operations. Farther up the 
Salmon at early dusk three young Indians drew up 
their ponies at the Cone ranch and dismounting, en- 
tered the house. None of them was over twenty-one 
years old and two of them, Tipulahna-Caps-Caps 
(Strong Eagle) and Sopsis-Ilp-Ilp (Red Leggins), 
Salmon Rivers, were old friends of the Cone family. 
The other Indian was a member of Joseph's band. 
They asked for bread for themselves and bullets for 
their weapon, a 44-calibre Colt's cap and ball revolver. 
The Indians were given the bread, and Charles, one 
of the sons, would have supplied the ammunition asked 
for as he and the Indians were good friends and had 
often hunted together, but for the fact that the amount 
he had on hand was very limited. The Indians ex- 
plained that they were on a hunting expedition and 
after exchanging a few more words again mounted 
their animals and pushed on up the river. That night 
they camped as is supposed in the brush near Richard 
Divine's place. 

Richard Divine was an old, retired English sailor 
living alone on his ranch on the Salmon six miles above 

John Day creek. So far as known he had never 
wronged the Indians nor had he ever had any trouble 
with them. But he did possess a new, improved rifle, 
fitted with hair sights, and reputed to be one of the 
finest in this section. The possession of this weapon 
proved the cause of his death. As the old man came 
out of the house some time that night or the next 
morning, a pistol shot rang out and he fell. Whether 
his \\< nin< 1 was instantly fatal or not is unknown, but 
he was dead when found, though his body was -till 

Securing the coveted rifle the three young murder- 
ers took the trail down the river. Arriving at the 
Elfers ranch at the mouth of John Day creek, they be- 
came the chief actors in another tragedy. Mrs. Elfers, 
now Mrs. C. M. Geary, is our authority for the story 
of this terrible event. She says she saw the Indians 
pass her home on their way up to Divine's place on the 
evening of June 13th, and that they stopped at the 
stock corral to talk with Mr. Elfers and the other men. 
On the morning of the 14th, (she is positive as to the 
datej her husband, Robert Bland and "Harry" Beck- 
roge were killed by them. The real name of the last 
mentioned individual was Burn Beckroge, but he was 
universally named Harry after a brother of his who 
had been a resident of the Salmon river and had died 
previous to Burn's coming. On the morning of the 
fatal day Beckroge and Bland went up to the bench 
land south of and above the house to get the horses. 
The men were engaged in hay making at the time. 

Mr. Elfers remained at the house, attending to the 
cows. He had just gone into a room of the house and 
was putting on a pair of moccasins, when two of the In- 
dians came up and entered the office, apparently look- 
ing for him. Mrs. Elfers came out of the milk house 
just in time to see them and one of them spoke to her. 
She passed around the further end of the house to 
enter the kitchen by the back door. The Indian was 
standing at the entrance of the office when he spoke. 
Soon the Indians disappeared and Mrs. Elfers believed 
they had left the place entirely. When Mr. Elfers 
finished putting on his moccasins, he started up the 
hill to the field, and his wife followed him with her eyes 
some distance. That was the last time she saw him 
alive. The Indians shot him immediately after he 
reached the edge of the plateau above. It appears that 
they had already killed Bland and Beckroge and that 
one of their number had been left on guard in the field 
while the two others came to the house to look for 
Elfers. Mrs. Elfers did not hear the shots, the noise 
of the guns having been drowned by that of the stream, 
but Victor, a Frenchman living further down John 
Day creek', saw the smoke of the guns and became sus- 
picious that something was wrong. He communicated 
his fears to some of the other miners, who came up to 
investigate. An invalid named Whitfield, who had 
been out hunting mountain sheep, had returned and 
discovered the remains of Elfers, Bland and Beckroge. 
He notified Norman Gould and his hired man at the 
saw mill and the two accompanied him to the scene of 
the murder, bringing their guns. Mrs. Elfers saw the 
Indians return to the house after they had killed the 

The Ranch where H. Elfers. Henry Beckroge and R. S. Bland were Killed by the Indians, June 13, 1877. 



three men. They entered the office, but soon came out 
again passed by her at the milk house, mounted the 
horses and rode away. Mrs. Elfers did not notice that 
they were riding her husband's animals, though it was 
later ascertained that they had exchanged their ponies 
for three of their victim's horses. They also secured 
Mr. Elfers' rifle without her knowing of it. The 
horses stolen were considered very fine animals, one 
being a trained race horse. The Indians did not tarry 
long at the Elfers place, fearing the return of Whit- 
field, who they knew was armed and out hunting 
mountain sheep. 

Having departed from the Elfers ranch, the three 
Indians passed on down the river avoiding the Cone 
house by leaving the trail. A mile and a half below 
the Cone ranch, Charles Cone, Sr., was at his placer 
mine. When the redskins came in sight of him they 
rushed down upon him in a threatening manner and 
demanded if he knew their horses. Cone had of course 
immediately recognized the horses and detected that 
something was wrong, but with admirable presence of 
mind he answered in the negative. The Indians told 
him to go home and stay there ; that they were very 
mad and would fight. Glad of the change to escape so 
easily. Mr. Cone obeyed their command. 

Not far below the mine, on the opposite side of the 
river, Joe Amera, a friendly California Indian lived. 
Opposite his place the three hostiles stopped and 
sought to entice him across the river. Whether they 
wished to kill him or simply wanted him to join their 
crowd is not known, but at all events Joe simply par- 
leyed with them without yielding to their wishes and 
at last they retired. 

Probably being well aware that Harry Mason and 
William Osborne were well armed and the former was 
an experienced Indian fighter, the Indians avoided an 
encounter at the Mason place. Near the mouth of 
White Bird they met Samuel Benedict, who was out 
looking after stock, and wounded him, the bullet taking 
effect in his legs. Although seriously injured he man- 
aged to make his way home, where he gave his wife his 
valuable papers and some gold dust and urged her to 
flee to the woods. This the brave woman refused to 
do, preferring to remain with and care for her wounded 
husband. A number of Indians had a quarrel with 
Benedict shortly before the outbreak of the war, dur- 
ing which one named Nosenocope had received a 
charge of fine shot, and the shooting of Benedict is 
thought by some to have been in revenge for this in- 
jur v. 

After the attack on Benedict the voung warriors 
turned their horses up White Bird creek and during 
the afternoon rejoined their fellows at the head of 
Rocky canyon. On arriving here they announced, 
"Now you have to fight." and appeared 'to be in high 
glee over the part they had taken. It was true that the 
Rubicon had been crossed ; the war party was so strong 
that it would never permit the murderers to be arrested 
and now that the breach had been opened, the In- 
dians voted to commence general hostilities. Here the 
three secured about fifteen recruits and under the 

leadership of Mox Mox (Yellow Bull) immediately 
returned to the Salmon river. 

Meanwhile, James Baker, a man seventy-four 
years old living on White Bird creek, and Patrick 
Price (or Brice) had become aware of the attack on 
Benedict and had warned the Mauuels of their danger. 
They decided to seek a place of greater safety at once. 
Mrs. Manuel and her bain were placed on one horse. 
Mr. Manuel and his seven year old daughter Maggie 
mounted another and Mr. Baker rode a third. Mrs. 
Manuel's father, George Popham, and Pat Price re- 
mained in the brush near the house to await develop- 
ments. The Manuels and Baker started for the latter's 
stone cellar, where they purposed to defend themselves. 
Hardly had they started, however, before Mox Mox 
and his band were upon them. Manuel and his daugh- 
ter were wounded and fell from the horse they were 
riding. Mrs. Manuel and her baby were thrown from 
their horse, and Baker fell to the ground, pierced by 
arrows. Manuel, wounded, ultimately escaped to the 
settlements after wandering in the brush and woods 
for thirteen days, while Maggie was carried to the fort 
at Mount Idaho by Pat Price. The Indians carried 
Mrs. Manuel and her baby back to the house and 
forced her to give up the ammunition left there. After 
securing this they again took the trail down the creek, 
passing the Masons and Osbornes and William 
George, but this party kept in the brush and the In- 
dians appear to have been afraid to go in after them. 
In the exchange of shots which followed the meeting 
George w r as wounded in the thumb. That night he 
left the rest of the party and proceeded to Mount Idaho, 
where he gave the first authentic news of the Salmon 
river murders. 

At the mouth of White Bird creek the Indians 
found Benedict in his store and saloon and killed him. 
A Frenchman named August Bacon who was with 
Benedict was also killed here. Indians state that they 
offered Bacon his life of he would come out, leaving 
Benedict, but he refused to desert his wounded com- 

From the mouth of the creek the Indians went down 
the river a mile to H. C. Brown's store. Brown saw 
them coming and together with his wife and brother- 
in-law, Andrew Bensching, escaped across the Sal- 
mon in a boat, though Brown was slightly wounded. 
All took refuge in the woods. Several days later 
Bensching came to Mount Idaho and subsequently 
Brown and his wife were rescued near Cottonwood by 
a party under Henry C. Johnson. The night of the 
14th the Indians spent in debauchery at Brown's store, 
which they looted, helping themselves freely to the 
goods and liquors on the shelves. They remained un- 
til morning, when they started for the Mason ranch. 

During the previous night the Masons and Os- 
bornes had decided to return to their homes. They 
proceeded to the Mason ranch, where they concealed 
themselves in a nearby gluch. Here they remained 
for some time, but eventually, as the story is told, the 
children became hungry and the party was forced to 
do something for them. They accordingly went to 



the house of Osborne to procure something edible, and 
while they were there the Indians attacked them. As 
afterwards told the Cone brothers by Yellow Bull, the 
redskins offered to allow the rest of the party to go 
unmolested if they would deliver Mason. It seems 
that Mason had had difficulty with an Indian early in 
the spring and moreover he was a thorough Indian 
hater. Of course the whites refused to deliver him 
and the redskins attacked the little party. Osborne, 
Francois Chodozo and Mason were killed, after which 
the women, Mrs. Mason, Mrs. Osborne and Mrs. 
Walsh, a sister of Mason, fell into the hands of the 
savages and were shamefully treated. Subsequently 
the Indians allowed them to proceed to Slate creek 
where the first news of this last of the Salmon river 
outrages was reported. A Frenchman known as 
"Shoemake." who had escaped the Indians, joined the 
women a short distance from the scene of the attack 
and accompanied them to the fort. After the battle 
of White Bird the Indians returned to Mason's store 
and spent a night in carousing and general debauchery, 
ending their merry making by burning the buildings. 
In fact nearly all of the buildings destroyed along the 
Salmon were burned after this Indian victory. 

But we must return to the home of John J. Manuel 
whose wife and baby were left unharmed by Mox 
Mox's band after these Indians had secured the cov- 
eted ammunition. There has been much discussion 
relative to the murder of Mrs. Manuel and her little 
son and some difference of opinion exists as to whether 
or not Chief Joseph was a participant in it. 

It is generally believed by Salmon river residents 
that the famous chieftain was guilty of participation 
in the dastardly affair, and that he killed Mrs. Manuel 
with his own hand. The following is the story of Mrs. 
Maggie Bowman, nee Manuel, the only white eye- 
witness, who was but seven vears old at the time: 

"Our family consisted of my father and mother, 
sister Julia (now Mrs. W. K. Knox, of Grangeville ) , 
a baby brother eleven months old, grandfather and 
myself. With the exception of my sister Julia, who 
was in school at Mount Idaho, we were all at home 
when James Baker and Patrick Price came to the 
house and told us that the Indians had wounded Mr. 
Benedict and that we had better flee for our lives. 
They suggested that we go to Mr. Baker's stone cellar, 
about a mile down the creek, and there leave the 
women while the men defended the place. 

"We started immediately. I mounted father's 
horse behind him, while mother and the baby took an- 
other animal. Grandfather (George Popham). and 
Patrick Price remained at the house. We had pro- 
ceeded about half a mile on our journey when, looking 
to a hill we had descended, I saw several Indians com- 
ing toward us on a run. yelling and whooping at the 
top of their voices. 'The Indians are coming,' I said 
to father. Just as the Indians appeared, the horses 
we rode became frightened at the noise and stam- 
peded, separating father from mother. The Indians 
opened fire on us with arrows, the first arrow striking 
my left arm near the shoulder. An arrow struck me 
in the back of the head and glanced and pierced my 

father's neck. An Indian, who had only two cart- 
ridges as we afterward learned, fired at father at the 
same time and shot him through the hips. A second 
bullet burned one of his ears. Father was also wounded 
between the shoulders by an arrow. The wound 
through the hips caused him to fall from the horse, 
dragging me with him. Our horse had taken us to 
the top of the hill before we fell from the saddle. 

"Father saw that our only chance was to roll down 
the hillside into the brush and this we did, meanwhile 
undergoing the rock throwing of the Indians. One 
rock broke father's little finger and another struck me 
on the forehead. The redskins were afraid to follow 
us, doubtless thinking that father still had his pistols. 
Yery foolishly we had left all weapons and ammuni- 
tion at the house with the idea of showing any In- 
dians we might meet that we were peaceable. 

"Meanwhile, Mr. Baker had fallen from his horse 
at the first flight of arrows. The redskins surrounded 
him and one of them pointed an arrow into the old 
man's face. He courageously thrust it away, but was 
unable to maintain the unequal contest and the next 
instant fell lifeless, being riddled with arrows. 

"Mother's horse threw her and the baby and in the 
fall one of her knee caps was broken* and the baby 
injured. Afterwards she said that two or three of the 
Indians took her to the house and promised not to in- 
jure her if she would give up the ammunition and a 
fine rifle that father had. She did this and was un- 
injured by her captors. 

"As soon as the Indians left the place, grand- 
father and Air. Price came into the house. Mother 
told them where we had crawled and grandfather came 
to us. He brought me to the house about dark and 
left blankets, food and water for father. 

"That night mother, the baby, myself, Mrs. Bene- 
dict and children (who had come over to the house 
after Mr. Benedict's death) and the men stayed in 
the brush. The next morning Mrs. Benedict tried to 
persuade us to go up the creek and escape to the 
prairie, but mother and grandfather decided to return" 
to the house, thinking that the danger was oast. Then, 
too, mother refused to leave father alone in the brush, 
wounded and without aid. So we returned to the 
house, except Mrs. Benedict who took her children and 
started up the creek where she was subsequently 

"Mother and I went to bed while Mr. Popham and 
Mr. Price stood guard. Along in the forenoon, Mox 
Mox and a band of White Bird Indians, nearly all of 
whom we knew very well as their camping ground 
was on a part of our place, came to the house. They 
ransacked it. but did not offer to molest us. They 
finally told us that Chief Joseph's Indians were fol- 
lowing them, advising Mr. Popham and Air. Price to 
go to the brush and promised to protect us. 

*Mrs. Robie (formerly Mrs. Benedict) told the writer 
that the Indians made two knife cuts over each of Mrs. 
Manuel's knees, one lengthwise and the other crosswise, 
their object being to prevent her getting away. Mrs. Robie 
says she knows this because the wounds were shown her 
by Airs. Manuel. 


"Early in the afternoon Joseph and his band came 
up, Joseph was dressed as a chief and told us that he 
was Chief Joseph. The Indians called him Joseph 
and I am positive that it was he. Mox Mox and 
White Bird were also there. .Mox Mox had promised 
to keep the hostile Indians out of the house but had 
failed to keep his word. 

"Joseph had not been in the house over an hour 
before he took a seat on a trunk in the room where 
mother, baby and I were. Mother sat on a trundle 
bed and was nursing the baby when Joseph addressed 
her with some remark. They were only a few feet 
apart. Joseph reached over and without any prelimi- 
naries, plunged a knife into her heart. Mother fell 
back on the bed and the only words she jaid were: 
'Don't kill my children." She repeated these words 
three times. The redskins dragged her to the floor 
and stripped off her clothing. All this I saw from 
my bed in the same room and just across from 

"After this the Indians took me to an adjoining 
room and shut me in. Of course I cried and I remem- 
ber that one of the White Bird Indians slapped me. 
Being sick and exhausted, I fell asleep and didn't 
wake up until nearly dark. Then I went into the 
other room where mother had been killed. I was 
barefooted and even now I can recall the horrible feel- 
ing that came over me as the blood oozed between my 
toes. The body was naked and lying in a pool of 
her life's blood. At her head lay baby Johnnie, also 

"My first impulse was to find grandfather and I 
started in search of him. Instead of him, however, I 
found Pat Price with whom I stayed in the brush that 
night. In the morning the Indians attacked Mr. Price 
and me in the brush. He determined to go straight 
to them and try a ruse, so he went up to Chief White 
Bird. To him Mr. Price showed the cross tattooed on 
his breast with India ink. He proposed to the Indians 
that if they would allow him to take me to Mount 
Idaho he would return and surrender himself to them. 
This the chief agreed to and after we had gone into 
the house and seen mother's and baby's bodies, we left 
for the prairie. I was barefooted and in my night 
clothes. We traveled all day, Mr. Price carrying me 
a portion of the way, and stayed that night at Harris's 
place near the head of Rocky canyon. There, Mr. 
Price fixed me a chair, fashioning it out of a dry goods 
box. With a rope he fastened it on his back. At this 
place lie found an old white shirt and put it on me. 
During all this time and until I reached Mount Idaho, 
my left arm, which had been broken in the fall from 
the horse, hung limp by my side, the older people in 
the excitement not even fixing me a sling. In this box 
chair I rode into Mount Idaho, reaching there about 
noon. Mr. Price risked his life to carry me through 
to the settlement and of course I never forgot this 
kindness and devotion. 

"The same day we left the house the Indians 
burned it, together with the bodies of mother and baby. 
Subsequently their charred bones and mother's ear 
rings were found in the ruins. One ear ring was par- 

tially melted, the other was in its natural state, except 
for being blackened by the fire. The house was built 
of logs and lined with lumber and must have made a 
very hot fire. From his place of concealment in the 
brush, grandfather witnessed the destruction of the 

"Father remained in the brush and small outbuild- 
ings on the ranch for thirteen days, living upon berries 
and vegetables that he was able to secure from the lit- 
tle garden. After suffering for five days from the 
arrow in his neck, he cut it out with his knife and 
dresseil the wound, using horseradish leaves and cold 
water from the creek. His hip wounds had crippled 
him so seriously that he was unable to travel. The 
soldiers found him and brought him to Mount Idaho, 
where he eventually recovered. 

"Grandfather came into Mount Idaho several days 
after Air. Price and I arrived. 

"This is the story as 1 now remember it and the 
recollection of it all comes to me very vividly despite 
the long years that have rolled by. 

"The above facts are given from personal knowl- 
edge and not from hearsav. 

"Grangevillc, Idaho, 

April i, 1903." 

Meanwhile events of considerable 'importance were 
transpiring on the prairie. As early as June 9th the 
situation had become alarming and some of the set- 
tlers felt that the Indians were about to carry out 
their threat of commencing war although the settlers 
generally seemed disposed to discredit these rumors. 
Previous to the 14th Cyrus Overman and M. V. Jar- 
rett, who lived near the lakes, brought their families 
in nearer to Grangevil'.e and Mount Idaho and left 
them with friends, in order to assure their safety in 
case of trouble. 

Considerable activity was manifested by the In- 
dians on the 13th. Sometime during the day Seth 
Jones and Charles Horton passed two bands attired 
in full war dress. The white men were unmolested, 

Along in the afternoon of the 14th ( Mr. Johnson 
says 13th) Henry C. Johnson and Cyrus Overman 
noticed, from the Johnson place which overlooked the 
Indian camp, that the Indians were acting very rest- 
lessly. They saw several of them leave in small bands 
of from two to four each toward the Salmon. 

About three o'clock, Mr. Overman told Mr. John- 
son that he had concluded to go over to his farm, 
sack up a little wheat and proceed to town. Upon 
reaching home, he saw Mr. and Mrs. Watson driving 
rapidly across the prairie toward Mount Idaho. He 
also saw a band of seven Indians coming awav from 
Watson's place. Quickly saddling and mounting his 
horse, he set out to overtake the Watsons, which he 
succeeded in doing after a rifle of three miles. From 
them he learned that Crooks had been driven out of an 
Indian camp that afternoon and that the settlers had 
been warned by messenger to come into Mount Idaho. 
The courier had turned back before reaching the 
Johnson place. Mr. Overman continued his journey 



to Mount Idaho, arriving about eleven o'clock that 

Later in the day, Mr. Johnson, whom Mr. Overman 
had been assisting until three o'clock, saw the In- 
dians tearing down their tepees and concentrating 
their vast herd of horses, of which they had, accord- 
ing to his estimate, fully ten thousand. He says it 
was fascinating to watch the agile Indians slowly 
moving the seething bands across the prairie toward 
Craig's Mountain. 

Mr. Johnson decided to remain at his ranch that 
night, thcugh he took the precaution to sleep out of 
doors in one of his fields. The last he saw of the In- 
dians before darkness cut off his view, they were still 
engaged in moving their ponies toward Craig's moun- 
tain and only five or six tepees were still standing at 
their old camping ground. He believed that at last 
the red men were moving upon the reservation and his 
apprehension of danger, if any he had, were at least 
partially removed. 

Next morning he was unable to see any sign of 
Indians so he decided to drive over to the settlement 
and inquire for news concerning them. Arriving at 
the saw-mill on Three Mile creek, he there learned 
that the Norton party had been attacked the night be- 
fore, so of course gave up all thought of returning 
to his home. 

On the afternoon of the 14th (or according to 
some the 13th) John M. Crooks, the cattle king of the 
county at that time and a friend of the Indians, volun- 
teered to ride out to their camp from Grangeville and 
learn what he could regarding their intentions. He did 
not believe that the Indians meant to go on the war- 
path, but undertook the journey for the purpose of 
reassuring himself and his neighbors. Mr. Crooks 
reached the Indian camp in safety. There, however, 
he was greeted with hostile demonstrations and warn- 
ings to leave immediately, so he wheeled his horse and 
started on his return to Grangeville. One Indian pur- 
sued him nearly to town, once riding up close to him 
and flourishing a revolver in his face. 

Upon arriving at Grangeville, Mr. Crooks turned 
in a general alarm. Mounted men were at once sent 
to all residing outside of Mount Idaho and Grange- 
ville and families came rushing in from every direc- 

By nightfall nearly all of the inhabitants of Camas 
prairie had gathered at Mount Idaho. There they 
prepared for defense as best they could. They were 
unusually poorly armed for a pioneer people and had 
the Indians attacked them a general massacre would 
surely have followed. But, as stated elsewhere, the 
Indians were well disposed toward the settlers of the 
prairie and treated them far more generously than is 
usually the case in an Indian war. In fact they told 
the settlers to leave them alone and not take sides in 
the trouble and they would not injure them. 

Early in the morning L. P. Brown had sent a mes- 
sage, the "Overman" letter, to Fort Lapwai apprising 
the commandant there of the critical situation on the 
prairie. Late in the afternoon Arthur Chapman, who 
lived several miles northwest of Grangeville. received 

definite information from an Indian boy of the up- 
rising on the Salmon. In a short time he was in the 
saddle and speeding toward Mount Idaho, where he 
announced what he had heard. The citizens decided 
to send information to Lapwai at once with a request 
for troops. Lew Day volunteered to carry this mes- 
sage and set out quite late in the afternoon. 

Day had proceeded about twenty-five miles on his 
journey when he was joined by two Indians. They 
inquired where he was going. He replied that he was 
on his way to Lewiston for a doctor. The red men 
dropped behind the messenger and fired at him, 
wounding him in the shoulder. After returning the 
fire, Day proceeded on his way, but his wound re- 
sulted in a great loss of blood and he was finally 
obliged to turn back. He returned via Cottonwood 
house, of which B. B. Norton was the proprietor. 
There he found Air. Norton, his wife and son, Hill, 
Miss Linn Bowers, John Chamberlain, wife and two 
children, and Joseph Moore. All immediately began 
preparations for the journey to Mount Idaho. About 
ten o'clock p. m., they started, Norton and Moore 
mounted on saddle horses, the others in a wagon. For 
ten miles they traveled without casualty; then com- 
menced the most horrible performance of the war. 
The Indians rode upon them in the rear and com- 
menced firing and yelling like mad men. Soon the 
horses of Norton and Moore had been shot. The men 
got into the wagon and the race for life was continued 
but before long the team was shot down and men, 
women and children were left apparently to the mercy 
of the savage demons. Miss Bowers and little Hill 
Norton, however, stole away in the darkness and es- 
caped unharmed to Mount Idaho. Mr. Chamberlain, 
his wife and two children attempted to do likewise, 
but were discovered. Chamberlain and the boy were 
killed, the latter, so his mother said, by having his 
head crushed beneath the knees of a powerful Indian. 
The other child was snatched from the arms of its 
mother and a piece of its tongue was cut off; it was 
wounded with a knife, so many testify, in its neck and 
in this pitiable plight it was left alone on the prairie. 
The poor heartsick and sorrow crazed mother, after 
being subjected to outrages more horrible than death, 
had her flesh torn and lacerated by the nails and fingers 
of the incarnate fiends. Norton, Day, Moore and 
Mrs. Norton had remained near the wagon. Norton 
was shot just after he sprang from the wagon and 
Mrs. Norton as she stood on the wheel, but she crawled 
out and sought refuge behind the dead horses. The 
bullet which struck Norton severed an artery and re- 
sulted in his death fifteen minutes later. Moore was 
shot through both hips; Day received two bullets in 
the shoulders and one through the leg; and Mrs. 
Norton was wounded in both lower limbs. At day- 
light, for some unaccountable reason, the Indians with- 

Meanwhile Miss Bowers and little Hill Norton had 
become separated in their flight for life, but both 
managed to keep on the right course. Hill was picked 
up about daylight four miles northwest of Mount 
Idaho bv F. A. Fenn, who was scouting. Mr. Fenn 



took the boy on his horse to Crooks's ranch, where a 
general alarm was given. Miss bowers was found 
about nine o'clock by J. A. Swarts, about two 
miles north of Mount Idaho, and was taken to 
that town. 

At the Crooks's ranch or Grangeville, a party con- 
sisting of Frank A. Fenn, C. L. Rice and James At- 
kison set out for the scene of the encounter. About 
three miles northwest of Grangeville they found the 
wagon and to it Rice and Fenn hitched their saddle 
horses, taking harness from the slain animals. Mrs. 
Norton was placed in the wagon and one of the sad- 
dles had been thrown into the box when the redskins 
suddenly appeared on a nearby hill. At once Fenn and 
Rice mounted the horses, not having any reins, for 
these had been used to splice the tugs, and the party 
commenced another race for life.. Fortunately, a sec- 
ond and larger party came out to their relief and the 
Indians drew off. Peter Ready, Lew Wilmot, E. W. 
Robie, Mac Williams and others went out later the 
same day and picked up Mrs. Chamberlain and others, 
living and dead. Mr. Chamberlain's body was found 
about a quarter of a mile from the wagon. His two 
children, one of whom was also dead, were lying in his 
arms. Half a mile farther away Mrs. Chamberlain 
was picked up. All were placed in the wagon and 
brought to Mount Idaho where every attention was 
given them. Day died the following afternoon from 
the effects of his terrible wounds and six weeks later 
Moore succumbed, but Mrs. Norton, Mrs. Chamber- 
lain and the child eventually recovered. Dr. J. B. Mor- 
ris, the prairie's physician, was in Lewiston when news 
of the outbreak reached him. He immediately set out 
to return, courageously riding through the lines of the 
hostiles to Mount Idaho, where he remained throughout 
the conflict. 

On the night of the Norton masacre, Peter H. 
Ready and Lew Wilmot had camped on Shebang 
creek (near the present site of Denver) with their 
freighting outfits. Each had a four horse load con- 
sisting of dry goods, clothing, groceries, hardware and 
salt, and an empty hack trailed behind Wilmot's wagon. 
Just before nightfall Lew Day pased them on his way 
to Fort Lapwai and informed them of their peril, but 
they decided to remain in camp until morning. About 
eleven o'clock they were awakened by the Cottonwood 
party passing them. Day told them the cause of the 
abandoment of his trip to Lapwai and again advised 
them to move forward to Mount Idaho. This time 
they heeded the warning to the extent of harnessing 
their horses and otherwise preparing to move at an 
instant's notice. The Cottonwood party had been gone 
but a short time before Ready and Wilmot heard firing 
in the direction of Grangeville. They did not pay any 
serious attention to it, but remained at their camping 
place until daybreak when they commenced their jour- 
ney toward Mount Idaho. Soon they saw Indians ap- 
proaching them. Cutting loose their lead horses, each 
mounted one and began an exciting race. Fortunate- 
ly they outran the Indians and escaped to their homes. 
They then got their guns and joined the party going 
out to bring in the Chamberlains, for these had been 

missed by Fenn, Rice and Atkison when they brought 
in Mrs. Norton. 

The Indians who had been pursuing Ready and 
Wilmot returned to the wagons and looted them, 
packing some of their spoils on the wheel horses which 
had remained near the wagons. Before they had 
finished their work the band of redskins that was pur- 
suing the first rescuing party turned from their chase 
and joined the pillaging crowd at the wagon, evidently 
fearing they would lose their portion if they did not 
go after it immediately. 

Mr. Ready thinks that the hostiles attacked the 
Cottonwood party in the belief that they were attack- 
ing the freighting outfit. Indeed he was so informed 
by Indians after the war. The blood-thirsty set soon 
discovered their mistake of course but when the ex- 
citement of the slaughter had taken possession of them 
they cared little who their victims might be, or 
whether or not their dastardly deeds would be re- 
warded by material gain. Just what band of redmen 
were the chief actors in this murderous assault has 
never been determined. 

There has been much discussion over the date of 
the attack upon the Nortons and Chamberlains, many 
who had good means of knowing contending that it 
took place some time during the night of the 13th of 
June, while others are just as positive that it took 
place twenty-four hours later. The preponderance of 
evidence seems to us to be that the attack was made 
upon the night of the 14th. Some who thought that 
the 13th was the correct date were also certain that the 
day of the week was Thursday, and Thursday is 
shown in the almanac to have fallen on the 14th, in the 
year 1877. The letters from L. P. Brown to the com- 
mandant at Fort Lapwai, quoted on former pages, 
bear the date of June 15th. The one dated 7 a. m. 
speaks of the attack on the Cottonwood party ; says 
they were all wounded or killed and that "the wounded 
will be here shortly, when we will get more particulars." 
The letter dated 8 a. m. says: "I have just sent a 
dispatch by Mr. West, half breed. Since that was 
written the wounded have come in." etc., showing 
that unless Mr. Brown made a mistake in dating his 
letter, the unfortunate event transpired on the night of 
the 14th. Gen. Howard tells us in his book that 
Brown's messenger arrived toward evening and he 
wrote his reply at once. His reply is dated June 15th. 
If Mr. Brown was mistaken in his dates either the 
messenger must have consumed from 7 o'clock in the 
morning of one day to evening of the day following 
in going from Mount Idaho to Fort Lapwai or General 
Howard must have made a mistake in dating his note 
exactly corresponding to that made by Mr. Brown. 
Both these contingencies are certainly very unlikely. 

Those on the Salmon river whom it was the writer's 
privilege to interview are practically a unit in their 
statement that the Salmon river murders, except that 
of Divine, were committed on the 14th. It has been 
generally understood that the Indians camped near 
Rocky canyon on Camas prairie did not commence 
their depredations until incited to them by the exciting 
recitals of the Salmon river horrors. Those who take 



the ground that the massacre of the Nortons and 
Chamberlains occurred on the 13th must assume that 
the Salmon river people are mistaken about the date 
of the murders there or that the outbreak on Camas 
prairie antedated the Salmon river outrages. The first 
assumption can hardly be true. Mrs. Cleary certainly 
is not mistaken as to the date of her husband's death, 
neither can other persons be mistaken as to when the 
most terrible events in their experience transpired. The 
other assumption has probably never been entertained 
by anyone. 

The author is convinced that Elfers, Bland and 
Beckroge were killed on the morning of the 14th, 
that their murderers proceeded to the Indian camp at 
Rocky canyon the same day, wounding Benedict en 
route ; that they related their experiences to the other 
Indians, who forthwith decided to* commence hostili- 
ties ; thai seventeen or eighteen Indians went that night 
back to the Salmon river country to engage in further 
depredations, while the others, or some of them, began 
hostile movements on Camas prairie, one of which 
movements was the attack on the Cottonwood party. 
He is constrained to believe that this is the correct date 
and this the correct sequence of events. He admits 
that many who hold a contrary opinion are able to pro- 
duce convincing arguments in favor of their views, but 
is inclined to agree with the many others who are equal- 
ly insistent that the event in question happened between 
eleven o'clock on the night of June 14th and daybreak 
the following morning. 

The foregoing statements concerning the outrages 
during the earliest days of the Nez Perces Indian war 
have been verified by exhaustive investigation into all 
printed accounts that could be secured, and by inter- 
views with very many of those living in the storm 
center at the time. Unusual pains were taken by citi- 
zens during and after the war to ascertain exact facts, 
owing to the attempts of some to throw the blame for 
the outbreak of the war upon the settlers. The re- 
sults of this investigation have been perused in the 
preparation of this work. It is therefore believed that 
these statements are as near the truth as it is possible for 
historic records to approach. The assertion of Indian 
Inspector Watkins that up to June 22d no houses had 
been burned or other depredations committed by 
Joseph's band, drew forth an indignant protest from 
the citizens. A positive counter statement was made 
that on the evening of June 18th, ten dwellings, three 
stores, seven barns and one shop had been burned, 
besides a large number of miners' buildings ; that be- 
fore the 16th, large numbers of abandoned dwellings 
had been plundered and some thousands of cattle and 
horses stolen and driven off by the Indians. "Resides 
this," said a citizens' letter to the Boston Sunday 
Herald, after referring to some of the murders here- 
tofore spoken of, "five worthy women and mothers 
suffered, from the brutal fiends, outrages worse than 
death, part of them being stripped of their clothing 
and dragged about naked by the heels, others wounded, 
and all of them, after defending: themselves to the last 
extremitv, made the victims of the lust of the hell 
hounds." The statements of the letter were vouched 

for by George M. Shearer, major of volunteers. 1!. F. 
Morris, county recorder of Idaho county, and C. W. 
Case, sheriff of Idaho count}'. 

But what of the movements by which these terrible 
outrages were to be checked and avenged? Colonel 
Perry, as we have said, set out from Lapwai on the 
night of the 15th. All night long his column toiled 
on over Craig's mountain and across Lawyer's can- 
yon ; all next day they continued their march, reaching 
Grangeville toward evening. Here they paused to 
listen to the reports of citizens and take in the situa- 
tion as best they could. They were joined by eleven 
volunteers, who guided them over the sixteen miles 
to White Bird creek still to be traversed by the weary 
marchers and their jaded animals. Reaching the top 
of the canyon about an hour before dawn, they halted 
to await the daylight and take much needed rest. Day- 
light came soon enough, revealing a deep short canyon 
with precipitous sides and a smooth looking bottom, 
which was in reality a rolling prairie sloping toward 
the creek. From the head of this canyon to the creek 
the distance is probably five miles. Just before reach- 
ing the creek the trail turned abruptly to the west, 
passed through a small canyon or ravine between two 
low hills and then gradually approached the creek, 
reaching its banks about a mile and a quarter farther 
along, just above the Manuel place. At this point the 
brush and trees which fringe the creek were unusually 
dense and the trail was bounded on the north by a low 
bluff. A rail fence stood just south of the highway 
and altogether die location was an ideal one for an 
Indian ambuscade. 

Behind this fence and in the bushes lining the trail. 
the main body of Indians was posted, while a small 
force was deployed a mile and a quarter farther up the 
trail to lure the soldiers onward. 

Where the trail ran through the ravine heretofore 
mentioned the ragged basaltic rocks along the summits 
of the hills afforded an excellent barricade, while to 
the left of the trail the heavy spring floods had washed 
out a deep gulch which ran through the bottom of the 
ravine and then south and emptied into the creek. Be- 
hind these rocks but principally down in the bottom 
of this deep, dark gulch the Indians concealed them- 
selves in large numbers. As soon as the skirmishers 
had drawn the troops through this canyon these Indians 
were to leap from their hiding places and open the 
attack. Should Perry go onward toward the Salmon 
he would rush into the main ambuscade and hi? case 
would be without hope. The plan was skillfully laid 
out ami illustrative of the military genius of Joseph 
and White Bird. How nearly successful it was we 
shall see. 

Perry led his command, now numbering a little 
over a hundred men. over the crest of the first slope 
of the canyon and down the narrow pass. With him 
and in advance were several Indian scouts, recruited 
from the friendly Nez Perces. When the troops had 
advanced about five miles from the top of the bluff 
and had practically reached the foot of the mountain, 
not over a quarter of a mile from White Bird creek, 
and about where the trail turns to the west, the scouts 



reported hostiies some distance ahead. It is said that 
they refused to go through the narrow and ugly look- 
ing ravine which now confronted the command, fear- 
ing that the hostiies were lying in wait. 

Perry halted and dismounted his command at this 
point, one man out of every four being left with the 
horses as is customary. The remainder of the troops 
were then ordered forward, a portion of them deploy- 
ing along the crest of one of the ridges. Suddenly the 
Indians appeared stretched out in a long irregular line 
ahead of the troops. Before these had advanced very 
far down the ravine an excited Indian lying in the deep 
gulch fired off his gun and in an instant the battle was 
on. Perry was not trapped, neither was he absolutely 
surprised as has often been intimated, and had his men 
been seasoned troops instead of recruits who had as 
yet scarcely smeiled gunpowder, he might have held 
his own creditably or have withdrawn with honors. 

Upon the opening of the engagement the redskins 
fired from several directions and it required all the 

skill at the officers' command to hold the troops in g 1 

order. Soon occurred an event, says Major Fenn, 
which decided to whom should belong the victory. 
How it happened or just why it happened can only be 
surmised, as the terrible calamity which followed 
swept away many who could have told and those who 
survived have left it indefinitely recorded. Certain it is 
that the partially demoralized troops on the line de- 
tected a retreating movement in their rear. They saw 
the men, who had been left with the horses, falling 
back up the hillside and probably thought this move- 
ment was incited by a flank movement on part of the 
Indians. This suspected retreat may have been only 
the efforts of those in charge of the horses to get on to 
higher ground, but being cavalrymen it was quite 
natural that those on the line should rely almost entire- 
ly upon their horses and that when they saw these 
moving farther and farther away, they should become 
disconcerted. The lines wavered and broke, and soon 
became thoroughly demoralized. The wily redskins 
were quick to follow up the advantage and attacked the 
troops more fiercely than ever. These became panic 
stricken and, throwing away guns, ammunition, cloth- 
ing and accoutrements, fled indiscriminately. Contrary 
to all military usage, the saddle girths on the horses had 
been left loose while the men went into action and as a 
result some of the excited troopers slipped off the 
backs of their steeds. These stampeded, leaving the 
footmen at the mercy of their savage foes. 

Upon going into action the ten volunteers under 
Major_ Shearer were assigned to the extreme left and 
accordingly took a position between what is known as 
the old Indian burying ground and the creek. Here 
they found some shelter in the rough surface of the 
ground. Hardly had thev taken their position be- 
fore the Indians under White Bird began a flanking 
movement through the brush on the opposite side of the 
creek ; two of the volunteers, H. A. Faxon and T. D, 
Swarts, had been wounded, and all became aware that 
the troops were retreating. Under these circumstances 
the volunteers deemed it best to retreat also. 

By this time the whole force was in headlong 
flight and the number of hostiies was constantly in- 
creasing by arrivals from the lower camp mounted on 
fresh horses. In vain Perry and his officers tried to 
rally their men. The bugler, who would have sounded 
the calls, had been killed at the first fire, so Perry and 
his officers were obliged to personally appeal to the 
troops. But the cavalrymen would not halt ; they 
were completely demoralized and no power could pre- 
vail upon them to stand and face their tormentors who 
poured an incessant, withering fire upon them. Just 
below the steep canyon leading to the prairie above, 
and at the mouth of a blind canyon, the gallant Thel- 
ler gathered a small body of men behind some natural 
breastworks and attempted to stem the tide. For a 
short time it seemed as if he might succeed, but the 
Indians finally concentrated their fire and overwhelmed 
the little band of brave men. The stalwart, lion- 
hearted, young lieutenant became the target fi ir a 
score of rifles, and he soon fell, pierced through the 
head. This was the last stand made by the troops in 
White Bird canyon. The men who were still uninjured 
rushed up the long, steep trail, fully exposed at every 
step to the withering fire from above them, to the can- 
yon's rim, where they were arranged by Perry and Par- 
nell into a better order of retreat. Before this narrow- 
canyon was entered, however, the volunteers had left 
the troops and reached the prairie by means of an old 
cow trail up Chapman creek. Thence they escaped un- 
harmed to Mount Idaho, where they organized a party 
of citizens to go out and meet the troops. Together the 
troops and volunteers fought their way across the 
prairie and finally, exhausted, dispirited and with gap- 
ing ranks, the little command entered Grangeville. 

"The Indians fought us." wrote Perry that evening, 
"to within four miles of Mount Idaho, and only gave it 
up on seeing that we would not be driven any farther, 
except at our own gait." This was a disastrous defeat. 
Nearly forty per cent, of Perry's command were left 
dead on the field. The chagrin of failure was the por- 
tion of the trained United States troops, while the exhil- 
aration of victory sent its pleasing thrills through the 
pulses of the savage warriors. This victorv supplied 
arms to the Indians. They secured at least fifty car- 
bines and much ammunition, thrown away by the sol- 
diers Colonel Perrv collected his discomfited troops at 
Grangeville, reorganized them there and put them in as 
good condition for future operations as possible. 

Howard had remained at Fort Lapwai to await the 
arrival of reinforcements. Wilkinson, as we have said, 
had gone to Walla Walla, where he started the tele- 
graph into activity with messages for aid. A courier 
is sent to summon Colonel Whipple from Indian valley 
with his two companies of cavalrv. and immediately 
upon receipt of the message that officer is ready for the 
march. The soldiers at Fort Walla Walla, those near 
Wallula, all that can be spared from Forts Vancouver. 
Harnev, Klamath, Stevens. Canby and Townsend are 
in motion as soon after despatches reach them as they 
can be mobilized, and most of them are headed toward 
Lapwai. The artillerymen, coming down from Alaska. 



are also directed to the front, and the call for help in 
time reaches to troops in California, Arizona and even 
to Georgia. 

Citizens also are doing what they can to place the 
threatened country and the storm centers on a war foot- 
ing, but there is great dearth of arms and ammunition, 
there being only seven repeating rifles on Camas prairie 
at this time. At Mount Idaho, as we have seen, the citi- 
zens gather for defensive purposes on the evening of 
the 14th. Many decide to return to their homes the 
following morning, believing that the scare is ill-found- 
ed, when news of the attack on the Norton and Cham- 
berlain party reaches the town. This, of course, dispels 
all idea of a return to the country, and steps are imme- 
diately taken to form a military company, erect a fort 
and otherwise place the little community on a war foot- 
ing. Every able-bodied man and boy is enlisted in the 
volunteer company of which Arthur Chapman is chosen 
captain. A retired English naval officer, H. E. Croas- 
dale, who had recently engaged in the stock business on 
the prairie, is placed in charge of the defenses. On this 
same day, June 15th, work is commenced on the stone 
fort which three days later is finished. At Grangeville 
another military company is organized by Captain 
Bloomer, and Grange hall is soon fortified. 

Slate creek, in the very heart of the savage-scourged 
country, soon has its fort, consisting of a high stockade 
built around Wood's hotel, in which the settlers of that 
section gather. Here are Mrs. Walsh and her two 
children, Mrs. Osborne and her four children, Mr. and 
Mrs. Tittman and two children, William Rhett and 
family, Mr. and Mrs. David Baldwin and girl, Mrs. 
Henry Elfers and her three children, E. R. Sherwin 
and family, the Woods, the Cones, John Gibbons, 
Joshua Fockler and others. Realizing their desperate 
straits, those in the fort decide to send to Florence for 
assistance. The mission is a dangerous one, and none 
can be spared from the garrison to undertake it, but 
finally Tolo, a friendly Nez Perce squaw, is prevailed 
upon to carry the message for aid. Faithfully does she 
serve her white friends, making the hard trip of twenty- 
five miles in safety and bringing back twelve men. 
With the addition of these the force numbers about six- 
ty-eight capable of bearing arms, but there are few 
arms to bear and little ammunition. 

Warren is fortified so as to defy a force of 500 In- 
dians : Elk City has plenty of men, but only a few old- 
fashioned guns and a limited supply of ammunition. 
Lewiston has caught the alarm at the first outbreak, 
and its call for aid takes the form of such dispatches as 
the following: 

Lewiston, I. T., June 17th. 
To the Mayor of Portland : 

For humanity's sake send up 50 or 100 stand of arms with 
ammunition. The Indians have broken out on Salmon river 
and Camas prairie. They have massacred 30 or 40 men, 
women and children, and the work is still going on. We 
have men hut few arms. We will be alright as far as this 
citv is concerned. The city assumes responsibility for their 
safe return. The arms, etc., guaranteed by the merchants. 

Subscribed. D. J. Warner, city recorder, by the order of 
the Common Council of the city of Lewiston, and N. B. Hol- 
brook, mayor; John P. Vollmer, merchant; Loewenberg 

Bros., merchants : Grostein & Binnard. merchants ; A. Damas, 

P. S. — June 18th. Settlers on Palouse and Paradise val- 
leys, and from all the country north, of us, are fleeing in 
here for protection. Farmers are all abandoning their farms, 
stock and everything. 

(Signed) J. P. Vollmer. 

Lewiston, I. T., June 17, 1877. 
To the President O. S. & N. Company: 

We have appealed to the Mayor of Portland, and aid 
us in this without delay. We are sadly in need of arms. 
Unless the country is relieved merchants must close busi- 
ness, farmers must flee from their crops, and this country 
will become depopulated. You will see our interests are 
identical. We want arms., soldiers and volunteers to pre- 
vent the slaughter of whites. Down with the peace policy. 

By order of the city council. 

(Signed) N. B. Holbrook, Mayor. 

D. J. Warner, City Auditor. 

A subscription paper is circulated also among the 
leading merchants and business men of Portland by 
H. D. Sanborn, of Lewiston, and the sum of $2,365 is 
quickly subscribed for the purpose of furnishing the 
citizens of Lewiston, Idaho Territory, with arms and 
ammunition for their defense. By this means a volun- 
teer company of sixty men under Ed McConville, which 
had been speedily raised for the defense of the town, 
is fully equipped for action, rendering this important 
base of supplies comparatively safe. 

The excitement prevailing all over the country is 
intense. No one knows how many of the Coeur d'Al- 
enes, Umatillas, Spokanes, apparently friendly Nez 
Perces and other northern Indians can be relied on ; no 
one can certainly predict ho'v many will be encouraged 
to join Joseph by Perry's defeat, and every one is be- 
coming painfully cognizant of the utter unpreparedness 
of the military for the crisis now presented. "Al- 
though it has been held out to settlers," complains the 
Teller, "that ample military force should be on the 
ground to enforce the orders to remove Joseph upon 
the reservation, six months have elapsed since the issu- 
ance of the order from Washington, and today there 
are not soldiers enough here to hold in check the single 
force of Joseph's 200 warriors, and, with the advantage 
of position Joseph has, he will continue to make his 
sallies upon the unprotected settlers and small detach- 
ments of troops and cut off scores of men from the 
living and continue that state of things for months to 
come. Every success he wins strengthens his cause 
among the other Indians who are professedly friendly, 
and may involve us in a long and bloody war which may- 
lead to the extermination of the tribes in this whole 
northern country. Had the force been here at the time 
appointed for Joseph to come upon the reserve and 
properly stationed Perry would not have been defeated 
and Joseph's power would easily have been subdued. 
But it was planned that the Bible, and not the sword, 
should subdue him, and that this missionary peace pol- 
icy should have the credit of his subjection. The plan 
has failed." 

Howard in his history of the war frankly admits 
the utter inadequacy of his force for the work in hand, 
but does not vouchsafe any explanation of the fact that 
the military was caught napping when it knew that 

The Friendly Nez Prece Squaw who rode to Florence from the Salmon River, warned the 
Whites of the Hostile Outbreak of the Indians, and brought Twenty-six Miners to the Rescue. 


force might become necessary to comply with the in- 
structions of the Indian bureau, neither does he attempt 
to fix responsibility for the unfortunate condition of af- 
fairs. So sure were the Indian agents and military 
men that Joseph would comply with his agreement to 
go peacably upon the reservation that they trusted al- 
most implicitly to that promise, though they knew that 
treachery on his part meant death and outrage to inno- 
cent and unarmed citizens. 

General Howard gives some graphic accounts of 
life and activities at Fort Lapwai during the few days 
succeeding the outbreak. "Mule trains," says he, "were 
hired, supplies of all kinds put in motion, couriers were 
coming and going ; Indian messengers and escaping sol- 
diers with their mouths full of exciting rumors and 
bad tidings were arriving from the field seventy miles 
awav. By the 21st of June eight new companies of reg- 
ular troops — little companies they were, for the whole 
made up but a few over 200 souls — were on the green 
plat near the Lapwai post. A small organization of 
volunteers under Captain Paige joined themselves to 
Whipple, who was in command of the cavalry, and were 
on hand for Indian fighting. 

"The time from the first news of the terrible disaster 
at Whitebird canyon till the morning of the 22d of 
June seemed long indeed. It appears long even in 
retrospect. Still it was only four days. Our effective 
men for the front now at Lapwai numbered but few 
more than two hundred. 

"Captains Whipple and Winters had arrived from 
their circuitous and tedious march from Wallowa. Cap- 
tains Miller and Miles had reached Lewiston by steam- 
boat and marched to Lapwai with several companies of 
the Fourth Artillery and the Twenty-first Infantry 
under their charge. The volunteers before mentioned, 
a little more than twenty strong, under Paige, of Walla 
Walla, had also joined us. Lieutenant Bomus, the 
quartermaster of the post, had improvised a supply 
train. The numerous miners, employed in different 
directions about Lewiston, had been thrown out of em- 
ployment by the Indian outbreak, so that their means 
of transportation, 'the mule pack train,' and their pack- 
ers became available for our use." 

By the 22d of June Howard was ready to move. 
His force was. still smaller than that opposed to him, but 
with such as he had to set out from Lapwai at 12 o'clock 
noon. Camped next day at Norton's ranch, his descrip- 
tion of which, as affording a glimpse of the "abomina- 
tion of desolation," we quote at length : 

"Mr. Norton, the late owner," says Howard, "was 
the man who was trying to get to Mount Idaho with 
his family when he and others were killed and his wife 
sadly wounded. We came to his house about half past 
one o'clock, having marched nineteen miles. Mr. Nor- 
ton had kept a sort of hotel. His house was now de- 
serted. The Indians had rummaged everything; what 
the family had left here was found in complete disorder. 
Who can realize what it is to have savage warfare break 
upon a family with little or no warning — to kill, wound 
and scatter like this ? It was worse than the desolation 

spoken of in the scriptures, where one shall be taken 
and another left. None were left! There were the 
clothes, cut and torn and strewn about, the broken 
chairs, the open drawers, a mixture of flour, sugar, salt 
and rubbish, the evidences indeed of riot run mad. Do 
we wonder that those who have passed through such 
experiences have been slow to forget and forgive 'mad 
Indians' ?" 

At this desolated ranch the force was ordered to 
encamp, and there they remained over Sunday. Critics 
of the generalship of the Nez Perces campaign have 
complained much of this delay, some of them asserting 
that Howard stopped tor the purpose of giving religious 
instruction to his command and distributing Bibles 
among the soldiers. Howard says he paused because 
he wished to ascertain certainly the whereabouts of the 
Indians, because he wished to give Captain Trimble 
time to get beyond the hostiles to Slate creek, so that 
the Indians might not be pressed back upon the little 
band of citizens "forted up" there, and thirdly, because 
he hoped that additional forces might join him from 

On Monday the troops moved forward, the infantry 
going to Johnson's ranch, the cavalry, with Howard, 
to Grangeville, where Perry's command was. After 
visiting Grangeville and Mount Idaho the cavalry re- 
joined the remainder of the command at Johnson's 
ranch, whence, at 6:30 next morning, the column pro- 
ceeded to the scene of Perry's defeat at White Bird 
canyon, for the double purpose of reconnoitering the 
enemy and hurrying the soldiers who had fallen there 
more than a week previous. Approaching with ex- 
treme caution, not to be caught a second time in the 
same way, they reverently buried the dead. Mean- 
while Paige of Walla Walla with his gallant volun- 
teer company, guided by Arthur Chapman, had been 
searching for signs of the enemy, whom they eventually 
succeeded in locating on the safe side of the Salmon 
river. The general also learned from a wounded citi- 
zen that it was Joseph's intention to draw the whites 
into the vicinity of the Seven Devils, to get them the 
farther from a base of supplies. 

To the military genius of the wild, savage chief, 
who had never seen the inside of a military college, 
had had no military training, had never read a work 
on tactics, in short was without other guidance than his 
own innate militarv judgment, the trained and ex- 
perienced general pays the following compliment : 

"The leadership of Joseph was indeed remarkable. 
No general could have chosen a safer position or one 
that would be more likely to puzzle and obstruct a pur- 
suing foe. If we present a weak force he can turn upon 
us. If we make direct pursuit he can go southward 
toward Boise for at least thirty miles, and then turn 
our left. He can go straight to his rear and cross the 
Snake at Pittsburg landing. He can go down the Sal- 
mon and cross at one of several places, and then turn 
either to the left to his old haunts in the Wallowa val- 
ley or to the right and pass our flank, threatening our 
line of supplies, while he has at the same time a won- 
derful natural barrier between him and us in the Sal- 
mon, a river that delights itself in its furious flow." 


Such was the problem presented to General Howard 
for solution. He had not with him a sufficient force 
so that he could send a part of it across the Salmon 
river to bring on an action with Joseph, while a por- 
tion remained to meet the enemy and protect the citi- 
zens, should the wily chieftain recross onto Camas 
prairie. He could not well retain his whole command 
on the east side of the river, for Joseph might remain 
in his position of safety indefinitely, and the entire 
country was clamoring for aggressive action. 

It was over the correct procedure at this time that 
Howard and the volunteers had their first little tilt. 
"While Howard was concentrating," says F. A. Fenn, 
"the Idaho volunteers appointed a committee consisting 
of Joseph Peaseley, John McPherson and myself to go to 
the general and explain to him a means of escape which 
was open to the Indians, viz : via the Billy, or Craig, 
crossing, down the Salmon several miles. This cross- 
ing was the only one this side of the mouth of the Sal- 
mon, and should Joseph attempt to escape northward 
he would be compelled to cross here. At that time the 
Indians numbered not over one hundred and fifty war- 
riors, and these were encumbered with their squaws, 
children and camp equipage and about 1,500 head of 
horses. \Ye called upon General Howard and suggest- 
ed our plan to him, viz : to send a small detachment 
north by the prairie to the Billy crossing, where a 
score of men could hold four or five times their num- 
ber at bay in the rocky defile leading north from the 
river, while he himself should cross at White Bird 
and attack Joseph's rear. By so doing he would have 
Joseph entrapped. General Howard politely listened 
to our suggestions and then bowed us out with the 
remark that he believed himself fully competent to 
manage his own campaign. After events proved con- 
clusively that we understood the country and the In- 
dians far better than the general, for Joseph crossed 
his entire force at the Billy crossing and, coming up 
on the prairie, attacked and massacred Lieutenant 
Rains and party." 

Howard decided to cross the Salmon with all his 
force, leaving only Captain Whipple's cavalry, which 
were sent back to arrest Looking-glass and his entire 
following and turn them over to the keeping of the 
volunteers at Mount Id;>ho. He had some skirmishing, 
but sustained no loss and probably inflicted no injuries 
upon the red skins, who soon disappeared. "I pressed 
this column/' says Howard, "after the Indians to 
Craig's Ferry (ford). Lost our raft in attempting to 
cross. Too much of a torrent to cross troops and sup- 
plies without it. James Reuben, the scout, had brought 
clear accounts that Joseph had not turned south toward 
his old haunts in the Wallowa, but northward and east- 
ward, to gather up Looking-glass and reinforcements, 
catch small parties like Rains's detachment and do what 
mischief he could.* Therefore, by turning straight 

*This report as given was mere surmise as to intentions 
of Joseph, for the first definite information Howard had that 
the hostiles had escaped him via the Craig or Billy crossing 
was conveyed to him by Peter H. Ready, a courier sent 
to him by Pern- with news of the destruction of Lieutenant 
Rains and his party.— F. A. Fenn. 

back, recrossing the Salmon at Rocky canyon, or White 
Bird, where there were boats, and going via Grange- 
ville. where I could bring the Cottonwood force to me, 
I had a short line and hoped to get a decisive battle 
from our doughty chief." The Teller, a severe critic 
of Howard, says of this short campaign : "Nature 
made a trap between Salmon and Snake rivers ; Joseph 
baited it by shaking a red blanket at Howard defiantly 
across the river. Howard followed the bait and con- 
sumed three days in crossing his five hundred men 
over the stream. When over Joseph runs back on this 
side and returns to Camas prairie. Howard stays in 
his trap two weeks before he finds he is in a trap." 

While the supreme in command was engaged in 
this bootless expedition between the Salmon and the 
Snake, events of considerably moment were transpiring 
on Camas prairie. Captain Whipple had gone to fulfill 
as best he could his instructions to arrest Looking- 
glass, who, the friendly Indians said, was awaiting a 
favorable opportunity to join Joseph. 

Thus far Lookingglass had maintained, as some 
of the whites aver, a perfectly neutral attitude, if any- 
thing leaning toward the cause of the whites, although 
there were doubtless many would-be hostiles among 
the younger element. He was camped on Clear creek, 
a few miles east of the present town of Kooskia, which 
was considered his home. Captain Whipple was joined 
at Mount Idaho by about twenty volunteers under Cap- 
tain D. B. Randall and a night ride was made to Clear 
creek. The utmost caution was taken by Captain 
Whipple to prevent the Indians from hearing of the ap- 
proach of the troops. Great was the astonishment of 
the former when, just as the soldiers reached Clear 
creek, the shrill notes of the bugle rang out across the 
canyon and were caught and echoed back by the sur- 
rounding hills and bluffs. In an instant the camp was 
astir, and by the hazy light of approaching dawn the 
Indians could be seen running back and forth. The 
red skins knew what a bugle call meant. 

Immediately a parley was arranged, and Captain 
Whipple and his escort went forth to meet Looking- 
glass. While this parley was progressing Washington 
Holmes, who had a half-breed wife, took it upon him- 
self to commence the engagement bv firing into the 
camp. This statement is made upon the positive asser- 
tions of two reputable men who were present — F. A. 
Fenn and C. M. Day — and upon the admission of Air. 
Holmes himself. Of course this act of hostility caused 
the immediate breaking off of negotiations between 
Whipple and Lookingglass, and a general engagement 
opened. The Indians soon fled eastward into the moun- 
tains, leaving their tepees, nearly all their camp equip- 
age and over seven hundred ponies. Some of the 
horses were captured by the troops and the tepees and 
equipage were burned. One Indian child was killed 
in the exchange of shots, but the whites escaped un- 
scathed. Lookingglass soon joined Joseph and ren- 
dered that chieftain invaluable assistance in planning 
and executing the campaign. He appeared as spokes- 
man in negotiations and parleys with the whites, won 
renown by his diplomacy and shrewdness and impressed 
many with the belief that to him of right belonged 



much of the credit for military skill which has been 
given to Joseph. 

Whipple marched next day to the Norton ranch 
(Cottonwood) in obedience to Howard's command 
that he should form a junction with Perry there. Upon 
his arrival he sent two scouts, William Foster and 
Charles Blewett, towards Howard's position at Craig's 
crossing to learn the whereabouts of the Indians. Hav- 
ing proceeded to Lawyer's canyon thev were ascending 
it when they saw an Indian with a band of horses, also 
three other Indians in another direction. They put 
their horses to full speed in retreat, Foster leading. 
When Foster found time to cast a backward glance he 
saw that his companion was unhorsed and separated 
from him. "Take to the brush," was his advice as he 
made an effort to capture the frightened animal. But 
the horse could not be caught, and Foster was com- 
pelled to leave Blewett to his own resources and con- 
tinue his retreat. He reached Whipple's command in 
safety and reported what he had learned as to the 
whereabouts of the Indians. 

Whipple immediately prepared to take up the line 
of march, sending Second Lieutenant Rains with ten 
picked men and the scout Foster to reconnoiter in ad- 
vance of the main command, and aid Blewett if he 
could. "I particularly cautioned Rains," says Whip- 
ple's report, "not to precede the command too far, to 
keep on high ground and report the first sign of In- 
dians." Rains and his men rode over the first rise 
from Cottonwood and down into the shallow ravine 
to the left of the present road leading to Craig's moun- 
tain from the prairie. Here they were attacked by 
what proved to be a large force of Indians. Whipple, 
who heard the firing, came up as fast as possible, but 
he saw that the Indians were in such numbers and so 
well intrenched that he could do nothing to help except 
at a loss of a greater number of men, so he was com- 
pelled to watch the doomed detachment as one by one 
its members fell. Some sought such shelter as they 
could find, some attempted to retreat back to Whipple's 
command, but not one escaped the bullets of the In- 
dian sharpshooters. Whipple's command formed in 
line on one side of the ravine while the Indians did like- 
wise on the other, but they were too far apart for ef- 
fective action, and neither combatant cared to give the 
other advantage by descending to lower ground. They 
stood menacing each other until nightfall, when Whip- 
ple returned to Cottonwood and the Indians retired 
toward Craig's crossing. During the night couriers 
arrived from Perry, who was en route to Cottonwood 
with a pack train from Fort Lapwai. This was sup- 
posed to be in imminent danger of attack by hostiles, 
therefore WTipple set out next morning, July 4th, to 
reinforce the escorting detachment. He met the pack 
train eight miles out and brought it to. its destination 
in safety. "About midday," says Whipple, "Indians 
began to gather, and but a short time elapsed before 
the camp (Cottonwood) was surrounded by them, and 
for hours they made the most frantic efforts to dislodge 
us. Every man of the command was kept on the 
lines this afternoon (rifle pits having been dug at a 

little distance from the Cottonwood house) until about 
sundown, when the enemy withdrew for the night." 

Perry was now chief in command at Cottonwood. 
On the morning of July 5th an event transpired which 
drew down upon him a storm of criticism, while it 
earned for Lieutenant D. B. Randall, before mentioned, 
and sixteen volunteers under his command a place 
among the world's heroes. The famous seventeen were 
seen approaching from the direction of Mount Idaho 
and w;ere recognized to be volunteers. The Indians at 
the time were moving their stock toward Clear- 
water. As soon as thev saw the volunteers about one 
hundred and fifty of them returned to intercept the 
doughty little squad and prevent their reaching Whip- 
ple. The Indians succeeded in getting between the 
volunteers and the regulars, taking a position on an 
elevation of ground near the intersection of the Elk 
City trail with the stage road. Perry was now urged 
to go with troops to the rescue, but lie refused, saying 
that the volunteers were already beyond hope. No 
doubt the captain honestly thought that an effort to 
save the volunteers would be bootless, vet the sang 
froid of a refusal to try is hard to understand.* 

Had Randall ordered a retreat it is probable that 
the Indians, on their fleet ponies, would have run down 
his men and killed most if not all of them, but Randall 
was not a retreating man. He continued on his course 
and the Indians soon had him surrounded. He ordered 
a fierce charge ahead, broke through their lines, se- 
cured a favorable position between the Indians and Cot- 
tonwood, ordered his men to dismount and shoot 
down horses, and he and they again faced the Indians, 
intending to hold their position until help should arrive 
from Cottonwood. In this charge, which differs from 
that of the Light Brigade in that the men did not "ride 
back," Randall was mortally wounded, B. F. Evans 
was killed and three others received injuries more or 
less serious. Randall was paralyzed by his wound, 
which was in the backbone, and died a few minutes 
after dismounting. 

Mr. F. A. Fenn tells us that on the eminence just 
back of the old Cottonwood hotel, where Perry's force 
was stationed, a small body of troopers and citizens 
was engaged in throwing up breastworks when the In- 
dians attacked the seventeen. They saw the charge of 
the volunteers, watched them take a more sheltered 
position a little over a mile from the fort at Cottonwood 
and w-aited in vain for the order to mount and go to 
the rescue. They saw F. D. Yansise ride in for rein- 
forcements. They also saw the appeal pass unheeded 
by Colonel Perry. Then they ceased watching and 
acted. Sergeant Simpson sprang to the front and 
cried : "If your officers won't lead you I will." He 
was ioined bv twenty-five others, all of whom made 

*"Especially so." says F. A. Fenn, "as the seventeen went 
there at the urgent request of Perry for reinforcements, 
which request he sent by a courier named Crooks the night 
before to Mount Idaho." F. D. Vansise is, however, of the 
opinion that Crooks came for volunteer reinforcements on 
his onn account, and without the knowledge of Perry. 



their way toward the horses. Perry, seeing that his 
men were determined to go anyway, directed Captain 
Whipple to take charge of the company, and under him 
reinforcements went to the seventeen and brought 
them safely in. Sergeant Simpson was arrested on the 
charge of insubordination, but afterwards participated 
in the Clearwater fight, where he was seriously wound- 
ed. Subsequently the charge against him was with- 

When the reinforcements arrived they found the 
men still holding their ground, having withstood nearly 
ten times their number for about an hour. Many are 
of the opinion that had the soldiers come speedily to 
the fray and followed up the advantage with vigor a 
severe whipping might have been administered to the 
red skins. The regular officers, however, were exon- 
erated by a court of inquiry. Fortunately the names 
of the celebrated seventeen have been preserved for us. 
They are as follows : D. B. Randall and B. F. Evans, 
killed ; A. B. Leland, D. H. Howser and Charles John- 
son, wounded, Mr. Howser mortally; L. P. Wilmot, 
J. L. Cearley, James Buchanan, William B. Beemer, 
Charles W. Case. E. J. Bunker, Frank D. Vansise, C. 
M. Day, George Riggins, A. D. Bartly, H. C. Johnson 
and F. A. Fenn. 

The war thus far had been decidedly in the Indians' 
favor. They had administered a disastrous defeat to 
Perry at White Bird ; they had successfully eluded 
Howard at the Salmon river, causing his entire force 
to consume much valuable time in accomplishing noth- 
ing ; they had massacreed Rains and party ; they had 
escaped from Whipple and Perry at Cottonwood ; they 
had effected a junction of the forces under Looking- 
glass with those of Joseph, despite the efforts of Whip- 
ple's cavalry and Randall's volunteers, sent to effect 
the arrest of the former chieftain, and the only check 
they had as yet received, that administered by Ran- 
dall's seventeen, had inflicted slight damage.* These 
successes, however, had inspired Joseph with the pride 
which precedes a fall. Whether he thought it was im- 
possible for the whites to concentrate, or that he dare 
risk a battle with Howard's entire command, is not 
definitely known, but at any rate he allowed himself to 
be brought to a decisive engagement, as a result of 
which he was forced to yield the struggle on Idaho 
soil and begin his famous retreat over the Bitter Roots 
and the tortuous trail beyond. 

Failing to effect a crossing at Craig's ford, Howard 
took the backward track, recrossing the Salmon, and 
July 9th found him again at Grangeville. His force 
was weakened by the withdrawal of Hunter's Dayton 
volunteers, McConville's Lewiston volunteers and Cap- 
tain Cearley's company, who, Howard says, "had be- 
come a little disgusted with the slowness of regulars 
and angry at their own fearful discomfiture near Cot- 

*Sorne of the volunteers state that nine new made graves 
were found where the Indians camped after the fight with 
the seventeen. One warrior was seen to fall and the Indians 
acknowledged that he was so badly wounded that he died 
a week or so later. 

tonwood ;" hence started on an independent movement.* 
They began reconnoitering for the enemy, soon struck 
their trail, following which they succeeded in locating 
the Indians near the junction of the south and middle 
forks of the Clearwater. Captain Cearley and L. P. 
Wilmot were sent out to discover their exact position, 
and did so. Though they saw no warriors, they judged 
from the number of lodges and horses that the Indians 
were in too great force to be successfully attacked by 
the small force of volunteers, and so reported. Ac- 
cordingly no aggressive movement was made, but the 
volunteers busied themselves in throwing up fortifica- 
tions and strengthening their position against a possi- 
ble assault. They had a race with the Indians about 
two o'clock that day, when the approach of Major 
Shearer with fourteen men was the signal for an In- 
dian attempt to head him off. They succeeded in 
bringing Shearer in safely. Upon his arrival it was 
determined to send a massage to Howard, twelve miles 
distant, apprising him of the whereabouts of the In- 
dians and asking that he march next day to co-operate 
with them in an attack upon the hostiles. Howard was 
waiting for reinforcements, and did not do so. Mean- 
while the Indians made a night attack upon the vol- 
unteers, killing and driving away forty-three of their 
horses. The volunteers waited for another day and 
night, but their messenger failed to return, on account 
of sickness, and, not seeing any sign of Howard and 
being short of provisions and horses, they withdrew 
toward Mount Idaho. McConville was criticised for 
yielding this position, which Howard wished him to 
hold as a part of the enveloping force, "but," says Ban- 
croft, who seems to get his information largely from 
Sutherland's history of Howard's campaign, "being 
separated from Howard by the river, and having lost 
a large number of the horses, it was prudent and good 
tacti.cs to retire and let the Indians fall into the trap 
Howard had set for them near their own camp and to 
place himself between the settlements and the Indians." 
The "trap" consisted in Howard's attacking Joseph on 
the opposite side from the volunteers' abandoned posi- 
tion, in which direction the Indians had thrown up 

*"This statement," says Major Fenn, "is as base and ma- 
licious a libel as was ever published. The action of the 
seventeen volunteers near Cottonwood was a victory. They 
held almost ten times their number at bay in pitched battle 
for an hour and a half and finally drove them off out of 
range. Casualties to the Indians were nine killed, as evi- 
denced by the graves thev left: the whites had two killed 
and three wounded. This was the first real reverse inflicted 
upon the hostiles and Howard's statement passes understand- 
ing. When informed of the fight of the seventeen. -Mc- 
Conville, who was at the time with Howard, at once set out 
with the citizen soldiers, including Hunter's men under his 
command, numbering about one jmndred men, to reinforce 
their fellows — and Perry, wdio was so anxiously calling fur 
help. McConville made a forced march from* White Bird 
and reached Cottonwood the evening of the 5th. The next 
morning all of the volunteers made a forced march to 
Mount Idaho, in the direction of which the Indians had 
moved. It has always been understood that Howard de- 
sired and consented to McConville's movement to reinforce 

Catholic Church built on Coeur d'Alene River at Old Mission in 1853 by the Indians and Jesuit Missionaries. 
Wooden Pegs were used instead of Nails to put it together. 

Foster Monument Commemorating a Scene in the Nez Perces War ot 1877. 



breastworks. Joseph's camp lay not far from the 
mouth of Cottonwood creek, in a deep defile among 
the high hills. On the nth of July Howard approached 
it with his entire force. Captain Trimble from Slate 
creek, Perry, Whipple and all. About noon Lieutenant 
Fletcher discovered the Indians, and by one o'clock a 
howitzer and two gatling guns were throwing leaden 
missiles at the Indians below. These were getting their 
horses out of range as rapidly as possible. The contour 
of the country favored them, and soon they were safe. 
Howard ordered a change of position to a bluff toward 
the left, which could only be reached by a trip of more 
than a mile around the head of a ravine. Upon reach- 
ing this position with the howitzer and gatlings they 
found Joseph already in line of battle and saw a number 
of mounted Indians attempting their flanking move- 
ment to the left. Winters with his cavalry met these 
flankers and foiled them in their purpose. Soon the 
battle began in good earnest. "My line," says Howard, 
"I extended to the left by the cavalry and to the right 
by the infantry and artillery battalions, gradually re- 
fusing my flanks, until the whole bluff was enveloped. 
Four hundred men, necessarily much spread out, held 
a line two and a half miles in extent. Our main pack 
train had passed by this position. Another small train 
with a few supplies was on the road near us. The In- 
dian flankers by their rapid movement struck the rear 
of the small train, killed two of the packers and dis- 
abled a couple of mules, loaded with howitzer ammu- 
nition. The prompt fire from Perry's and Whipple's 
cavalry saved the attendant ammunition from capture, 
luckily. The main supply train was saved only by the 
quick work of a messenger, guiding it within the 

Charges and counter charges were made during 
the day, in one of which, led by Captain Miles, Cap- 
tain Bancroft and Lieutenant Williams were seriously 
injured and a number of the enemy were killed and 
wounded. A charge near the center by Miller gave 
the whites a disputed ravine, but the repeated charges 
of the enemy were successfully repelled. The whites, 
however, were not in the best position at nightfall, as 
their water supply, a spring, was commanded by the 
Indian sharpshooters, so that it was only by running 
the gauntlet of a dangerous fire that the officers ob- 
tained during the night sufficient water to slake the 
thirst of their men. Throughout most of the hours of 
darkness the combatants on both sides worked hard 
constructing stone barricades and rifle pits. 

"At daylight on the 12th," says Howard, "every 
available man was on the line. I directed that food 
should be cooked and coffee made at the center and 
carried to the front. This was not easy to do, for we 
had first to get complete possession of the spring, as 
sufficient water was not secured in the night. This 
feat was executed with great spirit by Miller and 
Perry, using Otis's battery and Rodney's company on 
foot. As soon as the battery had made a rapid firing 
it ceased and a prompt charge at a run with shouting 
was undertaken by the men in support. The Indian 
sharpshooters were thus driven from their hiding 

places and the spring secured by our riflemen against 

"As soon as every man had been provided with 
food I directed that the artillery battalion be withdrawn 
from the lines, thin though they were already, and that 
the whole stretch be held by the infantry and cavalry. 
This gave a reserve force to employ in an offensive 
movement. It should lie remembered that the number 
of our men on the line and the number of Indian war- 
riors that Joseph marshaled were about equal. Miller 
withdrew "his battalion and at 2:30 p. m.. the time I 
had selected, was preparing to execute a peculiar move- 
ment, viz : to push out by the west flank, pierce the 
enemy's line just west of the center, cross his barri- 
caded ravine, then face suddenly to the right and 
charge so as to strike the Indian position in reverse, as- 
sisting himself meanwhile bv a howitzer. 

"Miller was fully ready and about to move when 
beyond the Indian position toward the south a dust ap- 
peared in the distance. Our glasses, quickly catching 
every new appearance, revealed it as the expected sup- 
ply train, escorted by Jackson's cavalry. Immediately 
the artillerv battalion, which was waiting for the either 
work, was sent out to meet the newcomers. This oc- 
casioned considerable skirmishing and a delay of an 
hour, when the train was brought in in safety. To 
our joy Major Keeler of General McDowell's staff ac- 
companied the escort and brought us cheering words 
from his general at San Francisco as well as welcome 
reinforcements. At the time of these arrivals I had 
ridden out a few yards to secure a fair view of the 
field. Upon my invitation Major Keeler came for- 
ward to see the battle and took a place by my side. 

"Captain Miller, instead of returning with the train, 
was marching slowly in column by the right flank to- 
ward us, when, as he crossed the enemy's line, just 
at the right point, he faced to the left, moved quickly 
in line for nearly a mile across our front and repeatedly 
charged the enemy's positions. This manner of strik- 
ing at an angle and following up the break is called 
'rolling up die enemy's line.' This Miller accomplished 
most effectually. The usual attempt to double his left 
was made bv the Indians, when a reserved company, 
Rodney's, in Miller's rear deployed, flanked the flank- 
ers and drove them back. 

"For a few minutes there was a stubborn resistance 
at Joseph's barricades ; then his whole line gave way. 
Immediately the pursuit was taken up by the whole 
force, infantry and artillerv. Winter's troops, dismount- 
ed, and the remaining cavalry, as soon as they could 
saddle and mount. This movement was decisive. The 
Indians are completely routed and flying over the 
rugged banks, through the ravines, swimming and 
wading the river and our forces are in close pursuit." 

Jackson's cavalry had failed to reach the scene in 
time to participate in the battle, but it was on hand 
for the pursuit. It, with the force in charge of the 
gatling gun, quickly moved to a point overlooking the 
Clearwater. The howitzers also were brought to this 
position and a fusillade was poured into the retreating 
Indians and their ponies. Meanwhile other troops 


pressed down the ravines and steep hillsides to the 
river's edge, but further they could not go, owing to 
the depth of the water. Soon Perry's cavalry came 
to the canyon's bottom and across the river, but for 
some reason Perry did not press the pursuit up the 
opposite bank, contenting himself rather with taking 
a position near the deserted Indian lodges. Howard, 
scanning the field with his glass, noticed a movement 
of Indians which indicated to him a possible intention 
on their part to return to the conflict. He warned 
Perry of the danger to his cavalry and ordered him to 
ferry the infantry across so as to present a sufficient 
force in opposition should the red men evince a taste 
for further battle. The whites could not effect a 
crossing of the stream as expeditiously as did their 
dusky foe ; the time consumed gave the Indians oppor- 
tunity of escape to a point so far remote as to make 
their overhauling before dark an impossibility; the 
troops, therefore, concluded to camp for the night, and 
the battle of the Clearwater was over. The Indian 
loss was twenty-three killed, perhaps forty wounded 
and as many more captured, besides the stores of 
blankets, buffalo robes, provisions and promiscuous 
equipage they were compelled to abandon at their 
camp. Howard reports his loss as thirteen killed and 
twenty-two wounded. 

The most severe criticism made against Howard 
in the Clearwater battle is that he failed to follow up 
the advantage which Miller's successful charge gave 
him. McConville's volunteers had returned during the 
last day of the fight and were stationed on the west 
bank of the Clearwater several miles from the battle- 
field. They were holding themselves in readiness to at- 
tack the Indians in front whenever the troops gave evi- 
dence that they would support the attack from the rear. 
Had the troops crossed behind the Indians and hung 
on Joseph's flanks and the volunteers under Major Mc- 
Conville attacked them in front the war, so many crit- 
ics aver, might have been ended then and there. In- 
stead, however, the Indians were allowed to proceed 
leisurelv to Kamiah, where they crossed the river and 
commenced their retreat. 

Next morning Howard reached Kamiah in time to 
see the last of Joseph's band crossing the Clearwater. 
When the river was reached the last Indian was across, 
and, though the gatling guns were put into operation, 
they inflicted little damage. Joseph took a position at 
the' beginning of the Lolo trail, where, by sending 
scouts in all directions, he could keep close watch upon 
the movements of the soldiers and learn the outlines of 
Howard's plans. 

That general had it in mind to reach, if he could, 
a position some fifteen or twenty miles beyond Joseph, 
where there was a junction of trails, thus cutting off 
his escape, but Joseph's scouts were too vigilant ; the 
plan was surmised and the Indians hastily set out to 
anticipate him. 

In pursuit of this plan Howard started on the 15th 
of July, ostensibly for Lapwai, but intending to go 
down the river to Dunwell's ferry, thence to a position 
in foseph's rear. When he discovered that his inten- 
tions were surmised he went back to Kamiah, leaving 

Jackson and some volunteers who had just rejoined the 
regulars to guard against a possible return by the In- 
dians across the river at Dunwell's. He was met by a 
messenger from Joseph asking upon what terms the 
chief might surrender. While the conference was in 
progress a shot, fired by the Indians, struck near the 
consulting party, a circumstance which certainly looked 
like bad faith on the part of the Indians, though Suth- 
erland, author of "Howard's Nez Perces Campaign," 
thinks Joseph really intended to surrender and was only 
deterred by Howard's reply that he and his men would 
be tried before a court-martial of regular officers. How- 
ard considered the proposal a ruse to delay his move- 
ments. At any rate Joseph did not surrender, though 
the messenger, his family and some other Indians 
afterward did. 

Meanwhile the cavalry, scouts and volunteers had 
been ferried across the river, and these Howard sent 
under Colonel Mason to pursue the enemy, to learn his 
intentions and engage him in battle if such could be 
done with fair prospect of success. The scouts ran into 
Joseph's rear guard near Oro Fino creek and had a 
brush with it, in which one scout was killed and one 
wounded. One of the enemy was also killed. Believ- 
ing it unsafe to attempt to use cavalry in a country so 
favorable for ambuscades, Mason returned and the 
campaign in Idaho was ended. Howard summarizes 
the war thus far in this language: 

"The Indians had been well led and well fought. 
They had defeated two companies in a pitched battle. 
They had eluded pursuit and crossed the Salmon. They 
had turned back and crossed our communications, had 
kept our cavalry on the defensive and defeated a 
company of volunteers* They had finally been forced 
to concentrate, it is true, and had been brought to bat- 
tle. But, in battle with regular troops, they had held 
out for nearly two days before they were beaten, and 
after that were still able to keep together, cross a river 
to deep to be forded and then check our pursuing cav- 
alry and make off to other parts beyond Idaho. The 
result would necessitate a long and tedious chase. 

"Still, on our side, the Indians had been stopped in 
their murders, had been resolutely met everywhere and 
driven into position and beaten ; and by subsequent pur- 
suit the vast country was freed from their terrible 

It is practically impossible at this late date to so 
come into possession of the details of the war as to 
enable one to express a definite opinion about the 
merits of the dispute between the regulars and volun- 
teers, even if a historian were justified in usurping the 
function of a judge or jury and dealing in generaliza- 
tions and deductions from facts rather than in the 
facts themselves. Many severe criticisms have been 
made upon Howard's slowness of movement, and it is 
the general opinion of volunteers and others that, 
while he proved himself a gentleman of many virtues, 
he failed to adapted himself to the condition presented 

*Tlie volunteers are unable to understand why their gal- 
lant charge at Cottonwood should be repeatedly classed as 
a deteat. 



by the known methods of Indian warfare ; that he was 
not aggressive and vigorous enough to be called a "good 
Indian fighter." Howard, in his valuable work enti- 
tled "Nez Perces Joseph." has attempted an answer to 
these objections, mainly by pointing out the difficulties 
which surrounded him and contending that greater 
expedition was impossible under the circumstances. 
Severe strictures were made by citizens upon some 
of the inferior officers, particularly Captain Perry, 
whose military movements were made the occasion 
for the sessions of two courts of inquiry. Charges of 
lack of discipline and incompetence were brought by 
some officers of the regular army against the volun- 
teers also, the most bitter being by Major Keeler, of 
General McDowell's staff, who had the least oppor- 
tunity to know whereof he spoke. Howard, be it said 
to his credit, frankly commended the volunteers, more 
than once publicly, thanking them for valuable assist- 
ance rendered him. 

After the return of Mason with the report that 
Joseph had certainly gone toward the buffalo coun- 
try, Howard naturally began revolving in his mind 
plans for future operations. He thought at first of 
leaving a small garrison at Kamiah and going to Mis- 
soula at once, trusting Colonel Green, who was bring- 
ing a force from Fort Boise, and General Wheaton, 
coming to Lewiston from Georgia as fast as steam 
could carry him, with the task of protecting Camas 
prairie and the rest of north Idaho. This plan had to 
be abandoned on account of the alarm lest Joseph 
should suddenly return and swoop down again upon 
the temporarily unprotected settlements. So Howard 
himself awaited the arrival of Green's advance guard, 
thus giving the hostiles a splendid lead in the race and 
occasioning a loud clamor from the impatient journ- 
alists and people. The plan evolved during the per- 
iod of waiting was to form two columns and a reserve, 
the right column to be led by Howard in person, the 
left by Wheaton, and the reserve to stay with Green 
at Camas prairie. Howard's force was to take the 
Lolo trail; Wheaton's the Mullan road and the re- 
serve to "watch all trails, keep inter-communication, 
be ready for hostile Indians, should they double back, 
and give heart to all neighboring farmers, miners, 
prospectors, and friendly Indians by the show of pro- 
tection at hand." 

Howard with his right column took the trail on the 
26th of July, 1877. His journeyings from that time 
until the capture of Joseph are replete with adventures 
and incidents, but all this is extra-territorial to the his- 
torian of north Idaho and though completeness de- 
mands a brief narration of the long chase, yet it must 
be brief. Day after day the column toiled on, slipping, 
sliding, up the steep acclivities, down the precipitous 
mountain sides, following the windings of the inter- 
minable "hogs-backs," as connecting ridges between 
two mountain uplifts are called, vigilant always to 
keep out of traps the wily red skins may set, the com- 
manding general not alone burdened with the respon- 
sibility of a campaign, presenting at times grave dan- 
ger of ambush and surprise, but smarting under the 
lash that is being applied by numerous newspapers the 

whole country over. The Indians, familiar with the 
country by frequent former trips to the buffalo 
grounds, possessing an ability to get work out of a 
horse such as no white man can, and led by one whom 
Miles has characterized the greatest military genius 
of the Indian race, are making one of the most 
brilliant retreats in the annals of Indian warfare. 
Once they might have been stopped and held for 
Howard. A small force of regulars under Cap- 
tain Rawn and a considerable number of citizen 
soldiers had built a fort at the enterance of the 
Lolo trail into the Lolo valley. The pass was 
narrow, the walls high and precipitous. The fort, 
though a hastily constructed affair, was so favorably 
situated that it commanded the situation completely. 
When the Indians arrived they quickly saw their dis- 
advantage. Being diplomats as well as warriors, they 
determined to try the effect of a parley where bullets 
would be plainly ineffective. They promised to do no 
damage to the citizens of the valley if only they should 
be allowed to proceed. Why should they not make 
such a promise ? They not only hoped to gain a pres- 
ent advantage but to placate the people and perhaps 
get them in the notion of trade, for they were sorely 
in need of fresh horses, and fresh supplies of ammuni- 
tion and provisions. Looking-glass's diplomacy tri- 
umphed. The soldiers and citizens withdrew, allow- 
ing the red men to pass without opposition through a 
trail they had been busily preparing during the four 
days of parley to the left of the fort. An unpatriotic 
act, certainly, but Howard did not blame them and 
surely we can afford to be no less charitable. Hardly, 
however, can we imagine Randall or McConville or 
Paige or Cearley doing such a thing. 

Space forbids narration of the day and night rid- 
ing of messengers between Howard's advance col- 
umn and the United States forces to the eastward who 
were now becoming interested in the campaign. Even 
a war of small magnitude develops numerous heroes, 
for the world is full of heroism, so full that it cannot 
pay its meed of hero-worship to each. If it could the 
despatch-bearers who rode furiously and without rest 
day or night over the danger-beset, roadless, rough 
and rugged country between Howard and the Indian 
rear guard, would come in for a full share. 

One of these messengers reached Howard on the 
6th of August, announced his name as Pardee and 
brought the news that General Gibbon had left his 
headquarters at Helena; had hastened to Missoula, ar- 
riving just after the Indians had passed Rawn's fort, 
was pushing forward on Joseph's trail with less than 
two hundred men and wanted reinforcements. An- 
other, named Sutherland, left the same evening with 
Howard's reply which was that "General Howard is 
coming on. as fast as possible, by forced marches with 
two hundred cavalrymen, to give the needed reinforce- 

In compliance with this promise, Howard quick- 
ened his pace, but the horses were weary with long 
marches, weakened by insufficient nutrition and un- 
able to satisfy with their speed the eagerness of the 
commander. On the 10th of August, therefore, How- 


ard determined to take twenty-five picked horses and 
men and seventeen scouts, with whom to ride as fast 
and as tar as possible in quest of Gibbon, leaving the 
remaining cavalry to pursue as quickly as they could. 
At dusk' this advance guard encountered seven citi- 
zens, from whom they learned that Gibbon had had 
a fight the day before. ' The citizens gave a gloomy ac- 
count and, though little credit was accorded it as it 
seemed like the semi-imaginative report of men who 
run as soon as a battle commences, a messenger is 
sent forward that night to apprise Gibbon of the help 
coming. Gibbon's messenger missed Howard's small 
force but delivered the message to Mason, in the rear, 
with whom were the much needed medical officers. 

By 10 a. M. on the morning of August nth, How- 
ard came up to Gibbon's fortified camp, where the 
train and a small guard of soldiers and volunteers had 
been left. Hastening onward he soon reached Gib- 
bon's position, and found him, as his message would 
have told had it been received, near the mouth of Big 
Hole pass in rather sorry plight. The camp looked 
very much like a hospital from the number lying help- 
less and the profusion of bandages. 

Gibbon had arrived at a point within six miles 
of the Indians' camp on the 7th of August. On the 
8th a party under Lieutenant Bradley managed to steal 
up close enough to observe the Indians, and in the mid- 
dle of the night Gibbon's main force secured a posi- 
tion within a mile or so of their camp. Reconnoisance 
proved the central Indian position to be across a bend 
on the north fork of the Big Hole river and that the 
lodges numbered eighty nine. Before daylight Gib- 
bon's forces were very close to the enemy and still 
unobserved. Dawn brought the attack. Bradley was 
killed at the willows which lined the stream. Before 
the Indians could get out of their lodges, the whites 
were across the stream and upon them. A stubborn 
hand to hand fight ensued, Indian boys and squaws 
taking part and fighting with desperation. Eventu- 
ally the Indians fed back to the brush and high points 
commanding their camp, whence they poured a melt- 
ing fire upon the troops, busily engaged in destroying 
the camp. As the Indians outnumbered the whites 
two to one the latter were at a disadvantage as soon 
as their antagonists recovered from their surprise. The 
soldiers were therefore compelled to withdraw from 
the open to a wooded point near the canyon by which 
the troops had effected their approach. In so doing 
they had a fierce fight with the Indians. Gibbon ex- 
pected his howitzer to be brought to this position, 
but it was captured, one of its six defenders being 
killed and one wounded. White Bird was heard and 
seen endeavoring to inspire the Indians with courage 
to attack Gibbon's position. In this, however, he failed. 
One attempt was made to capture Gibbon's supply 
train, but it was so valiantlv defended by Kirkendall's 
little squad, that the small force of Indians sent against 
it dared not attack it and a larger force could not be 
spared from the main engagement. This surprise 
would have been fraught with grave consequences 
to the Indians had they been led with less consummate 
ability, but thanks to the generalship of their com- 

mander, they were effectually rallied and inflicted up- 
on the attacking column a loss of twenty-nine killed 
and thirty or more wounded. During the night the 
Indians moved away. Gibbon was in no condition to 
follow, himself having been wounded in the engage- 
ment and many of his small command disabled. Look- 
ing-glass, the Indian diplomat, was killed at the last 
battle on Milk river. 

Howard remained near Gibbon's battlefield during 
the 1 2th of August awaiting for the rest of his force 
to come up, and on the 13th again took the pursuit. 
At his encampment that night, he learned from two 
excited messengers that eight citizens had been mur- 
dered by Joseph on Horse prairie, and that two hun- 
dred and fifty fine horses had been secured by the hos- 

On the evening of the 15th. word was sent that 
the Indians had turned back into Idaho and surrounded 
temporary fortifications at a junction of two cross- 
roads in Lemhi valley. "Push straight for Fort Lemhi 
and you will have the Indians" was the message of 
Colonel Shoup. in command of sixty Idaho volunteers. 
Howard did decide to turn to his right into Lemhi 
valley and was making preparations for doing so when 
after midnight, another messenger arrived, reporting 
that the Indians had broken camp, rushed past the 
temporary fort doing it no harm and gone eastward, 
so Howard pushed on as at first intended. 

August 17th found him at Junction station. Here 
he was met by stage men, who persuaded him to aban- 
don his purpose of proceeding straight to what was 
known as Tacher's Pass, going rather by the road via 
Dry creek. Lieutenant Bacon, with forty picked men, 
and Robbins. with the Indian scouts, were, however, 
sent direct to the coveted pass and Henry Lake. On 
the 18th the camp of the Indians was discovered by 
Buffalo Horn about eighteen miles from Dry creek 
station in Camas meadows, and Howard was appraised 
of the whereabouts of his wily foe. 

"How confident I then felt !" says the General. "Ba- 
con and Robbins ahead of Joseph and my cavalry only 
eighteen miles behind on the direct trail! If it were 
possible. I would reinforce Bacon ; but he is seventy 
miles off! 'He can annoy and stop them, if he can- 
not do more.' I exclaim." 

The general condition of things was far from fa- 
vorable however. The cavalry horses were so jaded 
and slow that eighteen miles was a considerable trip 
for them ; the Montana volunteers were still farther be- 
hind and the infantry at least a day's march behind 
them. But on the night of August 19th, Howard with 
the cavalry. Callowav's volunteers and fifty infantry- 
were in camp together in Camas meadows, where Buf- 
falo Horn had seen Joseph's band the day before. The 
trail of the hostiles was distinctly visible. They were 
supposed to be in a camp some fifteen miles beyond. 
Suddenly in the middle of the night, the multitudinous 
noises of battle and the wild Indian war whoop burst 
upon the ears of the sleepers. 

Joseph has determined to double back and, with a 
few of his men. distract the attention of the soldiers, 
while some of his skilled horse thieves are cutting the 



hobbles on the mules and making away with these ani- 
mals. Howard saw the herd in full stampede. He sent 
Major Sanford after them with the cavalry and soon 
that officer sent word that he had recovered between 
fifty and seventy-five head of the lost stock. A second 
messenger brought less pleasing tidings. He informed 
Howard that the Indians were returning in force and 
turning Sanford's left. The remainder of the force 
was quickly ordered to the rescue. It met Sanford re- 
turning and inquired for Norwood, but no one knew 
definitely where that officer was. The advance was 
continued and eventually the missing cavalry officer 
and his force were discovered. He had had quite a 
skirmish, one which cost him the loss of one man killed 
and six wounded. This surprise of Howard and the 
capture of some of his mules was the theme of much 
fun-making among eastern journalists. 

The march was not resumed until the 21st. On the 
22d some scouts joined the pursuing party from Fort 
Hall, also Captain Bainbridge with more scouts and a 
small guard of soldiers. The night of the 23d there 
must have been little sleeping, for the Bannock scouts 
had a dance and council ; then some of their number 
came to Howard with a request for permission to kill 
three professedly friendly Indians, claiming they were 
traitors, which request was denied : then to make mat- 
ters worse at two o'clock reveille was sounded. Day- 
light revealed Tacher's gap and the Indian camp near 
it. A rapid advance was made and the gap soon 
reached but the birds had again flown. How discour- 
aged and disgusted the soldiers must have been ! Ba- 
con and his party not seeing any Indians had left Henry 
lake, in plain sight of the pass, turning back and by this 
unfortunate move coming out far in the rear of the 
main column. Howard's messengers to him had failed 
in duty and as a consequence this splendid chance of 
cutting off the retreat of the foe and terminating the 
war was lost. 

For many weary miles the soldiers had striven to 
overtake the Indians and now that they were on the 
heels of the redskins, they must again allow the latter 
to get a lead of several days. Howard's order to fol- 
low Fisher's scouts on through the pass was met by 
the protest of the physician, the quarter-master, the 
inspector and other officers. "We cannot, we cannot, 
general !," said they. "Come look at your soldiers ; 
look at their clothing, ragged already and tied with 
strings ; look at their feet, some barefooted and the 
most with shoes so badly worn that in one or two days 
they will b; gone. The ice froze an inch in our basins 
last night, and we have no overcoats, nothing but thin 
blankets, now falling to pieces. You can go no far- 

The was no gainsaying this reasoning. The com- 
mand was allowed to rest four days on the banks of 
Henry lake while the commander, the quarter-master, 
and Lieutenant Howard set out by wagon to Virginia 
City for supplies, dishing and Norwood were di- 
rected to proceed to Fort Ellis for supplies, joining the 
main body two hundred miles farther on. Blankets, 
provisions, fresh horses, everything needful were pro- 
curer! ; the general and those accompanying him re- 

turned and on the 27th of August, the march was re- 
sumed under more favorable conditions. The famed 
National Park was soon entered, and some members 
of the ill-starred Geyser party encountered, which, 
while on a pleasure trip had the misfortune to fall into 
the hands of the hostile Indians. The first man re- 
ported his comrades all dead, but two others, wounded, 
were afterward met. The women were spared by Jos- 
eph and eventually rescued. 

In the park Howard received news of Joseph's 
whereabouts from a man who had been captured by 
the Indians and recaptured by Fisher's scouts, 
which information saved the command nearly 
one hundred miles of marching. About the 
same time evidences were discovered of Bannack 
treachery. Ten of these Indians were arrested, dis- 
armed and held as prisoners until their comrades, by 
bringing in the horses which the Bannocks were ac- 
cused of having stolen, earned the liberty of all ex- 
cept one, the leader, who was sent under guard to 
Fort Ellis. 

Under the guidance of the rescued prisoner the 
soldiers proceeded to the Yellowstone river at Baron- 
et's bridge and across it, the scouts finding "too abund- 
ant evidence of their (the Indian's) usual murder and 
rapine for twenty miles down the river to the Mam- 
moth Falls, where a raiding party from Chief Joseph 
had met and robbed some wagons and burned a store." 
The scouts found evidences that Gilbert's calvary had 
been there, but through want of knowledge as to How- 
ard's whereabouts their commander had swung off. 
coming upon the trail of the pursuing party one hun- 
dred miles in the rear. He tried to overtake Howard, 
but failed and finally returned to Fort Ellis. Unfor- 
tunately the cavalry of Cushing, who left the main 
column, as we have said, at Henry lake, had been taken 
to reinforce Gilbert, but with the remnant Cushing 
made a race for the valley of Clark's Fork to head off 
loseph, when he should come down from the moun- 
tains. He failed to anticipate the swift-footed chief- 
tain, but effected a junction with Howard, turning 
over to that general the supplies he had been sent for. 
Arriving at the Soda Butte silver mine, the command 
came upon about twenty armed miners, all of whom 
were employed as guides. These led the main column 
by a short route, while the scouts on fresh horses fol- 
lowed the trail of the hostiles, and learned of the out- 
rages committed by Joseph in his march. Three min- 
ers were robbed of everything, then killed in spite of 
earnest begging for mercy. A fourth, robbed and 
dreadfully wounded, made his escape to the soldiers. 

On the march from Soda Butte mountains. Howard 
was met by three messengers, who brought the news 
that General Sturgis, with several cavalry companies, 
was within fifty miles and was moving to Hart's moun- 
tains to cut the Indians off from their only practicable 
route to the mouth of Clark's fork. Had he only done 
so the war might have been speedily terminated, but 
he allowed himself to be deceived, probably by treach- 
erous Crow Indians, and sent on a wild goose chase 
to the right. This and the audacity of Joseph in strik- 
ing into an apparently impenetrable forest and through 



a narrow canyon opening into Clark's valley again 
saved the fortunate Indians. 

Sturgis discovered his mistake, returned, was re- 
inforced by Howard with a few picked horses and 
men and sent ahead in the chase. He overtook the 
enemy and had a battle with them on the heights be- 
yond the Yellowstone, capturing hundreds of ponies. 
A running fight was kept up with the retreating red- 
skins all the wav to the Musselshell river. Howard, 
however, despairing of Sturgis' or his own ability to 
overtake the Indians, who were going night and day, 
sent a message by boat down the Yellowstone, also 
by a horseman, to General Miles at Tongue river, ask- 
ing that officer to strike northwestward to the Missouri, 
intercepting the hostiles if possible. 

Meanwhile the forces with Howard concentrated 
on the Yellowstone below Clark's fork, pushed down 
the river to Baker's battlefield and turned thence north- 
ward with intent to rejoin Sturgis at the Musselshell. 
By September 20th they were on that river, and there 
they received a message from General Miles, who 
promised to move at once. The march of the pur- 
suers was continued with somewhat less haste than 
theretofore, the generals, Sturgis and Howard, not 
wishing to press the hostiles too hard, lest they should 
not give Miles time to come up before them. This 
continued until a messenger arrived stating that Miles 
had crossed the Missouri and was in pursuit, then the 
command quickened its march until it reached Car- 
roll, where Howard, leaving his main command with 
Sturgis, took passage with an artillery battalion, two 
aides and a few scouts, on a steamer for Cow Island. 
Disembarking there, he pushed on northward with an 
escort of seventeen armed men, to the Bear Paw moun- 
tains. On the 4th of October, after dark, the party 
came to a point whence numerous small fires could be 
seen and the firing of musketry heard. It was the 
Indian warriors doing what damage they could to the 
forces around them. Soon Howard joined Miles and 
learned of the situation from him. 

General Miles had made a rapid march to the Mis- 
souri, crossed that river, gone to Bear Paw mountain, 
making the long journey without any knowledge of his 
movements reaching the hostiles, had come upon Joseph 
in a ravine, had surprised him completely and by a 
bold charge had defeated him badly, capturing his herd 
of ponies. The Indians were forced to take refuge 
in the deep ravines, where they fortified and heH out 
as long as they could. On the 5th of October, the day 

after Howard's arrival, firing was kept up by the 
troops, with an occasional reply from the enemy, until 
11 o'clock, when two of Howard's Indian scouts were 
sent into the camp of the chief with a flag of truce. 
After some lively negotiating Joseph finally, at 2 P. M., 
agreed to surrender. He handed his rifle to General 
Howard, who directed that it should be given to Col- 
onel Miles, and the remainder of the day was spent by 
the Indians in coming into camp with their arms. 
White Bird slipped out through the lines and escaped 
with a considerable following, Indians say about forty, 
to the British possessions. Ollicut, Joseph's brother, 
was killed in the four days' battle with Miles. The 
Nez Perces were promised that they should be returned 
to the reservation in Idaho, but General Sheridan, in 
whose department they were, directed that they should 
be sent to the Indian territory. Years afterward they 
were brought back to the west and settled partly on 
the Nez Perces and partly on the Colville reservation. 
The fame of Joseph became widespread on account 
of his military prowess, and no doubt the glory ac- 
corded him was a potent factor in inciting the Bannock 
and Piute war of the following year. Buffalo Horn, 
who had seen the entire campaign, became ambitious to 
emulate Joseph's career, but fortunately for the whites 
did not possess the generalship with which to do so. 
Joseph was indeed a military leader of extraordinary 
ability. With less than four hundred fighting men 
and encumbered with large numbers of women and 
children, he had succeeded in leading Howard a chase 
that exhausted his mules and horses and wore out his 
men, reducing them to a condition in which they were 
truly objects of commiseration. How he could, with 
weak women and helpless children, keep ahead of sol- 
diers not thus encumbered, and having the support of 
the government, is a mystery. It shows how marvel- 
ous is the energy that lies latent within the Indian race, 
inspiring the wish that by some means this force might 
be called into activity in a nobler cause than contend- 
ing against manifest destiny in warfare fraught with 
horrors indescribable. Those who, admiring Joseph's 
admitted abilities, claim that he carried on his campaign 
in accordance with the laws of civilized warfare, are 
evidently not cognizant of the facts, for the number of 
persons killed by his forces outside of battle must 
have been nearly fifty. In the several engagements 
thirteen volunteers were killed, according to Bancroft's 
account, and 105 officers and men of the regular army. 
Not less than 120 were wounded. 




The progress of our narative has brought us 
through the era of Indian difficulties and at the same 
time by the romantic early epoch of north Idaho history 
and quite well past that secondary or transition period, 
during which the more stable industries were slowly- 
supplanting the semi-nomadic mining of the earlier 
days. Hereafter the germ of social order, always ex- 
isting in the country, though at times obscured under 
a superficial overflow of sin and folly, is to have full 
opportunity to grow and develop, bringing not alone 
the comforts and luxuries of physical life, but the re- 
finements of education, religion and the fine arts. Soon 
must we address ourselves to the individual counties, 
with whose history our volume purposes to deal, but 
before doing so we must give attention to two or 
three other matters of general concern. 

Mention has already been made of a certain lack of 
community of interest between the residents of north- 
ern and those of southern Idaho. The territory was 
cut into two by the Salmon river range of mountains, 
making it impossible for the Panhandle residents to 
reach their capital without a long trip through Oregon 
and Washington. The folly of this arrangement soon 
attracted attention after the removal of the capital from 
Lewiston, and the press and the people of north Idaho 
as well as those of Washington territory, began advo- 
cating the re-annexation of Nez Perces, Idaho and 
Shoshone counties to the latter commonwealth, or as an 
alternative measure, the establishment of a new terri- 
tory out of northern Idaho, western Montana and east- 
ern Washington. During its session of 1865-6, the 
legislature of Idaho passed the following memorial to 

To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States, in Congress Assembled : 
Your memorialists, the Legislative Assembly of the terri- 
tory of Idaho, would most respectfully represent that, Where- 
as the northern and southern portions of our territory are 
divided by a high mountain range, known as the Blue moun- 
tain, or Salmon river range, rendering communication al- 
most impossible for one-half the year, unless by a circuitous 
route, of five or six hundred miles, passing through the 
state of Oregon and Washington territory ; and that unless 
mineral discoveries are hereafter made, a tract of country 
one hundred miles in width, between the two, will forever 
remain almost uninhabitable ; and whereas there is no com- 

munity of interest between the two sections, the interests of 
the northern portion being identified with those of the upper 
Columbia and Missouri rivers, and the territory of Montana; 
while the interests of the southern portion of our territory 
are identified with those of the states of Nevada and Cali- 
fornia, the territory of Utah, and Lower Columbia river; and 
whereas the material interests of both sections would be 
advanced by dissolving the present territorial relations be- 
tween them, and by having territorial governments so estab- 
lished as to unite all the people within their limits by com- 
munity of interest, thereby increasing our present rapidly 
growing population, and developing the immense mineral 
and agricultural resources of both portions of the territory, 
and which your memorialists believe to be unsurpassed west 
of the Rocky mountains ; Your memorialists would therefore 
most respectfully request of your honorable body the passage 
of an act by which all that portion of the territory of Utah 
lying north of forty-one degrees and thirty minutes of north 
latitude be annexed to the territory of Idaho, and a new 
territory be established out of the northern portion of the 
territory of Idaho, the western portion of the territory of 
Montana and the eastern portion of the territory of Wash- 
ington, to be called the territory of Columbia, with the fol- 
lowing boundaries : Commencing in the middle of the chan- 
nel of Snake river, where the parallel of forty-four de- 
grees and forty-live minutes north latitude crosses said river ; 
thence east on said parallel to the western line of the terri- 
tory of Montana; thence westerly on the summit of the 
Wind River mountains, to a point where the meridian of 
thirty-five degrees and thirty minutes longitude west from 
Washington crosses said summit ; thence north, on said 
meridian of longitude until the same reaches the summit of 
the Rocky mountains; thence northerly following the summit 
of the Rocky mountains to the forty-ninth parallel of north 
latitude ; thence west along said parallel to the forty-second 
meridian ot longitude west from Washington; thence south 
to the fortv-sixth parallel of north latitude; thence east on 
said parallel of latitude to the middle of the channel of Snake 
river; thence up the middle of the channel of said Snake river 
to the place of beginning. And your memorialists, as in 
duty bound, will ever pray. 

Approved, January 10th, A. D.. 1866. 

The movement for this territory of Columbia be- 
came strong during 1866 and 1867, meetings being 
held and memorials adopted not alone in Lewiston, but 
in Walla 'Walla also, for the latter town was likewise 
dissatisfied with the existing condition of things. But 
Montana wished to retain the Bitter Root valley and 
southern Idaho was fearful lest its burden of taxation 
might become unbearably heavy if it lost any more pop- 
ulation, for already many were departing on account 



of the exhaustion of the placer mines. It was found 
impossible to carry the measure. 

In 1869 Nevada came forth with a proposition to 
annex to itself all of Idaho"s territory south of the 
Snake river and between the Oregon boundary line 
and an extension of the eastern boundary of Nevada, 
an important mining section known as the Owyhee 
country. To this neither Idaho nor congress would 
agree. The Idaho legislature memorialized congress 
again in 1S70 for a change in territorial metes and 
bounds, "but none that would leave the territory less 
able to maintain the burden of government, interfere 
with the congressional ratio of representation, or de- 
crease the prospect of arriving at the dignity of state- 
hood." These were obviously rather hard conditions 
with which to comply. Meanwhile the newspapers 
were still advocating the formation of the territory of 
Columbia, with boundaries as described in the memo- 
rial to congress above quoted. 

Prior to the convening of congress in December, 
1873, the old project of annexing northern Idaho to 
Washington was revived with great earnestness. Meet- 
ings were held in the territory directly affected ; resolu- 
tions were adopted and committees were appointed to 
press the matter. On November 13th, the house of 
representatives of Washington territory passed a 
memorial praying congress for the annexation of Nez 
Perces, Shoshone and Idaho counties to their common- 
wealth. Southern Idaho supported the measure in 
part and the sentiment of the Panhandle was practic- 
ally unanimous in its favor. Rarely indeed is there 
such ananimitv in any political matter of major im- 
port. The Panhandle counties undertook to do a little 
memorializing on their own account, sending to con- 
gress the following self-explanatory document : 

To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States, in Congress Assembled: 

Your memorialists, an executive committee appointed by 
the citizens of the counties of Nez Perces, Shoshone and 
Idaho, of Idaho territory, at a mass meeting held at Lewis- 
ton, October. 30. 1873, to properly represent the views of the 
people of said counties on the question of annextion to 
Washington territory, would respectfully represent to your 
honorable bodv : 

First, That the counties of Nez Perces, Shoshone and Ida- 
ho, in Idaho territory, embrace that part of the present ter- 
ritory of Idaho north of the great chain of the Salmon river 
range of mountains, which extend nearly on a line with the 
45th parallel north latitude, easterly from Snake river, through 
the entire territory; that this ranee is covered with snow to 
a great depth annually from the first of December to the 
first <1av of June, thus rendering communication between the 
two sections known as north and south Idaho almost impos- 
sible during said period, save by a circuitous route of five or 
six hundred miles to Boi*e City, the capital of Idaho; that 
one hundred miles of this circuitous route lies in the terri- 
tory of Washington, and about two hundred of it lies in 
the state of Oregon. 

Second. That along in the vicinity of this high range of 
mountains is a section of country varying from fifty to one 
hundred miles in width, so elevated and so destitute of in- 
ducements for settlement that unless rich mineral discoveries 
are hereafter made in this mountain region it will remain 
uninhabited In civilized man for centuries. 

Third. That the entire white population of our territory 
is about twenty thousand souls. 

Fourth, That said counties of Xez Perces. Shoshone and 
Idaho contain only about one-fifth of said white population 
of the territory, which is organized into well regulated, in- 
dustrious, thriving and established communities, engaged in 
agricultural, mining and mercantile pursuits. 

Fifth, That the interests of the people of the two sec- 
tions, north and south Idaho, are diverse in almost every 
particular, those of the former being allied to those of Wash- 
ington territory and the valley of the main Columbia river, 
while those of the latter are in identity with those of the 
states of Nevada and California and the territory of Utah. 

Sixth, That the said Salmon range of mountains divides 
north from south Idaho as completely as nature ever makes 
such divisions 

Seventh, That the boundary between north Idaho and 
Washington territory is for the most part wholly imaginary 
and artificial. 

Eighth, That there exists now no social or commercial 
bond between the people of north Idaho and those of south 
Idaho, nor can there become such with the existing im- 
passable natural barrier between them. 

Ninth That both commercially and socially the bond of 
union between the people of north Idaho and those of eastern 
Washington, including those of Walla Walla, Whitman and 
Stevens counties, is as complete as identity of social and 
commercial interests ever make the union of a people. 

Tenth, That the people of north Idaho are seriously in- 
convenienced by their present territorial government rela- 
tions with south Idaho; that their want of interest in com- 
mon with the body politic of which they now form a part, 
tends greatly to retard the development of their natural re- 
sources, as well as retard their increase of population and 
general prosperity. 

Eleventh, That to maintain their political relations with 
south Idaho imposes upon the people of north Idaho a 
serious burden of annual expenditure, such that a large class 
of the people are compelled to forego the attempt to secure 
their proper legai political rights, obtainable only at the capi- 
tal of the territory. 

Twelfth. That the commercial and social intercourse of 
the people of the said Nez Perces, Shoshone and Idaho coun- 
ties is now mainly with Walla Walla county, Washington 
territory, and the counties west of Walla Walla along the 
Columbia river, and the roads and other channels of com- 
munication leading thither are always open and easy of 
access, — all the business of north Idaho is done by and 
through these channels, no one of which leads to or near 
south Idaho. 

Thirteenth. That the union of north Idaho and Wash- 
ington territory will hasten the period when said Washing- 
ton territory will possess the requisites for admission into 
the Union, clothed in the habiliments of one of the sovereign- 
ties of the Republic. 

Fourteenth. 1 hat the commercial men of the country, 
who have inaugurated and have now in process of construc- 
tion the great northern trans-continental railway, have sig- 
nificantly pointed to the proper union of north Idaho and 
Washington in the plan of their road and a western branch 
which is to have its junction in north Idaho west of the 
Bitter Root mountains and near the present eastern boundary 
of said Washington territory, and that no part of south 
Idaho gives prospect of ever becoming tributary to said rail- 
way or its western branch. 

Wherefore, your memorialists pray that, at the coming 
session of your honorable body, all that part of Idaho ter- 
ritory lying north of the forty-fifth parallel be annexed to 
Washington territory as organized with her present bound- 
aries, and your memorialists will ever pray. 

Done at Lewiston. Idaho territory, this 22d day of No- 
vember. A. D. 1873. 

M. A. Kelly, Alonzo Leland, 
John Clark, Jasper Rand, 
L. P. Brown, B. F. Morris, 
J. H. Evans, R. L. Yantis. 




The question was up before congress again in 1875 
and yet again in 1877. The petitions in the latter year 
were filed by Delegate Fenn. They differed from for- 
mer documents in describing the territory to be trans- 
ferred as Nez Perces county and all the teritory at- 
tached to it for judicial purposes, rather than desig- 
nating the southern boundary by a fixed parallel. Or- 
ange Jacobs, delegate from Washington territory, was 
pledged to the support of the measure. The sentiment 
of southern Idaho was probably correctly expressed 
by the following language in the Boise Statesman : 

"Any proposition, coming from whatever quarter, 
which looks to the dismemberment of the territory, 
will always be opposed by the people of Idaho taken as 
a whole, even if what might be considered as compen- 
sating advantages are offered in return." 

In 1878 the governor of Washington territory is- 
sued a proclamation for a convention of delegates at 
Walla Walla on June 1 rth for the purpose of framing 
a constitution, preparatory to statehood. The plan was 
to include in the limits of the territory, in which it was 
expected the constitution would some day be in force, 
the then territory of Washington and the Panhandle 
of Idaho. Accordingly an invitation was extended to 
Nez Perces. Idaho and Shoshone counties to send a 
delegate to the convention, who, however, was to be 
denied the privilege of a vote, though he might freely 
participate in all debates. For the purpose of electing 
this delegate a general convention was called at Lew- 
iston, April 9th, on which date sixty delegates and 
proxies were present at the court house. They adopted 
certain resolutions, framed by J. W. Poe, Ezra Baird and 
M. Storm, the purport of which was that the conven- 
tion concurred gladly in the aims and purposes of the 
Walla Walla convention ; that they would send a dele- 
gate in whose intelligence, honesty, energy and ability 
to fairly and truly represent them they had unbounded 
confidence, and that the delegate would be fully justi- 
fied in representing to the convention that more than 
nineteen-twentieths of all the people of Nez Perces, 
Idaho and Shoshone counties were earnestly in favor 
of uniting their political fortunes with the people of 
Washington territorv. 

The choice of the Lewiston convention was Alonzo 
Leland. He experienced some difficulty in gaining a 
seat in the Walla Walla convention as the delegates 
from western Washington were opposed to him, and 
not much in favor of the annexation movement, for 
they feared annexation would transfer the balance of 
political power from the western to the eastern side of 
the Cascade range. But Mr. Leland secured his right 
to a voice. He not only represented north Idaho with 
great ability, but by the wisdom of his counsels, added 
much to the excellence of the constitution of 1878, 
which is admittedly an able state paper. 

In the November election, northern Idaho voted on 
the question of adopting the Washington constitution. 
The vote was lighter than that for candidates, chiefly 
on account of misunderstandings, but those who ex- 
pressed themselves were almost unanimous in its sup- 
port. The official figures were as follows : Nez 

Perces county, 485 votes for and 13 against; Idaho 
county, 221 votes for and 14 against; Shoshone county, 
36 for and 1 against. 

From this time forth the memorials to congress 
took a different tone. Instead of asking for immediate 
segregation from Idaho and annexation to the territory 
of Washington, they asked that they should be ad- 
mitted as a part of the state, when that commonwealth 
was clothed in the habiliments of statehood. The vote 
on the question in 1880 was more nearly unanimous 
than ever before, but two ballots being cast against 
the proposition in Nez Perces county, and not one in 
Shoshone. So determined were the people of the Pan- 
handle in this matter that they freely cast aside for the 
time being their political affiliations, when these were 
in conflict with their great project, and supported an- 
nexationists regardless of party. It was thought that 
congress could not turn a deaf ear to the plain voice of 
the people, expressed so unequivocally in their memo- 
rials, conventions and elections, but the ways of poli- 
ticians are devious and the real motives for their acts 
sometimes hard to discover. Petition after petition was 
slighted, and now that north Idaho had united its for- 
tunes with Washington in its efforts for admission to 
the Union, there was an additional cause for procras- 
tination in the settlement of the annexation question. 
Then there was besides the open opposition of southern 
Idaho, whose representatives claimed that the proposed 
change would despoil, disintegrate and tend to Mor- 
monize Idaho; occasion a readjustment of territorial 
districts, disarrange the courts, legislature and other 
internal machinery ; make unequal division of terri- 
tory ; be unjust to the citizens of south Idaho and un- 
safe at present and finally that Washington would be 
too large and unstately. The bill for the admission of 
Washington with north Idaho was, however, reported 
favorably by the house committee in 1882, but though 
it elicited a vigorous debate, no definite and final action 
was taken. 

In the teritorial legislative session of 1884-5, an 
annexation memorial to congress passed the Idaho 
council by a vote of nine to three and the house by a 
vote of twenty to four. In January, 1886, the move- 
ment was again brought up in congress and pushed 
with vigor. The bill as presented by Delegate Hailey 
provided that the northern counties should not be re- 
leased from their just share of Idaho's bonded indebt- 
edness and that the southern boundary of the trans- 
ferred territory should "commence at a point in the mid- 
dle of the main channel of Snake river due west of the 
head waters of Rabbit creek ; thence due east to the 
head waters of Rabbit creek; thence down the middle 
of said Rabbit creek to its junction with the Salmon 
river : thence up the middle of said Salmon river to 
the junction of Horse creek: thence up the middle of 
said Horse creek to the junction of the east fork of 
said creek: thence up the middle of said east fork of 
Horse creek to the crest of the Bitter Root range of 

The committee on territories recommended the pass- 
age 1 if the hill and the house passed it February 24th. 


The senate, however, refused to consider the measure 
until that creating the state of Washoington had been 
put upon its passage. 

Meanwhile southern Idaho was all activity in its 
opposition to the movement. So long had agitation 
proved of no avail that the people south of the Salmon 
river had become somewhat apathetic, but now that 
they seemed in actual danger of losing their territory, 
they awoke to a realization of the momentous conse- 
quences to them which must result from its loss. Mass 
meetings were held ; protests were framed and sent to 
congress, and all the leading newspapers took up the 
fight with vehemence. Some opposition was expressed 
by residents south of the Salmon river, and two of the 
commissioners of Idaho county protested against the 
spoliation of the county's territory and petitioned that 
if annexation carried, the county should go as a whole. 
Opposition was also brought forward by Montana's 
delegate in congress, who claimed that all of Idaho 
north of the forty-seventh parallel, including the Couer 
d'Alene mining district, of right ought to be given to 
Montana. A petition signed by citizens in and con- 
tiguous to the town of Murray urged that the Pan- 
handle be annexed to Montana, for the reason that that 
commonwealth, being a mining territory, could better 
take care of the district's interests than could Wash- 
ington, which was not a mining region. 

On the other hand, the annexationists were not 
idle. March 19th, the citizens of Kootenai county met 
at Rathdrum and passed resolutions strongly favoring 
the union with Washington and urging the senate to 
pass the bill. Resolutions of similar import were like- 
wise adopted by mass meetings at Mount Idaho, 
Grangeville and elsewhere, and indeed friends and 
foes of the measure were intensely in earnest, both par- 
ties deeming success of vital importance. 

On April 10th, the United States senate passed a 
bill by a vote of thirty to thirteen admitting to state- 
hood Washington territory with north Idaho attached. 
Both houses of congress had now expressed them- 
selves in favor of annexation, and it needed but their 
formal consent to the same bill and the signature of 
the president to enact the eagerly sought and bitterly 
fought law. But the desired concurrence was not ob- 
tained at the 1886 session, and delay in this instance 
proved fatal. 

As the reader has no doubt already perceived 
unanimity on the annexation question no longer pre- 
vailed in north Idaho. The discovery of the Coeur 
d'Alene mines had caused an influx of Montana miners 
into the country, who brought with them a bias in favor 
of their own commonwealth. These began to advo- 
cate annexation of the Panhandle to Montana. Fur- 
thermore the desire to be identified with Washington 
had been fostered by the fact that that territory was 
striding forward at a rapid rate, owing to the impetus 
given it by the building of the Northern Pacific. Now, 
however, Idaho was itself enjoying a period of pros- 
perity, and its development was encouraging the hope 
that it might soon, if it could escape dismemberment, 
gain the dignity and prestige of statehood. But the 
sentiment was still strong as shown by the fact that in 

November, 1886, Kootenai county gave one hundred 
and sixtv-five votes for union with Washington as 
against twenty-six for annexation to Montana and 
fourteen for the maintenance of the existing order of 
things. Murray and Delta favored remaining with 
Idaho, and though Wardner gave Montana over two 
hundred votes, the rest of the county more than coun- 
teracted them. Nez Perces and Idaho counties were 
still strong in their advocacy of union with Washing- 
ton, but the case in 1887 certainly seemed less hopeful 
than it had previously. Nevertheless, on March _'d, 
the senate took up and passed the annexation bill which 
we have referred to as having been passed by the house 
of representatives at its previous session, and all that 
was now needful was the signature of the president. 
The people of north Idaho felt sure that this would not 
be withheld, as Cleveland was thought to be favorably 
disposed toward the measure, so the friends of an- 
nexation, those who had labored so zealously for it 
during so many years, gave themselves up to unstinted 
rejoicing. But the jubilation was premature, for, 
though Delegate Hailey, Oregon's representation, Ne- 
vado's delegate, Washington's delegate, and others im- 
portuned Cleveland for his signature, Governor Stev- 
enson, of Idaho, seemed to have more weight with him 
than their united importunities, and the bill was 
"pocket vetoed." 

The annexation movement was now on the wane,, 
though its friends were still legion and much enthusi- 
asm in its favor was later manifested. Petitions and 
counter petitions were signed and forwarded to con- 
gress. Southern Idaho feared that if the northern 
counties were cut off the southern portion would be 
unable to support a government of any kind and would 
be attached to Nevada. Delegate Dubois therefore 
fought with vehemence against the measure, as if the 
life of his territory depended on its defeat. Delegate 
Voorhees, of Washington, aided by his illustrious fa- 
ther, also Oregon's and Nevada's senators, were in the 
fight in behalf of the project. In north Idaho senti- 
ment was divided, the mining region opposing annexa- 
tion. Both the political conventions in Nez Perces 
county passed resolutions favoring the union of the 
northern counties with Washington, and repudiating 
the acts of Delegate Dubois, the Republicans criticising 
him in scathing language. On October 15th the an- 
nexationists of north Idaho held at Cove, Latah coun- 
ty, what was said to be one of the largest ma>> meet- 
ings that ever convened in this entire section. H. E. 
Hall presided. Letters were read from persons in the 
southern portion of the state recognizing the justice of 
the north's position. Judge Norman Buck accepted 
the invitation of this mass meeting to become an in- 
dependent annexation candidate for delegate to coiit 
gress. and though his candidacy was announced but a 
few days before the election, he received a very con- 
siderable vote in the counties north of the Salmon 
rivr, now increased to five in number by the organiza- 
tion of Latah county. 

But the annexation movement was somewhat em- 
barrassed in December, 1888, by the introduction into 
the house of representatives of a very popular bill, that 


for the admission of Idaho, including the northern 
section, to statehood. This placed the people of north 
Idaho in the dilemma of giving up their annexation 
scheme or opposing what under ordinary circumstances 
they would very much desire, the admission of_ their 
territory to the Union. There were also other forces 
in the northwest generally which were militating 
against the annexation movement. The Republican 
victories of November assured the admission of Mon- 
tana, Washington and the Dakotas at the next session 
of congress, and it was believed that Idaho, if united, 
would be admitted also. The political power which 
Idaho's two senators and congressman would give to 
the northwest was very much to be desired. If north 
Idaho should be segregated the southern portion could 
not maintain a state government and the whole north- 
west would be so much the loser. Furthermore, the 
Mormon question and Nevada's ambition for more 
territory would probably result in the swallowing up 
of southern Idaho and the permanent loss of a western 
state. These considerations induced Senator Mitchell 
of Oregon, hitherto an ardent annexationist, to publicly 
renounce his former position and to remove his stand- 
ards to the opposition camp. 

The Idaho legislature did much also to mollify the 
people of the north by granting them many liberal con- 
cessions, principal among which were the state uni- 
versity and a large appropriation for a wagon road 
from Camas prairie to Warm Springs, via Florence, 
uniting more closely the two sections of the territory. 
These concessions seem to have had the desired effect, 
for on the 22d of January, 1889, a significant event 
transpired. This was four days after the passage in 
the federal house of representatives of the Omnibus 
bill, providing for the admission to the Union of North 
and South Dakota, Montana and Washington, the last 
without the counties of north Idaho. The date re- 
ferred to witnessed a meeting in Grostein & Binnard's 
hall, Lewiston, for the purpose of exchanging views 
upon the subject of ways and means of securing state- 
hood for Idaho. Hon. James W. Poe was made chair- 
man of the meeting, and a committee on resolutions 
was appointed which in due time reported the follow- 
ing for adoption as the sense of the assembly : 

"Whereas the territory of Idaho is possessed of 
sufficient area, resources, intelligence and population 
to maintain a state government and to authorize and 
require its admission into the Union, therefore be it 

"Resolved, That we insist upon and respectfully 
demand of congress admission as a state into the fed- 
eral Union. 

"Resolved, That we endorse the efforts of our dele- 
gate in congress, Hon. Fred T. Dubois, Senator J. H. 
Mitchell and Hon. William H. Springer to secure state- 
hood for Idaho, and to this end we earnestly petition 
that congress pass an enabling act at its present 

"Resolved, That we call upon our territorial legis- 
lature, and our sister towns and counties in Idaho, to 
unite with us, by resolution and memorial, in urging 
upon congress immediate action in the premises." 

The debate on the resolutions waxed warm and 

finally ended in a division of the assembly, those op- 
posing statehood on account of their wish for annexa- 
tion adjourning to Grostein & Binnard's new hall. 
The number in attendance before the split was perhaps 
125, and of these all but fifty withdrew. By those 
remaining the resolutions were adopted as a matter of 

The opposition meeting likewise expressed itself 
most emphatically by resolutions, but no language it 
might use could be strong enough to counteract the 
effect of the original meeting. An anti-annexation 
assembly had convened in the city that had always 
been considered the very heart and center of the an- 
nexation movement. The announcement of this fact 
was hailed with delight by the people of south Idaho 
as indicating that the north had receded far from the 
position it had held with such singular unanimity for 
so many years. This action meant not only that the 
danger of a loss of territory was past, but that the 
commonwealth could hope for assistance from its every 
quarter in the effort to secure entrance into the federal 

The Omnibus bill passed the senate as it had passed 
the house, without making provision for the annexa- 
tion of north Idaho to Washington. Cleveland signed 
it during the closing days of his administration. Wash- 
ington complied with its conditions and achieved the 
boon of statehood and the annexation question was 
settled at last. 

There was now but one thing within the territory 
militating against a united campaign for admission, and 
that was the Mormon question. Of a population of 
113,777, according to Governor Shoup's estimate, 
twenty-five thousand were Mormons. To the crushing 
out of the objectionable features in their religion the 
territory had set its face like flint from the earliest 
times. The legislature of 1884-5 passed a registry 
law requiring voters to take the following rigid oath : 

"I do solemnly swear, (or affirm) that I am a male 
citizen of the United States of the age of twenty-one 

(21) years, (or will be the day of , 

18 — , (naming date of next succeeding election), that 
I have (or will have) actually resided in this territory 
for four (4) months, and in this county for thirty (30) 
days next preceding the clay of the next ensuing elec- 
tion ; (in case of any election requiring a different time 
of residence, so make it) that I have never been con- 
victed of treason, felony or bribery ; that I am not 
now registered, or entitled to vote, at any other place 
in this territory ; and I do further swear that I am not 
a bigamist or polygamist ; that T am not a member of 
any order, organization or association which teaches, 
advises, counsels or encourages its members, devotees 
or any other person to commit the crime of bigamy or 
polygamy, or any other crime defined by law, as a duty 
arising or resulting from membership in such order, 
organization or association, or which practices bigamy 
or polygamy, or plural or celestial marriage, as a doc- 
trinal rite of such organization ; that I do not, and will 
not. oublicly or privately, or in any manner whatever, 
teach, advise, counsel or encourage any person to com- 
mit the crime of bigamy or polygamy, or any other 



crime defined by law, either as a religious duty or 
otherwise : that I do regard the constitution of the 
United States, and the laws thereof, and of this terri- 
tory, as interpreted by the courts, as the supreme law 
of the land, the teachings of any order, organization or 
association to the contrary notwithstanding; (when 
made before a judge of election, add 'and I have not 
previously voted at this election') so help me God." 

Much depended upon whether this "test oath" or 
one similar to it could be maintained in the courts. 
Pursuant to a proclamation issued April 2, 1889, h> 
Governor E. A. Stevenson and supplemented May 
nth by his successor, Governor George L. Shoup, a 
convention of seventy-two delegates met in session at 
Boise on July 4th for the purpose of framing a state 
constitution. Upon the instrument framed by them it 
is needless to comment here, further than to state that 
one of its clauses forever prohibited bigamy and po- 
lygamy. The Mormons claimed that this provision 
and the test oath were both in violation of the United 
States constitution which, by its first amendment, pro- 
hibits the passage of any law "respecting the establish- 
ment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise there- 
of." As it was a matter of great importance to determ- 
ine whether the distinctive provision of the constitution 
of Idaho would be maintained in the courts or not, a 
Mormon voter was arrested on a charge of conspiracy. 
The case was taken to the supreme court of the United 
States, which held : "that the term 'religion' has refer- 
ence to one's views of his relations to his Creator and 
to the obligations they impose and reverence for His 
being and character, and of obedience to His will. 
It is often confounded with the cultus or form of 
worship of a particular sect, but is distinguished from 
the latter. The first amendment to the constitution, 
in declaring that 'congress shall make no law respect- 
ing the establishment of religion or prohibit the free 
exercise thereof.' was intended to allow everyone un- 
der the jurisdiction of the United States to entertain 
such notions respecting his relations to his Maker and 
the duties they impose as may be approved by his 
judgment and conscience, and to exhibit his sentiments 
in such form of worship as he may think proper not 
injurious to the equal rights of others, and to prohibit 
legislation for the support of any religious tenets or 
the modes of worship of any religious sect. It was 
never intended or supposed that the amendment could 
be invoked as a protection against legislation for the 
punishment of acts inimical to the peace, good order 
and morals of society. However free the exercise of 
religion may be, it must be subordinate to the criminal 
laws of the country passed with reference to actions re- 
garded by general consent as properly the subjects of 
punitive legislation. Probably never before in the 
history of this countrv has it been seriously contended 
that the whole punitive power of the government, for 
acts recognized by the general consent of the Christian 
world in modern times as proper matters for prohibi- 
tory legislation, must be suspended in order that the 
tenets of a religious sect encouraging crime may be car- 
ried out without hindrance." 

This decision removed the last internal stumbling 

block in the way of Idaho's admission to the Union. 
However, there were difficulties to be overcome in 
congress. Delegate Dubois's bill was vigorously op- 
posed by the Democrats, who refused to support meas- 
ures for the admission of Idaho or Wyoming unless 
Arizona and New Mexico were also admitted so as to 
keep political powers more nearly balanced. When 
the admission bill came before the house of representa- 
tives April 3, 1890, the Democrats abstained from 
voting or answering to the roll call and raised the point 
of no quorum. Speaker Reed refused to sustain them ; 
the vote was taken and resulted in the passage of the 
bill with but one dissenting voice. The act passed 
the senate on July 1st. was signed by the president 
July 3d and Idaho, her people having adopted at the 
November election the constitution signed at Boise 
August 7th, was ready to enter forthwith upon her 
career as a sovereign state. 

Though it is not expedient or consistent with the 
plan of this work that a detailed account of all railway 
projects to be incorporated, yet a faithful portraiture of 
the life and commercial activity of north Idaho's popu- 
lation is not possible without reference to a few of the 
efforts which have been made to solve the transporta- 
tion problem. While the Pacific Northwest was in 
the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company, it was con- 
tended by the members and employees of that corpora- 
tion that even a wagon road over the Rocky mountains 
was an impossibility. It fell to the lot of an American 
missionary. Dr. Marcus Whitman, to disprove this 
assertion. That was in 1843. Less than a decade 
later men of prominence in the west and railroad build- 
ers in the east began asking themselves whether the 
construction of a Pacific railroad might not prove feasi- 
ble. Soon after the title to Oregon territory was set- 
tled between the United States and the British crown. 
in 1846, all exploring parties under the direction of the 
government were charged with the task of taking in- 
cidental observations and securing data which might 
help settle this question of feasibility. In time die 
conviction that a road was possible became fixed ; in- 
deed the question became rather which of several routes 
was the most practicable. 

Before the end of the 'fifties Governor Isaac I. 
Stevens, of Washington territory, advanced the theory 
that at least three transcontinental railways would 
ultimately prove necessary, in the same report advocat- 
ing that the northern route was the one which should 
first be utilized. During the 'sixties active work in the 
construction of the Northern Pacific railroad was be- 
gun, and by the dawn of the 'seventies it was so far 
along that the west generally was feeling the benign 
effects of the anticipated railway connections. 

The question most intimately affecting north Idaho 
was "where will the line cross the territory?" There 
appeared to be three routes open to the company, each 
of which had its special advantages, one through the 
Coeur d'Alene pass, thence via Lake Pend Oreille; 
one through the Bitter Roots, by the Lolo pass, down 
the Clearwater and Snake rivers and by the Columbia 
to the sea : and one down Salmon river. A survey of 
this last was completed by Colonel DeLacy in the fall 


of 1S72. Several advantages were presented by it, 
among them that it was one hundred and fifty miles 
shorter than via Pend Oreille lake ; that it would 
always be below the snow line ; that it would render 
possible a dry and permanent road bed ; that its grade 
would be less and more uniform than any other ; ihat it 
would be more nearly in the latitude of Bozeman pass ; 
that it would draw some support from sources that 
would otherwise send their trade to the Union and 
Central Pacific or The Dalles and Salt Lake road,; that 
it would open a promising mineral country. On the 
other hand a road following this course would take 
longer to construct than one on the more northerly 
route; its cost per mile would be much greater and for 
two hundred miles of the distance it woul pass 
through land of slight agricultural value. 

The Pend Oreille route was objectionable, or 
supposed to be, on account of the low marshy ground 
over which the road must of necessity pass and on ac- 
count of its length. The Lolo and Clearwater route 
was admittedly the best, provided the pass was prac- 
ticable, a question which nothing but a survey could 
definitely answer. Several engineer corps were kept 
busy during the year 1872 endeavoring to solve the 
route problem, but before the company had made a 
decision the panic of 1873 came, effectually putting an 
end to all railway construction for the time being. 
Northern Pacific stock fell until it was regarded as 
next to worthless, and the road went into the hands of 
a receiver. Gradually, however, the company recov- 
ered itself, and by 1878 it was able to resume the work 
of constructing a road to the coast. 

The failure of the Northern Pacific to build west 
in the early 'seventies had a very depressing effect upon 
the Northwest generally, and various were the reasons 
advanced for this failure by the discouraged and dis- 
heartened settlers. All sorts of evil motives were 
ascribed to the corporation, but the more intelligent, 
those who studied the financial situation and compre- 
hended the magnitude of the work to be accomplished, 
were disposed to view the matter in a kindlier light and 
to consider the company not responsible for the incon- 
veniences incident to the delay. Congress dealt patient- 
ly and generously with the corporation throughout its 
trials, passing in 1878 a bill renewing the land grants, 
which had expired by limitation. By the provisions 
of this act the company was to commence the con- 
struction of the road at or near the mouth of Snake 
river within nine months from the passage of the act 
and twenty-five miles were to be constructed eastward- 
ly within one year thereafter and forty miles each 
succeeding year, and, including the extension west- 
ward, one hundred miles per annum were to be con- 
structed somewhere on the line, after the first year ; 
a line was to be built around the dalles of the Columbia 
within two and one half years and around the Cas- 
cades within two years ; and the company was to take 
all freights from above or below without discrimi- 
nation in rates, giving an equal chance to all freighters. 
In case it failed to construct a road around these 
barriers within the time limit, the company was to 
forfeit its grant down the Columbia from Umatilla. 

Subsequently the law was changed so as to allow the 
Northern Pacific to build north to the sound. 

With the rejuvenation of the Northern Pacific in 
1878 the people of north Idaho again became hopeful, 
believing that at last the darkness surrounding them 
was about to be disseminated and that the sun which 
would pierce the gloom and again brighten the land was 
the Ni irthern Pacific. They also had hopes that the line 
would cross the Bitter Root range and conic down 
the Clearwater, through Lewiston, thence along the 
Snake river to its mouth. The Lewiston Teller was 
the exponent of the opinion that this was a feasible 
route and through its columns its public-spirited and 
indefatigable editor, Alonzo Leland, renewed the agi- 
tation of the railway question. Mr. Leland was not 
alone in favoring a proposition to extend to the 
Northern Pacific an earnest petition to again explore 
the Bitter Roots with a view to utilizing if possible the 
Clearwater route. This request was formerly presented 
in 1879 by the people of Lewiston and vicinity, and 
despite the fact that the company had made several 
unsuccessful explorations in search of a feasible route, 
the wishes of the people were complied with, the 
company detailing H. M. McCartney to make the sur- 
veys from the western slope. The expenses of this 
expedition were paid by several prominent citizens of 
Lewiston, chief among whom was John P. Vollmer, 
who furnished three-fourths of the sum necessary. 
The exploring party, accompanied by guides, spent 
several weeks in the mountains making observations. 
The perseverance and public spirit of the men who 
placed the expedition in the field were partially re- 
warded for McCartney found that the construction of 
a line through the Lolo pass was not an impractic- 
ability, though it would require much more time than 
was possible to give it under the time limit placed upon 
the company by congress for the completion of the 
line. This was the substance of his report and very 
naturally the company announced that under these cir- 
cumstances it would have to abandon the Clearwater 
route. It therefore immediately commenced the final 
survey of the route from the mouth of Snake river 
northward through the Pend Oreille pass, J. P. Voll- 
mer, of Lewiston, receiving the contract for furnish- 
ing the survey stakes. 

" But the people of Lewiston and many other points 
in north Idaho had not been convinced of the imprac- 
ticability of building a railroad across the Bitter Root 
mountains, holding that McCartney had not found the 
lowest pass in that range, and the activity displayed 
by the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company only 
urged them the more in their efforts to secure a rail- 
road. The outcome of this feeling was the organi- 
zation, at Lewiston, of the Idaho, Clearwater & Mon- 
tana Transportation Company, composed of Alonzo 
Leland, Tasper Rand, I. N. Maxwell, C. A. Thatcher, 
C. C. Bunnell, John Brearley. A. McGregor, L. P. 
Brown, B. F. Morris, J. M. Crooks, W. C. Pearson, 
Charles E. Monteith, Joseph Alexander, Hazen 
Squier, William F. Kettenbach, Jerry Dorman and S. 
C. Hale, all residents of Nez Perces and Idaho counties. 
The organizers of this company freely admitted that 



they did not possess the capital to carry out their pro- 
jects, the main one of which was the construction of 
a railroad across the Bitter Roots. They announced 
that their purpose was to make several surveys and if 
they found a feasible route to attempt to interest capital 
in the enterprise. And now we come to the most 
interesting feature of the whole Clearwater railway 

There seems to have been a widespread impression 
among the inhabitants of north Idaho that a very low- 
pass, whose existence was known only to the Indians 
and a few fortunate trappers, existed in the Bitter 
Root range. This was called the Skakaho pass and ac- 
cording to the meagre information passessed regarding 
it, was south of the Lolo. Its entrance from the Mon- 
tana side was impossible to distinguish and its entrance 
on the western slope was so hidden from man's view- 
that only a minute examination could result in its dis- 
covery. As the story went, the location of this pass 
was a secret possessed by few but through those it 
had been learned that the pass was easily approached 
from both east and west and was perfectly feasible 
for railroad purposes. The Indians were said to have 
used it as a winter route through the mountains. All 
agreed that nature had succeeded well in her efforts 
to thoroughly hide it from the curious world. 

To discover and explore this mysterious pass was 
the task the Idaho, Clearwater & Mantana Transpor- 
tation Company proposed to itself. Accordingly late 
in the summer or 1881, the company sent an exploring 
party under Alfred J. Beall in search of the hidden pass 
and a feasible route to and through it. On September 
22d, after an absence of six weeks, Beall returned with 
the information that he had found the Skakaho pass, 
that it was only 4,550 feet above the sea and that the 
gradients to it from the west were very easy, the maxi- 
mum being only 48 feet and the minimum 13 feet to 
the mile. Mr. Beal! describes this route as "up the 
Clearwater to the Selway fork ; up the Selway fork 
to Fast creek ; up Fast creek to Loyal creek, and thence 
through the canyon." The pass was taken possession 
of in the name of the Idaho, Clearwater & Montana 
Transportation Company. He reported an excellent 
route through the pass and into Montana. 

It is needless to say that this report created no 
little excitement for if the purported discovery proved 
genuine it would probably result in the Northern 
Pacific's changing its route. That it did receive the 
serious notice of that company is evidenced by the fact 
that Major Truax, an O. R. & N. engineer but really 
in the employ of the Northern Pacific also, as at that 
time these two corporations were under the same 
control, was sent to the Bitter Root mountains to make 
an exploration. The Beall report was placed in his 
hands and he was urged to make an examination of 
the Skakaho pass. Major Truax reported a total 
failure to find the Beall pass, as it now came to be 
named, after a careful examination of the mountain 
range. He also reported that the Lolo pass was less 
than 5,000 feet high, in opposition to the statements 
of McCartney that it was 7,500 feet. Traux said that 
there was a practicable railroad grade through the 

pass. He found that the maximum grade was less 
than 100 feet to the mile and that the maximum grade 
from the mouth of the middle fork of the Clearwater 
to where the road would leave Lolo creek was less 
than fifty feet. To construct a road over such a route 
would require an enormous amount of work, however, 
and much time, so that he believed it would be im- 
practicable for the Northern Pacific to utilize the route 
then, as congress was insisting upon the company's 
living up to its contract to push the road to a rapid 
completion. The richest and most fertile part of north 
Idaho was, therefore, left as much isolated as ever 
and not until recent years did the northern part of the 
state really receive any great direct benefit from the 
building of the Northern Pacific railroad. The con- 
troversy over the Beall pass continued for many years 
after Truax made his report and not a few refused 
to believe in its non-existance. John P. Vollmer, an 
official of the Northern Pacific Railway Company since 
1879, to whom we are indebted for access to many 
papers and considerable correspondence in the prepar- 
ation of this chapter, gives it as his belief that the 
Skakaho pass does not exist and that the report of 
Beall was not based on work actually and honestly 
performed. Many attempts have been made to re- 
discover the famous pass, one by Mr. Beall himself, 
but so far all have ended in failure. From personal 
letters writted to Mr. Vollmer by the president of the 
Northern Pacific in the early 'eighties, the author is 
convinced that the Northern Pacific was desirous of 
adopting the Clearwater route to the Columbia and 
that if it had been practicable to build through the 
Lolo or any other pass within the time limit this route 
would have been chosen in preference to the northern. 

It is a noteworthy fact that in recent years the 
company has built a line up the Clearwater to Stites, 
encouraging the hope that some day, when money may 
be obtained at a much lower rate of interest than it 
now commands, it will extend this Clearwater Short 
Line over the Bitter Roots to a connection with its 
main line and down the Snake to the Columbia, giving 
Xez Perces and Idaho counties the benefit of direct 
trans-continental communication. 

Hardly had hope of relief from the Northern 
Pacific failed before the residents of north Idaho were 
encouraged to look in another direction for aid. The 
Oregon Short Line was building westward through 
the southern part of the territory at this time. It de- 
sired very much to reach the ocean, while the O. R. 
& N., building through eastern Oregon and over the 
Rlue mountains, was very desirous of getting into 
southern Idaho. The Burnt river canyon was the 
only practicable route for the O. R. & N. It was 
likewise the only route for the Oregon Short Line to 
reach the sea, except by Snake river canyon to the 
mouth of that stream, thence down the Columbia. The 
Burnt river pass was of such contour that both rail- 
ways could not well occupy it : and it was not definitely 
known that the Snake river route was not preferable 
anyway. Early in 1883 a survey was undertaken to 
determine the feasibility of the latter course. Engineer 
Moscript was entrusted to make the survey in a 



southerly direction, while Chief Engineer Llark, start- 
ing at the mouth of Burnt river, should survey north- 
ward to meet him. After completing their task the 
two parties came to Lewiston, where they reported that 
the distance between that town and Burnt river was 
187 miles, that the maximum grade of any one mile 
in the survey was less than twenty feet, the average 
being not more than six of seven, but there were no 
curves to exceed six degrees, and that the surveying 
parties saw no sign of snow slides. Mr. Clark was 
highly pleased with the route. He said a road could 
be built, he estimated for one-third less than the cost 
of construction through Burnt river canyon and over 
the Blue mountains. An approximate location sur- 
vey was completed in September of that year confirm- 
ing Clark's report and the residents of Xez Perces and 
Idaho counties entertained not unreasonable hopes that 
they might have a railroad in the near future. 

But they were doomed to disappointment. Arrange- 
ments were effected between the 0. R. & N. Company 
and the Oregon Short Line, by which both roads were 
to build to Huntington and join each other, dividing 
the profits on an agreed basis. The fact that north 
Idaho need not hope for any immediate relief from 
the Oregon Short Line was officially communicated in 
July, 1884, by a letter from a Union Pacific officer to 
Alonzo Leland. from which some extracts are here 
given as follows: 

Dear Sir: Yours of the 21st Lilt, was found here 
on my return from a two weeks' absence in the east. 
I can well understand the interest your people feel re- 
garding the extension of the Oregon Short Line down 
Snake river and I wish I could speak more encourag- 
ingly to you on the subject; but the fact is that the 
present demoralized market for railroad securities 
makes it impossible to raise money for any extended 
new constructions, and the attempt to do so would 
be simply suicidal. Our companv will not engage in 
any new work at this time but merely complete works 
already begun to redeem its obligations in that be- 
half jo far as it is committed. The Oregon Short Line 
track is at the mouth of Burnt river. As soon as the 
Snake river falls sufficiently we will complete the 
bridge at that place and lay the rails the remaining 
three and a half miles to Huntington, completing our 
part of the work, which we expect to accomplish about 
the last of September." 

The joint traffic agreement and the depressed con- 
dition of railway stocks obtaining at the time were 
fesponsible for this disappointment, as the Union 
Pacific undoubtedly intended to build down the Snake 
and Columbia rivers to tidewater. 

In 1886 the Union Pacific R. R. Companv was 
again in the field with surveyors, this time to determine 
the distance and grades to be overcome by a railroad 
from Lewiston to some point on the Utah Northern, 
also the character of the country tributary to such road. 
'I he next spring a corps of engineers from Omaha 
started at the Lewiston end of the old Clark Snake 
river survey and proceeded to run a line down the 
north side of the Snake to the Columbia. Another 
party in the employ of the O. R. & N. took the field 

at Pomeroy, Washington, surveying towards Lewis- 
ton. A survey was also made from the Short Line 
road up the Weiser river, over the divide and down the 
Little and main Salmon rivers to connect with other 
surveys from Clearwater. There is little doubt but 
that the Union Pacific really intended undertaking 
some operations by which north Idaho would greatly 
profit, but its energies were again paralyzed in the 
fall of 1887 by an agreement entered into in New 
York city between its directors and those of the North- 
ern Pacific Company, whereby the northwest was di- 
vided between the two corporations, all north of an 
east and west line passing through the mouth of Snake 
river, being given to the Northern Pacific. This 
arrangement effectually shut off during its continuance 
Lewiston and vicinity from hope centering in the Union 
Pacific, dashing to the ground the expectations en- 
gendered by the numerous surveys. 

Still the Spokane and Palouse branch was being 
built at this time and but little doubt was entertained 
that it would be extended to Lewiston and beyond. 
The O. R. & N. also gave evidence, by its activity 
in surveying routes, of an intent to build into the 
Clearwater and Camas prairie countries ; so the hopes 
of our citizenship were continually receiving tresh 
inspiration. But the Spokane and Palouse branch 
stopped at Genesee ; the O. R. & X. came no nearer 
than Moscow; and the people of Nez Perces and 
Idaho counties were left to their isolation for more 
than a decade longer. The discovery of mineral wealth 
in northern Shoshone county had led to the building 
of railways into that section, however. 

Another railway enterprise which promised partial 
relief to the southern portion of the Panhandle, but 
which failed to bring it was the Idaho Transit 
Companv, organized in 1887 by J. P. Vollmer and 
others in Lewiston and Asotin. This company sur- 
veyed a line from Lewiston to Camas prairie, via Tam- 
many hollow and Lake YYaha, intending to connect 
that rich section by rail with the boat lines on the 
Snake river. Financial arrangements were made 
whereby the companv might build the first twenty 
miles immediately and in fact, $50,000 were spent in 
grading the roadbed in Tammany hollow and in con- 
struction work. Mr. Vollmer tells us that the Northern 
Pacific Company was behind this movement from the 
first. He was the leader and main stockholder in 
the Transit company and he undertook the work with 
the understanding that the road, when completed, was 
to be sold to the Northern Pacific. The other stock- 
holders were not aware of this, and of course the 
people generally were not. The Northern Pacific's 
idea in these negotiations was to get the road con- 
structed and in its hands without inciting the rivalry 
of the < >. R. & N. For some reason the Northern 
Pacific changed its plan, bought the Tammanv hollow 
road before much work had been done on it. and 
abandoned the enterprise entirely. 

During the latter 'eighties and the early 'nineties 
no little interest centered in the projects of the Midland 
Pacific Railway Company. The organizers of this 
corporation were Hon. R. F. Pettigrew, president; 



William N. Coler, vice-president ; S. L. Tate, second 
vice-president; J. A. Gargiulo, treasurer; and H. M. 
.McDonald, secretary; and its capital stock was $15,- 
000,000 preferred and $65,000,000 common. Its pur- 
pose was to build a road from Sioux Falls to the coast, 
which road was to find an outlet through the Illinois 
Central, Chicago & Northwestern and other lines to 
the east. The route outlined by the company for its 
own road was through northern Wyoming, skirting 
Yellowstone park on the south ; down the Salmon river 
to White Bird ; thence across through Camas prairie 
and on to Lewiston, thence to an easy grade into the 
Palouse country, which it was to cross in a north- 
westerly direction going to Seattle. Mr. Vollmer tells 
us that though the fact is not generally known a sur- 
vey of this route was made and plans were matured 
for financing the enterprise. The crisis of 1893 and 
subsequent depression caused operations for the time 
being to be suspended, but it is possible that the scheme 
may yet materialize and shortly. Another survey 
which excited little comment at the time and of which 
few people have any knowledge, Mr. Vollmer tells 
us, was made by the Illinois Central Railway 
Company, also ambitious to reach the coast. This 
survey likewise passed through parts of Idaho and 
Xez Perces counties. It is surely significant that so 
many railway companies seeking a route to the sea- 
board, have looked toward the Snake river and its 
tributaries as most likely to furnish the route desired, 
and there certainly is much foundation for the hope 
that this rich portion of north Idaho may yet lie- 
traversed by a trans-continental line. 

The chief sensation in Nez Perces county during 
1898, aside from the war, was the building of the ex- 
tension of the Spokane & Palouse branch of the North- 
ern Pacific Railroad to Lewiston and the railroad war 
which grew out of this activity. Strange it seems 
to those on the outside that railway companies so often 
neglect the numerous calls to them for aid from com- 
munities suffering for lack of transportation and con- 
tinue to turn a deaf ear to all proposals for years, then 
suddenly become so anxious for the advantages they 
have before seemed to spurn that they struggle ami 
contend with each other to secure them. For thirty 
years the Clearwater country had been agonizing for 
a railroad. Its crv was unanswered. Then, when at 
last the Northern Pacific determined to do something 
for it, the jealousy of the Oregon Railway and Navi- 
gation Company is aroused, and a war is the result. 
In this case, however, it is evident that both corpora- 
tions had been fully aware of the prize that lay un- 
grasped before them, but for one reason or another 
neither was before able to make the effort necessary to 
appropriate it. Prior to 1895 the reservation exerted 
a deterrent influence and when that was no more the 
financial stringency was in the way. But the return 
of good times brought a renewal of activity in railway 
circles ; the Northern Pacific's operations directed at- 
tention again to the rich field yet unentered in north 
Idaho, and the commencement of condemnation pro- 
ceedings against all the Indian land owners on the 
north bank of the Clearwater between Potlatch creek 

and the reservation line precipitated hostilities between 
the rival corporations. 

It is difficult to write of such matters with histori- 
cal accuracy, for men who are able to speak with 
authority are generally believers in the adage that 
"Speech is silver but silence gold," and the outside 
world has to do considerable guessing and reasoning 
from appearances in attempting to arrive at conclusions 
as to what transpires in the conferences of railway 
magnates. However, President Mellen of the Northern 
Pacific, in an interview, gave his side of the case with 
considerable freedom. Among other things, he said 
that : "There are contracts which have been in ex- 
istence since 1880. signed by the presidents of the two 
companies and ratified by both boards of directors, spe- 
cifically assigning the Clearwater and much other ter- 
ritory in that region to the \orthern Pacific." Upon 
these he relied as a basis upon which an agreement was 
to be affected, amicably settling the differences be- 
tween the two roads. Portland, of course, favored the 
O. R. & N. In commenting on the situation the Ore- 
gonian said : 

"Perhaps the most important territory in the Co- 
lumbia basin, still unoccupied by railways, is the Clear- 
water valley. Here is a territory in extent equal or 
nearly equal to the Palouse country, — the subject here- 
tofore and still the subject of so much railwa) con- 
tention. It is a territory of enormous agricultural 
capabilities and may easily ship ten million bushels of 
wheat a year. It is also a great stock country, for the 
grazing lands in and about it are to pfodigiou ■ ent, 
and it lies in the vicinity of great timber and great min- 
ing regions. The traffic of that country it would not 
be easy to overestimate, and, like that of other locali- 
ties in the great basin of the Columbia, it will come 
down to Portland by the gradients on which the water 

"It is of the highest importance to that country, to 
the O. R. & N. as a property, to the city of Portland as 
the commercial entrepot and shipping port of the Co- 
lumbia basin, that this territory be furnished with rail- 
way transportation through the O. R. & N. system. 
This will require the construction of perhaps one hun- 
dred miles of road east of Lewiston, and with it an 
extension of the Snake river line from Riparia to Lew- 
iston. about seventy miles. It is all practicable, all 

To succinctly convey an idea of the controversy be- 
tween the two railroad's we cannot do better than to 
quote an interview given in July, 1899, by a high 
official of the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company 
to the New York correspondent of the Spokesman-Re- 
view. It reads as follows: 

"It is difficult to appreciate the merits of th 
water controversy without studying the ma] 
Clearwater country. There is a great deal of misap- 
prehension regarding the points of contention between 
the Oregon Railwav & Navigation Company and the 
Northern Pacific. The former has now a line from 
Wallula to Riparia through the Palouse country. This 
line is not satisfactory, and so the compan] 
iected a line between the points mentioned following 



the Snake river. The water course gives easy grades 
and a better route. At Alto on the present line, there 
is a three per cent, grade, so that practically all trains 
from Spokane and the north have to be broken up 
there. This will be avoided by die new line. The old 
line will then become merely a feeder for the Palouse 
country. Now there is no dispute, as generally sup- 
posed, over this new line along the Snake river, the 
Northern Pacific rather favoring its construction. This 
line the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company has 
about completed. What the Northern Pacific objects 
to is a continuation of this line, as projected, along the 
Snake river from Riparia to Lewiston, where the Ore- 
gon Navigation now operates a line of steamers. 

"The Northern Pacific has a line from Moscow to 
Lewiston, to which the Oregon Railway & Navigation 
Company has no objection, but is building lines east 
of Lewiston in the Nez Perces and Camas prairie dis- 
tricts, to which the O. R. & N. seriously objects, be- 
cause the Northern Pacific has made no arrangements 
with it for hauling traffic from this rich country. 

"The O. R. & N. will not only build the surveyed 
line, from Riparia to Lewiston, but will also build east 
of Lewiston and fight the Northern Pacific in the Nez 
Perces and Camas prairie districts. It believes that 
the Northern Pacific has not been fortunate in the se- 
lection of its routes and discounts its threats to subse- 
quently parallel the Riparia-Lewiston line. One who 
knows the value of the Nez Perces and Camas prairie 
territory can easily understand how the two companies 
have got into such a dispute over it, for it promises 
to rank with the Walla Walla and Palouse sections in 
the richness and abundance of its wheat fields and other 
agricultural resources. 

"For the present there can be no open collision be- 
cause the Northern Pacific has its iines east of Lewis- 
ton to complete and the O. R. & N. has its Riparia- 
Lewiston line to build. When these are constructed, 
unless by that time a traffic arrangement has been 
agreed upon, the fight between the two companies will 
begin in earnest, and a fight of no mean proportions it 
will be. 

"The O. R. & N. is so situated geographically that 
it cannot abandon the rich opportunities offered by the 
Clearwater country. Its line for the most part runs 
south of the Columbia river, and it cannot get a very 
valuable traffic from the countrv north of it. Its ter- 
minus is Portland, where it has large interests, and 
Portland's prosperity depends considerably upon its 
keeping open the channel from the richest wheat fields 
of the Pacific northwest. 

"It has offered the Northern Pacific a short route 
via Connel. but the Northern Pacific wants more liberal 
considerations than the O. R. & N. deems reasonable 
or than are usually recognized. The Northern Pacific 
now has to take its freight to near Spokane and down 
again, and of course if it built right through west of 
Lewiston to its coast line it would have as short a route, 
or even shorter, than the O. R. & N. could offer it." 

The controversy occasioned much activity on the 
part of both corporations in surveying for routes and 
negotiating for rights of way. The Northern Pacific 

sought to bring its adversary to terms by threatening 
not only to parallel its proposed line up Snake river 
to Lewiston, but if necessary to do likewise with the 
road down the Columbia to Portland. The O. R. & N. 
by purchasing as much of the right of way up the north 
side of Clearwater as it could and instituting condem- 
nation proceedings for yard and depot grounds on the 
Silcott farm, opposite Lewiston, gave evidence of its 
intention to push into the Clearwater country. Both 
companies were active in surveying east of Lewiston, 
and both were searching for passes through the Bitter 
Roots and examining those already found. The 
Northern Pacific was pushing with great energy its 
construction work on the Cleawater Shirt Line exten- 
sion, and it was reported that in April, 1899, the road 
practically completed as far as the Big Eddy, where a 
a cut had to be made. Work was also being pushed 
vigorously on the Lapwai spur, which it was at first 
intended to extend into Camas prairie, — a scheme after- 
ward abandoned on account of the high divide to the 
northward from Cottonwood. 

In Portland, early in August, 1899, a conference 
took place between President C. S. Mellen, of the 
Northern Pacific, and E. H. Harriman, chairman of 
the Union Pacific board of directors, President A. L. 
Mohler of the O. R. & N. being also present. It was 
understood that the main question up for consideration 
was the Northern Pacific's ultimatum to the < I. R. & 
N. that it should promise to keep out of the Xez Perces 
country and give the Northern Pacific full trackage 
rights down the Columbia from Lewiston to Portland, 
or have its line paralleled down the Columbia. What 
transpired at the conference was a secret ; we do not 
know that its results have ever become fully known to 
the public, but it is certain that some kind of a truce 
was arranged whereby the O. R. & N. suspended oper- 
ations in the Nez Perces country. 

In the efforts of the press and people to gain as 
much information as possible about the railway situa- 
tion, not a little weight was given to the utterances of 
the Orgonian, which was known to be in close touch 
with the O. R. & N. That journal in an issue appearing 
shortly after the conference used this language : 

"There is at present a truce, for a given or termin- 
able period, between the Union Pacific and Northern 
Pacific, as to territory in the Columbia basin, and con- 
struction on both sides is for the present suspended. 
But it will be resumed within a short time, either 
through rivalry or through agreement. The road along 
Snake river from Riparia to Lewiston will be built next 
year, either by the O. R. & N. alone, or by combination 
between the O. R. & N. and the Northern Pacific. The 
railroad problems of the Northwest are simply in abey- 
ance for the present, but the inaction will not last long. 
Agreement is possible, in order to avoid the duplication 
of lines ; and yet the nature of the rivalry is such that 
no basis on which agreement may be reached is ap- 

But subsequent events have gone to show that if 
not at this conference, then at some later one an adjust- 
ment of differences much more favorable to the North- 
ern Pacific than the above would indicate was agreed 



upon. There was doubtless not a little truth in the 
Minneapolis Journal's statement based on the best in- 
formation then obtainable and published early in 1900, 
averring that "when President Mellen was looking 
about for some feature that would encourage an arbi- 
tration of the difficulty he sought E. H. Harriman, 
chairman of the Union Pacific board of directors. Mr. 
Harriman never approved of the policy of the Oregon 
Railway & Navigation Company that sought to invade 
the Clearwater country and obtain territory by con- 
quest. In Mr. Harriman's opinion the Oregon road 
was going out of its way to continue a quarrel. But 
the man with the hoe was James J. Hill, and both Mel- 
len and Harriman knew this fact only too well. As 
soon as Hill was left out of the calculation a settlement 
was speedily brought about. It was Harriman who 
proposed that the Oregon road abandon the Clearwater 
country. But he also decided that the Northern Pa- 
cific should pay its competitor for all the expenses in- 
curred in making surveys and buying a right of way. 
This bill of expense was only a trifling sum of $50,000, 
and by its payment the Northern Pacific succeeds to the 
complete title to a right of way through the very center 
of Camas prairie, which will become more valuable 
every day. Thus did President Mellen make a conces- 
sion that redounds to the everlasting benefit of the 
Northern Pacific." 

It has been stated also that an important factor in 
effecting this truce between the rival companies was 
their common transportation enemy, the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy. That road was seeking a Pacific 
coast connection through the Lewiston valley and was 
so well fortified in its demands as to be able to force 
from the Northern Pacific verv valuable concessions in 

the Northwest. The C. B. & 0. had surveying parties 
in north Idaho during the summer and fall of 1900, 
giving color to the belief that it would build through to 
the coast, most likely by the Salmon river route. It is 
understood, however, that this road is now under the 
control of the Northern Pacific, so that that company 
is apparently absolute master of the situation in the 
Clearwater country at present. Further activity in 
railway construction in that section has been confidently 
looked for ever since the completion of the road to 
Stites and is still expected. There can be little doubt 
but that the Northern Pacific Company will push its 
lines farther into that section in the near future. 

But the first railway construction to effect the sec- 
tion of which we are treating will be the Lewiston- 
Riparia road. A dispatch from Portland bearing date 
of August 2, 1902, announced that the contract for the 
building of this road had been that day awarded by 
the O R. & N. to Wren & Greenough. contractors, the 
agreement being that work should begin at once and be 
completed by April 15, 1903, including a steel bridge 
across the Clearwater at Lewiston to cost $350,000. 
The truth of the dispatch was vouched for a few days 
later by President Mohler of the O. R. & N., also by 
President Mellen of the Northern Pacific Company, 
who also gave the information that the road would be 
operated jointly by the corporations they represent. 

Construction work was, however, delayed by a con- 
troversy between the two interests over the right of 
way, also, it is said, by the fear that legislation might 
be enacted seriously affecting the capitalization of the 
venture, but it is now claimed that all these difficulties 
are out of the way and that work will be resumed in 
the near future. 





In previous chapters have been detailed the causes 
which led to the settlement of Nez Perces county, the 
inception of that settlement, the founding of Lewiston 
and much of the earliest history of this important 
political entity. Its creation by legislative enactment 
has also been referred to and its earliest boundary 
lines described. It remains now to take up the thread 
of its history and as far as possible to trace the various 
events which have transpired among its people, the 
growth of its wealth and industries and the divers 
forces which have contributed to its social and in- 
dustrial evolution. 

The original boundaries of the county as given it 
by act of the Washington legislature in December, 
1861, were modified by the Idaho legislature in 1867, 
which enacted that they should be as follows : "Begin- 
ning at the middle channel of Snake river, opposite 
the mouth of Clearwater river ; and thence due north 
along the west line of Idaho Territory to the main di- 
vide between the waters of the Palouse river and 
Lahtoh or Hangeman's creek; thence easterly to the 
westerly line of Shoshone county; thence southerly 
along said line to the Clearwater river ; thence up the 
south fork of Clearwater river to Lolo creek ; thence 
with Lolo creek in an easterly direction to the sum- 
mit of the Bitter Root mountains ; thence southerly along 
the summit of said mountains to the junction of 
Salmon river and Bitter Root mountains ; thence in a 
westerly direction along the summit of Salmon river 
and Clearwater mountains to a prominent landmark 
known as 'Buffalo Hump' ; thence westerly along said 
divide between the waters of White Bird creek and 
Camas prairie, to a point where the road leading from 
Lewiston to Slate creek crosses said divide ; thence in 
a direct line to the foot of Ponto bar on Salmon river ; 

thence in a direct line to a point on Snake river 
known as Pittsburg landing ; thence down the channel 
of Snake river to the place of beginning." This ex- 
tensive area in 1870 contained a white population of 
1,588. which, however, increased during the next de- 
cade to 4,583. 

During the late 'sixties and early 'seventies Nez 
Perces county was sharing in that transition from 
mining to agriculture and stockraising which we have 
before mentioned in connection with north Idaho in 
general and this portion of the inland empire. It 
shared also in the relative depression which visited the 
country when the golden days were over, yet consider- 
ing its' youth it had a goodly number of wealthy and 
well-to-do men within its limits as shown by the 
Signal's list of persons paying taxes on property valued 
at one thousand dollars or over in 1872, which list, for 
the sake of preserving as far as possible the names of 
those who at the time occupied positions of promi- 
nence in industrial circles, and were thechief wealth 
holders of the county, we reproduce as follows : 

Levi Ankenv, $23,200; L. B. Boise, $1,500; John 
Brearlev, $4,100; Bunker & Squier, $2,850; J. J. Bon- 
ner, $1,600; C. C. Bunnell, $5,000: A. Benson, $4,510; 
Crites & Currv, $1,650; C. P. Coburn, $5,585; Curry 
& Holbrook, $'1,375 ; Cook & Shultz, $1.240 ; H. Crites, 
$1,200; C. Cooper, $2,635; Cummings & Company, 
$2,000: Grostein Binnard, $20,000; A. Gilman, 
$1,500: lames Gage, $3,160; Hung Wan Chung, 
$2,500; Hexter & Brother. $9,000; Harris & Story, 
$1,550: McGregor. $1,677: George Mitchell. Si. 140: 
MA Kellv. S8.^to: I. Karnev, $1,590; Leland & 
Rowley. $1,400: C. Le Francois, $9,565; Loewenberg 
Brothers. $17,400- Wesley Mulkey. $6,555; R. J.Mon- 
roe, $4,800; McElwee, $1,000; John Proctor, $2,720; 



J. Perrault, $3,640; Rowley & Leach, $1,550; H. W. 
Stainton, $1,450; P. Sholl, $4,300; S. S. Slater, $1,666; 
T. Schenck, $1,188; John Silcott, $1,490; A. W. Shum- 
way, $1,080; Tremble & Company, $1,600; C. A. 
Thatcher, $9,165; S. C. Thompson, $4,300; T- P. 
Vollmer, $2,542; S. W. Whitfield, $1,100; E. Weis- 
gerber, $2,150; C. Walker, $1,125 ; C. Wintsch, $3,000; 
T. H. Worden, $3,645 : P. B. Whitman, $1,800. 

In January, 1873. a bill was introduced into the 
Idaho legislature cutting off a portion of Nez Perces 
and adding it to Idaho county. Already Idaho county 
had seven thousand square miles of territory or ap- 
proximately that, and it was proposed to give it over 
four thousand more, leaving to Nez Perces county only 
fifteen hundred square miles, exclusive of the Indian 
reservation. As the territory proposed to be trans- 
ferred contained several old farming settlements, four 
prominent mining camps, 450 inhabitants and about 
$185,000 worth of taxable property, it was but natural 
that the citizens of the county from which the terri- 
tory was 'to be taken should offer vigorous opposition. 
But the friends of Idaho county colluded with the 
representatives from Lemhi, Boise and Ada counties, 
giving them each a small slice from the eastern and 
southern portion of its original domain. It was a 
shrewd move and so adroitly managed that Idaho 
county succeeded in securing the passage in both 
branches of the legislature of a bill by which it ex- 
changed twelve hundred square miles of territory of 
no special value to itself for about 4,500 square miles 
from Nez Perces county. Fortunately, however, for 
the taxpayers of the latter political division, the bill 
was vetoed by Governor Bennett. 

Many causes of discouragement were operative 
among the people of Nez Perces county during the year 
1873. Hard times and lack of a market for products 
were exerting their baneful influence upon the farming 
communities, where, however, abundant crops were 
being garnered. To add to the general discomfiture, 
the Indians, who afterward took the war path under 
Joseph, were showing signs of hostility, going so far, 
it was said, as to debate among themselves, when in- 
toxicated, the chances of success in committing depre- 
dations upon the whites. To their boldness not a little 
was contributed by the removal of the mounted troops 
from the garrison at Lapwai. The newspapers called 
attention to the danger and the men of Lewiston re- 
sponded by organizing on the evening of March 29th 
a military company of 107 members, with Hazen 
Squier as captain, John M. Dormer, first lieutenant, 
Isaac Kipp. second lieutenant, George Young, orderly 
sergeant, and a full quota of minor officers. 

The ensuing two or three years brought little 
amelioration in conditions. The financial stringency 
continued and the uncertainty and apprehension incident 
to the Indian difficulties were still exerting their de- 
pressing influence, nevertheless throughout this seem- 
ingly unprogressive period, the foundations of future 
development were being laid, and the country was get- 
ting ready for the dawn of a brighter day, when the 
incubus of doubt and dread should be removed. 

Notwithstanding the various discouragements and 

the danger of an Indian outbreak, which, strange to 
say, did not lead to adequate preparation for defense 
on the part of either the citizens or the military, while 
it had its injurious effect upon industry, the country 
made rapid strides forward in 1876, especially that part 
north of the Snake river, or what is now embraced in 
Latah county. A correspondent of the Oregonian, 
writing in the spring of 1877, stated that after an ex- 
tensive tour of eastern Oregon, eastern Washington 
and north Idaho, he had found the prospects in Nez 
Perces county, and in Whitman county, Wyoming 
Territory, contiguous to it. especially bright. 
Their population was rapidly increasing, and 
they were being encouraged to engage in 
wheat raising by the fact that the soil was 
especially suited to that industry, and that the Ore- 
gon Steam Navigation Company had made a liberal 
reduction in the charges for transporting the product. 
The same writer also refers to the rapid growth of the 
sheep industry and states that the amount of flax seed 
shipped from Nez Perces and Whitman counties indi- 
cates that that product will become one of the sources 
of wealth of that section. "It is observable also," he 
continues, "that among the people settling there the 
regard for schools, churches and all facilities for gen- 
eral intelligence and improvement is as high as that 
which characterizes the American people everywhere." 

Of course the Indian war paralyzed industry in 
this and Idaho counties during its continuance, greath 
retarding all industrial operations, also in contiguous 
counties of the territory and of Washington. Farmers 
were obliged to take their families to places of security 
in the towns, and those on the frontier, miners and 
stockmen alike, in many instances left their work en- 
tirely, remaining away during what would otherwise 
have been the busiest season. Even where there was 
no real danger, rumors and false reports kept the set- 
tlers continually on the qui live, and an occasional 
panic would send them pell mell to the nearest port of 
safety, leaving their places to take care of themselves. 
Unfenced grain fields were destroyed and all growing 
products which required cultivation after seeding were 
neglected. The presence of the troops, however, set- 
tled the market problem for the time being. 

The presence of the troops had another good effect 
also in that it gave the people a feeling of confidence 
during the Bannock and Piute war of 1878, in eastern 
Oregon. The baptism of fire the citizens of north 
Idaho bad just passed through resulted in their being 
quite well supplied with arms and ammunition ; the 
companies of volunteers formed during the Nez Perces 
outbreak were another safeguard, and these, together 
with the martial spirit of the people, were suffi- 
cient to check any turbulent spirit among the reserva- 
tion Indians. 

The effect of the war is plainly shown in the as- 
sessor's census for 1878, which shows that out of a 
population of 2,793, the number of voters was 859, 
making the ratio between total population and voters 
entirely too small. The women and children had 
moved to other communities and others who would 
have settled in the county were deterred from so doing, 



making the number of adult males disproportionately 
large. Thorn creek precinct had 413 inhabitants and 
141 voters; Paradise, 691 and 203; Palouse' Bridge, 
419 and 142; Pine creek, 117 and 37; Camas creek, 61 
and 26 ; Lake, 98 and 45 : Lewiston, 994 and 265. The 
number of horses was shown to be 3,672 ; of cattle, 
3,925 ; of mules, 276; of hogs, 2,785 ; of sheep, 14,960. 
The valuation of real estate was $180,138; of personal 
property, $327,504; the total valuation $507,642, and 
the number of taxpayers, 577. The increase in the 
property valuation over that of the preceding year was 
nearly $200,000. 

During the winter of 1879 a slight misfortune be- 
fell the county, which was described by The Teller 
in the following language : 

"On Saturday last (February 23d) a regular 
chinook visited us at this place. One had visited the 
foothills south and west of us a day or two previously 
and caused much of the snow to melt and run off 
into the gulches and valleys. On Monday the Clear- 
water was full from bank to bank with floating ice. 
and this continued, except at intervals, until late on 
Tuesday, and even on Wednesday much ice went down 
the river. The Lapwai, Sweetwater, Hatwai and 
Potlach creeks were much swollen, also the Asotin 
and Alpowa creeks on the Washington side. Small 
gulches and ravines discharged vast quantities of water 
and some of them much debris and small rocks. Roads 
were in many places rendered entirely impassable by 
reason of the road beds being washed out in many 
places. Small bridges were washed away. The mails 
on the different routes leading to Lewiston failed of 
reaching here on time, save the Mount Idaho, and the 
northern mail did not depart until Wednesday noon 
owing to ice in the Clearwater. 

"At 3 o'clock P. M. on Monday the saw and grist 
mill at the Lapwai agency with a considerable quan- 
tity of wheat were undermined and swept away into 
and down the Clearwater. Two men, Nicholson and 
Toombs, being in the mill at the time it was swept 
away, were carried out into the river and down it about 
a mile and a half before they could be rescued, and 
their ultimate escape from death was almost miracu- 
lous. Much other damage was done along the Lapwai 
creek. The Soldier canyon road was badly washed for 
about two miles and it will require the labor of forty 
men several days to repair it and make it as good as 
before. The flume of the Lewiston ditch above Linds- 
ley's orchard was washed away and the ditch in many 
places filled with debris from the side gulches. The 
boom at the saw mill was broken and about 100,000 
feet of logs were carried away ; also the wood boom 
above the mill, and about 125 cords of wood were lost. 
The stage which left here for Walla Walla on Mon- 
day with mails, express and one passenger was upset 
at the third crossing of the Alpowa. The driver and 
passenger were swept down the stream about 150 
yards before they could get out. The two lead horses 
became detached and got out of the stream while the 
wheel horses, stage, mails and express were carried 
six hundred yards and were rescued by the Indians. 
The express, box with about $2,000 in it drifted to 

within twenty feet of the Snake river, where it be- 
came lodged against some willows and. was found on 
Tuesday. The whole section was damaged consider- 
ably and the loss will amount to many thousands of 

Yet it is certain that the year 1879 was on the 
whole one of progress and prosperity. Considerable 
government money was expended in improving the 
Clearwater and Snake rivers, congesting temporarily 
in some measure the local circulating medium. The 
Sheepeater disturbances in Idaho county had been 
quieted by the defeat and capture of the hostiles, per- 
mitting the vanguard of the homeseeking army to ad- 
vance farther inland. The Lewiston land office, re- 
cently established, reported in June that since March 
1st preceding, there had been filed in the district em- 
bracing all Idaho north of the Salmon River range 
854 pre-emptions, 437 homesteads and 300 timber 
claim entries, an aggregate of 1,597 filings, each em- 
bracing a quarter section. Those already established 
in the business of agriculture and cattle raising were 
meeting with splendid success, and the numbers of 
those seeking to obtain homesteads and join their ranks 
continued undiminished — were increasing rather. 

But the opening of the year 1880 was a somewhat 
unpropitious one. The spring was cold, rainy and 
disagreeable in the valleys, while in the hills and 
mountains the snow lay deep until far into the summer, 
being over four feet in depth on the Warren trail as 
late as the 15th of June. Neither did the middle life 
of the year bring any special encouragement to the 
agriculturist but rather the opposite, for the kindly 
warmth of the summer sun proved congenial not alone 
to man and his domestic friends but likewise to his 
loathsome and detested enemy, the grasshopper. 
Thousands of these voracious winged pests visited the 
country, harvesting the grain crops at an untimely 
season and desolating flower gardens, orchards, etc. 
Fortunately the omnivorous insects were not as thor- 
ough in their work of destruction as they sometimes 
are and only certain localities were visited by them. 
But the agricultural development of the country had 
begun in earnest and not the presence of a temporary 
plague nor the absence of speedy transportation nor 
the scarcity of money nor any other obstacle which la- 
bor and patience could surmount was potent to stay 
the onward movement. No observing person could ride 
out through the country at intervals without noticing 
the signs of progress on every hand. In 1879 tne 
Waha prairie was almost unoccupied, the only indi- 
cation of its being the dwelling place of man being a 
cabin here and there contiguous to or surrounded by 
a small patch of enclosed land. Before 1880 had passed 
into history the old trails and roads were rendered no 
longer passable on account of the fences of the ranch- 
men and the traveler must perforce traverse the long 
lanes leading across the valley. 

It must be remembered that all this development 
was wrought in spite of many trying conditions. 
While the mining wealth of the country was by no 
means exhausted, that which could be garnered by the 
poor man had long since found its way into the pocket 


of the miner and thence into the world's marts of 
trade. Capital is never a pioneer. However heroic 
a man may be he needs the spur of necessity to force 
him into the loneliness and uncertainty and danger 
and privation to be met in the van of civilization's 
march. Without the capital to develop them, the 
deep lying wealth materials must remain unutilized; 
without cheap transportation the markets of the world 
are closed to the isolated community. Speaking of 
the conditions obtaining during the winter of 1881 the 
Teller says: 

"Probably at no time for ten years past has the 
first of January found the great mass of the farmers 
so destitute of money as during the present month — 
at least such is the burden of their song, and there 
are reasons for this. They strained every nerve the 
past season to raise a good surplus of wheat and flax 
in the confident hope that they could get it shipped to 
a paying market and get good returns before January 
arrived. But with few exceptions, the people of this 
section have not been able to get their wheat and flax 
off to a market, and while a few have sold to the 
agents of buyers who were sent out into the country 
and received a small payment to bind the sales, yet 
the great bulk of the value of their products has not 
yet been realized. They have grain in abundance but 
no money. This scarcity is seriously felt by the mer- 
chants, mechanics and laborers whom they owe. Pa- 
tience and forbearance becomes necessary in such a 
crisis. These producers will work themselves out 
of the dilemma as soon as they have a fair show. 
The Walla Walla and Touchet valleys had a much 
better show, and money is reported to be plentiful 
among the farmers of those valleys. Our turn will 
come after a while, if we can hold fast and not be too 
exacting upon each other." 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the fields 
of Clearwater country did their best for the farmer 
during the year 1881, even if the opportunity to turn 
their products into cash was tardy in coming and the 
ready liquidation of debts was for that reason rendered 
impossible. The only climatic drawback to agricul- 
ture this year of which we have found record was a 
very heavy hail storm, the severest ever experienced 
in this part of the country up to that time. It oc- 
curred on the 3d of June and though its duration was 
not greater than ten minutes, it lasted long enough 
to cut down fields of grain in places, to destroy gar- 
dens and to kill scores of domestic animals. Paradise 
valley, the Potlach creek country and other farming 
communities suffered damage aggregating hundreds 
of dollars, while at Elk City a Chinaman lost his life, 
being struck by a limb blown from a tree under which 
he was seeking shelter. 

Comparatively insignificant though the industrial 
activities of the Nez Perces Indians were yet in our 
summary of the year 1881 we must give them credit 
for having added at least slightly to the wealth pro- 
duction of the county. The number of the tribe at 
this time seems to have been 2,036, of whom 257 were 
farmers. The Indian dwelling places consisted of 
fortv-eigfht frame houses, one hundred and twenty- 

eight log houses, seventy-two cloth, eighteen skin and 
twelve bark lodges. Four thousand, seven hundred 
and thirteen acres of their reserve were in cultivation. 
The red men were the possessors of 12,696 horses, 
870 cows, ten oxen, 1,500 other cattle, 675 swine and 
1,200 domestic fowls. The sole product of their man- 
ufacturing skill consisted of about three hundred yards 
of matting. 

Up to this time the legislative and judicial business 
of Nez Perces county had been transacted in a one- 
story frame building, back of the site which Alexan- 
der's general store now occupies, but the building had 
long been felt to be inadequate for the purpose and in 
January, 1882, the county commissioners purchased 
the old Luna property from Conrad Wintsch, design- 
ing to repair the building and fit it up to conserve the 
purpose of a county court house. 

The annals of 1882 were darkened by the com- 
mission on Camas creek of a crime which for atrocity 
deserves rank with the murder of Magruder in 1863. 
The victims of this dastardly act were three Chinese 
miners who were delving for the precious metal on 
the creek at a point about seventeen miles above 
Palouse bridge. The perpetrator or perpetrators of 
the terrible crime burned the Chinese cabin and with 
it two of the bodies. The remains of the third vic- 
tim, who is said to have been a highly educated, intel- 
ligent representative of his race, were found buried 
in the snow. They were in a state of perfect preser- 
vation, owing to the cold, which was sufficient to 
freeze them. A bullet hole in the back, another in the 
left side of the head and a gash across the throat 
showed at once the manner of the Mongolian's taking 
off and the extreme atrocity of his murderer. The 
only incentive to the enactment of this terrible tragedy 
seems to have been robbery, for the Chinamen were 
supposed to have several hundred dollars in gold dust 
at the time of their demise, no trace of which was dis- 
ci iverable around their burned and despoiled place of 
abode. Abe Galloway, who discovered the charred re- 
mains of the burned cabin, was given an examination 
which resulted in his being completely exonerated 
from any complicity in the crime. Although Governor 
Xeil on behalf of the territory offered a reward of 
$500 each for the arrest and conviction of the guilty- 
parties and although a determined effort was made 
to solve the mystery, the murderer or murderers have 
never been brought to justice. 

During the fall of 1882 and the winter following 
a determined effort was made by the people north of 
the Clearwater to effect segregation from Nez Perces 
county and the formation of a new political division. 
As is usual in such movements the leading agitators 
were men who hoped to gain some financial benefit by 
the establishment of a new county seat. The ambi- 
tious town in this instance was Moscow, in the rich 
and prosperous Paradise valley. Petitions were cir- 
culated and numerously signed, praying for the erec- 
tion of the proposed new county and these called forth 
counter petitions among the south side residents, who 
admitted that county division at some time was in- 
evitable, but considered this movement premature. 



Then, too, it was urged that as soon as northern Idaho 
should be attached to Washington a readjustment of 
county lines would become necessary, therefore the 
people desiring to be clothed with the authority to 
organize a separate local government ought to await 
incorporation into the territory of Washington before 
pressing forward their schemes. So numerous were 
the remonstrators and so strong their opposition that 
the bill for the new county could not be carried in the 

Disappointed in this project the friends of the 
movement, through Councilman Taylor, introduced a 
bill providing for a special election to be held on the 
first Monday in June in Nez Perces county at which 
the advisability of relocating the county seat should 
be submitted to a vote of the people. The bill was, 
of course, introduced in the interest of Moscow. One 
of its provisions was that if the electors decided to re- 
move the county seat from Lewiston, the place selected 
should deposit with the treasurer a sum sufficient to 
erect new county buildings and pay all the expenses 
of removing the records, etc., to the new seat of gov- 
ernment. The bill passed both houses. A lively cam- 
paign followed, both parties to the contest making a 
thorough canvass and arguing the question in all its 
phases with spirit. The result on election day was in 
favor of Lewiston, that town receiving 922 votes 
whereas its rival, Moscow, received only 642 votes. 
Lewiston had a majority in ten out of the thirteen 
princincts of the county. 

The year 1884 seems to have been a rather quiet 
one in Nez Perces county, the Coeur d'Alene country 
being the chief center of attraction in north Idaho at 
that time. Autumn, however, brought an abundant 
yield of wheat not alone in Idaho but in the cereal belt 
of the neighboring territory of Washington also. The 
crop was sufficiently large to have enabled the farmers 
to liquidate practically all their debts had the prices 
been good. The great bane of pioneer communities, 
lack of adequate transportation facilities, was militat- 
ing against these, however, and many ranchmen began 
discussing the advisability of turning their farms into 
stock ranches 

During this year General Miles testified his faith 
in the good intentions of the Nez Perces Indians by or- 
dering that thereafter Fort Lapwai be treated as an 
outpost of Walla Walla and garrisoned by a lieutenant 
and only twelve men of the second cavalry. The re- 
mainder of that company he sent to Fort Boise, mak- 
ing that a four company post. The faith of General 
Miles was not shared by the settlers in the vicinity of 
of the reservation, who remonstrated earnestly, point- 
ing out that the Nez Perces were still a strong tribe 
and that there were many among them who could be 
easily incited to acts of hostility. But the subsequent 
good conduct of the Nez Perces has justified the faith 
of Miles. 

As illustrating the rapidity with which Nez Perces 
county was growing at this period of its history we 
have taken a few figures from the tax roll summaries, 
according to which the total taxable property, real and 
personal, in the year 1882 was $1,327,516; in 1883, 

$1,817,229; in 1884, $2,050,546; the number of tax- 
payers in 1882 was 1,560; in 1883, 1,832; in 1S84, 

The year 1885 was one of uninterrupted tranquil- 
ity but 1886 brought a movement for the formation of 
a new county with, no doubt, some of the intense in- 
terest and bitterness usually attending such efforts. 
The proposition was to take for the new political 
division the southern portion of Shoshone county and 
that part of the Nez Perces lying between the Lolo 
and the south middle forks of the Clearwater. As 
an alternative in case this movement did not meet with 
favor it was suggested that the settlers in southern 
Shoshone might seek annexation to either Nez Perces 
or Idaho counties. The reason of their discontent with 
their existing political affinities was the distance to 
Murray, their county seat. The proposal seems not to 
have been carried into a definite effort before the legis- 
lature, but agitation for redress of grievances has never 
solely died out and at this writing the erection of a 
new county to embrace the inhabitants of southern 
Shoshone is a living issue. 

The next few years in Nez Perces county were 
years of quiet and steady advancement along ail lines, 
very little transpiring which has a sensational flavor 
when reduced to narrative. The two questions most 
deeply agitating the public mind during this period, the 
problem of securing railroad communication with 
neighboring states and the world and the annexation 
movement, have been discussed at some length in pre- 
vious chapters. It is needless to state that citizens of 
Nez Perces county were equally with other citizens of 
the territory of Idaho solicitous for the early admis- 
sion of their commonwealth to statehood, taking their 
full part in the initiatory steps in that direction. This 
also has been treated in its proper place. In the general 
prosperity obtaining throughout Idaho during the few 
years preceding its admission to statehood Nez Perces 
county had its full share. Crops were good, the out- 
look in the spring of 1888 being especially faorable. 
As the Teller informs us reports of great promise of 
good and large yields of grain came in from every 
section of the Clearwater country, from Lapwai, 
Sweetwater, Tammany, Asotin, Camas Prairie, 
Weipe, etc. 

Aside from the larger questions above mentioned 
the one political movement to agitate the general pub- 
lic was a renewed effort to secure the removal of the 
county seat from Lewiston to Moscow. The course 
pursued by the friends of Paradise prairie's ambitious 
business center was the same as that formerly taken. 
namely the circulation of petitions, agitation through 
the local press, etc. The friends of Lewiston again 
took up the gauntlet and so effective was their oppo- 
sition that a change of tactics bv the Moscow people 
became necessary" Through Delegate Dubois and 
Senator Mitchell', of Oregon, they secured the intro- 
duction into both houses of congress of a bill creating 
Latah county out of the northern portion of Nez Perces 
county. The measure carried despite the protests and 
efforts of its opponents in the southern part, becoming 
a law May 14, 1888. 


In June. 1889, Miss Alice C. Fletcher arrived at 
the Lapwai agency to take charge of the work of 
allotment of lands to the Indians in accordance with 
the provisions of the Severalty act of February 8. 
1887, which provided that each head of a family on 
the reservation should receive a quarter section of 
land: each single person over eighteen, one-eighth 
section : each single person under eighteen then living 
or who might be born before the president's order 
directing the allotment, one-sixteenth of a section. Her 
arrival and the inception of this work was a favora- 
ble sign as it proved the animus of the government 
to open the reserve as soon as possible. The people 
of the surrounding country looked upon the movement 
with much favor, hoping that the incubus upon prog- 
ress arising out of the ownership of large tracts of 
valuable agricultural land by an unprogressive and 
comparatively degenerate people would soon be re- 
moved, but it was full half a decade before the work 
of opening the reserve was accomplished. 

With the opening of the prosperous year 1890 
began a determined effort to secure transportation 
facilities for the Clearwater country. In February 
the citizens of Lewiston held a mass meeting in the 
Yollmer block at which the railroad question was thor- 
oughly discussed and a committee appointed to formu- 
late a plan of action. A meeting was also held at 
Nelson's schoolhouse, at which the citizens manifested 
their willingness to raise a bonus of $25,000 in their 
neighborhood to help bring a railroad to the country. 
By April a bonus of $50,000 had been subscribed, 
which, with the right of way from Lewiston to the 
reservation line, a distance of seven miles, was offered 
the Northern Pacific Company to extend their Spokane 
and Palouse branch to Lewiston. Later the subsidy 
was increased to $65,000 and still later to over $100,- 
000. The railroad officials promised to build the ex- 
tension during 1890. and gave earnest of their bona 
fide intentions by investing quite heavily in Lewiston 
real estate, but for some reason the road was not built 
as agreed, so the company lost this magnificent sub- 
sidy and the people the benefit of the road for several 
years more. 

The good year 1892 was darkened in Nez Perces 
county during its final month by the enactment of a 
tragedy which led to another, leaving a still darker 
stain upon the county's annals. The facts as we have 
been able to glean them from the rather meager rec- 
ords at hand "are as follows: Albert B. Roberts, the 
author of the first homicide and the victim of the sec- 
ond, had been working for several months in the 
employ of one John Sutherland and his brother, 
residence in the vicinity of Leland. When the 
Sutherlands discharged Roberts they held back five 
dollars of his pay, alleging that he had stolen twenty 
dollars from them. A quarrel ensued, of course. 
Roberts went to Leland and when John Sutherland 
visited that town a few days later the trouble 
was renewed. Roberts demanded the five dollars 
he claimed was due him: his late employer 
refused; angrv words followed which soon led 
to blows. During the melee Roberts threw his 

right arm about Sutherland's neck and while he had 
his adversary thus held in a comparatively helpless 
position, drew a revolver and discharged it three times 
into Sutherland's abdomen, killing him almost in- 
stantly. Roberts was arrested and brought to Lewis- 

The sequel proves that the Clearwater country had 
not yet progressed so far in its development of civil 
institutions and orderly society but that there was dan- 
ger of a temporary lapse, when the occasion seemed 
to warrant it, into the well known practices of the 
vigilantes of its early history. On the 2d of January, 
1893, a masked mob visited the jail in which Roberts 
was confined and compelled Deputy Sheriff W. W. 
Wright to open the doors. Proceeding to the cell of 
their intended victim, they gagged him so that he 
could make no outcry, then took him into the office 
and bound him securely hands and feet, meanwhile 
keeping strict guard over the deputy sheriff and one 
Timothy Ryan, who happened to be his bedfellow on 
this particular night. After giving their companions 
time to get a safe distance away, the guard thrust 
Wright and Ryan into a room, closed the door and 
hastily retreated into the open. The deputy and His 
companion ran to their rooms, secured their revolvers 
and fired several shots in succession to alarm the 
sheriff. That officer, together with Sheriff-elect 
Mounce soon joined in the chase. The mob, however, 
made good their escape and the identity of none of 
them was ever discovered. In due time the body of 
their victim was found in Mulkey's mill, still warm 
but lifeless. 

The year 1893 was an important one in the history 
of Nez Perces county, and notwithstanding the fact 
that the sun of financial prosperity throughout the 
United States began to be eclipsed during the twelve- 
month, several events transpired looking toward the 
general progress of this section. Not the least among 
these was the passage in the Idaho legislature of a 
bill establishing a state normal school at Lewiston 
and appropriating for its use fifty thousand acres of 
the one hundred thousand given to the state by the 
Lnited States government for the purpose of aiding 
in the establishment of such institutions. 

A matter of even greater moment to the industrial 
development of the county was the successful negotia- 
tion of a treaty with the Nez Perces Indians whereby 
their reservation was to be opened for settlement. In 
December, 1892, a commission appointed by the presi- 
dent, which commission consisted of Robert Schleich- 
er of Lewiston. chairman, Cyrus Heede, of Iowa, and 
James Allen, of Washington, D. C, convened at 
Lewiston with authority to offer to the Indians for 
their lands as liberal prices as ever were offered to any 
tribe by the L T nited States. For more than two months 
the commission labored strenuously to secure the open- 
ing of the reserve, but they were opposed in their 
efforts by certain outsiders who hoped to gain per- 
sonal benefits through maintaining the existing con- 
ditions of things and by wealthy Indians who wished 
the ranges for the pasturing of their herds of ponies. 
On February 19th, the commission adjourned sine 



die. They had succeeded in securing the signatures 
to the treaty of only 1 18 adult males, out of a total 
of 407. Negotiations were resumed shortly, however, 
and in April the commission authorized the statement 
that enough signatures had been secured to confirm 
the treaty. 

But the work of the commissioners was of no prac- 
tical avail until the treaty negotiated by them should 
be ratified by congress. A bill for that purpose was 
introduced into the house by Representative Sweet in 
June, 1894. The measure was referred to the com- 
mittee on Indian affairs and though it was reported 
back favorably by the majority, a minority report was 
also submitted by Representative Holman, the "Great 
Objector," making it uncertain whether the bill could 
be reached that session. Senator Shoup saved the day 
bv a shrewd parliamentary move. He succeeded in 
tacking onto the general Indian appropriation measure 
an amendment providing for the ratification of the 
treaty and the appropriation of the necessary funds. 
Objector Holman waged aggressive warfare against 
the amendment but was unsuccessful in defeating it, 
and it was enacted : 

"That the said agreement (referring to the treaty) 
be and the same is accepted, ratified and confirmed. 
"That for the purpose of carrying the provisions of 
this act into effect there is hereby appropriated the 
sum of $1,668,622, of which amount the sum of 
$1,000,000 shall be placed to the credit of the Nez 
Perces Indians of Idaho in the territory of the United 
States and shall bear interest at the rate of five per 
•centum per annum. Said sum of $1,668,622, to- 
gether with the interest on said sum of one million 
dollars shall be paid to the Indians or expended for 
their benefit, as provided in articles two. three, four 
and eight of said agreement, out of which sum the 
secretary of the interior shall pay to the heirs, ad- 
ministrators or legal representatives of William C. 
Langford, deceased, the sum of $20,000, upon a re- 
lease and relinquishment to the United States by said 
heirs, administrators or legal representatives of all 
right, titles and interest in or claim either legal or 
equitable, in and to the tract of land described in arti- 
cle two of said agreement as therein provided. Pro- 
vided that none of the money paid said Indians, nor 
any of the interest thereon, shall be or become liable 
to the payment of any judgment or claim for depre- 
dations committed bv said tribe or any member thereof 
before the date of said agreement. 

"That immediately after the issuance and receipt 
by the Indians of trust patents for the allotted lands, 
as provided for in said agreement, the lands so ceded, 
sold, relinquished and conveyed to the United States 
shall be opened to settlement by proclamation of the 
president and shall be subject to disposal only under 
the homestead, townsite, stone and timber and min- 
ing laws of the United States, excepting the sixteenth 
and thirty-sixth sections in each congressional town- 
ship, which shall be reserved for common school pur- 
poses and be subject to the laws of Idaho : Pro- 
vided, That each settler on said lands, shall before 
making proof and receiving a certificate of entry, pay 

to the United States for the lands so taken by him, in 
addition to the fees provided by law, the sum of $3.75 
per acre for agriculture lands, half of which shall be 
paid within three years from the date of the original 
entry; and the sum of $5.00 per acre for stone, tim- 
ber and mineral lands, subject to the regulations pre- 
scribed by existing laws ; but the rights of honorably 
discharged Union soldiers and sailors, as defined and 
described in sections 2304 and 2305 of the revised 
statutes of the United States, shairnot be abridged 
except as to the sum to be paid as aforesaid. 

"That the commissioner of Indian affairs be, and 
is hereby, authorized to employ a competent surveyor 
for a period not exceeding two years, at a compensa- 
tion not exceeding $1,200 per annum for the pur- 
poses stipulated in article four of said agreement, and 
he is also authorized to purchase two portable saw 
mills, as provided in article four. 

"That the secretary of the interior is hereby 
authorized to examine the claim of those Indians who 
served the United States under General O. O. Howard 
in the late war with Joseph's band of said tribe, as 
scouts, couriers and messengers, referred to in article 
ten of said agreement, and also as to the claim of 
Abraham Brooks, mentioned in said article, and re- 
port his findings and recommendations to congress.'' 

In 1900 an act was passed amendatory to the bill 
just quoted repealing the proviso that homesteaders 
should be required to pay for their lands the sum of 
$3-75 per acre and allowing all bona fide entrymen 
under the homestead laws to obtain title upon pay- 
ment of only such fees as were required of all home- 

It is needless to state that the opening of the 
reservation was hailed with delight and enthusiasm 
by the citizens of Lewiston and Nez Perces county. 
Coming, as it did, at a time when financial darkness 
overshadowed the land, the distribution of over six 
hundred thousand dollars in cash among the Indians, 
much of which speedily made its way into the hands 
of the merchants, was an important factor in keep- 
ing the wheels of industry oiled. But of vastly great- 
er moment to the present and prospective develop- 
ment of the county was the fact that the power of a 
lethargic, nonproducing and conservative people to 
hinder progressive movements was broken forever, 
and in the room of the shiftless, nomadic red man 
must soon come the thrifty homebuilder to garner the 
rich treasurers of the fertile reservation soil. The 
land passed rapidly into hands of men whose interests 
led them to favor instead of retard the construction of 
railroads and the inauguration of commercial enter- 
prises. The wealth of agriculture, of pasturage, of 
timber and of minerals, in which the reservation acres 
were known to abound, would be developed to the full- 
est and brought forth to assist in the upbuilding of 
commerce, educational establishments, the arts and 
refinements of civilization and in the working out of 
the Clearwater country's highest destiny. 

The effect of the opening upon the Indians probably 
received little attention from settlers in their vicinity. 
The price paid them for the lands was sufficient to 



keep them all in luxury for the rest of their days, and 
if carefully conserved and bequeathed to their pos- 
terity to provide against want during at least the next 
generation of time. That the money will be so hus- 
banded is doubtful and the destiny of the tribe when 
their resources are gone and they are no longer the 
wards of the government is for the anthropologist to 
foresee if he can and for the philanthropist to help 
determine as far as he may be able. Certain it is 
that the red man cannot always live on the bounty of 
the government or the funds arising from the sale of 
his possessory rights in the soil of his forefathers. 
The day must come when he must live by his own 
unaided" efforts or perish and perhaps the present is as 
good a time as any in which to throw him upon his 
own resources, teaching him by bitter experiences, if 
need be, what he will not learn in any other way,, 
that if he would enjoy the fruits of industry he must 
endure its pains and sacrifices. 

But we must return to our current review of events 
in Nez Perces county taking up the thread where we 
left it in 1893. The county did not fail to provide for 
its proper representation at the Columbian exposition 
in Chicago, but while enroute the car containing the 
soil, grass and grain exhibits of this and several 
other counties of Idaho was burned and its contents 
destroyed. The fruits, however, arrived safely. 

One event causing a great shock to the residents of 
the county transpired during the fall of this year, 
namely, the explosion in the steamer Annie Faxon, 
of which Harry Baughman was captain, causing the 
death of eight' persons and the wounding of nearly 
every member of the crew. The vessel at the time of 
the accident was making a landing at a point below 
Almota and fifty miles down the river from Lewiston. 
So violent was the explosion that the vessel was 
practically blown to pieces, nothing being left above 
the hull but splinters. The cause of the accident 
probably was that the boiler was allowed to become 

In 1895 occurred what was perhaps the most ter- 
rible tragedy that has shadowed the fair name of Nez 
Perces county since the davs of Plummer's gang. 
Waha lake was the scene and Sunday, May 19th, the 
date. One of the central figures in the tragedy was 
John Siers, a pioneer of that section and a successful 
stockman. In the early sixties he had entered into 
partnership with Joseph Shissler ; fortune had smiled 
benignly on the partners and by industry and econo- 
my they became the owners of a large tract of 
land, one of the finest farms in the Clearwater country, 
also of extensive herds of cattle. As time passed other 
settlers were attracted to the favored region, among 
them Mrs. Mary E. Goddard. who settled on land ad- 
joining Siers and Shissler's place, in 1884. Naturally 
the large stock interests of these pioneer cattlemen in- 
volved them in numerous neighborhood disputes, 
among them one of great bitterness with Mrs. God- 

The accidental death of Mr. Shissler in 1886 neces- 
sitated division of the estate, and Mr. Siers took the 
stock interests of the firm, leaving the realty to the 

Shissler heirs. He then leased the land, associating 
with him in this venture his former foreman, Frank 
Ward, who later became a son-in-law of Mrs. God- 
dard. Siers went east and remained until 1894, on 
which date he returned, dispossessed Ward and took 
possession of the property himself. He took up his 
abode in the old house, allowing Mrs. Goddard, who 
had resided with her daughter and son-in-law in a 
new house erected by the latter, to remain in posses- 
sion of the same. About the middle of April Ward 
brought suit against Siers to recover $1,000 claimed 
to be due him, and the Shissler heirs also went into 
court to compel Siers to comply with the terms of the 
lease. While the suit was pending the property was 
placed in the hands of a receiver, who leased the place 
to Mrs. Goddard. Siers acquiesced, only asking for 
sufficient time to collect his personal effects, but when 
he attempted to do this he found that many of them 
were held by Mrs. Goddard as part of the estate. He 
appealed to the receiver, who sent Mrs. Goddard an 
order to turn over the property, which order was dis- 
obeyed by her. Siers again went to the receiver, and 
it was agreed that the difficulty should be adjusted the 
following Sunday in the presence of that officer, at the 
residence of Mrs. Goddard. On that Sunday the fatal 
affray took place. The tragedy and events leading 
up to it are described by one of the Lewiston news- 
papers of the time: 

"Sunday morning about six o'clock, Siers, in com- 
pany with his employes, Elmer Shorthill, Frank Kin- 
caid, J. Manee and William Fay, departed from their 
temporary quarters at the Monroe farm for Lambert's 
place, about four miles distant, to secure some horses 
which were pastured there. Upon reaching the Shissler 
ranch the party stopped in front of the old house and 
Siers entered, returning shortly. At the barn yard 
the party again stopped to allow Mr. Siers to visit a 
man named Mott, who was sick and quartered in the 
granary. Siers said he wished to see about removing 
Mott to the Monroe place, and as he would probably 
need their assistance he asked his men to wait. Mott 
was a brother of Mrs. Goddard. He then passed 
through the gateway opening into the barn yard, leav- 
ing a rifle leaning against the fence, and proceeded 
onward. Siers had nearly reached the door when he 
was confronted by Ward, who held a pistol. A few 
words passed between them, and almost immediately 
Mrs. Goddard appeared, and, after engaging in a heat- 
ed conversation with Siers, passed on toward the gate 
where the men were. She stopped about forty feet 
from Siers, who was between her and Ward, and ad- 
dressed Siers. The latter turned toward her, and as 
he did so Ward fired two shots at him. Siers reached 
for his revolver and succeeded in returning the fire. 
Mrs. Goddard now rushad up, and. taking a revolver 
from her waist, placed the muzzle near Siers' back and 
fired several times in rapid succession. Siers fell for- 
ward, and as he did so Ward struck him over the head 
with his revolver. Siers expired instantly. 

"At the commencement of the fight Fred Goddard, 

the thirteen-year-old son, appeared in the doorway and 

' ordered the men at the gate to remain where they were, 


emphasizing this command with a rifle shot over their 
heads. Shorthill picked up Siers' rifle and. with the 
intention of assisting his fallen comrade, snapped the 
hammer at the combatants in the barnyard. The cap 
refused to explode, however. He then loaded the gun 
and again pulled the trigger, this time with more suc- 
cess, though the testimony exonerated him from any 
blame attaching to the death of the murderer, as it w ap- 
proved that the bullet flew wide of the mark. 

"Ward sank upon the floor upon reaching the 
house, and in falling discharged his pistol, the bullet 
from which grazed the limbs of Mrs. Boyer, who was 
standing in the doorway. Forty-eight hours later he 
died in excruiating agony. Mrs/Goddard was wound- 
ed, a pistol ball lacerating her right arm. 

"Hundreds of neighbors and Lewiston people con- 
gregated at the scene of the terrible tragedy during 
the day, and excitement over the affair overshadowed 
all other interests. Coroner Strong impaneled a jury 
and on Monday a verdict was rendered, holding Ward, 
Mrs. Goddard and Fred Goddard responsible for Siers' 
death. Later Shorthill was arrested for murder and 
then for assault with intent to kill. At a fair trial he 
was completely exonerated and acquitted." 

When the Goddard case came on for trial in the 
superior court there was begun one of the most mem- 
orable legal contests in the history of the county. At- 
torneys McXamee and Clagget conducted the case for 
the state, while Reid and Griffits appeared for the 
defense. Forty days were consumed in the taking of 
testimony and the making of arguments, etc., entail- 
ing upon the taxpayers an expense of many thousands 
of dollars. The defendants were acquitted, to the in- 
dignant surprise of hundreds who followed the testi- 
mony carefully. 

On Monday, August 26, 1895, the first payment to 
Indians of moneys due them in accordance with the 
treaty began at the agency. The Lewiston banks es- 
tablished temporary quarters on the reservation for 
the purpose of cashing the checks, and it is stated that 
the Indians deposited with these institutions about one- 
third of their newly-acquired wealth, also that they 
acted honestly in liquidating their outstanding debts. 

Speaking editorially of the events on this mem- 
orable time, the Teller in its issue of August 29th 
said : 

"The past week has been one of active life in a com- 
mercial sense. Every channel of trade has been 
swelled to its flood tide. The impulse derived from the 
disbursement of Indian money has not yet subsided. 
Coming, as the revival did, at the beginnig of a sea- 
son of general prosperity, Lewiston may reason- 
ably expect a rapid development of neglected resources. 
One thing noticeable is the fact that the Indians use 
good judgment in making their purchases. Indian 
goods have always been shoddy goods in trade circles, 
but the Nez Perces have been selecting the best of 
everything this week. 1 They have purchased largely of 
spring wagons, but they have avoided the cheaper 
goods, preferring to hay good prices for substantial 
family carriages. Thfe payment of the Indian money 
proceeded very quietH all week at the agency. The 

red men were more indifferent than white men would 
have been had such a prize been ready for the latter 
for the simple asking. The sum of two hundred thou- 
sand dollars awaited the Kamiahs for a week while 
they deliberated over the preliminaries. At first they 
seemed nonplused by the final awakening to the fact 
that they would soon be surrounded by the whites and 
have to shoulder the responsibilities of the white men, 
and sent word that they had deeded no land and would % 
therefore receipt for no money. Thev finally took a* 
philosophic view of the matter, however, and' decided 
to acquiesce. 

"The Indians as a class have contemplated, secured 
and utilized this money with better judgment and more 
in accordance with true business principles than a 
chance selection of an equal number of white men 
would have done. This speaks well for their future. 
The foundation of civilization is true business thrift 
of the individuals of anv community, and commercial 
prosperity is a natural trait of first importance in 
political economy." 

When the news of the opening of the reservation 
spread abroad scores of prospective homesteaders 
flocked into the country, camping where they might 
and doing what they could to earn a subsistence. Only 
the better class came, as the fact that the land was ex- 
pected to cost $3.75 per acre deterred the rougher and 
less thrifty element. 

On November 18th, at 12 o'clock noon, the firing 
of a cannon at the local land office gave warning of the 
official opening of the reserve. As usual in such cases 
there was a great rush for choice locations, but the 
ruffianism so generally characteristic of these races for 
homes was conspicuous for its absence. The first 
claims were filed by Stephen Haaser for Colonel Ham- 
mel, Captin Tamblin and W. O. Human, old soldiers. 
A noteworthy event of the first day was the race for 
the quartz ledges on Eckert's butte, which for many 
years was supposed to be a veritable bonanza. J. L. 
Eckert and C. E. Holt were the winners, the latter se- 
curing first choice. Nezperce City, the new govern- 
ment townsite, was likewise the center of considerable 
interest. Great confusion obtained there for a while in 
the matter of selecting lots, but the friends of order 
finally effected an organization, and. on the suggestion 
of Dr. Morris, adopted a species of lot drawing to de- 
termine the distribution of prizes. . 

The settlement of the reservation enabled Nez 
Perces county to advance by a single leap to a place 
among the wealthiest and most populous counties of the 
state. Of the reservation lands. 533.500 acres were in 
Nez Perces, much of this domain being exceedingly- 
rich agricultural land, and its settlement by a thrifty, 
homebuilding population was fraught with momentous 
consequences for the future greatness of the county. 

No new movements characterized the year 1896, 
but it was nevertheless a busy one. It witnessed an in- 
crease of over 4,000 in the population of Nez Perces 
countv and the settlement of practically all the reserva- 
tion not taken in the first grand rush. Thousands of 
acres of virgin soil were broken, hundreds of homes 
were built, several towns were started and signs of 



healthy development were apparent on every hand. 
During the year the Clearwater was opened to naviga- 
tion as far as Kamiah by the utilization of twenty-five 
thousand dollars provided for the purpose by appro- 
priation, and thus the final year of the financial strin- 
gencv, the year in which so little was accomplished in 
many other parts of the west, was made fruitful of 
much progress in Nez Perces county. 

In February, 1897, Representative Fuller, of Sho- 
Ihone county, introduced into the legislature a bill to 
create Clearwater county out of the southern portion of 
Shoshone, the northern portion of Idaho and the east- 
ern portion of Nez Perces county, the seat of govern- 
ment of the new political division to be Pierce City. 
Some of the boundaries were unnatural, and most of 
the section embraced was unpatented homestead land, 
not taxable. The number of votes cast at the previous 
election by residents in the section seeking segregation 
numbered barely three hundred. Opponents of the 
measure within and without the proposed new subdi- 
vision of the state called attention to these facts ; the 
hopelessness of the task they had undertaken soon be- 
came apparent to its friends and the bill was allowed 
to drop. 

It will be remembered that in 1897 there was a re- 
vival of business throughout the entire northwest. 
Naturally Nez Perces county, which had not suffered 
by the hard times as did other parts of the country, 
was prepared to keep step in this renewed forward 
march, and the year was fruitful of many improve- 
ments and some departures in industrial circles. 
Thousands of dollars were invested in reviving some 
of the old mining camps of north Idaho, erecting 
stamp mills, opening roads, etc. The reorganization of 
the Northern Pacific Company after its lines had been 
in the receiver's hands for five years was an event 
of no little promise to a region which must look to that 
corporation for the transportation facilities it so much 
needed and so ardently desired. Lastly, and in time 
to give the homebuilders on the newly-opened Nez 
Perces reservation the encouragement so necessary and 
so helpful under those circumstances, came the abun- 
dant harvests and excellent prices which have made 
1897 a memorable year in the history of the inland 
empire generally. Prosperity among the farmers 
meant prosperity among the merchants, laborers me- 
chanics and all other classes, and every one felt that the 
night of financial distress had given place to a more 
glorious day than had ever before broken upon the hills 
and valleys of the Clearwater country. 

It was no doubt their perception of this golden 
future that impelled the Northern Pacific Railroad 
Company to commence in December, 1897, the exten- 
sion of their Spokane and Palouse branch to Lewis- 
ton, taking up in good earnest a project which it had 
long been contemplating but for various reasons had 
never carried into effect. At any rate, the company 
notified the people, through its agent, J. P. Vollmer, 
that it would commence work immediately provided 
the right of way and depot grounds in Lewiston were 
donated. The proposal drew forth an immediate re- 
sponse ; the bonus asked for was speedily granted, also 

the necessary franchise. The company proved true to 
its promise. Work was pushed speedily and steadily 
and on September 8, 1898, the first passenger train 
entered Lewiston. That it received a hearty welcome 
need not be stated when it is remembered that the 
town had begun agitation for a railroad as early as 
1872 — perhaps earlier — and had wrought assiduously 
during all the intervening years to the end that its in- 
dustrial development might receive the impetus which 
nothing but speedy transportation could give, at times 
offering enormous bonuses and ever standing ready 
to offer the company which should build to them all 
the encouragement in their power. 

The activity of the Northern Pacific seemed to 
stimulate other transpartation companies, and in 
.March, 1898, articles of incorporation of the Snake 
River Vailey Railroad Company were filed in 
the county clerk's office. The object of this company 
was to build a line from Umatilla, Oregon, to a point 
in the state of Washington contiguous to the mouth 
of Snake river, thence along the valley of that stream 
via Riparia, Washington, and Lewiston, Idaho, to the 
vicinity of Huntington. The proposed road would 
be of great benefit to the Clearwater section, and the 
people thereof are ever alert for the good of their 
part of the state, so considerable attention was paid to 
this new project. However, the people were too well 
used to the ways of railway projectors to be greatly 
disappointed when the road did not materialize. 

The winter of 1897-8 was a mild one, and, as is 
usual under those circumstances, the fall of snow was 
correspondingly heavy. The precipitation during Jan- 
uary was very great, and conditions were right for an 
era of floods as soon as a warm wind should begin 
blowing. On the 14th of February the balmy "Chi- 
nook" came with its furnace breath, the snow was 
speedily converted into torrents of water, the streams 
were swelled to their utmost, the former high-water 
records of the Potlatch, especially, being badly broken. 
Much damage resulted to the railroad bed; the new 
construction work was injured and its progress de- 
layed; travel was rendered impossible for three days 
and the entire Potlatch country was cut off from mail 
communication with the outside world. The Clear- 
water at Lewiston rose six feet in one day and the cur- 
rent in it became so swift as to stop the ferries : but 
inconvenience from high water was of short dura- 

As the year advanced it brought with it blessings 
and a substantial increase of wealth to the citizens 
of Nez Perces county and vicinity. Copious rains in 
June insured excellent crops. Much of the land of the 
region was new, so that the enormous crop of 1897 
did not render another large crop in 1898 a practical 
impossibility, and it is stated that the wheat yield of 
that year was the greatest known up to the time. 
The acreage devoted to the different cereal products 
during the year, as compiled by Assessor Cantril, 
were as follows- Wheat, 44,507 acres; barley, 4,131 
acres; flax, 2,924 acres: oats, 1,572 acres; corn. 275 
acres. The number of acres devoted to hay was 



The outbreak of the Spanish-American war was 
in Nez Perces county, as in other parts of Idaho and 
the west, the occasion of a great outburst of patriotic 
ferver. This ebullition of the martial spirit found ex- 
pression at a public meeting held at the court house 
Saturday, April 23d, 1898, at which the militia, mem- 
bers of the Grand Army of the Republic, several 
Confederate veterans, many students and a representa- 
tion of the citizenship of Lewiston — far beyond the 
capacity of the audience room to accommodate — were 
present. Judge J. W. Poe presided. Speeches were 
made by Supreme Judges Sullivan and Ouarles, 
Colonels Lane and Danford, J. N. Stacy and James 
W. Reid, and these, with the martial music, stirred all 
hearts to their profoundest depths. 

Shortly after the issuance of the call of President 
McKinley for one hundred and twenty-five thousand 
volunteers, Company B received orders to hold itself 
in readiness to furnish thirty-five of its best men to fill 
up the state quota, and the boys had been drilling as- 
siduously in anticipation of the opportunity to partici- 
pate for the first time in active warfare. On Monday, 
May 2d. they received the anticipated marching or- 
ders, commanding them to repair at once to the ren- 
dezvous at Boise, but on account of some difficulty 
about transportation they were delayed in their com- 
pliance until Thursday. At noon on Monday Com- 
pany C, of Grangeville. Captain Murphy commanding, 
arrived in Lewiston. They and the home boys were 
tendered a reception by the ladies of the Women's 
Relief Corps on Tuesday evening, at which they en- 
joyed not only the usual bounties of good things, but 
heart-felt words of welcome and farewell expressed in 
glowing language by eloquent speakers. A flag was 
presented to the soldiers by C. P. Coburn, accom- 
panied by words well-calculated to inspire in the 
breasts of its recipients a determination to carry it 
on to victory and to never disgrace it by any act of 
cowardice or dishonor. 

The interest of the residents of Lewiston in their 
chosen sons was further manifested on the morning 
of their departure, when a concourse of between 2,500 
and 3,000 people assembled at the boat landing to give 
them a parting hand-shake. The public schools were 
closed, also the Normal ; stores and public offices were 
deserted, and men, women and children gathered to 
see the start for war. More speeches were indulged 
in ; another flag was given the company by the Grand 
Army of the Republic, much hand-shaking, some 
caressing, no doubt, a little of that overflow of feeling 
which the soldier dreads worse than the battle's front, 
and the boys were off to meet the uncertainties which 
beset the soldier in fighting the battles of the repub- 
lic. Two weeks were spent in camp at Boise ; then the 
Idaho volunteers were ordered to join General Mer- 
ritt at the Presidio, San Francisco. 

From the records of Company B, First Regiment, 
Idaho Volunteer Infantry, the same being the Nez 
Perces county company, we learn that the officers were 
Lieutenant Colonel Daniel M. Figgins, commanding; 
Captain Edward O. Martinson, First Lieutenant Rob- 
ert D. Stainton, Second Lieutenant Chipear Wilcut; 

and that the privates were Charles W. Alkire, Robert 
L. Baldwin, Herbert M. Caswell, James Cleary, David 
D. Crites, John O. Derr, Frank C. Duncan, Fred Fol- 
som, Harry B. Ford, William H. Frederick, Frank B. 
Gorman, George H. Hammersly, Herbert Hennes, 
Isaac Hutcheson, Hyrum Jenson, James Jenson, Oli- 
ver B. Jones, Richard B. Jones (wounded February 
5, 1899), Adam Kobel, Stanley C. Lebrook, John 
Lucey, Dennis Likens, John H. Little, Donald O. 
Merntt, Joseph Oswald, Richard D. Pelkey, Louis 
Peterson, William M. Pipkin, Walter W. Rhoades, 
Alfred E. Riter, William X. Robinson, Robert Ross, 
Guy Simpson, Frank Stark, Bert Weeks, James Wes- 
ton and William C. Woodside. Privates discharged 
from the company before the register was made were : 
John \V. Frederick, James C. Henderson, Theodore 
Link, William A. Bicknell, Darius P. Gray, William 
Hall, Caleb P. Hahn, Charles F. Krise, John N. Luit- 
jens (wounded February 5, 1899), Harry McConville, 
J. C. McFadden, Frederick B. McKee, Charles C. 
Miles, G. E. Overstreet, Lewis A. Powless, William 
B. Rea, Joseph Rustmeyer, Frederick W. Soule, 
Martin Starling, William B. Strong, Horace 
D. Van Alstine. Officers resigned : Captain L. 

D. Schattner, April 25, 1899; Second Lieu- 
tenant John O. Barbour, March 17, 1899. Discharged 
to accept commisions : First Sergeant, Robert D. 
Stainton, Private Frank A, McCall (wounded Feb- 
ruary 5, 1899), Chipear Wilcut. Those who served 
as sergeants were: Joseph Strobel, Ernest Scott 
(wounded February 5, 1899), John Wiggins, William 
M. Keller (wounded February 5, 1899), Charles Gor- 
don, Fred S. Beckwith. As corporals : Samuel W. 
Blue, Alois Kalous, Charles W. Byers, Frank Cer- 
veny, Frank B. Flora, Len Koen, Thomas Martin. 
As musicians : William H. Ritzheimer and William 

E. Merriam. As artificer, Thomas Nance. As wag- 
oner, Herman Wilde. Those transferred were: Mack 
K. Cunningham, Fred Farr, Joseph A. Gill, Elmore 
A. McKenna and Amos A. Smith, all privates. Those 
killed in action were: Corporal Frank R. Caldwell, 
Privates James R. Fraser and George W. Hall. 

The company's record of events reads as follows : 
"Left Boise, May 19, 1898; arrived at San Francisco, 
California, May 22d and went into Camp Merntt. 
Embarked on Steamship 'Morgan City' June 26th ; 
left San Francisco bay en route for Manila June 27th. 
Arrived at Honolulu July 6th, leaving July 9th; ar- 
rived at Manila bay July 31. Landed August 6th at 
Paranaque and went into camp at Camp Dewey. In 
trenches August 8th and 9th. In barracks at Malate 
August 13th to October nth. In barracks, Exposi- 
tion building, Manila, to January 2d. In barracks at 
Aco, Manila, to February 4th. On guard and outpost 
duty until February 4, 1899. In trenches and on fir- 
ing' line from February 4th to July 12th. Embarked 
on United States Army Transport Grant, en route 
for San Francisco via Magaski, Island Sea and Yoko- 
hama July 31st ; arrived August 29th. Went into camp 
at Presidio August 31st." 

The company took part in one engagement with 
Spanish forces — the assault and capture of Manila, 



August 13th, 1898, and battled against Philippino in- 
surgents at Santa Ana on February 4th and 5th at 
Calcoocan, February 10th and nth, 1899. Detach- 
ments of the company were in the Laguna bay expedi- 
tion, April 7th to 17th ; at Santa Cruz, April 9th and 
10th; at Pagsanjan, April nth; at Lumban, April 
nth, and at Paete, April 13th. 

Besides the volunteers above mentioned, Harry 
Matheson, Ed Sutherland, James Jacks, Ed Sears, 
John Neal, Harry Lee, Bob Winger and Moxie Alex- 
ander, all Lewiston boys, took part in the war, having 
enlisted in Company C, First Battalion, Second Regi- 
ment, Washington Volunteers. 

The Second Battalion, Idaho Volunteers, including 
all the north Idaho companies, was commanded by 
Major Ed McConville (the Colonel McConville of Nez 
Perces Indian war fame), a man of splendid military 
ability. Brave, determined, heroic, possessing the gift 
of inspiring others with the enthusiasm and ardor 
which fired his own patriotic heart, he kept adding 
laurels to his wreath of fame until he met at last a 
soldier's fate. Brigadier General Charles King, who 
was in command of the brigade in the battle of Santa 
Ana, in which the Idaho regiment covered itself with 
glory, refers to the Idaho volunteers and to Major 
McConville in this language : 

"Just as the center of the Idahos reached a little 
clump of trees and shrubbery half way across the 
plain they were greeted by a sudden and furious vol- 
ley, which staggered them. In an instant McConville 
leaped to the front, shouting to his men: 'Come on! 
Come on, Idaho!' and then, as he turned and led the 
rush into the shrubbery a shot struck him square in 
the breast and down he went. Even then, they told 
me, he strove to crawl forward, but the wound was 
mortal, and presently the brave old fellow realized that 
he had but an hour or two to live. I never saw him 
again. The order he received from my lips on the 
Santa Ana road was his last, and to the letter had he 
striven to obey it. 

"Five insurgents lay dead about the Krupps in the 
middle of the redoubt, where, side by side, California 
and Idaho leaped in to the capture, and a dozen lay 
strewn over the field in front of where the honored old 
major fell. The big redoubt on the mound to his left 
was littered with the bodies of insurgents. Hemmed 
in between McConville, Fortson and the river and un- 
able to beat back the dashing charge of the 'Ameri- 
canos,' they raised the white flag and then shot dead 
the first soldier to reach the work. The roar of mus- 
ketry was resumed for three minutes and was followed 
by scattering shots as the fugitives ran for the stream, 
but there was a smile on McConville's grizzled face 
as they bore him off the field." 

The remains of the heroic McConville were brought 
home lor interment. On April 12th the steamer 
Spokane, with its flag at half-mast, steamed into port 
bearing the body, and during the afternoon of the 
next day all that was mortal of the courageous patriot 
was laid to rest. The funeral was attended by hun- 
dreds of people, among them the state officials, "led by 
Governor Steunberg, the University of Idaho Cadets 

and members of the faculty and delegations from other 
cities of Idaho and Washington. 

The members of Company B arrived at Lewiston 
on the afternoon of October 2, 1899, and were greeted 
in a manner which proved that the people fully appre- 
ciated their gallant services and the honor they reflect- 
ed upon the city and county that sent them forth. The 
boat was met by members of fraternal orders, by 
fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters and sweethearts, 
by young and old and middle aged, all in gala attire 
and striving to outdo one another in the warmth of 
their welcome and the heartiness of their tributes of 

But we must take up again the current of events 
in Nez Perces county. The year 1899 was a very 
lively one. The railroad activity of which we have 
spoken in a previous chapter contributed not a little 
to this prosperity and there were other causes also 
operative in the same direction. True the winter had 
been a severe one occasioning heavy losses of cattle 
and horses, the heaviest, however, being outside of 
Nez Perces county, but the effect was scarcely felt, 
being so completely neutralized by the operation of 
other forces. By May, according to the Teller's state- 
ment, the entire country was on the boom. New 
towns and new additions to old towns were coming 
to the front and the price of real estate was leaping 
forward. "Every house of every description," says 
the paper referred to, "is occupied to its fullest ca- 
pacity and large numbers of new ones are under con- 
struction, while many vacant lots serve as tenting 
ground for people who cannot otherwise get housed. 
The transient traveler who gets a room to himself is 
fortunate and still more so is he if he is not compelled 
to sleep at some barracks of a lodging house utilized 
in connection with the hotel where he may have reg- 
istered." The Buffalo Hump excitement, caused by 
the discovery of rich gold deposits in the vicinity of 
that old landmark, was responsible for much of the 
travel through the country and the general boom con- 
ditions, but there was also a mining excitement in 
Nez Perces county itself. A number of locations 
were made near Greer's ferry on the Clearwater river, 
a region blest with traditions of a lost mine. "During 
the Nez Perces war," so the story goes, "a party of 
prospectors were run to cover in the canyon of the Lo- 
lo and while in hiding they found a very rich ledge. 
The prospectors were badly scared, did not expect 
to save even their scalps, but they chipped off chunks 
of gold bearing quartz and carried them to their 
homes. The confused state of their minds at the 
time left them with only vague recollections of the 
location of the ledge which they concealed with brush 
and dirt. Years later members of that party secretly 
returned to the vicinity of Greer's ferry and tramped 
all summer up and down the country in search of 
this rich ledge, which they have never found. All 
of these old prospectors have died. The last to visit 
the scene of this exciting experience came in 1896." 

Whether the gold find of 1877, if such was in truth 
made, would, if discovered, prove as rich as the old 
prospectors believed is of course unknown but Greer's 



ferry is known to be in a promising mineral belt and 
it is possible that a ledge of great richness may have 
been discovered and lost again as alleged. At any 
rate it is not unlikely that some of the prospects in 
the vicinity will develop into paying properties. 

During the year the value of property in the county 
according to the assessor's appraisement nearly doub- 
led, giving it fifth place among the political divisions 
of the state. As the valuation of railroad property in 
the county was only one-sixteenth of the whole, leav- 
ing such property out of the calculation, Nez Per- 
ces would rank third. 

The opening of the year 1900 was a very propiti- 
ous one in the county. The mild winter left the cat- 
tlemen's stacks of hay scarcely touched while the cat- 
tle, feeding along the breaks of the rivers, were fatter 
than if they had been compelled by severe weather to 
consume all the fodder provided for their use in case 
of emergency. The year throughout was one of sub- 
stantial progress and universal prosperity, though it 
was not characterized by the excitement and rush 
which distinguished its predecessor. When fall came 
it brought the largest harvests ever known in Nez 
Perces county with a consequent stimulus to business 
of all kinds. The only disaster of the year was for- 
tunately not serious. It consisted of the wreck on the 
Clearwater Short Line, on June 27th, of a mixed 
train consisting of four carloads of hogs, two box 
cars, three hat cars, a steam shovel, one passenger 
coach and the express car. The train had just rounded 
a curve about two miles east of Contact and was com- 
ing onto straight road again when one of the trucks 
under the steam shovel left the track. The engineer 
saw the shovel flying up in the air and immediately 
applied the brakes, but the king bolt under the shovel 
had been broken ; the trucks were pulled out from un- 
der it ; the flat car behind struck it throwing it into 
the river and the car itself was thrown crosswise of the 
track. The other freight cars were badly wrecked, 
but fortunately the passenger coach, in which were 
fifteen or twenty people, was not injured, and besides 
being badly shaken up no one was hurt. 

An event of the year 1900 which must not be over- 
looked was the organization on February 19th of the 
Nez Perces County Pioneer Association, of which all 
persons might become members who settled in the 
county prior to or during 1877. The first officers 
were C. G. Kress, president : C. P. Coburn, vice-pres- 
ident ; Wallace B. Stainton, secretary; John N. Lind- 
say, treasurer ; Edmund Pearcy, Robert Grostein, Joel 
Martin and M. A. Kelly, trustees. For the purpose 
of preserving as many as possible of the names of 
those who have toiled so long in the development of 
the county and done so much for its material and so- 
cial upbuilding, we give the membership roll of the 
societv as follows: 

W. P. Bell, 1859; John M. Silcott, Thomas B. 
Beall, i860; G. W. Underwood, A. R. Trimble, Thom- 
as F. Reynolds, 1861 ; C. C. Bunnell, Fdmund Pear- 
cy, Chester P. Coburn, Augustus C. Sweet, Ezra 
Baird, W. S. Dyer, G. A. Frost, M. A. Kelly, Joel 
D. Martin, S. Wildenthaler, R. Grostein, C. E. Faunce, 

T. C. Moxley, August Meilk, W. P. Hunt, William 
LeBaron, N. B. Holbrook, E. Tixier, L. G. Maguire, 
John Denny, J. O. Maxon, Sarah G. Thompson, D. 
VV. C. Dunwell, 1862; Eva K. Mounce, Mrs. C. F. 
Grostein, Elizabeth Barnett, Eliza W. Thatcher, Em- 
ma J. Chapman, J. Alexander, John W. Denney, W. 
W. Leeper, Sophia Whitman, Mallery, Mrs. Martha 
Coburn, P. B. Whitman, Samuel W. Childs, 1863; 
Mrs. Rosa Grostein, M. H. Sprague, Olive C. Hunt, 
C. A. McCabe, John O. Barbour, S. E. Vollmer, Ben- 
jamin F. Morris, 1864; Alma Havenick, Lucinda J. 
Breanley, Charles G. Kress, 1865 ; William Stevenson, 
T. S. Billings, William Baird, C. E. Bradish, Anna 
M. Clark, 1866; Rachael Binnard, A. C. Coburn, Mrs. 
Mary W. Smith, Nellie W. Leeper, Joseph Dubuc, 
Harry Dowd, James Conlev, L. Grostein, 1867; C. 

A. Elmer, Mrs. W. E. Erb, Mrs. F. Roos, John P. 
Vollmer, Mrs. Alida G. Faunce, 1868; Mrs. Annie 
Krautinger, Frank B. Willis, Mrs. losephine Boise, 
Christ Weirgerder, 1869; H. R. Grostein, Fred M. 
Manning, Ferdinand Roos, Amy D. Kettenbach, 
Charles Dowd, John L. Chapman, James Haves, Perry 
Thomas, G. A. Manning, Mrs. Laura B. Morris, Su- 
san E. Manning, H. Penault, 1870; H. A. Trimble, 
G. M. Smith, P. M. Davis, H. K. Barnett, 1871 ; 
Harry Lydon, Mrs. Clifford Riggs, J. R. Lydon, 
Robert Schleicher 5 , Matt Dowd, Mrs. J. E. Akins, 
Wallace B. Stainton, 1872; Mrs. Sarah A. Roxley, 
L. Rowley, J. Q. Moxley, E. A. Rowley, 1873 ; Louis 
N. Roos S. E. Arant, William L. Hoise, E. H. Wig- 
gin, Mrs. Ella Rowley, Mrs. Mary R. Denny, Anna 
Binnard, 1874; A. G. Wisner, Curtis Thatcher, F. 
Oliver, Edna M. Baird, Mrs. Marv C. Moxley, J. 

B. Morris, John M. Fix, W. R. Dixon, 1875; J- -N. 
Lindsay, L. Stannus, Mrs. Mollie Armstrong, Mrs. 
W. B. Cooper, Miss Bessie Vollmer, Elizabeth M. 
Beeson, Mary A. Butler, Ferdinand Roos, Jr., George 

C. Leland, George H. Storer, J. D. C. Thiessen, Re- 
becca Lindsay, C. A. Leeper, Rosa Ponting, Mrs. 
Lillie Wisner, W. H. Leland, J. H. Frost, Mrs. L. 
K. Stirling, Mrs. Hattie Wildenthaler, Louis D. 
Schattner, 1876; John Weiss, Thomas Kittsmiller, 
Wilbur Wardwell, J. C. Kincaid, John Ponting, John 
Speck, W. A. Smith, Catherine Metcalf, Margaret 
A. Goldsmith, Frances M. Moxley, Mrs. Viola C. 
McConville, Martin L. Goldsmith, Newton Hibbs, 
J. E. Kincaid, John H. McCalli, William Wright, 
J. R. Wolfe, A. W. Krautinger, Fred S. Kling, F. 
J. Edwards, Maud Wildenthaler, Clara P. Phillips, 
Mrs. Mary White Kettenback, W. F. Kettenbach, 
Mrs. Emma M. Edwards, Henry Harsell, W. Haver- 
nick, 1877. 

On January 22, 1901, Representative Oxley, of 
Shoshone county, introduced into the legislature a bill 
providing for the creation of Clearwater county out of 
territory belonging to Nez Perces, Idaho and Shoshone 
counties. It was later amended to take in the Potlatch 
country, its first draft having taken no part of Nez 
Perces county except that east of the Boise meridian. 
The result of the change was a vigorous protest from 
the residents of the section affected. The bill was de- 
feated bv a vote of 22 to 21 in the house, but in the 

9 6 


evening that body reconvened and determined by a vote 
of 31 to 11 to reconsider the measure. This was on 
March 6th. Later in the same month a substitute bill 
was passed, the boundaries being so defined as to take 
from Nez Perces county about three townships in the 
Potlatch and three in the reservation. The bill was 
promptly signed by the governor, who appointed for 
the new county of Clearwater the following officers : 
Commissioners, P. H. Blake, William LeBaron and 
John T. Mallory ; sheriff, Frank Gaffney ; assessor, J. 
L. Harris ; treasurer. A. E. Holmberg ; superintendent 
of schools, Mrs. Fannie Roberts; probate judge, J. S. 
Hogue; county attorney, J. A. Brown; surveyor, D. 
H. Guilland, coroner, Henry Merchant. 

But the new county was not organized as speedily 
as at first intended, owing to several difficulties, and 
when at last it was ready to take its place among the 
legal subdivisions of the state, the state auditor refused 
to furnish blank licenses such as the law required him 
to furnish to the treasurers of the different counties, 
alleging that Clearwater county had not been legally 
created. The case was taken into court by the county 
treasurer of the new political division, who applied for 
a writ of mandate compelling the state auditor to com- 
ply with the law in this respect. The defendant, in 
his answer, filed in response to an, order by the court 
to appear and show cause why the writ should not issue, 
set up that the county did not contain taxable prop- 
erty to the value of one million dollars as required by 
section 4, article 18 of the constitution, and further 
that the act creating or purporting to create it was 
fatally defective in its language, therefore the county 
of Cleawater has no legal existence. Attorneys for 
the county of Cleawater thought the second objection 
would not be seriously considered by the court and 
contended that the amendment upon which the first was 
based was unconstitutional for the reason that it was 
not passed by a two-thirds vote of the house. The su- 
preme court did not pass upon the constitutionality of 
the amendment, but held the creating act void for the 
reason that it did not state specifically that the territory 
within the defined boundaries "shall constitute the coun- 
ty of Clcanvatcr." The section at fault read : "That 
all portions of the state of Idaho included within the 
following boundaries, to wit : Beginning at the south- 
east corner of Kootenai county on the water shed 
separating the waters of the St. Mary and Clearwater 

rivers : thence in an easterly direction to the 

•place of beginning." The sentence contained no verb 
and was obviously meaningless. Thus through a 
clerical mistake or literary error the hopes of the 
friends of Clearwater county were dashed to the 

This year witnessed in Whitman county and other 
parts of Washington a very considerable excitement 
over the discovery of indications of oil and natural 
gas, an excitement which extended to Nez Perces 
county also. It is stated that after two days of careful 
examination of the Isaman farm and adjoining lands. 
Prof. Aughey. an expert, concluded that Lewiston 
was in the gas belt and that the Lewiston valley was 
underlaid, at a depth of between six hundred and a 

thousand feet, with formations containing oil and gas. 
Those who were with Professor Aughey stated that 
from holes made in the soil at various points a gas 
flow was obtained. The exudations burned with a 
yellow flame, leading to the conclusion that they were 
petrolium gas. Many claims were taken in the vicin- 
ity and considerable excitement was engendered by 
the find and by Aughey's very conservative report. 

The spring of 1902 brought another rush of gold 
seekers through the county, Thunder mountain being 
the mecca of the wealth hunting hordes this time. Some 
few of the travelers stopped at Lewiston to secure 
their outfits, but for the most part that city was left 
out of their calculations after the Northern Pacific 
time schedule was changed so as to permit passengers 
to proceed direct to Stites, the Clearwater terminal 
of the road. From that point two routes were open 
to the pilgrims, one via Dixie, the other via Grange- 
ville and Warrens. The rush had a stimulating effect 
upon business all along the route, as all such must 

One of the principal progressive movements of the 
year was that which resulted in the construction of a 
tramway at a site between Kamiah and Greer for the 
purpose of facilitating the marketing of wheat and 
other cereals raised on the heights far above the rail- 
road track. The farmers of Nez Perces prairie 
banded themselves together for the purpose of con- 
structing this much needed improvement, formed a 
stock company, looked up a suitable site, let the con- 
tract for furnishing a cable, buckets and other ap- 
paratus to a San Francisco firm and set vigorously 
about the work of installing the somewhat expensive 
plant. They had, in their efforts, the encouragement 
of both the grain handling firms of Lewiston, which 
took large blocks of the stock, while the railway com- 
pany put in a side track for their accommodation. 
The cable used is an endless coil of steel wires 13,200 
feet long, suspended on rollers and carrying a thou- 
sand steel cages or buckets. The power is furnished 
by a large stationary engine upon the heights above. 

During the closing month of the year agitation 
for the formation of Clearwater county was revived. 
Orofino gave inception to the struggle by circulating 
a petition for the formation of a new county with 
such boundaries that it would be the logical county 
seat. Nez Perces at once took up the gauntlet by cir- 
culating a petition praying for a new county to include 
all of southern Shoshone county, part of the Potlatch 
and a strip off Nez Perces prairie. This action was 
taken not so much that the people desired a change of 
county affiliations as that they desired above all things 
to defeat the Orofino measure. Representative-elect 
C. D. Thomas, of Nezperce, stated the position of 
his home town in the following language : 

"The people of Nezperce are perfectly satisfied 
with their present county affiliations but if a division 
is inevitable, they believe in dividing the county in 
the right way. The petition we have prepared and 
which is being circulated, has now been signed by 
every man save one in Nezperce city, and by every- 
one in the adjacent country to whom it has been pre- 



sented. We have no intention of establishing a new 
county on the lines mentioned in the petition, but 
the people of Nezperce have discovered that Lewis- 
ton had concluded to permit the organization of 
Clearwater county without opposition so long as only 
a small strip of Nez Perces county was taken, and 
we have concluded to give them the alternative of 
either fighting against the taking of any of the old 
county to create Clearwater county or to submit to 
the dismemberment of the county on rational line*. 
In preparing our petition we endeavored to arrange 
for a county with boundaries drawn on geographical 
lines, following the water courses wherever possi- 
ble, and in our petition we make no attempt to decide 
the matter of the location of a county seat."' 

The matter was brought up in the legislature by 
the introduction, by Representative Greer, of Sho- 
shone county, of a bill creating Clearwater county out 
of Shoshone and Nez Perces counties with Orofino 
as county seat until the general election of 1904, when 
the voters were to select the permanent county seat. 
The technical description of the boundaries of the 
new political division was as follows : 

"Beginning at the intersection of the northern 
boundary line of township 41, range 1 east, of the 
Boise meridian, with the western boundary line of 
Shoshone county ; thence due east along the northern 
boundary line of said township 41 and continuing 
due east to the boundary line between the states of 
Idaho and Montana; thence in a southeasterly direc- 
tion along the boundary line between the states of 
Idaho and Montana to its intersection with the pres- 
ent southern boundary line of Shoshone county ; 
thence in a westerly direction along the present south- 
ern boundary line of Shoshone county to where the 
same intersects with the center of the channel of the 
Clearwater river; thence up the center of the main 
channel of the Clearwater river to the mouth of Law- 

yer's creek, being the present boundary line between 
the counties of Nez Perces and Idaho; thence in a 
westerly direction up the center of the main channel 
of Lawyer's creek, being the present northern bound- 
ary line of Idaho county, to its intersection with the 
Boise meridian ; thence north along the Boise merid- 
ian to its intersection with the southern boundary 
line of township 35, range 1 west, of Boise meridian ; 
thence west along the southern boundary line of said 
township to the southwest corner thereof ; thence 
north along the western boundary line of townships 
35> 36, 37. 38 to the present southern boundary line 
of Latah county ; thence east along the present south- 
ern boundary line of Latah county to the southeast 
corner of said county; thence north along the present 
boundary line between the counties of Shoshone and 
Latah and Shoshone and Kootenai to the place of 

February 9th of the current year, while this bill 
was yet in the hands of the committee, its author, 
Greer of Shoshone, asked the unanimous consent of 
the house to withdraw it, stating that he desired to 
press the measure in the future. The consent asked 
for was given, but a storm was raised later when an- 
other bill was introduced providing that the people 
residing within the proposed new county should have 
the right to vote on the question as to whether or not 
they desired political segregation, in the election of 
1904. The boundaries prescribed by this measure 
included a portion of Idaho county also. The new 
act, known as house bill No. 115, was referred to trie 
appropriate committee, which returned a majority 
report against the measure and a minority report 
favoring it. February 17th, on motion of Moore of 
Idaho county, action on the bill was indefinitely post- 
poned by a vote of 30 to 16, effectually putting at rest 
all danger of loss of territory by any of the existing 
counties at this session of the legislature. 



Section 2 of the organic act creating Nez Perces 
county, passed by the legislative assembly of Wash- 
ington territory December 20, 1861, enacted "That 
J. M. Van Valsah be appointed County Auditor; A. 
Creacy, Whitfield Kirtly and be ap- 
pointed County Commissioners ; Sanford Owens, 

Sheriff; and Justice of the Peace for said 

county, until the next general election." As is well 
known, however, the year 1862 witnessed a stampede 
of tens of thousands to north Idaho, and it was quite 

natural that there should be among this vast horde of 
gold seekers hundreds of desperadoes and lawless 
men — men who cared not whether there was a court- 
house within a thousand miles of their camps and 
against whom it would have been a very dangerous 
proceeding to enforce the laws. In the mad struggle 
for the possession of gold the slow machinery of 
the law was seldom, if ever, invoked. Civil govern- 
ment occupied no place in these miners' thoughts. 
The reign of gold was supreme. Under such condi- 



tions county offices were not sought by men, but on 
the contrary were shunned and if, perchance, the of- 
fices were filled by appointment, the appointees eluded 
duty by failing to qualify. 

For these reasons it is highly improbable that the 
above named officers ever served and we are strength- 
ened in the belief that they did not by failing to find, 
by inquiries among those who were here at the time, 
any account of such service. Then during the win- 
ter of 1862-3 the agitation in favor of creating out 
of this region a new territory resulted favorably, a 
territorial government was organized, and this change 
naturally disturbed local affairs. 

Thus it is not until the summer of 1863 that we 
find a local system of government in actual operation. 
Immediately after Governor Wallace arrived here, in 
July, 1863, he proceeded to appoint the following of- 
ficers to serve in Ncz Perces county : Sheriff, John 
Cassidy ; county clerk. E. C. Mayhew ; assistant clerk, 
S. Alexander; treasurer, Cris. Taylor; commission- 
ers, B. C. Stevens, A. B. Brower, of Lewiston, and 
David Reese, of Elk City ; prosecuting attorney, E. 
F. Gray; surveyor, J. B. Buker; probate judge, D. 
J. Warner; justices of the peace, E. S. Sprague and 
Silas B. Cochran, Lewiston, Thomas M. Pomeroy, 
Elk City. The offices of probate judge and surveyor 
were purely honorary for some time. Who the first 
county assessor was cannot be learned. A majority 
of these men were Republicans. In response to the 
proclamation of Governor Wallace calling for an elec- 
tion to be held October 31st, at which representatives 
to the first legislature should be elected, Nez Perces 
county elected E. B. Waterbury to the council and L. 
Bacon as its representative in the house. The rec- 
ords show that at this election Nez Perces county 
cast 208 votes for William H. Wallace for delegate 
to congress and 159 votes for his Democratic op- 
ponent, John M. Cannady. The story is told that 
when the early returns of this election came in Gov- 
ernor Wallace's friends saw that he was sure to be 
defeated by a large majority, and in order to save the 
territory to Republicanism, United States Marshal 
Payne was sent to bring in the books from the out- 
lying precincts. Wyoming and Montana were then 
a portion of Idaho. Payne crossed the Clearwater 
river at Lewiston and started on his mission. He 
was gone several days and when he returned he 
brought back votes enough for Wallace to elect him. 
The boundaries of Idaho were not very clearly defined 
in those days, and whether the election returns 
brought in by Payne were bona fide or not is ques- 
tionable. At the time this was regarded as a shrewd 
maneuver and the story treated as a huge joke, but 
now the legality of Wallace's election is questioned by 
not a few. 

When Governor Wallace deputized Hill Beachey 
to pursue the murderers of Lloyd Magruder and 
party, late in the fall of 1863. it is said that Sheriff 
Cassidy resigned because he considered the act as a 
slight upon his official prestige. At any rate, he re- 
signed and Governor Wallace appointed James H. 
Fisk in his stead. 

Pursuant to a notice of a special meeting, the 
board of county commissioners assembled at Lewis- 
ton, the county seat of Nez Perces county, on the 5th 
day of October, 1863. Commissioners B. C. Stevens 
and A. B. Brower were present, as also Clerk May- 
hew. The first business to come before the board was 
the appointment of a county treasurer to fill the va- 
cancy then existing. F. H. Simmons was appointed 
and gave bonds in the sum of §5,000. At the meeting 
of the board on the 7th a petition signed by thirty- 
four citizens, asking for the erection of a county jail. 
was received. The board decided to submit, at the 
election to be held on October 31st, a proposition to 
the voters calling for the levy of a special $3,000 tax 
for the purpose of building a courthouse and jail. 
At this meeting the assessment roll was presented and 
showed that there were $248,303.75 worth of taxable 
property in the county. On this basis a tax of one 
mill was levied for territorial purposes, two mills for 
school purposes and four mills for county purposes. 
The ex-county treasurer presented his report also at 
this meeting. The receipts up to October 5th amount- 
ed to $1,466, Si. 200 of which was from 600 polls, and 
the county's indebtedness was nearly $1,700. 

The vote on the question of erecting county build- 
ings having been in the affirmative, on November 18th 
the board ordered that a suitable house be procured 
for use as a temporary jail until the new building 
could be erected. A prize of ten dollars was offered 
to the person suggesting the best plan of construction. 
The new courthouse was never built, however, differ- 
ent buildings being rented from time to time until the 
purchase of the old Jaggers cabin on Front street. 

The board held its first regular meeting April 4, 
1864, in compliance with the laws enacted by the first 
legislative assembly, the same officers as formerly be- 
ing present. It appearing that all of the county of- 
ficers, with the exception of the county commission- 
ers, had been illegally appointed, the offices were de- 
clared vacant and the following appointments made: 
Probate judge. John G. Berry; clerk, E. C. Mayhew; 
sheriff, James H. Fisk ; assessor, S. R. Howlett ; re- 
corder, E. C. Mayhew ; surveyor, E. F. Gray ; super- 
intendent of schools, L. C. Fitch; justices of the 
peace, Lewiston precinct, S. E. Darnes, Elk City pre- 
cinct, Thomas M. Pomeroy ; constables, Lewiston 
precinct, Thomas J. Patterson, Elk City precinct, 
Robert Hunt. 

As is usually the case in communities which derive 
their support almost entirely from the mining indus- 
try, Nez Perces's population was constantly shifting 
from one place to another and was very unstable. 
From time to time county officers resigned, and 
changes were going on constantly. Thus we see 
that in June the commissioners were A. B. Brower, 
W. Leonard and A. B. Downer, the last two being 
recent appointees ; that C. C. Chamberlain has become 
sheriff; that Warren A. Belcher has tendered his 
resignation as treasurer and that W. W. Thompson 
is appointed in his place. Later, in July, S. R. How- 
lett resigned as assessor and at this same session Dr. 
Robert Newell was appointed school superintendent. 


Air. Newell declined the position and S. M. "Wait was 
appointed to serve until the newly elected corps of 
officers took their places the first of the year. 

Preparatory to the county's first election, at the 
July term, the board established the following pre- 
cincts: Lewiston, Elk City, Clearwater Station, 
Newsome Creek, Taylor's Bridge, Long Bar, W'a^- 
shilla Creek and Wixson's. At this term also B. F. 
Lamkin was authorized to construct, at a cost not to 
exceed $600, two cells for jail purposes in the old 
vegetable market on First street. The first action 
taken toward the establishment of county roads was 
taken at this term also, when the road between Her- 
sey's mountain house and Elk City was declared a 
public highway and Samuel Gilman was appointed 
road supervisor. At the same time S. M. Wait was 
appointed road supervisor of the Lewiston district. 
From time to time the board granted ferry and toll 
road licenses, but as the establishment of these differ- 
ent enterprises has been fully dealt with in another 
chapter we will not stop to enumerate them here. 

From the court records we see that at the election 
held in the fall of 1864 the following were the first reg- 
ularly elected officers of Nez Perces county : A. B. 
Brower, Loyal P. Brown and P. W. Bell, commis- 
sioners ; E. S. Sprague, probate judge; W. W. 
Thompson, treasurer ; S. S. Stiles, clerk and record- 
er ; James Fisk, sheriff ; L. W. Bacon, assessor ; rep- 
resentative to the legislative assembly, George 
Zeigle, Republican, and T. M. Reed, Democrat; mem- 
ber of the legislative council, E. B. Waterbury, Dem- 
ocrat. The report of the teritorial canvassing board 
shows that Nez Perces county cast t,t,~ votes for 
Samuel E. Parks, Republican, and 2$y votes for E. 
D. Holbrook, Democrat, candidates for the honor of 
representing Idaho in congress. The honors were 
divided about equally between Democrats and Re- 
publicans. Subsequently J. K. Vincent succeeded 
Fisk as sheriff, the latter failing to file his bond, I. 
C. Purcell became probate judge, and Phillip Streeter 
was appointed assessor. 

Pursuant to law the district court for the first 
district of Idaho territory convened at Lewiston on 
January 4, 1864. Alleck C. Smith, the regularly ap- 
pointed judge of this district, was unable to be pres- 
ent, and at the request of Acting Governor Daniels, 
Samuel C. Parks, of the second district, presided dur- 
ing the term. The Magruder murder case was the 
first and only case of importance to come before the 
first session of court in north Idaho, and as this case 
has been fully dealt with elsewhere we will pass im- 
mediately to the election of 1866. 

The election of 1866 was a spirited one and re- 
sulted in a slight Democratic victory. During the 
'sixties the tendency of the people was to spend the 
easily acquired gold lavishly, and this tendency ob- 
tained even among office holders. Consequently the 
party in power was usually open to the charge of ex- 
travagance, and anti-extravagance became the slogan 
of both parties. For this reason the Republicans and 
Democrats for many years held power alternately. 
J. W. Eastman, Republican, James Hays, Democrat, 

and Aurora Shumway. Democrat, were elected com- 
missioners in 1866; John G. Berry, Democrat, de- 
feated James H. Fisk for the shrievalty, this contest 
being the leading one of the campaign ; S. S. Stiles, 
Republican, was elected clerk and recorder for a sec- 
ond term ; H. O. Adams, Republican, was elected pro- 
bate judge; W. W. Thayer, Democrat (later gov- 
ernor of Oregon), was the choice of the majority for 
prosecuting attorney ; James Henderson, Democrat, 
received a majority of the votes cast for the office of 
treasurer; and P. Streeter, Republican, was chosen 
county assessor. Henderson served only a short time 
and was succeeded by M. A. Kelly. The following 
June, John Clark took up the duties of assessor, vice 
P. Streeter. In 1865 tne law relative to the election 
of members of the legislative assembly was changed 
and an election was held. In Nez Perces county the 
election resulted in the choice of L. P. Brown, Repub- 
lican, as a member of the council, and Joseph Mor- 
ris and James Hays, Democrats, as members of the 
house. The election of 1866 returned Councilman 
Brown and resulted in the choice of J. S. Taylor, 
Democrat, as Nez Perces' member of the house. 
For delegate to congress J. M. Kirkpatrick, Repub- 
lican, received 230 votes and E. D. Holbrook, Demo- 
crat, 155 votes in Nez Perces county. 

The Democrats succeeded in capturing every office 
but one in 1868, James Crooks, county commissioner, 
being the only Republican elected. The officers 
elected were: Councilman, J. S. Taylor; members 
house of representatives, E. W. Pell ami J. G. Zeigle; 
sheriff, John G. Berry; probate judge, Alonzo Gil- 
man; clerk, James Witt; recorder, Robert McPher- 
son, succeeded shortly afterwards by C. G. Kress ; 
treasurer, M. A. Kelly : commissioners, James Crooks, 
Aurora Shumway. J. T. Schissler ; prosecuting at- 
torney, S. S. Fenn; assessor, D. H. Howser. The 
vote for delegate was : James K. Shafer, Democrat, 
106, Thomas J. Butler, Republican. 161. 

In 1870 T. J. Bunker, Republican, was elected 
sheriff ; T. H. Worden, Republican, treasurer ; John 
Brearley, Republican, recorder and auditor ; F. B. 
King, Republican, assessor ; C. A. Thatcher, Republi- 
can, clerk ; H. O. Adams, probate judge ; J. M. Crooks, 
J. T. Silverwood, Republican, Joseph Schissler, Dem- 
ocrat, commissioners; John Clark, Republican, district 
attorney; C. C. Call, Democrat, councilman, and J. 1'. 
Silverwood, and H. H. Wheeler, Republicans, mem- 
bers of the house. In this county S. A. Merritt, Dem- 
ocrat, received 166 votes and T. J. Butler, Republican, 
[50 votes for delegate to congress. 

The following campaign witnessed the first clash 
between those who favored the annexation of north 
Idaho to Washington and those who were opposed. 
For some time past the segregation sentiment had 
been gaining strength in this portion of the territory, 
and in 1872 it became, for the first time, a strong 
factor in the politics of this region. The spark 
formerly kindled spread so rapidly that ere many years 
the whole of north Idaho was ablaze with the idea 
and all opposition was completely consumed. The 


Democratic county convention met in March and the 
Republicans the month following and placed their 
respective tickets in the field. The Republicans were 
victorious except where offices directly affecting the 
annexation proposition were concerned, and here the 
opposition, the Democrats, won the victory. The 
official result of this election is given below : 

For delegate to congress, John Hailey, Democrat, 
241 votes, J. W. Huston, Republican, 234 votes ; for 
councilman, R. E. Miller, Anti-Division Democrat, 
301, Colby Collins, Division Republican, 154; for rep- 
resentatives, G. W. Tomer, Anti-Division Democrat, 
357, S. S. Fenn, Division Democrat, 230, J. F. Bush, 
Division Republican, 67, Hazen Squier, Anti-Divis- 
ion Republican, 152, George A. Manning, Independ- 
ent, 70: for district attorney, John Clark, Republi- 
can, 352, James W. Poe, Democrat, 121 ; for probate 
judge, H. O. Adams, Republican, 243, Alexander 
Damas, Democrat, 216; for sheriff, D. B. Baldwin, 
Republican, 292, D. H. Howser, Democrat, 171 ; for 
auditor, Warren P. Hunt, Republican, 2S4, Frank 
Points, Democrat, 179; for treasurer, T. H. Worden, 
Republican. 294, J. W. Denny, Democrat, 156; for as- 
sessor, F. B. King, Republican, 293, L. E. Harris, 
Democrat, 168: for superintendent of schools, T. S. 
Billings, Republican, 352, J. P. Vollmer, Democrat, 
195 ; for commissioner, W. A. Vandervort, Demo- 
crat, 44; J. T. Silverwood, Republican, 16, W. O. 
Pearson, Republican, 67. J. Anderson, Democrat, 10; 
for coroner, W. S. Dyer, Republican, 250, R. J. De- 
vine, Democrat, 205 ; for surveyor, Charles Le Fran- 
cois. Democrat, 218. 

The official vote at the election of 1874 is missing, 
so that we are unable to present anything except a 
roll of the officers elected, which follows : Commis- 
sioners, D. H. Howser, George Dempster, M. M. Will- 
iams, Democrats; sheriff, Ezra Baird, Democrat; 
clerk, "Warren P. Hunt, Republican ; assessor, W. C. 
Pearson, Republican ; treasurer, H. W. Stainton, 
Democrat; probate judge, John G. Berry, Democrat; 
superintendent of schools. T. S. Billings. Republi- 
can ; surveyor, Edward Hannegan, Democrat ; o mn- 
cilman, L. P. Brown, Republican; representatives, 
William Groat and J. C. Waldrip, Republicans. John 
Clark, Republican, was elected district attorney. For 
delegate to congress, S. S. Fenn, Democrat, received 
423 votes and his opponent, T. W. Bennett, Repub- 
lican, 87. 

The year 1876 witnessed another Democratic vic- 
tory, only one Republican being elected. D. J. Warner 
as probate judge. W. G. Langford was elected as 
Nez Perces' representative to the legislative council 
and Fred Points and S. B. Edwards as this county's 
representatives in the house. Ezra Baird was re- 
elected sheriff, Thomas Hudson became the county's 
auditor and recorder, A. Binnard was elected treas- 
urer, J. W. Northrup was victorious in the contest 
for assessor and William Ewing, J. M. Curry and 
N. B. Holbrook were chosen county commissioners. 
Nez Perces county cast 176 votes for S. S. Fenn, who 
was again the Democratic party's nominee for dele- 

gate, and 115 votes for the Republican nominee, John 

An interesting feature of the campaign of 1878 
was the vote taken in northern Idaho on the state 
constitution adopted by the territory of Washington 
in anticipation of early statehood. North Idaho, 
which had now become so thoroughly imbued with 
the idea of being annexed to Washington as to almost 
consider itself a part of that territory, sent a delegate 
to this constitutional convention in the person of 
Alonzo Leland, the acknowledged head of the annex- 
ation movement in Idaho. This constitution was sub- 
mitted to the voters of the northern counties at the 
election in the fall of 1878, and in Nez Perces county 
only 13 votes were cast against it, 485 voting for it. 
Political honors were about equally shared by the 
Democrats and Republicans, as will be seen from the 
following official canvass of the vote : 

For delegate, George Ainslee, Democrat, 312, 
Jonas W. Brown, Republican, 306; district attorney, 
James W. Poe, Democrat, 369; councilman. Frank 
Points, Democrat, 283, G. A. Manning, Republican, 
327; representatives, J. J. Bonner and A. A. Lieual- 
len, Democrats, 358 and 204 votes, respectively, Will- 
iam King and H. McGregor, Republicans, 306 and 
232 votes, respectively: probate judge, D. J. Warner. 
Republican, 364, Thomas Hudson, Democrat, 262 ; 
commissioners, William Ewing, N. B. Holbrook, O. 
H. P. Beagle, Democrats, 365, 368 and 266 votes, re- 
spectively, S. C. Hale, J. M. Greenstreet, E. Fix, Re- 
publicans, 335, 267 and 276 votes, respectively ; sheriff, 
Ezra Baird, Democrat, 381, L. B. Boise, Republican. 
249 ; auditor and recorder, D. W. C. Dunwell, Demo- 
crat, 191, J. H. Evans, Republican, 417, J. K. Vin- 
cent, Independent, 19 ; treasurer, Abraham Binnard, 
Democrat, 274, Hazen Spuier, Republican, 352; as- 
sessor. J. H. Irvine, Democrat, 317, H. W. Howard, 
Republican, 315; surveyor, Bart. Nymeyer, Democrat, 
361, Alfred Colburn, Republican, 266; coroner, Rob- 
ert Grostein, Democrat, 13, C. P. Howell, Independ- 
ent. 7, J. Sullivan, Republican. 3. 

Southern Idaho controlled the territorial conven- 
tion held in 1880, and as that section was decidedly 
opposed to the segregation of the north, anti-annexa- 
tion planks were inserted in both the Democratic and 
Republican platforms. The north was so heartily in 
favor of annexation that it disregarded party affilia- 
tions and joined the extreme southeastern part of the 
territory in nominating Ex-Governor Brayman for 
delegate. Brayman had openly announced his en- 
dorsement of the scheme to annex northern Idaho to 
Washington, and it was on this platform that he was 
nominated. He received the almost solid vote of the 
north, the vote in Nez Perces county being. Brayman. 
568, Ainslie, Democrat, 129, and Smith. Republican. 
5. The complete official vote for the other officers in 
this county was as follows : 

For district attorney, Ouakenbush, . Republican, 
390, Maxwell, Democrat, 301 ; councilman. James W. 
Foe. Democrat. 682; joint councilman, I. B. Cowen, of 
Shoshone, Republican, 698; assemblymen, William 


King, I. N. Hibbs, J. M. Hedrick, Republicans, 212, 
358 and 410 votes respectively, S. J. Langdon, J. H. 
Irvine, W. C. Cooper, Democrats, 398, 354 and 326 
votes, respectively; probate judge, P. Grigsby, Dem- 
ocrat, 354, D. J. Warner, Republican, 347; sheriff, 
N. B. Holbrook, Democrat, 365, L. B. Boise, Repub- 
lican, 334: treasurer, N. Hale, Democrat, 352, C. E. 
Monteith, Republican, 351; auditor and recorder, J. 
H. Evans, Republican, 420, H. Payne, Democrat, 286 ; 
assessor, H. W. Howard, Republican, 409, J. W. 
Northrup, Democrat, 290; commissioners, S. C. Hale, 
William Evans, Frank McCarrick, Republicans, 429, 
354 and 281 votes, respectively, D. Spurbeck, G. B. 
Christie. J. N. Lindsay, Democrats, 312, 308 and 406 
votes, respectively : surveyor, William Bell, Republi- 
can. 314, B. Nymeyer, Democrat, 385, Ainslie was 
elected delegate. The defeat of Brayman, though not 
unexpected, greatly chagrined the north. Neverthe- 
less, it showed the annexationists their true strength. 

Late in the summer of 1882 a call was issued for 
an independent north Idaho convention to be held at 
Lewiston October nth for the purpose of nominating 
an independent candidate for congress as against 
either of the regular party nominees, Ainslie, Demo- 
crat, and Theodore F. Singiser, Republican, both of 
whom were supposed to be inimical to annexation. 
However, before the convention assembled, Singiser 
announced that he would support annexation and 
made a campaign in northern Idaho on that platform. 
This course, a shrewd political move, resulted in the 
independents giving him their endorsement. .When 
the votes were counted it was found that Singiser had 
received 1,060 of the 1,100 votes cast in Nez Perces 
county, an overwhelming expression of the people's 
desire for annexation. Singiser was victorious in the 
contest. The vote for county officers follows : 

For councilman, W. S. Taylor, Republican, 541, 
D. W. C. Dunwell, Democrat, 517; joint councilman, 
I. B. Cowen, Republican, 621, B. D. Donaldson, Dem- 
ocrat, 493 ; assemblymen, A. Buchanan, Wallis Fee 
and K. Larson, Republicans. 620, 424 and 664 votes, 
respectively, J. H. Irvine, Phillip Grigsby and G. W. 
Tomer, Democrats, 484, 540 and 602 votes, respect- 
ively; sheriff, W. D. Robbins, Republican, 499, Ezra 
Baird, Democrat, 627; auditor and recorder, J. H. 
Evans, Republican, 599, B. A. Nymeyer, Democrat, 
531 ; assessor, L. F. Herbert, Republican, 618, W. A. 
Calbrcath, Democrat, 516 treasurer, George Glass, 
Republican. 610, P. M. Davis, Democrat. 520; pro- 
bate judge, William Wing, Republican, 560, I. N. 
Maxwell. Democrat, 553 ; county attorney, A. Quack- 
enbush. Republican, 604, J. C. Elder, Democrat, 502; 
commissioners. E. W. Cameron, David Nottman and 
J. A. Lathrop. Republicans, 665, 734 and 466 votes, 
respectively ; J. B. Menomy, Virgil Randall and D. 
Spurbeck. Democrats, 378, 510 and 586, respectively; 
surveyor, A. Colburn, Republican, 569, A. T. Beall, 
Democrat, 562. Thus it will be seen that the Repub- 
licans won an overwhelming victory in 1882. 

So rapidly had the country north of the Clear- 
water settled since the first influx of settlers to that 
region in 1872 that in 1883 the northern portion of 

Nez Perces county demanded the county seat. An 
enabling act was passed and in June, 1883, a special 
election was held to decide the permanent location of 
Nez Perces' county seat. There were only two can- 
didates, Lewiston and Moscow, and the former won by 
a majority of 280, the vote in favor of retaining the 
county seat at Lewiston being 922, that favoring its 
removal to Moscow , 642. 

The all-absorbing issue of the campaign of 1884 
was, like that of 1882, the annexation problem. John 
Hailey was nominated as delegate by the Democrats 
and T. F. Singiser received renomination at the 
hands of the Republicans. Hailey was understood to 
represent the anti-annexation faction and Singiser the 
annexation party. Both territorial conventions 
adopted resolutions favoring the segregation of north 
Idaho, but it was generally understood that south 
Idaho opposed it so that the fact that Hailey was an 
anti-annexationist and the further fact that the policy 
of the Democratic party in southern Idaho had always 
been opposed to annexation, led to the belief that the 
party was not sincere in its promises. The result 
was that Singiser again swept the north by over 700 
majority, notwithstanding the great popularity of 
Hailey. He was, however, defeated in the territory 
at large. The detailed vote in Nez Perces county as 
gleaned from the official records we give below : 

For delegate, Theodore F. Singiser, Republican, 
799, John Hailey. Democrat, 471, William S. Taylor, 
27; assemblymen, S. A. Moon, J. P. Quarles, L. P. 
Wilmot, Republicans, 675, 802 and 684 votes, respect- 
ively, W. T. McKern, N. Brocke and G. W. Tomer, 
Democrats. 690, 485 and 540 votes, respectively; 
councilman, S. G. lsaman. Republican. 800, R. L. 
Yantis, Democrat, 478: joint councilman. S. W. 
Moody, Republican, 840, D. W. C. Dunwell, Demo- 
crat, 445; district attorney, J. W. Parker, Democrat, 
771, E. O'Neil, Republican, 526; probate judge, Will- 
iam Wing, Republican, 775, H. B. Blake, Democrat, 
487; sheriff, E. W. Cameron, Republican, 597, Ezra 
Baird, Democrat, 550, R. H. Beeman, Independent, 
131 ; auditor and recorder, Isaac C. Hattabaugh, Dem- 
ocrat, 767, George M. Wilson, Republican, 529; treas- 
urer,' George Glass, Republican, 624, P. M. Davis, 
Democrat, 675 ; assessor, Albert Fansler, Republican, 
631, S. J. Langdon, Democrat, 668; commissioners, 
D. Nottman, Jr., J. M. McGregor, H. L. Coates. Re- 
publicans, ygy. 720 and 550 votes, respectively, Will- 
iam Ewing, J. B. Menomy, D. Spurbeck. Democrats, 
570, 489 and 687 votes, respectively; surveyor, A. 
Colburn. Republican, 613, Alfred Beall, Democrat, 
681 ; coroner. E. A. Sanders, Republican. j}i. W . B, 
Cooper, Democrat, 547. 

The annexation question was again the main issue 
in 1886, and both county conventions passed resolu- 
tions designating it such. The Mormon question first 
came into prominence during this campaign, the Re- 
publicans taking an aggressive stand for the disfran- 
chisement of all polygamists. Fred T. Dubois was 
nominated by the Republicans for delegate and was 
opposed on the Democratic ticket by John Hailey. 
Hailey's failure to make clearly known his position 


on these two leading questions is thought by many 
to have been mainly responsible for his defeat. Nez 
Perces county's political character seems to have un- 
dergone a radical change between the campaigns of 
1884 and 1886. as the Democrats secured a majority 
of the offices at this election and returned a majority 
for Hailey. with the understanding that he repre- 
sented the annexationists. The question of annexa- 
tion itself was submitted to the people of north Idaho 
and in Nez Perces county received 1,675 affirmative 
and only 28 negative votes. The official vote : 

Delegate, John Hailey, Democrat, 985, Fred T. 
Dubois. "Republican, 681; prosecuting attorney, W. T. 
McKern, Democrat, 810, A. Ouackenbush, Republi- 
can, 884: councilman, Charles Watson, Democrat, 
954, J. M. Howe, Republican, 740; assemblymen, A. 
S. Chaney, D. F. Mahana, James Dellaven, Demo- 
crats, 922, 820 and 908 votes, respectively, W. A. 
Elyea, C. L., J. I. Mitcham, Republicans, 
897, 734 and 753 votes, respectively; probate judge, 
W. M. Rice, Democrat, 893, William' Wing, Republi- 
can, 803; sheriff, S. J. Langdon, Democrat, 855; L. 
Stannus, Republican, 839; auditor and recorder, I. 
C. Hattabaugh, Democrat, 1,157, Robert Bruce, Re- 
publican, 543 ; treasurer, P. M. Davis, Democrat, 
920, Richard J. Monroe, Republican, 785 ; assessor, 
James Keane, Democrat, 798, F. E. Mix, Republican, 
900; superintendent of schools, J. W. Lieuallen, Re- 
publican, 743, T. N. Creekmur, Democrat, 577; sur- 
veyor, S. L. Campbell, Republican, 1,008, A. T. Beall, 
Democrat, 687 ; commissioners, C. A. Leeper, Demo- 
crat, 271, Robert Ingraham, Republican, 146, H. J. 
Bundy, Democrat, 338, H. H. Bangs, Republican, 269, 
William Ewing, Democrat, 276, J. L. Naylor, Repub- 
lican, 367; coroner, W. A. Simpson, Democrat, 851, 
H. V. Grubbe, Republican, 829. 

In 1888, for the last time, annexation was the 
principal issue before the people of this territory, for 
in 1890 Idaho, including the panhandle, became a 
state. In the north Dubois was denounced in no 
uncertain terms, for his bitter opposition in congress 
to the annexation movement. In Nez Perces county 
both the Republican and Democratic conventions 
passed strong resolutions reiterating their belief in an- 
nexation. The Republicans drew up a memorial to 
congress giving a history of the annexation move- 
ment and its advantages and characterizing Dubois's 
course as '"unworthy of a statesman and an honora- 
ble man." The Democrats, however, in the resolu- 
tion next following one favoring annexation endorsed 
James H. Hawley. the Democratic nominee and an 
avowed anti-annexationist. Just why they did this is 
not apparent. Perhaps Hawley had made promises of 
remaining neutral on the annexation question should 
he be elected. At all events the people of the north 
were dissatisfied with both candidates and at a general 
convention held at Moscow Judge Norman Buck, of 
Le\viston : was nominated as the annexationists' can- 
didate for delegate. Judge Buck accepted the nomi- 
nation a few days before the election took place and in 
Latah and Nez Perces counties received more votes 
than did Dubois and Hawlev together. Kootenai, Idaho 

and Shoshone gave him a small vote. Dubois cap- 
tured the southern vote, however, and was re-elected 
to congress. 

The names of the victorious candidates in Nez 
Perces county may be gleaned from the official can- 
vass below • 

For delegate, Norman Buck. Annexationist. 431, 
James H. Hawley, Democrat. 155. Fred T. Dubois, 
Republican 49. councilman. C. A. Leeper, Democrat, 
522, J. YV .Brigham, Rep. 81 ; assemblymen, J. I. Mitch- 
am, Rep., 588, James DeHaven, Rep., 595. W. L. 
Thompson, Democrat, 591, J. H. Irvine, 23 ; district 
attorney, I. N. Maxwell, Democrat, 325, J. M. Howe, 
Republican, 294; probate judge, W. M. Rice, Demo- 
crat. 334. William Wing, Republican, 291 : auditor 
and recorder, R. P. Mudge, Republican, 353. A. W. 
Kroutinger, Jr., Democrat, 253 ; treasurer, George 
Glass. Republican, 382, P. M. Davis, Democrat. 241 ; 
sheriff. L. Stannus, Republican, 313, John Bymaster, 
Democrat, 304; assessor, J. Englis, Republican, 361, 
William Sigler, Democrat, 266; superintendent of 
schools, S. G. Isaman, Republican, 316, J. 0. Mox- 
ley, Democrat, 310; commissioners, Jasper Rand, 
Democrat, 159, D. M. White, Republican, 154. W. J. 
Eakin. Democrat, 53. J. L. Goodnight, Republican, 
4Q, M. S. Freeman, Republican, 142, M. L. Ward, 
Democrat, 57; surveyor, W. P. Bell. Republican, 381, 
S. R. Southwick, Democrat 2 ; coroner, G. H. Lake, 
Republican, 332, C. H. Payne, Democrat, 284. 

The act creating Latah county provided that that 
county was to remain in the same district as Nez Per- 
ces county for judicial and legislative purposes until 
the legislature should direct otherwise. As the elec- 
tion took place before the next meeting of the legis- 
lative assembly, the citizens of Latah and Nez Perces 
counties were left in a quandary as to how to pro- 
ceed. They could not agree and so four legislative 
tickets were placed in the field, two by each county. 
After the election took place the question of who were 
and who were not entitled to seats arose. The Latah 
nominees received a majority of the votes cast : a few 
votes were cast in Latah county for Nez Perces nomi- 
nees and vice versa. The auditor of Latah county de- 
manded that the recorder of Nez Perces county issue 
a certificate of election to the successful candidate 
for councilman in Latah county. This request was 
refused, whereupon the applicant applied to the 
courts for a writ of mandamus. The court granted 
an alternative writ for the defendant to appear and 
show cause why a writ should not be issued. After 
several brief discussions a compromise was agreed 
upon on December 1st and accepted by both parties. 
By the terms of this compromise J. W. Brigham. of 
Latah county, was given a certificate of election as 
councilman and certificates were issued to A. S. 
Chaney, of Latah, and to James DeHaven and J. I. 
Mitcham. of Nez Perces, as representatives. 

With the advent of statehood in 1890 the long 
and bitter contest between the north and south over 
the annexation question came to an end and with it 
the issue which had for more than two decades rent 
each political party asunder and caused no end of fac- 



tional fights. With statehood came a closer bond be- 
tween the two sections. The first state election was 
simply a contest for supremacy between the two great 
parties and national policies were the issue. The Re- 
publicans were victorious, the state majority being 
between 2,000 and 2,500. 

A feature of the campaign in Nez Perces county 
was the deadlock which occurred in the Democratic 
district convention, composed of delegates from Lat- 
ah, Idaho and Nez Perces counties. The delegates 
were unable to agree upon the nominations for dis- 
trict attorney and the district judgeship. Finally, af- 
ter sixty-eight ballots had been taken without a nom- 
ination, a compromise was effected and J. H. For- 
ney, of Idaho county, was awarded the nomination for 
district attorney, J. W. Poe, of Nez Perces, the nom- 
ination for district judge and the legislative offices 
were diveded between the three counties. The elec- 
tion in this county was a closely contested on as will 
be seen from the appended official vote : 

For congressman, Willis Sweet, Republican, 367, 
Alexander E. Mayhew, Democrat, 330; governor, 
George L. Shoup, Republican, 370. Benjamin Wilson, 
Democrat, 327 ; lieutenant governor, Norman B. 
Willey, Republican, 378, Samuel F. Taylor, Demo- 
crat, 322 ; secretary of state, A. J. Pinkham, Repub- 
lican, 378, A. E. Sherwin, Democrat, 331 ; auditor, 
Silas Moody, Republican, 367, James H. Wickersham, 
Democrat, 331 ; treasurer, Frank R. Coffin, Republi- 
can, 372, Timothy Regan, Democrat, 326; attorney 
general, George H. Roberts, Republican, 362, Rich- 
ard Z. Johnson, Democrat, 335 ; superintendent of 
public instruction, J. E. Harroun, Republican, 343, 
Madison A. Kelly, Democrat, 349; justices supreme 
court, J. W. Huston, John T. Morgan, J. M. Sullivan, 
Republicans. 373, 367 and 339 votes respectively, 
Henry W. Weir, Frank E. Ensign, Isaac N. Max- 
well, Democrats, 324, 329 "and 347 votes respectively; 
judge, second district, W. G. Piper, Republican, 286, 
James \Y. Poe, Democrat, 409 ; district attorney, E. 
O'Neill, Republican, 350, J. H. Forney, Democrat, 
343 ; senator, third district, I. S. Weiler, Republi- 
can, 381, C. W. Case, Democrat, 310; senator, fourth 
district, William Wing, Republican, 374, Barney Ro- 
hen Kohl, Democrat, 320; representative, I. S. 
Sperry, Republican, 351. j. B. Morris, Democrat, 335; 
joint representative with Idaho county, J. L. Good- 
night, Republican, 369, Ezra Baird, Democrat, 321 ; 
county clerk, H. K. Barnett, Republican, 376, W. M. 
Rice, Democrat, 314; sheriff, M. S. Freeman, Re- 
publican, 317, Joseph Eakin, Democrat, 363; treas- 
urer, George Glass, Republican, 313, D. S. Dent, Dem- 
ocrat, 377; probate judge, S. G. Isman, Republican, 
348, M. E. Shepler, Democrat, 339 ; assessor, Josiah 
Inglis, Republican, 374, W. G. Anthony, Democrat, 
316; commissioners, George Walker, Republican, 140, 
Andrew Schultheiss, Democrat, 138, J. A. Lathrop, 
Republican, 62, J. A. Wilkinson, Democrat, 79, D. 
M. White, Republican, 166, W. W. Brown, Demo- 
crat, 97; surveyor. W. P. Bell, Republican, elected; 
coroner, George H. Lake, Republican, 365, W. A. 
Simpson, Democrat, 336. 

The year 1892 is distinguished in political history 
as marking the date of the entrance of the People's 
party upon the stage of politics. This party had been 
in process of organization for years past, but not un- 
til 1892 did the different societies and organizations 
having Populistic principles associate themselves and 
form one national party for the purpose of taking an 
active part in national affairs. Throughout the 
northwest the People's party organized, nominated 
state, district and county tickets and otherwise made 
its influence felt. Idaho and the county of which we 
are writing were no exceptions. The silver question 
also came into prominence for the first time this year 
and it is interesting to note that, as in Montana, Colo- 
rado and other western mining states, Idaho Repub- 
licans at first announced themselves in favor of the 
free coinage of this metal. The silver question tore 
the Republican party in this state into two factions. 
The Democratic party was also divided on this issue. 

While the People's party showed considerable 
strength in 1892, they did not succeed in capturing 
any offices in Nez Perces county, the Democrats win- 
ning a great victory. The official vote is given below : 

For president, Benjamin Harrison, Republican, 
345, Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 428 ; congressman, 
Willis Sweet, Republican, 357, E. B. True, Democrat, 

328, James Gunn, Populist, 101 ; governor, W. J. Mc- 
Connell, Republican, 337, John M. Burke, Democrat, 
358, A. J. Crook, Populist, 98 ; lieutenant governor, 
Frank B. Willis, Republican, 331, George V. Bryan, 
Democrat, 347, J. B. Wright, Populist, 88 ; supreme 
judge, J. N. Sullivan, Republican, 368, F. E. Ensign, 
Democrat, 366; secretary of state, James F. Curtis, 
Republican, 337, J. H. Wickersham, Democrat, 353, 
Benjamin F. Cheney, Populist, 91 ; attorney general, 
George M. Parsons, Republican, 342, W. T. Reaves, 
Democrat, 349, J. R. Webster, Populist, 87; treasurer, 
W. C. Hill, Republican, 344, Phillip Regan, Demo- 
crat, 351, H. J. Sutton, Populist, 82; superintendent 
of schools, B. B. Lower, Republican, 344, J. W. Far- 
ris, Democrat, 348, L. L. Shearer, Populist, 78; 
auditor, Frank Ramsey, Republican, 340, J. W. Mc- 
Clure, Democrat, 350, J. H. Andrews, Populist, 84, 
joint senator, third district, J. F. Ailshie, Republican, 

329, J. B. Morris, Democrat, 387, James H. Robinson, 
Populist, 75 ; joint senator, fourth district, J. M. 
Howe, Republican, 347, Thomas F. Nelson, Demo- 
crat, 351, John Chenoweth, Populist, 90; joint repre- 
sentative with Idaho county, W. L. Thompson, Re- 
publican, 350, David C. Stephens, Democrat. 346, 
William Craig, Populist, 74: representative, Ira S. 
Sperrv, Republican, 350, D. F. Mahana, Democrat, 
379, O. D. Lovelace, Populist. 52 ; sheriff, J. B. Coop- 
er, Republican, 346, Eben Mounce, Democrat, 375, 
W. S. Rice, Populist, 78; treasurer. Josiah Englis, 
Republican, 300, David S. Dent, Democrat, 453; as- 
sessor, George A. Smith, Republican, 290, S. O. Tan- 
ahill, Democrat, t,~~. D. Kemp. Populist, 127; pro- 
bate judge. Prince E. Stookey, Republican, 348, 
George Erb, Democrat, 416; surveyor, J. O. Maxson, 
Republican. 353, H. M. Stalnaker, Democrat, 327; 
coroner. J. H. Howe, Republican, 335. K. L. Thomp- 



son. Democrat, 397 ; commissioners, D. M. White, 
Republican, 395, M. A. Kelly, Democrat, 344. W. A. 
Nixon, Republican, 332, C. A. Leeper, Democrat, 373, 
James A. Ray, Populist, 50; John W. Brown, Repub- 
lican, 331 ; O. L. Phillips, Democrat, 330, Felix Mc- 
Minime, Populist, 57. The state went Republican. 

In the following campaign, that of 1894, the Popu- 
lists displayed considerable strength. At the Popu- 
list convention held in Lewiston July 20th, the follow- 
ing platform was adopted, which, because it is typical 
of most Populist platforms, we reproduce here : 

"First — We endorse the Omaha platform. 

"Second — We demand that the laws known as the 
initiative and referendum be enacted and made part of 
the state constitution. 

"Third — We demand that all property be assessed 
at its cash value and that all indebtedness shall be 
exempt from taxation. All mortgages to be assessed 
at their face value in the county where the indebted- 
ness exists. 

"Fourth — We demand the enactment of a law for- 
bidding the sale of property on execution unless the 
amount of the sale equals eighty per cent, of the ap- 
praised value. 

"Fifth — We demand that all laborers shall have a 
first lien on the property. 

"Sixth— We demand that there shall be a reduc- 
tion in the salaries of the state and county officers, till 
the amount paid shall be a fair compensation only for 
the work done, and further that salaries be paid and 
all fees go to the county treasury. 

"Seventh — We demand that taxes be made delin- 
quent in March instead of the second Monday in De- 

"Eighth — We demand a revision of the school law 
so that the state furnish text books to the pupils at 
actual cost. 

"Ninth — We demand a county attorney instead of 
a district attorney." 

The election resulted favorably to the Republicans, 
though the Democrats secured a few offices. The Pop- 
ulists did not develop enough strength to secure any 
offices in this county: From the official vote the names 
of the victorious candidates in this county will be 
seen : 

For congressman, Edgar Wilson, Republican, 505, 
James M. Ballentine, Democrat, 336, James Gunn, 
Populist, 222; governor, William J. McConnell, Re- 
publican, 487, Edward A. Stevenson, Democrat, 371, 
James W. Ballentine. Populist, 228; lieutenant gov- 
ernor, Frederick J. Mills, Republican, 510, James B. 
Thatcher, Democrat, 342, John J. Chambers, Populist, 
211; secretary of state, Isaac W. Garrett, Republican, 
509, James R. Hall, Democrat, 344. Frank M. Tibbals, 
Populist, 216: attorney general, George M. Parsons, 
Republican. 513. William T. Reeves, Democrat, 341, 
Robert S. Speiice, Populist, 220 ; state auditor, Frank 
C. Ramsev. Republican, 507, James Stoddard, Demo- 
crat, 338.' Frank Walton, Populist, 221 ; treasurer, 
Charles Bunting. Republican, 509, James H. Bush, 
Democrat, 341, Callistus W. Cooper, Populist, 212; 
superintendent of public instruction, Charles A. Fores- 

man [editor Lewiston Teller], Republican, 533, John 
W. Faris, Democrat, 331, Major J. Steele, Populist, 
212; supreme judge, Joseph W. Huston, Republican, 
513, John C. Elder, Democrat, 361, Texas Angel, 
Populist, 216; joint senator with Latah, Daniel C. 
Mitchell, Republican, 515, Henry Heitfeld, Fusionist, 
561 ; joint senator with Idaho county, Cassius M. Day, 
Republican, 519. Aaron F. Parker, Democrat, 342, 
George W. Hinkle, Fusionist, 210; joint representative 
with Idaho county, William L. Thompson, Republican, 
543, Keith W. White, Democrat, 377, Silas D. Strong, 
Populist, 136; representative, Richard J. Monroe, Re- 
publican, 513, James W. Poe, Democrat, 342, J. H. 
Morrison, Populist, 237; district judge, William G. 
Piper, Republican, 545, Stewart S. Denning, Fusionist, 
440; district attorney, James E. Babb, Republican, 
529, Clay McNamee, Fusionist, 546; clerk, Robert 
Schleicher, Republican, 449, Samuel O. Tanahill, Dem- 
ocrat, 465, R. P. Mudge, Populist, 186; sheriff, Will- 
iam H. Denny, Republican, 450, Hary Lydon, Dem- 
ocrat, 474, C. W. McFadden, Populist, 177; treasurer, 
Francis J. Edwards, Republican, 398, John B. Morris, 
Democrat, 486, J. N. Lindsay, Populist, 190; probate 
judge, Prince E. Stookey, Republican, 478, George 
E. Erb, Democrat, 429, S. G. Hayes, Populist, 176; 
assessor. Nelson J. Wing, Republican, 465, George H. 
Ruddell, Democrat, 408, W. T. Wright, Populist, 208 ; 
commissioners, D. M. White, Republican, 450, N. B. 
Holbrook, Democrat, 404, A. Shiebe, Populist, 192, 
Albert G. Wisner, Republican, 475, Ferdinand B. 
Lang. Democrat, 355, William J. Eakin, Populist, 205, 
George A. Welker, Republican, 460, William Le Baron, 
Democrat, 385, Chambers Muston, Populist, 193 ; sur- 
veyor, Jordan O. Maxon, Republican, 506, Stephen 
Southwick, Fusionist, 251 ; coroner, Leroy L. Strong, 
Republican, 508. Madison A. Kelley, Democrat, 348, 
L. C. Neal, Populist, 202. A small Prohibition vote 
was cast. 

The campaign of 1896, the most brilliant and re- 
markable political contest in the latter annals of our 
country's history, witnessed the dissolution and division 
of two national parties in Idaho. The rock upon which 
they split was was the silver issue. The Silver Repub- 
licans organized under Senator Dubois, who walked out 
of the national convention at St. Louis, while the Dem- 
ocrats either fused with the Populists or joined the 
gold standard forces. Some Democrats joined Dubois's 
new party. In Nez Perces county the Democrats and 
the Populists fused. The Silver Republicans and Dem- 
ocrats who did not care to fuse with the Populists 
also placed a ticket in the field for a few offices. The 
Fusionists carried the state and every office in Nez 
Perces county except one. that of probate judge. Du- 
Imis's Silver party elected twenty-five representatives 
to tiie legislature. 

The vote in Nez Perces county follows : 
For President of the United States, William Mc- 
Kinley, Republican, 675, William Jennings Bryan, 
Democrat, 1089, Weaver, Populist, 22 ; congressman, 
James Gunn, Fusionist, 918, John T. Morrison, Re- 
publican, 678, W. E. Borah, Silver Republican, 122; 
governor. Frank Steunenberg, Fusionist, 1064, D. H. 



Hudlong, Republican, 674 ; lieutenant governor, G. F. 
Moore. Fusionist, 948, Vincent Bierbower, Republican. 
602, E. B. True. Silver Republican, 106; secretary of 
state, G. J. Lewis. Fusionist, 934, I. W. Garrett, Re- 
publican, 670, Charles Durrand, Silver Republican, 
103; state auditor. J. H. Anderson, Fusionist, 921, E. 
A. McKenna, Republican, 679, Bartlett Sinclair, Silver 
Republican, 98 : treasurer, G. H. Storer, Democrat, 
034. F. C. Ramsey, Republican, 668. Timothy Regan, 
Silver Republican, 100; attorney general, R. E. Mc- 
Farland, Fusionist, 911, J. A. Bagley. Republican, 
658, G. M. Parsons, Silver Republican, 125 ; superin- 
tendent public instruction, L. N. B. Anderson, Fusion- 
ist. 925, C. A. Foresman, Republican, 690, M. F. 
Cowlev, Silver Republican, 8q : mine inspector, B. F. 
Hastings, Fusionist. 1.038, Theodore Brown, Republi- 
can. 658 : justice supreme court, R. P. Quarles, Fusion- 
ist. 925, D. W. Standroad. Republican, 663, Edgar 
Wilson, Silver Republican, in: senator, Henry Heit- 
feld. Fusionist, 665. Charles E. Monteith, Republican, 
413, George W. Morrison, Silver Republican, 109: 
representatives, A. H. Alford, Fusionist, 673, I. S. 
Sperrv. Fusionist, 627. N. J. Wing. Republican, 450, 
W. A. Nixon, Republican, 439, J. D. Graham, Silver 
Republican. 66; sheriff, G. Barton, Fusionist, 941, 
W. S. Dyer, Republican, 768 ; assessor, D. Cantrill, 
Fusionist, 93c. J. M. Williams, Republican, 758 ; 
treasurer, J. B. Morris, Fusionist, 946. Hazen Squier, 
Republican, 775 ; probate judge. Prince E. Stookey, 
Republican, 933, S. G. Hayes. Fusionist. 766; com- 
missioners, T. L. Armstrong. Fusionist, 959, A. G. Wis- 
ner, Republican, 670, J. P.- Parker, Fusionist, 966, W. 
R. Dixon. Republican, 651. Z. McCall. Fusionist. 919, 
J. C. Larkee. Republican, 664 ; surveyor, G. Moragne, 
Fusionist, 860, T- O. Maxon, Republican, 816; coroner, 
L. L. Strong, Fusionist, 962, S. Leslie Thompson, Re- 
publican, 706. 

The next campaign was one of bitter factional 
strife amongst all the parties. Late in August the 
Democrats, the Populists and the Silver Republicans 
met at Boise. An energetic attempt was made to con- 
centrate the silver forces into one party, but most of 
the Populists resisted the offer of fusion, believeing 
they were now strong enough to stand alone. Finally 
the Democrats and Silver Republicans nominated a 
fusion ticket and the Populist party broke up into two 
factions, the Blake and the Taylor factions, both of 
which claimed to be the regular party organization. 
Subsequently, however, the courts decided favorably 
to the Blake faction, whereupon those of the Populit 
party who had not cast their lot with the Democrats, 
came together and nominated another Populist ticket — 
a-middie-of-the-road ticket The Democrats and Popu- 
lists again fused in this county and the Silver Repub- 
licans joined with the regular Republican party. From 
the official vote given below, the result of the contest 
in this countv mav easily be seen : 

For congressman. W. B. Heyburn. Republican. 
1,238, Edgar Wilson, Fusionist, 069, James Gunn, 
Populist. 385 : governor. A. B. Moss. Republican, 
1,324. Frank Steuenbcrg, Fusionist. 942, James H. An- 
derson. Populist, 207; lieutenant governor, J. F. 

Hunt, Republican 1.279, J- H. Hutchinson, Fusionist, 
929, T. E. Miller, Populist, 310; secretary of state, R. 
S. Bragaw. Republican, 1,268, Martin Patrie, Fusion- 
ist, 912, J. S. Bonham, Populist, 30; attorney gen- 
eral, F. J. Wvman. Republican, 1.267, S. H. Hayes, 
Fusionist, 932, T. L. Glenn. Populist. 311 ; justice su- 
preme court, D. W. Standrod, Republican, 1,308, J. N. 
Sullivan. Fusionist, 1,072; district judge, E. C. Steele, 

Republican, 1.253, Moore, Fusionist, 869, Willis 

Sweet, Silver Republican, 341 ; auditor, J. H. Van- 
camp. Republican, 1,260, Bartlett Sinclair, Fusionist, 
917, A. G. Whittier. Populist. 308 ; state treasurer, G. 
W. Fletcher, Republican, 1,265, L. C. Rice, Fusionist, 
1226: inspector of mines, J. W. Stoddard, Republican, 
1,253. J- A- Czizek. Fusionist. 910. David Farmer, 
Populist, 448 ; superintendent of public instruction, 
Miss Dean, Republican, 1.300, Miss French, Fusionist. 
1,229; state senator, J. N. Stacy, Republican, 1,299, 
L. C. Clark, Fusionist, 1,071, G. A. Manning, Silver 
Republican, 115; representatives, O. T. Hanlon, Re- 
publican, T.256, W. D. Hardwick, Republican, 1,179, 
Wallace B. Stainton. Fusionist, 1,181, S. Ogden, Fu- 
sionist, 946. D. H. Haner, Silver Republican. 188; 
auditor. P. E. Stookey. Republican, 1,496, R. R. Steen, 
Fusionist. 1,190; sheriff, J. W. Rozen, Republican, 
1,475, F. L. Parker, Fusionist, 1,116; assessor, Stass 
Spekker, Republican, 1,388. George Ruddell, Fusionist, 
i,22j ; treasurer. C. A. Hastings. Republican, 1,357, 
T. S. Cantril, Fusionist, 1,158; county attorney, F. 
Danford. Silver Republican, 1,375. John Green, Fu- 
sionist, 1.226: probate judge, R. A. Langford, Repub- 
lican, T.372, William Kauffman, Fusionist, 1,118; su- 
perintendent of schools, Jennie Harrington, Republican, 
1,488, Mary Kroh. Fusionist, 1,018: surveyor, Edson 
Briggs, Republican. 1,412, J. H. Day, Fusionist, 1.073; 
coroner. S. L. Thompson, Silver Republican, 1.279, L. 
C. Neal, Fusionist, 1,010, S. S. Strong, Independent, 
i/T : commissioners. S. G. Isaman, Silver Republican. 
1,319. John Wilkinson. Fusionist. 1,122. A. G. John- 
son. Republican, 1,333. W. B. Martin. Fusionist, 1,089. 
William Black. Republican, 1,388, Ed. Vandyke, Fu- 
sionist, 1.078. 

The state was carried by the Fusionists. their ma- 
jorities ranging from 3,000 to 6,000. Nez Perces 
county gave the Republicans majorities averaging 300. 
From the fact that the Silver Republicans were al- 
lowed to affiliate with the regular Republican party it 
will be seen that the gold standard advocates in Idaho 
at this time were not verv strong and probably for 
this reason not very aggresive. 

Fusion again prevailed in 1900. both in state and 
county, the Populists. Democrats and Silver Republi- 
cans associating. There was also, however, a middle- 
of- the-road Populist ticket. The Fusionists carried the 
state, while in this county, honors were about equally 
divided between the Republicans and the Fusionists. 
It is worth noticing that the Prohibition party polled 
a considerable number of votes this vear. The official 
vote of Nez Perces countv was as follows : 

For President of the United States. William Mc- 
Kinley, Republican. 2.152. William J. Bryan. Fusion- 
ist, 2.134, Populist, 22. Probititionist, 169; justice su- 


preme court Edgar C. Steele, Rep., 2,158, Charles D. 
Stockslayer, Fusionist, 2,067, William Perkins, Populist 
40; congressman, John T. Morrison, Republican, 2,137, 
Thomas L. Glenn, Fusionist, 2,092, John F. Stark, 
Populist, 25. Amanda M. Way, Prohibitionist, 165; 
governor, D. W. Standrod, Republican, 2,136, Frank 
W. Hunt, Fusionist, 2,117, John S. Randall, Populist, 
27, William J. Boone, Prohibitionist, 171 ; lieutenant 
governor, Addison A. Crane, Republican, 2,100, 
Thomas F. Terrell, Fusionist, 2,081, Johannes Henson, 
Populist, 172; secretary of state, Martin Patrie, Re- 
publican, 2,105, Charles J. Bussett, Fusionist, 2,066, 
Melancthon F. Ely, Populist, 47, Mrs. Neal B. Inman, 
Prohibitionist, 183 ; state auditor, Henry J. Syms, Re- 
publican, 2,096, Egbert W. Jones, Fusionist, 2,094, 
William W. Tharp, Populist, 29; treasurer, George 
H. Kester, Republican, 2,138, John J. Plumber, Fusion- 
ist, 2,033, Augustus M. Slater, Populist, 61, James Bal- 
lentine, Prohibitionist, 170; attorney general, George 
E. Gray, Republican, 2,105, Frank Martin, Fusionist, 
2,083, Clay McNamee, Populist, 36, William A. Hall, 
Prohibitionist, 166; superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, Jessie Riley, Republican, 2,099, Parmeal French, 
Fusionist, 2,095, James T. Smith, Prohibitionist, 160; 
inspector of mines, Robert D. Bell, Republican, 2,084, 
Martin H. Jacobs, Fusionist, 2,071, Edward Kimber- 
ley, Populist, 30, George Black, Prohibitionist, 159; 
senator, Frank D. Hasbrouck, Republican, 2,053, Louis 
Clark, Fusionist, 2,135, Michael C. Pearsons, Prohi- 
bitionist, 160; representatives, Caleb W. Richardson, 
Republican, 2,045, Albert W. Lee, Republican, 2,048, 
Peter Triesch, Fusionist, 2,122, Eben Mounce, Fusion- 
ist, 2,107, Joseph A. Pine, Prohibitionist, 165, Will- 
iam E. Schuehly, Prohibitionist, 157; sheriff, John T. 
Leachman, Republican, 1,946, Alfred Kroutinger, Fu- 
sionist, 2,311, William C. Bird, Prohibitionist, 155; 
treasurer, Viola C. McConville, Republican, 1,981, 
James R. Lydon. Fusionist, 2, 270 ; assessor, Benjamin 

F. Bashor, Republican, 2,160, William E. Stoddard, 
Fusionist, 2,050, Edward Darby, Prohibitionist, 128; 
judge of probate, Robert A. Langford, Republican, 
2,004, William B. Reese, Fusionist, 2,250, William 
Scott, Prohibitionist, 120; superintendent of schools, 
Jennie M. Harrington, Republican, 2,161, Eula Ward, 
Fusicnist, 2,118, Ollie R. Ellis, Prohibitionist, 119: 
county attorney, Miles S. Johnson, Republican, 2,173, 
Carl A. Davis, Fusionist, 2,139 ; commissioners, Samuel 

G. Isaman, Republican, 1,991, Charles A. Leeper, Fu- 
sionist, 2,194, J. Smith Mounce, Prohibitionist, 155, S. 
S. Brooks, Republican, 1,935, Perry E. Miller, Fusion- 
ist, 2,258, N. C. Busby, PVohibitionist, 126, William 
A. Black, Republican, 2,079, George W. Brammet, 
Fusionist, 2,094, Charles A. Parrott, Prohibitionist, 
124: surveyor, Edson Briggs, Republican, 2,264, Ben- 
jamin F. Chanev, Fusionist, 1,959, George Hogue, Pro- 
hibitionist, 146; coroner, Lemuel C. Neal, Republican, 
2,079, Jesse Watson, Fusionist, 2,092, John Black, Pro- 
hibitionist, 125. 

The last campaign is too recent to require a dis- 
cussion of the policies of the different parties. Suffice 
it to say that the Populist party as a party is now a 
memory, though many of its principles have been ab- 

sorbed by the two historic parties, and that the silver 
question is not what might be termed a living issue. 
Those who were former adherents of the Populist faith 
are now numbered among either the Democrats, the 
Republicans or are members of one of the minor par- 
ties. With the removal of the silver question as a 
factor in Idaho politics and the substitution therefor, 
as the main issue, of the administration's foreign policy 
and the well known Republican doctrines of a pro- 
tective tariff and conservatism in all financial and 
economic matters in general, the Republicans have once 
again assumed the reins of government in Idaho. Nez 
Perces county went overwhelmingly Republican at the 
last election, only two Democrats being elected. 
The official vote : 

For congressman, Burton L. French, Republican, 
2,451, Joseph H. Hutchinson, Democrat, 1,807, John 
A. Davis, Socialist, 234, Herbert A. Lee, Prohibition- 
ist, 115 : governor, John T. Morison, Republican, 2,495, 
Frank W. Hunt, Democrat, 1,758, Augustus M. 
Slatery. Socialist, 220, Albert E. Gipson, Prohibition- 
ist, 121 ; lieutenant governor, James M. Stevens, Re- 
publican, 2.397, William E. Adams, Democrat, 1,801, 
Louis N. B. Anderson, Socialist, 230, Simon E. Hunt, 
Prohibitionist, 125; secretary of state, Wilmot H. Gib- 
son, Republican, 2,372, C. J. Bassett, Democrat, 1,809, 
W. H. Candee, Socialist, 220, W. E. Schuebley, Pro- 
hibitionist, iiq: state auditor, Theodore Turner, Re- 
publican, 2,359, J- C. Callahan, Democrat, 1,810, 
George W. Harrington, Socialist, 228, Thomas D. 
Hodgson, Prohibitionist, 129; state treasurer, Henry 
N. Coffin, Republican, 2,366, E. P. Coltman, Democrat, 
1,786, James E. Miller, Socialist, 218, Mrs. Jennie G. 
Headlev, Prohibitionist, 146; attorney general, John 
A. Bagley, Republican, 2,334, Frederick D. Culver, 
Democrat, 1,879, David W. Smith, Socialist, 227; su- 
perintendent of public instruction, May L. Scott, Re- 
publican, 2,339, Permeal French, Democrat, 1,003, 
Mrs. Ollie E. Ellis, Prohibitionist, 130: inspector of 
mines, Robert Bell, Republican, 2,339, J onn H. Nord- 
quest, Democrat, 1,796, O. Chalmus Smith, Socialist, 
229, George Klock, Prohibitionist, 123; justice of the 
supreme court,- James F. Ailshire, Republican, 2,361, 
Frank E. Fog?. Democrat, 1.792. John C. Elder, So- 
cialist, 227, William A. Hall, Prohibitionist, 125; sen- 
ator, Seventeenth district, George E. Crum. Republi- 
can. 2.2S6. Louis Clark, Democrat, 1,841, William H. 
Thompson, Socialist, 230, James E. Pearson, Prohibi- 
tionist, 121 ; state representatives, Charles D. Thomas, 
William A. Black, Garrett H. Farrel, Republicans, 
2.287, 2,191, and 2,174 votes respectively, John W. 
Graham, Eben Mounce, Charles Hutchins, Democrats, 
1,968, 1,924 and 1,852 votes respectively, Erick S. Lee, 
William Fenderson, Henry Wilson, Socialists, 202, 
197 and 103 votes respectively, G. W. Beloit, G. B. 
Banta, J. R. Hobkins. Prohibitiomists, 109, 107 and 115 
votes respectively: district judge, Edgar C. Steele, Re- 
publican, 2.356, Wallace N. Scales, Democrat, 1,882; 
county auditor and recorder, John T. Orbison, Repub- 
lican, 2,007, James R. Lydon, Democrat, 2,226, Duncan 
Gaven, Socialist, 190, W. E. Curtis, Prohibitionist, 
113: county commissioners, First district, George A. 



iiimiiijiiiiiii.'i iiiir...!;.! -if 'inMiiiiiiii 


Benedict Ranch, at the Mouth of Whitebird, the Scene of Indian Atrocities in 1877. 


Smith, Republican, 2,184, C. A. Leeper, Democrat, 
1,990, John A. Miller, Socialist, 198, J. Smith Mounce, 
Prohibitionist, 118; Second district, Samuel Hollen- 
beck, Republican, 2,201, Nathaniel Wilson, Democrat, 
1,884, Renny J. Bofferding, Socialist, 199, Elmer Rob- 
ertson, Prohibitionist, 122; Third district, George W. 
Welker, Republican, 2,217, George W. Brammer, Dem- 
ocrat, 1,907, Thomas F. Jacobs, Socialist, 203, J. H. 
Lewis, Prohibitionist, 123 ; sheriff, William Schuldt, 
Republican, 2.396, William R. Gibbs, Democrat, 1,892, 
William Bozarth, Socialist, 199, U. E. Reeves, Prohi- 
bitionist, 97 : prosecuting attorney, Miles S. Johnson, 
Republican, 2,349, Charles L. McDonald,. Democrat, 
1,961 ; treasurer, Charles A. Hastings, Republican, 
2,205, Alfred W. Kroutinger, Democrat, 1,970, John 
N. Lindsay, Socialist, 223, William S. Clayton, Prohi- 

bitionist, 111 ; probate judge, Oscar B. Chesley, Repub- 
lican, 2,072, William B. Reese, Democrat, 2,116, Stan- 
ton T. McGrath, Socialist, 189, A. J. Pine, Prohibit 
tionist, in; superintendent of public schools, Bernice 
McCoy, Republican, 2,272, Eula C. Ward, Democrat, 
1,994, Mrs. Laura Boyd, Prohibitionist, 117; assessor, 
Wilfred L. Gifford, Republican, 2,312, Major J. Steele, 
Democrat, 1,851, Adolph E. Fieser, Socialist, 198, 
Henry Rickle, Prohibitionist, 109 ; surveyor, Edson D. 
Briggs, Republican, 2,348, Frank Doughty, Democrat, 
1.803, Charles Simmons, Socialist, 197, Gilbert Hogue, 
Prohibitionist, 115 ; Clyde J. V'assar, Republican, 2,218, 
William B. Cooper, Democrat, 1,870, Dr. W. F. Shaw- 
ley, Socialist, 229, S. A. Roe, Prohibitionist, 114. A 
very small Populist vote was also cast. 




From the nature of things the early history of 
north Idaho could not well be traced without, in part at 
least, presenting also the early annals of the pioneer 
city of the region. We have already referred to the 
fact that the first attempt to establish a trading point 
was made at the Big Eddy of the Clearwater, but 
abandoned at once on account of the impracticability 
of navigating that stream. We have likewise spoken 
of the difficulty in the way of building a town at the 
confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake rivers, 
on territory then a part of the Nez Perces Indian 
reservation, and of how circumstances compelled the 
whites to assume the aggressive in trenching upon 
the rights of the Indians and the latter race to yield 
an unwilling compliance. The town of Canvas has 
been adverted to; the unfortunate social conditions 
obtaining therein ; and the sufferings occasioned by 
the frailty of protecting walls and the severity of 
the winter of 1861-2. Mention has been made also 
of the platting of the townsite in October, 1861 ; of 
the town's early political sta^s and its career as the 
capital of the territory. The circumstances of its 
loss of political prestige and the seat of government 
have likewise engaged our attention and many inci- 
dental references to the town of later days have 
necessarily found place in former chapters. It is now 
our task to trace the development of Lewiston some- 
what more comprehensively and to gather up the 
fragments of its still unrelated history. 

The circumstances which caused the founding of 

Lewiston were favorable to its rapid early growth. 
The steamers which brought to the country hundreds 
of miners brought also latge cargoes of goods to the 
merchants which were speedily retailed at enormous 
profits. Money was plentiful among all classes and 
prosperity abounded on every hand. But these con- 
dition.- were of short duration. The discovery of the 
Boise mines in August, 1862, turned the current of 
trade in that direction, and it became apparent' to the 
leading business men of Lewiston that if their town 
was to continue its rapid development, it must secure 
a share of the trade. They were also ambitious to 
establish commercial relations with Salt Lake City. 
In furtherance of these two objects, or rather to de- 
termine in a measure whether or not they were prac- 
ticable, A. P. Ankeny sent a party consisting of Charles 
Clifford, Washington Murray and Joseph Denver to 
the site of old Fort Boise to report upon the navi- 
gability of the Snake river between that point and 
Lewiston. The party waited for lowest water, then 
descended the river to Lewiston, making part of the 
trip, it is thought, in a raft. They gave it as their 
opinion that the Snake river could be navigated by 
steamboats and that same fall, the Spray, of which 
mention has been heretofore made, ascended the river 
to a point fifteen miles above Lewiston, where it had 
to turn back. This was unfortunate, for it went to 
prove the impracticability of a far reaching scheme. 
: Lewiston's business men." says Bancroft, "contem- 
plated placing a line of boats on Snake river to be 
run as far as navigable. The first important land- 
ing was to be at the mouth of Salmon river, forty 



miles above Lewiston. The design was to make a 
road direct to the mines, whereas the travel had there- 
tofore been by the trails through the Nez Perces 
country. The' distance from the mouth of Salmon 
river by water to Fort Boise was 95 miles, thence 
to Fishing Falls on Salmon river, 90 miles: thence 
to Salt Lake City, 250 miles, total 475 miles, nearly 
half of which, it was hoped, could be traveled by 
boats. Such a line would have been of great service 
to the military department, about to establish a post 
on Boise river, and to immigration, saving a long 
stretch of road. But the Salmon river mountains 
proved impassible, and the snake river unnavigable, al- 
though in the autumn of 1863 a second party of five 
men, with Molthrop at the lead, descended the stream 
in a boat built at Buena Vista bar, and a company 
was formed in Portland for constructing a portage 
through a canyon of that river, considered impractic- 
able for steamers. It was soon made apparent, how- 
ever, that Lewiston was hopelessly cut off from Salt 
Lake, and even from Boise basin, by craggy mountains, 
impassable river canyons and falls." 

The failure of this Salt Lake project made it 
impossible for Lewiston to maintain the rate of de- 
velopment established during its earliest years, but 
its monopoly on the distributing business of the Salmon 
l'iver mining country continued, giving it ample means 
for substantial growth. 

It must be remembered that at this time the land 
upon which the town was built was still a part of the 
Nez Perces Indian reservation, and that no title to 
property could be secured, a fact which must have 
exerted a deterrent influence upon those who would 
otherwise be inclined to erect substantial and perma- 
nent buildings. But in due time negotiations were 
entered into between the United States government 
and the Indians looking toward the cession on the 
part of the latter of one mile square of their territory 
to be used for townsite purposes. Before these 
negotiations were fully concluded the town was in- 
corporated by an act of the territorial legislature ap- 
proved December 27, 1866. The first section of the 
incorporation bill read as follows: "Section 1. The 
town of Lewiston, including the following territory, 
to-wit : Bounded north and west by the waters of the 
Clearwater and Snake rivers at their confluence, and 
extending sufficiently far southerly and easterly there- 
from to constitute in a square form, as near as prac- 
ticable, according to government survey, one square 
mile, intended to include the square mile of land 
stipulated for in favor of said town in the treaty 
between the United States and the Nez Perces tribe 
of Indians now pending, is hereby organized into a 
municipal corporation under the name of 'The City of 
Lewiston.' Providing that the jurisdiction of said 
city hereby conferred shall extend to the middle 
channel of said rivers at the points oposite the terri- 
tory included within said limits." 

One provison of the bill was that the first election 
of city officers should be held on the second Monday 
in .A I arch of the year 1867 at the court house in Lewis- 
ton. The election was held at the appointed time and 

resulted as follows : mayor, W. W. Wright ; treas- 
urer, H. W. Stainton ; marshal, Daniel McElwee ; 
councilmen, Godfrey Gamble, George Scranton and 
Julius Loewenberg. The charter had been secured 
despite some opposition in the town itself to the move- 
ment for incorporation, and the opposition did not 
cease when officers were chosen. Indeed the forces 
adverse to the city government, led by Richard Hur- 
ley, were so nearly equal in numbers and influence to 
those of a contrary mind that little could be ac- 
complished in the way of progress during the first few 
years, and nothing was attempted beyond such im- 
provements as were deemed absolutely necessary. 

It was during the year 1867, according to the 
statement of Charles G. Kress, one of the pioneer 
business men of Lewiston, that the first experiments 
were made in tree planting in the streets of the town 
and inception was given to a movement which later 
gained for it the soubriquet of "the City of Poplars." 

"One hot May afternoon," says Mr. Kress, "dur- 
ing a lull in business, Seth Slater, John Clark, Dick 
Monroe and myself were sitting in front of Monroe's 
drug store on Main street at the head of what is 
now known as First street. The conversation turned 
to the extreme heat which was prevailing and Monroe 
suggested that shade trees should be planted. At that 
time our streets were entirely barren of trees and there 
was no vegetation at all in the business section. The 
suggestion appealed strongly to us and we held an 
informal meeting to discuss ways and means of secur- 
ing and caring for the trees. We were not at all 
sure whether trees would grow here and the water 
problem was a serious one. 

"Finally we decided to try the experiment any- 
how. Our plan contemplated the digging of a well 
in front of Monroe's store, a favorite lounging place 
then, and the planting there of one poplar and two 
locust trees. The hat was passed around ami >ng the 
citizens and in a short time $210 were subscribed. 
The well was sunk at a point very nearly in the mid- 
dle of the street, and cost $210, the amount of the 
subscription. Over the well a neat frame covering 
was placed and around it seats were constructed to 
accommodate those who cared to while away an hour 
or so near its cooling waters and beneath the luxuriant 
shade of the trees that were to be. The walls of the 
well were boarded up. The chain and bucket system 
delivered the water. Wesley Mulkey, whose place 
was near the city, donated to the enterprise the de- 
sired trees, which were planted as soon as the well 
was finished. 

"The trees seemed inspired with a due sense of 
the importance of their mission, for they throve wonder- 
fully from the first. The enterprise was a popular 
one and elicited the interest of everybody. The follow- 
ing year C. C. Bunnell. Dr. Stainton and others set 
out trees, and in 1870 a still larger number were 
planted, until in a comparatively short time the town 
was fairly embowered in luxuriant foliage. Main 
street was lined on both sides with poplars, but few 
of which now remain." 

An issue of the Lewiston Signal bearing date 



September 12, 1867, has fallen into our hands and from 
it we learn that the following market prices prevailed 
at that time: apples, peaches, pears, 25 cents a pound; 
flour, $5.50 a barrel : butter, fresh, 75 cents, Isthmus, 
50 cents ; eggs, 75 cents ; cheese, 50 cents ; bacon, 22 
cents; sugar, brown, 25 cents, crushed, 28 cents; 
coffee, 38 cents; tea, $1.25. From its advertising 
patronage we have compiled the following business 
directory : Luna Feed and Livery stable, Jack Curry ; 
Pioneer stables, J. B. Rowley ; general stores, Grostein 
& Binnard, Baldwin Brothers, James Flanagan & 
Company, J. Loewenberg, Ankeny & Sons, Bacon & 
Thompson ; general commission merchants, J. Vilott 
& Company ; drug stores, H. W. Stainton, M. A. Kelly ; 
the Luna hotel, L. H. Thompson ; Hotel De France, 
Madame Le Francois ; Globe hotel, August Bittner ; 
wood, timber and shingles, Charles Carleton & 
Company ; hardware, Bunnell Brothers ; California 
bakery, C. Baker, proprietor; flour and liquor store, 
Vilott & Company : Challenge saloon, Norton & Bun- 
ker ; J. Denny'? saloon ; James Hays's saloon, also the 
saloons of Vincent & Dyer and A. Gilman ; the Asotin 
Mill Company; harness store, Gill & Warden; jew : eler, 
Charles G. Kress : brewery, Gamble & Weisgerber ; 
assay office, Richard Hurley; gunsmith, M. H. 
Sprague; the Oro Fino & Pierce City express, M. 
Fettis ; the Warren's Diggings express, just estab- 
lished, W. P. Hunt and F. G. Hart ; H. W. Stainton, 
physician ; W. W. Thayer and Alonzo Leland, at- 
torneys ; H. O. Adams, justice of the peace. 

The progressive forces, as those who had favored 
incorporation were styled, continued to be hampered 
in their efforts by a practically equally opposing force 
until November 6, 1871, when Levi Ankeny, a pioneer 
merchant, was elected mayor on a ticket pledged to 
progress. The first matter to elicit the attention of 
the new government was the securing of a title to the 
townsite. Under the act of congress approved in the 
spring of 1867, the government had granted the city 
a tract of land one square mile in extent at the junction 
of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, but the land office 
had as yet failed to act in granting a patent and the 
matter was held in abeyance. Mayor Ankeny was 
authorized to cause entry to be made in his name 
as trustee in behalf of the city and to take such further 
action as was necessary to secure title to the land. As 
a result a United States patent was in due course of 
time secured, though not without litigation. It appears 
that one Alonzo Gilman had filed a few months before 
Mr. Ankeny on several lots of land included in the 
townsite of Lewiston. Under permission of the agent 
to occupy a part of these tracts for trade purposes, 
Gilman had, in 1862, settled upon a small portion of 
the land claimed by him, but the department held that 
no acts of his either previous or subsequent to the 
ratification of the treaty could secure for him a valid 
claim to the land or any part of it and his claim 
was therefore rejected. 

In 1871 was begun a project favoring the further 
extension of the tree planting and beautifying of 
Lewiston, referred to above. Wesley Mulkey was the 
moving spirit in the enterprise. He organized a joint 

stock company with a capital stock of $10,000 for the 
purpose of digging an irrigating ditch through the 
town. The plan was scouted by many, who offered to 
wager that all the water which would pass through the 
ditch could be caught in a hat, but the more enterpris- 
ing citizens subscribed the stock at $25 per share and 
the project was carried to a successful issue. An 
ordinance granting the Lewiston Water Ditch and 
Mill Company, as the corporation styled itself, the 
right of way through the city was passed February 
2, 1874, and the ditch was completed some time that 
year. It was intended at first for irrigation purposes 
only, but later S. C. Hale and John Brearley planned 
and built a flouring mill at its terminus, which re- 
suited not alone in the inauguration of a valuable new 
enterprise but the deepening and widening of the ditch. 
After passing through the hands of several different 
owners, the part of this property running through the 
city was amicably transferred in 1900 to the city of 
Lewiston, which abandoned it as an aqueduct, thus 
removing one of the ancient landmarks of the town 
and an improvement which had done its part in build- 
ing the picturesque Lewiston of the past and establish- 
ing the "olden, golden glory of the days gone by." 
The half decade following the financial crash of 
1873 was a period of quiet times in Lewiston, though 
commercial stagnation was never experienced and the 
town never ceased to grow slowly. The first thing 
to thoroughly arouse the people was the outbreak of 
the Nez Perces war, which occasioned a meeting of 
the citizens and the organization of the Home Guards, 
of which company, Ed. McConville, who later won 
so much fame in the Nez Perces and Spanish-American 
wars, was elected captain. Hazen Squier was first lieu- 
tenant, George Young, second lieutenant, and Charles 
G. Kress, orderly sergeant. The muster roll of the 

privates was a follows : Alexander , Anderson 

William, Billings , Brearley John, Baird Ezra, 

Baird William, Binnard A., Boise L. B., Boise William, 
Benson A., Berry J. G., Boise F., Bunnell C. C, Cox 
William, Clark John, Coburn C. P., Collins, M., Con- 
nely James, Denny William, Damas A., Dunwell L., 
Davis P. M., Denny J. W., Frost G., Faunce C. E., 
Forster William. Forster Alexander, Fix John, Gros- 
tein R., Gale H, Gilman A., Glass George, Griffith 
Hale N., Hale L. C, Holbrook N. B.. Hud- 

son Thomas, Hunt W. P.. Igo William, Jain Joe, 

Johnson Dave, Krep C. G., Knaggs . Kelly M. 

A., Kearny J., Knifong J., Loewenberg B., Leland A., 
Leland Charles, Minnomv J. B., McGrave James, Mc- 
Conville E., Monroe R.'j", Mulkey W., Manning G. 
A.. Manning Fred, McCormick J., Monroe Dave, 
Moxlev J. O., Noah George, Nollan M., Penny 
George, Rowley L., Rowlev E. A., Rand J., Roberts 
John, Stainton' H., Squier 'H, Schleicher R., Shank 
Theodore, Saux Ravmond, Underwood George, Voll- 
mer J. P., Wiggin L., Weisgerber J.. Weisgerber C, 
Williams M. M., Warner J. D., Wardwell Dan., 
Wildenthaler S., Worden Thomas, Young George, 
Yane Joe, bugler. 

Shortly after the organization of the Home Guards, 
Governor Bravman authorized the formation of the 


First Regiment . Idaho National Guards, commission- 
ing Captain Ed. McConville colonel of the same. 
Company A was immediately organized in Lewiston, 
with officers and membership as follows: 

Colonel Ed McConville, Randolph Kean, Henry 
Archer, John Bruce, Elmer Colwell, W. S. Stafford, 
William Ritchey, John Woosherd, Charles Warnstoff, 
George Pitt, Henry Pohlson, Albert Wisner, Thomas 
Norman, George Gaunt, Charles Adams, James Salie, 
J. S. Pintter. 

June 17, 1877, the city council held a special meet- 
ing to consider the Indian situation. The mayor was 
authorized to send a telegram to Portland asking for 
arms and ammunition from the citizens of that city 
and to the O. S. N. Company, which brought a quick 
response in the form of forty York rifles and a sup- 
ply of ammunition. The council also authorized the 
construction of rifle pits and other means of defense, 
and accordingly, eight or ten outposts were established 
on the high plateau south of the city. One was near 
the top of the present grade from Snake river avenue, 
another stood between that and what is now Fifth 
street, another to the east of the present Fifth street 
grade, one in front of the site of H. K. Barnett's 
residence and the remainder between that and the 
old road leading from Lewiston to Mount Idaho. At 
each of these outposts a semi-circular trench two or 
three feet deep and thirty-five or forty feet long was 
dug. Behind the embankment thus formed four or 
five men were stationed each night. Camp fires were 
forbidden and strict military discipline was enforced. 
This nightly guard was maintained until Joseph's band 
had been driven into Montana, though the danger of 
an attack was considered slight on account of the 
fact that it is not in accordance with Indian methods 
of warfare to attack large towns or cities. But it 
was thought that many of the reservation Indians 
were really in sympathy with their red brethren among 
the hostile?, and as a revolt among them would be 
indeed serious, it was best to be vigilant. 

Grostein & Binnard's stone store was the strongest 
structure in the city and the best adapted for use 
as a fortress should the necessity for such arise. It 
was therefore arranged that in case of attack the 
women and children should gather in this building 
while the men manned the entrenchments above town. 
Fortunately no attack was ever made, though there 
were the usual number of panics among the people 
caused by the unfounded stories of highly imaginative 
persons or the fabrications of Madam Rumor. 

While the war damaged Lewiston in a number of 
ways, as it damaged the whole of the north Idaho 
country, it brought a measure of compensation for 
the harm it did by turning the attention of the world 
in this direction. Then, too, Lewiston naturally be- 
came the headquarters for a number of army 
officers and one of the principal bases of supplies. 
At one time, it is said, every vacant business house 
in the city, at all suited to the purpose, was rented 
and used as a department office. The various corps 
of cierks and helpers, the camp followers and the 
strangers attracted to the place gave Lewiston a lively 

appearance. Some of the army men suggested that 
the town was a capital place for the establishment of 
a permanent military post, and the citizens, ever ready 
to push any movement for the good of their town, 
sent numerously signed petitions to Washington ask- 
ing that a post be stationed here, but the department 
did not see its way clear to grant the request. 

The year after the war, Lewiston began planning 
for a more substantial growth, and not a few of its 
leading business men commenced making arrange- 
ments for the erection of fire proof, brick and stone 
buildings. The merchants, who had theretofore catered 
almost entirely to the miners' trade, were asking them- 
selves if it would not be better to seek to build up 
a trade with the farming districts to the north, and 
the press was calling attention to the fact that if more 
effort had been made to satisfy the farmers' necessi- 
ties, the occasion for several rival towns in Washing- 
ton territory would not have arisen. In short, Lewis- 
ton was casting about for something to take the 
place, in furnishing support, of the declining placer 
mines, and its people clearly saw that their hope for 
the future lay in the development of quartz mining 
and the agricultural resources of the tributary country. 
As the transition from one industry to another is 
necessanlv slow in any community, so must be the 
growth of towns depending upon regions in which one 
source of revenue becomes exhausted before others can 
be built up to take its place. 

During the summer of 1879, the first long distance 
telegraph line, that precursor of the railroad, was 
constructed into Nez Perces county and north Idaho. 
It was a branch of the main military line, built to con- 
nect Dayton with Fort Lapwai, and the citizens of 
Lewiston subsidized the enterprise with a free office in 
the town and several hundred poles, with the under- 
standing that they might use the line when not in the 
service of the military. The following is the first 
telegram sent from Lewiston over the wire : 

Lewiston, I. T., June 17, 1879, 5 p - M - 
To the Mayor and Citizens of Dayton, IV. T., Greet- 

The people of Lewiston are happy to announce to 
you by way of first telegram over the first U. S. 
Government line yet established north of San Diego, 
California, that they hold sacred in this manner this 
the anniversary of the struggle of our forefathers on 
Bunker Hill. 

A. Leland, H. Snuier, T. P. Vollmer, D. J. Warner, 
C. C. Bunnell, N. W. Brearley, W. F. Kettenbach, 
C. G. Kress, A. Gilman, E. A. McAllister, Ed. Pearcy, 
Loewenberg Bros., C. B. Reynolds, G. A. Manning, 
C. F. Leland, T. Alexander, E. J. Bonhore, Eph. 
Bunker, Grostein & Binnard, I. C. Baldwin, M. M. 
Williams, J. M. Silcott, and others. 

Lewiston claims the honor of having had the first 
local telephone system in the northwest. It was put 
in by John P. Vollmer in 1878 and consisted of an 
exchange of three phones. 

The decade between 1880 and 1890 does not seem 
to have brought any great good fortune or any serious 
disaster to Lewiston, and while the period was an 


important one and witnessed a slow, substantial 
growth, it is not crowded with events such as would be 
read about with interest if presented in full detail. 
The former year brought a great reduction in ferry 
rates across the Snake and Clearwater rivers, — an 
important concesion from a commercial point of view 
as it encouraged trade to come this way. During the 
fall of 1 88 1, the city paid its tribute of respect to 
the memory of the martyred President Garfield. An 
event of unusual importance in 1883 was the 4th of 
July celebration, attended by large crowds from Union- 
town, Genessee, Asotin. Pomeroy, Pataha, Alpowai, 
Waha, Lapwai and many other points in Idaho and 
Washington ; two hundred Indians from the reser- 
vation, and last but not least Governor J. B. Neil, 
said to be the first chief executive of the territory to 
visit north Idaho since 1864. In 1883 the town ex- 
perienced a fire of considerable magnitude, though 
fortunately very little damage was inflicted upon the 
white population. About half past four o'clock on 
the morning of November 19th, the flames burst forth 
in the Chinese section, and before their progress could 
be stayed, the entire block was in ashes. Thirteen 
buildings were destroyed, all of them occupied by 
Chinamen except a wagon shop in which Lot Wiggin's 
tools and equipment were, and the dwelling of J. E. 
Sheppard. Both the white men succeeded in saving 
most of their valuables, and the fire was not greatly 
deplored as it removed a block which had been an eye- 
sore in the city for a long time. 

On May 31, 1887, the water in the rivers rose to 
a height unprecedented in the experience of white nun. 
Pioneers of 1862, who had marked the highest water 
of that flood year, stated that their marks were fully 
eighteen inches below the surface of the highest water 
of 1887. The greater portion of the town north of 
B street became seriously inundated. Fences were 
washed away, cellars and houses were flooded, build- 
ings were moved from their foundations and carried 
down Main street in spite of the exertions of their 
owners and such others as could lend a hand. Dykes 
built for the protection of property proved inadequate 
and many of those who relied upon them were flooded 
so suddenly that they could not even save their furni- 
ture and household goods. The steamboat wharf and 
warehouse were washed away and much other dam- 
age done, the principal sufferers being poor people 
who could ill afford what they lost. No high water 
disaster previously experienced by the town could 
compare with this one in magnitude. 

Lewi -ton's first fire of any consequence occurred in 
the fall of 1890, when a conflagration thought to have 
been of incendiary origin, took place in the shingle 
yard of W. S. Wyncoop. Eighteen thousand dollars' 
worth of bolting timber, cedar posts, shingles and other 
property was destroyed, also S. L. Thompson's resi- 
dence. The mill and all other surrounding buildings 
were, however, fortunately saved, not through the 
efforts of the fire department, which was in a state 
of disintegration at the time, but by the populace with 
buckets of all descriptions. "Many held the opinion," 
says the Teller, "that the fire in the upper town was 

only a decoy to lure the citizens there while another 
fire would be started in the business portion. An 
additional force was, therefore, added to the night 
patrol, but nothing transpired to justify the suspicions 
held. The property loss was covered by $12,000 in- 
surance on the mill yard ; the residence was uninsured. 
The fire demonstrated very forcibly the need of a 
thoroughly organized fire department." 

But the year 1890 was not one of disaster through- 
out. — the contrary rather, for the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company had promised to build a railway 
extension into the city and the hope of an immediate 
solution of the transportation problem was stimulat- 
ing activity in many lines. It is stated that during the 
first week in May $50,000 worth of Lewiston real 
estate changed hands. During this year, also, the first 
determined effort was made to supply the town with 
water and electric lights. The Lewiston Water & 
Light Company, in which several Portland capitalists 
were interested, was organized with a capital stock 
of $100,000 and by July enough of this had been sub- 
scribed and paid up to justify the commencement of 
the construction work. Engineer Bloomfield, who had 
charge of the enterprise, is quoted as having referred 
to it in the following language: 

"After a careful examination, the Clearwater river 
at a point about two and a half miles above the town, 
lias been selected as the source of supply. That this 
stream is not misnamed can be seen at its confluence 
with the Snake river. The latter river is charged with 
sedimentary matter and is highly alkaline, while Clear- 
water is soft, clear and free from impurities, and as 
they meet, the two waters are as distinct as a blue 
and a brown ribbon, side by side. 

"The works will be a pumping system having a 
capacity of two million gallons, raised to an elevation 
of 225 feet, giving a pressure of 97 pounds per square 
inch in the lower and business portion of the town, 
and will give the beautiful plateau above the bluff 
ample pressure for all purposes. 

"The plant will consist of a brick engine and boiler 
house, forty by forty feet, on a concrete foundation 
fourteen feet high along the river front, into which 
is built the heavy wrought iron inlet pipe and pump 
well, with their attached gate and foot valve. The 
inlet pipe will be five feet below extreme low water. 
The engine will be of the modern type of double 
compound condensing engines. The boiler will be 
of steel, 85 horse power, with a steam pressure of 
120 pounds. The reservoir will be cement lined and 
of a capacity of 1,500.000 gallons. The mains will 
be 8 66-100 miles long, consisting of 12, 10, 8. 5 and 
4 inch pipe." 

Another enterprise projected this year, which would 
have proved of immeasurable benefit had it been car- 
ried to a successful consummation, was that of the 
Sweetwater Irrigation Company, organized to con- 
struct a ditch seventeen miles in length to convey the 
waters of Sweetwater creek to Lewiston. It was in- 
tended to store the water in reservoirs on the flat 
above town, to be distributed whenever and wherever 


During the spring of 1891, the Lewiston Chamber 
of Commerce was organized with T. B. Cooper as 
president, and W. S. Buck, corresponding secretary. 
Committees were appointed to perfect the organi- 
zation and attend to its detail work. The old Board 
of Trade had lost its vitality and a new organization 
was necessary that the best interests of the city should 
be conserved. Company I. of the Idaho National 
Guards, was likewise organized in Lewiston, on March 
13th, Fred Kroutinger being chosen captain, C. A. 
Forseman and J. H. Robinson lieutenants. 

The water system, begun during the previous 
twelvemonth, was completed this year giving the city- 
one of the finest plants of its kind in the northwest, 
outside the large cities. The engine was said to have 
a capacity of 700,000 gallons per day of ten hours, 
and the reservoir, situated half a mile south of the 
pump house, a capacity of one million gallons. 

Residents of Portland and The Dalles will re- 
member that the year 1894 was one of grave disasters 
by the flood of those cities and other Columbia river 
towns. Naturally the same conditions obtained in 
Lewiston. We have spoken of the record breaking 
high water of 1887, but the flood of this year left the 
highest mark of that fully thirty inches under water. 
For two weeks during the last of May and first 
of June, citizens held back the raging torrent by means 
of dykes constructed of sacks of sand and loose dirt, 
but on the third of the latter month the force of the 
waters could no longer be resisted and about 2 130 
o'clock the bell gave warning that the flood had gained 
the victory. Persons living in the lower portion of 
the city had moved out in anticipation of this, there- 
by reducing the damage to a minumum. The Main 
street business men had moved everything out of their 
basements. They were not looking for water six 
inches over their floors, however, but that is just 
what came, catching them unprepared and greatly 
damaging their goods. The people on the low ground 
in the vicinity of the courthouse were also taken by 
surprise, their dyke having betrayed the trust they 
had reposed in it. Sidewalks, fences and other movable 
objects were carried away and deposited around some 
obstruction and the irrepressible small boy found much 
sport in navigating the center of the street on a piece 
of drift. Fortunately these conditions were of short 
duration and in a few days the city had a force of 
men at work removing the debris and replacing the 
sidewalks. It is said that $700 was expended by the 
council in this manner. 

It might be supposed that the flood and the financial 
depression would have a very deleterious effect upon 
the prosperity and development of the town, but we 
are assured that there were no hard times in Lewiston 
such as were experienced in other points in the north- 
west and that a steady forward movement was main- 
tained, though of course the pace of the progressive 
march was of necessity reduced somewhat. In 1895 
came the opening of the reservation, causing an influx 
of home seekers and the distribution of hundreds, nay 
thousands, of dollars of Indian money among the 
Lewiston merchants. These causes were efficient to 

overcome the depressing influence of outside conditions 
and to produce a period of prosperity which lasted 
until the clouds had cleared from the country's financial 
sky. When good times came Lewiston had no 
despondency to rally from and it was ready to enter 
upon a career of rapid advancement which has con- 
tinued to this day. 

The spring of 1896 saw the commencement of 
work, by the Lewiston Water & Power Company, on 
an irrigation ditch from Asotin creek to Lewiston 
flats, just across Snake river in the state of Washing- 
ton. In January, 1897, the work was completed. It 
gave a wonderful impetus to settlement and develop- 
ment in that section of the country and to the up- 
building of Clarkston, Lewiston's sister city, which 
is so closely connected with the Idaho town by the 
bridge across Snake river as to make the two practic- 
ally one city. 

In 1897, the year of railway construction into 
Lewiston, and the year of' unprecedented advancement 
in the history of the town, was marred by a rather 
serious fire which occurred on the evening of the 8th 
of August. The cause of the conflagration, was the 
explosion of a lantern in the hay mow of Collins's 
livery barn, which was consumed with the outbuildings 
belonging thereto. The entire block was wiped out of 
existence, the buildings destroyed being J. B. Mun- 
shaw's house, the residence of N. B. Holbrook, that 
occupied by J. O. Barbour and a log building owned 
by Martin Collins. Mr. Munshaw, who was operating 
the stables under lease at the time, lost but $600, most 
of his property being covered by insurance, but Col- 
lins' loss was in the neighborhood of four thousand 
dollars and Holbrook's two thousand. Only the 
fortunate presence of plenty of water and the efficient 
work of firemen and citizens saved the lower end of 
the town from destruction. 

No general disaster of any kind detracted from the 
blessings of the prosperous year 1898 in Lewiston. 
Five substantial brick blocks added to the solidity of 
the town, while numerous residences of a good class 
improved its appearance and added to its size. The 
Lewiston Commercial Club was organized this year, 
former institutions of the kind having apparently fallen 
into "innocuous desuetude." Its officers elected Sep- 
tember 5th, were : President, B. F. Morris : vice- 
presidents, J. P. Vollmer and Robert Schleicher ; treas- 
urer, George H. Kester ; trustees, J. Alexander, W. 
A. Austin, A. H. Alford, E. H. Libbv, T. B. Morris, 
C. Weisgerber, J. E. Babb, C. C. Bunnell. J. W. Reid 
and O. A. Kjos. The advent of the railroad and the 
general prosperity were celebrated by a harvest carni- 
val, attended by hundreds from the surrounding coun- 
try and hundreds more who came in from points be- 
tween Spokane and Lewiston on two special railway 

The causes which produced the good times of 
1898, viz. : the interest in the section of transconti- 
nental railway companies, the presence of transpor- 
tation facilities, the increased knowledge of tributary 
resources, and the development of various Salmon 
river mining districts, continued operative during the 


ensuing twelvemonth and the year 1900 opened with 
bright prospects for a continuous growth and develop- 
ment of the town. One question of importance which 
arose during this year was the securing of a better 
and more satisfactory water supply. Those residing 
upon the hill complained that the provision for their 
necessities was insufficient and as scores of new 
houses were being erected and scores more were in 
contemplation, the need of solving the water problem 
was rapidly becoming more urgent. Accordingly the 
city council made overtures to the Lewiston Water 
& Light Company for the purchase of their plant, 
and the company expressing a willingness to sell, T. 
B. Cooper, an expert, was employed to estimate the 
value of the system. He reported its worth $54,- 
934.36. The company asked a much larger sum. 
Though the council expressed its willingness to accept 
the terms of the owners of the system, the transaction 
hung fire until the fall of 1901, when a newly elected 
council brought matters to a crisis by reducing the 
water rates more than twenty-five per cent. The 
company refused to accept the reduction and took the 
case into court where a decision was rendered against 

Meanwhile a special election was decided upon, to 
vote upon the issuance of $80,000 in bonds for the 
purpose of enabling the city to own its water and 
light plant. The election was held November 19th. 
The bonding proposition carried by a large majority, 
over 90 per cent of the votes being in its favor. 
The Lewiston Water & Light Company again went 
into court asking that the city be restrained from 
opening bids submitted for the purchase of the bonds, 
alleging that the election was irregular and that the 
Company's franchise was exclusive. The court re- 
fused the injunction. The bids were opened and that 
of Teasongood & Mayer, bankers of Cincinnati, ac- 
cepted. These gentlemen offered a premium of 
$68.80 per thousand, bonds to bear interest at the 
rate of 5 per cent. The city went ahead with its 
plans to construct a new water system and the Lewis- 
ton Water & Light Company proceeded with its suit 
in the courts of the state. Meanwhile, however, nego- 
tiations were continued for the purchase of the sys- 
tem already constructed and after several conferences 
between committees representing the two interests, 
it was finally agreed that the city should take the 
company's plant for a cash price of $70,000, all suits 
by the latter to be held in abeyance until the contract 
for purchase should be signed, then dismissed without 
prejudice, each party paying its own costs. The 
terms of agreement were accepted by the council on 
the evening of March 10, 1902, and confirmed by the 
voters at an election held April 24th of the same 

August 28, 1902, the city voted to authorize the 
sale of ten thousand dollars street improvement 
bonds, the proceeds to be used in grading Main street 
between Fifth street and the courthouse, the gravel 
to be taken from the Fifth street cut. Work upon 
this much needed improvement is still in progress at 
this writing, and the great good accruing from it in 

giving the city a clean and solid business street, and 
the people of Normal hill the benefit of an easy grade 
to their elevated homes is abundantly justifying the 
vote of 108 to 53 by which the bond issue was 

Perhaps the developments that have taken place 
between the time when Lewiston was a town of tents 
encroaching upon an Indian reservation and the pres- 
ent cannot be better summarized than by enumerating 
the various business enterprises which are being sus- 
tained within its limits to-day and the men at their 
heads. It is difficult to be sure that some of these 
have not been omitted, but practically all are in- 
cluded in the following: The dry goods and furnish- 
ing stores of John P. Vollmer & Company, O. A. 
Kjos and John M. Fix, also the Grand Leader and the 
Bee Hive; the grocery stores of E. L. Russell, Reed 
& Brashears, W. R. Wyatt, Merriam Brothers, C. A. 
Phelps, the Lewiston Grocery & Bakery Company, 
the Golden Rule and the Normal Hill Grocery- 
Company ; the art store of Fair & Thompson ; White 
Brothers and A. S. Burnett, wholesale dealers in 
fruits and vegetables ; the music store and supply 
house of W. H. Young; Charles Hahn, Naylor & 
Norlind, plumbing ; Lewiston Trading Company, 
dealers in agricultural implements, carriages, etc. ; the 
drug stores of J. Q. Moxley, Ray & Osmer, Dent & 
Butler, the Lewiston Drug Company ; the shoe store 
of C. A. Hastings ; the hardware stores of G. W. 
Fletcher, Myers & Neyland, and the Cash Hardware 
Company ; the clothing stores of Meuli & Lomax and 
H. A. Nixon; D. J. McGilvery, L. C. Neal and the 
Lewiston Furniture & Undertaking Company, deal- 
ers in furniture and house furnishings ; the harness 
and saddle store of R. M. Coburn ; the J. S. Cox and 
R. L. Pennewell Outfitting Companies; the jewelry- 
stores of Charles G. Kress, George H. Lake, J. H. 
Bethel and H. Haines; L. Diebek. manufacturing 
jeweler; the Idaho National Bank, W. P. Hurlburt, 
president, C. D. Thomas, cashier; the Lewiston 
National, W. F. Kettenbach, president, G. H. Kester, 
cashier; the First National, J. P. Vollmer, president. 
E. W. Eaves, cashier; (this last is the strongest bank 
in the state and among the national banks of the 
American Union, it was officially ranked in 1901 the 
fifty-seventh) ; the stationery and news depot of 
Thatcher & Kling ; the Idaho Tea Company ; the 
galleries of E. G. Cummings, J. W. Gomond, and 
E. Fortin, photographers : the Boss Meat Market, also 
the meat markets of Ehrman & Company, Dill 
Brothers, A. M. Cherier, F. M. Long & Sons ; the 
Mark Means Company, distributors and manufac- 
turers' agents; Pring Candy Company, manufacturers 
of confectionery; the Arcade, the Boss, Shafer & 
Heller, Mallory & Lydon, the White Front. Idaho 
and Farmers' livery and feed stables; the fruit, cigar 
and confectionerv ' stores of M. N. Farmer, S. A. 
Coppinger, and George F. Loeb : E. L. Wiggin, H. 
R. Miller and Louis Grostein. dealers in cigars and 
tobacco; W. T. Carpenter, dealer in curio-; A. J. 
Kraudelt, confectionery; Theodore Hartman, John 
C. Manson, F. Hacker & Company, Aurelio Farren 


and J. J. Philippi. tailors; Ora L. Kennedy, Mrs. 
Elaine Ritchie, milliners; M. H. Sprague, bicycles; 
H. T. Madgwick, dealer in shingles, lime and brick; 
A. Sempert, store and office fixtures; A. C. Coburn, 
sign painter; the Lewiston Junk Shop, Shank & 
Calvert, proprietors ; Idaho Steam Laundry Comp- 
any ; H. K. Harnett and the Nez Perces County Ab- 
stract Company, abstracters ; K. Wong Yick & O >m- 
pany, general merchandise ; Trader & Bartlett, manu- 
facturers of H. & K. cigars ; the Nez Perces Machine 
Works : C. F. Grimm. C. B. Nelson, William Wright, 
R. W. Carter, blacksmiths; the White Labor, the 
Woman's Exchange and the Boston lunch counters ; 
Imperial, John Long and O. K. barber shops; the 
Lewiston Bottling Works ; the brewery of Christ 
Weisgerber ; the planing mill of E. A. Rowley ; H. T. 
Best, machinist; William Agnew, gunsmith; J. 
Schwert, shoemaker; Huber & Frazier. F. R. Seidel, 
builders and contractors ; the Vollmer Clearwater 
Company and Kettenbach Grain Company, exporters 
of grain and flax ; F. W. Kettenbach, insurance agent ; 
Collins' feed store ; the Standard and Idaho dairy 
companies; T. S. Williams, upholstering; the Lewis- 
ton Business and Shorthand College, Margaret Slat- 
tery, proprietor ; Skinner & Mounce, Potvin & Howe, 
Kroutinger & Cox, Wade R. Parks, J. W. Willison 
& Company ; F. W. Godard & Company, S. S. Rogers 
& Company and J. M. Edwards & Company, real es- 
tate agents ; the Raymond House, the Grand, the Bol- 
linger. Hotel De France., the Scully, the White House, 
the ( Irand Central, the Thatcher, the Spokane and the 
Columbia, hotels; the Lewiston Mercantile Company, 
a wholesale house ; the Lewiston Milling Company, 
capacity 200 barrels of flour per day ; Ernest McCul- 
lough, Frank Doughty and I. L. Galbraith, civil engi- 
neers and architects ; M. E. Adams, mining engineer ; 
Charles W. Shaft. 1. B. Morris, John F. Hurlbut, F. 
L. Hinklev, F. S. Stirling, J. Marion Smith, C. C. 
Phillips, S, A. Roe, I. S. Collins, S. Salzburg, physi- 
cians and surgeons; R. Victor Kuhn. J. J. Randall, J. 
F. Atkinson, dentist ; Hattie Lorton and j. H. Watson, 
osteopaths; E. O'Neil,' James W. Foe, McFarland & 
McFarland, J. N. Smith. Johnson & Halsey, Price E. 
Stookev. G. W. Tannahill, John B. Anderson, R. S. 
Anderson, James E. Babb,, Crow & Williams, John E. 
Nickerson, Ray Walker, Thomas Mullen, Wade R. 
Parks, Bender & Alley, D. W. Bailey, Frederick D. 
Culver, lawyers ; Adrai'n D. Sweet, A. G. Glidden and 
M. L. Stowe, stenographers. 

While Lewiston has suffered greatly in times past 
for lack of transportation facilities and is still look- 
nig forward to the advantages which an open rivet 
to the sea and one or more transcontinental railways 
will give, the town has no great reason for complaint 
on this score at the present time. The Northern Pa- 
cific Railroad maintains a daily passenger service be- 
tween the city and Spokane ; the Clearwater passen- 
ger leaves Lewiston each afternoon for interior points, 
returning the following morning ; while accommoda- 
tion trains are run over the Lapwai branch to Culde- 
sac three times weekly and oftener during the shipping 
season. The Oregon Railway & Navigation Company- 

operates a fine line of passenger and freight boats be- 
tween Lewiston and Riparia. At present the Spok- 
ane, the Lewiston and the Norma, each of 250 tons 
burden, are in use, the first two alternating with each 
other so as to give a daily service, the last running 
only when business demands. Captain E. W. Baugh- 
man, the pioneer navigator and one of the first crew 
to bring a steamer up the Snake river to its conflu- 
ence with the Clearwater, is in charge of the Spokane, 
Captain E. H. Works, of the Lewiston and Captain 
Ralph Baughman of the Norma. A fifty ton boat, the 
Imnaha, is being built by local capitalists to run on the 
upper Snake river. During the wheat shipping sea- 
son, the Northern Pacific operates the steamer J. M. 
Hannaforcl between Lewiston and points on the Co- 

The Pacific States Telephone Company and the 
Western Union Telegraph Company furnish to Lewis- 
ton wire connection with all the important towns and 
cities of the northwest, while the Lookout Telephone 
Company, a local corporation, has erected a network 
of lines connecting various towns and stations in the 
country surrounding Lewiston. Stage lines radiate in 
several directions giving communication and close 
connection with numerous towns and villages not 
reached by the railroads. One of the finest steel 
bridges in" the northwest, erected in 1898-9 by the 
promoters of Vineland, in Asotin county, Washington, 
spans the Snake river between Lewiston and Clarks- 
ton, making the relationship between the two towns 
very intimate. 

The fraternal spirit is strong in Lewiston, as in 
most other towns of the west and many fraternities 
are represented. The Masons have recently sub- 
scribed $50,000 for the erection of a Masonic temple, 
a fact which shows the strength of that society among 
our people. The different Masonic bodies maintained 
in the city are the Knights of Rose Croix, No. 1,. 
the Knights of Kadosh, No. 1, Lewiston Consistory 
\'o. 1. the Scottish Rite, Lewiston Chapter No. 4, 
Royal Arch. York Rite, Lewiston Commanderv No. 
2. Knights Templar, Nez Perces Lodge No. 10, A. F. 
& A. M.. and Lewiston Lodge of Perfection, No. 1. 
The Odd Fellows, who own a handsome brick hall 
in Lewiston, are represented by Clearwater Encamp- 
ment No. 7, and Lewiston Lodge No. 8. Among the 
other fraternal orders of the town are: Excelsior 
Lodge No. 2, Knights of Pythias, Poplar Camp No. 
205. Woodmen of the World, Tsceminicum Tribe No. 
8, Improved Order of Red Men. Clearwater Lodge 
No. 11, A. O. U. W., Lewiston Council of the Royal 
Arcanum and a camp of Modern Woodmen, many of 
which have their various ladies' auxiliaries. 

Two important literary clubs are maintained in the 
town, both women's societies. The older, organized 
in the fall of 1899, is known as the Tsceminicum 
club, deriving its name from the Nez Perces words 
signifying "at the forks of the river." It meets fort- 
nightly at the homes of its members for the render- 
ing of literary programs. This club is to be credited 
almost entirely with the founding, in September, 
1900, of what is now the city library. The conditions 


upon which the ladies donated their collection of 
books to the city was that it should be furnished at 
public expense with a library home and that its use 
should be free to all residents of Lewiston. From 
time to time since, the Tsceminicum club has, by 
giving library benefits in the form of public entertain- 
ments, sales, lectures, etc., secured the money with 
which to purchase additional books. The library has 
also been the beneficiary of the benevolence of Charles 
F. Adams, the Boston philanthropist, and is indebted 
to Senator Heitfelt for securing it hundreds of docu- 
ments and government reports. The collection con- 
sists now of 2,837 volumes, to which, according to 
the card issue, 1,479 persons have had access. Mar- 
garet G. Guyer has been librarian since the inception of 
the enterprise and to her is due the credit for the 
library's skillful management and its careful classi- 
fication and arrangement. 

The other library society, known as the Twentieth 
Century Club, is very similar to the Tsceminicum in 
its objects and organization, but it is a somewhat 
younger society. Besides these, there is what is 
known as the Cecilian society, maintained, as its name 
implies, for the purpose of cultivating the musical 
faculties of its members. 

Six church societies have been organized in Lewis- 
ton, the Catholic, the Presbyterian, the Methodist, 
the Episcopal, the Christian and the' Baptist, of which 
the presiding pastors are respectively, Revs. Hubert 
A. Post, S. J., E. P. Giboney, John R. Gregory, Ever- 
ett Smith, J. A. Pine and R. T. Guernsey. All of 
these denominations are comfortably and satisfactorily 
housed except the Baptist, which intends building a 
new church edifice in the near future. These church 
societies are all vital and active, contributing im- 
measurably to the moral and spiritual life of the com- 
munity. The Catholics are projecting a new hospital, 
to be under the charge of the sisters of St. Joseph, and 
to be known as St. Joseph's hospital. It will cost 

A historical review of the county's public school 
system is a practical impossibility owing to the com- 
plete lack of statistical or other records in the county 
superintendent's office, but some reminiscences of 
Lewiston's schools may be of interest and not inap- 
propriate in this chapter. C. P. Coburn says that he 
has a very distinct recollection of the first teacher to 
pursue his profession in Nez Perces county. Late 
in the fall of 1863, according to Mr. Coburn, a middle 
aged man of professional appearance and quiet de- 
meanor appeared in Lewiston and proceeded to or- 
ganize a small school. He wore a tall silk hat, a suit 
of the blackest broadcloth and a white tie, all bearing 
unmistakeable signs of long usage and giving the im- 
pression that their proprietor was a broken down 
sport. They did not belie him, as later events proved, 
but for the time being the teaching ability of the man 
was all that was inquired into. After diligent can- 
vassing he secured a few pupils and opened his school. 
Everything progressed satisfactorily until the teacher 
drew his first month's pay, whereupon the sporting 
proclivities of the pedagogue manifested themselves. 

He set out to double his money at the gambling table, 
but unfortunately for him, the fickle dame played him 
false at this most critical juncture and his' wages 
passed into other hands. Not desiring to remain 
longer in Lewiston in the face of his ignominious 
downfall, he' quietly departed whence he came and 
the school was left teacherless. 

Lewiston continued without educational facilities 
for nearly a year thereafter, or until the fall of 1864, 
when one P. H. Howe arrived and opened a subscrip- 
tion school in a small frame building on Fourth street. 
It is said that Schoolmaster Howe, who taught three 
months, was a very ardent Unionist, so ardent indeed 
that he was subject to frequent fits of patriotism, when 
he would have his little band of scholars sing "John 
Brown's Body Lies A-mouldering in the Grave," 
when they should be engaged in more arduous mental 
exercises. To him, however, is due considerable 
credit for placing the school in Lewiston in some kind 
of a working condition and awakening a slight educa- 
tional spirit in the town, which, for the first few years 
was populated by a migratory, gold-seeking class who 
paid but little attention to the refinements of life. 

With the organization of the territory county af- 
fairs became better adjusted and the little school held 
at Lewiston was given support by the levying of a 
small tax. For some time this was the only district 
to derive benefit from the tax, as no other had been 
organized. Mount Idaho district was the next to gain 
an existence. 

During the winter of 1865-6 the Lewiston school 
was taught by William Ferrell, and under his tutelage 
fifteen or twenty pupils were instructed in the rudi- 
ments of education. The school prospered. Xext 
vear it was placed in charge of Professor Eckels, a 
very popular and erudite Irishman, and the first 
teacher to really give the Lewiston school his serious 
attention. At this time Lewiston was incorporated 
and granted the privilege of maintaining an inde- 
pendent school district, such as only Boise had en- 
joyed theretofore. In accordance with the provisions 
of this law. the Lewiston independent school district 
was organized and a special tax levied. The school 
was removed to a small frame building on the corner 
of what are now Third and C streets, just south of the 
old territorial capitol and across the street from the 
Florence saloon. This building, erected in 1862, nad 
been occupied for some time by Dr. Macinteney as a 
drug store, and later the first territorial council had 
met within its walls. Under Professor Eckels' super- 
vision seats and blackboards were placed in the room 
and books and manv other necessities procured for 
the children. This energetic teacher remained only 
one term, however. He was succeeded by Miss Ellen 
Rellv. a daughter of Milton Kelly, the first judge of 
the first judicial district of Idaho and later the founder 
of the Boise Statesman. Miss Kelly taught two terms 
and was succeeded by W. A. Goulder. 

By 1871 the increased demands made upon the 
school showed the urgent necessity for_ additional 
room, and an agitation was commenced in favor of 
erecting a new "school house instead of renting a 


larger building. The times, however, were stringent, 
and the problem of securing the money wherewith to 
buy land and put up this new building was not an 
easy one to solve ; nevertheless, at a meeting called to 
consider the matter it was definitely decided to proceed 
with the work. Some time previously a game of 
poker had been played in Lewiston, the outcome of 
which, as it happened, had an important bearing on 
the school question. A certain man had squatted on 
a large tract of land on Main street and as the town- 
site still belonged to the government, his right to the 
property when the land became patented was as gen- 
erally acknowledged as would have been a deed on 
record. Unfortunately for this property holder, 
however, cards possessed a fatal fascination for him, 
and on the night in question he was reduced to the ex- 
tremity of placing his title to the lot against its value 
in money, wagered bv his opponents. Fortune failed 
him and' the result was that right to the land became 
vested in three persons, James W. Hays, Albert Rip- 
son and L. W. Bacon. Later C. P. Coburn, as presi- 
dent of the school board, approached these men for 
the purpose of securing the land for a school site. 
Mr. Coburn's efforts were not in vain. Albert Rip- 
son, who claimed the major share of the land, finally 
agreed to donate his interest to the city, which he did, 
quit-claiming, also, bv consent, the interests of his 
partners. Subsequently title was perfected through 
the courts. 

On this property the trustees decided to erect a 
small frame schoolbouse and a special tax was levied 
to raise part of the funds. To further aid the enter- 
prise the trustees of the school, Charles G. Kress, R. 
J. Monroe and J. B. Rowley, also certain ladies of the 
city, especially prominent among whom were Mrs. 
John P. Yollmer, Miss Olive Martin (now Mrs. W. 
P. Hunt), Mrs. Robert Grostein and Mrs. T. S. 
Billings, gave a ball in the old Florence saloon build- 
ing, which had been converted into a public hall. The 
ball was a most gratifying success, financially as well 
as socially, adding several hundred dollars to the 
school fund. By such means the friends of education 
secured a considerable portion of the money required 
for the construction of the new school. 

As soon as title to the land above mentioned had 
been secured, the board of trustees let the contract for 
building the school tc a builder named Mann, the 
amount agreed upon being $1.-150. Mann's bid was 
very low. The building erected really cost in the 
vicinity of $2,000, the bondsmen furnishing the re- 
mainder of the money. The building was completed 
for occupancy in the fall of 1872 and to Miss Nancy 
Simons belongs the distinction of first teaching within 
its walls. She taught two terms. So rapidly did 
the attendance increase that two years later the town 
was compelled to add an annex to the building. Thus 
enlarged, it sufficed for several years. 

December 30. 1880, in response to the request of 
the people of Lewiston, the territorial legislature 
passed an act providing for the establishment and 
maintenance of a system of graded schools in the 
Lewiston independent district, a bill rendered neces- 

sary by the rapid growth of the city after the Nez 

A special election was called soon after this act 
went into effect, at which the tax payers of the district 
voted to issue $10,000 bonds for the construction of 
a new and much larger building than was then in 
use. Under this authority the school board entered 
into a contract with Hale & Cooper, July 6, 1882, for 
the construction of the present frame school bouse on 
the site of the old building. Subsequently the bond 
issue was increased to $11,000, bearing eight per 
cent, interest. The building was erected and at the 
time was considered one of the finest schoolhouses 
in this section of the west. But the steady increase of 
population eventually made even this too small and 
again the district had to provide larger quarters and 
a larger corps of teachers. The last building was 
erected in 1897-8 at a cost of approximately $16,000,. 
to raise which $15,000 worth of bonds had to be is- 
sued. The building is a handsome two-story, brick 
and stone structure, provided with all the usual con- 
veniences and school equipment, the pride of the city. 
In anticipation of the removal of the frame building 
at no distant day, the brick school house was erected 
just back of the wooden one. 

The rapid growth of the town during the past few 
years has rendered the school facilities again inade- 
quate, and to meet the exigencies of the situation the 
board of trustees has decided to begin, this spring, the 
construction of a twelve-room school house on Nor- 
mal hill, it being the intention to have the building 
ready for occupancy by the opening of the fall term in 
September. It will be two stories high and will cost 
about $25,000. 

But Lewiston is not dependent upon its public 
school alone for the maintenance of an educational 
esprit de corps among its people and the education of 
its juvenile inhabitants. By dint of much effort on 
the part of its citizens and friends it secured in 1898 
the establishment of a state normal school within its 
limits. The school occupies a beautiful brick build- 
ing on a sightly campus on Normal hill, overlooking 
the business part of Lewiston and the scenic poem 
presented by the two rivers just beyond and their 
rugged farther banks. The school has enjoyed a ca- 
reer of uninterrupted harmony since its inception, its 
only drawback being insufficient funds to procure a" 
needed equipment and enable it to rapidly expand. 
It offers a flexible course of study, giving the student 
wide latitude for selection, but requiring all to do a 
stated amount of professional study and to take part 
in the work of the literary societies. Diplomas are 
granted to those only who complete a four years' 
course, and the holders of these have all the rights and 
privileges attaching to state certificates for life. 

Another important institution having for its ob- 
ject the educational advancement of the youth of 
Lewiston and vicinity is St. Joseph's Academy, erect- 
ed in 1898 and conducted by the Sisters of 
the Visitation, a cloistered order. The school is ex- 
clusively for girls, but is open to all who are respect- 
ful obedient and docile, without reference to religious- 


belief. All the common and many of the higher 
branches of learning are taught, including music, 
languages and the arts. The present enrollment 
numbers sixty. Thirty pupils board at the school 
and those whose names are enrolled in the musical de- 
partment number thirty. The academy building oc- 
cupies a pleasant site on Normal hill. There is also 
a Catholic school for boys under the immediate di- 
rection of Father Post, the head of the church in Nez 
Perces county. It occupies the quarters of the old 
Sisters' academy, abandoned upon the establishment 
of the school of the Sisters of Visitation in 1898. At 
present twenty-four boys are receiving instruction 
there from Father Post and his two associate in- 

Such is, in a brief and no doubt incomplete out- 
line, the past and present of the city of Lewiston. 
One acquainted with the many advantages of cli- 
mate, location and resources enjoyed by the town may- 
be inclined to wonder why its growth has not been 
more rapid. The reasons are not far to seek. Until 
a very few years ago it was on the edge of an Indian 
reservation, the immense wealth of which was lying 
almost wholly undeveloped on account of the shiftless 
character of the aboriginal population. Until a still 
more recent date it was without railroad facilities, 
while its rival towns in Washington and Idaho had 
been enjoying these for years. Its tributary country 
was also without railroads and is still insufficiently 
supplied, but notwithstanding the immense amount 
of work yet to be accomplished before the great 
wealth tributary to Lewiston shall have been fully 
appropriated, the town has been forging ahead with 
wonderful rapidity in the past half decade, and no 
doubt it will continue indefinitely its rapid advance. 
Recently the legislature has passed an act appropriat- 
ing eighteen thousand dollars of the state's money 
to construct a supreme court library building in the 
town. A great effort is being made to secure the pass- 
age by the same assembly of a bill having for its direct 
object the upbuilding of a large lumber manufactur- 
ing industry in Lewiston. It may be unsafe to at- 
tempt to forecast, but the conviction is almost forced 
upon one that a city situated at the point where it will be 
most benefited when the agitation in congress for an 
open river to the sea shall have crystalized into accom- 
plished results, at a point that must be touched by any 
railroad from the east seeking to reach the ocean by 
a water grade and at the very gateway to incalcula- 
ble riches of agriculture, of timber and of minerals, 
the county seat of a great and rapidly developing 
county, the center of a" wonderful fruit "growing re- 
gion, must some day take rank with the largest and 
wealthiest cities of the Inland Empire. 

The government townsite of Nezperce, on the 
reservation, was thrown open to settlement Novem- 
ber 18. 1805. George \Y. Tamblin was the survevor 
in charge, and he selected the townsite. Probate 
Judge P. E. Stookey filed on the quarter section of 

land in behalf of the people, and the lots were dis- 
tributed by lot, each applicant being allowed two tick- 
ets. Tamblin's office, a box building, was the first 
edifice in Nezperce. Ex-County Commissioner E. L. 
Parker erected a building for use for general store 
purposes, which he subsequently disposed of to Mr. 
Orbison. The first goods sold on the ground of the 
new town were those of Paul Johnson, and he built 
the second business house in the place, now owned 
by Steven Badger. Originally the postoffice was in 
the Wayland hotel, Airs. L. A. Wayland, postmistress. 
The first house on the reservation was erected by Col. 
W. W. Hammell, and the first restaurant was started 
by E. C. Cassens. Mr. Orbison possessed the first 
home residence on the townsite, although a few years 
previous to this there had been a shack erected. As 
with all new western locations, the people who first 
came to the town of Nezperce lived mainly in tents. 
Col. Hammell was the first one to prove up under the 
free homestead law, and his ranch adjoins the town of 
Nezperce. He was closely followed by W. B. 
Ramsey. Along about this time A. Coles started a 
store in a tent, a racket store, and the first church, 
Presbvterian, held its initial services under canvas, 
M. G. Mann officiating. S. Markwell opened a store 
in a new building, and the first drug store was erected 
by A. Eitzen and a man named Towell, in the summer 
of 1896. This building and business passed into 
the hands of Wilson and Bert Bowlby, and Wilson 
Bowlby was the first dentist, and Drs. Howard, father 
and son, the first practicing physicians. Judge J. 
R. Crawford was elected justice of the peace, al- 
though T. O. Hanlon had been appointed to try a case 
previous to that time. 

During the summer of 1898 a man named Orr 
opened a bank, and the first hotel of any consequence 
was built and conducted by A. McLeod, and the sec- 
ond bv J. D. Graham. The same year a butcher shop 
was built by R. C. Bywaters. The town of Nezperce 
has never suffered from a general fire, but in 1902 a 
$3,500 residence owned by Z. A. Johnson was burned. 
The original printing establishment, the Nezperce 
News, was established in 1896. by Harper & Ander- 
son. The second newspaper was the Record, by G. 
S. Martin. Among the pioneers of Nezperce may be 
mentioned Col. W. W. Hammell, G. W. Wilshire, 
J. T. Orbison, E. L. Parker, John D. Graham, Paul 
Johnson, E. G. Cassens, George W. Tamblin, A. Mc- 
Leod, L. A. Wayland, Captain Human. W. D. Hard- 
wick. An addition of twenty acres was made to 
Nezperce bv Tacob Mowrv. 

The present business houses of Nezperce com- 
prise- General merchandise, J. A. Schultz & Co.; 
Felt Mercantile Co. ; Bargain store, Graman & 
Schultz, proprietors; Nezperce Cash Store, J. R. 
Crawford, manager ; Old Store, J. T. Orbison ; Badg- 
er Store, Steven Badger, proprietor; Idaho Store, 
Coffin Bros. Hotels— Nezperce Hotel, Charles Holm, 
Hotel Scofield. Williams Bros. Restaurants— Home, 
Kimerv & Mead: .Mrs. Bob Warnacut's : and L. P. 
Jacobson's. Livery stables— Boss. J. W. Gams, Nez- 
perce, Miller & Miller. Grain dealers— \ ollmer- 


Clearwater Company, D. W. Eaves, manager; Farm- 
ers' Grain Company: Kerr, Giftord & Company; Ka- 
miah Trading- Company. Drug stores — Bowlby's 
City Drug Store; DeMonde's; The Kimball Drug 
Company," Taylor & Moraseck, proprietors. Black- 
smith shops— S. J. Doggett; E. B. Wilson and Thom- 
as Barth. Soft drinks and Confectionery — The Der- 
by, Black & Allison : R. W. Adams and Thomas Mar- 
tin. Gents' Furnishing Goods— T. J. Hardwick & 
Companv. Furniture— Mockler, Miller & Mockler; 
S. N. Berry. Hardware— Mockler, Miller & Mock- 
ler; Kantian Trading Company (Spiker & Salladay). 
Millinen — Mrs. Anderson and Mrs. St. Helms and 
Mrs. Sutton and Mrs. Hunt : Mrs. S. Badger. Banks 
— First National, T. M. Mockler, president, J. A. 
Schultz, cashier; Farmers and Merchants Bank, T. J. 
Dyer, of Spokane, president : Kettenbach & Company, 
limited, C. W. Nelson, cashier. Newspapers — Nez- 
perce Herald, W. C. Foresman, editor and proprietor. 
Nezperce Roller Mill, Z. A. Johnson : Chop Mill, 
Lanby Bros., proprietors. Jewelry — B. F. Richard- 
son. Harness shops — M. R. Bowman, J. F. Strick- 
fadess. Meat markets — YVarrell Bros., John M. 
Medved. Nezperce Brick & Lime Company, \Y. R. 
Crim. president ; Heitzen & Mitchell. Draving — 
City Dray, C. J. Hancock, proprietor ; Nezperce De- 
livery, A. Fuller, proprietor. Barber — A. A. Bard- 
well. United States Commissioner and Notary Pub- 
lic— W. W. Hammell. Contractor — P. Fairweather. 
Real Estate— B. J. McRae; Stearns & Thomas; W. 
E. Larson. Attorneys — Stearns & Thomas ; R. H. 
Wallace. Physicians — John Coburn ; E. Taylor; A. 
J. Cooper; E. L. Powell. Dentists — Dr. J. W. Lewis. 
Photography — Fink Bros. Contractor and Builder — 
E. L. Tupper & Company ; Thomas Devine, Roach & 

The churches of Nezperce comprise the Presby- 
terians, Methodist, Christian, German Baptist, Cath- 
olic and Baptist. The graded public schools are 
housed in two buildings, one of four rooms and one of 
two, the former steam heated. The fraternal soci- 
eties are the I. O. O. F.. M. W. A.. A. F. & A. M., 
Yeomen, Maccabees. L. O. T. M., Royal Neighbors, 
Women of Woodcraft, Rebekahs. 

Nezperce is incorporated. The councilmen are 
W. C. Foresman. C. W. Felt, C. H. Thomas, Dr. J. 
H. Lewis and W. J. Ramsey. The town was bonded 
April 21, 1903, for $6,750. to furnish water for fire 
protection. There are two wells and a gasoline en- 
gine for this purpose. The water right of Lolo Creek 
belongs to Z. A. Johnson, who is now putting in a 
plant to cost $35,000 which will provide electricity 
for his mill and lights, water, etc., for the town. The 
present population of Nezperce is between 400 and 


This town is situated just on the west side of the 
boundary line between Nez ferces and Idaho coun- 
ties. The township was laid out in 1896, a pre-emp- 
tion claim of M. B. Morrow, a sheep raiser. The town 
was first exploited by W. L. Thompson, trustee for 

Mr. Morrow. In 1896 he op'ened a general store, the 
first one in the village, and this was followed by the 
Hotel Morrow, by D. 1. Slavens. About the same 
period \V. S. Green established a feed barn, and Harry 
Steel started a blacksmith shop. During the winter of 
1896-7, Gibbs & Lemmons put up a butcher shop. A 
saw mill was built in 1896 by J. G. Downs. The post- 
office is on Willow Creek, at the home of W. R. Dixon, 
established about 1888. The elevation of Morrow is 
3,250 feet. The present business enterprises are rep- 
resented' by the general store of Mons Hansen, black- 
smith shop and chop mill, T. M. Davis, postoffice, 
confectionery, etc., W. R. Dixon ; hotel and saloon, 
Babcock & Horseman; feed stable, owned by George 
Wayne, leased by Ed. Ausburg. There is a four 
months' term of school taught by M. M. Belknap. 
The attendance is an average of fifty-four. The 
Methodist and Christian denominations hold services 
occasionally, presided over by visiting clergymen, in 
the Union building. There is a lodge of 1. O. O. F. 

Sixteen miles below (Jrofino and the first impor- 
tant station after leaving Potlatch junction is Lenore, 
still another small trading and shipping center along 
the Clearwater Short Line railway. There is already 
one tramway terminus here and another tramway is 
about to be constructed. The Lenore Trading Com- 
pany has here a general store, J. B. McGuire conducts 
the only hotel and Charles Green is the postmaster. 
The Kettenbach Grain Company has a warehouse at 
this point. Basalt and Agatha are two other unim- 
portant stations along the railroad, established princi- 
pally to accommodate grain shipping. 

The townsite of Fletcher was surveyed by the 
government in May, 1896, and opened for filing so 
soon as the survey was completed. The ground was 
donated by Simon L. Finney, who had homesteaded 
the same on the opening of the reservation. The first 
house, a store building, was opened for business in 
November, and this was followed by a blacksmith 
shop and saw mill. The following spring a hotel was 
erected by John Bielby, and that summer Naffziger 
& Honeyman opened a general merchandise store 
(1897). A grist mill was started by Wright & Ellis 
in 1898, and Robinson & Haynes established a drug 
store in 1899. The grist mill business was incorpor- 
ated as a stock company March 4, 1899, and subse- 
quently the property was destroyed by fire. Wright 
removed to Dublin and Ellis to Summit. The present 
business houses comprise the drug store of Robinson 
& Eckersley, general merchandise by L. E. Marchand, 
hardware, by Peter Klaus, and hotel by the same. The 
present population of the town is 200. Dublin, situ- 
ated three and a quarter miles south of Fletcher, dates 
from the summer of 1901. The pioneer spirit in the 
enterprise was David Lowry. There are a few resi- 
dences, a blacksmith shop and other business houses. 



Eight miles northwest of JMez Perces, in the south- 
eastern part of the county, is the town of Mohler. The 
land on which it stands was homesteaded by T. O. 
Hanlon and J. B. Davis at the opening of the reserva- 
tion. The town is platted but not yet incorporated. 
The first edifice, a store building, was erected by T. 

0. Hanlon in 1889. The postofhce, first known as 
Howard, was established four years ago at the old 
Howard townsite, one and a half miles southeast of 
Mohler. Three years ago it was removed from How- 
ard to Mohler. "The next building, a hardware store, 
was put up by Boozer & Giles, and this was succeeded 
by a creamery built in 1900. During the spring of 
the same year a butcher shop, erected by H. D. Haines, 
was established, and the succeeding building, owned 
by P. E. Dean, was built two years since. This was 
followed by a hotel by J. B. Davis. The spring of 
1902 witnessed the erection of a budding occupied 
by the Mohler Implement Company, the school house 
and the Methodist Church. Three years ago a black- 
smith shop was built by John Howard and another 
in the spring of 1903 by John Collins and John John-' 

The present business houses are: Drug store, O. 
DeMonde and John McGee; real estate, James So- 
renson and J . H. Wann ; hotel, J ohn Biggart, proprie- 
tor ; blacksmith shops, Emery and Collins & Johnson; 
general stores, P. E. Dean and G. S. Martin : hard- 
ware, F. A. Boozer and Charles Giles ; A. G. Gross 
and N. F. Wright ; furniture, T. O. Hanlon ; barn, in 
connection with hotel, John Biggart; butcher shop 
in summer time, J. B. Davis and T. S. Belts ; barber 
shop, Charles and A. J. Johnson. The business of 
Mohler is supported by the general farming in the 
surrounding country. A number of new buildings 
are projected, including a barber shop, two livery 
barns, three dwellings, etc. 

Church services are conducted every two weeks ; 
Sunday school each Sabbath. The officiating minister 
is Rev. John Taylor. Fraternal societies include the 

1. O. O. F., Rebekahs, Encampment, W. of \\ .. and 
Women of Woodcraft. The medical practitioner is 
Dr. J. T. Price. 

This little town is named in honor of ilo Leggett, 
who has, also, contributed a portion of his name to 
the Ilo Hardware & Implement Company, of this place. 

The first store was erected in the spring of 1898, 
but was closed out the same fall. W. F. Stinson was 
the succeeding merchant, who, however, continued in 
business but six months, and in the spring of 1899 
(June), O. W. Leggett opened a general merchandise 
store. This was, at that period, the only business 
house in the place. During the succeeding fall or win- 
ter a blacksmith shop was started by James Breeding, 
and in the winter of 1900-1 there was opposition in 
the shape of another blacksmith, Andrew Anderson. 
In the spring of 1901 Charles Larson opened a wagon 

repair shop. The same spring a small hotel was built 
by VV. D. Simmons, and during the succeeding sum- 
mer a general merchandise store was erected by O. 
VV. Leggett. The drug store of Mrs. Cynthia A.Tat- 
ko was built in the spring of 1902, and Dr. J. G. 
Lenz dispensed the drugs. He had begun practice in 
ilo in the spring of 1901. A harness shop was opened 
by E. C. Kness in the spring of 1902, the Kamiah 
Trading Company having commenced business the 
previous fall. This enterprise was recently sold to 
the ilo Hardware and implement Company. The 
Idaho Supply Company, comprising local capitalists, 
began business in the spring of 1902, and the Smith 
hotel building was erected the same period. The Bank 
of Ilo is a recent financial enterprise, of which J. J. 
Woods is cashier. 

During the winter of 190 1-2 William Blair opened 
a livery barn, and recently another was started by 
Simmons & Nichols. Mrs. J. C. Pearsall conducts 
a millinery store; A. Gardner a butcher shop, and 
there are two confectionery and "soft drink" stores. 
An ungraded school is conducted six months of the 
year with an attendance of fifty pupils. The Presby- 
terians and Christians have church organizations and 
buildings, erected during the summer of 1902, Revs. 
McLain and John McDonald pastors, respectively. 
The Modern Woodmen of America and the I. O. (J. 
F. represent the fraternal societies of Ilo. 

At the terminus of the Lapwai spur of the North- 
ern Pacific railroad and snugly nestled against the 
base of Craig's mountain, lies Culdesac, a prosperous, 
thriving town of probably four hundred people. This 
terminal town is one of the newest and one of the most 
prosperous on the reservation. None has a brighter 
future and none can boast of a more rapid and at the 
same time substantial growth. Situated at the geo- 
graphical center of the county, in the very heart of the 
grain producing section, Culdesac is fortunate in being 
the shipping and receiving point for a scope of coun- 
try fifteen miles square and including a portion of Nez 
Perces prairie. It has been conservatively estimated 
that over one-half a million bushels of wheat, flax, 
barley and oats were shipped from this place last 
year and during the shipping season in the fall it is 
not uncommon for 150 four-horse teams to unload at 
the warehouses in a single day. 

The town lies only about four hundred feet above 
the Clearwater valley and consequently possesses a 
warm climate tempered by cool breezes from the 
mountain and encircling hills. The valley at this point 
is not over half a mile wide and the town lies on a 
narrow flat and several slightly higher plateaus. The 
creek rushes angrily along the northern boundary of 
the place. At one time it undoubtedly occupied the 
whole canyon as the gravelly formation of the ground 
and the plentitude of rocks testify. The citizens take 
the greatest pride in their abundant and pure water 
supply. The water is obtained from a large spring 
on Leonard Henry's ranch, half a mile up the creek, 


where it is stored in a reservoir holding 11,000 cubic 
feet. From here it is brought to the town through a 
four-inch main and conveyed to the different consum- 
ers by two-inch pipes. The water has a fall of nine- 
ty feet, enough to secure an excellent fire pressure. 
This water system, which has been recently com- 
pleted, is owned bv Wilbur A. Cochran, T. W. Shref- 
fler and W. H. Shields. 

It is said that President Mellen personally be- 
stowed the name Cul-de-sac upon the settlement at 
the terminus of this branch line. He was driving 
along the proposed route with a companion at the time 
and when they reached the end of the practicable 
route, the president remarked "This is indeed a cul- 

When the railroad was built, in the summer of 
1899, John McKenzie was induced to relinquish his 
homestead right to a forty-acre tract which made an 
"L" of his farm and included the present townsite. 
Then J. G. and C. A. Wright purchased thirty acres 
of this tract with government script and subsequently 
W. S. Adron filed a timber and stone claim upon the 
remaining ten acres. Meanwhile, however, Sogart 
& Green, E. T. Brandon & Frank Edwards, McGraf 
Brothers (James, William and Thomas), T. W. Shref- 
fler, E. J. Northcutt and several others had settled on 
the ten-acre tract and decided to contest the Adron 
claim on the ground that the land was more valuable 
for townsite purposes. To that end a public meeting 
was held of which Mr. Northcutt was chosen chair- 
man, and a committee, consisting of James McGraf, 
Frank O'Mallory, Jesse Beans and Link Meadows, 
was appointed to take charge of the matter. Ninety- 
two location claims were sold at one dollar each to 
provide funds with which to carry on the contest and 
in September, 189Q, the papers were bled. This con- 
test was carried up to the secretary of the interior, 
who, in 1902, decided in favor of the citizens, grant- 
ing their application for a townsite. A trust patent 
was issued to Probate Judge Stookey, who issued title 
to the land to those possessing squatter's rights. This 
tract now constitutes the main portion of the town. 

The thirty-acre tract was platted in the fall of 1899, 
but, owing to the fact that it was individual property, 
was not occupied as rapidly as the government town- 
site. The first house was built on it by Albert Wat- 
kins, a Northern Pacific employee, in December, 1899. 
Mr. Watkins was followed the next year by a man 
named Martin who erected a lodging house, by S. E. 
Bemis, who built a hall, and by C. B. Wright, who op- 
ened a store. King & Wright erected a store and ho- 
tel, the Triangle House, and warehouses were con- 
structed along the railroad track. Both towns grew 
rapidly and prospered. 

The owners of this townsite originally christened 
the place Mellen. The citizens of both towns early 
applied for a postoffice and suggested to the depart- 
ment the name given the station by the railroad com- 
pany, viz : Cul-de-sac, spelling it as a compound word. 
The postoffice was granted but the department re- 
fused to adopt the name suggested and instead be- 
stowed the name Magnolia. Thus matters stood until 

last July (1902) when a citizens' petition that the 
postoffice be named Culdesac, writing it as one word, 
was granted. 

The two towns were consolidated in January, 1903, 
when the board of county commissioners gave them 
the boon of corporate existence. C. B. Uptograf, 
Thomas Culnan, W. A. Cochran, F. M. Remington 
and Albert Sogard were named trustees and will soon 
organize and elect officers. 

The citizens have from the first taken an active in- 
terest in their educational matters and three years ago, 
they built a handsome school house in the town, cost- 
ing $1,000, to take the place of the old district school. 
A portion of this amount was raised by private sub- 
scriptions. In these quarters and an additional rented 
room, 150 pupils properly graded, are cared for by 
Professor Case, Miss Lillian Schoot and Mrs. Charles 
J. Miller. 

A fine church is also being erected by the Chris- 
tian society, under the pastorate of Rev. L. F. Steph- 
ens. The Presbyterians have a society and have re- 
cently secured a pastor, Rev. John Wooliver. 

Among the most important enterprises in Culdesac 
is a new flouring mill now being built by Alt & Cross- 
man. The mill will have a capacity of 50 barrels a 
day. Power is furnished by a ditch taken out of Lap- 
wai creek at a distance above town. To secure this 
mill Culdesac subscribed a bonus of $1,300, E. J. 
Northcutt alone raising three-fourths of the amount. 

Culdesac also possesses a local telephone system, 
owned by Keller & Bell, and is connected with the out- 
side world by the Pacific States and Lookout systems. 
The Register, a weekly newspaper established in 1899 
by W. L. Stephens, is another important factor in the 
town's welfare and under the ownership of John J. 
Schick is a neatly printed journal well filled with 
local news. 

Culdesac's other business houses may be grouped 
as follows: General stores, F. M. Remington, Ed- 
ward P. Brandon, Albert Sogard, J. G. Wright & 
Company, Thomas Purhum ; hardware, Wilbur A. 
Cochran, Farr, Lewis & Farr; groceries, Chris Norbo; 
furniture, George Henderson, Frank Zenzengher; 
drugs, W. D. Keller; hotels, Walla Walla, T. W. 
Shreffler. proprietor ; Commercial. Henry Zvrbell, 
proprietor, Clear, J. H. Clear, proprietor ; livery sta- 
bles, Walla Walla, T. W. Shreffler, proprietor, Star, 
Clyde Chapman, proprietor, Midway, Frank Gasa- 
way, proprietor, West End, John Whalen, proprietor; 
meat markets, Joseph Ziver (J. H. McDevitt, man- 
ager). McGratb Brothers; banks, Vollmer-Clearwater 
Company, Bank of Culdesac; feed mill, J. G. Wright; 
blacksmith shops, W. J. Departee, J. S. Mack, Charles 
Benson; jewelry, R. J. Watkins; confectionery and 
notions, Thomas Culnan, Brown & Stuart ; Dr. E. 
L. Burke is the town's physician, Dr. B. L. Cole is its 
dentist, while G. K. Tiffany and John Green look after 
the legal business of its inhabitants. 

Real estate in Culdesac commands a high price at 
present and values are steadily increasing, a sure sign 
of prosperity. The business men contemplate improv- 
ing the streets, the installation of a system of fire pro- 


tection, police protection and many other improve- 
ments rendered necessary by the growing importance 
of the town. Although not yet four years old, Cul- 
desac has attained to the position of the third town in 
size and importance in the county and its inhabitants 
firmly believe that it will eventually gain a still higher 

Unfortunately, it was not the writer's privilege 
to visit the prosperous town of Feck, and as the letter 
requesting information regarding it remains unan- 
swered, it is not possible to go into the details of its 
history and present business houses. It is known, 
however, to be a substantial little city, with a splen- 
did farming country contiguous to it. The town lies 
nearly two miles south of its railway station, Con- 
tract. Writing of it in 1899 the Lewiston Teller said: 

"Feck is more than its name implies. Its light 
cannot be hidden under a bushel, for more bushels of 
wheat, flax and barley will be marketed there than 
at any other two points combined on the Clearwater 
Short Line. John Herres operates the ferry. 

"Peck, being removed from the railroad, escaped 
the boom and is consequently sound to the core. It is 
not overdone. There is not a shanty nor tent in the 
place. The buildings are large and substantial. Peck 
is a cozy, cheerful hamlet, and differs from some towns 
as a genuine home differs from a hotel. A nucleus of 
cultured society is here. The early inhabitants give 
character to the village. The Methodists, United 
Brethren and Dunkards have church organizations. 
A new schoolhouse will be erected this fall. The trade 
territory of Peck extends to Lawyer's canyon on the 
south. There is but one small area of waste land 
in this section, as the Big and Little canyons are so 
shaped as to be in the main tillable. 

"The Peck Industrial Pair was held September 
28th, 29th, and 30th. Its was such that ar- 
rangements are already being made for repeating it 
next year. 1. S. Sperry acted as president and Thomas 
Kirby as secretary." 

These annual fairs give an excellent idea of the 
-wealth of the country tributary to Peck. In October 
of last year one was held, attended by nearly ten thous- 
and people. It was a display of fruits, vegetables, 
grasses and grains. It is stated that Mr. Dean, of 
Mohler, exhibited oats that were a part of a yield of 
101 bushels, 8 pounds to the acre, and another yield 
of 103 bushels an acre was represented. 

With the opening of the reservation in 1895, the 
present town of Spalding came into existence. At 
that time a company was formed, known as the Spald- 
ing Townsite Company, which proceeded to lay out a 
town and name it Spalding. A great rush of business 
men followed and within a very short time Spalding 
was enjoying all of the life and feverish activity of a 
boom. A score of frame business houses were erected, 

another score of canvas structures, and many resi- 
dences and the town grew and throve wonderfully. 
However, in 1899 the Northern Pacific, which had 
built a line down the Clearwater to Lewiston the year 
previous, decided to build a spur up Lapwai creek to 
the foot of Craig's mountain, and the construction of 
this line proved a death blow to Spalding. This spur 
leaves the main line at the creek and follows closely 
up this little mountain stream for twelve miles. Pre- 
vious to this Spalding had been the shipping point for 
the whole interior country, but now this immense 
business was transferred to points farther inland. At 
present only a few stores, two hotels, a butcher shop, 
blacksmith shop and several residences constitute the 
white settlement of the town and the Indians furnish 
most of the business support. The railroad station 
is at North Lapwai, about a mile west of Spalding on 
land condemned by the government for station and 
yard purposes. It is interesting to note that most of 
the townsite of Spalding is on Indian land and leased 
from individuals. 

About the center of a valley formed by the widen- 
ing of the Lapwai basin is situated the few buildings 
forming the town of Lapwai, while at the extreme 
southwestern end at the base of the hills is the site of 
old Fort Lapwai, where are located the present Indian 
agency and school. Lapwai creek flows through the 
eastern border of the valley. Along the railroad are 
the grain warehouses of the Vollmer-Clearwater Com- 
pany and the Kettenbach Grain Company, while the 
general stores of Thomas Martin and Coffin Brothers, 
Prine & Lucas's blacksmith shop and a hotel compose 
the business section of the trading center. Lapwai, 
being the home of the agency and school, draws an 
extensive Indian trade which is the main support of the 
town, although a rich, wheat-growing section sur- 
rounds this valley. The townsite is owned by the In- 
dians. The Presbyterian mission is located here and 
is under the supervision of Miss Kate Macbeth. 

This pretty little town lies in the beautiful Kamiah 
basin on the south fork of the Clearwater river, at the 
mouth of Kamiah creek. It is on Indian land at pres- 
ent, though steps are being taken by the citizens to- 
ward the purchase of enough of this land to form a 
townsite. Kamiah is the trading and shipping center 
of a considerable section of country and a large business 
is transacted in consequence. A stage line connects it 
with Nezperce City and nearly all of the grain raised 
in the country tributary to Kamaih creek, or Lawyer's 
canyon, is shipped out over the Clearwater Short Line 
from the Kamiah warehouses. There are probably 
150 people residing in the town and they have every 
reason to be hopeful of the future of their home. In- 
ception was given to the place by the building of the 
railroad through the valley in 1899. 



Besides the towns described in the foregoing pages 
there are several of considerable importance, though 
smah. The other towns and points at which post 
offices were established prior to January, 1903, are: 
Cameron, population in 1900, 68; Cavendish, Chesley, 
population 30: Dublin, Fairburn, Forest, population 

35; Gifford, Kippen, Leland. population 150; Lookout, 
Melrose, population 52 ; Myrtle, population 43 ; Por- 
ters, Rosetta, population. 20 ; Russel, population 50 ; 
Slickpoo, population 20 ; Southwick, population 50 ; 
Steele, population 20 ; Summit, Tekean, population 25 ; 
Waha, population 24 ; Webb, Willola, population 78 ; 
Winchester, population 50. 



No history of Nez Perces county can lay claim to 
completeness which overlooks the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of the soil. A history of these people is an im- 
possibility, for they have preserved no written records 
of their past, and. being possessed of little architect- 
ural skill, have erected no monuments of a permanent 
nature to their memories. Traditions they have, to 
be sure, and a mythology of their own, but their char- 
acter is such that only the few who have lived in inti- 
mate association with them have been instructed in 
their peculiar beliefs relative to their origin, past his- 
tory and relations to the future life. For one who has 
lived apart from the Indians to attempt to treat of 
their traditions, mythology and original religious 
views would be presumptuous indeed. We are in- 
formed that a work of a historical character concern- 
ing them by an educated member of their own tribe 
is now in course of preparation. It is to be hoped 
that the project will not miscarry and that the work 
will be found to contain a comprehensive and exact 
treatment of the interesting subject with which it 
purposes to deal. 

Prior to the advent of the horse among the Xez 
Perces, they must have had a miserable existence. 
Their only foods must have been the roots and vege- 
tables indigenous to their native heath, such deer, 
elk and smaller game as they were able to take with 
their primitive weapons, and such species of fish as 
made their way into the seething waters of their swift- 
flowing rivers and mountain streams. But even at this 
time they must have been a vastly superior race to the 
Indians west of the Cascade mountains, who were dron- 
ing away their listless lives in "a region of large, deep 
rivers ; of numerous bays and inlets from the ocean 
extending far inland, all filled with fish of the finest and 
richest quality, easily taken, and hence inviting to a 
life of effortless indolence and ease. Hence these 
aborigines were short of stature, heavy and broad and 
fat of body : without alertness or perception of mind ; 
indolent and inactive in all their habits ; sleeping away 
nearlv all but the little time that was requisite for them 

to throw their barbed harpoons into the shinning sides 
the salmon that swam in the shoals of the rivers and 
bays, and the few additional moments required to roast 
or boil the fish sufficient to gratify their uncultured 

Even during the earliest times, the Nez Perces 
profited by the rigors of their elevated home, for though 
their food must have been scantv and insufficient, the 
battle for existence developed in them a sturdiness of 
manhood such as was unknown among the coast tribes. 
Their experience proved that a people can bear insuffi- 
cient nourishment with activity far better than abund- 
ance with idleness. 

The Nez Perces lived in a country covered with an 
abundant growth of nutritious grasses, making it a 
paradise for a pastoral people. They were therefore 
in a splendid condition to raise large bands of horses 
and the advent among them of these animals marked 
the most important epoch in their history. About the 
middle of the eighteenth century, horses were obtained 
from the Spaniards of New Mexico or California. 
The Indians preserve the tradition of their first ac- 
quisition of this form of live stock, and well they may 
for they were therebv furnished means whereby to ad- 
vance by long strides toward greater comforts of life 
and the blessings of civilization. "There is no more 
instructing example of the amelioration of a savage 
tribe by the introduction of domestic animals and its 
steariy growth from abject barbarism," says Hazard 
Stevens, "than that afforded by the Nez Perces. But 
little mere than a century ago they were a tribe of 
naked savages, engaged in a perpetual struggle against 
starvation. Their country afforded but little game, 
and thev subsisted almost exclusively on salmon, ber- 
res and roots. The introduction of the horse enabled 
them to make long journeys to the buffalo plains east 
of the Rocky mountains, where they could lay in great 
abundance of meat and furs : furnished them with a 
valuable animal for trading with other less favored 
tribes : soon raised them to comparative affluence, and 
developed in their hunting and trading expeditions a 



manly enterprising, shrewd and intelligent character." 
The first white men to visit their country from the 
east overland were the famous Meriwether Lewis and 
William Clark, whose expedition into the country in 
1805 is to be celebrated by a grand exposition in Port- 
land on its centennial. Of the experiences of this 
party among the Nez Perces the gifted Eva Emery 
Dye has written in the following animated language : 

Lame and weary, straight across Idaho they struggled, 
over seams and streaks of precious metal that the saw 
not, the gold of Ophir concealed in the rocky chambers of 
the Idaho Alps, — struggled into the Lolo trail used by the In- 
dians for ages before any whites ever came into the country. 

Over the Lolo trail went the Nez Perces to battle and to 
hunt buffalo in the Montana country. Down over this trail 
once came a war party and captured Wat-ku-ese, a Nez Perce 
girl, and carried her away to a distant land of white men, — 
So-yap-po, "the crowned ones," she called them, because they 
wore hats 

Still ever Wat-ku-ese dreamed of her Nez Perce home, 
and one day escaped with her infant on her back. Along 
the way white traders were kind to her. On and on, foot- 
sore and weary, she journeyed alone. In the Flathead coun- 
try her baby died and was buried there. One dav some Nez 
Perce came over the Lolo trail bringing home Wat-ku-ese, 
weak, sick and dying. 

She was with her people at their camas ground, Weippe, 
when Lewis and Clark came down over the Lolo trail. 

"Let us kill them." whispered the frightened Nez Perces. 

Wat-ku-ese lay dying in her tent when she heard it. 
"White men, did you say? No, no, do not harm them. 
They are the crowned ones who were so good to me. Do 
not be afraid oi them. Go near to them." 

Cautiously the Nez Perces approached. The explorers 
shook their hands. This was to the Indians a new form of 

Everywhere Indian women were digging the camas root, 
round like an onion, and little heaps lay piled here and there. 
They paused in their work to watch the strangers. Some 
screamed and ran and hid Little girls hid their baby broth- 
ers in the brush. Others brought food. 

So starved and famished were the men that they ate 
inordinately of the sweet camas and the kouse, the biscuit 
root. The sudden change to a warmer climate and laxative 
roots resulted in sickness, when the expedition might have 
been easily attacked but for those words of Wat-ku-ese, who 
now lav dead in her tent. 

To this day the Xez Perces rehearse the story of Wat- 
ku-ese. It was the beginning of a life long friendship with 
the whites, broken only when Chief Joseph fled over the 
Lolo trail. But even Chief Joseph found he must give up 
the vast areas over which he was wont to roam, and come 
under the laws of civilized life. 

As fast as their weakness permitted councils were held, 
when the Captains told the Nez Perces of the Great Father 
at Washington, who had sent them to visit his children. 

Twisted Hair, the Nez Perce Tewat, a great medicine 
man. dreamer and wizard and wise one, drew on a white 
elkskin a chart of the rivers. Admiring redmen put their 
hands over their mouths in amazement. 

No one but Twisted Hair could do such things. He was 
a learned Indian, knew all the trails, even to the Falls of the 

"White men." said he, "live at the Tim-tim (falls)." 

Thus into Idaho had penetrated the story of Ko-nap-pe, 
the wrecked Spaniard, who with his son Soto had set out up 
the great river to find white people and tarried there until he 
died. Seven years later Astor's people met Soto, an old 
man dark as his Indian mother, but still the Indians called 
him white Twenty years later Soto's daughter was still 
living on the Columbia in the days of the Hudson's Bay 

To save time and trouble, canoes were burnt out of logs. 

Leaving their horses with the Nez Perces, on October 4th 
the explorers were glad to get into their boats with their 
baggage and float down the clear Kooskooske, into the yel- 
low green Snake, and on into the blue Columbia. 

At the confluence of the rivers medals were given and 
councils held on the present site of Lewiston. Day by day, 
through wild, romantic scenes where white man's foot had 
never trod, the exultant young men were gliding to the sea. 

Ahead of the boats, on horseback, galloped We-ark- 
koompt, an Indian express. Word flew. The tribes were 
watching. At the dinner camp, October 16th, five Indians 
came up the river on foot in great haste, took a look and 
started back, running as fast as they could. 

That night Lewis and Clark were met at the Columbia 
by a procession of two hundred Indians with drums, sing- 
ing, 'Ke-hai, ke-hai," the redmen's signal of friendship. 

Speaking of their experiences among the Nez 
Perces, the explorers themselves used this language: 

As we approached the village most of the women, though 
apprised of our being expected, fled with their children into 
the neighboring woods. The men, however, received us 
without any apprehension, and gave us a plentiful supply of 
provisions. The plains were now crowded with Indians who 
came to see the persons of the whites and the strange things 
they brought with them ; but as our guide was a perfect 
stranger to the language we could converse by signs only. 

Monday, 23d (September, 1805).— The chiefs and war- 
riors were all assembled this morning and we explained to 
them where we came from, the objects of our visiting them, 
and our pacific intentions toward all the Indians. This, be- 
ing conveyed by signs, might not have been perfectly com- 
prehended, but appeared to give perfect satisfaction. We 
now gave a medal to two of the chiefs, a shirt in addition 
to the medal already received by Twisted Hair, and deliv- 
ered a flag and a handkerchief for the grand chief on his re- 
turn. To these were added a knife, a handkerchief, and 
a small piece of tobacco for each chief. The inhabitants 
did not give us any provisions gratuitously. * * * The 
men exchanged a few old canisters for dressed elk skins, of 
which they made shirts. Great crowds of natives were 
around us all night, but we have not yet missed anything 
except a knife and a few other articles stolen yesterday 
from a shot pouch. 

It is worthy of record that the horses entrusted to 
the care of Twisted Hair were kept faithfully and 
honestly returned to Lewis and Clark when they came 
back to the Nez Perce country on their homeward 

The next intercourse between whites and Nez 
Perces began with the advent of fur traders into the 
Northwest. First came Astor's party, then the North 
West Company and finally the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, besides several American expeditions sent out 
to compete with the British corporations for the profits 
of the fur trade. In all their relations with the white 
men. the Nez Perces of early days maintained a uni- 
form altitude of friendliness, and the fur trader who 
stopped to rest and refresh himself at a Nez Perce 
lodge was sure to receive kindly and hospitable treat- 
ment. Undoubtedly the Indians profited by the pres- 
ence among them of the merchants, from whom they 
obtained, besides an abundance of trinkets and tinsels, 
much that added greatly to their comfort. It was by 
the British fur traders that they were taught the use of 
blankets both as wearing apparel and bedding. But 
the Hudson's Bay men were in the country for other 
purposes than the amelioration of conditions among 
the Indians. It were unfair to assert that they were 


entirely without benevolent disposition toward their 
red-skinned brethren, for they enforced the law pro- 
hibiting the sale of intoxicants to Indians and were 
reasonably careful that nothing should be done to de- 
bauch these children of nature, but it is an undoubted 
fact that they not only neglected to sow the seeds of 
a higher civilization themselves, but were opposed to 
any others who might attempt to teach the Indian 
useful arts or do anything to render him less absolutely 
dependent upon the' Hudson's Bay Company, the great 
autocratic power of the Columbia basin. 

A civilizing force of a vastly higher character en- 
tered the Indian country, when the American mission- 
ary came, actuated by no other motive than the good 
ol the red men, hoping for no other reward than a noble 
work well performed, an approving conscience and a 
final abundant entrance into a heavenly home. The 
honor of pioneership in missionary work belongs to 
Rev. Jason Lee, of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
who came with a party of assistants and teachers and 
settled in the Willamette valley in 1834. Two years 
later came Dr. Marcus Whitman and wife and Rev. 
H. H. Spalding and wife, the ladies being the first of 
their race and sex to venture across plain and mountain 
to the distant Pacific. Dr. Whitman established his 
mission at Waiilatpu, not far from where Walla Walla 
now is, while Spalding cast his lot with the Nez Perces. 
This devoted missionary was a native of Bath, New 
York, born in 1804. He graduated at Western Re- 
serve College at the age of twenty-nine and later en- 
tered Lane Theological Seminary, the course in which 
he did not remain to complete. In 1836 he began his 
missionary labors among the Nez Perces and to his 
unremitting toil, and that of his efficient helpmate, for 
the temporal, intellectual and spiritual welfare of these 
Indians much credit is due for their marked superior- 
ity over surrounding tribes. Perhaps descriptions of 
these two people by W. H. Gray of the Whitman mis- 
sion, who was associated with them in their trip across 
the plains, may not be uninteresting to the reader. 

"The first impression of a stranger on seeing H. 
H. Spalding," says Gray, "is that he has before him 
an unusual countenance. He begins to examine and 
finds a man with sharp features, large, brown eyes, 
dark hair, high, projecting forehead, with many 
wrinkles, and a head nearly bald. He is of medium 
size, stoop-shouldered, with a voice that can assume a 
mild, sharp or boisterous key at the will of the owner ; 
quite impulsive and bitter in denunciation of a real or 
supposed enemy ; inclined in the early part of his mis- 
sionary labors to accumulate property for the especial 
benefit of his family, though the practice was disap- 
proved of and forbidden by the regulations of the 
American Board. In his professional character he 
was below mediocrity. As a writer or correspondent 
he was bold, and rather eloquent, giving overdrawn 
life sketches of passing events. His moral influence 
was injured by strong symptoms of passion when pro- 
voked or excited. In his labors for the Indians he was 
zealous and persevering, and in his instructions wholly 
practical. For instance to induce the natives to work 
and cultivate their lands, he had Mrs. Spalding paint 

a representation of Adam and Eve, as being driven 
from the Garden of Eden by an angel, — Adam with 
a hoe on his shoulder and Eve with a spinning wheel. 
He taught the natives that God commanded them to 
work as well as pray. Had he been allowed to con- 
tinue his labors with the tribe, undisturbed by sec- 
tarian and anti-religious influences, he would have 
effected great good, and the tribe been now admitted 
as citizens of the United States. As a citizen and a 
neighbor he was kind and obliging; to his family he 
was kind, yet severe in his religious observances. He 
was unquestionably a sincere, though not always hum- 
ble Christian. The loss of his wife and the excit- 
ing and savage massacre of his asociates produced 
their effects upon him. Charity will find a substan- 
tial excuse for most of his faults, while virtue and 
truth, civilization and religion will award him a place 
as a faithful, zealous and comparatively successful 

"Mrs. Spalding was the daughter of a plain, sub- 
stantial farmer, by the name of Hart, of Oneida coun- 
ty, New York. She was above the medium height, 
slender in form, with coarse features, dark brown hair, 
blue eyes, rather dark complexion, coarse voice, of a 
serious turn of mind, and quick in understanding lan- 
guages. In fact she was remarkable in acquiring the 
Nez Perce language so as to understand and con- 
verse with the natives quite easily by the time they 
reached their station at Lapwai. She could paint in- 
differently in water colors, and had been taught while 
a child all the useful branches of domestic life ; could 
spin, weave, and sew, etc., could prepare an excellent 
meal at short notice; was generally sociable, but not 
forward in conversation with or attentions to men. In 
this particular she was the opposite of Mrs. Whit- 
man. With the native women Mrs. Spalding always 
appeared cheerful and easy and had their unbounded 
confidence and respect. She w r as remarkable for her 
firmness and decision of character in whatever she or 
her husband undertook. She never appeared to be 
alarmed or excited at any difficulty, dispute or alarm 
common to the Indian life around her. She was con- 
sidered by the Indian men as a brave, fearless woman 
and was respected and esteemed by all. Though she 
was frequently left for days alone, her husband be- 
ing absent on business, but a single insult was ever 
offered her. Understanding their language, her cool, 
quick perception of the design enabled her to give so 
complete and thorough a rebuff to the attempted in- 
sult that, to hide his disgrace, the Indian offering it 
fled from the tribe, not venturing to remain among 
them. In fact a majority of the tribe were in favor 
of hanging the Indian who offered the insult, but Mrs. 
Spalding requested that they should allow him to 
live, that he might repent of his evil designs and do 
better in the future. Mrs. Spalding is buried near 
the Callapooya, in the Willamette valley." 

Of the reception given by the Nez Perces to 
Mr. and Mrs. Spalding when they first came among 
them, Mr. Gray says: 

"It is due to those Indians to say that they labored 
freely and faithfully and showed the best of feeling 



toward Mr. and Mrs. Spalding, paying good attention 
to instructions given them, and appeared quite anxious 
to learn all they could of their teachers. It is also 
due to truth to state that Mr. Spalding paid them 
liberally for their services when compared with the 
amount paid them by the Hudson's Bay Company for 
the same services ; say, for bringing a pine log ten 
feet long and one foot in diameter from the Clearwater 
river to the station, it usually took about twelve In- 
dians ; for this service Mr. Spalding paid them about 
six inches of trail-rope tobacco each. This was about 
four times as much as the Hudson's Bay Company 
paid. This fact soon created a feeling of unfriendli- 
ness toward Mr. Spalding. Dr. Whitman managed 
to get along with less Indian labor and was able, from 
his location, to procure stragglers or casual men to 
work for him for a time, to get supplies and clothing 
to help them on their way down to the Willamet set- 

A full review of Mr. Spalding's labors, his suc- 
cesses, his trials and discouragements need not be at- 
tempted here. He was not long to work among the 
red men in peace for in accordance with the sec- 
tarian views of those days, the Catholic missionaries 
considered it their duty to counteract as far as lay in 
their power the heretical teachings of the Protestants. 
The task of instructing the Indians in the arts of 
civilization and the mysteries of Christianity was cer- 
tainly difficult enough at best; with the opposition of 
other white men endeavoring to inculcate a belief 
that the teachings of the first missionaries were wholly 
false and certainly leading to ultimate damnation, it 
was practically impossible to perform. There can be 
no doubt but that the sectarian disputes between 
Protestants and Catholics nulified the influence of 
both, but especially the former, reduced greatly the 
respect of Indians for their teachers and for all re- 
ligion, and helped sow the seeds which bore fruit in 
the Whitman massacre, and the consequent abandon- 
ment for a number of years of Mr. Spalding's mis- 

But notwithstanding these overwhelming difficul- 
ties, Mr. Spalding and his noble wife accomplished 
much for the benefit of the Indians among whom they 
labored during the early years of their ministry. When 
Dr. Elijah White, sub-agent of Indian affairs, visited 
them, he found their little plantations "rude to be 
sure," as he wrote under date, April 1, 1843, "but 
successfully carried on so far as raising the neces- 
saries of life are concerned." "It was most grati- 
fying," said he, "to witness their fondness and care 
for their little herds, pigs, poultry, etc. We visited 
and prescribed for their sick, made a short call at 
each of the chief's lodges, spent a season in school, 
hearing them read, spell and sing; at the same time 
examined their printing and writing, and can hardly 
avoid here saying I was happily surprised and greatly 
interested at seeing such numbers so far advanced 
and so eagerly pursuing after knowledge. * * *." 

During this visit Dr. White succeeded in per- 
suading the Indians, in general council assembled, to 

adopt, during the final month of the year 1842, the 
following laws for their government: 


Article I. Whoever wilfully takes life shall be 

Article II. Whoever burns a dwelling house shall 
be hung. 

Article III. Whoever burns an outbuilding shall 
be imprisoned six months, receive fifty lashes and pay 
all damages. 

Article IV. Whoever carelessly burns a house, or 
any property, shall pay damages. 

Article V. If anyone enter a dwelling without 
permission of the occupant the chiefs shall punish as 
they think proper. Public rooms are excepted. 

Article VI. If anyone steal he shall pay back two- 
fold; and if it be the value of a beaver skin or less, 
he shall receive twenty-five lashes ; and if the value 
is over a beaver skin, he shall pay back two fold, and 
receive fifty lashes. 

Article Vi.1. If anyone take a horse and ride it 
without permission, or take any article and use it 
without liberty, he shall pay for the use of it, and re- 
ceive from twenty to fifty lashes, as the chief shall 

Article VIII. If anyone enter a field and injure 
the crops, or throw down the fence, so that cattle or 
horses go in and do damage, he shall pay all damages 
and receive twenty-five lashes for every offense. 

Article IX. Those only may keep dogs who travel 
or live among the game ; if a dog kill a lamb, calf or 
any domestic animal, the owner shall pay the damages 
and kill the dog. 

Article X. If any Indian raises a gun or any 
other weapon against a white man, it shall be re- 
ported to the chiefs, and they shall punish him. If a 
white do the same to an Indian, it shall be reported 
to Dr. White, and he shall punish or redress it. 

Article XI. If an Indian break these laws, he 
shall be punished by his chief; if a white man break 
them, he shall be reported to the agent, and punished 
at his instance. 

These laws, as also certain books of the New Testa- 
ment translated into Nez Perce by Mr. Spalding, were 
printed on a press donated to the mission by the 
mission of the American Board in the Sandwich Is- 
lands. It was the first press in the Oregon territory 
and in the hands of the missionaries proved a potent 
factor in the elevation of the Indian. 

But an idea of the work of Mr. Spalding during 
the earliest years of his labors among the Nez Perces, 
and his impressions of the Indians is best conveyed 
by incorporating a portion of a letter on the subject 
written to Dr. Elijah White about the year 1843. It 
reads : 

My Dear Brother.— The kind letter which our mission 
had the honor of receiving from yourself, making inquiries 
relative to its numbers, the character of the Indian tribes 
among whom its several stations are located, the country, 
etc., is now before me. 



The questions referring to Indian character are very 
important, and to answer them demands a more extended 
knowledge of character and habits, from personal daily ob- 
servation, than the short residence of six years can afford, 
and more time and attention than I can possibly command, 
amidst the numerous cares and labors of the station. I less 
regret this, as the latter will receive the attention of my 
better informed and worthy associates of the other stations. 

Concerning many of the questions, I can only give my 
own half-formed opinions, from limited observations which 
have not extended far beyond the people of my immediate 

Our mission is under the patronage of the American 
Board, and was commanded in the fall of 1836 by Marcus 
Whitman, M. D„ and myself, with our wives and Mr. Gray. 
Dr. Whitman was located at Wailatpu. among the Cayuse 
Indians, twenty-five miles east of Fort Wallawalla, a trading 
post of the Hudson's Bay Company, which stands nine miles 
below the junction of Lewis and Clark rivers, three hundred 
from the Pacific and about two hundred from Fort Van- 
couver. I was located at this place, on the Clearwater, or 
Koos-koos-ky river, twelve miles from its junction with the 
Lewi:, river, one hundred and twenty miles east of Wailatpu. 
Mr. Gray left the same winter, and returned to the States. 
In the fall of 1838 Mr. Gray returned to this country, ac- 
companied by Mrs. Gray, Messrs. Walker, Eells and Smith, 
and their wives, and Mr. Rogers. The next season two 
new stations were commenced, one by Messrs. Walker and 
Eells, at Cimakain, near Spokan river, among the Spokan 
Indians, one hundred and thirty-five miles northwest of this 
station, and sixty-five miles south of Fort Colville, on the 
Columbia river, three hundred miles above Fort Wallawalla ; 
the second by Mr. Smith, among the Nez Perces, sixty miles 
above this station. There are now connected with this 
mission the Rev. Messrs. Walker and Eells, Mrs. Walker and 
Mrs. Eells, at Cimakain ; myself and Mrs. Spalding at this 
station. Dr. Whitman is now on a visit to the States, and 
Mrs. Whitman on a visit to the Dalles, a station of our Meth- 
odist brethren. But two natives have as yet been admitted 
into the church. Some ten or twelve others give pleasing 
' evidence of having been born again. 

Concerning the schools and congregations on the Sab- 
bath, I will speak only of this station. The congregation 
on the Sabbath varies at different seasons of the year, and 
must continue to do so until the people find a substitute in 
the fruits of the earth and herds for their roots, game and 
fish, which necessarily require much wandering. I am happy 
to say that this people are very generally turning their atten- 
tion, with much apparent eagerness, to cultivating the soil, 
and raising hogs, cattle and sheep, and find a much more 
abundant and agreeable source of subsistence in the hoe than 
in their bows and sticks for digging roots. 

For a few weeks in the fall, after the people return from 
their buffalo hunt, and then again in the spring, the con- 
gregation numbers from one to two thousand. Through 
the winter it numbers from two to eight hundred. From 
July 1st to the 1st of October, it varies from two to five 
hundred. The congregation, as also the school, increases 
every winter, as the quantity of provision raised in this vi- 
cinity is increased. 

Preparatory to schools and a permanent congregation, my 
earliest attention, on arriving in this country, was turned 
toward schools, as promising the most permanent good to 
the nation, in connection with the written word of God and 
the preached Gospel. But to speak of schools then was like 
speaking of the church bell, when as yet the helve is not put 
in the first ax by which the timber is to be felled, or the first 
stone laid in the dam which is to collect the water from 
whence the lumber in the edifice in which the bell is to give 
forth its sounds. Suffice it to say. through the blessings of 
God we have had an increasingly large school, for two 
winters past, with comparatively favorable means of instruc- 

But the steps by which we have been brought to the 
present elevation, if I may so speak, though we are yet ex- 
ceedingly low. begin far, far back among the days of nothing, 
and little to do with. 

Besides eating my own bread, won by the sweat of my 
brow, there were the wandering children of a necessarily 
wandering people to collect and bring permanently within the 
reach of the school. Over this department of labor hung 
the darkest cloud, as the Indian is noted for despising manual 
laoor; hut I wou'd acknowledge, with humble gratitude, the 
interposition of that hand which holds the hearts of all 
men. The hoe soon brought hope, light and satisfaction, the 
fruits of which are yearly becoming much more than a sub- 
stitute for their former precarious game and roots, and are 
much preferred by the people, who are coming in from the 
mountains and plains, and calling for hoes, plows and seeds 
much faster than they can be furnished, and collecting 
around the station in increasing numbers, to cultivate their 
little farms : so furnishing a permanent school and congre- 
gation on the Sabbath, from four to eight months, and, as 
the farms are enlarged, giving food and employment for 
the year. I trust the school and congregation will be per- 
manent through the year. It was no small tax on my time 
to give the first lessons in agriculture. That the men of the 
nation (the first chiefs not excepted) rose up to labor when 
a few hoes and seeds were offered them, I can attribute to 
nothing but the unseen hand of the God of missions. That 
their habits are really changed is acknowledged by themselves. 
The men say, whereas, then once did not labor with their 
hands, now they do ; and often tell me in jesting that I have 
converted them into a nation of women. They are a very' 
industrious people, and, from very small beginnings, they now 
cultivate their lands with much skill, and to good advantage. 
Doubtless many more would cultivate, but for the want of 
means. Your kind donation of fifty h'oes, in behalf of the 
government, will be most timely; and should you he able to 
send up the plows you kindly proposed they will, without 
doubt, be purchased immediately and put to the best use. 

But to return to the school. It now numbers two hun- 
dred and twenty-five in daily attendance, half of which are 
adults. Nearly all the principal men and chiefs in this 
vicinity, with one chief from a neighboring tribe, are members 
of the school. A new impulse was given to the school by 
the warm interest yourself and Mr. McKay took in it while 
you were here. They are as industrious in school as they 
the on their farms. Their improvement is astonishing, con- 
sidering their crowded condition, and only Mrs. Spalding, 
with her delicate constitution and her family cares, for their 

About one hundred are printing their own books with 
a pen. This keeps up a deep interest, as they daily have new 
lessons to print, and what they print must be committed 
to memory as soon as possible. 

A good number are now so far advanced in reading and 
printing as to render much assistance in teaching. Their 
books are taken home at night ; and every lodge becomes a 

Their lessons are scripture lessons; no others (except 
the law-i seem to interest them. I send you a specimen of 
the books they print in school. It was printed by ten select 
adults, yet it is a fair specimen of a great number in the 

The laws which you so happily prepared, and which 
were unanimously adopted by the people, I have printed in 
the form of a small schoolbook. A great number of the school 
now read them fluently. I send you a few copies of the 
laws with no apologies for the imperfect manner in which 
they are executed. Without doubt, a school of nearly the 
same number could be collected at Kimiah, the station above 
this, vacated by Mr. Smith, the present residence of Ellis, the 
principal chief. 

Number who cultivate. — Last season about one hundred 
and forty cultivated from one-fourth of an acre to four or 
five acres each. About half this number cultivate in the 
valley. One chief raised one hundred and seventy-six bushels 
of peas last season, one hundred of corn, and four hundred 
of potatoes Another, one hundred and fifty acres of peas, 
one hundred and sixty of corn, a large quantity of potatoes, 
vegetables, etc. Ellis, I believe, raised more than either of 
the above-mentioned. Some forty other individuals raised 
from twenty to one hundred bushels of grain. Eight indi- 


viduals are now furnished with plows. Thirty-two head 

of cattle are possessed by thirteen individuals ; ten sheep by 
four; some forty hogs. 

Arts and sciences. — Mrs. Spalding has instructed ten fe- 
males in knitting, a majority of the female department in 
the schools in sewing, six in carding and spinning, and three 
in weaving. Should our worthy brother and sister, Mr. and 
Mrs. Littlejohn, join us soon, as is now expected, I trust, 
by the blessing of God, we shall see greater things than we 
ha\ e yet seen. From what I have seen in the field, the school, 
the spinning and weaving room, in the prayer-room, and 
Sabbath congregation, I am fully of the opinion that this 
people are susceptible of high moral and civil improvement. 

Moral character of the people. — On this subject there is 
a great diversity of opinion. One writer styles them more 
a nation of saints than of savages; and if their refusal to 
move camp for game, at his suggestion, on a certain day, 
reminded him that the Sabbath extended as far west as the 
Rocky Mountains, he might well consider them such. An- 
other styles them supremely selfish, which is nearer the 
truth: i'>r, without doubt, they are the descendants of Adam. 
What I ha-.-e above stated is evidently a part of the bright 
side of their character. But there is also a dark side, in 
which I have sometimes taken a part. I must, however, 
confess That when I attempt to name it, and hold it up as 
a marked exception to a nation in similar circumstances, 
without the restraint of wholesome laws, and strangers to 
the heaven-born fruits of enlightened and well-regulated 
society, I am not able to do it. Faults they have, and very 
great ones, yet few of them seemed disposed to break the 
Sabbath by traveling and other secular business. A very 
few indulge in something like profane swearing. Very few 
are superstiliously attached to their medicine men, who are, 
without doubt, sorcerers, and are supposed to be leagued with 
a supernatural being (Waikin), who shows himself some- 
times in the gray bear, the wolf, the swan, goose, wind, 
clouds, etc. 

Lying is very common ; thieving comparatively rare ; 
polygamy formerly common, but now rare ; much gambling 
among the young men; quarreling and fighting quite rare; 
habit of taking back property after it is sold is a practice 
quite common, and very evil in its tendency. All these 
evils, I conceive, can be traced to the want of wholesome 
laws and well-regulated society. There are two traits in 
the character of this people I wish to notice. One I think 
I can account for ; the other I cannot. It is often said the 
Indian is a noble-minded being, never forgetting a kindness. 
So far as my experience has gone with this people, the above 
is most emphatically true, but in quite a different sense from 
the idea there conveyed. It is true they never forget a kind- 
ness, but after make it the occasion to ask another ; and if 
refused, return insults according to the favors received. My 
experience has taught me that, if I would keep the friendship 
of an Indian, and do him good. I must show him no more 
favor in the way of property than what he returns some 
kind of an equivalent for; most of our trials have arisen 
from this source. I am, however, happy to feel that there is 
a manifest improvement as the people become more in- 
structed, and we become more acquainted with their habits. 
This offensive trait in the Indian character I believe in 
part should be charged to white men. It has been the uni- 
versal practice of all white men to give tobacco, to name no 
other article, to Indians when they ask for it. Hence two 
very natural ideas ; one is. that the white man is in debt to 
them: the other is. that in proportion as a white man is a 
good man he will discharge this debt by giving bountifully 
of his provisions and goods. This trait in Indian character 
is capable of being turned to the disadvantage of traders, 
travelers and missionaries, by prejudiced white men. 

The last trait, which, i cannot account for, is an apparent 
disreffard for the rights of white men. Although their eager- 
ness to receive instruction in school on the Sabbath and on 
the farm is without a parallel in my knowledge, still, should 
a reckless fellow from their own number, or even a stranger, 
make an attack on my life and property, I have no evidence 
to suppose but a vast majority of them would look on with 

indifference and see our dwelling burnt to the ground and 
our heads severed from our bodies. I can not reconcile this 
seeming want of gratitude with their many encouraging 
characteristics. But to conclude this subject, should our 
unprofitable lives, through a kind Providence, be spared a 
few years, by the blessings of the God of missions, we expect 
to see this people christianized to a great extent, civilized, 
and happy, with much of science and the word of God, and 
many ot the comforts of life; but not without many days 
of hard labor, and sore trials, of disappointed hopes, and 
nameless perplexities. 

The number of this people is variously estimated from 
two tousand to four thousand. I can not give a correct 

At this station there is a dweling house, a school house, 
storehouse, flour and saw mills (all of a rough kind), 
fifteen acres of land under improvement, twenty-four head 
of cattle, thirty-six horses, sixty-seven sheep. Rev. Messrs. 
Walker and F.ells. I hope, will report to Wailatpu ; but 
should they fail, I will say, as near as I can recollect, about 
fifty acres of land are cultivated by some seventy individuals ; 
a much greater number of cattle and hogs than among 
this* people. Belonging to the station are thirty-four head 
of cattle, eleven horses, some forty hogs ; one dwelling house 
of adobes (well finished), a blacksmith's shop, flour mill 
(lately destroyed by fire), and some forty acres of land 

Arable land — The arable land in this upper country is 
confined almost entirely to the small streams, although 
further observation may prove that many of the extensive 
rolling praries are capable of producing wheat. They can 
become inhabited only by cultivating timber; but the rich 
growth of buffalo grass upon them will ever furnish an inex- 
haustible supply for innumerable herds of cattle and sheep. I 
know of ii" country in the world so well adopted to the 
herding system. Cattle, sheep and horses are invariably 
healthy, and produce rapidly; sheep usually twice a year. 
The herding system adopted, the country at first put under 
regulations adopted to the scarcity of habitable places (say 
that no settlers shall be allowed to take up over twenty acres 
of land on the streams), and the country without doubt will 
sustain a great population. I am happy to feel assured that 
the United States •government has no' other thoughts than 
to regard the rights and wants of the Indian tribes in this 

And while the agency of Indian affairs in this country 
remains in the hands of the present agent, I have the fullest 
confidence to believe that the reasonable expectations in 
reference to the intercourse between whites and Indians will 
be fully realized by every philanthropist and every Christian. 
But as the Indian population is sparse, after they are 
abundantly supplied, there will be remaining country suf- 
ficient for an extensive white population. 

The thought of removing these tribes that the country 
may come wholly in the possession of the whites, can never 
for a moment enter the mind of a friend of the red men, 
for two reasons, to name no other: First, there are but two 
countries to which they can be removed, the grave and the 
Blackfoot, between which there is no choice; second, the 
countless millions of salmon which swarm the Columbia and 
its tributaries, and furnish a very great proportion of the of the tribes who dwell upon these numerous 
waters, and a substitute for which can nowhere be found 
east or west of the Rocky mountains, but in herds or 
cultivating their own land. * * 

Your humble servant, 

H. H. Spalding. 
Dr. White, 

Ag't for Indian Affairs West of the Rocky Mts. 

While Mr Spalding wisely determined not to re- 
main at his mission after the Whitman massacre of 
1847, his influence continued to exert its power over 
the minds of the red men throughout all the stirring 
period which followed. During the Cayuse war not 


a Nez Perce gun was turned against the whites and 
at the council of Walla Walla in 1855, the United 
States commissioners noted that the tribesmen had not 
forgotten the religious instructions Spalding had im- 
parted to them, but on Sundays held preaching ser- 
vices and engaged in the visible forms of worship. 

Another force in strengthening the friendship be- 
tween Americans and Nez Perces was the command- 
ing influence and rare ability of Head Chief Hal- 
haltlosot. known among the whites as Lawyer on ac- 
count of his ready wit and repartee. "Wise, en- 
lightened and magnanimous, the head chief, yet one 
of the poorest of his tribe, he stood head and shoulders 
above the other chiefs, whether in intellect, nobility 
of soul or influence." His force of character and in- 
nate ability enabled him to overcome poverty and low- 
liness of birth and to achieve, while yet in middle life, 
the first place among his people. He used his in- 
fluence for the amelioration of the tribe, directing his 
initial efforts against the two chief vices then obtain- 
ing — gambling and polygamy. He has the distinc- 
tion of having been the only western Indian possessed 
of sufficient statesmanship to discern that no resis- 
tance to the power of the whites could avail any- 
thing, and that the wise course for his race to pursue 
was to adopt the white man's mode of life and live in 
amity with him. This view of the case gave shape 
to his policy and he cultivated the friendship of his 
white brethern with unfailing assiduity. He and his 
people were shrewd enough to turn friendship to their 
own advantage in trade, but the policy of Lawyer was 
undoubtedlv dictated by higher motives than mere 
temporary gain. He had at heart the highest good 
of his race and wisdom enough to see clearly the way 
to secure it, and he earned for himself a right to the 
everlasting gratitude of whites and Indians alike. 

At the "council of Walla Walla he not only 
wielded a tremendous influence in securing the adop- 
tion of the treaties proposed by Stevens and Palmer, 
but he placed the commissioners under obligations to 
him for the preservation of their lives and those of 
their party. "He disclosed," writes Hazard Stevens, 
"a conspiracy on the part of the Cayuses to suddenly 
rise up and massacre all the whites on the council 
ground, — that this measure, deliberated in nightly 
conferences for some time, had at length been determ- 
ined upon in full council of the tribe the day before, 
which the Young Chief had requested for a holiday; 
they were now only awaiting the assent of the Yakimas 
and Walla Wallas to strike the blow ; and that these 
latter had actually joined, or were on the point of 
joining, the Cayuses in a war of extermination 
against all the whites, for which the massacre of the 
governor ("Stevens) and his party was to be the signal. 
They had conducted these plottings with the greatest 
secrecy, not trusting the Nez Perces ; and the Lawyer, 
suspecting that all was not right, had discovered the 
plot by means of a spy with the greatest difficulty and 
only just in time to avert the catastrophe." 

To frustrate these hostile designs the Lawyer 
pitched his lodge in the center of the white camp, 
thereby conveying to the other Indians the intelli- 

gence that the commissioners and party were under 
his protection. So numerous and powerful were the 
Nez Perces that even a combination of the other 
tribes dare not risk a collision with them, so the foul 
plot had to be abandoned. It is the opinion of some 
writers, from the circumstances attending the sign- 
ing of the treaties by other Indians than the Nez 
Perces, and the war which followed so hard upon it, 
that they or some of them appended their names as a 
deliberate act of treachery, hoping to lull the whites 
into a feeling of security, then fall upon them totally 
unprepared for defense. But whether this be true or 
not, certain it is that the Nez Perces were acting in 
good faith, for they testified their sincerity by remain- 
ing true to their bargain and to their white friends 
during the storm of war which ensued. 

When, in i860 and subsequent years, the gold ex- 
citement drew thousands of miners into the Nez Perce 
country, the ancient friendliness was found so deep 
rooted as to stand the strain naturally put upon it. 
It must be admitted that no white community would 
quietly permit such an invasion. While it is true that 
the Indians were powerless to prevent permanently the 
appropriation of mining property, they could, had 
they been so disposed, have fallen upon the whites 
and massacred them in great numbers, and many other 
tribes would have done so. Even in the one instance 
where representatives of the Nez Perce tribe took arms 
against the whites, the majority remained steadfast in 
their friendship and while some of those obstensibly 
friendly may have rendered assistance to their red 
brethren in arms, many gave much help to the whites 
by warning them of approaching danger, carrying 
messages and the like. 

Everything considered, no tribe of Indians de- 
serves better treatment at the hands of the whites than 
the Nez Perces, and while it is claimed and no doubt 
with truth that they have been shamefully swindled 
by representatives of the government, it is likewise 
certain that not a little effort has been made for the 
amelioration of their conditions. They are fortunate in 
possessing the old Fort Lapwai Indian Training school, 
established by the government nearly two decades ago ; 
the successor of a much older institution. As a re- 
sult of its establishment and maintenance the Nez 
Perces are among the best educated Indians in the 
west. When Captain Pratt, superintendent of the 
Carlisle Indian school in Pennsylvania, the highest 
school of its kind in the United States, recently said 
that the Nez Perces who came to him were the bright- 
est of any Indians with whom he had to deal, he paid 
a high compliment to the intellectual ability of this 
tribe and also to the efficiency of the reservation train- 
ing school at Lapwai. With bright minds to in- 
struct, plenty of equipment and highly capable corps 
of teachers, the school has been able to maintain a 
high standard of efficiency. 

As its name implies, this institution is situated at 
old Fort Lapwai in Nez Perces county. The old fort has 
long since been abandoned, but its site is still reserved 
by the government and many of the old post build- 
ings are still utilized by the "school. The location is 



in the picturesque Lapwai valley, six miles from the 
mouth of the creek and Spalding the nearest railroad 
point. Here in this circular depression the land lies 
nearly level, furnishing an unexcelled building site. 
Sheltered from the bleak winds which occasionally 
sweep the higher region above and yet low enough 
to profit by the warmer currents of air which temper 
the climate of the Clearwater valley in winter, well 
watered by Lapwai creek and numerous springs, fav- 
ored with fertile soil, surrounded by the hills and 
prairies so dear to the hearts of the race and so near 
to the scenes famous in their history, the spot is cer- 
tainly ideal for the purposes of an Indian school ; 
while the busy farmers at work in the neighboring 
hills and vales give the young Indians a constant ob- 
ject lesson in industry and its rewards. 

Commencing in the old quarters abandoned by the 
soldiers in the latter 'seventies, one by one the Fort 
Lapwai Indian Training School has added buildings 
until at present it occupies fourteen besides the stables 
and smaller outbuildings. The four largest of these 
are a handsome, two-story brick structure used as a 
boys' dormitory, a large, two-story, frame dormi- 
tory for the girls, a spacious dining hall, kitchen and 
lodging house and a fine, modern frame schoolhouse. 
Then there are the superintendent's office, the doctor's 
office, the drug store, the laundry, the gymnasium and 
the industrial work room and lastly the quarters of 
the employes, most of whom reside in the old officers 
building. The newest of these structures was erected 
in 1896, though all have been remodeled, painted and 
arranged and this work of improvement and equip- 
ping is constantly going forward. All of these build- 
ings are located on a fine, level campus of several 
acres, enclosed by a sightly picket fence. The grounds 
are well kept, the different buildings are arranged 
along regularly laid out streets bordering the campus 
proper and the whole presents an orderly appearance 
pleasing to the eye. North and west of the campus 
are the orchard and garden of the institution, cover- 
ing several acres. In all there are between fifteen 
and twenty acres in campus, garden and orchard. 
Then there is a large farm attached to the establish- 
ment on which all of the vegetables, cereals and hay 
used at the school and agency are raised. It was not 
possible to obtain from those in charge an accurate es- 
timate of the value of the property, but it must with all 
equipments have cost $50,000. 

Accommodations are provided for eighty-five 
boys and sixty-five girls and at the present time the 
capacity of the school is taxed. The school is open to 
all Nez Perce Indians between the ages of five and 
eighteen years. Formerly attendance was optional, 
but at present a law is in force compelling all Indians 
of school age to attend school at least nine months in 
the year. Under the present regulations of the Lap- 
wai school, a ten months' term is maintained. Dur- 
ing the past winter diphtheria made its appearance 
among the pupils and as a result the attendance was 
considerably decreased for a few weeks. 

While in school the boys and girls wear uniforms. 
The boys' suits are of a dark steel color, and the cadet 

pattern, trimmed with red stripes and brass buttons. 
The girls wear a gray uniform with black trimmings, 
or a blue uniform with red trimmings. The 
boys are divided into two military companies and 
have a drill each morning in their drill room and 
battalion drill occasionally. 

The routine of school life is interesting. At six 
o'clock the rising bell rings. An hour later all, except 
those who are sick, must breakfast, the Indians in 
their hall and the officers and instructors in theirs. 
At 7 :30 the pupils fall into line and details are made. 
The disciplinarian selects squads to take care of the 
stock, cut wood and carry it in, milk the cows, build 
fires, work in the garden and do other minor chores. 
The matron assigns a division of the girls to sweep, 
dust and to attend the living rooms, assist in the 
kitchen and dining room, etc. While one division is 
in school, another works under the supervision of the 
industrial departments; the boys under the farmer, 
carpenter or industrial teacher; the girls under the 
matron, cook, laundress, seamstress or baker. The 
literary department holds its sessions from 9 a. m. to 
11 =30 a. m., and from 1 p. m. to 4 p. m. The literary 
work is elementary, sixth grade work being the highest. 
Of course the work of all departments is so arranged 
that a thorough elementary school education and in- 
dustrial training is given each pupil during the year. 
At 5 :30 p. m. the supper bell rings and after the eve- 
ning meal an hour must be devoted to study. The day 
is finally closed by the summons to retire, which comes 
at 9 130 o'clock. On Sunday a non-sectarian Sunday 
school is held, attended by all the pupils and whenever 
the school is favored by the visit of a clergyman, he 
is invited to preach to them. Once a week the steady 
routine of school life is laid aside for a social function 
— a concert, a drill, a lecture or an amateur play. The 
school possesses a creditable cornet band of sixteen 
pieces which plays on all important occasions and at 
the weekly entertainments. In fact everything which 
would contribute to the physical and mental better- 
ment and upbuilding of these boys and girls has been 
done by the government at this school and the results 
show that the work has not been in vain. 

The corps of instructors at the school includes the 
following, nearly all of whom have had previous ex- 
perience in Indian work: Literary teachers, Alice B. 
Preuss, Mrs. Hallie M. Alley, Jennie Smith; indus- 
trial teacher, Fletcher Cox ; farmer, Alvan Shinn ; car- 
penter, T. C. Glenn; girls' matron, Emma Trout- 
man; boys' matron, Laura Mahin; cook, Lizzie Pike; 
laundress, Clara L. Stuve; seamstress, Alice Sim- 
mons; disciplinarian, Corbett Lawyer (Indian); 
baker, Mrs. Mary Osborn ; policeman, Frank Hoosis- 
kopsis (Indian) ; interpreter, Edward Raboin (In- 
dian ) . 

The superintendent of the Indian school and also 
the Indian agent for the tribe is Earl T. MacArthur, 
who succeeded Agent T. C. Stranahan in July, 190J. 
At that time the two offices were combined and the 
agency removed from Spalding to Lapwai. Mr. Mac- 
Arthur is an energetic young man, thoroughly equipped 
for his work. He is a native of Iowa, a gradu- 



ate of Cornell University and since 1891 has been en- 
gaged in Indian work under the direction of the In- 
terior department. Previous to his transfer to the 
Fort Lapwai school, he was in charge of the Lewiston 
agency in South Dakota. 

The agency is situated at the school and occupies 
a commodious office by itself. Here Mr. MacArthur 
is assisted in the management of affairs by three 
clerks, J. S. Martin, A. J. Montgomery and J. N. 
Alley. The latter is also attached to the school and 
agency in the capacity of physician. About $50,000 
a year are required to maintain the school and agency 
and fully $60,000 lease money passed through the 
agency last year, the office conducting all transac- 
tions of this nature between the Indians and whites. 
Aside from the leasing of lands there is very little 
else done by the agent nowadays as the lands have 
all been allotted and the red men given full citizen- 

Just a word about the later missions. In 1847 
Rev. H. H. Spalding retired to the Willamette val- 
ley. He returned to Lapwai as superintendent of 
schools in 1864, which position he occupied two or i 
three years, when the office was abolished. In the 
fall of 1 87 1, he again took up his abode among the 
Nez Perces as a missionary, and he continued to re- 
side at Spalding and Lapwai until his death in 1874. 

His mantle fell upon the worthy shoulders of 
Miss Susan Law Mcbeth, who had come as mission- 
ary teacher in 1873 from the Choctaw mission in ! 
Indian Territory. She was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Iowa and to her belonged the distinction 
of having been the first lady to serve as a delegate 
to the Christian Commission, at work among the 
soldiers of the Union army. 

Miss Mcbeth taugh school a year after coming to 

the land of the Nez Perces, then succeeded to Mr. 
Spalding's Bible class at Kamiah, later taking up 
his entire missionary work over the whole reservation. 
She remained at Kamiah until 1877, when she fled 
to Lapwai to escape the hostiles. Two years later 
she returned to Kamiah. She remained until 1885, 
in which year she removed to Mount Idaho. There 
she died in 1893. She has been described as a wo- 
man of high mental attainments, untiring energy and 
fervid religious faith. 

Her sister, Miss Kate C. Mcbeth, succeeded to 
the work and is still the representative among the 
Nez Perces of the American Board. She came in 
1879 to assist her sister and taught the women while 
her sister labored for the spiritual and moral better- 
ment of the men. She spent her time in Kamiah, 
Mount Idaho and Spalding until 1885, when she be- 
came a resident of Lapwai. At present she has 
charge of a commodious and well furnished mission 
house opposite the Indian school, and is instructing 
a large class of Bible students. She also makes oc- 
casional journeys over the reservation. Miss Mc- 
beth has compiled and is still endeavoring to per- 
fect a dictionary of the Nez Perce language and her 
studies in this direction have made her perhaps the 
greatest living authority on the subject. She is also 
considered an authority on the history and traditions 
of the tribe. Her assistant in the work is Miss Mazie 

There is a Catholic mission at Slickpoo, on Mis- 
sion creek, northwest of Lapwai. It is under the pa- 
tronage of St. Joseph and is the center of several 
outlying missions. The fathers of the Society of Jesus 
conduct the work. A small school was in the course 
of construction at the time of the writer's visit to 
the reservation. 



In many respects Nez Perces differs widely in 
topography and productions from its larger neighbor 
on the south, the county to which it is the gateway 
and with which it is quite intimately associated. Yet 
it mav be said with truth that the people of Nez Perces 
and Idaho counties are so closely bound together by 
the ties of commercial relationship as to form practic- 
ally one community. This relationship, however, arises 
rather out of diversity of industries than similarity of 
pursuits. The presence of mineral wealth in Idaho 
county, the relatively small amount of agricultural 
land, the elevation of much of its surface, the rugged- 
ness of its topography have determined the leading 

pursuits of its people, making them a mining and stock 
raising rather than an agricultural class. The same 
great law of nature has made agriculture the principal 
industry of Nez Perces county and the natural inter- 
dependence of these industries has bound the people 
together in a close commercial bond. 

But Nez Perces county, though less wild and strik- 
ing in its physical features than its neighbor on the 
south is not lacking in the ruggedness of aspect which 
forms the most striking characteristic of the great state 
of which it is a part. The writer well remembers the 
wild, grand scene that greets the eye of the traveler 
as he winds his way down the side of Craig's mountain 


into the sheltered town of Culdesac, a scene wonderful 
in its combination of beauty and strength, magnifi- 
cence and sublimity. And there are many such scenes 
within the limits of Nez Perces county. 

Yet the county differs from many other parts of 
Idaho in that very little of its surface is incapable of 
cultivation. Even the uplands of Nez Perces are es- 
pecially suited to agriculture, while the sheltered val- 
leys of river and creek furnish ideal homes for the 
fruit raiser and the market gardener. The result is 
that the county, though relatively small in area, is yet 
one of the leaders among its sister counties of the state 
in population and wealth production. 

The Snake and Clearwater rivers unite their turbid 
and crvstal waters in the northwestern part of the 
county. The valley of the former is narrow and that 
of the latter not very wide, yet in the Clearwater basin 
and on its bars are numerous beautiful and well kept 
orchards, vineyards and gardens, rendered overwhelm- 
inglv productive by the combined efforts of nature and 
art, nature in furnishing a rich, prolific soil and art in 
turning the waters of the river onto the land, that they 
may do their part in furnishing fruits and vegetables 
for the tables of man. The contour of the river bot- 
tom is such as to render very large orchards impos- 
sible, but so great is the productiveness of the land 
that an extensive tract to any one grower is not neces- 
sary. The writer remembers having read years ago 
of a man who testified on oath in a court of justice 
that his net profits from a single acre for a single year 
had exceeded seven hundred dollars. And indeed the 
man who could cultivate and irrigate a large tract in 
the thorough manner in which these orchards appear 
to be cultivated and irrigated to one who in springtime 
surveys from the wayside their luxuriousness and 
beauty, would need the assistance of a large number of 
a large number of employees. 

Some ten miles above Lewiston, the Clearwater 
valley, which has been gradually narrowing as you 
ascend the stream, widens again to the southward, 
and into it flow the sparkling waters of Lapwai creek. 
On the north side of the river, the elevated plateau 
country of which Genesse is the principal town breaks 
abruptly to the stream, and with the lofty hills to the 
southward form a striking contrast to the peaceful and 
gentiy beautiful Lapwai valley, extending away to- 
ward the base of Craig's mountain, whose timbered 
summit projected against the sky beyond, forms your 
southern horizon. The ruggedness of the bluffs, the 
bold contour of the lofty hills and uplands deep fur- 
rowed with coules and ravines, dotted with farm build- 
ings, stacks of hay and bands of grazing stock, the 
swift river, the turbulent, restless creek, and at their 
confluence the little village of Spalding, all unite to 
form a picture magnificent and fascinating, especially 
when summer's warmth has touched it with its own 
rich, beautiful hues. At the time of the writer's visit 
the work of the sunshine had not yet been fully accom- 
plished, but it had already begun its wondrous resur- 
rection in the Clearwater valley, while a few miles dis- 
tant in either a southerly or a northerly direction, win- 
ter still held the country in its snowy embrace. 

The thoughts of the beholder of retrospective 
habit will have a tendency to revert back to the time 
when, sixty-seven years ago, the Rev. H. H. Spalding 
began planting here at the mouth of the Lapwai creek, 
the vine and fig tree of civilization, the fruits of which 
are so plainly visible on every hand. He will not won- 
der that the pioneer missionary chose this spot as the 
scene of his labors, for the place has a charm for the 
red man as for the white and from time immemorial 
this bad been one of the favorite abiding places of the 
Nez Perces. The missionary has made the spot hal- 
lowed by his unselfish effort's for the good of the red 

The Lapwai basin, varying in width from a quarter 
to half a mile, extends in a southerly direction and 
about four miles from the mouth, the stream widens 
into a truly magnificent little valley, perhaps two miles 
long by a mile in width, elliptical in shape, the hills 
i'ii the west rising from the level of the plain by much 
easier grades and presenting longer and more gentle 
inclines than do those in any other direction. About 
the center of this depression are the cluster of build- 
ings which constitute the town of Lapwai, while at 
the extreme southwestern end, snug up against the base 
of the hills, are the present Indian agency and school 
occupying the site where once was the historic Fort 
Lapwai. On the railroad are the grain warehouses of 
the Yollmer-Clearwater Company and the Kettenbach 
Grain Company, giving a hint of the principal indus- 
try of the people. 

A mile above Lapwai the Sweetwater, a creek 
larger than the Lapwai and really the main stream, 
empties into the latter. Here has been established a 
small trading point. Three miles farther up the valley 
Mission creek enters the Lapwai. This stream takes 
its name from the Catholic mission school at Slickpoo, 
established, it is said, in the early 'sixties by Father 
Cataldo and still maintained. 

At Culdesac, the terminal town of the Northern 
Pacific's Lapwai branch, the traveler journeying south- 
ward soon begins his ascent of Craig's mountain. This 
is not really a mountain but a high plateau, many 
miles long and in places many miles wide on top, 
comparatively level when you once get up there. It 
was fomerly the sheep man's paradise, being elevated 
sufficiently to furnish excellent summer range, but the 
advance of civilization has injured it for this industry 
somewhat. The leading pursuit of its enterprising in- 
habitants at present is lumbering, and the traveler over 
the mountain will notice a saw-mill at least every few 
miles. However, on each side of the mountain are 
quite extensive glades or prairie arms extending into 
the timber, and these are closely settled by energetic 
farming communities. Not a few also are establishing 
homes for themselves where the timber once stood. 
There can be little doubt that the mountain will be all 
settled up as soon as the timber is removed, but so ex- 
tensive are the forests and so dense in places that it 
will take a long time to fell them and convert their 
timber into boards. There are several towns and post- 
offices on the mountain for the convenience of and sup- 
ported bv the lumbermen or agriculturists or both. 



Most of the maps show Craig's mountain as occupying 
comparatively small space and situated just north of 
the great bend of the Salmon and between that river 
and the Snake, but in reality it is an extensive plateau, 
bearing upon its sides or broad top several widely sep- 
arated towns, principal among them Forest, Morrow, 
Westlake, Keuterville and Winchester. Near the top 
of this mountain and west of the reservation line is 
Waha lake, twenty-one or twenty-two miles southeast 
from Lewiston. It is described as a beautiful little 
sheet, elliptical in shape and a half mile long, sur- 
rounded on all sides by a pine forest. The old stage 
road passes around its eastern margin. It has long 
been and still is a favorite summer resort. At one 
time an attempt was made to stock it with fish, but the 
plan did not prove a success. There is a well appointed 
hotel on its banks, the Lake House, kept by Mr. 
Faunce, who also has an abundance of row and sail 
boats and such other equipments as will augment the 
convenience and comfort of recreation seekers. To reach 
it from Lewiston you take the old stage road which 
passes through Tammany hollow, Lewiston prairie 
and Waha prairie, all rich farming and stock raising 
sections, though the last named is more elevated and 
consequently colder than the other valleys. The soil 
of these prairie sections is very productive and har- 
vests usually bountiful. Many of the farmers have 
excellent orchards. In Tammany hallow, on the old 
Dowd ranch, artesian water has been struck in several 
places, and many attempts will be made to find it else- 
where in the valley, that orchards and gardens may be 

But it is to the country to the eastward of that just 
described that we must look for the finest and most 
extensive agricultural region of Nez Perces. Extend- 
ing practicallv the entire length of the county is the 
beautiful, rolling Nez Perces prairie, justly celebrated 
for its rich, black soil and its wonderful capacity for 
producing wheat, flax and other cereals. Until 1895 
this prairie was in the hands of the Indians and its 
productive power was consequently undeveloped. 
Then, however, it was thrown open to settlement, by 
act of congress, which provided that homesteaders 
should be required not only to use their rights on the 
land but pay for it as well. Fortunately the provision 
that the land must be purchased was later repealed, 
but it is also fortunate that the proviso was there at 
first, as it resulted in keeping out of the country all 
but thrifty, energetic people who meant business. 

It happened that two years before the opening of 
the reserve, an unusually wet harvest season caused 
many of the farmers of the Palouse country, in Wash- 
ington, almost all of them indeed, to lose their crops. 
Much of the destroyed grain had already been har- 
vested and some of it was threshed and lying in sacks 
in the field. The farmer, therefore, was obligated to 
pay harvesting and sometimes threshing bills, whereas 
the grain to which he must look for reimbursement 
was worthless. The next year the price of wheat 
dropped to fifteen cents a bushel. The result of the 
two bad years in succession was that not a few of these 
ranchmen were rendered homeless. The opening of 

the reservation in 1895 gave them the opportunity they 
were seeking of starting again in life, so securing a 
hundred and sixty acres apiece they began anew the 
struggle for a home and competency. They have 
brought to the cultivation of the rich virgin soil of Nez 
Perces prairie the experience gained on their Palouse 
farms and, avoiding the errors which caused them to 
fail in the past, they have made for themselves happy 
and comfortable homes. No better illustration can be 
found of what an industrious, thrifty and skillful peo- 
ple can accomplish when they have to start with a 
goodly portion of rich, fertile soil and enjoy favorable 
conditions otherwise. 

In a recent interview in a Spokane paper, James- 
Marker, of Nezperce City, said : 

"Nez Perces prairie, Idaho, is in a most flourishing 
condition, and the farmers of that district are rapidly 
gaining wealth. The flax and hog industries are the 
mainstays of the district, although cattle raising is 
carried on extensively. The farmers' tramway that 
extends from the prairie to the railroad has five and a 
half months' work ahead in bringing down the flax 
for shipment. The yield in flax varies from nine to 
twenty-two bushels an acre, the average being about 
sixteen. I know of one man who. when he came into 
the country about six years ago, had nothing except 
four broken down cayuses, but who last fall sold fifteen 
thousand bushels of flax from his different ranches, 
for which he obtained ninety-eight cents a bushel. 
When I first arrived in the country I had only suf- 
ficient money to build a house costing four hundred 
and seventy-five dollars. I now have a standing offer 
of six thousand dollars for the farm. 

"Most of our shipments are made from Kamiah, 
on the Clearwater Short Line, about sixty miles from 
Lewiston, Idaho. Nezperce City is twelve miles from 
the railroad. On one day last fall there were nine car- 
loads of hogs shipped from the station, while the total 
shipments in this line for the past three months have 
been thirty car loads. 

"I have just disposed of four car loads on the 
Sound. T here were three hundred and sixty-two head, 
weighing eighty-two thousand pounds, for which I 
received six dollars and sixty cents per hundred 

Before discussing the productive capacity of Nez 
Perces county as a whole, it is well to give some sta- 
tistics regarding its size, population, etc. In super- 
ficial area the county is one of the smallest in the 
state, onlv two being smaller, namely, Latah and Bear 
Lake. These have 1,100 and 1,080 square miles re- 
spectively, while Nez Perces has 1,610. Though rel- 
latively so small, the last mentioned is, however, the 
most populous county of Idaho, being credited by the 
latest census with 13,748 persons, while Latah, its near- 
est competitor, has 13,451. It is claimed that Nez 
Perces leads in the number of farms, having 2,144, 
containing 400,510 acres, while Latah, the next in rank, 
has only 1,821 farms containing 353,700 acres. In the 
production of flax, Nez Perces county far outranks all 
others, yielding 91 per cent, of that arised in the entire 


Official statistics of productions for the year 1902 
are not available, but those furnished the Spokesman 
Review bv its Lewiston correspondent at the close of 
that year are doubtless close enough approximations to 
furnish a clear idea of the producing power of the 
county. They divide the wheat shipments among the 
different stations as follows: Lewiston, 175,000 
bushels; Waha and points on the river, 45> 00 °; La P" 
wai, 150,000; Agatha, 75.000; Peck, 125,000; Greer, 
40,000; Kamiah, 125,000; Stites, 50,000; Culdesac, 
450,000; Sweetwater, 225,000; Basalt, 59,000; Lenore, 
225,000; Orofino, 35,000; Nez Perces tramway, 550,- 
000; Kooskia, 75,000. Idaho county is credited with 
the shipments from Kooskia and Stites, 125,000 bush- 
els in all. Of the 2,404,000 bushels shipped from the 
stations named approximately 650,000 bushels were 
flax, which sold at average price of $1 a bushel ; while 
1,500,000 bushels were wheat, vauled at 60 cents a 
bushel, the remainder being oats and barley of the 
estimated value of Si 1.250. The same authority 
places the corn crop of the county at 10,000 bushels, 
worth $5,000. "Of beans, there were raised 250.000 
pounds. 'which found ready sale at 3 cents a pound, 
or $7,500. Sales of hay by the farmers were about 
10,000 tons, of the average value of $8 a ton or $80,- 
000. This would indicate a total value of $1,653,250 
for the grain and hay crop of the county." 

From the railroad and commission men it was 
learned that the shipments of vegetables aggregated 
ten thousand packages, of the value of $15,000 ap- 
proximately. Of the live stock industry it was not 
possible to obtain as accurate and definite data, the 
• shipments of cattle, hogs, sheep and horses not being 
separated either as to variety or the county from which 
they came, but it was thought that the value of the 
stock exports from Idaho and Nez Perces counties 
would not varv much from $1,000,000, half of which 
might be credited justly to the latter county. Poul- 
try and dairy products for the year were of the esti- 
mated value of $10,000. 

"It is estimated," continues the correspondent, 
"that the wool crop of the county slightly exceeds 
1,500,000 pounds, which, at an average selling price 
of 11 cents a pound, adds $165,000 to the total of the 
present year values. 

"The industry, not so much of the present as of 
the immediate future in this county, is lumbering. 
There are now eighteen sawmills in the county, having 
an average capacity of 25,000 feet each, a day. It 
it estimated that these mills cut an aggregate of 2,- 
000,000 feet, which has nearly all been sold to people 
within this county and which had an average value of 
$9 a thousand and an aggregate value of $324,000." 

The receipts from fruit shipments are placed at 
$80,000. Recapitulating we have the value of differ- 
ent products as follows: grain and hay, $1,653,250; 
vegetables, $15,000: fruit. $80,000; live stock, $500.- 
000; wool, $165,000: dairy products, $10,000: "lum- 
ber $324,000; total, $2,747,250. 

Naturally one studying the development and pro- 
ductive power of a county is impelled to inquire 
what are some of its still undeveloped resources that 

he may correctly estimate the possibilities of its fu- 
ture. Though Nez Perces county is one of the oldest 
settled in the state, it has many resources undeveloped. 
One of these is fruit raising! Should the time ever 
come when the county will be called upon to support a 
population many times more numerous than it now 
has, this industry will become one of the mainstays of 
the people, and as the arid lands of the section are re- 
deemed by irrigation, the acreage devoted to fruit will 
be greatly increased. The advantages possessed by 
Nez Perces county as a fruit section were thus com- 
prehensively set forth, some years ago, in the Lewis- 
ton Teller : 

The conditions which the experiences of all countries 
has shown to be the most favorable for the perfect develop- 
ment and ripening of fruits are: freedom from extremes 
of low temperature and early and late frosts; necessity of 
adequate summer heat with abundance of sunshine and an 
atmosphere with a low percentage of humidity. These con- 
ditions exist in the Snake and Clearwater valleys in a degree 
equalled in no portion of the United States, with the ex- 
ceotion of the interior valleys of California. A careful 
examination of the records of the signal office will show 
that during the growing season, from April to November, 
observations taken at Lewiston will compare favorably with 
those taken in the favored valleys of California, with the 
number of sunshiny days in Lewiston's favor. 

These favoring climatic conditions find their fitting 
complement in the peculiar adoption of our soil to the 
perfect development of fruit bearing tree or vine. This 
soil varying from light and sandy loam in the river bottoms 
to heavy, clayey, black loam on the table lands, all contains 
in a high degree the very elements that have to be supplied 
artificially in other countries, viz: the salts of soda and 
potash. These are the results of thousands of years of 
disintegration of the basalt formation underlying the whole 
country and form such a large component part of the soil 
that fertilization for fruit growing need not be a consider- 
ation for years to come. 

While fruit growing is vet in its infancy, when the 
acreage and number of persons engaged in the business are 
considered, it has years ago ceased to be an experiment. 
A few orchards were planted near Lewiston during the early 
days in the settlement of the country, some thirty years ago, 
and yielded so abundantly every season since they arrived 
at bearing age that the supply was more than the small 
population of the country could then consume. The excess 
of production over consumption, with no transportation 
facilities to reach distant markets, prevented the planting of 
orchards on a more extensive scale. This condition of 
affairs has undergone a great change during the last few 

The rapid increase of population in the surrounding 
country, causing an unlimited demand for fruit, and the 
building of the railroad, about to be finished, gives assurance 
of a possibility of supplying the demand. That this changed 
condition is appreciated by our land owners is evidenced by 
the fact that numerous orchards have been planted within 
a few years, in extent surpassing those in bearing now, and 
that manv more are being planted this spring. 

Besides producing apples, pears, cherries, plums, prunes, 
in such quantities and of such high quality as to astonish 
visitors when thev first behold them, these valleys are emi- 
nently fitted for crowing the tender fruits, such as peaches, 
almonds, nectarines and apricots. It is true that an occasional 
hard winter destrovs tins latter crop, but this occurs less 
frequentlv even than in those portions of the eastern and 
middle states, which have become justly celebrated for their 
abilitv to produce these crops. 

But the one fruit which surpasses all others in excel- 
lence and seems to find here the very conditions essential 
to its best development, is the grape, nor is its cultivation 



restricted to the hardy varieties such as are grown on the 
Atlantic seaboard and in the Mississippi valley, but includes 
the very finest varieties of the European grape of the Vinis 
Viniflora family, whose successful growth in America has 
ever been believed to be restricted to California. As grown 
here this grape not only rivals the California product but in 
quality is even pronounced by connoisseurs as excelling it, 
and this has again been demonstrated by the verdict of the 
jury experts at the Portland Mechanics Fair last fall (1890), 
who pronounced Clearwater valley grapes as of higher quality 
than the same variety grown in California, both being 
exhibited side by side. As yet only a limited number of 
varieties of the grapes have been planted extensively, and 
their success has induced the planting, in an experimental 
way, of nearly the whole list of the finer grapes grown in 
California and the chances are that some of them will show 
still better results in this climate. 

The unexcelled combination of conditions favorable to 
fruit tree growth is, however, proven in the most forcible 
manner by the high quality present in seedling fruits 
originating here, there being a number of apple and pear 
seedlings growing now, bearing better fruit than many of 
the well known older varieties. The most remarkable case 
in point is the "Idaho Pear" originating on the outskirts 
of Lewiston from seed sown by Mrs. Mulkey some twenty 
years ago. Samples of the fruit have been sent to the 
leading authorities in the United States. They pronounced 
it an entirely distinct and new variety, worthy of a place 
among the very best pears for size and quality and ranking 
the best ever known for vigor and hardiness. A few gentle- 
men, engaged in fruit growing here, organized the Idaho 
Pear Company lor the purpose of propagating and intro- 
ducing this valuable new variety and by their efforts have 
succeeded in making it widely known all over the world and 
creating a demand for these trees grown here, not only from 
all parts of the Union, but from Europe and Australia as 
well. It is stated that this is the most valuable new fruit 
introduced in half a century, and being hardier than any 
variety of the same quality, it will greatly enlarge the terri- 
tory where pear growing may be successfully engaged in. 
The introduction of this pear has, more than all other causes 
combined, called the attention of the horticultural world to 
the resources of our climate and the gentlemen of the Idaho 
Pear Company are entitled to all the credit for their enter- 

This climate also offers unexcelled advantages for raising 
all varieties of berries, melons and vegetables. 

The territory in Nez Perce county which can grow fruit 
successfully is now limited to the valleys of the great rivers 
but embraces the arable land of nearly the whole county ; 
and, while the higher altitudes may not grow the tender 
fruits, they rival, if they do not surpass, the valleys in the 
production of the hardier kinds and especially the apple. 
This latter fruit as shown by specimens grown on young 
trees just coming into bearing at different points, notably 
the prairie lands on the P.ig Potlatch to the east of Lewiston 
and Waha. to the south both at an increased altitude of some 
1,300 feet, possesses fine flavor combined with keeping 
qualities which are not attained in the hotter atmosphere of 
the valleys. 

With the large belt of the country to the north of 
Lewiston, which, owing to the high altitude, can but raise 
the verv hardiest of fruits but whose wheat product sus- 
tains a large population : with the Coeur d'Alene mines 
still further north ; and the prosperous states of Montana and 
Dakota in the east, all non-producers of fruit and easy of 
access by rail to all those points; there is not another fruit 
raising country in existence possessing such an unlimited 
market for its product. 

White Brothers, wholesale fruit shippers, estimate 
the value of Nez Perces' exported product at $43,000 
for 1902, and certainly not over half the crop was 
shipped out through channels that preserve records, 
the remainder being either consumed at home or taken 

in wagons to a market. In variety and quantity the 
shipments were as follows ; pears, 2,000 boxes ; 
peaches, 9,000 boxes ; apples, 10,000 boxes ; strawber- 
ries, 1.000 crates; grapes, 4.000 crates; black ber- 
ries, 2,000 crates ; raspberries, 1,000 crates. 

As to the number of head of cattle now in the 
county, the assessor's roll furnished the best basis, 
perhaps, of estimate. It should give the exact num- 
ber at the time it was made but unfortunately for 
human weakness it falls far below the actual. How- 
ever, the numbers of the different varieties upon 
which taxes were paid are as follows : cattle, common, 
3,351 head; cattle, beef, 156; cows, milch, 2,964; 
horses, graded, 1,256; horses, stock, 1,256; colts, 590; 
mules, 40; sheep, 25,251; swine, 9,019. The valua- 
tion of all these animals aggregated $449,098. From 
the above figures it will be seen that stock raising 
is an important industry of the county yet, notwith- 
standing it is more thickly populated than most other 
parts of the state and devotes much attention to the 
various forms of extensive and intensive agriculture. 

In estimating the future possibilities of Nez Per- 
ces county due weight should be given to the fact 
that it is located so as to enjoy a central position 
in that wonderful area known as the Lewiston or 
Clearwater country, embracing an extent of perhaps 
15,000,000 acres, and including the northeastern cor- 
ner of Oregon, Asotin county, Washington ; Nez Per- 
ces, Latah and Idaho counties and a part of Sho- 
shone county, Idaho. This vast region is drained by 
the Snake, Clearwater and Salmon rivers, with their 
tributaries. Should the Columbia be opened to the 
sea, as it some day will, this great empire must be- 
come many more times more populous than it now is, 
and the importance of the little county so near its 
center and holding .a key position to so much of it 
must experience as great and as yet scarcely dreamed 
of augmentation. From the nature of the case much 
of the wealth of this tributary country must go to 
assist in the upbuilding of Nez Perces county's indus- 
tries and the increase of its wealth. 

The people whose lot is cast in this happily favored 
section are fully aware of the opportunities which are 
theirs, and manifest a deep interest in every move- 
ment which has for its object the development of any 
of their country's resources or those of neighboring 
sections. They are not, however, so wrapped up in 
industrial pursuits as to neglect the civilities and re- 
finements of life. The education of the young receives 
due attention. Public schools have been established 
all over the county, even on the reservation so recently 
settled, and diligence is given to the improvement 
of the system. The county sends its share of students 
to the state normal school in its own county seat, 
to the state university at Moscow, just outside its 
own borders, and to other schools of higher learning 
and technical instruction east and west Churches, 
fraternal organizations, and institutions for the bet- 
terment of mankind are widespread in their distribu- 
tion, and everything which is at once the outcome and 
the promoter of refinement and intelligence finds here 
a welcome and a home. With a wealth of resources 


developed and a still greater wealth undeveloped 
within the county and in tributary territory, and a 
climate mild at all seasons, with a bright, intelligent 
class of people ambitious for the blessings of wealth 


and the promotion of culture, Nez Perces county cer- 
tainly takes rank among the most favored sections of 
the northweet and those with the brightest, most hope- 
nil outlook. r 



JOHN P. VOLLMER was born in Wurtemberg, 
Germany, on January 25, 1847. Still he is an Ameri- 
can citizen, since his father, Otto P. Vollmer, Jr., was 
a naturalized American citizen at the time of the son's 
birth. His father was a chemist of note and a man 
of fine literary attainments, having added to the know- 
ledge gained by study and diversified reading, that 
of extensive travel and close observation. The grand- 
father of our subject, Otto Phillip Vollmer, was a 
surgeon of high standing and extensive practice in 
Baden, Germany. Being in sympathy with the revolu- 
tionary element of that realm in the middle of the 
last century, in consequence whereof he had to pay 
the penalty of the independent stand he took, by ac- 
cepting voluntary exile, and came to America in 1849 
accompanied by Hon. Carl Schurz, and other men of 
national reputation in Germany. The family followed 
the elder Vollmer in a very' short period, but the 
father of our subject returned to Germany, after 
becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States, 
and was then united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth 
Fix, his fiancee, a native of the old home place, Wurt- 
temberg. In 185 1, the father and mother set sail for 
America, bringing their young son. They settled in 
Indianapolis and there, in a private German school, 
young Vollmer received his elementary education. 
It was in 1861, that he entered the Northwestern 
Christian College of Indianapolis, where he received 
a thorough English education. About this time, Mr. 
Vollmer associated himself with the firm of Merrill 
& Company, now Bowen, Merrill & Company, a large 
book concern of Indianapolis, where he remained for 
several years. He also engaged in the manufacture of 
ink and was for a time connected with his father in 
business, in all of which places he made money and 
saved it. In his early teens, he enlisted to fight for the 
Union and he assisted to repel the rebel raider Mor- 
gan and his riders. In 1863, the mother died at the 
home in Indianapolis, leaving the youth at the age 
of sixteen without that sweetest of all earthly love, 
a mother's. It was a sad blow, but he stood bravely 
beneath it and continued his business. His business 
success, his graduation with high honors from the 

university, where he had made many warm friends, 
buoyed up his native courage, and desiring to try his 
fortunes in the undeveloped far west, where merit 
and ability win, he accordingly came, via New York 
and the isthmus, to the Pacific and in 1868, we find 
him in Walla Walla with a few thousand dollars in 
his pockets, saved from his own earnings, and a let- 
ter of recommendation from General Harrison, after- 
wards President of the United States. He was soon 
engaged with a company manufacturing high wines. 
His former thorough education and consequent know- 
ledge of the new modes of distilling made him in- 
valuable to the house and he was soon installed man- 
ager of the concern, although he was but twenty years 
of age. He continued in this until 1870, then left for 
Lewiston. Here he formed a partnership with Wallace 
Scott in the wholesale liquor and grocery business. 
Later he abandoned the liquor business, on account of 
conscientious scruples, although it had been profitable. 
Mr. Vollmer began private operations outside of the 
firm with a capital he had reserved. From the outset he 
was remarkably successful as he has since been in all 
of his large and varied business relations. Doubt- 
les no man of the Inland Empire has ever had more 
diversified interests and more varied experience in 
business lines with an equal number of successes at 
the end of each new venture. Many superficial 
observers attribute it to "luck." But business men of 
experience know that it is due to consummate breadth 
of comprehension, keen discrimination and foresight, 
coupled with practical knowledge and a will that 
brooks no defeat. 

To the original business established by John P. 
Vollmer and Company at Lewiston, have been added 
branch houses at Grangeville, Mt. Idaho, and Genesee, 
in Idaho, and Uniontown and Asotin in Washington. 
The Vollmer Clearwater Company, a creation of our 
subject, operates at eighteen different points, named 
as follows: Lewiston, Sweetwater, Bosalt, Lenore, 
W'eippe, Stuart, Lapwai, Culdesac, Agatha, Peck, Ka- 
miah, Stites, Genesee, Kendrick, Clyde, Spar, Nez- 
perce and Asotin. 

Among the earlier business movements of Mr. 



Vollmer, was the organization by him of the First 
National Bank of Lewiston, the first house of its kind 
in northern Idaho. The National Bank of Genesee 
and the bank at Grangeville, followed in regular order. 
Mr. Vollmer pays taxes on over fifty sections of agri- 
cultural land, which requires about three hundred miles 
of fence to divide it into quarter sections. He is 
president of and owns the controlling interest in the 
Lewiston Water and Light Company. He is also presi- 
dent of the board of trustees for the State Normal 

Mr. Vollmer has also been interested in and identi- 
fied with several transportation companies. He was 
connected with the Walla Walla & Columbia River 
R. R. Company and in 1877, was made agent for 
the Oregon Steam Navigation Company. He then 
acted for Henry Villard in the deal by which the 
last named company was absorbed by the O. R. & N. 
Co., which latter company Mr. Vollmer represented 
until 1883, when he became financially interested in 
the Northern Pacific and was one of the leading pro- 
moters of that line which is now extended to Lewiston. 
Since that time, he has been the representative of 
that line for the state of Idaho. 

In addition to all the above named enterprises, 
with which Mr. Vollmer has been connected for the 
improvement and betterment of the country, he was 
also the one to construct the first telegraph line in 
northern Idaho, in 1874. Four years later, he es- 
tablished the first Bell telephone exchange on the 
Pacific coast. He was also prominent in the organ- 
ization of the Sweetwater Irrigation & Canal Company, 
with which he is still connected. 

It is interesting to further note, as testimony to 
Mr. Vollmers high standing in financial circles, that 
in "American Successful Men," of New York city, 
which contains a history of the most prominent citi- 
zens of America, he is given a prominent place, be- 
ing the only banker mentioned in Idaho. Such is the 
brief outline of the financial history of this in no 
wise common or ordinary career. 

In political matters, Mr. Vollmer is a stanch Repub- 
lican, but has never been an aspirant for office, pre- 
ferring to promote the political interests of his friends. 
In fact, he has repeatedly declined preferment at the 
hands of his friends even when the tempting offer 
of the highest political office in the state was the 
reward of his acceptance. 

In his home life Mr. Vollmer has been as greatly 
blessed as he has in his masterful business career. His 
well appointed home is a model of family felicity and 
home attachments. This is largely due, as are many of 
the pleasant phases of his life, 'to the wisdom and 
painstaking care of Mrs. Vollmer, who has the happy 
faculty of making a home in the true sense of the 

Mrs. Sallie E. Vollmer, nee Barber, a native of 
the state of Kentucky, is a true southern lady and a 
granddaughter of Judge Duvall. They were united 
in marriage at Walla Walla, September 27, 1870, and 
to them have been born seven children, five of whom 
are still living, namely; Ralston, now in charge of 

the bank at Genesee ; Bessie, who was married Sep- 
tember 4, 1901, to Arthur E. Clarke of the New York 
Life Insurance Company, and now residing in New 
York ; Genevieve, who is attending school ; Norman 
and Norma, twins, at school in Lewiston. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Mr. Vollmer is one 
of the very busiest of men, he is of a pronounced 
literary turn, as is also his wife; and their home is 
supplied with a first-class library and all the leading 
magazines and periodicals of the day, which they find 
time to read and enjoy. He is a thirty-second de- 
gree Mason. 

Mr. Vollmer is an enterprising, public spirited 
citizen, and takes great interest in the affairs of the 
county and state and especially in the advancement of 
the community where he lives. He is at the front and 
promoting all enterprises that are for the general bene- 
fit. His career is marked by display of energy and 
profound ability and insight into matters that have 
to do with the business and social world. He is 
known as a stanch friend and has as few enemies, 
probably, as any man living, of his active, agressive 
temperament and extensive business interests. 

GARRET H. FERRALL, M. D. Among the 
leading citizens of Nez Perces county the name of Dr. 
Ferrall is surely to be placed. In business ventures, 
he has been signally successful. As a professional 
man. he has manifested skill and talent that have 
given him the reward due to the true and eminent 
physician. As to his personal qualifications, Dr. Fer- 
rall is a loyal friend, an affable and genial man, a true 
and faithful member of society and a patriotic and 
influential citizen. 

G. H. Ferrall was born in Columbiana county, 
Ohio, on November 11, 1844, being the son of Elihu 
and Varv A. (Hart) Ferrall. The father was born in 
Ohio, in 18 14, was a pioneer of Columbiana county 
and also in Hinsdale county, Michigan, and is now liv- 
ing in Michigan. The mother was born in Ohio, in 
1814, and is still living in Michigan. Her father was 
a pioneer of Columbiana county, Ohio, and was a sol- 
dier of the war of 1812. Our subject remained at 
home until nineteen years of age, gaining his educa- 
tion from the schools of his place. Then he was 
stirred by the spirit of patriotism and enlisted in Com- 
pany G. Fourteenth Michigan, under General Sher- 
man. He participated in the battles of Goldsborough, 
Lookout Mountain. Chattanooga, Atlanta and many 
other engagements. He transported seventeen hun- 
dred troops from New York to Morehead, South Caro- 
lina, and then rejoined his command under Sherman 
and was in the famous march to the sea. When the 
time came to lay down the arms of warfare, Mr. Fer- 
rall returned to his home and went to the study of 
medicine in Cleveland, and in 1870 he graduated with 
distinction. Then he repaired to Fayette, Ohio, and 
there practiced for five years. Then a move was made 
to Ransom, Michigan, where he practiced for seven 
years. He followed his profession in Ithica, Michi- 



gan, for several years. Then he came to Coeur 
d'Alene. Idaho, and practiced there and handled a ranch 
for ten years. Between the oversight of the farm 
property and his profession the Doctor was a very 
busy man and reaped the reward of his industry in 
that he gained a good financial success. Then he 
went to Walla Walla and engaged in the manufactur- 
ing business for a couple of years; in 1898 he took 
up the place where he now lives, two miles north 
from Winchester. He has a fine body of land and 
some excellent timber. The Doctor is one of the in- 
fluential men of the county, is on its school board, has 
promoted the telephone system from Culdesac to Nez- 
perce City, also the mail line from Culdesac to Dublin. 
He is justice of the peace and is looked up to by all as 
especially deserving. 

On February 12, 1873, in Fayette, Ohio, Dr. Fer- 
rall married Miss Orcelia, daughter of Truman L. and 
Harriett (Van Branken) Scofield. natives of New- 
York. The father was born in 1821 and died in 1900. 
The mother was born in 1820 and died in 1875. Mrs. 
Ferrell was born in Williams county, Ohio, in 1845. 
Her parents were pioneers of that county and Fulton 
county. Ohio. She has one brother and one sister, 
Edwin and Ellen Sails. Dr. Ferrall has the following 
named brothers and sisters : Barzillai F., Elizabeth, 
Oliver P., Jennie E., John W.. James E.. Taylor S. 
and Lucy I. To Dr. Ferrall and his wife there have 
been born three children, Harriett E., wife of Charles 
R. Howard, a telegraph operator for the Western 
Union; Ellen M., wife of Homer King, in Coeur 
d'Alene ; Lee E., in the fire department in Spokane. Dr. 
Ferrall is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and his 
wife affiliates with the Presbyterian church. Dr. Fer- 
rall is a stanch Republican and active in this realm. 
Mrs. Ferrall was married first to Morris J. Dodd. who 
lived but fifteen months after his marriage. One son, 
Fred N., was born to this union. He is passenger con- 
ductor on the Spokane and Northern Railroad, which 
runs from Spokane to Rossland. Dr. Ferrall is a 
warm advocate of good schools and is doing much for 
the cause of education in his communis. 

SAMUEL PATTERSON. It is fitting that es- 
pecial mention should be granted to this estimable 
gentleman, for he is one of the industrious workers 
who are building up the county and he is doing his 
share in a commendable manner. His family home 
is about two miles northeast from Slickpoo, where he 
owns a quarter section, which is devoted to all the 
various grains indigenous to this latitude. He has an 
orchard and also raises stock to consume his farm 
produce. He is an energetic man and operates a 
threshing machine in addition to the other emplov- 
ments of his land. Mr. Patterson is well liked and is 
an influential and respected member of the community. 

Taking an account of the details of his earlier life, 
we note that he was born in Marion county, Oregon, 
on January 1, i860, being the son of John and Sarah 
A. (Stout) Patterson. The father was a farmer, born 
in Pennsylvania and died in 1867. He came to Cali- 

fornia in 1847 an d was an early pioneer of Oregon, 
taking a donation claim there. The mother died in 
1865. Being thus left an orphan at a tender age, our 
subject was taken into the family of F. M. Thompson, 
where he received good treatment and remained until 
fourteen years old. He then went to work for him- 
self and at twenty he went to farming in Wasco 
county. He took a pre-emption there and tilled it for 
twelve years. In 1890 he sold that property and re- 
moved to Latah county and farmed for six years. 
Then a move was made to the reservation and he 
took his present claim. Since that date he has be- 
stowed his labors here continuously. He is being pros- 
pered and is one of the leading citizens of his section. 
On July 4, 1880, he was married to Miss Henri- 
etta, daughter of George W. and Martha A. (Threld- 
keld) Wayne. The father is a farmer and lives on the 
reservation. He was born in 1837 and the mother 
was born in Missouri, and died in 1862. Mrs. Pat- 
terson is an only child and was born in Calloway 
county, Missouri, in 1862. Mr. Patterson has one 
brother and one sister, Elizabeth Down, in Silverton, 
Oregon; Richard, also in Oregon. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Patterson there have been born eight children, named 
as follows: George W., Martha A., John, Ernest, 
Frank, Charles, Daniel B. and Minnie L. Mr. Patter- 
son is not bound by partisan ties in political matters 
but votes for the man. He is a warm advocate of good 
schools and labors for their establishment. He is edu- 
cating his children in the state normal at Lewiston. 

PHILLIP S. SMITH. This pioneer and sub- 
stantial stockman and farmer of Nez Perces county is 
deserving of mention in this history since he has 
labored here for the advancement of the interests of 
the county and has done a good work in development 
since residing here. He was born in Cedar county. 
Iowa, on February 17, 1838, being the son of George 
S. and Clarissa (Stockton) Smith. The father was 
a carpenter and millwright, born in Tennessee, in 1802. 
He went to California in 1849 and died there in 1852. 
He was a captain of the militia in Iowa. The mother 
was born in Indiana in 1812. Her father, William 
Stockton, was a pioneer of that country and an Indian 
trader, and she was raised among the Delaware In- 
dians until she was ten. Our subject came to Oregon 
with his mother in 1853. settling in Linn county. She 
died the next year, leaving him an orphan. He went 
then to California and mined in Siskiyou county for 
three years. Next we see him in Oregon learning the 
saddler's trade in Santiam, Marion county. Four 
years later, he came to Washington and thence to 
Idaho. In 1862, he was in Pierce City mining and in 
Florence, Warren and other camps he delved for the 
treasures of earth for a time and then went 
ing. In 1867 he secured a pack outfit for himself 
and operated it from Lewiston to Warren and ad- 
jacent camps until 1871. Then he sold the outfit and 
operated land, since which time he has largely de- 
voted himself to agriculture and stock raising. In 
1896 he took up a claim on the Nez Perces reservation. 



He was in the country during the Indian war in 1877. 
In 1864 a band of renegade Indians went on the war- 
path and he was one of a company of citizens that 
formed to resist them. They were received as United 
States soldiers and served until the savages were re- 
pelled. He carried the mail from Lapwai to Magnolia 
for two Years and from Lapwai to Slickpoo for three 
years, up to July, 1902. 

In 1872 Mr. Smith married Susan, a Nez Perces 
woman, who was raised by Mrs. Craig, being a niece 
of that lady. To this marriage there have been born 
four children, William, in this county ; an infant, de- 
ceased ; Jackson, deceased; Lydia, wife of Paul Cor- 
bett, living in Kamiah. Mr. Smith is a Democrat but 
not partisan. He has brothers and sisters as follows : 
Mary A. Wood, Samuel, Nancy Crank and Rebecca 

STEPHEN JACQUES. From the sunny land of 
France comes the enterprising and capable gentleman 
whose name initiates this paragraph, and what was 
the misfortune of that land is the good fortune of this, 
for Mr. Jacques has been a first-class citizen of the 
United States for a number of years and has wrought 
for the advancement of Nez Perces county in various 
ways for a long time. His native spot is La Ca- 
nourgue, near Bordeaux, in southern France, and the 
date of his birth, January 1, 1854. His parents were 
Stephen and Rose (Vieillevigne) Jacques. The 
father was born near La Canourgue in 1825 and died 
in 1885 there. The mother was born in the same 
vicinity and died in 1897. Our subject worked with his 
father, who was a wealthy man of his section, and 
there gained his education, finishing the same- by a 
course in college. After the days of schooling were 
over, he went to farming for himself and did well. 
He had a fine piece of land and could have sold it for a 
large amount as it was well set to choice vines, but 
later an insect destroyed the vines, and Mr. Jacques 
became discouraged. He then determined to try his 
fortune in the United States and accordingly came 
hither, landing in New York, having left his family in 
France. He labored for a time and then came to Lew- 
iston, where he worked for Louis Delsol. He went 
to Spokane in 1889, the year after the fire. He started 
a restaurant and did well. Four years were spent 
there and then Mr. Jacques came back to Lewiston, 
going thence to Camas prairie, near Grangeville. Re- 
turning to Lewiston, he remained there a few years 
to educate his children, and then came to Lapwai and 
started a general merchandise establishment. For 
three years he did well and then, the reservation open- 
ing, he located the land where he now lives, six miles 
east from South Lapwai. He moved his store to the 
land, erected all needed buildings and has continued 
in the mercantile business since that time. He handles 
stock in addition to the store and also does a general 
farming business. Mrs. Jacques made a visit to France 
and visited the native places. 

On May 28, 1880, in France. Mr. Jacques married 
Miss Flavie, daughter of Francois Jarrousse. She 

was born in 1858. To them have been born the fol- 
lowing children: Noeme, wife of Harry Walruth, in 
Pierce City; Maria, Emile, Eugene, at home. Mr. 
Jacques has four sisters in France and one brother in 
South Africa. He and his family are adherents of 
the Catholic church. 

WILLIAM A. CALDWELL is one of the prom- 
inent men among the old pioneers of this country. He 
has been essentially a pioneer in many lines, having 
done all the arduous duties that fall to the lot of that 
worthy class and also has opened up many lines of 
industry in this section, and is to be credited with ex- 
cellent ability and perseverance and keen foresight in 
these lines. 

William A. Caldwell was born in Tompkins 
county, New York, on December 10, 1832, being the 
son of Gabrial and Maria (Anderson) Caldwell. The 
father was a farmer, born in Orange county, New 
York, and died in 1891. He was a soldier in the war 
of 1812 and held the rank of lieutenant. The mother 
was born in Orange county, New York, and died 
several years since. William was educated and at the 
age of eighteen was ready to start in life for himself. 
He shipped to Panama and assisted to survey the 
Panama railroad. Seven months later he returned to 
New York and then came to Minnesota, entering the 
employ of a packet company. He went to St. Paul, 
where his brother was sheriff of the county, and there 
he remained for five years. He built a saw-mill and 
did well in the venture. Later he sold and engaged as 
wagon master for Colonel Noble to make a wagon road 
on the big bend of the Missouri. They made a trip to 
the Pacific coast country and visited Walla Walla, the 
Fraser river country, and the next spring after gold 
was discovered Mr. Caldwell went to Oro Fino. He 
mined at Oro Fino, Florence, Warren, Pierce City 
and all the camps of that section and also at Boise 
basin and then he returned to Lewiston. He took a 
government wood contract and then operated a pack 
train to Pierce City. He then bought the Cul De Sac 
stage station, now known as the Caldwell stage station, 
and erected a six-thousand dollar hotel, where he did 
business for twenty years. He was the first man to 
try wheat in the vicinity north of Lewiston. People 
laughed at him when he broke the first one hundred 
acres, but his wheat did well, and thus he opened a 
great source of wealth for the country. In 1883 Mr. 
Caldwell built a palatial home in Lewiston and later 
he acquired title to the Colonel Craig donation claim 
and also to the other half of the section, but he was 
obliged to carry it to the courts of last resort. Mr. 
Caldwell, in addition to his other activities, has al- 
ways been a large operator in stock. He handled 
about ten thousand stock sheep and vast herds of cattle 
and horses. 

On July 5. 1871, in Lewiston, Mr. Caldwell mar- 
ried Miss Maria, daughter of Michael and Elizabeth 
(O'Neil) Reddy. natives of Ireland. The father came 
to Canada when a large boy and the mother came 



when young. Airs. Caldwell was born in Ontario, in 
1849, and remained there until twenty and was edu- 
cated in the world famous schools of that province. 
Then she came with her parents to California and 
later to Idaho, where they died. She has two brothers 
and five sisters, Richard, Catherine Worden, Elizabeth 
White, MargaYet Vennigerholz, Sarah Elliott, Jennie 
Parker and Owen. Mr. Caldwell has the following 
named brothers and sisters : Thomas, James, Isabelle, 
Nancy, all deceased, and Helen, Julia Mallory and Fan- 
ny Thorp. To Mr. and Mrs. Caldwell there have been 
born four children, William A., in Montana ; Solomon 
S., in Nez Perces county; Frederick G. and Moses, at 
home. Mr. Caldwell is a member of the Masonic or- 
der. He is a Democrat in politics and active, as also 
are his boys. He owns a section of land where he now 
lives, four miles southeast from Lapwai, and raises 
wheat, barley, corn and handles stock to consume the 
products of the farm. Mr. Caldwell is a strong ad- 
vocate of fine schools and is a supporter of the 

HEXRY H. SCHILDMAX. There are few men 
in the entire state, if any, who have won as brilliant a 
success in the business world by reason of meritorious 
work and real ability as has the subject of this brief 
article. He is at the present time one of the proprietors 
of the large mercantile establishments in Lapwai, 
Kamiah, Nezperce and Forest, operated by Lester Cof- 
fin & Schildman. They have an extensive trade at all 
these establishments. He has put his whole life and 
spirit into the mercantile world and being admirably 
fitted with natural talent, he has made a success that 
would be a crowning effort to a full life in this im- 
portant line and is still numbered with the young men 
of the county. 

\\ e will note the details of his career, as they will 
be interesting in the history of the county where he 
has wrought with such excellent wisdom. Henry H. 
was born in Warsaw, Illinois, on November 20, 1871, 
being the son of Henry and Josephine Schildman. 
The father was a farmer, born in Ohio, in 1838, and 
now lives in Warsaw. The mother was born in War- 
saw, her parents having come as early pioneers to 
that country. They both died when she was an infant 
and she was reared by her grandparents, who were 
pioneers of Illinois. Our subject worked at home, at- 
tended school in Warsaw, and later attended college 
two years. He remained with his parents until the 
time of his majority. In 1895 he longed for the west 
and accordingly came to Spokane. Six months were 
spent there, after which he repaired to Lewiston, ac- 
cepting a position in the mercantile establishment of 
Coffin Brothers, leading merchants of Lewiston. Dur- 
ing his stav with them, which was two years, they 
had opened a store at Lapwai when the reservation 
was thrown open for settlement. Mr. Schildman was 
installed as manager and soon his real worth and 
ability led the proprietors to take him as a partner. 
He has picked up the Nez Perces language and does 
a large business with the Indians. 

Mr. Schildman is a thirty-second degree Mason. 
He is also a member of the I. O. O. F. Politically, 
he is a Republican and active in good government, 
but will never have his name placed for office, as he 
is occupied with business. Mr. Schildman is a firm 
believer in broad education and thus is sure that the 
general morals of the people will be bettered, and he 
iabors for good schools. 

WILLIE E. KERN. This enterprising farmer re- 
sides twenty-one miles southeast from Lewiston and 
is one of the substantial stockmen and farmers of his 
section, having a nice place well improved and pro- 
ductive of good returns annually. W. E. Kern was 
born in Richardson county, Nebraska, in 1866, being 
the son of William C. andRoda R. (Cox) Kern. The 
father is a stockman and farmer, born in Indiana in 
1810, and now lives in Oregon. He crossed the plains 
in 1845, l &5 2 , and in 1866, and mined in California. 
He was county treasurer of Umatilla county, at Pendle- 
ton, for eight years and was sheriff in Iowa for two 
terms. The mother was born in Indiana in 1827, came 
west in 1878 and is still living. Willie E. was reared 
in Nebraska until thirteen years old and then came 
west with his parents in 1878, completing his educa- 
tion in Pendleton. At fifteen he started for himself 
and worked three years in Umatilla county at black- 
smithing. Then he went to the sound and labored in 
the timber. Four years later he went to Butte. Mon- 
tana, and opened a restaurant, where he did well for 
two and one-half years. He also spent some time in 
the Big Bend countrv in Washington in the stock 
business and in 1899 he came to his present place. 
January was the month and he has labored since with 
excellent success, being now one of the prosperous 
men of the county. He owns a half section, well im- 

On April 18, 1900, Mr. Kern married Miss Nancy, 
daughter of Dr. Richardson, of the Willamette valley, 
Oregon. He was a leading man of Eugene, and had 
a fine farm and property there. He and his wife are 
Until deceased. Mrs. Kern has four brothers and 
three sisters, named below: Minerva, Paris. Sarah, 
Laura. Mitchell, Clinton and James. Mr. Kern is an 
active Republican and is much interested in good 
schools. His father was a veteran of the Civil war. 
Mr. Kern is a man of good qualities and sound prin- 
ciples and stands well in the community and deserves 
the confidence and esteem that he generously receives 
from his acquaintances. 

FRANK BRONCHO. Seven milei northeast of 

Lapwai is the tine home of the subject of this article. 
He has an elegant residence costing three thousand 
dollars and an estate of five hundred and twenty acres. 
This is well improved with buildings and orchard, 
and is handled skillfully. 

Frank Broncho was born in Fort Hall, Utah, in 


i860, being the son of Thomas and Angeline Broncho. 
The father was born in Canada, of French extraction, 
and died in 1885. The mother was of the Nez Perces, 
born on the reservation. The father was in the em- 
ploy of the Hudson Bay Company at Fort Hall for 
many years. He met Angeline, who had been edu- 
cated by Dr. Whitman, in Walla Walla, and there 
he married her. When Frank was a babe, his parents 
came to Walla Walla and farmed, and there our sub- 
ject received his education. When he was seventeen, 
the family came to Asotin county, remaining three 
years, and then they went to the Nez Perces reserva- 
tion, where they farmed and raised stock. At the 
time of the Nez Perces war the father moved his family 
to the fort at Lapwai but took no active part in the war. 
He carried the mails for years from Walla Walla to 
the fort. He was an old trapper and scout and served 
the United States in the latter capacity for many years. 
He was with Captain Stevens when he made the treaty 
with the Umatilla Indians. Our subject remained with 
his parents until the time of their death and then went 
to farming and raising stock for himself. At the time 
of the allotment of land on the reservation he received 
the estate where he now lives. He formerly owned 
land in Asotin county and did well there with stock. 

In 1885 Mr. Broncho married Miss Marion, daugh- 
ter of Nobe Henry, of American and Dutch descent. 
He is a farmer and stockman in Garden gulch 
on the reservation. To Mr. and Mrs. Broncho 
there have been born eight children, Edward, An- 
geline, Bessie, David, James, Anna, Clara and Ben. 
Mr. Broncho has three brothers. Thomas. Antonio, 
Edward, all in this county. Mr. Broncho has been a 
scout and interpreter for the government for many 
year.;. He was a body guard of Agent Monteith dur- 
ing the war. He is a man of intelligence and integrity 
and stands well with all who know him. 

JAMES L. BOUNDS. About one-half mile from 
North Lapwai is the elegant home of the subject of 
this article. It is large and tasty and has land there 
which is handled to general farming. Mr. Bounds is 
one of the earliest pioneers in many sections of the 
west and he played a very prominent part in the early 
times when gold was discovered in California. He 
came from the fields there and through his report there 
were hundreds of men who resorted thither. 

James L. was born in Lafayette county, Missouri, 
on February 12, 1830. being the son of Obediah and 
Nancy (Lovelady) Bounds. The father was a farmer, 
born in Virginia in 1789 and died in 1844. He was a 
pioneer to Missouri in 1818 and settled in Lafayette 
county in 1820. He participated in the Black Hawk 
war, and the Osage Indian campaign. The mother 
of our subject was born in White county, Tennessee, 
and died in 1846. James received his education in his 
native place and remained with his mother until her 
death ; then spent some time with his brother-in-law, 
but not agreeing with him, he ran away to join the 
amiv 111 the Mexican war. He went to Fort Leaven- 

worth but changed his mind and came to Oregon 
City instead. He drove an ox team all the way and 
consumed six months in the trip. October 30, 1847, 
was the date of his landing there and as times were 
hard he labored at what he could get until 1848 and 
then heard of the gold find in California. With two 
lads who had accompanied him across" the plains, he 
went thither on horseback, being the first party that 
went there across the mountains. They were at Clear 
creek in Shasta county, above Sacramento, on Ameri- 
can river, and later at Placerville. He there met Dr 
McBride, the grandfather of the present governor ot 
Washington. He accompanied the Doctor to Ford's 
bar on the middle fork of the American river and 
there made nine hundred dollars the first month. In 
the fall he went back to Oregon in company with O. 
C. Pratt, one of the early governors of Oregon. In 
the spring of 1849, with a large company who were 
induced by his reports to join the exodus, he returned 
to California. They fought the Indians and soon were 
in the mines where young Bounds made fourteen hun- 
dred dollars in five weeks. He bought and sold horses 
and did well ; later he went to Feather river and bought 
claims and made thirty-three hundred dollars. Being 
taken sick, he went to Sacramento and was doctored. 
He then returned to Oregon and later went back to 
California. Again we find him in Oregon working on 
his donation claim, and in 1857 he went again to Cali- 
fornia and remained seven years. In 1863 he came to 
Walla \\ alia and went into stock business. He re- 
turned to California in 1882 for his health and re- 
mained until 1890. In 1895 he came to Idaho and 
here he has been since. 

On December 8, 1853. Mr. Bounds married Mis-; 
Rachel, daughter of Thomas and Eliza Linville, and a 
native of Lafayette county, Missouri. She crossed the 
plains in 1853. Mr. Bounds has one sister living. 
Amanda Stark, in Missouri. Mrs. Bounds has the fol- 
lowing brothers and sisters: Thomas, W. C. Hum- 
phrey, James B. and Eliza Hardesty. To Mr. and 
Airs. Bounds there have been born seven children, as 
follows : Nancy King, in Nez Perces county ; Homer, 
at Cape Nome ; William, in Asotin. Washington ; 
Jennie Sumpter; Anna Gilchrist, in California: Bertha 
Adron. in Nez Perces county ; Sallie Harrison, in 
Seattle. Mr. Bounds was deputy sheriff in Siskiyou 
county, California, for many vears. He is a Democrat 
in politics ami active in the welfare of the county. 

CLINTON T. STRANAHAN. At the present 
time Mr. Stranahan is holding the responsible position 
of superintendent of Indian schools and agent of the 
Nez Perces, with headquarters at Spalding, Idaho. In 
1899 he received the appointment of agent at the hands 
of President McKinley, and in April, 1902, he was in- 
vested with the authority of superintendent of the 
schools, as those two offices had been merged under 
the civil service. Mr. Stranahan has been a very 
active and potent factor in the political realm of the 
state and has always heartily supported the Republican 



principles. For sixteen years, with one exception, he 
has been regularly chosen to represent his district at 
the state convention and his influence has always been 
for good men and right principles. He was deputy 
assessor of Nez Perces county under L. F. Herbert, 
was also deputy auditor and deputy sheriff and in 
1889 he was appointed deputy United States marshal 
under Joseph Pinkham and served through the trying 
times of the strike in the Coeur d' Alenes. He also 
was deputy assessor in Nez Perces county for one 
term. In all this long service, Mr. Stranahan has 
manifested marked efficiency and his sterling faithful- 
ness and integrity were qualities which ever com- 
mended him to the hearty esteem of his fellows. 

It will be interesting to note a part of his career 
in detail, and first we see that he was born in Contra 
Costa county California, near San Francisco, on 
March 17, 1S59, being the son of Ebenezer and Ellen 
(Terry) Stranahan. The father was born in Herkimer 
county, New York, in 1829, and died in 1873. He 
was of Irish extraction and was a pioneer to Califor- 
nia in 1852 and held a prominent place in the state 
as a leading miner. The mother was born in New 
York and still lives in California. Clinton T. was edu- 
cated in Oakland and when eighteen years of age 
started out for himself. Idaho was the objective point 
of his travels and he located a claim on American 
Ridge, having landed in Moscow in 1878. He gave 
his attention to farming for six years and then en- 
tered upon the public service as mentioned above. 
After his labors in the marshal's office were ended he 
took a farm adjoining Lewiston, on the Clearwater, 
and demonstrated that excellent fruit can be raised 
here. His fruit farm of forty acres is doubtless one 
of the very best in the northwest, having been brought 
to this excellence by his skill and careful oversight. 

In 1884 Mr. Stranahan married Miss May L., 
daughter of Samuel L. Bostwick, deceased, a native 
of Iowa, and a pioneer to Montana, settling there in 
1865. ^ rs - Stranahan was born in Montana, being 
the first white girl born in Gallatin valley, now Boze- 
man. Air. Stranahan has three brothers and two 
sisters, Farrand E., Willoughby F. and Cady R. ; Cora 
Hosom and Esther. To Mr. and Mrs. Stranahan 
there have been born three children, Clyde, Glenthora 
and Everett. Clyde is attending the high school in 
Lewiston. Mr. Stranahan is a member of the W. of 
W. Mrs. Stranahan is a communicant of the Episco- 
palian church. 

THOMAS D. KING. It is pleasant to see this 
gentleman, who operated in the vigorous labors of the 
pioneer in many places on this coast, now enjoying the 
land that he helped to develop with his sturdy labors 
and being one of the prominent and influential citizens. 

Mr. King was born in Logan county, Ohio, in.Jan- 
uarv. 1834, being the son of Thomas D. and Susan 
(Berrv) King. The father was a hatter, born in Vir- 
ginia in 1779. an d died in Burlington, Iowa, in 1872. 
He was a pioneer in Ohio, Indiana and Iowa. The 
mother of our subject was born in Pennsylvania in 

1789 and died in 1857. The family came to Indiana 
when Thomas D. was young and thence they removed 
to [owa, where he was educated and grew to' manhood. 
Arriving at majority's estate, he farmed for himself 
and :n 1857 he went via Panama to California. From 
San Francisco, he went direct to Marvsville and 
worked for his brother-in-law. Nelson Westcott. He and 
his brother William raised a crop of corn as an experi- 
ment and cleared nearly five thousand dollars from it. 
Some years Liter they bought a hotel in the mountains 
on Rabbit creek road and did well there. In 1862 he 
sold out and came to Idaho and joined the forces at 
Florence who were digging for gold. Later he went 
to Walla Walla and farmed for a year and then went 
to Oregon. Returning to Boise, he took mining claims 
and later he secured the contract to carry the mail 
from Walla Walla to Colville. Later he took another 
contract from Walla Walla to Lewiston, and here he 
did a general express and passenger traffic. Seven 
years were spent at this and then he went to Califor- 
nia, settling in San Luis Obispo county, where he 
went into the stock and dairy business. Here he con- 
tinued unutl 1897, then sold out his stock, of which he 
had a considerable, also sold his land, nine hundred and 
sixty acres, and came to Idaho and settled on his pres- 
ent place on the reservation. He is one mile east from 
Lapwai and has a good farm, and his sons, George and 
Ira, also have nice farms here. 

On December 25, 1872, Mr. King married Miss 
Nancy, daughter of James L. and Rachel (Linville) 
Bownds, natives of Missouri. Mrs. King has the fol- 
lowing named brothers and sisters : Homer, Willard, 
Jennie Sumpter, Anna Gilchrist, Birdie Adron, Sallie 
Harrison, and the following who are deceased. Eliza 
Hawcroft, Martha and Ruth, who both died at the 
same time with diphtheria, Abie, Manda. Mr. King 
has brothers and sisters as follows, William B., Felix, 
Samuel. John, George, Sallie, Harriett, Hannah, Jane, 
Ruth, Kate Louise, Julia Carroll and Mattie Morton, 
all deceased but the first one and the last two. To 
Air. and Mrs. King have been born seven children, 
James, Minnie, Thomas, all deceased, George W., Ira 
F., Kate, deceased, Rachel. Air. King is a member of 
the I. O. O. F., and he and his wife belong to the 
Christian church. In political matters, Air. King is a 
Republican and always active in that realm, but he has 
many times refused office himself. He was a member 
of the school board in California for twelve years. 
Airs. King's uncles were in the Civil war. Air. King 
is expecting to handle stock on his farm altogether and 
will increase his holdings in this line. 

OLIVER JOHNSON is one of the industrious 
agriculturists' of Nez Perces and his home place con- 
sists of one hundred and twenty acres of good soil, 
nine miles east of Lewiston. He does a general farm- 
ing business and is prosperous and progressive. 

Oliver was born in Dallas, Polk county. Oregon, 
on July 10. 1863, being the son of Newton C. and 
Louise A. 1 Bverly) Johnson. The father was a farmer, 


born in Missouri in 1839, and died in 1901. He was a 
pioneer to Oregon, crossing the plains with teams in 
1846 and the train had a number of battles with the 
Indians. The mother of our subject was born in Iowa, 
on January 29, 1844. Oliver remained at home until 
of age, receiving a good education from the common 
schools. In 1881 the parents removed to Walla Walla, 
Washington. Our subject remained there for a few 
years and then returned to Oregon. While the father 
was near Walla Walla the Snake Indians broke out 
and caused trouble but he did not leave his farm. 
Oliver farmed in Oregon until 1894, then came to 
Whitman county, Washington, and tilled the soil for 
a year and removed to the Potlatch country, where he 
farmed for one year. Then he came to the vicinity 
of Lewiston and when the reservation opened up he 
took his present place, as mentioned above. Mr. John- 
son has labored faithfully in the good work of devel- 
oping the country and has so conducted himself that 
he has won the respect and esteem of all who know 

On October 28, 1886, Mr. Johnson married Miss 
Abbie, daughter of Jack and Mary (Duncan) De 
Lashmutt. The father was a farmer and merchant, a 
native of Pennsylvania and died in 1883. The mother 
was born in Missouri and died in 1885. Mrs. Johnson 
was born in Yamhill county, Oregon, on July 29, 1867. 
She had one sister, Jennie, now deceased. She has 
half brothers and sisters as follows : Isabelle, Sarah, 
Van Buren, Butler, Lindsay, Fillmore, Elsworth, 
Douglas, Josephine, Kate, Jennie, Mattie, Reuben, 
James and Samuel. Mr. Johnson has one sister, Addie 
McDaniel. To Mr. and Mrs. Johnson two children 
have been born, Jessie M. and Erne. Mr. Johnson is 
a member of the M. W. A. In political matters, he is 
a Democrat but never aspires for office. Mr. Johnson 
takes a warm interest in bettering the schools and does 
intelligent labor in all the affairs of politics and local 
concern His uncle, Abraham Byerley, was in the 
Indian war. 

HON. DENNIS VV. C. DUN WELL is one of the 
venerable and highly respected citizens of the county, 
is one of the prominent men and is also numbered 
with the earliest pioneers. He has done a giant's part 
in developing the country, and while the wheel of 
fortune has several times badly turned him down, 
still after each backset, he showed the ability, the 
pluck, and the energy to rise and overcome the very 
things that brought disaster, and so obtained a good 
success out of his defeat. 

He was born in Pleasant Valley, New York, on 
August 13, 1817, being the son of George and Orailia 
(Conklin) Dun well. The father was a tailor, born 
in Massachusetts, in 1780, and died in 1836. The 
mother was born in Connecticut in 1782 and died in 
1872. The parents went to Connecticut when our 
subject was an infant, settling in Salisbury. They 
remained there about twenty years. Then Dennis 
went to Michigan and sold stock and later taught 
school in New York, in Pennsylvania, and in Ohio. 

In 1850, he came to St. Paul, Minnesota, and there 
did contracting and building. He formed a com- 
pany, known as the Dunwell, Harthorn & Coul- 
ter Company, which dealt in grain and handled stock 
and did exceedingly well. During the crash of 1857, 
the company went down, Mr. Dunwell losing as much 
as two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Mr. Dun- 
well then came to Walla Walla, in 1862, with a mule 
team and later he was in Boise and other mining towns. 
He packed from Lewiston to Pierce City and Florence. 
In 1867 he bought a ranch in the Sweetwater coun- 
try. Through dishonesty of his partner, he was again 
stripped of his holdings, and his exepriences about 
Ibis time were exceedingly discouraging. His family 
came to him when he was thus depleted in finances. 
He took a position as secretary of Agent O'Neal, at 
Lapwai, then was elected assessor of Shoshone county 
in 1 87 1 and was soon on his feet again. He then bought 
a farm on five mile prairie, returned to Lewiston to 
school his children, held the mail route from Lewiston 
to Pierce City for four years and bought the old 
Greer ferry. In 1876-7, he was the representative of 
Shoshone county in the territorial legislature at Boise. 
In the spring of 1877, the Indians broke out, burned 
his property, including the ferry, house and goods and 
so forth, and again, Mr. Dunwell was called to meet 
misfortune. He finally gathered the remnants of what 
was left, sold it, and later bought a ranch five miles 
east from Lewiston, which is still known as the Dun- 
well ranch, which he has deeded to his daughter. 
He is making his home now with his son-in-law, 
Walter A. Smith. Mr. Dunwell was also in the Min- 
nesota legislature and was sheriff of Ramsey county. 
He owned two hundred and fifty acres where the fifth 
ward of St. Paul now is. Mr. Dunwell was a prom- 
inent man in St. Paul as he has been in this country 
and he has always manifested worthy ability and dis- 
cretion while his integrity has never been questioned. 
In 1853, Mr. Dunwell married Miss Mary B., 
daughter of Patrick Brennan, a wealthy man of De- 
troit, Michigan, where the wedding occurred. Mrs. 
Dunwell was born in Canada, on May 12, 1831. Mr. 
Dunweil has one sister, Mrs. Sarah Shears, in Mas- 
sachusetts. Mr. and Mrs. Dunwell have two children, 
Dan, in Oro Fino ; Mary W. Smith, at Lewiston. 
Our subject is a member of the Masons and has been 
for fifty-two years. He is the oldest member of the 
county and was granted an honorary membership in 
the St. Paul lodge without dues. He is also the oldest 
member of the Pioneer Association. Mr. Dunwell has 
a claim pending against the government for five thou- 
sand dollars for damages the Indians did in the war of 
1877. He is a Democrat in political matters and has 
always manifested an intelligent interest in the affairs 
of government as well as in business. 

CHARLES L. HAMILTON. Not only is the 
subject of this article well known as a thrifty and 
up-to-date farmer and orchardist but also in the in- 
dustrial world, he has gained distinction, being a.< 




pioneer in the blacksmith business in at least three 
different locations in Latah county, and he is withal, 
a man of ability and substantiality, and possessed of 
integrity and uprightness, which have won for him the 
esteem of his fellows. 

Mr. Hamilton was born in Macon county, Missouri, 
on September 2, 1857, being the son of Samuel C. 
and Sarah A. (Blackwell) Hamilton, the father 
being a fruit grower and blacksmith of his section. 
Our subject was educated in Missouri, and also learned 
from his father the art of blacksmithing, remaining 
there until he had arrived at the age of twenty. He- 
then came west to Whitman county, Washington, 
crossing the plains with mule teams. He took a 
preemption in Whitman county and for nine years 
was numbered with the leading tillers of the soil there. 
It was in 1887 when he came to Latah county, and 
here he homesteaded the place where he now lives, 
three miles south from Kendrick. He has an eighty- 
acre farm embellished with comfortable improvements, 
and an orchard of five acres. He operated a black- 
smith shop here and when Leland started, he opened 
a shop there where he beat the anvil to the time of 
honest industry until Kendrick was located, when he 
put up the first shop there as he had been first in both 
the other locations. He did a good business in Kend- 
rick until recently, when he sold the entire property 
and devoted himself entirely to his farming and fruit 
growing interests. Mr. Hamilton is affiliated with 
the W. of W. Lodge No. 327, being council com- 
mander, which office he has held for five terms, he 
also belongs to the circle. No. 217. He is a director in 
the Methodist church at Leland and at the present 
time he is a member of the Democratic county central 

The marriage of Mr. Hamilton and Miss Addie, 
daughter of Jacob and Catherine A. Van Tine, early 
pioneers of Whitman county, was solemnized at Col- 
fax, Whitman county, Washington, on January 14, 
1879, ar >d tne y became the parents of eight children, 
Leona, wife of B. P. Parks ; the rest all being at home, 
Florence, Ellen Nora, Jessie, Dela, Carver, Ruth and 

BENJAMIN E. WILSON. The subject of this 
sketch was born in Barbour county, West Virginia, 
on July 18. 1853, being the son of David and Amanda 
(Carter) Wilson, natives of West Virginia and Vir- 
ginia, respectively. The father was born in Barbour 
county in 1822, and his father was born there also. 
The mother of our subject was born in 1821 and died 
in 1886. In 1866 the family removed to Clay county, 
Indiana, where the father bought land and farmed. 
Benjamin here grew to manhood and received his 
education in the public schools. He took up farming 
for himself at the age of twenty and when he was 
thirty-two he went to Adair county, Missouri, and 
there tilled for five years. It was in 1890 that Mr. 
Wilson determined to try the west for himself and 
accordingly migrated to Tekoa, Washington, and there 
farmed until the reservation opened. His success was 

excellent and when the reservation was ready for 
settlers he came to the vicinity of Lapwai and secured 
a claim which he sold in 1901 and bought his present 
place, two miles west and two south from Melrose. 
He has a good orchard and is putting out more. Mr. 
Wilson has a nice bunch of stock and is breeding 
them up to fine specimens. 

While in Missouri, in 1886, Mr. Wilson married 
Miss Dora B., daughter of Henry and Martha 
(Heuitt) Mustoe, natives of Virginia. They were 
pioneers in Missouri. Mrs. Wilson was born in 
Missouri, in 1863 and has two brothers and one sister, 
William, Albert and Loretta Page. Mr. Wdson has 
two brothers and one sister, Robert, James B., Hellen 
Riley. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Wilson, Ethel and Blanch, both at home. Mr. Wilson 
is a Mason : has been school trustee and in politics is 
an active Democrat of the Jeffersonian type. He is 
a man of good qualities, has done a good work in 
this county and elsewhere, maintains a first class repu- 
tation, has the confidence of his fellows and is a genial, 
pleasant gentleman of intelligence and worth. 

JASON M. HARRINGTON. Few, if any, have 
done more for the industrial advancement of the county 
during the time in which he has operated here, than 
the subject of this sketch. Mr. Harrington is a mill- 
man, owning and operating a fine saw-mill and manu- 
facturing all kinds of lumber products. He is a man 
of fine ability and is possessed of worth and integrity. 

J. M. Harrington was born in Lewis county, New 
York, on August 16, 1843, being the son of Jeremiah 
and Elizabeth (Hulburt) Harrington. The father was 
a lumberman, born in New York in 1823 and died 
in 1899. His father, Capt. John T. Harrington 
was a prominent lawyer and lumberman and a captain 
in the war of 18 12. He was a partner in a law office 
with President Van Buren 'and married Kate Van 
Buren, a cousin of the president. He lived to be one 
hundred and cne years of age and died in 1884. He 
was a pioneer in the Black river region in New York 
and there did an extensive lumber business. His son, 
the father of our subject, was also a successful operator 
there and a prominent lumberman of the state. The 
mother of our subject was born in Lewis county, 
New York. Her mother was a native of Pennsylvania 
and her father of Rhode Island. The subject of this 
sketch came with his parents to Wisconsin when he 
was eleven years of age and the home was there for 
twelve years. Then they removed to Scott county, 
Minnesota, where the father continued in the lumber 
business. Jason M. received a common school edu- 
cation and when the war broke out, he enlisted in the 
quartermaster's department under Captain Haskell and 
did duty until the close of the war. He was at Mem- 
phis, Little Rock, DuVall's bluff and other places, 
serving faithfully until the close of the conflict and 
then went home. He continued in business in Minne- 
sota until the timber began to be scarce and then, in 
189T, he came west, looking for a location. Finding 

I 4 


the surroundings of Lewiston favorable, he secured 
a site and removed his mammoth establishment there. 
He did a fine business, but in 1897, the fire fiend des- 
troyed his entire plant, entailing a loss of twenty-two 
thousand dollars besides ten thousand dollars worth 
of logs. Phoenix-like, however, Air. Harrington 
would not brook defeat and at once built another 
mill. This plant is now being handled by his sons 
and thev do a good business. 

On August 5, 1868, Mr. Harrington married Miss 
Lavina, daughter of George W. and Elizabeth (Cava- 
nah) Sykes, natives of Ohio and Pennsylvania, re- 
spectively. Mrs. Harrington has the following- 
brothers' and sisters, George, Mary, David, Lewis, 
Ezra, Henry and Hattie. Mr. Harrington has the 
following named brothers and sisters, Vincent K., 
Curtis, Betty A.. Martha Allen and John. To Mr. 
and Airs. Harrington have been born children 
named as follows : Ellsworth : Lafayette, in Lewiston ; 
Jennie Robnett, county superintendent ; Minnie, 
teacher in the Lewiston public schools ; Jeremiah and 
Nettie Knight, in Lewiston ; Nellie, George, Jason M., 
Lewis and Gladys, at home. Mr. Harrington is a 
member of the A. ( >. U. W. He has always refused 
all nominations, but is a stanch Republican and takes 
an intelligent part in political matters and is a pro- 
gressive and capable citizen. 

WILLIAM BUOYE is one of the first settlers 
in that portion of Nez Perces county where he now 
resides, "having come here in 1878, taking a home- 
stead four miles west from where Leland is located 
to-day. Mr. Buoye built the first cabin in the big 
Potlatch prairie and was the second one taking land 
north of the Clearwater and east from the Potlatch. 

Our subject was born in Dodge county, Wiscon- 
sin, near Fcx lake, on March 7, 1848, being the son 
of Frank and Elizabeth (Cardwell) Buoye. The 
father was one of the early settlers in that vicinity 
and was occupied in tilling the soil. It was 1868 when 
the family came to Blue Earth county, Minnesota, 
making settlement near Garden City. There the 
parents died. Our subject remained until 1877, in 
which year he determined to try his fortunes in the 
west, and so came to Puget Sound, where he spent 
one year and then in 1878, came to the territory now 
embraced in Nez Perces county. He devoted him- 
self to the culture of his homestead and it has been 
the family home since, with the exception of the years 
from 1883 to 1888, when he was in Lapwai working 
for the government as a carpenter. He now has one 
half section of fine farm land well improved, good 
buildings, choice orchard, and is one of the prominent 
men of his section. 

The marriage of Mr. Buoye and Miss Esther, 
daughter of James and Rose (McDonald) Davis, was 
solemnized in Mankato, Minnesota, on February 14, 
1883, and they have become the parents of three chil- 
dren. William M., eight years of age, and Edna D. 
and Everd D, twins. Airs. Buoye is a native of Dodge 

county, Wisconsin, when she was taken while young 
by her parents to Blue Earth county, Minnesota. Her 
father died there, but her mother is still living. Mr. 
Buoye is one of the leading citizens of his vicinity 
and stands well, being a man of integrity and sound 
principles. In addition to general farming and fruit 
raising, he raises cattle, sheep and hogs. 

DAVID THOMSON is an enterprising, energetic, 
and thrifty farmer, a public minded citizen, a man 
of integrity and uprightness, and it is fitting that a 
review of his career be placed in the history of Nez 
Perces county. 

David Thomson was born in Ontario, Canada, 
on December 1 a. 1851. being the son of Joseph and 
Guira (Maria) Thomson. The father was born in 
Scotland in 1832 and came to Canada when a boy. 
The mother was born in Canada. Our subject re- 
ceived his education in the splendid and world famous 
schools in Ontario, and remained with his father until 
he had reached the age of nineteen. Then he came 
to the lumber regions of Michigan, where he operated 
for four years. It was 1874 when he left for Still- 
water, in Minnesota, and lumbered until 1878, when he 
went to Montana and freighted for twelve years. In 
1890, Mr. Thompson moved to Coulee City, Washing- 
ton and freighted to Wenatchee and the Cascades for 
three years. Then he removed to Umatilla county and 
in 1893, came thence to Nez Perces county, where he 
farmed for two years and then on November 18, 1895, 
he took his present place, five miles north from Mor- 
row. It is a good quarter section and is well handled. 
Air. Thomson raises cattie and does general farming. 
He has two brothers and one sister, John, Elizabeth 
Bean, Thomas. He is a stanch Democrat, active and 
influential in local politics while he is always deeply 
interested in the national issues and intelligent in 
the questions of the day. 

JAMES L. HOBART. Among the young and 
enterprising agriculturists of the reservation is to be 
classed the subject of this sketch and the industry, 
thrift, uprightness and good achievements of Air. 
Hobert are evidence of his worth and integrity. 

James L. Hobart was born in Buchanan county, 
Iowa, on Alay 20, 1870, being the son of Charles and 
Lavina (Lenington) Hobart. The father enlisted in 
the Ninth Iowa Infantry and served for over four 
years in the cause of his country. He was wounded 
at the battle of Gettysburg and participated in the 
march to the sea and many other great conflicts and 
arduous undertakings. He was honorably discharged 
and is now a member of the G. A. R. at AIoscow, 
where he and his wife reside. When James was eight 
the family removed to northern Iowa and thence to 
Graham county, Kansas. In the fall of 1881, they 
all come to the vicinity of Moscow and there James 
remained on his father's farm until he was married. 


That happy event took place on September 7, 1890, 
and the lady of his choice was Mrs. Elizabeth (Crum- 
packer) Decker, the daughter of Henry and Rachel 
(Frazier) Crumpacker. Her parents crossed the 
plains with ox teams in 1864 from Missouri to Boise ; 
in 1865 they came to the Walla Walla valley, settling 
on Dry creek. They were among the first settlers 
there and when the reservation opened they came 
thither. Here Mrs. Crumpacker died in 1896 and the 
bereaved father is now making his home with the sub- 
ject of this sketch. Mrs. Hobart's first husband only 
lived fourteen months after his marriage. One child 
was born to them, Faye Decker. Four children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Hobart, Winnie A., 
Beatrice, deceased, Doyle D., Naomi R. Mr. Hobart 
was here at- the time of the rush in the fall of 1895 
and was fortunate in securing a good place. He has 
it all fenced and under tribute of cultivation and is 
making one of the good and valuable farms of the 
country. He came with four horses, one cow and 
one wagon. All his holdings now have been gained 
since that time. Mr. Hobart is a member of the W. 
of W. and is in good standing in the community. 

I. N. RATCLIFFE, the son of W. E. Ratcliffe, 
of whom special mention is made in this work, was 
born in Douglas county, Oregon, on July 4, 1870. 
The first eleven years of his life were spent in that 
place and then he went with his parents to southern 
California, where they remained two years. Return- 
ing to Douglas county, our subject spent but a short 
time then journeyed to Davenport, Lincoln county, 
Washington. With the exception of one year which 
was spent in Utah, Mr. Ratcliffe was for thirteen 
years a leading resident of Davenport. Again we see 
him in Oregon and at the time of the opening of the 
Xez Perces reservation he, accompanied by his brother, 
came hither and took a homestead where the town of 
Peck now stands. He gave his attention to improving 
the farm and was instrumental in starting the bright 
town of Peck. Since that time he has devoted himself 
to the real estate business also to handling a livery and 
feed stable. In political matters, Mr. Ratcliffe is a 
Jeffersonian Democrat and well posted in the questions 
of the day. He is a progressive man, of broad mind 
and public spirit and is a leading spirit in any move- 
ment for general advancement and building up the 
town and country adjacent. 

J. C. PETERSON. The devotees of the news- 
paper fraternity have ever been a power in the de- 
velopment and progress of the country since the time 
when the first papers rolled from the early presses. 
Men of talent and enterprise have fought out the bat- 
tles of thought and settled right the questions which 
have been agitated and been brought up in the pro- 
gress which the same papers had fostered and made 
possible. As a representative of the fraternity, a man 

of ability and sound principles, the subject of this 
article, who is owner and editor of the Peck Press, a 
paper of vitality and merit, is justly represented in the 
history of northern Idaho and it is w'm pleasure that 
we grant him space here. 

J. C. Peterson was born in Tippecanoe county, 
Indiana, on F)ecember 22, 1868, the son of Martin B. 
and Margaret A. ( Bowers) Peterson, born in Ohio, 
in 1844 and 1846, respectively. The father came from 
Xenia. The mother is a daughter of a noted Dunkard 
minister. Martin Bowers. The parents both live in 
Latah county now. Our subject was well educated in 
his native country and in 1889, came with his parents 
to Washington and settled on Union flats, Whitman 
county. They farmed there one year and in 1890 they 
settled in the vicinity of Vollmer, Idaho, where he 
farmed for some time. In 1S95, our subject married 
Miss Rosa M. Hatter, of Vollmer, after which he 
removed into the town of Vollmer and learned the 
printer's art. He engaged in the publication of the 
Vollmer News, succeeding C. S. Moody, and continued 
the sheet until 1898, when he sold out, his partner, 
John E. Hoffman, purchasing it. Then Mr. Peter- 
son removed to Oro Fino, and there was connected 
with the Oro Fino Courier until November, 1900, 
when he bought the Peck Press and since that time 
Mr. Peterson has devoted himself to that paper. He 
has made the paper popular and it is a bright newsy 
sheet of good appearance and taste and is one of the 
lively and sound Republican papers of the northern 
part of the state. 

Mr. Peterson has two brothers. Homar L. and 
Sam B., and six sisters, Laura Booth, Mary Kenny, 
Maggie Rundle, Lulu Minehead, Angre, Edith Brown, 

Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Peterson, Beatrice and Lois. Mr. Peterson takes an 
active part in political matters and is one of the solid 
Republicans who stand on their platform from 
principle. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. and 
the M. W. A. Mr. Peterson has a farm adjoining Peck 
in addition to his paper and other property. He is 
a man whose uprightness and integrity have made him 
popular and of excellent standing among all who have 
the pleasure of his acquaintance. 

gentleman is one of the leading stockmen and farmers 
in the reservation portion of Nez Perces county, be- 
ing at the present time not only doing a general farm- 
ing business on his estate one half mile east of Kip- 
pen, but also breeding some excellent specimens of 
Percheron and Clyde horses. 

William Cunningham was born in Bradford 
county, Pennsylvania in 1S34, being the son of Jacob 
and Emily (Nichols) Cu