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DN offering this volume to the public, its publishers can hardly hope that it will in all respects meet 
the approval of those whose golden opinions are so ardently desired. The accuracy and com- 
pleteness of such a work depend not alone on the conscientiousness and care of the compilers, 
but more especially upon the amount and quality of the materials which happen to have been pre- 
served. For months the editorial force of the company has been searching with zeal and avidity for 
everything which could possibly throw light upon the past and present of Nez Perces, Idaho, Latah, 
Kootenai and Shoshone counties. Their search has not been as successful as they could wish, but they 
have done the best they could under the circumstances. It is thought that practically all printed matter 
which directly or indirectly related to the subject has been examined. Where no contemporaneous 
printed accounts could be found, the editors have been compelled to rely upon the testimony of pioneer 
settlers who took part in the events which they relate. In such cases they have, when possible, verified 
the statements of one man by those of another, knowing how treacherous and deceptive the memory 
frequently proves. But, with all vigilance, we can not feel sure that erroneous statements have not crept 
into the volume, and we feel constrained to invoke the kind charity of the reader to the faults he may 

The special histories of Latah and Kootenai counties were prepared by John M. Henderson alone; 
the general chapters on North Idaho and the special histories of Nez Perces, Idaho and Shoshone coun- 
ties by William S. Shiach, assisted by Harry B. Averill. 

The compilers have almost invariably been received with courtesy by those whom they have had 
occasion to approach, and to all who have in any way assisted, their sincere gratitude is hereby cordially 
extended. To make specific acknowledgements to everyone to whom they are due is impossible, but we 
must in a special way bear testimony to the kindly assistance rendered by the committees who have 
perused the manuscript histories of the different counties, giving us the benefit of their ripe knowledge 
and experience. 

Special acknowledgements are due the Lewiston Teller, the Lewiston Tribune, the Nez Perce 
News, the Idaho County Free Press, the Grangeville Standard, the Spokesman-Review, of Spokane, the 
Coeur d'Alene Sun, the Wallace Press, the North Idaho Star, the Moscow Mirror, the Rathdrum Tribune, 
and to the various other newspapers whose names are to be found in the chapter on the press, for the use 
of valuable files, without which a work of this character would be impossible. The congressional re- 
ports have given us valuable assistance, as have also the works of the various geologists who, under the 
direction of the department of the interior, have made geological and topographical surveys of various 
portions of north Idaho. Works in the Lewiston, Spokesman-Review and Wallace libraries have been 
pressed into service, and to the librarians of these libraries the thanks of the publishers is extended. 
They are also grateful to various state and county officials for courtesies cheerfully accorded in directing 
the compilers to sources of official information and in some instances making investigations for them. 


We, the undersigned, pioneer citizens of Nez Perces County, Idaho, hereby certify that we have read the manuscript his- 
tory of said county to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company with histories of the other counties of north 
Idaho; that we have called the attention of its author to such errors and oversights as our knowledge of events, gained by personal 
participation, has enabled us to detect, and that we have found it an accurate, impartial and comprehensive history, evidently the 
result of careful and extended research. 

Signed JAMES W. FOE, . 
Lewiston, Idaho, June 1, 1903. 

We, the undersigned, pioneer citizens of Idaho County, hereby certify that we have read the manuscript history of said 
county to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company, together with histories of the other counties of north 
Idaho, and that we have called the attention of its author to such slight errors as our knowledge of events has enabled us to 

found it an authentic, impartial and comprehensive treatise upon the subject and as such we accord it our unreserved com- 


Grangeville, Idaho, May 4, 1903. 

The undersigned, pioneer settlers of Shoshone County, Idaho, hereby certify that they have read the history of said county 
tion of its compilers to such slight errors as they noticed. They cheerfully testify that the work is, to the best of their knowledge 

A. D. McKiNLAY, 

For the Coeur d'Alenes. 
I. B. COWEN (County Commissioner), 

For southern Shoshone County. 
Wallace, Idaho, July 25, 1903. 

We, the undersigned, pioneer citizens of Kootenai County, Idaho, have read the manuscript history of said county, to be 
published by the Western Historical Publishing Company. Long residence in the county, deep interest in its progress and active 
participation in many of the events which constitute the record of its development, enable us to judge fairly the merits of the work. 

as a standard history of the county we give it our unqualified endorsement. 

Signed M. D. WRIGHT, 
A. W. POST. 
Rathdrum, Idaho, June 2, 1903. 

We, the undersigned, citizens of Latah County, Idaho, having been selected as a committee to pass judgment on the merits 
of the history of said county to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company do hereby certify as follows: 

We are pioneer residents of the county, have always taken especial interest in its development, and have been active par- 
ticipants in all events, the record of which constitutes its history. We have read the manuscript narrative of these events and it 

liable, and is a standard history of Latah County from the date of its settlement to the present time. 

Signed J. L. NAYLOR, 


Moscow, Idaho, July 27, 1903. 



ospective Sixteenth Century Explorations in the Northwest Eighteenth Century Discoveries Early Commercial En- 
erprises Astoria a British Possession Repossessed by the United States Superlative Absolutism of the Hudson Bay 
Zompany Advent of Methodist Missionaries in the Northwest The Oregon Controversy Joint Occupancy Treaty Con- 
inued " Fifty-Four Forty or Fight "Sacrifices of United States for Sake of Peace Imminent Danger of War with 
}reat Britain Emperor William of Germany Arbitrates the Dispute 



overies-Indian Legends Concerning Mysterious Treasure Colonel E. D. Price Finds 
i Opposition Prevents His Prosecution of Mining Deluge of Humanity into Nez 
Perces Country- Indians Unwillingly Sign a Treaty Steamboat Explorations in 1861 Opening of Oro Fino and Oro 
Grande Mining Regions Average Earnings of Placer Miners Description of Salmon River Mines Stampede to 
Pioneer Gulch-Indians Save Life of G. A. Noble The Dalles Subjected to Mob Rule The Two Mining Camps of 
Washington and Richmond Social Conditions-Lawlessness Punished by Judge Lynch 



Portion of Nez Perce Reservation Laid Out as a Townsite in 1861 Rapid Settlement of the Country Brings Miners' Laws to 
the Front Territorial Government of Washington Organizes Shoshone County Political Agitation for New Territorial 
Boundaries Lewiston the Fiist Capitol of Idaho Details of an Historic Crime Desperado Lower Demolishes a Camera 
Prompt and Effectual Action of Courts Disbands Vigilance Committees Unpopularity of Union Sentiment in Southern 

to the Supreme Court of the United States Stampede from Southern Idaho to the Coeur d'Alenes Early Railroad 
History Earthquakes 


Savages Fae to Face with Law of the Survival of the Fittest Scare in Indian Valley-Council of August 14, 1872 De- 
partment of Interior Prohibits White Settlement by Order Dated April 30, 1873 Local Effects of the Order Dilemma 
of the Interior Department Letter of Governor Grover The Wallowa Reopened to Settlement-General O. O. How- 

Massacre on Camas Prairie Criticism on Generalship Displayed in the Nez Perce War-Chief Joseph Complimented 

Cottonwood Trend of the War Decidedly in Favor of the Indians Joseph Finally Driven Toward the Buffalo Country 
General Gibbon Leaves Helena for the Front Engages the Indians and Is Wounded Discovery ot Treachery on 
the Part of the Bannocks General Miles Ordered to Pursue Joseph Toward Bear Paw Mountain-Surrender of Chief 


Growth and Development of Social Order-Idaho Legislature Memorializes Congress-Efforts to Annex Northern Idaho to 
Washington Territory Stout Opposition of Residents of the Southern Portion of the Territory Failure of Congress in 

tution Question Taken to Federal Supreme Court Transportation Problem Construction of Northern Pacific Rail- 
wayActivity of the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company Mysterious Pass in the Bitter Root Range of Mountains 




spires Feeling of Confidence Year of 1879 One of Progress and Prosperity Development of the County Under Trying 
Conditions Summary of the Year 1881 Murder of Chinamen in 1882 General Miles Expresses Faith in the Nez Perce 
Indians Efforts to Secure Removal of County Seat from Lewiston to Moscow Establishment of State Normal School 
at Lewiston^Opening of the Nez Perce Indian Reservation Explosion of the Steamer Annie Faxon Memorable Mur- 

Palouse Branch to Lewiston Nez Perces County Sends Troops to the Philippines Gold Excitement of 1877 Roster of 
Pioneer Association New County Destroyed Through a Clerical Error Segregation 83 


Capture All the Offices But One in 1868-Clash Between Parties on Question of Annexation Vote on State Constitution 
Republicans Memorialize Congress Official Canvass of the Vote in 1888 Advent of Statehood National Policies the 
Issue in Campaign of 1890-Organization of the People's Party in 1892-Brilliant Campaign in 1896 -State Carried by 
the Fusionists Official Vote 97 


Lewiston Blossoms From a Canvas Town-Once a Portion of the Nez Perce Reservation Incorporators are Hampered in 
Their Efforts Indian Situation in 1877 High Water Real Estate Rapidly Changes Hands Irrigation Projects Com- 
municate an Impetus to Growth and Development Sale of Street Improvement Bonds Educational Facilities Nez 


Traditional and Shadowy History Indians Secure Horses from New Mexico and California Expedition of Lewis and Clark 
Story of Wat-ku-ese Advent of Fur Traders into the Northwest Civilizing Force of the American Missionary- 
Adoption of Laws for Government of Indians in 1842-Schools and Religious Congregations-Moral Character of the 
People Disregard for the Rights of White Men Commanding Influence of Head Chief Halhaltlossot Nez Perce In- 
dians Swindled by Representatives of the Government Fort Lapwai Indian Training School A Word Concerning the 
Later Missions 122 


Topography Picturesque Scenes Which Greet the Eye Nez Perce Uplands Especially Adapted to Agriculture Net Profits 
from One Acre Exceed $700 Rev. H. H. Spalding Plants the Vine and Fig Tree of Civilization The Lapwai Basin 
Culdesac Craig's Mountain Nez Perce Prairie Statistics Shipments of Vegetables Amount to Thousands of Pack- 
agesUndeveloped Resources Considered a Fruit Section-rGrape Culture The Idaho Pear Climate Stock Rais- 
ing Educational Advantages 130 


CURRENT HISTORY, 18611879-. 

acer Mining Captain Francois, Pioneer of Camas Prairie Exploitations of Seth Jones Early Experiments in Agricul- 
ture and High Prices Realized for Products Inception of the Cattle Industry-First Location of County Seat at Flor- 
encePeople Administer Summary Punishment to Shumway Jim Lynching of Peter Walters Decline of Output of 
Placer Mining Rise of the Patrons of Husbandry Territorial Legislature Awards Camas Prairie to Idaho County- 
Mount Idaho Chosen as the County Seat Beneficent Influence of Charity Grange Inauguration of the Nez Perce Indian 
War Roster of Idaho County Volunteers The Sheep-Eaters' Country Murder of Peter Dorsey Lieutenant Catley 
Proceeds Against the Sheep-EatersIgnominious Retreat Death of Lieutenant Rains End of the Sheep-Eater War.... 3 

CURRENT HISTORY, 1879 1903. 

tion-Legislature Prescribes New County Boundaries First Legal Execution in Idaho County Mining Conditions 

in 1889-Organization of Company C, First Idaho National Guards-Heavy Snowfall in 1891-Boundaries of the County 
Again Changed by the Legislature County Seat Contest in 1892 Abundant Harvest Ruined by Heavy Rains Hard 
Times of 1893 Strike Camas Prairie High, Hot Winds in 1894 Capture, Trial and Sentence of Highwaymen in 1897 
-Idaho County Sends Troops to the Spanish War-Discovery of the Buffalo Hump Mines in 1898 General Prosperity 
in 1901 3 


Earlier Records Lost in Scramble for Gold Unconcern of Miners in Upbuilding a Stable-Government-First District Court 
Opened in Florence in 1862 Earliest Claims for Water Rights Official Vote of 1872 Campaign of 1878-Annexation 
Question Comes to the Front in 1888 County Seat Contest Enlivens Campaign of 1892 Populists Enter the Field the 
Same Year Free Silver Platform Adopted by All Three Parties Strenuous Campaign in 1896 Grangeville Chosen as 
the County Seat Idaho a Doubtful County 4 


:rial Development 
-Elk City Clear 



Ideal Field for the Geologist The Seven Devils The Bitter Root Forest Reserve Extensive Bodies of Agricultural Land 
in Idaho County-The Beautiful Camas Prairie Scenery in the Salmon River Canyon-Indian Outbreak of 1877 
Explorations in the Black Canyon-The Mining District Lindgren's Geological Report The Goodenough Vein- 
Marshall Lake District-Perpetual Snow on Summit of Lake Creek Divide-Many Slightly Developed 
Claims Thunder Mountain Region Description of the Mineralization of This Section The Bars of 
Salmon River Copper Properties-Quartz Mining in the Elk District Ancient Mining Section of Dixie The 
Evergreen Group The Buffalo Hump Syndicate Stock Raising, Agriculture and Lumber Industries-Fruit Growing- 
Idaho County Possibilities for Manufacturing 432 




Formation of Territorial Government in 1863-Pioneer Settlements Difficulties in Crossing the Clearwater Early Remin- 
iscences of Hon. Willis Sweet Danger from the Coeur d'Alene Indians Bannock Indian War of 1878 Rapid Settle- 
ment of the Palouse Country Fourth Session of the Territorial Legislature O. R. & N. Railroad Reaches Moscow- 
tempt to Remove County Seat Question of Annexation Scheme to Elect Two Sets of County Officials 581 



Latah County Organized by Congress The Only Instance on Record Text of the Act Appointment of County Officers- 
Official Report of Initial Election Population in 1890 Political Campaign of That Year Pioneers of Latah County- 
People's Party Enters the Political Arena Financial Troubles-Changes for the Better-Political Campaign of 1894 
Educational Matters Latah County in the National Campaign of 1896 Patriotism of Latah County in the Spanish War 
Prohibition Party Enters the Field in 1898-Tragedy of August 4, 1901-Prosperous Conditions 587 


Moscow The Pioneer of the Valley Energy of Man Overcomes Obstacles Paradise Valley Indian Troubles of 1877 
State University Annexation Excitement Responsible for its Location Curriculum Faculty of the Institution Ken- 
drick Foundation of the Town -Conflagration of 1893 Present Business Development-Genesee-Cdnditions Which 
Have Brought It From a Small Village to a Thriving Town-TroySerious Fire of 1893 Juliaetta 


Agricultural Industry The "Big Red Apple of the Palouse" Moscow Country Wheat Industry Abundant Yield of 
Vegetables Tramways of the Potlatch Country The Genesee Valley Productiveness of Soil Cattle Raising "The 
Great American Hog"-Hay-Cereals 6 



County Records No Old Settlers' Organization-First Voyageurs Aboriginal Tribes Jesuit Missionaries Father De Smet 
and Associates Site of First Mission Old Mission The Coeurd'Alene Indians De Smet Mission Expedition of Isaac 
I. Stevens Survey of International Boundary The Old Mullan Road Old Trails and Ferries Pioneers of the Early 
'Sixties Old Mail Routes Fort Coeurd'Alene 753 


Early Political Affiliations Creative Act of 1864 Amendment of 1867 County Organization and First Officers Election of 
1882 Financial Conditions-Northern Pacific Railroad Discovery of Coeur d'Alene Mines Early Courts Early 
Steamers-Election 1884 County Seat Contest 1885 Erection of Court House Short Crops Property Valuation U. 
S. Land Office Annexation Coeur d'Alene Branch N. P. R. R. Election 1886-Winter 1886-7 Population-Schools 
and Newspapers Accident on Coeur d'Alene River 1887 Election 1888 766 


is of County-Great Northern Railroad-O. R. & N. R. R. Lumber Industry Political Campaign 
lie 1893 High Water 1894 Election 1894 Valuation of Property Populism-Priest River For- 
est Reserve Spirit of Loyalty Displayed, 1898 Company B, Idaho Volunteers Clash Between Idaho and Washington 
Authorities Total Assessment Campaign 1898 Kootenai Valley Railroad Collection of Custom Duties at Porthill 
and Bonners Ferry Salaries of County Officers Discovery of Tyson Mines Bonded Indebtedness Census by Pre- 
cinctsCampaign 1900 Construction of Bridges-CorporationsAssassination of Judge John C. Brady Political Cam- 
paign 1902 The Alberta and British Columbia Reclamation Company Property Valuation 1902 Miles of Railroad in 
County Progress and Prospects The Pioneers "i 


Rathdrum-Coeur d'Alene Sandpoint-Harrison Bonner's Ferry Priest River Post Falls St. Maries St. Joe Ferrell 
Hope Clark's Fork Porthill Lakeview Athol Hauser Camas Cove Tyson Santa Fernwood Emida Clarkia 
Granite Ramsey Cocolalla Algoma Sagle Panhandle Kootenai Oden Pack River Black Tail Thornton- 
Cabinet Leonia Katka Crossport Moravia Naples Elmira Colburn Urencoe LaClede Albany Falls New- 
port Coeland Cataldo Mission Dudley Lane Medimont Anderson Lacon Watts Steamboat Landing- 
Squaw Bay Idlewild Weber Mica Len Landing Bellgrove Williams Seneaquoteen 7 


Value of Education Mission School in 1842 Pioneer Schools and Teachers of the County But Few Log School Houses- 
County at First Contained But Two Districts Sandpoint No. 3 Early Superintendents Offices of Probate Judge and 
School Superintendent at First Combined, Later Separated First Teachers 1 Association -First Institute Early School 
Records Statistics 1893 Effects of the Financial Panic Independent Districts, Seven Six Districts in the County 
Statistics 1902 Districts Benefited by Railroads Institute of 1902 Higher Education Schools a Credit to the 
County , i 


Area The Boundary Line Elevations Idaho-Montana Boundary International Boundary Geological Facts Kootenai 
County Once On the Shores of the Sea The Paths of Glaciers Helps and Hindrances to Settlement and Development 
Agriculture Soil Climate Pipneer Farmers Prices, 1880 Values Live Stock Patented Lands Grain Output, 


1902-Hortic'ulture-Orchards Market Fair at Coeur d'Alene, 1895 Dairying Flour Mills Irrigation of Rathdrum 
Prairie Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation Indian Population Agriculture and Stock Raising on the Reservation- 
Government Mills Recommendation of U. S. Agent, Albert M. Anderson Lumber Industry Timbered Areas Saw 
Mills and Lumber Companies First Discovery of Gold Letter from Captain John Mullan Mining Sections of Koot- 
enai County Railroad Mileage New Roads Scenic Superiority Water Courses and Lakes The St. Joe River St. 
Maries Coeur d'Alene Lake Coeur d'Alene Spokane River Rathdrum Prairie Central Lake Region Fish Lake 
Tsemini or Spirit Lake Heyden Lake-Sullivan Lake Hoodoo Lake Cocalalla Lake Mud Lake-Clark's Fork 
Pend Oreille Lake and River Kootenai River Priest River Forest Reserve Priest Lake and River Sportsman's 
Paradise Rare Opportunities for Investors and Home Builders g 


CURRENT HISTORY,. 1860 1886. 

First County in Mineral Wealth Discovery of Gold in Vicinity of Pierce City The Moose Creek Mines People of South- 
ern Shoshone County Disturbed by Indian Troubles Home of Francis Carle is Fortified Talk of County Disorganiza- 
tion in 1881 Letter of Lieutenant John Mullan Who Discovered Gold on the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene? Let- 
ter from John P. Vollmer Spontaneous Growth of Eagle City Stampede to Canyon Creek and Nine Mile Gulches 


First Fatal Snowstorm and Avalanche in the Region Railroad Projects Construction of Telephone Lines Increased 
Mining Activity Tragedy in Government Gulch Large Sums Expended in Construction of Roads Important Sales of 
Mining Property Phenomenal Growth of Wardner Progress and Prosperity in 1889 Railroad Right of Way Becomes 
Disputed Territory Agitation for Removal of County Seat from Murray Fatal Disaster at the Custer Mine Boarding 
House-Jail Delivery at Murray Organization of the Mine Owners' Protective Association-Four Men Killed in the 
Black Bear Mine Express Messenger Held Up and Robbed Differences Between Miners and Mine Owners Over a 


Two Official Statements Concerning Troubles Between Mine Owners and Miners Proposition Rejected by Unions-Armed 
Detectives Appear on the Scene Mines Closed Down or Run Short-HandedEncounter On June 11, 1892, Between 
Union Men and Guards of the Frisco Mill Strikers Withdraw Trouble Spreads to the Gem Mine Miners Go to Ward- 
ner and Attempt to Blow Up a Concentrator Martial Law Declared Those Active in Uprising Compelled to Flee the 
Country Cases Go to Federal Court Hard Times and Panics of 1893 Industrial Conditions Improve More Fatal 
Snowshdes Canyon Creek Mines Resume Operations Low Price of Lead and Silver in 1895-Labor Trouoles on the 
Horizon High Water at Murray Agitation for a Division of the County Masked Men Appropriate Rifles Belonging 
to the Local Militia Company of Mullan Murder of Foreman Fred D. Whitney Gold Belt Not Behind in the March of 
Progress The Year 1898 One of Uninterrupted Prosperity Outbreak of Spanish War Awakens Patriotism of Shoshone 
County People Generous Offer of Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mine Owners Roster of Company F Demand of Miners' 
Union for Higher Wages Destruction, in 1899, of the Bunker Hill & Sullivan Concentrator- Martial Law Declared and 
General Merriam Appears On the Scene Paul Corcoran Convicted of Murder in the Second Degree Issuing of Per- 

County Murder of Eugene Klein Highway Robbery on Murray Road-President Roosevelt Visits Wallace 10 



Organization of County Government First Board of County Commissioners Creation of Florence Precinct Many Office 
Holders Resign and go to the Mines in 1862 Election of 1864 Decrease of County's Voting Strength in 1874-Election 
of 1880-Discovery of Coeur d'Alene Mines Transfers Political Power to North Shoshone County Creation of Three 
New Precincts in 1884 Mormon Question the Issue of 1886 County Seat Contest in 1888 Triumph of People's Party 
in 1894 Republican Party Goes to Pieces in Shoshone County in 1896 Close Vote Between Republicans and Demo- 
crats in 1900 Republicans Carry Shoshone County 10 


"Placer Center" the First Name of Wallace-Colonel W. R.Wallace the Founder of the City That Bears His Name Suffers 
Defeat in the Office of the Department of the Interior His Statement Concerning the Matter Lot Jumping Report 
of Governor Stevenson Alexander D. McKinlay the Earliest Pioneer of Wallace History of the County Seat De- 
struction of Wallace by Fire Banking History County Seat Contest Sketch of Wardner Discovery of the Bunker 
Hill & Sullivan Mines Rapid Growth of the Town Present Status Story of' Pierce City-Orofino-Mullan Murray 
Kellogg Burke Gem Kingston Weippe Delta Thiard Greer Ahsahka Lenore 1026 



Boundaries of Shoshone County General Contour Climatic Conditions Conditions and Possibilities of the Coeur d'Alenes 
List of Minerals Found in the County "Tailings" or "Concretes" Geological Formation The North Fork Region 
Beautiful Weippe Prairie-Discovery of the Pierce City Mines Outlook for Lumbering Eastern Canyon of the Clear- 
water Mines and Mining Testimony of W. H. Ross Output of Coeur d'Alene Silver-Lead Mines Original Discov- 
ery of Mineral Wonderful Canyon Creek District Nine Mile District Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mine Senator Key- 
burn Explodes a Myth The Tiger-Poorman Mine Mines of Mullan-Copper Properties The Paragon Group-The 
Standard Mammoth Mining Company-The Empire State Hecla and Hercules Pierce City Mining District 

covery of the Mother Lode How They Watched the Golden Slab The Golden Chest All Along Prichard and Beaver 
Creeks Advent of Gold Dredges Educational Interests of Shoshone County 1048 



oneer Journalism The Golden Age Editor Favourite Establishes the Radiator Alonzo B. Leland The Idaho Signal 
Lewiston Teller Destroyed by Fire Nez Perce News Aaron F. Parker Lewiston Tribune Idaho Free Press The 

Editor Adam Aulbach, the Veteran Journalist of the Cceur d'Alenes Wallace Free Press The Dunn Brothers 
The Wallace Democrat Editor J. R. Sovereign and the Idaho State Tribune Cceur d'Alene Mining Record Orofino 
Papers Pierce City Miner and Wardner News Mullan Tribune Journalism in Kootenai County Latah County Press 
Moscow Mirror North Idaho Star Times-Democrat Other Papers 12C 

A North Idaho Indian Massacre-Early Days of Florence Reminiscent 1877 Mooney's Adventure Death of "Stumpy 
Wicks "A Shoshone County Bear Story Pioneer Baby of Florence Early Days In Idaho A Touching Incident 
Cceur d'Alene's Pioneer Children Indian Eloquence Pioneer Yuletide " Nigger Prairie "Expensive Terpsichorean 

Salmon River Idaho-Pioneer Bar of the Cceur d'Alenes Early Days in Moscow 1220 


A Glimpse of the Kootenai near Bonners Ferry 

A Portion of Lake Pend Oreille 

A View of Lake Coeur d'Alene 

Benedict Ranch at the mouth of Whitebird, the scene of Indian atrocities 

Buildings of the Idaho University at Moscow 610 

Catholic church built on Coeur d'Allene river at Old Mission in 1853 by the Indians and 

Jeusit Missionaries. Wooden pegs were used instead of nails to put it together. . . 64 

Chief Joseph 70 

East View of Clearwater Battle Ground, where thirteen United States soldiers and twenty- 
three Indians were killed on July 11, 1877 754 

Farm of David R. Davis 720 

Foster Monument commemorating a scene in the Nez Pesces war of 1877 64 

Hieroglyphics on the shores of lake Pend Oreille. Scientists have not yet deciphered their 

meaning 754 

International Boundary Stone near Porthill. David McLaughlin, one of the first settlers 
in the valley, and son of Dr. John M. McLaughlin, governor of the Hudson's Bay 

Company '. 796 

Luna House of Lewiston. Taken about 1868 107 

Original cabin of Richard Divine, the first victim of the Indians, killed June 13, 1877. ... 48 

Residence of Homer A. Thomas 700 

Residence of Washington Wolheter 696 

.Soldiers' Lookouts overlooking Whitebird canyon in the war of 1877 392 

The buildings used as Governor's headquarters and capitol of the territory of Idaho in 

1863, still standing in Lewiston 33 

The ranch where H. Elfers, Henry Beckroge and R. S. Bland were killed by the Indians, 

June 13, 1877 52 

Too-Lah, the friendly Nez Perces squaw, who rode to Florence from the SaJmon river, 

miners to the rescue '. 60 

View on the Snake near Lewiston 33 

1877 ! 427 



Abel William H 


Brooks Seneber S 


Davison William H 


Adams, Milo H 
Adams, Schuyler J ,. 



Buechle'r, Mathias '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Bunnell Charles C 



Day, Joseph H 
Decker, Frank J 
Delsol Louis 


Altmillar Jacob 

Buoye William 


De Moude, Martin D 

Anderson, Edward F 


Burns, Thomas J 


Dennis, James. 
Deschamps William 


Babcock, Ross S 


Butler, William C 
Caldwell William A 


Devlin, Owen 
Dickinson, Joackiam L 
Dickinson Oren L 


Baird, Ezra 
Baker, Andrew 
Baker Daniel 


i6 4 

Chambers, Ulyssis S 
Chandler, Frank 
Chapman Charles E 


Dieterle, Fred 
Dill, Benjamin 
Dill George W 


Banks, Absalom B 
Banks, James W 
Bashor Benjamin F 



Chapman, Clyde D 
Chapman, David L 
Chapman E Clay 


Dill, John 
Dixon. William R 
Doggett Sidney J 


Bashor, George W 
Beall, Thomas B 
Bean Esli W 


Chapman, George A 
Chase. Elgee C 
Chasteen James M 



Dowd, Charles 
Dowd, Douglas V 
Dowd Matthew 


Beeman, Rufus H 
Beloit, George W 


Chesley, Oscar B 
Christenson, Andrew O 
Church David B 


Dunwell, Dennis W. C 
Durette, Frank 


Berrv, John C 
Berry, Lowry L 
Berry Thomas H 



Clark, 'Louis '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Clark Philander H 


Easter, Levi C 

Eastman, William A 


Bielbv, John 
Billow, Isaac S 


Clayton, William S 
Cleveland, Ben D 


Edwards, Joseph F 
Ellis, Pitts 


Billups, John W 
Black, David 
Black Henry F 


Cleveland, Presley P 
Cleveland, Robert M 
Click Orie W 


Erickson, Andrew J 
Erickson, Erick 
Evans James H 

33 8 

Black, John H 
Blackinton, William M 


Clugston, Warren 


Evans, Orin 


Blewett, John L 


Cole, Benjamin L 
Cole, Cassius M 


Fairley, Earl E 

2 47 

Bofferding, Renny J... 
Bellinger, William 
Book, Peter 
Bounds, James L 
Bowlby Wilson 

2 4 6 
i8 7 
...... 142 

Cordiner, Arthur S 
Craig, Joseph L 
Crawford, Jervis R 
Crawford, Samuel M 
Crews, Bryant M 
Crow William 


Fairlev, Oliver L 
Fanning, Sherman W 
Pansier, Jesse H 

Faunce' Charles E. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Ferrall Garret H 



Bowman, James D 
Boyd, James W .- 


Crumpacker, William E 


Ferry, Charles E 


Boyer, Alva 
Boyer, Calvin 

Brammer,' George ' w'. '. '. '. ! '. '. '. 



Currv, Theodore 
Curtis, Julius E 

Daggett, Frank S 



Fish, David 
Flaig, Christian 
Ford, William 


Brammer, William 
Brasch, John 
Briggs Edson D 


Dale, Charles H 
Dale, George P 
Daniels Edward 

... 166 

Fritz, James A 
Frost, Electus M 
Frye Charles M 


Brocke, Charles H 
Broncho, Frank 


Davis, Granville O 
Davis, John B 


Gage, William H 


Garner, William P 


Johnson, Andrew M 


McCarty, Alva T 

P 220 

Gaylord, A. C 


Johnson, Henry 


McCoy, Mason S 

!!!!.' 196 

Gertje, Henry J 


Johnson, Miles S 


McCutchen, Alexander 

3 i6 

Gertje, John H 



McFadden, James W 

Gibbs William R 


Johnson', Philip!.'!!.''!.".!.'!.' 


McGee, John M 

GilTonl. Seth ' 


Johnson, Silas 


Mclntyre, Thomas C 

Gifford, Wilfred L 


Johnson, Stephen 


McKenna, John 


Giles, Charles 



MrUillis, Lonzo 


Gilland, George 


Johnson, Wylev T. ..'...'...! 


Meek, Courtney W 



Johnson, Zephaniah A 


Meek, Joseph L 


Gilmore,' George w'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 



Meek, Joseph L., Jr 


Glass, Thomas C 


Julian," Frank W 


Menges, Charles A 


Goffinet, Eugene F 


Jutte, Peter 


Merritt, Dexter D 


Goldsmith, Martin L 


Mervvn, William J 


Graham, John D 


Kachelmeir, Alois... 


Miles Charles C 


Granz, John C 



Miller, Alexander 


Green, Charles W 


Keeney, Elijah N ! 


Miller, Alfred E 

Green, William J 


Keith, Hollis W 


Miller, Christopher C 


Gregory, Austin D 


Keller, Frank 

Miller, Curtis. 


Srinstead, Charles W 


Kelly, M. A 

!!'.!!! 264 

Miller, Norton B 


Kemper, Frank A 


Miller, Perry E 


Grostein, Louis 

'.'.'.'.'. 255 

Kern, Willie E 

Miller, Rufus B 


Gwin, Jacob N 


Kil linger, John W 


Miller. Samuel K 


King, Thomas D 


Mills. Arthur J 


Hadford, Gust 


KniK. William H 


Minert, Frederick M 


Hadford' Louis 


Kirby Philip R 


Moekle'r. Thomas M 


Haeberle, Jacob 

;;;;; &? 

Kirbv. Thomas 


Morgan Henry A 

!!!!'. 167 

Hall, George S 


Knovvlton, Lafayette 


Morris, Charles E...' 


Hamilton, Charles L 


Kouni, Michael 


Morris, John B 


'Hanlon, Thomas O 


Kroutinger, Alfred W 


Morris. Mason 


Hardman, Albert C... 


Morse. Samuel S 


Hardwick, William D 


Lacey, Pearl C 


Moser, Robert E 


Harr, Joseph 


LaDow, Thomas H 


Mote. Charles W 

. 299 


Lambert, James 


Motince, Eben 


HarriT S Fra nk E". ..'.'.'. '. '. '. '. 


Larkee, John C 


Mounce, Jasper N 


Harris, Edison E 


Larson, August 


Mounce, J. Smith 


Hawthorn, John W 



Mowry, Jacob H 


Haynes, Loren L 


Leach, 'Eli A...! 


Moxley, Thomas C 


Hcberly, Charles W 
Hegel, Edward S 


Leachman, John F 
LeBaron, William 



Mucken, George 
Mustoe, Albert 

!!!!! 383 

Heitfeld, Anton 


Lee, Harold L 


Mustoe, Henry 

Helt, John W 


Leeper, Charles A 


Mustoe, Lewis W 

Henderson. George M 


Leeper, Clarence E 


Mustoe, William 

'.!!'.! 189 

Hendren. Jefferson D 


Leggett, Oaky W 


Hendrickson, Erick 

r 323 

Lenz, John G 


Nell sen, John 


Henry, Noble 


Lewis. Tohn H 


Nellsen, Simon 


Herres, Louie J 


Little. Charles W 


Nelson, Commodore B 


Hilton. Frank W 


Livengood, John 


Nelson, Frank 

Hobart, James L 


Lockridge, Samuel 


Nelson, Horace W 

'.'.'.!! 265 

Hobson, John W 

... 188 

Lough, Isaac N 


Nelson, John M 


Hoffman, Charles 


Lough, John T 


Nelson, Oscar 



Lowary, Samuel E 


Xewhard, Charles C 


HoHiday, ' George T'. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. 


Lowry, David H 


Newhard. Charles C., Jr 


Hollidav, William P 


Lucas, Ezekiel 


Nichols, Elmer D 


Holt. Samuel 


Lucas, Lee 



Hoslev, Herbert T 


Lydon, James R .'. 


Norton, Cyrus 

Huber, Andrew.' 


Nosbisdi, Jacob 

lluckal.ay. Robert E. L 


Mabbott, Ernest C 


Nugent. Owen 


Hunt, Warren P 


Mabbott. Thomas J. S 

Nye, Michael N 


Mael, Amos 


Inghram, John F 


Malmoe, Martin B 


Oderkirk. Albert 

Inghram. Robert L 


Manning, Fred M 


Olsen, Ole 


Ingle, Charles S 


Manning, George A 


Olson, Erlan 

Ingle, William" A 


Vfarkwell, Charles A 


Orbison, J. Telford 


Isaman, Samuel G 


\lathison, Chris 


Marker, James 

Pahl, George 


Jacks, Benjamin F 

.... 264 

Markliam, Samuel J 


Palmer, Benoni 

.:... 386 

Jacks, James S 


Marshall, Abraham J 


Parker, Ernest L 


Jackson, John C 

-- 315 

Marshall, Samuel W 


Patterson, Samuel 


Jacques, Stephen 


Martin, Joel D 


I'eden. William M 

.... 278 

Tarbo, Godfrey.... -, 

.... 326 

Martin, William B 


Pelton. Oscar 

John, David E 


Maynard, Frank, Jr 


Pennell, Robert L 


Johnson, Adams G 
Johnson. Andrew C 

.... 287 
... 238 

Maynard, Thaddeus T. ..... 
A [a vs. Lee 


. . . 2^1 

Peterson, J. C 
Philipi, John T.... 

... 252 

Phinney, Samuel 332 

Simmons, Lewis A 314 

Triplett, Jefferson D 284 

Pliter, George W 227 
Pollock, Alaxander 319 
Pomeroy Francis F 325 

Skinner, William H 266 
Skow, Nels P 282 

Tumelson, Jesse E 35I 
Tumelson, William O 348 

Pomeroy, John F 327 
Pool, Solomon J 37O 

Small, Ira 189 
Smith, George A 200 

Smith Hilbert B 280 

Tyler, James S 328 
Underwood, George W 249 
Unzicker, John S 199 
Utt, John H : 254 

Porter' SarrTuel 364 

Smith, Phillip S 139 

Potter! Lattin L.' '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 178 
Powell, John H 312 
Powers, John F 271 
Preisinger, Ferdinand B 235 
Fribble, G. E 279 

Smith, William A.... . . . 186 
Snyder, Mortimer A 263 
Southwick, Stephen R 227 
Spekker, Staas 379 
Soenslev. Victor 281 
Spiw Elra L 181 

Utt, Rufus W 354 
Vadriey, Emanuel ; Ip7 
Vaver, Alexander H 260 
Vollmer, John P I37 

Waide, William C . -> 7l 
Walker, Charles L 286 

Wan"' J C ,mes eS H A T 2 

Puntenney, Charles S 322 
Rainville Joseph 229 

Spivv, Minor 182 
Springston, John T 219 
Squier, Hazen 368 

Ramcv. William J 285 
Ratcliffe, I. N 147 
Ratcliffe, William E 250 
Rawnsley, Joseph 310 
Reese, William B 275 
Reeves, Enoch S 365 
Renshaw, Robert H 326 
Reynold Thomas F 386 

Stach, Joseph 300 
Stacy, Arthur S 243 
Staley, Abraham L 328 
Stanley, Horace 269 
Starcher, Lafayette 331 
Starrier, Daniel S 333 
Stearns, Clay M 311 
Steel, Wesley 308 
Steele, Major J 380 
Steele, Robert H 360 
Stellmon, Charles F 332 
Stellmon, George W 191 
Stellmon John F . . 237 

Warlick, Lawson W.... ... 366 
Warren, Felix... ? 5O 
Waters, Eddy H, 103 
Watts, Edward E 350 
Wayne, George W 159 
Webber, Jerry 181 
Weeks, Elmer ;.... 323 
Wells. Riclianl 208 
Whaley, Albert D '.. ...351 
Wheat. Tames M 292 
Whitcomb, James W 248 
White, George W. S 311 
White John W 181 

Richardson, Aaron J 222 
Richardson, Amos K 158 
Richardson, Caleb W 219 
Richardson, George L .-.. 223 

Riffy, William j ?66 
Robbins, Andrew E 169 
Roberts George A 367 

Stellmon, Melvin S 218 
Stephenson, Thomas . 230 
Stevens DeWitt 321 

White. 'William ...." 353 
Whitson, William N 186 
Wiggin. Edward L . 202 
Wildenthaler, Seraphin 268 
Wilks, John V ... 299 
Williams Albert 204 
Williams, Charles E 314 
WiHiams, David S ... 345 
Williams, Edward G 277 
Williams, Tesse P 173 
Willis, Frank B ... 247 
Willows, James F 162 
Wilson, Benjamin E 145 

Robnett, Jennie M 262 
Rogers, Alvah T 359 
Rogers, Frederic S 179 
Rogers, Henry J 306 

Stevens, George G 321 
Stevens, George W 339 
Stevens, John D 341 
Stevens,- Lewis D 296 
Stevenson William 250 

Root, Emerson T 199 

Rowe, Lee J 334 
Rnchert, Fred 274 
Rtiddell, George H 230 

Stoddard, William E 174 
Stoneburner, Joseph W. 172 
Stranahan, Clinton T 142 
Strouse, Jay W 344 
Sullivan, Thomas 234 

Rupe,. Smith 377 

Sampson, Charles C 339 
Sanders, Lewis 263 
Sanford, John L 317 
Saunders, Charles C 202 
Schaefer, Jacob 244 

Schfldrnan, Henry H" '. '.'.'.'.'.'.'. '. '.'.'.'. 141 
Schluetcr, Theodore 173 
Schnebly, William E 268 
Schultz, Joseph A 232 
Schwartz, Charles 158 
Scott Isaac 215 

Swenson, Swen 1 384 

Taber, James M 377 
Tannahill, George W 246 
Tatko, George E 303 
Tavis, William 148 
Tefft, Bertram W : 273 
Tellier Isaac 287 

Wilson, Nathaniel ... 323 
Wilson, William T 309 
Wimpy, Thomas j. . . . : 212 
Wing, Daniel M 196 
Wisner, Albert G 288 
Wissink. John 231 
Wolfe, John R 253 
Wood, Joseph P 228 
Woodin, Frank W 356 
Wortman. Charles B 203 
Wright, Charles W 273 
Wright, Davis S 296 
Wright, John G 236 
Wright, Nahaniel T 333 
Wright, Robert M 284 
Wright, William A 166 

Tcsterman, William A 248 
Thain, John 183 
Thatcher William 368 

Thomas, Charles D , . . 294 

Thompson, Clara J. 346 
Thompson, Joseph A 229 
Thompson, S. Leslie 152 
Thompson, Thomas H 304 
Thompson, William L 172 

Thornton', Leon M 338 
Thornton, Orville G 239 
Tiede, Charles R, 366 
Tiede, Herman L 372 
Timberlake, William E 267 
Timmons, William 177 
Trimble, Hank 258 

Scott, James R 190 
Sears Fred B 249 

Shaffer, Joseph E ... 313 
Sharp, Manley 1 186 
Shaw; James 188 
Shawley, William F 313 
Shelburn, Hardy W 252 

Wright, William W.... .'.'.' 175 
Wyman, George H 285 
Wyman, Philip 194 

Yager, Walter E 379 
York, Daniel W 295 
Young, William H 280 

Ziver, Joseph 309 

Sheppard, Charles J 329 
Shortlidge, Allen J 375 

Simmons, Joseph S 300 


Beeman, Rufus H.... 
Benson, Charles D 
Benson, Mrs. Charles D 
Bielby, John 
Billups, John W 
Billups, Mrs. John W 
Black- Henry F 

.... 256 
.... 304 


.... 160 

Green, Charles W 
Green, Mrs. Charles W 

Hanlon, Thomas O 
Hendrickson, Erick 
Holliday, George T 
Hunt Warren P 

.... 184 
.... 184 

.... 352 
.... 320 

Powell, John H 
Puntenney, Charles S 

Ratcliffe, William E 

Schultz, Joseph A. ... 
Sears Fred B 

.... 312 
.... 248 

Black, Mrs. Henry F 
Black, John H 


.... 240 

Squier, Hazen 
Stellmon George W 


Blewett, John L 
Blewett, Mrs. Lily M 
Bowlby, Wilson 
Boyd, James W 

Chapman, Charles E 
Chapman, Mrs. Charles E... 
Clark Louis 

:::: 14 

" 232 
.... i8 4 

.... 304 

Isaman, 's. G 

Jacks, Benjamin F 
Johnson, William F 
Johnson, Mrs. William F 

Jutte Peter 


.... 264 
.... 160 

Stevens, DeWitt 
Stevens, George G 

Stevenson, William 

Tefft, Bertram W.... 
Tefft, Mrs. Bertram W 
Testerman, William A.... 
Thompson Thomas H 

.... 320 
.... 320 
.... 248 

.... 272 


Click, Orie W 
Dunwell, Dennis W. C 
Erickson, Andrew J 

.... 320 
.... 320 

Keenev, Elijah N.... 
Keeney, Mrs. Elijah N 

Leeper Charles A 

.... 184 
.... 184 

Underwood, George W 
Vollmer, John P 

.... 248 

.... 137 

Erickson. Erick 
Evans, William M 

.... 320 
.... 272 

.... 232 

Wann, James H 
Wells, Richard 


Evans, Mrs. William M 

Fansler, Jesse H 
Faunce, Chales E 

.... 272 

Martin, Joel D 
Martin, William B 
Meek, Courtney W 
Meek, Joseph L 
Mockler, Thomas M 

.... 191 
.... 168 

Whitcomb, James W 
Whitcomb, Mrs. James W. . . . 
White, John W 
Wisner, Albert G 

.... 208 
.... 2 4 8 
.... 2 4 8 


Gage, William H 
Gage Mrs William H 

.... 304 

Mounce, J. Smith 

.... 152 

Wright, Charles W 


Goldsmith, Martin L 
Goldsmith, Mrs.' Martin L... 

.... 191 

Northcutt, Edward J 

.... 176 

Young, William H 

.... 280 


Adkison, John R 


Brown William G 


Crea John W 


Adslry, Elijah 


Bruner, Lewis A 


Crosby, Burt L 


Ailshe, James F 



Curtis, A. Fred 


Alkire, George S 


l!u,-u,].,rf. Fred C ."..'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


Aram, James H 


Butcher, Eben W 


Dallas, Green W.... 


Arbogast, H. S 


Davis, Fred A 


Aschenbretmer, Peter 


Calder, Henry R 


Davis, Theodore E 


Austin, Jesse G 


Campbell, Charles M 


Deardorff, Everett G 


Canfield, Oscar F 


Deasy, John 


Bales, Thomas W.... 


Carlson, Andrew J 



Bartley, A. D 


Carothers, Thomas H 


DePartee' Roy. ..'.'".'." /'.!'.! 


Beede, John E 


Carver," Amos 


Dillinger, Samson 


Bentley, Orren 


Casady, William H 


Dixon, Jesse M 


Bernthal, Frederic 


Castle, Levi 


Doss, John C 


Bernthal, Joh'n M 

Chadwick Lawrence C 


Bibb, Robert M 

HMM>, Alfred H 


Chamberlain, J. B 
Chase, Edwin I 


Duncan, George W.... 
Dunham, Charles W 

....'.'. 480 

Bowman, William W 


Clarke, Wellington M 

...... 477 

Dunn, Joseph W 


Braekett, Charles D 

;;::;:: 466 

Clay, Hershel H 


Durant, Magnus J 


Brady, Hugh..., 
Briggs, Phoenix R 


Cone, Cha.rles P 
Conklin, George N 



Eckert, Jacob L 


Brockenour, Peter 

'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 538 


Eckland," Telon E 


Brown; Benjamin P 


Cooper, Richard P..... '. '. '. '. 


Elfers, Henry J 


Brown, Charles F 


Coram, William 


Elfers, Henry J., Jr 


Brown, Charles F .-. 


Corbett, Paul F 


Eller, Joseph M 


Brown Frank 

Cowgill George A 


Evans Oscar M 


Brown, Loyal P 


Craig, Stonewall J 


Brown, Rollin C 


Cramblit, John T 


Farmer. Jesse 


Ferree James E 


Lyon, John 


Riggins, Richard L 
Riggle, Allen L 


Fitzgerald, Edmond 

.... 547 
.... 471 

Mackie, John 


Robie, Edward W 
Robbins Hiram 


Fodder, Joshua' S .'.'.'.'.' '. '.'.'..'.. 
Foster, Albert D 


vlahurin, Stephen K 
Markham, Harry V 
Vlartin, Morgan L 


Rogers, Barney R 
Rossiter, George 



Schneider, David 


Gage, Marcus E 
Gallaway, Albert 
Gallaway, George M 


Mattox, William w''..' 
McConnell, James R 
McDermid, Hugh M 


Sewell, AddisonD 
Sharp, Levi 
Sheer, George 


Gallaway, Sherman S 
Gallaway, Thomas B 
Garber, Jacob C 
Gee, Everett 

'.'.'..'. 509 

McFadden, Henry J 
McGuire, Perry A 
McKnmey, Joseph A 
McKin/ie, Caswell T 

'.'.'.'.'. 452 

Sherwin, Perry E 
Shissler, Franklin 
Shissler, John M 
Short. William H 



Getty. George R 

54 1 

McMillen, Francis E 

'.'.;'.; 580 

Simpson, Lewis M 


McNamee, Clay 


Slayton, George W 


Mckutt, William C 


Smith, Edward C 


Goldstone, Samuel 

Gregory, Charles's 
Greving, Henry A 
Guseman, James S 



Meyer, Henry 
Miller, James L 
Mills, David T 
Moberg, Olof P 
Moore, Andrew W 



:. r :::S 

Smith, George D 
Smith, Henry T 
Smith, Peter 
Sorrow, Joseph 
Southard, Harry 

- 542 

... 560 

Morris, Manuel C 


Springer, Francis D 


Hale, John T ' 


Morton, Lucius L 

'.'.'.'.'. 549 

Stewart, Charles W. I.".."..'.! 

..... 516 

Hall, John C 


Moughmer, George W 


..... 455 

Hall, William A 


Nevin, John 


Stockton, George S 
Stokes, Murat W 


Harris" William H.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'. 


Nickel, Thomas W 


Stuart, James 


Hartman, Richard H 


Nurss, 'Albert F 


Surridge, Thomas 


Hattabaugh, Isaac C 



Hawk, Frank M 


Odle, George R 


S warts, John A 


Hawley, George V 


Oliver, Erastus W 


Swarts, Theodore D 


Haydin, Patrick E 
Henley, Richard B 


Oliver, James N 
Olson, John 

;;; Jji 

Sweet, Edward S 


Hickerson, Walter 
Hiramelspak, Joseph 
Hoffman, Loran D 
Hogan, Frank 
Hogan, William 
Holbrook, Jacob E 
Hollenbeak. John T 
Holt, Charles E 
Howe, Mark 


''" *I 


Ott, Lawrence 
Overman, John I 

Parker, Aaron F 
Paul!, William 
Pearson, Frank R 
Pearson, William C 
Pell, Richard E 
Perkins, James E 

'.'.".'.'. 513 




Tautfest, Fred 
Taylor, Andrew J 
Taylor, Frank L 
Taylor, Frank Z 
Taylor, John 
Telcher, Didriech II 

Thompson' Jessy B 
Truitt, Russell 


Irwin Isaac M 


Person, Nils 




Jarrett, Mark V : 


Peterson. Swen J 
Pettibone, Nathaniel B 


Turmes, Lucien 
Turner, Franklin P 
Turner, John W 



Pfeufer, Joseph 


Johnson! Hannibal F 
Johnson. John T 
Jones; Robert H 
Jones, Seth 

"Keefer, Christopher F 
Keith. John W 
Kim-aid, Alvis A 



Phillips, Lincoln L 
Poe, George C 
Powers, Frank M 
Poyneer, Harrv D 
Price, Edson G 
Prichard, Philip S 
Pulse, John J 
Putnam, George E 



VanBuren, D. C 
Vandeburgh, Edwin C 
Vansise, Frank D... 
Vicory, Joseph H 
Vincent, Joseph K 
Vincent, Joseph S 
Vineyard, Ly^rgus 




King, Amandus P 
King. Peter 
TCnorr, Benjamin D 


:::;:: B 

Ready, Peter H 

Remington. James J 
Reynolds. Winfield S 


von Bargeni John"!* 1 .'.'.'.'."! 
Von Berge, William 


Rhett, Walter S - 


Wagner, Martin 


Lamb, Ellsworth D 
Lamore, Gilbert N 
Lanningham, Albert C 
Large, Sam 


Rhoades, Alonzo Z 
Rhoades, Jay O 
Rice. Charles L 
Rice, John B 


Walker, Robert X 
Wassem, George F 
Watson. Alexander I 
Watson, Robert 


Leach', Patrick H. '.'. '.'. '.'.'.'.'... 
Lee Cyrus M 


Rice, John N 
Rice, Moses H 


Webber, Albert 
Weber, Alexander A 


Levander, Edgar W 
Levander, John O 
Libbey, Samuel R 
ILvon, Ivan D 

'.'.'.'.'.'. s6j 

'.'.'.'.'.'. 568 

Rice, Riley 
Rice, Russell H 
Richardson, Foster 
Rickards, William H. V.... 


Weber, Jacob L 
Weddlc, David 

Whiting. Silas 
Wickam, Holsey 


Williams, Andrew J.... 


Witt, James 


Yates, David 


Williams, William S M.. . 

Wolbert Joseph M 



Wilson, Samuel A 
Wilson, William 


Wolfe, George M.... 
Wood John A 


Young, John.C 


Wilson, William J 
Wiltse Bion C 


Wooden, John D 


Zehner, Benjamin F 




Beede, John E 


Gould, Mrs. Norman. 


Pulse, John J 


Benedict, Samuel 
Bibb Robert M 


Hadorn, John 


Bibb, Mrs. Robert M 


Remington, James j 


Carothers Thomas H.... 


Irwin, Isaac M 


Robie, Edward W 
Robie, Isabella 


.Cleary, Mrs. Catherine 11. 

Elfers.. 451 

Jarrett, Mark V.... 


Jarrett, Mrs. Mark V. 


Sweet, Edward S 


Davis, Theodore E 


Dunn, Joseph W 


King, Peter 

Tavlor Andrew J 

Truscott, Matthew H 


Eckert, Jacob L 


Lyon, Ivan D 


Turner, John W 


Elfers, Henry J 


Ott, Lawrence 

Wassem, George F 


Galloway, Thomas B 


Wassem, Mrs. George F 


Goldstone, Samuel 


Pettibone, Nathaniel B 


Witt, James 

Gould, Norman 

478 Pfeufer, Joseph 

564 Zehner, Isaac 



Aldrich, Benjamin F 


Burr, Homer E. 


Davis, William W 


Anderson Almarine A 


DePartee, Joseph C.' 

Anderson, George W 
Anderson! John I.!.'!!.'.'! 


Callison, Samuel P... 
Cameron, Daniel 

Dobson, Arthur A 
I^ougharty, George H 
Driskel, Daniel W 


'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 682 

Cameron, Murdock. . . 


Dygert, Albert 


Atchison/EdwardP '.'.'.'.'.'. 


Campbell, Frank 
Canfield, Homer W. . 


Ebel, Charley 


Carter, William 


Ely, Wellington L 


Barton, Robert H 


Chambers, Samuel T.. 

Bartroff, William 


Chandler, Charles 


Erichson, Henry '. ....'.. 

:'.;:; III. 

Bean, Walter W 


Chancy, Livey J 


Estes, Archie B 


Beardsley, O 


Chapman, David 


Evits, Michael 


Beardsley, Orton W.... 
Beasley, Richard 


Charles, Alexander II 
Christie, -Thomas H.. 


Flomer, Henry 


Bechtel,- Martin 


Clark, James W 


Frazier, William M 
Freeze John 


Bell, Robert J 


Clyde, Peter 

;:::::::::;; 695 

Freeze, John P. ............. 


Belvail, William R 


Cobbs, Hartzell 


Freeze, Michael C 


Berry, Franklin M 


Colburn, Alfred 


Berry, James D 


Cole, Ezra L 


Gale, George W 

Biddison, Amon K 
Biram, William L 
Booth, George M 


Collins, James H.... 
Collins, Joseph R 
Comer, William -A... 


Gamble, Daniel 
Geiger, Joseph 
Gilbert, Horace E 


Bottjer, John...., 
Bowks 3 ,' Ru7us ei M~. .'.'.'.'.'.'. 


Cone, Benjamin F.,.. 
Copeland, Lloyd D... 
Crocker, John S 


Gower, Charles H 
Grant, James 
Green, Albert J 


Bowman, Charles E 


Crooks, Birt 


Green, Joseph M 


Brillhart, George H: 

Crowley, Thomas.... 


Griner, George W .". 


'.'.'.""" 708 

Griner, John E 


Buchanan, William A. . . . 


Dailey, James E 

.... 668 

Gummere, Currency A 

...... 726 

Bundy, Harvey J 
Burdic, Fredric F 


Dale, William P 
Damrkon, Gustav. . . . 


Hadley, George W 


Burger, Christ 


Davidson. Joseph 


Hafenjohn J 


Burke, Edward L 

746 Davis David R 

720 Halliday, Andrew E 


Halverson. John 


May, Frank 


Scharnhorst, Charley J 


Hanson, Christian 


McBane, Gillis J 


Scharnhorst, Christian 


Hanson, Henry 


McCann, Charles W 


Scharnhorst, Fred 


Haon, John B 


McClellan, Joseph L 


Schuh, Louis P 


Harreld John H 


McCown, Louis B 


Sharp, Jasper P 

Harrison. Jacob L 


McCoy, Hamlin 


Sin,-!, Is, Charles W 


Hart, Nelson 


AlcKen/ie, Angus 


Shields, M. J 


Hasfurdher, J. Nicholas 


McKenzie. Donald 

749 George .... 


Hawkins, Herbert L 


Michael, George W 


Sievert, Goswin 


Hawley, N. M 


Michelson, Lewis 

Silvey, Samuel T 


Headington, William .1 


Miller Jacob H 


Smith Andrew J 


Heinrich Xa'vicr 


Miller, James L 


Smith! Charles F 

..... 674 

i Mil. Gi-orge W. P 


Miller. John C 


Smith, Henry C 

Hjelm, John 


Mochel, Benjamin F 


Smith, Hezekiah M 


Hobart,' Charles 


Mochel, George L 


Smith, Marques L 

Holbrook, Noyes B 
Holt Charles B 

.. 748 

Moore, Charles 

Mnrpv Osrar V 


Smith, Thomas A 

'.'.'.'.'. 738 

Hopkins, Liles A 

715 Muncey, Marion F ".. 


Stanford, Norman A 

..... 645. 

704 Munson, Charles J 


Starner, John A 

..... 693 

Howell, Albert 



Howell. Henrv 


Naylor, John L 


Strong"' JamlT S .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' '.'.'.'. 

Hunt, Daniel 

1 hitcliison, James 


Nelson, August 
Nelson, Christian 


Sullivan, John 
Sullivan, John S 


Hutchison, John H 


Normoyle, Michael C 


Swenson, Engel C 

Notman, David, Jr 


Irvine, Landon C 


Tharp, William W 


Oderlin, Charles H 


Tegland, George 


Johann, Peter 


Olson, Nicholas 
Olson Olof 

...... 678 

Thomas' Martin" v"" 


Johnson, Casper 

'.'.'.'.'.'. 682 

Otness, Ole 


Thompson, William N 

'.'.'.'.'. 667 

Johnson! Kli M.: 


Owen, John J. 


Tierney, Thomas 


Tohnston, John D 


Towne, Charles B 


Johnston, Joseph C 


Palmer, Charles W.... 

Tucker, George W 


Jones, Benjamin J 


Palmer, Elmer P 

Tuckey, Elias 


Jones, Fred W 


Pauls, Peter... 


Tritt, Samuel H 



Tweedt, Hans C. J 


Kincaid, James M 


Peterson, Oliver S 

:.".:: 686 

Urquhart, David 



Pickering, Rees 


Kluss. Theodor 


Pierce. George W 


Vandevanter, Moses 


Knowlcs, Oliver W 


Platt, Edward T 


Vande walker, C. V 


Kresselt. Frederick P 


Pledger, John W 


Vassar, Tames R 



Poindexter, Thomas S 


Visby, Niels J 


Lackner, Daniel 
Langdon, George 
Langdon, Samuel J 
Larson, Oscar 
Lander, William C 
Lazelle, Isaac W 
Lazelle, Sunnier C 


Randall. Virgil 
Randolph, John S 
Kav. Charles E 
kavlmni, Frank 
Ream. John 
RekdaJil, Benedick B 
Richardson, Richard F 



Wahl, Christian 
Walker, George W 
Weber, Gottfried 
Webster, Frank W 
Welch, William M 
Whetstine, Robert S 


:::::: | 

Leasure. William H 
Leonard. Frank L 
Lestoe Hans J 



Riellv. Joseph 

Kiel man. Ulrich C...- 

..-.. 743 


Williams, Andrew' b! '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Wilson, James T 
Wolfe, George W 
Wolfenberger, James A 
Wolheter, Washington 
Woodworth, Ray 




Lieuallen, Almon A 
Lynd! Andrew 


Roberts, A. Henrv 
Roberts, John 
Rogers, Henry M 
Ross, James W 


Madison, Canud 


Rudd, Bryant M 

ATadsen, Niels 


Yarbrough, John B 


Mauuire. William S 


Sardam, Porter D 


Yockev. Charles W 


MalU'rv, Herman W 


Sawyer, George H 


Young/George E 


Manwaring, John 


Scharbach, Paul 


Yountr. William W 




Anderson, Martin 
Cameron, Daniel.. . 


Headington, William 1 
Horton, John H 

kl 656 

Miller, Mrs. John C 
Munson, Charles J 

. ... 672 

Collins, Joseph R 
Davis, David R 


Hutchison, John H... 


Rekdahl, Benedick B 
Rekdahl, Martha B 

.... 680 
.... 680 

Jones, Benjamin J... 


Sievert Goswin 


Freeze, John 


Kluss, Theodore and 

family 664 

Strong, James R 
Sullivan, John S 

.... 648 

Ty ' a 

Larson, Oscar 


Gilbert, Horace E 


Visby, Niels J and family... 

.... 640 

Hawley, N. M 


McBane, Gillis J 

McKenzie, Angus 


Wolheter, Washington 

.... -696 

Headington, Mrs. Mattie.... 


Miller, John C 


Wolheter, Mrs. Washington. . . . 

.... 696 


Allbaugh, William F 


Carr, Carey 


Dwyer, William P 


Allen, Albert B 

967 ' 

Carroll, John D 



Carter. Willis 


East, Hughes 


Anderson, Joseph 


Case, Albert R 

Eaton, Albert D 



Casey, James P 


Eaton, William 

' 879 


Eckert, James R 

Antelope, Morris ............ 


Chambard, Louis 


Edwards, Henrv R 

:::.".:'. 841 

Arrapa, Stanislaus 


Chambers, Clarence 


Egbers, Robert C 


Baeck Carl 

Chisholm, Donald H 



Fge, George L 
Ehlcrt William 


Baldwin, Harry L 


Christenson, Andrew 

Eilert, Louis E 


Baldwin, Mrs. "James T 


Cisco, William E 

'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 916 

Elderton, William 


Barnes, Joseph I 


Cleland, William H 


Elsasser, John T 


Barza. Beer 


Coleman, George E 


Elsasser, William R 


Baslington, William 


Cole, William S 


Emerson, R. King 


Batters. George 





Bauer Joseph A 


Erlenwein Louis W 


Beck, Simon 


Cook, Willis H 

Esch, Daniel 

Bennett, Percy J 


Cooper, George 

'.'.'..... 902 

Esch, Levi 

Bentlev, Delbert H 


Cooper, Jasper 

Bentley, F.dmond J 


Corzine, Lorenzo D 

::;:::: T 3 o 

Feely, Charles W 


Benton, Thomas 


Crandall, Elisha 4 


Feely, Clarence H. 


Bigelow, David E 


Cmishaw, John 


Feelv, IrvanE 



Crow, Levi 

.. 964 

Feely, Tames J 


Blessing, Titus 


Gulp. Charles W 


Feely, Thomas N 


Berth wick, Robert C 


Curtis, Abner 


Fenn, Thomas H 



Ferbrache, James G 


Bo^e n r, a Alfred n . . '. 
Boyker, Louis E 


Dahlgren, Frank 
Danner, John H 


Ferbrache, Peter A 
Ferguson, James C 


Bradley, James M 
Bragaw, Robert S 


Darknell, Arthur A 
Davis, Frank A 

....... 854 

Fernan, John 
Ferrell, William W 


Brant, Trven J 
Brengman, John P 
Brophv, Joseph G 
Brophv, Thomas 


Davis, Walker R 
Dawson. William 
Dutrick, Isaac N 
Denison, Jesse 


Finney, David F 
Finnev. Ezekiel M 
Fisdior, Ernest F 
Fisher, Fred C 


Brown, David 


Fisher, Tames A 


Brown, William H 
Bruce, Malcolm 
Bunting, Arthur E 



Dighton. Edward 
Dingman, Ross 
Dittemore, Louis T 


Kislv.M-; Toseph 
Flemming, George W -. 
Frederic, John \V 


.Hunting, Robert 
Burke, Richard W 


Dobson, John H 
Dolan, James E 

'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 853 

. . 859 

Frost, Arthur E 
Fry, George 


Burnham, H. E 


Doust,' Edwin 


Fry, Richard A 


Draves, Rudolph 


Cable, William H.... 


Dugan, Joseph T J... 


Geek, Henrv 


Caldwell, John 


Duncan, John H 

Gerrard, William 


Dunlap John 

Gertum, Charles 

Campbell, Thomas S .... 


.".."..".: 847 

'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 840 

Girard, Peter 
Gleeson, James 
Goohy, Robert M 

Graham. Arthur H'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Graham, James A 
Grant, John C 
Graves, H L 
Graves, Rufus H 
Greaves, John W 
Green, Alphonzo A 
Green, Charles S 
Green, James A 
Green, Wallace P 
Griffus, Henry R 
(-.imii. Francis M 
Culhric. ChnmxyE 
Guthrie, James H 
Guthrie, Marion 

Hager, John 
Handy, Joseph W 
Hart, Warren A 

Hays, George L 
Henry, Samuel E 

Hkkey^lichaTl A! '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Hite, Nicholas 
Hoar, William R 
Holm, Thomas - 
Holton, George 
Hooker, Gabe H 
-Horn. Charles 
Howell. George W 
Howes, Stephen B 
Hudlow, Alford W 
Huguenin, Tell 

Jackson, Charles 


Johnson, Peter G 
Jones, Andrew J 
Jones, Mahlon P 

Jorgensen, Hans L 

Kamlin, Charles E 
Kenecly, James H 
Kent, Andrew J 
Keyser, Henry 
King, Clement B 
Knudsor., Herman 

Lagers, James T 
Lancaster, William S 
Larson, John 
LaVergne, Louis 
Leaf, Andrew 
LeHuquet, John 
Lemly, William 11 
Lemon. Thomas J 
Ubby, William E 
Lin.lMrom, Peter ' 
Lyon, Leveritt V 
Lyon. William H 
Lyons, William 

Macha. Bona . . . 
Manning. Harlan P 
Markham, Francis M 
ivlarkham, Lvman F 


.'.'.'::;; 842 
8 3 8 
8 4 i 


;;;;;;'. 863 
8 7 6 




::::::: | 

:;;;;;: 894 

.... 886 



::::::; 1 

'.:'.:'.:; %. 






Martin, Emory B 


Richmond, Jerry 
Riggs. Iral 
Riley, John W 


Mashburn, Pink C 
Masterson, O. B 


McCarthy, Timothy 
McCune, Tohn 
McDonald, James 
McGuire, Annie 
Mcllhargey, John 
McKenzie, Duncan S.- 
McKinnon, Norman 
McLean, John 
Mel ellan Robert 


Ritchev, Samuel B 
Robacher. William H 
Roberts, Josiah 

Rochat, Henri 
Ross, Branson M 
Roth, Victor W 
Russell, Frank 


. . . :. 923 

Russell, Tames E 

Ryan, William '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Sage, Anthony A 
Sage, Reuben J 



McLennan, Louis 
Melder, Henry 
Merritt, Andrew A 
Merritt, Donald O 
Merritt, Jay K 
Miller Adolph 






Saltese, Chief 
Sanburn, Jay R 
Sander, V. W 
Schroeder, John F 
Schussman, Frank 
Scott, Ansel 1 
Scott, Thomas H 
Settle, John W 
Shafcr, John 
Sharai, Wellington F 
Sharplev, Richard 


Miller, Gustav 
Miller, Sylvester 
Mills, Thomas W 
Moc-Til-Ma, Peter 
Montgomery, Thomas E 
Montgomery, Zachariah 
Murray, Robert 

Nelson, Christ 
Nelson, James 
Nelson John 

Shear, Cyrus B 
Shear, Edward A 
Sinclair, Janet R 
Sisson. William E 
Skelton, John W 
Slayter, James W 
Sloop, Jacob A 
Sluyter, Westol H 
Smith, Charles 
Smith, ColonS 
Smith, David K.... 
Smith, Joseph 
Smith, Samuel L. . . 
Smith, Ulvssis G .". 
Snyder, Washington 
Sorenson, Peter C 
Stockwell, Benjamin F 
Stone. James M 
Stone, William T 
Stuve, Edward 
Stuve, Louis 
Sullivan. Wesley 
Swofford, Harvey J 

Tank, Henry .... 
Tautenhahn, Richard 
Therleen, John 
Thompson, Ruth A 
Thompson, Robert C 
Thorp, Elbridge W 
Titus, George S 
Towle, Walter R.... 
Travis, Albert E 
Triplett, William L 
Tyson Tames 



....... 924 



:::::: K 

.... 022- 

Nelson, Nels 
Newcomb. George O 

Nilson, Carl 
Noble, Albert H 

Oakland, August 
O'Brien, John J 
O'Callaghan, Charles 
Ohogge, John 
Olds, Charles 
O'Neal, William 
Osier, Gilbert F 
Owen, Calvin 
Owen, Frederick M 
Owen, Payton W 

Palmer, Aaron W 
Parent, Joseph C 
Pearce, Daniel W 
Pearson, Jonas P 
Peterson, R. Nels 
Peterson, Tonas G 
Peterson, Martin 
Phifer, David 
Piatt, Abram M 
Piatt Martin L 




Plonske, August 
Plonske, William F 
Poirier, Joseph 
Post, Frederick 
Price. William C. T 
Provost, Joseph 

Quarles, Jesse P 
Quirie, Alexander 
Quinn, Frank H 

Ramev, Sylvester 
Ray Fdward C 





Tyson, John Q 

Ulbright, Amel 
Ulbright, Ernest P 

Van Cleve, Ernest 

Reinhart, Ernest E 
Reinhart, William E 
Reimger, Henry 
Renfro, Silas 
Rhodes, Samuel F 

.... 887 

VanOrsdal, Amos D 
Vesscr, Samuel 
Viebrock, Henry 

Waggoner. Charles .... 

Waggoner, Francis M.... 
Wandel, Henry 
Ware, James L 
Warner, Orson 


Whitney, George B 
\\-icks. Alexander 
Wicks, Charles G 
\ Floyd V 

., 885 

Wood, Charles W.... 
Woolery, John S 
Worley, Charles O 
Wright, Marcus D 


Warren, Otis F 
Washburn. Volnev W 


Williams, Harry 
W'lliamson Charles B 


Wright, Mary A .' '. '. 

Watkins, Samuel" H 
VYhalen,' Patrick J 
\\hitc-, A. K 


Williamson! Thomas F!"; 
Willis, John W 

Wilson. Elisha T 

.".."..".; 840 

Yates, Hirem 
Yothers. Levi 
Young, Ira L 


Whitney, Eugene L 

914 Wilsoni Robert "..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


Z.mmerman, Paul L 



Baldwin, Mrs. J. T 
Barnes Joseph I 



Fry, Richard A 


Ray, Edward C 


Bennett, Percy J 
Bennett, Mrs. Percy J 


Green, Alphonzo A 


Reinhart, William E 

::::: 1$ 

Boyer, Mrs. Alfred 
Bradley, James M 
Brcngman. John P 
Brophy, Thomas 

Carroll, John D 



Hawthorne. Adam 
Henry, Samuel E 
Horn, Charles 
Kenedy, James H 
Kenedy, Mrs. James H 


Russell, James E 

Sharai, Wellington F 
Sloop, Jacob A 
Sluvter, Westol H 
Smith, Charles 


::::: 848 

Chambard, Louis 
Chambard, Mrs. Louis 


Larson, John 
Larson, Mrs. John 


Smith, Samuel I 
Smith, Mrs. Samuel L 
Sorensen, Peter C 

.... 8 3 6 

.... 944 

Banner, John H 
Darknell, Arthur A 

Eaton, William ... 
Ehlert, William 
Khlert. Mrs. William 
Esch, Levi 

Feeley, Thomas N 
Feely, Mrs. Thomas N 

Ferrell,' WilliamW.' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Frederic, John vv 




Lyon, William H 

Markham, Francis M.... 
Markham. Lyman F 
McCarter,' William M 
Montgomery, Zachariah 

Oakland, August 
O'Brien, John J 

Phifer, David 
Post, Frederick 






Thompson, Mrs. Ruth A 
Towlc, Walter R 
Tyson, James 

Vesser, Samuel 

Washburn, Volney W 
White, A. K 
Wike Flovd V 
\\ illian^on, Charles B 
Williamson, Thomas F 

Yothers, Levi 

.... 848 
.... 900 
.... 864 

.... 844 
.... 832 
.... 884 

.... 896 


Addle, James M 

Billberg, Henry 


Cardoner. Damian 


Bitner, George F 


Carlson, August 


Blake, Edwin W 

Carlson. John 

Anderson, Ole A. .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. 

Bole, Henry H 


Chandler, William M 


Auld. John 


Bond, James 


Gaget. W.H 


Aulbach, Adam 


Bookwalter, Albert E 
Bovce, Eleanor 


Clark. John W 
Cleek, Isaac D 


Bacon, Richard P 


Boyden, Chester B 


Cogswell, Arthur C 


Balch, Albert S 

Brady, J. A 

Cole, Cyrus J 


Ball, George F 

Braham, Charles O 


Coleman, George W 


Barnard, Thomas N 

Brand, William J 


Coller, Harry 


S 7 

Coumerilh, William 


Bauman, Phillip ."!.' !.'!.'!.'!'! ! i ! .' .' 

Bayne. John L 

1 6b 


Brown, Emn E! '.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


Cowen, Israel B 
Crawford. Al C 


Beams, Eugene P 

Bechtel, Louis F 



Davenport, Joel 


Beck, Joseph E 
Bellmer, Charles H. 


Bryant, Hiram 


Davis, Warren N 
Daxon, Richard 

Belville, Martin 
Bennett. Charles E 


Campbell, Joseph A. R 


Day, Henry L 
Dav. Harrv L 


1 80 




I Hckinson, Charles F 
Donnelly. Thomas H 
Drew. John T 
Dulmage, E Howard 


Hartmus, Edwin M 
I lean'.. R. P 
Heller Eliza 


Morgan, Benjamin F 
Moritx, Jacob . 
Myers, William H '. 


Eieyburn, Wetdon B 


Newbury, John H.... 


Eby, Charles L '..... 

I 21 

11,11. Josiah 


Xistler, Ludwig 


Fbv. lohn W 


Holmberg, Axel E 


Noble, Horace R.... 

Eccle's, Joseph G 


Hoover, William H 


Noonan, Martin 

Horn Robert T 

Nordquist John H 

Edmonson, Frank M 


Horst, Elias E 


i-iiMuquiai., juiiii a. 
Norman, Samuel 

IO /3 

Edwards, Frank J 

Horton, Abraham P 


Northrup, William P 


Ehrenberg, Charles 

'.' 084 

Hovev, George E 


Noyes, Louis A 


Ehrenberg. Gus 


Uuckeiberry, Charles 


Nuckols, Anderson W 

Ehrenber" J Walter. .. 

Hunt, Robert W 


Nuss, Calvin 

...... 1 188 

Elben, Samuel 

I4 8 

Hunt, Charles D 


Flliott, TohnM 

...... 164 

Hunt, Thomas W 


Olin, John S 


I'll,,. M'arion A 


Olson, Edward 


Erb, George E 

Fvirs John W 


Ihrig, Henry C 


: Veil. Laurence 
Osburn, Stephen V 


Jacobs, Jerome F 


Otto, Albert '.'. 


Fairweather, Stanley P 
Falconer, William M 
Farrar, William H 
Farrell, William H 
Featherstone, Albert H 

..''.. 118 

Jameson, Ralph R 

Jenkins, Benjamin E 
Johnson, Charles M 
Johnson Frank F 


Page, Alfred 
Pannebaker, Joshua 
Parker, Clyde S 
Pascoe, Richard H 


Feehan, John C 
Ferguson, Columbus B 
Finfayson, Donald A 


Johns,,,,, John B 
lones. Charles H./ 
Jones, Christian D. ......... 



Paulsen, August 
Peeples. Drew W 
Pelkes, John 


Flaig, B 


"lone- 1 lenry A 

Pennev, Norton R 


l-link. John W 


jCnesiOD. . 


Perkins, Clinton E 


Ford. I'.arnet 


Jones, Walter A 

Perrin, Charles S 


Foreman, Frank L 


Peterson, Gus 


Fort, Charles E 
Fortin. Joseph E 
1-oss. lohn H 
Foster, Milton P 
Frazer. William F 
Freeman, Jesse 

.".."..". i<X5 

Keane, Patrick 
K.llv, Fred. H 
KellV, Robert S 
Kendall, Joseph B 
Kingsbury, Roy H 


Peterson. Peter E 
Porter. David A 
Porter, Frederick P 
Pott, Burd P 
Potter, Grant S 
Price, Daniel W 




Free-nan, Otto 


Prichard, Floyd M 

Fridstrand, Charles 

Lafavre, Charles A 


Friend, Eugene S 
Fuller, Clifford C 
Fuller. Steward 


Landes, Clarence C 
L.-mdon, Wellington 
Larson, Joseph N 


Read, Harold J 
Reed, Thomas B ' 
Reeves, Charles H..." 


Puller, William D 


Lehman, Abraham L 


Rennick, Miles 


Furst, John C 

Leonard, James 
Lesher, George S 


KielKinlson, Harry N 
Riddle, Thad C 


Gaffnev, Bridget 
Gaffnev, Frank 
Gaftm'v, John } 
G-iffnev William 

'::::. $ 


Linn, Ole H 
Linn, Samuel H 
Lockman, Jacob 
Lyle, James 


Riggs, William M 
Roberts, Andrew M 
Roberts, Louis C 
Robirts Josiah J 



Gav, Lndowk-k \V 


Robirts. Mtrrel R. .'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'. 


George, Milo L 

...... 150 

Malier, Michael 

Roby, Elbert C 


Gilbert, Henry T 



Rogers, Heenen J 

Gilbert, Thomas 


Mallon" Cari e H gC . . 


Roof, Oliver S 


Gillice, Francis F 

Mauley, Charles 

Roos, Ferd, Jr 


Gilpatrick, George E 


M.irkwell, Frank P 


Rose. Francis M 


Gisel Jacob 


Mark-well J Fred 

Rossi, Herman J 

Glowe, John A 


MarkwelC Sylvester .."...'.. 

.Y.Y.'.Y. 089 

Rothrock, Frank M. ........ 


Goddard. William F 


Marshall, Angus D 


Goodman, David F 



Safford, James L.... 


Grav, Horatio I 


Matchette. Franklin' P.Y.Y. 


Saling, Francis M 


Greenwald, Fred C 


.Matthew, Edward R 


Samuels, Henry F 


Greer, John 


.Mays, C. W 

Savage, Jeremiah M 

1 178 

Griffith, Thomas O 


MrDougall, William 

.".".'.'.'.'.'. 185 

Schill, Charles 


Groves, Henry 


McFachern, Daniel 


Schlesinger, Louis A 

MeC.llivrav, Ally 

Schmidt. Anna 


Hale, Ellis L 


McKinnis, "George .... 

.::::::: 178 

Schue, Peter 

Hales, William T 


McKissick, David C 

Shamberger, William D 



McLeod. Roderick J 


Sheehv, William J 


Melroy. Charles 


Shuster. Thomas 


Hansen, John H .'.'.'.'. 

.Met/. John F 

Simmonds, Thomas H 


Harbin, Daniel F. 


Miller, William R 

'.','.'.'.'.'. 076 


Hare, Maurice H 


Moe. William K 


Skonnord, Bernt O 


Harris, George W 


Moffitt Edward H 


Small, Ellis 


Harris, George W 


Molloy, John T 

Smith, Abraham L 


Smith Andrew T 


abor, Jesse W 


Ward, Harry P ic 

Smith' Clarence P 


albot, Charles H 


Warren, Aaron S 

Smith, Edwin 


aylor, James H 


Uiiikms, Amos 

Smith, Frank 


aylor. Marshall M 


Weber, Philip P 

bmith, Frank S 


'eats, Mrs. Mary E 


Wentz, Charles H 

Smith, Paul F 


'hoinas, Thomas C....? 


White, John P 

Smith, William H 


homas, James O 

White. .Michael 

Snyder, Samson, Jr 


horkelson, Gilbert 


Wilkinson, William P 


hyne, John 


Wilkinson; Wintield S 

Stedman, Louie '\V '.'.'.'. 


ibbals, Frank M 


Williams, Charles H 

Stenzel, Charles 


ilsioy, John H 

Wilmot, Andrew c 

Stevens, Fred A 


oner, John J 


Wilson, Thomas 

Stevens, Joseph F 


oner, Richard T 

Wilson, William P 

St. Germain, Israel 


'ucker, Leroy 


Wimer, John W c 

St. Jean, Joseph E 
St Jean Leopold J 


upper, Howard T 
urk, Engelbert 


Winner, Nathan c 
Wood George A 

Stonebreaker, Edward G 


urner, William R .* 


Wood, John C 

Stringam, Benjamin F 
Strode, Amos M 


Van Allen, John F 


Wood, Lyman 
Wright, Edward H 

Stuart, Robert C 


Vance. Charles W 

Wright. Jesse T c 

Swails, Ethelbert W 


Van Derwerken, Emmet L 


Wright, Thomas 


Sweet Lewis L 


Wadsworth, William B 


Young Peter ' I 

Swicegood, William R 
Swinertnn. William P 



Walton, Fred W 
Ward. Andrew B 



Zeitfnchs. Emil ... ic 


Bennett, Charles E. . 
Brady, J. A 

Flink, John W 

Furst, John C 


Gaffney, Frank 


Nordquist, John H 

Gaffney, John J 



Pascoe Richard H 



Peterson, Gns 

'.'.'.'.'. 1072 


Hammond, Edward, John H 
Heller, Mrs. Eltza 
Horst, Elias E \ 


Reeves, Charles H! '.'.'.'.'.'. '. '.'.'. '. '.'.'. 
Richardson, Harry M 

Saling, Francis M 


Leonard, James 
Linn, Ole H ' 


Saling, Mrs. Francis M....: 
Schill, Charles 

Schue, Peter 


McGillivray, Ally .... 
Maitland, George A 
Myers, William H.... 


Skonnord. Bernt O 
Steadman, Louie W 
Tilslev, John H.... 


/ century is a fitting time to 
' :al histc 

The opening of a nei 
cast a backward glance in 
to the eye of the present the interesting and heroic 
events of the past and by comparison between past and 
present forecast something of the future. 

Hardly could our task be accomplished without 
some reference, even though it must be brief and frag- 
mentary, to the old Oregon territory, of which the 
counties of northern Idaho were once parts. It had a 
strange history. It was the ignis fatuus of successive 
generations of explorers, luring them on with that in- 
describable fascination which seemed always to drawn 
men to the ever receding circle of the "westmost 
west," and yet for years and years veiling itself in the 
mists of uncertainty and misapprehension. 

We do not usually realize how soon after the time 
of Columbus there began to be attempts to reach the 
western ocean and solve the mystery of the various 
passages, northwest, southwest, and west, which were 
supposed to lead through the Americas to Asia. The 
old navigators had little conception of the breadth of 
this continent. They .thought it to be but a few 
leagues across, and took for granted that some of the 
many arms of the sea would lead them through to 
another ocean that would wash the Asiatic shores. 

In 1500, only eight years after Columbus, Gasper 
Cortereal,the Portuguese, conceived the idea of entering 
what afterward became known as Hudson's Bay and 
proceeding thence westward through what he called 
the strait of Anian. 

That mythical strait of Anian seems to have had a 
strange charm for the old navigators. One of them, 
Maldonado, a good many years later, gave a very con- 
nected and apparently veracious account of his journey 
through that strait, averring that through it he reached 
another ocean in latitude seventy-five degrees. But by 
means of Magellan's straits and the doubling of stormy 
Cape Horn, a connection between the two oceans was 
actually discovered in 1519. 

In 1543 Ferrelo,a Spaniard, coasted along the shores 
of California, and was doubtless the first white man to 
gaze on the coast of Oregon, probably somewhere in 
the vicinity of the mouth of the Umpqua river. 

In 1577 that boldest and most picturesque of all 
English sailors and freebooters, Francis Drake, started 

on the marvelous voyage by which he plundered the 
treasures of the Spanish main, cut the golden girdle of 
Manila, Queen of the treasures of the Spanish orient, 
skirted the coast of California and Oregon, and at last 
circumnavigated the globe. 

But in 1592, just one hundred years after Colum- 
bus, comes the most picturesque of all these misty 
stories which enwrap the early history of Oregon. " This 
is the story of Jaun de Fuca, whose name is now pre- 
served in our northwest boundary strait. According 
to this romantic tale of the seas, Jaun de Fuca was a 
Greek of Cephalonia, whose real name was Apostolos 
Yalerianos, and under commission of the king of Spain 
he sailed to find the strait of Anian, whose entrance 
the Spaniards wanted to fortify and guard so as to pre- 
vent ingress or egress by the English freebooters who 
were preying upon their commerce. According to the 
account 'g iven by Michael Lock, "he followed his 
course, in that voyage, west and northwest in the South 
sea, all along the coast of Nova Spania and California 
and the Indies, now called North America (all of which 
voyage he signified to me in a great map, and a sea- 
card of my own, which I laid before him), until he 
came to the latitude of forty-seven degrees ; and that 
there finding that the land 'trended north and north- 
west, with a broad inlet of sea, between forty-seven and 
forty-eight degrees of latitude, he entered thereinto, 
sailing more than twenty days, and found that land 
still trending northwest, and northeast and north, and 
also east and southeastward, and very much broader 
sea than it was at the said entrance, and that he passed 
by divers islands in that sailing; and that, at the en- 
trance of the said strait, there is, on the northwest coast 
thereof, a great headland or island, with an exceeding 
high pinnacle of spired rock, like a pillar, thereupon. 
Also he said that he went on land in divers places, 
and that he saw some people on the land clad in beasts' 
skins ; and that the land was very fruitful and rich of 
gold, silver and pearls and other things, like Nova 
Spania. Also he said that he being entered thus far 
into the said strait, and being come into the North sea 
already, and finding the sea wide enough everywhere, 
and to be about thirty or forty leagues wide in the 
mouth of the straits where he entered, he thought he 
had now well discharged his office ; and that not being 


armed to resist the force of savage people that might 
happen, he therefore set sail and turned homeward 
again toward Nova Spania, where he arrived in Aca- 
pulco, anno 1592, hoping to be rewarded by the viceroy 
for this service done in the said voyage." 

This curious bit of past record has been interpreted 
by some as pure myth, and by others as veritable his- 
tory. It is at any rate a generally accurate outline de- 
scriptive of the straits of Fuca, the gulf of Georgia and 
the shores of Vancouver Island and the mainland ad- 
joining. And whether or not the old Greek pilot did 
actually exist and first look on our "Mediterranean of 
the Pacific," it is pleasant to imagine that he did and 
that his name fittingly preserves the memory of the 
grand old myth of Anian and the northwest pasage. 

There is one other more obviously mythical tale 
concerning our frontier coast. It is said that in the 
year 1640 Admiral Pedro de Fonte, of the Spanish ma- 
rine, made the journey from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and return through a system of rivers and straits, en- 
tering the coast at about latitude fifty-three degrees. 
Coming from Callao in April, 1640, and after having 
sailed for a long distance through an archipelago, he 
entered the mouth of a vast river, which he named Rio 
deLos Reyes. Ascending this for a long distance north- 
easterly he reached an immense lake, on whose shores 
he found a wealthy civilized nation, who had a capital 
city of great splendor called Conasset, and who wel- 
comed the strangers with lavish hospitality. From this 
lake flowed another river easterly, and down this Fonte 
descended until he reached another great lake, from 
which a narrow strait led into the Atlantic ocean. 

There is one curious thing about these legendary 
voyages and that is the general accuracy of their de- 
scription of the coast. Although these accounts are 
unquestionably mythical, it is not impossible that their 
authors had actually visited the coast or had seen those 
who had, and thus gathered the material from which 
they fabricated, with such an appearance of plausi- 
bility, their Munchausen tales. 

We are briefly referring to these fascinating old 
legends, not for the purpose of discussing them here 
at any length, but rather to remind the reader of the 
long period of romance and myth which enveloped the 
early history of the northwest of which out state forms 
a part. Many years passed after the age of myth be- 
fore there were authentic voages. During the seven- 
teenth century practically nothing was done in the way 
of Pacific coast exploration. But in the eighteenth, as 
by common consent, all the nations of Europe became 
suddenly infatuated again with the thought that on the 
western shores of America might be found the gold and 
silver and gems and furs and precious woods for which 
they had been striving so desperately upon the eastern 
coast. English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, 
Russian and Americans entered their bold and hardy 
sailors into the race for the possession of the land of 
the Occident. The Russians were the first in the field. 
That gigantic power which the genius of Peter the 
Great, like one of the fabled genii, had suddenly trans- 
formed from the proportions of a grain of sand to a 
figure overtopping the whole earth, had stretched its 

arms from the Baltic to the Aleutian archepelago, and 
had looked southward acress the frozen seas of Siberia 
to the open Pacific as offering them another opportunity 
of expansion. Many years passed, however, before 
Peter's designs could' be executed. It was 1728 when 
Vitus Behring entered upon his marvelous life of ex- 
ploration. Not until 1741, however, did he thread the 
thousand islands of Alaska and gaze upon the glaciated 
summit of Mt. Elias. And it was not until thirty years 
later that it was known that the Bay of Avatscha in 
Siberia was connected by open sea with China. In 
1771 the first cargo of furs was taken directly from 
Avatscha, the chief port of eastern Siberia, to Canton. 
Then first Europe realized the vastness of the Pacific 
ocean. Then it understood that the same waters which 
frowned against the frozen bulwarks of Kamtchatka 
washed the tropic islands of the South seas and foamed 
against the storm-swept rocks of Cape Horn. 

Meantime, while Russia was thus becoming estab- 
lished upon the shores of Alaska, Spain was getting 
entire possession of California. These two great nations 
began to overlap each other. Russians became estab- 
lished near San Francisco. To offset this movement of 
Russia, a group of Spanish explorers, Perez, Mar- 
tinez, Heceta, Bodega and Maurella, swarmed up the 
coast beyond the present site of Sitka. 

England, in alarm at the progress made by Spain 
and Russia, sent out the Columbus of the eighteenth 
century, in the person of Captain James Cook, and he 
sailed up and down the coast of Alaska and of Wash- 
ington, but failed to discover either the Columbia river 
or the straits of Fuca. His labors, however, did more 
to establish true geographical notions than had the 
combined efforts of all the Spanish navigators who had 
preceded him. His voyages materially strengthened 
England's claim to Oregon, and added greatly to the 
luster of her name. The great captain, while tempo- 
rarily on shore, was killed bylndians, in 1778, and the 
command devolved upon Captain Clark, who sailed 
northward, passing through Behring strait to the Arctic 
ocean. The new commander died before the expedition 
had proceeded far on its return journey; Lieutenant 
Gore, a Virginian, assumed control and sailed to Canton, 
China, a riving late in the year. 

The main purposes of this expedition had been the 
discovery of a northern waterway between the two 
oceans and the extending of British territory, but, as is 
so often the case in human affairs, one of the most 
important results of the voyage was entirely unsus- 
pected by the navigators and practically the outcome of 
an accident. It so happened that the two vessels of the 
expedition, the Revolution and the Discovery, took 
with them to China a small collection of furs from the 
northwest coast of America. These were purchased by 
the Chinese with great avidity, the people exhibiting 
a willingness to barter commodities of much value for 
them and endeavoring to secure them at almost any 
sacrifice. The sailors were not backward in communi- 
cating their discovery of a new and promising market 
for peltries, and the impetus imparted to the fur trade 
was almost immeasurable in its ultimate effects. An 
entirely new regime was inaugurated in Chinese and 


East India commerce. The northwest coast of Amer- 
ica assumed a new importance in the eyes of Europeans, 
and especially of the British. The "struggle for pos- 
session" soon began to be foreshadowed. 

One of the prnicipal harbors resorted to by the 
fur-trading vessels was Nootka, used as a rendezvous 
and principal port of departure. This port became the 
scene of a clash between Spanish authorities and cer- 
tain British vessels which greatly strained the friendly 
relations existing between the two governments repre- 
sented. In 1779 the viceroy of Mexico sent two ships, 
the Princess and San Carlos, to convey Martinez and 
De Haro to the vicinity for the purpose of anticipating 
and preventing the occupancy of Nootka sound by fur 
traders of other nations and that the Spanish title to 
the territory might be maintained and confirmed. Mar- 
tinez was to base his claim upon the discovery by 
Perez in 1774.. Courtesy was to be extended to foreign 
vessels, but the establishment of any claim prejudicial 
to the right of the Spanish crown was to be vigorously 

Upon the arrival of Martinez in the harbor, it was 
discovered that the American vessel Columbia, and the 
Iphigenia, a British vessel, under a Portuguese flag, 
were lying in the harbor. Martinez at once demanded 
the papers of both vessels and an explanation of their 
presence, vigorously asserting the claim of Spain that 
the port and contiguous territory were hers. The Cap- 
tain of the Iphigenia pleaded stress of weather. On 
finding that the vessel's papers commanded the cap- 
ture, under certain conditions, of Russian, Spanish or 
English vessels. Martinez seized the ship, but on being 
advised that the orders relating to captures were in- 
tended only to apply to the defense of the vessel, the 
Spaniard released the Iphigenia and her cargo. The 
Northwest America, another vessel of the same expedi- 
tion, was, however, seized by Martinez a little later. 

It should be remembered that these British vessels 
had in the inception of the enterprise divested them- 
selves of their true national character and donned the 
insignia of Portugal, their reasons being : First, to de- 
fraud the Chinese government, which made special 
harbor rates to the Portuguese, and, second, to defraud 
the East India Company, to whom had been granted 
the right of trading in furs in Northwest America to 
the exclusion of all other British subjects, except such 
as should obtain the permission of the company. To 
maintain their Portuguese nationality they had placed 
the expedition nominally under the control of Jaun 
Cavalho, a Portuguese trader. Prior to the time of the 
trouble in Nootka, however, Cavalho had become a 
bankrupt and new arrangements had become necessary. 
The English traders were compelled to unite their in- 
terests with those of King George's Sound Company, 
a mercantile association operating under license from 
the South Sea and East India Companies, the Portu- 
guese colors had been laid aside and the true national 
character of the expedition assumed. Captain Colnutt 

under the new regime, with instructions, among other 
things, "to establish a factory to be called Fort Pitt, for 
the purpose of permanent settlement, and as a center of 

trade around which other stations may be established." 
One vessel of the expedition, the Princess Royal, 
entered Nootka harbor without molestation, but when 
the Argonaut, under command of Captain Colnutt, ar- 
rived, it was thought best by the master not to attempt 
an entrance to the bay lest his vessel should meet the 
same fate which had befallen the Iphigenia and the 
Northwest America. Later Colnutt called on Mar- 
tinez and informed the Spanish governor of his inten- 
tion to take possession of the country in the name of 
Great Britain and to erect a fort. The governor re- 
plied that possession had already been taken in the 
name of his Catholic Majesty and that such acts as he 
(Colnutt) contemplated could not be allowed. An 
altercation followed and the next day the Argonaut 
was seized and her captain and crew placed under ar- 
rest. The Princess Royal was also seized, though the 
American vessels in the harbor were in no way mo- 

After an extended and at times heated controversy 
between Spain and Great Britain touching these seiz- 
ures, the former government consented to make repar- 
ation and offered a suitable apology for the indignity 
to the honor of the flag. The feature of this corres- 
pondence of greatest import in the future history of 
the territory affected is that throughout the entire con- 
troversy in all the messages and debates of parliament, 
no word was spoken asserting a claim of Great Britain 
to any territorial rights or denying the claim of sov- 
ereignty so positively and persistently avowed by Spain, 
neither was Spanish sovereignty denied or in any way 
alienated by the treaty which followed. Certain real 
property was restored to British subjects, but a trans- 
fer of realty is not a transfer of sovereignty. 

We pass over the voyage of the illustrious French 
navigator, La Perouse. as of more importance from a 
scientific than a political standpoint; neither can we 
dwell upon the explorations of Captain Berkley, to 
whom belongs the honor of having ascertained the 
existence of the strait afterward denominated Jaun de 
Fuca. Of somewhat greater moment in the later history 
of the northwest are the voyages of Meares, who entered 
and described the above mentioned strait, and who, in 
1788, explored the coast at the point where the great 
Columbia mingles its crystal current with the waters of 
the sea. In the diplomatic battle of later days it was 
even claimed by some that he was the discover of that 
great "River of the West." Howbeit, nothing can be 
surer than that the existence of such a river was 
utterly unknown to him at the time. Indeed his con- 
viction of its non-existence was thus stated in his own 
account of the voyage : "We can now with safety assert 
that there is no such river as the St. Roc (of the Span- 
iard, Heceta) exists, as laid down in the Spanish 
charts," and he gave a further unequivocal expression 

ception Bay and the promontory 'north of it Cape Dis- 
appointment. "Disappointed and deceived." remarks 
Evans facetiously, "he continued his cruise southward 
to latitude forty-five degrees north." 

It is not without sentiments of patriotic pride that 
we now turn our attention to a period of discovery in 


which the vessels of our own nation played a prominent 
part. The northern mystery, which had been partially 
resolved by the Spanish, English, French and Portu- 
guese explorations, was now to be completely robbed of 
its mystic charm, speculation and myth must now give 
place to exact knowledge, the game of discovery must 
hereafter be played principally between the two 
branches of the Anglo-Saxon race, and Anglo-Saxon 
energy, thoroughness and zeal are henceforth to char- 
acterize operations on the shores of the Pacific north- 
west. The United States had but recently won their 
independence from the British crown and their ener- 
gies were finding a fit field of activity in the titanic 
task of national organization. Before the constitution 
had become the supreme law of the land, however, the 
alert mind of the American had begun projecting voy- 
ages of discovery and trade to the northwest, and 
in September, 1788, two vessels with the stars and 
stripes at their mastheads arrived at Nootka sound. 
Their presence in the harbor while the events cul- 
minating in the Nootka treaty were transpiring 
has already been alluded to. The vessels were the 
ship Columbia, Captain John Kendrick, and the 
sloop Washington, Captain Robert Gray, and the 
honor of having sent them to our shores belongs 
to one Joseph Barrel, a prominent merchant of 
Boston, and a man of high social standing and great 
influence. While one of the impelling motives of his 
enterprise had been the desire of commercial profit, the 
element of patriotism was not wholly lacking, and the 
vessels were instructed to make what explorations and 
discoveries they might. 

After remaining a time on the coast, Captain Ken- 
drick transferred his ship's property to the Washing- 
ton, with the intention of taking a cruise in that vessel. 
He placed Captain Gray in command of the Columbia 
with instructions to return to Boston by way of the 
Sandwich Islands and China. This commission was 
successfully carried out. The vessel arrived in Boston 
in September, 1790, was received with great eclat, re- 
fitted by her owners and again dispatched to the shores 
of the Pacific with Captain Gray in command. In 
July, 1791, the Columbia, from Boston, and the Wash- 
ington, from China, met not far from the spot where 
they had separated nearly two years before. They 
wert not t> i remain long in company, however, for Cap- 
tain Gray soon started on a cruise southward. On April 
29, 1792, Gray met Vancouver just below Cape Flat- 
tery and an interesting colloquy took place. Van- 
couver communicated to the American- skipper the 
fact that he had not vet made any important discover- 
eries, and Gray, with equal frankness, gave the emi- 
nent British explorer an account of his past discover- 
ies, "including," says Bancroft, "the fact that he had 
not sailed through Fuca straight in the Lady Washing- 
ton, as had been supposed from Meares' narrative and 
map." He also informed Captain. Vancouver that he 
had been "off the mouth of a river in latitude forty- 
six degrees, ten minutes, where the outset, or reflux, 
was so strong as to prevent his entering for nine days." 

The important information conveyed by Gray seems 
to have greatly disturbed the equipoise of Vancouver's 

mind. The enterics in his log show that he did not en- 
tirely credit the statement of the American, but that 
he was considerably perturbed is evinced by the fact 
that he tries to convince himself by argument that 
Gray's statement could not have been correct. The 
latitude assigned by the American was that of Cape 
Disappointment, and the existence of a river mouth 
there, although affirmed by Heceta, had been denied 
by Meares ; Captain Cook also had failed to find it ; be- 
sides, had he not himself passed that point two days be- 
fore and had he not observed that "if any inlet or river 
should be found it must be a very intricate one, and 
inaccessible to vessels of our burden, owing to the reefs 
and broken water which then appeared in its neighbor- 
hood." With such reasoning, he dismissed the matter 
from his mind for the time being. He continued his 
journey northward, passed through the straight of 
Fuca, and engaged in a thorough and minute explora- 
tion of that mighty inland sea, to a portion of which he 
gave the name Puget Sound. 

Meanwhile Gray was proceeding southward "in 
the track of destiny and glory." On May 7th he en- 
tered the harbor which now bears his name and four 
days later passed through the breakers over the bar, 
and his vessel's prow plowed the waters of that fa- 
mous "River of the West," whose existence had been 
so long suspected. The storied "Oregon" for the first 
time heard other sound than "its own dashing." 

Shortly afterward Vancouver came to Cape Disap- 
pointment to explore the Columbia, of which he had 
heard indirectly from Captain Gray. Lieutenant 
Broughton, of Vancouver's expedition, sailed over the 
bar, ascended the river a distance of more than one 
hundred miles to the site of the present Vancouver, and 
with a modesty truly remarkable, "takes possession of 
the river and the country in its vicinity in his Britannic 
Majesty's name, having every reason to believe that 
the subjects of no other civilized nation or state had 
ever entered it before." This, too, though he had re- 
ceived a salute of one gun from an American vessel, 
the Jennie, on his entrance to the bay. The lieutenant's 
claim was not to remain forever unchallenged, as will 
appear presently. 

With the exploration of Puget sound and the dis- 
covery of the Columbia, history-making maritime ad- 
venture practically ceased. But as the fabled straic 
of Anian had drawn explorers to the Pacific shores in 
quest of the mythical passage to the treasurers of Ind, 
so likewise did the fairy tales of La Hontan and others 
stimulate inland exploration. "Furthermore, the mys- 
tic charm possessed by a terra incognita was becoming 
irresistible to adventurous spirits, and the possibilities 
of discovering untold wealth in the vaults of its "shin- 

were exceedingly fascinating to the lover of gain. 

The honor of pioneership in overland exploration 
belongs to one Verendrye, who, under authority of the 
governor-general of New France, in 1773 set out on an 
expedition to the Rocky mountains from Canada. This 

portant explorations, but as they failed to find a pass 
through the Rocky mountains by which they could 


come to the Pacific side, their adventures do not fall 
within the purview of our volume. They are said to 
have reached the vicinity of the present city of Helena. 

If, as seems highly probable, the events chronicled 
by La Page in his charming "Histoire de la Louisi- 
ane," published in 1758, should be taken as authentic, 
the first man to scale the Rocky mountains from the 
east and to make his way overland to the shores of the 
Pacific was a Yazoo Indian, Moncacht-ape or Mont- 
cachabe by name. But "the first traveler to lead a 
part}- of civilized men through the territory of the 
Stony mountains to the South sea" was Alexander 
Mackenzie, who, in 1793, reached the coast at fifty- 
two degrees, twenty-four minutes, forty-eight sec- 
onds north, leaving as a memorial of his visit, inscribed 
on a rock with vermillion and grease the words "Alex- 
andar Mackenzie, from Canada by land, July 22, 1793." 

But western exploration by land had elicited the in- 
terest of one whose energy and force were sufficient to 
bring to a successful issue almost any undertaking 
worth the effort. While the other statesmen and leg- 
islators of his time were fully engaged with the prob- 
lems of the moment, the great mind of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, endowed as it was with a wider range of vision 
and more comprehensive grasp of the true situation 
was projecting exploring expeditions into the north- 
west. In 1786, while serving as minister to Paris, he 
had fallen in with the ardent Ledyard, who was on 
fire with the idea of opening a large and profitable 
fur trade in the north Pacific region. To this young 
man he had suggested the idea of journeying to Kam- 
tchatka, then in a Russian vessel to Nootka sound, 
from which, as a starting point, he should make an 
exploring expedition easterly to the United States. 
Ledyard acted on the suggestion, but was arrested as 
a spy in the spring of 1787 by Russian officials and so 
severely treated as to cause a failure of his health and 
a consequent failure of his enterprise. 

The next effort of Jefferson was made in 1792, 
when he proposed to the American Philosophical Soci- 
ety that it should engage a competent scientist "to ex- 
plore northwest America from the eastward by ascend- 
ing the Missouri, crossing the Rocky mountains and de- 
scending the nearest river to the Pacific ocean." The 
idea was favorably received. Captain Meriwether 
Lewis, who afterward distinguished himself as one of 
the leaders of the Lewis and Clark expedition, of- 
fered his services, but for some reason Andre Mich- 
aux, a French botanist, was given the preference. Mich- 
aux proceeded as far as Kentucky, but there received 
an order from the French minister, to whom, it seems, 
he also owed obedience, that he should relinquish 
his appointment and engage upon the duties of another 

It was not until after the opening of the new cen- 
turv that another opportunity for furthering his fa- 
vorite project presented itself to Jefferson. An act of 
congress, under which trading houses had been es- 
tablished for facilitating commerce with the Indians, 
was about to expire by limitation, and President Jef- 
ferson, in recommending its continuance, seized the 
opportunity to urge upon congress the advisability of 

fitting out an expedition, the object of which should 
be "to explore the Missouri river and such principal 
streams of it as, by its course of communication with 
the waters of the Pacific ocean, whether the Columbia, 
Oregon, Colorado or any other river, may offer the 
most direct and practical water communication across 
the continent, for the purpose of commerce." 

Congress voted an appropriation for the purpose, 
and the expedition was placed in charge of Captains 
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. President Jef- 
ferson gave the explorers minute and particular in- 
structions as to investigations to be made by them. 
They were to inform themselves, should they reach 
the Pacific ocean, "of the circumstances which may 
decide whether the furs of those parts may be col- 
lected as advantageously at the head of the 'Missouri 
(convenient as is supposed to the Colorado and Ore- 
gon or Columbia) as at Nootka sound or any other 
part of the coast; and the trade be constantly con- 
ducted through the Missouri and United States more 
beneficially than by the circumnavigation now prac- 
ticed." In addition to the instructions already quoted, 
these explorers were directed to ascertain if possible 
on arriving at the seaboard if there were any ports 
within their reach frequented by the sea vessels of any 
nation, and to send, if practicable, two of their most 
trusted people back by sea with copies of their notes. 
They were also, if they deemed a return by the way 
they had come imminently hazardous, to ship the en- 
tire party and return via Good Hope or Cape Horn, 
as they might be able. 

A few days before the initial steps were taken in 
discharge of the instructions of President Jefferson, 
news reached the seat of government of a transaction 
which added materially to the significance of the en- 
terprise. Negotiations had been successfully consum- 
mated for the purchase of Louisiana on April 30, 1803, 
but the authorities at Washington did not hear of the 
important transfer until the 1st of July. Of such trans- 
cendant import to the future of our country was this 
transaction and of such vital moment to the 
section with which our volume is primarily 
concerned, that we must here interrupt the trend 
of our narrative to give the reader an idea 
of the extent of territory involved and, if pos- 
sible, to enable him to appreciate the influence of the 
purchase. France, by her land explorations and the 
establishment of trading posts and forts, first acquired 
title to the territory west of the Mississippi and east of 
the Rocky mountains, though Great Britain claimed 
the territory in accordance with her doctrine of con- 
tinuity and contiguity, most of her colonial grants 
extending in express terms to the Pacific ocean. Spain 
also claimed the country by grant of Pope Alexander 
VI. A constant warfare had been waged between 
France and Great Britain for supremacy in America. 
The latter was the winner in the contest, and in 1762, 
France, apparently discouraged, ceded to Spain the 
province of Louisiana. By the treaty of February 10, 
1763, which gave Great Britain the Canadas, it was 
agreed that the western boundary between English and 
Spanish possessions in America should be the Missis- 


sippi river, Great Britain renouncing all claim to the 
territory west of that boundary. In 1800 Spain retro- 
ceded Louisiana to France "with the same extent it 
has now in the hands of Spain, and which it had when 
France possessed it, and such as it should be according 
to the treaties subsequently made betwen Spain and 
other states." 

The order for the formal delivery of the province 
to France was issued by the Spanish king on October 
15, 1802, and, as above stated, the United States suc- 
ceeded to the title by treaty pf April 30, 1803. 

Of the long, weary land marches which brought 
the doughty explorers, 'Captains Meriwether Lewis and 
William Clark, to the pure currents of the Clearwater, 
space forbids narration. It is pleasant to record that 
the travel-worn expedition received hospitable treat- 
ment upon reaching the spot where Lewiston now 
stands. The Nez Perces were friendly, gave the ex- 
plorers what information they could about the remain- 
der of their journey and readily traded them such food 
supplies as they were able. While details of this his- 
tory-making expedition to the mouth of the Columbia 
and back again to the eastern states must be sought 
elsewhere, we shall here quote a summary of the jour- 
ney given by Captain Lewis himself, which will convey 
some idea of the momentous task successfully accom- 
plished by these giants of the wilderness : 

"The road by which we went out by the way of the 
Missouri to its head is 3,096 miles ; thence by land by 
way of Lewis river over to Clark's river and down 
that to the entrance of Traverse's Rest creek, where 
all the roads from different routes meet ; thence across 
the rugged part of the Rocky mountains to the naviga- 
ble waters of the Columbia', 398 miles; thence down 
the river 640 miles to the Pacific ocean making a 
total distance of 4,134 miles. On our return in .1806 
we came from Traveler's Rest directly to the falls of 
the Missouri river, which shortens the distance about 
579 miles and is a much better route, reducing the 
distance from the Mississippi to the Pacific ocean to 
3,555 miles. Of this journey 2,575 mil es is up the 
Missouri to the falls of that river; thence passing 
through the plains and across the Rocky mountains 
to the navigable waters of the Kooskooskia river, a 
branch of the Columbia, 340 miles, two hundred of 
which is good road, 140 over a tremendous mountain, 
steep and broken, 60 miles of which is covered several 
feet deep with snow, on which we passed on the last 
of June ; from the navigable' part of the Kooskooskia 
we descended that rapid river 73 miles to its enterance 
into Lewis river, and down that river 154 miles to the 
Columbia, and thence 413 miles to its entrance into 
the Pacific ocean. About 180 miles of this distance 
is tide water. We passed several bad rapids and nar- 
rows and one considerable fall, 268 miles above the 
entrance of this river, 37 feet, eight inches; the total 
distance descending the Columbia waters, 640 miles, 
making a total of 3,555 miles, on the most direct route 
from the Mississippi at the mouth of the Missouri to 
the Pacific ocean." 

The safe return of the explorers to their homes in 
the United States naturally created a sensation through- 

out that country and the world. Leaders and men 
were suitably rewarded, and the fame of the former 
will live while the rivers to which their names have 
been given, continue to pour their waters into the sea. 
President Jefferson, the great patron of the expedition, 
paying a tribute to Captain Lewis in 1813, said: "Nev- 
er did a similar event create more joy throughout the 
United States. The humblest of its citizens have taken 
a lively interest in the issue of this journey, and looked 
with impatience for the information it would furnish. 
Nothing short of the official journals of this extraor- 
dinary and interesting journey will exhibit the import- 
ance of the service, the courage, devotion, zeal and per- 
severance under circumstances calculated to discourage, 
which animated this little band of heroes, throughout 
the long, dangerous and tedious travel." 

The knowledge of the Columbia basin, resulting 
from the extensive exploration of Lewis and Clark, 
soon bore fruit in a number of commercial enterprises, 
the first of which was the Astor expedition. It was so 
called from John Jacob Astor, a native of Heidelburg, 
who had come to America poor and had amassed a 
large fortune in commercial transactions. In 1800 
there was conceived in the brain of this great captain 
of industry a scheme which for magnitude of design 
and careful arrangement of detail was truly master- 
ful. It contemplated the prosecution of the fur trade 
in every unsettled territory of America claimed by the 
United States, the trade with China and the supp'ly of 
the Russian settlements with trading stock and pro- 
visions, the goods to be paid for in peltry. A vessel 
was to be dispatched at regular intervals from New 
York, bearing supplies and goods to be traded to the 
Indians. This was to discharge her cargo at a depot 
of trade to be established at the mouth of the Columbia 
river, then trade along the coast with Indians and at 
the Russian settlements until another cargo had been 
in part secured, return to the mouth of the river, com- 
plete her lading there, sail thence to China, receive a 
return cargo of Canton silks, nankeen and tea, and 
back to New York. Two years would pass in com- 
pleting this vast "commercial rounding-up." An im- 
portant part of this plan was the supply of the Russian 
posts at New Archangel, the object being two fold, 
first to secure the profits accruing therefrom, and sec- 
onflly, to shut off competition in Mr. Astor's own ter- 
ritory, through the semi-partnership with the Russians 
in furnishing them supplies. Careful arrangements 
had been made with the Russian government to pre- 
vent any possible clash between the vessels of the two 
companies which should be engaged in the coast trade. 
"It was," says Brewerton, "a collossal scheme, and 
deserved to succeed ; had it done so it would have ad- 
vanced American settlement and actual occupancy on 
the Northwest coast by at least a quarter of a century, 
giving employment to thousands, and transferred the 
enormous profits of the Hudson's Bay and Northwest 
British fur companies from English to American cof- 

Notwithstanding the opposition of the Northwest 
Fur Company, a powerful British corporation. As- 
tor's sea expedition reached the mouth of the Columbia 


before the territory had been pre-empted by any other 
fur traders. His overland company arrived' later, after 
having suffered terrible hardships, being well nigh 
overcome by the fatigues of their journey, the rigors 
of the inhospitable mountain ranges and lack of food. 
Astoria was founded and named. The little colony 
of traders set vigorously about the task of carrying 
into execution Astor's comprehensive plan. There 
were many difficulties to be overcome and one serious 
disaster, the massacre of the Tonquin's crew and the 
subsequent destruction of that vessel, had its decidedly 
depressing effect. Nevertheless, the Astor expedi- 
tion would have doubtless proved a success were it not 
for two unfortunate circumstances. In the choice of his 
partners in the Pacific Fur Company, Mr. Astor had 
made a serious mistake. Broad minded and liberal 
himself, he did not appreciate the danger of entrusting 
his undertaking to the hands of men whose national 
prejudices were bitterly anti- American and whose pre- 
vious connection with a rival company might affect 
their loyalty to this one. He associated with himself 
as partners in the enterprise Donald Mackenzie, Alex- 
ander Mackay, who had accompanied Alexandar Mac- 
kenzie on his voyage of discovery, hence possessed in- 
valuable experience, and Duncan Macdougal, all late 
of the Northwest Company, and though men of great 
skill and experience, schooled in the prejudices of the 
association with which they had so long maintained 
connection, and able to see only through British eyes. 
To the partners already enumerated were subsequently 
added Wilson P. Hunt and Robert Maclellan, Ameri- 
cans, John Clarke, a Canadian, David and Robert Stu- 
art and Ramsey Crooks, Scotchmen, and others. 

The second unfortunate circumstance and the one 
which gave perfidity a chance to perform its perfect 
work was the outbreak of the war of 1812. The dan- 
ger that Astoria might be captured by the British (for 
the United States had neglected to furnish suitable 
protection to this most remote outpost of its domin- 
ion) gave the traitorous Macdougal a colorable ex- 
cuse to betray into the hands of the Northwest Com- 
pany Mr. Astor's interests on the Pacific coast. The 
denouement of the plot was in this wise. On the 8th 
of October, 1813, Macdougal, by way of preparation 
for his final coupe, read a letter announcing the sailing 
of two British armed vessels, the Phoebe and the Is- 
aac Todd, with orders "to take and destroy everything 
American on the Northwest coast." 

"This dramatic scene," says Evans, "was followed 
by a proposition of MacTavish (of the Northwest Fur 
Company) to purchase the interests, stocks, establish- 
ments, etc. of the Pacific Fur Company. Macdougal 
then assumed sole control and agency because of the 
non-arrival of Hunt, and after repeated conference with 
MacTavish in which the presence of the other part- 
ners was ignored, the sale was concluded at certain 
rates. A few days later J. Stuart arrived with the re- 
mainder of the Northwest party. He objected to Mac- 
Tavish's prices and lowered the rates materially. Mr. 
Stuart's offer was accepted by Macdougal and the 
agreement of transfer was signed October i6th. By it 
Duncan Macdougal, for and on behalf of himself, Don- 

ald Mackenzie, David Stuart and John Clarke, part- 
ners of the Pacific Fur Company, dissolved July 1st, 
pretended to sell to his British conferes and co-con- 
spirators of the Northwest Company 'the whole of the 
establishments, furs and present stock on hand, of 
the Columbia and Thompson's rivers.' " 

It is needless to add that on the arrival of the Brit- 
ish vessels Astoria became a British possession. The 
formal change of sovereignty and raising of the Union 
Jack took place on December I2th, and as if to oblit- 
erate all trace of Mr. Astor's operations, the name of 
Astoria was changed to Fort George. The arrival of 
Isaac Todd the following spring with a cargo of trad- 
ing goods and supplies enabled the Northwest Com- 
pany to enter vigorously into the prosecution of their 
trade in the territory of their wronged and outraged 
rival. "Thus disgracefully failed," says Evans, "a 
magnificent enterprise, which merited success for sa- 
gacity displayed, in its conception, its details, its ob- 
jects; for the liberality and munificence of its projec- 
tor in furnishing means adequate for its thorough exe- 
cution ; for the results it had aimed to produce. It was 
inaugurated purely for commercial purposes. Had it 
not been transferred to its enemies, it would have pion- 
eered the colonization of the northwest coast by citi- 
zens of the United States ; it would have furnished the 
natural and peaceful solution of the question of the 
right to the territory drained by the Columbia and its 

"The scheme was grand in its aim, magnificent in 
its breadth of purpose and area of operation. Its re- 
sults were naturally feasible, not over-anticipated. 
They were but the logical and necessary sequences of 
the pursuit of the plan. Mr. Astor made no miscal- 

hope to lead him into any wild or imaginary venture. 
He was practical, generous, broad. He executed what 
Sir Alexander Mackenzie urged should be adopted as 
the policy of British capital and enterprise. That one 
American citizen should have individually undertaken 
what two mammoth British companies had not the 
courage to try was but an additional cause which had 
intensified national prejudice into embittered jealousy 
on the part of the British rivals, the Northwest Com- 

By the first article of the treaty of Ghent entered 
into between Great Britain and the' United States, De- 
cember 14, 1814, it was agreed "that all territory, 
places and possessions whatsoever taken by either 
party from the other, during or after the war, should 
be restored." Astoria, therefore, again became the 
possession of the United States, and in September, 
1817, the government sent the sloop-of-war Ontario 
"to assert the claim of the United States to the sover- 
eignty of the adjacent country, and especially to re-' 
occupy Astoria or Fort George." The formal' surren- 
der of the fort is dated October 6, 1818. 

Mr. Astor had urged the United States to repos- 
sess Astoria, and intended fully to resume operations 
in the basin of the Columbia, but the Pacific Fur Com- 
pany was never reorganized, and never again did the 


great captain of industry engage in trade on the shores 
of the Pacific. 

Brief and general though this introductory sketch 
must be we cannot omit mention of the two British fur 
companies who played such a prominent part in the 
early history of the section to which the five northern 
counties of Idaho belong. Although organized in 1774, 
the Northwest Company, successor in interest of the 
Pacific Fur Company, did not attain to high prestige 
until the dawn of the nineteenth century. Then, how- 
ever, it seemed to take on new life, and before the first 
half decade was passed it had become the successful 
rival of the Hudson's Bay Company for the fur trade 
of the interior of North America. The Hudson's Bay 
Company when originally chartered in 1670 was 
granted in a general way the right to traffic in Hud- 
son's Bay and the territory contiguous thereto, and the 
Northwest Company began to insist that the grant 
should be more strictly construed. The boundaries of 
Prince Rupert's land, as the Hudson's Bay territory 
was named, had never been definitely determined and 
there had long been contention in those regions which 
were claimed by that company but denied to it by the 
other fur traders. Beyond the recognized area of the 
Hudson's Bay territory, the old Northwest Company (a 
French company which had fallen, at the time of the 
fall of Canada into the possession of the British) had 
been a competitor of the Hudson's Bay Company. When 
this FTench association went out of existence the con- 
test was kept up by private merchants, but without 
lasting success. The new Northwest Company, of 
Montreal, united and cemented into one organization 
all these individuals for the better discharge of the 
common purpose. It is interesting to note the theory 
of trade of this association as contrasted with that of 
the Hudson's Bay Company. 

From established posts as centers of operations, 
the Montreal association dispatched parties in all di- 
rections to visit the villages and haunts of the natives 
and secure furs from every source possible. It went 
to the natives for their goods, while the rival company 
so arranged its posts that these were convenient to the 
whole Indian population, then depended upon the abor- 
igines to bring in their peltries and exchange the same 
for such articles as might supply their wants or gratify 
their fancies. Consequently the one company required 
many employees, the other comparatively few. The 
clerks or traders of the Montreal association were re- 
quired to serve an apprenticeship of seven years at 
small wages. That term successfully completed, the 
stipend was doubled. Skill and special aptitude in trad- 
ing brought speedy promotions, and the chance to be- 
come a partner in the business was an unfailing incent- 
ive to strenuous effort. The Hudson's Bay Company, 
on the other hand, had established fixed grades of com- 
'pensation. Promotion was slow, coming periodically 
rather than as a reward for specially meritorious serv- 
ice, and though faithfulness to duty was required, no 
incentive was offered for special endeavor. The Hud- 
son's Bay Company based its territorial title upon a 
specific grant from the crown, while the rival associa- 
tion sought no other title than such as priority of oc- 

cupancy and pre-emption afforded. It claimed as its. 
field of operation all unoccupied territory wherever lo- 

The Northwest Company showed also its animus 
to confirm and strengthen British title to all territories 
adversely claimed, and wherever a post was estab- 
lished the territory contiguous thereto was ceremoni- 
ously taken possession of "in the name of the king of 
Great Britain, for the Northwest Company." Its es- 
tablishments and possessions afterward constituted 
the substantial basis of Great Britain's claim to the 

Rivalry between these two companies was carried 
to such an extent that both were brought to the 
verge of bankruptcy. British interests were being en- 
dangered through this trade war and something had to 
be done. The governor general of Canada appointed 
a commission to investigate conditions, and that com- 
mission recommended a union of the two companies. 
Nothing, however, of material benefit resulted. Event- 
ually, in the winter of 1819-20, Lord Bathurst, Brit- 
ish secretary of state for the colonies, took up the 
matter and through his meditation a union was finally 
effected. On March 20, 1821, it was mutually agreed 
that both companies should operate under the charter 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, furnishing equal 
amounts of capital and sharing equally the profits, the 
arrangement to continue in force for twenty-one years. 

By 1824 all the rights and interests of the stock- 
holders late of the Northwest Company had passed into 
the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company. . The absorb- 
tion of the one corporation by the other was com- 
plete. The treacherous and perfidious treatment of Mr. 
Astor and the demoralization of his partners availed 
the greedy Northwesters but little, for they were soon 
after conquered and subdued and forever deprived of 
their identity as a company by their powerful rival and 

The Hudson's Bay Company now became the sole 
owner and proprietor of the trade west of the Rocky 
mountains, and of all the rights accruing under the 
license of trade issued to it and the Northwest Com- 
pany by the British parliament. An "iinperhtm in im- 
ptrio" Evans characterized this company and such it 
was for it was in possession of well-nigh absolute 
power over its employes and the native races with 
whom it traded. It wa's constituted "The true and ab- 
solute lords and proprietors of the territories, limits 
and places, save always the faith, allegiance and sov- 
ereign dominion clue to us (the crown), our heirs and 
successors, for the same, to hold as tenants in fee and 
common socage, and not by knight's service, reserving 
as a yearly rent, two elks and two black beavers." 
Power was granted, should occasion arise, to "send 
ships of war, men or ammunition to any fort, post or 
place for defense thereof; to raise military companies 
and to appoint their officers ; to make war or conclude 
peace with any people (not Christian), in any of their 
territories," also "to seize the goods, estates or people 
of those countries for damage to the company's inter- 
est, or for the interruption of trade ; to erect and build 
forts, garrisons, towns, villages ; -to establish colonies 


and to support such establishments by expeditions fit- 
ted out in Great Britain; to seize all British subjects 
not connected with the company, or employed by them, 
or in such territory by their license, and send them 
to England." Should one of its factors, traders or 
other employees "contemn or disobey an order, he was 
liable to be punished by the president or council, who 
were authorized to prescribe the manner and measure 
of punishment. The offender had the right to appeal 
to the company in England, or he might be turned over 
for trial by the courts. For the better discovery of 
abuses and injuries by the servants, the governor and 
company, and their respective president, chief agent 
or governor in any of the territories, were authorized 
to examine on oath all factors, masters, pursers, super- 
cargoes, commanders of castles, forts, fortifications, 
plantations, or colonies, or other persons, touching or 
concerning any matter or thing sought to be investi- 
gated." To further strengthen the hands of the com- 
pany, the charter concludes with a royal mandate to 
all '"'admirals, vice-admirals, justices, mayors, sheriffs, 
constables, bailiffs, and all and singular other our of- 
ficers, ministers, liegemen, subjects whatsoever, to aid, 
favor, help and assist the said governor and company 
to enjoy, as well on land as on the seas, all the prem- 
ises in said charter contained, whensoever required." 
Something of the modus operand! of the company 
must now be given. The chief factors and chief trad- 
ers were paid no salaries, but in lieu thereof were given 
forty per cent, of the profits, divided among them on 
some basis deemed equitable by the company. The 

hundred pounds per annum. Below these again were 
the servants, whose term of enlistment (for such in 
effect it was) was for five years, and whose pay was 
seventeen pounds per annum without clothing. The 
servant was bound by indentures to devote his whole 
time and labor to the company's interests ; to yield obe- 
dience to sprerior officers ;to defend the company's 
property; to faithfully obey the laws, orders, 
-etc; to defend officers and agents of the com- 
pany to ,the extent of his ability; to serve 
in the capacity of a soldier whenever called upon 
so to do ; to attend military drill ; and never to engage 
or be interested in any trade or occupation except in 
accordance with the company's orders and for its bene- 
fit. In addition to the pittance paid him, the servant 
was entitled, should he desire to remain in the country 
after the expiration of his term of enlistment, to fifty 
acres of land, for which he was to render twenty-eight 

before the expiration of his term, the servant, it was 
agreed, should be transported to his European home 
free of charge. Desertion or neglect might be punished 
by the forfeiture of even the wretched pittance he was 
to receive. It was, furthermore, the policv of the com- 

their purpose being to create family ties which should 
bind the poor slave to the soil. By the time the serv- 
ant's term of enlistment had expired, there was, there- 
fore, usually no choice left him but to re-enlist or ac- 
cept the grant of land. "In times of peace, laborers 

and operatives were ever on hand at mere nominal 
wages ; in times of outbreak they were at once trans- 
formed into soldiers amenable to military usage and 

The system was certainly a fine one, viewed from 
the standpoint of the company, but while it may com- 
mand admiration for its ingenuity, it is certainly not 
to be commended for magnanimity. Its design and 
purpose was to turn the wealth of the country into the 
coffers of the English noblemen who owned Hudson's 
Bay stock, even though this should be done at the ex- 
pense of the manhood, the self-respect and the inde- 
pendence of the poor sons of toil who foolishly or from 
necessity bound themselves to its service. 

The Indian policy of the company was no less politic 
than its treatment of its employees, but it had much 
more in it that was truly commendable. Its purpose 
did not bring its employees into conflict with the Indian, 
nor require his expulsion, neither was there danger of 
the lands of the savages being appropriated or the 
graves of their people disturbed. The sale of intoxi- 
cants was positively and successfully prohibited. Con- 
ciliation was the wisest policy for the company, and it 
governed itself accordingly ; but when punishment was 
merited, it was administered with promptness and se- 
verity. When depredations were committed the tribe 
to which the malefactor belonged was pursued by an 
armed force and compelled to deliver up the guilty 
to his fate. A certain amount of civilization was in- 
troduced, and with it came an increase of wants, which 
wants could only be supplied at the company's forts. 
Indians were sent on hunting and trapping expedi- 
tions in all directions, so that concentration of tribes 
became difficult, and if attempted, easily perceived in 
time to circumvent it and prevent trouble. Thus the 
company secured an influence over the savage and a 
place in his affections, from which it could not easily 
be dislodged. 

In its treatment of missionaries, civil and military 
officers and others from the United States, the com- 
pany's factors and agents were uniformly courteous 
and kind. Their hospitality was in the highest degree 
commendable, meriting the gratitude of the earliest 
visitors and settlers. The poor and unfortunate never 
asked assistance in vain. But woe to the American who 
attempted to trade with the Indian, to trap, hunt or do 
anything which brought him into competition with the 
British corporation. All the resources of a company 
supplied with an abundance of cheap labor, supported 
by the friendship and affection of the aboriginal peo- 
ples, backed by an almost unlimited capital, and forti- 
fied by the favor of one of the wealthiest and most 
powerful nations of the earth, were at once turned to 
crush him. Counter establishments were formed in 
his vicinity, and he was hampered in every way possible 
and pursued with the relentlessness of an evil fate until 
compelled to retire from the field. 

Such being the condition, there was not much en- 
couragement for American enterprise in the basin of 
the Columbia. It is not, however, in the American 
character to yield a promising prospect without a strug- 
gle and many times efforts were made at competition in 


the Oregon territory. William H. Ashley, Jedediah S. 
Smith, Captain Nathaniel J. Wyeth and others tried 
their hands but all were compelled to give up in de- 

More important perhaps than the loss of profits 
which might accrue to America from the successful 
prosecution of the fur trade was the weakening of 
America's title to the country, through the establish- 
ment of British trading posts, the colonization of re- 
tired officers and servants as cultivators of the public 
domain, etc. It is true that the joint occupancy con- 
ventions of 1818 and 1827, by which British and Ameri- 
cans alike were allowed to occupy the country, ex- 
pressly stipulated that no advantage should inure to 
either of the high contracting parties by virtue of any 
acts performed subsequent to the date of the first con- 
vention. However clear and explicit the language 
of the treaty, no observer could fail to note that the 
establishment of trading enterprises was giving Great 
Britain a decided advantage in the struggle for title 
to the Oregon country. The Hundson's Bay Company 
had a political mission and was playing a prominent 
part in inter-national affairs. This it openly avowed 
in 1837 in its application to the home government for a 
new license granting enlarged privileges. It pointed 
boastfully to its efficient services in successfully crush- 
ing out American enterprise, and in strengthening the 
British title to the territory, contrary to the spirit and 
letter of the joint occupancy treaties. 

In presenting the petition, the company's chief rep- 
resentative in England, Sir John Henry Pelly, called 
the attention of the lords to the service rendered in 
securing to the mother country a branch of trade, 
wrested from subjects of Russia and the United States 
of America : to the six permanent establishments it had 
on the coast, and the sixteen in the interior, besides 
the migratory and hunting parties ; to its marine of six 
armed vessels; to its large pasture and grain farms, 
affording every species of agricultural produce and 
maintaining large herds of stock. He further averred 
that it was the intention of the company to still further 
extend and increase its farms, and to establish an ex- 
port trade in wool, hides, tallow and other produce of 
the herd and the cultivated field, also to encourage the 
settlement of its retired servants and other emigrants 
under its protection. Referring to the soil, climate and 
other circumstances of the country, he said they were 
such as to make it "as much adapted to agricultural 
pursuits as any other spot in America ; and," said he, 
"with care and protection the British dominion may 
not only be preserved in this country, which it has been 
so much the wish of Russia and America to occupy to 
the exclusion of British subjects, but British interest 
and British influence may be maintained as paramount 
in this interesting part of the coast of the Pacific." 

Sir George Simpson, who was in charge of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company's affairs in America, in making 
his plea for the renewal of the license, referred to the 
international import of the company's operations in this 
language: "The possession of that country to Great 
Britain may be an object of very great importance; 
and we are strengthening that claim to it (independent 

of the claims of prior discovery and occupation for the 
purpose of Indian trade) by forming the nucleus of a 
colony through the establishment of farms, and the set- 
tlement of some of our retired officers and servants as 

One might almost expect that Great Britain would 
offer some word of reproof to a company which could 
have the audacity to boast of violating her treaty com- 
pacts with a friendly power. Not so, however. She 
was a party to the breach of faith. Instead of admin- 
istering reproof, she rewards the wrong-doers by the 
promptly issuing of a new license to extend and be in 
force for a period of twenty-one years. This renewed 
license, the date of which is May 31, 1838, granted to 
the company ''the exclusive privilege of trading with 
the Indians in all such parts of North America, to the 
northward and westward of the islands and territories 
belonging to the United States of America, as shall not 
form part of any of our (British) provinces in North- 
said United States of America, or to any European- 
government, state, or power. Without rent for the first 
five years, and afterward the yearly rent of five shill- 
ings, payable on the ist of June." The company was 
again required to furnish a bond conditioned on their 
executing by their authority over the persons in their 
employ, "all'civil and criminal process by the officers or 
persons legally empowered to execute such process 
within all territories included in the grant, and for the 
producing or delivering into custody, for the purpose 
of trial, all persons in their employ or acting under their 
authority within the said territories, who shall be- 
charged with any criminal offenses." The license, how- 
ever, prohibited the company "from claiming or exer- 
cising any trade with the Indians on the northwest 
coast of America westward of the Rocky mountains to 
the prejudice or exclusion of any of the subjects of any 
foreign state, who, under or by any force of any con- 
vention for the time being between Great Britain and 
such foreign states, may be entitled to and shall be en- 
gaged in such trade." But no provision could be 
framed, nor was it the wish of the grantors to frame 
any, which should prevent the Hudson's Bay Company 
from driving out by harassing tactics and fierce compe- 
tition, any American who might enter the Oregon ter- 
ritory as a trader. 

Though the citizens of the United States failed to 
compete with the powerful British company for the 
profits of the fur trade, neither they nor their govern- 
ment viewed the aggressiveness of the British with any- 
thing like apathy. The value of the country early be- 
came appreciated by a determined little band in con- 
gress. The debates in that body, as well as the numer- 
ous publications sent out among the people, stimulated 
a few daring spirits to brave the dangers of Rocky 
mountain travel and to see for themselves the truth 
with regard to Oregon. Reports from these reacted 
upon congress, enabling it to reason and judge from 
premises more nearly in accordance with fact. Grad- 
ually interest in Oregon became intensified, and the 
determination to hold it for the United States deep- 
ened. While the country never receded from its con- 


viction of the existence of an absolute right of sover- 
eignty in itself, the people resolved to establish a title 
which even the British could not question, to win 
Oregon from Great Britain even in accordonce with 
the tenets of her own theory. They determined to 
settle and Americanize the territory. In 1834 an ele- 
ment of civilization was introduced of a vastly higher 
nature than any which accompanied the inroad of the 
Hudson's Bay 'Company's employees and of trappers 
and traders ; an element more potent also in its politi- 
cal effect as the event proved. We refer to the en- 
trance into the country of a party of Methodist mis- 
sionaries, which accompanied Wyeth's overland expe- 
dition. The party consisted of Rev. Jason Lee and 
his nephew, Rev. Daniel Lee, Cyrus Shepherd, Court- 
ney M, Walker and P. L. Edwards. These settled 
near the site of the present city of Salem, forming the 
nucleus of a thrifty American colony, for the party 
was perforce increased by the marriage of some of its 
members and by additions to its numbers as the neces- 
sities of the mission and the progress of its work de- 
manded. Not only that but the adventurous Rocky 
mountain men and other whites who became weary 
of their nomadic habits when they determined to set- 
tle down naturally sought its vicinity for the sake of 
its helpful society and influence. 

Two years later came another missionary party, 
sent out by the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, an organization then supported by 
the Congregational, Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed 
churches. The members of this party were Dr. Mar- 
cus Whitman and wife, Rev. H. H. Spalding and 
wife and W. H. Gray. We must pass over for the 
present the work of these men and those who later 
became their associates, but their political influence 
was not less potent than that of the Methodist mis- 
sionaries and it is certain that Whitman's famous mid- 
winter ride overland to the east had for one of its 
momentous results the stimulating of immigration into 
Oregon. Undoubtedly a large proportion of the near- 
ly nine hundred who were piloted over the Rockies 
by Whitman in 1843, were induced to come through 
the representations and efforts of that great mission- 
ary patriot. 

But besides the missions, several other forces were 
at work to populate the Northwest with an American 
people which must be passed over here. The inde- 
pendent population of the country in 1841 was per- 
haps 253 ; in 1842 came an immigration of 1 1 1 per- 
sons ; in 1843 came the immigration of 875 persons 
referred to above; the next year brought 800 more; 
1846 added another thousand according to estimate, 
and so the population continued to grow by annual 
accretions. America had determined to Oppose her 
citizens, as settlers and home builders, against the 
British fur traders, thus introducing into the Oregon 
question a feature, the vital force and import of which 
could not be denied by the adverse claimant. 

But the transcendant importance of this great con- 
troversy demands that we trace briefly the history of 
diplomatic negotiations by which was effected a peace- 
ful adjustment of international interests so diametri- 

cally opposed to each other as to twice all but occa- 
sion actual conflict of arms. 

We need not attempt to trace all the conflicting 
claims which were at any time set up by different na- 
tions to parts or the whole of the old Oregon territory, 
nor to go into the controversy in all its multiform 
complications, but will confine 'our inquiry mainly to 
the negotiations after Great Britain and the United 
States became the sole claimants. France early estab- 
lished some right to what denominated "the western 
part of Louisiana," which, in 1762 she conveyed to 
Spain. This was retroceded to France some thirty- 
eight years later, and in 1803 was by that nation con- 
veyed with the rest of Louisiana to the United States. 
So France was left out of the contest. In 1819, by 
the treaty of Florida, Spain ceded to the United States 
all right and title whatsoever which she might have to 
the territory on the Pacific, north of the forty-second 

What then were the claims of the United States to 
this vast domain ? Naturally they were of a three-fold 
character. Our government claimed first in its own 
right. The Columbia river was discovered by a citi- 
zen of the United States and named by him. The river 
had been subsequently explored from its sources to its 
mouth by a government expedition under Lewis and 
Clark. This had been followed and its effect strength- 
ened by American settlements upon the banks of the 
river. While Astoria, the American settlement, had 
been captured in the war of 1812-15, it na d been re- 
stored in accordance with the treaty of Ghent, one pro- 
vision of which was that "all territory, places and pos- 
sessions whatsoever, taken by either party from the 
other during the war, or which may be taken after the 
signing of this treaty, shall be restored without de- 

It was a well established and universally recog- 
nized principle of international law that the discovery 
of a river, followed within a reasonable time by acts 
of occupancy, conveyed the right to the territory 
drained by the river and its tributary streams. This, 
it was contended, would make the territory between 
forty-two degrees and fifty-one degrees north latitude 
the rightful possession of the United States. 

The Americans claimed secondly as the successors 
of France. By the treaty of Utrecht, the date whereof 
was 1713, the north line of the Louisiana territory was 
established as a dividing line between the Hudson's 
Bay territory and the French provinces in Canada. 
For centuries it had been a well recognized principle 
of international law that "continuity" was a strong 
element of territorial claim. All European powers 
when colonizing the Atlantic seaboard, construed their 
colonial grants to extend, whether expressly so stated 
or otherwise, entirely across the continent to the Pa- 
cific ocean, and most of these grants conveyed in ex- 
press terms a strip of territory bounded north and 
south by stated parallels of latitude and east and west 
by the oceans. Great Britain herself had stoutly main- 
tained this principle, even going so far as to wage 
with France for its integrity, the war which was ended 
by the treaty of 1763. By that England acquired 


Canada and renounced to France all territory west of 
the Mississippi river. It was therefore contended on 
the part of the United States that England's claim by 
continuity passed to France and from France by as- 
subject to any rights which might prove to belong to 

Thirdly, the United States claimed as the succes- 
sor of Spain, all the rights that nation might have ac- 
quired by prior discovery or otherwise having accrued 
to the United States by' the treaty of Florida. 

In the negotiations between Great Britain and the 
United States, which terminated in the Joint-Occu- 
pancy treaty of 1818, the latter nation pressed the 
former for a final quit claim of all territory west of the 
Rocky mountains. In so doing it asserted its inten- 
tion "to be without reference or prejudice to the 
claims of any other power," but it was contended on 
the part of the American negotiations, Gallitin and 
Rush, that the discovery of the Columbia by Gray, 
its exploration by Lewis "and Clark, and the American 
settlement at Astoria rendered the claim of the United 
States "at least good against Great Britain to the 
country through which such river flowed, though they 
did not assert that the United States had a perfect right 
to the country." 

When, however, the United States succeeded to 
Spain, it was thought that all clouds upon its title 
were completely dispelled, and thereafter it was the 
contention of this government that its right to sole 
occupancy was perfect and indisputable. Great Brit- 
ain, however, did not claim that her title amounted to 
one of sovereign or exclusive possession, but simply 
that it was at least as good as any other. Her theory 
was that she had a right to occupancy in conjunction 
with other claimants, which by settlement and other- 
wise might be so strengthened in a part or the whole 
of the territory as to ultimately secure for her the 
right to be clothed with sovereignty. 

In the discussion of the issue, the earliest explora- 
tions had to be largely left out of the case, as they 
were attended by too much vagueness and uncertainty 
to bear any great weight. The second epoch of ex- 
ploration was, therefore, lifted to a position of promin- 
ence it could not otherwise have enjoyed. Perez and 
Heceta, for the Spainards, the former in 1774, and the 
latter a year later, had explored the northwest coast 
to the fifty-fifth parallel and beyond, Heceta dis- 
covering the mouth of the Columbia river. To offset 
whatever rights might accrue from these explorations, 
England had only the more thorough but less exten- 
sive survey of Captain James Cook, made in 1778. 
The advantage in point of prior discovery would, 
therefore, seem to be with the United States as' assignee 
of Spain. 

After the Joint-Occupancy treaty of 1818 had been 
signed, negotiations on the subject were not re- 
opened until 1824. In that year, obedient to the mas- 
terly instructions addressed to him on July 22, 1823, 
by John Quincy Adams, secretary of state, Richard 
Rush, minister to England, entered into negotiations 
with the British ministers Canning and Huskisson 

for the adjustment of the boundary. Mr. Rush was 
instructed to offer the forty-ninth parallel to the sea, 
"should it be earnestly insisted upon by Great Britain." 
He endeavored with great persistency to fulfill his mis- 
sion, but his propositions were rejected. The British 
negotiators offered the forty-ninth parallel to the Co- 
lumbia, then the middle of that river to the sea, with 
perpetual rights to both nations of navigating the har- 
bor at the mouth of the river. This proposal Mr. Rush 
rejected, so nothing was accomplished. By treaty 
concluded in February, 1825, an agreement was en- 
tered into between Great Britain and Russia, whereby 
the line of fifty-four degrees, forty minutes, was fixed 
as the boundary between the territorial claims of the 
two nations, a fact which explains the cry of "Fifty- 
four, forty or fight" that in later days became the 
slogan of the Democratic party. 

In 1826-7 another attempt was made to settle the 
question at issue between Great Britain and the United 
States. Albert Gallatin then represented this country, 
receiving his instructions from Henry Clay, secretary 
of state, who said : "It is not thought necessary to 
add much to the argument advanced on this point in 
the instructions given to Mr. Rush, and that which was 
employed by him in the course of the negotiations to 
support our title as derived from prior discovery and 
settlement at the mouth of the Columbia river, and 
from the treaty which Spain concluded on the 22d of 
February, 1819. That argument is believed to have 
conclusively established our title on both grounds. 
Nor is it conceived that Great Britain has or can make 
out even a colorless title to any portion of the north- 
ern coast." Referring to the offer of the forty-ninth 
parallel in a dispatch dated February 24, 1827, Mr. 
Clay said : "It is conceived in a genuine spirit of con- 
cession and conciliation, and it is our ultimatum 
and you may so announce it." In order to 
save the case of his country from being 
prejudiced in future negotiations by the liberality 
of offers made and rejected, Mr. Clay instructed Galla- 
tin to declare: "That the American government does 
not hold itself bound hereafter, in consequence of any 
proposal which it has heretofore made, to agree to a 
line which has been so proposed and rejected, but will 
consider itself at liberty to contend for the full measure 
of our just claims; which declaration you must have 
recorded in the protocol of one of your conferences; 
and to give it more weight, have it stated that it has 
been done by the express direction of the president." 

Mr. Gallatin sustained the claim of the United 
States in this negotiation so powerfully that the Brit- 
ish plenipotentiaries, Huskisson, Grant and Adding- 
ton, were forced to the position that Great Britian did 
not assert' any title to the country. They contented 
themselves with the contention that her claim was 
sufficiently well founded as to give her the right to 
occupy the country in common with other nations, 
such concessions having been made to her by the 
Nootka treaty. The British negotiators complained 
of the recommendation of President Monroe in his 
message of December 7, 1824, to establish a military 
post at the mouth of Columbia river and of the passage 


of the bill in the House providing for the occupancy of 
the Oregon river. To this the Americans replied by call- 
ing attention to the act of the British parliament of 
1821, entitled "An act for regulating the fur trade and 
establishing a criminal and civil jurisdiction in cer- 
tain parts of North America." He contended with 
great ability and force that the recommendation and 
bill complained of did not interfere with the treaty of 
1818, and that neither a territorial government nor a 
fort at the mouth of the river could rightly be com- 
plained of by a government which had granted such 
wide privileges and comprehensive powers to the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. 

Before the conclusion of these negotiations, Mr. 
Gallatin had offered not alone the forty-ninth parallel 
but that "the navigation of the Columbia river shall 
be perpetually free to subjects of Great Britain in com- 
mon with citizens of the United States, provided that 
the said line should strike the northeastermost or any 
other branch of that river at a point at which it was 
navigable for boats." The British, on their part, again 
offered the Columbia river, together with a large 

of land between Admiralty Inlet and the coast, protest- 
ing that this concession was made in the spirit of sacri- 
fice for conciliation and not as one of right. The 
proposition was rejected and the negotiations ended in 
the treaty of August 6, 1827, which continued the 
Joint-Occupancy treaty of 1818 indefinitely, with the 
proviso that it might be abrogated by either party 
on giving the other a year's notice. 

"There can be no doubt," says Evans, "that, during 
the continuance of these two treaties, British foothold 
was strengthened and the difficulty of the adjustment 
of boundaries materially enhanced. Nor does this re- 
flect in the slighest degree upon those great publicists 
who managed the claim of the United States in those 
negotiations. Matchless ability and earnest patriot- 
ism, firm defense of the United States' claim, and 
withal a disposition to compromise to avoid rupture 
with any other nation, mark these negotiations in every 
line. The language and intention of these treaties are 
clear and unmistakable. Neither government was to 
attempt any act in the derogation of the other's claim ; 
nor could any advantage inure to either; during their 
continuance the territory should be free and open to 
citizens and subjects of both nations. Such is their 
plain purport; such the only construction which their 
language will warrant. Yet it cannot be controverted 
that the United States had thereby precluded itself 
from the sole enjoyment of the territory which it 
claimed in sovereignty; nor that Great Britain ac- 
quired a peaceable, recognized and uninterrupted ten- 
ancy-in-common in regions where her title was so im- 
perfect that she herself admitted that she could not 
successfully maintain, nor did she even assert it. She 
could well afford to wait. Hers was indeed the policy 
later in the controversy styled masterly inactivity: 
'Leave the title in abeyance, the settlement of the coun- 
try will ultimately settle the sovereignty.' In no event 
could her colorless title lose color ; while an immediate 
adjustment of the boundary would have abridged the 
area of territory in which, through her subjects, she 

already exercised exclusive possession, and had se- 
ed the entire enjoyment of its wealth and resources. 
The Hudson's Bay Company, by virtue of its license 
of trade excluding all other British subjects from the 
territory, was Great Britain's trustee in possession 
an empire company, omnipotent to supplant enterprises 
projected by citizens of the United States. Indeed, 
the territory had been appropriated by a wealthy, all- 
powerful monopoly, with whom it was runious to at- 
tempt to compete. Such is a true exhibit of the then 
condition of Oregon, produced by causes extrinsic to 
the treaty, which the United States government could 
neither counteract nor avoid. The United States had 
saved the right for its citizens to enter the territory, 
had protested likewise that no act or omission on the 
part of the government or its citizens, or any act of 
commission or omission by the British government or 
her subjects during such joint-occupancy treaties, 
should affect in any way the United States' claim to 
the territory. 

"The treaties of 1818 and 1827 have passed into his- 
tory as conventions for joint occupancy. Practically 
they operated as grants of possession to Great Britain, 
or rather to her representative, the Hudson's Bay 
Company, who, after the merger with the Northwest 
Company, had become sole occupant of the territory. 
The situation may be briefly summed up : The United 
States claimed title to the territory. Great Britain, 
through its empire-trading company, occupied it, en- 
joyed all the wealth and resources derivable from it." 
But while joint occupancy was in realty non-oc- 
cupation by any but the British, it must not be sup- 
posed that the case of the United States was allowed to 
go entirely by default during the regime of so-called 
joint occupancy. In congress the advisability of occu- 
pying Oregon was frequently and vehemently dis- 
cussed. Ignorance and misconception with regard to 
the real nature of Oregon, its climate, soil, products, 
and healthfulness, were being dispelled. The repre- 
sentations of the Hudson's Bay Company that it was 
a "miasmatic wilderness, uninhabitable except by wild 
beasts and more savage men," were found to be false. 
In 1821 Dr. John Floyd, a representative in congress 
from Virginia, and Senator Thomas H. Benton, of 
Missouri, had interviews at Washington with Ramsey 
Crooks and Russel Farnham, who had belonged to 
Astor's party. From' these gentlemen they learried 
something of the value of Oregon, its features of in- 
terest, and its commercial and strategic importance. 
This information Dr. Floyd made public in 1822, in a 
speech in support of a bill "to authorize the occupa- 
tion of the Columbia river, and to regulate trade and 
intercourse with the Indians thereon." On December 
29, 1 8.7.3, a committee was appointed to inquire as to 
the wisdom of occupying the mouth of the Columbia 
and the committee's report, submitted on April I5th 
of the following year, embodied a communication from 
General Thomas S. Jesup, which asserted that the mili- 
tary occupancy of the Columbia was a necessity for 


protecting trade and securing the frontier. It recom- 
mended "the dispatch of a force of two hundred men 
across the continent to establish a fort at the mouth of 
the Columbia river ; that at the same time two vessels, 
with arms, ordnance and supplies, be sent thither by 
sea. He further proposed the establishment of a line 
of posts across the continent to afford protection to 
our traders; and on the expiration of the privilege 
granted to British subjects to trade on the waters of 
the Columbia, to enable us to remove them from our 
territory, and secure the whole to our citizens. Those 
posts could also secure the preservation of peace among 
the Indians in the event of a foreign war and command 
their neutrality or assistance as we might think most 
advisable." The letter exposed Great Britian's rea- 
sons for her policy of masterly inactivity, and urged 
that some action be taken by the United States to off- 
set the accretion of British title and for preserving 
and perfecting its own. "History," says Evans, "will 
generously award credit to the sagacious Jesup for 
indicating in 1823 the unerring way to preserve the 
American title to Oregon territory. Nor will it fail 
to command the earnest devotion of that little Oregon 
party in congress for placing on record why the gov- 
ernment should assert exclusive jurisdiction within its 
own territory." In the next congress the subject was 
again discussed with energy and ability. In 1831 for- 
mal negotiations with Great Britain were resumed. 

All this discussion had a tendency to dispel the 
idea, promulgated, as we have seen, by the Hudson's 
Bay Company, that the territory was worthless and 
uninhabitable, also to excite interest in the mystic re- 
gion beyond the mountains. 

The United States claimed theoretically that it was 
the possessor of a vested right to absolute sovereignty 
over the entire Oregon territory, and in all the nego- 
tiations, after the signing of the treaty of Florida, its 
ambassadors claimed that the title of their country was 
clearly established. The fact, however, that joint occu- 
pancy was agreed to at all after 1828 could hardly be 
construed in any other light than as a confession of 
weakness in our title, notwithstanding the unequivocal 
stipulations that neither party should attempt anything 
in derogation of the other's claims, and that the con- 
troversy should be determined on its merits as they 
existed prior to 1818. If the United States came into 
possession of an absolute title in 1819, why should it 
afterward permit occupation by British subjects and 
the enforcement of British law in its domain ? 

The United States' title, as before stated, rested 
upon three foundation stones, its own discoveries 
and explorations, the discoveries and explorations of 
the Spaniards, and the purchase of Louisiana. While 
it was not contended that any one of these conveyed 
exclusive right, the position of our country was that 
each supplemented the other ; that, though while vested 
in different nations they were antagonistic when held 
by the same nation, they, taken together, amounted to 
a complete title. The title was, therefore, cumulative 
in its nature and had in it the weakness which is in- 
herent under such conditions. It was impossible to 
determine with definiteness how many partial titles, 

the value of each being a matter of uncertainty, would 
cumulatively amount to one complete title. And, how- 
ever clear the right of the United States might seem 
to its own statesmen, it is evident that conviction must 
be produced in the minds of the British also if war was 
to be avoided. 

In 1831 when Martin Van Buren was our minister 
at London he received instructions relative to the con- 
troversy from Edward Livingston, secretary of state, 
the tenor of which indicated that the United States 
was not averse to the presence of the British in the 
territory. While they asserted confidence in the 
American title to the entire Oregon territory, they 
said: "This subject, then, is open for discussion, and 
until the rights of the parties can be settled by nego- 
tiations, ours can suffer nothing by delay." Under 
these rather lukewarm instructions, naturally nothing 
was accomplished. 

In 1842 efforts to adjust the boundary west of the 
Rocky mountains were again resumed, this time on 
motion of Great Britain. That power requested on 
October i8th of the year mentioned that the United 
States minister at London should be furnished with 
instructions and authority to renew negotiations, giv- 
ing assurance of its willingness to proceed to the con- 
sideration of the boundary subject "in a perfect spirit 
of fairness, and to adjust it on a basis of equitable 
compromise." On November 25th, Daniel Webster, 
then secretary of state, replied : "That the president 
concurred entirely in the expediency of making the 
question respecting the Oregon territory a subject of 
immediate attention and negotiation between the two 
governments. 'He had already formed the purpose of 
expressing this opinion in his message to congress, 
and at no distant day, a communication will be made to 
the minister of the United States in London." 

Negotiations were not, however, renewed until Oc- 
tober, 1843, when Secretary Upshur sent instructions 
to Edward Everett, American minister to London, 
again offering the forty-ninth parallel, together with 
the right of navigating the Columbia river upon equit- 
able terms. In February of the ensuing year, Hon. 
Richard Packenham, British plenipotentiary, came to 
the American capital with instructions to negotiate 
concerning the Oregon territory. No sooner had dis- 
cussion fairly begun than a melancholy event hap- 
pened, Secretary Upshur being killed on the United 
States vessel Princeton by the explosion of a gun. A 
few months later his successor, John C. Calhoun, con- 
tinued the negotiations. The arguments were in a 
large measure a repetition of these already advanced 
but a greater aggressiveness on the part of the British 
and persistency in denying the claims of the United 
States were noticeable. As in former negotiations, the 
privileges accorded by the Nootka convention were 
greatly relied upon by Great Britain as proving that 
no absolute title was retained by Spain after the sign- 
ing of that treaty, hence none could be assigned. One 
striking statement in Lord Packenham's correspond- 
ence was to the effect that "he did not feel authorized 
to enter into discussion respecting the territory north 
of the forty-ninth parallel of latitude, which was under- 



.stood by the British government to form the basis of 
negotiations on the side of the United States, as the 
line of the Columbia formed that of Great Britain." 
He thus showed all too plainly the animus of his gov- 
ernment to take advantage of the spirit of compromise 
which prompted the offer of that line and to construe 
.such offer as the abandonment of the United States, 
claim to an absolute title to all the Oregon territory. It 
is hard to harmonize her action in this matter with the 
"perfect spirit of fairness" professed in the note of 
Lord Aberdeen to Mr. Webster asking for a renewal of 
negotiations. No agreement was reached. 

During the sessions of congress of 1843-4 memor- 
ials, resolutions and petitions from all parts of the 
union came in a perfect flood. The people were thor- 
oughly aroused. In the presidential election which oc- 
curred at that time the Oregon question was a leading 
issue. "Fifty-four Forty or Fight" became the rally- 
ing cry of the Democratic party. The platform 
framed in the Democratic national convention de- 
clared: "Our title to the whole of Oregon is clear 
and unquestionable. No portion of the same ought 
to be ceded to England or any other power; and by 
the reoccupation of Oregon at the earliest practical 
period is a great American measure." The position 
of the Whig party was milder and less arrogant, but 
equally emphatic in its assertion of belief in the valid- 
ity of the United States" title. The fact that the Demo- 
crats carried in the election, despite the warlike tone 
of their platform and campaign, is conclusive evidence 
that the people were determined to hold their terri- 
tory on the Pacific regardless of cost. "Never was a 
government more signally advised by the voice of a 
.united people. The popular pulse had been felt, and 
it beat strongly in favor of prompt and decisive meas- 
uies to secure the immediate reoccupation of Oregon. 
It equally proclaimed that 'no portion thereof ought 
to be ceded to Great Britain.' " In January, 1845, Sir 
.Richard Packenham, the British minister, proposed 
that the matter in dispute be left to arbitration, which 
proposal was respectfully declined. So the adminis- 
tration of President Tyler terminated without adjust- 
ment of the Oregon difficulty. 

Notwithstanding the unequivocal voice of the peo- 
ple in demand of the whole of Oregon, James Buch- 
anan, secretary of state under President Polk, in a 
communication to Sir Richard Packenham, dated July 
12, 1845, again offered the forty-ninth parallel, explain- 
ing at the same time that he could not have consented 
to do so had he not found himself embarassed if not 
committed by the acts of his predecessors. Packen- 
ham rejected the offer. Buchanan informed him that 
he was "instructed by the president to say that he owes 
it to his country, and a just appreciation of her title to 
the Oregon territory, to withdraw the proposition to 
the British government which has been made under 
his direction ; and it is hereby accordingly withdrawn." 
This formal withdrawal of previous offers of com- 
promise on the forty-ninth parallel, justified as it was 
by Great Britain's repeated rejections, left the Polk 
administration free and untrammeled. Appearances 
indicated that it was now ready to give execution to 

the popular verdict of 1844. The message of the presi- 
dent recommended that the year's notice, required by 
the treaty of 1827, be immediately given, that measures 
be adopted for maintaining the rights of the United 
States to the whole of Oregon, and that such legisla- 
tion be enacted as would afford security and protection 

In harmony with these recommendations, a resolu- 
tion was adopted April 27, 1846, authorizing the presi- 
dent "at his discretion to give to the government of 
Great Britain the notice required by the second article 
of the said convention of the sixth of August, eighteen 
hundred and twenty-seven, for the abrogation of the 

Acting in accordance with the resolution, Presi- 
dent Polk the next day sent notice of the determination 
of the United States "that, at the end of twelve months 
from and after the delivery of these presents by the 
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of 
the United States at London, to her Britannic Ma- 
jesty, or to her majesty's principal secretary of state for 
foreign affairs, the said convention shall be entirely 
annulled and abrogated." 

On the 27th of December, 1845, Sir Richard Pack- 
enham had submitted another proposal to arbitrate the 
matter at issue between the two governments. The 
proposal was declined on the ground that to submit the 
proposition in the form stated would preclude the 
United States from making a claim to the whole of the 
territory. On January ijth of the following year, a 
modified proposal was made to refer "the question of 
title in either government to the whole territory to be 
decided ; and if neither were found to possess a com- 
plete title to the whole, it was to be divided between 
them according to a just appreciation of the claims of 
each." The answer of Mr. Buchanan was clear and 
its language calculated to preclude any more arbitra- 
tion proposals. He said : "If the governments should 
consent to an arbitration upon such terms, this would 
be construed into an intimation, of not a direct invita- 
tion to the arbitrator to divide the territory between 
the two parties. Were it possible for this government, 
under any circumstances, to refer the question to arbi- 
tration, the title and the title alone, detached from every 
other consideration, ought to be the only question sub- 
mitted. The title of the United States, which the 
president regards clear and unquestionable, can never 
be placed in jeopardy by referring it to the decision of 
any individual, whether sovereign, citizen or subject. 
Nor does he believe the territorial rights of this nation 
are a proper subject of arbitration." 

But the British government seems now to have be- 
come determined that the question should be settled 
without further delay. The rejected arbitration pro- 
posal was followed on the 6th of June, 1846, by a draft 
of the proposed treaty submitted by Sir Richard Pack- 
enham to Secretary of State Buchanan. The provision 
of this were to the effect that the boundary should be 
continued along the forty-ninth parallel "to the middle 
of the channel which separates the continent from 
Vancouver Island: and thence southerly through the 
middle of said channel and of Fuca's strait to the 


Pacific ocean." It stipulated that the navigation of 
the Columbia river should remain free and open to the 
Hudson's Bay Company and to all British subjects 
trading with the same; that the possessory right of 
that company and of all British subjects south of the 
forty-ninth parallel should be respected, and that "the 
farms, lands and other property of every description 
belonging to the Puget Sound Agricultural Company 
shall be confirmed to said company. In case, however, 
the situation of these farms and lands should be con- 
sidered by the United States to be of public import- 
ance, and the United States government should signify 
a desire to obtain possession of the whole, or any part 
thereof, the property so required shall be transferred 
to the said government at a proper valuation, to be 
agreed between the parties." 

Upon the receipt of the important communication 
embodying this draft, the president asked in advance 
the advice of the senate, a very unusual, though not 
unprecedented procedure. Though the request of the 
president was dated June loth and the consideration 
of the resolution to accept the British proposal was not 
begun until June I2th, on June I3th it was "resolved 

wo-thirds of the senators present consenting), that 
e president of the United States be, and he is hereby, 
advised to accept the proposal of the British govern- 
ment, accompanying his message to the senate, dated 
June 10, 1846, for a convention to settle the boundar- 
ies, etc., between the United States and Great Britain, 
west of the Rocky or Stony mountains." The advice 
was, however, "given under the conviction that, by the 
true construction of the second article of the project, 
the right of the Hudson's Bay Company to navigate 
the Columbia would expire with the termination of 
their present license of trade with the Indians, etc., on 
the northwest coast of America, on the 3Oth of May, 

The wonderful alacrity with which this advice was 
given and with which five degrees and forty minutes 
of territory were surrendered to Great Britain, is ac- 
counted for by some historians (and no doubt they 
are correct) by supposing that the "cession" was made 
in the interests of slavery. The friends of that insti- 
tution were unwilling to risk a war with Great Brit- 
ain which would interfere with the war with Mexico 
and the annexation of Texas. Their plan was to ac- 
quire as much territory from which slave states could 
be formed as possible, and they were not over scrupu- 
lous about sacrificing territory which must ultimately 
develop into free states. But for unfortunate diplo- 
macy, "it is quite probable that British Columbia would 
be to-day, what many would deem desirable in view of 
its growing importance, a part of the United States." 
Notwithstanding the great sacrifice made by the 
United States for the sake of peace, it was not" long 


clouds were again darkening ou 
skies. The determining of the line after it reached the 
Pacific ocean soon became a matter of dispute. Hard- 
ly had the ratifications been exchanged when Captain 
Prevost, for the British government, set up the claim 
that Rosario was the channel intended by the treaty. 

The claim was, of course, denied by Mr. Campbell,, 
who was representing the United States in making the 
survey line. It was contended by him that the Canal 
de Haro was the channel mentioned in the treaty. Lord 
Russell, conscious, no doubt, of the weakness of his 
case, proposed as a compromise President's channel, 
between Rosario and de Haro straits. The generosity 
of this proposal is obvious when we remember that San 
Juan island, the principal bone of contention, would 
be on the British side of the line. Indeed Lord Lyons, 
the British diplomatic representative in the United 
States, was expressly instructed that no line would be 
accepted which did not give San Juan to the British. 
The position of the United States was stated by Secre- 
tary of State Lewis Cass, with equal clearness and de- 
cisiveness. Efforts to settle the matter geographically 
proved unavailing and diplomacy again had to undergo 
a severe test. 

For a number of years the matter remained in. 
abeyance. Then the pioneer resolved to try the plan 
he had before resorted to in the settlement of the main 
question. He pushed into the country with wife and 
family. The Hudson's Bay Company's representa- 
tives were already there and the danger of a clash of 
arms between the subjects of the queen and the citizens 
of the United States, resident in the disputed terri- 
tory, soon became imminent. Such a collision would 
undoubtedly involve the two countries in war. 

In the session of the Oregon territorial legislature 
of 1852-53, the archipelago to which San Juan island 
belongs was organized into a county. Taxes were in 
due time imposed on Hudson's Bay Company prop- 
erty, and when payment was refused, the sheriff 
promptly sold sheep enough to satisfy the levy. Gen- 
eral Harney, commander of the Department of the Pa- 
cific, inaugurated somewhat summary proceedings. 
He landed over four hundred and fifty troops on the 
island, and instructed Captain Pickett to protect Amer- 
ican citizens there at all costs. English naval forces 
of considerable power gathered about the island. Their 
commander protested against military occupancy. 
Pickett replied that he could not, under his orders, per- 
mit any joint occupancy. General Harney, however, 
had acted without instructions from the seat of govern- 
ment, and the president did not approve his measures 
officially, though it was plainly evident that the admin- 
istration was not averse to having the matter forced 
to an issue. 

At this juncture, the noted General Scott was sent 
to the scene of the difficulty, under instructions to per- 
mit joint occupancy until the matter in dispute could 
be settled. Harney was withdrawn from command en- 
tirely. Finally an agreement was reached between 
General Scott and the British governor at Vancouver 
that each party should police the territory with one 
hundred armed men. 

Diplomacy was again tried. Great Britain pro- 
posed that the question at issue be submitted to arbi- 
tration and she suggested as arbiter the president of 
the Swiss council or the King of Sweden and Norway 
or the King of the Netherlands. The proposition was 


declined by the United States. For ten years the dis- 
pute remained unsettled. Eventually on May 8, 1871, 
it was mutually agreed to submit the question, without 
appeal, to the arbitrament of Emperor William of 
Germany. George Bancroft, the well-known historian, 
was chosen to present the case of the United States, 
and it is said that "his memorial of one hundred and 
twenty octavo pages is one of the most finished and un- 
answerable diplomatic arguments ever produced." The 
British also presented a memorial. These were inter- 
changed and replies were prepared by each contestant. 
The emperor gave the matter careful and deliberate at- 
tention, calling to his assistance three eminent jurists. 
His award was as follows : "Most in accordance with 
the true interpretation of the treaty concluded on the 
1 5th of June, 1846, between the governments of her 
Britanic Majesty and the United States of America, is 
the claim of the Government of the United States 
that the boundry line between the territories 
of her Britannic Majesty and the United States 
should be drawn through the Haro channel. Authen- 
ticated by our autograph signature and the impression 
of the Imperial Great Seal. Given at Berlin, October 
21, 1872." This brief and unequivocal decree ended 
forever the vexatious controversy which for so many 
years had disturbed friendly feelings and endangered 
the peace of the two great Anglo-Saxon peoples. No 

shot was fired; no blood was shed; diplomacy had 

In this cursory review of early Northwest history, 
the events transpiring between the signing of the treaty 
of 1846 and the organization of Idaho territory can- 
not be incorporated in any fulness. Another struggle 
for possession followed hard upon that with Great 
Britain, the final struggle in the great race war as a 
result of which our national domain was wrested from 
the hands of its aboriginal inhabitants. This struggle 
could have but on eri 


ld have but one termination. The ineror race 
must yield to the superior. The Cayuse war, growing 
out of the Whitman massacre at Waiilatpu in 1847, 
and the Indian wars of the 'fifties resulted favorably 
to the whites and though the red man was a power in 
the land for many years, he could not withstand the 
steady oncoming tide of thrifty gold hunters and 
homeseekers. The Northwest pioneers being lovers 
of law and order, governments were instituted as a 
matter of course, first, the provisional government for 
the Oregon territory; then territorial government un- 
der the laws of congress, then separate territorial gov- 
ernment for the country north of the Columbia river 
and eventually on March 3, 1863, separate territorial 
government for Idaho, with the northern counties of 
which our history must concern itself in future chap- 





Just when the existence of gold in the country north 
and east of the big bend in the Snake river became 
known it is impossible to state with any certainty. 
Bancroft says that in 1854 a man named Robbins. a 
resident of Portland, had purchased some gold of the 
Spokane Indians, and that the Catholic missionary, 
De Smet, had known of its existence in what is now 
north Idaho even prior to that date. E. D. Pierce is 
also credited with an early knowledge of the aurifer- 
ous character of the country, and the reason given for 
his not having prospected it long before he did is the 
hostility of the Indian tribes. The reason is indeed a 
plausible one, for it is difficult to see how any man or 
set of men could carry on such operations during the 
era of Indian wars. 

Many writers have assigned a different reason for 
Pierce's manifest interest in the prospecting of the 
Nez Perce country. They state that some time in the 
early 'fifties an Indian of one of the northern tribes 
visited the locality in California where Pierce was then 
mining ; that the Indian told a strange story of an ap- 
parition seen by himself and two traveling companions 
in the rugged cliffs of his Idaho home ; that the ap- 
parition was in the shape of a great, blazing ball of 
light which the superstitious red men believed to be 
the eye of the Great Spirit. The Indians were too awe- 
striken and fearful to venture any explorations until 
daylight, when diligent search revealed a large, glitter- 
ing ball that resembled glass, embedded in the country 
Believing their discovery to be "great medicine," 


lodge and appropriate the treasure but were unable to 
do so, and the great ball was still in situ. This story, 
says the writers referred to, so fired the imagination 

of the visionary Pierce that he at once formed the de- 
sign of going in search of the wonderful ball, believ- 
ing it to be a huge diamond. 

Whether the story is veritable fact or pure myth or 
partly the former and partly the latter, the writer is 
unable to state. George W. Pierce who knew E. D. 
Pierce in Siskiyou county and mined with him there 
says there is no truth in the legend. It sounds very 
much as though it might be one of the fictions so cur- 
rent among mining men and prospectors of the earl 
days, which, however, generally take the form of los 
cabins, lost diggings, fabulous wealth discovered b 
lost miners and hunters, etc. But whatever may ha; 
fired the enthusiasm of Col. E. D. Pierce, certain 
is that the Nez Perce country had a great fascinatic 
for him and that his assiduity and zeal have had 
marvelous ultimate effect upon the history and de- 
velopment of the country. 

In 1858 Pierce made a visit to the land of the Nez 
Perces, but does not seem to have found any oppor- 
tunity for prospecting, owing to the unsettled condi- 
tion of Indian affairs and the opposition to his pro- 
jects of the conservative red men. Undaunted, how- 
ever, he renewed his efforts at the first opportunity and 
his zeal was rewarded in the spring of 1860 by a dis- 
covery of gold on the Clearwater river. An account 
of this important find gained currency in Walla Walla 
during April and some mention is made of it in the 
Oregon Argus of the 3Oth of that month, but the state- 
ments of Pierce seem to have been doubted by many 
and no special excitement was created. Pierce's im- 
mediate return to his discovery was prevented by In- 
dian opposition and that of the military authorities, for 
those whose duty it was to conserve for the Indians 


their rights under the treaty of 1855 foresaw the trouble 
which a discovery of gold' and consequent rush would 
cause them. In August, however, Pierce and ten 
others, of whom William Bassett was one, made an- 
other trip into the Clearwater country and examined 
the region with considerable thoroughness. Returning 
in November, they freely communicated the result of 
their investigations. Mr. Bassett sent a letter to the 
Portland Times, then edited by Alonzo Leland, in 
which he gave a brief account of the trip and the pros- 
pects found by members of the party. His representa- 
tions then and in interviews at a later date had the 
effect of thoroughly converting Mr. Leland to a belief 
in the great importance as a field for the prospector 
of the entire region between the Snake and the Bitter 
Roots. Throughout the winter of 1860-61, the news- 
paper man kept on publishing articles in his paper, the 
Daily Times, his authority being Mr. Bassett's account. 
So great was his enthusiasm that he did not escape 
the charge of fanaticism and the graver one of being 
in the pay of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, 
doing this writing and publishing for the purpose of 
building up their business. 

Immediately upon his return to Walla Walla, 
Pierce began organizing a party to return with him and 
spend the winter in the Oro Fino basin. Some diffi- 
culty was encountered in making up this company, 
owing to the fear of trouble with the Indians and the 
efforts of those who dreaded another Indian war, but 
at last he succeeded in enlisting the interests of thirty- 
three stout-hearted men. An effort was made to pre- 
vent by military force this party from carrying out its 
designs. A detachment of dragoons was sent after the 
men, and pursued them as far as the Snake river, but 
failed to overtake them. The men had hardly reached 
Pierce's old camp before they received a visit from 
the Nez Perce Indian agent, A. J. Cain, who, however, 
did not attempt to interfere with their operations but 
on the contrary expressed his satisfaction with their 
good behavior. 

All winter long the party wrought diligently build- 
ing cabins, whipsawing lumber for sluice boxes, pros- 
pecting and the like. The result of the prospecting was 
very satisfactory, though Pierce himself does not seem 
to have been unduly sanguine, being fully aware of the 
difficulties. He believed the discovered gold district 
was on the outskirts of a mining country of great rich- 
ness and large extent. 

The first intelligence received by the outside world 
concerning the welfare and doings of these men came 
in March, 1861, when four of the miners arrived in 
Walla Walla. After a tramp on snow shoes to the 
mouth of Oro Fino creek, they had reached, in a half 
starved condition, an Indian camp, whence they pro- 
ceeded with more expedition and better fortunes, 
bringing to Walla Walla a considerable sum of money 
in gold dust. The news was sent by special express to 
the Portland Daily Times. It was especially pleasing 
to the editor of that paper, whose sentiments and pre- 
dictions were thereby confirmed, and naturally the news 
was given due prominence. The effect among the 
business men, merchants, and in fact all classes was 

magical. Newspapers sent special reporters into the 
country and the result was an inception of interest in 
the wild, weird terra incognita of eastern Washington. 
It needed now but some confirmation of these accounts 
to stimulate a stampede into the country, of a magni- 
tude unprecedented in the northwest. 

No one foresaw the coming deluge of humanity 
into the Nez Perce country with greater clearness than 
the officers of the government, civil and military, whose 
duty it was to protect the rights of the Indians. 
Though the Nez Perces had offered no resistence to 
Pierce and his men, they strenuously objected to fur- 
ther encroachments upon their reservation privileges. 
Nothing was more certain than that the whites would 
violate without scruple these rights when once the 
passion for gold had fired their imaginations and when 
the hope of securing it began producing its pleasant in- 
toxication. What was to be done to prevent trouble? 

In the hope of finding a satisfactory solution of 
this problem. Superintendent E. R. Geary held a con- 
cultation with Colonel Wright arfd the result of their 
deliberations was that the former repaired forthwith 
to the Indian country, called a council of the tribe, and 
succeeded in negotiating a treaty permitting the white 
men to enter the country for mining purposes on the 
promise of military protection and the enforcement of 
United States law's. The consent of the Indians was 
given wholly against their will, but they saw no way 
by which they could defend themselves against the in- 
coming tide, and being of a pacific disposition, thought 
it better to surrender gracefully than to do so under 
compulsion. They had abundant proof that the deluge 
of whites was coming for, for weeks before the treaty 
could be negotiated, merchants had been taking goods 
to Pierce City from Walla Walla and the van of the 
advancing army of miners was already arriving from 
that city and Portland. Bancroft says that at the time 
of the signing of the treaty there were three hundred 
men in the Oro Fino district and that a month later 
there were one thousand. 

Fortunately the Oregon Steam Navigation Com- 
pany was enabled to do something for the accommo- 
dation of the incoming hordes daily arriving from 
various points in the northwest, California and else- 
where during the spring of 1861. Previously that 
company had sent Ephraim Baughman (who at pres- 
ent commands the Steamer Lewiston, plying between 
Lewiston and Riparia, in company with Captain Leo- 
nard White, to Colville on the upper Columbia with 
instructions to build a small boat there and explore the 
river down to The Dalles. Their object was to deter- 
mine whether or not navigation was practicable. They 
set out sometime in March, made the exploration, and 
were back in Portland in the early part of May. 

Meanwhile the events were happening in the Nez 
Perce country which have just been narrated. The 
company was as anxious to get as much patronage out 
of the rush as possible, so it ordered White, as cap- 
tain, and Baughman, as mate and pilot, to take the 
Steamer Colonel Wright up the Columbia to Snake 
river, thence up that river as far toward the newly dis- 
covered mines as possible. The Colonel Wright was 


a vessel of some fifty tons burden, about 125 feet in 
length, fitted up with good machinery and well 
supplied with necessary equipments. Her engineer 
on this first trip on Snake river waters was John 
Gurty, her purser, Frank Coe, and besides she was 
manned by two fireman, a steward and assistant, an 
assistant engineer, a cook and six deck hands. Sev- 
eral business men came as passengers and one, Seth 
S. Slater, was so confident of the success of the enter- 
prise that he brought with him between ten and fifteen 
tons of freight, expecting to get with it to some point 
within easy reach of the mines. 

"We cleared," says Captain Baughman, "about the 
10th of May. With all of us it was a voyage of dis- 
covery after we steamed into the broad mouth of the 
Snake river as none of us had ever before ridden upon 
its swift, turbid waters. As pilot, I directed that we 
travel very slowly and only during the day time, for 
rocky reefs and shoals were numerous and the waters 
were not deep. Each stream which we thought had 
not theretofore been named, we took it upon ourselves 
to christen ; likewise every other natural feature, and 
even to-day many of the landmarks and creeks bear 
the names which we gave them. In due time, we 
swept around the big bend in the Snake just below 
where Lewiston now stands and were met by the rush- 
ing waters of a stream clear as crystal and broad 
enough to be classed as a river. Before us spread out 
a beautiful bunchgrass valley, or rather a series of 
plateaus, reaching away to a high prairie to the south- 
ward: This Indian paradise was occupied here and 
there by a tepee. Several Nez Perce Indians loitered 
about and a few bands of ponies grazed contentedly 
upon the luxuriant grass. The picture was indeed a 
pretty one. 

"The sound of the steam whistle and the pounding 
of the engines naturally attracted the attention of the 
Indians, who flocked to the water's edge to gaze on 
the wonderful fire boat. 

"I turned the vessel's prow into the water of 
this new river. Slowly the little steamer propelled 
itself onward in the direction of the Oro Fino mines. 
We had to line the vessel over the Lawyer and several 
other rapids and about thirty miles up the Clearwater 
we found an obstruction which we could not pass. This 
' was what has since come to be named Big Eddy. 
Throughout our entire journey on the Clearwater thus 
" far we were accompanied by Indians riding along the 
shore on horseback. By many little acts and signs did 
these children of nature manifest their friendliness, no 
one of their number, so far as I can now remember, 
giving the slightest evidence of other than kindly 

"At the Big Eddy we were forced to land as the 
little steamer could not make headway in the rapids. 
Twice we lined her and moved slowly up stream, but 
the vessel did not have power enough to keep herself 
in the channel, so finally we gave it up for the time 
being, came on shore and began making explorations. 
The result was not favorable. There was therefore 
nothing to do but to unload the freight. Slater 
thought the site a good one as it was the apparent head 

of navigation so he and a few others remained there 
establishing Slaterville.'' 

The Colonel Wright went back to Celilo at once. 
On the return trip she stopped at the mouth of Lapwai 
creek and most of her crew went to visit Chief Lawyer, 
whose home was on a tract of bench land overlooking 
the Clearwater. "From the river," says Captain 
Baughman, "we could see his tepee and before it a tall 
pole from whose top the Stars and Stripes floated in 
the breeze. This display of patriotism by the brave 
and friendly old chief touched a responsive chord in 
our hearts and we never forgot it. Lawyer, who had 
been educated in the east and could talk good Eng- 
lish, received us most cordially and we chatted with 
him a long time. His hospitality was especially praise- 
worthy when it is remembered that we were invading 
his territory and opening the way for thousands to 
follow. The Indians may have protested mildly 
against the establishment of a settlement at the mouth 
of the Clearwater, but their remonstrances were never 
very strong, and finding these unavailing they ac- 
quiesced with remarkable grace." 

Having loaded again with a few passengers and 
some freight, the Colonel Wrisht made a second trip 
to the mouth of the Clearwatfcr. Here she was met 
by a messenger from Slater requesting her to proceed 
up the river and get his outfit as he had decided to es- 
tablish his store at the confluence of the Snake and 
Clearwater that he might be on the trails leading in- 
land. The vessel steamed up to the eddy, got Slater 
and his goods, and brought them safely to the shores 
of the Snake, where Slater again pitched his tent. 
Soon he had opened near the confluence of the rivers 
the first store in what is now Lewiston and perhaps 
the first in the Clearwater country. 

Immediately after the second trip of the Colonel 
Wright, the company placed another new steamer in 
service, the Okanogan, which was much larger and 
better equipped than the former. Captain White was 
placed in command, and the Colonel Wright was en- 
trusted to the care of Captain Baughman. A month 
later, the Tenino, still larger than the Okanogan, was 
placed in service and to the command of this vessel 
Captain Baughman was transferred. Steamboat ser- 
vice was discontinued entirely in July, owing to the 
lowness of the water. 

In July of the following year, Levi Ankeny, Dor- 
sey S. Baker, Captain Baughman and several others 
placed an opposition boat, the Spray, upon the river, 
between Celilo and Lewiston. The Spray was a small 
vessel, built especially for shallow water, so it was 
able to continue its trips uninterruptedly until No- 
vember. During the following winter it was sold to 
the O. S. N. Company for nearly double its cost. 

In the spring of 1863 the People's Trasportation 
Company was organized in Portland for the purpose 
of establishing an opposition line of steamers to Lewis- 
ton. The E. D. Baker was placed on the Columbia 
between Portland and the Cascades, the Iris between 
that and the Dalles and the Cayuse Chief, under Cap- 
tain Leonard White, between Celilo and Lewiston. 
After a successful career of six or seven years' dura- 


tion, this company sold out to the O. S. N. Company, 
leaving that corporation again the autocrat of the 
Columbia and its tributaries. 

But to return to the history of the mines rapidly 
the Oro Fino district was populated with gold seekers. 
Discovered in the fall of 1860, it was occupied that 
autumn and winter by Pierce's party. In February 
merchants and miners from Walla Walla began to 
work their way in, so that by April the population was 
perhaps 300. A month later it was more than three 
times that many and when Judge James W. Poe en- 
tered in July he found the creeks and gulches swarm- 
ing with people. He estimates their number at 2,000. 
Some claims were yielding fabulous returns and wages 
ranged from five to eight dollars a day, the common 
stipend being a half ounce of dust. 

Oro Fino gold was very fine, as one familiar with 
the Spanish language would have surmised from the 
name of the diggings, which signifies fine gold. Sub- 
sequently coarse gold was discovered by William F. 
Bassctt across the divide to the eastward of Oro Fino 
creek, and from the character of the metal the dig- 
gings were named Oro Grande. It is related that 
Mr. Bassett saw the country in which this discovery 
was made from the top of a tree on the divide be- 
tween Oro Fino and Rhodes creeks. The general ap- 
pearance of the country induced him to prospect it 
with the result above stated. The tree was ever after- 
wards known as Bassett's tree. The Oro Grande dis- 
trict never proved especially rich. 

The richest claims in the Oro Fino district were 
on Rhodes and Canal gulches, though there were many 
claims of merit on Barclay, Blacksmith, French and 
Moore's gulches as well as on Oro Fino creek itself. 
Early in the history of the camp a miners' meeting had 
been held and the California mining laws adopted, by 
which code three kinds of claims were recognized, 
namely, creek and gulch claims, extending two hundred 
feet along the creek or gulch and of the width of one 
hundred and fifty feet ; also hill claims which were last 
extended from the rim rock to the summit of the hills, 
with two hundred feet frontage. The miners were in 
the habit of holding a meeting on Sunday, whenever 
there was any occasion for such, and at these popular 
assemblages the laws were amended to suit new con- 
ditions as they might arise, disputes about claims were 
settled and plans for the promotion of the general wel- 
fare of the camp were weighed and discussed. For- 
tunately there was little lawlessness during the earliest 
days of the Oro Fino diggings. 

Two towns sprang up in the district about the 
same time, namely, Oro Fino and Pierce City. The 
former was built on placer ground, a fact which fur- 
nishes the probable reason for its short life. At any 
rate, its business men moved to its sister town in 
course of a few years, making permanent the com- 
munity bearing the name of him who pioneered the 
way for the mining population, while the old Oro Fino 
City gradually decayed and eventually became a 
memory. It is a rather strange fact that, though the 
two towns were very near together, there never was the 
bitter rivalry between them which has usually char- 

acterizecl communities so situated. Pierce City later 
became the county seat of Shoshone county, retaining 
the dignity and prestige incident thereto until the dis- 
covery of the Coeur d'Alene mines. In June a road 
was built along the Clearwater from the mouth of that 
river to Pierce City and by July so many merchants 
had endeavored to better their fortunes by furnishing 
the new district with goods that the market was over- 
supplied, notwithstanding the thousands of men who 
were seeking gold in all the neighboring gulches and 
on all the surrounding hills. Two saw-mills were in 
process of erection to supply the miners with lumber 
for sluice boxes, etc. But "little household furniture 
was needed as there were only three families in the 

In an article in the Portland Oregonian of August 
31, 1 86 1, G. C. Robbins made the statement that dur- 
ing that month twenty-five hundred practical miners 
were at work on Rhodes creek, Oro Fino creek, Canal 
gulch, and French creek and that four or five thousand 
men were making a living in other ways. His report 
on the earnings of the miners was as follows : Jarvis 

James & Company, 5 men, $10 ; McCarty & Company, 
4 men, $10 ; Vesay & Company, 8 men, $7 to $8 ; Hook 
& Company, 6 men, $10. to $12; Jones & Company, 4 
men, $10 to $12: Dunbar & Asar, $10 to $12; Shaffer 
& Company, 14 men, $60 ; Paine & Company, 20 men, 
$70 ; Mortimer & Company, 24 men, $70 to $80 ; Hatch 
& Company, 5 men, $16 to $20; Thomas & Campany, 
14 men, $18 to $20; Rillery & Company, 17 men, $16 
to $20; Smalley & Company, 10 men, $16; Boone & 

$16: Newland & Company, 6 men, $16; Hickox & 
Company, 5 men, $16 to $20; Let 'Er Rip Company, 

Felton & Company, $16; Sparks & Company, $15; 
Rossi & Company, $15; Rhodes & Company, II men, 
300 ounces per diem to the company. On French 
creek, Antoine Pillir, T. Lapoint, M. Guinon, John 
Lesot, and Harkum & Quick were making $10 to $12 
a day to the man. 

It is not in the nature of mining men that they 
should confine themselves to one mining district, how- 
ever rich. Pierce himself was of the opinion that his 
discovery was on the outer edge of an extensive gold- 
bearing country and there were plenty of others who 
held like views' and were willing to give time and effort 
to the testing of their theory. In May, 1861, a com- 
pany of fifty-two such men set out from Oro Fino 
to explore and prospect the south fork of the Clear- 
water and tributary streams. The locality was almost 
as little known as any on the American" continent or 
in the heart of darkest Africa. Remote from the or- 
dinary routes of travel, it was also distant from the 
trails of the fur hunter so that probably no white foot 
had ever before pressed its soil. The gold seekers fol- 
lowed the north side of their stream for several miles, 
then crossed over to the south side, proceeding thence 
to the mouth of the south fork, up which branch they 
traveled until they reached the Indian village of Chief 
Coolcoolsneenee. Here their progress was stayed for a 


time by the strenuous opposition of the chieftain, who 
emphatically informed them that they were violating 
the treaty in carrying on their operations south of the 
Clearwater. Persuasion and argument proving of no 
avail in pacifying the chief, more than half the party 
turned back. The remainder crossed to the north side 
of the stream and continued on east by one of the Nez 
Perce trails to the point where the three branches of 
the south fork, American and Red rivers and Elk 
creek, form a junction. Prospecting in this vicinity re- 
sulted in the discovery of earths yielding from twelve 
to twenty-five cents to the pan. The first gold is said 
to have been found at the bottom of Ternan hill at the 
month of Glass gulch, close to the present bridge over 
the American river on the road to Dixie. 

Prominent members of this party of discovery 
were Captain L. B. Monson, Moses Milner, Charles B. 
Hand and Charles Painter. The return of a th'ird of 
the men to Oro Fino for supplies caused the news of 
the find to become spread abroad, precipitating a rush. 
We are informed that three days after the first dis- 
covery Philip S. Pritchard, with'Samuel Warfield and 
his son, William, Charles Bogart, Horace Myrtle, Will- 
iam Kay, John Gamboel and Felix G. Berger, reaching 
the spot, staked out two claims above Buffalo gulch 
and eight below it on the American river. They be- 
gan working together forthwith. 

A mining recorder's office was established at once, 
with Captain L. B. Monson as the first recorder. The 
first record was dated June 14, 1861, and described 
placer ground on the American river to be worked by 
the following men: Moses Wright, Charles Silver- 
man, Charles Gwin, John Gordon, George Robertson, 
Mat. Craft, N. Harris, John McKray, G. N. Stubbs 
and Frank Presley. 

Shortly after the discovery two brothers, James and 
William Galbraith, started an express. Inside of ten 
days more than three hundred people were en route to 
or already at the South Fork diggings, but the popu- 
lation of the new eldorado was kept down considerably 
by the righteous opposition of the Indians to the 
presence of white men in their reserved territory. 
Good reports, however, continued to come in and the 
passion for gold soon overcame any scruples about 
trespassing, so that by fall a town became a necessity. 
Elk City was accordingly laid out, its location being 
between Elk and American rivers, about a mile from 
the lower end of a small prairie, perhaps five or six 
miles long by a mile wide. 

"On every side of this locality," says Bancroft, 
rose ledges of pale red or rose quartz. Between the 
mountains were intervals of beautiful, grassy prairies ; 
on the mountains heavy forests of pine. Game 
abounded, the principal being elk, of which there were 
large bands. The country was, in fact, very different 
from the California miners' preconceived notion of a 
gold country; but experience had proved that gold 
might exist under barren sands, rich alluvium, or the 
the frozen mosses of a caribou. The objection to the 
country was that the mining season, so far up in the 
mountains, must be comparatively short, and in order 
to make up for the expense of a long idle winter, it 

was important to secure a considerable sum during the 
summer. It was also necessary to lay in a stock of 
provisions to last while the heavy snows suspended 

Joe! D. Martin tells us that when he came to the 
town in the early summer of 1862, he found mercan- 

ing to Clindinning, Magruder 
& Company, Creighton & 

& Wickersham, Straven & Company, Creight 
Company, a man named Claflin and others, besides 
five saloons and two principal hotels, Ralph's and the 
Marsten house. The camp's prosperity was at its 
height during the mining season of 1862, for that fall 
discoveries in what is now Montana made wholesale 
drafts upon the population of this and other mining 
communities in north Idaho. But the years 1864 and 
1865 nevertheless witnessed a greater production of 
gold, as hydraulics were placed in operation during the 
former twelvemonth, displacing the primeval rocker. 

The Elk City mining district was distinguished 
above all others by the extent of its ditch contraction. 
The largest of these acqueducts was the American 
river ditch, which took its waters out of the stream of 
that name at a point about nine miles above the camp. 
Mr. Martin tells us that it was dug with pick and 
shovel at a cost of between thirty thousand and forty 
thousand dollars and that between two hundred thou- 
sand and three hundred thousand feet of lumber were 
used in the construction of its flumes. For the pro- 
duction of this lumber a saw-mill was built, operated 
by a turbine water wheel. The originators of the 
scheme were E. W., W. P. and Doctor Bell and Ross- 
well Hewett. Its construction was commenced in 1863 
and during the mining season following it was pouring 
its water upon the placer grounds of American hill. 

Next in size was the Elk creek ditch, the waters of 
which were used in the Buffalo hill mines, valuable 
placer deposits taken up in 1861-2 by Jake Hoffman, S. 
S. Shaun, Joseph Nelson, Chatham W. Ewing, John 
and Abe Champion, Horatio Phinney, -- Mon- 
tague and others, and first worked by a ditch from Buf- 
falo creek, three miles from the hill. The Elk creek 
ditch was ten and a half miles long, three feet wide on 
the bottom and thirty inches deep. The company or- 
ganized for its construction was capitalized at eleven 
thousand dollars, but it soon became so embarrassed by 
lack of funds that its project was all but abandoned. 
At this juncture Caleb Witt came to the rescue, fur- 
nishing enough money to start the ball rolling again 
and to establish confidence and credit. The company 
was by this means enabled to push the ditch to com- 
pletion, and by the spring of 1863 it was available for 
use. For many years Buffalo hill was very profitably 
worked and thousands of dollars' worth of dust have 
been taken out of it. In 1872 the Witts secured con- 
trol of both ditches and claims, retaining them until 
1880, when they were transferred by lease to China- 

Besides these was the Little Elk creek ditch with 
a capacity of three hundred or four hundred inches, 
promoted by Dan Waldo and Bart Whittier ; also a 
short ditch of three hundred inches capacity, the water 
of which was taken out of Kirk's fork of the American 


river and carried upon Nez Perce hill, there to be 
used in operating the Hairland mine. This property 
had been discovered by the man whose name it bore 
in 1861 and purchased' in 1862 by Magruder, Martin 
and Kirkpatrick, by which triumvirate the ditch was 

The same causes that impelled the discoverers of 
the Elk City placer deposits to their successful quest 
were operative to keep other parties scouring the coun- 
try in all directions throughout the whole of the sum- 
mer of 1 86 1. The theory that the Clearwater mines 
were on the outskirts of some auriferous region, the 
center of which would be found wonderfully rich, 
seems to have taken firm hold on the minds of the 
prospectors and many were the attemps to verify it. 
One of the parties engaged in this task succeeded in 
discovering a gold deposit which far surpassed in 
richness all former finds, and caused a rush the fol- 
lowing spring of unprecedented magnitude. One 
story of this discovery was told in the Oregonian, of 
October 26, 1861, by a correspondent who signed him- 
self "T. H. M." though the account is discredited 
in some of its deatils by men having good opportunity 
to know the truth, it is thought advisable to repro- 
duce it here: 

MILLERSBURG, W. T., Oct. 5, 1861. 
Editor Oregonian: 

The Salmon River mines, which are now attracting the 
the attention of miners, traders, and business men generally 

and gulches, coming out of a western spur of the Bitter Root 
mountains, and running into the main stream, distant from 
fifteen to twenty miles. They are about seventy-five miles 

and twenty-five miles south from Oro Fino, and nearly 
seventy-five miles from Elk City. 

pecting party of twenty-three men, who left Oro Fino in the 
early pyrt of July last, for a tour up Salmon river. They 
prospected on the bars of this river for a distance of perhaps 
one hundred miles, with flattering results. When satisfied 
that good paying mines had been found, they followed the 
river down, and when opposite this, they were determined 

taining provisions, which by this time had become a scarce 
article with them. When they reached this place, the party 

find an easy route through the almost impassible masses of 
dead timber, which lay in the way. Two of the company, 
while lying in camp, made a wager between them that the 
'color' could not be 'raised' in the miserable looking country. 
The wager was won by the prospector obtaining from a pan 
of dirt, taken from beneath the roots of an upturned tree, the 
sum of five cents. The party then prospected several creeks 
and gluches in the immediate vicinity, obtaining five, ten, 
twenty-five and even seventy-five cents to the pan of dirt. 
Satisfied even better with this than with the diggings on the 
main river, they followed the other party out. After re- 
cruiting a short time, they purchased a supply of tools, pro- 
visions, etc . necessary for four weeks' stay, and returned 
closely followed by some six or seven others to this land 
of golden promise. , 

After their return, prospecting was resumed in real 

California. !"ll cTahn tot th'e'center'of the 'vast gold neW 
has at last been found, and this it is, while the Oro Fino and 
South Fork diggings are on the outer edge. 

Only a radius of about four miles has yet been 
pected, yet all the gulches, ravines and cree! 


will pay well for working. Miller's creek is perhaps the 
richest. From the first pan of dirt taken out of the first 
hole sunk in this creek, twenty-five dollars was obtained. 
Miller washed out with the pan that afternoon $100. Claims 
were immediately staked off on this creek and the party went 
to work. Each claim has since averaged with the rocker 
from seventy-five dollars to one hundred dollars to the hand. 

dollars washed out in ten hours by one man using the pan 
alone. Nasan's gulch pays well. Five men have just cleaned 
up seven hundred dollars, the result of ten hours work with 
the rocker in this gulch. Hall's gulch, Smith's gulch, Pio- 
neer gulch and Healey's creek will pay each at least three 
ounces to the hand. 

There are at the present time about fifty men here. Pro- 
not to be had at any price. Parties are how fitting 

up p 


It will require about three hundred weight of flour for each 
man this winter. The route here is good over fifty miles of 

ing made. Pack trains can get in here until the aoth of No- 



to ( 

; frc 

To find the truth concerning this famous discovery 
and be sure one has it is not an easy task. The differ- 
ent stories are so hopelessly at variance that they can 
never be harmonized, but one apparently worthy of 
credence was published in the Free Press of July 5, 
1889, on the authority of Nathan Smith, who claimed 
to have led the party which made the discovery. 

"Mr. Smith and a partner named Jack Reynolds," 
says the paper referred to, "Left Oro Fino on a pros- 
pecting trip towards the little north fork of the Clear- 
water and found prospects, but as the water was too 
high for them to continue farther they returned to 
Pierce City for supplies, intending to return to their 
prospects later. Arriving at Pierce City they found 
a company organizing for an extended exploring and 
prospecting trip toward the Salmon river country, and 
as they were afraid of the Indians who had driven 
back several small parties, they were waiting for re- 
inforcements, and Mr. Smith was considered such an 
admirable recruit that he was elected to command the 
expedition. They pulled out of Pierce City, twenty- 
three in number, crossed the Clearwater at the mouth of 
the Lolo and went on across Camas prairie to the Sal- 
mon. They continued up the Salmon to the mouth of 
Slate cieek, where Mr. Smith found a good prospect 
of shot gold, but as it was intolerably hot in the can- 
yon he decided on taking the party into the mountains 
and prospecting for gold on the headwaters of Slate 
creek. Here dissensions arose, as the majority of the 
company wanted to keep to the river and prospect for 
bar claims. The outfit hung together, however, and 
continued up the Salmon to the mouth of Meadow 
creek, and there they climbed the ridge to the summit, 
pretty much as the Warren trail runs today, and made 
their first camp on Sand creek, then a marsh. The 
next morning the majoritv of the party under the lead 
of a Frenchman had decided to return to the river, de- 
claring there was no gold in the basin. This was 
August 20th and they were going to break camp and 
take the back track at noon. Smith and a few others 
decided to remain and prospect further. That same 


morning Toe Richardson got a four-bit prospect on 
Pioneer gulch and Smith also panned out six bits in 
another gulch. Upon returning to camp at noon the 
other party were speedily convinced that there was 
gold in the basin, and that same afternoon, George 
Grigsby. the biggest kicker in the outfit, saw some 
fine looking gravel at the roots of a fallen tree in 
Bashaw gulch from which he washed four bits to the 
pan, and on the strength thereof has claimed for him- 
self the title of the discoverer of Florence, which 
rightfully belongs to Mr. Smith. Enough was now 
known to convince them that they had struck it big 
and after staking claims enough to go around they 
started for Elk City for supplies." 

Joshua Fockler, who was one of the earliest set- 
tlers in Florence, discredits both these accounts. He 
says he remembers distinctly the story told him by 
several reliable men shortly after the find and that it 
was to this effect : Florence was discovered in August, 
1 86 1, by a party of five persons, three of whom were 
John Healey, James Avers and a man named Grigsby. 
They were a detachment of a party of nineteen which 
started from Elk City and the Cle'arwater to prospect 
the Salmon river country, traveling via Camas prairie 
and White Bird creek. ' When they reached a point 
six miles above the mouth of Little Salmon river 
where August Berg now lives they undertook to cut 
across and reach Elk City again. They found the 
country too rough, so returned to the Salmon, which 
they ascended to Kelley's creek, going thence up that 
stream. On Little Slate creek the party disagreed 
and divided. The five referred to above continued to 
prospect the region. When they reached what after- 
ward became known as Pioneer gulch, John Healey 
saw a tree that had been uprooted by the wind. He 
noticed that the gravel exposed showed good indica- 
tions, so he tried a panful and found it very rich. 
After testing the ground in numerous places, the party 
started back to Elk Citv. At what is now known as 
Buffalo Hump they fell in with the fourteen who had 
separated from them and told these of their good for- 
tune. All went to Elk together, agreeing among them- 
selves to tell nobody of the discovery until spring, 
when they would return and locate the best ground 
for themselves. But none of them lived up to this 
agreement and soon all started back with their friends. 
In September of the same year Nathan Smith, Miller, 
Graham and others from Oro Fino made a discovery 
on Miller's creek, in the Florence country, but they 
were a month later than the Pioneer gulch dis- 

The news is said to have reached Oro Fino in 
September. Soon that town and Elk City were almost 
deserted. By the ist of November, the creeks and 
gulches of the new district were swarming with men. 
The merchants, in accordance with the usual custom, 
had begun hurrying in supplies, but the impossibility 
of getting enough into camp to feed the multitudes 
before the snowfall had stopped the passage of trains 
was plainly apparent, and by the middle of November 
many perceived the necessity of returning to Oro Fino 
to winter. The snow was even then two feet deep 

and the cold so severe that travelers were frequently 
frostbitten seriously. 

Soon after the inception of the camp a miners' 
meeting was held at which it was decided to lay out a 
town on Summit flat at the head of Babboon gulch. 
Among those present was Dr. Ferber, one of the oldest 
men and first arrivals in the camp, and he was called 
upon to suggest a name for the town to be. He sug- 
gested Florence, the name of his adopted daughter, 
then in California. The word seemed to have a pleas- 
ing sound to the ears of the miners. It was adopted 
forthwith and from the richness of the ground around 
it soon became a household word in Washington, 
Oregon, California and many parts of the east. John 
Creighton, Ralph Bledsoe, and S. S. or Three-Fingered 

The number coming into camp was far in excess 
of those departing, far in excess of the number that 
could be well fed, and the result was great suffering 
and hardship. The prices prevailing for all kinds of 
provisions were enormous. Mr. Pierce says the prices 
of commodities were $75 for a fifty-pound sack of 
flour; gum boots, $50; camp kettles, $30; bacon, $3 
a pound ; ordinary tin cups, $3 each ; frying pans, $10 
to"$i2 ; sugar, $3 a pound ; beans, $3 a pound, and all 
other provisions and supplies in proportion. Vegetables 
were not to be obtained at any price. Many were with- 
out other means of support than the gold obtained 
from their mines, so that notwithstanding ten feet of 
snow, they must dig down to pay dirt and wash out 
enough of the precious metal to purchase at enormous 
prices the means of subsistance. Sometimes boiling 
water was used to soften the frozen earth, as has been 
done in Alaska during recent years. The exposure 
and hardship resulted in rheumatism, throat, bronchial 
and lung diseases, which caused a high mortality 
There was a large representation of the ruffian ele- 
ment in Florence during the winter. Plummer, Stand- 
ifer, Mat Bledsoe, Cherokee Bob and others of like 
character were there, demeaning themselves accord- 
ing to the dictations of their own unrestrained wills. 
The sufferings were enough to drive even good men 
to acts of desperation and it was stated that the store- 
houses of the merchants were more than once in danger 
of mob violence. 

By great effort men forced their way into Florence 
untifFebruary ; then the trails became 'so badly oblit- 
erated or blocked with snow that the feat of reach- 
ing the mines was no longer possible and the Florence 
community was completely isolated from the rest of 
the world. But long before this the entrance of pack 
trains was all but an impossibility. It is related that 
G. A. Noble started late in December on a trip from 
Oro Fino to Florence with a small pack train. For 
ten davs he toiled through snow drifts before reaching 
his destination, being indebted for his life to assistance 
rendered by the Indians. 

Even before communication was completely barred, 
the only article of food that could be purchased was 
flour at $2 a pound, and as time proved there was no 
hope of a change in conditions until May. By the 
first of that month, however, pack trains managed to 


force their way to within ten miles or so of Florence, 
and the starving miners were glad to transport the 
goods the rest of the way on snow shoes for the price 
offered, forty cents a pound. 

But no tales of hardship could deter the hosts of 
eager wealth seekers in all parts of the Northwest 
and in California and Nevada from nocking by the 
thousands to this new land of gold. Little they thought 
of the harships endured already by men in the Flor- 
ence basin, or of those which they themselves might 
be called upon to endure in the pursuit of mammon. 
Their imaginations were fired by the stories of for- 
tunes made in a day. And indeed the success achieved 
by miners was such as might well appeal to the avarice 
of men. A correspondent of the Portland Times 
stated through the columns of that paper that while he 
was at the Salmon river mines in October, 1861, he 
had known of his own knowledge that some claims 
yielded thirty to eighty dollars to the pan. It was 
stated that a man named Weiser, after whom the town 
of Weiser in Washington county was named, took out 
one thousand eighteen hundred dollars from his claim 
in three hours, with a rocker, two men operating it ; also 
that a single panful of dirt from Babboon gulch was 
found to contain one hundred and fifty-one dollars and 
fifty cents. George W. Pierce told the writer that Three- 
Fingered Smith, who owned about the richest claim in 
the camp, kept three rockers at work all winter and 
that each of the rockers averaged a thousand dollars 
a day. "It was no uncommon thing," says Bancroft, 
"to see, on entering a miner's cabin, a gold washing 
pan measuring eight quarts, full to the brim or half 
filled with gold dust washed out in one or two weeks. 
All manner of vessels, such as oyster cans and yeast 
powder boxes or pickle bottles, were in demand in 
which to store the precious dust. A claim was held in 
small esteem that yielded only twelve dollars per day, 
as some claims did, while hundreds of others yielded 
from one to four ounces for a day's labor." Many 
of the stories which gained currency at the time seemed 
like veritable fairy tales, but men who were in Flor- 
ence during the fall and winter seem to have no hesi- 
tancy in fully crediting them. The gold deposits were 
so very rich that the would-be boomer, if any such 
there was, was outdone by the simple truth itself. 

With such stories on the lips of miners returned 
to spend the winter in Walla Walla or Portland and 
such accounts in the columns of the newspaper, what 
wonder that the fortune hunting public could not 
brook a wait until spring, before starting to the land 
of gold ! In vain did the newspapers endeavor to per- 
suade the people into a reasonable state of mind; in 
vain did they protest that roads in the upper country 
were impassable; in vain did the Portland Advertiser 
call attention to the fact that snow at The Dalles was 
still (on March I4th) two feet deep and from one to 
four between that and Lewiston, with proportionately 
greater depths in the mountains ; that provisions along 
the whole distance were exhausted ; that riding or pack 
animals fit for service could not be obtained as all 
such were either dead or so reduced in strength and 
flesh by the severe winter as to be useless ; and that a 

supply of fuel could not be obtained along the road 
except at long intervals. Men crowded into 'the in- 
terior as far as they could get notwithstanding these 
warnings, and it is said that so many men unable to 
pay the high prices of living crowded into The Dalles 
that that town was at one time temporarily subjected 
to the rule of a mob, the members of which proceeded 
to help themselves to such things as they needed. In- 
deed the severity of the winter in one way augmented 
the rush, as it made many Oregon farmers who had 
suffered severe losses by the floods of December es- 
pecially anxious to retrieve their fortunes. Merchants 
were in haste to be first in with their goods. Miners, 
who had left their claims in the fall, were anxious to 
return to them, lest they should be taken possession of 
by others. 

Regular communication between The Dalles and 
Walla Walla had ceased in Tanuary after a disastrous 
trip of the stage, in which Johnson Mulkey, father-in- 
law of Senator Dolph, and a prominent Lewiston mer- 
chant named Taggers had lost their lives. But about 
the middle of' March a saddle train, with passengers, 
arrived from Walla Walla and that was the signal for 
a forward movement on the part of many who had 
crowded into The Dalles. A sudden thaw 'on the 22d 
made the roads almost impassable and swelled the 
streams so that fording was out of the question, but 
at this juncture the steamboat Colonel Wright suc- 
ceeded in making a trip from Celilo to Wallula, en- 
abling those who had not already started to secure 
easy transportation that far on their journey. But 
more than a month must yet elapse before the anxious 
fortune hunters could force their way to the land of 
promise. As before related, the first pack trains to 
arrive failed to get nearer Florence than ten or twelve 
miles and the goods were packed the rest of the way on 
the backs of starving men. 

Though the richness of the discoveries already 
made was quite widely known, the extent of the au- 
riferous sands was a matter of uncertainty. The late- 
ness in the season of the discovery and the opposition 
of Indians had prevented thorough prospecting that 
fall, the severity of the cold and depth of snow made 
it impossible during the winter and early spring, so it 
was not until June that much could be done. The 
general appearance of the country for many miles 
around was similar to that in which the gold was being 
obtained, an encouraging, but, as it afterwards proved, 
delusive circumstance. The Florence country con- 
sists of an extensive basin surrounded by lofty moun- 
tains. Extended around its outer edge and snug up 
against the base of its rugged natural wall is a deep 
canyon, while in the center are numerous pine and 
tamarack-clad elevations. Evidences of fire were 
visible in many places and there were other extensive 
areas in which the trees were dead, but did not bear 
any marks of fire. Judge Poe thinks that the most 
probably theory to account for these dead forests is 
that at some time a season of unusual severity had 
killed the tree roots. 

It was in the gulches between these elevations that 
the gold was found. On the surface was a turf of six 



inches to a foot in thickness, beneath which was a 
loam varying in depth from one to six feet. Beneath 
this again was a bed of gravel, then .another layer of 
earth and then a red gravel, said to be peculiar to the 
Florence and Warren regions, bearing gold. The sand 
possessed no magnetic qualities and resembled gold 
dust so closely that it might easily be mistaken therefor. 
Humorous stories are told of its being passed upon un- 
suspecting tenderfeet for the much-prized, much- 
sought yellow metal. The sand was, however, of a 
f really lower specific gravity, hence could be separated 
rom the gold by blowing. The bedrock is granite. 

Some of the gulches were dry, but water could 
generally be secured by digging and the method em- 
ployed by those not so fortunate as to possess streams 
or ditches was to make an excavation, allow it to fill 
with water, use this over and over again in the rockers 
until it became too thick, then dip the well dry and 
wait for it to fill again from the water-soaked gravels 

Such was the country to be prospected during the 
summer of 1862 by the motley crowds that had flocked 
to it. Thousands explored it in all directions, testing 
every creek and guich. This thorough exploration 
proved that outside of an area perhaps five miles square 
no pay dirt could be found, and the number of disap- 
pointments may be imagined. A relatively small number 
found the wealth they had come so far to seek, but the 
vast majority learned that the sacrifices of their toil- 
some journey in the spring of 1862 would remain for- 
ever unrewarded. The hunger and fatigue, the cold 
and exposure, the dreary journeyings over muddy 
roads, through flood-swollen streams and by snow- 
filled, mountain trails were to win no smile from fickle 
Fortuna, who bestows her favors with an arbitrary, 
whimsical hand. Some cursed their ill luck ; some gave 
away to despondency ; some with apparent jollity and 
abandon laughed the laugh which told too plainly de- 
spite its apparent meriment, that penury had always 
been their lot ; that nothing better was expected in the 
future and that they had determined to defy evil fate 
by seeming indifference to its persistent lashings. 

Prospecting parties did not confine their operations, 
during 1862, to the Florence basin, although that was 
the principal scene of operations. Many small com- 
panies scoured the hills and mountains in all directions 
and one of these made a discovery, which, had not its 
importance been magnified many diameters by false 
reports, would have long since been forgotten. The 
discovery in question was made in the vicinity of Buf- 
falo Hump, a mountain some twenty miles "northeast 
of Florence. It was not of sufficient importance to hold 
people enough to found a new camp, but a rush was 
occasioned of no small magnitude. Rumor said that 
the miners there were taking out dust by the teacupful 
and that even gum boots were being called into requi- 
sition as receptacles in which to store the dust. Ex- 
citement ran high. Rich claims in Florence were tem- 
porarily abandoned by men anxious to join the stam- 
pede. The falsity of the report was, however, soon 
discovered, though not until some of the merchants 

had pofited by it, as the circulators of the false re- 
ports doubtless intended they should. 

But one new discovery of real merit was made dur- 
ing the year. In July, 1862, James Warren, Matt 
Bledsoe and a few others set out on an exploring and 
prospecting tour of the Salmon river country. War- 
ren, the leader, was a college man, generally liked, but 
like most men of the region, he had drifted into bad 
habits and bad company. After prospecting all along 
Salmon river, the party at length decided to try the 
high mountain country to the southward. Crossing 
Salmon river at a point nearly due south of Florence 
thev continued their journey to a small stream, which 
coursed seven or eight miles through a beautiful 
meadow, perhaps a mile wide in places. Near the head 
of this little mountain torrent the party camped and, 
according to the usual custom, some of their number 
busied themselves with the gold pan. Better prospects 
were discovered than had before rewarded their efforts 
on the trip and a number of claims were staked out. 
The credit of this find was given to Warren, after 
whom the entire camp was subsequently named. The 
gold was fine and did not exist in such large quanti- 
ties as in the other camps, though Judge Poe tells us 
that as high as sixty ounces per diem to the rocker were 
taken out. The rich find at the head of the creek led 
to the settlement of the district, but it was subsequent 
discoveries that gave the camp permanence. 

Of course the usual rush followed as soon as the 
facts became known. The news reached Florence 
first, causing a commotion in that camp. Judge J. W. 
Poe, who at the time was engaged in the mercantile 
business in Florence with Joseph Haines and S. S. 
Smith, under the firm name of Smith & Company, told 
the writer the story of the early days of Warren as 
follows : 

"The news reached me early. Smith was in Oregon. 
Haines was then at Lewiston and just preparing to 
start for Fleronce with a pack train of forty animals. 
I immediately sent a mesenger to him, telling him of 
the new discovery across the Salmon and asking him 
to come at once as I was unable to leave the store. 
Meanwhile the rush to the new district began and thou- 
sands deserted Florence in search of a fortune in the 
new mines. The trail led from Florence down the 
Salmon river, across this stream and several miles up 
a mountain, past Marshall lake and over a divide onto 
Warren creek. The Indian trails usually followed the 
summits of mountain ranges, that the red men might 
be the better able to keep their bearings, and it was on 
this account that mineral deposits happened to be dis- 
covered in such elevated places. 

"Among the first who went to Warren was my 
partner, Joseph Haines, who had returned in haste from 
Lewiston on receipt of my message. He and a man 
named White met the returning crowds at Salmon 
river, and heard their discouraging reports, but never- 
theless, determined to push on. They camped near the 
mouth of a little stream afterward called Slaughter 
creek because the cattle brought into camp were killed 



two or three miles above the canyon. In this locality 
they noticed a deep washout, left by the flood of spring- 
time, and repairing thither, they quickly washed from 
a pan of the dirt about one dollar and seventy-five 
cents in gold. The party staked out claims for them- 
selves and one each for Smith and myself and one dis- 
covery claim, thus inaugurating the real Warren camp. 
Others took claims along the creek bed and soon sev- 
eral hundred men were at work. Returning to Flor- 
ence for his packtrain, Haines took it through to the 

to enter with a mercantile train. The date of his sec- 
ond arrival was September 8, 1862. The miners as- 
sisted in building a rude house and before night the 
first store in the new district was standing at the mouth 
of Slaughter creek. The settlement which sprang up 
around it was named Richmond, after the confederate 
capital, a circumstance which soon gave it a rival, for 
the Unionists, not to be outdone, established another 
settlement a mile below, to which they gave the name 
Washington. Richmond did not long survive the con- 
federate cause, for by 1866 it was abandoned by nearly 
all its inhabitants. The reason of its decay was not 
political, however, but rather that it had the misfor- 
tune to be built on rich placer ground, which in time 
had TO be surrendered to claim owners. Washington's 
site was just off the pay streak, and its growth was 
augmented by the decline of its rival. It became the 
county seat of Idaho county in 1869, succeeding Flor- 
ence in the enjoyment of that distinction. 

"Early in the fall of 1862 a miners' meting was held 
at Richmond at which I was elected by acclamation to 
the office of district recorder. For recording a claim 
I received a fee of one dollar and fifty cents, and some- 
times I recorded as many as one hundred a day. When 
the law reduced this fee to one dollar, I resigned, not 
caring to bother with such work, and believing that I 
could make more in the mines." 

The rush to the Warren mines never seems to have 
gained the magnitude of that incited by the Florence 
discovery, probably because the former deposits were 
not anything like as rich as the latter; that is, they 
never yielded such enormous per diem returns, though 
they proved of much greater permanence. The num- 
ber who joined the stampede to the new diggings is 
perhaps impossible to estimate, but the population of 
the camp simmered down to about a thousand during 
the fall, including those at Summit, Richmond and 
Washington. By 1863 the population had increased to 
fully fifteen hundred and the population four years 
later was not less than twelve hundred. The discovery 
of quartz in 1868 brought in a few more men, though 
no great influx resulted from this cause owing to the 
fact that gold bearing quartz so far inland cannot be 
profitably worked. As the placers began to show signs 
of exhaustion they were turned over to Chinamen, 
several hundred of whom found employment in the 
abandoned placers for many years. In 1872 the white 
population of the camp had declined to between three 
and four hundred. 

As before stated, the original trail to Warren led 
over an exceeding high mountain, necessitating a climb 

of some twelve miles. The difficulties and rigors of 
this road led to efforts for another and better one, and 

ten miles below the original crossing. This road as- 
cended Elk crek four miles, then turned southeasterly 
across the summit of the divide and proceeded to Lake 
creek, which it pursued for twelve miles or until the 
Warm Springs were reached. From this point it fol- 
lowed Secesh creek ten miles, then crossed the divide 
to Steamboat creek, then down that to Warren creek 
and up the last named stream to the camp. It was ten 
miles longer than the former route of travel, but on 
account of its easier grade it nevertheless soon became 
the principal thoroughfare to the mines. 

5 that 

though the man credited with its discovery was of loose 
morals, showing a decided predilection for the com- 
pany of the rougher classes of society, and though at 
least one of the men with him at the time of the dis- 
covery was an out and out desperado, yet the camp 
never became the prey of ruffians, never was placed 
under the necessity of organizing a vigilance committee 
for its own defense and never witnessed a popular 

"The most serious difficulty which I remember," 
says Judge Poe, "grew out of a robbery which took 
place during the winter following the opening of the 
mines. While Mike Reynolds, one of the miners, 
was at work near the creek, someone went into his 
cabin and carried off $400 or $500 worth of gold 
dust. Two men whose names I cannot now recall, 
were suspected and arrested. I was appointed to 
defend one and Charles McKay the other. The 
trial was set for the next day. 

"That evening while I was sleeping Three- 
Fingered Smith, my partner, came to the room and 
aroused me, telling me that the miners' meeting, in 
which I should be interested, was in progress across 
the street in a saloon. I hurriedly dressed and hastened 
to the place indicated. I found it crowded with men, 
eagerly discussing the question of hanging my client. 
Strangely enough, McKay was one of the ardent sup- 
porters of this extreme measure. His client was not 
present, nor was there any talk of punishing him, 
but when I arrived preparations had already begun 
for the summary execution of my man. I straightway 
mounted a counter and began an impassioned plea 
for the poor fellow's life, the result of which was that 
either on my own personal account or through com- 
passion for the accused, incited by my words, the rope 
was laid aside and the man held for civil trial. He 
was afterwards convicted and sentenced to a short 
term in the penitentiary." 

In this manner was averted an unfortunate event 
which came near staining the fair name of the War- 
ren mining district. That a resort to extreme meas- 
ures was never here necessary is due to the fact that 
the discovery of mines in what is now Montana had 
drawn away the rough element before the importance 
of the Warren district had been established. 

Having now outlined in a general way the events 
culminating in the discovery and first development of 


the early mining camps, we must essay to give some 
insight into the social conditions of the times. The 
task is a difficult one and adaquately to discharge it 
is impossible under the limitations imposed by the 
plan of this volume, but from the testimony of those 
who were in north Idaho during the earliest days, 
we may. perhaps, be able to draw an outline picture. 
The summer months are utilized by the miner to the 
best possible advantage in separating, by the different 
processes known to practical mineralogy, the precious 
yellow metal from the sand and gravel in which it 
lies. There is enough of excitement about the search to 
keep every man doing his utmost during the long 
hours of labor, and by the time the miner has repaired 
in the evening to his rude cabin, cooked and eaten 
his supper of bread, pork and beans and coffee, and 
enjoyed his evening smoke, he is ready to retire, for 
he must be at his task again at an early hour. When 
Sunday comes it does not always bring repose or even 
a change of task, but generally the pick and shovel 
are laid aside and the miner busies himself in washing 
his soiled shirts, darning his socks, mending clothes, 
chopping firewood for the week, baking bread and the 
like. There is little time for drinking, gambling or 
dissipation, though the miner may occasionally in- 
dulge in the pleasures of the appetite, even during 
this busy season. His main pleasure is, however, 
the gratification of his master passion, the pursuit 
of wealth. The reputation of the mining town for 
immorality and vice must be kept up during the 
summer months, if it is maintained at all, by the 
gambling and carousing class, the enemy of all 
morality, canker worms on the body politic. 

But when winter's snows and surly blasts put an 
end to the pursuit of gold, then it is that the man- 
hood of the miner is severely tested. Nothing but 
gold can induce htm to overcome the gregarious in- 
stincts of his nature. When that pursuit is no longer 
possible he must repair to the town, there to run the 
gauntlet of ten thousand dangers; to avoid the traps 

hood, or falling into them, to part with both. The 
conflict which rages within his breast is nine times 
out of ten an unequal one. The kindly influences of 
home and church and pure, enobling society are all 
wanting. External restraints upon him there are none. 
Pure amusements, refined society he cannot have. 
Fortunate indeed is he, if his morality and his prin- 
ciples are so firmly set in the unyielding granite of 
his nature, that he can pass the several months of 
enforced idleness without a lapse or a plunge into 
impurity, licentiousness and debauchery. 

If it were possible for the miner to' keep busy dur- 
ing the winter, he could easily withstand the blandish- 
ments of vice. But the ennui of protracted idleness, 
who can indure? To pass the time pleasantly, all 
the books and papers of the camp are read and re- 
read. The social card game is restored to. It is kept 
up until all interest in it cloys. The passion for 
novelty and excitement becomes well nigh uncontroll- 
able. It drives its poor victim at first to the more 
nearly respectable places of resort. Ah, now he is 

treading on the dangerous ground ! The convivial in- 
stincts of his own nature, the examples of men still 
held in high esteem in this frontier community, with 
its lowered social standards, the allurements of 
abandoned Delilahs, the persuasions of some fallen 
men, the ridicule of others, all tend to lead or to drive 
him deeper into the mirey slough of dissipation. The 
punishment swift, and condign which in an older 
community would be visited upon the man who openly 
takes his first plunge into license is not here meted 
out and the poor victim does not always realize that 
nature has provided her own punishment for the 
violation of her moral and physical laws; a punish- 
ment which though slower in .its visitations is sure 
never to miscarry as that of society often does. 
Without uplifting influences, without the usual re- 
straints, without danger of social ostracism, without 
even civil law, with the higher cravings of nature 
unsatisfied, in the midst of all the temptations which 
a society composed largely of gamblers, vagabonds, 
fallen women and even thieves, desperadoes and 
murderers can furnish, is it to be wondered that so 
many well meaning men fell by the wayside? Yet 
out of this heterogeneous society have come unseared 
many of the noblest and brightest of the leaders and 
builders of our western institutions. 

When the miners first invaded north Idaho there 
was practically no law for their government. The 
region was a part of the territory of Washington, 
but from the nature of the case it could not be 
efficiently governed from Olympia. There were no 
county organizations; no local officers of the law; 
no courts. In fact the country was a veritable haven 
for escaped convicts, desperadoes, thugs and thieves 
and abandoned characters of every variety. Let the 
reader picture in his imagination a society so con- 
stituted, made up so largely of a desperate criminal 
class, without restraint of any kind, and he will have 
a picture of north Idaho as it was in 1861 and 1862. 
In forming this mental picture he should give due 
weight also to the fact that the Civil war was then 
in progress, that it drove to the west many from both 
north and south who were unwilling to bear the re- 
sponsibilities it imposed upon them ; that these brought 
with them all the bitterness and prejudice engendered 
by that strife, and that the violent expression of this 
prejudice was the occasion of many a personal en- 
counter. Truly the conditions obtaining were such 
as can never again exist upon the American conti- 

As might be expected the catalogue of crime was 
a long one. The insecurity of life and property upon 
the highways may easily be imagined. The well dis- 
posed citizens were so greatly in the minority that they 
dared not offer resistance to the reign of crime, and red 
handed, blazen eyed murder stalked unmasked at mid- 
day through the streets of the towns. A full history 
of this carnival of crime cannot here be attempted; 
would not add to the value of the work if presented 
in detail, but as affording some idea of this modern 
reign of terror we quote the following from Ban- 
croft's summary, gleaned from the journals of the 


times: "Robert Upcreek, shot at Oro Fino by a 
Frenchman in September, 1861 ; Hypolite, owner of 
a large packtrain and $500 in gold, murdered on the 
road in October, 1861 ; Ned Meany, killed in a quarrel 
at Jackson's ferry, near Lewiston, November, 1861 ; 
two masked men entered a house in Lewiston in 
December and in spite of resistance carried off $500, 
shooting fatally one of the inmates; Matt. Bledsoe 
killed James H. Harmon at Slate creek, Salmon river, 
in a quarrel over cards. December, 1861.; four 
murders were committed in two weeks at Lewiston 
in the fall of 1861 :-three in March, 1862, at Florence; 
William Kirby killed John Maples in July, 1863; 
William H. Tower, while threatening others, was shot 
and killed at Florence, February 23, 1863; Morrissy, 
a desperado, was killed at Elk City about the same 
time; George Reed was shot by Isaac Warwick in a 
quarrel about a claim in April, 1863 ; Frank Gallag- 
her was murdered by one Berryman, with whom he 
was traveling; at a ball at Florence on New Year's 
eve, a cyprian was ejected from the dancing room, 
whereupon Henry J. Talbotte (better known as Chero- 
kee Bob) and 'William Willoughby armed them- 
selves and prepared for vengance ; later they were 
both killed in an attempt to get it: one Bull, living 
near Elk City, kindly entertained over night two men 
who asked for shelter, in the morning the men and 
five horses were missing. Bull followed them for 
twenty days, coming up with them at a camp on 
Gold creek, 265 miles from home, on seeing him one 
of the men sprang on a horse and fled, the other, 
William Arnett, was shot; a party pursuing the flee- 
ing robber brought him back and hanged him. Enoch 
Fruit was a chief of road agents ; James Robinson, a 
mere boy, was one of his assistants ; in the autumn of 
1862 they were prominent among the knights of the 
road between Florence and Lewiston; both met 
violent deaths ; James Crow, Michael Mulkie and Jack 
McCoy robbed three travelers between Oro Fino and 
Lewiston; William Rowland and George Law were 
a couple of horse thieves operating on Camas Prairie ; 
George A. Noble of Oregon City, was robbed of 100 
pounds of gold dust between Florence and Oro Fino 
in December, 1862 ; two horsethieves, for stealing from 
a government train, were shot dead." Besides the 
homocides and robberies above noted and scores of 
others which came to the knowledge of the people 
at the time, there were perhaps hundreds of which 
nothing was ever known; at least it was judged so 
from the number of inquiries which kept coming in 
for vears afterward from persons in the east, whose 
relatives were lost track of. 

Early in the history of the north Idaho mining 
region, there seems to have been formed organizations 
of thugs for the systematic prosecution of their 
nefarious vocation. The most notorious of these, it 
is said, had two strongholds or points of rendezvous, 
known in the vernacular of the times as "shebangs." 
The leadership of this band is accredited by some to 
Henry Plummer, though there are many in Lewiston 
who. having known this man in no other capacity 
than that of a gambler, are doubtful of his having 

had anything to do with greater crimes while here. 
But if the pictures of Plummer's character, furnished 
by those who professed to know his record quite 
intimately, are not colored to his disadvantage, he 
was hypocritical enough to keep the baser side of his 
nature in the background when it suited him, by his 
urbanity, polish and personal magnetism, winning 
the confidence of such as he wished to impress favor- 
ably. From the previous redord accorded to Plummer 
in California and his subsequent career in Montana 
it is not hard to believe him guilty of having acted 
a double part in Lewiston. 

However this may be the robbers of the country 
became organized during his stay there and by means 
of intelligent co-operation were enabled to defy law, 
moral and civil, commit the coldest blooded murders 
with impunity, and appropriate to themselves the 
valuables of travelers, packers, miners returning from 
a successful summer's work, anybody who might be 
caught unprotected with gold on his person. 

Patiently for many months the good people bore 
these multiplied wrongs. If any inquiry was made into 
the question of who was responsible for a given crime, 
such inquiry was turned into a farce, for the friends 
of law and order were in the minority and dared not 
assert themselves. The few who defied the roughs 
and openly opposed them were marked for early 
slaughter. The customary method of disposal of all 
such was to embroil them in a quarrel and under 
color of self-defense to inflict a death wound with the 
ever ready pistol or bowie knife. 

But this rule of the roughs could not last always. 
Justice may be outraged for a time, but like Truth, 
when crushed to earth it will rise again. Villainy 
soon over-reached itself and brought destruction up- 
on its own head. The first determined resistance to 
crime on the part of a united people, of which we have 
any knowledge, was made at Elk City in the summer 
of 1862. An account of it was kindly furnished us 
by Joel D. Martin and James Witt, both of whom 
were eye witnesses. From their statements, it ap- 
pears that early in the spring James Maguire and 
one Finnigan became entangled in a quarrel which 
led to blows. After fighting several rounds they finally 
agreed to settle their difficulties amicably and let by- 
gones be bygones. As was customary in those days, 
the bargain was sealed over the bar. Between drinks 
protestations of friendship were made again and again, 
but one party to the compact of amity was a traitor. 
In keeping with the unenviable reputation for treach- 
ery he sustained in California, the detestable Maguire 
broke in upon the expressions of good will, by 
stealthily seizing the handle of Finnigan's knife and 
unsheathing the weapon with intent to bury its blade 
in its owner's bosom. But the bystanders saw the 
movement, threw themselves upon the aggressor and 
prevented the consummation of the atrocious deed. 
Later the two men again met. Finnigan fired five 
shots, wounding Maguire in the leg and in the neck. 
Friends carried the injured man to a room over 
Maltby's saloon and there left him, expecting to re- 
turn in the morning. During the night Finnigan re- 


turned and slipping up stairs, killed his foe in a most 
atrocious manner, leaving the cruel bowie knife in 
Maguire's throat. Had Finnigan occasioned Ma- 
guire's death in a fair fight, the spirit of the times 
would have condoned him ; but cowardice and treach- 
ery were unpardonable. Finnigan was arrested and 
put on trial before a popular tribunal. He admitted 
the crime but claimed in extenuation, what was no 
doubt true, that he had to kill Maguire in order to 
save his own life. A newly elected justice of the 
peace presided as judge, and one Colonel Johnson, 
a lawyer recently from California but originally from 
the Middle West, acted as defendant's council. The 
testimony elicited some expressions of sympathy for 
the prisoner, but the jury nevertheless rendered a ver- 
dict of guilty. The following afternoon, a man named 
Powers, who was acting as sheriff, led Finnigan to 
the gallows. Brackett, a shoemaker, tied the hang- 
man's knot and when all was ready the Irishman was 
launched into space. Then occurred one of those 
incidents which are said to have taken place not in- 
frequently in the hasty popular executions of early 
days and to have resulted occasionally in the saving 
of a life. The knot, having probably been tampered 
with by the sympathetic sheriff, failed to hold, and 
Finnigan fell to terra firma. He soon recovered from 
the shock, gained his feet and, accompanied by Moses 
Hart and Joseph Ritchie, two of his friends, started 
to run away from the scene. The crowd was so 
dumbfounded that for a short time not a man moved. 
Then Josh. Phipps started in pursuit and soon over- 
taking the fugitives, instantly covered them with his 
rule and demanded that they halt. Phipps expected 
that others would come to "his assistance but none 
came, so he lowered his gun and told Finnigan to 
go, a command which- the latter was quick to obey. 
It is said that he was later seen in San Francisco by 
one who knew him in Idatio and that the tell tale 
mark of the rope was still on his neck. 

The next assumption of judicial functions on the 
part of the populace was in Lewiston in the fall of 
1862. The occasion was the robbery of the Berry 
brothers, while on their way from Florence to Lewis- 
Ma with a pack train. When near what is known as 
Rocky canyon, each of the men was confronted by 
a masked highwayman armed with a shot gun and 
ordered to throw up his hands. Compliance under 
such circumstances was a matter of necessity and the 
men were relieved of between $1,100 and $1,400 in 
gold dust. They were then commanded to camp at 
Rocky canyon under pain of death, but when the 
dangerous looking shot gun was no longer pointed their 
way, they did not choose to render further obedience 
to the commands of the robbers. No sooner had the 
highwaymen passed out of sight than William Berry 
mounted the best mule in the train and started in 
pursuit. The robbers were riding the best running 
horses, and in the race easily outstripped the big man 
on the mule. 

When Berry arrived in Lewiston he found that 
the robbers had gone on to Walla Walla. Then 
commenced the pursuit. The Berrys had one ad- 

vantage in that they recognized the voices of the two 
men, Bill Peoples and Dave English, who held them 
up (for both were well known to them personally.) 
They later ascertained that one Charley Scott was also 
in the infamous plot. 

In company with Gus Meamber, a Frenchman, 
and others who joined him at Lewiston, the outraged 
merchant proceeded post haste to Walla Walla, travel- 
ing with a four horse team and breaking the record 
for fast time. They arrived just behind the highway- 
men. Berry met Peoples in a saloon, disarmed him, 
and took him into custody. Meamber found and 
arrested Scott. Dave English had not stopped in 
Walla Walla but had gone on to Wallula. His arrest 
was effected by Sheriff James Buckley, his deputy and 
a saloon keeper named Vancise. It is said that an at- 
tempt was made to secure for the prisoner a civil trial 
in the Walla Walla courts, which failed ; also that the 
roughs of that city attempted the rescue of their 
captured confreres. ' But the capturers escaped with 
their prisoners to Lewiston. Here the outlaws were 
confined in a little log building. Had they known of 
the doom awaiting them, they would doubtless have 
made a more determined effort to escape, but they 
trusted to the rough element for their rescue, and 
were not greatly alarmed. 

The people of Lewiston were more thoroughly 
aroused over this crime than they had been over any 
other. The victims of the robbery were well known 
and well liked ; furthermore there was a general feel- 
ing that the time had arrived when the rule of the 
roughs must be brought to its termination, and accord- 
ingly efficient means were provided for the safe guard- 
ing of the prisoners. The men were confined in a 
little building situated on the point formed by the 
confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers. ' Two 
men, thoroughly armed, guarded them day and night 
and these were to bring to their assistance the entire 
populace in case of an attempted rescue, by ringing a 
large triangle near at hand. It is said that the roughs 
from other parts did begin gathering with intent to 
rally to the support of their doomed comrades. One 
plot for their release was led by an uncle of Peoples 
named Marshall, but the raid was defeated by Jonas 
Whaley. of the guard, a shot from whose Kentucky 
squirrel rifle served the double purpose of temporarily 
disabling Marshall and alarming the populace. 

Eventually a trial was given the accused men in 
George H. Sandy's store, at the corner of D and 
Second streets, which trial ended in their conviction. 
That night the guards were notified that their services 
were no longer needed. The next morning those who 
went over to the jail to see about the prisoners found 
the earthly remains of the three men hanging by their 
necks from the rafters, and their cold rigid bodies, 
drawn, bloodless faces and glassy eyes told that life 
had been extinct for several hours. The date of this 
summary execution, according to a notation in the old 
Luna hotel register, now in the possession of Charles 
F. Leland, was November 9, 1862. It marked the 
decline of lawlessness in the vicinity of Clearwater, 
for the villainous element departed one by one and 


in small squads to points in the interior and in Mon- 
tana, where most of them ended their careers as such 
men usually do, either at the hands of their kind dur- 
ing quarrels or by the merciless ropes of vigilance 
committees. Among those to depart this life by the 
latter route was Henry Plummer himself, the reputed 
leader of the largest band, and the known author of 

Lewiston first, then Oro Fino and finally Florence 
had been centers of operation for these bands of 
criminals. In the last mentioned town a species of 
vigilance committee had been formed. Its members 
met after the death of Cherokee Bob and Willoughby 
and instructed their executive committee to warn all 
suspicious characters to leave the town forthwith. 

The most notorious characters had, however, taken 
refuge in flight, fearing lest a more condign punish- 
meni should be meted out to them at the hands of 
the thoroughly aroused people, and the committee 
had no other task to perform than the expulsion of a 

But the most terrible deed in the history of north 
Idaho was committed after the reign of the desperadoes 
in the towns was practically over, though there was 
yet a considerable element of these villains in this 
mining region and their supremacy in what is now 
Montana was still maintained. We refer to the murder 
of Lloyd Magruder and companions in the Bitter 
Root mountains, an account of which will be presented 
in its proper chronological place. 



Naturally the influx of miners and fortune-hunters 
into north Idaho had many results incidental to the 
great purpose. The country was settled and developed 
during the first two or three years in a way that it could 
hardly have been in as many' decades had its sands been 
without gold or had their wealth remained hidden. 
While there was some complaint on the part of the nar- 
rower-visioned Willamette valley papers that the Idaho 
mines had caused a costly drain upon the resources of 
that section, others saw that in their ultimate and even 
in many of their promixate results they were a blessing. 
In speaking of the effect upon the metropolis of Ore- 
gon, Judge Deady in his manuscript history said : "The 
Colville and Oro Fino mines helped Portland greatly, 
and in 1861 built up the Oregon Steam Navigation 
Company. Loaded drays used to stand in lines half a 

ing that involved a fortune." The more liberal newspa- 
pers also stated that, contrary to preconceived opinions 
of what was possible, persons who had engaged in ag- 
riculture on the route between The Dalles and Lewis- 
ton were raising excellent crops, a statement going to 
show that the agricultural possibilities of the east side 
were even then beginning to be surmised. The discov- 
ery of the Idaho mines was certainly a boon to Walla 
Walla. It was the direct cause of the unearthing of 
vast mineral wealth in the John Day country and in 
the Boise basin, which discoveries, with that of the 
Auburn mines in Baker county, encouraged the agri- 
cultural development of eastern Oregon. From this 
source Portland has drawn millions of dollars and con- 

tinues to draw millions, yet its citizens for many years 
seemed to fail to realize that its chief hope of greatness 
lay in the development of its whole tributary country. 
They used every means to encourage immigration from 
the east to continue on through to the Willamette val- 
ley, and not a few efforts were made to decry the inland 
empire in the columns of the public press. Such a pol- 
icy seems indeep a narrow one when viewed in retro- 

Mention has been previously made of the settlement 
of Seth S. Slater and others "at the confluence of the 
Snake and Clearwater rivers in May, 1861. The land 
upon which these men pitched their tents was then a 
part of the Nez Perce reservation, but necessity knew 
no law, and in June the merchants and miners deter- 
mined that a town must be laid out, notwithstanding 
the opposition of the Indians and United States author- 
ities. Nevertheless the town builders were notified by 
the latter that they must not erect any permanent build- 
ings. Partly as a result of this prohibition, but more 
especially from the haste with which the town was 
called into existence, it was at first a very frail little 
city. Almost all its buildings, business places and resi- 
dences alike consisted of a light framework of wood, 
covered with canvas, roof and sides. From the dis- 
tant hill tops the town in the day time had the appear- 
ance of having been built of marble, and at night, when 
lights were burning within the canvas walls, it had a 
decidedly holiday look. From its very inception it was 
an important business point. Being most favorably sit- 
uated at the head of navigation on the Snake river, it 

The Buildings used as Governor's Headquai 
of Idaho in 1863, still stanc 



was the natural outfitting place for parties going into 
the mines of the interior, and long, heavily loaded trains 
left it daily. 

The causes which necessitated the building of the 
temparary town, despite the fact that it was a violation 
of treaty rights, were seen to be permanent in their 
nature. Remonstrances from Indians or military men 

impelling the steamboat company and the miners to 
oppose their wishes, and in October, 1861, the town- 
site of Lewiston was laid off. To pacify Lawyer and 
other head men of his tribe some compensation was 
given them for the privilege. The Nez Perces were 
not very determined in their opposition to white occu- 
pancy, and danger of a general war was never a deter- 
rent force in the settlement and development of the 

The erection of permanent buildings was not ac- 
complished in time to prevent great suffering from cold 
in Lewiston. During the severe winter of 1861-2 its 
inhabitants were almost solely dependent for shelter 
upon the canvas walls and roofs put up during the first 
rush, and the suffering was further augmented by the 
scarcity of fuel. To add to the people's multiplied dis- 
comfitures the rivers rose during the spring of 1862 
to an unwonted height, inundating their town, as well 
as The Dalles and part of Portland. But all these 
drawbacks were as impotent to stay the progress of 
Lewiston as to quiet the mining excitement which 
called it into being. Its growth was exceedingly rapid 
the first few years, and only after the removal of the 
superfluous mining population tributray to it and the 
consequent loss of its political honors did it cease to 
march forward at a double quick. 

The rapid settlement of the country was not with- 
out its political effects, though, as before related, it 
out ran the forms of government and made it necces- 
sary that the miners should become a law unto them- 
selves, not alone in civil matters, but in criminal pro- 
cedure as well. That it was possible for communities 
of frontiersmen, brought together and animated by a 
thirst for gold, to calmly frame and adopt laws for 

these laws among their own number and in general to 
discharge all necessary functions, legislative, judicial 
and executive, is a favorable nortent for the future of 
the civil institutions of America. The pioneers of 
north Idaho were also surprisingly temperate and self- 
contained in their popular criminal proceedings. No 
such thing as a vigilance committee was organized un- 
til patience had ceased to be a virtue, and then due care 
was taken that none but the guilty should suffer. But 
a regularly constituted government is always welcomed 
by order-loving and law-abiding Americans, and the 
establishment of such in what is now north Idaho was 
eagerly sought for from the first. 

The territorial government of Washington had or- 
ganized Shoshone county in January. 1858. comprising 
all of the country north of the Snake river and be- 
tween the Columbia river and the Rocky mountains, 
with the county seat on the land claim of Angus Mc- 

Donald. In 1861 it established the official boundaries 
of this political entity as follows : 



of the South Fork of the Clearwater; thence south with said 
river to the Lolo Fork of the same; thence east with said 
Lolo stream in an easterly direction to the summit of the 
Bitter Root mountains ; thence north to the main divide be- 
tween the Palouse river and the North Fork of the Clear- 
water; thence in a westerly direction with said main divide 
to a point from which running due south would strike the 
mouth of the South Fork of the Clearwater to the place of 
beginning. Passed December 21, 1861. 

of Repre 


The day previous another act had been passed creating 
and organizing the county of Nez Perce, the language of 
which was as follows: 

"Section I. Be it enacted by the legislative assembly of 
the Territory of Washington, That all that part of Washing- 
ton Territory lying within the following boundaries, be or- 
ganized into a county called Nez Perce, to-wit : Beginning 
at the mouth of the Clearwater ; thence up same to the South 
Fork of the Clearwater; thence with the South Fork to the 
Lolo creek; thence with the southern boundary of Shoshone 

south' to the main divide between the waters of the 'Salmon 
River and the South Fork of the Clearwater to the Snake 
River ; thence with the Snake River west to the mouth of the 
Clearwater TO the place of beginning. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That J. M. Van Valsah 
be appointed county auditor; A Creacv, Whitfield Kirtly and 

sheriff ;%nd P ^ Jlfstiw of'TheTeaee ^Or safe" county Tintil 
the next general election. 

"Passed December 20, 1861. 

Speaker, House of Representatives. 
A. R. BURBANK, President of the Council." 

On this day, too, an act was passed c 


itted, i 

Be it enacted by the legislative assembly of 

the Territory of Washington, That all that part of Wash- 
ington Territory south of Nez Perce county and east of Snake 
river, be organized into a county called Idaho. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That L. Lindsey be and 
is hereby, appointed county auditor; Robert Gray, Robert 
Burns, and Sanburn be appointed county commission- 
ers ; Joseph Standifer, sheriff; Parker, Justice of the 

Peace for said county until the next general election. 
"Passed December 20, 1861 

Speaker, House of Representatives. 
A. R. BURBANK, President of the Council." t," 

The formation of these political divisions gave the 
people some kind of a home government other than a 
strictly popular one without sanction of law, but the 
judicial function, except in probate and minor matters, 
was with the three federal judges. The hands of these 
had been full enough when they had no duties outside 
of the coast counties, and now that the population east 
of the Cascades was sufficiently large to more than 
double their work, a problem was presented not easy 
to solve. Certainly a country into which vagabonds, 
desperadoes and abandoned characters had flocked from 


all parts of the west was very badly in need of courts, 
if the peace and dignity of the territory was to be main- 
tained there at all. The solution finally adopted was 
the passage of acts authorizing the holding of district 
courts at different county seats having concurrent 
jurisdiction with the regular federal district courts, 
except in cases where the United States was a party, 
with right of appeal to the supreme court of federal 
judges. The expenses of each special district court 
were to be paid by the county in which it was held. 

No more eloquent commentary upon the rapid rate 
at which the country now constituting north Idaho 
developed during 1861-2 need be sought than the notice 
it demanded from the Washington Legislature, by 
which, as compiled from the statute books by Bancroft, 
the right to keep ferries was granted as follows : "To 
D. W. Lichtenthaler and John C. Smith, across Snake 
river opposite Powder river ; to Green White and C. R. 
Driggs, across Snake river at mouth of Grande Ronde 
river ; to John Messenger and Walter H. Manly, across 
Salmon river on the Nez Perce trail to Fort Boise; 
to Gilmore Hays, across Snake river within one mile 
from the junction of the Clearwater; to E. H. Lewis 
and Egbert French, across the Columbia, near The 
Dalles; to J. T. Hicklin, across the Yakima between 
the mouths of the Ahtanaham and Nachess ; to W. D. 
Bigelow, across Snake river on the territorial road from 
Walla Walla to Colville : to Lyman Shaffer and W. F. 
Bassett, across the south branch of the Clearwater on 
the main wagon road from Lewiston to Oro Fino; to 
Orrington Cashman on the same stream at or near the 
camp of Lawyer ; to W. W. DeLacy and Jared S. Kurd, 
on Snake river at some point between Grande Ronde 
' and Powder rivers, to be selected by them ; W. W. De- 
Lacy and associates on Salmon river; to George A. 
Tykel, to grade a bluff of Snake river in constructing 
a wagon road and establishing a ferry over the same 
near the mouth of Powder river ; to Richard Holmes 
and fames Clinton, across Salmon river on the Indian 
trail from Lapwai to Grande Ronde valley; to John 
Drumhaller, on the main Clearwater, two miles above 
Lewiston : to W. Greenville, at or near the mouth of 
Slate creek on Salmon river; to Sanford Owens, to 
build a bridge across the south branch of the Clear- 
water on the road from Lewiston to Elk City. The 
rates for foot passengers on these ferries were gener- 
ally 50 cents ; loose cattle, 50 cents ; two-horse wagon, 
$2.50; four-horse wagon, $4.50; horse and buggy, 
$2.25 ; pack animal, 75 cents." 

The men who had wrought this development, being 
ambitions to become the founders and builders of a 
new state, early began to point out the inconvenience to 
themselves of Olympia as a capital, the diversity of 
interest between them and the Puget Sound people and 
the adaptability of their region to autonomv. They in- 
structed their representatives in the territorial legis- 
lature to advocate the sending of a memorial to Con- 
gress asking that the eastern portion of the territory be 
set off and organized into a new territory. However, 
the legislators in general thought that the interior had 
need of the sound as a seaboard, and that no benefit 
could result to it from political segregation ; on the 

other hand such would prove a decided detriment to the 
sound. The memorial, therefore, was not sanctioned 
by the majority, and the movement failed. Neverthe- 
less discontent still continued, and on March 3, 1863, 
the territory of Idaho was organized by act of Congress. 
The origin of the euphonious name anplied to the new 
political entity is a matter of dispute, but it is generally 
supposed to be a corruption of an Indian word signify- 
ing gem or diadem of the niountains, referring to the 
lustrous rim of the crests of the north Idaho uplands 
at sunrise on a fair day. The name was applied to one 
of the counties organized by the Washington legisla- 
ture in 1861, which county formed part of the new 
territory. But whatever the origin of the word or its 
exact English signification, the people of this rich and 
prosperous state have reason to be highly pleased with 
the poetic name chosen for it by the United States 

The creating act was exceedingly liberal in the 
extent of territory it bestowed upon the new political 
entity, the official boundaries of which were described 
as follows: 

"All that part of the territory of the United States 
included within the following limits, to-wit : Begin- 
ning at a point in the middle channel of the Snake river, 
where the north boundary of Oregon intersects the 
same ; then following down the said channel of Snake 
river to a point opposite the mouth of the Kooskoospier 
(Kooskooskie) or Clearwater river, thence due north 
to the forty-ninth parallel of latitude, thence east along 
said parallel to the twenty-seventh degree of longitude 
west of Washington ; thence south along said degree of 
longitude to the northern boundary of Colorado terri- 
tory ; thence west along said boundary to the thirty- 
third degree of longitude west of Washington, thence 
north along said degree to the forty-second parallel 
of latitude: thence west along said parallel to 
the eastern boundary of the state of Oregon." 
From this it will ' be seen that the original 
original Idaho extended over thirteen degrees of longi- 
tude and seven of latitude. Its area was given as 
326,373 square miles, which was greater than that pos- 
sessed by any other state or territory in the Union. "It 
was not," says Bancroft, "regarded with favor by any 
class of men, not even the most earth-hungry. Over 
its arid plains and among its fantastic unheavals of 
volcanic rocks roamed savage tribes. Of the climate 
little was known, and that little was unfavorable, from 
the circumstance that the fur companies, who spent 
the winters in certain localities in the mountains, re- 
garded all others as inhospitable, and the immigrants 
judged of it by the heat and drought of midsummer." 
The initial winter spent by miners in the northern part 
was one of great severity, the temperature being un- 
comfortably low, the snows deep and the floods de- 
structive. Even the scenery was so wild, weird and 
rugged as to seem unattractive to persons habituated 
to more delicate environs, and the conditions on the 
whole were such as to create an unpleasant impression 
in the public mind. 

Of this vast country, imperial in its extent, gigantic 
in its mold and possessed of a wealth of undeveloped 



resources but dimly surmised at the time, Lewiston was 
made the capital. To this infant town of two years, 
a town of canvas walls and rude primitive structures, 
of dens of unbridled vice and iniquity, a town which 
just before had had to resort to a vigilance committee 
in order to cow the rough element, to such a town was 
given the honor of posing as the seat of government of 
a region more than twice as large as California and 
seven times the size of the Empire state, and, "taken 
altogether, the most grand, wonderful, romantic and 
mysterious part of the domain enclosed within the 
Federal Union." 

More than six months elapsed between the passage 
of the organic act and the issuance of the proclamation 

22, 1863, William H. Wallace, who had been appointed 
governor of the territory by President Lincoln, formally 
organized the new government by proclamation. Pre- 
viously, however, political conventions had been called, 
resulting in the nomination of Governor Wallace for 
delegate to Congress on the Republican ticket, and 
J. M. Cannady on the Democratic. Wallace received 
in the election ensuing a majority of about 500 votes, a 
result which caused the promotion of Secretary of State 
W. B. Daniels, of Yamhill county, Oregon, to the post 
of acting governor. 

The first session of the Idaho territorial legislature 
was not distinguished for brilliance. The laws enacted 
by it were of the regular routine kind, not specially 
original in character, but such as any newly organized 
territory must adopt to set the machinery of govern- 
ment in motion. A movement for the sequestration of 
the territory east of the mountains into a separate or- 
ganization was begun, likewise one to move the capital 
to some point more nearly central to the west side resi- 
dents. The new territory was created in 1864, and an 
act was passed late that same year removing the capital 
to Boise. But of this latter, more anon. 

According to the usual custom the territory was, 
granted three federal judges, each presiding over a dis- 
trict. Idaho, Nez Perces and Shoshone counties con- 
stituted district No. i, of which Justice A. C. Smith was 
in charge. One of the first acts the court was called 
upon to perform was to try for their lives three men ac- 
cused of a foul and desperately wicked crime, which 
on account of its historic interest' must now be described 
in some detail. 

From the mystery and heroism of the discovery of 
the crime and the pursuit and capture of its perpe- 
trators and from the fiendish atrocity which character- 
ized the enactment of the tragedy, this Magruder mur- 
der forms at once the strangest and darkest chapter 
in north Idaho's criminal annals. On these accounts, 
doubtless, and from the fact that the principal victim 
of the awful outrage was a man of such prominence in 
northwest history, the affair is well remembered by all 
old pioneers, its details having impressed themselves 
so deeply upon their minds that the lapse of nearly 
four decades has not sufficed to erase them. The horri- 
ble deed and its sequel bring into bold relief the dark 
depths into which abandoned humanity sometimes falls, 
and the courage, tenacity and ingenuity of the best de- 

veloped representatives of the pioneer, when, animated 
by pure motives, he sets out to accomplish a desperate 
object. All the leading characters in this tragedy were 
men of unusual prominence in their way. Lloyd Ma- 
gruder, the victim, was credited by practically all the 
early miners with the honor of having been the first 
trail-maker into Canyon creek and the leader of the 
party which discovered the immensely rich John Day 
mines. Coming to north Idaho in the spring of 1862, 
he became a merchant of prominence and a packer of 
intrepedity. To the perpetrators of the crime, the 
devils of the tragedy, no one will deny the right to a 
bad eminence among those of their character. Hill 
Beachy, the avenger of the terrible deed, proved himself 
not only a man endowed with all the noblest qualities 
of manhood, but one with a mysterious development of 
the intuitive faculties and a rare genius for detective 
work. The ingenuity and courage displayed in bring- 
ing the Magruder murderers to justice shows that had 
circumstances led him into the secret service he might 
have performed feats rivaling those attributed to the 
heroes of romance. 

In the summer of 1863 Magruder set out for the 
Bannock mines with a pack train of fifty animals laden 
with miner's supplies. A long, hard journey brought 
him safely to his destination, but disappointment met 
him there. True to their nomadic habits, the miners 
had gone to the latest center of interest, the Alder 
gulch placers at Virginia Citv, almost completely de- 
serting Bannock. Thither Magruder followed them. 
He found a prosperous camp of several thousand in- 
habitants, ready to purchase his wares as soon as these 
were exposed for sale. Soon he found himself in pos- 
session of several thousand dollars in gold dust and 
about seventy-five mules. When ready to start upon 
the home journey he was joined by Charles Allen, 
William Phillips and two young men,' who were after- 
ward referred to in the indictment as unknown, but 
who proved to be Horace and Robert Chalmers, recent 
arrivals from Booneville, Missouri. Besides those men- 
tioned there were in the company Daniel Howard, 
familiarly known as "Doc," whose real name was 
Renton, Christopher Lower (or Lowry), James Ro- 
maine and William Page. Page had met Magruder at 
Bannock about the middle of September, and five or 
six days later at Virginia City, where he had assisted 
the merchant in stocking his store. His testimony is 
the only account we have of the awful tragedy en- 
acted in the Bitter Root mountains and the events lead- 
ing up to it. The story told by him was complete and 
circumstantial, bearing the stamp of truthfulness upon 
its face, and proving its narrator a man of remarkable 
memory. The transcrint of it, taken in court, is. how- 
ever, very brief and not at all clear on some points. 
Page states that Renton, Lower and Romaine were 
in Virginia City during the latter part of the summer, 
and that they stayed around Magruder's store at least 
a portion of "the time. There is "reason to believe that 
they left Lewiston with no other intent than to murder 
Magruder and take his money. Their presence about 
his store was probably due to their desire to ingratiate 
themselves into his confidence that they might the bet- 


ter accomplish their designs. If this was their object 
they certainly succeeded well, for Magruder seems to 
have never suspected them in the slightest, though it 
is said that he was warned by a man named Baker 
against traveling with them, as they were tough men. 
Magruder heard that Page was going to Lewiston, 
and employed him to assist in driving through the 
horses and mules. 

There was nothing untoward in their start for home 
and friends nor hint of approaching tragedy in the face 
of laughing nature as they set out from Virginia City 
on that bright autumn morning. No intuitive sense 
of danger, no dark forebodings of any kind disturbed 
the equipoise of Magruder's mind. The exhilaration 
of the crisp air and bright sunshine was no doubt felt 
by him and his companions, though there were those 
among the latter into the blackness of whose dark souls 
no beams of light could ever penetrate. 

Those who started with Magruder on October 3d 
were Page, Renton, Romaine, William Phillips and 
the two brothers. At Beaverhead, where they camped 
the first night, they were joined by Charles Allen, and 
the next dav at Rattlesnake they met Christopher 
Lower. The party proceeded that day to the vicinity 
of Bannock, where they remained two or three days 
while Magruder was buying mules and attending to 
other business. About the 8th they resumed their jour- 
ney. "There were nine of us," said Page, "Lower, 
Renton, Romaine, Phillips, Allen, Magruder, the two 
brothers and myself." For three days they traveled 
without casualty, meeting travelers and conversing 
with them occasionally. During the fourth Lower 
asked Page to drop behind, as Renton and Romaine 
wished to speak to him. Page did so, and was greatly 

ton stated that Magruder had a great deal of money, 
that they purposed to have it, and that he wished 
Page to sleep with Phillips. He admonished his 
auditor not to be frightened, as he. Lower and Ro- 
maine would do all the "dirty work," told him that he 
must take no notice of any noise he might hear in the 
night, but if it became necessary he was to shoot 
Phillips in the abdomen. Several times during the 
day the conspirators told Page not to be frightened. 
That night, however, nothing unusual transpired. Next 
day the conspirators again declared their . determina- 
tion to have Magruder's money and renewed their ad- 
monitions to Page against being frightened. After a 
journey of about thirty miles they camped in a lonely 
spot in the Bitter Root mountains within a short dis- 
tance of the point where a view of the north Idaho 
country first greets the eye of the traveler. This spot 
has been rendered memorable by the commission upon 
it of a deed seldom equaled or surpassed for cold- 
blooded atrocity. 

The transcript of Page's testimony is so incoherent, 
indefinite and confused that it is impossible to gain 
from it a clear and detailed idea of what transpired 
during that dreadful night. It appears, however, that 
it was the turn of Magruder and Lower to guard the 
animals throughout the first watch. Page said he saw 
the two start up the hill, Lower ahead with an axe. 

The latter had given as an excuse for taking the 
weapon along that he wished to fence the trail so as 
to prevent the escape of the mules and to build a fire. 
The other travelers went to bed as usual. About mid- 
night, as he thought, Page heard somebody coming 
down the hill, and on investigation found that it was 
Renton and Lower. Renton lay down upon the blan- 
kets with Romaine, but soon both got up and passed 
by Page with axes in their hands. They went in the 
direction of the two brothers, and forthwith Page 
heard blows and mournful groans. After a few mo- 
ments they returned and lav down upon Page's bed. 
They arose again shortly. Renton shot Allen and Ro- 
maine struck Phillips with an axe. Allen seems to 
have been killed instantly. Phillips, however, made 
an outcry of murder after being hit, but the repeated 
blows of the heartless assassin speedily silenced him. 
Page says that as Romaine struck the first blow he 

said to his victim: "You fool, I told you at 

Virginia City not to come. You had no business to 
come. I wish that Jim Rhodes had come, for I have 
wanted to kill him a long time." 

The assassins then directed Page, who had arisen 
and dressed, to get ready such things as they wished 
to take along with them. When this was done he 
was next sent up the hill to look after the animals. 
Lower told him that if he would go a long way up he 
would see a fire to the right hand of the trail, but that 
this marked the spot where Magruder was killed. On 
his return they asked him if he had seen the fire. He 
replied: "Yes; it had got to running about among 
the leaves and dry logs, and I put it out." "That's 
where the job was done for Magruder," said Lower. 
"I kicked it about to burn the blood up." The assas- 
sins told Page they had searched the bodies during his 
absence and had failed to find as much money as they 
expected. They had tied Phillips and Allen up in a 
tent cloth with picket ropes. "I helped," said Page, 
"to tie the two brothers up helped Lower and Ro- 
maine. They carried them on a stick I had hold of 
the stick to a large, flat rock, whence they were to be 
rolled down the hill." 

Throughout a great part of the night the four men 
busied themselves in destroying evidences of their 
crime. All the equipage not needed was burned and 
the ashes searched for rings and buckles, which, with 
the excess tinware and other incombustibles, were put 
into a sack, taken down the hill and hidden behind a 
log. Renton and Lower disposed of Magruder's body, 
while Romaine and Page rolled the other bodies down 
the canyon. "I rolled Phillips and Allen down," said 
Page, "Romaine, the two brothers." As we were going 
to roll them down he gave me a pair of moccasins to 
put on, so that if anybody saw traces they would think 
it the work of Indians." 

At last these grewsome tasks were all successfully 
accomplished. Lower and Renton returned from dis- 
posing of Magruder's remains, bringing some of the 
mules. About twelve or fourteen were missing, one 
in particular that thev wanted, and they spent some 
time in an unsuccessful search for him. Soon after 
they started they began shooting the mules, which 



were following- the big sorrel lead horse that Page 
was riding. Several were killed before they got up 
the Clearwater hill and the remainder were led onto a 
little prairie to one side of the trail, where all were 
despatched except eight and one horse. The things 
were overhauled thoroughly on this prairie and the 
money estimated. It amounted to eleven or twelve 
thousand dollars, Page understood. Here also the 
handle was burned out of Lower's axe and a new one 
put in. 

The miscreants went straight to Lewiston, travel- 
ing with about average speed and consuming several 
days in making the trip from the scene of the murder. 
It was nine o'clock when they came into town. Renton. 
and Romaine looked for a boat in which to go down 
the Snake river but failed to find any. Page busied 
himself in hunting for a farmer named Goodman (or 
Goodrich), wishing to leave the animals with him. He 
eventually found the ranchman and bargained for the 
keep of the mules and horse until spring. Everything 
was left in Goodman's care, saddles and blankets, 
bridles, shot gun, leggings, spurs, etc. All four slept 
at the Hotel de France that night, and the following 
morning took the stage for Walla Walla. One of their 
number had secured the seats the evening previous, 
having himself and his companions waybilled under 
assumed names. The escape from the dangerous town 
of Lewiston, where they were well known and their 
presence was likely to excite suspicion, was successfully 
effected. They were now to enjoy in peace, as they 
supposed, the fruits of their dastardly deed. 

How sadly were these miscreants to be undeceived. 
Their presence in Lewiston had become known, and 
the avenger was already on their track. Hill Beachy 
was in the stage office when the murderer stalked in 
with an assumed swagger, walked up to the clerk's 
desk, threw down three twenties and asked that he and 
his companions be waybilled to Walla Walla. Beachy 
scrutinized him carefully from behind the stove and 
recognized him. He examined the waybill as soon 
as the man had departed. He then proceeded to the 
Luna house stables, which were in charge of Chester 
P. Coburn, from whom we obtained this part of our. 
story. "Coburn," said Beachv, "you must persuade 
your friends (for he had some intending to take the 
stage) not to go on the stage in the morning." 

"Why?" asked the man addressed with eager inter- 

"Because there is danger in the air." Beachy then 
communicated his discoveries and suspicions. The 
two men together visited the other stables of the town, 
but no trace of the animals the men had ridden could 
be found. Neither had the ferryman brought them 

s the r 


"Well," said Beachv finallv, "trv to keen your 
friends here until the next stage. Have they any 

"Yes, one of them has $2,500 I know of and the 
other may have some ; but they won't stay, because the 
boat leaves Portland for 'Frisco only every two weeks, 
and if they miss this stage they will have 'to lay over." 

"Well, then, tell them our suspicions and warn 

them to be sure to take the back seat and keep their 
guns handy; also let the others get in the coach first. 
Tell them to keep a close watch all the time." 

So, when Mr. Coburn awoke his friends the next 
morning a little after one o'clock, he communicated to 
them his fears. They got into the stage at the stables, 
taking the back seat. Beachv and Coburn rode the 
brake blocks to the hotel. There the four strangers, 
closely muffled, took their places, the horses were given 
the reins and the sextette and driver were speedily 
borne out into the night. As the coach rolled away 
Beachy remarked to his companion that he thought 
there was no danger of a robbery, as the men seemed 
to have considerable gold with them. But Beachy felt 
instinctively that something was wrong, and very soon 
a suspicion took hold of him that either Magruder or 
Ankeny was murdered and that these men were the 
murderers. All night he and Mr. Coburn continued 
their investigations. At daybreak Mose Druilard was 
despatched over the trail to seek tidings of Captain 
Ankeny, an Oro Fino merchant, and another messen- 
ger, named Schull, was sent toward Elk City in search 
of news about Magruder. 

Later in the day in which the suspicious characters 
left by stage the continued investigation of Beachy 
and Coburn resulted in the discovery that the men had 
left their horses in charge of Mr. Goodman and that 
Goodman had just moved the animals and trappings 
out to his place in Tammany hollow, a short distance 
south of Lewiston. The horses and accoutrements 
were soon brought into town, where one of the animals 
was identied as having been Magruder's property. A 
saddle also was thought to be his. This, was enough for 
Beachy. He swore out warrants for the four men, 
obtained requisition papers from Governor Wallace at 
the Capitol and set out in pursuit, determined to fol- 
low the quartette until he had effected their arrest. 
He was accompanied as far as Portland by Thomas 
Pike. By every possible means he accelerated his 
speed. At The Dalles he arrived just in time to miss 
the steamer, though he learned that his men had passed 
that way and knew that he was on the right track. 
When he reached Portland he found on inquiry that 
the miscreants had left on the steamer, which had de- 
parted for San Francisco just two hours before his 
arrival. Meanwhile he had been joined bv Captain 
A. P. Ankenv. who had reached Lewiston in safety 
the day of Beachy's departure, and together they con- 
sulted hastily and decided upon a plan of action. It 
was determined that Captain Ankeny should attempt 
in a tug boat to intercept the ocean steamer at the bar 
in case adverse winds had detained her, while Beachy 
made preparations for the overland trip to San Fran- 
cisco in case of Ankeny's failure. Ankeny's tug arrived 
too late, as the steamer had gone out to sea without de- 
lay. Accordingly Beachy started. There was no tele- 
graph nearer than Yreka, California, and consequently 
no rest for the grim pursuer until that point was 
reached. Arrived at last, he wired descriptions of the 
men to the San Francisco police. The telegrams did 
not arrive until after the boat had landed, but the de- 
scriptions were such as to enable the police to identify 


their men with ease, and soon the culprits were behind 
prison bars. Beachy got custody of the men after some 
delay and started back to Lewiston with them. At 
Walla Walla an escort of soldiers was furnished him. 
The party reached Lewiston during the early days of 
December and was met by the vigilantes of that town, 
but Beachy stoutly defended his prisoners, telling the 
people he had promised the men a regular trial. The 
vigilantes eventually decided to withdraw and trust 
the courts to administer justice. The prisoners were 
confined in upstairs rooms of the Luna house, Page by 
himself. The last mentioned turned state's evidence, 
and it was essential that no opportunity be allowed his 
partners in guilt to intimidate him, as he was the main 
reliance of the prosecution. Renton, Lower and Ro- 
maine maintained an attitude of sullen indifference 
throughout their incarceration, declining to affirm or 
deny the grave charges against them. Romaine was a 
schoolmate of Mrs. Beachy and hoped for some clem- 
ency on this account. 

The following incident is related as throwing light 
on the character of Lower. The officers had one day 
conceived the idea of securing photographs of the pris- 
oners. The subject was broached to the men, who 
listened intently and then announced that they would* 
not consent to give the photographer a sitting. Several 
efforts were made to secure their acquiescense, but 
each failed, until finally one day Lower said he would 
sit, so word was sent to the photographer at Walla 
Walla, who arrived in a short time with his outfit. 
Lower was sent to a tent near the Luna house. The 
photographer set up his machine and prepared to take 
the picture. Lower posed willingly. When all was 
in readiness the artist stepped into the dark room to 
fill the plate-holder. Suddenly Lower jumped from 
his chair, rushed over to the camera, and, picking it 
up, dashed it to pieces. 

The sheriff and the photographer rushed over to 
the man, and the former inquired : "Why did you do 
that, Lower?" With a demoniacal grin Lower replied: 
"I thought it was loaded." No further attempts were 
made to photograph the murderer or his comrades. 

In due course the case against the three accused 
men came on for adjudication. The grand jury had 
no difficulty in returning an indictment, as the evidence 
cf Page was direct and satisfactory. In the trial fol- 
lowing Samuel C. Parks, the judge of the Second 
judicial district, presided in place of A. C. Smith, of 
the First district, who was absent. J. W. Anderson 
and W. W. Thayer appeared as attorneys. for the de- 
fendants Renton, alias Howard, Lower and Romaine. 
Prosecutor Gray was assisted by Attorneys Rheems 
and Kelly. The jury finally selected to try the case 
was composed of George H. Sandy, foreman; Henry 
Hershell. Francis Gabe, Joseph ' Wagner, Michael 
Leitch, Samuel Ramsey, Nathan W. Earl, J. P. Shock- 
ly, John Mooney, Ezekiel Beam, Henry Myers and W. 
B. Holbrook. On the evening of January 23d the case 
was given to the jury, which, after a short absence from 
the trial room, returned a verdict of "guilty of murder 
in the first degree, as charged in the indictment, and 
that the punishment therefor shall be death." Three 

days later the convicted men were sentenced to be 
hanged on the 4th of the following March, on which 
date they were led to a scaffold erected near the spot 
on which Judge Poe's residence now stands, on ground 
now owned by John P. Vollmer. Several hundred citi- 
zens had gathered to witness the vindication of justice 
and a company of soldiers from Fort Laowai was pres- 
ent, also a number of Indians from the reservation. 
Before the trap was sprung the condemned men were 
asked if they had anything to say. Lower with charac- 
teristic bravado replied: "Launch your old boat; it's 
nothing but an old mud scow anyhow." This mis- 
creant also left a letter to be opened after his death, 
which was found to be extremely obscene and insult- 
ing in its language. Page, who escaped the scaffold by 
betraying his companions in guilt, was foully mur- 
dered' by a man named Albert Igo, with whom he 
had quarreled previously, and such was the prejudice 
against the murdered man that no very energetic ef- 
forts were made to apprehend his slayer, notwithstand- 
ing the cowardly manner in which the crime had been, 
committed. The vigilance committee, seeing by the ' 
result of the trial of Magruder's murderers that the 
courts were disposed to mete out justice, disbanded 
soon after the execution, and though there have been 
lynchings since, the days of popular tribunals in north 
Idaho were over. 

The following May Sheriff James H. Fisk and Hill 
Beachy took Page to the scene of the tragedy. The 
remains of the victims were found in the places indi- 
cated by the testimony. The entire locality tallied with 
Page's descriptions ; the sack of rings, buckles and tin- 
ware was discovered under the log as he had said ; in 
fact the story was corroborated in every detail by mute 
but truthful witnesses. It was by a notebook found on 
the person of one of the Chalmers brothers that the 
identity of these unfortunate young men was estab- 

It is pleasing to add that the efficient services of the 
brave Beachy did not go unrewarded. Five weeks of 
unremitting effort had been expended bv him. as well 
as considerable sums of money, in the capture of the 
murderous quartette. For his reimbursement and com- 
pensation there was appropriated out of the territorial 
treasury, by an act approved February 2, 1864, $6,244. 

The population of southern Idaho, induced thither 
in flocks by the discovery and development of the 
mines of Boise basin and other districts, was greatly 
swelled during the early part of 1864 bv immense im- 
migrations from the southern states. The results of 
this infusion of secession sentiment may be easily im- 
agined. The political complexion of the entire 'state 
was changed and a disturbing element introduced into 
society in general, making good government for the 
time an impossibility. It is stated that in southern 
Idaho it was all a man's life was worth to express 
Union sentiments in a demonstrative wav, and the 
number of homicides in Boise countv alone during 1864 
is said by Bancroft to have exceeded twenty, "with 
assaults and robberies a long list." To combat this dis- 
loyal sentiment as much as lay in its power the district 
court held in that county exacted of persons applying 


to practice in it as attorneys that they subscribe to the 
following oath : "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that 
I will support and defend the constitution and govern- 
ment of the United States against all enemies, whether 
domestic or foreign; that I will bear true faith, alle- 
giance and loyalty to the same, any ordinance, resolu- 
tion or law of any state or convention or legislature 
to the contrary notwithstanding; and further that I 
do this with a full determination, pledge and purpose, 
without any mental reservation or evasion whatever; 
and further, that I will well and truly perform all du- 
ties which may be required of me by law, so help me 

But no oath could be required which would deprive 
the citizens, however disloyal or. unworthy, of political 
rights. Just one Union man was elected to the legis- 
lative assembly in the election of 1864. Soon the gov- 
erning body of Idaho, being composed largely of men 
at variance with the general government, and careless 
of the responsibilities of their positions, entered upon 
a career of infamy comparable only to the carpet-bag 
governments which shortly afterward came into power 
in the south. "The third' session," a writer is quoted 
as having said, "was by all good men, irrespective of 
party, pronounced infamous, but this one (the fourth) 
is satanic." The governors, acting under federal ap- 
pointment, were, of course, loyal men, thoueh some of 
them had nothing else to their credit. They could 
and did veto bills at open variance with the constitu- 
tion, the organic act or the plain interests of the people. 
These were in general passed without the governor's 
signature, but fortunately ran up against an insur- 
mountable barrier in the United States Congress, which 
had the power to nullify such acts of territorial legisla- 
tures as failed to meet its approval. 

Happily north Idaho was not distracted and torn 
in any such manner by the inroads of an army of dis- 
loyal people. That part of the territory had had its 
era of bloodshed and anarchy. Now, however, the 
ruffian elements had gone to the Boise basin, Montana 
and elsewhere, stable local governments were being es- 
tablished, the miners were busily engaged in garnering 
the wealth of their claims and the entire community 
was settling down to an era of quiet progress and the 
evolution of a law-abiding, social esprit de corps. But 
north Idaho was far from pleased with the doings of 
its legislature. The act which most deeply incensed 
the people of this section was that depriving Lewiston 
of its proud prestige as the seat of government, which 
act, approved December 7, 1864, title omitted, was 
indited thus: 

Be it enacted by the legislative assembly of 
the territory of Idaho, as follows : That the capitol 
of the territory of Idaho be and the same is hereby 
permanently located at Boise City, in the county o'f 
Boise and said territory of Idaho. 

"Section 2. The capitol buildings are hereby lo- 
cated on the grounds known in and described on the 
plot of said Boise City, as the Capitol Square, and the 
Honorables Caleb Lyon, C. B. White and J. M. Ken- 
edy are hereby appointed as commissioners to receive 
a deed to said Capitol Square, and such other grounds 

as may be deemed necessary to hold in trust for the 
Territory, for the purpose of erecting the capitol build- 
ings aforesaid. 

"Section 3. The Secretary of said Territory is 
hereby authorized to immediately draw a warrant upon 
the treasurer of the territory for" such sum, not exceed- 
ing the sum of two thousand dollars, as shall be neces- 
sary to remove the papers, books, documents and other 
property belonging to his office to said Boise City. 

"Section 4. This Act shall take effect from and 
after the twenty-fourth day of December, A. D., 1864." 

Naturally the measure" above quoted was received 
with great disfavor by the citizens of north Idaho in 
general and those of Lewiston in particular. As is 
customary in such cases the parties aggrieved by the 
act of the legislature resorted to the courts, hoping 
thereby to win their point. Referring to this litiga- 
tion some years later, Alonzo Leland, through the col- 
umns of his paper, The Teller, reviewed the case as 
follows : 

"The last part of the nth section of the organic 
act of Idaho reads thus: 'And no expenditure shall 
be made by said legislative assembly for objects not 
specially authorized by the acts of congress making the 
appropriations nor beyond the sums thus appropriated 
for such objects'. The whole of said section makes 
provision for the expenses of our territorial govern- 
ment, including the governor, secretary, judges, leg- 
islative members, clerks and other officers, and all con- 
tingent expenses including rents of buildings for the 
meeting of the legislature and offices for other officers 
of the United States, and these appropriations are 
made upon estimates made by the secretary of the 
treasury annually, and the legislative assembly cannot, 
in the language of the act, expend money 'for objects 
not specially authorized by acts of congress nor can 
that body aro beyond the sums thus appropriated for 
such objects.' 

"The organic act says that 'the legislative assembly 
of the territory shall hold its first session at such time 
and place in said territory as the governor shall ap- 
point and direct.' Governor Wallace, by proclamation, 
duly ordered that the first legislature convene at Lew- 
iston, on the 7th day of December, 1863. They so con- 
vened and held their session 60 days, and passed an act 
providing that their next legislature should convene 
on the second Monday in November, 1864. The or- 
ganic act further savs 'and at said first session or as 
soon thereafter as they deem expedient, the governor 
and legislative assembly shall proceed to locate and es- 
tablish the seat of government for said territory at 
such place as they may deem eligible; provided, that 
the seat of government fixed by the governor and leg- 
islative assembly shall not be at any time changed ex- 
cept by an act of the said assembly duly passed, and 
which shall be approved after clue notice, at the first 
general election thereafter, by a majority of the legal 
votes cast on that question.' 

"At the first session an attempt was made to pass 
an act to remove the seat of government, but the at- 
tempt failed and the second legislature met at Lewis- 
ton in November, 1864. During that session they es- 


saved to pass an act permanently locating the capi- 
tol of Idaho Territory at Boise City, and the governor 
signed the bill, without making any provision for 
submitting the question to the people for ratification, 
and attempted to move the seal and archives, where- 
upon a suit to enjoin the removal was brought on the 
part of the people of the United States to restrain 
them, and was heard in the district court, at the April 
term of the court in 1865. 

"Following is the bill of complaint filed in the 
court : 

Idaho, pe M.omeroydator paintiff, vs Caleb Lyon, 
of Lycmsdale, governor of Idaho Territory, and S. D. Coch- 
ran, acting secretary of Idaho Territory, or any person acting 

"' S In the P Distnct Courtof the First Judicial District, Terri- 
tory of Idaho, county of Nez Perce, A. C. Smith, presiding. 

torney 8 for the^irat Judidd Dfstrict, of the Territory of 

Idaho, having been duly sworn, in behalf of the people of said 
territory, would respectfully show to the court : 

gress of the United States passed an act creating the terri- 
tory of Idaho; subsequent to which creation said territory 
was duly organized by the appointment of a governor, secre- 
tary and other officers and on or about the loth day of July, 
A. D., 1863, said governor and secretary arrived at Lewis- 
ton in said territory and there temporarily located the seat 
of government cl said territory, from which place the said 
governor issued his proclamation for an election of members 
of the Council and House of Representatives to convene at 
said Lewiston on the 7th day of December, A. D., 1863, and 
qualify and organize as the Legislative Assembly of said 

and said legislators convened at Lewiston on the 7th day of 
December aforesaid, and qualified as members of said as- 
sembly and proceeded to the business of legislation for the 

ing said territory of Idaho, 'the term of service of each mem- 
ber of the legislative council was to continue two years, and 
the term of service of each member of the House of Repre- 

The said legislative assembly at said first session passed 
an act in conformity with said organic act, creating sundry 
offices for said territory among which were the offices of 
council-men and members of the House of Representatives 
and limiting their term of service respectively to two and one 
years. Said assembly further passed an act relative to elec- 

of the House or Representatives on the first Monday in Sep- 
tember annually, which act provides as follows: 

"The term of office of all officers elected shall begin on 
the first Monday in January next ensuing, unless some other 


sembly of the territory shall 

of November ot each year, at the territorial capital, at the 
hour of twelve o'clock M." 

Congress during its session in 1863-64, passed an act 
amendatorv to the organic act creating Idaho territory, which 
deferred the time of the annual election for the year 1864, 
from the first Monday in September to the second Monday in 
Octobei, without changing the time at which the officers 
elected should begin their term of office. 

On said second Monday in November, the time fixed 
for the meeting of the legislative assembly., sundry persons 
claiming to have been elected as members of the House of 
Representatives at the October election aforesaid, assembled 

as a House of Representatives for the territory of Idaho, 

and also 

the rights of the 

contrary to law and the st 
people of said territory. 

laws to be in force and to govern the people of said terri- 

locate and establish the seat of government at Boise City and 
to appoint Caleb Lyon, a federal officer, a commissioner for 
receiving and holding of deeds to grounds upon which the 
capitol buildings are to be erected ; authorizing the secretary 
of the territory to draw a warrant upon the territorial treas- 
urer for moneys to defray the expenses of the removal of the 

City. Ail of which provisions are contrary to law and against 
the rights and interests of the people of said territory. 

This affiant is informed that the bill for said act of re- 

ved the signat 

Lyonsdale, has ever filed his official 

by law, and further believes that no such oath has 

legally filed or recorded, so as to dulv qualify him I 

the governor 

lid Caleb Lyon, of 
in manner provided 


mi i 

led and v 

v belie 

....... ...... 

that Sila 

Lyonsdale, acting as governor, are about to remove the seal, 
place for their deposit, to said Boise City, contrary to 

, , 

affiant further believes that said governor and secretary 

will proceed to cause a great expenditure of the 

removal and location at Boise City, and the erection of capitol 
buildings, greatly to the damage of said people, if not re- 
strained by the interference of the courts. 

This affiant is apprised of no other relief for the people 

iss C ue eu^writ forthwitfaafid Ts in doty bound will CTW< 



District Attorney 1st Judicial District, I. T. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 22d day of De- 
cember, A. D., 1864. 

Probate Judge. 

"Upon the above complaint the court issued a tem- 
porary injunction which was served upon Lyon and 
Cochran, December 29, 1864. The defendants filed 
what they claimed to be an answer, denying merely the 
legal conclusions of the complaint without denying 
any of the facts, except that which charged that the 
governor assumed to exercise the functions of the 
governor in singing the capital bill without having 
taken and filed his oath as required by law. Mean- 
time the governor fled from this part of the territory 
in a small boat down the Snake river, under the pre- 
tense of going duck hunting, and never since then has 
he made his appearance in northern Idaho. Soon af- 
terwards a new secretary was appointed from Wash- 
ington and came to Lewiston, named C. DeWitt Smith, 
upon whom the order of injunction was duly served. 
He remained here some days and after a while it be- 
came known that he contemplated a violation of the 
injunction, and upon affidavit showing these facts, 
the court issued an order direct to the officer, command- 
ing him to summon such force of citizens as he deemed 


necessary to assist him in enforcing the order. Mean- 
time, Smith, unbeknown to the officer, had proceeded 
to the military garrison at Lapwai, and procured a de- 
tachment of U. S. troops, armed under command of 
Lieutenant S. R. Hammer, and with them approached 
the town stealthily, via a dry slough of the river, and 
not via the public road to the ferry, and when the civil 
officer and his men approached to prevent Smith from 
removing the seal, this military force with arms rushed 
forward and prevented the civil officer from executing 
the order and Smith, with the seal, laws and archives, 
went upon the ferry boat, under the escort of this mil- 
itary force, who continued their escort until they had 
preceded into Washington Territory beyond the juris- 
diction of the civil officer and thus Smith escaped. 
The civil officer's return on the order was in the fol- 
lowing language : 

"Not served on account of defendants being es- 
corted by an armed body of soldiers, commanded by 
Lieutenant S. R. Hammer, who resisted the service. 
Special Deputy U. S. Marshall.' 

"It was afterwards learned that Smith made his 
appearance at Boise City with the seal, laws and arc- 
hives of the territory, and there the territorial property 
has remained ever since. At the April term of the 
court, 1865, the case was heard at Lewiston, able coun- 
sel appearing on both sides, and on the iyth of April 
the temporary order of injunction was made perpetual. 

"Judgment was entered as follows : 

Lewiston, Monday, April 17, 1865. 

"Court convened at 10 A. M., pursuant to adjourn- 
ment. Present, Hon. A. C. Smith, presiding and E. 
C. Mayhew, clerk ; proceedings of the previous day 
read and approved. 

"People of the United States of Territory of Idaho. 
T. M. Pomeroy, relator, plaintiff, vs. Caleb Lyon and 
S. D. Cochran, defendants. An action to restrain the 
defendants from removing the seal and archives of the 

"T. M. Pomeroy, assisted by Anderson, Trayer and 
Leland of counsel for the plaintiff, and T. M. Reed, 
assisted by Samuel E. Darnes of counsel for defend- 

"It is the decision of the court that the act perma- 
nently locating the capitol of Idaho Territory at Boise 
City is invalid, having been passed by an illegal and 
unauthorized body. Therefore let judgment be entered 
in accordance with the prayer of the complaint. 
Judge ist Judicial District, Idaho Territory.' 

"A similar judgment was entered against the ter- 
ritorial treasurer from moving his office to Boise City, 
and there both of these judgments stand on the rec- 
ords to this day, unreversed by the supreme court of 
the territory nor any other court having jurisdiction. In 
defiance of' this they moved the seal and archives by a 
military force away from this part of the territory, 
beyond the reach of the people of Lewiston and north 

"From this dec 

i the defendants filed a notice 

of appeal on the 2oth day of April to the supreme court 
of the territory. That appeal was never heard and 
determined in the supreme court, and we do not know 
that the appeal was ever perfected, although we were 
an attorney for the plaintiff in the case. We find no 
report of the case in the supreme court reports. Where 
is the capital by law ? Surely not at Boise City." 

But whether the territorial capital was legally re- 
moved to Boise City or not, the case has now been put 
at rest forever by provision of the Enabling Act by 
which the territory became a state. However, the 
breach caused by this act of the legislature was many 
years in healing, if, indeed, it has ever been fully healed. 
It and the fact that natural barriers cut the territory into 
two distinct divisions having little of common inter- 
est to bind them together have resulted in the north 
Idaho people's having striven for a full quarter of a 
century with singular unanimity for political segrega- 
tion from Idaho and union to Washington. The strug- 
gle toward that end, taken up shortly after the removal 
of the capital from Lewiston, was not given up until 
Washington Territory's admission to statehood made 
success hopeless and further effort useless. 

The establishment of routes of travel incident to 
the discovery of the mines continued almost without 
abatement, judging by the number of licenses granted 
during the legislative session of 1864. Charles W. 
Frush and associates were licensed to establish a ferry 
across the Pend Oreille or Clark's fork of the Co- 
lumbia river at or near the point where the military 
commission road crosses said river, but as far as we 
know nothing was done under this franchise. John 
Silcott was granted the right to establish a ferry across 
the St. Joseph river, at or near the point where the 
direct or main trail leading to the Coeur d'Alene mis- 
sion crosses said river. S. A. Woodward and L. P. 
Brown were licensed to construct and maintain a toll 
road from Brown's Mountain House (where Mt. Idaho 
now stands) in Nez Perces county, along the most di- 
rect and practicable route to Florence, in Idaho county, 
for a period of ten years. Charles Addis was granted 
a ferry right across the Coeur d'Alene river at or near 
the point where the trail to Coeur d'Alene mission 
crossed said river. Thomas Kirkpatrick, George 
Sears, A. P. Ankney, Alonzo Leland, James Tufts, S. 
S. Slater, John Creighton, and George Zeigle were 
granted the exclusive right and privilege of establish- 
ing and maintaining a toll road from Elk City, Nez 
Perces countv. along the most practicable route east- 
ward to the western line of Montana Territory, the 
grant to extend twenty years on certain fixed condi- 
tions. This road never was anything but a trail. J. 
B. Roberts, A. E. Ridles and J. T. Galbraith were li- 
censed to operate a ferry on Kootenai river at a point 
fifteen miles below Linklighter's station. Charles H. 
Canfield was granted the right to operate a ferry across 
the Pend Oreille or Clarke's Fork of the Columbia, 
at a point about twelve miles above where military or 
boundary commission road crossed said river. John 
W. Hillin was licensed to operate a ferry across the 
Spokane river at or near Indian crossing, and both 
former and subsequent ligislatures were many times 


called upon for similar franchises and privileges, show- 
ing the rapidity with which the country was becoming 
networked with routes of commerce and general trans- 

Much of this, however, was stimulated by the dis- 
covery in 1863 and 1864 of mines in the Kootenai 
country of British Columbia, which drew away from 
the mining districts of north Idaho a considerable por- 
tion of this population. Indeed the miners were in 
great readiness for some new excitment, for even then 
some of the richest placer fields, especially in the Flor- 
ence district, were giving premonitions of coming ex- 
haustion. The mining rules prohibiting persons of 
the Mongolian race from operating in the different 
districts were beginninsr to be but laxly enforced and 
gradually the less valuable claims passed into the 
hands of Chinamen. These conservative, patient op- 
eratives were eventually, by an act of the legislature 
approved January n, 1866, permitted to work the 
mines on payment of a license of five dollars per month 
for the entire time they remained in the territory. Later 
still other licenses were exacted. 

The interest and excitment of the earliest mining 
days were temporarily reviewed late in the summer of 
1865 by the circulation in Lewiston and Walla Walla 
of a rather strange report. It was stated that a man 
named Wilson had discovered a new gold district in 
northern Idaho, which promised to rival the cele- 
brated Florence and Boise discoveries. While on a 
wandering prospecting tour, so Dame Rumor stated, 
he had stumbled into three auriferous basins in the 
Coeur d'Alene region, each one equaling the Boise 
district in extent. A stampede ensued forthwith. 
Thousands hurried to the scene. Charles G. Kress, of 
Lewiston, estimates that the number from Boise that 
passed through that town must have aggregated be- 
tween three and four thousand and that perhaps as 
many more went into the region by other routes. 

The gold seeking hordes made the Coeur d'Alene 
mission their objective point, expecting to be led with- 
out delay to the discovery. Wilson was hunted up. 
He proved reticent at first and finally claimed that he 
had forgotten the location of the diggings and was un- 
able to find them. The disappointment and consterna- 
tion of the expectant miners may well be imagined. 
Chagrin soon gave place to anger, and Wilson's life was 
threatened. He was eventually compelled to appeal to 
the priest at the mission for protection and it was 
through the intercession of the clergyman that he es- 
caped lynching. 

Meanwhile prospecting parties threaded the valleys 
and canyons and climbed the impending hills, hoping 
to find some return for their outlay and trouble. They 
spread out widely over northern Idaho and into west- 
ern Montana, in the latter of which regions rich dig- 
gings were eventually struck. This induced much 
travel through Lewiston, causing a decided improve- 
ment in financial conditions for a time. The boom 
lasted all that fall. Mr. Kress tells us incidentally of 
a train of six camels which passed through town during 
the excitement, enroute for Montana, certainly a. novel 
trading outfit in this part of terra firma. 

During all these early years no attempt was made- 
at agriculture in the mining sections and no domestic 
animals disputed with the elk and the deer for the 
pasturage upon a thousand hills, except the herds of 
Indian ponies on the reservation, the pack mules of 
the trader and the few head of horses and mules need- 
ful to the miner, the prospector and the primitive saw- 
mill man. Occasionally, too. a herd of mutton sheep 
or a band of beef cattle might be driven into the mines 
on foot, designed for immediate slaughter upon arrival, 
and these of course found sustenance while enroute on 
the gratutious bounties of generous nature. In 1865 
however, the Rice Brothers brought in a band of stock 
sheep, and about the same time C. P. Coburn imported 
one hundred and fifty head of cattle into northern Nez 
Perces county. These he took out southeast of Lewis- 
ton to what is known as the Junction House ranch. 
A little later Captain Ankeny and his sons brought 
in 500 neat cattle from Oregon. 

About this time, also, Thomas Moore took up what 
is now known as the Dowd ranch in Tammany hol- 
low, but for years he used it to pasture horses, with- 
out any attempt at cultivation. Another horse ranch 
was taken possession of probably as early as 1865 by 
Schissler & Siers, from whose brand the place came 
to be named the "21" ranch. At the numerous sta- 
tions along the route to the Kootenai mines there were 
small settlements and portions of the land adjacent 
were cultivated to furnish garden supplies. There 
were doubtless other small attempts at agriculture 
in different parts of north Idaho, but the industry was 
slow in becoming established and when it was at last 
found that farm products could be successfully raised, 
progress was still slow for a time owing to the lack 
of transportation, the danger of trouble with Indians 
and other causes. Mr. Coburn thinks that Caldwell 
& Hall, who took a farm at the top of the high Clear- 
water bluff above Lewiston about the year 1869, were 
probably the earliest wheat farmers in the Idaho part 
of tliat great stretch of country now so famous for its 
production of cereals. 

But throughout the first decade at least the main 
industry of the country was mining. After the richest 
product of the placers had been exhausted with rocker 
and sluice box, the hydraulic was brought into opera- 
tion wherever possible, thus keeping up the annual out- 
put to nearly its old proportions, though with a smaller 
population a'nd less excitement. No statistics of output 
are vailable for the counties of northern Idaho, but the 
estimates' for the entire territory show an annual in- 
crease until 1865, when the mines yielded nearly $13,- 
000,000, then a decrease till 1869, which year is 
credited with a production of $1.600,000. Thereafter 
the mineral output increased slowly, reaching $3,600,- 
ooo in 1873. It dropped to about two millions in 1875, 
then increased and decreased alternately until 1881, 
when it jumped to nearly $5,000.000. The existence 
of gold-bearing quartz in north Idaho was known to 
the earliest miners and prospectors, but they paid no 
attention to it, being without means to purchase ma- 
chinery for its reduction or ways of transporting it to 
the mines if they had it. In "1868, however, Rescue 


ledge on Warren creek and another just above it on 
Slaughter creek were discovered. Judge Poe, Alonzo. 
Leland and others became interested in the former 
property. They built a small mill on it, while an east- 
ern mining expert named Isenbeck, in company with 
Godfrey Gamble, erected one on the Slaughter creek 
ledge. Litigation soon took the Rescue property tem- 
porarily out of the hands of its owners, and while thus 
alienated it yielded considerable gold. Upon its re- 
covery by Poe, Leland and their partners, these men 
succeeded in interesting eastern capital by which 
means they were enabled to take the initial steps to- 
ward installing a large stamp mill. Some of the ma- 
chinery reached Mount Idaho, where it still remains 
as a relic of an abandoned enterprise and a monument 
to the inaccessibility of the Warren region. 

The Isenbeck-Gamble Company eventually removed 
its stamp mill to what was known as tke W. B. Knott 
mine, on Steamboat creek, but the mine failing to 
yield as expected, the company was forced into bank- 
ruptcy. Leland and Starr also had a small mill on a 
branch of Steamboat creek, at the Hie Jacket mine, 
which, however, never proved a property of any great 
merit. The mill was afterward operated on the Res- 
cue ledge. Another unsuccessful quartz mill was 
erected on the Charity mine, four miles south of the 
W. B. Knott ledge. But the richest quartz mine in the 
Warren district was the Little Giant, on Smith's gulch, 
about a mile from the town of Washington. It be- 
longed to a man named George Riebold, who erected 
a ten stamp mill on it, the product of which is supposed 
to have aggregated fully $500,000. Quartz ledges 
were known to exist also in almost all the old placer 
camps, but their development was never undertaken 
with energy until comparatively recent years. 

Comparison between a census of Idaho Territory 
taken in 1864 and the United States census of 1870 
shows that the population of north Idaho counties 
neither increased nor diminished materially during 
the six years. The population of north Idaho accord- 
ing to the former census was 2,634, but the enumera- 
tion was no doubt very carelessly made. 

"In 1870," says C. P. Coburn, who took the census 
of Nez Perces county that year, "there were at Pal- 
ouse bridge, about three miles east of the state line, 
Frank and William Points, John Buchanan, and one 
or two others. They had in a small crop when I passed 
through. At the California ranch, east of Spokane, 
and at the Spokane bridge, on the state line, I found 
a few settlers farming in a small way. There were 
probably a dozen men at the bridge settlement. On 
Camas prairie were perhaps twenty-five or thirty set- 
tlers besides those in Mount Idaho, which then con- 
sisted of the hotel of Loyal P. Brown, Rudolph's gen- 
eral store, a blacksmith shop and a few houses. It had 
been founded by one Moses Milner, who in 1862, when 
the Florence rush was at its height, conceived the 
idea of establishing a station at the foot of the moun- 
tain. Accordingly he cut a trail through from this 
point to Florence, built a cabin and began advertis- 
ing the route." 

The year 1871 may be considered as the date of the 

first decided advance in the agricultural development 
of north Idaho. During the fall of that year the coun- 
try around Moscow, the Paradise valley region, re- 
ceived its first influx of settlers, and the remarkable 
success which attended their efforts in all forms of ag- 
riculture was a stimulus to further settlement. Almost 
incredible are the stories told of the enormous size 
of vegetable products and the yields per acre. Another 
stimulus in the same direction was the rapid decline 
of the placer output and still another the hope of rail- 
road transportation for products in the near future, as 
the Northern Pacific was known to be pushing west- 
ward to the coast and was supposed to be about ready 
to build across Idaho The northern counties in com- 
mon with other parts of the great inland empire were 
passing through a transition period, the middle ages of 
the country, during which mining as the main pur- 
suit was giving place to agriculture. The period was 
not without its manifold discouragements. Agricul- 
tural products could not be packed out on the backs 
of mules, as was the gold dust of the 'sixties, and ade- 
quate means of transportation were not at hand, neither 
were they to arrive as soon as expected, for the slow- 
ness of the Northern Pacific became proverbial. 

At this time it was fully believed by the residents 
of north Idaho that the Northern Pacific Company, 
would build through the Lolo pass and down the Clear- 
water to Lewiston, thence into the territory of Wash- 
ington and beyond. It was pointed out by the news- 
papers that the route was many miles shorter than that 
via Pend Oreille lake and in the absence of surveys, 
the pass was supposed to be lower than the alternative 
pass, the Coeur d'Alene. Doubtless many people set- 
tled in Nez Perces and Idaho counties in full confi- 
dence that they would soon have a railroad, but in this 
they were doomed to disappointment, for the road, 
when at last it did come, chose the Pend Oreille 

An incident of the year 1872, well remembered by 
old settlers throughout the entire inland empire, was 
the earthquake shock of December I4th. The seismic 
disturbance was very general, being felt at least over 
all of eastern Oregon and Washington as well as in 
north Idaho. The story of the shock as experienced 
in Lewiston and vicinity was described by the Signal 
as follows : 

"On Saturday evening last, at twenty minutes past 
ten o'clock, this region of country was visited by a 
series of earthquake shocks. The first oscillation ap- 
peared to be from west to east and was of about eight 
seconds' duration. The first shock was followed by 
a second, ten minutes later, but of much less force. 
The violence of the first shock created considerable 
alarm among those who had never experienced such a 
thing before. Persons who were up at the time ran 
into the streets, while those who had retired supposed 
that a fierce and sudden gust of wind caused their 
buildings to sway and rock. Clocks were stopped and 
crockery and glassware caused to jingle. Frightened 
chickens flew about as though possessed of the devil. 
Dogs howled, cattle lowed, and all nature, animate and 
inanimate, was much disturbed. From all we can 



learn the greatest force of the shock followed the 
streams, as those residing on the uplands felt it but 
slightly. To the westward from here the vibration 
seems to have been more severe than east of Camas 
prairie. To the east of here, as far as Elk City, it was 
felt very plainly at Camas prairie more particularly 
than elsewhere except at Reed's ferry, northeast of the 
latter place, where the shock lasted two minutes and was 
followed by two others of less duration and violence. 
North of here, in the vicinity of Paradise valley, the 
shock was so severe as to make everything fairly dance. 
In this place and the immediate vicinity the force of 
the shock was greater along the margins of the streams 
than elsewhere. Along the water front of the town on 
the Clearwater it was more severe than back near the 

Among the improvements of the year 1872 were 
several in the mail service which had developed by 
this time so as to be fairly adequate to the country's 
needs. A daily mail was established between Lewiston 
and Walla Walla and a contract was let to C. C. Huntly 
to carry mail from the former town to Spokane Bridge. 
Mail was also carried by the O. S. N. steamers be- 
tween Lewiston and Snake river points. The Baird 
Brothers were operating between Lewiston and Elk 
City and the Capps Brothers ran a stage, express and 
mail line from the former point to Pierce. The post- 
offices established in Nez Perces, Idaho and Shoshone 
counties at this time, with postmasters so far as known 
were: In Nez Perces county Lewiston, C. A. 
Thatcher: Fort Lapwai, D. C. Kelly; Mount Idaho, 
L. P. Brown ; Elk City, C. Collins ; in Idaho county- 
White, Bird, ; Slate Creek (Freedom post of- 
fice), Barman; John Day creek,; Florence, 

W. H. Rhett ; Washington, C. A. Sears ; in Shoshone 
county ; Pierce City, I. B. Cowen. 

The year 1873 was a rather unpropitious one in 
north Idaho as elsewhere in the northwest. This, it 
will be remembered, was a year of panic and distress 
the United States over and besides the general causes 

of stringency there were special causes in this portion 
of Idaho Territory. The decline of the mines had de- 
prived the country not alone of its abundant supply of 
money but of its excellent local market for farm pro- 
ducts; the means of transportation at hand were in- 
adequate and unbearably expensive, and the excellent 
crops harvested in the fall of 1872, the normal increase 
of cattle, sheep and horses and the many other favor- 
able conditions were unavailing when a market for 
produce was not to be had. Nevertheless the acreage 
cultivated during this year was estimated as being six 
times as great as that of the preceding twelvemonth. 
The number of bushels garnered from each acre was 
prodigious, and the singular anomaly was presented of 
the occurrence together of abundant harvests and hard 

The year 1874 brought no amelioration of condi- 
tions, but rather an augmentation of the distress, and 
during the following twelvemonth affairs in north 
Idaho reached a very low ebb. In 1876, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that the Northern Pacific railroad was 
still many miles away and the transportation problem 
was in statu quo, there was some improvement in the 
outlook. Three small mining camps came into exis- 
tence during the year, all of which were very prosper- 
ous and thriving when winter came. Two of these 
were on the north fork of the Clearwater and the third 
at Marshall lake. Crops still continued abundant, and 
the enormous yield of wheat and other grains proved 
what the country might become if it were only sup- 
plied with means of transportating its products to the 
markets of the world. 

The winter of 1874-5 was so severe that thousands 
of head of cattle perished, bankrupting several 

Hardly had the sky begun to clear of financial 
clouds than it was suddenly overcast with the shad- 
ows of approaching conflict, and before north Idaho 
was to emerge from the darkness of its medieval days, 
it was fated to be baptized with a baptism of fire. 



When the indomitable Anglo-Saxon race began 
following the course of destiny to the westward the 
doom of the thriftless aboriginal peoples was sealed. 
The time had arrived in the progress of the world 
when the dusky, nomadic savage had become a cum- 
berer of the soil. The day of a grander development 
for this vast, prodigious west, teeming with the crude 
elements of wealth production, had at last dawned. 

The night of savagery was over. The red man must 
himself become a factor in pushing forward the car 
of progress or be crushed beneath its wheels. Poor 
child of the darkness and the night! Without know- 
ing it he was face to face with the harshest, most in- 
excrable law of life, the law of the survival of the fif- 
test. No longer could he worship the Great Spirit in 
his own blind way; no longer could he roam at will 



over the bosom of his much loved mother earth; he 
must lay aside at once his ancestral habits and adopt 
those of another and superior race or he must perish 
and perish miserably. 

Had the Indians tried the plan of adopting the 
white man's customs hardly would it have been pos- 
sible for them to effect with sufficient alacrity a change 
so radical, to measure up to the required standard in 
time to save themselves from .destruction in accord- 
ance with the mandates of natural law, but they did 
not try. They chose rather to set themselves in oppo- 
sition to manifest destiny and the result is that their 
race is hopelessly doomed. This contest with fate 
furnishes many of the saddest chapters in the history 
of our country. It could have but one issue. Even 
the Indian could hardly fail to foresee its outcome, 
but it is not in human nature to yield the field with- 
out a struggle. The red men fought valiantly and long. 
They fought with a bitterness almost amounting to 
frenzy, and with the courage of despair, but they 
fought in a hopeless conflict and the heel of the con- 
queror is upon their necks. 

It is the purpose of this chapter to chronicle one of 
the last, fierce struggles in that long continued race 
war by which the soil of the new world was wrested 
from the hands of its aboriginal possessors. The ani- 
mosities growing out of former contests furnished the 
venom with which to poison the shaft of both whites 
and reds, but the causes of the war of 1877 have their 
roots deep in the incapacity of our government officials 
to understand Indian character and to deal with it in 
a sensible business like manner. When in 1855 Gov- 
ernor I. I. Stevens for Washington and Joel Palmer 
for Oregon negotiated their treaty with the Indians 
by which the latter disposed of a vast area of land to 
the United States, making certain reservations as 
homes for themselves, old Chief Joseph insisted that 
Wallowa valley should form a part of the reservation 
for the Nez Perces tribe. This beautiful valley had been 
used by him and his followers for -years as a species of 
summer resort. On account of its beauty, grass, fish, 
game, various roots, camas, etc., or for some other 
causes, it occupied a warm place in the savage heart 
. of this old veteran brave and had not the white nego- 
tiators agreed that it should form a part of the reserve 
their efforts to treat with the Indians would undoubt- 
edly have ended in failure and the great benefits ac- 
cruing to the whites from the treaty would have been 
lost, at least for the time being. As a matter of fact, 
Joseph, Three-Feathers, White Bird, Big Thunder, 
Looking Glass and others of the Nez Perces chiefs 
signed the treaty without being fully aware just what 
lands they were resigning their claim to, so the Indians 
aver, and' when it was found that the Wallowa country 
was included in these lands an outbreak was imminent 
forthwith. However, the Indians were pacified by 
Stevens and Palmer, who promised that the Wallowa 
country should be reserved and the matter was set- 
tled for the time being. 

While the Wallowa valley was, therefore, through 
the importunity of Joseph, made a part of the Nez 
Perces reservation and consequently the property of the 

whole tribe, it was understood both by the Indians and 
the white representatives of the government to belong 
especially to Joseph and his band. Legally the Wal- 
lowa was undoubtedly the property of the Nez Perces ; 
equitably it was Joseph's. Herein lay the cause of the 
whole difficulty. 

In 1863 an amendatory treaty was negotiated with 
the Nez Perces by which the Wallowa valley, with 
other territory, was surrendered to the United States 
government. Joseph was present at the council in 
which this action was taken, but he positively refused 
to sign the treaty and never acknowledged its valid- 
ity. He continued his annual visits to the W'allowa 
until his death, impressing upon the mind of his sons 
and his followers that the valley was theirs and that they 
should hold it at all costs as a home for themselves and 
their children. The grave of old Joseph is in this val- 
ley, a circumstance which renders the spot hallowed in 
the minds of those allied to him by kinship or other 
ties. Meanwhile the United States government con- 
firmed the treaty negotiated by its commissioners and 
naturally assumed that the valley was a part of the 
public domain. The seeds of trouble were sown but 
they did not bear fruit until some years later. 

In due time the Wallowa valley was thrown open 
to settlement. In 1871 James Tulley entered it in 
search of range for stock. The next year he and his 
brother drove in a herd of three hundred head. James 
A. Masterson came also, and these three pioneers 
formed the entering wedge of white occupancy of the 
Wallowa. They saw Indians occasionally during the 
summer, but beyond making signs of displeasure at the 
presence of the whites, the Indians offered no resist- 
ance to their operations. Early that fall, however, the 
red men unequivocally expressed their displeasure at 
the encroachment of the whites in a council between 
themselves, numbering forty or fifty, and as many 
settlers. The council convened August i4th pursuant 
to a written call emanating from Indian sources. It 
seems to have been conducted in a friendly spirit, 
nevertheless the Indians were imperative in their as- 
sertions of right to the Wallowa valley and the whites 
were equally positive in refusing to withdraw from 
lands on which they had settled by permission of their 
government. The council broke up with nothing defi- 
nite accomplished save that the whites sent two men 
to consult the Indian agent at Lapwai regarding the 
matter, who were to report at a future council. 

In the spring of. 1875 th e residents, not alone of 
the Wallowa country but of the Grande Ronde valley 
and of eastern Oregon generally, were greatly incensed 
by an order of the department of the interior looking 
toward the removal of the whites from the disputed 
territory and the establishment of the Indians therein. 
The substance of this obnoxious order is contained in 
a letter to superintendent Odeneal, which we reproduce 
as follows: 

Sir:-Your conjunction of the 7 th in 
port dated the 4th inst. of yourself and Agen 


lative to the band of Indians in the Wallowa valley, Oregon, 
were submitted to the Honorable Secretary of the Interior 
on the 25th inst. 

Under date of the 28th inst, the Honorable Secretary 
returned the same and adopted without modification the sug- 

"That the band of Indians referred to' be permitted to 


r for 

n quiet 

s upon 

long as they r 

The Hon. Secretary therefore directs that a proper des- 
scription 01 the said valley be obtained for the purpose of an 
executive order setting apart this valley for the use of the 
said Indians and that white settlers be advised that they are 
prohibited from entering or sett'.ing in said valley. 

value of the improvements of said settlers in the Wallowa 
valley in ordci that Congress may be asked at its session for 

their appraised value in order that the claims of the settlers 
may be extinguished. 

of theHon! Secrete^ of ^Interior as above indicated, 'and 
for this purpose you will cause an appraisement of the im- 
provements referred to to be made by two or more disinter- 
ested and competent persons, whose report shall be prepared 
in tabular form and submitted to you through this office. 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

To T. B. Odeneal, 

Sup't Indian Affairs, 
Salem, Oregon. 

To further enforce the order, letters were sent out 
to the surveyor general and to the register and receiver 
of the United States land office at La Grande. 

Some of the comments upon this action of the inte- 
rior department were revolutionary in the extreme, and 
go to prove that the sentiment of patriotism is not so 
deeply seated in most men's minds but that it may be 
quickly crushed out when the power of the government 
seems to have been turned against their individual inter- 
est. There was much excuse for chagrin and disap- 
pointment among the pioneer settlers of the Wallowa 
valley. Many of them had made considerable sacrifices 
in locating within its borders, not supposing that there 
would be any danger incurred in so doing, as they were 
under the protection of a wise and just government. 
They felt that to be compelled to sell their homes for a 
sum fixed by appraisers, relinquish their prospects of 
future gain, 'pull up stakes and set out again -in search 
of the natural means of winning a livelihood, all for the 
sake of a few shiftless, nomadic Indians, was an almost 
unendurable wrong. Some of them boldly declared that 
they would defend their rights in the Wallowa valley 
"against the savages or any other corrupt power." 

The interior department was clearly in a dilemma. 
It could not deny the justice of Joseph's contention, for 
his right to the Wallowa certainly had never been ex- 
tinguished in fairness and equity, though it had legally 
passed to the United States. On the other hand the de- 
partment could not return the land to the Indians with- 
out doing a palpable injustice to white settlers who had 
invaded the valley and built homes there, planting the 
seed of civilization and progress, and all by invitation 

of the government. The horn which it chose at first is 
indicated by the department instructions in the letter 
above quoted. 

The immediate settlers in the Wallowa valley and 
even their neighbors in other parts of eastern Oregon 
were not the only ones who took an interest in the Wal- 
lowa matter. The people of western Oregon watched 
its development with interest, and the governor of the 
state went so far as to address a letter to the secretary 
of the interior, which is so clear an exposition of the 
whole subject from the settlers' standpoint that we feel 
constrained to quote it. It reads : 

''"^'Salem^JuTy 21^73. 

Secretary of the Interior. 

Sir: I beg leave to call your attention to a very grave 
and important question now pending before your department 
touching the subject of vacating the Wallowa valley in Union 
county, Oregon, for the purpose of securing the same to 
Joseph's band of Nez Perces Indians and to submit the follow- 
ing views thereon for your consideration : 

On and prior to the nth day of June 1855, the Nez Perces 

partly in Washington territory between the Cascade and Bit- 
ter Root mountains. On said nth day of June, 1855, the said 
tribe by their chief, head men and delegates, numbering fifty- 
eight officials, made and concluded a treaty of peace and 
boundaries with the United States, Isaac I. Stevens acting 
on behalf of the United States for Washington territory and 
Joel Palmer for Oregon. By said treaty the Nez Perces 
ceded and relinquished to the United States all their rights, 
title and interest in and to all territory before that time 
claimed and occupied by them except a certain tract de- 
scribed therein, specifically reserved from the ceded lands, 

tribe, and for friendly tribes and bands of Indians in Wash- 

lying in part in Oregon, including Wallowa (Woll-low-how) 

On the Qth day of June, 1863. a supplementary and 
amendatory treaty was concluded between the said Nez 
Perces tribe and the United States, the former being repre- 
sented by fifty-one chiefs, head men and delegates, and the 
latter by Calvin H. Hale, Charles Hutchins and S. D. Howe 
as commissioners specifically delegated. 

By the latter treaty the Nez Perces tribe agreed to re- 
linquish and did relinquish to the United States all the lands 
reserved by the treaty of 1855 excepting a certain specified* 
tract designated as a "home and for the sole use and occu- 

Perces tribe relinquished to the United States all the territory 
embraced in the reservation created by the treaty of 1855, 
which Jay within the boundaries of the state of Oregon, in- 
cluding the said Wallowa valley; so that on and after said 
9th of June, 1863, the Nez Perces'tribe did not lawfully hold or 
occupy any land within the state of Oregon. Joseph's band of 
Nez Perces Indians were in the treaty council of 1855 and 
Joseph signed the treaty. Their action recognized the tribal 

acknowledged these conclusions also by accepting the benefits 
of the treaty of 185^. But Joseph refused to acknowledge the 
treaty of 186^ while a large majority of the chiefs and head 
men of the Nez Perces tribe signed the same Joseph died 
in 1871 and his sons claim the land which was relinquished 
to the United States in [863, including Wallowa valley. This 
claim is based on the idea that the band which they represent 
were not bound by the treaty of 1863. 

The United States had established the policy of treating 
with the Indians as tribes and nations. This policy was 


or nation binds the whole bodv and all of its members. The 
treaty of 1863 is the organized action of the Nez Perce tribe, 

the connines of the new states in order' to give them the 

signatuor absenting J himself defeat' thT'ope^atorTof the 
treaty, the policy of making treaties would be valueless and 
but few treaties' would be binding. For there exists hardly 

soil withheld from being occupied by an industrial population 

The region of country in eastern Oregon not now settled, 
and to which the Wallowa vallev is the key, is greater in area 
than the state of Massachusetts! If this section of our state, 

lying within the state of Oregon. 
Acting upon this conclusion by order of the general land 
office, bearing date May 28, 1867, the public lands in Wallowa 

make it fruitful of civilized life. 
There is abundant room for Joseph's band on the present 
Nez Perces reservation and the tribe desires to have this band 

for settlement. The survevs mad.- Miidi-r this order amounted 

not object to going on the. reservation at. this time, but that 

informed, that eighty-seven farms have been located and pre- 

Uniled States land office at La Grande. 
Upon this statement of facts, I urge that the Indian title 

missionaries among the Indian, while they maintain their 
aboriginal habits. JOSHl'll'S |;AX1) DO" NOT DESIRE 

occupancy, either by purchase, conquest, or by legal enact- 
ment, it would follow that if the treaty of 1863 did not corn- 

poss n esSn N o e f Z th^l^S^'of Oregon limpr? for'room 

opening the same for settlement and the consequent occu- 
pancy of the same by settlers under the provisions of the 

white settlers in the Wallowa country number eighty-seven. 
There are also in the Wallowa valley two incorporated com- 

tion of these claims by the local land office of the United 

Prairie Creek Ditch Company. The improvements of these 


ment. to amount to sixty-seven thousand, eight hundred and 

who did not sign the treaty of 18(13 and who have refused 

Considering that the demand of Joseph's band was made 

as far as they are concerned, a score of like demands from 
tribes, under treaties negotiated in a similar way,, will be 

much more consistent with its general Indian policy, to in- 
duce Joseph's band by peaceful means to make their homes 
on the Nez Perces reservation, than to purchase the right of 

I am thoroughly persuaded that if the proposed surrender 
of the Wallowa vallev and the adjacent region to these In- 
dians be now consummated as now demanded, the measure, 

state have uniformly recognized the boundaries of legally 
denned Indian reservations, and have abstained from attempt- 
ing *o establish settlements thereon. In all instances of 

and this character of work will have to be entered upon and 
The 'declaration as made by congress March 3, 1871, that 

This waTthe case with th^akiiMS ^855,^0^^ three 

the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized as 
an independent nation, tribe, or power, with whom the United 

their perfidy. This was the case last autumn with tin- Moi'locs 

past treaties, as such, and to leave the Indian office unembar- 

government and bv the people of Oregon. 

to the caprices of unttitored savages. 

been as well disposed toward the Indians, and as moderate 

growing out of this particular case, I would respectfully press 

the circumstances. 
Urgently pressing upon your careful consideration the 


peculiar features of this subject and on behalf of the interests 
of this state and of the settlers in the Wallowa valley and 
the vicinity asking that the preliminary steps taken for the 

vation for Indians may be rescinded, I have the honor to be 
Your obedient servant, 

Governor of Oregon. 

The reasoning of Governor Grover in the above 
communication is certainly sound in everything ex- 
cept that it seems to overlook what we believe to be 
a fact of history that, in the treaty of 1855 the Wallowa- 
valley was understood by both Indians and whites to 
be reserved especially for the use of old Joseph and 
his band. Joseph's assent to the treaty was certainly 
given with that understanding, and while technically 
and as a matter of strict legal construction, the Wal- 
lowa was, under the treaty of 1855, the property of 
the whole Nez Perces tribe, the other chiefs of the 
Nez Perces seem to have taken no real interest in it. 
When the opportunity presented itself to sell to che 
United States what had never really been claimed by 
them why should they not embrace it? They would 
have given it up without protest in 1855 anyway. 
Why not sell Joseph's property when they had a 
chance to do so and receive a full portion of the price 
to themselves? Even white men are not always above 
taking advantage of their legal rights and privileges, 
though the letter of the law may chance to give them 

Joseph's point of view the chiefs sold to the United 
States what was his and not theirs, and we can hardly 
blame him if his untutored mind failed to grasp all 
the legal aspects of the case, and he saw only through 
the eye of his innate sense of right. 

It should be emphasized, however, that the pioneer 
settlers of the Wallowa were in no wise to blame in 
this matter. Attempts on the part of United States 
officers to make them responsible in any measure for 
the troubles which arose are utterly indefensible, as 
were also those made at a later date to throw the 
blame for the outbreak of the Nez Perces war upon 
certain citizens of north Idaho. When lands were 
surveyed and offered for homestead and preemption 
location, the would-be settler is not supposed to go 
back to history in order to determine whether the 
government has a right to do as it has done. He 
should and does trust to the integrity and honor of his 
country for that. The first settlers of the Wallowa de- 
serve the same credit which is usually accorded to 
those who in spite of danger and hardships carry the 
seeds of civilization into the heart of the wilderness, 
there to plant and nurture them until they grow to 
full maturity. 

Influenced no doubt by some such consideration as 
those we have been alluding to, the department of the 
interior made an abortive attempt to secure the vacation 
of the Wallowa on the part of the whites and the re- 
instating of Joseph. It was a serious blunder. If a 
wrong was done to Joseph in the negotiations of 1863 
it could not be remedied without an equally great, per- 
haps a greater, wrong to the white settlers, in 1873. 

The attempt to do so was fortunately not carried to 

In the spring of 1874 the Indian bureau determined 
to abandon its plan of attempting to establish an 
Indian reservation in northeastern Oregon. The 
letter which conveyed definite information of this 
change of policy to the people of the west was indited 
as follows: 

Washington, May 18, 1874. 

Dear Sir: I have recently received letters from our cit- 
izens of Union county inquiring what the Indian department 
was going to do in regard to the reservation of the Wallowa 
valley for Joseph's band of Nez Perces Indians ; and whether 
the sums of money awarded to settlers in that valley for 
their improvements there would be paid. I have answered 
these letters, but as the subject is one of general interest to 
the whole people of eastern Oregon, I deem it proper to write 
you, so that you may give publicity to the views of the In- 
dian department on the subject. 

Some time ago I had a conversation with Hon. E. P. 
Smith, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, on this matter 
and urged upon him the propriety of rescinding his order 
setting apart Wsllowa valley as an Indian reservation for 
Joseph's band of Nez Perces. He then said that probably this 
would be done, and the matter might remain there until 
further notice. On Saturday last I again had an interview 
and explained how important it was for those in the valley 
and others who intended going there that it be determined 
at once either to rescind the order establishing this reserva- 

that the settlers might govern their movements accordingly. 
The commissioner then assured me that nothing more would 
be done toward establishing a reservation there, and that 
the settlers in the Wallowa valley would not be molested in 
any way by the Indian department. Of course the whole 
valley is now open to settlement by the whole people. In the 

come to the conclusion to amend the order establishing the 

priation to pay the sums of money awarded to the settlers 
some two years ago for their improvements made on lands 
within the boundaries of the intended reservation. 

I congratulate the people of Union county on the settle- 
ment of this perplexing controversy and hope no disturbance 
will hereafter take place with the roving bands of Indians 
who caused all the trouble and annoyance which have taken 
place in regard to that valley. 

Very truly yours, 


Important as this determination of the matter was 
to the whites, it wrought no radical change in the 
attitude of the Indians. Indeed, as General Howard 
unequivocally states, the real contention of Joseph and 
other malcontents, the prime cause of all the difficulty, 
was rebellion against submission to the United States 
government or any of its officers. It was summed up 
laconically in Toohulhulsote's insolent query, "Who 
gave Washington rule over me?" Denying as they did 
the jurisdiction of the United States, the Indians were 
not likely to pay any great heed to the order opening 
again to settlement the Wallawo valley. They con- 
tinued their summer wanderings over its broad acres 
nd exercised freely the prerogative claimed by them 
if going when and where they pleased. But aside 
from bickerings and threat and pow wows, creating 

it Victim of the Indians, Killed June 13, 1877. 


uncertainty and dread in the minds of all white resi- 
dents in and contiguous to Wallowa valley, no hostile 
movements were made by the Indians until the sum- 
mer of 1876. The immediate cause of this disturbance 
was a personal conflict between two white men, A. 
B. Findley and Wells McNall, on the one side, and 
non-treaty Indians on the other. The white men were 
hunting some lost horses which they believed the 
Indians had stolen. Locating an Indian camp they 
proceeded to search the vicinity for the horses. The 
Indians became angered ; an altercation arose, and one 
Indian engaged in a hand-to-hand encounter with Mc- 
Nall, attempting to take his gun from him. McNall 
called to Findley to shoot the Indian, which was done, 
the redskin being killed instantly. Both white men 
submitted to trial at Union and were acquitted, but 
the Indians were not satisfied and demanded their sur- 
render that they might be tried by Indian law. This 
was denied of course and Joseph ordered the whites 
to leave the valley within a specified time, upon pain 
of being driven out in case they failed to go peacefully. 
The whites appealed to their neighbors for help. 
Citizens of Union and other towns responded promptly 
and arrived at the McNall ranch in middle Wallowa 
valley at three o'clock in the afternoon of the day 
preceding that upon which Joseph was to begin 
operations in case the valley should not be vacated by 
the whites. 

Inasmuch .as the volunteers numbered only about 
forty it was determined to make no attack upon the 
Indians, but simply to prepare for defense. Lieu- 
tenant Henry Rinehart was, however, ordered to 
march with fifteen men to the upper valley for the 
purpose of assisting the settlers there in case of attack. 
Rinehart and his command, escorting a number of set- 
tlers and their families returned about twelve o'clock 
that night and about two o'clock next morning, Lieu- 
tenant Forse from Walla Walla arrived with forty- 
eight regulars, having made a forced march to reach 
the scene in time to avert or participate in the expected 
hostilities. Next day the soldiers and volunteers were 
marched to the upper valley. Forse found the Indians 
on the summit of a hill near the Wallowa lake, all of 
them divested of superfluous clothing, decked in war 
paint, well armed and mounted, drawn up in battle 
array and prepared generally for warfare. Forse 
made certain demands upon them, chiefly to the effect 
that they should remain on the opposite side of Hurri- 
cane creek from the whites and abstain from depre- 
dations. Joseph yielded a ready compliance; his fol- 
lowers washed off their paint and sweet peace con- 
tinued to reign in the beautiful Wallowa valley. 

In November, 1876. in accordance with the recom- 

to Lapwai for the purpose of endeavoring to adjust 
matters with Joseph, his brother Ollicut, and all other 
disaffected non-treaty Indians. The arguments of the 
commissioners in their endeavor to induce the Indians 
to settle permanently upon some reservation were met 
by the old superstitious doctrines of the Dreamers, who 
taught "that the earth being created by God complete, 
should not be disturbed by man, and that any culti- 

vation of the soil, or other improvements, to interfere 
with its natural production, any improvements in the 
way of schools, churches, etc. are crimes from which 
they shrink." 

"This fanaticism," continued Howard, "is kept up 
by the superstition of these 'dreamers', who industri- 
ously teach that if they continue steadfast in their 
present belief a leader will be raised up in the east 
who will restore all the dead Indians to life, who will 
unite with them in expelling the whites from their 
country, when they will again enter upon and repossess 
the lands of their ancestors. 

"Influenced by such a belief, Joseph and his band 
firmly declined to enter into any negotiations, or make 
any arrangements that looked to a final settlement of 
the questions pending between them and the govern- 
ment. While the commission gave all due respect to 
the precedents and authorities in the government deal- 
ings with the Indians, and to the decisions of the 
supreme court of the United States, which recognizes 
an undefined right of occupancy by Indians to large 
sections of the country, yet in view of the fact that these 
Indians do not claim simply this, but set up an absolute 
title to the land, an absolute and independent sover- 
eignty, and refuse even to be limited in their claim 
and control, necessity, humanity and good sense con- 
strain the government to set metes and bounds, and 
give regulations to these non-treaty Indians. * * * 
And if the principle usually applied by the govern- 
ment, of holding that the Indians with whom they have 
treaties are bound by the majority, is here applied, 
Joseph should be required to live within the limits of 
the present reservation. * * * 

"If these Indians overrun lands belonging to the 
whites, and commit depredations on their property, 
disturb the peace by threats or otherwise, or commit 
any other overt acts of hostility, we recommend the 
employment of sufficient force to bring them into sub- 
jection, and to place them upon the Nez Perces reser- 
vation. The Indian agent at Lapwai should be fully 
instructed to carry into execution these suggestions, 
relying at all times upon the department commander 
for aid when necessary." 

With unusual promptness the government early in 
January, 1877, issued orders to Indian Agent J. B. 
Monteith to carry out the recommendations of the 
commission. Howard was directed to occupy the 
Wallowa valley and co-operate with the agent. ' That 
officer was sending friendly Nez Perces to Joseph, 
striving vainly to induce him to do what he had plainly 
told the commission he would not do, come upon the 
Nez Perce reservation. Joseph was interpreting all 
his friendly overtures as signs of weakness, and 
seemingly was becoming more and more established . 
in his determination to yield no whit of his freedom 
but strengthening his own hands by effecting under- 
standings with other disaffected Indians. 

In a conference with General Howard at Walla 
Walla, April 20, 1877, Ollicut arranged a council to 
meet at Lapwai in twelve days, in which the demands 
of the government and the position of the Indians were 
to be fully set forth. Howard was there per appoint- 


ment. On the 3d of May the first talk was held at 
Fort Lapvvai, Agent Monteith, P. B. Whitman, official 
interpreter, Joseph, Ollicut and about fifty of Joseph's 
band being present. Two days of council, during 
which the demand of the government that the Indians 
go upon some reservation was unequivocally and em- 
phatically made, then a recess until May 7th. Mean- 
while there are many accessions to the numbers 'of the 
red men from all directions. On the 7th a somewhat 
stormy council is held in which Toohulhulsote be- 
comes insolent, refuses to go upon the reservation and 
is arrested by Howard. "My conduct," says the gen- 
eral, "was summary, it is true, but I knew it was 
hopeless to get the Indians to agree to anything so 
long as they could keep this old dreamer on the lead 
and defy the agents of the government, and I believe 
that the Modoc massacre would very soon be repeated 
if I gave time for concert of action.' In fact, in deal- 
ing with Indians, my conviction is strong that the 
true policy is to demand obedience to the requirements 
of the government of the United States. The crisis 
had come, when either this demand must be made, or 
these wild Indians be allowed all the latitude and 
leisure that their hearts desired." 

When Toohulhulsote's evil influence was gone the 
Indians readily agreed to go next day to examine the 
Lapwai valley, and later the Clearwater country to 
see how they would like them for homes. They did so, 
giving all the time evidences of benevolent intentions. 
Soon word came that they had determined to go upon 
the reserve, they even designating what parts each band 
desired. On May I4th all came together again at Lap- 
wai for a final conference. At this it was agreed that 
the Indians should be upon the reservation in one 
month, or by June Uth. except Hushhushcute, who was 
given thirty-five clays : the object of the council seemed 
to have been satisfactorily accomplished and there was 
rejoicing in consequence. 

All the traditions and history of the Nez Perces tribe 
favored the assumption that the non-treaties would do 
just as they agreed and that there would be no more 
trouble. The agents of the government occupied the 
intervening thirty days in gathering in other bands to 
the Yakima reservation, so as to weaken the power of 
Joseph in case he should meditate treachery, though 
this was considered a very remote possibility'. To one 
looking backward it would seem that the wiser course 
would have been to put in practice the European max- 
im, "In time of peace prepare for war." Had a suffi- 
cient force been concentrated in the storm center, it 
it probable that the malcontent Indians would have gone 
on the reserve without resistance, but in endeavoring 
to win the Indians by smiles, rather than subdue them 
by a show of force, the agents of the government were 
acting in consistency with the general peace policy of 
the government, the policy which has resulted in 
much unnecessary bloodshed. That policy has been 
fostered by many eastern would-be philanthropists, 
whose knowledge of Indian character comes from the 
imaginings of the romance writer, and to whose super- 
fine sensibilities a vigorous demand of the government 
that the Indians obcv its laws as white men have to, 

a determined purpose to compel them to do so at what- 
ever cost, is an unthinkable cruelty. But the conduct 
of the various malcontent bands during the thirty days 
of grace certainly looked much like peace ; the gather- 
ing of Indians on the borders of the Nez Perces reserva- 
tion was naturally interpreted as a step in compliance 
with their agreement of May 14, and the burst of war 
came, therefore, as a thunderbolt out of a clear sky. 
Even the settlers in the immediate vicinity of the reserve 
were deceived, though there were some signs of the ap- 
proaching storm had they been interpreted aright. 

There were four distinct bands of non-treaty In- 
dians : Joseph's, who made their home in the Wa'llowa 
and Imnaha valleys : White Bird's, or the Salmon river 
Indians; Looking Glass's, whose home was on Clear 
creek, a branch of the Middle Fork of the Clearwater ; 
and a small band under Toohulhulsote, the "Dreamer," 
who remained on the Snake river most of the year. 
Of the friendly chiefs who were in close proximity to 
Camas prairie we may mention Kooskoos-Xela, Cap- 
tain John, Eagle-of-the'-Light and Blacktail. Of course 
there was more or less intercourse continually among 
these Indians and between the Indians and the settlers 
around them. For years the whites on Camas prairie 
and their dark skinned neighbors had lived at peace 
with each other, save that now and then some alter- 
cation of minor importance might occur. They had 
traded together, herded stock together and been very 
neighborly. No serious animosities existed between 

Down on the Salmon, however, the feeling between 
the two races was not as fraternal as it should have 
been. There, many serious quarrels had arisen over 
the possession of land and over other important mat- 
ters. Many of the whites had settled upon choice 
tracts of land, which, although not included in the 
reservation, the Indians considered as still theirs by 
reason of the fact that they had never relinquished their 
title to it to the United States. The case was parallel 
to that existing in the Wallowa valley. The whites 
considered that the land was public domain and acted 
accordingly without consulting the desires of the In- 
dians. .Then, too, two or three traders on the Salmon 
frequently supplied the redskins with liquor and in one 
instance this practice led to an open fight between the . 
proprietor of the establishment and the Indians, in 
the course of which one of the Indians was seriously 
wounded. This white, too, was remembered by the 
revengeful hostiles and when war broke out he lost 
his life among the very first. Some of the settlers here 
considered these and all other Indians as wholly bad 
and treated them accordingly, all of which fostered the 
enmity slowly rising. The remainder of the settlers, 
those who were on friendly terms with the Indians, 
were generally well treated by the latter until hostili- 
ties had commenced when the universal Indian trait 
of indiscrimination asserted itself. 

This was the status of affairs when, a short time 
before the council, a petition was circulated among the 
residents of Idaho county praying the government to 
remove the non-treaty Indians onto the reservation. 
Some signed the petition ; some refused, in the belief 


that these Indians could be more easily handled by 
not confining them too closely. This latter class were 
also wise enough to see that the enforcement of this 
order would lead to immediate trouble, which they 
wished to avoid as long as possible. The crisis came 
as soon as the government attempted to carry out the 
wish of these petitioners and it is worth noting that the 
blow fell most heavily on those whom the Indians 
found had signed the 'document. 

Sometime in April, 1877, friendly Salmon River 
Indians came to the house of Charles Cone on the Sal- 
mon and told him that the Indians were surely going to 
fight; that they would never go on the reservation; 
and that the Indians expected to settle some old scores, 
naming their intended victims. They warned the set- 
tlers of what was coming, but few believed that the 
Indians were really in earnest. The Cones, Woods, 
and Joshua Fockler, however, organized for protection, 
preparing their weapons and replenishing their supply 
of ammunition and for one night, stood guard. 

On Camas prairie the Indians were slowly gather- 
ing all through the month of May and preparing for 
the conflict. From time to time" they warned their 
white friends that trouble was coming and to them 
they reiterated their intention of refusing to go upon 
the reservation. The redskins visited Grangeville and 
Mount Idaho in large numbers and purchased all the 
ammunition and weapons they could secure, conceal- 
ing their hostile motives of course. They gathered 
their hundreds of ponies, bought cattle or obtained 
them by trade, purchased and by other means secured 
al! the provisions and supplies possible, and in differ- 
ent ways prepared for the coming conflict. From out- 
side appearances they might have been preparing to 
go on the reservation and in fact this was the inter- 
pretation placed upon their actions by a majority of 
the settlers on the prairie. 

The Indians' rendezvous was at the head of Rocky 
canyon, one' of the eastern arms of the Salmon river 
canyon, lying eight miles west of Grangeville. The 
smaller canyon derives its name from its rocky appear- 
ance. It cuts a furrow hundreds of feet deep and four 
miles in length through basalt, forming a region un- 
excelled for the Indians' purposes. Here they herded 
their stock, killed beef cattle and "jerked"' the meat, 
stored their supplies in a wonderful cave, and pre- 
pared to sell their lives as dearly as possible in defense 
of their libertv. At the head of the south fork of this 

came from the timbered mountain a few miles south- 
ward and finally found their way through the narrow 
canyon to the rushing river hundreds of feet below. 
Around these lakes the Indians erected their tepees. 
During the early days of June the non-treaties, with 
the exception of Looking-glass's band, assembled in 
larger numbers than ever at this delightful camping 
ground, holding councils and drills during the day 
time and dances at night. Regular picket lines were 
established which apprised the plotting redskins of 
the approach of whites and in some cases warned them 
off the grounds. Here they argued for and against 


e about evenly divided on the question of submit- 
ting peaceably to the inevitable or going to war. 

Hon. Frank A. Fenn says that word was sent to 
the commander at Fort Lapwai by L. P. Brown nearly 
ten days previous to the outbreak, notifying that officer 
of the alarming condition of affairs on the prairie and 
suggesting that it would be well to- watch them closely. 
On the I3th, Mr. Fenn says Tucallacasena, a brother 
if Looking-glass, notified Ad. Chapman and M. H. 
Rice that the Indians were practically on the war path 
and warned the whites that they must be on their 

General Howard says that the first slight inkling 
of something wrong came to Fort Lapwai in the shape 
of a letter, bearing date of Tune I4th. from L. P. 
Brown, of Mount Idaho, stating that Mr. Overman 
from the head of Rocky canyon had come in with his 
friends, very much alarmed at the actions of the In- 
dians, who, they said, were insolent, taciturn in their 
communications with the whites, and hostile in their 
general demeanor. "Yesterday," continues the letter, 
"they had a grand parade. About a hundred were 
mounted, and well armed and went through the man- 
euvers of a fight were thus engaged for about two 
hours. They say, openly, that they are going to fight 
the soldiers when they come to put them on the reser- 
vation, and I understand that they expect them up on 
Friday next. A good many were in town today, 
and were trying to obtain powder and other 
ammunition. * * * I do not feel any alarm, but 
thought it well to inform you of what was going on 
among them. * * * I believe it would be well for 
you to send up, as soon as you can. a sufficient force to 
handle them without gloves, should they be disposed to 
resist. Sharp and prompt action will bring them to 
understand that they must comply with the orders of 
the government. We trust such action will be taken by 
you, so as to remove them from the neighborhood and 
quiet the feelings of the people." 

This was followed up next day by two communi- 
cations of a much more startling nature which follow : 

MOUNT IDAHO, ?A. M., Friday. June 15, '77- 

Last night we started a messenger to you. who reached 
Cottonwood House, where he was wounded and driven back 
by the Indians. The people of Cottonwood undertook to 

or killed. Partie this morning found some of them on the 
prairie. The wounded will be here shortly, when we will 
get full particulars. The whites are engaged, about forty of 
them, in getting in the wounded. One thing is certain; we 
are in the midst of an Indian war. Every family is here, and 
we have taken all the precautions we can. but are poorly 
armed. We want arms and ammunition and help at once. 

were killed yesterday on the Salmon "river. Xo~ later word 
from them; fear that the people are all killed, as a party of 
Indians were seen going that way last night. Send to Lewis- 
ton, and hasten up. You cannot imagine the people in a 
wor:,e condition than they are here. Mr. West has volun- 


L. P. 


MOUNT IDAHO, 8 A. M., June 15/77- 

I have just sent a dispatch by Mr. West, half-breed. Since 
that was written the wounded have come in Mr. Day, mor- 
tally; Mrs. Norton with both legs broken; Moore sho' 

ough the hip; Norton killed and left in the road, si> 


aandoned. The Indians have possession of the prairie, and 
threaten Mount Idaho. All the people are here, and we will 
do the best we can. Lose no time in getting up with a force. 
Stop the stage and all "through travelers." Give us relief, 

through 1 feat the people on Salmon have" all been killed, 
as a party was seen going that way last night. We had a 
report last night that seven whites had been killed on Sal- 
long toe; he is with* u** " "L*?. Buoww. * 
P. S. Send a despatch to town for the express not to 
start up unless heavily escorted. Give the bearer a fresh 
horse, and send him back. CHAPMAN. 

Howard sent a brief reply to Mr. Brown, announc- 
ing the despatch of two companies of cavalry and en- 
joining upon him to ''cheer the people." Meanwhile 
all was bustle at Fort Lapwai. Colonel Perry was 
despatched forthwith to the scene of the trouble with 
ninety men, all that could be spared from the fort. 
Captain Wilkinson and Lieutenant Bomus were sent 
post haste to Walla Walla with messages for more 
troops from Wallowa, Walla Walla and Portland, with 
a request for supplies from the last named point, also 
for twenty-five scouts from General McDowell at San 

But before proceeding further in the account of the 
military operations, we must turn back to the evening 
of Tune 1 3th in order to find out more definitely the 
cause of all this bustle and excitement. During the day 
several Indians came down from the prairie to the 
Mamie! ranch on White Bird creek, where they utilized 
Mr. Manuel's grindstone in sharpening their knives 
and other edged weapons. They acted very friendly 
and aroused no suspicions in the minds of the doomed 
family who watched the operations. Farther up the 
Salmon at early dusk three young Indians drew up 
their ponies at the Cone ranch and dismounting, en- 
tered the house. None of them was over twenty-one 
years old and two of them, Tipulahna-Caps-Caps 
(Strong Eagle) and Sopsis-Ilp-Ilp (Red Leggins), 
Salmon Rivers, were old friends of the Cone family. 
The other Indian was a member of Joseph's band. 
They asked for bread for themselves and bullets for 
their weapon, a 44-calibre Colt's cap and ball revolver. 
The Indians were given the bread, and Charles, one 
of the sons, would have supplied the ammunition asked 
for as he and the Indians were good friends and had 
often hunted together, but for the fact that the amount 
he had on hand was very limited. The Indians ex- 
plained that they were on a hunting expedition and 
after exchanging a few more words again mounted 
their animals and pushed on up the river. That night 
they camped as is supposed in the brush near Richard 
Divine's place. 

Richard Divine was an old, retired English sailor 
living alone on his ranch on the Salmon six miles above 

John Day creek. So far as known he had never 
wronged the Indians nor had he ever had any trouble 
with them. But he did possess a new, improved rifle, 
fitted with hair sights, and reputed to be one of the 
finest in this section. The possession of this weapon 
proved the cause of his death. As the old man came 
out of the house some time that night or the next 
morning, a pistol shot rang out and he fell. Whether 
his wound was instantly, fatal or not is unknown, but 
he was dead when found, though his body was still 

Securing the coveted rifle the three young murder- 
ers took the trail down the river. Arriving at the 
Elfers ranch at the mouth of John Day creek, they be- 
came the chief actors in another tragedy. Mrs. Elfers, 
now Mrs. C. M. Cleary, is our authority for the story 
of this terrible event. She says she saw the Indians 
pass her home on their way up to Divine's place on the 
evening of June I3th, and that they stopped at the 
stock corral to talk with Mr. Elfers and the other men. 
On the morning of the i-4th, (she is positive as to the 
date) her husband, Robert Bland and "Harry" Beck- 
roge were killed by them. The real name of the last 
mentioned individual was Burn Beckroge, but he was 
universally named Harry after a brother of his who 
had been a resident of the Salmon river and had died 
previous to Burn's coming. On the morning of the 
fatal day Beckroge and Bland went up to the bench 
land south of and above the house to get the horses. 
The men were engaged in hay making at the time. 

Mr. Elfers remained at the house, attending to the 
cows. He had just gone into a room of the house and 
was putting on a pair of moccasins, when two of the In- 
dians came up and entered the office, apparently look- 
ing for him. Mrs. Elfers came out of the milk house 
just in time to see them and one of them spoke to her. 
She passed around the further end of the house to 
enter the kitchen by the back door. The Indian was 
standing at the entrance of the office when he spoke. 
Soon the Indians disappeared and Mrs. Elfers believed 
they had left the place entirely. When Mr. Elfers 
finished putting on his moccasins, he started up the 
hill to the field, and his wife followed him with her eyes 
some distance. That was the last time she saw him 
alive. The Indians shot him immediately after he 
reached the edge of the plateau above. It appears that 
they had already killed Bland and Beckroge and that 
one of their number had been left on guard in the field 
while the two others came to the house to look for 
Elfers. Mrs. Elfers did not hear the shots, the noise 
of the guns having been drowned by that of the stream, 
but Victor, a Frenchman living further down John 
Day creek, saw the smoke of the guns and became sus- 
picious that something was wrong. He communicated 

investigate. An invalid named Whitfield, who had 
been out hunting mountain sheep, had returned and 
discovered the remains of Elfers, Bland and Beckroge. 
He notified Norman Gould and his hired man at the 
saw mill and the two accompanied him to the scene of 
the murder, bringing their guns. Mrs. Elfers saw the 
Indians return to the house after they had killed the 

The Ranch where H. Elfers. Henry Beckroge and R. S. Bland were Killed by the Indians, June 13, 1877. 



three men. They entered the office, but soon came out 
again passed by her at the milk house, mounted the 
horses and rode away. Mrs. Elfers did not notice that 
they were riding her husband's animals, though it was 
later ascertained that they had exchanged their ponies 
for three of their victim's horses. They also secured 
Mr. Elfers' rifle without her knowing of it. The' 


being a trained race horse. The Indians did not tarry 
long at the Elfers place, fearing the return of Whit- 
field, who they knew was armed and out hunting 
mountain sheep. 

Having departed from the Elfers ranch, the three 
Indians passed on down the river avoiding the Cone 
house by leaving the trail. A mile and a half below 
the Cone ranch, Charles Cone, Sr., was at his placer 
mine. When the redskins came in sight of him they 

demanded if he knew their horses. Cone had of course 
immediately recognized the horses and detected that 
something was wrong, but with admirable presence of 
mind he answered in the negative. The Indians told 
him to go home and stay there ; that they were very 
mad and would fight. Glad of the change to escape so 
easily, Mr. Cone obeyed their command. 

Not far below the mine, on the opposite side of the 
river, Joe Amera, a friendly California Indian lived. 
Opposite his place the three hostiles stopped and 
sought to entice him across the river. Whether they 
wished to kill him or simply wanted him to join their 
crowd is not known, but at all events Joe simply par- 
leyed with them without yielding to their wishes and 
at last they retired. 

Probably being well aware that Harry Mason and 
William Osborne were well armed and the former was 
an experienced Indian fighter, the Indians avoided an 
encounter at the Mason place. Near the mouth of 
White Bird they met Samuel Benedict, who was out 
looking after stock, and wounded him, the bullet taking 
effect in his legs. Although seriously injured he man- 
aged to make his way home, where he gave his wife his 
valuable papers and some gold dust and urged her to 
flee to the woods. This the brave woman refused to 
do. preferring to remain with and care for her wounded 
husband. A number of Indians had a quarrel with 
Benedict shortly before the outbreak of the war, dur- 
ing which one named Nosenocope had received a 
charge of fine shot, and the shooting of Benedict is 
thought by some to have been in revenge for this in- 
jury ': 

After the attack on Benedict the young warriors 
turned their horses up White Bird cre'ek and during 
the afternoon rejoined their fellows at the head of 
Rocky canyon. On arriving here they announced, 
"Now you have to fight," and appeared to be in high 
glee over the part they had taken. It was true that the 
Rubicon had been crossed : the war party was so strong 
that it would never permit the murderers to be arrested 
and now that the breach had been opened, the In- 
dians voted to commence general hostilities. Here the 
three secured about fifteen recruits and under the 

leadership of Mox Mox (Yellow Bull) immediately 
returned to the Salmon river. 

Meanwhile, James Baker, a man seventy-four 
years old living on White Bird creek, and Patrick 
Price (or Brice) had become aware of the attack on 
Benedict and had warned the Manuels of their danger. 
They decided to seek a place of greater safety at once. 
Mrs. Manuel and her baby were placed on one horse. 
Mr. Manuel and his seven year old daughter Maggie 
mounted another and Mr. Baker rode a third. Mrs. 
Manuel's father, George Popham, and Pat Price re- 
mained in the brush near the house to await develop- 
ments. The Manuels and Baker started for the latter's 
stone cellar, where they purposed to defend themselves. 
Hardly had they started, however, before Mox Mox 
and his band were upon them. Manuel and his daugh- 
ter were wounded and fell from the horse they were 
riding, Mrs. Manuel and her baby were thrown from 
their horse, and Baker fell to the' ground, pierced by 
arrows. Manuel, wounded, ultimately escaped to the 
settlements after wandering in the brush and woods 
for thirteen days, while Maggie was carried to the fort 
at Mount Idaho by Pat Price. The Indians carried 
Mrs. Manuel and her baby back to the house and 
forced her to give up the ammunition left there. After 
securing this they again took the trail down the creek, 
passing the Masons and Osbornes and William 
George, but this party kept in the brush and the In- 
dians appear to have been afraid to go in after them. 
In the exchange of shots which followed the meeting 
George was wounded in the thumb. That night he 
left the rest of the party and proceeded to Mount Idaho, 
where he gave the first authentic news of the Salmon 
river murders. 

At the mouth of White Bird creek the Indians 
found Benedict in his store and saloon and killed him. 
A Frenchman named August Bacon who was with 
Benedict was also killed here. Indians state that they 
offered Bacon his life of he would come out, leaving 
Benedict, but he refused to desert his wounded com- 

From the mouth of the creek the Indians went down 
the river a mile to H. C. Brown's store. Brown saw 
them coming and together with his wife and brother- 
in-law, Andrew Bensching, escaped across the Sal- 
mon in a boat, though Brown was slightly wounded. 
All took refuge in the woods. Several days later 
Bensching came to Mount Idaho and subsequently 
Brown and his wife were rescued near Cottonwood by 
a party under Henry C. Johnson. The night of the 
I4th the Indians spent in debauchery at Brown's store, 
which they looted, helping themselves freely to the 
goods and liquors on the shelves. They remained un- 
til morning, when they started for the Mason ranch. 

During the previous night the Masons and Os- 
bornes had decided to return to their homes. They 
proceeded to the Mason ranch, where they concealed 
themselves in a nearby gluch. Here they remained 
for some time, but eventually, as the story "is told, the 
children became hungry and the party was forced to 
do something for them. They accordingly went to 


the house of Osborne to procure something edible, and 
while they were there the Indians attacked them. As 
afterwards told the Cone brothers by Yellow Bull, the 
redskins offered to allow the rest of the party to go 
unmolested if thev would deliver Mason. It seems 
that Mason had had difficulty with an Indian early in 
the spring and moreover he was a thorough Indian 
hater. Of course the whites refused to deliver him 
and the redskins attacked the little party. Osborne, 
Francois Chodozo and Mason were killed, after which 
the women, Mrs. Mason, Mrs. Osborne and Mrs. 
Walsh, a sister of Mason, fell into the hands of the 
savages and were shamefully treated. Subsequently 
the Indians allowed them to proceed to Slate creek 
where the first news of this last of the Salmon river 
outrages was reported. A Frenchman known as 
"Shoemake." who had escaped the Indians, joined the 
women a short distance from the scene of the attack 
and accompanied them to the fort. After the battle 
of White Bird the Indians returned to Mason's store 
and spent a night in carousing and general debauchery, 
ending their merry making by burning the buildings. 
In fact nearly all of the buildings destroyed along the 
Salmon were burned after this Indian victory. 

But we must return to the home of John j. Manuel 
whose wife and baby were left unharmed by Mox 
Mox's band after these Indians had secured the cov- 
eted ammunition. There has been much discussion 
relative to the murder of Mrs. Manuel and her little 
son and some difference of opinion exists as to whether 
or not Chief Joseph was a participant in it. 

It is generally believed by Salmon river residents 
that the famous 'chief tain was guilty of participation 
in the dastardly affair, and that he killed Mrs. Manuel 
with his own hand. The following is the story of Mrs. 
Maggie Bowman, nee Manuel, the only white eye- 
witness, who was but seven years old at the time: 

"Our family consisted of my father and mother, 
sister Julia (now Mrs. W. K. Knox, of Grangeville), 
a baby brother eleven months old, grandfather and 
myself. With the exception of my sister Julia, who 
was in school at Mount Idaho, we were all at home 
when James Baker and Patrick Price came to the 
house and told us that the Indians had wounded Mr. 
Benedict and that we had better flee for our lives. 
They suggested that we go to Air. Baker's stone cellar, 
about a mile down the creek, and there leave the 
women while the men defended the place. 

"We started immediately. I mounted father's 
horse behind him, while mother and the baby took an- 
other animal. Grandfather (George Popham), and 
Patrick Price remained at the house. We had pro- 
ceeded about half a mile on our journey when, looking 
to a hill we had descended, I saw several Indians com- 
ing toward us on a run, yelling and whooping at the 
top of their voices. The' Indians are coming,' I said 
to father. Just as the Indians appeared, the horses 
we rode became frightened at the noise and stam- 
peded, separating father from mother. The Indians 
opened fire on us with arrows, the first arrow striking 
my left arm near the shoulder. An arrow struck me 
in the back of the head and glanced and pierced my 

father's neck. An Indian, who had only two cart- 
ridges as we afterward learned, fired at father at the 
same time and shot him through the hips. A second 
bullet burned one of his ears. Father was also wounded 
between the shoulders by an arrow. The wound 
through the hips caused him to fall from the horse, 
'dragging me with him. Our horse had taken us to 
the top of the hill before we fell from the saddle. 

"Father saw that our only chance was to roll down 
the hillside into the brush and this we did, meanwhile 
undergoing the rock throwing of the Indians. One 
rock broke father's little finger and another struck me 
on the forehead. The redskins were afraid to follow 
us, doubtless thinking that father still had his pistols. 
Very foolishly we had left all weapons and ammuni- 
tion at the house with the idea of showing any In- 
dians we might meet that we were peaceable. 

"Meanwhile, Mr. Baker had fallen from his horse 
at the first flight of arrows. The redskins surrounded 
him and one of them pointed an arrow into the old 
man's face. He courageously thrust it away, >ut was 
unable to maintain the unequal contest and trie next 
instant fell lifeless, being riddled with arrows. 

"Mother's horse threw her and the baby and in the 
fall one of her knee caps was broken* and the baby 
injured. Afterwards she said that two or three of the 
Indians took her to the house and promised not to in- 
jure her if she would give up the ammunition and a 
fine rifle that father had. She did this and was un- 
injured by her captors. 

"As soon as the Indians left the place, grand- 
father and Mr. Price came into the house. Mother 
told them where we had crawled and grandfather came 
to us. He brought me to the house about dark and 
left blankets, food and water for father. 

"That night mother, the baby, myself, Mrs. Bene- 
dict and children (who had come over to the house 
after Mr. Benedict's death) and the men stayed in 
the brush. The next morning Mrs. Benedict tried to 
persuade us to go up the creek and escape to the 
prairie, but mother and grandfather decided to return' 
to the house, thinking that the danger was oast. Then, 
too, mother refused to leave father alone in the brush, 
wounded and without aid. So we returned to the 
house, except Mrs. Benedict who took her children and 
started up the creek where she was subsequently 

"Mother and I went to bed while Mr. Popham and 
Mr. Price stood guard. Along in the forenoon, Mox 
Mox and a band of White Bird Indians, nearly all of 
whom we knew very well as their camping ground 
was on a part of our place, came to the house. They 
ransacked it, but did not offer to molest us. They 
finally told us that Chief Joseph's Indians were fol- 
lowing them, advising Mr. Popham and Mr. Price to 
go to the brush and promised to protect us. 

*Mrs. Robie (formerly Mrs. Benedict) told the writer 
that the. Indians made two knife cuts over each of Mrs. 
Manuel's knees, one lengthwise and the other crosswise, 
their object being to prevent her getting away. Mrs. Robie 



"Early in the afternoon Joseph and his band came 
up. Joseph was dressed as a chief and told us that he 
was Chief Joseph. The Indians called him Joseph 
and I am positive that it was he. Mox Mox and 
White Bird were also there. Mox Mox had promised 
to keep the hostile Indians out of the house but had 
failed to keep his word. 

"Joseph had not been in the house over an hour 
before he took a seat on a trunk in the room where 
mother, .baby and I were. Mother sat on a trundle 
bed and was nursing the baby when Joseph addressed 
her with some remark. They were only a few feet 
apart. Joseph reached over and without any prelimi- 
naries, plunged a knife into her heart. Mother fell 
back on the bed and the only words she iaid were: 
'Don't kill my children.' She repeated these words 
three times. The redskins dragged her to the floor 
and stripped off her clothing. All this I saw from 
my bed in the same room and just across from 

"After this the Indians took me to an adjoining 
room affd shut me in. Of course I cried and I remem- 
ber that one of the White Bird Indians slapped me. 
Being sick and exhausted, I fell asleep and didn't 
wake up until nearly dark. Then I went into the 
other room where mother had been killed. I was 
barefooted and even now I can recall the horrible feel- 
ing that came over me as the blood oozed between my 
toes. The body was naked and lying in a pool of 
her life's blood' At her head lay baby Johnnie, also 

"My first impulse was to find grandfather and I 
started in search of him. Instead of him, however, I 
found Pat Price with whom I stayed in the brush that 
night. In the morning the Indians attacked Mr. Price 
and me in the brush. He determined to go straight 
to them and try a ruse, so he went up to Chief White 
Bird. To him Mr. Price showed the cross tattooed on 
his breast with India ink. He proposed to the Indians 
that if they, would allow him to take me to Mount 
Idaho he would return and surrender himself to them. 
This the chief agreed to and after we had gone into 
the house and seen mother's and baby's bodies, we left 
for the prairie. I was barefooted and in my night 
clothes. We traveled all day, Mr. Price carrying me 
a portion of the way, and stayed that night at Harris's 
place near the head of Rocky canyon. There, Mr. 
Price fixed me a chair, fashioning it out of a dry goods 
box. With a rope he fastened it on his back. At this 
place he found an old white shirt and put it on me. 
During all this time and until I reached Mount Idaho, 
my left arm, which had been broken in the fall from 
the horse, hung limp by my side, the older people in 
the excitement not even fixing me a sling. In this box 
chair I rode into Mount Idaho, reaching there about 
noon. Mr. Price risked his life to carry me through 
to the settlement and of course I never forgot this 
kindness and devotion. 

"The same day we left the house the Indians 
burned it, together with the bodies of mother and baby. 
Subsequently their charred bones and mother's ear 
rings were found in the ruins. One ear ring was par- 

tially melted, the other was in its natural state, except 
for being blackened by the fire. The house was built 
of logs and lined with lumber and must have made a 
very hot fire. From his place of concealment in the 
brush, grandfather witnessed the destruction of the 

"Father remained in the brush and small outbuild- 
ings on the ranch for thirteen days, living upon berries 
and vegetables that he was able to secure from the lit- 
tle garden. After suffering for five days from the 
arrow in his neck, he cut it out with his knife and 
dressed the wound, using horseradish leaves and cold 
water from the creek. His hip wounds had crippled 
him so seriously that he was unable to travel. The 
soldiers found him and brought him to Mount Idaho, 
where he eventually recovered. 

"Grandfather came into Mount Idaho several days 
after Mr. Price and I arrived. 

"This is the story as 1 now remember it and the 
recollection of it all comes to me very vividly despite 
the long years that have rolled by. 

"The above facts are given from personal knowl- 
edge and not from hearsay. 

"Grangevillc, Idaho, 

April i, 1903." 

Meanwhile events of considerable importance were 
transpiring on the prairie. As early as June Qth the 
situation had become alarming and some of the set- 
tlers felt that the Indians were about to carry out 
their threat of commencing war although the settlers 
generally seemed disposed to discredit these rumors. 
Previous to the I4th Cyrus Overman and M. Y. Jar- 
rett, who lived near the lakes, brought their families 
in nearer to Grangeville and Mount Idaho and left 
them with friends, in order to assure their safety in 
case of trouble. 

Considerable activity was manifested by the In- 
dians on the I3th. Sometime during the day Seth 
Jones and Charles Horton passed two bands attired 
in full war dress. The white men were unmolested, 

Along in the afternoon of the I4th (Mr. Tohnson 
says i3th) Henry C. Johnson and Cyrus Overman 
noticed, from the Johnson place which overlooked the 
Indian camp, that the Indians were acting very rest- 
lessly. They saw several of them leave in small bands 
of from two to four each toward the Salmon. 

About three o'clock, Mr. Overman told Mr. John- 
son that he had concluded to go over to his farm, 
sack up a little wheat and proceed to town. Upon 
reaching home, he saw Mr. and Mrs. Watson driving 
rapidly across the prairie toward Mount Idaho. He 

Watson's place. Quickly saddling and mounting his 
horse, he set out to overtake the Watsons, which he 
succeeded in doing after a ride of three miles. From 
them he learned that Crooks had been driven out of an 
Indian camp that afternoon and that the settlers had 
been warned by messenger to come into Mount Idaho. 
The courier had turned back before reaching the 
Johnson place. Mr. Overman continued his journey 


to Mount Idaho, arriving about eleven o'clock that 

Later in the day, Mr. Johnson, whom Mr. Overman 
had been assisting until three o'clock, saw the In- 
dians tearing down their tepees and concentrating 
their vast herd of horses, of which they had, accord- 
.ing to his estimate, fully ten thousand. He says it 
was fascinating to watch the agile Indians slowly 
moving the seething bands across the prairie toward 
Craig's Mountain. 

Mr. Johnson decided to remain at his ranch that 
night, though he took the precaution to sleep out of 
doors in one of his fields. The last he saw of the In- 
dians before darkness cut off his view, they were still 
engaged in moving their ponies toward Craig's moun- 
tain and only five or six tepees were still standing at 
their old camping ground. He believed that at last 
the red men were moving upon the reservation and his 
apprehension of danger, if any he had, were at least 
partially removed. 

Next morning he was unable to see any sign of 
Indians so he decided to drive over to the settlement 

the saw-mill on Three Mile creek, he there learned 
that the Norton party had been attacked the night be- 
fore, so of course gave up all thought of returning 
to his home. 

On the afternoon of the I4th (or according to 
some the i.3th) John M. Crooks, the cattle king of the 
county at that time and a friend of the Indians, volun- 
teered to ride out to their camp from Grange vi lie and 
learn what he could regarding their intentions. He did 
not believe that the Indians meant to go on the war- 
path, but undertook the journey for the purpose of 
reassuring himself and his neighbors. Mr. Crooks 
reached the Indian camp in safety. There, however, 
he was greeted with hostile demonstrations and warn- 
ings to leave immediately, so he wheeled his horse and 
started on his return to Grangeville. One Indian pur-. 

and flourishing';.! revolver in his face. 

Upon arriving at Grangeville, Mr. Crooks turned 
in a general alarm. Mounted men were at once sent 
to all residing outside of Mount Idaho and Grange- 
ville and families came rushing in from every direc- 

By nightfall nearly all of the inhabitants of Camas 
prairie had gathered at Mount Idaho. There they 
prepared for defense as best they could. They were 
unusually poorly armed for a pioneer people and had 
the Indians attacked them a general massacre would 
surely have followed. But, as stated elsewhere, the 
Indians were well disposed toward the settlers of the 
prairie and treated them far more generously than is 
usually the case in an Indian war. In fact they told 
the settlers to leave them alone and not take sides in 
the trouble and they would not injure them. 

Early in the morning L. P. Brown had sent a mes- 
sage, the "Overman" letter, to Fort Lapwai apprising 

prairie. Late in the afternoon Arthur Chapman, who 
lived several miles northwest of Grangeville, received 

definite information from an Indian boy of the up- 
rising on the Salmon. In a short time he was in the 
saddle and speeding toward Mount Idaho, where he 
announced what he had heard. The citizens decided 
to send information to Lapwai at once with a request 
for troops. Lew Day volunteered to carry this mes- 
sage and set out quite late in the afternoon. 

Day had proceeded about twenty-five miles on his 
journey when he was joined by two Indians. They 
inquired where he was going. He replied that he was 
on his way to Lewiston for a doctor. The red men 
dropped behind the messenger and fired at him, 
wounding him in the shoulder. After returning the 
fire, Day proceeded on his way, but his wound re- 
sulted in a great loss of blood and he was finally 
obliged to turn back. He returned via Cottonwood 
house, of which B. B. Norton was the proprietor. 
There he found Mr. Norton, his wife and son, Hill, 
Miss Linn Bowers, John Chamberlain, wife and two 
children, and Joseph Moore. All immediately began 
preparations for the journey to Mount Idaho. About 
ten o'clock p. m., they started, Norton and Moore 
mounted on saddle horses, the others in a wagon. For 
ten miles they traveled without casualty; then com- 
menced the most horrible performance of the war. 
The Indians rode upon them in the rear and com- 
menced firing and yelling like mad men. Soon the 
horses of Norton and Moore had been shot. The men 
got into the wagon and the race for life was continued 
but before long the team was shot down and men, 
women and children were left apparently to the mercy 
of the savage demons. Miss Bowers and little Hill 
Norton, however, stole away in the darkness and es- 
caped unharmed to Mount Idaho. Mr. Chamberlain, 
his wife and two children attempted to do likewise, 
but were discovered. Chamberlain and the boy were 
killed, the latter, so his mother said, by having his 
head crushed beneath the knees of a powerful Indian. 
The other child was snatched from the arms of its 

wounded with a knife, so many testify, in its neck and 
in this pitiable plight it was left alone on the prairie. 
The poor heartsick and sorrow crazed mother, after 
being subjected to outrages more horrible than death, 
had her flesh torn and lacerated by the nails and fingers . 
of the incarnate fiends. Norton, Day, Moore and 
Mrs. Norton had remained near the wagon. Norton 
was shot just after he sprang from the wagon and 
Mrs. Norton as she stood on the wheel, but she crawled 
out and sought refuge behind the dead horses. The 
bullet which struck Norton severed an artery and re- 
sulted in his death fifteen minutes later. Moore was 
shot through both hips; Day received two bullets in 
the shoulders and one through the leg; and Mrs. 
Norton was wounded in both lower limbs. At day- 
light, for some unaccountable reason, the Indians with- 

Meanwhile Miss Bowers and little Hill Norton had 
become separated in their flight for life, but both 
managed to keep on the right course. Hill was picked 
up about daylight four miles northwest of Mount 
Idaho by F. A. Fenn, who was scouting. Mr. Fenn 


took the boy on his horse to Crooks's 
general alarm was given. Miss low 

nch, where a 

. was found 

about nine o'clock by J. A. Swarts, about two 
miles north of Mount Idaho, and was taken to 
that town. 

At the Crooks's ranch or Grangeville, a party con- 
sisting of Frank A. Fenn, C. L. Rice and James At- 
kison set out for the scene of the encounter. About 
three miles northwest of Grangeville they found the 
wagon and to it Rice and Fenn hitched their saddle 
horses, taking harness from the slain animals. Mrs. 
Norton was placed in the wagon and one of the sad- 
dles had been thrown into the box when the redskins 
suddenly appeared on a nearby hill. At once Fenn and 
Rice mounted the horses, not having any reins, for 
these had been used to splice the tugs, and the party 
commenced another race for life.. Fortunately, a sec- 
ond and larger party came out to their relief and the 
Indians drew off. Peter Ready, Lew Wilmot, E. W. 
Robie, Mac Williams and others went out later the 
same day and picked up Mrs. Chamberlain and others, 
living and dead. Mr. Chamberlain's body was found 
about a quarter of a mile from the wagon. His two 
children, one of whom was also dead, were lying in his 
arms. Half a mile farther away Mrs. Chamberlain 
was picked up. All were placed in the wagon and 
brought to Mount Idaho where every attention was 
given them. Day died the following afternoon from 
the effects of his terrible wounds and six weeks later 
Moore succumbed, but Mrs. Norton, Mrs. Chamber- 
lain and the child eventually recovered. Dr. J. B. Mor- 
ris, the prairie's physician, was in Lewiston when news 
of the outbreak reached him. He immediately set out 
to return, courageously riding through the lines of the 
hostiles to Mount Idaho, where he remained throughout 
the conflict. 

On the night of the Norton masacre, Peter H. 
Ready and Lew Wilmot had camped on Shebang 
creek (near the present site of Denver) with their 
freighting outfits. Each had a four horse load con- 
sisting of dry goods, clothing, groceries, hardware and 
salt, and an empty hack trailed behind Wilmot's wagon. 
Just before nightfall Lew Day pased them on his way 
to Fort Lapwai and informed them of their peril, but 
they decided to remain in camp until morning. About 
eleven o'clock they were awakened by the Cottonwood 
party passing them. Day told them the cause of the 
abandoment of his trip to Lapwai and again advised 
them to move forward to Mount Idaho. This time 
they heeded the warning to the extent of harnessing 
their horses and otherwise preparing to move at an 
instant's notice. The Cottonwood party had been gone 
but a short time before Ready and Wilmot heard firing 
in the direction of Grangeville. They did not pay any 
serious attention to it, but remained at their camping- 
place until daybreak when they commenced their jour- 
ney toward Mount Idaho. Soon they saw Indians ap- 
proaching them. Cutting loose their lead horses, each 
mounted one and began an exciting race. Fortunate- 
ly they outran the Indians and escaped to their homes. 
They then got their guns and joined the party going 
out to bring in the Chamberlains, for these had been 

missed by Fenn, Rice and Atkison when they brought 
in Mrs. Norton. 

The Indians who had been pursuing Ready and 
Wilmot returned to the wagons and looted them, 
packing some of their spoils on the wheel horses which 
had remained near the wagons. Before they had 
finished their work the band of redskins that was pur- 
suing the first rescuing party turned from their chase 
and joined the pillaging crowd at the wagon, evidently 
fearing they would lose their portion if they did not 
go after it immediately. 

Mr. Ready thinks that the hostiles attacked the 
Cottonwood party in the belief that they were attack- 
ing the freighting outfit. Indeed he was so informed 
by Indians after the war. The blood-thirsty set soon 
discovered their mistake of course but when the ex- 
citement of the slaughter had taken possession of them 
they cared little who their victims might be, or 
whether or not their dastardly deeds would be re- 
warded by material gain. Just what band of redmen 
were the chief actors in this murderous assault has 
never been determined. 

There has been much discussion over the date of 
the attack upon the Nortons and Chamberlains, many 
who had good means of knowing contending that it 
took place some time during the night of the I3th of 
June, while others are just as positive that it took 
place twenty-four hours later. The preponderance of 
evidence seems to us to be that the attack was made 
upon the night of the I4th. Some who thought that 
the 1 3th was the correct date were also certain that the 
day of the week was Thursday, and Thursday is 
shown in the almanac to have fallen on the I4th, in the 
year 1877. The letters from L. P. Brown to the com- 
mandant at Fort Lapwai, quoted on former pages, 
bear the date of June 15th. The one dated 7 a. m. 
speaks of the attack on the Cottonwood party; says 
they were all wounded or killed and that "the wounded 
will be here shortly, when we will get more particulars." 
The letter dated '8 a. m. says: "I have just sent a 
dispatch by Mr. West, half breed. Since that was 
written the wounded have come in," etc., showing 
that unless Mr. Brown made a mistake in dating his 
letter, the unfortunate event transpired on the night of 
the I4th. Gen. Howard tells us in his book that 
Brown's messenger arrived toward evening and he 
wrote his reply at once. His reply is dated June 15*. 
If Mr. Brown was mistaken in his dates either the 
messenger must have consumed from 7 o'clock in the 
morning of one day to evening of the day following 
in going from Mount Idaho to Fort Lapwai or General 
Howard must have made a mistake in dating his note 
exactly corresponding to that made by Mr. Brown. 
Both these contingencies are certainly very unlikely. 

Those on the Salmon river whom it was the writer's 
privilege to interview are practically a unit in their 
statement that the Salmon river murders, except that 
of Divine, were committed on the 14*. It has been 
generally understood that the Indians camped near 
Rocky canyon on Camas prairie did not commence 
their depredations until incited to them by the exciting 
recitals of the Salmon river horrors. Those who take 


the ground that the massacre of the Nortons and 
Chamberlains occurred on the I3th must assume that 
the Salmon river people are mistaken about the date 
of the murders there or that the outbreak on Camas 
prairie antedated the Salmon river outrages. The first 
assumption can hardly be true. Mrs. Cleary certainly 
is not mistaken as to the date of her husband's. death, 
neither can other persons be mistaken as to when the 
most terrible events in their experience transpired. The 
other assumption has probably never been entertained 
by anyone. 

The author is convinced that Elfers, Bland and 
Beckroge were killed on the morning of the I4th, 
that their murderers proceeded to the Indian camp at 
Rocky canyon the same day, wounding Benedict en 
route ; that they related their experiences to the other 
Indians, who forthwith decided to commence hostili- 
ties ; that seventeen or eighteen Indians went that night 
back to the Salmon river country to engage in further 
depredations, while the others, or some of them, began 
hostile movements on Camas prairie, one of which 
movements was the attack on the Cottonwood party. 
He is constrained to believe that this is the correct date 
and this the correct sequence of events. He admits 
that many who hold a contrary opinion are able to pro- 
duce convincing arguments in favor of their views, but 
is inclined to agree with the many others who are equal- 
ly insistent that the event in question happened between 
eleven o'clock on the night of June I4th and daybreak 
the following morning. 

The foregoing statements concerning the outrages 
during the earliest days of the Nez Perces Indian war 
have been verified by exhaustive investigation into all 
printed accounts that could be secured, and by inter- 
views with very many of those living in the storm 
center at the time. Unusual pains were taken by citi- 
zens during and after the war to ascertain exact facts, 
owing to the attempts of some to throw the blame for 
the outbreak of the war upon the settlers. The re- 
sults of this investigation have been perused in the 
preparation of this work. It is therefore believed that 
these statements are as near the truth as it is possible for 
historic records to approach. The assertion of Indian 
Inspector Watkins that up to June 22d no houses had 
been burned or other depredations committed by 
Joseph's band, drew forth an indignant protest from 
the citizens. A positive counter statement was made 
that on the evening of June i8th, ten dwellings, three 
stores, seven barns and one shop had been burned, 
besides a large number of miners' buildings ; that be- 
fore the l6th, large numbers of abandoned dwellings 
had been plundered and some thousands of cattle and 
horses stolen and driven off by the Indians. "Besides 
this," said a citizens' letter to the Boston Sunday 
Herald, after referring to some of the murders here- 
tofore spoken of. "five worthy women and mothers 
suffered, from the brutal fiends, outrages worse than 
death, part of them being stripped of their clothing 
and dragged about naked by the heels, others wounded, 
and all of them, after defending themselves to the last 
extremity, made the victims of the lust of the hell 
hounds." The statements of the letter were vouched 

for by George M. Shearer, major of volunteers, B. F. 
Morris, county recorder of Idaho county, and C. W. 
Case, sheriff of Idaho county. 

But what of the movements by which these terrible 
outrages were to be checked and avenged? Colonel 
Perry, as we have said, set out from Lapwai on the 
night of the I5th. All night long his column toiled 
on over Craig's mountain and across Lawyer's can- 
yon ; all next day they continued their march, reaching 
Grangeville toward evening. Here they paused to 
listen to the reports of citizens and take in the situa- 
tion as best they could. They were joined by eleven 
volunteers, who guided them over the sixteen miles 
to White Bird creek still to be traversed by the weary 
marchers and their jaded animals. Reaching the top 
of the canyon about an hour before dawn, they halted 
to await the daylight and take much needed rest. Day- 
light came soon enough, revealing a deep short canyon 
with precipitous sides and a smooth looking bottom, 
which was in reality a rolling prairie sloping toward 
the creek. From the head of this canyon to the creek 
the distance is probably five miles. Just before reach- 
ing the creek the trail turned abruptly to the west, 
passed through a small canyon or ravine between two 
low hills and then gradually approached the creek, 
reaching its banks about a mile and a quarter farther 
along, just above the Manuel place. At this point the 
brush and trees which fringe the creek were unusually 
dense and the trail was bounded on the north by a low 
bluff. A rail fence stood just south of the highway 
and altogether the location was an ideal one for an 
Indian ambuscade. 

Behind this fence and in the bushes lining the trail, 
the main body of Indians was posted, while a small 
force was deployed a mile and a quarter farther up the 
trail to lure the soldiers onward. 

Where the trail ran through the ravine heretofore 
mentioned the ragged basaltic rocks along the summits 
of the hills afforded an excellent barricade, while to 
the left of the trail the heavy spring floods had washed 
out a deep gulch which ran through the bottom of the 
ravine and then south and emptied into the creek. Be- 
hind these rocks but principally down in the bottom 
of this deep, dark gulch the Indians concealed them- 
selves in large numbers. As soon as the skirmishers 
had drawn the troops through this canyon these Indians 
were to leap from their hiding places and open the 
attack. Should Perry go onward toward the Salmon 
he would rush into the main ambuscade and his case 
would be without hope. The olan was skillfully laid 
out and illustrative of the military genius of Joseph 
and White Bird. How nearly successful it was we 
shall see. 

Perry led his command, now numbering a little 
over a hundred men, over the crest of the first slope 
of the canyon and down the narrow pass. With him 
and in advance were several Indian scouts, recruited 
from the friendly Nez Perces. When the troops had 
advanced about 'five miles from the top of the bluff 
and had practically reached the foot of the mountain, 
not over a quarter of a mile from White Bird creek, 
and about where the trail turns to the west, the scouts 



reported hostiles some distance ahead. It is said that 
they refused to go through the narrow and ugly look- 
ing ravine which now confronted the command, fear- 
ing that the hostiles were lying in wait. 

Perry halted and dismounted his command at this 
point, one man out of every four being left with the 
horses as is customary. The remainder of the troops 
were then ordered forward, a portion of them deploy- 
ing along the crest of one of the ridges. Suddenly the 
Indians appeared stretched out in a long irregular line 
ahead of the troops. Before these had advanced very 
far down the ravine an excited Indian lying in the deep 
gulch fired off his gun and in an instant the battle was 
on. Perry was not trapped, neither was he absolutely 
surprised as has often been intimated, and had his men 
been seasoned troops instead of recruits who had as 
yet scarcely smelled gunpowder, he might have held 
his own creditably or have withdrawn with honors. 

Upon the opening of the engagement the redskins 
fired from several directions and it required all the 
skill at the officer? command to hold the troops in good 
order. Soon occurred an event, says Major Fenn, 
which decided to whom should belong the victory. 
How it happened or just why it happened can only be 
surmised, as the terrible calamity which followed 
swept awav many who could have told and those who 
survived have left it indefinitely recorded. Certain it is 
that the partially demoralized troops 'On the line de- 
tected a retreating movement in their rear. They saw 
the men, who had been left with the horses, falling 
back up the hillside and probably thought this move- 
ment was incited by a flank movement on part of the 
Indians. This suspected retreat may have been only 
the efforts of those in charge of the horses to get on to 
higher ground, but being cavalrymen it was quite 
natural that those on the line should rely almost entire- 
ly upon their horses and that when they saw these 
moving farther and farther away, thev should become 
disconcerted. The lines wavered and broke, and soon 
became thoroughly demoralized. The wily redskins 
were quick to follow up the advantage and attacked the 
troops more fiercely than ever. These became panic 
stricken and, throw'ing away guns, ammunition, cloth- 
ing and accoutrements, fled indiscriminately. Contrary 
to all military usage, the saddle girths on the horses had 
been left loose while the men went into action and as a 
result some of the excited troopers slipped off the 
backs of their steeds. These stampeded, leaving the 
footmen at the mercy of their savage foes. 

Upon going into action the ten volunteers under 
Major Shearer were assigned to the extreme left and 
accordingly took a position between what is known as 
the old Indian burying ground and the creek. Here 
they found some shelter in the rough surface of the 
ground. Hardly had thev taken their position be- 
fore the Indians under White Bird began a flanking 
movement through the brush on the opposite side of the 
creek ; two of the volunteers, H. A. Faxon and T. D. 
Swarts, had been wounded, and all became aware that 
the troops were retreating. Under these circumstances 
the volunteers deemed it best to retreat also. 

By this time the whole force was in headlong 
flight and the number of hostiles was constantly in- 
creasing by arrivals from the lower camp mounted on 
fresh horses. In vain Perry and his officers tried to 
rally their men. The bugler', who would have sounded 
the 'calls, had been killed at the first fire, so Perry and 
his officers were obliged to personally appeal to the 
troops. But the cavalrymen would not halt: they 
were completely demoralized and no power could pre- 
vail upon them to stand and face their tormentors who 
poured an incessant, withering fire upon them. Just 
below the steep canyon leading to the prairie above, 
and at the mouth of a blind canyon, the gallant Thel- 
ler gathered a small body of men behind some natural 
breastworks and attempted to stem the tide. For a 
short time it seemed as if he might succeed, but the 
Indians finally concentrated their fire and overwhelmed 
the little band of brave men. The stalwart, lion- 
hearted, young lieutenant became the target for a 
score of rifles, and he soon fell, pierced through the 
head. This was the last stand made by the troops in 
White Bird canyon. The men who were still uninjured 
rushed up the long, steep trail, fully exposed at every 
step to the withering fire from above them, to the can- 
yon's rim, where they were arranged by Perry and Par- 
nell into a better order of retreat. Before this narrow 
canyon was entered, however, the volunteers had left 
the troops and reached the prairie by means of an old 
cow trail up Chapman creek. Thence they escaped un- 
harmed to Mount Idaho, where they organized a party 
of citizens to go out and meet the troops. Together the 
troops and volunteers fought their way across the 
prairie and finally, exhausted, dispirited and with gap- 
ing ranks, the little command entered Grangeville. 

"The Indians fought us," wrote Perry that evening, 
"to within four miles of Mount Idaho, and only gave it 
up on seeing that we would not be driven any farther, 
except at our own gait." This was a disastrous defeat. 
Nearly forty per cent, of Perry's command were left 
dead on the' field. The chagrin of failure was the por- 
tion of the trained United States troops, while the exhil- 
aration of victory sent its pleasing thrills through the 
pulses of the savage warriors. This victory supplied 
arms to the Indians. They secured at least fifty car- 
bines and much ammunition, thrown away by the sol- 
diers Colonel Perry collected his discomfited troops at 
Grangeville, reorganized them there and put them in as 
good condition for future operations as possible. 

Howard had remained at Fort Lapwai to await the 
arrival of reinforcements. Wilkinson, as we have said, 
had gone to Walla Walla, where he started the tele- 
graph into activity with messages for aid. A courier 
is sent to summon Colonel Whipple from Indian valley 
with his two companies of cavalry, and immediately 
upon receipt of the message that officer is ready for the 
march. The soldiers at Fort Walla Walla, those near 
Wallula, all that can be spared from Forts Vancouver, 
Harney, Klamath, Stevens. Canbv and Townsend are 
in. motion as soon after despatches reach them as they 
can be mobilized, and most of them are headed toward 
Lapwai. The artillerymen, coming down from Alaska, 


are also directed to the front, and the call for help in 
time reaches to troops in California, Arizona and even 
to Georgia. 

Citizens also are doing what they can to place the 
threatened country and the storm centers on a war foot- 
ing, but there is great dearth of arms and ammunition, 
there being only seven repeating rifles on Camas prairie 
at this time. At Mount Idaho, as we have seen, the citi- 
zens gather for defensive purposes on the evening of 
the I4th. Many decide to return to their homes the 
following morning, believing that the scare is ill-found- 
ed, when news of the attack on the Norton and Cham- 
berlain party reaches the town. This, of course, dispels 

diately taken to form a military company, erect a fort 
and otherwise place the little community on a war foot- 
ing. Every able-bodied man and boy is enlisted in the 
volunteer company of which Arthur Chapman is chosen- 
captain. A retired English naval officer, H. E. Croas- 
dale, who had recently engaged in the stock business on 
the prairie, is placed in charge of the defenses. On this 
same day, June I5th, work is commenced on the stone 
fort which three days later is finished. At Grangeville 
another military company is organized by Captain 
Bloomer, and Grange hall is soon fortified. 

Slate creek, in the very heart of the savage-scourged 
country, soon has its fort, consisting of a high stockade 
built around Wood's hotel, in which the settlers of that 
section gather. Here are Mrs. Walsh and her two 
children, Mrs. Osborne and her four children, Mr. and 
Mrs. Tittman and two children, William Rhett and 
family, Mr. and Mrs. David Baldwin and girl, Mrs. 
Henry Elfers and her three children, E. R. Sherwin 
arid 'family, the Woods, the Cones, John Gibbons, 
Joshua Fockler and others. Realizing their desperate 
straits, those in the fort decide to send to Florence for 
assistance. The mission is a dangerous one, and none 
can be spared from the garrison to undertake it, but 
finally Tolo, a friendly Ncz Perce squaw, is prevailed 
upon to carry the message for aid. Faithfully does she 
serve her white friends, making the hard trip of twenty- 
five miles in safety and bringing back twelve men. 
With the addition of these the force numbers about six- 
ty-eight capable of bearing arms, but there are few 
arms to bear and little ammunition. 

Warren is fortified so as to defy a force of 500 In- 
dians ; Elk City has plenty of men,' but only a few old- 
fashioned guns and a limited supply of ammunition. 
Lewiston has caught the alarm at the first outbreak, 
and its call for aid takes the form of such dispatches as 
the following: 

LEWISTON, I. T., JUNE i;th. 

and Camas prairie. They have massacred 30 or 40 men, 
women and children, and the work is still going on. We 

city is concerned. The city assumes responsibility for their 
safe return. The arms, etc., guaranteed by the merchants. 
Subscribed, D. J. Warner, city recorder, by the order of 
the Common Council of the city of Lewiston, and N. B. Hoi- 
brook mayor; John P. Vollmer, merchant; Loewenberg 


P. S.-June ,8th. 
leys, and from all the 
here for protection. F 
stock and everything. 

ein & Binnard, merchants; A. Damas, 

country north of us, are fleeing in 
.rmers are all abandoning their farms, 

(Signed) J. P. VOLLMER. 

LEWISTON, I. T., June 17, 1877. 

We have appealed to the, Mayor of Portland, and aid 
us in this without delay. We are sadly in need of arms. 

ness, farmers must flee from their crops, and this country 
will become depopulated. You will see our interests are 
identical. We want arms., soldiers and volunteers to pre- 
vent the slaughter of whites. Down with the peace policy. 

By order of the city council. 

(Signed) N. B. HOLBROOK, Mayor. 

D. J. WARNER, City Auditor. 

A subscription paper is circulated also among the 
leading merchants and business men of Portland by 
H. D. Sanborn, of Lewiston, and the sum of $2,365 is 
quickly subscribed for the purpose 6f furnishing the 
citizens of Lewiston, Idaho Territory, with arms and 
ammunition for their defense. By this means a volun- 
teer company of sixty men under Ed McConville, which 
had been speedily raised for the defense of the town, 
is fully equipped for action, rendering this important 
base of supplies comparatively safe. 

The excitement prevailing all over the country is 
intense. No one knows how many of the Coeur d'Al- 
enes, Umatillas, Spokanes, apparently friendly Nez 
Perces and other northern Indians can be relied on; no 
one can certainly predict ho-y many will be encouraged 
to join Joseph by Perry's defeat, and every one is be- 
coming painfully cognizant of the utter unpreparedness 
of the military' for the crisis now presented. "Al- 
though it has been held out to settlers," complains the 
Teller, "that ample military force should be on the 
ground to enforce the orders to remove Joseph upon 
the reservation, six months have elapsed since the issu- 
ance of the order from Washington, and today there 
are not soldiers enough here to hold in check the single 
force of Joseph's 200 warriors, and, with the advantage 
of position Joseph has, he will continue to make his 
sallies upon the unprotected settlers and small detach- 
ments of troops and cut off scores of men from the . 
living and continue that state of things for months to 
come. Every success he wins strengthens his cause 
among the other Indians who are professedly friendly, 
and may involve us in a long and bloody war which may 
lead to the extermination of the tribes in this whole 
northern country. Had the force been here at the time 
appointed for Joseph to come upon the reserve and 
properly stationed Perry would not have been defeated 
and Joseph's power would easily have been subdued. 
But it was planned that the Bible, and not the sword, 
should subdue him, and that this missionary peace pol- 
icy should have the credit of his subjection. The plan 
has failed." 

Howard in his history of the war frankly admits 
the utter inadequacy of his force for the work in hand, 
but does not vouchsafe any explanation of the fact that 
the military was caught napping when it knew that 


The Friendly Nez Preoe Squaw who rode to Florence from the Salmon River, warne 
Whites of the Hostile Outbreak of the Indians, and brought Twenty-six Miners to the Res 


force might become necessary to comply with the in- 
structions of the Indian bureau, neither does he attempt 
to fix responsibility for the unfortunate condition of af- 
fairs. So sure were the Indian agents and military 
men that Joseph would comply with his agreement to 
go peacably upon the reservation that they trusted al- 
most implicitly to that promise, though they knew that 
treachery on his part meant death and outrage to inno- 
cent and unarmed citizens.. 

General Howard gives some graphic accounts of 
life and activities at Fort Lapwai during the few days 
succeeding the outbreak. "Mule trains," says he, "were 
hired, supplies of all kinds put in motion, couriers were 
coming and going ; Indian messengers and escaping sol- 
diers with their mouths full of exciting rumors and 
bad tidings were arriving from the field seventy miles 
away. By the 2ist of June eight new companies 'of reg- 
ular troops little companies they were, for the whole 
made up but a few over 200 souls were on the green 
plat near the Lapwai post. A small organization of 
volunteers under Captain Paige joined themselves to 
Whipple, who was in command of the cavalry, and were 
on hand for Indian fighting. 

"The time from the first news of the terrible disaster 
at Whitebird canyon till the morning of the 22d of 
June seemed long indeed. It appears long even in 
retrospect. Still it was only four days. Our effective 
men for the front now at Lapwai numbered but few 
more than two hundred. 

"Captains Whipple and Winters had arrived from 
their circuitous and tedious march from Wallowa. Cap- 
tains Miller and Miles had reached Lewiston by steam- 
boat and marched to Lapwai with several companies of 
the Fourth Artillery and the Twenty-first Infantry 
under their charge. The volunteers before mentioned, 
a little more than twenty strong, under Paige, of Walla 
Walla, had also joined us. Lieutenant Bomus, the 
quartermaster of the post, had improvised a supply 
train. The numerous miners, employed in different 
directions about Lewiston, had been thrown out of em- 
ployment by the Indian outbreak, so that their means 
of transportation, 'the mule pack train,' and their pack- 
ers became available for our use." 

By the 22d of June Howard was ready to move. 
His force was.still smaller than that opposed to him, but 
with such as he had to set out from Lapwai at 12 o'clock 
noon. Camped next day at Norton's ranch, his descrip- 
tion of which, as affording a glimpse of the "abomina- 
tion of desolation," we quote at length : 

"Mr. Norton, the late owner," says Howard, "was 
the man who was trying to get to Mount Idaho with 
his family when he and others were killed and his wife 
sadly wounded. We came to his house about half past 
one o'clock, having marched nineteen miles. Mr. Nor- 
ton had kept a sort of hotel. His house was now de- 
serted. The Indians had rummaged everything; what 
the family had left here was found in complete disorder. 
Who can realize what it is to have savage warfare break 
upon a family with little or no warning to kill, wound 
and scatter like this ? It was worse than the desolation 

spoken of in the scriptures, where one shall be taken 
and another left. None were left! There were the 
clothes, cut and torn and strewn about, the broken 
chairs, the open drawers, a mixture of flour, sugar, salt 
and rubbish, the evidences indeed of riot run mad. Do 
we wonder that those who have passed through such 
experiences have been slow to forget and forgive 'mad 
Indians' ?" 

At this desolated ranch the force was ordered to 
encamp, and there they remained over Sunday. Critics 
of the generalship of the Nez Perces campaign have 
complained much of this delay, some of them asserting 
that Howard stopped for the purpose of giving religious 
instruction to his command and distributing Bibles 
among the soldiers. Howard says he paused because 
he wished to ascertain certainly the whereabouts of the 
Indians, because he wished to give Captain Trimble 
time to get beyond the hostiles to Slate creek, so that 
the Indians might not be pressed back upon the little 
band of citizens "forted up" there, and thirdly, because 
he hoped that additional forces might join him from 

On Monday the troops moved forward, the infantry 
going to Johnson's ranch, the cavalry, with Howard, 
to Grangeville, where Perry's command was. After 
visiting Grangeville and Mount Idaho the cavalry re- 
joined the remainder of the command at Johnson's 
ranch, whence, at 6 :3O next morning, the column pro- 
ceeded to the scene of Perry's defeat at White Bird 
canyon, for the double purpose of reconnoitering the 
enemy and hurrying the soldiers who had fallen there 
more than a week previous. Approaching with ex- 
treme caution, not to be caught a second time in the 
same way, they reverently buried the dead. Mean- 
while Paige of Walla Walla with his gallant volun- 
teer company, guided by Arthur Chapman, had been 
searching for signs of the enemy, whom they eventually 
succeeded in locating on the safe side of the Salmon 
river. The general also learned from a wounded citi- 
zen that it was Joseph's intention to draw the whites 
into the vicinity of the Seven Devils, to get them the 
farther from a base of supplies. 

To the military genius of the wild, savage chief, 
who had never seen the inside of a military college, 
had had no military training, had never read a work 
on tactics, in short was without other guidance than his 
own innate military judgment, the trained and ex- 
perienced general pays the following compliment : 

"The leadership of Joseph was indeed remarkable. 
No general could have chosen a safer position or one 
that would be more likely to puzzle and obstruct a pur- 
suing foe. If we present a weak force he can turn upon 
us. If we make direct pursuit he can go southward 
toward Boise for at least thirty miles, and then turn 
our left. He can go straight to his rear and cross the 
Snake at Pittsburg landing. He can go clown the Sal- 
mon and cross at one of several places, and then turn 
either to the left to his old haunts in the Wallowa val- 
ley or to the right and pass our flank, threatening our 
line of supplies, while he has at the same time a won- 
derful natural barrier between him and us in the Sal- 
mon, a river that delights itself in its furious flow." 


Such was the problem presented to General Howard 
for solution. He had not with him a sufficient force 
so that he could send a part of it across the Salmon 
river to bring on an action with Joseph, while a por- 
tion remained to meet the enemy and protect the citi- 
zens, should the wily chieftain recross onto Camas 
prairie. He could not well retain his whole command 
on the east side of the river, for Joseph might remain 
in his position of safety indefinitely, and the entire 
country was clamoring for aggressive action. 

It was over the correct procedure at this time that 
Howard and the volunteers had their first little tilt. 
"While Howard was concentrating," says F. A. Fenn, 
"the Idaho volunteers appointed a committee consisting 
of Joseph Peaseley, John McPherson and myself to go to 
the general and explain to him a means of escape which 
was open to the Indians, viz: via the Billy, or Craig, 
crossing, down the Salmon several miles. This cross- 
ing was the only one this side of the mouth of the Sal- 
mon, and should Joseph attempt to escape northward 
he would be compelled to cross here. At that time the 
Indians numbered not over one hundred and fifty war- 
riors, and these were encumbered with their squaws, 
children and camp equipage and about 1,500 head of 
horses. We called upon General Howard and suggest- 
ed our plan to him, viz: to send a small detachment 
north by the prairie to the Billy crossing, where a 

ber at bay in the rocky defile leading north from the 
river, while he himself should cross at White Bird 
and attack Joseph's rear. By so doing he would have 
Joseph entrapped. General Howard politely listened 
to our suggestions and then bowed us out with the 
remark that he believed himself fully competent to 
manage his own campaign. After events proved con- 
clusively that we understood the country and the In- 
dians far better than the general, for Joseph crossed 
his entire force at the Billy crossing and, coming up 
on the prairie, attacked and massacred Lieutenant 
Rains and party." 

Howard decided to cross the Salmon with all his 
force, leaving only Captain Whipple's cavalry, which 
were sent back to arrest Looking-glass and his entire 
following and turn them over to the keeping of the 
volunteers at Mount Idaho. He had some skirmishing, 
but sustained no loss and probably inflicted no injuries 
upon the red skins, who soon disappeared. "I pressed 
this column," says Howard, "after the Indians to 
Craig's Ferry (ford). Lost our raft in attempting to 
cross. Too much of a torrent to cross troops and sup- 
plies without it. James Reuben, the scout, had brought 
clear accounts that Joseph had not turned south toward 
his old haunts in the Wallowa, but northward and east- 
ward, to gather up Looking-glass and reinforcements, 
catch small parties like Rains's detachment and do what 
mischief he could.* Therefore, by turning straight 


of Joseph, for the first definite information Howard had that 
the hostiles had escaped him via the Craig or Billy crossing 

him by "Perry with news of the destructio 
ains and his party. F. A. Fenn. 

of Lieut 

back, recrossing the Salmon at Rocky canyon, or White 
Bird, where there were boats, and going via Grange- 
ville, where I could bring the Cottonwood force to me, 
I had a short line and hoped to get a decisive battle 
from our doughty chief." The Teller, a severe critic 
of Howard, says of this short campaign: "Nature 
made a trap between Salmon and Snake rivers ; Joseph 
baited it by shaking a red blanket at Howard defiantly 
across the river. Howard -followed the bait and con- 
sumed three days in crossing his five hundred men 
over the stream. When over Joseph runs back on this 
side and returns to Camas prairie. Howard stays in 
his trap two weeks before he finds he is in a trap." 

While the supreme in command was engaged in 
this bootless expedition between the Salmon and the 
Snake, events of considerably moment were transpiring 
on Camas prairie. Captain Whipple had gone to fulfill 
as best he could his instructions to arrest Looking- 
glass, who, the friendly Indians said, was awaiting a 
favorable opportunity to join Joseph. 

Thus far Lookingglass had maintained, as some 
of the whites aver, a perfectly neutral attitude, if any- 
thing leaning toward the cause of the whites, although 
there were doubtless many would-be hostiles among 
the younger element. He was camped on Clear creek, 
a few miles east of the present town of Kooskia, which 
was considered his home. Captain Whipple was joined 
at Mount Idaho by about twenty volunteers under Cap- 
tain D. B. Randall and a night ride was made to Clear 
creek. The utmost caution was taken by Captain 
Whipple to prevent the Indians from hearing of the ap- 
proach of the troops. Great was the astonishment of 
the former when, just as the soldiers reached Clear 
creek, the shrill notes of the bugle rang out across the 
canyon and were caught and echoed back by the sur- 
rounding hills and bluffs. In an instant the camp was 
astir, and by the hazy light of approaching dawn the 
Indians could be seen running back and forth. The 
red skins knew what a bugle call meant. 

Immediately a parley was arranged, and Captain 
Whipple and his escort went forth to meet Looking- 
glass. While this parley was progressing Washington 
Holmes, who had a half-breed wife, took it upon him- 

camp. This statement is made upon the positive asser- 
tions of two reputable men who were present F. A. 
Fenn and C. M. Day and upon the admission of Mr. 
Holmes himself. Of course this act of hostility caused 
the immediate breaking off of negotiations between 
Whipple and Lookingglass, and a general engagement 
opened. The Indians soon fled eastward into the moun- 
tains, leaving their tepees, nearly all their camp equip- 
age and over seven hundred ponies. Some of the 
horses were captured by the troops and the tepees and 
equipage were burned. One Indian child was killed 
in the exchange of shots, but the whites escaped un- 
scathed. Lookingglass soon joined Joseph and ren- 
dered that chieftain invaluable assistance in planning 
and executing the campaign. He appeared as spokes- 
man in negotiations and parleys with the whites, won 
renown by his diplomacy and shrewdness and impressed 
many with the belief that to him of right belonged 


much of the credit for military skill which has been 
given to Joseph. 

Whipple marched next day to the Norton ranch 
(Cottonwood) in obedience to Howard's command 
that he should form a junction with Perry there. Upon 
his arrival he sent two scouts, William Foster and 
Charles Blewett, towards Howard's position at Craig's 
crossing to learn the whereabouts of the Indians. Hav- 
ing proceeded to Lawyer's canyon thev were ascending 
it when they saw an Indian with a band of horses, also 
three other Indians in another direction. They put 
their horses to full speed in retreat, Foster leading. 
When Foster found time to cast a backward glance he 
saw that his companion was unhorsed and separated 
from him. "Take to the brush," was his advice as he 
made an effort to capture the frightened animal. But 
the horse could not be caught, and Foster was com- 
pelled to leave Blewett to his own resources and con- 
tinue his retreat. He reached Whipple's command in 
safety and reported what he had learned as to the 
whereabouts of the Indians. 

Whipple immediately prepared to take up the line 
of march, sending Second Lieutenant Rains with ten 
picked men and the 'scout Foster to reconnoiter in ad- 
vance of the main command, and aid Blewett if he 
could. "I particularly cautioned Rains," says Whip- 
pie's report, "not to precede the command too far, to 
.keep on high ground and report the first sign of In- 
dians." Rains and his men rode over the first rise 
from Cottonwood and down into the shallow ravine 
to the left of the present road leading to Craig's moun- 
tain from the prairie. Here they were attacked by 
what proved to be a large force of Indians. Whipple, 
who heard the firing, came up as fast as possible, but 
he saw that the Indians were in such numbers and so 
well intrenched that he could do nothing to help except 
at a loss of a greater number of men, so he was com- 
pelled to watch the doomed detachment as one by one 
its members fell. Some sought such shelter as they 
could find, some attempted to retreat back to Whipple's- 
command, but not one escaped the bullets of the In- 
dian sharpshooters. Whipple's command formed in 
line on one side of the ravine while the Indians did like- 
wise on the other, but they were too far apart for ef- 
fective action, and neither combatant cared to give the 
other advantage by descending to lower ground. They 
stood menacing each other until nightfall, when Whip- 
pie returned to Cottonwood and the Indians retired 
toward Craig's crossing. During the night couriers 
arrived from Perry, who was en route to Cottonwood 
with a pack train from Fort Lapwai. This was sup- 
posed to be in imminent danger of attack by hostiles, 
therefore Whipple set out next morning, July 4th, to 
reinforce the escorting detachment. He met the pack 
train eight miles out and brought it to its destination 
in safety. "About midday," says Whipple, "Indians 
began to gather, and but a short time elapsed before 
the camp (Cottonwood) was surrounded by them, and 
for hours they made the most frantic efforts to dislodge 
us. Every man of the command was kept on the 
lines this afternoon (rifle pits having been dug at a 

little distance from the Cottonwood house) until about 
sundown, when the enemy withdrew for the night." 

Perry was now chief in command at Cottonwood. 
On the morning of July 51)1 an event transpired which 
drew down upon him a storm of criticism, while it 
earned for Lieutenant D. B. Randall, before mentioned, 
and sixteen volunteers under his command a place 
among the world's heroes. The famous seventeen were 
seen approaching from the direction of Mount Idaho 
and were recognized to be volunteers. The Indians at 
the time were moving their stock toward Clear- 
water. As soon as they saw the volunteers about one 
hundred and fifty of them returned to intercept the 
doughty little squad and prevent their reaching Whip- 
pie. The Indians succeeded in getting between the 
volunteers and the regulars, taking a position on an 
elevation of ground near the intersection of the Elk 
City trail with the stage road. Perry was now urged 
to go with troops to the rescue, but he refused, saying 
that the volunteers were already beyond hope. No 
doubt the captain honestly thought that an effort to 
save the volunteers would be bootless, yet the sang 
froid of a refusal to try is hard to understand.* 

Had Randall ordered a retreat it is probable that 
the Indians, on their fleet ponies, would have run down 
his men and killed most if not all of them, but Randall 
was not a retreating man. He continued on his course 
and the Indians soon had him surrounded. He ordered 
a fierce charge ahead, broke through their lines, se- 
cured a favorable position between the Indians and Cot- 
tonwood, ordered his men to dismount and shoot 
down horses, and he and they again faced the Indians, 
intending to hold their position until help should arrive 
from Cottonwood. In this charge, which differs from 
that of the Light Brigade in that the men did not "ride 
back," Randall was mortally wounded, B. F. Evans 
was killed and three others received injuries more or 
less serious. Randall was paralyzed by his wound, 
which was in the backbone, and died a few minutes 
after dismounting. 

Mr. F. A. Fenn tells us that on the eminence just 
back of the old Cottonwood hotel, where Perry's force 
was stationed, a small body of troopers and citizens 
was engaged in throwing up breastworks when the In- 
dians attacked the seventeen. They saw the charge of 
the volunteers, watched them take a more sheltered 
position a little over a mile from the fort at Cottonwood 
and waited in vain for the order to mount and go to 
the rescue. They saw F. D. Vansise ride in for rein- 
forcements. They also saw the appeal pass unheeded 
by Colonel Perry. Then they ceased watching and 
acted. Sergeant Simpson sprang to the front and 
cried : "If your officers won't lead you I will." He 
was joined by twenty-five others, all of whom made 

""'Especially so," says F. A. Fenn, "as the seventeen went 
there at the urgent request of Perry for reinforcements, 
which request he sent by a courier named Crooks the night 
before to Mount Idaho." F. D. Vansise is, however, of the 


their way toward the horses. Perry, seeing that his 
men were determined to go anyway, directed Captain 
Whipple to take charge of the company, and under him 
reinforcements went to the seventeen and brought 
them safely in. Sergeant Simpson was arrested on the 
charge of insubordination, but afterwards participated 
in the Clearwater fight, where he was seriously wound- 
ed. Subsequently the charge against him was with- 

When the reinforcements arrived they found the 
men still holding their ground, having withstood nearly 
ten times their number for about an hour. Many are 
of the opinion that had the soldiers come speedily to 
the fray and followed up the advantage with vigor a 
severe whipping might have been administered to the 
red skins. The regular officers, however, were exon- 
erated by a court of inquiry. Fortunately the names 
of the celebrated seventeen have been preserved for us. 
They are as follows : D. B. Randall and B. F. Evans, 
killed ; A. B. Leland, D. H. Howser and Charles John- 
son, wounded, Mr. Howser mortally; L. P. Wilmot, 
J. L. Cearley, James Buchanan, William B. Beemer, 
Charles W. Case, E. J. Bunker, Frank D. Vansise, C. 
M. Day, George Riggins, A. D. Bartly, H. C. Johnson 
and F. A. Fenn. 

The war thus far had been decidedly in the Indians' 
favor. They had administered a disastrous defeat to 
Perry at White Bird; they had successfully eluded 
Howard at the Salmon river, causing his entire force 
to consume much valuable time in accomplishing noth- 
ing; they had massacreed Rains and party; they had 
escaped from Whipple and Perry at Cottonwood ; they 
had effected a junction of the forces under Looking- 
glass with those of Joseph, despite the efforts of Whip- 
pie's cavalry and Randall's volunteers, sent to effect 
the arrest of the former chieftain, and the only check 
they had as yet received, that administered by Ran- 
dall's seventeen, had inflicted slight damage.* These 
successes, however, had inspired Joseph with the pride 
which precedes a fall. Whether he thought it was im- 
possible for the whites to concentrate, or that he dare 
risk a battle with Howard's entire command, is not 
definitely known, but at any rate he allowed himself to 
be brought to a decisive engagement, as a result of 
which he was forced to yield the struggle on Idaho 
soil and begin his famous retreat over the Bitter Roots 
and the tortuous trail beyond. 

Failing to effect a crossing at Craig's ford, Howard 
took the backward track, recrossing the Salmon, and 
July 9th found him again at Grangeville. His force 
was weakened by the withdrawal of Hunter's Dayton 
volunteers, McConville's Lewiston volunteers and Cap- 
tain Cearley's company, who, Howard says, "had be- 
come a little disgusted with the slowness of regulars 
and angry at their own fearful discomfiture near Cot- 

: found where the India 

acknowledged that he \ 

after the fight with 
wnded that he died 

tonwood ;" hence started on an independent movement.* 
They began reconnoitering for the enemy, soon struck 
their trail, following which they succeeded in locating 
the Indians near the junction of the south and middle 
forks of the Clearwater. Captain Cearley and L. P. 
Wilmot were sent out to discover their exact position, 
and did so. Though they saw no warriors, they judged 
from the number of lodges and horses that the Indians 
were in too great force to be successfully attacked by 
the small force of volunteers, and so reported. Ac- 
cordingly no aggressive movement was made, but the 
volunteers busied themselves in throwing up fortifica- 
tions and strengthening their position against a possi- 
ble assault. They had a race with the Indians about 
two o'clock that day, when the approach of Major 
Shearer with fourteen men was the signal for an In- 
dian attempt to head him off. They succeeded in 
bringing Shearer in safely. Upon his arrival it was 
determined to send a massage to Howard, twelve miles 
distant, apprising him of the whereabouts of the In- 
dians and asking that he march next day to co-operate 
with them in an attack upon the hostiles. Howard was 
waiting for reinforcements, and did not do so. Mean- 
while the Indians made a night attack upon the vol- 
unteers, killing and driving away forty-three of their 
horses. The volunteers waited for another day and 
night, but their messenger failed to return, on account 
of sickness, and, not seeing any sign of Howard and 
being short of provisions and horses, they withdrew 
toward Mount Idaho. McConville was criticised for 
yielding this position, which Howard wished him to 
hold as a part of the enveloping force, "but," says Ban- 
croft, who seems to get his information largely from 
Sutherland's history of Howard's campaign, "being 
separated from Howard by the river, and having lost 
a large number of the horses, it was prudent and good 
tactics to retire and let the Indians fall into the trap 
Howard had set for them near their own camp and to 
place himself between the settlements and the Indians." 
The "trap" consisted in Howard's attacking Joseph on 
the opposite side from the volunteers' abandoned posi- 
tion, in which direction the Indians had thrown up 

i libel ; 

ver published"' The 5 action of The 

heid"almost~ten"times"their number at bay in pitched battle 
for an hour and a half and finally drove them off out of 
range. Casualties to the Indians were nine killed, as evi- 
denced by the graves thev left; the whites had two killed 
and three wounded. This was the first real reverse inflicted 
upon the hostiles and Howard's statement passes understand- 
ing. When informed of the fight of the seventeen, Mc- 
Conville, who was at the time with Howard, at once set out 
with the citizen soldiers, including Hunter's men under his 
command, numbering about one hundred men, to reinforce 
their fellows and Perry, who was so anxiously calling for 
help. McConville made a forced march from White Bird 
and reached Cottonwood the evening of the 5th. The next 
morning all of the volunteers made a forced march to 
Mount Idaho, in the direction of which the Indians had 
moved. It has always been understood that Howard de- 

Catholic Church built on Coeur d' Alene River at Old Mission in 1 853 by the Indians and Jesuit Missionaries. 
Wooden Pegs were used instead of Nails to put it together. 

Foster Monument Commemorating a Scene in the Nez Perces War oi 1ST, 


breastworks. Joseph's camp lay not far from the 
mouth of Cottonwood creek, in a deep defile among 
the high hills. On the i ith of July Howard approached 
it with his entire force. Captain Trimble from Slate 
creek, Perry, Whipple and all. About noon Lieutenant 
Fletcher discovered the Indians, and by one o'clock a 
howitzer and two gatling guns were throwing leaden 
missiles at the Indians below. These were getting their 
horses out of range as rapidly as possible. The contour 
of the country favored them, and soon they were safe. 
Howard ordered a change of position to a bluff toward 
the left, which could only be reached by a trip of more 
than a mile around the head of a ravine. Upon reach- 
ing this position with the howitzer and gatlings they 
found Joseph already in line of battle and saw a number 
of mounted Indians attempting their flanking move- 
ment to the left. Winters with his cavalry met these 
flankers and foiled them in their purpose. Soon the 
battle began in good earnest. "My line," says Howard, 
"1 extended to the left by the cavalry and to the right 
by the infantry and artillery battalions, gradually re- 
fusing my flanks, until the whole bluff was enveloped. 
Four hundred men, necessarily much spread out, held 
a line two and a half miles in extent. Our main pack 
train had passed by this position. Another small train 
with a few supplies was on the road near us. The In- 
dian flankers by their rapid movement struck the rear 
of the small train, killed two of the packers and dis- 
abled a couple of mules, loaded with howitzer ammu- 
nition. The prompt fire from Perry's and Whipple's 
cavalry saved the attendant ammunition from capture, 
luckily. The main supply train was saved only by the 
quick work of a messenger, guiding it within the 

Charges and counter charges were made during 
the day, in one of which, led by Captain Miles, Cap- 
tain Bancroft and Lieutenant Williams were seriously 
injured and a number of the enemy were killed and 
wounded. A charge near the center by Miller gave 
the whites a disputed ravine, but the repeated charges 
of the enemy were successfully repelled. The whites, 
however, were not in the best position at nightfall, as 
their water supply, a spring, was commanded by the 
Indian sharpshooters, so that it was only by running 
the gauntlet of a dangerous fire that the officers ob- 
tained during the night sufficient water to slake the 
thirst of their men. Throughout most of the hours of 
darkness the combatants on both sides worked hard 
constructing stone barricades and rifle pits. 

"At daylight on the I2th," says Howard, "every 
available man was on the line. I directed that food 
should be cooked and coffee made at the center and 
carried to the front. This was not easy to do, for we 
had first to get complete possession of the spring, as 
sufficient water was not secured in the night. This 
feat was executed with great spirit by Miller and 
Perry, using Otis's battery and Rodney's company on 
foot. As soon as the battery had made a rapid firing 
it ceased and a prompt charge at a run with shouting 
was undertaken by the men in support. The Indian 
sharpshooters were thus driven from their hiding 

places and the spring secured by our riflemen against 

"As soon as every man had been provided with 
food I directed that the artillery battalion be withdrawn 
from the lines, thin though they were already, and that 
the whole stretch be held by the infantry and cavalry. 
This gave a reserve force to employ in an offensive 
movement. It should be remembered that the number 
of our men on the line and the number of Indian war- 
riors that Joseph marshaled were about equal. Miller 
withdrew his battalion and at 2 130 p. m., the time I 
had selected, was preparing to execute a peculiar move- 
ment, viz: to push out by the west flank, pierce the 
enemy's line just west of the center, cross his barri- 
caded ravine, then face suddenly to the right and 
charge so as to strike the Indian position in reverse, as- 
sisting himself meanwhile by a howitzer. 

"Miller was fully ready and about to move when 
beyond the Indian position toward the south a dust ap- 
peared in the distance. Our glasses, quickly catching 
every new appearance, revealed it as the expected sup- 
ply train, escorted by Jackson's cavalry. Immediately 
the artillery battalion, which was waiting for the other 
work, was sent out to meet the newcomers. This oc- 
casioned considerable skirmishing and a delay of an 
hour, when the train was brought in in safety. To 
our joy Major Keeler of General McDowell's staff ac- 
companied the escort and brought us cheering words 
from his general at San Francisco as well as welcome 
reinforcements. At the time of these arrivals I had 
ridden out a few yards to secure a fair view of the 
field. Upon my invitation Major Keeler came for- 
ward to see the battle and took a place by my side. 

"Captain Miller, instead of returning with the train, 
was marching slowly in column by the right flank to- 
ward us, when, as he crossed the enemy's line, just 
at the right point, he faced to the left, moved quickly 
in line for nearly a mile across our front and repeatedly 
charged the enemy's positions. This manner of strik- 
ing at an angle and following up the break is called 
'rolling up the enemy's line.' This Miller accomplished 
most effectually. The usual attempt to double his left 
was made by the Indians, when a reserved company, 
Rodney's, in Miller's rear deployed, flanked the flank- 
ers and drove them back. 

"For a few minutes there was a stubborn resistance 
at Joseph's barricades ; then his whole line gave way. 
Immediately the pursuit was taken up by the whole 
force, infantry and artillery. Winter's troops, dismount- 
ed, and the remaining cavalry, as soon as they could 
saddle and mount. This movement was decisive. The 
Indians are completely routed and flying over the 
rugged banks, through the ravines, swimming and 
wading the river and our forces are in close pursuit." 

Jackson's cavalry had failed to reach the scene in 
time to participate in the battle, but it was on hand 
for the pursuit. It, with the force in charge of the 
gatling gun, quickly moved to a point overlooking the 
Clearwater. The howitzers also were brought to this 
position and a fusillade was poured into the retreating 
Indians and their ponies. Meanwhile other troops 


pressed down the ravines and steep hillsides to the 
river's edge, but further they could not go, owing to 
the depth of the water. Soon Perry's cavalry came 
to the canyon's bottom and across the river, but for 
some reason Perry did not press the pursuit up the 
opposite bank, contenting himself rather with taking 
a position near the deserted Indian lodges. Howard, 
scanning the field with his glass, noticed a movement 
of Indians which indicated to him a possible intention 
on their part to return to the conflict. He warned 
Perry of the danger to his cavalry and ordered him to 
ferry the infantry across so as to present a sufficient 
force in opposition should the red men evince a taste 
for further battle. The whites could not effect a 
crossing of the stream as expeditiously as did their 
dusky foe ; the time consumed gave the Indians oppor- 
tunity of escape to a point so far remote as to make 
their overhauling before dark an impossibility; the 
troops, therefore, concluded to camp for the night, and 
the battle of the Clearwater was over. The Indian 
loss was twenty-three killed, perhaps forty wounded 
and as many more captured, besides the stores of 
blankets, buffalo robes, provisions and promiscuous 
equipage they were compelled to abandon at their 
camp. Howard reports his loss as thirteen killed and 
twenty-two wounded. 

The most severe criticism made against Howard 
in the Clearwater battle is that he failed to follow up 
the advantage which Miller's successful charge gave 
him. McConville's volunteers had returned during the 
last day of the fight and were stationed on the west 
bank of the Clearwater several miles from the battle- 
field. They were holding themselves in readiness to at- 
tack the Indians in front whenever the troops gave evi- 
dence that they would support the attack from the rear. 
Had the troops crossed behind the Indians and hung 
on Joseph's 'flanks and the volunteers under Major Mc- 
Conville attacked them in front the war, so many crit- 
ics aver, might have been ended then and there. In- 
stead, however, the Indians were allowed to proceed 
leisurely to Kamiah, where they crossed the river and 
commenced their retreat. 

Next morning Howard reached Kamiah in time to 
see the last of Joseph's band crossing the Clearwater. 
When the river was reached the last Indian was across, 
and, though the gatling guns were put into operation, 
they inflicted little damage. Joseph took a position at 
the beginning of the Lolo trail, where, by sending 
scouts in all directions, he could keep close watch upon 
the movements of the soldiers and learn the outlines of 
Howard's plans. 

That general had it in mind to reach, if he could, 
a position some fifteen or twenty miles beyond Joseph, 
where there was a junction of trails, thus cutting off 
his escape, but Joseph's scouts were too vigilant; the 
plan was surmised and the Indians hastily set out to 
anticipate him. 

In pursuit of this plan Howard. started on the I5th 
of July, ostensibly for Lapwai, but intending to go 
down the river to Dumvell's ferry, thence to a position 
in Joseph's rear. When he discovered that his inten- 
tions were surmised he went back to Kamiah, leaving 

Jackson and some volunteers who had just rejoined the 
regulars to guard against a possible return by the In- 
dians across the river at Dunwell's. He was met by a 
messenger from Joseph asking upon what terms the 
chief might surrender. While the conference was in 
progress a shot, fired by the Indians, struck near the 
consulting party, a circumstance which certainly looked 
like bad faith on the part of the Indians, though Suth- 
erland, author of "Howard's Nez Perces Campaign," 
thinks Joseph really intended to surrender and was only 
deterred by Howard's reply that he and his men would 
be tried before a court-martial of regular officers. How- 
ard considered the proposal a ruse to delay his move- 
ments. At any rate Joseph did not surrender, though 
the messenger, his family and some other Indians 
afterward did. 

Meanwhile the cavalry, scouts and volunteers had 
been ferried across the river, and these Howard sent 
under Colonel Mason to pursue the enemy, to learn his 
intentions and engage him in battle if such could be 
done with fair prospect of success. The scouts ran into 
Joseph's rear guard near Oro Fino creek and had a 
brush with it, in which one scout was killed and one 
wounded. One of the enemy was also killed. Believ- 
ing it unsafe to attempt to use cavalry in a country so 
favorable for ambuscades, Mason returned and the 
campaign in Idaho was ended. Howard summarizes 
the war thus far in this language : 

"The Indians had been well led and well fought. 
They had defeated two companies in a pitched battle. 
They had eluded pursuit and crossed the Salmon. They 
had turned back and crossed our communications, had 
kept our cavalry on the defensive and defeated a 
company of volunteers* They had finally been forced 
to concentrate, it is true, and had been brought to bat- 
tle. But, in battle with regular troops, they had held 
out for nearly two days before they were beaten, and 
after that were still able to keep together, cross a river 
to deep to be forded and then check our pursuing cav- 
alry and make off to other parts beyond Idaho. The 
result would necessitate a long and tedious chase. 

"Still, on our side, the Indians had been stopped in 
their murders, had been resolutely met everywhere and 
driven into position and beaten ; and by subsequent pur- 
suit the vast country was freed from their terrible 

It is practically impossible at this late date to so 
come into possession of the details of the war as to 
enable one to express a definite opinion about the 
merits of the dispute between the regulars and volun- 
teers, even if a historian were justified in usurping the 
function of a judge or jury and dealing in generaliza- 
tions and deductions from facts rather than in the 
facts themselves. Many severe criticisms have been 
made upon Howard's slowness of movement, and it is 
the general opinion of volunteers and others that, 
while he proved himself a gentleman of many virtues, 
he failed to adapted himself to the condition presented 

*The volui 
ant charge a 


by the known methods of Indian warfare ; that he was 
not aggressive and vigorous enough to be called a "good 
Indian fighter." Howard, in his valuable work enti- 
tled "Nez Perces Joseph," has attempted an answer to 
these objections, mainly by pointing out the difficulties 
which surrounded him and contending that greater 
expedition was impossible under the circumstances. 
Severe strictures were made by citizens upon some 
of the inferior officers, particularly Captain Perry, 
whose military movements were made the occasion 
for the sessions of two courts of inquiry. Charges of 
lack of discipline and incompetence were brought by 
some officers of the regular army against the volun- 
teers also, the most bitter being by Major Keeler, of 
General McDowell's staff, who had the least oppor- 
tunity to know whereof he spoke. Howard, be it said 
to his credit, frankly commended the volunteers, more 
than once publicly, thanking them for valuable assist- 
ance rendered him. 

After the return of Mason with the report that 
Joseph' had certainly gone toward the buffalo coun- 
try, Howard naturally began revolving in his mind 
plans for future operations. He thought at first of 

soula at once, trusting Colonel Green, who was bring- 
ing a force from Fort Boise, and General Wheaton, 
coming to Lewiston from Georgia as fast as steam 
could carry him, with the task of protecting Camas 
prairie and the rest of north Idaho. This plan had to 
be abandoned on account of the alarm lest Joseph 
should suddenly return and swoop down again upon 
the temporarily unprotected settlements. So Howard 
himself awaited the arrival of Green's advance guard, 
thus giving the hostiles a splendid lead in the race and 
occasioning a loud clamor from the impatient journ- 
alists and people. The plan evolved during the per- 
iod of waiting was to form two columns and a reserve, 
the right column to be led by Howard in person, the 
left by Wheaton, and the reserve to stay with Green 
at Camas prairie. Howard's force was to take the 
Lolo trail; Wheaton's the Mullan road and the re- 
serve to "watch all trails, keep inter-communication, 
be ready for hostile Indians, should they double back, 
and give heart to all neighboring farmers, miners, 
prospectors, and friendly Indians by the show of pro- 
tection at hand." 

Howard with his right column took the trail on the 
26th of July, 1877. His journeyings from that time 
until the capture of Joseph are replete with adventures 
and incidents, but all this is extra-territorial to the his- 
torian of north Idaho and though completeness de- 
mands a brief narration of the long chase, yet it must 
be brief. Day after day the column toiled on, slipping, 
sliding, up the steep acclivities, down the precipitous 
mountain sides, following the windings of the inter- 
minable "hogs-backs," as connecting ridges between 
two mountain uplifts are called, vigilant always to 
keep out of traps the wily red skins may set, the com- 
manding general not alone burdened with the respon- 
sibility of a campaign, presenting at times grave dan- 
ger of ambush and surprise, but smarting under the 
lash that is being applied by numerous newspapers the 

whole country over. The Indians, familiar with the 
country by frequent former trips to the buffalo 
grounds, possessing an ability to get work out of a 
horse such as no white man can, and led by one whom 
Miles has characterized the greatest military genius 
of the Indian race, are making one of the most 
brilliant retreats in the annals of Indian warfare. 
Once they might have been stopped and held for 
Howard. " A small force of regulars under Cap- 
tain Rawn and a considerable number of citizen 
soldiers had built a fort at the enterance of the 
Lolo trail into the Lolo valley. The pass was 
narrow, the walls high and precipitous. 'The fort, 
though a hastily constructed affair, was so favorably 
situated that it commanded the situation completely. 
When the Indians arrived they quickly saw their dis- 
advantage. Being diplomats as well as warriors, they 
determined to try the effect of a parley where bullets 
would be plainly' ineffective. They promised to do no 
damage to the citizens of the valley if only they should 
be allowed to proceed. Why should they not make 
such a promise ? They not only hoped to gain a pres- 
ent advantage but to placate the people and perhaps 
get them in the notion of trade, for they were sorely 
in need of fresh horses, and fresh supplies of ammuni- 

umphed. "The soldiers and citizens withdrew, allow- 
ing the red men to pass without opposition through a 
trail they had been busily preparing during the four 
days of parley to the left of the fort. An unpatriotic 
act, certainly, but Howard did not blame them and 
surely we can afford to be no less charitable. Hardly, 
however, can we imagine Randall or McConville or 
Paige or Cearley doing such a thing. 

Space forbids narration of the day and night rid- 
ing of messengers between Howard's advance col- 
umn and the United States forces to the eastward who 
were now becoming interested in the campaign. Even 
a war of small magnitude develops numerous heroes, 
for the world is full of heroism, so full that it cannot 
pay its meed of hero-worship to each. If it could the 
despatch-bearers who rode furiously and without rest 
day or night over the danger-beset, roadless, rough 
and rugged country between Howard and the Indian 
rear guard, would come in for a full share. 

One of these messengers reached Howard on the 
6th of August, announced his name as Pardee and 
brought the news that General Gibbon had left his 
headquarters at Helena ; had hastened to Missoula, ar- 
riving just after the Indians had passed Rawn's fort, 
was pushing forward on Joseph's trail with less than 
two hundred men and wanted reinforcements. An- 
other, named Sutherland, left the same evening with 
Howard's reply which was that "General Howard is 
coming on, as fast as possible, by forced marches with 
two hundred cavalrymen, to give the needed reinforce- 
In compliance with this promise, Howard quick- 
ened his pace, but the horses were weary with long 
marches, weakened by insufficient nutrition and un- 
able to satisfy with their speed the eagerness of the 
commander. 'On the loth of August, therefore, How- 


ard determined to take twenty-five picked horses and 
men and seventeen scouts, with whom to ride as fast 
and as far as possible in quest of Gibbon, leaving the 
remaining cavalry to pursue as quickly as they could. 
At dusk this advance guard encountered seven citi- 
zens, from whom they learned that Gibbon had had 
a fight the day before. The citizens gave a gloomy ac- 
count and, though little credit was accorded it as it 
seemed like the semi-imaginative report of men who 
run as soon as a battle commences, a messenger is 
sent forward that night to apprise Gibbon of the help 
coming. Gibbon's messenger missed Howard's small 
force but delivered the message to Mason, in the rear, 
with whom were the much needed medical officers. 

By 10 A. M. on the morning of August nth, How- 
ard came up to Gibbon's fortified camp, where the 
train and a small guard of soldiers and volunteers had 
been left. Hastening onward he soon reached Gib- 
bon's position, and found him, as his message would 
have told had it been received, near the mouth of Big 
Hole pass in rather sorry plight. The camp looked 
very much like a hospital from the number lying help- 
less and the profusion of bandages. 

Gibbon had arrived at a point within six miles 
of the Indians' camp on the 7th of August. On the 
8th a party under Lieutenant Bradley managed to steal 
up close enough to observe the Indians, and in the mid- 
dle of the night Gibbon's main force secured a posi- 
tion within a mile or so of their camp. Reconnoisance 
proved the central Indian position to be across a bend 
on the north fork of the Big Hole river and that the 
lodges numbered eighty nine. Before daylight Gib- 
bon's forces were very close to the enemy and still 
unobserved. Dawn brought the attack. Bradley was 
killed at the willows which lined the stream. Before 
the Indians could get out of their lodges, the whites 
were across the stream and upon them. A stubborn 
hand to hand fight ensued, Indian boys and squaws 
taking part and fighting with desperation. Eventu- 
ally the Indians fell back to the brush and high points 
commanding their camp, whence they poured a melt- 
ing fire upon the troops, busily engaged in destroying 
the camp. As the Indians outnumbered the whites 
two to one the latter were at a disadvantage as soon 
as their antagonists recovered from their surprise. The 
soldiers were therefore compelled to withdraw from 
the open to a wooded point near the canyon by which 
the troops had effected their approach. In so doing 
they had a fierce fight with the Indians. Gibbon ex- 
pected his howitzer to be brought to this position, 
but it was captured, one of its six defenders being 
killed and one wounded. White Bird was heard and 
seen endeavoring to inspire the Indians with courage 
to attack Gibbon's position. In this, however, he failed. 
One attempt was made to capture Gibbon's supply 
train, but it was so valiantly defended by Kirkendall's 
little squad, that the small force of Indians sent against 
it dared 'not attack it and a larger force could not be 
spared from the main engagement. This surprise 
would have been fraught with grave consequences 
to the Indians had they been led with less consummate 
ability, but thanks to the generalship of their com- 

mander, they were effectually rallied and inflicted up- 
on the attacking column a loss of twenty-nine killed 
and thirty or more wounded. During the night the 
Indians moved away. Gibbon was in no condition to 
follow, himself having been wounded in the engage- 
ment and many of his small command disabled. Look- 
ing-glass, the Indian diplomat, was killed at the last 
battle on Milk river. 

Howard remained near, Gibbon's battlefield during 
the 1 2th of August awaiting for the rest of his force 
to come up, and on the i.3th again took the pursuit. 
At his encampment that night, he learned from two 
excited messengers that eight citizens had been mur- 
dered by Joseph on Horse prairie, and that two hun- 
dred and fifty fine horses had been secured by the hos- 

On the evening of the I5th, word was sent that 
the Indians had turned back into Idaho and surrounded 
temporary fortifications at a junction of two cross- 
roads in Lemhi valley. "Push straight for Fort Lemhi 
and you will have the Indians" was the message of 
Colonel Shoup, in command of sixty Idaho volunteers. 
Howard did decide to turn to his right into Lemhi 
valley and was making preparations for doing so when 
after midnight, another messenger arrived, reporting 
that the Indians had broken camp, rushed past the 
temporary fort doing it no harm and gone eastward, 
so Howard pushed on as at first intended. 

August 1 7th found him at Junction station. Here 
he was met by stage men, who persuaded him to aban- 
don his purpose of proceeding straight to what was 
known as Tacher's Pass, going rather by the road via 
Dry creek. Lieutenant Bacon, with forty picked men, 
and Robbins, with the Indian scouts, were, however, 
sent direct to the coveted pass and Henry Lake. On 
the 1 8th the camp of the Indians was discovered by 
Buffalo Horn about eighteen miles from Dry creek 
station in Camas meadows, and Howard was appraised 
of the whereabouts of his wily foe. 

"How confident I then felt"!" says the General. "Ba- 
con and Robbins ahead of Joseph and my cavalry only 
eighteen miles behind on the direct trail! If it were 
possible, I would reinforce Bacon; but he is seventy 
miles off! 'He can annoy and stop them, if he can- 
not do more.' I exclaim." 

vorable however. The cavalry horses were so jaded 
and slow that eighteen miles was a considerable trip 
for them ; the Montana volunteers were still farther be- 
hind and the infantry at least a day's march behind 
them. But on the night of August igth, Howard with 
the cavalry, Galloway's volunteers and fifty infantry 
were in camp together in Camas meadows, where Buf- 
falo Horn had seen Joseph's band the day before. The 
trail of the hostiles was distinctly visible. They were 
supposed to be in a camp some fifteen miles beyond. 
Suddenly in the middle of the night, the multitudinous 
noises of battle and the wild Indian war whoop burst 
upon the ears of the sleepers. 

Joseph has determined to double back and, with a 
few of his men, distract the attention of the soldiers, 
while some of his skilled horse thieves are cutting the 


hobbles on the mules and making away with these ani- 
mals. Howard saw the herd in full stampede. He sent 
Major Sanford after them with the cavalry and soon 
that officer sent word that he had recovered between 
fifty and seventy-five head of the lost stock. A second 
messenger brought less pleasing tidings. He informed 
Howard that the Indians were returning in force and 
turning Sanford's left. The remainder of the force 
was quickly ordered to the rescue. It met Sanford re- 
turning and inquired for Norwood, but no one knew 
definitely where that officer was. The advance was 
continued and eventually the missing cavalry officer 
and his force were discovered. He had had quite a 
skirmish, one which cost him the loss of one man killed 
and six wounded. This surprise of Howard and the 
capture of some of his mules was the theme of much 
fun-making among eastern journalists. 

The march was not resumed until the 2ist. On the 
22d some scouts joined the pursuing party from Fort 
Hall, also Captain Bainbridge with more scouts and a 
small guard of soldiers. The night of the 23d there 
must have been little sleeping, for the Bannock scouts 
had a dance and council; then some of their number 
came to Howard with a request for permission to kill 
three professedly friendly Indians, claiming they were 
traitors, which request was denied ; then to make mat- 
ters worse at two o'clock reveille was sounded. Day- 
light revealed Tacher's gap and the Indian camp near 
it. A rapid advance was made and the gap soon 
reached but the birds had again flown. How discour- 
aged and disgusted the soldiers must have been! Ba- 
con and his party not seeing any Indians had left Henry 
lake, in plain sight of the pass, turning back and by this 
unfortunate move coming out far in the rear of the 
main column. Howard's messengers to him had failed 
in duty and as a consequence this splendid chance of 
cutting off the retreat of the foe and terminating the 
war was lost. 

For many weary miles the soldiers had striven to 
overtake the Indians and now that they were on the 
heels of the redskins, they must again allow the latter 
to get a lead of several days. Howard's order to fol- 
low Fisher's scouts on through the pass was met by 
the protest of the physician, the quarter-master, the 
inspector and other officers. "We cannot, we cannot, 
general!," said they. "Come look at your soldiers; 
look at their clothing, ragged already and tied with 
strings; look at their feet, some barefooted and the 
most with shoes so badly worn that in one or two days 
they will bs gone. The" ice froze an inch in our basins 
last night, and we have no overcoats, nothing but thin 
blankets, now falling to pieces. You can go no far- 

The was no gainsaying this reasoning. The com- 
mand was allowed to rest four days on the banks of 
Henry lake while the commander, "the quarter-master, 
and Lieutenant Howard set out by wagon to Virginia 
City for supplies. Gushing and Norwood were di- 
rected to proceed to Fort Ellis for supplies, joining the 
main body two hundred miles farther on. Blankets, 
provisions, fresh horses, everything needful were pro- 
cured ; the general and those accompanying him re- 

turned and on the 27th of August, the march was re- 
sumed under more favorable conditions. The famed 
National Park was soon entered, and some members 
of the ill-starred Geyser party encountered, which, 
while on a pleasure trip had the" misfortune to fall into 
the hands of the hostile Indians. The first man re- 
ported his comrades all dead, but two others, wounded, 
were afterward met. The women were spared by Jos- 
eph and eventually rescued. 

In the park Howard received news of Joseph's 
whereabouts from a man who had been captured by 
the Indians and recaptured by Fisher's scouts, 
which information saved the command nearly 
one hundred miles of marching. About the 
same time evidences were discovered of Bannack 
treachery. Ten of these Indians were arrested, dis- 
armed and held as prisoners until their comrades, by 
bringing in the horses which the Bannocks were ac- 
cused of having stolen, earned the liberty of all ex- 
cept one, the leader, who was sent under guard to 
Fort Ellis. 

Under the guidance of the rescued prisoner the 
soldiers proceeded to the Yellowstone river at Baron- 
et's bridge and across it, the scouts finding "too abund- 
ant evidence of their (the Indian's) usual murder and 
rapine for twenty miles down the river to the Mam- 
moth Falls, where a raiding party from Chief Joseph 
had met and robbed some wagons and burned a store." 
The scouts found evidences that Gilbert's calvary had 
been there, but through want of knowledge as to How- 
ard's whereabouts their commander had swung off. 
coming upon the trail of the pursuing party one hun- 
dred miles in the rear. He tried to overtake Howard, 
but failed and finally returned to Fort Ellis. Unfor- 
tunately the cavalry of Gushing, who left the main 
column, as we have said, at Henry lake, had been taken 
to reinforce Gilbert, but with the remnant Gushing 
made a race for the valley of Clark's Fork to head off 
Joseph, when he should come down from the moun- 
tains. He failed to anticipate the swift-footed chief- 
tain, but effected a junction with Howard, turning 
over to that general the supplies he had been sent for. 
Arriving at the Soda Butte silver mine, the command 
came upon about twenty armed miners, all of whom 
were employed as guides. These led the main column 
by a short route, while the scouts on fresh horses fol- 
lowed the trail of the hostiles, and learned of the out- 
rages committed by Joseph in his march. Three min- 
ers were robbed of everything, then killed in spite of 
earnest begging for mercy. A fourth, robbed and 
dreadfully wounded, made his escape to the soldiers. 

On thie march from Soda Butte mountains, Howard 
was met by three messengers, who brought the news 
that General Sturgis, with several cavalry companies, 
was within fifty miles and was moving to Hat 



route to the mouth of Clark's fork. Had he only done 
so the war might have been speedily terminated, but 
he allowed himself to be deceived, probably by treach- 
erous Crow Indians, and sent nn a wild goose chase 

n apparently 


1 through 


a narrow canyon opening into Clark's valley again 
saved the fortunate Indians. 

Sturgis discovered his mistake, returned, was re- 
inforced by Howard with a few picked horses and 
men and sent ahead in the chase. He' overtook the 
enemy and had a battle with them on the heights be- 
yond the Yellowstone, capturing hundreds of ponies. 
A running fight was kept up with the retreating red- 
skins all the wav to the Musselshell river. Howard, 
however, despairing of Sturgis' or his own ability to 
overtake the Indians, who were going night and day, 
sent a message by boat down the Yellowstone, also 
by a horseman, to General Miles at Tongue river, ask- 
ing that officer to strike northwestward to the Missouri, 
intercepting the hostiles if possible. 

Meanwhile the forces with Howard concentrated 
on the Yellowstone below Clark's fork, pushed down 
the river to Baker's battlefield and turned thence north- 
ward with intent to rejoin Sturgis at the Musselshell. 
By September 2oth they were on that river, and there 
they received a message from General Miles, who 
promised to move at once. The march of the pur- 
suers was continued with somewhat less haste than 
theretofore, the generals, Sturgis and Howard, not 
wishing to press the hostiles too hard, lest they should 
not give Miles time to come up before them. This 
continued until a messenger arrived stating that Miles 
had crossed the Missouri and was in pursuit, then the 
command quickened its march until it reached Car- 
roll, where Howard, leaving his main command with 
Sturgis, took passage with an artillery battalion, two 
aides and a few scouts, on a steamer for Cow Island. 
Disembarking there, he pushed on northward with an 
escort of seventeen armed men, to the Bear Paw moun- 
tains. On the 4th of October, after dark, the party 
came to a point whence numerous small fires could be 
seen and the firing of musketry heard. It was the 
Indian warriors doing what damage they could to the 
forces around them. Soon Howard joined Miles and 
learned of the situation from him. 

General Miles had made a rapid march to the Mis- 
souri, crossed that river, gone to Bear Paw mountain, 
making the long journey without any knowledge of his 
movements reaching the hostiles, had come upon Joseph 
in a ravine, had surprised him completely and by a 
bold charge had defeated him badly, capturing his herd 
of ponies. The Indians were forced to take refuge 
in the deep ravines, where they fortified and held out 
as long as they could. On the 5th of October, the day 

after Howard's arrival, firing was kept up by the 
troops, with an occasional reply from the enemy, until 
ii o'clock, when two of Howard's Indian scouts were 
sent into the camp of the chief with a flag of truce. 
After some lively negotiating Joseph finally, at 2 P. M., 
agreed to surrender. He handed his rifle to General 
Howard, who directed that it should be given to Col- 
onel Miles, and the remainder of the day was spent by 
the Indians in coming into camp with their arms. 
White Bird slipped out through the lines and escaped 
with a considerable following, Indians say about forty, 
to the British possessions. Ollicut, Joseph's brother, 
was killed in the four days' battle with Miles. The 
Nez Perces were promised that they should be returned 
to the reservation in Idaho, but General Sheridan, in 
whose department they were, directed that they should 
be sent to the Indian territory. Years afterward they 
were brought back to the west and settled partly on 
the Nez Perces and partly on the Colville reservation. 
The fame of Joseph became widespread on account 
of his military prowess, and no doubt the glory ac- 
corded him was a potent factor in inciting the Bannock 
and Piute war of the following year. Buffalo Horn, 
who had seen the entire campaign, became ambitious to 
emulate Joseph's career, but fortunately for the whites 
did not possess the generalship with which to do so. 
Joseph was indeed a military leader of extraordinary 
ability. With less than four hundred fighting men 
and encumbered with large numbers of women and 
children, he had succeeded in leading Howard a chase 
that exhausted his mules and horses and wore out his 
men, reducing them to a condition in which they were 
truly objects of commiseration. How he could, with 
weak women and helpless children, keep ahead of sol- 
diers not thus encumbered, and having the support of 
the government, is a mystery. It shows how marvel- 
ous is the energy that lies latent within the Indian race, 
inspiring the wish that by some means this force might 
be called into activity in a nobler cause than contend- 
ing against manifest destiny in warfare fraught with 
horrors indescribable. Those who, admiring Joseph's 
admitted abilities, claim that he carried on his campaign 
in accordance with the laws of civilized warfare, are 
evidently not cognizant of the facts, for the number of 
persons killed by his forces outside of battle must 
have been nearly fifty. In the several engagements 
thirteen volunteers were killed, according to Bancroft's 
account, and 105 officers and men of the regular army. 
Not less than 120 were wounded. 



The progress of our narative has brought us 
through the era of Indian difficulties and at the same 
time by the romantic early epoch of north Idaho history 
and quite well past that secondary or transition period, 
during which the more stable industries were slowly 
supplanting the semi-nomadic mining of the earlier 
days. Hereafter the germ of social order, always ex- 
isting in the country, though at times obscured under 
a superficial overflow of sin and folly, is to have full 
opportunity to grow and develop, bringing not alone 
the comforts and luxuries of physical life, but the re- 
finements of education, religion and the fine arts. Soon 
must we address ourselves to the individual counties, 
with whose history our volume purposes to deal, but 
before doing so we must give attention to two or 
three other matters of general concern. 

Mention has already been made of a certain lack of 
community of interest between the residents of north- 
ern and those of southern Idaho. The territory was 
cut into two by the Salmon river range of mountains. 
making it impossible for the Panhandle residents to 
reach their capital without a long trip through Oregon 
and Washington. The folly of this arrangement soon 
attracted attention after the removal of the capital from 
Lewiston, and the press and the people of north Idaho 
as well as those of Washington territory, began advo- 
cating the re-annexation of Nez Perces, Idaho and 
Shoshone counties to the latter commonwealth, or as an 
alternative measure, the establishment of a new terri- 
tory out of northern Idaho, western Montana and east- 
ern Washington. During its session of 1865-6, the 
legislature of Idaho passed the following memorial to 
congress : 


Your memorialists, the Legislative Assembly of the terri- 
tory of Idaho, would most respectfully represent that, Where- 
divided by a high mountain range, known as the Blue moun- 
tain, or Salmon river range, rendering communication al- 
most impossible for one-half the year, unless by a circuitous 
route, of five or six hundred miles, passing through the 
state of Oregon and Washington territory ; and that unless 
mineral discoveries are hereafter made, a tract of country 
one hundred miles in width, between the two, will forever 

the northern portion being identitied with those of the upper 
Columbia and Missouri rivers, and the territory of Montana; 
while the interests of the southern portion of our territory 
are identified with those of the states of Nevada and Cali- 

whereas the material interests of both sections would be 
advanced by dissolving the present territorial relations be- 
tween them, and by having territorial governments so estab- 
lished as to unite all the people within their limits by com- 
munity of interest, thereby increasing our present rapidly 
growing population, and developing the immense mineral 
and agricultural resources of both portions of the territory, 
and which your memorialists believe to be unsurpassed west 
of the Rocky mountains ; Your memorialists would therefore 
most respectfully request of your honorable body .the passage 
of an act by which all that portioji of the territory of Utah 
lying north of forty-one degrees and thirty minutes of north 
latitude be annexed to the territory of Idaho, and a new 
territory be established out of the northern portion of the 
territory of Idaho, the western portion of the territory of 
Montana and the eastern portion of the territory of Wash- 
ington, to be called the territory of Columbia, with the fol- 
lowing boundaries : Commencing in the middle of the chan- 
nel of Snake river, where the parallel of forty-four de- 

thence east on said parallel to the western line of the terri- 
tory of Montana; thence westerly on the summit of the 
Wind River mountains, to a point where the meridian of 
thirty-five degrees and thirty minutes longitude west from 
Washington crosses said summit ; thence north, on said 
meridian of longitude until the same reaches the summit of 
the Rocky mountains ; thence northerly following the summit 
of the Rocky mountains to the forty-ninth parallel of north 
latitude; thence west along said parallel to the forty-second 
meridian oi longitude west from Washington; thence south 
to the fortv-sixth parallel of north latitude; thence east on 
said parallel of latitude to the middle of the channel of Snake 
river; thence up the middle of the channel of said Snake river 
to the place of beginning. And yoi 

The movement for this territory of Columbia be- 
came strong during 1866 and 1867, meetings being 
held and memorials adopted not alone in Lewiston, but 
in 'Walla Walla also, for the latter town was likewise 
dissatisfied with the existing condition of things. But 
Montana wished to retain the Bitter Root valley and 
southern Idaho was fearful lest its burden of taxation 
might become unbearably heavy if it lost any more pop- 


of the exhaustion of the placer mines. It was found 
impossible to carry the measure. 

In 1869 Nevada came forth with a proposition to 
annex to itself all of Idaho's territory south of the 
Snake river and between the Oregon boundary line 
and an extension of the eastern boundary of Nevada, 
an important mining section known as the Owyhee 
country. To this neither Idaho nor congress would 
agree. The Idaho legislature memorialized congr 
again in 1870 for a change in territorial metes a 
bounds, "but none that would leave the territory 1 
able to maintain the burden of government, interfi 
with the congressional ratio of representation, or de- 
crease the prospect of arriving at the dignity of state- 
hood." These were obviously rather hard conditions 
with which to comply. Meanwhile the newspapers 
were still advocating the formation of the territory of 
Columbia, with boundaries as described in the memo- 
rial to congress above quoted. 

Prior to the convening of congress in December, 
1873, the old project of annexing northern Idaho to 
Washington was revived with great earnestness. Meet- 
ings were held in the territory directly affected ; resolu- 
tions were adopted and committees were appointed to 
press the matter. On November I3th, the house of 
representatives of Washington territory passed a 
memorial praying congress for the annexation of Nez 
Perces, Shoshone and Idaho counties to their common- 
wealth. Southern Idaho supported the measure in 
part and the sentiment of the Panhandle was practic- 
ally unanimous in its favor. Rarely indeed is there 
such ananimity in any'political matter of major im- 
port. The Panhandle counties undertook to do a little 
memorializing on their own account, sending to ccn- 
gress the following self-explanatory document: 

Idaho, of Idaho territory, at a mass meeting held at Lewis- 
ton, October, 30, 1873, to properly represent the views of the 
people of said counties on the question of annextion to 
Washington territory, would respectfully represent to your 
honorable body : 

First, That the counties of Ncz Perces, Shoshone and Ida- 
ho, in Idaho territory, embrace that part of the present ter- 
ritory of Idaho north of the great chain of the Salmon river 
range of mountains, which extend nearly on a line with the 
45th parallel north latitude, easterly from Snake river, through 
the entire territory; th:it this range is covered with snow to 
a great depth annually from the" first of December to the 
first (lay of June, thus rendering communication between the 
two sections known as north and south Idaho almost impos- 
sible during said period, save by a circuitous route of five or 

one hundred milvs .if tin- rim;itons route lies in the terri- 
tory of Washington, and about two hundred of it lies in 
the state of Oregon. 

Second, That along in the vicinity of this high range of 

hundred miles' in width, so elevated and so destitute of in- 

Third, That the entire white population of our territory 
is about twenty thousand souls. 

Fourth, That said counties of Nez Perces. Shoshone and 

of the territory, which is organized into well regulated, in- 
dustrious, thriving and established communities, engaged in 

Fifth, That the interests of the people of the two sec- 
tions, north and south Idaho, are diverse in almost every 
particular, those of the former being allied to those of Wash- 
ington territory and the valley of the main Columbia river, 
while those of the latter are in identity with those of the 
states of Nevada and California and the territory of Utah. 

Seventh, That the boundary between north Idaho and 
Washington territory is for the most part wholly imaginary 
and artificial 

Eighth, That there exists now no social or commercial 
bond between the people of north Idaho and those of south 
Idaho, nor can there become such with the existing im- 
passable natural barrier between them 

Ninth That both commercially and socially the bond of 

n betw 

n the p 

f Walla Walla, Whit 



:vens counties, is as complete as identity of social and 

'Tenth Th^'the 5 ^ef ^"idal f * P6 ple ' 
convenienced by their present territorial government rela- 
tions with south Idaho; that their want of interest in com- 
mon with the body politic of which they now form a part 
tends greatly to retard the development of their natural re- 
sources, as well as retard their increase of population and 
general prosperity. 

Eleventh, That to maintain their political relations with 
south Idaho imposes upon the people of north Idaho a 
serious burden of annual expenditure, such that a large class 
of the people are compelled to forego the attempt to secure 
their proper legal political rights, obtainable only at the capi- 
tal of the territory. 

Twelfth, That the commercial and social intercourse of 
the people of the said Nez Perces, Shoshone and Idaho coun- 
ties is now mainly with Walla Walla county, Washington 
territory, and the counties west of Walla Walla along the 
Columbia river, and the roads and other channels of corn- 
access, all the business of north Idaho is done by and 
through these channels, no one of which leads to or near 
south Idaho. 

Thirteenth. That the union of north Idaho and Wash- 
ington territory will hasten the period when said Washing- 
ton territory will possess the requisites for admission into 
the Union, clothed in the habiliments of one of the sovereign- 
ties of the Republic. 

Fourteenth, That the commercial men of the country, 
who have inaugurated and have now in process of construc- 
tion the great northern trans-continental railway, have sig- 
nificantly pointed to the proper union of north Idaho and 

ot said Washington territory, and that no par 

way or its western branch. 

Wherefore, your memorialists pray that, at the coming 
session of your honorable body, all that part of Idaho ter- 
ritory lying north of the forty-fifth parallel be annexed to 
Washington territory as organized with her present bound- 
ies, and your memorialists will ever pray. 

Done at Lewiston. Idaho territory, this 22d day of No- 
mber, A. D. 1873. 






The question was up before congress again in 1875 
and yet again in 1877. The petitions in the latter year 
were" filed by Delegate Fenn. They differed from for- 
mer documents in describing the territory to be trans- 
ferred as Nez Perces county and all the teritory at- 
tached to it for judicial purposes, rather than desig- 
nating the southern boundary by a fixed parallel. Or- 
ange Jacobs, delegate from Washington territory, was 
pledged to the support of the measure. The sentiment 
of southern Idaho was probably correctly expressed 
by the following language in the Boise Statesman : 

"Any proposition, coming from whatever quarter, 
which looks to the dismemberment of the territory, 
will always be opposed by the people of Idaho taken as 
a whole, even if what might be considered as compen- 
sating advantages are offered in return." 

In 1878 the governor of Washington territory is- 
sued a proclamation for a convention of delegates at 
Walla Walla on June i ith for the purpose of framing 
a constitution, preparatory to statehood. The plan was 

Perces county, 485 votes for and 13 against; Idaho 
county, 221 votes for and 14 against ; Shoshone county, 
36 for and i against. 

From this time forth the memorials to congress 
took a different tone. Instead of asking for immediate 
segregation from Idaho and annexation to the territory 
of Washington, they asked that they should be ad- 
mitted as a part of the state, when that commonwealth 
was clothed in the habiliments of statehood. The vote 
on the question in 1880 was more nearly unanimous 
than ever before, but two ballots being cast against 
the proposition in Nez Perces county, and not one in 
Shoshone. So determined were the people of the Pan- 
handle in this matter that they freely cast aside for the 
time being their political affiliations, when these were 
in conflict with their great project, and supported an- 
nexationists regardless of party. It was thought that 
congress could not turn a deaf ear to the plain voice of 
the people, expressed so unequivocally in their memo- 
rials, conventions and elections, but the ways of poli- 
' 5 for their 

expected the constitution would some day be in force, 
the then territory of Washington and the Panhandle 
of Idaho. Accordingly an invitation was extended to 
Nez Perces, Idaho and Shoshone counties to send a 
delegate to the convention, who, however, was to be 
denied the privilege of a vote, though he might freely 
participate in all debates. For the purpose of electing 
this delegate a general convention was called at Lew- 
iston, April Qth, on which date sixty delegates and 
proxies were present at the court house. They adopted 
certain resolutions, framed by J. W. Poe, Ezra Baird and 
M. Storm, the purport of which was that the conven- 
tion concurred gladly in the aims and purposes of the 
Walla Walla convention ; that they would send a dele- 
gate in whose intelligence, honesty, energy and ability 
to fairly and truly represent them they had unbounded 
confidence, and that the delegate would be fully justi- 
fied in representing to the convention that more than 
nineteen-twentieths of all the people of Nez Perces, 
Idaho and Shoshone counties were earnestly in favor 
of uniting their political fortunes with the people of 
Washington territory. 

The choice of the Lewistpn convention was Alonzo 
Leland. He experienced some difficulty in gaining a 
seat in the Walla Walla convention as the delegates 
from western Washington were opposed to him, and 
not much in favor of the annexation movement, for 
they feared annexation would transfer the balance of 
political power from the western to the eastern side of 
the Cascade range. But Mr. Leland secured his right 
to a voice. He not only represented north Idaho with 
great ability, but by the wisdom of his counsels, added 
much to the excellence of the constitution of 1878, 
which is admittedly an able state papier. 

In the November election, northern Idaho voted on 
the question of adopting the Washington constitution. 
The vote was lighter than that for candidates, chiefly 
on account of misunderstandings, but those who ex- 
pressed themselves were almost unanimous in its sup- 
port. The official figures were as follows: Nez 

sometimes hard to discover. Petition after petition was 
slighted, and now that north Idaho had united its for- 
tunes with Washington in its efforts for admission to 
the Union, there was an additional cause for procras- 
tination in the settlement of the annexation question. 
Then there was besides the open opposition of southern 
Idaho, whose representatives claimed that the proposed 
change would despoil, disintegrate and tend to Mor- 
monize Idaho; occasion a readjustment of territorial 
districts, disarrange the courts, legislature and other 
internal machinery; make unequal division of terri- 
tory ; be unjust to the citizens of south Idaho and un- 
safe at present and finally that Washington would be 
too large and unstately. The bill for the admission of 
Washington with north Idaho was, however, reported 
favorably by the house committee in 1882, but though 
it elicited a vigorous debate, no definite and final action 
was taken. 

In the teritorial legislative session of 1884-5, an 
annexation memorial to congress passed the Idaho 
council by a vote of nine to three and the house by a 
vote of twenty to four. In January, 1886, the move- 
ment was again brought up in congress and pushed 
with vigor. The bill as presented by Delegate Hailey 
provided that the northern counties should not be re- 
leased from their just share of Idaho's bonded indebt- 
edness and that the southern boundary of the trans- 
ferred territory should ''commence at a point in the mid- 
dle of the main channel of Snake river due west of the 
head waters of Rabbit creek; thence due east to the 
head waters of Rabbit creek ; thence down the middle 
of said Rabbit creek to its junction with the Salmon 
river: thence up the middle of said Salmon river to 
the junction of Horse creek; thence up the middle of 
said Horse creek to the junction of the east fork of 
said creek; thence up the middle of said east fork of 
Horse creek to the crest of the Bitter Root range of 

The committee on territories recommended the pass- 
age of the bill and the house passed it February 24th. 


The senate, however, refused to consider the measure 
until that creating the state of Washoington had been 
put upon its passage. 

Meanwhile southern Idaho was all activity in its 
opposition to the movement. So long had agitation 
proved of no avail that the people south of the Salmon 
river had become somewhat apathetic, but now that 
they seemed in actual danger of losing their territory, 
they awoke to a realization of the momentous conse- 
quences to them which must result from its loss. Mass 
meetings were held ; protests were framed and sent to 
congress, and all the leading newspapers took up the 
fight with vehemence. Some opposition was expressed 
by residents south of the Salmon river, and two of the 
commissioners of Idaho county protested against the 
spoliation of the county's territory and petitioned that 
if annexation carried, the county should go as a whole. 
Opposition was also brought forward by Montana's 
delegate in congress, who claimed that all of Idaho 
north of the forty-seventh parallel, including the Couer 
d'Alene mining district, of right ought to be given to 
Montana. A petition signed by citizens in and con- 
tiguous to the town of Murray urged that the Pan- 
handle be annexed to Montana, for the reason that that 
commonwealth, being a mining territory, could better 
take care of the district's interests than could Wash- 
ington, which was not a mining region. 

On the other hand, the annexationists were not 
idle. March igth, the citizens of Kootenai county met 
at Rathdrum and passed resolutions strongly favoring 
the union with Washington and urging the senate to 
pass the bill. Resolutions of similar import were like- 
wise adopted by mass meetings at Mount Idaho, 
Grangeville and elsewhere, and indeed friends and 
foes of the measure were intensely in earnest, both par- 
ties deeming success of vital importance. 

On April loth, the United States senate passed a 
bill by a vote of thirty to thirteen admitting to state- 
hood Washington territory with north Idaho attached. 
Both houses of congress had now expressed them- 
selves in favor of annexation, and it needed but their 
formal consent to the same bill and the signature of 
the president to enact the eagerly sought and bitterly 
fought law. But the desired concurrence was not ob- 
tained at the 1886 session, and delay in this instance 
proved fatal. 

As the reader has no doubt already perceived 
unanimity on the annexation question no longer pre- 
vailed in north Idaho. The discovery of the Coeur 
d'Alene mines had caused an influx of Montana miners 
into the country, who brought with them a bias in favor 
of their own commonwealth. These began to advo- 
cate annexation of the Panhandle to Montana. Fur- 
thermore the desire to be identified with Washington 
had been fostered by the fact that that territory was 
striding forward at a rapid rate, owing to the impetus 
given it by the building of the Northern Pacific. Now, 
however, Idaho was itself enjoying a period of pros- 
perity, and its development was encouraging the hope 
that it might soon, if it could escape dismemberment, 
gain the dignity and prestige of statehood. But the 
sentiment was still strong as shown by the fact that in 

November, 1886, Kootenai county gave one hundred 
and sixty-five votes for union with Washington as 
against twenty-six for annexation to Montana and 
fourteen for the maintenance of the existing order of 
things. Murray and Delta favored remaining with 
Idaho, and though Wardner gave Montana over two 
hundred votes, the rest of the county more than coun- 
teracted them. Nez Perces and Idaho counties were 
still strong in their advocacy of union with Washing- 
ton, but the case in 1887 certainly seemed less hopeful 
than it had previously. Nevertheless, on March 2d, 
the senate took up and passed the annexation bill which 
we have referred to as having been passed by the house 
of representatives at its previous session, and all that 
was now needful was the signature of the president. 
The people of north Idaho felt sure that this would not 
be withheld, as Cleveland was thought to be favorably 
disposed toward the measure, so the friends of an- 
nexation, those who had labored so zealously for it 
during so many years, gave themselves up to unstinted 
rejoicing. But the jubilation was premature, for, 
though Delegate Hailey, Oregon's representation, Ne- 
vado's delegate, Washington's delegate, and others im- 
portuned Cleveland for his signature, Governor Stev- 
enson, of Idaho, seemed to have more weight with him 
than their united importunities, and the bill was 
"pocket vetoed." 

The annexation movement was now on the wane,, 
though its friends were still legion and much enthusi- 
asm in its favor was later manifested. Petitions and 
counter petitions were signed and forwarded to con- 
gress. Southern Idaho feared that if the northern 
counties were cut off the southern portion would be 
unable to support a government of any kind and would 
be attached to Nevada. Delegate Dubois therefore 
fought with vehemence against the measure, as if the 
life of his territory depended on its defeat. Delegate 
Voorhees, of Washington, aided by his illustrious fa- 
ther, also Oregon's and Nevada's senators, were in the 
fight in behalf of the project. In north Idaho senti- 
ment was divided, the mining region opposing annexa- 
tion. Both the political conventions in Nez Perces 
county passed resolutions favoring the union of the 
northern counties with Washington, and repudiating 
the acts of Delegate Dubois, the Republicans criticising 
him in scathing language. On October 15th the an- 
nexationists of north Idaho held at Cove, Latah coun- 
ty, what was said to be one of the largest mass meet- 
ings that ever convened in this entire section. H. E. 
Hall presided. Letters were read from persons in the 
southern portion of the state recognizing the justice of 
the north's position. Judge Norman Buck accepted 
the invitation of this mass meeting to become an in- 
dependent annexation candidate for delegate to con- 
gress, and though his candidacy was announced but a 

f days before the election, he received a very coi 
' ' Ve Salmc 

iderable vote in the counties north of the ; 
rivr, now increased to five in number by the organiza- 
tion of Latah county. 

But the annexation movement was somewhat em- 
barrassed in December, 1888, by the introduction into 
the house of representatives of a very popular bill, that 


for the admission of Idaho, including the northern 
section, to statehood. This placed the people of north 
Idaho in the dilemma of giving up their annexation 
scheme or opposing what under ordinary circumstances 
they would very much desire, the admission of. their 
territory to the "Union. There were also other forces 
in the northwest generally which were militating 
against the annexation movement. The Republican 
victories of November assured the admission of Mon- 
tana, Washington and the Dakotas at the next session 
of congress, and it was believed that Idaho, if united, 
would be admitted also. The political power which 
Idaho's two senators and congressman would give to 
the northwest was very much to be desired. If north 
Idaho should be segregated the southern portion could 
not maintain a state government and the whole north- 
west would be so much the loser. Furthermore, the 
Mormon question and Nevada's ambition for more 
territory would probably result in the swallowing up 
of southern Idaho and the permanent loss of a western 
state. These considerations induced Senator Mitchell 
of Oregon, hitherto an ardent annexationist, to publicly 
renounce his former position and to remove his stand- 
ards to the opposition camp. 

The Idaho legislature did much also to mollify the 
people of the north by granting them many liberal con- 
cessions, principal among which were the state uni- 
versity and a large appropriation for a wagon road 
from Camas prairie to Warm Springs, via Florence, 
uniting more closely the two sections of the territory. 
These concessions seem to have had the desired effect, 
for on the 22d of January, 1889, a significant event 
transpired. This was four days after the passage in 
the federal house of representatives of the Omnibus 
bill, providing for the admission to the Union of North 
and South Dakota, Montana and Washington, the last 
without the counties of north Idaho. The date re- 
ferred to witnessed a meeting in Grostein & Binnard's 
hall, Lewiston, for the purpose of exchanging views 
upon the subject of ways and means of securing state- 
hood for Idaho. Hon. James W. Poe was made chair- 
man of the meeting, and a committee on resolutions 
was appointed which in due time reported the follow- 
ing for adoption as the sense of the assembly: 

"Whereas the territory of Idaho is possessed of 
sufficient area, resources, intelligence and population 
to maintain a state government and to authorize and 
require its admission into the Union, therefore be it 

"Resolved, That we insist upon and respectfully 
demand of congress admission as a state into the fed- 
eral Union. 

"Resolved, That we endorse the efforts of our dele- 
gate in congress, Hon. Fred T. Dubois, Senator J. H. 
Mitchell and Hon. William H. Springer to secure state- 
hood for Idaho, and to this end we earnestly petition 
that congress pass an enabling act at its present 

"Resolved, That we call upon our territorial legis- 
lature, and our sister towns and counties in Idaho, to 
unite with us, by resolution and memorial, in urging 
upon congress immediate action in the premises." 

The debate on the resolutions waxed warm and 

finally ended in a division of the assembly, those op- 
posing statehood on account of their wish for annexa- 
tion adjourning to Grostein & Binnard's new hall. 
The number in attendance before the split was perhaps 
125, and of these all but fifty withdrew. By those 
remaining the resolutions were adopted as a matter of 

The opposition meeting likewise expressed itself 
most emphatically by resolutions, but no language it 
might use could be strong enough to counteract the 
effect of the original meeting. An anti-annexation 
assembly had convened in the city that had always 

nexation movement. The announcement of this fact 
was hailed with delight by the people of south Idaho 
as indicating that the north had receded far from the 
position it had held with such singular unanimity for 
so many years. 1'his action meant not only that the 
danger "of a loss of territory was past, but that the 
commonwealth could hope for assistance from its every 
quarter in the effort to secure entrance into the federal 

The Omnibus bill passed the senate as it had passed 
the house, without making provision for the annexa- 
tion of north Idaho to Washington. Cleveland signed 
it during the closing days of his administration. Wash- 
ington complied with its conditions and achieved the 
boon of statehood and the annexation question was 
settled at last. 

There was now but one thing within the territory 
militating against a united campaign for admission, and 
that was the Mormon question. Of a population of 
113,777, according to Governor Shoup's estimate, 
twenty-five thousand were Mormons. To the crushing 
out of the objectionable features in their religion the 
territory had set its face like flint from the earliest 
times. The legislature of 1884-5 passed a registry 
law requiring voters to take the following rigid oath : 

"I do solemnly swear, (or affirm) that I am a male 
citizen of the United States of the age of twenty-one 

(21) years, (or will be the day of , 

18 , (naming date of next succeeding election), that 
I have (or will have) actually resided in this territory 
for four (4) months, and in this county for thirty (30) 
days next preceding the day of the next ensuing elec- 
tion ; ( in case of any election requiring a different time 
of residence, so make it) that I have never been con- 
victed of treason, felony or bribery; that I am not 
now registered, or entitled to vote, at any other place 
in this territory ; and I do further swear that I am not 
a bigamist or polygamist ; that I am not a member of 
any order, organization or association which teaches, 
advises, counsels or encourages its members, devotees 
or any other person to commit the crime of bigamy or 
polygamy, or any other crime defined by lavir, as a duty 
arising or resulting from membership in such order, 
organization or association, or which practices bigamy 
or polygamy, or plural or celestial marriage, as a doc- 
trinal rite of such organization ; that I do not, and will 
not. publicly or privately, or in any manner whatever, 
teach, advise, counsel or encourage any person to com- 
mit the crime of bigamy or polygamy, or any other 

7 6 


crime defined by law, either as a religious duty or 
otherwise; that I do regard the constitution of the 
United States, and the laws thereof, and of this terri- 
tory, as interpreted by the courts, as the supreme law 
of the land, the teachings of any order, organization or 
association to the contrary notwithstanding; (when 
made before a judge of election, add 'and I have not 
previously voted at this election') so help me God." 

Much" depended upon whether this "test oath'' or 
one similar to it could be maintained in the courts. 
Pursuant to a proclamation issued April 2, 1889, by 
Governor E. A. Stevenson and supplemented May 
nth by his successor, Governor George L. Shoup, a 
convention of seventy-two delegates met in session at 
Boise on July 4th for the purpose of framing a state 
constitution. Upon the instrument framed by them it 
is needless to comment here, further than to state that 
one of its clauses forever prohibited bigamy and po- 
lygamy. The Mormons claimed that this provision 
and the test oath were both in violation of the United 
States constitution which, by its first amendment, pro- 
hibits the passage of any law "respecting the establish- 
ment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise there- 
of." As it was a matter of great importance to determ- 
ine whether the distinctive provision of the constitution 
of Idaho would be maintained in the courts or not, a 
Mormon voter was arrested on a charge of conspiracy. 
The case was taken to the supreme court of the United 
States, which held : "that the term 'religion' has refer- 
ence to one's views of his relations to his Creator and 
to the obligations they impose and reverence for His 
being and character, and of obedience to His will. 
It is often confounded with the cultus or form of 
worship of a particular sect, but is distinguished from 
the latter. The first amendment to the constitution, 
in declaring that 'congress shall make no law respect- 
ing the establishment of religion or prohibit the free 
exercise thereof,' was intended to allow everyone un- 
der the jurisdiction of the United States to entertain 
such notions respecting his relations to his Maker and 
the duties they impose as may be approved by his 
judgment and conscience, and to exhibit his sentiments 
in such form of worship as he may think proper not 
injurious to the equal rights of others, and to prohibit 
legislation for the support of any religious tenets or 
the modes of worship of any religious sect. It was 
never intended or supposed that the amendment could 
be invoked as a protection against legislation for the 
punishment of acts inimical to the peace, good order 
and morals of society. However free the exercise of 
religion may be, it must be subordinate to the criminal 
laws of the country passed with reference to actions re- 
garded by general consent as properly the subjects of 
punitive legislation. Probably never before in the 
history of this country has it been seriously contended 
that the whole punitive power of the government, for 
acts recognized by the general consent of the Christian 
world in modern times as proper matters for prohibi- 
tory legislation, must be suspended in order that the 
tenets of a religious sect encouraging crime may be car- 
ried out without hindrance." 

This decision removed- the last internal stumbling 

block in the way of Idaho's admission to the Union. 
However, there were difficulties to be overcome in 
congress. Delegate Dubois's bill was vigorously op- 
posed by the Democrats, who refused to support meas- 
ures for the admission of Idaho or Wyoming unless 
Arizona and New Mexico were also admitted so as to 
keep political powers more nearly balanced. When 
the admission bill came before the house of representa- 
tives April 3, 1890, the Democrats abstained from 
voting or answering to the roll call and raised the point 
of no quorum. Speaker Reed refused to sustain them ; 
the vote was taken and resulted in the passage of the 
bill with but one dissenting voice. The act passed 
the senate on July ist, was signed by the president 
July 3d and Idaho, her people having adopted at the 
November election the constitution signed at Boise 
August 7th, was ready to enter forthwith upon her 1 
career as a sovereign state. 

Though it is not expedient or consistent with the 
plan of this work that a detailed account of all railway 
projects to be incorporated, yet a faithful portraiture of 
the life and commercial activity of north Idaho's popu- 
lation is not possible without reference to a few of the 
efforts which 'have been made to solve the transporta- 
tion problem. While the Pacific Northwest was in 
the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company, it was con- 
tended by the members and employees of that corpora- 
tion that even a wagon road over the Rocky mountains 
was an impossibility. It fell to the lot of an American 
missionary. Dr. Marcus Whitman, to disprove this 
assertion. That was in 1843. Less than a decade 
later men of prominence in the west and railroad build- 
ers in the east began asking themselves whether the 
construction of a Pacific railroad might not prove feasi- 
ble. Soon after the title to Oregon territory was set- 
tled between the United States and the British crown, 
in 1846, all exploring parties under the direction of the 
government were charged with the task of taking in- 
cidental observations and securing data which might 
help settle this question of feasibility. In time the 
conviction that a road was possible became fixed; in- 
deed the question became rather which of several routes 
was the most practicable. 

Before the end of the 'fifties Governor Isaac I. 
Stevens, of Washington territory, advanced the theory 
that at least three transcontinental railways would 
ultimately prove necessary, in the same report advocat- 
ing that the northern route was the one which should 
first be utilized. During the 'sixties active work in the 
construction of the Northern Pacific railroad was be- 
gun, and by the dawn of the 'seventies it was so far 
along that the west generally was feeling the benign 
effects of the anticipated railway connections. 

The question most intimately affecting north Idaho 
was "where will the line cross the territory ?" There 
appeared to be three routes open to the company, each 
of which had its special advantages, one through the 
Coeur d'Alene pass, thence via Lake Pend Oreille; 
one through the Bitter Roots, by the Lolo pass, down 
the Clearwater and Snake rivers and by the Columbia 
to the sea : and one down Salmon river. A survey of 
this last was completed by Colonel DeLacy in the fall 



of 1872. Several advantages were presented by it, 
among them that it was one hundred and fifty miles 
shorter than via Pend Oreille lake ; that it ' would 
always be below the snow line; that it would render 
possible a dry and permanent road bed ; that its grade 
would be less and more uniform than any other ; that it 
would be more nearly in the latitude of Bozeman pass ; 
that it would draw some support from sources that 
would otherwise send their trade to the Union and 
Central Pacific or The Dalles and Salt Lake road,; that 
it would open a promising mineral country. On the 
other hand a road following this course would take 
longer to construct than one on the more northerly 
route ; its cost per mile would be much greater and for 
two hundred miles of the distance it woul pass 
through land of slight agricultural value. 

The Pend Oreille route was objectionable, or 
supposed to be, on account of the low marshy ground 
over which the road must of necessity pass and on ac- 
count of its length. The Lolo and Clearwater route 
was admittedly the best, provided the pass was prac- 
ticable, a question which nothing but a survey could 
definitely answer. Several engineer corps were kept 
busy during the year 1872 endeavoring to solve the 
route problem, but before the company had made a 
decision the panic of 1873 came, effectually putting an 
end to all railway construction for the time being. 
Northern Pacific stock fell until it was regarded as 
next to worthless, and the road went into the hands of 
a receiver. Gradually, however, the company recov- 
ered itself, and by 1878 it was able to resume the work 
of constructing a road to the coast. 

The failure of the Northern Pacific to build west 
in the early 'seventies had a very depressing effect upon 
the Northwest generally, and various were the reasons 
advanced for this failure by the discouraged and dis- 
heartened settlers. All sorts of evil motives were 
ascribed to the corporation, but the more intelligent, 
those who studied the financial situation and compre- 
hended the magnitude of the work to be accomplished, 
were disposed to view the matter in a kindlier light and 
to consider the company not responsible for the incon- 
veniences incident to the delay. Congress dealt patient- 
ly and generously with the corporation throughout its 
trials, passing in 1878 a bill renewing the land grants, 
which had expired by limitation. By the provisions 
of this act the company was to commence the con- 
struction of the road at or near the mouth of Snake 
river within nine months from the passage of the act 
and twenty-five miles were to be constructed eastward- 
ly within one year thereafter and forty miles each 
succeeding year, and, including the extension west- 
ward, one hundred miles per annum were to be con- 
structed somewhere on the line, after the first year; 
a line was to be built around the dalles of the Columbia 
within two and one half years and around the Cas- 
cades within two years ; and the company was to take 
all freights from above or below without discrimi- 
nation in rates, giving an equal chance to all freighters. 
In case it failed to construct a road around these 
barriers within the time limit, the company was" to 
forfeit its grant down the Columbia from Umatilla. 

Subsequently the law was changed so as to allow the 
Northern Pacific to build north to the sound. 

With the rejuvenation of the Northern Pacific in 
1878 the people of north Idaho again became hopeful, 
believing that at last the darkness surrounding them 
was about to be disseminated and that the sun which 
would pierce the gloom and again brighten the land was 
the Northern Pacific. They also had hopes that the line 
would cross the Bitter Root range and come down 
the Clearwater, through Lewiston, thence along the 
Snake river to its mouth. The Lewiston Teller was 
the exponent of the opinion that this was a feasible 
route and through its columns its public-spirited and 
indefatigable editor, Alonzo Leland, renewed the agi- 
tation of the railway question. Mr. Leland was not 
alone in favoring a proposition to extend to the 
Northern Pacific an earnest petition to again explore 
the Bitter Roots with a view to utilizing if possible the 
Clearwater route. This request was formerly presented 
in 1879 by the people of Lewiston and vicinity, and 
despite the fact that the company had made several 
unsuccessful explorations in search of a feasible route, 
the wishes of the people were complied with, the 
company detailing H. M. McCartney to make the sur- 
veys from the western slope. The expenses of this 
expedition were paid by several prominent citizens of 
Lewiston, chief among whom was John P. Vollmer, 
who furnished three-fourths of the sum necessary. 
The exploring party, accompanied by guides, spent 
several weeks in the mountains making observations. 
The perseverance and public spirit of the men who 
placed the expedition in the field were partially re- 
warded for McCartney found that the construction of 
a line through the Lolo pass was not an impractic- 
ability, though it would require much more time than 
was possible to give it under the time limit placed upon 
the company by congress for the completion of the 
line. This was the substance of his report and very 
naturally the company announced that under these cir- 
cumstances it would have to abandon the Clearwater 
route. It therefore immediately commenced the final 
survey of the route from the mouth of Snake river 
northward through the Pend Oreille pass, J. P. Voll- 
mer, of Lewiston, receiving the contract for furnish- 
ing the survey stakes. 

But the people of Lewiston and many other points 
in north Idaho had not been convinced of the imprac- 
ticability of building a railroad across the Bitter Root 
mountains, holding that McCartney had not found the 
lowest pass in that range, and the activity displayed 
by the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company only 
urged them the more in their efforts to secure a rail- 
road. The outcome of this feeling was the organi- 
zation, at Lewiston, of the Idaho, Clearwater & Mon- 
tana Transportation Company, composed of Alonzo 
Leland, Jasper Rand, I. N. Maxwell, C. A. Thatcher, 
C. C. Bunnell, John Brearley, A. McGregor, L. P. 
Brown, B. F. Morris, J. M. Crooks, W. C. Pearson, 
Charles E. Monteith, Joseph Alexander, Hazen 
Squier, William F. Kettenbach, Jerry Dorman and S. 
C. Hale, all residents of Nez Perces and Idaho counties. 
The organizers of this company freely admitted that 


they did not possess the capital to carry out their pro- 
jects, the main one of which was the construction of 
a railroad across the Bitter Roots. They announced 
that their purpose was to make several surveys and if 
they found a feasible route to attempt to interest capital 
in the enterprise. And now we come to the most 
interesting feature of the whole Clearwater railway 

There seems to have been a widespread impression 
among the inhabitants of north Idaho that a very low 
pass, whose existence was known only to the Indians 
and a few fortunate trappers, existed in the Bitter 
Root range. This was called the Skakaho pass and ac- 
cording to the meagre information passessed regarding 
it, was south of the Lolo. Its entrance from the Mon- 
tana side was impossible to distinguish and its entrance 
on the western slope was so hidden from man's view 
that only a minute examination could result in its dis- 
covery. As the story went, the location of this pass 
was a secret possessed by few but through those it 
had been learned that the pass was easily approached 
from both east and west and was perfectly feasible 
for railroad purposes. The Indians were said to have 
used it as a winter route through the mountains. All 
agreed that nature had succeeded well in her efforts 
to thoroughly hide it from the curious world. 

To discover and explore this mysterious pass was 
the task the Idaho, Clearwater & Mantana Transpor- 
tation Company proposed to itself. Accordingly late 
in the summer or 1881, the company sent an exploring 
party under Alfred J. Beall in search of the hidden pass 
and a feasible route to and through it. On September 
22d, after an absence of six weeks, Beall returned with 
the information that he had found the Skakaho pass, 
that it was only 4,550 feet above the sea and that the 
gradients to it from the west were very easy, the maxi- 
mum being only 48 feet and the minimum 13 feet to 
the mile. Mr. Beal! describes this route as "up the 
Clearwater to the Selway fork; up the Selway fork 
to Fast creek ; up Fast creek to Loyal creek, and thence 
through the canyon." The pass was taken possession 
of in the name of the Idaho, Clearwater & Montana 
Transportation Company. He reported an excellent 
route through the pass and into Montana. 

It is needless to say that this report created no 
little excitement for if the purported discovery proved 
genuine it would probably result in the Northern 
Pacific's changing its route. That it did receive the 
serious notice of that company is evidenced by the fact 
that Major Truax, an O. R. & N. engineer but really 
in the employ of the Northern Pacific also, as at that 
time these two corporations were under the same 
control, was sent to the Bitter Root mountains to make 
an exploration. The Beall report was placed in his 
hands and he was urged to make an examination of 
the Skakaho pass. Major Truax reported a total 
failure to find the Beall pass, as it now came to be 
named, after a careful examination of the mountain 
range. He also reported that the Lolo pass was less 
than 5,000 feet high, in opposition to the statements 
of McCartney that it was 7,500 feet. Traux said that 
there was a practicable railroad grade through the 

pass. He found that the maximum grade was less 
than 100 feet to the mile and that the maximum grade 
from the mouth of the middle fork of the Clearwater 
to where the road would leave Lolo creek was less 
than fifty feet. To construct a road over such a route 
would require an enormous amount of work, however, 
and much time, so that he believed it would be im- 
practicable for the Northern Pacific to utilize the route 
then, as congress was insisting upon the company's 
living up to its contract to push the road to a rapid 
completion. The richest and most fertile part of north 
Idaho was, therefore, left as much isolated as ever 
and not until recent years did the northern part of the 
state really receive any great direct benefit from the 
building of the Northern Pacific railroad. The con- 
troversy over the Beall pass continued for many years 
after Truax made his report and not a few refused 
to believe in its non-exi stance. John P. Vollmer, an 
official of the Northern Pacific Railway Company since 
1879, to whom we are indebted for access to many 
papers and considerable correspondence in the prepar- 
ation of this chapter, gives it as his belief that the 
Skakaho pass does not exist and that the report of 
Beall was not based on work actually and honestly 
performed. Many attempts have been made to re- 
discover the famous pass, one by Mr. Beall himself, 
but so far all have ended in failure. From personal 
letters writted to Mr. Vollmer by the president of the 
Northern Pacific in the early 'eighties, the author is 
convinced that the Northern Pacific was desirous of 
adopting the Clearwater route to the Columbia and 
that if it had been practicable to build through the 
Lolo or any other pass within the time limit this route 
would have been chosen in preference to the northern. 

It is a noteworthy fact that in recent years the 
company has built a line up the Clearwater to Stites, 
encouraging the hope that some day, when money may 
be obtained at a much lower rate of interest than it 
now commands, it will extend this Clearwater Short 
Line over the Bitter Roots to a connection with its 
main line and down the Snake to the Columbia, giving 
Nez Perces and Idaho counties the benefit of direct 
trans-continental communication. 

Hardly had hope of relief from the Northern 
Pacific failed before the residents of north Idaho were 
encouraged to look in another direction for aid. The 
Oregon Short Line was building westward through 
the southern part of the territory at this time. It de- 
sired very much to reach the ocean, while the O. R. 
& N., building through eastern Oregon and over the 
Blue mountains, was very desirous of getting into 
southern Idaho. The Burnt river canyon was the 
only practicable route for the O. R. & N. It was 
likewise the only route for the Oregon Short Line to 
reach the sea, except by Snake river canyon to the 
mouth of that stream, thence down the Columbia. The 
Burnt river pass was of such contour that both rail- 
ways could not well occupy it ; and it was not definitely 
known that the Snake river route was not preferable 
anyway. Early in 1883 a survey was undertaken to 
determine the feasibility of the latter course. Engineer 
Moscript was entrusted to make the survey in a 


southerly direction, while Chief Engineer Clark, start- 
ing at the mouth of Burnt river, should survey north- 
ward to meet him. After completing their task the 
Iwo parties came to Lewiston, where they reported that 
the distance between that town and Burnt river was 
187 miles, that the maximum grade of any one mile 
in the survey was less than twenty feet, the average 
being not more than six of seven, but there were no 
curves to exceed six degrees, and that the surveying 
parties saw no sign of snow slides. Mr. Clark was 
highly pleased with the route. He said a road could 
be built, he estimated for one-third less than the cost 
of construction through Burnt river canyon and over 
the Blue mountains. An approximate location sur- 
vey was completed in September of that year confirm- 
ing Clark's report and the residents of Nez Perces and 
Idaho counties entertained not unreasonable hopes that 
they might have a railroad in the near future. 

But they were doomed to disappointment. Arrange- 
ments were effected between the O. R. & N. Company 
and the Oregon Short Line, by which both roads were 
to build to Huntington and join each other, dividing 
the profits on an agreed basis. The fact that north 
Idaho need not hope for any immediate relief from 
the (Jregon Short Line was officially communicated in 
July, 1884, by a letter from' a Union Pacific officer to 
Alonzo Leland, from which some extracts are here 
given as follows : 

Dear Sir: Yours of the 2ist ult. was found here 
on my return from a two weeks' absence in the east. 
I can well understand the interest your people feel re- 
garding the extension of the Oregon Short Line down 
Snake river and I wish I could speak more encourag- 
ingly to you on the subject; but the fact is that the 
present demoralized market for railroad securities 
makes it impossible to raise money for any extended 
new constructions, and the attempt to do so would 
be simply suicidal. Our company will not engage in 
any new work at this time but merely complete works 
already begun to redeem its obligations in that be- 
half so far as it is committed. The Oregon Short Line 
track is at the mouth of Burnt river. As soon as the 
Snake river falls sufficiently we will complete the 
bridge at that place and lay the rails the remaining 
three and a half miles to Huntington, completing our 
part of the work, which we expect to accomplish about 
the last of September." 

The joint traffic agreement and the depressed con- 
dition of railway stocks obtaining at the time were 
responsible for this disappointment, as the Union 
Pacific undoubtedly intended to build down the Snake 
and Columbia rivers to tidewater. 

In 1886 the Union Pacific R. R. Company was 
again in the field with surveyors, this time to determine 
the distance and grades to be overcome by a railroad 
from Lewiston to some point on the Utah Northern, 
also the character of the country tributary to such road. 
The next spring a corps of engineers from Omaha 
started at the Lewiston end of the old Clark Snake 
river survey and proceeded to run a line down the 
north side of the Snake to the Columbia. Another 
party in the employ of the O. R. & X. took the field 



surveys from Clearwater. There is little doubt but 
that the Union Pacific really intended undertaking 
some operations by which north Idaho would greatly 
profit, but its energies were again paralyzed in the 
fall of 1887 by an agreement entered into in New 
York city between its directors and those of the North- 
ern Pacific Company, whereby the northwest was di- 
vided between the two corporations, all north of an 
east and west line passing through the mouth of Snake 
river, being given to the Northern Pacific. This 
arrangement effectually shut off during its continuance 
Lewiston and vicinity from hope centering in the Union 
Pacific, dashing to the ground the expectations en- 
gendered by the numerous surveys. 

Still the Spokane and Palouse branch was being 
built at this time and but little doubt was entertained 
that .it would be extended to Lewiston and beyond. 
The O. R. & N. also gave evidence, by its activity 
in surveying routes, of an intent to build into the 
Clearwater and Camas prairie countries ; so the hopes 
of our citizenship were continually receiving iresh 
inspiration. But the Spokane and Palouse branch 
stopped at Genesee; the O. R. & N. came no nearer 
than Moscow; and the people of Nez Perces and 
Idaho counties were left to their isolation for more 
than a decade longer. The discovery of mineral wealth 
in northern Shoshone county had led to the building 
of railways into that section, however. 

Another railway enterprise which promised partial 
relief to the southern portion of the Panhandle, but 
which failed to bring it was the Idaho Transit 
Company, organized in 1887 by J. P. Vollmer and 
others in Lewiston and Asotin." This company sur- 
veyed a line from Lewiston to Camas prairie, via' Tam- 
many hollow and Lake Waha, intending to connect 
that rich section by rail with the boat lines on the 
Snake river. Financial arrangements were made 
whereby the company might build the first twenty 
miles immediately and in fact, $50,000 were spent in 
grading the roadbed in Tammany hollow and in con- 
struction work. Mr. Vollmer tells" us that the Northern 
Pacific Company was behind this movement from the 
first. He was the leader and main stockholder in 
the Transit company and he undertook the work with 
the understanding that the road, when completed, was 
to be sold to the Northern Pacific. The other stock- 
holders were not aware of this, and of course the 
people generally were not. The Northern Pacific's 
idea in these negotiations was to get the road con- 

of the O. R. & N. For some reason the Northern 
Pacific changed its plan, bought the Tammany hollow 
road before much work had been done on it, and 
abandoned the enterprise entirely. 

During the latter 'eighties and the early 'nineties 
no little interest centered in the projects of the Midland 
Pacific Railway Company. The organizers of this 
corporation were Hon. R. F. Pettigrew, president; 


William N. Coler, vice-president; S. L. Tate, second 
vice-president; J. A. Gargiulo, treasurer; and H. M. 
McDonald, secretary; and its capital stock was $15,- 
000,000 preferred and $65,000,000 common. Its pur- 
pose was to build a road from Sioux Falls to the coast, 
which road was to find an outlet through the Illinois 
Central, Chicago & Northwestern and other lines to 
the east. The route outlined by the company for its 
own road was through northern Wyoming, skirting 
Yellowstone park on the south ; down the Salmon river 
to White Bird; thence across through Camas prairie 
and on to Lewiston, thence to an easy grade into the 
Palouse country, which it was to cross in a north- 
westerly direction going to Seattle. Mr. Vollmer tells 
us that though the fact is not generally known a sur- 
vey of this route was made and plans were matured 
for financing the enterprise. The crisis of 1893 and 
subsequent depression caused operations for the time 
being to be suspended, but it is possible that the scheme 
may yet materialize and shortly. Another survey 
which excited little comment at the time and of which 
few people have any knowledge, Mr. Vollmer tells 
us, was made by the Illinois Central Railway 
Company, also ambitious to reach the coast. This 
survey likewise passed through parts of Idaho and 
Nez Perces counties. It is surely significant that so 
the s 

and the reservation line precipitated hostilities betwei 
the rival corporations. 

It is difficult to write of such matters with histoi 
cal accuracy, for men who are able to speak with 
authority are generally believers in the adage that 
"Speech is silver but silence gold," and the outside 
world has to do considerable guessing and reasoning 
from appearances in attempting to arrive at conclusic 
as to what transpires in the conferences of railway 
magnates. However, President Mellen of the Northern 
Pacific, in an interview, gave his side of the case w 
considerable freedom. Among other things, he said 
that : "There are contracts which have been in ex- 
istence since 1880, signed by the presidents of the two 
companies and ratified by both boards of directors, spe- 
cifically assigning the Clearwater and much other ter- 
ritory in that region to the Northern Pacific." Upon 
these he relied as a basis upon which an agreement was 
to be affected, amicably settling the differences be- 
tween the two roads. Portland, of course, favored the 
O. R. & N. In commenting on the situation the Ore- 
gonian said : 

"Perhaps the most important territory in the Co- 
lumbia basin, still unoccupied by railways* is the Clear- 
water valley. Here is a territory in extent equal < 

ly equal to the Palouse country, the subject here- 

till t 

board, have looked toward the Snake river and its 
tributaries as most likely to furnish the route desired, 
and there certainly is much foundation for the hope 
that this rich portion of north Idaho may yet be 
traversed by a trans-continental line. 

The chief sensation in Nez Perces county during 
1898, aside from the war, was the building of the ex- 
tension of the Spokane & Palouse branch of the North- 
ern Pacific Railroad to Lewiston and the railroad war 
which grew out of this activity. Strange it seems 
to those on the outside that railway companies so often 
neglect the numerous calls to them for aid from com- 
munities suffering for lack of transportation and con- 
tinue to turn a deaf ear to all proposals for years, then 
suddenly become so anxious for the advantages they 
have before seemed to spurn that they struggle and 
contend with each other to secure them. For thirty 
years the Clearwater country had been agonizing for 
a railroad. Its cry was unanswered. Then, when at 
last the Northern Pacific determined to do something 
for it, the jealousy of the Oregon Railway and Navi- 
gation Company is aroused, and a war is the result. 
In this case, however, it is evident that both corpora- 
tions had been fully .aware of the prize that lay un- 
grasped before them, but for one reason or another 
neither was before able to make the effort necessary to 
appropriate it. Prior to 1895 tne reservation exerted 
a deterrent influence and when that was no more the 
financial stringency was in the way. But the return 
of good times brought a renewal of activity in railway 
circles; the Northern Pacific's operations directed at- 
tention again to the rich field yet unentered in north 
Idaho, and the commencement of condemnation pro- 
ceedings against all the Indian land owners on the 
north bank of the Clearwater between Potlatch creek 

tention. It is a territory of enormous agricultural 
capabilities and may easily ship ten million bushels of 
wheat a year. It is also a great stock country, for the 
grazing lands in and about it are to prodigious extent, 
and it lies in the vicinity of great timber and great min- 
ing regions. The traffic of that country it would not 
be easy to overestimate, and, like that of other locali- 
ties in the great basin of the Columbia, it will coi 
down to Portland by the gradients on which the wa 

"It is of the highest importance to that country, to 
the O. R. & N. as a property, to the city of Portland as 
the commercial entrepot and shipping port of the Co- 
lumbia basin, that this territory be furnished with rail- 
way transportation through the O. R. & N. system. 
This will require the construction of perhaps one hun- 
dred miles of road east of Lewiston, and with it an 
extension of the Snake river line from Riparia to Lew- 
iston, about seventy miles. It is all practicable, all 

To succinctly convey an idea of the controversy be- 
tween the two railroads we cannot do better than to 
quote an interview given in July, 1899, by a high 
official of the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company 
to the New York correspondent of the Spokesman-Re- 
view. It reads as follows: 

"It is difficult to appreciate the merits of the Clear- 
water controversy without studying the map of the 
Clearwater country. There is a great deal of misap- 
prehension regarding the points of contention between 
the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company and the 

Wallula to Riparia through the Palouse country. This 
line is not satisfactory, and so the company has pro- 
jected a line between the points mentioned following 


the Snake river. The water course gives easy grades 
and a better route. At Alto on the present line, there 
is a three per cent, grade, so that practically all trains 
from Spokane and the north have to be broken up 
there. This will be avoided by the new line. The old 
line will then become merely a feeder for the Palouse 
country. Now there is no dispute, as generally sup- 
posed, over this new line along the Snake river, the 
Northern Pacific rather favoring its construction. This 
line the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company has 
about completed. What the Northern Pacific objects 
to is a continuation of this line, as projected, along the 
Snake river from Riparia to Lewiston, where the Ore- 
gon Navigation now operates a line of steamers. . 

"The Northern Pacific has a line from Moscow to 
Lewiston, to which the Oregon Railway & Navigation 
Company has no objection, but is building lines east 
of Lewiston in the Nez Perces and Camas prairie dis- 
tricts, to which the O. R. & N. seriously objects, be- 
cause the Northern Pacific has made no arrangements 
with it for hauling traffic from this rich country. 

"The O. R. & N. will not only build the surveyed 
line, from Riparia to Lewiston, but will also build east 
of Lewiston and fight the Northern Pacific in the Nez 
Perces and Camas prairie districts. It believes that 
the Northern Pacific has not been fortunate in the se- 
lection of its routes and discounts its threats to subse- 
quently parallel the Riparia-Lewiston line. One who 
knows the value of the Nez Perces and Camas prairie 
territory can easily understand how the two companies 
have got into such a dispute over it, for it promises 
to rank with the Walla Walla and Palouse sections in 
the richness and abundance of its wheat fields and other 
agricultural resources. 

"For the present there can be no open collision be- 
cause the Northern Pacific has its lines east of Lewis- 
ton to complete and the O. R. & N. has its Riparia- 
Lewiston line to bui!d. When these are constructed, 
unless by that time a traffic arrangement has been 
agreed upon, the fight between the two companies will 
begin in earnest, and a fight of no mean proportions it 
will be. 

"The O. R. & N. is so situated geographically that 
it cannot abandon the rich opportunities offered by the 
Clearwater country. Its line for the most part runs 
south of the Columbia river," and it cannot get a very 
valuable traffic from the country north of it. Its ter- 
minus is Portland, where it has large interests, and 
Portland's prosperity depends considerably upon its 
keeping open the channel from the richest wheat fields 
of the Pacific northwest. 

"It has offered the Northern Pacific a short route 
via Connel, but the Northern Pacific wants more liberal 
considerations than the O. R. & N. deems reasonable 
or than are usually recognized. The Northern Pacific 
now has to take its freight to near Spokane and down 
again, and of course if it built right through west of 
Lewiston to its coast line it would have as short a route, 
or even shorter, than the O. R. & N. could offer it." 

The controversy occasioned much activity on the 
part of both corporations in surveying for routes and 
negotiating for rights of way. The Northern Pacific 

sought to bring its adversary to terms by threatening 
not only to parallel its proposed line up Snake river 
to Lewiston, but if necessary to do likewise with the 
road down the Columbia to Portland. The O. R. & N. 
by purchasing as much of the right of way up the north 
side of Clearwater as it could and instituting condem- 
nation proceedings for yard and depot grounds on the 
Silcott farm, opposite Lewiston, gave evidence of its 
intention to push into the Clearwater country. Both 
companies were active in surveying east of Lewiston, 
and both were searching for passes through the Bitter 
Roots and examining tnose already found. The 
Northern Pacific was pushing with great energy its 
construction work on the Cleawater Shirt Line exten- 
sion, and it was reported that in April, 1899, the road 
practically completed as far as the Big Eddy, where a 
a cut had to be made. Work was also being pushed 
vigorously on the Lapwai spur, which it was at first 
intended to extend into Camas prairie, a scheme after- 
ward abandoned on account of the high divide to the 
northward from Cottonwood. 

In Portland, early in August, 1899, a conference 
took place between President C. S. Mellen, of the 
Northern Pacific, and E. H. Harriman, chairman of 
the Union Pacific board of directors, President A. L. 
Mohler of the O. R. & N. being also present. It was 
understood that the main question up for consideration 
was the Northern Pacific's ultimatum to the O. R. & 
N. that it should promise to keep out of the Nez Perces 
country and give the Northern Pacific full trackage 
rights down the Columbia from Lewiston to Portland, 
or have its line paralleled down the Columbia. What 
transpired at the conference was a secret; we do not 
know that its results have ever become fully known to 
the public, but it is certain that some kind of a truce 
was arranged whereby the O. R. & N. suspended oper- 
ations in the Nez Perces country. 

In the efforts of the press and people to gain as 
much information as possible about the railway situa- 
tion, not a little weight was given to the utterances of 
the Orgonian, which was known to be in close touch 
with the O. R. & N. That journal in an issue appearing 
shortly after the conference used this language : 

"There is at present a truce, for a given or termin- 
able period, between the Union Pacific and Northern 
Pacific, as to territory in the Columbia basin, and con- 
struction on both sides is for the present suspended. 
But it will be resumed within a short time, either 
through rivalry or through agreement. The road along 
Snake river from Riparia to Lewiston will be built next 
year, either by the O. R. & N. alone, or by combination 
between the O. R. & N. and the Northern Pacific. The 
railroad problems of the Northwest are simply in abey- 
ance for the present, but the inaction will not last long. 
Agreement is possible, in order to avoid the duplication 
of lines ; and yet the nature of the rivalry is such that 
no basis on which agreement may be reached is ap- 

But subsequent events have gone to show that if 
not at this conference, then at some later one an adjust- 
ment of differences much more favorable to the North- 
ern Pacific than the above would indicate was agreed 


averring th 
about for so 

upon. There was doubtless not a little truth in the 
Minneapolis Journal's statement based on the best in- 
formation then obtainable and published early in 1900, 
that "when President Mellen was looking 
e feature that would encourage an arbi- 
tration of the difficulty he sought E. H. Harriman, 
chairman of the Union Pacific board of directors. Mr. 
Harriman never approved of the policy of the Oregon 
Railway & Navigation Company that sought to invade 
the Clearwater country and obtain territory by con- 
quest. In Mr. Harriman'^ opinion the Oregon road 
was going out of its way 'to continue a quarrel. But 
the man with the hoe was James J. Hill, and both Mel- 
len and Harriman knew this fact only too well. As 
soon as Hill was left out of the calculation a settlement 
was speedily brought about. It was Harriman who 
proposed that the Oregon road abandon the Clearwater 

country. But he also decided 
cific should pay its competitor 
curred in making surveys and 

hat the Northerr 

or all the expenses in- 

uying a 

ight of 

rifling sum of $50,000, 
Pacific succeeds to the 
igh the very 

This bill of exper 
and by its payment the Northern 
complete title to a right of way 

of Camas prairie, which will become more valuable 
every day. Thus did President Mellen make a conces- 
sion that redounds to the everlasting benefit of the 
Northern Pacific." 

It has been stated also that an important factor in 
effecting this truce between the rival companies was 
their common transportation enemy, the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy. That road was seeking a Pacific 
coast connection through the Lewiston valley and was 
so well fortified in its demands as to be able to force 
from the Northern Pacific very valuable concessions in 

the Northwest. The C. B. & Q. had surveying parties 
in north Idaho during the summer and fall of 1900, 
giving color to the belief that it would build through to 
the coast, most likely by the Salmon river route. It is 
understood, however, that this road is now under the 
control of the Northern Pacific, so that that company 
is apparently absolute master of the situation in the 
Clearwater country at present. Further activity in 
railway construction in that section has been confidently 
looked for ever since the completion of the road to 
Stites and is still expected. There can be little doubt 
but that the Northern Pacific Company will push its 
lines farther into that section in the near future. 

But the first railway construction to effect the sec- 
tion of which we are treating will be the Lewiston- 
Riparia road. A dispatch from Portland bearing date 
of August 2, 1902, announced that the contract for the 
building of this road had been that day awarded by 
the O. R. & N. to Wren & Greenough, contractors, the 
agreement being that work should begin at once and be 
completed by April 15, 1903, including a steel bridge 
across the Clearwater at Lewiston to cost $350,000. 
The truth of the dispatch was vouched for a few days 
later by President Mohler of the O. R. & N., also by 
President Mellen of the Northern Pacific Company, 
who also gave the information that the road would be 
operated jointly by the corporations they represent. 

Construction work was, however, delayed by a con- 
troversy between the two interests over the right of 
way, also, it is said, by the fear that legislation might 
be enacted seriously affecting the capitalization of the 
venture, but it is now claimed that all these difficulties 
are out of the way and that work will be resumed in 
the near future. 





In previous chapters have been detailed the causes 
which led to the settlement of Nez Perces county, the 
inception of that settlement, the founding of Lewiston 
and much of the earliest history of this important 
political entity. Its creation by legislative enactment 
has also been referred to and its earliest boundary 
lines described. It remains now to take up the thread 
of its history and as far as possible to trace the various 
events which have transpired among its people, the 
growth of its wealth and industries and the divers 
forces which have contributed to its social and in- 
dustrial evolution. 

The original boundaries of the county as given it 
by act of the Washington legislature in December, 
1861, were modified by the Idaho legislature in 1867, 
which enacted that they should be as follows : "Begin- 
ning at the middle channel of Snake river, opposite 
the mouth of Clearwater river; and thence due north 
along the west line of Idaho Territory to the main di- 
vide between the waters of the Palouse river and 
Lahtoh or Hangeman's creek ; thence easterly to the 
westerly line of Shoshone county; thence southerly 
along said line to the Clearwater river ; thence up the 
south fork of Clearwater river to Lolo creek; thence 
with Lolo creek in an easterly direction to the sum- 
mit of the Bitter Root mountains ; thence southerly along 
the summit of said mountains to the junction of 
Salmon river and Bitter Root mountains ; thence in a 
westerly direction along the summit of Salmon river 
and Clearwater mountains to a prominent landmark 
known as 'Buffalo Hump' ; thence westerly along said 
divide between the waters of White Bird creek and 
Camas prairie, to a point where the road leading from 
Lewiston to Slate creek crosses said divide : thence in 
a direct line to the foot of Ponto bar on Salmon river ; 

thence in a direct line to a point on Snake river 
known as Pittsburg landing ; thence down the channel 
of Snake river to the place of beginning." This ex- 
tensive area in 1870 contained a white population of 
1,588, which, however, increased during the next de- 
cade to 4,583. 

During the late 'sixties and early 'seventies . Nez 
Perces county was sharing in that transition from 
mining to agriculture and stockraising which we have 
before mentioned in connection with north Idaho in 
general and this portion of the inland empire. It 
shared also in the relative depression which visited the 
country when the golden days were over, yet consider- 
ing its youth it had a goodly number of wealthy and 
well-to-do men within its limits as shown by the 
Signal's list of persons paying taxes on property valued 
at one thousand dollars or over in- 1872, which list, for 
the sake of preserving as far as possible the names of 
those who at the time occupied positions of promi- 
nence in industrial circles, and were thechief wealth 
holders of the county, we reproduce as follows : 

Levi Ankeny, $23,200; L. B. Boise, $1,500; John 
Brearley, $4,100; Bunker & Squier, $2,850; J. J. Bon- 
ner, $1,600; C. C. Bunnell, $5.000: A. Benson, $4,510; 
Crites & Curry, $1,650; C. P. Coburn, $5,585; Curry 
& Holbrook, $1.375 ', Cook & Shultz, $1,240; H. Crites, 
$1,200; C. Cooper, $2,635: Cummings & Company, 
$2,000; Grostein Binnard, $20,000; A. Oilman, 
$1,500; James Gage, $3,160; Hung Wan Chung, 
$2,500; Hexter & Brother, $9,000; Harris & Story, 
$1,550: McGregor, $1,677; George Mitchell. $1.140; 
M. A. Kelly, $8,310; J. Karney, $1.590 ; Leland & 
Rowley, $1,400; C. Le Francois, $9.565; Loewenberg 
Brothers. $17,400- Wesley Mulkey. $6.555: R. J.Mon- 
roe, $4.800: McElwee, $1,000; John Proctor, $2,720; 


J. Perrault, $3,640; Rowley & Leach, $1,550; H. W. 
Stainton, $1,450; P. Sholl, $4,300; S. S. Slater, $1,666; 
T. Schenck, $1,188; John Silcott, $1,490; A. W. Shum- 
way, $1,080; Tremble & Company, $1,600; C. A. 
Thatcher, $9,165; S. C. Thompson, $4,300; J. P. 
Vollmer, $2,542; S. W. Whitfield, $1,100; E. Weis- 
gerber, $2,150; C. Walker, $1,125 ; C. Wintsch, $3,000 ; 
T. H. Worden, $3,645; P. B. Whitman, $1,800. 

In January, 1873, a bill was introduced into the 
Idaho legislature cutting off a portion of Nez Perces 
and adding it to Idaho county. Already Idaho county 
had seven thousand square miles of territory or ap- 
proximately that, and it was proposed to give it over 
four thousand more, leaving to Nez Perces county only 
fifteen hundred square miles, exclusive of the Indian 
reservation. As the territory proposed to be trans- 
ferred contained several old farming settlements, four 
prominent mining camps, 450 inhabitants and about 
$185,000 worth of taxable property, it was but natural 
that the citizens of the county from which the terri- 
tory was to be taken should offer vigorous opposition. 
But the friends of Idaho county colluded with the 
representatives from Lemhi, Boise and Ada counties, 
giving them each a small slice from the eastern and 
southern portion of its original domain. It was a 
shrewd move and so adroitly managed that Idaho 
county succeeded in securing the passage in both 
branches of the legislature of a bill by which it ex- 
changed twelve hundred square miles of territory of 
no special value to itself for about 4,500 square miles 
from Nez Perces county. Fortunately, however, for 
the taxpayers of the latter political division, the bill 
was vetoed by Governor Bennett. 

among the people of Nez Perces county during the year 
1873. Hard times and lack of a market for products 
were exerting their baneful influence upon the farming 
communities, where, however, abundant crops were 
being garnered. To add to the general discomfiture, 
the Indians, who afterward took the war path under 
Joseph, were showing signs of hostility, going so far, 
it was said, as to debate among themselves, when in- 
toxicated, the chances of success in committing depre- 
dations upon the whites. To their boldness not a little 
was contributed by the removal of the mounted troops 
from the garrison at Lapwai. The newspapers called 
attention to the danger and the men of Lewiston re- 
sponded by organizing on the evening of March 29th 
a military company of 107 members, with Hazen 
Squier as captain, John M. Dormer, first lieutenant, 
Isaac Kipp, second lieutenant, George Young, orderly 
sergeant, and a full quota of minor officers. 

The ensuing two or three years brought little 
amelioration in conditions. The financial stringency 
continued and the uncertainty and apprehension incident 
to the Indian difficulties were still exerting their de- 
pressing influence, nevertheless throughout this seem- 
ingly unprogressive period, the foundations of future 
development were being laid, and the country was get- 
ting ready for the dawn of a brighter day, when the 
incubus of doubt and dread should be removed. 

Notwithstanding the various discouragements and 

the danger of an Indian outbreak, which, strange to 
say, did not lead to adequate preparation for defense 
on the part of either the citizens or the military, while 
it had its injurious effect upon industry, the country 
made rapid strides forward in 1876, especially that part 
north of the Snake river, or what is now embraced in 
Latah county. A correspondent of the Oregonian, 
writing in the spring of 1877, stated that after an ex- 
tensive tour of eastern Oregon, eastern Washington 
and north Idaho, he had found the prospects in Nez 
Perces county, and in Whitman county, Wyoming 
Territory, contiguous to it, especially bright. 
Their population was rapidly increasing, and 
they were being encouraged to engage in 
wheat raising by the fact that the soil was 
especially suited to that industry, and that the Ore- 
gon Steam Navigation Company had made a liberal 
reduction in the charges for transporting the product. 
The same writer also refers to the rapid growth of the 
sheep industry and states that the amount of flax seed 
shipped from Nez Perces and Whitman counties indi- 
cates that that product will become one of the sources 
of wealth of that section. "It is observable also," he 
continues, "that among the people settling there the 
regard for schools, churches and all facilities for gen- 
eral intelligence and improvement is as high as that 
which characterizes the American people everywhere." 
Of course the Indian war paralyzed industry in 
this and Idaho counties during its continuance, greatly 
retarding all industrial operations, also in contiguous 
counties of the territory and of Washington. Farmers 
were obliged to take their families to places of security 
in the towns, and those on the frontier, miners and 

tirely, remaining away during what would otherwise 
have been the busiest season. Even where there was 
no real danger, rumors and false reports kept the set- 
tlers continually on the qui vive, and an occasional 
panic would send them pell mell to the nearest port of 
safety, leaving their places to take care of themselves. 
Unfenced grain fields were destroyed and all growing 
products which required cultivation after seeding were 
neglected. The presence of the troops, however, set- 
tled the market problem for the time being. 

The presence of the troops had another good effect 
also in that it gave the people a feeling of confidence 
during the Bannock and Piute war of 1878, in eastern 
Oregon. The baptism of fire the citizens of north 
Idaho had just passed through resulted in their being 
quite well supplied with arms and ammunition; the 
companies of volunteers formed during the Nez Perces 
outbreak were another safeguard, and these, together 
with the martial spirit of the people, were suffi- 
cient to check any turbulent spirit among the reserva- 
tion Indians. 

The effect of the war is plainly shown in the as- 
sessor's census for 1878, which shows that out of a 
population of 2,793, tne number of voters was 859, 
making the ratio between total population and voters 
entirely too small. The women and children had 
moved to other communities and others who would 
have settled in the county were deterred from so doing,. 


making the number of adult males disproportionately 
large. Thorn creek precinct had 413 inhabitants and 
141 voters; Paradise, 691 and 203; Palouse Bridge, 
419 and 142; Pine creek, 117 and 37; Camas creek, 61 
and 26 ; Lake, 98 and 45 ; Lewiston, 994 and 265. The 
number of horses was shown to be 3,672; of cattle, 
3,925 ; of mules, 276 ; of hogs, 2,785 ; of sheep, 14,960. 
The valuation of real estate was $180,138; of personal 
property, $327,504; the total valuation $507,642, and 
the number of taxpayers, 577. The increase in the 
property valuation over that of the preceding year was 
nearly $200,000. 

During the winter of 1879 a slight misfortune be- 
fell the county, which was described by The Teller 
in the following language : 

"On Saturday last (February 23d) a regular 
chinook visited us at this place. One had visited the 
foothills south and west of us a day or two previously 
and caused much of the snow to melt and run off 
into the gulches and valleys. On Monday the Clear- 
water was full from bank to bank with floating ice, 
and this continued, except at intervals, until late on 
Tuesday, and even on Wednesday much ice went down 
the river. The Lapwai, Sweetwater, Hatwai and 
Potlach creeks were much swollen, also the Asotin 
and Alpowa creeks on the Washington side. Small 
gulches and ravines discharged vast quantities of water 
and some of them much debris and small rocks. Roads 
were in many places rendered entirely impassable by 
reason of the road beds being washed out in many 
places. Small bridges were washed away. The mails 
on the different routes leading to Lewiston failed of 
reaching here on time, save the Mount Idaho, and the 
northern mail did not depart until Wednesday noon 
owing to ice in the Clearwater. 

"At 3 o'clock P. M. on Monday the saw and grist 
mill at the Lapwai agency with a considerable quan- 
tity of wheat were undermined and swept away into 
and down the Clearwater. Two men, Nicholson and 
Toombs, being in the mill at the time it was swept 
away, were carried out into the river and down it about 
a mile and a half before they could be rescued, and 
their ultimate escape from death was almost miracu- 
lous. Much other damage was done along the Lapwai 
creek. The Soldier canyon road was badly washed for 
about two miles and it will require the labor of forty 

before. The flume of the Lewiston ditch above Linds- 
ley's orchard was washed away and the ditch in many 
places filled with debris from" the side gulches. The 
boom at the saw mill was broken and about 100,000 
feet of logs were carried away; also the wood boom 
above the mill, and about 125 cords of wood were lost. 
The stage which left here for Walla Walla on Mon- 
day with mails, express and one passenger was upset 
at the third crossing of the Alpowa. The driver and 
passenger were swept down the stream about 150 
yards before they could get out. The two lead horses 
became detached and got out of the stream while the 
wheel horses, stage, mails and express were carried 
six hundred yards and were rescued by the Indians. 
The express box with about $2,000 in it drifted to 

within twenty feet of the Snake river, where it be- 
came lodged against some willows and was found on 
Tuesday. The whole section Vvas damaged consider- 
ably and the loss will amount to many thousands of 

Yet it is certain that the year 1879 was on the 
whole one of progress and prosperity. Considerable 
government money was expended in improving the 
Clearwater and Snake rivers, congesting temporarily 
in some measure the local circulating medium. The 
Sheepeater disturbances in Idaho county had been 
quieted by the defeat and capture of the hostiles, per- 
mitting the vanguard of the homeseeking army to ad- 
vance farther inland. The Lewiston land office, re- 
cently established, reported in June that since March 
ist preceding, there had been filed in the district em- 
bracing all Idaho north of the Salmon River range 
854 pre-emptions, 437 homesteads and 306 timber 
claim entries, an aggregate of 1,597 filings, each em- 
bracing a quarter section. Those already established 
in the business of agriculture and cattle raising were 
meeting with splendid success, and the numbers of 
those seeking to obtain homesteads and join their ranks 
continued undiminished were increasing rather. 

But the opening of the year 1880 was a somewhat 
unpropitious one. The spring was cold, rainy and 
disagreeable in the valleys, while in the hills and 
mountains the snow lay deep until far into the summer, 
being over four feet in depth on the Warren trail as 
late as the isth of June. Neither did the middle life 
of the year bring any special encouragement to the 
agriculturist but rather the opposite, for the kindly 
warmth of the summer sun proved congenial not alone 
to man and his domestic friends but likewise to his 
loathsome and detested enemy, the grasshopper. 
Thousands of these voracious winged pests visited the 
country, harvesting the grain crops at an untimely 
season and desolating flower gardens, orchards, etc. 
Fortunately the omnivorous insects were not as thor- 
ough in tlieir work of destruction as they sometimes 
are and only certain localities were visited by them. 
But the agricultural development of the country had 
begun in earnest and not the presence of a temporary 
plague nor the absence of speedy transportation nor 
the scarcity of money nor any other obstacle which la- 
bor and patience could surmount was potent to stay 

the on 

rd movement. No ob 


the signs of progress on every hand. In 1879 tne 
Waha prairie was almost unoccupied, the only indi- 
cation of its being the dwelling place of man being a 
cabin here and there contiguous to or surrounded by 
a small patch of enclosed land. Before 1880 had passed 
into history the old trails and roads were rendered no 
longer passable on account of the fences of the ranch- 
men and the traveler must perforce traverse the long 
lanes leading across the valley. 

It must be remembered that all this development 
was wrought in spite of many trying conditions. 
While the mining wealth of the country was by no 
means exhausted, that which could be garnered by the 
poor man had long since found its way into the pocket 


of the miner and thence into the world's marts of 
trade. Capital is never. a pioneer. However heroic 
a man may be he needs the spur of necessity to force 
him into the loneliness and uncertainty and danger 
and privation to be met in the van of civilization's 
march. Without the capital to develop them, the 
deep lying wealth materials must remain unutilized; 
without cheap transportation the markets of the world 
are closed to the isolated community. Speaking of 
the conditions obtaining during the winter of 1881 the 
Teller says: 

"Probably at no time for ten years past has the 
first of January found the great mass of the farmers 
so destitute of money as during the present month 
at least such is the burden of their song, and there 
are reasons for this. They strained every nerve the 
past season to raise a good surplus of wheat and flax 
in the confident hope that they could get it shipped to 
a paying market and get good returns before January 
arrived. But with few exceptions, the people of this 
section have not been able to get their wheat and flax 
off to a market, and while a few have sold to the 
agents of buyers who were sent out into the country 
and received a small payment to bind the sales, yet 
the great bulk of the value of their products has not 
yet been realized. They have grain in abundance but 
no money. This scarcity is seriously felt by the mer- 
chants, mechanics and laborers whom they owe. Pa- 
tience and forbearance becomes necessary in such a 
crisis. These producers will work themselves out 
of the dilemma as soon as they have a fair show. 
The Walla Walla and Touchet' valleys had a much 
better show, and money is reported to be plentiful 
among the farmers of those valleys. Our turn will 
come after a while, if we can hold fast and not be too 
exacting upon each other." 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the fields 
of Clearwater country did their best for the farmer 
during the year 1881, even if the opportunity to turn 
their products into cash was tardy in coming and the 
ready liquidation of debts was for that reason rendered 
impossible. The only climatic drawback to agricul- 
ture this year of which we have found record was a 
very heavy hail storm, the severest ever experienced 
in this part of the country up to that time. It oc- 
curred on the 3d of June and though its duration was 
not greater than ten minutes, it lasted long enough 
to cut down fields of grain in places, to destroy gar- 
dens and to kill scores of domestic animals. Paradise 
valley, the Potlach creek country and other farming 
communities suffered damage aggregating hundreds 
of dollars, while at Elk City a Chinaman lost his life, 
being struck by a limb blown from a tree under which 
he was seeking shelter. 

Comparatively insignificant though the industrial 
activities of the'Nez Perces Indians were yet in our 
summary of the year 1881 we must give them credit 
for having added at least slightly to the wealth pro- 
duction of the county. The number of the tribe at 
this time seems to have been 2,036, of whom 257 were 
farmers. The Indian dwelling places consisted of 
forty-eight frame houses, one hundred and twenty- 

eight log houses, seventy-two cloth, eighteen skin and 
twelve bark lodges. Four thousand, seven hundred 
and thirteen acres of their reserve were in cultivation. 
The red men were the possessors of 12,696 horses, 
870 cows, ten oxen, 1,500 other cattle, 675 swine and 
1,200 domestic fowls. The sole product of their man- 
ufacturing skill consisted of about three hundred yards 
of matting. 

Up to this time the legislative and judicial business 
of Nez Perces county had been transacted in a one- 
story frame building, back of the site which Alexan- 
der's general store now occupies, but the building had 
long been felt to be inadequate for the purpose and in 
January, 1882, the county commissioners purchased 
the old Luna property from Conrad Wintsch, design- 
ing to repair the building and fit it up to conserve the 
purpose of a county court house. 

The annals of 1882 were darkened by the com- 
mission on Camas creek of a crime which for atrocity 
deserves rank with the murder of Magruder in 1863. 
The victims of this dastardly act were three Chinese 
miners who were delving for the precious metal on 
the creek at a point about seventeen miles above 
Palouse bridge. The perpetrator or perpetrators of 
the terrible crime burned the Chinese cabin and with 
it two of the bodies. The remains of the third vic- 
tim, who is said to have been a highly educated, intel- 
ligent representative of his race, were found buried 
in the snow. They were in a state of perfect preser- 
vation, owing to the cold, which was sufficient to 
freeze them. A bullet hole in the back, another in the 
left side of the head and a gash across the throat 
showed at once the manner of the Mongolian's taking 
off and the extreme atrocity of his murderer. The 
only incentive to the enactment of this terrible tragedy 
seems to have been robbery, for the Chinamen were 
supposed to have several hundred dollars in gold dust 
at the time of their demise, no trace of which was dis- 
coverable around their burned and despoiled place of 
abode. Abe Galloway, who discovered the charred re- 
mains of the burned cabin, was given an examination 
which resulted in his being completely exonerated 
from any complicity in the crime. Although Governor 
Neil on' behalf of the territory offered a reward of 
$500 each for the arrest and conviction of the guilty 
parties and although a determined effort was made 
to solve the mystery, the murderer or murderers have 
never been brought to justice. 

During the fall of 1882 and the winter following 
a determined effort was made by the people north of 
the Clearwater to effect segregation from Nez Perces 
county and the formation of a new political division. 
As is" usual in such movements the leading agitators 
were men who hoped to gain some financial benefit by 
the establishment of a new county seat. The ambi- 
tious town in this instance was Moscow, in the rich 
and prosperous Paradise valley. Petitions were cir- 
culated and numerously signed, praying for the erec- 
tion of the proposed new county and these called forth 
counter petitions among the south side residents, who 
admitted that county division at some time was in- 
evitable, but considered this movement premature. 


Then, too, it was urged that as soon as northern Idaho 
should be attached to Washington a readjustment of 
county lines would become necessary, therefore the 
people desiring to be clothed with the authority to 
organize a separate local government ought to await 
incorporation into the territory of Washington before 
pressing forward their schemes. So numerous were 
the remonstrators and so strong their opposition that 
the bill for the new county could not be carried in the 

Disappointed in this project the friends of the 
movement, through Councilman Taylor, introduced a 
bill providing for a special election to be held on the 
first Monday in June in Nez Perces county at which 
the advisability of relocating the county seat should 
be submitted to a vote of the people. The bill was, 
of course, introduced in the interest of Moscow. One 
of its provisions was that if the electors decided to re- 
move the county seat from Lewiston, the place selected 
should deposit with the treasurer a sum sufficient to 
erect new county buildings and pay all the expenses 
of removing the records, etc., to the new seat of gov- 
ernment. The bill passed both houses. A lively cam- 
paign followed, both parties to the contest making a 
thorough canvass and arguing the question in all its 
phases with spirit. The result on election day was in 
favor of Lewiston, that town receiving 922 votes 
whereas its rival, Moscow, received only 642 votes. 
Lewiston had a majority in ten out of the thirteen 
princincts of the county. 

The year 1884 seems to have been a rather quiet 
one in Nez Perces county, the Coeur d'Alene country 
being the chief center of attraction in north Idaho at 
that time. Autumn, however, brought an abundant 
yield of wheat not alone in Idaho but in the cereal belt 
of the neighboring territory of Washington also. The 
crop was sufficiently large to have enabled the farmers 
to liquidate practically all their debts had the prices 
been good. The great bane of pioneer communities, 
lack of adequate transportation facilities, was militat- 
ing against these, however, and many ranchmen began 
discussing the advisability of turning their farms into 
stock ranches. 

During this year General Miles testified his faith 
in the good intentions of the Nez Perces Indians by or- 
dering that thereafter Fort Lapwai be treated as an 
outpost of Walla Walla and garrisoned by a lieutenant 
and only twelve men of the second cavalry. The re- 
mainder of that company he sent to Fort Boise, mak- 
ing that a four company post. The faith of General 
Miles was not shared by the settlers in the vicinity of 
of the reservation, who remonstrated earnestly, point- 
ing out that the Nez Perces were still a strong tribe 
and that there were many among them who could be 
easily incited to acts of hostility. But the subsequent 
good conduct of the Nez Perces has justified the faith 
of Miles. 

As illustrating the rapidity with which Nez Perces 
county was growing at this period of its history we 
have taken a few figures from the tax roll summaries, 
according to which the total taxable property, real and 
personal, in the year 1882 was $1,327,516"; in 1883, 

The year 1885 was one of uninterrupted tranquil- 
ity but 1886 brought a movement for the formation of 
a new county with, no doubt, some of the intense in- 
terest and bitterness usually attending such efforts. 
The proposition was to take for the new political 
division the southern portion of Shoshone county and 
that part of the Nez Perces lying between the Lolo 
and the south middle forks of the Clearwater. As 
an alternative in case this movement did not meet with 
favor it was suggested that the settlers in southern 
Shoshone might seek annexation to either Nez Perces 
or Idaho counties. The reason of their discontent with 
their existing political affinities was the distance to 
Murray, their county seat. The proposal seems not to 
have been carried into a definite effort before the legis- 
lature, but agitation for redress of grievances has never 
solely died out and at this writing the erection of a 
new county to embrace the inhabitants of southern 
Shoshone is a living issue. 

The next few years in Nez Perces county were 
years of quiet and steady advancement along all lines, 
very little transpiring which' has a sensational flavor 
when reduced to narrative. The two questions most 
deeply agitating the public mind during this period, the 
problem of securing railroad communication with 
neighboring states and the world and the annexation 
movement, have been ' discussed at some length in pre- 
vious chapters. It is needless to state that crtizens of 
Nez Perces county were equally with other citizens of 
the territory of Idaho solicitous for the early admis- 
sion of their commonwealth to statehood, taking their 
full part in the initiatory steps in that direction. This 
also has been treated in its proper place. In the general 
prosperity obtaining throughout Idaho during the few 
years preceding its admission to statehood Nez Perces 
county had its full share. Crops were good, the out- 
look in the spring of 1888 being especially faorable. 
As the Teller informs us reports of great promise of 
good and large yields of grain came in from every 
section of the Clearwater country, from Lapwai, 
Sweetwater, Tammanv, Asotin, Cainas Prairie, 
Weipe, etc. 

Aside from the larger questions above mentioned 
the one political movement to agitate the general pub- 
lic was a renewed effort to secure the removal of the 
county seat from Lewiston to Moscow. The course 
pursued by the friends of Paradise prairie's ambitious 

namely the circulation of petitions, agitation through 
the local press, etc. The friends of Lewiston again 
took up the gauntlet and so effective was their oppo- 
sition that a change of tactics by the Moscow people 
became necessary. Through Delegate Dubois and 
Senator Mitchell, of Oregon, they secured the intro- 
duction into both houses of congress of a bill creating 
Latah county out of the northern portion of Nez Perces 

The r 


efforts of its opponents in the southern part, becoming 
a law May 14, 1888. 


In June, 1889, Miss Alice C. Fletcher arrived at 
the Lapwai agency to take charge of the work of 
allotment of lands to the Indians in accordance with 
the provisions of the Severalty act of February 8, 
1887, which provided that each head of a family on 
the reservation should receive a quarter section of 
land; each single person over eighteen, one-eighth 
section : each single person under eighteen then living 
or who might be born before the president's order 
directing the allotment, one-sixteenth of a section. Her 
arrival and the inception of this work was a favora- 
ble sign as it proved the animus of the government 
to open the reserve as soon as possible. The people 
of the surrounding country looked upon the movement 
with much favor, hoping that the incubus upon prog- 
ress arising out of the ownership of large tracts of 
valuable agricultural land by an unprogressive and 
comparatively degenerate people would soon be re- 
moved, but it was full half a decade before the work 
of opening the reserve was accomplished. 

With the opening of the prosperous year 1890 
began a determined effort to secure transportation 
facilities for the Clearwater country. In February 
the citizens of Lewiston held a mass meeting in the 
Vollmer block at which the railroad question was thor- 
oughly discussed and a committee appointed to formu- 
late a plan of action. A meeting was also held at 
Nelson's schoolhouse, at which the citizens manifested 
their willingness to raise a bonus of $25,000 in their 
neighborhood to help bring a railroad to the country. 
By April a bonus of $50,000 had been subscribed, 
which, with the right of way from Lewiston to the 
reservation line, a distance of seven miles, was offered 
the Northern Pacific Company to extend their Spokane 
and Palouse branch to Lewiston. Later the subsidy 
was increased to $65,000 and still later to over $100,- 
ooo. The railroad officials promised to build the ex- 
tension during 1890, and gave earnest of their bona 
fide intentions by investing quite heavily in Lewiston 
real estate, but for some reason the road was not built 
as agreed, so the company lost this magnificent sub- 
sidy and the people the benefit of the road for several 
years more. 

The good year 1892 was darkened in Nez Perces 
county during its final month by the enactment of a 
tragedy which led to another, leaving a still darker 
stain upon the county's annals. The facts as we have 
been able to glean them from the rather meager rec- 
ords at hand are as follows: Albert B. Roberts, the 
author of the first homicide and the victim of the sec- 
ond, had been working for several months in the 
employ of one John Sutherland and his brother, 
residence in the vicinity of Leland. When the 
Sutherlands discharged Roberts they held back five 
dollars of his pay, alleging that he had stolen twenty 
dollars from them. A quarrel ensued, of course. 
Roberts went to Leland and w'hen John Sutherland 
visited that town a few days later the trouble 
was renewed. Roberts demanded the five dollars 
he claimed was due him ; his late employer 
refused; angry words followed which soon led 
to blows. During the melee Roberts threw his 

right arm about Sutherland's neck and while he had 
his adversary thus held in a comparatively helpless 
position, drew a revolver and discharged it three times 
into Sutherland's abdomen, killing him almost in- 
stantly. Roberts was arrested and brought to Lewis- 

The sequel proves that the Clearwater country had 
not yet progressed so far in its development of civil 
institutions and orderly society but that there was dan- 
ger of a temporary lapse, when the occasion seemed 
to warrant it, into the well known practices of the 
vigilantes of its early history. On the 2d of January, 
1893, a masked mob visited the jail in which Roberts 
was confined and compelled Deputy Sheriff W. W. 
Wright to open the doors. Proceeding to the cell of 
their intended victim, they gagged him so that he 
could make no outcry, then took him into the office 
and bound him securely hands and feet, meanwhile 
keeping strict guard over the deputy sheriff and one 
Timothy Ryan, who happened to be his bedfellow on 
this particular night. After giving their companions 
time to get a safe distance away, the guard thrust 
Wright and Ryan into a room, closed the door and 
hastily retreated into the open. The deputy and his 

and fired several shots in succession to alarm the 
sheriff. That officer, together with Sheriff-elect 
Mounce soon joined in the chase. The mob, however, 
made good their escape and the identity of none of 
them was ever discovered. In due time the body of 
their victim was found in Mulkey's mill, still warm 
but lifeless. 

The year 1893 was an important one in the history 
of Nez Perces county, and notwithstanding the fact 
that the sun of financial prosperity throughout the 
United States began to be eclipsed during the twelve- 
month, several events transpired looking toward the 
general progress of this section. Not the least among 
these was the passage in the Idaho legislature of a 
bill establishing a state normal school at Lewiston 
and appropriating for its use fifty thousand acres of 
the one hundred thousand given to the state by the 
United States government for the purpose of aiding 
in the establishment of such institutions. 

A matter of even greater moment to the industrial 
development of the county was the successful negotia- 
tion of a treaty with the Nez Perces Indians whereby 
their reservation was to be opened for settlement. In 
December, 1892, a commission appointed by the presi- 
dent, which commission consisted of Robert Schleich- 
er of Lewiston. chairman, Cyrus Beede, of Iowa, and 
James Allen, of Washington, D. C., convened at 
Lewiston with authority to offer to the Indians for 
their lands as liberal prices as ever were offered to any 
tribe by the United States. For more than two months 
the commission labored strenuously to secure the open- 
ing of the reserve, but they were opposed in their 
efforts by certain outsiders who hoped to gain per- 
sonal benefits through maintaining the existing con- 
ditions of things and by wealthy Indians who wished 
the ranges for the pasturing of their herds of ponies. 
On February igth, the commission adjourned sine 



die. They had succeeded in securing the signatures 
to the treaty of only 118 adult males, out of a total 
of 407. Negotiations were resumed shortly, however, 
and in April the commission authorized the statement 
that enough signatures had been secured to confirm 
the treaty. 

But the work of the commissioners was of no prac- 
tical avail until the treaty negotiated by them should 
be ratified by congress. A bill for that purpose was 
introduced into the house by Representative Sweet in 
June, 1894. The measure was referred to the. com- 
mittee on Indian affairs and though it was reported 
back favorably by the majority, a minority report was 
also submitted by Representative Holman, the "Great 
Objector," making it uncertain whether the bill could 
be reached that session. Senator Shoup saved the clay 
by a shrewd parliamentary move. He succeeded in 
tacking onto the general Indian appropriation measure 
an amendment providing for the ratification of the 
treaty and the appropriation of the necessary funds. 
Objector Holman waged aggressive warfare against 
the amendment but was unsuccessful in defeating it, 
and it was enacted: 

"That the said agreement (referring to the treaty) 
be and the same is accepted, ratified and confirmed. 

"That for the purpose of carrying the provisions of 
this act into effect there is hereby appropriated the 
sum of $1,668,622, of which amount the sum of 
$1,000,000 shall be placed to the credit of the Nez 
Perces Indians of Idaho in the territory of the United 
States and shall bear interest at the rate of five per 
centum per annum. Said sum of $1,668,622, to- 
gether with the interest on said sum of one million 
dollars shall be paid to the Indians or expended for 
their benefit, as provided in articles two, three, four 
and eight of said agreement, out of which sum the 
secretary of the interior shall pay to the heirs, ad- 
ministrators or legal representatives of William C. 
Langford, deceased, the sum of $20,000, upon a re- 
lease and relinquishment to the United States by said 
heirs, administrators or legal representatives of all 
right, titles and interest in or claim either legal or 
equitable, in and to the tract of land described in arti- 
cle two of said agreement as therein provided. Pro- 
vided that none of the money paid said Indians, nor 
any of the interest thereon, shall be or become liable 
to the payment of any judgment or claim for depre- 

before the date of said agreement. 

"That immediately after the issuance and receipt 
by the Indians of trust patents for the allotted lands, 
as provided for in said agreement, the lands so ceded, 
sold, relinquished and conveyed to the United States 
shall be opened to settlement by proclamation of the 
president and shall be subject to disposal only under 
the homestead, townsite, stone and timber and min- 
ing laws of the United States, excepting the sixteenth 
and thirty-sixth sections in each congressional town- 
ship, which shall be reserved for common school pur- 
poses and be subject to the laws of Idaho: Pro- 
vided, That each settler on said lands, shall before 
making proof and receiving a certificate of entry, pay 

to the United States for the lands so taken by him, in 
addition to the fees provided by law, the sum of $3.75 
per acre for agriculture lands, half of which shall be 
paid within three years from the date of the original 
entry ; and the sum of $5.00 per acre for stone, tim- 
ber and mineral lands, subject to the regulations pre- 
scribed by existing laws; but the rights of honorably 
discharged Union soldiers and sailors, as defined and 
described in sections 2304 and 2305 of the revised 
statutes of the United States, shall not be abridged 
except as to 1 the sum to be paid as aforesaid. 

"That the commissioner of Indian affairs be, and 
is hereby, authorized to employ a competent surveyor 
for a period not exceeding two years, at a compensa- 
tion not exceeding $1,200 per 'annum for" the pur- 
poses stipulated in article four of said agreement, and 
he is also authorized to purchase two portable saw 
mills, as provided in article four. 

"That the secretary of the interior is hereby 
authorized to examine the claim of those Indians who 
served the United States under General O. O. Howard 
in the late war with Joseph's band of said tribe, as 
scouts, couriers and messengers, referred to in article 
ten of said agreement, and also as to the claim of 
Abraham Brooks, mentioned in said article, and re- 
in 1900 an act was passed amendatory to the bill 
just quoted repealing the proviso that homesteaders 
should be required to pay for their lands the sum of 
$3-75 P er acre and allowing all bona fide entrymen 
under the homestead laws to obtain title upon pay- 
ment of only such fees as were required of all home- 

It is needless to state that the opening of the 
reservation was hailed with delight and enthusiasm 

gthe citizens of Lewiston and Nez Perces county. 
>ming, as it did, at a time when financial darkness 
overshadowed the land, the distribution of over six 
hundred thousand dollars in cash among the Indians, 
much of which speedily made its way into the hands 
of the merchants, was an important factor in keep- 
ing the wheels of industry oiled. But of vastly great- 
er moment to the present and prospective develop- 
ment of the county was the fact that the power of a 
lethargic, nonproducing and conservative people to 
hinder progressive movements was broken forever, 
and in the room of the shiftless, nomadic red man 
must soon come the thrifty homebuilder to garner the 
rich treasurers of the fertile reservation soil. The 
land passed rapidly into hands of men whose interests 
led them to favor instead of retard the construction of 
railroads and the inauguration of commercial enter- 
prises. The wealth of agriculture, of pasturage, of 
timber and of minerals, in which the reservation acres 
were known to abound, would be developed to the full- 
est and brought forth to assist in the upbuilding of 
commerce, educational establishments, the arts and 
refinements of civilization and in the working out of 
the Clearwater country's highest destiny. 

The effect of the opening upon the Indians probably 
received little attention from settlers in their vicinity. 
The price paid them for the lands was sufficient to 


keep them all in luxury for the rest of their days, and 
if carefully conserved and bequeathed to their pos- 
terity to provide against want during at least the next 
generation of time. That the money will be so hus- 
banded is doubtful and the destiny of the tribe when 
their resources are gone and they are no longer the 
wards of the government is for the anthropologist to 
foresee if he can and for the philanthropist to help 
determine as far as he may be able. Certain it is 
that the red man cannot always live on the bounty of 
the government or the funds arising from the sale of 
his possessory rights in the soil of his forefathers. 
The day must come when he must live by his own 
unaided efforts or perish and perhaps the present is as 
good a time as any in which to throw him upon his 
own resources, teaching him by bitter experiences, if 
need be, what he will not learn in any other way,, 
that if he would enjoy the fruits of industry he must 
endure its pains and sacrifices. 

But we must return to our current review of events 
in Nez Perces county taking up the thread where we 
left it in 1893. The county did not fail to provide for 
its proper representation at the Columbian exposition 
in Chicago, but while enroute the car containing the 
soil, grass and grain exhibits of this and several 
other counties of Idaho was burned and its contents 
destroyed. The fruits, however, arrived safely. 

One event causing a great shock to the residents of 
the county transpired during the fall of this year, 
namely, the explosion in the steamer Annie Faxon, 
of which Harry Baughman was captain, causing the 
death of eight persons and the wounding of nearly 
every member of the crew. The vessel at the time of 
the accident was making a landing at a point below 
Almota and fifty miles down the river from Lewiston. 
So violent was the explosion that the vessel was 
practically blown to pieces, nothing being left above 
the hull" but splinters. The cause of the accident 
probably was that the boiler was allowed to become 

In 1895 occurred what was perhaps the most ter- 
rible tragedy that has shadowed the fair name of Nez 
Perces county since the days of Plummer's gang. 
Waha lake was the scene and Sunday, May igth, the 
date. One of the central figures in the tragedy was 
John Siers, a pioneer of that section and a successful 
stockman. In the early sixties he had entered into 
partnership with Joseph Shissler ; fortune had smiled 
benignly on the partners and by industry and econo- 
my they became the owners of a large tract of 
land, one of the finest farms in the Clearwater country, 
also of extensive herds of cattle. As time passed other 
settlers were attracted to the favored region, among 
them Mrs. Mary E. Goddard, who settled on land ad- 
joining Siers and Shissler's place, in 1884. Naturally 
the large stock interests of these pioneer cattlemen in- 
volved them in numerous neighborhood disputes, 
among them one of great bitterness with Mrs. God- 

' The accidental death of Mr. Shissler in 1886 neces- 
sitated division of the estate, and Mr. Siers took the 
stock interests of the firm, leaving the realty to the 

Shissler heirs. He then leased the land, associating 
with him in this venture his former foreman, Frank 
Ward, who later became a son-in-law of Mrs. God- 
dard. Siers went east and remained until 1894, on 
which date he returned, dispossessed Ward and took 
possession of the property himself. He took up his 
abode in the old house, allowing Mrs. Goddard, who 
had resided with her daughter and son-in-law in a 
new house erected by the latter, to remain in posses- 
sion of the same. About the middle of April Ward 
brougtft suit against Siers to recover $1,000 claimed 
to be due him, and the Shissler heirs also went into 
court to compel Siers to comply with the terms of the 
lease. While the suit was pending the property was 
placed in the hands of a receiver, who leased the place 
to Mrs. Goddard. Siers acquiesced, only asking for 
sufficient time to collect his personal effects, but when 
he attempted to do this he found that many of them 
were held by Mrs. Goddard as part of the estate. He 
appealed to the receiver, who sent Mrs. Goddard an 
order to turn over the property, which order was dis- 
obeyed by her. Siers again went to the receiver, and 
it was agreed that the difficulty should be adjusted the 
following Sunday in the presence of that officer, at the 
residence of Mrs. Goddard. On that Sunday the fatal 
affray took place. The tragedy and events leading 
up to it are described by one of the Lewiston news- 
papers of the time : 

"Sunday morning about six o'clock, Siers, in com- 
pany with his employes. Elmer Shorthill, Frank Kin- 
caid, J. Manee and William Fay, departed from their 
temporary quarters at the Monroe farm for Lambert's 
place, about four miles distant, to secure some horses 
which were pastured there. Upon reaching the Shissler 
ranch the party stopped in front of the old house and 
Siers entered, returning shortly. At the barn yard 
the party again stopped to allow Mr. Siers to visit a 
man named Mott, who was sick and quartered in the 
granary. Siers said he wished to see about removing 
Mott to the Monroe place, and as he would probably 
need their assistance he asked his men to wait. Mott 
was a brother of Mrs. Goddard. He then passed 
through the gateway opening into the barn yard, leav- 
ing a rifle leaning against the fence, and proceeded 
onward. Siers had nearly reached the door when he 
was confronted by Ward, who held a pistol. A few 
words passed between them, and almost immediately 
Mrs. Goddard appeared, and, after engaging in a heat- 
ed conversation with Siers, passed on toward the gate 
where the men were. She stopped about forty feet 
from Siers, who was between her and Ward, and ad- 
dressed Siers. The latter turned toward her, and as 
he did so Ward fired two shots at him. Siers reached 
for his revolver and succeeded in returning the fire. 
Mrs. Goddard now rushed up, and, taking a revolver 
from her waist, placed the muzzle near Siers' back and 
fired several times in rapid succession. Siers fell for- 
ward, and as he did so Ward struck him over the head 
with his revolver. Siers expired instantly. 

"At the commencement of the fight Fred Goddard, 
the thirteen-year-old son, appeared in the doorway and 
ordered the men at the gate to remain where they were, 


emphasizing this command with a rifle shot over their 
heads. Sliorthill picked up Siers' rifle and, with the 
intention of assisting his fallen comrade, snapped the 
hammer at the combatants in the barnyard. The cap 
refused to explode, however. He then loaded the gun 
and again pulled the trigger, this time with more suc- 
cess, though the testimony exonerated him from any 
blame attaching to the death of the murderer, as it was 
proved that the bullet flew wide of the mark. 

"Ward sank upon the floor upon reaching the 
house, and in falling discharged his pistol, the bullet 
from which grazed the limbs of Mrs. Boyer, who was 
standing in the doorway. Forty-eight hours later he 
died in excruiating agony. Mrs. Goddard was. wound- 
ed, a pistol ball lacerating her right arm. 

"Hundreds of neighbors and Lewiston people con- 
gregated at the scene of the terrible tragedy during 
the day, and excitement over the affair overshadowed 
all other interests. Coroner Strong impaneled a jury 
and on Monday a verdict was rendered, holding Ward, 
Mrs. Goddard and Fred Goddard responsible for Siers' 
I death. Later Shorthill was arrested for murder and 
then for assault with, intent to kill. At a fair trial he 
was completely exonerated and acquitted." 

When the 'Goddard case came on for trial in the 
superior court there was begun one of the most mem- 
orable legal contests in the history of the county. At- 
torneys McNamee and Clagget conducted'the case for 
the state, while Reid and Griffits appeared for the 
tdefense. Forty days were consumed in the taking of 
testimony and the making of arguments, etc., entail- 
ing upon the taxpayers an expense of many thousands 
of dollars. The defendants were acquitted, to the in- 
dignant surprise of hundreds who followed the testi- 
mony carefully. 

On Monday, August 26, 1895, the first payment to 
Indians of moneys due them in accordance with the 
treaty began at the agency. The Lewiston banks es- 
tablished temporary quarters on the reservation for 
the purpose of cashing the checks, and it is stated that 
the Indians deposited with these institutions about one- 
Ithird of their newly-acquired wealth, also that they 
acted honestly in liquidating their outstanding debts. 

Speaking editorially of the events on this mem- 
orable time, the Teller in its issue of August 2Qth 

"The past week has been one of active life in a com- 
mercial sense. Every channel of trade has been 
swelled to its flood tide. The impulse derived from the 
disbursement of Indian money has not yet subsided. 
Coming, as the revival did, at the beginnig of a sea- 
>'son of general prosperity, Lewiston may reason- 
ably expect a rapid development of neglected resources. 
One thing noticeable is the fact that the Indians use 
good judgment in making their purchases. Indian 
goods have always been shoddy goods in trade circles, 
but the Nez Perces have been selecting the best of 
everything this week. They have purchased largely of 
spring wagons, but they have avoided the cheaper 
goods, preferring to pay good prices for substantial 
family carriages. .The payment of the Indian money 
proceeded very quietly all week at the agency. The 

red men were more indifferent than white men would 
have been had such a prize been ready for the latter 
for the simple asking. The sum of two hundred thou- 
sand dollars awaited the Kamiahs for a week while 
they deliberated over the preliminaries. At first they 
seemed nonplused by the final awakening to the fact 
that they would soon be surrounded by the whites and 
have to shoulder the responsibilities of the white men, 
and sent word that they had deeded no land and would 
therefore receipt for no money. They finally took a 
philosophic view of the matter, however, and decided 
to acquiesce. 

"The Indians as a class have contemplated, secured 
and utilized this money with better judgment and more 
in accordance with true business principles than a . 
chance selection of an equal number of white men 
would have done. This speaks well for their future. 
The foundation of civilization is true business thrift 
of the individuals of anv community, and commercial 
prosperity is a natural trait of first importance in 
political economy." 

When the news of the opening of the reservation 
spread abroad scores of prospective homesteaders 
flocked into the country, camping where they might 
and doing what they could to earn a subsistence. Only 
the better class came, as the fact that the land was ex- 
pected to cost $3.75 per acre deterred the rougher and 
less thrifty element. 

On November i8th, at 12 o'clock noon, the firing 
of a cannon at the local land office gave warning of the 
official opening of the reserve. As usual in such cases 
there was a great rush for choice locations, but the 
ruffianism so generally characteristic of these races for 
homes was conspicuous for its absence. The first 
claims were filed by Stephen Haaser for Colonel Ham- 
mel, Captin Tamblin and W. O. Human, old soldiers. 
A noteworthy event of the first day was the race for 
the quartz ledges on Eckert's butte, which for many 
years was supposed to be a veritable bonanza. J. L. 
Eckert and C. E. Holt were the winners, the latter se- 
curing first choice. Nezperce City, the new govern- 
ment townsite, was likewise the center of considerable 
interest. Great confusion obtained there for a while in 
the matter of selecting lots, but the friends of order 
finally effected an organization, and, on the suggestion 
of Dr. Morris, adopted a species of lot drawing to de- 
termine the distribution of prizes. 

The settlement of the reservation enabled Nez 
Perces county to advance by a single leap to a place 
among the wealthiest and most populous counties of the 
state. Of the reservation lands, 533,500 acres were in 
Nez Perces, much of this domain being exceedingly 
rich agricultural land, and its settlement by a thrifty, 
homebuilding population was fraught with momentous 
consequences for the future greatness of the county. 

No new movements characterized the year 1896, 
but it was nevertheless a busy one. It witnessed an in- 
crease of over 4,000 in the population of Nez Perces 
county and the settlement of practically all the reserva- 
tion not taken in the first grand rush. Thousands of ' 
acres of virgin soil were broken, hundreds of homes 
were built, several towns were started and signs of 


healthy development were apparent on every hand. 
During the year the Clearwater was opened to naviga- 
tion as far as Kamiah by the utilization of twenty-five 
thousand dollars provided for the purpose by appro- 
priation, and thus the final year of the financial strin- 
gency, the year in which so little was accomplished in 
many other parts of the west, was made fruitful of 
much progress in Nez Perces county. 

In February, 1897, Representative Fuller, of Sho- 
shone county, introduced into the legislature a bill to 
create Clearwater county out of the southern portion of 
Shoshone, the northern portion of Idaho and the east- 
ern portion of Nez Perces county, the seat of govern- 
ment of the new political division to be Pierce City. 
Some of the boundaries were unnatural, and most of 
the section embraced was unpatented homestead land, 
not taxable. The number of votes cast at the previous 
election by residents in the section seeking segregation 
numbered barely three hundred. Opponents of the 
measure within and without the proposed new subdi- 
vision of the state called attention to these facts ; 'the 
hopelessness of the task they had undertaken soon be- 
came apparent to its friends and the bill was allowed 
to drop. 

It will be remembered that in 1897 there was a re- 
vival of business throughout the entire northwest. 
Naturally Nez Perces county, which had not suffered 
by the hard times as did other parts of the country, 
was prepared to keep step in this renewed forward 
march, and the year was fruitful of many improve- 
ments and some departures in industrial circles. 
Thousands of dollars were invested in reviving some 

stamp mills, opening roads, etc. The reorganization of 
the Northern Pacific Company after its lines had been 
in the receiver's hands for five years was an event 
of no little promise to a region which must look to that 
corporation for the transportation facilities it so much 
needed and so ardently desired. Lastly, and in time 
to give the hqmebuilders on the newly-opened Nez 
Perces reservation the encouragement so necessary and 
so helpful under those circumstances, came the abun- 
dant harvests and excellent prices which have made 
1897 a memorable year in the history of the inland 
empire generally. Prosperity among the farmers 
meant prosperity among the merchants, laborers me- 
chanics and all other classes, and every one felt that the 
night of financial distress had given place to a more 
glorious day than had ever before broken upon the hills 
and valleys of the Clearwater country. 

It was no doubt their perception of this golden 
future that impelled the Northern Pacific Railroad 
Company to commence in December, 1897, the exten- 
sion of their Spokane and Palouse branch to Lewis- 
ton, taking up in good earnest a project which it had 
long been contemplating but for various reasons had 
never carried into effect. At any rate, the company 
notified the people, through its agent, J. P. Vollmer, 
that it would commence work immediately provided 
the right of way and depot grounds in Lewiston were 
donated. The proposal drew forth an immediate re- 
sponse ; the bonus asked for was speedily granted, also 

the necessary franchise. The company proved true to 
its promise. Work was pushed speedily and steadily 
and on September 8, 1898, the first passenger train 
entered Lewiston. That it received a hearty welcome 
need not be stated when it is remembered that the 
town had begun agitation for a railroad as early as 
1872 perhaps earlier and had wrought assiduously 
during all the intervening years to the end that its in- 
dustrial development might receive the impetus which 
nothing but speedy transportation could give, at times 
offering enormous bonuses and ever standing ready 
to offer the company which should build to them all 
the encouragement in their power. 

The activity of the Northern Pacific seemed to 
stimulate other transpartation companies, and in 
March, 1898, articles of incorporation of the Snake 
River Valley Railroad Company were filed in 
the county clerk's office. The object of this company 
was to build a line from Umatilla, Oregon, to a point 
in the state of Washington contiguous to the mouth 
of Snake river, thence along the valley of that stream 
via Riparia, Washington, and Lewiston. Idaho, to the 
vicinity of Huntington. The proposed road would 
be of great benefit to the Clearwater section, and the 
people thereof are ever alert for the good of their 
part of the state, so considerable attention was paid to 
this new project. However, the people were too well 
used to the ways of railway projectors to be greatly 
disappointed when the road did not materialize. 

The winter of 1897-8 was a mild one, and, as is 
usual under those circumstances, the fall of snow was 
correspondingly heavy. The precipitation during Jan- 
uary was very great, and conditions were right for an 
era of floods as soon as a warm wind should begin 
blowing. On the I4th of February the balmy "Chi- 
nook" came with its furnace breath, the snow was 
speedily converted into torrents of water, the streams 
were swelled to their utmost, the former high-water 
records of the Potlatch, especially, being badly broken. 
Much damage resulted to the railroad bed; the new 
construction work was injured and its progress de- 
layed; travel was rendered impossible for three days 
and the entire Potlatch country was cut off from mail 
communication with the outside world. The Clear- 
water at Lewiston rese six feet in one day and the cur- 
rent in it became so swift as to stop the ferries ; but 


As the year advanced it brought with it blessings 
and a substantial increase of wealth to the citizens 
of Nez Perces county and vicinity. Copious rains in 
June insured excellent crops. Much of the land of the 
region was new, so that the enormous crop of 1897 
did not render another large crop in 1898 a practical 
impossibility, and it is stated that the wheat yield of 
that year was the greatest known up to the time. 
The acreage devoted to the different cereal products 
during the year, as compiled by Assessor Cantril, 
were as follows: Wheat, 44,507 acres; barley, 4,131 
acres; flax, 2,924 acres: oats, 1,572 acres; corn, 275 
acres. The number of acres devoted to hay was 


The outbreak of the Spanish-American war was 
in Nez Perces county, as in other parts of Idaho and 
the west, the occasion of a great outburst of patriotic 
ferver. This ebullition of the martial spirit found ex- 
pression at a public meeting held at the court house 
Saturday, April 23d, 1898, at which the militia, mem- 
bers of the Grand Army of the Republic, several 
Confederate veterans, many students and a representa- 
tion of the citizenship of Lewiston far beyond the 
capacity of the audience room to accommodate were 
present. Judge J. W. Poe presided. Speeches were 
made by Supreme judges Sullivan and Quarks, 
Colonels Lane and Danford, J. N. Stacy and James 
W. Reid, and these, with the martial music, stirred all 
hearts to their profoundest depths. 

Shortly after the issuance of the call of President 
McKinley for one hundred and twenty-five thousand 
volunteers, Company B received orders to hold itself 
in readiness to furnish thirty-five of its best men to fill 
up the state quota, and the boys had been drilling as- 
siduously in anticipation of the opportunity to partici- 
pate for the first time in active warfare. On Monday, 
May 2d, they received the anticipated marching or- 
ders, commanding them to repair at once to the ren- 
dezvous at Boise, but on account of some difficulty 
about transportation they were delayed in their com- 
pliance until Thursday. At noon on Monday Com- 
pany C, of Grangeville, Captain Murphy commanding, 
arrived in Lewiston. They and the home boys were 
tendered a reception by the ladies of the Women's 
Relief Corps on Tuesday evening, at which they en- 
joyed not only the usual bounties of good things, but 
heart- felt words of welcome and farewell expressed in 
glowing language by eloquent speakers. A flag was 
presented to the soldiers by C. P. Coburn, accom- 

'_ panied by words well-calculated to inspire in the 
breasts of its recipients a determination to carry it 
on to victory and to never disgrace it by any act of 
cowardice or dishonor. 

The interest of the residents of Lewiston in their 
chosen sons was further manifested on the morning 
of their departure, when a concourse of between 2,500 
and 3,000 people assembled at the boat landing to give 
them a parting hand-shake. The public schools were 

. closed, also the Normal ; stores and public offices were 
deserted, and men, women and children gathered to 
see the start for war. More speeches were indulged 
in; another flag was given the company by the Grand 

'.Army of the Republic, much hand-shaking, some 
caressing, no doubt, a little of that overflow of feeling 
which the soldier dreads worse than the battle's front, 
and the boys were off to meet the uncertainties which 
beset the soldier in fighting the battles of the repub- 
lic. Two weeks were spent in camp at Boise ; then the 
Idaho volunteers were ordered to join General Mer- 
ritt at the Presidio, San Francisco. 

From the records of Company B, First Regiment, 
Idaho Volunteer Infantry, the same being the Nez 
Perces county company, we learn that the officers were 
Lieutenant Colonel Daniel M. Figgins, commanding; 
Captain Edward O. Martinson, First Lieutenant Rob- 
ert D. Stainton, Second Lieutenant Chipear Wilcut; 

and that the privates were Charles W. Alkire, Robert 
L. Baldwin, Herbert M. Caswell, James Cleary, David 
D. Crites, John O. Derr, Frank C. Duncan, Fred Fol- 
som, Harry B. Ford, William H. Frederick, Frank B. 
Gorman,. George H. Hammersly, Herbert Hennes, 
Isaac Hutcheson, Hyrum Jenson, James Jenson, Oli- 
ver B. Jones, Richard B. Jones (wounded February 
5, 1899), Adam Kobel, Stanley C. Lebrook, John 
Lucey, Dennis Likens, John H. Little, Donald O. 
Merritt, Joseph Oswald, Richard D. Pelkey, Louis 
Peterson, William M. Pipkin, Walter W. Rhoades, 
Alfred E. Riter, William N. Robinson, Robert Ross, 
Guy Simpson, Frank Stark, Bert Weeks, James Wes- 
ton and William C. Woodside. Privates discharged 
from the company before the register was made were : 
John W. Frederick, James C. Henderson, Theodore 
Link, William A. Bicknell, Darius P. Gray, William 
Hall, Caleb P. Hahn, Charles F. Krise, John N. Luit- 
jens (wounded February 5, 1899), Harry McConville, 
J. C. McFadden, Frederick B. McKee, Charles C. 
Miles, G. E. Overstreet, Lewis A. Powless, William 
B. Rea, Joseph Rustmeyer, Frederick W. Soule, 
Martin Starling, William B. Strong, Horace 
D. Van Alstine. Officers resigned: Captain L. 

D. Schattner, April 25, 1899; Second Lieu- 
tenant John O. Barbour, March 17, 1899. Discharged 
to accept commisions: First Sergeant, Robert D. 
Stainton, Private Frank A, McCall (wounded Feb- 
ruary 5, 1899), Chipear Wilcut. Those who served 
as sergeants were: Joseph Strobel, Ernest Scott 
(wounded February 5, 1899), John Wiggins, William 
M. Keller (wounded February 5, 1899), Charles Gor- 
don, Fred S. Beckwith. As corporals: Samuel W. 
Blue, Alois Kalous, Charles W. Byers, Frank Cer- 
veny, Frank B. Flora, Len Koen, Thomas Martin. 
As musicians: William H. Ritzheimer and William 

E. Merriam. As artificer, Thomas Nance. As wag- 
oner, Herman Wilde. Those transferred were : Mack 
K. Cunningham, Fred Farr, Joseph A. Gill, Elmore 
A. McKenna and Amos A. Smith, all privates. Those 
killed in action were: Corporal Frank R. Caldwell, 
Privates James R. Fraser and George W. Hall. 

The company's record of events reads as follows: 
"Left Boise, May 19, 1898; arrived at San Francisco, 
California, May 22d and went into Camp Merritt. 
Embarked on Steamship 'Morgan City' June 26th; 
left San Francisco bay en route for Manila June 2;th. 
Arrived at Honolulu July 6th, leaving July gth; ar- 
rived at Manila bay July 31. Landed August 6th at 
Paranaque and went into camp at Camp Dewey. In 
trenches August 8th and gth. In barracks at Malate 
August 1 3th to October nth. In barracks, Exposi- 
tion building, Manila, to January 2d. In barracks at 
Aco, Manila, to February 4th. On guard and outpost 
duty until February 4, 1899. In trenches and on fir- 
ing' line from February 4th to July I2th. Embarked 
on United States Army Transport Grant, en route 
for San Francisco via Magaski, Island Sea and Yoko- 
hama July 3 ist ; arrived August 29th. Went into camp 
at Presidio August 3ist." 

The company took part in one engagement with 
Spanish forces the assault and capture of Manila, 


August I3th, 1898, and battled against Philippino in- 
surgents at Santa Ana on February 4th and 5th at 
Calcoocan, February loth and nth, 1899. Detach- 
ments of the company were in the Laguna bay expedi- 
tion, April 7th to I7th; at Santa Cruz, April gth and 
roth; at Pagsanjan, April nth; at Lumban, April 
nth, and at Paete, April I3th. 

Besides the volunteers above mentioned, Harry 
Matheson, Ed Sutherland, James Jacks, Ed Sears, 
John Neal, Harry Lee, Bob Winger and Moxie Alex- 
ander, all Lewiston boys, took part in the war, having 
enlisted in Company C, First Battalion, Second Regi- 
ment, Washington Volunteers. 

The Second Battalion, Idaho Volunteers, including 
all the north Idaho companies, was commanded by 
Major Ed McConville (the Colonel McConville of Nez 
Perces Indian war fame), a man of splendid military 
ability. Brave, determined, heroic, possessing the gift 
of inspiring others with the enthusiasm and ardor 
which fired his own patriotic heart, he kept adding 
laurels to his wreath of fame until he met at last a 
soldier's fate. Brigadier General Charles King, who 
was in command of the brigade in the battle of Santa 
Ana, in which the Idaho regiment covered itself with 
glory, refers to the Idaho volunteers and to Major 
McConville in this language : 

"Just as the center of the Idahos reached a little 
clump of trees and shrubbery half way across the 
plain they were greeted by a sudden and furious vol- 
ley, which staggered them. In an instant McConville 
leaped to the front, shouting to his men : 'Come on ! 
Come on, Idaho!' and then, as he turned and led the 
rush into the shrubbery a shot struck him square in 
the breast and down he went. Even then, they told 
me, he strove to crawl forward, but the wound was 
mortal, and presently the brave old fellow realized that 
he had but an hour or two to live. I never saw him 
again. The order he received from my lips on the 
Santa Ana road was his last, and to the letter had he 
striven to obey it. 

"Five insurgents lay dead about the Krupps in the 
middle of the redoubt," where, side by side, California 
and Idaho leaped in to the capture, and a dozen lay 
strewn over the field in front of where the honored old 
major fell. The big redoubt on the mound to his left 
was littered with the bodies of insurgents. Hemmed 
in between McConville, Fortson and the river and un- 
able to beat back the dashing charge of the 'Ameri- 
canos,' they raised the white flag and th'en shot dead 
the first soldier to reach the work. The roar of mus- 
ketry was resumed for three minutes and was followed 
by scattering shots as the fugitives ran for the stream, 
but there was a smile on McConville's grizzled face 
as they bore him off the field." 

The remains of the heroic McConville were brought 
home lor interment. On April i2th the steamer 
Spokane, with its flag at half-mast, steamed into port 


bearing the body, and during the afternoon of the 
next day all that was mortal of the courageous patriot 
was laid to rest. The funeral was attended by hun- 
dreds of people, among them the state officials, led by 
Governor Steunberg, the University of Idaho Cadets 

and members of the faculty and delegations from other 
cities of Idaho and Washington. 

The members of Company B arrived at Lewiston 
on the afternoon of October 2, 1899, and were greeted 
in a manner which proved that the people fully appre- 
ciated their gallant services and the honor they reflect- 
ed upon the city and county that sent them forth. The 
boat was met by members of fraternal orders, by 
fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters and sweethearts, 
by young and old and middle aged, all in gala attire 
and striving to outdo one another in the warmth of 
their welcome and the heartiness of their tributes of 

But we must take up again the current of events 
in Nez Perces county. The year 1899 was a very 
lively one. The railroad activity of which we have 
spoken in a previous chapter contributed not a little 
to this prosperity and there were other causes also 
operative in the same direction. True the winter had 
been a severe one occasioning heavy losses of cattle 
and horses, the heaviest, however, being outside of 
Nez Perces county, but the effect was scarcely felt, 
being so completely neutralized by the operation of 
other forces. By May, according to the Teller's state- 
ment, the entire country was on the boom. New 
towns and new additions to old towns were coming 
to the front and the price of real estate was leaping 
forward. "Every house of every description," says 
the paper referred to, "is occupied to its fullest ca- 
pacity and large numbers of new ones are under con- 
struction, while many vacant lots serve as tenting 
ground for people who cannot otherwise get housed. 
The transient traveler who gets a room to himself is 
fortunate and still more so is he if he is not compelled 
to sleep at some barracks of a lodging house utilized 
in connection with the hotel where he may have reg- 
istered." The Buffalo Hump excitement, caused by 
the discovery of rich gold deposits in the vicinity of 
that old landmark, was responsible for much of the: 
travel through the country and the general boom con- 
ditions, but there was also a mining excitement in 
Nez Perces county itself. A number of locations 
were made near Greer's ferry on the Clearwater river, 
a region blest with traditions of a lost mine. "During 
the Nez Perces war," so the story goes, "a party oi 
prospectors were run to cover in the canyon of the Lo- 
lo and while in hiding they found a very rich ledge.; 
The prospectors were badly scared, did not expect 
to save even their scalps, but they chipped off chunks \ 
of gold bearing quartz and carried them to their I 
homes. The confused state of their minds at thj| 
time left them with only vague recollections of thai 
location of the ledge which they concealed with brush ' 
and dirt. Years later members of that party secretly 
returned to the vicinity of Greer's ferry and tramped j 
all summer up and down the country in search of ' 
this rich ledge, which they have never found. All ', 
of these old prospectors have died. The last to visit | 
the scene of this exciting experience came in 1896." 

Whether the gold find of 1877, if such was in truth i 
made, would, if discovered, prove as rich as the old | 
prospectors believed is of course unknown but Greer's i 


ferry is known to be in a promising mineral belt and 
it is possible that a ledge of great richness may have 
. been discovered and lost again as alleged. At any 
rate it is not unlikely that some of the prospects in 
the vicinity will develop into paying properties. 

During the year the value of property in the county 
according to the assessor's appraisement nearly doub- 
led, giving it fifth place among the political divisions 
of the state. As the valuation of railroad property in 
the county was only one-sixteenth of the whole, leav- 
ing such property out of the calculation, Nez Per- 
ces would rank third. 

The opening of the year 1900 was a very propiti- 
ous one in the county. The mild winter left the cat- 
tlemen's stacks of hay scarcely touched while the cat- 
tle, feeding along the breaks of the rivers, were fatter 
than if they had been compelled by severe weather to 
consume all the fodder provided for their use in case 
of emergency. The year throughout was one of sub- 
stantial progress and universal prosperity, though it 
was not characterized by the excitement and rush 
which distinguished its predecessor. When fall came 
it brought the largest harvests ever known in Nez 
Perces county with a consequent stimulus to business 
of all kinds. The only disaster of the year was for- 
tunately not serious. It consisted of the wreck on the 
Clearwater Short Line, on June 27*, of a mixed 
train consisting of four carloads of hogs, two box 
cars, three fiat cars, a steam shovel, one passenger 
coach and the express car. The train had just rounded 
a curve about two miles east of Contact and was com- 
ing onto straight road again when one of the trucks 
under the steam shovel left the track. The engineer 
saw the shovel flying up in the air and immediately 
applied the brakes, but the king bolt under the shovel 
had been broken ; the trucks were pulled out from un- 
der it; the flat car behind struck it throwing it into 
the river and the car itself was thrown crosswise of the 
track. The other freight cars were badly wrecked, 
but fortunately the passenger coach, in which were 
fifteen or twenty people, was not injured, and besides 
being badly shaken up no one was hurt. 

An event of the year 1900 which must not be over- 
looked was the organization on February ipth of the 
Nez Perces County Pioneer Association, of which all 
persons might become members who settled in the 
county prior to or during 1877. The first officers 
were C. G. Kress, president : C. P. Coburn, vice-pres- 
ident ; Wallace B. Stainton, secretary; John N. Lind- 
say, treasurer; Edmund Pearcy, Robert Grostein, Joel 
Martin and M. A. Kelly, trustees. For the purpose 
of preserving as many as possible of the names of 
those who have toiled so long in the development of 
the county and done so much for its material and so- 
cial upbuilding, we give the membership roll of the 
society as follows: 

W. P. Bell, 1859; John M. Silcott, Thomas B. 
Beall, 1860; G. W. Underwood, A. R. Trimble, Thom- 
as F. Reynolds, 1861 ; C. C. Bunnell, Edmund Pear- 
cy, Chester P. Coburn, Augustus C. Sweet, Ezra 
Baird, W. S. Dyer, G. A. Frost, M. A. Kelly, Joel 
D. Martin, S. Wildenthaler, R. Grostein, C. E. Faunce, 

T. C. Moxley, August Meilk, W. P. Hunt, William 
LeBaron, N. B. Holbrook, E. Tixier, L. G. Maguire, 
John Denny, J. O. Maxon, Sarah G. Thompson D. 
VV. C. Dunwell, 1862; Eva K. Mounce, Mrs. C. P. 
Grostein, Elizabeth Barnett, Eliza W. Thatcher, Em- 
ma J. Chapman, J Alexander, John W. Denney, W. 
W. Leeper, Sophia Whitman, Mallery, Mrs. Martha 
Coburn, P. B. Whitman, Samuel W. Childs, 1863; 
Mrs. Rosa Grostein, M. H. Sprague, Olive C. Hunt, 
C. A. McCabe, John O. Barbour, S. E. Vollmer, Ben- 
jamin F. Morris, 1864; Alma Havenick, Lucinda J. 
Breanley, Charles G. Kress, 1865 ! William Stevenson, 
T. S. Billings, William Baird, C. E. Bradish, Anna 
M. Clark, 1866; Rachael Binnard, A. C. Coburn, Mrs. 
Mary W. Smith, Nellie W. Leeper, Joseph Dubuc, 
Harry Dowd, James Conley, L. Grostein, 1867; C. 

A. Elmer, Mrs. W. E. Erb, Mrs. F. Roos, John P. 
Vollmer, Mrs. Alida G. Faunce, 1868; Mrs. Annie 
Krautmger, Frank B. Willis, Mrs. Josephine Boise, 
Christ Weirgerder, 1869; H. R. Grostein, Fred M. 
Manning, Eerdinand Roos, Amy D. Kettenbach, 
Charles Dowd, John L. Chapman, James Hayes, Perry 
Thomas, G. A. Manning, Mrs. Laura B. Morris, Su- 
san E. Manning, H. Penault, 1870; H. A. Trimble, 
G. M. Smith, P. M. Davis, H. K. Barnett, 1871; 
Harry Lydon, Mrs. Clifford Riggs, J. R. Lydon, 
Robert Schleicher, Matt Dowd, Mrs. J. E. Akins, 
Wallace B. Stainton, 1872; Mrs. Sarah A. Roxley, 
L. Rowley, J. Q. Moxley, E. A. Rowley, 1873; Loui s 
N. Roos, S. E. Arant, William L. Boise, E. H. Wig- 
gin, Mrs. Ella Rowley, Mrs. Mary R. Denny, Anna 
Binnard, 1874: A. G. Wisner, Curtis Thatcher, K. 
Oliver, Edna M. Baird, Mrs. Mary C. Moxley, J. 

B. Morris, John M. Fix, W. R. Dixon, 1875; J. N. 
Lindsay, L. Stannus, Mrs. Mollie Armstrong, Mrs. 
W. B. Cooper, Miss Bessie Vollmer, Elizabeth M. 
Beeson, Mary A. Butler, Ferdinand Roos, Jr., George 

C. Leland, George H. Storer, J. D. C. Thiessen, Re- 
becca Lindsay, C. A. Leeper, Rosa Ponting, Mrs. 
Lillie Wisner, W. H. Leland, J. H. Frost, Mrs. L. 
K. Stirling, Mrs. Hattie Wildenthaler, Louis D. 
Schattner, 1876; John Weiss, Thomas Kittsmiller, 
Wilbur Wardwell, J. C. Kincaid, John Ponting, John 
Speck, W. A. Smith, Catherine Metcalf, Margaret 
A. Goldsmith, Frances M. Moxley, Mrs. Viola C. 
McConville, Martin L. Goldsmith, Newton Hibbs, 
J. E. Kincaid, John H. McCalli, William Wright, 
J. R. Wolfe, A. W. Krautinger, Fred S. Kling, F. 
J. Edwards, Maud Wildenthaler, Clara P. Phillips, 
Mrs. Mary White Kettenback, W. F. Kettenbach, 
Mrs. Emma M. Edwards, Henry Harsell, W. Haver- 
nick, 1877. 

On January 22, 1901, Representative Oxley, of 
Shoshone county, introduced into the legislature a bill 
providing for the creation of Clearwater county out of 
territory belonging to Nez Perces, Idaho and Shoshone 
counties. It was later amended to take in the Potlatch 
country, its first draft having taken no part of Xez 
Perces county except that east of the Boise meridian. 
The result of the change was a vigorous protest from 
the residents of the section affected. The bill was de- 
feated by a vote of 22 to 21 in the house, but in the 

9 6 


evening that body reconvened and determined by a vote 
of 31 to II to reconsider the measure. This was on 
March 6th. Later in the same month a substitute bill 
was passed, the boundaries being so denned as to take 
from 'Nez Perces county about three townships in the 
Potlatch and three in the reservation. The bill was 
promptly signed by the governor, who appointed for 
the new county of Clearwater the following officers: 
Commissioners, P. H. Blake, William LeBaron and 
John T. Mallory ; sheriff, Frank Gaffney ; assessor, J. 
L. Harris ; treasurer, A. E. Holmberg ; superintendent 
of schools, Mrs. Fannie Roberts; probate judge, J. S. 
Hogue; county attorney, J. A. Brown; surveyor, D. 
H. Guilland, coroner, Henry Merchant. 

But the new county was not organized as speedily 
as at first intended, owing to several difficulties, and 
when at last it was ready to take its place among the 
legal subdivisions of the state, the state auditor refused 
to furnish blank licenses such as the law required him 
to furnish to the treasurers of the different counties, 
alleging that Clearwater county had not been legally 
created. The case was taken into court by the county 
treasurer of the new political division, who applied for 
a writ of mandate compelling the state auditor to com- 
ply with the law in this respect. The defendant, in 
his answer, filed in response to an order by the court' 
to appear and show cause why the writ should not issue, 
set up that the county did not contain taxable prop- 
erty to the value of one million dollars as required by 
section 4, article 18 of the constitution, and further 
that the act creating or purporting to create it was 
fatally defective in its language, therefore the county 
of Cleawater has no legal existence. Attorneys for 
the county of Cleawater thought the second objection 
would not be seriously considered by the court and 
contended that the amendment upon which the first was 
based was unconstitutional for the reason that it was 
not passed by a two-thirds vote of the house. The su- 
preme court did not pass upon the constitutionality of 
the amendment, but held the creating act void for the 
reason that it did not state specifically that the territory 
within the defined boundaries "shall constitute the coun- 
ty of Clearwater." The section at fault read : "That 
a'll portions of the state of Idaho included within the 
following boundaries, to wit : Beginning at the south- 
east corner of Kootenai county on the water shed 
separating the waters of the St. Mary and Clearwater 

rivers ; thence in an easterly direction to the 

place of beginning." The sentence contained no verb 
and was obviously meaningless. Thus through a 
clerical mistake or literary error the hopes of the 
friends of Clearwater county were dashed to the 

This year witnessed in Whitman county and other 
parts of Washington a very considerable excitement 
over the discovery of indications of oil and natural 
gas, an excitement which extended to Nez Perces 
county also. It is stated that after two days of careful 

Prof. Aughey, an expert, concluded that Lewiston 
was in the gas belt and that the Lewiston valley was 
underlaid, at a depth of between six hundred and a 

thousand feet, with formations containing oil and gas. 
Those who were with . Professor Aughey stated that 
from holes made in the soil at various points a gas 
flow was obtained. The exudations burned with 
yellow flame, leading to the conclusion that they were 
petrolium gas. Many claims were taken in the vicin- 
ity and considerable excitement was engendered by 
the find and by Aughey's very conservative report. 

The spring of 1902 brought another rush of gold 
seekers through the county, Thunder mountain being 
the mecca of the wealth hunting hordes this time. Some 
few of the travelers stopped at Lewiston to sect 
their outfits, but for the most part that city was left 
out of their calculations after the Northern Pacific 
time schedule was changed so as to permit passenger 
to proceed direct to Stites, the Clearwater terminal 
of the road. From that point two routes were open 
to the pilgrims, one via Dixie, the other via Gran^ 
ville and Warrens. The rush had a stimulating effect 
upon business all along the route, as all such mi 

One of the principal progressive movements of the 
year was that which resulted in the construction of 
tramway at a site between Kamiah and Greer for the 
purpose" of facilitating the marketing of wheat and 
other cereals raised on the heights far above the rail- 
road track. The farmers of Nez Perces prairie 
banded themselves together for the purpose of con- 
structing this much needed improvement, formed a 
stock company, looked up a suitable site, let the con- 
tract for furnishing a cable, buckets and other ap- 
paratus to a San Francisco firm and set vigorous' 
about the work of installing the somewhat expensi 
plant. They had, in their efforts, the encourageme 
of both the" grain handling firms of Lewiston, which 
took large blocks of the stock, while the railway com- 
pany put in a side track for their accommodation. 
The" cable used is an endless coil of steel wires 13,200 
feet long, suspended on rollers and carrying a thou- 
sand steel cages or buckets. The power" is furnished 
by a large stationary engine upon the heights above. 

During the closing month of the year agitation 
for the formation of Clearwater county was revived. 
Orofino gave inception to the struggle" by circulating 
a petition for the formation of a new county with 
such boundaries that it would be the logical county 
seat. Nez Perces at once took up the gauntlet by cir- 
culating a petition praying for a new county to include 
all of southern Shoshone county, part of the Potlatch 
and a strip off Nez Perces prairie. This action was 
taken not so much that the people desired a change of 
county affiliations as that they desired above all things 
to defeat the Orofino measure. Representative-elect 
C. D. Thomas, of Nezperce, stated the position of ,| 
his home town in the following language : 

"The people of Nezperce are perfectly satisfied 
with their present county affiliations but if a division 
is inevitable, they believe in dividing the county in 
the right way. The petition we have prepared and 
which is being circulated, has now been signed by 
every man save one in Nezperce city, and by every- 
one in the adjacent country to whom it has been pre- 



sented. We have no intention of establishing a new 
county on the lines mentioned in the petition, but 
the people of Nezperce have discovered that Lewis- 
ton had concluded to permit the organization of 
Clearwater county without opposition so long as only 
a small strip of Nez Perces county was taken, and 
we have concluded to give them the alternative of 
either fighting against the taking of any of the old 
county to create Clearwater county or to submit to 
the dismemberment of the county on rational lines. 
In preparing our petition we endeavored to arrange 
fer a county with boundaries drawn on geographical 
lines, following the water courses wherever possi- 
ble, and in our petition we make no attempt to decide 
the matter of the location of a county seat." 

The matter was brought up in the legislature by 
the introduction, by Representative Greer, of Sho- 
shone county, of a bill creating Clearwater county out 
of Shoshone and Nez Perces counties with Orofino 
as county seat until the general election of 1904, when 
the voters were to select the permanent county seat. 
The technical description of the boundaries of the 
new political division was as follows: 

"Beginning at the intersection of the northern 
boundary line of township 41, range I east, of the 
Boise meridian, with the western boundary line of 
Shoshone county ; thence due east along the northern 
boundary line of said township 41 and continuing 
due east to the boundary line between the states of 
Idaho and Montana; thence in a southeasterly direc- 
tion along the boundary line between the states of 
Idaho and Montana to its intersection with the pres- 
ent southern boundary line of Shoshone county; 
thence in a westerly direction along the present south- 
ern boundary line of Shoshone county to where the 
same intersects with the center of the channel of the 
Clearwater river; thence up the center of the main 
channel of the Clearwater river to the mouth of Law- 

yer's creek, being the present boundary line between 
the counties of Nez Perces and Idaho; thence in a 
westerly direction up the center of the main channel 
of Lawyer's creek, being the present northern bound- 
ary line of Idaho county, to its intersection with the 
Boise meridian; thence north along the Boise merid- 
ian to its intersection with the southern boundary 
line of township 35, range i west, of Boise meridian ; 
thence west along the southern boundary line of said 
township to the southwest corner thereof; thence 
north along the western boundary line of townships 
35> 36, 37. 38 to the present southern boundary line 
of Latah county ; thence east along the present south- 
ern boundary line of Latah county to the southeast 
corner of said county; thence north along the present 
boundary line between the counties of Shoshone and 
Latah and Shoshone and Kootenai to the place of 

February gth of the current year, while this bill 
was yet in the hands of the committee, its author, 
Greer of Shoshone, asked the unanimous consent of 
the house to withdraw it, stating that he desired to 
press the measure in the future. The consent asked 
for was given, but a storm was raised later when an- 
other bill was introduced providing that the people 
residing within the proposed new county should have 
the right to vote on the question as to whether or not 
they desired political segregation, in the election of 
1904. The boundaries prescribed by this measure 
included a portion of Idaho county also. The new 
act, known as house bill No. 115, was referred to the 
appropriate committee, which returned a majority 
report against the measure and a minority report 
favoring it. February i/th, on motion of Moore of 
Idaho county, action on the bill was indefinitely post- 
poned by a vote of 30 to 16, effectually putting at rest 
all danger of loss of territory by any of the existing 
counties at this session of the legislature. 


Section 2 of th 
county, passed by 
ington territory December 20, 18 
J. M. Van Valsah be appointed C 
Creacy, Whitfield Kirtly and 
pointed County Commissioners; 
Sheriff ; and - Justice of the P 
county, until the next general election." 
known, however, the year 1862 witnessed a st 


the organic act creating Nez 
y the legislative assembly of 

of tens of thousands to north Idaho, and it 


1, enacted "That 
unty Auditor; A. 
be ap- 
Sanford Owens, 
for said 
is well 

s quite 

natural that there should be among this vast horde of 
gold seekers hundreds of desperadoes and lawless 
men men who cared not whether there was a court- 
house within a thousand miles of their camps and 
against whom it would have been a very dangerous 
proceeding to enforce the laws. In the mad struggle 
for the possession of gold the slow machinery of 
the law was seldom, if ever, invoked. Civil govern- 
ment occupied no place in these miners' thoughts. 
The reign of gold was supreme. Under such condi- 


the contrary were shunned and if, perchance, the of- 
fices were filled by appointment, the appointees eluded 
duty by failing to qualify. 

For these reasons it is highly improbable that the 
above named officers ever served and we are strength- 
ened in the belief that they did not by failing to find, 
by inquiries among those who were here at the time, 
any account of such service. Then during the win- 
ter of 1862-3 the agitation in favor of creating out 
of this region a new territory resulted favorably, a 
territorial government was organized, and this change 
naturally disturbed local affairs. 

Thus it is not until the summer of 1863 that we 
find a local system of government in actual operation. 
Immediately after Governor Wallace arrived here, in 
July, 1863, he proceeded to appoint the following of- 
ficers to serve in Nez Perces county : Sheriff, John 
Cassidy; county clerk, E. C. Mayhew; assistant clerk, 
S. Alexander; treasurer, Cris. Taylor; commission- 
ers, B. C. Stevens, A. B. Brower, of Lewiston, and 
David Reese, of Elk City: prosecuting attorney, E. 
F. Gray; surveyor, J. B." Buker; probate judge, D. 
J. Warner; justices of the peace, E. S. Sprague and 
Silas B. Cochran, Lewiston, Thomas M. Pomeroy, 
Elk City. The offices of probate judge and surveyor 
were purely honorary for some time. Who the first 
county assessor was cannot be learned. A majority 
of these men were Republicans. In response to the 
proclamation of Governor Wallace calling for an elec- 
tion to be held October jist, at which representatives 
to the first legislature should be elected, Nez Perces 
county elected E. B. Waterbury to the council and L. 
Bacon as its representative in the house. The rec- 
ords show that at this election Nez Perces county 
cast 208 votes for William H. Wallace for delegate 
to congress and 159 votes for his Democratic op- 
ponent, John M. Cannady. The story is told that 
when the early returns of this election came in Gov- 
ernor Wallace's friends saw that he was sure to be 
defeated by a large majority, and in order to save the 
territory to Republicanism, United States Marshal 
Payne was sent to bring in the books from the out- 
lying precincts. Wyoming and Montana were then 
a portion of Idaho. Payne crossed the Clearwater 
river at Lewiston and started on his mission. He 
was gone several days and when he returned he 
brought back votes enough for Wallace to elect him. 
The boundaries of Idaho were not very clearly defined 
in those days, and whether the election returns 
brought in by Payne were bona fide or not is ques- 
tionable. At the time this was regarded as a shrewd 
maneuver and the story treated as a huge joke, but 
now the legality of Wallace's election is questioned by 
not a few. 

When Governor Wallace deputized Hill Beachey 
to pursue the murderers of Lloyd Magruder and 
party, late in the fall of 1863, it "is said that Sheriff 
Cassidy resigned because he considered the act as a 
slight upon his official prestige. At any rate, he re- 
signed and Governor Wallace appointed James H. 
Fisk in his stead. 

Pursuant to a notice of a special meeting, the 
board of county commissioners assembled at Lewis- 
ton, the county seat of Nez Perces county, on the 5th 
day of October, 1863. Commissioners B. C. Stevens 
and A. B. Brower were present, as also Clerk May- 
hew. The first business to come before the board was 
the appointment of a county treasurer to fill the va- 
cancy then existing. F. H. Simmons was appointed 
and gave bonds in the sum of 85,000. At the meeting 
of the board on the 7th a petition signed by thirty- 
four citizens, asking for the erection of a county jail, 
was received. The board decided to submit, at the 
election to be held on October 3ist, a proposition to 
the voters calling for the levy of a special $3,000 tax 
for the purpose of building a courthouse and jail. 
At this meeting the assessment roll was presented and 
showed that there were $248,303.75 worth of taxable 
property in the county. On this basis a tax of one 
mill was levied for territorial purposes, two mills for 
school purposes and four mills for county purposes. 
The ex-county treasurer presented his report also at 
this meeting. The receipts up to October 5th amount- 
ed to $1,466, $1,200 of which was from 600 polls, and 
the county's indebtedness was nearly $1,700. 

The vote on the question of erecting county build- 
ings having been in the affirmative, on November i8th 
the board ordered that a suitable house be procured 
for use as a temporary jail until the new building 
could be erected. A prize of ten dollars was offered 
to the person suggesting the best plan of construction. 
The new courthouse was never built, however, differ- 
ent buildings being rented from time to time until the 
purchase of the old Jaggers cabin on Front street. 

The board held its first regular meeting April 4, 
1864, in compliance with the laws enacted by the first 
legislative assembly, the same officers as formerly be- 
ing present. It appearing that all of the county of- 
ficers, with the exception of the county commission- 
ers, had been illegally appointed, the offices were de- 
clared vacant and the following appointments made: 
Probate judge, John G. Berry; clerk, E. C. Mayhew; 
sheriff, James H. Fisk: assessor, S. R. Howlett ; re- 
corder, E. C. Mayhew; surveyor, E. F. Gray; super- 
intendent of schools, L. C. Fitch; justices of the 
peace. Lewiston precinct, S. E. Darnes, Elk City pre- 
cinct, Thomas M. Pomeroy; constables, Lewiston 
precinct, Thomas J. Patterson, Elk City precinct, 
Robert Hunt. 

As is usually the case in communities which derive 
their support almost entirely from the mining indus- 
try, Nez Perces's population was constantly shifting 
from one place to another and was very unstable. 
From time to time county officers resigned, and 
changes were going on constantly. Thus we see 
that in June the commissioners were A. B. Brower, 
W. Leonard and A. B. Downer, the last two being 
recent appointees ; that C. C. Chamberlain has become 
sheriff; that Warren A. Belcher has tendered his 
resignation as treasurer and that W. W. Thompson 
is appointed in his place. Later, in July, S. R. How- 
lett resigned as assessor and at this same session Dr. 
Robert Newell was appointed school superintendent. 


Mr. Newell declined the position and S. M. Wait was 
appointed to serve until the newly elected corps of 
officers took their places the first of the year. 

Preparatory to the county's first election, at the 
July term, the board established the following pre- 
cincts : Lewiston, Elk City, Clearwater Station, 
Newsome Creek, Taylor's Bridge, Long Bar, Was- 
shilla Creek and Wixson's. At this term also B. F. 
Lamkin was authorized to construct, at a cost not to 
exceed $600, two cells for jail purposes in the old 
vegetable market on First street. The first action 
taken toward the establishment of county roads was 
taken at this term also, when the road between Her- 
sey's mountain house and Elk City was declared a 
public highway and Samuel Gilman was appointed 
road supervisor. At the same time S. M. Wait was 
appointed road supervisor of the Lewiston district. 
From time to time the board granted ferry, and toll 
road licenses, but as the establishment of these differ- 
ent enterprises has been fully dealt with in another 
chapter we will not stop to enumerate them here. 

From the court records we see that at the election 
held in the fall of 1864 the following were the first reg- 
ularly elected officers of Nez Perces county: A. B. 
Brower, Loyal P. Brown and P. W. Bell, commis- 
sioners; E. S. Sprague, probate judge; W. W. 
Thompson, treasurer; S. S. Stiles, clerk and record- 
er; James Fisk, sheriff; L. W. Bacon, assessor; rep- 
resentative to the legislative assembly, George 
Zeigle, Republican, and T. M. Reed, Democrat ; mem- 
ber of the legislative council, E. B. Waterbury, Dem- 
ocrat. The report of the teritorial canvassing board 
shows that Nez Perces county cast ^37 votes for 
Samuel E. Parks, Republican, and 237 votes for E. 
D. Holbrook, Democrat, candidates for the honor of 
representing Idaho in congress. The honors were 
divided about equally between Democrats and Re- 
publicans. Subsequently J. K. Vincent succeeded 
Fisk as sheriff, the latter failing to file his bond, I. 
C. Purcell became probate judge, and Phillip Streeter 
was appointed assessor. 

Pursuant to law the district court for the first 
district of Idaho territory convened at Lewiston on 
January 4, 1864. Alleck'C. Smith, the regularly ap- 
pointed judge of this district, was unable to be 'pres- 
ent, and at the request of Acting Governor Daniels, 
Samuel C. Parks, of the second district, presided dur- 
ing the term. The Magruder murder case was the 
first and only case of importance to come before the 
first session of court in north Idaho, and as this case 
has been fully dealt with elsewhere we will pass im- 
mediately to the election of 1866. 

The election of 1866 was a spirited one and re- 
sulted in a slight Democratic victory. During the 
'sixties the tendency of the people was to spend the 
easily acquired gold lavishly, and this tendency ob- 
tained even among office holders. Consequently the 
party in power was usually open to the charge of ex- 
travagance, and anti-extravagance became the slogan 
of both parties. For this reason the Republicans and 
Democrats for many years held power alternately. 
J. W. Eastman, Republican, James" Hays, Democrat, 

and Aurora Shumway, Democrat, were elected com- 
missioners in 1866; John G. Berry, Democrat, de- 
feated James H. Fisk for the shrievalty, this contest 
being the leading one of the campaign; S. S. Stiles, 
Republican, was elected clerk and recorder for a sec- 
ond term ; H. O. Adams, Republican, was elected pro- 
bate judge; W. W. Thayer, Democrat (later gov- 
ernor of Oregon), was the choice of the majority for 
prosecuting attorney; James Henderson, Democrat, 
received a majority of the votes cast for the office of 
treasurer; and P. Streeter, Republican, was chosen 
county assessor. Henderson served only a short time 
and was succeeded by M. A. Kelly. The following 
June, John Clark took up the duties of assessor, vice 
P. Streeter. In 1865 the law relative to the election 
of members of the legislative assembly was changed 
and an election was held. In Nez Perces county the 
election resulted in the choice of L. P. Brown, Repub- 
lican, as a member of the council, and Joseph Mor- 
ris and James Hays, Democrats, as members of the 
house. The election of 1866 returned Councilman 
Brown and resulted in the choice of J. S. Taylor, 
Democrat, as Nez Perces' member of the house. 
For delegate to congress J. M. Kirkpatrick, Repub- 
lican, received 230 votes and E. D. Holbrook, Demo- 
crat, 155 votes in Nez Perces county. 

The Democrats succeeded in capturing every office 
but one in 1868, James Crooks, county commissioner, 
being the only Republican elected. The officers 
elected were: Councilman, J. S. Taylor; members 
house of representatives, E. W. Bell and J. G. Zeigle ; 
sheriff, John G. Berry; probate judge, Alonzo Gil- 
man; clerk, James Witt; recorder, Robert McPher- 
son, succeeded shortly afterwards by C. G. Kress; 
treasurer, M. A. Kelly; commissioners, James Crooks, 
Aurora Shumway. j. T. Schissler; prosecuting at- 
torney, S. S. Fenn; assessor, D. H. Howser. The 
vote for delegate was: James K. Shafer, Democrat, 
106, Thomas J. Butler, Republican, 161. 

In 1870 T. J. Bunktr, Republican, was elected 
sheriff; T. H. Worden, Republican, treasurer; John 
Brearley, Republican, recorder and auditor; F. B. 
King, Republican, assessor; C. A. Thatcher, Republi- 
can, clerk ; H. O. Adams, probate judge ; J. M. Crooks, 
J. T. Silverwood, Republican, Joseph Schissler, Dem- 
ocrat, commissioners ;" John Clark, Republican, district 
attorney ; C. C. Call, Democrat, councilman, and J. P. 
Silverwood, and H. H. Wheeler, Republicans, mem- 
bers of the house. In this county S. A. Merritt, Dem- 
ocrat, received 166 votes and T. J. Butler, Republican, 
[50 votes for delegate to congress. 

The following campaign witnessed the first clash 
between those who favored the annexation of north 
Idaho to Washington and those who were opposed. 
For some time past the segregation sentiment had 
bec-n gaining strength in this portion of the territory, 
and in 1872 it became, for the first time, a strong 
factor in the politics of this region. The spark 
formerly kindled spread so rapidly that ere many years 
the whole of north Idaho \vas abla/c with the idea 
and all opposition was completely consumed. The 


Democratic count)- convention met in March and the 
Republicans the 'month following and placed their 
respective tickets in the field. The Republicans were 
victorious except where offices directly affecting the 
annexation proposition were concerned, and here the 
opposition, the Democrats, won the victory. The 
official result of this election is given below : 

For delegate to congress, John Hailey, Democrat, 
241 votes, J. W. Huston, Republican, 234 votes: for 
councilman, R. E. Miller, Anti-Division Democrat, 
301, Colby Collins, Division Republican, 154; for rep- 
resentatives, G. W. Tomer, Anti-Division Democrat, 
357, S. S. Fenn, Division Democrat, 230, J. F. Bush, 
Division Republican, 67, Hazen Squier, Anti-Divis- 
ion Republican, 152, George A. Manning, Independ- 
ent, 70: for district attorney, John Clark, Republi- 
can, 352, James W. Poe, Democrat, 121 ; for probate 
judge, H. O. Adams, Republican, 243, Alexander 
Damas, Democrat, 216; for sheriff, D. B. Baldwin, 
Republican, 292, D. H. Howser, Democrat, 171 ; for 
auditor, Warren P. Hunt, Republican, 284, Frank 
Points, Democrat, 179; for treasurer, T. H. Worden, 
Republican, 294, J. W. Denny, Democrat, 156; for as- 
sessor, F. B. King, Republican, 293, L. E. Harris, 
Democrat, 168 : for superintendent of schools, T. S. 
Billings, Republican, 352, J. P. Vollmer, Democrat, 
195; for commissioner, W. A. Vandervort, Demo- 
crat, 44; J. T. Silverwood, Republican, 16, W. O. 
Pearson, Republican, 67, T. Anderson, Democrat, 10; 
for coroner, W. S. Dyer," Republican, 250, R. J. De- 
vine, Democrat, 205 ; for surveyor, Charles Le Fran- 
cois, Democrat, 218. 

The official vote at the election of 1874 is missing, 
so that we are unable to present anything except a 
roll of the officers elected, which follows: Commis- 
sioners, D. H. Howser, George Dempster, M. M. Will- 
iams, Democrats; sheriff, Ezra Baird, Democrat; 
clerk, Warren P. Hunt, Republican; assessor, W. C. 
Pearson, Republican; treasurer, H. W. Stainton, 
Democrat; probate judge, John G. Berry, Democrat; 
superintendent of schools, T. S. Billings, Republi- 
can; surveyor, Edward Hannegan, Democrat; coun- 
cilman, L. P. Brown, Republican; representatives, 
William Groat and J. C. Waldrip, Republicans. John 
Clark, Republican, was elected district attorney. For 
delegate to congress, S. S. Fenn, Democrat, received 
423 votes and his opponent, T. W. Bennett, Repub- 
lican, 87. 

The year 1876 witnessed another Democratic vic- 
tory, only one Republican being elected, D. J. Warner 
as probate judge. W. G. Langford was elected as 
Nez Perces' representative to the legislative council 
and Fred Points and S. B. Edwards as this county's 
representatives in the house. Ezra Baird was re- 
elected sheriff, Thomas Hudson became the county's 
auditor and recorder, A. Binnard was elected treas- 
urer, J. W. Northrup was victorious in the contest 
for assessor and William Ewing, J. M. Curry and 
N. B. Holbrook were chosen county commissioners. 
Nez Perces county cast 176 votes for S. S. Fenn, who 
was again the Democratic party's nominee for dele- 

and 115 votes for the Republican r 

:, John 

An interesting feature of the campaign of 1878 
was the vote taken in northern Idaho on the state 
constitution adopted by the territory of Washington 
in anticipation of early statehood. North Idaho, 
which had now become so thoroughly imbued with 
the idea of being annexed to Washington as to almost 
consider itself a part of that territory, sent a delegate 
to this constitutional convention in the person of 
Alonzo Leland, the acknowledged head of the annex- 

mittecl to the voters of the northern counties at the 
election in the fall of 1878, and in Nez Perces county 
only 13 votes were cast against it, 485 voting for it. 
Political honors were about equally shared by the 
Democrats and Republicans, as will be seen from the 
following official canvass of the vote : 

For delegate, George Ainslee, Democrat, 312, 
Jonas W. Brown, Republican, 306; district attorney, 
James W. Poe, Democrat, 309; councilman, Frank 
Points, Democrat, 283, G. A. Manning, Republican, 
327; representatives, J. J. Bonner and A. A. Lieual- 
len, Democrats, 358 and 204 votes, respectively, Will- 
iam King and H. McGregor, Republicans, 306 and 
232 votes, respectively; probate judge, D. J. Warner, 
Republican, 364, Thomas Hudson, Democrat, 262; 
commissioners, William Ewing, N. B. Holbrook, O. 
H. P. Beagle, Democrats, 365, 368 and 266 votes, re- 
spectively, S. C. Hale, J. M. Greenstreet, E. Fix, Re- 
publicans, 335, 267 and 276 votes, respectively; sheriff, 
Ezra Baird, Democrat, 381, L. B. Boise, Republican, 
249 ; auditor and recorder, D. W. C. Dunwell, Demo- 
crat, 191, J. H. Evans, Republican, 417, J. K. Vin- 
cent, Independent, 19; treasurer, Abraham Binnard, 
Democrat, 274, Hazen Spuier, Republican, 352; as- 
sessor, J. H. Irvine, Democrat, 317, H. W. Howard, 
Republican, 315 ; surveyor, Bart. Nymeyer, Democrat, 
361, Alfred Colburn, Republican, 266 ;' coroner, Rob- 
ert Grostein, Democrat, 13, C. P. Howell, Independ- 
ent, 7, J. Sullivan, Republican. 3. 

Southern Idaho controlled the territorial conven- 
tion held in 1880, and as that section was decidedly 
opposed to the segregation of the north, anti-annexa- 
tion planks were inserted in both the Democratic and" 
Republican platforms. The north was so heartily in 
favor of annexation that it disregarded party affilia- 
tions and joined the extreme southeastern part of the 
territory in nominating Ex-Governor Brayman for 
delegate. Brayman had openly announced his en- 
dorsement of the scheme to annex northern Idaho to 
Washington, and it was on this platform that he was 
nominated. He received the almost solid vote of the 
north, the vote in Nez Perces county being. Brayman, 
568, Ainslie, Democrat, 129, and Smith, Republican, 
5. The complete official vote for the other officers in 
this county was as follows : 

For district attorney, Quakenbush, Republican, 
390, Maxwell, Democrat, 301 ; councilman, James W. 
Poe, Democrat, 682 ; joint councilman, I. B. Cowen, of 
Shoshone, Republican, 698; assemblymen, William 


King, I. N. Hibbs, J. M. Hedrick, Republicans, 212, 
358 and 410 votes respectively, S. J. Langdon, J. H. 
Irvine, W. C. Cooper, Democrats, 398, 354 and 326 
votes, respectively; probate judge, P. Grigsby, Dem- 
ocrat, 354, D. J. Warner, Republican, 347; sheriff, 
N. B. Holbrook, Democrat, 365, L. B. Boise, Repub- 
lican, 334: treasurer, N. Hale, Democrat, 352, C. E. 
Monteith, Republican, 351; auditor and recorder, J. 
H. Evans, Republican, 420, H. Payne, Democrat, 286 ; 
assessor, H. W. Howard, Republican, 409, J. W. 
Northrup, Democrat, 290; commissioners, S. C. Hale, 
William Evans, Frank McCarrick, Republicans, 429, 
354 and 281 votes, respectively, D. Spurbeck, G. B. 
Christie. J. N. Lindsay, Democrats, 312, 308 and 406 
votes, respectively; surveyor, William Bell, Republi- 
can, 314, B. Nymeyer,' Democrat, 385. Ainslie was 
elected delegate. The defeat of Brayman, though not 
unexpected, greatly chagrined the north. Neverthe- 
less, it showed the annexationists their true strength. 

Late in the summer of 1882 a call was issued for 
an independent north Idaho convention to be held at 
Lewiston October nth for the purpose of nominating 
an independent candidate for congress as against 
either of the regular party nominees, Ainslie, Demo- 
crat, and Theodore F. Singiser, Republican, both of 
whom were supposed to be inimical to annexation. 
However, before the convention assembled, Singiser 
announced that he would support annexation and 
made a campaign in northern Idaho on that platform. 
This course, a shrewd political move, resulted in the 
independents giving him their endorsement. When 
the votes were counted it was found that Singiser had 
received 1,060 of the 1,100 votes cast in Nez Perces 
county, an overwhelming expression of the people's 
desire for annexation. Singiser was victorious in the 
contest. The vote for county officers follows: 

For councilman, W. S. Taylor, Republican, 541, 
D. W. C. Dunwell, Democrat, 517; joint councilman, 
I. B. Cowen, Republican, 621, B. D. Donaldson, Dem- 
ocrat. 493; assemblymen, A. Buchanan, Wallis Fee 
and K. Larson, Republicans, 620, 424 and 664 votes, 
respectively, J. H. Irvine, Phillip Grigsby and G. W. 
Tomer, Democrats, 484, 540 and 602 votes, respect- 
ively ; sheriff, W. D. Robbins, Republican, 499, Ezra 
Baird, Democrat, 627 : auditor and recorder, J. H. 
Evans, Republican, 599, B. A. Nymeyer, Democrat, 
531 ; assessor, L. F. Herbert, Republican, 618, W. A. 
Calbreath, Democrat, 516 treasurer, George Glass, 
Republican. 610, P. M. Davis, Democrat, 520; pro- 
bate judge. William Wing, Republican, 560, I. N. 
Maxwell, Democrat, 553; county attorney, A. Quack- 
enbush, Republican, 604, J. C. Elder, Democrat, 502 ; 
commissioners, E. W. Cameron, David Nottman and 
J. A. Lathrop. Republicans, 665, 734 and 466 votes, 
respectively: J. B. Menomy, Virgil Randall and D. 
Spurbeck, Democrats, 378, 510 and 586, respectively; 
surveyor, A. Colburn, Republican, 569, A. T. Beall, 
Democrat, 562. Thus it will be seen that the Repub- 
licans won an overwhelming victory in 1882. 

So rapidly had the country north of the Clear- 
water settled' since the first influx of settlers to that 
region in 1872 that in 1883 the northern portion of 

Nez Perces county demanded the county seat. An 
enabling act was passed and in June, 1883, a special 
election was held to decide the permanent location of 
Nez Perces' county seat. There were only two can- 
didates, Lewiston and Moscow, and the former won by 
a majority of 280, the vote in favor of retaining the 
county seat at Lewiston being 922, that favoring its 
removal to Moscow, 642. 

The all-absorbing issue of the campaign of 1884 
was, like that of 1882, the annexation problem. John 
Hailey was nominated as delegate by the Democrats 
and T. F. Singiser received renomination at the 
hands of the Republicans. Hailey was understood to 
represent the anti-annexation faction and Singiser the 
annexation party. Both territorial conventions 
adopted resolutions favoring the segregation of north 
Idaho, but it was generally understood that south 
Idaho opposed it so that the fact that Hailey was an 
anti-annexationist and the further fact that the policy 
of the Democratic party in southern Idaho had always 
been opposed to annexation, led to the belief that the 
party was not sincere in its promises. The result 
was that Singiser again swept the north by over 700 
majority, notwithstanding the great popularity of 
Hailey. He was, however, defeated in the territory 
at large. The detailed vote in Nez Perces county as 
gleaned from the official records we give below : 

For delegate, Theodore F. Singiser, Republican, 
799, John Hailey, Democrat, 471, William S. Taylor, 
27 ; assemblymen, S. A. Moon, J. P. Quarles, L. P. 
Wilmot, Republicans, 675, 802 and 684 votes, respect- 
ively, W. T. McKern, N. Brocke and G. W. Tomer, 
Democrats, 690, 485 and 540 votes, respectively; 
councilman, S. G. Isaman, Republican, 800, R. L. 
Yantis, Democrat, 478; joint councilman, S. W. 
Aloody, Republican, 840, D. W. C. Dunwell, Demo- 
crat, 445 ; district attorney, J. W. Parker, Democrat, 
771, E. O'Neil, Republican, 526; probate judge, Will- 
iam Wing, Republican, 775,' H. B. Blake, Democrat, 
487: sheriff, E. W. Cameron, Republican, 597, Ezra 
Baird, Democrat, 550, R. H. Beeman, Independent, 
131 ; auditor and recorder, Isaac C. Hattabaugh, Dem- 
ocrat, 767, George M. Wilson, Republican, 529; treas- 
urer,' George Glass, Republican, 624, P. M. Davis, 
Democrat, 675 ; assessor, Albert Fansler, Republican, 
631, S. J. Langdon, Democrat, 668: commissioners, 
D. Nottman, Jr., J. M. McGregor, H. L. Coates, Re- 
publicans. 797. 720 and 550 votes, respectively, Will- 
iam Ewing, J. B. Menomy, D. Spurbeck, Democrats, 
570, 489 and 687 votes, respectively; surveyor, A. 
Colburn, Republican, 6n. Alfred Beall, Democrat, 
68 1 ; coroner, E. A. Sanders, Republican, 733, W. B. 
Cooper, Democrat, 547. 

The annexation question was again the main issue 
in 1886, and both county conventions passed resolu- 
tions designating it such. The Mormon question first 
came into prominence during this campaign, the Re- 
publicans taking an aggressive stand for the clisfran- 
chisement of all polygamists. Fred T. Dubois was 
nominated by the Republicans for delegate and was 
opposed on 'the Democratic ticket by John Hailey. 
Hailey's failure to make clearly known his position 


on these two leading questions is thought by many 
to have been mainly responsible for his defeat. Nez 
Perces county's political character seems to have un- 
dergone a radical change between the campaigns of 
1884 and 1886, as the Democrats secured a majority 
of the offices at this election and returned a majority 
for Hailey- with the understanding that he repre- 
sented the annexationists. The question of annexa- 
tion itself was submitted to the people of north Idaho 
and in Nez Perces county received 1,675 affirmative 
and only 28 negative votes. The official vote: 

Delegate, John Hailey, Democrat, 985, Fred T. 
Dubois. Republican, 68 1 ; prosecuting attorney, W. T. 
McKern, Democrat, 810, A. Quackenbush, Republi- 
can, 884; councilman, Charles Watson, Democrat, 
954, J. M. Howe, Republican, 740; assemblymen, A. 
S. Chancy, D. F. Mahana, James Dellaven, Demo- 
crats, 922, 820 and 908 votes, respectively, W. A. 
Elyea, C. L. Kinman, J. I. Mitcham, Republicans, 
897, 734 and 753 votes, respectively; probate judge, 
W. M. Rice, Democrat, 893, William Wing, Republi- 
can, 803; sheriff, S. J. Latigdon, Democrat, 855; L. 
Stannus, Republican, 839; auditor and recorder, I. 
C. Hattabaugh, Democrat, 1,157, Robert Bruce, Re- 
publican, 543 ; treasurer, P. M. Davis, Democrat, 
920, Richard J. Monroe, Republican, 785 ; assessor, 
James Keane, Democrat, 798, F. E. Mix, Republican, 
goo ; superintendent of schools, J. W. ' Lieuallen, Re- 
publican. 743, T. N. Creekmur, Democrat, 577; sur- 
veyor, S. L. Campbell, Republican, 1,008, A. T. Beall, 
Democrat, 687; commissioners, C. A. Leeper, Demo- 
crat, 271, Robert Ingraham, Republican, 146, H. J. 
Bundy, Democrat, 338, H. H. Bangs, Republican, 269, 
William Ewing, Democrat, 276, J. L. Naylor, Repub- 
lican, 367; coroner, W. A. Simpson, Democrat, 851, 
H. V. Grubbe, Republican, 829. 

In 1888, for the last time, annexation was the 
principal issue before the people of this territory, for 
in 1890 Idaho, including the panhandle, became a 
state. In the north Dubois was denounced in no 
uncertain terms, for his bitter opposition in congress 
to the annexation movement. In Nez Perces county 
both the Republican and Democratic conventions 
passed strong resolutions reiterating their belief in an- 
nexation. The Republicans drew up a memorial to 

ment and its advantages and characterizing Dubois's 
course as "unworthy of a statesman and an honora- 
ble man." The Democrats, however, in the resolu- 
tion next following one favoring annexation endorsed 
James H. Hawley, the Democratic nominee and an 
avowed anti-annexationist. Just why they did this is 
not apparent. Perhaps Hawley had made promises of 
remaining neutral on the annexation question should 
he be elected. At all events the people of the north 
were dissatisfied with both candidates and at a general 
convention held at Moscow Judge Norman Buck, of 
Lewiston. was nominated as the annexationists' can- 
didate for delegate. Judge Buck accepted the nomi- 
nation a few days before the election took place and in 
Latah and Nez Perces counties received more votes 
than did Dubois and Hawley together. Kootenai, Idaho 

and Shoshone gave him a small vote. Dubois cap- 
tured the southern vote, however, and was re-elected 
to congress. 

The names of the victorious candidates in Nez 
Perces county may be gleaned from the official can- 
vass below : 

For delegate, Norman Buck, Annexationist, 431, 
James H. Hawley, Democrat, 155, Fred T. Dubois, 
Republican 49, councilman. C. A. Leeper, Democrat, 
522, J. W .Brigham, Rep. 81 ; assemblymen, J. I. Mitch- 
am, Rep., 588, James DeHaven, Rep., 595, W. L. 
Thompson, Democrat, 591, J. H. Irvine, 23 ; district 
attorney, I. N. Maxwell',' Democrat, 325, J. M. Howe, 
Republican, 294; probate judge, W. M. Rice, Demo- 
crat. 334, William Wing, Republican, 291 : auditor 
and recorder, R. P. Mudge, Republican, 353, A. W. 
Kroutinger, Jr., Democrat, 253; treasurer, George 
Glass, Republican, 382, P. M. Davis, Democrat, 241 ; 
sheriff, L. Stannus, Republican, 313, John Bymaster, 
Democrat, 304; assessor, J. Englis, Republican, 361, 
William Sigler, Democrat, 266; superintendent of 
schools, S. G. Isaman, Republican, 316, J. Q. Mox- 
ley, Democrat, 310; commissioners, jasper Rand, 
Democrat, 159, D. M. White, Republican, 154, W. J. 
Eakin, Democrat, 53. J. L. Goodnight, Republican, 
49, M. S. Freeman, Republican, 142, M. L. Ward, 
Democrat, 57; surveyor, W. P. Bell, Republican. 381, 
S. R. Southwick, Democrat 2; coroner, G. H. Lake, 
Republican, 332, C. H. Payne, Democrat, 284. 

The act creating Latali county provided that that 
county was to remain in the same district as Nez Per- 
ces county for judicial and legislative purposes until 
the legislature should direct otherwise. As the elec- 
tion took place before the next meeting of the legis- 
lative assembly, the citizens of Latah and Nez Perces 
counties were left in a quandary as to how to pro- 
ceed. They could not agree and so four legislative 
tickets were placed in the field, two by each county. 
After the election took place the question of who were 
and who were not entitled to seats arose. The Latah 
nominees received a majority of the .votes cast; a few 
votes were cast in Latah county for Nez Perces nomi- 
nees and vice versa. The auditor of Latah county de- 
manded that the recorder of Nez Perces county issue 
a certificate of election to the successful candidate 
for councilman in Latah county. This request was 
refused, whereupon the applicant applied to the 
courts for a writ of mandamus. The court granted 
an alternative writ for the defendant to appear and 
show cause why a writ should not be issued. After 
several brief discussions a compromise was agreed 
upon on December 1st and accepted by both parties. 
By the terms of this compromise J. W. Brigham, of 
Latah county, was given a certificate of election as 
councilman and certificates were issued to A. S. 
Chancy, of Latah, and to James DeHaven and J. I. 
Mitcham, of Nez Perces, as representatives. 

With the advent of statehood in 1890 the long- 
and bitter contest between the north and south over 
the annexation question came to an end and with it 
the issue which had for more than two decades rent 
each political party asunder and caused no end of fac- 



tional fights. With statehood came a closer bond be- 
tween the two sections. The first state election was 
simply a contest for supremacy between the two great 
parties and national policies were the issue. The Re- 
publicans were victorious, the state majority being 
between 2,000 and 2,500. 

A feature of the campaign in Nez Perces county 
was the deadlock which occurred in the Democratic 
district convention, composed of delegates from Lat- 
ah, Idaho and Nez Perces counties. The delegates 
were unable to agree upon the nominations for dis- 
trict attorney and the district judgeship.. Finally, af- 
ter sixty-eight ballots had been taken without a nom- 
ination, a compromise was effected and J. H. For- 
ney, of Idaho county, was awarded the nomination for 
district attorney, J. W. Poe, of Nez Perces, the nom- 
ination for district judge and the legislative offices 
were diveded between the three counties. The elec- 
tion in this county was a closely contested on as will 
be seen from the appended official vote : 

For congressman, Willis Sweet, Republican, 367, 
Alexander E. Mayhew, Democrat, 330 ; governor, 
George L. Shoup, Republican, 370, Benjamin Wilson, 
Democrat, 327; lieutenant governor, Norman B. 
Willey, Republican, 378, Samuel F. Taylor, Demo- 
crat, 322; secretary of state, A. J. Pinkham, Repub- 
lican, 378, A. E. Sherwin, Democrat, 331 ; auditor, 
Silas Moody, Republican, 367, James H. Wickersham, 
Democrat, 331 ; treasurer, Frank R. Coffin, Republi- 
can, 372, Timothy Regan, Democrat, 326; attorney 
general, George H. Roberts, Republican, 362, Rich- 
ard Z. Johnson, Democrat, 335 ; superintendent of 
public instruction, J. E. Harroun, Republican, 343, 
Madison A. Kelly, Democrat, 349; justices supreme 
court, J. W. Huston, John T. Morgan, J. M. Sullivan, 
Republicans, 373, 367 and 339 votes respectively, 
Henry W. Weir, Frank E. Ensign, Isaac N. Max- 
well, Democrats, 324, 329 and 347 votes respectively; 
judge, second district, W. G. Piper, Republican, 286, 
James W. Poe, Democrat, 409; district attorney, E. 
O'Neill, Republican, 350, J. H. Forney, Democrat, 
343; senator, third district, I. S. Weiler, Republi- 
can, 381, C. W. Case, Democrat, 310; senator, fourth 
district, William Wing, Republican, 374, Barney Ro- 
hen Kohl, Democrat, 320; representative, I. S. 
Sperry, Republican, 351, J. B. Morris, Democrat, 335; 
joint representative with Idaho county, J. L. Good- 
night, Republican. 369, Ezra Baird. Democrat, 321 ; 
county clerk, H. K. Barnett, Republican, 376, W. M. 
Rice, Democrat, 314; sheriff, M. S. Freeman, Re- 
publican, 317, Joseph Eakin, Democrat, 363; treas- 
urer, George Glass, Republican, 313, D. S. Dent, Dem- 
ocrat, 377; probate judge, S. G. Isman, Republican, 
348, M. E. Shepler, Democrat, 339; assessor, Josiah 
Inglis, Republican, 374, W. G. Anthony, Democrat, 
316; commissioners, George Walker, Republican, 140, 
Andrew Schultheiss, Democrat, 138, J. A. Lathrop, 
Republican, 62, T. A. Wilkinson, Democrat, 79, D. 
M. White, Republican, 166, W. W. Brown, Demo- 
crat, 97; surveyor, W. P. Bell, Republican, elected; 
coroner, George H. Lake, Republican, 365, W. A. 
Simpson, Democrat, 336. 

The year 1892 is distinguished in political history 
as marking the date of the entrance of the People's 
party upon the stage of politics. This party had been 
in process of organization for years past, but not un- 
til 1892 did the different societies and organizations 
having Populistic principles associate themselves and 
form one national party for the purpose of taking an 
active part in national affairs. Throughout the 
northwest the People's party organized, nominated 
state, district and county tickets and otherwise made 
its influence felt. Idaho and the county of which we 
are writing were no exceptions. The silver question 
also came into prominence for the first time this year 
and it is interesting to note that, as in Montana, Colo- 
rado and other western mining states, Idaho Repub- 
licans at first announced themselves in favor of the 
free coinage of this metal. The silver question tore 
the Republican party in this state into two factions. 
The Democratic party was also divided on this issue. 

While the People's party showed considerable 
strength in 1892, they did not succeed in capturing 
any offices in Nez Perces county, the Democrats win- 
ning a great victory. The official vote is given below : 

For president, Benjamin Harrison, Republican, 
345, Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 428; congressman, 
Willis Sweet, Republican, 357, E. B. True, Democrat, 

328, James Gunn, Populist, 101 ; governor, W. J. Mc- 
Connell, Republican, 337, John M. Burke, Democrat, 
358, A. J. Crook, Populist, 98; lieutenant governor, 
Frank B. Willis, Republican, 331, George V. Bryan, 
Democrat, 347, J. B. Wright, Populist, 88; supreme 
judge, J. N. Sullivan, Republican, 368, F. E. Ensign, 
Democrat, 366; secretary of state, James F. Curtis, 
Republican, 337, J. H. ' Wickersham, Democrat, 353, 
Benjamin F. Cheney, Populist, 91 ; attorney general, 
George M. Parsons, Republican, 342, W. f . Reaves, 
Democrat, 349, J. R. Webster, Populist, 87 ; treasurer, 
W. C. Hill, Republican, 344, Phillip Regan, Demo- 
crat, 351, H. J. Sutton, Populist, 82; superintendent 
of schools, B. B. Lower, Republican, 344, J. W. Far- 
ris, Democrat, 348, L. L. Shearer, Populist, 78; 
auditor, Frank Ramsey, Republican, 340, J. W. Mc- 
Clure, Democrat, 350, J. H. Andrews, Populist, 84, 
joint senator, third district, J. F. Ailshie, Republican, 

329, J. B. Morris, Democrat, 387, James H. Robinson, 
Populist, 75 ; joint senator, fourth district, J. M. 
Howe, Republican, 347, Thomas F. Nelson, Demo- 
crat, 351, John Chenoweth, Populist, 90; joint repre- 
sentative with Idaho county, W. L. Thompson, Re- 
publican, 350, David C. Stephens, Democrat, 346, 
William Craig, Populist, 74; representative, Ira S. 
Sperry, Republican, 350, D. F. Mahana, Democrat, 
379, 6. D. Lovelace, Populist, 52 ; sheriff, J. B. Coop- 
er, Republican, 346, Eben Mounce, Democrat, 375, 
W. S. Rice, Populist, 78; treasurer, Josiah Englis, 
Republican, 300, David S. Dent, Democrat, 453; as- 
sessor, George A. Smith, Republican, 290, S. O. Tan- 
ahill, Democrat, 377, D. Kemp, Populist, 127; pro- 
bate judge, Prince E. Stookey, Republican, 348, 
George Erb, Democrat, 416 ; surveyor, J. O. Maxson, 
Republican, 353, H. M. Stalnake'r, Democrat, 327; 
coroner, J. H. Howe, Republican, 335, K. L. Thomp- 


son. Democrat, 397; commissioners, D. M. White, 
Republican, 395, M. A. Kelly, Democrat, 344. W. A. 
Nixon, Republican, 332, C. A. Leeper, Democrat, 373, 
James A. Ray, Populist, 50; John W. Brown, Repub- 
lican, 331 ; O. L. Phillips, Democrat, 330, Felix Mc- 
Minime, Populist, 57. The state went Republican. 

In the following campaign, that of 1894, the Popu- 
lists displayed considerable strength- At the Popu- 
list convention held in Lewiston July 2Oth, the follow- 
ing platform was adopted, which, because it is typical 
of most Populist platforms, we reproduce here : 

"First We endorse the Omaha platform. 

"Second We demand that the laws known as the 
initiative and referendum be enacted and made part of 
the state constitution. 

"Third We demand that all property be assessed 
at its cash value and that all indebtedness shall be 
exempt from taxation. All mortgages to be assessed 
at their face value in the county where the indebted- 
ness exists. 

"Fourth We demand the enactment of a law for- 
bidding the sale of property on execution unless the 
amount of the sale equals eighty per cent, of the ap- 

"Rftb We demand that all laborers, shall have a 
first lien on the property. 

"Sixth We demand that there shall be a reduc- 
tion in the salaries of the state and county officers, till 
the amount paid shall be a fair compensation only for 
the work done, and further that salaries be paid and 
all fees go to the county treasury. 

"Seventh We demand that taxes be made delin- 
quent in March instead of the second Monday in De- 

"Eighth We demand a revision of the school law 
so that the state furnish text books to the pupils at 
actual cost. 

"Ninth We demand a county attorney instead of 

The election resulted favorably to the Republicans, 
though the Democrats secured a few offices. The Pop- 
ulists did not develop enough strength to secure any 
offices in this county. From the official vote the names 
of the victorious candidates in this county will be 

For congressman, Edgar Wilson, Republican, 505, 
James M. Ballentine, Democrat, 336, James Gunn, 
Populist, 222; governor. William J. McConnell, Re- 
publican, 487, Edward A. Stevenson, Democrat, 371, 
James W. Ballentine, Populist, 228; lieutenant gov- 
ernor, Frederick J. Mills, Republican, 510, James B. 
Thatcher, Democrat, 342, John J. Chambers, Populist, 
21 1 ; secretary of state, Isaac W. Garrett, Republican, 
509, James R. Hall, Democrat, 344, Frank M. Tibbals, 
Populist, 216; attorney general, George M. Parsons, 
Republican, 513, William T. Reeves, Democrat, 341, 
Robert S. Spence, Populist, 220; state auditor, Frank 
C. Ramsey, Republican, 507, James Stoddard, Demo- 
crat, 338. Frank Walton, Populist, 221 ; treasurer, 
Charles Bunting, Republican, 509, James H. Bush, 
Democrat, 341. Callistus W. Cooper, Populist, 212; 
superintendent of public instruction, Charles A. Fores- 

Lewiston Teller], Republican, 533, John 
crat, 331, Major J. Steele, Populist, 
212; supreme judge, Joseph W. Huston, Republicai 

man [editoi 

W. Paris, Democr; 

513, John C. Elder, Democrat, 361, Texas Angel, 
Populist, 216; joint senator with Latah, Daniel C. 
Mitchell, Republican, 515, Henry Heitfeld, Fusionist, 
561 ; joint senator with Idaho county, Cassius M. Day, 
Republican, 519, Aaron F. Parker, Democrat, 342, 
George W. Hinkle, Fusionist, 210; joint representative 
with Idaho county, William L. Thompson, Republican, 
543, Keith W. White, Democrat, 377, Silas D. Strong, 
Populist, 136; representative, Richard J. Monroe, Re- 
publican, 513, James W. Poe, Democrat, 342, J. H. 
Morrison, Populist, 237; district judge, William G. 
Piper, Republican, 545, Stewart S. Denning, Fusionist, 
440; district attorney, James E. Babb, Republican, 
529, Clay McNamee, Fusionist, 546; clerk, Robert 
Schleicher, Republican, 449, Samuel O. Tanahill, Dem- 
ocrat, 465, R. P. Mudge, Populist, 186; sheriff, Will- 
iam H. Denny, Republican, 450, Hary Lydon, Dem- 
ocrat, 474, C. W. McFadden, Populist, 177 ; treasurer, 
Francis J. Edwards. Republican, 398, John B. Morris, 
Democrat, 486, J. N. Lindsay, Populist, 190; probate 
judge, Prince E. Stookey, Republican, 478, George 
E. Erb, Democrat, 429, S. G. Hayes, Populist, 176; 
assessor, Nelson J. Wing, Republican, 465, George H. 
Ruddell, Democrat, 408, W. T. Wright, Populist, 208 ; 
commissioners, D. M. White, Republican, 450, N. B. 
Holbrook, Democrat, 404, A. Shiebe, Populist, 192, 
Albert G. Wisner, Republican, 475, Ferdinand B. 
Lang. Democrat, 355, William J. Eakin, Populist, 205, 
George A. Welker, Republican, 460, William Le Baron, 
Democrat, 385, Chambers Muston, Populist, 193 ; sur- 
veyor, Jordan O. Maxon, Republican, 506, Stephen 
So'uthwick, Fusionist. 251; coroner, Leroy L. Strong, 
Republican, 508, Madison A. Kelley, Democrat, 348, 
L. C. Neal, Populist, 202. A small Prohibition vote 
was cast. 

The campaign of 1896, the most brilliant and re- 
markable political contest in the latter annals of our 
country's history, witnessed the dissolution and division 
of two' national parties in Idaho. The rock upon which 
they split was was the silver issue. The Silver Repub- 
licans organized under Senator Dubois, who walked out 
of the national convention at St. Louis, while the Dem- 
ocrats either fused with the Populists or joined the 
gold standard forces. Some Democrats joined Dubois's 
new party. In Nez Perces county the Democrats and 
the Populists fused. The Silver Republicans and Dem- 
ocrats who did not care to fuse with the Populists 
also placed a ticket in the field for a few offices. The 
Fusionists carried the state and every office in Nez 
Perces county except one. that of probate judge. Du- 
bois's Silver party elected twenty-five representatives 
to the legislature. 

The vote in Nez Perces county follows : 
For President of the United' States, William Mc- 
Kinley, Republican, 675, William Jennings Bryan, 
Democrat, 1089, Weaver, Populist, 22; congressman, 
James Gunn, Fusionist, 918. John T. Morrison, Re- 
publican, 678, W. E. Borah, Silver Republican, 122; 
governor. Frank Steunenberg, Fusionist, 1064, D. H. 



Hudlong, Republican, 674 ; lieutenant governor, G. F. 
Moore, Fusionist, 948, Vincent Bierbower, Republican, 
662, E. B. True, Silver Republican, 106; secretary of 
state, G. J. Lewis, Fusionist, 934, I. W. Garrett, Re- 
publican, 670, Charles Durrand, Silver Republican, 
103; state auditor, T- H. Anderson, Fusionist, 921, E. 
A. McKenna. Republican, 679, Bartlett Sinclair, Silver 
Republican, 98: treasurer, G. H. Storer, Democrat, 
934. F. C. Ramsey, Republican, 668, Timothy Regan, 
Silver Republican', 100; attorney general, R. E. Mc- 
Farland, Fusionist, 911, J. A. Bagley, Republican, 
658, G. M. Parsons, Silver Republican, 125; superin- 
tendent public instruction, L. N. B. Anderson, Fusion- 
ist, 925, C. A. Foresman, Republican, 690, M. F. 
Cowley, Silver Republican, 89: mine inspector, B. F. 
Hastings, Fusionist, 1,038, Theodore Brown, Republi- 
can, 658 ; justice supreme court, R. P. Quarles, Fusion- 
ist, 925, D. W. Standroad, Republican, 663, Edgar 
Wilson, Silver Republican, in: senator, Henry Heit- 
feld, Fusionist, 665. Charles E. Monteith, Republican, 
413, George W. Morrison, Silver Republican, 109; 
representatives, A. H. Alford, Fusionist, 673, I. S. 
Sperry. Fusionist, 627, N. J. Wing, Republican, 450, 
W. A". Nixon, Republican, 439, J. D. Graham, Silver 
Republican. 66: sheriff, G. Barton, Fusionist, 941, 
W. S. Dyer, Republican, 768; assessor, D. Cantrill, 
Fusionist, 930, J. M. Williams, Republican, 758; 
treasurer, J. 'B. Morris, Fusionist, 946, Hazen Squier, 
Republican, 775 ; probate judge, Prince E. Stookey, 
Republican, 933, S. G. Hayes. Fusionist, 766; com- 
missioners, T. L. Armstrong, Fusionist, 959, A. G. Wis- 
ner. Republican, 670, J. P. Parker, Fusionist, 966, W. 
R. Dixon. Republican, 651, Z. McCall, Fusionist, 919, 
J. C. Larkee, Republican, 664 : surveyor. G. Moragne, 
Fusionist. 860, J- O. Maxon, Republican, 816; coroner, 
L. L. Strong. Fusionist, 962, S. Leslie Thompson, Re- 
publican. 706. 

The next campaign was one of bitter factional 
strife amongst all the parties. Late in August the 
Democrats, the Populists and the Silver Republicans 
met at Boise. An energetic attempt was made to con- 
centrate the silver forces into one party, but most of 
the Populists resisted the offer of fusion, believeing 
they were now strong enough to stand alone. Finally 
the Democrats and Silver Republicans nominated a 
fusion ticket and the Populist party broke up into two 
factions, the Blake and the Taylor factions, both of 
which claimed to be the regular party organization. 
Subsequently, however, the courts decided favorably 
to the Blake faction, whereupon those of the Populit 
party who had not cast their lot with the Democrats, 
came together and nominated another Populist ticket 
a-middle-of-the-road ticket The Democrats and Popu- 
lists again fused in this countv and the Silver Repub- 
licans joined with the regular Republican party. From 
the official vote given below, the result of the contest 
in this countv may easilv be seen : 

For congressman. W. B. Heyburn. Republican, 
1,238. Edgar Wilson, Fusionist, 969, James Gunn, 
Populist, 385: governor. A. B. Moss, Republican, 
1,324, Frank Steuenberg, Fusionist, 942, James H. An- 
derson, Populist, 297; lieutenant governor. J. F. 

Hunt, Republican 1.279, J- H. Hutchinson, Fusionist, 
929, T. E. Miller, Populist, 310; secretary of state, R. 
S. Bragaw. Republican. 1,268, Martin Patrie, Fusion- 
ist, 912, J. S. Bonham, Populist, 30; attorney gen- 
eral, F. J. Wyman. Republican, 1,267, S. H. Hayes, 
Fusionist, 932, T. L. Glenn. Populist, 311 ; justice 'su- 
preme court', D. W. Standrod, Republican, 1,308, J. N. 
Sullivan. Fusionist, 1,072; district judge, E. C. Steele, 

Republican. 1.253, Moore, Fusionist, 869, Willis 

Sweet, Silver Republican, 341 ; auditor, J. H. Van- 
camp, Republican, 1,260, Bartlett Sinclair, Fusionist, 
917, A. G. Whittier, Populist, 308; state treasurer, G. 
W. Fletcher, Republican, 1,265, L- C. Rice, Fusionist, 
1226: inspector of mines, J. W. Stoddard, Republican, 
1,253. J- A- Czizek, Fusionist, 910, David Farmer, 
Populist, 448: superintendent of public instruction. 
Miss Dean, Republican, 1,300, Miss French, Fusionist, 
1,229; state senator, J. N. Stacy, Republican, 1,299, 
L. C. Clark, Fusionist, 1,071, G. A. Manning, Silver 
Republican, 115; representatives, O. T. Hanlon, Re- 
publican, 1,256' W. D. Hardwick, Republican, 1,179, 
Wallace B. Stainton, Fusionist, 1,181, S. Ogden, Fu- 
sionist, 946. D. H. Haner, Silver Republican, 188: 
auditor, P. E. Stookey, Republican, 1,496, R. R. Steen, 
Fusionist. 1.199; sheriff, J. W. Rozen, Republican, 
1.475, E.'L. Parker, Fusionist, 1,116; assessor, Stass 
Spekker, Republican, 1,388, George Ruddell, Fusionist, 
1.224; treasurer. C. A. Hastings, Republican, 1,357, 
T. S. Cantril, Fusionist, 1,158; county attorney, F. 
Danford, Silver Republican, 1,375, John Green, Fu- 
sionist, 1,226: probate judge, R. A. Langford, Repub- 
lican, 1,372, William Kauffman, Fusionist, 1,118; su- 
perintendent of schools, Jennie Harrington, Republican, 
1,488, Mary Kroh. Fusionist, 1,018; surveyor, Edson 
Briggs, Republican, 1,412, J. H. Day, Fusionist, 1,073; 
coroner. S. L. Thompson, Silver Republican, 1,279, L. 
C. Neal. Fusionist, 1,010, S. S. Strong, Independent, 
171 ; commissioners. S. G. Isaman, Silver Republican, 
1,319. John Wilkinson, Fusionist, 1,122, A. G. John- 
son. "Republican, 1,333. W. B. Martin. Fusionist, 1,089, 
William Black, Republican, 1,388, Ed. Vandyke, Fu- 
sionist, 1.078. 

The state was carried by the Fusionists. their ma- 
jorities ranging from 3.000 to 6,000. Nez Perces 
county gave the Republicans majorities averaging 300. 
From' the fact that the Silver Republicans were al- 
lowed to affiliate with the regular Republican party it 
will be seen that the gold standard advocates in Idaho 
at this time were not very strong and probably for 
this reason not very aggresive. 

Fusion again prevailed in 1900, both in state and 
county, the Populists, Democrats and Silver Republi- 
cans associating. There was also, however, a middle- 
of- the-road Populist ticket. The Fusionists carried the 
state, while in this county, honors were about equally 
divided between the Republicans and the Fusionists. 
It is worth noticing that the Prohibition party polled 
a considerable number of votes this vear. The official 

For President of the United States, William Mc- 
Kinlev, Republican, 2.152. William J. Bryan. Fusion- 
ist. 2,134, Populist. 22, Probititionist, 169: justice su- 


preme court Edgar C. Steele, Rep., 2,158, Charles D. 
Stockslayer, Fusionist, 2,067, William Perkins, Populist 
40; congressman, John T. Morrison, Republican, 2,137, 
Thomas L. Glenn, Fusionist, 2,092, John F. Stark, 
Populist. 25. Amanda M. Way, Prohibitionist, 165; 
governor, D. W. Standrod, Republican, 2,136, Frank 
W. Hunt, Fusionist, 2,117, John S. Randall, Populist, 
27, William J. Boone, Prohibitionist, 171 ; lieutenant 
governor, Addison A. Crane, Republican, 2,100, 
Thomas F. Terrell, Fusionist, 2,081, Johannes Henson, 
Populist, 172; secretary of state, Martin Patrie, Re- 
publican, 2,105, Charles J. Bussett, Fusionist, 2,066, 
Melancthon F. Ely, Populist, 47, Mrs. Neal B. Inman, 
Prohibitionist, 183 ; state auditor, Henry J. Syms, Re- 
publican, 2,096, Egbert W. Jones, Fusionist, 2,094, 
William W. Tharp, Populist, 29; treasurer, George 
H. Kester, Republican, 2,138, John J. Plumber, Fusion- 
ist, 2,033, Augustus M. Slater, Populist, 61, James Bal- 
lentine, Prohibitionist, 170; attorney general, George 

E. Gray, Republican, 2,105, Frank Martin, Fusionist, 
2,083, Clay McNamee, Populist, 36, William A. Hall, 
Prohibitionist, 166; superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, Jessie Riley, Republican, 2,099, Parmeal French, 
Fusionist, 2,095^ James T. Smith, Prohibitionist, 160 ; 
inspector of mines, Robert D. Bell, Republican, 2,084, 
Martin H. Jacobs, Fusionist, 2,071, Edward Kimber- 
ley, Populist, 30, George Black, Prohibitionist, 159; 
senator, Frank D. Hasbrouck, Republican, 2,053, Louis 
Clark, Fusionist, 2,135, Michael C. Pearsons, Prohi- 
bitionist, 160; representatives, Caleb W. Richardson, 
Republican, 2,045, Albert W. Lee, Republican, 2,048, 
Peter Triesch, Fusionist, 2,122, Eben Mounce, Fusion- 
ist, 2,107, Joseph A. Pine, Prohibitionist, 165, Will- 
iam E. Schuehly, Prohibitionist, 157; sheriff, John T. 
Leachman, Republican, 1,946, Alfred Kroutinger, Fu- 
sionist, 2,311, William C. Bird, Prohibitionist, 155; 
treasurer, Viola C. McConville, Republican, 1,981, 
James R. Lydon, Fusionist, 2, 270; assessor, Benjamin 

F. Bashor, ' Republican, 2,160, William E. Stoddard, 
Fusionist, 2,050, Edward Darby, Prohibitionist, 128; 
judge of probate, Robert A. Langford, Republican, 
2,004, William B. Reese, Fusionist, 2,250, William 
Scott, Prohibitionist, 120; superintendent of schools, 
Jennie M. Harrington, Republican, 2,161, Eula Ward, 
Fusionist, 2,118, Ollie R. Ellis, Prohibitionist, 119; 
county attorney, Miles S. Johnson, Republican, 2,173, 
Carl A. Davis, Fusionist, 2,139; commissioners, Samuel 

G. Isaman, Republican, 1,991, Charles A. Leeper, Fu- 
sionist, 2,194, J. Smith Mounce, Prohibitionist, 155, S. 
S. Brooks; Republican, 1,935, Perr y E . Miller, Fusion- 
ist, 2,258, N. C. Busby, Prohibitionist, 126, William 
A. Black, Republican, 2,079, George W. Brammet, 
Fusionist, 2,094, Charles A. Parrott, Prohibitionist, 
124 ; surveyor, Edson Briggs, Republican, 2,264, Ben- 
jamin F. Chaney, Fusionist, 1,959, George Hogue, Pro- 
hibitionist. 146 ; coroner, Lemuel C. Neal, Republican, 
2,079, Jesse Watson, Fusionist, 2,092, John Black, Pro- 
hibitionist, 125. 

The last campaign is too recent to require a dis- 
cussion of the policies of the different parties. Suffice 
it to say that the' Populist party as a party is now a 
memory, though many of its principles have been ab- 

sorbed by the two historic parties, and that the silver 
question is not what might be termed a living issue. 
Those who were former adherents of the Populist faith 
are now numbered among either the Democrats, the 

ties. With the removal of the silver question as a 
factor in Idaho politics and the substitution therefor, 
as the main issue, of the administration's foreign policy 
and the well known Republican doctrines of a pro- 
tective tariff and conservatism in all financial and 
economic matters in general, the Republicans have once 

Perces county went overwhelmingly Republican at the 
last election, only two Democrats being elected. 

The official vote : 

For congressman, Burton L. French, Republican, 
2,451, Joseph H. Hutchinson, Democrat, 1,807, John 
A. Davis, Socialist, 234, Herbert A. Lee, Prohibition- 
ist, 115 : governor, John T. Morison, Republican, 2,495, 
Frank W. Hunt,' Democrat, 1,758, Augustus M. 
Slatery. Socialist, 220, Albert E. G'ipson, Prohibition- 
ist, 121 ; lieutenant governor, James M. Stevens, Re- 
publican, 2,397, William E. Adams, Democrat, 1,801, 
Louis N. B. Anderson, Socialist, 230, Simon E. Hunt, 
Prohibitionist, 125 ; secretary of state, Wilmot H. Gib- 
son, Republican, 2,372, C. J. Bassett, Democrat, 1,809, 
W. H. Candee, Socialist, 220, W. E. Schuebley, Pro- 
hibitionist, 119; state auditor, Theodore Turner, Re- 
publican, 2,359, J- C. Callahan, Democrat, 1,810, 
George W. Harrington, Socialist, 228, Thomas D. 
Hodgson, Prohibitionist, 129; state treasurer, Henry 
N. Coffin, Republican, 2,366, E. P. Coltman, Democrat, 
1,786, James E. Miller, Socialist, 218, Mrs. Jennie G. 
Headlev, Prohibitionist, 146; attorney general, John 
A. Bagley, Republican, 2,334, Frederick D. Culver, 
Democrat, 1,879, David W. Smith, Socialist, 227; su- 
perintendent of public instruction, May L. Scott, Re- 
publican, 2,339, Permeal French, Democrat, 1,903, 
Mrs. Ollie E. Ellis, Prohibitionist, 130; inspector of 
mines, Robert Bell, Republican, 2,339, J onn H. Nord- 
quest, Democrat, 1,796, O. Chalmns Smith, Socialist, 
229, George Klock, Prohibitionist, 123; justice of the 
supreme court, James F. Ailshire, Republican, 2,361, 
Frank E. Fogg. Democrat, 1,792, John C. Elder, So- 
cialist, 227, William A. Hall, Prohibitionist, 125; sen- ' 
ator, Seventeenth district, George E. Crum, Republi- 
can, 2,286, Louis Clark, Democrat, 1,841, William H. 
Thompson, Socialist, 230, James E. Pearson, Prohibi- 
tionist, 121 ; state representatives, Charles D. Thomas, 
William A. Black, Garrett H. Parrel, Republicans, 
2,287, 2,191, and 2,174 votes respectively, John W. 
Graham, Eben Mounce, Charles Hutchins. Democrats, 
1,968, 1,924 and 1,8^2 votes respectively, Erick S. Lee, 
William Fenderson, Henry Wilson, "Socialists, 202, 
197 and 103 votes respectively, G. W. Beloit, G. B. 
Banta, J. R. Hobkins, Prohibitionists, 109, 107 and 115 
votes respectively ; district judge, Edgar C. Steele. Re- 
publican, 2,356, 'Wallace N. Scales, Democrat, 1,882; 
county auditor and recorder, John T. Orbison, Repub- 
lican, 2,007, James R. Lydon, Democrat, 2,226, Duncan 
Gaven, Socialist, 190, W. E. Curtis, Prohibitionist, 
113: county commissioners, First district, George A. 


Benedict Ranch, at the Mouth of Whitebird, the Scene of Indian Atrocities in 1 877. ; 


Smith, Republican, 2,184, C. A. Leeper, Democrat, 
1,990, John A. Miller, Socialist, 198, J. Smith Mounce, 
Prohibitionist, 118; Second district, Samuel Hollen- 
beck, Republican, 2,201, Nathaniel Wilson, Democrat, 
1,884, Renny J. Bofferding, Socialist, 199, Elmer Rob- 
ertson, Prohibitionist, 122; Third district, George W. 
Welker, Republican, 2,217, George W. Brammer, Dem- 
ocrat. 1,907, Thomas F. Jacobs, Socialist, 203, J. H. 
Lewis, Prohibitionist, 123; sheriff, William Schuldt, 
Republican, 2,396, William R. Gibbs, Democrat, 1,892, 
William Bozarth, Socialist, 199, U. E. Reeves, Prohi- 
bitionist, 97: prosecuting attorney, Miles S. Johnson, 
Republican, 2,349, Charles L. McDonald, Democrat, 
1,961 ; treasurer, Charles A. Hastings, Republican, 
2,205, Alfred W. Kroutinger, Democrat, 1,970, John 
N. Lindsay, Socialist, 223, William S. Clayton, Prohi- 

bitionist, in ; probate judge, Oscar B. Chesley, Repub- 
lican, 2,072, William B. Reese, Democrat, 2,i"i6, Stan- 
ton T. McGrath, Socialist, 189, A. J. Pine, Prohibi- 
tionist, in; superintendent of public schools, Bernice 
McCoy, Republican, 2,272, Eula C. Ward, Democrat, 
1,994, Mrs. Laura Boyd, Prohibitionist, 117; assessor, 
Wilfred L. Gifford, Republican, 2,312, Major J. Steele, 
Democrat, 1,851, Adolph E. Fieser, Socialist, 198, 
Henry Rickle, Prohibitionist, 109 ; surveyor, Edson D. 
Briggs, Republican, 2,348, Frank Doughty, Democrat, 
i. .803, Charles Simmons, Socialist, 197, Gilbert Hogue, 
Prohibitionist, n<^; Clyde J. Vassar, Republican, 2,218, 
William B. Cooper, Democrat, 1,870, Dr. W. F. Shaw- 
ley, Socialist, 229, S. A. Roe, Prohibitionist, 114. A 
very small Populist vote was also cast. 




From the nature of things the early history of 
north Idaho could not well be traced without, in part at 
least, presenting also the early annals of the pioneer 
city of the region. We have already referred to the 
fact that the first attempt to establish a trading point 
was made at the Big Eddy of the Clearwater, but 
abandoned at once on account of the impracticability 
of navigating that stream. We have likewise spoken 
of the difficulty in the way of building a town at the 
confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake rivers, 
on territory then a part of the Nez Perces Indian 
reservation, and of how circumstances compelled the 
whites to assume the aggressive in trenching upon 
the rights of the Indians and the latter race to yield 
an unwilling compliance. The town of Canvas has 
been adverted to; the unfortunate social conditions 
obtaining therein; and the sufferings occasioned by 
the frailty of protecting walls and the severity of 
the winter of 1861-2. Mention has been made also 
of the platting of the townsite in October, 1861 ; of 
the town's early political status and its career as the 
capital of the territory. The circumstances of its 
loss of political prestige and the seat of government 
have likewise engaged our attention and many inci- 
dental references to the town of later days have 
necessarily found place in former chapters. It is now 
our task to trace the development of Lewiston some- 
what more comprehensively and to gather up the 
fragments of its still unrelated history. 

The circumstances which caused the founding of 

Lewiston were favorable to its rapid early growth. 
The steamers which brought to the country hundreds 
of miners brought also laige cargoes of goods to the 
merchants which were speedily retailed at enormous 
profits. Money was plentiful among all classes and 
prosperity abounded on every hand. But these con- 
ditions were of short duration. The discovery of the 
Boise mines in August, 1862, turned the current of 
trade in that direction, and it became apparent to the 
leading business men of Lewiston that if their town 
was to continue its rapid development, it must secure 
a share of the trade. They were also ambitious to 
establish commercial relations with Salt Lake City. 
In furtherance of these two objects, or rather to de- 
termine in a measure whether or not they were prac- 
ticable, A. P. Ankeny sent a party consisting of Charles 
Clifford, Washington Murray and Joseph Denver to 
the site of old Fort Boise to report upon the navi- 
gability of the Snake river between that point and 
Lewiston. The party waited for lowest water, then 
descended the river to Lewiston, making part of the 
trip, it is thought, in a raft. They gave it as their 
opinion that the Snake river could be navigated by 
steamboats and that same fall, the Spray, of which 
mention has been heretofore made, ascended the river 
to a point fifteen miles above Lewiston, where it had 
to turn back. This was unfortunate, for it went to 
prove the impracticability of a far reaching scheme. 
l: Lewiston's business men," says Bancroft, ''contem- 
plated placing a line of boats on Snake river to be 
run as far as navigable. The first important land- 
ing was to be at the mouth of Salmon river, forty 


miles above Lewiston. The design was to make a 
road direct to the mines, whereas the travel had there- 
tofore been by the trails through the Nez Perces 
country. The distance from the mouth of Salmon 
river by water to Fort Boise was 95 miles, thence 
to Fishing -Falls on Salmon river, 90 miles: thence 
to Salt Lake City, 250 miles, total 475 miles, nearly 
half of which, it was hoped, could be traveled by 
boats. Such a line would have been of great service 
to the military department, about to establish a post 
on Boise river, and to immigration, saving a long 
stretch of road. But the Salmon river mountains 
proved impassible, and the snake river unnavigable, al- 
though in the autumn of 1863 a second party of five 
men, with Molthrop at the lead, descended the stream 
in a boat built at Buena Vista bar, and a company 
was formed in Portland for constructing a portage 
through a canyon of that river, considered impractic- 
able for steamers. It was soon made apparent, how- 
ever, that Lewiston was hopelessly cut off from Salt 
Lake, and even from Boise basin, by craggy mountains, 

The failure of this Salt Lake project made it 
impossible for Lewiston to maintain the rate of de- 
velopment established during its earliest years, but 
its monopoly on the distributing business of the Salmon 
river mining country continued, giving it ample means 
for substantial growth. 

It must be remembered that at this time the land 
upon which the town was built was still a part of the 
Nez Perces Indian reservation, and that no title to 
property could be secured, a fact which must have 
exerted a deterrent influence upon those who would 
otherwise be inclined to erect substantial and perma- 
nent buildings. But in due time negotiations were 
entered into between the United States government 
and the Indians looking toward the cession on the 
part of the latter of one mile square of their territory 
to be used for townsite purposes. Before these 
negotiations were fully concluded the town was in- 
corporated by an act of the territorial legislature ap- 
proved December 27, 1866. The first section of the 
incorporation bill read as follows: "Section i. The 
town of Lewiston, including the following territory, 
to-wit : Bounded north and west by the waters of the 
Clearwater and Snake rivers at their confluence, and 
extending sufficiently far southerly and easterly there- 
from to constitute in a square form, as near as prac- 
ticable, according to government survey, one square 
mile, intended to include the square mile of land 
stipulated for in favor of said town in the treaty 
between the United States and the Nez Perces tribe 
of Indians now pending, is hereby organized into a 
municipal corporation under the name of The City of 
Lewiston.' Providing that the jurisdiction of said 
city hereby conferred shall extend to the middle 
channel of said rivers at the points oposite the terri- 

One provison of the bill was that the first election 
of city officers should be held on the second Monday 
in March of the year 1867 at the court house in Lewis- 
ton. The election was held at the appointed time and 

resulted as follows: mayor, W. W. Wright; treas- 
urer, H. W. Stainton; marshal, Daniel McElwee ; 
councilmen, Godfrey Gamble, George Scranton and 
Julius Loewenberg. The charter had been secured 
despite some opposition in the town itself to the move- 
ment for incorporation, and the opposition did not 
cease when officers were chosen. Indeed the forces 
adverse to the city government, led by Richard Hur- 
ley, were so nearly equal in numbers and influence to 
those of a contrary mind that little could be ac- 
complished in the way of progress during the first few 
year.s, and nothing was attempted beyond such im- 
provements as were deemed absolutely necessary. 

It was during the year 1867, according to the 
statement of Charles G. Kress, one of the pioneer 
business men of Lewiston, that the first experiments 
were made in tree planting in the streets of the town 
and inception was given to a movement which later 
gained for it the soubriquet of "the City of Poplars." 

"One hot May afternoon," says Mr! Kress, "dur- 
ing a lull in business, Seth Slater, John Clark, Dick 
Monroe and myself were sitting in front of Monroe's 
drug store on Main street at the head of what is 
now known as First street. The conversation turned 
to the extreme heat which was prevailing and Monroe I 
suggested that shade trees should be planted. At that 
time our streets were entirely barren of trees and there I 
was no vegetation at all in the business section. The I 
suggestion appealed strongly to us and we held an 
informal meeting to discuss ways and means of secur- I 
ing and caring for the trees. We were not at all I 
sure whether trees would grow here and the water :l 
problem was a serious one. 

"Finally we decided to try the experiment any- | 
how. Our plan contemplated the digging of a well j 
in front of Monroe's store, a favorite lounging place I 
then, and the planting there of one poplar and two I 
locust trees. The hat was passed around among the I 
citizens and in a short time $210 were subscribed. I 
The well was sunk at a point very nearly in the mid- M 
die of the street, and cost $210, the amount of the 
subscription. Over the well a neat frame covering H 
was placed and around it seats were constructed to 
accommodate those who cared to while away an hour I 
or so near its cooling waters and beneath the luxuriant 8 
shade of the trees that were to be. The walls of the : 
well were boarded up. The chain and bucket system * 
delivered the water. Wesley Mulkey, whose place v 
was near the city, donated to the enterprise the de- If 
sired trees, which were planted as soon as the well 
was finished. 

"The trees seemed inspired with a due sense of 9 
the importance of their mission, for they throve wonder- jj 
fully from the first. The enterprise was a popular It 
one and elicited the interest of everybody. The follow- m 
ing year C. C. Bunnell, Dr. Stainton and others set 9 
out trees, and in 1870 a still larger number were .jj 
planted, until in a comparatively short time the town m 
was fairly embowered in luxuriant foliage. Main 
street was lined on both sides with poplars, but few i 
of which now remain." 

An issue of the Lewiston Signal bearing date fl 



September 12, 1867, has fallen into our hands and from 
it we learn that the following market prices prevailed 
at that tirrie : apples, peaches, pears, 25 cents a pound ; 
flour, $5.50 a barrel ; butter, fresh, 75 cents, Isthmus, 
50 cents f eggs, 75 cents ; cheese, 50 cents ; bacon, 22 
cents; sugar, brown, 25 cents, crushed, 28 cents; 
coffee, 38 cents; tea, $1.25. From its advertising 
patronage we have compiled the following business 
directory : Luna Feed and Livery stable, Jack Curry ; 
Pioneer' stables, J. B. Rowley ; general stores, Grostein 
& Binnard, Baldwin Brothers, James Flanagan & 
Company, J. Loewenberg, Ankeny & Sons, Bacon & 
Thompson ; general commission merchants, J. Vilott 
& Company ; drug stores, H. W. Stainton, M. A. Kelly ; 
the Luna hotel, L. H. Thompson; Hotel De France, 
Madame Le Francois; Globe hotel, August Bittner; 
wood, timber and shingles, Charles Carleton & 
Company ; hardware, Burmell Brothers ; California 
bakery, C. Baker, proprietor ; flour and liquor store, 
Vilott & Company : Challenge saloon, Norton & Bun- 
ker ; J. Denny's saloon ; James Hays's saloon, also the 
saloons of Vincent & Dyer and A. Gilman ; the Asotin 
Mill Company ; harness store, Gill & Warden ; jeweler, 
Charles G. Kress: brewery, Gamble & Weisgerber; 
assay office, Richard Hurley; gunsmith, M. H. 
Sprague; the Oro Fino & Pierce City express, M. 
Fettis; the Warren's Diggings express, just estab- 
lished, W. P. Hunt and F. G. Hart ; H. W. Stainton, 
physician; W. W. Thayer and Alonzo Leland, at- 
torneys; H. O. Adams, justice of the peace. 

The progressive forces, as those who had favored 
incorporation were styled, continued to be hampered 
in their efforts by a practically equally opposing force 
until November 6, 1871, when Levi Ankeny, a pioneer 
merchant, was elected mayor on a ticket pledged to 
progress. The first matter to elicit the attention of 
the new government was the securing of a title to the 
townsite. Under the act of congress approved in the 
spring of 1867, the government had granted the city 
a tract of land one square mile in extent at the junction 
of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, but the land office 
had as yet failed to act in granting a patent and the 
matter was held in abeyance. Mayor Ankeny was 
authorized to cause entry to be made in his name 
as trustee in behalf of the city and to take such further 
action as was necessary to secure title to the land. As 
a result a United States patent was in due course of 
time secured, though not without litigation. It appears 
that one Alonzo Gilman had filed a few months before 
Mr. Ankeny on several lots of land included in the 
townsite of Lewiston. Under permission of the agent 
to occupy a part of these tracts for trade purposes, 
Gilman had, in 1862, settled upon a small portion of 
the land claimed by him, but the department held that 
no acts of his either previous or subsequent to the 
ratification of the treaty could secure for him a valid 
claim to the land or any part of it and his claim 
was therefore rejected. 

In 1871 was begun a project favoring the further 
extension of the tree planting and beautifying of 
Lewiston, referred to above. Wesley Mulkey was the 
moving spirit in the enterprise. He organized a joint 

stock company with a capital stock of $10,000 for the 
purpose of digging an irrigating ditch through the 
town. The plan was scouted by many, who offered to 
wager that all the water which would pass through the 
ditch could be caught in a hat, but the more enterpris- 
ing citizens subscribed the stock at $25 per share and 
the project was carried to a successful issue. An 
ordinance granting the Lewiston Water Ditch and 
Mill Company, as the corporation styled itself, the 
right of way through the city was passed February 
2, 1874, and the ditch was completed some time that 
year. It was intended at first for irrigation purposes 
only, but later S. C. Hale and John Brearley planned 
and built a flouring mill at its terminus, which re- 
sulted not alone in the inauguration of a valuable new 
enterprise but the deepening and widening of the ditch. 
After passing through the hands of several different 
owners, the part of this property running through the 
city was amicably transferred in 1900 to the city of 
Lewiston, which abandoned it as an aqueduct, thus 
removing one of the ancient landmarks of the town 
and an improvement which had done its part in build- 
ing the picturesque Lewiston of the past and establish- 
ing the "olden, golden glory of the days gone by." 
The half decade following the financial crash of 
1873 was a period of quiet times in Lewiston, though 
commercial stagnation was never experienced and the 
town never ceased to grow slowly. The first thing- 
to thoroughly arouse the people was the outbreak of 
the Nez Perces war, which occasioned a meeting of 
the citizens and the organization of the Home Guards, 
of which company, Ed. McConville, who later won 
so much fame in the Nez Perces and Spanish-American 
wars, was elected captain. Hazen Squier was first lieu- 
tenant, George Young, second lieutenant, and Charles 
G. Kress, orderly sergeant. The muster roll of the 
privates was a follows: Alexander - , Anderson 
William, Billings - , Brearley John, Baird Ezra, 
Baird William, Binnard A., Boise L. B., Boise William, 
Benson A., Berry J- G., Boise F., Bunnell C. C., Cox 
William, Clark John, Coburn C. P., Collins, M., Con- 
nelv James, Dennv William, Damas A., Dunwell L., 
Davis P. M., Denny J. W., Frost G., Faunce C. E., 
Forster William. Forster Alexander, Fix John, Gros- 
tein R., Gale H., Gilman A., Glass George, Griffith 
Hale N., Hale L. C., Holbrook N. B., Hud- 

, ., . ., . ., 

son Thomas, Hunt W. P.. Igo William, Jain Jo 
Johnson Dave, Krep C. G., Knaggs : - , Kelly M. 
A., Kearny J., Knifong J., Loewenberg B., Leland A., 
Leland Charles, Minnomy I- B., McGrave James, Mc- 
Conville E., Monroe R. 'j.', Mulkey W., Manning G. 
A.. Manning Fred, McCormick J., Monroe Dave, 
Moxley J. Q., Noah George, Nollan M., Penny 
George, Rowley L., Rowley E. A., Rand J., Roberts 
John, Stainton' H., Squier'H., Schleicher R., Shank 
Theodore, Saux Raymond, Underwood George, Voll- 
mer J. P., Wiggin L., Weisgerber J.. Weisgerber C., 
Williams M. M., Warner J. D., Wardwell Dan., 
Wiklenthaler S., Worden Thomas, Young George, 
Yane Joe, bugler. 

Shortly after the organization of the Home Guards, 
Governor Bravman authorized the formation of the 


First Regiment , Idaho National Guards, commission- 
ing Captain Ed. McConville colonel of the same. 
Company A was immediately organized in Lewiston, 
with officers and membership as follows: 

Colonel Ed McConville, Randolph Kean, Henry 
Archer, John Bruce, Elmer Colwell, W. S. Stafford, 
William Ritchey, John Woosherd, Charles Warnstoff, 
George Pitt, Henry Pohlson, Albert Wisner, Thomas 
Norman, George Gaunt, Charles Adams, James Salie, 
J. S. Pintter. 

June 17, 1877, the city council held a special meet- 
ing to consider the Indian situation. The mayor was 
authorized to send a telegram to Portland asking for 
arms and ammunition from the citizens of that city 
and to the O. S. N. Company, which brought a quick 
response in the form of forty York rifles and a sup- 
ply of ammunition. The council also authorized the 
construction of rifle pits and other means of defense, 
and accordingly, eight or ten outposts were established 
on the high plateau south of the city. One was near 
the top of the present grade from Snake river avenue, 
another stood between that and what is now Fifth 
street, another to the east of the present Fifth street 
grade,- one in front of the site of H. K. Barnett's 
residence and the remainder between that and the 
old road leading from Lewiston to Mount Idaho. At 
each of these outposts a semi-circular trench two or 
three feet deep and thirty-five or forty feet long was 
dug. Behind the embankment thus formed four or 
five men were stationed each night. Camp fires were 
forbidden and strict military discipline was enforced. 
This nightly guard was maintained until Joseph's band 
had been driven into Montana, though the danger of 
an attack was considered slight on account of the 
fact that it is not in accordance with Indian methods 
of warfare to attack large towns or cities. But it 
was thought that many of the reservation Indians 
were really in sympathy with their red brethren among 
the hostile?, and as a revolt among them would be 
indeed serious, it was best to be vigilant. 

Grostein & Binnard's stone store was the strongest 
structure in the city and the best adapted for use 
as a fortress should the necessity for such arise. It 
was therefore arranged that in case of attack the 
women and children should gather in this building 
while the men manned the entrenchments above town. 
Fortunately no attack was ever made, though there 
were, the usual number of panics among the people 
caused by the unfounded stories of highly imaginative 
persons or the fabrications of Madam Rumor. 

While the war damaged Lewiston in a number of 
ways, as it damaged the whole of the north Idaho 
country, it brought a measure of compensation for 
the harm it did by turning the attention of the world 
in this direction. Then, too, Lewiston naturally be- 
came the headquarters for a number of army 
officers and one of the principal bases of supplies. 
At one time, it is said, every vacant business house 
in the city, at all suited to the purpose, was rented 
and used 'as a department office. The various corps 
of clerks and helpers, the camp followers and the 
strangers attracted to the place gave Lewiston a lively 

appearance. Some of the army men suggested that 
the town was a capital place for the establishment of 
a permanent military post, and the citizens, ever ready 
to push any movement for the good of their town, 
sent numerously signed petitions to Washington ask- 
ing that a post be stationed here, but the department 
did not see its way clear to grant the request. 

The year after the war, Lewiston began planning 
for a more substantial growth, and not a few of its 
leading business men commenced making arrange- 
ments for the erection of fire proof, brick and stone 
buildings. The merchants, who had theretofore catered 
almost entirely to the miners' trade, were asking them- 
selves if it would not be better to seek to build up 
a trade with the farming districts to the north, and 
the press was calling attention to the fact that if more 
effort had been made to satisfy the fanners' necessi- 
ties, the occasion for several rival towns in Washing- 
ton territory would not have arisen. In short, Lewis- 
ton was casting about for something to take the 
place, in furnishing support, of the declining placer 
mines, and its people clearly saw that their hope for 
the future lay in the development of quartz mining 
and the agricultural resources of the tributary country. 
As the transition from one industry to another is 
necessarily slow in any community, so must be the 
growth of towns depending upon regions in which one 
source of revenue becomes exhausted before others can 
be built up to take its place. 

During the summer of 1879, the first long distance 
telegraph line, that precursor of the railroad, was 
constructed into Nez Perces county and north Idaho. 
It was a branch of the main military line, built to con- 
nect Dayton with Fort Lapwai, and the citizens of 
Lewiston subsidized the enterprise with a free office in 
the town and several hundred poles, with the under- 
standing that they might use the line when not in the 
rvice of the military. The following is the first 
telegram sent from Lewiston over the wire : 

Lewiston, I. T., June 17, 1879, 5 p - M - 
To the Mayor and Citizens of Dayton, W. T., Greet- 

The people of Lewiston are happy to announce to 
you by way of first telegram over the first U. S. 
Government line yet established north of San Diego, 
California, that they hold sacred in this manner this 
the anniversary of "the struggle of our forefathers on 
Bunker Hill. 

A. Leland, H. Squier, J. P. Vollmer, D. J. Warner, 
C. C. Bunnell, N. W. Brearley, W. F. Kettenbach, 
C. G. Kress, A. Gilman, E. A. McAllister, Ed. Pearcy, 
Loewenberg Bros., C. B. Reynolds, G. A. Manning, 
C. F. Leland, T. Alexander, E. J. Bonhore, Eph. 
Bunker. Grostein & Binnard, I. C. Baldwin, M. M. 
Williams, J. M. Silcott, and others. 

Lewiston claims the honor of having had the first 
local telephone system in the northwest. It was put 
in by John P. Vollmer in 1878 and consisted of an 
exchange of three phones. 

The decade between 1880 and 1890 does not seem 
to have brought any great good fortune or any serious 
disaster to Lewiston, and while the period was an ) 


important one and witnessed a slow, substantial 
growth, it is not crowded with events such as would be 
read about with interest if presented in full detail. 
The former year brought a great reduction in ferry 
rates across the Snake and Clearwater rivers, an 
important concesion from a commercial point of view 
as it encouraged trade to come this way. During the 
fall of 1 88 1, the city paid its tribute of respect to 
the memory of the martyred President Garfield. An 
event of unusual importance in 1883 was the 4th of 
July celebration, attended by large crowds from Union- 
town, Genessee, Asotin, Pomeroy, Pataha, Alpowai, 
Waha, Lapwai and many other points in Idaho and 
Washington; two hundred Indians from the reser- 
vation, and last but not least Governor J. B. Neil, 
said to be the first chief executive of the territory to 
visit north Idaho since 1864. In 1883 the town ex- 
perienced a fire of considerable magnitude, though 
fortunately very little damage was inflicted upon the 
white population. About half past four o'clock on 
the morning of November igth, the flames burst forth 
in the Chinese section, and before their progress could 
be stayed, the entire block was in ashes. Thirteen 
buildings were destroyed, all of them occupied by 
Chinamen except a wagon shop in which Lot Wiggin's 
tools and equipment were, and the dwelling of J. E. 
Sheppard. Both the white men succeeded in saving 
most of their valuables, and the fire was not greatly 
deplored as it removed a block which had been an eye- 
sore in the city for a long time. 

On May 31, 1887, the water in the rivers rose to 
a height unprecedented in the experience of white men. 
Pioneers of 1862, who had marked the highest water 
of that flood year, stated that their marks were fully 
eighteen inches below the surface of the highest water 
of 1887. The greater portion of the town north of 
B street became seriously inundated. Fences were 
washed away, cellars and houses were flooded, build- 
ings were moved from their foundations and carried 
down Main street in spite of the exertions of their 
owners and such others as could lend a hand. Dykes 
built for the protection of property proved inadequate 
and many of those who relied upon them were flooded 
so suddenly that they could not even save their furni- 
ture and household goods. The steamboat wharf and 
warehouse were washed away and much other dam- 
age done, the principal sufferers being poor people 
who could ill afford what they lost. No high water 
disaster previously experienced by the town could 
compare with this one in magnitude. 

Lewiston's first fire of any consequence occurred in 
the fall of 1890, when a conflagration thought to have 
been of incendiary origin, took place in the shingle 
yard of W. S. Wyncoop. Eighteen thousand dollars' 
worth of bolting timber, cedar posts, shingles and other 
property was destroyed, also S. L. Thompson's resi- 
dence. The mill and all other surrounding buildings 
were, however, fortunately saved, not through the 
efforts of the fire department, which was in a state 
of disintegration at the time, but by the populace with 
buckets of all descriptions. "Many held the opinion," 
-says the Teller, "that the fire in the upper town was 

only a decoy to lure the citizens there while another 
fire would be started in the business portion. An 
additional force was, therefore, added to the night 
patrol, but nothing transpired to justify the suspicions 
held. The property loss was covered by $12,000 i 


The fire demonstra'ted very forcibly the need of a 
thoroughly organized fire department." 

But the year 1890 was not one of disaster through- 
out, the contrary rather, for the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company had promised to build a railway 
extension into the city and the hope of an immediate 
solution of the transportation problem was stimulat- 
ing activity in many lines. It is stated that during the 
first week in May $50,000 worth of Lewiston real 
estate changed hands. During this year, also, the first 
determined effort was made to supply the town with 
water and electric lights. The Lewiston Water & 
Light Company, in which several Portland capitalists 
were interested, was organized with a capital stock 
of $100,000 and by July enough of this had been sub- 
scribed and paid up to justify the commencement of 
the construction work. Engineer Bloomfield, who had 
charge of the enterprise, is quoted as having referred 
to it in the following language: 

"After a careful 'examination, the Cleaj water river 
at a point about two and a half miles above the town, 
lias been selected as the source of supply. That this 
stream is not misnamed can be seen at its confluence 
with the Snake river. The latter river is charged with 
sedimentary matter and is highly alkaline, while Clear- 
water is soft, clear and free from impurities, and as 
they meet, the two waters are as distinct as a blue 
and a brown ribbon, side by side. 

"The works will be a pumping system having a 
capacity of two million gallons, raised to an elevation 
of 225 feet, giving a pressure of 97 pounds per square 
inch in the lower and business portion of the town, 
and will give the beautiful plateau above the bluff 
ample pressure for all purposes. 

"The plant will consist of a brick engine and boiler 
house, forty by forty feet, on a concrete foundation 
fourteen feet high along the river front, into which 
is built the heavy wrought iron inlet pipe and pump 
well, with their attached gate and foot valve. The 
inlet pipe will be five feet below extreme low water. 
The engine will be of the modern type of double 
compound condensing engines. The boiler will be 
of steel, 85 horse power, with a steam pressure of 
]2O pounds. The reservoir will be cement lined and 
of a capacity of 1,500,000 gallons. The mains will 
be 8 66-100 miles long, consisting of 12, 10, 8, 5 and 
4 inch pipe." 

Another enterprise projected this year, which would 
have proved of immeasurable benefit had it been car- 
ried to a successful consummation, was that of the 
Sweetwater Irrigation Company, organized to con- 
struct a ditch seventeen miles in length to convey the 
waters of Sweetwater creek to Lewiston. It was in- 
tended to store the water in reservoirs on the flat 
above town, to be distributed whenever and wherever 


During the spring of 1891, the Lewiston Chamber 
of Commerce was organized with T. B. Cooper as 
president, and W. S. Buck, corresponding secretary. 
Committees were appointed to perfect the organi- 
zation and attend to its detail work. The old Board 
of Trade had lost its vitality and a new organization 
was necessary that the best interests of the city should 
be conserved. Company I, of the Idaho National 
Guards, was likewise organized in Lewiston, on March 
1 3th, Fred Kroutinger being chosen captain, C. A. 
Forseman and J. H. Robinson lieutenants. 

The water system, begun during the previous 
twelvemonth, was completed this year giving the city 
one of the finest plants of its kind in the northwest, 
outside the large cities. The engine was said to have 
a capacity of 700,000 gallons per day of ten hours, 
and the reservoir, situated half a mile south of the 
pump house, a capacity of one million gallons. 

Residents of Portland and The Dalles will re- 
member that the year 1894 was one of grave disasters 
by the flood of those cities and other Columbia river 
towns. Naturally the same conditions obtained in 
Lewiston. We have spoken of the record breaking 
high water of 1887, but the flood of this year left the 
highest mark of that fully thirty inches under water. 
For two weeks during the last of May and first 
of June, citizens held back the raging torrent by means 
of dykes constructed of sacks of sand and loose dirt, 
but on the third of the latter month the force of the 
waters could no longer be resisted and about 2 130 
o'clock the bell gave warning that the flood had gained 
the victory. Persons living in the lower portion of 
the city had moved out in anticipation of this, there- 
by reducing the damage to a minumum. The Main 
street business men had moved everything out of their 
basements. They were not looking for water six 
inches over their floors, however, but that is just 
what came, catching them unprepared and greatly 
damaging their goods. The people on the low ground 
in the vicinity of the courthouse were also taken by 
surprise, their dyke having betrayed the trust they 
had reposed in it. Sidewalks, fences and other movable 
objects were carried away and deposited around some 
obstruction and the irrepressible small boy found much 
sport in navigating the center of the street on a piece 
of drift. Fortunately these conditions were of short 
duration and in a few days the city had a force of 
men at work removing the debris and replacing the 
sidewalks. It is said that $700 was expended by the 
council in this manner. 

It might be supposed that the flood and the financial 
depression would have a very deleterious effect upon 
the prosperity and development of the town, but we 
are assured that there were no hard times in Lewiston 
such as were experienced in other points in the north- 
west and that a steady forward movemjent was main- 
tained, though of course the pace of the progressive 
march was of necessity reduced somewhat. In 1895 
came the opening of the reservation, causing an influx 
of home seekers and the distribution of hundreds, nay 

Lewiston merchants. These causes were efficient to 

overcome the depressing influence of outside conditions 
and to produce a period of prosperity which lasted 
until the clouds had cleared from the country's financial 
sky. When good times came Lewiston had no 
despondency to rally from and it was ready to enter 
upon a career of rapid advancement which has con- 
tinued to this day. 

The spring of 1896 saw the commencement of 
work, by the Lewiston Water & Power Company, on 
an irrigation ditch from Asotin creek to Lewiston 
flats, just across Snake river in the state of Washing- 
ton. In January, 1897, the work was completed. It 
gave a wonderful impetus to settlement and develop- 
ment in that section of the country and to the up- 
building of Clarkston, Lewiston's sister city, which 
is so closely connected with the Idaho town by the 
bridge across Snake river as to make the two practic- 
ally one city. 

In 1897, the year of railway construction into 
Lewiston, and the year of unprecedented advancement 
in the history of the town, was marred by a rather 
serious fire which occurred on the evening of the 8th 
of August. The cause of the conflagration was the 
explosion of a lantern in the hay mow of Collins's 
livery barn, which was consumed with the outbuildings 
belonging thereto. The entire block was wiped out of 
existence, the buildings destroyed being J. B. Mun- 
shaw's house, the residence of" N. B. Holbrook, that 
occupied by J. O. Barbour and a log building owned 
by Martin Collins. Mr. Munshaw, who was operating 
the stables under lease at the time, lost but $600, most 
of his property being covered by insurance, but Col- 
lins' loss was in the neighborhood of four thousand 
dollars and Holbrook's two thousand. Only the 
fortunate presence of plenty of water and the efficie 
work of firemen and citizens saved the lower end of 
the town from destruction. 

No general disaster of any kind detracted from the 
blessings of the prosperous year 1898 in Lewiston. 
Five substantial brick blocks added to the solidity of 
the town, while numerous residences of a good class 
improved its appearance and added to its size. The 
Lewiston Commercial Club was organized this year, 
former institutions of the kind having apparently fallen 
into "innocuous desuetude." Its officers elected Sep- 
tember ^th, were: President, B. F. Morris; vice- 
presidents, J. P. Vollmer and Robert Schleicher : treas- 
urer, George H. Kester; trustees, J. Alexander, W. 
A. Austin, A. H. Alford, E. H. Libby, J. B. Morris, 
C. Weisgerber, J. E, Babb, C. C. Bunnell, J. W. Reid 
and O. A. Kjos. The advent of the railroad and the 
general prosperity were celebrated by a harvest car 
val, attended by hundreds from the surrounding coun- 
try and hundreds more who came in from points be- 
tween Spokane and Lewiston on two special railw 

The causes which produced the good times of 
1898., viz.: the interest in the section of transconti- 
nental railway companies, the presence of transpor- 
tation facilities, the increased knowledge of tributary 
resources, and the development of various Salmon 
river mining districts, continued operative during the 


ensuing twelvemonth and the year 1900 opened with 
bright prospects for a continuous growth and develop- 
ment of the town. One question of importance which 
arose during this year was the securing of a better 
and more satisfactory water supply. Those residing 
upon the hill complained that the provision for their 
necessities was insufficient and as scores of new- 
houses were being erected and scores more were in 
contemplation, the need of solving the water problem 
was rapidly becoming more urgent. Accordingly the 
city council made overtures to the Lewiston Water 
& Light Company for the purchase of their plant, 
and the company expressing a willingness to sell, T. 
B. Cooper, an expert, was employed to estimate the 
value of the system. He reported its worth $54,- 
934.36. The company asked a much larger sum. 
Though the council expressed its willingness to accept 
the terms of the owners of the system, the transaction 
hung fire until the fall of 1901, when a newly elected 
council brought matters to a crisis by reducing the 
water rates more than twenty-five per cent. The 
company refused to accept the reduction and took the 
case into court where a decision was rendered against 

Meanwhile a special election was decided upon, to 
vote upon the issuance of $80,000 in bonds for the 
purpose of enabling the city to own its water and 
light plant. The election was held November I9th. 
The bonding proposition carried by a large majority, 
over 90 per cent of the votes being in its favor. 
The Lewiston Water & Light Company again went 

| into court asking that the city' be restrained from 
opening bids submitted for the purchase of the bonds, 
alleging that the election was irregular and that the 
Company's franchise was exclusive. The court re- 
fused the injunction. The bids were opened and that 
of Teasongood & Mayer, bankers of Cincinnati, ac- 
cepted. These gentlemen offered a premium of 
$68.80 per thousand, bonds to bear interest at the 
rate of 5 per cent. The city went ahead with its 
plans to construct a new water system and the Lewis- 
ton Water & Light Company proceeded with its suit 
in the courts of the state. Meanwhile, however, nego- 
tiations were continued for the purchase of the sys- 
tem already constructed and after several conferences 
between committees representing the two interests, 

. it was finally agreed that the city should take the 
company's plant for a cash price of $70,000, all suits 
by the latter to be held in abeyance until the contract 
for purchase should be signed, then dismissed without 
prejudice, each party paying its own costs. The 
terms of agreement were accepted by the council on 
the evening of March 10, 1902, and confirmed by the 
voters at an election held April 24th of the same 

August 28, 1902, the city voted to authorize the 
sale of ten thousand dollars street improvement 
bonds, the proceeds to be used in grading Main street 
between Fifth street and the courthouse, the gravel 
to be taken from the Fifth street cut. Work upon 
this much needed improvement is still in progress at 
this writing, and the great good accruing from it in 

giving the city a clean and solid business street and 
the people of Normal hill the benefit of an easy grade 
to their elevated homes is abundantly justifying the 
vote of 1 08 to 53 by which the bond issue was 

Perhaps the developments that have taken place 
between the time when Lewiston was a town of tents 
encroaching upon an Indian reservation and the pres- 
ent cannot be better summarized than by enumerating 
the various business enterprises which are being sus- 
tained within its limits to-day and the men at their 
heads. It is difficult to be sure that some of these 
have not been omitted, but practically all are in- 
cluded in the following: The dry goods and furnish- 
ing stores of John P. Vollmer & Company, O. A. 
Kjos and John M. Fix, also the Grand Leader and the 
Bee Hive; the grocery stores of E. L. Russell, Reed 
& Brashears, W. R. Wyatt, Merriam Brothers, C. A. 
Phelps, the Lewiston Grocery & Bakery Company, 
the Golden Rule and the Normal Hill Grocery 
Company; the art store of Fair & Thompson; White 
Brothers and A. S. Burnett, wholesale dealers in 
fruits and vegetables; the music store and supply 
house of W. H. Young; Charles Hahn, Naylor & 
Norlind, plumbing; Lewiston Trading Company, 
dealers in agricultural implements, carriages, etc. ; the 
drug stores of J. Q. Moxley, Ray & Osmer, Dent & 
Butler, the Lewiston Drug Company; the shoe store 
of C. A. Hastings; the hardware stores of G. W. 
Fletcher, Myers & Neyland, and the Cash Hardware 
Company ; the clothing stores of Meuli & Lomax and 
H. A. Nixon; D. J. McGilvery, L. C. Neal and the 
Lewiston Furniture & Undertaking Company, deal- 
ers in furniture and house furnishings; the harness 
and saddle store of R. M. Coburn ; the J. S. Cox and 
R. L. Pennewell Outfitting Companies ; the jewelry 
stores of Charles G. Kress, George H. Lake, J. H. 
Bethel and H. Haines; L. Diebek, manufacturing 
jeweler; the Idaho National Bank, W. P. Hurlburt, 
president, C. D. Thomas, cashier; the Lewiston 
National, W. F. Kettenbach, president, G. H. Kester, 
cashier; the First National, J. P. Vollmer, president, 
E. W. Eaves, cashier; (this last is the strongest bank 
in the state and among the national banks of the 
American Union, it was officially ranked in 1901 the 
fifty-seventh) ; the stationery and news depot of 
Thatcher & Kling; the Idaho Tea Company; the 
galleries of E. G. Cummings, J. W. Gomon'd, and 
E. Fortin, photographers ; the Boss Meat Market, also 
the meat markets of Ehrman & Company, Dill 
Brothers, A. M. Cherier, F. M. Long & Sons; the 
Mark Means Company, distributors and manufac- 
turers' agents ; Pring Candy Company, manufacturers 
of confectionery; the Arcade, the Boss, Shafer & 
Heller, Mallory & Lydon, the White Front, Idaho 
and Farmers' livery and feed stables; the fruit, cigar 
and confectionery stores of M. N. Farmer, S. A. 
Coppinger, and George F. Loeb; E. L. Wig-gin, H. 
R. Miller and Louis "Grostein, dealers in cigars and 
tobacco ; W. T. Carpenter, dealer in curios ; A. J. 
Kraudelt, confectionery; Theodore Hartman, John 
C. Manson, F. Hacker & Company, Aurelio Farren 


and J. J. Philippi, tailors; Ora L. Kennedy, Mrs. 
Elaine Ritchie, milliners; M. H. Sprague, bicycles; 
H. T. Madgwick, dealer in shingles, lime and brick; 
A. Sempert, store and office fixtures; A. C. Coburn, 
sign painter ; the Lewiston ' Junk Shop, Shank & 
Calvert, proprietors; Idaho Steam Laundry Comp- 
any; H. K. Barnett and the Nez Perces County Ab- 
stract Company, abstracters ; K. Wong Yick & Com- 
pany, general merchandise; Trader & Bartlett, manu- 
facturers of H. & K. cigars ; the Nez Perces Machine 
Works ; C. F. Grimm, C. B. Nelson, William Wright, 
R. W. Carter, blacksmiths: the White Labor, the 
Woman's Exchange and the Boston lunch counters; 
Imperial, John Long and O. K. barber shops; the 
Lewiston Bottling Works; the brewery of Christ 
Weisgerber; the planing mill of E. A. Rowley; H. T. 
Best, machinist; William Agnew, gunsmith; J. 
Schwert, shoemaker; Huber & Frazier, F. R. Seidel, 
builders and contractors; the Vollmer Clearwater 
Company and Kettenbach Grain Company, exporters 
of grain and flax;'F. W. Kettenbach, insurance agent; 
Collins' feed store; the Standard and Idaho dairy 
companies; T. S. Williams, upholstering; the Lewis- 
ton Business and Shorthand College, Margaret Slat- 
tery, proprietor; Skinner & Mounce, Potvin & Howe, 
Kroutinger & Cox, Wade R. Parks, J. W. Willison 
& Company ; F. W. Godard & Company, S. S. Rogers 
& Company and J. M. Edwards & Company, real es- 
tate agents ; the Raymond House, the Grand, the Bel- 
linger. Hotel De France, the Scully, the White House, 
the Grand Central, the Thatcher, the Spokane and the 
Columbia, hotels; the Lewiston Mercantile Company, 
a wholesale house; the Lewiston Milling Company, 
capacity 200 barrels of flour per day ; Ernest McCul- 
lough, Frank Doughty and I. L. Galbraith, civil engi- 
neers and architects'; M. E. Adams, mining engineer; 
Charles W. Shaft. J. B. Morris, John F. Hurlbut, F. 
L. Hinkley, F. S. Stirling, J. Marion Smith, C. C. 
Phillips, S. A. Roe, I. S. Collins. S. Salzburg, physi- 
cians and surgeons; R. Victor Kuhn, J. J. Randall, J. 
F. Atkinson, dentist ; Hattie Lorton and J. H. Watson, 
osteopaths; E. O'Neil. James W. Poe, McFarland & 
McFarland, J. N. Smith, Johnson & Halsey, Price E. 
Stookey, G. W. Tannahill, Tohn B. Anderson, R. S. 
Anderson, James E. Babb,. Crow & Williams, John E. 
Nickerson, Ray Walker, Thomas Mullen, Wade R. 
Parks, Bender & Alley, D. W. Bailey, Frederick D. 
Culver, lawyers ; Adrain D. Sweet, A. G. Glidden and 
M. L. Stowe, stenographers. 

While Lewiston has suffered greatly in times past 
for lack of transportation facilities and is still look- 
nig forward to the advantages which an open rivei 
to the sea and one or more transcontinental railways 
will give, the town has no great reason for complaint 
on this score at the present time. The Northern Pa- 
cific Railroad maintains a daily passenger service be- 
tween the city and Spokane ; the Clearwater passen- 
ger leaves Lewiston each afternoon for interior points, 
returning the following morning; while accommoda- 
tion trains are run over the Lapwai branch to Culde- 
sac three times weekly and oftener during the shipping 
season. The Oregon Railway & Navigation Company- 

operates a fine line of passenger and freight boats be- 
tween Lewiston and Riparia. At present the Spok- 
ane, the Lewiston and the Norma, each of 250 tons 
burden, are in use, the first two alternating with each 
other so as to give a daily service, the last running 
only when business demands. Captain E. W. Baugh- 
man, the pioneer navigator and one of the first crew 
to bring a steamer up the Snake river to its conflu- 
ence with the Clearwater, is in charge of the Spokane, 
Captain E. H. Works, of the Lewiston and Captain 
Ralph Baughman of the Norma. A fifty ton boat, the 
Imnaha, is being built by local capitalists to run on the 
upper Snake river. During the wheat shipping sea- 
son, the Northern Pacific operates the steamer J. M. 
Hannaford between Lewiston and points on the Co- 

The Pacific States Telephone Company and the 
Western Union Telegraph Company furnish to Lewis- 
ton wire connection with all the important towns and 
cities of the northwest, while the Lookout Telephone 
Company, a local corporation, has erected a network 
of lines connecting various towns and stations in the 
country surrounding Lewiston. Stage lines radiate in 
several directions giving communication and close 
connection with numerous towns and villages not 
reached by the railroads. One of the finest steel 
bridges in the northwest, erected in 1898-9 by the 
promoters of Vineland, in Asotin county, Washington, 
spans the Snake river between Lewiston and Clarks- 
ton, making the relationship between the two towns 
very intimate. 

The fraternal spirit is strong in Lewiston, as in 
most 'other towns of the west and many fraternities 
are represented. The Masons have recently sub- 
scribed $50,000 for the erection of a Masonic temple, 
a fact which shows the strength of that society among 
our people. The different Masonic bodies maintained 
in the city are the Knights of Rose Croix, No. I,, 
the Knights of Kadosh, No. I, Lewiston Consistory 
No. i, the Scottish Rite, Lewiston Chapter No. 4, 
Royal Arch, York Rite, Lewiston Commandery No. 
2. Knights Templar, Nez Perces Lodge No. 10, A. F. 
& A. M., and Lewiston Lodge of Perfection, No. i. 
The Odd Fellows, who own a handsome brick hall 
in Lewiston, are represented by Clearwater Encamp- 
ment No. 7, and Lewiston Lodge No. 8. Among the 
other fraternal orders of the town are: Excelsior 
Lodge No. 2, Knights of Pythias, Poplar Camp No. 
205. Woodmen of the World, Tsceminicum Tribe No. 
8. Improved Order of Red Men, Clearwater Lodge 
No. 11, A. O. U. W., Lewiston Council of the Royal 
Arcanum and a camp of Modern Woodmen, many of ] 
which have their various ladies' auxiliaries. 

Two important literary clubs are maintained in the 
town, both women's societies. The older, organized 
in the fall of .1899, is known as the Tsceminicum 
club, deriving its 'name from the Nez Perces words I 
signifying "at the forks of the river." It meets fort- j 
nightly at the homes of its members for the render- 
ing of literary programs. This club is to be credited 
almost entirely with the founding, in September, 
10,00, of what is now the city library. The conditions 


upon which the ladies donated their collection of 
books to the city was that it should be furnished at 
public expense with a library home and that its use 
should be free to all residents of Lewiston. From 
time to time since, the Tsceminicum club has, by 
giving library benefits in the form of public entertain- 
ments, sales, lectures, etc., secured the money with 
which to purchase additional books. The library has 
also been the beneficiary of the benevolence of Charles 
F. Adams, the Boston philanthropist, and is indebted 
to Senator Heitfelt for securing it hundreds of docu- 
ments and government reports. The collection con- 
sists now of 2,837 volumes, to which, according to 
the card issue, 1,479 persons have had access. Mar- 
garet G. Guyer has been librarian since the inception of 
the enterprise and to her is due the credit for the 
library's skillful management and its careful classi- 

The other library society, known as the Twentieth 
Century Club, is very similar to the Tsceminicum in 
its objects and organization, but it is a somewhat 
younger society. Besides these, there is what is 
known as the Cecilian society, maintained, as its name 
implies, for the purpose of cultivating the musical 
faculties of its members. 

Six church societies have been organized in Le'wis- 
ton, the Catholic, the Presbyterian, the Methodist, 
the Episcopal, the Christian and the Baptist, of which 
the presiding pastors are respectively, Revs. Hubert 
A. Post, S. J., E. P. Giboney, John R. Gregory, Ever- 
tt Smith, J. A. Pine and R. T. Guernsey. ' All of 
these denominations are comfortably and satisfactorily 

i housed except the Baptist, which intends building a 

[ new church edifice in the near future. These church 
societies are all vital and active, contributing im- 
measurably to the moral and spiritual life of the com- 
munity. The Catholics are projecting a new hospital, 

to be under the charge of the sisters of St. Joseph, and 
to be known as St. Joseph's hospital. It will cost 

, $25,000. 

A historical review of the county's public school 

[ system is a practical impossibility owing to the com- 
plete lack of statistical or other records in the county 
superintendent's office, but some reminiscences of 
Lewiston's schools may be of interest and not inap- 
propriate in this chapter. C. P. Coburn says that he 

f, lias a very distinct recollection of the first teacher to 
pursue his profession in Nez Perces county. Late 
in the fall of 1863, according to Mr. Coburn, a middle 
aged man of professional appearance and quiet de- 
meanor appeared in Lewiston and proceeded to or- 
ganize a small school. He wore a tall silk hat, a suit 
of the blackest broadcloth and a white tie, all bearing 
unmistakeable signs of long usage and giving the im- 
pression that their proprietor was a broken down 
sport. They did not belie him, as later events proved, 
but for the time being the teaching ability of the man 
was all that was inquired into. After diligent can- 
vassing he secured a few pupils and opened his school. 
Everything progressed satisfactorily until the teacher 
drew his first month's pay, whereupon the sporting 
proclivities of the pedagogue manifested themselves. 

He set out to double his money at the gambling table, 
but unfortunately for him, the fickle dame played him 
false at this most critical juncture and his wages 
passed into other hands. Not desiring to remain 
longer in Lewiston in the face of his ignominious 
downfall, he quietly departed whence he came and 
the school was left teacherless. 

Lewiston continued without educational facilities 
for nearly a year thereafter, or until the fall of 1864, 
when one P. H. Howe arrived and opened a subscrip- 
tion school in a small frame building on Fourth street. 
It is said that Schoolmaster Howe, who taught three 
months, was a very ardent Unionist, so ardent indeed 
that he was subject to frequent fits of patriotism, when 
he would have his little band of scholars sing "John 
Brown's Body Lies A-mouldering in the Grave," 
when they should be engaged in more arduous mental 
exercises.' To him, however, is due considerable 
credit for placing the school in Lewiston in some kind 
of a working condition and awakening a slight educa- 
tional spirit in the town, which, for the first few years 
was populated by a migratory, gold-seeking class who 
paid but little attention to the refinements of life. 

With the organization of the territory county af- 
fairs became better adjusted and the little school held 
at Lewiston was given support by the levying of a 
small tax. For some time this was the only district 
to derive benefit from the tax, as no other had been 
organized. Mount Idaho district was the next to gain 
an existence. 

During the winter of 1865-6 the Lewiston school 
was taught by William Ferrell, and under his tutelage 
fifteen or twenty pupils were instructed in the rudi- 
ments of education. The school prospered. Next 
year it was placed in charge of Professor Eckels, a 
very popular and erudite Irishman, and the first 
teacher to really give the Lewiston school his serious 
attention. At this 'time Lewiston was incorporated 
and granted the privilege of maintaining an inde- 
pendent school district, such as only Boise had en- 
joyed theretofore. In accordance with the provisions 
of this law, the Lewiston independent school district 
was organized and a special tax levied. The school 

of what are now Third and C streets, just south of the 
old territorial capitol and across the street from the 
Florence saloon. This building, erected in 1862, nad 
been occupied for some time by Dr. Macinteney as a 
drug store, and later the first territorial council had 
met within its walls. Under Professor Eckels' super- 
vision seats and blackboards were placed in the room 
and books and many other necessities procured for 
the children. This energetic teacher remained only 
one term, however. He was succeeded by Miss Ellen 
Kelly, a daughter of Milton Kelly, the first judge of 
the first judicial district of Idaho and later the founder 
of the Boise Statesman. Miss Kelly taught two terms 
and was succeeded by W. A. Goulder. 

By 1871 the increased demands made upon the 
school showed the urgent necessity for additional 
room, and an agitation was commenced in favor of 
erecting a new school house instead of renting a 


larger building. The times, however, were stringenl 
and the problem of securing the money wherewith tc 
buy land and put up this new building was not an 
easy one to solve ; nevertheless, at a meeting called tc 
consider the matter it was definitely decided to proceec 
with the work. Some time previously a game 
poker had been played in Lewiston, the outcome 
which, as it happened, had an important bearing on 
the school question. A certain man had squatted 01 
a large tract of land on Main street and as the town 
site still belonged to the government, his right to thi 
property when the land became patented was as gen- 
erally acknowledged as would have been a deed on 
record. Unfortunately for this property holder, 
however, cards possessed a fatal fascination for h 
and on the night in question he was reduced to the 
tremity of placing his title to the lot against its v 
in money, wagered by his opponents. Fortune failed 
him and' the result was that right to the land became 
vested in three persons, James W. Hays, Albert Rip- 
son and L. W. Bacon. Later C. P. Coburn, as presi- 
dent of the school board, approached these men for 
the purpose of securing the land for a school sit< 
Mr. Coburn's efforts were not in vain. Albert Rip- 
son, who claimed the major share of the land, finally 
agreed to donate his interest to the city, which he did, 
quit-claiming, also, by consent, the interests of his 
partners. Subsequently title was perfected through 
the courts. 

On this property the trustees decided to erect a 
small frame schoolhouse and a special tax was levied 
to raise part of the funds. To further aid the enter- 
prise the trustees of the school, Charles G. Kress, R. 
J. Monroe and J. B. Rowley, also certain ladies of the 
city, especially prominent among whom were Mrs. 
John P. Vollmer, Miss Olive Martin (now Mrs. W. 
P. Hunt), Mrs. Robert Grostein and Mrs. T. S. 
Billings, gave a ball in the old Florence saloon build- 
ing, which had been converted into a public hall. The 
ball was a most gratifying success, financially as well 
as socially, adding several hundred dollars to the 
school fund. By such means the friends of education 
secured a considerable portion of the money required 
for the construction of the new school. 

As soon as title to the land above mentioned had 
been secured, the board of trustees let the contract for 
building the school to a builder named Mann, the 
amount agreed upon being $1,450. Mann's bid was 
very low. The building erected really cost in the 
vicinity of $2,000, the bondsmen furnishing the re- 
mainder of the money. The building was completed 
for occupancy in the fall of 1872 and to Miss Nancy 
Simons belongs the distinction of first teaching within 
its walls. She taught two terms. So rapidly did 
the attendance increase that two years later the town 
was compelled to add an annex to the building. Thus 
enlarged, it sufficed for several years. 

December 30, 1880, in response to the request of 
the people of Lewiston, the territorial legislature 
passed an act providing for the establishment and 
maintenance of a system of graded schools in the 
Lewiston independent district, a bill rendered neces- 

sary by the rapid growth of the city after the Nez. 
Pefces war. 

A special election was called soon after this act 
went into effect, at which the tax payers of the district 
voted to issue $10,000 bonds for the construction of 
a new and much larger building than was then in 
use. Under this authority the school board entered 
into a contract with Hale & Cooper, July 6, 1882, for 
the construction of the present frame school bouse on 
the site of the old building. Subsequently the bond 
issue was increased to $11,000, bearing eight per 
cent, interest. The building was erected and at the 
time was considered one of the finest schoolhouses 
in this section of the west. But the steady increase of 
population eventually made even this too small and 
again the district had to provide larger quarters and 
a larger corps of teachers. The last building was 
erected in 1897-8 at a cost of approximately $16,000,. 
to raise which $15,000 worth of bonds had to be is- 
sued. The building is a handsome two-story, brick 
and stone structure, provided with all the usual con- 
veniences and school equipment, the pride of the city. 
In anticipation of the removal of the frame building 
at no distant day, the brick school house was erected 
just back of the wooden one. 

The rapid growth of the town during the past few 
years has rendered the school facilities again inade- 
quate, and to meet the exigencies of the situation the 
board of trustees has decided to begin, this spring, the 
construction of a twelve-room school house on Nor- 
mal hill, it being the intention to have the building 
idy for occupancy by the opening of the fall term in 
September. It will be two stories high and will cost 
ibout $25,000. 

But Lewiston is not dependent upon its public 
school alone for the maintenance of an educational 
esprit de corps among its people and the education of 
":s juvenile inhabitants. By dint of much effort on. 
the part of its citizens and friends it secured in 1898 
the establishment of a state normal school within its 
limits. The school occupies a beautiful brick build- 

the business part of Lewiston and the scenic poem, 
ented by the two rivers just beyond and their 
_jed farther banks. The school has enjoyed a ca^ 
reer of uninterrupted harmony since its inception, its 

ily drawback being insufficient funds to procure all j 
needed equipment and enable it to rapidly expand. 
It offers a flexible course of study, giving the student j 
vide latitude for selection, but requiring all to do a 
stated amount of professional study and to take part . 
n the work of the literary societies. Diplomas are I 
granted to those only who complete a four years' I 
:ourse, and the holders of these have all the rights and * 
irivileges attaching to state certificates for life. 

Another important institution having for its ob- I 
ect the educational advancement of the youth of j 
wiston and vicinity is St. Joseph's Academy, erect- f 
in 1898 and 'conducted by the Sisters of fj 
he Visitation, a cloistered order. The school is ex- 
lusively for girls, but is open to all who are respect- 
i! : obedient and docile, without reference to religious 



belief. All the common and many of the higher 
branches of learning are taught, including music, 
languages and the arts. The present enrollment 
numbers sixty. Thirty pupils board at the school 
and those whose names are enrolled in the musical de- 
partment number thirty. The academy building oc- 
cupies a pleasant site on Normal hill. There is also 
a Catholic school for boys under the immediate di- 
rection of Father Post, the head of the church in Nez 
Perces county. It occupies the quarters of the old 
Sisters' academy, abandoned upon the establishment 
of the school of the Sisters of Visitation in 1898. At 
present twenty-four boys are receiving instruction 
there from Father Post and his two associate in- 

Such is, in a brief and no doubt incomplete out- 
line, the past and present of the city of Lewiston. 
One acquainted with the many advantages of cli- 

be inclined to wonder why its growth has not been 
more rapid. The reasons are not far to seek. Until 
a very few years ago it was on the edge of an Indian 
reservation, the immense wealth of which was lying 
almost wholly undeveloped on account of the shiftless 
character of the aboriginal population. Until a still 
more recent date it was without railroad facilities, 
while its rival towns in Washington and Idaho had 
been enjoying these for years. Its tributary country 
was also without railroads and is still insufficiently 
supplied, but notwithstanding the immense amount 
of work yet to be accomplished before the great 
wealth tributary to Lewiston shall have been fully 
appropriated, the town has been forging ahead with 
wonderful rapidity in the past half decade, and no 
doubt it will continue indefinitely its rapid advance. 
Recently the legislature has passed an act appropriat- 
ing eighteen thousand dollars of the state's money 
to construct a supreme court library building in the 
i town. A great effort is being made to secure the pass- 
age by the same assembly of a bill having for its direct 
object the upbuilding of a large lumber manufactur- 
ing industry in Lewiston. It may be unsafe to at- 
tempt to forecast, but the conviction is almost forced 
upon one that a city situated at the point where it will be 
most benefited when the agitation in congress for an 
open river to the sea shall have crystalized into accom- 
plished results, at a point that must be touched by any 
railroad from the east seeking to reach the ocean by 
a water grade and at the very gateway to incalcula- 
ble riches of agriculture, of timber and of minerals, 
the county scat of a great and rapidly developing 
county, the center of a wonderful fruit growing re- 
gion, must some day take rank with the largest and 
wealthiest cities of the Inland Empire. 


The government townsite of Nezperce, on the 
reservation, was thrown open to settlement Novem- 
ber 18. 1895. George W. Tamblin was the surveyor 
in charge, and he selected the townsite. Probate 
Judge P. E. Stookey filed on the quarter section of 

land in behalf of the people, and the lots were dis- 
tributed by lot, each applicant being allowed two tick- 
ets. Tamblin's office, a box building, was the first 
edifice in Nezperce. Ex-County Commissioner E. L. 
Parker erected a building for use for general store 
purposes, which he subsequently disposed of to Mr. 
Orbison. The first goods sold on the ground of the 
new town were those of Paul Johnson, and he built 
the second business house in the place, now owned 
by Steven Badger. Originally the postoffice was in 
the Wayland hotel, Mrs. L. A. Wayland, postmistress. 
The firs't house on the reservation was erected by Col. 
W. W. Hammell, and the first restaurant was started 
by E. C. Cassens. Mr. Orbison possessed the first 
home residence on the townsite, although a few years 
previous to this there had been a shack erected. As 
with all new western locations, the people who first 
came to the town of Nezperce lived mainly in tents. 
Col. Hammell was the first one to prove up' under the 
free homestead law, and his ranch adjoins the town of 
Nezperce. He was closely followed by W. B. 
Ramsey. Along about this time A. Coles started a 
store in a tent, a racket store, and the first church, 
Presbyterian, held its initial services under canvas, 
M. G. Mann officiating. S. Markwell opened a store 
in a new building, and the first drug store was erected 
by A. Eitzeri and a man named Towell, in the summer 
of 1896. This building and business passed into 
the hands of Wilson and Bert Bowlby, and Wilson 
Bowlby was the first dentist, and Drs. Howard, father 
and son, the first practicing physicians. Judge J. 
R. Crawford was elected justice of the peace, al- 
though T. O. Hanlon had been appointed to try a case 
previous to that time. 

During the summer of 1898 a man named Orr 
opened a bank, and the first hotel of any consequence 
was built and conducted by A. McLeod, and the sec- 
ond by J. D. Graham. The same year a butcher shop 
was built by R. C. Bywaters. The town of Nezperce 
has never suffered from a general fire, but in 1902 a 
$3,500 residence owned by Z. A. Johnson was burned. 
The original printing establishment, the Nezperce 
News, was established in 1896. by Harper & Ander- 
son. The second newspaper was the Record, by G. 
S. Martin. Among the pioneers of Nezperce may be 
mentioned Col. W. W. Hammell, G. W. Wilshire, 
J. T. Orbison, E. L. Parker, John D. Graham, Paul 
Johnson, E. G. Cassens, George W. Tamblin, A. Mc- 
Leod, L. A. Wayland, Captain Human, W. D. Hard- 
wick. An addition of twenty acres was made to 
Nezperce by Jacob Mowry. 

The present business houses of Nezperce com- 
prise" General merchandise, J. A. Schultz & Co.; 
Felt Mercantile Co.; Bargain store, Graman & 
Schultz, proprietors; Nezperce Cash Store, J. R. 
Crawford, manager ; Old Store, J. T. Orbison ; Badg- 
er Store, Steven Badger, proprietor ; Idaho Store, 
Coffin Bros. Hotels Nezperce Hotel, Charles Holm, 
Hotel Scofield. Williams Bros. Restaurants Home, 
Kimery & Mead: Mrs. Bob Warnacufs : and L. P. 
Jacobson's. Livery stablesBoss. J. W. Gains ; Nez- 
perce, Miller & 'Miller. Grain dealers Vollmer- 


Clearwater Company, D. W. Eaves, manager; Farm- 
ers' Grain Company: Kerr, Giftord & Company; Ka- 
miah Trading Company. Drug stores Bowlby's 
City Drug Store; DeMonde's; The Kimball Drug 
Company, Taylor & Moraseck, proprietors. Black- 
smith shops S. J. Doggett ; E. B. Wilson and Thom- 
as Earth. Soft drinks and Confectionery The Der- 
by, Black & Allison : R. W. Adams and Thomas Mar- 
tin. Gents' Furnishing Goods T. J. Hardwick & 
Company. Furniture Mockler, Miller & Mockler; 
S. N. Berry. Hardware Mockler, Miller & Mock- 
ler; Kamiah Trading Company (Spiker & Salladay). 
Millinery Mrs. Anderson and Mrs. St. Helms and 
Mrs. Button and Mrs. Hunt ; Mrs. S. Badger. Banks 
First National, T. M. Mockler, president, J. A. 
Schultz, cashier; Farmers and Merchants Bank, T. J. 
Dyer, of Spokane, president : Kettenbach & Company, 
limited, C. W. Nelson, cashier. Newspapers Nez- 
perce Herald, W. C. Foresman, editor and proprietor. 
Nezperce Roller Mill, Z. A. Johnson: Chop Mill, 
Lauby Bros., proprietors. Jewelry B. F. Richard- 
son. Harness shops M. R. Bowman, J. F. Strick- 
fadess. Meat markets Warrell Bros., John M. 
Medved. Nezperce Brick & Lime Company, W. R. 
Crim. president; Heitzen & Mitchell. Draying 
City Dray, C. J. Hancock, proprietor; Nezperce De- 
livery, A. Fuller, proprietor. Barber A. A. Bard- 
well. United States Commissioner and Notary Pub- 
lic W. W. Hammell. Contractor P. Fairweather. 
Real Estate B. J. McRae; Stearns & Thomas; W. 
E. Larson. Attorneys Stearns & Thomas; R. H. 
Wallace. Physicians John Coburn ; E. Taylor; A. 
J. Cooper; E. L. Powell. Dentists Dr. J. W. Lewis. 
Photography Fink Bros. Contractor and Builder 
E. L. Tupper & Company ; Thomas Devine, Roach & 

The churches of Nezperce comprise the Presby- 
terians, Methodist, Christian, German Baptist, Cath- 
olic and Baptist. The graded public schools are 

two, the former steam heated. The fraternal soci- 
eties are the I. O. O. F., M. W. A., A. F. & A. M., 
Yeomen, Maccabees. L. O. T. M., Royal Neighbors, 
Women of Woodcraft, Rebekahs. 

Nezperce is incorporated. The councilmen are 
W. C. Foresman, C. W. Felt, C. H. Thomas, Dr. J. 
H. Lewis and W. J. Ramsey. The town was bonded 
April 21, 1903, for $6,750," to furnish water for fire 
protection. There are two wells and a gasoline en- 
gine for this purpose. The water right of Lolo Creek 
belongs to Z. A. Johnson, who is now putting in a 
plant to cost $35,000 which will provide electricity 
for his mill and lights, water, etc., for the town. The 
present population of Nezperce is between 400 and 


This town is situated just on the west side of the 
boundary line between Nez Perces and Idaho coun- 
ties. The township was laid out in 1896, a pre-emp- 
tion claim of M. B. Morrow, a sheep raiser. The town 
was first exploited by W. L. Thompson, trustee for 

Mr. Morrow. In 1896 he opened a general store, the 
first one in the village, and this was followed by the 
Hotel Morrow, by D. I. Slavens. About the same 
period W. S. Green established a feed barn, and Harry 
Steel started a blacksmith shop. During the winter of 
1896-7, Gibbs & Lemmons put up a butcher shop. A 
saw mill was built in 1896 by J. G. Downs. The post- 
office is on Willow Creek, at'the home of W. R. Dixon, 
established about 1888. The elevation of Morrow is 
3,250 feet. The present business enterprises are rep- 
resented by the general store of Mons Hansen, black- 
smith shop and chop mill, T. M. Davis, postoffice, 
confectionery, etc., W. R. Dixon; hotel and saloon, 
Babcock & Horseman; feed stable, owned by George 
Wayne, leased by Ed. Ausburg. There is a four 
months' term of school taught by M. M. Belknap. 
The attendance is an average of fifty-four. The 
Methodist and Christian denominations hold services 
occasionally, presided over by visiting clergymen, in 
the Union building. There is a lodge of 1. O. O. F. 



Sixteen miles below Orofino and the first impor- 
tant station after leaving Potlatch junction is Lenore, 
still another small trading and shipping center along 
the Clearwater Short Line railway. There is already 
one tramway terminus here and another tramway is 
about to be constructed. The Lenore Trading Com- 
pany has here a general store, J. B. McGuire conducts 
the only hotel and Charles Green is the postmaster. 
The Kettenbach Grain Company has a warehouse at 
this point. Basalt and Agatha are two other unim- 
portant stations along the railroad, established princi- 
pally to accommodate grain shipping. 

The townsite of Fletcher was surveyed by the 
government in May, 1896, and opened for filing so 
soon as the survey was completed. The ground was 
donated by Simon L. Finney, who had homesteaded 
the same on the opening of the reservation. The first 
house, a store building, was opened for business in 
November, and this was followed by a blacksmith 
shop and saw mill. The following spring a hotel was 
erected by John Bielby, and that summer Naffziger 
& Honeyman opened a general merchandise store 
(1897). A grist mill was started by Wright & Ellis 
in 1898, and Robinson & Haynes established a drug 
store in 1899. The grist mill business was incorpor- 
ated as a stock company March 4, 1899, and subse- 
quently the property was destroyed by fire. Wright 
removed to Dublin and Ellis to Summit. The present 
business houses comprise the drug store of Robinson 
& Eckersley, general merchandise by L. E. Marchand, 
hardware, by Peter Klaus, and hotel by the same. The 
present population of. the town is 200. Dublin, situ- 
ated three and a quarter miles south of Fletcher, dates 
from the summer of 1901. The pioneer spirit in the 
enterprise was David Lowry. There are a few resi- 
dences, a blacksmith shop and other business houses. 



Eight miles northwest of Nez Perces, in the south- 
eastern part of the county, is the town of Mohler. The 
land on which it stands was homesteaded by T. O. 
Hanlon and J. B. Davis at the opening of the reserva- 
tion. The town is platted but not yet incorporated. 
The first edifice, a store building, was erected by T. 

0. Hanlon in 1889. The postoffice, first known as 
Howard, was established four years ago at the old 
Howard townsite, one and a half miles southeast of 
Mohler. Three years ago it was removed from How- 
ard to Mohler. 'The next building, a hardware store, 
was put up by JBoozer & Giles, and this was succeeded 
by a creamery built in 1900. During the spring of 
the same year a butcher shop, erected by H. D. Haines, 
was established, and the succeeding building, owned 
by P. E. Dean, was built two years since. This was 
followed by a hotel by J. B. Davis. The spring of 
1902 witnessed the erection of a building occupied 
by the Mohler Implement Company, the school house 
and the Methodist Church. Three years ago a black- 
smith shop was built by John Howard and another 
in the spring of 1903 by John Collins and John John- 

The present business houses are: Drug store, O. 
DeMonde and John McGee; real estate, James So- 
renson and J. H. Wann; hotel, John Biggart, proprie- 
tor; blacksmith shops, Emery and Collins & Johnson; 
general stores, P. E. Dean and G. S. Martin; hard- 
ware, F. A. Boozer and Charles Giles; A. G. Gross 
and N. F. Wright ; furniture, T. O. Hanlon ; barn, in 
connection with hotel, John Biggart ; butcher shop 
in summer time, J. B. Davis and T. S. Belts; barber 
shop, Charles and A. J. Johnson. The business of 
Mohler is supported by the general farming in the 
surrounding country. A number of new buildings 
are projected, including a barber shop, two livery 
barns, three dwellings, etc. 

Church services are conducted every two weeks; 
Sunday school each Sabbath. The officiating minister 
is Rev. John Taylor. Fraternal societies include the 

1. O. O. F., Rebekahs, Encampment, VV. of VV., and 
Women of Woodcraft. The medical practitioner is 
Dr. J. T. Price. 

This little town is named in honor of llo Leggett, 
who has, also, contributed a portion of his name to 
the llo Hardware & Implement Company, of this place. 

The first store was erected in the spring of 1898, 
but was closed out the same fall. W. F. Stinson was 
the succeeding merchant, who, however, continued in 
business but six months, and in the spring of 1899 
(June), O. W. Leggett opened a general merchandise 
store. This was, at that period, the only business 
house in the place. During the succeeding fall or win- 
ter a blacksmith shop was started by James Breeding, 
and in the winter of 1900-1 there was opposition in 
the shape of another blacksmith, Andrew Anderson. 
In the spring of 1901 Charles Larson opened a wagon 

repair shop. The same spring a small hotel was built 
by W. D. Simmons, and during the succeeding sum- 
mer a general merchandise store was erected by O. 
VV. Leggett. The drug store of Mrs. Cynthia A. Tat- 
ko was built in the spring of 1902, and Dr. J. G. 
Lenz dispensed the drugs. He had^ begun practice in 
llo in the spring of 1901. A harness shop was opened 
by E. C. Kness in the spring of 1902, the Kamiah 
Trading Company having commenced business the 
previous fall. This enterprise was recently sold to 
the llo Hardware and implement Company. The 
Idaho Supply Company, comprising local capitalists, 
began business in the spring of 1902, and the Smith 
hotel building was erected the same period. The Bank 
of llo is a recent financial enterprise, of which J. J. 
Woods is cashier. 

During the winter of 1901-2 William Blair opened 
a livery barn, and recently another was started by 
Simmons & Nichols. Mrs. J. C. Pearsall conducts 
a millinery store ; A. Gardner a butcher shop, and 
there are two confectionery and "soft drink" stores. 
An ungraded school is conducted six months of the 
year with an attendance of fifty pupils. The Presby- 
terians and Christians have church organizations and 
buildings, erected during the summer of 1902, Revs. 
McLain and John McDonald pastors, respectively. 
The Modern Woodmen of America and the I. O. O. 
F. represent the fraternal societies of llo. 

At the terminus of the Lapwai spur of the North- 
ern Pacific railroad and snugly nestled against the 
base of Craig's mountain, lies Culdesac, a prosperous, 
thriving town of probably four hundred people. This 
terminal town is one of the newest and one of the most 
prosperous on the reservation. None has a brighter 
future and none can boast of a more rapid and at the 
same time substantial growth. Situated at the geo- 
graphical center of the county, in the very heart of the 
grain producing section, Culdesac is fortunate in being 
the shipping and receiving point for a scope of coun- 
try fifteen miles square and including a portion of Nez 
Perces prairie. It has been conservatively estimated 
that over one-half a million bushels of wheat, flax, 
barley and oats were shipped from this place .last 
year and during the shipping season in the fall it is 
not uncommon for 150 four-horse teams to unload at 
the warehouses in a single day. 

The town lies only about four hundred feet above 
the Clearwater valley and consequently possesses a 
warm climate tempered by cool breezes from the 
mountain and encircling hills. The valley at this point 
is not over half a mile wide and the town lies on a 
narrow flat and several slightly higher plateaus. The 
creek rushes angrily along the northern boundary of 
the place. At one time it undoubtedly occupied the 
whole canyon as the gravelly formation of the ground 
and the plentitude of rocks "testify. The citizens take 
the greatest pride in their abundant and pure water 
supply. The water is obtained from a large spring 
on Leonard Henry's ranch, half a mile up the creek, 


where it is stored in a reservoir holding 11,000 cubic 
feet. From here it is brought to the town through a 
four-inch main and conveyed to the different consum- 
ers by two-inch pipes. The water has a fall of nine- 
ty feet, enough to secure an excellent fire pressure. 
This water system, which has been recently com- 
pleted, is owned by Wilbur A. Cochran, T. W. Shref- 
fler and W. H. Shields. 

It is said that President Mellen personally be- 
stowed the name Cul-de-sac upon the settlement at 
the terminus of this branch line. He was driving 
along the proposed route with a companion at the time 
and when they reached the end of the practicable 
route, the president remarked "This is indeed a cul- 

When the railroad was built, in the summer of 
1899, John McKenzie was induced to relinquish his 
homestead right to a forty-acre tract which made an 
"L." of his farm and included the present townsite. 
Then J. G. and C. A. Wright purchased thirty acres 
of this tract with government script and subsequently 
W. S. Adron filed a timber and stone claim upon the 
remaining ten acres. Meanwhile, however, Sogart 
& Green, E. T. Brandon & Frank Edwards, McGraf 
Brothers (James, William and Thomas), T. W. Shref- 
fler, E. J. Northcutt and several others had settled on 
the ten-acre tract and decided to contest the Adron 
claim on the ground that the land was more valuable 
for townsite purposes. To that end a public meeting 
was held of which Mr. Northcutt was chosen chair- 
man, and a committee, consisting of James McGraf, 
Frank O'Mallory, Jesse Beans and Link Meadows, 
was appointed to take charge of the matter. Ninety- 
two location claims were sold at one dollar each to 
provide funds with which to carry on the contest and 
in September, 1899, the papers were filed. This con- 
test was carried up to the secretary of the interior, 
who, in 1902, decided in favor of the citizens, grant- 
ing their application for a townsite. A trust patent 
was issued to Probate Judge Stookey, who issued title 
to the land to those possessing squatter's rights. This 
tract now constitutes the main portion of the town. 

The thirty-acre tract was platted in the fall of 1899, 
but, owing to the fact that it was individual property, 
was not occupied as rapidly as the government town- 
site. The first house was built on it by Albert Wat- 
kins, a Northern Pacific employee, in December, 1899. 
Mr. Watkins was followed the next year by a man 
named Martin who erected a lodging house, by S. E. 
Bemis, who built a hall, and by C. B. Wright, who op- 
ened a store. King & Wright erected a store and ho- 
tel, the Triangle House, and warehouses were con- 
structed along the railroad track. Both towns grew 
rapidly and prospered. 

The owners of this townsite originally christened 
the place Mellen. The citizens of both towns early 
applied for a postoffice and suggested to the depart- 
ment the name given the station by the railroad com- 
pany, viz : Cul-de-sac, spelling it as a compound word. 
The postoffice was granted but the depart 

stowed the name 

he name suggested and instead be- 
Magnolia. Thus matters stood until 

last July (1902) when a citizens' petition that the 
postoffice be named Culdesac, writing it as one word, 
was granted. 

The two towns were consolidated in January, 1903, 
when the board of county commissioners gave them 
the boon of corporate existence. C. B. Uptograf, 
Thomas Culnan, W. A. Cochran, F. M. Remington 
and Albert Sogard were named trustees and will soon 
organize and elect officers. 

The citizens have from the first taken an active in- 
terest in their educational matters and three years ago, 
they built a handsome school house in the town, cost- 
ing $1,000, to take the place of the old district school. 
A portion of this amount was raised by private sub- 
scriptions. In these quarters and an additional rented 
room, 150 pupils properly graded, are cared for by 
Professor Case, Miss Lillian Schoot and Mrs. Charles 
J. Miller. 

A fine church is also being erected by the Chris- 
tian society, under the pastorate of Rev. L. F. Steph- 
ens. The Presbyterians have a society and have re- 
cently secured a pastor, Rev. John Wooliver. 

Among the most important enterprises in Culdesac 
is a new flouring mill now being built by Alt & Cross- 
man. The mill will have a capacity of 50 barrels a 
day. Power is furnished by a ditch taken out of Lap- 
wai creek at a distance above town. To secure this 
mill Culdesac subscribed a bonus of $1,300, E. J. 
Northcutt alone raising three-fourths of the amount. 

Culdesac also possesses a local telephone system, 
owned by Keller & Bell, and is connected with the out- 
side world by the Pacific States and Lookout systems. 
The Register, a weekly newspaper established in 1899 
by W. L. Stephens, is another important factor in the 
town's welfare and under the ownership of John J. 
Schick is a neatly printed journal well filled with 
local news. 

Culdesac's other business houses may be grouped 
as follows: General stores, F. M. Remington, Ed- 
ward P. Brandon, Albert Sogard, J. G. Wright & 
Company, Thomas Purhum; hardware, Wilbur A. 
Cochran, Farr, Lewis & Fair ; groceries, Chris Norbo ; 
furniture, George Henderson, Frank Zenzengher ; 
drugs, W. D. Keller; hotels, Walla Walla, T. W. 
Shrerfler, proprietor ; Commercial, Henry Zyrbell, 
proprietor, Clear, J. H. Clear, proprietor ; 'livery sta- 
bles, Walla Walla, T. W. ShrefHer, proprietor, Star, 
Clyde Chapman, proprietor, Midway, Frank Gasa- 
way, proprietor, West End, John Whalen, proprietor; 
meat markets, Joseph Ziver (J. H. McDevitt, man- 
ager). McGrath Brothers; banks, Vollmer-Clearwater 
Company, Bank of Culdesac ; feed mill, J . G. Wright ; 
blacksmith shops, W. J. Departee, J. S. Mack, Charles 
Benson; jewelry, R. J. Watkins; confectionery and 
notions, Thomas Culnan, Brown & Stuart; Dr. E. 
L. Burke is the town's physician, Dr. B. L. Cole is its 
dentist, while G. K. Tiffany and John Green look after 
the legal business of its inhabitants. 

Real estate in Culdesac commands a high price at 
present and values are steadily increasing, a sure sign 
of prosperity. The business men contemplate improv- 
ing the streets, the installation of a system of fire pro- 


tection, police protection and many other improve- 
ments rendered necessary by the growing importance 
of the town. Although not yet four years old, Cul- 
<iesac has attained to the position of the third town in 
size and importance in the county and its inhabitants 
firmly believe that it will eventually gain a still higher 

Unfortunately, it was not the writer's privilege 
to visit the prosperous town of Feck, and as the letter 
requesting information regarding it remains unan- 
swered, it is not possible to go into the details of its 
history and present business houses. It is known, 
however, to be a substantial little city, with a splen- 
did farming country contiguous to it. The town lies 
nearly two miles south of its railway station, Con- 
tract. Writing of it in 1899 the Lewiston Teller said : 

"Peck is more than its name implies. Its light 
cannot be hidden under a bushel, for more bushels of 
-wheat, flax and barley will be marketed there than 
at any other two points combined on the Clearwater 
Short* Line. John Herres operates the ferry. 

"Peck, being removed from the railroad, escaped 
the boom and is consequently sound to the core. It is 
not overdone. There is not a' shanty nor tent in the 
place. The buildings are large and substantial. Peck 
is a cozy, cheerful hamlet, and differs from some towns 
as a genuine home differs from a hotel. A nucleus of 
cultured society is here. The early inhabitants give 
character to the village. The Methodists, United 
Brethren and Dunkards have church organizations. 
A new schoolhouse will be erected this fall. The trade 
territory of Peck extends to Lawyer's canyon on the 
south. There is but one small area of waste land 
in this section, as the Big and Little canyons are so 
shaped as to be in the main tillable. 

"The Peck Industrial Fair was held September 
28th, 29th, and 3Oth. Its success was such that ar- 
rangements are already being made for repeating it 
next year. 1. S. Sperry acted as president and Thomas 
Kirby as secretary." 

These annual fairs give an excellent idea of the 
wealth of the country tributary to Peck. In October 
of last year one was held, attended by nearly ten thous- 
and people. It was a display of fruits, vegetables, 
- grasses and grains. It is stated that Mr. Dean, of 
Mohler, exhibited oats that were a part of a yield of 
101 bushels, 8 pounds to the acre, and another yield 
of 103 bushels an acre was represented. 


i 1895, the 

With the opening of the resen 

present town of Spalding came into existence. At 
that time a company was formed, known as the Spald- 
ing Townsite Company, which proceeded to lay out a 
town and name it Spalding. A great rush of business 
men followed and within a very short time Spalding 
was enjoying all of the life and feverish activity of a 
boom. A score of frame business houses were erected, 

another score of canvas structures, and many resi- 
dences and the town grew and throve wonderfully. 
However, in 1899 the Northern Pacific, which had 
built a line down the Clearwater to Lewiston the year 
previous, decided to build a spur up Lapwai creek to 
the foot of Craig's mountain, and the construction of 
this line proved a death blow to Spalding. This spur 
leaves the main line at the creek and follows closely 
up this little mountain stream for twelve miles. Pre- 
vious to this Spalding had been the shipping point for 
the whole interior country, but now this immense 
business was transferred to points farther inland. At 
present only a few stores, two hotels, a butcher shop, 
blacksmith shop and several residences constitute the 
white settlement of the town and the Indians furnish 
most of the business support. The railroad station 
is at North Lapwai, about a mile west of Spalding on 
land condemned by the government for station and 
yard purposes. It is interesting to note that most of 
the townsite of Spalding is on Indian land and leased 
from individuals. 

About the center of a valley formed by the widen- 
ing of the Lapwai basin is situated the few buildings 
forming the town of Lapwai, while at the extreme 
southwestern end at the base of the hills is the site of 
old Fort Lapwai, where are located the present Indian 
agency and school. Lapwai creek flows through the 
eastern border of the valley. Along the railroad are 
the grain warehouses of the Vollmer-Clearwater Com- 
pany and > the Kettenbach Grain Company, while the 
general stores of Thomas Martin and Coffin Brothers, 
Prine & Lucas's blacksmith shop and a hotel compose 
the business section of the trading center. Lapwai, 
being the home of the agency and school, draws an 
extensive Indian trade which is the main support of the 
town, although a rich, wheat-growing section sur- 
rounds this valley. The townsite is owned by the In- 
dians. The Presbyterian mission is located here and 
is under the supervision of Miss Kate Macbeth. 

This pretty little town lies in the beautiful Kamiah 
basin on the south fork of the Clearwater river, at the 
mouth of Kamiah creek. It is on Indian land at pres- 
ent, though steps are being taken by the citizens to- 
ward the purchase of enough of this land to form a 
townsite. Kamiah is the trading and shipping center 
of a considerable section of country and a large business 
is transacted in consequence. A stage line connects it 
with Nezperce City and nearly all of the grain raised 
in the country tributary to Kamaih creek, or Lawyer's 
canyon, is shipped out over the Clearwater Short Line 
from the Kamiah warehouses. There are probably 
150 people residing in the town and they have every 
reason to be hopeful of the future of their home. In- 
ception was given to the place by the building of the 
railroad through the valley in 1899. 



Besides the towns described in the foregoing pages 
there are several of considerable importance, though 
smali. The other towns and points at which post 
offices were established prior to January, 1903, are: 
Cameron, population in 1900, 68; Cavendish, Chesley, 
population 30; Dublin, Fairburn, F 

35; Gifford, Kippen, Leland, population 150; Lookout, 
Melrose, population 52 ; Myrtle, population 43 ; Por- 
ters, Rosetta, population, 20; Russel, population 50; 
Slickpoo, population 20 ; Southwick, population 50 ; 
Steeie, population 20 ; Summit, Tekean, population 25 ; 
Waha. population 24; Webb, Willola, population 78; 
Winchester, population 50. 



No history of Nez Perces county can lay claim to 
completeness which overlooks the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of the soil. A history of these people is an im- 
possibility, for they have preserved no written records 
of their past, and. being possessed of little architect- 
ural skill, have erected no monuments of a permanent 
nature to their memories. Traditions they have, to 
be sure, and a mythology of their own, but their char- 
acter is such that only the few who have lived in inti- 
mate association with them have been instructed in 
their peculiar beliefs relative to their origin, past his- 
tory and relations to the future life. For one who has 
lived apart from the- Indians to attempt to treat of 
their traditions, mythology and original religious 
views would be presumptuous indeed. We are in- 
formed that a work of a historical character concern- 
ing them by an educated member of their own tribe 
is now in course of preparation. It is to be hoped 
that the project will not miscarry and that the work 
will be found to contain a comprehensive and exact 
treatment of the interesting subject with which it 
purposes to deal. 

Prior to the advent of the horse among the Nez 
Perces, they must have had a miserable existence. 
Their only foods must have been the roots and vege- 
tables indigenous to their native heath, such deer, 
elk and smaller game as they were able to take with 
their primitive weapons, and such species of fish as 
made their way into the seething waters of their swift- 
flowing rivers and mountain streams. But even at this 
time they must have been a vastly superior race to the 
Indians west of the Cascade mountains, who were dron- 
ing away their listless lives in "a region of large, deep 
rivers; of numerous bays and inlets from the ocean 
extending far inland, all filled with fish of the finest and 
richest quality, easily taken, and hence inviting to a 
life of effortless indolence . and ease. Hence these 
aborigines were short of stature, heavy and broad and 
fat of body ; without alertness or perception of mind ; ' 
indolent and inactive in all their habits ; sleeping away 
nearly all but the little time that was requisite for them 

to throw their barbed harpoons into the shinning sides 
the salmon that swam in the shoals of the rivers and 
bays, and the few additional moments required to roast 
or boil the fish sufficient to gratify their uncultur 

Even during the earliest times, the Nez Perces 
profited by the rigors of their elevated home, for though 
their food must have been scanty and insufficient, the 
battle for existence developed in" them a sturdiness of 
manhood such as was unknown among the coast tribes. 
Their experience proved that a people can bear insuffi- 
cient nourishment with activity far better than abund- 
ance with idleness. 

The Nez Perces lived in a country covered with a 
abundant growth of nutritious grasses, making it _ 
paradise for a pastoral people. They were therefore 
in a splendid condition to raise large bands of horses 
and the advent among them of these animals marked 
the most important epoch in their history. About the 
middle of the eighteenth century, horses were obtained 
from the Spaniards of New 'Mexico or California. 
The Indians preserve the tradition of their first ac- 
quisition of this form of live stock, and well they may 
for they were thereby furnished means whereby to ad- 
vance by long strides toward greater comforts of life 
and the blessings of civilization. "There is no more 
instructing example of the amelioration of a savage 
tribe by the introduction of domestic animals and its 
steady growth from abject barbarism," says Hazard 
Stevens, "than that afforded by the Nez Perces. But 
little more than a century ago they were a tribe of 
naked savages, engaged in a perpetual struggle against 
starvation. Their country afforded but little game, 
and thev subsisted almost exclusively on salmon, ber- 
nes and roots. The introduction of the horse enabled 
them to make long journeys to the buffalo plains east 
of the Rocky mountains, where they could lay in great 
abundance of meat and furs ; furnished them with a 
valuable animal for trading with other less favored 
tribes : soon raised them to comparative affluence, and 
developed in their hunting and trading expeditions a 



manly enterprising, shrewd and intelligent character." 
The first white men to visit their country from the 
east overland were the famous Meriwether Lewis and 
William Clark, whose expedition into the country in 
1805 is to be celebrated by a grand exposition in Port- 
land on its centennial. Of the experiences of this 
party among the Nez Perces the gifted Eva Emery 
Dye has written in the following animated language : 

__ , ; metal that the saw 

not, the gold of Ophir concealed in the rocky chambers of 
the Idaho Alps, struggled into the Lolo trail used by the In- 
dians for ages before any whites ever came into the country. 
Over the Lolo trail went the Nez Perces to battle and to 
hunt buffalo in the Montana country. Down over this trail 


and C 

So-yap-po, "the c 
e hats 

wned o 

i, beca 


- Wat-ku-ese dreamed of her Nez Perce home, 
and one day escaped with her infant on her back. Along 
the way white traders were kind to her. On and on, foot- 
sore and weary, she journeyed alone. In the Flathead coun- 
try her baby died and was buried there. One day some Nez 
Perce came over the Lolo trail bringing home Wat-ku-ese, 

She was with her people at their camas ground, Weippe, 
when Lewis and Clark came down over the Lolo trail. 

"Let us kill them," whispered the frightened Nez Perces. 

Wat-ku-ese lay dying in her tent when she heard it. 
"White men, did you say? * No, no, do not harm them. 
They are the crowned ones who were so good to me. Do 
not be afraid oi them. Go near to them." 

Cautiously the Nez Perces approached. The explorers 
shook their hands. This was to the Indians a new form of 

Everywhere Indian women were digging the camas root, 
round like an onion, and little heaps lay piled here and there. 
They paused in their work to watch the strangers. Some 

ers in the brush. Others brought food. 

So starved and famished were the men that they ate 
inordinately of the sweet camas and the kouse, the biscuit 
root. The sudden change to a warmer climate and laxative 
roots resulted in sickness, when the expedition might have 
been easily attacked but for those words of Wat-ku-ese, who 
now lay dead in her tent. 

To this day the Nez Perces rehearse the story of Wat- 
ku-ese. It was the beginning of a life long friendship with 
the whites, broken only when Chief Joseph fled over the 
Lolo trail. But even Chief Joseph found he must give up 
the vast areas over which he was wont to roam, and come 
under the iaws of L-ivilized life. 

As fast as their weakness permitted councils were held, 
when the Captains told the Nez Perces of the Great Father 
at Washington, who had sent them to visit his children. 

' 1 Hair, the Nez Perce Tewat, a great medicine 

and v 

ne, dre 

>ut their 

elkskin a chart of the rivers. 

hands over their mouths in an-. 

No one but Twisted Hair could do such things. He was 

"White men," said he, "live at the Tim-tim (falls)." 
Thus into Idaho had penetrated the story of Ko-nap-pe, 
the wrecked Spaniard, who with his son Soto had set out up 
the great river to find white people and tarried there until he 
died. Seven years later Astor's people met Soto, an old 
man dark as his Indian m6ther, but still the Indians called 
him white. Twenty years later Soto's daughter was still 
living on the Columbia in the days of the Hudson's Bay 

Leaving their horses with th 
the explorers were glad to t 
baggage and float down the < 
low green Snake, and on into the blue 

At the confluence of the rivers me. 
councils held on the present site of Lewisi 
through wild, romantic scenes where whii 

'^horseback^ 6 galloped 10 We- ark- 

s, on October 4 th 
r boats with their 

oske, into the yel- 

s Columbia. 

Day by day, 

Ahead 'of the 

At the din 


The tribes 
i6th, five India 

t night Lewis and Clark were met at the Columbi 
rocession of two hundred Indians with drums sin 
e-hai, ke-hai," the redmen's signal of friendship. 

Speaking of their experiences among the Nez 
Perces, the explorers themselves used this language: 

As we approached the village most of the women, though 
apprised of our being expected, fled with their children into 
the neighboring woods. The men, however, received us 
without any apprehension, and gave us a plentiful supply of 
provisions. The plains were now crowded with Indians who 
came to see the persons of the whites and the strange things 
they brought ^ with them; but as our guide was a perfect 
stranger to the language we could converse by signs only. 

Monday, 2 3 d (September, 1805). The chiefs and war- 
riors were all assembled this morning and we explained to 
them where we came from, the objects of our visiting them, 
and our pacific intentions toward all the Indians. This, be- 

prehended, but " appeared to give perfect satisfaction. We 
now gave a medal to two of the chiefs, a shirt in addition 
to the medal already received by Twisted Hair, and deliv- 
ered a flag and a handkerchief for the grand chief on his re- 
turn. To these were added a knife, a handkerchief, and 
a small piece of tobacco for each chief. The inhabitants 
did not give us any provisions gratuitously. * * * The 
men exchanged a few old canisters for dressed elk skins, of 
which they made shirts. Great crowds of natives were 
around us all night, but we have not yet missed anything 
except a knife and a few other articles stolen yesterday 
from a shot pouch. 

It is worthy of record that the horses entrusted to 
the care of Twisted Hair were kept faithfully and 
honestly returned to Lewis and Clark when they came 
back to the Nez Perce country on their homeward 

The next intercourse between whites and Nez 
Perces began with the advent of fur traders into the 
Northwest First came Astor's party, then the North 
West Company and finally the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, besides several American expeditions sent out 
to compete with the British corporations for the profits 
of the fur trade. In all their relations with the white 
men, the Nez Perces of early days maintained a uni- 
form altitude of friendliness, and the fur trader who 
stopped to rest and refresh himself at a Nez Perce 
lodge was sure to receive kindly and hospitable treat- 
ment. Undoubtedly the Indians profited by the pres- 
ence among them of the merchants, from whom they 
obtained, besides an abundance of trinkets and tinsels, 
much that added greatly to their comfort. It was by 
the British fur traders that they were taught the use of 
blankets both as wearing apparel and bedding. But 
the Hudson's Bay men were in the country for other 
purposes than the amelioration of conditions among 

Indians. It were unfair to assert that they were 


entirely without benevolent disposition "toward their 
red-skinned brethren, for they enforced the law pro- 
hibiting the sale of intoxicants to Indians and were 
reasonably careful that nothing should be done to de- 
bauch these children of nature, but it is an undoubted 
fact that they not only neglected to sow the seeds of 
a higher civilization themselves, but were opposed to 
any others who might attempt to teach the Indian 
useful arts or do anything to render him less absolutely 
dependent upon the Hudson's Bay Company, the great 
autocratic power of the Columbia basin. 

A civilizing force of a vastly higher character en- 
tered the Indian country, when the American mission- 
ary came, actuated by no other motive than the good 
of the red men, hoping for no other reward than a noble 
work well performed, an approving conscience and a 
final abundant entrance into a heavenly home. The 
honor of pioneership in missionary work belongs to 
Rev. Jason Lee, of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
who came with a party of assistants and teachers and 
settled in the Willamette valley in 1834. Two years 
later came Dr. Marcus Whitman and wife and Rev. 
H. H. Spalding and wife, the ladies being the first of 
their race and sex to venture across plain and mountain 
to the distant Pacific. Dr. Whitman established his 
mission at Waiilatpu, not far from where Walla Walla 
now is, while Spalding cast his lot with the Nez Perces. 
This devoted missionary was a native of Bath, New 
York, born in 1804. He graduated at Western Re- 
serve College at the age of twenty-nine and later en- 
tered Lane Theological Seminary, the course in which 
he did not remain to complete. In 1836 he began his 
missionary labors among the Nez Perces and to his 
unremitting toil, and that of his efficient helpmate, for 
the temporal, intellectual and spiritual welfare of these 
Indians much credit is due for their marked superior- 
ity over surrounding tribes. Perhaps descriptions of 
these two people by W. H. Gray of the Whitman mis- 
sion, who was associated with them in their trip across 
the plains, may not be uninteresting to the reader. 

"The first impression of a stranger on seeing H. 
H. Spalding," says Gray, "is that he has before him 

finds a man with sharp features, large, brown eyes, 
dark hair, high, projecting forehead, with many 
wrinkles, and a head nearly bald. He is of medium 
size, stoop-shouldered, with a voice that can assume a 
mild, sharp or boisterous key at the will of the owner ; 

supposed enemy ; inclined in the early part of his mis- 
sionary labors to accumulate property for the especial 
benefit of his family, though the practice was disap- 
proved of and forbidden by the regulations of the 
American Board. In his professional character he 
was below mediocrity. As a writer or correspondent 
he was bold, and rather eloquent, giving overdrawn 
life sketches of passing events. His moral influence 
was injured by strong symptoms of passion when pro- 
voked or excited. In his labors for the Indians he was 
zealous and persevering, and in his instructions wholly 
practical. For instance to induce the natives to work 
and cultivate their lands, he had Mrs. Spalding paint 

a representation of Adam and Eve, as being driven 
from the Garden of Eden by an angel, Adam with 
a hoe on his shoulder and Eve with a spinning wheel. 
He taught the natives that God commanded them to 
work as well as pray. Had he been allowed to con- 
tinue his labors with the tribe, undisturbed by sec- 
tarian and anti-religious influences, he would have 
effected great good, and the tribe been now admitted 
as citizens of the United States. As a citizen and a 
neighbor he was kind and obliging ; to his family he 
was kind, yet severe in his religious observances. He 
was unquestionably a sincere, though not always hum- 
ble Christian. The loss of his wife and the excit- 
ing and savage massacre of his asociates produced 
their effects upon him. Charity will find a substan- 
tial excuse for most of his faults, while virtue and 
truth, civilization and religion will award him a place 
as a faithful, zealous and comparatively successful 

"Mrs. Spalding was the daughter of a plain, sub- 
stantial farmer, by the name of Hart, of Oneida coun- 
ty, New York. She was above the medium height, 
slender in form, with coarse features, dark brown hair, 
blue eyes, rather dark complexion, coarse voice, of a 

guages. In fact she was remarkable in acquiring the 
Nez Perce language so as to understand and con- 
verse with the natives quite easily by the time they 
reached their station at Lapwai. She could paint in- 
differently in water colors, and had been taught while 
a child ail the useful branches of domestic life ; could 
spin, weave, and sew, etc., could prepare an excellent 
meal at short notice; was generally sociable, but not 
forward in conversation with or attentions to men. In 
this particular she was the opposite of Mrs. Whit- 
man. With the native women Mrs. Spalding always 
appeared cheerful and easy and had their unbounded 
confidence and respect. She was remarkable for her 
firmness and decision of character in whatever she or 
her husband undertook. She never appeared to be 
alarmed or excited at any difficulty, dispute or alarm 
common to the Indian life around her. She was con- 
sidered by the Indian men as a brave, fearless woman 
and was respected and esteemed by all. Though she 
was frequently left for days alone, her husband be-' 
ing absent on business, but a single insult was ever 
offered her. Understanding their language, her cool, 
quick perception of the design enabled her to give so 
complete and thorough a rebuff to the attempted in- 
sult that, to hide his disgrace, the Indian offering it 
fled from the tribe, not venturing to remain among 
them. In fact a majority of the tribe were in favor 
of hanging the Indian who offered the insult, but Mrs. 
Spalding requested that they should allow him to 
live, that he might repent of his evil designs and do 
better in the future. Mrs. Spalding is buried near 
the Callapooya, in the Willamette valley." 

Of the reception given by the Nez Perces to 
Mr. and Mrs. Spalding when they first came among 
them, Mr. Gray says: 

"It is due to those Indians to say that they labored 
freely and faithfully and showed the best of feeling 


toward Mr. and Mrs. Spalding, paying good attention 
to instructions given them, and appeared quite anxious 
to learn all they could of their teachers. It is also 
due to truth to state that Mr. Spalding paid them 
liberally for their services when compared with the 
amount paid them by the Hudson's Bay Company for 
the same services; say, for bringing a pine log ten 
feet long and one foot in diameter from the Clearwater 
river to the station, it usually took about twelve In- 
dians ; for this service Mr. Spalding paid them about 
six inches of trail-rope tobacco each. This was about 
four times as much as the Hudson's Bay Company 
paid. This fact soon created a feeling of unfriendli- 
ness toward Mr. Spalding. Dr. Whitman managed 
to get along with less Indian labor and was able, from 
his location, to procure stragglers or casual men to 
work for him for a time, to get supplies and clothing 
to help them on their way down to the Willamet set- 

A full review of Mr. Spalding's labors, his suc- 
cesses, his trials and discouragements need not be at- 
tempted here. He was not long to work among the 
red men in peace for in accordance with the sec- 
tarian views of those days, the Catholic missionaries 
considered it their duty to counteract as far as lay in 
their power the heretical teachings of the Protestants. 
The task of instructing the Indians in the arts of 
civilization and the mysteries of Christianity was cer- 
tainly difficult enough at best; with the opposition of 
other white men endeavoring to inculcate a belief 
that the teachings of the first missionaries were wholly 
false and certainly leading to ultimate damnation, it 
was practically impossible to perform. There can be 
no doubt but that the sectarian disputes between 
Protestants and Catholics nulified the influence of 
both, but especially the former, reduced greatly the 
respect of Indians for their teachers and for all re- 
ligion, and helped sow the seeds which bore fruit in 
the Whitman massacre, and the consequent abandon- 
ment for a number of years of Mr. Spalding's mis- 

But notwithstanding these overwhelming difficul- 
ties, Mr. Spalding and his noble wife accomplished 
much for the benefit of the Indians among whom they 
labored during the early years of their ministry. When 
Dr. Elijah White, sub-agent of Indian affairs, visited 
them, he found their little plantations "rude to be 
sure," as he wrote under date, April I, 1843, "but 
successfully carried on so far as raising the neces- 
saries of life are concerned." "It was most grati- 
fying," said he, "to witness their fondness and care 
for their little herds, pigs, poultry, etc. We visited 
and prescribed for their sick, made a short call at 
each of the chief's lodges, spent a season in school, 
hearing them read, spell and sing; at the same time 
examined their printing and writing, and can hardly 
avoid here saying I was happily surprised and greatly 
interested at seeing such numbers so far advanced 
and so eagerly pursuing after knowledge. * * *." 

During this visit Dr. White succeeded in per- 
suading the Indians, in general council assembled, to 

adopt, during the final month of the year 1842, the 
following laws for their government: 


Article I. Whoever wilfully takes life shall be 

Article II. Whoever burns a dwelling house shall 
be hung. 

Article HI. Whoever burns an outbuilding shall 
be imprisoned six months, receive fifty lashes and pay 
all damages. 

Article IV. Whoever carelessly burns a house, or 
any property, shall pay damages. 

Article V. If anyone enter a dwelling without 
permission of the occupant the chiefs shall punish as 
they think proper. Public rooms are excepted. 

Article VI. If anyone steal he shall pay back two- 
fold; and if it be the value of a beaver skin or less, 
he shall receive twenty-five lashes ; and if the value 
is over a beaver skin, he shall pay back two fold, and 
receive fifty lashes. 

Article VII. If anyone take a horse and ride it 
without permission, or take any article and use it 
without liberty, he shall pay for the use of it, and re- 
ceive from twenty to fifty lashes, as the chief shall 

Article VIII. If anyone enter a field and injure 
the crops, or throw down the fence, so that cattle or 
horses go in and do damage, he shall pay all damages 
and receive twenty-five lashes for every offense. 

Article IX. Those only may keep dogs who travel 
or live among the game ; if a dog kill a lamb, calf or 
any domestic animal, the owner shall pay the damages 
and kill the dog. 

Article X. If any Indian raises a gun or any 
other weapon against a white man, it shall be re- 
ported to the chiefs, and they shall punish him. If a 
white do the same to an Indian, it shall be reported 
to Dr. White, and he shall punish or redress it. 

Article XL If an Indian break these laws, he 
shall be punished by his chief; if a white man break 
them, he shall be reported to the agent, and punished 
at his instance. 

These laws, as also certain books of the New Testa- 
ment translated into Nez Perce by Mr. Spalding, were 
printed on a press donated to the mission by the 
mission of the American Board in the Sandwich Is- 
lands. It was the first press in the Oregon territory 
and in the hands of the missionaries proved a potent 
factor in the elevation of the Indian. 

But an idea of the work of Mr. Spalding during 
the earliest years of his labors among the Nez Perces, 
and his impressions of the Indians is best conveyed 
by incorporating a portion of a letter on the subject 
written to Dr. Elijah White about the year 1843. & 
reads : 

My Dear Brother. The kind letter which our mission 
had the honor of receiving from yourself, making inquiries 
relative to its numbers, the character of the Indian tribes. 


important, and to answer them demands a more extended 
knowledge of character and habits, from personal daily ob- 

brow, there were the wandering' children of a necessarily 

rLV r o7 g tlfe e0 s P cnool. CO Over^this "d'epa^tn^nrof ^abor 'hung 
the darkest cloud, as the Indian is noted for despising manual 

regret this, as the latter will receive the attention of my 

men. The hoe soon brought hope, light and satisfaction, the 

have- not extended far beyond the people of my immediate 

stitute for their former precarious game and roots, and are 
much preferred by the people, who are coming in from the 
mountains and plains, and calling for hoes, plows and seeds 

Board, and was commanded in the fall of 1836 by Marcus 


from the Pacific and about two hundred from Fort Van- 

to give the first lessons in agriculture. That the men of the 

In the fall of 1838 Mr. Gray returned to this country, ac- 
companied by Mrs. Grav. Messrs. Walker, Eells and Smith, 
and their wives, and Mr. Rogers. The next season two 
new stations were commenced, one by Messrs. Walker and 
Eells, at Cimakain, near Spokan river, among the Spokan 

The men say. whereas, then once did not labor with their 
hands, now they do ; and often tell me in jesting that I have 
converted them into a nation of women. They are a very 
industrious people, and, from very small beginnings, they now 
cultivate their lands with much skill, and to good advantage. 
Doubtless many more wo'tld cultivate, but for the want of 

the second by Mr. Smith, among the Nez Perces, sixty miles 
above this station. There are now connected with this 
mission the Rev Messrs. Walker and Eells, Mrs. Walker and 
Mrs. Eells, at Cimakain : myself and Mrs. Spalding at this 

send up the plows you kindly proposed they will, without 
doubt, be purchased immediately and put to the best use. 
But to return to the school! It now numbers two hun- 
dred and twenty- five in daily attendance, half of which are 


of the school. A new impulse was given to the school by 

Concerning the schools and congregations on the Sab- 
bath, I will speak only of this station. The congregation 
on the Sabbath varies at different seasons of the year, and 

the on their farms. Their improvement is astonishing, con- 
sidering their crowded condition, and only Mrs. Spalding, 
with her delicate constitution and her family cares, for their 

tionTVitif much^parent ^iSSTt? cuWvafing^he^so"!, 

'to 5 memo as'loon^s possTole.^ Prmt m " St ^ C mm ' tted 

abundant and agreeable source of subsistence in the hoe than 
in their bows and sticks for digging roots. 
For a few weeks in the fall, after the people return from 
their buffalo hunt, and then again in the spring, the con- 

the winter it numbers from two to eight hundred. From 
July ist to the ist of October, it varies from two to five 
hundred. The congregation, as also the school, increases 

books are taken home at night : and every lodge becomes a 
Their lessons are scripture lessons; no others (except 
the laws) seem to interest them. I send you a specimen of 
the books they print in school. It was printed by ten select ' 
adults, yet it is a fair specimen of a great number in the 

cinity is increased. 

earliest attention, on arriving in this country, was turned 
toward schools, as promising the most permanent good to 

the preached Gospel. But to speak of schools then was like 

were unanimously adopted by the people, I have printed in 
the form of a small schoolbooic. A great number of the school 
now read them fluently. I send you a few copies of the 
laws with no apologies for the imperfect manner in which 
they are executed. Without doubt, a school of nearly the 
same number could be collected at Kimiah, the station above 

in the first ax by which the timber is to be felled, or the first 
stone laid in the dam which is to collect the water from 

principal chief. 
Number who cultivate. Last season about one hundred 

forth its sounds. Suffice it to say, through the blessings of 
God we have had an increasingly large school, for two 

five acres each. About half this number cultivate in the 
valley. One chief raised one hundred and seventy-six bushels 

But. the steps by which we have been brought to the 
present elevation, if I may so speak, though we are yet ex- 
ceedinglv low. begin far, far back among the days of nothing, 
and little to do with. 

of potatoes. Another, one hundred and fifty acres of peas, 
one hundred and sixty of corn, a large quantity of potatoes, 
vegetables, etc. Ellis. I believe, raised more than either of 
the above-mentioned. Some forty other individuals raised 
from twentv to one hundred bushels of grain. Eight indi- 



i head 

:ssed by thirteen individuals ; ten sheep by 
four; some forty hogs. 

Arts and sciences. Mrs. Spalding has .instructed ten fe- 

the schools in sewing, six in carding and spinning, and three 
in weaving. Should our worthy brother and sister, Mr. and 
Mrs. Littlejohn, join us soon, as is now expected, I trust, 
by the blessing of God, we shall see greater things than we 
have yet seen. From what I have seen in the field, the school, 
the spinning and weaving room, in the prayer-room, and 
Sabbath congregation, I am fully of the opinion that this 
people are susceptible of high moral and civil improvement. 
Moral character of the people. On this subject there is 

i natio 

tain day, 

reminded him that the Sabbath extended ; 
Rocky Mountains, he might well consider them such. An- 
other stvles them supremely selfish, which is nearer the 


of grat 

ur bodies. I can not reconcile this 

unprofitable lives, through a kind Providence,' be spared a 
few years, by the blessings of the God of missions, we expect 
to see this people christianized to a great extent, civilized, 
and happy, with much of science and the word of God, and 
many of the comforts of life ; but not without many days 
of hard labor, and sore trials, of disappointed hopes, and 
nameless perplexities. 

The number of this people is variously estimated from 

s of land under i 

ent, twenty-four head 

of cattle, thirty-six horses, sixty-seven sheep. Rev. Messrs. 
Walker and Eells. I hope, will report to Wailatpu; but 
should they fail, I will say, as near as I can recollect, about 

What I have above si 
side of their charactei 
which I have sometit 

this people. Belonging to the station are thirty-four head 
Df cattle, eleven horses, some forty hogs ; one dwelling house 

srty i 

Arable land The arable land i 


great ones, yet few of them seemed disposed to break the 
Sabbath by 'traveling and other secular business. A very 
few indulge in something like profane swearing. Very few 
are siiperstitiously attached to their medicine men, who are, 
without doubt, sorce 

supernatural jehig Walking, ^vho^shows himself some- 
times in the gray bear, the wolf, the swan, goose, wind, 
clouds, etc. 

Lying is very common ; thieving comparatively rare ; 
polygamy formerly common, but now rare : much gambling 
among the young men; quarreling and fighting quite rare; 
habit of taking back property after it is sold is a practice 
quite common, and very evil in its tendency. All these 
evils, I conceive, can be traced to the want of wholesome 
laws and well-regulated society. There are two traits in 
the character of this people I wish to notice. One I think 
; the other I cannot. It is often said the 

further observation may prove that many of the extensive 
rolling praries are capable of producing wheat. They can 
become inhabited only by cultivating timber; but the rich 
growth of buffalo grass upon them will ever furnish an inex- 
haustible supply for innumerable herds of cattle and sheep. I 
know of no country in the world so well adopted to the 
herding system. Cattle, sheep and horses are invariably 
healthy, and produce rapidly ; sheep usually twice a year. 
The herding system adopted, the country at first put under 
regulations Adopted _ to the scarcity of habitable places (say 
'enty a 

af land c 


the United St; 
to regard the 


I i 


nub! \ 

n happy to feel assured that 
has no other thoughts than 
of the Indian tribes in this 

So far as my experience has gone with this people, the above 

the idea there conveyed. It is true they never forget a kind- 
ness, but after make it the occasion to ask another; and if 

experience 6 haT taught" meThat'Tf ^would^eep thTfriendship 
favor in the way of property than what he returns some 

remains in the hands of the present agent, I have the fullest 
confidence to believe that the reasonable expectations in 

be fully realized by every philanthropist and every Christian, 
abundantly supplied, there will be remaining country suf- 
:hought of removing these tribes that the country 


tlu- i 

from this source. J am, however, happy to feel that there is 
a manifest improvement as the people become more in- 
structed, and we become more acquainted with their habits. 
This offensive trait in the Indian character I believe in 
part should be charged to white men. It has been the uni- 

other article, to Indians when they ask for it.' Hence two 
very natural ideas ; one is, that the white man is in debt to 

good man he will ilix-hanir this debt by giving bountifully 
of his provisions and goods. This trait in Indian character 
is capable of being turned to the disadvantage of traders, 

lind of a friend of the red men, 

Dimtless millions of salm 
its tributaries, and furnish a 
sustenance of the tribes who 

Rocky ' 

atmg t 

wn lar 

r Indian Affai 


_ _ :>nd, the 

n the Columbia and 
t proportion of the 

Rocky Mts 

ness to receive instruction in school on the Sabbath and on 
the farm is without a parallel in my knowledge, still, should 
a reckless fellow from their own number, or even a stranger, 

to suppose but a vast majority of them would look on with 

While Mr Spalding wisely determined not to re- 
main at his mission after the Whitman massacre of 
1847, his influence continued to exert its power over 
the minds of the red men throughout all the stirring 
period which followed. During the Cayuse war not 


a Nez Perce gun was turned against the whites and 
at the council of Walla Walla in 1855, the United 
States commissioners noted that the tribesmen had not 
forgotten the religious instructions Spalding had im- 
parted to them, but on Sundays held preaching ser- 
vices and engaged in the visible forms of worship. 

Another force in strengthening the friendship be- 
tween Americans and Nez Perces was the command- 
ing influence and rare ability of Head Chief Hal- 
haltlosot, known among the whites as Lawyer on ac- 
count of his ready wit and repartee. "Wise, en- 
lightened and magnanimous, the head chief, yet one 
of the poorest of his tribe, he stood head and shoulders 
above the other chiefs, whether in intellect, nobility 
of soul or influence." His force of character and in- 
nate ability enabled him to overcome poverty and low- 
liness of birth and to achieve, while yet in middle life, 
the first place among his people. He used his in- 
fluence for the amelioration of the tribe, directing his 
initial efforts against the two chief vices then obtain- 
ing gambling and polygamy. He has the distinc- 
tion of having been the only western Indian possessed 
of sufficient statesmanship to discern that no resis- 
tance to the power of the whites could avail any- 
thing, and that the wise course for his race to pursue 
was to adopt the white man's mode of life and live in 
amity with him. This view of the case gave shape 
to his policy and he cultivated the friendship of his 
white brethern with unfailing assiduity. He and his 
people were shrewd enough to turn friendship to their 
own advantage in trade, but the policy of Lawyer was 
undoubtedly dictated by higher motives than mere 
temporary 'gain. He had at heart the highest good 
of his race and wisdom enough to see clearly the way 
to secure it, and he earned for himself a right to the 
everlasting gratitude of whites and Indians alike. 

At the council of Walla Walla he not only 
wielded a tremendous influence in securing the adop- 
tion of the treaties proposed by Stevens and Palmer, 
but he placed the commissioners under obligations to 
him for the preservation of their lives and those of 
their party. "He disclosed," writes Hazard Stevens, 
"a conspiracy on the part of the Cayuses to suddenly 
rise up and massacre all the whites on the council 
ground, that this measure, deliberated in nightly 
conferences for some time, had at length been determ- 
ined upon in full council of the tribe the day before, 
which the Young Chief had requested for a holiday ; 
they were now only awaiting the assent of the Yakimas 
and Walla Wallas to strike the blow ; and that these 
latter had actually joined, or were on the point of 
joining, the Cayuses in a war of extermination 
against all the whites, for which the massacre of the 
governor (Stevens) and his party was to be the signal. 
They, had conducted these plottings with the greatest 
secrecy, not trusting the Nez Perces ; and the Lawyer, 
suspecting that all was not right, had discovered the 
plot by means of a spy with the greatest difficulty and 
only just in time to avert the catastrophe." 

To frustrate these hostile designs the Lawyer 
pitched his lodge in the center of the white camp, 
thereby conveying to the other Indians the intelli- 

gence that the commissioners and party were under 
his protection. So numerous and powerful were the 
Nez Perces that even a combination of the other 
tribes dare not risk a collision with them, so the foul 
plot had to be abandoned. It is the opinion of some 
writers, from the circumstances attending the sign- 
ing of the treaties by other Indians than the Nez 
Perces, and the war which followed so hard upon it, 
that they or some of them appended their names as a 
deliberate act of treachery, hoping to lull the whites 
into a feeling of security, then fall upon them totally 
unprepared for defense. But whether this be true or 
not, certain it is that the Nez Perces were acting in 
good faith, for they testified their sincerity by remain- 
ing true to their bargain and to their white friends 
during the storm of war which ensued. 

When, in 1860 and subsequent years, the gold ex- 
citement drew thousands of miners into the Nez Perce 
country, the ancient friendliness was found so deep 
rooted as to stand the strain naturally put upon it. 
It must be admitted that no white community would 
quietly permit such an invasion. While it is true that 
the Indians were powerless to prevent permanently the 
appropriation of mining property, they could, had 
they been so disposed, have fallen upon the whites 
and massacred them in great numbers, and many other 
tribes would have done so. Even in the one instance 
where representatives of the Nez Perce tribe took arms 
against the whites, the majority remained steadfast in 
their friendship and while some of those obstensibly 
friendly may have rendered assistance to their red 
brethren in arms, many gave much help to the whites 
by warning them of approaching danger, carrying 
messages and the like. 

Everything considered,- no tribe of Indians de- 
serves better treatment at the hands of the whites than 
the Nez Perces, and while it is claimed and no doubt 
with truth that they have been shamefully swindled 
by representatives of the government, it is likewise 
certain that not a little effort has been made for the 
amelioration of their conditions. They are fortunate in 
possessing the old Fort Lapwai Indian Training school, 
established by the government nearly two decades ago ; 
the successor of a much older institution. As a re- 
sult of its establishment and maintenance the Nez 
Perces are among the best educated Indians in the 
west. When Captain Pratt, superintendent of the 
Carlisle Indian school in Pennsylvania, the highest 
school of its kind in the United States, recently said 
that the Nez Perces who came to him were the bright- 
est of any Indians with whom he had to deal, he paid 
a high compliment to the intellectual ability of this 
tribe and also to the efficiency of the reservation train- 
ing school at Lapwai. With bright minds to in- 
struct, plenty of equipment and highly capable corps 
of teachers, the school has been able to maintain a 
high standard of efficiency. 

As its name implies, this institution is situated at 
old Fort Lapwai in Nez Perces county. The old fort has 
long since been abandoned, but its site is still reserved 
by the government and many of the old post build- 
ings are still utilized by the school. The location is 



in the picturesque Lapwai valley, six miles from the 
mouth of the creek and Spalding the nearest railroad 
point. Here in this circular depression the land lies 
nearly level, furnishing an unexcelled building site. 
Sheltered from the bleak winds which occasionally 
sweep the higher region above and yet low enough 
to profit by the warmer currents of air which temper 
the climate of the Clearwater valley in winter, well 
watered by Lapwai creek and numerous springs, fav- 
ored with fertile soil, surrounded by the hills and 
prairies so dear to the hearts of the race and so near 
to the scenes famous in their history, the spot is cer- 
tainly ideal for the purposes of an Indian school; 
while the busy farmers at work in the neighboring 
hills and vales give the young Indians a constant ob- 
ject lesson in industry and its rewards. 

Commencing in the old quarters abandoned by the 
soldiers in the latter 'seventies, one by one the Fort 
Lapwai Indian Training School has added buildings 
until at present it occupies fourteen besides the stables 
and smaller outbuildings. The four largest of these 
are a handsome, two-story brick structure used as a 
boys' dormitory, a large, two-story, frame dormi- 
tory for the girls, a spacious dining hall, kitchen and 
lodging house and a fine, modern frame schoolhouse. 
Then there are the superintendent's office, the doctor's 
office, the drug store, the laundry, the gymnasium and 
the industrial work room and lastly the quarters of 
the employes, most of whom reside in the old officers 
building. The newest of these structures was erected 
in 1896, though all have been remodeled, painted and 

ping is constantly going forward. All of these build- 
ings are located on a fine, level campus of several 
acres, enclosed by a sightly picket fence. The grounds 
I are well kept, the different buildings are arranged 
along regularly laid out streets bordering the campus 
proper and the whole presents an orderly appearance 
pleasing to the eye. North and west of the campus 
are the orchard and garden of the institution, cover- 
ing several acres. In all there are between fifteen 
and twenty acres in campus, garden and orchard. 
Then there is a large farm attached to the establish- 
ment on which all of the vegetables, cereals and hay 
used at the school and agency are raised. It was not 
possible to obtain from those in charge an accurate es- 
timate of the value of the property, but it must with all 
equipments have cost $50,000. 

Accommodations are provided for eighty-five 
boys and sixty-five girls and at the present time the 
capacity of the school is taxed. The school is open to 
all Nez Perce Indians between the ages of five and 
eighteen years. Formerly attendance was optional, 
but at present a law is in force compelling all Indians 
of school age to attend school at least nine months in 
the year. Under the present regulations of the Lap- 
wai school, a ten months' term is maintained. Dur- 
ing the past winter diphtheria made its appearance 
among the pupils and as a result the attendance was 
considerably decreased for a few weeks. 

While in school the boys and girls wear uniforms. 
The boys' suits are of a dark steel color, and the cadet 

pattern, trimmed with red stripes and brass buttons. 
The girls wear a gray uniform with black trimmings, 
or a blue uniform with red trimmings. The 
boys are divided into two military companies and 
have a drill each morning in their drill room and 
battalion drill occasionally. 

The routine of school life is interesting. At six 
o'clock the rising bell rings. An hour later all, except 
those who are sick, must breakfast, the Indians in 
their hall and the officers and instructors in theirs. 
At 7 130 the pupils fall into line and details are made. 
The disciplinarian selects squads to take care of the 
stock, cut wood and carry it in, milk the cows, build 
fires, work in the garden and do other minor chores. 
The matron assigns a division of the girls to sweep, 
dust and to attend the living rooms, assist in the 
kitchen and dining room, etc. While one division is 
in school, another works under the supervision of the 
industrial departments; the boys under the farmer, 
carpenter or industrial teacher; the girls under the 
matron, cook, laundress, seamstress or baker. The 
literary department holds its sessions from 9 a. m. to 
1 1 130 a. m., and from i p. m. to 4 p. m. The literary 
work is elementary, sixth grade work being the highest. 
Of course the work of all departments is so arranged 
that a thorough elementary school education and in- 
dustrial training is given each pupil during the year. 
At 5 :3O p. m. the supper bell rings and after the eve- 
ning meal an hour must be devoted to study. The day 
is finally closed by the summons to retire, which comes 
at 9:30 o'clock. On Sunday a non-sectarian Sunday 
school is held, attended by all the pupils and whenever 
the school is favored by the visit of a clergyman, he 
is invited to preach to them. Once a week the steady 
routine of school life is laid aside for a social function 
a concert, a drill, a lecture or an amateur play. The 
school possesses a creditable cornet band of sixteen 
pieces which plays on all important occasions and at 
the weekly entertainments. In fact everything which 
would contribute to the physical and mental better- 
ment and upbuilding of these boys and girls has been 
done by the government at this school and the results 
show that the work has not been in vain. 

The corps of instructors at the school includes the 
following, nearly all of whom have had previous ex- 
perience in Indian work: Literary teachers, Alice B. 
Preuss, Mrs. Hallie M. Alley, Jennie Smith; indus- 
trial teacher, Fletcher Cox ; farmer, Alvan Shinn ; car- 
penter, T. C. Glenn; girls' matron, Emma Trout- 
man ; boys' matron, Laura Mahin ; cook, Lizzie Pike ; 
laundress, Clara L. Stuve; seamstress, Alice Sim- 
mons; disciplinarian, Corbett Lawyer (Indian); 
baker, Mrs. Mary Osborn; policeman, Frank Hoosis- 
kopsis (Indian) ; interpreter, Edward Raboin (In- 

The superintendent of the Indian school and also 
the Indian agent for the tribe is Earl T. MacArthur, 
who succeeded Agent T. C. Stranahan in July, 1902. 
At that time the two offices were combined and the 
agency removed from Spalding to Lapwai. Mr. Mac- 
Arthur is an energetic young man, thoroughly equipped 
for his work. He is a native of Iowa, a gradu- 


ate of Cornell University and since 1891 has been en- 
gaged in Indian work under the direction of the In- 
terior department. Previous to his transfer to the 
Fort Lapwai school, he was in charge of the Lewiston 
agency in South Dakota. 

The agency is situated at the school and occupies 
a commodious office by itself. Here Mr. MacArthur 
is assisted in the management of affairs by three 
clerks, J. S. Martin, A. J. Montgomery and J. N. 
Alley. The latter is also attached to the school and 
agency in the capacity of physician. About $50,000 
a year are required to maintain the school and agency 
and fully $60,000 lease money passed through the 
agency last year, the office conducting all transac- 
tions of this nature between the Indians and whites. 
Aside from the leasing of lands there is very little 
else done by the agent nowadays as the lands have 
all been allotted and the red men given full citizen- 

Just a word about the later missions. In 1847 
Rev. H. H. Spalding retired to the Willamette val- 
ley. He returned to Lapwai as superintendent of 
schools in 1864, which position he occupied two or 
three years, when the office was abolished. In the 
fall of 1871, he again took up his abode among the 
Nez Perces as a missionary, and he continued to re- 
side at Spalding and Lapwai until his death in 1874. 

His mantle fell upon the worthy shoulders of 
Miss Susan Law Mcbeth, who had come as mission- 
ary teacher in 1873 from the Choctaw mission in 
Indian Territory. She was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Iowa and to her belonged the distinction 
of having been the first lady to serve as a delegate 
to the Christian Commission, at work among the 
soldiers of the Union army. 

Miss Mcbeth taugh school a year after coming to 

the land of the Nez Perces, then succeeded to Mr. 
Spalding's Bible class at Kamiah, later taking up 
his entire missionary work over the whole reservation. 
She remained at Kamiah until 1877, when she fled 
to Lapwai to escape the hostiles. Two years later 
she returned to Kamiah. She remained until i8T_ 
in which year she removed to Mount Idaho. There 
she died in 1893. She has been described as a w 
man of high mental attainments, untiring energy and 
fervid religious faith. 

Her sister, Miss Kate C. Mcbeth, succeeded to 
the work and is still the representative among the 
Nez Perces of the American Board. She came in 
1879 to assist her sister and taught; the women while 
her sister labored for the spiritual and moral better- 
ment of the men. She spent her time in Kamiah, 
Mount Idaho and Spalding until 1885, when she be- 
came a resident of Lapwai. At present she has 
charge of a commodious and well furnished mission 
house opposite the Indian school, and is instructing 
a large class of Bible students. She also makes oc- 
casional journeys over the reservation. Miss Mc- 
beth has compiled and is still endeavoring to per- 
fect a dictionary of the Nez Perce language and her 
studies in this -direction have made her perhaps the 
greatest living authority on the subject. She is also 
considered an authority on the history and traditions 
of the tribe. Her assistant in the work is Miss Mazie 

There is a Catholic mission at Slickpoo, on Mis- 
sion creek, northwest of Lapwai. It is under the pa- 
tronage of St. Joseph and is the center of several 
outlying missions. The fathers of the Society of Jesus 
conduct the work. A small school was in the course 
of construction at the time of the writer's visit to 
the reservation. 



In many respects Nez Perces differs widely in 
topography and productions from its larger neighbor 
on the south, the county to which it is the gateway 
and with which it is quite intimately associated. Yet 
it may be said with truth that the people of Nez Perces 
and Idaho counties are so closely bound together by 
the ties of commercial relationship as to form practic- 
ally one community. This relationship, however, arises 
rather out of diversity of industries than similarity of 
pursuits. The presence of mineral wealth in Idaho 
county, the relatively small amount of agricultural 
land, the elevation of much of its surface, the rugged- 
ness of its topography have determined the leading 

pursuits of its people, making them a mining and stock 
raising rather than an agricultural class. The same 
great law of nature has made agriculture the principal 
industry of Nez Perces county and the natural inter- 
dependence of these industries has bound the people 
together in a close commercial bond. 

But Nez Perces county, though less wild and strik- 
ing in its physical features than its neighbor on the I 
south is not lacking in the ruggedness of aspect which 
forms the most striking characteristic of the great state 
of which it is a part. The writer well remembers the 
wild, grand scene that greets the eye of the traveler 
as he winds his way down the side of Craig's mountain 


into the sheltered town of Culdesac, a scene wonderful 
in its combination of beauty and strength, magnifi- 
cence and sublimity. And there are many such scenes 
within the limits of Nez Perces county. 

Yet the county differs from many other parts of 
Idaho in that very little of its surface is incapable of 
cultivation. Even the uplands of Nez Perces are es- 
pecially suited to agriculture, while the sheltered val- 
leys of river and creek furnish ideal homes for the 
fruit raiser and the market gardener. The result is 
that the county, though relatively small in area, is yet 
one of the leaders among its sister counties of the state 
in population and wealth production. 

The Snake and Clearwater rivers unite their turbid 
and crystal waters in the northwestern part of the 
county. The valley of the former is narrow and that 
of the latter not very wide, yet in the Clearwater basin 
and on its bars are numerous beautiful and well kept 
orchards, vineyards and gardens, rendered overwhelm- 
ingly productive by the combined efforts of nature and 
art, nature in furnishing a rich, prolific soil and art in 
turning the waters of the river onto the land, that they 
may do their part in furnishing fruits and vegetables 
for' the tables of man. The contour of the river bot- 
tom is such as to render very large orchards impos- 
sible, but so great is the productiveness of the land 
that an extensive tract to any one grower is not neces- 
sary. The writer remembers having read years ago 

I of a man who testified on oath in a court of justice 
that his net profits from a single acre for a single year 
had exceeded seven hundred dollars. And indeed the 

[ man who could cultivate and irrigate a large tract in 
the thorough manner in which these orchards appear 
to be cultivated and irrigated to one who in springtime 
surveys from the wayside their luxuriousness and 

1 beauty, would need the assistance of a large number of 
a large number of employees. 

Some ten miles above Lewiston, the Clearwater 

^ valley, which has been gradually narrowing as you 
ascend the stream, widens again to the southward, 

: and into it flow the sparkling waters of Lapwai creek. 

I On the north side of the river, the elevated plateau 

:' country of which Genesse is the principal town breaks 
abruptly to the stream, and with the lofty hills to the 
southward form a striking contrast to the peaceful and 
gently beautiful Lapwai valley, extending away to- 
ward the base of Craig's mountain, whose timbered 
summit projected against the sky beyond, forms your 
southern horizon. The ruggedness of the bluffs, the 
bold contour of the lofty hills and uplands deep fur- 
rowed with coules and ravines, dotted with farm build- 
ings, stacks of hay and bands of grazing stock, the 
swift river, the turbulent, restless creek, and at their 
confluence the little village of Spalding, all unite to 
form a picture magnificent and fascinating, especially 
when summer's warmth has touched it with its own 
rich, beautiful hues. At the time of the writer's visit 
the work of the sunshine had not yet been fully accom- 
plished, but it had already begun its wondrous resur- 
rection in the Clearwater valley, while a few miles dis- 
tant in either a southerly or a northerly direction, win- 
ter still held the country in its snowy embrace. 

The thoughts of the beholder of retrospective 
habit will have a tendency to revert back to the time 
when, sixty-seven years ago, the Rev. H. H. Spalding 
began planting here at the mouth of the Lapwai creek, 
the vine and fig tree of civilization, the fruits of which 
are so plainly visible on every hand. He will not won- 
der that the pioneer missionary chose this spot as the 
scene of his labors, for the place has a charm for the 
red man as for the white and from time immemorial 
this had been one of the favorite abiding places of the 
Nez Perces. The missionary has made the spot hal- 
lowed by his unselfish efforts for the good of the red 

The Lapwai basin, varying in width from a quarter 
to half a mile, extends in a southerly direction and 
about four miles from the mouth, the stream widens 
into a truly magnificent little valley, perhaps two miles 
long by a mile in width, elliptical in shape, the hills 
on the west rising from the level of the plain by fnuch 
easier grades and presenting longer and more gentle 
inclines than do those in any other direction. About 
the center of this depression are the cluster of build- 
ings which constitute the town of Lapwai, while at 
the extreme southwestern end, snug up against the base 
of the hills, are the present Indian agency and school 
occupying the site where once was the historic Fort 
Lapwai. On the railroad are the grain warehouses of 
the Vollmer-Clearwater Company and the Kettenbach 
Grain Company, giving a hint of the principal indus- 
try of the people. 

A mile above Lapwai the Sweetwater, a creek 
larger than the Lapwai and really the main stream, 
empties into the latter. Here has been established a 
small trading point. Three miles farther up the valley 
Mission creek enters the Lapwai. This stream takes 
its name from the Catholic mission school at Slickpoo, 
established, it is said, in the early 'sixties by Father 
Cataldo and still maintained. 

At Culdesac, the terminal town of the Northern 
Pacific's Lapwai branch, the traveler journeying south- 
ward soon begins his ascent of Craig's mountain. This 
is not really a mountain but a high plateau, many 
miles long and in places many miles wide on -top, 
comparatively level when you once get up there. It 
was fomerly the sheep man's paradise, being elevated 
sufficiently to furnish excellent summer range, but the 
advance of civilization has injured it for this industry 
somewhat. The leading pursuit of its enterprising in- 
habitants at present is lumbering, and the traveler over 
the mountain will notice a saw-mill at least every few 
miles. However, on each side of the mountain are 
quite extensive glades or prairie arms extending into 
the timber, and these are closely settled by energetic 
farming communities. Not a few also are establishing 
homes for themselves where the timber once stood. 
There can be little doubt that the mountain will be all 
settled up as soon as the timber is removed, but so ex- 
tensive are the forests and so dense in places that it 
will take a long time to fell them and convert their 
timber into boards. There are several towns and post- 
offices on the mountain for the convenience of and sup- 
ported by the lumbermen or agriculturists or both. 


Most of the maps show Craig's mountain as occupying 
comparatively small space and situated just north of 
the great bend of the Salmon and between that r' 
and the Snake, but in reality it is an extensive plateau, 
bearing upon its sides or broad top several widely sep- 
arated towns, principal among them Forest, Morrow, 
Westlake, Keuterville and Winchester. Near the top 
of this mountain and west of the reservation line is 
Waha lake, twenty-one or twenty-two miles southeast 
from Lewiston. It is described as a beautiful little 
sheet, elliptical in shape and a half mile long, sur- 
rounded on all sides by a pine forest. The old stage 
road passes around its eastern margin. It has long 
been and still is a favorite summer resort. At one 
time an attempt was made to stock it with fish, but the 
plan did not prove a success. There is a well appointed 
hotel on its banks, the Lake House, kept by Mr. 
Faunce, who also has an abundance of row and sail 
boats and such other equipments as will augment the 

it from Lewiston you take the old stage road which 
passes through Tammany hollow, Lewiston prairie 
and Waha prairie, all rich farming and stock raising 
sections, though the last named is more elevated and 
consequently colder than the other valleys. The soil 
of these prairie sections is very productive and har- 
vests usually bountiful. Many of the farmers have 
excellent orchards. In Tammany hallow, on the old 
Dowd ranch, artesian water has been struck in several 
places, and many attempts will be made to find it else- 
where in the valley, that orchards and gardens may be 

But it is to the country to the eastward of that just 
described that we must look for the finest and most 
extensive agricultural region of Nez Perces. Extend- 
ing practically the entire length of the county is the 
beautiful, rolling Nez Perces prairie, justly celebrated 
for its rich, black soil and its wonderful capacity for 
producing wheat, flax and other cereals. Until 1895 
this prairie was in the hands of the Indians and its 
productive power was consequently undeveloped. 
Then, however, it was thrown open to settlement, by 
act of congress, which provided that homesteaders 
should be required not only to use their rights on the 
land but pay for it as well. Fortunately the provision 
that the land must be purchased was later repealed, 
but it is also fortunate that the proviso was there at 
first, as it resulted in keeping out of the country all 
but thrifty, energetic people who meant business. 

It happened that two years before the opening of 
the reserve, an unusually wet harvest season caused 
many of the farmers of the Palouse country, in Wash- 
ington, almost all of them indeed, to lose their crops. 
Much of the destroyed grain had already been har- 
vested and some of it was threshed and lying in sacks 
in the field. The farmer, therefore, was obligated to 
pay harvesting and sometimes threshing bills, whereas 
the grain to which he must look for reimbursement 
was worthless. The next year the price of wheat 
dropped to fifteen cents a bushel. The result of the 
two bad years in succession was that not a few of these 
ranchmen were rendered homeless. The opening of 

the reservation in 1895 gave them the opportunity they 
were seeking of starting again in life, so securing a 
hundred and sixty acres apiece they began anew the 
struggle for a home and competency. They have 
brought to the cultivation of the rich virgin soil of Nez 
Perces prairie the experience gained on their Palouse 
farms and, avoiding the errors which caused them to 
fail in the past, they have made for themselves happy 
and comfortable homes. No better illustration can be 
found of what an industrious, thrifty and skillful peo- 
ple can accomplish when they have to start with a 
goodly portion of rich, fertile soil and enjoy favorable 
conditions otherwise. 

In a recent interview in a Spokane paper, James 
Marker, of Nezperce City, said : 

"Nez Perces prairie, Idaho, is in a most flourishing 
condition, and the farmers of that district are rapidly 
gaining wealth. The flax and hog industries are the 
mainstays of the district, although cattle raising is 
carried on extensively. The farmers' tramway that 
extends from the prairie to the railroad has five and a 
half months' work ahead in bringing down the fla: 
for shipment. The yield in flax varies from nine to 
twenty-two bushels an acre, the average being about 
sixteen. I know of one man who, when he came into 
the country about six years ago, had nothing except 
four broken down cayuses, but who last fall sold fifteen 
thousand bushels of flax from his different ranches, 
for which he obtained ninety-eight cents a bushel. 
When I first arrived in the country I had only suf- 
ficient money to build a house costing four hundred 
and seventy-five dollars. I now have a standing offer 
of six thousand dollars for the farm. 

"Most of our shipments are made from Kamiah,. 
on the Clearwater Short Line, about sixty miles from 
Lewiston, Idaho. Nezperce City is twelve miles frc 
the railroad. On one day last fall there were nine car- 
loads of hogs shipped from the station, while the total 
shipments in this line for the past three months have 
been thirty car loads. 

"I have just disposed of four car loads on the 
Sound. T here were three hundred and sixty-two head, 
weighing eighty-two thousand pounds, for which I 
received six dollars and sixty cents per hundred 

Before discussing the productive capacity of Nez. 1 
Perces county as a whole, it is well to give some sta- 
tistics regarding its size, population, etc. In super- 
ficial area the county is one of the smallest in the 
state, onlv two being smaller, namely, Latah and Bear 
Lake. These have 1,100 and 1,080 square miles re- j 
spectively, while Nez Perces has 1,610. Though rel- 
latively so small, the last mentioned is, however, the 
most populous county of Idaho, being credited by the 
latest census with 13,748 persons, while Latah, its near- 
est competitor, has 13,451. It is claimed that Nez 
Perces leads in the number of farms, having 2,144, 
containing 400,510 acres, while Latah, the next in rank, 
has only 1,821 farms containing 353,700 acres. In the 
production of flax, Nez Perces county far outranks all 
others, yielding 91 per cent, of that arised in the entire 



Official statistics of productions for the year 1902 
are not available, but those furnished the Spokesman 
Review by its Lewiston correspondent at the close of 
that year are doubtless close enough approximations to 
furnish a clear idea of the producing power of the 
county. They divide the wheat shipments among the 
different stations as follows: Lewiston, 175,000 
bushels; Waha and points on the river, 45,ooo;-Lap- 
wai, 150,000; Agatha, 75,000; Peck, 125,000; Greer, 
40,000; Kamiah, 125,000; Stites, 50,000; Culdesac, 
450,000; Sweetwater, 225,000; Basalt, 59,000; Lenore, 
225,000; Orofino, 35,000; Nez Perces tramway, 550,- 
ooo; Kooskia, 75,000. Idaho county is credited with 
the shipments from Kooskia and Stites, 125,000 bush- 
els in all. Of the 2,404,000 bushels shipped from the 
stations named approximately 650,000 bushels were 
flax, which sold at average price of $i a bushel ; while 
1,500,000 bushels were wheat, vauled at 60 cents a 
bushel, the remainder being oats and barley of the 
estimated value of $11,250. The same authority 
places the corn crop of the county at 10,000 bushels, 
worth $5,000. "Of beans, there were raised 250,000 
pounds, which found ready sale at 3 cents a pound, 
or $7,500. Sales of hay by the farmers were about 
10,000 tons, of the average" value of $8 a ton or $80,- 
ooo. This would indicate a total value of $1,653,250 
for the grain and hay crop of the county." 

From the railroad and commission men it was 
learned that the shipments of vegetables aggregated 
ten thousand packages, of the value of $15,000 ap- 
proximately. Of the live stock industry it was not 
possible to obtain as accurate and definite data, 'the 
shipments of cattle, hogs, sheep and horses not being 
separated either as to variety or the county from which 
they came, but it was thought that the value of the 
stock experts from Idaho and Nez Perces counties 
would not vary much from $1,000,000, half of which 
might be credited justly to the latter county. Poul- 
try and dairy products for the year were of the esti- 
mated value of $10,000. 

"It is estimated," continues the correspondent, 

"that the wool crop of the county slightly exceeds 

1,500,000 pounds, which, at an average selling price 

[ of ii cents a pound, adds $165,000 to the total of the 

present year values. 

"The industry, not so much of the present as of 
the immediate future in this county, is lumbering. 
There are now eighteen sawmills in the county, having 
an average capacity of 25,000 feet each, a day. It 
it estimated that these mills cut an aggregate of 2,- 
000,000 feet, which has nearly all been sold to people 
within this county and which had an average value of 
9 a thousand and an aggregate value of $324,000." 

The receipts from fruit shipments are placed at 
$80,000. Recapitulating we have the value of differ- 
ent products as follows: grain and hay, $1,653,250; 
vegetables, $15,000; fruit, $80,000; live stock, $500,- 
ooo ; wool, $165,000; dairy products, $10000- lum- 
ber $324,000; total, $2,747,250. 

Naturally one studying the development and pro- 
ductive power of a county is impelled to inquire 
what are some of its still undeveloped resources that 

he may correctly estimate the possibilities of its fu- 
ture. Though Nez Perces county is one of the oldest 
settled in the state, it has many resources undeveloped. 
One of these is fruit raising! Should the time ever 
come when the county will be called upon to support a 
population many times more numerous than it now 
has, this industry will become one of the mainstays of 
the people, and as the arid lands of the section are re- 
deemed by irrigation, the acreage devoted to fruit will 
be greatly increased. The advantages possessed by 
Nez Perces county as a fruit section were thus com- 
prehensively set forth, some years ago, in the Lewis- 
ton Teller : 

The conditions which the experiences of all countries 
has shown to be Ae most favorable for the perfect develop- 
ment and ripening of fruits are : freedom from extremes 
of low temperature and early and late frosts ; necessity of 

atmosphere with a low percentage of humidity. These con- 
ditions exist in the Snake and Clearwater valleys in a degree 
equalled in no portion of the United States, with the ex- 
ception of the interior valleys of California. A careful 
examination of the records of the signal office will show 
that during the growing season, from April to November, 


of s 

, , 

at Lewiston will compare favorably with 
n the favored valleys of California, with the 
nshiny days in Lew' 


These favoring climatic conditions find their fitting 

complement in the peculiar adoption of our soil to the 

perfect development of fruit bearing tree or vine. This 

to heavy, clayey, black loam on the table lands, all contains 
in a high degree the very elements that have to be supplied 
artificially in other countries, viz: the salts of soda and 
potash. 'These are the results of thousands of years of 
disintegration of the basalt formation underlying the whole 
country and form such a large component part of the soil 
for fruit growing need not be a consider- 

i for years 

While fru 
acreage and number of persons engaged in the business are 

A few orchards were planted near Lewiston during the early 
days in the settlement of the country, some thirty years ago, 

at bearing age that the supply was more than the small 

duction over consumption, with no transportation 
ch distant markets, prevented the planting of 

s undergon 

a gre 

t change du 

ing the last few 

building of the railroad, about to be finished, gives assurance 
nf a possibility of supplying the demand. That this changed 
ndition is appreciated by our land owners is evidenced by 

the fac 
a fe 

extent surpassing these in bear 

ig appl ... 

_. ,..-h quantities and of such high quality a 
visitors when they first behold them, these valleys are emi- 
nently fitted for growing the tender fruits, such as peaches, 

middle states, which have become justly celebrated for their 
ability to produce these crops. 

to its best development, is the grape, nor is its cultivation 


feffi fi a? r S ts, s^wtf r &s?c, v s 

ever been believed to be restricted to California. As grown 
here this grape not only rivals the California product but in 
quality is even pronounced by connoisseurs as excelling it, 
and this has again been demonstrated by the verdict of the 
jury experts at the Portland Mechanics. Fair last fall (1890), 
who pronounced Clearwater valley grapes as of higher quality 
than the same variety grown in California, both being 
exhibited side by side. As yet only a limited number of 
varieties of the grapes have been planted extensively, and 
their success has induced the planting, in an experimental 
way, of nearly the whole list of the finer grapes grown in 
California and the chances are that some of them will show 
still better results in this climate. 

The unexcelled combination of conditions favorable to 
fruit tree growth is, however, proven in the most forcible 

originating here, there being a number of apple and pear 
seedlings growing now, bearing better fruit than many of 
the well known older varieties. The most remarkable case 
in point is the "Idaho Pear" originating on the outskirts 
of Lewiston from seed sown by Mrs. Mulkey some twenty 

f the fruit have been sent 
the United States. They pro 

ntirely distinct and new variety, worthy of a place 
among the very best pears for size and quality and ranking 
the best ever known for vigor and hardiness. A few gentle- 
men, engaged- in fruit growing here, organized the Idaho 

ducing this valuable new variety and by their efforts have 
succeeded in making it widely known all over the world and 
creating a demand for these trees grown here, not only from 
all parts of the Union, but from Europe and Australia as 
well. It is stated that this is the most valuable new fruit 

variety of the same quality, it will greatly enlarge the terri- 
tory where pear growing may be successfully engaged in. 
The introduction of this pear has, more than all other causes 
combined, called the attention of the horticultural world to 
the resources of our climate and the gentlemen of the Idaho 



The territory in Nez Perce county which can grow fruit 
successfully is now limited to the valleys of the great rivers 
but embraces the arable land of nearly the whole county; 
and, while the higher altitudes may not grow the tender 
fruits, they rival, if they do not surpass, the valleys in the 
production of the hard'ier kinds and especially the apple. 

thTprairie ]ds on' the pJg^Potlatch to'the east of Lewwtan 

and Waha. to the south both at an increased altitude of some 
1,300 feet, possesses fine flavor combined with keeping 
qualities which are not attained in the hotter atmosphere of 
the valleys. 

Lewiston, which, owing to the high altitude, can but raise 

still further north ; and the prosperous states of Montana and 
Dakota in the east, all non-producers of fruit and easy of 
access by rail to all those points ; there is not another fruit 
raising country in existence possessing such an unlimited 

White Brothers, wholesale fruit shippers, estimate 
the value of Nez Perces' exported product at $43,000 
for 1902, and certainly not over half the crop was 
shipped out through channels that preserve records, 
the remainder being either consumed at home or taken 

in wagons to a market. In variety and quantity the 
shipments were as follows; pears, 2,000 boxes; 
peaches, 9,000 boxes ; apples, 10,000 boxes ; strawber- 
ries, crates; grapes, 4.000 crates; black ber- 
ries, 2,000 crates ; raspberries, 1,000 crates. 

As to the number of head of cattle now in the 
county, the assessor's roll furnished the best basis, 
perhaps, of estimate. It should give the exact num- 
ber at the time it was fnade but unfortunately for 
human weakness it falls far below the actual. How- 
ever, the numbers of the different varieties upon 
which taxes were paid are as follows : cattle, common, 
3,351 head; cattle, beef, 156; cows, milch, 2,964; 
horses, graded, 1,256; horses, stock, 1,256; colts, 590; 
mules, 40; sheep, 25,251; swine, 9,019. The valua- 
tion of all these animals aggregated $449,098. From 
the above figures it will be seen that stock raising 
is an important industry of the county yet, notwith- 
standing it is more thickly populated than most other 
parts of the state and devotes much attention to the 
various forms of extensive and intensive agriculture. 

In estimating the future possibilities of Nez Per- 
ces county due weight should be given to the fact 
that it is located so as to enjoy a central position 
in that wonderful area known as the Lewiston or 
Clearwater country, embracing an extent of perhaps 
15,000,000 acres, and including the northeastern cor- 
ner of Oregon, Asotin county, Washington ; Nez Per- 
ces, Latah and Idaho counties and a part of Sho- 
shone county, Idaho. This vast region is drained by 
the Snake, Clearwater and Salmon rivers, with their 
tributaries. Should the Columbia be opened to the 
sea, as it some day will, this great empire must be- 

and the importance of the little county so near its 
center and holding a key position to so much of it 

of augmentation. From the nature of the case much 
of the wealth of this tributary country must go to 
assist in the upbuilding of Nez Perces county's indus- 
tries and the increase of its wealth. 

The people whose lot is cast in this happily favored 
section are fully aware of the opportunities which are 
theirs, and manifest a deep interest in every move- 
ment which has for its object the development of any 
of their country's resources or those of neighboring 
sections. They are not, however, so wrapped up in 
industrial pursuits as to neglect the civilities and re- 
finements of life. The education, of the young receives 
due attention. Public schools have been established 
all over the county, even on the reservation so recently 
settled, and diligence is given to the improvement 
of the system. The county sends its share of students 
to the state normal school in its own county seat, 
to the state university at Moscow, just outside its 
own borders, and to other schools of higher learning 
and technical instruction east and west. Churches, 
fraternal organizations, and institutions for the bet- 
terment of mankind are widespread in their distribu- 
tion, and everything which is at once the outcome and 
the promoter of refinement and intelligence finds here 
a welcome and a home. With a wealth of resources 



developed and a still greater wealth undeveloped 
within the county and in tributary territory, and a 
climate mild at all seasons, with a bright, intelligent 
class of people ambitious for the blessings of wealth 

and the promotion of culture, Nez Perces county cer- 
tainly takes rank among the most favored sections of 
the northwest and those with the brightest, most hope- 
ful outlook. 



JOHN P. VOLLMER was born in Wurtemberg, 
Germany, on January 25, 1847. Still he is an Ameri- 
can citizen, since his father, Otto P. Vollmer, Jr., was 
a naturalized American citizen at the time of the son's 
birth. His father was a chemist of note and a man 
of fine literary attainments, having added to the know- 
ledge gained by study and diversified reading, that 
of extensive travel and close observation. The grand- 
father of our subject, Otto Phillip Vollmer, was a 
surgeon of high standing and extensive practice in 
Baden, Germany. Being in sympathy with the revolu- 
tionary element of that realm in the middle of the 
last century, in consequence whereof he had to pay 
the penalty" of the independent stand he took, by ac- 
cepting voluntary exile, and came to America in 1849 
accompanied by Hon. Carl Schurz, and other men of 
national reputation in Germany. The family followed 
the elder Vollmer in a very short period, but the 
father of our subject returned to Germany, after 
becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States, 
and was then united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth 
Fix, his fiancee, a native of the old home place, Wurt- 
temberg. In 1851, the father and mother set sail for 
America, bringing their young son. They settled in 
Indianapolis and there, in a private German school, 
young Vollmer received his elementary education. 
It was in 1861, that he entered the Northwestern 
Christian College of Indianapolis, where he received 
a thorough English education. About this time, Mr. 
Vollmer associated himself with the firm of Merrill 
& Company, now Bowen, Merrill & Company, a large 
book concern of Indianapolis, where he remained for 
several years. He also engaged in the manufacture of 
ink and was for a time connected with his father in 
business, in all of which places he made money and 
saved it. In his early teens, he enlisted to fight for the 
Union and he assisted to repel the rebel raider Mor- 
gan and his riders. In 1863, the mother died at the 
home in Indianapolis, leaving the youth at the age 
of sixteen without that sweetest of all earthly love, 
a mother's. It was a sad blow, but he stood bravely 
beneath it and continued his business. His business 
success, his graduation with high honors from the 

university, where he had made many warm friends, 
buoyed up his native courage, and desiring to try his 
fortunes in the undeveloped far west, where merit 
and ability win, he accordingly came, via New York 
and the isthmus, to the Pacific and in 1868, we find 
him in Walla Walla with a few thousand dollars in 
his pockets, saved from his own earnings, and a let- 
ter of recommendation from General Harrison, after- 
wards President of the United States. He was soon 
engaged with a company manufacturing high wines. 
His former thorough education and consequent know- 
ledge of the new modes of distilling made him in- 
valuable to the house and he was soon installed man- 
ager of the concern, although he was but twenty years 
of age. He continued in this until 1870, then left for 
Lewiston. Here he formed a partnership with Wallace 
Scott in the wholesale liquor and grocery business. 
Later he abandoned the liquor business, on account of 
conscientious scruples, although it had been profitable. 
Mr. Vollmer began private operations outside of the 
firm with a capital he had reserved. From the outset he 
was remarkably successful as he has since been in all 
of his large and varied business relations. Doubt- 
les no man of the Inland Empire has ever had more 
diversified interests and more varied experience in 
business lines with an equal number of successes at 
the end of each new venture. Many superficial 
observers attribute it to "luck." But business men of 
experience know that it is due to consummate breadth 

coupled with practical knowledge and a will that 
brooks no defeat. 

To the original business established by John P. 
Vollmer and Company at Lewiston, have been added 
branch houses at Grangeville, Mt. Idaho, and Genesee, 
in Idaho, and Uniontown and Asotin in Washington. 
The Vollmer Clearwater Company, a creation of our 
subject, operates at eighteen different points, named 
as follows: Lewiston, Sweetwater, Bosalt, Lenore, 
Weippe, Stuart, Lapwai, Culdesac, Agatha, Peck, Ka- 
miah, Stites, Genesee, Kendrick, Clyde, Spar, Nez- 
perce and Asotin. 

Among the earlier business movements of Mr. 



Vollmer, was the organization by him of the First 
National Bank of Lewiston, the first house of its kind 
in northern Idaho. The National Bank of Genesee 
and the bank at Grangeville, followed in regular order. 
Mr. Vollmer pays taxes on over fifty sections of agri- 
cultural land, wliich requires about three hundred miles 
of fence to divide it into quarter sections. He is 
president of and owns the controlling interest in the 
Lewiston Water and Light Company. He is also presi- 
dent of the board of trustees for the State Normal 

Mr. Vollmer has also been interested in and identi- 
fied with several transportation companies. He was 
connected with the Walla Walla & Columbia River 
R. R. Company and in 1877, was made agent for 
the Oregon Steam Navigation Company. He then 
acted for Henry Villard in the deal by which the 
last named company was absorbed by the O. R. & N. 
Co., which latter company Mr. Vollmer represented 
until 1883, when he became financially interested in 
the Northern Pacific and was one of the leading pro- 
moters of that line which is now extended to Lewiston. 
Since that time, he has been the representative of 
that line for the state of Idaho. 

In addition to all the above named enterprises, 
with which Mr. Vollmer has been connected for the 
improvement and betterment of the country, he was 
also the one to construct the first telegraph line in 
northern Idaho, in 1874. Four years later, he es- 
tablished the first Bell telephone exchange on the 
Pacific coast. He was also prominent in the organ- 
ization of the Sweetwater Irrigation & Canal Company, 
with which he is still connected. 

It is interesting to further note, as testimony to 
Mr. Vollrner's high standing in financial circles, that 
in "American Successful Men," of New York city, 
which contains a history of the most prominent citi- 
zens of America, he is given a prominent place, be- 
ing the only banker mentioned in Idaho. Such is the 
brief outline of the financial history of this in no 
wise common or ordinary career. 

In political matters, Mr. Vol 
lican, but has never been an 

lican, but has never been an aspirant for office, pre- 
ferring to promote the political interests of his friends. 
In fact, he has repeatedly declined preferment at the 
hands of his friends even when the tempting offer 
of the highest political office in the state was the 
reward of his acceptance. 

In his home life Mr. Vollmer has been as greatly 
blessed as he has in his masterful business career. His 
well appointed home is a model of family felicity and 
home attachments. This is largely due, as are many of 
the pleasant phases of his life, to the wisdom and 
painstaking care of Mrs. Vollmer, who has the happy 
faculty of making a home in the true sense of the 

Mrs. Sallie E. Vollmer, nee Barber, a native of 
the state of Kentucky, is a true southern lady and a 
granddaughter of Judge Duvall. They were united 
in marriage at Walla Walla, September 27, 1870, and 
to them have been born seven children, five of whom 
are still living, namely; Ralston, now in charge of 

the bank at Genesee; Bessie, who was married Sep- 
tember 4, 1901, to Arthur E. Clarke of the New York 
Life Insurance Company, and now residing in New 
York; Genevieve, who "is attending school; Norman 
and Norma, twins, at school in Lewiston. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Mr. Vollmer is one 
of the very busiest of men, he is of a pronounced 
literary turn, as is also his wife; and their home is 
supplied with a first-class library and all the leading 
magazines and periodicals of the day, which they find 
time to read and enjoy. He is a thirty-second de- 
gree Mason. 

Mr. Vollmer is an enterprising, public spirited 
citizen, and takes great interest in the affairs of the 
county and state and especially in the advancement of 
the community where he lives. He is at the front and 
promoting all enterprises that are for the general bene- 
fit. His career is marked by display of energy and 
profound ability and insight into matters that hav 
to do with the business and social world. He i 
known as a stanch friend and has as few enemies 
probably, as any man living, of his active, agressiv 
temperament and extensive business interests. 

GARRET H. FERRALL, M. D. Among the 
leading citizens of Nez Perces county the name of Dr. 
Ferrall is surely to be placed. In business ventures, 
he has been signally successful. As a professional 
man, he has manifested skill and talent that have 
given him the reward due to the true and eminent 
physician. As to his personal qualifications, Dr. Fer- 
rall is a loyal friend, an affable and genial man, a true 
and faithful member of society and a patriotic and 
influential citizen. 

G. H. Ferrall was born in Columbiana county, 
Ohio, on November u, 1844, being the son of Elihu 
and Mary A. (Hart) Ferrall. The father was born in 
Ohio, in 1814, was a pioneer of Columbiana county 
and also in Hinsdale county, Michigan, and is now liv- 
ing in Michigan. The mother was born in Ohio, in 
1814, and is still living in Michigan. Her father was 
a pioneer of Columbiana county, Ohio, and was a sol- 
dier of the war of 1812. Our subject remained at 
home until nineteen years of age, gaining his educa- 
tion from the schools of his place. Then he \\ 
stirred by the spirit of patriotism and enlisted in Coi 
pany G.' Fourteenth Michigan, under General Sher- 
man. He participated in the battles of Goldsborough, 
Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, Atlanta and many 
other engagements. He transported seventeen hun- 
dred troops from New York to Morehead, South Caro- 
lina, and then rejoined his command under Sherman 
and was in the famous march to the sea. When the 
time came to lay down the arms of warfare, Mr. Fer- 
rall returned to his home and went to the study of 
mjedicine in Cleveland, and in 1870 he graduated with 
distinction. Then he repaired to Fayette, Ohio, and 
there practiced for five years. Then a move was made ; 
to Ransom, Michigan, where he practiced for seven 
years. He followed his profession in Ithica, Michi- 



gan, for several years. Then he came to Coeur 
d'Alene, Idaho, and practiced there and handled a ranch 
for ten years. Between the oversight of the farm 
property and his profession the Doctor was a very 
busy man and reaped the reward of his industry in 
that he gained a good financial success. Then he 
went to Walla Walla and engaged in the manufactur- 
ing business for a couple of years; in 1898 he took 
up the place where he now lives, two miles north 
from Winchester. He has a fine body of land and 
some excellent timber. The Doctor is one of the in- 
fluential men of the county, is on its school board, has 
promoted the telephone system from Culdesac to Nez- 
perce City, also the mail line from Culdesac to Dublin. 
He is justice of the peace and is looked up to by all as 
especially deserving. 

On February 12, 1873, in Fayette, Ohio, Dr. Fer- 
rall married Miss Orcelia, daughter of Truman L. and 
Harriett (Van Branken) Scofield, natives of New 
York. The father was born in 1821 and died in 1900. 
The mother was born in 1820 and died in 1875. Mrs. 
Ferrell was born in Williams county, Ohio, in 1845. 
Her parents were pioneers of that county and Fulton 
county, Ohio. She has one brother and one sister, 
Edwin and Ellen Sails. Dr. Ferrall has the following 
named brothers and sisters: Barzillai F., Elizabeth, 
Oliver P., Jennie E., John W., James E., Taylor S. 
and Lucy I. To Dr. Ferrall and his wife there have 
been born three children, Harriett E., wife of Charles 
: R. Howard, a telegraph operator for the Western 
[ Union; Ellen M., wife of Homer King, in Coeur 
d'Alene ; Lee E., in the fire department in Spokane. Dr. 
Ferrall is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and his 
wife affiliates with the Presbyterian church. Dr. Fer- 
rall is a stanch Republican and active in this realm. 
Mrs. Ferrall was married first to Morris J. Dodd. who 
lived but fifteen months after his marriage. One son, 
| Fred N., was born to this union. He is passenger con- 
ductor on the Spokane and Northern Railroad, which 
runs from Spokane to Rossland. Dr. Ferrall is a 
warm advocate of good schools and is doing much for 
the cause of education in his community. 

SAMUEL PATTERSON. It is fitting that es- 
pecial mention should be granted to this estimable 
gentleman, for he is one of the industrious workers 
who are building up the county and he is doing his 
share in a commendable manner. His family home 
is about two miles northeast from Slickpoo, where he 
owns a quarter section, which is devoted to all the 
various grains indigenous to this latitude. He has an 
orchard and also raises stock to consume his farm 
produce. He is an energetic man and operates a 
threshing machine in addition to the other employ- 
ments of his land. Mr. Patterson is well liked and is 
an influential and respected member of the community. 

Taking an account of the details of his earlier life, 
we note that he was born in Marion county, Oregon, 
on January I, 1860, being the son of John and Sarah 
A. (Stout) Patterson. The father was a farmer, born 
in Pennsylvania and died in 1867. He came to Cali- 

fornia in 1847 an <3 was an early pioneer of Oregon, 
taking a donation claim there. The mother died in 
1865. Being thus left an orphan at a tender age, our 
subject was taken into the family of F. M. Thompson, 
where he received good treatment and remained until 
fourteen years old. He then went to work for him- 
self and at twenty he went to farming in Wasco 
county. He took a pre-emption there and tilled it for 
twelve years. In 1890 he sold that property and re- 
moved to Latah county and farmed for six years. 
Then a move was made to the reservation and he 
took his present claim. Since that date he has be- 
stowed his labors here continuously. He is being pros- 
pered and is one of the leading citizens of his section. 
On July 4, 1880, he was married to Miss Henri- 
etta, daughter of George W. and Martha A. (Threld- 
keld) Wayne. The father is a farmer and lives on the 
reservation. He was born in 1837 and the mother 
was born in Missouri, and died in 1862. Mrs. Pat- 
terson is an only child and was born in Galloway 
county, Missouri, in 1862. Mr. Patterson has one 
brother and one sister, Elizabeth Down, in Silverton, 
Oregon; Richard, also in Oregon. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Patterson there have been born eight children, named 
as follows: George W., Martha A., John, Ernest, 
Frank, Charles, Daniel B. and Minnie L. Mr. Patter- 
son is not bound by partisan ties in political matters 
but votes for the man. He is a warm advocate of good 
schools and labors for their establishment. He is edu- 
cating his children in the state normal at Lewiston. 

PHILLIP S. SMITH. This pioneer and sub- 
stantial stockman and farmer of Nez Perces county is 
deserving of mention in this history since he has 
labored here for the advancement of the interests of 
the county and has done a good work in development 
since residing here. He was born in Cedar county, 
Iowa, on February 17, 1838, being the son of George 
S. and Clarissa (Stockton) Smith. The father was 
a carpenter and millwright, born in Tennessee, in 1802. 
He went to California in 1849 ar >d died there in 1852. 
He was a captain of the militia in Iowa. The mother 
was born in Indiana in 1812. Her father, William 
Stockton, was a pioneer of that country and an Indian 
trader, and she was raised among the Delaware In- 
dians until she was ten. Our subject came to Oregon 
with his mother in 18=13, settling in Linn county. She 
died the next year, leaving him an orphan. He went 
then to California and mined in Siskiyou county for 
three years. Next we see him in Oregon learning the 
saddler's trade in Santiam, Marion county. Four 
years later, he came to Washington and thence to 
Idaho. In 1862, he was in Pierce City mining and in 
Florence, Warren and other camps he delved for the 
treasures of earth for a time and then went to pack- 
ing. In 1867 he secured a pack outfit for himself 

jacent camps until 1871. Then he sold the outfit and 
operated land, since which time he has largely de- 
voted himself to agriculture and stock raising. In 
1896 he took up a claim on the Xez Forces reservation. 


He was in the country during the Indian war in 1877'. 
In 1864 a band of renegade Indians went on the war- 
path and he was one of a company of citizens that 
formed to resist them. They were received as United 
States soldiers and served until the savages were re- 
pelled. He carried the mail from Lapwai to Magnolia 
for two years and from Lapwai to Slickpoo for three 
years, up to July, 1902. 

In 1872 Mr. Smith married Susan, a Nez Perces 
woman, who was raised by Mrs. Craig, being a niece 
of that lady. To this marriage there have been born 
four children, William, in this county; an infant, de- 
ceased; Jackson, deceased; Lydia, wife of Paul Cor- 
bett, living in Kamiah. Mr. Smith is a Democrat but 
not partisan. He has brothers and sisters as follows : 
Mary A. Wood, Samuel, Nancy Crank and Rebecca 

STEPHEN JACQUES. From the sunny land of 
France comes the enterprising and capable gentleman 
whose name initiates this paragraph, and what was 
the misfortune of that land is the good fortune of this, 
for Mr. Jacques has been a first-class citizen of the 
United States for a number of years and has wrought 
for the advancement of Nez Perces county in various 
ways for a long time. His native spot is La Ca- 
nourgue, near Bordeaux, in southern France, and the 
date of his birth, January i, 1854. His parents were 
Stephen and Rose (Vieillevigne) Jacques. The 
father was born near La Canourgue in 1825 and died 
in 1885 there. The mother was born in the same 
vicinity and died in 1897. Our subject worked with his 
father, who was a wealthy man of his section, and 
there gained his education, finishing the same- by a 
course in college. After the days of schooling were 
over, he went to farming for himself and did well. 
He had a fine piece of land and could have sold it for a 
large amount as it was well set to choice vines, but 
later an insect destroyed the vines, and Mr. Jacques 
became discouraged. 'He then determined to try his 
fortune in the United States and accordingly came 
hither, landing in New York, having left his family in 
France. He labored for a time and then came to Lew- 
iston, where he worked for Louis Delsol. He went 
to Spokane in 1889, the year after the fire. He started 
a restaurant and did well. Four years were spent 
there and then Mr. Jacques came back to Lewiston, 
going thence to Camas prairie, near Grangeville. Re- 
turning to Lewiston, he remained there a few years 
to educate his children, and then came to Lapwai and 
started a general merchandise establishment. For 
three years he did well and then, the reservation open- 
ing, he located the land where he now lives, six miles 
east from South Lapwai. He moved his store to the 
land, erected all needed buildings and has continued 
in the mercantile business since that time. He handles 
stock in addition to the store and also does a general 
farming business. Mrs. Jacques made a visit to France 
and visited the native places. 

On May 28, 1880, in France, Mr. Jacques married 
Miss Flavie, daughter of Francois Jarrousse. She 

was born in 1858. To them have been born the fol- 
lowing children : Noeme, wife of Harry Walruth, in 
Pierce City; Maria, Emile, Eugene, at home. Mr. 
Jacques has four sisters in France and one brother in 
South Africa. He and his family are adherents of 
the Catholic church. 

WILLIAM A. CALDWELL is one of the prom- 
inent men among the old pioneers of this country. He 
has been essentially a pioneer in many lines, having 
done all the arduous duties that fall to the lot of that 
worthy class and also has opened up many lines of 
industry in this section, and is to be credited with ex- 
cellent ability and perseverance and keen foresight in 
these lines. 

William A. Caldwell was born in Tompkins 
county, New York, on December 10, 1832, being the 
son of Gabrial and Maria (Anderson) Caldwell. The 
father was a farmer, born in Orange county, New 
York, and died in 1891. He was a soldier in the war 
of 1812 and held the rank of lieutenant. The mother 
was born in Orange county, New York, and died 
several years since. William was educated and at the 
age of eighteen was ready to start in life for himself. 
He shipped to Panama and assisted to survey the 
Panama railroad. Seven months later he returned to 
New York and then came to Minnesota, entering the 
employ of a packet company. He went to St. Paul, 
where his brother was sheriff of the county, and there 
he remained for five years. He built a saw-mill and 
did well in the venture. Later he sold and engaged as 
wagon master for Colonel Noble to make a wagon road 
on the big bend of the Missouri. They made a trip to 
the Pacific coast country and visited Walla Walla, the 
Fraser river country, and the next spring after gold 
was discovered Mr.' Caldwell went to Oro Fino. He 
mined at Oro Fino, Florence, Warren, Pierce City 
and all the camps of that section and also at Boise 
basin and then he returned to Lewiston. He took a 
government wood contract and then operated a pack 
train to Pierce City. He then bought the Cul De Sac 
stage station, now known as the Caldwell stage station, 
and erected a six-thousand dollar hotel, where he did 
business for twenty years. He was the first man to 
try wheat in the vicinity north of Lewiston. People 
laughed at him when he broke the first one hundred 
acres, but his wheat did well, and thus he opened a 
great source of wealth for the country. In 1883 Mr. 
Caldwell built a palatial home in Lewiston and later 
he acquired title to the Colonel Craig donation claim 
and also to the other half of the section, but he was 
obliged to carry it to the courts of last resort. Mr. 
Caldwell, in addition to his other activities, has al- 
ways been a large operator in stock. He handled 
about ten thousand stock sheep and vast herds of cattle 
and horses. 

On July 5, 1871, in Lewiston, Mr. Caldwell mar- 
ried Miss Maria, daughter of Michael and Elizabeth 
(O'Neil) Reddy, natives of Ireland. The father came 
to Canada when a large boy and the mother came 



when young. Mrs. Caldwell was born in Ontario, in 
1849, and remained there until twenty and was edu- 
cated in the world famous schools of that province. 
Then she came with her parents to California and 
later to Idaho, where they died. She has two brothers 
and five sisters, Richard, Catherine Worden, Elizabeth 
White, Margaret Vennigerholz, Sarah Elliott, Jennie 
Parker and Owen. Mr. Caldwell has the following 
named brothers and sisters: Thomas, James, Isabelle, 
Nancy, all deceased, and Helen, Julia Mallory and Fan- 
ny Thorp. To Mr. and Mrs. Caldwell there have been 
born four children, William A., in Montana ; Solomon 
S., in Nez Perces county ; Frederick G. and Moses, at 
home. Mr. Caldwell is" a member of the Masonic or- 
der. He is a Democrat in politics and active, as also 
are his boys. He owns a section of land where he now 
lives, four miles southeast from Lapwai, and raises 
wheat, barley, corn and handles stock to consume the 
products of the farm. Mr. Caldwell is a strong ad- 
vocate of fine schools and is a supporter of the 

Mr. Schiklman is a thirty-second degree Mason. 
He is also a member of the I. O. O. F. Politically, 
he is a Republican and active in good government, 
but will never have his name placed for office, as he 
is occupied with business. Mr. Schildman is a firm 
believer in broad education and thus is sure that the 
icral morals of the people will be bettered, and he 

abors fo 


WILLIE E. KERN. This enterprising farmer re- 
sides twenty-one miles southeast from Lewiston and 
is one of trie substantial stockmen and farmers of his 
section, having a nice place well improved and pro- 
ductive of good returns annually. \Y. E. Kern was 
born in Richardson county, Nebraska, in 1866, being 
the son of William C. and Roda R. (Cox) Kern. The 
father is a stockman and farmer, born in Indiana in 


HENRY H. SCHILDMAN. There are few men 
in the entire state, if any, who have won as brilliant a 
success in the business world by reason of meritorious 
work and real ability as has the subject of this brief 
article. He is at the present time one of the proprietors 

; of the large mercantile establishments in Lapwai, 
Kamiah, Nezperce and Forest; operated by Lester Cof- 

i fin & Schildman. They have an extensive trade at all 
these establishments. He has put his whole life and 
spirit into the mercantile world and being admirably 
fitted with natural talent, he has made a success that 
would be a crowning effort to a full life in this im- 
portant line and is still numbered with the young men 
of the county. 

We will note the details of his career, as they will 

: be interesting in the history of the county where he 
has wrought with such excellent wisdom. Henry H. 
was born in Warsaw, Illinois, on November 20, 1871, 
being the son of Henry and Josephine Schildman. 
The father was a farmer, born in Ohio, in 1838, and 
now lives in Warsaw. The mother was born in War- 
saw, her parents having come as early pioneers to 
that country. They both died when she was an infant 
and she was reared by her grandparents, who were 
pioneers of Illinois. Our subject worked at home, at- 
tended school in Warsaw, and later attended college 
two years. He remained with his parents until the 
time of his majority. In 1895 he longed for the west 
and accordingly came to Spokane. Six months were 
spent there, after which he repaired to Lewiston, ac- 
cepting a position in the mercantile establishment of 
Coffin Brothers, leading merchants of Lewiston. Dur- 
ing his stay with them, which was two years, they 
had opened a store at Lapwai when the reservation 
was thrown open for settlement. Mr. Schildman was 
installed as manager and soon his real worth and 
ability led the proprietors to take him as a partner. 
He has picked up the Nez Perces language and does 
a large business with the Indians. 

in 1845, !852, and in 1866, and mined in California. 
He was county treasurer of Umatilla county, at Pendle- 
ton, for eight years and was sheriff in Iowa for two 
terms. The mother was born in Indiana in 1827, came 
west in 1878 and is still living. Willie E. was reared 
in Nebraska until thirteen years old and then came 
west with his parents in 1878, completing his educa- 
tion in Pendleton. At fifteen he started for himself 
and worked three years in Umatilla county at black- 
smithing. Then he went to the sound and labored in 
the timber. Four years later he went to Butte, Mon- 
tana, and opened a restaurant, where he did well for 
two and one-half years. He also spent some time in 
the Big Bend country in Washington in the stock 
business and in 1899 he came to his present place. 
January was the month and he has labored since with 
excellent success, being now one of the prosperous 
men of the county. He owns a half section, well im- 

On April 18, 1900, Mr. Kern married Miss Nancy, 
daughter of Dr. Richardson, of the Willamette valley, 
Oregon. He was a leading man of Eugene, and had 
a fine farm and property there. He and his wife are 
both deceased. Mrs. Kern has four brothers and 
three sisters, named below: Minerva. Paris, Sarah, 
Laura, Mitchell, Clinton and James. Mr. Kern is an 
active Republican and is much interested in good 
schools. His father was a veteran of the Civil war. 
Mr. Kern is a man of good qualities and sound prin- 
ciples and stands well in the community and deserves 
the confidence and esteem that he generously receives 
from his acquaintances. 

FRANK BRONCHO. Seven mik- northeast of 
Lapwai is the fine home of the subject of this article. 
He has an elegant residence costing three thousand 
dollars and an estate of five hundred and twenty acres. 
This is well improved with buildings and orchard, 
and is handled skillfully. 

Frank Broncho was born in Fort Hall, Utah, in 


i860, being the son of Thomas and Angeline Broncho. 
The father was born in Canada, of French extraction, 
and died in 1885. The mother was of the Nez Perces, 
born on the reservation. The father was in the em- 
ploy of the Hudson Bay Company at Fort Hall for 
many years. He met Angeline, who had been edu- 
cated by Dr. Whitman, in Walla Walla, and there 
he married her. When Frank was a babe, his parents 
came to Walla Walla and farmed, and there our sub- 
ject received his education. When he was seventeen, 
the family came to Asotin county, remaining three 
years, and then they went to the Nez Perces reserva- 
tion, where they farmed and raised stock. At the 
time of the Nez Perces war the father moved his family 
to the fort at Lapwai but took no active part in the war. 
He carried the mails for years from Walla Walla to 
the fort. He was an old trapper and scout and served 
the United States in the latter capacity for many years. 
He was with Captain Stevens when he made the treaty 
with the Umatilla Indians. Our subject remained with 
his parents until the time of their death and then went 
to farming and raising stock for himself. At the time 
of the allotment of land on the reservation he received 
the estate where he now lives. He formerly owned 
land in Asotin county and did well there with stock. 

In 1885 Mr. Broncho married Miss Marion, daugh- 
ter of Nobe Henry, of American and Dutch descent. 
He is a farmer 'and stockman in Garden gulch 
on the reservation. To Mr. and Mrs. Broncho 
there have been born eight children, Edward, An- 
geline, Bessie, David, James, Anna, Clara and Ben. 
Mr. Broncho has three brothers, Thomas, Antonio, 
Edward, all in this county. Mr. Broncho has been a 

year.;. He was a body guard of Agent Monteith dur- 
ing the war. He is a "man of intelligence and integrity 
and stands well with all who know him. 

JAMES L. BOUNDS. About one-half mile from 
North Lapwai is the elegant home of the subject of 
this article. It is large and tasty and has land there 
which is handled to general farming. Mr. Bounds is 
one of the earliest pioneers in many sections of the 
west and he played a very prominent part in the early 
times when gold was discovered in California. He 
came from the fields there and through his report there 
were hundreds of men who resorted thither. 

James L. was born in Lafayette county, Missouri, 
on February 12. 1830, being the son of Obediah and 
Nancy (Lovelady) Bounds. The father was a farmer, 
born in Virginia in 1789 and died in 1844. He was a 
pioneer to Missouri in 1818 and settled in Lafayette 
county in 1820. He participated in the Black Hawk 
war, and the Osage Indian campaign. The mother 
of our subject was born in White county, Tennessee, 
and died in 1846. James received his education in his 
native place and remained with his mother until her 
death ; then spent some time with his brother-in-law, 
but not agreeing with him, he ran away to join the 
army in the Mexican war. He went to Fort Leaven- 

worth but changed his mind and came to Oregon 
City instead. He drove an ox team all the way and 
consumed six months in the trip. October 30, 1847, 
was the date of his landing there and as times were 
hard he labored at what he could get until 1848 and 
then heard of the gold find in California. With two 
lads who had accompanied him across the plains, he 
went thither on horseback, being the first party that 
went there across the mountains. They were at Clear 
creek in Shasta county, above Sacramento, on Ameri- 
can river, and later at Placerville. He there met Dr 
McBride, the grandfather of the present governor ot 
Washington. He accompanied the Doctor to Ford's 
bar on the middle fork of the American river and 
there made nine hundred dollars the first month. In 
the fall he went back to Oregon in company with O. 
C. Pratt, one of the early governors of Oregon. In 
the spring of 1849, with a large company who were 
induced by his reports to join the exodus, he returned 
to California. They fought the Indians and soon were 
in the mines where young Bounds made fourteen hun- 
dred dollars, in five weeks. He bought and sold horses 
and did well ; later he went to Feather river and bought 
claims and made thirty-three hundred dollars. Being 
taken sick, he went to Sacramento and was doctored. 
He then returned to Oregon and later went back to 
California. Again we find him in Oregon working on 
his donation claim, and in 1857 he went again to Cali- 
fornia and remained seven years. In 1863 he came to 
Walla Walla and went into stock business. He re- 
turned to California in 1882 for his health and re- 
mained until 1890. In 1895 he came to Idaho and 
here he has been since. 

On December 8, 1853, Mr. Bounds married Miss 
Rachel, daughter of Thomas and Eliza Linville, and a 
native of Lafayette county, Missouri. She crossed the 
plains in 1853. Mr. Bounds has one sister living. 
Amanda Stark, in Missouri. Mrs. Bounds has the fol- 
lowing brothers and sisters: Thomas, W. C., Hum- 
phrey, James B. and. Eliza Hardesty. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Bounds there have been born seven children, as 
follows: Nancy King, in Nez Perces county; Homer, 
at Cape Nome; William, in Asotin, Washington; 
Jennie Sumpter; Anna Gilchrist, in California; Bertha 
Adron, in Nez Perces county; Sallie Harrison, in' 
Seattle. Mr. Bounds was deputy sheriff in Siskiyou 
county, California, for many years. He is a Democrat 
in politics and active in the welfare of the county. 

CLINTON T. STRANAHAN. At the present 
time Mr. Stranahan is holding the responsible position 
of superintendent of Indian schools and agent of the 
Nez Perces, with headquarters at Spalding, Idaho. In 
1899 he received the appointment of agent at the hands 
of President McKinley, and in April, 1902, he was in- 
vested with the authority of superintendent of the 
schools, as those two offices had been merged under 
the civil service. Mr. Stranahan has been a very 
active and potent factor in the political realm of the 
state and has always heartily supported the Republican 



principles. For sixteen years, with one exception, he 
has been regularly chosen to represent his district at 
the state convention and his influence has always been 
for good men and right principles. He was deputy 
assessor of Nez Perces county under L. F. Herbert, 
was also deputy auditor and deputy sheriff and in 
1889 he was appointed deputy United States marshal 
under Joseph Pinkham and served through the trying 
times of the strike in the Coeur d' Alenes. He also 
was deputy assessor in Nez Perces county for one 
term. In all this long service, Mr. Stranahan has 
manifested marked efficiency and his sterling faithful- 
ness and integrity were qualities which ever com- 
mended him to the hearty esteem of his fellows. 

It will be interesting to note a part of his career 
in detail, and first we see that he was born in Contra 
Costa county California, near San Francisco, on 
March 17, 1859, being the son of Ebenezer and Ellen 
' n. The father was born in Herki 

(Terry) Stranahai 

and died 

in 1873. He 

:er to Califor- 

daughter of 
of Iowa, and 

nia in 1852 and held a prominent place in the state 
as a leading miner. The mother was born in New 
York and still lives in California. Clinton T. was edu- 
cated in Oakland and when eighteen years of age 
started out for himself. Idaho was the objective point 
of his travels and he located a claim on American 
Ridge, having landed in Moscow in 1878. He gave 
his attention to farming for six years and then en- 
tered upon the public service as mentioned above. 
After his labors in the marshal's office were ended he 
' took a farm adjoining Lewiston, on the Clearwater, 
and demonstrated that excellent fruit can be raised 
here. His fruit farm of forty acres is doubtless one 
of the very best in the northwest, having been brought 
to this excellence by his skill and careful oversight. 
In 1884 Mr. Stranahan married Miss May L., 
r of Samuel L. Bostwick, deceased, a native 
pioneer to Montana, settling there in 
. Mrs. Stranahan was born in Montana, being 
the 'first white girl born in Gallatin valley, now Boze- 
man. Mr. Stranahan has three brothers and two 
sisters, Farrand E., Willoughby F. and Cady R. ; Cora 
Hosom and Esther. To Mr. and Mrs. Stranahan 
there have been born three children, Clyde, Glenthora 
and Everett. Clyde is attending the high school in 
Lewiston. Mr. Stranahan is a member of the W. of 
W. Mrs. Stranahan is a communicant of the Episco- 

THOMAS D. KING. It is pleasant to see this 
gentleman, who operated in the vigorous labors of the 
pioneer in many places on this coast, now enjoying the 
land that he helped to develop with his sturdy labors 
and being one of the prominent and influential citizens. 

Mr. King was born in Logan county, Ohio, in Jan- 
uary, 1834, being the son of Thomas D. and Susan 
(Berry) 'King. The father was a hatter, born in Vir- 
ginia in 1779, and died in Burlington, Iowa, in 1872. 
He was a pioneer in Ohio, Indiana and Iowa. The 
mother of our subject was born in Pennsylvania in 

1789 and died in 1857. The family came to Indiana 
when Thomas D. was young and thence they removed 
to Iowa, where he was educated and grew to nlanhood. 
Arriving at majority's estate, he farmed for himself 
and in 1857 he went via Panama to California. From 
San Francisco, he went direct to Marysville and 
worked for his brother-in-law, Nelson Westcott. He and 
his brother William raised a crop of corn as an experi- 
ment and cleared nearly five thousand dollars from it. 
Some years later they bought a hotel in the mountains 
on Rabbit creek road and did well there. In 1862 he 
sold out and came to Idaho and joined the forces at 
Florence who were digging for gold. Later he went 
to Walla Walla and farmed for a year and then went 
to Oregon. Returning to Boise, he took mining claims 
and later he secured the contract to carry the mail 
from Walla Walla to Colville. Later he took another 
contract from Walla Walla to Lewiston, and here he 
did a general express and passenger traffic. Seven 
years were spent at this and then he. went to Califor- 
nia, settling in San Luis Obispo county, where he 
went into the stock and dairy business. Here he con- 
tinued unutl 1897, then sold out his stock, of which he 
had a considerable, also sold his land, nine hundred and 
sixty acres, and came to Idaho and settled on his pres- 
ent place on the reservation. He is one mile east from 
Lapwai and has a good farm, and his sons, George and 
Ira, also have nice farms here. 

On December 25, 1872, Mr. King married Miss 
Nancy, daughter of James L. and Rachel (Linville) 
Bownds, natives of Missouri. Mrs. King has the fol- 
lowing named brothers and sisters : Homer, Willard, 
Jennie Sumpter, Anna Gilchrist, Birdie Adron,' Sallie 
Harrison, and the following who are deceased. Eliza 
Hawcroft, Martha and Ruth, who both died at the 
same time with diphtheria, Abie, Manda. Mr. King 
has brothers and sisters as follows, William B., Felix, 
Samuel, John, George, Sallie, Harriett, Hannah, Jane, 
Ruth, Kate Louise, Julia Carroll and Mattie Morton, 
all deceased but the first one and the last two. To 
Mr. and Mrs. King have been born seven children, 
James, Minnie, Thomas, all deceased, George W., Ira 
F., Kate, deceased, Rachel. Mr. King is a member of 
the I. O. O. F., and he and his wife belong to the 
Christian church. In political matters, Mr. King is a 
Republican and always active in that realm, but he has 
many times refused office himself. He was a member 
of the school board in California for twelve years. 
Mrs. King's uncles were in the Civil war. Mr. King 
is expecting to handle stock on his farm altogether and 
will increase his holdings in this line. 

OLIVER JOHNSON is one of the industrious 
agriculturists of Nez Perces and his home place con- 
sists of one hundred and twenty acres of good soil, 
nine miles east of Lewiston. He does a general farm- 
ing business and is prosperous and progressive. 

Oliver was born in Dallas, Polk county, Oregon, 
on Julv 19. 1863, being the son of Newton C. and 
Louise A. (Byerly) Johnson. The father was a farmer, 


born in Missouri in 1839, an d died in 1901. He was a 
pioneer^to Oregon, crossing the plains with teams in 
1846 arid the train had a number of battles with the 
Indians. The mother of our subject was born in Iowa, 
on January 29, 1844. Oliver remained at home until 
of age, receiving a good education from the common 
schools. In 1881 the parents removed to Walla Walla, 
Washington. Our subject remained there for a few 
years and then returned to Oregon. While the father 
was near Walla Walla the Snake Indians broke out 
and caused trouble but he did not leave his farm. 
Oliver farmed in Oregon until 1894, then came to 
Whitman county, Washington, and tilled the soil for 
a year and removed to the Potlatch country, where he 
farmed for one year. Then he came to the vicinity 
of Lewiston and when the reservation opened up he 
took his present place, as mentioned above. Mr. John- 
son has labored faithfully in the good work of devel- 
oping the country and has so conducted himself that 
he has won the respect and esteem of all who know 

On October 28, 1886, Mr. Johnson married Miss 
Abbie, daughter of Jack and Mary (Duncan) De 
Lashmutt. The father was a farmer and merchant, a 
native of Pennsylvania and died in 1883. The mother 
was born in Missouri and died in 1885. Mrs. Johnson 
was born in Yamhill county, Oregon, on July 29, 1867. 
She had one sister, Jennie, now deceased. She has 
half brothers and sisters as follows : Isabelle, Sarah, 
Van Buren, Butler, Lindsay, Fillmore, Elsworth, 
Douglas, Josephine, Kate, Jennie, Mattie, Reuben, 
James and Samuel. Mr. Johnson has one sister, Addie 
McDaniel. To Mr. and Mrs. Johnson two children 
have been born, Jessie M. and Erne. Mr. Johnson is 
a member of the M. W. A. In political matters, he is 
a Democrat but never aspires for office. Mr. Johnson 
takes a warm interest in bettering the schools and does 
intelligent labor in all the affairs of politics and local 
concern His uncle, Abraham Byerley, was in the 
Indian war. 

HON. DENNIS W. C. DUN WELL is one of the 
venerable and highly respected citizens of the county, 
is one of the prominent men and is also numbered 
with the earliest pioneers. He has done a giant's part 
in developing the country, and while the wheel of 
fortune has several times badly turned him down, 
still after each backset, he showed the ability, the 
pluck, and the energy to rise and overcome the very 
things that brought disaster, and so obtained a good 
success out of his defeat. 

He was born in Pleasant Valley, New York, on 
August 13, 1817, being the son of George and Orailia 
(Conklin) Dunwell. The father was a tailor, born 
in Massachusetts, in 1780, and died in 1836. The 
mother was born in Connecticut in 1782 and died in 
1872. The parents went to Connecticut when our 
subject was an infant, settling in Salisbury. They 
remained there about twenty years. Then Dennis 
went to Michigan and sold stock and later taught 
school in New York, in Pennsylvania, and in Ohio. 

In 1850, he came to St. Paul, Minnesota, and there 
did contracting and building. He formed a com- 
pany, known as the Dunwell, Harthorn & Coul- 
ter Company, which dealt in grain and handled stock 
and did exceedingly well. During the crash of 1857, 
the company went down, Mr. Dunwell losing as much 
as two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Mr. Dun- 
well then came to Walla Walla, in 1862, with a mule 
team and later he was in Boise and other mining towns. 
He packed from Lewiston to Pierce City and Florence. 
In 1867 he bought a ranch in the Sweetwater coun- 
try. Through dishonesty of his partner, he was again 
stripped of his holdings, and his exepriences about 
this time were exceedingly discouraging. His family 
came to him when he was thus depleted in finances. 
He took a position as secretary of Agent O'Neal, at 
Lapwai, then was elected assessor of Shoshone county 
in 1871 and was soon on his feet again. He then bought 
a farm on five mile prairie, returned to Lewiston to 
school his children, held the mail route from Lewiston 
to Pierce City for four years and bought the old 
Greer ferry. In 1876-7, he was the representative of 
Shoshone county in the territorial legislature at Boise. 
In the spring of 1877, the Indians broke out, burned 
his property, including the ferry, house and goods and 
so forth, and again, Mr. Dunwell was called to meet 
misfortune. He finally gathered the remnants of what 
was left, sold it, and later bought a ranch five miles 
east from Lewiston, which is still known as the Dun- 
well ranch, which he has deeded to his daughter. 
He is making his home now with his son-in-law, . 
Walter A. Smith. Mr. Dunwell was also in the Min- 
nesota legislature and was sheriff of Ramsey county. 
He owned two hundred and fifty acres where the fifth 
ward of St. Paul now is. Mr. Dunwell was a prom- 
inent man in St. Paul as he has been in this country 
and he has always manifested worthy ability and dis- 
cretion while his integrity has never been questioned. 
In 1853, Mr. Dunwell married Miss Mary B., 
daughter of Patrick Brennan, a wealthy man of De- 
troit, Michigan, where the wedding occurred. Mrs. 
Dunwell was born in Canada, on May 12, 1831. Mr. 
Dunwell has one sister, Mrs. Sarah Shears, in Mas- 
sachusetts. Mr. and Mrs. Dunwell have two children, 
Dan, in Oro Fino; Mary W. Smith, at Lewiston. 
Our subject is a member of the Masons and has been 
for fifty-two years. He is the oldest member of the 
county and was granted an honorary membership in 
the St. Paul lodge without dues. He" is also the oldest 
member of the Pioneer Association. Mr. Dunwell has 
a claim pending against the government for five thou- 
sand dollars for damages the Indians did in the war of 
1877. He is a Democrat in political matters and has 
always manifested an intelligent interest in the affairs 
of government as well as in business. 

CHARLES L. HAMILTON. Not only is the 
subject of this article well known as a thrifty and 
up-to-date farmer and orchardist but also in the in- 
dustrial world, he has gained distinction, being a 



pioneer in the blacksmith business in at least three 
different locations in Latah county, and he is withal, 
a man of ability and substantiality, and possessed of 
integrity and uprightness, which have won for him the 
esteem of his fellows. 

Mr. Hamilton was born in Macon county, Missouri, 
on September 2, 1857, being the son of Samuel C. 
and Sarah A. (Blackwell) Hamilton, the father 
being a fruit grower and blacksmith of his section. 
Our subject was educated in Missouri, and also learned 
from his father the art of blacksrnithing, remaining 
there until he had arrived at the age of twenty. He 
then came west to Whitman county, Washington, 
crossing the plains with muie teams. He took a 
preemption in Whitman county and for nine years 
was numbered with the leading tillers of the soil there. 
It was in 1887 when he came to Latah county, and 
here he homesteaded the place where he now lives, 
three miles south from Kendrick. He has an eighty- 
acre farm embellished with comfortable improvements, 
and an orchard of five acres. He operated a black- 
smith shop here and when Leland started, he opened 
a shop there where he beat the anvil to the time of 
honest industry until Kendrick was located, when he 
put up the first shop there as he had been first in both 
the other locations. He did a good business in Kend- 
rick until recently, when he sold the entire property 
and devoted himself entirely to his farming and fruit 
growing interests. Mr. Hamilton is affiliated with 
the W. of W r . Lodge No. 327, being council com- 
mander, which office he has held for five terms, he 
also belongs to the circle, No. 217. He is a director in 
the Methodist church at Leland and at the present 
time he is a member of the Democratic county central 

The marriage of Mr. Hamilton and Miss Addie, 
daughter of Jacob and Catherine A. Van Tine, early 

fax, Whitman county, Washington, on January 14, 
1879, and they became the parents of eight children, 
Leona, wife of B. P. Parks ; the rest all being at home, 
Florence, Ellen Nora, Jessie, Dela, Carver, Ruth and 

BENJAMIN E. WILSON. The subject of this 
sketch was born in Barbour county, West Virginia, 
on July 18, 1853, being the son of David and Amanda 
(Carte'r) Wilson, natives of West Virginia and Vir- 
ginia, respectively. The father was born in Barbour 
county in 1822, and his father was born there also. 
The mother of our subject was born in 1821 and died 
in 1886. In 1866 the family removed to Clay county, 
Indiana, where the father bought land and farmed. 
Benjamin here grew to manhood and received his 
education in the public schools. He took up farming 
for himself at the age of twenty and when he was 
thirty-two he went to Adair county, Missouri, and 
there tilled for five years. It was in 1890 that Mr. 
Wilson determined to try the west for himself and 
accordingly migrated to Tekoa, Washington, and there 
farmed until the reservation opened. His success was 

excellent and when the reservation was ready for 
settlers he came to the vicinity of Lapwai and secured 
a claim which he sold in 1901 and bought his present 
place, two miles west and two south from Melrose, 
He has a good orchard and is putting out more. Mr. 
Wilson has a nice bunch of stock and is breeding 
them up to fine specimens. 

While in Missouri, in 1886, Mr. Wilson married 
Miss Dora B., daughter of Henry and Martha 
(Heuitt) Mustoe, natives of Virginia. They were 
pioneers in Missouri. Mrs. Wilson was born in 
Missouri, in 1863 and has two brothers and one sister, 
William, Albert 'and Loretta Page. Mr. Wilson has- 
two brothers and one sister, Robert, James B., Helkn 
Riley. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs- 
Wilson, Ethel and Blanch, both at home. Mr. Wilson 
is a Mason : has been school trustee and in politics is 
an active Democrat of the Jeffersonian type. He is 
a man of good qualities, has done a good work in 
this county and elsewhere, maintains a first class repu- 
tation, has the confidence of his fellows and is a genial, 
pleasant gentleman of intelligence and worth. 

JASON M. HARRINGTON. Few, if any, have 
done more for the industrial advancement of the county 
during the time in which he has operated here, than 
the subject of this sketch. Mr. Harrington is a mill- 
man, owning and operating a fine saw-mill and manu- 
facturing all kinds of lumber products. He is a man 
of fine ability and is possessed of worth and integrity. 

J. M. Harrington was born in Lewis county, New 
York, on August 16, 1843, being the son of Jeremiah 
and Elizabeth (Hulburt) Harrington. The father was 
a lumberman, born in New York in 1823 and died 
in 1899. His father, Capt. John T. Harrington 
was a prominent lawyer and lumberman and a captain 
in the war of 1812. He was a partner in a law office 
with President Van Buren and married Kate Van 
Buren, a cousin of the president. He lived to be one 
hundred and one years of age and died in 1884. He 
was a pioneer in the Black river region in New York 
and there did an extensive lumber business. His son, 
the father of our subject, was also a successful operator 
there and a prominent lumberman of the state. The 
mother of our subject was born in Lewis county, 
New York. Her mother was a native of Pennsylvania 
and her father of Rhode Island. The subject of this 
sketch came with his parents to Wisconsin when he 
was eleven years of age and the home was there for 
twelve years. Then they removed to Scott county, 
Minnesota, where the father continued in the lumber 
business. Jason M. received a common school edu- 
cation and when the war broke out, he enlisted in the 
quartermaster's department under Captain Haskell and 
did duty until the close of the war. He was at Mem- 
phis, Little Rock, DuVall's bluff and other places, 
serving faithfully until the close of the conflict and 
then went home. He continued in business in Minne- 
sota until the timber began to be scarce and then, in 
1891, he came west, looking for a location. Finding 


the surroundings of Lewiston favorable, he secured 
a site and removed his mammoth establishment there. 
He did a fine business, but in 1897, the fire fiend des- 
troyed his entire plant, entailing a loss of twenty-two 
thousand dollars besides ten thousand dollars worth 
of logs. Phoenix-like, however, Mr. Harrington 
would not brook defeat and at once built another 
mill. This plant is now being handled by his sons 
and they do a good business. 

On August 5, 1868, Mr. Harrington married Miss 
Lavina, daughter of George W. and Elizabeth (Cava- 
nah) Sykes, natives of Ohio and Pennsylvania, re- 
spectively. Mrs. Harrington has the following 
brothers and sisters, George, Mary, David, Lewis, 
Ezra, Henry and Hattie. Mr. Harrington has the 
following named brothers and sisters, Vincent K., 
Curtis, Betty A., Martha Allen and John. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Harrington have been born children 
named as follows : Ellsworth ; Lafayette, in Lewiston ; 
Jennie Robnett, county superintendent; Minnie, 
teacher in the Lewiston public schools; Jeremiah and 
Nettie Knight, in Lewiston ; Nellie, George, Jason M., 
Lewis and Gladys, at home. Mr. Harrington is a 
member of the A. O. U. W. He has always refused 
all nominations, but is a stanch Republican and takes 
an intelligent part in political matters and is a pro- 
gressive and capable citizen. 

WILLIAM BUOYE is one of the first settlers 
in that portion of Nez Perces county where he now 
resides, having come here in 1878, taking a home- 
stead four miles west from where Leland is located 
to-day. Mr. Buoye built the first cabin in the big 
Potlatch prairie and was the second one taking land 
north of the Clearwater and east from the Potlatch. 

Our subject was born in Dodge county, Wiscon- 
sin, near Fox lake, on March 7, 1848, being the son 
of Frank and Elizabeth (Cardwell) Buoye. The 
father was one of the early settlers in that vicinity 
and was occupied in tilling the soil. It was 1868 when 
the family came to Blue Earth county, Minnesota, 
making settlement near Garden City. There the 
parents died. Our subject remained until 1877, in 
which year he determined to try his fortunes in the 
west, and so came to Puget Sound, where he spent 
one year and then in 1878, came to the territory now 
embraced in Nez Perces county. He devoted him- 
self to the culture of his homestead and it has been 
the family home since, with the exception of the years 
from 1883 to 1888, when he was in Lapwai working 
for the government as a carpenter. He now has one 
half section of fine farm land well improved, good 
buildings, choice orchard, and is one of the prominent 
men of his section. 

The marriage of Mr. Buoye and Miss Esther, 
daughter of James and Rose (McDonald) Davis, was 
solemnized in Mankato, Minnesota, on February 14, 
1883, and they have become the parents of three chil- 
dren. William M., eight years of age, and Edna D. 
and Everd D., twins. Mrs. Buoye is a native of Dodge 

county, Wisconsin, when she was taken while young 
by her parents to Blue Earth county, Minnesota. Her 
father died there, but her mother is still living. Mr. 
Buoye is one of the leading citizens of his vicinity 
and stands well, being a man of integrity and sound 
principles. In addition to general farming and fruit 
raising, he raises cattle, sheep and hogs. 

DAVID THOMSON is an enterprising, energetic, 
and thrifty farmer, a public minded citizen, a man 
of integrity and uprightness, and it is fitting that a 
review of his career be placed in the history of Nez 
Perces county, 

David Thomson was born in Ontario, Canada, 
on December 14, 1851, being the son of Joseph and 
Guira (Maria) Thomson. The. father was born in 
Scotland in 1832 and came to Canada when a boy. 
The mother was born in Canada. Our subject re- 
ceived his education in the splendid and world famous 
schools in Ontario, and remained with his father until 
he had reached the age of nineteen. Then he came 
to the lumber regions of Michigan, where he operated 
for four years. It was 1874 when he left for Still- 
water, in Minnesota, and lumbered until 1878, when he 
went to Montana and freighted for twelve years. In 
1890, Mr. Thompson moved to Coulee City, "Washing- 
ton and freighted to Wenatchee and the Cascades for 
three years. Then he removed to Umatilla county and 
in 1893, came thence to Nez Perces county, where he 
farmed for two years and then on November 18, 1895, 
he took his present place, five miles north from Mor- 
row. It is a good quarter section and is well handled. 
Mr. Thomson raises cattle and does general farming. 
He has two brothers and one sister, John, Elizabeth 
Bean, Thomas. He is a stanch Democrat, active and 
influential in local politics while he is always deeply 
interested in the national issues and intelligent in 
the questions of the day. 

JAMES L. HOBART. Among the young and 
enterprising agriculturists of the reservation is to be 
classed the subject of this sketch and the industry, 
thrift, uprightness and good achievements of Mr. 
Hobert are evidence of his worth and integrity. 

James L. Hobart was born in Buchanan county, 
Iowa, on May 20, 1870, being the son of Charles and 
Lavina (Lenington) Hobart. The father enlisted in 
the Ninth Iowa Infantry and served for over four 
years in the cause of his country. He was wounded 
at the battle of Gettysburg and participated in the 
march to the sea and" many other great conflicts and 
arduous undertakings. He was honorably discharged 
and is now a member of the G. A. R.'at Moscow, 
where he and his wife reside. When James was eight 
the family removed to northern Iowa and thence to 
Graham county, Kansas. In the fall of 1881, they 
all come to the vicinity of Moscow and there James 
remained on his father's farm until he was married. 


That happy 

and the lady of his choice 

t took place on September 7, 1890, 
is choice was Mrs. Elizabeth (Crum- 
packer) Decker, the daughter of Henry and Rachel 
(Frazieri Crumpacker. Her parents crossed the 
plains with ox teams in 1864 from Missouri to Boise ; 
in 1865 they came to the Walla Walla valley, settling 
on Dry creek. They were. among the first settlers 
there and when the reservation opened they came 
thither. Here Mrs. Crumpacker died in 1896 and the 
bereaved father is now making his home with the sub- 
ject of this sketch. Mrs. Hobart's first husband only 
lived fourteen months after his marriage. One child 
was born to them, Faye Decker. Four children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Hobart, Winnie A., 
Beatrice, deceased, Doyle D., Naomi R. Mr. Hobart 
was here at the time of the rush in the fall of 1895 
and was fortunate in securing a good place. He has 
it all fenced and under tribute of cultivation and is 
making one of the good "and valuable farms of. the 
country. He came with four horses, one cow and 
one wagon. All his holdings now have been gained 
since that time. Mr. Hobart is a member of the W. 
of W. and is in good standing in the community. 

I. N. RATCLIFFE, the son of W. E. Ratcliffe, 
of whom special mention is made in this work, was 
born in 'Douglas county, Oregon, on July 4, 1870. 
The first eleven years of his life were spent in that 
place and then he went with his parents to southern 
California, where they remained two years. Return- 
ing to Douglas county, our subject spent but a short 
time then journeyed to Davenport, Lincoln county, 
Washington. With the exception of one year which 
was spent in Utah, Mr. Ratcliffe was for thirteen 
years a leading resident of Davenport. Again we see 
him in Oregon and at the time of the opening of the 
Nez Perces reservation he, accompanied by his brother, 
came hither and took a homestead where the town of 
Peck now stands. He gave his attention to improving 
the farm and was instrumental in starting the bright 
town of Peck. Since that time he has devoted himself 
to the real estate business also to handling a livery and 
feed stable. In political matters, Mr. Ratcliffe is a 
Jeffersonian Democrat and well posted in the questions 
of the day. He is a progressive man, of broad mind 
and public spirit and is a leading spirit in any move- 
ment for general advancement and building up the 
town and country adjacent. 

J. C. PETERSON. The devotees of the news- 
paper fraternity have ever been a power in the de- 
velopment and progress of the country since the time 
when the first papers rolled from the early presses. 
Men of talent and enterprise have fought out the bat- 
tles of thought and settled right the questions which 
have been agitated and been brought up in the pro- 
gress which the same papers .had fostered and made 
possible. As a representative of the fraternity, a man 

of ability and sound principles, the subject of this 
article, who is owner and editor of the Peck Press, a 
paper of vitality and merit, is justly represented in the 
history of northern Idaho and it is v'<-h pleasure that 
we grant him space here. 

J. C. Peterson was bom in Tippecanoe county, 
Indiana, on December 22, 1868, the son of Martin B. 
and Margaret A. (Bowers) Peterson, born in Ohio, 
in 1844 and 1846, respectively. The father came from 
Xenia. The mother is a daughter of a noted Dunkard 
minister, Martin Bowers. The parents both live in 
Latah county now. Our subject was well educated in 
his native country and in 1889, came with his parents 
to Washington and settled on Union flats, Whitman 
county. They farmed there one year and in 1890 they 
settled in the vicinity of Vollmer, Idaho, where he 
farmed for some time. In 1895, our subject married 
Miss Rosa M. Hatter, of Vollmer, after which he 
removed into the town of Vollmer and learned the 
printer's art. He engaged in the publication of the 
Vollmer News, succeeding C. S. Moody, and continued 
the sheet until 1898, when he sold out, his partner, 
John E. Hoffman, purchasing it. Then Mr. Peter- 
son removed to Oro Fino, and there was connected 
with the Oro Fino Courier until November, 1900, 
when he bought the Peck Press and since that time 
Mr. Peterson has devoted himself to that paper. He 
has made the paper popular and it is a bright newsy 
sheet of good appearance and taste and is one of the 
lively and sound Republican papers of the northern 
part of the state. 

Mr. Peterson has two brothers, Homar L. and 
Sam B., and six sisters, Laura Booth, Mary Kenny, 
Maggie Rundle, Lulu Minehead, Angre, Edith Brown, 

Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Peterson, Beatrice and Lois. Mr. Peterson takes an 
active part in political matters and is one of the solid 
Republicans who stand on their platform from 
principle. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. and 
the M. W. A. Mr.Peterson has a farm adjoining Peck 
in addition to his paper and other property. He is 
a man whose uprightness and integrity have made him 
popular and of excellent standing among all who have 
the pleasure of his acquaintance. 


in the reservation portion of Nez Perces county, be- 
ing at the present time not only doing a general farm- 
ing business on his estate one half mile east of Kip- 
pen, but also breeding some excellent specimens of 
Percheron and Clyde horses. 

William Cunningham was born in Bradford 
county, Pennsylvania in 1834, being the son of Jacob 
and Emily (Nichols) Cunningham. The father" was 
born in New Jersey in 1821 and died in 1894. His 
people were pioneers in Pennsylvania and he was a 
soldier in the Civil war, being "in Company I, Tenth 
Illinois, under Generals Halleck and Curtis. The mother 

1 4 8 


of our subject was born in Pennsylvania, in 1809 and 
died in 1899, aged ninety-one. The family removed 
to New York, and thence to Ohio and when William 
was eleven they went to Michigan. There he grew to 
manhood and received his education. When he was 
twenty-six, he went to Champaign county, Illinois, 
the family all going, and there he enlisted in Company 
I, Tenth' Illinois Cavalry, in September, 1861, his 
father also enlisting at about the same date. Our 
subject served two years under General Halleck and 
was taken with measles which settled on his lungs 
and so dreadful was the effect of this disease that he 
was unable to speak above a whisper for three years. 
At the close of the war he returned to Illinois and re- 
mained on the farm until 1866, then went to Indiana 
and railroaded for a number of years and then came 
west to Portland and followed the same business for 
some time. He spent three years in the Yakima 
country in Washington, and then went to the reser- 
vation and secured his present place, which he has 
cultivated and improved in a becoming manner. 
March, 1896, was the date of his settlement here and 
he has always been known as one of the substantial 
and progressive men of the community. 

In 1862, in Illinois, Mr. Cunningham married Miss 
Ann, daughter of Barnabas Howe, a farmer and 
pioneer in Indiana. Mrs. Cunningham was born in 
Indiana, in 1838 and has one brother, Ira, at Lapwai, 
Idaho. Mr. Cunningham has two sisters, Ellen 
Knapp and Ida Donaldson, both in Iowa. Six chil- 
dren have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham, 
Emma and William, deceased; Cora Smith, Pearl 
Parkin, and Esther Tipton, in Nez Perces county; 
Earl, at home. Mr. Cunningham is a member of the 
G. A. R., and is an active Republican. He is a man 
who has achieved success in his labors, has sustained 
an unsullied reputation, has always been a stanch and 
upright man and is now enjoying the golden days of 
his life in plenty. 

HIRAM E. CHURCH. It is with pleasure that 
we are enabled to accord the representative and promi- 
nent farmer and stockman, whose name is at the 
head of this article, a review in the history of his 
county, since he is one of the most prosperous men 
of the county, being a heavy property owner and a 
skillful handler of stock, having one of the most pro- 
ductive farms in the county, while in his private walk 
he is a man who has won the esteem and confidence 
of all, being of sound principles, and faithful. 

Mr. Church was born in Walworth county, Wis- 
consin, on October 6, 1847, being the son of Cyrus 
and Emeline (Russell) Church. The father was a 
prominent farmer of that county, and there the mother 
died in 1854, but the father married again and lived 
there until January 7, 1900, being at that time in his 
eighty-third year, and they both rest in the cemetery 
at the home place. The children of the family were 
six boys and two girls. Our subject was educated 
at the schools in his native place, and for twenty-two 
years remained with his father, then started in the 

battle of life for himself. He went to southwestern 
Missouri, purchased a farm and wrought there for 
a decade and then came west to Genesee. He 
purchased land where he now lives, three miles 
south of Genesee, having now about four hun- 
dred acres of fine, rich land. His brother,, 
who is mentioned in this work, owns about the 
same amount adjoining and they operate this large 
amount of land in partnership, handling as high as 
twelve thousand bushels as one year's crop. Our sub- 
ject has his farm well improved and good, substantial 
and commodious buildings erected, while also they to- 
gether own a large herd of stock. Mr. Church has 
an orchard of twelve acres, and he raises abundant 
returns of fruits of all kinds. Mr. Church states that 
this is the most productive country 'that he has ever 
seen, and feels assured that one would have to search 
long and far before another as good section could be 
found. Mr. Church is a man of good ability, has made 
a fine success in his business affairs, has maintained 
an unsullied reputation, and is one of the wise, sub- 
stantial, and leading citizens of Nez Perces county. 

WILLIAM TAVIS. Perhaps the success that the 
subject of this sketch has achieved and wrought out 
here in the reservation country is equal to that of any 
resident. He came here with no means and located 
on a quarter three miles north from Nezperce and he 
now owns this all free from debt; has purchased an- 
other quarter of even finer land and has good improve- 
ments and buildings necessary to handle the entire 
amount in fine shape. Mr. Tavis has good stock and 
implements and is in excellent circumstances. This 
has been no chance luck, for he and his estimable 
wife have labored hard and long to accomplish this 
excellent result. Mrs. Tavis assisted her husband with 
the work of the farm, even driving the five horse 
team to the binder and some of the time carrying her 
three children with her on the machine. It is grati- 
fying to see such arduous labor handled with wisdom 
and resulting in the good property holding that they 

William Tavis was born in Macoupin county, 
Illinois, on September u, 1862, being the son of Isaac 
and Minerva (Potts) Tavis, who were natives of and 
were married in Macoupin county. In 1870, they all 
came to Jasper county, Missouri. The father served 
eleven months in the war and was honorably dis- 
charged at the close. They now live near Marshall, 
Spokane county, Washington. Our subject remained 
with his parents until 1887 then came to Spokane, on 
April 17, of that year. On December 24, 1889, he 
married Miss Mina. daughter of W. G. and Mary M. 
(Jessup) Addington, natives respectively of Indiana 
and Lee county. Iowa, in which county they were mar- 
ried. Then they removed to Cherokee county, Kansas,, 
where Mrs. Tavis was born on May 19, 1871. The 
family then came, via San Francisco, to Dayton, 
Washington, in 1879, and in 1888 they went to Spo- 
kane county. Mr. Addington was four years in the 


Civil war. In 1891, Mr. Tavis went to Wilbur, Wash- 
ington and in 1894 he came to the reservation and 
worked for a man who had Indian land leased. Thus 
he was here to select good land when the reservation 
opened, which he did, gaining his present home. Mr. 
Tavis had to go out to harvest for the purpose of 
gaining provisions and he started with abundant hard- 
ships. His first grist, being sixteen sacks, he hauled 
to Lewiston, the trip consuming eight days. Five 
children have been born to this couple, Roy E., Lora 
E., deceased, Goldie P., Tina M., Warren W. 

SAMUEL LOCKRIDGE. As a representative 
farmer of the reservation country, a man of intelligence 
and worth and a loyal and patriotic citizen of our 
commonwealth, we chronicle the subject of this article. 

Samuel Lockridge was born in Warren county, 
Iowa, on November 9, 1863, being the son of William 
and Elizabeth J. (Simmons) Lockridge. The father 
was born on February 6, 1834, in Augusta county, 
Virginia, and came with his parents when a small 
child to Indiana, where he grew to young manhood 
and was educated in the schools of that day. In 1853 
he went to Iowa and there remained until 1893, living 
a time, however, in Oklahoma. He is a man of promi- 
nence and worth and has often times been chosen for 
offices of trust in the county and has ever discharged 
his duties with efficiency and faithfulness. His grand- 
father, William, was one of the patriots who fought 
for our independence and the fruits of those praise- 
worthy labors are ours to enjoy to this day. He used 
a flintlock rifle in the war under Morgan which an 
uncle in the family, Jacob Daggy, used in the war of 
1812, and which is now a prized heirloom of the 

William Lockridge was married in Iowa to Eliza- 
beth Simmons, who was a native of Iowa and died 
in Oklahoma in 1895. Our subject was brought up in 
Iowa and there received his education. He remained 
with his father until of age and then farmed in Iowa 
some time longer. In 1893 he journeyed to Okla- 
homa and later bought a relinquishment to a pre- 
emption. This was his family home until 1899, the 
same being in Lincoln county, near Chandler, which 
he sold and took a trip back to Ohio, after which he 
came and bought his present place in 1900, which has 
been the home since. He does general farming, has 
a good place and devotes some attention to stock. Mr. 
Lockridge is a Democrat and is active in the cam- 

On December 9, 1891, Mr. Lockridge married 
Miss Eliza C, daughter of Joseph S. and Cynthia 
(Ellenwood) Dilley. The father who was born June 
II, 1828, in Virginia, was a pioneer in Washington 
county, Ohio, where he still lives. The mother was 
born March 9, 1826, in Virginia, where she was 
brought up and died in Ohio, on August 22, 1887. 
Mrs. Lockridge has the following named brothers and 
sisters: Joseph R., John W., Nahen S., Suzie M. 
Mr. Lockridge has six brothers and sisters: Leander 

J., Mrs. Mary Wheat, John W., Robert A., Sarah Fol- 
lett, and Savannah C. Mr. and Mrs. Lockridge have 
two children, Mabel D. and Clara M. 

DAVID B. CHURCH. One of the early pioneers 
of this section, and to-day one of the most substantial, 
energetic and progressive agriculturists of the county, 
the subject of this sketch is eminently fitted to be 
represented in the history of Nez Perces county, be- 
ing a man of strong personal character, and withal 
of integrity, ability and executive force. The birth- 
place of Mr. Church is in Wahvorth county, Wiscon- 
sin, his birth occurring on February 25, 1852; his 
parents were Cyrus and Emeline (Russell) Church, 
natives respectively of Connecticut and Ohio. The 
father came to that section in 1836, being a pioneer 
and there farmed all his life, his death occurring while 
he was on a visit to Chicago in 1899. Our subject 
was educated in the schools of his native place and he 
remained with his father until he had arrived at the 
age of twenty-three years. In the year 1875, he came 
to California and one year later went thence to Salem, 
Oregon, and six months later came to this country. 
In June. 1877, he removed to the place adjoining the 
one where he now lives and the next year moved onto 
his present place, which is six and one half miles 
southwest from Genesee. He gained title to this land 
by the homestead right and has since that time given 
his time and attention to farming, stock-raising and 
raising fruits. He and his brother, Hiram E., are in 
partnership, owning about eight hundred acres of land, 
mostly rented and since the orchards have come to 
bearing they occupy the time and attention of the 
owners. The brother came here in 1884. Our subject 
has his land well improved, is a skillful farmer, and 
has taken the part of the intelligent and loyal citizen 
in the affairs of the country. He is highly esteemed 
and commands the respect of all. 

ANDREW M. JOHNSON is a sawmill man and 
a machinist, dwelling about four miles southwest from 
Ilo, where he owns a fine quarter section of good pine 
timber land and operats a sawmill. He has a good 
plant and does a thriving business, being a man of 
practical qualities and able to adapt himself to any 
portion of the work of the mill. 

Andrew M. Johnson was born in Dallas county, 
Texas, on May 29, 1869, being the son of Andrew and 
Elna (Martinson) Johnson, natives of Sweden. The 
father was born January 10, 1837, came to this country 
and (lid contracting on" the Texas Pacific, was one of 
the pioneer settlers in the Big Bend country and died 
in October, 1896. In addition to our subject there 
were born to this couple the following named children : 
Nels T., born in Sweden, on April 2, 1867, being now 
a mining man; Mauritz C., born in Texas, on January 
15, 1879; Amos E., born in Denton county, Texas, 
iii 1881. Our subject started out for himself when 


seventeen, prospected and worked in the Okanogan 
country and two years later he went to Colfax and 
there farmed until the spring of 1896, when he came to 
the Nez Perces reservation and filed a homestead. 
He relinquished in 1899 and filed another homestead 
where he now lives. After he sold his first place, 
Mr. Johnson bought an interest in the Fletcher roller 
flour mills but sold that property six months later. 
Then he established his present sawmill plant and 
to the prosecution of this business he has devoted his 
time and energies since. Mr. Johnson is one of the 
substantial and capable men of this section and is 
numbered with the progressive and industrious citi- 
zens of the county. 

On October 12, 1902, Mr. Johnson married Miss 
Lillie Wright, whose parents are mentioned elsewhere 
in this volume. The wedding occurred in Nez Perces 
county. In politics, Mr. Johnson is a Republican and 
is well posted on the questions of the day. 

FELIX WARREN. The engineer is fast taking 
the place of the Stage driver and the flying pony ex- 
pressman, but occasionally we find one of the old 
timers, whose eye will flash with the same fire of 
adventure and uncurbed spirit as characterized the 
early men who drove the dangerous routes of the west 
in days of savage wars and wild scenes. Among the 
very best stage drivers that ever drew reins west of 
the Rockies and as a veritable leader of them all in 
the northwest, we mention the well known gentleman 
whose name stands at the head of this "article. Felix 
Warren is one of the genuine old time stage men, 
who scorned the savages, weathered the fiercest storms 
and passed through the trying scenes and dangers 
incident to stage life of the west. He has never been 
beaten in a contest and has drawn reins with the best 
men the country could produce. Keen, brave, kind, 
and genial, he has commanded the respect, and won 
the esteem and confidence of all, while steadily from 
the pioneer days until the present he has followed his 
line of business and is now handling the stage from 
Lewiston to Cottonwood, where he has driven for six- 
teen years, twelve consecutively. 

A detailed account of the career of Mr. Warren 
will be hailed with keen delight by all old timers and 
with pleasure we append the same. He was born in 
Sullivan county, Missouri, on July 15, 1852, being the 
son of Hugh and Esther (Sturgill) Warren. The 
father was born in North Carolina in 1821 and died in 
1880. He was a pioneer of Missouri and a fifty-niner 
in California, where he remained until 1865, when he 
returned to the states and came with his family to 
Walla Walla and bought a farm engaging in stock 
raising until his death. He was captain of the train 
of one hundred and thirty-six wagons which he piloted 
over in safety. The mother of our subject was born 
in Virginia and died in 1884. Felix was twelve years 
of age when he came with his parents to this country 
and he remained with his father until eighteen and 
then went to packing to the Kootenai country, British 

Columbia. He did this on account of his health and 
as the outdoor exercise was bracing and improving 
him, he continued until he was twenty-three. Then he 
began staging from Almota to Colfax and in 1875 took 
up the business on his own account. He operated 
from Dayton to Walla Walla and about that time 
bought the entire holdings of the Northwestern Stage 
Company, which included many lines in this country, 
among which were those from Dayton to Colfax, thence 
to Sprague, Cclfax to Lewiston, Lewiston to Spokane 
Falls, and others. These Mr. Warren operated for 
fifteen years and also from Dayton to Lewiston for 
six years. He had as partner, A. A. Newberry, well 
known in the northwest and they operated from Lewis- 
ton to Mt. Idaho. It is thus se'en that Mr. Warren is 
the oldest and most extensive stage and mail operator 
in the entire country. He was special messenger for 
the government in the Bannock war and at one time 
he drove from Mt. Idaho to Lewiston in less than ten 
hours, hauling fourteen passengers, among whom were 

Howard, a famous California driver. Mr. Warren 
drove six horses and had four relays in this trip. Bell 
Foster, a noted scout and an intimate friend of Mr. 
Warren, was killed at Cottonwood by the savages dur- 
ing the Nez Perces war. 

On March 3, 1873, Mr. Warren married Miss 
Janetta Smails, at Walla Walla. She has three broth- 
ers, John, Harvey and Robert. She was born in 
Iowa in 1860. Mr. Warren has the following brothers 
and sisters, Solomon S., a miner at Nome ; Joseph F., 
chief of police in Spokane for years, now in Nome; 
Robert S., in Nome ; Mrs. H. "W. Spalding, at Al- 
mota, whose husband was a son of the noted mission- 
ary Spalding; Inez Dawson, in Yakima, whose hus- 
band is a stockman. Mr. Warren is an active Demo- 
crat and has been honored by his party with a number 
of nomination? for office. Mr. Warren was well 
acquainted with the noted Joe Aleek. He is a member 
of the Pioneer Association and one of the best known 
and highly esteemed men of the entire northern part 
of the state. 

JOHN NELLSEN. It is with pleasure that' we 
are enabled to grant space in the history of northern 
Idaho to the young and enterprising agriculturist 
whose name is at the head of this article as he has 
done excellent work here in the development of the 
resources of the country, has wrought with a hand of 
industry in improving his homestead and has so con- 
ducted himself that he has won and retains the good 
will and esteem of all who know him. 

John Nellsen was born in Calumet county, Wiscon- 
sin, on January 26, 1870, being the son of John and 
Elizabeth (Hammer) Nellsen, who are mentioned in 
another portion of this work. Our subject remained 
under the parental roof until he had attained the age of 
twenty and then went out to encounter the storms 
of life alone. He came to Walla Walla about that 
time and went to work hauling hay and straw. This 
was in the winter and during the summer he wrought 


st field. When the reservation opened he 
ig mountain and took his present place of 

in the har 

came to Crag mounan an oo s presen pace o 
one hundred and twenty acres of fine pine timber land, 
which lies about four miles northwest from Morrow. 
Mr. Nellsen has some extra fine springs on his land 
and by his own efforts he has cleared sixteen acres. 
The first two years here, he and his brother worked 
out most of the time to get a start, but since then they 
have rented land and have done well, threshing this last 
year five thousand bushels of grain. They have their 
own machinery, horses, and are numbered with the 
prosperous men of this section. Much credit is due 
this worthy young man in his efforts to build up the 
country and make a good home; just such sturdy toil- 
ers as he are the ones who have made this country 
prosperous and the richest in the world. 

ANTON HEITFELD. It is gratifying to us 
that we are enabled to chronicle the outline of the 
interesting career of the estimable gentleman whose 
name is at the head of this article, since he has done 
much for the building up of Nez Perces county, is 
one of its well-to-do and substantial citizens to-day 
and is a man of sterling qualities of worth and princi- 
ple, always being allied on the side of right and wis- 
dom. Mr. Heitfeld was born in St. Louis, Missouri, 
on February 24, 1864, being the son of Henry and 
Theresa (Winkelman) Heitfeld, natives of Germany, 

cated in St. Louis and engaged in a shoe store, where 
the father continued until his death in 1868. In 1870, 
the mother with her children went to Kansas, where 
for thirteen years they farmed. In 1882, they removed 
to Nez Perces county where she died in 1892, being 
buried in the Catholic cemetery in Genesee. At 
Seneca, Kansas, our subject received his first school- 
ing and always remained with his mother until the 
time of her death. He formed a partnership with his 
brother Henry and together they own one entire sec- 
tion of land, all under cultivation and producing as 
high as twelve thousand bushels of grain in one season. 
They have also an orchard of ten acres, about the 
largest and finest in the entire locality. Mr. Heitfeld 
is one of the most enterprising agriculturists of Nez 
Perces county, is a man of broad experience and ex- 
ceptional talent, and has always been dominated by 
keen foresight, acute discrimination and good wisdom, 
which account for the brilliant success that he has 
had in the realm of agriculture and fruit raising. 

The marriage of Mr. Heitfeld and Miss Frances 
A., daughter of Edward and Barbara (Henzel) 
Kempf. occurred in 1897, ar >d they have been blessed 
with the advent of two children. Edward H. and Jose- 
phine J. Mr. Heitfeld is a member of the W. of W., 
Uniontown Camp, No. 207. He and his wife are de- 
vout members of the Roman Catholic church. It is 
of note that the subject of this sketch is a brother 

of Hei 

Heitfeld, his 

also United States senator from the state of Idaho. 
Henry Heitfeld, now United States senator, was 

prominent in the political realm for his sagacity, sound 
principles, who in 1894 was nominated 'by the 
Peoples party, endorsed by the Democrats and elected 
to the position of state senator at Boise, by a handsome 
majority. In 1896, he was nominated again, and again 
promptly elected by an appreciative people and during 
that term he was proposed for the United States 
senate against F. Duboise, silver Republican, and Heit- 
feld was elected, and in the capacity of senator from 
the state of Idaho he is doing faithful and capable 
work in Washington, D. C. More specific mention of 
him will be made in another portion of the work. 

JAMES D. BOWMAN, a farmer and stockman 
of excellent standing and blessed with good success 
in his labors, and one of the builders of the reser- 
vation country where he has wisely bestowed 
his labors since it opened for settlement, was born in 
Salem, Oregon, on August 19, 1852, being a son of 
Joshua and Emmeline (Loveland) Bowman, natives 
respectively of Ohio and New York. The father was 
born in 1808 and died in 1877. He came to Salem in 
1851, and then moved to Clackamas county, where he 
took a half section of land. Our subject was brought 
up and educated in Oregon City and remained there 
until he was twenty-one. At that time he came to 
eastern Oregon and engaged in the cattle business. 
He made several trips back and forth across the 
mountains, and in 1877 came to the Palouse country 
near Genesee. There he farmed and freighted until 
1895, when he came to the opening reservation and 
took his present place, a little southeast from Dublin, 
where he does general farming and raises hogs and 

On February 28, 1883, Mr. Bowman married Miss 
Nettie, daughter of John A. and Harriet (Mosier) 
Stanton. The father was born January 17, 1823, 
farmed in Missouri and came as a pioneer to Oregon 
in the early 'fifties. He settled to farming on a do- 
nation claim near 'Silverton, Oregon, and was promi- 
nent in political matters, holding the county offices 
frequently. Mrs. Bowman was born in Marion 
county, Oregon, on May 23, 1866, and has the follow- 
ing brothers and sisters: Isabella Murray, Josephine 
Thomas, Jennie, deceased, Frank, Jasper N.. Benjamin. 
John, Willard, Amanda Woodcock, Blufford, Mary 
Allen, deceased. Mr. Bowman has brothers and sis- 
ters named as follows: Joseph, Charles, Mary Smith, 
Ann Markham, Margaret Jones. Seven children have 
been born to this household, Pearl, Clyde, Herman, 
Charles W., John E., Mamie E., Nellie' M. 

DAVID E. JOHN. About one mile north from 
Nezperce is the home place of the enterprising young 
man whose name appears above and he is to be classed 

culturists of this 
premises testifies. 

mis and wise agn- 
ything about his 

I 5 2 


David E. John was born in Greene county, Penn- 
sylvania, on May 16, 1875, being the son of David and 
Mary E. (Edgar) John, natives also of Greene county. 
When our subject was two years old, the family went 
to Washington county, where his mother died on 
January 17, 1894. The father, who is still living there, 
aged eighty-six, is a prominent and wealthy farmer 
of that section. The parents, as also our subject and 
his wife, are all members of the German Baptist 
Brethren. David E. attended school in his native 
place and on December 25, 1896, he married Miss Alice 
C, daughter of Silas and Nannie (Rodabaugh) 
Johnson. In March, 1897, they came to the reservation 
country with his father-in-law, the party consisting 
of thirteen. This was simply for a trip but when they 
arrived here the country was so favorabe and pleasing 
that Mr. John secured the relinquishment of the farm 
where he now resides and he at once went to improv- 
ing. He has a good six-room house, large barn and 
outbuildings, with many other good improvements. 
Mr. John has fenced his entire farm with hog tight 
fencing and is intending to raise hogs extensively. He 
is blessed with a goodly holding of property and is one 
of the substantial men of the section. Two children 
have been born to them, Volley Clifford, born July 6. 
1897, and died at the age of fifteen months; David 
Bernard, born August 8, 1902. 

S. LESLIE THOMPSON, one of the old time 
business operators in Lewiston, where for fifteen years 
he was in one establishment, a genial and capable 
business man, is now one of the firm of Fair & Thomp- 
son, art dealers in Lewiston. Mr. Thompson is also 
city treasurer and is one of the substantial and highly 
esteemed men of the city. 

S. Leslie Thompson was born in Proctorsville. Ver- 
mont, on October i, 1863, being the son of Samuel 
L. and Alsada E. (Flint) Thompson. The father was 
born in New Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1843, en ~ 
listed in the Fourth Vermont Infantry, on September 
17, 1861, and was discharged on May i, 1862, on ac- 
count of disability. Mr. Thompson came west and is 
now justice of the peace in Lewiston. The mother of 
our subject was born in Oakham, Massachusetts, and 
died in 1890. The father's people are Scotch and 
English 'and the mother's ancestors were Scotch. Our, 
subject grew to young manhood in Massachusetts and 
there received his education. When twenty, he came 
to Lewiston, and in 1886 engaged with the firm of 
Vent & Butler, remaining in their drug store for fifteen 
years. This excellent service demonstrates the stability 
and good business qualities of Mr. Thompson and he 
has won a position in the business and social realm 
of Lewiston that is highly enviable. In 1901, Mr. 
Thompson formed a partnership with Mr. Fair and 
opened his present business, where he is having a 
thriving patronage and is being prospered. He 
handles all lines of art goods and artists' materials and 
supplies and is also doing a good trade in Indian 
curios and selected goods. 

On November 16, 1892, Mr. Thompson married 
Ida Bunnell Walker, daughter of D. L. Bunnell, a 
well known hardware merchant of Lewiston. Mr. 
Bunnell was born in New York and died in 1888. He 
was a pioneer of Oregon. Mrs. Thompson was born 
in Oregon in 1863 and has one brother, Oscar C. 
Mr. Thompson has two brothers and two sisters, 
Moses W., William H., Hattie Mudge, Ella M. Snell. 
William H. is a member of the New Hampshire 
legislature. Two children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Thompson, Waldo B., aged eight, and Edith, 
aged six. Mr. Thompson is fraternally allied with 
the K. P. and the W. W. He is a Republican and 
active in the campaigns. 

J. SMITH MOUNCE, one of the heavy real 
estate owners in Nez Perces county, has shown him- 
self to be one of the substantial and capable men of 
the entire county and is respected and esteemed by 
all. His estate of nine hundred and sixty acres lies 
four miles southeast of Lewiston, and is well improved 
and handled to the best advantage to bring fine re- 
turns to its proprietor. The nucleus of this fine do- 
main was a pre-emption that Mr. Mounce took in 1886. 
He now devotes the large tracts to wheat, barley and 
other crops and raises fine Jersey cattle, having also 
operated a dairy for many years. He has made a 
praiseworthy success of his endeavors in the line of 
the business world and is deserving of credit not only 
in this particular field but also for the manly way in 
which he has conducted himself, and the integrity he 
has shown, always having the courage of his con- 
victions and not being afraid to show his principles. 

Reverting to the details of his life, we note that 
Mr. Mounce was born in Linn county, Iowa, on April 
22, 1854, being the son of Isaac and Priscilla Mounce, 
natives of Indiana and Ohio, respectively. The father 
was born on April 23, 1824. and was a stockman 
and farmer. His parents, Smith and Elizabeth 
M'ounce, were early pioneers of Iowa. The mother 
of our subject was born on February 27, 1831, and 
died in April, 1899. J. Smith remained at home and 
received his education from the country schools : when 
he became of age took charge of the farm until he was 
twenty-five. Then he married and started for him- 
self. Rented a farm for a time and in the fall of 1879, 
he came to Clark county, Washington, where he bought 
land and tilled it for two years or more, then sold it 
and worked in a shingle mill and then came to Nez 
Perces county. It was March, 1882, that he landed 
here and with his brother, Eben, he farmed for three 
years. He took up a preemption in the second year, 
which is a part of the home place now, as mentioned 
above. It was in 1886 that he removed to this place 
to remain and he has been here ever since. 

On March 20, 1879, Mr - Mounce married Miss 
Mollie, daughter of George O., born on January 28, 
1819, and Harriet (Wyckoff) Smith born February 
i, 1825, natives of Kentucky and Illinois, respectively. 
Mrs. Mounce was born in Benton countv, Iowa, in 




1861 and has the following brothers and sisters, Sam- 
uel S. and Hugh M., Nancy, Ellen Harris, Lida 
Ward. Mr. Mounce has brothers and sisters as 
follows: Isora, Eben, Ida, Clara Goodnight, Lafay- 
ette, Harriett Ruddell, Edith Ruddell, Effie May and 
Eva Gay, twins, who died in infancy. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Mounce there have been born the following 
children : Guy C., Beatrice, Carl R., and Virna Mil- 
dred. The two older children are attending the state 
normal at Lewiston. Mr. Mounce is a member of 
the M. W. A. and the R. N. of A. Mrs. Mounce also 
belongs to the last named order. He and his estim- 
able wife are members of the Christian church and 
they are devout supporters of the faith. In 1900 and 
1902 Mr. Mounce was nominated for county commis- 
sioner by the Prohibition party. He is an advocate 
of good schools and always takes an active part in the 
advancement of the interests of his county. Mr. 
Mounce had three uncles on his mother's side and 
two on his father's who fought for the Union in the 
Civil war. 

Mrs. Mounce's mother, who died on May i, 1895, 
and her father, whose death occurred in 1897, came 
to Clark county, Washington, in 1879. 

ROSS S. BABCOCK. This well known young 
business man has formed a partnership with George 
Horseman and they handle the Morrow hotel and bar, 
where they do a prosperous business and operate a 
house that furnishes good accommodations for the 

Ross S. Babcock was born in Broadhead, Wiscon- 
sin, on September 27, 1876, being the son of George 
S. B. and Elmina (Mattock) Babcock. The father, 
a farmer and cooper, resides near Forest. He was 
born in Courtland county, New York, on August 20, 
1834. He was a pioneer in Green county, Wisconsin, 
and his father, Reuben Babcock, a farmer in New 
York, was a captain and drill master in the war of 
1812. Our subject's father was a soldier in the Civil 
war for four years and received an honorable dis- 
charge. The mother of our subject was born in Penn- 
sylvania; her parents were Daniel and Elizabeth 
(Hayes) Mattock, natives all of Pennsylvania. Our 
subject grew to the age of twelve in Wisconsin and 
then the father sold out and came to Walla Walla, 
whence he came by team to Nez Perces county and on 
April 7, 1889, settled on his present place near 
Forest. Ross's., was reared and attended the com- 
mon schools here, after which he took a three years' 
course in the Adventist college of Walla Walla. In 
1892, he came from the college and went to riding the 
range with stock. He also prospected and mined in the 
Deer creek camp and other places and still has 
properties here. Mr. Babcock also farmed and later 
formed the partnership mentioned above and is now 
operating the hotel and bar. He has two sisters and 
two brothers, George I., Charles R., Esther V. Olson, 
Florence Rice. Mr. Babcock is allied with the Re- 
publican party but is an independent thinker and 

selects the man rather than the party. He is a warm 
advocate of good schools and all public enterprises 
that are calculated to bring prosperity and advance- 

EDSON D. BRIGGS, the big hearted, sociable and 
popular county surveyor of Nez Perces county and city 
engineer of Lewiston, is kept constantly in office on 
account of his excellent work, his fine ability, his com- 
prehensive and thorough knowledge and his efficiency 
and faithfulness in discharging any duty that is incum- 
bent upon him. These combined qualities, together 
with his integrity, sound principles, and clean walk 
have made him one of the leading men of the county 
and on account of his extensive work in the northwest, 
he is well known and prominent over a large field. 

Edson D. Briggs was born in Franklin, Vermont, 
on March 8, 1851, being the son of Erasmus D. and 
Paulina (Truex) Briggs. The father was bom in 
Franklin, Vermont, in 1812 and died in 1882, being 
from an old and prominent Vermont family. The 
mother was born in lower Canada in 1828 and died in 
1 86 1. Our subject was educated in the Vermont Uni- 
versity, paying especial attention to surveying and civil 
engineering. When twenty, his stirring spirit led 
him to the west and he was soon in government work 
in Washington. He surveyed all of Whitman, Asotin, 
and Adams count